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^ Camplctjj 5ntJex to t!je Etxi, ^reliminarg ©tscourae, 

anl5 0ote<5, 

By the Rev. E. M. WHERRY, M.A. 

VOL. I. 


Paternoster House, pHARiNG Cross JIoad, 


[All rights reserved.] 


In presenting to the public the first volume of A Com- 
prehensim Comvientary on the- Qurdn, I think it necessary 
to make a brief statement as to the reasons which have 
led to the publication of this work, and the object sought 
to be attained thereby. 

The idea of preparing such a work grew out of the wants 
which I felt in the pursuit of my own study of the Quran, 
and in the work of a missionary among Muslims. The 
time required to gather up the results of the labours of 
various writers on Islam ; the difficulty of preserving 
these results in a form suitable for convenient reference ; 
and the still greater difficulty of bringing the truth thus 
acquired to bear on the minds of Muslims, owing to the 
absence of any medium whereby the proof-texts, referred 
to in the English works by chapter and 'cerse, may be found 
in the original copies current among Muhanimadans, 
where no such mode of reference is used ;— all these sug- 
gested the great need of a work which would remove in 
some degree at least these obstacles to the study of the 
Quran, and thus promote a better knowledge of Islam 
among missionaries. 

It will thus be seen that I have not laboured simply to 
make a book. 1 have endeavoured to provide for a felt 


want My object has been to gather up in a few volumes 
the results of the labours of those who have endeavoured 
to elucidate the text of the Quran, adding the results of 
my own study. It is in this sense that this work is en- 
titled a Comprehcnbive Commentary. Though primarily 
intended for the use of those who, like myself, are engaged 
in missionary -vvork among Muhamraadans, it is hoped 
that it will render valuable service to others. 

The plan adopted in the preparation of this work is as 
follows : — 

I. To present Sale's translation of the Quran in the 
form of the Arabic original, indicating the Sipdra, Siurat, 
JtiuqiX of the Sipdra, Ilnqu of tJie Sdrat, &c., as Hiey are in 
the best Oriental editions. 

II. To number the verses as they are in the Eoman 
Urdu edition of Afaulvi Abdul Qadir's translation. This 
arrangement will be of special benefit to missionaries in 

III. To exhibit in the notes and comments the views 
of the best Muslim commentators. For these I am in- 
debted for the most part to Sale, the TafBir-i-Raiifi, the 
Ta/sir-i-UiiSiiaini, the Tafsir-i Fatah- ar-JRahindn, and the 
notes on Abdul Qddir's Urdu traiuslaHon of the Quran. 
Sale's notes have been almost entirely drawn (with the 
aid of Maraccrs work in Latin) from the standard writings 
of Baidhdwi, the Jalalain, and Al Zamakhsharl I have 
also culled much from some of the best European writers 
on Isldm, a list of whose works may be found below. 

IV. To the above ia prefixed SaUs Preliminary Dis- 
course, with additional notes and emendations. And 
the lact \olume will contain a complete Index, both to 
the Uxt of, and the notca on, the Quran, which will enable 
the reader to acquaint him.seU with the teaching of the 


Quran on any particular subject, with a very small amount 
of labour. 

In regard to tHe spelling of proper names, X have 
invariably Komanised the original form of the words, 
except when quoting from living authors, in which case 
I have felt obliged to retain the spelling peculiar to each 

In order to facilitate the study of individual chapters, 
and to help a better understanding of the various " revela- 
tions," I have prefixed to each chapter a brief introduction, 
showing the circumstances under which the revelations 
were made, the date of their publication by Muhammad, 
and also giving a brief analysis of each chapter as to its 

As to the matter of the notes, the reader will perceive 
occasional repetition. This is due in part to the repe- 
titions of the text, and partly in order to call special 
attention to certain doctrines of the Quran, e.g., its testi- 
mony to the genuineness and credibility of the Christian 
Scriptures current in the days of Muhammad ; the evidence 
it affords to its own character as a fabrication , its testi- 
mony to the imposture of the Arabian prophet, in his 
professing to attest the Former Scriytures, while denying 
almost every cardinal doctrine of the same, — in his putting 
into the mouth of God garbled statements as to Scripture 
history, prophecy, and doctrine, to suit the purposes of 
his prophetic pretensions, — aud in his appealing to Divinity 
to sanction his crimes against morality and decency. 

The need of emphasising facts of this kind has grown 
out of the attempt of certain apologists for Islam to ignore 
these unpleasant truths, and to exhibit to the present 
generation an ideal Muhammad, no less unlike the prophet 
of Arabia than the Muhammad of Christian bigotry and 


niisreprftSGntation. My endeavour has been to show what 
the Viui-du actually teaches on these subjects. 

On the other hand, I have endeavoured to remove, 
as far as known to me, the inisappiehensions, and conse- 
quent niisropresentatioDs, of the doctrines of the Quran, 
popular among Chii'itiaas, believing that every such error 
strengthens the prejudices of Muhamraadans, and thereby 
aids the cause it seeks to overthrow, whilst justifying 
similar misrepresentation from the Musb'm side. Every- 
where I have endeavoured to advance the cause of truth, 
to show just wliat the Quran teaches, and So by statiug 
fa^lrly the issues of the controversy with Islam, to advance 
the great cause of bringing its votarifes to a knowledge 
v'f Him to whom all the prophets of God pointed as the 
Sou of (jod and the Saviour of sinners. 

Kinally, whilst 1 desire to express my obligations to all 
those, now living, whose writings I have coiKulted or used 
in the preparation of this volume, 1 wiah specially to 
make thankful acknowledgment of the help afforded me 
by Sir William Muir, in permitting mo to make use of 
his most valuable works on Muhajnmad and the Quran in 
the preparati(m of this work. My thauKs are also due to 
the Jlev. P. M. Zenker, C.M.S. mi&eionarv, Agra, for much 
valuable assistance in gathering material from sources 
inaccessible to me. 

Without further preface, and earnestly desiring the 
blessing of Him who is The only Sinlkss Promiet of 
IslAm, and tiie only Saviour of fallen men, I commend 
thiB volume to the reader. 

£. M. W. 

Loduna, Ihocmbtr 31, iSSl. 



Preface v 

Sale's Prefaob 3 


I. — Of the Arabs before Muhammad ; or, as t>iey express 
it in the Time of Icmoranct ; their History, Keligion, 
Learning, and Customs . . , . .13 

IL — Of the State of Christianity, particularly of the Eastern 
Churches, and of Judaism, at the time of Muliam- 
mad'a Appearance ; and of the Methods taken by 
him for the Eetablishing his Beligion, und the Cir- 
curastances which concurred thereto . .61 

III, — Of the Qur^n itself, the Pecuiiarities of that Book ; the 
Manner of its being Written And Published, and 
the General Design of it . . . . .96 

IV.-^Of the DoctrineR and Positive Precepts of the Quran 

which relate to Faith and Religious Duties . , u6 

V. — Of Certain Negative Precepts in the Qurdn . . . r9i 

VI. — Of the Institutions of the Quran in Civil Affairs , 205 

VI I.— Of the Months commanded by the Qui^i to bo kept 
Sacred ; and of the setting apart of Friday for the 
especial Service of God . , . . . . 227 
VIII. Of the Principal Sects among the Muhammadans ; and 
of those who have pretended to Prophecy among 
the Arabs in or since the time of Muhammad . 233 


I.— Entitled Siirat ul Fdtihat (The Preface) . . . . 287 

IL— Entitled Siirat ul Bacjr (The Cow) , . . . . 291 


Abdul Qadir Ibn Wali Ullah. Translation of the Qardn, with 

Notes, in Urdu. 
Aknold, John Mubhleisen, D.D. Islam : Its History, Character, 

aud Relation to Cbrislrianity. Third udition. 
BuBCKHARJDT, J. L. Notes OD the Bedouiiis Aiid Wahdhys. 2 vols, 

Burton, Captain. Pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Brinckman, Rev. Arthur. Notes on Isl^m. 
HioaiNS, Godfrey, Esq. An. Apology for tiie Life and Char:\cter 

of the Ctlebrated Prophet of Arabia. 
Hughes, Rev. T. P. Notes on Mahammadanism. Second edition. 

Also, Preface and Introduction to the Roman Urdu Qur&,n, 

Lodiana edition. 
LAira, Edward William. Selections from the Quriin. 
MuiR, Sir William, LL.D. Life of Mahomet. The Testimony 

borne by the Coran to the Jewish and Christian Soripturei?. 
NoELDEKE, Th. Origine et Cojupoiiifioue J^urarum Qurauic?,ruin 

ipsiusqne Qurani. Geachichte des Qorins. 
Palgrave, W. Gipford. Central and Eastern Arabia. 
Prideaux, Humphrey, D.D. Life of Mahoxoet. 
Rod WELL, J. M. The Koraxu Second edition, 1876. 
Sale, George. The Koran, with PreliniiuaTy Discourse and Notes 

on the Authority of Baidh^wi, Jalaluddin, Ai Zamakhsbari, &;c. 
SirjTH, R. BoswoRTH, M.A. Mohamia«d and Mohanuaedanisni. 

Second edition. 
Sybd Ahmad Khan Bahadur. Essays on the Life of Mohammed. 
The Tafair-i-Raufi. an Urdd Commentary 07i the Quran. 
The Taf§ir-i-Fatah-ar-Rahmdn. 

The Tafsir-i-Hussaini, a Persian Commentary on tlie Quriri. 
The Notes on the Roman Urdu Qurdn. AUahabatl. edition, 1844. 
Wheeler, Talboy3. History of India, vol. iv., part i 


In readiDg the Romanised form of Arabic proper names, the reader 
should pronounce — 

a as u 



d , 

> f^ 



% , 

, 1 




, ce 




, o 



n , 

1 *•' 




, CO 



at , 

f i 



In reading the fractional sign R j[, R V> ^^-t ^ *^'^ niar<^in to the 
text (if the Qun'in, understand by the figures above the line the Ruqk 
of the SOrat or chapter, and by the figures below the line the Mug^ of 
the Sipdra. The terms Ruba, Nisf^ and SuU mark the fourth, half, 
and three-fourths of a Sipdra. 


I IMAGINE it almost needless either to make an apology 
for publishing the following translation, or to go about to 
prove it a work of use as well as curiosity. They must 
have a mean opinion of the Christian religion, or be but 
ill grounded therein, who can apprehend any danger from 
so manifest a forgery : and if the religious and civil insti- 
tutions of foreign nations are worth our knowledge, those 
of Muhammad,- the lawgiver of the Arabians, and founder 
of an empire which in less than a century spread itself 
over a greater part of the world than the Romans were 
ever masters of, must needs be so ; whether we consider 
their extensive obtaining, or our frequent intercourse with 
those who are governed thereby. I shall not here inquire 
into the reasons why the law of Muhammad has met with 
so unexampled a reception in the world (for they are 
greatly deceived who imagine it to have been propagated 
by the sword alone), or by what means it came to be 
embraced by nations which never felt the force of the 
Muhammadan arms, and even by those which stripped 
the Arabians of their conquests, and put an end to the 
sovereignty and very being of their Khailfahs ; yet it seems 
as if there was something more than what is vulgarly 
imagined in a religion which has marie so surprising a 
progress. But whatever use an impartial version of the 
Quran may be of in other respects, it is absolutely neces- 
sary to undeceive those who, from the ignorant or unfair 


translations which have appeared, hq,ve entertained too 
favourable an opinion of the original, and also to enable 
us otieotually to expose the imposture ; none of those who 
have hitherto undertaken that provinoe, not excepting Dr. 
Vrideaux himself, having succeeded to the satisfaction of 
the judicious, for want of being complete masters of the 
controversy. The writers of the Komish communion, in 
T»articular, are so far from having done any service in their 
refutations of Muhammadism, that by endeavouring to 
defend their idolntry and other superstitions, they have 
rather contributed to the increase of that aversion which 
the Muhammadans in general have to the Christian re- 
ligion, and given them great advantages in the dispute. 
The I^rotestants alone are able to attack the Quran with 
success; and for them, I truso. Providence has reserved 
the glor^^ of its overthrow. In the meantime, if I might 
presume to lay down rules to be observed by those who 
attempt the conversion of the Muhammadans, they should 
bo the same which the learned zmd worthy Bishop Kidder^ 
has prescribed for the conversion of the Jeww, and which 
may, mutatis mutaitd'U, be equally applied to tlie former, 
notwithstanding the despicable opinion that writer, for 
want of being better acquainted with them, entertained 
of those people, judging them scarce fit to be argued with. 
The iirst of these rules is. To avoid compulsion, which, 
though it be not in our power to employ at present, I 
hope will not be made use of when it is» The second is, 
To avoid teaching doctrines against common sense; the 
Muhammodanb not being such fools (whatever we may 
lliink of them) as to bo gained over in this case. The 
worshipping of hnages and the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion are great stumbling-blocks to the Muhammadans, and 
the Church which teacheth them is very unfit to bring 
tliose people over. The third is. To avoid weak argu- 
ments ; for ihe Muhammadans arc not to be converted 

' In his Drtnonatr. of the Mesbias, part iii chap. 2. 


with these, or hard words. We must use them with 
humanity, and dispute agaiiist them with arguments that, 
are proper and cogent. Tt i« certain that many Christians 
who have written against them have been v^iry defective 
this way: many have used arguments that have no force, 
and advanced propositions that are void of truth. This 
method is so far from convincing, that it rather serves to 
harden them, Tlie Muhammadans will he apt to conclude 
we have little to say when we urge them M^ith arguments 
that are trifling or untrue. We do but lose ground when 
we do this ; and instead of gaining them, we expose our- 
selves and our cause also. We must not give them ill 
words neither : but must avoid all reproachful language, 
all that IS sarcastieal and biting : this never did good from 
pulpit or press. The softest words will make the deepcv^t 
impression : and if we think it a fault in them to give ill 
language, we cannot be excused when we imitate them. 
The fourth rule is, N'ot to quit any article of the Christian 
faith to gain the Muharnmadans. It is a fond conceit of 
the Socinians thac we shall upon their principles be most 
like to prevail upon the Muharnmadans : it is not true in 
matter of fact. We must not give up any article to gain 
them : but then the Church of Borne ought to pait with 
many practices and some doctrines. We are not to design 
to gain the Muharnmadans over to a system of dogma, buti 
to the ancient and primitive faith. 1 believe nolx)dy will 
deny but i:hat the rules here laid down are just: the latter 
part of the third, which alone my design has given me 
occasion to practise, I think so reasonable, that I have not, 
in speaking of Muhamuiad or his Quran, allowed myself 
to use those opprobrious appellations, and unmannerly 
expressions, which seem to be the strongest arguments of 
several who have wi-itten against them. On the contrary, 
I have thought myself obliged to treat both with comiuon 
decency and even to approve such particulars as seemed 
to me to deserve approbation ; for how criminal soever 
Muhammad may have been in imposing a false religion 


on mankind, the praises due to his real virtues ought not 
to be denied him; nor can I do otherwise than applaud 
the candour of the pious and learned Spanhemius, who, 
thouf^h he owr ed liim to have been a wicked impostor, 
yet acknowledged him to have been richly furnislied with 
natural endowments, beautiful in his person, of a subtle 
wit, agreeable behaviour, showing liberality to the poor, 
couiteay to every one, fortitude against his enemies, and 
flbove all a high reverence for the name of God; severe 
against the perjured, adulterers, murderers, slanderers, 
prodigals, covetous, false witnesses, &c., a great preacher 
of patience, charity, mercy, beneficence, gratitude, honour- 
ing of parents and superiors, and a frequent celebrator of 
ihe divine praises.^ 

Of the several translations of the Quran now e tant, 
there is but one which tolerably represents the sense of 
the original ; and that being in Latin, a new version be- 
came necessary, at least to an English reader. What 
Bibliander pubiished for a Latin translation of that book 
deserves not the name of a translation; the unaccountable 
liberties therein taken, and the numberless fault , both of 
omission and commission, leaving scarce any resemblance 
of the original. It was made near six hundred years ago, 
beiiic fmi.shed in 1143, by Robeitus Iletenensis, an Eng- 
lishman, with the assistance of Hermannus Dalmata, at 
th« request of Peter, Abbot of Clugny, who paid them 
well for their pains. 

From tliis Latin vorsicn was taken the Italian of Andrea 
Arrivabtne.. notwitlistanding the pretences in his dedica- 
tion of its being done immediately from the Arabic ;2 

' Id oertiuxi, naturalibus egi pgi5 prodJgos, avuroB, falsos testes, Ac. 

dotiboB instructurn Muhwuriiadom. Magnus idem patienHw, charitatiB, 

forma pnettanti, ingenio cjilide, ino. inisericordi«e beneiicentiaB, gratitu- 

ribus faoeiia, »c pr» se ferentf.-ui li- diniB.hoxiorisinparentesacsuperiore* 

boraUtai*«Tn in tr^fno(«, con.itattm pncco, ut et divinarum laJidum. 

in iiiiguia<«, fortitudi&em in ho.^te^ Hist. Eccles., sec. vii. c. 7, lem. 5 

M prw Cii'tcriii reven^ntiain divini and 7. 

nomlnd.— Severua ftnt in perjuros, ' His words are : Qucsto Hbro, 

iidiilt«r(M, hotnicidas, ubtrectatoroa, che gi^ Havevo a cooiinxxno utility 


wherefore it is no wonder if the transcript be yet more 
faulty and absurd than the copy.^ 

About the end of the fifteenth century, Johannes 
Andreas, a native of Xatiya in the kingdom of Valencia, 
who from a Muhammadan doctor became a Christian 
priest, translated not only the Quran, but also its glosses, 
and the seven books of the Sonna, out of Arabic into the 
Arragonian tongue, at the command of Martin Garcia,^ 
Bishop of Barcelona and Inquisitor of Arragon. Whether 
this translation were ever published or not I am wholly 
ignorant ; but it may be presumed to have been the better 
done for being the work of one bred up in the Muham- 
madan religion and learning ; though his refutation of 
that religion, which has had several editions, gives no 
great idea of his abilities. 

Some years within the last century, Andrew du Eyer, 
who had been consul of the French nation in Egypt, and 
was tolerably skilled in the Turkish and Arabic languages, 
took the pains to translate the Quran into his own tongue ; 
but his performance, though it be beyond comparison 
preferable to that of Eetenensis, is far from being a just 
translation, there being mistakes in every page, besides 
frequent transpositions, omissions, and additions,^ faults 
unpardonable in a work of this nature. And what renders 
it still more incomplete is the want of Notes to explain a 
vast number of passages, some of which are difficult, and 
others impossible to be understood, without proper expli- 
cations, were they translated ever so exactly, which the 
author is ^0 sensible of that he often refers his reader to 
the Arabic commentators. 

The English version is no other than a translation of 

di molti fatto dal proprio testo 362; Sel den., De Success, ad Legps 

Arabo tradurre nella nostia volgar Ebraeor., p. 9. 

lingua Italiana, &c. And after- ^ J. Andreas, in Prsef. ad Tractut. 

-wards : Questo k TAlcorano di Ma- suum de Confutiione Sectae Maho- 

comeito, il quale, ccmve ho gia detto, metanse. 

ho fatto dal suo idioma tradurre, &c, ^ Vide Windet., De Vita Functo- 

^ Vide Jos. Scalig., Epist. 361 et rum Statu, sec. ix. 


Du Ryer's, and thai a very bad one ; for Alexander Ross, 
who did it, being utterly unacquainted with the i\j-abic, 
aud no great master of the French, has added a number 
of fresh mistakes of his own to these of Du Ryer, not to 
mention the meanness of his language, which would make 
a better book ridiculous. 

In 1698 a Latin translation of the Quran, made by 
Father I^ewis Marracci, who had been confessor to Pope 
Innocent XL, was published at }*adua, together with the 
original text, accompanied by explanatory notes and a 
refutation. This translation of Marracci's, generally 
speaking, is very exact; but adheres to the Arabic idiom 
too Uterally to be easily understood, unless I am much 
deceived, by those who are liot versed in the Muhammadan 
learning .♦ The notes he has added are indeed of great 
use, but his refutations, which swell the work to a large 
volume, are of little or none at all, being often unsatis- 
factory, and sometimes impertinent. The work, however, 
with aU itb faults, is very valuaVjie, and I should be .guilty 
of ingratitude did I not acknowledge myself much obliged 
thereto ; but still, being in Latin, it can ba of no use to 
those who understand not that tongue. 

Having therefore undertaken a new translation, 1 have 
endcavouj-ed to do the original impartial justice, not 
having, to the best of my knowledge, represented it, in any 
one instance, either better or worse than it really is. I 
have thought myself obliged, indeed, in a piece which 

♦ Of Marracci's translation Savary says, " Marracci, that learned 
monk, who spent forty years, in translating and refuting the Kordn, 
proceeded on the- right system. He divided it into verses, according 
to the ier.i ; but, neglectin.s; the precepts of a great master- - 

* Nee verbnm vnrbo, curabis red lere, fidu? 
Iiitcrpret, i;c. — 

he translated it literally. He has not expressed the i«ieiis of the 
Korfin, but travcHiicd the words .>f it into barharoua liatin. Y«t, 
thouj^h rU the bnAuties of the original are Ivst in this tianslation, it 
18 preferukxle to that by Du Kyei." E. m w! 


pretends to be the Word of God, to keep somewhat 
scrupulously dose to the text, by whicli means the lan- 
guage may, in some places, seem to express the Arabic 
a little too literally to be elegant English: but this, I 
hope, has not happened often ; and I flatter myself that 
the style I have made use of will not only give a more 
genuine idea of the original than if I had taken more 
liberty (which would have been much more for my ease), 
but will soon become familiar ; for we. must not expect to 
read a version of so extraordinary a book wiih the same 
ease and pleasure as a modern compositiun. 

In the Notes my view has been briefly to explain the 
text, and especially the difficult and obscure passages, 
from the most approved commentators, and that generally 
in their own words, for whose opinions or expressions, 
where liable to censure, I am not answerable; my pro- 
vince being only fairly to represent their expositions, and 
the little I have added of my own, or from European 
writers, being easily discernible. Where I met with any 
circumstance which 1 imagined might be curious or enter- 
taining, I have not failed to produce it. 

The Preliminary Discourse will acquaint the reader 
with the most material particulars proper to be known 
previously to the entering on the Quran itself, and which 
could not so conveniently have been thrown into the 
Notes. And 1 have taken care, both in the Preliminary 
Discourse and the Notes, constantly to quote my autho- 
rities and the writers to whom I have been beholden ; but 
to none have I been more so than to the learned Dr. 
Pocock, whose Specimen HiMorifr Arahum is the most 
useful and accurate work that has been hitherto published 
concerning the antiquities of that nation, and uught to be 
read by every curious inquirer into them. 

As I have had no opportunity of consulting public 
libraries, the manuscripts of whioh I have made use 
throughout the whole work have been such as I had in my 
own study, except only the Commentary of Al Baidhdwi 


and the Gospel of St. Barnabas. Tho first belongs to the 
library of the Dutch Church in Austin Friars, and for the 
use ot it I have been chiefly indebted to the Kev. D 
Bolten, one of the ministers of that church : the other va^ 
very obligingly lent me by the Rev. Dr. Holme, Eector 
of Hedley in Hampshire ; and I take this opportunity 
of returninc; both those gentlemen my thanks for their 
favours. The merit of Al Baidhawi's commentary will 
appear from the frequent quotations I have made thence ; 
but of tiie Gospel of St. Barnabas (which I had not seen 
when the little I have said of it in the Preliminary Dis- 
course,* and the extract I had borrowed from M, de la 
Monnoye and M. Toland,- were printed off); I must beg 
leave to give some further account. 

The book is a moderate quarto, in Spanish, written in a 
very legible hand, but a little damaged towards the latter 
end. It contains two hundred and twenty-two chapters 
of unequal length, and four hundred and twenty pages ; 
and is said, in the front, to be translated from the Italian 
by an Arragonian Muslim named Mustafa de Aranda. 
There is a |)reface prefixed to it, wherein the tliscoverer of 
the original MS., who was a Christian monk, called Fra 
Marino, tells us that having accidentally met with a 
writitig of Irenaius (among others), wherein he speaks 
against St. Paul, alleging, for his authority, the Gospel of 
St. Barnabas, he became exceeding desirous to find this 
Gospel; and that GoD, of his mercy, having made him 
very intimate with Pope Sixtus V., one day, as the^^ were 
together in that Pope's library, hig Holiness fell asleep, 
and he, to employ himself, reaching down a book to read, 
the first he laid his hand on proved to be the very Gospel 
he wanted : overjoyed at the discovery, he scrupled not to 
hide his prize in his sleeve, and on the Pope's awaking, took 
leave of hmi, carrying with him that celestial treasure, by 
reading of which he became a convert to Muhamraadism. 

' Sec iv, p. 123. « Tn not. ad cap. 3. 


This Gospel of Barnabas contains a complete history of 
Jesus Christ from his bicth to his ascension ; and most 
of the circnrastances in the four real Gospels are to be 
found therein, but many of them turned, and some artfully 
enough, to favour the Muhammadan system. From the 
design of the whole, and the frequent interpolations of 
stories and passages wherein Muhammad is spoken of and 
foretold by name, as the messenger of God, and the great 
prophet; who was to perfect the dispensation of Jesus, it 
appears to be a most barefaced forgery. One particular I 
observe therein induces me to believe it to have been 
dressed up by a renegade Christian, slightly instructed in 
his new religion, and not educated a Muhammadan (unless 
the fault be imputed to the Spanish, or perhaps the Italian 
translator, and not to the original compiler) ; I mean the 
giving to Muhammad the title of Messiah, and that not 
once or twice only, but in several places ; whereas the title 
of the Messiah, or, as the Arabs write it, al Masih, i.e,, 
Christ, is appropriated to Jesus in the Quran, and is con- 
stantly applied by the Muhammadans to liim, and never 
to their own prophet. The passages produced from the 
Italian MS. by M de la Monnoye are to be seen in this 
Spanish version almost word for word. 

But to return to the following work. Though I have 
freely cejisured the former translations of the Quran, I 
would not therefore be suspected of a design to make my 
own pass as free from faults : 1 am very sensible it is not ; 
and I make no doubt that the few who are able to discern 
them, and know the dilhenlty of the undertaking, will 
give me fair quarter. I likewise flatter myself that they, 
and all considerate persons, will excuse the delay which 
has happened in the publication of this work, when they 
are informed that it was carried on at leisure timeiJ only, 
and araidst the necessary avocations of a troublesome 




The Arabs, and the country they inhabit, which them- rhename 
selves call Jazirat al Arab, or the Peninsula of the '^*^'*" 
Arabians, but we Arabia, were so named from Araba, a 
small territory in the province of Tahama ; ^ to which 
Yarab the son of Qahtan, the father of the ancient Arabs, 
gave his name, and where, some ages after, dwelt Ismail 
the son of Abraham by Hagar. The Christian writers for 
several centuries speak of them under the appellation of 
Saracens, the most certain derivation of which word is 
from shark, the east, where the descendants of Jootan, the 

* Whilst legarding this Prclirainary Discourse as a most masterly, 
ajid on the whole reliable, piesentaiion of the peculiai iloctTines, 
rii-es, ceremonies, customs, and institutions of Islam, we recognise 
the fact that more ino<lfcrn research has brought to light many things 
concerning the hLstory of the ancient Araba which greatly modify 
the statements made in the early paragraphs of this chaprer. We 
therefore refer the reader to the most valuable works of M. C. de 
Perceval. Hist, des Arabea^ a masterly digest of which may be found 
in the Introduction to Muir's Life of Mahomet^ chap. iii. ; also to the 
wori<s of Dr. Sprengcr, Biography of the P>'ophctj &c. E. X. w. 

^ rocock, Specitn. Hist. Arab., p. 33. 



[sec. I. 

Limi(n of 

Tho pro- 

Tine* nt 

Qahtcin of the Arabs, are placed by Moses,^ and in which 
quarter they dwelt in respect to the Jews.^ 

The name of Arabia (used in a more extensive sense) 
sometimes comprehends all that large tract of land bounded 
by the river Euphrates, the Persian Gulf, the Sindian, 
Indian, and Ked Seas, aud part of the Mediterranean : 
above two- thirds of which country, that is, Arabia properly 
so called, the Arabs have possessed almost from the Flood; 
and have made themselves masters of the rest, either by 
settlements or continual incursions ; for whicTi reason the 
Turks aad Persi.ins at this day call the whole Arabistan, 
or the country of the Arabs. 

Rut the limits of Arabia, in its more usual and proper 
aense, are much narrower, as reaching no farther north- 
warrl than the Isthmus, which runs from Aila to the head 
of the Persian G ulf, and the borders of the territoiy of 
Kdfa; which tract of land the Greeks nearly comprenended 
under the name of Arabia the Happy. The Eastern geo- 
. graphers make Arabia Petieea to belong partly to Egypt, 
and partly to Shdm or Syria, and the Desert Ar bia they 
call the Deserts of Syria.^ 

Proper Arabia is by the Oriental writers generally 
divided into five provinces,* viz., Yaman, Hijaz, Tahama, 
Najd, and Yamdma ; to which some add Balirain, as a 
sixth, but this province the more exact make part of Irak ;* 
others reduce them all to two, Yaman and Hijaz. the last 
including the three other provinces of Tahdma, Najd, aud 

The province of Yaman, so called either from its situa- 
tion to the right hand, or south of the temple of Makkah, 
or else from the happiness and verdure of its soil, extends 
itself along the Indian Ocean from Aden to Cape Kasalgat; 
part of the Ped Sea bounds it on the west and south sides, 

^ G«n. X. 30. 

-' 8ee Pocork, ^pecim., 33, 34. 

' Golius ad Altragan, 78, 70. 

* Strabo Mjrs Arftbi* Felix vioa 

io his time divided into five king- 
dom*, 1 16, p. 1 1 29. 
' Gol. ad Alfrag»Q, 79. 


and the- province of Hijaz on the norLh.^ Jt is subdivided 
into several lesser provinces, as Hadramaut, Shihr, Oman, 
Kajran, &c., of which Shihr alone produces the frankin- 
cense.* The metropolis of Yaman is Sanaa, a very ancient 
city, in former times called Ozal,* and much celebrated for 
its delightful situation ; but the prince at present resides 
about five leagues northward from thence, at a place no 
less pleasant, called Hisn al Mawahib, 01 the Castle of 

This country has been famous from all antiquity for the 
happiness of its climate, its fertility and riches,* which 
induced Alexander the Great, after his return from his 
Indian expedition, to form a, design of conquering it, and 
fixing there his royal seat; but his death, wHich happened 
f5oon after, prevented the execution of this project.^ Yet, 
in reality, great part of the riches which the ancients ima- 
gined were the produce of Arabia, came really from the so-caiied 
Indies and the coasts of Africa ; for the Egyptians, who produce 
had engrossed that trade, which was then carried on by from^india. 
way of the Eed Sea, to themselves, industriously con- 
cealed the truth of the matter, and kept their ports shut 
to prevent foreigners penetrating into those countries, or 
receiving any information thence ; and this precaution 
of theirs on the one side, and the deserts, unpassable to 
strangers, on the other, were the reason why Arabia was 
so little known to the Greeks and Eomans. The delight- 
fumess and plenty of Yaman are owing to its mountains; 
for all that part which lies along the Eed Sea is a dry, 
barren desert, in some places ten or twelve leagues over, 
but in return bounded by those mountains, which being 

* " Or this was the name of its builder ; see Kamoos " (Lane). 

K. M. w. 

^ La RcKiue, Yovage de TArab. ^ Vide Diouj'o. rerieges,, v. 927, 

Heur., 121. &c. 

' Gol. ad Aifragan, 79, 87. ^ Stral^o, 1. 10, p. T132; Arrian, 

2 Vo^ag^; de TArab. Heur., 232. 16 1. 



[sec. I. 


well watered, enjoy an almost continual spring, and, be- 
rrodueoof sides coffee, the peculiar produce of this country, yield 
crreat plenty and variety of fruits, and in particular excel- 
lent corn, grapes, and spices. There ai-e no rivers of note 
in this country, for the streams which at certain times of 
the year descend from the mountains, seldom reach the 
sea, being for the most part drunk up and lost in tbo 
burning sands of that coast. "^ 

The soil of the other provinces is much more barren 
than that of Yaman ; the gi'eater pai't of their territories 
bein*^ covered with dry sands, or rising into rocks, inter- 
spersed here and there with some fruitful spots, which 
receive their greatest advantages from their water and 

Tlie province of Hijaz, so named because it divides 
Majd from Tahama, is bounded on the south by Yaman 
and Tahsiraa, on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by 
the deserts of Syria, and on the east by the })rovince of 
Najd.'' This province is famous for its two 'chief cities, 
Makkah and Mudina, one of wliich is celebrated for its 
temple, and for having given birth to Muhammad ; and 
the other for being the place of his residence for the last 
t(m years of his life, and of his interment. 

Makkah, sometinjes also called Bakkah, which words 
are synonymous, and signify a place of great concourse, is 
certainly one of the most ancient cities of the world : it 
is by some ^ thought to be the Mesa of the Scripture,* a 
name not unknown to the Arabians, and supposed to be 
taken from one of Ismail's sons.*^ Jt is seated in a stony 
and banen valley, surrounded on all sides with mountains.*^ 
The length of Makkah from south to north is about two 
miles, and its breadth from the foat of the mountain 

rho HijaE 
its bouiidu- 


^ Voyage dc I'Arab. Heur., 12 r, 
12^ 153- 

^ Vide Gol. ad Alfrag.. 98 ; Abul- 
fedft, Deaa-. Arab., p. 5. 

• R. Saadi»H in vfcrsion. Arab. 
Pentat. Sefei Juchasin., 135 b. 

* Gen. X, 3a 

•* GoL ad Alfrag,, 82 ; Bee Gen. 
xx\. 15. 

« Gol., ibi 198. See Pitts' Account 
of the Religion and Maaners of the 
Muhammadanti, p. yo. 


Ajyad, to the top of another called Koaikaan, about a 
mile.^ In the midst of this space stands the city, built 
of stone cut from the neighbouring mountains.^ There 
being no springs at Makkah,^ at least none but what are 
bitter and unfit to drink,* except only the well Zamzam, 
the water of which, though far the best, yet cannot be 
drank of any continuance, being brackish,* and causing 
eruptions in those who drink plentifully of it,^ the in- 
habitants are obliged to use rain-water, which they catch 
in cisterns.^ But this not being sufficient, several 
attempts were made to bring water thither from other 
places by aqueducts; and particularly about Muham- 
mad's time, Zubair, one of the principal men of the tribe 
of Quraish, endeavoured, at a great expense, to supply 
the city with water from Mount Arafat, but without 
success ; yet this was eflfected not many years ago, being 
begun at the charge of a wife of Sulaiman the Turkish 
emperor.^ But long before this another aqueduct had 
been made from a spring at a considerable distance, 
wliich was, after several years' labour, nnished by the 
Khalifah al Muktadir,^ 

The soil about Makkah is so very barren as to produce 
no fruits but what are common in the deserts, though the 
prince or Sharif has a garden well planted at his castle 

* Lane adds the following rote : — " Sale here adds ' being brackish,' 
but Burckliardt says the water of the Zemzem ' is heavy to the taste, 
and sometimes in its colour resembles milk; but,' he adds, 'it is 
perfectly sweet, and differs very much from that of the brackish wells 
dispersed over the town. When first drawn up, it is slightly tepid, 
resembling in this respect many other fountains of the Hejdz.' — 
Travels in Arabia^ P- 144- I have also drunk the water of Zemzem 
brought in a china bottle to Cairo, and found it perfectly sweet." 

E. M. w. 

^ Sharif al Edn'si apxid Poc. ^ Ibid, and Pitts, ubi supra, p. 

Sf>ec., p. 122. 107. 

2 Ibid. " Gol. ad Alfragaii, 99. 

■*• Hoi. a«d Alfragan, 99. " Ibid. 

* Sharif al Edrfsi, ubi supra, 124. ^ Sliarlf al Edr/.si^ iibi snpia. 



of Marbaa, about three miles westward from the city, 
where he usually resides. Having therefore no corn or 
grain of their own growth, tliey are obUged to fetch it 
from other places ; ^ and Hash am, Muhammad's great- 
grandfather, then prince of his tribe, the more effectually 
to supply tbem v.dth provisions, appointed two caravans 
to set out yearly for that purpose^ the one in summer, 
and the other in winter:^ these caravans of purveyors 
Howtha are mentioned in the Quran* The provisions brought by 
Miikkiib them were distributed also twice a year, viz., in the month 


of Eajab, and at the arrival of the pilgrims. They are 
supplied with dates in great plenty from the adjacent 
- country, and with grapes from Tayif, about sixty miles * 
distant, very few growing at Makkah. The inhabitants of 
this city are generally very rich, being considerable gainers 
by the prodigious concourse of people of almost all nations 
at the yearly pilgrimage, at which time there is a great 
fair or mart for all kinds of merchandise. They have 
also great numbers of ' cattle, and particularly of camels: 
however, the poorer sort cannot but live very iiidiOereritly 
in a place where almost every necestiary of life must be 
purchased with money. Notwithstanding this great steri- 
lity near Makkah, yet you are no sooner out of its territory 
than you meet on all sides with plenty of good springs 
and streams of running watei^ with a great many gardens 
and cultivated lands,^ 

The temple of Makkah and the reputed holiness of this 
territory, will be treated of in a more proper place. 
Ma.ifnr.or Madfua, which till Muhammad's retreat tiiither was 


_ called Yathrdb, is a walled city about half as big as 
Alakkah,^ built in a plain, salt in many places, yet tolerably 
fruitful, particularly in dates, but more especially near 

* Buickhardt says aeventy-two miles. Travels in Arabia, p. 69. 

E. M. w. 

» Sharif al Edrfsi, ubi supra. 3 Sharif al Edrisi, nbi supra, 125. 
Poc. Spec, p. 51. ■» Id., Vulg6 Geogr. Nubiensis 5. 


the raouii tains, two of which, Ohod on the north, and Air 
on the south, are about two leagues distant. Here lies 
Muharamad interred^ in a magnificent building, covered 
with a cupola, and adjoining to the east side of the great 
temple, which is built in the midst of the city.^ 

The province of Tahama was so named from the vehe- Thepro- 
ment heat of its sandy soil, and is also called Gaur from Sama. 
its low situation; it is bounded on the west by the Eed Yamdn.a'* 
Sea, and on the other sides by Hijdz and Yaman, extending ^'^""'^'^'^• 
almost from Makkah to Aden.^ 

The province of Najd, which, word signifies a rising 
country, lies between those of Yamama, Yaman, and 
Hijaz, and is bounded on the east by Irak^ 

The province of Yamama, also called Arud froin its 
oblique situation, in respect of Yaman, is surrounded by 
the provinces of Najd, Tahama, Bahrain, Oman, Shihr, 
Hadi-amaut, and Saba. The chief city is Yamama, which 
gives name to the province : it was anciently called Jaw, 
and is particularly famous for being the residence of 
Muhammad's competitor, the false prophet Musailama.^ 

The Arabians, the inhabitants of this spacious country, 

'' Though the notion of Muham- town, which is eoniething corrupted, 

liiacl's being buried at Makkah has by putting at the bottom of the 

baen so long exploded, yet several page, Makkah. The Abbot de Ver- 

modeni writers, whether through tot, in his History of the Order of 

ignorance or negligence I will not Malta (vol i. p. 410, ed. 8vo), 

determine, have fallen into it I seems also to have confounded 

shall here take notice only of two ; these two cities together, though ho 

one ib Dr. Smith, who having lived had before mentioned Muhammad's 

same i.ime in ''j^urkey, s<#rnd to be sepulchre at IMadina. However, he 

inexcnsabie : that gentleman in h's is certainly mistaken, when he says 

Epistles De M(yribu» ac Institutis that one point of the religion, both 

Turcariim, no less tfjati thrice men- ot the Christians and Muhamma- 

tions the iViuhanuijavians visiting dans, v.'aa to visit, at least once in 

the tomb of their prophet at Makkah, their lives, the tomb of the author 

and once his being born &.1 Madina of their respective faith. Whatever 

— the reverse of which is true (see may be the opinion of some Chris- 

Epist. I, p. 22, Epist. 2. pp. 63, 64). tians, I am well assured the Muham- 

Tlie other is the publisher of the mjidans think themselves under no 

last edition of Sir J. Mandeville's manner of obligation in that respect. 

Travels, who on his author's saving ' Gol. ad Alfragan, 97 ; Abulfeda, 

iory t™ly (p. 50^ that the said toinb Descr. Arab., p. 40, 

was at Metiione, i.e., Madina, under- ' Gol., ubi supra, 95- 

takes to correct the name of the * Ibid., 94. ^ Ibid., 95. 


tko ciaBses wliicli they have possessed from the most remote antiquity, 

of AHibifeus. ^^^ distinguished hy their own writers into two classes, 
viz., the old lost Arabians, and the present. 

Tlie former were very numerous, and divided into 
several tribes, which are now all destroyed, or else lost 
and swallowed up among the other tribes, nor are any 
certain memoirs or records extant concerning them:^ 
though tlie memory of some very remarkable events and 
the catastrophe of some tribes have been preserved by 
tradition, and since confirmed by the authority of the 

iiio ancient The most famous tribes amongst these ancient Arabians 
were Ad, Thamiid, Tasm, Jadis, the former Jorham, and 

The Aditeo. The tribe of Ad were descended from Ad, the son of 

- Aws,2 the son of Aram,^ the son of Sem, the son of INToah,* 

who, after the confusion of tongues, settled in al Ahqaf, or 

the winding sands in the province of Hadramaut, where 

his posterity greatly multiplied. Their first king was 

Shaddd the son of Ad, of whom the Eastern writers deliver 

many fabulous things, particularly that he finished the 

magnificent city his father had begun, wherein he built a 

fine palace, adorned with delicious gardens, io embellish 

which he spared neither cost nor labour, proposing thereby 

to create in his subjects a superstitious veneration of him- 

^ self as a god.* This garden or paradise was called the 

The flranton garden of Iram, and is mentioned in the Quran,-'* and often 

alluded to by the Oriental writers. The city, they tell us, 

is still standing in the deserts of Aden, being preserved 

♦ This }>jpBealogy is given on the authority of Muslim tradition, 
or rather of Muslua adaptation of Jewif:h tradition to gratify Arab 
pride. As to its utter worth lessness, see note on p. 24. e. m. tt. 

* Alhufarae, p. 159. son of Ham ; but the other is the 

- Or Uz. ijoM. X. 22, 23. received opinion. See D'Ht'rbeI.,51, 

' Vide C^iu'an, c. 89, v. 6. Som i '* Vide Eand., .19S 

make Ad the son ot Amalek, tbo ^ Cap. 89. 



by Providence as a monument of divine justice, though it 
"be invisible, unless very rarely, when God permits it to be 
seen, a favour one Colabah pretended to have received in 
the reign of the Khalifah Muawiyah, who sending for him 
to know the truth of the matter, Colabah related his whole 
adventure : that as he was seeking a camel he had lost, 
he found himself on a sudden at the gates of this city, and 
entering it, saw not one inhabitant, at which, being terri- 
fied, he stayed no longer than to take with him some fine 
stones which he showed the Khalifah.^ * 

The descendants of Ad in process of time falling from Destruction 
the worship of the true God into idolatry, God sent the lutes, 
prophet Hiid (who is generally agreed to be Heber ^ f) to 
preach to and reclaim them. But they refusing to acK:now- 
ledge his mission, or to obey him, God sent a hot and 
suffocating wind, which blew seven nights and eight days 
together, and entering at their nostrils passed through 
their bodies,^ and destroyed them all, a very few only 
excepted, who had believed in Hiid and retired with him 
to another place.* That prophet afterwards returned into 
Hadramaut, and was buried near Hasiq, where there is a 
small town now standing called Qabr Hiid, or the sepul- 
chre of Hud. Before the Adites were thus severely 
punished, God, to humble them and incline them to 
hearken to the preaching of his prophet, afflicted them 
with a drought for four years, so that all their cattle 

• For a full account of his adventure, see Lane's translation of the 
Thousand and One Nights. E. M. w. 

i I can find no authoriiy for this " general beHef," excepting that 
of Muslim conjecture. The guesses of D'Herbelot and Bochart seem 
to be inspired by Muslim tradition, which has been shown to be for 
the most part, so far as genealogy is concerned, a forgery. Muir 
suggests that Hud may have been a Jewish emissary or Christian, 
evangelist Life of Mohamet, Introd., p. 139. e. m. w. 

^ D'Herbei., 51. to have been a great prophet. Seder 

* The Jews acknowledge Heber Olam., p. 2. * Al Baidhawi. 

* Poc. Spec, p. 35, &c. 


The utter perfshed, and themselves were very near it; upon which 
^'****'' ihey sent Lnqman (different from one of the same name 
who lived in David's time) with sixty others to Makkah 
to bejT rain, which they not obtaining, Liiqman with some 
of his company stayed at Makkah, and thereby escaped 
destruction, giving rise to a tribe called the latter Ad, 
who were afterward clianged into monkeys.^ 

Some commentators on the Quran ^ tell us the??e old 
AdJtes were of prodigious stature, the largest l^eing lOO 
cnbits high, and the least 60 ; which extraordinary size 
they pretend to prove by the testimony of the Quran. ^ 
The tribe of The tribe of Thamiid were the posterity of Thamiid the 
son of Jath?r * the sou of Aram, who falling into idolatry, 
. the prophet Salih was sent to bring them back to the 
worship of tlie true God. This prophet lived between the 
time of Hud and of Abraham, and therefore cannot be the 
same with the patriarch Salih, as M. d'Herbelot imagines.^ 
The learned Bochart with more probability takes him to 
be Phaleg.® A small number of the people of Thamud 
hearkened to the remonstrances of Salih, but the rest 
requiring, as a proof of his mission, that lie should cause u 
ehe-carael big with young to come out of a rock in their 
presence, he accordingly obtained it of God, and the camel 
was immediat-ely delivered of a young one ready weaned ; 
but they, instead of believing, cut the hamstrings of the 
camel and killed her; at which -ict of impiety GoD, being 
Destruction highly displcascd, three days alter struck them dead in 
tnudite*. their houses by an earthquake and a terrible noise from 
heaven, ^vhich, some ^ say, was the voice of Gabriel the 
archangel crying aloud, " Die, all of you." Salih, with 
those who were reformed by him, were saved from this 
destruction ; the prophet going into Palestine, and from 
thence to Makkah,® where he ended his days. 

J Poc. Spec, p. 36. * D'Herbel., Bibl. Orient.. 740. 

Jal.iluddin et Zd,makhshari ** Boch&rt, Georg. B»a 

* Qiirin, c. 7, v. 70. ' See DIIerheL, 366. 

' Or Gether, vide Gen. jil. aj. ^ ibn Shohuab. 


This tribe first dwelt in Yaraari,^ "but "being expelled 
thence by Himyar the son of Saba, they settled in the 
territory of Ilajr in the province of Hijaz, where their 
habitations cut out of the rocks, mentioned in the Quran,^ Rock-cut 
are still to be seen, and also the crack of the rock ^%ence tiiexL^uii- 
Ihe camel issued, whirl:, as an eyewitness^ hath declai'ed, ^ 
is sixty cubits wide. These houses of the Thamuclites being 
of tlie ordinary proportion, are used as an argument to 
convince those of a mistake who make this people io have 
been of a gigantic stature. 

The tragical destructions of these two potent tribes are 
often insisted on in the Quran as instances of God's judg- 
ment on obstinate unbelievers. 

The tribe of Tasm were the posterity of Lud the son The tribe of 


of Sem, and Jadis of the descendants of Jathar.^ These 
two tribes dwelt promiscuously together under the govern- 
ment of Tasm, till a certain tyrant made a law that no 
maid of the tribe of Jadis should marry unless first de- 
flowered by him; ® whicli the Jadisians not enduring, formed 
a conspiracy, and inviting the king and chiefs of Tasm to 
an ehtertainment, privately hid their swords in the sand, 
and in the midst of their mirth fell on them and slew 
them all, and extirpated the greatest part of that tribe ; 
however, the few who escaped obtaining aid of the king 
of Yaman, then (as is said) Dhu Habshan Ibii A.qran,J 
assaulted the Jadis and utterly destroyed them, there being 
scarce any niention made from that time of either of these 

The former tribe of Jorham (whose ancestor some pre- -meJor 
tend was one of the eight persons saved in the ark with ^""^^*'^- 
Xoah. according to a Muhammadan tradition ^) was con- 

1 Poc, spec, p. 57. called " culliage," or " cullage," 

^ Quijin, c. 15. V. 82. having been established by K. Ewen, 

8 Abu Mu:sa aJ A.shari. and abolished by Malcolm III. See 

* Vide Poc. Spec. p. 37. Bayle's Diet. Art. Sixte IV. Rem. 

5 Abiilfeda. H. 

** A like custom is said to have '' Poc. Spec, p. 60. 

been in some manors in England, ^ Ibid., p. 37, &c. 

and also in Scotland, where it was ^ Ibid., p 38. 


temporary Mith Ad, and utterly pcerished.^ The tribe of 

Amalek were descended from Amalek the son of Eliphaz 

the son of Esau,^ though some of the Oriental authors say 

Amalek was the son of Ham the son of Is oiih,^ and others 

the eon of Azd the son of Sem.* Tlie posterity of this 

person rendered themselves very powerful,^ and before the 

ThoAtnaie- time of Joseph conquered the Lower Egypt under their 

que? Lowe- king Walid, the first who took the name of Piiaraoh, as 

^^^^' the Eastern writers tell us ; ® seeming by these Amalekites 

to mean the same people which the Egyptian histories call 

Phoenician shepherds/ But after they had possessed the 

throne of Eg^'pt for some descents, they were expelled 

by the natives, and at length totally destroyed by the 


Origin of The present Arabians, according to their own historians, 

Axuw?'*°'' are sprung from two stocks, Qahtdii,* the same with 

Joctan the son of Eber,^ and Adnan, descended in a direct 

line from Ismail the son of Abraham and Hagar; the 

posterity of the former they call al .Vrab al Ariba,^** i.e., 

the genuine or pure Arabs, and those of the latter al Arab 

al Mustariba, i.c^ naturalised or insititious Arabs, though 

* Muir, in his Life of Mahomet (Iiitrod., p. cl.), proves con- 
clusively that this identification of the Arab Qahtdn with tho 
Joctan of Scripture is an extravagant fiction, and shows that the 
age of Qahtdn must be fixed at a period somewhere between 800 
and 500 B.C. He says: "The identificHtion (alluded to above) iij 
one of those extravagant fictions which the followers of Islam, in 
their zeal to accommodate Arab lejzend to Jewish scripture, has made 
in defiance of the' most violent improbability, and the grossest 
anachronismai" e. m. w 

' Ibn Shohimh. " R. Sa,ad. in vers. Arab. Pentat. 

' Gen. xxxvi. 12. Gen. x. 25. Some writers make 

" Vide D'Herbelot, p. 1 10, Qahtdn a descendant of Ismail, but 

* Ibn Shohnah. against the current of Oriental his- 

* Vide Numb, xxiv. 20. toriana. See Poo. Sjiec, p. 39. 

* Mirat Cai'n?it. ^^ An eypressiou homothing like 
' Vide Jo«€ph. cont. Apion., 1. i. that of St. Paul, who calLs himself 

* Vide Exod. xvii. 18, Ac; I "an Hubr.°w of tho Hebrews" 
Sam. XV. 2, kc. ; ibid., xxvii. 8, 9 ; (Pliil. iii. 5). 

! Chron. iv. 43. 




H' some reckon the ancient lost tribes to have been the only 
pure Arabians, and therefore call the posterity of Qahtan 
also Mutariba, which word likewise signifies insititious 
Arabs, though in a nearer degree than Mustariba, the 
descendants of Ismail being the more distant graff. 
K The posterity of Ismail have no claim to be admitted Their pos- 
" as pure Arabs, their ancestor being by origin and language no"ciaim'to 
an Hebrew ; but having made an alliance with the Jor- ArS^ 
hamites, by marrying a daughter of Mudad, and accus- 
tomed himself to their manner of living and language, his 
descendants became blended with them into one nation. 
The uncertainty of the descents between Ismail and 
Adndn id the reason why toey seldom trace their genea- 
logies higher than the h/^ter, whom chey acknowledge as 
father of their tribes, the descents from liim downwards 
being pretty certain and uncontroverted.^ * 

The genealogy of these tribes being of great use to 
ilhistrate the Arabian history, I have taken the pains to 

* On this subject we give the following extract from Muir's Life 
of Mahometj "vol. i. p. cvii. : — 

" The first peopling of Arabia is a subject on which we may in 
vaia look for any light from the traditions of Arabia itself. Tradi- 
tion, indeed, gives us the genealogies of the Himyar kings and the 
links of the great Coreishite line of descent. But the latter do not 
ascend much beyond the Christian era, and the former only five or 
six centuries further ; the earlier names of the Himyar dynasty were 
probably derived from bare inscriptions ; and of the Coreish we have 
hardly aaything but a naked ancestral tree, till within two or three 
centuries of Mahomet. 

" Beyond these periods Mahometan tradition is entirely worthless. 
It is not origirial, but taken at second hand from the Jews, Mahomet 
having claimed to be of the seed of Ishmael. The Jewish Rabbins 
who were gained over to his cause endeavoured to confirm the claim 
from the genealogies of the Old Testament- and of "Rabbinical tra- 
ditions." Muir's Introduction to his Life of Mahomet is the standard 
work, in the Enghsh language, on all that pertains to early Arabian 
history. e. m. w. 

^ Poo. Spec, p. 40. 


form a genealogical table from their most approved authors, 
to wliicli T refer the curious. . 
Tho Besides these tribes' of Arabs ruentioned by their owii 

cu»bites. authors, who were all descended from the race of Sem, 
others of them were the posterity of Ham by his son 
Cush, which name is in Scripture constantly given to the 
Arabs and their country, though our version renders it 
Ethiopia ; but, strictly speaking, the- Cushites did not 
inhabit Arabia ])roperly so called, but the banks of the 
Euphrates and the Persian Gulf, whither they came from 
Chuzestan or Susiana, the original settlement of their 
father^ They might probably mix themselves in process 
of time with the Arabs of the other race, but the Eastern 
writers take little or no notice of tliem. 

Tlie Arabians were for some centuries under the govern- 
ment of the descendants of Qahtan; Yarab, one of his 
sons, founding the kingdom of A^'amau, and Jorham, 
another of them, that of HijaiJ. 
Tiia HimyAr The oroviuce of Yaman, or the better part of it, par- 
aman. ticulariy the provinces of Saba and iladramaut, was 
governed by princes of the tribe of Himyar, though at 
length the kingdom was translated to the descendants of 
Qahlan, his brother, who yet retained the title of Kine of 
Himyar, and had all of them the general title of Tubba, 
which signifies successor, and was affected to this race of 
princes as that of Csesar was to the Eoman emperors, and 
Khali tall to the successors of Muhammad. There were 
several lesser j-irinces who reigned in other parts of Yaman, 
and were mostly, if not altogether, subject to the king of 
Himyax*, whom tliey called the great king, but of these 
history has recorded nothing remarkable or that may be 
depended upon.^ 
Th« inucda- The first great calamity that befell the tribes settled in 
Anioi. Yaman was the inundation of Aram, which happened 8oon 
after the time of Alexander the Great, and is famous in 

^ Vide Hyde, IUst Rel. vet. Pera., p. 37, &c. 
^ Poo. Spec., pp. 65, 66. 


the Arabian history.* lN"o less than eight tribes were 
forced to abandon their dwellings upon this occasion, some 
of which gave rise to the two kingdoms of Ghassan and 
Hira. And this was probably the time of the migration 
of those tribes or colonies which were led into Mesopo- ^ 
tamia by three chiefs, Baqr, Mudar, and Eabia, from whom 
the three piovinces of that country are still named Diyar / 
Baqr, Diyar Mudar, and Di)/ ar Kabia.^ Abd-as-Shams, sur- 
named Saba, having built the city from him called Saba, 
and afterwards Marib, made a vast mound, or dam,* to 
serve as a basin or reservoir to receive the water which 
came down from the mountains, not only for the use of 
the inhabitants, and watering their lands, but also to 
keen the country they had subjected in greater awe by 
being masters of the water. This building stood like a 
mountain above their city, and was by them esteemed so 
strong that they were in no apprehension of its ever 
failing The water rose to the height of almost twenty 
fathoms, and was kept in on every side by a work so solid, 
that many of the inhabitants had their houses built upon 
it. Every family had a certain portion of this water, 
distributed by aqueducts. But at length God, being 
highly displeased at their great pride and insolence, and 
resolving to liumbie and disperse them,-[- sent a mighty 
flood, which broke down the mound by night while the 
inhabitants were asleep, and carried away the whole city, 
with the neighbouring towns and people.'^ 

* This event did not occur till about the beginning of tlie second 
century of the Christian era. See Muir'a Life of Mahoinety vol. i., 
Introd., p. clvii., and authorities cited there, E. M. w. 

t This immigration was probably due chiefly to " the drying up of 
the Yemen commerce, and stoppage of the carrying trade," owing 
to the Romans having opened up cumrneTcial intercourse between 
India and Egypt by way of the Red Sea, Muir's Introd., Life of 
Mahomet, p. cxxxvii. e. m. w. 

^ Vide GoL ad Alfrag., p. 232. ^ Poc Spec, p. 57. 

" G-eogr. Nubiens, p. 52. 


Ethicpiiin The tribes wliicli remained in Yaman after this terrible 
Yamau. dovastation stni continued under the obedience of the 
former princes, till about seventy years before Muham- 
mad, when the king of Ethiopia sent over forces to assist 
the Christians of Yaman against the cruel persecution of 
their king, Dhu Kuwas, a bigoted Jew, whom they drove 
to that extremity that he forced his horse into the sea, 
and so lost his life and crown,i after which the country 
was governed by four Ethiopian princes successively, till 
Salif, the son of Dhu Yazan, of the tribe of Himyar, 
obtaining succours from Khusrii Anushirwan, king of 
Persia, which had been denied him by the emperor 
Heraclius, recovered the throne and drove out the 
Ethiopians, but was himself slain by some of them 
Persian who wcrc left behind. The Persians appointed the 
eaubiished. succecdiug priuces till Yaman fell into the hands of 
Muhammad, to v/hom Bazau, or rather Badhan, the last 
of them, submitted, and embraced this new religion.^ 

This kingdom of the Himyarites is said to have lasted 
2020 years,^ or, as others say, above 3000,* the length of 
the reign of each prince being very uncertain. 

It has been already observed that two kingdoms were 

founded by those who left their country on occasion of 

- . the inundation of Aram : they weie both out of the proper 

limits of Arabia. One of them was the kingdom of 

Thoking- Ghassdu. The founders of this kingdom were of the 

ohwiBAn tribe of Azd, who, Settling in Syria Damascena near a 

water called Ghassan, thence took their name, and drove 

out the Dajaamian Arabs of the tribe of Stilih, who before 

possessed the country ; ^ where they maintained their 

kingdom 400 years, as others say 600, or, as Abulfeda 

more exactly computes, 616. Five of these princes were 

named Harith, which the Greeks write Aretas: and v)ne 

* See Prideaux's Life of Mabo- * Al Januabi ami Vhiued I'ui- 
met, p. bi. Yusef. 

• Pf>c. Spec, pp. 63, 64. ^ Foe. Spec, p. 70. 
' AbnlfciU. 



of them it was whose governor ordered the gates of 
Damascus to be watched to take St. Paul.^ This tribe 
were Chnstians,* their last king being Jabalah the son 
of al Ayham, who, on the Arabs* successes in Syria 
professed Muhammadism under the Khalifah Omar; but 
receiving a disgust from him, returned to his former faith, 
and retired to Constantinople.^ 

Tiie other kingdom was that of ITira, which was founded The king- 
by Malik, of the descendants of Qahlan^ in Chaldea or 
Irak ; but after three descents the throne came by marriage 
to the Lakhmians, called also the Mundars (the genera] 
nar le of those princes), who preserved their dominion, not- 
withstanding some small interruption by the Persians, till 
the Khalifat of Abu Baqr, when al Mundar al Maghnir, 
the last of them, lost his life and crown by the arms of 
Khalid Ibn al Waiid. This kingdom lasted 622 years 
eight months.* Its princes were under the protection of 
the kings of Persia, whose lieutenants they were over the 
Arabs of Irak, as the kings of Ghassan were for the Eonian 
emperors over those of Syria.^ 

Jorham the son of Qahtan rei;;^ned in Hijaz, where his .lorhamites 

, .T, , . /. T M 1 , of theHijiia. 

posterity kept the throne tiU the time 01 Ismail ; but on 

his marrying the daughter of Mudad, by whom he had 

twelve sons, Qidar, one of them, had the crown resigned 

to him by his uncles the Jorhamites,^ though others say 

the descendants of Ismail expelled that trihe^ who retir- They are ex- 

ing to Jobainah, were, after various fortune, at last all Enaiiy de- 

destroyed by an inundation.'^ 

* This "was true only of the last kings of the tribe, the converBion 
having probably taken place through political influence about the 
ruddle of the fourth century of our era. Muir's Introd., Life of 
Mahomet, p. cUxxv. e. m. w. 

1 2 Cor. xi. 32 ; Acts ix. 24. ' IbJd. and Procop. in Pers. apud 

2 Vide Ockley's History of the Photium., p. 71, &c. 
Saracens, vol. i. p. 174. ^ Poc. Spec, p. 45. 

^ Poo. Spec, p. 65. ' Ibid., p. 79. 

^ Ibid., p. 74. 


Of the kings of Himyar, Hira, Ghassiu, and Jorham, 
Dr. Pocock bas given us catalogues tolerably exact, to 
which I refer the curious/ 
The phyiar- AftcF the expiilsion of the Jorhamites, the government 
menSIfhe of Hijaz secHis not to have continued for many centuries 
in the hands of one prince, but to have been divided 
among the heads of tribes, almost in the same manner as 
the Arabs of the desert are governed at this day. At 
Makkah an aristocracy prevailed, where the chief manage- 
ment of affairs till the time of Muhammad was in the 
tribe of Quraish, especially after they had gotten the 
custody of the Kaabah fi,»m the tribe of Khuzdah.2 

Besides the kingdoms which have been taken notice of, 
there were some other tribes wbich in latter times had 
princes of their own, and formed states of le-sser note, 
particularly the tiibe of Kinda ;^ but as I am not writing 
a just history of the Arabs, and an account of them would 
be of no great use to my present purpose, I shall waive 
any further mention of them. 
The govern- After the time of Muhammad, Arabia was for about 
Sra^ftiAh'e three centuries under the KhaHfahs his successors. But in 
hilfnf^^^* the year 325 of the Hijra, great part of that country was 
in the hands of the Karmatians,* a new sect who had 
comijiitted great outrages and disorders even in Makkah, 
and to whom the KhaHfahs w^ere obliged to pay tribute, that 
the pilgrimage thither might be performed : of this sect I 
may have occasion to speak in another place. Afterwards 
Yaman was governed by the house of Thabatiba, descended 
from Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, whose sovereignty 
in Arabia some place so high as the time of Charlemagne. 
However, it was the posterity of Ali, or pretenders to be 
such, who reigned in Yaman and Egypt so early as the 
tenth century. The present reigning family in Yaman is 
probably that of Ayub, a branch of which reigned there in 

I Poc. Spec., p. 55 eed. 3 Vide Poc Spec, p. 79, &c. 

