Skip to main content

Full text of "Compositae newsletter"

See other formats





C€/HI3€SIT4 
# NEWSLETTER 

Number 30 June 1997 



Scientific Editor: Bertil Nordenstam 

Technical Editor: Gunnel Wirenius Nohlin 

Published and distributed by The Swedish Museum of Natural History, 

Department of Phanerogamic Botany, 

P.O. Box 50007, 

S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden 

(Director: Professor Bertil Nordenstam) 



ISSN 0284-8422 



CONTENTS 



AUG I '?. 1997 



C. Perez Morales, F. Llamas Garcd, C. Acedo Casado & A. Penas Merino: 
Typificaiion and definition of Doronicum austriacum Jacq. (Asteraceae) 1 

M.S. Ayodele: Studies on the reproductive biology of Vernonia Schreb. 

(Asteraceae). IV. Seasonal flowering sequence among plant forms of 

Vernonia in Nigeria 5 

A. Badr, E. Abdelrazik Kamel & N. Garcia-Jacas: Chromosomal studies 
in the Egyptian flora. VI. Karyotype features of some species in subfamily 
Asteroideae (Asteraceae) 15 

J. L. Reveal: Early suprageneric names in Asteraceae 29' 

Bertil Nordenstam: Nomenclatural notes on Ecuadorian Senecioneae 46 

M. Idu & L.S. Gill: Nature of ergastic substances in some West African 
Asteraceae seeds - VIII 50 

A. Ouyahya: La germination et le pouvoir germinatif de quelques Artemisia 

du Maroc 57 



Comp. Newsl. 30. 1997 



TYPIFICATION AND DEFINITION OF 

DORONICUM AUSTRIACUM JACQ. 

(ASTERACEAE) 



C. Perez Morales, F. Llamas Garca, C. Acedo Casado & A. Penas Merino 

Department of Plant Biology (Botany) 

University of Leon 

E-24071 Leon 

Spain 



Abstract 

This study tries to clarify the morphological differential characters of Doronicum 
austriacum (Asteraceae). Until now they were not clearly defined, mainly those 
referring to the presence or absence of some types of trichomes in its indumentum. 
Furthermore, tiiking into account Jacquin's protologue as well as materials 
attributable to him, we consider as Icctotype o[ Doronicum austriacum, a specimen 
from the original materials dejxjsited in the Herbarium LINN. 



Introduction 

Doronicum austriacum Jacq., is a confiictive taxon with some identification 
problems when using the current keys, because the differential characters usually 
employed are not diagnostic enough to make a correct identification. 

Various workers have added a series of corrections and interpretations to the 
protologue resulting in a lack of knowledge about the taxon considered by different 
authors as D. austriacunt 

In order to differentiate it from its closest relatives {D. pardalianches L., D. 
carpetanum Boiss. & Reuter ex Willk., D. cataractarum Widder) the shape of the 
lower leaves and the planindumentum have been used as the most significative 
characters. Neither in the consulted floras nor in specific papers, exists total 
concordance among the authors relating to the commented characters, and the 
biggest contradictions are those related with the indumentum, that on the other 



Conip.Newsl.30, 1997 



hand is one of the laxonomic characters most employed now, because of its high 
differential value at specific level (Perez Morales & Penas Merino 1990, Perez 
Morales et al. 1994). 

Jacquin (1774), when describing D. austriacwn, pointed out the presence of hairs 
on both sides of the leaves, stems and bracts, but he did not say they were 
glandular. Amo Y Mora (1872), Rouy (1903) and Fiori (1984) agreed with Jacquin 
considering this is a plant more or less hairy. Coste (1937) and Guinochct & 
Vilmorin (1982) added that the involucral bracts lack glandular hairs. But Cavillier 
(191 1), Ferguson (1975), Pignatti (1982) and Hegi (1987) said D. austriacum has a 
glandular indumentum at least in some parts of the plant. 



Results and Discussion 

In our former studies on the genus, we have observed specimens identified by 
other authors as D. austriacum having glandular hairs all over the plant, and other 
specimens lacking this hair type on the involucral bracts, peduncles and stems. 
Using the current keys both specimen types can be included in D. austriacum 
because of little precision in the use of the indumentum character. But only the 
specimens lacking glandular hairs on the involucral bracts, peduncles and stems 
agree with the protologuc where there is no mention of the presence of this kind of 
trichomes. 

Because of these incongruences we became interested in the search of Jacquin's 
original material in different European herbaria. In LIV, the few sheets atuibutable 
to Jacquin contain plants from the West Indies. In UPS there is not any sheet of D. 
austriacum. In B, neither in the general herbarium nor in the Willdenow collection 
exist specimens of D. austriacum attributable to Jacquin. In OXF, in the Shcrardian 
Collections, there is a specimen of D. austriacum attributiible to Jacquin. When we 
observed that specimen we saw the presence of glandular hairs on the involucral 
bracts and on the peduncle. Jacquin did not mention this kind of trichomes in the 
proiologue. In BM, now there is no Jacquin material because they have been 
moved to LINN. There, there iirc two sheets numbered 1(X)2.3 and 1(X)2.4 labelled 
as D austriacum. When wc examined those two sheets wc realized ihcy belong to 
two different laxa. We observed in one of them (KX)2.4) chiiracters agreeing with 
the protologue and with other material studied by us, lacking glandular hairs. The 
specimen of the sheet 1(X)2.3, on the other hand, docs not agree with the 
protologue, but has great similarity with D. pubescens C. Percy. Morales, A. Penas, 
F. Llamas & C. Acedo, because it is glandular-pubescent all over the plant. 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



So, because Jacquin does not mention in the protologue the presence of glandular 
hairs, we designate as Icctotype of D. austriacum, the only specimen of the sheet 
1002.4. Its label, placed on the left side, reads: n° 175/ D. austriacum, and on the 
right side of the specimen is written on the sheet: a iacquin/austriacum. 



Acknowledgements 

This work was supported by the Spanish CICYT grant NAT 90-087 1-C03 -01. 

We are grateful to Dr. J.E. Jarvis for his help in the search of material, and the 
Curators of the consultated Herbaria who gave us information. 



Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



References 

Amo y Mora, M. del 1872. Flora Fanerogdmica de la Peninsula Iberica. IV: 
2554. Granada. 

Cavllller, F. 1911. Novuelles etudes sur le genre Doronicum. Annuaire du Con- 
servatoire et duJardin Botaniques de Geneve 13-14: 195-368. 

Coste, J. 1937. Flore descriptive et illustree de la France, de la Corse et des 
contrees limitrophes. 2: 296. Paris. 

Ferguson, I.K. 1976. Doronicum L. In: Tutin T.G., Hcywood, V.H., Burges, 
N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Wallers, S.M. & D.A. Webb (eds.). Flora 
Europaea 4: 190- 19 1 . Cambridge. 

Fiori, A. 1984. Nuova Flora Analiiica D' Italia. Vol. II: 602. Florencia. 

(Juinochet, M. 1982. Doronicum L. In: Guin(x;hct, M. & R. Vilmorin, Flore de 
France A: 1465-1466. Paris. 

Hegi, G. 1987. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. Teil 4: 710-714. Berlin. 

.Jaqcuin, N.J. von 1774. Flora Austriaca, Vol. 2. Vienna. 

Perez Morales, C. & A. Penas Merino 1990. Sobre algunos Doronicum ibcricos. 
Lagascalia \5 {2): 151-160. 

Perez Morale.s, C. Penas Merino, A., Llamas, F. &. C. Acedo 1994. Doronicum 
puhescens sp. nov. Lazaroa 14: 5-12. 

Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora D' Italia 3: 1 13-1 17. Bolonia. 

Rouy, M.(J. 1903. Le genre Doronicum dans la llore europcene et dans la flore 
allantique. Revue de Botanique Systenuilique et de Gcographie Botanique 2: 
17-56. 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 5 

STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF 
VERNONIA SCHREB. (ASTERACEAE) 

IV. Seasonal flowering sequence among 
plant forms of Vernonia In Nigeria 



M.S. Ayodele 

Biological Sciences Department 

University of Agriculture 

P M B 2240 

Abeokuta, Nigeria 



Abstract 

The flowering sequences of 15 species of Vernonia, representing five growth forms 
(habits) are reported. 

Two major modes of llowering, and their viirianus, were identified among species 
investigated. These were the synchronised bl(X)ming and fruiting phases, common 
among the arborescent species; and the intermittent blooming/fruiting and 
vegetative growth common among the shrubby and herbaceous species. 

Flower production sequence, by the shrubby and herbaceous growth forms, was 
influenced by the rainfall regime of their locations (i.e. habitats). Difference in 
flowering periods among the species may be one isolation mechanism in the 
evolution and in preserving species identity in Nigerian species of Vernonia. 



Introduction 

Species of the genus Vernonia display different plant forms (i.e. growth habits) 
namely: arborescent, shrubby and herbaceous forms. There are annuals, 
herbaceous or woody perennials, and scramblers. There are also weedy climbers or 
stragglers (Hutchinson & Dalziel 1963, Faust 1972, Olorode 1984). The various 
growth forms have different types of inflorescence. However, some types of 
inflorescence cut across a number of growth forms (Ayodele 1994). 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



Inflorescence types are associated with adaptation to habitats and pollinators. 
Certain reproductive strategies have also been identified with the different types of 
inflorescence (Hcywocxl ct al. 1977 and Ayodclc 1994). 

Flowering is a phase of development in plants, regulated by factors external (and 
sometimes internal) to the plant. Of all phenological events in plants, the onset of 
flowering is considered the most significant. This is because it marks the transition 
of the plant from a vegetative to a reproductive mode (Black & Edelman 1970, 
Lawn et al. 1995). 

The objective of this paper is to report the observations made on the flowering 
phase of the development of different species of Vernonia, as they occurred among 
field papulations and plants of Vernonia raised in experimental garden and 
screenhouse. 



Materials and methods 

Series of field trips, covering different ecological locations of Vernonia in Nigeria, 
were made. Rcgukir observations were recorded on field populations during the 
fiowering periods for three consecutive growing seasons (1989-1992). The 
fiowering events in the experimental garden and screenhouse were regularly 
monitored and compared with those of the plants in the wild. This was done at the 
different devclopmcniiil stiiges of the plants during each growing season. 

Randomly .selected plants (25 per sp)ecies, where abundant) were marked with 
labels for regular enu-ics in the garden. Data collected included: date of 
sowing/transplanting; date of appearance of Howcr buds; fiower buds at anthesis; 
llower maturation lime (i.e. number of days to first bkx)m of the plants); period of 
continuous bl(X)m in the plants. For this study, the flowering period of a species 
was taken as the period when 50 % or more in a population were in flower. 

The means and standard deviation of all dalii collected were estimated. The ranges 
of flowering initiation and period of continuous flowering were also estimated. The 
yearly period of flowering for each species, was graphically represented for 
comparison of all the species investigated, at the different locations. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



Results and discussion 

Growth forms in Vernonia 

Five growth forms were recorded, namely: Erect tall woody tree. Erect woody 
shrub, Straggling woody shrub, Erect annual herb and Erect perennial herb 
(Table 1). The growth habit of V. amygdalina is noteworthy. Plants of this species, 
growing around homestead and subjected to regular topping, were observed to be 
flowering shrubs. Whereas planus growing at more distant locations, where they 
had uninterrupted growth, were observed to be tall trees with stem girth as large as 
the arboreous species V. conferta. 



Flowering and rainfall regime relationship at different locations 

The period of rainfall varied among the locations of Vernonia. There was the 
longer, dual peak (April - October) rainfall in locations towards the southern part 
of the country; and the shorter, single peak (June - October) up North in the 
savanna zone. 

The period of availability of large populations of species of Vernonia in the wild, 
coincided with the period of abundant rainfall at the different locations. This was 
also the stage of luxurious vegetative growth in the native habitats of the species. 
The duration of this stage was detennined by the duration of the rains. The 
beginning of the rainy season signals among others: the production of new shoots 
by perennial trees and shrubs; shrubs in burnt locations, e.g. V. tenoreana, develop 
new shoots from underground rootstocks; fruits dispersed from the herbaceous 
species during the previous season, commence germination, and seedlings develop 
to flowering adult plants. 

The vegetative phase is longer in plants growing at locations with longer rainfall 
period. Commencement and duration of flowering were different, even for the 
same species (e.g. V. galamensis) occurring in locations with differing rainfall 
regimes. However, accessions of this species from different locations, when raised 
in the garden/screen-house, flowered and remained in flower for the same duration. 



Mode of flowering among the plants of Vernonia 

There were major similarities, differences and overlaps in the mode and duration 
of flowering among the different species and plant forms (Table 1, Fig. 1). 



Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



The synchronised flowering and fruiting sequence was common among the 
arboreous species (e.g. V. conferia and V. colorata) and some herbs (e.g. 
V. nesior). Plants of these species were usually found in bloom about the same 
period of the year, irrespective of the location. A blooming stage is followed by the 
fruiting stage, during which plants are found to carry flower or fruits of about the 
same stage of development at all locations. This occurs usually only during the dry 
season; between the end of a rainy season and the beginning of another 
(November - March, Fig. 1). The strong wind which accompanies the first rains 
each year, sweeps clean all plant canopies still carrying undispersed fruits. 

The second mode was the intermittent alternation of flowering/fruiting and 
vegetative growth; common among the shrubs and majority of the herbaceous 
species investigated. Flowers and fruits at different developmenial stages, could be 
found on the plants at any time of the growing season. Flowering is prolonged in 
these species, up to 7 months in V. tenoreana (Fig. 1). The moisture status of a 
location enhanced the duration of flowering in the species. The observed 
differences in the time and duration of flowering in for instance, V. tenoreana, 
V. stenosiegia and V. kotschyana, all shrubs occurring at different locations in the 
wild (Figs. 1 & 2), were eliminated when the three species were grown in the 
garden and screenhouse. 

Flowering period among the herbaceous sp)ecies varied among plant populations at 
different locations and was generally shorter in duration than among the other plant 
forms (Fig. 1, Table 1). 

The case of V. cinerea is pertinent for mentioning. There is hcirdly any time of the 
year that a population of V. cinerea cannot be found flowering in any of its native 
habitats (Fig. 1). The species was observed capable of thriving at locations with 
minimal moisture status, producing its flowers relatively earlier than the other 
species. They were thus readily located on lawns and among ornamental planLs as 
weeds throughout the year. The adaptational success of V. cinerea had earlier 
earned it the "pantropical species" title (Jones 1974). This success was reported 
(Ayodelc 1992; as suggesting the potentials for an "all purpose genotype" earlier 
highlighted by Baker (1965). 



Flowering among growth forms cohabiting in similar habitats 

Some species of Vernonia of different growth habits coexisted in similar habitats. 
Certain species were capable of growing in mosiiic habilaLs. Arboreous species 
were found in rainforest area. The majority of the herbaceous fonns, and some 
shrubby forms, were found in both the derived savanna and Guinea savanna areas. 



