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SHERATON 
MEMORIAL LIBRARY 




EASIER, 1906 



Shelf No. 

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Register No. 




THE 



WORKS OF THOMAS M ANTON, D.D. 

VOL. XL 



COUNCIL OF PUBLICATION. 



W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational 

Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 
THOMAS J. CRAWFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, 

Edinburgh. 
D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, 

Edinburgh. 
WILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church 

History, Reformed Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presby 
terian Church, Edinburgh. 

General 4?ftttor. 
REV. THOMAS SMITH, D.D., EDINBURGH. 



THE COMPLETE WORKS 



OP 



THOMAS MANTON, D.D. 



VOLUME XL 

CONTAINING 

SEVERAL SERMONS UPON THE SEVENTEENTH CHAPTER 
OF ST JOHN; 

ALSO 

SERMONS UPON THE SIXTH AND EIGHTH 
CHAPTERS OF ROMANS. 



LONDON: 

JAMES NISBET & CO., 21 BERNERS STREET. 

1873. 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE AND COMPANY 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON 




CONTENTS. 



SERMONS UPON JOHN xvii. continued. 

MM 

SERMON XXXIII. " And for their sakes I sanctify myself," &c., 

ver. 19, .... 3 

, ? XXXIV. "Neither pray I for these alone," &c., 

ver. 20, .... 15 

XXXV. "That they all may be one," &c., ver. 21, . 23 
XXXVI. " That they all may be one," &c., ver. 21, . 32 

XXXVII. "That they all may be one," &c., ver. 21, . 43 

XXXVIII. " And the glory which thou gavest me, I 

have given them," &c., ver. 22, . 54 

XXXIX. " I in them, and thou in me," &c., ver. 23, 62 

XL. " I in them, and thou in me," &c., ver. 23, 76 

XLI. " Father, I will that they also whom thou 

hast given me be with me where I 
am," &c., ver. 24, . , 89 

XLII. "Father, I will," &c., ver. 24, . . 102 

XLIII. " righteous Father, the world hath not 

known thee," &c., ver. 25, . . 114 

XLIV. "And I have declared unto them thy 

name," ver. 26, . . .131 

XLV. "And I have declared," &c., ver. 26, 141 



PAGE 



vi CONTENTS. 

SERMONS ON EOMANS vi. 

PAGI 

SERMON I. " What shall we say then ?" vers. 1, 2, . 153 

II. "Know ye not, that as many/' &c., ver. 3, . 162 

III. " Therefore we are buried with him," &c., ver. 4, 171 

IV. " For if we have been planted together," &c., 

ver - 5 > ... 181 

,, V. " Knowing this, that our old man is crucified," 

&c., ver. 6, . . . . IQI 

VI. "For he that is dead is freed from sin," &c., 

ver - 7 > . . . 201 

VII. " Now, if we be dead with Christ," &c., ver. 8, . 211 

VIII. "Knowing that Christ, being raised from the 

dead, dieth no more," &c., vers. 9, 10, . 220 

IX. "Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be 

dead,"&c., ver. 11, . . 228 

X. "Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal 

body," & c ., ver. 12, . . 236 

XI. Neither yield ye your members as instruments 

of unrighteousness," &c., ver. 13, . 246 

XII. " For sin shall not have dominion over you " &c. 

Ver ' U > . 256 

XIII. For sin shall not have," &c., ver. H, 266 

XIV. " For sin shall not have," &c., ver. 14, 2 74 

XV. "For sin shall not have," &c., ver. U, . 286 

XVI. "What then? shall we sin, because we are not 

under the law," & c ., ver. 15, . .299 

XVII. "Know ye not, that to whom ye yield your 
selves," & c ., ver. 16, . . 307 

XVIII. "But God be thanked, that you were the ser 
vants of sin," & c ., ver. 17, . . 317 



CONTENTS. Vll 

MM 

SERMON XIX. " Being then made free from sin, ye became the 

servants of righteousness," vers. 18, 19, . 327 

XX. "For when ye were the servants of sin," &c., 

ver. 20, ..... 336 

XXI. " What fruit had ye then in those things ? " &c., 

ver. 21, 343 

XXII. " But being made free from sin," &c., ver. 22, . 352 

XXIII. " And the end everlasting life," &c., ver. 22, . 363 

XXIV. For the wages of sin is death," &c., ver. 23, . 370 

SERMONS ON ROMANS vm. 
EPISTLE DEDICATORY, . . . . . .383 

SERMON 1. " There is therefore now no condemnation," &c., 

ver. 1, . . . .385 

II. " For the law of the spirit of life," &c., ver. 2, . 395 
III. " Hath made me free," &c., ver. 2, . .412 

IV. " For what the law could not do," &c., ver. 3, . 420 

V. " That the righteousness of the law," &c., ver. 4, 430 

VI. " For they that are after the flesh," &c., ver. 5, 438 

VII. " For they that are after the flesh," &c., ver. 5, 448 

VIII. " For to be carnally minded is death," <kc., ver. 6, 459 

IX. " Because the carnal mind is enmity to God," &<x, 

ver. 7, 469 

X. " So then they that are in the flesh cannot please 

God," &c., ver. 8, . . . . 473 

XI. " But ye are not in the flesh, &c., ver. 9, . 484 



SERMONS 



UPON THB 



SEVENTEENTH CHAPTER OF 
ST JOHN. 



VOL. XI. 



SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. 



SERMON XXXIII. 

And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified 
through the truth. JOHN XVII. 19. 

THIS is the second argument ; he had urged their commission, now his 
own merit. Justice might interpose and say, They are unworthy ; 
but Christ saith, ' I sanctify myself for them.' He dealeth with the 
Father, not only by way of entreaty, but merit ; and applieth himself 
not only to the good- will of the Father, as his beloved one, but to his 
justice, as one that was ready to lay down his life as a satisfaction. 

In the text are two things : 

1. A meritorious cause, 'And for their sakes I sanctify myself.' 
Where 

[1.] Quis, the person, who is represented under a double notion as 
an efficient cause, ' I sanctify ; ' and as the object-matter, ' Myself ; ' 
the person sanctifying and sanctified, the author and the object, the 
efficient and the material cause of this sanctification. 

[2.] Quid, the action, what he did, wyid%a), ' I sanctify.' 

[3.] Pro quibus, the persons for whom this was done, ' For their 
sakes ; ' not for himself, he needed it not, but for their sakes, virep 



2. The effect of Christ's sanctifying himself, ' That they might be 
sanctified through the truth.' Where 

[1.] The blessing intended, ' That they might be sanctified.' It is 
bonum congruum, for in all things Christ must Trpwreveiv, ' have the 
pre-eminence ; ' it is bonum morale, not that they might be rich, 
happy, glorious, but sanctified ; it is bonum speciftcativum, such as 
maketh an evidence ; for none can make comfortable application of the 
benefits of redemption but the sanctified, who have grace and holiness 
infused in them, and do devote and consecrate themselves to serve 
God in holiness and righteousness all their days. 

[2.] The means, manner, or end, eV d\r)deia ; it may be rendered 
through the truth, in truth, or for the truth; all which readings admit 
of a commodious explication. 

(1.) As the means, ' Through the truth,' as the rule and instrument ; 



4 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXIII. 

the word accompanied with the virtue of Christ's death is that which 
sanctifieth. 

(2.) The manner, * In truth,' or truly, in opposition to legal purifi 
cations by the use of the ceremonies of the law, which were but a shadow 
of true holiness : Heb. ix. 13, 14, ' For if the blood of bulls and goats, 
and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the 
purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
throughthe eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge 
your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God ? ' And in 
opposition to counterfeit sanctification : Eph. iv. 24, ' And that ye 
put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and 
true holiness ;' such as is sincere, true, and real. 

(3.) The end, ' For the truth,' that they may be consecrated, set 
apart, and fitted for that function of preaching the truth. The con 
text seemeth to justify this. From the whole observe 

Doct. That Christ did set himself apart to be a sacrifice for us, 
that we might be sanctified by the means appointed thereunto. 

I shall explain this point by opening the text. 

First, I begin with the meritorious cause, ' And for their sakes I 
sanctify myself.' Where (1.) The agent, I ; (2.) The act, sanctify ; 
(3.) The object, myself; (4.) The persons concerned, for their sakes. 

First, The agent, ' I sanctify myself.' In other places it is ascribed 
to the Father and the Spirit. To the Father : John x. 36, ' Him hath 
the Father sanctified, and sent into the world.' To the Spirit : Acts x. 
38, ' How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and 
with power/ He did not only frame the human nature of Christ out 
of the substance of the Virgin, but adorned it with gifts and graces 
fit for his office and work. And here Christ saith, ' I sanctify my 
self.' All the persons in the divine nature concur to this work. 
The Father sanctifieth and sets him apart by his decree and desig 
nation ; the Son sanctifieth himself, to show his willingness and con 
descension; the Spirit sanctifieth him by his operation, furnishing 
him with meet graces and endowments that were necessary for that 
singular person who should redeem the world. Christ's sanctifying 
himself falleth under our consideration, and doth show partly his ori 
ginal authority, as a person of the Godhead, coequal with the Father 
and the Spirit : ' Whatsoever the Father doeth, the Son doeth also,' 
John v. 19. Partly his voluntary submission ; as the Father did con 
secrate the Son to the office of mediator, and the Spirit qualified him 
with all fulness of grace, so did Christ consecrate himself, as being a 
most willing agent in this work, and did really offer himself to become 
man, and to suffer all that misery, pain, and shame that was neces 
sary for our expiation. The scripture often sets it forth to us : Eph. v. 
2, ' Walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given him 
self for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling 
savour.' ^ He did not do this work by constraint, but of a ready mind. 
When it was first propounded to him in God's decree, Heb. x. 9, 

Then he said, Lo, I come to do thy will, God ! ' And before the 
time was come about when he should assume the human nature into 
the unity of his person, he feasted himself with the thoughts of that 
salvation which he should set afoot in the habitable parts of the earth: 



VER. 19.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 

Prov. viii. 31, 'Rejoicing in the habitable parts of the earth, and my 
delights were with the sons of men.' When the incarnation was 
passed, then he longed for the time of his passion: Luke xii. 50, ' I 
have a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it be 
accomplished !' So willing was he to do and suffer that whereunto he 
was sent : Luke xxii. 15, ' With desire have I desired to eat this pass- 
over with you before I die ; ' that passover, because it was the last, the 
forerunner of his agonies. His heart was set upon that work. ^ His be 
haviour in his death showed how willingly he did undergo it : John 
xiii. 1, 'Having loved his own that were in the world, he loved them 
unto the end ; ' then was his bitter work, but that did not abate his 
love. The heathens counted it a lucky sacrifice that went to the altar 
without struggling and roaring ; certainly Christ did meekly suffer 
what was imposed on him for the expiation of our sins : Isa. liii. 7, 
' He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her 
shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.' A swine whineth 
and maketh a noise, but a sheep is dumb; this was the emblem 
chosen to represent Christ's meekness and patience. Salt cast into 
the fire danceth and leapeth with a kind of impatience, but oil riseth 
up in a gentle flame ; so Christ suffered, not only with patience, but 
delight. He did not lay down his life by constraint, but died by con 
sent : John x. 18, ' No man taketh my life from me, but I lay it down 
of myself ; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it up 
again.' Now this endeareth our obligation to him, that he would 
consecrate himself to the work of the mediatory office, and to that end 
assume the human nature into the unity of his person, and so willingly 
condescend to all that sorrow and pain that he was to endure for our 
sakes, and offer himself up as a sacrifice for our sins ; being for a while 
without the actual sense of his Father's love: ' My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ? ' Mat. xxvii. 46. 

But more distinctly let us consider the greatness of his sufferings, 
his willingness to endure them. 

1. The greatness of his sufferings. His passions, take them in the 
very letter, were sore, but they were heightened by the delicacy of his 
temper ; never any man suffered as he did, because never such a man. 
A blow on the head is soon felt because it is a principal member, and 
so more sensible than other parts of the body. A slave is not so 
sensible of blows and stripes as a nobleman of a tender and delicate 
constitution. Our Saviour Christ was of a more delicate consti 
tution than any other; his body was immediately framed by the 
Spirit in the Virgin's womb. Lawrence on the gridiron, Stephen when 
stoned, could not be so sensible as Christ on the cross. None of the 
martyrs suffered what he did. Christ had a particular knowledge of 
all sins committed in the world, past, present, and to come, and a par 
ticular sorrow for them; which was the greater by how much the 
more he prized the honour of God. His love towards him was infinite, 
his hatred to sin infinite, his apprehension of his Father's displeasure 
clear ; all which made his soul heavy to the death. Our sins were more 
burdensome to him than his own wounds. No man's understanding 
is so great as to apprehend what Christ felt ; Christ himself can only 
give us an account of the greatness of his sufferings. David confessed 



G SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [&ER. XXXIII. 

' that his sins were more than the hairs upon his head ;' yet he saith, 
' Cleanse me from secret sins ;' implying many had escaped his notice 
and knowledge. How great was the burden of Christ, that was the 
Lamb bearing the sins of the whole world ! Neither did Christ suffer 
pains only for sins, but to make a purchase of spiritual blessings ; and 
yet the price exceeded the value of that which was bought. 

2. His willingness to suffer for us. Christ was so set upon his 
passion that he called Peter Satan for contradicting it : Mat. xvi. 23, 
' Get thee behind me, Satan, for thou art an offence to me.' When 
Jonah saw the storm he said, ' Cast me into the sea ;' this storm was 
raised for his own sake ; but when Christ saw the misery of mankind 
he said, Let it come on me. We raised the storm, Christ was cast in 
to allay it ; as if a prince, passing by an execution, should take the 
malefactor's chains and suffer in his stead. Christ bore our sorrows ; 
he would have this work in no other hands but his own. His earnest 
ness to partake of the last passover showeth his willingness ; he had 
such a desire to see his body on the cross, that Judas seemed too slow, 
not diligent enough. Christ saith, John xiii. 27, ' That thou doest, do 
quickly.' It is not an approbation of his sin, but a testimony of his 
love ; every day seems long. If Christ had been to suffer so much for 
every man as he did for all mankind, he would have done it ; there 
wanted but a precept, there wanted not love ; his heart was much beyond 
his sufferings, as the windows of the temple were greater and more 
open within than without, 1 Kings vi. 4. If Paul, that had but a drop 
of grace, could ' wish himself accursed from Christ for his brethren, 
his kindred according to the flesh/ Rom. ix. 3, how much more willing 
was Christ ! Surely then we should as readily consecrate ourselves to 
his service. Christ saith, ' Lo, I come to do thy will, God/ Heb. 
x. 9 ; and it becometh every Christian to make an unbounded resigna 
tion of himself to God : Acts ix. 6, ' Lord, what wouldst thou have me 
to do?' 

Secondly, The act, ayidfa, ' I sanctify.' Things are said in scrip 
ture to be sanctified when they are set apart, and fitted and prepared 
for some holy use. 

1. As it signifies to separate, or set apart from a common to a holy 
use, as the sacrifices under the law were separated and chosen out of 
the flock or herd, the best and the fairest, such as were without spot 
and blemish, and. then designed for this holy use of being an offering 
to God, so was Christ separated for this use, to be the great sin-offering, 
or sacrifice of atonement for the whole congregation : 1 Peter i. 19, 20, 
'Ye were redeemed with the precious blood of Christ, as of 'a lamb 
without blemish and without spot/ When was Christ so sanctified ? 
He did sanctify himself when he accepted the conditions of the covenant 
of redemption, Isa. liii. 10-12 ; and visibly at his baptism he did pre 
sent himself among sinners as our surety, and offer himself to the 
Father to pay our ransom, which God accepted, for he declared him 
self well pleased with Christ, as standing in our room Mat iii 17 
' Lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I 
am well pleased. Ordinary baptism is a dedication to God. So Christ's 
baptism was a dedication of himself to the recovering of the lost world 
to Uod. And then a little before his death in this prayer, ' I sanctify 



VER. 19.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 7 

myself ; ' afterwards in his agonies, ' Not my will, but thine be done ;' 
at his death he offered up himself, Heb. ix. 14, ' Who through the 
eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God.' 

2. It signifieth his qualification and fitness ; he did fit the human 
nature with all habitual and actual holiness. In this sense Christ did 
sanctify himself ; as God, he fitted himself for this work. 

[1.] There was the innocency and purity of his human nature, with 
out any stain of corruption, and therefore he is called ' that holy thing,' 
Luke i. 35. This holiness was necessary in regard of himself, other 
wise his human nature could not be assumed into the unity of his 
person, for God can have no communion with sin, no more than light 
and darkness can agree together. It was necessary in regard of his 
office, that he might satisfy for our sins : Heb. vii. 26, ' Such an high 
priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from 
sinners.' The priest of the gospel must be sinless, because of the 
excellency of the sacrifice, that the priest may not be worse than the 
sacrifice. While things were carried in type and figure, and a beast 
was offered in sacrifice, a sinful man sufficed ; but now the satisfaction 
was really to be made for us, and sin done away, and we were to be 
made really holy, our priest was to be holy, harmess, undefiled. It is 
for our comfort that Christ was sanctified ; his original sanctity is a 
remedy against our original sin and impurity. When we are troubled 
with our natural deformity, it is comfortable to think that God looketh 
upon us in Christ, who was holy by nature ; it is a comfortable hope 
that the corruption of our nature is covered in God's eyes, and shall be 
diminished more and more. 

[2.] His actual holiness in his conversation. The business of the 
mediator was to commend obedience, and he hath done it by his own 
example, and the way that he took to recover us to God : Rom. v. 19, 
' As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the 
obedience of one shall many be made righteous / Phil. ii. 5, ' Let the 
same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus/ Some dislike such a 
particular application ; we have need of all Christ's properties, and we 
should make use of all. Why doth the scripture set it down, but to 
show that he is fit to remove sin original and actual ? As a covetous 
man looks on a piece of gold, or we on a thing that we delight in, we 
turn it on every side. The first Adam was by God's institution a 
common person, in him sinning the world sinned ; the second Adam 
was a public fountain of holiness, who is an infinite person as well as 
a public person. 

Thirdly, The object, 'I sanctify myself;' not an angel to do this 
for us, but himself. Under the law the priests offered bulls and goats, 
while they themselves remained untouched, but Christ offered himself. 
As God he was priest, as man the sacrifice. As there was love in the 
priest, so there is worth in the sacrifice. Christ was both priest and 
sacrifice; it was himself that he offered as a recompense to angry justice. 
Otherwise we might say, Here is the person sanctifying, but where is 
the sacrifice ? As Isaac said to his father, Gen. xxii. 7, ' Behold the 
fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt-offering ? ' It 
is good to see in what nature Christ was the priest, and in what nature 
the sacrifice. In his divine nature the priest, for ' he offered himself 



8 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [$ER. XXXIII. 

through the eternal Spirit to God/ Heb. ix. 14. In his human nature 
principally he was the sacrifice ; for it is said, Heb. x. 10, ' We are 
sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for 
all.' The godhead could not be offered, for who can offer himself, or 
any other thing to himself ? And, besides, the thing sacrificed must 
be slain, for it is blood shed which was given to God upon his altar. 
In this respect it is said by Christ, John vi. 51, ' The bread which I 
will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world/ And 
when he had instituted the eucharist in memory of this great sacrifice, 
he mentioneth his body broken and given, and his blood shed. Yet 
because the priest and the sacrifice is one, the value of this sacrifice 
ariseth from the divine nature. It is ' the blood of God,' Acts xx. 28, 
that is, of the person who was God. 

Fourthly, The persons interested, ' For their sakes.' 

1. Negatively, not for himself; he needed it not, he had no sin to 
expiate, nor happiness to purchase anew. The scripture never speaks 
of Christ's doing anything for his own sake, but still of his love to us. 
His incarnation was for us : Isa. ix. 6, ' To us a child is born, to us a 
Son is given.' His obedience was for us : Gal. iv. 4, 5, ' But when the 
fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, 
made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we 
might receive the adoption of sons.' His death was for us: Dan. 
ix. 26, ' The Messias shall be cut off, but not for himself/ Our Lord 
died, not for himself, but for his people : Isa. liii. 4, 5, * Surely he hath 
borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows. He was wounded for our 
transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities : the chastisement of 
our peace was upon him, and by his stripes we are healed/ He was 
made nothing for himself, but all things for us. Christ's merit for 
himself is an unworthy doctrine. Bellarmine saith, Ghristus prceter ea 
bona quce suis laborious peperit, meruit etiam sibi corporis gloriam, 
et nominis excdtationem. But if Christ were to merit for himself, his 
obedience was not voluntary, but due ; and what could be merit which 
was not from his conception due to him ? It is true Christ solaced 
his human soul with the consideration of consequent glory : Heb. 
xii. 2, ' For the glory which was set before him, he endured the cross, 
and despised the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the 
throne of God/ But we cannot thence infer a merit. A prince dis 
guised in a foreign country may solace himself with the honour and 
happiness he shall enjoy at home : Phil. ii. 9, ' Wherefore God hath 
also highly exalted him/ Aio, ' wherefore,' noteth a consequent in 
order of time : Christ was ' first to suffer, and then to enter into elorv ' 
Luke xxiv. 26. 

If you say, Christ, as man, was bound to be subject, as a reasonable 
creature, to God his maker ; as the son of Abraham, he was compre 
hended m the covenant made with that people : I answer 

[1.] If his human nature was bound to be subject, yet not his per 
son, actiones sunt suppositorum. The human nature was taken into 
his person, and the divine nature could do more to free the human 
nature than the human nature to oblige the person to obedience. 
Christ pleadeth his freedom as God's son: Mat. xvii. 26, 'If of 
strangers, then are the children free/ 



VBR. 19.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 9 

[2.] The human nature, as a creature, was to be subject to God, 
and guided by him, as being an inferior ; but whether to a law of 
God is justly doubted ; for the law is given to mere men for their 
weakness, for the instruction of good and the restraint of bad; and 
therefore his being subject to the law was voluntary, and not neces 
sary ; if it were necessary, there could be no merit in it : Luke xvii. 
10, ' So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are 
commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants ; we have done that 
which was our duty to do.' 

[3.] Again, Christ voluntarily brought himself into this condition 
merely for our sakes; as a man that removeth his dwelling into 
another country for his friend's sake, while he is in that country, he is 
bound by the laws of it, but merely for his friend's sake ; or, as a 
surety, free before, when he cometh into bonds, he must discharge the 
debt, but all is for his friend's sake ; so Christ ' was made under 
the law' Gal. iv. 4. He that makes himself a servant to free his 
friend is bound to service ; yet his making himself a servant is meri 
torious. In short, if Christ had done aught for himself, he had been 
his own redeemer, mediator, and saviour. Christ came into the world, 
sanctified his nature, lived and died for our sakes ; it is for our benefit 
and behoof, to effect our salvation. His human nature needed no 
thing but what might accrue to him by the dignity of his person. 

2. Positively, ' For their sakes.' The apostles are chiefly coDcerned 
in the context, who were sent into the world upon a peculiar message 
and errand ; but all the elect are intended, partly because it is pre 
sently added, ver. 20, ' Neither pray I for these alone, but for all that 
shall believe in me through their word ;' partly because it is a common 
benefit, and what doth not concern the apostles as apostles, but is 
common to them with others, must be extended to all ; for their sakes 
he doth wholly consecrate himself, and set himself apart for his people's 
benefit, that he might be theirs ; it was for their weal, not for his own, 
that he might be their mediator and sacrifice. Christ was wholly set 
apart for our use ; as mediator, he had no other work and employment 
but to procure our salvation. How doth this engage us to make use 
of Christ, for otherwise his undertaking is in vain, if we do not 
improve him for those ends and purposes for which he doth set apart 
himself ; even as the sun would shine in vain if we did shut up our 
selves in a dark place, and did not enjoy the light and comfort of it, 
and the brazen serpent would in vain be lifted up upon the perch and 
pole, if none that were stung would look upon it. Oh ! let not Christ 
be a Christ in vain : 2 Cor. vi. 1, ' We then, as workers together with 
him, beseech you that you receive not the grace of God in vain.' If 
he wholly gave up himself to be a fountain of grace, holiness, comfort, 
and glory in our nature, and did fit himself to justify and sanctify 
us, and we never look after the benefit, we make him to be a Christ 
in vain. 

Secondly, We come now to the end, effect, and fruit of it, ' That they 
might be sanctified through the truth.' 

First, The benefit, or blessing intended, ' That they also might be 
sanctified.' Where 

1. Observe, it is bonum morale, not that they might be rich, happy, 



10 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [$ER. XXXIII. 

great, glorious in the world, but 'that they might be sanctified.' 
When Christ was on the cross, he neither wanted wisdom to choose, 
nor love to intend, nor merit to purchase the highest benefits, and 
those which were most necessary for us ; but that which he had in his 
eye was our sanctification : Eph. v. 26, ' He loved the church, and 
o-ave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it ;' and Heb. 
xiii. 12, ' Jesus, that he might sanctify the people, suffered without 
the gate.' All his aim was to recover us to God, and dedicate us to 
God ; for he came to repair the ruins of the fall, and save that which 
was lost : Luke xix. 10, ' The Son of man came to seek and to save 
that which was lost/ And we were first lost to God before we were 
lost to ourselves ; as appeareth, Luke xv., by the parable of the lost 
sheep, which was lost to the owner ; and the lost groat, which was lost 
to the possessor ; and the lost son, which was lost to the father. Our 
misery is included ; but the principal thing intended was, that God 
hath lost the honour of the creation. 

2. It is bonum congruum: 'I sanctify myself, that they may be 
sanctified.' The scripture delighteth in these congruities : Heb. v. 
8, 9, ' He learned obedience by the things that he suffered : and being 
made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation to all them 
that obey him.' As there is a suitableness between the seal and the 
impression, so between Christ and his people. In all things Christ 
must irpwTeveiv, he must have the pre-eminence. We have the 
blessings of the covenant, not only from him, but through him. Christ 
was elected : Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my servant whom I have chosen, 
my elect in whom my soul delighteth ; ' so are we. Christ was justified : 
1 Tim. iii. 16, ' God manifested in the flesh, justified in the spirit ;' so 
are we. Christ was sanctified, and we, in conformity to him, are sancti 
fied also, as in the text. Christ rose again, ascended, and was glorified ; 
so do we he as the elder brother and first heir, and we in our order. 

3. It is bonum specificativum. It showeth the parties, or that sort 
of men to whom Christ intended the benefit : Heb. x. 14, ' For by one 
offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified ;' them 
and no other : the godly themselves, while unconverted, and lying in 
their sins, have not the actual benefit of Christ's redemption. 

But in what manner are we sanctified ? Christ consecrated and 
sanctified himself as a sin-offering ; but we are sanctified and conse 
crated as a thank-offering ; Christ to do the work of a redeemer or 
mediator, we to do the work of the redeemed. We are set apart for the 
Lord, to glorify him in all holy conversation and godliness. 

Secondly, The means of applying and conveying this benefit: 
' Through the truth,' eV aX^deLa. It may be rendered ' through the 
truth,' ' in the truth/ or ' for the truth ;' all which readings admit of 
a commodious explication. 

1. In the truth, or truly, in opposition to legal purifications, which 
were but a shadow of true holiness : Heb. ix. 13, 14, ' For if the blood 
of bulls and goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, 
sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood 
of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot 
to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living 
God ? ' Or in opposition to counterfeit sanctification : Eph. iv. 24, 



VER. 19.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 11 

' And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in 
righteousness and true holiness.' Some only are sanctified externally, 
as they are in visible covenant with God : Heb. x. 29, ' And hath 
counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an 
unholy thing.' They live among his peculiar people ; others are 
really renewed and changed by his Spirit, and turned from a sinful life 
to God, making conscience of every commanded duty, and aiming at 
his glory in all things. 

2. For the truth, that they may be consecrated, set apart, and fitted 
for that function of preaching the gospel. This is agreeable to the 
context, which limits this part of the prayer to the apostles. 

3. Through the truth, as we render it, and fitly, considering the 
1 7th verse, ' Sanctify them through the truth ; thy word is truth ; ' 
through the word, by which the virtue of Christ's death is applied to 
us. There are certain means and helps by which Christ bringeth 
about this effect : Eph. v. 26, ' That he might sanctify and cleanse it 
by the washing of water, through the word.' The word ofFereth this 
grace, the sacraments seal and confirm it to us. So John xv. 3, ' Ye 
are clean, through the word which I have spoken to you.' The word 
of command presseth it : Ps. cxix. 9, ' Wherewithal shall a young man 
cleanse his way ? by taking heed thereto according to thy word.' The 
word of promise encourageth us : 2 Cor. vii. 1, ' Having therefore these 
promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all the filthiness 
of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God/ And the 
doctrine of Christ's blood holds out the virtue whereby it may be done : 
1 John i. 7, ' The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all 
bin.' And it exciteth faith, by which the heart is purified : Acts xv. 
9, ' Purifying their hearts by faith.' 

Use 1. Information. It informeth us of divers important truths. 

1. That in ourselves we are polluted and unclean, or else what 
needed there so much ado to get us sanctified ? This is needful to 
be considered by us : Job xv. 14, ' What is man that he should be 
clean ? and he that is born of a woman, that he should be righteous ? ' 
That is, man by nature is neither clean nor righteous, destitute of 
purity by nature, and uprightness of conversation. They are ill ac 
quainted with man who think otherwise ; for if we consider his earliness 
in sinning, his easiness in sinning, his constancy in sinning, and the 
universality of sinners, we may soon see what his nature is ; and the 
fountain being so corrupt, the streams or emanations from it are defiled 
also. 

2. That nothing can cleanse us but the blood of Christ. Can man 
cleanse himself ? Job xiv. 4, ' Who can bring a clean thing out of an 
unclean ? not one.' Can that which is corrupt cleanse itself ? or that 
which is enmity to holiness promote it ? Or can the word do it with 
out Christ ? Good instructions may show a man his duty, but cannot 
change the bent of his heart. Christ needed not only to be sent as a pro 
phet, ver. 18, but must sanctify himself as a priest and sacrifice, before 
this benefit could be procured for us, as in the text. There was no pos 
sible way to recover holiness, unless a price, and no less a price than the 
blood of the Son of God, had been paid to provoked j ustice for us. He must 
sanctify himself, give himself, before we can be sanctified and cleansed. 



12 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXIII. 

3. That they do not aright improve the death of Christ that seek 
comfort by it, and not holiness. He died not only for our justification, 
but sanctification also. There are two reasons why the death of Christ 
hath so little effect upon us ; either he is a forgotten Christ, or a mis 
taken Christ. A forgotten Christ : men do not consider the ends for 
which he came : 1 John iii. 5, ' Ye know that he was manifested, to 
take away our sins ; ' and ver. 8, ' To this purpose was the Son of God 
manifested, to destroy the works of the devil ; ' to give his Spirit to 
sinful miserable man. Now things that we mind not do not work 
upon us. The work of redemption Christ hath performed without our 
minding or asking ; he took our nature, fulfilled the law, satisfied the 
lawgiver, merited grace without our asking or thinking ; but in apply 
ing this grace, he requireth our consideration : Heb. iii. 1, ' Wherefore, 
holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the apostle 
and high priest of our profession.' Our faith : ' Believest thou that I 
am able to do this for thee ? ' Our acceptance : John i. 12, c To as 
many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sous of 
God.' But the other evil is greater, a mistaken Christ ; when we use 
him to increase our carnal security and boldness in sinning, and are 
possessed with an ill thought, that God is more reconcilable to sin 
than he was before, and by reason of Christ's coming there were less 
evil and malignity in sin, for then you make Christ a minister and 
encourager of sin : Gal. ii. 17, ' For if, while we seek to be justified by 
Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is Christ therefore the 
minister of sin ? God forbid ! ' You set up Christ against Christ, his 
merit against his doctrine and Spirit ; yea, rather you set up the devil 
against Christ, and varnish his cause with Christ's name, and so it is 
but an idol-Christ you dote upon. The true Christ ' came by water 
and blood,' 1 John v. 6 ; ' Bore our sins in his body on the tree, that 
we, being dead unto sin, should live unto righteousness,' 1 Peter ii. 24. 
And will you set his death against the ends of his death ? and run 
from and rebel against God because Christ came to redeem and recover 
you to God ? Certainly those weak Christians that only make use of 
Christ to seek comfort, seek him out of self-love ; but those that seek 
holiness from the Kedeemer have a more spiritual affection to him. 
The^ guilt of sin is against our interest, but the power of sin is against 
God's glory. He came to sanctify us by his holiness, not only to free 
our consciences from bondage, but our hearts, that we may serve God 
with more liberty and delight. This was the great aim of his death : 
Titus 11. 14, ' He gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from 
all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous of good 
works. Thus did Christ, that the plaster might be as broad as the 
sore ; we lost in Adam the purity of our natures, as well as the favour 
of God, and therefore he is made sanctification to us, as well as right 
eousness, 1 Cor. i. 30. 

4. With what confidence we may use the means of grace, because 
they are sprinkled with the blood of Christ. Christ hath purchased 
grace such a treasure of grace as cannot be wasted ; and this is dis 
pensed to us by the word and sacraments. The apostle doth not say 
barely he died 'to cleanse us/ but ' to cleanse us by the washing of 
water through the word;' and here, 'that we might be sanctified 



VER. 19.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 13 

through the truth.' Christ hath established the merits, but the actual 
influence is from the Spirit : Titus iii. 5. 6, ' According to his mercy 
he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost ; which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ.' And 
the means are the word and sacraments, whereby the Spirit dispenseth 
the grace in Christ's name ; ordinarily the gospel, which is ' the mini 
stration of the Spirit/ 2 Cor. iii. 8. If we come to the Father, we need 
his grant : Kev. xix. 8, ' And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine 
linen, clean and white; for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.' 
All cometh originally from his merciful grant ; but God would not 
look towards us, but for Christ's sake. If we look to the Father, he 
sendeth us to the Son, ' whose blood cleanseth us from all our sins,' 
1 John i. 7. If we look to the Son, he referreth us to the Spirit ; 
therefore we read of 'the sanctification of the Spirit,' 2 Thes. ii. 13. 
If we wait for the Spirit's efficacy, he sendeth us to Moses and the 
prophets, where we shall hear of him. Therefore we may with en 
couragement pray, read, hear, meditate, that all these duties may be 
sanctified to us. 

5. If holiness be the fruit of Christ's death, it maketh his love to be 
more gratuitous and free. For all the worth that we can conceive to 
be in ourselves, to commend us to God, is in our holiness. Now this 
is merely the fruit of grace, and the merit of Christ, and the gift of his 
Spirit in us. We wallow in our own filthiness, till he, of his grace, 
for Christ's sake, doth sanctify us by his Spirit. Both the love of God 
and the merit of Christ is antecedent to our holiness : ' He hath loved 
us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and made us kings 
and priests to God, and to the Father,' Kev. i. 5, 6. And the Spirit's 
work is not lessened, as if it were no great matter : 2 Peter i. 3, ' Accord 
ing as his divine power hath given unto us all things that appertain 
unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called 
us to glory and virtue.' 

6. We learn hence the preciousness of holiness ; it is a thing dearly 
bought, and the great blessing which Christ intended for us. We do 
not value the blessings of the covenant so much as we should. Christ 
was devising what he should do for his church to make it honourable 
and glorious, and this way he took to make it holy. 

[l.j It is the beauty of God ; for God himself is ' glorious in holi 
ness,' Exod. xv. 11, and ' we are created after his image, in righteous 
ness and true holiness,' Eph. iv. 24. The perfection of the divine 
nature lieth chiefly in his immaculate holiness and purity. 

[2.] It is that which maketh us amiable in the sight of God, for he 
delighteth not in us as justified so much as sanctified : Ps. xi. 7, 'For 
the righteous Lord loveth righteousness, his countenance doth behold 
the upright.' When, upon the account of Christ's merits and satisfac 
tion, he hath created a clean heart in us, and renewed a right spirit, then 
he delighteth in us. It is his image makes us amiable, and therefore 
we should make it our great desire and care to be as holy as may be. 

[3.] Much of our everlasting blessedness lieth in it : Eph. v. 27, 
'That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot 
or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without 
blemish.' 



14 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXIII. 

[4.] It is a great part of our salvation by Christ : Mat. i. 21, c Thou 
shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins ; ' 
Acts iii. 26, ' Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent 
him to bless you, in turning away every one of you^from his iniquities.' 

[5.] It is a means to the rest. Communion with God and Christ 
here : 1 John i. 6, 7, ' If we say that we have fellowship with him, 
and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth. But if we walk in 
the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another/ 
And everlasting fruition of God hereafter ; Acts xxvi. 18, ' That they 
may receive forgiveness of sins, and an inheritance among them which 
are sanctified by faith that is in me ; ' Heb. xii. 14, 'Without holiness 
no man shall see God.' 

7. It showeth us who are partakers of the benefits and fruits of 
Christ's death : Heb. ii. 11, ' For both he that sanotifieth, and they 
that are sanctified, are all of one ; wherefore he is not ashamed to call 
them brethren ; ' Heb. x. 14, ' For by one offering he hath perfected 
for ever them that are sanctified ; ' perfected, but by degrees. The elect 
themselves, whilst they are unconverted and remain in their sins, have 
not the actual benefit of Christ's redemption. Our dying Lord had an 
actual intention in due time to sanctify, and accordingly doth regenerate, 
justify, sanctify all those who shall have benefit by his death. But 
who are the sanctified ? It is to be considered positively and reLi- 
tively. Positively, it is to be renewed to God's image : Titus iii. 5, 
' He saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the 
Holy Ghost ; ' 2 Peter i. 4, ' That by these we might be made par 
takers of the divine nature." This is the great work of the sanctifying 
Spirit, to make us like God, and to work in us those graces whereby 
we may be qualified and inclined to live to him. Kelatively, to be 
sanctified is to be separated from a common to a holy relation and 
use. This is seen in three things inclination, dedication, and use. 

[1.] Inclination towards God. This is the immediate fruit of grace, 
called conversion, or turning to God ; the new nature tendeth and 
bendeth to him. 

[2.] Dedication : 2 Cor. viii. 5, * They first gave their own selves to 
the Lord, and unto us by the will of God ; ' Horn. vi. 13, ' Yield your 
selves unto God as those that are alive from the dead, and your mem 
bers as instruments of righteousness unto God.' This is in entering 
into covenant with God. 

^ [3.] Use is nothing but the exercise of this disposition and inclina 
tion, called ' living to God/ or performance of this dedication : 1 Cor. 
vi. 19, 20, ' What ! know ye not that your body is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost, which is in you, which ye have of God , and ye are not 
your own, but ye are bought with a price ? therefore glorify God in 
your bodies and souls, which are the Lord's ; ' Zech. xiv. 20, ' In that 
day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS TO THE 
LORD.' By the latter there is a difference between us and others : 
1 John v. 19, ' And we know that we are of God, and the whole world 
lieth in wickedness.' And between us and ourselves.: 1 Cor. vi. 11, 
' Such were some of you ; but ye are washed, but ye are justified, but 
ye are sanctified, in the name of our Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of 
our God.' This must be more explicit every day. 



VER. 20.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 15 

Use 2. Direction in the Lord's supper. Here we come to remember 
Christ's sacrifice, and to interest ourselves in the fruits of it. 

1. To remember Christ's sacrifice. As the elements are set apart 
for a holy use, so was Christ sanctified. All sacraments represent 
Christ dead. Baptism : ' We are baptized into his death/ Horn. vi. 3. 
In the Lord's supper ' We show forth his death till he come,' 1 Cor. 
xi. 26 ; his body was broken, his blood shed. Christ would institute 
a representation of his humiliation rather than of his glory, to repre 
sent his love to us ; it was for our sakes rather than his own honour ; 
to represent what concerned us. 

2. To interest ourselves in the fruits of it. Look after the fruits 
of it. 

[1.] Bewailing your unholiness, both in heart and life, that you 
were so long trained up in the knowledge of Christ's truth, and did so 
little love God, and live to him ; that God hath opened a fountain for 
sin and for uncleanness, and you are no more cleansed to this very day ; 
and have gotten so little of the sanctifying Spirit, as if you were 
strangers in Israel. 

[2.] Hunger and thirst for this grace, his renewing, as well as recon 
ciling grace : Mat. v. 6, ' Blessed are those that hunger and thirst after 
righteousness, for they shall be filled.' Desire it earnestly. 

OJ.] Lift up your hearts with confidence and hope, when the sacrifice 
hrist is represented to you, because God hath accepted this sacrifice, 
and is well pleased with it : Isa. liii. 4, 5, ' Surely he hath borne our 
griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, 
smitten of God, and afflicted. For he was wounded for our trans 
gressions, he was bruised for our iniquities : the chastisement of our 
peace was upon him ; and with his stripes are we healed.' We have no 
reason to despair of the cure, that Holy Spirit who sanctified our head, 
who had no sin, by preventing sin in his conception, and anointed him 
to his office, is able to enlighten, convert, sanctify us also. 

[4.] Praise him for so much grace as you have received, that he 
hath inclined your hearts to his blessed self : 1 Peter i. 3, ' Blessed be 
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his 
abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead ; ' at least that he made 
you serious. 

[5.] Dedicate yourselves to God, to walk before him in all new 
obedience: Rom. xii. 1, 'I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the 
mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, 
acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.' 



SERMON XXXIV. 

Neither pray 1 for these alone, but for them also which shall believe 
on me through their word. JOHN XVII. 20. 

< 

HERE Christ enlargelh the object of his prayers, which is propounded 
(1.) Negatively ; (2.) Positively. 



16 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXIV. 

First, Negatively ; by which the restraint is taken off. Which 
showeth 

1. Christ's love. He had a care of us before we were yet in being, 
and able to apply these comforts to ourselves. We were provided for 
before we were born, there is a stock of prayers laid up in heaven. 
Christ, as God, foresaw that the gospel would prevail, notwithstanding 
the world's hatred, and that many would yield up themselves to the 
obedience of the faith ; therefore to show that they have a room in his 
heart, they have a name in his testament. As parents provide for 
their 'children's children yet unborn, so doth Christ remember future 
believers, as well as those of the present age, and pleadeth their cause 
with God, as if they were standing by, and actually hearing his prayers 
for them. It was Esau's complaint, ' Hast thou but one blessing, 
my father ? ' when he came too late, and Jacob had already carried 
away the blessing. We were not born too late, and out of due time, 
to receive the blessing of Christ's prayers. Hath he no regard to us ? 
are his thoughts wholly taken up with the believers of the first and 
golden age of the church ? Certainly not. ' I pray not for these 
only, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word.' 
We, that now live hundreds of years after they are dead and gone, 
have an interest in them. ' Increase and multiply,' was spoken to the 
first of the kind of all the beasts ; and to the end of the world all 
creatures do produce and bring forth after their kind by virtue of this 
blessing. Christ doth not only speak of the first of the kind ; but, that 
we might be sure to be comprised, he telleth us so in express words. 
Certainly much of our comfort would be lost if we were not compre 
hended in Christ's prayers, for his prayers show the extent of his 
purchase. 

2. The honour that is put upon private believers ; their names are 
in Christ's testament ; they are bound up in the same bundle of life 
with the apostles. Here is a question, whether this passage relateth 
to the foregoing requests, or else to these that follow ? What part of 
the prayer hath this passage respect to ? Answer I suppose to the 
whole ; it looketh upward and downward. The middle part of the 
chapter doth chiefly concern the apostles and disciples of that age ; 
some things are proper to them, yet there are many things in common 
that concern us and them too. He had lately said, ' I sanctify myself 
for their sakes ; ' he would not have that restrained. In the latter 
part of the chapter all believers are more especially concerned ; yet 
some passages are intermingled that do also concern the apostles : ver. 
22, ' The glory which thou hast given me, I have given them ; ' ver. 
25, ' They have known that thou hast sent me ; ' ver. 26, ' I have 
declared my name to them, and will declare it/ Thus you see we are 
partly concerned in all the prayer. It is a great favour that he would 
make mention of us to God. As David, when about to die, did not 
only pray for Solomon his successor, but for all the people, so doth 
Christ not only pray for the college of the apostles, to whom the 
government of the church was committed upon his departure, but for 
all believers to the end of the world. He prayeth for the apostles, as 
intrusted with a great work, and liable to great danger and hatred ; but 
yet he doth not neglect the church. 



VER. 20.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 17 

Secondly, Positively; the persons for whom he prays. They are 
described by their faith, and their faith is described by the object of it, 
' That believe in me ; ' and by the ground and warrant of it, ' Through 
their word.' 

And so the points will be two : 

1. That believers, and they only, are interested in Christ's prayers. 

2. That, in the sense and reckoning of the gospel, they are belie vers 
that are wrought upon to believe in Christ through the word. 

Doct. 1. That believers, and they only, are interested in Christ's 
prayers. 

Though Christ doth enlarge the object of his prayers, yet he still 
keepeth within the pale of the elect. He saith, ver. 9, ' I pray not for 
the world ; ' and now, Trepl rtov Tria-reva-ovToyv, ' for them that shall 
believe in me.' He doth not pray for all, whether they believe or no, 
but only for those that shall believe. Now this Christ doth, partly 
because his prayers and his merit are of equal extent : ' I sanctify my 
self for their sakes ; ' and then, ' I pray not for these only, but for them 
that shall believe in me through their word ; ' Horn. viii. 33, 34, ' Who 
shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God that justi- 
fieth ; who is he that condemneth ? It is Christ that died, yea rather, 
that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also 
maketh intercession for us ;' 1 John ii. 1, 2, ' If any man sin, we have 
an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the 
propitiation for our sins.' His prayers on earth do but explain the 
virtue and extent of his sacrifice : he sueth out what he purchased, and 
his intercession in heaven is but a representation of his merit ; both 
are acts of the same office. Partly because it is not for the honour of 
Christ that his prayers should fall to the ground : John xi. 42, ' I know 
that thou hearest me always.' Shall the Son of God's love plead in 
vain, and urge his merit, and not succeed ? Then farewell the sure- 
ness and firmness of our comfort. Now Christ's prayers would fall to 
the ground if he should pray for them that shall never believe. 

Use 1. It is much for the comfort of them who do already believe. 
You may be sure you are one of those for whom Christ prayeth, whether 
Jew or Gentile, bond or free. Particulars are under their general. 
How do we prove John or Thomas to be children of wrath by nature ? 
All were so. So Christ prayeth for all those that shall believe, as much 
as if he had brought them forth, and set them before God by head and 
poll. And if Christ prayed for thee, why is not thy joy full ? Why 
did he speak these things in the world ? It is a copy of his interces 
sion. Christ would show, a little before his departure, what he doth 
for us in heaven ; he sueth out his purchase, and pleadeth our right in 
court. It is a sign we have a room in his heart, because we have a 
name in his prayers. And what blessings doth he seek for ? Union 
with himself, communion with him, in grace here, in glory hereafter. 
It is 'a comfort against all temptations, doubts, dangers ; you are com 
mended to the Father's care. 

Use 2. It is an engagement to others to believe. If he had com 
manded some great thing, ought we not to have done it ? This comfort 
cannot be made out to you till you have actual faith ; however it is 
with you in the purpose of God, yet you cannot apply this comfort till 

VOL. xi. B 



13 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXIV. 

you believe. If a man should make his will, wherein rich legacies 
should be left to all that can prove a claim, by being thus and thus 
qualified, would not every one put in for a share ? Believe, believe ; 
this is the condition. 

Use 3. It showeth the excellency of faith. Those that have an 
interest in Christ's prayers are not described by their love, their obed 
ience, or any other grace (though these are necessary in their place), 
but by their faith ; and the godly are elsewhere called ' of the house 
hold of faith.' Wherever our implantation into Christ, or participation, 
of the privileges of his death, or our spiritual communion in the church 
is spoken of, the condition is faith. It is a grace that sendeth us out 
of ourselves, to look for all in another. It is the mother of obedience. 
As all disobedience is by unbelief, so all obedience is by faith. First 
he said/ Ye shall not die ; ' and then, ' Ye shall be as gods.' First he 
seeketh to weaken their faith in the word ; they could not be proud 
and ambitious till they did disbelieve. Therefore, above all things let 
us labour after faith. Our hearts are taken up with the world, the 
honours and pleasures of it ; these cannot make us happy, but Christian 
privileges will ; all which are conveyed to us by faith. 

But let us come to the second point. 

Doct. 2. That, in the reckoning and sense of the gospel, they are 
believers that are wrought upon to believe in Christ through the word. 

Here is the object, Christ ; the ground, warrant, and instrumental 
cause, and that is the word. The warrant must be distinguished from 
the -object ; the warrant is the word, and the proper object of faith is 
Christ, as considered in his mediatory office. Sometimes the act of 
faith is terminated on the person of Christ, and sometimes on the 
promise, to show there is no closing with Christ without the promise, 
and no closing with the promise without Christ ; as in a contract 
there is not only a receiving of the lease or conveyance, but a receiving 
of lands by virtue of such a deed and conveyance. So there is a 
receiving of the word, and a receiving of Christ through the word ; 
the one maketh way for the other, the promise for our affiance in 
Christ. Faith that assents to the promise doth also accept of Christ ; 
there is an act terminated on his person. Faith is not assensus axiomati, 
a naked assent to the propositions of the word, but a consent to take 
Christ, that we may rely upon him, and obey him as an all-sufficient 
Saviour. 

But now let us speak of these distinctly. 

First, Of the object, that is, to believe in Christ. There is believing 
o/Christ, and believing in Christ. He doth not say, Those that believe 
me, but, Those that believe in me through their word. Believing Christ 
implieth a credulity and assent to the word ; and believing in Christ, 
confidence and reliance. Once more, believing in Christ is a notion 
distinct from believing in God: John xiv. 1, 'Ye believe in God, 
believe also in me.' Since the incarnation, and since Christ came to 
exercise the office of a mediator, there is a distinct faith required in him, 
because there are distinct grounds of confidence ; because in him we see 
God in our nature, we have a claim by justice as well as mercy, we 
have a mediator who partaketh of God's nature and ours, and so is fit 
to go between God and us. 



VER. 20.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 19 

Briefly to open this believing in Christ, it may be opened by the 
implicit or explicit acts of it. 

1. There is something implicit in this confidence and reliance upon 
Christ, and that is a lively sense of our own misery, and the wrath of 
God due for sin. All God's acts take date from the nothingness and 
necessity of the creature, and from thence also do begin our own 
addresses to God. God's acts begin thence, that he may be all in all ; 
from the creation to the resurrection God keepeth this course, and then 
the dispensation ceaseth, for then there is no more want, but fulness. 
Creation is out of nothing ; providence interposeth when we are as 
good as nothing ; at the resurrection we are nothing but dust ; God 
worketh on the few relics of death and time. So in all moral matters, 
as well as natural, it is one of his names, ' He comforteth those that are 
cast down.' When he came to convert Adam, he first terrified him : 
' They heard the voice of God in the garden, and were afraid,' Gen. iii. 
10. He delivered Israel out of Egypt when their souls were full of 
anguish. We are first exercised with the ' ministry of the condemna 
tion,' before ' light and immortality are brought to life in the gospel.' 
And still God keeps his old course ; men are first burdened and sensible 
of their load before he giveth them ease and refreshment in Christ. 
At the first gospel sermon preached after the pouring forth of the 
Spirit, Acts ii. 37, ' They were pricked in their hearts.' Christ's com 
mission was to preach the gospel to the poor and broken-hearted and 
bruised : Luke iv. 18, ' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because 
the Lord hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor ; he hath 
sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the cap 
tives, the recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that 
are bruised.' This is the roadway to Christ. And all our addresses 
to God begin too thence. Man is careless : Mat. xxii. 5, d/LteX^o-avre?, 
' They made light of it ; ' and proud : Horn. x. 3, ov% virerd^a-av, 
' They have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God/ 
The Israelites were not weary of Egypt till they were filled with 
anguish. Adonijah, when he found himself guilty of death, ' he laid 
hold on the horns of the altar.' The prodigal never thought of return 
ing till he began to be in want, and to be soundly pinched. There 
fore, till there be a due sense and conviction of conscience, it is not 
faith, but carnal security. In short, we can never be truly desirous 
of grace, we cannot prize it, ' we do not run for refuge,' Heb. vi. 18. 
We are not earnest for a deliverance till there be some such work. 

There are two things keep the conscience quiet without Christ 
peace and self, carnal security and self-sufficiency. 

[1.] It is hard to wean men from the pleasures of sense, and to make 
them serious in the matters of their peace ; before Christ and they be 
brought together, they and themselves must be brought together. This 
God seeketh to do by outward afflictions, that he may ' take them in 
their month,' as the ram was caught in the briars. In afflictions men 
bethink themselves : 1 Kings viii. 47, ' If they shall bethink themselves 
in the land whither they are carried captives/ &c. It makes them to 
return upon themselves, how it is between God and them. If afflic 
tion worketh not, he joineth the word ; it is ' a glass wherein we see 
our natural face/ James i. 21. God showeth them what loathsome 



20 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXIV. 

creatures they are, bow liable to wrath. Or if not, by the power of his 
Spirit upon their consciences ; their reins may chasten them ; they 
cannot wake in the night, or be solitary in the day, but their hearts are 
upon them ; so great a matter is it to bring men to be serious. 

[2.] Self. When the prodigal began to be in want, ' he joined him 
self to a man of that country,' Luke xv. 15. We have slight promises 
and resolutions, and all to elude the present conviction ; long it is ere 
the proud heart of man is gained to take Christ upon God's terms. 
Convinced men are brought in, saying, ' What shall I do ? ' Acts ix. 
6. Then let God write down what articles he pleaseth, they are will 
ing to subscribe and yield to any terms ; as softened pewter, let it be 
never so bowed and battered, is receptive of any shape and form. This 
is the implicit act, or that which is required in believing, that a man 
should be a lost undone creature in himself, ready to do what God 
will have him. 

2. The explicit acts, when a soul thus humbled casts itself upon 
Christ for grace, mercy, and salvation. This may be explained with 
respect to the two great ordinances, i.e., the word and prayer, which 
are, as it were, a spiritual dialogue between God and the soul. In the 
word, God speaketh to us ; in prayer, we speak to God. God offereth 
Christ to us in the word, and we present him to God in prayer. So 
that the acts of faith are to accept of Christ as offered, and then to 
make use of him in our communion with God ; and by this shall you 
know whether you do believe in him. 

[1.] Accepting Christ in the word. Faith is expressed by receiving 
him : John i. 12, ' To as many as received him, to them gave he power 
to become the sons of God, even to them that believe in his name/ Ke- 
ceiving is a relative word, and presupposeth God's offer. Art thou 
willing to take Christ upon these terms ? Yes, saith the soul, with 
all my heart ; I accept him as a sanctiner, as a saviour, and I can 
venture all in his hands. Then you answer God's question. How 
often doth God lay forth the excellences of Christ, and none regard 
him ? But a poor hunger-bitten conscience prizeth him, receiveth him 
with all his heart, and entertaineth him in the soul with all respect 
and reverence. This is to take Christ, to accept him as Lord and 
Saviour upon God's offer. As when Isaac was offered to Kebekah, 
' Laban and Bethuel answered, saying, The thing proceedeth from the 
Lord ; we cannot speak unto thee good or bad,' Gen xxiv. 50 ; they 
consented to take him, because they saw God in it. So they see God 
tendering Christ, in the word, and they are willing to take him upon 
his own conditions. 

[2.] By making use of him in prayer. The great use of Christ is 
that we may come to God by him : Heb. vii. 25, ' Wherefore he is 
able to save unto the uttermost all that come unto God by him.' We 
must make pur approaches to God for supplies of grace, in the con 
fidence of his merit. It is a great fault in Christians that they do so 
little think of this act of faith. We are busy about applying Christ 
to ourselves. The great use of Christ is in dealing with God : Heb. 
x. 19, ' Having therefore boldness, brethren, to enter into the holiest 
by the blood of Jesus/ Every prayer that you make with any con 
fidence and liberty of spirit, it cost Christ his heart's blood. He knew 



VER. 20.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 21 

that guilt is shy of God's presence, as the malefactor trembleth to come 
before the judge : Eph. iii. 12, ' In whom we have boldness, and access 
with confidence, through the faith of him.' Surely the apostle speaketh 
dejure, not what is de facto. We have low and dark thoughts, as if 
we had no such liberty purchased for us ; Trapprja-lav exopev, we may 
be free with God. It is the fruit of Christ's purchase. Christ's name 
signifieth much in heaven. 

Use. Can you thus believe in Christ, take him out of God's hand ? 
No ; I cannot apply Christ. I answer Yet disclaim, when you cannot 
apply : Phil. iii. 9, ' And be found in him, not having my own right 
eousness, which is after the law, but that which is through the faith of 
Christ, the righteousness which is of God through faith.' And apply 
yourselves to Christ when you cannot apply Christ to you ; that is, cast 
yourselves upon Christ. You have warrant enough from the word. 
There is an adventure of faith when there is no persuasion of interest : 
2 Tim. i. 12, ' I know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that 
he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that 
day/ The venture is grounded on God's free offer of him to all sorts. 
When we rest on him, because we know he is ours, that is another 
thing ; there is trust, that is a fruit of propriety : 1 John v. 13, ' These 
things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of 
God, that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe 
on the name of the Son of God.' But the adventure is grounded on the 
offer, as a child holds fast his father in the dark ; mariners cast anchor at 
midnight. And ripen faith more ; all faith draweth to particular applica 
tion. The lowest degree is a desire to lay hold on Christ as our Saviour ; 
this is the tendency and aim of the least faith, though we do not leap 
into full assurance at first ; as a man that climbeth up to the top of the 
tree, first he catcheth hold of the lowest boughs, and so by little and 
little he windeth himself into the tree till he cometh to the top. 

Secondly, The next thing is the warrant or instrument, ' Through 
their word/ It is not meant only of those that heard the apostles in 
person. By ' their word ' is meant the scripture, which was not only 
preached by them at first, but written by them ; as Paul saith, Rom. 
ii. 16, 'In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus 
Christ, according to my gospel ;' that is, which I have published and 
delivered to the church in writing : John xv. 16, ' Ye have not chosen 
me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you that you should go and 
bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain/ By their ' fruit ' 
is meant the public treasure of the church, the scriptures, and that 
remaineth in all ages until Christ come ; as the Jews were children of 
the prophets, that never heard them, Acts iii. 25. So were we con 
verted by their word. 

Now I shall handle the necessity, use, and power of the word to 
work faith. 

1. The necessity of the word preached ; it is the ordinary means. 
It is a nice dispute whether God can work without it. God can 
enlighten the world without the sun. It is clear ordinarily he doth not 
work without the word ; we are bound, though the Spirit is free : ' How 
shall they believe on him of whom they have not heard? and how 
shall they hear without a preacher ? ' Horn. x. 14. It is the means to 



22 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXIV. 

convey faith into the hearts of the elect ; it is as necessary to faith, as 
faith to prayer, and prayer to salvation. It is a means under a promise. 
You see how necessary it is ; they that voluntarily neglect the means, 
put a scorn upon God's institution. Men will say, I can read at home. 
Are you wiser than he ? Men think that, of all other things, preach 
ing might best be spared ; and of all offices, hearing is least necessary. 
The ear received the first temptation ; sin and misery broke in that 
way ; so doth life and peace. The happiness of heaven is expressed by 
seeing, the happiness in the church by hearing. This is our great 
employment, to wait upon the word preached ; next to Christ's word, 
it is a great benefit to have the word written ; next to the word written, 
the word preached. Christ sent ' first apostles, then pastors and 
teachers.' God could have converted Paul without Ananias, taught 
the eunuch without Philip, instructed Cornelius without Peter. Do 
not hearken to those that cry up an inward teaching, to exclude the out 
ward teaching ; as if the external word were but an empty sound and 
noise, as the Libertines in Calvin's time. Faith, confirmed by reading, 
is usually begotten by hearing. 

2. The use of the word : it is our warrant. What have we to show 
for our great hopes by Christ but the word ? It is our excitement, a 
means and instrument to show us God's heart and our own, our natural 
face, and the worth of Christ, the key which God useth and openeth 
our hearts by. Ministers are Christ's spokesmen ; if we will not open 
the ear, why should God open the heart ? 

3. The power of the word is exceeding great. It is ' the power of 
God to salvation/ The first gospel sermon that ever was preached, 
after the pouring forth of the Spirit, had great success : Acts ii. 41, 
' The same day there were added to the church about three thousand 
souls.' It was a mighty thing that an angel should slay 185,000 in 
one night in Sennacherib's host ; but it is easier to kill so many than to 
convert one soul. One angel, by his mere natural strength, could kill 
so many armed men ; but all the angels in heaven, if they should join 
all their forces together, could not convert one soul. There were single 
miracles of curing one blind or one lame ; ay ! but the apostle's word 
could work three thousand miracles : 1 Cor. iii. 5, ' Who is Paul, and 
who is Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord 
gave to every man?' 

Why doth God use the word ? I answer Because it pleased him : 
1 Cor. i. 21, ' It pleased God, by the foolishness of preaching, to save 
them that believe.' 

[1.] It is most suitable to man's nature. Man is made of body and 
soul, and God will deal with him both ways, by internal grace and 
external exhortations. Man is a reasonable creature ; his will is not 
brutish ; God will not offer violence to the principles of human nature. 
Man is not only weak, but wicked ; there is hatred as' well as impo- 
tency. God will overcome both together, by sweet counsels, mixed 




arguments which the heart of 
man could not have found out. 

[2.] It is agreeable to his own counsels to try the reprobate by an 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 23 

outward rule and offer, wherein they have as much favour as the elect ; 
they shall one day know ' that a prophet hath been among them/ and 
so be ' left without excuse,' Horn. i. 20. The rain falleth on rocks as 
well as fields ; the sun shineth to blind men as well as those that can see. 

[3.] It commendeth his grace to the elect. Their faith must be 
ascribed to grace. When others have the same means, the same voice 
and exhortations, it is the peculiar grace of God that they come to 
understand and believe. Whence is it that the difference ariseth ? 
that whereas wicked men are by the word restrained and made civil 
(there being a use of wicked men in the world, as of a hedge of thorns 
about a garden), they are by the same word converted and brought 
home to God ? It is from the grace of God. 

Use. Examination. Is our faith thus wrought ? Every one should 
look how he cometh by his faith, by what means. True faith is be 
gotten and grounded upon the word; it is the ordinary means to 
work faith. The word will be continued, and a ministry to preach 
it, as long as there are any to be converted. The gospel alone re- 
vealeth that which may satisfy our necessities ; it giveth a bottom for 
faith and particular application, as being the declaration of God's will. 
It is the only means sanctified by Christ for that end : John xvii. 17, 
' Sanctify them through thy truth, thy word is truth ; ' James i. IS. 
' Of his own will begat he us, through the word of truth/ The con 
dition of those is woful that want the gospel, or put it from them : 
Acts xiii. 46, ' Seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves 
unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles/ If faith be 
of the right make, the word will show thee once thou hadst none, and 
that thou wert not able of thyself to believe. Beseech the Lord to work 
it in thee. 



SERMON XXXV. 

That they all may be one ; as fhou, Father, art in me, and I in Thee, 
that they also may be one in us : that the world may believe that 
thou hast sent me. JOHN XVII. 21. 

WE have seen for whom Christ prayeth. Now let us see what he 
prayeth for ; their comfortable estate in the world, and the happiness 
of their everlasting estate in heaven. With respect to their estate in 
the world, Christ mentioneth no other blessing but the mystical 
union, which is amplified throughout, ver. 21-23. Here he beginneth, 
' That they may be all one ; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee.' 
He had before prayed for the apostles, ' That they may be one, as we 
are one,' ver. 11 ; and now, 'Let them all be one/ The welfare of the 
church is concerned, not only in the unity of the apostles, but of pri 
vate believers ; you had need be one as well as your pastors. Many 
times divisions arise from the people, and those that have least know- 
lege are most carried aside with blind zeal and principles of separa 
tion ; therefore Christ prayeth for private believers, ' That they may 
be all one,' &c. 



24 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXV. 

In which words there is 

1. The blessing prayed for, ' That they may be all one.' 

2. The manner of this unity, illustrated by the original pattern and 
exemplar of it, 'As thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee;' the 
ineffable unity of the persons in the divine essence. 

3. The ground of this unity, the mystical union with Christ, and 
by Christ with God, ' That they may be one with us/ 

4. The end and event of this union, ' That the world may believe 
that thou hast sent me.' 

First, From the blessing prayed for, I observe, that the great 
blessing Christ asketh for his church is the mystical union of believers 
in the same body ; ' Let them be one,' one in us, and ' as thou in me, 
and I in thee.' All these expressions show that the mystical union is 
here intended. ' Let them be one,' ev, that is, ev aS>/j,a, as it is else 
where explained, that they may grow together in one body, whereof I 
am the head, or one temple. It- is sometimes set out by ' one mystical 
body/ sometimes by 'one spiritual temple/ One body : Col. ii. 19, 
'And not holding the head, from which all the body by joints and 
bands, having nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth 
with the increase of God ; ' Bom. xii. 5, ' We, being many, are one 
body in Christ, and every one members one of another ; ' Eph. i. 22, 
23, ' And gave him to be the head over all things to the church, 
which is his body/ And one temple : Eph. ii. 20-22, ' And are built 
upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself 
being the chief corner-stone ; in whom all the building fitly framed 
together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord * in whom you also 
are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit/ 
' One, as thou in me, and I in thee/ Christ doth not say that they 
maybe one in another ; l that e/jLTTep^coprja-^ doth not agree to them ; 
but in the mystery of the Trinity it denotes the union between the 
divine persons. ' One in us/ that is, by the communication and in 
habitation of that Spirit which proceedeth from us. Our union is from 
God, in God, and to God; from the Spirit, with God, through Christ. 

Let me now inquire (1.) What it is ? (2.) Why it is so valued 
by Christ? 

First, What it is ? There is a union with Christ the head, and 
between the members one with another. I shall speak of both, 
though but little of the latter, because I handled it ver. 11. 

1. There is a union with Christ the head. That ye may conceive 
of it, take these propositions. 

[1.] The whole Trinity is concerned in this union. By the com 
munion of the Spirit we are mystically united to Christ, and by Christ 
to God. The Father is, as it were, the root, Christ the trunk, the 
Spirit the sap, we the branches, and our works the fruits, John xv. 
This is the great mystery delivered in the scriptures. Christ doth 
not only ' dwell in us by faith/ Eph. iii. 17, but ' God dwelleth in us, 
and we m God/ L John iv. 16, and 'the Spirit dwelleth in us;' 
Bom. vni. 11. We are consecrated temples, wherein the whole 
Trinity take up their residence. We are children of God, members 
of Christ, pupils to the Holy Ghost ; God's family, Christ's body, and 

1 Qu. ' in one another ? ' ED. 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 25 

the Spirit's charge. We are united to the Father as the fountain of 
grace and mercy, to the Son as the pipe and conveyance, and the 
Spirit accomplished and effecteth all. The Father sendeth the Son 
to merit this grace, and the Son sendeth the Spirit to accomplish it; 
therefore we are said ' by one Spirit to be baptized into the same body/ 

[2.] Though all the persons be concerned in it, yet the honour is 
chiefly devolved upon Christ the second person. Christ, as God- 
man, is head of the church upon a double ground because of his 
two natures, and the union of these in the same person. It was need 
ful that our head should be man, of the same nature with Ourselves : 
Heb. ii. 11, 'He that sanctifieth, and they that are sanctified, are of 
one ; ' the same stock. It were monstrous to have a head and members 
of a different nature ; as in Nebuchadnezzar's image, the substance of 
the head and body differed ; the head was of fine gold, the arms of 
silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs of iron, part of the feet of 
clay ; here was a monstrous body indeed, made up of so many metals 
differing in nature and kind. But Christ took our nature that he might 
be a suitable head, and so have a right to redeem us, and be in a 
capacity to give himself for the body, and sympathise with us. All 
these are fruits of the Son's being of the same nature. And again, 
God he needed to be, to pour out the Spirit, and to have grace suffi 
cient for all his members. Mere man was not enough to be head of 
the church, for the head must be more excellent than the body ; it is 
above the body, the seat of the senses, it guideth the whole body, it is 
the shop of the thoughts and musings. And so Christ the head must 
have a pre-eminence ; in him ' the fulness of the Godhead dwelt 
bodily, that we might be complete in him,' Col. ii. 8, 9 ; and ' it 
pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell,' Col. i. 19. 
The grace of God is most eminent in him, as life is most eminent in 
the head. Now there must be a union of these two natures in the 
same person. If Christ had not been God and man in the same 
person, God and we had never been united and brought together ; he 
is ' Emmanuel, God with us,' Mat. i. 23. God is in Christ, and the 
believer is in Christ ; we have a share in his person, and so hath God ; 
he descendeth and corneth down to us in the person of the mediator ; 
and by the man Christ Jesus we ascend and climb up to God. And 
so you see the reason why the honour of head of the church is de 
volved upon Christ. 

[3.] Whole Christ is united to a whole believer. Whole Christ is 
united to us, God-man, and whole man is united to Christ, body and 
soul. Whole Christ is united to us ; the Godhead is the fountain, 
and the human nature is the pipe and conveyance. Grace cometh 
from him as God, and through him as man : John vi. 56, 57, ' He 
that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood dwelleth in me, and I in 
him. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father, 
so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.' God is a sealed 
fountain, his humanity is the pipe, so that his flesh is the food of the 
soul. Christ came from heaven on purpose, and sanctified our flesh, 
that there might be one in our nature to do us good, that righteous 
ness and life might pass from him, as sin and death from Adam ; but 
our faith first pitcheth upon the manhood of Christ, as they went into 



26 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiB. XXXY. 

the holy place by the veil. And then a whole Christian is united to 
Christ, body and soul. The soul is united unto him, because it re- 
ceiveth influences of grace, and the body also is taken in; therefore the 
apostle disputeth against fornication, because the body is a member of 
Christ: 1 Cor. vi. 15, ' Shall I then take the members of Christ, and 
make them the members of an harlot ? God forbid ! ' It is a kind 
of dismembering and plucking a limb from Christ ; you defile Christ's 
body, the disgrace redounds to him. And hereupon elsewhere doth 
the apostle prove the resurrection by virtue of oar union with Christ : 
Bom. viii: 10, 11, 'If Christ be in you, the body is dead because of 
sin ; but the spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit 
of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that 
raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies 
by his Spirit, that dwelleth in you.' You may die, but you shall not 
be brought to nought, because the body hath a principle of life in it ; 
it is a part of Christ, and he will lose nothing: John vi. 39, 'And 
this is the Father's will, which sent me, that of all which he hath 
given me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the 
last day.' As plants live in the root, though the leaves fade, and in 
winter they appear not, so doth the body live in Christ. So that it 
is a ground of hope, and a motive to strictness, that you may not 
wrong a member of Christ, nor seek to pluck a joint from his body. 

[4.] The manner of this union. It is secret and mysterious : peja 
fiVanjpiov, Eph. v. 22, ' This is a great mystery ;' not only a mystery, 
but a great mystery ; ' but I speak concerning Christ and the church/ 
It is a part of our portion in heaven to understand it : John xiv. 20, 
' At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and you in me, 
and I in you.' When we are more like God, we shall know what it is 
to be united to God through Christ. Here believers feel it rather 
than understand it, and it is our duty rather to get an interest in it 
than subtly to dispute about it. 

[5.] Though it be secret and mystical, yet it is real ; because a 
thing is spiritual, it doth not cease to be real. These are not words, 
or poor empty notions only, that we are united to Christ ; but they 
imply a real truth. Why should the Holy Ghost use so many terms ; 
of being planted into Christ ? Horn. vi. 5, ' For if we have been 
planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the 
likeness of his resurrection ; ' of being joined to Christ ? 1 Cor. vi. 
17, ' He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit ; ' of being made 
partakers of Christ ? Heb. iii. 14, ' For we are made partakers of 
Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast to the end.' 
Do these terms only imply a relation between us and Christ ? No ; 
then the emphasis of the words is lost. What great mystery in all 
this ? Why is this mystery so often spoken of ? Christ is not only 
ours, but ' he is in us, and we in him/ God is ours, and we dwell in 
God : 1 John iv. 13, ' Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he 
in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit ; ' and ver. 15, ' Whoso 
ever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him, 
and he in God/ It is represented by similitudes, that imply a real 
union as well as a relative, by head and members, root and branches, 
as well as by marriage, where man and wife are made one flesh. It is 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 27 

compared here with the mystery of the Trinity, and the unity of the 
divine persons, though not dKpi/3&$. It is not a notion of scripture, 
but a thing wrought by the Spirit : 1 Cor. ii. 13, ' Which things also 
we speak,' &c. It worketh a presence, and conveyeth real influences. 

[6.] It may be explained as far as our present light will bear, by 
analogy to the union between head and members. The head is united 
to the body primarily, and first of all by the soul. Head and members 
make out one body, because they are animated by the same soul, and 
by that means doth the head communicate life and motion to the 
body. Besides this there is a secondary union, by the bones, muscles, 
nerves, veins, and other ligaments of the body, and upon all these by 
the skin, all which do constitute and make up this natural union. 
Just so in this spiritual and mystical union there is a primary band 
and tie, and that is the Spirit of Christ : 1 Cor. vi. 17, ' He that is 
joined to the Lord is one spirit ; ' that is, is acted by the same Spirit 
by which Christ is acted, and liveth the same life of grace that Christ 
liveth, as if there were but one soul between them both. The fulness 
remaineth in Christ, but we have our share ; and ' he that hath not 
the Spirit of Christ is none of his.' But over and above there is a 
secondary bond and tie, that knitteth us and Christ together, which 
answereth to the joints and arteries, by which the parts of the body are 
united to one another, and that is faith, and love, and fear, and other 
graces of the Spirit, by which the presence is kept in the soul. Thus 
I hare a little opened this mystery to you. 

2. There is a union of the members one with another. A little of that. 

[1.] The same Spirit that uniteth the members to the head uniteth 
the members one to another. Therefore the apostle, as an argument 
of union, urgeth the communion of the same Spirit : Phil. ii. 1, 2, 'If 
any fellowship of the Spirit, fulfil ye my joy, that ye be like-minded, 
having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind.' As Christ is 
the head of the church, so the Holy Ghost is the soul of the church, by 
which all the members are acted. As in the primitive times : Acts iv. 
32, ' The multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one 
soul.' And this is that that Christ prayeth for here, that they may all 
be one, in the communion of the same Spirit, that they may be of the 
same religion, and have the same aim, and the same affection to good 
things. 

[2.] From the communion of the Spirit, there is a secondary union 
by love, and seeking one another's good, as if they were but one man ; 
wherever dispersed throughout the world, and whatever distinctions of 
nations and interests there are, they may love and desire the good of 
one another, and rejoice in the welfare, and grieve for the evil of one 
another : Ezek. i. 24, ' When the beasts went, the wheels went, and 
when the beasts were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted 
up over against them ; ' and the reason is given, ' for the spirit of the 
living creature was in the wheels.' The same spirit is in one Christian 
that is in another, and so they wish well to one another, even to those 
whom they never saw in the flesh: Col. ii. 1, ' For I would that ye 
knew how great conflict I have for you, and for them at Laodicea, and 
for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh.' What wrestlings 
had he with God, and fightings for their sakes, even for them that 



28 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXV. 

had not seen his face in the flesh ! So careful are the members one of 
another. 

[3.] This love is manifested by real effects. Look, as by virtue of 
union with Christ there are real influences of grace that pass out to us, 
it is not idle and fruitless, so by virtue of this union that is between 
the members there is a real communication of gifts and graces, and 
the good things of this life one to another. If the parts of the body 
keep what they have to themselves, and do not disperse it for the use 
of the body, it breedeth disease, as the liver the blood, the stomach the 
meat ; the liver imparts blood to the veins, and the stomach sends the 
food abroad into its proper vessels and channels ; so God's children 
impart their spiritual or temporal gifts as the body needeth. When a 
famine was but prophesied, the disciples thought of sending relief 
according to their ability to the brethren of Judea, Acts xi. 29. It is 
never right but when there is this forwardness to distribute and com 
municate according to the necessities of the body. 

Secondly, Why Christ valueth it so much as to make it his only 
request for believers in the present state ? I answer We can never 
be happy till we have a share in this union. 

1. Because God hath instituted the mystical union to be a means to 
convey all grace to us, grace to us here, and glory hereafter ; we receive 
all from God in it, and by it. Christ without us doth not save us, 
but Christ in us. Christ without us is a perfect Saviour, but not to 
you ; the appropriation is by union. Generally we think we shall be 
saved by a Christ without us. He came down from heaven, took our 
nature, died for sinners, ascended up into heaven again, there he maketh 
intercession ; all this is without us. Do not say there is a Saviour in 
heaven ; is there one in thy heart ? Col. i. 27, ' Christ in you the 
hope of glory.' He doth not say, Christ in heaven the hope of glory, 
though that is a fountain of comfort, but Christ in you : 1 Cor. i. 30, 
' Of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, 
and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption/ Whatsoever is 
imputed or imparted, light, life, grace, glory, it is still in him. Still 
look to Christ within you. It were a merry world to carnal men to 
be saved by a Christ without them. Christ without establisheth the 
merit, but Christ within maketh application : 2 Cor. xiii. 5, 'Know 
ye not your own selves, how that Christ is in you, except ye be repro 
bates ? ' Unless first or last he be in you, though disallowed for the 
present, he will be of no advantage to you. You have nothing to show 
till you feel Christ within you. All the acts of his mediation must be 
acted over again in the heart. His birth ; he must be born and formed 
in us : Gal. iv. 19, ' My little children, of whom I travail in birth 
again, until Christ be formed in you.' His death : Kom. vi. 4, ' There 
fore we are buried with him by baptism into death.' His resurrec 
tion: Col. iii. 1, ' If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things 
that are above.' His ascension : Eph. ii. 6, ' And hath raised us up 
together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.' 
His intercession : Bom. viii. 26, ' Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our 
infirmities ; for we know not what we should pray for as we ought, 
but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which 
cannot be uttered.' The acts without us do us no good unless we have 
the copy of them in our own hearts. 



VER. 21. J SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 29 

2. It is the ground of that exchange that is between Christ and us ; 
we communicate to him our nature, our sins, and troubles, and Christ 
communicateth to us his nature and merits and privileges. What hath 
Christ from thee ? Thy nature, thy sins, thy punishments, thy wrath, 
thy curse, thy shame ; and thou hast his titles, his nature, his spirit, 
his privileges. All this interchange between us and Christ is by virtue 
of union. All interests lie in common between Christ and the church ; 
he taketh our nature, and is made flesh, and we are made ' partakers 
of the divine nature/ 2 Peter i. 4. He is made the Son of man, we 
the sons of God ; he had a mother on earth, we a Father in heaven ; 
he is made sin, we righteousness : 2 Cor. v. 21, ' Who hath made him 
to be sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in 
him/ He was made a curse that we might have the blessing of 
Abraham: Gal. iii. 13, 14, ' Christ hath redeemed us from the curse 
of the law, being made a curse for us ; for it is written, Cursed is 
every one that hangeth on a tree ; that the blessing of Abraham might 
come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ/ Thus he imparteth his 
privileges to us, and assumeth our miseries to himself. He hath a 
share in all our sorrows, and we have a share in his triumphs ; he is 
afflicted in our afflictions, as we ascend in his ascension : Eph. ii. 6, 
' He hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly 
places in Christ Jesus/ We live by his life : Gal. ii. 20, ' I live, yet 
not I, but Christ liveth in me/ &c. And we are glorified by his glory. 
He suffereth with us in heaven, and we reign with him on earth ; he 
suffereth. with us, non per passionem, sed compassionem, not that 
glorified Christ feeleth any grief in heaven, but his bowels yearn to an 
afflicted member, as if he himself were in our stead ; and we are set 
down with him in heavenly places, because our head is there, and hath 
seized upon heaven in our right. It is a notable expression : Col. i. 
24, ' Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up, va-repTj^a 
ffXtyewv Xpiarov, that which is behind of the sufferings of Christ in my 
flesh for his body's sake, which is the church/ Christ and the church 
are considered as one person, whose afflictions are determined by pro 
vidence ; thus much the head must suffer, thus much the members. 
Christ suffered his share, and we ours in our turn. In short, Christ 
suffereth no more in the body that he carried to heaven, but in his body 
that he left upon earth. Every blow that lighteth on a member, 
lighteth on his heart : Acts ix. 6, ' Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou 
me ? ' Christ was in heaven at that time ; how could he say, ' Why 
persecutest thou me ? ' Did he climb up into heaven, and war upon 
Christ in the midst of his glory ? No ; Saul persecuted the Christians, 
and them Christ calleth me, his mystical body. As in a throng, if some 
body treadeth upon your foot, the tongue crieth out, You have hurt 
me ; the tongue is in safety, but it is in the same body with the foot, 
and so their good and bad are common ; for though Christ's person be 
above abuse, he still suffereth in his members ; and he that persecuteth 
the church persecuteth Jesus Christ. 

3. If once interested in the mystical union, then they are safe, pre 
served in Jesus Christ : Jude 1, ' Sanctified by God the Father, and 
preserved in Jesus Christ ;' ver. 24, ' Now unto him that is able to keep 
you from falling/ &c. The union is indissoluble ; that is a cabinet, 



30 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiB. XXXV. 

where God's jewels are kept safe. If a member could be lost, Christ's 
body could be maimed ; as the union between the two natures could 
not be dissolved ; it was the body of Christ in the grave ; there was a 
separation between his human body and human soul, yet both still 
remained united to the divine nature ; so this union cannot be dissolved. 
You may as well sever the leaven and the dough, when they are 
kneaded together, as separate Christ and the church when once united. 
Impossibile est massam a pasta separare. Christ will not suffer his 
body to be mangled ; the cutting off of a joint goeth to the quick. 

Use 1. To press us to look after an interest in this great privilege. 
It is the main work of your lives. To move you, consider the honour and 
the happiness of them, that they are thus one with God through Christ. 

1. The honour. What am I, to be son-in-law to the king ? What 
are you, to be members of Christ ? Christ counteth himself to be 
incomplete and maimed without us : Eph. i. 23, ' The church is his 
body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.' How are we ifK^pw^a 
avrov, ' the fulness of him ' ? It relateth not to his personal perfec 
tion. Take Christ absolutely as God, and he is a person most perfect 
and glorious. Before the assumption of the human nature, before any 
creature in the world was made, there was enough in Christ to satisfy 
his Father's heart. Nay, take him relatively as mediator, what doth 
Christ want ? Doth the body give aught of perfection to the head ? 
No ; ' The fulness of the godhead dwells in him bodily,' and ' he filleth 
all things/ But taken in his mystical person, Christ mystical, as head 
and members are called Christ : 1 Cor. xii. 12, ' As the body is one, 
and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being 
many, are one body ; so also is Christ/ So he is not perfect without 
his body, as a head without members is not perfect. Now, what an 
honour is this, that he accounteth himself imperfect without us ! And 
till all his members be gathered in, we are not grown up to the state 
wherein Christ is full : Eph. iv. 13, ' Till we all come to the unity of 
the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, 
unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ/ Christ's 
mystical body hath not its complete stature till all the saints be gathered. 
This honour is not put upon the angels ; they are servants, but not 
members. He did not take their seed to be a head to them, nor die 
for them, nor took them for his members, as he doth us : Prov. viii. 31, 
' Kejoicirig in the habitable parts of the earth, and my delights were 
with the sons of men/ He left the company of angels to dwell with 
us ; his heart was set upon our good, that, next to the title of Son of 
God, he valueth this of being head of the church. He purchased it 
with his blood. He loveth his mystical body above his natural, for he 
gave his natural body to redeem the church, which is his mystical 
body ; as husbands love their wives as their own body. Q Christians ! 
is not this a mighty privilege ? We are not only his, but him, and 
Christ knoweth us and loveth us as parts of his own body, and will 
glorify us not only as his clients and servants, but members ; all the 
injuries and wrongs done to the church, Christ taketh it as done to 
himself. Wicked men they are his footstool ; Christ is over them, 
but not as a mystical head. As the head of a king is lifted up above 
all his subjects, and governeth them, and weareth the garland of honour, 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 31 

but in a peculiar manner it governeth and guideth his own natural 
body ; so Christ is ' head over all things to the church,' Eph. i. 22. 
Certainly this is a great honour put upon poor worms. What are the 
fruits of it ? We are interested in all Christ's communicable privileges ; 
we need not stretch it too far, it is ample enough of itself. Some 
things are incommunicably proper to Christ, neither given to man nor 
angel ; as the name above all names, to be adored, to be set at the 
right hand of God, to be head of the church, the Lord our righteous 
ness. But other things are communicated to us, first to Christ, and 
then to us. Christ is one with the Father, and a poor Christian, though 
never so mean, is one with Christ. Christ is called ' God's fellow,' 
Zech. xiii. 7, and every saint is Christ's fellow : Ps. xlv. 7, ' Thou hast 
anointed him with the oil of gladness above his fellows.' The Father 
loveth him because he is the express image of his person, and delights 
in the saints because they are the image of Christ. God is his God 
and our God, his Father and our Father ; where Christ is, they are, 
because they are a part of his body. Alas ! we should count it 
blasphemy to speak so, if the word did not speak it before us. 

2. The happiness : ' In him the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth 
bodily.' There is a sufficiency in Christ for all his members. We 
have all things in him, which is as good as if we had it in our hands, 
and better ; for he is a better steward and keeper of the treasures of 
wisdom, grace, and comfort, than we are. If he hath it, it is for our 
use ; for Christ is full as an officer to impart life, sense, and motion to 
all the body. It is the office of the liver to impart the blood to the 
veins ; it were monstrous and unnatural to keep it. As a treasurer, it 
is his office to pay money out upon all just demands : Ps. xvi. 2, 3, 
' My goodness extendeth not to thee ; but to the saints that are in the 
earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all my delight.' Thou shalt 
not be forgotten, for the care of Christ extendeth to every member. 
To neglect a member is to neglect ourselves. If a man could forget a 
child, yet certainly he could not forget his members. This is your re 
lation to Christ; if he hath bid the 'members to take care one of 
another,' 1 Cor. xii. 25, what will the head do ? These grounds of 
comfort and faith you have. 

Use 2. How shall we know that we have a share in this mystical 
union ? I answer By the Spirit of Christ : 1 John iv. 13, ' Hereby 
know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us 
of his Spirit.' There is a communication of the Spirit ; so Eom. viii. 
9, ' Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his ; ' 
his creature, but not his member ; a limb of Satan, not a member of 
Christ. Christ's Spirit is poured on all his brethren ; it is shared 
among them, it is given to every member as soon as they are added to 
Christ's body. 

Now, how shall we know whether we have the Spirit of Christ ? 

Ans. By life and conformity. 

1. Life and stirring. A man may know whether the Spirit of 
Christ be dwelling in him, as a woman knoweth whether the child in 
the womb be quickened, yea or no, she knoweth it by the stirring ; so 
you may know whether the Spirit of Christ be in you by its working. 
They are no members of Christ that are not quickened by the life of 



32 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXVI. 

grace ; i there is no withered member in his body. If a member of a 
lingering l body be dead and numb, we rub it and chafe it to bring heat 
and spirits into it again : so do you feel any grace, any spiritual love ? 
Gal. ii. 20, ' I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me ; and the life 
which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me and gave himself for me.' As we know there is life by 
the beating of the pulses, so there is spiritual life when there is a 
striving against corruption, complaining of it, sighing, groaning under 
it, seconded with a constant endeavour to grow better. These sighs 
and groans are in the greatest desertion. 

2. Conformity. Where the Spirit of Christ is it fashioneth us into 
the likeness of Christ : 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We all beholding as in a glass 
the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to 
glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.' It maketh us to represent 
Christ, to be such as he was in the world, meek, holy, humble, useful, 
as if Christ were come again to converse with men. If you are acted 
with an unclean, proud, carnal, wrathful spirit, who is it that dwelleth 
in you ? whose image do you bear ? There is a changing, transform 
ing power that ariseth from this union, that we delight to do the will 
of our Father, wherein the conformity lieth chiefly. We shall be 
humble, meek, gentle: Mat. xi. 29, 'Learn of me, for I am meek and 
lowly of heart;' thinking humbly of ourselves, not aspiring after 
greatness. This spirit is a spirit of obedience, enabling us to look to 
our Father's glory and commandment in all things. We shall have 
compassionate melting hearts to the miseries of others, as he had 
bowels yearning to see sheep without a shepherd. 



SERMON XXXVI. 

TJiat they all may be one ; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in tliee, 
that they also may be one in us : that the world may believe that 
thou hast sent me. JOHN XVII. 21. 

SECONDLY, I am now to handle the second branch, the pattern of this 
unity, ' As thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee.' It is elsewhere 
compared three times in this chapter: ver. 11, iva o)cnv eV, icadfos 
9?//,et9, 'that they may be one, as we are;' ver. 22, /ea#o>5 17/4619 ev 
eV/iei>, ' that they may be one as we are one ; ' and here, Kadws o-v 
irdrep ev e/iot, Kayo) ev o-ol, ' as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee.' 
They are not only one, but in one another. It is that which divines 
call Trepi^fop^aL^, the intimate inhabitation or indwelling of the per 
sons in one another, without any confusion of the several subsistences. 
Such is the unity of the divine essence, that the Father dwelleth in 
the Son, the Son subsisteth in the Father, and the Holy Spirit in both, 
without any confusion of the personalities. Now this is propounded 
as the pattern and original exemplar of the mystical union. The 
Arians conclude, out of this place, that there is not a unity of essence 
among the divine persons, but only a unity of love and concord, such 

1 Qu. 'living'? ED. 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 33 

as is between us and Christ, and among believers one with another ; 
o/noiovaia, not ofMoovaia. As doth not imply an exact equality, but 
only a similitude or answerable likeness. In the mystical union there 
is a kind of shadow and adumbration of that unity which is between 
the persons of the Godhead. So when man is said to be made after 
the similitude and likeness of God, it doth not imply a universal and 
exact equality, but only some conformity and similitude of men to 
God. So, ' Be ye holy, as I am holy ; ' ' Be ye perfect, as your 
heavenly Father is perfect.' It is good to note that in the letter of 
the text Christ separateth his own unity with the Father from that of 
the creatures. He doth not say, ' Let us be all one ; ' but, ' Let them 
be all one.' Again, he doth not say, ' As thou art in us, and we in 
thee ; ' but, ' As thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee/ Hie suam 
potentiam, et Patris a nobis secerneret. Again, in the next clause, he 
doth not say, ' One with us/ but ' in us.' There is no common union 
wherein he and we agree. The note is 

Doct. That the mystical union carrieth some resemblance with the 
union that is between the Father and the Son. 

Here I shall show (1.) The unity between God and Christ; (2.) 
Wherein the resemblance standeth. 

First, The unity between God and Christ. There is a twofold 
union between God and Christ. God is in him, and one with him, as 
the second person of the Trinity, and one in him as mediator. 

1. As he is the second person of the Trinity, there is a unity of 
essence, intimated by this Trepi^wprja-i^, or mutual inhabitation. Christ 
is not the Father, but in the Father ; to confound the persons is Sabel- 
lianism ; to divide the natures is Arianism. He doth not only say, 
' The Father is in him,' but, ' He is in the Father,' to note a consubstan- 
tial unity, that they both communicate in the same essence. At once 
he showeth the distinction that is between the Father and the Son, 
and the unity of essence that is between them. And as they are one 
in essence, so one in power : John x. 28-30, ' I give unto them eternal 
life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them 
out of my hand. My Father which gave them me is greater than all, 
and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. I and 
my Father are one.' They work by the same power. They are one 
in will and operation, their actions are undivided ; what the Father 
doeth, the Son doeth, though by an operation proper to each person : 
John v. 19, ' What things soever the Father doeth, these also doeth the 
Son likewise.' They are one in love ; the Son lay in the bosom of the 
Father : John i. 18, ' No man hath seen God at any time ; the only- 
begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared 
him/ It is a phrase that expresseth intimacy. There is a mutual 
complacency and delight in one another. They are equal in dignity 
and power, and must not be severed in worship : John v. 23, ' That 
all men should honour the Son as they honour the Father : he that 
honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father which hath sent 
him.' Thus God and Christ are one, as Christ is the second person. 
This is the great mystery, three and one, and one and three. Men 
and angels were made for this spectacle ; we cannot comprehend it, and 
therefore must admire it. luminosissimce tenebrce ! Light, dark- 

VOL. XT. c 



34 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVI. 

ness ! God dwelleth in both ; in light, to show the excellency of his 
nature ; and in darkness, to show the weakness of our apprehension. 
The Son is begotten by the Father, yet is in the Father, and the 
Father in him ; the Spirit proceedeth from them both, and yet is in 
both ; all in each, and each in all. They were the more three because 
one, and the more one because three. Were there nothing to draw 
us to desire to be dissolved but this, it were enough : John xiv. 20, 
' At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and you in me, 
and I in you.' It is no small part of our portion in heaven. For the 
present, how much cause have we to bless God for the revelation of 
this mystery! Let us adore it with a humble faith, rather than 
search into it by the bold inquiries of reason. It is enough for us to 
know that it is so, though we know not how it is. God were not 
infinitely great if he were not greater than our understanding. 

2. Christ and God are one as mediator. There is a personal union 
of the two natures. The Father may be said to be in him, because 
the divine nature is in him ; he is Emmanuel. In Christ there are 
two natures, but one person. His blood could not be the blood of 
God if the human nature were not united to the second person of the 
Trinity. It is so united that the human nature is the instrument. 
As the hand is man's instrument, not separated from the communion 
of the body, as a pen or knife ; it is man's instrument, but yet a part 
of himself ; so is Christ's human nature joined to his divine nature, 
and made use of as the great instrument in the work of redemption. 
So that the human nature is a temple ' in which the fulness of the 
Godhead dwelleth bodily/ Col. ii. 9. Now because of that union, the 
natures are in one another, and dwell in one another, as the soul 
dwelleth in the body, and the body is acted and enlivened by the soul. 
Hence the flesh of Christ is called the flesh of God, and the blood of 
Christ is called the blood of God : Acts xx. 28, ' Feed the Church of 
God, which he hath purchased with his own blood/ God was made 
man, but not man made God ; because God was a person of himself, 
that assumed Hesh, and united it to himself. All his actions are the 
actions of God-man, and so have a merit and a value. The human 
nature is a passive instrument, but the divine nature giveth it a sub 
sistence, necessary gifts, and honour. Besides all this, there is a 
union and consent of will in the work of redemption ; the Father's 
acts and Christ's acts are commensurable; God loveth Christ, and 
Christ obeyeth God. 

Secondly, The resemblance between the mystical union and the 
unity of the persons in the divine nature. The Spirit is indissolubile 
trintifitis vinculum, as one saith, the eternal bond of the Trinity. So 
among believers, it is the Holy Ghost who joineth us to Christ. 
Christ, as one with the Father, liveth the same life that the Father 
doth; so do we, as one with Christ: John vi. 57, 'As the living 
Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father ; so he that eateth 
me, even he shall live by me.' It is a close union, beyond conception, 
but yet real; ours is also close, hard to be understood: John xiv. 
20, ' At that day ye shall know that I am in the Father, and you in 
me, and I in you.' There is the highest love wherewith the Father 
and the Son love one another. Believers have a room in Christ's 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 35 

heart, as Christ in the Father's bosom ; they love Christ againj* that 
loved them first. The union is everlasting, for in the divine nature 
there can be no change ; Christ's mystical body cannot lose a joint. It 
is a holy union ; be one as we are one, holy as we are holy ; so infest ours 
be with one another. An agreement in evil is like that of Herod and 
Pilate, who shook hands against Christ. In the divine persons there 
is order and distinction ; the unity of the Trinity doth not confound 
the order of the persons ; they are one, and still three, the Father, the 
Word, and the Spirit, from whom, in whom, and to whom are all 
things; they keep their distinct personalities, and distinct personal 
operations. The unity of the church doth not confound the order of 
it ; there are diversity of gifts and ministrations, but one body. The 
persons of the Godhead mutually seek the glory of one another ; the 
election of the Father maketh way for the redemption of the Son ; 
and the redemption of the Son for the application of the Holy Spirit, 
and so upward : John xvi. 14, ' He shall glorify me, for he shall 
receive of mine, and shall show it unto you ;' and John xiv. 13, 'And 
whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father 
may be glorified in the Son;' Phil. ii. 9, 'Wherefore God hath 
highly exalted him, and given him a name above every name.' So in 
the spiritual union, Christ puts honour on the church, and the church 
honours Christ ; they throw their crowns at the Lamb's feet, and the 
members are careful of one another : 1 Cor. xii. 25, ' That there be 
no schism in the body, but that the members should have the same 
care one of another.' To endear us one to another, Christ did not 
only leave us the relation of brethren, but of fellow-members ; we are 
not only in the same family, but in the same body. Brothers that 
have issued from the same womb, and been nursed with the same 
milk, have defaced all the feelings of nature, and been divided in 
interests and affections ; Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, are sad pre 
cedents; but there is no such strife between members of the same 
body. Who would use one hand to cut off another ? or divide those 
parts which preserve the mutual correspondence and welfare of the 
whole ? At least, brothers have not such a care for one another ; each 
liveth for himself, a distinct life apart, and studieth his own profit and 
advantage ; but it is not so in the body, each member liveth in the 
whole, and the whole in all the members, and they all exercise their 
several functions for the common good. 

And the resemblance between the mystical and the personal union. 
In the hypostatical union, our nature is united with Christ's nature ; 
in the mystical union, our person with his person. In the hypo- 
statical union, Christ matched into our family ; in the mystical union, 
the soul is the bride. It is an honour to the whole kindred when a 
great person matcheth into their line and family, but more to the 
virgin who is chosen and set apart for his bride. Thus Christ first 
honoured our nature, and then our persons; first he assumeth our 
nature, and then espouseth our persons. In the hypostatical union, 
two diverse substances are united into one person; in the mystical 
union, many persons are united into one body. In the hypostatical 
union, Christ was a person before he assumed the human nature ; the 
body is a passive instrument, &c. ; in the mystical union, on Christ's 



36 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVI. 

part active, on ours passive. Christ is in us, in that he liveth in us, 
governeth us, maketh us partakers of his righteousness, life and spirit ; 
we are in him, as branches in the tree, rays in the sun, rivers in the 
fountain. The divine nature is a person by itself, and can subsist of 
itself; the other is only taken into the communion of his person. 
The human nature communicates nothing to the divine, but only 
serveth it as an instrument ; so we communicate nothing to Christ, 
but receive all from him. Both are wrought by the Spirit ; the body 
natural of Christ was begotten by the overshadowing of the Holy 
Ghost, so this union is wrought by God's Spirit. By the first, Christ 
is bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh ; by the second, we are bone 
of his bone and flesh of his flesh ; there cometh in the kindred by 
grace: Heb. ii. 11, 'For both he that sanctifieth and they that are 
sanctified are all of one ; for which cause he is not asjiamed to call them 
brethren.' He is of the same stock with all men, but he calleth none 
brethren but those that are sanctified ; none else can claim kindred of 
Christ, he will own no others. The hypostatical union is indissoluble; 
it was never laid aside, not in death ; it was the Lord of glory that 
was crucified, it was the body of Christ in the grave. So it is in the 
mystical union ; Christ and we shall never be parted. In death, the 
union is dissolved between the body and the soul, but not between us 
and Christ ; our dust and bones are members of Christ. In the hypo- 
statical union, the natures are not equal ; the human nature is but a 
creature, though advanced to the highest privileges that a creature is 
capable of; the divine nature assumed the human by a voluntary 
condescension and gracious dispensation ; and being assumed, it 
always upholdeth it and sustaineth it ; so there is a mighty' difference 
between us and Christ, between the persons united. Christ, as head 
and prince, is pleased to call us into communion with himself, and to 
sustain us, being united. In the hypostatical union, the human nature 
can do nothing apart from the divine ; no more can we out of Christ : 
John xv. 5, ' I am the vine, ye are the branches ; he that abideth in 
me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit ; for without 
me ye can do nothing/ In the hypostatical union, God dwelleth in 
Christ crw/iariKw?, Col. ii. 9, ' In him dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily.' In the mystical union, God dwelleth in us 
Trvevpa'TiK.ws, 1 John iv. 4, ' Greater is he that is in you, than he that 
is in the world.' The hypostatical union is the ground of all that 
grace and glory that was bestowed on the human nature, without 
which, as a mere creature, it would not be capable of this exaltation ; 
so the mystical union is the ground of all that grace and glory which 
we receive. By the hypostatical union, Christ is made our brother, 
he contracted affinity with the human nature ; by the mystical union 
he is made our head and husband, he weddeth our persons. As by 
the hypostatical union there is a communion of properties, so here is 
a kind of exchange between us and Christ : 2 Cor. v. 21 , ' For he hath 
made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made 
the righteousness of God in him.' As the honour of the divinity 
redoundeth to the human nature, so we have a communion of all 
those good things which are in Christ. 

Use 1. Let us strive to imitate the Trinity in our respects both to the 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 37 

head and our fellow-members, that you may neither dishonour the 
head nor dissolve the union between the members. Christ useth this 
expression to draw us up to the highest and closest union with him 
self and one another. 

1. In your respects to the head. 

[1.] Let your union with him be more close and sensible, that you 
may lie in the bosom of Christ, as Christ doth in the bosom of God. Is 
Christ in us as God is in Christ ? are we made partakers of the divine 
nature as he is of ours ? that you may say to him, as Laban to Jacob, 
Gen. xxix. 14, ' Surely thou art my bone and my flesh ; ' that you may 
feel Christ in you : Gal. ii. '20, ' I am crucified with Christ : neverthe 
less I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me, and the life which I live 
in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and 
gave himself for me.' This mystery is not only to be believed, but 
felt. 

[2.] In your care not to dishonour your head : 1 Cor. vi. 15, ' Know 
ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ ? Shall I then take 
the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot ? 
God forbid!' 

[3.] By your delight and complacency. You should make more of 
the person of Christ: Cant. i. 13, ' A bundle of myrrh is my beloved 
unto me ; he shall lie all night between my breasts.' Keep Christ close 
to the heart, delight in his company, and in frequent thoughts of him. 
This should be the holy solace of the soul. 

[4.] By your aims to glorify him. The Father studieth the honour 
of Christ, so doth the Spirit. Thou art his, and all thine is his. 
Christ hath a title to thy wit, wealth, estate, strength, to all thou hast 
or canst do in the world. Dost thou spend thy estate as if it were 
not thine, but Christ's ? use thy parts as if they were not thine, but 
Christ's ? Use thy parts as Christ's. 

2. To your fellow-members. Walk as those that are one, as Christ 
and the Father are one, seeking one another's welfare, rejoicing in one 
another's graces and gifts, as if they were our own ; contributing 
counsel, assistance, sympathy, prayers for the common good, as if thy 
own c^,se were in hazard ; living as if we had but one interest. This 
is somewhat like the Trinity. 

Use 2. Let it put us upon thanksgiving. No other union with us 
would content Christ but such as carrieth some resemblance with the 
Trinity, the highest union that can be. In love to our friends we wear 
their pictures about our necks ; Christ assumed our nature, espouseth 
our persons ; how should we be ravished with the thought of the 
honour done us ! We were separated by the fall, and became base 
creatures ; yet we are not only restored to favour, but united to him. 

Thirdly, The ground of this union, ' One with us.' By the mystical 
union we are united to the whole Trinity. Our communion with the 
Father is spoken of, 1 John i. 3, ' That ye also may have fellowship 
with us, and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son 
Jesus Christ.' Communion with the Son : 1 Cor. i. 9, ' God is faith 
ful, by whom we are called unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ 
our Lord.' And communion with the Spirit : 2 Cor. xiii. 14, ' The 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the com- 



38 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiB. XXXYI. 

munion of the Holy Ghost be with you all. Amen.' To distinguish 
them accurately is very hard, only thus in general. We must have com 
munion with all or none. There is no coming to the Father but by 
the Son : John xiv. 6, ' I am the way, the truth, and the life ; no man. 
cometh to the Father, but by me/ None can come to the Son but by 
the Father : John vi. 44, ' No man can come to me, except the Father, 
which hath sent me, draw him.' And none can come to both but by 
the Spirit. Unity is his personal operation : Eph. iv. 3, ' Endeavour 
ing to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.' The Father 
hath a hand in it, Christ hath a hand, the Spirit hath a hand. 