• Vide ibid., p. 41, and PrideauxB * Vide Ebuacin. in Vita al Rfi,dL 
Life of Mahomet, p. 2. 



the thirteenth centuiy; and took the title of Khalffah and 
Imam, which they still retain.^ * They are not possessed 
of the whole province of Yamau,^ there being several other 
independent kingdoms there, particularly that of Fartakh. 
The crown of Faman descends not regularly from father 
to SOP; but tlie prince of the blood royal who is most in 
favour with the great ones, or has the strongest interest, 
generally succeeds.^ 

The governors of Makkah and Madina, who bave alwaj^ The gover- 
been of the race of Muhammad, also threw off their sub- Makklhand 
jection to the Khalifahs, since which time four principal de'^nJent, 
families, all descended from Hassan the son of Ali, have 
reigned there under the title of Sharff, which signifies 
'noble, as they reckon themselves to be on account of their 
descent. These are Banu Qadir, Banu Musa Thani, Banu 
Hasham, and Banu Xitada:** which last family now is, 
or lately was in the throne of Makkah, where they have 
reigned above 500 years.f The reigning family at Madina 

* Tliere is no one family now ruling over the whole of Yaman. At 
present the Turks have at least nomiual dominion in the northern 
part to about 17" 30' north latitude. lu Southern Yaraan there is no 
paramount sovereign, the Zaidi family having been deposed from the 
throne of Sanaa some years ago. The Sultdn of G^.ara, in Lower 
tiatid, who is recognised as a sort of hierarch in those regions, exer 
cises considerable authority under the title of Afij%. He is gaid 
to pronounce judgment by fire oraeals. His principal rival is the 
Sulti^ln of Mai,r, in the district of AWan, but he has thus far been 
able to maintain his position as the most respected judge in Southern 
Yaman. In addition to these there is the so-called six-finger dynajrly 
(said to have twelve fingers and twelve toes) o-f the Osm^ni rulers in 
the region near Aden, who are subsidised by the Engliisli. These 
are also rivals of the Aflfi. e. m. w. 

+ The present Grand Sharif of Makkah is Abdal Muttalib, who 
was deposed in 1858 by the Sultdn of Turkey, and kept at Constan- 
tinople as a stiite prisoner for more than twenty year^. His successoi* 
in office was assassinated at Jidda in 1880 by a fanatic, because, as 

' Voyage de TArab. Heur., p. 255. * TbiJ., p. 254. 

« Ibid., pp. 153, 273. * Ibid., p. 143. 


are the Banu Hashara, who also reigned at Makkah before 
those of Kitada.^ 
Theniiereof The kinss of Yanian, as well as tho princes of Makkah 
peAdSit ^'and Madina, are absolutely independent^ and not at all 
subject to the Turk, as some late authors have imag-ined^ * 
These princes often making cruel wars among themselves, 
gave an opportunity to Selim I. a„d his son Sulaiman, to 
make themselves masters of the coasts of Arabia on the 
Ecd Sea, and of part of Yaman, by means of a fleet built 
at Sues : but their successors have not been able to main- 
tain their conquests ; for, except the port of Jidda, where 

is believed by some, he rofused to recognise the Sultan of Turkey as 
the Khalifah (caliph or v^icegerent of Muhammad). Strange to say, 
the Suhdn reinstated th^ exiled Grand Sharif. He is said to be a 
mortal enemy of the English. Yet he does not appear to be populni' 
in Arabia, as an unsuccessful attempt wa.-? made on his life soon 
after his arrival at Makkah. E. M. w. 

*• The deleat of the Wahdhis by Ibrahim Pdsha in 1818 brought 
a considerable jjortion of Arabia, comprising about two hundred 
thousand square miles, under Turkish suzerainiy. The rule of the 
Turk, however, is for tlie most part merely nominal, and this becomes 
more so each year as the power of the Ottoman empire decreases. 
So far, however, as recognised, it extends over almost the whole of 
Hij-l-z, with Makkah, Madina, and Jidda, under semi-independent 
rulero, the northern part of Yaman, and about half of Ahra (with 
Palgrave's Hoflioof) on the east coast. Madina is subject to tbt. 
Grand Sharif of Makkah. 

A German traveller (Von Moltzau) tells us that Arabia, especially 
South-Western Arabia, is honeycombed by numerous sects, notably 
by that of the "Hidden Imdm." The Wahabis too are stirring 
again, and the powerful chief of Northern Hij4z, with his hordes of 
Bedouins, is quite ready to throw off the Ottoman yoke, light as it 
is. It therefore appears that while tlie Turk possesses considerably 
more authority in Arabia than he formerly did, according to our 
autlior, there is every reason to believe it to be for the most part 
nominal, and that even this tenure is likely to be of short duration. 
(I am indebted for most of the information in this noie and the two 
preceding to the research of the Rev. P. M. Zenker, (TM.S., Agra.) 

E. M. w. 

» Voyagedol'Ariib Heur.,p. 145. ' Vid« D'Herbel., Bibl. Orient., 
'' Ibid, pp. 143, 14S. p. 477- 


they have a Pasha whose authority is very small, they 
possess nothing considerable in Arabia.^ * 

Thus have the Arabs preserved their liberty, of which Antian 
few nations can produce so ancient monuments, with very served in au 
little interruption, from the very Deluge* for though very 
great armies have been sent against them, all attempts to 
subdue them were unsuccessful. The Assyrian or Median 
empires never got footing afilong them.^ The Persian 
monarchs, though they were their friends, and go far 
respected by tliem as to have an annual present of frank- 
incense,^ yet could never make them tributary ;* and were 
so far from being their masters, that Cambyses, on his 
expedition against Egypt, was obliged to ask their leave 
to pass througl) their territories;^ and when Alexander 
had subdued that mighty empire, yet the Arabians had 
so little apprehension of him, that they alone, of all the 
neighbouring nations, sent no ambassadors to him, either 
first or last ; which, with a desire of possessing so rich a 
country, made him form a design against it, and had he 
not died before he could put it in execution,^ this people 
might possibly have convinced liim that he was not invin- 
cible : and I do not find that any of his successors, eitlier 
in Asia or Egypt, ever niacie any attempt against them.'' 
The Eomans never conquered any part of xirabia properly 
so called ; the most they did was to make some tribes in 
Syria tributary to them, as Pompey did one commanded 
by Sarapsicerauius or iShams'alkerdm, who reigned at 
Hems or Emesa;^ but none of the Eomans, or any other 
nations that we know of, ever penetrated so far into Arabia 
as ^lius Gallus under Augustus Caesar;'-^ yet he was so 
far from subduing it, as some authore pretend,^^ that he 

* See note above, 

^ Voy. de TAxab. Heur., p. 14s. "^ Vide Diodor. Sic, ubi supra. 

* Diodor. Sic, 1. 2, p. 1 31. ^ Strabo, 1. 16, p. 1092. 

' Ht^rodot., 1. 3, c. 97, 8 Diou Cassius, 1. 55, p. m. 516. 

^ Idem ib. c. 91. Diodor., nbi Bup. ^^ Huet, Hist, du Commerce et 

^ Herodot., 1. 3, c. 8 and 98. de la Navigation des Ancieos, c. 

° Strabo, 1. 16, pp. 1076, 1 132. 50. 



\i'a3 soon obliged to reiuiu without etVectiiig auyUuug con- 
sidfrable, huviiig lost the best pait of his army by sickness 
nnd other accidents.^ This ill success probably di^-oomaged 
the Romans from attacking thorn a]>yinore; for Trajan, 
not with standi noj the flat Leiies oi the historian?! and orators 
of his time, and the medals struck by him,, did not subdue 
the Arabs; the province of Arabia, whicli it is said he 
added to the Koman empire, scarce reaching farther than 
Arabia Tetraia, or the very skirts of the country. And we 
are told by one author,^ that this prince, marching against 
the Agaiens who, had revolted, met with such a reception 
that he was obliged to return without domg anything. 
T>)o reiigiou The religion of the Arabs before Muhamniad, wlach they 
i^tnTo ^Ul. ** call the state of ignorance, in opposition to the knowledge of 
God's true wotb-hip revealed io them by their prophet, was 
chtefly fj:ix;'6S idolatry; the Sabjan religion having almost 
overrun the wliole nation, thoush there were also .threat 
numbers of Christiaus, Jews, and Magians among them. 
Th« bai.i&n 1 shall not here transcribe what Dr. Prideaux* has written 
sirif)S'. *" of the original of the Sabian religion; but instead thereof 
insert a brief account of the tenets and worship of that 
sect. They do nut only believe one God, but produce 
many stiong arguments for his unity, though they also 
pay an adoration to the stars, ov the angels and intelli- 
gences which they suj'pose reside in them, and govern 
the world under the Su[)reme Deity. I'hey endeavour to 
perfocc tliemselves in the four intellectual virtues, and 
believe the souls of wicked men will be punished for nine 
thousand ages, bat will afterwards be received to mercy. 
They are obliged to pray three times^ a day; the first, half 
an hour or less betore sunrise, ordering it so that they 
may, just as the sun rises, iinish eight adorations, each 
Containing three prostrations :* the second prayer they 

'^ See the wholt expedition de- * Some say tsuvon. Sue D'Her- 

scritK-d ui large by Strubo, I. l6, p. >k lot, p. 726, aud Hyde, Deikl. Vet. 

1126, ilf. PfeiS., p. izt. 

* Xiphiliii., epic, * Other-' say they use tio inciir- 

' Otniiect. of the Hist of tiic Old vatiojti yv prodttauons at all ; vide 

and New Test., p. 1, bk. 3. llyji, ibid. 


eud at noon, when the sua begin,s to decline, in sayina 
wiiioh they perform five such adorations as the former : 
and the same they do the third timtj, ending just as the 
sun sets. They fast tiiree times a year, the first time 
thirty days, the next nine days, and the last seven. Thev 
ofler many sacrifices, but eat no part of them, burning 
them an. They abstain from beans, garlic, and some other 
•pii^ije and vegetables..-' As to the Sabian Qibla, or part 
to -v/hich they turn their faces inpraying, authors greatly 
differ; out will have it to he the north,^ another the south, 
a third Makkalt, and a fourth the star to which they pay 
their devotions:^ and perhaps there may be some variety 
in their practice in this respect. They go on pilgiimage 
to a place near the city of liarran in Mesopotamia, where 
great numbers of them dwell, and they have also a great 
jespect for the temple of ^lakkah, and the pyramids of 
Egypl;^ fancying these hist to be the sepulchres of iSerh, aod 
of Enoch and Sabi his two sons, whom they look on as the 
first propagators of their religion, at these structures they 
sacrifice a cock and a black calf, and offer up incense.* Be- 
bides tile Book of Psalms, the only true S(;ripture they read, 
they have ctlier books which theyesteeui equally sacred, par- 
ticularly one 1 n the Chaldean tongne w hich they call the Book 
of Seth, and which is full of moral discourses. This sect say 
they took the name of Sabian froin the above mentioned Sabi, 
though it seems rather to be derived from H2)i, Saha,^<)T the 
hod vf heaven, which they worship.^ Travellers coiLimonly 
call t hei.u (JhrJstia])S oi St. John the Baptist, whose disciples 
also they pretend to be, using a kind of baptism, which is 
tite greatest mark they bear of Christianity. This is ow^ of 
the religions tht; practice of which Muhaniinad t(,*lerated (on 

' A.bviifai,ig, .hi^t Dyuaat , p. astronomer, and hiniaelf a, Sabian, 

281, kn. wrote a treatise m Syr«ac conc^^nixnij 

' Idem ibid. ihe «;loctrines, rites, and ovrenionies 

^ H^de. ubi vStipra, p. 124, &c. of this sect ; from which, ii it couW 

* 1) Iferbelot, ubi eupra. be reccve*"eid, we might evpect much 

* -Soe Greaves PyrairJiIcg.jppo,/. bcUer iaforuifiiion than any taken 

* Vidt) Foe. Spf^'C, p. 138. from the .^isbiun vtriters; vide 
^ Thabit Ibn K-xirrah, a, iiiiTioaa Abuilarag. ubi supra. 


paying tribute), and the professors of it are often included iu 
that expression of the Quran, " those to whom the Scrip- 
tures have been given/' or literally, the people of the hook* 
tV^Jud aur- "^^^ idolatry of the Arabs then, as Sabians, chiefly con- 
worship. gisted in worshipping the fixed stars and planets, arid the 
-angels and tlieir images, wJiich they honoured as interior 
deities, and whose intercession they begged, as their 
mediators with God. For the Arabs acknowledged one 
supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the universe, whom 
they called Allah Taclla, the most high OoD; and their 
otlier deities, who were subordinate to him, they called 
simply, al Ilahat, i.e., the goddesses ; which words the 
Grecians not understanding, and it being their constant 
custom to resolve tlie religion of every other nation into 
their own, and find out gods of theirs to match the others', 
they pretend that the Arabs worshipped only two deities, 
Orotalt and Alilat, as those names are corruptly written, 
whom they will have to be the same with Bacchua and 
Urania; pitching on the former as one of the greatest of 
their own gods, and educated in Arabia, and on the other 
because of the veneration shown by the Arabs to the stars> 
knowiSi ed ^^'^^t they acknowledged one supreme God, appears, to 
^^osiipnmo omit other proof, from their usual form of addressing 
themselves to him, wliich was this, " I dedicate myself to 
tliy service, O God ! Thou hast no (companion, except 
thy companion of whom thou art absolute master, and of 
whatever is his."^ So that they supposed the idols not to 
be sm juris, tiiough they offered sacrifices and other ofler- 
infTR to tliem, as well as to God, who was also often put 
oft' witli llie least portion, as Muhammad upbraids them. 
Thus when they plaiited fruit-trees or sowed a field, they 
divided it by a line into two parts, setting one apart for 

* For a better accounl of tbese Sabiana, nee note on chap. iL 
V. 6r. E. M. w. 

1 Vide Herudot., 1. 3, c. 8; Arriau, pp. lOi, 162 ; and Strabo, L i6. 
^ Al Shahi'istaut 


their idols, and the other for God ; if any of the fruits 
happened to fall from the idol'a part into God's, they made 
restitution ; but if from God's part into the idol's, they 
made no restitution. So when they watered the idol's 
grounds, if the water broke over the channels made for 
that purpose, and ran on God's part, they dammed'it lip 
again ; but if the contrary, they let it run on, saying, they 
wanted what was God's, but he wanted nothing.^ In the 
same manner, if the oflViing designed for GoD happened 
to be better than that designed for the idol, they made an 
exchange, but not otherwise.^ . 

It was from this gross idolatry, or the worship of inferior Miahammad 
deities, or companions of God, as the Arabs continue to pnmiiiTe 
call them, that Mnhammad reclaimed his countrymen, thSm. 
establishing the sole worship of the trueGoD among them ; 
so that how much soever the Muhammadans are to blame 
in other points, they are far from being idolaters,* as some 
ignorant writers have pretended. 

The worship of the stars the Arabs might easily be led orijrin of 
into, from their observing the changes of weather to happen worship. 
at the rising and setting of certain of them,^ which after 
a long course of experience induced them to ascribe a 
divine power to those stars, and to think themselves in- 
debted to them for their rains, a very great benefit and 
refreshment to their parched country; this superstition 
the Quran particular^ takes notice of.* 

* So far as the Qurin and the religion of Muhammad are con- 
cerned, a charge of idolatry would be a sign of ignorance. But 
when we take into account the reverence of Muslims for the Black 
Stone at Makkah, their worship of Waha or saints, and notably of 
Hasan and Husain, the charge is just. However, when this incon- 
sistency of Muslims is made to appear as an argument against Islam, 
it is us absurd as the attempt of Muslims to estabhsh the charge of 
idolatry against Christiaus by pointing to Homan Catholic image- 
worship. E. M. w. 

^ Nodhtn al dorr. ^ Vide post. 

2 Al Baidhiiwi. * Vide Toe. Spec, p. 163.. 



[seC I. 

The temple 
of Bait 
Chuuiddn at 

stars wor- 
st lipped by 


Antrelt 01- 

gods wor- 
wliipped an 

The aiKiient Arabians and Indians, between which two 
nations was a great conformity of religions, had seven 
Cfciebrated ieinples, dedicated to the seven planets; one 
of which in particular , called Bait Ghumdan, was built in 
Sanaa, the metropolis of Yaman, by l.>ahaq, to the honour 
of al Zuharah or the planet Venus, and was demolished by 
the Klialifah Oclinian :^ by whose murder was fulliUcd the 
prophetical inscription set, as is reported, over this temple, 
viz., '' Ghumdan, he who destroyeth thee shall )je slsia."*'^ 
The temple of Makkah is also said to have been consecrated 
to Zuhal, or Saturn/^ 

Tliough these deities were generally reverenced by the 
wh('le nation, yet each tribe chose some one as the more 
peculiar object of thei»' worship. 

Thus as to the stars and planets, the tribe of Himyar 
chietly woi*shJpped the suu; Misam,"* al Dabarih, or tho 
Bull's-eye;' Lakhna and Jodam, al Mushtari, or Jupiter; 
Tay, Suhailj^r Canon us ; Qais, Sinus, or the Dog-star ; 
and Asad, Atarid. or Mei-cury.^ Among the worshippers 
of Siiius, one Ahn Qabsha wn? very fnmous ; some will 
have him to be the same with Wahah, Muhammad's gniud- 
father by the mother, but others say he was of the tribo 
of Xhuziiali, This mar used bis utmost eudeavours to 
persuade the Qmaiiih to leave their images and worhhip 
this ^tar; for which reason Muhammad, who endeavoured 
also to make them leave their images, m^os by tbera nick- 
named the v«5on of Abu Qabsha.^ The vvoi^hip of this st>ar 
is paiticularly hinted at in the QTirari.'' 

Of the angeJs or intelligences which they worsliipped, 
the t^Juran** makes mention only of three, which were wor- 
siapped under female names ;^ al Lat, al U?:za, and iVJinah. 
These were by them called goddesses, and the daughters 

' Shubi-lstunl. ^ Ai J&nu^bL 

* Shahristani 

* This name geema to b-^ cor- 
rupted, there b^ing noeuch among 
the \vab tribes. l*oo. Si*ec., p. ijO. 

' Abulf.irag, p. i6o. 
" Puc. Sfcc, p 132. 
7 Cap. 53, V.I. 
" Ibid., V8. 19-28. 
• Ibid. 


SEC. l] the preltminary discourse. 39 

of God; an appellation, they gave not only to the angels, 
but also ta their images, which they either Lelieved to be 
inspired' with life by GoD, or else to become tlie tabernacles 
of the angels, and to be animated by them ; and they gave 
them, divine worsliip, because they imagined they inter- 
ceded for them with GoD. 

AI Lilt was the idol of the t?ibe of Thakif who dwelt at Tfceidoi 
Tayif, and had a temple consecrated to her in a place ** 
called Nakhla. This idol al Mughnirah destroyed by 
Muhammad s order, who sent him and AbU Solian on that 
commission in the ninth year of the Hijra> Tb<i inhabi- 
tants of Tayif, especially the women, bitterly lamented 
the lo^s of this their deity, which they were so fond of, 
that they begged of Muhammad, as a condition of p^eace, 
that it might not be destroyed, for three years, and not 
obtaiuing that, asked only a month's respite ; but he 
absolutely denied it.'*^ There are several derivations of 
this word, which the curious may learn from Dr. I'ocock ; ^ 
it seems most probably to be derived from the same root 
with Allah, to which it may be a feminine, and will then 
signify the yoddess. 

Al IJzza, as some affirm, was the idol of the tril«3s of Theidoi 
Qnraisli and Kinanah,* and part of the tribe of Salim ; ^ V 
otliers^ tell us it was a tree called the Egyptian thorn, or 
acacia, Vvorshipped by the tribe of Ghathin, hrst consecrated 
by one iJhalim, who built a chapel over it, called Boss, 
so contrived as to give a sound w^hen any person e:itered. 
Khalid Ibn Walid being sent by Muhammad in the eiglith 
year of the Hijra to destroy tbis idol, demolished ihe 
chapel, and cutting down this tree or image, burnt it : 
he also slew the priestess, who ran out with her hair 
dishevelled, and her hands on her head as a suppliant. Yet 

^ Dr. Prideaux urientiouB this btrunients ot war. Sf-t- bib lafe of 

expeditiou, but namf^ft only Abu Mahomet, {>. 98. 

Sofian, and mistaking the name of '^ Abulfeda, Vit. Muham., p. 127. 

Ihe idol for an appellative, snp- ^ Poc. SiJtc. . p. 90. 

poses be went onij' to diaarni the ^ A.1 Jaiibari, d,pud «und., p. 91. 

Tayifiana of their weapons and in- ^ Al Shah., ib. " .-.vl Eirauz., ib. 


the author who relates this, in another place says, the 
chapel was pulled down, and Dhalim himself killed by- 
one Zuhair, because he consecrated this chapel with design 
to draw the pilgrims thither from Makkah, and lessen the 
reputation of the Kaahah. The name of this deity is 
derived from the root azza, and signifies the most mighty. 
The idol Mindli was the object of worship of the tribes of Hu- 

'^^^^ dhail and Khuzaah/ who dwelt between Makkali and Ma- 
dina, and, as some say ,2 of the tribes of Aws. Khazraj, and 
Thakif also. This idol was a large stone,^ demolished by 
one Saad, in the eighth year of the Ilijra, a year so fatal 
to the idols of Arabia. The name seems derived from 
mayia, to fiow, from the flowing of the blood of the victims 
sacrificed to the deity ; whence the valley of Mi'na,^ near 
ATakkah, had also its name, where the pilgrims ut this day 
slay tlieir sacrifices.^ 
sawl ^^'^' Before we proceed to the other idols, let us take notice 
Yftffinith. of Bve more, which with the former three are all the 
waer. Qutdn mentious by name, and they are Wadd, Sawa, 

Yaghuth, Yaiiq, and Nasr, These are said to have been 
antediluvian idols, which Noah preached against, and 
were afterwards taken by the Arabs for gods, having been 
men of great merit and piety in their time, v/hose statues 
they reverenced at iirst with a civil honour only, which in 
process of time becamo heightened to a divine worship.® 

Wadd was supposed to be the heaven, and was wor- 
shipped under the form of a man by the tribe of QaJb in 
Daumat al Jandal.'^ 

Sawtl was adored under the shape of a woman by the 
tribe of Hamadan, or, as others^ write, of Hudhaii in 
Eohat. This idol lying under water for some time after 
the Deluge, was at length, it is said, discovered by the 
devil, and was worshipped by those of lludhail, who 
instituted pilgrimages to it.® 

"^ Al Jaubari. Tcrsic. ; vide Hyde, De liel. Vet. 

* AJ Shahriatiini, Abulfeda, i^c. Pers., p. 133, 

* Al Baidhiiwi, al Zamakh«hari. "* A\ JauhftrJ, al Shahristfinf. 

* Poc. Siwc, p. 91, &c. '' Ibid. ' Idem, al Firauziibudi, and Sa- 
' Qurau, c. 71, v. 22; Coimueiit. (iu'ddin. " AJ Firauzab. 


Yaghiith was an idol in the shape of a lion, and was 
the deity of the tribe of Madhaj and others who dwelt iu 
Yaman.^ Its name seems to be derived from ghatha, 
which signifies to lielp. 

Yaiiq was worsliipped by the tribe of Murad, or, accord- 
ing to others, by that of Hamadan,- under the figure of a 
horse. It is said he was a man of great piety, and his 
death much regretted; whereupon the devil appeared to 
his friends in a human form, and undertaking to repre- 
sent him to the life, persuaded them, by way of comfort, 
to place his effigies in their temples, that they might have 
it in view when at their devotions. This was done, and 
seven others of extraordinary merit had the same honours 
shown them, till at length their posterity made idols of 
them in earnest,^ The name Yaiiq probably comes from 
the verb dqa, to prevent or averts 

NaS'f was a deity adored by the tribe of Himyar, or at 
DhuT Khalaah in their territories, under the image of an 
eagle, which the name signifies. 

There are, or were, two statues at Bamiyan, a city of 
Ciibul in the Indies, fifty cubits high, which some writers 
suppose to be the same with Yaghiith and Yiiiiq, or else 
with Minah and al Lat; and they also speak of a third 
standing near the others, but something less, in the shape 
of an old woman, called Nasram or Nasr. These statues 
were hollow within, for the secret giving of oracles ;^ but 
they seem to have been different from the Arabian idols. 
There was also an idol at Siimenat in the Indies, called 
lidt or al Lat,* whose statue was fifty fathoms high, of a 

* Somndth is the name of the idol, and is applied to the god 
Mahadev. This idol may have been called Ldt or ul Zdthy the 
Mnalim plunderer, Mahmiid, and his followers, but that it was ever 
60 called by the Hindus is a mistake. E. M. w. 

^ ShahrisUni. * Poc. Spec, p. 94. 

* Al Jauhari. ' See Hyde, De Kel. Vet. Pers., p. 

3 Al Firauzab. . 132. 



[sec. I. 

Tho worship 

and other 
idols of the 

The idoila 
Aa&t and 
NaflMh of 
Bof* an! 

siuglf btohe. and pjaced in the midst of a temple supported 
by fifty-six pUlars of massy gold: tliis idol Mahmiid Ibn 
Sabaqta^hln, wko conqviered that part of India, broke to 
pieces with his owq haods.^ 

Besides tJtie idols wc have mentioned, the Arabs also 
worshippeti numbers of others, which would take up 
too much tmifc to have distinct accounts given of them ; 
and not being named in tho Quran, are not so much to 
our present purpose : for besides that every liousekeeper 
nad his household god or ^rods, which ho last took leave 
of and fost saluted at his going abroad and returning horue,^ 
there Were no less tho.n 360 idols,^ equalling in number 
tlie days of their year, in and about the Kaabah of Makkah : 
the chief of whom was Hohal * brought from Belka in 
Syria into Arabia by Amm Ibn Luhai, pretending it 
would procm-e them rain when they wanted it.^ It was 
the statue of a man, made of agate, which having by some 
accident lost a hand, the Q.uraish repaired it with one of 
gold : he held in his hand seven arrows without heads or 
feathers, sucii as the Arabs use in divination.^ This idol 
iS 6uppc)sed to have been the same with the image of 
Abraham,^ found and destroyed by Muhammad in the 
Kaabah, on Ixis entering it, in the eighth year of the Hijra, 
when he took Makkah,^aud surrounded wilha ureat number 
of angtls an*! prophels, as mferior deities ; among whom, as 
sojue say, was Ismail, with divining arrows in his hand also.* 

Asuf and Nailah, the former the image of a man, tho. 
latter of a woman, were also two idols brought with Hobnl 
from ^Syria, and placed the on<^ on Mount Safa, and the 
other on Mount Marwa.* They tell us Asaf was the son 

*' Safd and M«nva "ure two slightly elevated spot*> adjacent to 
the 'I'emple of Mekk4jh."-'-Za;/^s Kuran, p. 33. K M. w. 

1 U'llerbelot, 

Bibl. Uiitoit., p. 

« A I Mu<lAtrRf. 

' Al Janna)>. 

♦ Abulfed. Sh^hrist., &.c. 

' Poc, Spw! p. 95. 

« Safiu'ddiu. 

' P<)c. .Sptc, p. 97. 

« Abulfoda. 

* Ibn al Asbir., al Jaunab., oia 


of Amru, and Nailah. the daughter of Saiial, both of the 
tribe of Jorham, who coram itting whoredoni together in 
the Kaabah, were by God converted into stone,' d.iu\ after- 
wards worshipped by t]te Quraith, and so mnch reverenced 
by them, that though this supersmtion was condemned by 
Muhammad, yet he was forced to allow them to visit Ihose 
mountains as nionnriients of divine justice,^ 

I shall mention but one idol moie oC this nation, and The dousrii- 
that was a lump of dough worshipped by the tril^e of the ti;ibe oi 
Banifa, who used it with moi'e respe(!t than the Papists 
do theirs, presuming not to eat it till they were compelled 
to it by fainino/' 

Several of their idols, as Mfntih in parti c alar, were no origin 01 

. stone-woi*- 

more than large ruti^ atones, the worship of which tiie ship, 
posterity of Ismail first uitroduced; for as they multiplied, 
and the territory of Makkah tjrew too strait for tliem. great 
numbeib were obliged to seek new abodes; and on such 
migratio.ns it was usual for them to take with thtm 
some of the stones of tliat reputed holy land, and set them 
up in the places where they iixed ; and these stones they 
at rifSD oidy conipas4>ed oat of devotion, as they had 
accustome<l to do the Kaabah. But this at last ended in 
rank idolatry, the Istardlites forgetting the religion left 
them by their father so far as to pay divine worship to 
any fine stone they met wi th.^ 

Bonie of the pa^an .Arabs bejieved neither a creation Arab belief 

, '~''. , ■ M • 1 ■ • -in a future 

past, nor a resurrection to come, attributing the CJngm of ufe. 
thing? to namrH, and their dissolution; to age. Others 
believed both, among wiiom were those who, v/hen they 
died, kad their camel tied by their sepulchre, and so left, 
without meat or drink, to perish, and accompany them to 
the other world, lest they siioul.d be obliged, at the resur- 
rection, to go on foot, which was reckoned very scandalous.* 

* 3Poc. Spec, p. 98. * AlMusfcatraf, al 

' Quran, c. 2 v. 159. * Abulfarag, p. i6o. 

' AI Mustatiaf, al J&ubari. 


Some believed a metempsychosii^, and that of the blood 
near the dead person's brain was formed a bird named 
Hamah, which once iti a hundred years visited the sepul- 
chre; though others say this bird was animated by the 
soul of him that is unjustly slain, and continually cries, 
Is'pini iBqunifi.e., "give me to drink" — meaning of the 
muj'derer's blood — till his death be revenged, and then 
it flies away. This was forbidden by the Quran to be 

1 might here mention several superstitious rites and 
customs of the ancient Arabs, some of which were 
abolished and others retained by Muhammad; but I 
apprehend it will be more conveuieut to take notice of 
them hereafter occasionally, as the negative or positive 
precepts of the Quran, forbidding or allowing such prac- 
tices, shall be considered. 

Let us now turn our view frotn . the idolatrous Arabs, 

to those among them wlio had embraced more rational 


TheMngiau The Persians had, by their vicinity and frequent inter- 

ad'optild by courso with the Arabians, introduced the Magian religion 

'"* " ' among some of their tribes, particularly that of Tamlm,^ a 

long time before Muhammad, who was so far from being 

unacquainted with that religion, that he borrowed many 

of his own institutions from it, as will be observed in the 

progress of this work. I refer those who are desirous to 

have some notion of Magism to Dr. Hyde's curious account 

of it,""^ a succinct abridgment of which may be read with 

mucli pleasure in another learned performance.* 

jvirtaism In- The Jcws, who lied in great numbers into Arabia from 

arc-.uitoi the fearful destmiction. of their country by the Komans, 

necSiT' made proselytes of several tribes, those of Kindnah, al 

Harith Ibn Kaabah, and Kindah^ in particular, and in 

» Vide Poc. Spec., p. 135. Hist, of the Old and New Test., 

2 Al Mustatraf. part i. boQk 4. 

3 In hi« Hist. Relig. Vet Pers. » Al Mustatraf. 
* Dr. Frideatix's Connect, of the 


time became very powerful, and possessed of several towns 
and fortresses there. But the Jewish religion was not 
unknown to the Arabs, at least above a century before. 
Abu Qarib Asad, taken notice of in the Quran/ who was 
king of Yaman, about 700 years before Muhammad * is 
said to have introduced Judaism among the idolatrous 
Himyarites. Some of his successors also omLi-aced the 
same religion, one of whom, Yusaf, surnamed Dhu Nuwas,^ 
was remarkable for his zeal and terrible persecution of 
all who would not turn Jews, putting them to death by 
various tortures, the most common of which was throwing 
them into a glowing pit of fire, whence he had the oppro- 
brious appellation of the Lord of the Pit, This persecu- 
tion is also mentioned in the Quran.* 

Christianity had likewise made a very great progress Christianity 
among this nation before Muhammad. Whether St. Paul "^ 
preached in any part of Arabia, properly so called,* is 
uncertaiu; but the persecutions and disorders wliich hap- 
pened in the Eastern Church soon after the beginning of the 
third century, obliged great numbers of Christians to seek 
for shelter in that country of liberty, who, being for the most 
part of the Jacobite communion, that sect generally pre- 
vailed among the Arabs.^ The principal tribes that em- 
braced Christianity were Himyar, Ghassdn, Eabia, Taghlab, 
Eahra, Tuniikh,^ part of the tribes of Tay and Kudaa, the 
inhabitants of Xajran, and the Arabs of Hira.' As to the 
two last, it may be observed that those of Najran became 
Ciiristians in the time of Dhu jSTuwas,** and very probably, 

* another instance of the error into wliich the waiters of last 
century were led by Muslim authors. This Abii' Qarib Asad flourished 
about the beginning of i\\& third century of our era, and hence about 
four hundred years before Muhammad. See Introd. Muir's IJ/e of 
Mahomet, vol. i. p. olvi. e m. w. 

^ Ghap. 50. * Abulfarao, p. 149.. 

2 See before, p 28, and Barouii, ® Al Mustatraf. 
Anual. ad sec. vi. "^ Vide Poc. Spec , p. 137. 

^ (^hap. 85, vv. 4, 5. * Ai Jann^bi, apud Poc. Spec, p. 

* See Galat. i 17. 63. 


if the story b<3 true, were some ol: those who weie cor«- 
vetted on the following occasion, which happened about 
that time, or not long before. 'Tbe Jews of Iljmyaj 
challenged .some neighbouring Christians to a public dis- 
putation,, which was held eiub d.i& for thite days before the 
kinw .^nd his nobility and all 'the people^ Uie disputants 
being Gregeutius, bishop of Tophra (which I take to be 
Dhafac) for tf'.e Chriiiiiang, and lierbanus i'ov tho Jews. 
On the llurd day, Eerbanus,to end the dispute, demanded 
thai Jesus of Nazareth. iC he were really diving, and m 
heaven, and could liear the prayers ol' his worsliippefs, 
should appear iTom heaven in their sight, acd they would 
then holievfc in him: the Jews crying out with one voice, 
•'Show us your (.'hrist alas! and we "will become Chris- 
tians." Whereupon, after a terrible storm of thnnder and 
lighmirig, Jesus Christ appeared in the air, surrounded 
with rays of glory, walking on 4 ]>urple cloud havicifij a 
sword in his hand, and an inestimable diadem on his head, 
and spake these words over the heads of the assembly 
" i3ehold I appear to you in your sight, I, who was cru- 
cified by your fathers." After which the cloud received 
him from their sight. The Chrislianrf ericd out, " A'^rk 
deeson" i.e., " Lord, have mercy upon us ; " but the Jews 
Were :Htricken blind, and recovered not till they were all 
baptv/ed.^ * 

Th^ Christians at Hira received a great aooession by 
several tribes, who tied thither for refuge from the persecu- 
tion of Dhu Nil was. Al Numiin, surnamed Abu Kabus, 
king of Hira. who was slaiu a few months before jMu- 
hainniail's birth, profetiaed himself a Christia on the 
following occation. This pniice, in a drunken fit, ordered 

* We rat' but wrnder at. the .\pparent crcdalily wliich couW aHrrnt 
o story like thia as auythiug inorvj tliau a fubrication. The wiiole 
ttocouTit of the pert-ecwriou of Christfani* by Dhu Nuw^sshov^e that 
''hri^tianUy Lad heen intruducfcd betore his tirite k,. m. w. 

Viile Grb«^entii dbput. cuoi Herbaao Juu«£o 


two of his intimate companions, "who overcome v/ith 
liquor had lallen aeleop, to be buried alive. \^''hen he 
came to himself; he was extremely ooncftined at what he 
had done, and to expiate his crime, not only raised a 
monument to the memory' of his friends, but set apart two 
days, one of which he called the unfortunate, and the other 
the fortunate 'iay; making it a perjjetual rule to himself, 
that whoever met him on the formej' dav should be slain, 
and his blocd sprinkled on the mcnunieni. but he that met 
him on. the otlieT day should be dismissed la safety, with 
magniiicent gifts. On one of these uniortunate days thei« 
came before him accidentally an Arab of the tribe of Tay, 
who had once enr^ttained this kin^ ^^lien faliiiued with 
hiiriting and separated fiom bis attendants'. The king, 
who could neither discliurge him contrary to the order of 
tJie day. nor put him to death, agniust the laws of hospi- 
tality, which the Arabian:? religioueiy observe, proposed, ;is 
an expedient, to give chc unhappy man a yeai's respite, 
and to send him home with rich gifts for the support of 
his family, on condition that he found a suiety for his 
returning at t.he year's end to suffer death. One of the 
prince's court, out of compassion, oftered himself as liin 
surety, and the Arab was discharged. Wlieii rue last day 
of the terni <ame, nnd no news of the Aiab, the king, not 
at all displeased to save his host's life, ordered the surety 
to prepaie hira.self to die. Thosje who were by represented 
to thf5 king that the day was not yet expired., and there- 
fore he ought to It.ave patience t.Ul the evening; but ii\ tjie 
middle ol' ttseir diac^mrse the Arab appealed. Th.e kniL', 
admirino the man s srenerosiiv, i.(i olierinfj himself 1.0 cer- 
tain death, which he might have avoided by letting his 
surety sutler, asked him what his motive was for so 
doing? to which he answered, that he had been taught to 
act in that manner by the religioji he professed ; and al Num^ti, 
Numaii demanding what religion that was, he replied, the sSI "con- 
Christian. Wliereupon the king desirin;> to have thi^cSSw° 
doctrines of Christianiiy explained to him, was baptize*!, ■'""'^' 


he and Lis subjects ; and not only pardoned the man and 
liis surety, but abolished his barbarous custom.^ This 
prince, however, was not the first king of Hira who em^ 
braced Christianity; al Mundar, his grandfather, having 
also professed the same faith, and built large churches 
in his capital.^ 
Thcoxtetih Since Christianity had made so jrreat a progress in 

of the Chris- ... " *'. , ,111.-, 

tjAD Church Arabia, we may consequently suppose they had bishops 
in several parts, for the more orderly governing of the 
churches. A bishop of Dhafar has been already named, 
and we are told that Najran was ^Iso a bisliop's see.^ The 
Jacobites (of which sect. w(^ have observed the Arabs gene- 
rally wera) had two bishops of the Arabs subject to their 
Mafrian,* or metropolitan of the East; one was called thef 
bishop of the Arabs absolutely, whose sc^at was for the 
rrj'»st part at Akala, wliich some others make the same 
with Kiifa,* others a different town near Baghdad.^ The 
other had the title of bishop of the Scenite Arabs, of the 
tribe of Thaalab in Hira, or Hirta, as the Syrians call it, 
whose seat was in that city. The Xestorians had but one 
bishop, who presided over both these dioceses of Hira and 
Akula, and was immediately subject to their patriarch.® 
Free Thesc wcrc the principal relisjions which obtained among 

Hiirt zendi- the ancient Arabs ; but as freedom of thought was the 
tue wirairf). natural consequence of their poutical liberty and inde- 
pendence, some of them fell intb other different opinions. 
The Quraish, in particular, were infected with Zendicism,^ 
an error supposed to liave very near affinity with that of 
the Sadducees among the Jews, and, perhaps, not greatly 

l^iie says "the Copts call their metropolitan Matran." — KurdUj 
p. 39, note. E. M. w. 

' Al Maidilni and Ahmad Ibn " Abulfeda in Descr. Iracse. 
"Yusaf, apiul J*oc. Spec, p. 72 * Vide Ass-jmani, Bibl. Orient., 

- AbulfoJa, apvid eund., p. 74. torn. 2, iu Dissert, de Monophyaitis, 

' SufiU ddlu, apud Poc. Spec, p. and p. 245. 
137- ' Al Muatatrai, a])ud Poc. Spec, 

* ABulfarag in Chron. Syriac, MS. p. 136. 


different from Deism ; for there were several of that tribe, 
even before the time of Muhammad, who worshipped one 
God and were free from idolatry,^ and yet embraced none 
of the other religions of the country. 

The Arabians before Muhammad were, as they yet are, two classes 
divided into two sorts— those who dwell in cities and previous to 
towns, and those who dwell in tents. The former lived °^* " 
by tillage, the cultivation of palm-trees, breeding and 
feeding of cattle, and the exercise of all sorts of trades,^ 
particularly merchandising,^ wherein they were very emi- 
nent, even in the time of Jacob. The tribe of Quraish 
were much addicted to commerce, and Muhammad, in his 
younger years, was brought up to the same business ; it 
being customary for the Arabians to exercise the same 
trade that their parents did.* The Arabs who dwelt in 
tents employed themselves in pasturage, and sometimes, 
in pillaging of passengers ; they lived chiefly on the milk 
and flesh of camels ; they often changed their habitations, 
as the convenience of water and of pasture for their cattle 
invited them, staying in a place no longer than that la&ted, 
and then removing in search of other.* They generally 
wintered in Irak and the confines of Syria. This way of 
life is what the greater part of Ismail's posterity have 
used, as more agreeable to the temper and way of life of 
their father ; and is so well described by a late author,^ 
that I cannot do better than refer the reader to his account 
of thenu 

The Arabic language is undoubtedly one of the most The dialects 
ancient in the W6rld, and arose soon after, if not at, the ^^age. ''^ 
confusion of Babel. There were several dialects of it, very 
different from each other : the most remarkable were that 
spoken by the tribes of Himyar and the other genuine Arabs, 

1 Vide Reland, De Relig. Moham., ^ 3ee Pridoanx's Life of Mahomet, 
p. 270 ; and Millium de Moham- p. 6. 

medismo ante Mohani., p. 311. ^ Strabo, 1. 16, p. 11 29. 

2 Tbeae seem to be the same whom ^ Idem ibid., p. 1084. 

M. La Roque calls Moors, Voj.-dans ^ La Roque« Voy. dans la Pales- 
la Palestine, p. 1 10. tine. p. 109, &c. 



and that of the Quraish. The Himyaritic seoms to have 
approached nearer to the purity of the Syiiac than the 
dialect of any other tribe ; for the Arabs acknowledge 
their father Yarab to have been the first whose tongue 
deviated from the Syriac (which was his mother tongue, 
and is almost generally acknowledged by the Asiatics to 
be the most ancient) to the Arabic. The dialect of the 
Quraish is usually termed the pure Arabic, or, as the 
Quran, which is written in this dialect, calls it, the per- 
spicuous and clear Arabic; perhaps, says Dr. Pocock, 
because Ismail, their father, brought the Arabic ho had 
learned of the Jorhamites nea^^er to the original Hebrew. 
But the politeness and elegance of the dialect of the 
Quraish is rather to be attributed to their having the 
custody of the Kaabah. and dwelling in Makkah, the centre 
of Arabia, as well more remote from intercourse witli 
foreigners, who might corrupt their language, as frequented 
by the Arabs from the country all around, not only on 
a religious account, but also for the composing of their 
differences, from whose discourse and verses they took 
whatever words or phrases they judged more pure and 
elegant; by which means the beauties of the whole 
tongue became transfused into this dialect. The Arabians 
are full of the commendations of their language, and not 
altogether without reason ; for it claims the preference of 
most others in many respects, as being very harmonious 
and expressive, and withal so copious, that they say ne 
man without inspiration can be perfect master of it in its 
utmost extent ; and yet they tell us, at the same time, 
that the greatest part of it has been lost ; which will not 
be thought strange if we consider how late the art of 
Ti.oartr.f writing was practised among them. For though it was 
Anibiaf kuown to Job,^ their countryman, and also to the Him- 
yaxites (who used a perplexed character called al Musnad, 
wherein the letters were not distinctly separate, and which. 
was neither publicly taught, nor suflert^d to be used 

^ Job xix. 23, 24. 


without permission first obtaine<J), many centuries before 
Mubammad, as appears from some ancient monuments, 
said to be remaining in their character; yet the other 
Arabs, and those of Makkah in particular, ^ve^e, for many 
ages, perfectly ignovant of it, unless such of tbem as were 
Jews or Christians.1 Muramir Ibn Murra of Anbar, a 
city of Irak, who lived not many years before Muhammad, 
was the inventor of the Arabic character, which Bashar 
the Kind] an is said to have learned from those of Anbar, 
and to have introduced at Makkah but a little Vv^hile be- 
fore the institution of Muhammadism. These letters of 
Muramir were different from the Himyaritic ; and though 
they were very rude, Ymiig either the same with oj very 
much like the Cufic,^ which character is still foun<i in 
inscriptions and some ancient books, yet they were those 
which the Arabs used for many years, the Quran itself 
being at first written therein ; for the beautiful character 
they now use wsls first formed from the Cufic by Ibn 
MiikLih, Wazi'r (or Visir) to thci Khalifahs al Muktadir, al 
Quhir, iiud al liadi, who lived about three hundred years 
after Muhammad, and was brought to ,i;real perfection by 
All Ibn Bawab,^ who flourished in the following century, 
and whose name is yet famous among them on that 
accouuL; yet it is said, the person who coniploted it, and 
reduced it to its present form, was Yaqut al Mustasami, 
secretary to al Mustasam, the last of the Khalifahs of the 
family of Abbas, for which reason he was surnamed al 
KJbatt-ai, or the Scribe. 

The accomplishments tbe Arabs valued themselves Arabaccom- 
cliiefiy on were : i. Eloquence, and a perfect skill in their and learn- 
own tongue ; 2. Expertness in the use of arms and horse- 

^ Sqe Pri Jeaux's Life of Maho- of this character to Ibn Muklah's 

met, pp. 29, 30 brother, Abdallab al Hassan, and 

2 A specimen of the Cufic charac- the perfecting of it to Ibn 

ter may be seen in Sir J. Chardui's K^tib, after it had been reduced to 

Travels, vol. iii. p. 119. near the present form by Abd'alha- 

* Ibn Khaliqiin. Yet others at- inul. Vide D'Herbel., Bibl. Orieiit., 

tribute the honour of the invention pp. 590, 1.08, and 194. 


monship; and 3. Hospitality.^ The first they exercised 
themselves in by comp6sing of orations and poemg. Their 
orations were of two sorts, metrical or prosaic, the ono 
being compared to pearls strung, and the other ta loose 
one^. They endeavoured to excel in both, and whoever 
was able, in an assembly, to persuade the people to a great 
enterprise or dissuade them from a dangerous one, or gave 
them other wholesome advice, was honoured with the 
title of Khatib, or orator, which is now given to the 
stylo of Muhammadan preachers. They pursued a method very 
poetry. different from that of the Greek and Eoman orators ; their 
sentences being like loose gems, without connection, so 
that this sort of composition struck the audience chiefly 
by the fulness of the periods, the elegance of the expres- 
sion, and the acuteness of the proverbial sayings ; and so 
persuaded were they of their excelling in this way, that 
they would not allow any nation to understand the art of 
speaking in public except themselves and the Persians, 
which last were reckoned much inferior in that respect 
to the Arj,bians.* Poetry was in so great esteem among 
them, that it was a great accomplishment, and a proof 
of ingenious extraction, to be able to express one*s self 
in verse with ease and elegance on any extraordinary 
occurrence; and even iu their commoti discourse they 
made frequent applications to celebrated passages of their 
famous poets. In their poems were preserved the dis- 
tinction of descents, the rights of tribes, the memory of 
great actions, and the propriety of their language ; for 
which reasons an excellent poet reflected an honour on 
his tribe, so that as soon as any one began to be admired 
Honour for his pcrformaices of this kind in a tribe, the other 
«Q po«u tribes sent publicly to congratulate them on the occasion 
and themselves made entei*tainments, at which the women 
assisted, dressed in their nuptial ornaments, singing tothe 
sound of timbrels the liappiness of their tribe, who had 

^ Poc. Orat. ante CAriQ«n Tograi, p. lo. * Poc. Spec., p. i6i. 


now one to protect their lionour, to preserve their genealo- 
gies and the purity of tLeir language, and to transmit their 
actions to posterity ; ^ for this was all performed by their 
poems, to which they were solfely obliged for their know- 
le<ige and instructions, rdoral and economical, and to which 
they had recourse, as to an oracle, in all doubts and diffcr- 
ences.2 No wonder, then, that a public congratuhttion 
was made on this account, which honour they yet were so 
far from making cheap, that tliey never did it but on one 
of these three occasions, which were reckoned great points 
of felicity, viz., on the birth of a boy, the rise of a poet, 
and the fall of a foal of generous breed. To keep up an poetic con- 
emulation among their poets, the tribes had, once a year, a f^frVt 
general assembly at Okatz,^ a place famous on this (account, 
and where they kept a weekly mart or fair, which was 
held on our Sunday,* Thi^ annual meeting lasted a whole 
month, during which time they employed themselves, not 
only iti' trading, but in repeating their poetical composi- 
tions, contending and vieing with each other for the prize ; 
whence the place, it is said, took its name.^ The poems 
that were judged to excel were laid up in their kings' 
treasuries, as were the seven celebrated poems, thence 
called al Muallaqat, rather tlian from their being hung 
up on the Kaabah, which honour they also had by public 
order, being written on Egyptian silk and in letters of 
gold ; for which reason they had also the name of al 
Mudhahabat, or the golden verses.^ 

The fair and assembly at Okatz were suppressed by This fair 
Muhammad, in whose time, and for some years after, by^i^'lSam- 
poetry seems to have been in some degree neglected by ^^ ' 
the Arabs, who were then employed in their conquests ; 
which being completed, and themselves at peace, not only 

1 Ibn Rashik, apud Poc. Spec, * Gec^r. Nub., p. 51. 

p. 160. 5 Poc Spec, p. 159. 

^ Poc Orat. prsefjx. Cann. Tograi, * Ibid., and p. 381. Et in calce 

ubi supra. Not^ir. in Carmen Tograi, p. 233. 

' Idem, Speq., p. 159. 


this study was revived.^ but almost all sorts of learning 
wero eucouragGd and greatly improved by them. This 
interruption, however, occasioned the loss of most of their 
ancient pieces of poetry, which were then chiefly pre- 
served by memory ; tlie use of writing being rare among 
them in their time of ignorance.^ Though the Arai;s 
were so early acquainted with poetry, they did noi at first 
use to write poems of a just length, but only expressed 
themselves in verse occasionally ; nor was their prosody 
digested into rules, till some time after Muhammad ; ^ 
for this was done, as it is said, by ai Khali'l Ahmad al 
Farahldi, who lived in the reign of the Khallfah Hariin 
al Raslifd.* 
Araboques- The exercise of arms and horseniaush-i-p they were in a 
iQif/tary manner obliged to practise and encourage, by reason of 
"**'"' the independence of their triples, whose frequent jarrings 
made wars almost continual ; and they chiefly ended their 
disputes in tield battles, it being a usual saying among 
them that God had bestowed four peculiar things en the 
Arabs — that their turbans should be to them instead of 
diadems, their tents instead of walls and houses, their 
swords instead of entrenchments, and their poems instead 
of written laws.^ 
Their honpi- Hoppitality was so habitual to them, and so much 
ubwiiiiy. esteemed, that the examples of this kind among them 
exceed whatever can be produced from other nations. 
Hatim, of the tribe of Tay,^ and Hasan, of that of Fizarah,^ 
were particularly famous on this account : and the con- 

^ Jaliiluddi'n al Soyij., apud I'oc. some who passed by not understand- 

Spfec, p. 159, &c. ing him, imagined be was uttering 

^ Ibid., p. 160. a oharm to hinder the rise of the 

• Ibid., 161. Al Safadi eonfirrns river, and pushed him into the water, 

th)8 by a story of a graauinarian where he lost hie life. 

naiued Abu Jaafar, who sitting by ' '' Vide Clericum de Prosed. Arab., 

the Mikyas or Nilomet<>r in Egypt, p. 2. 

in a year when thft Nile did not rise *• Pocock, in calce Notar. ad C5ar- 

to its usual height, 80 that a famine men Tograi. 

was apprehended, and dividing a " Vide Gentii Notas in Gulihtan 

piece of poetry into its parts or feet, Sht ikh Sadi, p. 486, &c. 

to examine them by the ruJei* of art, ' Poo. Spec, p. 48. 


trary vice was so much in contempt, that a certain poet 
upbraids the inhabitants of W^sat, as with the greatest 
reproach, that none of their men had the heart to give 
nor their women to deny,^ 

Nor were the x^rabs less prepense to liberality after the 
coming of JVluhammad than their ancestors had been. I 
could produce many remarkable instances of this com- 
mendable qnality among, them,^ but shall content myself 
with the following. Three men were disputing in the court 
of the Kaabah which was the most liberal person among 
the Arabs. One gave the preference to Abdallah, the son 
of Jaafar, the uncle of Muhammad ; another to Qais Ibn 
Saad Ibn Obadah ; and the third gave it to Arabah, of the 
tribe of Aws. After much debate, one that was present, 
to end the dispute, proposed that each of them should go 
tc his friend and ask his assistfince, that they might see 
what every onQ gave, and form a juagment accordingly. 
This was agreed to ; and Abdallah's friend, going to him, 
founil him. with his foot in the stirrup, just mounting his 
camel for a journey, and thus accosted him: " Son of the 
apostle of God, I am traveUmg and in necessity." Upon 
which Abdallah alighted, and bade him take the camel 
with all that was upon her, but desired him not to part with 
a svvoixl which happened to be fixed to the saddle, because 
it had belonged to AH, the son of Abutalib. So he took 
the camel, and found on her some vests of silk and 4000 
pieces of gold; but the thing of greatest value was the 
sword. The second went to Qais Ibn Saad, whose servant 
told him that his master WfiS asleep, and desired to know 
his business. The friend answered that he came to ask 
Qais's assistance, being m want on the road. Whereupon 
thp servant Said that he had rather supply his necessity 
than wake his master, and gave him a jjurse of 7000 pieces 
of gold, assuring him that it was all the money then in 

^ Ibn al Hubairah, apud Poc, in. belot's Bib]. Orient., particularly in 
N.>t. ad Carnsfcu Tograi, p. 107. t!ie articles of Hasan the son of Ali, 

■ Several niu> be found in D'Her Maan Fadlia.1, and ibn Yahya. 


the house. He also directed him to go to those who had 
the charge of the camels, with a certain token, and take a 
camel and a slave and return home with them. When 
Qais awoke, and his servant informed him of what he had 
done, he gave him his freedom, and asked him why he did 
not call him, " For," says he, " I would have given him 
more." The third man went to Ardbah, and met him 
coming out of his house in order to go to prayers, and 
leaning on two slaves, because his eyesight failed- hira. 
The friend no sooner made known his case, but Arabah 
let go the slaves, and clapping his hands tog6ther, loudly 
lamented his misfortune in having no money, but desired 
him to take the two slaves, which the man refused to do, 
till Arabah protested that if he would not accept of them he 
gave them their liberty, and leaving the slaves, groped his 
way along by the wall. On the return of the adventurers, 
judgment was unanimous, and with great justice, given by 
all who were present, that Arabah was the most generous 
of the three. 

Nor were thes'e the only good qualities of the Arabs; 
they are commended by the ancients for being most exact 
to their words ^ and respectful to their kindred.'^ And 
they have always been celebrated for their quickness of 
apprehension and penetration, and the vivacity of their 
wit, especially those of the desert.^ 
*"»«*' , As the Arabs have their excellencea, so have they, like 

defect* and other natious, their defects and vices. Their own writers 
acknowledge that they have a natural disposition to war, 
bloodshed, cruelty,* and rapine, being so much addicted 

♦ On the authority of Lane I give the following from Bnrckhafdt's 
N0U9 on thi Bedouins and Wahhabys, vol. i, p. 185 : — "The Turk i» 
cruel, tlie Arab of a more kind tamper ; he pities and supports the 
wretched, and never forgets the generosity shown to liim even by an 
enemy. Not accustoniod to the saiiguinary scenes that harden and 

' Herodot., 1. 3, c. 8. 3 Vide D'Herbel., Bibl. Orient., 

' Strabo, 1, 16, p. 1129. p. 121. 


t(» bear malice tJiat they scarce ever forget an old grudge ; 
whicli vindictive temper some physicians say is occasioned 
by their frec[uently feeding on camels' flesh * (the ordinary 
diet of the Arabs of the desert, who are therefore observed 
to bs/ most inclined to these vices), that creature being 
most malicious and tenacious of anger,^ which account 
suggests a good reason for a distinction of meats. 

The frequent robberies committed by these people on strange 
merchants and travellers have rendered the name of an JiJif^ng. 
Arab almost infamous in Europe ; this th^y are sensible ^^"^^^ ^" 
of, and. endeavour to excuse themselves by alleging the 
hard usage of their father Ismail, who, being turned out of 
doors by Abraham, had the open plains and deserts given 
him by God for his patrimony, with permission, to take 
whatever he could find there; and on this account they 
think they may, with a safe conscience, indemnify them- 
selves as well as they can, not only on the posterity of 
Isaac, but also on everybody else, always supposing a sort 
of kindred between themselves and those they plunder. 
And in relating their adventures of this kind, they think 
it sufficient to change the expression, and instead of " I 
robbed a man of such or such a thing," to say " I gained 
it." 2 "We must not, however, imagine that they are the 
less honest for this among themselves, or towards those 

corrupt an Osmanly's heart, the Bedouin learns at an early period of 
hfe to abstain and to sujffer, and to know from experience the healing 
power of pity and cousolation." — Kurdn, p. 48, note. e. m. w. 

* This, again, according to Burckhardt, is a mistake, for he sa\8 
that the slaughter of a camel rarely happens, (See his Notes on the 
Bedouins and Wahhabys^ vol. i. p. 63 ; Lane's Kurdn, p. 48.) But 
the testimony of tradition to the fact that the Quraish, during their 
expedition against Muhammad which resulted in the battle of Badr, 
slaughtered nine camels daily, would seem to indicate that, what- 
ever miodcm custom may he, the Arabs of Muham^aad's time itidulged 
very freely in camels' flesh. e. m. w. 

^ VidePoc. Spec, p. 87; Bochart, ^ Voyage dans la Palest., p. 220, 
Hierozoic, 1. 2, c. I. &c. 


H'hom tliey receive as fiiends ; on the contrary, the strictest 
probity is observed in their caihp, where everything is 
open and nothing ever known to be stolon.* ^ 
Th« sciences The scieiices the Arabians chietly cultivated before 
previous to Muhanunadism were three — that of their genealogies and 
* history, such a knowledge of the stars as to foretell the 
changes of weath5.^r, and the interpretation of dreams.^ 
They used to value themselves excessively on account 
of the nobility of their families, and so many disputes 
happened on that occasion, that it is no wonder if they 
took great pains in settlin^jr their descents. What know- 
ledge they had of the stars was gatheied from long experi- 
ence, and not from any regulai study or astronom.ical rules.' 
The Arabians, as the India-ns also did, chiefly applied 
themselves to observe the fixed stars, contrary to other 
nations, whoso observations were almost confined to tlie 

* That this statement i.-i incorrtot is evident from the following 
remnrka in Burckbardtfi Notes, on tha Brdouins/ind Wahhabys, vol, i. 
PP- ^57) ^5^ :— "The Arabs may be styled a nation of robbers^ whose 
pnncipal occupation is plund*'.]-, the constant subject of their thouj^hts. 
Bui we must not attach to this practice Uie same notions of crimi- 
nality that we entertain respecting higbwayijion, housebreakers, and 
thieves in Europe. The Arabian robber coneiders his profession aa 
honourable, and the term haramnj (robber) is one of tiie roost flatter- 
ing titles that co»ild >)e conferred on a youthful hero. The Arab 
robs his enemies, his friends, and his neighbours, provided that they 
are not actually in his own tent, where their property is sacred. To 
rob in the camp or anioug 'friendly tribes ia not reckoned creditable 
to a man, yet no stain remains upon him ibr such an actiun, which, 
in fact, is of daily occurrence. But the AraD chiefly luifterj himself 
on robbing his enemies, and on bringing away by stealth what he 
could not have taken by open for«;e, Tiie Bt'douins have red«fi»4 
robbery in all its b'anches to a complete .'ind regnJar syst«iUi, which 
i»ffera many interesting details." 

For the!«p cletaik the reader is refciTed to the excellent work from 
which the .ibove is quoted, Lane's Kurdn, note to p. 49. e. m. w. 

i Voyage dans la Palesi, p. 213, '^ Al ShahriHt-ini, apud Poc. Orat., 
&C. ubi »up., p. 9, and Spec, p. 1O4. 

■•* Atjult'arag, p. l6l. 


planets, and they foretold their effects from tlieii* influences, 
not their nature ; and hence, as has been said, arose the 
difference of the idolatry of the Greeks and Chaldeans, 
■who chiefly worshipped the planets, and that of the Indians, 
who worshipped the fixed stars. The stars or asterisms 
they most usually foretold the weather by were those they 
called Anwa, or the houses of the moon. These are twenty- 
eight in number, and divide the zodiac into as many parts, 
through one of which the moon passes ever}', night ;^ as 
some of them set in the morning, others rise opposite to 
them, which happens every thirteenth night; and from 
their rising and setting, the Arabs, by long experience, 
observed what changes happened in the air, and at leugth, 
as has been said, came to ascribe divine power to them ; 
saying that their rain was from such or such a star ; which 
expressiou Muhammad condemned, and alxsolutely forbade 
them to use it in the old. sense, unless they meant no 
more by it than that God had so ordered the seasons, 
that when the niGon was in such or such a mansion or 
house, or at the rising or setting of such and sucli a star, 
it should rain or be windy, hot or cold/- 

The old Arabians, therefore, seem to have made . no 
further progress in astronomy, which science they after- 
wards cultivated with so much success and ajiplause,* 

* K. Bos^'ortli Smith, in his Lectures on Muhatiwutd and Mu- 
hammadanimi^ p. 216, makes the t'ollowmg !!<Uitt'jueiit on this 
subject: — 

" Durmg the dark period of European history, the Arahs for five 
hundred yt^urs held up the torch of learning to hunianity. It was 
the Arabs who then 'called the Muses from their ancient seats ;' 
who collected and translated the writiiij»s of tlie Greek masters ; who 
understood the geometry of ApoUonius, and wieided the weapons 
found in the Ic^cal armoury of Aristotle. It was the Arabs who 
developt'J the sciences of agriculture and astronomy, and created 
those of algebra and chemistry ; who adorned their cities with 

^ Vide Hyde in not. ad Tabulas stellar fixar, Ulugh Beigh, p. 5. 
* Vide Poc, Spec, p. 1O3. &,c. 


ihaii to observe the influence of the stars on the weather 
and to give them names; and this it was obvious for thein 
to do, by reason of their pastoral w^ay of life, lying night 
and day in the open plains. The names they imposed on 
the stars generally alluded to cattle and flocks, and they 
were so nice in distinguishing them, that no language has 
so many names of stars and asterisms as tjie Arabic ; for 
though they have since borrowed the names of several 
constellations from th6 Greeks, yet the far greater part are 
of their own growtli, and much more ancient, particularly 
those of the more conspicuous stars, dispersed in several 
constellations, and those of the lesser constellations which 
are contained within the greater, and were not observed 
or named by the Greeks.^ 

Thus have T given the most succinct aceotmt T have been 
able of the state of the ancient Arabians before Muham- 
mad, or, to use their expression, in the time of ignorance. 
I shall now proceed briefly to consider the state of religion 
in the East, and of the two great empires which divided 
that part of the world between them at the time of Mu- 
hammad's setting up for a prophet, and what were the 
conducive circumstances and accidents th^t favoured his 

colleges and libraries, as well as with mosquM and palaces; who 
supplied Europe with a school of philosophers from Cordova, and a 
Bchool of physicians from Salerno." 

This expresses the opinion of a numerous class of modem writers 
on ri?l,'lm. But, whilst according to the Arabs all pnuse for what 
they did towards the preservation and advancement of learning 
during the dark ages, we cannot see that astronomy, as a science, owes 
much to Arab genius. As in regard to philosophical learning and 
medical science, so in regard to astronomy, it may be fitirly said 
that the Muslims did not improve on their Greek masters. They 
never succeeded in ele\'ating it out of tlie region of astrology. 

On this fjuestion, see Arnold's Isldm and Christianity, pp. 233-236. 

E. M. W. 

^ Vido Hyde, ubi sup., p. 4. 

( 6i ) 



If we look into the ecclesiastical historians even from the The decune 
third century, we shall find the Christian world to have gion in the 
then had a very different aspect from what some authors 
have represented; and so far from being endued with 
active graces, zeal, and devotion, and established within 
itself with purity of doctrine, union, and firm profession 
of the faith,^ that on the contrary, what by the ambition 
of the clergy, and what by drawi^^g the abtrusest niceties 
into controversy, and dividing and subdividing about them 
into endless schisms and contentious, they had so de- 
stroyed that peace; love> and charity from among them 
which the Gospel was given to promote, and instead 
thereof continually provoked each other to that malice, 
rancour, and every evil work, that they had lost the 
whole substance of their religion, while they thus eagerly 
contended for their own ima<?inations conceTninj:^ it, and 
in a manner quite drove Christianity out of the world by 
those very controversies in which they disputed with each 
other about it.'^ In these dark ages it was that most of 
those superstitions and corruptions we now justly abhor 

^ Ricaut's State of the Ottoman ^ Prideaux's Preface to his Life of 
Empire, p. 187, Mahomet. 


in the Church of Rome were not only broached but 
established^ which pave great advantages to the propa- 
gation of Muhammatlism. The worship of saints and 
images, in particular, was then arrived at such a scanda- 
lous pitch that it even surpassed whatever is now practised 
among the Romanists.^ 
controYer- After the Nicene Council, the Eastern Church was 

AH:A ill Ihd 

R.mtern engaged in perpetual controversies, and torn to pieces by 
;«i.dcorrnp- the disDutes of 1 16 Ariaus, Sabellians, Nestorians, and 

ti"U of the ^ . , . 