Cotnp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



Certain herbs were restricted to the drier Sahel and Guinea savanna area, e.g. 
V. ambigua, V. neslor and V. perrolielii. 

The dry habitats in the Sahel and Guinea savanna have a short wet season. 
Vernonia sj)ecies growing in these habitats were characterized by a short period of 
vegetative growth, early flowering initiation and short period of flowering 
(Table 1, Fig. 1), when compared with sp)ecies growing in wet habitats further 
south in the country. 

The plants of these species in the drier areas (especially the herbs) were by various 
adaptations able to ensure the rapid completion of their life cycle within the period 
of the short growing season, characteristic of savanna grassland. 

Flowering in arboreous species was more overlapping with that in the shrubs and 
later than within the herbs (Fig. 1, Table 1). There was a greater overlapping of 
flowering period among the herbs and the shrubs and between the two growth 
forms. The interesting case of V. migeodi (a herb) and V^. glaberrima (a shrub) is 
noteworthy. 

Both are species of dry habitats common in Guinea savanna and derived savanna 
locations. The two species were usually found growing in a competitive 
community which included tall grasses and tall-growing shrubs. Vernonia migeodi 
and V. glaberrinia usually concluded their flowering and fruiting processes earlier 
in the year than the other species of Vernonia with similar growth habits (Fig. 1). 
They were the first colonies of plants, vegetatively regenerated or by seed 
germination in the different kx;ations. This is with regard to plant succession in 
their communities, especially after the annual grassland fires. These species flower 
early enough to produce fruits that are dispersed before the plants are smothered 
out or shaded by other tall-growing members of the community. 

Similarities and differences in flowering periods for species within the same 
habitats are relevant for the production of natural hybrids. The potential for 
hybridization in Vernonia is reported high (Jones 1972). Cases of natural and 
artificial hybridization are rather common place occurrence between species of 
Vernonia in the Americas (Jones 1966, Berry et al. 1970, Faust 1972, Jones 1972 
and 1973, Lai & Lessman 1974). Jones (1977) reported that natural hybrids among 
species are common in Vernonia and often make classification difficult at species 
level. Reports are scanty on the preponderance of natural hybrids among Nigerian 
species of Vernonia. 

However, in spite of the seemingly easy hybridization in the genus, there are 
isolating mechanisms which preserve the essential integrity of the species of 
Vernonia. These include ecological, seasonal, geographical isolating mechanisms 



10 Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



and in certain combinations, hybrid inviability or sterility in later generations 
(Jones 1976). Of all these, ecological isolation was noted as esj)ecially significant 
(Jones 1968 and 1972). 

It would be of interest to investigate the occurrence of natural hybrids at the 
locations where there are overlaps in flowering season among the species of 
Vernonia. 

There are current efforts to domesticate some species of Vernonia, e.g. 
V-'. galamcnsis as oilseed crop (Perdue & Dierig 1994). The present investigation 
on flowering sequence reveals the economical advantage of growing species like 
V^. galamensis in the dry locations, where the vegetative growth is reduced and the 
flowering initiation and period are shorter than in the wet locations. 



References 

Aoydele, M.S. 1992. Cytogenetic and reproductive studies on some species of 
Vernonia Schreb. (Asteraceae) in Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo 
University, Ile-lfc, Nigeria. 290 pp. 

Ayodele, M.S. 1994. Studies on the reproductive biology of Vernonia Schreb. 
(Asteraceae). 1. Types of inflorescence among different growth habits. Comp. 

Newsl. 25: 15-23. 

Baker, H.(J. 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker, H.G. 
& G.L. Stcbbins (eds.). Genetics of colonising species, pp. 147-168. Academic 
Press, New York. 

Berry, CD., Lessman, K.J. & C.A. White 1970. Natural cross-fertilization in 

Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. Crop Science 10: 104-105. 

Black, M. & .1. Edelman 1970. Plant Growth. Hcincman Educational Books Ltd., 
London, 193 pp. 

Dierij», D.A. 1994. Domcsiicalion of Vernonia galamcnsis, a new epoxy fauy acid 
oil.sccd crop. Progress reports for AMFRR Program. USDA-ARS US. Water 
Conscrv. Lab. 

Faust, W.Z. 1972. A biosysiemaiic study of the Interiores species group of genus 
Vernonia (Compositac). Brittonia 24: 363-378. 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 11 



Heyvv(M)d, W.H,, Harborne, .I.B. & B.L. Turner 1977. An overture to the 
Compositac. In: Hcywcxxl, V.H., Harborne, J.B. & B.L. Turner (eds.). The 
Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae 1: 1-20. Academic Press, London & 
New York. 

Hutchinson, J. & J.M. Dalziel 1963. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 2°" ed. 
revised by F.N. Hepper Vol. 2: 271-283. Crown Agents, London. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1966. Experimental hybridization in Vernonia (Compositae). 
Brittonia 18: 19-44. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1968. An example of a Vernonia hybrid in a disturbed habitat. 
Rhodoral0-Am-A9\. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1972. A systematic study of the Fasciculatae group of Vernonia 
(Compositae). Brittonia 24: 28-45. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1973. Revision of Vernonia Section Eremosis (Compositae), in 
North America. Brittonia 24: 86-1 15. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1974. Vemonieae (Compositae). Chromosome numbers. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club lOl: 1-34. 

Jones, S.B. Jr 1976. Cytogenetics and affinities of Vernonia (Compositae) from 
the Mexican highlands and eastern North America. Evolution 30: 455-462. 

Jone.s, S.B. Jr 1977. Vemonieae - systematic review. In: Hey wood, V.H., 
Harborne, J.B. & B.L. Turner (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the 
Compositae 1: 503-521. Academic Press, London & New York. 

Lai, W.Y. & K.J. Lessnian 1974. Combining ability for eight characters of a 
four-parent diallele cross in Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Wilid. Crop Science 
14: 569-571. 

Lawn, R J., Summerfield, R.J., Ellis, R.H., Oi, A., Roberts, E.H., Chay, P.M., 
Brouwer, J.B., Rose, J.L. & S.J. Yeates 1995. Towards the reliable 
prediction of time to flowering in six annual crops VI. Applications in crop 
improvement. Expl. Agric. 31: 89-108. 

Olorode, O. 1984. Taxonomy of West African Flowering Plants. Longman Group 
Ltd., London & New York. 158 pp. 

Perdue, R.E. Jr 1989. Preliminary trials of Vernonia galamensis. Update Report 
on planting guidelines USDA Gcrmplasm Introduction and Evaluation Lab. 
Bellsville, MD. USA. 



12 



Comp. Newsl.3n, 1997 



.2 

a. 

.55 









C5 

* 



C3 
U 
3 

.2 

ex 



^ 
u. 






= 5^ 
s ' ♦ 

eg c « 

o 



I 5 



c 



-a -o -o 
o o o 



2 8 



(/I (/I t/l C/5 

>, >> >~. >-. lA l/l 

CT3 C^ C^ C^ >^ >^ 

"O T3 "O "O n» t« 

o o o o ;5 !H 

-— oo oo in O Q 

<N1 — ^ — 00 Ov 



S 5 o 



>^ >^ U1 (/) W CO 

"O "O P3 e^ n3 c^ 

O O -O -O T3 T3 

oo OO O ■^ O O 

^- -- r~- IX) u~) in 



X) X2 ^ ^ 



i^ 



>-. X) -D ^ X3 ^ 



u <u u u 



ti -c J= 



ji; ^ j= j:: 



15 15 



>-, >s >-, >■ 






ti3 ti] 







— r4r*^'t«/l>Cr-~3C^ 



o ^ «s m •* wi 



? 




13 




BU 








•p 


.s 


X 


§ 


u 


t> 




-1 


-b 


7^ 


s 


fe. 


V, 




■^ 


n 




fr; 


i^ 


<*- 


s 


o 


p. 


8 


u 


T 


o 


u 


UL 


Q- 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



13 




Q> 

Z 

c 



o 

c 
o 

c 

c 

o 

> 



fi» c 
to 

C (A 



M 



•- 



• E 






14 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



Fig- Z Map of Nigeria Showing the locational dislributic 
of Some Species of Vernonio . 

(Key to numerals are as in Table I ) 



REPUBLIC OF NIGER 



5/ 



// Sokoto 




12 



14 
13 



12 



o 



C9 

a 



15 I2l 



\"'5'n|| 



12 



II 

iKoduifl 



13 



12 



J4 



l( 



iMoldugu 



14 



13 



14 



.BauchI 



6 14 ,4 V 



12 
13 



13 5 



14 



13. 



rolq 



10 



Ab^kJ 



Maki 



I I 



■Ikth 



I ■Bfflr 



■ Enu 



\\ 



to I 



KEY 



Bight or 
B anln 



■^t 



International boundary 
State boundary 
State capital 
Vornonia confer ta 



lOOK/n 



2 


Vornonia 


amygdallna 


3. 


Vernonia 


colorata 


4. 


Vemonia 


tenoreana 


5. 


Vernonia 


stenostegia 


6. 


Vernonia 


Kotschyana 


7. 


Vernonia 


glaberrima 


8. 


Vernonia 


biafroe 


9 


Vernonia 


migeodi 


10. 


Vernonia 


cinerca 


II. 


Vernonia 


galamensis 


1?.. 


Vernonia 


ambigua 


13. 


Vernonia 


perroltef ti 


14. 


Vornonia 


nef^tor 


15. 


Vernonia 


purpurea 



Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 15 

CHROMOSOMAL STUDIES IN THE EGYPTIAN 

FLORA VI. KARYOTYPE FEATURES OF SOME 

SPECIES IN SUBFAMILY ASTEROIDEAE 

(ASTERACEAE) 



Abdelfattah Badr' 

Ehab Abdelrazik Kaniel^ 

Nuria Garcia-Jacas' 

^ Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt 

^ Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Education, 

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 

^Institut Botanic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 



Abstract 

In this paper, chromosome numbers of 23 species from ihe flora of Egypt — 
including four new counts — , distributed in six tribes of subfamily Asteroideae 
(Asteraceae), are reported. Detailed karyotype features, i. e. chromosome length 
(MCL) and karyotype asymmetry expressed as arm ratio (MAR), total form p)er- 
cent (TF%), intrachromosomal asymmetry index (Al) and interchromosomal 
asymmetry index (A2), are described. 



Introduction 

The Asteraceae are represented in the Egyptian wild flora by 93 genera and 230 
species (Tackholm 1974). The family is also represented in the weeds of Egypt by 
26 species (Boulos & El-Hadidi 1989). 

The Asteraceae show a great array of chromosome numbers. Following Solbrig 
(1977), numbers vary from as low as n = 2 in Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt.) Gray 
and Brachycome linear itoba (DC.) Druce to as high as n = 103 in Werneria apicu- 
lata Sch. Bip., n = 106 in Werneria nubigena Kunth, and n = 1 10-120 in Monta- 
noa guatemalensis Robins. & Grccnm. However, the most common basic number 
in the family is x = 9. 



16 Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



The members of the family in the Egyptian flora have not been a subject of exten- 
sive cytological investigations, but Nordenstam (1972) reported chromosome 
counts from 24 species of Egyptian Asieraceae. Also, chromosome numbers of 
some species which grow in Egypt are known from chromosome counts in plants 
from near floras, particularly that of Europe. In the present study, chromosome 
numbers and detailed karyotype features of 23 Egyptian species belonging to 
subfamily Asteroideae are reported. 



Material and methods 

Material of 23 species belonging to six tribes of the subfamily Asteroideae was 
collected from their natural habitats. The studied species and the localities from 
which they were collected are given in Table 1. Collectors are in all the cases A. 
Badr and E. Kamel. Vouchers of the collections are preserved in the herbarium of 
the Biological Science and Geology Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams 
University (Egypt). 

Cytological preparations were carried out on root lips obtained from seeds 
germinated on sterile moist filter papers in Petri dishes at 20-25° C. Roots were pre- 
treated with 0.05% colchicine solution for 3-4 h and fixed in Camoy for 24 h and 
stored in 70% ethanol at 4°C. Cytological preparations were made using the 
Feulgen squash method and well-spread c-metaphase chromosomes were photo- 
graphed from temporary preparations at a magnification of 2CXX)x. Slides of the 
original karyotypes are also preserved in the Laboratory of Cytogenetics of the 
same department. 

A karyogram for each species was constructed by arranging the chromosomes in 
homologous pairs by order of their length and arm ratio as measured from the pho- 
tographic prints and the number of chromosome types were determined as de- 
scribed by Levan & al. (1965). Measurements of chromosome lengths were taken 
on the same photographs of the karyogram. Karyograms are based in one plate. 

The variation in chromosome length (MCL) and chromosome arm ratio (MAR) 
within the karyotype has been estimated by calculating the standard error (SE) of 
these parameters. Karyotype asymmetry deduced from the ratio between the short 
arms of the chromosomes and their toiiil length was expressed as loiiil form percent 
(TF%) as proposed by Hu/iwara (1962). Karyotype asymmetry expressed by the 
ratio between the chromosome arms has been also estimated as the intrachromo- 
.somal a.symmctry index (Al) as suggested by Romero Zarco (1986). 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 17 



The value of Al is framed as to be close to zero if all chromosomes are meta- 
centric and near to one if all chromosomes are telocentric. Karyotype asymmetry 
due to the ratio between size of different chromosomes has been also estimated as 
the interchromosomal asymmetry index (A2) using Pearson's dispersion coeffi- 
cient, that is the ratio between the standard deviation and the mean chromosome 
length (Romero Zarco 1986). 

The existence of previous chromosome counts for the studied species has been 
verified in the indexes of plant chromosome numbers by Fcdorov (1969), Goldblatt 
(1981, 1984, 1985, 1988), Goldblatt & Johnson (1990, 1991, 1994, 1996) and 
Moore (1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1977). 



Results and discussion 

The cytological features of the 23 investigated species are summarised in Table 1. 

Tribe Anthemideae 

The chromosome numbers and karyolyjx; description are shown for six species of 
this tribe. One of them {Achillea fragrantissima) is reported for the first time 
(Table 1). Somatic number of 2n = 2x = 18 is found in Achillea fragrantissima, 
Charnomilla recutita and Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2n = 4x = 36 is recorded in 
Achillea santolina and Artemisia monosperma. In Artemisia judaica, 2n = 2x = 16 
is recorded. The same chromosome numbers have been reported previously for 
Achillea santolina, Artemisia judaica, Charnomilla recutita and Chrysanthemum 
coronarium. In this last species both diploid (2n = 18) and tetraploid (2n = 36) 
numbers were recorded. Our report of 2n = 36 in Artemisia monosperma differs 
from that of Nordenstam (1972), who found 2n = 34 in materials from Egypt. 

In the tribe Anthemideae, x = 9 seems to be the dominant basic number: it is re- 
corded in five of the six species examined here. Only in Artemisia judaica (2n = 
16) a basic number of x = 8 is reported. In the genus Artemisia, Fedorov (1969) 
listed this chromosome number of x = 8 in 21 species, whereas x = 9 was listed 
in 123 species of the genus. Valles (1987) and Oliva & Valles (1994) confirm that 
X = 9 is dominant in the genus. 