Well, then, let us bless God that we have such a complete object for 
our faith as Father, Son, and Spirit. The Father bestoweth Christ on 
us, and us on Christ, as marriages are made in heaven. The meri 
torious cause of this union is Christ the mediator; by his obedience, 
satisfaction, and merit ; otherwise the Father would not look upon us ; 
and the Spirit is sent from the Father and the Son to bring us to the 
Father by the Son. The Spirit worketh this union, continueth it, and 
manifests it. All the graces of God are conveyed to us by the Spirit ; 
the Spirit teacheth, comforteth, sealeth, sanctifieth ; all is by the Holy 
Ghost. And so are all our acts of communion ; we pray by the Spirit ; 
if we love God, obey God, believe in God, it is by the Spirit, that 
worketh faith, love, and obedience. We can want nothing that have 
Father, Son, and Spirit ; whether we think of the Father in heaven, 
the Son on the cross, or feel the Spirit in our hearts. Election is of 
the Father, merit by the Son, actual grace from the Holy Ghost : 1 
Peter i. 2, ' Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, 
through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience, and sprinkling of 
the blood of Jesus Christ.' Our salvation standeth on a sure bottom ; 
the beginning is from God the Father, the dispensation through the 
Son, the application by the Spirit. It is free in the Father, sure in 
the Son, ours in the Spirit. We cannot be thankful enough for this 
privilege. 

Fourthly, The end and issue, ' That the world may believe that thou 
hast sent me.' By the ivorld is not meant the unconverted elect, for 
Christ had comprehended all the elect in these words, ' Neither pray I 
for these alone, but for them also which shall believe in me through 
their word,' ver. 20. The matter of his prayer is, ' That they may be 
one,' &c. ; and the reason, ' That the world may believe that thou hast 
sent me.' So that by the world is meant the reprobate lost world, 
who shall continue in final obstinacy. By believing is meant not true 
saving faith, but common conviction, that they may be gained to some 
kind of faith, a temporary faith, or some general profession of religion ; 
as John ii. 23, 24, ' Many believed in his name, when they saw the 
miracles which he did ; but Jesus would not commit himself unto 
them, because he knew all men ; ' and John xii. 42, 43, ' Nevertheless 
among the chief rulers also many believed on him, but because of the 
pharisees, they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the 
synagogue : for they loved the praise of men more than the praise of 
God.] There believing is taken for being convinced of the truth of his 
religion, which he had established, though they had no mind to pro 
fess it ; or if so, yet they did not come under the full power of it. 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 39 

But how is this the fruit of the mystical union ? The fruits of the 
mystical union are four, to this purpose : 

1. Holiness : ' Whosoever is in Christ is a new creature,' 2 Cor. v. 
17. Sanctification is a fruit of union : 1 Cor. i. 30, ' For of him are 
ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, righteousness, 
ganctification, and redemption.' And it is a means to convince the 
world : Mark v. 16, ' Let your light so shine before men, that they, see 
ing your good works, may glorify your Father which is in heaven ; ' 
1 Peter ii. 12, ' Having your conversation honest amongst the Gentiles, 
that whereas they speak evil of you as of evil-doers, they may by your 
good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visita 
tion ; ' 1 Peter iii. 1, ' Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own 
husbands, that if any obey not the word, they also may, without the 
word, be won by the conversation of the wives.' 

2. Unity : 1 Cor. xii. 13, ' For by one Spirit we are all baptized into 
one body.' To endear us to himself, and to one another as fellow- 
members, Christ would draw us into one body : John xiii. 35, * By this 
shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to 
another.' Aspice ut se mutuo diligunt christiani ! Oh ! the mighty 
charity that was among the primitive Christians : Acts iv. 32, ' And 
the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul/ 
Divisions in the church breed atheism in the world. 

3. Constancy in the profession of the truth : Jude 1, ' To them that 
are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and 
called.' We are preserved in Christ as wine in the hogshead, being in 
the cabinet where God's jewels are kept. Now this is taking with the 
world. 

4. Special care of God's providence. God keepeth them as the 
apple of his eye : Dan. ii. 47, ' Of a truth it is that your God is a God 
of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing he could 
reveal unto you this secret ; ' 1 Cor. xiv. 25, ' And thus are the secrets 
of his heart made manifest, and so falling down on his face, he will 
worship God, and report that God is in you of a truth ; ' Dan. iii. 28, 
' Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego, who hath 
sent his angel, and delivered his servants that trusted in him, and have 
changed the king's word, and yielded their bodies, that they might not 
serve nor worship any god, except their own God ; ' Dan. vi. 27, ' He 
delivereth and rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in heaven 
and in earth, who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions ; ' 
Josh. ii. 11, ' And as soon as we had heard these things, our hearts did 
melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because 
of you ; for the Lord your God is God in heaven above, and in earth 
beneath ; ' Acts v. 12-14, ' And by the hands of the apostles were many 
signs and wonders wrought among the people, and they were all with 
one accord in Solomon's porch ; and of the rest durst no man join him 
self to them : but the people magnified them, and believers were the 
more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women.' 

Doct. That the general conviction which the lost world hath of the 
truth of Christianity is a very great blessing to the church. Christ here 
prays for it, ' Let them be one ; ' and why ? that the lost world, who 
are left out of his prayer, ' may believe that thou hast sent me ; ' that 



40 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXVI. 

they might not count Christ to be an impostor, nor the doctrine of the 
gospel a fable. And what Christ prayed for he had promised before ; 
for as good men of old did suit their prayers to their foregoing sermons, 
so did our Lord Jesus Christ suit this prayer to his foregoing sermon 
made to his apostles. What did he promise to them ? John xvi. 8-11, 
' If I depart, I will send the Comforter unto you ; and when he is come, 
he will reprove the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment. 
Of sin, because they believe not on me. Of righteousness, because I 
go to my Father, and ye see me no more. Of judgment, because the 
prince of this world is judged.' This is a difficult place ; the meaning 
is this : In the context you will find the apostles were troubled about 
Christ's departure, and their going out into the world to preach the 
gospel, for they apprehended their service difficult ; their master (for 
whom they stood) despised, and looked upon as a seducer and mock king 
among the Jews, their message very unpleasant, as contrary to the 
carnal interests of men. Now for a few weak men to be left to the 
hatred and opposition of a proud, malicious, ambitious world, they that 
were to preach a doctrine contrary to the lusts and interests of men, 
and go forth in the name of a master that was despised and hanged on 
a tree, what shall they do ? 'Be not troubled,' saith our Saviour. He 
lays in many comforts, and among them, that the world shall be con 
vinced : ' The Spirit shall convince the world of sin,' &c. Observe 

1. The act, 'He shall convince/ 

2. The object, ' The world.' 

3. The particulars, what he shall convince them of, ' Of sin, of right 
eousness, and of judgment.' 

4. The means, ' By the Spirit.' 

5. The effects of this, and how this was accomplished, and what a 
mighty confirmation this was of the apostles' testimony. 

1. Consider the act, ' He shall reprove, or convince ; ' not convert, 
but convince ; whereby is meant not only his offering or affording 
sufficient means which might convince men, but his actual convincing 
them thereby ; even the reprobate world shall be so convinced as they 
were put to silence, that they shall not easily be able to gainsay the 
truth ; nay, some of them shall obtain the profession of it. And yet 
the Holy Ghost goeth no further with them than fully to convince 
them ; the work stoppeth there, they are not effectually converted to 
God. As many carnal men, that remain in an unregenerate condition 
to the last, may have many temporal gifts bestowed on them, where 
by they may be made useful to the real and true believers, and have 
strange changes and flashes of conscience for a while, yet it went no 
further ; therefore the apostle saith, Heb. vi! 4, 5, ' They were en 
lightened, and had tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers 
of the Holy Ghost ; and have tasted the good word of God, and the 
powers of the world to come.' 

2. The object of this work of the Spirit. Whom shall he convince ? 
' The world.' It is notable the church is not spoken of, but the world. 
Now the world is either the unregenerate and unconverted world, or 
else the reprobate and lost world, who finally persist in their unbelief 
or want of saving faith. This mad raging world shall be convinced, and 
so their opposition taken off, or their edge blunted, and they made 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 41 

more easy and kind to his people, though they are but convinced, and 
continue still in a state of nature. Nay, some of them shall join with 
them, and be made greatly useful to them ; therefore they need not 
fear though all the power and learning in the world were against them 
at that time. 

3. The particulars whereof they are convinced, ' Of sin, of righteous 
ness, and of judgment.' Grotius and other interpreters observe there 
were three sorts of causes of actions among the Jews, Trepl apaprias, 
concerning criminal matters, or Trepl SIKCUOO-VVT)?, in defending the just 
and upright, or Trepl Kpicre(o<>, in urging the law of retaliation for damage 
done. Sometimes there was a suit commenced to know whether a man 
were a criminal or no ; at other times, if any man had been wronged, 
there* was a suit commenced concerning righteousness and innocency, 
and the man was acquitted in court. Sometimes there was an action 
concerning judgment, and that was concerning retaliation, giving eye 
for eye, tooth for tooth, recompensing the party wronged concerning 
damage done. So here, the Holy Ghost at his coming should be the 
advocate of Christ against the world, who had rejected and crucified 
him. One action that he should put in against the world was con 
cerning sin, whether Christ or the despisers of his grace were guilty of 
a crime. It would appear in the issue that not to believe in him was 
a sin, as well as to transgress the moral or natural law. The second 
action was concerning righteousness, to vindicate his innocency, though 
he suffered among them as a malefactor, in that he was owned by God, 
and taken up into heaven, as a clear testimony of his innocency. The 
third action was that of judgment, or punishing injurious persons by 
way of retaliation ; that those which struck out another's eye or tooth 
were to lose their own, or he that had wronged another man in his 
substance should lose as much of hi& own. This action he had against 
Satan, who with his instruments had put Christ to death ; now ' the 
prince of this world shall be judged ; } retaliation shall be done upon 
him, his kingdom destroyed, his idols and oracles battered down, and 
put to silence and under disgrace. And thus the Spirit should come 
to convince the world that it was a sin not to believe in Christ, who 
was a righteous and innocent person; and the devil, which did the 
wrong, should have right done upon him, that he should be destroyed, 
and his kingdom demolished. All these we have, Acts v. 30, 31, ' The 
God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew, and hanged on a 
tree. Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a prince and a 
saviour, to give repentence to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.' The 
first question was concerning sin, whether Christ died as a malefactor, 
or whether he was a true prophet ? and whether it was not a sin in the 
Jews not to receive him ? That was the point in controversy between 
the apostles, in preaching the gospel, and the world that denied this. 
The next question was concerning righteousness, whether Christ was 
a righteous person ? Now, Christ being exalted at God's right hand, 
was thereby owned to be a righteous person, that though he was hanged 
on the tree, yet he was justified and exalted at the right hand of God. 
The other controversy was concerning judgment, whether Christ were 
a base person, or one exalted to be a prince and a saviour, exalted 
above Satan, and all things that are called god in the world ? Now 



42 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVI. 

the Spirit shall convince the world ' that the prince of this world is 
condemned/ and that Christ is the prince and saviour, and he must be 
owned and exalted, and his kingdom set up everywhere. ^ Thus when 
poor men were to bait the devil, and hunt him out of his territories, 
and oppose themselves against the tradition of the nation, there is a 
mighty Spirit set up, and he shall convince the world ; those that are 
not really and heartily gained, he shall convince them of sin, and of 
righteousness, and of judgment. 

[1.] 'Of sin, because they believe not in me.' The Spirit shall 
convince them that Christ is the Son of God, the great prophet and 
true Messiah ; and so it is a sin to reject him and his doctrine ; that 
unbelief is a sin as well as the breach of the moral law ; and that the 
Lord Jesus Christ is to be owned as a mediator, as well as God as a 
lawgiver. All will grant that a breach of the law of God is a sin ; 
but the Spirit shall convince that a transgression against the gospel 
is a sin, as well as against the law. 

[2.] ' Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye shall see 
me no more.' That Christ did not remain in the state of the dead, 
but rose again, and ascended, and liveth with the Father in glory and 
majesty ; and therefore that he was not a seducer, but that righteous 
one ; and so, however he was rejected by men, yet he was owned and 
accepted by God, and all his pretensions justified, and so might suffi 
ciently convince the world that it is blasphemy to oppose him as a 
malefactor, and his kingdom and interest in the world : there needeth 
no more to persuade men that he was that holy and righteous one. 

[3.] ' Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.' 
The devil is the prince of this world : Eph. vi. 12, ' The ruler of the 
darkness of this world ;' and he was condemned by virtue of Christ's 
death, and judgment executed upon him by the Spirit : John xii. 31, 
* Now shall the prince of this world be cast out.' He was foiled and 
vanquished by Christ, and by the power of the gospel ; was to be 
vanquished more and more, by silencing his oracles, destroying his 
kingdom, recovering poor captive souls, translating them out of the 
kingdom of darkness into a state of holiness, liberty, light, and life ; 
the usurped power he had over the blind and guilty world is taken 
from him ; now his judgment shall be executed. 

4. The way and means whereby this should be brought about, 
by the coming of the Spirit, or the sending the comforter. When he 
came, the disciples and messengers of Christ had large endowments, 
whereby they were enabled to speak powerfully and boldly to every 
people in their own tongue, &nd to endure their sufferings and ill-usage 
with great courage and fortitude, and to work miracles, as to cure 
diseases, cast out devils, to confer extraordinary gifts, to silence Satan's 
oracles, and to destroy the kingdom and power of the devil, and to 
establish a sure way of the pardon of sins, and bring life and immor 
tality to light, preaching that truth which should establish sound 
holiness, and helping to restore human nature to its rectitude and 
integrity. And by this means he should convince the world of sin, 
of righteousness, and of judgment. 

5. Consider the effects, suitable both to his promise and prayer. 
The Acts of the Apostles are a comment on this. Many of the elect 






YER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 43 

were converted. At the first sermon after the pouring out of the 
Spirit, all that heard the apostles discoursing that Jesus was appointed 
to be Lord and Christ, were ' pricked in their hearts/ and convinced, 
Acts ii. 37, 38. This was not conversion, for they cried out, ' What 
shall we do ? And Peter said, ' Kepent, and be baptized every one 
of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye 
shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.' Three thousand were con 
verted by this sermon, and five thousand at another time, Acts iv. 4, 
when they preached boldly in the name of Jesus ; yet others were 
only convinced, pricked in heart, though they had not yet attained to 
evangelical repentance ; some that remained ' in the gall of bitterness 
and bond of iniquity ; ' yet they admired the things the apostles did, 
and desired to share with them in their great privileges : Acts viii. 
18, 19, 'When Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' 
hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, saying, 
Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may 
receive the Holy Ghost.' Yea, and some that were upon the benches 
and thrones, and sat as judges, were almost persuaded to be chris- 
tians by a prisoner in a chain ; as Felix : Acts xxiv. 25, ' As Paul 
reasoned of righteousness, and temperance, and judgment to come, 
Felix trembled.' And Agrippa : Acts xxvi. 28, ' Almost thou per- 
suadest me to be a Christian.' Some were forced to magnify them, 
who had not a heart to join with them : Acts v. 13, ' And of the rest 
durst no man join himself to them, but the people magnified them.' 
Some would have worshipped them, who were yet pagans : Acts xiv. 
11, ' And when the people saw what Paul had done, they said, The 
gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.' Some were 
astonished at what was done by the apostles : Acts viii. 13, ' Then 
Simon himself believed also ; and when he was baptized, he continued 
with Philip, and wondered, beholding the signs and miracles which 
were done.' Some marvelled at their boldness : Acts iv. 13, ' Now 
when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that 
they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled, and they took 
knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.' What ! is this 
cowardly Peter, that was foiled with the weak blast of a damsel ? 
Nay, their bitterest enemies were nonplussed in their resolutions, when 
they had to do with them, and were afraid to meddle with them : 
Acts iv. 16, 'What shall we do to these men? for that indeed a 
notable miracle hath been done by them is manifest to all them that 
dwell in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny it.' So far the bridle of 
conviction was upon the reprobate world. 



SERMON XXXVII. 

That they all may be one ; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, 
that they also may be one in us : that the world may believe that 
thou hast sent me. JOHN XVII. 21. 

HAVING proved the point, I shall examine why Christ should be so 



44 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXVII. 

earnest to have the world convinced, that he should put this into his 
prayer, ' That the world may believe that thou hast sent me.' The 
reasons are, partly in respect of himself, partly in respect of the elect, 
partly in respect of the world. 
First, In respect of himself. 

1. It is much for Christ's honour that even his enemies should have 
some esteem of him, and some conviction of his worth and excellency. 
Praise and esteem in the mouth of an enemy is a double honour, more 
than in the mouth of a friend. The commendations of a friend may 
seem the mistakes of love, and their value and esteem may proceed 
from affection rather than judgment. Now it is for the honour of 
God and Christ that his, enemies speak well of him, and that they give 
an approbation to the gospel. Many spake highly, of God that never 
received him for their God. Nebuchadnezzar was forced to confess, 
Dan. ii. 47, ' Of a truth it is that your God is a God of gods, and Lord 
of kings;' Deut. xxxii. 31, ' Their rock is not as our rock, even our 
enemies themselves being judges.' His enemies speak well of him. 
The church commendeth God, as they have cause, ' Who is like unto 
the Lord our God in all the world ?' But now they might seem par 
tial, and therefore God ! will extort praise from his enemies ; those, 
that are apt to think of Christ as an impostor and seducer shall see 
the reality of their religion. It was an honour to Christianity ' that 
the people magnified the apostles/ though they had not a heart to run 
all hazards with them, Acts v. 13. 

2. It is for the clearing of his process at the last day. The 
heathens, being convinced by God's works, are avairo\6^rirot, ' with 
out excuse,' Eom. i. 20 ; ' God hath not left himself without a witness,' 
Acts xiv. 17. So those that live within the sound of the gospel, though 
they do not come under the power and dominion of the Christian faith, 
yet they have such a conviction of it as shall tend to their condemna 
tion at the great day. All those whom the Lord arraigns at the last 
day, 'they will all be speechless,' and have nothing to say for them 
selves, Mat. xxii. 12. At the day of judgment our mouths will be 
stopped, as being condemned in our own conscience ; then the books 
shall be opened ; and one of the books opened is in the malefactor's 
keeping, the sinner's conscience; they are avTOfcaraKptroi. God's 
providence is justified by the conviction of their own hearts. It is a 
question which is the greatest torment, the terribleness of the sentence 
which shall be passed upon wicked men, or the righteousness of it. 
You know the apostle tells you, ' When the Lord Jesus shall come in 
flames of fire, to render vengeance to the world,' 2 Thes. i. 7, 8, 
there are two sorts of persons he shall meet with,' Them that know 
not God,'' that is, heathens, which did not take up what they might 
know of God from the course of nature, from the knowledge of their 
eye and ear ; and ' Them that obey not the gospel/ them that lived 
within the sound of the gospel, and heard much of it ; they were con 
vinced, they had some kind of knowledge and belief of it, yet they 
would not let their hearts be subject, and give up themselves to it. It 
clears the Lord's process ; if men continue ignorant and opposite to 
the grace of the gospel, by this means they are left without excuse ; 
therefore, that he might be clear when he judgeth, the world shall be 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 45 

convinced and brought to a temporal persuasion ' that thou hast sent 
nie ;' the old conviction that remaineth with them shall justify God. 

Secondly, With respect to the elect ; for all is for the elect's sake. 
The world would not stand if it were not for their sakes. Time would 
be at an end but that God hath somermore that are not called, and the 
number of the elect is not fully accomplished. When all the pas 
sengers are taken in, the ship launcheth forth into the main ; so we 
should all launch forth into the ocean of eternity if all the elect were 
taken in. He prays with respect to them, ' that the world may be 
lieve/ How doth this concern them ? 

1. Their conviction conduceth to others' conversion. Many of the 
Samaritans possibly would not believe if Simon Magus, their great 
leader, had not been convinced : Acts viii. 10, ' To him they all gave 
heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, This man is the great 
power of God/ If the word can gain such a one but to the conviction 
of the truth, though he be an enemy to it in his heart, yet it is a 
mighty means to further the conversion of the elect. The conviction 
of the world, it is a rational inducement, it is a door by which the 
gospel entereth. It is no small advantage that Christianity hath 
gotten such esteem as to be made the public profession of the nations ; 
that potentates have counted it the fairest flower in their crown to be 
styled the defender of the faith, the catholic king, the most Chris 
tian king. By all kind of means is this to be promoted, to bring men 
to a general confession. Though it be no great benefit to them as to 
the world to come, yet it is a help to the elect, that they are under 
such a conviction ; for if Christianity were still counted a novel doc 
trine, a hated doctrine, and were publicly hated, maligned, opposed, 
and persecuted, what would become of it ? 

2. For the safety of the church. Though God doth not change 
their natures, yet he breaketh their fierceness, that they may not be 
such bitter enemies ; and so persecution is restrained ; and when there 
is a restraint, and he ties their hands by conviction, we enjoy the more 
quiet. Alas ! what wolves and tigers would we be to one another if 
the awe of conviction and the restraints of conscience were taken off! 
We owe very much of our safety, not to visible force and power, but 
to the spiritual conviction that is on the hearts of men, by which God 
bridles in the corrupt and ill-principled world, that they cannot find in 
their hearts so much to molest it as otherwise their natures would 
carry them to, but that the gospel may have a free course, and the 
gathering of the elect may not be hindered ; for God's conviction is 
the bridle he hath upon them, to keep them from doing hurt ; though 
they be not converted, yet they shall be convinced. Acts v., Gamaliel 
being convinced, the apostles obtained liberty of preaching ; Pliny, 
moved by the piety of Christians, obtained a mitigation of the perse 
cution from Trajan; and such halcyon days might we expect if 
Christians would walk more suitable to the privileges of the mystical 
union ; they would dart a great deal of reverence in the minds of men, 
and would be more safe than they are ; for when the wall of visible 
protection is broken down, a Christian merely subsists by the awe that 
is upon the consciences of men. Wicked carnal men, as they have a 
slavish fear of God, which is accompanied with hatred of God, so they 



46 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVII. 

have a slavish fear of the saints, only their hatred is greater than their 
fear. When you abate of the majesty of your conversation, and be 
have not yourselves as those that are taken into the mystical body of 
Christ, and have the communion of the Spirit, when you do not walk up 
suitably to your spiritual life and privileges, then the hatred of your 
enemies is increased, and their fear lessened ; whereas otherwise their 
fear which ariseth from thence is a mighty restraint. How often are 
we disappointed when we expect to beat down opposite factions by 
strife and power ! More good is done by conviction, and the church 
hath greater security and peace, when they subsist by their own virtue, 
rather than by force of arms. I remember, in ecclesiastical history, 
when Valens the Emperor railed against all the defenders of the god 
head of Christ, he did not meddle with Paulinus, out of reverence to 
him, for he was a very holy strict man ; none durst lay hands upon him. 

3. Many times they profess and join to the church, and so we have 
benefit by their gifts and abilities, authority and power ; for God doth 
his church a great deal of good by carnal men. Conviction may 
bring them as far as profession ; and the temporary faith of a magis 
trate, though carnal, may be a protection to Christianity ; as a hedge 
of thorns may be a good fence about a garden of roses. If they are 
men of parts, they may help to defend the Christian doctrine, as a 
living tree may be supported by a dead post ; and the gifts of carnal 
men are for the use of the body, as the Gibeonites joined to Israel, 
and were made hewers of wood and drawers of water ; or as the car 
penters who helped to build Noah's ark perished in the flood ; or as 
negroes that dig in the mines of knowledge. God may employ them 
to bring up that which may be of great use and profit to the world ; 
they may help to build an ark, for others, though they themselves 
perish in the water. We would not refuse gold from a dirty hand, 
neither are we to slight the benefit of carnal men's parts ; for the com 
mon profession of Christianity that they are under, though they are 
slaves to their lusts, yet it is a real benefit and help to the saints. 

4. They serve for a warning to the saints. When this conviction is 
strong upon them, and grows to a height, by the stings of conscience 
and horrors of them that die in despair, God warneth his people. 
Though we would bear off the stroke, yet God knows how soon this 
fire may be kindled in our own breasts ; when men see what convic 
tions will do, being stifled and not complied with, and men live not 
according to their light, it is a warning to others. As a slave is many 
times beaten to warn a son of his father's displeasure, and naturalists 
tell us a lion will tremble to see a dog beaten before him ; so do the 
children of God tremble at the convictions of wicked men. Oh ! the 
horrors of their conscience declare what God hath wrought upon them, 
though few take little 1 notice of it. 

Thirdly, In respect to the world itself, this conviction serveth both 
to lessen and increase their judgment. The terms seem to be opposite. 

1. Sometimes to lessen their judgment. Certainly the degrees of eter 
nal punishment are not equal ; there is irepiaaorepov Kpipa, Mat. xxiii. 
14, 'a greater judgment;' there is a hotter and a cooler hell; there 
are few stripes, and many stripes. In the world to come, ' it is more 

1 Qu. 'much'? ED. 



VEK. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 47 

tolerable for some than for others,' Mat. xii. 41. The condition of the 
Ninevites was made more tolerable by the conviction wrought by 
Jonah's preaching, because there was a temporal repentance; they 
humbled themselves for a while, though they were frighted to this re 
ligiousness. Aristides, Cato, and other moral heathens, their condition 
will be more tolerable than those men that live in a way of brutish 
and filthy excess. So there are many convinced that have helped the 
church, and been friendly to religion; when others have oppressed 
and opposed the ways of God, they have been a hiding-place, a shelter, 
a countenance, a protection to the people of God ; these shall not 
lose their reward : they have many blessings in this world, though 
they continue carnal, and live and die in their sins. I suppose the 
more they comply with these convictions, their condemnation shall be 
lessened, though not taken away. This advantage they have, ut mitius 
ardeant, they shall have a cooler hell. 

2. Sometimes to increase their judgment. Those that maliciously 
oppose this conviction, they hasten their own condemnation, and 
heighten it. Then it will be a sin to them with a witness, when they 
knew their master's will and did it not : James iv. 17, ' Therefore to 
him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.' 
They carry this conviction to hell with them, and it is a part of their 
torment ; this is the worm that never dies. Oh ! what a terror will 
it be for them to think, I had a better estate discovered to me ; I knew 
somewhat of the ways of God ; and now I am shut out for ever and 
ever ! There is ' a worm that never dies,' as well as ' a fire that shall 
never be quenched,' Mark ix. 44, There may be a conviction, so 
much as to enable a man to speak to others, yet he may be a worker of 
iniquity, and cast out of Christ's presence. How will this increase 
their torment ! Their knowledge serveth but to damn them the more. 
The characters are indelible, and are not extinguished by death. To 
all other torments there is added the gnawing of conscience. Look, 
as in the elect there is such a spark kindled as shall never be extin 
guished ; their knowledge they get here is not abolished, but perfected, 
and the joys of the Spirit begin their heaven ; a witnessing excusing 
conscience to the elect is the beginning of heaven ; so in hell, con 
science will be always raging and expostulating with you fool that 
I was, to neglect so great salvation which others enjoy ! If I had 
lived civilly at least, it had been better with me than now it is. As 
they know more of God than others do, so their judgment will accor 
dingly be greater. And you know not how soon God may kindle this 
fire in your bosoms, who for the present sleep on carelessly in your sins. 

Use 1. This may serve to persuade us that the conviction of the 
world is a great blessing, and conduceth much to the advancement 
of Christ's kingdom, without any visible force, with mere spiritual 
weapons, in despite of all opposition which can be made thereunto. 
The corrupt and ill-principled world cannot stand out against the evi 
dence of the truth, when it is soundly preached, and in the demonstra 
tion of the Spirit. We have too slight an opinion of the weapons of 
our spiritual warfare : 2 Cor. x. 4, ' The weapons of our warfare are 
not carnal, but mighty through God for the pulling down of strong 
holds.' Surely they are more mighty to pull down strongholds thaa 



48 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVII. 

we are aware of. The Spirit of the Lord, though he will not convert, 
yet can so put to silence, and bridle the opposition that carnal men 
make, that it shall be ineffectual. It concerneth God in honour to go 
thus far on with the world for the promoting of his kingdom, and that 
they may not go on with a high hand to oppose and crush it. And 
this doth also evince the truth of the Christian religion, such convic 
tions accompanying the preaching of it. And God doth not wholly 
discontinue this dispensation now. There are ordinary operations of 
the Spirit, where the gospel is preached, which do convince the world. 
The careless professor owns the same creed, the same Bible, and the 
same baptism, and that is a mighty help and advantage. 

Use 2. It informeth us of the love and care of Christ ; he would 
omit no blessing that conduceth to the church's good. He would have 
those convinced whom he doth not convert, that we may have no 
stumbling-block in our way to heaven. It was a question, ' Have any 
of the rulers believed in him ? ' John vii. 48. Alas ! when the powers 
of the world are against the people of God, the world is apt to think 
hard of Christ, and many stumble at this rock of offence. Now, that 
we may have the help of their power, and authority, and counte 
nance, and the gifts of carnal men, the Lord will put them under some 
conviction of the truth of Christianity. Christ would not only give 
us the benefit of our fellow-saints, but of carnal hypocrites, as the 
moon hath no light in itself, yet it giveth light to others ; though they 
have no grace in their hearts, yet they have notable parts, and they do 
a great deal of good, and that our pilgrimage might not be wholly 
uncomfortable. If all the world were divided into two ranks, as Jere 
miah's basket of figs, Jer. xxiv., were either very good or very naught, 
there were no living in the world, if all were pagans or Christians. 
No ; some must come under a temporary faith, that the people of God 
may live more commodiously. It is the wisdom of providence that 
there is a middle party, that are as a screen between the extremely 
wicked and the saints ; they are not so bad as the worst, because they 
are convinced more, though not converted. Christians ! in Christ 
all things are ours, not only the elect, who are our companions and 
fellows in the same grace, but also the reprobates are ours. The more 
civil and convinced sort of the world are for our good, and do much 
serve the uses of the church ; and the worst sort of reprobates serve for 
our exercise and trial, for the awakening more serious grace in us by 
their oppositions, and for the heightening our privileges; the more 
evil they are, the more cause have we to bless a good God that hath 
made us better. 

Use 3. It presseth us not to slight, nor yet to rest in these convic 
tions, and in this temporary faith. 

1. Do not slight your convictions and remorses of conscience. 
Though all convinced men are not converted, yet there are none con 
verted but they are first convinced. A temporary faith, taken up 
upon common inducements, makes way for a saving faith ; as the 
priming of a post makes it receptive of better colours. Whereas, on 
the other side, slighted convictions, though you smother them now, 
will be felt another day ; it is but a wound skinned over, and slightly 
healed, that festers into a dangerous sore. Twenty years were past, 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 49 

and there was no remembrance of Joseph ; but when his brethren 
were in distress, conscience wrought: Gen. xlii. 21, 'And they said 
one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that 
we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would 
not hear him ; therefore is this distress come upon us ; ' they were 
convinced of some wrong done to him. Convictions are forgotten, 
smothered, neglected ; conscience speaketh no more, but it writeth 
when it doth not speak ; and when the mists of the soul are a little 
cleared and scattered, all is legible ; that which they thought was for 
gotten cometh to light, and those old convictions break out with 
violence, to our horror and trouble ; therefore slight them not. 

2. Do not rest in these convictions. Thus it may be with repro 
bates ; they may be convinced of the best way, almost persuaded, but 
not altogether. The young man was not far from the kingdom of 
heaven ; he was near, but never entered. Some civil men are upon the 
borders of grace. Do not rest in this estate. 

How shall I know I am only convinced, and not converted to God ? 
Ans. Thus: 

1. If sin be discovered, but not mortified ; if there be no endeavour 
to get it removed. As a March sun raiseth aguish vapours, but 
cannot scatter them, as when the sun gets up into its height, so con 
viction discovers sin, but doth not help us to mortify it : Kom. vii. 9, 
' For I was alive without the law once, but when the commandment 
came, sin revived, and I died.' 

2. When we have wishes, but no practice, slight and cold desires. 
Oh ! when shall this sensual heart be made heavenly ! this worldly 
heart put into a better frame ! But no serious looking after it, nor 
waiting upon God, that we may obtain those things we desire. 
Balaam had his wishes and good moods : Num. xxiii. 10, ' Oh, that 
I might die the death of the righteous ! and that my latter end may 
be like his ! ' Vellent sed nolunt ; they would and they would not 
empty velleities. They would fain have grace, but they will not be at 
the cost of continual attending upon God till he work it in their hearts. 
And they are ineffectual glances ; wishing without working obtains 
nothing. These are like early blossoms in the spring, that put forth 
lustily, but are soon nipped, and never come to fruit. 

3. Negatives without positives. Men do not hate Christ, nor the 
people of God ; but do they love them ? 1 Cor. xvi. 22, ' If any man 
love not the Lord Jesus Christ/ &c. It is not enough not to hate 
Christ, but are your hearts carried towards him ? So many do not 
oppose the ministry of the gospel. Ay ! but they neglect the message 
of the gospel, they content themselves with a few flying thoughts 
about Christ, heaven, and the blessed things that are to come, like the 
glance of the sunbeam upon a wave : Heb. ii. 3, ' How shall we escape 
if we neglect so great salvation ?' It is not said, If we contemn, resist, 
undermine it. No ; they are not of that rank, but they are of a more 
plausible rank and sort of people ; they would countenance the pro 
fession of godliness, but neglect the duties of it. There are two sorts 
of men some are well-willers to good things, some open malicious 
persecutors. In some, natural hatred is more allayed, though all hate 
it, but there is a despite in neglect ; as the neglect of things worthy 

VOL. XL D 



50 SEKMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVII. 

and great argue a scorn and contempt, as well as the malicious 
refusal. To be neutral and cold, indifferent to God and sin, is to be 
an enemy. 

4. There is an inward approbation many times, without an outward 
profession, or without such a constitution of soul as to choose these 
things for our portion. Alas ! many that are convinced approve 
things that are excellent : Rom. ii. 18, ' Thou knowest his will, and 
approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of 
the law ; ' Acts v. 13, ' And of the rest durst no man join himself 
to them ; but the people magnified them/ An honourable esteem 
they had, but they could not endure the severity of discipline, as being 
afraid because of the case of Ananias, who paid so dearly for a little 
dissembling. So many are not far from the kingdom of God ; they 
approve things that are good, but they have no mind to take hazard 
and lot with Christ. 

5. If there should be a profession, there is no power. The net draws 
bad fish as well as good. There are mixtures in the church. Many 
revere godliness, but were never acquainted with the virtue and power 
of it. Many have an excellent model of truth, and make a profession 
as plausible and glorious in the world as possibly you can desire ; yet 
they never knew the virtue of this religion, it never entered into their 
heart : 1 Cor. iv. 20, ' For the kingdom of God is not in word,' stands 
not in plausible pretences, ' but in power ; ' 1 Thes. i. 5, ' For our 
gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power.' You know 
the state of men were represented by Christ in the parable of the two 
sons : Mat. xxi. 28-30, 'A certain man had two sons, and he came to 
the first, and said, Son, go to work to-day in my vineyard. He 
answered and said, I will not : but afterwards he repented and went. 
And he went to the second, and said likewise : and he answered and 
said, I go sir, and went not.' Oh ! there be many that say, ' I will go/ 
that pretend fair, that are convinced so far as to make a profession, 
yet never bring their hearts seriously to addict themselves to God, to 
walk in his ways and keep his charge ; there is no real change of 
heart, no serious bent of soul towards God. 

6. If there be some real motions, as there may be in temporary 
believers, for we must not think all is hypocritical, yet it is not entire: 
Mark vi. 20, 'Herod did many things, and heard John Baptist gladly/ 
His heart and his profession went a great way together, till he was to 
part with his bosom lust. John was safe till he touched upon his 
Herodias ; then conviction grows furious, and he turneth into a devil. 
Therefore take heed of mere conviction. 

Use 4. To press the children of God to express such fruits of their 
union with Christ that they may convince the world. Christ prays 
not only that the world may be convinced, but that it might be by 
those that are real members of his mystical body, that they may have 
a hand to further it. What are the fruits of the mystical union, that 
you may convince the world ? 

1. Love and mutual serviceableness to one another's good. When 
we live as members of the same body, that have a mutual care for one 
another, then we shall bring a mighty honour and credit to religion, 
and can with power give testimony to the truths of Cnnst : Acts ii. 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN XVIL 51 

44, ' And all that believed were together, and had all things common.' 
When Christians were of one mind and heart, they had all things 
common. Oh ! it is a mighty convincing thing when all those that 
profess godliness labour to carry on the same truths and practices. 
Divisions breed atheism in the world. The Lord Jesus knew it, and 
therefore he prays, ' Let them be all one, &c., that the world may 
believe that thou hast sent me.' We never propagate the faith so 
much as by this union. Divisions put a great stop to the progress of 
truth. When contrary factions mutually condemn one another, it is 
a wonder any are brought off from their vain conversations. The 
world is apt to think there is no such thing as religion*, and one sort 
is no better than another ; they see the world cannot agree about it, 
therefore they stay where they are. 

2. Holiness and strictness of life and conversation ; there is a con 
vincing majesty in it ; natural conscience doth homage to it wherever 
it findeth it ; therefore live as those who are taken up into fellowship 
with God through Christ. Herod feared John Baptist. Why? 
Because he was a strict preacher? No ; but because he was a just 
man, Mark vi. 20. When you live thus holily, and ' accomplish the 
work of faith with power/ then the Lord Jesus is ' glorified in you/ 
2 Thes. i. 11, 12. 

3. When you can contemn the baits of the world, and allurements 
of sense, this is a mighty argument to convince the world that you 
have higher and nobler principles you are acted by, and better hopes 
you are called to. Though you have not divested and put off the 
interests of flesh and blood, for you are not angels, yet you can be 
faithful to God and Christ. The world admireth what kind of temper 
men are made of : 1 Peter iv. 4, ' They think it strange that you run 
not with them into all excess of riot.' They have the same interests 
and concernments, and yet how mortified ! how weaned are they from 
those things which others go a- whoring after ! Sure they have a 
felicity which the world knoweth not of ; they dread and admire this, 
though they hate you. 

4. A cheerfulness and comfortableness in the midst of troubles and 
deep wants, when you can live above your condition, ' take joyfully 
the spoiling of our goods/ Heb. x. 34, and bear losses with an equal 
mind ; for you are not much troubled with these things ; then you 
live as those that are called to a higher happiness. 

5. To be more faithful in the duties of your relations. The fruits 
of the mystical union run to every part of the spiritual life. None 
commend their religion so much as those that make conscience of the 
duties of their relations, that they may carry themselves as becomes 
Christians, husbands and wives, parents and children, masters and 
servants. So poor servants make the doctrine of the Lord Jesus 
Christ comely : Titus ii. 10, ' That ye may adorn the doctrine of God 
our Saviour in all things/ And the apostle saith, men that do not obey 
the word, may without the word be won by the conversation of their 
wives, 1 Peter iii. 1. Worldly men have been much gained by the 
lives of religious persons. Thus you propagate the truth by carrying 
yourselves usefully in your relations. This hath been ever the glory 
of religion, as it was in the primitive times. Austin makes this 



52 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXVII. 

challenge, UH tales imperatores ? &c. Let all the religions in the 
world show such emperors, such captains, such armies, such managers 
of public treasury, as the Christian religion. The world was convinced 
there was something divine in them. Oh ! it is pity the glory of 
religion should fall to the ground in our days, and that the quite con 
trary should be said: None such careless parents as those that seem 
to be touched with a sense of religion ! None so disobedient to 
magistrates, none such disobedient children to parents, as those that 
seem to be called to liberty with Christ ! Therefore, if you would 
honour Christ, and propagate the truth, keep up this testimony and 
convince the world. 

6. A constancy in the profession of faith. You should live as if 
Christ and you had one common interest. Sure they believe Christ 
was sent from God, and able to reward them, else why should they 
sacrifice all their interests for his sake ? It is said, Rev. xii. 11, ' The 
saints overcome by the blood of the Lamb, and the word of their testi 
mony, and they loved not their lives unto the death.' Eeligion had 
never thrived, and spread its branches far and near, had it not been 
watered by the blood of the martyrs. Christ began and watered the 
plant by his own blood ; and then the martyrs kept watering it till it 
began to be rooted and had got some esteem in the world ; and now it 
spreads its boughs, and yields a shadow and refreshing to the far 
greatest part of the world. When men take up principles that will 
not warrant suffering, or are changeable and pliable to all interests, 
and wriggle and distinguish themselves out of their duty upon all 
occasions, it doth mightily dishonour Christ, and make religion vile, 
and harden the world, and feed their prejudices against the truth. 
What is the reason the ways of God have so little honour in the eyes 
of the world, so little power upon the hearts of men ? Professors are 
so fickle and changeable, this maketh them suspect all, and so return 
to their old superstitions and vanities. 

Now, that you may do so, I shall bind it upon you by some further 
considerations. 

1. Consider you are God's witnesses to keep up truth in the world, 
to bring them on to conversion, or at least to some temporary faith : 
Isa. xliii. 10, ' Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am he.' 
God appealeth to those that have most communion with him, for the 
truth and reality of his grace. If a man would be satisfied in a thing 
that he knoweth not, to whom should he go for satisfaction but to 
those that have most experience ? Well, if the world would be satis 
fied is union with Christ a notion or a real thing, ye are my witnesses : 
2 Cor. iii. 3, ' Ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ.' 
In an epistle a man writes his mind. The scriptures they are Christ's 
epistle, and so are Christians. The world, that will not study the 
scriptures, are to be convinced and preparatively induced by your lives. 
Every Christian is to be a walking Bible. It is a dangerous tempta 
tion to atheism when Christians, that pretend themselves near and dear 
to God, are scandalous, and let loose the reins to every corrupt affec 
tion. He that took a Christian in an act of filthiness cried out, 
Christiane ! ubi Deus tuus ? In the scripture there is Christ's mind 
in words ; in a Christian there is Christ's mind written in deeds in his 



VER. 21.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 53 

conversation. You are to be a living reproof ; as ' Noah condemned 
the world by preparing an ark,' Heb. xi. 7. There was something in 
it, when he was so busy in preparing an ark, with so great cost and 
charge ; it was a real upbraiding of their security and carelessness ; so 
when men are so diligent and busy in working out their salvation with 
fear and trembling, it is a real reproof to the carnal and lazy world. 

2. Consider, if you do not convince the world, you justify the world ; 
as Israel justified Sodom, Ezek. xvi. 52. The wicked hold up their 
ways with greater pretence, and are hardened in their prejudices. You 
put an excuse into wicked men's mouths. What a sad thing will it be 
when they shall say, Lord, we never thought they had been thy servants, 
they were so wrathful, proud, sensual, self-seeking, factious, turbulent, 
hunting after honours, and great places in the world : Rom. ii. 23, 24, 
' Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking of the law 
dishonourest thou God ? for the name of God is blasphemed among 
the Gentiles through you/' Carnal professors will blush at the last 
day, when they shall consider how many they have hardened by their 
examples, unsettled by their loose walking ; how you have disgraced 
Christ, and taken up his name for a dishonour to him. It is this 
that makes the Hams of the world to laugh ; you cannot gratify them 
more. 

3. Consider the great good that cometh by it. For the present, you 
stop the mouth of iniquity : Titus ii. 8, ' That he that is of the con 
trary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you/ It is 
the duty of Christians not only to approve themselves to God, but, as 
far as they can, to wicked men, to take off all advantage from the 
world, to confute their slanders, to muzzle the mouths of carnal men, 
that they may have no occasion to speak against the ways of God and 
the professors of Christianity. Carnal Christians open profane mouths ; 
their slanders shall be put upon your score, who give them too much 
matter and occasion to speak. Do not say, They are dogs ; what care 
I if they bark ? The awe that is upon wicked men is one means of 
the church's preservation ; therefore you must justify wisdom : Mat. 
xi. 19, 'But wisdom is justified of her children/ Justification is a 
relative word, it implieth condemnation ; the world condemns the 
ways of God, and people of God, of fancy, fury, faction. Now you 
must justify them ; at least, you will leave them without excuse, and 
furnish matter for the triumphs of God's justice at the last day, 
and so will have further cause to applaud the counsels of God, when 
you sit on the bench at the last day. For as in the last day you shall, 
together with Christ, judge the world by your vote and suffrage 1 
Cor. vi. 2, ' Know ye not that the saints shall judge the world ? ' so 
now you must convince them by your conversations. It is a sad thing 
men walk so as it cannot be said, Where is the malefactor, and where 
is the judge? You should condemn them, as by the difference of 
your lives, so by the heavenliness pf your hearts. 



54 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXVIII. 

SERMON XXXVIII. 

And the glory luliich iJiou gavest me I have given them ; that they may 
be one, even as we are one. JOHN XVII. 22. 

CHRIST had prayed for the union of believers in one mystical body : 
here is an argument to enforce that request, ' The glory which thou 
hast given me, I have given them,' &c. His act is urged as a reason, 
because of that consent of will that is between him and the Father ; 
Christ would have his gift ratified by the Father's consent, as if he had 
said, Deny not what I have granted them. 

For the meaning of the words, all the difficulty is, what is meant 
by the glory here spoken of ? Some say by glory is meant the power 
of working miracles, that is called the glory of God: John xi. 40, 
' Said I not, If thou wouldst believe, thou shalt see the glory of God ? ' 
that is, a glorious miracle wrought by him. When Christ wrought a 
miracle, John ii. 11, ' He manifested forth his glory.' And so they 
limit it to the apostles, who had gifts of miracles, and were fitted to 
succeed Christ upon earth : thus many of the ancients. By the glory 
of God is sometimes meant the image of God : Rom. iii. 23, ' All have 
sinned, and fallen short of the glory of God ;' so 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We 
all with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are 
changed into the same image, from glory to glory.' That glory which 
we lost in Adam and want by nature is restored to us in Christ. Some 
by glory understand the Spirit, who is called ' a Spirit of glory,' and 
was given to Christ without measure, and from him to us, as a means 
of union between us and Christ, and between us and believers. Others 
understand it of the honour of filiation ; as Christ was a son by nature, 
so are we by grace : John i. 14, ' We beheld his glory, the glory as of 
the only-begotten of the Father ; ' and ver. 12, ' As many as received 
him, to them gave he, egovalav, power to become the sons of God/ It 
is an honour : it is a means of union. Adoption maketh way for 
union with Christ, and Christ left us the relation of brethren, that we 
might love one another, for we are brethren. But by glory I suppose 
is meant rather the happiness of the everlasting state, which is usually 
called glory in scripture ; and so it is taken, ver. 24, ' Father, I will 
that they also whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am, 
that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me.' And there 
is the most perfect union with Christ ; and we that expect one heaven, 
should not fall out by the way. Eph. iv. 4, one of the bonds is ' one 
hope.' All the difficulty is, how was this given them ? The disciples 
were upon the earth, and the greatest part of believers were not then 
in being. Ans. Christ acquired a right, and left us a promise; he 
would not go to heaven till he had made it sure to us by deed of gift ; 
this then I conceive to be the meaning. It is not good to straiten the 
sense of scripture ; yet some one is more proper : adoption, gift of the 
spirit, new nature, eternal life, you may comprise all. 

1. Observe, Christ's care to make us every way like himself, as 
far as our capacity will bear ; like, but not equal. The reiteration 
showeth his care, ' Let them be as we are ;' and ' The glory which thou 
hast given me, I have given them.' 



VER. 22.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 55 

What resemblance is there between us and Christ ? 

1. Between us and Christ as the eternal Son of God. 

2. Between us and Christ as mediator. 

First, Between us and Christ as the eternal Son of God. Christ is 
the essential image of the Father, therefore called ' the image of the 
invisible God/ Col. i. 15, and the character or ' express image of his 
person,' Heb. i. 3 ; and we are God's image by reflection. If there 
be two or three suns appear, one or two are but a reflection. There 
are some strictures in us. Christ is one with the Father, and we 
with him ; a poor Christian, though never so mean, is one with Christ. 
Christ is called ' God's fellow/ Zech. xiii. 7, and every saint is Christ's 
fellow : Ps. xlv. 7, ' God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the 
oil of gladness above thy fellows.' The Father loveth him because 
he is the express image of his person, and the Father delights in the 
saints because they are the image of Christ : ' The Father himself 
loveth you/ John xvi. 28. A man that loveth another, he loveth 
head and members with the same love. Christ is the Son of God, 
so are we ; it was his eternal right and privilege ; our title cometh by 
him : John xx. 17, ' I ascend unto my Father, and your Father/ 
First, he is Christ's father, and then ours; his by nature, ours by 
adoption, otherwise we could not have it. 

2. But this likewise chiefly respects the glory that was given to 
Christ as mediator. As God communicateth himself to Christ as 
mediator, so doth Christ communicate himself to his members. 
Christ, as man, was begotten by the Holy Ghost ; and the same 
Spirit begetteth us to the life of faith. The new nature is formed in 
us by the Spirit, as Christ was formed in the virgin's womb : Gal. iv. 
19, ' My little children, of whom I travail in birth again, until Christ 
be formed in you.' All his moral excellences are bestowed on the 
saints : 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We all beholding as in a glass the glory of the 
Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as 
by the Spirit of the Lord.' If a picture be well taken, it makes us 
know him whom it represents ; we see the lineaments of his face as 
if he were present ; so doth a Christian express and show forth the 
virtues of Christ : 1 Peter ii. 9, ' Ye are a chosen generation, a royal 
priesthood, a holy nation, that ye should show forth the praises of 
him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light/ 
There is an answerable impression to his mediatory actions, and a 
spiritual conformity to them : Horn. vi. 4, ' Therefore we are buried 
with him by baptism into death, that like as Christ was raised up 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk 
in newness of life;' Phil. iii. 10, ' That I may know him, and the 
power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being 
made conformable unto his death ; ' Eph. ii. 6, ' And hath raised us 
up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ 
Jesus ;' a dying in his death, a living in his life, an ascending in his 
ascension ; dying to sin, rising to newness of life ; our ascension is by 
thoughts, hopes, and resolutions. We resemble him in his afflictions, 
it is a part of our conformity : 2 Cor. iv. 10, ' Always bearing about 
in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Christ 
might be made manifest in our mortal flesh/ An afflicted innocence 



56 SEKMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXVIII. 

and meek patience is a resemblance of Christ. And as in this life we 
resemble Christ in his actions and passions, so that a Christian is as 
it were a spiritual Christ, so in the life to come we resemble him in 
glory. Christ, after he died, rose again, and so do we ; the same 
Spirit raiseth us that raised Christ. He ascended into heaven accom 
panied with angels ; so are we carried by the angels into Abraham's 
bosom. In heaven he liveth blessedly and gloriously, so do we ; Christ 
hath a kingdom, so have we : Luke xii. 32, ' Fear not, little flock ; 
it is your Father's pleasure to give you the kingdom.' At the last day 
his human nature will be brought forth with a majesty and glory suit 
able to the dignity of his person : ' So shall he be admired in his saints,' 
2 Thes. i. 10. Then the mystery of his person shall be disclosed ; so 
shall the mystery of our life : Col. iii. 3, 4, ' For ye are dead, and your 
life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ who is our life shall 
appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory.' Christ judgeth 
the world ; so do the saints : 1 Cor. vi. 2, ' Know ye not that the saints 
shall judge the world ? ' Mat. xix. 28, ' Ye which have followed me, 
in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his 
glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes 
of Israel.' ' The second time Christ shall appear without sin unto 
salvation,' Heb. ix. 28. So we shall be then disburdened of all the fruits 
and effects of sin, ' which shall be blotted out when the times of 
refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord,' Acts iii. 19. We 
are like him in his offices, kings, priests, and prophets, but in a spiritual 
manner, to rule our lusts, to minister in holy things, and to instruct 
our hearts. Thus you see there is a conformity in grace and glory. 

Now Christ is thus earnest to make us like himself, partly out of 
his own love ; he cannot satisfy his heart with giving us any inferior 
privilege. Whatever he had and was, it was for our sakes ; as man, 
he received it for us : Ps. Ixviii. 18, ' Thou hast received gifts for 
men ;' compared with Eph. iv. 8, ' He gave gifts unto men/ His 
life, righteousness, and glory is for our sakes. Wherefore doth Christ 
make himself like unto us, but that we might be like unto him ? 
Partly in obedience to God's counsels and decrees : Korn. viii. 29, 
' For whom he did foreknow he also did predestinate, to be conformed 
to the image of his Son, that he might be the first-born among many 
brethren.' There is wisdom in it, primum in unoquoque genere est 
prcestantissimum. Christ is the example and pattern set forth by God, 
and that in our nature ; he is the second Adam, a new root, and it is 
meet that head and members should suit, otherwise it is monstrous. 

Use 1. It showeth who are Christ's, they that are like him ; there 
is a conformity between them and Christ, first in grace, and then in 
glory. Here we are like him in soul, in regard of disposition and 
moral excellences, and in body, in regard of afflictions and weaknesses. 
Hereafter we shall be like him in soul and body in a glorious manner ; 
here in holiness, hereafter in happiness. He beginneth with the change 
of the soul ; the resurrection is Trdhiyyeveala, a regeneration, Mat. 
xix. 28. Then we shall be perfectly renewed ; our carnality is done 
away by grace, our corruption and mortality by glory. All things are 
there made new, new bodies, new souls. Glory, it is but the full 
period of the present change and transformation into Christ's image : 



VER. 22.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 57 

2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We are changed into the same image, from glory to 
glory.' Glory is but the consummation of grace, or our full conformity 
to Christ, or that final estate which is suitable to the dignity of the 
children of God. Therefore every one that looketh for eternal life in 
Christ, must be like him in this life ; they are partakers with him of 
glory hereafter, because followers of him here. Therefore see, art 
thou like Christ ? hast thou the image of Christ ? that is our title. 
Alas ! many are not conformable, but contrary to Christ. Christ spent 
whole nights in prayer, they in gaming and filthy excess ; it was meat 
and drink to him to do his Father's will, but it is your burden. 
Christ was humble and meek, you are proud and disdainful, vain in 
apparel and behaviour. Were you ever changed ? Till you resemble 
Christ here, you shall never be like him hereafter. 

Use 2. It presseth us to look after this conformity and likeness unto 
Christ. It is the ground of hope ; you cannot otherwise think of death 
and judgment to come without horror: 1 John iv. 17, 'Herein is 
love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment ; 
because as he is, so are we in the world.' David was not ashamed to 
own his followers when he was crowned at Hebron, so neither will 
Christ be ashamed of us if we have followed him. If you profess 
Christ, and be not like him, Christ will be ashamed of you : Heb. ii. 

11, ' For both he that sanctifieth, and they that are sanctified, are all 
of one ; for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren.' 
He is not ashamed to own the saints : if one of your name were 
stigmatised, and branded with a mark of infamy, you would be 
ashamed to own him. To this end : 

[1.] Eye your pattern. Christ's life should be ever before your eyes, 
as the copy is before the scholars : Heb. xii. 2, ' Looking unto Jesus," 
&c. He hath set forth himself in the word to this end and purpose. 

[2.] Often shame thyself that thou comest so much short : Phil. iii. 

12, ' I follow after, if I may apprehend that for which also I am appre 
hended of Jesus Christ.' Alas ! we do but lag behind ; Christ is a great 
way before. We have so excellent a pattern, that we may never want 
matter for humiliation and imitation. It is a good sign to desire to 
come nearer the copy every day. 

2. Observe our glory for substance is the same that Christ's is. In 
the degree there is a difference, according to the difference that is 
between head and members. The head weareth the crown and badge 
of honour, and the eldest son had a double portion. So doth Christ 
TTpwreveiv, excel in degrees of everlasting glory, but the substance is 
the same ; therefore we are said to be ' co-heirs with Christ,' and ' to 
be glorified with Christ,' Eom. viii. 17. Christ and we hold the same 
heaven : 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12, ' If we be dead with him, we shall also live 
with him. If we suffer, we shall also reign with him.' More particu 
larly, our bodies are like his glorious body: Phil. iii. 21, ' Who shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious 
body, according to the working whereby he is able to subdue all things 
to himself.' When the sun ariseth, the stars vanish, their glory is 
obscured ; but it is not so here. Christ's coming doth not eclipse, but 
perfect our glory ; the more near Christ is, the more we shine. And 
so for our souls, they see God and enjoy him ; though not in that same 






58 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXVIII. 

latitude and degree which Christ doth, yet in the same manner they 
solace themselves in God : ' We shall be like him, for we shall see him 
as he is,' 1 John iii. 2. When we behold him in the glass of the 
gospel we are transformed, much more when we see him as he is. As 
the iron held in the fire is all fire, so we, being in God and with God, 
are more like him, have higher measures of the divine nature. So our 
privileges are the same with Christ's : Eev. iii. 21, ' To him that over- 
cometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also over 
came, and am set down with my Father in his throne.' We sit upon 
his throne as he doth upon his Father's ; there are two thrones men 
tioned for our distinct conceiving of the matter ; as God is over all, so 
is Christ, and then we next. 

Use 1. It is a great comfort : 

1. Against abasement. Will any one believe that these poor crea 
tures, that are so slighted, and so little esteemed in the world, shall 
have the same glory that Christ hath ? 1 John iii. 2, ' Beloved, now 
are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall 
be.' The world thinketh meanly and contemptibly of the condition of 
Christians ; in the world we are like him in afflictions, by that means 
we hold forth the life of Christ : 2 Cor. iv. 10, ' Always bearing about 
in the 1 body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus 
might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.' 

2. Against weaknesses and infirmities of the flesh ; those saints that 
have now so many infirmities shall be made like Christ, and crowned 
with perfection. There is nothing less than grace at the beginning, it 
is as a grain of mustard-seed, a little leaven ; but it groweth still, as a 
child groweth in favour more and more, and as the light increaseth to 
the perfect day. This should comfort us against all our weaknesses 
and infirmities : Ps. xvii. 15, ' As for me, I will behold thy face in 
righteousness ; I shall be satisfied when I awake with thy likeness.' 

Use 2. It informeth us : 

1. That our condition in Christ is in this regard better than our 
condition would have been if Adam had stood in innocency. Adam 
could only convey to us what he ha(J received ; but Christ is a better 
root ; we have in Christ whatever we lost in Adam, the first root, and 
more, more than we lost. Christ, being God-man, must needs have 
the image of God in greater perfection ; now we are not renewed to 
the image of the first Adam, but of the second. Oh ! the depth of the 
divine mercy and wisdom, that hath made our fall to be a means of 
our preferment ! 

2. It informeth us what we may look for, even for what Christ is in 
glory ; we have a glimpse of it in his transfiguration, in his giving the 
law. Let our thoughts be more explicit about this matter. 

Use 3. It is an engagement to holiness. We expect to be as Christ 
is, therefore let us not carry ourselves sordidly, like swine wallowing 
in the mire : 1 John iii. 3, ' And he that hath this hope in him puri- 
fieth himself, even as he is pure/ We expect a sinless state, not a 
Turkish paradise. That body that is made an instrument of whoredom 
and drunkenness, shall it be like Christ's glorious body? Those 
affections that shall be ravished with the enjoyment of God, shall they 
be prostituted to the world ? and that mind which is made for the 



VER. 22.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 59 

sight of God, serve only to make provision for the flesh ? shall it be 
filled with chaff and vanity ? 

3. Observe that glory is the fruit of union, as well as grace. The 
spiritual union is begun here, but it is accomplished in the next life. 
Here we are crucified, quickened, ascend, and sit down with Christ in 
heavenly places : Eph. ii. 5, 6, ' Even when we were dead in sins hath 
he quickened us together with Christ, and hath raised us up together, 
and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus ; ' Col. i. 
27, ' Christ in you the hope of glory.' Christ in us will not leave till 
he bringeth us to heaven. In this life we cannot come to him ; the 
state of mortality is a state of absence ; therefore Christ will come to 
us, but with an intent to bring us to himself, that we may be where 
he is : ver. 24, ' Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given 
me be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory.' He 
cometh to us where we are, that at length we may be where he is. It 
is the Lord's method to bring us from death to life, from misery to 
happiness, by degrees ; thousands of years cannot make up that which 
was lost in an hour ; till the resurrection all is not perfected, we do 
not fully discern the fruits of our union with Christ. 

Use 1. To help us to conceive of the mystery of union. Some men 
fancy that as soon as we are united to Christ we are actually glorified 
in this life. It is true Christ is equally united to them upon earth as 
to . them in heaven ; he that reigneth with the church triumphant 
fighteth with the church militant ; but there is a difference in the 
degree of influence and dispensation. In the blessings that he con- 
ferreth upon them, he respects their different condition, and poureth 
out of his own fulness as they are able to bear. The reason of this 
different influence is, because they are conveyed to us voluntarily, not 
by necessity : Phil. ii. 13, ' It is God which worketh in you, both to 
will and to do, of his good pleasure.' He gives more or less comfort, 
grace, joy, as he pleaseth ; his grace floweth into his members, not by 
a necessity of nature, but according to his own pleasure. Give him 
leave to handle his mystical body as he handled his natural body. 
His natural body grew by degrees, and the capacity of his human soul 
was enlarged by degrees, else how could he ' increase in wisdom as 
well as stature ' ? Luke ii. 40. There was a perfect union between 
the divine and human nature at first, yet the divine nature manifested 
itself by degrees, not in such a latitude in childhood as in grown age. 
Sothough there is a perfect union between Christ and the soul at first 
conversion, yet the influence of grace and comfort is given out according 
to the measure of our capacity. All believers upon earth are united 
to Christ, yet all have not a like degree Of manifestation and influence. 
As all the members of the body are united to the same head, and 
animated by the same soul, yet all the members grow according to 
the measure of a part ; we cannot expect a finger should be as big as 
an arm. So all that are united to Christ receive influences according 
to their capacities ; those that are glorified, glorious influences ; those 
that are militant, influences proper to their state. 

Use 2. It serveth to quicken those that are united to Christ to look 
for 'greater things than they do yet enjoy : John i. 50, ' Thou shalt 
see greater things than these ; ' another manner of union and com- 



60 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXVIII. 

munion with God through Christ. There is a mighty difference 
between our communion with God here and there. The saints in 
heaven have union with God by sight, as the saints on earth by faith : 
2 Cor. v. 7, ' For we walk by faith, not by sight ; ' and faith cannot go 
so high as feeling and fruition. Now we are unfit for converse with 
God, because of our blindness and darkness, as men of weak parts are 
not fit company for the strong. But then our faculties are more 
enlarged. Grace regulates the faculty, but it doth not alter and 
change the faculty. God's communications are more full and free, 
and we are more receptive. Here we have dark souls and weak 
bodies ; the old bottles would break if filled with the new wine of 
glory. At Christ's transfiguration, 'the disciples were astonished, 
and fell on their faces,' Mat. xvii. 6 ; but in heaven, the sight of 
Christ's glory will be ravishing, no terror. Here we are amazed at 
the sight of an angel ; but there is a perfect suitableness between us 
and God, and therefore a more perfect union and communion. God 
more delighteth in the saints, as having more of his image ; and the 
saints more delight in God, as being freed from sin. God loveth to 
look on what he hath made when he hath raised a worm to such an 
excellency. It is there continued without interruption ; here our 
communion with God is sweet, but short, it cometh by glimpses ; but 
there it is for ever and ever, not only in regard of duration, but con 
tinuance without ceasing. The Spirit of God came on Samson at 
times. In heaven there is nothing to divert us from the sight of God ; 
we are withdrawn from all other objects, that we may study him alone 
without weariness 

Use 3. It directeth us in what order we should seek these things ; 
first grace, then glory : Ps. Ixxxiv. 11, ' The Lord will give grace and 
glory;' Ps. Ixxiii. 24, 'Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and 
afterwards receive me to glory;' Eph. v. 26, 27, 'That he might 
sanctify and cleanse it by the washing of water, by the word, that he 
might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot or 
wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without 
blemish.' Here the first lineaments are drawn by the Spirit of 
sanctification, whilst the soul remaineth in the body, as a pledge of a 
more perfect, state : ' God hath called us to glory and virtue,' 2 Peter 
i. 3. As they were to go through the temple of virtue to the temple 
of honour. 

4. Observe, there is no privilege which we have but what Christ 
enjoyed first. Christ had it all, and from him we have it ; he was the 
purchaser and the natural heir ; it is in us at the second-hand ; we are 
elected, sanctified, glorified in and through him. Whatever is in us 
that are members, it is in our head first; first God, then Christ as 
mediator, and then we. All good is first in Christ, he receiveth it, 
and conveyeth it. We ascend ; why ? because he ascended first ; 
we sit in heavenly places, because he did first. 

Use 1. In times of desertion, when we see nothing in ourselves, look 
upon Christ as a depositary, the first receptacle of grace ; he is justi 
fied, sanctified, ascended, glorified ; and encourage thyself to take hold 
of Christ, that thou mayest have all these things in him. 

Use 2. To be thankful to God for Christ : ' Blessed be the God 



VER. 22.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 61 

and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all 
spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ,' Eph. i. 3. Let us 
never bless God for what we enjoy, but still remember Christ. 

Use 3. It presseth us to get a union with Christ : 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23, 
* All are yours, for you are Christ's, and Christ is God's ; ' that we 
may not look on Christ as an abstracted head. All that Christ hath, 
he hath it for us. 

5. Observe from those words, 'I have given them;' it may be 
objected that we see no such matter ; Christ's members are poor 
despicable dust and ashes, more afflicted than others. How then can 
it be said, This glory ' I have given them' ? Ans. Christ hath 
acquired a right. Observe, the glory that is given to us by Christ is 
as surely ours as if we were in the actual possession of it : John iii. 
36, ' He that believeth on the Son of God hath everlasting life.' How 
hath he it ? 

[1.] He hath it in capite : it is done in regard of Christ, with whom 
we make one mystical body. The most worthy part of the body is in 
heaven, the head is there : Eph. ii. 6, ' And hath raised us up toge 
ther, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ.' We are 
already glorified in Christ, though not in ourselves. Christians take 
possession in their head, as Christ hath taken possession in their 
names. 

[2.] They have it in the promises. The promise is the root of the 
blessing ; you have a fair charter to show for it. God standeth bound 
in point of promise. God is very tender of his word ; you will see it 
in all the other promises when you put him to trial. The promise of 
God is but the declaration of his purpose : Heb. vi. 17, 18, ' Wherein 
God willing more abundantly to show unto the heirs of promise the 
immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: that by two 
immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, ye may 
have strong consolation.' You have a lease to show for it ; a man 
doth not carry his inheritance upon his back. 

[3.] They have the first-fruits of it, which differ only in degree from 
glory : Rom. viii. 23, ' And not only they, but ourselves also, which 
have the first-fruits of the Spirit ; even we ourselves groan within our 
selves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.' 
We have the earnest in hand. That portion of the Spirit which we 
have received is given us for security. Wherefore this fitting and 
preparing, these groans, are grounds of confidence. If a vessel be 
formed, it is for some use. All this would else be lost. And do you 
think God will lose his earnest ? The beginnings we have here are a 
taste and pledge ; here we sip, and have a foretaste of the cup of bless 
ing. Union with Christ, joys of the Spirit, peace of conscience, are 
the beginnings of heaven. They that live in the provinces next to 
Arabia have a strong scent of the odours and sweet smells of the 
spices that grow there ; so the church is the suburbs of heaven ; the 
members of it begin to smell the upper paradise. The comfortable 
influences of the Spirit are the taste, and the gracious influences are 
the pledge and earnest, of our future inheritance. 

Use 1. Let us bless God aforehand : 1 Peter i. 3-5, ' Blessed be the 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which, according to his 



62 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XXXIX. 

abundant mercy, hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incor 
ruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven 
for us, who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salva 
tion.' The inheritance is kept for us, and we for it. We can never 
want matter to bless God ; if we have nothing in hand, yet we have 
much in hope. 

2. Let us wait with more confidence ; we have no cause to doubt ; 
we have God's word and pawn ; as sure as Christ is in heaven, we 
shall be there. 

3. Let us be there in affection, in earnest groans and desires, in 
frequent thoughts : Horn. viii. 30, ' Whom he did predestinate, them 
he also called ; and whom he called, them he also justified ; and whom 
he justified, them he also glorified. 

4. Let us not fear changes ; all changes will end in that which is 
best for us. 



SERMON XXXIX. 

/ in them, and tliou in me, that they may ~be made perfect in one ; and 
that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved 
them, as thou hast loved me. JOHN XVII. 23. 

CHRIST'S request for union is again repeated, with the advantage of 
another expression, to declare the nature of it. So that in this verse 
we have 

1. The nature of the mystical union. 

2. The end of it ; with respect to believers and the world ; their 
conviction of Christ's mission, and the Father's love to the disciples. 

"First, The nature of this union further declared, ' I in them, and 
thou in me.' 

Here first observe, that one union is the ground of another. Christ 
and the Father are one, and then Christ and we are one, and then we 
are one, one with another. The assumed nature is united to the 
divine essence in Christ's person ; and so he, as mediator, is one with 
the Father ; and then we by the communion of the Spirit are not 
only united to the head, but to our fellow-members. 

There are two unions spoken of in this verse. 

1. With God, that is implied ; the Father is a believer's as well as 
Christ : John xiv. 23, ' My Father will love him, and we will come to 
him, and make our abode with him.' Why then doth Christ say, ' I 
in them ' ? Not to exclude the Father ; for he presently addeth, ' Thou 
in me.' Christ speaketh as mediator, to show that he is the cause, 
way, and means. He is the Jacob's ladder: John i. 51 ' Verily I say 
unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven opened, and the angels of 
God ascending and descending upon the Son of man/ 

2. There is a union with Christ immediately ; that is formally ex 
pressed, ' I in them.' And then between us and others of the same 
body, ' That they may be made perfect in one ; ' all drawn up into 



VER. 23.] 



SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. 



63 



unity with God in Christ. First, God descendeth in the person of 
Christ, and then we all ascend by Christ, and come up to Ga again. 
Thus the personal union maketh way for the mystical, and tn mystical 
for our joint communion with God in the same body. This is the 
great mystery that hath been driving on from all eternity, the Father 
is the beginning and ending, and Christ the means. All influence 
cometh from God through Christ, and our tendency is to him through 
Christ : 1 Cor. viii. 6, ' To us there is but one God, the Father, of 
whom are all things, and we in him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by 
whom are all things, and we by him.' All mercies come to us, and 
our services and respects go to God, through Christ. The reason is, 
we are departed from God by sin ; so that God is removed from us, 
and God is against us, at a distance, and at an enmity ; and we are 
fugitives and exiles, as Adam ran away from God before he was 
banished out of his presence. Therefore Christ is not only a meri 
torious cause of the union that is between us and God, but also the 
bond and tie of it. To satisfy God offended, this he might do as a 
Saviour without us ; but to be a means of influence on God's part, and 
respect and service on ours, to convey grace, and return service, he must 
be in us : 'I in them.' As exiles, we are taken into grace and favour 
by the merit of Christ ; and as fugitives, we are brought into unity 
again by his Spirit working in us. Therefore it is said : Eph. i. 10, 
'That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather 
together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and 
which are on earth, even in him.' There God descendeth, and we 
ascend. All the scattered elect are brought into a body, to receive 
influences of grace from God as a fountain, through Christ as a con 
veyance. So Eph. ii. 18. ' For through him we have an access by one 
Spirit unto the Father.' All believers are united into a body by the 
communion of Christ's Spirit, that by Christ they may perform service 
to God, and receive grace from him. 

Use. Is to prize Christ as mediator, and to make use of him in your 
addresses to God. Heathens had many ultimate objects of worship, 
and many mediators ; we have but one. 

1. If you perform anything to God, do it in and through Christ, 'in 
whom he is well pleased,' Mat. iii. 17. A holy God will accept nothing, 
but as tendered in Christ's name. We cannot endure the majesty of 
his presence : Col. iii. 17, ' And whatsoever ye do, in word or deed, do 
all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father 
by him ; ' by the assistance of his grace and dependence upon his 
merit, that is to do all in Christ's name. We are made amiable to 
God in Christ; out of Christ we are odious to God: Ps. xiv. 2, 3, 
' The Lord looketh down from heaven upon the children of men, to see 
if there were any that did understand and seek God. They are all 
gone aside, they are altogether become filthy ; there is none that doeth 
good, no, not one.' Once God looked on the creatures all good, but 
that was in innocency ; after the fall he looked on the creatures, and 
all are become filthy ; it is not meant of any particular sort of men, but 
all in their natural condition. The apostle bringeth that place to prove 
the universal corruption of nature, Kom. iii. 10, that is, out of Christ. 
But as he looketh on us in Christ, so we are amiable ; he is well-pleased 



64 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVI I. [SflR. XXXIX. 

in him : it is proclaimed from heaven, that we might not be afraid to 
go to God. 

2. If you expect anything from him, you must expect it in Christ. 
Christ is not only the meritorious cause, but the means. All we look 
for is not only from him, but in him. As God first loveth Christ, then 
loveth us ; he is the primum amabile, the first beloved of all ; so he is 
first in Christ, and then in us ; he is primum recipiens, the first object 
of blessing and grace : 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23, ' All are yours, for you are 
Christ's, and Christ is God's.' We have it at second-hand, Christ 
cometh between God and us, to convey the influences and bounty of 
heaven to us. Therefore it is said : 2 Cor. i. 20, ' All the promises of 
God in him are Yea, and in him Amen.' God doth whatever we desire 
him, in him. God doth not bless us as persons Distinct from Christ, 
but as members of his body. There is as much need of the union of 
our persons to the person of Christ, as there was of the union of the 
human nature to the divine nature. Christ must be in us, as well as 
God in Christ ; we must be Christ's as well as Christ is God's. The 
mediator hath an interest in God, and you must have an interest in 
the mediator. Look, as by the personal union, Christ merited all for 
us ; so, by the union of persons, he conveyeth all to us. Christ could 
not suffer till he had united our flesh to his godhead ; and we cannot 
receive the virtue of his sufferings till he unites our person to his 
person. 

Secondly, Observe, Christ is in us, as God is in Christ. The two 
unions are often compared in this chapter ; and here it is said, ' I in 
them, and thou in me.' How is God in Christ ? By unity of essence, 
and by constant influence ; and so is Christ in us. (1.) God is in 
Christ by unity of essence, or co-essential existency ; Christ and He 
communicates in the same nature : ' The fulness of the godhead dwelt 
in him bodily/ Col. ii. 9. Now there is something which answereth 
to this in the mystical union ; there is a communion of spirit between 
us and Christ, though not the same nature. The same Spirit dwelleth 
in Christ acofiariKws, bodily, that is, essentially ; in us TrvevpaTuews, 
spiritually ; we partake of the divine nature in some gifts and qualities. 
(2.) By constant influence. God is in Christ by a communication of 
life, virtue, and operation. 

1. The Father is the perpetual beginning, foundation, and root of 
life to Christ as mediator : John vi. 57, ' As the living Father hath 
sent me, and I live by the Father ; so he that eateth me, even he shall 
live by me.' So is Christ to us : Gal. ii. 20, ' Nevertheless I live ; yet 
not I, but Christ liveth in me : and the life that I live in the flesh I 
live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself 
for me.' 

2. The divine essence sustained the person of Christ as mediator. 
The humanity could not subsist of itself, but by constant influence from 
the godhead : Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my servant, whom I uphold.' Christ 
had constant sustentation from the Father ; he upheld him, and carried 
him through the work. So are we ' preserved in Jesus Christ,' Jude 1. 
We have not only the beginning and principle of life from Christ, but 
constant support. We can no more keep ourselves than make our 
selves ; all things depend upon their first cause. 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 65 

3. The Father concurreth to all the operations and actions of Christ, 
and so the Father is in Christ as he worketh in him : John xiv. 10, 
' Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me ? 
The words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself ; but the Father, 
that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.' The divine power was in 
terested in Christ's works as mediator, especially in the miracles that 
he wrought to confirm the truth of his person. So is Christ in believers, 
as he worketh in them all their works for them : John xv. 5, ' I am the 
vine, ye are the branches : he that abideth in me, and I in him, the 
same bringeth forth much fruit ; for without me ye can do nothing.' 
He doth not say, nihil magnum, no great thing ; but, nihil, nothing 
at all. Thinking is the most sudden and transient act ; sure the new 
nature there may get the start of corruption. But, 2 Cor. iii. 5, ' Not 
that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything as of ourselves, 
but our sufficiency is of God.' Actions are more deliberate, there is 
more scope for the interposition of corrupt nature ; but of ourselves we 
cannot think a good thought. 

What use shall we make of this ? 

Use 1. If Christ be in us, as God was in Christ, let us manifest it as 
Christ did. Christ manifested the Father to be in him by his works : 
John x. 37, 38, ' If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not ; 
but if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works, that ye may 
know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in him/ Works and 
miracles exceeding the power and force of nature showed that Christ 
was a divine person ; sure the Father is in him, or else he could not do 
these works. So St James puts hypocrites upon the trial, ' Show me 
thy faith by thy works,' James ii. 18. Do we do any works exceeding 
the power of corrupt nature ? That would be a proof of Christ's work 
ing in you. When Jacob counterfeited Esau, Isaac felt his hands. 
So what are your works ? If you walk as men, do no more than an 
ordinary man, that hath not the Spirit of God, where is the proof of 
Christ's working in you ? Many boast of Christ in them ; if Christ 
were in them, he would be there, as the Father was in Christ ; they 
would bewray it by their operations. You may know what is within 
by what cometh out ; if Christ be within thee, there will come out 
prayer, sighs, and groans for heaven, fruitful discourses, heavenly walk 
ing, a mortified conversation ; all this cometh out, because Christ is 
within. But now, when ye belch out filthy discourses, rotten com 
munication, there is nothing cometh out but vanity and sin, how 
dwelleth Christ in you ? are these the fruits of his presence ? 

Use 2. Learn dependence upon Christ. All the power we have to 
work is from Christ. Whence hath the body the vigour it hath to 
work, and to move from place to place, but from the soul? And 
whence hath a Christian his power but from Christ ? We derive all 
our strength from Christ. We are as glasses without a bottom ; they 
cannot stand of themselves, but they are broken in pieces. Christ can 
do all things without us, but we can do nothing without him, as the 
soul can subsist apart from the body ; Christ hath no need of us, but 
we cannot live and act without him. Sine te nihil, in te totum possumus 
Phil. iv. 13, ' I can do all things through Christ, which strengthened 
me.' The apostle doth not speak it to boast of his power, but to pro- 

VOL. XI. E 



66 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [&ER. XXXIX. 

fess his dependence. It was never seen that a father would cast away 
the child that hangeth on him. 

Thirdly, I shall now speak of Christ's being in believers apart, that 
I may a little enforce this argument. How is Christ in believers ? 
We must not go too high, nor too low. It is not to be understood 
essentially, so he is everywhere, and cannot be more peculiarly in one 
than in another : ' Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ? or whither 
shall I flee from thy presence ? ' Ps. cxxxix. 7. He is here, and there, 
and everywhere, in heaven, in earth, in hell. Personally he is not in 
us ; that cannot be without a personal union ; if the Spirit were per 
sonally in us, that would make us to become one person with the Holy 
Ghost, as the divine and human nature make but one person ; but 
mystically, with respect to some peculiar operations which he worketh 
in us, and not in others. Christ is in us as the head is in the members, 
by influence of life and motion ; not such influence as tendeth to life 
natural so natural men live in him, move in him, and have their being 
in him; the^e is a union of dependence between God and all his 
creatures ; but influence with respect to life spiritual. In short, Christ 
is not only in us as in a temple or house that is one way of his being 
in us, therefore he is said ' to dwell in our hearts by faith/ Eph. iii. 
17, but he is in us as the head in the members, and as the vine in 
the branches, John xv. 1, where there is not only a presence, but an 
influence. Once more, he is not only in us in a moral way, in affec 
tions ; his heart is with us, and our heart is with him, and his love and 
his joy is in and towards us : Prov. viii. 31, ' Kejoicing always in the 
habitable parts of the earth, and my delights were with the sons of 
men ; ' but he is in us in a mystical and gracious way : John xvii. 
26, ' That the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and 
I in them.' He is in us as the soul is in the body, to give us life, sense, 
vigour, and operation. 

Use 1. To press us to labour after an interest in this privilege, that 
Christ may be in us. It is the saddest mark if Christ be not in us : 
1 Cor. xiii. 5, ' Know ye not that Christ is in you, except ye be repro 
bates ? ' reprobates disallowed of God. 

Let me press it : 

1. If Christ be not in us, the devil is : Eph. ii. 2, ' Wherein in time 
past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the 
prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the 
children of disobedience.' Man's heart is not a waste ; it is occupied 
by Christ or Satan. The children of disobedience are acted by the 
devil and governed by the devil. Those that are cast out of the church, 
which is a figure of cutting off from communion with Christ, were 
given up to Satan, to show that he reigneth there where Christ doth not 
take possession ; the devil entereth into them, and sendeth them head 
long to their own destruction. 

2. Where Christ is, there all the Trinity are : John xiv. 23, ' We 
will come unto him, and make our abode with him ; ' there is Father, 
Son, and Spirit. Such an one is a consecrated temple, wherein God 
taketh up his residence. They do not only come as guests, to tarry 
with us for a night, as the angels came to Abraham, Gen. xviii. 2 ; or 
as friends come to visit, and away, and so leave more sorrow on their 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 67 

departure than joy in their presence ; but they will abide with us for 
ever. Heaven is where God is ; this heaven we have upon earth, that 
all the persons take up their abode in our hearts. God knocketh at 
the door of a wicked man's heart, but doth not enter, much less have 
his abode and residence there. Here is the Father as a fountain of 
grace, Christ as mediator, and the Spirit as Christ's deputy, to work all 
in us. This is his second heaven, one above the clouds, and another 
in our hearts. Oh ! what a condescension is it, that God should not 
only pardon us, and admit us into his presence hereafter, be familiar 
with us, when we have put on our robes of glory, but dwell in us here ! 
When Christ was about to go to heaven, and his disciples were troubled 
at it, then he leaveth us this promise. We cannot go to God, but 
God will come to us, not only give us a visit, but take up his abode 
in us. 

3. Wherever the Trinity are, there is a blessing left behind. The 
presence of earthly princes is costly and burdensome, because of their 
train and the charges of entertainment ; but the Trinity are blessed 
guests ; they never come but bring their welcome with them, and a 
blessing in their hands. The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost do not 
come empty-handed. The Son of God came to Abraham with two 
angels, but he came not without a gift, a promise of a child, though 
their bodies were dry and dead, Gen. xviii. Wheresoever Christ came 
in the days of his flesh, he left some mercy behind. While in the 
womb of the virgin, he came into the house of Zacharias, and 
Zacharias and Elizabeth his wife were both rilled with the Holy Ghost, 
Luke i. 41. He came into Peter's house, and brought deliverance for 
Peter's wife's mother from a fever, Mat. viii. 15. He came to Caper 
naum, and brought with him to the man sick of the palsy health 
for his body and a pardon for his soul, Mat. ix. 2. He came to the 
house of Jairus, and raised his daughter, ver. 23. He came to the 
house of Zaccheus, and brought salvation with him, Luke xix. 9. 
Everywhere wherever he went, trace him, you will find he left a bless 
ing behind him. Laban thrived better for Jacob, the house of Obed- 
Edom for the ark. In these short visits Christ left a blessing, but in 
a gracious soul they have a perpetual residence ; it is fit these blessed 
guests should have good entertainment. 

4. It is a pledge that we shall have more : ' Christ in us the hope 
of glory,' Col. i. 29. He dwelleth in us to fit us for heaven. It is 
heaven begun ; it makes our exile a paradise. It is still growing, till 
it cometh to a complete presence in heaven. Where he is once in 
truth, there he is for ever. Temples built may stand forsaken, but God 
never forsaketh his spiritual temples. 

Use 2. Direction. What must we do that Christ may be in us ? 

1. Make way for him. Empty the heart of all self-confidence. 
When the heart is full of self, there is no room for Christ : Phil iii. 8, 
9, ' Yea doubtless I count all things but loss for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss 
of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, 
and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of 
the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteous 
ness which is of God by faith/ First, there must be a cutting off from 



68 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXIX. 

the wild olive-tree by a sound conviction ; we must know what strangers 
we are to the life of God. Was there a time when we were convinced 
of this ? Eph. iv. 18, ' Having the understanding darkened, being 
alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them, 
because of the blindness of their heart.' How can a man that was 
never convinced of the sadness of his estate say, Not I, but Christ ? 

2. Wait for him in the ordinances. Where should a man meet with 
Christ, but in his ordinances, in the shepherds' tents ? All the ordi 
nances have an aspect upon our union with Christ, either to begin or 
continue it. God offereth him to us in the word : 1 Cor i. 9, ' God is 
faithful, by whom ye are called to the fellowship of his Son Jesus 
Christ our Lord.' We are entreated to take him. As long as they 
see nothing but man in it, it cometh to nothing ; but many times, in 
hearing, they see God in the offer : the matter is of the Lord, as 
Bebekah yielded out of an overruling instinct. So for the religious use 
of the seals. We are ' baptized into Christ/ Gal. iii. 27. It is the 
pledge of our admission into that body whereof Christ is the head. 
God is aforehand with us ; we were engaged to make a profession of 
this union, before we had liberty to choose our own way. Let us not 
retract our vows, and make baptism only a memorial of our hypocrisy, 
to profess union when there is no such matter : I profess to be planted 
into Christ by baptism, but I feel no such matter. Oh ! you should 
groan for this ! Then for the supper of the Lord : 1 Cor. x. 16, ' The 
cup of blessing which we bless, OVK\ rcowowia, is it not the communion 
of the blood of Christ ? The bread which we break, is it not the com 
munion of the body of Christ ? ' Under the law the people could not 
eat of the sin-offering, but only the priest ; for the same reason they 
were forbidden to eat sacrifice and drink blood : Lev. xvii. 11, 12, ' For 
the life of the flesh is in the blood ; and I have given it to you upon 
the altar to make an atonement for your souls ; for it is the blood that 
niaketh an atonement for the soul. Therefore I said unto the children 
of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood ; ' compared with Mat. xxvi. 
26, ' This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many 
for the remission of sins.' The priest was to become one with the 
sacrifice, to figure Christ's person ; but now atonement being made, 
another union is necessary, of sinners with the sacrifice. Nothing is so 
one with us as that we eat and drink ; it becometh a part of our sub 
stance ; it resembleth that strait and near conjunction between us 
and Christ. This is a means appointed to engage us to look after this 
union ; here we come to profess it, to promote it ; it is a means unde<r 
a blessing. 

3. Keceive him thankfully. Oh ! what am I, and ' whence is it to 
me that the mother of my Lord should come to me ?' Luke i. 43 ; that 
Christ should come to me, and dwell in my heart ! 

4. Entertain him kindly ; be careful to preserve the motions, quick- 
enings, comforts of his Spirit. This is the respect we should show, to 
be sensible of accesses and recesses, and accordingly suit our carriage. 
Rejoice in his presence ; such a precious guest must be observed. 
Grieve when you, do not feel the comforts of it : Cant. v. 4, 'My be 
loved put in his hand at the hole of the door, and my bowels were 
moved for him.' 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 69 

Use 3. Examine whether Christ be in you or no. You may know 
it: 

1. By his manner of entrance. Christ is not wont to come into the 
heart without opposition. The devil is loath to be dispossessed : Luke 
xi. 21, 'When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are 
in peace/ Christ came into the temple with a whip to drive out the 
money-changers. He cometh to rule alone. 

2. By the fruits of his abode life, fruitfulness, tendency. 

(1.) Life. It will stir and quicken you to good duties:. Gal. iii. 
20, ' I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me.' He is a living foun 
tain of vital union. 

(2.) Fruitfulness of soul : John xv. 2, ' Every branch in me that 
beareth not fruit, he taketh away; and every branch that beareth 
fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit ;' and ver. 4, 
' Abide in me, and I in you : as the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, 
except it abide in the vine, no more can you, except you abide in me.' 

(3.) Tendency (1.) To heaven. Heaven is the place of our full 
enjoyment of him. They do not admire worldly excellences: Luke 
xix. 8, ' Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor ; and if 
I have taken anything from any man by false accusation, I restore 
him fourfold.' The woman left her pitcher, John iv. 28 ; Matthew 
followed Christ. (2.) To God's glory as our last aim ; their aim is 
according to their principle. 

Secondly, I come to the end of this union. 

1. With respect to believers, ' That they may be made perfect,' &c. 

2. With respect to the world, and their conviction, ' That the world 
may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them as thou hast 
loved me.' 

First, With respect to believers, ' That they may be made perfect in 
one,' TeT\.eia)fj,evoi ei<? ev. This oneness is either with God or with one 
another. Both are included in the mystical union; we cannot be 
united to the head, but we must also be united to the members. The 
golden cherubims did so look to the ark and mercy-seat, that they did 
also look one towards another, Exod. xxv. 20. So in this union, as we 
respect God and Christ, so we must also look to our fellow-members : 
' Let them be perfect in one ;' let them all centre in God, which is the 
creature's perfection. 

Observe, our perfect happiness lieth in oneness, in being one with 
God through Christ. I shall evidence it to you in a few particulars. 

1. Since the fall man's affections and thoughts are scattered : 
Eccles. vii. 29, 'God hath made man upright, but they have sought out 
many inventions.' When man lost his happiness, he sought out many 
inventions. A sinner is full of wanderings, as a wayfaring man that 
hath lost his direction turneth up and down, and knows not where to 
pitch ; or the needle in the compass, when it is jogged, shaketh and 
wavereth, and knoweth not where to rest, till it turneth to the pole 
again. There is a restlessness in our desires ; still we have new pro 
jects, and know not where to pitch ; are not content with what we do 
possess ; this is not the pole where we rest. Qucerunt in vanitate crea- 
turarum quod amisserunt in imitate Creatoris. A river, the further it 
runneth from the fountain, the more it is dispersed into several 



70 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [&ER. XXXIX. 

streams. Blindness maketh us grope and feel about for happiness, as 
the Sodomites did for Lot's door. We change objects, striving to 
meet with that in one thing which we cannot find in another, as bees 
fly and go from flower to flower ; we seek to patch up things as well 
as we can. 

2. In all this chase and distraction of thoughts there is no content 
ment in the vast world, nothing that can satiate the heart of man. 
Transitory things may divert the soul, but they cannot content it. 
After Solomon's survey, Eccles. i. 2, ' Vanity of vanities, saith the 
preacher ; vanity of vanities, all is vanity.' He had made many ex 
periments, but still found himself disappointed, and disappointment is 
the worst vexation. 

3. This distraction continueth till we return to CJ-od again : 1 Peter 
ii. 25, ' Ye were as sheep going astray, but are now returned unto the 
shepherd and bishop of your souls.' There is no safety but in the 
fold. God, who is the principle of our being, is the only object of our 
contentment. We began in a monad or unity, and there we end. 
God is the boundary of all things : Kom. xi. 36, ' For of him, and 
through him, and to him, are all things ; to whom be glory for ever, 
Amen.' In him, or nowhere, the soul findeth content. He is our 
first cause and our last end. There are some scrictures and rays of 

.goodness in the creature, but they cannot satisfy, because there we 
have happiness by parcels ; it is dispersed. Nothing is dispersed in 
the creature but what is re-collected in the creator ; there is all in him, 
because all came out from him. 

4. The great work of grace is to return us to God again, that we 
may pitch upon him as the chief object and centre of our rest : Jer. 
xxxii. 39, ' I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may 
fear me for ever.' It is the great blessing of the covenant; this one 
heart is to pitch upon God as the chief object and centre of our rest, 
otherwise we are troubled with divers cares, fears, and desires. Thus 
grace worketh upon us. But the distance lieth not only on our part, 
but God's. Before God and the creature can be brought together, 
justice must be satisfied. Christ came to restore us to our primitive 
condition : 2 Cor. v. 19, ' God was in Christ, reconciling the world 
unto himself.' The merit of Christ bringeth God to us, and the Spirit 
of Christ bringeth us to God. It is as necessary Christ should be 
united to us, as we to God. 

5. Our happiness in God is completed by degrees. In this life, the 
foundation is laid : we are reconciled to him upon earth ; but the 
complete fruition we have in heaven ; there we are fully made perfect 
in one. Here there is weakness in our reconciliation : we do not 
cleave to him without distraction ; there are many goings a-whoring 
and wandering from God after our return to him. And here, on God's 
part, our punishment is continued in part. God helpeth us by means, 
at second and third hand. We need many creatures, and cannot be 
happy without them ; we need light, meat, clothes, house. Our life 
is patched up by supplies from the creature. But there ' God is all, 
and in all,' 1 Cor. xv. 28. We find in God whatever is necessary for 
us without means and outward helps. There ' God is all, and in all ;' 
he is our house, clothes, meat, ordinances. We have all immedi- 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 71 

ately from God, and ' in all ; ' all are made perfect in one. We can 
not possess any thing in the world except we encroach upon one 
another's happiness. Worldly things cannot be divided (Without 
lessening ; and we take that from others which we possess ourselves. 
Envy showeth the narrowness of our comforts. But there the happi 
ness of one is no hindrance to another, all are gratified, and none 
miserable ; as the sun is a common privilege, none have less because 
others have more. All possess God as their happiness without want 
and jealousy. 

Use. If to be drawn into unity and oneness with God be our hap 
piness and perfection, then take heed of two things (1.) Of sin, 
which divides God from you ; (2.) Of doting upon the creatures, 
which withdraweth you from God. 

1. Of sin, which maketh God stand at a distance from you : Isa. 
lix. 2, ' Your iniquities have separated between you and your God, 
and your sins have hid his face from you.' As long as sin remaineth in 
full power, there cannot be any union at all. ' What communion hath 
light with darkness ? ' And the more it is allowed, the more it hin- 
dereth the perfection of the union. What is the reason we do not 
fully grow up to be one with God in this life, that our communion 
with him is so small ? Sin is in the way ; the less holy you are, the 
less you have of this happiness, such unspeakable joys, lively influ 
ences of grace, and immediate supplies from heaven. In bitter afflic 
tions, we have most communion with God many times ; that is nothing 
so evil as sin ; as afflictions abound, so do our comforts. 

2. Of doting upon the creatures, which withdraweth your heart 
from God. The more the heart is withdrawn from God, the more 
miserable. Let the object be never so pleasing, it is an act of spiritual 
whoredom. Sin is poison, creatures are not bread : Isa. Iv. 2, ' Why 
do you spend your money upon that which is not bread ? and your 
labour for that which satisfieth not ? ' It cannot yield any solid con 
tentment to the soul. These things are short uncertain things, beneath 
the dignity of the soul. There is a restlessness . within ourselves, 
and envy towards others ; they are not enough for us and them too. 
Not for us ; if enough for the heart, not for the conscience. If God 
do but arm our own thoughts against us, as usually he doth when the 
affections are satisfied with the world, he will show you that the whole 
soul is not satisfied ; therefore he awakeneth conscience ; as children 
catch at butterflies, the gawdy wings melt away in their fingers, and 
there remaineth nothing but an ugly worm. Desertion is occasioned 
by nothing so much as carnal complacency. Many times the object 
of our desires is blasted ; but if not, God awakeneth conscience, and 
all the world will not allay one pang. 

You may understand this oneness with respect to our fellow-mem 
bers ; and so you may understand it jointly of the completeness of the 
whole mystical body, or singly of the strength of that brotherly affection 
each member hath to another. There is a double imperfection for the 
present in the church ; every member is not gathered, and those that 
are gathered are not come to their perfect growth. So that ' let them 
be perfect in one,' is that the whole body may attain to the integrity 
of parts and degrees. 



72 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XXXIX. 

First, Let us take it collectively ; that they may all be gathered into 
a perfect body, and no joints lacking. 

Observe, that all the saints of all places and all ages make but one 
perfect body. In this sense the glorified saints are not perfect without 
us : Heb. xi. 40, ' God having promised some better thing for us, that 
they without us should not be made perfect/ It is no derogation, for 
Christ is not perfect without us. The church is called ' The fulness of 
him that filleth all in all/ Eph. i. 23. They are, as to their persons, 
perfect, free from sin and misery, made perfect in holiness and glory ; 
but not as to their church relation. So Eph. iv. 13, ' Till we all come to 
the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a 
perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ/ 
All the body must be made up that Christ mystical may be complete. 
Now there are some joints lacking ; all the elect are not gathered. 

Use 1. See the honour that is put upon the saints ; the saints on 
earth, and the saints in heaven make but one family : Eph. iii. 15, ' Of 
whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named/ In a great 
house there are many rooms and lodgings, some above, some below, but 
they make but one house ; so of saints, some are militant, some trium 
phant, and yet all make but one assembly and congregation : Heb. xii. 
23, ' We are come to the general assembly, and church of the first 
born, which are written in heaven ; ' we upon earth are come to them. 
Our Christ is the same, we are acted by the same Spirit, governed by 
the same head, and shall be conducted to the same glory. As in the 
state of grace some are before us in Christ, so some are in heaven 
before us, their faces once as black as yours. We have the same 
ground to expect heaven, only they are already entered. 

Use 2. It is a ground of hope, we shall all meet together in one 
assembly: Ps. i. 5, ' The ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, 
nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous/ Now the saints are 
scattered up and down, where they may be most useful ; then all shall 
be gathered together ; then shall be that great rendezvous, when the 
four winds shall give up their dead ; then the wicked shall be herded, 
they shall be bound up in bundles, as straws and sticks bound up 
together in a bundle serve to set one another on fire, Mat. xiii. 40-42 ; 
adulterers together, and drunkards together, and thieves together, and 
so increase one another's torment. So all the godly shall meet in a 
congregation, and never be separated more. You do not only groan 
and wait for it, but the departed saints also : Rev. vi. 9, 10, 'I saw 
under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, 
and for the testimony which they held. And they cried with a loud 
voice, saying, How long, Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge 
and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth ?' As in a 
wreck, those that get first to shore are longing for and looking for their 
companions. This is the communion between us and saints departed ; 
they long for our company, as we for theirs ; we praise God for them, 
they groan for us ; we long and wait, by joint desires, for that happy 
day. 

Use 3. It is an engagement to the churches of all parts to maintain 
a common intercourse one with another. All maketh but one body. 
We should pray for them whom we have not seen in the flesh, Col. ii. 






VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 73 

2, and send relief to them, as the church at Antioch to Jerusalem 
when the famine was foretold, Acts xi., latter end ; and, as God giveth 
opportunities, meet and consult for one another's welfare. But the 
world is not ripe for this yet. 

Use 4. It giveth you assurance of the continuance of the ministry as 
long as the world continueth. As long as the world continueth there 
are elect to be gathered : 2 Peter iii. 9, * The Lord is not slack con 
cerning his promise, as some men count slackness, but is long-suffering 
to us- ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should 
come to repentance.' The ship tarrieth till all the passengers be taken 
in, and then they launch out into the deep. The great aim of Christ in 
keeping up the world is to make his body complete ; and as long as 
the elect are to be gathered, the ministry is to continue : Eph. iv. 11, 
12, ' He gave some, apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evange 
lists ; and some, pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, 
for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.' 
The workmen are not dismissed till the house be built. 

Secondly, Understand it singly and severally, ' That they may be 
made perfect in one ; ' that is, that there may be a perfect oneness 
between member and member of Christ's body, or a brotherly affection 
which one member hath to another. 

Observe, no less union will content Christ but what is perfect. This 
was the aim of his prayers ; then strive for it, wait for it. 

1. Strive for it : 1 Cor. i. 10, ' Now I beseech you, brethren, by the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and 
that there be no divisions among you ; but that ye be perfectly joined 
together in the same mind, and in the same judgment.' We should 
all strive together, as if we had but one scope, one interest, one heart. 
We should grow up to this perfection more and more. Oh ! what 
conscience should we make of keeping the unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace ! If we are not one in opinion, yet we should have one 
aim and scope. Let us concur in one object and rule, and as far as 
we have attained to the knowledge of it, let us walk together. 

2. Wait for it. The perfection of our communion is in life eternal. 
Here it is begun, we are growing to the perfect day : Prov. iv. 18, 
' The path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and 
more unto the perfect day.' Ibi Lutherus et Zuinglius optime con- 
veniunt. We are going thither where Hooper and Ridley, Luther and 
Zuinglius, shall be of a mind. In heaven they are all of one mind, 
one heart, one employment ; there is neither pride, nor ignorance, nor 
factions to divide us, but all agree in one concert. 

Secondly, The end as to the world, their conviction, 'That the 
world may know that thou hast sent me, and that thou hast loved 
them as thou hast loved me.' When is the world convinced, and 
how ? I shall answer both together In part here, and fully hereafter. 

1. In part here, by Christ's being and working in them, by the life 
of Christ appearing in their conversations. 

2. Fully and finally at the last judgment, by the glory put upon 
them. The reprobate world shall know, to their cost, when they 
shall see them invested with such glory, that they were the darlings 
of God. 



74 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XXXIX. 

But of what shall the world be convinced ? Of Christ's mission 
and the saints' privileges, that Christ was authorised by God as the 
doctor of the church, and the saints are dearly beloved of God. 

Observe, there are two things God is tender of, and two things the 
world is ignorant of his truth, and his saints. 

1. God prizeth these above all things. 

[1.] His gospel; and therefore would have the world convinced that 
Christ was sent as a messenger from the bosom of God. 

[2.] His saints ; and therefore he would have them convinced of his 
love to them, and that he hath taken them into his protection, as he 
did the person of Christ. What should people regard but these two, 
especially since God hath put his little ones to nurse, and bid them be 
wise to learn his truths ? 

2. The world is most ignorant of these two ; of the divine authority 
of the gospel, and therefore they slight it, and refuse it as much as 
they do ; and of the dearness of his saints, therefore they persecute 
and molest them, and use them hardly. The world may be well 
called ' darkness,' Eph. v. 8, because they are ignorant of two things 
which do most concern them. 

But let us speak more particularly of that wonderful and myste 
rious expression, ' That thou hast loved them, as thou hast love,d me. 

Observe three things (1.) That God loveth Christ ; (2.) That God 
loveth the saints as he loved Christ ; (3.) That Christ would have the 
world know so much, and be convinced of it. 

Observe, first, that God loveth Christ as the first object of his love : 
' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased,' Mat. iii. 17. He 
is his dear Son: Col. i. 13, 'Who hath delivered us from the power 
of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son.' 
God saw all the works of his hands that they were good. He de- 
lighteth in the creatures, much more in his Son. He loveth Christ 
as God, and as mediator, as God-man. 

1. As God ; so he is primum amdbile, the first object of his love, as 
his own express image, that represents his attributes exactly. He is 
the first Son, the natural Son, as we are adopted ones ; and so his soul 
taketh an infinite contentment in Christ, before hill or mountain were 
brought forth : Prov. viii. 30, 31, ' Then was I with him, as one 
brought up with him, and I was daily his delight, rejoicing tlway 
before him, rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth/ &c. As two 
that are bred up together take delight in one another. 