'•Jergy. Eutychiaus, the heresies of the two last of which have 
been shown to have consisted more in the words and form 
of expression than in the doctrines themselves,'-' and 
were rather the pretences than real motives of those fre- 
(4uent councils to and from which the contentious prelates 
were continually riding post, that they might bring every- 
thing to their own will and pleasure.^ And to support 
themselves by dependants and bribery, the clergy in any 
credit at court undertook the protection of some officer in 
tlie army, under the colour of which justice was publicly 
sold and all corruption encouraged. 

In the Western Church Damasu^ and Ursicinus carried 
their contests at Rome for the episcopal seat so high, that 
tliey came to open violence and murder, which Viventius, 
the governor, not being able to suppress, he retired into 
the country, ana left them to themselves, till Damasus 
])revailed. It is said that on this occabion, in the church 
of Sicininus, there were no less than one hundred and 
thirty-seven found killed in one day. A-nd no wonder 
they were so fond of these seats, when they became by 
that moans enriched by the presents of matrons, and went 
abroad in their chariots and sedans in groat state, feasting 
sumptuously even beyond the luxury of princes, quite 

* Vide La Vie de Mahommed, ' Ammian Marcel lin., 1, 2 1 , Vide 

par BoiilainvillifTs. p. 219, ^,c. etiani Euseb,, Hiat. Eccles., 1. 8, c. I. 

' Vide Siiuoix, ilist. Crlt. de la Sozom., 1. i, c. 14, &c. Hilar, et 

Crdance, &c., d^ti Nationi; du Le- Sulpic. Sever, in Hi^t. Saor., p, 

vaut. 112, &c. 


contrary to the way of living of tlie coimtry prelates, 
who alone seemed to have some temperance and modesty 

These dissensions were greatly owing to the emperors, Eviim- 
and particularly to Constantius, who, confounding theKonmr. " 
pure and simple Christian religion with anile supersti- tKhurdu 
tions, and perpiexiug it with intricate questions, instead 
of reconciling difierent opinions, excited many disputes, 
which he fomented as they proceeded with infinite alter- 
cations.2 This grew worse in the time of Justinian, who, 
not to be behind the bishops of the fifth and sixth 
centuries in zeal, thought it no crime to condemn to death 
a man of a different persuasion from his own.-^ 

This corruption of doctrine and morals in the princes 
and clergy was necessarily followed by a general depravity 
of the people;* those of all conditions making it their 
sole business to get monej^ by any means, and then to 
squander it away when they liad got it in luxury and 

But, to be more particular • as to the nation w^e are now Arabia 
writing of, Arabia was of old famous for heresies,*^ which hiresy. " 
might be in some measure attributed to the liberty and 
independency of the tribes. Some of the Christians of 
that nation believed the soul died with the body, and was 
to be raised again with it at the last day : ^ these Origen is 
said to have convinced.* Among the Arabs it was that the 
heresies of Ebion, Beryilus, and the Nazarseans,^ and also 
that of the Collyridians, were broached, or at least pro- 
pagated ; the latter introduced the Virgin Mary for God, 
or worshipped her as such, offering her a sort of twisted 
cake called colly riSy whence the sect had its name.^^ 

^ Ammiari. Marcellin. , lib. 27. ^ Vide Boulainvil., Vie de Mahom., 

^ Idem, 1. 21. ubi sup. 

^ Procop. in Anecd., p. 60. ^ Vide Sozom en., Hist. Eocles., 1. I, 

* See an instance of the wicked- c. 16, 17. Sulpic. Sever., ubi supra. 

neas of the Christian army, even ^ fiuseb., Hist. Eccles., 1. 6, c. 33. 

when they were under the terror of * Idem ibid., c, 37. 

tha Saracena, in Ockley's Hist, of ' Hseres.,!. 2; H&r. 40. 

the Sarac, vol. L p. 239. ^^ Idem ibid,, I. j; Haeres., 75, 79. 


Marioiatry This Jiotioii of the divinity of fche Vi]'gin Mary was also 

trine of the believcd by some at the Couucil of Kice, who said there 

™"^ were two gods besides tbe Falher, viz., Christ and the 

Virgin Mary, and were thence named Mariamites.^ Others 

imagined her to be exempt from humanity and deified; 

which goes but little beyond the Popish superstition in 

calling her the complement of the Trinity, as if it were 

imperfect without her. This foolish imagination is justly 

condemned in the Quran ^ as idolatrous, and gave a handle 

to Muhammad to attack the Trinity itself * 

Arabia re- Other sccts there were of many denominations within 

heretics. the bordcrs of Arabia, which took refuge there from the 

proscriptions of the imperial edicts, several of whose 

notions Muhammad incorporated with his religion, as may 

be observed hereafter. 

The power Though the Jews were an inconsiderable and despised 

In Arabia, pcoplc in Other parts of the world, yet in Arabia, whither 

ina<i's"4S- many of them (led from the destruction of Jerusalem, they 

tnent of ' « i i j m 3 • t • 

them. grew very powerful, several tribes and pnnces embracing 
their religion ; which made Muhammad at first show great 
regard to them, adopting many of their opinions, doctrines, 
and customs, thereby to draw them, if possible, into his 
interest. But that people, agreeably to their wonted ob- 
stinacy, were so far from being his proselytes, that they 
were some of the bitterest enemies he had, wajrincr con- 
tinual war with him, so that their reduction cost him 
infinite trouble and danger, and at last bis life. This 
aversion of theirs created at length as great a one in him 
to them, so that he used them, for the latter part of his 
life, much woi-se than he did the Christians, and fre- 
quently exclaims against them in his Quran. His followers 
to this day observe the same difference between them and 

* A. careful study of the Qurdii will show that this is the only 
conception of a Trinity which fouud a place in Muhammad's mind. 

E. M< w. 

^ Klmacin. Eutych. ' Cap. 5, v. 77. 


the Christians:, treating the former as the most aDject and 
coiit<uriptibIe people on earth. 

It has been observed by a great politician,' that it is laUm sue- 
impossibio a person should make himsejt a prince and religion"* 
found a state without opportunities. If the distracted Skai^we^k 
state of religion favoured the designs of Muhammad on S PeS* 
that side, the weakness of the Eoman and Persian mon- 
archies might flatter him with no less hopes in any 
attempt on those once formidable empires, either of 
which, had they been in their full vigour, must have 
crushed Muhammadism in its birth ; whevaas nothing 
nourished it more tha^. the success the Arabians met with 
in tlieir enterprises against those powers, which success 
they failed not to attribute to their new religion and the 
divine assistance thereof. 

The Konian empire declined apace after Constantine, oecimdof 
whose successors were for the generality remarkable for empii«. 
theii ill qualities, especially cowardice and cruelty. By 
Muhammad's time, the western half of the empire was 
overrun by the Goths, and the eastern so reduced by the 
Huns on the one side and the Persians on the other, that 
it was not in a capacity of stemming the violence of a 
powerful invasion. The Emperor Maurice paid tribute to , 
the EJbagan or king of the Huns; and after Phocas had 
murdered his master, such lamentable havoc there was 
nrraong the soldiers, that when Heraclius came, not above 
seven years after, to muster the army, there were only 
two soldiers left alive of all those who had borne arms 
when Phocas first v^surped the empire. And though Herac- 
lius was a prince of admirable courage and conduct, and 
had done what possibly could be done to restore the dis- 
cipline of the army, and had had great success against 
the Persians, so as to drive them not only out of his own 
domiuions, but even out of part of their oy/n; yet still the 
very vitals of the empire see] nod to be mortally woUnded, 

^ MHchiavolH, Princ, c. 6. p. 19. 



tUat there could no time have happened m-ore fatal to -the 
fcUipire or more favourable to the enterprises of thtj Arabs, 
who .^eem in have been raise<l up on purpose by God 
i4» \h^ a scourge to the Chnstian Church for not living 
answerably to that most holy religion which they had 

Tiie jzererai luxury and degeneracy of uianuers into 
which the Orei'ians were sunk also contributed not a little 
to fhe enervauncr tlieir forces, which were still further 
drained Dy those twt) great destroyers, mona<.'hism and 

The I'eisiaus had also been in a declining condition for 
some lime before Muhaminad, occasioned chielly by their 
intestine broils and dissensions, great part of which arose 
from the devilish doctrines of Manes aud Mazdak; The 
opinions of the former nre toleiiibly well known : the 
latter lived in the reisrn of Khusrd Kobad, and pretended 
himself a prophet sent from GOD to preach a community 
nf women and possessions, since all men were brothers 
and descended from the game common parents. This lue 
imagined would put an end to all feuds and quarrels 
amon;^' men. which generally arose on account of one of 
the two. Kobad himself embraced ihe opinions of this 
impostor, to whom he gave leave, according to his new 
doctrine, to lie with the queen his wife; which permission 
xinushirwiiu, his soji, witli much difficulty prevailed on 
Mazdak not to make use of. These sects had certainly 
l)een the immediate ruin of the Persian empire, had not 
Annshirwan, as soon as he succeeded his father, put Maz- 
dak to death with all iiis followers, and the Manicheans 
also, restoring the ancieat Magian religion."^ 

In the reign of this prince, deservedly surnamed the 
Just, Muhammad was born. He was the last king of 
Persia who deserved the throne, which after him was 

^ L>f;kley 8 Hist, of the Saracens, vol. i. p. 19, &c. 
' Vide Poc. Spec, p. 70. 


alraost perpetually contended for, till subverted by L.he 
Arabs. His son Hormuz lost the love of his subjects by 
his excessive cruelty: having had his eyes put out by his 
wife's brothers, he was obliged to resign the crown to his 
son Kliusrd I'arviz, *ivho at the 'nstigation of Bahram 
Chubini had rebelled against him, and was afterwards 
strangled. Parviz was so^m obliged to quit the throne to 
>"5ahrain. but obtaining succours of the Greek emperor 
Maurice, he recovered the crown ; yet towards the latter 
end of a long reign he grew so tyrannical and hateful to 
his subjects, that they held private correspondence witli 
the Arabs, and he was at length deposed, imprisoned, and 
slain by his son Shiruyah.^ After Parviz no less than six 
princes possessed the throne m less than six years. These Decline of 
domestic broils effectually urouglit ruin upon the Persians ; empire. 
for tljongh they did rather by the weakness of the Greeks 
than their own farce ravage Syria and sack Jerusalem 
and Damascus under Khusrii Parviz, and, while the Arabs 
were divided and in<iopendent, had some power in the 
province of Yaman, wliere they set up the four last kings 
before Muhammad; yet, when attacked by the Greeks 
under Heraclius, they not only lost their new conquests, 
but part of their own dominions ; and no sooner were the 
Arabs united by Mulianunadism, than they beat them in 
every battle, and in a few years tota'^y subdued them. 

As tliese empires were weak and declining, so Arabia, Thepomicid 
at Muhammad's setting up, v^^as strong and flourishing ; irS ^con- 
having been peopled at the expense of the Grecian empire, under mu- 
whence the violent proceedings of the domineering sects *'"'" 
forced many to seek refuge in a free country, as Arabia 
then was, wh-ere they who could not enjoy tranquillity and 
their conscience at home found a secure retreat. The 
Arabians w^ere not only a populous nation, but una**- 
quamted with the luxury and delicacies of the Greeks 
and Persians, and inured to hardsljips of all sorts, living 

^ Vide Teixeir^, Relaciomis de los Reyes de Persia, p. 195, &c. 


in a most parsimonious manner, seldom eating any flesh, 
drinking no wine, and sitting on tlie ground. Their poli- 
tical government was also such as favoured the designs 
of Muhammad , for the division and independency of their 
tribes were so necetisary to the first propagation of liis 
religion and the foundation of his power, that it would 
have been scarce possible for him to have efl'ected either 
had the Arabs been united in one society. But when 
they had embrace<l his religion, the consequent union of 
their tribes was no less necessary and conducive to their 
future conquests and grandeur. 

This pcsture of public affairs in the Eastern world, both 
as to its religious and political state, it is more than pro- 
bable Muhammad was well acquainted with, he having 
had sufficient opportunities of informing himself in those 
particulars in bis travels as a merchant in his younger 
years; and though it is not to be supposed his views at 
first were so extensive as afterwards, when they were 
enlarged by his good fortune, yet he might reasonably 
promise liimself success in his first attempts from thence. 
As he was a man of extraordinary parts and address, 
he knew how to make the best of every incident, and 
turn what niiglit seem dangerous to another to his own 
Milium- Muhammad came into the world under some disad- 

nmiuro, ' vantagos, which he soon surmounted. His father, Abdallah, 
wid fortune, was a youuger son ^ of Abd al Mutallib, und dying very 
youug and in his father's lifetime, left his widow and in- 
fant son in very mean circumstances, his whole substance 
cuiisisting but of five camels and one Etliiopian she-slave.* 
Abd al Mutallib was therefore obliged to take care of his 
grandchild Muhammad, which he not only did during his 

' He was not his eldest son, aA Dr. M. de ]?oulaitivilliers (Vie de Ma- 

PridatkviA tells us, whosfe reflections hommed, p. 182, &c.) sujiposea j for 

built mi thflt foundatioTi must neces- Hamza aud al Abb<b weru both 

warily fail (.sec hii Life of Mahomet, younger than' Abdal I alj. 
l>. 9) ; nor yet hi* youii^tai son, as * Abulfeda, Vit. Moha/n., p. 2. 


life, but at his death enjoined his eldest son, Aha Talib, 
who was brother to Abdallah by the same mother, to 
provide for him for the future ; which he very affection- 
ately did, and instructed him in the business of a mer- 
chant, which he ollowed ; and to that end he took him with 
him into Syria when he was but thirteen, and afterward 
recommended him to Khadijah, a noble and iicli widow, 
for her factor, in whose service he behaved himself so well, 
that by making him her husband she soon raised him to 
an equality with the richest in Makkah., 

After he be^'au by this advantageous match to live at He forms 
ms ease it was that he formed a scheme or establismncr of reforming 

... , !•./% 1. % t,he religion 

a new religion, or, as he expressed it, of replanting the of his 
only true and ancient one, professed by Adam, Noah, men. ^^ 
Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets,^ by destroy- 
ing the gross idolatry into which the generality of his 
countrymeu had fallen, and weeding out the corruptions 
and superstitions which the; latter Jews and Christians 
had, as he thought, introduced inta their religion, and 
reducing it to its original purity, which consisted chiefly 
in the worship of one only God. 

VVliether tliis was the effect of enthusiasm, or only a opinions as 
design to raise himself to the >supreme government of his motivo.-, of 

•f •t'» Til • mi i , • 

country, 1 wiii not pretend to determme. The latter is 
the general o})inion of Christian writers, who agree that 
ambition and the desire of satisfying his sensuality were 
the motives of his undertakirig. It may be so, yet his first 
views, perhaps, were not so interested. H is original design 
of bringing the pagan Arabs to the knowledge of the true 
God. \vds certainly noble, and highly to be commended; 
for I cannot possibly subscribe to the assertion of a late 
learned writfer,"^ that he made that nation exchange their 
idolatry for another religion altogether as bad. Muham- 
mad was no doulit fully satip^fied in his oonscience of the 
truth of his gi-and point, the unity of God, which was what 

^ See Quran, c 2 '■' J'rideaux's Life of Mahomet, p. 76, 


he chiefly aitenried to ; all Lis ether doctrines and institn- 
tioniE being raUier accidental and unavoidable thaa prc- 
iiRhoidon nieditated and designed. Since, then, Muha-mmad was 
.f th^*^t7 cerfcainlv himself persuaded of his grand article of faith, 
wiiich, in his opinion, was violated by all the rest of the 
world, not only by the i(i«;laters, bnt by the Christians, aa 
well those who ri;:'-htly worshipp-^-d Jesus as GoD, as those 
who superstitiousiy adored the Virgin Mary saints, and 
nnages ; and aiso by the Jews, who are accused in the 
w^uran of taking Ezra for che son of God, ■ 4t is easy to 
conceive that he mi^rht think it a ineriloi^ious work to 
rescue the woald from such ignorance and superstition; 
iiud by degrees, with the help of a warm imagination, 
which an Arob seldom wants,"- to suppose himself destined 
by Providence for the effecting that great reformation. 
And this fancy of his might take still deeper root in his 
mind during tlie solitude he thereupon affe-.^ted, usually 
retiring for a month in the year to a cave in Mount liira, 
Dear Makkah. One thing which may be probably urged 
a'.,'ainst the enthusiasm of this prophet ojt" the Arabs is 
tiie wise conduct an<l great prudence he al) along showed 
in pursuing his design, which se(?m inconsistent witli the 
wild notions of a hot-brained religionist. But though all 
enthusiasts or madmen do not buhave with tlie same 
gravity and ciicumspection that he did, yet he will not be 
the first instance, by eevei-al, of a person who has been out 
of the way only quoa,d hor, an-l m all other respects acted 
with ihe greatest decency and precaution,* 

The terrible destruction of the Eastern Churches, once 
ao glorious and flourishing, by the sudden spreading of 
Muhammadism, and the great successes of its professors 
against the Christians, necessarily inspire a horror of that 

* For a most able and satifefactory exjx'^ition of the character of 
Muhammad, we refer the n-ader to Muir's Life of Mahoimt^ vol. iv, 
chap, xxxvii. k. if. w. 

^ Quran, c lo. v. 37 ' Sc Uasauli of Enthusiasiu, p. 148. 


religion, iit those to whom it has been ^q fatal; and no 
wonder.if they endeavour to set the character of its foui.der 
and: its doctrines in the most infamous light. Bnt the 
damage done by Muhammad to Christiardty seems to have 
been ratlier ov/ing to his ignorance thjii malice ; for his Ho was 
^^reat. misfortune was his not having a competent know- tuepujx 
ledge of the real and pure doctrines of the Christian the chris 
religion, wliieh was in his time so aboiuinably corrupted, gior" 
that it is not surprising if he v/ent too far, and resolved to 
abolish what he might thiidv incapable of reformation. 

It is scarce to be doubted but that Muhammad had a His natural 1 
violent desire of being rf^ckoued an extraoirdinai-y person, inaamed by 
\^hich he could attain to by no means more effectually 
than by pretending to be a messenger sent from GoD to 
inform mankind of his will This might be at first his 
Tttmost ambition; and had his fellow-citizens treated him 
less injuriously, and not obliged lum by their persecution^, 
to seek refuge elsewhere, and to take up arms against 
them in his own defence, he had perha]>s continued a 
private pei sun, and contented himself witli tlie veneration 
and respect due to his prophetical office ; but being once 
■got at tlje hetid of a little army, a.nd encoui-acrod by 
success, it i«; no wonder if he raised his thoughts to 
attempt what had never before entered into ids imagi- 

That Muhammad was, as the Arabs are by complexion/ niseonau- 
a great iover of women, we ai-e a^5ured by his own con- diitrfue of 
fession ; and tie is constantly upbraideu with it by the JcJo?dSice" 
conU'oversial writers, who fail not to urge the number n^oramy o;' 
of women with whom he had to do, as a demonstra- ^'' *^""^' 
tivf- aigiiment or hi^ sensuality, which they think suffi- 
ciently pi'oves him to have be^n a wicked man, and con- 
sequently an impostor. But it must l>e considered that 
polygamy, though it be foibidden by tiie Christian reli- 
gion, was in Muhammad's time frequently practised in 

^ Auititiiau Maioell., L 14, c. 4. 



Arabia and olhtr 7»firts of ttie East, and was not counted 
an immorality, nor was a man worge esteeme<l on tliafc 
account; for winch reason Muhammad permitted the 
plurality of wives, with certain limitations, among his 
own followers, who argue for the lawfulness of it from 
several reasons, and particularly from the examj)le3 of 
persons allowed on all hands to have been (rood men, 
some of whom have been honoured with the divine 
correspondence. The several laws relating to marriages 
and divorces, and the j>eculiar privileges granted to Mu- 
hammad in his Quran, were almost all taken by him fiom 
the Jewish decisions, as will appear hereafter; a ad there- 
fore he might think those institutions the more just and 
reasonable, as he found them practised or approved by 
the professors of a religion which was confessedly of 
divine origiual. 

But whatever were his motives, Muhammad had cer- 
tainly the personal qualifications which were necessriry to 
accomplish his undertaking. The Muhamniadau authors 
are excessive in their commendations of him, and speak 
much of his religioub and moral virtues; an his piety, 
Veracity, justice, liberality, clemency, humility and absti- 
nence. His charity in particular, they say, was so con- 
spicuous, that he had seldom any money in his house, 
keeping no more for his own use than was just sufficient 
to maintain his family ; a,ud he frequently spartid even 
some part of his own provisions to supply the neccpsitiea 
of the poor ; so that before the year's end he had generally 
little or nothing left.' "God," says al Bokhari, "otfercd 
him the keys of tlio trea.suies of the earth, but he would 
not accept them." Though the eulogies of these writers 
are justly to be suspected of partiality, yet thus much, 1 
think, may be inferred from thence, that for an Arab who 
had been educated in Paganism, and had but a very im- 
perfect knowledge of his duty, he was a man of at least 

^ Vide Alnilfeda Vit. Mohatn., p. 144, <'io. 


tolerable morals, and not sucli lonstor of wickedness as 
he is usually represented. And indeed ir is scarce possible 
to conceive that a wretch of so profligate a character 
shonld ever succeeded in an enterprise of this 
nature; a lirtlf^ hypocrisy and saving of appearances, at 
least, must have' been absolutely necessary; and the sin- 
cerity of his intentions is what X pretend not to inquire 

ITe ha<l indisputably a very piercing and sagacious wit, Hisintenec- 
and was thoroughly versed in all the arts of insinuation.^ and Savity 
The Eastern historians describe him to have been a,"^""*""^'' 
man of aii excellent judgment and a happy memory ; 
and these natural parts were improved by a great ex-" 
perieiice and knowledge of men, and the observations he 
had rr)ude in his travels. They say he was a person of 
few words, of an equal, cheerful , temper, pleasant. and 
familiar in conversation, of Inoffensive behaviour towards 
his friends, and of great condescension towards his in- 
feriors.^. To all which were joined- a comely agreeable 
perfion and a polite address ; accomplishments of no small 
service in preventing those in his favour whom he-atteni})- 
ted to persuade. 

As to acojnired learning, it is confessed he had nonemsi^o- 
at all; having had no other education than what was StSJ^aud 
customary in his tribe, who neglected, and perhaps de-inade"iit 
spised, what we call literature, esteeming no language in 
couiparison" with their own, their skill in which they 
gained by u.^e and not by books, and contenting them- 
selves with improving their private experience by com- 
mitting to memory such passages of their poets as they 
judged might be of use to th^m in Hfe. This defect was 
so far from being prejudicial or putting a stop to his de- 
sign, that he made the greatest use of it; insisting that the 
writings which he produced as revelations from GoD could 
not possibly be a forgery Orf his own, because it was not 

^ Vide PriJ. Life of Mahomet, p. 105. - Vide Abulfeda, iibi supra. 


conceivable that a person Tvho could neither write nor 

read should be able to compose a book of such excellent 

doctrine aiid in so elygant ,i style, and thereby obviating 

an objection ihat iniglit have carried a great deal oi' weight.^ 

And for this reason his foiiowers, instead of being ashanied 

of their master's ignorance, glory in it, as an evident proot 

of his divine naission. and scruple not to call him (as he is 

indeed called m the Quran itself -) the "illiteiate prophet," 

Hb scheme 'I'ho scheme of religion which Muhammad framea, and 

aurati(.iiof the design and artiuJ contrivance of tnose vvi'itten revcta- 

tions (as he preteuaecl them to be; which compose his 

Qunin, shall be the subject of tlic following sections : 1 

shall therefore in the remainder of this relate, as briefly 

as possible, the steps he took towai-ds thy efiiecting of 

his enterprise, and the accidents which coAicurred to his 

success therein. 

He begins Bcfi>re hc made anv attempt abroad, he lightly iudcjed 
■wiih the ,1 , . ff . • . I • -1 1 ^ . 

cor.vorbiou that it was necessary tor him to bcgni by tlie convfersiou 

houscwa. of -ilia own housel^olrl. Baving therefore retii*ftd with his 
family, as he had. done several times before, to the above- 
mentioned cave in Mount Hira, he there opened the seciet 
of his mission to his wife Khadijah, and acquainted her 
that the Angel Gabriel had just before appeared to him, 
and toJd him that he was appointed the ap^jstie of God r 
he also repeated to her a pnssage '^ which he pretended had 
been revealed to him by the miriistry of the arigel, with 
chose other circumstances oi his first appearance which 
are related by the Muhaminadan writers. Khadijah re- 
ceived the news with great joy,^ swearing by him in 
who3e hands her soul was that slie tinisted he would 
lie the prophet of his nation, and immediately commu- 
nicated what she had heStrd to her cousin, Waraqa Ibn 

' JSe.3 Qiiriii. li. 29, V. 47. Prid. * 1 do not remeraber to have t^zA 

Life t>f Mahuiuet. y. 28, ftc. in any Eastern autlior that Khadijah 

' Cha{*. 7. ever rej-cted her husV)ancr's pretences 

^ Thig passage is generally agreed as dtlusionB, or suspected bim of any 

to be the first tiv« verses of the 96tli imposture. Yet see Prideaux'a Life 

chapter. of Mahqnjet, p. Il, &c. 


ISIaufal. uho, being a Chiistian, could wrixo in the Hebrew 
ubaraeter, and was lolerably well versed in the Sftrrptures : ^ 
and lie as readily carr-e into lier opiuicii, assuring her tiiat; 
the same augel who had formerly appeajf^d uiiio Mose^ 
^as Qow sent to Muiiamniad.' This fiist overture the 
pi'oplifct made in the month of Pamadhan, in the fortieth 
year of his yge. which ig therefore usunlly calle^ii the year 
of his mission. 

Encouraged by so good a beginning, he resolved to pro- secret 
reed, and try for some time what he couj-i do by private vll'Ig*" 
persuasioif, not daring to hazard the whole atJ'air by 
exposinsf it too suddenly to the public. He soon made 
proselytes of thosf? under his own roof, viz.] his wife 
Khadijali Ids servant Zaid Ibn llarith (to whom he 
gave his freedom ^ on that occasion, winch afterwards 
became a rule to his followers*), and his cousjn and 
pupil Ali, the son of Aba Talib, fbou^;h then very yonng; 
but this last, mstkinsj no account of the other two, used to 
style himself the '• first of believers." The next person 
Muhammad applied to was Abdallah ibn Abi "Kuhdfa, 
sui-named Abu Eaqr, n man of great rmtliority ymong the 
Quraish, and one wiiose niterest he well icnew w(uild be 
of <Treat service to him, as it soon appeared ; for Abu Baqr Gaiiia other 
being" ^^aineid over, prevailed also on Othraun Ibn Affan, froni his 
Abd al Kulinuin Ibn Awf. Saad Ibn Abi Wakkas, Al Zubair 

* Lane calls aUention to the fact ihat '' the conversion of a jjersoa 
after he has liecn made a slave dues not entitle him to, airl seldoju 
obtahis for liiin, Ids Ir'^edoni." The '* foJlowers " of Mubanimad 
referred to in the text prubaLly designates only thooe who were his 
oonrenrporariei^. Certainly the " rule ' is not observed by tlie holders 
of hlavus, bJack and w Kite, in Turkey, Egypt, and ether legioj .< undei 
Wuijlim govern inei;c. JE. u.. w. 

^ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 157. ^ i?'or he wa-i his purchased s;ave, 

^ Vnde Abulfeda. Vit. Moham., p. as Abulfodi expre.s?;!y tells us, and 

16, V. here thf leaiped translator huH not hh c.ouRm-gcni;au, as M. de 

mistaken tUe me.iiiinij of this pas- Boulaiavillferjs asc-terta (Vie de ATah. 

bag ;. p. 273). 



Ibn al Awam; and Talha Ibn Obaidullalj, all principal 
men in Makkah, to follow liis example. These men weie 
the six chief companions, who, with a few more, were con- 
Atthtjeivi verted in the space of three years, at the end of which 
yeaaT« Muhammad, haviufT, as he hoped, a snfficient interest to 
cKims S[r ' support him, mide his mission no lunger a secret, but 
gave out that God had commanded liim to admonish his 
near relations ; ^ and in order to do it witb more conveni- 
ence and prospect of success, he directed Ali to prepare 
an entertainment, and invite tlie sons and descendants 
of Ah6 al Mutallib, intending then to open his mind to 
them. This was done, and about forty of tliem came ; but 
Abu J^hab, one of his uncles, making the company break 
up before Muhammad had an opportunity of speaking, 
obliged him to give them a second invitation the next day; 
and wlien tlicy were come, he made them the following 
.speecli : " 1 know i\n man in all Arabia who can offer his 
kindred a more excellent tljing than 1 now do you. I 
offer you happiness both in this life and in that which 
is to come. God Almigliiy hath commanded me to call 
you unto him ; who therefore among you will be assisting 
to me heroin, and become my brother and my Vicegerent ? " 
Hi8 reia- All of them hesitating and declining the matter, Ali at 
hu"r?ph? length rose up and declai-ed that he would be his assistant, 
*^ "^*'' and vehemently threatened ♦ tnose who should oppose him. 
Muhammad upon this embraced Ali with great demonstra- 
tions of affecHon, and desired ali who were present to 
hearken to and obey him as his deputy, at which the 

♦ The atatemeut thnt Ali 'W<^heineatly threatened those who should 
oppose" Muhamiuad w a mistake, which, says Lane {Kurdny p. 62), 
*' origii^uted with Gagnier, who, in his edition of Abu-1-Fida's Lrfe oj 
Alnhainniedy has given the original word.9 of this spRecli with )»ereral 
frroPH, and thus rendered them — ' IJgomet ita faciam ; ego ipse dent^a 
illio excutiam, aculos ernam, ventrem dissecabo, crura mutilabo, &;r.'' 
(p. 19)." JS. M. w. 

* Qiirkn, c. 74. Bee' tb« notes thereon. 


company broke out into great laughter, telling Abii Talib 
that ho must now pay obedience to his son. 

This repulse, however, was so far from discouraging opposition 
Muhammad, tliat he began to preach in public to the S'^relcu. 
people, who heard him with some patience, till he came "^^' 
to uphraiii them with th.3 idolatry, obstinacy, and per- 
verseness of themselves and their fathers, which so highly 
provoked them tliat they declared themselves his enemies, 
and would soon have procui'ed his ruin had he not been pro- 
tected by Abu Talib. The chief of the Quraish warndy 
solicited this person to desert his nephew, making frequent 
remonstrances against the innovations he was attempting, 
which proving ineffectual, they at length threatened him 
with an open rupture if he did not prevail on Muhammad 
to desist. At this Abu Talib was so far moved that be 
earnestly dissuaded his nephew from pursuing the affair 
any further, representing the great danger he and his 
friends must otherwise run. But Muhammad was not 
to be intimidated, telling his uncle plainly "that if they 
set the snn against him on his right band and the moon 
on his left, he would not leave his enterprise; " and Abu jTeispro 
Talib, seeing him so firmly resolved to proceed, used no AbuXdifb. 
ftirther arguments, but promised to stand by liim against 
all his enemies.^ 

The Quraish, finding they could prevail neither by fair First emi- 
words nor menaces, tried what they could do by force and AbySija. 
ill-treatment, using Muhammad's followers so very injuri- 
ously that it was not safe for them to continue at Makkah 
any longer ; wdiereupon Muhammad gave leave to such 
of them as had not friends to protect them to seek for 
refuge elsewhere. And accordingly, "in the fifth year of 
the prophet's mission, sixteen of them, four of whom were 
women, fled into Ethiopia ; and among them Othman Ibn 
Affan and his wife liakiah, Muhammad's daughter. This 
was the first flight; but afterwards several others followed 

^ Abulfeda, ubi supra. 



aud umar 

SocU! oslrn 
Ciain uf the 

The league 

the Hashi- 



them, retiring one after another, to the number of eighty- 
three men and eighteen women, besides children.^ These 
lefiigees were kindly received by the Najashi,- or king of 
Ethiopia, who refused to deliver them up to those whom 
the Qaraisli sent to demand them, and, as the Arab writers 
unanimously attest, even professed the Muhammadan reli- 

In the sixth year of his mission^ Muhammad had the 
pleasure of seeing liis patty strengthened by the con- 
version of his uncle Hamza, a man of great valour and 
merit, and of Omar Ibn al Khattdb, a person highly 
esteemed, and once a violent opposer of the prophet. -As 
persecution generally advances rather thaii obstinicts the 
spreading of a religion, Islam made so great a progress 
among the Arab tribes, that thf- QuraiaU, to suppress it 
ert'ectnally, if poesible, in the seventh year of Muhammad's 
niis.sion;^ m.ade a solemn league or covenant against the 
Hashimites and the family 06 al Alutallib, engaging 
themselves to contract rbo marriages with any of them, 
and to have no communication with them ; and to give it 
the greater sanction, reduced it iato writing, and laid it 
up in the Kaabali. Upon this the tribe bccaiiK; divided into 
two faction.?, ai>d the famdy of Hdshim all repdired to 
Abu Tdlib, as their head, except only Abd al Uzza, sur- 
named Abu Lahab, who, out of his. inv^eterate hatred to 
his nephew and his doctrine, went over to the opposite 
party, whose chief was Abii Sofian Ibn Harb. of the family 
of Ommeya. 

The families continued thu.s at variance for three yeai-s ; 
but iji the tenth year of his missiiui, Muhammad told his 
uncle Abu Talib that (lod liad manifestly showed his dieap^ 
probation of the league which the Quraish had made against 
them, by sending a worm to eat out every word of the 

' Idem, Ibn Shohnah. every kini; of this country. S«e hii 

^ Dr. Prideaux e(toins to take this Life of Mahoiuet, p. 55. 

■wonJ for ;v projier nume, but it is ^ j>,i, fcjhnhnah^ 

only the titl« the Aiabes give \.v * AJ JatinAbi 


iristrunifeiit except the name of God. Of tbis .atxident 
Muhammad had probably some private notice ; for Abu 
Talib went immediately to the Quraish and acquainted. 
them with ii; offering, ii it proved false, to deliver bis 
irephew up to them ; but in case it were true, he insisted 
tliat they ought to lay aside their animosity, and annul 
the league ther had made against the Hash imi tea. To 
this they acquiesced, and going to inspect the writing, to 
their great astonishment found it to be as Abu Talib had 
said, and the league was thereupon declared void. 

In the same year Abu Talib died, at the age of above Death of 
teurscore ; and it is the general opuuon that .:he uied and Khadi- 
an infidel, though others say tiiat when he was at the^** 
point of death he embraced Muhammadism, and pro- 
duce some passages out of his poetical compoditions bo 
confirm their assertion. About a month, o)-, as some write, 
three day^ af>er tJie death of ihis great benefactor and 
patron, Muhammad had the additii)ual mortification to 
lose his wile .Kharlijali, who had so generously made his 
fortune^ i'or which reason this year is called the year of 

On the death of these two persons the Quraish began Renewed • 
to be more ti-ouble^ome than ever to their prophet, and 
especially some who ha.:l formerly been his intimate 
friends; insomuch that he found himself obliged to seek geeks refuge 
for shelter elsewhere, and first pitched upon Tayif, about j" rejected! 
sixty miles east from Makkah, for the place of his retreat. 
Thibher therefore lie weni, accompanied by his servant 
Zaid and applied himself to two of the chief of the tribe 
of Thakif, who were the inhabitants of that place; but 
they received them very" coldly. However, he stayed there 
a month , and some of the more considerate and better 
sort of men treated him with a little reaspecX: but the 
slaves and inferior people at length rose against him, and 
bringing him to the wall of the city, obliged bin* to depart 

^ Abuifeda, j.. 28. Ibn Shohaah. 



and return to Makkah, where he put himself uuder the pro- 
tection of al Mutam Ibn Adi.^ 
Makes con This repulsc greatly discouraged Ids followers : however, 
meaof S- Muhammad was not wanting to himself, but boldly con- 
tinued to preach to the public assHmblies at the pilgrimage, 
and gained several proselytes, and among them six of the 
inhabitants of Yathrab of the Jewish tribe of Khazraj, 
who on their return home failed not to speak much in 
commendation of their new religion, and exhorted their 
fellow-citizens to embrace the same. 
Nxgaiiwr- In the twelfth year of his mission it was that Muham- 
luktajfto mad gave out that he had made his night journey from 
aDdTheA^vMi. Makkah to Jerusalem and thence to heaven,^ so much 
spoken of by all that writ(i of Jiim. Dr. Prideaux^ thinks 
he invented it either to answer the expectations of those 
who demanded some miracle as a proof of his mission, 
or else, by pretending to have conversed with God, to 
establish tbe authority of whatever he should think fit 
to leave behind by way of oral tradition, and make his 
sayings to serve the same purpose as the oral law of the 
Jews. But I do not find that Muhammad himself ever 
expected so great a regard should be paid to his sayings 
as his followers have since done; and seeing he all along 
disclaimed any power of performing miracles, it seems 
rather to have been a fetch of policy to raise his reputa- 
tion, by pretending to have actually conversed with GoD 
in heaven, as Moses had heretofore done in the mount, and 
to have received several institutions immediately from 
him, whereas before he contented himself with persuading 
that he had all by the ministry of Gabriel. 
Thin device Ho\vover, this story seemed so absurd and incredible, 
^S't^'* that several of his followers left him upon it, and it had 
probably ruined the whole design, had not Abu Baqr 
vouched lor his veracity, and declared that if Muhammad 

^ IbD Shohnah. ' See the notes on the 1 7th rliapter of the Qur^n. 

* Life of Mahomet, pp. 41, 5), Au. 


affirmed it to be true, lie verily believed the whole. 
This happy incident not only retrieved the prophet's 
credit, but increased it to such a degree, that he was 
secure of being able to make his disciples swallow what- 
ever he pleased to inipose on them for tlie future. And I 
am apt to think this fiction, notwithstanding its es;trava- 
gance, was one of the most artful contrivances Muhammad 
ever put in practice, and what chiefly contributed to the 
raising of his reputation to that great height to which it 
afterwards arrived. 

In this year, called by the Muhammadans the accepted The first 
year, twelve men of Yathral) or Madina, of whom ten were AqaS' 
<jf the tribe of Kliazraj, and the other two of that of Aws, 
came to Makkah, and took an oath of fidelity to Muhammad 
at al Aqabah, a hill on the north of that city. This oath 
was called the women's oath, not that any women were 
present at this time, but because a man was not thereby 
obliged to take up arms in defence of Muhammad or his 
religion ; it being the same oath that was afterwards 
exacted of the women, the form of which wq have in the 
Quran,! and is to this effect, viz. : " That they should 
renounce all idolatry ; that they should not steal, nor 
commit fornication, nor kill their children (as the i)agan 
Arabs used to do when they apprehended they should nor, 
be able to maintain them^), nor forge calumnies; and that 
they should obey the prophet in all things that were 
reasonable." When they had solemnly engaged to do all 
this, Muhammad sent one of his disciples, named Musab 
Ibn Omair, home with them, to instruct them more fully 
ia the grounds and ceremonies of his new religion. 

Musab, beinf; arrived at Madina, by the assistance of Missionai^ 

■, ' 'I success at 

those who had been formerly converted, gained several Madina. 
pposolytes, particularly Osaid Ibn Hudaira, a chief man 
of the city, and Saad Ibn Muadii, prince of the tribe of 
Aws: Muhammadism spreading so fast, that there was 

' Cap. 60, V. 12. ''' Vide Quran, c. 6, v. 151 




[££C. n. 

Tlie secotK 
pledge of 

iMlicTi thus 
far pruf>a. 
gattid by 

scarce a house wherein there were not some who had 
embraced it. 

The uext year, being the tiiirteenth of Muhammad's mis- 
sion, Musab returned to Makkah, accompanied by seventv- 
three men and two womtm oi' Madi'na, who had professed 
Islam, besides some others who were as yet unbelievtis. 
On their arrival, Ihey immediately sent to Muhammad, 
and offered him their assistance, of which he was now in 
great need, for his adversaries were by this rime grown so 
powerful in Makkah, thnt he could not stay there much 
longer without imtniaent danger. Wherefore he accepted 
their proposal, and met them one night, by appointment, 
at al Aqabah above mentioned, attended by his uncle al 
Abbas, whO; thougli he was not then a believer wished 
his nephew well, and made a speech to those of Madina, 
wherein he told them, that as Muhammad was obliged to 
quit his native city and seek an asylum elsewhere, and 
they luid offered him their protection, they would do well 
not to deceive him ; and that if they were not firmly 
resolved to d-efend and not betray him, they had better 
declare their minds, and let him provide for his safety m 
some other manner. Upon their protesting their sincerity, 
Muhammad .swore to be faithful to them, on condition 
that they should protect him against all iusults as heartily 
as they would their own wives and families. They then 
asked him what recompense they were to expect if they 
should happoTi to ]ye killed in his quarrel; he answered, 
rurailise. Whereupon they pledged tlieir faith to him, 
and so returned home,^ after Muhammad had chosen 
twelve out of their number, who were to have the same 
authority among them as the twelve apostles of Christ 
had among his disciples.^ 

Tlitherto Muhammad had propagated his religion by 
fair means, so that the whole success of his enterprise, 
before his flight to Madina, must be attributed to per- 

^ AbuJfeda, Vit. Moham., p. 40. kc. 

' Ibn IsiiiUc. 


suasion only, and not to compulsion. For before this 
second oath of fealty or inauguration at al Aqal^ah he had 
no permission to use any force at all ; and in several 
places of the Quran, which hc^ pretended were revealed 
during his stay at Makkah, he declares his business was 
oaly to preach and admonish ; that he had jio authority 
to compel any person to embrace his religion : and that 
whether people believed or not was none of Lis concern, 
but belonged solely unto GOD. And he was so far from 
allowing his followers do use force, that he exnortea them 
to bear patiently those injuries which were oriered them 
on-account of their faith : and when per-^ecutei himself, 
chose rather to quit the place «jf his birth und retire 
'to Mauina. than to make any resistance. But this great Mdbam- 
pasfeiv^ness and moderation seems entirely owing to his Sodsration 
want of power, and the great superiority of his opposers for hS'iesi- ""^ 
the first twelve vears of his mission ; for no sooner was he "*"*" 
enabled, by the assistance of those of Madma. to make 
head against his enemies, than he cravp out that God had 
allowed him and his followers to defend themselves against 
the infidels ; and at length, a& his forces increased, he pre- 
tended to have the divine leave even to attack them, and 
to destroy idolatry, and set up the true faith by the sword ; 
finding by experience that his designs would otherwise 
proceed very si owl}-, if they were not utterly overthrown, 
and knowing, on the other hand, that innovators, wher 
they depend solely on their own strength, and can compel, 
seldom run any risk ; from whence the politician observes 
it follows, that ail the armed prophets have succeeded, 
and the unarmed ones have failed.* Moses, Cyrus, The- 

* N"..i sentiment could be further from the truth than this. -Tesua 
and Budub.T, bave mors followers tbin any other " pmpiie-ts " to-day. 
Even leldm b^s not depended on the sword for ail its suci-esses, 
e.'j., the conversion of multitudes of Titrtars, Hin-Jn?, Africans, kc. 
Judaism •was xiever a religion of tbe s'word, and Ohrisi iitnity ba;* ever 
prospered amidst the hres of persecution, and in spite of tbe swoid. 
But see next paiagraph. £ m. av. 



He author- 
ises the eii- 
of hu doc- 
trines by 
the swcrd. 

The Bword 
l&laui to be 
of biiinau 

with It 

sens, anil Eomulus would not have been able to estab- 
lish the observance of their institution-s for any length of 
time had tliey not been armed.^ The ftrst passage of the 
Quran wliich gave Muhunmiad the permission of defend- 
ing himself by arms is said to have been that in the 
twenty-second chapttjr; after which a great number to 
the same purpose were revealed. 

That Muhammad had a right to take up arms for his 
own defence against his unjust persecutors niay perhaps 
be allowed; but whether he ought afterwards to have 
made use of that means for the establishing of his 
religion is a question I will not here determine. How far 
the secular power may or ought to interpose in aftairs of 
this nature, mankind are not agreed. The method of 
converting by the sword gives no very favourable idea of 
the faith which is so propagated, and is disallowed by 
everybody in those of another religion, tliough the same 
persons are willing to admit of it for the advancement of 
their own. supposing that though a false religion ought 
not to be established by authority, yet a true one may; 
and accordingly force is almost as constantly employed in 
these cases by those who have the power in their hands, 
as it is constantly complained of by those who suiter the 
violence. It is certainly one of the most convincing 
proofs that Muhammadism was no other than a human 
invention tliat it owed its progress and establishment 
almost entirely to the sword ; and it is one of the strongest 
demonstratjons of the divine original of Christianity that 
it prevailed against all the force and powers of the world 
by the more dint of its own truth, after having stood the 
assaults of all manner of persecutions, as well as other 
oppositiousi, for 300 years together, and at length rnatle 
the Koman emperors themselves submit thereto ;2 after 
which time, indeed, this proof seems to fail, Christiajiity 

' MachiAvclli, Trine, c. 6. 
^ See Prideaux's Letter to tba I)t;it>ts, p. 226, Sec 


being then established and Paganism abolished by public 
authority, which has had great influence in the propagation 
of the one and destruction of the other ever since.^ But to 

Muliammad having provided for the security of his com- Emigration 
panions as well as his own by the league offensive and toM^nT 
defensive which he had now coocluded with those of 
Madina, directed them to repair thither, which they accord- 
ingly did ; but himself with Abu Baqr and Ali stayed 
behind, ha-ving not yet received the divine permission, 
as he pretended, to leave Makkah. The Quraiah, fearing consequent 
the consequence of this n«w alliance, began to think it afBuntTtiie 
absolutely necessary to prevent Muhammad's escape to ^^'"* ' 
Madina, and having hold a council thereon, after several 
milder expedients had been rejected, they came to a reso- They con- 

1 • 1 1 1 •» 1 1 -n 1 1 T I .spire against 

lution that he should be killed; and agreed that a man Muhammad, 
should be chotier) out of every tribe for the execuitiou of 
this design, and that each man should have a blow at him 
with his sword, that the guilt of his blood might fall 
equally on all the tribes, to whose united power the 
Hashimites were much inferior, and therefore durst not 
attempt to revenge their kinsman's death.* 

* A dcputAfion was sent at this time to Muhammad, but it- object 
was not to assassinate him. ThiB has been satisfactorily established 
by Muir in his Lije of Mahomet, vol. ii. chap. vi. p. 251. He says. 
" What was the decision as to their future course of action (i.e.,, of 
the Coiejsh), what the ijbject even of the present deputation, ifc is 
impossible, amid the hostile and marvellous tales of tradition, to 
conclude. There is little reason \o believe that it was assassi'iatiou, 
alihouyh the traditionjsts assert that this was determined upon at the 
instigation of Abu Jahl, supported by the de\'il, who, in the person 
of an old man from Najd, shrouded in a mantle, joined the council. 
Mahomet himself, speaking in the Corau of the designs of his 
enemies, refers to ^hcm in these indecisive terms — ^ And call to miud 
when the unbelievers plotkd ugoinst tliee, that they mif/ht detmn thee^or 
slay thee, or expd ihe,e; yea, they plotted, hut God plotted- likewise, and 

* See Bayle's Diet. Histj Art. Mahomet, Rem. O. 


This conspiracy was scarce foiTQCci when by some means 
or other it came to Muhammad's kiiowledge, and he gave 
out that it was revealed to him by the Angel Gabriel, who 
had now ordere*! him to retire to Madina. Wliereupon, to 
amuse his enemies, lie directed Ali to lie down in his placo 
and wrap himself up in liis green cloak, which he did, and 
Muhammad escaped miraculously, as they pi'etend,^ to Abu 
haur's house, unpercei'ved by the conspirators, who ha^i 
alreaily assembled at the prophet's door. They in the 
ineantime, looking through the crevice and seeing Ali, 
whom they took to be Muhammad himself, asleep, con- 
tinued watching there till morning, when Ali arosti,, and 
they found themselves deceived. 
iMunammad Froiu Abu Baqr's house Muhammad and he went to 
iiadinl *" a cave in Mount Thiir, u; the south-east * of Makkuh, 
accompanied only by A mar Ibn Fuhairah, Abu Eaqr's 
servant, and Abdailah Ibn Oraikat, an idolater, whom 
they had hired for a guide. In this cave they lay hid 
three days to avoid the searcli of their enemies, which 
they very narrowly escaped, and not without the assist- 
ance of more miracles than one; for some say that the 
Quraish were struck vrith blindness, so that they could 
not find the cave ; others, that after Muliammad and his 
companions were got in, two pigeons laid their eggs at the 
entrance, and a spider covered the mouth of tlie cave with 

God is the best of plotters' (Suva viii. ver. 30). Assuredly hid a&saHsina- 
tion been the senteuce, and its uiiine<iiate execution (as pret«i< by 
tradition) ordered by the council, Mubomet would have iihiicated 
the fact hx cleiier language than theso alternative expressions. A 
reiiolution so fatal would mique.Htionably have been dwelt on at 
length, botlx in the Corai? and tratUtiona. and produced •»? a justi- 
fication (for such, iudee t, ii. would have been) of all subsequent 
huatiUties." e. m. w. 

* Burckhardt says "tioutii " [Travel* in ArabiOy p. 176). 3v Lane 
in Kurun^ p. 74. E. M. w. 

' Sec the notes to chap. S and 36. 


her web,^ wiiich made them look no further.^ * Abu r>ac[T, 
seeing the prophet in such immineut danger, became very 
sorrowful, whereupon Muhammad comforted him witli 
these words, recorded in the Quran : ^ "Be not grieved, for- 
God is with us." Their enemies being retired, they left 
the cave and set out for Madina by a by-road, and having 
fortunately, or, as the Muhammadans tell us, miraculously, 
escaped some who were sent to pursue them, aiTived safely 
at tliat city, whither Ali followed tliem in three days, after 
he had settled some affairs at Makkali.* f 

The first thing Muhammad did after his arrival atnebuiidsa 
Madina waB to buihi a temple for his religious worship, MSa.*^ 
ind a house for himself, which lie did on a parcel of 
ground which liad before served to put camels in, or, as 
others tell us, for a burying-ground, and belonged to Sahal 
and Sohail the sons of Amrn. who were orphans.^ This 
action Dr. Prideaux exclaims against, representing it as a 
flagrant instance of injustice, for that, says he, he violently 

* " Thti A'erses in Sura viii. 30, abv.ut God plotting so as to deceive 
the Meccans, and in Sura ix. 40, abont God assif^trnu the two refugees 
in the cave, have probably given lUe to these tales.'* Muir'a Life of 
jMahomet, vol. ii. p. 257, note. e. m. w. 

+ " It is the geneiul opiidon of our chronologers that the first day 
of the Muslim era of 'the Flight' (or, more properly, M.he Eiiiigra- 
tion') was Friday the i6th of July a.d. 622. . Thi>- era does not 
commence front the day on which the proph dt;parted from Mekkeh 
(as ia supposed by most of our uutliors who have mentioned this 
subject), but from the first day of the moon or month of Moharram 
precodiug that event. . . . The flight itself . . . commenced on the 
22d of September." — Lane in '-^Kurmi,'' p. 75. K. M. w. 

^ It is observable that the Jews before the Mosi; High Goi-', who called 

have a like tradition concerning a spider to weave a web for my sake 

David, when he fiod from Saul into in the moath of the cave." 
the cave; and the Targum para- ^ Ai Baidhawl m Qur^Cn, c. 9, 

phrases these words of the second Vide ID'Hevbelo. Bibl. Oiient., p. 

verse of Psalm Ivii., which was? com- 445. 
posed OTi ctccasJoii ot that deliver- ' Cap. 9, v. 40. 
ance: "I vill pray before the Most ^ AbuUe<ia, Vit. ]V!oh.,p. 50, &c. 

High *^>'jr) that periformeth all things Ebn Shohnah. 
for me, in thj.s liiauner ; I will pray * Abulfeda, ib. pp. 52, 53. 


dispossessed these poor orphans, the sons of an inferior 
anilicer (wliom the aiitlior he quotes^ calls a carpenter) of 
this grvjuiid, and so founded the first fabric of his worship 
with the like wickedness as he did his religion.^ But to 
say nothing of the improbability that Muhammad should 
act in so impolitic a manner at his first-coming, the 
Muhammadan writers set this affair in a quite different 
light ; one tells us that he treated with the lads about the 
price of the ground, but they desired he would accept it as 
a present ; ^ however, as historians of good credit assure us, 
he actually bought it,^ and the money was paid by Abu 
Baqr.^ Besides,had Muhammad accepted it as a present, the 
orphans were in circumstances sufficient to have afforded it ; 
for they were of a very good family, of the tribe of Najjar, 
one of the most illustrious among the Arabs, and not the 
sons of a Carpenter, as I>r. Prideaux's author writes, wlio 
took the word Najjai, which signifies a carpenter, for an 
appellative, whereas it is a proper name>' 
Makes pre- Muhammad being securely settled at Madfna, and able 

(latorj' raids a • j 

..n the cars- not onlv to defend himself afjainst the insults of his 

.acs of tbo . ^ ° 

^Miraish enemics, but to ittack them, began to send out small 
parties to make reprisals on the Quraish ; the first party 
consisting of no more than nine men, who intercepted 
and plundered a caravan belonging to that tribe, and in 
the action took two prisoners. But what established his 
nffairs very much, and was the foundation on which he 
built all his succeeding gieatness, was the gaining of the 
battle of Badr, which was fought in the second year of the 
Hijra, and is so famous in the Muhammadan history.^ Aa 
my design is not to write the life of Muhammad, but only 
to describe the manner in which he carried on his enter- 
prise, I shall not enter into any detail of his subsequent 

* Disjmtiitio Chmtiani contra ^ Almifl.! Ibn Yusaf. 
Saracen., cup. 4. '' Vide (Jnijnier, not. in Abutfed. 

'"" rri(leftu.v'& Lift; of Mahomot, p. de Vit. Mnli.,'j>ji. 52, 53. 
58. ^ Set tbf) notes 011 the Qnr^n, 

' A\ Bokhari in Sonra. cLap. j, v. 13. 

* Al Jaunubi. 


battles and expeditions, which amounted to a considerable 
number. Some reckon no less than twenty-seven expedi- 
tions wherein Muhammad was personally present, in nine of 
which he gave battle, besides several other expeditions in 
which he was not present ; ^ some of them, however, wilJ be 
necessarily taken notice of in explaining several passages 
of the Quran. His forces he maintained partly \)y the 
contributions of his followers for this purpose, which he 
called by the name of Zakdt or ahnii, and the paying of 
which he very artfully made one main article of his 
religion ; and partly by ordering a fifth part of the plunder 
to be brought into the public treasury for tliiit purpose, in 
which matter he likewise pretended to act by the divine 

In a few years, by the success of his arms (notwithstand- He goes to 
ing he .sometimes came off by the worst), he considerably buVis^not 
raised his credit and power. In the sixth year of the eutJr*'^ '** 
Hijra he set out with 1400 men to visit the temple of 
Makkah not with any intent of committing hostilities, but 
in a peaceable manner. H<)wever, when he came to al 
Hudaibiya, which is situate partly within and partly 
without the sacred terjilory, the Qviraish sent to let him 
know that they would uot permit him to enter Makkali, 
tin less he forced his way, whereupon he called his troops 
about him, and they all took a solemn oath of fealty or 
homnge to him, and he resolved to attack the city; but 
those of Makkah sending Aran Ibji Masud, prince of the 
til be of Thakif, as their ambassador to dtiswo peace, a 
truce was concluded between them for ten years, by which Thetej) 
any person was allowed to enter into league either with 
Muhammad or with the Quraish, as he thought fit. 

It may not be improper, to show the inconceivable Mu^jim 
veneration and respect the Muhammadans by this tunc of tiie»i- 
had fua* their prophet, to mention the account whicii the^'"^ 
above-mentioned ambassador gave the Quraish, at his 

1 Vide.Atsrflfeda, Vit. Moh., p. 158. 


return, of tlieir behavioul:'. He said Le liad been at the 
cc'iirts both of the Roman emperor and of the liing of 
Persia, and never saw any prince so highly respected by 
Ids subjects as Muhammad was by his companions , for 
whenever he made the abhition, in order to say his prayers, 
they ran and catched the water that he had used ; and 
whenever he spit, they immediately licked it up, and 
gathered up every hair that fell from him with great 
superstition.^ * 
Hesondrt In tlifs Seventh year of the Hijra, Muliammad began to 

immo^ think of propagating his religion beyond the bounds of 
prm(^'ito Arabia, and sent niessengers to the neighbouring princes 
I'l'iiu'*^'' with letters to invite them to Muhammadism. Nor was 
this project without some success. Khusi-u Parviz, tlien 
king of Persia, received his letter with great disdain, and 
tore it in a passion, sending away the messenger very 
abruptly, which wlien Muliammad heard, he said, "God 
shall tear his kingdom." And soon after- a messenger 
came to Muhammad from Badhan, king of Ya7nau, who 
was a dependent on tlie Persians,^ to acquaint him that ho 
had received orders to send him to Khusni. Muhammad 
put oif his answer till the next morning, and then told the 
messenger it had been revealed to iiim that night that 
Khu.yu v/as slain by his sou Shiruyih adding that he was 
v/ell assured his new religion ajid empire should rise to as 
great a height as that of Khusni, and theretore bid him 
advise Ids master to embrace Muhammadism. The mes- 
senger being returned, Badhan in a few days received a 
letter from Sliiruyili informing him of his father's death, 
and ordei'ing him to give tlie propliet no further disturb- 

These Ktatemeats ore manifest fabrications of 9 Liter period. 
Miiir sftvs. ''Tliere is no :T.a(:oB to believe that there was any such 
K)>j(ct worship of Mahomet during hie Ufeiime." — Life of Mahont^t, 
Vol. iv. p. 30, B. M. w. 

1 Abulfeda, Vit. Moh., r^. 85. ' S. e >jefort, p. 28. 


ance; whereupon Badhan and the Persians with him turned 
Muhamraadans.^ * 

The emperor Heraclius, as the Arabian historians assure 
us, received Muhammad's letter with great respect, layinj^ 
it on his piIlo\v, and dismissed the bearer honourably. 
And some pretend that he would have professed this new 
i'aith had he not been afraid of losing his crown.^t 

Muhiiujiiiad wrote to the same effect to the king of 
Ethioi^ia, though he had been converted before, accordin}> 
to the Arab writer; . and to Mukaukas, governor of Egypt, 
who gave the messenger a very favourable, reception, and 
sent several valuable presents to Muhammad, and among Muksuicas' 

1 -I pi'i -y -^r on jTesent-s to 

the rest two gins, one of which, named Mary,* became a Muhanmmu 
great favourite with him. He also sent letters of the like 
purport to several Arpb princes, particularly one to al 

Harith Ibn Abi Shamir,'* kino of Ghassan. who returning 

for answer thai he would go to Muhammad himself, the 
prophet, '■' May his kingdom perish ; " another to 
llaudha Ibn Ali, king of Yamama, who was a Chris- 
tian,, and having some time before professed Islam, had 
lately returned to his former faith ; this prijjce sent back 
a yQi'j rough answer, upon which Muhammad cursing 
him, he died soon after; and a third to al Muudar Ibn 

* Tiiia whole story of the conversion of Badbin, with all its mira- 
culous surroundings, is a ckar fabrication. The only element of 
truth alk'Wable 13 that Badh4u, taking advantage of a revolution in 
Persia, threw ofF his allegiance to that power, and, finding Muham- 
mad the leader of a powerful and growing faction in Arabia, was 
glad to gain his support by signifying his allegiance to him. 

E, 31. w. 

t This absurd pretension of the traditionists is described in full 
in iluir d Life of Mahoraet. vol. iv. chap. 20. E. M. w. 

^ Abnlfeda, Vit. Moh., p., 92, &.c. or Miriam, wherea-? this is written 

^ Al Jannal)]. Mariya. 

* It i3, however a different natne * This prince is oioitled in Dr. 

from that of the Virgin Mary, whioh Pocock's list of the kings of Ghassau, 

the OrientaJd slwaye writt Maiyain Spec, p. 77. 


Sdwa, kini: of Bahrain, who embraced Muharomadism, an<l 
all tlie Arabs of that country folJowed his example.^ * 
The eighth year of the Hijra was a vci y fortunate year 
KhiHiriand |;o Muhammad. Ill the begininng of it Khalid ibri al 
verted ' Wah'd and Ainru Ibn al As, both excellent soldiers, the 
first of whom afterwards conquered Syria and other coun- 
tries, and the latter Egypt, became proselytes of Muliam- 
TheezpeUi- madism. And soon after the prophet sent 3000 men 
Syl\a° against the Grecian forces to revenge the death of one of 
his ambassadors, who being sent to the governor of Bosra 
on the same errand as those who went to the above- 
mentioned princes, was slain by an Arab of the tribe of 
**- G fiassau at Miita, a town in the territdry of Balka in Syria, 
about three days' journey eastward from Jerusalem, near 
which town they encountered. The Grecians Ixdng vastly 
superior in number (for, including the auxiliury Arabs, 
they had an army of ioo,ocX) men), the Muhammadans 
were repulsed in the first attack, and lost successively 
three of their generals, viz., Zaid Ibn Harith, Muham- 
mad's freedman, Jaafar, the son of Abu Talib, and Abdal- 
"^ lah Ibn Bawaha; but Khalid Ibn al Walid, succe^^diiig 
to the cojnmand, overthrew the Greeks with a great 
slaughtei, and brought away abundance of rich spoil ;^t 
on occasion, of which action Muhammad gave him the 

* For a fuU and reliable account pt'.the matters treated in this 
paragraph, see Mnir's Life of Mahomet^ vol. iy. cliap. 20, already 
referred to above. e. m. w. 

t "Some accounts pretend that Khaled rallied the amiv, and 
I'ither turned the day again.^t the Romans or made it a drawn 
battle. But besides that the brevity of all the accounts is proof 
enougli of a revt^rse, the reception of the army on its return to 
Medina adniils of only one c(»nclusion, viz., :i complete, ignoifilnious, 
and unretrieved discomfiture. —Muir's Liffi of Mahomet^ vol. iv. p. 
100, note, B. M. vv. 

"• Al>ulfe<lft ubi sup., fw 94. itc. * Idain ib,, pp. 99, 100, &c. 



honourable title of Saif miu suyiif Allali, One of the 
Swords of/GoDJ 

In this year also Muhammad took the city of Makkah, The truce 
the inhabitants whereof had broken the truce concluded people of 
on t"W^o years before. For the tribe of Baqr, who were broken.' 
confederates of the Quraish, attacking those of Khuzaah, 
Adio were allies of Muhammad, killed several of them, 
being supported in the action by a party of the Quraish 
themselves. The consequence of this violation was soon 
apprehended, and Abu Sufian himself made a journey to 
Madina on purpose to heal the breach and renew the 
truce,^ but in vain, for Muhammad, glad of this oppor- 
tunity, refused to see him ; whereupon he applied to Abu 
Baqr and Ali, but they giving him no answer, he was 
obliged to return to Makkah as he came. 

Muhammad immediately gave orders for preparations to 
be made, that he might surprise the people of Makkah whild 
they were unprovided to receive him. In a little time he 
began his march thither, and by the time he came near the 
city his forces were increast<l to io,000 men. Those of 
Makkah being not in a condition to defend themselves Muharnmad 
against so formidable an army, surrendered at discretion, M&kkS. 
and Abu Sufian saved his life by turning Muhammadan. 
About twenty-eight of the idolaters were killed by a party 
under the command of Khalid; but this happened con- 
trary to MuhaLurnad's orders, who, when he entered the 
town, pardoned all the Quraish on their submission, 
except only six men and four women, who were more 
obnoxious than ordinary (some of them having aposta- 
tised), and were solemnly proscribed by the prophet 
himself; but of these ho more than three men and one 
woman were put to death, the rest obtaining pardon on 

^ Al Bokhiiri in Soiina. pretence of Muhamnmcl's. as Dr. 