The highest MCL (4.20* 0. 16* ) is recorded in Chrysanthemum coronarium, 
whereas the shortest MCL (1.91 • 0.11«) in Achillea fragrantissima. The chromo- 
somes in this tribe are clearly longer than those of other tribes (Table 1). 



18 Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



Karyotypes of the six species include only metacentric and submetacentric 
chromosomes (Fig. 1, A-F) with close similarity between them in the MAR values: 
the highest (1. 50* 0.09) is recorded in Artemisia monosperma and the lowest 
(1. 39* 0.09) in both Artemisia judaica and Chrysanthemum coronarium. Similar 
high values of TF% are also found in the examined species of this tribe. The high 
degree of karyotype symmetry in these species is also indicated by similar Al and 
A2 values (Table 1). 



Tribe Astereae 

The Astereae are represented in this study by Aster squamaius and Conyza 
linifolia. Chromosome number of Aster squamatus is 2n = 2x = 20, while in 
Conyza linifolia 2n = 6x = 54 is scored. Both numbers were previously recorded. 
The MCL is 1.48«0.12» in Aster squamatus and 1.02»0.06» in C. linifolia. The 
latter species has the shortest chromosomes among the species studied (Fig. 1, G 
and H). Aster squamatus has a higher MAR and a lower TF%, as compared to 
Conyza linifolia (Tabic 1). Both species have similar Al values, but Aster 
squamatus has considerably higher A2 value (Tabic I). 

Tribe Calenduleae 

In this tribe the chromosome number of Calendula arvensis is examined: 2n = 4x = 
36. The same number was recorded by other authors. Nevertheless, a very different 
number of 2n = 44 is reported in other counts. The MCL in Calendula arvensis is 
1.17* 0.08* and iLs karyotype is the most symmetric of the studied species: MAR= 
1 .08* 0.03 and TF%= 48. 10. The symmcUy of the karyotype of this species (Fig. 2, 
A) is also indicated by the Al value (0.07) which is the lowest among the species 
investigated (Table 1 ). 

Iribe lleliantheae 

The karyotypes of five .species in this tribe are studied. In the two species oiXan- 
thium, i.e. X. spinosum and X. strumarium, 2n = 4x = 36 is recorded. In Bidens pi- 
losa, 2n = 2x = 24 is ob.served, whereas, in both llelianthus annuus and Verbesina 
encetioides the number recorded is 2n = 2x = 34. All our results coincide with 
previous counts. However, in B. pilosa both tclraploid (2n = 48) and hexaploid (2n 
= 72) numbers were also reported. 



Comp.Newsl. 30, 1997 19 



The longest chromosomes among the five species of Helianiheae are found in X. 
strumarium (MCL= 2.0* 0.17* ), while the shortest (MCL= 1.19* 0.08* ) are recor- 
ded in V. encelioides. The karyotypes of the five species are symmetric (Fig. 2, B- 
F), being composed of metacentric chromosomes with small variation among them 
in the MAR. The highest MAR (1.45» 0.05) is recorded in V. encelioides, whereas 
the lowest MAR (1.33* 0.05) is found in H. annuus. The low MAR values recorded 
in the species of Heliantheae are correlated with high values of the TF%. The 
similarity among the studied species of this u-ibe in karyotype symmetry is also 
reflected by similar Al and A2 values (Table 1). 

Tribe Inuleae 

The tribe Inuleae is represented here by seven species. Chromosome counts and 
karyotype descriptions of three of them {Pulicaria undulata, Phagnalon barbey- 
anum and Piuchea dioscoridis) are presented here for the first time (Table 1). 
Somatic numbers vary between 2n = 2x = 8 in Iphiona mucronata to 2n = 4x = 40 
in Piuchea dioscoridis. In Pallenis spinosa the somatic number is 2n = 2x = 10, 
whereas in Pulicaria undulata 2n = 2x = 12 is recorded. Both in Inula crithmoides 
and Phagnalon barbeyanum a diploid number of 2n = 18 is found, while the re- 
corded number for Filago deseriorum is 2n = 2x = 28. Numbers oi Inula crithmoi- 
des, Pallenis spinosa and Filago deseriorum have been previously scored by other 
authors. Our result of 2n = 8 in Iphiona mucronata, however, differs from a previ- 
ous count of 2n = 18 by Am in (1972), also on Egyptian material. 

The highest MCL among the seven spxicies of Inuleae is found in Iphiona mucro- 
nata (2.0»0.14»), whereas the shortest were observed in Filago deseriorum 
(1.17*0.07). The highest MAR value (1.80«0.15) is recorded in Pulicaria undu- 
lata, whereas the lowest (1.1 1*0.05) was found in Phagnalon barbeyanum. The 
low MAR recorded for the species of this tribe is correlated with high values of the 
TF% (Table 1), indicating a high degree of karyotype symmetry. The karyotype 
symmetry in the seven species of Inuleae is also illustrated by the presence of only 
metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes in the karyotypes of these species 
(Fig. 3, A-G). However, the Al and A2 values indicate some degree of karyotype 
asymmeU7 in some species. The Al value ranges between 0.10 in P. barbeyanum 
to 0.43 in Pulicaria undulata, whereas the highest A2 (0.24) value is found in P. 
spinosa and the lowest (0.1 1) in Inula crithmoides (Table 1). 



20 Comp. Newsl. 30. 1997 



Tribe Senecioneae 

In ihe two species of this tribe, i.e. Senecio aegyptius and S. vulgaris, 2n = 4x = 40 
is recorded. The same number has been reported in other previous counts for both 
species. The chromosomes of the two species are similar in length, MCL is 
1.27»0.09» in S. aegyptius and 1.19»0.04» in S. vulgaris. The chromosomes of 
both species are all metacentric (Fig. 3, H and I) with some differences between 
them in the MAR, being 1.36* 0.03 for S. aegyptius and 1.07» 0.02 for S. vulgaris. 
Differences between these two species in karyotype asymmetry are also reflected 
in the values of the TF% and are more clearly manifested in the values of Al and 
A2, being 0.26 & 0.23 for 5. aegyptius and 0.16 & 0.12 for S. vulgaris respectively 
(Table 1). 



Conclusions 

Of the 23 species studied from the Egyptian flora, polyploid numbers are recorded 
in nine species, disuibuted in the six mbes (Table 1). It is notable that poly- 
ploidization occurs only in species with x = 9 or 10. 

With regard to the evolution of the basic chromosome number in Asteraceae, 
Solbrig (1977) suggested that x = 9 is the ancestral basic chromosome number for 
all the family. Basic numbers higher than x = 9 should be the result of cycles of 
polyploidy and successive aneuploid reduction; chromosome numbers lower than x 
= 9 should be the result of aneuploid reductions. Descending aneuploidy is a gen- 
eral u^end in the whole family, as it has been repcteadly pointed out by Stcbbins, 
1950: 449 & 456, tab. 89, and 1971: 93-96. 

As to karyotype symmetry, the calculated TF% of the karyotypes of the examined 
species ranges between TF%= 35.37 in Pulicaria undulata (Inuleae) to TF%= 
48.36 in Senecio vulgaris (Senecioneae). The values of the TF% for the studied 
species thus support previous observations (Huziwara 1962, Mchra 1977) thai the 
karyotype in the A.steraceae is symmetric. The intrachromosomal asymmetry index 
(Al), on the other hand, defines some clear differences between the studied species 
in the U"ibes Senecioneae, Inuleae, Heliantheae and Anthem idcae. The intcrchro- 
mosomal asymmetry index (A2), however, shows little differences between the 
studied species. 

McasurcmcnLs of chromosome length indicate that species in mbc Anthcmideae 
have subsiiintially longer chromosomes than those in other tribes. The longest 
chromosomes are found in Chrysanthemum coronarium (IV1CL= 4.2()» 0.16»), 
whereas the shortest chromosomes are ob.scrvcd in Conyza linifolia of u-ibc 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 21 



Astereae (MCL= 1.02«0.06»). In all the studied species, however, small differ- 
ences in length are recorded among the chromosomes in the karyotype. 



References 

Amin, A. 1972. Seven chromosome numbers of Egyptian plants. Bot. Notiser 125: 
537-538. 

Boulos, L. & M.N. El-Hadidi 1989. The weed flora of Egypt. The AUG Press, 
Cairo. 

Fedorov, A. A. 1969. Chromosome numbers of flowering plants. Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad. 

Coldblatt, P. 1981. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1975-1978. Monogr. 
Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 5. 

Goldblatt, P. 1984. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1979-1981. Monogr. 
Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 8. 

Goldblatt, P. 1985. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1982-1983. Monogr. 
Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 13. 

Goldblatt, P. 1988. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1984-1985. Monogr. 
Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 23. 

Goldblatt, P. & D.E. Johnson 1990. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1986- 
1987. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 30. 

Goldblatt, P. & D.E. Johnson 1991. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988- 
1989. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 40. 

Goldblatt, P. & D.E. Johnson 1994. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1990- 
1991. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 51. 

Goldblatt, P. & D.E. Johnson 1996. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1992- 
1993. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Card. 58. 

Huziwara, Y. 1962. Karyotype analysis in some genera of Compositae. VIII - Fur- 
ther studies on the chromosomes of Aster. Amer. J. Bot. 49: 1 16-1 19. 

Levan, A., Fredga, K. & A.A. Sandberg 1965. Nomenclature for centromeric 
position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52: 201-220. 



22 Comp. Newsl. 30. 1997 



Mehra, P. N. 1977. Cylological investigations on the Indian Compositae VI. 
Chromosomes and evolutionary phylogeny. Cytologia 42: 347-356. 

Moore, D. M. 1971. Index to plant chromosome numbers for 1969. Regnwn 
Vege labile 11. 

M(K)re, D. M. 1972. Index to plant chromosome numbers for 1970. Regnum 
Vege labile 84. 

Moore, D. M. 1973. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1967-1971. Regnum 
Vegetabile 90. 

M(K)re, D. M. 1974. Index to plant chromosome numbers for 1972. Regnum 
Vege labile 91. 

M<M)re, D. M. 1977. Index to plant chromosome numbers for 1973/74. Regnum 
Vegelabite 96. 

Nordenstam, B. 1972. Chromosome numbers in some Composiiae from Egypt. 
Boi.Noliser 125:393-396. 

Ollva, M., & J. Valles 1994. Karyological studies in some laxa of the genus 
Artemisia (Asteraceae). Can. J. Boi. 72: 1 126-1 135. 

Romero Zarco, C. R. 1986. A new method for estimating karyotype asymmetry. 

Taxon 35: 526-530. 

Solbrig, O. T. 1977. Chromosomal cytology and evolution in the family 
Composiuie. In: Heywotxl, V.H., Harbomc, J.B. & B. L. Turner (eds.). The 
Biology and Chemisiry ofihe Composiiae 1: 267-281. Academic Press, London 
& New York. 

Stebbin.s, C L. 1950. Variation and evolution in plants. Columbia University 
Press, New York. 

Stebbins, G. I.. 1971. Chrornosotmil Evolution in Higher Plants. Arnold Press, 
London. 

Tjickholm, V. 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt. Cairo University Press, Cairo. 

Valles, J. 19X7. Aporuicion al concximiento cilotiixonomico dc (x;ho tiixones 
ibcncos del gcncro Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anihemidcae). Anales .lard. Bol. 
Madrid 44: 19-96. 



Comp. Newsl.30. 1997 



23 



c 

(!) 


<u 


II 

E 


o 




x: 
o 

3 
O 
> 


■p 

t/1 


0) 
T3 
C 


c 

i 

00 

•c 

(1) 




o 


.1^ 


E 


C/5 
< 




^ 


oo 




d 




ui 


o 

•3 


^ 


h 

n 




T3 


S 


13 


n 




i=1 


p 


E 


F 




^ 


^ 


o 


P 




C3 


J=^ 


E 


o 




o 


o 


c> 






E i 
II y 

§1 


c 




O 


^ 


II 


E 




^ 


•S 

bfj 


g 


3 
00 




o 


c 


x- 


II 






E 


C 


E 

C/5 






2r 


E 






o 
E 


0^ 

E 


o 




■o 

3 


M 


E 


E 
o 




c/) 


u 


^ ,^ 




a> 


i^ 




f ) 




■fl 


n^ 


■a 






U-i 


E 


E 


c 




O 
on 


II 


g 


R 




1 


d 


E 

n 






S 


s ^ 


c 
(1) 




c: 




y 


c> 




■a 


^ 


s 


£3 

0) 




u 


fc/i 


u 


£ 




O 


II 


II 




2 
>. 


1 


< 


S 






u 




E 


id 

c 

3 


c/2 

■a 


£2 
> 




o 
E 


O 

E 


-J 


00 


■3 
2 


E 

c 


E 

1 




x: 




(1> 


a> 


r/^ 


II 


u 


C) 


JS 




EJS 


B 


:^ 




< 


^ 


E 


c 



I:e 


— 




m 




— 


(N| 




r^ 




CnI 




fN 




, 










E 






































oo 




\D 




r- 


r- 




r- 




r- 




OO 




o 




oo 




r^ 


fs , 










































































U S 
























' 








" 






:a 


r~ 




r~- 




rn 


(-nI 




^_^ 




^_, 




r- 




Ov 




o 




U-) 






(N 










^— 




•— 
















(N 




o 




o 




O 


o 




o 




o 




o 




o 




o 




o 


_^ 


U"! 




o 




vO 


rsi 




oo 




vO 




o 




(-N) 




r~ 




-.o 


< 


fNI 




r<-) 




rs| 


fi 




<N 




rsl 




m 




r«i 




o 




rg 




o 




O 




O 


O 




O 




O 




O 




O 




o 




O 


rf^ 






xO 










rvi 




(^ 




oo 








o 




r^ 




o 








o 


rsi 




r- 




O 




u-1 




oo 








r- 




(-Nl 




rs 




(N 


O 




^— 




r>l 




rr- 




o 




oo 




rg 




•r 




•* 




■^ 


'i- 




■* 




T 




r-^ 




•^ 




•^ 




•^ 


UI 


Ov 




- 




g 


s 




</-) 




g 




vO 




O 




o 




o 


Q£ 


O 




o 




o 


o 




o 




o 




O 




o 




o 




o 


< 


m 




ON 




o 


o 




oo 




Ov 




r*1 




oo 




no 




>o 


^ 


■^ 




tT 




m 


>o 




■"S; 




C^ 




>/■■) 




•^ 




O 




rn 








o 




Ov 


o 




g 




vO 




rsl 




s 




oo 






.—1 




(N 






















O 




^— 


o 




o 




O 


o 




o 




o 




O 




O 




O 




O 


u ^ 


^- 




vrt 




r~ 


vO 




vO 




o 




oo 




(N 




r~- 




^^ 


s 


Ov 




(Nl 




Ov 


VI 




■* 




rJ 




•^ 




o 




•— ' 




>o 


— 




ro 




m 


fN 




r-l 




Tf 




— 




— 




— 




— 


c 


oo 




vD 




\D 


vD 




oo 




OO 




O 




■* 




\o 




rj- 


«vl 


' ' 




r^ 






r'l 




'~^ 




' 




rsl 




V1 




c: 




OJ 










in 












« 




















o 






o 




, 








»— • 


















»-, 


c5 

'o 

i 




O 
J 


o 

■s 


c5 

.5 

00 

-5 

3 


O 

1 

o 




o 
§ 




1) 




ctj' 
>. 

o 
g 




3 
O 

1 


"3- 
> 


O 
1 

o 


2 


p' 


^ 


o 


u-i 


o 


C/0 "^i 


f3 

o 


M 


c 




^ 




S 


c 


s 


C 


^ 


'o 


fe S; 






8^ 


^ 




g Ov 


N 


<& 


>> 


'"' 


</■ 


m 




'^ 




■"• 


<!' 