2. As mediator ; he loveth the human nature of Christ freely. The 
first object of election was the flesh of Christ assumed into the divine 
person: Col. i. 19, 'It pleased the Father that in him should all 
fulness dwell;' it deserved not to be united to the divine person. 
When it was united, the dignity and holiness of his person deserved 
love. There was the fulness of the godhead in him bodily, the Spirit 
without measure, all that is lovely. And then, besides the excellency 
of his person, there was the merit of his obedience ; he deserved to be 
loved by the Father for doing his work : John x. 17, ' Therefore doth my 
Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again ; ' 
that was a new ground of love. Christ's love to us was a further cause 
of God's love to him. Thus you see how God loveth Christ. 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 75 

Use 1. It giveth us confidence in both parts of Christ's priestly 
office his oblation and intercession. His oblation: Mat. iii. 17, 
' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." God hath 
proclaimed it from heaven that he is well pleased with Christ stand 
ing in our room, thovfgh so highly offended with us, and with him for 
our sake : Eph. i. 6, ' To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein 
he hath made us accepted in the beloved/ All that come under his 
shadow will be accepted with God. He is beloved, and will be ac 
cepted in all that he doeth ; his being beloved answereth our being 
unworthy of love. Surely he will love us for his sake, who hath pur 
chased love for us. His intercession : if the Father loveth Christ, we 
may be confident of those petitions we put up in his name : John xvi. 
23, ' Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it 
you.' Our advocate is beloved of God. When we pray in the name 
of Christ, according to the will of God, our prayer is in effect Christ's 
prayer. If you send a child or servant to a friend for anything in 
your name, the request is yours ; and he that denieth the child or ser 
vant denieth you. When we come in a sense of our own unworthi- 
ness, on the score and account of being Christ's disciples, and with a 
high estimation of Christ's worth and credit with the Father, and that 
he will own us, that prayer will get a good answer. 

Use 2. It is a pledge of the Father's love to us ; and if God gave 
Christ, that was so dear to him, what can he withhold ? Kom. viii. 32, 
' He that spared not his own Son, but gave him up to the death for 
us all, how will he not with him also freely give us all things?' He 
spared him not ; the Son of his love was forsaken and under wrath ; 
and will he then stick at anything ? God's love is like himself, in 
finite ; it is not to be measured by the affection of a carnal parent. 
Yet he gave up Christ. Love goeth to the utmost ; had he a greater 
gift, he would have given it. How could he show us love more than 
in giving such a gift as Christ ? John xvi. 22, ' The Father himself 
loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came 
forth from God.' God hath a respect for those that believe in Christ, 
and receive him as the Son of God. 

Use 3. It is an engagement to us to love the Lord Jesus : 1 Cor. 
xvi. 22, ' If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be 
Anathema maranatha.' Shall we undervalue Christ, who is so dear 
and precious with God ? Let us love him as God loved him. 

1. God loved him so as to put all things into his hands: John iii. 
35, ' The Father loveth the Son, and hath put all things into his 
hand/ Let us own him in his person and office, and trust him with 
our souls. He is intrusted with a charge concerning the elect, in 
whose hands are your souls : 2 Tim. i. 12, 'I know whom I have 
believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I 
have committed to him against that day.' 

2. God hath loved him, so as to make him the great mediator to 
end all differences between God and man. God hath owned him 
from heaven : Mat. iii. 17, ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am 
well pleased/ Do you love him so as to make use of him in your 
communion with God ? Heb. vii. 25, ' Wherefore is he able to save 
to the uttermost all that come unto God through him, seeing he 



76 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XL. 

ever liveth to make intercession for us.' That is the sum of all 
religion. 

3. God loveth him so as to glorify him in the eyes of the world : 
John v. 22, 23, ' The Father judgeth no man ; but hath committed 
all judgment to the Son, that all men should honour the Son, even as 
they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son, honoureth 
not the Father that hath sent him.' Do you honour him ? Phil. i. 
21, e/iol TO fjv XptcrTo?, 'To me to live is Christ,' should be every 
Christian's motto. This is love, and not an empty profession. Christ 
will take notice of it, and report it in heaven ; it is an endearing 
argument when the Father's ends are complied with : John xvii. 10, 
' And all thine are mine, and mine are thine, and I am glorified in 
them/ 



SERMON XL. 

/ in them, and tJiou in me, that they may be made perfect in one ; 
and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast 
loved them, as thou hast loved me. JOHN XVII. 23. 

I COME now to the second observation, that God loveth the saints as he 
loved Christ. 

The expression is stupendous ; therefore divers interpreters have 
sought to mitigate it, and to bring it down to a commodious inter 
pretation. 

First, Ka6w, as, is a note of causality as well as similitude. He 
loveth us because he loved Christ. Therefore it is said : Eph. i. 6, 
' He hath made us accepted in the beloved.' The elect are made lovely, 
and fit to be accepted by God, only by Jesus Christ ; accepted both in 
our state and actions as we are reconciled to him ; and all that we do 
is taken in good part for Christ's sake, who was sent and intrusted 
by the Father to procure this favour for us, and did all which was 
necessary to obtain it. The ground of all that love God beareth 
to us is for Christ's sake. There is indeed an antecedent love showed 
in giving us to Christ, and Christ to us : John iii. 16, ' For God so 
loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son That whoso 
ever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.' 
The first cause of Christ's love to us was obedience to the Father ; 
the Son loved us, because the Father required it ; though after 
wards God loved us because Christ merited it. All consequent benefits 
are procured by the merit of Christ. The Father, that is first in order 
of persons, is first in order of working, and can have no higher cau^e 
than his own will and purpose. And besides, there is an obligation 
established to every person. Absolute elective love is the Father's 
property and personal operation ; but then his eternal purpose is 
brought to pass in and through Jesus Christ. In the carriage of our 
salvation, Christ interposeth ; so we are chosen in him as head of the 
elect, Eph. i. 4, pardoned, justified, sanctified, glorified in and through 
him. All these benefits and fruits of God's love are procured by Christ's 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 77 

merit ; not only as it is the more for the freedom of grace that the 
reasons why man should be loved should be without himself, and so 
the obligation is increased ; and not merely neither for the greater ful 
ness of our comfort ; for if God should love us in ourselves, it would 
be a very imperfect love, our graces being so weak, and our services so 
stained. But whence should we have this grace at first, which is the 
object of his love ? He could never find in us any cause why he should 
love us. God could not love us with honour to himself, if his wisdom 
had not found out this way of loving us in Christ. There was a double 
prejudice against us our nature was loathed by God's holiness, and 
then God's justice had a quarrel against us. 

1. For God's holiness. What communion could there be between 
light and darkness ? God is holy by nature, and we are sinners by 
nature. Nature being corrupted, God cannot love it, unless he see it 
in such a person as Christ is : Ps. v. 4, 5, ' For thou art not a God that 
hast pleasure in wickedness, neither shall evil dwell with thee. The 
foolish shall not stand in thy sight, thou hatest all workers of iniquity ; ' 
not only the work, but the person. Therefore we are hidden in him, 
found in him ; as when a man loathes a pill, we lap it up in some 
thing which he affects. God abhorred the sight of man till found 
in Christ. 

2. God's justice had a quarrel against us. God dealt with man by 
way of covenant, and so hated man not only out of the purity of his 
nature, but out of justice; his righteous anger was kindled because of 
the breach of the covenant. When subjects are fallen into displeasure 
with their prince, such an one as the king loveth must mediate for them. 
So ' God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself,' 2 Cor. v. 
19. How cometh God, who seemed to be bound in point of honour 
to avenge himself on sinners, to be reconciled ? In Christ he received 
satisfaction. God was resolved to manifest an infinite love to man, but 
he would still manifest an infinite hatred against sin ; which could not 
be more fully manifested than by making Christ the ground of our 
reconciliation. Thus the wisdom of God hath taken up the difference 
between us and his holiness, and between us and his justice, that so 
divine love may be like itself, not blind, but rational. This was the 
great prejudice how could the holy God, the just God, who is not 
overcome with any passion, love such vile and unworthy creatures as 
we are ? The question is answered he loveth us in Christ, and for 
Christ's sake. 

Secondly, Take the particle Ka6a>s, as, in the ordinary acceptation. 
So it signifieth srnilitude and likeness ; but then it signifieth not an 
exact equality, but some kind of resemblance : ' Be ye perfect, as your 
heavenly Father is perfect,' Mat. v. 48 ; ' One as we are one.' So here 
(1.) There is a disparity ; (2.) A likeness. 

1. A disparity ; for in all things Christ hath the pre-eminence, both 
as God and as mediator. 

[1.] As God ; he is most perfect, in whom God hath found all com 
placency and delight : Prov. viii. 30, ' Then I was by him, as one 
brought up with him ; and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always 
before him.' He was God, we are creatures ; he the natural Son : Ps. 
ii. 7, ' Thou art my Son ; this day have I begotten thee.' We the 



78 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [$ER. XL. 

adopted children : John i. 12, ' To as many as received him, to them 
gave he power to become the sons of God.' God's love to Christ was 
necessary, ours is a free dispensation : John iii. 16, ' God so loved the 
world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in 
him should not perish, but have everlasting life.' 

[2.] As mediator ; so he is the first beloved. God loves Christ as 
the first object of his love ; after Christ, he loveth those that are 
Christ's. The relation begins with him: John xx. 17, 'Go to my 
brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your 
Father, unto my God and your God/ He is loved as the head of the 
mystical body, we as members ; the head first, then the members. He 
is loved for his own sake, we for his. 

2. Yet there is a likeness. God loveth us with a like love. 

[1.] Upon the same grounds nearness and likeness. 

(1.) Nearness. He loveth Christ as .his Son, so he loveth us as his 
children : 1 John iii. 1, ' Behold what manner of love the Father hath 
bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God.' There 
is a threefold ecce in scripture. (1.) Ecce demonstrantis, as pointing 
with the finger : John i. 29, ' The next day John seeth Jesus coming 
unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the 
sin of the world.' It referreth to a thing or person present, and it 
noteth the certainty of sense, as there he pointed at him as present ; or 
to a doctrine, and then it noteth the certainty of faith : Job v. 27, 
' Lo this, we have searched, so it is ; hear it, and know thou it for thy 
good ; ' believe it as a certain truth. (2.) There is ecce admirantis, 
as awakening our drowsy minds more attentively to consider of the 
matter ; as Lam. i. 12, ' Behold, and see if there be any sorrow like 
unto my sorrow.' So here, entertain it with wonder and reverence as 
an important truth. (3.) Ecce exultantis, vel gratulantis, as rejoicing 
and blessing ourselves in the privilege : Ps. cxxi. 4, ' Behold, he that 
keepeth Israel, he neither slumbers nor sleeps/ Now all these take 
place here. Behold it with faith and confidence, as a certain truth ; 
behold it with reverence and wonder, as a high dignity ; behold it 
with joy and delight, as a blessed privilege : as it is a certain truth, we 
should believe it more firmly ; as it is an important truth, we should 
consider it more seriously ; as it is a comfortable truth, we should im 
prove it more effectually, to our great joy and satisfaction in all condi 
tions. The wisdom of God findeth out relations between God and us, 
to establish a mutual love between us. He would be known, not only 
as our creator, but our father ; and indeed none is so much a father 
as God is. Earthly parents have but a drop of fatherly compassion 
suitable to their finite scantling ; never had any such bowels and affec 
tions as our Father which is in heaven. If we look to his fatherly 
bowels, none deserve th the title but he : Isa. xlix. 15, ' Can a mother 
forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the 
fruit of her womb ? yea, they may forget, yet will not I forget thee ; ' 
Mat. vii. 11, ' If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto 
your children, how much more will your Father which is in heaven give 
good things to them that ask him ? ' Ps. xxvii. 10, ' When my father 
and mother forsake me, then the Lord will take me up/ Certainly 
God excelleth all temporal relations ; never father had such bowels 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 79 

and affections. We were never in the bosom of God, to know his 
heart ; but the only Son of God, that came out of his bosom, he hath 
told us tidings of it, and hath bidden us come boldly and call him 
Father. ' When ye pray, say, Our Father.' 

(2.) Likeness is another ground of love. God loveth Christ, not 
only as his Son, but as his image, he being ' the brightness of his 
glory, and the express image of his person/ Heb. i. 3. So he loveth 
the saints, who are by grace renewed after his image : Col. iii. 10, 
' And that ye put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge 
after the image of him that created him ; ' and who are thereby made 
' partakers of the divine nature/ 2 Peter i. 4. We lost by Adam the 
image of God and the favour of God ; now, first his image is repaired 
in us, then his love and favour is bestowed on us ; without this we 
could not be lovely in his eye, for we are amiable in the sight of God 
by reason of that comeliness he has put upon us. 

[2.] There are like properties. 

(1.) It is free. So was God's love to Christ's manhood ; as much 
of his substance as was taken from the virgin was chosen out of grace. 
Christ for his whole person deserved love, but as to his human nature, 
he was himself an object of elective love as we are ; and this being as 
sumed into the unity of his person, Christ was set apart by God for the 
work of mediation: Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my servant whom I uphold, mine 
elect in whom my soul delighteth ; I have put my Spirit upon him.' 
Choice supposeth the preferment or acceptance of one, and refusal of 
another ; so was Christ chosen as man. This the virgin acknow- 
ledgeth : Luke i. 48, ' He hath regarded the low estate of his hand 
maid.' He had done her an honour, the greatest that was done to 
any of his servants, among which she acknowledged herself the un- 
worthiest. So much of the substance of the virgin as went to the 
person of Christ, and his human soul, was chosen out of mere grace. 
Nay, in his divine person there was a choice which is to be referred 
to the wisdom and pleasure of the Father : Col. i. 19, ' It pleased the 
Father that in him should all fulness dwell.' The same account as 
is given of our salvation : Mat. xi. 25, 26, ' I thank thee, Father, 
Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from 
the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, 
Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight.' So is God's love to us 
free and undeserved ; his love is the reason of itself ; he loved us be 
cause he loved us : Deut. vii. 7, S, ' The Lord did not set his love on 
you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any peo 
ple ; but because the Lord loved you.' There is the last cause, God's 
act is its own law and reason, we can give no other account. 

(2.) It is tender and affectionate. There is a full complacency and 
delight in Christ : Mat. iii. 17, ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I 
am well-pleased.' His heart was taken up with him, he was full of 
contentment in him ; as a husband is called ' the covering of the eyes/ 
because a woman should look no further. So Prov. viii. 31, ' I was 
daily his delight, rejoicing always before him.' So tenderly affec- 
tioned is God to the saints : Isa. Ixii. 5, ' As the bridegroom rejoiceth 
over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee ;' then affections are 
in their reign and height. So tender is God of his people : Zech. ii. 



80 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XL. 

8, c He that touclieth you, toucheth the apple of his eye.' The eye is 
the most tender part, and so is the apple of the eye. Can there be a 
more endearing expression ? 

(3.) It is eternal. Christ as mediator was loved before the Lunda- 
tion of the world in God's purpose : John xvii. 24, ' Father, I will 
that they also whom thou hast given me may be with me where I am, 
that they may behold my glory that thou hast given me ; for thou. 
hast loved me before the foundation of the world/ And in loving 
Christ he loved us ; and in choosing Christ as head of the church, 
the members were included in that election, for head and body cannot 
be severed. This grace was given us in Christ before the world be 
gan : 2 Tim. i. 9, ' Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy 
calling ; not according to our works, but according to his own pur 
pose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world 
began.' Some are not called as soon as others, but all are loved as 
soon as others, even from eternity. God's love is as ancient as himself, 
there was no time when God did not think of us, and love us. We 
are wont to prize an ancient friend ; the ancientest friend we have 
is God, who loved us not only before we were lovely, but before we 
were at all. He thought of us before ever we could have a thought of 
him ; after we had a being in infancy, we could not so much as know 
that he loved us ; and when we came to years of discretion, we knew 
how to offend before we knew how to love and serve him ; we cared 
not for his love, but prostituted our hearts to other things. Let us 
measure the short scantling of our lives with eternity, wherein God 
showed love to us. As to our beings, we are but of yesterday ; as to 
the constitution of our souls, we are sinners from the womb; and 
when we are convinced of it, we adjourn and put off the love of God 
to old decrepit age, when we have spent our strength in the world, 
and wasted ourselves in deceitful and flesh-pleasing vanities. Now 
it should shame us when we remember God's love is as ancient as his 
being. Some look after God sooner than others ; but if you look after 
God never so soon, God was at work before us ; those that began 
earliest, as Josiah, John Baptist, find God more early providing for 
their eternal welfare. 

(4.) It is unchangeable ; as to Christ, so to us ; from eternity it 
began, to eternity it continueth : it began before the world was, and 
will continue when the world shall be no more : Ps. ciii. 17, ' The 
mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting, upon them that 
fear him, and his righteousness unto children's children.' It is 
man's weakness to change purposes; we have good purposes, but they 
are suddenly blasted ; but God's eternal purpose, that shall stand.- We 
are mutable, and frequently change, out of the levity of our nature 
or the ignorance of futurity ; therefore upon new events we easily 
change our minds ; but God, that seeth all things at once, cannot be 
deceived ; the first reasons of God's love to man are without man, 
and so eternal. Among the persons of the Godhead, the Son loveth 
because the Father required it ; the Father, because the Son merited 
it ; and the Holy Ghost, because of the purpose of the Father ; and 
the purchase of the Son abideth in our hearts, to preserve us unto 
God's use, and to keep afoot his interest in us. 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 81 

Thirdly, There are the like fruits and effects of it. I shall instance 
in some which are like his love to Christ. 

1. Communication of secrets. All things are in common amongst 
those that love one another. Said Delilah to Sampson, Judges xvi. 15, 
' How canst thou say, I love thee, when thy heart is not with me ? 
thou hast mocked me these three times, and hast not told me wherein 
thy great strength lieth.' Now Jesus Christ knoweth all the secrets of 
God: John i. 18, ' No man hath seen God at any time ; the only- 
begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared 
him.' Christ, lying in the Father's bosom, knoweth his nature and 
his will. So it is with the saints : John xiv. 21, ' He that hath my 
commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me ; and he 
that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and 
will manifest myself to him.' As God manifested himself to Christ, 
so Christ will to us. Christ hath treated us as friends : John xv. 15, 
' Henceforth I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what 
his Lord doeth ; but I have called you friends, for all things that I 
have heard of my Father, I have made known unto you/ The know 
ledge of God's ways is a special fruit of his love. 

2. Spiritual gifts. God's love to Christ was a bounteous love : John 
iii. 34, 35, ' God giveth not the Spirit by measure to him : the Father 
loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hands.' God's love 
was showed to Christ in qualifying the human nature with such ex 
cellent gifts of grace. As to us, God's love is not barren ; as a fruit of 
God's love, Christ received all things needful for us. You will 
perhaps say, as they replied to God when he said, ' I have loved you, 
Wherein hast thou loved us?' Mai. i. 2, because he hath not made 
you great, rich, and honourable. If he hath given us such a proof 
of his love as he gave to Christ, namely, such a measure of his Spirit 
as is fit for us, we have no reason to murmur or complain. The 
Spirit of illumination is better than all the glory of the world : Prov. 
iii. 32, ' The froward is an abomination to the Lord ; but his secret is 
with the righteous.' The Spirit of regeneration, to convert the heart 
to God and heaven : 1 Cor. ii. 12, ' Now we have received, not the 
spirit of the world, but the Spirit that is of God, that we might know 
the things that are freely given us of God.' The Spirit of consolation, 
to evidence God's love to us, and our right to glory : 2 Cor. i. 22, ' Who 
hath sealed us, and given the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts ; ' 2 Cor. 
v. 5, ' Now he that hath wrought us for the self-same thing is God, 
who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit.' As the end of 
his love to Christ's human nature was to bring it to heaven, so the end 
of God's love to us is to sanctify us, and so to make way for glory. 

3. Sustentation, and gracious protection during our work and service. 
This was his love to Christ : Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my servant whom I 
uphold ; ' ' I am not alone, my Father is with me,' John viii. 16. His 
enemies could not touch him till his time came: John xi. 9, 'Are 
there not twelve hours in the day ? If any man walk in the day, he 
stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.' As long as 
the time of exercising his function here lasted, there was such a provi 
dence about him as did secure him from all danger ; and till that time 
was past, and the providence withdrawn, he was safe ; and when that 

VOL. XI. F 



82 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XL. 

was out, and he seemed to be delivered to the will of his enemies, all 
the creatures were in a rout, the sun was struck blind with astonish 
ment, the earth staggered and reeled. So God will carry us through 
our work, and keep us blameless to his heavenly kingdom ; but if we 
are cut off by the violence of men, all the affairs of mankind are put 
in confusion, and carried headlong, besides the confederacies of nature 
disturbed, and divers judgments (as in Egypt, and the land of the 
Philistines) ensue ; odium in religionis professores ; the world shall 
know how dear and precious they are to God. 

4. Acceptance of what we do. God accepted all that Christ did ; 
it was very pleasing to God : Eph. v. 2, ' Walk in love, as Christ also 
hath loved us, and given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to 
God for a sweet-smelling savour.' In every solemn sacrifice for the 
congregation, the blood of it was brought unto the mercy-seat with a 
perfume ; but Christ's sacrifice received value from his person, he being 
one so dear to God, so excellent in himself. This kind of love God 
showeth to us, the persons of the upright are God's delight; and then 
their prayers : Cant. v. 1, ' I am come into my garden, my sister, my 
spouse ; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice, I have eaten my 
honeycomb with my honey.' Though our services are mingled with 
weaknesses and imperfection, they shall be accepted : ' But the sacri 
fice of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord, much more when he 
bringeth it with an evil mind,' Prov. xv. 8. 

5. Keward. Christ was gloriously exalted ; after his sufferings he 
entered into glory, and was conducted to heaven by angels, and welcomed 
by the Father, who, as it were, took him by the hand : Ps. ii. 7, 8, 
' Thou art my Son ; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I 
will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts 
of the earth for thy possession.' So if we do what he did, we shall fare 
as he fared : John xii. 26, ' If any man serve me, let him follow me, 
and where I am, there shall my servant be : if any man serve me, 
him will my Father honour.' When we die, we shall be conveyed to 
heaven by angels : Luke xvi. 22, ' The beggar died, and was carried 
by angels into Abraham's bosom;' our souls first, -then our bodies: 
Phil. iii. 21, ' Who shall change our vile bodies, that they may be like 
unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able 
even to subdue all things to himself/ And at last we shall have a 
solemn welcome into heaven : Mat. xxv. 21, ' Well done, good and 
faithful servant ; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make 
thee ruler over many things ; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.' 
Christ is not only purchaser, but first possessor, and is gone into heaven 
to prepare a place for us, to which he will at last bring us : John xiv. 
2, 3, ' In my Father's house are many mansions ; if it were not so, I 
would have told you : I go to prepare a place for you ; and if I go to 
prepare a place, I will come again and receive you unto myself, that 
where I am, there ye may be also.' 

Use 1. Information, to show what ground we have of patience, 
comfort, and confidence. 

1. Of patience in afflictions from God. Would we be loved other 
wise than Christ was loved ? We see in the person of Christ that 
love may stand with fatherly correction. Christ was beloved by God, 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 83 

yet under poverty, disgrace, persecution, hunger, thirst, &c. When 
Christ was hungry, the devil came unto him : Mat. iv. 3, ' If thou be 
the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.' So he 
taketh advantage of our troubles and afflictions to make us question 
our adoption ; but we may retort the argument : Heb. xii. 7, 8, ' If 
ye endure chastisement, God dealeth with you as with sons ; for what 
son is he whom the father chasteneth not ? But if ye be without 
chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not 
sons/ Brambles are not pruned, but vines. God loved Christ in the 
lowest degree of his abasement, as much as at other times. Shall I 
desire to be otherwise beloved of God than Christ was ? Nay ; God's 
love may stand with sad suspensions of soul-comforts : Mat. xxvii. 46, 
' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? ' The natural Son 
was in the love of God when at the worst ; God loved him still, though 
he appeared to him with another face ; as the sun is the same when 
it shineth through red glass, only it casts a more bloody reflection. 
God had one Son without sin, but none without suffering. 

2. Comfort when we meet with ill-usage in the world. Our Lord 
Jesus prayeth that the world may be convinced that God loved them 
as he loved Christ. When the world entreated Christ ill, how was 
the world convinced that God loved him ? There was an eclipse at 
his death, which was a monument of God's displeasure : Mat. xxvii. 
54, ' When the centurion, and they that were with him watching 
Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things which were done, they 
feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.' So when 
Christ's members are evil-entreated, there are public monuments of 
God's displeasure, the courses of nature are altered, droughts, inun 
dations, pestilences, famines, unseasonable weather, confusions, &c. 
If this be not, when God smile th, though the world frowneth, you will 
convince them by bearing up with courage and confidence. The more 
the world is set against us, the more do the fruits of his love appear 
before men. 

3. Confidence in the midst of dangers and temptations. When once 
we are assured of God's love, what shall separate us from it ? Horn, 
viii. 38, 39, ' For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor 
angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things 
to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able 
to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord/ 
Can anything alienate God's love in Christ ? If it were God's love in 
us, that were an uncertain ground of hope ; but it is God's love in 
Christ. Get but an assurance of his love, and you will never be 
ashamed. What can alienate the heart of God from you, while you 
are faithful to him, and have the sure pledge of his love, his Spirit in 
your heart ? Love or hatred is not known by anything that is before 
us. But if you have a heart to seek him, fear him, obey his laws ; 
this is the favour of his people, and this was his love to Christ. 

Use 2. Direction. 

1. Whereby chiefly to measure God's love ; by his spiritual bounty : 
John iii. 34, 35, ' God giveth not the Spirit by measure to him. The 
Father loveth the Son, and hath given, all things into his hands/ So 
the gifts and graces of the Spirit are the special effects of his love ; 



84 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XL. 

for he loved us as he loved Christ, and thus he manifested his love to 
Christ : Ps. cvi. 4, ' Eemember me, Lord, with the love that thou 
bearest to thy people/ When one gave Luther gold, he said, Valde 
protestatus sum, me nolle sic a Deo satiari. Be not satisfied till God 
love you with such a love as he loved Christ. Inward excellences, 
though with outward crosses, these are the best fruits of his love ; a 
heart to seek him, to fear his name, to obey his laws, an understanding 
to know his will. God's love is best known by the stamp of his Spirit, 
that is his mark set upon us. Let us leave outward things to God's 
wisdom. Love or hatred is not known by all that is before us. Let 
us labour for a share in his peculiar love : Ps. cxix. 132, ' Look thou. 
upon me, and be merciful unto me, as thou usest to do unto those 
that love thy name.' Lord, I do not ask riches, nor glory, nor pre 
ferment in the world ; I ask thy love, thy grace, thy Spirit. Doth 
our Saviour care for outward things ? Other things are given pro 
miscuously, these to his favourites. God's love is conveyed through 
Christ : Eev. i. 5, ' To him that loved us, and washed us from our 
sins in his own blood.' He loved us, and sanctified us : Eph. v. 25, 
26, 'Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church, and gave 
himself for it, that he might sanctify and. cleanse it with the washing 
of water by the word/ Nothing more worthy, nothing more suitable 
to Christ's love. 

2. It directeth us what to do when we are dejected through our 
own unworthiness. Look upon God's love in Christ. If God did 
take arguments and grounds of love from the creature, where would 
he have found objects of love ? God hath proclaimed it from heaven : 
Mat. iii. 17, ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ;' 
and ' We are accepted in the beloved,' Eph. i. 6. Jesus Christ is 
worthy ; desire ' to be found in him, not having thine own righteous 
ness.' Lord, for the merits of thy blessed Son, accept of me. Christ, 
being beloved of the Father, is the storehouse and conduit to convey 
that love to his people. 

Use 3. Exhortation, to endeavour after the sense and apprehension 
of this love in our own hearts. Surely this is our duty ; for Christ 
afterward saith, ver. 26, ' That the love wherewith thou hast loved me 
may be in them.' There is a love of God towards us, and a love of 
God in us ; so Zanchy, citing the text. His love, ergo nos, towards 
us, is carried on from all eternity ; but nondum in nobis, it is not in 
us, but in time. He loved us before the foundation of the world, 
though we know it not, feel it not ; but now this love beginneth to be 
in us when we receive the effects, and God is actually become our 
reconciled Father in Christ. God's love from everlasting was in pur 
pose and decree, not in act. God's love in us is to be interpreted two 
ways both in the effects and the sense. In the effects, at conver 
sion : Eph. ii. 4, 5, ' But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great 
love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses 
and sins, hath quickened us together with Christ.' In the sense, when 
we get assurance, and an intimate feeling of it in our own souls. Both 
are wrought in us by the Spirit : Rom. v. 5, ' And hope maketh us 
not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by 
the Holy Ghost, that is given to us.' A man may have the effects, 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 85 

but not the sense. God may love a man, and he not know it, nor feel 
it. But we are to look after both. Therefore I shall do two things 
(1.) Press you to get the sense; (2.) Speak to the comfort of them 
that have indeed the effects but not the sense. 

First, I shall press you all to get the sense and comfortable appre 
hension of this love, that God loved you as he loved Christ. 

1. Motives. The benefits are exceeding great. 

[1.] Nothing quickeneth the heart more to love God. Certainly 
we are to love God again, who loved us first, 1 John iv. 19. Now 
though it be true that radius reflexus languet, that God loveth us 
first, best, and most, yet the more direct the beam, the stronger the 
reflection ; the more we know that God loveth us in Christ, the more 
are we urged and quickened to love God again : 2 Cor. v. 14, ' For 
the love of Christ constraineth us.' And this consideration is the 
more binding'; if you expect those privileges which Christ had, you 
must express your love by suitable obedience : John vi. 38, ' I came 
down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that 
sent me ;' John iv. 34, ' My meat is to do the will of him that sent 
me, and to finish his work ;' John viii. 29, ' And he that sent me is 
with me ; the Father hath not left me alone, for I do always those 
things that please him.' You must love him as Christ loved him. 
Will you sin against God, that are so beloved of him ? Thus we 
must kindle our hearts at God's fire, for love must be paid in kind. 

[2.] It maketh us contented, patient, and joyful in tribulations and 
afflictions : Kom. v. 3, ' And not only so, but we glory in tribulations 
also;' and 1 Peter i. 8, 'Whom having not seen, ye love ; in whom, 
though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeak 
able, and full of glory.' 

[3.] Nothing more emboldeneth the soul against the day of death 
and judgment than to know that God loveth us as he loved Christ, 
and therefore will give us the glory that Christ is possessed of : 1 John 
iv. 17, '-Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness 
in the day of judgment, because as he is so are we in the world ;' the 
greater apprehension we have of the love of God in Christ, the more 
perfect our love is. 

2. Means that this may be increased in us. 

[1.] Meditate more on, and believe the gospel. It is good to bathe 
and steep our thoughts in the remembrance of God's wonderful love 
to sinners in Christ : John xvii. 26, ' I have declared to them thy 
name, and will declare it, that the love wherewith thou hast loved me 
may be in them, and I in them.' Fervency of affection followeth 
strength of persuasion, and strength of persuasion is increased by 
serious thoughts. 

[2.] Live in obedience to the Spirit's sanctifying motions ; for this 
love is applied by the Spirit : Kom. viii. 14, ' For as many as are led 
by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God ;' compared with 16th 
verse, ' The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirits, that we are 
the children of God.' The Spirit obeyed as a sanctifier will soon 
become a comforter, and fill our hearts with a sense of the love of 
God. 

[3.] Take heed of all sin, especially heinous and wilful sins : Isa. 



86 SEKMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XL. 

Ixix. 2, ' Your iniquities have separated between you and your God, 
and your sins have hid his face from you that he will not hear ; ' Eph. 
iv. 30, ' And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed 
to the day of redemption.' Otherwise you may lose the sense of God's 
love once evidenced. Men that have been lifted up to heaven in com 
fort, have fallen almost as low as hell in sorrow, trouble, and perplexity 
of spirit. One frown of God, or withdrawing the light of his counte 
nance, will guickly turn our day into night ; and the poor forsaken 
soul, formerly feasted with the sense of God's love, knoweth not whence 
to fetch any comfort and support. 

Secondly, I shall seek to comfort them that have but the effects, 
not the sense. For many serious Christians will say, Blessed. are they 
who are in Christ, whom God loveth as he loved Christ ; but what is 
this to me, that know not whether I have any part in him or no ? To 
these I will speak two things (1.) What comfort yet remaineth; 
(2.) Whether these be not enough to evidence they have some part 
in Christ: 

1 . What may yet stay their hearts. 

[1.] The foundation of God still standeth sure : ' The Lord knoweth 
those that are his,' 2 Tim. ii. 19. He knoweth his own, when some of 
them know not they are his own ; he seeth his mark upon his sheep, 
when they see it not themselves. God doubteth not of his interest in 
thee, though thou doubtest of thy interest in him ; and you are held 
faster in the arms of his love than by the power of your own faith ; 
as the child is surer in the mother's arms than by its holding the 
mother. 

[2.] Is not God in Christ willing to show mercy to penitent believers ? 
or to manifest himself to them as their God and reconciled Father ? 
Did not his love and grace find out the remedy before we were born ? 
And when we had lived without God in the world, he sought after us 
when we went astray ; he thought on us when we did not think on 
him, and tendered grace to us when we had no mind and heart to it : 
Isa. Ixv. 1, ' I am sought of them that asked not for me ; I am found 
of them that sought me not.' 

[3.] Hast thou not visibly entered into the bond of the holy oath, 
and consented to the covenant, seriously at least, if thou canst not say 
sincerely ? Or dost thou resolve to continue in sin rather than accept 
of the happiness offered or the terms required ? Then thou hast no 
part in Christ indeed. But if thou darest not refuse his covenant, but 
cheerfully submittest to it, then God is thy God : Zech. xiii. 9, ' I will 
say, It is my people ; and they shall say, The Lord is my God.' If 
thou consentest that Christ shall be thy Lord and Saviour, thou art a 
part of the renewed estate whereof Christ is the head. 

[4.] If thou wantest a sense of his love, because of thy manifold 
failings, it is unreasonable to think that all will end in wrath, which 
was begun in so much love. If he expressed love to thee in thy 
unconverted estate, and hath brought thee into God's family, will he 
destroy thee, and turn thee out again upon every actual unkindness ? 
The Lord doth gently question with Jonah in his fret : ' Dost thou 
well to be angry ? ' Jonah iv. 9. When the disciples fell asleep in the 
night of Christ's agony, he doth not say, Ye are none of mine, because 



VER. 23.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 87 

ye could not watch with me one hour ; but rather excuseth it : Mat. 
xxvi. 41, ' The Spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.' This 
great love of God overcometh all the unkindness of his children. 

2. What may evidence they are concerned in this love. 

[1.] There is some change wrought in you ; thou art now no despiser 
of God and his holy ways ; the heart of thy sensuality, pride, and 
worldliness is broken, though too much of it still remaineth in thee. 
Now it is good to be in the way to a further progress ; and we begin 
with mortification : 2 Cor. v. 17, ' If any man be in Christ, he is a 
new creature : old things are passed away, behold, all things are become 
new.' Every change for the better is either the new creature or a 
preparation to it. 

[2.] The gift of the sanctifying Spirit is more prized by thee than 
all the riches and honours in the world. Now without holiness we 
cannot esteem holiness, and practically prefer it about other things. 
God loveth Christ as he bore his image ; so he loveth us as we are sealed 
by the mark of the Spirit : Ps. cvi. 4, ' Kemember me, Lord, with 
the favour that thou bearest unto thy people : visit me with thy 
salvation ;' and Ps. cxix. 132, ' Look thou upon me, and be merciful 
unto me, as thou usest to do unto those that love thy name.' 

[3.] Thou lovest and preferrest Christ's people, and that for their 
holiness, and therefore seekest to discountenance all sorts of wicked 
ness : Ps. xv. 4, ' In whose eyes a vile person is contemned ; but he 
honoureth them that fear the Lord.' He laboureth to discountenance 
all sorts of wickedness, and desireth to bring goodness and godliness 
into a creditable esteem and reputation, and payeth a hearty honour 
and respect to those that excel therein : so Ps. xvi. 3, ' But to the saints 
that are in the earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all my delight.' 
He doth value them, and esteem them, above the greatest men in the 
world, because they are so loved, prized, and set apart by God. 

[4.] You labour more and more to be such, whom God loveth as 
he loved Christ. Jesus Christ was the express image of his person ; 
we strive to be such in the world as Christ was, 1 John iv. 17, hating 
what God hateth, and loving what God loveth ; then we make it our 
business to walk as he walked, 1 John ii. 6, doing his will, seeking his 
glory. God loved Christ for that spirit of obedience that was in him, 
who shrunk not in the hardest duties, but, whatever it cost him, was 
faithful in his work. 

Observe, thirdly, that God would have the world know so much, and 
be convinced of this great love which he beareth to the saints : ' That 
the world may know that thou hast loved them/ &c. 

1. The necessity of the world's knowledge. 

[1.] Because the world is blinded with ignorance and prejudice 
against the children of God ; they cannot, or rather will not see : 
1 Cor. ii. 14, ' But the natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God : for they are foolishness unto him ; neither can he 
know them, because they are spiritually discerned.' They will not see, 
because they have a mind to hate. 

[2.] The life that floweth from this union is a hidden thing : Col. 
iii. 3, ' For our life is hid with Christ in God/ It is hidden, because 
maintained by an invisible power ; the spiritual life is hidden under 



88 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XL. 

the veil of the natural life : Gal. ii. 20, ' The life which I now live in 
the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave 
himself for me.' It is obscured by infirmities. The best show forth 
too much of Adam, and too little of Jesus. It is hidden under afflic 
tions : Heb. xi. 37, 38, ' They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, 
were tempted, were slain with the sword : they wandered about in 
sheep-skins, and goat-skins ; being destitute, afflicted, tormented ; of 
whom the world was not worthy/ &c. ; and the world's reproaches : 
2 Cor. vi. 8, ' By honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report ; 
as deceivers, and yet true.' 

2. The means whereby the world is convinced. 

[1.] The promises of the word show God's great love to the saints, 
and hereby he hath engaged himself to do great things for them : 
2 Peter i. 4, ' Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious 
promises, that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature.' 
He hath engaged to pardon their sins, accept their persons, sanctify 
their natures, keep them blameless to his heavenly kingdom, and finally, 
to translate them to glory : Deut. xxxiii. 29, ' Happy art thou, 
Israel : who is like unto thee, people saved by the Lord, and who is 
the shield of thy excellency ! thy enemies shall be found liars unto 
thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places;' Ps. cxliv. 15, 
' Happy is that people that is in such a case ; yea, happy is that people 
whose God is the Lord/ 

[2.] By the visible fruits of the mystical union. The gift of the 
Spirit cannot be hidden, they have a power and presence with them 
which others have not : 1 Peter iv. 14, ' The Spirit of glory and of 
God resteth upon you/ They live contrary to the course of this world, 
so as to become the world's wonder : 1 Peter iv. 4, ' Wherein they 
think it strange that you run not with them to the same excess of riot/ 
And reproof : Heb. xi. 7, ' By faith Noah, being warned of God of 
things not seen as yet, moved with fear prepared an ark for the saving 
of his house, by the which he condemned the world/ 

[3.] By the wonderful blessings of God's providence ; they are 
hidden in the secret of his presence, strangely preserved : Ps. iv, 3, 
' But know that the Lord hath set apart him that is godly for himself ; ' 
not only as instruments of his glory, but as objects of his special 
favour and grace. 

[4.] This is more fully seen for the utter confusion of the wicked 
at the last day : 2 Thes. i. 10, ' When he shall come to be glorified in 
his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe/ Now it is for 
their conviction or conversion, then for their confusion ; these are those 
whose lives we judged madness, and ways folly ! 

3. Why Christ was so earnest that the world should know this. 
[1.] To restrain their malice : 1 Cor. ii. 5, ' Had they known it, 

they would not have crucified the Lord of glory/ If God loveth 
believers, it should stop the violence and malice of .the world against 
them; they are the beloved ones of God whom they malign, and 
against whom their heart riseth. 

[2.] It stirreth them up to come out of their wicked condition, that 
is, out of a state of nature : Ps. vii. 11, ' God is angry with the wicked 
every day/ 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 89 

[3.] To put in for a share in this blessed estate, that they may be 
some of those whom he loveth as he loved Christ. 

Use 1. Caution to the carnal world. Do not hate those whom God 
thus loveth. To you they are accursed, but God counteth them 
precious : Isa. xliii. 4, ' Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou 
hast been honourable, and I have loved thee.' To you they are the 
scurf and offscouring: 1 Cor. iv. 13, 'We are made as the filth of 
the world, and the offscouring of all things to this day/ But to God 
they are jewels : Mai. iii. 17, ' They shall be mine, saith. the Lord, in 
the day when I make up my jewels.' 

Use 2. Advice. to the children of God, to promote the conviction 
and conversion of the carnal : 1 Peter ii. 12, ' Having your conver 
sation honest amongst the Gentiles ; that whereas they speak against 
you as evil-doers, they may by your good works which they shall 
behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.' Herein you imitate your 
master, and your own safety lieth in it. 



SERMON XLI. 

Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me be with me 
where I am ; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast 
given me : for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world. 
JOHN XVII. 24. 

WE have hitherto seen Christ's prayers for the happiness of his church 
in the present world ; now he prayeth for their happiness in the world 
to come. His love looketh beyond the grave, and outlasteth the life 
that now is ; he cannot be contented with anything on this side a 
blessed eternity. Glory as well as grace is the fruit of his purchase, 
and therefore it is the matter of his prayers. Every verse is sweet, 
but this should not be read without some ravishment and leaping of 
heart. One saith he would not for all the world that this scripture 
should have been left out of the Bible. Certainly we should have 
wanted a great evidence and demonstration of Christ's affection. 
Every word is emphatical. Let us view it a little. 

Here is a compellation, a request, and the reason of that request. 
The compellation, ' Father.' In the request there is the manner, how 
it is made, ' I will.' The persons for whom it is made, ' That they 
whom thou hast given me.' The matter of the request, in presence 
and vision, ' Be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory.' 
Or the matter is everlasting happiness, which is described by the place 
of enjoyment, and our work when we come thither. Now the reason 
of all is, the Father's eternal love to Christ, and in Christ to us, ' For 
thou hast loved me before the foundation of the world.' 

First, The compellation, ' Father.' The titles of God are usually 
suited to the matter in hand. Christ is now suing for a child's portion 
for all his members, and therefore he saith, ' Father.' God is Christ's 
father by eternal generation, and ours by gracious adoption, whence 
our title to heaven ariseth. And therefore it is called an inheritance : 



90 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SsR. XLI. 

Col. iii. 24, ' Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of 
the inheritance.' It is not simply wages, such as a servant receiveth 
from his master ; but an inheritance, or a child's portion, such as chil 
dren receive from parents. And it is very notable the apostle there 
speaketh of servants, who are saved, as God's sons. So our waiting 
for glory is expressed by / waiting for the adoption,' Horn. viii. 23, 
because then we have the fruit of it. We hold heaven not by merit, 
nor by our purchase, nor by privilege of birth, but by adoption. The 
ground of expectation is put for the matter of expectation, ' waiting 
for the adoption.' And now we wait, because now we have/ws hcere- 
ditatis ; then we have possession. 

Use 1. This notion represents the freeness of grace in giving us 
glory ; we do not receive it as a debt, but as a gift. Nothing is more 
free than an inheritance. It was purchased by Christ, but it was given 
to us ; we receive it by virtue of his testament, and the Father's pro 
mise. It is called an ' inheritance,' Eph. i. 18, ' What is the riches of 
the glory of his inheritance in the saints ;' an inheritance cometh freely, 
and without burden and incumbrance. Thus we hold heaven by all 
kind of titles ; we have it by purchase, and we have it freely. Christ 
maketh the purchase, and we possess the gift. It is a greater security 
to our hopes when we can look for heaven from a merciful Father and 
a righteous judge ; it is just, Christ having paid the price. Therefore 
it is called, ' The gift of God through Jesus Christ our Lord,' Kom. vi. 
20. It is the Father's gift, but for the greater honour to God, and 
security to us, it is Christ's purchase. 

Use 2. It showeth the neceessity of becoming sons to God if we 
expect heaven. Children can only look for a child's portion. The 
world is a common inn for sons and bastards ; but heaven is called 
' our Father's house ;' none but children are admitted there : John iii. 
3, ' Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God/ 
Seeing is often put for enjoying ; yet the word is emphatical ; they 
shall not have so much as a glimpse of heaven, but are cast into ever 
lasting darkness. A man should never be quiet till he be one of the 
family, and can evidence his new birth. As they were put from the 
priesthood as polluted that could not find their genealogy, Ezra ii. 62, 
so, if you cannot prove your descent from God, you are disclaimed, 
and reckoned not to God's, but to Satan's family. 

Use 3. It teacheth God's children with patience and comfort to wait 
for this happy estate : Kom. viii. 23, ' And not only they, but ourselves 
also, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan 
within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of 
our bodies.' You do not yet know what adoption meaneth ; the day 
of the manifestation of the sons of God is to come : 1 John iii. 3, 
' Behold, now are we the sons of God ; but it doth not appear what 
we shall be.' ' It doth not appear,' therefore wait. There is the 
spirit of an heir and the spirit of a servant, as we read of the ' Spirit 
of adoption.' A servant must have something in hand, pay from 
quarter to quarter ; they do not use to expect their master's possession ; 
but an heir waiteth till it fall. 

You may look upon the compellation as an expression of Christ's 
hearty good- will. When he sueth for our glorification, he iinproveth 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 91 

all his interest in God, ' Father, I will.' When he pleadeth for him 
self, he useth the same compellation, ver. 1, ' Father, glorify thy Son ;' 
ver. 5, ' And now, Father, glorify thou me with thine own self/ 
Thus here Christ's heart is much set upon the happiness of his mem 
bers ; if there be any more endearing title, the Spirit of God here will 
use it : Father, if I can do anything, or have any room in thy heart 
or affection ; ' Father, I will/ &c. When we would prevail, Christ 
biddeth us urge our interest : ' When ye pray, say, Our Father,' 
Luke xi. 2 ; so doth he. When we mediate for others, we are wont 
to mention our relation, as a circumstance of endearment ; so doth 
Christ expressly mention his relation when his requests are of great 
concernment. 

Secondly, The next circumstance is the manner of asking, 0t'\<o, 
' I will,' a word of authority, becoming him that was God and man in 
one person, who knew the Father's will, who had made a thorough 
purchase, and so might challenge it of right. So some observe he 
doth not say eptorco, but OeXw. But possibly it may bear a softer sense 
in this place ; and thus is 6e\a> used elsewhere : Mark x. 35, BeXopev, 
' Master, we will that thou shouldest do to us whatever we desire thee ; ' 
if that look like an expostulation, or a capitulation rather than a 
request. See Mark vi. 26, 0e\aj, ' I will that thou give me by and by 
in a charger the head of John the Baptist ;' Mark xii. 38, ' Master, 
OeXofjiev, we would see a sign from thee/ Briefly, then, it doth not 
express his authority so much as the full bent of heart ; only because 
he useth the word will, and because at least the manner of expression 
carrieth the force of a promise, which, if it be backed with his prayers, 
cannot fall to the ground ; we may thence 

Observe the certainty of our glorious hopes. If ' I will' be not a word 
of authority, it looketh like a testamentary disposition. Christ was 
about to die, and now he saith, ' I will/ When Christ made his will, 
heaven is one of the legacies which he bequeatheth to us. This was 
his last will and testament, ' Father, I will/ You have the very words 
and form of a testament : Luke xxii. 29, ' I appoint unto you a king 
dom, as my Father hath appointed unto me ;' Bear 107] pi, the only 
word we have for a testament. Heaven is ours, a legacy left us by 
Christ. 

But what power had Christ to dispose of it ? Let me clear that by 
the way, since he saith, Mat. xx. 23, ' To sit on my right hand, and on 
my left, is not mine to give ; but it shall be given to them for whom 
it is prepared of my Father/ Christ's power of disposing is not denied, 
but he showeth only to whom it is given, not for by-respects, but 
according to God's eternal will and purpose. In the original the 
words run otherwise than they do in our translation, OVK eariv e^ov 
Bovvai, u\\a ols ijTolfiacrTat VTTO rov irarpo^ pov. There is no ellipsis 
which some have fancied ; and it should be rendered thus, ' It is not 
mine to give, save to those for whom it is prepared of my Father/ 
He doth not deny degrees of glory, he doth not deny his own power 
to distribute them, but only asserts that he must dispose according to 
his Father's will ; not for outward and temporal respects of kindred 
and acquaintance, but as God hath given to every man his measure. 
Certainly Christ's will standeth good to all intents and purposes ; for 



92 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLI. 

as God he hath an original authority, and as mediator he doth nothing 
contrary to his Father's will ; he is tender of that, as you see in the 
place alleged ; so that the objection confirmeth the point. 

Use 1. It is comfort to us when we come to die ; thou hast Christ's 
will to show for heaven. When God's justice puts the bond in suit 
against us, then let faith put Christ's testament in suit. There is an 
old sentence against us, ' In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die/ 
Gen. ii. 17, confront it with Christ's prayer. In life we should provide 
for death, and a comfortable departure out of the world. Hear for the 
time to come ; it is good to have our comforts ready. Can a dying man 
have a sweeter meditation than Christ's words ? ' Father, I will that 
those whom thou hast given me may be with me where I am.' We know 
not how soon we may go down to the chambers of death, and become 
a feast for the worms. When we come to make our own will, we 
should think of Christ's ' Father, I will/ &c. 

Use 2. It is an engagement to holiness. That is a part of Christ's 
will : 1 Thes. iv. 3, ' For this is the will of God, even your sanctifica- 
tion/ How can I plead his will in one thing and not in another ? 
Hereditates habent sua onera. Legacies have their burdens annexed. 
Christ will have an action against us if we do not fulfil his whole will ; 
as a man that sueth for what is left him by will must take care that 
his claim be not invalidated. Did Christ ever say, I will that all that 
live as they list should at length come to heaven for all that ? No ; but, 
' I will that all those whom thou hast given me/ &c. And therefore 

Thirdly, The next circumstance is the parties for whom he prayeth. 
It is as necessary to know for whom Christ prayed as for what ; it is 
not enough to hear of a privilege, but we must consider which way 
our claim and interest doth arise. For ' those which thou hast given 
me ;' that is, for all the elect, who are intended in this expression. 

Observe, that there is a certain number given to Christ which cannot 
finally miscarry, but shall come to glory. But of that in former verses. 

1. Who are given hath been already discussed. The elect are given, 
those that come to him from the Father : John vi. 37, ' All that the 
Father giveth me shall come to me/ They are given before all time, 
and therefore in time they come, and actually accept of grace. And as 
they come to him, so they keep there, for of those he can lose nothing : 
ver. 39, ' And this is the Father's will that hath sent me, that of all 
which he hath given me I should lose nothing/ 

2. But how are they given ? By way of reward, and by way of 
charge ; the one as his work, the other as his wages. 

[1.] By way of reward : John xvii. 6, ' Thine they were, and thou 
gavest them me/ They were given to be members of his body, subjects 
of his kingdom, children of his family; Christ hath a special and 
peculiar interest in them. This was the bargain which he made with 
God, that he should be head of the renewed state. This was all the 
honour and benefit accruing to Christ by the covenant of redemption : 
Isa. liii. 10, 11, ' He shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and 
the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hands ; he shall see of the 
travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied/ Christ was pleased with the 
bargain. Nothing could be added to the greatness of his person, who 
was the eternal Son of God, equal with the Father in glory and honour ; 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 93 

yet he was pleased to account it a good purchase to have a special title 
and interest in us, and rested satisfied, having gained sufficient by all 
his expense of blood and merit. We are all Benonis, sons of sorrow 
to him. 

[2.] By way of charge : John vi. 37-39, ' All that the Father giveth 
me shall come to me, and he that cometh to me I will in no wise cast 
out ; for I came down from heaven not to do mine own will, but the 
will of him that sent me ; and this is the Father's will which hath sent 
me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but 
should raise it up again at the last day.' God calleth Christ to account 
for the elect, and his number and tale must be full. The elect are 
given to Christ, not by way of alienation, but oppignoration, that he 
may guide them safe to glory ; as the shepherd must give an account 
of the sheep to the owner that sets him awork. And so doth Christ at 
the last day : Heb. ii. 13, ' Behold I and the children which God hath 
given me.' God looketh narrowly what is become of the elect ; not one 
of the tale is wanting. 

Use. Are you of this number ? If you be given by God, you give 
up yourselves to him. Our faith is nothing else but our consent to 
God's eternal decrees. All the Father's acts are ratified in time by the 
creatures' consent. God giveth by way of reward and charge ; so there 
is a committing and a consecrating both together. 

1. Committing yourselves to Christ : 2 Tim. i. 12, ' I know whom I 
have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which 
I have committed to him against that day ; ' rrjv TrapaKaTadijKTjv /j,oi>, 
by an advised act of trust. Can you put your souls into his hands ? 
The Father is wiser than we ; he knew well enough what he did when 
he left us in charge with Christ. It argueth a sense of danger, a 
solicitous care about the soul ; and then an advised trust, grounded on 
the belief of Christ's sufficiency. Many think their souls were never 
in danger, therefore they are not careful about putting them into safe 
hands. Canst thou venture upon eternity on such assurances ? Well, I 
have trusted Christ with my soul. Oh ! it is the hardest matter in the 
world to trust Christ with our souls advisedly and knowingly. Pre 
sumption is an inconsiderate act, a fruit of incogitancy, and therefore 
very easy. 

2. Consecrating: Kom. xii. 1, 'I beseech you, brethren, by the 
mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, 
acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service ;' yield up your 
selves to Christ. So David : Ps. cxix. 94, ' I am thine, save me/ 
Personal dedication showeth God's act is not fruitless. In a serious 
self-surrender, we must give up ourselves to God ; not with any reserva 
tion, to use ourselves as our own, but absolutely to be at God's dispose, 
to live and act for him. Christians ! if you would clear up your 
interest, this is your duty, for this is but making good his grant to 
Christ. It goeth under the name of our deed, but it is God's work in 
us. The altar, the sacrifice, the fire is sent down from heaven. It is 
God's giving, still the receiving is on our part ; for by renouncing self, 
we enjoy self most. Do we out of a sense of duty thus give up our 
selves ? Do we make good our vows ? God lendeth us to ourselves, 
to be employed to his honour. 



94 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLL 

Fourthly, The next thing is the matter of the request. Presence, 
and the beatifical vision, as the fruit of that presence. 

First, ' That they may be where I am ;' that is, where I am accord 
ing to my humanity presently to be ; for he doth not speak of the 
earthly Jerusalem, where he was then visibly and corporally. 

Observe, first, it is no small part of our happiness that we shall be 
there where Christ is. Now Christ is with us, but then we are with 
him. It is the inchoation of our happiness that he is with us graciously : 
' I am with you to the end of the world,' Mat. xxviii. 20. It shall be 
the consummation of our happiness when we shall be with him. Thus 
it is often expressed : 2 Cor. v. 8, ' We are willing rather to be absent 
from the body, and to be present with the Lord.' So David expresseth 
our state of blessedness: Ps. xvi. 11, 'In thy presence is fulness of 
joy, and at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore/ This 
makes heaven to be heaven, because Christ is there ; as the king makes 
the court wherever he is, it is not the court maketh the king : John 
xii. 26, ' Where I am, there shall my servant be.' It is our happiness 
to stand always in our master's presence, a happiness that wicked men 
are not capable of, because of their bondage and estrangement from 
God. Therefore Christ telleth the carnal Jews, John vii. 34, ' Where 
I am, thither ye cannot come.' Wicked men have no grant, no leave 
to come. Paradise is still closed up against them with a flaming 
sword : and they have no heart to come, because they cannot endure 
the majesty and purity of his presence. 

But when shall we be there where Christ is ? Presently after death 
our souls shall be there, and at the resurrection, body and soul together. 

1. Presently after death the soul is where Christ is. So Paul 
thought : Phil. i. 23, ' I desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; ' that 
is, with him in glory, otherwise it were a loss of happiness for Paul to 
be dissolved. It is a sorry blessedness to lie rotting in the grave, and 
only to be eased of present labours, for God's people are wont to reckon 
much on their present service and enjoyment of God, though it be 
accompanied with affliction. Paul was in a strait, and he saith it is 
TroXXft) iiaX\.ov Kpelacrov, much more better to be dissolved. A stupid 
sleep, without the enjoyment of God, is far worse ; what happiness 
were that, to be in such a condition wherein we do nothing and feel 
nothing ? God's children are wont to prefer the most afflicted condi 
tion with God's presence above the greatest riches and contentment in 
his absence : ' If thou goest not up with us, carry us not hence,' Exod. 
xxxiii. 15. Better be with God in the wilderness, than in Canaan 
without him. Therefore Paul would never be in such a strait, if this 
drowsy doctrine were true, that the soul lay in such an inactive state 
of sleep and rest till the resurrection. He would be no happier than 
a stone, or the inanimate creatures are. Again, Luke xxiii. 43, ' This 
day shalt thou be with me in paradise,' saith Christ to the good thief. 
Some, to evade this place, refer this day to \eyrn ; but the pointing in 
all the Greek copies confute th it, as also the sense of the place : aripepov 
answereth to the thief's words, ' Remember me when thou comest into 
thy kingdom.' Christ promiseth more than he asketh, as God doth 
usually abundantly for us above what we can ask or think. He had 
reference to Christ's words to the high priest, ' The Son of man shall 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 95 

come in his glory.' Now, saith Christ, I will not defer thy desires so 
long ; heavenly joys attend thy soul. And others seek to evade it by 
the word paradise ; it is a Persiac word, but used by the Hebrews for 
gardens and orchards, and by allusion for heavenly joys : the allusion 
is not only to the delights of an ordinary garden, but Eden, or that 
garden in which Adam was placed in innocency. The fathers fancied, 
secreta animarum receptacula, et beatas sedes. But it is put for heaven 
itself in other places : 2 Cor. xii. 2, ' He was caught up into the third 
heaven,' which he presently calls paradise, ver. 4. So that presently 
souls, upon their departure out of the body, are immediately with 
Christ. Thus it is said, Luke xvi. 22, ' The beggar died, and was 
carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom ; ' presently, in the twink 
ling of an eye or the forming of a thought ; which is a great comfort 
to us when we come to die ; in a moment angels will bring you to 
Christ, and Christ to God. The agonies of death are terrible, but there 
are joys just ready ; and as soon as the soul is loosed from the prison of 
the body, you enter into your eternal rest : it flieth hence to Christ, to 
be there where he is. To be short, certainly men enter upon their 
final state presently as soon as they die : 2 Peter iii. 19, ' He went and 
preached to the spirits in prison ;' compare it with Heb. xii. 24, ' To 
the spirits of just men made perfect.' How can souls be perfect if 
they lie only in a dull sleep, without any light, life, joy, or delight, or 
act of love to God ? We see the very present refreshments of sleep are 
a burden to the saints, because they rob us of so much time, cheat us 
of half our lives. 

2. Completely at the resurrection. Believers consist of body as well 
as soul. Now it is said, ' That they may be there ;' that is, their whole 
self shall be there where Christ is. And so it proveth the resurrection, 
and the translation of our glorified bodies into heaven. So our Lord 
showeth that our being there where he is shall completely be after his 
second coming : John xiv. 3, ' And if I go and prepare a place for 
you, I will come again and receive you to myself ; that where I am, 
there ye may be also.' Christ and we that are one cannot always live 
asunder ; if he have any glory, we must have part of it ; and therefore 
he will come again and take us to himself, that as coheirs we may live 
upon the same happiness : Kom. viii. 17, ' And if children, then heirs, 
heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ ; if so be that we suffer with 
him, that we may be also glorified together.' As Joseph brought his 
brethren to Pharaoh, he bringeth us to God. As he took part with 
us in nature, so he will have us take part with him in glory. 

Now the happiness of it will appear 

[1.] By the place, the third heaven, or paradise ; as there was the 
outward court, the holy place, and the holy of holies. The spangled 
firmament is but the outside and pavement of that house where Christ 
and the saints meet. When we look upon the aspectable heavens, we 
may cry out, as David in his night-meditation, Ps. viii. 4, ' Lord, what 
is man, that thou art mindful of him ? and the son of man, that thou 
visitest him ? ' The church is but Trpodvpov teal irpodv\Lov, the portal, 
as one saith, and entrance into heaven. If the visible heavens so affect 
us, how glorious is it within ! 

[2.] The manner of bringing us thither : ' I will come again and 



96 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLI. 

receive you to myself/ John xiv. 3. Christ will not send for us, but 
come in person to fetch us in state, which will make our access to 
heaven the more glorious. Christ will come to lead his flock into 
their everlasting fold, to present his bride to God, decked and appar 
elled with glory. How glorious a sight will it be to see Christ and all 
his troops following him, with their crowns upon their heads ! to see 
the triumphant entrance into those everlasting habitations, and to hear 
the applauses of the angels ! Ps. xxiv. 7, 8, ' Lift up your heads, ye 
gates, and be ye lift up, you everlasting doors, and the King of glory 
shall come in. Who is this King of glory ? The Lord strong and 
mighty, the Lord mighty in battle.' That was a private and a per 
sonal entry at his ascension ; but now it shall be public and glorious ; 
now death the last enemy is destroyed, then he is the Lord mighty in 
battle indeed. 

[3.] Our perpetual fellowship with Christ in the presence and glory 
of his kingdom. Pray mark, there is a presence, and that is much, 
that we are called to heaven as witnesses of Christ's glory. The queen 
of Sheba said of Solomon, 1 Kings x. 8, ' Happy are thy men, happy 
are these thy servants, which stand continually before thee, and that 
hear thy wisdom.' They that stand before the Lord and see his glory 
are much more happy. Zaccheus pressed to see him ; the wise men 
came from the east to see him. It is our burden in the world that 
the clouds interpose between us and Christ, that there is a great gulf 
between us and him, which cannot be passed but by death ; that God 
is at a distance ; that our enemies often ask us, Where is your God ? 
Now we shall be happy when we shall be in his arms, when we can 
say, Here he is ; when our Redeemer is ever before our eyes, Job xix. 
26, to remember us of the grace purchased for us, and we are as near 
as we can desire. Now we dwell in his family. David envied the 
swallows that had their residence in the temple : ' One day spent in 
thy courts is better than a thousand spent elsewhere,' Ps. Ixxxiv. 10. 
Then we shall always be about his throne, and we shall for ever feed 
our eyes with this glorious spectacle, Jesus Christ : his body shall be 
in a certain place, where all shall behold it. The three children 
walked comfortably in the fiery furnace, because there was a fourth 
there, the Son of God : Dan. iii. 25, ' Lo, I see four men loose, walking 
in the midst of the fire ; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of 
God.' Again, this presence maketh way for enjoyment. It is not a 
naked sight and speculation ; we are in the same state and condition 
with Christ: Rom. viii. 17, 'Heirs of God, and joint heirs with Jesus 
Christ.' We shall be like him. Servants may stand in the presence 
of princes, but they do not make their followers fellows and consorts 
with them in the same glory. Solomon could only show his glory to 
the queen of Sheba, but Christ giveth it us to be enjoyed. And all 
this is perpetual and without change and interruption : 1 Thes. iv. 17, 
* We shall be for ever with the Lord.' We are then above fears, no 
more eclipses of God's face, no more trouble because of God's absence. 
Here we complain ; the spouse sought Christ about the city : Cant. iii. 
3, ' Saw ye him whom my soul loveth ? ' Here we are forlorn orphans, 
and often without his society. Upon earth his converse was so accep 
table, that the apostles were loath to hear of his departure. Now it is 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 97 

for a few days, he is not always abiding with us ; then we shall never 
be glutted, God is always fresh and new to the glorified saints. 

Use I. To show us the love of Christ ; his heart is not satisfied till 
we be in like condition with himself : Luke xxii. 30, ' Ye shall eat 
and drink at my table in my kingdom.' The greatest love that David 
could show to his friend was to admit his children to his table : 2 Sam. 
ix. 7, ' Thou shalt eat bread at my table continually/ said David to 
Mephibosheth ; and to Barzillai, 2 Sam. xix. 33, ' Come over with me, 
and I will feed thee with me in Jerusalem.' And when he would 
honour Solomon, 1 Kings i. 33-35, ' He put him upon his own mule, 
and caused him to sit on his throne.' So we be at his table and on 
his throne : Kev. iii. 21, ' To him that overcometh will I grant to sit 
with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down 
with my Father in his throne.' We enjoy the same blessedness which 
Christ doth. Adam was in paradise, we in heaven ; Adam with the 
beasts of the earth, we with God and holy angels ; Adam might be 
thrown out, we never. It is no matter if the world deny us a room 
to live among them ; they cast us out many times, but Christ will 
take us to himself. 

Use 2. If the presence of Christ be no small part of our happiness, 
let us more delight in it here. We enjoy his presence in ordinances : 
Ps. xvii. 15, ' As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness ; I 
shall be satisfied when I awake with thy likeness;' Ps. Ixxxiv. 10, 
' A day in thy courts is better than a thousand ; I had rather be a 
doorkeeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of 
wickedness.' This is heaven begun, to be familiar with Christ in 
prayer and hearing, &c. Let us often give him a visit. Oh ! shame 
thyself when thou art loath to draw near to God. Dost thou look for 
heaven ? 

Use 3. Be willing to die, Why art thou backward to go to Christ ? 
Would Christ pray for an inconvenience? You shun his company 
when he desireth yours, and he desireth your presence for your own 
sakes, that you may be happy. Love brought Christ out of heaven, 
that he might be with us ; he thought of it before the world was : 
Prov. viii. 31, ' My delight was with the sons of men." He longed for 
the time ; when will it come ? We are to go from earth to heaven, 
from conversing with men to converse with angels ; why are we so 
loath to remove ? What could Christ expect but hard usage, labour, 
griefs, and death ? He came to taste the vinegar and the gall ; we 
are called to the feast of loves, to the hidden manna, to rivers of plea 
sures. If you love Christ, why should you be unwilling to be in the 
arms of Christ ? Let him be unwilling to die that is loath to be there 
where Christ is. Love is an affection of union, it desireth to be with 
the party loved, and can you be unwilling to die ? Death is the 
chariot that is to carry you to Christ : Gen. xlv. 27, ' When Jacob 
saw the waggons which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of 
Jacob revived.' What is there in the world to be compared with 
heaven ? Either there must be something in the world to detain us, 
or it is the terribleness of the passage, or else a contempt of what is 
to come, that you are unwilling to die. If you have anything in the 
world more worthy than Christ father, or mother, or wife, or friend, 

VOL. XI. Q 



98 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLI. 

or brother, or present delights it is a sign of a carnal heart : Ps. 
Ixxiii. 25, ' Whom have I in heaven but thee ? and there is none on 
earth I desire besides thee/ Can you say so without dissembling ? 
Quit them all then. It is not the company of angels, but Christ ; it 
is not wife, children, relations (these must be loved in God, and after 
God) ; nothing within the circuit of nature, none so worthy as Christ. 
Now you are put to the trial when sickness cometh, and you see 
death a-coming ; Christ hath sent his waggons, his chariots, to see if 
we be real. Or is it the terribleness of the passage ? Doth nature 
recoil at our dissolution ? Where is your faith ? ' Death is yours,' 
1 Cor. iii. 22. Christ hath assured you, and will you not trust his 
word ? You love him little when you have no confidence in his word. 
Or else contempt of things to come ; then why was all this cost to 
prepare a place for you ? Why came Christ to lay down his life to 
purchase that which we care not for ? What needeth all this waste ? 
Christians! hear for the time to come. We know not how soon we 
may be sent for and put to the trial ; it is good to be resolved, that 
we may say, The sooner the better. 

Observe, secondly, Christ taketh great delight in his people's com 
pany and fellowship. His heart is much set upon it. 

1. I shall give you some demonstrations and evidences of it. 

2. Reasons. 
First, Evidences. 

1. His longing for the society of men before the creation of the 
world: Prov. viii. 31, ' I rejoiced in the habitable parts of the earth, 
and my delights were with the sons of men.' Though Christ de 
lighted in all the creatures, as they were the effects of his wisdom, 
power, and goodness, yet chiefly with men, that are capable of God's 
image, and upon whom he should lay out the riches of his grace. He 
thought on us before the world was, and longed for the time of his 
incarnation : When will it come ? 

2. In that he delighted to converse in human shape before the 
incarnation : Zech. i. 10, ' The man among the myrtle trees ; ' who is 
also called, 'The angel of the Lord,' ver. 11. 

3. He took pleasure to spend time busily among them, whilst he 
was with them in the days of his flesh : John ix. 4, 5, ' I must work 
the works of him that sent me while it is day : the night cometh, 
when no man can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the 
light of the world.' His affection to the service made him go up and 
down doing good to men ; he would not leave this ministration to his 
servants, but would do it in person as long as he was in the world : 
John i. 14, ' The word was made flesh, and dwelt among us/ Christ 
did not assume our nature, as angels assumed bodies for the present 
turn, but lived a good space of time, and conversed with men. 

4. When it was necessary he should depart, he had a mind to 
returning before he went away and removed his bodily presence from 
us ; his heart is upon meeting and fellowship again, of getting his 
people up to him, as in the text, or his coming down to us : John xiv. 3, 
'And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and 
receive you to myself, that where I am, there ye may be also.' 

5. Until the time that that meeting cometh, he vouchsafeth us his 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 99 

spiritual presence : Mat. xxviii. 20, ' Lo, I am with you always to the 
end of the world.' Whatsoever part or age of the world we fall into 
in this life, we are with Christ, and Christ with us ; not only with the 
church in general, but with every believer. With the church or 
assemblies of his people : ' Where two or three are gathered together 
in my name, I am in the midst of them,' Mat. xviii. 20. With every 
particular believer : Christ is said ' to dwell in our hearts by faith,' 
Eph. iii. 17. There is a near familiarity between Christ and every 
believer ; every sanctified heart is a temple wherein he keepeth his 
residence. As God he is everywhere ; as to his human nature, the 
heaven of heavens contain it ; as to his gracious operation, and especial 
influence, so he dwelleth in the hearts of his people. He is with us 
in our duties : Exod. xx. 24, ' In all places where I record my name, 
I will come unto thee, and bless thee.' Christ is present to entertain 
ns ; we go to meet with Christ. In our dangers : Isa. xliii. 2, ' When 
thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee ; and through 
the rivers, they shall not overflow thee : when thou walkest through 
the fire, thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flames kindle upon 
thee.' The Son of God was with the three children in the furnace. 
When left alone, they are not alone. He would never have gone from 
us if our necessities did not require it. It was necessary that he 
should die for our sins, that they might not hinder our believing and 
coming to him. It was necessary he should go to heaven. If our 
happiness lay here, he would be with us here, but it doth not ; it is 
reserved for us in the heavens ; therefore he must go there to prepare 
a place for us, that we may be ever with him. 

6. When gone away he will tarry no longer than our affairs require ; 
as soon as he hath done his work, he will come again and fetch us. 
When our souls are with him, that doth not fully content Christ ; he 
will come and fetch us into heaven in our whole persons, and then 
Christ and we shall never part more : 1 Thes. iv. 17, ' And then shall 
we ever be with the Lord.' Thus Christ is never satisfied till our 
communion be perfect and perpetual, till we are all with him in one 
assembly and congregation : Ps. i. 5, ' Therefore the ungodly shall 
not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the 
righteous.' Then all the elect shall meet in one general assembly, 
that Christ's mystical body may be fully complete ; not one member 
of his mystical body is wanting. 

Secondly, Keasons. 

1. Negatively ; there is not any want in himself, nor any worth in 
us. We are worthless and wretched ; Ps. xiv. 3, ' They are all gone 
aside, they are altogether become filthy, there is none that doeth good, 
no not one ; ' Titus iii. 3, ' For we ourselves also were sometimes 
foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living 
in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.' Christ hath no 
need of us, he was happy without us ; he lieth in the bosom of his 
Father, and hath been his delight from all eternity, and hath ten thou- 
.sand times ten thousand angels to attend him. What want hath he 
of poor worms ? 

2. Positively ; his affection and relation to them. Affection and 
self-inclination; they are the members of his body: John xiii. 1, 



100 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLI. 

' Jesus having loved his own that were in the world, he loved them to 
the end.' There are both motives ; he hath loved them, and they are 
his own. 

[1.] He hath loved them, and love is all for union and near com 
munion : Deut. vii. 7, 8, ' The Lord did not set his love on you, nor 
choose you, because ye were more in number than any people, but 
because the Lord loved you.' He hath no other reason but his own 
love ; and therefore he will not leave till he hath brought them to their 
final happiness. 

[2.] They are his own by election, purchase, resignation. They 
resign themselves to him, and so he hath a peculiar interest in them. 
He provideth for his own, they are members of his mystical body ; 
' The fulness of him that filleth all in all,' Eph. i. 23. Mystical Christ 
is not complete and full without them, though' Christ personal be 
every way full and complete. 

Use 1. Keproof. You see how Christ standeth affected to the 
society of his people, and so are all that have Christ's Spirit ; as Moses 
chose rather to surfer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy 
the pleasures of sin for a season,' Heb. xi. 25. It is better to be 
afflicted for a season with God's people, than to live with the wicked 
in pleasure for a season ; both are for a season. But there are a sort 
of men whose spirit and practice is very contrary to this of Christ ; 
who cannot abide the presence, much less the company and com 
munion, of the saints. Christ cannot rest in heaven without the 
saints ; and these men count themselves in a prison when they are in 
good company ; it is their burden and trouble to have a restraint upon 
their lusts, to be confined to gracious discourse about heaven and 
heavenly things. Nay, their very presence is an eyesore. As in some 
of the commonwealths of Greece, they had their petalism and ostra 
cism for men when they grew eminent and worthy, the baseness of 
popular government not consisting with conspicuous virtue ; so these 
cannot endure holy strictness, or a size of grace above their dead- 
hearted profession. 

Use 2. Comfort against the scorn and contempt of the world. 
Though you are cast forth as the sweepings of the streets, yet you are 
dear and precious with Christ. That company which is so disdained 
and rejected in the world is longed for by Christ ; therefore ' let us go 
forth to him without the camp, bearing his reproach,' Heb. xiii. 13. 
The world casts us out, but Christ takes us to himself 

Use 3. Let us prize the communion and fellowship of Christ. It 
is but reason that we should prize that company that is so necessary 
for us, such a blessing to us. If he value ours, he is worthy of love, 
and he is our head ; let us long to be witli him. But wherein ? 

1. By looking after communion with him for the present. Cer 
tainly there is such a thing ; the world looketh upon communion 
with Christ but as a fancy, as many among the heathens pretended to 
a secrecy with their gods; but the saints know the reality of it: 
1 John i. 3, ' And truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with 
his Son Jesus Christ.' Certainly there is such a thing as this. Now, 
this is either constant and habitual, or solemn and special. 

[1.] Constant and habitual, as he dwelleth in our hearts by faith; 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 101 

where Christ doth take up his abode and dwelling in the heart, renew 
ing them by his Spirit, as the fountain of life : Gal. ii. 20, ' Neverthe 
less I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me.' And the seed and hope 
of glory : Col. i. 27, ' Christ in you the hope of glory ; ' maintaining 
and defending them against all temptations : 1 John iv. 4, ' Greater is 
he that is in you than he that is in the world.' There is no necessity, 
in order to the spiritual use, that his body be in the sacrament, received 
into the mouth and stomach ; his human nature is locally present in 
heaven, but his Spirit is in us as a -well of life. This is our constant 
communion with him. 

[2.] Solemn and special, in holy ordinances. Our souls should run 
upon this, how we may find Christ there ; as the spouse sought her 
beloved throughout the whole city : Cant. iii. 2, 3, ' I will arise now, 
and go about the city, in the streets, and in the broad ways ; I will 
seek him whom my soul loveth. I sought him, but I found him not. 
The watchmen that go about the city found me, to whom I said, Saw 
ye him whom my soul loveth ? ' So doth the believing soul long to 
see Christ. If he longeth for our presence, we should desire his pre 
sence, and to enjoy as much as we can of it here in the world. It is 
heaven begun : ' As for me, I shall behold his face in righteousness,' 
Ps. xvii. 15. Not only to have bare ordinances, but to meet with God 
there, that we may never go from him without him. This is to begin, 
heaven, to give Christ a visit, to be familiar with Christ in prayer, to 
seek after him in the Lord's supper, and never go from God without 
God : Ps. Ixiii. 1, 2, ' God, thou art my God, early will I seek thee : 
my soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for thee, in a dry and 
thirsty land, where no water is. To see thy power and thy glory, so 
as I have seen thee in the sanctuary.' That glimpse he had once found 
made him long for more : Ps. Ixxxiv. 1, 2, ' How amiable are thy 
tabernacles, O Lord of hosts ! My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for 
the courts of the Lord ; my heart and my flesh crieth out for the liv 
ing God.' Spiritual communion will at last end in glory. You may 
change place, but not company. 

2. Long to be with him, and to have immediate communion with 
him in heaven : Phil. i. 23, ' I desire to depart, and to be with Christ ;' 
not to wish for death in a pet, to put an end to your troubles. Men 
look upon heaven as a retreat. Nay, do not merely look upon heaven 
as it freeth you from the torments of hell or the curse and vengeance 
of God, but as it givethyou communion with Christ : 2 Cor. v. 8, ' We 
are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, 
and to be present with the Lord.' Therefore upon this account be 
more willing to depart. You that are old, and within sight of shore, 
wait for the happy hour. You that are sick, be forward to prepare for 
home. You that are young, you may live long, but you cannot live 
better than with Christ ; be ready when God shall call you. 

(1.) There is far more reason why we should long for Christ than 
Christ for us. He desireth your presence for your own sakes, that you 
may be happy ; he is not solitary without you. You have all the rea 
son in the world to be willing to go to Christ ; the sooner the better. 

(2.) If you have the hearts of Christians, you will do so: Rev. xxii. 
17, ' The Spirit and the bride say, Come.' If you have heartily con- 



102 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XLII. 

sen ted to Christ, you will do so : Gen. xxiv. 58, ' They called Kebekah, 
and said unto her, Wilt thou go with this man ? and she said, I will 
go.' Christ saith, ' I will that they shall be where I am ; ' and the 
soul saith, I will be ever in a posture longing, waiting for this happy 
time. The children of Israel eat the passover with staves in their 
hands. 

(3.) Experience puts us to this ; such as have any communion with 
Christ here will long after the completing of it in heaven : Rom. viii. 
23, ' And not only they, but ourselves also, who have the first-fruits of 
the Spirit ; even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the 
adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.' 

(4.) If we desire it not, it is a sign of some corruption, too great an 
inclination to the pleasures and contentments of the world. Lot lingered 
in Sodom, Gen. xix. 16. Or that you have lost your evidences, and so 
think to appear before him as malefactors before a judge. 



SERMON XLII. 

Father, I will that they also ivhom thou hast given me be with me 
where I am ; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast 
given me : for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world. 
JOHN XVII. 24. 

SECONDLY, Now I come to our work and employment in heaven, ' That 
we may behold his glory.' 

Observe, our work, or rather our happiness in heaven, mainly con 
sists in -the sight of Christ's glory : 1 John iii. 2, ' Beloved, now are 
we the sons of God, but it doth not yet appear what we shall be ; but 
this we know, that when he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we 
shall see him as he is.' We see him now under a veil, then in person : 
1 Cor. xiii. 12, ' Now we see but through a glass darkly, then face to 
face.' 

Here I shall show (1.) What is this glory ; (2.) What it is to be 
hold this glory ; (3.) Why our happiness lieth in it. 

First, What is this glory ? 

1. The excellency of his person. The union of the two natures in 
Christ's person is one of the mysteries that shall then be unfolded : 
John xiv. 20, ' At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and 
you in me, and I in you.' How he is God-man in one person, how 
the Father, Son, and Spirit are one. We were made for the under 
standing of this mystery. God had happiness enough in himself ; he 
made creatures on purpose, angels and blessed men, to contemplate his 
excellency. ; 

2. The clarity of his human nature. It is happiness enough to see 
Jesus Christ upon his white throne : Rev. xxii. 4, ' They shall see his 
face, and his name shall be in their foreheads/ We shall be eye 
witnesses of the honour which the Father puts upon him as mediator. 
It will be a wonderful glory; we want words to make it intelligible ; 
the visible sun hath scarce the honour to be Christ's shadow. We 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 103 

may guess at it by his appearance on Mount Sinai, when he gave the 
law, Exod. xix., compared with Heb. xii. 18, 19 ; by the transfigura 
tion, Mat. xvii., when the disciples were astonished ; by the glimpse 
given to Paul, when a light from heaven shined round about him, 
Acts ix. 3 ; Paul was three days without sight, and could neither eat 
nor drink ; by those emissions of light and glory, John xviii. 6, ' As 
soon as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell 
to the ground.' All these apparitions were formidable, but in heaven 
they are comfortable. We are more able to bear it, the natural 
faculties being fortified ; and we come to consider it as a glory put 
upon him for our sakes. 

Secondly, What is this beholding ? It is either ocular or mental. 

1. Ocular ; our senses have their happiness as well as the soul ; 
there is a glorified eye as well as a glorified mind : 2 Cor. v. 7, ' We 
walk by faith, not by sight.' He doth not mean present sense, and the 
present view of things ; the life of faith is sometimes oppfosed to that ; 
but now he meaneth our privileges in heaven. Job pointed to his 
eyes : Job xix. 26, 27, ' Though after my skin worms destroy this 
body, yet in my flesh shall I see God ; whom I shall see for myself, 
and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.' We shall see that 
person that redeemed us, and that nature wherein he suffered so much 
for us. God intendeth good to the body, he hath intrusted it with 
the soul, and the soul with so much grace, that he will not lose the 
outward cask and vessel. There is a glory to entertain our eyes in 
heaven ; not only the beautiful mansion, and the glorious inhabitants, 
but the face of the Lamb. We shall be always looking on that 
book. 

2. There is mental vision or contemplation. The angels, that are 
not corporeal, are said ' always to behold the face of our heavenly 
Father/ Mat. xviii. 10. Angels have no eyes, yet they see God. 
When we are said to see God, it is not meant of the bodily eye ; a 
spirit cannot be seen with bodily eyes. And therefore God is called 
aoparos, ' the invisible God/ Col. i. 15. And seeing face to face is 
opposed to knowing in part : 1 Cor. xiii. 12, ' Now we see through a 
glass darkly, then face to face ; now we know but in part, then we 
shall know even as also we are known/ The mind is the noblest 
faculty, and therefore it must be satisfied in heaven, or else we cannot 
be happy. It is the mind maketh the man ; it is our preferment above 
the beasts that God hath given us a mind to know him. Man is a 
rational creature, and 'there is as great an inclination to knowledge in 
the soul as in beasts to carnal pleasures. Drunkards may talk of their 
pleasures, and the gratifications of sense ; but the pleasure and delight 
of the soul is knowledge. And besides this general capacity, there is 
a particular inclination in believers by grace ; and therefore, that we 
may be completely happy, the mind must be satisfied with the sight 
of God. 

Thirdly, Why our happiness lieth in beholding Christ ? 

1. It is the cause of all our fruition and enjoyment in heaven. 

2. All fruition and enjoyment is resolved into it again. 

1. It is the cause of all our fruition in heaven. Ocular vision 
maketh way for mental, and mental vision for complete holiness or 



104 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLII. 

conformity to God, and conformity for love, and love for delight, and 
delight for fruition. 

[1.] Ocular vision maketh way for mental. We go to heaven to 
study divinity in the Lamb's face : Eev. xxii. 4, ' They shall see his 
face, and his name shall be in their foreheads.' There is an assembly 
sitting round about the throne, and the Lamb is in the midst of them, 
and there, by looking upon his face, they learn more of God. We need 
no other books than beholding his glory. We converse with Christ 
that we may know more of God. Thus we come to knowledge with 
out labour and difficulty ; Christ in his glory an$l eminency is bible 
enough. 

[2.] Mental vision maketh way for likeness and conformity to God. 
Knowledge in this life changeth us : Col. iii. 10, ''And have put on the 
new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that 
created him/ Much more are we sanctified and made holy by the 
light of glory. The sight that we have of Christ in the gospel trans- 
formeth us: 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' For we all with open face, beholding as 
in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, 
from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.' By looking 
upon Christ through the light of the Spirit we are made like him ; 
but now in glory, when we see him face to face, we are more like him : 
1 John iii. 2, ' We shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.' 
Moses, by conversing with God, his face shone. As a glass held up 
against the sun, the image and brightness of the sun is reflected upon 
it ; so the more we behold Christ, the more we do bear the image of 
the heavenly ; TTJV o-fyiv dvaxpawvofjbevos, saith Basil, he dyeth his own 
spirit with a tincture of glory. 

[3.] This light and conformity maketh way for love, that is, know 
ledge increaseth love. As light is, so is love ; our affection is still 
according to the rate of our knowledge. In this world love is but 
weak, because light is imperfect ; we love little, because we know 
little : John iv. 10, ' If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is 
that saith to thee, Give me to drink, thou wouldest have asked, and 
he would have given to thee living water.' And conformity is a 
ground of love, it is the highest pitch of love to love God out of the 
communion of the same nature. The lowest love is to love him out 
of interest, as the highest love is to love him out of a principle of 
holiness, not because he is good and bountiful, but because he is holy. 
Whilst holiness is weak, love is imperfect. We wander and estrange 
ourselves from him, and go a- whoring from him, for there is some 
suitableness between us and the creature as long as flesh remaineth ; 
but when we are perfectly holy, there is no suitableness between us 
and anything but God, and the saints and angels which partake with 
us of his image. And we love the creatures for the need we have ot' 
them, as well as the suitableness of them to us ; but when we are 
likened to God in holiness and in happiness, we are above these wants, 
we are above all baits and snares, so that our love is entirely carried 
out to God. 

[4.] Love maketh way for delight. Can a man cleave to God, and 
not rejoice in him ? Rejoicing in God is not only a duty but a reward: 
Isa. Iviii. 14, ' Then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord.' The 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 105 

saints love God, and delight in him, in his essence and being, as much 
as in their own glory. This maketh heaven comfortable. It would 
be a torment to a carnal heart to be always thinking of God, and 
employed in acts of love and service to God ; but the saints delight in 
him, they delight in his presence, and in their own happiness, because 
God is glorified in it. There is an inconceivable delight in seeing, 
knowing, and being beloved of God. 

[5.] Delight maketh way for fruition ; for the more we delight in 
God, the more doth God delight in us, and giveth us the actual 
fruition of himself for our blessedness, so that we are fully satisfied. 
It is fruition maketh us happy. We can only speak of it in general 
terms, the filling up of the soul with God, and of the ' glory that 
shall be revealed in us/ Rom. viii. 18. We are in God, and God in 
us ; as fire in iron that is red hot, it seemeth all on fire. Thus can 
we prattle a little, and darken counsel with words. 

2. Backward again. Fruition maketh way for delight. We enjoy 
God to the full, therefore we delight in him. We are bidden to re 
joice in our pilgrimage : Phil. iv. 4, ' Rejoice in the Lord always, and 
again I say, Rejoice.' God hath made our work a part of our wages, 
to train us up by degrees. But now, when we come to heaven, we 
enter into our master's joy. It is our only work in heaven ; painful 
affections have no more use. And joy maketh way for love ; these 
mutual endearments pass between God and us to increase love. We 
delight in God, therefore we are never weary of him. And love 
maketh way for likeness, and light for likeness, eadem velle et nolle. 
There is the most perfect imitation and resemblance of God, because 
the most perfect love. And for light, there is light in this fire ; blunt 
iron, if it be made red hot, pierceth deeper than a sharp tool : we 
have but one object. And likeness maketh way for knowledge : Mat. 
v. 8, ' Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.' A dusky 
glass doth not give a perfect representation. Ignorance is the fruit of 
sin. Man never knew less than since he tasted of the tree of know 
ledge. Holiness clarifies the eye : ' We shall be like him, for we 
shall see him as he is,' 1 John iii. 2. There is little proportion be 
tween God and men, and therefore we do not know him ; when we 
are conformed to God, we are in a greater capacity to understand his 
nature. And then light, or mental sight, maketh way for ocular 
sight, that we may look upon Christ. It is a sweet employment to 
see the brightness of the Father's glory in Christ's face ; there is God 
best to be seen at the rebound and by reflection ; it is a delightful 
spectacle. 

Use 1. To ravish your hearts with the contemplation of this happi 
ness. Oh ! what an affective sight is Christ's glory ! 

1. The sight itself is a privilege. 

2. That we shall be able to see it with comfort. 

1. The sight itself is a privilege. Abraham had a sight of his 
incarnation, when it was a thing long after to come, and it filled him 
with joy : John viii. 56, ' Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my 
day ; and he saw it, and was glad.' Simeon saw him when he was a 
child, and then said, ' Now it is enough ; ' Luke ii. 29, 30, ' Now, Lord, 
lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word ; for 



106 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XLII. 

mine eyes have seen thy salvation.' Zaccheus climbed up into a tree 
to see him. When he was grown up, Luke xix. 4, yet then he went 
up and down as the carpenter's son. Many saw Christ in person that 
had no benefit by him. So to see him by faith and spiritual illumin 
ation fills the soul with joy : 1 Peter i. 8, ' Whom having not seen, we 
love ; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice 
with joy unspeakable and full of glory/ To know Christ by hearsay 
is lovely and glorious ; but now what will it be to see Christ in the 
midst of angels and blessed saints face to face ? He is another manner 
of Christ than ever we thought him to be. It is ravishing to behold 
him in ordinances ; feasts are poor things to be spoken of to that.; but 
yet there is a veil upon his glory. Oh ! that there should be such a 
glorious spectacle provided for us ! It is God's own blessedness to see 
himself and enjoy himself. 

2. That we are able to behold it, and that with comfort. That we 
are able to behold it : The world is a dark place, and we are weak 
creatures ; our eyes now are like the eyes of an owl before the sun ; 
we cannot take in a full representation of his greatness, nor bear the 
lustre of his majesty. God is sometimes represented as dwelling in 
light, to show the lustre of his majesty : 1 Tim. vi. 16, ' Who only 
hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach 
unto.' And sometimes as dwelling in darkness, as noting the weakness 
of our apprehensions : Ps. xviii. 11, ' He made darkness his secret place ; 
his pavilion round about him were dark waters, and thick clouds of the 
sky.' We are dark creatures, and can but guess ; all is mystery and 
riddle to us. The children of Israel cried out, ' We cannot see God 
and live ;' Deut. v. 25, ' Now therefore why should we die? for this 
great fire will consume us ; if we hear the voice of the Lord our God 
any more, then we shall die.' God is fain to dwell in the heavens, 
and fix his throne there ; his glory would drive us to our wits' end, 
the very happiness of heaven would not be a mercy upon earth. And 
then, that we may behold it with comfort. God in Christ is not 
formidable. Wicked men shall see Christ, but they shall see him as 
a judge ; but, saith Job, with these eyes shall I see my redeemer : 
Job xix. 25-27, ' I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall 
stand at the latter day upon the earth. And though after my skin, 
worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God ; whom mine 
eyes shall behold, and not another's.' Every time we look upon Christ, 
we have the liveliest and sweetest sense of God's love, it bringeth to 
remembrance his passion and sufferings. Wicked men shall see him 
as a judge to their terror, as Joseph's brethren were ashamed to look 
on him, they cannot hold up their guilty heads ; but we come to 
behold our best and beloved friend, to see him that laid down his life 
for us : John xv. 13, ' Greater love hath no man than this, that a 
man lay down his life for his friend/ To see such a friend will be 
comfortable. 

Use 2. Strive to get an interest in so great a privilege. Who are 
those that shall have an interest in it ? 

1. They that are careful to serve Christ here : John xii. 26, ' If 
any man serve me, let him follow me ; and where I am, there also 
shall my servant be ;' ' His servants shall serve him, and they shall see 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 107 

his face,' &c., Eev. xxii. 3, 4. Those that have suffered with him 
and sighed with him, that have owned him now, a hidden Christ, 
shall have the honour to behold him a glorious Christ ; they that 
encourage themselves with these hopes, One day I shall see Christ : 
Ps. xxvii. 13, ' I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the good 
ness of the Lord in the land of the living.' The true land of the living 
is heaven ; the world is but the valley of the dead, or the place of 
mortality. The queen of Sheba took a long journey to beholxl the 
glory of Solomon, which yet was but a temporal, fading, and earthly 
glory. 

2. They that begin their happiness here make it their study to know 
Christ : John xvii. 3, ' This is life eternal, to know thee the only true 
God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent;' there is the foundation 
and the beginning of it. Study Christ in his natures, person, offices ; 
this is fit work for saints. Saith Moses, Exod. xxxiii. 18, ' Show me 
thy glory. ^ 

[1.] It is an increasing light, but to the wicked it is a growing 
darkness ; CTKOTCK; egarepov, ' outer darkness,' Mat. xxv. 30 ; there they 
are held in chains of darkness. You love darkness better than light, 
and you shall have darkness enough one day. Now there is a thick 
curtain and veil drawn between you and Christ, and hereafter there 
will be a deep gulf; but our work in heaven is to behold Christ's 
glory. Can a man look for it, and not follow on to know the Lord ? 
None shall have a sight of Christ hereafter that do not know him now. 

[2.] It must be such a light as carries proportion with the light of 
glory, that is, an affective, transforming light. 

(1.) An affective light. Many may study to warm the brain, but 
not the heart : Horn. ii. 20, ' Which hast, popfav TT?? yva>ae(os, the 
form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law.' They may discourse 
more exactly than a good Christian, have a map and model of truth 
in the brain ; they dig in the mines of knowledge that Christians may 
have the gold. Do you see him with any affection ? Do you strive, 
above all things, to see his face ? Ps. xxvii. 4, ' One thing have I desired 
of the Lord, that will I seek after, that I may dwell in the house of 
the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and 
to inquire in his temple.' It is David's unicum, Moses' ravishment, 
when he saw God's back parts : Exod. xxxiv. 9, ' If now I have found 
grace in thy sight, Lord, let my Lord, I pray thee, go amongst us.' 
That is one effect of the sight of God ; a man would not be without 
his company : ' I pray thee go amongst us ;' as Absalom said, 2 Sam. 
xiv. 32, ' Come hither, that I may send thee to the king, to say, Where 
fore am I come from Geshur ? It had been good for me to have been 
there still : now therefore let me see the king's face ; and if there be 
any iniquity in me, let him kill me ; ' as if he should say, Let him kill 
me rather than deny me the king's face. Prize this above all the 
world : Ps. iv. 6,7,' Lord, lift thou up the light of thy countenance 
upon us. Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than in the time 
that their corn and their wine increased ; ' Ps. Ixxx. 3, ' Cause thy face 
to shine, and we shall be saved.' 

(2.) It is transforming : 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We all with open face, 
beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the 



108 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLII. 

same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.' 
Light and grace do always go together. It is such a looking upon 
Christ as Laban's sheep looked upon the peeled rods in the gutter ; it 
maketh us more like Christ. Sight worketh upon the imagination in 
brute beasts ; shall not the eye of faith be more strong to change than 
natural imagination ? A bare empty contemplation will do you no 
good ; those that find themselves to be the old man still, let them 
have never so much knowledge, it is no sign of grace, nor of an interest 
in glory. 

Use 3. Let the foresight of this glorious estate wean thee from all 
inordinate affections to human and earthly glory. There is ' the lust 
of the eyes/ 1 John ii. 16. By the eyes we fire our hearts. Doth a 
stately glorious house allure thee ? What is this to heaven, the palace 
of God, and the mansion of blessed spirits ? Do' glorious garments 
and apparel bewitch thee ? What is this to our robes of righteous 
ness, and those garments of salvation wherewith the saints shall be 
clothed in the day of the manifestation of the sons of God ? Doth the 
face of earthly majesty astonish thee ? What will it be to behold the 
Lord Jesus in all his majesty and glory ? As the sun puts out the 
candle, so thould the forethought of these excellences extinguish in us 
carnal desire, and dissolve the enchantment that would otherwise 
bewitch our souls, and make us impatient under the cross. Beware 
of the vanity of the eye, if it be consecrated to behold Christ's glory. 

Fifthly, The next thing is the reason of all this, the Father's eternal 
love to Christ, and in Christ to us : ' For thou hast loved me before 
the foundation of the world,' that is, from all eternity, as the phrase 
is often used in this sense in scripture. But how was Christ loved 
from all eternity ? I answer Partly as the eternal Son of God : 
Prov. viii. 21-30, before the mountains were settled, before the hills 
were brought forth ; partly as mediator, designed from all eternity, 
and so ' loved before the foundation of the world,' as he was ' slain 
before the foundation of the world,' Kev. xiii. 8. Christ was our 
mediator from all eternity ; not only before we were born, but before 
ever he came in the flesh. To the eyes of God all things are present, 
nothing is past, nothing is to come. But why is this made a reason ? 
I answer It is a reason : 

1. Of the last clause; the glory given to Christ is a fruit and evi 
dence of God's eternal love to him as mediator ; for so he is considered 
here ; for whatever was given to Christ was given to him as mediator, 
for to the divine nature nothing can be given ; though the Father be 
the fountain of the godhead, yet he is not so properly said to give 
glory to Christ as God, because he loved him. 

2. Of the whole verse, and so you may conceive it either thus, that 
he improved his whole interest in the Father, conjuring him by his 
infinite and eternal love, or rather from love to himself inferreth love 
to us ; thou hast loved me, and them in me ; for we also are loved 
before the foundation of the world : Mat. xxv. 34, ' Come, ye blessed 
of my Father, inherit a kingdom prepared for you before the founda 
tion of the world.' 

The point to be discussed is, the eternity of God's love to Christ, 
and in Christ to us. 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 109 

1. The eternity of God's love to Christ, as God, as his Son ; the 
love of parents to children is but a shadow of it. We are finite, so 
are our affections. As his image : Heb. i. 3, ' Who is the brightness 
of his glory, and the express image of his person.' Likeness is the 
ground of love. God loves Christ, not only as like him, but as being 
of the same essence with himself : 1 John v. 7, ' For there are three 
that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, 
and these three are one.' There is no created instance to answer it : 
all that we love are without us, but Christ is of the same essence with 
God. Then he loveth him as mediator and head of the church. He 
doth not only love us in Christ,. but in a sort he loveth Christ in us, 
because of the complacency that he took in his obedience : John x. 
17, ' Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life 
that I might take it again.' God did therefore eternally love him, 
and glorify his manhood for his love to us. 

2. In God's loving Christ he loved us. We are elected in him. before 
the foundation of the world : Eph. i. 4, ' According as he hath chosen 
us in him before the foundation of the world.' When God chose 
Christ to be mediator, he chose us in Christ. This is the method of 
the divine decrees. God from all eternity resolved to create man pure 
and innocent, but with a changeable will, to permit him to fall ; and 
he resolved on the remedy, Christ, and in Christ to receive them to 
grace, and accept them to life again. First he loveth Christ, and then 
us in him ; as a king doth not only love a subject that hath done him 
service, but all his friends and kindred, they are brought to court, and 
preferred for his sake. 

3. This love to us was eternal also : 2 Tim. i. 9, ' Who hath saved 
us, and called us with an holy calling ; not according to our works, but 
according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ 
Jesus before the world began.' So Titus i. 2, ' In hope of eternal life, 
which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began.' But 
how then are we children of wrath by nature, the elect as well as 
others ? Eph. ii. 3, ' And were by nature children of wrath, even as 
others.' Ans. That showeth the merit of the natural estate, not the 
purpose and decree of God. There are vessels of wrath, viz., the re 
probate ; and children of wrath, viz., the unregenerate elect ; and 
children under wrath, viz., children of God under desertion. It notes 
not what God hath determined in his everlasting counsel, but what we 
deserve by nature and in the course of his justice. 

Use I. It is a ground of hope why we may look for everlasting life, 
because of God's eternal love. So it is urged here. There are two 
grounds of hope the eternity of his love, and his love to Christ. 

1. The eternity of his love. From eternity it began, and to eternity 
it continueth ; before the world was, and when the world shall be no 
more : Ps. ciii. 17, ' The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to 
everlasting, upon them that fear him ; and his righteousness unto 
children's children.' It is the weakness of man to change purposes ; 
God's love is not fickle and inconstant. We have good purposes, but 
they are speedily blasted, but certainly God's eternal purpose shall 
stand. So that the great foundation of our hope is, the immutable 
love of God the Father. He that seeth all things at once cannot be 



110 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XLII. 

deceived ; we are ignorant of futurity, and therefore upon new events 
change our minds. Whatever falleth out, God repenteth not : Bom. 
xi. 29, ' For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.' His 
ancient love continues still. We have many backsliding thoughts ; 
we think to love God, but new temptations carry us away, and so we 
are fickle and changeable ; but God changeth not, he cannot deny 
himself. 

2. His love to Christ, which is the ground of his love to us. It is 
the wisdom of God that the reasons why man should be loved should 
be out of man himself, in and among the persons of the godhead. The 
Son loveth us, because the Father requireth it ; and the Father loveth 
us, because the Son merited it ; and the Holy Ghost, that proceedeth 
from the Father and the Son, loveth us, because of the Father's pur 
pose and the Son's purchase. And then the Holy Ghost's work is a 
new ground of love. As long as the Son is faithful to the Father, and 
God regardeth the obedience of Christ and the work of the Spirit, we 
are sure to be loved. But will not such an absolute certainty make 
way for looseness ? It is possible it may with a carnal heart, for the 
very gospel is to some the savour of death unto death, but to the elect 
it cannot be. The great gift of God's eternal love is holiness : Eph. 
i. 4, ' According as he hath chosen us in him, before the foundation of 
the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in 
love.' And so for Christ's love : Eph. v. 25, 26, 'Christ loved the 
church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it 
by the washing of water by the word.' And the Holy Ghost worketh 
us to this very thing: 2 Thes. ii. 13, 'Through sanctification of the 
Spirit.' If we turn a wheel round, the wheel of necessity must run 
round. If God loveth us eternally, we must be holy. There is not 
only a necessity of precept, but of consequence ; he hath not only com 
manded it, but it must be so. 

Use 2. It commendeth God's love, that you may admire it. Kemem- 
ber it is eternal, of an old standing ; and all that is done to us in time 
are but the issues and fruits of eternal love. 

1. It is eternal, as ancient as God himself. There was no time when 
God did not think of us and love us. We are wont to prize an ancient 
friend : the oldest friend that we have is God ; he loved us, not only 
before we were lovely, but before we were at all ; he thought of us 
before we could have a thought of him. In our infancy we could not 
so much as know that he loved us ; and when we came to years of dis 
cretion, we knew how to offend him before we knew how to love him 
and serve him. Many times God is not in all our thoughts, when he 
is thinking how to bless us and do us good. Let us measure the short 
scantling of our lives with eternity, wherein God showeth love to us. 
We began but as yesterday, and are sinners from the womb ; the 
more liberal we find God to be, the more obstinate are we, yet he 
repenteth not of his ancient love. Certainly if God should stay till he 
found cause of love in us, we should never be loved. 

2. Look to the effects of his love in time. We receive new effects 
of his love every day, but all cometh out of his ancient and eternal 
love in Christ ; though the effects be new, the love is ancient. It is 
good sometimes to trace God in the paths of his love, by what strange 



VER. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. Ill 

providences our parents came together, that we might have a being, 
how wonderfully were we preserved, that we might not be cut off in 
our natural estate ! How were we converted many times, when we 
did think of no such matter ! Everlasting love sets itself awork : Jer. 
xxxi. 3, ' I have loved thee with an everlasting love ; therefore with 
loving-kindness have I drawn thee.' What could move God when 
Paul was in the heat of his persecution ? How wonderfully did God 
take us in our month, send afflictions to stop the course and career of 
sin ! 1 Cor. xi. 32, ' For when we are judged, we are chastened of the 
Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world/ How many 
disappointments did we meet with in a carnal course ! As David said 
to Abigail, 1 Sam. xxv. 32, 33, ' Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, 
which sent thee this day to meet me. And blessed be thy advice, and 
blessed be thou which hast kept me this day from coming to shed 
blood, and from avenging myself with mine own hand.' Oh 1 how 
sweet is it to see eternal love in all that befall eth us ! It will be our 
speculation in heaven ; we shall know as we are known, and be able to 
interpret all the windings and circuits of providence. 