" Thia circumstance is a plainproof PrideauK insinuate^. Lifeof Maho- 

that the Quraish h;id actually brokeu luet, p. 94. 
the truce, anti that it was not a mere 


their embracing Muliammadism, and one of tlie women 
■makhiLj her escape.^ 

The remainder of this year Muhammad employed in 
destroying the idols in and round about Makkah, sending 
several of his generals on expeditions for that purpose, 
and to invite the Arabs to Islam : wherein it is no wonder 
if they n6w met with success. 
Many tribes The uoxt yeat, being the ninth of the Ilijra, the Mu- 
liamniadans call '' the year of embassies/' for the Arabs 
had been hitherto expecting the issue of the war between 
Muhammad and the Quraish ; but so soon as that tribe — 
the principal ol the whole nation, and the genuine de- 
scendants of Ismail, whose prerogatives none ottered to 
dispute — had submitted, they were satished that it was 
not in their powf-r to oppose Muhammad, and therefore 
began to come in to him in great numbers, and to send 
embassies to make their submissions to him, both to 
Makkah, wViile he stayed there, and also to Madina, whither 
he returned this year.2 Among the rest, live kings of 
the tribe of Himyar professed Muhammadism, and sent 
ambassadors to notify the same.^^ 
Airjw»pedi. In the tenth year Ali was sent into Yaman to propagate 
ySja?!. the Muhammadan faith there, and as it is said, converted 
the whole tribe of Hamdan in one day,* Their example 
was quickly followed by all the inhabitants of that pro- 
vince, except only those of Najran, who, being Chiistians, 
chose rather to pay tribute.* 
Arabia Thus was Muhammadism established and idolatry 

laUm." rooted out, even in Muhammad's lifetime (for he died 
the next year), throughout all Arabia, except only 
Yamama, where Musailama, who set up also for a pro- 

♦ The arguments used to persuade the Yamaiiites were the pworda 
of his Muslim followers. e. m. w. 

1 Vide Abulfftda,ubi sup., c 51, 52 ' Abnlfeda, ubi sup., p. 128. 

■* Vide Gagnier, not ud Abuifed», * Ibid., p. 129. 
p. 121. 


phet as Muhammad's competitor, had a great party, ai-d 
was not reduced till the Khalifat of Abu Baqr. And the 
Arabs being then united in one faitli and under one 
prince, found themselves in a condition of making those 
conquests which extended the Muhammadan faith over 
so great a part of the world. 

( 96 ) 



The word Quran, derived from the verb qaraa, to read, 
sigDifies properly ia Arabic "the reading," or rather 
" that which ought to be read ;" by which name the Mii- 
hammadans denote not only the entire book or volume of 
the Quran, but also any particular chapter or section of 
it ; just as the Jews call either the whole Scripture or any 
part of it by the name of Karah or Mikra,i words of the 
same origin and import ; which observation seems to over- 
throw the opinion of some learned Arabians, who would 
have the Quran so named because it is a collection of the 
loose chapters or sheets which compose it— the verb haraa 
signifying also to [father or collect ; ^ and may also, by tbe 
way, serve as an answer to those who object ^ that tbe 
Quran must be a book forged at once, and could not 
possibly be revealed by parcels at ditferent times during 
the course of several years, as the Muliammadans affirn), 
because the Quran is often mentioned and called by that 
name in the very book itself. It may not be amiss to 
observe, that the syllable ^/ in the word Alqurdn is only 
the Arabic article, signifying the, and therefore ought to 
be omitted when the English article is prefixed. 

^ This name was at. first given to ^ Hist. Joseph., 

the Pentateuch only, Nehem. viii, p. 3. 

Vide Simuu. Hist. Crit. du Vieux ** Marrac. de Alcor., p. 41. 
Teat., 1. I, c. 9. 


Besides this peculiar name, the Quran is also honoured othemamcE 
with several appellations common to other books of Scrip- tSe oLrau. 
ture : as, al Furqdn, from the verb faraqa, to divide or 
distinguish; not, as the Muhammadan doctors say, be- 
cause those books are divided into chapters or sections, 
or distinguish between good and evil, but in the same 
rotion that the Jews use the word FereJc or Pirka, from 
the same root, to denote a section or portion of Scripture.^ 
It is also called al Mushdf, the volume, and al Kitdh, the 
Book, by way of eminence, which answers to the Biblia of 
the Greeks ; and al Bhikr, the admonition, which name is 
also given to the Pentateuch and Gospels. 

The Quran is divided into 114 larger portions of vefy DmBions of 
unequal length, which we call chapters, but the Arabians * '" "' 
SiJbwar, in the singular Sura, a word rarely used on any 
other occasion, and properly signifying a row, order, or 
regular series, as a couxse of bricks in building or a rank 
of soldiers in an army ; and is the same in use and import 
with the SiXra or Tora of the Jews, who also call the 
fifty-three sections of the Pentateuch Seddrim, a word of 
the saine signification.^ 

These chapters are not in the manuscript copies dis- Titles of the 
tinguished by their numerical order, though for the reader's ^ *^' 
ease they are numbered in this edition, but by particular 
titles, which (except that of the first, which is the initial 
chapter, or introduction to the rest, and by tlie old Latin 
translator not numbered among the chapters) are taken 
sometimes from a particular matter treated of or person 
mentioned therein, but usually from the first word of 
note, exactly in the same manner as the Jews have named 
their Seddrim ; though the words from which some chap- 
ters are denominated be very far distant, towards the 
middle, or perhaps th6 end of the chapter, which seems 

^ Vide Gol. in append, ad Gram. ^ Vide GoL, ubi. ^up., 177. Each 

Arab. Eypen., 175. A chapter or of the six grand divisions of the 

subdivision of the Massictoth of the Mishna is alsu called Seder. Mai- 

Mishna ia also called Perek. Mai- mon,, ubi sup., p. 55. 
toon,, Praef. in Sedei Zeraini, p. 57. 


ridiculous. fUit the occasion of tlji.s seems 1(» hnve heeu, 
that the vei'se ^»r paosage wherein such woi-d. occurs was, 
in point of lirne. revea.ed fiiul conirnitted to wriiiricr before 
the piher veists of the same chapter which prect-de it in 
order: and the. till e being i>iven to the chapter before it 
was completed or the passages reduced t^» theii- pies^nt 
order, the verse i'rom whence such title vv;i.s takf^ri did not 
always hajipeu to le^in the chapter. Some chnpters have 
two or more titles, occasioned by the dittereuce of the copies. 
Some of the chapters having been revealed at Makkah 
and others at Madi'na, the noting this diiference makes a 
part of the title; but the reader will observe chat several 
of the chapters are said to have been revealed partly at, 
Makkah and partly at Madi'na ; aiid as to others, it is yet 
a dispute amon^ the coninientators to which place of the 
two tliey belong. 
The verses Everv cha])ter is sul idi vided into smaller portions, of very 
chapters, uuequal length also, which we customarily call verses ; but 
the Arabic woi'd is AycU, the same with the Hebrew Ototh, 
audsignities signs orwonders; such as are the secrets of God, 
his attributes, works, judgments, and ordinances, delivered 
in those verses; many of which have their particular titles 
also, imposed in t}ie same manner as ihose of the chapters. 
Kotwithstaiiding this subdivision is cumnion {\nd well 
known, yet I have never yet seeTi any manuscript wlierein 
the verses aie actually numbered ; though in some copies 
the number oi' vei'ses in each chapter is set down, after tJie 
title, which we ha\e therefore added in tlie table of the 
chapters And the Mahammadans seem to have some 
scruple in makhig an actual distinction in their copies, 
because the chief disagreement between their .several 
editions of the Quran consists in the division and number 
of the verses and for this reeson 1 have not taken upon 
me to make any such division. 

♦ In this edition the vfr.^es are numbered according to tlie divi- 
sion ol" Shaikh Abdul Qadir of De'hi. so H6 to corvesyond with those 
of the Roman Urdu editiou published at Lodiaiia, 1876. e.m. w. 

Si:c. rii.'J THE PRKUMIMARY DlSCOUR^n. 9^ 

Havjiit' mentioTifod the diflerfcrir t?uitions of ih^ (c^>urari. jr n^t seven 
may not Le amiss h^^rc to acq\jair:t the reader that there ;ditV'r- '.: 
are seven principal editiciib, if I may so call rhf^m, or ^'^ ""'"'" 
ancient c<^pifcs of that hook, two of which were publisiied 
and used at Madina, a third at Makkah, a fourth ai Ki'ifa, 
a fifth at Basra, a sixth in Syria, and a se^'enth called ihe 
common or vu1,^ar edition. Of these editions, the first, of 
MadiJta, makes ihe whole number of tiie verses 6vDOO : the xmnb-ro/ 
bHCond and Hftli. 6214^ . the third. 62 IQ ; the fourth. 6236 : -w'on^s.&c 
the sixth, 6226; and the last, 6225. But they are all 
said to coniain the same number of wori.=;, namely. 775639,' 
and the same nnmber of ietteis, viz., 323,015 '/^* for the 
Mnbammadans have in this also imitated the Jews, that 
they have superitiiiously numbered the very words and 
letters of their law; n&y, tfjey have taken the pains to 
compute (liuw exacLiy I kriuvv noij the number of times 
each particular letter of the alphabet is contained in u\t 
Imuran. ^ 

Besides these unequal divisions of chapter and verse, other 
i/he Mnhammadans have also divided their Quran intc tht'S'^rln*^ 
sixiy equal portions, whicJi they cail Ahzdb in the singular 
Hizb, each subdivided into four equal parts; which is also 
an imitation of the dtws. who have an ancient division of 
theii' Mishna into sixty portions called Massfctctk : ^ but 
the Quran ib more usiiaky divided info thirty sections 
only, named Ajzd, from the singiilar Juti, each of twice the 
length of the former, and in the like raMuner subdivided 
into four parts. 'I lie^c divisions are tor the use of the 
readers of ihe Qumn in the roya! tempit-s, 01 m the 

* Hughes in hi.s jntrodncHcn -f-o the Roman Urdu Quran, makes 
the number of veiseb to be 6616 ; of words, 77,934 ; and of letters, 
323.(71 E. M. w 

' Oi- as oUifcrirecUcii I'hem. 99,464 ^ Vidf, Relanri. De Kelisf. Moh., 

Re! and , De Rei Moh p, 25 p. 25. 

* Op according- to another compu- * V^dt CoJ . uhi i^'P , p 1741 
(aXion 33<J.ii3.^ Ibid, Vide 'iol . Maimor, . Prtef in Seder Zcaaire p. 
ubi.sup., p 17a "D'Herbelot Bibi 57. 

Orient, p. 87. 


adjoining chapels where the emperors and great men are 
interred. There are thirty of these readers belonging to 
every chapel, and each reads his section every day, so that 
the whole Quran is read over once a day.^ I have seen 
several copies divided in this manner, and bound up in as 
many volumes ; and have thought it proper to mark these 
divisions in the margin of this translation by numeral 
The Bis. Next after the title, at the head of every chapter, except 

^ ' only the ninth, is prefixed the following solemn form, by 
the Muhammadans called the Bisniillah, *' In the name 
of the most merciful God ; " which form they constantly 
place at the beginning of all their books and writings in 
general, as a peculiar mark or distinguishing characteristic 
of their religion, it being counted a sort of impiety to omit 
it. The Jews for the same purpose make use of the form, 
** In the name of the Lord," oi:, " In the name of the great 
God ; " and the Eastern Christians that of, " In the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 
But I am apt to believe Muhammad really took this form, 
as he did many other things, from the Persian Magi, who 
used to begin their books in these words, Bandm Yazddn 
hakhshaishghar ddddr; that is, " In the name of the most 
merciful, just GoD." ^ 

This auspioatory form, and also the titles of the chap- 
ters, are by the generality of the doctors and commentators 
believed to be of divine original, no less than the text 
itself ; but the more moderate are of opinion they are only 
human additions, and not the very word of God. 
The letters There are twenty-nine chapters of the Quran, which 
have this peculiarity, that they begin with certain letters 

* In this edition these parts are called sipdras, from two Persian 
words : <i, thirty, and ^ra^ parts ; and they are indicated as Jirst 
iipdra, second sipdra, &c. E. M. w. 

1 Vide Smitl^, De Moribua et In- » Hyde, His. Rel. Vet. Pers., p. 
stit. Turcar., p. 58. 14. 


of the alphabet, some with a single one, others with more. 
These letters the Muhammadans believe to be the peculiar 
marks of the Quran, and to conceal several profound 
mysteries, the certain understanding of which, the more 
intelligent confess, has not been communicated to any 
mortal, their prophet only excepted. Notwithstanding 
which, some will take the liberty of guessing at their mean- 
ing by that species of Cabbala called by the Jews Notari- 
kon,^ and suppose the letters to stand for as many words 
expressing the names and attributes of God, his works, 
ordinances, and decrees; and therefore these mysterious 
letters, as well as the verses themselves, seem in the Quran 
to be called signs. Others explain the intent of these letters 
from their nature or organ, or else from their value in num- 
bers, according to another species of the Jewish Cabbala 
called Geniatria;^ the uncertainty of which conjectures 
sufficiently appears from their disagreement. Thus, for 
example, five chapters, one of which is the second, begin 
with these letters, A»L.M., which some imagine to stand 
for Allah latif majid, " God is gracious and to be glori- 
fied ; " or, Ana li minni, *' To me and from me," viz., be- 
longs all perfection and proceeds all good; or else for 
Ana Allah dlafn, '' I am the most wise God," taking the 
first letter to mark the beginning of the first word, the 
second the middle of the second word, and the third the 
last of the third word; or for " Allahy Gabriel, Muham- 
mad'' the author, revealer, and preacher of the Quran. 
Others say that as the letter A belongs to the lower part 
of the throat, the first of the organs of speech ; L to the 
palate, the middle organ ; and M to the lips, which are 
the last organs ; so these letters signify that GoD is the 
beginning, middle, and end, or ought to be praised in the 
beginning, middle, and end of all our words and actions : 
or, as the total value of those three letters in numbers is 

^ Vide Buxtorf, l^exicon Rabbin. 
^ Vide Ibid. See also Schickardi Bechinat happerushim, p. 62, &c. 


seveDt7-one, they signify that in the spaoe of so many 
years, tlie religion pieached in the Quran should he fully 
established. The couJHt ture of a learned Christian ^ is, at 
least, as certain as any of the former, who supposes those 
letters were set there by the amanuensis, for Aihar li 
MiiJmmmad, i.e., " at the command ui Muhammad," as the 
live letters prefixed to the nineteenth chapter seem to be 
t here written by a Jewish scribe for koh yaas, i.e., " Thus 
he commanded." * 
The Ian- The Quiau is universally allowed to be written with the 

SuiSi!'^ ^'utmost elegance and purity of language, in the dialect of 
the tribe of Quraish, the most noble and polite of all the 
Arabians, but with some mixture, though very rarely, of 
other dialects. It is coni'essedly the staudai-d ci tlie Arabic 
tongue and as the more orthodox believe, and are taught by 
the book itself, inimitable by any human pen (though some 
sectaries have been of another opinion).- and therefore 
insisfed on as a permanent miracle, greater than that of 
raising' I he dead,^ and alone sufficient to convince the 
world of its divine original, 
it* elegance And to this miracle did Muhammad himself chiefly 
eiatmed to appeal fof the confirmation of his mission, publicly chal- 
cuiolis!* ^''-Tiging the most eloquent men in Arabia, which was at 
that time stocked with thousands whose sole study and 
ambition it was to excel in elegance of otyle and composi- 
tion,* to produce even a single chapter that might be com- 

♦ See Kod well's Koran^ p. 17, note. Rodwell conjectlires that 
they may Jiave \Hieii tiit; iaitial letters or luarka of the perKons to 
whom the manuscripts of the respective Siiraf* belonged irom which 
Zaid ConipileJ the present text. £. m. w. 

^ tiottuB in Append, ad (;!ram, rate performatice by extinguishing 

Erp., p. 1S2. - See pobt. all true learning, b'or though they 

'"* Ahitjed Abd'alhaliiu, apud Mar- were destitute of what we calllearn- 

racc. df A^c, j). 43. ing, yet they were far from being 

* A noUc writer therefore mis- ig^uorant, or unable to compowe ele- 

tHkt» the question when he says gautly in their own tongue See 

the4« Kawtern religionirits leave tlieir Li-rd Shaftesbury's Characteriatics, 

Mcred writ the sole standaid of lire- vol. iii. p 235. 


paved with it ^ * I will mention but: one instance out of 
several, to show that this book was realiy adrniifed tor the 
beauty ot its composure by those wno must be allowed 
to have been conrpetent judges. A poem ot" L'lbid Ibn 
liabia, one of the g]-eatest wits in Arabia m Muliaminad's 
time, beiiiy tixed up on the gate of the temple of IMakkah, 
an honour allowed to none but the in6st eslfienied per- 
formances none of the other poets durst ofier anythiug <)i' 
their own in competiti»jn with it. But the second chapter 
of the Qurin lioing fixed up by it =0011 after. libfd himself 
(then an idolater), on reading the tirst versea only, was 
struck with admiration, and immediately professed the 
reliofion taua-lit thereby, declaiini!- that such words could 
proceed f^-om an inspired person only. This Labid. was 
aftervvards of great service to Mnliummad in writing 
answers to the satires and invectives thai were made on 
him a]id his religion by the infidels, and particularly by 
Amri al Qais," prince of the tribe of Asad,^ and author of 
owi of those Seven famous poems called al JMuallaqat.^i* 

The style of ihe (^>nran is generally beautiful and fluent, The style 
especially where it imitates the pi'ophetic manner and aitk.l!!'"'^ 

*■ /Vriiold (Isluw and (Jhriduonity \j. i^z^) hai> pointed out that, 
while th(j l)eaut,y of the Quran v^as Rckuowledged by sume of 
Muhaminad'.s contempori^rie?;, yet there i.s proof from the Quran 
itstilf that this was rather the exception iLan the rule, e.g.^ chap. 
viii. 31, uho chap. ;jixi. 5. E. M. W. 

t This Amri al Qais dieil in A.d 540, on his return from Con 
stantinoptft. See Muirs Life uf Mahomet, vol. i. p. c(!xxii. Thi.-: 
Avas jubt iliirty years before MiiKarnniad was born-! 

I. can find no authority for th^. Btatement thai LflMil, the satirist 
of tlie Bani Amir, rendered Mtihammad aiiy assibiance of a poetic 
order. If a convert at all. be must have bf come such very shortly 
Cietore Muhammad's death. See Midr's I,ife of Maliomd^ vol. iv. 
p- 226. H. M. w. 

' Al (rluiziUi. apud Poc S}j?e., ^ D'Herbel. Bibl. Orient., p. 512. 

191. See Qujun, c- '7 v 90^ an J itc 
also c. 2. p. 3, V, 2j. and c 1 1 v. J4, 3 p^^t; Spec, (j Bo 
*c. 4 S(ie ouprj, p. 53 


Scripture phrRses. It is concise and often obscure, adorned 
with bold figures after the Eastern taste, enlivened with 
florid and sententious expressions, and in many places, 
especially where the majesty and attributes of God are 
described, sublime and magnificent ; of which the reader 
cannot but observe several instances, tliough he must not 
imagine the translation comes up to the original, notwith- 
stnnding my endeavours to do it justice. 

Though it be written in prose, yet the sentences gene- 
rally conclude in a long continued rhyme, for the sake 
of which the sense is often interrupted, and unnecessary 
repetitions too frequently made, which appear still more 
•ridiculous m a translation, where the ornament, such as it 
is, for whose sake they were made, cannot be perceived. 
However, the Arabians are so mightily delighted with 
this jinirling, that they employ it in their most elaborate 
compositions, which they also embellish with frequent pas- 
sages of, and allusions to, the Quran, so that it is next to 
impossible to understand them without being well versed 
in this book. 

It is probable the harmony of expression which the 
Arabians find in the Quran might contribute noc a little 
to make tliem leiish the doctrine therein taught, and give 
an efficacy to arguments which, had they been nakedly 
proposed without this rhetorical dress, might not have so 
easily prevailed. Very extraordinary effects are related of 
the power of words well chosen and artfully placed, which 
are no less powerful either to ravish or amaze than music 
itself: wherefore as much has been ascribed bv the best 
orators to this part of rhetoric ^s to any other.^ Ho must 
have a very bad ear who is n«t uncommonly moved with 
the very cadence of a well-turaed sentence ; and Muham- 
mad seems not to have been ignorant of the enthusiitstic 
operation of rhetoric o_n the minds of men ; for which 
reason he has not only employed his utmost skill in these 

^ See Caaaubon, of Enthusiasm, c. 4. 


his pretended revelations, to preserve tliat dignity and 
sublimity of style which might seem not unworthy of the 
majesty of that Being whom he gave out to be the Author 
of them, and to imitate the prophetic manner of the Old 
Testament ; but he has not neglected even the other arts 
of oratory, wherein he succeeded so well, and so strangely 
captivated the minds of his audience, that several of his 
opponents thought it the ejffect of witchcraft and enchant- 
ment, as he sometimes complains.^ 

" The general design of the Quran '* (to use the words Design of 
of a very learned person) " seems to be this : to unite the ^^^ ^'^ " 
professors of the three different religions then followed in 
the populous country of Arabia, who for the most part 
lived promiscuously, and wandered without guides, the 
far greater number being idolaters, and the rest Je \v's and 
Christians, mostly of erroneous and heterodox belief, in 
the knowledge and worship of one -eternal, invisible God, 
by whose power all things were made, a;nd those which 
are not, may be, the supreme Governor, tFudge, and abso- 
lute Lord of the creation ; established under the sanction 
of certain laws, and the outward signs of certain cere- 
monies, partly of ancient and partly of novel institution, 
and enforced by setting before them rewards and punibh- 
ments, both temporal and eternal; and to bring them all 
to the obedience of Muhammad, as the prophet and 
ambassador of God, who after the repeated admonitions, 
promises, and threats of former ages, was at last to estab- 
lish and propagate God's religion on earth by force of 
arms, and to be acknowledged chief pontiff in spiritual 
matters, as well as supreme prince in temporal." ^ 

The great doctrine, then, of the Quran is the unity of The do^- 
GoD; to restore which point Muhammad pretended was the Qunin 
the chief end of his mission ; it being laid down by him reiig-ion'^ 
as a fundamental truth that there never was nor ever can fatioa'' " 

^ Qtir^B^ jC. 15, V. 6 ; c. 21, V. 3, ^ Goliu8. in appen. ad Gram. Erp., 
&c. . p. 176. 


be moie than one true orT>iodox religion. Foi'thoiigli ihfi 
parti culaj laws or cereirLonies arn only tempoi?iiy. and 
subject to alleratiorj according to the divine direction, 
yet the substance of it being eternal truth, is noi liable 
10 change, but coudnues immutt^bly the same. And he 
tau^^hl that whenever thi^i religion became neglecte or 
corrupted in essentials, God had the goodness to re- inform 
and re-admonisli muukind thereof by several proplnits, 
of wboiii .Mo.seB and .Tesus were the most, dieting mshed, 
till the appearance of MuHanmiad, \vho ia their seal, no 
other being to be expected after him. And the more 
otfeotually to eng^age people to hearken to him jjreat part 
of the Qnran is emph)yed in relating examples of dx'eadful 
punish nieuts formerly iullicted by God on tli<;se who 
rejected and abused his messengers ; several of which 
Stories, or some circumstances of them, nre taken from 
Thea:.e the Old and JSlew Testament, but many more from the 

mnde ('I 111 

Old Testa- apocryplial books and traditions of the Jews and Chris- 
utrintii* tians OT those ages, set up in the Quran as truths n\ 
opposition to the Scriptures, which the Jews and Christians 
are charged w ith having altered ; and I am apt to believp 
that few or none of the relations or circumstances i-n 
the Qurau were invented by Muhammad, as is genei*ally 
supposed, ii being easy to trace the greatest part of them 
much higher, as the rest might be, were more of those 
boctks extaju, and it was worth wiiilo to make the 

The other part of the ()uran is taken np in giving 
necessary Ihws and directions, in frecjuent adraoidtions 
to moral and divine virtues, and a)>ove all to the worship- 
ping and reverencing of the only true (roi), and resigna- 
tion Lo his will J among which are many excellent things 
intermixed not unworrhy even a Christinu's perusal. 
The use .i^>ut bcside.s theso, tliere are a gieat number of passages 

made of th* , . , . , 1 > . • , • 

Cufin by wincli are occasional, and i elate to particular emergencies 
incmar- For whencver nnything happened which perplexed iind 
^'"^^' gravelled Muhninmud, and which he could not otherwise 


get over, he had coiistaut recourse to a new revelniion, as 
an infallible expedient in all nice cases ; and lie found 
the success of this method answer his expectation. It 
was certainly an admirable and politic contrivance of his 
to bring down the whole (^)m'an at once to the lowest 
heaven only, and not to the f'ar-th, as a bungling prophet 
would probably have done; fur if the whole had been 
published at once, innumerable objections might have 
been made, which it would have been very hard, if not 
impossible, for him to solve; but as he pretended to have 
received it by parcels, as God saw proper that they should 
be published for the conversion and instruction of the 
people, he had a sure way to answer all emergencies, and 
to extrictde himst^lf with honour from any difficulty whicii 
might occur. If any objection be hence made to that 
eternity of the Qunin which the Muhammadans are 
taught to believe, they easily answer it by their doctrine 
of absolute predeotination, according to which all the 
accidents for the sake of which these occasional passages 
were revealed were pre<letermined by God from all 

That Muhammad was really the autiior and chief con- Muhammad 
triver of the Quran is beyond dispute, though it be highly ©f the 
probable that he had no small assistance iti his design ^"' " 
from others, as his countrymen failed not to object to 
him.^ However, they differed so much in their conjcictures 
as to the particular persons who gave him such assistance,- 
that they were not able, it seems, to ])rove the charge, 
Muhammad, it is to be presumed, having taken his 
measures too well to be discovered. Dr. Prideaux^haa 
given the most probable account of thi,-^ matter, though 
chiefly from Christian writers, who generally mix such 
ridiculous fables with what they deliver, that tJiey deserve 
not much credit. 

^ Yide Quran, c. 16, v, 105, and c 25, v. 5." 
' See the notes 011 those passages. ^ Life of Mahomet, p. 31, &c. 


However it be, the Muhaminadans absolutely deny the 
Qurda was composed by their prophet himself, or any 
other for him, it being their general and orthodox belief 
that it is of divine original ; nay, that it is eternal and 
uncreated, remaining, as some express it, in the very 
essence of GoD; that the first transcript has been from 
everlasting by God's throne, written on a table of vast 
bigness, called the Preserved Table, in which are also 
recorded the divine decrees past and future ; that a copy 
from this table, in one volume on paper, was by the 
ministiy of the Angel Gabriel sent down to the lowest 
heaven, in the month of Kamadhan, on the night of power ;^ 
from whence Gabriel revealed it to Muhammad by parcels, 
some at Makkah, and some at Madiua, at different times, 
during the space of twenty-three years, as the exigency 
of affairs required ; giving him, however, the consolation 
to chow him the whole (which they tell us was bound in 
silk, and adorned with gold and precious stones of para- 
dise) once a year ; but in the last year of his life he had 
the favour to see it twice. They say that few chapters 
were delivered entire, the most part being revealed piece- 
meal, and written down from time to time by the prophet's 
amanuenses in such or such a pai*fc of such or such a 
chapter till they were completed, according to the direc- 
tions of the angel.^ The first parcel that was revealed is 
generally agreed to have been the first five verses of the 
ninety-sixth chapter.^ 

After the new revealed passages had been from the 
prophet's mouth taken down in writing by his scribe, they 
were published to his followers, several of whom took 
copies for their private use, but the far greater number 
got them by heart. The originals when returned were put 

* Vide Quran, o. 97, and note Law was given to Moses by parcsels. 

ibid. "Vide Millium. de Mohammedismo 

' Therefore it is a mistake of Dr. ante Moham., p. 365. 

Pridoaux to say it was brought him ^ Not the whole chapter, as Goliug 

chapter by chapter. Life of iNFaho- says. Append, ad Gr. Erp., p. 108, 
met, p. 6. The Jews also say the 


promiscuously into a chest,* observing no order of time, 
for which reason it is uncertain when many passages were 

When Muhammad died, he left his revelations in the coiier 

into . c 

same disorder I have mentioned, and not digested into voiu.i.e by 

^ Abii Baqr. 

the method, such as it la, which we now find them in. 
This was the work of his successor, Abu Baqr, who con- 
sidering that a great number of passages were committed 
to the memory of Muhammad's followers, many of whom 
were slain in their wars, ordered the w^hole to be collected, 
not only from the palm-leaves and skins on which the;y 
had been written, and which were kept between two 
boards or covers, but also from the mouths of such as had 
gotten them by heart. And this transcript when com- 
pleted he committed to the custody of Hafsa the daughter 
of Omar, one of the prophet's widows.^ 

Erom this relation it is generally imagined that Abu 
Baqr was really the compiler of the Quran ; though for 
aught appears to the contrary, Muhammad left the chap- 
ters complete as we now have them, excepting such pas- 
sages as his successor might add or correct from those 
who had gotten them by heart ; what Abu Baqr did 6lse 
being perhaps n6 more than to range the chapters in their 
present order, which, he seems to have done without any 
r^ard to time, having generally placed the longest first. 

However, in the thirtieth year of the Hijra, Othman othm^n's 
being then Khalifah, and observing the great disagreement ^'^®^^^"* 
in the copies of the Quran in the several provinces of the 
empire — those of Irak, for example, following the reading 
of Abu Musa al Ashari, and the Syrians that of Maqdad 
Ibn Aswad — he, by advice of the companions, ordered a 
great number of copies to be transcribed froln that of Abu 

* Muir says, " This statement does not seem to be borne out by 
any good authority." — Introduction, Life of MaltorrUtj p. 4, 

E. M. w. 

^ Elmacin. in Vita Abu Beer, Abulfeda. 



Baqi', in Hafsa's care» audt'r the inspficUoii ot Zaid l^bii 
Thdbit, Abdallab Ibn Zobair, Said 1 bn al As, and Abd- 
Alralmian Ibu al lUrith, the Mal?hzumiLe , whom he 
(lirecu-il, that wherever they disagreed about any word, 
they should writo it in the dialect of the Quraish, in which 
it was at first delivered.^ The?^' copies when made were 
dispersed iu the several provinces of the empire, and the 
old ones burnt and suppressed. Thougli many things in 
Hafsa's copy were corrected by the above-mentioned super- 
\'isors, yet some few various readings still occur, the most 
material of which will be taken notice of in their proper 

The want of vowels ' in tlie Arabic character made 
rjw'tlF-V Muqris, or readers whose peculiar study and profession it 
»ri8i..ii«ii. ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^y^^ Quran with its proper vowels, absolutely 

necessary. But these, differing in their manner of reading, 
occasioned still further variations in the copies of the 
C^urau, a? they ave now wriLteu with the vowels. an<l 
herein con^jist much the greater part of the various read- 
ings throughout the book. 'J'he readers whose authority 
the commentators chiefly allege, in admitting lhf>se various 
readings, ave seven in numben 
rh.».iyfftri..e l^iere being si>me passages in" the Quran which are con-- 
i,f^nbiuif.» t^radictory, the M iihammadan doctors obviate any objection 
from thence by the doctrine of abrogatiori ; for they say 
that Gop in the Qiiridn cbmmSDded several things whiclt 
Were foi' good reasons afterwards revuked and abrogated. 
AMoi;«i«d Passages abrogated are distinguished into three kinds: 
pa«i«f',«6 ^j^g Pjj^j. yyj^pp^ ^\^^ letter and the sense are both abrogated ; 

the second, where the letter Ouly is ubi'ogated. but the 
sense renudns ; and the third where the sense is abrogated, 
though the letter remains. 

^ Abwl1*'UH, ill V'itis Abu Ijcci- 1bn Asaro &ornamed ;il Laithi, an«l 

and Oihn>ah orlitis t«i Aim ai Aswi^H si Dili — tiH, 

* T(ie «.haTacicr3 or marks of tbti three oi wiioni were doctot'sof Hivsra, 

Arabic vowel? were roi used til! and immediutelv s>;cceedfd the com- 

beverai ^e;ps aAldv . Muhammad. pHnioMs. SfeeD'Herbel..Bibl.Oiilt.nt.. 

Somfr ascrtb^. tlip ln\fcMtion o\ IIhmti p. 87. 
to N'ahya fbn Yamir, come to N<\fir 


Of fhft first kiufl were several verst^s which, by the 
tradition of ]VJalik: Ibti Ans.. wec-e in th« prophet's lifetime 
read in the chapter of HfcpeiiXanoej but are not now oxtsuit, 
one of which, being nil he remembered of them, was the 
following: "'If a son of Adam had two rivers of gold, he 
would covet yet ti third : and if he had three he M'ould 
covet yet a fourth (tx> be added) uiitc them neither shall 
the belly of a son oi Adam be Pihed Imt wirh dust. God 
will turn unto hiiii who shall repent'' Another instance 
of thi? kind we have from tlie trail ition of Ahdallah Ibn 
Masiid, who reported that the prophet gave him a verse 
to read which he wrvta dowii ; but the neAt mornin;^. 
looking ill hi.s book, ho found it was vanished, and the leaf 
blank : this he acquainted M'lhammad with, who assured 
him th$ veise was revoked the same night. 

Of the second kind is a verse called the verse of Ston- 
irig, v/hich, according to the tradition of Omar, afterwards 
.ih.ilirah, was extant while Muhammad was living, though 
it be not Jiow to be found. The words are these : " Ablior 
not your parents, for this would be ingratitude in you. 
If a man and woman of reputation commit adultery, ye 
shall stone them both; it is a punishment ordained by 
God ; ^or God is mighty and wise." 

Of the last kind are observed seveictl verses in sixty- 
fhajee different cliapterSj to the number of 225 ; such as 
the precepts of turjiing in prayer to Jerusalem, fasting 
after the old custom, forbearance towards idolater^, avoid- 
ing the ignorant, and the like.^ The passages of this sort 
have been carefully collected by several writers and are 
most of them remarked in their proper places. 

Though it is the belief of the Sonnites or ortliodox that The Quran 
the Quran is uncreated and eternal, subsisting in the very beLtlnuu" 
essence of God, and Muhammad himself is said to have 
pronounced him an infidel who asserted the contrary, yet 

Abu Hasheoi llebatallah. apud Marracc. de Alc.^ p. 42. 
* Apud Poc. Sp€c.j p. 220. 


several have been of a different opinion ; particularly the 
sect of the Mutazalites,^ and the followers of Isa Ibn 
Subaih Abu Miisa, surnamed al Muzdar, who stuck not 
to accuse those who held the Qurdn to be uncreated of 
infidelity, as asserters of two eternal beings.^ 

This point was controverted with so much heat that it 

occasioned many calamities under some of the Khalffahs 

of the family of Abbas, al Mamiin * making a public edict 

declaring the Quran to be created, w^hich was confirmed 

by his successors al Mutasim * and al Wathik,^ who 

whipped, imprisoned, and put to death those of the contrary 

opinion. But at length al Mutawakkil,^ who succeeded 

al Wathik, put an end to these persecutions by revoking 

the former edicts, releasing those that were imprisoned 

on that account, and leavicg every man at liberty as to 

his belief in this point.*^ 

Al Ghazdii's Al Ghazali seems to have tolerably reconciled both 

tuthe'^" opinions, saying that the Quran is read and pronounced 

^"''*° with the tongue, written in books, and kept in memory ; 

and is yet eternal, subsisting in God's essence, and not 

possible to be separated thence by any transmission into 

men's memories or the leaves of books ; ^ by which he 

seems to mean no more than that the original idea of the 

Quran only is really in God, and consequently co-essential 

and co-eternal with him>.but that the copies are created 

and the work of man. 

Opinion of The opinion of al Jahidh, chief of a sect bearjng his 

aijohidh. jj^mc, touchiug thc Qurdn, is too remarkable to be 

1 See post, Seot. VIII. ordained thee the Qurdn, " He 

■ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 219, &c. went still further to allow that what 

• Anno Hij., 218. Abulfaiag, p. was ordained waa created, and yet 
245, V, etiam Ehnacin. in Vita al he denied it thence followed that 
Alamftn. the Qurj'm was created. Abulfarag, 

* In the time of al Mutasim, a p. 253. 

doctor named Abu Hanin Ibn al ' Tbid., p. 257. 

Baqa found out a distinction to ' Anno Hij., p. 242. 

screen himself, by affirming that the ' AL ilfarag, p. 262. 

(^iirdn was ordained, because it ia ' Al Ghazali, in prof. fid. 
said in that book,t ' And I have 


omitted: he used to say it was a bodv, which might 
sometimes be turned into a man,^ and sometimes into a 
beast; 2 which seems to agree with the notion of those 
who assert the Quran to have two faces, one of a man, 
the other of a beast ; * thereby, as I conceive, intimating 
the double interpretation it will admit of, according to 
the letter or the spirit. 

As some have held the Quran to be created, so there Heretical 
have not been wanting those who have asserted that there 
is nothing miraculous in that book in respect to style or 
composition, excepting only the prophetical relations of 
things past, and predictions of things to come ; and 
that had God left men to their natural liberty, and not 
restrained them in that particular, the Arabians could 
have composed soiaething not only equal but superior to 
the Quran in eloquence, method, and purity of language. 
This was another opinion of the Mutazilites, and in par- 
ticular of al Muzdar, above mentioned, and al Kudham.* 

The Quran being the Muhammadans* rule of faith and Musih.i 
practice, it is no wonder its expositors and commentators ISS. ^^ 
are so very numerous. And it may not be amiss to take 
notice of the rules they observe in expounding it. 

One of the most learned commentators ^ distinguishes 
the contents of the Qurdn into allegorical and literal.- The 
former comprehends the more obscure, parabolical, and 
enigmatical passages, and such as are repealed or abro- 

1 The KhaJifah al Walid Ibn person? Behold, I am that rebel- 

Yazid, who was the eleventh of the lious, perverse person. When thoti 

raoe of Ommeya, and is looked on appearest befort^ thy Lokd on the 

by the Mahammadans as a repro- day of resurrection, say, O LoRi>, 

bate and ont of no religion, seems al Vi'^alid has torn me thus." Iba 

to have treated this book as a Bhohnah. v. Poc. Spec, p. 223. 
rational creature ; for, dipping into " Poc. Spec, p. 222. 
It one day, the first words he met ^ Herbelot, p. 87. 
with were thest': " Every rebellious, * Abulfeda, Shahri&tani, itc, apiid 

perverse person shall not prosper." Poc, Spec, p. 22Z, et Marracc, L'o 

Whereupon he stuck it on a lance, Qur., p. 44. 

and shot it to pieces wtfch arrows, * Al Zamakhahari. Vide Quran, 

repeating these vyrses : "Dost thou c, 3, v. 7, note, 
rebuke every rebellious, perverse 




gated : the latter those which are plain, perspicuous, liahle 
tu DC' doubt, and in full force. 

To explain these se%erally in a right manner, it i? 
necessary from tradition and study to know the tinif; 
wuen each passage was revealed, its circumstances, state, 
and history, and the reasons or particular emergencies for 
the .sake of which it was revealed ; ' or. more explicitly, 
hether the passage was revealed at Makkah or at Madma; 
whether it be al>rogated, or does ii self abrogate any other 
passage ; whether it be antici])nied in order of time or 
postponed ; whether it be distinct from the context or 
depends thereon; wiiether it be jjarticular or general; 
and, lastly, whether it be implicit by intention or explicit 
in words.* 
.NLii-um By what has been said the reader may easily believe 

r'rTht '*■**' this hook is in the greatest reverence and esteem among 
'^" '*" the Muhammadans. They dare not so much as touch it 
without being firet wasiied or legally purified;* which, 
lest they should do by inadvertence, they write these 
words on the cover or label, " Let none touch it but they 
who are clean." They lea". it with great care and respect, 
never holding it below their girdles. They swear by it, 
consult it in their veif^htv occasions,* carrv it with them 
to war, write sentences of it on their banners, adorn it 
with gold and precious stones, and knowingly suffer it not 
to be in the possession of any of a different persuasion. 
Trai.hiii. The Muhammadans, far from thinking the Qurtin to Ije 

profaned by a translation, as some authprs have w^ritten.^ 

^ Ahma^ Ibu Muh. ai Tborlabi, and talnng an omen from the words 

in I'riticip. Expoe. Ale. which tlH-y first light on. which 

" Yahya Von al Salf(m al Basti, practk.e (hey also learned of the 

in iPrinceo. Expos. Ale. Jew.s, who do the same viith the 

■^ Thf Jews have the same venera- Scripture^. Vide Milliuni, ubi sup. 

tion for their law, not daring to [See also Lane's Manners and Cus- 

tuuch it with umya-shed htndK, nor toms of the Modern fclg>'ptian«, vol. 

fcheu neither w^ithuut a cover. Vid<i i. chap, xi., m-'ar the end. R. M W- j 
Millium, De Mohamniediamo ante '' SionitJ, De Uib. (Jrient., p. 41, 

Moh., p. j66. et Marracc, Pfl Ale, p J3. 

* This the) dc hy dipping into il, 


have taken care to have their Scriptures translated not 
only into the Persian tongue, but into several others, par- 
ticularly the Javan and Malayan,^ though out of respect 
to the original Arabic these versions are generally (if not 
ahvayo). inter] iueary."* 

* In additiQTi to those mentioned in the text, vv-e -would note two 
popular translations of the Qur6n in the Urdu language current in 
India. They are interlined witli the Arabiv; text in all Muslim 
editions. £. M. w. 

1 Reland, De Rel. Moh., p. 265. 

( i»6 ) 




liiArn the It has been already observed more than once, that the 
w*hodox fundamental position on which Muhammad erected the 
superstructure of his religion was, that tvom the beginning 
to the end of the world there has been, and for ever will 
be, but one true orthodox belief, consisting, as to matter 
of faith, in the acknowledging of t)ie only true GoD, and 
the believin}^' in and obeying such messengers or prophets 
as he sliould from time to time send, with proper credentials, 
to reveal his will to mankind ; and as to matter of practice, 
in the observance of the immutable and eternal laws of 
right and wrong, together with sucli other precepts and 
ceremonies as God should think fit to order for the time 
being, according to the different dispensations in different 
ages of the world ; for these last he allowed were things 
indifferent in their own nature, and became obligatory by 
God's positive precept only, and were therefore temporary, 
and subject to alteration according to his will and pleasure. 
And to this religion he gives the name of Islam, which 
word signifies resignation, or submission to the service 
and commands of GoD,^ and is used as the proper name 
of the Muhammad an religion, which they will also have 

' Th».: x-oot Bahama, fronj whence of talvaiinn ; but the other sense is 

fddin iri formed, in the first and more approved by the Muhamma- 

fourth coDJnti-ationB, signifirs also to dane, and ulluded to in the Qur^ 

be saved, or to enter inti. a mtate of itHelf. See o. 2. v. ill, and c. 3, v. 

salvation; a<.Tordii)^ towhifth, Iddm 19, nutes. 
may tie trun^lated the reliyxon ur staU 


to be the same at bottom with that of all the prophets 
from Adam. 

Under pretext tliat thU sfcei nal i*eligiou was in his time 
corrupted, and professed in its purity by no one sect of 
men, Muhammad pretended to be a prophet sent by God 
to reform those abuses which had crept into it, and to 
reduce it to its primitive simplicity; with the addition, 
liowever, of peculiar laws and ceremonies, some of which 
had been used in former times, and others were now first 
instituted. And he comprehended the whole bubatance 
of his doctrine under these two propositions or articles of 
faith, viz., that tliere is but one God, and that himself was 
the apostle of God ; in consequence of which latter article, 
all such ordinances and institutions as he thought fit to 
establish must be received as obligatory and of divine 

The Muhammadans divide their religion, which, as I Five points 
just now said, they call Islam, into two distinct parts : Din. "" ''" 
Iman, i.e,, faith or theory, and Din, i.e., religion or prac- 
tice; and teach that it is built on five fundamental 
points, one belonging to iaith, and the other four to 

The first is that confession of faith which I have already First funda- 
mentioned, that "there is no god but the true God, andSfot- 
that Muhammad is his apostle/' under which they com- *^*^'*' 
prehend six distinct branches, viz.. i. Belief in God; 2, 
In his angels ; 3. In hi& Scriptures ; 4. In his prophets ; 
5, In the resurrection and day of judgment; and, 6. In 
God's absolute decree and predetermination both of good 
and evil. 

The four points* relating to practice are: i. Prayer, Four points 
under which are comprehended those washings or purifica- ° '*''*^''"^" 

• To these should be added the duty of Jihdd, or war against 
infidels, which our author places under the head of Civil Laws, see 
chap. vi. All Mushms regnrd this as a religious duty, which they 
enumerate along with the four mentioned in the text. e, m. w. 

Ij8 TH± FKELIhflN/lRY discourse. [skc. I" 

tions whit'h are necessary preparations required before 
pi-avbr; 2. Ahas ; 3. Fastint,'; and, 4. The pilgrimage to 
Makkali Of each of these 1 shall speak in their order. 
The Qoii of Thnt both Muhammad and those among hi? followers 
tTuelLd who ore reckoned orthodox had and continue to have just 
and hue notions of God and his attributes (always except- 
ing tlieir obstinate and impious rejecting of tlie 1 unity), 
appears 30 plain from the Qurdn itself and all the Muham- 
madan divines, that it would be loss of time to refute those 
who «uppose the GoD of Muhammad to "be different from 
the true Goi». and only a lictitious deity or idol of his 
own creation.' * Nor shall I here enter into any of the 
Muhammadan controversies concerning the divine nature 
and attributes, because I shall have a more proper oppor- 
tunity of doing it elsewhere.^ 
belief hitho The Bxisteuce of angels and their purity are absolutely 
Bnyis'**" required to be believed in the Quran, and he in reckoned 
rejuire . ^^ infidel who denies there are such beings, or hate.s any 

• The Grtni of Islam is undoubtedly the only true God, inasmuch 
lis he is represeii toii as a jmrsonal God, the Creator and Preserver of 
all things, as a pmyer-hearing God, ind &b possessing many other 
characteristics of the God of the Bible. 

And yet "we have other ohjeoiions to tlie Muslim conception of 
God, besides that of its "impious rejecting of the Trinity." We 
object to its having cxalto.d His omnipotence over al' other attributes ; 
to its lowering of His character for holiness, iioihinji being said of 
God in the Quran which might not be said of a liwly man ; to iis 
limiting the goodness of God to Muslims, no matter what their 
character, relegating even infants of unbelievers to hell-fire ; to its 
sarrifi-^e of God'« justice by denying the necessity for any atonement 
for «;iii ; and, finally, to its limitation of the truth of God by its 
Mnctiricatii u • if a lie, if it only be spoken in self-defence or for the 
ftdvancemi'nt <jf I8l4m. It should liever be forgotten that the God, 
of islam is not merely the All.ih described in the Quran, but the God 
^Un spt;aks in every wonl, sylhible, and let'er of the Quran. We 
muisi not Iherefore separate >\ hat ur conceive to have special i-eference 
to r.od in its teaclimjij, Ircm what we mayconceivf to have 'i>^'on used 

* M.iri-act in Ale, p 102. * Sect VIll. 


of then.," OT asserts any di?^.tiric.tion of sexes among tlieni. 
They believe, them to have pure and subtle bodies, created 
oj' lire;- tbdt ihey neither eat nor drink, nor propagate tii-ur 
species; tliyi/ they have various forms and offices: some 
adoring God in dilTerent postures others hiinging praises to 
him, or inteicftding for mankind They hold that some of 
them are employed in writing down tije actions of men, 
others in carrvmsr the throne of C^OD and other services. 

The fonr angels whom tliey look on as more eminently Gabriel, 
in God's favour, and often mention on account oi" theAzri"^" 
oifices assigntrd them, are Gabriel, to whom they give ^y^^,\i^T 
several titles, particularly those of the holy spirit/ and ^'"*^^^ 
the Hugei of revelations,'' supposing him to be honoured 
hy God with a greater contideJiee than any other, and to 
be employed in writing down the.divine decrees;^ Michael, 
the fneud and protector of the Jew^a;® .Azra»il,* the angel 
of dear ii, who separates men's souls from their bodies ; ^ 

by Muhan)[3na<i for the. furtlievance of bib private or political purposes ; 
tor, according to Isi.'ai, Muhammad ^va^ but tlie mouthpiece of 
Divinity. If, thtu, we would pet a correct idea of the Allah of 
Islaui, we iwnal tai<r into account all that was done by Muhammad 
under tiic *aiKdion of the Quran. Let this be done, aud it will 
appear that what we i\ave said above is by no meau.s extravagant. 

A true conctiptioii cf I?iam and its doctrines can n^.ver be formed 
by looking at the Quraj) fr.>m tbe standpoint of the "unbelievers," 
who regard ii as ibe work of Muhammad ; hut by loolungat it as the 
Muslim does, who beheve-s it to be not only GodV word, but as bein;.; 
from etoTuify recoidod on the "Preserved l\ble," kept by tiie 
throne of God 

We would refer the reader to Pal grave s criticism on Muiiamniadan 
theology. Fo!' further inforniation. on this .^'Uljject. see his Trarela 
in Arabia. E. m. w. 

* Musilims j>ronoun',e the-e names Jibr.iil, Mikdil, and Izr^i'I. 

E. M. VV. 

' Qui an, c. 2, w >i.-34. ^ Vide Hyde, Hist. ltd. \<-i 

* Lbid.. c. 7, w 12, and c 38, v. Pc-rs , ]\ 262. 

77- *" Vide ibid., p. 271, and note in 

•' Ibid., r. 2, V. ••)7. Qurin. c. 2. vv, 97, &c, 

• Soe thp notes,. ibid., vv. 97, &c. '' Vide note, ibid., c 2, v. 30. 


and Israfil, whose office it will be to fwund the trumpet 
at the resurrection.^ The Muhammadans also believe 
that two guardian angels attend on e^ne^y man to observe 
and write down his actions,^ being changed every day, and 
therefore called al Maaqqibdt, or the angels who continu- 
al J y succeed one another. 
This doc- This whole doctrine conoemins ansels Muhammad and 

triue bor- 

rowed from his dlsciples have borrowed from the Jews, who learned 

tllO Jews. '■ ji oi> "1 -• n iTw. 

the names and ofiices ot those bemgs from the Persians, 
as themselves confess.^ The ancient Persians firmly 
believed the ministry of angels, and their superintendence 
over the afiairs of this world (as the Magians still do), and 
therefore assigued them, distinct charges and provinces, 
giving their names to their months and the days of their 
months. Gabriel they called Sarosh and Ptavan Bakhsh, or 
the giver of souls, in opposition to the contrary office of 
the angel of deatb, to whom among other names they 
gave that of Murdad, or the giver of death ; Michael they 
called Beshter, who according to them provides sustenance 
for mankind.* The Jews teach that the angels were 
created of fire ; * that they have several offices ; ® that they 
iiileroede for men,' and attend them." The angel of death 
they name Diima, and say he calls dying persons by their 
respective names at thear last hour,® 
PeHefcon- The devil, whom Muhammad name^ Iblis, from his 

cerning , , 

fciatun. despair, was once one of those angels who are nearest to 
God's presence, called Azazil,'^ and fell, according to the 

* QuTjtn, c 6, 13, and 86. The * Talmud Hieros. in Ro?h hashan. 
ofBctiB. of these four angels are de- * Vide Hide, ubi sup., c. 19 and 
scribed almost in the same manner 20. 

in the apoor^'phal Gospel of Bama- ^ Gemar. in Hagig. and Bereshit 

ban, where lit is 8ai«l that Gabriel rabbah, &c. Vide Psalm civ. 4, 

reveals the ffecrets of God, Michael * Yalkut hadash. 

combats against hip enemies, Raphael ' Genmr. in Shebet, and Bava 

receives the sonk of those who die, Bathra, &c. 

and Uriel is to call every one to ' Midrash, Yalkut Shemlini. 

indjj^ment on tho last day. See the • Gcmar. Berachoth. 

Menugiana, torn. iv. p. 333. ^" Vide It eland, De Rel. Moh., p. 

* tannin, c. 50. V. i6- I&9, Ac. 


doctrine of the Quran, for refusing to pay homage to 
Adam at the command of GoD.^ 

Besides angels and devils, the Muhammadans are concerning 
taught by the Qur4n to belieVe in an intermediate order 
of creatures, which they call Jin or Genii, created also of 
fire,2 but of a grosser fabric than angels, since they eat 
and drink, and propagate their species, and are subject 
to death .^ Some of these are supposed to be good and 
others bad, and capable of future salvation or damnation, 
as men are ; whence Muhammad pretended to be sent for 
the conversion of genii as well as men.* The Orientals 
pretend that these genii inhabited the world for many 
ages before Adam was created, under the government of 
several successive princes, who all bore the common 
name of Solomon ; but falling at length into an almost 
general corruption, Iblis was sent to drive them into ci 
remote part; of the earth, there to be confined ; that some 
of that generation still remaining, were by Tahmurath, 
one of the ancient kings of Persia, who waged war 
against them, forced to retreat ii?.to the famous mountains 
of Qaf. Of which successions and wars thev have manv 
fabulous and romantic stories. They also make different 
ranks and degrees among these beings (if they be not 
rather supposed to be of a different species), 'Some being 
called absolutely Jin, some Pari or fairies, some Dev or 
giants, others Taqwims or fates * 

The Muhammadan notions concerning these genii agree Agrees with 
almost exactly with what the Jews write of a sort of boiSin 
demons called Shedfm, whom some fancy to have been ^^'^^^' 
begotten by two angels, named Aza and Azael, on Naamah 
the daughter of Lamech, before the Flood.® However, 
the Sheditn, they tell us, agree in three things with the 

1 Qurdn, c. 2, vv.31-.34. See also * Vide Qurdn, c. 55, v. ji ; c. J2, 
c. 7, V. 12; c. 38, V. 77, &c. vv. I-14; andc. 74. 

2 Q'ardn. c. 55, V. 14. See the ■ See D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient 
note.s Lbere, pp. 369, 820, &c. 

=WAl^lu(idin,mQur^,c.2,v. lOi, * In Itbro Zohar. 
and c. i8jV- 48. 



minister i no- augels, for that, like them, they have wings, 
and tly from cue end of the world, to the oilier, and have 
some knowledge of futurity ; and in tlirte tilings they 
agree with men, like whom they eat and drink, are propa- 
gated, and die.^ I'l^ey also say that some of them believe 
in the law of Moses, and are consequently good, and thac 
others of them are infidels and reprobate?.- 
Thcformer As to the Sciiptiires, the Miiharamadans are taught by 
tlie (^^uran that God, in divers ages of the world, gave 
revelations of his will in writing to several prophets, the 
whole and every word of which it is absolutely necessary 
for a good Muslim to believe. The number of these 
sacred books were, according to them, one hundred and 
four. Of .which ten were given to Adam, fifty to Seth, 
thirty to Idris or Enoch, ten to Abraham ; and the other 
four, being the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the Gospel, and 
the Quran, were successively deliA:ered to Moses, David, 
Jesus, and Muhammad ; which last being the seal of tlie 
prophets, those revelations are now closed, and no more 
are to be expected. All these divine books, except the 
four last, they agree to be now entirely lost, and their 
contents unknown, though the Sabians have several 
books which they attribute to some of the antediluvian 
prophets. And of those four, the Pentateucli, Psalms, and 
Gospel, they say, have undergone so many alterations and 
corruptions, that though there may possibly be some part 
of the true Word of Goi) therein, yet no credit is to be 
given to the present copies in the hands of the Jews 
and Christians. The Jews in particular are fTequenciy 
lellected on in the Quran for falsifying and corrupting 
their copies of their law;* and some instances oi such 

* A caj-felul stddy of th<s passages dliudfd tr, hete will show that 
tlie riUeritiion.- anH '"corruptiuua ctiarged ag«nis"^ Jews and ^.'hri^- 
tians in the Quran do nolieler to the tert oi theii Scriptures. Muir 

• Gema)H in Hri%igp. Igrat Baaie hayyinr.. c. i^. 


pretended corruptions!, botli in that book and the two Alleged cor. 
others, are produced hy Muhammadan writers, wherein •icwih'an'i 
they merely follow tl^eir own prejudices, and tiie fabulous scriptur^>8 
accounts of spurious legends. "Whether tliey have any 
copy of- the Pentateuch among them different from that 
of th.e Jews or noi, I aiu not entirely satisfied, since a 
person who travelled into the East was told that they hud 
the books of Moses, though very much coiTupied ; ^ but T 
know nobody that has ever seen them. However, they 
certainly have and privattly read a book which they call 
the Psalms of David in Avabic and Persian, to which are 
added some prayers of Moses, Jonas, and others.^ This 
Mr. Reland supposes to De a translation from our copies 
(though no doubt -Palsified in mere places than one) ; but 
M. D'Herbelot says it contains ni)t the same Psalms which 
are in our Pbalter, being no more than an extract from 
thence mixed with other very different pieces.^ The 
easiest way to reconcile these two learned gentlemen 
is to presume that they speak of different copies. The 
Muhammadans have also a Ciospel in Arabic, attributed Mnsiirr. 
to St. Barnabas, wherein the history of Jesns Christ iscospei'*" 
related in a manner very different from what we find u\ '"■"*^'''' 
the true Gospels, and correspondent to those traditions 
which Muhummad has followed in his Qui-^n.* Of this 
Gospel the Moriseues in Africa have a translation in 

ill his treatise on The Tcsiimony livrne by the Coran to the Jemsh and 
Chrobtian Scriptures^ clearly proves that — ••The strongest and most 
uuequisocal testimony iis boinp. V^y the Coran to th« Jewish arid 
CLrisdan Scnj'rares as current in the time of Mnhomet that'be 
evidence, extends equally to their genuineness and auliiorit-y ; aud 
that there is not a hint anywhere to be iound of their coucealtnt'iiL 
or interpolation.'' — Life of M'ofwmet. vol. ii. p. 207. £. M. ^. 

* See page 10 Prefi^ce to Pre huii nary Discourse. 

• TfiTV s Voyageto trie East In- ^ A copv of this kind, he tells us. 

;Ue*i. p 277. is in the library of the Dnke of 

^ De Flel. Mohani., p. 23, Tuscauy. Bibl. Orieut . p. 924 


Spaniah;! and there is in the library of Prince Eugene 
of Savoy a manuscript of some antiquity containing 
an Italian translation of the same Gospel,^ made, it is 
to be supposed, for the use of renegades. This book 
appears to be no original forgery of the Muhammadans, 
though they hav^ no doubt interpoUted and altered 
it since, the better to serve their purpose; and in parti- 
cular, instead of the Paraclete or Comforter,^ they have 
in this apocryphal Gospel inserted the word Periclyte, 
that is, the famous or illustrious, by whicli they pretend 
their prophet was foretold by name^ that being the signifi- 
cation of Muhammad in Arabic ; * and this they say to, 
justify that passage of the Quran ^ where Jesus Christ is 
formally asserted to have foretold his coming, uuder his 
other name of Ahmad, which is derived from the same 
root as Muhammad^ and of the same import* From the§e 
Muslim use or somc othcr forgeries of the same stamp it is that the 
oospeifl. Muhammadans quote several passages of which there are 
not tlie least footsteps in the New Testament. But after 
all, we must not hence infer that the Muhammadans, 
much less all of them, hold these copies of theirs to be 
the ancient and genuine Scriptures themselves. If any 
argue, from the corruption which they insist has happened 
to the Pentateuch and Gospel, that the Quran rnay 
possibly be corrupted also, they answer that God has pro- 
mised that Ke will take care of the latter, and preserve 
it from any addition or diminution ; * but that he left 
the two other to the care of men. However, they confess 
there are some various readings in the Quran, ^ as has been 

Besides the books above mentioned, the Muhammadans 
also take notice of the writings of Daniel and several other 

' ReUiid, ubi Mupra. * See Tolaud's Kazarenus, the 

* Meiuigian, torn. fr. p. 321, first eight chapters. 

Itc. ^ Cap. 61, V. 6. 

' John xiv. 16, 26, XV. 26, Andxvi, • Qurin, a 15, v. 9. 

7, oofiipated with Luke xxiv. 49. ^ R«Iand ubi ^upru, pp. 34, 27. 



prophets, and eveii make quotations thence ; but these 
they do not believe to be divine scripture, or of any 
authority in matters of religion.^ 

The number of the prophets which have been from time Thepro- 
to time sent by God into the world amounts to no less Lsed by ''^ 
than 224,000, according to one Muhammadan tradition, ^^^' 
or to 124,000 according to another; among whom 313 
were apostles, sent with special commissions to reclaim 
mankind from infidelity and superstition, and six of 
them brought new laws or dispensations, which succes- 
sively abrogated the preceding : these were Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. All the pro- 
phets in general the Muhammadans believe to have been 
free from great sins and errors of consequence, and pro- 
fessors of one and the same religion, that is, Islam, not- 
withstanding the different laws and institutions which 
they observed. They allow of degrees among them, and 
liold some of them to be more excellent and honourable than 
others.2 The first place they give to the revealers and esl:ab- 
lishers of now dispensations, and the next to the apostles. 

In this great number of prophets they not only reckon 
divers patriarchs and persons named in Scripture, but not 
recorded to have been prophets (wherein the Jewish and 
Christian writers have sometimes led the way^), as Adam, 
Seth, Lot, Ismail, Nun, Joshua, <fec.j and introduce some 
of them under different names, as Enoch, Heber, and 
Jethro, who are called in the Qurdn Idris, Hud, and 
Shuaib, but several others whose very names do not 
appear in Scripture (though they endeavour to find some 
persons there to fix them on), as Salih, Khidhar, Dhu'l Kifl, 
&C Several of their fabulous tradition? concerning these 
prophets we shall occasionally mention in the notes on 
the Quran. 

^ Reland, uoi supra, p. 4 1. 
2 Qariin, c. 2, v. 253, &a 
' Thus Heber is said to have been 
a prophet by the Jews (Seder 01am., 

p. 2), and Adam by Epiphanius 
(Adv. Haeres., p. 6). See aicio 
Jo&eph., Aut, 1. I, c. 2. 


Mubiiiiimwf As Muhammad ackiiowl<idged the divine autliority of 

thbiubioin the Penialeuch, Fsalujs, aud Gospel, he often appeals to 

miSioJ.^"* the consouuijcy of the Quran with those writings, aud to 

the prophecies which he pretended were therein conceri)-. 

ing himself, as proofs of his mission; and he frequently 

charges the Jews and Christians with stifling' tlie pa.-sages 

which bear witness to him.^ His followers also fail not to 

produce several texts even from our present copies of tlie 

Old aud New Testament to support their master's cause.^* 

Doctrine of The ucxt article of faith required by the Quran is the 

j^cJoo"'^ belief of a general resurrection and a future judgment. 

But before we consider tlie Muhammadan tenets in those 

points, it will be proper to mention what they are taught 

to believe concerning the intermediate state, both of the 

body and of the soul, after death. 

* For example, Deut. xviii. 15-1,8, where the Lord promises to 
raise ujj a prophet for the children of lHra,e\ from among their breth- 
ran. Muslims argue that the T.sraelit^s had no brethren excepting 
the Ittinailites, from whom Muhammad was tlosceuded. This argu- 
ment is strengthened, they »;ty, by the further statement that this 
prophet, should be like untc Moses. Again, Deut. xxxiv. 10, declares 
that "there arose no prophet in Isradhke unto Moses ; '' Ilabakkuk 
iii. 3 f^ays, '* The Holy One came trom Mount Paran." Mount Parau 
IB declared by the Muslims to be Makkah ! 

The Hebrew word IDn. translated desire in Hag. ii. 7. is said to 
be the same as the name Muhammad. The same word is trans- 
lated beloved in Cant, ii 3. Wherefore we are called upon to behold 
the very name of the Arabian prophet in ihe Bible ! 