Z _' 




.5 
O 

s 


a 
< 




•c 
-o 

X 

V 

< 


,0) _- 


3 •* 

2 S 


Hi 


3 
Z 


1 


2 

a 
< 


J3 

'<7> 


a 
z 




a 
& 

Z 


H 

00 

3 

o 

m 


c 

C 
« 
X 

< 














A 












ob 
















^3 




_j 




_i 






^ 
5 








1 




2 

1 
3 

:5 










C/5 


a 

V5 






3 


i- 

3 




3 

1 






.J 




-3 

o 

X 




5 




1 




.:<: 
2 

^ 




Si 


2i 




a 






i 


c 
2 
u 






c3 




9 

oa 


1 


3 

T3 






















. 








g 




3 


p 






















2 








3 

-n 




■s 


H 


O 




t 






t 




t 




- 




14 




- 




c 






-S 






































^ 






















< 








d3 






yi o 


< 




oa 




u 


a 




tu 




u. 




o 




E 




< 




CQ 


uTii 


— 




^ 




— 


'- 




■"■ 




•"■ 




^ 




— 




(N 




(S 



24 



Coinp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



- 


rj 




- 


m 


- 




- 


m 










o 


vo 


c^ 


oo 


— 


OO 


m 


'T 


ro 


oo 


o 


o 

















- 












- 


^ 


oo 




vn 




in 




, 


,^ 


T 




•^ 


m 




>J~I 




•^ 




m 


(N 


(N 


(N 




(N 




r~i 




rs 


^— 


^— 




r>i 


(Nl 




»— 




^— 




CnI 


^- 


O 


o 




o 




O 




O 


o 


o 




o 


o 




o 




O 




O 





r^ 


o 




vO 








^^ 


a^ 


kO 




r«^ 


r'l 




O 




■^ 




vO 


^ 


rJ 


m 




(N 




<N 




m 




fN 




m 


•V 








rsl 




<N 




O 


O 




o 




o 




O 


o 


o 




O 


O 




O 




O 




o 





o 


■rr 




V-) 




vD 




m 


vD 


oo 




(N 


r- 




•^ 




O 




__ 


vO 


r~ 


r~ 




>o 




(N 




■^ 


fs 


•— ' 




•^ 


>o 




CnI 




Ov 




■v 


m 


m 


o 




rsl 




CNl 




O 


■^ 


rsi 




OS 


v~> 




r~ 




CNl 




rvi 


00 


•«s- 


■^ 




■^ 




■V 




'J- 


■«s- 


■^ 




m 


m 




•>3- 




•V 




■V 


•>r 


s 


s 




o 




s 




8 


§ 


Tj- 




<N 


»o 




s 




in 

o 




m 

O 





O 


o 




o 




O 




o 


o 


O 




O 


o 




o 




o 




O 





m 


w-1 




o 




sO 




oo 


r~ 


Ov 




rsl 


o 




z. 




TT 




vO 


r~ 


ro 


Tj; 




iri 




r^ 




■^ 


CnI 


fl 




«-} 


oo 




^ 




CI 




c<1 


p 


oo 






•^ 




r~ 




r- 


V-) 


Tf 




oo 


r-- 




r~- 




OO 




s 


3 


O 














o 


o 












o 




O 




C 


o 




C 




o 




o 


o 


o 




O 


o 




o 




O 




O 





o 


o^ 




^O 




8 




r~ 


o 


8 




TT 


^ 




f> 




c> 




r- 





^^ 






sO 






^— 


•^ 




\0 


oo 




m 




oo 




fs 




— 


— 




— 




(N 




-— 


— 


fsl 




— 


— 




— 




— 




— 


— 


T 


■<T 




vO 




vO 




oo 


OO 


00 


o 


rsl 




oo 




o 




o 





m 


CO 




r*) 




m 




rJ 


'~^ 


^^ 


^" 




^^ 




■* 




■* 


■^ 


c 
m 






















< 


















— 














i_ 




p 




— 


2 

J 




, 








u- 




:t3 
>. 

"5 
o 

c 


c5 




nj 
>, 

3 
O 
C 


> 


3 
O 

c 


>' 


o 

E ^ 

o2 


•d 


6 
I*. 

o 




i 




i 




>. 

3 
O 

c 




o 

_5 o^ 

o 2 


"" 
f^ =5 




-5 




i 








IT) 

o J2 




o 


>/-l 


o 


o 2^ 


8 


o 2^ 


s 

s 




^1 
o "2 


^-f 


>» 






>^ 




>-> 




•- ^ 


Qi ^ — 




H^ 


, 


u 








>, 




•- j: 


>< — 


>< TT 


y. 




> 




>, 




N r^' 


^ -§ "i 
< < ^ 








H 


n ^~ 


V. 


nj — 


>, 




N "^ 


>, 


00 > 


< 
< 


o 




3 
Z 


J3 

i?5 


3 


3 'l- 

2 e" 
66 


.B 

m 


Q. 

< 


^ < 


1 


T3 C 

< ^ 


c _- 

5 ^ 

s < 


v5 


z 


3 ■^ 

2 2" 

c5c5 


j 3 
i^ z 


"i 

3 

a 
1 

3 

2 


-Si 

i 
1 


u 
o 

-s 

c 

ffi > 
S o 


5 

5 


:5 


1 


1 

■a 


3 

1 
1 

-s: 


u 

i 

< 


5 
1 


3 

3 

3 
a 


o 


-g 
1 

QO 


< 


3 
1 
<j 

1 
1 


* 


1 

2 


J 
■a 

1 

•2 


•S 














r 






















u 

3 

c 





V 














i 






















h 




X 




































00 




U 


D 




m 




u. 




< 


OQ 


U 




a 


UJ 




u, 




O 




a: 


^^ 


r 1 


rj 




r \ 




r\ 




rn 


m 


r«-i 




m 


m 




r«-i 




m 




m 


ro 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 25 



Figure captions 

Figure 1. Karyograms of A) Achillea fragrantissima; B) Achillea santolina; C) 
Artemisia judaica; D) Artemisia monosperma; E) Chamomilla recutita; F) 
Chrysanthemum coronarium; G) Aster squamatus', H) Conyza linifolia. 

Figure 2. Karyograms of A) Calendula arvensis; B) Bidens pilosa; C) Helianthus 
annuus; D) Verbesina encelioides; E) Xanthium spinosum; F) Xanthium 
strumarium. 

Figure 3. Karyograms of A) Filago desertorum; B) Inula crithmoides; C) Iphiona 
mucronata; D) Pallenis spinosa; E) PuHcaria undulata; F) Phagnalon 
barbeyanum; G) Pluchea dioscoridis; H) Senecio aegyplius; I) Senecio vulgaris. 



26 Comp. Newsl. 30. 1997 

1 234 56789 

A 1) II 11 11 II f) M 19 M 

lilt I IX »il "M illt 

B 6 7 8 9 

lift llll ||l> IfM 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

IliiiiiriiiMii* 

B im im iifi nil ini 

Itll IMi IMi IM« 

1234 56789 

^ II It If II II II II II li 



F 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

iiiniiiiiiiiiii 


9 

H 


G 


1 2 34 56789 

II «• •• Hf •••• •• •• -i 


10 

1 •• 




12 3 4 

AlAlAA ■AftfiA ■■■■lA flfffiiA V 


5 
• •••* 


}i 


6 7 8 9 
•••••• ••■••■ ■••••• •••••• 

10 ^Jm 


\ 



Fifi. 1. 



Comp. Ncwsl. 30, IWV 



27 



1 2 3 4 5 6 

^78 9 

•••• ataA «■•• 

1 234 5678 

bH ■% •• •• BA 9 $ ■• •• 

9 10 11 12 

•I •! ■! •« 

.1234 5678 

II Iff 41 II 11 II «• II 

Q 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

17 

1234 56 789 10 

II 11 11 A« tl ■■ At lit »% A^ 

D 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

g m t* ■' •■ *• •• ■* 

12 3 4 5 

llll •%■• ■••• «•!• «■•! 

E 6 7 8 9 

•■■■ ■■■• ■•■• •«•■ 

%d%\ ^t%h KS<AS Bf** K»«« 

F 6 7 8 9 

A ?, • f^ n ^ ^ A tt 1^ ^» < t » « s 



Fig. 2. 



28 Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 

12345678 9 

^ II II »• •If •• «• •• ■• " 

A 10 11 12 13 14 

12345678 9 

B ft •• urn %m •• •• •• •• <>* 

12 3 4 

c Rm II ■ « « a 

12 3 4 5 

D I I II II II •• 

12 3 4^6 

^ lA la VI •* •* ^"^ 

1 23456789 

F Hh %M m 14 1% mm •• p* sp 
llll llir III! i»9A tKYI 

G 6 7 8 9 10 

1 2 3 4 5 

He 7 8 ^, . ^°. • 

1 2 3 4 _ 5 

I 6 7 8 9 10 ^ 

Fig 3. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 29 



EARLY SUPRAGENERIC NAMES IN 
ASTERACEAE 



James L. Reveal 

Department of Plant Biology 

University of Maryland 

College Park, Maryland 20742-5815, U.S.A. 

jrl9@umail.umd.edu 

Abstract 

Suprageneric names of Asteraceae found to date as part of the Indices Nominum 
Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium project, and published from 1753 
through 1850 as part of a survey of the botanical literature for such names, are 
listed with full bibliographic citation. No taxonomic judgment about the 
significance (either taxonomically or nomenclaturally) of any name is present, 
leaving that to those who use such names in their research. 



Introduction 

Scientific names of plants above the rank of genus, except for those at the rank of 
family, are ixx)rly known and generally unevaluated as to their validity or even 
place of publication. An ongoing effort, the Indices Nominum Supragenericorum 
Plantarum Vascularium project, under the sponsorship of the International 
Association for Plant Taxonomy and the Norton-Brown Herbarium at the 
University of Maryland is attempting to prepare a database of all validly published 
names above the rank of genus based on a generic name. The results to date are 
available online on the world wide web at 

http://matrix.nal. usda.gov:8080/star/supragenericname.html 
thanks to the cooperation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National 
Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland. 

The purpose of this published report is to provide users without access to the 
database with a preliminary summary of the findings for Asteraceae. This is a large 
and important family with numerous, active workers, and a literature base that is 



30 Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



enormous. My goal is to encourage workers to provide me with information on 
names not yet found by sending copies of works that I have missed in my survey of 
the literature published through 1850. In this way, information on the suprageneric 
nomenclature of Asteraceae will be more widely distributed and hopefully more 
correctly applied. My email address is 

jrl9(S)umail. umd.edu and my fax number is (301) 314-9082. 

Some minor facts about suprageneric nomenclature are important to note. First, 
only names at the rank of family may be conserved. Second, names above the rank 
of family are not subjected to the concept of priority. Third, while descriptive 
names are permitted above the rank of family, such names can not be typified and 
may be used in any sense one may wish, the only requirement being that the name 
be validly published at that rank. For example, the name Cenu^ospermae has been 
used for a group of families related to Chenopodiaceae as well as for a group that 
includes Lemnaceae. There is nothing to prevent one from using this name for any 
other combination of families, at the rank of order, as long as one or more 
representatives had seeds that are centrospermous. For this reason, such names are 
not included. Finally, it should be noted that many authors use suprageneric names 
without ascertaining their validity. It is strongly urged that all such names be 
checked thoroughly before used in print. 



Listing of Suprageneric Names for Asteraceae 

Acarna Bochm. in C.G. Ludwig, Dcf. Gen. PI., ed. 3: 195. 1760. 
Fam. Acarnaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 684. Jan-Aug 1829. 

Adenosiytes Cass, in G.F. Cuvicr, Diet. Sci. Nat. 1, Suppl.: 59. 12 Oct 1816. 
Subfam. Adenostyloideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 
1829 (Adcnostylcae), based on Tribe Adcnostylcae A.H.G. dc Cassini, J. Phys. 
Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 201. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Adenostyleae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 201. Mar 1819. 
Subtril)e Aden^stylinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829 
(Adenostyleae). 

Af^eratum L., Sp. PI.: 839. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tri»)e Agerateae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 1829. 
Subtribe Ageratinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 155. Jul-Aug 1832 
(Agcraicac). 



Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 31 



Aloniia Kunih in F.W.H.A. von Humboldt, A.J. A. Bonpland & C.S. Kunih, Nov. 
Gen. Sp. 4, cd. P: 118. 26 Oct 1818. 

Subtribe Alomiinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 154. Jul-Aug 1832 
(Alomieae). 

Ambrosia L., Sp. PL: 987. 1 Mai 1753 

Order Ambrosiales Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 15. 1829 (Ambrosarieae). 

Fam. Ambrosiaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 816. Jan- Aug 1829, nom. cons. 

Subfam, Ambrosioideae Raf., Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 88. 1820 

(AjTibrosidia). 

Tribe Ambrosieae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 191. Mar 1819. 

Subtribe Ambrosiinae Less., Linnaea 5: 151. Jan 1830 (Ambrosieae). 

Anihemis L., Sp. PL: 893. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Anthemidaceae Maninov, Tckhno-Bot. Slovar: 33. 1820. 
Subfam, Anthemidoideae (Cass.) LindL, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829 
(Anthemideae), based on Tribe Anthemideae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. 
Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 192. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Anthemideae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 192. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Anthemidinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 69. 1827 (Anthemideae), 
based on Tribe Anthemideae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 
192. Mar 1819. 

Aposeris Neck, ex Cass, in J.B.G.M. Bory de Saint-Vincent, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. 
48:427.Jun 1827. 

Fam. Aposeridaceae Raf., New Fl N. Amor. 4; 106. laic Sep 1838 
(Aposcridcs). 

ArctotisL., Sp. PL: 922. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Arctotidoldeae (Cass.) LindL, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829 (Arctotideae), 
based on Tribe Arctotideae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 
159. Feb 1819. 

Tribe Arctotideae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Llist. Nat. 88: 159. Feb 1819. 
Subtribe Arctotidinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 32. 1829 
(Arctotideae), based on Tribe Arctotideae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. 
Hist. Nal. 88: 159. Feb 1819. 

