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Full text of "The complete writings of Constantine Smaltz Rafinesque : on recent & fossil conchology"

5^4. - 
3 51 
a 

Binney, Ti&n. G., and 

Tr/on, Geo. TV., Jr.: 

The complete writings or Cons tan tine 

Siraltz Rarinosque on recent and 
fossil ccnchology, 

N. I., Ib64 





r 



THE 



COMPLETE WRITINGS 

OF 

Constaiitine Smaltz Rafinesque, 

ON 

REOEISTT & FOSSIL 

CONCHOLOGY. 



EDITED BY 

WM. G. BmNEY, AND GEORGE W. TRYON JR., 

Members of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 



CO' 



i -D 
: r=\ 
I O 
= CD 



NEW YORK 



S ^^£ o BAILLIERE BROTHERS, 520 Bkoadway. 

S m 
m C3 LONDON : H. Baillieee, 219 Regent Stkeet. 

^ ° PARIS : J. B. Baillieee, et Fils, Rue Hautefetjille. 

^ MADRID : C. Baillt Baillieke, Calle del Principe. 

1864. 



CONTENTS. 

TAGIir 

Preface by the Editors 5 

Titles of Works containing Conchological Writings of Rafinesque 7 

Complete Conchological Writings, &c f) 

Index of Generic and Specific Names 1)7 

Plates ". 






PREFACE BY THE EDITORS. 



The greatest difficulty under which the student of American 
Conchology labors, is the impossibility of obtaining access to the 
earlier writings on the subject. To remove this difficulty, a series 
of Reprints was commenced several years since, by the publication 
of the Complete Writings of Thomas Say. The present volume offers in 
an equally accessible form, all the known writings of Constantine 
Smaltz Rafinesque. It is believed to contain a re-print of all his 
contributions to Recent and Fossil Conchology, and fac-similes of all 
his published figures. It is the result of the research of several 
years, and contains extracts from works whose titles are not given 
in any of the Bibliographies, not even the exhaustive one recently 
published by Carus and Engellman. It must, however, be antici- 
pated, that among the numerous publicatioB.s of so prolific an 
author, some additional -descriptions of Mollusca may yet come to 
light. 

All the works quoted, have been placed directly into the hand of 
the compositor, with directions to follow strictly the orthography 
of the original, a fact which must account for the greater part of 
the typographical errors which will be found in the work. 



6 PREFACE BY THE EDITORS. 

In presenting to the public, for the first time, a complete edition 
of Rafinesque, we forbear to express an opinion on the differences 
which have unhappily arisen regarding the adoption of many of his 
generic and specific names. Where the very highest authorities have 
differed so much, it would seem presumptuous in us to make a 
decision. The numerous valuable writings of our' author on 
terrestrial and marine Mollusca (universally acknowledged as such,) 
together with the great interest which has been awakened in his 
descriptions of our Naiades, will doubtless render this volume an 
acceptable addition to Conchological literature. 

Wm. G. Binney, 
George W. Tryon, Jr. 
Philadelphia, May, 1864. 



LIST OP WORKS CONTAINING THE CONCHOLOGICAL 
WRITINGS OF RAFINESQUE. 



1814. — Speccliio delle Scienze o Giornale Enciclopedicadi Sicilia 9 

1814. — Precis des Decouvertes Somiologiques ou Zoologiques et 

Botaniques 11 

1815. — Analyse de la Nature 12 

1818. — American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 22-23-24 

1819. — Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle, &c 25-31 

1820. — Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques 34 

1820.— The Annals of Nature 64 

1821. — Enumeration and Account of some Remarkable Objects, &c 6(5 

1831. — Continuation of a Monograph, &c 69 

1832-33. — Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge, &c 88-91 

1840.— The Good Book and Amenities of Nature 92-94 



COMPLETE 

CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS 

OP 

C. S. RAFINESQUE. 



[From the " Specchio deUe Scienze o Giornale Eiiciclopedico di Sicilia," 
&c., &c. Tomo Secondo. Numero XI. Palermo. 1 Nov., 1814.] 

[153] 

Quadro dei Generi di Molluschi pteropodi del Signori 
Peron e Lesueur. 

L'0-rdine dei Pteropodi (P'eropodia) stabilito tra la classe dei 
Molluschi dal celebre Sign. Cuvier con i tre generi Clio, Hyalea 
e Pneumoderma, viene adesso accresciuto sine a 10 generi dai 
Signori Peron e Lesueur e diviso in 4 sezioni; eccone i caratteri 
essenziali. 

PTEROPODI. Corpo libero natante, capo distinto, delle ali, 
alcune volte uu involto testaceo univalve. 

I. Nudi e senza e tentacoli. 

1. G. Flrola (Pterotrachea Forsk) 2 occhi, branchie alia base 
della coda, 3 ale. 

[154] 

2. Callianira, nessun occhio, 3 ale, branchie cilifere, sopra I'ala 
laterale. 

II. Nadi e tentacolati. 

3. Phyllirhoe, 2 tentacoli, una probiscide, contratibile, 2 occhi, 
una ala caudale. 

4. Pneumoderma Cuvier, 2 tentacoli, una probiscide, nessun 
occMo, due ale laterali al collo, branchie lamellose. 



10 RAriNESQUE'S 

5. Gtio. Linn. 2 tentacoli, una proboscide, nessun occhio, due. ale 
lateral! al corpo, branchie retiformi sopra le ale. 

6. Glaucus {Scyllea Lin.) 4 tentacoli, nessun occliio, sei o otto 
ale laterali digitate branchiali. 

III. Testacei e senza tentacoli. 

7. Cleodora, 2 occhi, 2 ale laterali, besto cartilaginoso. 
ly. Testacei e tentacolati. 

8. Gymbiilia, 2 tentacoli, una p'robiscide, 2 occhi 3 ale, testo car- 
tilaginoso. 

9. Hyalea Lamark, 2 ale, ai lati della bocca, nessun occhio, testo 
convesso sopra un lato, apice tricuspidato. 

10. Carinaria Lamark, 2 tentacoli, nessun occhio, testo conico 
compresso, dorso a doppia carena dentata, apice spirulato. 

Nota delV editore. lo ho accresciuto di altri 1 generi nudi, questo 
ordine di Anamali ; eccone i caratteri essenziali. 

Alia prima sezione senza tentacoli, appartengono 4 generi. 

1. Hypterus, 2 occhi, una probiscide, branchie sotto la coda, un 
ala sotto il corpo. 

2. Sarcopterus, nessun occhio, una grande ala orizontale intorno 
al corpo, una cresta sul capo, branchie lamellose. 

3. Heteroptera, nessun occhio, molte ale branchiali non digitate 
ed in numero imparo, le due anterioriori contratibili. 

4. Abretia, nessun occhio, molte piccole ale branchiali laterali in 

numero paro, non digitate, nessuna contratibile. 

[155] 
E tre generi alia seconda sezione, i tentacolati. 

5. Cteniurus, 2 tentacoli corti ed immobili, 2 occhi, 2 ale bran- 
chiali digitate da ogni lato del corpo, un ala longitudinale pectinata 
da ogni lato della coda. — Oss. Vicino del genere Glocus, questo 
genere con i due precedenti ed il seguente devono formare una fami- 
glia particolare Fleuropodia. 

6. Dicroptera, 2 tentacoli lunghi e mobili, nessun occhio, 2 pic- 
cole ale laterali alia coda. 

1. Eione. Molti tentacoli foliosi intorno della bocca, nessun 
occhio, 4 ale intorno del corpo, e molte ale o appendici inuguali alia 
coda. 

Tutti questi generi sono del mare Mediterraneo e tirreno, fuorchfe 
il Gteniurus che fu ritrovato da me nel mare atlantico. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 11 

[From Precis des Decouvertes Somiologiques ou Zoologiques et Botan- 
iques, p. 28. Palermo. 1814.] 

[28.] 

7. Classe. Malacosia — Les MoUusques. 

67. Octopus fraijedus. Antenopes cgaux, egalant presque six 
fois la longueur du corps, leur extremite sans su9oirs, sucoirs alternes, 
dos rougeatre. 

68. Octopus didynamus. Antenopes inegaux, deux plus longs, 
egalant presque cinq fois la longueur du corps, sucoirs alterneS; dos 
brunatre* 

69. Octopus heteropus. Antenopes a peine plus longs du corps 
inegaux, les deux superieurs les plus longs, su9oirs alternes, dos 
rougeatre. 

70. Octopus ruber. Antenopes egaux, environ le double du 
corps, suyoirs alternes, corps entierement rouge. 

71. Octopus tetradynamus. Antenopes inegaux alternativement, 
plus longs, egalant cinq fois la longueur du corps, su9oirs opposes, 
dos grisatre. 

72. Octopus moschafus. Antenopes egaux, egalant quatre fois 

la longueur du corps, su9oirs opposes, corps blanchatre. — Obs. J'ai 

[29.] 
observe en Sicile, rien moins que G especes de ce Genre, confondues 

sous la designation d' Octopus vulgaris de Lamark et Montfort, 

j'ai nomme les autres, 0. albus. 0. niger et 0. maculatus ; 1' 0. 

moschatus de Lamark est mon Ozoena moschata. 

XYIII. Gr. ocYTHOE. 8 Antenopes, les deux superieurs ailes. 

interieuremeut, a su9oirs iuterieurs pedoncules, reunispar 1' aile late- 

ralo, aucune membrane a la base des antenopes 

73. Ocythoe tuherculata. Ventre tubercule, dos lisse, antenopes 
de la longueur du corps, carenes exterieurement, a duex rangs de 
su9oirs, 8 su9oirs autour de la bouche. Obs. Mes autres nouvelles 
especes de la famille Sepidia sont. Sepia mucronata, Loligo Ian- 
ceolatsL, L. odagadium, L. todarus, Ozoena aldrovandi, Dictyethis 
fusca, &c. 

XIX. Gr. HTPTERUS. Corps gelatineux cylindrinque, bouche a 1' 
eitreraite d' une trompe, deux yeux, aile comprimee sous le ventre, 
appendice lacinie (branchiesj sous la queue. Famille Ptrachidia. 

74. Hyptei us appendiculatus. Hyalin, deux appendices articu- 
les sous la poitrine et un sous 1' aile. 



12 rafinesque's 

75. Hypterus erylhrogaster. Hyalin, estomac rouge, points d' 
appendices articules. 

XX. Stephylla. Corps oblong deprime, bouche entouree 
d'une conronne de tentacules lacinies, foliaces, 2 appendices surla 

[30.] 
partie posterieure du Dos (branchies ?) anus posterieur a la droite. 
Famille Phyllidia, 

76. Stephylla pallida. Dos blanchatre varie de cendre et de 
brun, tentacules gris, appendices bruns. 

77. Stephylla lutescens. Dos jaunatre tachete de brun, tentacules 
noiratres, termines de blanc, appendices bruns. 

78. Stephylla fasca. Brun fonce sans taches, borde de jaune 
tentacules et appendices noirs, bordes de blanc. 

XXI. G. Armina. Corps oblong deprime, bouche nue retracti- 
ble, flancs lamelleux, anus a la droite. — Meme famille du precedent. 

79. Armina maculata. Dos roussatre tache de blanc, deux 
petits tentacules oboves sur la tete, corps aigu posterieurement. 

80. Armina tigrina. Dos noiratre, varie de lignes ondulees 
blanches, point de tentacules, corps obtus posterieurement. 

XXII. Sarcopterus. Corps entoure d' une grande aile plane, 
bouche nue a une crete en dessus, branchies laterales lamelleuses. 

81. Sarcopterus ruber. Entierement rouge clair, aile arrondie, 
entiere, corps brun superieurement. 

Obs. J'omets plusieurs especes Siciliennes de Laplysia, Limax, 
Tethys, Doris &c., et tous les Coquillages, m' appei'cevant que je 
commence a depasser mes limites. 

[From " Analyse de la Nature, ou Tableau de 1' Univers etdes Corps Orga- 
nises." Palerme, 1815.] 

Among the Helmisia or Les Yers, occur the following: 

[136.] 

III. 0. ENDOSIPHIA, Les Endosiphes. 

6. Famille. DITREMIA. Les Ditremes. Fourreau, tube ou 
coquille a deux ouvertures aux deux extremites. 

2. S. F. dentalia. Les Dentaliens. Coquille tubuleuse cal- 
caire. Gr. 21. Dentalium L. 22. Odorthus R. sp. do. Siphodon 
R. sp. do, 24. Asphalium R. 25. Nicteis R. 

7. Famille. TREMONIA. Les Tremoniens. Fourreau tube 
ou coquille, a une seule ouverture anterieure. 



CONOHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 13 

2. S. F. 8ERPULARIA. Les Serpulaires. Coquille tubuleuse 
calcaire, 'Gf. 9. Diodiphus R. 10. Serpula L- 11. Spirilum 
B. sp. do- 12. Filigrana E.. sp. do. 13. Polithalus R. sp. do. 
14. Spirinea R. sp. do. 15- Stenotrema R. sp. do- 16. Sipho- 

[137.] 
nemus R. sp. do. IT. Alromojjsis R. sp. do. 18. Asepis R. 
19. Sjm^orbis Daud. 20. Codostoma R. 21. Exai'thria R. 22. 
Vaginella Daud. 23. Spiroglyphis Daud. 24. Sp'irographis 
Yiviaui. 

X. 8. Ctasse. APALOSIA. Les Mollusques. 

Cette classe fut fondee par Cuvier qui a cru devoir lui assigner sa 
place immediatement apres les Poissons ; mais il suffit de comparer 
V organisation des Mollusques avec celle des Crustaces pour s' as- 
surer que ces derniers 1' out plus parfaite sous tous les rapports, et 
qu'ils meritent d' etre places plus pres des Animaux vertebres ; et 
apres eux doivent necessairement suivre les Insectes. 

L' appareil des articulations internes ou externes cesse entiere- 
ment avec la classe precedente, on n' en retrouve plus aucune ided 
parmi les Mollusques, et a peine quelque legere trace dans la classe 
suivante. 

Ces Animaux possedent presque toujours une enveloppe testacee 
calcaire ou coquille, ordinairement externe, tantot univalve unilocu- 
laire non tubuleuse ou multil6culaire ou spirivalve, et tantot bivalve, 
mais tres-rarement multivalve, quelquefois cette coquille est interne ; 
1' etude de ces enveloppes porte le nom de Conchyologie, et elle est 

[138.] 
a plusieurs egards plus avancee que celle de leurs Animaux, a cause 
de sa facilite, quoique son importance soit bien moindre. Dans le 
cas des especes fossiles, il ne reste que cette depouille. 

Les Mollusques ont souvent une tete, quelquefois des yeux et des 
tentacules ; mais ils sont aussi souvent depourvus de tous ces orga- 
nes : ils ont tous, un ou plusieurs coeurs uniloculaires ou centres de 
circulation, des arteres, des veiues, du sang, des nerfs aboutissan^ a 
un cerveau imparfait, et presque toujours des brancliies tres-diversi- 
tiees, aquariennes ou aeriennes, externes ou internes ; ils ont enfin 
une bouche et un anus dont la situation est tres-variable. 
» Leur generation s' opere avec ou sans accouplement, et elle est 
ovipare ou gemmipare. lis habitent ordinairement les eaux, quel- 
quefois sur la terre : ils y rampent ordinairement, y nageut quel- 
quefois et sont rarement fixes. 



14 rafinesque's 

Les principaux auteurs ont qui illustre P Apalogie apr^s Linneus, 
sont, Geoffroy, Adanson, Poli, Cuvier, Larnark, Muller, Bruguiere, 
Bosc, Montfort, Boissy, Peron . . . Je vais ausssi y contribuer pa,r 
mes decouvertes, dont je n' ai encore public qu' une tres-petite par- 
tie ailleurs, et dont je reserve les details pour un autre lieu. 

TABLEAU DES ORDRES. 

1. Sous-Classe. CEPHADELIA. cephadeles. line tete dis- 
tincte, ordinairement des yeux et des tentacules ; coquille jamais 
bivalve. 

1, Ordre, CEPHALOPODIA. Les cephalopodes. Tentacules 
longs servant des pieds, ordinairement plus de quatre ; ordinaire- 
ment un test interne ou externe uniloculaire on multilocaire, a spire 
mulle ou interne. 

[139.] 

II. Frdre. PTERO PODIA. Les pteropodes, Tentacules 
nuls ou courts, 4 an plus, une ou plusieurs nageoires ou appendices 
natatoires, quelouefois un test univalve externe 

III. Ordre. GASTEROPODIA. Les gastergpodes. Ten- 
tacules nuls ou courts, 4 au plus, point d' appendices natatoires, 
corps et dos droit, test lorsqu' il existe externe, ou interne non 
spirivalve, univalve ou multivalve. 

ly. Ordre. SPIRONOTIA. Les spironotes. Tentacules 
nuls ou courts, 4 au plus, point d' appendices natatoires, corps ou 
au moins le dos en spirale, toujours un test externe univalve, unilo- 
culaire, spirivalve a spire saillante ou externe. 

2. Sous-Classe. ACEPHALIA, Les acephales. Point de 
tete et point d' yeux, ordinairement une coquille bivalve. 

y. Ordre. BiyALyjA. Les bivalves. Une coquille bivalve, 
point de tentacules. 

yi. Ordre. POLETERIA. Les poleteres. Des tentacules 
ou test multivalve ou corps nu sans coquille. 

TABLEAU DES FAMILLES ET DES GENRES. 

L 0. CEPHALOPODIA. Les Cephalopodes, 
1. Sous-Ordre. ANTEPEDIA. hes Antepe les. Corps nu a 
test interne, ou externe, jamais multiloculaire, antenopes ou tenta- 
cules en nombre determine, deux yeux, bouche en bee. 

1. Famille. OCTOPIA. Les Octopiens. Corps nu sans test 
interne ni externe, huit antenopes conformes. G. 1. Oclopus ham. 

2. Ozoena R. sp. do. 3. Tigrias R. sp. do. Ocythoe R. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. - 15 

2. Famille. SEPHINIA. Les Sephiens. Corps renfermant 
interieurement un test ou lame, huit on dix anteaopes, dont deux de 

[140] 
forme differeate. G. 1. Sepia L. Lam. 2. Loligo Lam. 3. 
Sephinia R. 4. Todarus R. 5. Dyctiethis R. 6" Anthrona- 
cus. R. 

3. Famille. ARGOXAUTEA. Les Argonautiens. Corps ren- 
ferme dans un test externe et uniloculaire. G. L Argonauta Lam 
2. Cymbium R. sp. do. 3. Nauticon R. sp. do. 

2. Sous-Ordre. polarnaxia. Les Polarnaxes- Constament un 
test externe ou interne et multiloculaire, tentacules souvent nombreux, 
soavent point d' yeux. 

4. Famille. NAUTILIA. Les Nautiliens. Test externe, -k 
spire interne soudee, ordinairement tentacules nombreux, G. 1. 
Nautilus L. Lam. 2. Oehalus R. sp. do. 3. Orbulites Lam. 
4. Ammonites Brug. 5. Cytonotus R. sp. do. 6. Ceramus R. 
Ammonoceratites Lam. ' 7, Planulites Lam. 8. Baculites Lam ? 
9. Turrilites Lam ? 

5. Famille. SFIRULARIA. Les Spirulaires. Test externe 
en spirale libre ou sans spire, tentacules souvent determines. G. L 
Spirula Lam. 2. Spironites Lam. 3. Lituolites Lam. 4. Belem- 
nita Lam. 5. Closterita R. sp. do. 6. Ropalita R. sp. do. 7. 
Campytus R. sp.do. 8. Fachynus R. Mippurites Lam. Cornuco- 
piaThomson. ^. Orthocera IjSbm. 10. O&Zz'czYws R. sp. do. 11. 
Oblongites R. sp. do. 

6. Famille. NTJMMULITIA. Les Nummulitiens. Test plane, 
ordinairement interne ! a spire nulle ou concentrique. G. 1. Num- 
mulites Lam. 2. Gumerina R. sp. do. 3. Discolita R sp. do. 
4. Lenticulina Lam. 5. Discorhitus Lam. 6. Rotalites Lam. 
7. Gyrogonites Lam. 8. Miliolites Lam 9. Renulites Lam. 

IL 0. PTEROPODIA. Les Pteropodes. 

7. Famille. HYALINEA. Les Hyaliens. Un test externe, 
[141] 

deux ou trois ailes anterieures. G. 1. Hyalea Bosc. 2. Aulisa R. 
sp. do. 3. Thoena R. sp. do. 4. Garinaria Lara. 5. Gymbulia 
Per. 6. Gleodora Per. 

8. Famille. OLIGOPTERIA. Les Oligopteres. Corps nu, 
deuxou'un petit nombre de nageoires ordinairement anterieures, 
jamais situees lateralement par paires. 



16 RAFINESQUE'8 

1. S. F. FiROLiNiA. Les Firoliens. Tete sans tentacules. G. 
1. Pterotrachea Forsk. 2. Firola R. sp. do. 3. Eypterus R. 
4. Callianira Per. 5. Sarcopterus R. 

2. S. F. CLIONIDIA. Les Glionides. Tete tentaculee. G. 6. 
Glione R. Clio Brown. 7- Amphirea R. sp. do. 8. Pneumoder- 
ma Cuv. 9. Phylliroe Per. 10. Dicroptera R. 

9. Famine. PLEUROPTERIA. Les Pleuropteres. Corps 
et, plusieurs nageoires ou appendices laterales et longitudiuales 
situees par paires. 

1. S. F. LERNEiDiA. L.QS Le7'neides. Des appendices posteriure- 
ment. G. 1. Lernea L. 2. Dotona R. sp. do. 3. Ilelanipipa R. 
sp. do. 4. Iphitus R. sp. do. 5. Zeuxonia R. sp. do. G. CZy- 
tiana R. sp. do. 7. Eione R. 

2. S. F. PLEUROPiA. Les Pleuropiens. Point d' appendices 
posterieurement. G. 8 Blephalum R. 9. Triton L. ? 10. Pleii- 
ropus R. Scyllea L. Glaucus Lam. 11. Gomphodelis R. sp. do. 
12 Gteniurus R. 13. Ahretia R. 14. Heteroptera R. 15. .Sip- 
pothoe R. 

IIL 0. GASTEROPODIA. Les Gasteropodes. 

10. Famille. LIMAXIA. Les Limaxiens. Point de test ni 
externe ni interne. 

1. S. F. TETHYDiA. Lcs Tethydieus. Point de tentacules. G. 
[142i 

1 Tethys L. 2. Nereus R. 3. Peribea R. 4. Agenor R. ^cercs 
Cuv. 5. ^rmtna R. 

2. S. F. PHYLLiDiNiA. Les Phyllidiens. Deux tentacules, 
branchies lamelleuses. G. 6. Enipeus R. 7. Phyllidia Cuv. 8. 
Pleurobranchus Lam. 9. Eolia Cuv. 

3 S- F. DORiDiA. Les Doridiens. Deux tentacules, brancbies 
ni lamelleuses ni cacbees. G. 10. Doris L. 11. Cydippa R. sp. 
do. 12. Stephylla R. 13 Eitphurus R. Tritonia Lam. 14. 
Paralus R. sp. do. 15. Pherusa R. 

4. S. F. ONCHiDiA. hes Onchidiens. Deux tentacules, branchi- 
es cachees peu apparentes. G. 16. Onchidium Lam- 17. Dicla- 
dus R. 18. Amphrisus R. 

5. S. F. LiMACiDiA. Les Limacides. Quatre tentacules, bran- 
chies cachees peu apparentes. G. 19. Limax R. 20. Limicias R. 
sp. do 21. Parmacella Lam. ? 

11. Famille. LAPLYSIjSTIA. Les Laplysiens. Un test in- 
terne dorsal convert par la peau. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. It 

1. S. F. TETRACEA. Les Tetraces. Quatre tentacules. G. 1. 
Laplysia L. 2. Sympterus R. 3. Dolahella Lam. 

2. S. F. siGARETiA. Les. Sigaretins. Deux tentacules. G 4. 
Tlieoris R. 5. Sigaretus Lam. 6. Fhoroneus R.. 

3. S. F. BULLiNiTiA. Les Bullinides. Point de tentacules. G. 
7. Bullinia R. BuUea Lam. 8. Lajjhyra R. 

12. Famine. PATELLARIA. Les Patellaires. Un test ex- 
terne dorsal et univalve. 

1. S. F. HALiOTiDiA. Les Haliotides. Test jamais conique, a 
base legerement contournee ou un pen en spire. G. 1. Bullaria R. 
Bulla L. 2. Lignaria R. 3. Hipponea R 4. Polyiectus R. 
5. Conchidus R. Concholepas Lam. 6. Haliotis L. 1. Stoma- 

[143] 
<m Lam. 8. Phymotis R. Stomatella Lam. Y- Oxynoe R. 10. 

Tylodina R. 

2. S. F. ANCYLiBiA. Les Ancylides. Test a base egale ni con- 
tournee ni spirulee, et soavent conique ou en bouclier. G. 11. Testa- 
cella Lam. 12. Testicina R. sp. do. 13. Urcinella R. sp do. 
14. Zilotea R. 15. Patella L. 16. Gaterita R. sp. do. IT. Ancy- 
lus Geof. 18. Mesypea R. • 19. Mesonotus R. 20. Fissurella 
Lam. 21. Dasanus R. sp. do. 22. Emarginula Lam. 23. Cre- 
pidula Lam. 24. Hercynia R. sp. do. 25. Galyptrea Lam. 26. 
Oscana Bt'sc. 27. Capsalu Bosc. 

13. Famille. CHITONIA. Les Chitoniens. Test externe 
dorsal et multivalve ou articule. G. 1. Chiton L. 2. Octomeia 
R. sp do. 3. Lophyrus* R. sp. do. 4. Trichomecus R. sp. do. 
5. Hyplaxus R. 

IV. 0. SPIRONOTIA. Les Spironotes. 

Sous-Ordre. adelobranchia. Les Adelobranches. Branchies 
pen appareutes, ordinairement en trou, jamais en syphon, qnelque- 
fois quatre tentatules : coquille a bouche ni echancree ni canaliculee- 

14. Famille. HELICINIA. Les Helicines. Quatre tentacu- 
les, point d' opercule. G. 1. Helix L. 2. Periodon R. sp. do. 3- 
Steniola R. sp. do. 4. Vitrina Drap. 5. Achatina Lam. 6. 
Succinea Drap. 7- Bulimus Brug. 8. Puparia R. Pupa Lam. 
9. Amphibulia R. Amphibulimus Lam. 10. Janthina Lam. 

15. Famille. TROCHINIA, Les TrocUnes. Deux tentacu- 
les, point d' opercule. 

* In errata this is clianged to Arthronotzia B. Lophyrus Poll. 

B 



18 rafinbsque's 

1. S. F. PLANORBiA. Les Planorhiens. Spire roulee sur elie 
meme. G. 1. Planorbis Geof. 2. Spirorbis R. sp. do. S. 
Platalias R. 

2. S. F. TROCHiDiA. Les Trochidees. Spire roulee 
exterieurement ( ou interieurement ) , coquille plane, conique ou 
pyramidale G. 4. Flanospira Lam. 5. Gonispira R. 6. Trochus L. 

[144] 
*I. Solarium Lam 8 Eltrostoma R. sp. do. 9. Diplicella R. sp. do. 
Pyramidella Lam. 

3. S F. LYMNiDiA. Les Ljmnides. Spire roulee exterieurement! 
coquille oblongue ou ovale. Gr. 11. Tremurus R. 12. Ljmnea Lam. 
13. Melanidia R. Melania'La.m. 14. Melanopsis Lam. 15. Auricula 
Lam. 16. Garychium Mull. It. Vertigo Mull. 18. Phjsina R. 
Physa Drap. 

16. Famille. NERITINIA. Les Neritines. Deux tentacules. un 
opercule adherant au corps, coquille non tubuleuse. 

1. S. F. NERiTACEA. Les Neritacees. Coquille ni conique ni 
pyramidale. bouche non arrondie. G. 1. Ampullaria Lam. 2. Goljma 
R. Helicina Lam. 3. Valvata Mull. 4. Bolina R. Phasianella Lam. 
5 Natica Lam. 6. Nacella Lam. 7. Laphrostoma R. iVeriYma Lam. 
8. Aplodona R. 9. Nerita R. 

2. S. F. TURBiNACEA. Lcs Turhinacess. Coquille conique ou 
Pyramidale a bouche ronde. G. 10. Gyclostoma 11. Juturna R. sp 
do. 12. Viviparella R. Vivipara Lam. 13. Praxidice R. De?- 
phinula Lam. 14. Monodonta Lam. 15. Pharaonis R. sp. do. 16. 

Turbonus T. Turbo L. 17. Vestiarius R. sp. do. 18. Scalaria 
Lam. 19. Turritella Lam. 20. Perforella R. sp. do. 

17. Famille. YERMETINIA. Les Vermetines. Deux tentacules, 
coquille tubuleuse. G. 1. Vermetus Boissy, Vermicularia Lam. 2 
Siliquaria Lam. 3. Antkiope R. 4. Euphemus R. 

2. Sous-Ordre. siphobranchia. Les Siphobranches. Branchies 
en syphon ou tube, toujours deux tentacles ; coquille echancree ou 
canaliculee a la base. 

18. Famille. CANALIFERA. Les Ganaliferes. Coquille a 
bouche canaliculee. 

1. S. F. murexia. Les llarexiens. Bord de la base ou bouche 

[145] 

non dilatee en aile. G. 1. Gerithium Brug. 2. Saronus R. sp. do. 3. 

Amithaon R. sp. do. 4. Gassinia R. Gassis Brug. 5. Vihex R. sp. 

do. 6. Turbinellus Lam. 7. Pleuroma Lam. 8. loeranea R. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 19 

Fasciolaria Lam. 9. Hallirhea R. Pyrtda Lam. 10. Fusinus R. 
Fusus Lam. 11. Murex Ij. 12. BrandarisH. sp. do. 13. Poliphonus 
R. sp. do. 14. Phyleris R. sp. do. 

2. S. F. STROMBiA Les Strombiens. Bord de la base on bouche, 
dilate en aile laterale. Gr. 15. Stromhus L. 14. Pterocera Lam. lY. 
Rostellaria Lam. 

19. Famille. EMARGINARIA. Les Emarginaires. Coquille 
non canalieulee, a bouche echancree, ;i spire roulee en dessus on 
superieure, ordinairement un opercule. 

1. S. F. BUCCiNiDiA. Les Buccinides. Columelle lisse sans plis ni 
dents. Gr. 1. Nassaria R. Nassa Lam. 2. Purpura Brug. 3. 
Monoceros Lam. t. Buccinum L. 5. Ehurna Lam. 6. Terehraria 
R. Terebra Brug. T. Dolvum Lam. 3. Harparia R. Harpa Lam. 

2. S. F. VOLXITIDIA. Les Volutides. Columelle plissee ou dentee. 
G. 9. Peristera R. Columbella Lam 10. Marginella Lam. 11. 
Gancellaria Lam. 12. Mitraxid R. Mitra Lam. 13. Voluta L. 

20. Famille. IN VOL YE A. Les Enroidees. Coquille non canali- 
eulee, a bouche echancree, a spire roulee en dedans ou interieure, 
point d'opercule. 

1. S. F. CONULIA. Les ConuJiens. Bouche ou ouverture de la co- 
quille laterale. G. 1. Anaulax Boissy. Ancilla Lam. 2. Olivaria R. 
Oliva Brug. 3 Terebrina R. Terebellum Lam. 4. Conulus R. 
Conus L. 5. Cylindulus R. sp. do. 

2. S. F. CYPRiDiA, Les Cyj^ridees, bouche ou overture longi- 
[146] 

tudinale presque centrale ou non totalement laterale. G. 6. Volvaria 

Lam. 1. Ovula Brug. 3. Cyprea L. 9. Amathonta R. sp. do. 10. 
Diomphala R. sp. do. 11. Numisea R. sp. do 

V. O. BIVALYIA. Les Bivalves. 

1. Sous-Ordre. diplophonia. Les Dip)lophones. Corps muni d'un 
pied musculeux et de deux syphons ou tubes. 

21. Famille, HYPOGIDIA. Les Hyp)ogidees, Corps a manteau 
ferme par devant, ouvert k une extremite par ou passe le pied et se 
prolongeant a I'autre en un double syphon : coquille inequilaterale. 