When we read in Isaiah, in the Soptua|j;int version, chap. xxi. 7, 
that he saw " two riders, one on au ass and one k}^ aiatmel," we are 
to uudorstand the rider on the ass to refer to Jesus, who so entered 
Jerusalem, while the rider on a cauiel refers to Muhammad. AVben 
John the Baptist was asked if he "vvero the Christ, or Elijah, or 
** that prophot," Muhammadans claim that the woitl^i " that pro- 
phet" refer to Muhammad, occ, &c. See Essays on the Life of Mu- 
hamiiiad, by Syed Ahmed Khun Bahadr, C.S.L. e. m. w. 

^ '".hiran, r 2, vv. 41, 78 ; c. 3, IT. Life of Mahouiet., and move by 

* Somrot tin pe texts are produced Marracci iu Alcor., p. 26, &.c. 
by Dr. Trideaux at the end of his 


When a corpse is laid in the grave, they eay he is concerning 
received by nn angel, who gives him nutice of the coining after death. 
of the two examiners, who are two black, livid angels, of 
a terrible appearance, numed Munkir and Nakir. These 
order ti^e dead person to sit upright, and examine him 
concerninc^ his faith, as to the unity of GoD and the mis- 
:i\on of Muhammad : if be answer rightly, they suffer the 
body to rest in peace, and it is refreshed by the air of 
paradise; but if not, they beat him on the temples with 
iron maces, till he roars out for anguish so loud, that he 
is heard by all from east to West, except meii and genii. 
Then they press the earth on the corpse, which is gnav/ed 
aiud stung till the resurrection by ninety-nine dragonc, 
with seven heads each ; or, as others say, their sins will 
become venoinous beasts, the grievous ones stinging like 
dragons, the smaller like scorpions, and the others like 
serpents : circumstances which some understand in a figu- 
rative sense. ^ 

The examination of the sepulchre is not only founded 
on an express tradition of Muhammad, but is also plainly 
hinted at, though not directly taught, in the Quran,^ as 
the commentators agree. It is therefore believed by the 
ortaodoT Muhammadans in general, who take care to hav« 
their graves made hollow, that they may sit up with more 
ease while they are examined by the angels ; '^ but is utterly 
rejected by the sect of the Mutazilites, and perhaps by 
some others. 

These notions Muhammad certainly borrowed from the This boH«f 
Jews, among whom they were very anciently received.* from the 
They say that the angel of death coming and sitting on ' 
the grave', the soul immediately enters the body and raises 
it on his feet; that ha then examines the departed person, 
and strikes him with a chain half of iron and half of hre : 

' Al (Jhazdli. Tide Poc, not. in ^ Smith, De Morib. et Iiistit. Tur- 

Port Mosis, p. 241, &C. rn,r. Ep. 2, p. 57. 

* Cap. S, V. 52, and c. 47, v. 29, * Vide Hyde, in Noris ad Bobov. 

Slc. de Yiait. -.^^giot.., p. tp. . 


at tbe first blow all. his limbs are loosened, at the second 
his bones are scattered, -which are <:cathered together a^raiii 
by angels, and the third stroke reduces the body to dust 
and ashes, and it returns into tlie grave. This rack or 
torture they call HibbM haqqeher, or the heating of the 
sepulchre, and pretejid that all men in general must undergo 
it, except only those who die on the evening of the Sab- 
bath, or have dwelt in the land of Israel.^ 

If it be objected to the Muhammadans that the cry of 
the persons under such examination has never been heard, 
or if they be asked how those can undergo it whose bodies 
are burnt or devoured by beasts or birds, or otherwise 
consumed, without burial; they answer, that it is very 
possible notwithstanding, since men are not able to per- 
ceive what is transacted on the other side the grave, and 
that it is sufficient to restore to life any part of the body 
which is capable of understanding the questions put by 
the angels.^ 
The stato of As to the soul, they hold that when it is separated from 
varimw" '* ' the body by the angel of death, who performs his office with 
opinions. ^^^^ ^^^ geutlcuess towards the good and with violence 
towards the wicked,' it enters into that state which they 
call Al Bai^akh,^ or tht interval between death and the 
resurrection. If the departed person was a believer, they 
say two angels meet it, who convey it to heaven, that its 
place there may be assigned, according to its merit and 
degree. For they distinguish the souls of the faithful 
into three classes : the first of prophets, whose souls are 
admitted into paradise immediately ; the second of mar- 
tyrs, whose spirits, according to a tradition of Muhammad, 
rest in the crops of green birds which eat of the fruits and 
drink of the rivers of paradise; and the third of other 

^ R. Elias, in Titihbi See also say the same, in Nishuiat bayim,, f 

Buxtorf, Synag. Judaic, aud Lexic. 77. 

Talmud. •* Vide Qurdn, c. 23, v. loi, and 

^ Vide PoQ., iibi sup. not. ib. 

' Qnrin, c 79, v. i. The Jews 


believers, concerning the state of whose souls before the 
resurrection there are various opinions. For, i. Some say 
th«y stay near the sepulchres, witli liberty, however, of 
going wherever they please; which they coufirni from 
Muhammad's manner of saluting them at their graves, 
and his affirming that the dead heard those salutations as 
well as tbe living, though they could not answer. WJience 
perhaps proceeded the custom of visiting tbe tombs of rela- 
tions, so common among tbe Muhammadans.^ 2. Others 
imagine they are with Adam in tbe lowest heaven, and 
also support their opinion by the authority of their pro- 
phet, who gave out that in his return from the upper 
heavens in his pretended night journey, he saw there the 
souls of those who were destined to paradise on the right 
hand of Adam, and of those who were condemned to hell 
on his left.* 3. Others fancy the souls of believers remain 
in the well Zamzam, and those of infidels in a certain well 
in the province of Hadramaut, called Burhiit; but this 
opinion is branded as heretical. 4. Others say they stay 
near the graves for stiven days; but that whither they go 
afterwards is uncertain. 5 Others that they are all in 
the trumpet whose sound is to raise the dead. 6. And 
others that the souls of the good dwell in the forms of 
white birds under the throne of God.'* As to the condi- 
tion of the souls of the wicked, besides the opinions that 
have been already mentioned, tlie more orthodox hold that 
they are uU'ered by the angels to iieaven, from whence 
being repulsed as stinidng and filthy, they are offered to 
the earth, and being also refused a place there, are carried 
down to the seventh earth, and thrown into a dungeon, 
which they call Sajin, under a green rock, or, according to 
a tradition of Muhammad, under the devil's jaw,^ to be 

^ Poc., ubi sup., 247. throne 6f g'lory. Vide ibi<3.. p. 156. 

^ Ibid., p. 248. Conk<onant thereto ^ Ibid., p. 250. 

arc the Jewish actions of the souls * Al .Baidhawi. Yide Poc, ubi 

of tbe just being on high, under the sup., p 252. 



Th« resur- 
rection of 

the body : 
inions oi 



there tormented till tliey are called up to oe joined again 
to their bodies. 

Though some among the Muhammadans have thought 
that the resurrection will be merely spiritual, and no more 
than the returning of the soul to the place whence it first 
came (an opinion defended by Ibn Sina,^ and called by 
some the opinion of the philosophers) ; ^ and others, who 
allow man to consist of body only, that it will be merely 
corporeal ; the received opinion is, that both body and 
soul will be raised, and their doctors argue strenuously for 
the possibility of the resurrecticDn of the body, and dispute 
with great subtlety concerning the manner of it.^ But 
Muhammad has taken care to preserve one part of the 
body, whatever becomes of the rest, to serve, for a basis of 
the future edifice, or rather d. leaven for the mass which is 
to be joined to it. For he taught that a man's body was 
entirely consumed by the earth, except only the bone 
called al Ajb, which we name the os coccygis, or rump- 
bone ; and that as it was the first formed in the human 
body, it will also remain uncorrupted till the last day, as 
a seed from whence the whole is to be renewed : and this 
he said would be effected by a forty days' rain which 
God should send, and which would cover the earth to tho 
height of twelve cubits, and cause the bodies to sprout 
forth like plants.* Herein also is Muhammad beholden 
to the Jews, who say the same things of the bone Luz,^ 
excepting that what he attributes to a great rain will be 
effected, according to them, by a dew impregnating the 
dust of th© eart}h, 

'J.'he time of the resurrection the Muhammadans allow 
to be a perfect secret to all but God alone : the aiigel 
Gabriel himself acknowledging his ignorance on this point 

^ Or, as we corruptly name liiin, * Idem, ibid., p. 255, &c. 

2 Kenz al Poc., ubi sup., p. 117, &o, 

• Vid© Poe., ubi «up., p. 234. 


when Muhammad asked him about it. However, they say 

the approach of that day may be known from certain signs signs ot the 

1-1 . mt • t T • • -I resurrection 

which are to precede it. These signs they distinguish day 
into two sorts — the lesser and the greater — whicli 1 shall 
briefly enumerate after Dr. Pocock.^ 

The lesser signs are : r. The decay of faith among men.^ Le-taer sign? 
2. The advancing of the meanest persons to eminent dig- proach. 
nity. 3. That a maid-servant sliall become the mother of 
her mistress (or master), by which is meant either that 
towards the end of the world men shall be much given 
to sensuality, or that the Muhammadans shall then take 
many captives. 4. Tumults and seditions. 5. A war 
with the Turks. 6. Great distress in the world, so that a 
man when he passes by another's grave shall say, "Would 
to God I were in his place." 7. That the provinces of 
Irak and Syria shall refuse to pay their tribute. And, 8. 
That the buildings of Madina shall reach to Ahab or 

The greater signs are : 

1. The stin's rising in the west, which some have ima- oreaUr 
gined it originally did.^ °'^'''^' 

2. The appearance of the beast, which shall rise out of 
the earth, in the temple of Makkah, or on Mount Safti, or 
in the territory of Tayif, or some other place. This beast 
they say is to be sixty cubits high: though others, not 
satisfied with so small a size, will have her reach to the 
clouds and to heaven when her head only is out; and that 
she will appear tor three daiys, but show only a third pan 
of her body. They describe this monster, as to h^r form, to 
be a compound of various species, having the head of a bull, 
the eyes of a hog, the ears of an elephant, the horns of a 
stag, the neck of an ostrich, the breast of a lion, the colour 
of a tiger, the back of a cat, the tail of a ram, the legs of 
a camel, and the voice of an ass. Some say this beast is 

^ Vide Poc, nbi Bup., p. 25 8, &c. ^ See Whistons Thf.ory of the 
^ See Luke xviii. 8. Earth, bk. ii. p. 98, &c. 


to appear three times in several places, and that she will 
bring with her the rod of Moses and th-r^ seal of Soloirjou; 
and being so swift that noije can overtake or escape her 
will wiih the first strike all the believers on the face and 
mark them with the word Mi'inji^i, ic, believer; and with 
the latter will mark the unbeHevers, on the face likewise, 
with the word Kalir, i.e., infidel, that every perr^on may 
be known for what he really is. They add that the same 
beast is to demonfifcrate the vanity of all religions except 
Islam, and to speak Arabic. All this stufi' seeni3 to be 
the result of a confuted idea of the beast in the Revela- 

3. War with the Greeks, and the taking of Constan- 
tinople by 70,CX)0 of the posterity of Isaac, who shall not 
win that city by force of arms, but the walls shall fall 
down while they cry out, " There is no god but God : God 
is most great ! '' As they are dividing the spoil, news will 
come to them of the appearance of Antichrist, whereupon 
they shall leave all, aod return back. 

4 The coming of Antichrist, whom the Muhammaclans 
call al Masi'h al T)ajjal, i.e., the false or lying Christ, and 
simply al T>ajjal, Ho is to be one-eyed, and marked on 
the forehead with tlu- letters K.F.JR., signifying Kafir, or 
infidel. They say that the Jews give him tho name of 
IVIessiah lien David, and pretend he is to come m the last 
d«iys and to be lord both of land ami sea, and that he will 
restore the kingdom to them. According to th?, traditions 
of Muhammad, he is to appear first between Irak {ind Syria, 
or according to others, in the province of Khurasan; they 
add that he ie to ride on an ass, that he will be followed 
•by 70,cX":>o Jews of Ispahan, and continue on earth forty 
days, of which one will be equal in length to a year, another 
to a m(jnth. another to a week, and the rest will be comniou 
days ; that he is to lay waste all places, but will not <?nter 
Makkali or, whicii are to be guarded by angi^lsj 

' Ch;ip. xiji. 


and that at len^h L« will be slain by Jesua, who is to 
encounter him at th6 gate of Lud. It is said that Mu- 
hammad foretold several Antichrists, to the number of 
about thirty, but one of greater note than the rest 

5. The descent of Jesus on earth. They pretend that 
he is to descend near the white tower to the east of 
Damascus when the people are returned from tlie taking 
of Constantinople i that he is to embrace the Muhani- 
madan reJigJon ma^Ty a. wife, get childien, kill Antichrist, 
and at length die after forty years' or, according to others, 
twenty-four vearsV continuance en earth. Under liim 
thay say there will be- great s<icarity and plenty in the 
world, all hatred and malice being laid aside; when lionii 
and camels, bears and sheep, shall live in peace, and a 
child shall play with serpents unhurt.^ 

6. War. with the Jews,, of whom the Muhanimadans 
are to make a religious slaughter, the very trees and stones 
discovering such of them as hide themselves, except only 
the tree called Gharkad. which is the tree of the Jews. 

The eruption of Gog nnd Magog, or, as they are 
called in the East, Yajuj and Majuj, of whom many 
things are related in the Quran ^ and tlie tradiiiouo of 
Muhammad. These barbarians, they tell us, having passed 
the lake of Tiberias, which the vanguard of their vast army 
will drink dry, will come to Jerusalem, and there greatly 
distress Jesus and his companions; till at his request 
God will destroy them, and fill the earth with tUeir car- 
cases, which after some time God will send birds to carry 
away, at the prayers of Jesus and his followers. Their 
bows, arrows, and quivers tho ^fuslims will burn for 
seven years togelher ; * and at last GoD will send a rain, 
to cleanse the earth, and to make it fertile. 
8. A smoke which shall fill the whole earth. ^ 

^ Al Thaldbl, in Quran, c. 4. * See Qurau, c. 44, v. lOj. and the 

* See Isfiiah xi. 6, &c. note.s thereon. Compare also Joel ii. 
^ Cap. 18, V. 96, and 2T, v. 96. 20, and Kev. ix. 2. 

* See Ezek. xxxix. 9 ; Rev. xx, 3. 


9. An eclipse of the moon. Muhammad is reported to 
have said tliat there would" he three eclipses hefore the 
last hour; one to he seen in the East, another in the West, 
and tlie third in Arabia. 

10. The returning of the Arabs to the worship of .u I^dt 
a'jd,al Uzza and the rest of their ancient idols, after the 
decease of every o le in whoso heart there was faith equal 
to a grain of mustard-seed, none but the very w^orst of men 
being left alive. For God, they say, will send a cold 
odoriferous wind, blowing from Syria Damascena, which 
shall sweep away the «ouls of all the faithful, and the 
Quran itself, so that men will remain in the grossest 
ignorance for a hundred years. 

11. The discoveiy of a vast heap of ^old and silver by 
the retreating of the Euphrates, which will be the destruc- 
tion of many. 

12. The demolition of the Kaabah or temple of Makkah 
by the Ethiopians.^ 

13. The speaking of beasts and inanimate things. 

14. The breaking out of lire in the province of Hijaz ; 
or, according to otheis, in Yaman. 

15. The appearance of a man of the descendants of 
Qahtan, who shall drive men before him with his stuff. 

16. The coming of the Mahdf or director, concerning 
whom Muhammad prophesied that the world should not 
have an end till one of his own family ahould govern the 
Arabians, wliose name should be tlie same with his own 
name, and whose father's nam6 should also be the same 
with his father's name, who should fill the earth with 
righteousness.* This person tlie Shiites believe to be now 

* An account of a remarkable movement among Indian Muslim?, 
aroused during the eleventh century (a.h.) by the p.xpected advent 
of the Imdm Mahdi, is given in F. Talboya AVheoler's History of 
India, vol. iv. part i. pp. 1 51-153. E. M. w. 

^ See post, iu this section. 



alive, and concealed in some secret place till the time of 
hi.s manifestation ; for they suppose him to be no other 
than the labt of the twelve Imams, named Muhammad 
Abu'l Qasim, as their prophet was, and the son of Hasan 
al Askari, the eleventh of that succession. He was born 
at Sarmanrai in the 255th year of the Hijra.^ From this 
tradition, it is to be presumed, an opinion pretty current 
among the Christian^ took its rise, that the Muhammadsins 
are in expectation of their prophet's return. 

17. A wind which shall sweep away the souls of all 
who have but a orain of faith in their bearti, as has been 
meDtioned under -the tenth sign. 

These are the greater signs, which, according to their 
doctrine, are to precede the resurrection, but still leave 
the hour of it uncertain : for the immediate sign of its 
being come will be the first blast of the, trumpet, which The blast 
they believe will be sounded three times. The first they rection^'"'"^" 
call the blast of consternation, at the hearing of which all ™"'^'' 
creatures in heaven and earth shall be struck with terror, 
except those whom God shall please to exempt from it. 
The effects attributed to this first sound of the trumpet Kffects of 

the urstr 

are very wonderful; for they say the earth will be shaken, wast. 
and not only all buildings, but the very mountains 
levelled; thai the heavens shall melt, the sun be darkened, 
the stars fall, on the death of the angels, who, as some 
imagine, hold them suspended between heaven and earth, 
and the sea shall be troubled and dried up, or, according 
to others, turned into flames, the sun, moon, and stars 
being thrown into it : the Quran, to express the greatness 
of the terror of that day, adds that w6men who give suck 
shall abandon the care of their infants, ^nd even the she- 
camels which have gone ten months with young (a most 
valuable part of the substance of that nation) shall be 
utterly neglected: A further effect of this blast will be 
that concourse of beasts mentioned in the Qurdn,^ though 

^ Vide D'Herbel, Bibl. Orient., p. 531. « Cap, 8r. v. 5. 



ibe iMtcoud 

Effects of 
the tliird 

some doubt whether it be to precede, the vfesurrectioji or 
not. Tjiey who suppose it will precede, think that all 
kinds of animals, forgetting theii' respective natural fierce- 
ness and tinjidiry, will run together into one place, being 
terrified by the sound of the trumpet and the sudden 
shock of nature. 

The Muliammadans believe that this first blast will be 
followed by a second, which they call tlie hlast of exaviina- 
tion} when all creatures, both in heaven and earth, shall 
die or be annihilated, except those which Gop sball please 
to exempt fK»m the common fate ; ^ and this, they say, 
shall happen in the twinkling of an eye, nay, in an instant, 
nothing surviving except God alone, with paradise and 
hell, and the inhabitants of those two places, and the 
throne of glory.^ The last who shall die will be the angel 
of death. 

Forty years after this will be heard the Mad ofresurrec- 
tioTbi when the trumpet shall be sounded the third time by 
Israfil, wh<>, together with Gabriel and Michael, w^ill be 
previously restored to life, and standing on the rock of the 
temple of Jerusalem,* &hall, at God's command, call to- 
gether all the dry and rotten bones, and other dispersed 
parts of the bodies, and the very hairs, to judgment. This 
a&gel having, by the di^vino order, set the trumpet to his 
mouth, and called together all the souls from al] parts, 
will throw them into his trumpet, from whence, on his 
giving the last sound, at the command of God, they will 
fly forth like bees, and fill the whole space between heaven 
and earth, and then repair to their respective bodies, which 

^ Several writers, however, make 
Jin diiitiuction between tbia blast and 
th« first, supposing the trumpet will 
pound but twice. See the notes to 
Qmiln, c. 39, v. 68. 

^ Qurin, c. 30, v. 14. 

^ To theae some add the pptrit 
who bears the waters on which Lho 
throne is placed, the preserved table 
wherein the decrees of God lire 

registered,' and tbs pen wherewith 
they are written ; all which things 
the Muhammadaus iniagii 9 were 
created before the world. 

* In this circumHt.'ince the M.O- 
h&muiadans follow the Jewu, who 
also agree that the trumpet will 
sound more than once. Vide H. 
Bechai in Blur hattorah, and Otioth 
ihel E. Akiba. 


the opening earth will suffer to arise ; and the first who 
shall so arise, according to a tradition of Muhammad, will 
be himself. For this hirtk the earth will be prepared by 
the rain above mentioned, which is to fall continually for 
forty years,^ and will resemble the seed of a man, and be 
supplied from the vi^ater under the throne of God, which 
is called, living water ; by the efficacy and virtue of which 
the dead bodies shall spring forth from their graves, as 
they did in their mother's womb, or as corn sprouts forth 
by common rain, till they become perfect ; after which 
breath will be breathed into them, and they will sleep in 
their sepulchres till they are raised to life at the last 

As to tlje length of the day of judgment, the Quran in Length of 
one place telh us that it will last 1000 years,^ and in an- uieut-day. 
other 50,000.^ To reconcile this apparent contradiction, 
the commentators use several shifts: some saying they 
know not what measure of time God intends in those pas- 
sages ; others, that these fonns of speaking are figurative 
and not to be strictly taken, and were designed only to 
express the terribieness of that day, it being usual for the 
Arabs to describe what they dislike as of long continuance, 
and what they like as the contrary ; and otiiers suppose 
them spoken only in reference to the difficulty of the 
business of the day, which, if GoD should, commit to any 
of his creatures, they would not be able to go through it 
in so many thousand yeajs ; to omit some other opinions 
whicli we may take n&tice of elsewhere. 

Having said so much in relation to the time of the 
resurrection, let us now see who are to be raised from the 
dead, in ^^hat manner and form they shall be raised, in 
what place they shall be asseinbled, and to what end, 
accordiuo to the doctrine of the Muhammadans. 

' Elsewhere (sfcQ eupra p. 130) this to fall during the whole interval 
rain is aaid to contiime only forty between the seoopfi and third blasts, 
days ; but it rather seems that it is ^ QurAu, c. 3"2, v. 4. 

loKi. c. 70. y. 4. 


Resurrec- That the resurrectioii will be general, and extend to all 
general. creaturcs, ooth angels, genu, men, and animals, is the 
received opinion, which they support by the authority of 
the Quran, though that passage which is produced to prove 
the resurrection of brutes be otherwise interpreted by 
Manner of The manner of their resurrection will be very different. 

the rising , ^ ' •, i ^ cit" 

of the dead. Those who are destmed to be partakers of eternal happi- 
ness will arise in honour and security; and those who are 
doomed to misery, in disgrace and under dismal appre- 
hensions. As to mankind, they say that they will be 
raised perfect in all their parts and members, and in the 
same a1;ate as they came out of their mother's wombs, 
tliat is, barefooted, naked, and uncircumcised ; which cir- 
cumstances when Muhammad was telling his wife Ayesha, 
she, fearing the rules cf modesty might be thereby violated, 
objected that it would be very indecent for men and 
women to look upon one another in that condition ; but 
he answered her, that the business of the day would be 
too weighty and serious to allow thfnn the making use of 
that liberty. Others, however, allege the authority of 
their prophet for a contrary opinion as to their nakedness, 
and pretend he asserted that the dead should arise dressed 
in the same clothes in which they died;^ unless we inter- 
pret these words, as some do, not so much of the outward 
dress of the body, as the inward clothing of the mind, 
and understand thereby that every person will rise again 
in the same state as to his faith or infidelity, his know- 
ledge or Ignorance, his good or bad works. Muhammad 
is also said to have further taught, by another tradition, 
that mankind shall be assembled at the last day distin- 
guished into three classes. The first, of those who go on 

' See the iiotfes to QutAn, c, 8i, rise clothed, it is no wonder the 

V. 5, and BVipia, page 136. pioxis who are buried in their clothes 

' In this also they follow their should rise with them. Gemar. 

old guides, the Jews, who .say that Sanhodr., foL 90. 
if the wheat which is sown naked 


foot; the second, of those wlio ride; and the thinj, of 
those who creep groveUirig with their faces on the ground. 
The first class is to consist of those believers whose good 
works have been few; th^, second of those who are in 
greater honour with GoD, and more acceptable to him ; 
whence Ali affirmed that the pious when they come forth 
from their sepulchres shall, find r^ady prepared for them 
white- winged camels with saddles of gold, wherein are 
to be observed some footsteps of the doctrine of the ancient 
Arabians ; ^ and the third class, they say, will be composed 
of the infidels, whom GoD shall cause to make their ap- 
pearance with their faces on the earth, blind, dumb, and 
deaf. But the ungodly will not be thus only distinguished ; 
for, according to a tradition of the prophet, there will be 
ten sorts of Avicked men on whom God shall on that day 
fix certain discretory remarks. The first will appear in 
the form of apes; these are the professors of Zendicism : 
the second in that of swine ; these are they who have 
been greedy of filthy lucre and enriched themselves by 
public oppression : the third will be brought with their 
heads reversed and their feet distorted; these are the 
usurers : the fourth >ill wander about blind ; these are 
unjust judges; the fifth will be deaf, dumb, and blind, 
understanding nothing; these are they who glory in their 
own works : the sixth will gnaw ^-heir tongues, which will 
hang down upor their breasts, corrupted blood flowing 
from their mouths like spittle, so that everybody shall 
detest them ; these are the learned men and doctors, whose 
actions contradict their sayings: the seventh will have 
their hands and feet cut off; theSe are they who have 
injured their neighbouTs : the eighth will be fixed to the 
trunks of' palm trees or, stakes of wood; these are the 
false accusers and informers : the ninth will stink worse 
than a corrupted corpse ; these are they who have indulged 
their passions and voluptuous appetites, but refused Goo 

^ ;3ee supra, S«ct. I., p. 43. 



The place 
of final 

End of the 



State of the 

f lending 

such part of their wealth as was duo to liim : the tenth 
wilJ b^ clothed with garments daubed with pitch ; and 
these are the proud, the vainglorious, and the arrogant. 

As to the place where they are te be assembled to judg- 
ment, the Quran and the traditions ot Muhammad agree 
that it will be on the earth, but in what part of ihf^ earth, 
it is not agrenri. Some say their prophet mentioned Syria 
for the place : others, a "jvhite and even tract of land, with- 
out inhabitants or any sighs of buildings. Al CxhaKali 
imagines it will be a second earth, which he supposes to 
be of silver; and others, an earth which has iiotliing i-n, 
common with ours but the name; having, it is possible, 
heard something of the new heavens and new earth 
mentioned in Scripture : whence the Quran has this ex- 
pression. " On tlie day wherein the earth shall be changed 
into another earth." ^ 

The end of fclie resurrection the Muhammadans declare 
to be, that they who are so raised may give an account of 
their actions and receive the reward thereof. And they 
believe that not only munkind, Vnit the getiii and iiTational 
animals also,*' shall be judged on this great day> whentlie 
unarmed cattle shall take vengeance on the horntid, till 
entire satisfaction shall be given to the injured.' 

As to raunkind, they hold that wlien they are all 
assembled together, they will not be immediately brought 
to judgment, but tlie angels will keep them m their ranks 
and ardeV' whiie they attend for that purpose , and this 
attendance some say is to last forty years, others seventy 

^ Cap. 14, V. 49. 

* Qxnin, c. 6, v. 37. Vide Mai- 
inoiiid., IVIore Nsv., part iii. c. 17. 

* Thin opinioii the learuedOren v*»<i 
sufipus<>d to havf! taksn its rise 'c nti 
tJre following words (»f P.7«kit:], 
•wrongly undcrbtood : "Ann as £or 
ye, my flock, thuH saith tne Lord 
God Bebold I, e^tn I, will judge 
between the Tat cvttle, and between 
the lean c;»ttle ; !»ecR\iBe ye Jiave 
thrust ^ith side and with shoulder, 

and puHhtfd aU the diseased with 
your hornrt, till ye have stfiltorod 
theih abroad ; therefore will I save 
my flock, an^i they t>hsi.ll no more be 
a piey, .ind I will judge between 
cattle und cattle," Ac. (E?ok. xxxiv. 
17. 20-22). Much Tuighi be aaid 
conctriinig Urutes df^hCTving ♦^uture 
reward and piit\i>;hni'Siit. S<e ij^yle 
Diet, Hist. Art. Koiariua. Kena. D., 


others 300, nay, some say no less til an 50,000 years, each 
of them vouching their prophet's authority. During thia 
space they will stand looking up to heaven, but without 
receiving any inform atjon or orders thence, and are to .suffer 
grievous torments, both the just and the unjust, though 
with manifest difference. For the limbs of the former, 
particularly those parts which they used to wash in making 
the ceremonial ablation before prayer, shall shine gloriously, 
and tlieir sufferings shall be light in comparison, and shall 
last no longer than the time necessary to say the appointed 
prayers; but the latter will have their faces obscured with 
blackness, and distigured with all the marks of sorrow and 
deformity. What will then occasion not the least of their 
pain is a wonderful and incredible sweat, which will even 
stop their mouths, and in whicli they will be immersed in 
various degrees according to their demerits, some to the 
ankles only, some to the knees, some to the middle, some 
so high as their moutli, and others as their eai-s. And thia 
sweat, they say, will be provoked not only by that vast 
concourse of ail sorts of creatures mutually pressing and 
treading on one another's feet^ but by the near and unusual 
approach of the sun, which will be tlieii no further from 
them th9,n the distance of a mile, or, as some translate tiie 
word, the signification of vvliich is ambiguous, than the 
length of a bodkin. So that their skulls vvill boil like a 
potji and they will be all bathed in sweat. From this 
incortvenionce, however, the gc»od will be protected by the 
shade of God's throne ; but the wicked will be so miserably 
tormented with it, and also with hungei-, and thirst, and a 
stilling air, that they will cry out, "Lord, deliver us from 
this anguish, though thou send us hito hell-fire." ^ What 
they fable of the extruordinaiy lieat of the sun on this 
or-casion, the Muhanmiudans certainly 'borrowed from the 
Jbws, who say, that for theipnjiishment of the wicked on 
the last day that planet shall bo drawn from its sheatli, 



the judg 

The great 
day ol 

in which it is now ptit np, lest it should destroy all things 
by its excessive heat.i 
Muham- When thosc who have risen shall have waited the limited 

ceiwion in time, the Muhammadans believe God will at length ap- 
pear tp judge them; ]\Iuhammad undertaking the office 
of intercessor, after it shall have been declined by Adam, 
Koah, Abraham, and Jesus, who sliall beg deliverance only 
for their own souls. They say that on this solemn occa- 
sion God will come in the clouds, surrounded by angels, 
and will produce the books wherein the actions of eve^y 
person are recorded by their guardian angeh,^ and will 
command the prophets to bear w^itnesis against those to 
whom they have been respectively sent. Then every one 
■will be examined concerning all his words and actions, 
uttered and done by him in this life ; not as if God needed 
any information in those respects, but to oblige the person 
to make public confession and acknowledgment of God s 
justice. The particulars of which they shall give an acQount, 
as Muhammad himself enumerated them, are — of their 
time, how they spent it ; of their wealth, by what means 
they acquired it and how they employed it; of their 
bodies, wherein they exercised them ; of their knowledge 
and learning, what use they made of them. It is said, 
however, that Muhammad has affirmed that no less than 
70,000 of his followers shoald be permitted to enter para- 
dise without any previous examination, which seems to be 
contradictory to what is said above. To the questions we 
have mentioned each person shall answer, and make his 
defence in the best manner he can, endeavouring to excuse 
himself by casting the blame of his evil deeds on others, 
so that a dispute shall arise even between the soul and 
the body, to which of them their guilt ought to be imputed^ 
the soul saying, " Lord, my body I received from thee ; 
for thou createdst me without a hand to lay hold with, 

^ Vide Pococlc, not. in Port. Moais, p. 277. 
^ See yupra, p. 1 20. 


a foot to walk with, an eye to see with, or an understand- 
ing to apprehend with, till I came and entered into this 
body; therefore, punish it eternally, but deliver me." 
The body, on the other side, will make this apology :— " O 
Lord, thou createdst me like a stock of wood, having 
neither hand that I could lay hold with, nor foot that I 
could walk with, till this soul, like a ray of light, entered 
into me, and my tongue began to speak, my eye to s^e, 
and my foot to walk ; therefore, punish it eternally, but 
deliver me." But God will propound to them the following 
parable of the blind man. and the lame man, which, as well 
as the preceding dispute, was borrowed by the Muham- 
madans from the Jews;!- — A certain king, having a pleasant 
garden, in which were ripe fruits, set two persons to 1 eep 
it, one of whom was blind and the other lame, the fol-mer 
not being able to see the fruit nor the latter to gather it ; 
the lame man, however, seeing the fruit, persuaded the 
blind man to take him upon his shoulders ; and by that 
means he easily gathered the fruit, which they divided 
between them. The lord of the garden, coming some time 
after, and inquiring after his fruit, each began to excuse 
himself ; the blind man said he had no eyes to see with, 
and the lame man that he had no feet to approach the 
trees. But the king, ordering the lame man to be set on 
the blind, passed sentence on and punished them both. 
And in the same manner will God deal with the body and 
the soul. As these apologies will not avail on that day, 
so will it also be in vain for any one to deny his evil 
actions, since men and angels and his own members, nay, 
the very earth itself, will be ready to bear witness against 

Though the Muhammadans assign so long a space for Time ai- 
the attendance of the resuscitated before their trial, yet thoViai. 
they tell us the trial itself will be over in much less time, 

^ ^ Ofirnam, Sanhedr. c. 1 1 ; B Jos. Albo, Senn. iv. c. 33. See al.'«o 
Epiphan. in Aneorat., sect. 89. 


and, according to an ex'pressiou of Muhammad fanailmr 
enough to the Arabs, will last no longer than while one 
may milk an ewe, or than the space between the two 
inilkings of a she-camel.' Some, explaining those words 
30 frequently used in the Quran, " (Jod will be swift in 
taking an account," say that he will judge all creatures 
in the space of half a day, and others tliat it will be done 
in less time than the twinkling of an eye.^ 
The account At this examination they also believe that each person 

books dell- ■' / 

irered. ^{W hflvc the book wlicrcin all the actions of his life are 
written delivered to him; which bcoks the rightef.'us will 
receive in their right hand, and read with great pleasure 
and satisfaction, but the ungodly will be obliged to take 
thein againf^t Lheir v\ill8 in their left,^ which will be 
bound behind their backs, their right hand being tied up 
to their necks.* 
Thereat To show the cxact justice which will be observed on 
described, this great day of trial, the ne^t thing they describe is the 
balance wherein all things shall be weighed. They say 
it will be held by Gabriel, and that it is of so vast a size, 
that its two scales, owq of which hangs over paradise, and 
the other over hell, are capacious enough to contain both 
heaven and earth. Though some are willing to under- 
stand what is said in the Quran concerning iliis balance 
allegorically, and only as a figurative teprcsentatiou of 
(jtOd's equity, yet the more ancient and orthodox opinion 
is that it is to be taken literally; and emce words and 
actions, being mere accidents, are not ca])able of being 
themselves weighed, they say that the books wherein 
they are written will be thrown into' the scales, and 
according as those wherein the good or the evil actions 

' Thft Arabs use, after they have ^ Pocock, not. in Port. Mogis, pp. 

drawn Bonie milk fruui the oaniel, '?78-282. See aUo Qunin, c," 2, T. 

to wait a while and let her jounjy 201. 

one suck >* little, that wht; may give ^ Quriii, c 17, v, 16; c. 18, v. 

down her mill< more pleutifiiily at 47; c. 69, v. 25; and c. 84, vv. 7, 8. 

thti sec<md oiUking. * Jal^uddin. 


are recorded shall preponderate, sentence will be given; 
those whose balances laden with their good works shall 
be heavy will be saved, but those whose balances are 
light will be condemned.^ Nor will any one have cause 
to complain that God suffers any good action to pass 
unrewarded, because the wicked for the good thev do 
have their reward in this life, and therefore can expect no 
favour in the next. 

The old Jewish writers make mention as well of the Notions of 
books to be produced at the last day, wherein men's balance bor- 
actions are registered,^ as of the balance wherein they jows and ' 
shall be weighed ;3 and the Scripture itself seems to have '' ''*^^"'" 
aiven the first notion of both.* But what the Persian 
Magi believe of the balance comes nearest to the Muham- 
madan opinion. They hold that on the day of judgment 
two angels, named Mihr and Sarosh, will stand on the 
bridge we shall describe by and by, to examine every 
person as he passes ; that the former, who represents the 
divine mercy, vrill hold a balance in his hand to weigh 
the actions of men ; that according to the report he shall 
make thereof to God, sentence will be pronounced, and 
those whose good works are found more ponderous, if 
they turn the scale but by the weight of a hair, will be 
permitted to pass forward to paradise ; but those whose 
good works shall be found light will be by the other 
angel, who represents God's justice, precipitated from the 
bridge into hell.^ 

This examination being passed, and every one's works Matuai re- 

.,,. . Ill t T • Ml taliation of 

weigned m a just balance, that mutual retaliation will the ct-ea- 
foUow, according to which every creature will take ven- of men., 
geance one of another, or have satisfaction made them 
for the injuries which they have sufiered. And since 

^ Qurdn, c. 23, v. 103; c. 7, v. 8, * Exud. xxxii. 32, 33 ; Dan, vii. 

&c. 10; Rev. XX. 12, kc, and Dan. v. 

■^ Midrash, Yalkut Shemuni, f. 27. 
153, c. 3. « Hyde, De Rel. Vet. Pcrs., pp. 

5 Gemar. Sanhedr., f. 91, &c. 245, 401. &c. 


ij|6 THF PRULL\fINARY DISCO('RSE. [sec. iv. 

Tiiere will tlien be no othtr way of returning like for like, 
khe manner of giving tliis satisfaction will be by taking 
away a proportionable part of the good works of him who 
offered the injury, and adding it to those of him who 
suffered it. Which being done, if the angels (by whose 
ministry this is to be performed) say, "Lord, we have 
<xiven to every one his due, and there remaineth of this 
person's good works so much as eqralleth the weight of 
an ant," God will of his mercy cause it to be doubled unt<> 
him, that he may be admitted into pariiuxse; but if, - u 
the contrary, his good works be exhausted, and there re- 
main evil works only, and there be any v-ho have not yet 
received satisfaction from him, God will order that ai-i 
equal weight of their sins be ackled unto hfs, ihat he may 
be punished for them in tlieir stead, and he wjil be sent 
to hell laden with hot)). This will be the method or God's 
Info of the dealing with mankmd. As to brutes, after tliey shall 
gwiK. have likewise taken vengeance of one another, as we have 
mentioned above, he will command them to be changed 
into dust ; 1 wicked men being reserved to more grievous 
punishment, so that they shall cry out, on hearing this 
sentence passed on the brutes, "Would, to God that we 
were dust also !" As to the genii, many Muhammadans 
are of opinion that such of them as are true believers will 
undergo the same fate as the irrational animals, and have 
no other reward than the favour of being converted into 
dust ; and for this they quote the authority of their 
prophet. But this, however, is judged not so very reason- 
able, s.iuce the genii, btiing cupable of putting themselves 
in the state of believers as well a? ni.'iu, must consequently 
deserve, as it seems, to be rewarded tor their faitli, as well 
as to be punished for infidelity. Wherefore some entertain 
a more favourable opinion, and assign the believing genii 
a place near the conlii'cs of paradise, wlicre they will 

' Yet fcliey Bay tin.' dog of the I'avotir, Ixi admitted into paradise. 
<:van sleepers and Ezra's ass, whkjh .See Quriiii, c. iS, vv. 8-24, and 
vviw* raised to life, will, by peculiar c. 3 


enjoy sufficient felicity, though they be not admitted into 
that delightful mansion. Eut the unbelieving genii, it 
is universally agreed, wjil be punished eternally, and be 
thrown into hell with the infidels of mortal race. It may 
not be improper to observe, that under the denomination 
of unbelieving genii, the Muhammadans comprehend also 
the devil and his companions.^^ 

The trials being over and tlie assembly dissolved, the Passing 

•Jill 11 ^" 1 • 1 • *^® bridge 

Muhammadans hold that those "who are to be admitted mto overhou. 
paradise will take the right-hand way, and those who are 
destined to hell-fire will take the left : but both of them 
must first pass the bridge, called in Arabic al Sirat, which 
they say is laid over the midst of hell, and described to be 
finer than a hair and sharper than the edge of a sword, 
so that it seems very difiicult to conceive how any one 
shall be able to stand upon it ; for which reason most of 
the sect of the Mutazilifces reject it as a fable, though the 
orthodox tliink it a sufficien proof of the truth of this 
article that it was seriously aftirmed by him who never 
asserted a falsehood, meaning their prophet, who, to add 
to the difficulty of the passage, lias likewise declared that 
this bridge is beset on eacli side with briars and liooked 
thorns, which will, however, !)C no impediment to tiie good, 
for they shall pass with wonderful ease and swiftness, like 
lightning or the wind, Muhammad and bis Muslims lead- 
ing the way; M'hereas the wicked, wliat with the slipperi- 
ness and extreme narrowness of the path, the entangling 
of the thorns, and the extinction of the light which 
directed the former to paradise, will soon miss their foot- 
ing, and fall down headlong into hell, which is gaping 
beneath theni.^ 

This circumstance Muhammad seeins also to have This notion 

. • also ber- 

borrowed from the M.agians, who teach that oa the last rowed from 
day all majikind will be obliged to pas?? a bridge which Mtigiaws. 
they call Pill Ghmavad or Chin&var, that is, thf^ straight 

^ Vide C^iifiin, c. 18, v. 48. ' FococU, ubi sup., pp. 282-289. 

H8 the preliminary discourse. [sec. IV. 

brichje. leading directly into the other world ; on the 
midst of whicli they suppose the angels, appointed by 
God to perfdrm that office, will stand, who will require 
of every one a strict account of his actions, and weigh 
them in the maunei' we liave already mentioned.^ It is 
true the Jews speak likewise of the bridge of hell, which 
they say is no broader than a thread ; but then they do 
not teM us that any shall be obliged to pass it except the 
idolaters, who will fall thence into perdition. ^ 
The seven As to the puuLshment of the wicked, the Muhamma- 
of he!i ' dans are taught that hell is divided into seven storeys, or 
lumntes. apartments, one below another, designed for the reception 
of as many distinct classes of the damned.^ The first, 
which Ihey call Jahannam, they say will be the receptacle 
of those who acknowledged one God, that is, the wicked 
Miihamnmdans, who, after having there been punished 
according to their demerits, will at length be released. The 
second, named Ladhwa, they assign to the Jews ; the third, 
named Hiitama, to the Christians; the fourth, named al 
Sair, to tlu:? Sabiaus; the fifth, named Saqar, to- the 
Magians; the sixth, named al Jahi'm, to the idolaters; 
and the seventh, wliich is the lowest and worst of all, 
and is called al Hawiya, to the hypocrites, or those who 
outwardly professed some religion, but in their hearts 
were of. none.* Over each of these apartments they 
believe there will be set a guard of angels,'' nineteen in 

^ Hyde, Do Rel.Vet. I*erB.,pp. 245, deny the creation and believe the 

402, ^c. eter.aty of tbo wo»-lJ ; the second, 

' iNlidrash, Yalkut Reuljeni, § for the Dualists, or Manichees, and 

Gehinnom. the idolatrous Araba j the third, for 

' Qiirap, c i^j V. 14. the Brahioins of tlio Indies; the 

* Others lill these apai'tments with fourth, for the Jew.s ; the fifth, for 

ditferfrut company. !Some piace in the CJiri«ti»u8 ; and the .si.\th, iot 

the second the id<^)laters ; in the the ^Magians. But all agree in 

third. (Jog and Magog, Ac. ;'in the assigning the 8e>eDth to the hypo- 

fouvtli, the devils; in Iho fifth, those cnto;^. Vide Mill ititn, De Mohani- 

who neylect alms an<l prayers ; and medismo ante IVJoham., p. 412; 

cr«w«l the Jew^, Christiiins, and Ma- D'lierbel., BibI Orient., p. 36s, &c. 
gians tojfethei- in the aixth. tiome, * Quran, c. 40, v, 52 ; c. 43, v. 77 ; 

again, will have the first to be pre- c. 74, v. 30, &,c. 
pared for the Dahrians, or those who 



number,^ to whom the damned will confess the just 
judgiiieat of Gob. and beg them to intercede with him for 
some alleviaiion of their pain, or that they may be deli- 
vered by being annihilated.^ 

Muhammad has, in his Quran and traditions, been very Proportion 
exact m describing the various tormenis 01 hell, which, in heu. 
according to him, the wicked v\'ill suffer both from intense 
heat and excessive cold. We shall, however, enter into 
no detail of them here, but only obiierve that the degrees 
of these paxus will also vary, in proportion to the crimes 
of the suiferer and the apartment he is condemned vr ; 
and that he who is punished, the most lightly of all will 
be shod with shoes of fire, the fervour of which will cause 
liis skull to boil like a caldron. The condition or these 
unhappy wretches, as the same prophet teaclies, cannot be 
properly called either life or death ; and their misery will 
be greatly increased by their despair of being ever de- 
livered from that place, since, according to that frequent 
expression in the Quran, " they must remain therein .for 
ever." It must be remarked, however, that the infidels 
alone will be liable to eternity ©f damnation, for the Mus- 
lims, or those who have embraced the true religion, and 
have been guilty of heinous sins, will be delivered thence 
after they shall have expiated their crimes by their 
sufferings. The contrary of either of these ojjinions is 
reckoned heretical ; for it is the constant orthodox doc- 
trine of the Muhemmadans that no unbeliever or idolater 
will ever be released, nor any person who in his lifetime 
professed and believed the unity of Goi» be condemned to 
eternal punishment. As to the time and manner of the Final 
deliverance of those believers whose evil actions shall of MuWim 
outweigh their good, there is a tradition, of Muiiamlnad ^''^'^'' 
that they shall be released after they shall have been 
scorched and their skins burnt black, and shall afterwards 
be admitted into paradise ; and when the inhabitants of 

1 Quran, c. 74. v. 30. '^ Ibid , c. 40, v. 52 ; c. 43, v. 77. 


tliat place shall, in contempt, call them infernals, God 
Avill, ou their prayers, take from them that opprobrious 
appellation. Others say he tauglit that while they con-, 
tinue in hell they shall be deprived of life, or (as his words 
are otherwise interpreted) be cast into a most profound 
sleep, tnat they may be the less sensible of their torments ; 
and that they shall afterwards be received into paradise. 
Cleansing and thcrc revive on their being washed with the water of 
nau. life ; though some suppose they wiil be restored to life 

before they come forth from their place of puni.>*hment, 
that at their bidding farewell to their pains they may 
have some little taste of them. The time which these 
believers shall be detained there, according to a tradition 
handed down from their prophet, will not be less than 900 
years, nor more than 7000. i^nd as to the manner of their 
delivery, they say that they shall be distinguished by the 
marks of prostration on those parts of their bodies with 
which they used to touch the ground in prayer, {-nd over 
which the fire will, therefore, have no power ; and that 
being known by this characteristic, they will be relievei.L 
by the ijiercy of God, at the intercession of Muhammad 
and the blessed ; whereupon those who shall have been 
dead will be restored to life, as has been said, and those 
whose bod is shall have contracted any sootiness or fdth 
from the flames and smoke of hell will be immersed in 
one of the rivers of paradise, called the river of life, which 
will wash them whiter than pearls.^ 
Kuhammsd For mosfc of thcse circumstances relating to hell and 

indebted to . ni-i iiri -i i-i • it 

Jews and ttie state of the damned, Muhammad was likewise, m ail 

hts notions probability, indebted to the Jews, and in part to the 

tbo'«tate of Manfians, both of whom agree in makin(]r seven distinct 

apartments in hell,^ though they vary in other particulars. 

The former place an angel as a guard over each of these 

infernal apartments, and suppose he will intercede for the 

^ P(H5., not. in Port. Mosis, pp. in Arubin, f. 19 ; Zohar. ad Kxod. 
2S9-291. XX vi. 2, &c. ; and Hyde, Do KeL 

• Nishmat hayim, f. 32 ; Gemar. Vet. Pers., p. 245. 


miserable wretches there imprisoned, who will openly 
acknowledge the justice of God in their condemnation.^ 
They also teach that the wicked will suffer a diversity of 
punisiiraents, and that by intolerable cold" as well as heat, 
and that their faces shall become black ; ^ and believe 
those of their own religion, shall also be punished in hell 
liereafter, according to their crimes (for they hold that 
few or none will be foand so exactly righteous as to deserve 
no punishment at all), but will soon be delivered thence, 
when they shall be sufficiently purged from their sins by 
their father Abraham, or at tlie intercession of him or 
bome other of the prophets.* The MagiaUvS allow but one 
angel to preside over all the seven hells, who is named 
by them Vanand Yazad, and, as they teach, assigns punish- 
ments proportionate to each person's crimes, restraining 
also the tyranny and excessive cruelty of the devil, who 
would, if left to himself, torment the damned beyond their 
sentence.^ Those of thia religion do also mention and 
describe various kinds of torments, wherewith the wicked 
will be punished in the next life, among which, though 
they reckon eji:treme cold to be one, yet they do not admit 
fire, out of respect, as it seems, to that element, which 
they take to be the representation of the divine nature ; 
and, therefore, they rather choose to describe the damned 
souls as suffering by other kinds of punishment's, such as 
an intolerable stink, the stinging and biting of serpents 
and wild beasts, thti cutting and tearing of the flesh by 
the devils, excessive hunger and thirst, and the like.^ 

Before we proceed to a description of the Muhammadan 
paradise, we must not forget to say something of the wall 
or partition which they imagine to be between that place 
and hell, and seems to be copied from the great gulf of 

Midrasb, Yrtlknt Shemuiii^ p*rt Arubm. f. 19. Vidp Qurin, c. :i, v. 

i^> ^- 116. 70, ind c, 3, V. 24, and noLes thero. 

* Zohar. ad Exod. xijc. * H>de/ Do Kfel. Vex. Pers., p. 

* Ynlknt Sheumni, ubi sup., f. S6. 1 8a 

* Nishmat h&yira, f 82 ; Geiuar. '• Yidti euadym, ibii., p. 399, &c. 


separation tnentioiied in Scrijitnre.^ They call it al Urf, 
and more frequently in the plural al Aruf, a word derived 
from the verb arafa, which signifies to distinguish between 
things, or to j)art them ; though some commentators give 
another reason for the imposition of this name, because, 
they say, those who stand on this partition will know and 
distinguish the blessed from the darnned by their respec- 
tive marks or characteristics ; ^ and others say the w*ord 
properly intends anything that is high raised or elevated, 
as such a wall of separation must be supposed to be.^ The 
Muhammadan writers greatly differ as to the persons who 
are to be found on al Araf. Some ima«j;ine it to be a sort 
of limbo for the patriarchs and prophets, or for the martyrs 
and those who have been most eminent for sanctity, among 
whom, they say, there will be also angels in the form of 
men. Others place here such whose good and evil works 
are so equal that they exactly counterpoise each other, 
and therefore deserve neither reward nor punishment; and 
these, they say, will, on the last day, be admitted into 
paradise, after they shall have performed an act of adora- 
tion, which will be imputed to them as a merit, and will 
make the scale of their good works to overbalance. Others 
suppose this intermediate space will be a receptacle for 
those who have gone to war without their parents' leave, 
and therein suffered martyrdom, being excluded paradise 
for their disobedience, and escaping hell because they are 
martyrs. The breadth of this partition wall cannot be 
supposed to be exceeding great, since not only those who 
shall stand thereon will hold conference with the inhabi- 
tants both of paradise and of hell, but the blessed and 
the damned themselves will also be able to talk to one 

If Muhammad did not take his notions of the partition 
we have been describing from Scripture, he must at least 

^ Luke xvi. 26. ^ Al Baidhiiwi. 

' JaWluddin. Vide Qurtln, c, 7, * Quran.'ubi sup. Vide D'Horb'.I, 
vv. 47-50. Bibl. Orient., p. 121, &g. 


have borrowed it at second-hand from the Jews, who 
nioution a thin wall dividing paradise from helL^ 

The righteous, as the Muhammadans are taught to The 
believe, having surmounted the difiiculties and passed water oT^ 
the sharp bridge above mentioned, before they enter para- "' 
dise will be refreshed by drinking at the pond of their 
prophet, who describes it to be an exact square, of a 
month's journey in compass: its water, which is supplied 
by two pipes from al-Kauthar, one of the rivers of paradise, 
being whiter than milk or silver and more odoriferous than 
musk, with as many cups set around it as there are stars 
in the firmament, of which water whoever drinks will 
thirst no more for ever.^ This is the first taste which the 
blessed will have of their future and now near-approaching " 

Though paradise be so very frequently mentioned in 
the Quran, yet it is a dispute among the Muhammadans 
whether it be already created, or be to be created here- 
after : the Mutazilites and some other sectaries asseidng 
that there is not at present any such place in nature, and 
that the paradise which the righteous will inhabit in the 
neit life will be different from that from which Adam 
was expelled. However, the orthodox profess the contrary, 
maintaining that it was created even before the world, and 
describe it, from their prophet's traditions, in the following 

They say it is situate above the seven heavens (or in paradise 
the seventh heaven) and next under the throne of God;* 
and to express the amenity of the place, tell us that the 
earth of it is of the finest wheat flour, or of the purest 
musk, or,' as others will have it, of saffron ; that its stones 
are pearls and jacinths, the walls of its buildings enriched 
with gold and silver, and that the trunks of all its trees 
are of gold, among which the most remarkable is the tree 
called Tiiba, or the tree of happiness. Concerning this 

1 Midraeh, Yalkut Sioni., f. ii. ' Al Ghaziili. 


tree they I'uble that it stands in the paLice of Muhammad, 
though a branch of c will reach to the housr of eveiy 
true believer;^ that it will be laden -^^th pomegranates, 
grapes, dates, and other fruits of surprising bigness, and 
of tastes unknown to mortals. So that if a man desire to 
eat of any particular kind of frnit, it will immediately be 
pre.sented to him, or if he choose ilesh, birds read}^ dressed 
will he set before hiin according to his wish. They add 
that the boughs of this tree will spontaneously bend down 
to the baud of the persen who would gather of its fruits, 
and that it will, supply the blessed not oidy with food, 
but also with silken garments, acd beasts to ride on ready 
saddled and bridled, and adorned with rich trappings, 
which will burst forth from its fruits ; and that this tree 
is so large, that a person mounted on the fleetest horse 
would not be able to gallop from one end of iis shade to 
the other in a hundred year^j.^ 

As plenty of water is one of the greatest additions to 
the pleasantness of any place, the Quran often speaks of 
the rivers of paradise as a principal ornament thereof. 
Some ot iheoe ritew, they say, liow with water, some with 
milk, some with wine, and others with honoy, all taking 
their rise from the root of the tree Tiiba : two of which 
rivers, named al Kautliar and the river of life, we have 
already mentioued. And lest these should not be sutlfi- 
cient, we are told this garden i& also watered by a great 
I'uniber of lesser ^prin^s and fountains, whose pebbles are 
rubies and emeralds, Ciieir earth of camphire, their beds 
of musk, and thc.'ir sides of saffron, the most remarkable 
among them being Saisabil and TasDfui. 

But all these glories will he eclipsed by the resplendent 
and ravishing girls of paradise, called, from their large 
black eyes, iliir al oyun, the enjoyment of whose com- 
pany will be a principal felicity of the faithful. These, 
they say, are creatt-d not of clay as mortal women are, 

' YiWi^fa, iu Quran, c. 13. * JaWIuddin, i\>id. 


but of pure inusk, being, as their prophet often affirms in 
his Quran, free frora all natural impurities, defects, and 
inconveniences incident to the sex, of the strictest modestyj 
and secluded from public view in pavilions of hollow 
pearls, so large, that, as some traditions have it, one of 
them will be no less than four parasangs (or, as others 
say, sixty miles) long, and as many broad. 

The name which the Muliammadans usually give to Names of 
this happy mansion is al Jannat, or the garden ; and biLt "' ^ ° 
sometimes they call it, with an addition, Jannat-ul- 
Firdaus, the garden of paradise, Jannat-ul-Adan, the garden 
of Eden (though they generally interpret the v» ord Eden, 
not according to its acceptation in Hebrew, but according 
to its meaning in their own tongue, wherein it signifies 
a settled or perpetual habitation), Jannat-ul-Mawa, the 
garden of abode, Jannat-ul-Naim, the garden of pleavsure, 
and the like ; by which several appellations some under- 
stand so many different gardens, or at least places of 
different degrees of felicity (for they reckon no less than 
a hundred such in all), the yarj meanest whereof will 
afford its inhabitants so many pleasures and delights, that 
one would conclude they must even sink under them, had 
not Muhammad declared, that in oi-der to qualify the 
blessed for a full enjoyment of them, God will give to 
every one the abilities of a hundred men. 

"We have already described Muhammad's pond, whereof i^etwo 
the righteous are to dtink before their admission into this the g.ite of 
delicious seat ; besides which some authors ^ mention two ceStialat- 
fountains springing from under a certain tree near the S!^^^^* 
gate of paradise, and say that the blessed will also drink 
of one of them to purge their bodies and carry off all 
excrementitious dregs, and will wash themselves in the 
other. When they are arrived at the gate itself, each per- 
son will there be met arid saluted by the beautiful youths 
appointed to serve and wait upbn him, one of them 

^ Al Ghazdli, Kanz al Afrdr. 


tunning before, to carry the news of his arrival to the 
wives destined for him ; and also by two angels,'- bearing 
the presents sent him by God, one of whom will invest 
him with a garment of paradise, and tbe other will put a 
ring on each of his fingers, with inscription f- on them 
alluding to the happiness of his condition. By which of 
the eight gates (for so many they suppose paradise to 
have) they are respectively to enter, is not worth inquiry ; 
but it must be observed that Muhammad has declared 
that no person's good works will gain him admittance, 
and that even himself shall be saved, not by his merits, 
The mercy but merely by the tnercy of God. It is, however, the 
}/rounc[; coustaut doctvine of the Quran that the felicity of each 
measure of pcrsou wiU bc proportioned to his deserts, ajid that there 
of the right- v'Jl be abodcs of different degrees of happiness ; the most 
eminent degree being reserved for the propliets, the second 
for the doctors and teachers of God's worship, the next 
for the martyrs, and the lower for the rest of the righteous, 
according to their several merits. There will also some 
distinction be made in respect to the time of their admis- 
sion, Muhammad (to whom, if you will believe him, the 
gates will first be opened) having affirmed that the poor 
will enter paradise five hundred years before tlie rich: 
nor is this the only privilege which they will enjoy in the 
next life, since the same prophet ha? also declared, that 
when he took a view of paradise, he saw the majority of 
its inhabitants to be the poor, and when he looked down 
into hell, he saw the greater part of the wretches confined 
there to be women. 
The great For the first entertainment of the blessed on their 
""" ^ ' admission, they fable that the whole earth will then be 
as one loaf of bread, which God will reach to them with 
hjs hand, holding it like a cake; and that for meat they 
will have the ox Bahi m and the fish xs lin, the lobes of 
whose livers will suffice 70,000 men, being, as some ima- 
gine, to be set before the principal guests, viz., those who, 
to that number^ will be admitted into paradise without 


examination;^ though others suppose that a definite mim- 
her is here put for an indefinite, and that nothing more is 
meant thereby than to express a great multitude of people. 

Prom this feast every one will be dismissed to the Revjardc of 

,»•,. 1 /ir ••>\-L *^® fuitbfiil 

mansion designed for him, where (as has been said) ne described. 
will enjoy such a share of felicity as will be proportioned 
to his merits, but vastly exceed comprehension or expecta,- 
tion, since the very meanest in paradise (as he who, it is 
pretended, must know best has declared) will have 6ighty 
thousand servants, seventy-two wives of the girls of para- 
dise, besides the^ wives he had in this world, and a tent 
erected for him of pearls, jacinths, ^nd emeralds, of a very 
large extent ; and, according to another tradition, will be 
waited on by three hundred attendants while he eats, will 
be served in dishes of gold, whereof three hundred shall 
be set before him at once, containing each a different kind 
of food, the last morsel of which will be as grateful as the 
first; and will also be supplied with as many sorts ol 
liquors in vessels of the same metal ; and, to complete 
the entertainment, there will be no want of wine, which, 
though forbidden in this life, will yet be freely allow^ed to 
be drunk in the next, and without danger, since the wine 
of paradise will not inebriate, as that we drink here. The 
flavour of this wine we may conceive to be delicious with- 
out a description, since the water of Tasnim and the other 
fountains which will be used to dilute it is said to be 
wonderfully sweet and fragrant. If any object to these 
pleasures, as an impudent Jew did to Muhammad, that 
so much eating and drinking must necessarily require 
proper evacuations, we answer, as the prophet did, that 
the inhabitants of paradise will not need to ease them- 
selves, nor even to blow their nose, for that all superfluities 
will be discharged and carried off by perspiration, or a 
sweat as odoriferous as musk, after which their appetito 
shall return afresh. 

' See supra,^p. 142. 


The magnificence of the garments and furniture pro- 
mised by the Quran to the godly in the next life is 
answerable to the delicacy of their diet ; for they are to 
be clothed in the richest silks and brocades chiefly of 
green, which will burst forth from the fruits ol paradise, 
and wiii be also supplied by the leaves of the tree Tiiba; 
they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and silver, 
and crowns set with pearls of incomparable lustre; and 
will make use of silken carpets, L'tters of a prodigious 
si/e, couches, pillows, and other rich furniture embroidered 
with gold and precious stoues. 
AMiity of That w^e may the more readily believe what has been 
tutnjoj! " mentioned of the extraordinary abilities of the inhabitants 
of paradise to taste these pleasures in their height, it is 
said they will enjoy a perpetual youth ; that in whatever 
age they happen to die, they will be raised in their prime 
and vigbur, that is, of a.bout thirty years of age, which age 
they will never exceed (and the same they say of the 
damned) ; and that when they enter paradise they will be 
of the same stature with Adam, who, as they fable, was no 
less than sixty cubits high. And to this age and stature 
their children, if they shall desire any (for otherwise their 
wives will not conceive), shall immediately attain, accord- 
ing to that saying of their prophet, " If any of the faithful 
in paradise be desirous of issue, it shall be conceived, born, 
and grown up within the space of an hour." And in the 
same manner, if any one shall ha\e a fancy to employ 
liimself in agriculture (which rustic pleasure may suit the 
wanton fancy of some), what he shall sow will spring up 
and come to maturity in a moment. 

Lest any of the senses sliould want their proper delight, 
"we are told the ear will there be entertained, not only 
with the ravishing songs of the angel Israfil, who has the 
most melodious voice of all God's creatures, and of the 
daughters of paradise; but even the trees themselves will 
celebrate the divine praises with a harmony exceeding 
what ever mortals have heard ; to which will be joined the 


sound of the bells hanging on the trees, which will he pub 
in motion by the wind proceeding from the throne of God, 
so often as the blessed wish for music ; nay, the very 
clashing of the golden -bodied trees, whose fruits are pearls 
and emeralds, will surpass human imagination ; so that 
the pleasures of this Sense will not be tbe least of the 
enjayments of paradise. 

The delights we have hitherto taken a view of, it is said, Thespiri- 
will be common to all the inhabitauts'of paradise, even mentsY 
those of the lowest order. What then, think we. mti.'^t 
they enjoy who sludl obtain a superior degree of honour 
and felicity ? To these, they say, there ar-e prepared, 
besides ail this, "such tilings as eye hath not sewi, nor 
hath ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man 
to conceive;" an expression most certainly borrowed from 
Scripture.^ Thnt we may know wherein the felicity o*" 
those who shaU- attain the hii^nest degree will consist, 
Muhammad is reported to have said that the meanest of 
the inhabitants of paradise will see his gardens, wives, 
servants, furniture, and other possessions take up the 
space of a thousand years' journey (for so far and farther 
will the blessed see in the next life) but that he will be 
in the highest honour with GoD who shall behold his face 
morning and evening; a^d this favour al Ghazdli supposes 
to be that additional or superaDundant recompense pro- 
mised in the Quran,^ which will give such exquisite delight, 
that in respec^ thereof all the other pleasures of paradise 
will be forgotten and lightly esteemed ; and not without 
reason, since, as the same author says, every other enjoy- 
ment is equally tasted by the very brute beast who is 
turned loose into luxuriant pasture.^ The reader will 
observe, by the way, that this is a f:ilj confutation of those 
who preiend that tlie Muhannnadans admit of no spiritual 

' Isa. Ixiv. 4 ; i Cor. ii. 9. * \ tdz- Foe, in Xiot. ad Port. Moaig, 

- Cap. 10, V. 0, &c. p. 305. 



tidcbted to 
r^ws and 
<agiaus for 
lis notions 

pleasure in the next life, but make the happiness of the 
blessed to consist wholly in corporeal enjoyments.^ * 

Whence Muhammad took the greatest part of his para- 
dise it is easy to show. The Jews constantly describe the 
future mansion of the just as a delicious garden, and make 
it also reach to the seventh heaven.^ They also say it has 
three gates,* or, as others will have it, two,* and four 
rivers (which last circumstance they copied, to be sure, 
from those of the Garden of Eden),^ flowing with milk, 
wine, balsam, and honey.* Their Behemoth and Leviathan, 
which they pretend will be slain for the entertainment of 
the blessed,^ are so apparently the Balam and Niin of 
Muliammad, that his followers themselves confess he is 
obliged to them for both.^ The Eabbins likewise mention 
seven different degrees of felicity,® and say that the highest 
will be of those who perpetually contemplate the fa'ce of 
.GoD.^® The Persian Magi had also an idea of the future 
happy estate of the good, very little different from that of 
Muhammad. Paradise they called Bahisht, and Minu, 
which signifies crystal, where they believe the righteous 
shall enjoy all manner of delights, and particularly the 
company of the Huran-i-bahisht, or black-eyed nymphs of 
paradise,^! the care of whom, they say, is committed to the 
angel Zamiyad';^^ ^nd hence Muhammad seems to have 
taken the first hint of his paradisiacal ladies. 