Artemisia L., Sp. PL: 845. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Artemisiaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48. 1820 (Artemisiae). 
Subfam. Artemisioideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 291. 1837 
(Artemisieae). 



32 Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



Tribe Artemisieae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 693. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Artemisiinae Less., Linnaea 5: 163. Jan 1830 (Artemisieae). 

AsierL., Sp. Pi.: 872. 1 Mai 1753. 

Cla.ss Asteropsida Brongn., Enum. PI. Mus. Paris: xvii, 32. 12 Aug 1843 

(Asieroideae). 

Order A.sterales Lindl., Nix. PI.: 20. 17 Sep 1833. 

Suborder Asterineae Bumeu, Oull. Bot.: 901, 1111. Jun 1835 (Asterosae). 

Fam. Asteraceae Dumori., Comment. Bot.: 55. Nov-Dec 1822 (Astereae), 

nom. cons. 

Fam. Compositae Giseke, Prael. Ord. Nat. PI.: 538. Apr 1792, nom. alt. et 

nom. cons. 

Subfam. Asteroideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1074. 1829 

(Astereae), based on Tribe Astereae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. 

Nat. 88: 195. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Astereae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 195. Mar 1819. 

Subtribe Asterinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Bclg.: 66. 1827 (Astereae), based on 

Tribe Astereae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 195. Mar 1819. 

Aihanasia L., Sp. PI., ed. 2: 1 180. Jul-Aug 1763. 

Fam. Athanasiaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56. 1820 (Athanasiae). 

Baccharis L., Sp. PI.: 860. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons. 

Subfam. Baccharidoideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 294. 1837 

(Baccharideac). 

Tribe Baccharideae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 665. Jan-Jun 1833. 

Subtribe Baccharidinae Less., Linnaea 5: 145. Jan 1830 (Baccharideae). 

Barnadesia Mulis ex L.l., Suppl. PI.: 55, 348. Apr 1782. 

Tribe Barnadesieae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 273. 27 Mai 1830 
(Bamadeseae). 

fie///.v L., Sp. PL: 886. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Bellideae Cass, ex D. Don in R. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Card. 1: ad t. 38. Mar 
1830. 

Bellium L., Mant. PL: 157, 285. Oct 1771. 

Tribe Bellieae DC. ex Godr. in J.C.M. Grenier & D.A. Godron, Fl. France 2: 

83, 104. Nov 1850. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 33 



BidensL., Sp. PI.: 831. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Bidentideae (Less.) Godr. in J.C.M. Grenier & D.A. Godron, Fl. France 
2: 84, 168. Nov 1850, based on [Rankless] Bideniideae C.F. Lessing, Syn. Gen. 
Compos.: 229. Jul- Aug 1832. 

Subtribe Bidentidinae Griseb., Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 226. Jan 1846 
(Bidentideae), based on [RanklessJ Bidentideae C.F. Lxssing, Syn. Gen. 
Connpos.: 229. Jul-Aug 1832. 

Buphthalmum L., Sp. PI.: 903. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Buphthalmoideae Bumneist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 293. 1837 

(Buphthalmeae). 

Tribe Buphthalmeae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 1829. 

Subtribe Buphthalminae Less., Linnaea 6: 153. post Mar 1831 

(Buphthalmeae). 

Calendula L., Sp. PI.: 921. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Calendulaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 776. Jan-Aug 1829. 

Subfam. Calenduloideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 

1829 (Calcnduleae), based on Tribe Calenduleae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. 

Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 161. Feb 1819. 

Tribe Calenduleae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 161. Feb 1819. 

Subtribe Calendulinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 32. 1829 

(Calenduleae), based on Tribe Calenduleae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. 

Hist. Nat. 88: 161. Feb 1819. 

Cardopatium Juss., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 6: 324. 1805. 

Tribe Cardopatieae Kosiel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 620. Jan-Jun 1833 

(Cardopateae). 

Subtribe Cardopatiinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 14. Jul-Aug 1832 

(Cardopateae). 

CarduusL., Sp. PI.: 820. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Carduaceae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. Nov-Dec 1822. 

Subfam. Carduoideae Cass, ex Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 213. Jul-Aug 1826 

(Carduaceae). 

Tribe Cardueae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 155. Feb 1819 

(Carduineae). 

Subtribe Carduinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 73. 1827 (Carduineae), based 

on Tribe Cardueae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 155. Feb 

1819 (Carduineae). 



34 Comp.Newsl.30. 1997 



Carlina L., Sp. PI.: 828. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Carlinoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. Pi.: 1074. 1829 

(Carlineae), based on Tribe Carlineae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. 

Nat. 88: 152. Feb 1819. 

Tribe Carlineae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 152. Feb 1819. 

Subtribe Carlininae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 72. 1827 (Carlineae), based 

on Tribe Carlineae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 152. Feb 

1819. 

Carihamus L., Sp. PI.: 830. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Carthameae Kitt., Taschenb. Fl. Deulschl., 2, 2: 557. 1844, based on 

Subtribe Carthaminae A.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 6: 450, 609. early Jan 1838 

(Carthameae). 

Subtribe Carthaminae DC., Prodr. 6: 450, 609. early Jan 1838 (Carthameae). 

Catananche L., Sp. PL: 812. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Catanancheae D. Don, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 307. Jan-Mar 1829. 

Centaurea L., Sp. PI.: 909. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Centaureaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 117. 1820 (Centaureae). 

Subfam. Centaureoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 

1829 (Centaurieae), based on Tribe Centaureeae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. 

Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 154. Feb 1819 (Centaurieae). 

Tribe Centaureeae Cas.s., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 154. Feb 1819 

(Centaurieae). 

Subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 72. 1827 (Centaurieae), 

ba.scd on Tribe Centaureeae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 

154. Feb 1819 (Centaurieae). 

Chaeianihera Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. Prodr.: 106. Oct (prim.) 1794. 

Tribe Chaetanthereae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 232. 27 Mai 
1830. 

Chondrilla L., Sp. PI.: 796. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Chondrilleae W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Hciv.: 427. Jan-Oct 1837. 
SubtrilK? Chondrillinae (W.D.J. Koch) M. Lamoltc, Cat. Pi. Eur. Ccntr.: 56. 
Jul-Dcc 1847 (Chondrilleae), based on Tribe Chondrilleae W.D.J. Koch, Syn. 
Fl. Germ. Hclv.: 427. Jan-Oct 1837. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 35 



Chrysanthemum L., Sp. PI.: 887. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Chrysanthoideae Burmeist., Handb. Naiurgesch.: 292. 1837 

(Chrysanthemeae). 

Tribe Chrysanthemeae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. Pi.: 1073. 1829. 

Subtribe Chrysantheminae Less., Linnaea 6: 167. post Mar 1830 

(Chrysanthemeae). 

Cichorium L., Sp. PI.: 813. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Cichoriaceae Juss., Gen. PI.: 168. 4 Aug 1789 (Cichoraceae), nom. 

cons. 

Subfam. CIchorioideae (Juss.) Chev., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 531. 5 Jan 1828 

(Cichoraceae), based on Fam. Cichoriaceae A.L. de Jussieu, Gen. PI.: 168. 4 

Aug 1789, nom. cons. 

Tribe Cichorieae Lam. & DC., Syn. PI. H. Gall.: 255. 30 Jun 1806 

(Cichoraceae). 

Subtribe Cichoriinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 30. 1829 (Cichoreae). 

Cmcus L., Sp. PI.: 826. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Cnicaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297. 1818 (Cnicoideae). 

Conyza Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 203. Jul-Aug 1832, nom. cons. 

Subtribe Conyzinae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 93. 1847 (Conyzinae). 

Coreopsis L., Sp. PI.: 907. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Coreopsidaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 768. Jan- Aug 1829 (Coreopsideae). 
Tribe Coreopsideae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1074. 1829. 
Subtribe Coreopsidinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 
(Coreopsideae). 

Cotula L., Sp. PI.: 891. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subtribe Cotulinae (Less.) Kilt., Taschenb. Fl. Deutschi., 2, 2: 609. 1844 
(Cotuleae), based on [Rankless] Cotuleae C.F. Lessing, Syn. Gen. Compos.: 
260. Jul-Aug 1832. 

Crepis L., Sp. PI.: 805. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons.. 

Tribe Crepideae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 1829 (Crepideae). 
Subtribe Crepidinae Cass, ex Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 60. 1827 (Crepideae). 

Crupina (Pers.) DC., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16: 157. Jul-Dec 1810. 

Tribe Crupineae Godr. in J.C.M. Grenier & D.A. Godron, Fl. France 2: 200, 
266. Nov 1850. 



36 Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



Cynara L., Sp. PI.: 827. 1 Mai 1753. 

Suborder Cynarineae Raf., Anal. Nat.: 191. Apr-Jul 1815 (Cynarea). 

Fam. Cynaraceae Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 273. 1782 (Cinarocephalae). 

Subfam. Cynaroideae (Durande) Chev., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 557. 5 Jan 

1828 (Cynarocephalae), based on Fam. Cynaraceae J.F. Durande, Notions 
Elem. Bot.: 273. 1782 (Cinarocephalae). 

Tribe Cynareae Lam. & DC., Syn. PI. Fl. Gall.: 267. 30 Jun 1806 
(Cynarocephalae). 

Diazeuxis D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 251. 27 Mai 1830. 

Tribe Diazeuxideae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 251. 27 Mai 1830 
(Diazeuxeae). 

EchinopsL., Sp. PI.: 814. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Echinopaceae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. Nov-Dec 1822 

(Echinopsidea). 

Subfam. Echinopsoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 

1829 (Echinopseae), based on Tribe Echinopseae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. 
Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 14: 200. 14 Aug 1819. 

Tribe Echinopseae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 157. Feb 1819. 
Subtribe Echinopsinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pi.: 32. 1829 
(Echinopsidcae), based on Tribe Echinopseae A.H.G. dc Cassini in G.F. 
Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 14: 200. 14 Aug 1819. 

Ectipia L., Mant. PL: 157, 286. Oct 1771, nom. cons.. 

Subfam. Ecliptoideae Burmei.st., Handb. Naturgesch.: 293. 1837 (Eclipteae). 
Tribe Eclipteae Ko.stei., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 670. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Ecliptinae Less., Linnaea 6: 153. post Mar 1831 (Ecliptae). 

Elephantopus L., Sp. PI.: 814. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subtribe Elephantopinae Less., Linnaea 5: 135. Jan 1830 (Elephantopeae). 

Erigeron L., Sp. PI.: 863. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons.. 

Tribe Erij^eroneae Grcn. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 83, 92. Nov 1850 
(Erigerineac). 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 37 



Eupatorium L., Sp. PI.: 836. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Eupatoriaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 239. 1820. 
Subfam. Eupatorioideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 
1829 (Eupatorieae), based on Tribe Eupatorieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. 
Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 16: 9. 8 Apr 1820 (Eupatoriae). 
Tribe Eupatorieae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 202. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Eupatoriinae Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829 (Eupatorieae). 

Facelis Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1819: 94. Jun 1819. 

Tribe Facelideae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 623. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Facelidinae Less., Linnaca 5: 361. Jul 1830 (Facelideae). 

Fidelia Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 478. 14 Aug 1834. 

Subtribe Fideliinae Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 478. 14 Aug 1834 (Fidelieae). 

Flaveria Juss., Gen. PI.: 186. 4 Aug 1789. 

Subtribe Flaveriinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 235. Jul- Aug 1832. 

Gaillardia Foug., Observ. Phys. 29: 55. Jul 1786. 

Tribe Gaillardieae (Nutt.) Lecoq & Juillet, Diet. Rais. Term. Bot.: 286. 1831 
(Galardieae), based on [Rankless] Galardiae T. Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. PI. 2: 
177. 14 Jul 1818. 

Subtribe Gaillardinae (Nutt.) Less., Linnaea 6: 516. Jul-Dec 1831 
(Gakirdieae), based on | Rankless) Galardiae T. Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. PI. 2: 
177. 14 Jul 1818. 

Gerbera L., Opera Var.: 247. 1758, nom. cons. 

Tribe Gerbereae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829. 

Gnaphalium L., Sp. PL: 850. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Gnaphaliaceae Link ex Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46. 1830 

(Gnaphalieae). 

Subfam. Gnaphalioideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 291. 1837 

(Gnaphalieae). 

Tribe Gnaphalieae (Cass.) Lecoq & Juillet, Diet. Rais. Term. Bot.: 296. 1831, 

based on [Rankless] Gnaphalieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. 

Nat. 19: 122. 26 Jan 1821. 

Subtribe Gnaphaliinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829 

(Gnaphalieae), based on [Rankless] Gnaphalieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. 

Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 19: 122. 26 Jan 1821. 



38 Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



Goneria L., Sysi. Nai., ed. 10: 1 189, 1229, 1358, 1377. 7 Jun 1759. 
Tribe Gorterieae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829. 

Gundelia L., Sp. PI.: 814. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Gundelieae DC. ex Lecoq & Juillet, Diet. Rais. Term. Bot.: 306. 1831 
(Gundeliaceae). 

Helenium L., Sp. PI.: 886. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Heleniaceae Raf., Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28. 24 Jul 1824 (Helenidia). 
Subfam. Heienioideae Bunmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 292. 1837 (Helenieae). 
Tribe Helenieae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829. 
Subtribe Heleniinae Cass, ex Dumott., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 (Helenieae). 

Helianihus L., Sp. PI.: 904. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Helianthaceae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. Nov-Dcc 1822 

(Helianiheae). 

Subfam. Helianthoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 

1829 (Hcliantheae), based on Tribe Heliantheae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. 

Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 189. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Heliantheae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 189. Mar 1819. 

Subtribe Helianthinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 71. 1827 (Heliantheae), 

based on Tribe Heliantheae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 

189. Mar 1819. 

Ilelichrysum Mill., Giird. Diet. Abr., cd. 4: unpaged |4621. 28 Jan 1754, nom. cons. 
Fam. Helichrysaceae Link, Handbuch 1:712. Jan-Aug 1829 (Elichryseae). 

Hieracium L., Sp. PL: 799. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Hieracioideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 296. 1837 

(Hieracieae). 

Tribe Hieracieae D. Don, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 306. Jan-Mar 1829 

(Hicraceae). 

Subtribe Hieraciinae Cass, ex Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 62. 1827 (Hieracieae). 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 39 



HyoserisL., Sp. PL: 808. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Hyoseridoideae Burmcisi., Handb. Nalurgesch.: 298. 1837 

(Hyoserideae). 

Tribe Hyoserideae Koslcl., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 625. Jan-Jun 1833. 

Subtribe Hyoseridinae Less., Syn. Gen. Comix)s.: 127. Jul-Aug 1832 

(Hyoserideae). 

HypochaerisL., Sp. PI.: 810. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Hypochaeridoideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 298. 1837 

(Hypochaerideae). 

Tribe Hypochaerideae D. EX)n, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 307. Jan-Mar 

1829 (Hypochoerideae). 