1. S. F. pholadaria. Les Pholadaires. Coquille equivalve trans- 
verse. G. 1. Pholas L. 2. Petricola Lam. 3. Rupellaria Fleuriau. 
4. Pupicola Fl. 5. Saxicava Fl. 6. Solena7-ia R. Sole7i L. 7. 
Strigilaria R. sp. do. 8. Sanguinolaria Lam. 9. Cyrtodaria Daud. 
10. Myarina R. Mya L. 11. Amathusia R. PanorjM Lam. 12. 
Anatina Lam. 13. Glycimeris Lam. 



20 rafinesque's 

2. S. F. Pandoracia. Les Fandoracees. Coquille inequivalve. 
Gr. 14. Erodona Daud. 15. Pandora Lam. 

22. Famille. VENERIDIA. Les Veneridees. Manteau ouvert 
par devant, un pied et deux siphons lateraux : coquille cquivalve. 

1. S. F. isoPEEiA. Les Isoperiens. Coquille equilaterale. G. 
1. Ungulina Daud. ? 2. Lucina Lam. 3. Cycladea R. Cyclas 
Lam. 4. Tellina L. ' 5. Bucairla Brug. Cerastes Poli 6. Isocarda 
Lam. Psilotus Poli. 

2. S. F. HETEROPERiA. Les Heteroperiens. Coquille inequilate- 

rale transverse. G. Y. Venericardia Lam. 8. Mei-etrix Lam. 

{Cytherea Lam.) 9. Venus L. 10. Heterocarda R. Cardita Brug. 

[147] 
Glossus Poli. 11. Lithocarda R. sp. do. 12. Pap/wa. Lam. 13. 

Crasmtella Lam. 14. Mactra L. 15. CalUsta Poli. 16. Arthe- 

mzs Poli. 17. iwfrarm Lam. 18. CapsariaK. Capsa Lam. 19.' 

Donax Brug. 20. Peronea Poli Tellina sp. 21. HiateUa Daud. 

22. Tridacna Brug. 23. Hippojnis Lam. 24. Trigella R. Trigo- 

nia Brug. 25. Migonitis R. Erycina Lam. 

2. Sous-Ordre. asiphonia. Les Asiphones. Corps denue de 

syphons ou de pied, manteau ouvert par devant. 

23. Famille. PEDIFERIA. Les Pediferes, Corps muni d'un 
pied rampant, tendineuxnon byssifere, et denue de syphons, coquille 
equivalve, inequilaterale transverse. G. 1. Egeria Boissy, Galathea 
Brug. 2. Unionea R. CJyizo Brug. 3. Anodonta Brug. 4. Pectun- 
culus Lam. Axinea Poli. • 

24. Famille. BYSSIFERIA. Les Byssiferes, Corps muni d'un 
pied byssifere, et denue ordinairement de syphon ; coquille equivalve 
ou inequivalve. 

1. S. F. PERNARIDIA. Les Pemarides. Coquille equivalve, 
inequilaterale transverse. G. 1- Arcaria R , Area L , Daphne Poli 
2. Pernaria R., Perna Brug. 3. Vulsella Lam. 4. Modiola Lam. 
5. Loripes Poli. 

2. S. F. MYTiLiDiA. Les Mytilides. Coquille equivalve, equilate- 
rale longitudinale. G. 6. Mytilus L. Callitriche Poli Y. Pinnula 
R. Pinna L. Chimera Poli 8. Malleolus R. Malleus Lam. 

3. S. F. LIMARIDIA. Les Limaridees. Coquille inequivalve. 
G. 9. Arcula R. ^rca sp. 10. Cuculina R. Cucullea Lam. 11. 
Nucula Lam. 12. Limella R. Lymnea Poli 13. Crenatula Lam. 
14. Avicula Lam. 15. Pedimis R. Pedum Lam. 16. Limaria R. 
Lima 17. Prognella R. sp. do. 



CONCHOLOaiCAL WRITINGS. 21 

[148] 

25. Famille OSTREACIA. Les Ostreacees. Corps denue de 

pied et ordinairement de syphon ; coquille inequivalve. 

1. S. F. PECTENiA. hes Pecteniens. Un syphon, coquille auri- 
culee. G. 1. Pectenus R. Pecten Brug. 2. Bpondylus Lam. Ar- 
gus Poll. 

2. S. F. PLACUNiA. Jjes Placuniens. Point de syphon, coquille 
reguliere. G. 3. Calceolina R. Calceola Lam. 4. Gryphea Lam. 
5. PUcatida Lam. 6. Placuna Lam. T. Cranicella R. Crania 
Lam. 

2. S. F. ANOMiNiA. Les Anominiens. Point de syphon, coquifle 
irreguliere, souYent adherente. G. 8. Ca.meola R. Chama L. 9. 
Dicerata Lam. 10. Corbula Lam. 11. Ostrea L. 12. Peloris 
Poll sp. do. R. 13. Anoniia L. Echion Poli 14. Etheria Lam. 15 
Badiolita Lam. 16. Acarda Brug. 

YI. O. POLETERIA. Les Poletferes. 

26. Famille. BRACHIOPEA. Les BraoUopes. Coquille 
bivalve, des tentacules cilies. G. 1. Orbicula Lam. 2. Terebratula 
Lam. 3. Lingula Lam. 

27- Famille. teredaria. Les Teredaires. Coquille trivalve, 
une valve tubuleuse enveloppant le corps, deux petites a son ex- 
tremite, point de tentacules cilies. G. 1. Teredo L, 2. Fistulana 
Lam. 3. Furcella Lam. 

28. Famille. ASCIDINIA. Les Ascidiyiees. Point de test ou 
coquille, corps nu, ou renferme dans un sac, deux overtures. 

1. S. F. SCYTINOMIA. Les Scytinomiens. Corps coriace fixeou 
pouvant se fixer, rarement aggrege. G. 1. Ascidia L. 2. Grostoma 
R. sp. do. 3. Phuscaria R. sp. do. 4. Scytinoma R. Sfephas- 
toma R. 6. Fodia Bosc. Y. Amblodeus R. 8. Diplacus R. 9. 
Melanosteum R ? 

[149] 

2. S. F. SALPARIA. Les Salpaires. Corps Gelatineux nageant 
ou tlottant, souvent aggrege. G. 10. Diophthelis R. 11. Salpa L. 
12. Notelis R. 13. Sachroa R ? 14. Hyproctomus R. 15. Ojjip- 
iera R ? 16. Biphora Cuv. 17. Dagysa L. 18. Arthromium R. 
19. Symphoma R. 20. Diuricluis R. 21. Polizoon R. 

En tout 331 Genres. 



22 rafinesque's 

[From the American Monthly Magazhie and Critical Review, Vol. Ill, 
page 354, New York, 1818.] 

Discoveries in Natural History, made during a Journey through 
the Western Region of the United States, hy Constantine 
Samuel Rafinesque, Esq. Addressed to Samuel L. Mitchill, 
President, aud the other Members of the Lyceum of Natural 
History, in a letter dated at Louisville, Falls of Ohio, 20th 
July, 1818. 
[355] 
4. Conchology or the Shells. I trust I have discovered likewise 

the greatest proportion of the shells of the Ohio, having already 
collected and described over 30 species, the whole of which appear 
to be new ; they consist of 24 bivalve and 8 univalve shells. It is 
strikingly singular that those shells belong only to 3 genera, that the 
24 species of bivalve belong all to a single natural genus ; and that 
those genera are all different from European fluviatile genera, which 
I have ascertained beyond a doubt by the shells aud animals thereof. 
I shall add the characters of these new genera. 

I. PoTAMiLUS.* Bivalve- Shell equivalve unequalateral, com- 
monly transverse, rugose transversely, sloping posteriorly, shape 
variable, margin thickened, two muscular impressions, an epidermis 
surrounding the margin by a membranaceous brim, connective 
oblong convex membranaceous. Ligament with two teeth on one 
side, and a deep furrow on the other, between two carina in the left 
shell, while the right shell has two unequal teeth, and two unequal 
carinas. 

Animal with a mantle open and bilobe, branchias as a second 
interior mantle, body compressed tough, two openings or siphons 
anterior on each side, not tubular, one foot on each side commonly 
bilamellose, next to the openings. 

1. Sub-genus. Shell transverse, not truncated, thick and without 
knobs; 1. Potamilus latissimus ; 2. P. violacinus ; 3. P. niger ; 
4. P. fasciolaris ; 5. P.phaiedrus; 6. P. elliptic us; 1. P. zoncc- 
lis ; 8. P. obliquatas. 

2. Sub- genus. Shell transverse, truncated posteriorly, thick and 
without knobs. 9. Potam. retusus ; 10. P. truncatas ; 11. P. 
triqueter. 

3. Sub-genus. Shell transverse, thin, not truncated. 12. P. 
alatus ; 13. P. leptodon ; 14. P. frag His ; 15. P. nervosus ; 16. P. 
fascial us ; 17. P. auratus. 

* If I remember right, this genus is also found in the Hudson river, where 3 or 4 species are to 
be Been, which have been mistaken for Mi/a or Cardium. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 23 

4. Sub-genus. Shell transverse, thick, not truncated, knobby or 
warty. 18. P. gibbosus ; 19. P. verrucosus ; 20. P . tubercularis ; 
21. P. nodosiis. 

5. Sub-genus. Shell rounded or longitudinal. 22. P. pusillus ; 
23. P. subrotundus ; 24. Potamilus obovalis. ■ Raf. 

II. G. Pleurocera. Univalve. Shell variable oboval or conical, 
mouth diagonal crooked, rhomboidal, obtuse aud nearly reflesed at 
the base, acute above the connection, lip and columelle flexuose 
entire. Animal, with an operculum membranaceous, head separated 
from the mantle inserted above it, elongated, one tentaculum on each 
side at its base, subulate acute, eyes lateral exterior at the base of 
the tentacula. 6 species. 1. PI. retusa; 2. PI. saxatilis ; 3. PI. 
fasciata; 4. PI. coneola ; 5. PI. angulata; 6. PL turricula. 
Raf. 

III. G. Ambloxis. Univalve. Shell thick oboval, mouth oval, 
ronnded at the base, obtuse above with a thick appendage of the lip, 
columelle flexuose, a small rugose ombilic. 2 SpecieS; 1 A. eburyxea ; 
2. A. ventricosa. Raf. 

[From the American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, 

page 39, New York, 1818.] 
Farther Account of Discoveries in Natural History, in the Wes- 
tern States, hy Gonstantine Samuel Rafinesque, Esq., com- 
municated in a Letter from, that Gentleman to the Editor. 
[42] 

8. N. G. Ellipstoma. (Univalve Shell. Nat. fam. Neritinia.) 
Shell oval, obtusp, mouth oblique, elliptical entire, thick lips, the 
inner one plaited, smooth covering the columella and ombilic, de- 
current and notched outside the mouth, below the columella. Three 
species. 

8. N. Sp. Ellipstoma gibbosa. 4 spires, a large knob behind the 
outward lip. From the Ohio and Wabash, length half an inch. 
■ 9 N. Sp. Ellipstoma zonalisa. 3 spires, smooth, 3 transverse, 
zones violet. Kentucky river. 

10. N. Sp. Ellipstoma rugosa. 5 spires, smooth, sutures 

wrinkled. Ohio river. 
[106] 

General Account of the Discoveries made in the Zoology of the 
Western States. By G. F. Rafinesque, in 1818. 
[107] 
8. MoLLUSCA. As many as 25 new genera, and 212 species, 

(mostly new) have been discovered ; many of which, however, are 



24 rafinesque's 

fossil shells. They consist in 4 naked mollusca, of the genus Limax, 
36 fluviatile univalve shells, 34 terrestrial univalve shells, 42 fluvia- 
tile bivalve shells, and 10 fossil bivalve shells. Such as — (*theseare 
fossils) — Helix, 4 species ; Planorbis, 2 ; Ancylus, 1 ; Mesomphix, 
N. G. t. univ. 125 Trophodor, N. G. do. 10; Triodopsis, N. G. do. 
2 ; Stenotoma, N. G. do. 1 ; Toxostoma, N. G. do. 1 ; Xolotrema, 
N. G. do. 1 ; Aplodon, N. G. do. 1 ; Lymnula, 13 ; Pleurotoma, N. 
G. fl. un. 12 ; Ellipstoma, N. G. do. 4 ; Bulimus, 1 ; Eurystoma, N. 
G. fl. un. 1 ; Notrema, N. G. do. 1 ; Ambloxis, N. G. do. 4 ; 
*Voluta, 2 ; *Solarium, 2 ; *Belemnites, 3 ; *Trochus, 3 ; *Ortho- 
cera, 5 ; *Toxerites, N. G. un. 1 ; *Endotoma, N. G. do. 1 ; 
*Platinites, N. G. do. 1 ; *Trigorima, N. G. do. 1 ; ""Euomphales, 
1 ; *Patella, 2 ; *Melanites, 2 ; Mytilus, 1 ; Lepas, 1 ; Potamila, 
N. G. fl. biv. 34 ; Truncilla, N. G. do. 3 ; Stenodon, N. G. do. 3 ; 
Pleuroxis, N. G. do. 2 ; *Saconites, N. G. I ; *Gryphea, 5 ; *Ostrea, 
2; *Terebratula, 24; *Productus, 15; *Spirifer, 2; *Tellina, 1; 
*Goniclis, N. G. biv. 2 ; *Cyphoxis, IST. G. do. 5 ; *Megonma, K 
G. do. 4 ; *Oxisma, N. G. do. 1 ; *Curvula, N. G. do. 3 ; *Apleu. 
rotis, N. G. do. 2; *Pachosteon, N. G. do. 1. 

[356] 
Description of a new Genus of Fluviatile Bivalve Shell, of the 
family of Brachiopodes ; Notrema Fissurella ; in a Letter to 
Dr. S. L. Mitchill, Prof of Nat. Hist. &c., New York. 
Dear Sir : 

There is a small family of bivalve shells, which have received the 
name of Brachiopodes, distinguished by having tentacula. It con- 
tained, in my Analysis of Nature and in Cuvier's Regne Animal, 
only three genera, lingula, orhioula and terebratula, all maritime; 
this last, whicn is very numerous, particularly in fossil species, has 
lately been divided by Sowerby, who has established the genera Pro- 
ductus and Spirifer ; and I have added another fossil genus. 
Apleurotis, distinguished from it by being elongated, obliquatcd, 
and auriculated on one side only, in a memoir presented to the 
Academy of National Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In my travels on the Ohio, I have ascertained another genus 
belonging to that family, which is very similar to the genus Orbi- 
cula ; but it is fluviatile, and the larger or upper valve is perforated 
in the middle as in Fissurella, and operculated. I have not seen 
the living animal myself; but Mr. Audubon of Hendersonville, a 
zealous observer, has drawn it, and it appears to have a head with 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 25 

two eyes and no tentacula jutting out of the perforation. It would 
therefore deviate from the cha^racter of the family ; it may, probably, 
at a future period become the type of another ; but the shell is so 
very similar to Orbicula that I unite them now, proposing however 
for it a sub-family, under the name of Notremidia, which may 
become the family name when other similar genera shall have been 
detected. 

Description. — Notrema. Generic character, Fluviatile bivalve 
shell, inequivalve ; upper valve larger, nearly round, perforated in 
the middle, opening operculated : lower valve lateral very small 
inequilateral. Body flat beneath, head in the centre above, retracti- 
ble, jutting out through the perforation, with two lateral eyes, no 
tentacula. The generic name means opening, in the hack, in Greek. 

Nolrema fissiirella. Specific character. Upper valve convex 
with circular wrinkles, and oblique transverse furrows : lower valve 
flat obovate and smooth ; shell fulvous brown, opening round, oper- 
culum round, brown, and shining, head truncate* 

Ohs. It is found on the rocks of the bottom of the river Ohio, 
from the falls to the mouth ; it is rare ; diameter about one inch ; 
it holds on wrecks as the Patellas do, and might be mistaken for 
one at first ; the operculum has a hinge, when the animal wants to 
protrude the head, it opens it as a valve. This shell might, perhaps, 
be deemed trivalve on that account. 

C. S. Rafinesque. 

[From "Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle, etc." 
Tome LXXXVIII. Paris, June, 1819.] 

PRODROME 

De to nouveaax Genres d'Animaux decouverts dans I'interieur de& 
Etats-Unis d'Amerique, durant I'annee 1818 ; 

Par C. S. rafinesque, 

Professeur de Botanique et d'Histoire naturelle dans ITJniversite de Lex- 
ingtan en Kentucky. 

VI Classe. MOLLUSQUES. 
[4231 
24. Pleurocera. (Spiral.) Coquille ovale ou pyramidale, plu- 

sieurs tours en aplomb. Ouverture oblique oblongue, base prolon- 
gee tordue, sommet aigu. Levre exterieure mince, I'interieure col- 
l&e sur la columelle qui est lisse et tordue, sans omJ)ilic. Animal a 



36 bafinesque's 

opercule membraneux, tete proboscidee, inseree sur le dos, 2 tenta- 
cules lateraux, subules, aigus, yeux a leur base exterieare — Famille 
des Neritacees. Genre nombreux ; j'ea ai deja 12 espeees, toutes 
fluviatilus, des rivieres et ruisseaux, ainsi que les genres suivans : 

25. OxYTREMA. Different du Pleurocera par test ovale, oblong 
ou ventru, pen de tours de spire, le premier formant presque le tout ; 
ouverture aigue aux deux bouts ; I'anterieur se prolongeant en une 
longue pointe aigue. 3 espfeces fluviatiles. 

26. Campeloma. Test ovale. Ouverture ovale, base tronqueej 
Ifevres reflechies, flexueuses, unies en pointe posterieureraent. Point 
d'orabilie. Animal inconnu. J'en ai une seule espece tronvee dans 
I'Ohio. G. crassula. 4 tours de spires coutraires, soramet aigu, 
test epais, ouverture plus de la moitie de la longueur totale. 

21. Omphiscola. Different du Lymnula (Li/mnea, Auet.) par 
•Ifevre inferieure detacliee de la columelle, avec un ombilic oblong en- 
tre elles. — Famille des Lymnidees. Plusieurs espeees fluviatiles ou 
lacustres. 

28. EspiPHYLLA. Different du Lymnula ( Lymnea Auct.) par 

ouverture arrondie, et animal u teutacules claviformes, portant les 

[424] 
yeux au bout. — Famille Lymnidee. Une seule espcce, E. Nymphe- 

ola, palustre. 

29. Leptoxis. Different du Lymnula par test ovale, bombe, a 2 ou 
3 tours de spire ; ouverture ovale presqu'aussi graiido que le tout, 
yeux, exterieurs. — Environ 4 espeees fluviatiles, lacustres et palus- 
tres. 

30. Cyclemis. Different du Lymnula par test arrondi, a 2 ou 3 
tours de spire legerement obliques. Ouverture grande, presque 
ronde. Animal comme dans VEspiphylla ? — 2 espeees lacustres, G. 
minutissima et G. olivacea. 

31. Omphemis. Test ovale. Ouverture arrondie, levres deta- 
chees, columelle separce de la levre inferieure par un petit ombilic 
oblong. Spire legerement oblique. Animal a opercule membran- 
eux, 2 tentacules lateraux aplatis, yeux a leur base exterieure. — 
Famille des Turbinacces. 2 espeees, 0. lacustris et 0. phaioxis 
qui est fluviatile. 

32. LoMASTOMA. Test pyramidal aigu. Ouverture oblongue, 
base obtuse, sommet aigu, entouree eutierement par uue \h\VQ dcta- 
chee, marginale, tranchante, laquelle est decurre,ute et inflcchie a la 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 2T 

jonction da sommet. Ni opercule, ni ombilic. Animal inconnu. — 
Genre singulier ; famille des Lymnidees ? Une seiile espece connue, 
L terebrina. Test subule, lisse, a 4 tours de spire, roussatre pale ; 
ouverture 1-3 de la longueur totale, largeur 1-3 de la longueur, Tres- 
rare. Ruisseaux. 

33. EuTREMA. Test pyramidal turricule. Ouverture presque 
transverse ovale, a appendice obtus anterienreraent. .Levres reunies, 
epaisses, marginees. Animal sans opercule ? ni tentacules ? 2 yeux 
sessiles. — Genre singulier, de famille d uteuse ? Une seule espece 
qui vit sur les rochers de I'Ohio. E. terebro'ides. Euviron 12 
tours de spire, une carene laterale et longitudinale. 

34. Ellipstoma. Test epais, ovale, obtus. Ouverture oblique, 
retrecie, elliptique, lovres epaisses, reunies et decurrentes obtusement 
et posterieurement. Un petit ombilic oblong, etroit, ademi-couvert 
par la levre interieure. Animal inconnu. Genre fluviatile de 4 
especes, E. gibbosa, E. mtlata, E. zonalis, et E. marginula, Dans 
I'Oliio, le Mississipi, etc. 

N. B. — J'ai decouvert en tout pres de 60 coquilles spirales d'eau 

douce, qui sont presque toutes des especes nouvelles ; outre 

celles qui appartiennent a la serie de beaux genres cidessus, les autres 

se rangent dans les genres Ancylus, Planorbis, Lymnula, Arnpul- 

laria, Paludina, Vivipara, etc. : les suivans sont des nouveaux 

genres spiraux terrestres. 
[425, 
c5. Odotropis. Different du genre Helix par une dent lamel- 

leuse, ou Carenee sur la spire a I'orifice de i'ouverture, levres com- 

raunement reflechies, I'interieure dilatee et couvrant I'orabilic. — PIu- 

sieurs especes s'y rapportent. 

36. Mesomphix. Different du genre Helix par un grand ombi- 
lic en dessdus, ou la spire est appareute en partie. J'en conuois plus 
de 10 especes. 

37. Triodopsis. Different du genre Helix par un grand ombilic, 
comme dans le genre Mesomphix, et en outre, par levres epaisses, 
ouverture retrecie par 3 dents, une sur chaque levre et une sur la 
spire. Plusieurs especes. 

38. Xolotrema. Different du precedent par le defaut d'ombilie 
(comme dans le genre Helix,) ou un petit reconvert par le bout de 
la levre. Ouverture trausversale llncaire, la dent inferieure devenant 
une carfene lamelleuse. — 2 especes seulement. X lunidaet X. trio- 
dopsis. 



28 rafinesque's 

39. Chimotrema. Different du genre Helix par Pouverture 
transverse, entiere, courbee, semblable aune simple fente. — Une senle 
espfece, C planinscula. 

40. ToxoTREMA. Different du genre precedent par la levre emar- 
ginee. 2 especes, T. globularis et T. complanata. 

41. Stenotrema. Different des precedens par une levre epaisse 
emarginee, et u.ne seconde levre eoUee sur la spire, se reunissant a la 
vraie levre et avee une carene transversale en dessus. 1 espece, S. 
convexa. 

42. Aplodon. Different du genre Helix par bouche arrondie, 
columelle unidentee et ombiliquee. — Une seule espece bien remar- 
quable du Kentucky, A. nodosum. Troia tours de spire bosseles, 
legerement rides concentriquement en dessous. 

N. B — J'ai observe environ 40 especes de coquilles spirales ter- 
restres, toutes nouvelles, parmi lesquelles il y a quelques especes des 
genres Helix PulimuSf Cyclostoma, etc. Les genres suivans sont 
fossiles, univalves. 

43. Endotoma. (Univalve multiloc.) Conique, droite, cylin- 
dracee, divisee, interieurement en plusieurs lignes par une cloison 
longitudinale et plusieurs transversales. — Je fonde ee genre de la 
famille des Orthoceratites sur une espece microscopique observee 
fixee sur une espece de Productus en Kentucky, H. producti. Sub- 
ulee, obtuse, fixee ? grand diametre 1-6 de la longueur totale, large 
fente obtuse a la base, surface lisse. Longueur totale 1-8 de ponce. 

44. Platinites. CUnivalve multiloc.) Oblongue, tres aplatie, 
[426] 

divisee interieurement en deux loges par une cloison longitudinale 
opposee a la largeur transversale. — Famille Belemnites ? P. striata. 
EUiptique obtuse, tronquee anterieurement. Surface a stries longi- 
tudinales distantes ; largeur 1-3 de la longueur, longueur 2 pouces. 
En Kentucky, dans les couches calcaires avec les Terebratules, etc. 

45. ToxERiTES. (Univalve multiloc. J Cylindracee, courbe ; ar- 
ticulations diagonales. Siphon central, soiide, cylindracee. — Famille 
Orthoceratites. T. iruncata. Lisse, les bouts tronques, siphon a 
foibles cotes obliques, Pres de Lexington. 4 pouces. 

46. Triqonima. (Univalve multiloc.^ EUiptique, deprimee, 
soiide. Base a cavite divisee en 4 par 3 demi-cloisons divergentes 
et decurrentes. — AfiQnitcsdouteuses. 2 especes, T. nucularis et T. 
amygdaloides. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS, 29 

4Y. GoNiCLis. (Univalve.) Dififerent du genre Patella par for- 
me elliptique, dos a angle longitudinal. 2 espeees, G. elliptica et 
G. dubia ? 

48. Erpilites. (Univalve spi rale.) Conique, turriculee ; ouver- 
ture obovale, levres reunies, columelle flexueuse, lisse, canal obtus 
tres-court. — Faraille Buccinides. Ce genre se rapproche de mon 
Eutrema et du Liguus de Montfort. II contient une seule espece 
tres-abondant (en relief) dans les couches calcaires superficielles 
de Lexington en Kentucky. E. carinata. Cinq tours de spire 
fortement anguleux, lisses ; -somraet obtus. 

49. Unio. (Auct.J J'introduis ici ce genre pour observer que 
j'en connois deja pres de 50 espeees ? habitant la plupart la riviere 
Ohio, et qui offrent une telle diversite de conformation, que I'on 
devra en modifier les caracteres goneriques. Je les divise provisoire- 
ment en 8 sous-genres, qui pourront bien constitner des genres par- 
ticuliers un jour, etdont voici les caracteres. 1. PRorxERA. Yalves 
dilatees anterieurement et plus ou moins ailees superieurement, axe 
presque medial, dent lamellaire flexueuse. 4 espeees, alata, phaie- 
dra, imllida, etc. 2. Eurynia. Valves oblongues, tres-prolongees 
anterieurement, axe posterleur, dent lamellaire droite. 4 espeees, 
latissima, dilatata, solenoldes, etc. 3. Elliptic. Valves ellipti- 
ques, axe presque medial, dent lamellaire courbee. Environ 12 espeees. 
4. Plagiola. Valves semi-elliptiques, plus ou moins tronquees 
anterieurement, axe posterieur, dent lamellaire oblique, droite. Plu- 
sieurs espeees, verrucosa, fasciolaris, lejytodon, depressa, fiava, 
ohliquatas, etc. 5. Obovaria, Valves obovales ou arrondies, axe 
presque medial, dent lamellaire oblique. Exemple, obovalis, sub- 

[427] 
7'otunda, syntoxis,7'etusa, crassa,torsa, etc. 6. Truncilla. Valves 
bombees, tronqflees anterieurement. Dent posterieure semi lamell- 
aire dentee, dent lamellaire, oblique, courte, axe presque medial, 2. 
espeees, triquetra et truncata. Y. Amblema. Valves non trans- 
versales, elliptiques ou obovales, axe basilaire lateral, dent lamellaire 
oblique. Exemple, ^4. ouaZts. 8, Pleurobema. Valves non trans- 
versales, alongees, oblongues, base attenuee, axe basilaire lateral, 
dent posterieure bilobce, dent lamellaire longitudinale, laterale. 2 
espeees, P. mytiloides et P, conica ? Presque toutes les coquilles 
bivalves de I'Ohio, du Mississipi, etc., appartiennent a ce genre ou 
famille, et aux genres Anondonta, Mytilus, Cyclas, Alasmodon, Say. 



80 rafinesque's 

50. OxiSMA. (Biv. Foss.) Different du genre Pinnula (Pinna, 
Auct.) par charnicre laterale plissee, merabraneuso. — 0. bifida. 
Droite, noire, scabre, base tronqiue, extremite bifide ouverte, les 
deux valves aigues, plates, on peu anguleuses, vis-a-vis la charniere. 
— Longueur | de pouce, Museum de John D. Clifford de Lexington. 

5L Ctjrvula. fBiv. foss.) Different du genre Pinnula par 
inequivalve, incquilaterale et courbee, la grande valve commune- 
ment auguleuse, lateralement et longitudinalement. Plusieurs espe- 
ces, C. striata, j^lana, levis, dubia, etc. 

52. Cyphoxis. (Biv. foss.) Different du genre Area par valves 
tres-bombees, les sommets basilaires bossus, recourbes, separes par 
un grand intervalle ; un sillon oblique, courbe, exterieur, lateral et 
posterieur. — Plusieurs especes, telles que G. venerina, cardites* 
pulla, lunula, etc. Dans les couches de gres, de marne, etc. 

53. Megorima. (Biv. foss.) Different des genres Terebratula 
et Productus, par valves presque egales, lisses, arrondies, transver- 
sales, retuses, sans auricules, ouverture arrondie ; une grande cavite 
arrondie, interieure a la base, scparee en deux par une cloison lon- 
gitudinale dans une des valves. — Plusieurs especes, 31. levis, crasta> 
truncata, etc. 

54. Apleurotis. (Biv. foss.) Different des genres T(?re6?-aiMZa 
et Magas, par valves inequilatcrales, obovales ou oblongues (non 
transversales,) strides, la grande valve plus longue a la base, si ou- 
verture arrondie, petite, et a une aile laterale. — Deux especes de 
couches calcaires des chutes de I'Ohio, etc. A. pectenoides et A. 
pusilla. 

55. Notrema. (Trivalve ? fluviatile.) Test semi-trivalve ? — 
Yalves inegales. Grande valve patelliforme, arrondie, convexe 

[428] 
perforee au centre. Seconde valve tres-petite, pl&ne, laterale en 
dessous. Opercule ou troisieme valve ! couvrantl'ouverture centrale 
supcrieure, a charniere. Animal mutique, se fixant comme les Pa- 
telles, tete sortant par I'ouverture superieure, aloagee, tronquee, a 2 
yeux sessiles. — Ce genre contient une seule espece bien singuliere, 
c'est la premiere espece vivante fluviatile approchans de la famille 
des Terebratules, qui soit, connue. N. patelloides. Grande valve 
;i sillons concentriques, croises par des sillons obliques, valve inferi- 
eure obovale, incquilaterale. Get animal vit sur les rochers de I'Ohio 
inferieur, comme les Patelles. 



CONCHOtOaiCAL WRITINGS, 31 

56. S ACONITES. (Mollusque fossile.) Different des genres ^scz- 
dia et Sachondrus (A. saccata, Auct.) par corps a una seuleouver- 
ture, suspendu dans un sac, interieur rayonnant a axe central. — - 
Animal bien singulier de la famille des Ascidites S. granularis. 
Corps oblong, obtus, amorplie, granuleux, ainsi que I'enveloppe ex- 
terieure. II se trouve souvent amasse, mais separe, dans le gres cal- 
caire pres de Lexington. 

[From "Journal de Physique, de Chhnie, d'Histoire Naturelle, etc." 
Tome LXXXIX. Paris, August, 1819. 

[150] 

DESCRIPTIONS. 