Use 3. It shameth us that we adjourn and put off our love to God 
till old age. When we have spent our strength in the world, and 
wasted ourselves in Satan's work, we dream of a devout retirement. 
Oh ! consider, God's love to us is as ancient as his being ; and are not 
we ashamed that we should put off God till the latter and more de- 
crepid part of our lives ? It is a commendation to be an old disciple, 
and God loveth an early love : Jer. ii. 2, ' Thus saith the Lord, I re 
member thee, the kindness of thy youth, the love of thine espousals ;' 
before our affections are prostituted to other objects. Under the law, 
the first-fruits were the Lord's ; he should' have the first. God's 
children are wont to return love for love, and like love ; therefore let 
it be as ancient as you can. Do not say, Art thou come to torment me 
before my time ? and dream of a more convenient season. 

Use 4. It teacheth us to disclaim merit. 

1. God's love was before our being and acting. Paul, out of a less 
circumstance, concludeth election not to be of works : Rom. ix. 11, 
' For the children being yet unborn, neither having done good or evil, 
that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of 
works, but of him that calleth, it was said, The elder shall serve the 
younger.' God's election is before all acts of ours ; therefore we 
deserve nothing, but all is from God. It is not a thing of yesterday ; 
our love is not the cause of God's, neither is it a fit reward and satis 
faction. 

Object. But doth not God foresee our good works, or at least faith 
and final perseverance ? He knew who would believe the gospel, who 
would live holy, and who would remain in their sins. 

I answer If this were true, there were not such a gracious freedom 
in grace. It is true God foreseeth all things that shall be, but first he 
fore-ordaineth them. Prescience includeth and supposeth preordina 
tion. Things are not because they are foreseen ; but they are fore 
seen, because they shall be. From predestination issueth faith, sancti- 
fication, perseverance. So that we are not chosen because we are holy, 
but to be holy : Eph. i. 4, ' According as he hath chosen us in him 



112 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLII. 

before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and with 
out blame before him in love.' And to be rich in faith : James ii. 5, 
' Hearken, my beloved brethren, hath not God chosen the poor of this 
world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom, which he hath promised 
to them that love him ? ' As Paul saith of himself, 1 Cor. vii. 25, ' I 
give my judgment, as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be 
faithful ; ' not that God foresaw that he was so. Our ordination to 
life is the cause of faith : Acts xiii. 48, ' As many as were ordained to 
eternal life believed.' 

2. When we were, we were not lovely ; there was nothing to excite 
God to show us mercy. Our natural condition is described, Titus iii. 
3, ' For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, 
serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, aTvyrjToi, 
fua-ovvres aXX^Xou?, hateful, and hating one another.' All are abomin 
able and worthy of hatred, yet one hateth another, as if he were lovely, 
and the other only abominable. 

There are two causes of self-conceit; we have not a spiritual dis 
cerning, and are partial in our own cause, and guilty of self-love. 

[1.] We have not a spiritual discerning, a-Tvyrjroi ; we are filthy, 
deformed, hateful in the eyes of God, stink in the nostrils of God. If 
we see a deformed creature, overgrown with scurf and sores, or a stink 
ing carcass, we turn away the head in great abomination, and cry, 
Oh, filthy 1 yet we are all so before God. A toad, a stinking carcass, 
cannot be so loathsome to us as a sinner is to God. If a man had but 
a glass to see his own natural face, he would wonder that God should 
love him. Indeed we have a glass, but we have not eyes. What 
could God see in us to excite him to show mercy ? God is not blinded 
with the vehemence of any passion ; yea, the object is uncomely, un 
comely to a spiritual eye, much more to the Father of spirits. 

[2.] Self-love blindeth us, /uo-oCz/re? d\\rj\ov<;. If men would hold 
together, and like one another, all would be well ; but now we cannot 
love one another and live with one another in safety, we seem such odd 
creatures. Fratrum concordia rara est. We are hateful creatures to 
God, to angels, to devils, to ourselves. 

Object. But some are more civil and refined. 

Ans. It is true natural corruption doth not break out in all with a 
like violence ; but a benumbed snake is a snake, a sow washed is not 
changed. As when the liver groweth, other parts languish ; one great 
lust intercepteth the nourishment of other corruptions. 

Object. But do not some use free-will better than others ? Sure God 
loveth them more ! 

Ans. No ; ' Not according to the works which we have done, but 
according to his mercy he saved us/ Titus iii. 5. God's original 
motives to do good are from himself. 

Use 5. We are not to measure God's love by temporal accidents. 
That which cometh from eternity, and tendeth to eternity, that is an 
evidence of his special love : Eccles. ix. 1, ' No man knoweth either 
love or hatred, by all that is before him ; ' ' The pleasures of sin are for 
a season,' Heb. xi. 25, and afflictions are for a season ; but spiritual 
blessings in heavenly places, which come from heaven, and tend to 
heaven, which have no dependence upon this world, whether it stand 
or no, these evidence the best love, God's special mercy. Why, they 



VEU. 24.] SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. 113 

were devised before ever the foundations of the world were laid, and it 
is most of all showed when the world is at an end. Therefore moderate 
your desires of earthly things, which the apostle calls ' this world's 
goods,' 1 John iii. 17 ; they are of no use in eternity. And bear 
afflictions with more patience ; you do but lose a little for the present, 
that you may be safe for ever. Hie ure, hie seca, ut in ceternum parcas. 
Use 6. It presseth us to get an interest in this eternal love. How 
shall we discern it ? 

1. By the scope and aim of your lives and actions. Do you labour 
for another world ? 2 Cor. iv. 18, ' While we look not at the things 
which are seen, but at the things which are not seen : for the things 
which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are 
eternal,' pr) O-KOTTOVVTWV r^av. What is your heart set upon, and 
what do you make your scope and aim ? A child of God prayeth. 
professeth, in order to eternity. A man shall know his general scope 
by what satisfieth him. Are you contented with the world, to have 
your names written in earth, to have your whole portion in this life, for 
other things you will give God a discharge ? Luther would not give 
God an acquittance, valde protestatus sum me nolle sic a Deo satiari. 
Grace must have eternity, for it would fain answer God's love ; it would 
live for ever, for ever to praise God and serve God. All the world will 
not satisfy it without this eternal enjoyment of God. 

2. Have you an eternal principle ? Is there a life begun that cannot 
be quenched ? Is the immortal seed conveyed into your hearts ? 1 
Peter i. 23, ' Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incor 
ruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.' 
Then certainly thou art loved from eternity, for thou hast a pledge of 
it. First or last there is a work wrought in their souls, that can never 
be undone and disannulled, something that is of an everlasting nature. 
And therefore what seeds of eternity hath God planted in your hearts ? 
Common graces and moral virtues, these are of no long continuance ; 
the soul must have an abiding work, an immortal work. 

3. You may know it by this : you will be much in trial, whether 
this be wrought in you or no, whether there be such an eternal prin 
ciple conveyed into your hearts. Morality is puffed up, never suspects 
itself, and common grace puts us into good moods, now and then gives 
eome tastes and flashes : Heb. vi. 4, 5, ' They were once enlightened, 
and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the 
Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of 
the world to come.' Morality doth not labour to see that all is sure 
and safe, and common grace only gives us some taste and flashes ; but 
a child of God is looking after the unction that will abide, the seed 
that remaineth ; and is careful to see that there is grace, and to be 
increasing in grace, and is always examining whether it be real. 



VOL. XI. 



114 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIII. 

SEKMON XLIII. 

righteous Father, the world hath not known thee : but I have knoivn 
thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me. JOHN XVII. 
25. 

OUR Lord had laid down the object of his prayers and the matter of 
them, and now he comes to the reasons, though in such affectionate 
addresses to God we should not be anxious in stating the method. 
Some conceive this a doxology ; as Mat. xi. 25, 26, 'I thank thee, 
Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things 
from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even 
so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight.' He had fully dis 
charged his office as a prophet, and therefore giveth thanks. But I 
rather look upon it as a part of the supplication. He had made his 
will and testament, and now allegeth the equity of it. Here 

1. A compilation, ' righteous Father/ 

2. The qualification of the disciples for that glory which he sought 
for them, saving knowledge. Which is illustrated 

[1.] By its opposite, the affected and obstinate ignorance of the 
world, ' The world hath not known thee.' 

[2.] By its efficient and exemplary cause, ' But I have known thee.' 

First, A compilation, ' Kighteous Father.' In which there is an 
irgument secretly couched, for always titles of God are suited to the 
matter in hand. It is brought to show the reason why the world is 
excluded the participation of heavenly glory, and the equity in be 
stowing it upon the elect. He had before called him ' Holy Father,' 
now ' Kighteous Father.' 

God is just and righteous two manner of ways in a legal and in an 
evangelical sense. In a legal sense, his justice is rewarding men 
according to the merit of their actions. Thus he dealeth with the 
reprobate lost world. In the evangelical sense, God's righteousness 
doth not regard the merit of their actions, but the state of the person ; 
and judgeth them rather according to what they have received than 
what they have done. And so God dealeth with the elect and repro 
bate ; the one are rewarded according to their works, the other 
according to their state, evidenced by their works ; to both God is 
just. So that I might 

Observe, first, that in the condemnation of the world, God is just, 
though they remain in blindness. 

1. Because God hath done enough ; God is aforehand with them ; 
they have more means than they use well. The Gentile world had 
light enough from the creatures to convince them of the true God : 
Rom. i. 19, 20, ' Because that which may be known of God is mani 
fest in them, for God hath showed it unto them. For the invisible 
things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being 
understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and 
godhead; so that they are dva7ro\6<yr)Tnt,, without excuse.' Yet they 
would not acknowledge the true God. The Jewish world had miracles 
enough to convince them of the true Messiah : John xv. 24, ' If I had 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 115 

not done among them the works that no other man did, they had not 
had sin ; but now they have both seen and hated me and my Father.' 

The carnal world within the pale of the church have had means 
enough to be better ; and though it be blind in the things of God, yet 
the Lord is clear : Isa. v. 4, ' What could I have done more for my 
vineyard than I have done ? ' in point of external administration. 
The Lord loveth 'to be clear when he judgeth,' Ps. li. 4, compared 
with Rom. iii. 26. In all debates he loveth the victory : Isaiah Ixv. 2, 
' I have spread out my hands all the day unto a rebellious people, 
which walketh in a way which was not good, after their own thoughts.' 
None goeth to hell for want of warning : Mat. xxiii. 37, ' Jerusalem, 
Jerusalem ! thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are 
sent unto thee ; how often would I have gathered thy children together, 
as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, but ye would not.' 

2. They have not done their part. They dally with means, scorn 
wisdom ; their weakness is wilful, and their blindness affected. The 
things of God must be spiritually discerned. But they are folly to 
them : 1 Cor. ii. 14, ' For the natural man receiveth not the things of 
the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him ; neither can he 
know them, because they are spiritually discerned/ There is not only 
an impotency, but a scorn ; there is a positive enmity, as well as an in 
capacity : John iii. 19, ' This is the condemnation, that light is come 
into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their 
deeds were evil.' Man is in love with his own misery ; when we should 
hate sins, we hate the light that discovereth them. An ignorant 
people love a sottish ministry ; the faithful witnesses are the world's 
torment : Eev. xi. 10, ' These two prophets tormented them that 
dwelt on the earth.' The world would fain lie down upon the bed of 
ease, and sleep. Light is troublesome to sore eyes. Ignorant priests 
are the people's idols ; the blind lead the blind, and they both fall 
into the ditch. They do not only err in their minds, but err in their 
hearts ; the one is sad, the other worse. It is evil that we do not 
know, it is doubly evil that we desire not to know : Job xxi. 14, 
' Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us, for we desire not the 
knowledge of thy ways.' Spiritual blindness is worse than bodily. 
When Elymas was stricken blind, he desired somebody to lead him by 
the hand, Acts xiii. 11. We count it our happiness to have fit guides ; 
but in spiritual blindness it is quite otherwise ; we cannot endure a 
faithful guide : ' the prophets prophesy lies and the people love to have 
it so.' Blind people are all for blind guides. 

Use 1. Let it set God clear. He loveth to have it so. When he 
corneth to judgment, 'the books shall be opened,' Eev. xx. 12. We 
are apt to quarrel his justice, for leaving so great a part of the world 
in the dark. Remember he is aforehand with means, and they love 
the state they are in. God leaveth no man without a sufficient con 
viction and witness of himself. 

Use 2. Let sottish men know that God is not all mercy and all 
honey. Usually our desires transform God into that shape which we 
fancy. A libertine would have God all mercy and all patience, be 
cause he desires him to be so. Affections make opinions: Ps. 1. 21, 
' Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself.' But 



116 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEE. XLIII. 

be not deceived ; to the blind world God will be severe, but just : Isa. 
xxvii. 11, ' It is a people of no understanding ; therefore he that made 
them will not have mercy on them, and he that formed them will 
show them no favour/ Ignorance is fatal and deadly to the heathens : 
2 Thes. i. 8, ' In flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know 
not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.' 
We pity them, and say, Poor ignorant creatures ! We Jiate a 
drunkard, but we pity an ignorant man. But God is very angry with 
them, because he knoweth the wickedness of their hearts, how many 
means they have withstood, and how much light they have abused. 
God doth not measure sins by the foulness of the act, but by the 
unkindness and ingratitude of it. The blind and the lame are equally 
an abomination to the Lord. To want knowledge is as bad as to 
want obedience ; it will be no excuse. 

Object. Ay ! but they have good meanings, and surely God will 
not deal in justice and rigour with them: we are ignorant, but our 
heart is good. 

Ans. Prov. xix. 21, ' Without knowledge the heart is not good.' 
Ignorance is so far from being the mother of devotion, as the Papists 
say, that it is the great hindrance of it. Simple credulity may be 
more awful and scrupulous, as men in the night have many fears ; but 
God loveth rational service, not blind obedience : 1 Chron. xxviii. 9, 
' And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and 
serve him with a perfect heart and a willing mind.' Worship with 
out knowledge is but a blind guess and loose aim, as Christ reproveth 
the Samaritans for worshipping they knew not what, John iv. 22. 
Certainly we are not so sensible of the danger of ignorance as we 
should be. Men live sensually, and die sottishly, and then perish 
eternally ; they live by guess at best, and some devout aims ; and 
when they come to die, they die by guess, in a doubtful uncertain way ; 
like men that leap over a deep gulf blindfold, they know not where 
their feet shall light. 

Observe, secondly, that God is not only merciful, but just, in the 
reward of the godly or glorifying the elect. Christ is praying and 
arguing for heavenly glory, and he giveth God the title of ' Righteous 
Father.' You shall see all your privileges are made to come from 
righteousness. Pardon of sins, which is one of the freest acts of God, 
and wherein he discovereth most of his mercy : 1 John i. 9, ' If we 
confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and 
cleanse us from all unrighteousness.' This is the mystery of divine 
grace. So also for eternal rewards : 2 Thes. i. 6, 7, ' Seeing it is a 
righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that 
trouble you.' You will think that it is righteous indeed that God 
should punish the wicked ; but read on : ' But to you who are 
troubled, rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed,' &c. 

But how is God's righteousness and justice interested in our rewards ? 

1. Partly it is engaged by Christ's merit. Though to us it be 
mere grace, yet as to Christ it is just, Christ's satisfaction being equi 
valent to the violation of God's majesty, and therefore it is just to 
pardon us. It is just for the creditor to forgave the debtor when the 
surety hath paid. So Christ's blood is not only \vrpov, a ransom, but 
, a price. It is just with God to glorify us; Christ's 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 117 

righteousness giveth us a right. This reason you have, Eom. iii. 
24-26, 'Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption 
that is in Jesus Christ ; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, 
through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remis 
sion of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God. To de 
clare, I say, at this time his righteousness ; that he may be just, and 
the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus.' God being satisfied by 
Christ, can be gracious to the creature without disparagement to his 
justice ; the mediator interposeth, his satisfaction is accepted. This 
was that the wise men of all times busied themselves in, how God 
could do good to the creature without disparagement to his justice. 
But all their devices were frustrate ; Christ alone bringeth the blood 
to the mercy-seat. 

2. God is fast bound by his own promise : James i. 12, ' Blessed is 
the man that endureth temptation ; for when he is tried, he shall 
receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that 
love him.' And it is a part of justice to make good his word. Pro- 
mittendo se facit debitorem. The qualification being supposed, we 
may challenge him upon it : Ps. cxix. 49, ' Remember thy word unto 
thy servant, upon which thou hast caused me to hope/ He biddeth 
us put him in remembrance he hath drawn us to these hopes : 2 Tim. 
iv. 8, ' Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, 
which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day, and not 
to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.' Upon 
which Bernard noteth, Paulus expectat coronam justiiice; sed justitice 
JDei, non sues : justum est ut reddat quod debet, debet autem quod 
pollicitus est. It is just with God to pay what he oweth, and he oweth 
what he promised. Therefore Chrysostom saith it was o-re^ai/o? eXeou? 
Kai SiKaioo-vwrrs. We may say to God, Eedde quod promisisti, though 
not Eedde quod debes. 

3. By positive ordinance, that every man shall receive according to 
the kind of his work, the wicked according to their wicked actions, and 
the good according to their good actions : Mat. xvi. 27, ' Then he shall 
reward every man according to his works.' Now, lest any should think 
it is meant of wicked men only, the apostle tells us, 2 Cor. v. 10, 
' Every one shall receive the things done in his body, according to that 
he hath done, whether it be good or bad.' God is not arbitrary in his 
judgment, it is the rule of process. All shall be rewarded in the gene 
ral, quoad genus, according to the kind of their works ; wicked men 
quoad meritum, because eternal punishment is due to evil works, out 
of the nature of the works ; but for the godly, the kind of their works 
is judged, but not in rigorous justice ; they shall not be weighed 
in the balance, then all would be found wanting, but brought to the 
touchstone. Vce laudabili vitce hominum, si (remota misericordid) 
discutias earn, saith Gregory. And the apostle, James ii. 12, 'So speak 
ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty.' 

Use 1. See how careful God is to preserve the honour and the awe 
in us of his justice, even in his rewards of grace. God will be just ; 
he is very careful to preserve the notions which the creature hath of 
his own essence inviolable. He will not exercise mercy to the preju 
dice of his justice ; there must be some way to represent him still a 
righteous Father.' God would give his own Son to the death that he 



118 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIII. 

might appear righteous. God will not love * that honour. Therefore 
stand in awe, and sin not, lest thou come short of the grace offered in 
Christ ; lest you find him just in a legal sense, while you abuse the 
mercy of the. gospel. 

' Use 2. It is to give us a sure ground of hope : Heb. vi. 10, ' For 
God is not unrighteous, to forget your work and labour of love.' That 
which is most terrible in God is the pawn and pledge of our salvation. 
Conscience, which is God's deputy, is never satisfied till God be satis 
fied ; for this thought cannot be plucked out of our minds, that God 
is an avenger. If we had not a sufficient satisfaction, we should 
always be troubled. Wherewith shall he be appeased ? Micah vi. 6, 
7, ' Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the 
high God ? Shall I come before him with burnt-pfferings, with calves 
of a year old ? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or 
with ten thousands of rivers of oil ? Shall I give my first-born for my 
transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? ' If a 
poor creature were in debt, and haling to prison, and a king should 
say, I will engage my whole revenue but I will pay it, how would this 
comfort him ! Certainly Christ was responsible enough. We are not 
so cheerful in his service as we should be, now justice is made our 
friend. Make use of it in great dejections and pangs of conscience : 
Job xxxiii. 24, ' Then he is gracious to him, and saith, Deliver him 
from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom.' When the 
ram was taken, Isaac was let go. God will show mercy to our persons, 
for justice is satisfied in our surety. You have a double claim and 
hold fast upon him in every court ; you may come before the tribunal 
of justice as well as the throne of grace. When you are fainting in 
service, encourage yourselves : ' Verily there is a reward for the right 
eous,' Ps. Iviii. 11. One day or another the saints shall be rewarded, 
their labour and service shall not be lost. 

Secondly, The qualification, saving knowledge ' These have known 
that thou hast sent me.' It is urged as a reason why they should 
behold his glory hereafter, because they make it their care to know 
God in Christ here. Here are two propositions : 

1. The only way to come to blessedness is by the knowledge of the 
true God. 

2. There is no knowledge of the true God without the knowledge of 
Jesus Christ as mediator. 

First proposition, That the only way to blessedness is by the know 
ledge of the true God. This I prove 

1. Because the foundation of the eternal state must be laid in this 
life. Now the foundation and superstructure must carry a proportion. 
What is the great happiness of heaven, and the blessedness of the 
creature ? The beatifical vision ; and therefore we must begin it here 
in knowledge, and in the study of God : John xvii. 3, ' This is life 
eternal, to know thee the only and true God ;' that is, this is the 
beginning of life eternal. When there is a saving light in the soul, 
there is a spark kindled that will never be quenched. In the barn 
corn doth not grow, but in the field. Here we labour after knowledge, 
there we enjoy the perfection of it ; and according to the degrees of 

1 Qu. ' lose ' ? ED. 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 119 

knowledge and grace we attain in this life, so will be our happiness 
hereafter. The state of the wicked is a growing darkness : Mat. viii. 12, 
' The children of the kingdom shall be cast out into utter darkness,' 
et? TO CTACOT09 TO e^(OTepov. What is that ? A darkness beyond a 
darkness in tenebras ex tenebris infoeliciter exclusi : they shall be cast 
out from one darkness into another. Here they are under the dark 
ness of ignorance and sin, and there they shall be under the darkness 
of horror and terror for evermore. The state of the wicked in helHs a 
darkness that grows out of a darkness ; here they are dark, and care 
not to know God, or know his ways, and the mists of darkness are 
reserved for them for evermore. But now the state of the godly is 
an increasing light : Prov. iv. 18, 'The path of the just is as the 
shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day.' 
Look, as the just do increase, and go on from knowledge to knowledge, 
till they attain the light of glory, as the sun climbeth up to the top 
of the meridian by degrees, so the way of the wicked is darkness ; 
they go on from darkness to darkness, and the mist of darkness is 
reserved for them. Ignorance makes way for sin, and sin for hell. 
They are hastening downwards from darkness to darkness, and we 
hasten to the perfect day, from grace to glory. 

2. There is no serving or enjoying of God but by knowledge. I do 
not plead for a naked knowledge, and an inactive speculation, but such 
as is accompanied with faith, love, and obedience, otherwise it is no 
true knowledge. No knowledge, no faith : Kom. x. 14, ' How shall 
they believe in him of whom they have not heard ? ' We must know 
what Christ is before we can trust him with our souls. Would a 
woman accept of a man when she knows not what he is, nor from 
whence he came ? Can the soul rest itself with Christ, and venture 
its salvation upon him, till it knows what he is ? 2 Tim. i. 12, ' I 
know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to 
keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.' Faith 
is an advised act, it is a child of light. Presumption is but a blind 
adventure, an act that is done hand-over-head, without advice and 
care ; but faith certainly presupposeth knowledge. The blind man 
speaks reason in this, when Christ asked him, ' Dost thou believe on 
the Son of God?' John ix. 35. He answered, ver. 36, 'Who is he, 
Lord, that I may believe on him ?' And then for love. No know 
ledge, no love. An unknown object never affects us. Love proceeds 
from sight. Those that have a sight of the excellences of God, by 
the light of the Spirit accompanying the word, they love the Lord. 
And then where there is no love, there is no knowledge : 1 John iv. 
8, ' He that loveth not, knoweth not God, for God is love.' And then 
for worship and obedience, that is also the fruit of knowledge ; that 
worship which is performed to the unknown God is never right. As 
those fruits that grow out of the sun are crabbed and sour, so all such 
acts of worship as proceed not from light and knowledge are not right 
and genuine. There cannot be a greater preservative from sin than 
knowledge : 3 John 11, ' He that doeth evil hath not seen God.' Cer 
tainly he that makes a trade and course of sin was never acquainted 
with God : 1 John ii. 4, ' He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not 
his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him/ And there 



120 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [&ER. XLIII. 

can be no enjoyment of God without knowledge, neither in a way of 
grace nor in a way of comfort. Not in a way of grace : there can be 
no grace without knowledge ; if we be renewed and changed, it is by 
knowledge : Col. iii. 10, ' And have put on the new man, which is 
renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him.' If 
we be strengthened in affliction, and enabled for the duties of every 
condition, it is by knowledge : Phil. iv. 12, ' I know both how to be 
abased, and I know how to abound ; everywhere and in all things I 
am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and 
to suffer need.' All communications of grace are conveyed by light. 
Nor can there be any enjoyment of God in a way of comfort without 
light and knowledge. Fears are in the dark ; till we have a distinct 
knowledge of the nature and tenor of the covenant we are full of 
fears .and doubts, which vanish as a mist before the sun when know 
ledge is wrought. 

Second proposition, There is no knowledge of the true God without 
the knowledge of Christ as mediator. For two reasons : 

1. Because God will accept no honour from the creature but in and 
through Jesus Christ : John v. 23, ' That all men should honour the 
Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the 
Son honoureth not the Father that hath sent him.' God hath 
revealed himself in Christ, and you make God an idol if you think of 
him otherwise. 

2. Because God out of Christ is not comfortable, but terrible. The 
fallen creature cannot converse with God without a mediator. As 
waters, which are salt in the sea, strained through the earth, are 
sweet in rivers, so are the attributes of God in and through Christ 
sweet and comfortable to the soul ; for we cannot draw nigh to God 
without a screen. 

Use. To press us to get knowledge. The more knowledge, the 
more a man ; the more ignorant, the more brutish : Ps. xlix. 20, 
' Man that is in honour, and void of understanding, is like the beasts 
that perish.' And again, as knowledge doth distinguish you from 
beasts, so the knowledge of God doth distinguish you from other men ; 
to know God is your excellency above other men : Jer. ix. 23. 24, ' Let 
not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man 
glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches. But let 
him that glorieth, glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth 
me, that I am the Lord,' &c. As if he had said, If you will needs 
glory, it is not who is most wealthy, nor most mighty, nor most wise, 
but who hath the greatest knowledge of God in Christ. Above all, 
know God in Christ, that is most comfortable. Horrible est de Deo 
extra Christum cogitare. It is a horrible thing to think of God out 
of Christ. God in Christ is the greatest mercy the world was ever 
acquainted with ; this is a speculation fit for angels: 1 Peter i. 12, 
' Which things the angels desire to look into ;' Eph. iii. 10, ' To the 
intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places, 
might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God.' And 
therefore much more should it be the study of saints. But do not rest 
in a naked contemplation ; there is ' a form of knowledge/ Kom. ii. 
20, as well as ' a form of godliness,' 2 Tim. iii. 5, which is nothing 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 121 

else but an artificial speculation, a naked model of truth in the brain, 
which, as the winter sun, shines but warms not. But what is true 
knowledge ? How shall we discover it ? I answer 1. It must be a 
serious prudent knowledge, &c. [See on ver. 8.] 

I now come to speak to the illustration of this qualification of saving 
knowledge. It is illustrated 

1. By its opposite, the affected and obstinate ignorance of the world, 
' The world hath not known thee.' 

2. By its efficient and exemplary cause, ' But I have known thee.' 
The first illustration is from the opposite ignorance and obstinacy 

of the world, ' The world hath not known thee.' 

Why is this alleged ? I answer Partly to show the reason why 
' they should be otherwise dealt withal than the blind world. As if he 
had said, By thy righteous and wise constitution, thou hast appointed 
different recompenses to men of different states ; but now ' they have 
known thee,' but ' the world hath not known thee.' Partly to com 
mend their acknowledgment of Christ, the world neither knowing nor 
believing, yea, rather hating and persecuting thee. In the original 
there is /cat, though ; so that, neither hindered by fears nor snares, 
the rulers and great men were against the acknowledging of Christ, 
the multitude blind and obstinate ; yet the disciples knew him, and 
owned him as the Messiah, or one sent of God. 

Observe, first, that it is exceeding praiseworthy to own Christ when 
others disown him and reject him, to own him in the midst of the 
world's blindness and madness against him. Now he is publicly 
received among the nations, it is no great matter to own him now ; as 
those that followed Christ in his lifetime for the loaves, John vi. 26, 
when honours, and conveniences, and interests, look that way. But 
to own him then, when the powers of the world, the heads and rulers 
of the church are against him, when the stone is refused by the 
builders, this is praiseworthy. 

Now the reasons are two. It is a sign God hath a great love to 
them, and it is a sign of their great love to God ; of his choice, and 
their sincerity. There are two things hinder us from the sight of 
truth prejudices and interests. Now it is a sign of the special direc 
tion of God's Spirit when we can overlook prejudices ; and it is a sign 
of our unfeigned zeal when we can deny interests. 

1. It is an argument of God's love to us. This looketh like elec 
tion : Mat. xxiv. 24, ' If it were possible, they shall deceive the very 
elect.' There are some favourites whom God taketh into his special 
care, that he may show them his counsel, and lead them into all truth. 
In times when error is so countenanced, and appeareth with a plausible 
face, it is a matter of great skill to find out the truth. There are 
some choice ones to whom God manifests himself, when others are 
left to perish in their own ways. So it is said, Ps. xxv. 14, ' The secret 
of the Lord is with them that fear him.' By the secret of the Lord 
is not meant the counsels of his providence ; they are revealed but to 
a few, to the prophets ; this is a promise common to all that fear him ; 
therefore by it is intended the counsels of the word ; those that are 
his favourites, that lie in his bosom, they shall know his secrets ; as 
the disciples, when they would know anything of Christ, pointed to 



122 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLIIL 

the disciple whom Jesus loved : John xiii. 23, 24, ' Now there was 
leaning on Jesus' bosom one of the disciples whom Jesus loved. 
Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it 
should be of whom he spake.' 

2. It is an argument of our sincerity, to own God in times of public 
contest, when it is dangerous to own him. There are some times when 
God crieth, ' Who is on my side ? ' Exod. xxxii. 26, when he calleth 
upon us to manifest ourselves, and providence calleth for a public 
acknowledgment. Errors by God's permission are sent into the world 
to try us. The Lord trieth you to see if you will be led by every fancy, 
and swim with the stream. Many times the delusion is very strong, 
that our trial may be the greater ; so 1 Cor. xi. 19, ' There must be 
heresies, that, So/a/tot, they which are approved may be made manifest 
among you.' Winds are let loose to try who are chaff, who are solid 
grain ; especially an error backed with power, as when a tree is shaken, 
rotten apples fall down ; such times discover hypocrites : Prov. xxvi. 26, 
* Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall be showed 
before the whole congregation.' But now it is a great argument of 
sincerity to own the truth, when the error is so plausible, and the in 
convenience is great : 1 Kings xix. 10, ' I have been very jealous for 
the Lord God of hosts : because the children of Israel have forsaken 
thy covenant, thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with 
the sword ; and I, even I only, am left ; and they seek my life to take 
it away.' When we are left alone to contest, that is a great trial. 

Use 1. Information. 

1. That true zeal is not seen so much in fighting with antiquated 
errors, as in being ' established in the present truth/ 2 Peter i. 12, h 
rfj Trapova-r) aA/^e/a. The present truth of that age was to acknow 
ledge Christ to be the Messiah. When truths are upon the stage, 
then to give our testimony to them, this is to be God's witnesses. To 
declaim against the errors of former ages is but a safe and wary zeal. 
The Jews that opposed Christ yet pleaded for the prophets slain by 
their fathers. Corah, Dathan, and Abiram were as hateful to them as 
Judas to us ; but they had no eyes to see for the present. Christ taxeth 
the hypocrisy of them that maligned the living prophets, and garnished 
the tombs of the dead, Mat. xxiii. 29. It is no thank to own Christ 
in the day of his exaltation, as when he is opposed and slighted. Old 
truths are only opposed by natural prejudices, but present truths by 
carnal interests. 

2. That it is a great folly in them that will profess nothing till the 
world be agreed. Laziness is apt to pretend want of certainty. This 
is the old prejudice. Chrysostom bringeth in a heathen disputing I 
would fain become a Christian, but there are so many divisions among 
you, that I know not what to choose. Men are loath to put themselves 
to the trouble of prayer and search, and would have all fitted to their 
hands, and therefore, till all be agreed, keep themselves in a wary 
reservation. Should a traveller stand still because he meeteth with 
many ways? Jer. vi. 16, ' Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the way, 
and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk 
therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls/ Or should a man that 
is sick refuse physic till all physicians be of one mind ? It is your 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 123 

duty to search, and it is praiseworthy to own Christ in times of 
contest. 

3. It informeth us that a multitude is no excuse, because all went 
that way. We should own Christ though the world know him not, 
though it hate him, though it persecute him. We should have an 
eagle eye. The old world was not spared for the multitude ; there 
were but eight persons of another judgment. We often presume that 
many eyes see more than one, and so spare the labour of examination ; 
but one man that hath the use of his eyes seeth more than a thousand 
blind men ; and often-times it falleth out that a few find the true way : 
Mat. vii. 14, ' Strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth 
unto life, and few there be that find it.' Therefore it is brutish to 
follow the track We should examine, because mostly the world is 
out, and the multitude followeth that which is evil ; nay, it is rather a 
ground of suspicion ; the most are not the best. 

Use 2. It presseth us to be more earnest to get a clear and satis 
factory knowledge in the controversies of the age, in the truths that 
are now upon the stage. To that end 

1. Desire the direction of Christ, and consult with him. As the 
woman of Samaria, John iv. 20, ' Our fathers worshipped in this 
mountain, and ye say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought 
to worship/ Whether Zion or Gerizim ? Present it often to Christ. 
Prayer is the best way to get satisfaction, and our doubts are best solved 
by consulting with the oracle. You can have no certain light from 
men without his illumination. 

2. Search and prove all things : 1 Thes. v. 21, ' Prove all things, 
hold fast that which is good.' We should stand in the ways and see : 
Jer. vi. 16, ' Stand in the ways and see, and ask for the old paths, where 
is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls.' 
We should be able to render \6<yov, 1 Peter iii. 15, ' A reason of the 
hope that is in you, with meekness and fear.' And we have iBiov 
trrrjpvypka, ' a steadfastness of our own/ 2 Peter iii. 17. We must not 
only regard the consent of others, but our judgments must be balanced 
with sound and weighty grounds, otherwise we shall be carried about 
with every wind of doctrine, when the posture of interest is changed, 
or a new opinion is started. Non exploratis traditionum rationibus 
probabilem fidem portant. Such men have no principles. 

But must we not hold fast what we have received ? must we always 
be searching, and keeping ourselves in a wary reservation, and be 
never settled ? I answer 

[1.] For principles and fundamental doctrines, we are not to doubt 
of them : Deut. xii. 30, ' Thou shalt not inquire after their gods, say 
ing, How did these nations serve their gods ? even so will I do like 
wise.' It is dangerous to loosen foundation-stones, though with an 
intent to settle them better. Here we should be at a certainty. 

[2.] For lesser truths, when they are already cleared, and God hath 
taught them, it is good to hold fast what we have already received, 
and not to loosen the assent, or keep the soul suspensive, out of a 
jealousy or supposal that something may be said against what we now 
hold. ' Ever learning, and never coming et9 eTriyvwcriv, to the know 
ledge of the truth,' But in case of actual doubt, it is good to search. 



124 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLIII. 

Doubts smothered make way for atheism or hardness of heart. 
Therefore, in cases of anxiety, it is good to bring things to an issue. 
Smoke maketh way for flame. 

[3.] In your choice, be not swayed with interests, nor vulgar pre 
judices, nor vile affections. 

(1.) Not with interests. God puts us to trial, to see if we can love 
a hated truth. The world is a blinding thing : 2 Cor. iv. 4, ' The god 
of the world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not.' Why 
is Satan called ' the god of the world ' ? He throweth the dust of the 
world in our eyes, and then we cannot see. We easily believe what 
we readily desire, and are loath to search when we have a mind to hate. 
Let the weights be never so equal, yet, if the balances be not equal, 
you can never judge of the weight of anything. When the mind is 
prepossessed and infected with interests, we are not capable of making 
a right judgment ; as the water, when it is muddied, doth not render 
and represent the face. 

(2.) Not with vulgar prejudices, as prepossessions of custom and 
long tradition, the opinions of holy and learned men, general consent, 
pretences of a stricter way. Men would fain judge upon slight grounds, 
without entering into the merits of the cause, to save the pains of study 
and prayer. This is but to put a fallacy upon yourselves. Some are 
against novelty, and when the ways of God are revived, they are 
hardened, they will not change ; as if there were no obstinacy as well 
as constancy, obstinacy in the bad angels, as well as constancy in the 
good. Others are swayed by the opinions of godly learned men, whose 
persons they have in admiration. There is no ipse dixit in the 
church but the Lord's. It is observed that the corruptions of the 
Koman synagogue were occasioned by admiration of some venerable 
pastors of that church. Paul withstood Peter to the face, Gal. ii. 12, 
when his credit and example was like to do hurt. Others are swayed 
by general consent ; but it is dangerous following the multitude ; the 
world hath been against Christ, when a few only have owned him. 
Others by pretences of a stricter way : Col. ii. 23, ' Which things 
have indeed a show of wisdom in will-worship and humility, and 
neglecting of the body.' This is to be wiser than God, and to judge 
the law. 

(3.) Not by vile affections, pride, passion, envy. Pride, or an over 
weening opinion of our own wit and learning: John ix. 40, 'The 
pharisees said, Are we blind also ? ' Proud persons, as the great 
rabbies, will not seem to be in an error. Men choose rather to be 
wicked than to be accounted weak. So envy at others, when men can 
not be admitted into such places as they affect ; and that puts them 
upon error and opposition : 1 Cor. iii. 3, ' For whereas there is among 
you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as 
men ? ' So passion, revenge, and discontent. The devil worketh 
much upon spleen and anger, when offence is taken, whether justly, or 
upon supposed occasion, it mattereth not. Many in spite and stomach 
have turned atheists or heretics. Carnal Ham, when cursed of his 
father, began the way of atheism. 

Observe, secondly, that the reprobate world can never have any 
true knowledge of God : ' The world hath not known thee.' 



VER. 25 ] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 125 

1. The reprobate world can go as far as nature can go : 1 Cor. ii. 
14, ' The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, 
for they are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them, because 
they are spiritually discerned ; ' avdpwiros ^V^IKO^, not <rdpKi/co<;. 
There are two reasons urged by the apostle a natural incapacity 
and a positive enmity. (1.) A natural incapacity. He supposeth a 
sufficient revelation : ' They are spiritually discerned.' There must 
be a cognation between the object and the faculty. Spiritual things 

lust be seen by a spiritual light. Sense, which is the light of beasts, 
cannot trace the workings and flights of reason ; we cannot see a soul 
or an angel by the light of a candle. So that the object must not 
only be revealed, but there must be an answerable light in the faculty. 
There is light enough, but we have not eyes. There needeth not a 
plainer revelation. David prays, not that God would make a plainer 
rule, but open his eyes : Ps. cxix. 18, ' Open thou mine eyes, that I 
may behold wondrous things out of thy law.' The understanding 
must be opened, as well as the scriptures : Luke xxiv. 45, ' Then 
opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scrip 
tures.' (2.) Positive enmity : ' They are foolishness to him.' He 
looketh upon the things of God and solid piety as frivolous and vain. 
When Paul came to Athens, they called him babbler : Acts xvii. 18, 
' What will this babbler say ? ' The same disposition still remaineth 
in natural men. Though the truths of religion, by long tract of time, 
and by the consent of many ages, have obtained credit, yet men 
nauseate spiritual truths and the power of godliness. A stomach ill 
affected by choler casts up wholesome meats ; so do they scorn strict 
ness and the holy ways of God. 

2. Experience shows it. Take mere nature itself, and, like plants 
neglected, it soon runneth wild ; as the nations that are barbarous, 
and not polished with arts and civility, have more of the beast than 
of the man in them : Jude 10, ' What they know naturally, as brute 
beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves.' Suppose they use 
the spectacles of art to help the native light of reason with industry, 
yet their eyes are blind. How erroneous in religion were the civil 

lations ! Eom. i. 22, ' Professing themselves to be wise, they became 
fools ;' very foolish in matters of worship. The Komans placed fear, 
human passions, and every paltry thing among their gods. The ruder 
and more brutish nations worshipped only the sun and thunder, things 
great and wonderful. And still now we see great scholars given over 
to fond superstitions. Nay, go higher ; suppose, besides the spectacles 
of art, nature be furnished with the glass of the word, yet we see 

reat scholars very defective in the most useful and practical points. 

ficodernus, a teacher in Israel, knew not regeneration, John iii. 10. 
Usually they delight rather in moral strains than mysteries of faith, 
and err in one point or another ; usually in the controversies of their 
age, they are blinded by pride or interest, are loath to stoop to truth 
revealed, and so are outstarted by the vulgar. Surgunt indocti et 
rapiunt ccelum, &c. they dispute away heaven while others surprise 
it. Nay, suppose they had an exact model and proportion of faith, 
and do pry into all the secrets of religion, as it is possible to do with 
the common light and help of the Spirit, which is as far as a reprobate 



126 . SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIII. 

can go ; yet all this is without any change of affection, without any 
favour or relish of truth. This speculative and artificial knowledge 
doth not change the heart. 

But here is an objection ; many carnal men have great parts, and 
profess the knowledge of the true God. I answer 

[1.] The greatest part of the world lieth in ignorance ; they are 
born in darkness, live in darkness, love darkness more than light, and 
are under the powers of darkness : Eph. vi. 12, ' The rulers of the 
darkness of this world.' The devil hath a large territory over all the 
blind nations. 

[2.] Carnal men, that own the true God, and profess him, yet in a 
scripture sense they do not know him. For knowledge not being 
affective, it is reputed ignorance : John viii. 54, 55, ' Of whom ye say, 
that he is your God. Yet ye have not known him, but I know him : 
and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you ; 
but I know him, and keep his saying.' It is a lie to pretend to know 
ledge without obedience : 1 John ii. 4, 5, ' And hereby we know that 
we know him, if we keep his commandments. He that saith, I know 
him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is 
not in him.' For all their great parts, they are but spiritual fools ; 
they have no true wisdom, avorjTol. So are all carnal men : Titus iii. 
3, ' We ourselves also were sometimes foolish,' out of our wits. They 
do not understand things spiritual, and such as tend to maintain 
communion with God ; they love and do those things with delight 
that are against all reason, hurtful to body and soul. Natural men 
are sometimes represented as fools that judge amiss, sometimes as 
infants that know nothing : Isa. xxviii. 9, ' Whom shall he teach 
knowledge ? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine ? they 
that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breast.' Some 
times as beasts, that are incapable of understanding : Ps. xxxii. 9, 
* Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, that hath no understanding.' 
Fools they are in their choice that prefer a nut or an apple before a 
jewel ; they spend all their time in looking after riches, and honours, 
and such kind of things as do not conduce to eternity ; for carnal 
pleasures forfeit their souls, and yet think themselves very wise. In 
their course they make war with heaven, and enter into the lists with 
God, as if they were stronger than he. In their presumption, they 
give out themselves for the sons of God, when they are the devil's 
children ; as if a man, born of a beggar, should pretend to be the son 
of a king. Fools and madmen challenge all lands as theirs, so do they 
all promises and comforts. Within a little while experience will show 
them to be fools ; their eyes are never opened to see their folly till it 
be too late : Luke xii. 20, ' Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be 
required of thee ; ' Jer. xvii. 11, ' As a partridge sitteth on eggs, and 
hatcheth them not, so he that getteth riches, and not by right, shall 
leave them in the midst of his days, and at his end shall be a fool.' 
There is no fool to the carnal fool; godly men are only wise, that 
are wise to save their souls. 

Use. It informeth us 

1. Of our misery by nature. For as the reprobate lost world are, 
so are we all by nature ; we have no knowledge of the true God : Job 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 127 

xi. 12, 'Vain man would be wise, though man be born like a wild 
ass's colt.' We. are apt to think ourselves angels, but we are beasts. 
Every one affects the repute of wisdom ; we would rather be accounted 
wicked than weak. If a man were born with an ass's head, or were 
monstrous and misshapen in his body, this were sad. It is worse to 
be born with the heart of an ass, to be born like a wild ass's colt, with 
such gross and rude conceits of God and holy things. This is our 
estate by nature. 

2. The danger of ignorance ; it is the state of the reprobate world. 
It is good to think of it, partly that we may avoid it ourselves, and 
strive for knowledge; partly that we may be thankful if we have 
obtained knowledge ; and partly that we might pity others, as Christ 
wept over Jerusalem : Luke xix. 41, 42, ' And when he was come near, 
he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying, If thou hadst known, even 
thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace ! 
but now they are hid from thine eyes.' It is one of God's sorest 
judgments ; when the Lord hath left threatening other things, then he 
threatens a blind heart and a vain mind. The great reproach that 
Nahash would lay upon Israel was to put out their right eyes. The 
great design of the god of this world upon the men of this world is to put 
out their eyes, that they might not come to the knowledge of the truth. 

3. Positive ignorance is a sign that we are of the world ; I mean, 
where we have means and opportunities to the contrary, and do not 
come to the knowledge of God, and of his ways : 1 John ii. 13, ' I 
write unto you little children, because ye have known the Father.' 
God hath no child so little but he knows his Father. The blind 
world knows him not ; when there is night in the understanding, or 
frost in the heart, it is a sign of a worldling ; when men are ignorant, 
unteachable, and do not grow in knowledge. God's children many times 
may be ignorant, and do not profit according to their advantages : 
John xiv. 9, ' Have I been so long with thee, and yet hast thou not 
known me, Philip ? ' that is, not known so distinctly God the Father, 
and me, as coming out from him. But God's children are not alto 
gether unteachable. 

4. We have no reason to trust the judgment of carnal men in 
matters of godliness, for they do not know God. Can blind men judge 
of colours ? I urge it, that you may not be discouraged though the 
world scoff at holiness. Who would take notice of the judgment of 
fools ? 

5. That ignorance is not only the badge of silly weak persons, but 
of great men, and those that are carnally wise : Mat. xi. 25, ' I thank 
thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these 
things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.' 
Whatever parts they have, they have no saving knowledge of God. 
The godly man is the only knowing and wise man ; all others they 
are but fools, however they swell with an opinion of knowledge, and 
count it a reproach to be so called. 

The second illustration is by the efficient and exemplary cause of 
our knowledge, ' But I have known thee/ &c. All along our likeness 
to Christ and unlikeness to the world is asserted. 

Observe, that Christ's knowledge is the pattern and cause of ours. 



128 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIII. 

We have all things at the second hand : ' I have known,' and ' they 
have known.' All the candles are lighted at this torch ; or, to use a 
comparison more celestial, all the stars receive their light from the 
sun. Therefore he ia called, ' the Father of lights,' James i. 17, and 
' the Sun of righteousness/ Mai. iv. 2. 

Christ giveth us knowledge two ways by his word and by his 
Spirit. Now none is fit to establish the word, none to pour out the 
Spirit, but Christ. 

1. None can give us a sufficient revelation of the Father but Christ, 
that came out of his bosom, that knew all. his counsels: John i. 18, 
' No man hath seen God at any time ; the only-begotten Son, which is 
in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.' Our knowledge is 
by the senses, by sight and hearsay. Now no man hath seen God, 
but Christ, that was God-man, who came out of his bosom. So Mat. 
xi. 27, ' No man knoweth the Son but the Father ; neither knoweth 
any man the Father save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will 
reveal him.' To know him perfectly and comprehensively, so neither 
men nor angels know him. To know him originally, so as to esta 
blish a revelation with authority, and so as fit to offer the light and 
knowledge of him to the creature, so none but Christ knows him ; our 
faith is built on God. Human authority begets but a human faith 
and credulity. It was necessary that in the bede-roll of gospel 
preachers the Son of God should have the first place, that in the latter 
times he should preach to us by his Son, that the ultimate resolution 
of faith might be into divine authority : John vii. 29, ' But I know 
him, for I am from him, and he hath sent me ; ' and John x. 15, ' As 
the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father/ It is for our 
confidence that the full discovery of this doctrine was reserved for the 
Son of God. 

2. None else can give us a capacity to learn. Jesus Christ is such 
a teacher, that he doth not only give the lesson, but the wit and skill 
to learn : 1 John v. 20, ' We know that the Son of God is come, and 
hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true/ 
No matter what the scholar is, when we have such a master. We 
use to inquire whether any one hath a capacity to learn. He openeth 
the scriptures, and openeth the understanding to learn : Luke xxiv. 
27, ' And beginning at Moses, and all the prophets, he expounded unto 
them in all the scriptures, the things concerning himself ; ' and ver. 
45, ' Then opened he their understandings, that they might under 
stand the scriptures/ There is a double veil upon the doctrine and 
upon the heart ; Christ removeth both. 

Use 1. If that the true knowledge of God is only to be had from 
Christ, it directeth us in the use of all ordinances to look up to him ; 
there must our trust be fixed, in reading, hearing, meditating. We 
must use helps and means, else we tempt God, but our trust must 
be elsewhere. In reading, Ps. cxix. 18, ' Open thou mine eyes, that I 
may behold wondrous things out of thy law/ There are wonders in 
the law, but our eyes must be opened to see them, otherwise we shall 
have but a superficial and literal knowledge, when men think to find 
more in books than in Christ. So in hearing, cathedram habet in 
ccelis : Isa. ii. 3, ' Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the 



VER. 25.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvir. 129 

Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob, and he will teach us of his 
ways.' You come to the word to be taught by man, and yet not to be 
taught by man ; in obedience you use the means, but your confidence 
is on Christ, that you may hear his voice to the soul, that he that 
brought the gospel out of the bosom of God may bring it into your 
hearts. The dial is of no use without the sun ; except the sun shine, 
you cannot see what is a-clock by the dial ; so in meditation and 
study ; Christ is ' Wonderful, counsellor,' Isa. ix. 6 ; Prov. viii. 14, 
' Counsel is mine and sound wisdom ; I am understanding, I have 
strength.' How are men befooled that go forth in the confidence of 
their own wit ! Flesh and blood are apt to stumble in God's plainest 
ways. Carnal hearts turn all to a carnal purpose : Prov. xxvi. 9, ' As 
a thorn goeth up into the hand of a drunkard, so is a parable in the 
mouth of fools.' The same cloud that was light to the Israelites was 
darkness to the Egyptians. Luther calleth the promises ' bloody 
promises,' through our perverse applications. Truth is only renewing 
as taught by Christ : Eph. iv. 21, ' If so be that ye have heard him, 
and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus.' We cannot 
tell how to master corruptions without this. The light of common 
conviction is like a March sun, that draweth up aguish vapours ; it 
discovereth sins, but cannot quell them. We should be apt to for 
sake truth upon every temptation, unless it were for Christ's teaching : 
Ps. cxix. 102, ' I have not departed from thy judgments, for thou 
hast taught me;' 1 John ii. 20, ' Ye have an unction from the holy 
one, and ye know all things.' When men lead us into truth, others 
may lead us out again. Those that have made trial can best judge 
of the difference between being taught of God and men : 1 Cor. ii. 4, 
' My speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man's 
wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.' When 
the arrow cometh out of God's quiver, it sticketh in our sides. Then 
we see truths with application. 

Use 2. It teacheth us how to direct our prayers to Christ. Seek to 
him with confidence, and with all earnestness of affection. 

1. With confidence ; we despair many times because of our block- 
ishness: Col. ii. 3, 'In him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge.' Hidden, not that they should not be found out, but 
because they are seen by the eye of faith : hidden, because deposited 
there, to be dispensed to us. God made Christ a storehouse to furnish 
all our necessities : 1 Cor. i. 30, ' Of him are ye iii Christ Jesus, who 
of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, 
and redemption.' Wisdom to give us spiritual illumination. Be not 
discouraged ; it is not the pregnancy of the scholar that prevaileth 
here, but the excellency of the teacher. If Christ be the teacher, no 
matter how dull the scholar be. Pride in parts hath been a hind 
rance, but simpleness hath never been a hindrance : Ps. xix. 7, ' The 
testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple ; ' Jer. xxxi. 
33, 34, ' I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their 
hearts : and will be their God, and they shall be my people : and they 
shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his 
brother, saying, Know the Lord , for they shall all know me from the 
least of them to the greatest of them, saith the Lord ; ' Mat. xi. 25, 

VOL. XI. I 



130 SEKMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIII. 

' I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast 
hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them 
unto babes.' God can give to shallow and weak people great under 
standing in spiritual things, as he cured him that was born blind, 
John ix. 

2. With earnestness : ' Cry for knowledge, and lift up thy voice for 
understanding,' Prov. ii. 3. Many times God withholdeth knowledge 
that we may cry for it, especially when the case is doubtful and 
litigious. John wept when the book was sealed with seven seals, 
Kev. v. 4. We need to cry for all grace, but especially for saving 
knowledge. Let us groan and sigh when we are in the dark. 

[1.] Consider the necessity of knowledge. The blind man cried 
after Christ, because he knew what it was to want eyes : Luke xviii. > 
41, 'Lord, that I may receive my sight.' We are not sensible of 
our natural blindness as we ought to be. There is ignorance and 
folly in all, but treasures of wisdom and knowledge in Christ. If we 
are not ignorant, yet we are indiscreet. Men know not how to guide 
and order their course. Certainly if you were acquainted with your 
selves, you would not hold your peace. 

[2.] Consider the excellency of knowledge. All knowledge is 
excellent, as all light is comfortable. Knowledge is your excellency 
above the beasts ; that you have receptive faculties capable of knowing 
and understanding things, that you are intelligent creatures, this is 
your advantage above the beasts. But saving knowledge is far more 
excellent, even the knowledge of God in Christ. This is the glory of 
a man : Jer. xxix. 23, 24, ' Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, 
neither let the mighty man glory in his might ; let not the rich man 
glory in his riches ; but let him that glorieth, glory in this, that he 
understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord/ &c. If men should 
be able to dispute of everything that might be known, from the highest 
star to the lowest shrub, this knowledge is nothing to the knowledge of 
God in Christ, which is far better than all the knowledge of the ques- 
tionists and disputers of this world. The fear of God, that is the best 
excellency, and that is it which Christ teacheth. I observe the provi 
dence of God in that one thing, viz., Solomon had wrote many books 
of philosophy which are not extant, when the books of some heathens, 
as Aristotle's book de Animalibus, &c., are extant ; but his books of 
the fear of God are preserved by a special providence, not one of them 
lost. We may want the other without any loss of true wisdom, but we 
cannot want these. And therefore you are more concerned in the get 
ting of saving knowledge than you are aware of. Light was the first 
creature that God made, so it is the way by which all grace is wrought 
in the soul ; for in all communications of grace God beginneth with 
the understanding : Jer. xxxi. 19, ' After 1 was instructed, I smote 
upon my thigh.' He makes the creature to submit to his providence, 
to be contented in all estates and conditions : Phil. iv. 12, ' In all 
things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound 
and to suffer need/ God draws you to Christ, but his drawing is 
accompanied with a teaching : John vi. 44, ' No man can come to me, 
except the Father, which hath sent me, draw him ;' ver. 45, ' And they 
shall be all taught of God, Every man therefore that hath heard, 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 131 

and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.' God's drawing is 
not a blind force, but there is a teaching with it. God loves rational 
service, not blind obedience ; and therefore cry for knowledge, and 
run to Christ that he may teach you, and lead you into the paths of 
righteousness. 



SEKMON XLIV. 

And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it ; that 
the love loher.ewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I 
in them. JOHN XVII. 26. 

THIS is the second reason, taken from the benefits Christ had bestowed 
upon them. Here is his gift and his aim. In the first, what he had 
done, what 1 he will do. Where (1.) Quid, the manifestation of his 
Father's name; (2.) Quibus, to whom, principally to the apostles, and 
from them to believers ; (3.) Quomodo, ' I have/ that is, by his minis 
try upon earth ; and ' I will,' in the pouring out the Spirit, and his 
discourses with them after the resurrection. All that needeth expli 
cation is, What is meant by God's name ? Ans. The use of names 
from the beginning was a distinction to separate creature from crea 
ture by their appellations. At first Adam gave names to the beasts, 
that their species and kinds might be distinguished, for beasts are dis 
tinguished only by their herds and kinds. But the names which men 
bear are individual and particular ; man being an excellent creature, 
made for rule and commerce, and therefore is to be known not by his 
kind, but name. But now, what is God's name ? Where there are 
many, there is need of names ; but where there is but one, the singu 
larity is distinction enough. But yet God hath his name, by way. of 
distinction from creatures ; so we have a negative name, removing the 
imperfections of the creature, and to distinguish him from those 
Xey6//.ei/o6 0eot, gods that are so called. And his name is a jealous God: 
Exod. xxxiv. 14, ' For thou shalt worship no other God ; for the Lord, 
whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God,' And by way of notification, 
that we may conceive of him aright, as names are not only distinctive, 
but 8r)\(0TiKa TWV TrpayftaTcov, as Damascene. So all that by which 
he is known or distinguished, that is his name ; and so God hath many 
names, because one cannot enough express him. His works are a part 
of his name, but chiefly his word, the doctrine concerning his essence 
and will : Ps. cxxxviii. 2, ' Thou hast magnified thy word above all 
thy name ;' there he hath made himself most known. In creation and 
providence we may read much of God, but in the bible more ; and 
chiefly his word of promise and covenant, which is that theatre upon 
which his mercy and truth is discovered, which is the representation 
wherein God delighteth. And again, the covenant, as it is revealed in 
the gospel, is a chief part of his name, for his name was secret before 
the New Testament dispensation was set afoot : Judges xiii. 18, ' Why 

1 Qu. ' in the second, what, &c. ' ? ED. 



132 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIY. 

askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret ? ' There was little 
known of the Trinity, of the Son of God, the incarnation of the Son 
of God, &c. 

First point, That one great privilege of the gospel is to know God 
by his right name. 

1. I shall show you how God's name and title hath been often 
changed and altered, because he would acquaint his people with his 
full name by degrees : Exod. vi. 3, ' I appeared unto Abraham, unto 
Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my 
name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.' First to Ahrabam, to 
distinguish him from idols and false gods, El Shaddai ; then ' Jeho 
vah,' as giving being to his people, making good his promises ; after, 
' God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob,' as relating more 
to the covenant ; then, ' God that brought them out of the land of 
Egypt,' Exod. xx. 2 ; then, ' God that brought them out of the land 
of the north ;' then, ' the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ;' 
before that, ' the Lord our righteousness,' Jer. xxiii. 6. The Jewish 
church knew little of the doctrine of the Trinity, distinction of the 
persons, quality of the mediator. God proclaimed his name : Exod. 
xxxiv. 6, 7, ' The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for 
thousands, forgiving iniquity, and transgression and sin.' But the 
way of pardon was not then so fully discovered. Some names God 
hath from everlasting, as Eternal, Infinite ; some relate to the present 
state, as Creator, Lord, God in covenant, the God of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. 

2. What the gospel especially doth discover more of God. 

[1.] The distinction of the persons in the Godhead. At the baptism 
of Christ the whole Trinity was sensibly present ; the Son in the body, 
the Father in the voice, and the Holy Ghost in the form of a dove. 
This was the mystery brought upon the stage. 

[2.] The incarnation of Christ : 1 Tim. iii. 16, ' God manifest in the 
flesh/ The world was acquainted with this great help to piety. The 
Jews had a temple ; here is a temple wherein the Godhead dwelleth 
bodily : Col. ii. 9, ' For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the God 
head bodily/ 

[3.] The attributes of God are more amply declared. Every excel 
lency of God hath its proper theatre where it is seen. In the gospel 
all are discovered, but chiefly mercy, justice, and truth. His power 
and his wisdom are seen in the world, but more in the gospel ; the 
heavens do not declare half so much of the glory of God as the word 
and doctrine which Christ brought out of the Father's bosom : 1 Cor. 
i. 24, ' Christ the wisdom of God, and the power of God/ There is 
truth : 2 Cor. i. 20, ' For all the promises of God in him are Yea, 
and in him Amen/ The greatest assurance of his faithfulness was his 
sending Christ ; that which we expect is nothing so difficult to believe 
as the incarnation of the Son of God ; his second coming is not so un 
likely as his first ; if he came to suffer, and to purchase, he will come 
to reign. His wisdom in joining God and man together in the person 
of Christ, justice and mercy together, comfort and duty together in the 
covenant of grace ; two natures, two attributes. God loseth no honour, 






VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 133 

man wanteth no encouragement. God showeth his justice : Kom. iii. 
26, ' To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might 
be just, and the justifier of him which belie veth in Jesus.' While the 
sacrifices continued, God only showed patience and forbearance ; his 
holiness and hatred of sin, by laying it on Christ, punishing it in 
Christ ; his wrath, the most dreadful sight of God's wrath is upon 
Golgotha ; God spared not his Son. But his grace, that was on the 
top : Titus iii. 4, ' But after that the kindness and love of God our 
Saviour towards man appeared/ This is the attribute that beareth 
sway in the gospel. Mercy is in office ever since the fall ; there was 
not so much kindness to man discovered in innocency ; God did good 
to a good man, there was no mercy to enemies then ; there man was 
made after God's image, here God is made after our image and like 
ness. Mercy and grace comes now to show itself to the world. 

Use. Let us admire and study more the name of God in the gospel. 
The first letter of Christ's name is Wonderful. He is a mystery that 
is worthy our contemplation. The angels have known more of God 
since Christ was revealed : Eph. iii. 10, ' To the intent that now unto 
the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by 
the church the manifold wisdom of God.' Let it take up your thoughts, 
set your minds awork : Heb. iii. 1, 'Wherefore, holy brethren, par 
takers of the heavenly calling, consider the apostle and high priest of 
our profession, Jesus Christ.' There cannot be a more affective, 
humbling and heart-changing consideration. 

Second point, That none can discover this name of God but Christ, 
none authoritatively, none perfectly. 

1. None authoritatively can fix his name by which he shall be 
known among the creatures. The imposition of names implieth supe 
riority ; the less is named of the greater. Adam had this favour to 
name the beasts, as having authority over them : Gen. ii. 19, 20, ' And 
out of the ground the Lord formed every beast of the field, and every 
fowl of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call 
them, and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the 
name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of 
the air, and to every beast of the field.' Now God is over all, there is 
no higher to name him, therefore he nameth himself. Jesus Christ, 
who is the very image of God, he corneth and declareth his name : 
'My name is in him,' Exod. xxiii. 21. He is God, and therefore 
authoritatively fixeth the name of God, establisheth the gospel as the 
rule and direction of the church. 

2. None can so perfectly discover him. Our hearts are too narrow 
to conceive of God, and our tongues too weak to express him : Prov. 
xxx. 4, ' What is his name ? and what is his Son's name ? if thou 
canst tell.' Who knoweth his pedigree exactly ? Who knoweth his 
being ? Who hath been in his bosom to discover him, so as Christ 
hath done ? We must have a borrowed light to see him. 

Use 1. Sit down with this revelation which Christ hath left in the 
church ; there is enough to instruct faith, though not to satisfy curi 
osity. In things not revealed, a simple nescience is better than a bold 
inquiry; there is enough for service and adoration. Let not reason 
prescribe to faith. He were not God if he were not incomprehensible. 



134 SEKMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SEB. XLIV. 

Should worms make their own apprehension the measure of divine 
truth ? It is not so, because I cannot understand it ; by a candle m 
the nio-ht, I cannot see it, therefore it is not. Some things are to be 
received from divine testimony, though we cannot fully conceive of 
them. Let us bless God for the word, and take heed unto it as to a 
light shining in a dark place. It is God's mercy that Christ came 
from heaven with a commission to discover so much to us. It is a ray 
of the face of God in Christ. Here, is God's heart discovered to us, 
and our hearts to ourselves. 

Use 2. When you consult with the gospel, make use of Christ, 
is to discover his Father's name ; he taught the gospel, not only on 
earth, but in heaven : ' I have declared thy name, and will declare it.' 
Non loquendum de Deo sine lumine. There is no saving knowledge 
of God from ourselves. Christ is called ^0709, the interpreter of his 
Father's mind. It is dangerous to set upon the knowledge of the 
mystery of the gospel in the strength of our own gifts and parts, to 
rest merely on the study of books and human helps. The gospel is 
God's riddle, which none but himself can expound. Beg the Spirit of 
revelation ; you cannot have a knowledge of it without a revelation 
from Christ. We do not improve Christ's prophetical office so much 
as we should : we think he must pacify our consciences, subdue our 
affections ; but we do not look after knowledge, but think to get it by 
our own industry. 

Third point, Christ doth not convey all knowledge, or the full notice 
of God's name at once. The knowledge that is originally in Christ is 
not communicated to us but by degrees, that it may increase more, like 
the good householder, that brought out the best at last : John i. 50, 
'Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest 
thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.' Partly to keep up 
our dependence and respect, lest a satiety grow upon us. When there 
is no more use of a thing, then we contemn it. Man is a creature that 
is led by hope rather than by memory. Still God keepeth the best till 
last; there is a perpetual use of Christ's prophetical office, that he 
may declare more. Partly to conform us to himself and to the church : 
'Christ increased in wisdom and stature,' &c., Luke ii. 40, 52. His 
human capacity was enlarged by degrees. The church grew by de 
grees. There was a nonage ; then it was ' the seed of the woman ; ' 
afterwards, ' in thy seed/ &c. ; to ' Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.' Then 
it was told what tribe, ' The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,' 
Gen. xlix. 10 ; afterwards of what family, to David ; that ' a virgin 
shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel,' 
Isa. vii. 14. At last, ' Behold the Lamb of God,' John i. 29. Partly 
that he might suit his dispensations to our capacity. God will not 
violate the course of nature. Our life is hidden in Christ. You do 
not teach university learning to a boy ; Christ dealeth with us as we 
are capable, according to our receptivity : ' We are made meet to be 
partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light,' Col. i. 12. 

Use 1. Comfort against present defects. Though you are ignorant 
of some mysteries of religion, do not despond ; Christ doth not give 
you all at once. There is a double comfort ; God will accept our 
weakness, and we have a head in whom is all fulness. As our life is 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 135 

hidden in Christ, so is our wisdom hidden. In the text you see Christ 
hath undertaken for our growth ; we have a teacher that will carry 
us on from one degree of knowledge to another. Therefore- let us 
not be discouraged, though we know little, and our parts be weak 
and insufficient. 

Use 2. It presseth us to grow in knowledge : 2 Peter iii. 18, ' But 
grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ.' There is more to be learned. Do not say, I know as much 
as they can tell me ; we never know so much but we may know more ; 
there is no stint to knowledge. If there be a measure of grace beyond 
which we cannot pass, the apostle would not say, ' Grow in grace and 
knowledge.' Therefore be conscionable and careful in the use of 
means. We must not rest in our low and imperfect measures, nor 
always keep to our A, B, C. We must grow till we come to heaven, 
and then there will be no more growing. A formal man is where he 
was (as a picture), doth not increase in stature. The way to keep 
what we have is to increase our store. Gifts that lie idle and inactive 
suffer loss and decay ; an active nature, such as man's, must either 
grow worse or better. It is an ill sign when we are contented with a 
little. Light groweth to the perfection of glory ; our reward is in 
creased in the other world : Col. iii. 16, ' Let the word of God dwell 
in you richly in all wisdom.' It is the worst of poverty to have a poor 
understanding. Grace is multiplied through knowledge : 2 Peter i. 2, 
' Grace and peace be multiplied unto you through the knowledge of 
God, and of Jesus our Lord.' 

Fourth point, Christ maketh one mercy to be the pledge of another. 
I have declared, and I will declare. He is never weary of well-doing ; 
his love is infinite, and cannot be wearied, and his grace is infinite, 
and cannot be spent. Men waste by giving, their drop is soon spent ; 
but the oftener we come to God, the more welcome we are. Our faith 
is sooner tired than God's bounty, for he doth not waste by giving. I 
AM, is God's name ; he is where he was at first, he is never at a loss ; 
what he hath done, he can do, and will do : God's providence is new 
and fresh every morning : ' God is one,' Gal. iii. 21 ; he is always 
like himself. The creatures soon spend their allowance, but he is 
where he was at first. But it chiefly holdeth good in spiritual mercies ; 
the least drop of saving grace is an immortal seed ; it will grow, 
it will increase; it is a spark that cannot be quenched, it is the 
pledge of more grace. Therefore where Christ hath begun to work 
for thee in some sparks of saving grace and knowledge, he will go on 
in his work ; where he is the Alpha, he will be the Omega ; where he 
is an author, he will be a finisher : Heb. xii. 2, ' Looking unto Jesus, who 
is the author and finisher of our faith/ The apostle would have us 
confident of this : Phil. i. 6, ' Being confident of this very thing, that 
he that hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of 
Christ/ God's first work is an earnest, and God will not lose his 
earnest ; it is the very first-fruits of the Spirit, and he gives it as a 
pledge of more grace to follow. 

' That the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and 
I in them.' In the whole verse Christ showeth what he had done, 
what he would do, and with what aim. His end was twofold to 



136 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIV. 

make way for application of God's love and his own presence as a 
vital principle in their hearts ; God's love and union with himself. 

I shall speak now of the first. Whence 

Observe, that one great end why God's name is manifested in the 
gospel is that his love may be in us. 

First, I shall inquire what it is to have his love in us. I shall give 
you several observations upon the phrase. 

1. Observe, ' That the love,' &c. He doth not say, that they may 
have pardon, sanctification, or grace, or comfort in them, but love in 
them. Obs. God's love in Christ is the ground of all other favours 
and graces whatsoever. The spring of all is love, and the conveyance 
is by union, which containeth two truths : 

[1.] That all the goodness that is in us cometh from the love of 
God in Christ. We are loved into holiness, loved into pardon, loved 
into grace : Isa. xxxviii. 17, ' Thou hast in love to my soul delivered it 
from the pit of corruption,' or thou hast loved me from the pit. He 
loved his church, and sanctified it : Eph. v. 25, 26, ' Christ loved the 
church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it 
it with the washing of water by the word ;' Kev. i. 5, ' To him that 
loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.' Our holiness 
is not the cause of love, but the fruit and effect of it. There can be no 
other reason for anything we receive. So 2 Thes. ii. 16, ' Now our Lord 
Jesus Christ himself, and God, even our Father, who hath loved us, and 
hath given us everlasting consolation, and good hope through grace,' 
&c. There was no other cause, there could be no other cause ; not 
necessity of nature, moral rule, or any former merit and kindness. 
Not necessity of nature ; God hath always the same love ; not bound 
by any external law and rule ; who can prescribe to him ? Not by 
any merit or debt, because of the eternity of his love, antecedent to all 
acts of the creature. There should be no other reason for the honour 
and majesty of God and our comfort. 

[2.] That we have not only the blessings and benefits, but the love 
itself: 1 John iii. 1, ' Behold what manner of love is this that the 
Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of 
God ! ' Not showed us, but bestowed upon us. We have blessings 
from his heart, as well as his hand ; by his blessings in us, his love is 
in us ; we may gather thence that we are beloved of God, and no 
benefit is to be valued unless God's love be in it. What good will the 
possession of all things do us if we have not God himself ? The love 
is more to be valued than the gift, whatever it be. God giveth this 
love to none but special friends ; he giveth his outward love to enemies. 
He accepteth not our duties unless our hearts be in them, and our love 
be in them ; so we should not be satisfied till we can see love in the 
blessings that we receive from God, that they come from his heart as 
well as his hand. There are chastisements in love, and blessings given 
in anger, salted with a curse. 

2. Observe, ' That the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be 
in them.' He had before said, ' Thou hast loved them as thou hast 
loved me;' now, 'Let this love be in them.' The love of God is 
sometimes said to be in Christ, sometimes in us. Sometimes in Christ : 
Rom. viii. 39, ' Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 137 

able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our 
Lord/ Sometimes in us : 1 John iv. 9, ' In this was manifested the 
love of Christ towards us,' 17 aydirij rov Xpio-rov ev r^lv, ' because 
that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that we might 
live through him.' We are the objects, and Christ is the ground. To 
make it sure, it is in Christ ; and to make it sweet and comfortable, it 
is in us. God doth not love us in ourselves out of Christ ; there would 
be no ground and reason for his love, but in Christ ; and there is an 
eternal cause and reason why he should love us. 

3. Observe, there is a love of God towards us, and a love of God in 
us. So Zanchy citing this text. His love erga nos, towards us, is 
from all eternity ; his love in nobis, in us, is in time. These differ ; 
there was a love of God towards us, so he loved us in Christ before 
the foundation of the world, though we knew it not, felt it not. But 
now this love beginneth to be in us, when we receive the effects of it, 
and God breaketh open the sealed fountain : 1 John iv. 16, ' And we 
have known and believed the love that God hath to us.' And there 
fore it must be distinguished. God's love from everlasting was in 
purpose and decree, not actual : Horn. ix. 11, 'That the purpose of 
God according to election might stand.' So Eph. i. 11, ' Being pre 
destinated according to the purpose of him that worketh all things 
after the counsel of his will.' We are loved from eternity, but not 
justified from eternity. Certainly the elect are in a different condition 
before and after calling : 1 Cor. vi. 11, ' Such were some of you, but ye 
are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of 
the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.' Secret things belong 
to God, but revealed things to us. Whatever thoughts God hath 
towards us, yet we know it not till his love be in us. We are to judge 
of our estates according to the law. It is true God is resolved not to 
prosecute his right against a sinner that is elect, but he is not actually 
acquitted from the sentence of the law till he actually believeth. We 
are not qualified to receive a legal discharge from the condemnation 
of the law till we be actually in Christ : Kom. viii. 1, ' There is no 
condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus.' And whatever God's 
purposes may be towards us, we cannot but look upon ourselves as 
under a sentence of condemnation, and ' children of wrath/ Eph. ii. 3 ; 
that is the misery of our present estate. Before we know God as a 
Father in Christ, the love of God is towards us, but not in us. 

4. Observe again, God's love is in us two ways in the effects, and in 
the sense and feeling. These must be also distinguished ; for God's 
love may be in us in regard of the effects, when it is not in us in 
regard of sense and feeling. It is in us in the effects of it at conver 
sion, as soon as we begin to live in Christ. Where Christ liveth and 
dwelleth in us by faith, the love of Christ is there too. His love may 
be in us in the sense and feeling when we have the assurance of it : 
Rom. v. 5, ' The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy 
Ghost, which he hath given to us,' that they may feel it in their hearts, 
that God loved them in Christ. There is the work of the Spirit, and 
the witness of the Spirit ; both are intended in that expression ; chiefly 
the latter, such a sense of God's love as stirreth up joy, and thankful 
ness, and hope. The precious ointment gave no savour while it was 



138 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. 

shut up in a box, till it was poured out ; so God's love, while it is kept 
secret, it yieldeth no reviving fragrancy. These two differ, for many 
have the effects of God's love, but not the sense ; and the effects of 
love do always abide, for it is an immortal seed ; but the sense of love 
is flitting and changeable. Nothing can separate us from the love of 
God in Christ, yet the love of God in Christ is often beclouded, over 
cast, and interrupted ; and some have more effects, though less sense ; 
the most shining years are not always the most fruitful ; a man may 
have greater increase of grace though less comfort. Observe, for your 
comfort, that Christ prayeth for both ; he hath prayed not only for 
grace, but for assurance, that we may feel ourselves beloved by the 
Father. The Lord delighteth not only to love us, but to assure us of 
his love. It is no comfort to a blind man to hear of a glorious sun or 
brave shows ; he cannot see them.. God would .not leave us in the 
dark, but give us an experience of his love. 

Secondly, How this ariseth from the manifestation of God's name 
in the gospel. 

1. The knowledge of God is a means to kindle our respects to God. 

2. To convey the influence of his grace to us. 

1. It is a means to kindle our respects to God ; as trust : Ps. ix. 10, 
' They that know thy name will put their trust in thee.' Men are 
ignorant of God's goodness, mercy, and truth, and therefore they make 
so little use of him. Usually fears are in the night ; doubts come 
from ignorance of the tenor of the gospel. If we did believe those 
things to be true which are revealed concerning his mercy and love to 
sinners, we should trust in him. Fire once kindled would burst out 
of itself into a flame ; so did we once savingly know God's name, there 
would be more trust and confidence in God : Isa. 1. 10, ' Who is among 
you that feareth the Lord, that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that 
walketh in darkness, and hath no light ? let him trust in the name of 
the Lord, and stay upon his God.' We are overwhelmed with diffi 
culties and straits, for want of studying God's name. So also for 
love : Cant. i. 3, ' Thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefore do 
the virgins love thee/ Ignoti nulla cupido. Love springeth from 
knowledge. In the beams of the sun there is a mixture of warmth 
and light. We know not the gift of God, and therefore our bowels 
are not troubled. Did we but see him as he is, it would set us all 
on fire. 

2. It is the means to convey all the influences of grace to us : 2 Peter 
i. 2, ' Grace and peace be multiplied unto you, through the knowledge 
of God, and of Jesus our Lord.' God worketh upon us as rational 
creatures, agreeably to an intelligent nature, and so nothing can be 
wrought unless knowledge go before. A house, the more the windows 
stand open the more it is filled with light ; so the more knowledge, 
the more is the capacity of the soul enlarged to receive comfort and 
grace. Guilty nature is full of fears, more presagious of evil than of 
good, and therefore it must have clear grounds of comfort and hope. 
But you will say, How comes it to pass that persons of great know 
ledge want comfort, and have no sense of God's love ? I answer It 
is not the light of parts, but of the Spirit : ' I have declared,' &c. 
It is God's prerogative to settle the conscience : ' I create the fruit of 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 139 

the lips ; peace, peace,' &c., Isa. Ivii. 19. The gospel is a sovereign 
plaster, but God maketh it work. Our own thoughts do nothing, 
unless God put in with them. 

Use 1. It informeth us of a double duty. 

1. To study God's name. It would settle the conscience to meditate 
upon those declarations which Christ haih made of his will. Deep 
thoughts fasten things upon the Spirit, and musing maketh the fire to 
burn. How hath God declared himself ? We may trust him upon 
his word : Ps. civ. 34, ' My meditation of him shall be sweet ; I will 
be glad in the Lord.' We should oftener find sweetness if we did 
oftener meditate of God. It is sweet thus to enlarge our thoughts 
upon the promises and comforts of the gospel. 

2. To apply it. When God's name is proclaimed and made known 
to thee, urge thy own soul with it : Horn. viii. 31, ' What shall we say 
to these things ? ' Job v. 27, ' Lo this, we have searched it, so it is, 
bear it, and know thou it for thy good.' This is Christ's aim, that 
knowledge should beget love in them. Knowledge without application 
doth no good ; we must take out our share. The riches of God's 
goodness are laid open to us for this end and purpose, that we may 
feel what is expressed : ' We have known and believed the love that 
God hath to us,' 1 John iv. 16. It is no presumption ; it is the great 
end why the gospel was written. Wicked men are too forward and 
presumptuous of God's love ; they continue their ungodly courses, do 
those things which offend him, and yet are persuaded that God loveth 
them. God's children pray against their sins, and fight against their 
sins, and yet after all cannot be persuaded of it. There is a fear of 
presumption, and a fear of security. (1.) A fear of presumption ; as 
some say, I am not worthy ; it is as if you should say, I am too poor 
to ask or receive an alms, too filthy to be washed : say not so, for this 
is the way to make you worthy. (2.) Of security ; this is to say, If I 
take the physic, I shall be sick ; whereas it is not by applying Christ 
that we are endangered, but by an insensibleness of our misery. If 
thou feelest thy misery, there is no danger of security ; it is not every 
thing will satisfy a sensible sinner, not every slight comfort. 

Use 2. Examination, whether you have gotten benefit by the gospel. 
Is God's love in you? Have you any fruits or feeling of his love? 
Can you say God loveth you ? All God's children cannot feel his 
love ; but have you the fruits of his love ? The feeling of his love is 
to be improved immediately to thankfulness, and the fruits of his love 
are to be improved by spiritual discourse to confidence. The present 
argument will afford us ground of search and inquiry. 

1. Things without us are excluded, they can be no evidence or 
argument of God's love. It is love in them. It is the common error 
of the world to be led with false evidences. Many think God loveth 
them, because he spareth them, and followeth them with long-suffering 
and patience, and maketh them thrive in the world, and blesseth them 
with the increase and fatness of an outward portion. Ay ! but love 
and hatred cannot be known by the things that are without us ; it 
must be something within us must discover it, Eccles. ix. 2. All 
things come alike to all. Some are fatted to destruction, and con 
demned to worldly felicity, God will give them enough, Jer. xvii. 13. 



\ 

140 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLIV. 

'All that forsake thee, shall be ashamed; and they that depart from 
me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the Lord, 
the fountain of living waters.' Worldly happiness may be God's curse ; 
they shall be written in the earth, they shall have happiness here, that 
have none hereafter. On the other hand, there are some whose names 
are written in heaven ; and though they have little of outward com 
forts, yet that is matter of joy : Luke ix. 20, ' Bather rejoice, because 
your names are written in heaven.' We must have a better evidence 
than things without us before we can see our names in those eternal 
records, and be assured that God loves us. When God only gives 
things without you, it is a sign you are only hired servants. You 
have your reward, and are satisfied ; and when you die, your best days 
are at an end ; there is no inheritance kept for you ; as Abraham gave 
Ishmael and the rest of the sons of the concubines' gifts and portions, 
but he reserved the inheritance for Isaac. This is so far from an 
evidence of love, that it is rather a sign of hatred, if your hearts are 
herewith satisfied. Nay, as it excludes and cuts off all outward things, 
so it cuts off all outward profession, as baptism and hearing of the 
word ; for where the heart is not washed, baptism is but the monu 
ment of your unfaithfulness and breach of vows. And so for hearing 
of the word, it is but like Uriah's letters ; he thought they contained 
matter of preferment, but when opened, they contained matter of 
danger, for he was to be set in the fore-front of the battle to be 
destroyed. So when you think to come to God with these pleasing 
excuses, it is matter of condemnation, because you have heard so 
much, and profited nothing. Here is no evidence without you of the 
love of God. 

2. Things within are excluded. There are some moral inclinations, 
mere instincts of nature, which God hath left in men out of his 
common bounty and pity to human society : Horn. ii. 14, 15, ' For 
when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things 
contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto them 
selves, which show the work of the law written in their hearts.' These 
moral inclinations, by which we avoid gross sins, are not an evidence 
of God's love. Again, there are gifts for the use of the body. Hypo 
crites may have a great share in them. Achitophel and Saul had 
excellent gifts ; but this is not an evidence of God's love. How did 
God love Christ ? Herein was a great evidence of God's love to Christ ; 
he loved him, and ' gave the Spirit to him without measure,' John iii. 
33, 34. So we know his love by his Spirit, that he hath given to us 
to witness our justification, and to work our sanctification. The gift 
of the Spirit we may know by his witness, and by his work. 

1. His witness. Hast thou a full testimony of thy adoption? Kom. 
viii. 16, ' The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirits that we are 
the children of God.' It is such a certainty as ariseth from gospel 
grounds, working joy and peace, stirring up to thankfulness and love 
to God, which you have in God's way, by praying, reading, hearing, 
meditating. I confess there is something lower, that may be called the 
witness of the Spirit. There are expressions and impressions. Have 
you not some secret impressions of confidence and liberty in prayer, 
and resolutions to wait upon God ? Doth he not stir you up to cry, 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 141 

Abba Father, put you upon often calling upon God, and waiting upon 
God ? There is something in your heart that carries you to God. 
These impressions are a kind of witness and testimony of the Spirit, 
though you have not those actual testimonies of God's favour. 

2. His work. Have you the work of the Spirit ? What is that ? 
The work of the Spirit is to sanctify and cleanse : Eph. v. 25, 26, 
' Christ loved the church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify 
and cleanse it.' It is the greatest sign of God's anger and wrath that can 
be to live and die under the power of sin, not to be sanctified, not to be 
cleansed, not to be washed from sin. And therefore are you sanctified, 
cleansed, and washed ? Kev. i. 5, ' To him that loved us, and washed 
us from our sins in his blood.' Is there any care of obedience stirred 
up in your hearts ? The Spirit will cause us to grow in obedience : 
John xiv. 23, ' If a man love me, he will keep my words, and my 
Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode 
with him.' 

3. There is one thing more in the expression, ' that the love where 
with thou hast loved me may be in them,' and that is, If God love 
thee, thou canst not but love him again : 1 John iv. 16, ' For we have 
known, and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love, and 
he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him/ If thou 
lovest God, his people, his ordinances, and delightest in communion 
with him, his love is in thee. These are the fruits and effects of it. 

Use 3. To press us to labour after the sense of his love. We should 
go to heaven as comfortably and as richly as we can ; not only creep 
thither, but labour after ' an abundant entrance,' 2 Peter i. 12. Though 
it is not always our sin to want it, yet it is our duty to strive after this 
sense of God's love in us. The sense of God's love, it is the flame of 
faith : Gal. ii. 20, ' I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me ; and the 
life which I live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave himself for me.' It is the ground of our love 
to him again: 1 John iv. 19, ' We love him, because he first loved us.' 
The more full and direct the beams are cast upon any solid body, the 
stronger the reflection. It is the life of joy which enlargeth our 
hearts in thankfulness. It is our stay in afflictions, and our strength 
in duties, especially in prayer. How can we call God Father, unless 
in custom and hypocrisy, except we have some sense of our adoption ? 
Therefore labour after the sense of his love, that it may be in you. 



SEEMON XLV. 

And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it; that 
the love ivherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I 
in them. JOHN XVII. 26. 

'AND I in them.' This is the next aim of Christ, the mystical union. 
This is fitly coupled with the former privilege. God's love is the 
fountain of all mercy, and mystical union is the means of conveyance. 
The Father's love and the Son's inhabitation are elsewhere conjoined: 



142' SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLV. 

John xiv. 23, ' My Father will love him, and we will come unto him, 
and make our abode with him/ God's love cannot be in us unless 
Christ be in us, nor Christ be in us without the Father's love. 
God loveth the elect freely in Jesus Christ, and therefore giveth us his 
Spirit to work faith in our hearts, that Christ may dwell there, and 
be one with us, and we with him : love is the rise of all. And again, 
without the perpetual residence of Christ in the heart," we cannot have 
a sense of God's love. Again, from this conjunction we may learn the 
presence of the whole Trinity in the heart of a believer, as in a conse 
crated temple. The love of the Father it is in us, by the Holy Ghost 
given to us : Bom. v. 5, ' The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts 
by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us.' Now we have not only 
the Holy Ghost to assure us of the love of God, but we have Christ as 
the head and fountain of vital influence. Once, more, 'I in them.' 
Christ doth not only communicate gifts of grace to us, but himself. 

Observe that the gospel is made known to us to this intent, that 
Christ may be in us ; or, this is one great privilege of the gospel, that 
Christ may be in us by a perpetual residence, as a principle and 
fountain of the spiritual life. 

First, What is meant by Christ's being in us ? How can one man 
be in another ? I shall answer 

First, Negatively ; how it is not to be understood, that we may 
remove all false, gross, and unworthy thoughts. 

1. It is not contiguity that we speak of, but union. Two pieces of 
wood lying together are not united. Christ is in heaven, we on earth ; 
there is no contiguity, and if there were, it would not cause a union. 
There is indeed a union of contact, as when two hands are joined to 
gether, which may resemble this union ; for there is a mutual or 
reciprocal apprehension ; Christ apprehendeth us, and we him : Phil, 
iii. 12, ' If that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended 
of Christ Jesus.' He taketh hold of us by his Spirit, and we take hold 
of him by faith. But of this by and by. 

2. It is not a congregation, as things may be gathered together ; as 
stones in a heap, they are united, or gathered into one heap, but they do 
not act one upon another. And therefore the Holy Ghost doth not 
resemble our union with Christ by stones in a heap, but by stones in a 
building, that afford mutual strength and support to one another, and 
Christ to the foundation and corner-stone, which beareth up all the 
rest : 1 Peter ii. 5, ' Ye also as lively stones are built up a spiritual 
house ;' and Eph. ii. 20-22, ' And are built upon the foundation of 
the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner 
stone, in whom all the building, fitly framed together, groweth unto an 
holy temple in the Lord ; in whom you also are builded together for an 
habitation of God through the Spirit.' Only here is the difference, 
that is but a union of art, not of nature ; and though stones orderly 
placed do give strength and beauty one to another, yet they do not 
communicate life and influence ; therefore the Holy Ghost saith, ' Ye 
are as living stones.' 

3. It is not representation only, as all persons are in their common 
person and representation. This is a part of the privilege ; we are in 
Christ as our surety and common person. He impersonated and 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 143 

represented us upon the cross, and doth now in heaven, where he 
appeareth for us as our agent and leiger with God. Thus what is 
done to him is done to us. This is the judicial union ; but this is not 
all, for thus we may be said to be in Christ, but he cannot be said to 
be in us, ' I in them.' There is influence as well as representation. 

4. It is not an objective union, aut unio occupationis; as the object 
is in the faculty, the star in the eye that seeth it, though at thousands 
of miles' distance ; and what I think of is in my mind, and what I 
desire is in my heart, as a scholar's mind is in his books ; when the 
mind is occupied and taken up with anything, it is in it. So when I 
fear God, my mind is with him ; when I love God, my heart is with 
him. But this is not all, partly because such an objective union there is 
between Christ and hypocrites, they may think of him, and know him. 
But this union is rather subjective ; it maketh us to live in Christ, and 
Christ liveth in us. Partly because then we should be no longer 
united to Christ than we do actually think of him, whereas Christ's 
being in us implieth a perpetual residence : Eph. iii. 17, ' That Christ 
may dwell in your hearts by faith.' Dwelling doth not note a transient 
thought, a short visit, but a constant stay and abode : John xiv. 23, 
fcal fiovrjv Trap avTw TroiijaofAev, ' We will come unto -him, and we will 
make our abode with him.' There Christ fixeth his seat and residence. 

5. It is not merely a relation between us and Christ. He is not 
only ours, and we are his; but he is in us, and we in him. The 
resemblance of head and members doth not relate to a political body, 
but to a natural body. I am sure the case is clear in root and branches, 
John xv. 1-3. And relations do not need such bands and ties as con 
stitute this union. There the Spirit and faith, and then secondarily 
other graces. 

6. It is not only a consent or agreement ; Christ agreeth to love us, 
and we to love him : ' My love in them,' and ' I in them ; ' they are pro 
pounded as distinct. Confederation maketh way for union. 

7. It is not a union of dependence merely, such as is between the 
cause and effect. The effect dependeth on the cause, and is in the 
cause, and the cause is in the effect. This is general to all creatures ; 
for it is said, Acts xvii. 28, ' In him we live, and move, and have our 
being.' Such a union there is between God and all creatures. And 
not merely a dependence in regard of special and gracious influences. 
That doth much open the privilege ; but that is not all, for then our 
union would be immediately with God the Father and the Spirit on 
whom we depend. And so a union there is between God and the holy 
angels. And Christ is in an especial manner the head of the church ; 
it is a notion consecrated for our conjunction with him. 

8. It is not merely a communion in the same nature. So he is Im- 
manuel, God with us. But he saith, ' I in them.' He not only came 
into our natures, but he must come into our hearts. This union is 
common to all, though I confess it is only reckoned and imputed to 
the sanctified : Heb. ii. 11, ' For both he that sanctifieth, and they 
that are sanctified, are all of one ; for which cause he is not ashamed 
to call them brethren.' And to the children of God : Heb. ii. 14, ' For 
asmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also 
himself took part of the same/ 



144 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SfiR. XLV. 

9. It is not a mixture, as if Christ and we were confounded, and 
mingled our substances together. That is a gross thought, and suiteth 
with the carnal fancies of a corporeal eating his flesh and drinking his 
blood. We are not mixed, his substance with ours, and ours with 
his ; he remaining still a distinct person, and we distinct persons. 

10. It is not a personal union, as of the two natures in the person of 
Christ. We are not united to Christ so as to make one person, but one 
mystical body : 1 Cor. xii. 12, ' For as the body is one, and hath many 
members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one 
body, so also is Christ.' The whole is Christ mystical, but every 
believer is not Christ. 

Thus I have endeavoured to remove all gross and unworthy thoughts. 

But now 

Secondly, Positively. What it is. I answer-^ We cannot fully tell 
till we come to heaven ; then we shall have perfect knowledge of it ; 
then Christ is all in all : John xiv. 20, ' At that day ye shall know 
that I am in the Father, and you in me, and I in you.' Then our 
union is at the height. But for the present we may call it a union of 
concretion and coalition, for we are av^vroi, ' planted into him,' 
Kom. vi. 5, and KoXX.cofjievoi,, 'joined to the Lord/ 1 Cor. vi. 17. It is 
immediately with Christ ; we are united to Father and Spirit, but by 
Christ, as the foot is united to the head, but by the intervention of 
other members ; so we are united to the Father and the Spirit, but by 
Christ ; as an arm or foot of the Son belongeth to the Father, but as 
the Son belongeth to the Father. The love of the Father is the mov 
ing cause of it, the Spirit is the efficient cause of it, but it is with 
Christ. And it is by way of coalition, as things are united so as 
they may grow and live in another, as the branches grow in the vine, 
and the members, being animated and quickened by the soul, grow in 
the body ; so are we united with Christ as our vital principle, that we 
may live and grow in him, that we might live in him : Gal. ii. 20, ' I 
live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me ; ' and grow in him : Eph. iv. 15, 
16, ' But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, 
which is the head, even Christ. From whom the whole body fitly 
joined together, and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, 
according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh 
increase of the body, unto the edifying of itself in love/ So that this 
is enough in general to call it a union of concretion and coalition, such 
a union whereby Christ remaineth and liveth and dwelleth in us as a 
vital principle. As the soul is rov fyavros o-coyLtaro? atria KCU dp-^r}, a 
cause and principle of life to the body, so is Christ to us. Before God 
breathed the soul into Adam, his body, though otherwise organised 
and formed, lay but as a dead lump, without breath and life ; but no 
sooner was the soul put into him, but he began to live. So Christ, 
being mystically united, enableth us to live, to act, to grow, and increase 
more and more. More particularly to open it to you is hard, because 
it is a great mystery. Life* natural is a mystery not sufficiently ex 
plained, much more life spiritual. But now 

1. I shall show how it is wrought and brought about, and in what 
order ; for there is a difficulty there to be cleared. For since union is 
said to be by faith : Eph. iii. 17, ' That Christ may dwell in your 



VER. 26.] SEUMONS UPON JOHN xvn. 145 

hearts by faith , ' and faith is an act of spiritual life, it seemeth there 
is life before our union with Christ ; so that this union seeineth to be 
the effect rather than the cause of the spiritual life ; and some say it is 
the effect of the beginning, and the cause of the continuance and 
increase of it, and conceive the order thus : That Christ is offered in 
the gospel, and by receiving Christ we come to be united to him, and 
then to be possessed of his righteousness, and receive further influences 
of grace ; and that the first beginning of spiritual life is not from 
union, but regeneration, by virtue of which faith is given to us, that 
we may be united to Christ. But I suppose this method is not right. 
Briefly, then, for the manner and order how it is wrought, take it thus : 
Union it is by the Spirit on Chrises part, and faith on ours ; he be- 
ginneth with us as the most worthy, as having a quickening and life- 
making power in himself : 1 Cor. xv. 45, ' The last Adam was made 
Trvev^a IWOTTOIOW, a quickening spirit/ By the Spirit he infuseth 
spiritual life, the first act of which is faith ; that is the first grace that 
acteth upon Christ, and maketh the union reciprocal, that so in him 
we may have righteousness and grace : Phil. iii. 9, ' And be found in 
him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that 
which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God 
by faith.' All graces flow from union with Christ, so doth faith. Be 
lieving is an act of the spiritual life, but it is at the same instant of 
time, and not before. The first band of union is the Spirit, for the gift 
of the Spirit is the cause of faith, and every cause is before the effect in 
nature, though not in time ; for, posita causa in actu, ponitur effectus. 
But the Spirit is not given us in the least moment of time before the 
being of faith ; for the Spirit being infused, immediately excites faith 
to take hold of Christ. 

2 What is that act of faith by which we close with Christ ? I 
answer The apprehending, embracing, taking hold of Christ : ' To as 
many as received him,' &c., John i. 12, trusting him with our souls ; 
that is the faith that gives us an interest in gospel privileges. But 
what is this receiving Christ? I answer Eeceiving presupposeth 
offering ; it is a consent to what is offered, an accepting of what is 
given. Eeceiving is a word used in contracts, arid noteth the consent 
of one part to the terms which the other offereth. The scripture 
ohiefly delighteth in the similitude of the matrimonial contract. As a 
woman accepteth a man for her husband, so do we receive Christ. 
When a man's affections are set upon a woman, he sendeth spokesmen 
to tell her of his love, and that he is ready to give her an interest in 
himself, and all that is his, if she will accept him for an husband. So 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the heir of all things, sendeth messengers 
to treat and deal with us about a spiritual marriage, to tell us how he 
loved us, gave his life for us, established an everlasting righteousness, 
whereby we may be accepted with God, and that he is ready to bestow 
it upon us, if we will receive, and honour, and obey him as Lord and 
husband ; which if we do, then we are interested in this great privilege. 
Yea, Lord, I give up myself, body and soul, to thee, and I take thee 
for Lord and husband. For these are the terms : Hosea iii. 3, ' Thou 
shalt not be for another man, so will I also be for thee/ You will 
think this is easy, because you do not understand what it is to receive 

VOL, xr TV 



146 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLV. 

Christ. Alas ! Christ stretcheth forth his hands to many that never 
take him by the hand again : Isa. Ixv. 2, ' I have spread out my hands 
all the day to a rebellious people, which walketh in a way that is not 
good, after their own thoughts.' He inviteth, clucketh, spreads his 
wings, but to no purpose, till he puts his fingers upon the handles of 
the lock : Cant. v. 4, ' My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the 
door, and my bowels were moved for him.' Herein he differeth from 
ordinary suitors, that he doth not only woo and invite, but draw by 
the secret and prevailing power of his Spirit ; he must enlarge the 
heart and open the hand, or else we shall not receive him. Why t 
what is there in this receiving ? A renouncing of all others : ' Thou 
shalt not be for another.' Christ findeth us entangled with a former 
love of the world, addicted to carnal pleasures, in covenant with death 
and hell ; this must be renounced, for God is jealous, and cannot 
endure a rival ; it is spiritual adultery to have any thought of other 
lovers ; as when the ark was brought into the house, Dagon was thrown 
to the ground. Christ will be entertained alone ; you must not only 
renounce your former loves, but hate them. In ordinary marriages, if 
a woman loved one, and afterwards marry another man, it is enough 
that she withdraw her former love, though she be not an enemy to him 
whom before she loved. In some covenants, if you come off from such 
a side, it is enough. But here is a league offensive and defensive : 
when we receive Christ as our captain, his enemies must be our enemies ; 
if as dear as a right hand, or a right eye, it must be cut off and plucked 
out. And again, Christ himself is to be received, not his gifts and 
benefits ; you must not come to him as to a physician, to give ease to 
the conscience, but as a husband ; not marry the estate, but the man ; 
otherwise you do not take what God offereth. He hath given us his 
Son, and all things with him : Eom. viii. 32, ' He that spared not his 
own Son, but gave him up to the death for us all, how will he not with 
him also freely give us all things ? ' The father doth not offer the 
portion merely, but his daughter, and the portion with his daughter ; 
as you cannot have life without the Son, so you cannot have the Son 
without life, and you must receive him gladly. Marriage importeth 
not a forced, but a free consent ; you do not receive Christ as a land 
receiveth a conqueror for prince and king against their will, but as a 
woman for husband, as being convinced her state will be much bettered 
by him. So doth the soul receive Christ, as knowing in whom we be 
lieve, and what we enjoy by him: Ps. Ixxiii. 25, ' Whom have I in 
heaven but thee ? and there is none upon earth that I desire besides 
thee.' Neither angels in heaven, nor any creatures upon earth are so 
lovely, and fit for the soul's love and trust. You cannot live without 
him. If a woman can live without a husband, she doth well if she 
marrieth not, saith the apostle, 1 Cor. vii. 8 ; but you cannot, you are 
undone for ever if you have him not. And you must receive him 
sincerely to obey him, and serve him as Lord and husband, and not be 
ashamed to own him : Acts ii. 41, ' Then they that gladly received his 
word were baptized, and the same day there were added unto them 
about three thousand souls/ When articles are agreed and sealed, and 
the marriage completed, a woman is content to go into her husband's 
house, and leave her kindred, and father's house ; so must you profess 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 147 

Christ openly, and then live in constant communion with him. This 
is to receive Christ ; and is this easy ? Can all this be done till God 
enlarge the heart ? my Lord ! I am willing to receive thee ; do thou 
open and enlarge my heart so to do. 

Again, it is expressed by apprehending Christ: Phil. iii. 12, 'If that 
I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ 
Jesus;' by taking hold of him, leaning upon him : Ps. xxii. 8, ' He 
trusted in the Lord,' or rolled himself upon the Lord ; by running for 
refuge : Heb. vi. 18, ' Who have fled for refuge, to lay hold upon the 
hope set before them ; ' as Joab laid hold on the horns of the altar, or 
the man that casually killed another ran to the city of refuge ; by a 
being found in him as in an ark, when the flood came upon the 
world : all which expressions imply a sense of danger. This effect of 
faith is sensible in a time of trouble, bodily or spiritual, as things are 
more sensible one time than another. Horses draw the coach, but 
down the hill apace. The strength of an anchor is seen in a storm, 
the courage of a soldier in a fight. The child runneth and claspeth 
about the mother when anything affrighteth it. 

Sometimes it is expressed by coming to Christ, and coming to God 
by him : Heb. vii. 25, ' Wherefore he is able to save unto the uttermost 
all those that come to God by him ;' by choosing Christ as mediator, 
owning him, and consenting to God's eternal decrees, that he is alone 
a sufficient mediator. This was represented by laying hand on the 
head of the sacrifice : Lev. i. 4, ' He/ that is, he that brought the 
sacrifice, ' shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering, and 
it shall be accepted for him, to make an atonement for him/ q. d. 
This is me, I deserve to die, but here is my sacrifice. All prayers 
were to be made in or towards the temple : 1 Kings viii., Deut. xii. 
13, 14, ' Take heed that thou offer not thy burnt-offerings in every 
place that thou seest ; but in the place which the Lord shall choose in 
one of thy tribes, there thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, and there 
thou shalt do all that I command thee.' Daniel his windows being open 
towards Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and 
prayed, and gave thanks to God, Dan. vi. 10 ; he would not omit that 
circumstance. In all our addresses to God we must make use of Christ. 

Sometimes it is expressed by committing ourselves to him : 2 Tim. 
i. 12, ' For I know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he 
is able to keep that which I have committed to him against that day.' 
It is an advised act, it is fit the soul should be in safe hands. We are 
sensible that as long as this life lasts we are subject to many trials and 
changes ; therefore we put our souls into Christ's hands, in a confidence 
of his all-sufficiency. It is a knowing trust. 

Use 1. To press us to mind this great privilege, ' Christ in us.' 
This should be our chief care. We cannot mortify sin till we be in 
Christ; he is our sa notification. We can have no security against 
God's wrath till then : Acts iv. 12, ' Neither is there salvation in any 
other, for there is none other name under heaven given among men 
whereby we must be saved/ Whatever shifts they made against the 
flood, it would not serve, nothing but the ark could save them. Make 
this the business of your lives; wait upon the word and other ordinances 
with this aim ; improve providences to this end, to draw you the nearer 



148 SERMONS UPON JOHN XVII. [SER. XLV. 

to God by Christ. Let this be the constant breathing of your souls : 
' Yea, doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord ; for whom I have suffered the 
loss of all things, and do count them but dung that I may win Christ,' 
Phil. iii. 8. Measure all the business and employment of your lives 
by this. A tender mother that nurseth her child, she hath other work 
to do, but still she remembereth her child ; when she awaketh, she 
thinketh of her child; when she is abroad, when employed in the 
affairs of her family, her mind is on her child : God is pleased to 
resemble his love to us by this. So a true Christian saith, My work is 
to get into Christ. When he is about business of the world, he still 
remembereth that this is his great care, and it must be minded every 
day ; when he rlseth, when he goeth to sleep, this should run in his 
mind. This is TO epybv, his work : John vi. 29, ' This is the work of 
God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.' All other business 
is Trape/xyov, his by-work, that he may get or lose it. Make more room 
for Christ in the soul. 