Subtribe Hypochaeridinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 130. Jul-Aug 1832 

(Hypochoerideae). 

Inula L., Sp. PL: 881. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Inuloideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829 
(Inuleae), based on Tribe Inuleae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 
88: 193. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Inuleae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 193. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Inulinae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 67. 1827 (Inuleae), based on 
Tribe Inuleae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 193. Mar 1819. 

/va L., Sp. PL: 988. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Iveae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829. 

Jacobaea Mill., Gard. Did. Abr., ed. 4: unpaged. 28 Jan 1754. 
Tribe Jacobaeae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 65. 1827 (Jacobaceae). 

Jungla L.f., Suppl. PL: 58, 380. Apr 1782. 

Tribe Jungieae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 224. 27 Mai 1830 
(Jungeae). 

Lactuca L., Sp. PL: 795. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Lactucoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1073. 1829, 
based on Tribe Lactuceae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 
355. 29Jun 1821. 

Tribe Lactuceae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 151. Feb 1819. 
Subtribe Lactucinae Cass, ex Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 59. 1827. 



40 Comp.Newsl. 30, 1997 



Lapsana L., Sp. PI.: 811.1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Lapsaneae Kosiel., Allg. Mcd.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 624. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Lapsaninae Cass, ex Dumori., Anal. Fam. PI.: 30. 1829 (Lapsaneae). 

Leontodon L., Sp. Pi.: 798. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons. 

Tribe Leontodonteae (Schultz-Bip.) W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 417. 
Jan-Oct 1837, based on Subtribe Leontodontinae C.H. Schultz-Bipontinus, 
Flora 17: 478. 14 Aug 1834 (Leontodonteae verae). 
Subtribe Leontodontinae Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 478. 14 Aug 1834 
(Leontodonteae verae). 

Uysera L., Sp. PI., ed. 2: 1249. Aug 1763. 

Subtribe Leyseriinae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 363. Jul-Aug 1832 
(Leysserieae). 

Liabum Adans., Fam. PI. 2: 131. Jul-Aug 1763. 

Subtribe Liabinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 (Liabeae). 

Liairis Gaertn. ex Schreb., Gen. PI. 2: 542. Mai 1791, nom. cons. 
Tribe Liatrideae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 1829. 
Subtribe Liatridinae Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829 (Liatrideae). 

Matricaria L., Sp. PI.: 890. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons. 

Fam. Matricariaceae Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400. Jul-Dcc 1845. 

Melampodium L., Sp. PI.: 921. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Melampodioideae Burmeist., Handb. Naiurgesch.: 293. 1837 

(Melampodicac). 

Tribe Melampodieae D. Don, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 17: ad t. 1458. 1 Dec 

1831. 

Subtribe Melampodiinae Less., Linnaea 5: 149. Jan 1830 (Melampodieae). 

Milleria L., Sp. PI.: 919. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Millerieae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1074. 1829. 

Subtribe Milleriinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829 (Millerieae). 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 41 



Mutisia L.f., Suppl. PI.: 57, 373. Apr 1782. 

Fam. Mutisiaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1 1 1 1. Jun 1835. 
Subfam. Mutisioideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PL: 1074. 1829 
(Mutisieae), based on Tribe Mutisieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. 
Sci. Nat. 20: 379. 29 Jun 1821. 

Tribe Mutisieae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 199. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Mutisiinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 (Mutisieae), 
based on Tribe Mutisieae A.H.G. dc Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 
379. 29 Jun 1821. 

Nassauvia Comm. ex Juss., Gen. Pi.: 175. 4 Aug 1789. 

Fam. Nassauviaceae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch. 1: 290. 1837. 
Subfam. Nassauvioideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 
1829 (Nassau vieae), based on Tribe Nassauvieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. 
Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 378. 29 Jun 1821. 

Tribe Nassauvieae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 198. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Nassauviinae (Cass.) Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 
(Nassauvieae), based on Tribe Nassauvieae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, 
Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 378. 29 Jun 1821. 

Osieospermum L., Sp. PI.: 923. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons. 

Tribe Osteospermeae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829. 

Othonna L., Sp. PI.: 924. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Othonnoideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 299. 1837 

(Othonneae). 

Tribe Othonneae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. R. 2: 621. Jan-Jun 1833. 

Subtribe Othonninae Less., Linnaea 6: 93. post Mar 1831 (Othonneae). 

Panhenium L., Sp. PI.: 988. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Partheniaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 816. Jan-Aug 1829. 

Subfam. Parthenioideae Raf., Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 89. 1820 

(Parthenidia). 

Pedis L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1 189, 1221, 1376. 7 Jun 1759. 

Subtribe Pectidinae Less., Linnaea 5: 134. Jan 1830 (Pectideae). 

Perdicium L., Pi. Rar. Afr.: 22. 20 Dec 1760. 

Fam. Perdiciaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 728. Jan-Aug 1829 (Perdicieae). 
Tribe Perdicieae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 239. 27 Mai 1830 
(Pcrdiceae). 



42 Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



Picris L., Sp. PI.: 792. 1 Mai 1753, nom. cons. 

Fam. Picridaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Boi. Slovar: 482. 1820 (Picrides). 
Tribe Picrideae Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 476, 478. 14 Aug 1834. 
Subtribe Picridinae Schullz-Bip., Flora 17: 478. 14 Aug 1834 (Picrideae 
verae). 

Pluchea Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 31. Feb 1817. 

Subtribe Plucheinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pi.: 31. 1829 (Plucheae). 

Polyachyrus Lag., Amen. Nat. Espafi. 1(1): 37. post 19 Apr 1811. 

Tribe Polyachyreae D. Don, Trans. Linn, Soc. London 16: 229. 27 Mai 1830. 
Subtribe Polyachyrinae End!., Gen. Pi.: 489. Jun 1838. 

Pyreihrum Zinn, Cat. PI. Hori. Gott.: 414. 20 Apr-21 Mai 1757. 

Tribe Pyrethreae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 90. 1847 (Pyrethrariae s. 

Senecionideae). 

Subtribe Pyrethrinae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 90. 1847 (Pyrethrinae). 

Relhania L'Her., Sert. Angl.: 22. Jan (prim.) 1789, nom. cons. 

Tribe Relhanieae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 710. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Relhaniinae Less., Linnaca 6: 232. Jul-Dec 1831 (Relhanieae). 

Rodigia Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 1: 275. Jan-Mai 1820. 
Subtribe Rodigiinae DC., Prodr. 7: 74, 98. late Apr 1838. 

Rolandra Rottb., Soc. Med. Havn. Collect. 2: 256. 1775. 

Subtribe Rolandrinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 313. 1829 
(Rolandreae). 

Rudheckia L., Sp. PL: 906. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Rudbeckieae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829. 
Subtribe Rudbeckiinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 
(Rudbeckieae). 

Santolina L., Sp. PI.: 842. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Santolinaceae Martinov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560. 1820 (Santolinae). 
Tribe Santolineae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1073. 1829. 

Scolymus L., Sp. PI.: 813. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Scolymeae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 624. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Scolyminae Less., Syn. Gen. Compos.: 126. Jul-Aug 1832 
(Scolymeae). 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 43 



Scorzonera L., Sp. PI.: 790. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Scorzoneroideae Burmeist., Handb. Natiirgesch.: 297. 1837 

(Scorzonereae). 

Tribe Scorzonereae D. Don, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 307. Jan-Marl 829. 

Subtribe Scorzonerinae Cass, ex Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 63. 1827 (Scorzonereae). 

Senecio L., Sp. Pi.: 866. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Seneclonaceae Spenn., Handb. Angew. Bot. 1: 339. 1834 

(Senecionideae). 

Subfam. Senecionoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 

1829 (Seneciones, sphalm.), based on Tribe Senecioneae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. 

Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 195. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Senecioneae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 195. Mar 1819. 

Subtribe Senecioninae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 65. 1827 (Senecioneae), 

based on Tribe Senecioneae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 

195. Mar 1819. 

Serratula L., Sp. PI.: 816. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Serratulaceae Maninov, Tekhno-Boi. Slovar: 577. 1820 (Serratulae). 
Tribe Serratuleae (Less.) W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 406. Jan-Oct 
1837, based on [Rankless] Serratuleae C.F. Lessing, Syn. Gen. Compos.: 4. 
Jul-Aug 1832. 

Subtribe Serratulinae (Less.) DC. in J. Lindley, Inu^. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 
262. Jul 1836 (Serratuleae), based on [Rankless] Serratuleae C.F. Lessing, Syn. 
Gen. Compos.: 4. Jul-Aug 1832. 

Silybum Adans., Fam. PI. 2: 1 16, 605. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. cons. 

Tribe Silybeae Kitt., Taschenb. Fl. Deutschl., 2, 2: 557. 1844, based on 
[Rankless] Silybeae C.F. Lessing, Syn. Gen. Compos.: 10. Jul-Aug 1832. 
Subtribe Silybinae (Less.) DC. in J. Lindley, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 262. 
Jul 1836 (Silybeae), based on [Rankless] Silybeae C.F. Lessing, Syn. Gen. 
Compos.: 10. Jul-Aug 1832. 

Sievia Cav., Icon. 4: 32. Sep-Dcc 1797. 

Tribe Stevieae Horan., Chiir. Ess. Fam.: 93. 1847 (Steviariae s Eupatoriaceae). 

Siiffiia J.C. Mikan, Del. Fl. Faun. Bras.: ad t. 1. 1820, nom. cons. 

Tribe Stifftieae D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16: 291. 27 Mai 1830. 



44 Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



Tagetes L., Sp. PI.: 887. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Tagetoideae (Cass.) Lindl., Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829 (Tagetineae), 

based on Tribe Tagcteae A.H.G. de Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 

367. 29 Jun 1821 (Tagetineae). 

Tribe Tageteae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 162. Feb 1819 

(Tagetineae). 

Subtribe Tagetinae (Cass.) Dumoit., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 (Tagetineae), 

based on Tribe Tageteae A.H.G. dc Cassini in G.F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 

367. 29 Jun 1821 (Tagetineae). 

Tanacetuni L., Sp. PI.: 843. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam, Tanacetaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298. 1818 (Tanacetoideae). 

Taraxacum F.H. Wigg., Prim. Fl. Holsat.: 56. 29 Mar 1780, nom. cons. 

Tribe Taraxaceae D. Don, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 307. Jan-Mar 1829. 

TarchonanihusL., Sp. PI.: 842. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Tarchonantheae Kosiel., Allg. Mcd.-PhiiriTi. Fl. 2: 668. Jan-Jun 1833. 
Subtribe Tarchonanthinae Cass, ex Dumon., Anal. Fam. PL: 31. 1829. 

Tragopogon L., Sp. PI.: 789. 1 Mai 1753. 

Tribe Tragopogoneae Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 476. 14 Aug 1834. 

Trichospira Kunth in F.W.H.A. von Humboldt, A.J. A. Bonpland & C.S. Kunth, 
Nov. Gen. Sp. 4, ed. P: 21. 26 Oct 1818. 
Subtribe Trichospirinae Less., Linnaca 6: 690. Jul-Dec 1831 (Trichospireae). 

irixis P. Browne, Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica: 312. 10 Mar 1756. 

Tribe Trixideae Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829. 
Subtribe Trixidinae Less., Linnaea 5: 6. Jan 1830 (Trixidca). 

lussilago L., Sp. PI.: 865. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Tu.vsilaginoideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 
1829 (Tussilagineae), ba.sed on Tribe Tussilagincac A.H.G. dc Cassini, J. Phys. 
Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 200. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Tu.ssilagineae Cas.s., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 200. Mar 1819. 
Subtribe Tu.ssilagininae (Cass.) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 64. 1827 (Tussilagineae), 
based on Tribe Tussilagineae A.H.G. de Ca.ssini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 
2(X). Mar 1819. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 45 



Urospermum Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat.: 122. Jan-Apr 1777. 

Tribe Urospermeae Cass, ex Schultz-Bip., Flora 17: 475. 14 Aug 1834. 

Vernonia Schreb., Gen. Pi. 2: 541. Mai 1791, nom. cons. 

Fam. Vernonlaceae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch. 1: 296. 1837. 

Subfam. Vernonioideae (Cass.) Lindl. in J.C. Loudon, Encycl. PI.: 1074. 1829 

(Vemonieae), based on Tribe Vemonieae A.H.G. de Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. 

Hist. Nat. 88:203. Mar 1819. 

Tribe Vemonieae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 203. Mar 1819. 

Subtribe Vernoniinae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 31. 1829 

(Vemonieae). 

Xanthiim L., Sp. PI.: 987. 1 Mai 1753. 

Fam. Xanthiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Hot.: 273, 298. 1818 (Xanthoideae). 

XeranthemumL., Sp. PI.: 857. 1 Mai 1753. 

Subfam. Xeranthemoideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 3(X). 1837 

(Xeranthemeae). 

Tribe Xeranthemeae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. H. 2: 621. Jan-Jun 1833. 

Subtribe Xerantheminae Cass, ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. PI.: 32. 1829 

(Xexanthemeae [sphalm.J). 



46 Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON ECUADORIAN 
SENECIONEAE 



Bertil Nordenstam 

Department of Phanerogamic Botany 

Swedish Museum of Natural History 

P. O. Box 50007, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden 

bertiI.nordenstam(5)nrm.se 



Abstract 

Seven new combinations for Ecuadorian laxa in ihe genera Aetheolaena, 
Dendrophorbium and Moniicalia are presented. Senecio hypomaltus Benoist is 
synonymized with Aetheolaena heterophylla (Turcz.) B. Nord. 

Introduction 

Continuing work on Ecuadorian Senecioneae for the 'Catalogue of the Vascular 
Plants of Ecuador' and the 'Flora of Ecuador' necessitates some further 
combinations in addition to those already recenUy published in this journal 
(Nordenstam 1996). One of the reasons for these new combinations is my 
stand[X)int \hal Aetheolaena should be kept distinct from Lasiocephalus, which is a 
small Andean genus typified by L. ovatus Schltdl. The species of Aetheolaena are 
herbs or half-shrubs, often scandcnt, with pctiolatc leaves and corymbose capitula, 
whereas LMsioccphalus comprises shrubs with imbricate, sessile or subsessile 
leaves and larger soliliiry llower-hcads, somewhat resembling those ol'Culcitium. 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 47 



Nomenclature 

1. The type oiSenecio hypomallus Benoist (Ecuador, valley of Lloa, 3. VII. 1930, 
Benoist 2719, P holotype!) was examined and found to be conspecific with 
Aetheolaena heterophylla (Turcz.) B. Nord. The synonymy of this species is as 
follows. 

Aetheolaena heterophylla (Turcz.) B. Nord. 

Syn.: Gynoxys heterophylla Turcz., Lxisiocephalus heterophyllus (Turcz.) Cuatrec.; 
Senecio pindilicensis Hieron.; S. hypomallus Benoist. 