De onze Genres nouveaux de Mollusques, publies en 1814, 
Par C. S. RAFINESQUE, 

Professeur de Botanique et d'Histoire naturelle dans VUniversite 

de Lexington. 
(Note du Redacteur.) Dans une Lettre qu'il- nous a fait I'hon- 
neur de nous ecrire de Philadelphie, en date du 15 mai de cette 
annee, M. Rafinesque nous dit : " Oorame le 12e et dernier nuraero 
de mon Journal encyclopedique de la Sicile n'existe pas a Paris, 
et qu'il a ete presque entierement detruit dans les deux naufrages 
successifs que j'ai eprouves, je vous envoie les caracteres de onze 
genres de Mollusques et de Polypes, parmi les 36 genres nouveaux 
qu'il contient, en vous priantde vouloir bien lespublier denouveau." 
C'est ce que nous faisons avec le plus grand plaisir, quoique nous 
soyons obliges de convenir que pour vouloir peut-etre suivre avec 
trop de rigueur, ce qu'il appelle les prineipes linneens de nomencla- 
ture, M. Rafinesque nous semble etre tombe dans un grave incon- 
venient, qui consiste a donner si pen de developpemens a ses carac- 
teres generiques et specifiques, qu'il et fort difficile de se faire une 
[151] 

juste idee des animaux dont il parle, et par consequent de savoir 
s'ils sont nouvellement mentiones ou non. Nous croyons done 
devoir ne pas raeriter les reproches qu'il nous fait dans un autre 
endroit de sa Lettre, quand il dit a I'Ecole francoise tout entiere : 
"II est bien a regretter que vous oubliiez entierement en France les 
prineipes de nomenclature et de description de Linne (je ne parle 
pas de son systeme sexuel), et qu'au lieude poursuivre le beau plan 
trace dans le Systema naturae, vous noyiez les connoissances naturel- 



32 katinesque's 

les dans des details accessoires ou etrangers, et que vous negligiez 
de nous faire connoitre toutes les especes connues ; en sorte que les 
observateurs etrangers ne savent tres-souvent a quoi s'en tenir. 
Tantot ils craignent de publier leurs decouvertes qu'ils s'imaginent 
etre €n partie connues ; ou s'ils sent plus hardis, ils ne peuvent 
echappera un autre inconvenient, qui est de decrire comme nouvelles 
des especes qui ne le sont pas. Mais la faute en est a vous autres, 
qui ne voulez (ou ne savez) pas nous donner des synopsis generaux 
de toutes les especes connues en zoologie, eomme en Botanique ; 
Roemer et Decandolle vous en montrent Pexemple." Mais sans 
relever cette comparaison, parce qu'il est beaucoup plus difficile de 
conserver toutes les especes en Zoologie qu'en Botanique, ou I'on 
pent successivement les voir et les comparer dans les herbiers, la 
raison pour laquelle aucun zoologiste n'a encore ose essayer de don- 
ner un Systema animalium, ne tiendroit-elle pas beaucoup plus a 
ce que plusieurs personnes abusant de ce qu'elles nomment a tort 
systeme linneen, se bornant a ne comparer que les especes qu'elles 
ont sous les yeux, n'etablissent leurs genres et leurs especes que 
d'une maniere trop breve et trop peu comparative, et par conse- 
quent incomplete ? II est presque impossible a un homme qui voud- 
roit faire un peu mieux que I'utile Gmelin, d'employer ces materiaux 
mal prepares, a un edifi.ce un peu solide. Et les materiaux que nous 
offre M. Rafinesque ne sont-ils pas un peu dans ce cas ? c'est ce qui 
nous semble malheureusement trop vrai pour les ouvrages que nous 
connoissons de ce zele zoologiste, auquel, sans aucun doute, la science 
doit deja beaucoup, mais a qui elle devroit bien d'avantage s'il voul- 
oit, reflechissant que lorsque Linnaeus etablissoit un genre sur un 
animal ou un vegetal nouveau, il commen9oit par le decrire com- 
pletement dans quelques dissertations, modifier un peu la rigueur de 
ses principes linneens, par I'admission de quelques-uns de ceux de 

I'Ecole fran9oise, dont nous lui rappellerons ici les principaux : 

[152] 
quand on caracterise un genre de Mammiferes, on doit surtout faire 

la plus grande attention au systeme dentaire en totalite ; d'oiseaux, 

au bee et surtout au sternum et a ses annexes ; de reptiles, de 

poissons, aux dents, a I'ouverture des branchies, -a la composition de 

I'opcrcule et a la forme de la queue ; de MoUusques, a la position, 

la forme, la nature, des organes de la respiration, la forme symetrique 

ou non de la coquille, etc. ; desinsectes, au nombre des articulations 

du corps et de ses differentes parties, au nombre, a la forme, a I'usage 



CONOnOLOaiCAL WRITINGS. 33 

de lenrs appendices des sens, de la mastication et de la respiration ; 
et enfin dans les actinozoaires, a la forme generale, la nature de 
I'enveloppe, au nombre et a la structure des tentacules, etc. ; sll 
vouloit surtout, en peu de mots, rapprocher le nouveau corps organ- 
ise, qu'il desire signaler d'un autre parfaitement connu, en donnant 
les differences avec plus de details qu'il ne fait, peut-etre les travaux 
de M. Rafinesque, que nous avons ete les premiers a faire connoitre 
en France, seroient-ils plus generalement repandus et par consequent 
plus utiles. 

Genre 2. Opiptera. (Mollusque.) Corps nageaut, deprime, sans 
tete ; une grande aile horizontale posterieurement ; deux longs ten- 
tacules inegaux, non retractiles anterieurement ; la bouche entre 
eux. — II differe des Mollusques pteropodes par le manque de tete et 
de branchies. — 1 Espece 0. hicolor ; hyalin, aile rougeatre, longueur 
2 pouces.* 

Genre 4. Oxynoe, (Mollusque.) Corps rampant, a grande 
coquille dorsale exterieure, pulliforme, a spire simple ; ventre ou 
pied etroit a branchies marginales, strides transversalement ; raanteau 
elargi en 2 ailes laterales, 2 tentacules non retractiles. — Different du 
genre Sigaretus par la coquille exterieure, etc. 1 0. olivacea. 
Olivatre, elliptique ; tentacules saillans, obtus. Coquille a sommet 
obtus, evasce.* 

Genre 5. Tylodina. (Mollusque.) Corps rampant, a petite 
coquille dorsale exterieure, membraneuse, sans spire, ovale, a pointe 
calleuse, palliliforme. 4 tentacules, les 2 posterieurs eloigues et plus 

[153] 
grands, branchies dorsales sous la coquille a droite, anus a la droite 
du cou. — T. punctulata, pointille de brun, tentacules obtus ; 
coquille lisse. 

* Quo. que nous ne pnissions guere aire a quel gn-ups de Mollusques appartient cet animal, 
nous pouvons assurer quil est fort douteux, que les tentacules soient inegaux. 

*Le genre Sigaret dont M. Rafinesque rapproche ce genre, en differe beaucoup par la situ.ation 
et la lorme des branchies qui sent omposees de deux peignes inegaux places au-dessus de la 
racine da dos. 



c 



34 rafinesque's 

[From the 13th Livraison of the Fifth Volume, of the Annales Gi'nC rales de& 
Sciences Physiques, Bruxelles. Sept. 1830, page 287. The extra copies 
of this paper, which are usually met with, have a different folio from the 
original, page 21 corresponding with page 287 of the latter. A reprint 
of the text and plates of this paper was published in Chenu's Bibliothtque 
Conchyliologique, Paris, 1845. A translation without the plates was 
also published by Mr. Poulson, Philadelphia, 1832. ] 

[287] 

monographie des coquilles bivalves fluviatiles de la kiviere 

Ohio, contenant douze genres et soixante-huit especes. 

Par M. C. S. RAFINESQUE, 

Professeur de hotanique et d^histoire naturelle d. V Universite 
Transylvane de Lexington. 

Les nombreuses coquilles fluviatiles et terrestres de I'iaterieur de 
I'Amerique septentrionale u'avaient pas encore ete observees et 
deerites quand j'eatreprisce travail en 1818 et 1819. Je fussurpris 
et charrae de decouvrir qu'elles etaient presque toutes des especes 
nouvelles, et totalement differentes de celles qui habitent les terres 
atlantiques ; en sorte qu'il parait que la chaine des montagnes 
Alleghany, qui separe les deux contrees, forme aussi une ligne de 
demarcation entre les poissons et les coquilles des eaux du bassin de 
I'Ohio, et ceax des eaux qui aboutissent a I'Ocean Atlantique. 
Quoique bien eloigne d'avoir epuise I'etude des coquilles de cette 
contree, noanmoins j'y ai deja observe, recueilli et figure environ 
180 especes, dont environ 10 univalves fluviatiles, 50 univalves 
terrestres et 60 bivalves fluviatiles. Ce sont ces dernieres que je 
vais faire connaitre dans cette monographic. Les univalves seront 
deerites ailleurs ; j'en ai deja public plusieurs et particulierement les 
novueaux genres dans mon Prodrome des animaux nouveaux de 
I'Amerique septentrionale. 

La majeure partie des bivalves de I'Ohio, se trouve dans laplupart 
des rivieres qui s'y jettent, telles que le Kentucky, Cumberland, 
Tennessee, Wabash, Miami, Green, Scioto, Licking, Muskingum, 
Kenhaway, etc. dont plusieurs sont des rivieres considerables de 5 a 

[288] 
800 milles de cours (ou 2 a 300 lieues). II reste a verifier si elles 
sont communes a tout le bassin du Mississipi, et au Missouri, Ar- 
kanzas, etc. Je suis deja certain que quelques-unes s'y trouvent, et 
11 me parait probable que les coquilles de cet immense bassin doivent 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 35 

etre analogues, quoique plusieurs especes particulibres puissent etre 
par la suite decouvertes dans les grandes branches occidentales et 
meridionales. 

Parrai les bivalves de I'Ohio, la plupart des espfeces appartiennent 
au seul genre Unio, tel qu'il est enonce. Ua nombre aussi consid- 
erable d'especes, qui quadruple tout d'un coup ce genre, et qui offre 
des anomalies infinies de forme et de structure, est un fait trfes-re- 
marquable, qui m'a occasionne des doutes sur 1' enonciation des 
caracteres. Frappe d'abord par quelques differences dans les 
caracteres des mollusques quihabitent les coquilles de I'Ohio, j'avais 
cru y entrevoir une nouvelle famille ou un nouveau genre de bivalves, 
que je me proposals de nommer Potamila. Convaincu par la suite 
que, nonobstant les legeres differences dans I'animal, les coquilles 
correspondaient entierement au caractere generique de VUnio, mais 
en offrant des caracteres secondaires bien tranches, tels que des 
coquilles transversales ou longitudinales, k formes elliptiques, 
triangulaires, carrees obovalves, arrondies, etc. et a dent lamellaire 
horizontale, oblique, verticale, droite, courbe, flexueuse, etc., je pro- 
posal de les diviser en 8 sous-genres, dans mon Prodrome de 10 
nouveaux genres. Depuis lors, ayant accru mes especes et verifi6 
leurs caracteres, il me semble convenable d'en former plusieurs 
genres et sous-genres ; mais pour complaire aux naturalistes, qui 
hesitent dans Tadoption des changemens de nomenclature que les 
decouvertes necessitent, je donnerai le nom d^Un'io en second lieu, a 
toutes mes nouvelles especes, en leur observant qu'en les admettant 
toutes dans le genre Unio, qui par la deviendra compose de plus de 
70 especes, il faudrait repeter dans I'enonciation des caracteres 
specifiques, celui des caracteres de mes nouveaux genres, ce qui 
rendrait la definition des especes longue et prolixe. 

[289] 

Parnii les Unio de PAmerique septentrionale deja mentionnes par 
les anteurs, il y en a un decouvert par Michaux fils, dans I'Ohio, et 
nom me U. Ohiensis dans son voyage ; mais comn>e il n'y est pas 
decrit, je ne puis pas le rapporter a aucune de mes especes : d'ail- 
leurs le nom d^OMensis est tres-peu convenable, et il est singulier 
que Michaux n'ait pu recueillir qu'une espece dans I'Ohio, ou il en 
existe plus de 50 I L'C/". caroliana de Bosc, est decrite incomplfete- 
ment ; cependant je presume qu'elle n'est indentique avec aucune 
espece de I'Ohio. Parmi les nouvelles especes di'Unio decrites par 



36 rafinesque's 

Say dans Tarticle Conchology du dictionnaire de Nicholson, il y en 
a 4 qui sent de I'Oiiio : V. crassus, U. alatus, U. ovatus et U. 
cylindricus ; la description du premier comprend evidemment 
plusieurs especes, mal iVpropos confondues. 

Des autres bivalves de I'Ohio appartiennent aux genres Alasmo- 
don, Cyclas et Notrema, et renferment tres-peu d'especes. 

Toutes ces coquilles sont a peine mangeables ; elles ont un goiit 
extremement fade et insipide, en sorte qu'on les neglige ; cependant 
quelques-unes des grandes especes ont un moUusque appetissant ; 
la seule maniere de rendre ces mollusques propres a la table, 
consiste a les laisser tremper dans du vinaigre pendant un 
certain temps ; on pent ensuite les frire ou les confire au vinaigre. 
Plusieurs poissons s'en nourrissentet suYtoutV Ambloclongrunniens. 
Les herons aussi les mangent a defaut de poisson, et les cochons en 
sont tres-friands ; on les voit tressouvent aller en troupe dans les 
rivieres a leur recherche, et ils les mangent avidemeut, nonobstant 
I'epaisse et dure coquille de plusieurs especes. Les noms vulgaires 
du pays sont pen varies ; on les confond tons sous les noms de 
muscles, dames, box-shells, snuff-box, etc. 

Plusieurs especes sont ornee.s de couleurs tres-brilliantes dans 
I'interieur, offrent plusieurs nuances de pourpre, violet, cuivre, nacre, 
dore, irise, etc. quoique leur exterieur soit constamment reconvert 

[290] 
par un epiderme de couleur foncee ou noire, brune, chataigne, rousse, 

olivatre, etc. Plusieurs produisent des perles ou excroissances 
perlees et colorees, dont quelques-unes sont tres-belles ; on pourrait 
meme tirer parti de leur nacre variee. Dans certains lieux, hors de 
la region calcaire, on les ramasse pour taire de la chaux. Le mol- 
lusque est communement blanc, mais quelquefois jaune ou safrane. 
11 vit tres-long-temps. 

Pamille. Pediferia. Les Pediferes. 

Bivalve equivalve inequilaterale. Mollusque a grand pied corn- 
prime, tendineux non byssifere ; deux siphons tres-courts, ou rem- 
places par deux ouvertures ; anus sous le .ligament ; charniere 
dentee ou lamellee. 

Cette famille comprend toutes les bivalves de' I'Ohio, tels que les 
genres Unio, Anodonta, etc. des auteurs, ainsi qu^ mes nouveaux 
genres demembres deVUnio. Je la divise en plusieui's sous-families, 
dont 5 habitent dans I'Ohio. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. St 

I. Sous-famille. Uniodia. Les TJniadeg. 

Coquille transverse. Dent bilobee anterieure. Dent lamellaire 
posterienre, horizontale ou oblique. Sommets un pen obliques. 
Rides concentriques ou zonales. 

I"- Genre. TJnio. Mulette. 

Coquille elliptique. Ligament droit. Dent bilobee communement 
sillonnee. Dent lamellaire horizontale, souvent droite, jamais 
flexueuse. Axe variable. Contour marginal, presque toujours epaissi. 
Trois impressions museulaires. Mollusque a grand manteau bilobe, 
"non frange ; siphons a peine saillans, una appendice plate bilamel- 
laire a cote de chaque siphon ; branchies striees, en forme de second 
manteau interieur et bilobe. 

Cast ainsi que je definis le groupe auquel je laisse le nom d^Unio, 
parce qu'il parait etre le plus nombreux, et se rapprocher de celui a 
qui I'on a donne ce nom en Europe ; cependant il parait que s'ils 

[291] 
sont identiquement congeneres, on aurait du observer les appendices 
lamellairas des siphons etles branchias striees mantelliformes. Beau- 
coup d'especes out, outre les trois impressions museulaires, una 
fossule musculaire ;i I'extremite de la dent lamellaire, qui, quoique 
quelquefois confluente avec I'imprassion solitaire de ce cote, en est 
souvent distincte. Si ce genre differe par I'animal, des Unio 
europeens, il faudra le nommer Elliptio, nom que j'ai applique a un 
de ses sous genres. Je le divise en 4 sous-genres. 

l'""- Sous-genre. Elliptio. Ellipte. 

Test elliptique. Axe extra-medial. Dent sillonnee. Contour 
epaissi. Ligament corne. Dent lamellaire droite. 

1. Espece. iJ^io mgrra (Elliptio nigra), Muletta noire. PI. lxxx, 
fig. 1, 2, 3 et 4.* 

Ovale-elliptique, pau bombee, a legere troncature angulaire 
posterieuremeut ; test epais ; epiderme noiratre ; nacre rosee ; dent 
lamellaire epaisse, obtuse, rides legeres. Longueur 9-15. Diametre 
6-15. Axe 2-5 de la largeur. 

C'est une des grandes especes de I'Ohia, puisqu'elle parviant 
quelquefois a 6 pouces de largeur. Sa nacre est belle, quelquefois 
iridescente, les impressions le sont toujours. La fos&ule existe dis- 

*Lesdessms nous ayant ete envoyes non colories et les coquUles ne se trouvant pas a aotre 
disposition, nous n'avons pu en rendre lea coulenrs sur les planches, et le lythographe a du 
s'astreindre au simple role de copiste. 



38 ' rafinesque's 

tinctement. Voiei la forme de sa charniere et cette description 
servira pour toutes les autres especes. Dent bilobee anterieure, 
epaisse, triquetre, sillonnee : lobes inegaux, I'anterieur plus petit, 
dans la valve droite, I'oppose dans la gauche. Dent laraellaire sim- 
ple dans la valve gauche. Ligament dur presque calcaire, corne ex- 
terieuremcnt et convexe. Deux impressions musculaires inegales 
sous la dent bilobee, la seconde ou inferieure plus petite. La fossule 
formant une espece de quatrieme impression musculaire entre le 

[292] 
bout de la dent lamellaire et son impression qui en est detachee. 
Sommet des valves a epiderme use, et souvent aussi le test. Ce 
caractere a ete employe par les Conchjologistes comrae specifique ; 
mais a tort, car il existe dans toutes les especes, hormis U Jiiva, U. 
viridis, et les coquilles naissantes ; il est purement accidentel et 
secondaire, mais inherent a leur maniere de vivre. En ouvrant et 
fermant ses valves, I'animal est contraint de les faire frotter contra 
le sable ou le gravier dans lesquels il vit, et 11 en use graduellement 
le sommet ; s'il vit dans la boue, ce sommet s'use trl'S-lentement, 
tandis que parmi les pierres toute la surface des valves devient 
graduellement usee et cariee. Le contour du bord marginal est au 
contraire tres-entier, et ferme herraetiqueraent par une prolongation 
de Tepiderme membraneux et mobile, que I'animal forme par une 
exsudation de son pied. Aucnne partie de la coquille n'est brilliante, 
hormis dans les vieux individus. Pour completer la connaissanee 
generale de ces animaux, je vais donner la description et la figure 
du mollusque de VU. nigra. 

Tous les animaux de cette famille n'offrent que de legeres diflfer- 
ences de couleurs, dimensions et proportions. 

Corps blanc ou un peu incarnat (fig. 4). Manteau mince, lisse, 
tapissant les valves, bilobe et echancre pos'erieurement, sans franges. 
Second manteau intcrieur, branchial, strie obliquement, mince, bilobe 
posterieurement, beaucoup moindre que I'exterieur, et enveloppant 
le pied. Pied comprime, musculeux, coriace, oblong, dilatable. 
Bouche anterieure. Anus posterieur, a I'extremito du ligament. 
Siphons anterieurs lateraux ; egaux, un de chaque cotd, derriere la 
bouche, en forme de tubercule perfore ; et encore plus en arriere, 
egalement de chaque cote, une appendice oilamellaire-obtus, a lames 
inegales, plates, ovales ou oblongues : 1 interieure plus grande. Ce 
sont apparemment les organes de la generation. D'apres cette deg- 



CONCHOLOaiCAL WRITINGS. 39 

criptioa exacte, et que j'ai vcrifiee sur plus de 20 especes et 300 

[293] 
individus, oa verra qu'il y a une difference notable entre ces raollus- 
ques et ceux des Unio europeens tels qu'ils sout docrits par les 
auteurs et notammeut par Ferussac, (Essai Vane mHhode conchy- 
ologiqite) qui se pique d'une scrupuleuse exactitude dans I'enoncia- 
tion des moUusques fluviatiles. 

Ces animaux vivent s\ la surface du lit des rivieres, libres et situes 
de toates les manieres, sur le eoto ou verticalement avee I'ouverture 
en haut, en has ou oblique. lis savent au besoin s'enfoncer dans le 
sable ou la terre, particuliereraeat en hiver et meme en ete dans les 
petites rivieres snjettes a des dessechemens auxquels ils resistentfort 
bien. Ils ont un mouvement progressif tres lent, a I'aide de leur 
pied qui sillonne lentement le terrain. Ils sont hermaphrodites et 
multiplient beaucoup, Leurs oeufs sont tres-petits, glaireux,.souvent 
jaunes. Plasieurs jeunes coquilles cclosent dans la coquille de leur 
mere. 

Cette espece a deux varieties. 

Var. 1. Fasca. Epiderme brun foncc ; nacre pale. 

Yar. 2. Ilaculata. A taches brunes ; nacre presque blanche. 

2. Espece. ?7/iio crassa (Elliptio erassa). Mulette epaisse. 
U. 'crassus. Say Conch. Tab. 1, fig. 8, esp. 1. 

EUiptique ; peu bomboe ; test tres-cpais ; epidermo brun ; nacre 
blanche; dent larnellairecpasse, obtuse; rides marquantes. Longueur 
2-3, diaraetre 1-3, axe l-fi de la largeur. 

Celte espece est figuree par M. Say sous ce nom ; raais sa des- 
cription, ou, de son propre avcu, il confond plusieurs especes, ne 
vaut rien. Le test est ici encore plus opais que dans la precedente : 
du reste, elle lui resserable beaucoup; la principale difference cojisiste 
dans I'axe plus lateral et le dofaut u'inclinaison posterieure. Largeur 
de 4 a 5 ponces. 

3. Espece. Unio viridis (Ellipiio viridis). Mulette verte. 
Ellipiique, tronquee obliquement posterieurement, peu borabee ; 

test peu epais, sommets a rides flexueuses ; epiderme lisse, vert- 

[294] 
olivatie ; nacre un peu bleuatre ; dent bilobee compriinee, crcnelee, 

decurrente. Longueur 5-9, diametre Y-16, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 
Var. L Radiala. Radiee de jaune pale. 
Yar. 2. Fuscata. Epidemic brun-olivatre. 
Petite espeee, de la longueur d'un pouce et demi au plus. Rare 



40 iiafinesque'& 

dans I'Ohio, pins commune dans le Kentuky et les petites rivieres 
adjacentes. Elle a rarement les sommets uses, car lis sont epaissis 
par des rides flexueuses, remarquables puisque le reste de la coquille 
est lisse. La dent bilobee est etroite et en devient creneloe, au lieu 
de sillonnee. Troncature oblique, convexe; impressions peu marquees; 
fossule nulle ; dent lamellaire etroite. 

4. Espece. Unio fasciata (EUiptio fasciata). Mulette fasciee. 
Elliptique bombee ; test peu epais ; epiderme peu rugneux, oliva- 

tre, orne de rayons bruns ; nacre bleuatre ; dent bilobee rugueuse, 
divariquee ; dent lamellaire carenee. Longueur 2-3, diametre 1-2, 
axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

Tar. 1. Nigrofasciata. Raies noires. 

Tar. 2. Alternata. Yerdatre, a rayons vert-noiratres, alterna- 
tivement plus larges et plus etroite. 

Var. '3. Cuprea. Cuivrce a raies olivatres ; nacre blanche- 
cuivree. 

Jolie espece qui se rapproche de VO. ochraceus de Say. Ordi- 
nairement petite, cependant j'en ai vu de plus de 8 pouces de large. 
Dans rOhio et les rivieres Alleghany, Muskingum, Kentuky, Salt, 
Green, etc. Impressions peu marquees ; fossule profonde. 

Obs. L'on doitprobablement rapporter :i ce sous-genre les especes 
suivantes des auteurs, et peut-etre quelqu'autres encore. 

Unio Garoliniana de Bosc. 

Unio 2^licata? de Lesueur. Du lac Erie. Var. d'?7. crassa 
Say. 

Unio jmrpurea, de Say. tab. 3, fig. 1, De Pensylvanie. 
[295] 

Unio aurata, N, Esp. de la riviere Hudson. Elle est elliptique 
avec la partie posterieure tronquee obliquement ; test peu epaia ; 
epiderme brun, noiratre, olivatre, dore ; dent petite, rugueuse. 
Longueur 4-'!, diametre 2-Y, axe 1-4 de largeur. 

Unio pictorum, etc., etc., etc. 

2"'^- Sous-genre. Leptodea. Leptode. 

Dent bilobee entiere et lisse : celle de la valve droite simple. 
Contour non-epaissi. Ligament membraneux. Dent lamellaire 
legerement courbee. 

5. Espece. C7moZep/ofZon (EUiptio leptodon.) Mulette leptode. 
PI. Lxxx, fig. 5, 6 et 7. 

Elliptique tres-comprimce attenuee posterieurement ; test miBce 



CONCHOLOGIOAL WRITINGS. 41 

et fragile un peu rugueux ; epiderme brunatre ; nacre violacee ; dent 
biolbee petite, obtuse, lisse, tuberculiforme ; dent lamellaire mince 
et longue. Longueur 1-2, diametre 1-6, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

Assez commune dans les parties inferieures de I'Obio, ordinaire- 
ment petite, car son test est si fragile, qu'elle devient aisement la 
proie de ses ennemis : cependant elle parvient quelquefois a 3 pou- 
ces de largeur. Les impressions sont peu apparentes fossule apparente 
confluente. Animal blanchatre. 

Var. 1. Olivacea. Epiderme olivatre. 

Yar. 2. Semi-radiata. Olivatre a demi-rayons bruns. 

6. Espece. Uniofragilis (Elliptic fragilis.) Mulette fragile. 

Elliptique, un peu dilatee posterieurement ; test tres-mince et fra- 
gile, presque lisse ; epiderme olivatre ; nacre bleuatre ; dent bilobee 
lisse, comprimee ; dent lamellaire eourte. Longueur 2-3, diametre 
1-3, axe 1-3 de la longueur. 

YsiY.fuscata. Brun-roussatre exterieurement. 

Cette espece ressemble beaucoup a la precedente ; mais elle en 
differe par sa forme dilatee, au lieu d'etre attenuee ; peu comprimee, 
bombee, surface presque lisse, etc. Les sommets ne sont pas appa- 
rens. L'animal est jaunatre. Largeur environ deux ponces. Ces 
deux especes ressemblent assez exterieurement aux U. viridis, U. 

[296] 
fasciata, U. aurata et JJ. nasuta, etc., qui ont aussi la coquille 

fragile ; mais ils s'en distinguent aisement par leurs dents bien diffe- 
rentes ; elles sont lisses, avec la lame un peu courbee, etc. 

Y. Espece. Unto nervosa (EUiptio nervosa). Mulette nerveuse. 
PI. Lxxx, fig. 8, 9 et 10. 

Elliptique, plus large posterieurement ; test assez mince, convert 
de nervures flexueuses, concentriques, vermiculaires, bords ondules ; 
epiderme brun ; nacre, bleuatre. Longueur 2-3, diametre 2-5, axe 
1-3 de la largeur. 

Espece rare et bien distincte. Je I'ai trouvee aux rapides de 
POhio. Largeur un pouce et demi. Les dents bilobees sont petites, 
tuberculiformes ; la dent lamellaire etroite courbe, avec les impres- 
sions peu apparentes ; le bord marginal est un peu epaissi et ondule 
ou erode. 

3me. Sous-genre Aximedia. Axim('^de. 

Dent lamellaire un peu courbe ; axe presque medial ; valves 
presqu'equilaterales. 



42 rafinesque's 

8. Espece. Unio elliptica (Elliptio elliptica). Mulette elliptiqu-e. 
Elliptique, partie posterieure angulaire ; test epais, presque lisse , 

epiderme brun-chatain ; nacre pale, violacee ; dent bilobee ridee, 
obtuse: lame obtuse, epaisse. Longueur 3-4, diametre, 3-8, axe 7-16 
de la largeur. 

Rare ; vue pres de Louisville et de Maysville. Largeur environ 
deux pouces. Impressions profondes. Yalves un peu bombees, a 
sommets saillans, tres-obtus. 

9. Espece. Unio levigata (Elliptio levigata). Mulette lisse. PI. 
Lxxx, fig. 11, 12 et 13. 

Elliptique, arrondie, bombee ; test epais, lisse ; epiderme olivatre ; 
nacre blanc-bleuatre; dent bilobee peu ridee, lame courte. Longueur 
5-T, diametre 4-7, axe 7-16 de la largeur. 

Petite espece d'un pouce au plus, qui approche des genres Rotun- 
daria et Cyclas. Dans le Kentuky. Sommets arrondis, saillans, uses. 
La lame est un peu oblique. Cette espece devrait peut-etre appartenir 

[297] 
au sous-genre PZa^ioZa du genre Ohliquaire. 

10. Espece. Unio zonalis (Elliptio zonalis). Mulette zonale. 
Elliptique; test epais, ride ; epiderme roussatre a zones brunes", 

sommets saillains, bombes. Longueur 3-5, diametre 2-5, axe 2-5 de 
la largeur. 

Espece tres-rare : vue une seule fois aux rapides de I'Ohio ; lar- 
geur au-dela de 2 pouces. 

4me. Sous-genre. Eurtnia. Eurynie. 

Yalves tres-transversales ou tres-larges. Axe presque lateral. 
Ligament tres-long. 

11. Espece. Unio dilatata (Elliptio dilatata), Mulette dilatee. 
Elliptique, oblongue, un peu attenuee posterieurement ; test epais, 

presque lisse; epiderme brun-roussatre; nacre violette; dents obtuses, 
epaisses, lame tant soit peu inclinee. Longueur 1-2, Diamfetre 2-7, 
axe 1-4 de la largeur. 

Jolie espece tres-commune, a nacre tres-belle, souvent a reflets 
pourpres ou bleuatres ; largeur 3 a 4 pouces. Elle varie a epiderme 
brun ou roux, et a nacre plus ou moins foncee ou pale. Impressions 
striees ; fossule apparente ; dent bilobee epaisse, rugueuse, lame 
obtuse. Mollusque jaunatre. 

12. Espece. Unio latissima (Elliptio latissima). Mulette large. 
PI. LXXX, fig. 14 et 15. 



CONCnOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 43 

• Elliptique-oblongue, ua peu attenuee posterieuremeut; test epais, 
lisse ; epiderme noiratre ; nacre incarnate, contour blanc ; dent 
bilobee obtuse, ridee, lame carenee, tres-droite et tres-longue. Lon- 
gueur 2-5, diametre 1-4, axe 1-4 de la largeur, 

Grande espece, parvenant quelquefois a 8 pouces de largeur. Elle 
n'est pas aussi commune que la precedente. Dent un peu triedre ; 
impressions lisses ; fossule . peu marquee, lame en carene, aigue, 
epaisse, horizontale. . Mollusque blanc. Une espece pareille ou 
voisine se trouve dans le fleuve Susqueliannah. 
[293] 

13. Espece. Unio solenoides (EUiptio solenoides). Mulette 
solenoide. 

EUiptique-cjlindracee, amincie, arrondie anterieurement, tronquce, 
retuse posterieurement ; test epais, tres-bombe, a rides flexueuses 
posterieures ; epiderme bruu oliv&tre ; nacre blanche-bleuAtre ; Dent 
rugueuse, obtuse, lame tres-longue, horizontale. Longueur 3-7, 
diametre 4-11, axe 3-11 de la largeur. 

Tres-remarquable. Je Tai observee dans la partie superieure do 
rOhio, largeur environ 3 pouces ; sommets saillans ; fossule 
evidente. 

Yar. 1. Interrupta, a quelques lignes noirdtres, interrompues 
anterieurement. 

Yar. 2. Nodosa. A quelques nodosites posterieurement. 

Yar. 3. Cylindrica. Say. Condi, esp. 8, tab. 4, fig. 3. Test tres- 
epais ; nacre blanche ; sommets tres-grands. 

lime. Genre. Lampsilis. Lampsile. 

Coquille ovale. Ligament courbe. Dent bilobee sillonnee. Dent 
lamellaire coaYhce, Jlexueuse. Axe extramedial. Contour mai'ginal 
epaissi. Trois impressions musculaires. — Mollusque semblable a celui 
de VUnio ; mais a siphons apparens, courts. 

Le nom est modifie de Lasmacampsilis, qui signifie lame flexuolce, 
d'apres le caractere essentiel du genre. 