Use 2. Examination. 

1. Is Christ in you ? Who liveth there, and worketh, Christ or 
Satan ? These two divide the world between them, the strong man, 
and the stronger than he. The heart of man is not a waste. Christ 
ruleth in the church, and the devil in the world ; and yet all that are 
in the church are not in Christ : John xv. 2, ' Every branch in me 
that beareth not fruit he taketh away.' They that are where Christ 
is in honour will make a general profession. The devil hath a great 
party in the church. Therefore, who is in you, Christ or Satan ? 
Satan is in all carnal men ; their hearts are his forge or work-house : 
Eph. ii. 2, ' According to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit 
that now worketh in the children of disobedience ; ' 2 Cor. iv. 4, ' The 
god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not.' 
He blindeth them, and hardeneth them, and leadeth them captive by 
their own lusts. Consider there is no neutrality. We are under Christ 
or the devil. The devil is a spirit ; he possesseth men when they do 
not feel him. He is called ' the prince of the power of the air ;' and 
infected air is drawn in without pain, and we get a disease before we 
feel it, and die of a pestilent air. Were you never changed ? Conver 
sion is a dispossession. The devil is in all the children of disobedience. 
Did you ever consent to choose Christ for your mediator and Lord 
and king ? When you refuse Christ offered, the devil is most ready 
to entertain you, and to enter into you, and possess you the more 
securely. There is a tradition upon your refusal ; God giveth you then 
up to Satan, to be blinded and hardened. Therefore consider this, 
observe your course. Some are Satan's slaves, they that walk in the 
ways of their own hearts, and according to the lusts of the world : 
John viii. 44, ' Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your 
father ye will do.' Satan's mark and brand is upon them that live in 
malice and envy against God and good men. Satan was a murderer 
from the beginning ; in filthiness and uncleanness, he is an unclean 
spirit ; in railing, swearing, cursing, whose tongues are set on lire of 
hell; tempting, seducing, lying. Satan is a liar, and a tempter, 
enticing to drink and gaming. 



VER. 26.] SERMONS UPON JOHN xvu. 149 

Again, is Christ in you? A great deal of bran will remain, if we 
use too coarse a bolter. Doth Christ dwell in your hearts ? You will 
know it by the effects of his presence. 

[1.] Doth Christ fill the heart ? So great a guest is enough ; the 
believer desireth no more to his peace of conscience, joy, and complete 
blessedness. There is a full acquiescency of the soul in Christ ; he 
desireth above all things to enjoy him. There is avrapKeia : 1 Tim. 
vi. 6, ' Godliness with contentment is great gain.' There is nothing 
in heaven or earth that can fill the hungry soul of man but Jesus 
Christ. He that hath his heart full of Christ, all things seem base 
and vile to him ; a little portion of the world serveth his turn. They 
are cheap things to Jesus Christ after which the world runs a-whoring : 
1 Sam. xix. 30, 'And Mephibosheth said, Nay, let him take all, 
forasmuch as my lord the king is come again in peace unto his house.' 
Mephibosheth is contented to see the king's face in peace. They have 
the pearl of great price ; there is little room for other things. Christ 
filleth every corner of the heart: Phil. iv. 12, 13, ' I know both how 
to be abased, and I know how to abound ; everywhere and in all things 
I am instructed, both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound 
and to suffer need. I can do all things through Christ which 
strengtheneth me.' 

[2.] He ruleth, and acteth, and swayeth all these. He doth not 
dwell as a stranger or guest in another's man's house, or as an inmate, 
but as a lord in his possession ; therefore he still directeth, counselleth, 
quickeneth, destroyeth the kingdom of Satan, reneweth us more and 
more, dwelleth in us as the king of glory. Where the Spirit of the 
Lord is there is liberty, light, joy, strength, peace. 

2. What entertainment do you give him ? The more faith is 
enlarged, the more room hath Christ in thy heart. With great cheer 
fulness should you receive him, not always frowning ; he looketh for 
reverence, not constant mourning. Do not grieve him by sin, by such 
things by which the wrath of God cometh upon the children of 
disobedience. If an earthly king lie but a night in a house, what care 
is there taken that nothing be offensive to him, but that all things be 
neat, clean, and sweet. How much more ought you to be careful to 
get and keep your hearts clean, to perform service acceptably to him ; 
to be in the exercise of faith, love, and other graces, that you may 
entertain, as you ought, your heavenly King, who comes to take up 
his continual abode and residence in your hearts ? 



SERMONS 



TJPOlf THB 



SIXTH CHAPTER OF THE ROMANS. 



SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 



SEKMON I. 

What shall we say then ? sliall we continue in sin, that grace may 
abound? God forbid ! How shall we, that are dead to sin, live 
any longer therein? KOM. VI. 1, 2. 

THE drift of the apostle in this chapter is to show that free justification 
by faith in Christ greatly tendeth to promote holiness ; which he first 
proveth from the tenor of Christianity, and then exhorteth the justified 
to get, increase, and exercise this holiness in all their actions. 
In these words there are three things 

1. An objection supposed. 

2. A rejection of it with abhorrence and indignation. 

3. A confutation of it. 

1. The objection is a preposterous inference from what the apostle 
had said, chap. v. 20, ' That where sin abounded, grace did much more 
abound.' The apostle propoundeth it by way of interrogation, ' What 
shall we say then ? shall we continue in sin that grace may abound ? ' 
The words may be conceived as a slander raised by Jewish prejudice 
to make the doctrine of the gospel odious, as if it did foster people 
in sin an unjust calumny ; or as a temptation incident to loose, 
carnal, and careless Christians, who are apt to abuse grace, and have 
such wretched reasonings in their own hearts, that they might take the 
more liberty to sin, that the grace of God might thereby appear more 
illustrious and abundant. You may therefore look upon it as pro 
duced either as a check to an objection already made, or as a preven 
tion of an abuse that might afterwards be made. 

2. He rejecteth this inference as absurd and -blasphemous, by a form 
of speech familiar to him, Gal. ii. 17, Kom. iii. 6, 31, ^ yevoiro ; let 
this thought be far from us, or, this is a thing that all Christian hearts 
should abominate. 

3. Paul's reason against it, or confutation of it, represented in an 
emphatical interrogation, ' How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any 
longer therein?' Where observe 

[l.J That to continue in sin, and live longer in sin, are equivalent 
expressions ; for in the objection the expression is, ' Shall we continue 
in sin ?' But in the apostle's answer and argument to the contrary, 
it is, ' Can we live any longer therein ? ' 



154 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SttR. I. 

[2.] Observe that before grace we lived in sin ; for when he saith, 
' any longer,' he implieth that we were given to sin, enslaved by sin 
before ; but shall we continue this course ? Far be it from us to think 
so, or say so, much more to do so. 

[3.] Observe the argument lieth here, ' We that are dead/ &c. All 
that have given their names to Christ are, or should be, dead to sin. 
Now, to be dead to sin and live in sin are davcr-rara, things incom 
patible ; the dead are no longer alive. 

Because this is the strength of his argument, it will be good to in 
quire what it is to be dead in sin. In the strict and rigorous notion, he 
is said to be dead who is utterly deprived of all sense and motion, that 
they are altogether without all feeling and motion of sin ; but this 
strict sense will not stand here ; therefore I must tell you the word 
relateth to the baptismal engagement, as the following verses abundantly 
do declare : ver. 3, ' Know ye not that so many of us as were baptized 
into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death ? ' Baptism referreth 
to Christ's death, and we are baptized into the likeness and power of 
his death; the meaning of that ordinance is to signify our dying to sin 
and rising to newness of life ; this is that which every Christian 
knoweth, if he be but a little instructed in the principles of his religion. 
Well, then, every good Christian is dead to sin by vow and obligation, 
therefore cannot, should not, live any longer therein. There is a 
double undertaking in baptism one on God's part, the other on ours ; 
the undertaking on God's part is to give us the sanctifying Spirit of 
grace, to quell the reign of sin ; the undertaking on our part is by the 
Spirit to mortify the deeds of the body. Now some make conscience of 
this solemn vow and promise, others do not ; the apostle considereth 
not what is done, but what ought to be done ; he speaketh de jure, of 
the vow and obligation we are all bound ; not de facto, of the event, 
not what always cometh to pass. All Christians are bound to be dead 
to sin, and every good Christian is actually dead to sin, which, though 
it hath some life and being left, yet it retaineth not its sovereignty 
and dominion over him. Some conceive this latter sort intended; 
omve? direddvo/Mev rfj dfj,apTia, as many of us as have died to sin : but 
rather he considereth the right than the fact. Christianity doth oblige 
all at their first entrance into the profession of it to renounce the reign 
and dominion of sin, and break the power of it yet more and more, so 
that it dieth, though a lingering death, as Christ did upon the cross. 

Doct. That to take occasion to live in sin from free grace, or God's 
mercy to sinners in Christ, is an inference most unjust, absurd, and 
blasphemous, and that which all Christians' hearts should abominate. 
Here in the text such an inference is mentioned with a denial 
joined with a detestation of the thing denied ; the very thought and 
first mention of it ought to be entertained with abhorrency. 

1. I will prove that the corrupt heart of man is apt to draw such a 
consequence. 

2. I will prove the three charges 

[1.] That it is very uujust and ill grounded. 

[2.] Absurd and contradictory to Christianity. 

[3.] Wicked and blasphemous. 

First, That the corrupt heart of man is apt to draw such inferences 



VERS. 1, 2.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 155 

from the doctrine of grace. In the general, carnal men are ill skilled 
at reasoning about spiritual matters. Solomon telleth us, Prov. xxvi. 9, 
' That a parable in a fool's mouth is like a thorn in the hand of a 
drunkard.' As a drunkard with a sharp thorn grievously hurts him 
self and others, neither his mind nor hand can do their office when the 
man is distempered with drink ; so it is with men intoxicated by sin ; 
witness those contrary and different conclusions, which the carnal 
and spiritual will draw from the same principles. From the stated 
course of nature the scoffer said, 2 Peter iii. 4, ' Where is the promise 
of his coming ? for since the fathers fell asleep all things continue as 
they were from the beginning of the creation.' David reasoneth the 
quite contrary way : Ps. cxix. 89-91, ' For ever, Lord, thy word is 
settled in heaven. Thy faithfulness is unto all generations : thoti 
hast established the earth, and it abide th. They continue this day 
according to thine ordinances : for all are thy servants.' So 1 Cor. xv. 
32, ' If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, 
what advantageth it me if the dead rise not ? Let us eat and drink, 
for to-morrow we shall die ; ' with 1 Cor. vii. 29, 30, ' But this I say, 
brethren, the time is short : it remains that both they that have wives 
be as though they had none ; and they that weep, as though they wept 
not ; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not ; and they 
that buy, as though they possessed not.' So 2 Sam. vii. 2, ' The king 
said unto Nathan the prophet, See now, I dwell in an house of cedar, 
but the ark of God dwelleth within curtains ; ' with Haggai i. 2, ' This 
people say, The time is not come, the time that the Lord's house should 
be built.' So 2 Kings vi. 33, ' Behold this evil is of the Lord, what 
should I wait for the Lord any longer ? ' with 1 Sam. iii. 18, ' It is the 
Lord, let him do what seemeth him good.' So Mary Magdalene, upon 
Christ's pardoning her sin, was more abundant in duty and mourning 
for sin : Luke vii. 47, ' Her sins, which were many, are forgiven ; for 
she loved much ; ' and in the text, the directly contrary conclusion is 
drawn ; ' sin, because grace doth abound ;' make work for pardoning 
mercy. But particularly, it is very natural to us to abuse the gospel, 
and plead God's grace to quiet and strengthen ourselves in security 
and sin ; the thoughts of men do easily incline them to such con 
clusions. That which hath been may be ; that this hath been appear- 
eth by the writings of the apostles, who everywhere seek to obviate 
this abuse ; and also by evident reason. 

1. We all affect liberty to a degree of licentiousness. This is 
natural to us, as appeareth by our distaste of Christ's strict laws : Ps. ii. 
3, ' Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from 
us ; ' and our ready hearkening to seducers, ' who promise liberty, 
though they bring us into bondage to sin,' 2 Peter ii. 19, and we be 
the more enslaved to baseness and filthiness. 

2. The flesh taketh all occasions to indulge itself, and that it may 
be done in a plausible cleanly manner, and with less remorse from 
conscience, it catcheth at every pretence to countenance it. Some 
times it makes use of bodily austerities as a compensation for their 
sins ; and so hypocrisy, superstition, and profaneness grow on the 
same root. The sensual nature of men is such that it is loath to be 
crossed, which produceth profaneness ; for therefore do men indulge 



156 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. I. 

themselves in all manner of sensuality, because they are loath to deny 
their natural appetites and desires, and row against the stream of 
flesh and blood ; but if nature must be crossed, or else they cannot 
palliate their carnal indulgences, then they will not-mortify the lust, 
but afflict the body for a while, and in some slight manner, which 
produceth hypocrisy, and we excuse the partiality of our obedience by 
some outward shows of strictness ; as Isa. Iviii. 5, ' They afflict the 
soul for a day, or bow down the head like a bulrush ; ' and so in the 
external actions of other duties. That this deceit may be more strong, 
they exceed in outward observances, and that produceth superstition, 
or some byelaws of our own, by which we hope to expiate our sins ; 
as to whip and gash ourselves : Micah vi. 6, 7, ' Wherewithal shall I 
come before the Lord, and bow myself before the high God ? shall I 
come before him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old ? 
will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thou 
sands of rivers of oil ? shall I give my first-born for my transgression, 
the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul ? ' On the other side, if 
men's temper, education, and strain of religion carry them to another 
way, and they are all for the grace of the gospel, without the rudi 
ments of men, the devil knows how to charm and lull souls asleep in 
sin by that way of profession also ; and so many take liberty to sin 
under the pretence that God may have more occasion to exercise his 
mercy ; and our proneness to please the flesh is countenanced by pre 
sumptions of grace, and the supposition of unreasonable indulgences 
of God to the faulty creature : Ps. 1. 21, ' These things hast thou done, 
and I kept silent ; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one 
as thyself.' God will not be so severe as is commonly imagined ; and 
so lessening God's holiness, they abate their reverence of him : Ps. Ixviii. 
19-21, ' Blessed be the Lord, who daily loadeth us with benefits, even 
the God of our salvation, Selah. He that is our God is the God of 
salvation, and unto God the Lord belong the issues from death. But 
God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such 
an one as goeth on still in his trespasses/ He seeketh to obviate their 
conceit, how great soever the riches of his bounty and grace offered 
in Christ be, yet he is irreconcileable to those that cease not to follow 
a course of sin. 

3. This conceit is strengthened in us, because many that profess 
Christianity live licentiously. All sins propagate their kind, and 
among others, abuse of grace. We see others have great hopes and 
confidence in Christ, notwithstanding their carnal and worldly course 
of living, and self-love prompteth us that we may hope to fare as well 
as they ; and so we leaven one another with a (Jead, loose, carnal sort 
of Christianity, instead of 'provoking each other to love and good 
works/ Heb. x. 24. Self-love is very partial, and loath to think evil 
of our condition. Now this cannot be justified by the laws of Chris 
tianity, yet it is often justified by the lives of Christians : after this 
rule they live in the world, and we think we may do as others do. 

4. There is another cause, that is, Satan, who abuseth the weakness 
of some teachers, and the ignorance of some hearers, to misapply the 
grace of the gospel and the comforts of justification, to countenance 
their sins. The devil knoweth we will not receive his doctrine in his 



VERS. 1, 2.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 157 

own name, and therefore doth what he can to usurp the name of Christ, 
and to obtrude his commands upon us in the name of Christ, and so 
conveyeth poison to you by the perfume of the gospel ; and if he can 
set Christ against Christ, his merits and inercy against his government 
and Spirit, his promises against his laws, justification against sanctifi- 
cation, he knoweth that he obtaineth his end and purpose, that the 
gospel, which was set up to destroy the works of the devil, will be a 
means to cherish his kingdom in the world. And on the hearers' part, 
he abuseth them also ; carnal hearts turn all into fuel for their lusts, 
and with the more pretence if they can allege a dispensation from God 
himself to serve and please the flesh, and no harm shall come of it. 
A little trusting in Christ shall serve the turn, though they live never 
so impure lives. I ascribe all this to Satan, because all error is from 
him, who is the father of lies, who often obtrudeth upon the simple 
credulity of Christians his own gospel instead of Christ's, and by a 
partial representation of Christ's gospel destroyeth the whole. 

Secondly, I come now to make good the charge. 

First, That this inference is very unjust and ill-grounded. The 
pretence here are those words of the apostle in the two last verses of 
the former chapter : * Moreover the law entered that the offence might 
abound ; but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound, that 
as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through 
righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.' These 
words yield no such consequence. To evince which (1.) I shall state 
the meaning of those words ; (2.) Show the unjustness of this illation 
from them. 

1. For the meaning, the apostle showeth the law was given to the 
Israelites by Moses, not that they might be justified thereby, but that 
sin and punishment, to which we are liable by reason of sin, might the 
better be known ; and so the grace of God in Christ, which justifieth 
us, notwithstanding the grievousness of sin, might be the more esteemed, 
and we might the more earnestly fly to it for sanctuary and refuge, and 
the curse might drive us to the promise. For there are two things 
which the law discovereth 

[1.] The multitude and heinous nature of our offences : ' It entered 
that sin might abound;' not in our practice, but in our sense and 
feeling, as being more apparent, and awakening more lively stings in 
our consciences. If a rugged and obstinate people sin the more, that 
is not the fault of the law, but of our corrupt nature, which always 
tendeth to that which is forbidden : ' It only took occasion from the 
commandment,' Rom. vii. 8. The proper effect of the law was to give 
us more convincing and clear knowledge of duty and sin, or to be a 
means to aggravate sin, to render it more exceedingly heinous, as being 
against an express law of God's own giving, with great majesty and 
terror. 

[2.] The other use of the law is to give us an awakening sense of 
the punishment due to sin, as it exposes us to temporal and eternal 
death, ver. 21 ; and so our deliverance and life by Christ might be 
more thankfully accepted, who by his mercy hath taken away the 
condemning and reigning power of sin, by granting pardon of it, and 
power over it ; so that as a great and mortal disease maketh a physician 



158 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. I. 

famous if he cureth it, so sin maketh the grace of Christ more conspi 
cuous and glorious. 

2. The injustice of the illation. 

[1.] There is a difference between causa per se, and causa per acci- 
dens, a cause and an occasion. Though the abounding of sin helpeth 
to advance grace, it is not of itself, but by accident, by God's over 
ruling grace ; therefore it is a desperate adventure to try conclusions, 
to drink rank poison to experiment the goodness of an antidote, or to 
wound ourselves mortally to try the virtue of a plaster. God made 
advantage of the sins of the world for the honouring of his grace in 
Christ ; but they that presume to sin greatly, that God may pardon 
greatly, run a desperate adventure, whether God will pardon them 
or no. 

[2.] There is a difference between the remission' of sins past, and 
allowance of sin future. Our fixed purpose must be not to sin, but if 
we sin, we have the use of God's remedy : 1 John ii. 1, ' My little 
children, these things I write unto you, that ye sin not. And if any 
man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the 
righteous/ If God made advantage of sins past to honour his grace, 
we also by sins past may make an advantage for a renewed use of faith 
in our Redeemer, and renewed desires and expectations of pardon by 
his intercession ; but it is a wrong conclusion to think we may heap up 
new sins for time to come, and still make more work for pardoning 
mercy, and be content to offend God again, that he may still be 
pardoning, and we never forsake sin. In short, we must not sin that 
grace may abound ; but when we have sinned, we must make use of 
abounding grace. Faith and repentance may draw good out of sin 
itself, to make the remembrance of it a means of our hatred and morti 
fication of sin, and of more gratitude to our Redeemer ; but not to take 
liberty to indulge sin, antedating our pardon before the fact. 

[3.] It is contrary to all ingenuity, and love to God or Christ. This 
is the difference between faith and presumption, or a sound and a blind 
confidence of pardon by Christ, namely, that faith maketh us hate sin, 
and presumption maketh us secure and bold in sinning, and slightly 
to pass it over with little remorse and reluctancy when we are guilty 
of it. He who presumeth doth the work of an age in a breath. God 
is merciful, Christ died for sinners, and all our confidence must be in 
Christ. But the true believer is more affected with sin ; as ' she wept 
much and loved much to whom much was forgiven,' Luke vii. 47 ; 
and Ezek. xvi. 63, ' That thou mayest remember, and be confounded, 
and never open thy mouth any more because of thy shame, when I am 
pacified towards thee, for all that thou hast done.' They express their 
gratitude for remission of sin by a careful keeping from it. Pardoning 
mercy maketh God amiable to us, and his laws acceptable, our duty 
sweeter, and sin more grievous. 

Secondly, It is absurd and contrary to the doctrine of grace : true 
Christianity is of a far different make from this conceit. 

1. It is not consistent with the grace that goeth along with pardon, 
for God sanctifieth all those whom he justifieth : we receive, together 
with the remission of sins, the gift of the Holy Ghost : 1 Cor. i. 30, 
' Of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, 



VERS. 1, 2.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 159 

and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption ;' 1 Cor. vi. 11, 
' But ye are washed, but ye are justified, but ye are sanctified in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.' These are in 
separable, the application of the merit of Christ and the gift of his 
Spirit, which reneweth us to the image of God, and mortifieth the life 
of sin in us ; the heart broken with compunction seeketh this double 
benefit : 1 John i. 9, ' If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to 
forgive us our sins, and cleanse us from all unrighteousness ; ' as a 
malefactor that hath a leprosy on him needs not only a pardon, but a 
medicine ; and in a broken leg not only ease of the pain is desirable, 
but that the bone be set right. Therefore we are both justified and 
sanctified ; continuing in sin cannot consist with the truth of regenera 
tion. 

2. It is contrary to the order of God's grace in the new covenant, 
who requireth of us faith and repentance if we would be partakers of 
Christ. Now, to continue in sin is to be under the bondage of it, with 
out restraint, or any change of heart and life. 

[1.] It is against faith. Take it for assent, it is a belief that he will 
save all those that submit to be sanctified and ruled by him in order 
to their salvation : Heb. v. 9, ' Being made perfect, he became the 
author of eternal salvation to all them that obey him.' If you hope to 
be saved by him, and will not be ruled by him, you do not believe 
Christ, but the devil ; for if you believe Christ, you must believe that 
you cannot be saved unless you be converted : Mat. xviii. 3, ' Except 
ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into 
the kingdom of heaven.' Take' faith for acceptance of Christ, it is a 
hearty consent both of subjection to him and dependence upon him as 
the saviour and redeemer of the world. The mediator's blessing is ' to 
turn every one of you away from your iniquities/ Acts iii. 26 ; he is a 
saviour ' to save his people from their sins/ Mat. i. 21 ; to say nothing 
of ' receiving Christ the Lord/ which the scripture presseth, Col. ii. 6. 

[2.] It is against repentance, which implieth a sorrow for sin, with 
a serious purpose to forsake it. 

(1.) There is in it godly sorrow, 2 Cor. vii. 10. This is requisite to 
check the sensual inclination, or love of pleasure, which is the heart, 
root, and life of all sin : it dies when our affection to it dies. In re 
pentance with bitterness of soul we bemoan ourselves for offending 
God ; now if we lick up our vomit again, and go round in a track of 
confessing sin and committing sin, our hearts are not sound with God ; 
we undo that which is done, and so ' build again the things we have 
destroyed, if while we seek to be justified by Christ, we are still found 
sinners/ Gal. ii. 17, 18. A man that truly seeks after pardon, seeks 
with it the ruin and destruction of sin. Sin was his greatest trouble, 
the burden that lay upon his conscience, the grievance from which he 
sought ease, the wound which pained him at heart, the disease that his 
soul was sick of. Is all this real ? What will you say if this man 
should delight in his former trouble, and take up his burden that he 
groaned under, and prefer it before liberty, to tear open the wounds 
which were in a fair way of healing, willingly relapse into the sickness 
out of which he is recovered with so much ado ? if he should desire 
the bonds and chains again, of which he was freed by infinite mercy? 



160 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. I. 

Surely then you may question the reality of. all that he hath done. In 
the anguish of our souls we groaned under sin as the heaviest and most 
intolerable burden we could ever feel. Now, should we stoop to it, and 
take it on again, after it was lifted from our backs, who would pity us ? 

(2.) There is a renouncing and forsaking of sin : it is called ' Be- 
pentance from dead works/ Heb. vi. 1 ; not only repentance for but 
from them. The heart is so turned from sin, that it is turned against 
it : we do not repent of the sins we still live in. Now, if grace be dis 
pensed in this order, what more contrary to the tenor of the gospel 
covenant ? 

(3.) This faith and repentance are solemnly professed in baptism, 
which is the initiating ordinance, wherein we profess to be baptized 
into the death of Christ, that is to say, to express the virtue, to be con 
formed to the likeness of it, and die unto sin. When we first gave our 
names to Christ, our baptism strictly obligeth us to continue no longer 
in sin ; it is a vowed death to sin ; therefore, if we continue in it, we 
renounce or forget our baptism, 2 Peter i. 9 ; if we wallow again in 
the mire after we are once washed, all that is done in baptism is but a 
nullity or empty formality. That is the apostle's argument here, ' How 
shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein ? ' There you 
solemnly renounced sin, that you might have no more commerce with 
it than the dead have with the living ; therefore, for us to continue in 
sin, and indulge sin, is to break our solemn covenant with God. You 
have promised to give neither mind, nor heart, nor sense, nor any 
faculty or member of soul or body to accomplish it, but so carry your 
selves as if you were dead. And besides, you deprive yourselves of the 
grace of the covenant which you might have. If you did not ponere 
obicem, you might be delivered from the reigning power of indwelling 
sin ; therefore you must carefully see that it have not the upper hand 
in your souls, that the flesh be made subject to the spirit, that the 
reign and dominion of sin be indeed broken, that you run into no wil 
ful sin, and walk with all holy strictness and watchfulness. 

(4.) It is contrary to God's design to call us out of our sinful estate 
to sincere reformation. This was God's end, that we that fly from 
him as a condemning God might return to his love and service as a 
pardoning God : Ps. cxxx. 4, ' There is forgiveness with thee, that thou 
mightest be feared.' He pardoneth what is past upon condition of 
future obedience ; he calleth us to repentance : Acts xvii. 30, ' Now he 
commandeth all men everywhere to repent ; ' not to encourage them to 
continue, or go on a minute longer in a course of sin, or flatter them 
with hope of impunity if they do so : Ezek. xviii. 30, ' Eepent, and 
turn yourselves from all your transgressions, so iniquity shall not be 
your ruin ; ' Isa. Iv. 7, ' Let the wicked forsake his way, and the un 
righteous man his thoughts, and let him return unto the Lord, and he 
will have mercy upon him, and to our God, for he will abundantly 
pardon.' 

Thirdly, It is wicked and blasphemous. 

1. Because, as much as in you lieth, you make Christ a minister of 
sin, or an encourager of sin : Gal. ii. 7, ' If while we seek to be justified 
by Christ, we are found sinners, is Christ a minister of sin? God 
forbid.' 



VERS. 1,2.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS VL 161 

2. They prevent the highest institution in the world for the recovery 
of men to God : Jude 4, fjueraTldevTes, ' turning the grace of God into 
wantonness.' The gospel is the only way of taking away sin ; you 
make it the only way to countenance sin. Grace is there taken for 
objective grace, viz., grace held forth to us in the doctrine of the gospel. 
The doctrine of the gospel doth not tend to make men sinners, nor 
encourage them to lay aside all care of holiness or good works. 

Use 1. Caution against this ahuse. 

1. Be not prejudiced against the doctrine of grace, as if it yielded 
these conclusions. It is a misunderstood and misapplied gospel ; the 
world hath not a right understanding in this mystery. Christ came 
into the world to save sinners, but not to reconcile God to our sins, to 
make him less holy, or his law less strict, or sin less odious ; and his 
free pardon is not to encourage us to go on in our sins ; but a wicked 
heart, like a spider, will suck poison from those flowers from whence a 
bee sucketh honey. 

2. Let us not give occasion to others to think so, either (1.) By 
entertaining opinions that may countenance this abuse, as the setting 
up a naked dependence on Christ without a care of holiness, or Christ's 
merit against his Spirit ; relying on his reconciling, and neglecting his 
renewing grace ; that we are justified before we repent or believe ; that 
all sins past, present, or to come are pardoned at once ; that we need 
not trouble ourselves with scruples about offending God ; that the 
greatest confidence of our own good estate is the strongest and best 
faith. (2.) Nor by practices. Christians must be most averse from, 
sin, and all enormous practices, else you dishonour Christ in the world ; 
but let the blame and shame lie on us, and not on the gospel. 

3. Let us not harbour this mistake in our own bosoms. We are 
marvellous apt to do so ; but hereby we forfeit the comfort and privilege 
of Christians, and it concerneth God to avenge the quarrel of his grace 
against us. Now harbour it we do, if we grow more careless and 
negligent in duties, less circumspect in our conversations, less humble 
for sins, and venture upon them with greater boldness and security. 
If you think you need to be less troubled for sin, less earnest and 
watchful against it, as if since Christ died for the expiation of it, it 
were a smaller matter than before to sin against God, you are guilty 
of this abuse. 

Use 2. To exhort you to three things. 

1. To carry yourselves as those that are dead to sin ; be sure that its 
dominion and reign be broken, and its strength and power every day 
more weakened ; you subdue it thoroughly root and branch, and let 
your minds be more intent on this, that you may not sin : 1 John iii. 
9, ' Whoso is born of God doth not commit sin, for his seed remaineth 
in him ; and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.' See how this 
is fulfilled in you, and what conscience you make of your baptismal 
vow every day. 

2. Honour grace. You should not only esteem it, and advance it in 
your minds, but set forth the glory of it in word and deed : Eph. i. 5, 
12, ' Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus 
Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, that we 
should be to the praise of his glory.' The whole strain of your life 

VOL. XI. It 



162 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. II. 

and conversation should be to the praise of grace, that our actions 
might speak for it, though we be silent. To this end consider, God 
hath trusted you with the honour of his grace, therefore you should 
be eminently much better than other men : Mat. v. 16, ' Let your light 
so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify 
your Father which is in heaven,' 1 Peter iii. 9, and set forth the genuine 
and kindly workings of it. 

3. Fortify your minds against this abuse, which is so natural to us. 

[1.] God's principal will is that we should obey his laws rather than 
need his pardon. The precept is before the sanction, before sin came 
into the world ; he pardoneth, that we may return to our duty, Heb. 
ix. 14 ; Luke i. 74 ; Rev. v. 9, 10 ; therefore to make wounds for Christ 
to cure is not the part of a good Christian. 

[2.] Remember what was Christ's main design : 1 John iii. 5, ' To 
take away sin/ not to take away obedience. Many think, though they 
sin never so much, their pardon will be ready and easy. Oh no ! not 
so lightly, when you wilfully and presumptuously run into sin. 

[3.] Loose, carnal, and careless Christians, that wallow in all filthi- 
ness, and hope to be saved, are rather of the faction of Christians than 
of the religion of Christians : 2 Tim. ii. 19, ' Let every one that nameth 
the name of Christ depart from iniquity ;' 1 Peter i. 17, 18, ' Pass the 
time of your sojourning here in fear, forasmuch as you are not redeemed 
with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversations,, 
received by tradition from your fathers ; but with the precious blood 
of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot/ 



SERMON II. 

Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, 
were baptized into his death ? ROM. VI. 3. 

In the former verse the apostle confuteth the preposterous inference, 
which some drew, or might draw, from free justification, or God's 
mercy to sinners in Christ, by this argument It cannot be so, that 
men should continue in sin because grace aboundeth, for all Christians 
are dead to sin ; at their first entrance upon the profession of Chris 
tianity they take upon themselves a vow or solemn obligation to die 
unto sin. Now what he had asserted there, he proveth it in this 
verse, that such is the tenor of the baptismal engagement : ' Know ye 
not that as many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized 
into his death ?' 

In the words there is 

1. A truth supposed, that those who are baptized are baptized into 
Christ. 

2. A truth inferred, that they that are baptized into Christ are 
baptized into 'his death. 

3. The notoriety of both these truths, ' Know ye not ? ' 

[1.] For the first, the phrase of being baptized into Christ is again 
repeated, Gal. iii. 27, ' As many of you as are baptized into Christ, 



VEE. 3.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 163 

have put on Christ ;' it noteth our union with him, or ingrafting into 
his mystical body. We are not only baptized in his name, but baptized 
into him, made members of that mystical body whereof he is the head. 

[2.] For the second, are ' baptized into his death ;' the meaning is, 
baptism principally referreth to his death, that we may have communion 
with it, expect the benefit of it, express the likeness of it. 

[3.] For the third, ' Know ye not ? ' It is that which every Chris 
tian knoweth, if he be but a little instructed in the principles of his 
religion ; those bred in the church neither are nor can be ignorant 
of this truth : therefore the doctrine of grace opens no way to licen 
tiousness. 

Doct. Sacraments are a solemn means of our communion with the 
death of Christ. Where is to be shown 

1. What is communion with Christ's death. 

2. That sacraments are a solemn means thereof. 

First, What is communion with Christ's death. It signifieth two 
things 

1. Something by way of privilege, a participation of the benefits 
and efficacy of Christ's death. 

2. Something by way of duty and obligation, namely, a spiritual 
conformity and likeness thereunto, by a mortification of our lusts and 
passions. 

1. We are partakers of the benefits of his death when we receive 
pardon and life, begun by the Spirit, and perfected in heaven. Pardon : 
Eph. i. 7, ' In whom we have redemption by his blood, even the remission 
of sins.' The same death of Christ which is the meritorious cause of 
our justification is the cause of our sanctification also, Titus iii. 5, 6 ; 
Eph. v. 26 ; as it took away the impediment which hindered God from 
communicating his grace to us, and opened a way for the Spirit of 
grace to come at us, and seal our adoption : Gal. iii. 13, 14, ' Christ 
hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for 
us ; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree : 
that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles, through 
Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through 
faith ; ' Gal. iv. 5, 6, ' To redeem them that were under the law, that 
we might receive the adoption of sons. And because ye are sons, God 
hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, 
Father.' 

2. Christ's death bindeth us to renounce sin, and by submitting 
to baptism we profess to take the obligation upon us to die unto sin 
and unto the world more and more, to show ourselves to be true 
disciples of the crucified Saviour, as we are when we express the 
likeness of his death, ver. 5 ; and elsewhere the apostle telleth us, Gal. 
ii. 20, ' I am crucified with Christ.' He is a Christian indeed that not 
only believeth that Christ is crucified, but is crucified with him ; that 
is, doth feel the virtue, and bear the likeness of his death ; for Christ's 
death is the pattern of our duty. This likeness is seen in two things : 

[1.] In weakening and subduing sin ; so it is said, Gal. v. 24, ' They 
that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts ; ' 
they have in their baptism renounced these things, and they fulfil their 
vow sincerely and faithfully : there we bind ourselves to die unto sin, 



164 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. II. 

and Christ bindeth himself to communicate the virtue of his death unto 
us, that we may fulfil our vow, and ' by his Spirit mortify the deeds of 
the body,' Bom. viii. 13. 

[2.] In suffering for righteousness' sake, and obeying God at the 
dearest rate, as Christ's undergoing the death of the cross was the 
highest act of his obedience to God. This is also called ' conformity to 
his death ; ' and ' the fellowship of his suffering/ Phil. iii. 10. This is 
participation of or communion with his death. Christ intended to 
wean his people from the interests of the animal life ; therefore, as 
soon as they enter into his family, or are listed in his warfare, they 
must resolve to renounce all that is dear to them in the world, rather 
than be unfaithful to him. Christ puts this question to the two brothers 
that would fain have an honourable place in his kingdom : Mat. xx. 
22, ' Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall flrink of ? and to be 
baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with ? ' They thought 
of dignities, of being nearer to Christ than others in honour, and Christ 
puts them in mind of sufferings that should befall them, wherein they 
might rejoice that they were partakers with him. But mark, here is 
a plain allusion to the two sacraments, which are signs and tokens of 
grace on God's side, and we on ours bind ourselves to imitate Christ 
in his patient and self-denying obedience. This is communion with 
his death. 

Secondly, That the sacraments are a solemn means of this commu 
nion. Here are three things : 

1. That union with Christ is the ground of our communion with him. 

2. This union and communion is signified and sealed by the sacra 
ments. 

3. That both the sacraments do chiefly refer to Christ's death. 

1. That union with Christ is the ground of communion with him. 
This is evident everywhere ; for it is said, 1 Cor. i. 30, ' But of him are 
ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteous 
ness, and sanctification, and redemption/ We are first ingrafted into 
Christ, and then partake of his influence, and he conveyeth to us all 
manner of grace; and is the cause both of our justification and sanctifi 
cation and final deliverance. So 1 John v 12, ' He that hath the Son 
hath life, and he that hath not the Son hath not life.' Christ is the 
first gift ; first God giveth Christ to us, and ' with him all things,' 
Kom. viii. 32. Christ himself is the first saving gift ; and therefore, 
before we can have spiritual live, we must have Christ himself, who is 
offered to us in the promises of the gospel, principally and immediately 
to be received by us, and with him all his benefits, as the members 
receive sense and life and motion from the head, and the branches sap 
from the root. We have not what he hath purchased unless we have 
him first ; as we are not possessors of Adam's guilt till we are united 
to his person by carnal generation, so not of the grace of the Kedeemer, 
till united to him by effectual calling. In short, Christ hath purchased, 
and the Father hath given, all things into Christ's own hands ; the 
gifts and graces of the Spirit are not intrusted with ourselves, but him ; 
we have so foully miscarried already, that God will no more trust his 
honour in our hands ; we have nothing but what we have in and from 
the Son. The Spirit dwelleth in Christ, and there it can never be lost ; 



VER. 3.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 165 

he dwelleth in Christ by way of radication, in us by way of influence 
and operation. We have many disputes about the inhabitation of the 
Spirit, The Spirit is not given to any believer immediately, but to 
Christ, and to us derivatively from Christ. Therefore the Spirit is 
called ' the Spirit of Christ,' Horn. viii. 9, and ' the Spirit of his Son/ 
Gal. iv. 6, and ' it is Christ liveth in us/ Gal. ii. 20, and ' as head of 
the church he filleth all in all/ Eph. i. 22, 23. From this great cistern 
the waters of life come to us, and not immediately from the Godhead ; 
and it is our head which doth communicate and send to all his mem 
bers from himself that Spirit which must operate in them as they have 
need : this grace our mediator distributeth to all his members. 

2. That this union and communion is signified and sealed by the 
sacraments, and so they are special means to preserve and uphold the 
communion between Christ and us. Baptism is spoken of in the text, 
and that is called ' a being baptized into Christ/ and is elsewhere said 
to be 'a putting on Christ ; ' and here, ver. 5, avpfyvroi, ' a being 
planted together in the likeness of his death ; ' and 1 Cor. xii. 13, 'By 
one Spirit we are all baptized into one body, and are all made to drink 
into one Spirit/ The union is begun by the Spirit, but sealed in 
baptism, then carried on by the same Spirit, and further sealed in the 
Lord's supper. Our first implantation is represented by baptism, which 
is a solemnisation of the new covenant, whereby the party is solemnly 
entered a visible member of Christ and his church. It is carried on 
by the same Spirit. The Lord's supper is a seal of that communion : 
ovxl tcotvuvia ; 1 Cor. x. 16, ' The cup of blessing which we bless, is 
it not the communion of the blood of Christ ? the bread which we break, 
is it not the communion of the body of Christ ? ' There is not only a 
solemn commemoration of the death and passion of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, but a participation of his benefits ; it is the communion of his 
body and blood. There is a difference between a historical representa 
tion of Christ's death, and a spiritual communion of his blood and 
body. Now the Lord's supper is a holy rite instituted ei? adfun)fffff, 
'in remembrance of him,' and also to convey to us the benefits of 
Christ's death. Well, then, you see this union and communion is 
signified and sealed by the sacraments. Baptism is our first implan 
tation, and the Lord's supper concerneth our growth and nourishment. 
The external and visible incorporation is by baptism, or profession of 
the Christian faith, which all visible Christians have: John xv. 2, 
' Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away, 
and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may 
bring forth more fruit.' The real and saving union belongeth to the 
regenerate, who really believe in Christ, in their hearts Christ dwelleth : 
Eph. iii. 17, ' That Christ may dwell in 'your hearts by faith ; ' and 
love is requisite : 1 John iv. 16, ' God is love, and he that dwelleth in 
love dwelleth in God and God in him ; ' and new obedience : 1 John 
iii. 24, ' He that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him and he 
in him; and hereby know we that he abideth in us by the Spirit 
which he hath given us.' This is the sum then : Christ maketh his 
first entrance into us by his Spirit, who regenerateth us ; this is figured 
in baptism ; continueth his presence by faith, love, and new obedience, 
which are exercised and quickened by the Lord's supper. 



166 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. II. 

3. The sacraments do chiefly relate to our communion with Christ's 
death, as appeareth 

[l.j By the interpretation of both in scripture. Baptism is explained 
in the text ; the chief thing represented is his death ; and by what is 
said, 1 Cor. i. 13, ' Is Christ divided ? was Paul crucified for you ? or 
were ye baptized in the name of Paul ? ' Whence I gather, that for 
any to have been crucified (made a curse and a sacrifice to God) for 
us, would draw an obligation upon us to be baptized into his name. 
And that one peculiar reason of our being baptized into the name of 
Christ was his having been so crucified for us. The Lord's supper is 
explained, 1 Cor. xi. 26, ' As often as ye eat this bread and drink this 
cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come.' The use of the Lord's 
supper is a solemn commemoration and annunciation of the Lord's 
death. We annunciate and show it forth with respect to ourselves, 
that we may anew believe and exercise our faith ; with respect to 
others, that we may solemnly profess this faith in the crucified 
Saviour with a kind of glorying and rejoicing ; with respect to God, 
that we may plead the merits of the sacrifice of his own Son with 
affiance, expecting the benefits thereof, which are pardon and the 
sanctifying Spirit. Thus you see Christ hath instituted two sacra 
ments which represent him dead, not one to represent him glorified. 
This signification may be confirmed by the types of the old law. The 
sin-offering was not to be eaten by the people at all, and the sacrifice 
of thanksgiving was not to be eaten the third day after it was offered, 
Lev. vii. 16-18 ; the eating of the peace-offerings, wherein they rejoiced 
before the Lord, and gave him thanks, was a solemn feast like the 
Lord's supper ; now they might eat it the same day in which it was 
offered with acceptation, but not on the third day, then it was unlawful. 
The eating it the same day taught them to hasten, and not delay, but 
with speed, while it is called to-day, to be made partakers of Christ, to 
eat his flesh in faith, and to be thankful for his grace. The longest 
time was the second day ; the third it could not be eaten, not only 
upon a natural reason, that the flesh might be eaten while it was pure 
and sweet, for by the third day it might easily putrify in those hot 
countries; but upon a mystical reason, to foreshadow the time of 
Christ's resurrection, whose rising from the dead was on the third day : 
' And the third day I shall be perfected,' Luke xiii. 32. So our feast 
on the flesh and blood of Christ representeth his death rather than his 
resurrection. Well, then, Christ hath appointed two sacraments which 
represent him dead, but none that represent him glorified ; for sacra 
ments were instituted in favour of man, and for the benefit of man, 
more directly and immediately than for the honour of Christ exalted. 
Therefore in these ordinances he representeth himself rather as he 
procured the glory of others than as possessed of his own glory, and 
would have us consider rather his death past than his present glory. 
His death is wholly for us, but his glory for himself and us too. For 
understanding this, we must distinguish between what is primarily 
represented in the sacraments, and what is secondarily and conse 
quentially. It is true the consideration of his humiliation excludeth 
not that of his exaltation, but leadeth us to it. Primarily and properly 
Christ's death is represented in the sacraments, and consequentially 



VER. 3.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 167 

his resurrection and exaltation, as those other acts receive their value 
from his death as to our comfort and benefit, as his resurrection and 
intercession. We remember his death as the meritorious cause of our 
justification and sanctification, but his resurrection as the public evi 
dence of the value of his merit ; according to that of the apostle : Bom. 
iv. 25, ' He died for our offences, and rose again for our justification ;' 
therefore primarily and directly ' we are baptized into his death,' and 
in the Lord's supper ' we show forth his death/ by which he satisfied 
divine justice for us ; but secondarily and consequentially we remember 
his resurrection, which showeth that his satisfaction is perfect, and 
God, who is the judge and avenger of sin, could require no more of 
Christ for the atonement of the world. While the punishment 
remaineth in the guilty person or his surety, the debt is not fully paid; 
but the taking our surety from prison and judgment showeth that 
provoked justice is contented. So in baptism, the immersion or 
plunging in water signified his death, and the coming out of the water 
his resurrection ; and in the Lord's supper we annunciate his death ; 
but because we keep up this ordinance till he come, we imply his 
resurrection and life of glory, therefore we do but consequentially 
remember it. So it is for Christ's intercession ; it is but a representa 
tion of the merit of his sacrifice, and receiveth its value from his death : 
Heb. ix. 12, 'By his own blood he entered into the holy place, having 
obtained eternal redemption for us.' Our high priest now appearing 
before God, and representing the value of his sacrifice for all penitent 
believers, the foundation was in his death. As this is true of the 
cause, so it is true of the benefits procured by that cause ; the great 
benefit which we have by Christ is salvation, which consists in the 
destruction of sin, and a fruition of those things which by God's 
appointment are consequent upon the destruction of sin, namely, 
eternal life and happiness. Now as these things are consequent upon 
the destruction of sin, so baptism and the Lord's supper signifieth and 
sealeth them ; but consequentially its primary use is to signify the 
destruction and abolition of sin by the death of Christ ; as for instance, 
' We are baptised for the remission of sins,' Acts ii. 38, and Acts xxii. 
16, ' Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins ;' and in the Lord's 
supper, Mat. xxvi. 28, ' This is my blood of the New Testament, which 
is shed for many for the remission of sins.' So that you see these 
benefits are more expressly signified in baptism and the Lord's supper, 
the resurrection of the body and eternal life more remotely and conse 
quentially. The death of Christ first purchased for us justification 
and sanctification, therefore they are first represented directly and 
primarily, baptism and the Lord's supper represent these especially ; 
so now you see why the apostle saith, ' Ye are baptized into his death. 1 
[2.] By the rites used in both these ordinances. Baptism signifieth 
the death and burial of Christ ; for immersion under the water is a 
kind of figure of death and burial, as our apostle explaineth it, ver. 4, 
' Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death;' and the 
trine immersion, the threefold dipping used by the ancients, is 
expounded by them, not only with reference to the Trinity, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, in whose names they were baptized, Mat. xxviii. 
19, but the three several days, wherein Christ lay buried in the grave, 



168 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SBR. II. 

as Athanasius expoundeth it, and many others interpret it as a simi 
litude of Christ's death for three days. So for the Lord's supper: 
Luke xxii. 19, 20, ' He took bread, and brake it, and gave it to them, 
saying, This is. my body, which is given for you ; this do in remem 
brance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup 
is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for you.' His body 
is represented as dead and broken, and so proper food for our souls, his 
blood as poured out and shed for us. Well, then, here we remember 
Christ as dying on the cross rather than as glorified in heaven. 

[3.] By reason it must needs be so. 

(1.) With respect to the state of man, with whom the new covenant 
is made. It is made with man fallen and a sinner ; therefore baptism 
and the Lord's supper imply our communion with Christ as a redeemer 
and saviour, who coraeth ' to save us from our sins,' Mat. i. 21, and 
nothing can save us from our sins but a crucified saviour. Therefore 
these ordinances imply a communion with his death : Heb. ix. 15, 
' For this cause he is the mediator of the New Testament, that by the 
means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were 
under the first testament, they which are called might receive the pro 
mise of eternal inheritance.' So here the intervention of his death was 
the way and means to expiate former sins, and that penitent believers 
might have eternal blessedness instated upon them by way of inheri 
tance ; therefore the most obvious thing represented in these seals of 
the new covenant must be the death of Christ. 

(2.) With respect to the great benefit we stand in need of, which is 
the destruction of sin, which hath a double malignity in it ; for sin is 
considerable under a double respect as it damneth or as it defileth ; 
as it rendereth us obnoxious to God's justice, or as it tainteth and 
staineth and defileth our faculties. Christ considereth sin under this 
double respect, and maketh none partakers of the benefit which cometh 
by him whom he freeth not from sin, both as to the guilt and power ; 
by his death our sins are expiated before God, and so pardoned ; and 
also the Spirit, or a new and holy nature is put into us, whereby the 
reigning power of sin is broken and taken away ; not only the guilt of 
sin, which is opposed to blessedness, but the reign of sin, which is 
opposed to holiness. We can never be completely happy till we get 
freed from the punishment which sin hath made our due, and also get 
that sin destroyed which would involve us in new guilt. God, who i& 
a just and wise disposer of his grace, will not give impunity where sin 
remaineth in its full strength. Now this being the nature of our 
recovery, we ought to seek communion with Christ's death, that we 
may obtain both pardon and the gift of the Spirit, and be justified 
and sanctified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our 
God; or (which tendeth to the same effect) that we might feel the 
virtue of Christ's death, and express the likeness of it. 

(3.) With respect to the value of Christ's death, which is often 
recommended to us under these two considerations (1.) As a won 
derful act of love ; (2.) As a price and ransom paid for our souls, and 
the blessings we stand in need of. 

(1st.) As a wonderful act of condescending love : Gal. ii. 20, ' He 
loved me, and gave himself for me ;' Eph. v. 2, ' Who hath loved us, 
and given himself for us an offering and sacrifice to God for a sweet- 



VER. 3.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 169 

smelling savour ;' Kev. i. 5, ' Who loved us, and washed us from our 
sins in.his own blood.' Christ's death is the greatest instance of his 
love, and sacraments are a memorial of his love to us, and therefore 
must needs principally relate to his death, for so they axe most apt to 
work upon our souls. 

(2d.) They are the price paid for the blessings we stand in need of, 
and so breed confidence in us. The great benefit is the destruction of 
sin, as I said before ; for the great occasion of this mystery of grace 
was our fallen estate, which brought sin and misery upon us. But the 
Son of God came ' to take away sin/ 1 John iii. 5, by dying an accursed 
death to propitiate God to us, and make way for the more liberal 
effusion of his mercy. Well, then, if poor creatures have any awakening 
sense of their deep misery, what should they look after, or bless God 
for, when they solemnly come to accept the covenant, but the death of 
Christ ? 

(4.) The mutual respect that is between both sacraments ; for Christ's 
death, and the immediate benefits which result thence, are represented 
both in baptism and the Lord's supper in a way proper to each. Bap 
tism signifieth our first entrance into the evangelical state, and the 
Lord's supper our growth and progress therein. Both are necessary. 

(1st.) Baptism, that .our consent to depend upon God for the benefits 
of the new covenant, and perform the duties thereof, may be more 
solemn and explicit; for all the sincerity of our after-obedience doth 
very much depend upo.n the seriousness of our first consent ; therefore 
it is meet that we should be strengthened with such a bond, that we 
should be baptized into the death of Christ : that act is an act of love, 
it may bind us to love him to the death, who hath loved us first, and 
in all temptations cleave to him, performing our covenant-resolution 
and consent with all fidelity all the days of our lives. And as it is the 
ground of our confidence and the price of our blessings, we may com 
fortably depend upon God for the gift of the sanctifying Spirit, and that 
he will afford all necessary help to us in the use of those means which 
he hath appointed, that we may receive the grace and Spirit of God by 
virtue of this help. 

(2d.) The Lord's supper is necessary to confirm and strengthen both 
our resolutions and dependence ; for nothing is more fickle and uncer 
tain than the heart of man. Men are of several sorts and sizes ; three 
I shall mention. Good Christians, who have a clear and undoubted 
right to the privileges of the new covenant ; yet they stand in need of 
the Lord's supper, that they may give Christ a new and hearty welcome 
in their souls by the solemn remembrance of his love, and also have 
their right solemnly confirmed and ratified, that their confidence and 
joy in the Lord may be quickened and increased, Acts viii. 39. Or 
else lapsed believers; these come by the solemn remembrance of Christ's 
death to be set in joint again, and restored to God's favour, whilst both 
they and God renew the promise of the destruction of sin, 1 Johnii. 1. 
Another sort are weak, wavering, doubtful Christians, James i. 8, who 
come because of their imperfect estate, that they may be confirmed 
and strengthened, that the comfort of their Christianity may be more 
explicit, and their resolutions against sin fortified, that they may more 
glory in the death and cross of Christ, feeling the effects of it in their 



170 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. II. 

own souls, Gal. vi. 14, and look upon Christ, not simply propounded 
as dead, but as dead for them, and themselves dead with him.. 

Use. Here is direction to us about the improvement of our com 
munion with Christ, to look more to the effect and fruit of sacraments ; 
have we the communion of his death ? 

1. Of your baptism. Do you live as one that is washed from his 
sins, that is baptized into the death of Christ ? What virtue have 
you to quell sin ? What likeness do you express ? Baptism is the 
best preparation for the Lord's supper ; if you have the fruit of that, 
you may more comfortably come to the other : John xiii. 8, ' If I wash 
thee not, thou hast no part with me.' We are utterly unqualified and 
unprepared for the Lord's supper if we be not washed. Now though 
no man can say his heart is clean, yet every good Christian maketh 
conscience of his baptismal vow ; he purifieth himself as Christ is pure ; 
the work is a-doing. If this conscience be not in us, the whole action 
is lost to us, yea, will bring a judgment upon us. What do we come 
about but the destruction of sin ? Is it really your burden ? Have 
you not only a wish but a will to get rid of it ? If so you have been 
labouring in it, you desire solemnly to remember Christ's death, to 
strengthen your resolutions, and increase your dependence, that in 
these means you may meet with more encouragement ; then come and 
see what Christ will do for you. 

2. As to the Lord's supper, your great business here is to comme 
morate Christ's death, who is evidently set forth, and as it were 
crucified before your eyes. Now you do not commemorate his death 
as a tragical story, but as a mystery of godliness, and therefore you 
are to look to the end of it, which is the destruction of sin. This is 
what man needeth, this is that which God ofFereth. 

[1.] This is needed by man ; we are undone for ever if sin be not 
destroyed. We may take up the church's words: Lam. v. 11, 
' The crown is fallen from our head ; woe unto us, that we have sinned ! ' 
If we had a broken-hearted sense of what we have brought upon 
ourselves by sin, we would more prize our remedy : we come to be 
saved from sin, and so by consequence from wrath and hell. And 
shall we be cold in such addresses to God, while we have so much sin 
in us? 

[2.] This is offered by God. His great intention of sending Christ 
into the world was to be ' a propitiation for our sins ; ' 1 John iv. 10, 
' Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent 
his Son to be the propitiation for our sins ; ' and therefore he set him 
forth in the gospel : Kom. iii. 24, ' Whom God hath set forth to be a 
propitiation through faith in his blood.' How is it offered ? 

(1.) It is dearly purchased, by the death of Christ ; that was the 
price paid for our ransom, which both commendeth his love Rom. v. 
8, ' But God commendeth his love to us, in that while we were yet 
sinners Christ died for us ' and assureth our confidence : Rom. viii. 
32, ' He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, 
how shall he not with him also freely give us all things ?' 

(2.) It is freely offered : Isa. Iv. 1, ' Ho every one that thirsteth, 
come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money, come ye, buy and 
eat, yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price;' 



VER. 4.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 171 

Kev. xxii. 17, ' And the Spirit and the bride say, Come, and let him 
that heareth say, Come, and let him that is athirst come ; and whoso 
ever will, let him take the water of life freely.' These blessings come 
freely to you, though they cost Christ dear. 

(3.) It is surely sealed arid conveyed to every penitent believer ; for 
God by deed and instrument reacheth out to every believer the body 
and blood of our crucified Saviour, or the benefits of Christ's death. 
To others it is a nullity ; the whole duty is lost to them who regard 
iniquity in their hearts. Therefore resolve without any reservation to 
devote yourselves to God, always to watch and strive against sin. 



SERMON III. 

TJierefore we are buried ivith him by baptism into death ; tliat like as 
Christ ivas raised up from the dead by the glory oftlie Fatlier, 
even so iue also should walk in newness of life. ROM. VI. 4. 

THE words are a proof that we are baptized into Christ's death. The 
apostle proveth it by explaining the rites of baptism. The ancient 
manner of baptism was to dip the parties baptized, and as it were to 
bury them under water for a while ; and. if baptism hath the figure of a 
burial, but with a hope to rise again, then it signifieth two things 
Christ's death and resurrection, the one directly and formally, the other 
by consequence ; and our communion with him in both : ' Therefore 
we are buried with him in baptism/ &c. 
In the words the apostle speaketh 

1. Of something directly and primarily signified in baptism, ' We 
are buried with him,' &c. 

2. Of something by just consequence and inference thence, ' That 
like as,' &c. 

1. That which is primarily and directly signified in baptism, ' We 
are buried with him in baptism into his death.' The like expression 
you have, Col. ii. 12, ' Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye 
are risen with him.' The putting the baptized person into the water 
denoteth and proclaimeth the burial of Christ, and we by submitting to 
it are baptized with him, or profess to be dead to sin ; for none but the 
dead are buried. So that it signifieth Christ's death for sin, and our 
dying unto sin. You will say, If the rite hath this signification and 
use, why is it not retained ? I answer Christianity lieth not in cere 
monies ; the principal thing in baptism is the washing away of sin : 
Acts xxii. 16, ' Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins ;' that 
may be done by pouring on of water as well as dipping. Other things 
were used about baptism then, as the stripping themselves of their 
clothes, even to stark nakedness ; whence came the notions of putting 
off and putting on so frequently used : Eph. iv. 22, 24, ' That ye put 
off concerning the former conversation the old man ;' and Col. iii. 9, 
10, ' Seeing ye have put off the old man with his deeds, and have put 
on the new man,' &c. ;' Gal. iii. 27, 'As many of you as have been 
baptized into Christ have put on Christ' Now none rigorously urge 



172 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. III. 

the continuance of these ceremonies; as long as the substance is 
retained, we may not quarrel about the manner. 

2. That which was signified with just consequence and inference 
is ' our conforming to Christ's resurrection.' Baptism referreth to this 
also as a significant emblem, for the going out of the water is a kind 
of resurrection, so it signifieth Christ's resurrection and ours. Now, 
our resurrection is double to the life of grace spoken of here, and 
called the first resurrection, or to the life of glory ; baptism relateth to 
that also, 1 Cor. xv. 29, ' Else what shall they do who are baptized for 
the dead ? ' Baptism is a putting in and taking out of the water, or a 
being buried with a hope to rise. The former is intended here, our 
rising to the life of grace. All this abundantly proveth that those 
which are dead to sin cannot live any longer therein. 

In the latter clause the pattern of Christ's resurrection is first pro 
pounded, then applied, the protasis, trie apodosis. 

1. The protasis, or the proposal of the pattern, ' Like as Christ was 
raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father.' 

2. The conformity, or similitude on our part, ' Even so we should 
walk in the newness of life.' 

First, In the pattern propounded you may observe two things : 

1. Christ's state after his burial, ' He was raised up from the dead.' 

2. The efficient cause, ' By the glory of the Father ; ; that is, by his 
glorious power, as it is explained, 2 Cor. xiii. 4, ' He was crucified 
through weakness, but he liveth by the power of God ; ' and elsewhere 
by ' the glory of God,' is meant ' his power/ So John xi. 40, ' If thou 
wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God,' that is, his 
power in raising Lazarus to life. The agreement to this purpose is 
observable of Eph. iii. 16, ' That he would grant you according to the 
riches of his glory to be strengthened with all might ; ' with Col. i. 11, 
' Strengthened with all might according to his glorious power.' And 
this power doth effect that great change in us. which fits us for the 
new life ; as Eph. i. 19, 20, ' And what is the exceeding greatness of 
his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his 
mighty power, which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him 
from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly 
places ; ' Col. ii. 12, ' Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are 
risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath 
raised him from the dead.' It is the mighty operation of God that 
beginneth this life in us ; the same power raiseth. us first to a new life, 
then to a glorious eternity. 

Secondly, The apodosis, wherein it is applied, 'Even so we also 
should walk in newness of life.' The similitude holdeth good in these 
things : 

1. As the resurrection of Christ followed his death, so doth newness 
of life our death to sin. 

2. As Christ was raised to a blessed immortal life by the glorious 
power of the Father, so are we renewed and quickened by the same 
power. 

3. The effect of the new birth is mentioned ; our walking in new 
ness of life, rather than regeneration or the new birth itself, which yet 
is signified by baptism, and Christ's resurrection is the pattern and 



VER. 4.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 173 

cause of. The similitude holdeth good in the power, and in the new 
state of life, which supposeth such a principle. 

DocL That baptism strongly obligeth us to walk in newness of life. 

1. Let me speak of the nature of this new life. 

2. How strongly we are obliged by baptism to carry it on through 
the power of God. 

First, This newness of life, it may be considered 

1. In its foundation, which is the new birth or regeneration ; for till 
we are made new creatures we cannot live a new life : John iii. 5, 6, 
' Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into 
the kingdom of God : that which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that 
which is born of the Spirit is spirit ;' 2 Cor. v. 17, ' If any man be in 
Christ, he is a new creature : old things are passed away ; behold, all 
things are become new.' A bowl must be made round before it can 
run round ; all creatures are first made and fitted for their use before 
they can perform the operations belonging to that creature ; so a new 
being and holy nature is put into us, and we are powerfully changed 
before we can live unto God. Man's nature is not in such a condition 
as to need some reparation only, but is wholly corrupt. Therefore we 
must be born again, there must be a change of the whole man from a 
state of corruption to a state of holiness, and a principle of new life 
must be infused into us, whence flow new actions and delights. 

2. The first regeneration consists of two parts mortification and 
vivification. Mortification doth conquer the fleshly inclination to 
things present, and vivification doth quicken us to live unto God. 
There is need of both. Of mortification, that we may die to the flesh 
and to the world, for there is a seducing principle within, and a tempt 
ing object without : within there is the flesh, without the world ; we 
die to both. To the flesh : Gal. v. 24, ' They that are Christ's have 
crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts.' To the world : Gal. 
vi. 14, ' God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified to me, and I unto the 
world.' While the mind and heart is captivated to the flesh, we can 
never cease to sin. There is need of vivification, that you may live to 
God ; for the recess from the world is not enough, unless there be an 
access to God ; and therefore the immediate principles that carry us to 
God are love kindled in us by faith in Christ. For the new creature, 
being interpreted as to vivification, is nothing else but faith working 
by love. Compare Gal. v. 6, ' In- Christ Jesas neither circumcision 
nor uncircumcision availeth any thing ; but faith worketh by love,' 
with Gal. vi. 15, ' In Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircum 
cision availeth any thing, but a new creature/ These two, faith and 
love, are the principles and springs of all Christian practice and con 
versation. You are never changed till the heart be changed ; and the 
heart is never changed till the will and love be changed. Well, then, 
it is not enough to die to sin, but we must walk in newness of life ; both 
must be minded ; but we begin first at mortification, and then proceed 
to the positive duties of a new life. Holiness consists not in a mere 
forbearance of a sensual life, but principally in living to God ; the 
heart of it within is the love of God, its inclination towards him, 
delight in him, desire after him, care to please him, loathness to offend 



174 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VJ. [$ER. III. 

him ; and the expression of it without is the exercise of grace according 
to the direction of God's word. Yea, these two branches are not only 
seen at first, but every step of the new life is a dying to sin, and a 
rising to newness of life, a retiring from the world to God. 

3. As to the rule, which is the infallible revelation of God, delivered 
to the church by the prophets and apostles, comprised in the Holy 
Scriptures, and sealed by miracles and operations of the Holy Ghost, 
who was the author of them. The new creature is very inquisitive to 
know God's will : Horn. xii. 2, ' And be not conformed to this world ; 
but be you transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may 
prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God.' 
Grace is sometimes called light, and sometimes life, for there is direc 
tion in it as well as inclination. This light we have from the word 
and Spirit. In the word our duties are determined, and the new 
creature is naturally carried to the word ; it is the seed of that life it 
hath: 1 Peter i. 23, 'Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but 
incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever ;' 
and it is the rule of acting and exercising this life: Gal. vi. 16, 'As 
many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them,' &c. There is 
a cognation between the word and the renewed heart : Heb. viii. 10, 
' I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their heart ; ' 
as the stamp and impress answereth to the seal, or the law within to 
the law without, the law written on the heart to the law written on 
tables or in the Bible. 

4. As to the end, which is the pleasing, glorifying, and enjoying of 
God ; it is a living to God : Gal. ii. 19, ' I through the law am dead to 
the law, that I might live unto God ;' 1 Cor. x. 31, 'Whether there 
fore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God ; ' 
2 Cor. v. 9, ' Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we 
may be accepted of him.' A new life inferreth new ends and pursuits, 
the new being obligeth us ' to be to the praise of his glorious grace/ 
Eph. i. 12. 

5. The properties of it. 

[1.] It is a godly life, as beginning and ending in God, and carried 
on by those who are absolutely devoted and addicted to him : 2 Peter 
iii. 11, ' What manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation 
and godliness ?' It is called ' the life of God/ Eph. iv. 18. It is from 
God and for God ; you live by him and to him ; in others, self is the 
principle, measure, and end. 

[2.] It is a holy life, measured by the pure word of God : Ps. cxix. 
140, ' Thy word is very pure, therefore thy servant loveth it;' Rom. 
vii. 12, ' The law is holy, and the commandment is holy, and just, and 
good;' not by our own natural inclinations, or the fashions of the 
world, but God's direction : 1 Peter i. 15, ' As he which hath called 
you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation ;' Luke i. 75, 
' That we should serve him in holiness and righteousness before him, 
all the days of our lives/ The inclinations are planted in us by God's 
first work : Eph. iv. 24, ' That ye put on the new man, which after 
God is created in righteousness and true holiness.' They are directed 
by his word, all moral duties being comprised in those words, holiness 
or dedication to God, righteousness, performing our duties to men : 



VER. 4.] 



SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 



175 



Acts xxiv. 26, ' Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a con 
science void of offence toward God and toward men/ 

[3.] It is an heavenly life : Phil. iii. 20, ' Our conversation is in 
heaven.' Our great work is to prepare for everlasting life, seeking, 
rejoicing in that endless happiness we shall have with God ; a living 
for or upon the unseen everlasting happiness, as purchased for us by 
Christ, and freely given us of God. We live for it, as we seek after 
it with our utmost diligence : Acts xxvi. 7, ' Unto which promises the 
twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come.' We 
live upon it, as fetching thence all our supports, solaces, and encou 
ragements : 2 Cor. iv. 18, ' While we look not at the things which are 
seen, but at the things which are not seen ; for the things which are 
seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal.' 

Secondly, How strongly we are obliged by baptism to this kind of 
life. Baptism hath three offices, it representeth, sealeth, undertaketh ; 
it representeth as a signifying sign, sealeth as a confirming sign, under 
taketh as a bond, wherewith we bind ourselves when we submit to it. 

1. What it representeth, primarily and principally the death of 
Christ, and secondarily his resurrection, the one in order to the 
other. 

[1.] The death of Christ, which is the meritorious cause of all the 
grace and good which is communicated to us in this or any other 
sacrament or mystery of the gospel. We are told, 1 Peter ii. 14, 
' That he himself bore our own sins in his body on the tree, that we, 
being dead to sin, might be alive to righteousness.' I told you before 
that Christ's death may be considered as an instance of his love, or as 
the price paid for the blessings of the new covenant ; as an instance' 
of his love it worketh morally, as the price of our blessings meritori 
ously ; as it worketh morally and exciteth our gratitude, we should 
not go on in that course which brought these sufferings on Christ, but 
live holily, in gratitude to him, and kindness to ourselves, lest we bear 
our own sins, which are so hateful to God. This consideration we 
exclude not ; but to make this all the sense of the place, no Christian 
heart can endure ; therefore we go to the second consideration, as the 
price and ransom of our own souls, and of the blessings we stand in 
need of. He purchased grace to mortify sin, and quicken us to the 
duties of holiness, that the love of sin might be weakened in our hearts, 
and we might be quickened to live to God in the Spirit. Now, if this 
be represented in baptism, then surely it strongly obligeth us to improve 
this grace for those ends and purposes ; and that this is represented is 
evident, for in the apostle's interpretation baptism is a sort of burial ; 
and first it is a commemoration of the burial of Christ, who, when his 
soul was separated from his flesh, he was buried, his sacred body was 
laid up in the chambers of the grave. This was necessary not only in 
compliance with the types Mat. xii. 40, ' As Jonah was three days 
and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man be three 
days and three nights in the heart of the earth.' Christ was found to 
be the true Messias by his resurrection from the dead, as Jonas was 
authorised to be a true prophet of the Lord by his miraculous deliver 
ance. Prophecies of this you may see : Ps. xvi. 9, ' My flesh also shall 
rest in hope ;' Isa. liii. 9, ' He made his grave with the wicked, and 



176 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. III. 

with the rich in his death/ but also this was necessary for the con 
firmation of the reality of his death past, and the verity of his resurrec 
tion suddenly to follow. Therefore in baptism the truth of his death 
is represented as the ground of all our hopes. 

[2.] The next thing which is represented is the truth of his resur 
rection. Christ, that purchased this grace, is risen to apply it ; he is a 
saviour merito et efficacia ; his merit immediately depended on his 
death, and his power for effectual application (though mediately on 
that too) depended immediately on his resurrection ; for Christ rose on 
purpose to turn men from their iniquities : Acts iii. 26, ' God having 
raised up his Son Jesus, hath sent him to bless you, in turning away 
every one of you from his iniquities/ Christ's resurrection hath a 
twofold regard (1.) It is a pattern ; (2.) It is a pledge. 

(1.) It is a pattern of our rising from the death Of sin to newness of 
life. If Christ, that was dead and buried, rose again, and cast off the 
burden of our sins, which for our sakes he undertook, or cast off the 
form of a servant, we must not only be dead and buried, but we must 
rise also. Christ's resurrection is everywhere made a pattern of the 
new birth : 1 Peter i. 3, ' He hath begotten us to a lively hope by the 
resurrection of Christ from the dead ;' that is the influential cause and 
pattern of it. So 1 Peter iii. 21, ' The like figure whereunto even 
baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of 
the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards God), by the 
resurrection of Jesus Christ.' Anima non lavatione, sed responsione 
sancitur. The soul is dedicated to God to live a new life, not by the 
water, but by the answer to the demands of the new covenant, and this 
is by the resurrection of Christ 

(2.) As it is a pledge of his power, by which that great change is 
wrought in us : Eph. i. 19, 20, ' And what is the exceeding greatness 
of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of 
his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ when he raised him 
from the dead.' To convert souls to God there needeth a mighty 
working of efficacious power, which exceedeth all contrary power which 
might hinder and impede that work. Men by nature are averse from 
God ; the devil seeketh to detain them from him, and his powerful 
engine is the world. But now, if they are to be raised as Christ was 
raised, what can oppose this work ? So that we have not only the 
merit of his humiliation, but the power of his exaltation. And besides, 
that this power is likely to be exercised for us, we may consider that 
Christ is said to rise by his own power :. John ii. 19, ' Destroy this 
temple, and in three days I will raise it up ;' John x. 17, ' I lay down 
my life, that I may take it again ; ' and to be raised by the power of 
his Father, which noteth authority to rise again, and having fully 
done his work, upon which account he is said ' to be" brought again 
from the dead,' Heb. xiii. 20 ; and the apostle inferreth from thence, 
ver. 21, ' Being made perfect in every good work to do his will, working 
in you that which is well-pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ.' 
Now, if both these be implied in baptism, it doth mightily oblige the 
parties baptized to look after the effect of these two acts of Christ's 
mediation ; for Christians should not only believe the death and resur 
rection of Christ, but feel it : by the merit of his death and efficacy of his 



VER. 4.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 177 

resurrection we obtain this new life, and both are the causes of our 
dying to sin and living to God. 

2. What it sealeth or confirmeth. The new covenant, wherein God 
hath promised the gift of the Spirit, to renew, sanctify, and heal all 
those that enter into it. We have the grace to destroy sin by virtue 
of the death and burial of Christ, but the promises are in the new 
covenant. That the new covenant is sealed in baptism, see Mat. xxviii. 
19, 20, ' Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you ;' Mark 
xvi. 1 6, ' He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that 
belie veth not shall be damned.' Now the great promise of the new 
covenant is the Spirit to renew and cleanse the soul. Surely this is 
properly signified in baptism : John iii. 5, ' Except a man be born of 
water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.' 
And Titus iii. 5, ' According to his mercy he saved us, by the washing 
of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost.' As the body is 
washed with water without, so is the soul cleansed by the Spirit 
within ; as at the baptism of our Saviour, the descending of the Holy 
Ghost upon him was a visible pledge of what should be done after 
ward ; for at his baptism the fruit of all baptisms was visibly repre 
sented; we are admitted children of his family, as Christ was declared 
to be ' the well-beloved Son of God,' Mat. iii. 17 ; and we have the 
Spirit of his Son : Gal. iv. 6, ' Because ye are sons, God hath sent 
forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father/ As 
God promiseth ' to pour out water on him that is thirsty, and floods 
on the dry ground,' so to ' pour out his Spirit on the seed, and his 
blessing upon thy offspring,' Isa. xliv. iii. And the Spirit itself is 
figured by water : John iv. 14, ' Whosoever shall drink of the water 
that I shall give him, shall never thirst ; but the water that I shall 
give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting 
life ;' John vii. 37, ' If any 1 man thirst, let him come unto me and drink ;' 
Kev. xxii. 17, > Let him that is athirst come, and whosoever will, let 
him take the water of life freely/ Now, unless we will receive this 
grace in vain, we are bound to wait for and obey the Spirit's motions, 
either by way of restraint or excitation : Rom. viii. 13, 14, ' If ye 
through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live ; for as 
many as are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God ;' we that 
pretend to come to God for this promise of the Spirit, as in baptism 
we do : Acts ii. 38, ' Eepent, and be baptized every one of you, in the 
name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive 
the gift of the Holy Ghost.' 

3. It obligeth, as there is a kind of undertaking to show forth the 
likeness of Christ's death and resurrection by our submission to it. 
Our receiving baptism implieth two things (1.) A public and open 
profession ; (2.) A solemn bond, wherewith we bind our souls. 

[1.] A public and open profession, wherein we profess a communion 
with Christ's death and resurrection, or to die and rise with Christ. 
In the general, that baptism is an open profession ; for it is required 
as a sign of the faith that is in our hearts : Eom. x. 10, ' With the 
heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession 

VOL. XI', M 



178 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. III. 

is made unto salvation ;' and Mark xvi. 16, ' He that believeth and is 
baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be damned ;' 
Acts ii. 38, ' Kepent, and be baptized every one of you, in the name of 
Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of 
the Holy Ghost/ As circumcision was the badge of the Jewish pro 
fession, so is baptism of the profession of Christianity. Therefore the 
Jews are called circumcision, and we are called the purified people ; 
Titus ii. 14, ' Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from 
all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good 
works;' and 'those that are purged from their sins/ 2 Peter i. 9. 
And more distinctly what we profess is plain and evident in this 
ordinance ; we profess to die and rise with Christ. 

(1.) Death ; yea, in the text not only and simply to be dead, but to 
be buried with Christ. If baptism expresseth an image of burial, and 
every burial supposeth death, not only of Christ, but us, surely we are 
bound not only to die unto sin at first, but to make our mortification 
more thorough and constant ; for as burial uoteth the continuance of 
Christ's death, so should we persevere and increase in the mortification 
of sin, for burial is a continued dying to sin. We should not only 
renounce and give over all the sins of our former lives, but persevere 
in this resolution, and increase in our endeavour against sin daily. A 
Christian living in sin, and serving his lusts, is like a spectre and ghost 
arisen out of the grave. 

(2.) So for Christ's resurrection. In this ordinance we profess to 
rise again with Christ, and therefore should not only put off the old 
man, or body of sin, but have an earnest impulsion within ourselves to 
the duties of holiness, and be breathing after, and pressing on yet more 
and more to the purity and perfection of the heavenly estate : Phil. iii. 
14, ' I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God 
in Christ Jesus.' Well, then, unless those that are baptized into 
Christ change their course of life, all their profession is but an empty 
formality, a mockery, a mere nullity as to reward, not as to punish 
ment : ' Their circumcision is made uncircumcision/ Rom. iii. 25. As 
Avhen God came to reckon with his people : Jer. ix. 25, 26, ' Behold, 
the days come, saith the Lord, that I will punish the circumcised with 
the uncircumcised ; Egypt, Judah, and Edom with the children of 
Ammon and Moab, and all that are in the utmost corners, that dwell 
in the wilderness ; for all these nations are uncircumcised in flesh, 
and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.' Circum 
cision was the sign and seal of the new covenant to them, as baptism 
is to us ; they were distinguished from other nations that were without 
it, and this prerogative they stood not a little upon : Gen. xxxiv. 14, 
' We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircum 
cised, for that were a reproach unto us.' They quarrelled with Peter : 
Acts XL 3, ' Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with 
them.' Now, to cut off this presumption, God telleth them this was 
a sorry stay for them to trust to ; for he intended shortly to hold a 
visitation wherein he would proceed against wicked persons without 
difference, whether circumcised or uncircumcised, and would deal 
impartially with the one and the other, because the one were such in 



VER. 4.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 179 

heart as the others were in flesh. The outward rite is of no force and 
worth in God's account . 

[2.] It is a bond wherewith we bind our souls. It is enough to 
evidence that, because it is ' an answer to the covenant,' 1 Peter iii. 24. 
As there God undertaketh to renew and strengthen us, and give us 
grace by his almighty power, so we undertake to improve this grace, 
and to put off the old man, that we may walk in newness of life ; and 
covenant-engaging is the most solemn engaging : Ezek. xx. 37, ' I will 
cause you to pass under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of 
the covenant.' As also by analogy : Gal. v. 3, ' I testify to every man 
that is circumcised that he is a debtor to the whole law/ He obligeth 
himself to the whole economy of Moses. So by parity of reason, he 
that is baptized is a debtor to the law of faith. And so debtors is the 
word used by the apostle : Kom. viii. 12, ' Therefore, brethren, we are 
debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.' A covenant-bond is 
sacred as that of an- oath or vow. A solemn promise made to God 
hath the nature of a vow : Num. xxx. 2, ' If a man vow a vow to the 
Lord, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break 
his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth/ 
Now, if it be not performed, we violate God's ordinance, and are 
infringers of the oath sworn to Christ, and so are to be reckoned among 
the perfidious rather than the faithful. Besides, take it in the notion 
of a dedication, or consecration, or yielding ourselves to the Lord. 
Every consecration implieth an execration, whether it be formally 
expressed or no. Sometimes it is expressed : Neh. x. 29, ' They 
entered into a curse, and into an oath to walk in God's law/ Now 
see if this holds not good in the new covenant ; consider the tenor of 
it : Mark xvi. 16, ' He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, 
but he that believeth not shall be damned/ Therefore the bond of 
the covenant is a strict bond. 

Use 1. Is matter of lamentation that so many are baptized into 
Christ, and yet express so little of the fruit of his death or resurrection. 
Alas ! the rabble of nominal Christians live in defiance of the religion 
which they profess, and are angry with those that would reduce them 
to the strictness of it. They are alive to sin and dead to righteousness ; 
as if they had promised rather to continue in their sins than to renounce 
and disclaim them, and were in covenant with the devil, the world, and 
the flesh, rather than Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; as if they had 
vowed to be utterly unlike to Christ. Now, it will go ill with them in 
the judgment, worse than with heathen, because they knew better, were 
obliged to do better, had grace to do better, in offer at least. We 
laugh at the rudeness of one bred up at the plough, but are sorely 
displeased at the ill-manners of one bred in places of more refined 
conversation. The heathens were never buried with Christ in baptism, 
never professed to be dead to the world or alive to God ; but Christians 
are under a solemn engagement, and if they had the courage to set 
about their duty, would God be wanting to them ? 

Use 2. To persuade you to make conscience of your baptismal vow, 
and to observe and perform it with all good fidelity, and that in both 
parts of it. 

1. Dying to sin ; you are not only dead, but buried. Oh ! do not 



180 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. Ill- 

neglect the mortifying of your sins. You think it hard to renounce 
sensual delight and pleasure, but better lose the pleasure of the senses 
than incur the pains of hell. That is that which our Saviour teacheth 
us : Mat. v. 29, 30, ' If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast 
it from thee. For it is profitable for thee that one of thy members 
should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. 
And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off and cast it from thee/ &c. 
Literally that place cannot be taken ; no man ever yet hated his own 
flesh, nor can he lawfully hate it ; this is contrary to the sixth com 
mandment. For a man to hurt his body to prevent his sin is to run 
from one fire into another, to be guilty of murder to prevent adultery ; 
the fault is not in the eye, but in the heart : Mat. xv. 19, 'For out of 
the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, 
false witnesses, blasphemies.' If the right eye were plucked out, the 
left eye might easily transmit the temptation. Metaphorically you 
may take it for the principal members of the body of sin, beloved 
lusts. But the meaning is, it is better to be blind than damned, to 
lose their senses than lose their souls, much more to deny the pleasures 
of sense. You may say, If you allow yourselves a little liberty, the 
danger is not great ; you should say rather, The pleasure is not great, 
therefore mortify your sins. 

Motives. 

[1.] Till sins be mortified they easily break out again : 2 Peter ii. 
20, ' For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world, through 
the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again 
entangled therein and overcome,' &c. Their heart is in secret league 
with their lust, which is never thoroughly dissolved. 

[2.] Your consolations will be but small. Mortification breeds joy 
and peace, especially the mortification of a master-sin : Ps. xviii. 3, 
' I was also upright before him, and I kept myself from mine iniquity/ 
A man showeth his uprightness in mastering this sin. The dearer 
any victory over sin costs you, the sweeter will the issue be. Volun 
tarily and allowedly to commit a know T n sin, or omit a known duty, 
maketh our sincerity questionable : James iv. 17, ' Therefore to him 
that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin/ 

[3.] Crosses will be many : Hosea v. 15, ' I will go and return to 
my place, till they acknowledge their offence, and seek my face : in 
their affliction they will seek me early ;' Isa. xxvii. 9, ' By this there 
fore shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged, and this is all the fruit to 
take away his sin/ 

[4.] Doubts will be troublesome. To obey Christ a little and the 
flesh more is no true obedience, and such will have no rejoicing of 
heart : Job xx. 12-14, ' Though wickedness be sweet in his mouth, 
though he hide it under his tongue, though he spare it, and forsake it 
not, but keep it still within his mouth, yet his meat in his bowels is 
turned into poison, and becomes the gall of asps within him.' Sin 
proveth bitter and vexing till we leave it, and sinners still have a secret 
sting within. 

[5.] The heart is benumbed and stupefied: Heb. iii. 13, 'Hardened 
through the deceitfulness of sin ;' that is the sorest judgment, to 
become stupid. 



YER. 5.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 181 

2. To walk in newness of life. 

[1.] It is the most noble life the nature of man is capable of; it is 
called 'the life of God/ Eph. iv. 18. It floweth from the gracious 
presence of God dwelling in us by the Spirit, which engageth us in the 
highest designs. 

[2.] It is the most delectable life : Prov. iii. 17, ' Her ways are ways 
of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.' We live upon God as 
represented to us in a mediator, and avoid the filthiness, delusions, 
vexations of the world and the flesh. 

[3.] It is the most profitable life ; it is a preparation for and intro 
duction into eternal life : Horn. vi. 22, ' But now being made free from 
sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and 
the end everlasting life.' 



SERMON IV. 

For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, ice 
shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection. ROM. VI. 5. 

HERE the apostle proveth that continuance in sin cannot be supposed 
in them that are really and sincerely dedicated to Christ in baptism, 
from the strict union between Christ and them, and their communion 
already thereupon with him in his death. They are 'planted into 
Christ,' and particularly ' into the likeness of his death ; ' therefore the 
virtue and likeness of his resurrection is communicated to them : 
' For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we 
shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection.' 

In the words (1.) A supposition; and (2.) An inference. 

1. The supposition proceedeth on two grounds. One is taken from 
the general nature of sacraments, that they signify and seal our union 
and communion with Christ. The other from their direct and imme 
diate use, our communion with his death. 

2. The inference and consequence drawn thence, that ' we shall be 
also planted into the likeness of his resurrection.' The reason of the 
consequence is, because if we have indeed communion with Christ in 
one act, we shall have communion with him in another ; for the one 
doth but make way for the other, the death of sin for the life of holi 
ness. But what is this likeness of his death', and this likeness of his 
resurrection ? (1.) The likeness of his death hath been already 
explained to be a dying to sin and to the world, as the fuel and bait 
of sin : ' Our old man is crucified/ ver. 6 ; and ' The world is crucified 
to us, and we to it/ Gal. vi. 14. Not that we are utterly dead to all 
the motions of sin, but the reign of it is broken, its power much 
weakened. (2.) What is this likeness of his resurrection ? There is 
a twofold resurrection a resurrection to the life of grace, and to the 
life of glory. The one may be called the resurrection of the soul, the 
other the' resurrection of the body. Both are often spoken of in scripture. 
The first is spoken of here ; our being quickened when we were dead 
in trespasses and sins, and raised from the death of sin to newness of 



182 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IV, 

life, ver. 4. But though regeneration or resurrection to the life of 
grace be principally intended, yet resurrection to the life of glory is 
not altogether excluded ; for the one is the beginning of the other, and 
the other surely followeth upon it by God's promise. The joys and 
bliss of the last resurrection are the reward of those who have part in 
the first resurrection, and are raised to holiness of life. When the 
apostle had first said, Phil. iii. 10, ' That I may know him, and the 
power of his resurrection,' he presently addeth, in ver. 11, ' If by any 
means I may attain to the resurrection of the dead.' When once we 
are raised from the death of sin to the life of grace, then the benefit 
reacheth further than to anything within time ; it accompanieth a man 
till death and after death, and preserveth his dust in the grave, that 
it may be raised into a body again ; and so in body and soul we are 
made partakers of the glorious resurrection of the 1 just. So Eph. ii. 5, 
6, ' He hath quickened us together with Christ, and raised us up 
together with Christ.' The one expression signifieth our regeneration, 
the other our rising to glory. First he quickeneth us by his converting 
grace, and then glorifieth us by his rewarding grace. All that I shall 
say concerning this double resurrection may be referred to these three 
considerations : 

[1.] That both are the fruit of our union with Christ, his raising us 
to a new life, and his raising us to the life of glory : Rom. viii. 11, ' If 
the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he 
that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal 
bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.' The same Spirit that we 
received by union with Christ doth first sanctify our souls, and then 
raise our bodies. 

[2.] That the one giveth right to the other : Rom. vi. 8, ' If we be 
dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also rise with him ; ' that 
is, live with him in glory: Rom. viii. 13, 'If ye through the Spirit 
mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.' 

[3.] That when we are fully freed from sin, then we attain to the 
full resurrection. Somewhat of the fruit of sin remaineth in our bodies 
till the last day, but then is our final deliverance ; therefore it is called 
' the day of redemption,' Eph. iv. 30. Well, then, the meaning is, if 
the fruits of his death be accomplished in us, we shall be sure to partake 
of all the fruits of his resurrection. 

Doct. That union with Christ, sealed in baptism, inferreth a confor 
mity or likeness both to his death and resurrection. 

This point I will lay forth to you in these five distinct consi 
derations. 

1. That there is a strict union between Christ and believers. 

2. That this union is signified and sealed in baptism. 

3. That this union sealed in baptism inferreth a likeness or confor 
mity to Christ. 

4. That this likeness and conformity to Christ is both with respect 
to his death and resurrection. 

5. If with the one, by infallible consequence it must be with the 
other. 

First, That there is a strict union between Christ and believers. 
It is represented in scripture by many metaphors. I will look no 



VER. 5.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 183 

further than that of the text. The similitude is taken from a graff, 
which becometh one plant with the tree upon which it is engraffed, 
and draweth the sap of life and fruitfulness out of it. So we are 
united to Christ as the stock, and receive the Spirit from him, as the 
graff doth the sap from the root. The apostle's word is avpfyvToi, 
' we are planted together.' We are not so planted together as one 
tree is by another, sicut arbor inter vel juxta arbores ; thus a whole 
orchard is planted together ; but the one is planted into another, as 
the branch is into the stock and root. Trees that are planted by one 
another may be said to be planted together in regard of situation and 
place ; but a slip planted into a stock is planted together in regard of 
sustentation and influence. Once more, this being planted together is 
not in regard of time, for now some, now others are planted into it ; 
but in regard of union. All first or last are planted into Christ ; they 
do not all live together in one age, nor are they converted at one time, 
but they all live in Christ. But because similitudes do not every way 
square with the thing which they are brought to represent, let us see 
wherein this similitude of a graff is like or unlike the mystery set forth 
thereby. 

1. Let us take notice of the difference and dissimilitude! 

[1.] In ordinary engraffings the stock is base when the plant is 
noble and generous, as when the branch of a choice apple-tree is 
planted into a crab-stock. But the case is quite otherwise here ; all 
the goodness is in the stock or root ; we were ' branches of the wild 
olive-tree,' Bom. xi. 17 ; or ' the degenerate plants of a strange vine,' 
as the prophet speaketh, Jer. ii. 21. Men, when they engraff, seek out 
the choicest slips or plants, and are wont to send far and near for 
such ; but God maketh another choice of plants, wild by nature, who 
can bring forth no good fruit of themselves, and graffeth them into 
Christ the mediator, ' That they may be filled with the fruits of right 
eousness, which are by Christ Jesus to the praise and glory of God,' 
Phil. i. 11. 

[2.] Be the slip generous or base, if it be dead, the engraffing is in 
vain. Though the stock be never so lusty and growing, it cannot 
quicken a dead slip. But it is otherwise here : Eph. ii. 1 , ' And you 
that were dead in trespasses and sins, yet now hath he quickened.' 

[3.] The graff bringeth forth fruit according to its own nature and 
its own kind ; but here the graff is changed by the stock, and followeth 
the nature of the stock : ' We are made partakers of a divine nature,' 
2 Peter i. 4, and so live to God ; this fruit belongeth to the stock, and 
wholly cometh from his influence. 

2. Let us see the likeness and resemblance. 

[1.] As the branch and stock make one tree, so we that are cut off 
from our old root, and planted into Christ, become one with him : ' I 
am the vine, ye are the branches,' John xv. 5. We are one with him, 
not by way of adhesion, as ivy cleaveth to the oak, and receiveth 
nourishment from it ; but by way of insition and implantation : there 
is a closer union between the graff and the stock than there is between 
the ivy and the oak. 

[2.] In regard of influence, as plants receive moisture and juice 
from the root, so do we receive nourishment from Christ. As the 



184 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IV. 

apostle speaketh of the covenant-stock : Kom. xi. 17, ' Thou partakest 
of the root and fatness of the olive-tree ;' meaning it of the privilege 
of ordinances and means of grace, which the Gentiles did partake of 
by becoming Abraham's seed by faith. So it is true of the mediator, 
or the root and head of the renewed estate ; we partake of his fatness, 
without which we should soon die and wither : John xv. 4, ' As the 
branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, no more 
can ye, except ye abide in me.' The Spirit by the grace of the 
Kedeemeris distributed to believers, as juice to the branches, as long 
as they abide in their stock, and are not cut or broken off. It is not 
a bare imitation, but influence. 

3. The effects are life, growth, and fruitfulness. 

[1.] Life : 1 John v. 12, ' He that hath the Son hath life, and he that 
hath not the Son hath not life.' We have no life. but as planted into 
Christ, who is our root ; both the life we have and the life we hope for 
cometh from him : Gal. ii. 20, ' I am crucified with Christ : neverthe 
less I live ; yet not I, but Christ liveth in ine : and the -life which I 
now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved 
me, and gave himself for me.' 

[2.] Growth : Col. ii. 19, ' Not holding the head, from which all 
the body by joints and bands having nourishment ministered, and knit 
together, increaseth with the increase of God.' Every member doth its 
part, but the influence, whereby they increase, is from the head. Now 
our growth is either in mortification, when by degrees we get more 
strength to kill sin, or in vivification, or our rising more and more to 
newness of life. 

[3.] Fruitfulness : John xv. 5, c He that abideth in me, and I in 
him, the same bringeth forth much fruit ; ' and the wisdom that is 
from above is said to be full of good fruits, James iii. 17, that is, 
plentiful in acts of holiness, obedience, and love : to do a little good 
may be more from chance than nature. Well, then, from the whole 
we see that the power of dying to sin and walking in newness of life 
is derived from Jesus Christ, and he should have the praise of all ; for 
he merited these benefits for us, and efiecteth them in us by his Spirit, 
which we receive by virtue of union with him. 

Secondly, That this union is signified and sealed in baptism. I will 
not speak much of this, because I handled it before in another verse. 
Only let me mind you that there is a visible external professed implan 
tation into Christ, and an internal and real implantation : the one is 
by baptism, the other is by the Spirit ; both together make complete 
baptism : 1 Cor. xii. 13, ' For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one 
body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free ; and 
have been all made to drink into one Spirit/ One alone is the baptism 
of water, the other the baptism of the Spirit. The one inferreth an 
obligation, the other produceth an inclination, to die unto sin and to live 
unto God. And therefore (1.) Let us speak of baptism ; and (2.) 
Of regeneration. 

1. Of baptism, which inferreth an obligation. All those that profess 
faith in Christ, and an interest in him, are by baptism taken into the 
number of his disciples, and visibly joined into his church : Acts ii. 
41, ' Then they that gladly received his word were baptized, and the 



VER. 5.J SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 185 

same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.' 
And therefore they are bound to rise from the death of sin to the life 
of grace, and to make use of the virtue purchased by Christ's death, 
and evidenced by his resurrection, to this end and purpose, and to use 
all good endeavours to subdue sin ; and a double woe and curse shall 
befall us unless we verify and make good this vow and profession by 
our constant practice. And therefore all the members of the visible 
church are to be put in mind that they are planted into the likeness 
of his death, and engaged to walk in newness of life : 1 John ii. 6, 
4 He that saith he abide th in him, ought to walk also as he walked/ 
Not only he that abideth in him, as a real member of his mystical 
body, but he that saith he abideth in him. All that profess com 
munion with Christ, their profession bindeth them to a resemblance of 
Christ, otherwise their baptism is but a mockery, and their profession 
a dissembling and counterfeit respect to Christ's name and memory. 
It may be said to them, as Alexander said to one that bore his name, 
but was a coward, Either lay aside the name, or put on greater courage. 
So either do as Christians, or do not pretend to be Christians. 

2. As to regeneration figured by baptism. In regeneration there is 
planted in us, or put into us, a principle destructive of sin, and impul 
sive to holiness. Now the working and urging of this principle should 
not be restrained or obstructed. 

[1.] As to the destruction of sin, the checks of the new nature should 
be observed: 1 John iii. 9, ' Whosoever is born of God doth not com 
mit sin, for his seed remaineth in him, and he cannot sin, because he 
is born of God/ 

[2.J As to the perfecting of holiness, where the life of holiness is 
begun, we should give way to its operations ; and when the new nature 
would break out with operations proper to itself, we should obey these 
motions : 1 John ii. 5, ' But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is 
the love of God perfected ; ' that is, breaketh out into its consummate 
and perfect effect. So 2 Peter i. 8, ' For if these things be in you and 
abound, they make you that you shall be neither barren nor unfruitful 
in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ/ Grace in its vigour will 
put you upon fruits becoming a Christian ; this vigour should not be 
quenched, which is our internal baptism. 

Thirdly, This union sealed in baptism inferreth a likeness and con 
formity to Christ. I prove it thus : 

1. Surely we are cut off from our old stock, and planted into a new 
one to better our condition, that it may be otherwise with us in Christ 
than we were when we merely belonged to Adam. This improvement 
of our estate and condition cometh from our being planted into a new 
stock, and partaking of his virtue and influence, and that inferreth a 
likeness : 1 Cor. xv. 49, ' As we have borne the image of the earthly, 
we shall also bear the image of the heavenly/ As we grew upon our 
natural root, we were like Adam ; but when cut off and planted into a 
new root, we are made like Christ. How like Adam? Gen. v. 3, 
' Adam begat a son in his own likeness ; ' corrupt man begat a corrupt 
son, mortal man begat a mortal child. So by proportion we may 
conceive of the image of the heavenly, first made holy, then happy 
creatures. In the first we had the seed and pledge of death and cor- 



186 SERMONS UPON ROMAN'S VI. [SER. IV. 

ruption, and in the second the seed and pledge of incorruption, immor 
tality, and life. 

2. Christ was fit to be a pattern to whom all the rest of the heirs of 
promise should be conformed, for this reason, because he was the head 
of the renewed state. Primum in unoquoque genere est mensura et 
regula cceterorum the first and best in every kind is the measure and 
rule of the rest. He is a fountain of grace set up in our nature : Rom. 
viii. 29, ' He hath predestinated us to be conformed to the image of his 
Son, that he might be irpwroTOKos, the first-born among many 
brethren/ that principal new man to whom we might be conformed. 
In every case wherein one thing beareth the image and likeness of 
another, there must not only be similitude, but deduction, or a means 
of conveying that likeness. Both are in Christ, therefore Christ is set 
up as a pattern in our nature, who lived among men in the same flesh 
that we have, to teach us a life of holiness and patience, and contempt 
of the world. 

3. The sameness of the Spirit in head and members doth evidence 
this. For the Spirit worketh uniformly in both : Rom. viii. 9, ' But 
ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be the Spirit of God 
dwell in you.' The sap of the stock doth all. Now, if the stock be 
the good vine, the fruit must be as the sap is, the branches must bring 
forth grapes. Christ as the root communicateth to us not only the 
fruits and effects of his death and resurrection, but also the likeness of 
it, in a way proper for our reception. We partake of the likeness of 
the root by analogy and just proportion, and what was done to Christ 
literally is spiritually done to us. He died for sin, we die unto sin ; 
he rose to live unto God, so do we in our way here upon earth, as we 
seek his glory and do his will. 

Fourthly, That this likeness and conformity to Christ is carried on 
with respect to his death and resurrection. To clear this it is good to 
see wherein our likeness to Christ consists. He was to be a pattern to 
us in three things (1.) His graces ; (2.) His states ; (3.) The special 
acts of his mediation. 

1. His graces. There are certain graces wherein we resemble God, 
as wisdom, purity, holiness, goodness, and truth ; in these God himself 
is our pattern : Mat. v. 8, ' Be ye perfect, as your Father which is in 
heaven is perfect.' There are other graces that help us in the duties 
of subjection to God, as faith, patience, humility, self-denial, and 
obedience ; in these we cannot have the pattern from God, for God is 
over all, and subject to none, therefore in these Christ is a pattern to 
us. As, for instance, humility : Mat. xi. 29, ' Learn of me, for I am 
meek and lowly in heart.' For obedience : Heb. v. 8, ' Though he 
were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered/ 
For patience and self-denial: 1 Peter ii. 21, 23, 'Christ suffered for 
us, leaving us an example, that we should follow his steps. Who, when 
he was reviled, reviled not again ; when he suffered, he threatened not ; 
but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously.' Thus in his 
graces must we resemble him. 

2. In his states of humiliation and exaltation, wherein we must be 
content to follow him, who first suffered, and then entered into the glory 
that he spake of. His people are usually afflicted, persecuted, slandered ; 



VER. 5. SERMONS UPON KOMANS vr. 187 

now they must suffer all for the hopes of a better life, because therein 
they do but ' follow the captain of their salvation, who was made perfect 
through sufferings,' Heb. ii. 10 ; ' And if we suffer with him, we shall 
also be glorified together/ Kom. viii. 17. So 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12, ' If we 
be dead with him, we shall also live with him ; if we suffer, we shall 
also reign with him ;' 2 Cor. iv. 10, ' Always bearing about in the body 
the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made 
manifest in our mortal flesh.' And in many other places, where 
Christ's pattern is urged to bespeak our patience and encourage our 
hopes, that we may bear his cross after him, with a hope of those 
endless joys which our Eedeemer now possesseth. He first ' endured 
the shame/ Heb. xii. 2, and was misrepresented in the world as we 
are, but at length was vindicated, being mightily ' declared to be the 
Son of God with power/ 

3. In the special acts of his mediation, which are his death and 
resurrection. These are of special consideration; for these are not 
barely a pattern propounded to our imitation, but have a great influ 
ence upon our dying to sin and living to holiness. To clear this, let 
me note to you that effects of grace in us are ascribed to those acts of 
Christ's mediation which carry most correspondence with them. Thus 
our mortification is referred to Christ's dying, and our vivification to 
his resurrection unto life, our heavenly-mindedness to his ascension ; 
so that all Christ's acts are spiritually verified in us. We die to sin 
as Christ died for sin, and rise again to newness of life as Christ, 
rising from the dead, liveth a new kind of life to what he did before. 
Let us a little state the dependence of the one upon the other. Our 
acts depend on Christ four ways (1.) As the effect on the cause ; (2.) 
As the thing purchased on the price ; (3.) As the copy on the pattern ; 
(4.) As the thing promised on the pledge thereof. 

[1.] As the effect on the cause. By the same virtue by which 
Christ was raised from the dead, by the same almighty power are we 
raised to newness of life; the same almighty power is engaged for 
working grace, and carrying on grace, and perfecting grace, in believers, 
which wrought in Christ when he was raised from the dead : Eph. i. 
19, 20, ' According to the working of his mighty power, which he 
wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead ; ' compared with 
Eom. vi. 4, ' Like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory 
of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.' 

[2.] As the thing purchased on the price. All Christ's actions have 
an aspect on his merit. The foundation was laid in his death. This 
resurrection evidenceth that this purchase holdeth good in heaven, and 
that his merit, ransom, and satisfaction are perfect : Kom. iv. 25, ' Who 
was delivered for our offences, and rose again for our justification/ 

[3.] As the copy on the pattern or original. Christ dying and rising 
in our nature is a pattern to which all the heirs of promise must be 
conformed, as the apostle telleth us, 1 Cor. xv. 23, ' First Christ, then 
they that are Christ's/ 

[4.] As a thing promised on the pledge thereof. Christ dying is a 
pledge of our dying to sin ; and his rising a pledge of our rising to 
holiness first, and glory afterwards ; therefore our old man is said to 
be ' crucified with him/ Eom. vi. 6, and we are said to ' sit down with 



188 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IV. 

him in heavenly places,' Eph. ii. 6. It is already done in the mystery, 
arid shall be surely done in the effectual application in all that belong 
to God. 

Fifthly, If there be a likeness to his death, by infallible consequence 
there shall be a likeness to his resurrection. Those that are dead with 
Christ shall also live with him: Gal. ii. 20, 'I am crucified with 
Christ, nevertheless I live.' Where sin is mortified, there is a new 
life engendered, which will at length end in the life of glory. It must 
needs be so for these reasons : 

1. Christ is not divided; those that really partake with him in one 
act, partake with him in all ; it is a necessary consequence. The death 
of sin and the life of holiness are the two branches wherein we profess 
our communion with Christ in his death and resurrection, and there 
fore these cannot be sundered ; we must reckon upon both, or else we 
have neither: Horn. vi. 11, ' Likewise reckon ye yourselves also to be 
dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our 
Lord.' In our dying to sin Christ's dying is conspicuous in us, and his 
resurrection in our walking in newness of life ; as it was with him, so 
must it be with us. 

2. God doth not love to leave his work imperfect. Now imperfect 
it would be, if, besides ceasing to do evil, we should not learn to do 
well : Amos v. 14, ' Seek good, and not evil, that you may live;' and 
again, ver. 1 5, ' Hate the evil, and love the good.' Their affection to 
good must be evidenced by their cordial detestation of evil, and their 
hatred of evil must kindle their affection to good. This is perfect 
Christianity. It is said of the foolish builder, that ' he began, and was 
not able to make an end/ Luke xiv. 30. Our conversion is complete 
when there is a turning from sin to God. 