It is not improbable, however, but that he might li^ve 
been obliged, in some respect, to the Christian accounts of 

* We find no authority for such spiritual blessing in the Qurdn. 
But see post, p. 162. e. m. w. 

^ Vide Rcland, De Rel. Moh., 1. 2, 


a Vide Gemar Tinxth, f. 25, Bera- 
coth, f. 34, and Midrash sabboth, f. 


' Megillah, Amkoth, p. 78. 

* Midrash, Yalkut Shemuni. 

• Gen. ii. 10, Ac. 

* Midrash, Yalkut Shemuni. 

' Gemar. Bava Bathra, f. 78 ; 
Eashi, in Job i. 

" Vide Poc., not. in Port. Moais, 
p. 298. * Nislimat hayim, f. 32, 

1" Midrash, Tehillim, f. 11. 

^^ Sadder, porta 5. 

" Hyde, De Rel Vet. Pers., p.22S. 


the felicity of the good in the next life.* As it is scarce chnstvin 

.„ ,. PI ^'^'^ Muslim 

possible to convey, especially to the apprehensKnis oi Liie notion- of 
generality of mankind, an idea of spiritual pleasur-es with- state coud 
out introducing sensible objects, the Scriptures have been ^'*'^'' 
obliged to represent the celestial enjoyments by corporeal 
images, and to describe the mansion of the blessed as a 
glorious and magnificent city, built of gold and precious 
stones, v/ith twelve gates, through the streets of which 
there runs a river of water of life, and having on either 
side the tree of life, which bears twelve sorts of fruits and 
leaves of a healing virtue.^ Our Saviour likewise speaks 
of the future state of the blessed as of a kingdom where 
they shall eat and drink at his table.^ But then these 
descri]jtioTi3 have none of those puerile imaginations ^ 
which reigu throughout that of Muhammad, much less 
any til e most distant intimation of sensual delights, which 
he was so fond of ; on the contrary, we are expressly 
assured that " in the resurrection they will neither marry 
nor be given in marriage, but' will be as the angels of God 

* As all the doctrines of Muliammad concerning the future stat? 
were proclaimed in Makkau .suras 6^/ore the tenth year of his mis- 
sion, and as almost no reference had yet been made to Christianity, 
it seems quite certain that he vvaa ignorant of the Christian Scrip- 
tures ; and ina^inuch as he everywhere evinces in the Quran his 
alnujyt eruire iunoiance of Christian doctrine, we may safely cot> 
elude that he ovvfed little or nothing to Christianity fox his ideas of 
heaven arui hnli. E..M. w. 

^ Rev. .xxi. to,' &c., aud xxii, i, 2. thousand twigs, and every one of 

* Luke X w). 29, 30, &c. thepe twig? shall have ten thoasand 
•^ I would not, however, under- clusters of grapes, and in everj oue 

take to defend aii the Christian of these clusters there shall be ten 

writers in this particular ; witness thousand grapes, and evjry one of 

that one passage of Irenssus, wherein these grapes being pressed shall 

be introduces a tradition of 8t. John yield two hundred and seveftty-fivt, 

that our Lord should say, "The gallons of wine; ?nd when a man 

days bIiuII come, in which tlierp shall shall take hold of one of thene sacred 

be s ines, which phall have 1 uch ten bunches, another bunch shall cry 

thousand; brariches, and <^very one of out, I am a bett»?r bunch take nie, 

those tiranches shall have ten thou- and bles.-« the Lord V>y me," &.c. 

sand lesser branches, and every one Iren., 1. 5, c, }^. 
of these branches shall have ten 


in heaven." ^ Muhammad, ho^veve^, to enhance tlie value of 
paradise with his Arabians, chose rather to imitate the in- 
decency of the Magians than the modesty of the Christians 
in this particular, and lest his beatified Muslims should 
complain that anything was wanthig, bestows on them ' 
wives, as well as the other comforts of life ; judging, it 
is to be presumed^ from liis own inclinations, that, like 
Panurgus's ass,^ they would think all other enjoyments 
not worth their acceptance if th^y were to be debarred 
from this. 
Th»^<j^fifrip- Had Muhammad, after all, intimated to his followers, 
diseiutbe that what he liad told them of paradise was to be taken, 
understood not literally, but in a metaphorical sense (as it is said the 
senoe. ' Magians do the description of Zoroaster's *), this might, 
perhaps, make some atonement; but the contrary is so 
evident from the whole tenor of the Quran, that although 
some Muhammadans, whose understandings are too refined 
to admit such gross conceptions, look on their prophet's 
descriptions as parabolical, and are willing to receive them 
in an allegorical or F>piritual acceptation,* yet the general 
and orthodox doctrine is, that the whole is to be strictly 
believed in the obvious and literal acceptation ; to prove 
which I need only urge the oath they exact from Chris- 
tians (who they know abhor such fancies) when they 
would bind them in the most strong and sacred manner ; 
for in such a case they make them swear that if they 
falsify their engagement, they will affirm that there will 
be black-eyed girls in the next world and corporeal plea- 

Before we quit this subject it may not be improper 

' Matt. x\)i. 30. diers, the kiasea of Ix)y8 and be.ui- 

^ Vide Ka'oelais, Pant;igr., 1. 5, c. toous d tinsels. Vide GolL Noct. 

7. A better ftuthrrity than this Ate, 1, 18, c. 2. 

iniyht, howf-vej-, b<; allegfd in fj^vonr ■* V^ide Jfydf, !De Rfel. Vet. Pera, 

of Muhaoimad's judgment in this p. 266.. 

re«pi5ct ; I mean that of Plato, who ■* ViAf eund., in not. ad PoViov. 

is said to have proposed, m his Ideal Lit Tnrcnr. , p. 21. 

commonwealth, na. the. reward of Poc. ad Port. Mo'^is, p. 3(^5. 

valiant men and consunitnaui iiol- 


to observo the falsehood of a vulgar imputation on the 
Muhamniadans, who are by several writers^ reported to 
hold that women have no souls, or, if they have, that 
they will perish, like tbose of brute beasts, and will not 
be rewarded in the next life. But whatever may l>e the 
opinion of some ignorant people among them, it is certain 
that Muhammad had too great a respect for the fair sex 
to teach such a doctrin3 ; and there are several passages 
in the Quran which affirm that women, in the next lite, 
will not only be punished for their evil actions, bufe will 
also receive the rewards of their good deeds, as well as The rewards 
the men, and that in this case God wiJl make no distinc- womoKi. 
tion of sexes.^ It is true the general notion is' that they 
will not be admitted into the same abode as the men are, 
because their places will be supplied by the paradisiacal 
females (tliough sotne allow that a man will there also have 
the company of those who were his wives in this world, or 
at least such of them as he shall desire ^)^ but that good 
women will go into a separate place of happiness, where 
they will enjoy all sorts of delights ; * but whether one of 
those delights will be the enjoyment of agreeable paramours 
created for them, to complete the economy of the Muhani- 
madan system, is what I have nowhere found decided. 
One circumstance relating to these beatified females, con- 
formable to what he had asserted of the men, he acquainted 
his followers with in tlie answer he returned to an old 
woman, who, desiring him to interf^ede with God that she 
might be admitted into paradise, he told her that no old 
woinatt would enter that place ; whi(di setting the poor 
woman a crying, he explained nimself hj saying that God 
would then make her young aeain.^ 

^ Horubek, Sum. Contr,, p. 16. in hot. ad Bobov. de. Visit, segr. , p. 

Grelot, Voyage tie Constant., p. 275 21. * St;e supra, p. 157, 

Ricarif s Present State of the Otto- * Vide Cbardin, Voj., torn. 2, p. 

man Empire, 1. 2, c. 21. 328 ; and Baylej Diet. Hitft. Art. 

* See Qunin, c. 3, v. 196 ; c. 4, v Mahomet, Q. 
126, &c.; ftiidaltO c. 13. v. 23 ; c 16, '' See C^uran, c. 56, y. ^6. and the 

40, 48, 57, &c. Vide etiatu Kcland, notes tliere ; j^nd Gag-nier, liot. in 

De Kel. Moh., 1. 2, § 18 ; and Hyde, Abulftda, Vit. Moh., p. 143. 


The sixth great point of faith which the Miihatiimadaiis 
are taught by the Quran to believe is Cod's absolute 
decree and predestination both of good and evil ; for tiie 
orthodox doctrine is, that whatever hath or shall come 
to pa'-^s in this world, whether it be good or whether it be 
bad, proceedeth entirely from the divine will, and is irre- 
vocably fixed and recorded from all eternity in the pre- 
served table,^ God having secretly predet*irmined not only 
tlie advercse and. prosperous fortune of every person in this 
woild. in the most minute particulars, but also his faith or 
infidelity, his obedience or disobedience, and consequently 
his everlasting liappiness or misery after death, which 
fate or predestination it is not possible by any foresight 
or wisdom, to avoid. 

Of this doctrine Muhammad makes great use in his 
Quran for the advancement of his designs, encouraging 
his followers to figlit without fear, and even desperately, 
for the propagation of their faith, by representing to them 
that all their caution could not avert their inevitable 
destiny or prolong their lives for a moment,''^ and detet^ 
ring them from disobeying or rejecting him a? an impostor 
by setting before them the danger they might thereby 
incur of being, by the just judgnient of God, abandoned 
to seduction, hardness of heart, md a reprobate mind, as a 
punishment for their obstinacy.^ 

As this doctrine of abs(jlute election and reprobation 
has been thought by many of the Muhammadan divines 
to be derogatory to the goodness and justice of God, and 
to make God the author of evil, several subtle distinctions 
have been invented and disputes raised to explicate or 
soften it, and different sect^? have been formed, according 
to their several opinions or meth-ids of explaining this 
point, some of them going so far as even to hold the 

^ See Aupm, p. io8. 2 Quitiii. c. 3, \. 144; c. 4. v. 77, tVc, 

* JbiJ.. c. 4. vv 134-T44 , c. 2, vv. 6-20, Ac, passim. 


direct contrary position of absolute free will in man, as we 
shall see hereafter,^ 

Of the four fundamental points of religious practice Prayer or 
required by the Quran the first is prayer, under wliich/""' 
as has been said, are also comprehended those legal wash- 
ings or purifications which are necessary preparations 

Of these purifications there are two d^^grees, one called cereu.omai 
(thud, being a total immersion or bathing of the body tions "i 0- 
in water, and the otlier called Wadhu (by tlie Persians '^'^"^ ' 
A Mast), which is the washing of their face.^, hands, and 
feet after a certain nii-niner, The first is required in some 
extraordinary cases only, as after having lain with a 
woman, or being polluted by emission of seed, or by 
approaching a dead body ;. women also being obliged to 
it after their courses or childbirth. The latter is the 
ordinary ablution in common cases and before prayer, and 
must necessarily be used by every person before he can 
enter upon that duty.'^ It is performed with certain 
formal ceremonies, whicli have been described by some 
writers, but are much easif^r apprehended by seeing them 
done than by the best description. 

These purificaijons were perhaps boiTowed by Mu- These were 
hammad from the Jevvs ; at least they agree in a great from the 
measure with those used by that nation,^ wdio in process 
of time burdent^d tlie precepts of Moses in this point 
with so many traditionary ceremonies, that whole books 
have been written about them, and who were so exact 
and superstitious therein, even in our Saviour's time, that 
they are oftenreproved by him for it.* But as it is certain 
that the pagan Arabs used lustrations of this kind^ long 
before the time of Muhammad, as most nations did, and 
still do in the East, where the warmth of the climate 

1 Sect. VJII. 3 poc, not. in Port. Mosis, p. 356, 

^ Qui-dn, c. 4, V. 42. and c. 5, v. 7. &c. 
Vide Relanci, De lie). Mob,, 1. i, * Mark vii. 3, Ice. 

* Vide Herodot,, 1. 3, c. 19S. 


requires a greater nicety and degree of cleanliness than 
these colder parts, perhaps Muhammad only recalled his 
countrymen to a more .strict observance of those purifying 
rites, which had been probably neglected by them, or at 
least performed in a careless and perfunctory manner. 
The Muhammadans, however, will have it that they are 
as ancient as Abraham,^ who, they say, was enjoined by 
God to observe them, and was shown the manner of making 
the ablution by the Angel Gabriel in the form of a beautiful 
youth.2 ^ay, some deduce the matter higher, and imagine 
that these ceremonies were taught our first parents by t}ie 
angels, 3 
rhe pr«c- That his followers might be the more punctual in thi-s 
liKiun ba^ed duty, Muhammad is said to have declared, that " the 
ucBB. "* practice of religion is founded on cleanliness," which is 
the one-half of the faith and the key of prayer, without 
which it will not be heard by GoD.^ That these expres- 
sions may be the better understood, al Ghazali reckons 
four degrees of puiification, of which the first is, the 
cleansing of the body from all pollution, filth, and excre- 
ments; the second, the cleansing oi the memoers of the 
body from all wickedness and unjust actions ; the third, 
the cleansing of the heart from all blanable inclinations 
and odious vices ; and the fourth, the purging a man's 
secret thoughts from all afiections which may divert their 
attendance on God: adding, that the body is but as the 
outward shell in respect to the heart, which is as the 
kernel. And for this reason he highly complains of those 
who are superstitiously solicitous in exterior purifications, 
avoiding those persons as unclean who are not so scrupu- 

^ Al .JaJititlbiin Vita Abrah. Vide porqve iJios qniere hablar rontigo. 

Poc, Sp«c., p. 303. .Dixo Abraham, Coino ttngo de la' 

- Herewith aofrees the flpurious varme? Luerfo et anffelise le appare- 

Gospel of St. Barnabas, the Spanish cid romo uno belfo-nutncebo, y se iai^ 

translation of which (cap. 29) haft en la fucate, y le dixo, Ahr-ihSkXti, haz 

thene w6rd8 : Dixo Abraham, Q,u£ como yo. Y Abraham sc lavd, &c. 

hnrc yo para sanHr 'ol IHos de los * Al Kesstli. Vide Keland, Do 

sancti'S y prophetaa f Respondib cl Rol. Mohikin., p. 8r. 

awjd, J't e aqueUu fueiUe y luxate, * M Uhazdli Ibn al Athlr. 


lously nice as themselves, and at the same time have 
their minds lying waste, and overrun with pride, ignorance, 
and hypocrisy.^ Whence it plainly appears with how 
little foundation the Muhammadans have been charged 
by some writers^ with teaching or imagining that these 
formal washings alone cleanse them from tlieir sins.^ 

Lest so necessary a preparation to their devotions should Lustration 
be oniitted, either where water cannot be had, or when it ins'tead of 
may l>e of prejudice to' a person's health, they are allowed lowed. 
in such cases to make use of fine sand or dust in lieu of 
it ; ^ and then they perform this-- duty by clapping their 
open hands on the sand, and passing them over the parts, 
in the same manner as if they were dipped in water. But 
for this expedient Muhammad was not so much indebted 
to his own cunning^ as to the example of the Jews, or 
perhaps that of the Persian Magi, almost as scrupulous 
as the Jews themselves in their lustrations, who both of 
them prescribe the same method in cases of necessity;*^ 
and there is a famous instance in ecclesiastical history 
of sand being used, for the same reason, instead of water, 
in the administration of the Christian sacrament of baptism, 
many years before Muhammad's time/ 

Neither are the Muhammadans contented with bare Minor 
washing, but think themselves obli<^ed to several other purtsca- 

° tjou. 

necessary points of cleanliness, which they make also 
parts of this duty ; such as combing the hair, cutting the 
beard, paring the nails, pulling out the hairs of their arm- 
pits, shaving their private parts, and circumcision;^ of 

^ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 302, &c. de Morib. et Instit. Turcar., Ep. I, 

^ Eai-tbol. Edessen. Confut, Ha- p. 32. 

givren., p. 360. G. Slonita and J. ^ Vide Rtiand, I>e Eel Moh., 1. 

He.=!ronita, in Tract, de Vr)). and 2, c. 1 1,. 

Morib. Orient, ad Calcem Geogr. ^ Qur^n, c. 4, v. 42, and c. 5, v. 7. 

Mubiens., c. 15. Du Il>'er, dAns le * Vide Smith, tibi sup. 

Sonimaire da la Rel. des Turcs, mis ® Gemar. Beracbolli. c. 2. Vide 

h. la tteto de sa version de I'Alcor. Poc. not. ad Port. Mosis, p. 380. 

St. Olon, Descr. du Eoyfttane de Sadder, porta S4. 

Maroc, c. 2. Hyde, in not. ad ' Oedren., p. 250. 

BoboY. de Prec. Mob., p. I. Smith, ^ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 303, 


which last I wiJl add a word or two, lest f should not find 
a more proper place. 
'P)^ Mnsiim Circumcision, tlioni^h it be not so much as once men- 

doctrine of . . . 

circ.uiici. tioned in the Qurdn, is yet held Vjy the Muhamraadans to 
be an ancient divme institution, confu'uied by the religion 
of IsLdm, and though riot so absolutely necessary but that 
it may be dispensed wi* h in some cases,^ yet highly proper 
and expedient; The Arabs used this rite for many ages 
before Muhammad, having probably learned it from Ismail, 
though not only his descendants, but the Himyarites,^ and 
other tribes, practised the same. The Ismailites, we are 
told,^ used to circumcise their children, not on the eighth 
day, as is the custom of the Jews, but when about twelvq 
or thirteen years old, at which age their father underwent 
that operation;* and the Muhammad ans imitate them so 
far as not to circumcise children before they be able, at 
least, distinctly to pronounce that profession of their faitli, 
*' There is no god but God ; Muhammad is the apostle of 
GoD;"^ but pitch on what age they please for the pur- 
pose, between six and sixteen or thereabouts.** Though 
the Muslim doctors are generally of opinion, conformably 
to the Scripture, that this precept was originally given to 
Abraham, yet some have "imagined that Adam was taught 
it by the Angel Gabriel, to satisfy an oath he had made to 
cut off that flesh which, after Ids fall, had rebelled against 
hia spirit; whence an odd argument has been drawn for 
the universal obligation of circumcision.' Though I cannot 
say the Jews led the Miiharamachuis tlie way here, y«t 
they seem ao unwilling to believe any of the principal 

' Vide Bobov. de ' 'ircunicig., p. fallowing.' passage of the Gospt.-! of 

22- Barnabas (cap. 23). viz., Enionoes 

' Philofitorg., Hist. Bocl., 1. 3 dixo Jesiu-^ ; Ailani d pfimer honibre 

' Joseph , Ant.. I. 1, c. 23. aniendo comido por eiignno dd dc- 

* Uen xv\\. 25. moaio h- romida prohibida por JJios 

' Vide Bohov.. ul»i RUp., and I'oc. en d jyjiuif'O, xc U rebelb su came a 

•Spec, p. 3 1 9. SK ritfiirifu • par Jo (jmU jvrd dizUndo, 

"* Vide Kf-land, De R»'l. Mob, 1. Prtr Dios qv< ih-> tf qniero cortar ; y 

1, p. 75- roiriyieiido una pitdra tomd su came 

'This \H ttjie sulistajit;e of tit'- porn coriatUi iw d corlcde lapiedra. 


patriarchs or prophets before Abraham were really uiicir- 
climciaed, that thev pretend seveial of them, as Well as 
some holy meu who lived after his time, were born ready 
circumcised, or without a foreskin, and that Adam, in 
particular, was so created ; ^ whence the Muhauunadans 
affirm the same thing of their prophet.^ 

Prayer was by Muhammad thought so necessary a duty, Piayortue 
that he used to call it the pillar of religion and the key plfadiae. 
of paradise ; and when the Timkifites, who dwelt at Tayif, 
sending in the ninth year ol the Hijra to make their 
submissicn to the prophet, after the keeping of their 
favourite idol' had been denied them,^ bogged, at least., 
that they miLrht be dispensed with as to their saying of the 
appomted prayers, he answered, " That there could be no 
good in that religion wherein was no prayer."* 

That so important a duty, therefore, inight not be The hours of 
neglected, Muhammad obliged his followers to pray five 
times every twenty-four hours, at certain stated times; 
Yiz.y 1 In the morning, before sunrise; 2. When noon is 
past, and the sun begins to decline from the meridian; 3. 
In the afternoon, before sunset; 4. In the evening, after 
sunset, and before day be shut m ; and 5. After the day 
is shut in, and before the first watch of the niglit.^ For 
this institution he pretended to have received the divine 
command from the throne of God himself, when he took 
hisni<j;lit iournev to heaven; and the observinsj of the 
stated limes of prayer is frequently insisted on in the 
Quran, though they' be not particularly prescribed therein. 
Accordingly, at the aforesaid times, of which public notice 
is given by the Muadhdh^ns, or Criers, from the steeples 

Par loqual fne rcpi-tkendido dd an^d aqvello que, Adam con juramento 

Gabriel,;^ el Ic dixo ; Yo he Jurado provietid. 

por Dixis que. to he de voriar, y men ' hakkabala. Vide Por. 

tiroio no lo iare jamas. Ala hora el Spec, p. 320 ; Gagnier, not. ui 

ayi'jel le tnscno Lt^-flindad de su Abulfed., Vit. Moli., p. 2. 

oirne, y a quMa carlo. Oe ninntrdi ^ Vide Poc. Sptc, p. 304. 

que an»( coniu l<>do hoinbre totiui came ^ See snpra, p. 39. 

(U Adam, mm usta vUiyado a cma^'tir •* Abuifefi Vit. Moli.. p. 12^ 

** Vide ibid., pp. jis, 39. 



of their mosques (for they use no bell), every conscientious 
Muslim prepares himself for prayer, which h^ performs 
either in tlie mosque or any other pJace, pixDvided it be 
clean, after a prescribed form, and with a certain number 
of phrases or ejaculations (which the more acrupuloucj 
count by a string of beads) and using certain postures of 
worship ; all which have been particular] }<• set down and 
described, though with some lew mistakes, by other writers,* 
and ought not to be abridged, unless in some special cases, 
as on a journey, on preparing for battle, Sec. 

For the regular performance of the duty of prayer 
among the Muhammadans, besides the particulars above 
mentioned, it is also requisite that they turn their faces, 
while they pray, towards the temple of Makkah,^ the 
quarter where the same is situate being, for that reason> 
pointed out within iheir mosques by a niche, which they 
call al Mihrab, and without by the situation of the doors 
opening into the galleries of the steeples : there are also 
tables calculated for the ready Ending out their Qibla, or 
part towards which they ouglit to pray, in places where 
they have no other direction.^ 

But what is principally to be regarded in the discharge 
of this duty, say the Muslim doctors, is the inward dis- 
position of the heart, whicli is the life and spirit of prayer;' 
the most, punctual observance of the external rites and 
ceremonies before mentioned being of little or no avail, if 
performed without due attention, reverence, devotion, and 
Ijope;^ so that we must not think the Muhammadans, or 
the considerate part of them at least, content themselves 
with the meie opus operata7n, or imagine their whole 
religion to be placed therein.® 

' Vide Hotting., Hist. Eccles., tom. ' Quran, c. 2, v. 142. Se« the notes 

8, pp. 470-529; Bobov. in Liturg. tiiere. 

Turcic, p. I, Sec. ; Grelot, Vuyagt " Vide Hyde, J)e Eel. Vet. Pen,, 

de Ck)n8tant., pp. 253-264 ; Churdin, pp. 8, 9, and 126 

Yoy. de. Perse, 2, p. 382, &c. ; * Al Ghazdli, 

and Smith, de Moribu-s uc Infitit. ' Vide Poo. fjjpec , p. 305. 

Turcar, Ep. i, p. 33, &c. * Vide Suiith/iiUanp., p. 40. 


I had like to have omitted two things which in my Regulations 
mind deserve mention on this head, and may, perhaps, be and'^woSTen 
better defended than our contrary practice. One is, that prayer! ° 
the Muhammadans never address themselves to GoD in 
sumptuous apparel, though they are obliged to be decently 
clothed, but lay aside their costly habits and pompons 
ornaments, if they wear any, when they approach the 
divine presence, lest they should seetu proud and arrogant."^ 
The other is, that they admit not their women to pray 
with them in public, that sex being obliged to perform 
their devotions at home, or if they visit the mosques, it 
must be at a time when the men are not there ; for the 
Muslims are of opinion that their presence inspires a 
different kind of devotion from that which is requisite in 
a place dedicated to the worship of GoD.''^ 

The greater part of the particulars comprised in the The inatiku- 
Muhammadan institution of prayer their prophet seems pmyer bor 

1 'IP ^ 1 -njiT rowed from 

to have copied, irom others, and especially the Jews, ex-theJewa. 
ceeding their institutions only in the number of daily 
prayers.^ The Jews are directed to pray three times a 
day,* in the morning, in the evening, and within night, in 
imitation of Abraham,^ Isaac,^ and Jacob , ^ and the prac- 
tice was as early, at least, as the time of Daniel.^ The 
several postures used by the Muhammadans in tlieir prayers 

^ Reland, De Rel. Moh., p. 96. viri d, fcentin(jSy ibi mens non est 

See Qui dn, c. 7, v. 32. intenta et deroia : nam inter cele- 

^ A. Moor, named Ahniad Ibn hundummissam et »acrijtcia,f(£niince 

Abdalla, in a Latin epistle by Kim, tt viri taiUuii aspect ibxis, s ignis, ac 

written to Maurice, Prince cf nvtilnts accevdi'Vt praiorum appeti- 

Orange, and Emanuel, Prince of tuw. et desideriwum suorum ignes • 

Portugp.1, containing a censure of the et quando hoc non Jieret, saUem 

Christian religion (a copy of which, Jiumana fragilitas deledatur mnitio 

once belonging to Mr. Selden, who et recijyt'rco aspect a ; et ila non potest 

has thence transcribed a considerable esse mms quier-a, attenta, et devota. 

passage in his treatise^ l)e Synedriis ^ The Sabians, according to some, 

vett, Ebra-cr., 1. i, c. 12, is now in exceed the Muhammadans in this 

the Bodleian Librafy), finds great point, praying seven times a day. 

fault with the unedifjnng manner See supra, p. 34, nobe. 

in which mass is said among the * Gemar. Berachoth. 

Roman Catholics, for this v»iry '^ Gen. xix, 27. ^ Gen. xxiv. 6$. 

rea,son among others, His word? "^ Gen. xxviji. 1 1. &c. 

aje ; Ubicwique congregantur simid ^ Dan. vi, lo. j 


are also tlie snme with those prescribed by the Jewish 
Kabbi.ns, and particailarly the mos-t solemn act oi. adora- 
tion, by prostrating themselves so as to touch, the ground 
with, their forehead ; ^ notwithstanding, the latter pretend 
the practice of the former, in this respect, to be a relic of 
their ancient manner of paying theii devotions to liaal- 
peor.^ The Jews likewise constantly pra}' with their faces 
turned towards the temple of Jerusalem,^ which has been 
their Qibla from the time it was first dedicated by Solo- 
mon ; * for which reason Daniel, praying in Ohaldea, had the 
windows of his chamber open towards that city ;^ and the 
same was the Qibla of Muhammad and his followers for 
six or seven months,'' and till he found himself obliged 
to change it for the Eaabah. The Jews, moreover, are 
obliged by the precepts of their religion to be careful that 
the place they pray in, and the garments they have on 
when they perform their duty, be clean : ^ the men and 
women also among them pray apart (in which particular 
they were imitated by the Eastern Christians) ; and seve- 
ral other conformities might be remarked between the 
Jewish pul'iic worship and that of the Muhammadans.* 
Aimsgivinfj The uexfc point of the Mahammadan religion is the 
fSnda-""'* giving of alms, whicli are of two sorts, legal and voluntary. 
Sreiigj^t^ The legal alms are of indispensable obligation, being com- 
practice. sanded by the law, which directs and determines both 
the portion whicli is to be given and of what tlungs it 
ought to be given ; but the voluntary alms are left to 
every one's liberty, to give more or less as he shall see fit 
The former kind of alms some think to be properly called 
Zakdt and the latter Sadaqa, though this name be*also 

^ VKle Millium, De MohaTOmedis- ' Dan. vi. lo. 
mo ante Moha/n., p. 427, &c., and * Some e^y eighteen monthn 

Hyde. He Rel. Vet. P^rs., p. 5, Sec. Vide Abulfed", Vit. Moh., d. 54. 

'^ Maimonid in Hiii'st ;i<i IVoselyt. ' Iliilnohoth Tephilla, 

Relig. Vide Poc Spec, p. 306. c. 9, § 8, 9. JMenura hainmeor, fol. 

^ Gemar. Bava Bathra. atu! B^ra- 28, 2. 
choLh. " Vide MiJIium, nbi aup p. 424, 

* 1 King8 vlii 29, &c. et seq. 


frequently given to tlie legal alms. They are called Zaki'iL, 
either because they increase a man's stoTe, by xirawing 
down a blessing thereon, and produce in his soul the 
virtue of liberality,^ or because they purify the remaining 
part of one's substance from pollution and the soul from 
the filth of avarice ; 2 and Sa^laqa, because they are a 
proof of a man's sincerity in the worship of God. Some 
writers have called the legnlalms tithes, but improperly, 
since in some cases they fall .short, and in others exceed 
that proportion. 

The giviirig of alnis is frequently commanded in the 
Quran, and often recorunVended therein jointly with 
pi aypr , the former being held of great efficacy in causing 
the latter lo be lieard of God : for which reason the 
Khalifah Omar Ibn Abd al Aziz used to say '* that prayer 
carries us half-way- to GoD, fasting brings us to the door 
of his palace, and alms procures us admission.'"' ^ The 
Muhammadans, therefore esteem almsdeeds to be liigldy 
meritorious, and many of them hav6 been illastrious f<;r 
the eicercise thereof. Httsan, the son of Ali and gTandson 
of Muhammad, in particular, is related to have thrice in 
his life divided bis substance equally between himself and 
the poor, and twice to have given away all he had ;^ and 
the generality are dO addicted to the doing of good, that 
they extend their charity even to brutes-'^* 

Alms, according to the prescriptions of the JMuham- La^rs roiat- 
madan law, are to be given of five thirtg:^ • \. Of catile, aJl^sl' ^''^^ 
that is 10 say, of camels, kine, and sheep ; 2. Of money ; 

* A few years' resiflence aaioug Muslims will serve to rriaterially 
modify this statefnenr. k. m. y^. 

AlBAidbawi. See Qurdn, c. 2, ^ D'Herbe!., Bibl Orient , p:; 

vv. 261-274. * Ibitl., p. 422. 

■' Idem. Coijipare this with what ^ Vide Busbeq , Jipist. J, p. 178 

cur SavTouj- says (Inke yj. 41), Smith, dc Morib, Tare, Ep. r, p. 65, 

"Oive a tas of &>icb things as ye 'ic. Coujpare Etcles.' xi. 1 and 

havo ; atii bthold, Jill thingi. am Prov. xii. ly. 
clean ULto you " 


3. Of corn; 4. Of fruits, viz., dates and raisins; and 5. 
Of wares sold. Of each of these a cerfcain poition is to be 
given in alms, being usually one part in forty, or two and 
a half per cent, of the value. But no alms are due for 
them, unless they amount to a certain quantity or num- 
ber ; nor until a man has been in possession of them eleven 
months, he not being obliged to give alms thereout before 
the twelfth month is begun ; nor are alms due for cattle 
employed in tilling the ground or in carrying of burdens. 
In some cases a much larger portion than the before* 
mentioned is reckoned due for alms : thus of what ia gotten 
out of mines, or the sea, or by any art or profession ovei 
and above what is sufficient for the reasonable support of 
a man's family, and especially where there is a mixture 
or suspicion of unjust gain, a fifth part ought to be given 
in aims. Moreover, at the end of the fast of Eamadhan, 
every Muslim is obliged to give in alms for himself and 
for every one of his family, if he has any, a measure ^ of 
wheat, barley, dates, raidins, rice, or other provisions com- 
monly eaten ;2 
Appropria- The legal alms were at first collected by Muhammad 
alms!* ^^ himself, who employed them as he thought fit, in the 
relief of his poor relations and foJowers, but chiefly 
applied them to the maintenance of those who served in 
his wars, and fought, as he termed it, itx the way of God. 
His successors continued to do the same, tilj, in process of 
time, other taxes and tributes being imposed for the sup- 
port of the government, they seem to have been weaiy of 
acting as almoners to their subjects, and to have left the 
paying them to their consciences. 
Jewish and In the foregoing rules concerning alms we may observe 
aimsi^ing also footstcps of what the Jews taught and practised in 
compared. j.ggpg(,^ thereto. Alms, which they also call Sedaka, i.e., 

^ Tliis ineaKUTe is a Sad, ^nd con, ^ Vids ReJand, l)e Kel. Ma- 
laiuB about six or seven pounds hommed, 1. i, p. 99^ (fcc. Chardin, 
weight. Voj. de Perse, torn. 2, p. 415, Stc. 


justice or righteoi'sriess,^ are greatly recommended by 
their Rabbins, and preferred even to sacrilices,^ as a 
duty the frequent exercise whereof will eflecfcually free a 
man from hell-fire,^ and merit everlasting life ; * wherefore, 
besides the corners of the field and the gleanings of their 
harvest and vineyard, commanded to be left for the poor 
and the stranger by the law of Moses/ a certain portion 
of their corn and fruits is directed to be set apart for 
their relief, which portion is called the tithes of the poor.^ 
The Jews likewise were formerly very conspicuous for 
their charity. Zaccheus gave the half of his goods to the 
poor;^ and we are told that some gave their whole sub- 
stance : so that their doctors at length decreed that no 
man should give above a fifth part of his goods in aims.^ 
There w^ere also persons publicly appointed in every 
synagogue to collect; and distribute the jjeople's contribu- 

The third point of religious practice is fasting,, a duty me duty of 
of so great moment, that Muhammad used to say it was ^""^' 
*' the gate of religion," and that " the odour of the mouth 
of him who fasteth is more grateful to Goi) than that of 
n;iusk ; " and al Ghazali reckons fasting one-fourth part of 
the faith. According to the Muhammadan divines, there 
are three degrees of fasting : i. The restraining the belly 
and other parts of the body from satisfying their lusts ; 
3. The restraining the ears, eyes, tongue, hands, feet, and 
other members from sin ; and 3. The fasting of the heart 
from worldly care?, and refraining the thoughts from 
everything besides GoD,^^ 

^ Hence alms aie in the New and Maimon. in Haiti choth matanoth 

Testament termed AtfcatoffLTj;. Matt. Anijyim., c. 6. Conf. Pirke Avoth, 

vi. 1 led. Bieph.), and 2 Cor. ix. lo. v. 9. 

' Gemar. in Bava Bathia. ^ I'aike xix. 8, 

^ Ibid., in Gittin. ^ Vidt* K eland, Ant. Saci. Yat, 

* Ibid., in Kosh hashana. Hebi'., p. 402. 

• Levit xix. 9, 10 ; Deut. xxiv. •" Vide ibid., p. 13S. 

19, &c. '^^ A\ Ghazali, Al Mustatraf. 
^ Vide Gtaua.^ Ilierosoi. lu Peah, 


Tbefastof The Muhaiiimadans are obliged, by the express com- 
mand of the Qiirau, to fast the whole month of Ramadhan, 
from the time the new moon first appears till the appear- 
ance of the next new moon ; during which time they must 
abstain from eating, drinking, and women, from daybreak 
till night,^ or sunset. And this injunction they obser\x 
so strictly, that while they fast they suffer nothing to 
enter their mouths, or other parts of their body, esteeming 
the fast broken and null if they smell pei'fumes, take a 
clyster or injection, batlie, or even purposely swallow 
thfeir spittle; some being so cautious that they will not 
open their mouths to speak,, lest they should breathe the 
air too freely ; ^ the fast is also deemed void if a man kiss 
or touch a woman, or if he vomit designedly. But after 
sunset tbey are allowed to refresh themselves, and to eat 
and drink, and enjoy the company of their wives till 
daybreak ; ^ though the more rigid begin the fast again at 
midnight '* This fast is extremely rigorous and mortify- 
ing when the month of -Ramadhan happens to fall in 
summer, for the Arabian year bemg lunar,^ each month 
runs through all the different seasons in the course of 

^ Qurjin, c. 2, vv 185-195. and the black thread are to be un- 

''^ Hence we read that tiit» Virgin der.stood the light and diirk 8tre£,k3 

Mary, to Hvoid answerino the relloc- of the daybreak ; and they say the 

tions cast on her for bringing home passage was at hr«t t^^vealed v ithout 

a child, was sxdvistid !'V tiiu Angel the wordu "of the daybreak;" but 

Gabriel to feign she had Vowed a fast, M viharania.d'8 followers, taking the 

and therefore she ought not to apeak, expression in the first sense, regu- 

St:e Qurin, o. 19, v. 27. lated ()u-ir practice aci-ordingly, and 

' The words of the Quran (cap. 2, continu«'d e.uting and drinking till 

V. 187) are: "Until ye can distin- they could di^tingiiivsh a v. hite thread 

guiah a white thread from a black from a black thread, up they Jay be- 

thread by the duybreak '' — a form of fore them- -to prevent which for the 

bpeaking borrowed by Muhammad future, th( words "of the daybreak " 

from the Jew.s, who determine the were added as explanatory of the 

titne when they arc to begin t^eir former. Al Baidhawi. VidcPocock, 

moroing lesson to be ho S'X)ii as a not. in (y.anuen "i'ograi, p. 89, &c. 

man can diMrern blue from White, Chardin, Vt)y. de I'eroC, toxn. 2, p. 

t'.f the blue thre.ul.s from the white 423. 

thrcida in the iringe,s of their ^Ar- * Vide Chardin. ibid., p. 421. ^c. 

ments. Pint this »xplicatiou- the Heland, l)e Htdig Moh., p. iCiy, &c. 

coinnientators do not approve, pre- '' See post, Sect. VI. 
tending that by the white thread 



tliirty three years, the lengtli and heat of the days making 
the observance of it much more difficult and uneasy then 
thjin in winter. 

The reason given why the month of liamadhan waa 
pitched on for this purpose is, that on that month the 
Quran was sent down from heaven.^ Some pretend that 
Abraham, Moses, and Jesus received their respective reve- 
lations in the same montli.^ 

From the fast of Eaniadhau none are exensed, except The mie of 
only tvaveliery and sick persons (under which lasi denomi- tHe' 
aation the doctors comprehend all whose health would 
manifestly be iiijureil by their keeping the fast ; as women 
with child and giving suck, aucient people, and young 
children); but then they are obligedy as soon as the im- 
pediment is removed, to fast an equal number of other 
days: and the breaking the fast is ordered to be expiated 
hy giving alms to the poor.^ 

Muhammad seems to have followed thr guidance of the tmbaIso 
Jews in his ordinances concerning fasting, no less than from' u.f. 
in the former particulars. That nation, when they fast,'*'**'" 
abstain not only from eating and drinking, but from 
women, and from anointing hemselves,* irom daybreak 
until sunset, and the stars begin to appear,^ spending 
the night in taking what refreshments they please.® And 
they allow women with child And giving suck, old pei'sons, 
and young children to be exempted from keeping moijt of 
the public fasts.'^ 

Though my design here be briefly to treat of those 
points only which are of indispensable obligation on a 
Mnshm, dud expressly required by the Quran, without 
entering into their practice as to voluntary and super- 

^ Quraa, c, 2, v, 1S5. See aUo * Vtdo (rejnar. Voina, f. 4c,, and 

o. 97. Maiinou. iu Halachoth Tduiotb, c. 

'^ A] Baidhdwi, ex Trad. Moham- 5. § 5. 

medis. ^ Vide Gemar. Tam'tli. t. 12, and 

^ See Qur^K, c. 2, v, 185. Yoma, f. S^^ and Es Jlayini. Tstnith. 

* Sijjhra, f. 252, 2. c. 1. 

•' TosephothadGemar. Yoina,f. 34. 




f asis of 

ruvVfU itorri 
l.he Jewish 
day of 

to Makkab, 

erogatory works; yet, to show how closely M-nhammad's 
institutions tollovv the Jev/ish I sijall add a word or two 
of the voluntary fasts of the Muhaiiimad?ins, These are 
such ns have beeu rt^H'tDJiwiided either by t]>e example or 
uppvobatJon of tijeir propliet; and especially certajn days 
of those moiitlis %vhir'h they estpfcrn sacred • there bein^ 
a tradition that he used to ssay Thftt a fasrt of one day in 
a sacjed mouth was letter than a fast of thirty days in 
another month, and tiiat thts fast of one day in Raraadfian 
was nnire mtjatorions than afajstof tiiirty daysio a sacred 
inonth."^ Among the more comrneudable days is that 
of Asbura, the tenth xd Mnliarrain^ which, though some 
writers tell us it was observed by the Arabs, and par- 
ticulaiJv the tribe of Quraish» before Muhammad s time,- 
yet, as others assure us. thai prophet borrowed both the 
Tianie snd the fast from the Jews, it being with tlierti the 
tenth of the seventh month, or Tisin, and the great day o{ 
expiution conimauded to be kept by the law of Mosej>.' 
Al Kazwini relates that when Mnhanimad came to 
Madina, and tbiind the Jews there tasted on the day of 
Asliiira, he ashed thein the reason of it; and they told 
him it wfts because on tliat day Pharaoh and his people 
■were drowned, Moses and those who were with hiai 
escaping: whereupon he said that he bore, a nearer rela- 
tion to Moses than tiiey, and ordered his foHowers to fast 
on that day. However it seems afterwards ho was not so 
well pleased in having imitated the Jews herein ; and 
therefore declared tliar^ if he lived another veai, he would 
alter the day, ond fast on the ninth, abhorring so near an 
agteeinent with them* 

The pilgrimage to Mskkah is so n^icessary a point of 
practice +li;ii, according to a tradition of iVluhammad, he 
who dies without performing it may as well die a Jew or 

' A I RHVfczl in Comment, ad Orat. 

® Lcvit. ^vi 2(), and x;\iii. 27, 
* Ibn alAtliir." ViJe Poc Spec, 
p. 309 


a Christian:^ arid the same is xpressly comaianded in 
the Quran.^ Before I speak of the lime and mnnner of 
perfornjing this pilgrimage, it may be proper to givti a 
short account of tiie tomple of Makkah, the chief scene of 
the Muhaiumadan worship ; in doing which I need be tlic 
less prulix, because that edifice has been elread y described 
"by several writers,' though they, folUtwiiig different rela- 
tions, have been led into some mistakes, and agree not 
winh one another in several particulars : nor, indeed, do 
the Arab authors agree in all things, one great reason 
whereof is their spr^aking of different times. 

The temple of Makkah stands in the vnidst of the city, Thetswipie 
•^and is honoured with the title of Alasjid al Hardin, i.e., SUSAblS.'' 
'*' the sacred or inviolable temple. What is principally 
re^'erenced in this place, and gives sanctity to the whole, 
is a square stone building called the Kaabah, as some 
fancy, from its height, which surpasses that of the other 
buildings in Makkah,* but more probably from its quad- 
rangular form, and I'ait Allah, i.e., the house of God, 
being peculiarly hallowed and set apart for his worship. 
The length of this edifice, troni north to south, is twenty- 
four cubits, its breadth from oast to west twenty three 
cubits, and its height twenty-seven cubitf^: the door, 
which js on thy eixst side, stands about four cubits from 
the ground ; the hoor bein,g level with the bottom of the 
door.'' In tlie corner next this door is the black stotife, of 
which 1 shall take notice \yy and by. On the north side 
of the Kaabah, within a gemicircdlar enclosuie iitty cubits, 
long, lies the white stone, said to be thtt sepulchre of 
Ismail, which receives the rain-water that falls ofP the 
Kaabah hy a spout, formerly of wood,*' but now of gold. 

^ A.1 Gha/iLlf. Mohanirrifedane, p. 98, Ac. ; and 

^ Cap. 3, y. 97. Set alse c. 22, BoulainvUiiers, Vie de AJuh. p. 54, 

36 and c. 2, V. 125, ice 4;o., which last author is the mo^'t- 

^ Chardin, Voy. de Perse, t 2, p. particular. * Ahmad Ibn Yusaf. 

428, &,c ; Jiremo-ad, Descril.tiom ""' Sharif al Rdiisi, aud Kitab Ma- 

dei! Egitto, ykr..; I i, c. 29; Pitts' salik, apnd Fo<.' Sp«c., p. 125, &c, 

Accouiit of the ReL, &c., of the ^ Sharif u.1 Ediisi, ibid. 


The Kaabah has a doable roof, supported "within by three 
octaugular pillars of aloes wood, "between which, on a bar 
of iron; hang some silver lamps. The outside is covered 
w.'th rich black damask, adorned with an embroidered 
band of gold, which is changed every year, and was for- 
merly sent by the Kbalifahs, afterwards "by the Sultans of 
Egypt, and is now provided by the Tuikisrh emperors.* 
At a small distance from the Kaabah, on the east side, is 
the Station or Place of Abraham, where is another stone 
much, respected by the Muhammadans, of which some- 
thing will be said hereafter. 

The Kaabahj at sortie distance, is surrounded, but not 
entirely, by a circular enclosure of pvillars, joinf^d towards 
the bottom by a low balustrade, and towards the top by 
bars of silver. Just without this inner enclosure, on tho 
south, norths and west sides of tlie Kaabab, are three 
buildings which are the oratories, or places wiierti three of 
the orthodox sects assemble to perform th'>ir devotions 
(the fourth sect, viz., thai of al Shufuj. making use of 
the Station of Abraham for that purpose), >md towaids the 

* " The interior) of the Caaba censists of a. 8ing:le room. the. rt-wif 
of which is supported by two coluninp, aijd it has no othar ligiit 
than what is received by the door. The ceiling, the upper halt of 
the two columns, and ths mie walls to within aK-ai five feet of iLu 
floorj'are hung with a thick stntf of red silk, richly interwoven with 
flowers and inscriptions in hirge characters of silver. The lovi'er 
part of each pillar is lined with aweet alue wood ; and 'tii;a pait of 
the walls below the silk haugings is lined with fine white .marble, 
ornamented with inscriptions cut in relief, and v. ith elcj>ant ara- 
ijesqaes ; the whole being of exquisite workmanship. The floor, 
-vhich is upon a icvtl witli the door, and therefore about ecven feet 
above the level of the area of the mosque, is laid with marble of 
d liferent colours. Between thti pillars n umeccuis Ininpa ai-e suspended 
— donations uf the faithful, and said to be of solid f^old. In tire 
noith-weat corner of the chaiuber is a small gate, which leadt* u]> lo 
tho flat roof of the building. The interior onlanients are coeval 
Willi tho reetoraiion of the Caal'.i which took place a.d. i()27."— 
Uurckhard^s 'Travels in Arabia quoted froin Lwt(th Xur^n, p. 7. 

E. M W. 


souili-oast stands the edifice which covers the well Zaiii- 
zam, the tieasury, and tjie cupola of al Abbas. ^ 

All these buildings are enclosed, a considerable distance, 
by a inagnificenL piuzza, or sqiiai*e colonnade, like that of 
the E.oyai Kxchange in London; b\ife much larjrer. covered 
W]th small domes or cupolas, from the four corners whereof 
rise as many minarets or steeples, ^^ith duuble galleries 
and adorned with gilded spires and crescents, us are the 
cupolas which cover the piazza and the othei build ini^s 
Between the pillars of both enclosures hang a great num- 
ber of latnps, which are constantly lighted at night. The foundations of this outward enclosure were laid by 
Omar, tlic second KhahfLh, who built no more than a low 
■wall, to prevent the court of the Kaabjih, which before 
lay open, from b^ing encroached on by private buildings • 
but the structure has been since raided, by the liberality of 
many succeeding princes and great m^n, to its present 

This is properly all that is called the temple "but the sacred terri- 
whole territory of Makivau being dlso Haram or sacred, '*'^^' 
there is a third enclosure, distinguished at ceruiia distances 
by small turrets, some five, some seven, and otheris ten 
miles distant from the citj.^ Within tiu-s crjmpass of 
ground it is not lawful to attack an enemy or even to 
hunt or fowl, or cut a branch from a tree : which is the 
true reason why the pigeons at Makkah are reckoned 
sacred, and not that they are supposed f o be of the rane of 
that imaginary pigeon wliich some aiitliors, who should 
have known better, would persuade u& Muhammad made 
pass for iliH ifoly Ghost.* 

* Share al EdnsJ, ibid. (reagr. Nub , p. 21. Al MugbulUi' 

" V<^. S|>«c.; p. I r6. in bis LifQ of Muhaminii^. s*ys the 

•^ Ciol. not. in Alfrag., p. gq. |Tho piircons, of fch-^ t»imple ot MjiJck^K- 

pres&nt* extend muph farther, arc of t];e best bretd of thi>3fe which' 

Burokhardt's Travels iiij^rabia, p. laid their (ggB at the mutith 'of the 

^^66 ] cave where the prophtt and .A-bu 

Ca\). Sionita et Joh He»ronita, Baqr hid thrmsetvesi when thesy fled 

do nonnufli'^ Orient, urblb. ad caic. from that citv. So^i ante. p. 86. 


Tiiean- The temple of Makkah was a place of worship, and m 

tlle'tiBsbah Singular veneratjoii with the Arabs from great autiquitj, 
and many centuries before Muharamad. Though it was 
most probobly dedicated at -first to aii idolatrous use,^ 
yet the Mubarnniadana are generally persuaded that the 
Kaaboii is almost coeval, with the world: for th*iy eay 
that Adam, after his expulsion from paradisr^ begged of 
God that he might erect a building like that he ]»ad seen 
there, called Bait al Mamuj', or the fr'tf/tie/Ued hou&e, Jind 
al Uuiah, toward^s which he might direct his prayers, and 
which he might compass, at- the angels do the celestial 
one. "Whereupoc God let dorwn a representation of that 
house in curtainu of lig:ht/ and set it in Makkah, per^ 
pendicularly under its original, ordering th« patriarch to 
turn towards it when he prayed, and t-o compass it by 
way oi devotion.^ After Adam'a death, his aon Seth built 
a house in the same form of stones and olay, which being 
destroyed by the Deluge, wa rebiuit by Abraban} and 
Ismai),^ at God's oonimand, in the place where the former 
had stood, and after the same model, they being directed 
therein by revelation. 
Tiio prtiseiifc Afte this edifice had undergOTie several reparations, ifc 

Dinldtng'. ^ 

was, a few years alter the birth of JVluhammad, rebuilt by 
the Quraish on the old foundation,' and afterwards repaired 

^ See antes p. 38. heavens —wheuee, by the way, it 

^ Some &A.y that the -Bait al that this numbei of beHvena 

Mdiuur itff'lf was the Kaubsh of was nt-t <levi«(d by Muli^miund — 

ArJitm, which- baviji^- beon l^-t d'»vv-n aud of the nugela, bt^gin8 fclie de- 

to hini frojju htavtn was, 'xi iho s.'iiptioTt of the hertvewly Jerusalem 

Jb^lood; taken up agaiu into heaven, w these words : " We have cr<»u.te(i 

and is there kept. Al Zamakli in the upper Jernsaleitt »f:oV'i tb»> 

Qlirsi», c. 2. wat.Rra, which are above the tbiid 

' tVl JTizi, ex Trad. Tbn Ab"bii3. heaven, h&nging dinctly over the 

It has been observe J that the prinn- Idwer Jeruf^alnBi," Ac. Vide Gag- 

tive Christiau Ohnrch teld j pan^Ufcl pier, not. aJ Abul(«?d. Vit. Moh., p. 

cpiriion pa 1,0 the f.itus-lion ot th« 28 

celestial .lt:rns.iknn w-ith respect io '* AJ Shahristaui. 

the ttti;e>-t( ial ; dor in the n}>ceryph«,l * Vide Qunln. c. 2, v. l;.:^. 

book ui tbo Revektiunw of St Petr^r ' Al Jannabi, in Vitu AbraVifl.m. 

(tMip. 77), after Jfsug hats intjuti&iied ^ Vidt* Abulftid. Vit. M .>U.,p. 13 
uuto Peter th« (;r«atioi;i of the Sf^vt^a 

s;=:c. JV.j THE FREUMINAkY DL'^COU'RSB. 183 

by Abdullah Ibn Zubah-, the Khalifuh of Makkah, und at 
length again rebuilt by al Halaj Ibn Yusaf in the seventy- 
fourth year of the Hijra with some alterations, in the 
form whereiQ it now remains.-^ Some years after, how- 
ever, the Khalifah Han'm al Kashid (or. as others write, 
his falh?r, al .Mahdi, or his grandfather, al Mun.sur) 
intended again to change wlnat had been altered by al 
Hajaj, and to reduce the Kaabah to the old form in which 
it was lett by Abdullah, but was dissuaded from meddling 
with ii le&t so holy a place should become the sjK)rt of 
princes, and being new modelled after every one's fancy, 
should lose that reverence which was justly paid it.^ But 
notwithsta-ndim^ the antiquity and holiness of this build- 
ing, they hdve a prophecy, by tradilion from Muhammad, 
that ID the last timeB the .Ethiopians shall come and 
utterly demolish it, after which it will not be rebuilt again 
for ever.^ 

Before we leave the? temple of Makkah, two or ihreeThtHark 
particulars deserve further notice. One is the celebrated dScHbe-i. 
black stone, which is set in silver, and fixed in the south- 
east corner of the Kaabah,* being that which looks towards 

^ "At the (nortb) east corner 01 the Kaaba, near the door, ;s the 
ftimoTiij * black stoue ; ' it fonris a part of the shnrp angle of the 
building, at four or five feet, above the ground. It is an intigular 
oval, about seven, inches in diameter, with an uti<.luiatt;<i surface, 
ooniposftd of about a dozen smaller stones of diifei-tmt si^ea and 
shaptiS, well joined together with a f^niall qtiantity of cement, -dud 
peiiectJy smoothed ; it looks as il the ^vholp had been broken into 
maoy piecejj "by a violent blow, und then united again. It is very 
diflicnlt to deterinine accurately the quality of his stone, which has 
been worn to its present surface by the million of touches and kisses 
it hag received. Jt appeare tp mc like a lava; con tain Lng several 
^juall extraneous particlet; of a wliitish and a yeilowi.-h subst>uu-e 
Its colour is now a deep reddish brown, approaching 10 black : il ia 
surrounded on all aides by a border, composed of a substance which 

^ Abulfed. in xiist. Gen al Jan- Iderrf, Ahmad II. n Yusaf. Vide 

rtabi, &.Q. 2 ^j jajindbi. Fijc. Spec, p. JI5, &e 


Basra, about two cubits and one-fhird, or, which is the 
same thing, seven spans from the ground. This stone is 
exceedingly respected by the Muhamrnadans, and is kissed 
by the pilgrims with great devotion, being called by some 
the right hand of God on earth. ' Tliey fable that it is one 
of the precious stones of paradise, and fell down to the 
e/dTt'h with Adam, »nd being taken up again, or othei'wise 
preserved at the Deluge, the Angel Gabriel afterwards 
brought it back to Abraham when he was building the 
Ituabah. It was at first whiter than milk, but grew black 
long since by the touch of a menstruoi;s woman, or, as 
others toll ua, by the sins of mankind,^ or rather by the 
touches and kisses of so many people the superficies only 
being black and, the inside still remaining v/hite.^ When 
the Karrnatiahe,'^ among other profanations by them offered 
to the temple of Makkah, took away this stone, they could 
not be prevailed on, for love or money, to lestore it, though 
those of Makkah offered no less than live thousand pieces 
of gold for it.* However, after they had kept it twenty- 
two years, seoing they could xiot thereby draw the pilgrims 
from Makkah, they sent ii back of their own accord, at 
the same time bantering its devotees by telling them it 
was not the true stone; but, as it is said, it was proved to 
be noxounterfeit by its peculiar quality of i^wimming on 

I look to be a close liement of pitch and gravel, of a similar, bui not 
quite the saruy, brownish colouri Tin's border serves to support its 
detaciied pieces j it is two or three inches in breadth, and rises a little 
ahovo the surface of the stone." — Btirdhardt, pp. 137, 138, qmkd in 
Mtdr's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. chap. ii. 
Burton thinks it is an aerolite, e. m. w. 

^ Al Zamakh, &c,,in Qurtln. Ah- the fundamentRj pointa of Mnbaio- 

inad Ibp Yusaf. madisni. Sen D'HerbeL.BiM. Orient., 

* Hoc. Spfcc,, p. 117, &c. Art. Carinath, and hereafter § viii. 

^ These Kjirmatians .were a sect * WHarlml., p. 40. 

which arose in the year of the Hijra " Ahmad Ihv YTisaf AVmifeda. 

278, and whose opinions overturned Vide Voo. Spec, p. 119 


Another tliiag observable in this temple is the stone in The stone m 
Abraham's Phice wherein, they pretend to show his foot- piaJ ' 
steps, telling ub ne stood on it when -he built the Kaabah,^ 
and that it served him for a soaifold, rising and falling of 
itself as he had occasiou,^ though another tradition says he 
stood upon it while the wife of his son Ismail, whom lie 
paid a visii to, washed his head.^ It is now encloped in 
an iron cht^st, out of which the pilgrims drink thft water 
of Zamzain,* and are ordered tn pvay at it by the Quran.^ 
The oflicers of the temple took care to hide this stone 
when the Karinatians took the other.^ 

T]ie last thing I shall take notice of in the temple is the The weu 
well Zamzam. on the east side of the Kaabah, and which ^*™**"*' 
is covered with a small building and cupola. The Muham- 
raadans are persuaded it is the very sprijig which gushed 
out for tl;ie relief of Ismail, when Hagar his mother 
vv<iadered with bini in the desert;^ and some pretend it 
was so named from her calling to him, when she spied it, 
in the Egyptian tongue, Zam, zam, that is, " Stay, stay/' ^ 
tliough it seems rather to have had the name from the 
murmuring of its waters. The water of this well is 
reckoned holy, and is highly reverenced, being not only 
drunk with particular devotion by the pilgrims, but also 
sent in bottles, as a great rarity, to most parts of the 
Muhammadan dominions. Abdullah, surnaraed al Hafidh, 
from his great memory, particularly as to the traditions of 
Muhammad, gave out that he acq aired that faculty by 
drinking large draughts of Zamzam water,^ to which I 
really believe it as efficacious as that 0! Helicon to the 
inspiring of a poet. 

To this temple every Muhammadan, who has health and Fame of the 
means sufiicient,"* ought once, at least, in his life to go on toSikklh 

^ Abulfeda. '^ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 120, &c 

2 Vide Hyde, l)cj Rel. Vet Pert., "^ Gen. xxj. t^: 

p. 35. * G.,>Siouit et J. Hear, denon.urb. 

* Ahmad Ibn Yu sal Satiirddln. Oxient , p. 1 9. ^ D'Herbel., p. 5. 

* Ahraaii Ibr. Yuaaf ^^ See Qunin, c. 3,. v. 97. aiid the 

* Cap. 2; V. 125. notes thereon. 


pilgrimacre; nor are women excused from the perfoi-mance 
of tliis duty. The pilgfims meet at different places near 
Makkah, according to the different pans from -whence they 
come,^ during the months of Shawwal and Dhu'I Qaada, 
beioj^ obliged to be there by the beginning of Dhu'l Hajja, 
wiiich month, as its name imports, is peculiarly set apart 
for the celebra.tion of this solemnity 
ThP sacred At thc ulaces above mentioned the pilgrims propejly 

habit imt- ,, j rmn "' i ti ^ 

on. comruenoethe sacred rites. The men put on the Ihram, or 

sacred hiibit, wbjch consists only of two woollen wrappers, 
0)ie wrapped about tlie jniddie to cover their shame, and 
the other thrown over their shoulders, having their heads 
bare, and a kmd of slippers which cover., neither the heel 
nor the instep, and so enter the aacred territory on their 
vvuy to Makkah While they have this habit on they 
must neither hunt nor fowl ^ (though they are allowed to 
fish^), which precept is so puactually observed, that they 
will not kill even a lonse or a flea, ii they fmd thera on 
their bodies; there are some noxious animals, however, 
which they have permission to kill during the pilgrimage, 
as kites, ravens, scorpions, mice, and dog^ given to bite.** 
During the pilgrin»age it benoves a man to have a constant 
guard o^er his words and actions, and to avoid all quar- 
relling or ill language, and all converse with women and 
obscene discourse, and to apply his whole intention io the 
good work he is engaged in. 

viiiting the The pilgrims, being arrived at Makkah, immediately visit 
''*"''. ^' tho temple, and then enter on the performance of tht» pre- 
scribed ceremonies, which consist chiefly in going in pro- 
cession round the Kaabah, in running between the Mounts 
Safa and Marwa, in making the station on Mount Araffit 
and laying' the victims, and shavino their beads in the 
valley of Mina. Thes^^ ceremonies have been so par 
ticuluriy desorihed by othera.* that I may be excused 

' V'iile 'Bobov. d« Peiegr Meoc., * A\ Baid. 
p. X2, Arc. * Hubov, cl« Peregr. Msec, p n. 

* Qurin. c 5i vv. 95-^7. 3 Ibid Ac; Cha^dm, Psrse, t 2, 


if I but just mention the most material circumstances 

In compassing the Kaabah, which they do seven times, 
beginning at the eornei where the black stone is ilKed., 
they use a shorty qixick pace the three first times they go 
round it, and a grave, ordinary pace the four last ; which, 
it is said, was ordered by Muhammad, that his followers 
might show themselves atrong and active, to cut o(f the 
hopes of the infidola, who gave out that the immoderate 
heats of Madiua had rendered them weak' Bui the 
aforesaid quick pace they are not obliged to use every 
time they perform this x)iece of devotion but only 9.t some 
particulai' times.^ So often as they pass by the black stone, 
they either kiss it, or touch it with their hand, and kies 

The running between Safa and Marwa^ is also per- 
formed seven times, partJy with a- slow pace, and partly 
runnmg ;* for they walk gravely till they come to a place 
between two pillars; and there they run. and afterwards 
walk again; sometimes looking back, and sometimes stop- 
ping, like one who has lost something, to represent Hagar 
seeking water for her son ; ^ for the ceremony is gaid to 
be as ancient as her time.^ 

On the ninth of Dhu'l Hajja, after morning prayer, tho 
pilgrims leave the valley of Mma, whither they come the 
day before, and pi-oceed in £4 tumultuous and rushing 
manner to Mount ArafatJ where they stay to perform 
their devotions till sun-:et : then they go to Muzdalifah. an 
oratory between Arafat and Mina, and there spend the 
night in prayer and reading the Quran. The next morn- 
ing, by daybr-eak they visit al Mashar al Haram, or the 

p. 440. &o. See rUo Piits' Account 2 Y-;,jg pj^. Spec , p,. 314. 

of thif Tfel., &c,, of the Muhnmtu^" ^ See ante, p. 4-2- 

dans, p. 92. Ac. -, QngrAev, Vie de * Al Ghaz^ii. 

Nfoli.. t. 7, p. 258, &c ■ AbiiJfed.. ^ Rslanii De "R«l. Moh . p. 121, 

Vil. Miih., p. 130, &c. . and Belantl ^ Jbu ai Athlr. 