14. Espece. Lampsilis car diumi^Joiocoxiiiwm). Lampsile coeur. 
PI. Lxxx, fig. 16, 17, 18 et 19. 

Ovale, elargie et inclinee posterieurement, tres-bombee ; sommets 
saillains, en coeur ; test epais ; epiderme rouxbrun, rugueux, noiratre 
posterieurement ; nacre blanche, rosee posterieuremeat. Longueur 
3-4, diametre 2-5, axe 1-3 de la largeur.. 

Belle coquille trcs-bombiie ; largeur jusqu'a 6 pouces. Dent 



44 rapinesque's 

bilobee striee et crenelee ; dent lamellaire comprimee, Mollusque 
blanc ; les appendices bilamellaires larges ; la lame exterieure plus 
grande. 

15. Espfece. Lampsilis ovata (Unio ovata). Lampsile ovale. 
[299] 

Unio oratus. Say Conch, esp. 3, tab. 2, fig. t. 

Ovale, reguliere, attenuee posterieurement, bombee ; sommets 
saillans ; epiderme corne, brun sur la depression posterieure ; nacre 
blanche ; test pen epais. Longueur 3-4, diametre 3-10, axe 1-3 de 
la large ur. 

Est-ce une variete de la precedente ? Elle parait en differer princi- 
palement par sa forme moins bombee et non dilatee posterieurement. 

16. Espece. Lampsilis fasciola (Unio fasciola), Lampsile 
fasciole. 

Ovale, dilatee posterieurement, bombee ; test pen epais ; epiderme 
olivAtre, a bandes radiees, flexueuses, inegales, verddtres. Longueur 
2-3, diametre 2-5, axe 1-3 de la largeur. Nacre blanche-bleuatre. 

Rare : espece vue dans le Kentuky ; lai'geur 2 a 3 ponces, dent 
bilobee petite, sillonnee superieurement, lisse et decurrente inferieure- 
ment ; dent lamellaire mince, plissee.* 

111°'. Genre Metaptera. Metaptere. 

Coquille ovale, triangulaire, dilatee en aile posterieurement ; liga- 
ment incline sur I'aile. Dent bilobee crenelee. Dent lamellaire cour- 
bee, detachee du bord de I'aile. Axe extramedial. Contour a peine 
epaissi. Trois impressions musculaires. — Mollusque semblablo a 
celui de 1' Unio. 

Le nom signifie aile posterieure ; j'avais d'abord adopte 
celui de Froptera, c'etait par erreur, car il eut signifie aile 
anterieure. 

rsoo] 

IT. Espece. Metaptera viegaptera (Unio megaptera). Metaptfere 
megaptere. PI. lxxx, fig. 20, 21 et 22. 

* Lea deux especes suivantes que j'ai decouvertes dans le fleuve Hudson, doivent appartenir a 
i-B genre. 

Lampsilis rosea. Ovale, dilatee et tronquee obliqnement posterieurement; test epais, ride, 
oUvatre, noir posterieurement; nacre roace; tres-bombee; sommets saillans. Longueur 5-8, 
•iiametre 1-2, axe 4-5 de la largeur. 

Lampsilii pallida. Ovale, dilatee et arrondie posterieurement; test epais, a rides eloignees; 
iniderme rous-olivatre, a quelqnes raies brunes, obliques posterieurement; nacre blanche. 
I.-ongaeur 3-4, diametre 1-2, axe 4-5 de la largeur, 



CONCnOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 45 

Test mince, comprime ; epiderme brun, flexueusement rugueux ; 
nacre pourpree ; aile tres-grande, lisse interieurement ; dent larael- 
laire double dans la valve droite, et a protuberance oblongue a 
I'extremite. Longueur 2-3, diametre 2-9, axe 1-4 de la largeur. 

Belle espece commune dans I'Ohio, a jolie nacre pourpree et 
iridescente, souvent avec des tubercules perliformes. Dent bilobee 
a lobes presqu'egaux, lisses exterieurement, creneles, comprimes, 
sillonncs, interieurement ; impressions anterieures tres-marquees, 
striees ; la posterieure presqu'effacee, Largeur jusqu'a 6 pouces. 

L' XJnio alatus de Say. Conch, esp. T, tab. 4, fig. 2, qui se trouve 
dans le lac Erie, parait se rapprocher beaucoup de cette espece et 
n'en diJTerer que par son aile rugueuse interieurement ; contour 
marque, flexueux ; dent lamellaire simple sur la valve droite ; lon- 
gueur 4-5, de la largeur, etc. 11 parait que les deux especes suivantes 
de Say devront aussi se rapporter a ce genre ; mais il n'indique pas 
la lame, comme flexueuse 

Unto ochraceus. Say Conch, esp. 5, tab. 2, fig. 8. 

Vnio cariosus. Say Conch, esp. 4, tab. 3, fig. 2. 
lY"*. Genre. Truncilla. Truncille. 

Coquille semi-triangulaire. Axe presque medial. Ligament 
oblique. Troncature plane, oblique, posterieure. Dent bilobee lisse, 
denticulee et comprimee. Dent lamellaire comprimee, oblique. — Mol- 
lusqe semblable a celui de VUnio? 

Le nom derive de la remarquable troncature oblique, qui est 
bien plus marquee que dans toutes les autres especes de cette 
famille. 

18. Espece. Truncilla triqueter (Unio triqueter). Truncille tri- 
quetre. PI. lxxxi, fig. 1, 2, 3 et 4. 

Test pen epais, tres-bombe, sommets saillans; forme presque 
triedre ; face posterieure tres-plane, un peu tesselee, verruqueuse ; 
epiderme olivatre-fonce, raye de brun anterieurement, bords et rides 

[301] 
flexueux au milieu, nacre blanche-bleuAtre. Longueur 2-3, diametre 
1-2, axe 2-5 de largeur. 

Espfece tres-remarquable et rare, que je n'ai observee qu'aux 
chutes de I'Ohio ; sa forme est si singuliere qu'on lui a donne le nom 
vulgaire et particulier de Snuffbox, qui signifie tabatiere. Je n'ai 
pas vu I'animal, que je soup-coune un peu different de I'Unio. Lar- 
geur environ un pouce et demi. Dent lamellaire, courte, large et 



46 rafinesque's 

obtuse. Impressions pen profondes : la posterieure trfes-grande, 
occupant presque tout lefond platde la face posterieure des valves ; 
fossule pre.'que nulle ; bord du test trl^s-legereraent tlexueux. 

19. Espece. TrunciUa truncata Unio truncata). Truncille 
tronquee. 

Test peu epais, peu bombe, sommets saillans ; forme un peu 
equarrie ; face posterieure tronquee ; cpiderrae olivatre ; bord et 
rides flexueux posterieuremcnt; nacre blanche-bleu^tre. Longueur 
4-5, diametre 8-15, axe 5-12 de la largeur, 

Beaucoup plus commune que la precedente, et plus petite, ordi- 
nairement d'uu pouce de large. Dents larges ; lame trancliante. 

Var. 1. Fiisca. Presqu'entierement brune. 

Var. 2. Vermiculala. A lignes flexueuses, brunes, trans- 
versales. 

Y"'. Genre. Obliquaria. Obliquaire. 

Coquille variable, souvent a peine transversals et plus ou moins 
oblique posterieuremcnt. Ligament oblique. Dent bilobeecommuae- 
ment sillonnee : dentlamellaire oblique, souvent droite. Axe variable'. 
Contour marginal epaissi. Trois impressions musculaires. — Mol- 
lusque semblable ;i celui de 1' Unio. 

Ce groupe est nombreux en especes ; il differe principalement de 
VUnio ou Elliptio par sa forme, par le ligament et la dent lamel- 
laire oblique, etc. II offre beaucoup d'anomalie et de caracteres 
secondaires, ce qui m'oblige de le diviser en 6 sous-genres. 
[3021 

1". Sous-Genre. Plagiola. Plagiole. 

Axe extra-medial. Dent lamellaire courbe. Ligament courbe. 
Forme variable, mais non oblique. 

20, Espece. Ohliquaria decorticata (TJ. decorticata). Obliquaire 
ecorchee. 

Test arrondi-elliptique, epais et tres-bombe, sommets saillans ; 
epiderme noirAtre presque tout detache, rides eloignees ; nacre 
blanche. Longueur .3-4, diametre 1-2, axe environ 1-3 de la 
largeur. 

J'ai observe cette espece dans le museum de M. J. D. Clifford a 
Lexington ; elle habite dans le Mississipi et apparemment dans la 
partie inferieure de I'Ohio. Elle a la forme des lampsiles, mais sa 
dent lamellaire, au lieu d'etre flexueuse, est courbce en arc oblique 
et court. Quoique I'animal fut vivant, presque tout son epiderme 



CONCHOLOaiCAL WRITINGS. 4T 

etait detruit jusqu'a la nacre blanche, et on apercevait aux sommets 
une nacre intermediaire lisse, luisante et olivatre. Les rides etaient 
profondes et eloignees. Un leger talus oblique posterieurement ; 
dents tres-sillonnees ; impressions tres-profondes ; fossule confluente. 
Largeur au-dela de 4 pouces. 

21. Espece. Obliquaria interriipta (TJ. do). Obliquaire 
interrompue. 

Test ovale-elliptique, peu epais et peu bombe ; epiderme brun- 
roussatre, peu ride, a quelques bandes tranversales noiratres inter- 
rompues ; nacre blanche-bleudtre. Longueur 5-8, diametre 1-3, axe 
3-8 de la largeur, 

Dans le Kentuky et Obio ; largeur environ 2 pouces ; fossule 
apparente ; dent lamellaire un peu rugueuse, epaisse, carenee. Som- 
mets non saillams. 

22. Espece. Obliquaria depressa (TJ. depressa). Obliquaire 
deprimee. PI. lxxxi, fig. 5, 6 et 7. 

Test ovale-triangulaire, epais et tres-deprime ; epiderme ride, 
6liv4tre-brun, avec des points noirs, lineaires, obliques, epars ; nacre 
bleuatre, un peu trouquee posterieurement. Longueur 2-3, diametre 
2-9, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 
[303] 

Espece tres-rare, que je n'ai vue qu'une fois pres d'Evamville en 
Indiana. J'ai depose le seul individu que je possede dans le museum 
de M. J. D. Clifford a Lexington, avec toutes mes autres especes. 
La coquille est presque plate ; largeur li pouce ; fossules appa- 
rentes ; dents striees ; lame carenee aigue. Elle se rapproehe du 
S. Gr. Scalenaria. 

23. Espece. Obliquaria lineolata (TJ. lineolata). Obliquaire 
lineolee. 

Test presque arrondi, epais, peu bombe, un peu tronque poste- 
rieurement ; epiderme roussdtrC; peu ride, a quelques lignes brunes ; 
nacre blanche. Longueur 4-5, diametre 1-2, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 
Sommets un peu saillains. 

Aux chutes de I'Ohio ; largeur environ 2 pouces ; portion tron- 
quee posterieure, plane, etroite ; impressions profondes, rugueuses, 
lamellaires, courtes, epaisses, carenees, rugueuses, presque droites. 
2'"^ Sous-Genre. Ellipsaria. Ellipsaire. 

Axe extra-medial ; dent lamellaire droite ; ligament droit ; forme 
elliptique. 



48 eafinesque's 

24. Espece. Ohliquaria ellipsaria (TT. ellipsaria). Obliqnaire 
ellipsaire. 

Test elliptique, on angle diagonal posterieur ; epiderme peu ride, 
rou^-olivatre ; nacre blanche. Axe presque lateral. Longueur 3-4, 
diametre 3-8, axe 1-5 de la largeur. 

Var. 1. Fusca. Entierement brune. 

Largeur : environ 5 pouces ; point de fossule. Dans le Kentuky • 
elle se rapproche du G. Amblema ; ligament horizontal. 

25. Espece. Ohliquaria fasciolaris (U. fasciolaris). Obliquaire 
fasciolee. 

Test epais, convexe, ovale-elliptique ; attenue posterieurement ; 
epiderme presque lisse, rouss^tre, a bandes obliques brunes ; nacre 
blanche. Longueur 2-3, axe 1-4 de la largeur. 

Var. 1. Interrupta. Bandes interrompues. 
[304] 

Yar. 2. Fuscata. Presqu'entierement brune, bandes noires. 

Var. 3. Ohliterata. Bandes presqu'obliterees, test tres-epais. 

Var. 4. Longa. Longueur 3-4 de la largeur. 

Espece assez commune dans I'Ohio, le Wabash, Kentuky, etc. 
Elle parait intermediaire entre VU. interrupta (esp. 21), et VU. 
nasuta de Say. Son mollusque est blanc, semblable a celui des 
elliptes. Un earactere remarquable de cette espece consiste dans la 
eavite des valves ; elle est munie de quelques rides obliques. Liga- 
ment un peu oblique ; sommeta epais, mais non saillans ; dents 
bilobees ridees, epaisses ; lame epaisse, courte ; fossule apparente ; 
impressions profondes. Largeur jusqu'a 5 pouces. 

26. Espece. Ohliquaria verrucosa (U. verrucosa). Obliquaire 
verruqueuse. PI. lxxxi, fig. 10, 11 et 12. 

Test peu epais, elliptique, en talus oblique posterieurement, a 
rides verruqueuses ; epiderme brun-roussatre ; nacre blanche. Lon- 
gueur 2-3, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

Espece remarquable par plusieurs rangs concentriques de vermes 
inegales, aplaties, souvent blanches par le frottement. Dans I'Ohio ; 
largeur 3 pouces ; dent bilobee a un lobe tres-gros, ride, I'autre petit 
et lisse ; impressions profondes et lisses ; dent lamellaire obtuse ; 
ligament horizontal. 

2T. Espece. Ohliquaria cuprea (U. cuprea). Obliquaire cuivree. 
PI. LXXXI, fig. 8 et 9. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 49 

Test epais elliptique, en talus oblique posterieurement ; epiderme 
noir presque lisse ; nacre cuivree. Longueur 3-5, diametre 5-8, axe 
1-3 de la largeur. 

Tres-jolie espfece de 2 pouces de large, a nacre singuliere, a teinte 
incarnate brunie presque cuivree, et a reflets pourpres. Je I'ai trouvee 
dans le Monongahela et le Potowmak ; lame courte ; pointe de fos- 
Bule ; dents pen ridees ; ligament horizontal.* 
[305] 

3"°. Sous-Genre. Quadrula. Quadrule. 

Forme ecarrie mais arrondie anterieurement, ii peine tran- 
versale. 

28. Espece. Obliquariajlava (U. Qslysl). Obliquaire jaune. PI. 
Lxxxi, fig. 13 et 14. 

Test peu epais, convexe en talus posterieurement; sommets un 
peu saillans, entiers, rugueux ; epiderme presque lisse, brun jaunitre; 
nacre incarnate. Longueur 5-7, diametre et axe 2-7 de la 
largeur. 

Belle espece, qui ne se trouve que dans les petites rivieres se jetant 
dans le Kentnky, Saltriver et Greenriver. Largeur 2 a 4 pouces. Le 
mollusque est jaune fonce ou orange, a grand pied circulaire ; da 
reste semblable a celui de VEllipta. La coquille est presque jaune 
dans sa jeunesse ; lame cai'enee mince ; dents striees de toutes parts; 
ligament oblique, voisine de VU. lineolata, qui peut-etre doit se 
placer ici. 

29. Espfece. Obliquaria cyphya (U. cypliia.). Obliquaire 
cyphie. 

Test epais bombe, bossele, bord flexueux, en talus posterieure- 
ment ; epiderme brun-ch4tain ; tubercule a rides flexueuses ; nacre 
blanche. Longueur 8-9, diametre et axe 5-9 de la largeur. 

Largeur 2 a, 3 pouces ; test plus epais anterieurement, a grosses- 
rides et a quelques tubercules oblongs; une grosse bosse oblique 
longitudinale ; dents epaisses striees. Aux chutes de I'Ohio. 

*L'Uhio nasuta de Say, Conch, tab. 4, fig. 1, parait devoir appartenir a ce aous-genre, et 
I'espece Buivante que j'ai obserTee dans le fleuve Hudson, etat de New-York, s'en rapprocha 
beanconp. En est-ce une variete ? 

Obliquaria attenuata. Elliptique, dilatee, attenuee, et en talus posterieurement. Ligament 
horizontal ; epiderme rugueux, brun foneee ; nacre rose-pale. Longueur 1-2, diametre 1-4, axe 
1-4 de la largeur. Environ 4 pouces. 

D 



50 bafinesque's 

30. Espece. ObUquaria metanevra (U. metanevra). Obliquaire 
metanevre. PI. lxxxi, fig. 15 et 16, 

Test epais bombe, bossele, a deux sinus marginaux : un postcrieur 
et un terminal, en talus et nerve posterieurement ; epiderme ride, 

[306] 
brun^tre, a taches noirdtres ; nacre incarnate. Longueur 4-5, diame- 
tre 7-10, axe 4-10 de la largeur. 

Petite espece rare ; n'ayant gueres plus d'un pouce de largeur ; 
dans le Kentuky ; test aminci posterieurement; nervures coiirbes 
obliques sur le bord dilate, posterieur ; une ou deux bosselures 
sur I'elevation oblique ; lame courte et large ; dent striee ; fossule 
nulle. 

31. Espece. ObUquaria rejiexa (U. reflexa). Obliquaire 
reflecliie. 

Test epais, convexe, bossele, presqu'arrondi, tronque posterieure- 
ment, borde inferieur refleclii avec uu sinus posterieur ; epiderme 
roussAtre, presque lisse, rugueux posterieurement ; nacre blanche, 
iridescente. Longueur 5-6, diametre 2-3, axe 5-12 de la 
longueur. 

Largeur un pouee et demi ; test aminci posterieurement ; deux 
bosselures sur I'elevation mediale ; son bout refleclii ; rides eloignees, 
flexueuses, en forme de sutures ; lame alongee, carenee, tres-legere- 
ment courbee ; dent tres-striee ; fossule apparente. Dans le Ken- 
tuky et aux rapides de Letart. Peut-etre appartient-elle au S. G. 
Botundaria f 

32. Espece. ObUquaria retusa (Unio retusa). Obliquaire retuse. 
PI. LXXXI, fig. 19 et 20. 

Test epais, convexe, sans elevations, a leger sinus terminal ; dpi- 
derme olivdtre, a rides legeres, distantes ; nacre blanch4tre. Lon- 
gueur 7-8, diametre 3-8, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

Petite espece d'un pouce ou deux de large ; rare ; dans I'Oliio et 
le Kentuky. Lame courte, carenee ; fossule non-apparente. 

33. Espece. ObUquaria Jiexuosa (Unio flexuosa). Obliquaire 
flexueuse. 

Test epais, a deux legeres elevations et une large depi'ession plate 
entr'elles, en talus posterieurement; epiderme brun - jaun^tre, 
lineole de brun a la base, a rides flexueuses, un peu strides ; bord 
flexueux ; nacre bleuitre. Longueur 6-T, diametre 3-7, axe 3-7 de 
la largeur. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS, 51 

[307] 

Dans le Kentuky, Salt-river et Green-river. Largeur environ 
deux pouces ; lame, courte, presque doublee meme dans la valve 
droite ; fossule apparente ; dent lamellaire petite, striee ; impres- 
sions profondes. 

Yar. 1. Bullata. A quelques tubercules larges, plats et transver- 
saux sur les elevations. 

34. Espece. Obliquar'ia nodulata (Unio uodulata). Obliquaire 
nodulee, PI. lxxxi, fig. 17 et 18. 

Test epais, bombe, nodule, en talus postcrieurement et tronque 
verticalement ; des tubercules lineaires longitudinaux sur la dilata- 
tion posterieure ; epiderme presque lisse, brun-roussatre ; nacre 
iridescente. Longueur 11-12, diametre 2-3, axe 1-8 de la 
largeur. 

Largeur un pouce et demi ; dans le Kentuky ; quatre nodosites 
distantes ; dent bilobee, epaisse, striee ; impressions profondes ; lame 
carenee. Elle ressemble a VO. retusa, toutes deux ont la lame tant 
soit peu courbe. 

35. Espece. Ohliquaria quadrula (Unio quadrula). Obliquaire 
quadrule. 

Test tres-epais, un peu bombe, a elevation longitudinale oblique, 
a sillon oblique et sinus posterieurement ; epiderme brun, ride : rides 
striees et tuberculees anterieurement ; nacre blanche, rosce sur les 
bords. Longueur 6-T, diametre 4-7, axe 1-4 de la largeur. 

Largeur 2 a 3 pouces ; assez commune dans I'Ohio ; quelques 
tubercules oblongs transversaux sur I'elevation ; test un peu sinue en 
face ; lame courte, epaisse, carenee, striee ; fossule confluente ; dent 
grande, striee ; sommets tronques. 

36. Espece. Ohliquaria bullata (TJ. bullata). Obliquaire 
bullee. 

Test epais, convexe, peu bombe, a sillon oblique et sinus poste- 
rieurement, parseme de tubercules irreguliers, confluens ; epiderme 
roussatre, a rides flexueuses, distantes ; nacre blanche, incarnate. 
Longueur 11-12, diametre 2-3, axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

[308] 

Aux chutes de I'Ohio, rare ; largeur un peu moins de 2 pouces ; 
dents et lames comme au precedent ; sommets arrondis, uses, mais 
non tronques ; les tubercules sont souvent uses et blanchis, aplatis, 
pustules, de forme variable. 



52 rafinesque's 

4°'. Sous-genre. Rotundaria. Rotundaire. 
Forme arrondie, a peine transversale, presque equilaterale, axe 
presque medial; ligament courbe, court, corne ; dent lamellaire, 
legerement courbee ; dent bilobee a peine anterieure. 

37. Espece Obliquaria tuberculata (JJ. inhevcn\a,t&). Obliquaire 
tuberculee. 

Test tres-epais, bombe, un peu tronque postcrieurement, parserae 
de tubercules inegaux, hormis anterieurement ; epiderme ride, 
brun-chAtain ; nacre violacee. Longueur 10-11, diametre 6-11, 
axe 5-11. 

Tres-commune dans I'Ohio et les rivieres adjacentes. Largeur 3 
pouces au plus. Mollusqae jauneLtre ; dent epaisse, tres-rugueuse ; 
lame courte, carenee ; fossule confluente ; impressions profondes. 
Elle varie a nacre bleu^tre ou pourpre-fonce. 

38. Espece. Obliquaria subrotunda (U. subrotunda). Obliquaire 
arrondie. PI. lxxxi, fig. 21, 22 et 23. 

Test epais, bombe, couvexe, parfaitement arrondi ; epiderme 
presque lisse, brun fauve ; nacre blanche-bleudtre. Longueur 
presqu'egale, diametre 3-4, axe 7-16 de la largeur. 

Yar. 1. Maculata. Parseme de taches noir^tres. 

Espece tres-commune dans I'Ohio et toutes les rivieres qui s'y 
jettent ; remarquable par sa forme presqu'equilaterale, et nuUement 
transversale ; sommets saillans, arrondis ; dents epaisses, sillonnees; 
lame carenee, courte, un peu, 4)ointillee ; fossule confluente ; impres- 
sion anterieure, pointillee. 

39. Espece. Obliquaria pusilla (Unio pusilla). Obliquaire 
petite. 

Test epais, couvexe, parfaitement arrondi; epiderme lisse, noirAtre; 

[309] 
nacre blanche. Longueur 6-Y, diametre 2-7, axe 3-7 de la 
largeur. 

Trfes-rare ; dans la partie inferieure de I'Ohio. Largeur : gueres 
plus d'an demi-pouce ; forme et apparence d'un Cyclas; dents 
presque lisses ; lame lineaire. Est-ce un jeuneindividu ? 
S"". Sous-genre. Scalenaria. Scalenaire. 

Forme triangulaire oblique, a peine transversale, mais tres-inequi- 
laterale ; axe presque lateral ; dent bilobee a peine anterieure ; dent 
lamellaire droite ; ligament oblique. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 53 

40. Espece. Obliquaria ohliqvata (IT. obliquata). Obliquaire 
obliquee. 

Test tres-epais, bombe, ovale-triangulaire ; les trois cotes arques ; 
ane legere depression longitudinale oblique ; epiderme presque lisse, 
noir; nacre rose pourpree. Longueur 9-10, diametre 6-10, axe 2-10 
de la largeur. 

Jolie espece, a belle nacre pourpree, a reflets irldescens. Dans le 
Kentuky. Largeur 2 a 3 pouces ; lame longue, carcnee ; fossule 
grande, distincte ; dents ridees ; impressions profondes ; sommets 
saillans, tronques. 

41. Espece. Obliquaria triangularis (JJ.ixi^xv^vXsiVh). Obliquaire 
triangulaire. 

Test tres-epais, bombe, triangulaire ; face posterieure droite ; 
sommets saillans ; point de depression longitudinale ; epiderme brun, 
presque lisse ; nacre blanclie-rosce. Longueur 3-4, diametre 1-2, 
axe 1-6 de la largeur. 

Yar. 1. Nigrescens. Epiderme noirAtre ; nacre blanche. 

Commune dans I'Ohio ; largeur jusqu'a 4 pouces ; dents tres- 
grosses, sillonnees ; lame grosse, carenee ; impression et#fossule 
profondes. 

42. Espece. Obliquaria scalenia (JJ . scalenia). Obliquaire scalene. 
PI. Lxxxi, fig. 24 et 25. 

Test epais, bombe, triangulaire ; les cotes presque droits, surtout 

le posterieur qui est tronque ; angles arrondis point de depression ; 

[310] 
epiderme lisse, roussAtre, a quelques lignes longitudinales obliques 

brunes ; nacre blanche. Longueur T-9, diametre 5-9, axe 1-5 de la 

largeur. 

Largeur environ 2 pouces ; dans le Kentuky, etc. ; dents et lame 
sillonnees ; forme confluente ; lignes etroites, distantes, radices. 
6"^ Sous-genre. Sintoxia. Sintoxe. 

Forme ovale-oblique ; dent lamellaire et ligament eourbes. 

43. Espece. Obliquaria lateralis (U. lateralis). Obliquaire 
laterale. 

Test epais, bombe, ovale-oblique, a legere depression oblique, longi- 
tudinale, courbee, etroite ; epiderme ride, brun ; nacre blanche. 
Longueur 4-5, diametre 3-5, axe 1-5 de la largeur. 

Largeur 2 a 3 pouces ; dents grosses, strides ; fossules 
apparentes ; lame epaisse, carenee, un peu doublee dans les deux 
valves. 



54 rapinesque's 

44. Espece. Obliquaria sintoxia (U. siutoxia). Obliquaire 
sintoxe. 

Test epais, borube, ovale-oblique, sans depression ; epiderine noir 
at presque lisse ; nacre rosee. Longueur 9-10, diametre 6-10, axe 
2-5 de la largeur. 

Dans I'Obio ; rare ; largeur 2 a 3 pouces, tres-voislne de VObo- 
var'ia pachostea, de VObliq. ohliquata et de VObl'iq. triangularis ; 
dents eomme cette derniere. Par sa forme elle fait le passage avec 
le genre suivant, Obovaria. 

11°'. Sous-famille. Amblemidia. Les Amblemides. 

Coquille longitudinale ; dent bilobee inferieure ; dent latnellaire 
inferieure, verticale ; axe terminal ; rides zonales. 

VI""'. Genre. Obovaria. Obovaire. 

Coquille obovale, presqu'equilaterale ; axe presque medial ; 
ligament courbe ; dent bilobee striee ; dent lamellaire presque 
yerticale, un pen courbee ; contour marginal epaissi ; trois impres- 
sions musculaires ; mollusque semblable a VUnio, mais ayanfc I'anus 
inferieur. 

[3!li* 

45. Espece. Obovaria obovalis (TJnio obovalis). Obovaire . 
obovale. 

Test epais, bombe, arrondi inferieurement ; sommets saillans ; 
epiderme brun-faure, ride ; nacre blanche. Largeur iuferieure 8-9, 
diametre 2-3 de la longueur, axe medial. 

Cette espece est commune dans I'Ohio et les rivieres voisines. 
Longueur de 2 i\ 3 pouces ; dents larges, epaisses, rugueuses ; lame 
carenee, un peu oblique ; impressions profondes. 

46. Espece. Obovaria torsa (Unio torsa). Obovaire tordue. PI. 
Lxxxii, fig. 1, 2 et 3. 

Test tres-epais, bombe, arrondi inferieurement; epiderme brunatre; 
nacre pourpree. Largeur mediale 6-7, diametre 3-T de la longueur, 
axe medial. 

Var. Marginata. Nacre a contour blanc. 

Espece rare dans I'Ohio, plus commune dans les petites rivieres. 
Longueur 1 a 2 pouces. Remarquable par ses sommets tournes en 
avant et ses grandes rides souvent divisees en deux par un sillon ; 
dents et lames ridees; fossule apparente ; lame un peu oblique, 
presque double, meme dans la valve droite. 

47. Espece. Obovaria striata (Unio striata). Obovaria striee. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS, 5o 

Test epais, bombe, arrondi inferieurement, a rides strides ; sommets 
k peine saillans ; epiderme brun ; nacre blanche. Largeur mediale 
10-11, diametre 6-11 de la longueur, axe 2-5 de la largeur. 

Yar. 1. Tuherculata. Quelques tubercules striees sur les 
rides. 

Var. 2, Rosea. Epiderme roussAtre, brun anterieurement ; nacre 
ros^tre. 

Longueur environ 3 ponces. Dans la partie superieure de I'Obio. 
Mollusque jaune ; lame presque verticale, epaisse ; dents sillonnees ; 
fossule apparente. 
[312] 

48. Espece. Obovaria pachostea (U. pachostea). Obovaire 
pacbostee. 

Test excessivement epais, bombe, arrondi et attcnue ou flexuenx 
inferieurement ; sommets un peu saillans ; epiderme brun, peu ride; 
nacre violacee-pAle ; contour flexueux. Largeur mediale 9-10, diame- 
tre T-12 de la longueur, axe oblique 2-5 de la largeur. 

Espece remarquable, a cavite interieure tres-petite et ridee ; large 
cavite sous la dent ; elle se rapproche du S. G. sintoxia, G. obliqua- 
ria, par son axe un peu oblique, ou par une legere dilatation poste- 
rieure. Dans le Kentuky. Longueur 3 a 1 pouces. Lame courte, 
verticale, obtuse ; dents tres-grosses et larges, sillonnees ; fossule 
apparente. 

49. Espece. Obovaria stegaria (Unio stegara). Obovaire tuilee. 
PI. Lxxxii, fig. 4 et 5. 

Test epais, bombe, arrondi inferieurement, un peu tulle par de 
grosses rides ecartees ; sommets un peu saillans ; epiderme brun ; 
nacre blanche. Largeur inferieure 12-13 de la longueur, diametre 
2-3 de la largeur, axe medial. 

Yar. 1. Tuberculata. A quelques tubercules epars. 

Yar. 2. Fasciolaia. Fasciolee de brun verdatre ; nacre' 
rosatre. » 

Jolie espece, rarement longue de plus d'un pouce ; lame un peu 
oblique, droite, obtuse ; dents striees ; fossule apparente ; assez rare 
dans I'Ohio. 

50. Espece. Obovaria cordata (Unio cordata). Obovaire cordee. 
PL LXXXII, fig. 6 et 7. 

Test epais, bombe, corde inferieurement par un sinus etune Icgfere 
depression ; epidcrmp lisse, brun ; nacre blanche ; sommets un peu 



56 rapinesqtje's 

saillans. Laigeur inferieure 11-12, diametre 2-3 de la longueur, 
axe medial. 

Yar. 1. Rosea. Epiderme noirdtre ; nacre rosatre. 

Jolie petite espece d'environ un pouce de longueur ; dans I'Ohio 
etc. rare. Lame doublee aigue, a peine oblique, droite ; dents 

[313] 
sillonnees. Elle se rapproche beaucoup de V Obliquaria retusa. 
VII"'. Genre Pleurobema. Pleurobeme. 

Coquille oblongue, tres-inequilaterale ; ligament droit ou plutot 
unilateral ; axe totalement lateral ou posterieur ; dent lamellaire 
verticale ; dent bilobee peu ridee ; sous le sommet qui est superieur, 
terminal ; quatre impressions musculaires ; moUusque semblable a 
VUnio, mais anus et siphons inferieurs. 