3. That the temper of our hearts may carry a meet proportion with 
the divine grace. Duty is the correlate of mercy. Now grace and 
mercy are not only privative, but positive : Gen. xv. 1, ' I am thy 
shield, and thy exceeding great reward ;' Ps. Ixxxiv. 11, ' The Lord 
God is a sun and shield ; the Lord will give grace and glory ; no 
good thing will he withhold from them that walk uprightly.' So 
the godly man is described, Ps. i. 1 , 2, ' Blessed is the man that walketh 
not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, 
nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. But his delight is in the law ol 
the Lord, and in that law doth he meditate day and night.' There is 
not only an abstinence from gross sins, but an earnest love to God and 
his ways : Kom. viii. 1, ' Who walk not after the flesh, but after the 
Spirit' 

4. This is the end of mortification. God subdueth sin to make way 
for the life of grace: 1 Peter ii. 24, ' That we, being dead to sin, 
should live unto righteousness/ Dying to sin is made a step to the 
life o righteousness. So Heb. ix. 14, ' How much more shall the 
blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without 
spot to God, purge your consciences from dead works to serve the 
living God ?' We are hereby freed from clogs and impediments. 

;5. Sin is the better mortified when life is introduced ; for the love 
of God doth most engage us to hate evil : Ps. xcvii. 10, ' Ye that love 
the Lord hate evil.' Life is sensible of what is contrary to it. 



VER. 5.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 189 

Use 1. Information. It informeth us of divers truths. 

1. Except a man be turned from sin to holiness, he is not made a 
partaker of Christ; and therefore, while he lives in sin, cannot be 
justified, or have any right to pardon : he that continueth to live in 
his sins shall die in his sins, and miserable shall his portion be for ever. 
Well, then, be persuaded, if we would have the comfort of Christ's 
death, we must be changed into the likeness of it. 

2. How much it concerneth every Christian to be cautious and 
watchful. For he is to remember this within himself, I am to repre 
sent Christ's rising and dying ; the death of sin must answer the death 
of Christ, and the new life his resurrection. Now, is Christ's dying 
and rising seen in us ? We were never implanted into him, unless it 
be so. Therefore, unless we will declare to the world that we have no 
union with Christ, we must endeavour after holiness. What maketh 
so many atheists in the world, but because so few Christians discover 
the fruit of their baptism ? They live as if they were wholly alive to 
sin and the world, and dead to righteousness. 

3. That they have not yet attained to true Christianity that content 
themselves with abstaining from gross sins, but make no conscience of 
loving, serving, pleasing and glorifying God, or preparation for the 
world to come. They do no man wrong, but have no care of com 
munion with God. Paul could say, e'/iol TO tfiv Xpia-Tos, ' To me to 
live is Christ,' Phil. i. 21, meaning, that he had no other object and 
employment for his life but Christ and his service. But these wholly 
live to themselves ; a true Christian can say, Bom. xiv. 7, 8, ' None of 
us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. For whether we 
live, we live unto the Lord ; and whether we die, we die unto the 
Lord ; whether we live therefore or die, we are the Lord's.' 

Use 2. Is exhortation, to press you 

1. To die unto sin. All that profess themselves Christians are by 
obligation dead. Oh ! do not keep it alive after you have undertaken 
its death ; charge your consciences with your baptismal vow. Besides, 
Christ hath purchased grace enough for the subduing and mortifying 
of sin, and we have engaged ourselves to improve this grace. The 
ordinances call upon us every day to do it yet more and more, the word 
and sacraments, with the dispensations of which there go some motions 
of the Holy Ghost : Neh. ix. 20, ' Thou gavest them also thy good 
Spirit to instruct and teach them.' Oh ! quench not his motions, dis 
obey not the sanctifying Spirit. If this grace hath taken hold of your 
hearts in any sort, and you are affected with the offers of it, you are 
bound to improve it the more : Col. iii. 3, ' For ye are dead ; ' ver. 5, 
' Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth/ You 
are dead by vow and covenant, dead by grace offered, dead by grace 
received. Habitual mortification maketh way for actual. Habitual 
mortification is when the heart is turned from sin, so that it is turned 
against it. Actual mortification consists in the resisting and suppres 
sing its motions : Horn. viii. 13, 'If ye through the Spirit mortify the 
deeds of the body, ye shall live.' Once more, none are in such a 
dangerous condition as those who have begun the work, and then give 
it over : 2 Peter ii. 20, ' For if after they have escaped the pollutions 
of the world, through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus 



190 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SEP.. IV. 

Christ, they are again entangled therein and overcome, the latter end 
is worse with them than the beginning/ Those that fall from a 
common work make their condition more uncomfortable. For real 
believers the reign of sin is broken, its strength and power much 
weakened by grace, but still it is working and stirring : Gal. v. 17, 
' The flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh, 
and these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the 
things that ye would do ; ' Eom. vii. 23, ' I see another law in my 
members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into 
captivity to the law of sin that is in my members.' Therefore still you 
must take care of this work. 

Means. 

[1.] Be sensible of the evil of sin. When once we begin to make 
light of sin, we lie ready for a temptation. God doth not make little 
reckoning of sin ; Christ's death showeth it : Eom. viii. 3, ' What the 
law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending 
his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin 
in the flesh/ Infants' death showeth it : Eom. v. 14, ' Nevertheless 
death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned 
after the similitude of Adam's transgression/ The punishment of the 
wicked showeth it : Eom. ii. 9, ' Tribulation and anguish upon every 
soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile/ 
The smart of God's children showeth it : Prov. xi. 31, ' Behold the 
righteous shall be recompensed in the earth'; much more the wicked 
and the sinner/ 

[2.] Earnestly resolve against it in the strength of Christ : 1 Peter 
iv. 1, ' Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, 
arm yourselves likewise with the same mind ; for he that hath suffered 
in the flesh hath ceased from sin/ The mind is hereby fortified. 
Christ's dying engageth them to it. Christ hath suffered for it, and 
we are bound to subdue the flesh, and deny the pleasures of it. 

[3.] Seriously endeavour against it, according to the advantages the 
Spirit giveth you. A conscientious atterider on the ordinances of God 
hath many motions and helps. 

2. To walk in newness of life, or to express the likeness of Christ's 
resurrection. The spiritual resurrection is described (1.) By the 
cause of it : John v. 25, ' The hour is coming, and now is, when the 
dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall 
live ; ' in the spiritual sense that power was already executed by him, 
in raising sinners out of the grave of sin, for he saith, ' It now is/ It 
is the voice of Christ awakens, as, ' Lazarus, come forth/ Do not then 
delay ; do not say, It is too soon : Heb. iii. 15, ' To-day, if ye will hear 
his voice, harden not your "hearts/ (2.) The nature of it ; as to the 
first grace : Eph. v. 14, ' Awake thou that sleepest, arise from the dead, 
and Christ shall give thee light ; ' awake as a man out of his wine. 
As to the progress of it : 1 Cor. xv. 34, ' Awake to righteousness, and 
sin not/ Eouse up yourselves out of this drowsy condition of sin to a 
lively exercise of grace. (3.) The tendency and end of it: Col. iii. 1, 
' If ye then be risen with Christ, seek the things that are above, where 
Christ sitteth at the right hand of God/ 



VEIL 6.] SEHMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 191 



SERMON V. 

Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of 
sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. 
EOM. VI. 6. 

IN this verse the apostle explaineth how we are planted into the like 
ness of Christ's death, ' Knowing this, that our old man is crucified 
with him,' &c. 

In the words 

First, A truth represented, ' That our old man is crucified with him.' 

Secondly, The manner of applying and improving this truth. 

For the former branch 

1. Christ's undertaking, ' Our old man is crucified with him.' 

2. The fruit and end of it, ' That the body of sin might be destroyed.' 

3. The obligation lying upon us,.' That we might no longer serve 
sin/ Or, 

[1.] What Christ doth, he was crucified, and our old man crucified 
with him. 

[2.] What the Spirit doth, ' That the body of sin might be destroyed ; ' 
that is, the reign of it broken, the power of it weakened yet more and 
more, acts prevented, habits cast off. 

[3.] What we must do, ' That henceforth we may not serve sin.' 

Doct. That the reign of sin would be sooner broken if we did 
seriously consider and believe the great end of Christ's death and 
undertaking on the cross. 

This will appear (1.) By explaining the several branches of the 
text ; (2.) Giving reasons. 

first, In the explication take notice of the truth represented, which 
is expressed in three branches 

First, What Christ doth, or his intention and undertaking on the 
cross, ' Our old man is crucified with him.' Where observe 

1. That sin within us is called an ' old man/ partly because it is 
born and bred with us ; it had its rise from Adam's fall, and is ever 
since conveyed from father to son unto all who are descended from 
Adam: Kom. v. 12, 'Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the 
world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men, for that all 
have sinned; ' Ps. li. 5, ' Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin 
did my mother conceive me.' Partly because this natural corruption, 
which we inherit from the first man, is opposite to that new man which 
cousisteth in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness : Eph. iv. 22, 
24, ' That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, 
which is corrupt, according to the deceitful lusts : And that ye put on 
the new man, which after Grod is created in righteousness and true 
holiness ; ' and Col. iii. 9, 10, ' Seeing that ye have put off the old man 
with his deeds, and have put on the new man, which is renewed in 
knowledge, after the image of him that created him.' So that the old 
man is that perverse temper of soul which was in us, before we had 
the knowledge of Christ, or embraced him by faith. Partly because it 
is an antiquated thing, as is upon the declining hand, and hasteneth in 



192 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. V. 

the regenerate (as men in their old age) to its own ruin and destruc 
tion : 2 Cor. v. 17, ' Old things are passed away, behold all things are 
become new ; ' 1 Cor. v. 7, ' Purge out therefore the old leaven, that 
ye may be a new lump/ 

2. This old man must be crucified ; that is the kind of death which 
it must die. Sometimes the destruction of sin is called a mortifying 
of sin, that implieth a putting to death in the general, or a killing the 
love of sin in our souls ; sometimes a crucifying of sin, that showeth 
the particular kind of death we must put it to, and this for a double 
reason partly to show our conformity and likeness to Christ's 
crucifixion, partly because it expresseth the nature of the thing itself. 
The cross bringeth pain and death : so is sin weakened by godly 
sorrow, which checketh the sensual inclination. The strength and lite 
of sin lieth in a love of pleasure, and one special means to mortify it 
is godly sorrow : 2 Cor. vii. 10, ' For godly sorrow worketh repentance 
to salvation, never to be repented of.' Those that have tasted the bitter 
waters are more easily induced to forsake all known sin. Well, then, 
sin must be crucified. A man fastened to the cross suffereth great pain, 
his strength wasteth, and his life droppeth out with his blood by 
degrees. So sin is not subdued but by constant painful endeavours ; 
not by feeding the flesh with carnal delights, but by thwarting it, 
watching, striving against it, bemoaning ourselves because of it, and so 
by degrees the love of it is not only weakened, but deadened in our 
souls. If it be tedious and troublesome, nothing that hath life will be 
put to death without some struggling : we must be content to suffer in 
the flesh; Christ suffered more, and hone but ' he that hath suffered in 
the flesh ceaseth from sin,' 1 Peter iv. 1. You make it more painful 
by dealing negligently iu the business, and draw out your vexation to 
a greater length : the longer you suffer the Canaanite to live with you, 
the more doth it prove a thorn and goad in your sides. Our affec 
tion increaseth our affliction ; your trouble endeth, and your delight in- 
creaseth, as you bring your souls to a thorough resolution to quit it. 
Quam suave mihi subito factum est carere suavitatibus nugarum ! 
No delight so sincere as the contempt of vain delights. The crucified 
man's pains end when death cometh. 

This old man was crucified with Christ. This phrase and manner 
of speech is difficult, and therefore must be explained. 

[1.] That Christ was crucified for us in bonum nostrum, for our 
good, is past dispute with Christians : ' Surely he hath borne our griei's 
and carried our sorrows,' Isa. liii. 3 ; he endured the punishment which 
sin had made our due. 

[2.] That he stood before the tribunal of God representing us, and 
so died loco et vice omnium nostri, in the room as well as for the good 
of his people, should as little be doubted : 2 Cor. v. 14, ' For if he died 
for all, then were all dead ;' that is, in him : he died not on the cross 
as a private, but a public person. 

[3.] Christ died not only to expiate our guilt, but to take away the 
power of sin ; at least, the end of Christ's suffering and dying on the 
cross for our sins was to purchase grace that we might crucify sin, 
that is, forsake it with grief and shame : Heb. ix. 26, ' Now once in the 
end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of 



SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 



193 



himself ; ' that is, not only to expiate the guilt of our sins, but to 
abolish the power of them. He came to redeem us from the slavery of 
sin : Titus ii. 14, ' Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us 
from all iniquity.' 

[4.] As soon as we are regenerated and converted to God, there is a 
oloser application of the death of Christ ; we partake of the influence 
and fruit of his merit and purchase, and the benefit is made ours ; and 
so our old man is said to be crucified with him. The merit of his 
passion beginneth then to take place, so that every good Christian can 
ay, ' I am crucified with Christ/ Gal. ii. 20 ; our old man beginneth 
then to receive its death-wound ; so that we are not the same men 
we were before, being made partakers of the fruit of Christ's death. 

Secondly, The fruit of it, or what the Spirit is to do ; that is intimated 
in the next clause, ' That the body of sin might be destroyed.' Here 
(1.) What is meant by the body of sin ; (2.) In what sense it is 
.said to be destroyed. 

1. What is meant by the body of sin ? Ans. By the body of sin 
is meant the whole stock and mass of corruption, which is called a 
body of sin. 

[1.] Because it is composed of many sinful passions and disorders, 
as the body is of divers members : Col. ii. 11, 'In putting off the body 
of the sins of the flesh ; ' and again, Col. iii. 5, ' Mortify your mem 
bers upon the earth.' It is not meant of the natural, but sinful body ; 
for it follows, ' Fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil 
concupiscence and covetousness, which is idolatry.' 

[2.] Because they are executed by the body : Kom. vi. 12, ' Let not 
sin reign in your mortal bodies;' and Kom. viii. 13, 'If ye through 
the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.' Sin is gotten 
within us by the soul, but it hath taken possession of the body ; the 
gate of the senses let it in, and other powers of the body are as ready 
to let it out. 

2. In what sense it is said to be destroyed ? The duty is ours, but 
the grace is from God ; it is done on God's part by the Spirit, but it 
is our duty : Kom. viii. 13, 'If ye through the Spirit mortify the 
deeds of the body, ye shall live.' Both agents carry it on to such a 
degree in this life as it may not reign in us. On God's part there 
needeth no more merit to get sin destroyed but that of Christ, nor 
a greater power than that of the Spirit to subdue it : and by degrees 
the work is accomplished ; its reigning power is taken away by con 
verting grace, its very being is abolished by his final perfecting grace. 
The same Spirit that begun it at first ceaseth not to work till it be 
wholly abolished in us. On our part, we must yield up ourselves to be 
renewed by him, and obey his sanctifying motions, till our cure be 
perfectly wrought. Observe here 

[1.1 It is the whole body of sin must be quitted and put off; not 
actions only, but lusts : 1 Peter ii. 11, ' Dearly beloved, I beseech you 
as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against 
the soul.' Not some parts only and branches, but all sin. As the 
body compasseth about, and encloseth the soul, so doth the body of 
sin enclose us. The corrupt mass is made up of many sins ; it is an 
impure body that hath many members : now all these must be mortified. 

VOL. XI. N 



194 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. V. 

[2.] It must be carried on to such a degree that sin may lie 
a-dy ing. We must not cease to oppose sin till it be destroyed, not only 
scratch the face of it, but seek to root it out. Christians are said to 
destroy sin four ways : 

(1.) Proposito, in the settled purpose of their hearts, as Christ ceased 
not till he had done his work ; so a Christian : 1 Peter iv. 1, ' Foras 
much as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves 
likewise with the same mind ; for he that hath suffered in the flesh 
hath ceased from sin.' Now a work is spoken of as done when it is 
thoroughly purposed to be done ; as a fire is said to have taken a 
house when it hath only taken a little corner of the house, because 
if it be not quenched, it will in time consume all. There is a fixed 
purpose to get rid of it. 

(2.) Voto, in desire, in their constant prayer accompanied with hearty 
groans : Rom. vii. 24, ' wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ? ' Ps. cxix. 133, ' Order my steps in 
thy word, and let not any iniquity have dominion over me/ Nothing 
less will content them than a total extirpation of sin. 

(3.) Conatu, they have begun it with a mind to finish it, and are 
always thwarting and curbing the desires of corrupt nature : 1 Cor. 
ix. 27, ' I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection, lest after 
I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway.' 

(4.) Eventu, the work is not only really begun, but they have some 
success in it, and while it is a-doing, they have the comfort of it. 
The reign of sin is broken : Rom. vi. 14, ' Sin shall not have dominion 
over you ; for you are not under the law, but under grace/ They are 
somewhat enabled to prevail over it, so far that there is a manifest 
difference between them and the carnal ; whilst others cherish their 
lusts, and make provision for them, they crucify them, and are freed 
from that base servitude. 

Thirdly, What man must do, or the obligation lying upon us, ' That 
henceforth we should not serve sin/ Here observe 

1. The word ' henceforth/ We did before serve sin ; before re 
generation We were all slaves : Titus iii. 3, ' Serving divers lusts and 
pleasures/ There is a double notion of servitude intimated in scrip 
ture, and confirmed by the practice of all nations. One is of those 
that yield up themselves, by their own consent and willing subjection, 
in bondage to another, of which that text speaketh, Rom. vi. 16, 
' Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his 
servants ye are whom ye obey. These are servants by consent, that 
yield up their time and strength and life to be disposed of by another, 
to whom they have sold themselves. The other is of that slavery 
which is introduced by conquest ; as those that were taken in war 
were at the dispose of him that took them. That is spoken of, 2 Peter 
ii. 19, ' While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the 
servants of corruption ; for of whom a man is overcome, of the same 
is he brought in bondage/ The first deliver up themselves as servants 
and slaves by their own consent ; the other by conquest : for by the 
law of nature victory giveth dominion, and though men had a mind to 
do otherwise, they cannot help themselves. Both notions express the 
reign of sin, and our servitude under it, which is both voluntary and 



VER. 6.] 



SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 



195 



unavoidable ; at first it is voluntary, afterwards unavoidable ; they 
first yielded up themselves, and then are overcome by their base and 
brutish lusts, and so lose all liberty and strength of will to help them 
selves. First willingly and by our own default we run into it, and 
afterwards we are captivated, and though we are convinced of better, 
we shall do that which is worse, being overcome by our lusts. Though 
they see their duty, they are not able to perform it, they have some 
kind of remorse and trouble, but they cannot help or free themselves. 

2. Observe that the gospel looketh forward to the time to come. 
It respecteth not what believers have been before conversion and 
turning to God ; but thenceforward they must forsake their sinful 
lusts, and turn to God. So 1 Peter iv. 2, ' That he no more should 
live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the 
will of God/ Time is short, work is great, since it is not enough for 
a Christian to cut off 'one member, but the whole body of sin must be 
destroyed, and they have been too long dishonouring God, and 
destroying their own souls, and cherishing divers lusts in themselves. 
Therefore now they should more earnestly set about the mortifying 
of sin. Now, as this is an encouragement to those that have long 
been serving their base lusts and vile affections, and been eminent in 
wickedness, so it is an engagement to them to double their diligence 
for the future to serve God, by virtue of their deliverance by Christ : 
Heb. ix. 14, ' How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through 
the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your 
consciences from dead works to serve the living God?' Luke i. 74, 
75, ' That we, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, might 
serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all 
the days of our life/ If the gospel doth not look backward, surely it 
looketh forward, it obligeth us to be more assiduous and serious in the 
study of holiness after conversion, that, if it be possible, they may 
restore the Lord to his honour, reclaim those whom they have hardened 
in sin, and get their own hearts more loosened from it, since custom 
hath deeply rooted it in them. 

3. Observe the apostle saith, 'That we should not serve sin/ It is 
one thing to sin, another thing to serve sin. Though sin doth remain 
in the godly, it doth not reign in them : to serve sin is to yield willing 
obedience to it. This may be done two ways : 

[1.] When men slavishly lie down in any habit and course of sin. 
There is 17 ev Ka/cla SiaTpiftr), a way of sinning, as David, Ps. cxxxix. 
24, ' See if there be any way of wickedness in me.' David would not 
be corrupt in any of his ways. And again, Ps. cxix. 29, ' Kemove 
from me the way of lying.' Some are given to one sin, some to another ; 
some covetous, others sensual ; some proud, others brutish ; there is 
some iniquity they regard in their hearts and make much of, and 
indulge in themselves, and so grow slaves to that imperious lust. 
Now, whatever good properties we have otherwise, we must take heed 
of any one perverse habit or evil frame of spirit, lest it hamper us and 
make fools of us, and make us liable to be caught again after some 
show of escape. A beast escaped with a halter is easily caught again ; 
so this lust indulged will bring us into our old bondage. 

[2.] When we willingly indulge any presumptuous acts ; for, John 



196 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [&ER. V. 

viii. 34, ' He that committeth sin is the servant of sin.' If we allow 
ourselves to commit any one gross sin, we serve it. Other sins steal 
into the soul by degrees, but these at once; therefore we must take 
heed that we run not .wilfully into these inordinacies, and yet hope to 
escape the danger. 

Now, all this must be improved by us : TOVTO <ywu>GKovTes, ' know 
ing this.' The word signifies (1.) Knowledge ; (2.) Consideration ; 
(3.) Assent. 

1. Knowledge, understand this. This is of use here ; for ignorance 
of Christ and his gospel is a great cause of sin, whereas a sound know 
ledge produceth mortification. Ignorance causeth men to become 
brutish : 1 Peter i. 14, ' Not fashioning yourselves according to the 
former lusts in your ignorance ; ' 1 Cor. xv. 34, ' Some have not the 
knowledge of God ; I speak this to your shame.' ' On the other side, 
knowledge is a help to mortification, provided it be sound, and such a 
knowledge both for matter and manner as it ought to be. For matter, 
that it be a thorough knowledge : Eph. iv. 20-22, ' But ye have not 
so learned Christ, if so be that ye. have heard him, and been taught by 
him, as the truth is in Jesus, that ye put off concerning the former 
conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful 
lusts.' If men were thoroughly instructed in the Christian doctrine 
they could not so easily sin against God ; but a partial knowledge 
encourages our boldness in sinning. For manner, it must be lively : 
2 Peter ii. 20, ' If after they have escaped the pollutions of the world 
through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ;' John 
viii. 32, ' And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make ye 
free ;' Jer. xxxi. 19, ' After that I was instructed, I smote on my 
thigh : I was ashamed, yea, even confounded, because I did bear the 
reproach of my youth.' It is but a form of knowledge, not the lively 
light of the Spirit, which doth not break the power of our lusts. 

2. It may import consideration, and so ' knowing this' is seriously 
considering this. Many truths lie by neglected, unimproved, for want 
of consideration, and that is the cause of men's sins ; they consider not 
God's benefits : Isa. i. 3, ' The ox knows his owner, and the ass his 
master's crib ; but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider ;' 
nor his judgments : Job xxxiv. 27, ' They turned back from him, and 
would not consider his ways;' that is made the reason of their sin; 
' they consider not his ways/ that is, the ways of his providence towards 
them and others. If men did consider and ponder with themselves 
how hateful sin is to God, with what severity he will punish it, what 
obligations they have to the contrary, it would much check the fervour 
of their lusts, and they could not go on so quietly in a course of disobe 
dience against God ; but they do not seriously consider what they are 
a-doing. Above all, the death of Christ should be considered by us ; 
as, 1 Peter i. 18, 19, ' Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed 
with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversations, 
received by tradition from your fathers ; but with the precious blood 
of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.' If men 
would know, that is, ponder these things in their hearts, and discourse 
with themselves, why was so great a price given for our reconciliation, 



VER. 6.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 197 

but that sin might be destroyed, and the great makebate between God 
and us removed out of the way ? 

3. Knowing is often put for assent ; for faith is not a doubting, but 
a certain knowledge. And this enliveneth every truth. If you do 
believe that Christ came to take away every sin, you have no reason 
to cherish it. The word wouketh not till it be believed : Heb. iv. 2, 
' To us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them ; but the word 
preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that 
heard it.' But then it worketh mightily and effectually ; for it cometh 
not to us in word only, but in power : 1 Thes. ii. 13, 'Ye received it 
not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which 
effectually worketh also in you that believe.' And more particularly 
in mortification ; for it is ' faith that purifieth the heart,' Acts xv. 9. 
Where the Christian doctrine is really entertained and received by 
faith, it taketh men off from their old sins : 1 Peter i. 22, ' Seeing you 
have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit.' The 
obedience of the truth is nothing else but faith wrought in us by the 
Spirit upon the hearing of the gospel ; this produceth in us that purity 
of heart and life which becometh Christians. 

Secondly, I will give you the reasons. The death of Christ may be 
considered as it worketh morally, or as it worketh meritoriously. As 
it worketh morally, it hath a full and a sufficient force to draw us off 
from sin ; as it worketh meritoriously, it purchaseth the Spirit for us. 
As it worketh morally, it layeth a strong engagement upon us; as it 
worketh meritoriously, it giveth great encouragement to oppose and 
resist sin, and set about the mortification of it. So that the true way 
of subduing sin is by serious reflection on the death of Christ, which 
we shall consider (1.) As it is a strong engagement; (2.) As it is a 
great encouragement. 

1. As it is a strong engagement ; and there 

[1.] It is a pattern to teach us how to deny the pleasures of the 
senses. Pleasure is the great sorceress that hath bewitched all the 
world, and that which giveth strength to all temptations : James i. 14, 
' Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and 
enticed.' There is some sensitive carnal bait which first inviteth, and 
then draweth us from our duty ; and all the charms sin hath upon us, 
are by the treacherous sensual appetite, which is impatient to be crossed. 
So when another apostle speaketh of a revolt to the carnal life after 
some partial reformation, he giveth this account of it : 2 Peter ii. 20, 
' After they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the 
knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again 
entangled and overcome.' Before men be overcome by temptation, 
they are first enticed by the apprehension of some pleasure or profit 
which is to be had by their sins, by which apprehension the danger of 
committing the sin is covered and hid, as the fisher's hook is by the 
bait ; that is the metaphor there, epTrXaKev-res rjTT&vTai, lapse again 
into the slavery of the former sins, which they seemed to have escaped. 
Therefore till we are dead to the sensitive lure, and can be content to 
suffer in the flesh, and to deny the satisfactions of the animal life, we 
shall never avoid the slavery of sin, nor know that our old man is 
crucified. Now what is more powerful than the consideration of the 



108 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. V. 

death and example of Jesus Christ ? In his whole life he was a man 
of sorrows, and so taught us to contemn the world, and the pleasures 
of the flesh ; but especially at his death, when pain was poured in upon 
him by the conduit of every sense, there ' he pleased not himself,' 
Horn. xv. 3, but conquered the love of life, and all the natural content 
ments of life, that he might please God, and procure our salvation. 
Now we have not the spirit of our religion till we grow dead, not only 
to the pleasures of sin, but the natural pleasures of life, yea, life itself, 
and can submit all to God's glory. 

['2.] As it is an act of love, which should beget love in us to God 
again, which lovs will make us tender of sinning. There are many 
aggravations of sinning ; but the greatest of all is because we- sin 
against so much love as God hath showed us in our redemption by 
Christ. Sin is aggravated by the greatness of the person against 
whom it is committed, against the infinite majesty of God ; as to 
strike an inferior person is not so heinous a crime as to strike a magis 
trate or prince ; but this will not hold in all cases, for foul indignities 
and grievous wrongs offered to meaner persons are a greater offence 
than the omission of a ceremony to a prince, as if a man through 
ignorance of the customs of the court should not be bare before his 
chair of state. Therefore take in the other consideration of the infinite 
goodness and love of God towards us in Christ ; this doth exceedingly 
aggravate our sins. They are acts of unkindness : ' After such a 
deliverance as this is, -shall we again break thy commandments ? ' 
Ezra ix. 13, 14 ; after a deliverance out of Babylon, out of hell. To 
sin against the infinite goodness of a creator by eating the forbidden 
fruit, we see what mischief it brought upon mankind ; conscious of 
this transgression, the first actors hid themselves from God's presence. 
But what is it to sin against the infinite goodness of a Kedeemer, who 
came to recover us from this thraldom and bondage, and to draw us 
to himself with the cord of love ? He chose rather to suffer the 
punishment due to our sins than to suffer sin still to reign in us, whom 
he loved more dearly than his own life : Gal. ii. 20, ' Who loved me, 
and gave himself for me ; ' Kev. i. 5, ' To him that loved us, and 
washed us from our sins in his own blood/ Now, if after this mani 
festation of his love we shall still continue in sin, the heinousness of 
our offence is greatly increased. 

[3.] Christ's death is the best glass wherein to view the deadly 
nature of sin. It was so great and heinous an evil in the sight of 
God, that nothing but the blood of the Son of God could expiate it : 
Rom. viii. 3, ' For what the law could not do, in that it was weak 
through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful 
flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh.' Jesus Christ must 
come and suffer a shameful death ; this painful, shameful, accursed 
death of the Son of God showeth God's displeasure against sin, and 
what it will cost us if we allow it, and indulge it in our hearts and 
lives ; for if this be done in the green tree, what shall be done in the 
dry? 

[4.] It showeth us also what a great benefit mortification is. This 
among others was intended by him, and moved him to bear our sins 
in his body on the tree : 1 Peter ii. 24, ' Who his own self bare our 



VER. 6.-] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 199 

sins in his body on the tree, that we, being dead to sin, should live 
unto righteousness.' To remember a good turn done by a friend, and 
not to prize and value it as we ought, is rather to forget than to 
remember his friendliness. So here, if we do not prize Christ's 
benefits, we undervalue his death, and a lessening of the benefits is a 
lessening the price. Now one of the chief of them is to take away sin, 
and to break the reign of it in the heart of his renewed ones. This 
argument seemeth to be urged, 1 Peter i. 18, 19, 'Forasmuch as ye 
know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and 
gold, from your vain conversations, but with the precious blood of 
Christ,' &c. If there be a liberty purchased and bought at so dear a 
rate, and then proclaimed, and we will not accept it, it is a plain 
slighting the benefit we have by Christ. 

[5.] The sins of Christians, who profess a coinmunion with his 
death, are more criminal and scandalous than the sins of heathens. 
They never heard of the Son of God, that came to redeem them from 
their vain conversations at so high a rate as his own precious blood. 
They never were called solemnly to vow integrity of life and conversa 
tion, as a service due to that Redeemer, as is done by Christians in 
baptism. All this we believe, and this some have done, and yet dis 
obeyed our master's will. Heathens had no expectation of any 
gracious immortal reward, feared no dreadful doom nor sentence after 
death. We are hedged in within the compass of our duty both on the 
right hand and the left : on the right hand with the hopes of a most 
blessed everlasting estate ; on the left, with the fears of an endless and 
never-dying death : all which are included in our baptism, and so, if 
all be not mockery, our old man is crucified with Christ. 

[6.] A Christian's living in sin is a greater injury to Christ than the 
persecution of the Jews that crucified him, because we daily and 
hourly do that which is more against his holy will. The rule for 
measuring the greatness of our personal injury and wrong is the 
opposition which the act includeth to the will and liking of the party 
who is displeased and wronged. Well, then, which is most displeasing 
to Christ, his dying for sin, or our living in sin ? Surely his dying 
for sin, as an act of obedience to his father, or love to us, was very 
pleasing to Christ : Ps. xl. 8, ' I delight to do thy will, my God, 
yea, thy law is within my heart.' He is more willing to suffer death 
for us than to suffer us to live and die in our sins. You will say, That 
is not the case we speak of, not the submission of Christ, but the Jews' 
act. But this will not lessen the argument, if we compare the Jews' 
act with our disobedience ; that was against his human life, this is 
against his office. Now, as Christ preferred his office above his 
human and natural life, so those that neglect his office or contradict 
his office are more offensive to him than those who did wrong to his 
natural life. Therefore those that profess Christianity, and yet live 
in their sins, do more wrong to him than Judas, or Annas and 
Caiaphas, or any that had a hand in his death merely as such. They 
did wrong to Christ indeed, as Cain did to Abel when he took away 
the life of his innocent brother ; and these personal wrongs are more 
unpleasing to his holy will as the Son of God than unto the affections 
of his human nature as the son of David, as sins against God more 



200 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. V, 

than as injuries against a man. But for us, who pretend to adore and 
worship him, our crime is the more horrid, because we build those 
things again which he came to destroy, and so evacuate the fruit of 
his sufferings, and make his office of no effect, and thereby take part 
with the devil, the world, and the flesh against him. 

2. As it is a great encouragement, as Christ's death was the merit 
and price by which grace sufficient was purchased to mortify and 
subdue our old man. The work of mortification is carried on in the 
hearts of God's people by the Spirit, and the Spirit is also purchased 
by the death of Christ: Titus iii. 5, 6, 'According to his mercy he 
saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost, which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our 
Saviour ;' Gal. iii. 14, ' That the blessing of Abraham might come 
on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we 'might receive the 
promise of the Spirit through faith.' The Spirit worketh as Christ's 
Spirit, that he might be glorified by the full extent of his merit ; and 
in the use of means we may comfortably expect the virtue of Christ 
crucified. We are not obliged only, but enabled, and are convinced 
of faulty laziness and despondency; if we do not resist sin, it is a sign 
we affect our slavery. It is not want of power, but of will. 

Use 1. It informeth us that Christianity is the only true doctrine 
that teacheth us the right way of mortifying sin : ' Haman refrained 
himself,' Esther v. 10. Moral instructions cannot reach the root of 
this woful disease, so dark are our minds, so bad our hearts, so strong 
our lusts, so many are our temptations ; but the doctrine, example, 
merit, and Spirit of the Lord Jesus will do the work. 

Use 2. Direction. Let us often and seriously consider the death of 
Christ, and the great condescension of the Son of God, who came and 
suffered in our nature an accursed death to finish transgression and 
make an end of sin. As the leper was cleansed by the blood of the 
slain sparrow dropped into running water, Lev. xiv. 5, 6, this signifies 
the cleansing of us sinners by Christ, who, as the bird that was killed, 
'was put to death in the flesh,' but as the living bird 'was quickened 
by the Spirit,' 1 Peter iii. 18 ; and 2 Cor. xiii. 4, ' He was crucified 
through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God.' The dropping 
the blood of the slain sparrow into running water representeth Christ, 
'who came by water and by blood,' 1 John v. 6. Blood noteth, 
Christ's satisfaction, running water the Spirit : John iv. 14, ' The 
water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing 
up into everlasting life ;' John vii. 38, ' He that believeth on me, out 
of his belly shall flow rivers of living water/ The living bird was to 
be dipped in the blood and water, and then to be let go in the open 
field up to heaven, Lev. xiv. 8. The scaping of the bird noteth the 
resurrection of Christ ; his flying in the open field with bloody wings 
in the face of heaven, his intercession, or representation of his merit 
to God, and herein is all our confidence. 
Use 3. Caution. Let us not serve sin. 

1. See you be dispossessed of every evil habit and frame. Many 
profess obedience to God, but still retain the yoke of sin ; as Israel, de 
livered out of the house of bondage, returned in their hearts, wishing- 
themselves there again, Acts vii. 39. The league between them and 



VER. 7.] SERMONS. UPON ROMANS vi. 201 

their lusts is not fully dissolved ; so that though they forsake many 
sins, yet not all their sins ; they keep some beloved sin : Ps. xviii. 23, 
' I was also upright before him, and I kept myself from mine iniquity.' 
Herod would not part with his Herodias ; so they return like the dog 
to his vomit. 

2. See you resist actual temptations. God calleth to you, Jer. xliv. 
4, ' Oh ! do not this abominable thing that I hate.' Conscience calleth 
to you, as David's heart smote him ; it is time to stop then. Is this 
becoming your solemn vow ? Will it consist with the love of God ? 

Use 4. It puts us upon self-reflection. Do I know that my old 
man is crucified with Christ ? There is a knowledge of faith and a 
knowledge of spiritual sense. 

1. Have you experimentally felt the power of his death : Phil. iii. 
10, ' That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and 
the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his 
death. 5 Is the body of sin destroyed, or at least considerably weakened ? 

2. Whom do you serve, God or sin ? Have you changed masters ? 
Are you as free from sin as before from righteousness ? And do you 
as much for God as before for sin ? Horn. vi. 19, 20, ' As ye have 
yielded your members servants to uncleanness and to iniquity unto 
iniquity, even so now yield your members servants to righteousness 
unto holiness ; for when ye were the servants of sin, ye were free from 
rightousness/ 



SERMON VI. 
For he that is dead is freed from sin. ROM. VI. 7. 

THE words are a reason to prove what was asserted in the former 
verse. Two things were there asserted (1.) That their old man is 
crucified with Christ ; (2.) That therefore we must not serve sin. 
This the apostle proveth. This reason is taken from the analogy be 
tween death natural and death spiritual. He that is dead naturally 
is freed from the authority of those who formerly had power over him ; 
human slavery endeth with death. In the grave * the servant is free 
from his master/ Job iii. 19. Death levelleth the ranks of persons, and 
the imperious lord and master hath no more privilege than his vilest 
slave and servant. So he that is dead to sin is delivered from the power 
of sin acting formerly in him, ' For he that is dead is freed from sin.' 

In the words (1.) A subject ; (2.) A predicate. 

1. A subject, ' He that is dead/ A man may be said to be dead 
properly and naturally, or improperly and metaphorically. 

[1.] Properly and naturally, when the body is deprived of the soul : 
James ii. 26, ' The body without the spirit is dead.' 

[2.] Improperly and metaphorically, for death spiritual ; and this 
either with respect to unbelievers, who are said to be dead in sin : 
Eph. ii. 1, ' You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and 
sins ; ' and ver. 5, ' Even when we were dead in sins hath he quickened 
ns together with Christ.' And therefore, when we come out of that 



202 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. VI. 

estate, we are said ' to pass from death to life,' 1 John iii. 14 ; or, with 
respect to believers, who are dead to sin : Col. iii. 3, ' For ye are dead.' 
Keal believers are dead, not in sin, but to sin, the dominion arid reign 
of it being broken, though it be not totally subdued. This is here 
intended. 

2. The predicate, ' Is freed from sin/ The word SeSt/eaiWat, the 
vulgar hath justificatus est a peccato. Beza, with many of the ancients, 
liberatus est. Our translation hath both ; in the text, freed ; in the 
margin, justified. Whether you take one or the other word, it im- 
porteth deliverance from the yoke and dominion of sin, so as not to 
obey its motions and commands. For the apostle doth not speak here 
of the forgiveness of sin, but the abolition of its power and dominion ; 
for it is brought as a reason why those whose old man is crucified with 
Christ should not serve sin ; and the word justified -is the rattier used, 
because one justified and absolved by his judge is also released and set 
free from his bonds ; so are we. 

Doct. That freedom from sin is the consequentof our dying with Christ. 

I shall handle (1.) The nature of this freedom from sin ; (2.) 
The degree to which we attain in this life ; (3.) The value of this 
benefit ; (4.) How it is the consequent of our dying with Christ. 

First, The nature of this freedom from sin. I told you before it is 
an exemption from the dominion and reign of sin. 

1. We quit the evil disposition and temper of our souls ; we are dis 
possessed of every evil habit. Our first work is to put off the habit, 
and then the act ceaseth. The apostle telleth us, 1 Peter ii. 11, 12. 
' Dearly beloved, abstain from fleshly lusts that war against the soul, 
having your conversation honest amongst the Gentiles/ &c. In vain 
do we lop off the branches till the root be first deadened. The life 
and reign of sin lieth in the prevalency of our lusts within ; all out 
ward sins "are but acts of obedience to the reigning lust. 

2. We renounce our former course of living ; after the habits, we 
are free from the acts. We do not, and durst not to live in sin ; the 
former conversation is cast off, as well as the former lusts : Eph. iv. 
22, ' That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, 
which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.' Sin must not 
break out in our conversations ; for it is but a deceit to think we have 
quelled the lust when the acts appear as frequently and as easily as 
they did before. A change of heart will be made manifest by a 
change of conversation. So 1 Peter i. 14, ' As obedient children, not 
fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance.' 
They must not shape and mould their actions and endeavours accord 
ing to the sinful motions of their corrupt nature. So 1 Peter ii. 12, 
' Having your conversation honest.' If sin be weakened in the heart, 
the fruit of it will appear in the conversation. 

Now this freedom is expressed by a word that signifieth justification, 
and fitly 

1. Because of the nature of justification, in which there are two 
branches liberatio a poena, and acceptatio ad vitam. The punishment 
incurred by the fall is pcena damni and pcena sensus, the loss and 
the pain. Both may be considered as in this life, or the life to 
come. To begin with the highest and most dreadful part of the pun- 



VER. 7.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 203 

ishment, the loss of God's eternal and blessed presence, or the fruition 
of him in glory : Mat. xxv. 41, ' Depart, ye cursed.' The pains are 
those eternal torments which are appointed for the wicked when they 
shall fall immediately into the hands of an angry and offended God : 
Heb. x. 31, ' It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living 
God.' But in this life we must also consider the loss and pain. The 
pains are all those miseries and afflictive evils which came into the 
world by reason of sin. The loss is loss of God's image : that threat 
ening, ' Thou shalt die the death,' Gen. ii. 17, implied spiritual death 
as well as temporal and eternal. Now we are justified when we are 
freed from punishment, and among other punishments from the pun 
ishment of loss, when God giveth us the blessing which sin had de 
prived us of. As for instance, when he giveth us the sanctifying Spirit, 
this is called 'a receiving the atonement,' Eom. v. 11. We had for 
feited it by sin, and God, being pacified in Christ, doth restore it to us. 
Man brought upon himself spiritual death by sin, and the gift of the 
sanctifying Spirit is the great and first act of God's pardoning mercy, 
and a means to qualify us for other parts of pardon. Though the 
thing be plain of itself, yet to make it more clear to us 

2. Let us distinguish of the kinds of justification. There is a two 
fold justification it is either constitutive or executive. 

[1.] Constitutive justification is by the new covenant, when those 
who submit to the terms are constituted or made righteous : John v. 
24, ' He that heareth my word, and believeth in him that sent me, hath 
everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed 
from death to life.' There is God's grant, and whosoever can make 
good his claim hath a right to justification by God's own grant ; 
according to the law of grace, he is one freed from sin. 

[2.] Executive, when God accordingly taketh off' all penalties and 
evils, and giveth us all the good which belongeth to the righteous or 
justified ; as in the case in hand, when God giveth us the Spirit to 
break the power and reign of sin ; and therefore so often in scripture 
is God said to sanctify us as a God of peace, or as a God pacified and 
reconciled to us in Jesus Christ : Heb. xiii. 20, 21, ' Now the God oi 
peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great 
jshepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, 
make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you 
that which is well-pleasing in his sight ; ' 1 Thes. v. 23, ' And the very 
God of peace sanctify you wholly/ &c. ; 2 Cor. v. 18, ' And all things 
are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ.' This 
God doth as a judge, acting according to the rules of government con 
stituted in the new covenant, upon the account of the merit of Christ, 
and our actual interest in him. 

Secondly, As to the degree, how far we are freed from sin. 

1. All the justified and converted to God are freed from the reign of 
it. The flesh, though it remaineth, is made subject to the Spirit, 
which by degrees doth destroy the relics of sin ; for it is said of the 
justified : Kom. viii. 1, ' There is no condemnation to them that are in 
Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.' 

2. The more obedient we are to the motions of the sanctifying Spirit, 
the more power we have against sin : Gal. v. 18, ' If ye be led by the 



204 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. VI. 

Spirit, ye are not under the law/ under the irritating power and curse 
of it. Many sins are in a great measure left uncured as a part of our 
punishment. We should have more of his Spirit ; and so more of his 
grace to mortify sin, if we did mind more the covenant we have made 
with God as our sanctifier : but degrees of grace may be forfeited by 
our unworthy dealing with the Spirit : Eph. iv. 30, ' Grieve not the 
Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed to the day of redemption.' He 
seeketh by degrees to fit us for our everlasting estate and final deliver 
ance from all sin, and the consequence of sin : 2 Cor. v. 5, 'Now he 
that hath wrought us for the self-same thing is God, who also hath 
given to us the earnest of his Spirit.' And therefore he must not be 
obstructed in his work while he is preparing the heirs of promise afore- 
hand unto glory, lest we lose not only the comfort of our future hopes, 
but also be set back in the spiritual life, and so grieve both our sancti 
fier and our comforter. 

3. If we fall into heinous wilful sin, God manifesteth his displeasure 
against the party sinning by withdrawing his Spirit. This was the 
evil that David was so much afraid of : Ps. li. 10-12, ' Create in me a 
clean heart, and renew a right spirit within me. Cast me not away 
from thy presence, and take not thy Holy Spirit from me. Restore 
unto me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me by thy free Spirit/ 
In which expressions he desireth that God would not withdraw his 
grace and the influence of his Holy Spirit, which by that heinous sin 
he had so justly forfeited. This is the sorest judgment on this side 
hell, to be deprived of communion with God in point of grace. Though 
it may be not a total separation from his presence and grace, yet it is a 
degree of it, when God is strange to us, and suspendeth all the acts of 
his complacential love, leaving us dull and senseless, that we have no 
heart or life to anything that is spiritually good. Yea, if after such 
scandalous falls, we repent not the sooner, God may deliver us up to 
brutish lusts ; the evils are lesser and greater according to the rate of 
our sins or neglects of grace. These penal withdrawings of his Spirit 
should therefore be observed ; for God showeth much of his pleasure 
or displeasure by giving and withholding the Spirit. His blessing and 
favour is showed this way : Prov. i. 23..' Turn ye at rny reproof : be 
hold I will pour out my Spirit upon you, and I will make known my 
words unto you.' But when God is refused, or neglected, or highly 
provoked : Ps. Ixxxi. 11,12, ' My people would not hearken to my voice, 
and Israel would none of me ; so I gave them up unto their own 
hearts' lust, and they walked in their own counsels.' This is more 
than all the calamities of the world. 

4. Where the work is really begun and duly submitted unto, we 
have hopes of a better estate, it still increaseth towards that perfect 
blessedness, when we shall be ' without spot and blemish, or any such 
thing,' Eph. v. 27. What a life do God's holy ones live in heaven, 
who are wholly freed from sin ! There is no worldly mind, nor pride, 
nor passion, nor fleshly lust to trouble them. Here many wallow in 
their own dung, others are in a great measure defiled and blemished ; 
but there they are freed, not only from the reign, but being of sin. 
Hath God been so kind to them in glory ? And will he not do the 
same for us also ? There is none in heaven by the first covenant, all 



VER. 7.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS VL 205 

that are there come thither as sanctified and justified by Jesus Christ, 
and in the way of his pardoning grace. Surely since we have the same 
Redeemer, depend upon the merit of the same sacrifice, and wait for 
the same Spirit in the use of all holy means and endeavours, he will 
not be strange to us. Christ is willing if we are willing ; there you 
will find it sticketh, he came to take away sin, but we will not give way 
to his Spirit ; we are neither sensible of our sickness, nor earnest for a 
cure, at least a sound cure. We seek ease and comfort more than the 
removing of the distemper ; but if we were thoroughly willing, will 
he fail a serious soul ? It is Christ's office to expiate sin, and destroy 
it ; his blood was shed for his church for this purpose : Eph. v. 26, 
' That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by 
the word.' For the same end he intercedeth now in heaven : Heb. vii. 
25, ' Wherefore lie is able also to save them to the uttermost that come 
unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.' 
He that hath undertaken this work counteth it his honour and glory 
to perform it : Eph. v. 27, ' That he might present it to himself a 
glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but 
that it should be holy and without blemish ; ' and Jude 24, ' Now unto 
him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless 
before the presence of his glory with exceeding great joy.' It is matter 
of rejoicing not only to us, but to him. 

Thirdly, The value of the benefit ; surely it is a great mercy to be 
freed from the power of sin, and to have our enthralled souls set at 
liberty. 

1. Because sin is the cause of all the controversy and variance be 
tween God and us : Isa. lix. 2, ' Your iniquities have separated between 
you and your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he 
will not hear/ This is the abominable thing which he hateth : Jer. 
xliv. 4, ' Oh, do not that abominable thing which I hate ! ' It is sin 
that maketh the great distance between man and God, not in position 
of place, for so he is everywhere present, with bad and good ; but in 
disposition of mind and affection of heart ; it hath caused him in anger 
to withdraw his gracious presence from you. Would you not be glad to 
have the great difference between God and you compromised and takea 
up, and all enmity to cease between you and heaven ? It can never be 
till sin be mortified as well as pardoned ; for till man be converted, as 
well as God satisfied for the breach of his law, there is no due pro 
vision made for our entering into fellowship with him ; we shall stand 
aloof from him as a holy, sin-hating, and condemning God, and so have 
no heart to communion with him. 

2. It is a defacing God's image in us, and a bringing in of a contrary 
image, the image of the devil. God's image is defaced while we live 
in sin : Rom. iii. 23, ' We have all sinned, and are come short of the 
glory of God.' By the glory of God there is meant his image, not his 
glorious reward, but his glorious image ; as 1 Cor. xi. 7, ' The man 
is the image and glory of God, and the woman is the glory of the 
man ;' that is, hath some likeness of his power and majesty. Simili 
tude and likeness is often called glory. So 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We all with 
open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed 
into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the 



206 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. VI. 

Lord.' Now this is lost, which is the beauty, as sin is the deformity of 
the soul ; and on the contrary, the image of the devil is introduced 
into the soul, as we are proud, envious, revengeful : John viii. 44, ' Ye 
are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He 
was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, 
because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh 
of his own ; for he is a liar, and the father of it.' The properties of 
the devil like us much better than the excellences of God. Now, is it 
not a great mercy to be freed from this disposition and temper of 
heart, especially since image, favour, and fellowship go together ? 

3. It disableth us for God's service. While we live in sin, we are 
not only weak, but dead. Let us take the softest notion : Rom. v. 6, 
' When we were yet without strength,' &c., that is, unable to perform 
any obedience to God, sick and weak, yea, in a dangerous estate. A 
heart under the power of sin is feeble and impotent : Ezek. xvi. 30, 
' How weak is thine heart, seeing thou dost these things, the work of 
an imperious whorish woman ? ' The strength of the disease is the 
weakness of the person that suffereth it ; so the strength of sin is the 
weakness of the soul that cannot break the force of their own passions 
and affections, but are easily led away by temptations, have no 
strength left to do the will of their creator, to overcome temptations 
to sin, to govern their own passions and affections, but are at the beck 
of every foolish and hurtful lust, pride, sensuality, worldliness, carnal 
fear, sorrpw, &c. 

4. It not only disableth us for our duty, but setteth our hearts 
against it : Rom. viii. 7, ' The carnal mind is enmity against God, for 
it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.' It dis- 
liketh his government, riseth up in defiance of his strict laws, so that 
man is a perfect rebel to God. If this law be enforced by external 
messengers : Hosea iv. 4, ' Let no man strive nor reprove another, for 
this people are as they that strive with the priest.' It is to no pur 
pose to seek to reclaim them, for they would admit of no admonition ; 
for they opposed their teachers, urging not their own private sugges 
tions, but the sentence of the law of God ; slight all those that would 
oppose their growth arid continuance in sin ; are enemies to them that 
tell them the truth. So in the checks of their own consciences : Rom. 
vii. 23, ' I see another law in my members warring against the law of 
my mind, and leading me captive to the law of sin and death that is 
in my members.' Sin sets up a commanding power, in direct opposi 
tion to the dictates of conscience. So for the spirit : Gal. v. 17, ' The 
flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh, and 
these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the 
things that ye would.' Now, to be freed from this enmity and oppo 
sition to God, and averseness from all that is good, is certainly a great 
mercy, and this we have by a due improvement of the death of Christ. 

5. It is not a distant evil, but in our bowels, always present with 
us, hindering that which is good : Rom. vii. 21, ' When I would do 
good, evil is present with me ;' urging us to that which is evil ; there 
fore called, Heb. xii. 1, ' Sin that doth so easily beset us.' This inbred 
corruption is ever with us, lying down arid rising up, at home and 
abroad ; it is ready to open the door to all temptations : James i. 14, 



U. 7.J SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. 

' Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lusts and 
enticed.' It poisons all our comforts and mercies, and strengthens 
itself against God by his own benefits, while it useth them ' as an 
occasion to the flesh,' Gal. v. 13. It corrupts all our duties, distract 
ing us with vain thoughts in prayer : Mat. xv. 8, ' This people draw- 
eth nigh to me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips ; 
but their heart is far from me/ It choketh the good seed : Luke viii. 
14, ' That which fell among thorns are they which, when they have 
heard the word, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and 
pleasures of this life, and bring forth no fruit to perfection.' It makes 
our abode in the world dangerous : 2 Peter i. 4, ' Having escaped the 
corruption that is in the world through lust.' It maketh us lazy and 
negligent in our callings. It turneth our table into a snare, while we 
glut ourselves with carnal delights, and oppress our bodies, when we 
should refresh them ; and maketh us inordinate in all that we enjoy 
and do. Therefore, to get rid of such an enemy surely is a great 
mercy. 

G. Till you get rid of sin, there is a thorn in your foot, so that you 
will have no ease nor comfort till you set yourselves to destroy every 
sin of heart and life, and make it your principal care and daily busi 
ness. For if you live in wilful sin and negligence, you are unwilling 
to be delivered, and so lose all comfort of justification and hope by 
Christ. While you cherish sensual lusts, which you should mortify, 
all the promises in God's book will not yield you one dram of com 
fort, nor help you to assurance : you may complain long enough be 
fore you have ease, for this still lieth against you, ' You regard ini 
quity in your hearts/ Ps. Ixvi. 18. Conscience must be better used 
before it will speak peace to yt>u. They only that have cast off the 
yoke of sin are freed from the guilt of it ; they that give way to sin 
are not justified. Justification is opposed both to the condemnation 
of a sinner, and to the condemnation of a hypocrite. A sinner is 
justified from his sin by faith in Christ only, if his faith be sincere ; if 
he still indulge sin in his heart, and be a servant of sin, he is still 
liable to be condemned, both as a sinner and a hypocrite ; for he re 
mains a sinner still, and is a hypocrite, inasmuch as he pretends to 
that faith by which he should be justified from all his other sins, 
while he hath it not. 

Fourthly, How is it a consequent of our dying with Christ ? There 
are two sorts of men that profess communion with Christ's death 
(1.) Those that are visibly baptized into his name ; (2.) Those that 
are really converted to God ; the professed or penitent believer, or the 
nominal and real Christian. 

1. The visible professor. It is his duty to look after freedom from 
sin. All Christians do visibly profess by virtue of Christ's death to 
die unto sin ; they are dead by profession, they are dead by their bap 
tismal vow and undertaking ; but this is but in word, not in deed, in 
show, not in power, if they do not rnind these things. The careless 
Christian forgets the obligation of baptism, though he doth not re 
nounce it : 2 Peter i. 9, ' He is blind and cannot see afar off, and hath 
forgotten that he was purged from his old sins.' Christianity calleth 
him out of those pollutions that he walloweth in, and affordeth him 



208 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VI. 

great helps to avoid them ; but he undervalueth all, and is little 
affected with that pardon and life which is offered in the new cove 
nant, and which by his baptism he seemed and was esteemed to have 
a right unto ; and, as a purblind man cannot see things at a distance, 
they are so intent upon things worldly and sensual, that they forget 
the purification of their souls, or due preparation for the world to 
come. Now we cannot say de facto that such a man is actually freed 
from sin, for he is not truly dead with Christ ; but de jure, of right, 
he should mind this dying to sin, that he may no longer serve sin : he 
cannot comfortably conclude himself to be pardoned or sanctified, or 
one who is made a partaker of this grace ; it is not his privilege to be 
freed from sin, but because of his engagement to Christ it is his duty. 

2. The next sort is the real convert, or penitent believer, who is 
indeed dead with Christ ; it is both his duty and his privilege : he 
hath not only undertaken to die unto sin, and to renounce his former 
course of life, but hath seriously begun it, and by the power of the 
Spirit of Christ carrieth on this work daily ; so that by virtue of 
Christ's dying he is dead, and so really is, and is also reckoned to be 
one that is freed from the dominion of sin. So the apostle's speech 
in the text is exactly parallel with that, 1 Peter iv. 1, ' He that hath 
suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin ; ' he that is dead, that is, 
spiritually dead here, is the same with him ' that hath suffered in the 
flesh ; ' freed from sin, that is, is absolved from sin, not in regard of 
guilt but power, is the same with ' hath ceased from sin ' there ; so 
that one place doth explain another. But let me prove 

[1.] It is his duty to be cleansed from sin, or freed from the do 
minion of sin ; for it is brought to prove that he must no longer serve 
sin. 

(1.) All our communion with Christ is by the Spirit of Christ. 
Now wherever the Spirit comes to dwell, he doth infuse a principle of 
grace, which doth not only strive against sin, but conquer sin, at least 
so far as to take away the dominion of it: Gal. v. 16, 17, ' Walk in 
the spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh ; for the flesh 
lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh ; ' therefore 
they cannot serve sin as they did before. There are two principles in 
us, and accordingly there are two desires, the one proceeding from the 
flesh, the other from the spirit, which are so opposite one to another, 
that what the one liketh, the other disliketh, and whatsover you do in 
compliance with the one, you do it in opposition to the other ; but 
that which is in predominancy is the spirit, which rebuketh the 
carnal nature and principle in us. 

(2.) In our conversion to Christ there is included an aversion from 
sin ; and therefore it must not bear sway and command, and influence 
our actions, as it did formerly. It is called ' repentance from dead 
works,' Heb. vi. 1 ; not for them only, but from them. It breedeth 
not only a sorrow, but a loathing and forsaking of the sin we repent 
of. Many will say they are sorry, and do repent for sin which they 
have committed; but all kinds of sorrow do not evidence true re 
pentance : there is a sort of repenting and sorrow for sin in hell ; all 
do repent and are sorry for sin at last. When a sinner hath sucked 
out all the carnal sweet that is in sin, and the sting only is left be- 



YER. 7.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 209 

hind, no .wonder if he be troubled : this is attrition, not contrition, not 
a sorrow that ariseth from love to God, a sorrow that doth not break 
the force of sin ; they go on still, there is no change of heart or life. 

(3.) There must be a difference between a man carnal and regene 
rate ; and what is the difference, since sin remaineth in both ? The 
one serveth sin, and the other serveth God. Though we cannot do all 
that we would and ought, yet something must be done to distinguish 
you from the carnal world. Wherein do you differ ? Certainly if 
there be no difference, the godly would be ungodly, and as bad as 
others. But the difference is manifest ; and what is that difference ? 
1 John iii. 10, ' In this the children of God are manifest, and the 
children of the devil ; whosoever doth not righteousness is not of 
God.' He that doth sin is of the devil, and he that is born of God 
sinneth not, that is, not customarily, frequently, easily, as the carnal 
and ungodly do, who are carried away with every return of the temp 
tation. In short, they conquer gross sin, and are always striving 
against infirmities, and that with some effect and success. A holy 
life is the proper and genuine product of this discriminating grace. 

2. It is his privilege ; being crucified with Christ, he hath a right, and 
not a right only, but his justification is executed and applied to him 
by the gift of the sanctifying Spirit, which is the surest token of God's 
love, and the true effect of his approbation, adopting us into his 
family : Gal. iv. 6, ' Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the 
Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.' The mission 
or sending down of the Holy Ghost was the visible pledge of Christ's 
making the atonement, and the sending him into our hearts, of our 
receiving the atonement. 

The work being begun by converting grace, there is the less for 
confirming grace to do, and ' God, that hath begun a good work, will 
perform it to the day of Christ,' Phil. i. 6. He will not fail the serious 
and sincere Christian, that doth still continue to make use of his grace. 
In short, they are dead, as they entered into a solemn covenant with 
God to die unto sin, which they make conscience of ; they are dead, as 
they have a contrary principle of life within them, which they neglect 
not, but improve ; they are dead, as they often and solemnly meditate 
on Christ's death, as the price of their blessings and pattern of their 
obedience ; they are dead, as they seriously attend upon the ordinances 
of God, and all holy means which he hath appointed to communi 
cate to them the fruits of Christ's death ; and therefore the Lord 
vouchsafeth further grace, whereby they may be more and more freed 
from sin. Let a man be but serious in his Christianity, especially in 
this matter, that is, daily renew his repentance for his old sins, thank 
fulness for the pardon of them, watchfulness against the like for the 
future, and it will be no nice case to determine his condition ; he will 
soon appear to be one freed from the reign of sin. 

Use 1. To inforn> us of the intimate connection between all the 
parts and branches of the grace of the gospel. We are absolved and 
discharged from the power of sin as well as from the guilt of it. All 
will grant that justification respects the guilt of sin ; but the apostle 
telleth us here, that justification respects the power of sin also. The 
penalty was the loss of God's image as well as of his favour ; so that 

VOL. xi. o 



210 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VI. 

pardon is executed and applied when our natures are sanctified and 
healed. The privation of the Spirit being the great punishment, the 
gift of the Spirit is a great branch of our absolution, and so Christ's 
reconciling and renewing grace fairly accord and agree. 

Use 2. Direction. What we should do to be freed from sin. 
Meditate upon and improve the death of Christ, that we may be 
planted into the likeness of it : ' For he that is dead is freed from sin/ 
When we commemorate his death, we do it not only to increase our 
confidence of deliverance from the flames of hell, but to encourage and 
engage ourselves to the mortifying of sin, and to make it more hateful 
to us. What can stand before the all- conquering Spirit of Christ ? 
Certainly Christ came to renew the world, as well as to redeem it from 
the curse : Titus iii. 5, 6, ' He saved us by the washing of regeneration 
and renewing of the Holy Spirit, which he shed on us abundantly 
through Jesus Christ our Saviour.' 

Use 3. Exhortation. 

1. To be dead with Christ. All that are baptized into Christ have 
undertaken to accompany him in his death, so far as to die unto sin 
and the world. To die unto sin is under our consideration. Once let 
it receive its death-wound, the privilege is great, freedom from the 
guilt and dominion of sin, from the curse of the law, the wrath of God 
and eternal death. Let the remembrance of Christ's death breed con 
fidence in us ; thence I expect all my strength. Oh ! let us be dead to 
sin, let us never more have a favourable thought of sin, or slight 
thoughts of God's justice, or be fond and tender of the flesh (as if it 
were so great a matter to gratify it), or despair of mortifying sin more. 

2. Let us demonstrate ourselves really to be freed from the power 
of sin, and never more permit ourselves to live in it, or be acted by it. 
Who are they that demonstrate themselves to be freed from sin ? 

[1.] Those whose settled purpose is not to sin : 1 John. ii. 1, ' These 
things I write unto you that ye sin not.' A carnal man non proponit 
peccare, a renewed man proponit non peccare; a carnal man doth not 
purpose to sin, but he doth not purpose against sin ; but the godly 
purpose not to sin in good earnest. Do you loathe yourselves for past 
sins ? Are you truly desirous to get rid of sin ? Is it a benefit or 
burden Christ offereth to you ? 

[2.] They are watchful that they may not sin: Ps. xxxix. 1, 'I 
said, I will take heed to my ways, that I offend not with my tongne ; ' 
Prov. iv. 23, ' Keep thy heart with all diligence ; for out of it are the 
issues of life,' especially to watch over those corruptions and inclina 
tions which are the strongest in them. 

[3.] They are striving and endeavouring to get more victory every 
day. You must not only strive against sin, but conquer the predom 
inant love of every sin. Every man that hath a conscience may strive 
against evil before he yield to it, while he liveth in it ; but if it be 
your daily endeavour to mortify the flesh, and master its opposition to 
the Spirit, and you so far prevail as to live, walk, and be led by the 
Spirit, so that the course and drift of your life is spiritual, then do you 
demonstrate yourselves to be freed from sin. 



VER. 8.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 211 



SERMON VII. 

Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live 
with him. BOM. VI. 8. 

THE apostle now proveth the second part, that we are planted into 
the likeness of his resurrection. He proveth it as a necessary con 
sequent of the antecedent privilege, ' Now if we be dead with 
Christ,' &c. 

In the words (1.) A supposition ; (2.) The truth thence inferred ; 
(3.) The certainty of the inference. 

1. The supposition, there 

[1.] The thing supposed, ' Being dead with Christ.' What that is 
we have explained already. All that I shall now add is, that in scrip 
ture it implieth two things 

(1.) Conformity with Christ in his sufferings. So we have a saying 
like that in the text : 2 Tim. ii. 11, ' It is a faithful saying ; for if we 
be dead with him, we shall also live with him ; ' which presently is 
explained, ver. 12, ' If we suffer, we shall also reign with him.' 

(2.) It implieth mortification of sin. So it is understood here, if 
we have communion and fellowship with his death, for the mortifi 
cation of sin. 

[2.] The term of proposal, conditionally, ' If we.' The particle */ 
hath sometimes the notion of a caution : See that ye be dead with 
Christ ; sometimes it is a note of relation, when one privilege is 
deduced from another ; as here, if we partake of the effect and likeness 
of his death in dying to sin, we shall partake of the effect and likeness 
of his resurrection in being quickened to live in holiness and righteous 
ness all our days. Dying to sin, and newness of life, are inseparable ; if 
we have the first, we shall have the other also ; they are branches of 
the same work of regeneration, and both proceed from the same cause, 
union with Christ. 

2. The truth hence inferred, ' We shall also live with him.' This 
is meant both of the life of grace and of the life of glory, regeneration 
and resurrection ; the one is to newness of life, the other is to ever 
lasting bliss and happiness. Regeneration is the Spirit's begetting us 
to the image and nature of God our heavenly Father ; and resurrection 
is for the perfecting of that likeness ; which is, it is true, perfect in part 
here, in the soul : 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' We all with open face beholding as in. 
a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from 
glory to glory, as even by the Spirit of the Lord/ Hereafter both in 
body and soul : Phil. iii. 21, ' Who shall change our vile body, that it 
may be fashioned like unto his own glorious body, according to the 
wonderful working whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself/ 
As to degrees : 1 John iii. 2, ' When he shall appear we shall be like 
him, for we shall see him as he is.' As to kinds, both in holiness and 
happiness : 1 Cor. xv. 49, 'As we have borne the image of the earthy, 
we shall also bear the image of the heavenly/ Now we are conformed 
to his image in afflictions : Rom. viii. 29, ' He hath predestinated us to 
be conformed to image of his Son/ We look like him in the form of a,. 



212 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VII. 

servant, then we shall be like him as the Lord from heaven heavenly. 
Therefore the life of glory in heaven must not be excluded. 

3. The certainty of the inference, Triarevo/jbev. It is not a matter 
of opinion and conjecture, but of faith ; we are certainly persuaded of 
the truth of it. We must distinguish of this truth ; for it may be con 
sidered two ways 

[1.] As a general maxim or proposition ; so it is absolutely true, 
f Those that are dead with Christ shall live with him.' This is an 
article of faith to be believed fide divina. 

[2.] As it is applied to us, or as it is ground of our particular 
confidence ; so it is true hypothetically or upon supposition, and our 
confidence can be no greater than the evidence of our qualification : 
' If we be indeed dead with Christ, we in particular shall also live 
with him.' It is but a rational conclusion from two premises ; one of 
which is of divine revelation, the other of inward experience, namely, 
that ' I am dead with Christ,' therefore ' I believe that I shall live 
with him." It is an act both of faith and reason, an act of faith by par 
ticipation, as it buildeth on a principle of faith. 

Doct. Those that are dead with Christ have no reason to doubt but 
that they shall also live with him. 

1. I shall speak of the condition, ' If we be dead with Christ.' 

2. Of the benefit, ' They shall live/ spiritually and everlastingly. 

3. Of our certain apprehension, ' We believe.' 

First, of the presupposed condition, ' If we be dead with Christ/ 

1. Who are dead with Christ. 

2. How necessary this order is. The one will show us that it is 
not an over-strict, but a comfortable condition ; the other, that it is a 
condition absolutely necessary to subsequent grace. 

1. Who are dead with Christ ? 

[1.] Such as own the obligation which their baptism and profession 
puts upon them; that 'reckon themselves dead indeed unto sin/ Kom. 
vi. 11 ; that make account they are under a vow and bond, wherewith 
they have bound their souls. The careless mind it not ; but sincere 
Christians acknowledge that the debt lieth upon them, they being 
solemnly engaged to Christ to do it. The apostle saith, Kom. viii. 
12, * We are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh/ As the 
Jew by circumcision is bound to observe all the ritual of Moses, Gal. 
vi. 3, so Christians by baptism are bound to crucify the flesh and obey 
the Spirit. What say you ? Are you at liberty to do what you list, 
or under a strict bond and obligation to die unto sin ? Let your lives 
answer for you. 

[2.] They make conscience of it, and seriously address themselves 
to perform it : Gal. v. 24, ' They that are Christ's have crucified the 
flesh with the affections and lusts ; ' they have begun to do it, and still 
go on to do it more and more ; for this is a continued action, not the 
work of a day, but of our whole lives. They have not only retrenched 
the desires of the flesh, but seek to mortify and subdue them, and per 
form their promise so solemnly made to God. 

[3.] They obtain the effect in such a degree that the reign of sin is 
broken, though sin itself be not utterly extinct in us. They do no 
longer live in their old slavery and bondage, as those do who obey 



VER. 8.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 213 

every foolish and hurtful lust that bubbleth up in their hearts. A 
man's condition is determined by what is in the throne habitually, and 
governeth our lives and actions. There are two warring principles in 
us, full of enmity and repugnancy to each other the flesh and the 
spirit; but one reigneth, which constituteth the difference between 
the carnal and the renewed. In the carnal, flesh reigneth ; but in the 
regenerate the Spirit hath the mastery, and is superior and most 
powerful ; so that a Christian showeth himself to be spirit rather than 
flesh ; otherwise it could not be said, ' That which is born of the 
Spirit is spirit,' John iii. 6. The acts of sin are disowned acts, and 
he may say with Paul, ' It is not I, but sin that dwelleth in me.' Sin 
is against the bent and habit of our wills. 

[4.] They subtract the fuel of their lusts, as they wean themselves 
from earthly things, and show such contempt of the world that the 
good things which they enjoy by God's allowance are not a snare to 
them. For the apostle saith of those that set their affections on 
things above, and not on things on earth, ' Ye are dead, and your life 
is hid with Christ/ Col. iii. 2, 3. It is the divine and heavenly life 
which they seek to live. Well, then, here is a brief and plain descrip 
tion of those who are dead with Christ in four things (1.) They 
make conscience of their solemn vow in baptism, wherein they pro 
mised to put off the former lusts of their ignorance, and the corrupt 
conversation that flowed from them. (2.) They are busily at work in 
it, and it is their daily endeavour. (3.) They prevail so far that sin 
is a-dying, and grace groweth in strength and power. (4.) They con 
tinue faithful in that purpose ; and their savour of earthly things is 
deadened, and their hearts are still working towards God and heaven. 

2. It is a condition absolutely necessary to obtain subsequent grace. 
For 

[1.] The graces of the Spirit cannot thrive in an unmortified soul ; 
therefore then we set about our duty in the right order when we begin 
with mortification in the first place, and thence proceed to the positive 
duties of the new life. Faith will not thrive in a proud, unhumbled, 
impenitent heart : John v. 44, ' How can ye believe, which receive 
honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from 
God only ? ' Nor will the love of God ever bear sway where sensual 
and worldly love is in such strength and prevalency : 1 John ii. 15, 
' If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him.' 
Vain pleasures divert us from our great hopes, or the pleasures that 
are at God's right hand for evermore : 1 Peter i. 13, ' Be sober, and 
hope to the end.' Sobriety is a holy moderation or sparing use ot 
worldly delights ; they behave themselves as in their journey. Well, 
then, we must die before we can live in purity and holiness, and seek 
that glory which Christ now enjoyeth with God in heaven. We must 
put off our old rags before we can put on the garments of righteous 
ness. 

[2.] The longer corruption is spared it groweth the worse ; for the 
more it venteth itself by inordinate and sinful desires, the more it ac- 
quireth strength, and secures its interest more firmly in the soul. 
Every act strengtheneth the habit, and then it groweth into an invete 
rate custom : Jer. ix. 3, ' They bend their tongues for lies, but they are 



214 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. VII. 

not valiant for the truth upon the earth ; for they proceed from evil to 
evil, and they know not me, saith the Lord.' Therefore the apostle : 1 
Peter iv. 2, 3, ' That he should no longer live the rest of his time in the 
flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. For the time past 
of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, 
when we walked in licentiousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, 
banquetings and abominable idolatries.' Alas! sin is too deeply 
rooted and ingrained in our natures already, and that hindereth the 
coming on of the divine life ; either we never receive the grace of re 
generation, being so stiffened and hardened in our sins, or else it hath 
more corruption to grapple with, so that all our days there is more to do 
to keep it alive in our souls. 

[3.] Till sin be mortified, the good we pretend to is but a covering 
and hiding of our loathsome lusts: James iv. 8, ' Cleanse your hands, 
ye sinners, and purify your hearts, ye double-minded.' Many being 
taxed for their evil and inordinate life will say, they hope their hearts 
are good. If the heart were good, the life would be better ; the sinner 
must cleanse his hands. Others are plausible in their carriage, but 
their fleshly and worldly lusts were never soundly mortified, therefore 
hypocrites must cleanse their hearts. Here the operation of the 
Spirit beginneth. Our Lord saith, Mat. xxiii. 25, 26, ' Cleanse first 
that which is within the cup and the platter, that the outside may be 
clean also.' Many external acts may be counterfeited, or overruled 
and influenced by by-ends ; the purity of the outside is loathsome to 
God without the purity of the heart. Pharisees are compared to 
' whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are 
within full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness ; so ye outwardly 
appear righteous unto -men, but within are full of hypocrisy and iniquity,' 
Mat. xxiii. 27, 28. So Luke xi. 44, ' Ye are as graves which appear 
not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them ; ' not as 
a grave when new, but a grave when overgrown with grass. The Jews 
buried out of the city in the fields ; they thought themselves defiled 
by coming too near the dead. Men may be fair in outward guise and 
show, but in heart the most noisome and polluted that can be. So that 
mortification is necessarily requisite to vivification ; we must die be 
fore we can live. 

Secondly, Let me open the benefit, ' We shall also live with him.' 
Here 

1. Observe how grace is followed with grace, one part with another. 
God loveth to crown his own gifts, and we are endeared to him by his 
own mercies. So it is in the general : Zech. iii. 2, ' Is not this a brand 
plucked out of the fire ? ' But some mercies draw on other mercies, 
and are given in order to them, as mortification in order to vivification, 
grace in order to glory. God giveth the one that he may give the 
other ; he maketh one degree of grace a step to the other. 

2. Observe how grace is followed with glory, 'We shall also live 
with him.' One and the same word expresseth both ; life spiritual 
and eternal is but one life. It is good to observe how many ways the 
scripture sets forth the connection between the life of grace and the 
life of glory. Sometimes by that of the seed and crop : Gal. vi. 8, 
' He that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.' 



VER. 8.] . SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 215 

No seed no crop; now is our seed-time. Sometimes the first-fruits 
and the harvest, for the offering of the first-fruits dedicated the 
whole harvest : Kom. viii. 23, ' We ourselves, who have the first-fruits 
of the Spirit/ &c. Sometimes to the fountain and the stream, or the 
river losing itself in the ocean : John iv. 14, ' He that shall drink of 
the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst ; but the water that 
I shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up into 
everlasting life.' Sometimes of the pledge and earnest with respect to 
full and actual possession : 2 Cor. i. 22, ' Who hath also sealed us, 
and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.' Sometimes to the 
beginning and accomplishment, or the degree with the top and height. 
Life is begun by the Spirit, and perfected in heaven. There is a 
mighty suitableness between life spiritual and eternal : John xvii. 3, 
' This is life eternal, to know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ 
whom thou hast sent.' The life of grace consisteth in knowing and 
loving God, and the life of glory is the everlasting vision and perfect 
love of God. Now we are changed by the sight of faith : 2 Cor. iii. 18, 
' We all with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, 
are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the 
Spirit of the Lord ; ' then we shall be changed by the beatifical vision : 
1 John iii. 2, ' When he shall appear we shall be like him, for we shall 
see him as he is.' Our life here and life there is but one life, begun 
here, and perfected there ; here are manifold imperfections, but there 
is complete blessedness. Sometimes as the morning to high noon, or 
light of the perfect day : Prov. iv. 18, ' The path of the just is as the 
shining light, that shineth more and more to the perfect day ; ' here 
the day breaks, but it is but a little. Sometimes to a man and a child : 
1 Cor. xiii. 10-12, ' But when that which is perfect is come, that which 
is in part shall be done away. When I was a child I spake as a child, 
I understood as a child, I thought as a child ; but when I became a 
man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass 
darkly, but then face to face ; now I know in part, but then shall I 
know even as also I am known.' As it is in the change of ages, so is 
it between this and the other life. Now all these things show both 
the sameness of the life, and also the necessity of one degree of grace 
to another. 

3. Observe how fitly this is mentioned as a help to mortification ; 
we should sweeten the tediousness and trouble of the work by thinking 
of the life that will ensue. 

[1.] The life of grace. Conscience calleth upon you for your duty 
to your creator ; and lust hindereth it. Now is it not a great advan 
tage to have a vital principle to incline us to God ? By the life of 
grace we are enabled in some measure to do what is pleasing in his 
sight : Heb. xii. 28, ' Let us have grace whereby we may serve God 
acceptably, with reverence and godly fear.' Set about mortification, 
and you shall have this grace. This should be a great consolation to 
us, who are so often vexed with guilty fears because of the neglect of 
our duty. 

[2.] The life of glory. Pleasures, honours, and profits seem great 
matters to a carnal heart, and can do much till you put heaven in the 
balance against them ; as Moses did, Heb. xi. 26, ' Esteeming the 



216 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VII. 

reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt, for he 
had respect unto the recompense of reward;' he looked off from 
one object to another. Alas ! when we think of this life, all that we 
enjoy here is nothing, and should do nothing upon us to gain us from 
God and our duty to him. We should have such thoughts within 
ourselves. Shall I take these pleasures instead of my birthright? 
For this preferment shall I sell my part in heaven ? Shall I cast 
away my soul for this sensual delight ? The devil usually prevaileth 
over men when heaven is forgotten and out of sight. Sure the baptismal 
vow and engagement hath little hold upon us : 2 Peter i. 9, ' He is 
blind and cannot see afar off, and hath forgotten that he was purged 
from his old sins/ These things are fitly coupled. 

[4.] Observe how we have all with Christ ; we die with him, and 
we live with him. As we mortify sin by virtue of that grace which he 
purchased for us by his death, so we hold heaven by his gift, or the 
grant of that covenant which he hath confirmed by his blood. His 
dying is the pattern of our mortification, and his life of our happiness 
and glory. If by his example we first learn to die unto sin, according 
to his pattern and example we shall have a joyful resurrection to eternal 
life, for still we fare as Christ fared. He would not be a pattern to us 
only in his worst estate, but in his best also ; we shall be partakers of 
the same glory which Christ hath at the right hand of the Father, and 
as we shall live eternally so we shall eternally praise our Redeemer, who 
deriveth influence to us all along, both in dying and rising. 

Thirdly, The certain apprehension we have of this, ' We believe/ 
Here I shall handle (1.) The necessity of this faith ; (2.) The grounds 
of it ; (3.) The profit of believing this. 

1. The necessity of believing. 

[1.] This life is not matter of sense, but of faith, whether you take 
it for the life of grace, or the life of glory. 

(1.) The life of grace. If you consider the nature of it, which is of 
the order of things spiritual, and men that judge according to things 
of sense see no glory in it : 1 Cor. ii. 14, ' The natural man receiveth 
not the things of the Spirit, for they are foolishness to him, neither can 
he know them, because they are spiritually discerned/ Alas ! the rich 
preparations of grace, which God hath made for us in the gospel, a 
carnal heart hath no savour for them nor value and esteem of them, 
is nothing moved with the tender 'and offer; we must have a higher 
light to see these things. Besides, .the new nature is hidden under 
manifold infirmities and afflictions.: Col. iii. 3, ' Your life is hid with 
Christ in God ;' and 1 John iii. 2, ' It doth not yet appear what we 
shall be/ Once more, it is God's gift, and a matter full of difficulty 
for them to apprehend that are sensible of their own vileness, and are 
daily conflicting with so many lusts ; that they should be quickened 
and enabled to live to God is a matter which they cannot easily believe : 
' Shall these dead bones live ? Lord ! thou knowest/ Ezek. xxxvii. 3. 
It is a hard matter to persuade them that have a great sense of the 
power of their bewitching lusts that they shall ever overcome. 

(2.) For the life of glory, that is also a matter of faith, because it is 
a thing future, unseen, and to be enjoyed in another world : ' Now 



VER. 8.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 217 

faith is the substance of things not seen, and the evidence of things 
hoped for,' Heb. xi. 1. 

[2.] The person, office, and power of our Kedeemer are all mystical 
truths : John xi. 25, 26, ' I am the resurrection and the life ; he that 
believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live ; and whosoever 
liveth and believeth in me shall never die: believest thou this ?' that 
Christ is able to raise the dead to life again now or hereafter. 

[3.] The matter is difficult to be believed, that after worms have 
consumed this flesh it shall be raised again in glory, and at length 
reign with Christ for ever. Therefore Abraham's faith is so often 
propounded to the faithful, ' who considered not his own body now 
dead, nor yet the deadness of Sarah's womb/ Kom. iv. 19 ; and the 
apostle showeth us that such a kind of faith shall be ' imputed to us 
for righteousness,' ver. 24, who believe Christ's resurrection, and then 
ours. All this showeth the necessity of faith in this case. 

2. The grounds of believing this blessed estate, which is reserved for 
the mortified. 

[1.] The infinite love of God, which prepared these mercies for us : 
Luke xii. 32, ' Fear not, little flock ; it is your Father's good pleasure 
to give you a kingdom ;' and 1 Cor. ii. 9, ' Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of man the things which 
God hath prepared for them that love him ;' Mat. xxv. 34, ' Come, 
ye blessed of my Father, inherit a kingdom prepared for you from 
the foundation of the world.' God prepared this glory for us, and by 
degrees traineth us up for it. 

[2.] The everlasting merit of Christ : Heb. ix. 15, ' For this cause he 
is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death for the 
redemption of transgressions that were under the first testament, they 
which are called might receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.' 
It is by his means that we are redeemed from the guilt and power of 
sin, and have an eternal inheritance stated upon us. It behoved Christ, 
for the honour of the divine government, by the intervention of his 
merit and intercession, to satisfy God's justice, and acquire unto us 
those things which love and mercy had prepared for us, and among 
other things that blessed and glorious estate which is to be enjoyed 
upon the resurrection. This is made sure to the heirs of promise by 
the death of Christ, which is of everlasting merit, called therefore, ver. 
12, ' everlasting redemption.' 

[3.] The almighty power of the sanctifying Spirit both to change 
the soul and raise the body. To change the soul, which is made an 
act of omni potency : 2 Peter i. 3, ' According as his divine power hath 
given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through 
the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue.' There 
fore it is often compared to creation, which is a making things out of 
nothing. To raise the body, as he did Christ's : Kom. i. 4, ' And 
declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of 
holiness, by the resurrection from the dead ; ' and will raise the bodies 
of the faithful, in whom he once dwelled : Eom. viii. 11, ' He that 
raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies 
by his Spirit that dwelleth in you ;' Phil. iii. 21, ' Who shall also 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious 



218 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VII. 

body, according to the wonderful working whereby he is able even to 
subdue all things to himself.' 

[4.] The immutable covenant or promises of the gospel, which always 
stand firm and stable : 2 Cor. i. 20, ' For all the promises of God in 
him are Yea, and in him Amen ; ' Heb. vi. 18, ' That by two immut 
able things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have 
strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold on the hope 
that is set before us.' Hope is put for the thing hoped for, that is, the 
glorious estate which is reserved in heaven to be enjoyed there ; this 
hope ' is set before us ' in the promises, as the prize which we must 
seek after and the blessedness we must aim at. We ' lay hold upon 
it ' when we consent to God's offer, and we ' fly for refuge ' to take 
hold of this hope ; for it is our sanctuary and safety, as the city of 
refuge was to him that was pursued by the avenger of blood. This is 
ground of strong consolation in all fears, troubles, and sorrows, in the 
midst of the infelicities of this life. This consolation is secured by 
'two immutable things,' God's promise and oath, which are as un 
changeable as his nature; these cannot fail or frustrate our hopes; 
these give us security of enjoying what we hope, or receiving the reward 
promised to us. 

[5.] The unquestionable right of the mortified, or those that are dead 
with Christ. There is nothing wanting but the clearing up of our 
right and title. Now the Christian faith proposeth and showeth much 
good to them as real members of Christ's mystical body : Kom. viii. 13, 
' If ye through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live ; ' 
and till this be done the whole design of grace is at a stand ; we can 
not upon other terms expect everlasting blessedness from Christ. 

3. The profit of believing. 

[1.] It strengthens our reason, and helps it to maintain its authority 
and government against sense and appetite. Eeason is a middle 
faculty, that standeth between things above and things below, and it 
may be either debased by sense or elevated by faith. The one is easy, 
because corrupt nature carrieth us to things pleasing to sense, which 
are near at hand, and carry a great suitableness to our fancies and 
appetites. The other is difficult, because it dependeth on supernatural 
grace, for the Spirit's illumination is necessary to faith : 1 Cor. ii. 12, 
' Now we have received, not the spirit which is of the world, but the 
Spirit which is of God, that we may know the things that are freely 
given to us of God.' Therefore here lieth the benefit we have by faith, 
to take us off from the life of sense, and to mortify the desires of the 
flesh, which the nearness of things sensible is apt to irritate and stir 
up in us. 

[2.] The more we believe the stronger and greater is our consola 
tion ; as, for instance, our comfort under crosses is more abounding : 
2 Cor. iv. 14, ' Knowing that he which raised up the Lord Jesus, shall 
raise us up also by Jesus ; ' 2 Cor. iv. 18, ' While we look not to the 
things which are seen, but to the things which are not seen ; for the 
things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen 
are eternal.' Our courage against death is more strong : 1 Thes. iv. 
18, ' We shall ever be with the Lord.' Our diligence in duties is more 
unwearied : 1 Cor. xv. 58, ' Wherefore, my beloved brethren, be ye 



VER. 8.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 219 

stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, for 
asmuch as you know that your labour shall not be in vain in the 
Lord/ 

Use. Let us now improve these things that we have been delivering 
to you. 

1. Let us make great conscience of the first part of our duty, ' If we 
be dead unto sin.' See that the work of regeneration be once begun. 
The first virtue we receive from Christ is ' the likeness of his death ; ' 
that will make way for other things. Christ is dead ; let us be dead 
with him, that to us he may not die in vain. And when it is once 
begun, let it be carried on to a further increase ; adhere still to Christ's 
dying, and persevere both in your diligence and your dependence. 
Diligence ; do not give over your endeavours of mortifying sin till it 
be quite gone. Dependence ; that you wait for the power of his Spirit, 
which his death merited for us. 

2. As to life, let us encourage ourselves with the hope of it ; the 
same grace that hath begun will also finish the work, when we are 
prepared by living the life spiritual in the midst of conflicts and temp 
tations. Therefore, while you are studying to please God, wait for it 

[1.] With patience. Christ after his resurrection was not presently 
glorified ; there must be a time to wean us from worldly happiness : 
' To make us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in 
light/ Col. i. 12 ; ' Vessels of mercy which he had afore prepared unto 
glory/ Kom. ix. 23. In time you shall be delivered ; see that you have 
the beginning and first-fruits, and that you daily grow in grace. 

[2.] With earnest longing : Kom. vii. 23, ' wretched man that I 
am ! who shall deliver me from this body of death ? ' 2 Cor. V: 2, ' In 
this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house 
which is from heaven/ 

3. As to faith. 

[1.] Fix it, and be at a greater certainty against all doubts and 
fears, not only as to your interest, but the truth of the promise of 
eternal life. These doubts may stand with a sincere faith, but not a 
confirmed faith ; we have much of the unbeliever in our bosoms. 
Venture all your happiness temporal and spiritual upon this security. 

[2.] Improve it ; it is the work of faith to overcome the world and 
the flesh : 1 John v. 4, 5, ' This is the victory that overcometh the 
world, even our faith. Who is he that overcometh the world, but he 
that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God ? ' to overrule our sense 
and appetite, and to teach us to make nothing of all that would dis 
suade us against our heavenly interest : Acts xx. 24, ' But none of these 
things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I 
might finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received 
of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God/ This is 
the true mortification. 



220 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. VIII. 



SERMON VIII. 

Knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth no more; 
death hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he 
died unto sin once ; but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. 
EOM. VI. 9, 10. 

THAT I may the better explain the drift of these words, let us take the 
apostle's method along with us. His intent is to prevent an abuse of 
the doctrine of the gospel, which publisheth the free grace of God to 
sinners : ' Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.' From 
hence some did infer that therefore under the gospel they might take 
liberty to sin ; the more their sins were, and the greater they were, the 
more they should occasion God to manifest the abundance of his grace 
upon them. The apostle answereth this 

1. By way of detestation : ' Shall we continue in sin that grace may 
abound ? God forbid ! ' 

2. By way of confutation. The argument by which he confuteth it 
is our baptismal vow and engagement : ' How shall they that are dead 
to sin live any longer therein?' To clear this, he explaineth our 
baptismal vow in the two branches of it, dying to sin, and living to 
righteousness; the one direct, and the other consequential. Directly, 
' We are baptized into the death of Christ,' ver. 2, but so as that ' we 
also rise again to newness of life,' ver. 4, 5, for we are united to Christ 
as dying and rising, and we are by virtue of the union to express a 
conformity to both : ver. 5, ' For if we have been planted together in 
the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resur 
rection.' He proveth the former part, ver. 6, 7, ' Knowing this, that 
our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be 
destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin, for he that is dead is 
freed from sin.' The latter he begins to prove, ver. 8, ' If we be dead 
with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him.' How live 
with him ? As our spiritual death was answerable to the death of 
Christ, so our spiritual life must be answerable to his resurrection from 
the dead ; as we have a copy and pattern for the mortifying sin in his 
death, so we have also a copy and pattern for newness of life in his 
resurrection ; and therefore we do not in vain believe that we shall live 
spiritually and eternally with him : ' Knowing that Christ, being raised 
from the dead, dieth no more ; death hath no more dominion over him. 
For in that he died, he died unto sin once, but in that he liveth, he 
liveth unto God.' 

The better to state the analogy and proportion between Christ's 
resurrection and our rising to the life of grace first and then of glory 
afterward, the life of Christ after his resurrection is set forth by two 
things (1.) The perpetuity or immortality of it ; (2.) The perfection 
and blessedness of it. 

First, The perpetuity and immortality of it is delivered in three 
expressions 

1. Actual dying again is denied: 'Christ, being raised from the 
dead, dieth no more.' Christ's resurrection was not a return to a single 



VKRS. 9, 10.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 221 

act of life, or life for a while, to show himself to the world, and no 
more ; but to an immortal endless estate. 

2. His further liableness or subjection to death is denied : ' Death 
hath no more dominion over him.' That is thus expressed for two 
reasons 

[1.] Death had once dominion over Christ; when he gave up him 
self to die for us, he for a while permitted, yea, subjected himself to 
the power of it; but Christ overcame death, and put an end to its 
power by his resurrection : Acts ii. 24, ' Whom God raised up, having 
loosed the pains of death, because it was impossible that he should be 
holden of it' 

[2.] To show that Christ died not only to expiate sin, but to take 
away the dominion and power of it in believers ; therefore it is said, 
' Death hath no more dominion over him,' he took away sin, by which 
death reigneth ; he did enough both as to the satisfying God's justice 
and our deliverance. 

3. Any further need of his dying again is denied : ' In that he died, 
he died unto sin once ; ' that is, he hath done his work ; his death 
needeth not to be repeated ; he died to sin once, not in regard of him 
self, for in him was no sin, but as charged with the sins of his people ; 
he sufficiently took away sin, both as to guilt and power. 

Secondly, The perfection and blessedness of his life is intimated: 
' In that he liveth, he liveth unto God.' This expression may imply 
either the holiness of his life in heaven, or the blessedness of it. 

1. The holiness. When Christ was raised from death to life again, 
he liveth to God wholly, seeketh to promote his glory in the world ; he 
liveth with God and to God ; with God, as he is set down at the right 
hand of majesty, and administereth the mediatorial kingdom for his 
glory, as indeed God hath a great deal of honour from Christ as 
mediator: Phil. ii. 11, 'That every tongue should confess that Jesus 
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.' 

2. The blessedness of it. Christ always lived to God, even before 
his death : John viii. 29, ' And he that sent me is with me. The 
Father hath not left me alone, but I do always those things that please 
him/ Why, then, is he said after his resurrection to live to God? 
Ans. As freed from our infirmities; he liveth a glorious life : Luke 
xx. 28, ' He is not the God of the dead, but of the living ; for all live 
to him ;' though they do not live to the world, they live to God. 
Those that are departed out of this world have another life ; the souls 
of the just are already in the hands of God, and their bodies are sure 
to be raised up at the last day. So Christ liveth to God. 

Doct. That the due consideration of Christ's being raised from the 
dead doth mightily promote the spiritual life in us. 

This will be evident if we consider what advantage we have by 
Christ's resurrection. 

1. It evidenceth the verity of Christian religion, and that Christ was 
no deceiver, for his resurrection is a sufficient attestation to the dignity 
of his person and offices : Eom. i. 4, ' Declared to be the Son of God 
with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by his resurrection 
from the dead ;' Acts xvii. 31, ' He hath appointed a day in which he 
will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath 



222 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. VIII. 

ordained, whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he 
hath raised him from the dead/ This is a strong and undeniable 
argument that Christ is the Son of God, the saviour and judge of the 
world. Where lieth the force of the argument ? Christ died in the 
judgment and repute of the world as a malefactor ; but God justified 
him. when he would not leave him under the power of death, but raised 
him up, and assumed him unto glory, thereby visibly declaring unto 
the world that the world was mistaken in him, that he was indeed 
what he gave out himself to be, the Son of God, and the judge of the 
world, to whom is given power ovqr all flesh, either to save or destroy 
them, according to his covenant. This argument suppose th 

[1.] That there is a God, sufficiently represented to us by other 
means. 

[2.] That whatsoever exceedeth the power of nature, or course of 
second causes, is done by this God. 

[3.] Among all the miracles, this of raising a dead man to life is the 
greatest ; the cure of a disease is not so much. 

[4.] That if this be done to a person unjustly accused and condemned 
in the world, it is a justification of his cause before all the world, and 
a sure mark of divine testimony. 

[5.] The cause between Jesus Christ and those that condemned him 
was, that he made himself to be the Son of God, and saviour and 
judge of the world ; this he evidenceth himself, and this was preached 
by his disciples. Surely the supreme and just governor of the world 
would not justify a cheat and imposture, and so far permit the devil to 
deceive in his name as to change the course and order of nature, and 
so far directly to work against it as to raise a man from the dead. Now 
it is a mighty advantage to the advancement of the spiritual life to be 
sure of the religion that requireth it at our hands, much of it being 
against the inclination of corrupt nature ; for then there is no tergiver 
sation or excuse, as if our rule were uncertain, or that we did trouble 
ourselves more than needeth us of absolute necessity. 

2. It showeth us the perfection of his satisfaction ; there needeth no 
other sacrifice to abolish sin ; for it is said in the text, ' In that he 
died, he died unto sin once,' and elsewhere the unity of the mediator 
and the sacrifice is pleaded to show the perfection of it. The unity of 
the mediator : 1 Tim. ii. 5, ' There is one mediator between God and 
man, the man Christ Jesus;' and Heb. x. 14, 'By one offering he 
hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified ; ' and Heb. ix. 28, 
' Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many/ The ground of 
this argument standeth thus : That Christ came to take away sin, the 
benefit which the world needeth. Either he hath done it sufficiently, 
or not done it ; if sufficiently, we have 1 what we desire ; if not, it must 
be either because other mediators were necessary to supply his defects. 
But where are they ? Who can challenge this honour as authorised 
by God, and recommended to the world as Christ was ? Or what can 
they do beyond what he hath done ? No ; there is but one mediator. 
Or else because another sacrifice or offering was necessary, because 
this could not attain its end, then Christ needed again to undergo 
death ; for the single sacrifice did not the work, which was the taking 
away of sin. But this was enough to ransom all souls ; no other 



VERS. 9, 10.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 223 

propitiatory sacrifice was necessary. Why, how doth it appear ? By 
the resurrection ; for when Christ was raised from the dead, our surety 
and mediator (which were the qualities he took upon himself) was let 
out of prison, and dismissed, as having done what he undertook : 
Isa. liii. 8, ' He shall be taken from prison and from judgment.' The 
debtor may have confidence the debt is cancelled when the surety is 
let out of prison and walketh freely abroad. When Christ is risen 
from the dead, and advanced to a glorious condition, surely his merit 
is full enough, and he hath a perfect release and discharge, as having 
done his work, and needeth no more to come under the power of death, 
which is a great encouragement to us to set about the destruction of 
sin. Christ hath paid a full ransom to purchase grace to make our 
endeavours effectual. 

3. It is a visible demonstration of the truth of the resurrection and 
life to come. For Christ, who would be an example to us of all pain 
ful and self-denying obedience, would also be a pattern of the glory 
and felicity that should ensue. Therefore, after a life of holiness and 
sufferings, he died and rose again, and entered into the glory that he 
spake of, which is a great encouragement to us to follow his steps ; 
for all this is a pledge of what shall be done in us. It is said, 1 Peter 
i. 21, ' That God raised him from the dead and gave him glory, that 
our faith and hope might be in God.' The resurrection of Christ, 
and the consequent honour and glory put upon him, is the great prop 
and foundation of our faith and hope. Certainly it much concerneth 
us to believe the truth of the resurrection and the reality of the unseen 
glory, else all holiness, patience, self-denial, and practical godliness 
would fall to the ground. Now, when our teacher, who hath told us 
of these things, hath given sufficient evidence of the truth of them in 
his own person, by his own rising from the dead, and his own ascend 
ing into glory, it helpeth mightily to silence the objections of unbelief. 
The thing is not incredible nor impossible. Christ in our nature did 
arise from the dead, and ascend up into heaven ; nay, it is not only 
possible, but certain ; for Christ is risen and entered into glory as our 
forerunner, Heb. vi. 20, to make the way accessible to us, and to 
seize upon it in the name and right of all true believers, and secure a 
landing-place for them after the storm of this world is over. When 
ever they die, their place is ready for them, there is a friend on shore 
ready to receive them. So elsewhere : 1 Cor. xv. 20, ' Christ is risen 
as the first-fruits.' His resurrection is a certain proof that other men 
shall have a resurrection also, as by a handful of the first-fruits the 
whole harvest was blessed and consecrated to God. The first-fruits 
did not bless the tares, the cockle or the darnel, or the filthy weeds 
that grew among the corn, these are not carried home into God's barn ; 
but penitent believers may be confident of a joyful resurrection. If 
we be reconciled by his death, we may much more expect to be saved 
by his life. 

4. Christ by his resurrection is the cause of our life ; for Christ 
liveth in heaven as a quickening head, who will give the spirit of 
grace to all his members, to change their hearts, and to bring them 
into the life of God : John xiv. 19, ' Because I live, ye shall live also.' 
Christ is the fountain of all life. The life of believers is derived from 



224 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. VIII. 

the life of Christ, without which it could not subsist. If he had 
remained under a state of death, he were not in a capacity to convey 
life to others, and so had neither been a fountain of grace or glory to 
us ; therefore his resurrection is the fountain -cause of our living to 
God ; having first purchased grace for us, he is risen to apply it, and 
bring us into possession of it. Therefore he sendeth his Spirit into the 
hearts of his people, even that same Spirit by which he was raised up 
to a new life : Rev. i. 18, ' I am he that liveth and was dead, and 
behold I am alive for evermore.' He liveth for ever to make and keep 
us alive. Now this is a mighty encouragement to us, that we live by 
virtue of Christ's endless life. When the fountain faileth, the stream 
may be dried up, but that cannot be, and therefore we are encouraged 
to expect our supplies from him. 

5. Christ's life after his resurrection is a pattern of ours, both as to 
the immortality and perfection of it. 

[1.] The immortality. Christ, when he rose again, rose to an 
eternal immortal life. He shall die no more ; he is no more obnoxious 
to death. The phrases that express the immortality of Christ's life 
are suited to our case, that he may the better be propounded as a 
pattern to us, both of what we ought to endeavour ourselves, and of 
what his Spirit doth work in us. 

(1.) Being raised, he dieth no more. We should once so fix and 
settle our hearts to live to God that we should no more return to our 
old course and our old bondage. There are some who are always 
dying, and rising, and dying again, that return to their old sins, and 
lick up their vomit, and after they are washed wallow in the mire. 
These never died in good earnest, for then they would so die unto sin 
once as not to revert to it any more ; but to be repenting of sin, and 
committing of sin, and then repenting and committing again, showeth 
our mortification is not sincere. A bone often broken in the same 
place is very hard to be set again. Relapses make our case to be 
more dangerous ; if it be into open sinful courses, it showeth our 
repentance is not sincere. Men are sick of sin ; but when that trouble 
is over, they presently are as bad as they were before : Prov. xxiv. 11, 
' As a dog returneth to his vomit, so a fool returneth to his folly.' 
Their hearts were never changed, their renounced sins and fleshly 
practices are as dear to them as ever. True repentance will produce 
a constant perseverance in well-doing ; but if the unclean spirit 
returneth, after it seemed to be cast out, Luke xi. 24, we never parted 
in good earnest. Was your repentance sincere, and will you taste of 
the bitter waters again ? Indeed we must distinguish of relapses. 

(1st.) As to the degrees of sin, there are infirmities which we can 
not avoid while we are in the body ; and there are iniquities which we 
can and ought to avoid. A man that is troubled with vain and 
distracting thoughts in prayer may be troubled again, but of gross and 
wilful sins we never soundly repented if we cease not from them, fnaa-- 
fjiara Kocrpnv, ' the pollutions of the world,' spoken of 2 Peter ii. 20. 
Doth a man repent of his uncleanness that often faileth into it, as 
often as the occasion returneth ? So again 

(2d.) As to !he seasons of sinning, we must distinguish between the 
acts repeated before any repentance professed or after. An issue 



VERS. 9, 10.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vr. 225 

when it is new made, before the orifice of the wound be well closed, 
may bleed afresh after it is bound up. So before we are thoroughly 
recovered, sin will be breaking out ; as in Lot's double incest ; Samson's 
returning often to Delilah, when God had rebuked him for his sin ; 
Peter's treble denials ; his heart was not thoroughly touched and 
moulded as yet ; this was as one continued sin. 

(3d.) As to the manner of the return, if it be frequently, readily, 
easily, this will infer a habit ; for a habit serveth ut quis facile, 
iucunde, constanter agat. Now though some sins solicit us more 
than others, yet uprightness requireth that we should keep ourselves 
from our iniquity : Ps. xviii. 23, ' I was also upright before him, and 
I kept myself from my iniquity/ So that repentance which consists 
only in sorrow for sin, and such trouble for it as doth not mortify it, 
is but like thawing a little in the sunshine, or giving weather, soft at 
top and hard at bottom. True repentance is a thorough change of 
heart and life ; therefore to repent and go on still in our trespasses is 
no sound repentance. 