Dc Rsl. T^loh,, p. M3, &c. ■'See t^urdu, o. 2, v. 198, and 
' Ibn ftl Atiiij-. jiote there. 



and sacraci 


rh» cere* 

oiOm Arab- 

sacred irionuinent,' and departing Mieuce before sunrise, 
haste by Batn Miibassir to the valley of Mind, where they 
throw seven stones ^ at three marks or pillars, in ijnitatibn 
of Abraham, who, meeting the devil in that place, and 
being by him disturbed m his devotions, ur tempted t«-/ 
disobedience^ when he "wa:; going to sacrifice hi^ son, was 
commanded by Goo to drive him away by throwing stones 
at hitn,' thougn others pretend this rite to be as old as 
Adam, who also pu^^ the devil to flight in the soitip place 
and by the same means> 

This ceremony being over, on the sanie day. the tenth 
of Dhul Haija, the pilgrims slay their victims in the said 
valley of Mina, of which they and their friends eat part, 
and the rest, is given to the poor. These rictims must be 
either, sheep, goats, kine, or camels ; males if of either of 
the two former kinds, and females if of either of the latter, 
and of a fit age.^ The sacrifices being over, they shnv^ 
their heads and cut their nails, burying them in the same 
place : after which the ^^ilgrimage is looked on as com- 
pleted,* though they again visit the Kaabah, lo take 
their leave of that sacred building. 

The above-mentioned ceremonies, by the ,confas8iou of 
the Muhanimadans themselves, were almost all of them 
observed by the pagan Arabs many ages before their pro- 
phet's appearance; and particularly the compassing of the 
Kaabah the running between Safa and Marwa. arid the 
throwing of the stones in Mina ; and were confirmed by 
Mnhamraad with some alterations in such points as 
seemed most exceptionable : thus, for e-;saQiple, he ordered 
that when they compassed the Kaabah they shoilld be 
clpthecl ; "^ wherefiA, before his time, they performed that 

' See Quran, c. 2, ▼. 1 88. M. Gjig- 
iiier has be^^n guilty of a nu<)take in 
ooniouudiiig this monument with 
the uacr"'! enclosure of the Kaabah, 
ViJd Gagn. u(jt, ad AbulfecL Vit. 
Mob., p. ijii and Vie doMoh , t. 2, 
p. 262. 

- Dr PoctJcV frola al Ghaz^li. 

says seventy, at different tixne« and 
ylacoB. P«>c. Spec'., p. 3J5- 

^ A) Gba7,, /Vhuj^i Ibu Yueaf. 

* tbn al Athlr. 

' Yidfi Reland, ubi sup., p. 1 r; 

^ See Quidn, c. 2, v. 196 

"^ Qnria, c. 7, v 27, 32. 


piece of devotion naked, throwing off tbeir clothes as a 
mark that they had cai^t off their sins/ ot as signs of their 
disobedience towards God.' 

It is also ackliowledufed that the cp'eater part of these object of 

■ ii • ^ /v • ^^ - the pilgrim- 

rites are of no intrinsic worth, neither aifectuig the sou! age. 
nor agreeing with natural reason, but altogether arbi- 
trary, and commanded merely to try the obedience of 
mankind, without any further view, and are therefore to 
be complied with ; not that they are good in theiiiselves, 
but because God has so appointed.^ >Some, however, have 
endeavoured to find out some reasons for the abitraiy in- 
junctions of tbis kind, and one writer/ supposing men 
ought to imitate the heavenly bodies, nx>t only in their 
purity but in their circuiar motion, seems to argue tlte 
procession round the Kaabafa tx) be therf3fore a. rational 
practice. Eeland^ hai» observed that the Eomany ha<i 
something like this in their worship, being ordered by 
iN'uma to use a circular motion in the adorativ)n of the 
gods, either to represent the orbicular motioii of the world, 
or the perfecting the whole office of prayer to that God 
who is maker of the universe, or else in allusion to the 
Egyptian wheels, whioli were hieroglyphics of the insta- 
bility of human fortune.'^ 

The pilgrimage to Slakkan, a,nd the cereinonie.s pre- 
■scribed to who perform it, are, perhap.s, liible to 
greater exception than other of Muhammad's institutions, 
not only as silly and ridiculous in thom^elveS; but as 
relics of idolatious supeibtitio)i.^ Yet whoever seriously 
c<yoyiders how difhcuit it ia to make people submit to the 

^ Ai Faik, de Temporo .T;»rior. Cctloy's ■EtiglJshtransiafciautliCreol. 

ArabujiD, apudlkiiU. de Mohaui>nt\l p. 117. . 

aatr Moh.,p.322 Comp. Isa.lxiv.6. «> Da Rel. Moh., p. 123. 

^^Aia. al Baid This nofiou Tiutarch. in Ntima. 

ir)H*w= vary near if it bft not the same ' MftiB>omde.3 (iti Epist -ad Prosel. 

■vpitb tfeat of the Adamitt:'^. R'A.) pretieuds that the worship of 

' AU; hazdli. Vide Abulfar. Hint. Myreury was pej-fonried by thcovr- 

Dyv , V- 17 • ij^g of slcme&j ami thtvt of Chcniowh 

* Abu.iaafar Ibu Tufail. in Vita by nt»kijig baj« tbei hmd md put- 
Hag 1 bii Yukdbiin, p. 1 5 1 . See Mr. t^ng oja unsewa g&ririeiits. 


abolisliing of ancient custom?., how unreasonable soever, 
which thfty are fend of, especially where the interest of a 
considerable party is also coiKjcnied, and that a man may 
with less danger change many thmgs than one great one/ 
must excuse Muhammad's yielding- some points of less 
moment to gain ihe principal. 'J'he temple of Makkah 
was held in excessive veneration by all the Arabs ia 
general Cif we except only the tribes of Tay and Khnzaah 
and some of the posterity oC a I Harith Ibn Qaab,^ who 
uRed not to go in pilgrimage thereto), and especially by 
those ol Makkah. who bad a particular interest to support 
that veneration ; and as the most silly and insignificant 
things are generally the objects of the greatest .superstition, 
Muhaai- Muhd/nmad found it itiuch easier to abolish idolatry itself 
cfessioii to than to eradica.te the superstitious bigotry with which 
ond Pu'Jfcr'"' they wer« addicted to that temple and the rites performed 
i-here ; wherefore, after several fruitless ti'ials to wean 
them therefrom,^ he thoaght it best to compromise the 
matter, and rather than to frustrate his whole design, to 
allow them to go on pilgrimage thither, and to direct 
< heii' piuyers thereto, contentijig himself with transferring 
the devotions there paid from theii' idols to the true CoD, 
and changing such circumstances therein as he judged 
might give scandal. And h^jrein he followed the example 
01 the most famous legislatori:, who instituted not such 
laws as were absolutely the best in themselves, hut the 
best their people were capable of receiving; and -^e. find 
God himself had the sa,me condescendence for the Jews, 
whose Hardness of heart h.p liumonred in many things, 
givuig them therefore statutes thnt were not good, and 
judgiiionts whereby they should not live,** 

* ^or a dfear anrt accurate flescriptipri of tho rites and tiereinoniea 
of tlir Muiilim religion, the readtr lb refeiied to Hughes' Ao/eif on 
Muhavmuidanisvt,. ic. M. w. 

^ Accordl.-ig To thf; maxim, Tvtim ^ ^^j^ Qura'ji. c. 2, v. 147, &o. 
est-i/fultar/mfarrquaniv/ntitivia^nijn. * "Fzek. v\. 25 Vide a>p.,j>cer de 
Al S^uhrieWni. I. riui e(. Tbunirrurn, c. 4, § 7. 

( 191 ) 




Havtxg in the preceding section. spoJcen of the funda- 
rnentji] points of the Muhanitnadan religion, relating both 
to faith and to praclice, I shall in this and the two follow- 
ing discourses speak in the same brief method of acme 
other precepts and institutions ot' the Quran which de- 
serve peculiar notice, and first of certain things "which are 
thereby prohibited. 

The drinking' of wine, under which name ail sorts of riie drink- 
Strong and inebnauny' liquors are comprehended, is lor- .'UKi«piriiu- 

111' • I /A '• 1 ji in ous liquors 

hidden in the Quran m more places than one/ Some, fortiddeu. 
indeed, have imagined that excess therein is only for- 
bidden, and that the moderate use of wine is allowed by 
two passages in the same book;^ but the more received 
opinion ih, that to drink any strong liquors, either in a 
lesser quanlity or in a greater, is Orbaolutely unlawful- 
and though libertines^ indulge themselvey in a contrary 
practice, yet the more conscientious are so strict, especially 
if ihey hove performed the pilgrimage to Makkah,^ that 
they hold it unlawful not only to taste wine, but to press 
grjipes for the making of it, to buy or to sell it, or even to 
maintain themselves with the money arising by the sale 
of that liquor. The Persians, however, as well an the 
Turks are Vk^tj fond of wine; and if one asks them how 
it comes to |)ass that they venture to drink it, when it is 

' 8ee c. 2, V. 2lS, auU c. 5. y- 92 •'' VideSniith, iJe Instil,. 

' Cap, :;, v. 2i9, arid c r6. v. 69. Turcor Ep. 2, p> 28, &c. 
Vide D'jaerbel.jBibl.Ont'iitp, 696. "* Vide Cbardin, vibi supra, p. 212. 


SO directly forbidden by tbeir j-eligiou, tiiey answer, thab 
it is "vyitli them as with the ,CLristians, whose religion 
prohibits drunkenness and whoredom as grea: sinp, and 
who glory, notwithstanding, some in debaiiclnijg girls aiid 
married women, and others in drinking to excess.^ 
Qu-3tiwi as It has been a question whether cetl'ee comes not under 
toiScco!"' the above-mentioned prohibition,^ b^^caiiee the fii-mes ot' it 
have some effect on the imaginatioi!. This drmk, whjch 
was first publicly nmd at. Aden in Ara.bia IVJitc about 
the roiddle of the ninth century of the Hijra, and thence 
gradually intioduced into MH-khah, Madina Egyp' Syria, 
and other pan% of the Levant, has been the occrc&ion of 
great disputes and disorders, having been souifcrlinie.^ pub- 
licly condemned and forbidden, and again declared lawful 
aivl allowed.^ At present the use of cotVee is generally 
tolerated, if not granted, as is that of tobacco^ though the 
more religious make a scruple of taking the latter, not 
only because it inetjriates, but also out of rcsp'-'ct to a 
traditional saying of their prophet (which, if it could jc 
made out to be his, would prove him a prophet indeed), 
"That in the. latter days there should be men who should 
bear the nnma of Muslims, but should not be really such ; 
ana that tliey should smoke a, certain weed, which should 
be called TOBACCO.'* However, the P'a&tern nations are 
generally so addicted to both, that they say, " A dish of 
coffee and a pipe of tobacco are a complete entertain- 
ment;" and the Persians have a proverb that toQee with- 
out tobacco is meat without salt/ 

Opium and bajig (which latter is the leaves ol hemp in 
pills or conserve) are also by the rigid Muhammadans 
esteemed unla\^fnl, though not men.tioned in the Quran, 

^ Chardirt. ubi siip., p. 344. 1 Origin*? ot du Pi'ogres rlu Cai^, k 

^ AM Jil Q'idir Miihanimad al.\ii- la fin da Voy. de- I'Aj-abie Heur. du 

Si?.ri hfts written a treatise cxtuctrning la K<»qfl«. 

caftop, wherein h^ argues for its law- * Relaiid. BisueH Miseell., t. 2,\t. 

fulness. Vide D'Herbel., art, Cah- 2f8o. Vido Ciiardin, Voy. dft Perse, 

vah. t 2, P|>. 14 ftftd be 
"•* Vide Le Tmitd Historique de 



because they intoxicate and disturb the understanding as 
wine does, and in a more extraordinary manner : yet these 
drugs are now commonly taken in the East ; * but they 
who are addicted to them are generally looked upon as 

Several stories have been told as the occasion of Mu- tims rcyton 

WiHV Win*;* 

hammad's prohibitini' the drinking of wine ;'^ but the true diiuiiiug 
reasons are given m the Quran., viz., because the ill quali- biwi. 
ties of tliat liquor surpass its good ones, the common 
effects thereof being quarrels and disturbances in com- 
pany, and neglect, or at least indecencies, in the perfor- 
mance of religious duties.* For these reasons it was that 
the priests were, by the LeviLical law, forbidden to drink 
wine or strong drink wlien they entered the tabernacle,* 
and tliat the Nazarites,^ and Rechabitea,^ and many pious 
persons among the Jews and primitive Christians, wholly 
abstained therefrom ; nay, sotne of the latter went so far as 
to condemn the use of wine as sinful.^ But Muhammad 
is said to have had a nearer example than any of these, in 
the more devout persons of his own tribe.^ 

Gaming is prohibited by the Quran * in the same lou aun 
passages, and for the same reasons, as wine. The word fE^c"... 
al maifiar, which is there used, signifies a particular manne'r 
of casting lots by arrows, much practised by the pagan 
Arabs, and performed in the following manner, A young 
camel being bought and killed, and divided into ten or 
twenty-eight parts, the persons who cast lots for them, to 
the number of sev«n, met for that purpose; and eleven 
arrows were provided, without heads or feathers, seven of 

* Opium is very commonly used by MusHma iu Tndia. e. m. vf. 

^ Vide Ohardin, ibid., p. 68, &c., * Jerem xxxv. 5, ko. 

a7id I)'H€rb(il., p. 200. "^ This wa.s the beret^y of thos4 

^ Vide prid., Life of Mah , p. 82, cailed Eucratitie, and Aquarij. 

&c. ; Busbt'^i., Epist, 3, p. 255: and Khuai, a Magiau hcrt'tic, ;ii»o de- 

Mandeville'a Travels, p 170. clared wiuf uni awful ; bat this wjhh 

' QuMn, c. 2, V. 2lB:c, 5, v. 924 after MuhanmiadV tm"i. Uydf.JDe 

and c. 4, V 42 and noiii. See I'rov, Rel. Vet Per.s.> p. 30c. 

xi'iii. 29, &«■ 8 Vidt R«iaiid. I)<- Rf^l Moh., p. 

* Levit. X. 9. «> ISumb. vi. 2. 271. ^ Cap. 2, v xlii i c. 5. v. 92. 


M'hich were niaiked, the iirst with one notck, the second 
with two, and so on, and the other four had no mark- at 
ali.^ These arrows were put promiscuously into a bag, 
find then drawn by an indifferent person, who had another 
n^ar him to receive them, and to see he acted fairly; 
those to whom the marked arrows fell won shares in 
proportion to their lot, and those to whom the b^nks fell 
were entitled to no part of the camel at all, but were 
obliged to pay the full price of it. The winners', however, 
tasted not of the flesh, any more than the losers, but the 
whole was distributed among the poor ; and this they did 
out of pride and ostentation, it being reckoned a shame 
for a man to stand out, and not venture his money on 
such an occasion.^ This custom, therefore, though it, was 
of some use to the poor and diversion to the rich, was 
forbidden by Muhammad,-'^ as the source of great incon- 
veniences, by occasioning quarrels and heart-burnings, 
which arose from the winners insulting of those who lost. 
ci>08s aiioTv. Under the name of lots the commentators agree that 
restriSio^ns all otlicr games whatsoever, which are subject to hazard 
or chance, are comprehended and forbidden, a^ dice, cards, 
tables,. &c. And they are reckoned so ill in themselves, 
that the testimony of him who plays at them is by the 
more rigid judged to be of no validity in a court of justice. 
Chess is almost the only game which the Muhammadan 
doctors allow to be lawful (though it has been a doubt 
with some),* because it depends wholly on skill and 
management, and not at all on chance: but then it is 
allowed under certain restrictions, viz.^ that it be no 
hindrance to the regular performance of their devotions, 
and that no money or other thing ]3e played for or betted ; 
yUiich last the Turks, being Sunnis, religiously observe, 

^ Some writefB, an al Zamakh. Hftiiri, a) BHJdhjC'A-i. &c. Vide Poc. 

and al Shiriizi, mention but three Sy^c., p. 324, &c. 

blank arrows. ' Qwran, c. 5, v. 4. 

' Auctores Nodhm al dorr, et ^ Vide IT/de, De Ludife Oriental. 

Nothr al dorr, al Zamakh. al Fii- in F^oleg, ad Shaliiludium. 
auziU^ddi, al Shirdi.! in Oral, al 


but the Persians and Moguls do not> But what Muham- 
mad is supposed chiefly to have disliked in the game of 
chess was the carved pieces, or men, with which the 
pagan Arabs played, being little figures of: men, elephants, 
hoises, and dromedaries ;2 and these are thought, by some 
commentators, to be truly mecnt by the, images prohibited 
in one of the passages of -the Quran ^ quoted above. That 
the Arabs in Muhammad's time actually used such images 
for chessmen appears from what is related m the Suimat 
of All, who, passing accidentally by some who were 
playiug at chess, asked, " What images they were which 
they were so intent upon ? " * for they were perfectly new 
t-o him, that game having been but very lately introduced 
into Arabia, and not long before into Persia, whither it was 
first brought from India in the reign of Khusrii Anushirwan.-^ 
Hence tLe Muhammadan doctors infer that the game was 
disapproved only for the sake of the images : wherefore 
the Sunnis always play with plain pieces of wood or 
ivory ; but the Persians and Indians, who are not so 
scrupulous, continue to make use of the carved ones.*^ "'^ 

'J'he Muhammadans comply with the prohibition of 
gaming much better than they do with that of wine; for 
though the common people, among the Turks more fre- 
quently, and the Persians more rarely, are addicted to 
play, yet the better sort are seldom guilty of it.'^ 

Gaming, at least to excess, has been forbidden in all 
well-ordered slates. Gaming-hou^^es were reckoned scan- 
dalous places among the Greeks, and a gamester is declared 
by Aristotle * to be no bettor than a thief : the Roman 
senate made verj* severe laws against playing at games of 
hazard,® except only during the Saturnalia; though the 

♦ This Btatemeiit is-niore tlian doubtful. K. M. w. 

* Vide Hyde, De Liidis Oriental. ' Khondemir. apnd €und, ibid., 

iwJ'roleg. ad Shahiludium. P- 4'- ^ Vide Hyde, ubi sup., p. 9. 

'-' V''ide eundeni, ibid., and in Hist. ' Vide evndeui, in Prol«g., and 

ShahUudij, p. I35,&c. * Cap. 5, v. 92, Chardin, Voy. de Purse, t. 2, p. 46. 

"* Sukaikar al JJimishki, and Auc " Lib. iv. ad Nicom. 

tui- libri al Mustatraf, apud Hyde, ^ V^ide Ht>rat., 1. 3. Caim. Od. 

ubi sup., p. 8. 24 


people played often at other times, notv/ithstanding the 
prohibition : the civil law forbade all pernicious games,^ 
and though the laitv weie, in some cases, perruittod to 
play for money, provided they kept within reasonable 
hounds, yet the clergy were forbidden to play at tables 
(which is a game of hazard), or even to look on wtiile 
others played.^ Accursiu^. indeed, is of opinion th'ey may 
play ai chess, notwithstanding that law, because it is a 
game not iwibject to chance,** and being but ne"wly invented 
in the time of Justinian, was not then known in the 
Western parts. However, the monks for some time were 
not allowed even chess.^ 

A.5 to the Jews, Muhammad's chief guides, they also 
highly disapprove gaming: gamesters being severely 
censured in the Talmud, and their testimony declared 
-.ivirsiuf cy Another practice of the idolatrous Arabs forbidden also 
bidden. in oue of the above- mentioned passages,® was that of 
divining by arrows. The arrows used by them for this 
purpose were like those with which they cast lots, being 
without heads or feathers, and weie kept in the temple 
of some idol, in whose presence they were consulted. 
Seven such arrows were kept at the temple of Makkah ; ^ 
but generally in divination they made use of three only, 
on one of which was written, ** My Lokd hath commauded 
me," 071 another, '' My Lord hath forbidden me," and the 
third Wits blank. If the first was drawn, they looked on 
it as an apj)robRtion of the enterprise in question; if 
the second, they made a contrary conclusion ; but if the 
third happened to be drawn, they mixed thenv and drew 

' ft. cie;atoribn«. Nov«ll Junt. etiau» Maimon. in Tract, Gezila. 

• 23, Ac, Vide Hyile. uln sup. in Among the moderu civiliang, Maa- 

Hii?t. Akte, p. 1 19. fc4*r<Ju« thought c«^iniDoi> gamtstera 

* Autli'i'rtl:. inier'i!,a dofpii!- were not to be admitted as wit- 
vx>[»l^•. .it;Ka<'9. being i»»fanr»ou.=iper80iw. Vide 

* fn Com. ad Le«^ni Plwd. Hyde, ubi sup, in Proleg. et in Hist. 
' Dii FrM.n", in Gloiss. Al*ff», ^ t^ 

■' Bav.M 'Mfbia, 84. 1 ; Ko«h has- *• Qpr^, c. 5, v. 4. 

h&xiu aiK.1 Stinhedr; 24, 2, Vide '• Ste ante, p. 42. 


over again, till a decisive answer was given by one of the 
otbera. These divining arroAvs 'vv-ere generally consulted 
before anything -of mornent was -undertaken •. as when a 
maij waa about to man'V or abont to go a journey, or the 
like.^ This superstitious practice of divining by arr<jv\£ 
was used by the ancient Greeks^^ and other nations : and 
is particularly mentioned in Scripture.^ where it is said 
that '* the king of Babylon stood at the pairing of the 
way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination : he 
made his arrows bright" (or, accoitiing to the version of 
the Vulgate, which seems preferable in this place, "he 
mixed together or shuok the arrows "). " he consuired with 
images," <Sfc. ; the commentary of St. Jerome on which 
passage wonderfully ag^iees with what we are told of the 
aforesaid custom of Ih^, old Arabs:. "He shall stand" says 
he, "in the highway, and consult the oracle after tlie man- 
ner of his nation, that he may cast arrows into a quiver, 
and mix them together, being written upon or marked with 
the names of each people, that he may see whose arrow will 
come forth, and which city he ought tirst to attack."'* 

A distinction or uieats was so g-'-neiaUy used by the' :?^iws con- 
Eastern nations, that it ir> no wonder that Muhammad I^w^.ls* 
made some regulations in that matter. The Quran, there- 
fore proiiibits the eating of blood, and swine's fiesh and 
■whatever dies 01 itself, or is .slain in the name or in honour 
of any idol, or ic, ^trangied or killed by a blow, or a fall, 
or by any other ueast* In which particulars Mnhammad 
seems clrJeiiv to have itr.iiaied the dew.-', by whose law, 
as is well kuown, all those things are rorbiUden; but .he 
allowed some things to be eaten which Moses did not,-' as 
camels^ flesh ^ in particular. In cases oi nec'-ssiby, how- 

^ Ibn &1 AtUii-, al Zamakh., and ^ Ezek. xxl 21. 

8-1 Raid, ifi Qm.ln, c, 5, v, 4. ^J * Vid« Poc. S], p. 329, fto. 

Mustatral, vV; VidB I'oc. Spec, p * Cap. 2. v. I'jf4i c. ,5, v. 4 ; c. 

j27,iV:c.,aruiD'Herbel.,Bibi Ork-iii..i 6, v. 146; and c 16, v. 116. 

art. Kodiih. ^ Levit xi. 4. 

* Vide Potter, Anticj. of Greectj, "•' See Qujran, c. ,},. vv. 49 and 93, 

voL i. p. 33-^. and c. 6, v. ..j./ 


ever, "wliere a man may he ia danger of starving, lie is 
allowed by the Muhammadau law to oat any of the said 
•prohibited kinds of foo 1 ; ^ and the Jewish doctors grant 
the same liberty in the same case.^ Though the aversion 
to blood and wliat dies of itself may seem natural, yet 
fiome of the pagan Arabs used to eat both : of their eatmg 
of the latter some instances will be given hereafter : and 
a.3 to the former, it is said they used to pour blood. 7/hich 
thoy sometimes drew from a live camel, into a gut, and 
then broiled it in the fire, or boiled it, and ate it : 3 this 
food they ciiDed M^-swadd, from Aswad, wldch signifies 
Hack ; the same nearly resembliiig our black puddings in 
name as well as composition.* The eating of meat offered. 
to idols J take to be commonly practised by all idolaters, 
being looked on as a sort of communion in their worship, 
and for that re;ison esteemed by Chiistians, if not absolutely 
unlawful, yet as what may be the o<3oasion of great scandal ;^ 
but the Arabs were particularly superstitious in this matcer, 
killing what they ate on stones erected on purposo ai'ound 
the Kaabah, or near their own houses, and calling, at the 
same lime, on the name of some idoL* Swine's flesh, in- 
deed, the old Arabs seem not to have eaten ; and their 
prophet, iu prohibiting the same, appears to have only 
confirmed the common aversion of the nation. Foreign 
writers tell us that the Aaaba wholly abstained from 
swine's fiesh,^ thinking it unlawful to feed thereon.® and 
that very fevtr, if any, of those animals are found in their 
country, because it produces not proper food for them ; ® 
which has made one writer ijuagine that if a hog were 
carried thither, it would immediately die.^*^ 

^ Qunin, c. 5, V. 2, &.c, and in " Compare Acta xv. 29 with i 

the other paijsages last quoted. Cor. viii. 4, Ac, 

2 Vide Mahnou. in Hal8<'hath ' St»e tlie fifth chapter of the 

Melachim, c. 8, § i., &c, Qurdn, v. 4, and the notes thers., 

^ Nothr al dorr, al F rsus^, al ' Sobn, de Arab., c. 33. 
Zamakh.. and ;il Baid. ' Hieronym. in Jovin. T. 2, c» 6. 

* Foe. Spec , p. 320. ' Idem, ibid. 

^^ iSoUaub, nbi supra. 


In the prohibltiou of usury ^ T presume Muhammad of usury 

, 1. -.1 , , , 1 • ^ e 1 ' 1 1 ^ and Cbiriiii) 

also lollowed the Jews, who are strictly forbidden by superau- 

• 1111 tloUS CU6- 

their law to exercise it among one another, though they toms. 
aire so infamously guilty of it in their dealing with those 
of a different religion ; but I do not find the prophet of 
the Arabs has made any distinction in this matter. 

Several superstitious customs relating to cattle.- which 
seem to have been peculiar to the pagan Arabs, were also 
abolished by Muhammad. The Quran ^ mentions foiir 
names by them given to cerfain camels or sheep, which 
for some particular reasons were left at free liberty, and 
were not made use of as other cattle of the same kind. 
These names are Bahira, Saiba, AVasila, and Hami : oi' 
each whereof in their oixier. 

As t/O the first, it is said that when a she-camel or a The customs 
•sheep had borne young ten times, they used to slit her \h^%^ahil'a, 
ear, and turn her loose to feed at full liberty ; and when fualkl^'^' 
she died, lier fiesh was eaten by the men only, the women pSed* 
being forbidden to eat thereof: and such a camel or sheep, 
from the slitting of her ear, tbey called Bahlra. Or the 
Bahira was a she-camel, which, was turned loose to feed, 
and whose fifth young one, if it proved a male, was killed 
and eaten by men and women promiscuously ; but if it 
proved a female, had its ear slit, and was dismissed to 
free pasture, none being permitted to make use of its 
flesh or milk, or to ride on it ; though the women wtre 
allowed to eat the flesh of it when it died : or it was the 
female young of the Saiba, which was used in the same 
manner as its dam; or else an ewe> whi^h had yeaned 
five times.^ These, howev(^r, are not all the opinions 
concerning the Bahira; for some suppose that name was 
given to a she-camel, which, after having brought forth 
yuung five times, if the last was a male, had her ear slit, 
as a mark thereof > and was let go loose to feed, non^i 
driving her from, pasture or water, nor using her for 

^ Qurdu, c. 2, V. 275. "- Cup. 5, V. 102. * Al Firau2abddL 


carriage;^ and other tell us that vhen a camel had 
Tiewly ])roiight forth, they used to slit the ear of her young 
one> aaying, "0 GoD, if it live, it shsdi be for cur use, but 
if it die, it shall be deemed rightly siaiu , '* and when it 
died they ate it.^ 

Sailja signifies i ahe-eamel tmntru loose to go where she. 
will. And this was <io7ie on various uccounts: as when 
she had brought forth females ten tin\es together; or in 
satisfaction of a vow , or when a man ha«i recovered from 
sickness, or returned safe from a journey, or his camel 
iiad escaped some signal danger either in battle or other- 
wise. A camel so turned loose was declared to be Sdiba, 
and, as a mark of it, one of the vertebrce or bones was taken 
out of her back, after which none raight drive her from 
pasture or wattr, or ride on her.® Some say that the 
Sdiba, w(.cn she had ten times together lirought forth 
females, was sunered to go at liberty, n<iae being allowed 
Lo ride on lier, and that her milk was not to be drank by 
any but her young one, or a guest, till she died , and 
then her flesh was eaten by men as well as women, and 
her last female young one had her ear al?t, and was called 
Ijahira, and turned loose as hei' dam had been.^ 

This appellation, however, was not so strictly proper 
to feuiale camels, but thai it was given to the male when 
his young one had begotten another youug one:-'' nay, a 
servant set at liberty and dismissed by his master waa 
also called Saiba ; * and some are of opinion that the 
word denotes an animal which the Arabs used to turn 
loose in honour of their idols, allowing none to make use 
of them thereafter, except women only.'' 

Wasila is, by one author,* explained to signify a she- 
camel which had brought forth ten tinies, or an ewe which 

' Al Zarruikh., g1 Bril.lbaviT, ftl '' A I Fii-auz. 
JMusJ:alraf. ^ Idem, al Jawhari, &c. 

'^ ibn ft} Athir. " ^ Xothr al dorr and Nodhm al 

' Al Firauzilb., al ZitmakVi. dorr. 

* .Al Jxwbari, fbn al Athir. * Al Firauz. 

f:c.v.3 l^iir preliminary discourse 2or 

had yeaned ^evcu times, and ev^ry time twins; and if the 
seventh time ^she brought forth a male and a female, they 
said, "Wusilat akhtiha," ie, "She is. joined," or, '' wa.s 
brought forth with her brother,*' after which nune might 
drink the dam's nulk, except men only ; and she was used 
as the Saiba Ui' W'asila was particularly meant of sheep; 
as when an ev/e brought forth a female, they took it to 
tliem&elveSj^but when she brought forth a male, they con- 
secrated it to their gods, but if both a male and a female, 
they said, "She is joined to her brother," and did not 
sacrifice that male to their gods : or Wasila was au ewe 
which brought forth first a male and then a feniale, oji 
which account, or because she followed her brother, 
the male was not killed; but if she brought forth a male 
only, they said, "Let this be an offering to our god.s.-'^ 
Another - writes, that if an ewe brought forth twins seven 
times together, and the eighth time a male, ihey sacrificed 
that male to their gods ; but if the eighth time she brought 
both «i male and a female, they used to say, "She is joined 
to her brother," and for the female's sake they spared tlie 
male, and permitte'i not Lbe dam's milk to be drunk by 
women. A third writer tells us, that Wasila was an ewe, 
which having yeaned seven times, if that which she 
bro\ight rforth the seventh time was a male they sacri- 
ficed it, but if a female, it was suffered to go loose, and 
was made use of by women only ; and if the seventh time 
she brought forth both a male and a female, they held them 
both to be sacred, so that men only were allowed to make 
any use of them, or to drink the milk of the female: and 
a fourth'^ describes it to be an .fc we which brought forth 
ten females at five births one i^fter another, it;., every 
time twins, and whatever she ^brought forth afterwards 
was allowed to men, and not to :woraen. &c. 

Hami was a male camel used for a stailixm, which, if 
the females had conceived ten fiiimes by him^ was after- 

• A1 Firauz.. al Zamakh. *•* AlJawbaxi, ^ Ai -Mutarrezi. 


wards freed from labour, and leu go loose, none driving 
him from j'nsture or from water; nor was any allowed 
to receive he least benefit from him. not even to shear 
his hair.^ •" 

Thebe things were obaeived by the old Arabs in honour 
of tlieir false gods," and as part of the worshi]) which they 
paid them, and were ascribed to the divine institution; 
but are all condemned in the QnraD, and declared to bo 
impious superstitioj^.s.^ 
Muhammai The law 01 Muliammad also put a etoy to the inhuman 
infanticide, custom, which had been long practised by the pagan Arabs, 
of burying their daughters alive, lest they should be re- 
duced to poverty by providing for them, or else to avoid 
the displeasure and disgrace which would follow, if they 
should happen to be made captives, or to become acarida* 
lous by their behaviour ; * the birth of a daughter being, 
for these reasons, reckoned a great misfortune/ and the 
death of one as a great happiness.^ The manner of their 
doing this is differently related : some say that when an 
Arab hari a daughter born, if he intended to bring her up, 
he sent her, clothed in a garment of wool or hair, to ke^p 
camels or sheep in the deseti ; but if he designed to put 
her to death, he let her live till she became six years old, 
and then said to her mother, "Perfume h6r, and adorn 
her, that 1 may carry her to her mothers ; " which being 
done, the father l^d her to a well oi pit dug for that 
purpose, and having bid her to look down into it, pushed 
hei in headlong, as he stood behind her, and then filling 
up the pit, levelled it with the rest of the ground; but 
others say, that when a woman was ready to fall in labour, 
they dug a pit, on the brink whereof she was to be de- 
livered, and if the child happened to be a daughter, they 
threw it into the pit, but if a son, they saved it alive.'' 

' Al Firauz., al Jnwhari. * Al Baidhiwi, al Zamakh., al 

* JaUl. in Qurin. Muetatraf. 

3 Quran, c. ^, v. io2, and c 6, * S«»e Qurdn, c. lO, vv. &\ 6r. 

V. 142-145. Vide Foe. Spec., pp. ^ Al Maidaui ' Al Zamakh. 


This custoiH, though not observed by all the Arabs in 
general, was yet revy coninion among several of their tribe^;,, 
and particularly those of Qiiraish and Kinda ; the former 
using to bury their daughters alive in Mount Abu Dalama, 
near Makkah.^ In the time of ignorance, while tbey used 
this Kieihod to get rid of their slaughters, Sdsaa, grand- 
father 1.0 tlie celebrated poet al I^arazdak, frequently 
redeemed female chiklren from death., giving for every 
one two she-camels big with young, and a he-camel; 
and hereto al Farazdak alluded when, vauntinsi himself 
before one of the Xhalifahs of. the family of Omayyah, 
he S'cddj "I am the son of the giver of life to the dead;" 
for which expression being censured, he excused himself 
by alleging the following words of the Quran,^ " He who 
saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved the lives 
of all mankind.'' ^ The Arabs, in thus murdering of their 
children, were far from being singular; tlie practice of 
exposing infants and putting them to death being so 
common among the ancients, that it is remarked as a 
thing very extraordinary in the Egyptians, that they 
brought up all their children ; * and by the laws of 
Lycurgus^ no child was allowed to be brought up without 
the approbation of public officers. At this day, it is said, in 
China, the poorer sort of people frequently put their children, 
the females especially, to death with impunity.* * 

♦ The eame practice was coininon among several castes of the 
Hindus. It is worthy of note that the motives for the act were 
the same as those which infiueuced the heathen Arabs. E. M. W. 

^ Al Mustatraf. e8pccJ3n_y ha. this manner — whence 

* Cap. 5, V. 35 tliar, saying of Pot-idippuB : 

» Al Mustatraf. Vide Ibn Kha- ^Ywr Tpi<l>d rts k^V u^Tjt «&" rincv, 

liqdu m Vita ai Farazdak, and evy^,r^oa sU^ie7f<Tt k^v ^ 7r\ova^o$- 

Poc. Spec, p. 334. . / '^ , , ' ^„'' 

* Stx-abo, 1. 17. Vide Diodor A man, tho poor, will not expose 
Sia I I c 80 ^^* ^'^^ » 

* ' Vide Plutarch, in Lycurgo. ^"^ if lie', will scarce preserve 

« Vide Pufendori, de Jure Nat. ^"^ daughter.' — 

fct Gent., 1. 6, e. 7, § 6. The See Potter's Antiq. of Greece, vol. 

Grecians also treated daughters ii. p, 333. 


This wicked practice is condemned by the Qiiian in 
several passages, ^ one of "which, as some commeniators^ 
judge, may also condemn another custom of the Arabians, 
altogether as wicked, and as common among other nations 
of old, viz,, the sacriticing of their children to their idols ; 
as was frequently done, in particular, in satisfaction of a 
vow thev used to make, inat if tliey had a certain number 
of sons born, they \^'Ould offer one of th«-m in. sacrifice. 

Several other super-5titioii5 custonis were likewise abro- 
gated by Miihamiiiad, bur the same being of less mornenr., 
and not particularly menJ[ioned iji the Quran, or having 
been occasion ally taken notice of ehje where I shall say 
nothing of them in this pluce 

^ Cap. 6, vv. 137 aud 151 ; c, 16, vv. 60, 61 ; and c. 17, v. 33. Se« 
alto chap. Si, v, 8. 

^ Ai Zaniakb:, 3J Eaid 

i -'-OS ) 



Thte Miihammadan civil Jaw is founded on the precepts 
and deteririinations of the Qur&n, as the civil laws of the 
Jews were en those of the Pentateuch ; yet being variously 
interpreted, according to the different decisions of their 
civilians, and especially of their foui' great doctors, Abu 
Hanifa, Malik, al Shafai, and Ihj; ITanbal.^ to treat thereof 
fully and distinctly in the manner the curiosity and use- 
fulness of the suhject deserves, v.ould require a large 
volume ; wherefore the most that can be expected here 
is a summary view of the principal institutions, without 
mmutely enterirjg into a detail of particulars. Wt, shall 
begin with those i dating to marriage and divorce. 

That, polygamy, for tne moral lawfulness of wliich the Law*. 
Muhammadnn doctors advance several arguraerits,- is )i!f",';'.»!y! 
allowed by the Qurjin, every one l^nows, though lew are 
acquainted with the limitations witli which it is allowed. 
Several learned men have fallen into the N-'ulgar mistake 
that Muhammad granted to his followers an unbounded 
plurality ; some pretending that a man may have as many 
wives,' and others as many concubines,* ea he can main- 

' Sef S<x;t. VIII. falsely A«t<erts the restraint ot tiit 

^ See aitte, Sect. 11 p. 73. number ut their wives to be no pre- 

* Nic Cub'^mi? in Cril.ral. Alco"., • cpt of ttheir reHgion, but a rule 

1 2, c. 19. Oif;aribs, it. Itinerai. t>iiperkidu£ed on a. politic considera- 

i-'. Greg. Tholosaiius, in Synt. tivjn, Pres. Stat'* of the Ottomal! 

Juris, i. 9, c. 2. § 22. SeptejnoBB- Empire. Yj^i. iii. c. z\. 

trr-iiisis tl^«. i^'orib Turc. p. 24} i>a,ys '* Marva^.t. in Prooi". atl Rit-fut. 

ttie Miihaimuaiitui? Miav 'iJi^'t." twelve Alcor., part iv. ,.p. 5;: :.i.'i<i ^x. 

l;v.\.|ul vvivfe.s ana tuj moic, Piid-iux, \A\f-. cA Muh.. }> 1 14. 


tain: wh ericas, acGordiDg, to the express words of the 
Quran,^ no man can have more than tour, whether wives 
or concubines;^* and if a man apprehend any incon- 
venience from even that number of ingenuous wives, it 
is added, as an advice ^which is generally followed by the 
middling and inferior people),^ that he marry one only, 
or, if he cannot be contented with one, that he take up 
with his she-slaves, nob exceeding, however, the limited 
number;* and this is certainly the utmost Muhar:?mad 
allowed his followers : nor can we urge, as an argument 
against so plain a precept, the corrupt manners of his 
followers, many of whom, especially men of quality and 
fortune, indulge themselves in criminal excesses;'' nor 
yet the example of the prophet himself,-f who had peculiar 
privileges in this and other points, as will be observed 
hereafter. In making the above-mentioned limitation, 
Muhammad was ditected by the decision of the Jewish 

* Muir {Life of MahoimU vol. iii. p. 303) soys, "There is no limit, 
.'W supposed by Sale, to the liumber of slave-girls, with whuiu (irre- 
spective of his four wiveSi) a Moslem may, without any antecedent 
ceremony or any guarantee of continuance, cohabit. Female slavery, 
being a condition necessary to the legality ot thid illimitable indul- 
gence, mil never be put down, with a wi'liog or hearty co- operation, 
by any Mussalmaii community." F m ■n. 

t Surely the "peculiar privileges" of the prophet, whereby all 
limit as to the nuniber of his wives and concubines was set aside, 
added to his example, wherein he appeai'ed as the possessor of ten 
wives besiles his concubines, must have gone far to weaken tlie 

ChardJn, Yoy. dcs Perse, t. I, p. •'' Sir J Mandevillo (who, ex- 

)66. Du Ryer, Sowmaire de la ceptiiifj a few silly stories he tella 

Rel. des Tares, mis k la tete de s^ fiotii heursa^. deserves ino«> credit 

version de TAlcur. Ilicaut ubi than some travollera of better repu 

supra. PufendoTt, i^e Jure Nat. et tation), speaking of the Quriin, ob- 

Gent., 1. 6, c 1, § r8. eerves, among several other truths, 

' Cap. 4, V. 3. that Muhamiijad therein coniinaiided 

* Vide Gagnit?r, in Notis ad Abub a ii.Mn should havo two wives, or 
fedaj Vit. ,Mv>h,, p. 150. Helaud, three, or four ; though ths Maham- 
l)e Rel. Mi)h., p. 243, &c., aiul Sel- r-.iadans then trxik nine wives, and 
don, TJx. fl(»br.>. 1 i, c. 9. lenmus as muny as thoy uiight dus- 

* Vid«j Relaiid, tibi sup., p. 244. tiiia. Mandev. Tvavels, p. 164. 

* t^iirar\ c. 4, *. 3. 


doctors, who, by way of counsel, limit the number of wives 
to four/ though their law confines them not to any certain 

Divorce is also well known to be allowed by the Mu- Law 
hammadan law, as it was by the Mosaic, with this dif- Sv^^"* 
ference only, that, according to the latter, a man could not 
take ajzain a woman whom he had divorced, and who had 
been married or betrothed to another ; ^ whereas Muham- 
inad, to prevent his followers from divorcing their wivag 
on every light occasion, or out of an inconstant humour, 
ordained that if a man divorced his wife the third time 
(for he .might divorce her twice without being obliged to 
' * part with her, if he repented of what he had done), it 
should not be lawful for him to take her again until she 
I had been first mairied and bedded by another, and divorced 
' by such s<jcond husband.'* And this precaution has had 
so good an effect that the Muhammadans are seldom known 
to proceed to the extremity of divorce, notwithstanding 
the liberty given them, it being reckoned a great disgrace so 
to do ; and there are but few, besides those who have little 
or no sense of honour, that will take a wife again on' the 
condition enjoined.^ * It must be observed that, though 

force of hi.s explicit precepts, given for the guidance of his followers. 
Would not the holy precepts of Jesus, as recorded in the Sermon on 
the Mi)iait, have losi much of their power over Christian hearts, had 
he churned for himself the special privilege of total exemption from 
them, and, mure so, bad his example illustrated a lower grade of 
moral rectitude ? e. m. w. 

* The large dowry, fixetl on the bride b} the- groom before the 
marriage is consummated, to he paid in case of a divorce ft'ithout 
proper cause, is more potent than the Qui'an in preventmg divorce. 

E. M. W. 

^ Maimon iu Halachoth Ishoth., I. Vide Sfelden, ubi sup.j 1. 1, c. 
c. 14. II, 

^ Idem, ibid. Vide Seldi.n, * Qur^n. c. 2, v. 230. 

Uxor. Hebi.. I. J, 0. g, '' Vide Selden, ubi Bup., I. 3, c. 

^ I>eut. xxiv. J, 4. Jercin. iii. 21. and Ricaut's State ofthe 'Jttom. 

Empire, bk. ii, c, 3i. 


a man is »i] lowed by tlie MuliarDiuadan, as by the Jewish 
!aw,i to repudiate his wife even on the slightest disgust, 
yet the women are not allowed to separate themselves 
from their husbands, unless it be for ill-usage, waut of 
proper maintenance, neglect of conjugal duty, impotency, 
vr some cause of equal import; but then she generally 
loses her dowry,^ which she does not if divorced by her 
husband, unless, she has been guilty of impudicity or 
notorious disobedience.* 

When a woman is divorced, she is obliged, by the direc- 
tion of the Quran, to wait till she hath had her courses 
thrice, or, if there be a doubt whether she be subject to 
them or not, by reason of her age, three months, before 
she itiarry another ; after which time expired, in case she 
be found not with child, she is at full liberty to dispose 
of herself as she pleases ; but if she prove with child, she 
must wait till she be delivered; and during her whole 
term of waiting she may continue in the husband's house, 
and is to be maintained at his expense, it being forbidden 
to turn the woman out before the expiration of the terra, 
unless she be guilty of dishonesty.* Where a man divorces 
a woman before consummation, she is not obliged to wait 
any particular time,* nor is he obliged to give her more 
than one-hiilf of her dower.^ If the divorced woman have 
a young child, she is to suckle it till it be two years old; 
the father, in the meantime, jnaintaining her in all respects : 
a widow is also obliged to do the saiue, and to wait four 
months and ten days before she marry again.^ 

These rules are also copied from those of the Jews, 
according to whom a divorced woman or a widow cannot 
marry another man till ninety days be past, after the 

^ Deut. xxiv. 1. Leo MocTena, ' Qurin, c 4, v. 18, &c. 

Hist (Iv gii Hiti Hebr., part 1. c. 6. * Qurdii,' c. 2, v. 228, ami f,; 

Vidt Stsldon, ubi aiip. v. i, &c. 

'' Vide Busbeq., Ep, 3, p. 184; » Ibid,, 0. 33. v. 48. 
Sniitli. T>eMorib.,.ac Lxifctit. Tuv(;^r ^ Ibid., c. 2. v 237, 

Kp. 2. p. 52 ; and Ohardin, Voy. de "^ Ibid,» 0. 2, vv. 233-235, ynu 

feme, t, i, p. 169. 65, v. i,' Sza. 


divorce or death of the husband;"^ and she who gives 
suck is to be maintaiued for two years, to be computed 
from the birth of the child, within which time she 
must not marry, unless the child die, or her milk be 
dried up,^ 

Whoredom, m single women as well as married, was, in ^^^1^°^' 
the beginning of Muhamraadism, very severely piimshed, ^'j'fJr^i^ 
such being ordered to be shut tip in prison till they died ; cation, 
but afterwards it was ordained by the Sannat that an 
adulteress should be stoned* and an unmarried woman 
guilty of fornication scourged with a hundred stripes and 
banished for a year.* A she-slave, if convicted of adultery, 
is to suffer but half the punishment of a free woman,^ viz., 
fifty stripes and banishment for six months, but 13 not to 
be put to death. To convict a woman of adultery, so as 
to make it capital, four witnesses are expressly required.'* 
and those, as the commentators, say, ought Co be men; 
and if a man falsely accuse a, woman of reputation of 
whoredjom of any kind, and is not able to support the 
charge by that number of witnesses, he is to receive four- 
score stripes, and his testimony is to be held invalid for 
the future.'' Fornication, in either sex, is by the sentence 
of the Imuran to be punished with a hundred stripe.s.^ 

If a man accuse his wife of intidelity, and is not able to 
prove it by sufficient evidence, and will swear four times 
that it is true, and the fifth time imprecate God's vengeance 
on him if it be false, she is to be looked on as convicted, 
unless she will take the like oaths and make the like im- 

^ Mishna, tit. Yabitooth, c. 4. Qurin,. and slill iu force, as some 

Grernar. Babyl. ao eunJ.. tit. Mai- suppose. See the notes tq Quran, 

mon. in Halach Giiushin, Shylhan c. 3, v. 23, anrl tbe Pre). lUsc, p. 

Aruch, part iii., HI. 

^ Miishna, and Gemara, and Mai- ^ Qaran, c. 4, vs. 14, 15. See the 

mon., ub> supra. Gem. Babyl. ad notes there. 

tih. Cetiitioth, c. 5. and Jos Karo, * Ibid., v. 24 

in Shyih^n Aruch, 0. 50, § 2. Vide ^ Ibid., c. 4, v. 14. 

Selden. Ux, Hebv,, i. 2, c 11. and ^ Ibid., c. 24, v. 4. 

1 2, G. 10, in lin. ^ Ibid., va.. 1-3. This Ift-w relates 

^ And the adulterer also, accord- not to married peobio, as Selden 

ingto a passage once extant iu the supposes, Ux. Heb.. 1. 3, c. 12. 


precatiori in leslimony of her innocency; whicli if she do, 
she is free from punislunent, though tlie marriage ought to 
be dissolved.! 
ui•^Jf^the I^ 'most erf the last-mentioned particulars the decisions 
?oXSr' ^<^' ^he Quran also agree with those oC the Jews. By the 
law of Moses, adultery, whether in a married woman or a 
virgin betrothed, was punished with death; and the man 
who debauched them was to suffer the same punishment.^ 
Tiie penalty of simple fornication was scourging, the general 
punishment in eases where none is particularly appointed; 
and a betrothed bondmaid, if convicted of adultery, under- 
went the same punishment, being exempted from death 
because she was not free.^ By the same law no person 
was to l)e put to deatli on the oath of one witness;* and 
a man who slandered his ^vife was also to be chastised, 
that is^ scourged, and fined one hundred shekels of silver,^ 
The method of trying a woman suspected of adultery 
wiiere evidence "was wanting, by forcing her to drink the 
bitter water of jealousj^^ though disused by the Jews long 
before the time of Muhammad,^ yet, by reason of the oath 
of cursing with which the woman was charged, and to 
wliJch she was obliged to say "Amen," bears great re- 
semblance to the expedient devised by the prophet on 
the like occasion.* 

The institutions of Muhammad relating to the pollution 

^ Qinila, 0. 24, vv. 6-9. See the maiden, because auch a one and her 

notes th«ft;. .'accomplice wore plainly t>rdfcreH to 

■' Jj<}vit. XX, jo; Deut. xxii. 22. b-* stoned (I>eut. xxii. 23, 24). But 

The kind of death to b(. inHicted on the ancient^ .sotin to huve been of », 

adultei-ers in common cases being different opinion, and to have und-sr- 

n<">t ixprtssfcd, the Talmudists geue- stood st-ming to be the puninhiueat 

rally sujiposfi »k to. be strangling, of adulterera in general. Vidt Sel- 

wliich they thtuk i."» designed wher- den, Ux. Heb,, 1. ^,0. ii and 12. 

evet the " shall be put to •' Levit. xix. 20. 

death," 6r "shall di« the dftath," is /* Deut. xix. 15, xvii. 0, and 

used, a« they iuia^itie j^toning is by ICumb. xxxv. 30. 

the expressiou, "Iiis blood ahall be " J)dut. xxii. ^3-19. 

upon him ;*' and hence it has been " Nmob. v. 11, &c. 

concluded by sonie that the womtn '' Vide Selden. ubi sup , 1. 3, c. 

faWen in adidtery m( nticned in the 15; aftti Leon. Modena, de' Riti 

Cospel {John viii.) was a betrothed Uebraici, parte iv. c. o. 


of women during their courses/- the taking of slaves to 
wife,^ and the proliibiting of marriiage within certain 
degrees,^ have likewise no small affinity with the insti- 
tutions of Moses;* and the parallel might be carried 
farther in several other particulars. 

As to the prohibited degrees, it may he observed that ivoMbitad 
the pagan Arabs abstained from marrying their mothers,* 
daughters, and aunts, both on the father's side and an the 
mother's, and held it a most scandalous thing to ma:rry 
two sisters, or for a man to take his father's wife ; ^ which 
last was, notwithstanding, too frequently practised,® and 
is expressly forbidden in the Quran,'^ 

Before 1 leave the subject of marriages, it may be pro- Peculiar 
per to take notice of some peculiar privileges in relation S Muham- 
thereto which were granted by GoD to Muhammad, as he munLTg^ 
gave out, exclusive of all other Muslims. One of them 
was that he might lawfully marry as many wives and 
have as many concubines as he pleased, without being 
confined to any particular number ;^ and this he pretended 
to have been the privilege of the prophets before him. 
Another was that he might alter the turns of his wives, 
and take such of them to his bed as he tliougbt lit, with- 
out being tied to that order and equality which others are 
obliged to observe.'^ A third privilege was that no man 
might marry any of his wives,^^ either such as he should 
divorce during his lifetime, or such as he should leave 
widows at his death ; which hist particular exactly agrees 

* Tliey, however, did permit a son to inheril his deceased father's 
widows, which custom Muhammad aboUfihed. See M air's Life of 
Mahomet^ vol. ii. ]>. 52, and voL iii. p. 303. e. m. w. 

^ Qurdn, c. 2, v. 222. * Vide Poc. Spec, p. 337, &c. 

^ Ibid., c. 4, V. 24, &o. ^ Qurdn, c. 4, v. 20. 

3 Ibid., vs. 20-22. ' Ibid., c. 33, v. 49. See also c. 

* See Levit. xv. 24, xviii. 1 9, and 66, and the uotas there, 

XX. 18; Exod. xxi. 8 li ; Deut. ^ Ibid., c. 33, v. 517 See the 

xxi. TO— 14; Levit. xviii. and xx. notes there. 

^ Abulfea.. Hist. Gwi. aJ Sharis- ^^ ibid,, v. 53. 
tdni, apud Poc, Spec, pp. 321, 338. 


with what the Jewish doctors have determined conceinmg 
the wives of their princes , it being judged by them to be 
a thing very indecent, and for that reason unlawt'u], for 
another to marry either the divorced wife or the widow 
of a king:^ and Muhammad, it seems, thought an eqnal 
respect, ai least, due to the prophetic as to the regal dig- 
nity^ and therefore ordered that his relicto should pass the 
remainder of their lives in perpetual widowhood. 
Laws con- The laws of the Qui an concerning inheritances are also 
hentance.' in several respects conformable to those of the Jews, 
tliougl) principally designed to abolish certain practicCvS 
of the pagan Arabs, who used to treat widows and orphan 
bliiMren with great injvstice^ f'rec(uently denying them 
any share in the inheritanee of their fathers or their hus- 
bands, on pretence that the same ought to be distributed 
among those oidy who were able to bear arms, and dis- 
posing of the widows, even against theii consent, as part 
of their husband s possessions.^ To prevent such injuries 
fpr the future, Muhammad oniered that women should be 
respected; and orphans have no 'wrong done them ; and in 
particular that women should not be taken against their 
wills, as by right of inheritance, but should them&elves be 
entitled to a distnbutive part of what their parents, hus- 
bands, and near relations should leave behind them, in a 
certain proportion.^ 

The general rule to be observed in the distribution of 
the deceased's estate is, tLjtt a male sl\all have twice as 
much as the female;* but to this rule there are some few 
exceptions ; a man's parents, for example, aiid also his 
brothers and sisters, where they are entitled not to the 
whole but a small part of the inheritance, being to have 
equal shares with one another in the distribution thereof, 

' Miahna, tit. Sanhedr, c. 2, and nott-^ there. Vide etiam Poc Spec, 

Gemar. in eund. tit. Mainioo.Ha- p. 337. 

lachotb Mpli«.;him, c. 2, Vide Sel- ^ Quran c 4, ts. 31, 3«,. 

den, Ux. Hel»., T. 1, c 10. Prid., * Ibtri., vs. lo and 175 Vide 

Lifb of Mah., p. 118, Chardin, Voy. do Perse, t 2, p. 

* See c. 4, V8. 21, kc, and the 293. 


without making any diflerence on account of sex.^ The 
particular proportions, in several cases, distinctly and 
suiiiciently declare the intention of jMuhainmad, whose 
decisions, expressed in the Quran,^ seem to be pretty 
equitable preferring a nnan s childieu first, and then his 
nearest relations. 

If a man dispose of any part of his estate by will, two Law con- 
witnesses, at the least, are required to render the same wiiib. 
valid; and such witnesses ought to beef his own tribe, 
and of the Muhammadan religion, il such can be had.^ 
Though there be no express law to the contrary, yet the 
Muhammadan doctors reckon it very wrong for a man 
to give away any part of his aubatance from his family, 
unless it be in legacies for pious uses ; and eveu in that 
case a man oupfht not to give ail he ha« in charity, but 
only a reasonable part in prt:)portion to his substance. On 
the other hand, though a man make no will, and bequeath 
nothing for charitable uses, yet the heira are directed, on 
the distribution of the estat-e, if the value will permit, to 
bestow something on the poor, especially such as are of 
kin to the deceased 'and to the orphans/ 

The tirst law, howeyer, laid down by Muhammad touch- 
ing inheritances wtis aot very equit/able ; for he declared 
that those who had fled with him from Makkah, and those 
who had received and assisted him at Madina, should be 
deemed the nearest of kin, and consequent])' heirs to one 
anotiier, preferably to and in exclusion of thejr relations 
by blood;, nay, though a man were a true believer, yet if 
he had not fled his country for the sake of religion and 
joined the prophet, he was. to be looked on as a stranger ,^ 
but this law continued not long in force, being quickly 

It ^must be observed that among the Muhanrmadans ciindrenof 
the cnildreu Oi their coiiCuDines or slaves are esteemed as legitimate. 

' Quiiti, 4, V. TO. ' Ibifl.. c. 5, v. ro5. ^ Ibfd, c 8, v. 73. 
* Ibicl.j'Ai-d V. 175. ♦ Ibid., c. <}, V. 7, c Ibid., and c. J3.. v. 6 


equally legitimate with those of their legal and ingenuous 
wives, none being accomited bastards except such only as 
are born of common women and whose fathers are unknown. 
Law con- As to private contracts between man and man, t}«^ 
privjad oon- conscientious performance of them is frequently i*ecom- 
mended in the Qurau> Yot the preventing of disputes, 
all contracts are directed to be made before witnesses,^ 
and in case such contracts are not immediately executed, 
the same ought to be reduced into wTJting in the presence 
of two witnesses^ at least, who ought to be Muslims and 
of the male sex ; but if two men cannot be conveniently 
had, tlie.u one man and two women may suftice. The 
same method is also directed to be taken for the security 
of debts, to be paid at a future day; and where a writer 
is not to l>e found, pledges are to be taken,** Hence, if 
people trust one another without WTicing witnesses, or 
pledge, the party on whom the demand is made is always 
acquitted if he denies the charge on oath, and swears 
that he owes the plaintiff nothing, unless the contrary be 
proved by very convincing circumstances.* 
Murjer nnd Wilful murder, though forbidden by the Quran under 
i3i>«na y ^^^ severest penalties to be inflicted in the next life,^ is 
yet, by the same book, allowed to be compounded for, on 
payment of a fine to the family of the deceased, and free- 
ing a Muslim from captivity ; but it is in the election of 
the next of kin, or the revenger of blood, as he. is called 
in the Ventateuch, either to accept of such satisfaction or 
to refuse it} for be may, if he pleases, insist on having 
the murderer delivered into, his hands,^ or in^ put to death 
in such manner as he shall think fitJ In this particular 

^ Quran, c 5, v, i ; o. 17; c. 2, v. ^ Qurin, c. 2. v. 282. 

282. ftc. •'' Vide Chardin, Voy. de Perse, 

' ibid., c. 2, V, 2S2. t. 2, p. 294, &c., and the notes to 

' The same seems to have been Quran, c. .5, v. 106. 

required by the Jewish law, even * Qurdn, c. 4, v*. QT, 92. 

in ca.-^Pf» where hfe wa>» t;ot con- ' Ibid, c. 2, v. 178; c. 17, v. 35. 

ceriied. Bee Deut. jtix 15 ; Matt. Vide Cbaidin, ubi sap., p 299, 

'X-viii. 16; John viii. 17; 2 Cor. &c. 

xiiL 1. 


Muhammad has gone a^rainst the express letter of the 
Mosaic law, which declares that no - satisfaction shall be 
taken for the life of a mnrderer ; ^ and he seems, in so 
doinsT, to have had resDect to the customs of the Arabs 
in his time, who, being of a vindictive temper, used to 
revenge murder in too unmerciful a manner,^ whole tribes 
frequently engac^ing in bloody wars on such occasions, the 
natural consequence of tlteir independency, and having no 
common judge or superior. 

If the Muhammadan laws seem light in case of murder, Mansia.igh 
they may perhaps be deemed too rigorous in case of man- penalty' "^ 
slaughter, or the killing of a man undesignedly, which 
must be redeemed by fine (unless the next of kin shall 
think fit to remit it out of charity), and the freeing of a 
captive ; but if a man be not able to do this, he is to fast 
two months together by way of penance.^ The fine for a 
man's blood is set in the Sunnat at a hundred camels,^ and 
is to be distributed among the relations of the deceased 
according to the laws of inheritance ; but it must be 
observed that though the person slain be a Muslim, yet 
if he be of a nation or party at enmity, or not in con- 
federacy with those to whom the slayer belongs, he is not 
then bound to pay any fine at all, the redeeming a captive 
being, in such case, declared a sufficient penalty.^ I ima- 
gine that Muhammad, by these regulations, laid so heavy 
a punishment on involuntary manslaughter, not only to 
make people beware incurring the same, but also to 
humour, in some degree, the revengeful temper of his 
countrymen, which might be with difficulty, if at all, pre- 
vailed on to accept a lighter satisfaction. Among the 
Jews, who seem to have been no less addicted to revenge 
than their neighbours, the manslayer who had escaped to 
a city of refuge was obliged to keep liiniself within that 
city and to abide there till the death of the person wlio 

^ Numb. XXXV 31. •* Quran, c. 4, v. 91. 

* This is particularly forbidden in "* See the note.s to c. 37. 
the Quviii, c. 17, V. 33. * Qur.iu, c. 4, v. 91. 



was high priest at the time the fact was committed, that 
his absence and time might cool the passion and mitigate 
the resentment of the friends of the deceased; but if he 
quitted his asylum befol-e that time, the revenger uf blood, 
if he found him, might kill him without guilt ;' dot could 
any satisfaction be made for the slayei to return home 
before the prescribed time^ 

Penalty for Theft is Ordered to be puDished by cutting ofT the 
offending part, the hand,^ which, at first sight, seems just 
enough ; but the law of Justinian, forbidding a thief to 
be maimed,* is more reasonable ; because stealing being 
generally the effect of indigence, to cut off that limb 
would be to deprive him of the means of getting his 
livelihood in an honest manner.^ The Sunnafc forbids the 
inflicting of this punishment, unless the thing stolen be 
of a certain value. I have mentioned in another place 
the further penalties which those incur who continue to 
steal, and of those who rob or assault people on the road.^ 

Uw of re- As to injuT ies done to men in their persons, the law of 
vetaiiation, which was ordained by the law of Moses,^ is 
also approved by the Qurun;^ but this law, which seems 
to have been allowed by Muhammad to his Arabians for 
the same reasons as it was to the Jews, viz., to prevent 
particular revengeB, to which both nations were extremely 
addicted,® being neither strictly just nor practicable, in 
many cases, is seldom put in execution, the punishment 
being generally turned into a mulct or fine, which is paid 
to the party injured."''^ Or rather, Muhammad designed 
the words of the Quran relating thereto should be under- 

^ a<^e Numb. XXXV. 26-28., * Vide Grotium, De Jure Belli et 

» Ibid., V. 32. Pacia I. 1. c. 2 § 8. 

' Our^T), c. 5, V. 42. '** VifteCliaidin, t. 2, p 290. The 

* Novor., 13/}., c. 12' taiio^ likewise estabiisheri atrioTig the 

' Vide I'uferMJorf, De Jure Nat. old Knuians by the Jaws of the twelve 

ei Gent., 1 8. c. 3, § 26. tab^eB, whs not to be inflicHed unless 

' See the notes to c. 5, v. 42. the delinqiient conld not agr^^e wjtb 

■^ Exod. xxi. 24, Ac; Levit. xxiv, the p*»rso7» injured. Vide A. Qell. 