51. Espece. Pleui'obema mytiloides (U. Mytiloides). Pleurobeme 
mytiloide. PI. lxxxii, fig. 8, 9 et 10. 

Test epais et bombe superieurement, attenue aux deux bouts ; 
sommets saillains, entiers ; epiderme presque lisse, roussatre, a 
quelques bandes obliques, noires, longitudinales ; nacre bleuMre ; 
lame etroite. Largeur 3-5, diametre 1-2 de la longueur, axe 1-6 de 
la largeur. 

Espfece rare : observee dans le Wabash. Longueur 2 pouces • 
sommets un peu anguleux, tres-saillaus, entiers, formant un coeur ; 
lame tres-droite ; impression et fossule profondes. 

52. Espece. Pleurobema cuneata (Unio cuneata). Pleurobeme 
cuneiforme. 

Test epais et bombe superieurement, oblong-ovale, attenue en 
coin inferieureraent, avrondi superieurement; sommets saillans, 
tronques ; epiderme presque lisse, brun ; nacre blanche, iridescente ; 
lame a peine droite. Largeur 5-1 diametre 1-2 de la longueur; axe 
1-6 de la largeur. 

Var. 1. Maculata. Quelques taches noires, eparses, equar- 
ries. 

Yar. 2. Sulcata. Legcre depression longitudinale. 

Assez commune dans I'Ohio pres de Steubenvllle, Marietta, etc. 
Longueur 1 a 3 pouces. Elle differe principalement de la precedente 
par sa forme, par sa lame un peu courbe, etc. Mollusque jaundtre- 
pale ; impressions profondes : la fossule forme une quatrifeme 
impression trfes-marquee. . _ 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS, 57 

[314] 

Yjjjme Qenre. Amblema. Ambleine. ' 

Coquille ovale, elliptique ou equarrie, tres-inequilatcrale ; axe 
lateral posterieur; sommet lateral oblique, presque superieur ; 
ligament droit; dent lamellaire verticale; dent bilobee ridee, laterale 
ail sommet ; trois impressions musciilaires ; mollusqiie semblable au 
PJeurohema. 

53. Espece. Amblema olivaria (U. olivaria). Ambleme 
oliraire. 

Test cpais, pen bombc, ovale, elliptique; sommetsa peine saillans, 
presque superieurs ; epiderme ride, olivatre ; nacre blanche, irides- 
cente ; lame droite. Largeur 2-3, diametre 4-9, axe 1-20 de la 
longueur. 

Var. 1. Dilatata, abase dilatee siiperieurement. 
. Var. 2. FasciolaiHs, a bandes rayonnees, brunes. 

Dans le Keutuky. Longueur 2 a 3 pouces. Intermediare entre ce 
genre et le precedent ; fossule apparente ; dents peu ridees ; lame 
epaisse ; ligament dorc, 

54. Espece. Ohliquaria rubra (U. rubra). Obliquaire rouge. 
Test epais, bombe, un peu elliptique ; sommets peu saillans, a 

leger sinus oblique ou large ; sillon posterieur ; aux presque lateral ; 
epiderme ride, noiratre ; nacre, rouge-pourpree. Longueur 5-7, 
diametre 4-7, axe 1-7 de la largeur. 

Yar. 1. Lineata. Roussdtre, lineolde de briin. 

Yar. 2. Pallida. Brunatre, nacre pale. 

Dans le Kentuky. Longueur environ 2 pouces. Elle a quelques 
rfipports avec VElliptio et VObliqnaria ellipsaria. Lame un peu 
obtuse, tres-legerement oblique ; dent epaisse rugueuse ; nacre jolie, 
iridescente, a reflets bleuitres ; point de fossule ; mollusque jaun- 
atre. 

55. Espece. Amblema tor ulosa {XJ mo torulosa). Ambleme toru- 
leuse. PI. Lxxxii, fig. 11 et 12. 

Test epais, peu bombe, elliptique-equarri, a legere depression 
oblique et quelques nodules, bords flexueux ; epiderme olivatre, a 
rides flexiieuses ; nacre blancbe-bleu&tre. Largeur 3-4, diametre 1-2, 
axe 1-5 de la longueur. 
[315] 

Yar. 1. Angulata. Depression presque nulle, contour presque 
anffuleux. 



68 RAFINESQUE'S 

« 

Longueur 2 pouces. Dans I'Ohio et Kentuky ; 2 ou 3 nodules 
sur I'elevation oblique ; lame tres-droite ; point de fossule ; dent 
ridee. 

56. Espece Amblema gibbosa (Unio gibbosa) Amblfeme 
bossue. 

Test cpais, bombe, ovale-elliptique, a deux grosses cotes noueuses, 
obliques, a depression intermediaire, bords flexueux ; epiderme brun- 
rousatre, presque lisse ; nacre blanche. Largeur 2-3, diametre 4-7, 
axe 2-9 de la longueur. 

Yar. 1. OUvacea. Epiderme olivdtre, a rides flexueuses. 

Yar. 2. Radiata, A lignes radices, pAles. 

Yar. 3. Difformis. A bosselures et depressions difformes. 

Tres-commune dans I'Ohio et les rivieres adjacentes. Longueur 
1 a 3 pouces. Lame courte, oblique, obtuse ; fossule tres-apparente; 
dents ridces ; sommets saillans en coeur. Elle a de tres-grands rap- 
ports avec le G. Ohliquaria ; mais la dent bilobee est sous le som- 
met et presque inferieure. 

57. Espece. Amblema costata (Unio costata). Ambleme costee. 
PI. Lxxxii, fig. 13 et 14. 

Test peu epais, applati, un peu equarri, ji large cotes longitudi- 
nales, peu oblique, flexueux, dilate en aile sous le ligament, a cotes 
obliques courbees, bords ondulcs ; epiderme jaundtre, presque lisse; 
nacre blanche, iridescente. Largeur 4-5, diametre 3-10, axe 3-20 de 
la longueur. 

C'est une des plus belles coquilles de I'Ohio ; elle y est rare ; elle 
I'est moins dans les petites rivieres du Kentuky, etc. Elle parvient 
presqu'a 6 pouces de longueur. Sa nacre est lavee d'incarnat et :i 
reflets violets. 

Elle produit des perles ; j'en ai vu une oblongue d'un quart de 

pouce de long. Sommets obliques rides, entiers ; lame longue, 

large, aigue, comprimee, legerement oblique ; point de fossule ; 

dent striee inferieure. Bords interieurs ondules. Mollusque 

jaune. 
[316] 

IIL Sous-famille. Anodontidia. Les Anodontides. 

Coquille transverse. Point de dents ni de lames. 
IX'"^ Genre. Anodonta. Anodonte. 

Coquille elliptique ou ovale ; ligament droit ou courbe. Axe 
extra-medial; trois impressions musculaires peu apparentes ; contour 
a peine epaissi ; mollusque comme celui de VVnio. 



CONCnOLOOICAL WRITINGS. 59 

Ce genre pent se diviser en trois sous-genres tres-marques. 

1. Sous-Genre. Anodonta. Anodonte. 

Nulles rides lamellaires a la charniere. Ce S. Gr. comprend la 
plupart des especes, telles que A. anatina, A. cygnea, A. radiata, 
A. marginata, Say A. cataracta, Say, etc. Outre les deux especes 
suivantes que j'ai observees dans le fleuve Hudson. 

Anodonta atra. Test bombe, mince, lisse, elliptique, noiratre ; 
nacre blanche anterieurement, rousse, iridescente posterieurenient. 
Longueur 1-2, diametre 5-12, axe 1-3 de la largeur. — Largeur 
jusqu'a 6 pouces. 

Anodonta cuneata. Test peu bombe, mince, elliptique, attcnue 
postcrieurement ; epiderme ride, brun-olivatre ; nacre blanche- 
bleu^tre. Longueur 1-2, diametre 1-4, axe 1-4 de la largeur. Lar- 
geur 4 a 5 pouces. 

2. Sous-Genre. Stropiiitus. Strophite. 
Charniere a projection margiuale sous le bee. 

L'^. undulata de Say, forme ce S G. qui pourrait bien, ainsi que 
le suivant, etre considere comme un genre. 

3. Sous-Genre. Lastexa. Lastt-ne. 

Charniere a deux rides transversales,obtuses, presquelamelliformes, 
divergeant de chaque cute du bee. Ligament droit, membraneux, 
double, ou anterieur ou postcrieur. 

58. Espece. Anodonta ohiensis (Lastena ohiensis). Anodonta de 
I'Ohio. 

Test tres-mince, fragile, transparent, bombe, elliptique, un peu 
aile et ensuite tronque obliquement en arriere ; sommets entiers, 
rides ; epiderme lisse, olivdtre ou brun; nacre-bleuatre. Longueur 

[317] 
5-9, diametre et axe 1-3 de la largeur. 

Var. 1. Badiata. OUvatre-cuivre, a bandes radices, verdatres. 

Yar. 2. Viridis. D'un beau vert-olivatre. 

Yar. 3. Violacina. Nacre violacee. 

Yar. 4. Nlgrescens. NoirAtre-olivatre. 

Tres-commune dans I'Ohio et toutes les rivit-res adjaeentes. 
Largeur de 2 a 4 pouces ; les rides lamellaires sont jDarfaitement 
separees des bords de la coquille. L'aile posterieure est comprimee, 
angulaire, en talus et brundtre. II aurait peut-etre etc convenable 
de nommer cette espece A, mutahilis. 

59. Espece. Anodonta lata (Lastena lata). Anodonta elargie. 
PI. Lxxxii, fig. n et 18. 



GO rafinesque's 

Test tres-mince, fragile, transparent, convexe, elliptique-oblong; 
sommets ocorchcs, presqu'invisibles ; cpiclerme brun, noiratrc ante- 
rieuremeni ; nacre bleuatre, violette sous les sommets. Longueur 
3-8, diametre 2-9, axe 1-4 de la largeur. 

Eare, dans le Kentuky, etc. Largeur 2 a 3 pouees. Rides 1am- 
ellaires attenantes au bord, I'antcrieure a peine apparente. Elle doit 
peut-etre former un autre S. G. Hemistena, ouetrereunie au premier 
S. G. ; mais le ligament est double, ou ctendu des deux cotes des 
sommets. Les Lastenes se rapproclient du G. Dipsas. 

IV. Sous-famille. Alasmidia. Les Alasmides. 

Coquille transverse ; une dent primaire anterieure ; point de dent 
lamellaire. 

X™^ Genre. Alasmidonta. Alasmidonte. 

Coquille ovale ou elliptique ; axe extra-medial ; trois cicatrices 
ou impressions musculaires ; ligament droit, embrique, etc. 

60. Espece. Alasmidonta marginata. Alasmidonte marginee. 
Ovale-elliptique, en talus posterieurement et a rides obliques- 

obtuses ; epiderme brun-olivatre, radio de vert et ride zonalement ; 

[318] 
nacre blancbe-bleuatre, a contours blancs ; dent simple, comprimce, 
oblique. Longueur 1-2 de la largeur. 

Ce genre et cette espece ont ete etablis par Say, dans le Journal 
de VAcademie des Sciences naiurelles de Philadeljjhie, vol. 1, p. 
459. II y rapporte en outre son Unio undulata, Conch, tab. 3, 
fig. 3, et il faut y ajouter aussi I'espece suivante. Celle-ci se trouve 
dans la riviere Scioto. Longueur 2 pouees et demi. Je ne I'ai 
point observce vivante, mais je I'ai vue dans le cabinet de 
I'Academie. 

61. Espece. Alasmidonta costata. Alasmidonte costce. PI. 
Lxxxii, fig. 15 et 16. 

Test mince, elliptique, legerement bombe, un peu sinueux ante- 
ricurement, ondule et a larges cotes courbees posterieurement ; 
epiderme presque lisse, olivAtre anterieurement, noiratre posterieure- 
ment ; nacre blanche, lavee d'incarnat ; dent bilobee comprimee, 
oblique, crenelee. Longueur 1-2, diametre 1-4, axe 2-9 de la 
largeur. 

J'ai observe cette belle coquille dans le museum de M. Clifford a 
Lexington : elle a ete recueillie dans la riviere Kentuky, ou elle 
parait ctre rare. Largeur pros de cinq pouees. Elle est ecorchee 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 61 

anterieuvement etsnpcrieurement, mais tres-entiere posterieurement ; 
cotes tres-grandes inferieurement; ligament come, ecailleux, erabrique; 
dent decurrente ; lame remplacee par un petit angle court, oblique ; 
de petits tubercules dans I'iutcrieur. 

Y. Sous-famille Cycladia. Les Cycladees. 
Coquille presqu'equilaterale ; deux dents la,mellaires : une ante- 
rieure et une posterieure ; souvent une ou plusieurs dents cardinales, 
intermediaires sous le sommet. 

XP"'. Genre Cyclas. Cyclade. 
Deux impressions musculaires ; lames obliques ; rides zonales ; 
contour non epaissi. 

Ce genre a besoin d'etre reforme nonobstant les travaux de Megerle 
et Ferussac. Je propose de le diviser en quatre sous-genres qui 

[319] 
pourraient peut-etre former autant de genres. 

1. Polymesoda. Plusieurs dents intermediaires aux deux valves ; 
test arrondi ou un peu transversal. Type : Cyclas caroUniana 
Bosc, etc. 

2. Phymesoda. Une dent inlermedialre a une valve ; test un peu 
transversal. Type : C. lacustris, G. dubia Say, etc. 

3. Amesoda. Point de dent intermediaire a une valve au moins ; 
test un peu transversal. Type : G. similis Say, G. lasmamjjsis, 
etc. 

4. Gorhicula. (Megerle). Plusieurs dents intermediaires aux 
deux valves ; test triangulaire ou un peu alonge. Type : G. ham- 
malis, G. Jluviatilis, etc, 

62. Espece. Gyclas lasmampsis (Araeroda lasmampsis). Cyclade 
lasmampside. PI. lxxxii, fig. 19, 20 et 21. 

Test transparent, bo.mbe, un peu arrondi ; rides serrees, inegales, 
plus eloignees et larges supcrieurement ; lames flexueuses, I'ante- 
rieure tordue, elargie ; longueur 3-4, diametre 1-2, axe 5-12 de la 
largeur, nacre bleudtre. 

Largeur 1-3 ou 1-2 pouce ; epiderme variable, noir, noiratre, 
bran, brunatre, olivatre, I'oussatre, corne, etc. ; sommets arrondis, 
non-saillans. Dans I'OMo et les rivieres adjacentes. Points de dents 
intermediaires. 

63. Espece. Gyclas equalis (Phymeroda equalis) Cyclade 
egale. 

Test transparent, bombe, arrondi ; rides serrees, presqu'egales, 



$2 rafixesque's 

obtuses ; lames un peu flexueuscs, courtcs, distantes, cgales ; dent 

intermediaire oblique, unique dans chaque valve ; epiderme corne ; 

nacre bleuatre ; longueur 4-5, diametre 2-3, de la largeur, axe 

medial. 

Petite espece ; longueur 1-4 de pouce ; rare dans I'Ohio ; dent 

interne, peu apparente, obliquement inclince posterieurement ; 

valve droite a 2 fossules oblongues, lamellaires ; presqu'egales ; 

la gauche a dent lamellaire correspondante ; sommets arrondis non- 

saillans. 
[320] 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Je vais dccrire dans ce supplement deux especes qui n'appartien- 
nent qu'imparfaitement a mon sujet ; car I'une est une coquille 
trivalve etl'autre une moule de la Louisiane. J'y ajouterai quelques 
especes qui ont ete omises a leurs places respectives, ou reconnues 
durant mon travail. 

XIP. Genre. Tremesia, Trcmcsie. 

Test trivalve, inequivalve ; valve principale patelloide, perforee 
au centre ; la petite valve fermant ce trou en guise d'opercule ; 
troisifeme valve infcrieure, laterale ; mollusque cephale, a tete 
extensible par I'ouverture mcdiale, a deux yeux lateraux ; point de 
tentacules. 

Ce genre singulier parait etre le type d'une nouvelle famille inter- 
mediaire entre les Brachiopes, les Tcredaires et les Patellaires ; elle 
a trois valves comme les Tcredaires ; mais une tete comme les 
Patellaires, et cette tete oculee et tentaculee est centrale au lieu 
d'etre terminale. 

64. Espece. Tremesia patelloides. Trcmcsie patelloide. PI. 
Lxxxii, fig. 22, 2.3 et 24. 

Yalve principale arrondie, un peu conique, striee concentrique- 
ment et tesselee par des stries courbes, obliques, transversales ; 
ouverture ronde; petites valves lisses: I'inferieure oblique, obovale; 
mollusque strie flexueusemeut en dessous, aigu a I'oppose de la valve 
inferieure ; tete tronquce. 

Animal bien singulier, que j'avais deja annoncd I'annce passee 
sous le nom fautif de Notrema dans V American Monthly Magazine. 
II se trouve dans la partie inferieure de I'Ohio, attache anx pierres 
comme les Patelles, par sa base ; test fauve-brun ; valve operculaire 
brune, luisante, mobile; diametre environ un pouce, hauteur un 
demi-pouce. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 63 

65. Espece. Mytilus recurvus. Moule recourbee. 

Test obovale, cuneiforme, recourbe, a stries longitudinales cle trois 
longueurs ; epiderme noirdtre ; nacre-violette ; bees obliques, a 

[321] 
un angle decurrent de chaque cote ; bord iuferieur et interieur strie, 
crenele ; largeur '7-12, diametre 5-12, de la longueur, longueur 
1 j\ 2 pouces. EUe se trouve dans le Mississipi pres de la jSTouvelle- 
Orleans. Les stries sont souvent bifide«. Partie bdillante oblongue, 
laterals. 



66. Espece. TJnio teres (Elliptio teres). Mulette ronde. 

Test peu epais, bombe, elliptique, elargi, tronque inferieurement, 
posterieurement et obliquement ; epiderme presque lisse, come ; 
nacre blanche, iridescente ; longueur environ 2-5, diametre 2-.o, 
axe 1-5 de la largeur. Appartient au sous -genre Eurynia. 
(Yoyez p. 297.) 

Largeur environ 3 pouces. Dans la riviere Wabash, legerement 
sinuee inferieurement ; sommets effaces ; lame longue, mince ; dent 
crenelee, decurrente. 

67. Espece. Obliquaria sinuata. (IJnio sinuata). Obliq. 
sinuee. 

Test epais, bombe, elliptique, sinue inferieurement ; epiderme 
roussatre, ride; nacre blanche, asillons profonds, obliques, interieurs; 
longueur 1-2, diametre 1-3, axe 1-4 de la largeur. Appartient au 
sous-genre Ellipsaria. (Voyez p. 303.) 

Dans le Kentuky. Largeur 4 pouces; lame epaisse, oblique, droite, 
ridee ; fossule apparente ; dent striee. 

68. Espece. Obliquaria atroviolacea (Unio atroviolacea). Obliq, 
violet-brun. 

Test peu epais, convexe, elliptique, ovale, attenue posterieure- 
ment; epiderme noiratre, presque lisse ; nacre d'un violet tres-fonce, 
bord brun-mat ; longueur 1-2, diametre 1-4, axe 1-5 de la largeur. 

Appartient au sous-genre Ellipsaria. 

Jolie espece a belle nacre ; largeur trois pouces ; dans le Ken- 
tuky, etc. ; lame carenee, droite ; fossule eonfluente ; impressions 
profondes ; dents ridees. 

69. Espece. Obliquaria Cliffordiana (Unio Cliffordiana). 
Obliq. Cliffordienne, 

Test epais, bombe, ovale, arrondi, grande longueur posterieure ; 



64 * rafinesque's 

[322] 
talus posterieur ; nacre presque lisse, noiratre, pourpree-pale ; lon- 
gueur 3-4, diametre 2-5, axe 1-4 de la largeur. Appartient au sous- 
genre Plagiola. (Yoyez p. 302.) 

Du museum de M. Clifford ; trouvee dans le Kentuky ; largeur 
3 ponces ; lame courbee, epaisse, ridee ; fossule apparente ; 
dents strides ; sommets a peine saillans, ecorclies, a nacre plane, 
safranee. 

EEMARQUES. 

1. Le ligament que j'ai decrit est le grand ligament p6sterieur ; 
il y a en outre dans toutes ces coquilles un ligament anterieur mem- 
braneux et foliace qui est tres-petit et court dans les coquilles 
alonguees ou arrondies, et plus grand ou oblong dans les coquilles 
elliptiques ou dilatees. 

2. Ayant mieux observe I'espece 48 Ohovaria pachostea (voyez 
p. 312), j'ai reconnu qu'elle appartient au genre Amhlema, auquel 
il faudra reunir. Yoici son caractere : 

Amhlema Antrosa. Test tres-epais, un peu bombe, arrondi, 
flexueux, a petit sinus lateral inferieurement ; epiderme brun, 1am- 
elleux ; nacre violacee, pale, ondulee et a grande cavite sous la 
dent bilobee ; largeur 6-T, diametre 1-2 de la longueur, axe presque 
terminal. 

[From the Annals of Nature, or Annual Synopsis of new Genera and Species 
of Animals, Plants, &c. First Annual Number, p. 10, Philadelphia, 1830. ] 

[10] 

YIII CLAS. APALOSIA.— THE MOLLUSCA. 

XVI. N. G. Philomycus. Differs from Limax by no Tisible 
mantle, the longer pair of tentacula terminal and club shaped, the 
shorter tentacula lateral and oblong. — The name means friend of 
fungi, on which they feed. 

69. Philomycus quadrilus. Grey, back smooth, with four longi- 
tudinal rows of irregular black spots, long tentacula black and ap- 
proximated : rather attecuated behind, tail obtuse. Ou the banks 
of the Hudson, length over half an inch. 

70. Philomycus oxyurus. Fulvous grey, slender, back wrinkled 
longitudinally ; tentacula brown, the lateral ones very small ; tail 
acute, carinated above. — Length two-thirds of an inch, in New 
York. 



CONCHqi-OGICAL WRITINGS. 65 

71. PMlomycus fuscus. Entirely brown, tentacula thick, back 
smooth, tail compressed, acute. — In Ohio, on Amanita elliptica ; 
length one fourth of an inch. 

12. PMlomycus Jiexuolaris. Fulvous, back variegated with 
flexuose brown lines, slightly wrinkled transversally ; attenuated 
behind, tail obtuse. — Length from one to two inches, it may change 
its shape. Found on the Catskill mountains. There are many other 
species of this genus in the United States. 

XVII. N. Gr. EuMELus. Differs from Limax by no visible 
mantle, the four tentacula almost in one row in front and cylindrical, 
nearly equal, the smallest pair between the larger ones. — Name 
mythological. 

73. Eumelus nehulosus. Body nearly cylindrical, rounded at 
both ends ; back smooth, crowded with grey and fulvous spots inter- 
mixed of the same tinge, without spots beneath ; tentacula brown. — 
Length about one inch ; in Ohio and Kentucky. 

74. Eumelus lividus. Livid brown above, greyish beneath, 
antenna black, obtuse behind, back smooth and convex. — Length 
one inch ; in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. 

75. Limax gracilis. Body slender, head and lower tentacula 
fulvous, neck grey, upper tentacula brownish, mantle dark fulvous, 
back smooth brown, beneath dirty white ; tail brown, obtuse above, 
mucronate and acute beneath. — Probably a real Limax. Yet it has 
the two long tentacula inserted above the neck, while the small ones 
are terminal, and all slightly club shaped. It may perhaps form a 
sub-genus Deroceras. Length over one inch. Found near Hen- 
dersonville in Kentucky, and in woods. 

XVIII. K G. Hemiloma. (Univalve land shell.) Spire raised 
and smooth ; opening obliqnal elliptic, with an interior raised half 
margin on the inside lip, a httle twisted ; Columella decurrent on 
the whorl obliquely and with a very small umbilicus. — The name 
means half margin. 

76. Hemiloma ovata. Ovate, very obtuse, smooth, six spires, 
breadth two-thirds of the length. — Found near Lexington, in nearly 
a fossil state, by Mr. John D. Clifford ; whitish, length three- 
sixteenth of an inch. 

[11] 

77. Pleurocera verucosa. Ellipsoidal, top very obtuse, base of 
the opening obtuse, inside lip thickly plaited ; four spires, the two 

E 



66 kafinesque's 

last flattened, the other large, with several rows of warts, back of the 
opening wrinkled. — Length about two-thirds of an inch, not quite 
double the breadth; colour olivaceous brown, opening whitish. It lives 
in the lower parts of the Ohio. This genus which contains nearly 
twenty species of fluviatile shells, was described in my 70 N- G. 
Animals, &c. I have discovered already about one hundred and 
eighty species of fluviatile and land shells in the United States. 

[From Enumeration and Account of some remarkable Natural Objects in 
the Cabinet of Prof. Rafinesque, in Philadelphia, page 2. Philadelphia, 
November, 1831. 

[2] 

lY. FOSSIL UNIVALVE SHELLS. 

13. ERPILITES, Raf. N. G. or perhaps a S. G. of Trochites. 
Opening oval, subquadrangular by the end being nearly truncate, 
columella with a twisted fold and ending with an acute point. All 
the sp. from the limestone and sandstone of Ohio and Kentucky, 
where other Univalves are very rare. I have T sp. at least, and shall 
here describe 5 of them. The name means creeping. Although 
these shells are marine, they appear to approximate very near to the 
Pleurocera and Ilelania, now living in the Rivers of the same 
region. 

14. Eijnlites Maltistriata, Raf. 1818. Suboval, 3 spires with 
many spiral ribs and minutely striated obliquely. Fine perfect speci- 
men from sandstone of Knobhills, one and a half inch long, with 
crystals inside. 

15. Erpilites Platenia, Raf. 1820. Broad depressed, 3 spires 
smooth, the first very large with a broad biangular flat raised band, 
becoming a spiral angle in the other spires. Large sp. two inches 
broad, silicified, from the limestone. 

16. Erpilites Ohiensis, Raf. 1818. Suboval, 5 spires smooth, 
each ending by a spiral angle on the upper edge. Limestone of 
Ohio State, one inch. 

lY. Erpilites Garinafa, Raf. 1818. Oblong smooth, 5 spires 
carinated in the middle spirally. Near Lexington in limestone, small, 
half an inch, seldom petrified. 

18. Erpdlites Stenotenia, Raf. 1821. Oblong smooth, 4 or 5 
spires with a narrow depressed spiral band. Limestone of 
Kentucky. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 6T 

V. FLUYIATILE UNIVALVE SHELLS. 

19. Pleurocera Gonula, Raf. 1818. Seven spires, the first with 
two or three small angles, the others with only one. River Ken- 
tucky. My G. Pleurocera, 1819, is perhaps a S. Gr. of Melania, 

[3] 
but the animal is different, with lateral feelers ; the shell is always 
conical oblong with the opening oblong oblique acute at both ends, 
columella flexuose twisted. 

20. Pleurocera Acuta, Raf. 1818. Shell elongate very acute, 
smooth, nine spires, the first angular in front. Lake Erie. 

21. Pleurocera Quadrosa, Raf. 1816. Conical, smooth, six 
spires, the first with an obtuse circular angle, and a furrow below it, 
giving the opening a subquadrangular appearance. Small streams 
of West Kentucky, one inch long. 

22. Ilelania Rugosa, Raf, Pyramidal acute, nine spires rugose 
vertically, streams of Cumberland Mountains. I leave the name of 
Melania to the shells with opening obtuse at the end, or they may 
form the S. G. Amhloxus. 

23. Ilelania Viridis, Raf. Suboval smooth, five spires, end 
obtuse, opening oblong. Fine shell, one inch, green, from Licking 
River. 

VI. LAND UNIVALVE SHELLS. 

24. APLODON, Raf. 1819. Differ from Eelix by an ombilic 
and a callous tooth above it in the opening. Several sp. 1. A. 
nodosumi, Raf 1818. Subdepressed, rugose below concentrically, 
3 nodose spires. In Kentucky. 

25. STENOSTOMA, Raf 1819. Differ from Helix, opening 
linear with lips, upper lip notched, lower carinated. 1. St. convexa, 
Raf. Nearly round, both sides convex, smooth, 5 spires. Kentucky. 

26. TOXOSTOMA, Raf. 1819. Differ from the last, by no lower 
lip nor keel to the opening, which is curved. 1. T. globularis. 
Globular smooth, 5 spires. In Kentucky. 

27. MESODON, Raf. 1819. Differ from Helix by lower lip with 
a tooth. 1. 31. maculatum. Depressed, hardly striated, upper lip 
reflexed, tooth careniform, 5 spires. Fulvous with brown spots. 
The G. Trophodon differ from this by upper lip notched. The G. 
Odomphium by having an ombilic. 

28. OMPHALINA, Raf 1819. Differ from Helix by no lips; 



68 bafinesqtje's 

but an ombilic. Many sp. 1. 0. cuprea. Suboval, 4 spires, 
smooth, brittle, diaphanous coppery, shining, opening very large. 
In Kentucky. 

29. TRIODOPSIS, Raf. 1819. Diifer Helix, opening with 3 
teeth. 2 above, 1 below, an ombilic. 1. Tr. lunula. Depressed, 
mouth narrow with thick lips, ombilic lunulatcd. In Kentucky. 
Forms S. G. menompliis. 

30. XOLOTREMA, Raf. 1819. Differ from the'last by no 
ombilic, opening linear. 1. X clausa. Subdepressed, 5 spires a 
little striated, opening almost hidden. I have many more land and 
fluviatile univalves, too many to enumerate here ; but I add two 
beautiful Agatinas from the south. 

31. Agatina VariegatajJiaf. 1820. Six spires, smooth, yellowish, 
variegated with brown spots near the sutures, first spire with some 
narrow coloured strias concentric Nearly two inches, from 
Louisiana. 

32. Agatina Fuscata, Raf 1822. Eight spires, smooth, reddish 
brown, with broad longitudinal black bands on the spires, of a lan- 
ceolate flexuose shape. Over two inches. From Texas. Both col- 
lected by Dr. Strong. 

YII. FOSSIL BIVALVE SHELLS. 

S3. Mytilus exotilus, Raf. 1820. Oblong oboval, minutely striated, 
strias broader below, curved near the sides. Breadth two thirds of 
length, thickness 4-9. From the limestone near Boon creek, Ken- 
tucky, petrified, over 2 inches. 

34. APLEUROTIS, Raf. 1819, and tract of October, 1831. K 
G. very near mytilus, but winged and perforated. 1. AjjV.pectenoides, 
Raf. Oboval, upper valve convex striated, wing well marked, lower 
valve flat, scarcely striated. Breadth 4-5 of the length, which is 
over 2 inches. 2. Apl. pusilla, Raf. Oblique oboval, flattened, 
minutely striated, wing sniall. Breadth | of the length, which is less 
than one inch. Both. from Knobhills of Kentucky. 

36. OXISMA, Raf. 1819. K G. near Finna. Base truncate, 
[4] 
end gaping, equivalve, hinge lateral plicate on one valve, angular on 
the other. 1. 0. bifida, Raf. Shell bifid by valves acute and gaping 
before, outside black and rough, sides straight, length 3-8 of the 
breadth, hardly one inch. Knobhills. 

3T. Terebratulites Eriensis, ^0.1 1818. Base smooth, remainder 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 69 

\^ith concentric wrinkles, large valve with a depression and sinus. 
Length 4-5, thickness 2-5 of the breadth. From the limestone of 
Lake Erie and Ohio, silicilied blackish, about one inch. 

38. STROPHOMENES, Raf. 1820. See tract of October. L 
Str. levigata. Yery smooth, longer valve convex, lower valve con- 
cave, corners acute, not auriculate, contour arched and even. Length 
4-5 of the breadth. Kentucky limestone. 2. Str. Jlexilis. Yery 
thin, lower valve hardly concave with minute curved strias, upper 
valve convex with minute fiexuose strias, corners acute subauriculate, 
length and breadth equal. Limestone of Ohio, 1 or 2 inches. 

40. CURYULITES, Raf. 1819. Inequilateral, inequivalve, valves 
elongated, curved or crooked, larger valve broader, the smaller often 
angular. 1. G. striata, Raf 1818. Cuneate curved, base narrow, 
end broad rounded, striated longitudinally, short alternate strias near 
the end. In the Kentucky limestone, 2|- inches. 