(2.) Death hath no dominion over him ; so should not sin have over 
us. After all our care sin will be troublesome, but it must be kept 
out of the throne. If men forsake not known wilful sins, they are 
wicked men ; sin reigneth, and the power of it is no way broken ; 
therefore let it not have dominion, so as to draw you to a sensual life, 
or command your thoughts and affections, or ingross your time and 
strength : Ps. xix. 13, ' Keep back thy servant also from presump 
tuous sins ; let them not have dominion over me, so shall I be upright 
and free from the great transgression.' As to the merit, there needeth 
not another sacrifice ; and to the conveyance and making over the 
blessings of the gospel, there needeth not another covenant. So as to 
the application, there needeth not another regeneration or total con 
version unto God ; as also our baptism, which is the sign of it, needeth 
not to be repeated or reiterated, though the acts of our faith and 
repentance need often to be repeated. For all known sins it is expressly 
required ; for sins of ignorance and lesser escapes, they are pardoned 
of course, and as they are retracted in a general repentance. Well, 
then, let us so rise to newness of life as never to return to our old sins 
again, at least let them not have dominion over us. Baptism is the 
sacrament of our regeneration and implanting into Christ, and recep 
tion into God's family ; and as we are born but once, so we are but 
once new-born. Being once received into God's family, we are never 
cast out thence : being once adopted into the number of his children, 
we are never disinherited. No ; ' The gifts and calling of God are 
without repentance/ Kom. xi. 29. 

[2.] As to the perfection and blessedness of it, ' In that he liveth, 
he liveth unto God.' This is 

(1.) A pattern and copy of the spiritual life here upon earth. 

(2.) A pledge and assurance of our glorious life in heaven. The 
one is our duty, the other is our reward. 

(1.) The spiritual life is a living to God, as Christ liveth with God 
and to God. As mediator he liveth with God, is set down at his 
right hand ; so should we live in communion with God, be much and 
often in company with him ; in our whole course we should always 

VOL, XI, P 



226 SERMONS UFON BOMANS VI [SER. VIII. 

set him before us, walking as in his eye and presence : Ps. xvi. 8, ' I 
have set the Lord always before me.' It is his law we live by, in his 
presence we stand, his work we do, his glory we seek ; for our great 
end is the pleasing and glorifying of God : Gal. ii. 19, ' For I through 
the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God ; ' Rom. xiv. 
7, 8, ' For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself ; 
for whether we live, we live unto the Lord, and whether we die, we 
die unto the Lord ; whether we live therefore or die, we are the 
Lord's.' Christ gave us a pattern of a holy, obedient, and heavenly 
life in his conversation here on earth ; and in heaven we must still 
write after his copy ; we must be Christ's, as Christ is God's, and then 
all things are ours : 1 Cor. iii. 23, ' All are yours, for you are Christ's, 
and Christ is God's/ Wholly devote your time and strength and service 
to him. God must be your solace and your strength, and your begin 
ning, end, way and all. When you awake, you should be still with 
him, Ps. cxxxix. 18 ; all the day long you should keep in his eye : 
Prov. xxiii. 17, ' Be thou in the fear of the Lord all the day long.' 
In all your actions, your intention must be to please and glorify him : 
3 Cor. x. 31, ' Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye 
do, do all to the glory of God.' 

(2.) Our glorious life in heaven ; that is a living unto God indeed, 
for there we have nothing else to mind but God. We are admitted 
before the throne of his glory, to be with him for evermore. Now, if 
Christ be there, we shall be there also ; for if we follow him, we shall 
fare as he fared : John xii. 26, ' Where I am, there shall my servant be ; ' 
John xvii. 24, ' Father, I will that those also whom thou hast given 
me may be with me where I am.' So John xiv. 3, ' If I go and pre 
pare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself, 
that where I am there ye may be also.' Our Saviour desireth to have 
the faithful in heaven with himself ; it is a thing which his heart is 
set upon ; and he presents the efficacy of his merits and obedience to 
this end and purpose, that the great work of the restitution of lost 
man may obtain its end and effect, and his mystical body may be 
brought together to one place, that they may ever laud and praise 
and glorify God. Many in the world cannot endure the presence and 
company of the saints; Christ cannot be in heaven without them. 
Now the spiritual life issuing itself into the heavenly is a great 
encouragement to us to go on in our duty and obedience. 

Use. Let us often and seriously think of him ' who died for our 
offences, and rose again for our justification,' Kom. iv. 25, and im 
prove it 

1. For the destruction of sin. Christ died that he might destroy sin, 
and take away sin. If he had not fully done his work, he could not 
rise again, or, if risen, he needed to return once more to die. But 
Christ dieth no more ; death hath no more dominion over him. By 
raising up Christ, God showeth that he received the death of his Son 
as a sufficient ransom for our sins, and all that believe in him shall 
have the comfort of it. If he had remained in death, or were still 
obnoxious to it, his satisfaction should not have been perfect, neither 
should he have been able to apply the virtue and comfort of it to us ; 
but now, who shall condemn when God justifieth ? when Christ is 



VERS. 9, 10.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 227 

dead, 'yea, rather risen from the dead,' &c., Kom. viii. 33, 34. If 
Christ hath paid our debt and borne our sorrows so far that no more 
is required of him, surely God will never reverse that pardon which 
was sealed with Christ's blood. The curse and condemnation are ter 
rible indeed, but he hath taken them away, and given us a free dis 
charge. 

2. For the new life ; Christ is both the cause and the pattern of it. 
His Spirit is the cause of it, and his life in heaven is the copy after 
which we must write. 

[1.] His Spirit is the cause of it, who quickeneth our dead souls; 
therefore if you be entered into God's peace, have sued out your atone 
ment, you may expect to be saved by his life : Rom. v. 10, ' If when, 
we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, 
much more, being reconciled, shall we be saved by his life ; ' that is, by 
him who now liveth, and sitteth at the right hand of God, and there 
intercedeth for grace necessary, that we may live unto God. He that 
intercedeth wanteth no will ; and he that saith that all things are put 
into his hands, wanteth no power. 

[2.] Christ is the pattern of this new life which we are to live in 
the world. Christ is the great agent to promote God's kingdom and 
glory ; but his Spirit engageth us in the same design. As long as we 
live, we should live unto God ; we are raised up from the grave of sin, 
that we should be to the praise of his glorious grace. The Christian's 
life is a life whereby we glorify God. See this life be begun in you, and 
see it perfected more and more. Be Christ's, as Christ is God's : Heb. 
vii. 25, ' He is able to save unto the uttermost all those that come unto 
God through him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for us.' 
Christ liveth ; we need not doubt of a supply. He gives life as creator 
to the smallest worms : ' In him was life/ John i. 4. He can quicken 
us when dead and dull ; he came into the world for this purpose: 
John x. 10, ' I am come that they might have life, and that they 
might have it more abundantly ;' and he is gone out of the world to 
heaven for this purpose : Eph. iv. 10, ' He ascended far above the 
heavens, that he might fill all things." He is filled with the Spirit to 
communicate it to his members ; he is not weak when we are weak, 
but able to do above what we can ask or think. 

3. As concerning the life of glory, we have it by Christ also : 1 John 
v. 11, ' This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and 
this life is in his Son.' The door which is shut against us by our sins is 
opened by Christ. Let us follow his precepts and example, and depend 
upon his grace, and you cannot miscarry. Christ hath brought life 
and immortality to light, assured us of an endless happiness after 
death. Heathens had but a doubtful conjecture of another life ; we 
have an undoubted assurance, and that is some great stay to us. 

4. Concerning the troubles and afflictions that we meet withal. As 
to the troubles of the church of God, he is alive and upon the throne ; 
he can never cease to live and reign : Ps. ex. 1, ' The Lord said unto 
my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand until I make thy foes thy foot 
stool.' The enemies of his kingdom must bend or break, first or last. 

5. Against death. Christ hath broken the power of it ; as it hath 
no dominion over him, so it cannot totally seize upon his members ; in 



228 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IX. 

their better part they still live to God as soon as they die ; and as to 
their bodies, ' The body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life 
because of righteousness/ Kom. viii. 10, 15 ; 1 Cor. xv. 55-57, ' O 
death, where is thy sting ? grave, where is thy victory ? The 
sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law ; but thanks be 
to God, who hath given us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ ;' 
Job xix. 25, ' I know that my Eedeemer liveth, and that he shall stand 
the last day upon the earth,' &c. But what is this to us ? As it hath 
no dominion over him, so not over us ; the power is broken, the sting 
is gone. If our flesh must rot in the grave, our nature is in heaven. 
Christ once died, and then rose again from the dead. Now this doth 
mightily secure and support us against the power and fears of death, 
that we have a saviour in possession of glory, to whom we may com 
mend our departing souls at the time of death, and who will receive 
them to himself ; one that hath himself been upon earth in flesh, then 
died and rose again, and is now in possession of endless blessedness. 
He is lord of that world we are going into. All creatures there do him 
homage, and we ere long are to be adjoined to that dutiful happy 
assembly, and partake in the same work and felicity. 



SERMON IX. 

Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive 
unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord. ROM. VI. 11. 

THE protasis or foundation of the similitude was laid down ver. 9, 
10 ; the apodosis or application of it to the case in hand in this verse. 
The foundation is Christ's example and pattern, dying and rising ; now, 
after this double example of Christ's death and resurrection, we must 
account ourselves obliged both to die unto sin and rise again to new 
ness of life : ' Likewise reckon ye also yourselves/ &c. In which words 

1. Our duty, which is conformity or likeness to Christ dying and 
living. 

2. Grace to perform this duty, eV TO> Xpio-ry T^o-oD ro> Kvpiw 
jjfjiwv, through or in Jesus Christ ; by virtue of our union with him we 
are both to resemble his death and resurrection. 

3. The means of enforcing this duty, \oyl^re, reckon ; Vulgar, 
existimate ; Erasmus out of Tertullian, reputate, consider with your 
selves ; others, colligite et statuite. 

Doct. That all who are baptized and profess faith in Christ dying 
and rising from the dead are under a strong obligation of dying to sin 
and living to God through the grace of the Redeemer. Here 

1. I shall consider the nature of the duties of being dead to sin and 
alive to God. 

2. The correspondency ; how they do answer the two states of Christ ; 
as Christ dieth to sin for the expiation of it, and after death reviveth 
and liveth to God, so we. 

3. The order ; first death, then the resurrection from the dead ; so 
first dying to sin, then being alive to God. 



VER. 11.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 229 

4. The certain connection of these things ; if we die we shall live, 
and we cannot live to God unless we be dead to sin ; neither can we 
die to sin unless we live to God. 

5. In the two branches the apostle opposeth God to sin. 

First, The nature of the work. It consists of two branches, ' dying 
to sin,' and ' living to God,' mortification and vivification. 

1. Mortification is the purifying and cleansing of the soul, or the 
freeing it from the slavery of the flesh, which detaineth it from God, 
and disableth it for all the duties of the holy and heavenly life. The 
reign of sin was the punishment of the first transgression, and is taken 
away by the gift of the Spirit upon account of the merit of Christ. 
However, it is our work to see that sin die. It dieth as our love to it 
dieth ; and our love to sin is not for its own sake, but because of some- 
pleasure, contentment, and satisfaction that we hope to find in it ; for 
no man would commit sin or transgress merely for his mind's l sake ; 
mere evil apprehended as evil, cannot be the object of our choice. 
Now, then, our love to sin dieth when our esteem of the advantages of 
the carnal life is abated, when we have no other value of the pleasures, 
honours, and profits of the world than is fully consistent with our duty 
to God, and may further us in it. .Therefore we are dead to sin when, 
we endeavour more to please God than to please the flesh, and mind 
more our eternal than our temporal interests : Horn. viii. 5, ' They that 
are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh ; but they that are 
after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit/ What we mind and value 
most showeth the reign of either principle, the flesh or the Spirit. 

2. Vivification, or living to God, is the changing of the heart by 
grace, and the acting of those graces we have received by the Spirit of 
regeneration. All that have received the gift of the spiritual life are 
bound to exercise it, and put it in act by loving, serving, and obeying 
God : 2 Peter i. 3-5, ' According as his divine power hath given unto 
us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the know 
ledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue, whereby are given- 
unto us exceeding great and precious promises, that by these you might 
be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that 
is in the world through lust ; and besides this, giving all diligence, add 
to your faith virtue, and to virtue knowledge/ &c. They that have 
received grace are not to sit down idle and satisfied, but to be more 
active and diligent in the exercise of grace ; and whatever remaineth 
of their lives must be devoted to God. To live to God implieth two 
things 

[1.] To fulfil his commands with a ready mind, and so they are said 
to live to God who show themselves ready to obey him in all things t 
Ps. cxii. 1, 'Blessed is the man that feareth God, that delighteth greatly 
in his commandments ; ' not who is greedy to catch all opportunities 
of pleasure and profit and worldly preferment in the world, and careth 
not how he cometh by them ; but is most observant of God's will, and. 
careful to follow it ; he that delighteth to know, believe, and obey 
God's word. 

[2.] To glorify his name ; for as we receive power from the Spirit 
of Christ to live as in the sight of God, so also to the glory of God. 
Sin, till it be killed and mortified in us, as it disposeth us to a wrong 

1 Qu. 'sinning's ?' ED. 



230 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IX. 

way, so to a perverse end, to seek happiness in the satisfaction of our 
lusts; but grace wrought by God inclineth us to God: Phil. i. 11, 
' Filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Christ Jesus, to 
the praise and glory of God.' As they do good, so to a good end, not 
for any by-respect, but to please and honour God. 

Secondly, The correspondency ; it is such a dying and living as doth 
answer Christ's dying and living. We must oo die and forsake sin as 
that we need not to die any more. We may never return to our sins 
again, so as that they may have any dominion over us; and that is done 
when sin hath its death- wound given it by a sincere conversion to God, 
then ' we put off the body of the sins of the flesh,' Col. ii. 11. Though 
the final death be not by and by, yet, as a man is said to be killed 
when he hath received his death-wound, so he that, never reverts to his 
old slavery is said indeed to be dead unto sin. On the other side, for 
our new Christian life, we are to take care that it may be eternal, 
carried on in such an uninterrupted course of holiness as may at length 
end in everlasting life. When we are first converted, we see that man 
.was made for other things than he hath hitherto minded ; therefore 
we resolve to seek after them, and so must persevere in living to God, 
till we come to live with him. God or none, heaven or nothing, must 
serve our turn : Ps. Ixxiii. 25, 'Whom have I in heaven but thee, 
and there is none on earth I desire besides thee.' Nothing else will 
satisfy and content the soul. When we live from an everlasting prin 
ciple to an everlasting end, then we live to God as Christ did. 

Thirdly, The order is to be regarded also. We first die to sin, and 
then live to God ; for till we die to sin we are disabled from the duties, 
and incapable of the comforts of the new life. 

1. We are disabled from the duties of it ; for without mortification. 
the duties will be unpleasant and unacceptable to you, as being against 
your carnal inclination and design : Rom. viii. 7, ' Because the carnal 
mind is enmity against God ; for it is not subject to the law of God, 
neither indeed can be.' We may affect the repute of religion, but can 
not endure the work of religion. And besides, sin allowed and indulged 
begets a trouble in the conscience, and then no wonder if we be loath 
seriously to exercise ourselves unto godliness ; for when the bone is 
out of joint, and the wound unhealed, a man certainly hath no mind 
to his work. The apostle telleth us : Heb. xii. 13, ' That which is 
lame is soon turned out of the way, but let it rather be healed.' A 
worldly carnal bias upon the heart will make us warp and decline from 
our duty. There can be no spiritual strength and vigour of heavenly 
motion whilst sin remaineth unmortified ; for the love of ease and 
worldly enjoyments will soon pervert us. Well, then, sin must be 
mortified before we can live unto God. On the other side, grace cureth 
sin, as fire refresheth us against the cold, and health taketh away sick 
ness : so far as God is admitted, Satan is shut out : Eph. iv. 25, 
'Wherefore, putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neigh 
bour ; ' and as Christ is valued, worldly things are neglected and be 
come less in our eyes : Phil. iii. 8, ' Yea, doubtless, and I count all 
things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus 
my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and I do 
count them but dung, that I may win Christ ; ' as heavenly things are 



VEB. 11.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 231 

prized, the world is undervalued. When grace hath recovered the 
heart to God, the world, that first stole it from God, is despised ; but 
the first work of grace is to cast out the usurper, and then set up God. 
Darkness goeth out of the room when light comes in, so doth the love 
of the world depart as the love of God prevaileth in the soul. 

2. While sin prevaileth and reigneth in the soul, we are incapable 
of the comforts of the Spirit, and are full of bondage and guilty fears ; 
afraid of God, that should be our joy and delight, deprived of any 
sweet sense of his love ; for the Spirit of adoption is given to those 
that obey him: Rom. viii. 13-16, ' If ye through the Spirit do mortify 
the deeds of the body, ye shall live. For as many as are led by the 
Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For ye have not received the 
spirit of bondage again to fear ; but ye have received the Spirit of 
adoption, whereby ye cry Abba, Father. The Spirit itself also beareth 
witness with our spirits, that we are children of God.' Others are 
tormented between their corruptions and convictions, and can have no 
boldness in their access to God, nor freedom in their commerce with 
him. 

Fourthly, The certain connection of these things ; this ' dying to 
sin,' and this ' living to God/ must be both evident in us, for they are 
intimately conjoined. A man cannot remain in his sins, and be a Christian 
or a believer, or accounted one that is in Christ, and hath right to the 
privileges of the new covenant ; these, ' have but a name to live, and 
are dead/ Eev. iii. 1. Again, on the other side, some never break out 
into shameful disorders, but yet love not God, nor do they make it 
their business to obey him ; they never felt the power of the heavenly 
mind, or make conscience of living godly in Christ Jesus; as the 
pharisees' religion ran upon negatives: Luke xviii. 11, ' God, I thank 
thee that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, 
or even as this publican.' These seem to be dead to sin, but are alive, 
whilst worldly things sit nearest their hearts. 

Fifthly, The apostle opposeth God to sin, that by the consideration 
of both masters we may return to our rightful Lord. It is otherwise 
expressed elsewhere : 1 Peter i. 24, ' That we might die unto sin, and 
live unto righteousness ;' but here it is, die to sin and live to God ; 
and this for two reasons 

1. That Christ came to restore us to our rightful Lord and master. 
Sin and the devil and the world are usurpers, and therefore are exauc- 
torated ; we are no longer bound to serve them ; but God hath a right 
to require love and service at our hands : Acts xxvii. 23, ' The God 
whose I am, and whom I serve.' He hath a title by creation, as our 
proper owner : Ps. c. 3, ' Know ye that the Lord he is God, it is he 
that hath made us, and not we ourselves ; ' by redemption : 1 Cor. vi. 
19, 20, ' Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a price ; there 
fore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.' 
Christ came to recover us from our slavery. 

2. To show the disadvantage between having sin and God for our 
master. What is more filthy than sin, and more mischievous than 
sin, and more holy and beneficial than God ? To serve sin is a 
brutish captivity, and will prove our bane in the issue ; but to serve 
God is true liberty, and it will be our present and eternal happiness : 



232 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. IX. 

Eom. vi. 22, ' But now being made free from sin, ye have your fruit 
unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.' 

Secondly, The grace to perform this duty : ' Through our Lord 
Jesus Christ.' We are to die to sin and live to God, not only ex 
prcescripto Christi, according to the precepts of Christ, which every 
where run strongly against sin, and pleading God's right with us ; nor 
only ex imitatione Christi, to imitate our pattern and example, that 
we may be like Christ in these things, and express his dying and rising 
in our conversations; but virtute Christi, by the power of Christ's 
grace, as by the force of his example. This power of Christ may be 
considered as purchased, or as applied, or as our interest in it is 
professed in baptism. 

1. As it is purchased. He died and rose again to represent the 
merit of his death to God, that he might obtain grace for us to kill sin 
and live unto God, and that in such a continued course of obedience, 
till we live with God : 1 Thes. v. 10, ' He died for us, that whether we 
wake or sleep, we should live together with him ; ' i.e., io redeem us 
from all iniquity, and to preserve us in our obedience to eternal life. 
While we wake, or are alive, we live with him, and when we sleep, after 
we are dead, we still live with him ; we live a spiritual life here, and 
afterward an eternal life in glory. So that place, which otherwise hath 
some difficulty in it, may be expounded by Eom. xiv. 8, 9, ' Whether 
we live, we live unto the Lord ; or whether we die, we die unto the 
Lord ; whether therefore we live or die, we are the Lord's.' For this 
Christ died. 

2. As it is applied. It is applied by the Spirit of Christ, by virtue 
of our union with him. Jesus Christ is the root and foundation of 
this life, in whom we do subsist ; for it is in the text, eV XpicrTw 'Irjaov, 
and in the context it is said, ver. 5, ' We are planted into his likeness ;' 
so that this conformity is the fruit of our union, and wrought in us by 
his Spirit, which is the sap we derive from our root. 

3. As our interest in him is professed in baptism ; for then we are 
visibly graffed into Christ : Gal. iii. 27, ' As many as are baptized into 
Christ have put on Christ.' Thence an obligation resulteth ; we ought 
to be like him. So that in short, the sum of the whole is this : the 
precepts and example of Christ do show us our duty ; the grace whereby 
we perform it is wrought in us by the Spirit, by virtue of our union 
with Christ ; and our baptismal engagement bindeth it on our hearts. 
Or thus ; it is purchased by Christ, effected by the Spirit, sealed and 
professed in baptism, which partly bindeth us to our duty, and assureth 
us we shall not want grace, but have help and strength from Jesus 
Christ. 

Thirdly, The means of improvement, \oyl^ere, ' reckon yourselves.' 
It may be inquired why the apostle saith not simply, ' we are dead,' 
or ' be ye dead indeed,' but ' reckon yourselves to be dead indeed unto 
sin,' &c. Shall our reckoning ourselves dead or alive make it so ? 
Ans. (1.) Let us consider the import of the word; (2.) Why it is used. 

1. For the import of the word. It is equivalent with ryivwo-Kovre*;, 
ver. 6, Triarevofjiev, ver. 8, etSore?, ver. 9 ; what they signify this 
signifieth. It is an act of judgment; the power of the mind is put 
forth in it. 



VER. 11.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 233 

2. The use of it here. 

[1.] It is actus mentis cogitantis ; it is an act of the mind considering 
or meditating upon this matter, and the effect here mentioned doth 
much depend upon meditation as the means. The weightiest things 
work not if they be not thought of ; therefore we must not slightly 
pass over this mystery of Christ's dying and rising, but consider how 
they concern us, and what we were before regeneration, and what we 
are now to be, who profess to follow our Kedeemer unto glory. 

[2.] It is actus rationis concludentis, an act of reason concluding 
from due premises, and inferring that this is our duty. Because the 
heart is averse from God, we need positively to determine upon rational 
deductions that it is our unquestionable duty ; for we must certainly 
know a thing to be our duty before we will address ourselves to perform 
it ; and herein reason is a good handmaid to faith, for sanctified reason 
ever concludeth for God ; whilst it improveth principles discovered by 
faith, it is our light to discover many things evident by natural light ; 
it is our instrument to improve other things which it cannot discover, 
but depend on God's revelation. We ponder and weigh things in our 
minds, then determine what is our duty. So that reckon is by reason 
collect ; as often in scripture : 1 Cor. x. 15, ' I speak as to wise men ;' 
ye have reason, ' Judge ye what I say.' 

[3.] It is actus fidei assentientis ; it is the syllogism of faith. It is 
not the bare knowledge, nor the bare discourse of these things doth 
make them operative and effectual ; but as faith is mingled with them : 
Heb. iv. 2, ' The word preached did not profit them, not being mixed 
with faith in them that heard it.' This is not matter of conjecture or 
opinion only, but of faith, to own the obligation which dependeth on 
the authority of Christ, which is a supernatural truth ; to believe the 
power which doth assist us, which is also a matter of pure faith, and 
seemingly contradicted by sense. For though mortification and vivifi- 
cation be begun in us, yet because of the troublesome relics of corruption, 
to reckon ourselves with any degree of confidence and trust to be dead 
unto sin and alive unto God is an act of faith ; the thing is not liable 
to external sense, and internal sense contradicts it, we being oppressed 
with so many remaining corruptions. 

[4.] It is actus fidei applicants. We must not only know and dis 
course of these things, but apply them to ourselves. The best and 
the most profitable knowledge is in applying general truths to a man's 
own case : ' Likewise reckon ye yourselves also to be dead unto sin,' 
&c. This is a truth which concerneth us in mortification : I profess 
faith in Christ, am baptized with Christ, I must die unto sin. Omnis 
operaiio est per contactum the closer the truth, the more effectual 
the operation : Rom viii. 31, ' What shall we say to these things ?' 

[5.] It is actus judicis decernentis ; we do determine, This we must 
do or be undone : 2 Cor. v. 14, 15, ' We thus judge, that if one died 
for all, then were all dead ; and that he died for all, that they which 
live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which 
died for them, and rose again.' 

[6.] It is actus voluntatis consentientis ; this death and life is much 
promoted by the firm purpose and resolution of our minds : 1 Peter 
iv. 1, ' Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm 



234 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. IX. 

yourselves likewise with the same mind ; for he that hath suffered in 
the flesh hath ceased from sin.' The sum of the whole is 

(1.) That we should think of it seriously ; and here many are defec 
tive, who little think of dying to sin or living to God; all their 
thoughts are how they may please the flesh : Rom. xiii. 14, ' To make 
provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof ; ' or thrive in the 
world : Luke xii. 17, 18, Kal Sie\oy%eTo, ( And he thought within 
himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to 
bestow my fruits ? And he said, This will I do : I will pull down my 
barns, and build greater, and there will I bestow all my fruits and my 
goods.' Or as those, James iv. 13, ' To-day or to-morrow we will go 
into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell and get 
gain ;' and so their great work lieth neglected. 

(2.) That by reason we should so evidence it to ourselves to be our 
duty that we should make conscience of it. A sluggish heart needs 
to be awakened by plain and evident conclusions ; for wherefore was 
reason given us ? to lie asleep ? No ; we must argue and conclude for 
God, that we may bring it to this issue, that either we are flat rebels, 
or must do those things he hath given us in charge. 

(3.) We must assent to those principles of faith from whence this 
conclusion is deduced by necessary consequence, as namely 

(1st.) That Christ is set up as a pattern, to whom all the heirs of 
promise must be conformed. 

(2d.) That our conformity is mainly seen in resembling his two 
estates, his dying to sin and living to God. 

(3d.) That our baptism obligeth us both by way of dependence and 
obedience. By way of dependence, waiting for his grace, whereby this 
conformity and likeness may be accomplished. By way of obedience, 
using all those holy means and endeavours that conduce to this end 
and purpose ; faith assenteth, reason concludeth. 

(4.) We must resolve upon it as an unquestionable duty, that we 
may not play fast and loose with God. For the judgment determining 
and the will consenting make up the strength of resolution, which in 
this case is very necessary, because we are likely to be assaulted with 
many enemies ; and seeing we are too often secure, and forgetful of 
our work and welfare, therefore we must stand fast in the purpose of 
our own hearts still to pursue this work till it be finished. Those who 
are regenerated by the Spirit surely will have such reasonings in them 
selves, and are not only in profession, but indeed (as the word is in the 
text) dying to sin and living to God. And it is ordinary in scripture 
to exhort by affirming, that is, to speak of the duty of believers as 
already done by them, thereby to assure them it shall be done, and to 
oblige them the more strongly to the endeavour of it. 

Use. To press us to two things (1.) To regard your duty ; (2.) 
To own the grace of Christ. 

1. To regard your duty of dying to sin and living to God. The 
arguments to press it are these 

[l.J From the work itself, which is so noble and excellent, that if 
there were no benefit to ensue, it were enough to engage us. It con 
sists in these four branches and parts 

(1.) To have the sensitive appetite subject to reason, which is 



VER. 11.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 235 

nothing else but to have the order of nature preserved, or that man 
should carry himself rather like a man than a beast, not serve divers 
lusts and pleasures, but be governed by his reason and conscience. 
Now, it should not be a hard precept to us to persuade us to walk upon 
our feet rather than our heads ; let the head guide the body, and the 
feet obey its direction ; put reason in the throne. 

(2.) To have reason illuminated and rectified by faith, which dis- 
covereth things to us out of the ken and view cf reason : Heb. xi. 1, 
' Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of 
things not seen.' The heathens had the highest opinion of those who 
were admitted into secrecy with their gods, and had things revealed to 
them which other mortals could never have known. This honour have 
all his saints : ' They shall be all taught of God,' John vi. 45 ; higher 
mysteries than nature could discover. 

(3.) That this faith should make us alive to God, or enable and 
incline us to persevere in our duty to him. Faith is our life as begun : 
Gal. ii. 20, ' The life that I live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the 
Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.' As consum 
mated: Heb. x. 38, 'Now the just shall live by faith;' the Spirit 
working in us a practical fiducial assent to the saving truths of the 
gospel, or affiance on God according to the promises, doth beget life in 
us, or a resolution to obey God, whatever it cost us. 

(4.) That this faith working by love doth incline and enable us to 
live accordingly. The property of faith is ' to work by love,' Gal. v. 6. 
Now see what these two graces do. The property of love is to incline 
us to God, it is the bent and bias of the soul ; and the property of faith 
is to enable us by presenting greater encouragements to the holy and 
heavenly life than the world and the flesh can produce to the contrary. 
Now, is this a toilsome and tedious life, to have appetite governed by 
reason, reason elevated by faith to the sight of God and the other 
world, and faith acting by love and hope, which incline us to God and 
heaven, and fortify and strengthen us against all the delights and 
terrors of sense ? This is nothing but dying to sin and living to God. 

[2.] From the consequent benefits, which are 

(1.) Pardon of all their sins ; these have an interest in Christ, a 
pardon sealed by his blood. They that die to sin and live to righteous 
ness have passed from death to life, not only as death to sin implieth 
corruption, but condemnation, or the righteous sentence of the law 
dooming it to death: Horn. viii. 1. 'There is therefore now no con 
demnation to them that are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the 
flesh ; ' there is dying to sin : ' but after the Spirit ; ' there is living 
to God. 

(2.) These are adopted into God's family, and have the privileges 
and right of children ; for adoption followeth regeneration : John i. 
12, 13, ' But as many as received him, to them gave he power to 
become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. 
Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the 
will of man, but of God/ 

(3.) These have communion with the Father, by the Son, through 
the Spirit: 1 John i. 7, ' But if we walk in the light, as he is in the 
light, we have fellowship one with another.' For God's children have 



236 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. X. 

the Spirit of adoption : Gal. iv. 6, ' Because ye are sons, God hath sent 
forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.' 

(4.) That Spirit dwelling in us worketh us to further holiness and 
joy ; for he is both a sanctifier and a comforter. As a sanctifier, he 
doth further enable us to die to sin, and ' mortify the deeds of the 
body,' Horn. viii. 13 ; and to live to God : Gal. v. 25, ' If we live in the 
Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit ; ' and so the duty is a reward in 
itself. As a comforter, he doth assure us of our interest in God's love : 
Horn. viii. 16, ' The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that 
we are the children of God ; ' and it causeth us to live in the foresight 
of everlasting happiness : 2 Cor. v. 5, ' Now he that hath wrought us 
for the self-same thing is God, who also hath given unto us the earnest 
of the Spirit.' 

(5.) Entrance and actual admission into glory : John iii. 3, ' Except 
a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God,' compared 
with ver. 5, ' Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he can 
not enter into the kingdom of God ; ' Mat. v. 8, ' Blessed are the pure 
in heart, for they shall see God ; ' Heb. xii. 12, ' Without holiness DO 
man shall see God.' 

2. Own the grace of Christ, without whom we can do nothing 
acceptable to God. Lapsed man is unable not only to redeem himself, 
but unable to live unto God without the grace of the Redeemer ; he 
doth sanctify us by his Spirit, and change our hearts, and is a Saviour 
to us, not only by merit, but efficacy. To be a sanctifier is his office, 
which he hath undertaken ; and it is his glory to perform it ; we only 
work under him. Which teacheth us 

[1.] Humility. Whatever good things believers have which con 
cern spiritual and heavenly life, they are beholden only to Christ for 
it. We can never die to sin, nor live to God, but only through Christ, 
and Christ not only enlightening, but sanctifying. A speculative error 
vanisheth as soon as truth appeareth ; but lust is a brutish inclination, 
bare reason cannot master it. 

[2.] Thankfulness and love to Christ, by whom we have all our 
grace and look for all our glory. 

[3.] Dependence ; he is ready to give us grace : Phil. iv. 19, ' But 
my God shall supply all your need, according to his riches in glory, by 
Christ Jesus.' 



SERMON X. 

Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal l>ody, that ye should obey it 
in the lusts thereof. ROM. VI. 12. 

THE apostle having undeniably proved that the justified are dead to 
sin, he now beginneth Irs exhortation that we should not obey sin by 
indulging bodily fusts. The exhortation is short, but of great weight, 
' Let not sin therefore reign,' &c. 

In the words take notice 

1. Of the illative particle, therefore, which leadeth us to the prin- 



YER. 12.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vr. 237 

ciples from whence the duty is inferred, namely, the tenor of Chris 
tianity, which is considered (1.) As professed by them, for they have 
submitted to baptism, and so are obliged to die unto sin and live unto 
God ; (2.) As having obtained its effect in them, as in charity he pre- 
sumeth them to be regenerated or real believers, and therefore chargeth 
them with this duty ; for Christ's grace must not lie idle in the soul. 

2. The duty to which they are exhorted is to take care to prevent 
the reign of sin, which is described and represented 

1. By the seat of it, ' In your mortal body.' 

2. The nature of it, ' That you should obey it in the lusts thereof.' 
To obey bodily lusts is the reign of sin. 

Doct. That Christians are strictly obliged to take care that sin 
get not dominion over them by the desires and interests of the mortal 
body. 

1. Let me explain this point. 

2. Give you the reasons of it. 

first, In explaining this doctrine, I shall handle three questions 

1. Why is sin said to reign in our bodies rather than our souls ? 

2. Why doth the apostle call it our mortal body ? the use of this 
term; and 

3. When is sin said to reign ? 

First, Why is sin said to reign in our bodies rather than in our 
souls ? And again ' lusts thereof/ avrov, as agreeing to ow/ia-ri, not 
avrff^, as relating to a^apria. 

1. Negatively, it is not to be understood that sinful lusts are only in 
the body, or have their original only from the body, and not from the 
soul ; for that is repugnant to what Christ saith : Mat. xv. 18, 19, 
' Those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the 
heart, and they defile the man ; for out of the heart proceed evil 
thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blas 
phemies.' 

2. But positively, he saith * In your body.' 

[1.] Because these lusts mostly manifest themselves in the body, and 
belong to the body and the flesh. Therefore the apostle saith, ' Mortify 
your members which are upon the earth,' Col. iii. 5 ; and Eom. vii. 
23, ' I see a law in my members warring against the law of my mind ;' 
James iv. 1 , ' Lusts that war in your body.' When the devil would set 
up a kingdom in the hearts of men, he doth it by the body ; for what 
is nearer and dearer to us than our bodies ? And things present and 
grateful to the bodily senses promote his designs ; these blind our 
minds and corrupt our hearts, and entice our affections, so that we 
follow ' after them earnestly, with the neglect of God and our precious 
immortal souls. There are various desires, according to the variety of 
objects which tend to please and gratify the flesh, by occasion of which 
sin doth insinuate itself into us. 

[2.] Because they are acted and executed by the body or outward 
man, and therefore are called ' the deeds of the body,' Rom. viii. 13. 
Now, though some sins are seated in the mind, as heresies, yet they 
are works of the flesh : Gal. v. 19, 20, ' Now the works of the flesh are 
manifest, which are these, adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lascivious- 
ness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, 



238 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. X. 

seditions, heresies ; ' because usually they begin at falseness of the 
heart, and are bred in us by some corrupt affections, such as pride, vain 
glory, self-seeking, &c. : Gal. ii. 18, ' Puffed up with his fleshly mind.' 
And for sins of omission, they arise in us from some inordinate sensual 
affection to the creature, which causeth us to omit our duty to God. 
But generally most sins are acted by the body. Therefore, as in grace, 
or in the dedication of ourselves to God, the soul is included when the 
body only is mentioned : Rom. xii. 1, ' Present your body as a living 
sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.' 
All the service we perform to God is acted by the body ; so in the 
destruction of sin : ' Let it not reign in your body/ 

[3.] Because the disorder of the sensual appetite, which inclineth us 
to the interests and conveniences of the bodily life, is the great cause 
of all sin ; and therefore man corrupted and fallen ,is represented as 
wholly governed by his sensual inclinations : Gen. vi. 3, ' For that man 
also is flesh ; ' and John iii. 6, ' That which is born of the flesh is 
flesh ; ' as if he had nothing in him but what is earthly and carnal. 
Our souls do so cleave to the earth, and are addicted to the body, that 
they have lost their primitive excellency ; our understandings, will, and 
affections are distempered by our senses, and enslaved to serve the 
flesh, which is a matter well to be regarded, that we may understand 
why the scripture so often calleth sin by the name of flesh, and some 
times a body ; or it is said ' to dwell in the body,' not as if the under 
standing and will were not corrupted and tainted, but to show how 
they are tainted and corrupted, that this corruption which hath 
invaded human nature cometh chiefly, though not only, from the 
inordinancy of our sensual appetite. I will prove it by two con 
siderations 

(1.) One is a supposition. Suppose that original sin, so far as it 
concerneth the understanding and will, consisted in a bare privation of 
that rectitude that should be in these faculties (I do not say it is so, 
but suppose it were so), yet as long as our senses and appetites are dis 
ordered, which wholly incline us to terrene and earthly things, this were 
enough to cause us to sin ; as a chariot must needs miscarry where 
the driver is weak, sleepy, negligent, and the horses unruly and dis 
orderly. So here, we have not so much light and love to higher 
things as will restrain the sensual appetite. The understanding hath 
no light : 2 Peter i. 9, ' But he that lacketh these things is blind, and 
cannot see afar off ; ' Eph. i. 18, ' The eyes of your understandings 
being enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of his calling/ 
&c. The will hath no love : 1 Cor. ii. 14, ' The natural man receiveth 
not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him, 
neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.' And 
therefore, man, that obeyeth his bodily lusts and desires, must needs be 
corrupt and sinful. 

(2.) The other is an assertion ; that there are habitual, positive, 
inordinate inclinations to sensual things both in the understanding 
and will ; for ^povt^fia crdpKos, ' The carnal mind is enmity against 
God,' Eom. viii. 7. The mind doth not only befriend the lusts of the 
flesh, and seek to palliate and excuse them, but opposeth whatever 
would reduce us from the love of them. And the will is biassed by 



VER. 12.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 239 

such sensual inclinations : 1 Tim. vi. 10, ' For the love of money is the 
root of all evil.' Our reason doth often contrive and approve sin, and 
the will embraceth it. So that you see the reason why sin is said to 
reign in our bodies, because of the strong inclination of our souls to 
present things, or things conducing to the contenting of the flesh, or 
gratifying the bodily life. 

Secondly, Why doth the apostle say, ' In your mortal bodies ' ? I 
answer For sundry reasons. 

1. To put us in mind of the first rise of sin ; for sin brought in 
death : Horn. v. 12, ' As by one man sin entered into the world, and 
death by sin, and so death passed upon all men, for that all have 
sinned.' And so while we live this mortal bodily life, we are subject 
to these desires, swarms of sinful motions and inclinations to evil remain 
within us, we are prone to them, and give way to them, and are too 
slack in the resistance of them, and through the ignorance and inat- 
tentiveness of our minds cannot discern or distinguish between what 
regular nature desireth and lust craveth. There are lawful desires of 
the body, and prohibited desires of the body ; through the crafty convey 
ance between the understanding and the false heart, we easily give way to 
what is inordinate, under the pretence of what is lawful and convenient, 
and so insensibly slide into compliance with the plain prohibited desires 
of the body. Lust is headstrong, and the empire and government of 
the will feeble, and so we are led on to obey them ; that is, we become 
servants and slaves to sin. And though the regenerate be delivered 
from the power of sin, yet much of this corruption remaineth in them 
for their exercise and humiliation ; and if they be not watchful, and 
obey not the motions of the Spirit, it will soon recover its power, and men 
will be brought into their old slavery and captivity : Gal. v. 16, 17, 
' Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh ; for 
the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit lusteth against the 
flesh.' So that this mortal body giveth sin many advantages. 

2. This term, mortal body, puts us in mind of its punishment ; it 
tendeth to death and destruction. We considered it before as it pointed 
at the rise, now at the fruit itself. The apostle telleth us, Kom. viii. 
10, ' The body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of 
righteousness/ He speaketh there of believers, or those who have the 
Spirit of Christ dwelling in them, who, being once sinners, the punish 
ment of sin, death, befalleth them, and so their bodies must die and 
return to dust, yet they shall live a happy and blessed life both in 
body and soul. If they labour to mortify and suppress sin, and return 
sincerely to newness of life, though they are still mortal and subject 
to corporal death because of sin, yet it shall not be eternal death. The 
renewed soul is a partaker of eternal life, and shall always live with 
God in glory, and though the body be put off for a time, yet in time 
it shall be partaker of this life also. 

3. To show us the transitoriness of these delights. You gratify a 
mortal body with the neglect of a precious and immortal soul ; now 
the mortal body should not be pampered with so great a loss and 
inconvenience to our souls. All the good things which the flesh airneth 
at, they perish with the mortal body, but the guilt and punishment of 
this disorderly life remaineth for ever. All fleshly pleasure ceaseth at 



240 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. X. 

the grave's mouth, and wealth, pleasure, carnal rest, worldly honour, 
are no longer of use to us when we are to be laid in the dust. One 
would think this should cure the mad desires of all mortal creatures : 
1 John ii. 17, ' The world passeth away, and the lusts thereof; but he 
that doeth the will of God shall endure for ever/ When we come to 
die, neither can the thing do us good, and the very lust and desire 
is gone, and is bitter in the remembrance of it. Pray, how little can 
all the world then do for you ? When you have most need of comfort, 
the taste of these things is gone, and the sting remaineth ; the pampered 
flesh must then be cast into the dust, and all its pleasure will then be 
at an end ; which will be a doleful day to those that had their good 
things here, and all their portion in this life. When that is gone 
which is so much valued and sought after, and the true felicity forfeited 
because it was undervalued and contemned, how will they be ashamed 
of the folly of their perverse choice ! Therefore, if we would joyfully 
bear, or contentedly yield to the dissolution of our bodies, we should 
now master and mortify the desires of the flesh. 

4. To show that in this state of mortality and frailty we may prevent 
the reign of sin. Many will say, We are frail creatures, we are not 
glorified saints ; the desires of nature are impetuous. Ay ! but you 
may resist them, and that with success. The mortality of the body 
doth not excuse sin, but aggravate it, that for a little brutish pleasure, 
that is, but for a while, we will forfeit eternal joys, and run the hazard 
of eternal pains. But can we avoid the pleasing of desires so natural ? 
Yes ; many that live in the flesh do not live after the flesh ; their 
reason is not enslaved by sense, but illuminated and directed by faith 
to higher things. The apostle produceth himself as an instance : 
Gal. ii. 20, ' I am crucified with Christ, nevertheless I live, yet not I, 
but Christ liveth in me, and the life which I now live in the flesh I 
live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself 
for me.' And he speaketh no more of himself than what is common 
to all believers. Surely they may or can, if they be not wanting to 
themselves, ' crucify the flesh with the affections and passions thereof ;' 
yea, they have, if they are true believers : Gal. v. 24, ' They that are 
Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.' Indeed, 
nothing seemeth harder and harsher than for men to get such a victory 
over their own flesh, and to contradict motions that are so pleasing. 
They are not stocks and stones, they say ; how is it possible to be so 
dead to the interests of the animal life as not to be moved, and some 
times greatly moved, with these things, which either gratify or dis 
please the flesh ? I answer, in Christ's words, Mat. xix. 26, ' With 
men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.' There is 
the Spirit of Christ to change our natures, and the Spirit of Christ to 
direct and influence our motions, and ordinances and means appointed 
to convey this Spirit to us, as the word, which revealeth better things, 
sacraments which assure to us our great hopes, and oblige us to live 
auswerably ; there are many providences to deaden the taste of the 
flesh, and train us up for better things in another world, and we are to 
be watchful, serious, heavenly. 

5. To show that the tediousness of our conflict and this troublesome 
resistance shall endure but for a little while. All our business is that 



VEK. 12.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 241 

sin may not reign in our mortal body ; there will a time come when 
' this mortal shall put on immortality,' 1 Cor. xv. 53 ; and long before 
that 'our spirits must return to God that gave them/ Eccles. xii. 7. 
Now, the more we think of another life, the stronger we are against 
sin ; the troublesome part of our duty is but while we are in the flesh 
or in the world ; and if we can but escape the corruption that is in the 
world through lust, we shall be happy for ever. 

Thirdly, When is sin said to reign ? I answer In general, that is 
said to reign which attaineth the chief power in the soul, and parti 
cularly sin is said to reign 

1. Negatively, when it is not opposed, or but slightly opposed. We 
must take in this part of the description, because there are contrary 
principles in us. There is no question but fleshly lusts will solicit you ; 
but your business is to inquire whether you oppose them. It may be 
you do ; for it cannot be imagined that whilst a spark of conscience 
remaineth alive in us, a man can apparently be tempted from his duty, 
but his heart will give back a little ; but an ineffectual striving will 
not acquit us ; even the unregenerate have a remnant of natural know 
ledge and conscience, which in its measure resisteth sin as light resisteth 
darkness, as is seen in the Gentiles : Bom. ii. 14, 15, ' For when the 
Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in 
the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves ; which 
show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also 
bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing, or else 
excusing one another.' And where supernatural revelation is added, 
it may do more ; for Christians know what is evil more than heathens 
do, and so ' may escape through the knowledge of Christ the common 
pollutions of the world,' 2 Peter ii. 20, or be much troubled if they fall 
into them ; and God may give unto many some common internal grace 
of the Spirit, Heb. vi. 4, 5, which may occasion many convictions of 
the evil way they walk in. But the business is, whether there be such 
a principle of resistance set up in the soul, that 'you walk not after the 
flesh, but after the Spirit' ? Bom. viii. 1, so that your hearts are habitually 
bent to God, and your course of life is altered, you dare not wittingly 
nor willingly give way to any known sin, or live in the neglect of any 
known duty (as they do that live in any customary practice of sin, 
or constant neglect of God), or ordinarily break out into enormous 
offences. It may be, after all your care, caution, watchfulness, resistance, 
you may be overtaken or overcome by some violent temptation, and 
may feel in yourselves some infirmities ; you find you are guilty of 
many idle thoughts, passionate words, unwary practices ; but what 
is this to iniquities ? So those that say they relent, and stri-ve, and 
have many wishes to be better, but still continue in a carnal and 
ungodly life, these do but sin against conscience, and never conquer 
the sin which they strive to resist ; till the opposite principle be the 
ruling principle for the main bent of your hearts and course of your 
lives, the opposition and striving is but ineffectual. If there be no sin 
but what you are truly desirous to know, and no sin but what you 
are truly desirous to get rid of, so that the chief est care of your hearts 
and endeavour of your lives be to serve and please God, and it is 
your daily desire and endeavour to please God, and master its rebellious 

VOL. xi. Q 



242 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. X. 

opposition to the Spirit, and you so far prevail that for your drift and 
course you are not led by the flesh, but the Spirit, then you are sincere 
and upright with God ; otherwise you must not think every striving 
will excuse you, if it be such a striving as may consist with the 
dominion and customary practice of sin. There are few wretches so- 
bad but they may have some wishes that they could leave sin, especially 
when they think of the inconveniences that attend it, and conscience 
may strive a -little before they yield, but they live in it still. A Chris 
tian striveth, but cannot be perfect ; there are infirmities : but the con 
vinced sinner striveth, but cannot live holily ; there are iniquities. This 
striving hindereth not the dominion of sin, because he doth not con 
quer and master it so far but that it breaketh out in a gross manner ; 
his striving cometh not from the renovation of the Spirit, but the con 
viction of his conscience, which is ever condemning his practices. 

2. Positively, when we obey it and follow it, and do that to which sin 
enticeth us. For the end of sin's reign and empire is our obedience ; the 
commands and urgings of it are in vain if you obey them not, but rather 
rebuke and suppress them. Now we may obey bodily lusts two ways 
[1.] By the inward consent of the mind ; for what sins you would 
do you have done in God's account, though the outward act follow not : 
Mat. v. 28, ' He that looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath already 
committed adultery with her in his heart,' though you be impeded 
and hindered in the action. The life and reign of sin is in the heart, 
in the love of the heart, though it may be it may not appear in out 
ward deeds. Restraint is not sanctification. Practices may be 
restrained by by-ends ; but if you like the sin in your hearts, you let 
it reign, and do not oppose it by gracious motives. Your hearts are 
false with God if his empire be not set up there. Therefore obey not 
the lusts of the body, that is, consent not to them; if they arise and 
bubble up in your hearts, let them be disowned and disliked. We are 
to 'abstain from fleshly lusts/ 1 Peter ii. 11, before they break out 
into our conversation. For the governing of the heart, and the regu 
lating of the life are two distinct acts of our obedience to God ; they 
are required indeed, the one in order to the other, but you must be 
careful of both. Your love to God and his law must be showed by 
abominating the motions that would draw you to the contrary : Ps. 
cxix. 113, 'I hate vain thoughts, but thy law do I love.' The first 
motions are sins, for they proceed from corrupt nature ; we had none 
such in innocency ; and the consent is a further sin, because then you 
begin to give way to its reign. The delightful stay of the mind 
showeth our love to it ; these pauses of the mind come from sin, are sin, 
and tend to further sin : James i. 15, ' Then when lust hath conceived, 
it bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished bringeth forth death.' 

[2.] The execution of these motions by the body, when sin is 
brought to her consummate effect : Micah ii. 1, ' Woe to them that 
devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds ; when the morning is 
light they practise it, because it is in the power of their hands/ This 
is a sign of the reign of sin ; too much room being given to sin in the 
heart, that it obtains a mastery there ; it violently and effectually 
commands our practice, which, if it be a scandalous enormity, it 
makes sin to reign for the present. Lesser evils steal into the throne 



VER. 12.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 243 

by degrees, and leaven us with a proud, worldly, or carnal frame of 
heart ; but gross sins invade the throne in an instant, at least for the 
present, making fearful havoc and waste of the conscience, and the 
repeated acts show our state. 

Secondly, That Christians are strictly obliged to take heed that sin 
get not dominion over them. 

1. By the light of nature, which is in part sensible of this disorder 
which hath invaded all mankind, namely, an inclination to seek the 
happiness and good of the body above that of the soul. The very 
make and constitution of man showeth his duty. Man is composed of 
a body and a soul, both which parts are to be regarded according to 
the dignity of each. The body was subordinated to the soul, and both 
soul and body unto God ; his flesh was a .servant unto his spirit, and 
both flesh and spirit unto the Lord ; but sin entering, defaced the 
beauty, and disturbed the harmony and order of God's creation and 
workmanship. Man withdrew from subordination to God his maker, 
seeking his happiness without God, and apart from him, in earthly 
and worldly things ; and also the body and flesh is preferred before 
the soul, and reason and conscience enslaved to sense and appetite ; 
understanding and will are made bond-slaves to the lusts of the flesh, 
which govern and influence all his actions ; his wisdom, mind, and 
spirit as it were sunk into the flesh, and transformed into a brutish 
quality and nature. This many of the wiser heathens saw, and 
sought to rectify. Maximus Tyrius calls our passions and appetites rov 
Brj/j,ov, the tumultuous populacy or common people of the soul, which 
must not be left to their own boisterous violence, but be kept under 
the law and empire of the mind. Philo the Jew calleth them TO 
6ff\.v, the woman part in man, in opposition to reason, which he 
maketh to be the masculine part; Simplicius, TOV 7rai8a, the child 
in us, which needeth more staid heads to govern it ; and some, irepi- 
Trefyov i|ru^?7<? /juepos, the foot part of the soul ; as it is a monstrous 
disorder if the feet be there where the head should be, so it is for us 
to serve divers lusts and pleasures, when we should be governed by 
reason. The stoics generally, TO Qrjpiov, the bestial part in us, which 
they counted the man, as if the beast should ride the man, as Socrates 
expressly calls reason ^vio-^ov, the rider or chariot-driver, as the body 
and bodily inclinations the horses. Now if the light of nature taught 
the heathens, who knew little of the cause and malignity of this 
vitiosity and disorder, to observe this, and labour under it, surely 
Christians are more strictly bound to curb the flesh, and moderate the 
lusts and passions of it. We know more clearly what an evil it is to 
love the creature above God, the body more than the soul, the world 
above heaven, riches, honours, and pleasures more than grace and 
holiness ; as the light of Christianity befriendeth the light of nature in 
this point, we may see clearly how great a disorder it is to obey or 
fulfil these bodily lusts to the wrong of God and the soul, and that 
the true honour and dignity of a man consists in the victory which he 
hath over himself ; and that to pamper the flesh is not our honour, 
but our disgrace ; and that these irregular desires should not be grati 
fied, but mortified. 

2. Christian piety, or the tenor of our religion, requireth it of us. 



244 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [$ER. X. 

The drift of this religion is to recover men out of their apostasy, and 
to promote true genuine holiness in the world ; to dispossess us of the 
beast, and that man, being restored to man, might be also brought 
back again to God ; or, in short, to draw us off from the animal life 
to life spiritual and eternal. As appeareth 

[1.] By the precepts of it, which mainly tend to enfore self-denial, 
mortification, recess from the world, that we may not miscarry in our 
obedience to God by our bodily lusts : Mat. xvi. 24, ' If any will 
come after me, let him deny himself ; ' Col. iii. 5, ' Mortify therefore 
your members which are upon the earth, fornication, uncleanness, 
inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is 
idolatry.' The whole drift and business of this religion is to drive out 
the spirit of the world, and to introduce a divine and heavenly Spirit : 
1 Cor. ii. 12, ' Now we have received, not the spirit- of the world, but 
the Spirit which is of God, that we might know the things which 
are freely given to us of God.' That part of the world which is mad 
and brutish is enslaved to.lower things ; but the other part, which hath 
submitted to the healing institution of Christ, should be wise and 
heavenly. The cure which Christ intended was of the great disease of 
mankind, which was that the immortal soul, being depressed and tainted 
by the objects of sense, doth wholly crook and writhe itself to carnal 
things, and instead of likeness to God, the image of a beast was im 
pressed upon man's nature, and the divine part enslaved and embon- 
daged to the brutish. 

[2.] By its promises : 2 Peter i. 4, ' Whereby are given unto us 
exceeding great and precious promises ; that by these you might be 
partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is 
in the world through lust,' 2 Cor. iv. 18. That man may seek his 
happiness in some higher and more transcending good than the beasts 
are capable of, something that suits with his immortal spirit. In 
short, to draw us off from things we see and inordinately love to a 
glory and blessedness wholly unseen and future. 

[3.] By the grace provided for us, namely, the Spirit of Christ, whose 
great design is to free man from a state of subjection to the flesh, and 
by overcoming the lusts thereof to make him ready for all the graces 
and duties of the spiritual life : Eom. viii. 5, ' They that are after the 
flesh do mind the things of the flesh, and they that are after the Spirit, 
the things of the Spirit' He is first renewed by this Spirit : John 
iii. 6, ' That which is born of the Spirit is spirit ; ' and then acted 
and assisted by him : Eom. viii. 13, ' If ye through the Spirit mortify 
the deeds of the body, ye shall live ; ' Gal. v. 25, ' If we live in the 
Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.' 

[4.] By being baptized into this religion we are bound to this strict 
care ; for in our baptism we did solemnly renounce the devil, the 
world, and the flesh, as the usurpers must be thrust out before the 
rightful lord can take possession : Josh. xxiv. 23, ' Put away the 
strange gods which are among you, and incline your heart unto the 
Lord God of Israel ; ' and we are dedicated to Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, as our creator, redeemer, and sanctifier ; as before, ' We 
are to count ourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, and alive unto God,' 
ver. 11. Now, it is the greatest hypocrisy that can be to be under 



VER. 12.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 245 

this solemn obligation to God, and let sin reign in us. Baptism is a 
sign and seal of grace on God's part, and on ours a bond of duty ; on 
God's part, that he will cleanse and wash away sin: Acts xxii. 16, 
' Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins.' On our part, it 
obligeth us to do what in us lieth to destroy sin, a bond never to be 
forgotten by us : 2 Peter i. 9, ' He hath forgotten. that he was purged 
from his old sins.' 

Use 1. To humble us, that we have so much forgotten our solemn 
covenant, so much cared for the body, and so little cared for the soul ; 
that time and heart hath been so much taken up about those things 
which belong to the present life. The mortal body is minded at 
every turn, and how much may the immortal but neglected soul com 
plain of hard usage ! We profess subjection to the gospel, and therefore 
should { seek first the kingdom of God and the righteousness thereof, 
and all these things shall be added to us,' Mat. vi. 33 ; but we walk 
too much according to the course of the carnal careless world : Eph. 
ii. 2, 3, ' Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of 
this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit 
that ruleth in the children of disobedience ; among whom also we all 
had our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling 
the desires of the flesh and of the mind.' 

2. Strengthen the bonds, and anew devote yourselves to obedience : 
ver. 13, ' Neither yield you your members as instruments of unright 
eousness unto sin, but yield yourselves unto God as those that are alive 
from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto 
God.' Bind yourselves for time to come, to make it your work not to 
indulge the flesh, but save your souls : Heb. x. 39, ' For we are not of 
them that draw back to perdition, but of them that believe to the 
saving of the soul/ 

3. Take great heed that sin reign not by bodily lusts. 

[1.] The necessity of this. These lusts are represented as deceitful : 
Eph. iv. 22, ' That ye put off concerning the former conversation the 
old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.'* And as 
violent and imperious : Rom. vii. 20, ' Now if I do that I would not, 
it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me ; ' both together : 
James i. 14, ' Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his 
own lust and enticed.' We are by subtlety blinded by the delusions 
of the flesh, and it is always endeavouring to get the throne, and hurry 
us to destruction, and seeking to divert us from the love of God ; the 
more we indulge them the more imperious they are, the more caution 
and resolution therefore is necessary. 

[2.] The danger of not doing it. 

(1.) They do not only unfit us for God, but for human society : 
James iv. 1, 'From whence come wars and fightings among you? 
Come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members ? ' 
They make you disquiet all others near you, as dogs snarling at one 
another for a bone or piece of carrion. 

(2.) They destroy the welfare of our bodies ; the part gratified is 
depressed by them : Prov. xiv. 30, ' A sound heart is the life of the flesh, 
but envy is the rottenness of the bones ; ' Prov. v. 11, ' Thou shalt 
mourn at the last, when thy flesh and thy body are consumed.' 



246 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [&ER. XI. 

(3.) These lusts war against the soul. The perfection of the soul 
consists in the image of God, which is defaced by these lusts ; yea, 
against the graces and motions of the Spirit : Gal. v. 17, ' The flesh 
lusteth against the Spirit ; ' against the comfort of the soul, which 
dependeth on the holy sanctifying Spirit ; he .is grieved when his work 
is hindered in us. 

,(4.) These lusts oppose our everlasting felicity and happiness, when 
to gratify the flesh we run the hazard of losing soul and body for ever. 

(1st.) By efficiency : they steal away our hearts from God, take up 
our time, turn our thoughts from the one thing necessary. The great 
end of faith is the saving of the soul ; they make it the great end of 
their living to pamper the body. They put heaven away from them, 
sell it for a trifle ; in effect, bid God keep his heaven* to himself : Heb. 
xii. 16, ' Profane Esau for one morsel of bread sold his birthright.' 

(2d.) By desert : Gal. vi. 8, ' He that soweth to the flesh shall of 
the flesh reap corruption ; ' Rom. vi. 13, ' Neither yield ye your bodies 
as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin.' God is provoked, and so 
our damnation is sure. They spend their strength, time, estates on the 
service of fleshly lusts ; surely these can look for nothing but everlasting 
perdition. 



SERMON XL 

Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto 
sin, but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from 
the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto 
ROM. VI. 13. 



HERE is the second branch of the exhortation, which concerneth 
vivification ; for expressly the apostle speaketh to them as those that 
are alive from the dead. This part of the exhortation is propounded 
negatively, ' yield not/ &c. ; positively, ' but yield,' &c. 

1. The negative is necessary. For further declaring the sense of 
which, he had said before, ' Let not sin reign in your mortal body/ 
The body is mentioned as the seat of sin for two reasons 

[1.] Because these lusts gratify the body and bodily life, and so per 
vert the soul ; that is spoken to there. 

[2.] Because they are executed by the body ; this is spoken to here 
If they gain the consent of your minds, yet ' yield not your members 
as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin ; ' let them not be acted by 
your bodies. 

2. Positively it is expressed, ' But yield yourselves unto God/ There 
observe the order set down. First, ' Yield yourselves unto God ; ' then, 
' your members as instruments of righteousness unto God/ The general 
dedication is the ground of the particular. First, I am God's, then I 
bestow my time and strength for God ; first, we give ourselves to him, 
riot in part, but in whole, to serve him with all our heart and all our 
might and strength ; then sometimes the outward or inward man, as 
the nature of the business calleth for. 



VER. 13.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 247 

3. In both take notice 

(1.) Of the two opposite masters, ' sin and God.' 

(2.) The opposite employments are ' righteousness/ and ' unright 
eousness/ 

(3.) The instrument used by both, and that is ' the body/ or ' the 
members of the body/ 

[L.] The two masters, sin and God; the one is a usurper, the 
other is our rightful and most gracious Lord. God is our proper Lord, 
for he is our creator, and therefore our owner and governor ; and he is 
our most gracious Lord jure beneficiario ; he hath obliged us to him 
by many benefits ; so that a Christian should say, as Paul did : Acts 
xxvii. 23, ' His I am, and him I serve/ 

[2.] The two? employments, unrighteousness and righteousness. 
Unrighteousness is put for all evil works and actions ; for all sin is 
unrighteousness, whether committed against God or man. By sin we 
deal unrighteously with God, whom we disobey and dishonour : Mai. 
i. 6, ' If I be a father, where is mine honour ? If I be a master, where 
is my fear ? ' We deny God his due. We deal unrighteously with 
ourselves, whom we defile and destroy : 1 Cor. vi. 18, ' He that com- 
mitteth fornication, sinneth against his own body ;' and Prov. viii. 36, 
' He that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul/ And also in 
many sins we hurt our neighbour, either in soul, body, goods, or good 
name, as is evident. On the other side, holiness is righteousness, or 
giving God his due. Righteousness is sometimes taken strictly for 
that grace which inclineth us to perform our duty to man ; as 1 Tim. 
vi. 11, ' Follow after righteousness, godliness/ &c. ; Eom. i. 18, ' The 
wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and un 
righteousness of men/ Sometimes largely, for newness of life, for all 
those holy actions which are required of a Christian : 1 John ii. 29, ' If 
ye know that he is righteous, ye know that every one that doeth right 
eousness is born of him/ 

[3.] The instrument used in both is the body, or the members of the 
body ; for our body is of a middle nature, which may be used well or 
ill ; and the members of the body are weapons with which the soul is 
armed to do well or ill ; and it is notable that the word used by the 
apostle is not opyava, instrumenta, as we render it in the text, but 
ovrXa, weapons or arms, as we translate it in the margin. The work 
on both sides is a kind of warfare. 

(1.) They that serve sin or indulge bodily lusts, fight for sin and the 
devil against God and their own salvation : 1 Peter ii. 11, 'Abstain 
from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul ; ' Kom. vii. 23, ' I see 
another law in my members \farring against the law of my mind/ 
While ye suffer the body to be thus employed, ye wage war against 
God, whether ye know it, or own it, yea or no. 

(2.) The other work is also a warfare ; our graces are called, ' Armour 
of light/ Eom. xiii. 12. Though you fight for your duty, you must per 
form it. 

Doct. That sincere Christians should not suffer, themselves to be 
employed by sin, but offer up and present themselves to God to do his 
will. 

1. Let us explain the duty. 



248 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XL 

2. Show you the necessity of it. 

First, In explaining the duty here enforced, let me observe to 
you 

1. That there are two masters which divide the world between them 
sin and God. Every man doth serve one of these, but no man can 
serve both. Every man serveth. one of these sin or righteousness, 
God or Satan ; for there is no neutral or middle state ; either their 
time and strength is spent in the service of the flesh, or in the service 
of God : Horn. viii. 5, ' They that are after the flesh do mind the things 
of the flesh ; and they that are after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit: 
Gal. vi. 8, ' They that sow to the flesh shall of the flesh reap corrup 
tion ; but they that sow to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life ever 
lasting.' Now it concerneth us to consider what or who it is that em- 
ployeth us. Our bodies are worn out, and the vigour of nature is daily 
spent ; but in what ? In pleasing the flesh in that which it craveth, 
or in serving, pleasing, and glorifying God ? The prophet saith, Isa. 
Iv. 2, ' Wherefore do ye spend your money for that which is not bread ? 
and your labour for that which satisfieth not ? ' Every man is at the 
cost and expense of his -time and labour, and bestoweth it on something 
or other ; but in what ? Do not think of compounding the matter ; for 
as every man serveth one of these masters, so no man serveth both : 
Mat. vi. 24, ' No man can serve two masters, for either he will hate 
the one and love the other ; or else he will hold to the one and despise 
the other ; ye cannot serve God and mammon.' They both require 
our full strength, and both command contrary things ; therefore, as a 
man cannot go two contrary ways at once, so he cannot obey these two 
masters. If sin reign in our souls, it draweth all things into obedience ; 
the consent of your minds is not enough to satisfy it, but it will employ 
the body to fulfil its cravings, and especially those two adjuncts of the 
bodily life, time and strength. And grace doth the like ; the faculties 
and powers of the soul and body must be employed one way or another ; 
they cannot lie idle in such an active, restless creature as man is. 

[2.] Both these services are entered into by consent, fitj^e Trapia-Tdvere,. 
a\\a Trapaarrjaare. (1.) Some men pronely yield up themselves to 
do what sin would have to be done ; therefore they are said ' to give 
themselves to work wickedness ; ' and where sin is vehement and 
obstinate, they are said ' to sell themselves to work wickedness / and 
in other phrases : Eccles. viii. 11, ' The heart of the sons of men is 
fully set in them to do evil ;' Eph. iv. 19, ' They have given them 
selves over to lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.' 
When they have cast off all remorse of conscience and fear of God's 
judgments, with full consent they abandon themselves to their brutish 
lusts and filthy desires, there is no check nor restraint can hold them. 
But this is when sin is grown to a height, e^e-^vdrjaav : Jude 11,. 
' They have ran greedily/ &c., as water is poured out of a bucket. 
But generally in all sin there is a voluntariness, if not a wilfulness in 
it, as a stone runneth down hill because it is its own proper motion. 
(2.) To God we consecrate ourselves with a thorough consent of will : 
Kom. xii. 1, ' I beseech you by the mercies of God, that ye present 
your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your 
reasonable service ;' and 2 Cor. viii. 5, ' And this they did, not as we 



VER. 13.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 249 

hoped, but first gave their ownselves to the Lord, and unto us by the 
will of God.' Hapacrrrja-are, the word either alludeth to servants, 
who stand before or in the presence of their lord and master, to show 
their readiness to be commanded or employed by him ; so present 
yourselves to show your readiness to obey all the commands of God ; 
or in allusion to the sacrifice, which was presented before the altar, in 
token that the party did design it, and with it himself, to God ; so do 
we yield up ourselves to God ; bodies and souls, all that we are and 
have, we resign it to him. There is this difference in both these resig 
nations the devil's servants do not what they do in love to him, but to 
their own flesh ; but Christ's servants do what they do in love to him 
as well as to themselves ; they know him, and love him ; he is not a 
master to be ashamed of. The giving up ourselves to sin is a concealed 
act ; we would not be seen in it ; for there is somewhat in their own 
hearts to check it and condemn it, some conscience of good and evil, 
as also a fear of blame from God and the world ; and so men do it 
covertly ; but do we give up ourselves solemnly and professedly. 

[3.] The service of sin should not be allowed by us. (1.) Partly 
because sin is a usurper, whereas God hath a full and clear right both 
to our bodies and our souls, for he made them both. Sinners, so far 
as they own a God and their obligations to him, cannot but look upon 
sin as a disorder, for it alienateth our subjection from him to whom it 
is due. All sinners are not atheists, and therefore can never get off 
this conviction that God is their owner, for he is their maker, and 
framed them for such a use and end, namely, to keep his laws ; there 
fore, to lend or give their bodies to sin is disloyalty and rebellion 
against the great and just sovereign of the world : 1 John iii. 4, 
' Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law ; for sin is the 
transgression of the law.' Men do not only say, but notionally know, 
that God is their owner ; but if they did practically improve it, the 
reformation of the world would not be so desperate a cure as it is ; but 
alas ! ' professing to know God, in their works they deny him,' Titus i. 
16. Their lives are quite contrary to their notional acknowledgment 
of God. What could they do more or worse if there were no God ? 
Eeason will tell us that it is impossible for us to be our own, for we 
neither made ourselves, nor can we subsist of ourselves for one moment. 
All wicked men are God's, whether they will or no ; yea, the devils 
themselves not excepted ; they are his against their wills, and therefore 
do not live as his. (2.) Sin is God's enemy, and ours too ; it destroy eth 
us while it seemeth to gratify us : ' The end of these things is death,' 
Rom. vi. 21. Now he is a traitor to his country that supplieth the 
enemy with arms : you wrong God, and wrong your own bodies and 
souls ; therefore, ' yield not your members as weapons of unright 
eousness unto sin.' It is a miserable thing to be traitors to God and 
ourselves : ' Thy destruction is of thyself, Hosea xiii. 9 ; our misery 
is of our own procuring. God is not to be blamed, but our own 
perverse choice ; we cherish a serpent in our bosoms, that will sting us 
to death. 

[4.] Since sin cannot challenge any just title to us, it is unques 
tionably our duty to yield up ourselves to the Lord. Let us see in 
what manner it is to be done. 



250 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VL [SfiB. XI. 

[1.] It must be done with hearty and full consent of will. In the 
covenant of grace God demandeth his right to be given him by your 
consent ; it is indeed a due debt, but it is called a gift : ' My son, give 
me thy heart,' Prov. xxiii. 20 ; because you become his people not by 
constraint, but by consent : Ps. ex. 3, ' Thy people shall be willing in 
the day of thy power ; ' and therefore it is resembled to marriage, than 
which nothing should be more free and voluntary : Cant. ii. 16, 'lam 
my beloved's, and my beloved is mine.' Thus freely and willingly 
should we resign ourselves to him. 

[2.] It must be out of a deep sense of his love and mercy : Bom. xii. 
1, 'I beseech you, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present 
your bodies a living sacrifice,' &c. ; and especially his great love in 
Christ : 2 Cor. v. 14, ' For the love of Christ constraineth us, because 
we thus judge/ &c. There must be thankfulness in the resolution to 
become the Lord's, for no bands will so strongly hold us to our duty 
as the bands of love ; when the soul is filled with admirations of his 
grace, and the ravishing sense of the wonders of his love in Christ, we 
do most kindly, heartily, and thoroughly surrender ourselves to God. 

[3.] It must be with grief and shame, that his right hath been so 
long detained from him, and that we have wasted so much of our 
time and strength in the service of sin : 1 Peter iv. 1-3, ' Forasmuch 
then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise 
with the same mind ; for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased 
from sin, that he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh 
to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. For the time past of our 
life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we 
walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, 
and abominable idolatries.' Therefore we should the more earnestly 
make restitution. Oh ! how sad a thing is it to grow old and grey 
headed in the devil's service, and to spend the fresh and flower of our 
time so vainly and unprofitably ! Alas ! how hath our time, strength, 
and parts been wasted and unprofitably employed ! Let us at length 
seek to do as much for God as ever we have done for sin. 

[4.] This resolution must be full and entire, of all that you are and 
have. All your faculties : 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20, ' Ye are not your own, ye 
are bought with a price ; therefore glorify God with your bodies and 
souls, which are God's.' All that the soul can do and the body can 
do, it is all due to God, and all to be devoted to him. In every state : 
Rom. xiv. 7, 8, ' For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to 
himself ; for whether we live, we live unto the Lord, or whether we 
die, we die unto the Lord ; whether we live therefore or die, we are 
the Lord's.' Whatever you are and have, you must have that and be 
that to God ; living, dying, sickness, health, in prosperity, in adversity, 
in every action : Zech. xiv. 20, 21, ' In that day shall there be upon 
the bells of the horses HOLINESS TO THE LORD, and the pots in the 
Lord's house shall be like the bowls before the altar, yea, every pot in 
Jerusalem and Judah shall be holiness to the Lord of hosts.' There 
must be God's impress on all we do, our civil and sacred actions. All 
reserves are hypocritical. What one faculty you keep back from God, 
you do what you can to cut it off from his blessing. Would you be 
contented if God should take the soul to heaven and leave the body 



VER. 13.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 251 

in hell, or the contrary ? What estate is not given to God is not 
sanctified ; what action is not ordered towards him as our last end is 
not rewarded, so that you give all, or none rightly. 

[5.] The end why we give up ourselves to God is to be governed, 
disposed, and ordered by him, to be what he would have us to be, and 
to do what he will have us to do, to submit ourselves to his disposing 
will, and subject ourselves to his commanding will. 

(1.) To submit ourselves to his disposing will, or the dominion of 
his providence. Let God carry you to heaven in what way soever he 
pleaseth ; if by many afflictions, or sharp pains, and infirmities of body, 
you dare not prescribe to God. You must say, as Christ, Heb. x. 5, 6, 
' A body hast thou prepared for me ; lo, I come to do thy will.' God 
is wise, and knoweth that if we had a more healthy body, we might 
be in danger of neglecting the soul ; or if we had more of the world, 
we should neglect heaven. Therefore you must except nothing out of 
your resignation ; better the body be pained than the soul lost ; the 
thorn that sticketh in the flesh may occasion rich experiences of grace. 
It may be God will have you to glorify him by martyrdom : Phil. i. 
20, ' Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life or by 
death;' that is, either by living in the body to preach the gospel 
longer, or signing the truth with his blood, if he died. So see David's 
resignation : 2 Sam. xv. 26, ' Let the Lord do unto me what seemeth 
good to him.' So we should humbly submit to the good-will of God : 
Dan. iii. 18, ' But if not, be it known unto thee, king, that we will 
not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image that thou hast set 
up.' They yielded their bodies to be burned, that they might not serve 
any gods but the Lord. 

(2.) To subject ourselves to his commanding will, or to do what he 
will have us to do. This is principally considered here ; we give up 
ourselves to God, that our bodies may be employed as instruments of 
righteousness. All external duties, or fruits of our love to God in 
Christ, are acted by the body ; therefore we resign up ourselves to him 
to obey him in these things. Surely it is meet that God should rule 
the creatures that he hath made ; therefore we should be able to say, as 
the psalmist, Ps. cxix. 94, ' I am thine, save me, for I have sought 
thy precepts.' One that maketh conscience of his resignation to God 
will be careful both to know and do his will. Paul, as soon as he was 
smitten with conviction, cries out, Acts ix. 6, ' Lord ! what wilt thou 
have me to do?' 

[6.] When you have thus dedicated yourselves to God, you must use 
yourselves for him ; for the sincerity of our dedication is known by 
our use. Many give up themselves to God, but in the use of them 
selves there appeareth no such matter. They use their tongues as 
their own to talk what they please, their hearts as their own to think 
and desire what they please, their bodies, their wealth, their time, their 
strength, as if it were all their own, and the hand of consecration had 
never been upon them : Ps. xii. 4, ' Our tongues are our own; who is 
lord over us?' This is the language not of their mouths, but of 
their lives ; these reassume the possession of that which they had sur 
rendered to the Lord. No ; you have, as to disposal, lost all property 
in yourselves, and must look upon yourselves ever after not as your 



252 SERMONS UPON KOMANS VI. [SER. XI. 

own, but God's ; they are ' vessels set apart for the master's use/ 2 
Tim. ii. 21 ; and accordingly we must ' live not to ourselves, but to 
God;' 2 Cor. V. 15, 'And that he died for all, that they that live 
should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him that died 
for them, and rose again.' Nothing must be alienated from him, but 
used as he shall direct and appoint. All your powers and faculties are 
his, and to be employed for him. 

Secondly, Let me show you the reasons of it. They are taken from 
the right God hath in you and to you. Justice requireth that we 
should give every one his own, to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, 
to God the things that are God's. We do but restore to God that 
which is his before when we give up ourselves to him. Now we are 
God's 

1. By his creating us out of nothing : ' It is he that hath made us, 
not we ourselves,' Ps. c. 3. Surely God hath a propriety in all that 
we have; for we have all by his creating bounty, as the potter hath 
power over his own clay. So hath God in all the vessels which he 
hath formed, ' he formed them for himself.' If the husbandman may 
call the vine his own which he hath planted in his own ground and 
noil, God may much more call the creature his own, which he hath 
made. The husbandman cannot make the vine, but only set it and 
dress it : but we are wholly and solely of him and from him, and 
from nothing else, and therefore we should be wholly and solely for 
him, and nothing else. 

2. By preservation. God is Lord of all, because he preserveth all : 
Neh. ix. 6, ' Thou, even thou, art Lord alone ; thou hast made heaven, 
the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things 
that are therein, and thou preservest them all, and the host of heaven 
worshippeth thee.' Preservation is the continuance of our being by his 
providential influence and supportation : Acts xvii. 28, ' For in him we 
live, and move, and have our being ; ' Heb. xi. 3, ' Through faith we 
understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that 
things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.' If 
we could any moment exempt ourselves from the dominion and influence 
of his providence, we might be supposed to be exempted in that moment 
from his jurisdiction and government ; but man wholly depending on 
God for being and preservation, we cannot lay claim to our time and 
strength, not for one minute or moment ; for we can hold neither body 
nor soul, nor anything that we have, a minute longer than God 
pleaseth. If you will serve yourselves and please yourselves, live of 
yourselves if you can. 

3. By redemption. That right is pleaded, 1 Cor. vi. 20, ' Ye are not 
your own, ye are bought with a price ; therefore glorify God with your 
bodies and souls, which are God's.' By creation and preservation we 
are God's ; but redemption constitutetli such a new right and title as 
doth not only strengthen the former, but also is comfortable to us. If 
a slave were not killed outright, but continued a day or two, though 
he died by the stripes given him by his master, there was no plea or 
accusation could be commenced against the master for the life of his 
slave, Exod. xxi. 21 ; he was his money, that is, purchased by his 
money. God hath bought us at a higher rate than money : 1 Peter i. 



VEK. 13.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 253 

18, 'For ye are redeemed not with corruptible things, as silver and 
gold, from your vain conversations, received by tradition from your 
fathers ; but with the precious blood of the Son of God, as of a lamb 
without spot and blemish.' Therefore the redeemed are bound to serve 
him that ransomed them. All our time and strength belongeth to the 
Redeemer, who hath ransomed us from the worst slavery, the bondage 
of sin and Satan, and with the greatest price, his own blood. This was 
Christ's end : Rom. xiv. 9, ' For to this end Christ both died, and rose 
and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.' 

4. Christians have owned this right by their covenant-consent. Our 
bodies and souls were consecrated to Christ when we gave up our names 
to him in baptism : ' Thou enteredst into covenant with me, and be- 
camest mine/ Ezek. xvi. 8 ; then were we enrolled in God's cense-book : 
Isa. xliv. 5, ' One shall say, I am the Lord's ; and another shall call 
himself by the name of Jacob ; and another shall subscribe with the 
hand to the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel/ By 
voluntary contract and resignation we gave up ourselves and all that 
is ours to God. Baptism is our sacramentum militare, our military 
oath ; we were then listed in his warfare and service. When Christ 
was baptized he was consecrated as the captain of our salvation, 
and then presently after his baptism he entered into the lists with 
Satan. We are entered as private soldiers ; now it is treachery and 
breach of covenant if, after we have owned and acknowledged God's 
right in us, we shall alienate ourselves from him, and use ourselves for 
ourselves at our own list and pleasure. 

5. By regeneration, whereby we are actually taken info Christ's pos 
session, and fitted for his use. This right is pleaded in the text, ' As 
those that are alive from the dead, yield up yourselves to God.' There 
is a double argument in it. 

[1.] As it puts an obligation upon us. It is by the tender mercies 
of the Lord that you are recovered out of the death of sin to the life of 
grace : Eph. iv. 4, 5, ' God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love where 
with he hath loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses and sins, 
hath quickened us together with Christ/ We that were once wretched 
and miserable, liable to death, utterly disabled for the service of our 
creator, that he of his grace hath called us and quickened us, and 
made us alive, who were formerly dead, we have this spiritual life from 
him and for him ; this should be an everlasting obligation upon us, 
while we have a day to live, to remember God hath renewed you for 
himself. 

[2.] As it puts an inclination into us. Men that are raised to a new 
life are fitted to do him service ; they are delivered from the power and 
death of sin, have received grace to serve him acceptably ; the new 
creature is fitted for the operations that belong to it : Eph. ii. 10, ' For 
we are the workmanship of God, created in Christ Jesus to good works, 
that we might walk therein. The withered branch is planted into the 
good vine-stock, that it may live again, and bring forth fruit unto God ; 
so that if we have been made partakers of this mercy, we are bound, 
and we are inclined ; this shows God's propriety in us, that he ex- 
pecteth to be honoured by us. 

Use 1. Information. 



254 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XI. 

1. It shows how vain the plea was of those libertines in Calvin's 
time (against whom he is justly severe) and their adherents, who 
thought they might serve sin with their bodies, as long as they did dis 
like and disallow it with their souls, they were safe enough. They 
were wont to say, Non ego sed asinus meus it was their drudge the 
body that sinned, not they. No ; the apostle saith, ' Give not up your 
members as weapons of unrighteousness,' -fee., and elsewhere, ' Glorify 
God in your bodies and souls, which are God's.' And the apostle 
pleadeth the dignity of the body, and how it is defiled by fornication 
and other inordinances, 1 Cor. vi., per totum. 

2. That it is not enough to abstain from evil, but we must do good ; 
for the apostle saith, ' yield not/ and then ' yield.' So the apostle 
saith, 2 Tim. ii. 21, ' If a man therefore purge himself from these, he 
shall be a vessel of honour, sanctified and meet for the master's use, 
and prepared unto every good work.' So 2 Cor. v. 15, ' And that he 
died for all, that they that live should not henceforth live unto them 
selves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again.' They are 
sinners that hide their talent in a napkin, though they live not in 
apparent gross sins ; all that time and strength that is bestowed on sin 
is used against God ; but what is idly and impertinently lost is not used 
for him. Both deprive God of his right ; the one alienate their time 
and strength, the other mis-spend it. Some do not run into gluttony, 
drunkenness, oppression, adultery (these apparently use their bodies as 
weapons of unrighteousness), but they do not live to God, and so are 
defective in the other part. 

3. It showeth what care we should take how we employ our bodies ; 
for the members of the body are instruments of the soul, to execute 
that which it willeth and desireth, and sin without the body is unfur 
nished with arms. But chiefly two things should we take care of in 
the body, the senses by which we let in sin, and the tongue by which 
we let out sin, for it is the interpreter of the heart. 

[1.] For the senses, a Christian should not be guided by his senses, 
but by his reason and conscience as sanctified by grace. Our Lord 
would teach us that it were better to want senses than gratify them 
with an offence and wrong to God, against them that cannot deny the 
pleasures of senses : Mat. v. 29, 30, ' If thy right eye offend thee, pluck 
it out, and cast it from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of 
thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be 
cast into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast 
it from thee ; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members 
should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell/ 
Better be blind than by wanton gazing run the hazard of damnation ; 
not that we should maim ourselves, but, of the two, count it the less 
evil. Therefore, to want the sinful pleasure should not be so grievous, 
when we should be content to want the sense itself. The far greatest 
part of the world are merely guided by their senses, because the far 
greatest part of the world are unconverted and unsanctified, and the 
world is full of allurements to the flesh, and the more we enjoy the 
good things thereof, the more is corruption strengthened within us : 
and as the heart stands affected, sensitive objects make a deeper or 
slighter impression on us. Some temptations, which are nothing to 



VER. 13.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 255 

.another, may be great matters to some, who cannot deny themselves 
without great difficulty. Therefore when such temptations as suit 
with our fancies and appetites assault us with more than ordinary 
potency, we must remember sense is not to be the ruling power in our 
souls, but grace. Sometimes sin is brought to our hands, and the bait 
is played to our mouths ; as Josh. vii. 21, Achan saw, coveted, and 
purloined the wedge of gold ; Prov. vi. 25, ' Lust not after her beauty 
in thy heart, neither let her take thee with her eyelids ;' 2 Sam. xi. 2. 
David saw Bathsheba, and so his heart was fired. In short, sense is 
an ill and dangerous guide ; it was never given for a judge or coun 
sellor to determine or direct, but an informer to represent the outward 
forms of things ; partly natural, to inform us of things profitable or 
hurtful to the outward man ; partly spiritual, to transmit the objects 
of God's wisdom, power, and goodness to. our minds, or to be the 
ordinary passage by which the daily effects of God's love and mercy 
are conveyed to our hearts. God instituted them for helps, but we 
make them snares. Well, then, better want senses than gratify them 
with the displeasure of God : to lose an eye is a far less evil than to 
lose a soul. 

[2.] For the tongue. The apostle saith it produceth a world of evil. 
It hath a great use in religion, to vent the conceptions of our minds 
to the praise and glory of God : James iii. 9, ' Therewith bless we 
God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made 
after the similitude of God.' In the general, think of this ; every 
member must be an instrument of righteousness : is my tongue now 
employed for God or for Satan ? when you are apt to run into censur 
ing, detraction, vain and frivolous talk. 

Use 2. To press you to this solemn dedication of yourselves to God, 
entirely, unreservedly, irrevocably. 

1. God giveth himself to you in covenant, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, all their infinite goodness, wisdom, power, &c. ; and will not 
you give yourselves wholly to God ? 

2. You are already absolutely, wholly his, and will not you consent 
that he shall be your God, and you his people ? That is all that is 
wanting : Jer. xxiv. 7, ' And I will give them an heart to know me, 
that I am the Lord, and they shall be my people, and I will be their 
God; for they shall return unto me with their whole heart.' This 
God worketh by his renewing grace. 

3. You are never so much your own as when you are God's, not as 
to disposal, but as to enjoyment : 1 Cor. iii. 23, ' All are yours, and 
ye are Christ's, and Christ is God's.' There lieth your safety, glory, 
and happiness ; it is the foundation of all obedience, and of all com 
fort. (1.) Of obedience, you will not easily yield to temptations ; a 
Christian hath this answer ready, I am dedicated to God : 1 Cor. vi. 
15, ' Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ ? Shall 
I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of 
an harlot ? God forbid ! ' Nor will you stick at interest : 2 Cor. viii. 5, 
' They first gave their ownselves to the Lord, and unto us by the will 
of God.' (2.) Then for comfort: John xiv. 1, 'Let not your hearts 
be troubled, ye believe in God, believe also in me;' 1 Tim. vi. 8, 
' Having food and raiment, let us be therewith content ;' 1 Peter v. 7, 



256 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XII. 

' Casting all your care upon him, for he careth for you.' This .easeth 
you of all your cares and fears, you are God's ; nay, it secureth you 
against eternal miseries : John xii. 20, ' Where I am, there shall my 
servant be.' 

Use 3. To put us upon self-reflection. Is your dedication to God 
sincere ? If so 

1. In the whole course of your conversation you will prefer his 
interest before your own, and when any interest of your own riseth up 
against the interest of God, you will set light by it, as if it were nothing 
worth, and then no self-respects will tempt you to disobey God, though 
never so powerful ; no hire draw you to the smallest sin, nor danger 
fright you from your duty: Dan. iii. 17, 18, ' Our God whom we serve 
is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver 
us out of thine hand, king. But if not, be it known unto thee, 
king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship thy golden image 
that thou hast set up ; ' Acts xx. 24, ' But none of these things move 
me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish 
iny course with joy.' If we can but forget ourselves and remember 
God, he will remember us better than if we had remembered ourselves. 
We secure whatever we put into God's hands, and venture in his 
service. 

2. You will make conscience how you spend your time and strength ; 
God keepeth account : Luke xix. 23, ' Wherefore gavest not thou my 
money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine 
own with usury ? ' So you will keep a faithful reckoning, how you 
lay out yourselves for God, what share he hath in all things we have 
and do. God observeth, so must we, whether God have his own, and 
we do not defraud him. Whose work are you a-doing ? 

3. You will have a liberal heart ; you will think no service too 
much, or loss too great for God : Phil. i. 21, ' For me to live is Christ ;' 
all other things come from God. Certainly you must not put him off 
with what the flesh will spare. 



SERMON XII. 

For sin shall not have dominion over you ; for ye are not under the 
laio, but under grace. ROM. VI. 14. 

THE apostle had exhorted them to mortification, ver. 12 ; to vivification, 
ver. 13 ; in both to caution that sin may not usurp the power and place 
of God, who alone should command and govern both our souls and 
bodies. To fight for sin is to fight against God, which should be a 
horrid thing to Christians, who should employ all their powers and 
faculties to keep up God's interest in their souls, by maintaining that 
new life that is given them by God. If we have any weapons or 
instruments, they should be employed for God, and not for sin, because 
sin was not their lord now as heretofore ; it neither had, nor shall have 
dominion over you. If a man should speak to any city (suppose in 
Hungary, or other frontier of Christendom), newly freed from Turkish 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 257 

slavery, Care not for the commands and threatenings of the Turks 
any more, they do not lord it over you as they were wont to do ; the 
very same is the argument of the apostle; sin hath not the same 
strength against you which before it had, now you are regenerate and 
alive from the dead. Nay, he speaketh with more advantage of 
expression than any can in an outward case. Sin hath not, sin shall 
not have, dominion, &c., if you keep striving and fighting against it ; 
this tyrant shall not recover the kingdom in you which he hath lost, 
but you shall become victorious by Christ. There are two things 
which encourage us to fight (1.) The goodness of the cause ; (2.) 
The assurance and hope of victory. The cause is good ; for the busi 
ness in debate is, to whom we should yield up ourselves ? to sin, or to 
God ? or in whose warfare we shall employ the faculties and powers 
of body and soul ? If we take to God's side, the victory is clear, that 
grace which hath freed us from the tyranny of sin is able to free us 
still, that we shall no more come under that bondage. Strive we must, 
for unless we fight and make good our resignation, sin will reign ; but 
let not the sense of our weakness discourage us in our endeavours 
against sin : though there be some relics of the flesh, yet the sanctifi- 
cation of the Spirit shall prevail, and therefore it is laziness and 
cowardice if we do not strive duly against sin : ' For sin shall not have 
dominion over you, for ye are not under the law, but under grace.' 
In the words observe 

1. The privilege of the renewed and striving Christian, 'Sin shall 
not have dominion over you.' 

2. The reason of the certainty of it, ' For ye are not under the law, 
but under grace.' This reason is both negatively and affirmatively ex 
pressed. 



[1.] Negatively, ' For ye are not under the law.' 



[2.] Positively, 'But under grace.' Both expressions have their 
proper emphasis, as you will see by and by. 

1. The privilege of the renewed and striving Christian. 

[1.] That the renewed Christian is here considered is plain from all 
the foregoing context. He speaketh of those that were ' dead unto sin,' 
ver. 2, not only in profession and baptismal vow, but really by virtue 
of their union to Christ, ver. 5. But how is a Christian dead unto 
sin ? Not so as that it should be wholly extinguished in us, but so as 
that it is a-dying, and the victory is sure to those that strive against it. 
Again, he speaketh of those 'that are alive from the dead,' ver. 13, 
had a new life begun in them, and have renounced sin, and effectually 
presented and resigned up themselves to God's use and service. 

[2.] That the renewed Christian is here considered as striving, be 
cause they are the same persons who were exhorted, ver. 12, ' not to 
let sin reign ; ' what is here a promise is there an exhortation. Again, 
they were such as had presented their members and faculties to the 
Lord as oVXa ^iKaioavvr]^, ' weapons or instruments of righteousness.' 
Now, what are weapons but for warfare ? They had undertaken in their 
covenant resignation not only to work, but fight for God. Eom. xiii. 
12, the graces of the Spirit are called ' armour of light.' Christ doth 
array us non ad pompam, sed ad pugnam not for show, but use. A 
Christian can do no good, but he must fight first. Again, carnal in- 

VOL. XI. R 



258 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XII. 

ferences are rejected with indignation : ver. 15, ' What then, shall we 
sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace ? God forbid !' 
and therefore the Christian here is not considered as loose and lazy, but 
as warring and fighting against sin. Once more, the argument here 
implieth it, ' Ye are under grace,' which impelleth and urgeth us to 
resist sin and the lusts thereof. God giveth power to overcome it. So 
then the apostle's purpose is to exhort the renewed Christian strongly 
to resist sin, because through grace he is sure to carry away the victory ; 
whilst we work and concur with our wills and endeavours, ' God work- 
eth in us both to will and to do,' Phil. ii. 12. 

2. The reason of it 

[1.] Negatively expressed, ' Ye are not under the law.' By the law 
is meant the covenant of works, which requireth exact obedience, but 
giveth no strength to obey ; the law requireth what we must do, but 
giveth no power to do what it commandeth ; it forbiddeth sin, and 
denounceth judgment ; it terrifieth by its threatenings, and raiseth a 
tempest in the conscience ; but it doth not afford us any help and 
relief, and so rather irritateth and provoketh the power of sin than 
suppresseth it : Kom. vii. 8, ' Sin taking occasion, wrought in me all 
manner of concupiscence ; for without the law sin was dead.' As a 
river swelleth the more it is restrained by any let or dam, so is corrup 
tion stirred, and then a man is discouraged, giveth over all endeavour 
of repressing it. So 2 Cor. iii. 6, ' The letter killeth, but the Spirit 
giveth life.' The first covenant did only denounce and aggravate our 
condemnation, and put us in despair. 

[2.] Affirmatively and positively expressed : ' But under grace,' under 
the new covenant, or under the grace of Jesus Christ, who hath not 
only redeemed us from the guilt of sin, but also from the power of sin. 
The grace of remission is our encouragement, and the grace of sancti- 
fication our help and relief. 

(1.) The grace of remission is a great encouragement, freeth us 
from the bondage of despairing thoughts, which weaken our endeavours ; 
therefore the apostle opposeth the spirit of power to the spirit of fear. 
Christ offering a pardon upon repentance, doth strengthen our hands 
in our work. 

(2.) The grace of sanctification is our help. God, by his Spirit, 
giveth life and strength to do what he requires of us, and power to 
resist sin, that we may overcome it : Rom. viii. 2, ' The law of the 
Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and 
death ;' 1 John v. 4, ' Whosoever is born of God overcometh the world, 
and this is the victory whereby we overcome the world, even our faith.' 
Lux jubet, gratia juvat the law commandeth, but grace helpeth. 

Doct. That sin should not, and shall not, reign over those who are 
under the sacred power and influence of Jesus Christ. 

1. Dejure, it should not reign over them ; it hath no right to rule, 
it is a usurper. They who are redeemed by Christ should bind this 
duty upon their hearts, charge themselves with it, to take heed that 
sin doth not reign. It was once our lord and master, but we have 
changed masters, and profess ourselves now to be dead to sin and alive 
unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord ; therefore we should strive 
against it, lest it recover its old dominion over us. 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 259 

2. De facto, it is not fully obeyed ; it doth not absolutely get the 
victory, and bear rule in our hearts, but is weakened more and more in 
them who have given up themselves to the regimen and government 
of grace. Here 

[1.] What is the dominion of sin ? 

[2.] What need the children of God to take heed it be not set up in 
their hearts ? 

[3.] What hopes and encouragements they have by the gospel or 
grace of Jesus Christ whilst they are striving against it ? 

First, What is the dominion of sin ? That will be best known by 
some distinctions and propositions. 

1. We must distinguish between the being and reign of sin. The 
apostle doth not say, ' Ye shall not sin any more, because ye are not 
under the law, but under grace ;' but ' sin shall not have dominion over 
you/ it shall not get the better. Sin doth remain and dwell in the 
saints, though not reign over them ; as the beasts in Dan. vii. 12, their 
dominion was taken away, yet their lives were prolonged for a season 
and time. It is cast down in regard of regency, but not cast out in 
regard of inherency ; grace doth not wholly extinguish it, but only repel 
the motions of it. Sin will rebel, but it shall not reign ; they do not 
give way to it, nor actually obey and embrace the commands of it ; they 
do not do all that sin would have them to do. If the apostle had said, 
Let not sin be in your mortal bodies, as long as we carry flesh about us, 
he would not have expected the exhortation to have been fully answered ; 
but he saith, Let it not reign, which as well can as it ought to be com 
plied with. 

2. Sin doth reign when either it is not opposed, or when it is opposed 
weakly and with a faint resistance. Where it is not opposed, there it 
remaineth in its full strength ; and where it is opposed weakly, and 
without any victory and success, it argueth only a sense of duty, but 
no effect of grace. 

[1.] Sin reigneth when it is not opposed, when a man doth yield up 
himself to execute all the commands thereof, and doth fulfil and obey 
its lusts ; as the ambitious, the worldly, and the voluptuous do what 
soever their lusts command them, with a miserable bondage, yea, they 
willingly walk after it : Prov. vii. 22, ' He goeth after her straightway 
as an ox to the slaughter, or as a fool to the correction of the stocks.' 
Sin is as a guest to evil men, but as a thief and robber to the godly, 
welcome to the one, but the other would not have it come into their 
hearts. It is one thing to wear a chain as an ornament, another as a 
bond and fetter ; to give way to sin, or to have it break in upon us ; to 
put it on willingly, or to have it put and forced upon us. It may be 
they may be sensible of it, they may purpose not to do it, or may com 
plain of it ; but this is a constant truth, that we oftener complain of 
sin than we do resist it, and oftener resist it than prevail against it. 
It is not enough for men to see their sins, or blame them in themselves, 
or to purpose to amend them and forsake them, but they must strive to 
overcome them, and in striving, prevail. But we speak now of the 
first complaining of sin. There is a double deceit of heart, whereby 
men harden themselves in complaining of sin without resistance of it. 
(1.) Either men complain of other sins, and not the main, as if a man 



260 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XII. 

should complain of an aching tooth when the disease hath seized upon 
the vitals ; or of a cut finger when at the same time he is wounded at 
the heart ; of wandering thoughts in prayer when at the same time the 
heart is habitually averse or estranged from God, through some idols 
which are set up there : Ezek. xiv. 3, 5, ' Son of man, these men have 
set up their idols in their heart, and put the stumbling-block of their 
iniquity before their face ; should I be inquired of at all by them ? ' 
and ver. 5, ' That I may take the house of Israel in their own heart, 
because they are all estranged from me through their idols.' They 
complain of want of quickening grace, when it may be they want con 
verting grace, as if we would have the Spirit of God to blow to a dead 
coal. So when we pray for strengthening grace, when we should ask 
renewing grace, and confess only the infirmities of the saints, when we 
should bewail the misery of an unregenerate carnal estate ; and we 
cry out of some incident weaknesses, when we should first see that our 
habitual aversion from God is cured. As Moses pleaded many things 
why he should not be sent to Egypt, he was not eloquent, and the like : 
Exod. iv. 19, 'Go return into Egypt, for all the men are dead which 
sought thy life ; ' he had never pleaded this, but God knew where the 
pinch was, and that was the main ground of his tergiversation, and 
therefore gently toucheth his privy sore. So some complain of other 
things, this and that is amiss, but the main thing is neglected and 
lightly passed over. (2.) We rather complain than give over sin 
ning ; resistance is certainly a greater evidence of a sincere heart than 
complaining. We should not be so haunted with temptations if we 
did resist more : James iv. 7, ' Eesist the devil, and he shall flee from 
you.' Satan only hath weapons offensive, as fiery darts ; he hath none 
defensive, as a Christian hath, namely, sword and shield ; and we should 
not be so much troubled with the ill consequents of sin. Who will 
pity that man that complains of soreness and pain, and doth not take 
the gravel out of his shoe ? If you wound and gore yourselves, no 
question but your smart and trouble is real, you do not complain in 
hypocrisy ; but who is to be blamed ? your business is to remove 
the cause. We read of the young man, Mat. x. 22, ' He was sad at 
that saying, and went away grieved, for he had great possessions.' 
His grief was a real grief, but the cause was in himself ; he would have 
Christ, and yet keep his love to the world still ; so many complain of 
their lusts, not as a burden, for they indulge them, but because of their 
inconvenience ; they cannot reconcile their sense of duty with those 
corrupt affections which it apparently disproveth. 

[2.] When it is opposed weakly, and with a faint resistance. It is 
not enough for men to see their sins, and blame them in themselves, 
or purpose to amend and forsake them, but they must strive to over 
come them, and in striving prevail, for otherwise sensuality carrieth it, 
because our reason and will make too weak an opposition. Jesus 
Christ our head and chief resisted Satan's motions with indignation, 
' Get thee behind me, Satan ; ' so must we. When we speak faintly and 
coldly, the devil reneweth the assault with the more violence ; there 
fore our resistance must be valid and strong. Many purposes there 
are that come to nothing, because they are not deep and serious: 
Pharaoh in his qualms proposed to let the children of Israel go ; and 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 261 

yet, when it came to it, he would not let them go : Saul purposed in 
his heart not to kill David, yea, bound it by an oath ; yet afterwards 
he attempted it, 1 Sam. xix. 6, compared with 10 and 11. So many 
times they purpose to avoid the sin by which they have been foiled ; 
but when the temptation returneth, they are overborne with it, as 
marsh ground is drowned with the return of every tide. Many are 
persuaded that sin is evil, as contrary to God and hurtful to them 
selves ; hereupon they have some mind to let it go, yea, some wishes 
and weak desires, that Christ would save them from it ; yet still have 
a love that is greater than their dislike, the bent of their hearts is more 
for it than against it, and their habitual inclination is more to keep it 
than leave it. Therefore we must look not only to our endeavour, but 
to the success that we have against sin ; for if our will were more 
strong, and our endeavour more serious, we should have more success ; 
if there were a firm ratified resolution of mortifying and crucifying 
every sin, and an endeavouring against sin with all speed and diligence, 
the old man would more decay in us, and the life of grace be set up 
with greater power and efficacy. I would not leave this point without 
distinct information. 

(1.) Then, there are certain unavoidable infirmities which the saints 
cannot get rid of, though they fain would ; such as the apostle speaketh 
of, Rom. vii. 19, ' When I would do good, evil is present with me.' 
As those swarms of noisome and unsavoury thoughts, which are injected 
on a sudden, and do hinder us and distract us in the best employment, 
wandering thoughts in the time of prayer, never distinctly consented 
to, rash words spoken of a sudden, sudden unpremeditated actions. In 
these cases watching and striving is conquering, for you do prevail in 
part, though not in whole ; it preventeth many of them. Of this 
nature are want of degrees of love to God, and that liberty and purity 
in his service which the holy soul aimeth at, and the first stirrings and 
risings of corruption in the heart. 

(2.) There are a smaller sort of sins, as the sins of daily incursion : 
James iii. 2, ' In many things we offend all of us/ There is no man, 
so exact but his watch is intermitted, and then he will be sinning ; 
other cannot be looked for in this state of frailty wherein we now are. 
We bewray too much dulness, weariness, formality in our duties to 
God, our domestic crosses put us into fits of anger and discontent ; in 
our public actions some intermixture of hypocrisy and vainglory, some 
high-mindedness in our prosperity, some distrust and uncomely dis 
quiet of spirit in our adversity. Our Lord telleth us, John xiii. 10, 
' He that is washed, needeth not save to wash his feet.' They that are 
in a holy state, by walking up and down in the world, in the several 
businesses and employments thereof, contract some filth, which must 
be washed off every day by a renewed application of the blood of 
Christ, which is the fountain God hath opened for uncleanness. 
Though the saints do not (like swine) voluntarily wallow in the 
puddle, yet in a polluted world they contract some filth. In this 
case, every failing must make us more wary and watchful, and teach 
us wisdom, that we do not lapse another time. 