2. Aetheolaena decipiens (Benoist) B. Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Senecio decipiens Benoist, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 83: 807 (1936). Syn.: 
Lasiocephalus decipiens (Benoist) Cuatrec. - Orig. coll.: Ecuador, Loja, 2200 
m, IV. 1905, Rivet 971 (P holotype!). 

This is close lo Aetheolaena campanulata (Sch. Bip. ex Klait) B. Nord., which was 
described from Bolivia and appears to be distinct from the Ecuadorian species. 



3. Aetheolaena ledifolia (Kunth) B. Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Culcitium ledifolium Kunth in H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. ed. fol. 4: 133 
(1818). Syn.: Lasiocephalus ledifolius (Kunth) C. Jeffrey. - Orig. coll.: 
Ecuador, Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P, non vidi). 



4. Aetheolaena otophora (Wedd.) B. Nord. var, christophori (Cuatrec.) B. 
Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Senecio oiophorus Wedd. var. christophori Cuatrec, Fieldiana, Bot. 
27(2): 22 (1951). Syn.: Lasiocephalus otophorus (Wedd.) Cuatrec. var. 
christophori (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. - Orig. coll.: Colombia, Dep. Cundinamarca, 
Bogota, San Cristobal, 3000-3300 m alt., IX.1917, F. W. Pennell 2047 (NY 
holotype, non vidi; F, US, isotypes, non vidi). 

This is a felty-lanate variety from high elevations in Colombia and Ecuador. 



48 Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



5. Aetheolaena otophora (Wedd.) B. Nord. var. microcephala (Hieron.) B. 
Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Senecio otophorus Wedd. var. microcephalus ("microcephala") 

Hieron., Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19(1): 66 (1894). - Orig. coll.: Ecuador, Prov. Azuay, 
Cuenca, Paramo de Huarijacaja, Chaning el Pilzhum, X.1880, Lehmann 4912 
(K?, non vidi). 

This variety is rather characteristic with small and sometimes elongate capitula. I 
have seen three collections, all from Azuay Prov. in Ecuador. 



6. Aetheolaena pichinchensis (Cuatrec.) B. Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Culcitium pichinchense Cualiec., An. Univ. Madrid 4(2): 215 (1935). 
Syn.: Senecio pichinchensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., nom. illeg. (non S. 
pichinchensis Greenm.); Lasiocephalus pichinchensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; 
Senecio quiiensis Cuatrec. - Orig. coll.: Isem 308 (MA holotype, non vidi; F 
i.sotype, non vidi). 



7. Dendrophorbium kleinioides (Kunth) B. Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Cacalia kleinioides Kunth in H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. ed. fol. 4: 128- 
129 (1818). Syn.: Psacalium kleinioides (Kunth) EXT.; Penlacalia kleinioides 
(Kunth) Cuatrec. - Orig. coll.: Colombia, prope Guaduas, Humboldt & 
Bonpland s.n. (P holotype, non vidi) . - Further syn.: Senecio karsienii Hieron.; 
Dendrophorbium karsienii (Hieron.) C. Jeffrey; Senecio pennellii Greenm. 



8. Monticalia angustifolia (Kunth) B. Nord., comb. nov. 

Basionym: Cacalia angustifolia Kunth in H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. ed. fol. 4: c. 
124-125 (1818) ed. quarto 4: 159 (1820). Syn.: Senecio humholdlianus DC. - 
Orig. coll.: Ecuador, Quito, prope Mulalo, Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (P, non 
vidi). 

De Candolle (1838) changed the specific name when he transferred the species to 
Senecio, because the epithet angustifolia was pre-occupicd in that genus by S. 
angusiifolius (Thunb.) Willd., a South African .species. Monticalia angustifolia is 
an erect small .shrub with clo.sely set, sessile, narrow leaves, and .several, more or 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 49 



less erect, discoid capilula, and styles with tnincate tips lacking a central hair 
pencil, all features characteristic of the genus Moniicalia. 



References 

De Candolle, A. P. 1838. Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 6. 
Paris. 

Nordenstam, B. 1996. New combinations in Ecuadorean Senecioneae. Comp. 
Newsl. 29: 47-50. 



50 Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



NATURE OF ERGASTIC SUBSTANCES IN SOME 
WEST AFRICAN ASTERACEAE SEEDS - VIII 



M. Idu & L.S. Gill 

Department of Botany 

University of Benin 

P.M.B. 1154 

Benin City 

Nigeria 



Abstract 

The ergastic substances of seeds from 46 species of Asteraceae were examined for 
alkaloids, fals and oils, inulin, protein, starch and tannin. All species examined 
were herbs excepts five. Fat and oils were found to be present in all the 
investigated taxa, 14 species had alkaloid, 22 had protein. Starch grains and tannin 
were found to be absent in all the investigated species. 



Introduction 

The ergastic substances arc secondiiry products of plant metabolism which might 
have been formed at certain stages of metabolic process and are retained when the 
taxon in question underwent further evolution (Erdiman 1956). According to Gill 
& Ayodcle (1986) the present food crisis where the number of cultivated crops is 
radically insufficient to provide for the world food supply, a knowledge of the 
stored products of the seeds of wild plants cannot be overemphazied. This can be 
done with the view to harness the resources of wild plants. 

Furthermore, the future energy needs of mankind will depend on renewable plant 
resources to replace the present decreasing fossil fuel reserves (Abelson 1978). 

The present paper is pan of ongoing project on the nature of ergastic subsliinces in 
angiospcrmic seeds. The earlier conu-ibulions on this project arc Gill & Aycxlele 
( 1986j, Omoigui & Gill (1988) and Gill ct al. (1991). 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 51 



The results of ihe survey for crgasiic substances of 46 Asieraceac seeds disiribuied 
in 7 tribes are reported here. 



Materials and Methods 

Seeds used in this investigation were randomly collected in nature from different 
localities in southern Nigeria. Seed materials was stored at 21 ± 2° C in the 
laboratory. The method used for the determination of ergastic substances was 
outlined by Gill & Abili (1989). Vouchers of the specimens studied are deposited 
in the herbarium of the University of Benin, Nigeria. 



Results 

Table 1 summarizes the taxa studied along with their life form and nature of 
ergastic substances. Starch grains and tannin were absent in all the investigated 
taxa whereas fats and oils and inulin were observed in all the taxa, alkaloid and 
protein in 14 and 22 taxa respectively. 



Discussion 

For more than three decades now, much attention has been focused on the 
comparative studies of basic molecules in relation to laxonomic problems. 

Dc Wet & Scott (1965) are of the opinion that essential oil can be used as a 
laxonomic criterion and that chemical characters are often found to more reliable 
than the gross morphology in delennining the laxonomic affinities. 

Gill & Ayodele (1986) and Gill et al. (1991) have established a relationship 
between life form and nature of ergastic substances and suggested that starch 
granules are generally associated with herbaceous habits, but this view does not 
hold in the present study with seeds of Asteraceae, where all the surveyed taxa are 
predominantly herbaceous and devoid of starch granules. However, Gill & Abili 
(1989) are of the opinion that an absolute reliance on the presence or absence of a 
particular or a group of ergastic substances will be a gross mistake in making any 
taxonomic decisions. Pirie (1955) suggests that various types of information 
regarding a tax on should be taken into consideration for any taxonomic 
classification. 

Further investigation is needed on these taxa to know the nature of protein, 
alkaloid, fats and oils present in them for commercial exploitation. 



52 Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



References 

Abelson, P.H. 1978. Biocncrgy. Science 204: 1 164. 

De Wet, J.MJ. & B.D. Scott 1965. Essential oils as taxonomic criteria in 
Boihriochloa.Bot. Gaz. 126: 209-214. 

Erdtman, H. 1956. Flavonoid Heartwood Constituents of Conifers. Sci. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Dublin 24: 129-138. 

Gill, L.S. & M.A. Abili 1989. Nature of ergastic substances in some angiospennic 
seeds. V. Feddes Reperi. 1(X): 71-79. 

Cill, L.S. & J.R. Ayodele 1986. On the nature of crga.stic substances in the seeds 
of some tropical and temperate angiosperms. III. J. Plant. Anat. and Morphol. 
3: 35^9. 

Gill, L.S., Nyawuame, H.G.K., Aibangbe, M.I. & D.A. Agho 1991. Nature of 
ergastic substances in some Mediterranean angiospcrmous seeds. VI. Feddes 
Repert. 102: 613-628. 

Omoigui, I.D. & L.S. Gill 1988. Nature of ergastic substances in some West 
African Compositae. Feddes Reperi. 99: 143-145. 

Pirie, N.VV. 1955. The principles of microbial classification. Summing Up. ./. Gen. 
Microbiol. 121: 382-386. 



Comp. Ncwsl. 30, 1997 



53 



u 
c 



E 



o 

c 

3 

C3 

u 



_2J 



_c 
















































'c 
























C 00 




• 


> 


• 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 




• 


« 
























H 
























j= 
























u 
























l*^ 




' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 


' 




' 


C/3 
























_c 
























s _ 
























^ ^ 




+ 


+ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


• 


1 




+ 


1 
























c 
















































"3 «^ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


c 
























"^ 
























T3 
























C 
























« 1/5 




























+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 
























u. 
























•o 
























|5 
























■« r^ 




, 


, 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 




+ 


^ 
























< 
























t*' E « 
























5^- l_ 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 






X 










9" 
























m 








1 


E 

u 














■g 








o 


X 






c 
o 








^ 








C/3 


=a 






s " 








t2. 


J 


B 




2 


> 






H 




i 


J 


m 
x 




X 




1 


5 




J 






J 


"o 
X 


i 


6 


> 




• 2 


^ 

1 




1 






1 


6 

i 
§- 

1 


1 


1 

i 
r 


5 
1 

r 


u 

U 


a 

1 


1 

1 


1 


1 




hH 


a 


u 




5 


s 


^ 


1 


^ 


Co 



54 



Comp. Newsl.30. 1997 



IiIIlXIXXII 



Q 
U 



— ^ .c 



-a 
< 

d 

u 

CL 



< 

d 
u 






o 




Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



55 



+ + + 



+ + + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + + + 



+ + 4- + 



X 00 OD I n: 



a: I I 



I I DC X 



Q 
U 






00 



_ '2 



is 



-J 

5 



CO 00 SC Ki 






a 



cS -3 



< 

d 



•~j 



N 

Q 



3 









00 

c 

lU 

e 






Od 



fS u a: 



H 



o 



u o u u 



56 



Comp. Newsl.30. 1997 



+ + + ' + 



+ + + + + + + + + + + 



+ + + + + + + + + + + 



XIIII IinZooc/OC/O 



oi 



i y 



UJ 



60 

3 






U 



-s 

"3 ^-^ 






^ t -^ 



(J i^ a 
uj o O 



h- O i- -- 



II 



PC 
II 



Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 57 



LA GERMINATION ET LE POUVOIR 

GERMINATIF DE QUELQUES ARTEMISIA 

DU MAROC 



Mme Aicha Ouyahya 

Departement de Botanique et Ecologie vegetale 

Institut Scientifique 

B.P. 703 

Rabat, Maroc 



Resume 

Le present article traite de la germination et du pouvoir germinatif des armoises 
marocaines reputees par leurs valeurs pastorale, therapeutique et ecologique. Les 
resultats obtenus suggerent que la germination des Artemisia etudies depend en 
grande partie des conditions ecologiques du biotope el de la maturite physiologi- 
que des diaspores. 



Abstract 

The present paper describes the germination and the germinal power of Moroccan 
species of the genus Artemisia. These species have a pastoral and a therapeutical 
value. The results show that the germination of Artemisia depends of climatic 
conditions in the biotope and physiological maturity of achenes. 



Introduction 

Dans une note anterieure (Ouyahya 1983), on a etudie la genmination et le pouvoir 
germinatif de cinq armoises endemiques marocaines. Dans le present travail, a titre 
de comparaison, on a repris la meme etude sur d'autres populations et sur d'autres 
taxons afin de formuler des hypotheses relatives aux aptitudes germinatives des 
diaspores, aux facteurs extemes et internes propices a I'activite germinative et au 
role de cette demiere dans la regeneration des populations des steppes d'armoise. 



58 Comp.Newsl.30. 1997 



Materiel et methode 

Les diaspores etudiees proviennent soil des echantillons recoltes sur le terrain, soit 
des echantillons envoyes par des jardins botaniques. 

Pour chaque laxon etudie et pour chaque mois (durant six mois) un lot de 
semences de 100 akcnes pris au hasard, apres trailement a I'hypochlorite a 50 % 
(bain de 5 minutes), a etc place sur des papiers filtrcs imbibes d'eau distillee, dans 
des boTtes de Petri, a I'obscurite dans un liroir, a la temperature de la salle (T°C). 

Des observations regulicres faites tous les jours p)ermettent d'une part de suivre le 
developpement de la plantule, d'autres pan dc connattre la progression du 
pourcentage de germination des akenes. 



Resultats et discussion 

Le tableau 1 rcunit les valeurs de quelques parametres: temps de latence (TL); 
temps moyen de germination (TMG), c'est-a-dire temps necessaire pour atteindre 
50 % de germination; durce de la pcriode dc germination (DPG); capacite de 
germination (CG), c'csi-a-dire laux maximal aitcini dans les conditions notccs. 

A partir du tableau 1 el des courbcs dc germination de figures 1 et 2, plusieurs 
consiauitions s'imposent; dans un premier temps il appait possible dc separer les 
taxons en trois groupes bien distincLs. 

Lc premier groupe rassemble les taxons qui gcrmcnt abondammcnt et conservent 
un pouvoir germinatif encore assez eleve: A. absinthium, A. caerulescens, A. 
verlotiorum. A. vulgaris, et cc sont sans doute des espcces qui croissent dans des 
bioiopes humides. Ccpcndant, rappclons que les akcnes de ccs dcmicrcs csj)cccs 
oni un an dc plus. Clor cl al. (1974) ont mcniionnc que Ics diaspores d'A. herba- 
alba nc peuvent germer qu'aprcs unc dormancc obligatoirc dc prcsqu'une annce. 

Les espcces du second groupe sont caractcrisccs piir unc capacite dc germination 
moycnne, elles germeni aussi bicn que les prcccdcnics. Ce sont des orophytcs 
cndcmiqucs mar(x:aines a repartition gcographique assez large qui se localisent 
suriout dans des regions scmi-aridc: A. tnesailaniica ct A. negrei. 

Lc dernier groupe rcnfcrme A. ailaniica var. maroccana et A. herba-alba. Ccs 
deux taxons marocains posscdcnt un pouvoir gcrniinatif faiblc ct gcnncnt plus 
Icntemenl que les autrcs tiixons ctudics. A. herba-alba croTl dans des regions de 
preference arides, depuis lc littoral atlantique jusqu'a 2000 m d'alliludc; par contre 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 59 



A. ailaniica var. maroccana ne se rencontre qu'a parlir de 1600 m d'allitude dans 
des localites semi-arides. 

Notons egalement que la capacite de germination varie bcaucoup d'un taxon a 
I 'autre et vraisemblablement en fonction de la maturite physiologique des 
diaspores et de la temperature de la salle (facteur limitant de la germination, Come 
1970). 