41. ZONARITES, Raf. Tribe of Atremosia or imperforated 
Terebratulites. Shell subtransversal equilateral, subinequivalve, 
both valves convex with thick concentric wrinkles, hinge linear, beaks 
very small. 1. Z. atrata. Nearly rounded, with large wrinkles and 
furrows between. Length 5-6 of the breadth, thickness nearly half. 
Perfect black shell silicified, nearly one inch, from the Knobhills, 
disc, in 1822. 

42. Zonarytes? Tesselata, ^at Rounded, tesselated by concen- 
tric and longitudinal wrinkles and furrows. Length 7-8 of the breadth. 
From the Knobhills, one inch broad, has only 1 valve incrusted in 
quartz, and with the hinge too imperfect to refer it decidedly to 
this Genus. 

[Continuation of a Monograph of the Bivalve Shells of the River Ohio, and 
other Rivers of the Western States. By Prof. C. S. Rafinesque. (Pub- 
lished at Brussels, September, 1820. _) Containing 46 Species, from No. 76, 
to No. 121. Including an Appendix on some Bivalve Shells of the Rivers 
of Hindostan, with a Supplement on the Fossil Bivalve Shells of the 
Western States, and the Tulositcs, a new Genus of Fossils. Philadelphia, 
October, 1831.] 

[1] 

Hardly a dozen species of North American fluviatile bivalve shells, 
had been mentioned by Rose. Lamark, »Say, and Lesueur, before 
1820, when I described, in a special and ample Monograph, 15 
species of them ! with 40 varieties, mostly discovered by myself, in 



TO rafinesque's 

my travels of 1818 and 1819, and figured 28 of them. This labour 
■was written at Lexington, in January 1820, and published in French, 
at Brussels, in September 1820, in the General Annals of Physical 
Sciences, by Bory and Drapiez, and also in a separate pamphlet. I 
stated then, that several other species existed in the Western Waters, 
but described none but those I had before ray eyes. I have, how- 
ever, diligently collected these additional species, in my successive 
travels between 1820 and 1826, and have thus added, at least 40 
species to the 75 already described ; some of which, must also form 
peculiar Genera, or Sub-genera, particularly the Lasmonos, which 
fills the gap in the variety of hinges. We have thus five different 
tribes of Bivalve shells. 

1. Unio. Hinge, with a cardinal tooth and a lamellar tooth. 

2. Alasmodon. Hinge, with a cardinal tooth only. 

3. Lasmonos. Hinge, with a lamellar tooth only. 

4. Anodonta. Hinge, without teeth. 

5. Cyclas. Hinge, with two lamellar teeth. 

My labor on this branch of conchology, of which I was the pioneer 
and first historian, has attracted a great deal of attention in Europe, 
and latterly, also, with us. I was repeatedly asked for the shells I 
had discovered and described ; I disposed of some rare ones, for the 
Museum of my friend Clifford, in Lexington, and for the Museum of 
Transylvania University. I furnished several to my friends, Elliot, 
Collins, Graham, Hart, &c., in America, and Eerusac, Brnogniart, 
Swainson, Sowerby, &c., in Europe. Meantime, I have lately found 
that these fine shells have acquired a great value in Europe, and 
some have sold at very high prices in England, Germany and France, 
while I have seldom derived any profit from them, but much trouble, 
expense, and even vexation. I am determined to dispose of none left 
me, but for sale ; I have as yet 400 specimens, or 60 species, of ray 
Monograph in my cabinet, and all those described in this continua- 
tion, about 96 species in all, which I value from one to five dollars 
each ; and even 5 species at ten dollars or more, being perhaps 
unique specimens. I offer them for sale, and have begun to sell 
upwards of 50 to Mr. Ch. A. Foulson, for his fine cabinet in 
Philadelphia. 

Some of these shells are so very rare, that I have only met them 
once in 4,000 miles of travels and explorations ; others I have never 
seen, except in collections, such are the Unio ridibundus, and the 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 71 

Alasmodon complanatum, for instance. I sliall describe here, only 
those which / have now before my eyes, and with the names given 
them ten years ago, at their discovery ; I have seen a few others, 
which I delay to describe, not having them now in my hands. Those 
who shall purchase these new shells, may have the pleasure to give 
splendid figures of them, if they like. 

Since 1820, several American Conchologists have attempted to 
notice, describe, or figure these shells ; Barnes, in 1823, Lea, Say, 
and Eaton, later still. They had a fine field before them, in elucida- 
ting them by good figures, and describing the new kinds ; but led 
astray, by various motives, they have neglected to verify, or properly 
notice my previous labors, although they were knoivn to them. Mr. 
Say is, above all, inexcusable. I had respectfully noticed, in 1820, 
his previous labors ; but he has never mentioned mine, and knows 
so little of the animals of these shells, as to have mistaken their 
mouth for their tail, and their anterior for the posterior part of the 
shells ! 

If he had seen these animals alive, feeding, moving, and watched 
their habits as I have done' repeatedly, he would not have fallen into 
such a blunder. The mouth is always near the cardinal tooth, and 
the lamellar tooth is to the right of it in the right valve, to the left 
in the left valve. — Others pretend that my monograph is too intri- 
cate ; it is the subject which is such ; whenever many species belong 
to a tribe, many divisions and sections are needed to elucidate and 

isolate the species. All the great naturalists know and do this. 

The works wherein their erroneous labors are found cost above 
$100 I (mine only 50 cents.) This has put it out of my power, as 
yet, to verify all their mistaken and synonymous names. A complete 
synonymy of these shells will soon be required, which I may perhaps 
undertake in future, unless it is done by Mr. Poulson, v/ho has trans- 
lated and means to publish my monograph of 1820. This continua- 
tion will be a supplement to his translation. I mean to give in it 
my shells under my own names, imposed as soon as found in 1821 
and 1822 chiefly, the undoubted right of a previous discoverer and 
explorer. If some of them are already well named and described, 
let their names be compared and the oldest or best prevail, as those 
of my old Monograph ought in all cases. C. S. R. Philadelphia, 
Oct. 1831. 



72 rafinesqxje's 

I. TRIBE.— UNIO. 

1. N. G. Epioblasma. Differs from Amblema and ElUpsariahj 
lamellar tooth obliqual, divergent towards the back and straight. 
Axis nearly terminal. The TJnio or Amblema torulosa. Sp. 55, 
perhaps belongs here also. 

16. Sp. Utiio hiloha or Epioblasma biloba, discovered 1821. 

Elliptical, both ends rounded, back convex, belly bilobed, sides 
rugose, more or lessgibbose, swelled before, greenish brown outside^, 
bluish white inside. Breadth 2-3, diameter 2-5 of the length. 

Var. 1. Pallida not greenish, rufescent, a little longer. 

In Green river and Kentucky river, about 3 inches long. Remark- 
able species, very rare, summits prominent, teeth striated, the lamel- 
lar short, reaching only to the middle. 

2. N. G. ToxoLASMA, Differs from Amblema, Plagiola and Sin- 
toxia, by lamellar tooth not obliqual but arched parallel with the 
back, axis nearly terminal, general form rounded, back curved. 

7t. Sp. Unio cyclips. ( Toxolasmacyclips. — 1820.) Shell thick 
rounded-elliptical, swelled subglobose, subrugose and yellowish out- 
side, incarnate inside. Breadth 6-t, diameter 4-8 of the length. 
Axis 1-1 0th. 

Yar. I. Fuscata. Larger, brown outside, and nearly smooth, 
whiter inside, longer lamellar tooth. 

Var. II. Lutescens. Yellow outside, bluish white inside. 

River Ohio and Mississippi 2 to 4 inches, beautiful nacre, lamellar 
tooth cariuate, serrulate as in many other species. It is said that 
this is the U. abruptus of Say. I cannot see any thing abrupt in it ; 
my name means Round Ellipsis. 

18 sp. Unio cinerescens ( Toxolasma ditto. — 1820.) Shell thick, 
rounded oboval, a slight posterior obliqual ridge, nearly smooth and 
cinerescent brown outside, bluish white inside. Breadth 8-9, diameter 
5-9 of the length. Axis l-9th. 

River Ohio and Kentucky. About 2 inches, cardinal tooth much 
striated, lamellar not serrulate. 

19 sp. Unio lividus, {Toxolasma do. 1822.) Shell elliptical 
swelled not thick, outside subrugose, brown, inside livid purplish. 
Length 3-4, diameter 3-8, axis 1-4 of the breadth. 

In Rockcastle river, exceedingly rare. — Size only one inch, lamel- 
lar tooth long, thin curved, not serrulate. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. TS 

80 sp. Unio Jiexus. [Toxolasma, ditto, 1821.] Shell thick 
rounded, swelled, undulate below ; outside subrugose, olive brown, 
inside bluish white. Length 5-6, diameter 1-2; axis l-6th of the 
breadth. 

In the Kentucky river, rare, 1 or 2 inches, lamellar tooth w^ell 
curved, thick ; not serrulate. 

3. ^N". G. Bariosta. Form of Scalenaria, lamellar tooth curved, 
and not obliqual, as in Sintoxia, shell transversal, triangular, 

81. Sp. Unio ponderosus. (Bariosta ditto, 1820.) shell very 
thick and heavy, oval triangular, rounded before, curved slope 
behind, with an oblique ridge ending to a point, a sinus next to it ; 
outside rough and blackish ; inside incarnate, iridescent, uneven. 
Length 3-5, diameter 2-5, axis 1-4 of the breadth. 

In the lower Ohio and Mississippi. Fine shell, with beautiful 
nacre, 3 to 5 inches broad ; cardinal tooth striate, lamellar tooth 
scabrous ! Many uneven wrinkles inside. The U. sinuata Sp. 67, 
belongs to this section, Bariosta having a similar lamellar tooth: but 
it is broader, more elliptical, without ridge, and white inside ; the 
sinus is also more central. 

82 sp. Unio vittatis (Lampsilis? vittata. — 1818.) Shell oval, 
swelled, rather thin, broad subulate and subtruncate behind with two 
or three oblique ribs longitudinal, rounded and rugose before, sides 
smooth, outside olivaceous, radiated with narrow straight greenish 
rays, bluish white inside. Length 3-4, diameter one half, axis one 
third of breadth. 

In Green river, 3 inches broad or more. Very near my Lampsilis 
fasciola, sp. 26: — but it is larger, rounder, with straight rays. 
Cardinal tooth crenulate, lamellar tooth not flexuose, but well 
curved in the right valve ; short, compressed, truncate behind. 

83 sp. Unio montanus, {Eurijnia montana, 1823.) Shell thin, 
elliptical, compressed, behind broad a little winged, end truncate, 
outside nearly smooth brown, a little laminated and fulvous around, 
inside bluish. Length one half, diameter and axis 2-5 of breadth. 

In the streams of the Alleghany and Cumberland mountains. 
About 2 inches. Lamellar tooth very long, nearly straight, a sinus 
above it. 

84 Sp. Unio diploderma, (Lampsilis ditto. 1822.) Shell thin 
elliptical, hardly swelled ; back hardly broader : surface a little 



74 rafinesque'S 

ribbed with a double epidermis, the outer rufous, the inner green- 
ish : inside bluish purple. — Length 7-12, diameter 1-3, axis 1-4 of 
breadth. 

In Salt river, rare, small. If inch ; cardinal tooth almost as in 
Leptodea, lamellar tooth well curved, and flexuose. 

85 Sp. Unio diajohanus, (lletajjfera ? diaphana 1821.) Shell 
very thin, transparent, oval-elliptic, swelled, broader behind, with a 
small wing, surface smooth horny, inside, pale incarnate. Length 
3-4, diameter and axis 3-8 of the breadth. Var. lineolata \{\i\i ful- 
vous greenish lines. 

Iq, small streams of Kentucky, one or two inches, rare, cardinal 
tooth compressed, crenulate, lamellar well curved. 

86 Sp. Unio lasmabrachys (Iletaptera'? do. 1820.) Shell 
rather thick, oval triangular, swelled, truncate behind with an arched 
ridge, surface rugose horny, inside bluish white, small truncate wing, 
beaks prominent. Length 5-7, diameter 3-7, axis 2-7 of the 
breadth. 

Licking river, &c., 3 or 4 inches, rare, deep cavity inside: teeth 
wide apart, cardinal crenulate, lamellar very short, broad and trun- 
cate in the right valve. This and the last belong more to Metaptera 
by the teeth than the wings. 

87 Sp. Unio rimosus, {Eur-ynia rimosa. 1823.) Shell elliptic, 
thick, thinner, broader, and rimose behind; surface olivaceous nearly 
smooth, inside bluish white. Length 2-3, diameter 1-6, axis 1-4 of 
length. 

In the Cumberland river, rare, small H inch. Resembling some 
Aniblemas, but evidently transversal, cardinal tooth crenulate, lam- 
ellar smooth, short, nearly horizontal, but a little curved towards the 
back. Perhaps a peculiar S. G. near to Epiohlasma, it might be 
called Lemiose. 

88. Sp. Unio fulvus. {Euryniafulva. — 1823.) Shell elliptical, 
thick before, sloping behind, surface depressed nearly smooth, bright 
fulvous or rufous outside and inside. Length one half, diameter and 
axis one fifth of the breadth. 

Var. 2. Fttscata, brownish rufous outside, pale inside. 

Yar. 2. Rvfa, quite rufous outside, iridescent inside. 

In Green river, Rockcastle river, &c., — rare, fine shell, 2 or 3 
inches, cardinal tooth crenate, lamellar long and straight. Near to 
my U. auraius. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 15 

Gr. Obliquaria. 

89 Sp. Unio calendis, (Obliq. calendis. — 1821.) Shell thick and 
swelled, rounded, subtruncate behind, surface with broad flat wrinkles. 
Length T-8, diameter 1-2, axis 1-5 of the breadth : outside yellowish, 
inside iridescent and uneven. 

In Dick river, &c. Fine sp. beautiful nacre, rare, 2 inches. Near 
to U. cyclips, but smaller, less round, lamellar tooth quite oblique, 
slightly curved as in the Plagiola, cardinal tooth striated ; proba- 
bly a Sintoxia. 

00 Sp. Unio Venus, {Obliquaria Venus — 1820.) Shell oval 
elliptic, thick and swelled, truncate behind with transverse wrinkles, 
outside neai'ly smooth, of a reddish chesnut colour, inside lilac irides- 
cent. Length 3-4, diameter 1-2, axis 1-3 of the length. 

In the Kentucky and Cumberland, very rare, 3 inches wide ; the 
prettiest of all the Unios, resembling a Yenus. Lamellar tooth thick 
erose obliqual. My Unio Elliptica sp. 8, is very near to this : both 
are of S. Gr. Aximedia. 

91 Sp. ?7?n'opZafeoZws, (Obliq. ditto. 1823.) Shell rather thin, 
broad, elliptic lanceolate, attenuate and subacute behind, very com- 
pressed or nearly flat, outside brown nearly smooth, inside bluish. 
Length one half, diameter and axis 1-5 of breadth. 

At the falls of the Cumberland. Small, 2 inches, rare. Akin to 
U. cuprea. Cardinal tooth small, bilobe, lamellar obliqual short. 

92. Unio teneltus, (Obliq. ditto. 1822.) Shell elliptic thin, nearly 
equilateral, quite flat, margin erose, outside minutely striated, oliva- 
ceous with square green spots, inside bluish. Length 4-T, diameter 
1-T, axis 3-7 of the breadth. 

Exceedingly rare, seen only once in a stream of the Knob-hills of 
Kentucky. Size one inch. It is an Aximedia which is to be a S. 
G. of Obliquaria. Lamellar tooth obliqual very short, cardinal 
bilobe small as in Leptodea. 

93 Sp. Unio hicolor, (Obliq. ditto. 1821.) Shell thick elliptic, 
lanceolate, attenuate and subtruncate behind, with an obliqual ridge, 
outside brown nearly smooth, inside yellow above, white beneath. 
Length 1-2, diameter 1-3, axis 1-5 of breadth. 

In Kentucky river, 3 or 4 inches, akin to U. dilatata, but smoother 
inside, difi"erent nacre, axis more anterior : more rare and beautiful. 
Lamellar tooth obliqual thick. — The U. dilatata is however also an 
Obliquaria and may be called Obi. violacea. * 



16 rafinesque's 

94 Sp. Unio pallens, (Obliq. ditto. 1821.) Shell thick com- 
pressed, perfectly elliptic, both ends equal, hardly subtruncate 
behind, outside smooth pale yellowish, inside white. Length 3-5, 
diameter 3-10, axis 1-5 of the breadth. 

Ohio and Kentucky, rare, 2 or 3 inches. Lamellar tooth a little 
obliqual, short and thick, in the left valve furrow closed as in the G. 
Obovaria and Rotundaria. Yet an Elliptio which is the same as 
Ellipsaria. 

95 Sp. Unio rivularis, (Obliq. ditto. 1821.) Shell rather thick 
swelled, perfectly elliptical, slightly arcuate below, outside brown 
and smooth, inside, bluish. Length 4-t, diameter 3-7, axis 2-7, of 
breadth. 

In the small streams of the Knob-hills and Cumberland mountains. 
Very small, hardly one inch. Lamellar tooth as in sp. 93. — Near 
to U. sinuata, sp. 67. 

96. Unio fontinalis, (Obliq. ditto. 1823.) Shell thick, rounded, 
triangular, svib-truncate behind ; quite rounded before and below ; 
outside smooth, yellow, with some green spots ; inside bluish white. 
Length 4-5, diameter 3-5, axis 2-5 of the breadth. 

At the spring of the source of Green R. in the Knob-hills, rare, 
very small, like a Cyclas ; but belong to S. G. Scalenaria, lamellar 
tooth obliqual, straight, short. 
[4] 

97 Sp. Unio chJoris, (Obliq. chloris. 1823.) Shell oval obliqual, 
rather thick, and swelled ; the 3 sides rounded, outside greenish and 
smooth, inside bluish iridescent. Length 4-5, diameter 3-5, axis 1-5 
of the breadth. 

Small streams of Knob-hills. Minute shell, next to U. calendis 
Sp. 89, but distinct, lamellar tooth more curved, and not bisulcate. 
Both are Sintoxia. 

98 Sp. Unio castaneus ; [Obliq. and Aximedia, 1823.] Shell 
rather thin, oval, elliptical, swelled, nearly equilateral, broader be- 
hind, outside very smooth, and chesuut colour ; inside, bluish white. 
Length 4-5, diameter 3-5, axis 3-7 of the breadth. 

Knob-hills streams, in east Kentucky. — Yery small, lamellar tooth 
suboblique, thin. Perhaps a variety of U. lenigata. Sp. 9. 

G. Truncilla. 
, 99 Sp. Unio j^ierplexus. (Tr. perplexa, 1830.) Shell rather 
ubov'al, slightly swelled, only subtruncate ; rounded below, outside 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 77 

dlivaceous, with narrow black lines, inside incarnate, iridescent. 
Length 3-4, diameter 1-3, axis 2-5 of the breadth. Apex not 
prominent. 

In the river Kentucky, about one inch, I have called it perplexing, 
because it deviates much from the other Truncilla, approximating 
to Scalenaria and Plagiola, but the hinge is like Truncilla. 

100 Sp. Unto granulatus. (Tr. granulata, 1821.) Shell thick, 
subtriedral, very much swelled, rounded below, posterior truncature 
nearly flat, subtesselate, granular ; outside smooth, olivaceous, with 
broad blackish bands, inside bluish white. Length 1-2, diameter 
1-2, axis 1-3 of the breadth. Apex slightly cordate. 

In Salt river, rare, above one inch. Nearest to Tr. Triqueter, 
but less cordate, less tesselate, with granulations instead of warts 
behind. Not flexuose below, as Tr. truncata. Lamellar tooth 
very short. 

101 Sp. Vnio metaplata. (Tr. do., 1822.) Shell thick, subtried- 
ral, much swelled, broad and curved below, posterior truncature 
nearly flat, hardly tesselate, subgranular above ; cuticle yellowish, 
inside bluish white. Length 3-4, diameter 5-8, axis 2-5 of the 
length. Apex deeply cordate. 

Yar. I. ViUata, with black bands. 

In the Cumberland and Green Rivers, very rare; the largest 
Truncilla, often 2 inches, lamellar tooth crenulate, as in Tr. truncata. 
Sp. 19. 

N. B. Besides these 26 newUnio, I find in my notes the account 
and figures of several others, such as U. pustulatus, U. jounctatus, 
U. scaber, U. elegans, U.badius, U. cre?iK/rt^»s, &c., but not having 
now the specimens before me, I must delay their publication. 

Of my previous species of 1820, but few are found in Lamark last 
edition of 1819. My Z7. latissinia is, perhaps, his U. recta. 1 
found only 3 names, of diflferentsp. from mine, clashing by similarity, 
U. retusa, U. siniiata and U. depressa. I have thus changed 
mine in consequence. My U. retusa, 1820, is now my U.p>reinorsuif, 
my U. depressa 1820, is my U. compressus ; my U. sinuata 1820 
is my U. cultratus. 

Lamark and myself gave feminine terminations to our Unios ; they 
are now generally made masculine, as I do here ; but this difference 
is of little account. 

The comparative proportions of the length, breadth, diameter, 



18 kafinesque's 

and axis of the Unios and other bivalve shells, having been misund^- 
stood by some, it may be needful to state that my formula is a kind 
of abbreviation of a longer exposition. Thus when I say, length one 
half, diameter one third, axis one fourth of the breadth — I meant 
to say, and I must be understood to state the fallowing longer 
account : — 

Ihe length of the shell is one half the diameter is one third, 
and the axis is at one fourth of the whole breadth, or largest 
dimensions of the shell. 

In longitudinal shells this is reversed, the length being the longest 
dimension, becomes the size of comparison. 

I onght to have added to the names of our late writers on JJnio, 
Mr. Hildreth, who has described over again a few of my species, and 
Prof. Eaton, who I regret to say, has, (in his Zoological, Text- 
Book, Albany, 1826, now before me,) noticed 33 species of JJnio and 
Alasmodon of Say and Barnes, but none of my previous ones ! and 
put them all back to the old genus Mya of Linneus ! This, as well 
as his whole Zoological book, proves that he is forty years back- 
wards in the science of Zoology, as he is 30 years backwards in 
Botany, and about 20 in Geology. But this is not peculiar to him, 
it is the fate of one half of our Naturalists, Botanists and Geologists. 
The daily increase of knowledge and improvement in science is 
despised or neglected by them as useless innovations ! While all the 
world, and all the sciences move forward, they would keep those 
they teach or cultivate at a stand ! it is all in vain, and time will 
show it. 



II. Genus or tribe Alasmodon, 
This fine tribe of shells of which I knew only 2 species in 1819, 
was found rather prolific in species in 1820 and 1821. I ascertained 
then that it was also to be divided into several genera (subgenera 
or sections) offering many different peculiarities in the hinge. I 
have therefore established the following 4 genera with it. 

1. Lasmigona. Cardinal tooth knobby, crenate and decurreut 
before. Lamellar tooth remplaced by an horizontal angular pro- 
jection, flat above. 

2. Amblasmodon. Cardinal tooth knobby, crenate and decurrent 
before. X/amellar tooth remplaced by an obtuse oblique knob, a 
furrow between it and the ligament. 



CONCnOLOGICAL WRITINGS. TO 

* 3. I)ECURAMBts. Cardinal tooth bilobe flexuose enamelled, de- 
current on both sides, decurrence on remplacing the lamellar tooth 
behind, no angular knob to it. 

4. SuLCULARiA. Cardinal tooth small striated decurrent before, 

separated by an oblique furrow from a small oblique projection 

[51 
remplacing the lamellar tooth, with a small fold in it. 

All these shells are transversal and inequilateral ; I have seen 

none yet longitudinal as among the Unios : most of the species are 

ribbed behind. The A. complanata of Say, must form another 

peculiar Genus, which I propose to call Pterosyna ; having the 

united wings behind of the Genus Metaptera. The 2 Alasmodon of 

my monograph belong to the G. Lasmigona. 

102 Sp. Alasmodon ^^onderosum, (Lasm. ponderosa, 1820.) 
Elliptical, very thick, somewhat swelled, truncate and broadly ribbed 
behind : yellowish arid laminated outside, white and uneven inside. 
Length 3-5, diameter 1-3, axis 1-3 of the breadth. 

In lower Ohio and in the Mississippi. — Large heavy shell, five to 
six inches broad, roughly rugose outside by their concentric lamina. 
Cardinal tooth nearly trilobe, lamellar angle obtuse, confluent 
together. 

If these characters of the teeth should separate it from the Las- 
migona, it may be called Gonamblus. 

103 Sp. Alasmodon rugosum (L. rugosa. 1823.) Shell thick 
elliptical, hardly swelled, subtruncate behind, broad ribs behind and 
below, subsinuate below, outside rugose and olivaceous, white and 
nearly even inside. — Length 3-5, diameter 1-4, axis 3-4 of breadth. 

Tennessee river, rare, 5 to 6 inches broad. Akin to the last, but 
more flat, less thick and heavy, teeth different, cardinal smaller not 
trilobe, angular projection less obtuse, with a wrinkle and small tooth 
at the base. 

104 Sp. Alasmodon sulcatum, (L. Sulcata. 1823.) Shell thick, 
elliptical and swelled, posterior slope with broad ribs, surface oliva- 
ceous with large sharp concentric ribs and broad furrows between, 
inside white incarnate. Length 1-2, diameter 1-3, axis 1-4 of the 
breadth. 

River Tennessee and Mississippi : fine large shell, 6 inches broad, 
beautiful nacre ; cardinal tooth crenate, the angular projection acute 
before, obtuse behind. Beak or apex a little prominent and slightly 
rugose. Very rare. 



80 rafinesque's 

105 Sp. Alasmodon viridis (L. viridis disc. 1820.) Shell thin 
swelled, subelliptical, quadrulated, posterior slope slanting truncate 
without ribs : outside greenish, nearly smooth, inside bluish, with 
flexuose wrinkles. Length 1-2, diameter 1-3, axis 1-3 of the 
breadth. 

Yar. I. Chloris. Bright green. 

Yar. II. Radiata. Olivaceous with green rays. 

Yar. III. Fuscata. Brownish. 

In the Ohio and other streams. So much like Unio viridis out- 
side as to be easily mistaken for it. Tooth small bilobe crenate, 
angular projection sharp with a wrinkle or furrow. One or two 
inches broad. 

5 N. Gr. Amblamodon. 

106 Sp. Alasmodon hians {Amhlasmodon Mans, 1823.) Shell 
thick; much swelled, elliptical, subobliqual and gaping, margin flex- 
uolate, posterior slope with broad ribs. Outside rugose and yellow- 
ish brown, inside even pale incarnate. Length 7-20, diameter 2-5, 
axis 1-4 of length. 

River Tennessee, fine rare shell, 5 inches broad. Hinge quite 
peculiar, cardinal tooth not lobed, large subcrenate, large oblique 
knob on the projection decurreut, twisted and curved behind. 
6. N. G. Decurambis. 

107 Sp. Alasm. scriptum {Decuramh'is literata disc. 1822.) 
Shell rather thin, subelliptical, very much swelled, truncate behind, 
nearly flat with transverse furrows and ribs, subsinuate beneath. 
Outside smooth greenish with blackish spots like capital letters! — 
inside bluish. Nearly equilateral, apex ardate. Length and 
diameter one half, axis 5-12 of the length. 

In Green river. Wonderful shell, exceedingly rare and strange, 
outside form of a Truncilla, 2 or 3 inches broad. Tooth flexuose 
trilobe compressed, decurrence befid before. Certainly a peculiar 
genus. 

108 Sp. Alasm. atropjurp)ureum {Decurambis ditto, disc. 1823) 
Shell rather thin, elliptical, hardly swelled, smooth and not truncate 
behind, subsinuate beneath : outside rugose, blackish purple, quite 
inequilateral, apex hardly cordate. Length one half, diameter and 
axis one third of the breadth. 

In the river Cumberland, very rare, 3 inches broad. Tooth flexuose 
subtrilobe, hardly prominent. Yery distinct from the last, although 
a true Decurambis. 



CONCIIOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 81 

T N. G. SULCULARIA. 

109 Sp. Alasm. badium {Sulcularia hadia disc. 1821.) Shell 
thiu, suboval, truncate obliqually behind, back straight, rounded 
beneath, outside smooth bay with some faint bands, inside pale bay 
or rufous iridescent. Length 2-3, diameter and axis 1-4 of the 
breadth. 

Small streams of the Knobs, rare, one or two inches : tooth obtuse, 
projection very small. 

110 Sp. Alasm. papyraceum (Sulcularia jyapyracea disc. 1821.) 
Shell very thin and flat, elliptical, broader behind, truncate crenate 
with furrows and broad ribs : outside olivaceous a little uneven, 
inside bluish. Length one half, diameter 2-9, axis one fourth of 
breadth. 

In East Kentucky. Yery rare ; 2 or 3 inches, tooth short and 
wide, projection with an oblique fold ; the posterior ribs are seen 
both outside and inside. 



III. Genus or tribe Lasmonos. 

8 N. G. Lasmonos. Cardinal tooth none, remplaced by a sinus, 
a flat tubercle, and a decurrent enamel. Lamellar tooth curved 
following the beak. General form of Ilelaptera with a small coales- 
■cent wing. 

Ill Sp. Lasmonos Fragilis disc. 1822. — Shell very thin, 
depressed, suboval, broader behind, with a small wing, some nodulo- 
sites behind, outside smooth olivaceous, inside purplish blue. Length 

3-5, diameter and axis 3-10 of the breadth. 

In East Kentucky, very rare, 2 or 3 inches wide. Yery singular 
shell, which I mistook at first for a Metaptera ; tubercle of the 
hinge hardly visible, lamellar tooth very long, close to the back, 
bifid at the end in the left valve. Type of a new Genus 
which may include other species when sought for in the south 
west. 



lY. Genus or tribe, Anodonta. 
112 Sp. Anodonta inflata. disc. 1S22. 

Shell thick, elliptical ; somewhat attenuated behind, very much 
swelled, summits wrinkled, subprominent, outside olivaceous, 
wrinkled, inside white iridescent. Length ^3-5, diameter 2-5, axis 
3-10 of the breadth. 
F 



82 rafinesque's 

Var, 1. Viridis. Green outside. 

Var. 2. Fuscata. Brown outside. 

Var. 3. Zonalis. Witli green and brown zones. 

River Kentucky and Green, the largest and finest sp. of the 
West, reaching 5 and 6 inches, hinge almost without any visible 
fold. 

113 Sp. Anodonta digonota. (Lastena digonoia, 1826.) Shell 
thin, oval swelled, back straight, obliqual, with two angles, one 
before and one behind, similar to small wings, sloping behind, with 
a flexuose edge ; outside laminated, pale, olivaceous, inside bluish 
white, iridescent. Length 5-8, diameter 3-8, axis 1-4 of the 
breadth. 

From Lake Erie, two inches, hinge inside, with a flexuose fold, 
separated from the straight back. Perhaps a peculiar S. G. 
FlexipUs. 

I have besides, another doubtful Anodonta ; A. riifa, probably a 
var. of ^, ohiensis, sp. 58. 



V. Genus or tribe, CYCLAS. 

I have no new sp. of Cyclas ; but I am enabled to present a beau- 
tiful new genus of this tribe, which forms the passage between Unto 
and Cyclas. ' I call it Dvplasma, meaning double lamellar teeth. 
The specimen before me, was not collected by myself; it belongs to 
the cabinet of shells of Mr. Hembel, of this city, who has had the 
goodness to lend it to me. It is labelled Unio, and is supposed to 
come from the river Tennessee, which I am inclined to doubt, because 
I have in my cabinet, a specimen nearly alike, from the river Ganges, 
collected by Dr. Burroughs, and because the G. Diplasma appears 
to be Asiatic. I therefore suspect that this species of Mr. Hembel, 
is also from Hindostan, and shall therefore include it in the 
following 

APPENDIX. 

On eight Asiatic bivalve fluviatile shells. 
These shells were all collected in the rivers of Hindostan, by Dr. 
Burroughs of this city. They appear very different from our North 
American shells, forming even often peculiar genera. They are 3 
sp. of Diplasma, 1 sp. Loncosilla, 2 sp. Lampsilis, and 1 
Ohliquaria. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. SS' 

9 K G. DIPLASMA. 

Shell inequilateral and transversal, hinge with two lamellar teeth, 
nearly confluent, united into a curve, not serrulate, more or less 
unequal, bilamellar anteriorly in the right valve, bilamellar poste- 
riorly in the left valve. 