(3.) By the sway of great and headstrong passions, some that make 
conscience of their ways in the general may fall into sins more heinous, 



262 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XII. 

but they do not make a trade of it, or settle in such an evil way. To 
lapse ordinarily, frequently, easily into these sins, will not stand with 
grace. The saints may fail in their duty strangely on occasions, as 
David, Peter, Lot, &c. ; as a man sailing into France, a tempest may 
drive him into Spain, or some other country. Their face is towards 
heaven, but a sudden passion may drive them another way ; as the 
wicked are good by fits, but evil by constitution. So the children of 
God, the constitution and bent of their hearts is towards God ; for a 
fit or so they may do things misbecoming the new nature, but as soon 
as awakened, they retract their sins by a special repentance : Ps. li. 3, 4, 
' For I acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. 
Against thee, thee only have I sinned, and done this evil in thy 
sight.' 

[3.] As sin in general should not bear sway in our hearts, so no one 
sin should have dominion over us : Ps. cxix. 133, ' Order my steps in 
thy word, and let not any iniquity have dominion over me ; ' neither 
this nor that. One sin allowed may keep God out of the throne, and 
may keep afoot Satan's interest in the soul. Certainly he that is in 
the state of grace lieth in no known sin. Every known sin sets up 
another god and lord, and all his actions will have an evil tincture 
from that sin ; every action will be levelled with the main thing 
which he affects, be it what it will be ; therefore it is dangerous to 
know anything to be sin, and yet to go on still to commit it, though it 
be not in materia gravi, in a heinous case ; as for instance, vain 
speeches, wanton gestures, &c. ; he knoweth it is a sin to be idle ; it 
cometh into his mind ; his conscience telleth him that he should not, 
yet he will : so for immoderate gaming, as to the expense of time or 
money, if one convinced that he should not yet will use it ; these lesser 
failings persisted in, and kept up constantly against the light and 
checks of conscience, may amount to a dangerous evil. Surely all that 
fear and love God should be very tender of displeasing and dishonour 
ing him. The domination of acts of sin is dangerous ; though they 
be not settled so as to damn him, yet they may cause God to afflict 
you, hide his face from you, and humble you with a sense of his 
displeasure. Small sins continued in against checks of conscience may 
do us a great deal of harm, and get the upper hand of the sinner, and 
bring him under in time ; after, if habituated by long custom, so as he 
cannot easily shake off the yoke, or redeem himself from the tyranny 
thereof, they steal into the soul insensibly, and get strength, as multi 
plied acts ; but gross presumptuous sins by one single act bring a 
mighty advantage to the flesh, weaken the spirit, advance themselves 
suddenly. 

[4.] As particular sins get into the throne by turns, sometimes one 
sometimes another, so there are evil frames of spirit that do more 
directly oppose the esteem and sovereignty and power of God in the 
heart ; as those three mentioned : 1 John ii. 16, ' The lust of the flesh, 
the lust of the eye, and the pride of life ; ' either voluptuousness or the 
inordinate love of pleasures, when men make it their business to gratify 
their senses, and glut and throng their hearts with all manner of de 
lights ; or else are surprised with an immeasurable desire of heaping 
up riches, or affectation of credit and honour. Now these evil frames 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 263 

of heart should be the more watched and striven against, because these 
sins rise up against God, as he is the last end and chief good ; they set 
up idols instead of God, mammon instead of God. All that are carnal 
and unsanctified are under the power of these : Luke viii. 14, ' That 
which fell among thorns are they, which when they have heard, go 
forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, 
and bring forth no fruit to perfection ; ' they never carry on religion 
to any good effect and purpose. And there are none of God's children 
but need constantly to be mortifying and subduing them. As in a gar 
den the weeds will grow, because the roots are not quite plucked up, so 
there must be a constant mortification, because they are natural to us, 
and the back bias of corruption is not wholly taken off, even in the 
most mortified of God's children. 

[5.] There is a dominion of sin, which is more gross and sensible, 
or more secret and close. More open ; for though sin doth reign in 
every one by nature, yet this dominion doth more sensibly appear in 
some than others, who are judicially given up to be under the visible 
dominion of sin, as the just fruit of their voluntary living under that 
yoke, and are set forth as warnings to the rest of the world, as men 
hung up in chains of darkness ; they are apparently and in conspectu 
hominum instances of this woful slavery ; every man that seeth them, 
and is acquainted with their course of life, may without breach of 
charity say, There goeth one who declareth himself to be a servant to 
sin. This may be either as to sin in general, or to some particular 
sin. 

(1.) To sin in general. Whosoever he be that, instead of trembling 
at God's word, scoff eth at it, and maketh more account of the course 
of this world than of the will of God, of the fashions of men than of 
God's word, and thinketh the scorn of a base worm, that would deride 
him for godliness, a greater terror than the wrath of the eternal God, 
and the love of his carnal companions is prized as a greater happiness 
than communion with Christ, and, instead of working out his salvation 
with fear and trembling, runneth into all excess of riot, or carelessly 
neglects his precious soul while he pampereth his vile body, and doth 
voluntarily and ordinarily leave the boat to the stream, and give up 
himself to serve his corruptions without resistance or seeking out for 
help ; this man is without dispute, and in the eye of all the world, a 
slave to sin : Rom. vi. 16, ' Know ye not, that to whom ye yield your 
selves servants to obey, his servants ye are, whether of sin unto death, 
or of obedience unto righteousness ? ' It is an apparent case ; a man 
that giveth up himself to go on in the way of his own heart, restraineth 
himself in nothing which it affects, is one of sin's slaves. So our Lord 
Jesus : John viii. 34, ' Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever com- 
mitteth sin is the servant of sin ; ' there needeth no further doubt nor 
debate about the matter. He that goeth on in a trade of sin, and 
maketh that his work and business in the world, never seriously looking 
after the saving of his soul, this soul is one in whom sin reigneth. 

(2.) To some particular sin. As we have instances of carnal wretches 
in the general, so of some poor captive souls that remain under the full 
power and tyranny of this or that lust, and are so remarkable for their 
slavery and bondage under it that the world will point at them, and 



264 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XII. 

say, There goeth a glutton, a drunkard, an adulterer, a covetous world 
ling and muckworm, a proud envious person ; their sin is broken out 
in some filthy sore and scab, that is visible to every common eye and 
view, either their covetousness or gluttony, or ambitious affectation of 
greatness, &c. Observers may truly say, There is one whose god is his 
belly, a slave to appetite : 2 Peter ii. 19, ' While they promise them 
selves liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption ; for of 
whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage.' 
They grow proverbial for giving up themselves wholly to such a 
conquering and prevailing lust. As in natural things, several men 
have their distinct excellences, some are famous for a strong sight, 
some for an exquisite ear, some for a nimble tongue, some for agility 
of body ; so these have some notable excess in this or that sort of sin. 
Or as the saints of God are eminent for some special graces, Abraham 
for faith, Moses for meekness, Job for patience, Joseph for chastity, 
Timothy for temperance ; so these have their notorious and contrary 
blemishes. 

2. There is a more secret and close dominion of sin, that is varnished 
over with a fair appearance. Men have many good qualities, no 
notorious blemishes, but yet some sensitive good or other lieth nearest 
the heart, and occupieth the room and place of God; that is, it is 
loved, respected, and served instead of God, or more than God. That 
which is our chief est good or last end is our god, or occupieth the 
room of God : Mat. vi. 24, ' No man can serve two masters ; for either 
he will hate the one, and love the other, or else he will hold to the one, 
and despise the other : ye cannot serve God and mammon ;' John v. 
44, ' How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and 
seek not the honour that cometh from God only ?' Luke xiv. 26, ' If 
any come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and 
children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot 
be my disciple.' We must be dead not only to carnal pleasures, but 
to relations, estate, yea, life and all ; nothing on this side God must sit 
nearest the heart, nor bring us under its command and power : 1 Cor. 
vi. 12, ' I will not be brought under the power of anything.' We are 
besotted and bewitched with some temporal thing, cannot part with it, 
or leave it for God's sake, or notwithstanding all the mischief it doth 
to his interest in the soul : though a man serve it cunningly, closely, 
and by a cleanly conveyance, yet all his religion is to hide and feed 
this lust. 

[6.] There is a predominancy of one sin over another, and the 
predominancy of sin over grace. In the first sense renewed men may 
be said to have some reigning corruption or predominant sin, namely, 
in comparison of other sins. That such predominant sins they have 
appeareth by the great sway and power they bear in commanding other 
evils to be committed or foreborne accordingly as they contribute to 
the advancement or hindrance of this sin ; as in the body, a wen or 
strain draweth all the noxious humours to itself, and thereby groweth 
more great and monstrous. It appeareth also by the frequent relapses 
of the saints into them, and their unwillingness to admit admonition 
and reproof for them, and sometimes their falling into them out of an 
inward propensity, when outward temptations are none, or weak, or 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 265 

very few. Well, then, there are some sins which are less mortified 
than others, or unto which they are naturally carried by constitution, 
or education, natural inclination, or course of life. Thus David had 
his iniquity : Ps. xviii. 23, ' I was also upright before him, and I kept 
myself from mine iniquity ; ' whether it were hastiness or distrust of 
the promise, or also an inclination to revenge himself, some sins that 
men savour, or withstand less, or which are more urgent and impor 
tunate upon them, and steal away their hearts most from God, the 
great pond into which other rivulets or streams of sin do empty 
themselves, or that bough or limb which taketh away the nourishment 
from all the under-shrubs, that which is loved and delighted in above 
other sins, and when other sins will not prevail, the devil sets this 
a- work, as the disciples looked on the disciple whom Jesus loved: 
John xiii. 23, 24, ' Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of the 
disciples whom Jesus loved. Simon Peter therefore beckoned unto 
him that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.' Well, 
then, in regard of other sins, one may reign and sit in the throne of 
the heart, or be loved more than another ; but not in regard of predo 
minancy over grace, for that is contrary to the new nature, that sin 
should have the upper hand constantly and universally in the soul. 
For any one thing, though never so lawful in itself, habitually loved 
more than God, will not stand with sincerity : Luke xiv. 33, ' Whoso 
ever he be that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple/ 
If we must not keep our natural comforts, certainly not our carnal lusts. 
To love anything apart from Christ, or against Christ, or above Christ, 
is a dispossessing of Christ, or a casting him out of the throne. 

[7.] There is a twofold prevalency and dominion actual or habitual. 
Actual is only for a time, habitual for a constancy ; though a regenerate 
man be not one that lets sin reign over him habitually, yet too often 
doth sin reign over him actually, as to some particular acts of sin. 

(1 .) The habitual reign of sin may be known by the general frame 
and state of the heart and life, where it is constantly yielded unto, and 
not controlled and opposed, but beareth sway with the contentment 
and delight of the party sinning. Men give the bridle to sin, and let 
it lead them whither it will, and generally walk after the flesh, and 
not after the Spirit. No doubt that is peccatum regnans, cui homo 
nee vult, nee potest resistere; the sinner hath neither will nor power, 
because usually after many lapses into heinous sin, God giveth up men 
to penal or judicial hardness of heart ; they first voluntarily take on 
these bonds and chains upon themselves ; these are said ' to walk after 
their own lusts,' 2 Peter iii. 3 ; ' to continue or live in sin/ Eom. vi. 2 ; 
' to be dead in trespasses and sins,' Eph. ii. 1 ; ' to serve divers lusts and 
pleasures/ Titus iii. 3; 'to draw on iniquity with cart-ropes,' Isa. v. 18 ; 
to addict and give up themselves to a trade of sin with delight and 
consent. But, more closely, the reign of sin is never broken till the 
flesh be made subject to the Spirit ; that will be found by examining 
every day what advantage the Spirit hath gotten against the flesh, or 
the flesh against the Spirit, how providences and ordinances are blessed 
for that end, or for the weakening of sin ; for every day the one or the 
other gets ground. Dough once soured with leaven, will never lose 
the taste and smatch, but the sweetness of the corn may prevail above 



266 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XIII. 

it. Sin dwelleth in the heart, but doth it decay ? Gal. v. 16, ' This 
I say, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh.' 
(2.) Actual sin may now and then get a victory over the faithful, 
but not a full quiet reign. Sin actually prevaileth when we do that 
which is evil against our consciences, or yield pro hie et nunc to obey 
sin in the lusts thereof. It gaineth our consent for the time, but the 
general frame and bent of the heart is against it. In short, when sin 
is perfected into some evil action, or ' lust hath conceived and brought 
forth sin/ James i. 15, that, is, some heinous offence, for that time no 
question it hath the upper hand, and carrieth it from grace, and the 
flesh doth show itself in them more than the Spirit. A man may 
please a lesser friend before a greater in an act or two, but every 
presumptuous act of sin puts the sceptre into his hands. Note, that 
the predominancy spoken of in the former distinction and this do 
much prejudice a Christian, waste his conscience, hinder his joy of 
faith ; and if not broken in time, or we sin often, we cannot be excused 
from the habitual reign of sin. Note again, every dislike doth not 
hinder the reign of sin ; it doth constantly govern our lives, though 
there may be some resistance. 



SEEMON XIII. 

For sin shall not have dominion over you ; for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. KOM. VI. 14. 

SECONDLY, I now come to handle the second general. There is a 
necessity incumbent upon them 

1. From their own proneness and proclivity to fall into sin. 

2. From the mischiefs arising from reigning sin. 

3. From the unsuitableness of it to their renewed state. 

4. They cannot otherwise maintain their hopes of glory. 

First, Because of their own proneness and proclivity to this evil. 
That appeareth 

1. Because there is sin still in us, a bosom enemy which is born and 
bred with us, and therefore will soon get the advantage of grace, if it 
be not well watched and resisted, as nettles and weeds, which are kindly 
to the soil, and grow of their own accord, will soon choke flowers and 
better herbs, which are planted by care and industry, when they are 
neglected and not continually rooted out. We cannot get rid of this 
cursed inmate till this outward tabernacle be dissolved, and this house 
of clay be crumbled into dust, like ivy gotten into a wall, that will not 
be destroyed till the wall be pulled down ; the Israelites could not 
wholly expel the Canaanites ; and therefore we are the more obliged 
to keep them under. Our nature is so inclinable to this slavery, that 
if God subtract his grace, and we be altogether negligent, we shall 
soon rue the sad effects of it. 

2. It is not only in us, but it is always working in us, and striving 
for the mastery. Sin is not as other things, which, as they grow in 
age, they grow more quiet and tame. No ; it is every day more active 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 267 

and stirring : James iv. 5, ' The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to 
envy.' It is not a sleepy, but a working stirring principle : Kom. vii. 
8, ' Sin wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.' If it were a dull 
and an inactive habit, the danger were not so great ; but it is always 
working, and putting forth itself, and seeking to gain an interest in 
our affections, and a command over all our motions and actions. 
Therefore, unless we do our part to keep it under, we shall soon revert 
to our old slavery. It is like a living fountain, that poureth out waters, 
though nobody cometh to drink of it; though there be nothing to 
irritate it but God's law and the motions of his Spirit, there is a 
continual fermentation of the corrupt humours in our souls. 

3. It is always warring, as well as working : Rom. vii. 23, ' I see 
another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and 
bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members/ 
Sin seeketh to deface all these impressions of God which are upon the 
heart, which bind the conscience to holiness, and to stifle all these 
motions that tend to it. That it may alone reign in the heart without 
control, it sets itself in direct opposition against all those dictates of 
conscience, and holy motions and inspirations, that the sinner may be 
fully captivated to do what the flesh requireth to be done by him ; 
therefore it must be kept under as a slave, or it will get up as a 
tyrant and domineer. One sin that we least suspect may bring us 
under this slavery. It doth not only make us flexible and yielding to 
temptations, but it doth urge and impel us thereunto. We think and 
speak too gently of corruption when we think and speak of it as a tame 
thing, that worketh not till it be irritated by the suggestions of Satan. 
No ; it riseth up in arms against everything of God in the heart. 

4. The more it acteth, the more it getteth strength, as all habits 
are increased by multiplied acts ; and when we have once yielded, we 
are ready to yield again, as a brand that hath been once burned is 
more apt to take fire a second time: Deut. xxix. 19, 'And it come 
to pass, when he heareth to words of this curse, that he bless himself 
in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagina 
tion of my heart, to add drunkenness to thirst.' After men have once 
committed a sin, they are more vehement to venture on it again ; at 
first we cannot get down sin so easily, till a habit and custom hath 
smoothed it to our throats. Well, then, this bondage is daily increas 
ing, and more hard to be prevented. By multiplied acts a custom 
creepeth on us, which is as another nature, and that which might be 
easily remedied at first groweth more difficult to be subdued. As 
diseases looked to at first are easy to be cured, but when once they 
become inveterate the cure is more desperate, so are sins before we are 
hardened into a custom : Jer. xiii. 23, ' Can an Ethiopian change his 
skin, or the leopard his spots ? then may ye also do good who are 
accustomed to do evil.' No means will then prevail to work it out of 
them, or bring them to any good ; the more we sin, the more are we 
enthralled to sin, as a nail, the more it is knocked, the more it is 
fastened into the wood. A sinner is often compared to a slave or 
servant ; now there were two sorts of servants or slaves such as were 
so by covenant and by their own consent, or such as were so by conquest 
or surprisal in war. The first similitude is used, Rom. vi. 16, ' Know 



2C8 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XIII. 

ye not that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants 
ye are whom ye obey, whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto 
righteousness.' The other servant by conquest is spoken of, 2 Peter ii. 
19, ' For of whom a man is overcome, of the same also is he brought 
into bondage.' Now these notions I would rank thus : every carnal 
man at his first entrance into a course of vanity and sin is a servant 
by consent, hire, or contract, for he doth consecrate his life and his 
love, his time and his care, his actions and his employments to please 
his lusts ; we first willingly and by our own default give up ourselves 
to this course. But the customary sinner by conquest, that hath so 
crippled and maimed his faculties that he cannot be at liberty if he 
would, then they grow complete slaves to their lusts, as captives in war 
are servants to their conquerors ; for whilst they do voluntarily and 
ordinarily give up themselves to serve the devil and, their own corrup 
tions without resistance, or crying to Christ for help, they are very 
bond-slaves and held in chains of darkness, till the supreme judge 
execute deserved wrath upon them. Augustine complaineth, Ltgatus 
eram, non ferro alieno, sed mea ferrea voluntate, velle meum tenebat 
inimicus, et me mild catenam fecerat et constrinxerat me Lord, I am 
bound, not with iron, but with an obstinate will ; I gave my will to 
mine enemy, and he made a chain of it to bind me, and keep me from 
thee ; quippe ex voluntate perversa facia est libido ; et dum servitur 
libidini, facta est consuetudo ; et dum consuetudini non res istitur, facia 
est necessitas a perverse will gave way to lustings, and lusting made 
way for a custom, and custom let alone brought a necessity upon me, 
that I can do nothing but sin against thee. Thus are we by little and 
little enslaved, and brought under the power of every carnal vanity. 
Well, now, put all together ; are these things spoken of ourselves or of 
another ? Is it so indeed, that there is such a warring ? and are we 
not obliged to be watchful and careful ? 

Secondly, From the mischievous influence and heinous nature of 
reigning sin. 

1. When sin reigneth, it plucketh the sceptre out of God's hands, 
and giveth it to some vile and base thing which is set up in God's 
stead ; as the setting up of a usurper is the rejection of the lawful king. 
The throne belonging to God must be kept for him alone ; therefore 
every degree of service done to sin includeth a like degree of treason 
and infidelity to Christ. Our Lord telleth us, Mat. vi. 24, ' No man 
can serve two masters ; for either he will hate the one, and love the 
other, or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other : ye cannot 
serve God and mammon/ As no man can serve two masters, God and 
mammon, so every one serveth one of these, God or mammon, for the 
throne is never empty ; but between both of them you cannot divide 
your heart. Neither dominion nor wedlock can endure partners ; so 
that by cleaving to the one, you refuse and renounce the other. To 
serve God is to give up a man's mind, and heart, and whole man, to 
know and do what God requireth, whatever be the consequences. Now 
this doth necessarily imply a renunciation of all those things which 
cross and contradict the will of God, be it devil, world, or flesh. So to 
serve mammon is to give up a man's mind, heart, endeavour to find 
out and follow after the riches, honours, and pleasures of the world, 



YER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 269 

whatever may come of it. He that would serve God must do nothing but 
what God alloweth him in the matter of pleasure, profit, or preferment, 
or any other thing ; for God is not well served unless he be served as 
a master commanding and governing all our actions. On the other 
side, he that serveth the world giveth God only what the world and flesh 
can spare, so much religion, strictness, and good conscience as will stand 
with his carnal ends and affections ; for then the world is served as a 
master when men dispose of themselves and all their concernments, 
and rule themselves and please themselves, according to that fleshly and 
worldly appetite and fancy that governeth them ; and God is no further 
loved, obeyed, pleased, than that love of honour, profit, or pleasure will 
give leave. Well, then, by this you may plainly see that the setting 
up of any lust to reign is a laying aside and a deposing of God ; for if 
a man be bound absolutely to resign up himself to the will and disposal 
of God, and to obey him, and love and serve him with all his powers, 
and this man on the contrary giveth up himself into the hands of some 
carnal affection of his, be it pride, sensuality, or love of worldly things, 
and this ruleth him, and this governeth him, and this he studieth to 
please and gratify, certainly these pleasures, or profits, or honours are 
set up in God's stead ; it is a plain refusing one, and a cleaving to the 
other, a despising God and Christ, and a preferring the world and 
Satan. And it will not help the matter, though we profess Christ to 
be the Lord : all formal titles are a mockage : Mat. vii. 21, ' Not every 
one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of 
heaven, but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven ; ' 
Luke vi. 46, ' And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things 
which I say?' Many who profess Christ to be their Lord, are as 
true bondmen to Satan as the heathen who offered sacrifice to him ; 
and a drunken and unclean Christian is as true a servant to the devil 
as the votaries and worshippers of Priapus, or Bacchus, or Venus ; for 
he doth as absolutely command your affections as he did theirs ; and 
though you are Christ's by profession, yet you are Satan's by possession 
and occupation, and the bond of your servitude is altogether as firm 
and as strong, though it be more inward and secret, than their rites of 
worship. Neither will it help the matter, that as you do not profess, 
so you do not intend so ; though we do not formally intend this, yet 
virtually we do, and so God will account it ; it is finis operis, though 
not operantis. If a wife be false to her husband's bed, will it be excuse 
enough to say she did not intend to wrong him ? or will such a saying 
excuse a subject that is disloyal to his prince, and sets up a usurper ? 
Well, then, what horror should this beget in our minds ! and what 
care should we take that sin may not reign ! 

2. The reign of sin is mischievous to us. Sin, when it once gets the 
throne, it groweth outrageous, and involveth us in so many incon 
veniences, that we cannot easily disentangle ourselves, and get out 
again. 

[1.] This is one, that it turneth the man upside down, and degradeth 
and depresseth him to the rank of beasts. A brutish worlding, that 
once gratifieth his carnal affections, is but a nobler kind of beast ; he 
employeth his reason to gratify his appetite, and puts conscience under 
the dominion of sense, and so inverteth the whole nature of a man : 



270 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XIII. 

Titus iii. 3, ' Serving divers lusts and pleasures.' The worldly bait 
taketh advantage of the brutish part, when reason is asleep, and then 
the beast rideth and ruleth the man, and reason becometh a slave to 
sensuality. 

[2.] This servitude is so burdensome as well as base, and attended 
with so much pain and shame, that those that know the service of sin 
(as we all do by sad experience) should use all caution that it never 
bring them into bondage. Again the apostle dissuadeth from the reign 
of sin by this argument : Horn. vi. 21, ' When ye were the servants of 
sin, ye were free from righteousness; what fruit had ye then in those 
things whereof ye are now ashamed ? ' As if he had said, You have 
full experience of the service of sin, and the fruits of it ; what fruit 
then ? Before you had a contrary principle set up in your hearts, 
you are ashamed now ; that is, now ye know better 1 things, but what 
fruit then ? Nothing but toils, and gripes, and fears, and sad twinges 
of conscience ; for what other thing can be expected of him that every 
day liveth within a step of hell ? The devil hath one bad property, 
which no other master hath, how cruel soever, and that is, to plague 
and torment them most who have done him most continual and faith 
ful service. Those that have sinned most have most horror, and every 
degree of carnal indulgence hath a proportionable degree of fear and 
shame and punishment. I speak nothing all this while of the wasting 
of estate and health, of the loss of credit and interest, of the cost and 
pains which the drudgery of sin puts men upon ; many suffer more hard 
ship in Satan's service than any man in God's ; their sin costs them 
dearer than any martyr ever endured to go to heaven. Lastly, the 
reward of all is everlasting destruction : Rom. vi. 21, ' For the end of 
these things is death ; but being made free from sin, and become the 
servants of righteousness, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end 
everlasting life.' After all your time and strength hath been spent in 
the pursuit of vanity, what is the issue but everlasting horror and 
punishment ? Oh ! then, when you see the bait, remember the hook ; 
when you hear the serpent hiss, see its sting ; and reckon that ever 
lasting death is attending the eating of forbidden fruit. When it 
seemeth most pleasant to the eye, let not the pomps and vanities of the 
world entice you into a forgetfulness of God, before whom you must 
appear as your judge ; nor of your immortal souls, which must one day 
be rent from the embraces of the body, and will survive them, and be 
commanded into the everlasting regions of light or darkness, ease or 
sorrow. Hell and heaven are not matters to be trifled with, nor should 
we easily hazard the feeling of the one, or the loss of the other. 

3. The mischievous influence and heinous nature of reigning sin 
appeareth in this, that it rendereth your sincerity questionable ; yea, 
rather it is a sure note of a carnal state, where it is habitual. There 
will be pride, earthliness, and sensuality dwelling, stirring and work 
ing in the best of God's children ; but it hath not its wonted power 
over them. Christ will not reckon men slaves by their having sin, nor 
yet by their daily failings and infirmities, nor by their falling now and 
then into foul faults by the violence of a temptation, unless they settle 
in a constant trade of sin, and set up no course of mortification against 
it. Though there be not a good man upon earth that smneth not, yet 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 271 

surely there is a difference between the regenerate and unregenerate. 
There are some 'whose spot is not as the spot of God's children,' 
Deut. xxxii. 5. There is a difference between sins. God gave the 
priest under the law direction how to put a difference between leprous 
persons, some of which were unclean, others clean, Lev. xiii. 38, 39 ; 
there was some leprosy that spoiled the skin, but did not fret the flesh, 
which the priest was to pronounce clean. God showeth himself hereby 
merciful to the infirmities of his people, not esteeming every spot and 
deformity in them as malignant sin ; so ver. 23, 'If the bright spot 
stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil, and the priest 
shall pronounce him clean ; ' to wit, from the contagion of leprosy ; 
which signified, that though the signs and marks of sin which God 
hath healed by forgiveness remain still, yet, if they spread not, that is, 
reign not in our mortal bodies, they shall not be imputed to us, but 
forgiven : ' Because we are not under the law, but under grace/ On 
the other side, if the spot were turned bright, and deeper than the 
skin, the priest was to pronounce him unclean ; ver. 25, ' And if it 
did spread much abroad, the priest was to pronounce him unclean ; it 
was the plague of leprosy,' ver. 27. And again we read in ver. 44, 
' When the priest was to pronounce him utterly unclean, his plague 
was in his head.' If to infirmity there be added malignity and pre 
sumption, it maketh the sinner a spiritual leper in the sight of God ; 
and ' he did rend his clothes, and make bare his head, and cry out, 
Unclean, unclean,' ver. 45, importing thereby humble and penitent 
acknowledgment, or broken-hearted representing of our sin and misery, 
or sense of our own plague and grief : and he was to dwell alone till 
he was healed, ver. 46 ; that is, he was deprived of communion with 
God till a thorough cure was wrought in him. As it was in the 
ordinances of the law, so it is true also in the gospel. There is a dif 
ference between sins and sins, and sinners and sinners ; there is a 
difference between dimness of sight and blindness, between numbness 
and death, between want of sense and want of life, between slumbering 
and sleeping, between slipping into a ditch and tumbling ourselves 
headlong into the mire ; so there is a difference between infirmities 
and iniquities, a failing out of ignorance and weakness and some 
powerful temptation, and a running headlong unto all ungodliness. 
God's children have their failings, but a burning and earnest desire to 
be freed from them ; in others there is a wallowing in sin without any 
care of remedy ; in the one it is a failing in point of particular duty, 
in the other a rebellion. Judas and Peter both sinned against their 
master ; the one denied him, the other betrayed him ; the one was 
overcome by fear, the other inclined by covetousness of a little money ; 
the one plotted,. the other was surprised. A purpose and a surprise are 
two different things ; the one went out and wept bitterly, the other was 
given up to raging despair. David did not make a trade of adultery, 
nor bathe himself in filthy lusts. Noah was drunk by not knowing the 
force of the juice of the grape. They do not lie in this state, but seek 
to get out of it by repentance. Closer discoveries I reserve to the use. 
Thirdly, My next argument is the unsuitableness and uncomeliness 
that sin should reign in Christians, who are Christ's, and should live to 
him, and for him. It misbecometh them as they profess themselves 



272 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [&ER. XIII. 

to be Christ's. We have no power to dispose of ourselves, being wholly 
his by purchase and covenant. 

1. By purchase: 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20, 'Ye are not your own, ye are 
bought with a price.' Quod venditur transit in potestatem ementis 
the buyer hath a power over what he hath bought. We were lost, 
sold away, had sold ourselves against all right and justice ; but Christ 
was pleased to redeem us, and that with no slight thing, but his own 
blood. Now how can you look your Redeemer in the face at the last 
day ? If you have any sense and belief of Christian mysteries, you 
should be afraid to rob Christ of his purchase : 1 Cor. vi. 15, ' Shall I 
take the members of Christ, and make them the members of a harlot ? 
God forbid ! ' He hath bought us to this very end, that you may be 
no longer under the slavery of sin, but under his blessed government, 
and the sceptre of his Spirit : Titus ii. 14, ' He hath redeemed us from 
all iniquity ; ' that was his end, to set us at liberty, and free us from 
our sins ; and therefore, for us to despise the benefit, and to count our 
bondage to be a delight and privilege, this is to build up again that 
which he came to destroy, to put our Redeemer to shame, to tie those 
cords the faster which he came to unloose ; and so it is as great an 
affront and disparagement of his undertaking as possibly can be. 
Therefore let not sin live and reign. 

2. We are his not only by purchase, but by covenant : Ezek. xvi. 8, 
' I entered into covenant with thee, and thou becamest mine.' We 
wholly gave over ourselves to his use and service. This covenant was 
ratified in baptism, wherein ' we were planted into the likeness of his 
death,' Rom. vi. 3-5. How into the likeness of his death? To die 
unto sin, as he died for sin ; that is explained by the apostle, ver. 9, 
' Christ being raised from the dead, dieth no more, death hath no more 
dominion over him.' His resurrection instated him in an eternal life, 
never to come under the power of death again ; so are we to rise to a new 
life, never to return to our sins again. Now shall we rescind our bap 
tismal vows, and after we have resigned ourselves to Christ, give the sove 
reignty to another ? The hands of consecration have been upon us, and 
therefore to allow ourselves in any course and way of sinning is to 
alienate ourselves, and to employ ourselves not only to a common, but 
a vile and base use. When Ananias had dedicated that that was in 
his power, and kept back part for private use, God struck him dead in 
the place, Acts v. ; and if we alienate ourselves, who were not in our 
own power, and were Christ's before the consecration, of how much 
severer vengeance shall we be worthy ! God complaineth of the wrong 
of parents, Ezek. xvi. 20, that they took sons and daughters born to 
him, and sacrificed them to be devoured by Moloch. Children born 
during the marriage covenant were his ; they were circumcised, and so 
dedicated to him ; yet they gave them to Moloch ; as many parents 
dedicate their children to God by baptism, and bring them up for the 
world and the flesh. This is verily a great sin in parents ; but we are 
more answerable for our own souls, when we have owned the dedi 
cation, and ratified it by our own professed consent ; and if we shall 
willingly yield to the world and the flesh, and suffer them to have a 
full power and dominion over us, how do we defy Christ, whom yet 
in words we profess to be our Lord 1 It is said, Gal. v. 24, ' They 



VER. 14.] SEUMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 273 

that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts 
thereof.' How shall we interpret this scripture, and reconcile it with 
the carriage of most Christians ? Dejure all will grant that they should 
crucify the flesh, with the affections and lusts thereof ; but the apostle 
seemeth to speak de facto, ' they have,' and that maketh the difficulty. 
All true Christians indeed have done so. Christians in the letter are 
bound to do so ; and let them look to it how they will answer it to 
Christ another day. All in their baptism have renounced the desires 
of the flesh, and the passions of it also ; they are engaged to do it ; 
and all that are serious and real have begun to do this act of mortifying 
sin, and must go on yet more and more to smother the endeavours and 
effects of it. Because this is a momentous business, and it is charged 
on us ' as we are Christ's,' as we profess ourselves to be so, and take 
ourselves to be so, let us see what it importeth. They must ; all are 
bound ; they really have crucified the flesh, mortified and deadened 
the root of corruption, that it shall not easily sprout and put forth its 
lustings. Carnal nature in them is weakened, it is not so vigorous 
and stirring as it was wont to be ; there is some preventing of the first 
risings, though sin dwell in them, and work in them. So far all that 
are Christ's have put to death their fleshly corruption. But now, as 
to the several ways of venting of it, expressed by Trddrj and errdhfUat,, 
either by sinful passions, as malice, envy, hatred, variance, emulation, 
wrath, strife, they do in a great measure and considerable degree get 
above these ; or by lust is meant all fleshly and worldly desires, which 
carry us out of the pleasures, and profits, and honours of the world, 
the pleasing baits and enticements of sense ; they are dead to these 
also ; all motions to uncleanness, intemperance, ambition, love of riches 
and vain pleasures : all the children of God have actually begun this 
work, and are still suppressing these things ; for they have resigned 
their hearts for Christ to dwell in, and they are advancing his sceptre 
and rule continually, for they have given up themselves to be guided 
by him. Whether they be pleasant sins or vexatious evils, the heart 
of a Christian is set against them ; and therefore you see how unsuitable 
it is for those that are Christ's, his redeemed ones, and his covenanted 
ones, to give way to the reign of sin. 

Fourthly, My last argument to evince this necessity that is incum 
bent on the people of God, that this dominion of sin be not set up in 
their hearts, is because otherwise they cannot maintain and keep up 
any lively hope of glory. That I shall evidence by some scriptures : 
Kom. vi. 8, ' If we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also 
live with him.' If we die to sin so as never to allow it, or to return 
to the love and practice of it any more, then the Christian faith 
promiseth some good to us, we have hopes of living with Christ, or a 
joyful resurrection to eternal life ; for the Christian life is an entrance 
and introduction into the life of glory. So Kom. viii. 13, 'If ye 
through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.' The 
scripture is plain in setting down the characters of those that shall go 
to heaven or to hell, and very decisive and peremptory : ' If we live 
after the flesh, we shall die.' It doth not say, if we have lived after 
the flesh ; for that would cut off the hope of all the living. One man 
was first good, and after bad, as Adam ; another never bad, always 

VOL. xi s 



274 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [^ER. XIV. 

good, as Christ ; of all the rest, none ever proved good who was not 
sometimes bad ; we all live after the flesh before we come to live after 
the Spirit. But if we do still accommodate ourselves to obey and fulfil 
the motions of the flesh, Christ speaketh no good to such. But now, 
see the promise of God to those that keep mortifying of sin, striving 
against sin; ' they shall live,' not only the life of grace, for surely by 
their progress in mortification vivification is furthered and increased ; 
as we grow dead to sin, we are more alive to righteousness ; but the 
life of glory is a greater boon than we can deserve, as much as we can 
desire, more than we can make any part of requital for. There is 
scarce any one scripture by which a man may sooner come to a decision 
of his spiritual estate than this, for it puts it to a short issue ; prevent 
the reign of sin, and your title to everlasting glory will not be so dark 
and litigious ; make conscience of subduing and suppressing the secret 
inclinations and desires of the flesh by the Spirit, and you have by 
warrant of scripture a full and sufficient evidence. All the deeds of the 
flesh must be mortified before we can see our interest ; though not 
universally and totally, yet still we must go on with it. Sin is mortal 
if it be not mortified ; so that a necessity is laid upon us of killing our 
lusts, or being killed by them. The apostle doth not say, ' If the deeds 
of the flesh be mortified in you through the Spirit ;' but ' if ye through 
the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body/ We must not dream of 
a mortification to be wrought in us without our consent or endeavours, 
as well whilst we are asleep as whilst we are waking, as if it were 
wrought in our cradles, whilst we are passing our time in childish 
play and pastime, or should be done in our riper age, without any 
careful watch over our works and thoughts ; or it may be by a sluggish 
wish or slight prayer, as if this would master sin. No ; all renewed ones 
must seriously address themselves to the work; the flesh must be 
mortified, and mortified it must be by us through the Spirit, if we 
would cherish the hopes of eternal life. The Spirit alone giveth 
victory, but we must be active in it ; for his grace and powerful 
victorious work doth not license us to be idle, but rather calleth for 
an assiduous, diligent, and faithful use of means. The less earnest 
the conflict is between the flesh and the Spirit, the longer will the old 
man live in us, and our peace and hope will be the more doubtful ; but 
the more serious our endeavours are, the sooner shall we come to a 
determination in the great affairs and interests of our precious and 
immortal souls. 



SERMON XIV. 

For sin shall not have dominion over you ; for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. KOM. VI. 14. 

THIRDLY, The hopes of victory and success through the grace of Jesus 
Christ. Now many things there are which give us hopeful encourage 
ment in our conflicts with sin. 

1. The undertaking of our blessed Redeemer. Freedom from sin 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 275 

was a part of that salvation which lie purchased for us : Mat. i. 21, 
' He shall save his people from their sins ; ' Titus ii. 14, ' Who gave 
himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity.' It is not 
only an evidence, but a, part, yea, a principal part, as those means which 
have a more immediate connection with the end are more noble than 
others which are more remote. The last end is the glory of God. Now 
our conformity to God, and the holiness and subjection of the creature, 
is a nearer means to it than our comfort and pardon. Christ's end was 
to fit us for God's use, and therefore his business was to sanctify and 
free us from sin : 1 John iii. 8, ' For this purpose was the Son of God 
manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil,' iva \vcrp, 
which signifies to dissolve, untie, unloose a knot. This was the end of 
his coming ; and will he come in vain, and miss of his end ? The 
work of the devil is to bring us into sin and misery, and the Lord 
knoweth we are miserably entangled in the corruptions of our own 
hearts ; we know not how to loose these knots. Christ came for this 
purpose to untie them for us, and surely he cannot miss of his purpose 
if we consider the merit of his humiliation, what a price hath he paid 
for sanctifying grace ! 1 Peter i. 18, 19, ' Ye were not redeemed with 
corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation, 
received by tradition from your fathers, but with the precious blood of 
Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.' So great a 
price was given, not only to heighten our esteem of the privilege, but 
also to increase our confidence while we are endeavouring and striving 
against sin. Christ wanted not any merit to make the purchase suffi 
cient and effectual. Or if we consider the power of his exaltation ; 
having paid our ransom, he is let out of the prison of the grave, gone 
into heaven, and is fully commissioned and empowered to instate us in 
this blessing of freedom from sin : Eph. iii. 20, ' Unto him that is able 
to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according 
to the power that worketh in us.' Now what an encouragement is this 
to keep under that enemy which Christ hath done so much to slay and 
destroy ! What is his business now in heaven, but to sit at the right 
hand of God, and see the fruits of his mediation accomplished ? Those 
indeed that cherish that which Christ came to dissolve, as much as in 
them lies they seek to frustrate the undertaking of Christ. But now, 
whilst we are striving and warring upon sin, and seek the destruction 
of it, we are engaged in the same design Christ is, and therefore may 
have the more confidence of his help, and receiving the fruits of his 
purchase ; his great intent was to bring us back unto God, and saving 
us from sin, not in sin ; and your heart is upon the same thing. 

2. The new nature put into us ; you have an opposite principle to 
check it : 1 John iii. 9, ' Whosoever is born of God doth not commit 
sin, for his seed remaineth in him, and he cannot sin, because he is 
born of God.' Since Christ hath intrusted us with such a talent as the 
new nature, and hath put grace into our hearts to resist sin, it is our 
duty not to suffer it to be idle and unfruitful. Though there be in the 
regenerate a seed of corruption, yet that is or should be mortified ; 
there is also in them a seed of grace, and that is to be cherished. Now 
surely where this is, sin cannot carry a full sway, and break out without 
stop and interruption ; for the new nature will appear by way of check 



276 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SflR. XI V. 

and dislike ; one that hath a new nature cannot make sin his trade, 
custom, and delight. Why ? Because his seed abidethin him, which 
is the principle of grace wrought in him by the Spirit of God. There 
is a settled, fixed frame and bent of heart towards God, and so by 
consequence against sin, for it is irreconcilable with the motions and 
tendencies of the new nature to live in sin ; and therefore it is as 
natural to the new nature to hate sin as to love God : Ps. xcvii. 18, 'Ye 
that love the Lord, hate evil.' There is an irreconcilable hatred and 
enmity against sin. There is a twofold hatred odium abominationis 
and odium inimiciticc. The hatred of abomination or offence is a turn 
ing away of the soul from what is apprehended as repugnant and pre 
judicial to us : so to sin is repugnant and contrary to the renewed will ; 
it is agreeable and suitable to the unregenerate, as draff to the appetite 
of a swine, or grass and hay to a bullock or horse. 'Now, there being 
ia all those that are born of God this kind of hatred, it must needs 
weaken sin; for the mortification of sin standetli principally in the 
hatred of it. Sin dieth when it dieth in the affections, when it is an 
offence to us, and we have an antipathy against it, as some creatures 
have one against another. The new nature is a divine nature, 2 Peter 
i. 4 ; in some measure it hath the same aversations and affections which 
God hath; we hate what he hateth, love what he loveth : Prov. viii. 13, 
' The fear of the Lord is to hate evil : pride, and arrogancy, and the evil 
way, and the froward mouth, do I hate.' There is another kind of 
hatred, odium inimicitice. Now this hatred is nothing else but a 
willing evil or mischief to the thing or person hated, out of that dislike, 
offence, and distaste we take against them : Ps. xviii. 37, ' I have pur 
sued mine enemies, and overtaken them ; neither did I turn again till 
they were consumed/ This is different from the former, for there may 
be an aversation or an offence from some things, which yet I do not 
malign or pursue to the death. But by this hatred also do the 
regenerate hate their sins ; they hate sin so as to mortify and subdue it, 
and get it destroyed in themselves : Rom. vi. 6, ' Knowing this, that 
our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be 
destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin ; ' Gal. v. 24, ' They 
that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts 
thereof.' Grace within will not let a man alone in his sins, but rouseth 
up the soul against it, non cessat in Icesione peccati, sed exterminio ; 
it is still taking away somewhat from sin, its damning power, its 
reigning power, its being : Rom. vii. 24, ' wretched man that I am ! 
who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? ' They would be 
free from all sin, groan under the relics of it as a sore burden ; there 
fore certainly the new nature, which hath such a lively hatred against 
sin, must needs give us a great advantage against it. I would not 
flatter you with the show of an argument, nor put you off with a half 
truth ; therefore I must needs tell you, that though the former things 
alleged be true, yet 

[1.] You must not forget the back-bias of corruption and the flesh, 
which still remaineth with us, and is importunate to be pleased ; and 
though it be not superior in the soul, yet it hath a great deal of strength, 
that still we need even to the very last to keep watching and striving : 
the best of God's children must resolve to be deaf to its entreaties and 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 277 

solicitations, and not accommodate themselves to please the flesh: 
' Not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignor 
ance,' 1 Peter i. 14 ; that is, they must take heed they do not cast their 
conversations into a carnal mould, and suffer their choices and actions 
to be directed and governed by their lusts. ' In your ignorance,' when 
you knew not the terror of the Lord, nor sweetness of the Lord, 
you could not be deterred from delighting in this slavery ; your lusts 
influenced all your actions, and you wholly gave yourselves to the satis 
faction of your sinful desires, shaping and moulding all your actions 
and undertakings by this scope and aim, The apostle's word is very 
emphatical, /A?) (Tva-^i^arL^o^evoi rat? Trporepov tiridvutais, though 
now you have more knowledge, more grace to incline your hearts to 
God, and so by consequence against sin, yet former lusts are but in part 
subdued, and therefore our old love to them is soon kindled, and 'the 
gates of the senses are always open to let in such objects as take part 
with the flesh ; and there is a hazard in the best of complying with the 
sinful motions of corrupt nature, and therefore you must not so take it 
as if there were no need of diligence, and watching, and striving, and 
constant progress in mortification. Even holy Paul, mortified Paul, 
saw a continual need of beating down the body, lest after he had 
preached to others he himself should be a castaway, 1 Cor. ix. 27. 
This great champion, after so many years' service in the cause of 
Christ, was not secure of the adversary which he carried about with 
him ; and therefore, though we speak of the advantage of the new 
nature, it is only for our encouragement in the conflict ; there is still 
need of caution, that we do not revert into our old slavery. And though 
it be troublesome to resist the pleasing motions of the flesh, yet there 
is great hopes of success ; we do not fight as those that are uncertain ; 
the grace given us is a fixed rooted principle, and the lusts we contend 
with are but the relics of an enemy routed and foiled, though not 
utterly and totally subdued. Though there be a contrary principle in 
us, that retaineth some life and vigour, yet surely in the regenerate it 
is much abated ; there is not such a connaturality and agreement be 
tween the heart and sin as there was before ; grace is a real, active, 
working thing, and where the new nature doth prevail, certainly ' old 
things are passed away,' 2 Cor. v. 17. Every creature acteth according 
to its kind, the lamb according to the nature of a lamb, and a toad 
according to the nature of a toad , as a thorn cannot send forth grapes, 
nor a thistle produce figs, so, on the contrary, vines do not yield haws, 
nor the fig-tree thistles. Men, now they have renewed principles, can 
not be at the power Satan, nor at the command of every lust, as they 
were before. How are all things become new, how are old things 
passed away, if it should be so, if they had the old thoughts and designs 
still, the old affections still, the old passions they used to have, the old 
discourses, the old conversation ? Surely grace will not let a man 
alone, nor give him any rest and quiet, if he should act and walk 
according to the old tenor and manner. Certainly the grace given 
serveth for some use, and giveth some strength. 

[2.] I must interpose one consideration more for the full understand 
ing of this truth. That grace is operative indeed, a real, active, work 
ing thing ; but yet it doth not work necessarily, as fire burneth, or 



278 SEUMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XIV. 

light bodies move upward, but voluntarily ; therefore it must be excited 
and stirred up, both by the Spirit of God, ' who worketh in us both to 
will and to do/ Phil. ii. 13, and by ourselves ; we must ava^wrrvpelv, 
' stir up the grace of God that is in us/ 2 Tim. i. 6 ; we must still be 
blowing up this holy fire, as the priests do the fire of the altar, stilt 
keep it burning ; and its motions must be hearkened to and complied 
withal : Gal. vi. 16, ' Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the 
lusts of the flesh.' Cherish and obey the directions of the renewed 
part, and this will keep the carnal part under ; so that though the 
motions of it be not totally suppressed, yet they shall not be completed 
and fulfilled, not so easily consented unto, nor so often break out into 
shameful acts ; but as these are slighted, sin reigneth. 

3. The Spirit of sarictification still dwelling and working in us. 
Herein the law was a dead letter ; it only afforded us bare instruction, 
without the help and power of grace ; but the gospel is ' the ministra 
tion of the Spirit/ 2 Cor. iii. 8. There is a life and power which goeth 
along with every gospel truth, to enable us to do what it requireth of 
us. The renewed certainly feel this benefit by it ; and the truths of 
the gospel, which to others' taste are like ordinary running water, cold 
and spiritless, are to them like strong water, comfortable and full of 
virtue : strong water and running water are alike for colour and show, 
but not for virtue and taste. All that repent and believe in Christ 
have the gift of the Holy Ghost : Acts ii. 38, ' Kepent and be baptized 
every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, 
and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost/ He dwelleth arid 
resideth in their hearts, and is the great cause of the mortifying of sin : 
Kom. viii. 13, ' If ye through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, 
ye shall live/ The Spirit will not without us, and we cannot without 
the Spirit, subdue our sinful inclinations. At first indeed he worketh 
upon us as objects, as a Spirit only moving upon us, but afterwards 
he worketh by us as instruments, as a Spirit indwelling. At first 
he regenerateth us and converteth us, when we were dead and wholly 
senseless. Man at first was a passive subject, when the Holy Ghost 
infused life, and made him partaker of a divine nature. We were by 
nature all dead in trespasses and sins, did not only deserve death by 
original sin, but did also deserve to be denied the grace of Jesus 
Christ by some following actual sins ; but when we were all equally 
involved in misery, the secret working of divine grace did begin the 
difference : Eph. ii. 4, 5, ' God, who is rich in mercy, for his great 
love wherewith he loved us, even when were dead in trespasses and 
sins, hath quickened us together with Christ : by grace ye are saved/ 
This saving grace is not given to all, though all have many both ex 
ternal and internal helps sufficient to make them better ; that any 
have his special efficacy and converting grace is the mere favour and 
bounty of God ; if any want it, it is long of themselves, because by 
their neglect and abuse of common grace they deserve that want. 
Well, then, at first God giveth the Spirit, and all his purifying and 
sanctifying works upon the soul are by his mere grace, which the 
gospel offereth to all, till they exclude themselves ; but then, after we 
are converted, we shall have more sins to remove by further sanctifi- 
cation, now the Spirit dwelleth in us to give us his special assistance. 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 279 

But more closely consider (1.) The necessity of the Spirit's concur 
rence ; (2.) The encouragement we have thereby. 

[1.] The necessity of the Spirit's concurrence; we cannot begin, 
carry on, and accomplish the work of mortification, without the oper 
ation, help, and power of the Spirit. 

(1.) That we cannot begin it is evident, because before conversion 
we were 'dead in trespasses and sins,' Eph. ii. 1, had only a life of 
resistance and enmity against God and the work of his grace left in us : 
Bom. viii. 7, ' The carnal mind is enmity against God ; for it is not 
subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be ; ' and we were under 
the power of the devil, who holdeth the fallen creature in bondage till 
he be dispossessed : Luke xi. 21, 22, ' When a strong man armed 
keepeth the house, his goods are in peace ; but when a stronger than 
he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all 
his armour .wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils.' There is no 
faculty in man that can work the cure. The understanding is dark, and 
blind, and weak ; if it warn us of our duty, it cannot break the force 
of sin, Rom. i. 18. The will is enslaved to corruption. Now nothing 
will seek to destroy itself, but rather to preserve that life that it hath ; 
therefore the heart of man, which is by nature corrupt, wedded to the 
interests and concernments of the flesh, will never seek to mortify and 
subdue the flesh ; for a thing will never be opposite to itself. The 
scripture saith, John iii. 6, ' That which is born of the flesh is flesh.' 
A man wholly addicts himself to sin while under the power of corrupt 
nature, and a sensual carnal heart cannot make itself holy and heavenly. 
But 

(2.) After conversion, when grace and the principles of a new life 
are put into us to weaken sin, yet still we need the help of the Spirit, 
partly because habitual grace is a creature, and therefore in itself 
mutable ; for all creatures depend, in esse, conservari, et operari, upon 
him that made them : Acts xvii. 26, 'In him we live, and move, and 
have our beings.' If God suspend the influence, the fire, which is a 
natural agent, burneth not, as in the instance of the three children 
who were cast into the fiery furnace ; if necessary agents, much more 
voluntary agents ; and if there be this dependence in natural things, 
much more in supernatural. Therefore grace still dependeth on God's 
influence, and there must be a concurrence of the Spirit to maintain 
what he hath wrought : Phil. i. 6, ' Being confident of this very thing, 
that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until 
the day of Jesus Christ/ Partly because it doth not totally prevail 
in the heart, but there is opposition against it, there is flesh still : Gal. 
v. 12, ' The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the 
flesh, and these are contrary the one to the other, so that you cannot 
do the things that you would.' Habitual grace non totaliter sanat, it 
worketh not a perfect but a partial cure upon the soul. Therefore 
there needeth new grace to act, and guide, arid quicken us still, and to 
stir up the principles of grace in us. Partly because this grace, as it 
meeteth w r ith opposition from within, so it is exposed to temptations 
from without, from Satan, who watcheth all advantages against us. 
Now when temptation cometh with new strength, we must have new 
grace to oppose it : Heb. iv. 16, ' Let us come boldly to the throne ot 



280 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XIY. 

grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of 
need/ x"P iv et ' 9 evxaipov ftoyQeiav. Adam had habitual grace, but he 
gave out at the first assault. When a city is besieged, the prince who 
would defend it doth not leave it to its ordinary strength, and the 
standing provisions which it had before, but sendeth in fresh supplies 
of soldiers, victuals, and ammunition, and such things as their present 
exigence calleth for. So doth God deal with his people ; his Spirit 
cometh in with a new supply, that they may the better avoid sin, and 
stand out in an hour of trial. So from the world, which is continually 
obtruding itself upon our embraces, and it is hard to ' escape the cor 
ruption that is in the world through lust/ 2 Peter i. 4. The new 
nature was given us for that end, and also the Spirit of God is neces 
sary : 1 John iv. 4, ' Ye are of God, and have overcome the world ; 
for greater is he that is in you than he that is in* the world.' The 
Spirit is necessary, as against the terrors, so the delights of it : 1 Cor. 
ii. 12, ' We have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit 
which is of God, that we might know the things which are freely 
given to us of God/ that so the world may not corrupt us, nor entice 
us to affect its riches, honours, and pleasures above God and the con 
science of our duty to him. 

[2.] There is great encouragement to us to set upon the work of 
mortification, because it is carried on by the help and power of the 
Spirit. If we were to grapple with sin in our own strength, then we 
might sit down and despair and die ; but the Spirit is appointed for 
this end, and purchased for us by Jesus Christ, for all that come to 
him with broken hearts, and do not by their carelessness, negligence, 
or other sin, provoke the Lord to withdraw his exciting grace. If you 
do humbly implore his assistance, wait for his approaches, attend and 
obey his motions, you shall find what the Spirit is able and willing to 
do for you. He is able surely, though you are ready to say, I shall 
never get rid of this naughty heart, renounce these bewitching lusts. 
There are none so carnal but he can change them, and bend and 
incline their hearts to God and heavenly things : 1 Cor. vi. 11, ' Such 
were some of you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are- 
justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God/ 
He can turn swine into saints, a dunghill into a bed of spices. None 
should give way to sottish despair ; God never made a creature too 
hard for himself. And when he hath begun an interest for God in 
our souls, he can maintain it, notwithstanding oppositions and temp 
tations: Phil. i. 6, 'He that hath begun a good work in you will 
perform it until the day of Jesus Christ.' God is willing to give the- 
Spirit to them that ask it, as a father is to give a child what is neces 
sary for him : Luke xi. 13, 'If ye then, being evil, know how to give 
good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly 
Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him ? ' Be careful you 
do not grieve the Spirit, and make yourselves incapable of his help : 
Eph. iv. 30, ' Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed 
to the day of redemption.' The Spirit of God will not forsake us unless 
we forsake him first. The Spirit is grieved when lust is obeyed before 
him, when his counsels and holy inspirations are smothered, and we yield 
easily to the requests of sin, but are wholly deaf to his motions. If 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS YJ. 281 

so indeed, he ceaseth to give us warning, and to renew and continue 
the excitations of his grace. Water once heated congealeth the 
sooner ; so they are most hardened who have been notably touched 
with his sacred inspirations, but go a quite contrary way. But the 
renewed need not doubt of his help ; for God hath promised the Spirit 
to them, to cause them to walk in his ways : John xiv. 16, 17, ' I will 
pray the Father, and he shall give you another comforter, that he may 
abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world 
cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him ; but ye 
know him, for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.' Well, then, 
do not complain, but up and be doing against sin. Laziness pretendeth 
want of power ; but is anything too hard for the Spirit of the Lord ? 
It is a lamentable thing to see what a cowardly spirit there is in most 
Christians, how soon they are captivated, and discouraged with every 
slender assault or petty temptation, and their resolutions are shaken 
with the appearance of every difficulty. This is affected weakness, 
not so much want of strength, as sluggishness and cowardice and want 
of care. Men spare their pains, and then cry they are impotent, like 
lazy beggars, who personate and act a disease, because they would not 
work. Surely ' where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty/ 2 
Cor. iii. 17. Many are not able to stand before the slightest motion of 
sin, because they do not stir up themselves, and awaken that strength 
which they have, or improve that which God continually vouchsafeth 
to them by the motions of his Spirit. It would be more for your com 
fort to try what you can do in resistance of sin, than idly to complain 
for want of strength. The two extremes are pride and sloth. Pride 
is seen in self-confidence, or depending upon our endeavours and 
resolutions ; and sloth in a neglect of the grace given, or help afforded 
to you. Christians should improve present strength against sin, and 
still labour to get more. Every conquest will increase your strength 
against the next assault, and one limb of the body of death mortified 
is a means to cause the rest to languish by consent. 

4. The next encouragement is the promises of the gospel, which 
secure this benefit to us ; and surely the watching and the striving 
person may take comfort in them. There are two sorts of promises, 
some that do assure of necessary assistance, some that speak of 
arbitrary assistance ; as Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27, ' A new heart also will I 
give you, and a new spirit will I put within you ; and I will take away 
the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. 
And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my 
statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.' Now such 
promises must be improved, for the covenant of God is the ground of 
our stability. Adam had a seed of grace, but it was not secured by 
promise, and therefore he sinned it away. The victory is assured to 
us by promise : Kom. xvi. 20, ' The God of peace shall bruise Satan 
under your feet shortly.' In ordinary conflicts it is a good rule, Non 
ceque glorietur accinctus ac discinctus; but a Christian may triumph 
before the victory, for all those who are really and earnestly striving 
against sin are sure to conquer. These promises may be pleaded to 
God, as his own words by which he hath invited our hope ; and to 
ourselves in case of fainting and discouragement, that we may not 



282 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XIV. 

coldly set upon the practice of Christianity. Let us depend upon 
God's promise, as Paul : 2 Tim. iv. 18, ' And the Lord shall deliver 
me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly 
kingdom, to whom be glory for ever and ever, amen.' 

5. There are certain ordinances whereby this grace is conveyed to 
us. The Spirit joineth his power and efficacy with the proper insti 
tuted means for the subduing of sin. The word is a powerful instru 
ment, which the Holy Ghost useth for the cleansing of the soul from 
sin : John xv. 3, ' Now ye are clean through the word which I have 
spoken unto you ; ' yea, for the killing of sin, therefore it is called 
' The sword of the Spirit.' When we come to hear, some new con 
sideration is still given out for the further sanctifying of the heart : 
John xvii. 17, ' Sanctify them through thy truth ; thy word is truth.' 
In prayer we come to act faith and repentance, looking up to God for 
help ; and with brokenness of heart mourning over our corruptions : 
Zech. xii. 10, ' I will pour upon the house of David and upon the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplications, and 
they shall look upon him whom they have pierced, and they shall 
mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in 
bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born.' By 
every prayer offered in the brokenness of our hearts sin receiveth a 
new wound. So the sacraments ; as in the Old Testament, circum 
cision signified a sanctifying of the heart : Detit. xxx. 6, ' And the 
Lord thy God w r ill circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul, that 
thou mayest live ; ' and the paschal lamb was a type of Christ, ' Who 
taketh away the sins of the world,' John i. 29. So baptism and the 
Lord's supper. Baptism signifieth the washing away of sin : Acts 
xxii. 16, ' Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins ; ' and he 
that liveth in sin forgetteth, that is, neglecteth his baptism : 2 Peter 
i. 9, ' He hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins ; ' as for 
getting the law is neglecting the duty of it : Ps. cxix. 153, ' I do not 
forget thy law ; ' he carrieth himself as if he were never baptized, for 
baptism is a vowed death to sin. So for the Lord's supper. Every 
serious remembrance or meditation of Christ's death should quicken 
us anew to crucify sin, and to make it hateful to our souls. (1.) 
As it representeth the great act of Christ's condescending love, which 
is a moving forcible argument to persuade us to deny our inordinate 
self-love : 2 Cor. v. 14, 15, ' For the love of Christ constraineth 
us, because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all 
dead, and that he died for all, that they which live should not 
henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for 
them, and rose again.' (2.) It is a viewing the heinousness and 
odiousness of sin there represented to us in the agonies and sufferings 
of Christ ; the more we consider of them, the greater apprehensions 
should we have of the evil of sin, the exactness of God's justice, the 
terror of his wrath : Horn. viii. 3, ' For what the law could not do, in 
that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son, in the 
likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh.' 
Christ was made sin for us, and then endured these things : 2 Cor. v. 
21, ' He hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vr. 283 

might be made the righteousness of God in him.' When we look 
upon sin through Satan's spectacles, or the cloud of our own passions 
or carnal affections, we make nothing of it ; but it is a terrible spec 
tacle to see the fruit of sin in the agonies and sufferings of Jesus 
Christ, which are there represented to us, 'as if he were crucified 
before our eyes,' Gal. iii. 1 . Oh ! never have slight thoughts of sin 
more. (3.) As it implieth a solemn mutual surrendry between Christ 
and us: Cant. ii. 16, 'I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine/ 
Christ giveth himself and his grace to us, as our redeemer and saviour. 
We accept Christ and his benefits upon his own terms, and surrender 
ourselves to him, as his redeemed ones, with thankfulness for so great 
a favour and benefit : Bom. xii. 1, ' I beseech you, brethren, by the 
mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, 
acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service/ Now all this 
must needs be a great weakening of sin, both the remembrance of 
Christ's love, the representation of his great sufferings necessary for 
the expiation of it, and our solemn renewed dedication of ourselves to 
God and his service, and doing this in a holy duty instituted by God 
for this end and purpose ; for the Spirit of God works by the appointed 
means, and the use of instituted duties is no fruitless labour, for God 
would not set us a-work in a duty that should yield no profit and 
benefit to us. 

6. Providences are sanctified to this use, as helps and occasions of 
subduing sin ; as afflictions, which do remove the occasions and sub 
tract the fuel of sin, and awaken seriousness for the future : Isa. xxvii. 
9, ' By this therefore shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged, and this is 
all the fruit to take away his sin;' 2 Cor. xii. 7, 'Lest I should be 
exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there 
was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet 
me, lest I should be exalted above measure/ The thorn in the flesh 
was given to mortify his pride. By these kind of dispensations the 
Spirit worketh serious humiliation, and brokenness of heart maketh 
sin odious to us. These are ordered with exact wisdom and faithful 
ness: Ps. cxix. 75, '0 Lord, I know that thy judgments are right, 
and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me ; ' and they are accom 
panied by the Spirit ; therefore God is said to teach us out of his law 
when he chastiseth us : Ps. xciv. 12, ' Blessed is the man whom thou 
chastenest, Lord, and teachest him out of thy law ; ' Job xxxvi. 10, 
' He openeth also their ear to discipline, and commandeth that they 
return from iniquity ; ' the rod is made effectual by the Spirit's motion. 

Object. Some have frequently resolved to forsake their sins, but their 
resolutions have come to nothing ; they have striven against it, but as 
a great stone that is rolled up hill, it hath returned upon them with 
the more violence, or as a man rowing against the stream, the tide 
hath been strong against them, and they have been forced the more 
back ; yea, they have prayed against sin, yet found no success, and 
therefore think it is in vain to try any more. 

Ans. 1. If all the premises are true, yet the inference and conclu 
sion is wrong and false ; for we are not to measure our duty by the 
success, but God's injunction. God may do what he pleaseth, but we 
must do what he commandeth. Abraham obeyed God, ' not knowing 



284 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XIV. 

whither he went,' Heb. xi. 8. Peter obeyed Christ's word : Luke v. 5, 
' We have toiled all the night, and caught nothing ; howbeit at thy 
command we will let down the net.' 

2. Though the first attempt succeed not, yet afterwards sin may be 
subdued and broken. In natural things we do not sit down with one 
trial or one endeavour: 'A man that will be rich pierceth himself 
through with many sorrows,' 1 Tim. vi. 10 ; and after many miscar 
riages and disappointments, men pursue their designs till they com 
plete them. And shall we give over our conflict with fleshly and 
worldly lusts, because we cannot presently subdue them? That 
showeth our will is not fixedly bent against them. Therefore let 
no man excuse himself, and sit down in despair, and say, ' I am not 
able to master these temptations or corruptions. This is like those, 
Jer. xviii. 12, ' They said, There is no hope, but we'will walk after our 
own devices, and we will every one do the imagination of his evil 
heart/ Do not throw up all ; thy condition is not hopeless. 

3. God's grace is free, and his holy leisure must be waited; for it 
was long ere God got us at this pass, to be sensible and anxiously 
solicitous about our soul-distempers. Grace is not at our beck : ' The 
Spirit bloweth when and where he listeth,' John iii. 7. We must still 
lie at the pool for cure, nor pettishly fret against the Lord, or cast off* 
our duty, because he blesseth not our first essay. 

4. Grace is ready, as it is free. He that begun this work, to make 
us serious and sensible, will carry it on to a farther degree, if we be 
not impatient. Surely ' the bruised reed will he not break, and smok 
ing flax will he not quench,' Mat. xii. 20. Bemoan thyself to God ; 
as Ephraim : Jer. xxxi. 18, ' I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning 
himself thus, Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bul 
lock unaccustomed to the yoke. Turn thou me, and I shall be turned, 
for thou art the Lord my God.' He is not wont to forsake the soul 
that waiteth on him, and referreth all to the power and good pleasure of 
his grace : Isa. xl. 30, 31, ' Even the youths shall faint and be weary, 
and the young men shall utterly fall : but they that wait upon the Lord 
shall renew their strength, they shall mount up with wings as eagles, 
they shall run and not be weary, and they shall walk and not faint.' 

5. Examine whether you seek the Lord with your whole heart, 
and you have done your endeavour. You say, you purpose, you strive, 
you pray, but yet sin increases ; there is a defect usually in these pur 
poses, in these strivings, in these prayers. 

[1.1 Let us examine these purposes. 

(1.) These purposes are not hearty and real, and then no wonder 
they do not prevail. There is a slight wavering purpose, and there is 
' a full purpose of heart/ Acts xi. 23. If thy purposes were more full 
and strong, and thoroughly bent against sin, they would sooner suc 
ceed. Is it the fixed decree and determination of thy will ? When 
you are firmly resolved, your affections will be sincere and steadfast, 
you will pursue this work close, not be off and on, hot and cold, and 
unstable in all your ways. If the habitual bent of your hearts doth 
appear by the constant drift of your lives, then is it a full purpose. 

(2.) This purpose may be extorted, not the effect of thy judgment 
and will, as inclined to God, but only of thy present fear, awakened in 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 285 

thee on some special occasion. Many are frightened into a little reli 
giousness, but the humour lasts not long : Ps. Ixxviii. 36, ' Neverthe 
less they did flatter him with their mouth, and they lied unto him 
with their tongues ; for their heart was not right with him, neither 
were they steadfast in his covenant.' Ahab in his fears had some re- 
lentings, so had Pharaoh ; the Israelites turned to the Lord in their 
distress, but they turned as fast from him afterwards ; they were re 
solved not from love, but fear ; so these resolutions are wrested from 
you by some present terrors, which when they cease, no wonder that 
you are where you were before. Violent things will never hold long ; 
they will hold as long as the principle of their violence lasteth. 

(3.) It may be thou restest in the strength of thine own resolutions. 
Now God will be owned as the author of all grace : 1 Peter v. 10, 11, 
' But the God of all grace, who hath called us into his eternal glory 
by Jesus Christ, stablish, strengthen, settle you. To him be glory for 
ever and ever, amen.' Still we must have a sense of our own insuffi 
ciency, and resolve more in the strength and power of God ; the grace 
of Jesus Christ you must rely upon, both for confirming and perform 
ing your resolutions, as knowing that without him you can do nothing. 
Men fall again as often as they think to rise and stand by their own 
power : there is such guile and falsehood in our hearts, that we cannot 
trust them. The saints still resolve, God assisting : Ps. cxix. 8, ' I 
will keep thy statutes ; forsake me not utterly ; ' and ver. 32, ' I will 
run the way of thy commandments, when thou shalt enlarge my heart.' 

[2.] As to striving, let us examine that a little, if it be so serious, so 
diligent, so circumspect as it should be. 

(1.) That is no effectual striving when you are disheartened with 
every difficulty, for difficulties do but inflame a resolved spirit, as stir 
ring doth the fire. No question but it will be hard to enter in at the 
strait gate, or to walk in the narrow way. God hath made the way to 
heaven so narrow and strait that we may the more ' strive to enter in 
thereat,' Luke xiii. 24. Now, shall we sit down and complain when 
we succeed not upon every faint attempt ? Who then can be saved ? 
This is to cry out with the sluggard, ' There is a lion in the way.' 
Should a mariner, as soon as the waves arise, and strong gusts of wind 
blow, give over all guiding of the ship ? No ; this is against all the 
experience and the wont of mankind. 

(2.) This striving and opposing is but slight, if not accompanied 
with that watchfulness and resolution which is necessary. Many pre 
tend to strive against sin, yet abstain not from all occasions of sin. If 
we play about the cockatrice's hole, no wonder we are bitten. Never 
think to turn from thy sins if thou dost not turn from the occasion of 
them. If thou hast not strength to avoid the occasion, which is less, 
how canst thou avoid the sin, which is greater ? He that resolveth not 
to be burnt in the fire must not come near the flames. Job made a 
covenant with his eyes that he would not look upon a maid, Job xxxi. 
1. ' Enter not into the path of the wicked, and go not in the way of 
evil men. Avoid it, pass not by it, turn from it, and pass away,' Prov. 
iv. 14, 15. Evil company is a snare. Our Saviour taught us to pray, 
' Lead us not into temptation ; ' he doth not say, into sin ; the tempta 
tion openeth the gate. 



286 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [&ER. XV. 

[3.] For praying, we oftener pray from our memories than from our 
consciences, or from our consciences as enlightened rather than hearts 
renewed by grace. Prayer, as it is the fruit of memory and invention, 
is but slight and formal, words said of course, a body without a soul ; 
as dictated by conscience, it may be retracted by the will ; timebam ne 
me exaudiret Deus. Or at best they are but half desires, faint wishes, 
like Balaam's wishing, which will never do good : ' The soul of the 
sluggard desireth, but hath nothing.' God never made promise that 
such wishes should be satisfied. 



SERMON XV. 

For sin shall not have dominion over you ; for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. BOM. VI. 14. 

USE 1. Of reproof, to reprove 

1. The security and carelessness of many, that never look to the 
state of their hearts, nor regard whether Christ reigneth or sin reigneth, 
or at least do not take good heed which way things tend to the 
greatening or increasing of God's interest or Satan's in their souls. 
Many count a holy jealousy or heedful watchfulness to be but precise- 
ness, and that we make more ado than needeth, and make the lives of 
Christians burdensome, when we press them to a constant watchfulness 
and holy jealousy of themselves. No ; this is no burden, but a bless 
ing : Prov. xxviii. 14, ' Blessed is the man that feareth always.' Sin 
gaineth upon us for want of taking heed at first. They that see no 
need of this caution are little acquainted with the practice of godliness, 
or the state of their own hearts, have not a due sense and apprehension 
of the danger of displeasing God, or of their own proclivity and prone- 
ness to sin ; therefore live by chance and peradventure, and leave them 
selves to be transported by their own affections, to do anything which 
occasions and temptations invite them unto. Were we as sensible of 
the dangers of the inward as outward man, we should surely stand 
more upon our guard, and resist the first motions and tendencies 
towards a sin ; certainly we would not give such harbour and indul 
gence to our corruptions as usually we do, lest we nourish and foster a 
viper in our own bosoms, which will at length sting us to death. 
Surely it is no wisdom to tarry till the death-blow cometh ; an inclina 
tion to evil is best mortified at first, and the longer we dally and play 
with a temptation, the harder will our conflict be. 

But when may we be said to omit our watchfulness ? 

[1.] When we grow bolder with sin, and the temptations and 
occasions of it, and think we have so good a command of ourselves, and 
can keep within compass well enough, though we cast ourselves upon 
tempting objects and occasions unnecessarily, and without a call. 
Surely these men forget themselves and the danger of sin, as if they 
had some special amulet against it, which the people of God had not 
in former times. They know exactly how far they may go in every 
thing, even to the cleaving of a hair, and will not lose one jot of their 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 287 

liberty, and seem to make a sport of it, to show how far they can go, 
and how near the pit, and not fall in. They can allow themselves in 
all kind of liberty for lascivious songs, wanton plays, and yet look to 
the main chance well enough ; please themselves with all kinds of froth 
and folly, yea, sometimes execrable filth, yet never any kind of infec 
tion cometh near their hearts. Alas ! poor deluded creatures ! they 
that do all that they may will soon do more than they should ; and 
those that come as near a sin as possibly they can without falling into 
it, cannot be long safe ; yea, and they are infected already, that have 
so little sense of the strength of sin and their own weakness^ I con 
fess some are more liable to temptations than others, but yet all need 
watchfulness for their preservation ; for sin is not extirpated and rooted 
out of any. And again, when I am in my calling, I am under God's 
protection, as a subject is under the protection of his prince, travelling 
in due hours on the highway ; but none can presume their knowledge 
is so sound, their faith so strong, their hearts so good to God, as to 
think no hurt will come when they cast themselves voluntarily upon 
occasions of sin. 

[2.] When you make a small matter of those corruptions which 
were once so grievous, even intolerable to you : Kom. vii. 24, ' 
wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of this 
death ? ' You lose tenderness of conscience, remit of your care. 

[3.] When you content yourselves with the customary use of holy 
duties, though you find no profit nor increase of grace by them, rather 
perform them as a task, than use them as a means to get and increase 
grace. Nunquam abs te absque te recedam. Lord, I will never go 
from thee without thee : Gen. xxxii. 26, ' I will not let thee go, except 
thou bless me.' 

[4.] When you neglect your hearts, grow strangers to them, find 
little work to do about them. Every Christian findeth work enough 
from day to day to get his heart quickened when it is dead, enlarged 
when it is straitened, prepared when it is indisposed, to be made seri 
ous when it is vain and frothy, cured when it is distempered, settled 
when it is troubled and discomposed ; but sin becometh easy, and con 
science becometh patient and quiet under it. Surely you are not 
watchful, and mind not your covenant vow. 

2. It reproveth those that hope to have sin subdued and kept from 
reigning, though they never strive against it. It is the striving Chris 
tian which is here encouraged, those that have given up themselves to 
Christ's conduct, and to fight in his warfare. Many run of their own 
accord into sin, others make no opposition against it. Now Christ 
undertaketh not to keep these. The captain of our salvation only 
taketh charge of his own soldiers, to lead them safe to eternal glory 
and happiness ; others are excepted. Grace received from him is of 
little use to us if we fight not. Therefore, besides watching, there 
must be resisting. This resistance must be 

[1.] Earnest and vehement, such as cometh from a hatred of sin as 
sin. The light of nature will rise up against many sins, especially at 
first, as sin is a disorder and inconvenience ; but this is but partial and 
soon tireth ; but the resistance required of Christians is such as ariseth 
from a constant hatred : Rom. vii. 15, ' That which I do I allow not ; 



288 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [&ER. XV. 

for what I would, that do I not ; but what I hate that do I.' When 
Eve speaketh faintly, the devil reneweth the assault : Gen. iii. 3, ' Of 
the fruit of the tree, which is in the midst of the garden, God hath 
said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.' She 
speaketh too warmly, and with an impatient resentment of the re 
straint, and too coldly of the commination. God had said, ' In dying 
ve shall die.' A faint denial is a kind of a grant. Our Lord rebuketh 
the devil with indignation : Mat. iv. 10, ' Get thee behind me, Satan.' 

[2.] It must be a thorough universal resistance. Take the little 
foxes, dash out the brains of Babylon's brats. The devil would frighten 
you by propounding great sins at first, but he approacheth by degrees ; 
therefore, Eph. iv. 27, we must not ' give place to the devil.' You set 
open the door to Satan by yielding a little. A temptation is better 
kept out than gotten out ; when he hath but the narrowest passage or 
least opportunity, he seeketh to re-enter, and seat himself in the heart, 
and exercise his former tyranny, and doth excite the person to commit 
more sin. When the stone at the top of the hill beginneth to roll 
downward, it is a hard thing to stay it. I '11 yield but once, saith the 
deceived heart ; but the devil chargeth us further and further, till he 
hath left no tenderness in our conscience ; as some that thought to 
venture but a shilling or two, by the secret witchery of gaming have 
played away all their estates. 

[3.] It is not for a time, but perpetual. It concerneth us not only 
to stand out against the first assault, but a long siege. What Satan 
cannot gain by argument, he seeketh to gain by importunity ; but ' re 
sist him, steadfast in the faith,' 1 Peter v. 9 ; as Joseph's mistress 
spake to him day by day, Gen. xxxix. 10. Deformed objects, when 
we are accustomed to them, seem less odious. As you rate away an 
importunate beggar, that will not be answered. To yield at last, is to 
lose the glory of the conflict. 

Now many resist not. You may know it 

(1.) When you cannot bring your hearts to let sin go, though con 
science worry you, and condemn you for it, as many men sin while 
their hearts condemn them : Rom. i. 18, Kare^ovTwv, 'they hold the 
truth in unrighteousness/ 

(2.) When you slightly purpose hereafter to amend, but do not pre-, 
sently resolve: Acts xxiv. 25, 'And as he reasoned of righteousness, tem 
perance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and said, Go thy way 
for this time, when I have a convenient season I will call for thee.' 
The contrary you may see in David : Ps. cxix. 60, ' I made haste and 
delayed not to keep thy commandments.' 

(3.) When you do not consent to the necessary effectual means of 
your recovery, which, if you were truly desirous to get rid of sin, you 
would do. They that will not use the means, do not desire the thing : 
Prov. xxi. 25, ' The desire of the slothful killeth him, for his hands 
refuse to labour.' 

(4.) When in actual temptations you interpose not a strong dissent 
or negative, either by serious dislikes, or rebukes, deep groans, hearty 
defiance, or strong arguments, which are the several ways of resist 
ance. 

Use 2. Exhortation, when God affordeth to poor captivated sinners 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 289 

such help, if they will but take it, and make use of it in time ; surely, 
then, we should watch and strive. And that I may deal the more 
effectually in this use, I shall distinctly unfold the duty of watching 
and striving, the means to curb and check sin. 

First, Watching. 

1. The spring and rise of it in the soul are these three fundamental 
graces of faith, fear, and love ; otherwise it is but moral prudence and 
caution, which will be too feeble a restraint to sin, unless it be animated 
and inspired with these graces. 

[1.] Faith puts upon watchfulness; that faith which looketh to 
things to come, and maketh them in a manner present to the soul ; it is 
a realising sight: Heb. xi. 1, 'Now faith is the substance of things 
hoped for, and the evidence of things not seen.' The more lively sense 
we have of the concernments of another world, and the more mindful 
we are of our eternal enjoyments, the more watchful. In every sin it 
is our eternal enjoyments are in danger, and heaven and hell are not 
things to be sported with, or ventured and put to hazard for a little carnal 
satisfaction. Many expound that, Eph. vi. 12, ' We wrestle with spiritual 
wickedness in high places,' ev eirovpavio^, ' about heavenly things,' for 
the word places is supplied ; it is in the original only in or for the 
heavenlies. The main quarrel between us and Satan is about high 
and heavenly things, which tend to the honour of God and the eternal 
good of our souls ; it is not our temporal and worldly, so much as our 
spiritual and heavenly concernments which are struck at. The devil 
would fain cheat us of our souls, our God, and our happiness, and by 
propounding some base and unworthy trifle deprive us of everlasting 
glory. Now, a man that hath a sense of eternity deeply impressed 
upon his heart, and hath ' made eternal things his scope,' 2 Cor. iv. 18, 
he hath his eyes in his head, is careful not to lose his interest in and 
hope of these things, who knows that the whole world will not coun 
tervail the loss of his soul, and that one glimpse of heaven's glory and 
happiness doth so much outshine all the pomp and gaudy vanities of 
the present life, that he dareth not let his heart linger after these 
things, lest he should forget or neglect those better things. He is 
cautious of ' coming short of the heavenly rest/ which his eye and his 
heart is upon, Heb. iv. 1. But they whose faith about these things is 
either weak or none at all are bold and venturous, as if there were no 
such danger in sins and temptations ; they forget God and their souls, 
and the great account they must give of all their actions to their im 
partial judge, and the eternal recompenses of heaven and hell, into 
which all the world shall at last issue themselves. 

[2.] Fear, or a reverent and aweful regard of God's eye and presence ; 
they are afraid to do anything unseemly in his sight : Gen. xxxix. 9, 
' How can I do this wickedness, and sin against God ? ' How will 
God take it to be affronted to his face ? As Esther vii. 8, ' Will he 
force the queen before me in the house ? ' So, shall we give vent to 
our sin when God seeth and heareth ? void our excrements in his 
presence ? The Israelites were commanded to march with a paddle : 
Deut. xxiii. 12-14, ' Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, 
whither thou shalt go forth abroad. And thou shalt have a paddle 
upon thy weapon, and it shall be when thou wilt ease thyself abroad, 

VOL. XI. T 



290 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XV. 

thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back, and cover that which 
cometh from thee. For the Lord thy God walketh in the midst of 
thy camp to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee ; 
therefore shall thy camp be holy, that he see no unclean thing in thee, 
and turn away from thee/ The master's eye makes the servant 
diligent ; the presence of a reverend man will hold us in some order. 
If Gehazi had known that the spirit of Elisha went with him, would 
he have run after Naaman for a reward ? 2 Kings v. 26 ; his pro 
phetic spirit went with him. We can no more be removed from 
the presence of God than from our own being ; he is the continual 
witness and judge of our conversations ; he seeth us in secret as well 
as in public. Now, when the soul is habituated to this thought, how 
aweful and watchful shall we be ? Ps. cxix. 168, 'I kept thy precepts 
and thy testimonies ; for all my ways are before thee.' The sense of 
his presence is the great ground of watchfulness. God is not so shut 
up within the curtain of the heavens, but that he doth see and hear 
all that we do or say ; yea, he knoweth our thoughts afar off. 

[3.] Love to God maketh us tender of offending him, for it is a 
grace that studieth to please ; the soul is jealous of anything which 
looks like an offence to those whom we love. Others are not troubled 
though they sin freely in thought, foully in word, frequently in their 
daily practice, because an offence to God seemeth as nothing ; they 
have no love to God : Ps. xcvii. 10, ' Ye that love the Lord, hate evil.' 
It is a loathsome thing to them ; to a gracious heart it is argument 
enough against sin that it ' is the transgression of the law,' 1 John iii. 
4 ; and he inferreth it out of love to God, ver. 1, ' Behold what 
manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us/ &c. They have such 
a deep apprehension of God's love to them in Christ, that it breedeth 
an awe upon them, or a fear to offend : Ezra ix. 13, 14, ' After all 
that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing 
that thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, 
and hast given us such deliverance as this ; shall we again break thy 
commandments ? ' Josh. xxiv. 31, ' Israel served the Lord all the 
days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, 
and which had known all the works of the Lord, which he had done 
for Israel/ What ! offend God, who is so blessed a being, who created 
us out of nothing, of whose mercy we have tasted every moment, who 
preserveth and delivereth us continually, from whose goodness we 
expect all our blessedness ! Is our deliverance by Christ of less value 
than all our temporal deliverances ? Will not love draw the same 
inferences and conclusions from it ? Caution doth not arise out of a 
fear of anger, but a loathness to offend. 

2. The time when this duty is to be practised ; always ; it isnever 
out of season. Conscience must still sit porter at the door, and ex 
amine what goes in and out. If men neglect their watch but for a 
little while, how soon doth sin get an advantage against them. Lot, 
that was chaste in Sodom, miscarried in the mountains, where there 
was none but his own family. David, whose heart was so tender that 
it smote him for cutting off the lap of Saul's garment, falleth into so 
deep a sleep afterwards that his conscience was silent when he had 
defiled it with blood and lust. The tears and sorrows of many years 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 291 

may perhaps not repair the mischief which one hour may bring unto you. 
You have need to watch after the sense of your duty hath been revived 
upon you. Satan loveth to snatch the prey from under Christ's own arm : 
' He entered into Judas, after the sop,' John xiii. 27. After solemn 
duties, how soon do people miscarry ! As soon as the law was given 
with terrible thunderings, the people do presently miscarry by worship 
ping the golden calf, Exod. xxxii. ; and the priests in the very day of 
their consecration, in the beginning and first day of their ministration, 
offered strange fire to the Lord, Lev. x. After some escape from sin 
we need to watch that we be not entangled therein again: 2 Pet. ii. 
20, ' If after they have escaped the pollution of the world through 
the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again 
entangled therein and overcome, the latter end is worse with them 
than the beginning.' As under the law, a sore rising as a boil, when 
it was healed, might afterward break out again, and turn to a leprosy, 
Lev. xiii. 18-20 ; so sins, after we seem to be healed of them, may re 
turn, and make us worse than before. As Christ saith to the man 
cured : John v. 14, ' Behold, thou art made whole ; sin no more, lest 
a worse thing come unto thee.' In prosperity we need to watch ; it is 
hard to carry a full cup without spilling, and to live at ease and yet 
to keep up a due and lively sense of our duty. And in our adversity, 
when the course of temptation is altered, we are strangely surprised ; 
every condition bringeth its own snares with it : ' Ephraim is a cake 
not turned,' Hosea vii. 8. Those who are most advanced in a state of 
grace, they need still to watch : Mark xiii. 37, ' What I say unto you 
I say unto all, Watch.' We are never past this care ; this is the great 
difference between Christian and Christian ; one is more watchful than 
another. 

3. Against what we must watch. 

[1.] Generally against the three grand enemies of our salvation, the 
devil, the world, and the flesh. 

(1.) Against Satan ; for he hath laid his ambushes and enterprises 
against us continually, and by his spiritual nature hath advantages of 
being near us, when we are little aware of him : 1 Peter v. 8, ' Be sober, 
be vigilant ; for your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh 
about, seeking whom he may devour.' Satan is ever watching, there 
fore you should watch. You give him the greatest advantage by your 
folly and negligence ; now the apostle saith he would not give him 
any advantage : 2 Cor. ii. 11, ' Lest Satan should get an advantage 
of us, for we are not ignorant of his devices.' He is unwearied in 
his motions, lays his designs deep, takes all advantages and occasions 
to destroy us. If the devil were either dead or asleep, or had lost 
his malice and power, then we need not stand so much upon our 
guard. 

(2.) Against the world ; for we are bidden to ' deny worldly lusts,' 
Titus ii. 12. Not only ungodliness must be watched and prevented, 
but our inclination to worldly things. See how these two are matched ; 
for when we fall off from God we take to the creature: Jer. ii. 13, 
' My people have committed two evils, they have forsaken me the foun 
tain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, 
that will hold no water ; ' and ' Christ died to deliver us from this 
present evil world/ Gal. i. 4. Here lie all the baits, and , snares, and 



292 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XY. 

dangers ; pass but safe through these flats and quicksands, and we 
shall soon arrive to the haven of eternal glory. The great virtue and 
proper effect of the cross of Christ is seen in crucifying us to the 
world : Gal. vi. 14, ' God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and 
I unto the world/ When the fashion of worldly glory is spoiled, and 
it seemeth less lovely in our eyes, then the cross of Christ hath pro 
duced its effect upon us, and the spiritual life advanceth apace. It is 
the world that is an enemy to God, and quencheth and abateth our 
love to him: 1 John ii. 15, 'Love not the world, neither the things of 
the world : if any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in 
him ; ' James iv. 4, ' Know ye not that the friendship of the world is 
enmity with God ? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world 
is an enemy of God.' Some temporal good lieth nearest our hearts, 
and God is not our chiefest good and last end, wherein lieth the life 
of all religion. It is the world that diverts us from our duty, that 
hinders the vigour and perfection of the life of grace : Luke viii. 14, 
' They which fell among thorns are they which, when they have heard, 
go forth and are choked with cares, and riches, and pleasures of this 
life, and bring no fruit to perfection.' It is the world that makes us 
grudge at the strictness of Christ's precepts : Mat. xix, 22, ' When 
the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful, for 
he had great possessions.' It is the world that tempts us to 
live in a slight way, as other careless creatures do about us. It is 
the world that maketh us slightly mind heavenly things, and affect a 
life of pomp and ease here : Luke xvi. 25, ' Son, remember that thou 
in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things.' It is the world that 
enticeth us to stay by the way and neglect our home, that maketh the 
impressions which arise from the belief of another and better world to 
be weak and inefficacious : 2 Cor. iv. 4, ' In whom the God of this 
world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the 
light of the glorious gospel of Christ, which is the image of God, 
should shine on them.' Well, then, we cannot be watchful enough 
against the sly insinuations of the world. When it seemeth too 
sweet and amiable to you, the devil is at your elbows, enticing your 
souls from God ; when the things of this world begin to be represented 
as more sweet and delectable than God, and holiness, and heaven, and 
you are ready to value your happiness rather by worldly prosperity 
than by the favour and friendship of God, and you are more indif 
ferent, and can contentedly live without a sense of his love, but your 
desires are more urgent and strong after an increase of temporal en 
joyments, when you affect to grow rich in this world, and neglect to 
grow rich in grace, oh ! then Christians have need to stand upon their 
guard, mischief is near, and unless it be prevented, will prove the bane 
and everlasting ruin of your souls. 

(3.) The flesh must be watched against. The flesh is importunate 
to be pleased, and will urge us to retrench and cut off a great part of 
*,hat necessary duty which belongeth to our heavenly calling ; yea, it 
will crave very unlawful and unreasonable things at our hands. It 
may be not at first ; but if you continue to gratify sense and brutish 
iippttite witli an uncontrolled license, it is impossible that you should 
keep within the bounds of your duty. Therefore, unless you keep a 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 293 

constant government over your senses and appetites, how shamefully 
will you miscarry ! Therefore, as you love your souls, you must 
'abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul,' 1 Peter ii. 11. 
For whilst you keep gratifying and pleasing the flesh by the excess of 
lawful delights, you do but strengthen your enemy, increase corruption 
in heart and life, provide fuel for Satan's temptations, and jostle God 
out of the throne, and finally hasten your own eternal ruin. If you 
would keep sin under, you must cut off the provisions of the flesh, not 
cater for them : Kom. xiii. 14, ' Make no provision for the flesh, to fulfil 
the lusts thereof.' If you would resist Satan, you must be ' sober and 
watchful/ 1 Peter v. 8 ; that is, sparing in the use of worldly delights. 
If you would preserve God's interest, and reserve the throne of your 
hearts for him, you must take heed that the pleasures of the animal 
life be not too much indulged, for these will soon secure their interest 
in our affections : 2 Tim. iii. 4, ' Lovers of pleasures more than lovers 
of God.' If you would not have your consciences benumbed, and grow 
forgetful of spiritual danger, you must set a guard upon these outward 
delights : Luke xxi. 34, ' Take heed to yourselves, lest a.t any time your 
hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of 
this life, and so that day come upon you unawares;' 1 Thes. v. 6, 
' Let us watch and be sober.' There is a strange infatuation and 
senselessness groweth upon you, and though we keep up a show of 
religion, yet we feel little of the life and power of it. They indispose 
us for our Christian warfare, quench all our sense of heavenly things : 
1 Peter i. 13, ' Be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be 
brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.' These delights 
that offer themselves in our pilgrimage make us forget our journey, as 
lewd servants sent to a market or fair spend all their time and money 
at the next inn. We are strangers and pilgrims, that is the apostle's 
argument : 1 Peter ii. 11, 'Dearly beloved, I beseech you, as strangers 
and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul.' 
We may bait here, as in a house of entertainment, but so as to set 
onward still on our journey, that it may be a refreshment, not an 
hindrance. Certainly they that would make progress in their journey 
to their heavenly home should meddle sparingly with sensible delights, 
though lawful in themselves. Certainly they who make their corrupt 
inclinations their ordinary guide and rule, and the satisfying thereof 
their ordinary trade, miscarry shamefully, and shipwreck all their 
hopes of glory. 

[2.] More particularly, the object of our watching are these things 
(1.) Our thoughts, which are sin's spokesmen, and make the match 
between the soul and the object : Prov. iv. 23, ' Keep thy heart with 
all diligence, for out of it are the issues of life.' If we do not take care 
what thoughts we have, and whereunto they tend, the heart is entangled 
before we are aware ; our lusts stir up thoughts, and these thoughts 
entice the heart ; and whilst we muse and sit abrood upon them, these 
cockatrice eggs are hatched. It is musing maketh the fire to burn ; 
and when the fire is kindled, then the sparks begin to fly abroad ; men 
execute what the heart contriveth, and finish it without stopping : 
James i. 14, 15, ' Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of 
his own lust, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth 
forth sin, and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.' There we 



294 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SER. XV. 

read of the manner of the birth, or bringing forth of sin. Some 
pleasurable lure, represented by sense, awakeneth the lust; that 
draweth off the heart from God and heavenly things : then lust con- 
ceiveth by thoughts, as the eggs are hatched by incubation ; then it is 
a full-grown sin, and so they go on to the very last, till they drop into 
hell. Oh ! then, suppress the musings, the vain and sinful thoughts ; 
for whilst you dandle sin in your minds with a secret consent, liking, 
or a pleasing musing, the mischief increaseth, the stranger becometh 
your master. 

(2.) You must watch against occasions. It is ill sporting with 
occasions, or playing about the cockatrice's hole, or standing in harm's 
way. Many say their infirmities make them run into such or such 
sins ; but if they were minded to leave their sin, they would leave off 
evil company, and all occasions that lead to it. We are often warned 
of this : Prov. iv. 14, 15, ' Enter not into the path of the wicked, and 
go not in the way of evil men. Avoid it, pass not by it, turn from it, 
and pass away ;' Prov. v. 8, ' Remove thy way far from her, and come 
not nigh the door of her house.' The wisdom of God thought fit to 
give us these directions ; they that think they have so good a command 
of themselves that they shall keep within compass well enough, 
though they venture upon the occasions of sin, converse with vain 
company, frequent the haunts of the wicked, go to plays, and entertain 
themselves with dalliances, refuse none of the blandishments of sense, 
surely they are not acquainted with the slipperiness and infirmity of 
human nature, know not what the new creature meaneth, nor what a 
tender thing it is to preserve it in strength and vigour. Is sin grown 
less dangerous ? or have men gotten a greater command of themselves 
than they were wont to have when the Scriptures were first written ? 
Surely man is as weak as ever, and sin as dangerous. Why then 
should we venture upon evil company, and the places where they 
resort, and go too near the pit's brink, and freely please ourselves with 
the allectives of sin, and apostasy from God, such as are wanton plays, 
idle sports ? Is there no infection that secretly tainteth our hearts ? 

(3.) Against all appearance of evil : 1 Thes. v. 22, ' Abstain from 
all appearance of evil/ Some things, though not apparently evil, yet 
they have an ill aspect, as being unsuitable to the gravity of our holy 
calling, or the strictness of our baptismal vow and covenant made 
with Christ, or as being things not practised by good men who most 
seriously mind heavenly things, or have been usually abused to sin, 
and so are not of good report, to be sure do rather blemish religion 
than adorn it. Christ's worshippers should be far from scurrility, 
lightness, vanity in apparel, words, deeds; and they should avoid all 
things that look towards a sin. It is notable under the law, that the 
Nazarite who was not to drink wine was not to eat grapes, moist nor 
dry, nor to taste anything that was made of the vine-tree, from the 
kernels even unto the husk : Numb. vi. 3, 4. A Christian that hath 
consecrated himself to God, and hath made such a full and whole 
renunciation of all sin, should exactly take care to avoid every occa 
sion and provocation to evil, every appearance of evil, not only the 
pollution of the flesh, but ' the garment spotted with the flesh,' Jude 23. 

(4.) Watch to prevent the sin itself. The actual reign of sin maketh 
way for the habitual. The progress is this ; temptations lead to sin, for 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 295 

there are few of us but discover more evil upon a trial than ever we 
thought we should before, as the piercing and broaching of a vessel show- 
eth what liquor is in it ; and small sins lead to greater, as the small sticks 
set the greater on fire ; and greater sins lead to hell, except God be the 
more merciful, and we stop betimes. Well, then, watch against the 
sin itself, for every foil maketh you suffer loss. Sin cometh to reign 
by degrees, and a man settleth his neck to the yoke by little and little. 
It is not easy to fix bounds to sin, when it is once admitted, and given 
way to. Water, when once it breaketh out, will have its course ; and 
the gap once made in the conscience will grow wider and wider every 
day. A little rent in the cloth maketh way for a greater ; so, if we do 
not take heed of small sins, worse grow upon us. The fear of God 
and sense of sin is lessened by every sinful act, and conscience loseth 
its tenderness, and our feeling decayeth. The best stopping of the 
stone is at the top of the hill ; when it beginneth to fall downward it 
is hard to stay it. The deceived heart thinketh, I will yield a little ; 
and the devil carrieth them further and further, till there is no tender 
ness left in the conscience. As in gaming there is a secret witchery, a 
man will play a little, venture a small sum, but he is wound in more 
and more and entangled ; so men think it is no great matter to sin a 
little. A little sin is a sin against God, an offence to him ; and there 
fore why do not you make conscience of it ? And it will bring other 
mischiefs along with it, as it disposeth the heart to sin again. 

(5.) Watch against the mischief of heinous or presumptuous sins. 
When you venture to do any foul thing against apparent checks of 
conscience, any small sin may get the upper hand of the sinner, and 
bring him under in time, after it is habituated by long custom, so that 
he cannot easily shake off the yoke, and redeem himself from the 
tyranny thereof; but these steal into the soul insensibly, and enslave 
us, as they get strength by multiplied acts. But presumptuous or 
heinous sins, by one single act, bring a mighty advantage to the flesh, 
and weaken the spirit or better part, and advance themselves suddenly 
into the throne : Ps. xix. 13, ' Keep back thy servant also from pre 
sumptuous sins, let them not have dominion over me : then shall I be 
upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression/ The 
regenerate, if the Lord do not keep them from temptations, or do leave 
them in temptations, may fall into most scandalous sins against the 
light of their consciences, and for the present are under wof ul slavery 
and inconvenience. David representeth the utmost mischief of these 
kinds of sins, as afraid (with the fear of caution) it might tend 
thereto. Now if a man, nay, a child of God, may possibly fall into 
scandalous sins, being enticed by the pleasure or profit of them, and 
for the present be blinded, then, after any heinous fall there should be 
a special mortification or weakening of sin ; because when we are 
gotten to that height, sin will break out again in the same or other 
kind, as a venomous humour in the body, heal one sore, and it breaketh 
out in another place. After some notable fall or actual rebellion 
against God, it is good to come in speedily, to prevent hardness of 
heart by all holy means, that we may not settle in an evil course ; it 
is not enough to ask pardon, to forbear the act, but you must mortify 
the root of the distemper. There are three things in sin culpa, 



296 SERMONS UPON ROMANS VI. [SfiR. XV. 

reatus, macula. The fault is continued as long as the act is repeated ; 
you are in danger of this till the breach be made up between God 
and you ; as Lot doubled his incest, the orifice of the wound was not 
yet closed ; and Peter doubled and trebled his denials, whilst the 
temptation was yet upon him/ and he had not recovered himself by 
repentance ; Samson's folly and inordinate love to women twice be 
trayed him, Judges xvi. 1-4. The guilt continueth till repentance, and 
suing out pardon in the name of Jesus Christ : 1 John i. 9, ' If we 
confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to 
cleanse us from all unrighteousness.' Though a man should forbear 
the act, yet unless he humbleth himself before God, and in a broken 
hearted way applieth himself to his mediator and advocate, the guilt 
is not done away. But besides, there is the blot, or the inclination to sin 
again; the evil influence of the sin continues till we mortify the root, and 
the core of the distemper be gotten out. Take for an instance Jonah, 
the prophet ; the original reason of his tergiversation from his call was 
a fear of being ashamed, and found false in those threatenings which 
he was to denounce in the name of God ; this maketh him run away 
from his duty, and it cost him dear ; for a tempest pursued him, and 
he was thrown into the sea, and swallowed up of a whale or great fish. 
Well, he being disciplined, confesseth his fault, repenteth his forsaking 
his call, begs pardon, is delivered, addresseth himself to his work. 
God interposeth by the prerogative of his grace upon the humiliation 
of the Ninevites, and then Jonah is all in a fury, his old reasons return : 
Jonah iv. 1, 2, ' Was not this my saying when I was yet in my 
country ? ' &c. Therefore, it is not enough to bewail or discontinue the 
sin, but we must lance the sore, mortify the root of the distemper, till 
all be well. This was the reason of Christ's speech to Peter : John 
xxi. 15, ' Simon Peter, lovest thou me more than these ? ' that is, more 
than the rest of the disciples present. Peter had boasted, Mat. xxvi. 
33, ' Though all men be offended because of thee, yet will I never be 
offended.' Now saith Christ, ' Lovest thou me more than these ? ' 
He reflecteth upon his former conceit of himself and singular under 
taking. Peter had wept bitterly for the fact of denying his master ; 
Christ would try if the cause were removed. The evil of the saints' 
apostasy and defection will never be cured thoroughly unless the 
fountain-cause and root of it be cured and continually watched over. 
His making comparisons and lofty conceit of himself was that which 
occasioned his former fall ; therefore Christ, to see what he did think 
of it, and whether it did continue with him, puts him this question. 
Peter was grown more modest than to make any comparisons now ; 
his sad fall taught him sobriety, not to boast of himself beyond others. 
(6.) You are to watch against evil customs, that you do not lose 
your tenderness of conscience. Conscience, as the eye, is soon offended. 
The least dust, if it get into the eye, will pain it ; so will conscience 
smite for lesser failings and exorbitancies ; but afterwards when you 
make bold with it, it is like the stomach of the ostrich, which digesteth 
iron, or like a part or member of the body which is seared with a hot 
iron, it hath no feeling, 1 Tim. iv. 2 ; or like freezing water, which at 
first will not bear a pin, but afterwards it freezeth and freezeth, till it 
bear a cart-load. So men lose their tender sense by frequency of sin- 



VER. 14.] SERMONS UPON ROMANS vi. 297 

ning. Therefore it is some degree of mortification to prevent the 
custom, and the hardness of heart that comes thereby. When a mem 
ber is sprained or out of joint, if you let it alone and delay to set it, it 
never groweth strong or straight ; so the longer corruption is spared, 
the worse it groweth, and requireth 1 more strength. Therefore, at 
least let not your hearts settle in a course of vanity or disobedience unto 
God. 

(7.) Take heed of your darling sin. We are more tender of one sin 
than another : ' It is sweet in our mouths, and we hide it under our 
tongues,' Job xx. 12 ; there is most pleasure and profit in it. This is 
the sin which is most apt to prevail, and settle into a tyranny in the 
soul ; and your uprightness is tried by your watching and striving 
against it : as Ps. xviii. 23, ' I was also upright before him, and I kept 
myself from mine iniquity : ' Unless we humble ourselves more for this, 
watch against this, strive against this, it will be our ruin, and prove 
the ground of our apostasy in a time of temptation. There is some 
secret vent which all men have for their corruptions, or some postern 
or back-door by which Satan usually enters. Now this sin should be 
always in your eye, for the strength of other sins dependeth upon love 
to this : ' Fight not against small or great, but against the king of 
Israel,' 1 Kings xxii. 21. You should be most jealous of your hearts, 
lest they miscarry by this sin, and labour to increase in the contrary 
grace. He that will not spare his darling, 2 he hateth no sin indeed. 

Secondly, For striving, this is required of us also ; for we are bidden 
' to stand against the wiles of the devil,' Eph. vi. 11, ' T