Au cours de la germination, on a pu constater que pour certains echantillons 
{A. absinihiuni, ech. 0102; A. herba-alha, ech. 2044, 2043, 2047, 2048; A. mes- 
allaniica, ech. 2411, 2413, 2414 c\.A. negrei, ech. 2511, 2512) le taux maximal de 
la germination n'a ete atieini qu'a une temperature elevee (25 <T*'C<28), ce qui 
iaisserait supposer que ces plantes ont besoin a la fois d'humidite et de chaleur 
pour germer. Le role de I'humidite n'appelle aucun commentaire particulier. Par 
contre, Taction des temperatures elevees laisse supposer que la dormance exige 
que, pour etre levee, la graine ait franchi une thermophase precise: les stations 
concemees sont ordinairement dans les etages bioclimatiques semi-aride, aride et 
saharien, mais a hiver frais ou froid. Pendant cette periode hivemale froide les 
graines sont generalement dormantes, el ne peuvent satisfaire cette thermophase 
que durant le printemps (les Artemisia eiudies ne fructifient qu'au mois de 
novembre; cette fructification d'automne constitue une strategic adaptative adoptee 
par bcaucoup d'esp)eces des regions arides), comme cela pourraii eU'e le cas pour 
d'autres stations situees dans des sous-etages a hiver tempcre ou doux, ou meme 
pour les especes cultivees et acclimatisees depuis longtemps en jardin botanique 
(echantillons n" 1201, 2811, 2907). 

On pent s'approcher de cette hypothese les observations de Fernandez & Caldwell 
(1975), observations portant sur A. tridentata. lis ont revele que le taux de 
croissance des racines est maximum aux mois d'avril et juin (observations realisees 
dans les chambres implanices sur le terrain de recolte). Ceci est en rapport, non 
avec la levee de dormance, mais seulement avec les phenomenes habituels de la 
croissance. 

A partir de la figure 2, on a pu dcccler les faits suivants: 

- pour les localites ou cohabitent les trois armoises marocaincs: A. herba-alba, 
A. mesatlantica et A. negrei, la demiere germe plus rapidement et possede un 
pouvoir germinatif encore plus eleve que les deux autres. 

- les courbes de germination de ces trois armoises revelent une succession 
frappante. En fait, cette succession pourrait etre correlee a I'etagement altitudinal 
d'une part, et aux conditions ecologiques d'autre part et sans omettre la maturite 
physiologique des diaspores. 



60 Comp.Newsl.30. 1997 



En effet, A. negrei est une espece endemique marocaine, polyploide (2n=56 a 65) 
et orophile. EUe se rencontre surtout dans le Haut Atlas a partir de 2200 m 
d'altitude avec des xerophytes epineux (conditions micro- et mesoclimatiques 
dures, surtout froides et humides). 

A. mesatlantica est aussi une espece endemique marocaine, diploide (2n=18), 
orophile et a repartition assez large (Moyen Atlas, Haut Atlas et Anti Atlas). EUe 
croit en-dessous de A. negrei dans le Haut Atlas, a partir de 18CX) m d'altitude. 

A. herba-alba est une espece a repartition ecologique el geographique plus large; 
elle se renconu-e aussi bien sur silice que sur calcaire; elle s'etend depuis le Maroc 
jusqu'en Egypte, Sud de I'Espagne et de la France, Proche-Orient, Iran, Irak el 
Afghanistan. Elle est, pour le moment, connue comme diploide au Maroc el 
tetraploide en Espagne et en Tunisie. Elle croit en-dessous d'A.mesatlantica dans 
le Moyen Atlas, le Haut Atlas et I'Anti Atlas. 

Ces resultais mettent en evidence que le phenomcne de germination est lie 
directemeni aux conditions ecologiques de la plantc d'unc part, el a la maiuriie 
physiologique des diaspores d'auUc pan. 



Bibliographic 

Clor, M.A,, Al Ani, T.A. & F. Charchafchi 1974. Range resources of Iraq, XV. 
Germination, storage conditions and after-ripening of the seeds oi Artemisia 
herba-alba. Tech. Bull. no. 76. Inst, for Appl. Research on Natural Resources, 
Abu Ghrait), Iraq. 17 pp. 

Come, D. 1970. Les obstacles a la germination. Masson ci Cie, Paris. 

Fernande/., O.A. & M.M. Caldwell 1975. Phcnologic el dynamique de la 
crois-sance des racines de u-ois arbusies de climai .scmi-dcscrtiquc frais (en 
culture en champ). J.Ecol. G.B. 63 (2): 703-714. 

Ouyahya, A. 1983. Elude sur la germination el Ic pouvoir gcnninaiif de cinq 
armoiscs cndcmiqucs du Maroc. Bull. Inst. Sci. Rabat 7: 75-82. 

Ouyahya, A. 1987. Systemalique du genre Artemisia L. au Maroc. These doc. es- 
sciences Univ. Aix-Marscillc III, 433 pp. 



Comp. News!. 30, 1997 



61 



3 
03 











00 
VI 


el 


•i 














1 

< 




1 

< 


1 


OtN— r-'j-CNloO'j-irim 


— c> 00 r^i 


fS O^ — ' *— 








■a 


ooiosOv£)r-irJ(NfNlT)-o 


m •"9- \D r~- >o 


sD TT r- m 






9C 


"¥ 


.2 














.^ 


VI 


Of 










^ 




:3 


U 


s 


1 


— lor^iocr^ro — r-fN(-^i 


vC rr 00 ^c — 


r- — 00 






3 


f- 


c 


9C 


ociy-ivCvOrNir^r', rjinO 


u-^ >/-i r-~ r- v-i 


vD in r~ m 








-^ 


VI 


'ft* 


=i 
















in 


J£ 


^ 










Sh/ 






rj 


< 












u 

c 






















"oe 


1 


Q 










.2 




.5 


U 


ffl 


E 


f>-lt--\O'^00vO<N(N — 10 


■<r <-^l -^ iri 


r- 00 r^ 




c 




U1 


5 

< 


■0 


c><i-)\or^r-ir~imn-ivDO 


vD r~- r- 00 vD 


r- vo o^ \o 




u 






(N 














'5 




1 
1 


.<2 

c 
E 


1^00 — rror^r^Omo 


— ' TT m 00 00 


m 




•a 




S 




4; 


ooi/^io\Or^u-)r>lr^)TrrNl 


r~ r- 00 00 vD 


00 00 00 










< 


73 














r4 


Ts" 












CL 






VI 


M 


.'S 










r3 
U 




> 
< 


U 


<M 




E 


r^mTj-^rrw^f*') — r*^oo 


'- -^ vO c» 


vo r^i vc c^ 






1- 


*ri 


oCvOoomrNjoo^r— ^/~)rNj 


00 \o r^ 00 \D 


r- r- 00 vD 








VI 


'O 


^ 


















J< 


-0 
















9- 


< 














"2 


T 
















ly. 


"vi 




.^ 
















C 
< 


E 


r~i o^ r- — r^ r~i o^ _, rsi fi 


<^i t— vO 


TT sD o^ r^ 








5; 


r- 
VI 


■0 


r^ 00 m r^ 00 


o^ 00 00 r^ 























aa 


e 








ICo^oooooOo 


(^ 00 r- 00 00 


r~ 00 00 00 




Cu 


3 








,rn ,rnr,^fnfr^f<-,rrif,^ 


•—',,,, 


1 1 1 1 




Q 


_o 








"^ (N "" — (N| 


d^ ^ rj <^ 2 


zz ^ zz ^ 












^^ 
















C 










SS?:}2o^oooo 

^ , ', 1 (^ V m ro f*^ m 


m 00 t— CO f- 

V") »n VI fA iri 

00000 


05-14 
10-17 
04-15 
06-14 




-J 


3 








'a-unTj-r-^II^w^r^^yC^ 


ro r^ rn r*^ m 


m Tj- m r«^ 




f- 








r^rnrgrn^r^rs^r^^ 


— rj — — — 


rsi fA -^ r^ 






^ 


























^ 








x 










3 








e 










y 








o 










S 








^ 


















ST 










1 ^-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S 


a a a <3 a 






•o 










c c ? c c 






















E 

o 










^.y"?"??"??"?"?"? 


-3^-3-3-3 














•? ^-S-g-S-g-g-g-S^ 


2 S S 2 2 


■5 S 5 s 




/^. 










!5^k,K.>^i>i,>^v.>^ 


"^ '^ 'O "^ ^ 


00 00 Oo 00 












-§-l^^^^^^^^ 


^ ^ ^ ^ 














't'ST't'C'C'C'C'CrjrC 


t "5: ^ ^ -^ 


^ -"C 1: t: 














(Noor^if'^Ti-iovor-ooo^ 


— CO •v >n 


2508 
2509 
2511 
2512 




-4, 










sgssssssss 


Tl- TT TT TJ- TT 




o 










OOfNr>)r~irNirJr^MJN 


<Ni r>i (N r-i r<i 


^. 














1 



62 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



3 



1 J 


O 


C^l 


OO 


oo 


00 


r- 










-8 .3 








M C 








.« g 












^/^ 


c> 


oo 


oo 


r~ 


1' 








•S .a 








V- 


Tj- 


o^ 


o 


oo 


oo 


oo 


^ a; 








< ^ 








■8 .52 








0£ O 








12 








\D 


O 


lO 


oo 


o 


oo 


1- 








■S,-i3 








Ot c 








u 


V~) 


r-j 


ON 


o^ 


ON 


oo 










^ ^ 








< "° 








,8 .a 
















o^ 


o 


o 


oo 


oo 


oc 










-^ -S 








< ^ 










TJ- 


r<^ 


r«"i 












- 


vO 


r- 




(-;- 


lo 


vtp 




</i 


Tj- 


■* 




m 


r J 


n 




r^ 








3 








1^ 








o 








1 


.2 
5 


■ a 

Or 




^ 

a 




^ 




o 


> 


> 




li 


•^ 


"T 




o 




£ 




ri 


oo 


o 






rt 


n 



"S 



t3 

I 



C 
O 

E 









-J 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 63 



Legende 

Tableau 1. Tableau resumant les resultals obtenus relatifs aux caracteristiques de 
germination pour six mois de tests de germination (nombre de diaspores germees 
par jour sur 100 akenes) sur huir armoises: cinq marocaines (.4. absinthium, A. 
atlantica var. maroccana, A. herba-alba, A. mesatlantica et A. negrei) et les trois 
auU'es provenant du jardin boianique de Nantes (A. verlotiorum) et du jardin 
bouinique de Sicnne (A. vulgaris et A. caerulescens). 

Figure 1. Courbes de germination des akenes d'Ariemisia. Chaque coorbe 
correspond a 100 akenes. C.G.: Capacite de germination (temperature de la salle, 
16 <T°C<19, mois de mars). 

Figure 2. Courbes de germination des akenes d'Artemisia ages de 4 mois 
(temperature de la salle, 16<T"C<19, mois de mars). 2045, 2046: A. herba-alba; 
2410, 2411, 2413, 2414: A. mesatlantica; 2508, 2509, 2511, 2512: A. negrei. 



64 



Comp. Newsl.30, 1997 



Jill jl. yerlotorum 
J907 A. vulgaris 
0101 A. absinthium 

1J01 A. ea«rule$e*ns 




A, atlantica var. 

maroccana 



iO Jourt 



Comp. Newsl.30. 1997 



65 




21 24 27 30 Jours 



66 



Comp.Newsl.30, 1997 



Now Available 
The Asters of Ontario (Compositae: Astereae): 

Diplactis Raf., Oclemena E.L. Greene, DoellingeriaNees and Aster L. 
(including Canadanthus Nesom, Symphyotrichum Nees, and Virgulus Raf.) 

from the U. W. Biology^ Series, Department of Biology, 
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L3G1 

A monograph presenting a revised treatment of the asters of Ontario. 
Various classifications of all asters are discussed and a new scheme is 
presented based on previously published studies on morphology, cytology 
and chloroplast DNA analyses. Species occurring in the province are 
placed in four distantly related genera within the tribe Astereae. 



Partial synonymy and detailed 
illustrations of 32 species and 
their infraspecific taxa. 
Updated distribution dot 
maps. Generic and 
subgeneric descriptions and 
revised discussions of 
species. 

Six new names and 
combinations. 

94 pp.; 39 figures; 4 tables; 
dichotomous key to all taxa. 

Price: $10.00 plus $3.50 S & 
H. Canadian buyers add GST. 

Make cheques payable to 
"University of Waterloo - Biology 
Series." 



SEMPLE, I.e., S. HEARD and 
CHUNSHENG XIANG. 1996. The 
Asters of Ontario (Compositae: 
Astereae): Diplactis Raf., Oclemena 
Greene, Doellingeria Nees and 
Aster L. (including Canadanthus 
Nesom, Symphyotrichum Nees and 
Virgulus Raf J. U. Waterloo Biol. 
Series38: 1-94. ISSN-0317-3348 



Number Thirly-eighl 



John C. Semple 

Stephen B. Heard 

and 

ChunSheng Xiang 



The Asters of Ontario (Compositae: Astereae): 
Diplactis Raf. Oclemena ti l Greene, Doellingeria Nees 

andA.Ster L (including CanaJomhus Nesom, 
Symphyotrichum Nees, and Virgulus Raf.) 




Comp. Newsl. 30, 1997 



67 



Now Available 

A Revision oi Heterotheca sect. Phyllotheca 

(Compositae: Astereae): 
The Prairie and Montane Goldenasters of North America 

from the U. W. Biology Series, Department of Biology, 
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 



A monograph presenting the morphology, classification and distribution of 
the largestgroupof goldenasters: f^eferor/zeca sect. Phyllotheca. 
Included are a comparison of the traits of all the goldenaster genera and a 
key to all species in the three sections of the genus Heterotheca native to 
Canada, the United States and Mexico. 



Full synonymy and detailed 
illustrations of 20 species and 
24 varieties. Distribution dot 
maps based on over 10,000 
specimens and 25 years of 
field observations. 

164 pp.; 52 figures including 
scanning electron 
micrographs and line 
drawings. 

The first detailed discussion 
and revision of 
Heterotheca fulcrata, H. 
sessiliflora, H. villosa, and 
17otherspecies. 



Price: $15.00 plus $5 S & H. 
Canadian buyers add GST. 



SEMPLE, J.C. 1996. A revision of 
Heterotheca sect. Phyllotheca 
(Nutt.) Harms (Compositae: 
Astereae): the prairie and montane 
goldenasters of North America. 
U.W. Biol. Series No. 37: 1-164. 
ISSN.0317-3348 



University of Waterloo 
Biology Series 



A Revision of 

Heterotheca s«t. Phyllotheca (Nuid Harms 

(Compositae: Astereae): 

The Prairie and Montane Goldenasters 

of Nonh America 

John C. Semple 




New York Botanical Ga'.'lf" ,(:','',';fi 



3 5 



rk Botanical Garden Librarv 



85 00288 3567 



]