Certainly a distinct Genus, more like Cyclas and niria, in the 
hinge than Unio, although so labelled by 'Dr. Burroughs and our 
conchologists, by the external form merely. I suspect that many 
Asiatic Unios belong to it. I shall describe 3 of them, besides our 
doubtful American species. 

114 Sp. Diplasma marginata. Shell thin, elliptical, swelled, 
back horizontal, sloping and truncate obliquely behind ; outside 
very smooth, shining brown, anterior and interior margin yellowish, 
inside pale incarnate. Length one half, diameter 1-3, axis 3-10 of 
the breadth. 

From the river Tennessee, as stated to Mr. Hembel, but so near 
the next, that the fact appears doubtful to me ; perhaps the locality 
has been erroneously stated or labelled in Mr. Lea's cabinet, from 
whence the shell is said to have come, and it may be also a shell 
from Hindostan. Lamellar tooth properly curved, the anterior 
pretty long. Size of the shell over two inches. 

115 Sp. Diplasma similis. Shell very thin, elliptical, not swelled, 
back horizontal, truncate obliquely behind, hardly sloping, outside 
smooth, dark olivaceous, with a pale margin, inside bluish incarnate. 
Length T-15, diameter 4-15, axis 1-5 of the breadth. 

From the river Ganges, so similar to the last as almost to appear 
the same, yet thinner, flatter, and teeth somewhat diiferent, forming 
almost an angle rather than a curved arch, anterior tooth shorter, 
oblique, the posterior perfectly horizontal. Length nearly two 
inches. 

116 Sp. Diplasma vitrea. Shell very thin and brittle, almost 
transparent, oval swelled, broader behind, with a slope outside, very 
smooth, greenish, or fulvescent, inside whitish, teeth subequal. 
Length 2-3, diameter 2-5, axis 2-5 of the breadth. 

From the river Jellinghy in Bengal. Small, hardly over one inch, 
fine delicate shell. 

11*7 Sp. Diplasma striata. Shell thick, suboval, swelled, behind 
sloping subtruncate and transversally striated, outside olivaceous 
greenish, smooth below, but longitudinally striated above ; strias in 



S4 rafinesque's 

a zigzag form in the middle, inside silvery white, teeth subequal, 

much curved. Length 2-3, diameter 2-5, axis 5-12 of the breadth. 

Also from the river Jellinghy. Small, hardly one inch. This 

and the last agree in many points, and might form a peculiar sub- 

[7] 
genus Hemisolasma, having shell ovate, axis submedial, lamellar 

teeth subequal. 

118 Sp. JJnio fulgens, \_Lampsilis fulgens.'] 

Shell thick, elliptical, swelled, attenuated behind, outside nearly 
smooth, laminated, ferruginous brown ; inside of a beautiful 
metallic incarnate and iridescent. Length 1-2, diameter 1-3, axis 
1-5 of the breadth. 

From the river Ganges, two or three inches, beautiful shell, a true 
Lampsilis, with a long flexuose lamellar tooth subcrenulate ; cardinal 
tooth compressed crenulate. Anterior fossule, very conspicuous 
below the anterior impression. 

119 Sp. Unio Ai-gyratus, [^Lampsilis argyratus.'} 

Shell thin, elliptical, swelled, attenuated behind, outside laminated 
greenish, decoricated and silvery at the summit, inside bluish irides- 
cent. Length 1-2, diameter 1-3, axis 1-16 of the breadth. 

Also from the river Ganges. Size one and a half inch. Very 
near to the S. G. Leptodea, but teeth as in the last, cardinal small 
crenulate, lamellar less flexuose, not crenulate. In both the teeth 
are wide apart as in all the Lampsilis. 

120 Sp. Unio corrugata, of the authors from the river Baramputra, 
it is an Obliquaria, very near to my U. Venus and U. Elliptica, S. 
G. Aximedia. In Mr. Poulson's cabinet, I have not yet been able 
to determine precisely whether it is well named, and not having the 
specimen before me, I cannot describe it. 

10 N. G. LONCOSILLA. 

Shell transversal, unequilateral, somev^'hat gaping, only one mus- 
cular impression anteriorly. No teeth as in Anodonta, but a hinge 
with a marginal nerve, or fold anteriorly ; distinct from the margin, 
and a little obliqual behind. Ligament small at the very summit. — 
Animal unknown. 

A distinct genus of the tribe Anodonta, which had been mistaken 
for a fluviatile Solen by Dr. Burroughs the discoverer of it ; but all 
the Salens are marine shells. The name means little knife ; it is 
different from all my S. G. of Anodonta. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 85 

121 Sp. Loncosilla solenoides, or Anodonta solenoides. Shell 
elliptic, somewhat swelled, both ends rounded and a little gaping, 
back horizontal, outside and inside smooth and whitish. Length 1-3, 
diameter 2-7, axis 2-7 of the breadth. 

From the river Jellinghy in Bengal. Small, seldom one inch long. 
Posterior nerve of the hinge short. 

Addition.— 11th X. G. DIANISOTIS. 

The examination of these Asiatic shells, enables me to affirm 
decidedly that the Symphonola hialata of Lea is also a peculiar 
genus, very different from our Metaptera, nearer to Hiria and 
Diplasma. I have seen it in Mr. Poulson's cabinet, and ascertained 
that it has, like Lasmonos, a lamellar tooth on each side, forming a 
curve as in Diplasma, but these teeth appear simple, not forked, and 
the two unequal ears, [whence my name] or wings distinguish it as 
Metaptera from Unio, and Pecten from Ostrea. 

I propose to call it Dianisotis chinensis, as fizaZato is not a speci- 
fic but generic character. I could see no cardinal tooth. 



SUPPLEMENT 

On the Fossil Bivalve Shells of the Western Region. 

Almost all the fossil bivalves of the western states from Ohio to 
Alabama, belong to the great order of Terebratulites or rather 
Brachiopites, whose animals of G. Brachiopus were very different 
from those of the living bivalve shells, having ciliate limbs. My 
monograph of 1821 contained 23 genera, all new except five [and 
about 80 species] and five others had already been published in 
1819 by me in my account of 70 N. G of animals. Journal de 
Physique. 

I propose to give an epitome of this monograph which I have not 
yet seen in print. I possess nearly all the shells. They are found 
in the secondary strata of limestone, slate and sandstone which 
extend from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, in horizontal strata, 
the limestone being the lowest, and the sandstone the highest, form- 
ing in many parts hills and ridges from 100 to 500 feet high. They 
are very rare in the slate. 

Order BRACHIOPIA. 

Animal brachiopus when living, brachiopites when fossil. Shell 
bivalve, animal within having a bilobed mantle, and two thick ciliate 
arms or limbs. 



86 rafinesque's 

I. Family, LINGULARIA. Shell equivalve, longitudinal, 
inequilateral, valves entire, not perforated, 1. G. Lingula of 
Brugiere. 

II. Family TEREBRARIA. Shell inequivalve, one valve per- 
forated or emarginated. 

1st Section, Ilacrilia. Shell longitudinal. 

2 G. DicLiSMA, Raf Equilateral, the two valves split at the 
summit. 

3 G. Apleurotis, Raf 1819. Inequilateral, the great valve per- 
forate, and with a lateral wing, 

4 G. Trigorima, Raf Equilateral, smaller valve perforate, four 
cavities- at the base separated by three septa. 

6 G. Obovites, Raf Equilateral, the great valve perforate. 

6 G. Magas (Sowerby) equilateral, great valve with an angular 
opening. 

2d Section, Idlia. Shell equilateral, nearly equital or hardly 
transversal. 

"7 G. Terebratula (Brugiere) great valve perforate. 

8 G. Spinifer (Sowerby) subequital, great valve with an angular 
opening, hinge with two spiral appendages. 

9 G. GoNOTREMA; Raf Shell subtransversal, small valve with 
aa angular opening, and interval cavity, hinge short, straight or 
curved. 

3d Section, Platilia. Shell equilateral, transversal or very 
broad. 
[8] 

10 G. Platilites, Raf Small valve with an angular opening and 
internal cavity, hinge very long, often longer than the shell which is 
thus winged. 

11 G. Pleurinia, Raf Differ from last by the great valve per- 
forate, shell winged also. 

12 G. Pachiloma, Raf Inequilateral, with thick edges, hinge 
with a linear opening. 

13 Strophomenes, Raf. Equilateral, hinge broad, great valve 
notched by a lunulate sinus receiving a lunulate projection of the 
smaller valve. 

III. Family ATREMOSIA. Shell inequivalve, valves entire, not 
perforated. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 8T 

14 G. Orbicula (Cuvier, Lamark.) Shell orbicular, one valve fiat 
and one conical. 

15 Gr. Sti*ophesia, Raf. Shell orbicular equilateral, beak curved 
in the great valve. 

16 Gr. Diclijisifes Raf. Differs from last by hinge short and 
straight ; no proeminent beak. 

17 G. Trunculites, Raf. Subequital, valves convex, equilateral, 
nearly equal, hinge short and truncate. 

18 G. Productus, (Sowerby,) Equilateral, winged, or rather 
auriculated, one valve convex, the other flat or convex, hinge 
linear. 

19 G. Stl/riasis, Raf. Differ from last by great valve, with a pro- 
jecting cruciform appendage on the beak. 

20 G. Goniclis, Raf. Shell longitudinal, great valve concave 
inside, with a longitudinal angle outside. 

21 G. Ilegarites, Raf. Shell longitudinal, equilateral suborbicular, 
valves nearly equal, both convex with concentric ridges, hinge like 
a linear horizontal fissure. 

Most of the species belong to the following Genera. 

Obovites — 6 sp. 

Gonotrema — 15 sp. 

Platilites— 13 sp. 

Shophomenes — 16 sp. 

In a supplement of March 1821, I added 2 N". G. 

22 G. Amblotrema, Raf. Differs from Gonotrema by the opening 
or perforation, being oval or oblong, and obtuse. 

23 G. Pleuranisis, Raf. Differ from Platilites by having the 
shell inequilateral. 

The geological age of these shells appears the same as that of 
the oldest fossils, Madreporites, Turbinolites, Encrinites, &c., being 
found together and promiscuously in the same strata, or in diluvial 
debris ; but the different genera and species are not found together, 
sometimes they are wide apart, or very rare ; they are mostly 
silicified. 



88 rapinesque's 

[From the Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge. No. III., page 116 
Philadelphia, 1832.] 

[116] 
14. LuciLTTES Nigra, a new v.nivalve fossil Shell, from the 
Alleghany Mountains of Pennsylvania. By C. S. Rafinesque. 

This pretty fossil is in the Cabinet of my friend Hayden, in Balti- 
more, who found a single specimen of it, on the side of a limestone 
cliff" at Bedford Springs, in a valley of the Alleghanys of S. Penn- 
sylvania. It was taken 60 feet from the ground. It is the most 
shining fossil Shell which I have seen, almost as if recent, whence I 
have called it Lucilites or shining fossil. Its black color very un- 
natural among shells makes a fine contrast with the dull blue lime- 
stone in which it is fixed. It belongs to the familly of Patellites, and 

[117] 
only differs from Patella, by being elliptical and smooth, without 
radiations. 

G. Lucilites Raf, Simple univalve pateloid shell. Elliptical 
entire, outside convex smooth without radiations, inside concave 
smooth. No openings or fissures. 

Sp. L. nigr-a. Black shining outside, both ends equal obtuse. 
Length double of the breadth. Over half an inch in the 
specimen 

[From the Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge. No. III., page 121. 
Philadelphia, 1832.] 

[121] 

PSEPHIDES PaRADOXA. 



'22. CoNCHOLOGT. — A Neiv Tubular f^^esh ivater shell of the Alle- 
ghany Mts. 

1 was much gratified to find this year a new fluviatile shell of the 
simple tubular form ; but the animal was not within. It was found 
in Sherman creek, a mountain stream of Perry County, Pennsylvania, 
among the AUeghanies. 

This strange shell has something mysterious in it. It appears a 
mass of gravel ; strongly cemented, even holding sometimes minute 
fossil terebratulites and other fossils. It is not therefore the tube of 



CONCHOLOQICAL WRITINGS. 89 

a Phryganea. Since they are all brittle, arenaceous or membrana- 
ceous. Yet the worm that forms it and dwells in it, (as no mollusca 
form tubular shells) is unknown, and I was told none has ever been 
seen in it. A singular idea was suggested to me by Prof. Green 

that it mjght be a fossil's shell ! Since it is found in a rich fossil 

[122] 
region ; and has a stony appearance ; but being found free, in the 

water or on the banks of the stream, and never imbedded in stones 

it can hardly be so. The subject must remain doubtful, until other 

consimilar Genera are found. Meantime I give a figure of it, and 

its description ; whereby it appears to approximate to the Sabel- 

lites and other tubular annelides, perhaps also to my G. Potami- 

phiis of the R. Ohio, published in 1819, whose worm I detected; 

but its shell is arenaceous open at both ends and operculate before. 

My name of PaepJiides means gravelly tube. 

PsEPHiDES. Cylindrical tubular shell, open before, closed behind, 
opening round entire, inside smooth hard stony, outside entirely 
formed by cemented gravel and little shells. 

Psephides paradocca Raf. Uncial, diameter equal throughout, 
about one sixth of length and obtuse, inside brown, outside versi- 
color. — Length less than one inch. The gravel of the outside is of 
all colors, formed by small angular fragments of shale, slate, clorite. 
quartz and othev stones seldom found in Sherman Creek.' and 
even entire fossil shells or fragments of fossils. 

C. S. Rafinesque. 



Fossils of Sherman Creek. 

I have discovered this year, this new locality for fossil remains, 
and collected abo-iit 50 sp. in a tract of 5 miles near the Kennedy 
Springs, in the Quaker hills and Mt. Pisgah forming a geological 
basin of red, yellow, brown and white sandstone, gravel or pebble 
stone and conglomerate, holding chert of all colors. The fossils are 
found in all, and even the chert or Petrosilex. They are of the 
oldest formation. 

I mean to give hereafter a full account of this fine oryctological 
region and all the fossils collected in it. I shall here merely indicate 
them. Most of them are new. 

Vegetable fossils. Fucites 2 Sp. 

Animal fossils. Porostomites 2 Sp. Encrinites 2 Sp. Turbino- 
lite 1 Sp. 



90 



rafinesque's 



Fossil shells. Orthoceratite 1 sp. Gryphites 3sp. Diclisma 3 sp. 
rroductus 6 sp. Terebratiilite 8 sp. Eiirytes 3 sp. Gonotrema 2 sp. 
Diclipsites 4 sp. Triinculites 3 sp. Pleureterites 10 sp. &c. 

This last is a fine N. G. quite prolific in sp. it difi'ers from Pro- 

ductus by being inequilateral. Nay it may be the type of a new 

tribe, since one sp. which I have called PI. stellata having a bilobed 

hinge and a quadrifid shell might also, form a peculiar G. Eemiste- 

rias quadrifida. C. S. R. 

[From the Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge. No. IV., page 
142. Philadelphia, 1832.] 
[1491 

New Fossil Shells of Pennsylvania, by C. S. Rafinesque. 

Among the 40 N. sp. of Bivalve fossils 
found this year on Sherman cr. in the 
Alleghany mts. I select those which are 
unequilateral as the most curious, and I 
shall describe 10 of them giving above 
the figures of 1, ranged under 3 new 
genera. All are Inequivalve. 

1. N. G. Hemisterias Raf Shell 
transversal with 2 wings thus unequilate- 
ral, hinge with 2 teeth and an angular 
sinus outside at the beak, margin lobed 
— -~H. quadriloha fig. 1. Four obtuse 



lobes and 3 obtuse sinusses, lateral lobes 
like wings one much longer, an oblong 
furrow on each lobe, length half of 
breadth. 

2. N. G. Telistrophis Raf. Shell 
unequilateral transversal with one wing on the longest side, hinge 
without beak, straight with a round impression inside at the apex, 
margin unlobed — T. Un^sala fig. 1. Shell convex, minute longitudi- 
nal curved strias, short side rounded, long side with a twisted 
obtuse wing, length 2-5ths of breadth. — Impression in Petrosilex, 
one inch, 

3. N. G. Pleureterites R. Shell unequilateral transversal with- 
out wings, hinge more or less curved simple or with a wrinkle and 
a beak, margin unlobed. — The name means irregular sides, Telistro- 
2)his means spotted hinge, and Hemisterias means half starry — 
8 sp. 




CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 91 

1 Sp. PI. lateridria R. fig. 2. Shell oblong, small side smooth, 
longer side with 5 transversal furrows, axis far behind, length one 
third of breadth — In petrosilex, one inch long. 

2 Sp. PL divisa R. Shell oblong divided in the middle by a large 
furrow and small sinus at the end of it, 5 curved ribs on the small 
side, t on the large divided by deep furrows, small side rounded, 
longer attenuate, axis proeminent submedial, length half of breadth. 
In grey petrosilex, over one inch. 

3 Sp. PL anisocta Raf. Shell swelled rounder, a deep furrow in 
the middle, 8 curved unequal ribs, 4 on each side, small side round, 
longer side truncate, beak proeminent submedial, length 3-4ths of 
breadth. In variegated petrosilex, about one inch. 

4 Sp. PL latiundata R. fig. 6. Shell oblong both ends obtuse, 3 
[143] 

or 4 broad waved ribs, margin flexuose, beak submedial, length 2-5 

of breadth. With the last larger. 

5 Sp. PL striata R. Shell oblong, swelled both sides rounded, 
hinge flexuose by arched beak, equal longitudinal strias throughout, 
beak submedial, length half of breadth. In white sandstone, nearly 
two inches. 

6 Sp. PL hifasciata R. fig. 4. Shell rounded swelled, smooth 
with two faint transversal bands or wrinkles, beak round lateral, 
length 2-3ds of breadth. In yellow sandstone, small, half an 
inch. 

1 Sp. PL concentrica R. fig. 5. Shell oval, minute concentric 
strias, beak obtuse at 1-3, sides rounded, length 2-3ds of breadth. 
In petrosilex. 

8 Sp. PL obliqua R. fig. 3. Shell oval oblique swelled, 8 carved 
oblique furrows, 3 and 4 on the sides of. the middle one, beak pro- 
eminent at 1-3, length 2-3 of breadth. In grey chert or uetrosilex, 
small half an inch, near to sp. 3, but less deeply furrowed not trun- 
cate behind. 

[From the Atlantic .Toumal and Friend of Knowledge. No. IV., page 154. 

Philadelphia, 1832.] 

[154] 
CoNCHOLOGY. Two New Bivalve Fluviatile Shells of S. 

America, By C. S. Rafinesque. 

These two fine shells are from the Cabinet of Professor Green, 
who permitted me to draw them and describe last March. They 
are both from the R. Parana above Buenos Ayres. 



92 rafinesque's 

1 Anodonta aperta Raf. Oval elliptical much swelled, broader 
behind and slanting, very smooth and dark brown outside, quite 
gaping below, iridescent white inside. Length and diameter ^ of 
breadth, axis at \. Flue large sp. 6 inches broad, shell rather thick, 
beaks proeniinent, not gaping at the ends but below ; hinge streight 
slanting ending in 2 small angles, no wrinkles on it, but slightly , 
Ilexuolate beneath. 

2. Unio paplios Raf. Oval, flexuose and subtruncate behind, with 
an obliqual ridge from the beak, brown outside with many minute 
coucentric strias, inside purplish white. Length 2-3, diameter T-iS, 
axis at 1-3 of the breadth. Pretty sp. 2 inches broad, shell rather 
thin for TJnios, lamellar tooth slightly curved, cardinal tooth sub- 
bilobe crenate. Beaks not prominent. 
ODATELIA N. G. of N. American Bivalve jluviatile shell. By 

G. S. Rafinesque. 

One of our Ohio shells, which has been put with the Unios or 
Anodonta by different writers ; it was unknown to me till I observed 
it in Prof. Green's cabinet, and I immediately ascertained that it 
must form a N. G. or group between Anodonta and Sulcularia. I 
call it Odatelia meaning imperfect teeth. 

Odatelia Raf. Cardinal tooth imperfect like a callosity, with a 
large desinense as in Alasmodon, becoming an imperfect lamellar 
tooth angular as in Lasmigona This G. must belong to the series 
of Anodonta, but forms the passage with Alasmodon. How Say 
and Lea could put it with Unio! is rather strange. 

Odatelia radiata Raf. Elliptical flattened elongate, broader 
behind with subtruncate end, outside olivaceous brown, with black 
rays, inside bluish iridescent. Length 1-3, diameter 2-9, axis at 
2-9 of the length. 

LJnio Oriens. Lea. 

Unio dehiscens. Say. 
• Anodonta prelonga. Green. 

Breadth over 2 inches, shell rather thin both ends rounded and 

brown. 

[From the Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge. No. V. page 165. 
Philadelphia, 1833.] 

r3.651 
On 3 N. G. of Land Shells froin Buenos Ayres in South America. 

By C. S. Bafnesque. 

They arc:' rom the cabinet of Prof Green, where they are not 

labelled, and wlio permitted mc to describe them. 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 93 

1. Siphalomphix, Raf. N. G. shell conical, opening oval acute, 
end rounded, columella twisted with a tubular ombilic. It differs 
from Agathina by the columella and ombilic. 

S. bonariensis Raf. or Ag. bonariensis, Raf. Six spires tip 
nearly obtuse, first spire with a transversal angle — shell about one 
inch long, whitish semi-transparent, brittle. 

2. Stegomphix, Raf. N. G. shell oval opening nearly round lips 
not quite joined, the internal covering a small spiral ombilic. — There- 
fore different from Cyclostoma and Paludina. 

St. elegans, Raf. {or Gyclostovia) oval with 5 spires, white, end 
nearly obtuse yellow, spires with many small prominent transversal 
strias. — One inch long or less very pretty. 

3. Biplicaria. Shell oval, opening pval, columella broadly 
plaited with 2 folds or thick oblique ribs. — Near Voluta and Torti- 
cella, but not marine. 

D. bonariensis, Raf. Oval obtuse smooth olive color with 2 
spires only — small shell of half inch. 
On five New Fresh Water Shells, of Bengal and Assam in 

Asia. 

They have been collected by Dr. Burroughs and are in my 
cabinet. 

1. Planorbis albescens, Raf. nearly smooth whitish flattened on 
the right side with 3 raised spires, only 2 on the left in a hollove, 
opening hardly oblique. Size above half an inch. 

2. Paludina v'ltula, Raf. oval conical acute, 5 spires, swelled 
before, olivaceous with narrow spiral brown bands. — Size about one 
inch long. 

3. Paludina fragilis, Raf. oval swelled acute, 5 spires, smooth 
[166] 

brittle, of a uniform dark or pale horny color. — Smaller than the 

last. 

4. Melania tessula, Raf. oblong, brown, seven spires, somewhat 
tesselated by prominent ribs and small spiral strias, about one inch 
long, I have 3 varieties. 1. first spire with duplicate strias — 2. do. 
single strias, knobby tesselate shorter. 3. do. strias nearly obliterated. 
Are they different Sp ? 

5. Melania costula, Raf. elongate, olivaceous brown, 7 or 8 
spires, all with regular angular ribs lengthway, the first spire with 
a spiral angle ending at end of opening. Over 1 inch, from the 
river Gauges. 



94 rafinesque's 

[From "The Good Book and Amenities of Nature, or Annals of Historical 

and Natural Sciences." Philadelpliia, 1840.] 
[63] 

12. On the 3 Genera of Gephalopodes, 
OcYTHOE, ToDARUS and Anisoctus. 

My G. Ocythoe altho' adopted by Leach and others, is yet a pro- 
blematical animal for many, and I find even in late Journals discus- 
sions on its being or not the animal of the Argonauta shell — it would 
be wiser to ask me (the original discoverer) for my opinion or ex- 
perience — I once wrote to Leach obout it, but it was during his 
sickness, and I believe he omitted to publish my remarks, which 
were at variance with his. It is time therefore to settle this question, 
or rather throw new doubts on it perhaps ; my recollections of my 
Ocythoe are quite vivid as a very remarkable animal. 

I omitted in my short account of the Genus (in my precis of 1814) 
to state the size of this animal, and thence have originated many 
wrong surmises. I did not state that it was the animal of the 
Argonauta since I never dreamt of such a thing, knowing the 
Todarus as the animal often found in it, (in Sicily,) while the 
Ocythoe never could dwell in it, being larger than a man^s head, 
and weighing 15 pounds. 

Such was my Ocythoe tuberculata type of the genus and certainly 
not the same as that of Leach : this animal was brought to me alive 
in 1811 as a rare kind of Octopus, it was ferocious, endeavoring to 
bite and wound the holder, although out of water for one hour : it 

[64] 
changed color, like a Chameleon from white to red in its angry and 
dying moments. It was killed as usual with the Octopus by turning 
its head, a process well known to the Fishermen of the Mediterra- 
nean : else they will live long out of the water and are dangerous 
till dead. I did eat this Ocythoe which afforded a meal for many, 
and it was as good as usual with the Octopus. The Fishermen 
never told me that it dwelt in the Argonauta, while all deemed their 
Todaru the animal of it, calling the shell and animal by the same 
name, while the Ocythoe was called Pulpu. 

I do therefore aver that my Ocythoe is not the animal of the 
Argonauta, and could never be, by its size and thick spherical body, 
unfit even to enter it. 

Not so with the Todaru, which was merely indicated in my .precis 
as the Loligo todarus ; but I have since deemed it a Genus, called 



CONCHOLOGICAL WRITINGS. 95 

Todarus argo, as it differs from Loligo by the 2 superior Antenopes 
having a cuneiform wing or broad membrane, yet it has the body 
of Loligo, with 2 posterior round wings, and an internal Aploste, 
linear subulate thin and flexible. 

This animal is exactly of the size and flexible shape suitable to 
enter the Argonauta and dwell therein : although I never was sure 
that it was the real producer of the shell — the fishermen asserted it, 
it is met floating with it and using its 2 winged feet as sails, I had 
it caught and brought to me with its black eggs filling the bottom 
of the shell — and yet I never was positive as to being the real 
mysterious Argonauta. I was once inclined to believe it, but the 
animal was so different from that described by Montford and others, 
its body was so unlike the fluted shell, that I always had great 
doubts. 
[65] 

It is well known that many shells of Argonauta are blackened in 
their inner apex : this happens by the black eggs laying there, 
although the Todarus has not the ink bag of the real Loligos, yet 
it emits a kind of dark liquor and its eggs are blackened by it. I 
incline to believe that it uses the shell as a home, boat and nest, at 
the time of laying eggs, and changes the shell yearly. It has no 
kind of adhesion to it, and may be entirely withdrawn with ease. 

I give here the figures of both Ocythoe and Todarus argo. This 
last is fulvous grey above, white beneath, body oblong sihooth, 2 
rows of alternate cupules on the antenopes that are shorter than 
body, but promuscides as long without cupules. 

A third Genus medial between these two was found by me in the 
Atlantic Ocean in 1815, and I procured 2 sp. of it, both pelagic, 
floating at the surface. I called it Canopus then, but this name 
being employed I have changed it to Anisoctus mg 8 unequal. 

G. Anisoctus Raf. dilTering from Octopus by body as Loligo with 
a very small subulate aploste (internal bone) but 8 unequal Ante- 
nopes, as in Octopus. 

1. Anisoctus punctatus Raf L. body whitish dotted of brown, 
Antenopes cylindrical coiled at the end, 2 longer, 2 shorter, cupules 
alternate — 5 inches long. 

2. Anisoctus 6«coZor Raf. -body bay above, white beneath, ante- 
nopes trigone acute nearly equal cupules alternate — 1 inches long. 

Figure 50, Ocythoe tuberculata. 



96 ■ rafinesque's 

Figure 51, Todarus argo. 

Pig. 52, 53, Anisoctus punctatus and bicolor. 
[66] 
13. DiTAXOPUS PARADOXUS, a new Fossil G. of Gephaloj)odes, 

discovered 1819 — Figure 54 and 55, Shell and Animal. 

This was one of my most remarkable discovery in fossil Zoology, 
among the Wasioto hills of Central Kentucky. While breaking 
many fossiliferous flints of that Region, I fell upon one having in 
the centre, a perfect hollow mould of a Univalve shell, shaped 
between Haliotis and Carinaria, and containing inside a delicate 
flinty Animal almost perfect, of the most extraordinary shape. It 
was however evidently a Cephalopode, since the cupules were con- 
spicuous on the Antenopes ; but these were not around the head or 
body, somewhat as in the Cirrhipedes or Terebratules although not 
articulated as in these. It is difficult to convey a proper idea of 
this strange animal, but the figures will explain it better. 

I carefully put up the fragments of the Stones together, and pre- 
sented this unique specimen (worth 50 dollars) to my friend John D. 
Clifford for his Museum, where it was preserved, and is perhaps yet 
in this ^collection, (since gone thro' 2 or 3 hands) if not stolen or 
broken. I sent descriptions and figures of it to Cuvier and 
Brongniart, but have not heard if they published them. 

This discovery is of double importance, because it links with the 
rare G. Carinaria, of which the animal is as mysterious as that of 
the Argonauta, and may lead us to detect a new order of the 
Cephalopodes class, distinguished by a single elongate branched 
antenope. I gave it the name of Ditaxopus, meaning 2 rows of feet. 
[67] 

Description. Shell univalve ovate patent smooth with a small 
obtuse knob of spire at base, and an obtuse keel behind, — Animal, 
body amorphous in the fossil state, ending in a long curved limb 
with above about 6 pairs of antenopes in 2 rows, opposite curved or 
coiled, the upper longer, all obtuse cylindrical with 2 rows of alter- 
nate cupules or tubercles inside. 

Found near Estil, Gritstone hills of Central Kentucky imbedded 
in fragments of flint or chert. Size over one inch. The shell was 
destroyed ; the fossil being of the very oldest formation. 



II^rDEX. 



Abretia, 




10.16 


Anodonta cataracta, 


Say, 


59 


Acarda, Brug, 




21 


" cygnea. 




59 


Acephalia, 




14 


" (Lastena) 


iignota, 


82 


Acera, Cuv, 




16 


iuflata, 




81 


Achatina Lam, 




17 


■' " var 


fuscata, 


82 


Adelobranchia, 




17 


'• '■ " 


viridis, 


82 


Agatina, 




93 


" '• " 


zonalis, 


82 


" bonarieusis, 




93 


•' (Lastena) 


lata. 


69 


" fuscata, 




68 


•' marginata 


Say, 


59 


" variegata. 




68 


" mutabilis, 




. 59 


Ageuor, 




16 


" ohiensis. 




59,82 


Alasmidia, 




60 


" var. nigresceus, 


59 


Alasmidonta, 




60 


" " radiata. 


59 


" coBtata, 




60 


" violacina, 


59 


" marginata, 




60 


" " viridis. 


59 


AlasDiodon, 29, 


36, 


70, 78,93 


" prelongaG 


reeu, 


92 


" (Decurambis) alropur 


puieum, SO 


" radiata. 




59 


" (Pulcularia) badium. 




81 


'' rufa. 




82 


'• complanatum, 




71 


" Solenoides 




85 


" (Amblasmodon) hians, 




80 


" undulata, 


Say, 


69 


" (Sulculana)papyraceum, 


81 


Anodontidia, 




58 


" (Lasmigona) ponderosum 


79 


Anomia, L, 




21 


" " rugosuin, 




79 


Anominia, 




21 


" Scriptum,. 




80 


Antepedia, 




14 


" (Lasmigona) sulcatum 




79 


Anthiope, 




18 


" " \'iridis, 




80 


Anthronacus, 




15 


" var. chloris, 




80 


Apalosia, 




13 


' " fuscata, - 




80 


Apleurotiib. 




24,30,68,86 


" " radiata, 




80 


" pectenoides. 


30 


Amathouta, 




19 


" pusilla. 




30, 68 


Amathusia, 




19 


Aplodon, 




18, 24, 28, 67 


Amblasmodou, 




■ 78, 80 


" nodosum, 




28, 67 


Amblema, 


29, 48, 57, 72 


Area, 




20,30 


" antrosa, 




64 


Arcaria, 




20 


" ovalis, 




29 


Arcula, 




20 


Amblemldia, 




54 


Argonauta, Lam, 




15,94 


Amblotrema, 




87 


Argonautea, 




15 


Ambloxis, 




23,24,67 


Argus, Poli, 




21 


" eburuea. 




23 


Armina, 




12,16 


" ventricosa, 




23 


" maculata, 




12 


Amesoda, 




61 


" tigrina. 




12 


Amithaon, 




18 


Arthemis, Poli, 




20 


Ammonites, Biug, 




15 


Artbromium, 




21 


Ammonoceratites, Lam, 




15 


Arthronotus, 




17 


Amphibulia, 




17 


Ascidia, 




31 


Amphibulimns, Lam, 




17 


Asepia, 




13 


Amphirea, 




16 


Asiphonia, 




20 


Amphrisus, 




16 


Aspbalium, 




12 


AmpuUaria, 




18,27 


Atremosia, 




86 


Anatina, Lam, 




19 


Atromopsis, 




13 


Anaulax, Boissy, 




19 


Aulisa, 




15 


Ancilla, Lam, 




19 


Avicula, Lam, 




20 


Ancylidia, 




17 


Aximedla, 




41,75,84 


Ancylus, Geof, 




17,24,27 


Axinea, Poli 




20 


Anisoctus, 




94.93 


Baculites, 




15 


" bicolor. 




95,96 


Barioeta, 




73 


" punctatus. 




95,96 


Belemnita, Lam, 




16 


Anodonta, Brug, 20, 29, 36, 58 


59 


70.84,92 


Belemnitee, 




24 


" anatina, 




59 


Biphora, Cuv., 




21 


" apena 




92 


Bivalvia, 




14 


" atra, 




59 


Blephalum, 




16 


" cuneata. 




59 


Bolina, 




18 



INDEX. 



Brachlopea, 

Brachiopia, 

Brachiopus, 

Brandaiis, 

Bucarda, Brug.. 

Biiccinidia, 

Buccinum, 

Bulimus, Brug., 

Bulla, Linn., 

BuUaria, 

Bullea, 

BuUinia, 

BuUinitia, 

Byssil'erla, 

Calceola, Lam., 

(lalceolina, 

Callianira, Pen- v., 

Callista, Poli., 

Callitriche, Poli., 

Calyptraea, Lam., 

Cameola, 

Campeloma, 

Campytus, 

Canalifera, 

Cancollaria, Laui., 

Canopus, 

Capsa, Lam., 

Capsalu, Bosc. 

Capsaria, 

Cardita, Brug., 

Carinaria, Lam., 

Carychiuui, Mull., 

Cassina, 

Cassis, Brug., 

Cephadelia, 

Cephalopodia, 

Ceramiis, 

Cerastes, Poli., 

Cerithium, Brug., 
Chama, Linn., 

Chimera, Poll., 

Chimotrema, 

Chiton, L., 

Chitonia, 

Cleodora, Ptirry., 

Clio, Linn., 

Clio, Brown, 

Clione, 

Cliouidia, 

Closterita, 

Clytiana, 

Codostoma, 

Columbella, Lam., 

( olyma, 

Concholepas, Lam., 

Conchulus, 

Conospira, 

Conulia, 

Conulus, 

Conus, Liuu., 

Corhicula, Megerle, 
" tluviatilis, 

Corbula, Lam., 

Cornucopia, Thompson. 

Crania, Lam , 

Cranicella, 

Crassatella, Lam . 

Crenatula, Lam., 

Crepidula, Lam., 

Crostoma, 

Cteniurus, 

Cuculiua, 

CucuUea, Lam., 

Cumerina, 

Curvula, 

" dubia, 



21 


" levis, ' 




85 


" plana. 




85 


" striata. 




19 


Curvulltes, 




20 


" striata, 




19 


Cyoladea, 




19 


Cycladia, 




17, 24 


Cyclas, 20, 


29,36 


17 


" Caroliniana, 




17 • 


" crassula. 




17 


■' dubia, Say, 




17 


" - (Phymeroda) equalis. 


17 


" lacustris. 




20 


" lasmampsis. 




21 


" olivacea. 




21 


Cyclemis. 




9, 16 


Cyclips, 




20 


Cyclostoma, 




20 


Cydippa, 




17 


Cylindulus, 




21 


Cymbium, 




'za 


Cymbulia, Perry., 




l.i 


Cyphoxis, 




18 


" cardites. 




19 


" lunula. 




95 


" pulla. 




20 


" veneriua. 




17 


Cypraea, Linn., 




20 


Cypridia, 




20 


Cytheria, Lam., 




10,1.5,96 


Cyrtodaria, Daud., 




IS 


Cytonotus, 




18 


Dagysa, L., 




18 


Daphne, Poll., 




14 


Dasauus, 




14 
lo 


DecurambLs, 

" literata, 




20 


Delphinula, Lam., 




18 


Dentalia, 




21 


Dentalium, Linn., 




20 


Deroceras, 




28 


Dianisotis, 




17 


" chinensis, 




17 


Dicerata, Lam., 




10, 15 


Dicladus, 




10 


Diclipsites, 




Its 


Dicli.sma, 




10 


Dicroptera, 




lli 


Dictyethis fu«ca, 




15 


Diodiphus. 




16 


Diomphala, 




1.3 


Diophthelis, 




Ifl 


Dipla.sma, 




IS 


" maigiuata. 




17 


" similis. 




17 


" srtiata, 




IS 


vitre;t. 




19 


Dipliciuia, 




19 


" iKjuarit-uais. 




19 


Diplicella, 




61 


Diplophonia, 




til 


Dipsas, 




21 


Discolita, 




15 


Di.scorbitus, Lam., 




21 


Ditaxopus, 




21 


" paradox u 




20 


Ditrema, 




20 


Diurichu.s, 




17 


Dulabella, Lam., 




21 


Dolium, Lam., 




10, Id 


Uonax, Brug' , 




20 


Doridia. 




20 


Doris, Liuu., 




15 


Dotona, 




24, 30 


Dyetiethis, 




30 


Eburnea, Lam., 





20 
61 
42,61,70,82,83 
61 
26 
61 
61 
61 
61 
26 
25 
75 
18, 28, 93 
16 
19 
l5 
10, 15 
24,30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
19 
19 
20 
19 
15 
21 
20 
17 
79,80 
SO 
18 
12 
12 
65 
85 
85 
21 
16 
87,90 
86,90 
10, 16 
II 
13 
19 
21 
82, 83, 85 
■ 83 
S3 
83 
83 
93 
93 
18 
19 
60 
15 
15 
96 
96 
12 
21 
17 
19 
20 
16 
16 
16 
16 
19 



INDEX. 



Echion, Poli., 


21 


Hemisolasma, 


84 


Egeria, Boissy, 


20 


Hemiloma, 


65 


Eione, 


10,16 


" ovata, 


65 


Ellipsarii, 


47. 63. 76 


Hemistena. 


60 


EllipBtoma, 


2.S. 24, 27 


Hemis'eria, 


90 


' gibbosa, 


23,27 


" quadrifida, 


90 


" marginula, 


27 


" rinadriloba, 


90 


" rugosa, 


23 


Heicynia, 


17 


" vittata, 


27 


Heterocarda. 


20 


" zonalis, 


27 


Heteioperia, 


20 


" zonalisa, 


23 


Heteroptera, 


10,16 


Elliptic, 


29. 37, 46, 76 


Hiatella,Daiid., 


20 


Eltrostoma, 


18 


Hipponea. 


17 


Emarginaiia, 


IP 


Hippopus, Lam . 


20 


Emarglnnia, Lam., 


17 


Hippothoe, 


16 


Endotoma, 


24,28 


Hippui'ites, Lam., 


15 


'• product!. 


28 


Hyalea, 


10,15 


Enipeiis, 


16 


Hyalinea, 


15 


Eolia, Cnv., 


16 


Hyplaxus. 


17 


Epioblasma, 


74 


Hypogidia, 


19 


Erodona, Daud , 


20 


Hypiortomus, 


21 


Erpilites, 


29,66 


Hypterus, 


10,11,16 


" carinata, 


29,66 


" appendiculatus, 


11 


" multistriafa, 


66 


" eiythrogaster, 


12 


•' Ohiensis, 


66 


Hypterns, 


10,16 


Platenia, 


66 


Hyria, 


83, 85 


" Stenotenia. 


66 


Involvea, 


19 


Erycina, Lam., 


20 


Iphitus, 


16 


Espiphylla, 


26 


loeranea, 


IS 


Nympheola, 


26 


Isilia, 


86 


Etheria, Lam., 


21 


Isocardia, Lam., 


20 


Eumelus, 


65 


Isoperia, 


29 


" lividus, 


65 


Janthina, Lam., 


17 


" nebulosus. 


65 


Juturna, 


18 


Enomphalus, 


24 


Lampsilis. 


43,82 


Euphemus, 


18 


Laphrostoma, 


18 


Euphurus, 


16 


Laphyra, 


17 


Eurynia, 


42 


Laplysia, L. 


17 


Euiystoma, 


24 


Laplysinia, 


16 


Eurytes, 


90 


Lasmigoua, 


78, 79, 92 


Eutrema. 


27,29 


Laemono!!, 


70, 81, 85 


" terebroides, 


27 


" fragilis, 


81 


Exaithria, 


13 


La.stena. 


69 


Fasciolaria, Lam., 


19 


Lemiox, 


74 


Filigrana, 


13 


Lenticuliua, Lam.. 


19 


Fiiola, 


9,16 


Lepas, 


24 


Firolinia, 


16 


Leptodea, 


40, 74, 76, 84 


Fissurella, Lam., 


17,24 


Leptoxis^, 


26 


^i^tulana, Lam., 


21 


Lernea, L., 


16 


Flexiplis, 


82 


Lerneidia, 


16 


Fodia, Bosc, 


21 


Lignaria. 


17 


Furcells, Lam., 


21 


Liguus, Mont., 


29 


Fusiniis, 


19 


Lima, 


20 


Fusus, Lam., 


19 


Liniacidia, 


16 


Galathea, Brug., 


20 


Lingula, 


21,24,86 


Gasteiopodia, 


14 


Lingulaiia. 


86 


Gaterita, 


17 


Lithocarda, 


20 


Glaucus, Lam., 


10. 16 


Lituolites, Lam., 


15 


Glopsup, Poli., 


20 


Loligo, 


11,15,95 


Glycimeiis, Lam, 


19 


" tanceolata. 


11 


Gomphodelis, 


16 


" odagadium. 


11 


Gonamblus, 


79 


•' todarns. 


11, 94 


Goniclif, 


24, 29, 87 


Lomastoma, 


26,27 


dnbia, 


29 


'• teiebiina, 


27 


elliptira. 


29 


Loncosilla, 


82, 84, 85 


Gonotrema, 


86,87 


" solenoides. 


8.J 


Giyphea, 


24,27 


Lophyrup, Poli , 


17 


Gryphitet^. 


90 


Loripen, Poli., 


20 


Gyrogonite.s, Lam., 


15 


Lucillite.s. 


88 


Haliotidla, 


17 


'• nigra, 


88 


Haliotis, Linn., 


17 


Lucina, Lam., 


20 


Halliraea, 


9 


Lulraria, Lam., 


20 


Harpa, Lam.. 


19 


Lymnea. 


18, 20, 26 


Harpana, 


18 


Lymnidia, 


18 


Helicina, 


17,19 


Lymnula, 


24, 26, 27 


Helix, Linn., 


17, 24, 28, 67 


Maorllia, 


80 



INDEX. 



Mactra, L., 

Magas, Sowb., 

MalleotuB, 

Malleus, Lam , 

Marginella, Lam., 

Megarites, 

Megorima, 

" crasta, 
" levis, 
" truncata, 

Melania, 

" costula, 
" rugosa, 
'' tessula, 
" viridifi, 

Melanidia, 

Melanippa, 

Melanites, 

Melanopsis, Lam., 

Melanosteum, 

Menomphis 

Meretrix, Lam., 

Mesodon, 

" maculatum. 

Mesomphix, 

Mesonotus, 

Mesypea, 

Metaptera, 

Migonitis, 

Miliolites, Lam., 

Mitra, Lam, 

Mitraxia 

Modiola, Lam. , 

Monoceras, Lam., 

Monodonta, Lam., 

Murex, Linn., 

Murexia, 

Mya, Linn., 

Myarina, 

Mytilidia, 

Mytilus, Linn., 
" exotilus, 
'■ recurviis, 

Nacella, Lam., 

Nassa, Lam., 

Nassaria, 

Natica, Lam., 

Nanticon 

Nantilia, 

Nautilus, Linn., 

Nerens, 

Ncrita, 

Neritacea, 

Neritina, Lam., 

Neritinia, 

Nicteis, 

Notelis, 

Notrema, 

" fissurella, 
" patelloides, 

Notremidia, 

Nucnla, Lam., 

Numieea, 

Nummulites, Lam., 

Nnmmulitia, 

Oblicites, 

Obliquaria, 

Oblongites, 

Obovaria, 

Obovites, 

Octomeia, 

Octopia, 

Octopas, Lam., 
" albus, 
" didynamus, 
" frayedus. 



20 

20,86 
20 
19 
20 
87 

24,30 
.30 
SO 
30 

18, 66 
9.S 
67 
93 
67 
IS 
16 
24 
IS 
21 
68 
20 
67 
67 

24,27 
17 
17 
44,74, 79, 81,85 
20 
15 
19 
19 
20 
19 
18 
19 
IS 
19 
19 
20 
20, 24, 29 
68 
63 
18 
19 
19 
18 
15 
1.-) 
!:> 
16 
18 
18 
IS 
18 
12 
21 
24, 2.5, 30, 36, 62 

24, 2.5 
30 
25 
20 
19 
15 
15 
15 
42,46,-58,7,5,82,84 
13 

54,76 

86,87 
17 
14 
11, 14, 95 
11 
11 
11 



Octopur heteropus, 
" maculatus, 
" moschatus. Lam., 
" niger, 
" tetradynamas, 
" vulgaris, Lam. , 

Ocythoe, 

" tubeTcnlata, 

Odatelia, 

" radiata, 

Odomphinm, 

Odorthns, 

Odotropis, 

Oebalus, 

Oiiva, Brug., 

Olivaiia, 

Omphalina. 

" CUpiP.'*, 

Omphemis, 

" lacustris, 
" phaioxis, 

Omphiscola, 
Onchidia, 
rmchidium, Lara., 
Opipteia, 

" bicolor. 

Orbicula, Cuv. Lam., 
Orbulites, Lam., 
Oithocera, Lam., 
Orthoceratite, 
Oscana, Brug., 
Ostrea, Linn., 
Ostreacia, 
Ovula, Brug., 
Oxi.sma, 

" bifida, 
Oxynoe, 

'• olivacea, 
Oxytrema, 
Ozoena, 

" aldrovamli, 

' ' moschatus, 
Pachlloma, 
Pachosteon, 
Pachynus, 
Paludina, 

" fragilis, 
■' vitula. 
Pandora, Lam., 
Pandoracia, 
Panorpa, Lam., 
Paphia, Lam., 
Parallus, 

Parma cella. Lam., 
Patella, Linn , 
Patellaria. 
Pecten, Brus;., 
Pectenia, 
Pectenut-, 

Pectunculus, Lam., 
Pediferia, 
Pedinus, 
Pedum, Lam., 
Peloris, Poll., 
Perforella, 
Peribea, 
Periodon, 
Peristera, 
Perna, Brug., 
Pernaria, 
Pernaridia, 
Peronea, Poll., 
Petricola, Lam., 
Pharaonis, 
Phasianella, Lam., 
Pbilomycns, 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11,14,94,95 
11,94 
92 
92 
67 
12 
27 
15 
19 
19 
67 
67 
26 



26 
16 
16 

21,33 

33 

21, 24, 25, 87 

16 

1.5, 24 
90 
17 
21, 24,85 
21 
19 
21,30,68 

30,68 

17,33 
33 
26 

11,14 
11 
II 
86 
24 
IS 

27.93 
93 
93 
20 
20 
10 
20 
16 
16 

17,24 
17 
20, 21, 85 
21 
21 
20 

20, 36 
20 
20 
21 
18 
16 
17 
19 
20 
20 
20 
20 
19 
18 
18 

64,65 



INDEX. 



Philomycus flexnolarig. 
" fncsus, 

" oxyurus, 

" quadrilus, 

Pholadaria, 
Pholas, Linn., 
Phoronea, 
Phuscaria, 
PhyleriB, 
Phyllidia, Cuv., 
Phyllidinia, 
Phyllirhoe, Pf. ry, 
Phymesoda, 
Phymotis, 
Physa, Drap. , 
Physina, 
Pinna, Linn., 
Pinnnia, 
Placuna, Lam., 
Placnnia, 

Plagiola, 2n, 42, 46 

Planorbia, 
Planorbis ,Qeof., 

" albescens, 
Planospira, Lam., 
PlanvUltes, Lam., 
Platalias, 
Platilia, 
Platilites, 
Platinites, 
; " striata, 

" Plenreterite.s, 

•' aniwcla. 

" bifasciata. 

•' concentricd , 

" divisa, 

" l.Ueiistriaia, 

" latiundata, 

■' obliqua, 

" steilata, 

" striata, 

Pleurinia, 
Plerobema, 

Pleurobranchus, Lam., 
Pleurocera, 

" acata, 

" angulata, 

" coneola, 

" fascial a, 

" gonula, 

" quadrosa, 

" retusa, 

" saxatilis, 

" turricula, 

" verrucosa, 

Pleuroma, Lam . 
Pleuropia, 
Pleuropteria, 
Pleuropns, 
Pleurotoma , 
Pleuroxis, 
Plicatnla, Lam., 
Pneumoderma, Cuv., 
Polarnaxia, 
Poleteria, 
Polithalus, 
Polizoon, 
Poliphonus, 
Polydectns, 
Polymesoda, 
Potamilae, 

" alatuB, 

" anratns, 

" ellipticas, 

'■ fasciatus, 

" fagciolaris, 



66 
65 
64 

64 
19 
19 
17 
21 
IP 
in 
16 
9. 16 
61 
t7 
18 
18 

20, 30, 68 

20, :V) 

21 

21 

64, 72. 7.5, 77 

18 

18. 24, 27 
92 
18 
lo 
18 
86 
J>6. 87 
24, 28 

28 
90 
91 
91 
91 
91 
91 
91 
91 
9(1 
91 
S6 
66 
17 
23, 25, 26, 66 
66 
23 
23 
13 
67 
67 
23 
22 
23 
6.5 
18 
16 
16 
16 
24 
24 
21 
9, 16 
15 
14 
13 
21 
19 
17 
61 
22, 24. 35 
22 
22 
22 
23 
22 



Potamilue fragilis, 
" gibbosus, 

" latissimus, 

" leptodnn. 

•' nervosn-'-, 

" niger, 

" nodosus, 

" obovalis, 

" obliquatns, 

■' phaiedrus. 

" pusillus, 

" retusus, 

" snbrotundns, 

" triqueter, 

" truDcatus, 

" tubercularif, 

" verrucosus. 

" violacinus, 

" zonalis, 

Potamiphus, 

Praxidlce, 

Productus, 

Prognella, 

Proptera, 

Psephides, 

'■ par.idoxa, 

Psilotns, Poli , 

Pterocera, Lam , 

Pteropodia 

Pterotrachia, Forsli., 

Pupa, Lam. 

Puparia, 

Purpura. Bruj<., 

Pyramidella, Lam , 

Pyrula, Lam., 

Quadrula. 

Kadiolita, Lam., 

Ropalitia, 

Rotalites, Lam., 

Rostellaria, Lam , 

Rotuudaria, 

RupcUaria, Fleuijaii, 

Rupicola, Fhieriaii, 

Sachondrus, 

" saccata, 

Sachroa, 

Saconites, 

" granlaris, 

Salpa, Linn., 

Salparia, 

Sanguinolaria, 

Sarcopterus, 

' ' ruber, 

Saxonus, 

Saxicava, Fl., 

Scalenaria. , 

Scyllea, Linn., 

Scytinoma, 

Scytinomia, 

Sephinia, 

Sepia, Linn., 
" mi'cronalai 

Seipula, Linn., 

Serpularia, 

Sigaretia, 

Sigaretus, Lam., 

Siliquaria, Lam., 

Sintoxia 

" lateralis, 

Siphalomphix, 

" bnnariensis 

Siphobranchia, 

Siphodon, 

Sipbonemns, 

Solarinm, Lam., 

Solen, Linn , 



22 

m 

22 

22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
22 
22 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
•22 
22 
s9 

18 

24,28, .30,87 90 
20 
44 
89 

88.89 
20 
19 
9, 10, 15 
9,16 
17 
17 
19 
IS 
19 
49 
21 
15 
15 
19 
42, .50, 52, 76 
19 
19 
21 
21 
•21 

24. 31 
ol 
21 
21 
19 
10,12. 16 
12 
IS 
19 
47, 52, 73. 76, 77 

10,16 
21 
21 
15 

11. 16 
11 
13 
13 
17 

17,33 
IS 
5^, 73. 7\ 76 
53 
93 
93 
19 
12 
13 

18,24 

19,84 



6 



INDEX. 



Solenaria, 
Spinifer, Sowb., 
Spirifer, 
Spirinea., 
SpiriUum, " 

Spiroglyphis, Daud., 
Spirographis. Viv., 
Spironites, Lam., 
Spironotia, 
Spirorbis, Daud., 
Spirilla, Lam., 
Spirvilaria, 
Spondylus, Lam., 
Stegomphix., 
Steniola, 

Stenodon, • 

Stenostoma, 

" convexa, 

Stenotoma, 
Stenoti'ema, 

" convexa. 

Stephastoma, 
Stephylla, 

" fusca, 

" luteecens, 

" pallida, 
Stomatella, Lam., 
Stomatia, Lam., 
Strigillaria., 
Strombia, 
Strombus, L., 
Strophesia, 
Strophitus. 
Strophomenes. 

" flexili.s, 

" levigata, 

Succinea, Drap., 
Snlcularia, 
Symphoma, 

Sympnonota bialata, Lea, 
Sympteru.s, 
Telistrophi.s, 

'• torsala, 

Tellina. 

Terebellum, Lam., 
Terebia, Brug., 
Terebraria, 
Terebratula, Lam., 
Terebratulite.s Eriensis, 
Terebrina, 
Teredaria, 
Teredo, Linn., 
Testacella, Lam., 
Te.-itacina, 
Tethydia, 
Tethys, L., 
Tetracea. 
Theoris, 
Thoena, 
Tigvias, 
Todarus, 

" argo, 
Torticella, 
Toxerites, 

" truncata, 
Toxolasma, 
Toxostoma, 

" globularis, 

Toxotrema. 

'• complanata, 

" globularis, 

Tremesia, 

" patelloides, 
Tremonia, 
Trem urus, 
Trichomecn.s, 



19 


Tridacna,|Bnig., 


20 


86 


Trigella, 


20 


24 


Trigonia, Brug., 


20 


13 


Trigonima, 


2S 


13 


" amygdaloideg, 


28 


13 


" nucularis, 


28 


l.S 


Trigorlma, 


24,86 


15 


Tiiodopsis, 


24,27,68 


14 


" lunula, 


68 


13,18 


Triton, L., 


16 


15 


Tritonia, Lam., 


16 


15 


Trochidia, 


18 


21 


Trochinia, 


17 


93' 


Trochites, 


66 


17 


Troehus, L., 


18,24 


24 


Trophodon, 


67 


67 


Trophodor, 


24 


67 


Truncilla, 24 


76, 77, 80 


24 


'' triqueter, 


77 


13,28 


" truncata. 


77 


28 


Trunculites, 


87, 90 


21 


Turbinellus, Lam-, 


18 


12,16 


Tiirbinacea, 


18 


12 


Turbo, L., 


18 


12 


Turbonus, 


18 


12 


Turrilites, Lam., 


15 


17 


Turritella, Lam., 


18 


17 


Tylodina, 


17,33 


19 


'• punctulata. 


33 


19 


Ungulina, Daud., 


20 


19 


Unio, 20, 29, 35, 36, 37, 46, 70 


83, 85. 92 


87 


" abruptus. Say, 


72 


59 


" alatUR Say, 


36,45 


69. 86, 87 


" (Proptera) alata, 


29 


69 


" (Lamp.silis) argyratuis. 


84 


69 


" (Obliquaria) atroviolacca, 


63 


17 


" " attenuata. 


49 


79,81,92 


" aurata, 


41,74 


21 


" badiu.s. 


77 


S5 


" (Obliquaria) bioolor, 


75 


17 


" (Epioblasma) biloba. 


72 


90 


" (Obliquaria) bullata. 


51 


90 


" " calendis. 


75 


20,24 


" " pallida. 


72 


19 


" (LampsiliB) cardium. 


43 


19 


" cariosus. Say, 


45 


19, 86 


" Caroliniana, Bcsc, 


35, 40 


21,24,30,86 


" (Obliq. and Axim.) castaueus, 


76 


68,69,90 


" chloris, 


76 


19 


" (Toxolasma) cineresceps, 


72 


24 


" (Obliquaria) Oliffordiana, 


63 


21 


'• compres.sus, 


77 


17 


" (Pleurobema) conica. 


29 


17 


" (Obovaria) cordata. 


55 


16 


" " var. ro.sea, 


56 


16 


" corrugata, 


86 


17 


" (Amblema) costata 


58 


17 


" cras.sus, Say. 


36,39,40 


15 


" crenulatus, 


77 


24 


" (Elliptio) crahHa, 


39 


15, 94, 95, 96 


" (Obovaria) crassa, 


29 


95, 96 


" cultratus, 


77 


93 


" (Pleurobema) cuneata. 


56 


24,28 


" " var. maculata. 


56 


28 


"* " " sulcata. 


56 


72 


" (Obliquaria) cuprea. 


48,75 


24, 67 


" (Toxolasma) cyclips, 


72 


67 


var. fuscata. 


72 


28 


" lutescenp. 


72 


28 


" cylindrica, Say, 


36,43 


28 


" (Obliquaria) cyphia. 


49 


62 


" " decorticata. 


46 


62 


" debiscens. Say, 


92 


12 


" depressa. 


77 


18 


■ (Obliquaria) depressa, 


47 


17 


'■ (Plagiola) depressa, 


29 



INDEX. 



nlo (MdtapteraLdlaphana, 
" (Elliptio) (jRatata, 


74 


Unio (Obliquaria) pusiila, 


62 


42 


" quadrula, 


61 


" (Eurynia) " 


29 


" recta, 


77 


" (Obliquaria) " 


75 


" (Obliquaria) reflexa. 


50 


" (Lampsilis) diploderma, 


73 


" (Obliq. and Obov ) retusa. 


29,51,77 


" elegans, 


77 


" ridibundus. 


70 


" (Obligaaria) ellipsaiia. 


48, 56 


" (Eurynia) rimosa, 


74 


" var. fusca, 


4S 


" (Obliquaria) rivularis, 


76 


" ellipta, 


49 


" (Lampsilis) rosea, 


* 44 


" (Elliptio) elliptica, 


42 


" (Obliquaria) rubra, 


57 


" elliptica, 


75,84 


var. lineata, 


57 


" elliptio, 


57 


" pallida, 


57 


" (Elliptio) fasciata. 


40,41 


" " scalenia. 


53 


var. alternata, 


40 


" (Bar. and Eury.) solenoides, 


29,43 


" cuprea, 


40 


" (Obovaria) stegaria. 


55 


" nigrofasciata, 


40 


var. fasciolata, 


55 


" (Lampsilis) fasciola, 


44,73 


" tuberculata, 


.J5 


" (Obliq. and Plagiola) fasciolaris 


29.48 


" " striata, 


54 


" " " fiava. 


29,.S8,'49 : 


var. rosea. 


55 


" (Obliquaria) flexuosa. 


50 j 


" tuberculata, 


55 


var. buUata. 


51 ! 


" (Obov. aud Obliq.) subrotunda 


29,52 


" (Toxolasma) flexus, 


73 1 


var. maculatn, 52 


" (Obliquaria) fontinalis, 


76 


" (Obovaria) syntoxis. 


29 


" (Elliptio) frafiilis, 


41 


" (Obliquaria) teneltns, 


75 


var. fuscata. 


41 


" (Elliptio) teres. 


63 


" (Lampsilis) fulgens, 


84 


" (Obovaria) torsa. 


29, 54 


" (Eurynia) falva. 


74 


var. margiuata, 


54 


'• (Amblema) gibbosa. 


58 


" (Amblema) torulosa. 


."<7, 72 


var. diffovmis, 


.)8 


var. angulata, 


57 


" olivacea, 


58 


" (Obliquaria) triangular!.*. 


53 


" radiata, 


58 


" (Trancilia) triqueter. 


29, 45 


" (Truncilla) granulatu.s. 


77 


" " truncata. 


29, 46 


" (Obliquaria) interrupta. 


47, 4S 


var. fusca, 


4<J 


" (Metaptera) lasmabrancUys, 


74 


" ve.imiculata. 


46 


" (Eurynea & Elliptio) latissima. 


29, 42, 77 


" (Obliquaria) tuberculata. 


52 


" (Elliptio ii Plagiola) leptodon, 


29,40,41 


" uiululata. Say, 


60 


var. olivacea, 41 


" (Obliquaria) venus. 


75,84 


" semi-i 


adiata, 41 


" (Obliq. and Plag.) verrucosa. 


29,48 


" (Elliptio) levigata, 


42, 76 


" (Obliquaria) violacea. 


75 


•• (Obliquaria) lineolata, 


47,49 


" (Elliptio) viridis. 


38, 39, 41 


" (Toxolasma) lividus, 


72 


var. fuscata, 


39 


" (Aletaptera) megaptera. 


42 


" radiata^ 


39 


" (Obliquaria) metanevra. 


.JO 


" (Lamp-silis) vittatus. 


73 


'• metaplana, 


77 


" (EUijitio) z.malis, 


42 


" (Eurynia) montana, 


73 


Uniodia, 


37 


" (Plenrobema) mytiloides, 


20, 56 


Diiiouea, 


20 


" nasuta, Say, 


41,48,49 


Urcinella, 


17 


" (Elliptio) nervosa, 


41 


Vaginella, Daud., 


13 


" " nigra, 


37, 38 


Valvata, Jlull., 


18 


var. fusca. 


39 


Veiiericardia, Lam., 


20 


" uiaculata. 


39 


Veueridia, 


20 


" nodosa, 


43 


Venulites, Lam., 


1.^ 


" uodulata, 


51 


Venus, L., 


20 


" (Obliq. and Plagiola) obliquata 


29, 53 


Vermetinia, 


13 


" (Obovaria) obovalis. 


29. .54 


Verraetns, Boissy, 


la 


'• ochraceus. Say, 


4(1.45 


Vermicularia, Lam., 


18 


" Ohiensis, 


35 


Vertigo, Mull. 


18 


" (Amblema) olivaria, 


57 


Vestiarius, 


18 


var. dilatata, 


57 


Vibfx, 


18 


'• fasciolaris, 


57 


Vitrina, Drap., 


17 


" oriens. Lea., 


92 


Vivipara, Lam., 


18,27 


" (Lampsilis) ovata. Say, 


36,44 


Viviparella, 


18 


" (Obovaria) pachostea, 


54,64 


Voluta, 


19, 24, 93 


" (Obliquaria) pallens, 


76 


Volutidia, 


19 


" paphos, 


97 


Volv^fei, Lam , 
Vulsem, Lam., 


19 


" (Prop and Lamp.) pallida. 


29, 44 


20 


" perplexus, 


96 


Xototiema, 


24, 27, 68 


" (Proptera) phaiedra. 


29 


" clausa. 


68 


" pictorum, 


40 


" lunula. 


27 


" (Obliquaria) plateolus, 


75 


" triodopsib, 


27 


" plicata, Lesueur, 


40 


Zeuxonia, 


16 


" (Bariosta) pouderosus. 


73 


Zilotea, 


17 


" premorsus. 


77 


Zonarites, 


69 


" punetatus, 


77 


" atrata, 


69 


" purpurea, Say, 


40 


" tesselata, 


69 



Tl.LXXX 




C. S ■ [naJiimjuiaf^ 



Xttk ■ c/jUi JvivncwU 













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