20 ; Duut. xix. zi. Moct. Attic. I. ?o, c. i, end Fe^ium, 

' Cap, 5, r. 49. in voce Tjslio, 



stood in the game manner as tbosfe of the Pentateuch most 
probably ought to be — that is, not of a» actual retaliation, 
according to the strict Literal meaning, but of a retribution 
proportionable to the injury : lor a criniinal had not his 
eyes put out nor was a luan rautiltited according to the 
law of Moses, which, besides, condemne^l these who had 
wounded any person, where death did not enstie, to pay a 
<ine only/ the expression " eye for eye and tootli for tootii*' 
being only a proverbial manner of speaking, the sensQ 
■whereof amounts to this, that every one shall be punished 
by the' judges according to the lieinousntjss of the t&cX} 

In injuries and crimes of an inferior nature, where no Penalty 
particular punisbraeut. ii provided by the Q,unin, and cHiSs/ 
where a pecuniary conipeneation will not do, the Muham- 
madans, accorduig to tlie practice of the Jews in the like 
case* have recourse to stribes or drubbing, the most 
common chastisement used in the Fiflst at this day, as well 
aa formerly ; the cudgel, which, lor its virtue and efficacy 
in keeping, their people in good order and within the 
bounds of duty, they say came dowu from heaven, being 
the instmirient wherewith the judge's sentence is generally 

i^olwithstanding the Quran is by the Mubammadans in Distinction 
general regarded as the fundamental part of their civil civu.iud 
law, and the decisions of the Sunn at among the Turks and tliSw. 
of the Imanis among those of the Persian sect, with the 
explications of their several doctors, are usua.lly followed 
in judicial determinations, yet the secular tribunals do not 
think themtielves bound to observe the same in all cases, 
but frequently give judgment against those decisions, 
which are not always consonant to equity and reason; 
and therefore distinction is to b^ made between the written 
civil law, as administered in the ecclesiastical courts^ and 

' See Exod. xxi. 18, 19. and 22. * See De\rt xxv 2, 3. 

' Barbeyrac in Grot, nbi supra, * Vide Grelot, Voy. de Constant., 

"Vide Cl«»ic. in Exod. xxi 24, And p, aao, and Cbardin, ubi supra, p. 

ut, xix. 21. ^02. 

21 8 THE PREUhf!}iARy^. DISCOURSE. [skg. yi. 

the law of nature or common law (if T may so call it) 
which takes place in the secular courts, and has the 
executive power on its side."^ 

Under the head of civil laws may be comprehended the 
igrinst injunction of warring against infidels, which is repeated 
^'^ in several passages of the Qunin,^ and declared lo be of 
high merit in the sight of God, those who are slain fighting 
in defence of the faith being reckoned martyrs, and promised 
immediate, admission into paradise.^ Hence this duty is 
greatly magnified by the Muhammadan divines, who call 
the sword the key of heaven and hell, and persuade their 
people that the least drop of blood spilt in the way of 
God., as it is called, is most acceptable unto him, and that 
the defending the territories of the Muslims for one night 
is more meritorious than a fast of two months ; ^ on the 
other hand, desertion, or refusing to serve in these holy 
wars, or to contribute towards the carrying them on, if 
a man has ability, is accounted a most heinous crime, 
being frequently declaimed against in the Quran.* Such 
a doctrine, which Muhammad ventured not to teach till 
his circumstances enabled him to put it in practice,* it 
must be allowed, was well calculated for his purpose, and 
stood him and his successors in great stead: for what 
dangers and difficulties may not be despised and over- 
come by the courage and constancy whicn these senti- 
ments necessarily inspire ? Nor have the Jews and 
Christians, how niucli soever they detest such principles 
in others, been ignorant of the force of enthusiastic heroism, 
or omitted to spirit up their respective partisans by the 
like arguments and promises. " Let him who has listed 
himself in defence of the law," says Maimonides/ "rely 

' Vide ChMfdin, ubi supia, p. 2</D, * Relaml, I)e Jure Milit. Mohsuri 
&c. p 5, &c. 

• Cap. 27 ; c. 2, -v. JQO -193 ; n. 4, " Vide c. 9 ; c. 3. v. 143, kc. 

V. 83, &i' , c. 8; c. 9; c. 47 and c. ^ Sep ante, p. 83. 

01, .Jtu. ^ Halach. Mclachim, c. 7. 

3 Cap. 2, V. 155; c. 3. V. 142; c. 
47 . c 6r. 


oa him wlio ia the hope of Israel, and the saviour thereof 
in the time of trouble ; ^ and let him know that he fiohts 
for the profession of the divine unity : wherefore let him 
put his life in his hand,^ and think neither of wife nor 
children, but banish the memory of them from his 
heart, having his mind wholly fixed on the war. For 
if he should begin to waver in his thoughts, he would 
not only confound himself, but sin against tbe law; nay, 
the blood of the whole people hangeth on his neck ; fo^ 
if they are discomfited, and he has not fought stoutly 
with all his might, it is equally the same as if he had shed 
the blood of them all ; according to that saying, Let him 
return, lest his brethren's heart fail as his own." ^ To the 
same purpose doth the Kabala accommodate that other 
passage, "Cursed be he who doth the work of the I-ord 
negligently, ^nd cursed be he who keepeth back his sword 
from blood.* On the contrary, he who bebaveth bravely 
in battle, to the utmost of his endeavour, without trem- 
bling, with intent to glorify God's name, lie ought to 
expect the victory with confidence, and to apprehend no 
danger or misfortune, but may be assured that he will 
have a house built him in Israel, appropriated to him and 
his children for ever; as it is said, God shall certainly 
make my lord a sure house, because he hath fought the 
battles of the Loud, and his life shall be bound up in the 
bundle of life with the Lord his GoD.^' ^ More passages 
of this kind might be produced from the Jewish writers, 
and the Christians come not far behind them. "We are opinions of 
desirous of knowing, says one,^ writing to the Franks cri^adei" 
engaged in the holy war, " the charity of you all ; for aSbject!*'"* 
that every one (which we speak not because we wish it") 
who shall faithfully lose his life in this warfare shall 
be by no means denied tiie kingdom of heaven." And 

^ Jer. xiv. 8. * i Sam. xxv. 28, 29. 

"^ Job xiii. 14. *• NicolaxiH, in Jure C»non., a 

' Dtiut, XX. 8. oHauiuin 23, qusest. 5, 

■* Jer. xiviii. 10. 


another gives the rolJowlDg exhortation . " Luying aside 
all iWr arid dread, endeavour tt) act, effectually ai^aiust 
the enemieB of the holy faith and the adversaries of all 
religions : for the Almighty knoweth if any of you die, 
that he dieth for the tmth of the faith, and the salvation 
of his country, and the defence of Christians; and there- 
fore he shall obtain of him a celestial rewaid." ^ The 
Jews, indeed, had a divine coiuraission, extensive and 
explicit enough, to attack, subdue, and destroy the ene- 
n\ies of their religion; and Muhammad pretended to have 
received one in favour of himself and his Muslims in 
terms equally plain and full;* afid therefore it is no 
wonder that they should act consistently with their 
avowed principles ; but that Christians should teach and 
practice a doctrine so opposite to the temper and whole 
tenor ol the Gospel seems very strange ; and yet the 
lattei* have carried matters further, and shown a more 
violent spirit of intolerauce than either of the former. 
i^awHof wflv The laws of war, according to the Huhummadans, have 

AJjioni? Mas- ,j ^ , u^ii it-kiio 

iin.8. ■ been aiready so exactly sfct down Dy the learned Keland,^ 
that 1 need say very little of them. I shall, therefore, 
only observe some conformity between their militaiyhvws 
and those of the. Jews. 

While Muhammadism was in its infancy the opposer^ 

■* Though Muhatiiinad undoubtedly took Moses as his pattern, 
and supposed himself following in his footsteps when he gave the 
command to light against the infidels, yet there ia no comparison 
Letweeu them whatever .so uir as wari-ing agriinst intidels is con- 
cyrned. The Ismelites were uonnuanded to slay ihe Canrianitet as 
divinely ordained instrunients of- desirucUon but Muliammad in- 
augurated v/ar afi a means of proselytism. The Israelite was not 
])eimitLed to proselyfise froni among the (?«niaanite8, Exod. xxiii. 
27-33 ; but MiiSiimtt are required to proselytise by sword-power. 

E. M. ■^• 

' Leo TV , op. cit, qu«st 8 MohaTUTtiedanor, in th© third vol 

' In his treatise Ue Jure Militari of his Disbertationes MiscellaueaEc 

SEC. vl] the preliminary disco U£iSE: 2«t 

thereof taken in battle were dooni-ed to death trithout 
mercy ; Lut this was judged too severe to be put in prac- 
tice when tliat relifrion came to be sufficiently established, 
and past the daDLfcr of being subverted by its enemies^ 
The same seaience "was pronounced not only against the 
seven ("anaanitish natiofis,^ whose possessions were given 
to the Xsraolites, and without whose destruction, in a 
manner, they c^)uld not have settled themselves ir. the 
country designed them, but against the Amalekites ^ and 
Midianltes,'* who had done their utmost to cut them 
off in their passage thither. "When the Muhammadaus 
declare war against ^ people oi a different faith, they give 
them their choice of three offers, vii^., either to embrace? 
Muhammadism, in which case they become not only 
secure in their persons, families, and fortunes, but entitled 
to all the privileges of other Muslims ; or to submit and 
pay tribute,^ by doing which they axe allowed to profess 
their own religion, provided it be not gross idolatry or 
against the moral law ; or else to decide the quarrel by 
the sword, in which last case, if the Muslims prevail, the 
women and children which are made captives become 
absolute slaves, and the men taken in Imttle may either 
be slain, unlec^s they turn Muhammadans, or otherwise 
disposed of at the pleasure of the prince.* Herewith 
agree the laws of war given to the Jews which relate t© 
the nations not devoted to destruction ;^ * and Joshua ia 

* The diJTerence ?.f.(ijn& to me to be very great. The Israelites 
migfit make pf»aoe with idolaters on coadition of their becoiDUig tri- 
butaries- Tlie Muslims might no^ do so on any condition but that 
of conversion to Islain-' With tiie Jew it was? a case of policy — with 
the Mushm. of religion. E. m, w. 

' Sfte Quran, c. 4'/,. v. 5, and the ^ Numb. xxxi. 17. 

notes there ; and c. 4, v. 89 . C- 5, ^ See c 9, and thf notes there. 

V. 38. 6 See the nottis to c. 47, 

2 Deut. XX. 16-18. ' Deut. x.\. iO-i5. 

' Thid , c XXV. 17-19 



said to have sent even to the inba,bitant,s of Canaan, 
betor6 lie entered the land, three schednles. in one of 
which was written, "Lot him fly who will;" in the 
.second, " Let hrni surrender who will ; " and in the third, 
'* Let him fight who will ; " ^ thouirh none of those nations 
made peace with the Israelites (except only the Gibeonites, 
who obtained terms ot security by stratagem, after they 
had refused tliose offered by Joshua), ** it being of the 
Lqed to harden their hearts, that he might destroy them 
utterly." 2 

Lawregu- On the first considerable success of Muhammad in war, 
diSon'of the dispute which happened among his followers in rela- 
tion to the dividing of the spoil rendered it necessary for 
him to make some regulation therein; he therefore pre- 
tended to have received the divine commission to distri- 
bute tiie spoil among his soldiers at his own discretion,^ 
reserving thereout, in the first [ilace, one-fifth pan ^ for 
the uses after mentioned; and. in consequence hereof, he 
took himself to be authorised, on extraordin-ary occasions, 
to distribute it as he thought fit, without observing an 
equality. Thus he did, for example, with the spoil of the 
tribe Hawazfn taken at the battle of Hunain, which he 
bestowed by way of presents on those of Makkah only, 
passing by those of Madfna, and highly distinguishing 
the principal Quraish, that he might ingratiate himself 

^ Talmud Hierosol. apud Mai- GtrgasLstes are not mentioned 

iBonid. Halach. Melachim, c. 6 § among the other Cunuunitish na- 

5. R. Bechai, ex lib Siphre. Vide tions who assenDhltd to "fight against 

Seldeu, De Jure >.at. et Gent. Sec. Joshua (Joti^h. ix. lu and who were 

Ilebr., 1. 6, c, 13 and 14; and doomed to niter exliipaliou (lX»at. 

Schickardi, Jus Regium Heb., c. 5, xx, 17). But it is c^bijerraJblie that 

Tbeor, 16. the Girgashite? are not omitted by 

'■' Josh. xi. 20. The Jew's, how- the Septuagiiit in either of those 

ever, say that the Girgashites, be- texts, and that their name appears 

lieving they could u<>t escape the in the latter of thei;i in the Sama- 

d»?9tructiun with wliich they were ritan Pentateuch : they a.e also 

tlireatened by God if they persisted joined with the other (anaanitea as 

in defending themselves, tied into having fought against I&rael in 

Africa in great numhttrs. (Vide Josh, xxiv, 11. 

Talm. Hieros., ubi sup.) And this ^ Qursin, r; iJ 

)8 assigned asi the reason why the * Ibid, 


with them after he had become master of tlielc city ^ 
He was also allowed in the expedition ac^aiiist those 
of ai Nadhir to take the whole booty to himself, and 
to dispose thereof as he pleased, because no ijoi-ses or 
camels were made use of. in that expedition,^ but the 
whole army went on foot ; and this became thence- 
forward a law ; ^ the reason of which seems to be, that 
the spoil taken by a party consisting of infantry only 
should be considered as the more immediate gift of God,* 
and thenifore properly left to the disposition of his 
apostle According tu the Jews, the spoil ought 10 be 
divided into two eqiial parts, one to be shared aniong the 
captors, and the other to be taken by the prince,-^ and by 
him employed for his own support and the use of the 
pubJic. Moses, jt is true> divided one-half of the plunder 
of the.Midianites among those who went to battle, and 
the other half among all the congregation ; ^ but this, they 
say, being a peculiar case, and done by the express order 
of God himself, must not be looked on as a precedent'' it 
should seem, however, from the word of Joshua to the 
two tribes and a half, when he sent them home into 
Gilead after the conquest and division of the land of 
Canaan, that they were to divide the spoil of .their ect^mies 
with their Inethren after their r&turn;** and ih?? half 
which was in succeeding tiines taken by the -king was in 
all probability taken by him as head of the comrnunity, 
and representing the whole body. It is reraarkable that 
the dispute am,£>ng Miihamraad'"'"s men about sharing the 
booty at Badr^ arose on the same occasion as did that 
among David's soldiers in relation to the spoils recovered 

"■ Abulfed. in Vit. Moh., p. 118, c ?.. Vide Selderi, Di Jure Nat. et 

&c. Vide Q'lrdn, c. 9, and the G«iic- fte'c. Mt-b., lib. 6, c. 16. 
notes there. ^ Numb. j(>xi. 27. 

*^ Qurjiu, c. 59, \. 6, see the notes ^ Vide MAJin. .llalach. Melach., 

there, c 4 

'• Vide Abulfed,, ubi sup., p. 91. ^ Jos}i. xxii. S, 

* Vide (^uraii, c 59, v. 6. '' See Qi nan, c. 8, and the notes 

' Gemar. iJabyl. ad tit. Sanhedr., there 


from the Arnalekites,^ thoae who had been in the actioi) 
insisting that they "who tarried by the stuff should have 
no part of the spoil; and that the same decision was given 
in both cases, which became a law for the future, to wit. 
that they shoald part alike. 
God's fifth The fifth part directed by the Quran to be taken out of 
-hoJ ^'^k^ the spoil before it be divided among the captors is declared 
to belong to God, and to the apostle and his kindred, and 
the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller i^ which 
words are variously understood. Al Shafii was of opinion 
that the whole ought to be divided iuto five parts ; the 
first, which he called God's part, to go to the treasury, 
ami be employed in building and repairing fortresses, 
bridges, and other public works, and \n paying salaries to 
magistrates, civil ofiicera, professors of ieaining, ininisU'.rs 
of pubbc worship, &.c. ; the second part to l^e distributed 
among the kindred of Muhammad, that is, the descendants 
of his. grandfather ilasham, and of his great-uncle al 
Mutallib,^ as well the rich as the pour, the children as the 
adult, the women as the men, observing only to give a 
female but half: the share of a male ; the third part to go 
to the orphans ;, the fourth part to the poor, who have nob 
wherewithal to maintain themselves the year round, and 
are not able to g$t their livelihood; and the fifth p.lrt to 
travellers who are in want on the road, notwithstanding 
they may be nch men in their own country."* According 
to Mdlik Ibh Ans, the whole is at the disposition of the 
Imam or prince, who may distribul-e the same at his own 
discretion, where he sees most need.-' Abu'l Aliya went 
according to the letter of Che Quran, and declared his 
opinion to be that the whole should be divided into six 
parts, and tliat God's part should be applied to the service 
of the Kaabah; while others supposed God's part and the 

' 1 S»im. XXX. 21-25. * AI Baid Vide Relaiid, De Jure 

' Quran, c. 8. Milil IVIohaan., p. 42. ico. 

' Note, al Shafii hlrrself was de- * Idem, 
scendod from this tattec 


apostle's to be one and the same.^ Abu Hanifa thought 
that the share of MuhaTumad and his kindred sank at that 
prophet's death, since wiiich the whole ought to be divided 
among tlte orphans, the poor, and the traveller.-^ Some 
insist that the kindred of Muhammad entitled to a share 
of the spoils are the posterity of Hasham only ; but those 
who think the descendants of his brother al Matallib 
liave also a right to a distribntive part, allege a tradition 
in their faYOur purporting that Muhammad himself divided 
the share belonging to his relations amoiig both families; 
and when Othman Ibn Assan and Jubair Ibu Matam 
(who were descendf^d from Abd-as-shums and Naufal, the 
other brothers of Hasham) told him that though they 
disputed not the preference of the Hashamites, they could 
not help taking it ill to see such difference made between 
the family of al Mutallib and themselves, who were 
related to him in aa equal degree^ and yet had no part in 
the distribution, the prophet replied that the descendants 
of al Mutallib had forsaken him neither in the time of 
ignorance nor since the revelation of Islam, and joined 
his fingers together in token of the strict umon between 
them and the Hashamiteis.* Some exclude none of the 
tribe of Quraish from receiviJig a part in the division of 
tlie spoil, and make no drstmction between the poor and 
the rich ; though, according to the more reasonable opinion, 
such of them as are poor only are intended by the text 
of the (^uran, as is agreed in the case of the stranger; 
and otliers go so far as to assert that tlie whole fifth 
commanded to be reserved belongs to them only, and that 
the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller, are to be 
understood of such as are of that tribe.* It must be 
observed that immovable possessions, as lands, &c., taken 
in war, are suoject to the same laws as the movable, 
excepting only that the fifth part of the former is not 

* Reland, De Jure Milit. Moham.. p. 42, Sic. 

* Ideal. * Idem. * klem. 


actually divided, bnt the income and profits thereof, or of 
the price thereof, if sold, are applied to public and pious 
uses, and distributed once a year, and that the prince may 
either take the fifth part of the land itself, or the fifth 
part of the income and produce of the whole, as he shall 
make his election. 

C 227 ) 



It was a custom among the ancient Arabs to observe The four 
four months in the year as sacred, during which they months. 
held it unlawful to wage war, and took off the heads from 
their spears, ceasing from incursions and other hostili- 
ties. During these months whoever was in fear of his 
enemy lived in full security, so that if a man met the mur- 
derer of his father or his brotlier, he durst not offer him 
any violence.^ " A great argument," says a learned writer, 
" of a humane disposition in that natiouj who being, by 
reason of the independent governments of their several 
tribes, and for the preservation of their just rights, exposed 
to frequent quarrels with one another, had yet learned to 
cooJ their inflamed breasts with moderation, and restrain 
the rage of war by stated times of truce." ^ 

This institution obtained among all the Arabian tribes, 
except only those of Tay and Khuzaah, and some of the 
descendants of al Harith Ibn Kaab (who distinguished no 
time or pJace as sacred),^ and was so religiously observed, 
that there are but few instances in history (four, say some, 
six, say others *) of its having been transgressed ; the war 
which were carried oiklwithout regard thereto being there- 

* Al Kazwini, apud Goliiuri in - Golius, ubi supra, p. 5. 

notis ad Alfrag., p. 4, Jtc Al Shah- ^ Al Shahristani, ubi supra. Se6 

nstanl, apud Puc. Spec, p. 311. ante, p. 100. 

Al Jawhari, al Pirauzab. ^ A\ MughultaL 


fore termed impious One of those instances was in the 
war betweei) the tribes of Quraisl and Qais AiUn, wherein 
Muhaitimad himself served under his uncles, being then 
fouiTften ^ or, as others say, twenty ^ years olcl 

The months which the Arabs held sacred were al Mu- 
harrarn^Bajab Dhu'l Qaada, and Dhu'l flajja ; the first the 
seventh the eleventl^, and the twelfth in the year.^ Dhu'l 
Hajja being the month wherein they performed the pjl- 
griniage to iVIakkMh, not only that roonth, bub also the 
preceding and the following, were for that reason Jkept 
inviolable, that every one might safely and without 
interruption pass and repass to and from the festival.* 
Rajab is said to have been more strictly observed than 
any of the other three,^ probably because in that month 
the pagan Arabs used to fast;^ Ramadhan, which was 
afterwards set apart by Muhammad for that purpose, 
being in the time of ignorance dedicated to drinking; in 
excess.' By reason of the profound peace and security- 
enjoyed in this month, one part of the provisions brought 
by the caravans of purveyors amtually set out by the 
Qui-aish for the supply of Makkah,^ was distributed 
among the ptople ; the other part being, for the like 
reason, distributed at the pilgrimage,^ 
Their The observance ot the aforesaid months seemed so 

among reasonable to Muhammad, that it met with his approba- 

Moslims ^ ^ 

^ Abiilfetla, Vii. Moh., p. n- contiguous? The two learned pro 

* Al Kudai. el Firaiiz, apud Poc. fessors. Oolius and Reland, have also 

Spec. p. . 174. Al Mughultai men-, made a Mnall slip in speaking of 

tiona both opinions. thpse baored months which they 

^ Mr. Bftyl^ (Diot. Hist, et Grit. t«li uh at© tie two first and the two 

art, la Mecque, "Rem. ¥ .) accuses last in the y«ar. Vid^ tiolii, l^^^x 

l)r. Pndeaax of an inconsistency foi Arab., coJ. 60T. and Jiehind. De Jure 

saying in one place (Life of Mahomet, Milit Mohammedanor, 5. 

p. 64) that these sacred months were * Vine Gol. \u Alfrag., p. 9 

the fint, the Heventh, the eleventh, * Vide Ibid., p, 6. 

and the twelfth, and intimating in * Al Mnki/i, apud Poc, ubi supra,, 

another place (ibid., p. 89J that three ^ Idem, and Auctor NeshU al 

0/ thenj were contiguoua. But this Ashar, ibid, 

must be mere ab.sence of mind in * See Qurdn, c. I06 

Mr. Baylfc ; for are not the eleventh, ^ Al EdrisI, apud Poc. Spec, p. 

the twelfth, and tJie first monthb 127. 


tion . and the same is accoL-dingly con firmed and enforced 
by several pas^sages of the Quran,^ wliich forbid war to be 
waged diimig those moriths against such as acknowledge 
them to be sacred, bat; grant, at the same time, full per- 
mission to attack those who make no such distinction, in 
the sacred months as well as in the profane.^ 

One practice, however, of the pagan Arabs^ in relation Re^/uJafions 
to these sacred months, .Muhammad thought proper to Karran? 
reform ; for some of them, weary of sitting f|uiet for three 
monthN together, and eager to make their accustomed 
Incursions' for plunder, used, by way of expedient, wben- 
ever it suited their inclinations or conve?nency, to put off 
the observing of al Muharram to the following month, 
Safar,^ tliereby avoiding to keep the former, which they 
supposed it lawful for them to profane, provided they 
sanctified anotlier montli in lieu of it, and gave public 
not e thereof at the preceding pilgrinmge. This transfer- 
ring the observation of a sacred montli to a prolane month 
is what is truly meant by the Arabic word al Nasi, and 
is absolutely condemned and declared to be an iinpioiis 
innovation in a passage of the Quian * which l)r Prideaux,^ 
misled by Golius,^ imagines to rela,te to the prolonging of 
the year by adding an. intercalary month thereto. It is 
true the Arabs, who imitated the Jews in their manner of 
computing by lunar years, had also learned their method 
of reducing them to solar years by intercalating a month 
sometimes in the third andsometimefi in the second year,'' 
by \vhich ineans they fixed the pilgrimnse uf Makkah 
(contrary to the original institution) to a certain season of 
the year, viz., to antumn, as most convenient for the pil- 
grims, by reason of the temperateness of tiie wt^ather and 
the plenty of provisions ;^ and it is also true that Mu- 

^ Cap. 9 ; c. 2, V. 194 ; c. 5, v. 3; * Life of Mahomet, p 66 
c 5, V. 98, Sec. ^ in Alfrag., p. 12 

^ Cap 9) c 2, V. 194. ^ See Prid , Preface to the first 

3 See the notes to c. 9, ubi sup. vol. of his Connect , p. 6, Sec 
^ Cap. 9, ibid. ^ Vide Gol-, ubi eupra. 


hammad forbade such intercalation by a passage in the 
same chapter of the Qurin ; but then it is not the passage 
above montioned, which prohibits a different thing, but 
one a little before it, wherein, the number of months iii 
the year, according to the ordinance of (tOD is declared to 
be twelve ; ^ whereas, if the intercalation of a month were 
allowed, every third or second year would consist of 
thirteen, contrary to God's appointment. 
Fridtty in- The sotting apai't of one day in the week for the more 
aa-reddny peculiar attendance on God's worship, so strictly roqtiired 
by the Jewish and Christian religions, appeared to Mu- 
hammad to be so proper an institution, that he could not 
but imitate the professors thereof in that particular; 
though, for the sake of distinction, he might think himself 
obliged to order his followers to observe a ditlei'ent day 
from either. Several reasons are given why the sixth 
day of the week was pitched on for this purposw,^ but 
Muhammad seems to have preferred that day chiefly 
because it was the day on which the people used to be 
assembled K">n^. before his time,^ though such assemblies 
were had, perhaps, rather on a civil than a religious 
account. However ic be, the Muhammadan writers be- 
stow very extraordinary encomiums on this day, calling- 
it the prince of days, and the most excellent day on which 
the sun rises ; * pretending also that it will be the day 
whereon tlie last judgment will be solemnised ; * and they 
esteem it a peculiar honour to Islam that GoD has been 
pleased to appoint tnis day to b© the feast-day of the 
Muslims, and granted them the advantage of having first 
observed if 

Though the Muhammadans do not think themselves 
bound to keep iheir day of public worship so holy as the 

1 Quran, c. 9. See also c. 2, v. * Tbn al Afchir et al Cihazdii, apud 

194. PfKj. Spec, p. 317. 

* See c. 63, and the notes there. ^ Vfdrt ibid. 

« Al BaidhiiwI. « M GhawiJi, ihid. 


«)ews and Christians are certainly obliged to keep theirs, 
there being a permission, as is generally supposed^ in the 
Quran,^ aJ lowing them to return to their employments or 
diversion after divine service is over ; yet the more devout 
disapprove the applying of any part of that day to worldly 
affairs, and require it to be wholly dedicated to the busi- 
ness of the life to come.^ 

Since 1 have mentioned the Mnhamraadan weekly feast, The two 

Ti • • PI- -n-^q principal 

I beg leave lust to take notice of their two Bairams/^ or annual 

^o feaetfi. 

principal annual feasts. The first of them is called in 
Arabic, Id ul f'itr, i.e., The feast of 'breaking the fast, and 
begins the first of Shawwal, immediately succeeding the 
fast of Eamadhan ; and the other is called Id ul Qurbdn, 
or Id ul Adha, i.e., The feast of the sacrifice, and begins on 
the tenth of .Dbul Hajja, when the victims are slain at the 
pilgrimage of Makkah.* The former of these feasts is 
properly the lesser Bairam, and tbe latter the greater 
Bairam;^ but the vulgar, and most authors who have 
written of the Muhammadan affairs,^ exchange the epithets, 
and call that which follows "Ramadhdn the greater Bairam, 
because it is observed in an extraordinary manner, and 
kept for three days together at Constantinople and in 
other parts of Turke}', and in Persia for five or six days, 
by the common people, at least, with great denjonstrations 
of public joy, to make themselves amends, as it were, for 
the mortification of the preceding month ; ^ whereas, the 
feast of sacrifices, though it be also kept for three days, 
and the fii-st of them be the most solemn day of the 
pilgrimage, the principal act of devotion among the Mu- 
hammadans is taken much less notice of by the generality 

* Cap 63, nbi supra. p. log, and D'Herbel , Bibl. Orient., 
' Al Ghamli, ubi supra, p. 318. art. Bairim. 

"* The w6rd Bairim is Turk)>;h, " Hyde, in notis ad P*obov:, p 

.and properly signifies n feast-day or 16; Oliardin, Voy. de Perse, torn 

holiday, 2, p. 450; Ricaut'a State of the 

* See c. 9, and ante, Sect. IV.^ Ottoman Empire, 1. 2, c. 24, &c. 

p. 94. '' Vide Chardiu aad Ricaut, ubi 

' Vide Reiand, De Relig. Moh., supra. 


of people, who are not sttuck therewith, because the 
nerenionies willi which the same is observed an; performed 
at Makkah, the only scene ot t]iat solemnity.* 

* In India tiiis feast is popularly known as the Baqr Id, or Feast 
of the Cow, and is celebrated with great ceremony hy nil Mush'nis 
A goat or a ebeep is sacriCiced and its (lesb eat«ii bv the fatnily 
making the offering. For a clear account ui' the manner of celebrating 
the various feastJ? of the Mushms, the reader is referred to the excel- 
leat work of the Rev. Edward ►SeJl. i'ntitled The haitk of Islam. 
chapter V I. E. m. v?. 

( m ) 



Before we take a viev/ of tho sects of the Muhariima(Jans, 
it will be necesaary to say sornething of Uie two sciences 
by which all disputed questions aroong them are deter- 
mined vtz , their Scholastic and PvacticaJ Divinity. 

Their scholastic divinity is a mongrel science, consist- Muhamma- 
ing of logical metaphysical, theologicfil, and philosophies! Jc^sm'^*^'''*" 
disquisitions, and built on principles and methods of f ea- 
soning very diilerent from whbt are used by those who 
pass among the Muhamma.dfins themselves for the sounder 
divineH or more able philosophers/ and,, therefore, in. tlie 
partition of the sciences this is generally left out, as un- 
Nvoithy a place among them,^ The learned Mainjonides^ 
has laboured to expose the principles and systents of the 
scholastic divines, as frequently repugnant to the nature 
of the world and the order of the creation/ and intolerably 

This art of handling religious disputes was not known UHurigm 
in the infancy of IV.Iuharaniadanism, but was brought in ^ 
when sects sprang up and articles of r'.4igion began to be 
called in question, and was at first made use of to defend 
the truth of those a) tide? against innovators;* and while 

* Poc. opec p. 196. 3 jvinre Novoch., 1, I, c. 71 and 

^ .Apu(i Ibn Sina, in Libello de 73. 

i;);iv,i:sione Seientiaa., et Nasiru'ddin * A.I Gha/ili, apud Poc. Spec, ubi 

vBtl TiM^i in Prsetat ad Ethic. supra 


it keeps withiii tbose bounds is allowed to be a cominend- 
able study, being necessary for the defence of the faith ; 
but when it proceeds farther, out of an itch of disputation, 
it is judged worthy of censure. 

This is the opinion of al Ghazali,"^ who observes a 
mediuxu between those who have too high a value for this 
scienoe> and those who absolutely reject it. Among the 
latter was al Shafi'i, who declared Ihafc. in his judgment, 
if any man employed his time that way, he deserved to 
be fixed to a stake aud carried about through all tbe Arab 
tribes., with the following proclanialiou to be made before 
him : " This is the reward of him who, leaving the t^oiiiu 
and the Sunnat, ap])lied jiiniself to the study of scholastic 
divinity."^ Al Ghazali, on the other hand, thinks th^t 
as it was introduced by the invasion of heresies, it i.s 
necessary to be retained in order to quell them; but then 
in the person who studies this science he requires three 
things — diligence, acateness of judgment, and probity of 
manners ; and is by no means for suffering the same to 
be publicly explained.^ This science, therefore, amonv 
the Muhammadans, is the art of controversy, by wjiich 
they discuss points of faith concerning the essence and 
attributes of God, and the conditions of all possible things, 
either in respect to their creation or final restoration, 
according to the rules of the religion of Islam."^ 

The other science is practical divinity or jurisprudence, 
and is the knowledge of the decisions of the law wiiich 
regard practice, gathered from distinct proofs. 
Muslim A.1 Ghazali declares that he had much the same opinion 

prudJnce of this scieuce as of the former, its original beiihg owing to 
the corruption of religion and niorality ; and therefore 
judged both sciences to be nececjsary, not in themselves, 
but by accident only, to curb the irregular imaginations 
and passions of mankind (as guards become necessary iji 

' Ai>uU Po*:. Spec . ubi aupia. * TbiJ. 

2 lbi<i., -p. 197. ■* Ibn al Kossi, apud eund., ibid., 

p. 198. 


the highways by reason of robbers), the end of the first 
being the suppression of heresies, and of the other the 
decision of legal controversies, for the qniet and peaceable 
living of mankind in this world, and for the preserv^ing 
the rule by which the magistrate nmy prevent one man 
from injuring another, by declaring what is lawful and 
what is unlawful, by determining the satisfaction to be 
^nven or punishment to be inflicted, and by regulating 
other outward Mictions ; and not only rfo, but fco decide of 
religion itself, and its conditions, so far as relates to the 
profession made by the mouth, it not being the business 
of the civilian to inquire into the heart : ^ the depravity of 
men's manners, however, has made this knowledge of the 
laws so very requisite, that it is usually called -the Science, 
by way of excellence, nor is any nmn reckoned luarned 
who has not applied himself thereto.^ 

The points of faith subject to the examination and Points of 
discussion of the scholastic divines are reduced te four toUho&c 
general heads, which they call the four bases, or great '^^"**'**'^- 
fundamental articles.^ 

The first basis relates to the attributes of OOD and his 
unity consistent therewith. Under this bead are compre- 
hended the questions concerning the eternal attributes 
which are asserted by some and denied by others; and 
also the explication of the essential attributes and attri- 
butes of action, what is proper for God to do, and what 
may be affirmed of him and what it is impossible for him 
to do. These things are controverted between the Asha- 
rians, the Karamians, the Mujassaraians or Corporalists, 
and the Muta^dites.* 

The second basis regards predestination and the justice 
thereof, which comprises the questions concerning Gon's 
purpose and decree man's compulsion or necessity to act 

^ Al Gbaz^U, Foe. Spec, pp. -^ Vide Abulfarag Hist. Dynast,, 
198-204. p. 166. 

'* Vide ibid., p. 204 * Al 3t»aTirist' apud Pec Spec., 

ubi aupra p. 204, Soc. 


and his co-operation in producing actions by which he 
may gain to himself good or evil and also those which 
concern Gon's willing good and eviJ, and what things are 
subject to his power, and what to his knowledge; mme 
manitainj'ng the affirmalive, and. others the negative. 
These points are disputed among the Qadn'ans the Naj- 
rians, the Jabrians the Asharians. and the Kararnians^ 

The third basis concerns the promises and threats, the 
precise acceptation of names used m divinity, and the 
divine decisions, and comprehends questions relating to 
faith, repentance, promises, threats, forbearance, infidelity 
and error. The controversies under this head are on foot 
between ihe Murjians, the Waidians, the MuLazilites the 
Asharians, and the Karamians^ 

[he fourtn basis regards history and reason, that is, the 
just weight they ought to have in matteis belon.f^ing to 
faith 8nd religion and also the mission of the prophets 
and the otlice of the In arri or chief pontiff. Under this 
head are comprised all casuistical questiens relating to 
tiie moial beauty or turpitude of actiotrs; inquiring 
whether things are allowod or forbidden by reason of 
their own nature or by the positive law ; and also ques- 
tions concerning the prefexence of actions, tlje favour or 
giace of God. the innocence v/hich ought to attend the 
pi'ophetical ottice; and the conditions requisite in the 
otfice of 'mam; some asserting it depends on right of 
succession, others on the consent of the fait/iful , and 
al30 the method of transferring it with the former, and of 
CO firming it with the latter. These mailers are the sub- 
jects of dispute between the Shiahs, the MutazIiiteSj the 
Karainians and the Asharians''' 
The sects of The different sects of Muhamrnadans may be distin- 
isiarn. guished into two sorts — those generally esteeu ed orthodox, 
and those which are esteemed heretical. 

■■ Al Shahristini, apu^ Poc, ubi sup., p, 20-;. ' Idem, ibid., p. 206. 

3 Tderr, ibid. 



The former, by a general name are called Sunnis or 
Traditioniats, because they acknowledge the authority of 
the Sunnat, or collection of moral traditions of the sayings 
and actions of their prophet, which is a sort of supple- 
ment to the Quran, directing the observance of several 
things omitted in that book and in name as well as 
design answering to the Misbna of the Jews.^ 

The Suran's are subdivided into four chief sects, which, ijivisions of 
notwithstanding some differences as to legal conclusions the w"'^* 
in their interpretation of the Quran and matters of prac- sects^'^*^''' 
tice, are generally acknowledged to be orthodox in radi- 
cals or matters of faith and capable of salvation, and 
have each of theru their several stations oj oratories in 
the temple of Makkah.^ The founders of these sects are 
looked upon as the great masters of jurisprudence, and 
are said to have been men of great devotion and self- 
denial, well versed in the knowl^djie of those things 
which belong to the next life and to man's right conduct, 
here, and directing all their knowledge to the glory of 
God. This is al Ghazali's encomium of tiiem, who thinks 
it derogatory to their honour that their names should be 
used by those who, neglecting to imitate tlie other virtues 
which make up their character, apply themselves only to 
attain their skill and follow their opinions in matters of 
legal practice.-' 

The first of the four orthodox sects is that of thcTheHauf. 
Hanifites.. so named from their founder, Abu Hanii'a al 
Kiiman Ibn Thabit, who was born at Kufa in the 80th 
year of the Hijra, and died in the I50tli, according to 
the more preferable opinion as to the time.^ He ended 
his life in prison at Baghdad where he bad been confined 
because he refused to be made qadi or judge,^ on wliich 

' Vide Poc. Spec, p. 298. Prid., ^ Vide Poc. Spec, p. 293, 

Lite of Mahi>mt-t, p. 51, &c. "Re- •* Ibn Khatlikin 

Innd. beKei Moh , p. 68. itc Mil- * Thia was the trutt cause of hii* 

linii), De MohammedisinoantelVloti., imprisontuent and death, and not 

pp. 368, 369 his refusing to Jiiibsci'ibe to the 

See ante, p. 205. upiniou of absolute predestination. 


account he Avas very liordly dealt with by hLs supeiiors, 
yet could not be prevailed on, either by threats or ill- 
treatmeut, to undertake the charge, '' choosing rather to 
be punished by them than by God," says al Ghazali, who 
adds, that when he excused hirniyelf from accepting the 
office by alleging that he was unfit for it, being asked the 
reason, he replied, " If I speak the truth, I am uniit ; but 
if I tell a lie, a liar is not fit to be a judge." It is said 
that he read the Quran in the prison where he died no 
less than 7000 times. ^ 

The Hanifites are called by an Arabian writer^ the 
followers of reason, and those of the three other sects, 
followers of tradition, the former being principally guided 
by their own judgment in their decisions, and the latter 
adhering more tenaciously to the traditions of Muhammad. 
The sect of Abu Hauifa heretofore obtained chiefiy in 
Irak,^ but now geuerally prevails among the Turks and 
Tartars : his doctrine was brought into great credit by 
Abu Ydsuf, chief-justice under the Xhalifahs ai Hadl and 
Ilanin al Kashid.* 
Miiikum The second orthodox sect is that of Malik Ibn Ans, who 
«cct. was born at Madina in the year of the Hijra 90, 93, 94,^ 

or 95,^ and died there in 177,^ 178,^ or 179* (for so 
much do authors dilfer). This doctor is said to have paid 
great regard to the traditions of Muhaninuid.^*^ In his 
last illness, a friend going to visit him, found him in tears, 
ahd asking him the reason of it, he answered, " How 
should I not weep ? and who has more reason to weep 

as D'Heibelot ta rites (Bibl. Orient., ' Idem. 

p. 21), misled by the dubious acwp- * Vide D'Herbet, Bibl. Orient., pp. 

tation of the word " (lada," which 21 and 22. 

Hignifice not oidy Gods decree in * Albufeda. 

particular, but also the giving mn- •* Ibn KhiUlikiin. 

tetice as a judge iu general ; nor " Idem. 

could Abu llaaifa have been rec- " Abulfeda. 

koned orthodox had he denied one of ' Ehnacinu.s, p. 114. 

the principal articles of faith. '" Tbn KUallikiin. Vide Poo. Spec.. 

^ Foe. Spec.^ pp. 297, 298, p. 294. 

^ Al Sharistiini, ibid. 


than I ? Would to God that for every question decided 
l>y ice according to my own opinion I had received so 
many stripes.! then would my accounts he easier. Would 
to God I had never given any decision of my own ! "^ Al 
Ghazali thinks it a sufficient proof of Malik's directing his 
knowledge to the glory of God, that heing once asked his 
opinion as to forty-eight questions, his answer to thirty- 
two of them was, that he did not know ; it being no easy 
matter for one who has any other view than God's glory 
to make so frank a confession of his ignorance.- 

Tlie doctrine of Malik is chiefly followed in Barbary 
and other parta of Africa. 

The author of the third orthodox sect was Muhammad Muimmmad 
Ibn Tdns al Shafii, born either at Gaza or Ascalon, insMfif^''^ 
Palestine, in the year of the Hijra 150, the same day (as 
some will have it) that Abu Hani'Ea died, and was carried 
to Makkah at two years of age, and there educated.^ He 
died in. 204,* in Egypt, whither he went about five years 
before.^ This doctor is celebrated for his excellency in 
all })arts of learning, and was much esteemed by Ibn 
Haubal, his contemporary, who used to say that •'' he was 
as the sun to the world, and as health to the body." Ibn 
Hanbal, however, had so ill an opinion of al Shafii at first, 
that he forbade his scholars to go near him; but some 
time after one of them, meeting his master trudging on 
foot after al Shafii, who rode on a mule, asked him how 
it came about that he forbade them to follow him, 
and did it himself; to which Ibn Hanbal replied, "Hold 
thy peace; if thou but attend his mule thou wilt profit 

Al Shafii is said to have been the first who discoursed 
of jurisprudence, and reduced that science into a method ;^ 
one wittily saying, that the relators of the traditions of 

^ Ibn Khallikan, Poc. Spec, apud * Yet Abulfeda says he lived 

eund. ibid. fifty -eight years. 

* A] Ghazali, ibid. * Ibn Khallikaji. 

3 Ibu KhalliUn. « Idem. ' Ideui. 



Muhammad were asleep till a] Shifi'i came and waked 
them.* He was a great enemy to the scholastic divines, 
as has been already observed.^ Al Ghazali tells ns that 
al Shaffi used to divide the night into three parts, one for 
st^dy, another for prayer, and the third for sleep. It is 
also related of him that he never so much as once swore 
by God, either to confirm a truth or to alFirni a falsehood; 
and that being once asked his opinion, he remained silent 
for some time, and when th6 reason of liis silence was 
demanded^ he answered, ** 1 am considering first whether 
it be better to speak or to hold my tong\ie." The following 
saying is also recorded of him, viz., ** Whoever pretends to 
love the world and its Creator at the same time is a liar."^ 
The followers of this doctor are from him called Shafiites, 
and were formerly spread into Mawaia'lnahr and other 
parts ea.stward but are now chiefly of Arabia and Persia. 
ATimad ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, the founder of the fourth sect, was 
born in the year of the Hijra 164 ; but as to the place of 
his birth there are two traditions • some say he was born 
at Mini in Khurasan, of which city his parents were, and 
that his mother brought him from thence to Baghdad 
at her breasi; whih; others assure us that she was with 
child of him when she came to Baghdad, and that he was 
born tJiere.* Ibn Hanbal in process of time attained a 
great reputation on account of his virtue and knowledge ; 
being $0 well versed in the traditions of Muhammad in 
particular, that it is said he could repeat no less than a 
million of them.** He was very intimate with al Shilfii, from 
whom he received most of his traditionary knowledge, being 
his constant attendant till his depaiture for Egypt.® lie- 
fusing to ackjiowledgo the Qurdn to be created/ he was, 
by order of the Khalifah al MiiLasim, severely scourged 
and irnpi isoned.® Ibn Hanbal died at Ba;.^hdad, in the 

' Al Zaiardni. apud Poc. Spec, '*lhn Khallilcdn. 
[>, 296/ ^ Idem. 

^ S»jia ant*;, p I r8. ^ See ante, Sect. J TI, | T n &c. 

' Vifle Poc. .Spuc, pp. 295-297. ^ fhn Khallikan, Abulfarag, Hist. 

■♦ Ibn Khivnikatv. l^y"-, p. 252, kc. 


year 241, and was followed to hia grave by tiight hundred 
thousand men and sixty fhonsand women. It in related, 
a'i soiiiethiTig very extraordinary, if not rniractilous, that 
on trie day of his deaUi no less thnn twenly thousand 
Christians, Jews, and Magians emhmced the Mahum- 
Hiadan faith.' This sect increased bu ra:^t and became ?o 
powerful and bold, that in the year 323, in the Khalifat 
of al Kadi, they raised a grwit commiotion in Baghdad, 
entering people's houses, and .spilling their wine, if fchey 
found any, and beating the sinking- women they met with, 
and breaking their instrninents; and a severe edict was 
published against them before they could be reduced to 
their duty ;^ but the Hanbalites at present are not very 
numerous, few of them being to be met witti out of the 
limits of Arabia. 

The heretical sects among the Muhamruadans are those HeieMcai 
wliich hold heterodox opinions in fimdamentals or matters MnhVnuna- 
of fnirh. ^'^"'' 

The first controversies relating to fnndamentala began 
when most of the companions of Muhanmiad were dead.^ 
for in tlieir days was no dispute, unless about things of 
.small inonient, if we eXt'ept only the dissensions concern- 
ing the Imams, or rightful snccessors of their prophet, 
which were stirred up and fomented by interest and ambi- 
tion ; Uie Arabs' continual ernploynient in the wars during 
thai timo allowing liicru littlo or no leisure to enter info 
nice inquiries and .subtle distinctiona. Rut no sooriei was 
the ardour of corK|UC3t a little abated than they began to 
examine the Quran more nearly, whereupon diHerences 
in opinion became unavoidable, and at length so greatly 
rnultiplied, that the number of their tects. according to 
the common opinion, are seventy-three. Fur the Muham- 
ruadans seem anibiuoud that their religion should exceed 
others even in this renpecf,. saying, that the Magians are 

' Ibr. Kh.iliikiin. ** AJ Sliahriit^ltii, Rpiid ±'oc Spec, 

^ Abulfur., ubi sap.'-a, p. 301. p. 194, Aiictor S^.^^h ul Mawikif, 
&c. apud r;und, p. 2J0. 



divided inte seventy sects, the Jews mio seveuLy-one, tlie 
Christians into seventy- two, and the Muslims into seventy - 
three as Mubdinmad had foretold ; ^ of which sects rhey 
reckon one to be always crth-odox. and entitled to sal vatioti.* 
TbeKhiri- Xhe tiist heresy ^v■as that of the Kharijitea, who revolted 
frorQ A,li in the thirty-scTenth year of the liijia: and not 
long after, Mdbad al Johni, Ghailin of J)ani&scus, and 
Jonas al Aswari broached heterodox opinions concerning 
predestination and the ascribing of good and evil unto 
CoL>, whose opinions were followed by WasiJ Ibn Ata.^ 
This latter was the scholar of Hasan of Basra, in whose 
school a question being proposed, whether he who had 
committ-ed. a grievous sin was to be aeemed an infidel or 
not, the Kharijites fwho used to come and dispute there) 
inamtaining the affirraative, and the orthodox the negative, 
Wasil, without waiting his master's decision, witiidrew 
abrupTily, and began to publish urcong his fellow-scholars 
a new opinion of hxs awn, to wit, that such a sinner was 
in a middle state : and he was thereupon expelled the 
school ; he and his followers oeing thenceforth called 
Mutuzilites, or Sf-pariitis^c.* 

The several sects whicli have arisen since this time are 
variously oompound<?d and decompounded of the opinions 
of four chief sects, the Mutazilites. the Sifatians, the Kha- 
lijites, and the Shiitea.^ 
TheMutazi- I. The Mutazilitcs were tho followers of ttie befoce- 
'**^' mentioned Wasil Ibn Ata. Ah to their chief and general 

tenets: i. They entirely rejected all eternal attributes of 

^ Vide Poc. Sptc, iibi sup p- 166) rrc.lcons si*; principal 8eftts, 

* Al Sliahrista'ni, :<pu(l rund., f sd'ting the Jabaxiarus and the Miir- 
211 pauM ; and Llie ^iuthor of "SliarhaJ 

* Idem, and Auctot Sbarh al Mawakif '' eight, viz., the Muta/U- 
Mawjikit, ubi aup. ites, the Shiitea, the Kl^irijilfts^, the 

* Idem, il;id., pp 2)1. 2i2, aijd MurjiAn?. tJie N<»iftriftns tlie Jao*- 
Ibri Kballikaii in Vita Wasili, riaji3,theIVf\ishdbbihitefi, and the*«ct 

* AJ Shahristani, who also reducas wjijcb he callB a] N;ijia, because tfiat 
tbein to foul chief 3«ets puts the alone "will be savbd, L't'i?ig according 
Q&dai'i&]j& ii) thi^ place o( fche Muta to hini the sect uf the Aiihanans. 
rilitea. Abulfar;v§iu« ',flist,. Dyn.. Vide fr'oc. Spec, p. 209 


God, to avoid the distincLiou of persons made by the 
Christians, saying that eternity is the proper or torrnal 
attribute of Ms essence, that GoD knows by his essence, 
and not by liis knowledge;^ and the same they alVirined 
of hi'3 other attributes^ (though all the Mutazilites do 
not understand these words in one sense); and hence 
this sect were also named Muattalites, from their divest- 
ing God of his attributes;^ and they went so far as 
to say that to atTirm these attributes is tlie same thing 
as to make more than one, and that the unity 
of God is inconsistent with such an opinion;* and this 
was the tnie doctrine of Wasil their master, wh^j de- 
clared that whoever asserted an eternal attribute asserted 
there were two Gods.^ This point vi speculation oon- 
cerning the divine attributes wa.9 not ripe at first, but 
was at Jength brought to maturity by Wdsil's followers 
after they had read the books of the phiios^)phers.^ 2. 
Tiiey believed the Word of God to hjave been created ra 
siAhjecto fas the schoolmen term it), and to consist of letters 
and sound, copies thereof being written in books to ex- 
press or imitate the original. Thoy also went farther, and 
affirmed that whatever is created in suh/ectd is also an 
accident and liable to ptirlsh.^ 3. They denied absolute 
predestination, holding that God was not the author of 
evil, but of good only, and that man was a free agent . * 
which being properly the opinion of the Qadarians, we 
defer what may be further said thereof till we come to 
speak of that sect. On account of this tenet and the first, 
the Mutazilites look on. themsel es as the defenders of 

^ MaiitioniUes teaches- the name, (in Proleg. ad Pirke Aboth., § 8) 

not &.i Lhe doeti-ine of the Mufazi- asserts the same thlng. 

lites, but hi^ owri. Vide More, Xev, * Vide Poc. Spec, ibid 

1. I, c. S7- ' AJ Shahrist., ibid., p. 215. 

^ Al Shfahriatini. apu<3. Poc. Spec., ' Atmlfarae and al Shahrist., ubi 

p. 214; Abul{»,rae, p. 167 pup., p 2*7. See .supra Sect. 111. 

' Vide Poc. Spec, p. 224. p. II? 

* Sliarh al Mawakif, and al Shah- * Vide Poc. Spec, p, 24O. 
nst., apud Poc., p. 2»6. Maimonides 


the aiiiiy and justice of Gov.^ 4. The/ held that if a 
professor ui the truo religion be guilty of «. grievous sin 
fiiid Hte withrmt repentanc{^. ha will be eternally dainntd, 
ihough his paiushnient will be lightei- than that of the 
iuiidels.''* 5. They denied all vision of GoD in paradise? by 
the corporeal e/e and rejected all comparisons, or simili- 
tudes applied to Oojj.^ 
yarioo'i This s«^ci are said to have been the first inventors of 

ojvjsions of 

thisaect. scholu^itjc QiVinity,* and ai"© Subdivided into several infe- 
rior sects, amounting, as some reckon, to twenty, "which 
TOiitnally brand one another with infidelity/' Thr^ most 
remarVnble of tliern are : — 

Tiie.Hudivi- I , Tiie Hndailiaiis, or followers of Haniadan .Abu Hudall. 

liana u 'I- 1 

a Mntazilite doctor, who differed something front the com- 
mon fonu of expte^sion used by this seet> saying that God 
Icueyv^ by hi-s knowledge, but that "his knowledge was his 
eissence; and i^o of the other attril-.utes : which opinion ho 
took fiorri the philosophers, who aflirm the essence of 
God to be simple and without multiplicity, and that his 
attributes are not posterior or accessory to bis essence, or 
subsistini:;^ theiein, but are nis essence itaclf ■ and this the 
more orthodox t;ik& to be next kin to niakiugi distinctions 
in the d^i'ity Avhich is. the thing they so much abhor in the 
Christians/'' As to the Quran's being created lie made 
some distinction, holding the Word of God to be partly 
not in suhjecto (and therefore uncreated) as when he spake 
the word Ki'ia. i.e'., fiat at tlie creation, and paitly in, 
siLbrje(tO;'d%i\iii precepts prohibitions, &c.'' MarrBCci- inten- 
tions an opinion of Ab\i Hudails concerning predestina- 
iion, from an. Arab writer,^ which b«insf by hira expressed 
m <L inanner not very inlelh'gible. 1 ohoose t^' oinit. 

^ Al SVahi-isi ar.ri Sharh a| Ma- * A,ucfov al Mawatif, s[>Ufj Po«;, 

w*»k>f, dpud >*oc.. ubi 'lip., p 214. i))id. 

' "M^^riac'.; , Pn»dv r>.H vd. Alcor,, ^ Al Shahrist^ni. aoud Poc pp. 

I'iirt 'j. p /4. 215. 2 i 6. 2 f 7. 

^ Tdttii, Ibiil '' Idem, apud cund . p -17, &e 

' Vidfc Vo' Spec, p. 21"^. M\\ * III J-iodi., part 3, ]>. 74. 
D'Htrtel., nrt. Mutazihih ' Al Sihahnruni 


2. The Jubbiiians, or followers of Abn A\\ Afuhammad iheJubtiJ- 
Ibn Abd al Wahab sarnamed al Jubbai, whoso meaning 

whej) he made use of the common expression of tha 
Mutftzilites, that "God knows by his essence/' &;c.. was 
thai God'3 being knowing ie not an attrilvute the sanie 
with knowiedge, nor such a state as rendered his being- 
knowing necessary.^ He held Gods Word to be created 
in sithjecf-o as in the proserved table, for example, the 
meniory of Gabriel Muhammad, &c.- This sect, ii Mnr- 
racci lias given the ti'ue sense of his author, denied that 
God could be seen in pacadise without the assistance of , 
corporeal eyes, and Yield that man produced his acts by 
a power superadded to health of body and soundness of 
limbs, that he whe was j^juiltyof a morial -^hi was neither 
a believer i»or an infidel, but a trn ntioi essor (which was 
the original upinion of Wasil), and if he died in his 
sins, would be doomed to heJl for etei'nity ; and that 
God conceals nothing of whatever he knows from his 

3. The ll^shamians, who were so named from Iheir TiitHaaha- 
master, Abu Rasham A&d al Salarn, the son of Abu All al '"'^"''' 
Jubbai nnd whose tenets nearly ngreed witli those of the 
pi^ceding sect."^ Abu Hasham took the Mutaz/ilite form 

of e:xpress{on that " God knows by his essence" iri a differ- 
ent sen'^e from others, supposino; it to mean that God hath 
or is endued with a disposition which is a known pro- 
perty or quality postenoi or accessory to his exi.^tence.^ 
His followers were so much afjfiid of making GoD the 
author of evil that they would not allow him to be said 
to create an infidel, because, according to their way of 
arguing, an in Tide I is a compound of infidelity and, man, 
and God is not the creator of infidelity.^' Abu Hasham 

' Al Shahristifui'i, ;!piid Poc- Spec. ^ Mftrracci, ubi .sup,, p 7$, ex a 

p. 215 ShaJuJsta:iL * Idem, ibid. 

' Idem, 87)d Auctor d Mawaku, ' M SJjAhriol.., £.pud J'oc p. iTi^. 
ibid., p. ii8- * Idtjm. ibtd., p. 242. 



The Niid* 

Th© Hdyn- 

The .Ul.i- 

and his father, Abu AM al Jubbai, were both celebrated 
foff their akiil in scholai^tic Jivliiity.^ 

4. Tb€ Nudhamians, oi- followers of Ibrahim al N'udhim, 
^.vliO haTiQw read hoQi<i^ of pliilosophy, set up a new fie<it 
and imagining b'^ could not sutfio.ieutly remove Gop from 
being the aut-hor of evil without divef^tirg birn of his 
power m respoct thereto taught that no power ouj^ht to 
be ascribed to God concern irr<^ evil nnd rebellious actions; 
but this he a^lrmed againut the opinion of his own dis- 
ciples, who allowed that Coo could do evil, but did not, 
because of its turpitude.- ( >f his opinion as to the Qur-in's 
being created we have spoken ekewhere.^ 

5. The IIa;y atians, so named from Ahmad Ibn Hayat, 
who had been of tltc sect of the Nudhamians, but broached 
somt' uew notiona on reading the p-hilosophers. His 
peculiar opinions were : i. That Qhrist was the eternal 
Word inoarnar,e, and took a true and real body, aud will 
judge all creature;? in the life to come : * he also farther 
assert**d that th^re are two G0D8 or Creators— the one 
eternal, viz., the most high Gor>, and tlie other not eternal 
viz.,, Christ' — whic^h opinion, though l)r..Pocock uiges 
the same as au argument that he did not rigli ly under- 
sstand the Christian mysteries,** is not much different from 
tUut of tlie Avians and Sooinians. 2. That Diere js a 
successive transjuigration of the soul from one body uito 
another, an.d tjiat the last body will enjoy the reward or 
sutler t])e punishment due to each soul;^ and 3. That 
(xOI) will 1)6 seen at the resurrection, not with the bodily 
eyen, but. those of the understanding.^ 

6. The Jahidhiane, or followers of Amru Ibn Bahr, 
sumanied al Jahidli a ^loat doctor of the Mutajdlites, 

1 Ibn KhailiJian, in Vitiri Eortm * Al Bhahrist.. al Afavr^tW efc Ibn 

* Al SUahribt., ubi supi, pp. 241, Kussi, ajm,! Voe Spec ubi sup, y. 

24.2, "Vide Marrac'., Pnxi., part 3, 2n) 

P 74- 

8 Sffe supra, Seci. rn., p. 11 J. 

* Ai Shahrwt. , obi bup., p. 2/8; 
Abulfara^j, p. 167. 

* Vide Poc Specibi'l 

^ Marraor. «t al Shahri«l , abi sup 

' MttiTttCo., ibid, p. 75. 




and very much admired for the elegance of liis com- 
posures^ who differed from his brethren iu tliat he 
imagined that the damned would not he etiernally tor- 
mented ii> hell, but would he changed into the nature of 
lire, and that the fire would of itself attract them, without 
any necessity of their going into it.^ He also taught that 
if a man believed God to be his Lord and Muhammad the 
apostle of God, he became one of the faithful, and was 
obliged to nothing farther," His peculiar opinion as to 
t.he Quran has been taiccn notice of before "^ 

7. The IViuzdarians, who embraeed the opinions of IsaThoMuz- 
Ibn Subaih al Muzdar, and those very absurd ones ; for, 
besides his notions relating to the Qurau,^ he went so 
direetiy counter to the opinion of those who abridged 

God of the power to do evil, that he affirmed it possible 
for God to be a liar and unjust.^ He also pronounced 
him to be an infidel who thrust himself into the suprerae 
government;'^ nay, he went so far as to assert men to be 
infidelii while they said *' There is no God but God/' and 
evon condemned all the rest of mankind as guilty of 
infidelity, upon which Ibrahim Ibn al Sandi asked him 
whether paradise, whose breadth equals that of heaven 
and earth, was created only for him and two or three 
more who thought as he did ? to which it is said he could 
return no answfer.** 

8. The Biisharians, who maintained the tenets of Bashar Tho Bash- 
Ibn Mutamir. the master of al Muzdar,^ and a principal 

man among the Mutazilites. He differed in some things 
from the general opinion of that sect, carrying man's free 
agency to a great excess, nuiking it even independent ; 
and yet he thought God might doom an infant to eternal 
pumsbment, but granted he would be unjust in so doiug. 

^ Vide D'H«rbe]., Bibi. Oriect., * Vide ibid., ai'd p. 112. 
art. Giahedh ' Al Shahrist., apud Poc, p, 241. 

* Al Shahrist.. ubi «ftp., p. 260 '' Marracc, ubi sup., p. 75. 

^ Marracc-i ubi sup. ^ AJ Shahrist., ubi sup., p. 22D. 

* Sect. TIT., p. 113 " Poc. Spec.,, p, 221 


He taught that God is not always obhged tu do that which 
is best for if he pleased he con 1(1 make uJl inen Irue 
believers. Thnse sectaries also held that if a man repent 
of a mortal siu and afterwards return to it, he will be liable 
to suffer the punishment due to the former transgression.^ 

The Thamu Q The Thatuamians, who follow.Thamama Ibri Bashar, 
a chief Mutazilite. Their peciihar opinions were : j That 
sinners should remain in hell for e'er. 7, That free 
actions have no producing author. 3. That at the resur- 
rection all infidels, idolaters, atheists, Jews, Christians, 
Magians, and htjretics shall ho reduced to dust 2 

TheQada- jQ The Qadariftus, which is really a more ancient 
nan^e than that of Mutazilites, Ma bad al Johni and his 
adherents being so called, who disputed the doctrine of 
predestination before Wasil quitted his master*'^ for 
which reason some nse the den<jmin;ition of Qadarians as 
more extensive than the othfr. and comprehend all the 
Mutazilites under if* ThLs sect deny absolute predes- 
tination, saying that evil and injustice oug^t not to be 
attributeu to God, but to man, who is a free agent, and 
may therefore be rewarded or punished for his actions, 
which God has granted him powei either to do or to let 
alone." And hence it is said they are called Qadorians 
because they detty at Qadr, or Gou's absolute decree; 
though otliers. thinking it not so propei to afh>: a name 
to 3 sect from a doctriiie which they combat, will have iC 
come from Qadr or Qvdrai, ie, power^ because they Hssert 
man's power to act freely^ ThosB. however, wiio tive 
the na^ne of Qadanans (0 the Mutazilites are their 
ene)ni.e3, for tltey disclaim it, and ;^iYe it to tncir nntagu- 
nists, Ihe Jabarians who liVewi^-e refuse it as an infamous 
appellation.' because FtAuhanima<l is said to liave declared 

^ T/l«rr<cc., obi '<ap.. '' /\ 1 Shahiibt. Vide Poc. ?ope';. 

' Tftem. ib'd. pp 235 and 240. Uc. 

3 Al Shahrisf. « Vide Voo. Spec, ibid, p 238. 

* Al FliaHtab. Vide Poc Spec, " Al P/iut-tinii al Shahnst ,Vidc 
Pt>. 231, .^32, and 214. ibt'd-, p. 232. 


the Qadarians to be the Magians of his followers^ But 
what Vi\(\ opinion oi thesn Qadarians in Mnhammad's 
time was is very uncertain. The Mutazilites say the 
name belongs to those who asserf" predestination and 
make God the author of good and evil,^ viz. the Jabarians ; 
but all the other Muhainiiiadan seets agree to fix it 011 
the Mutazilites, who, ihey say, are jike the Magians in 
establishing two principles, Lights or God the autlior 
of good: and Darkness or the devil the author of evi],; 
but this canuot absolutely be said of the Mntszilites, 
for they (at ieast the generality of them) ascribe men's 
good deeds to GOD, "bub their evil deeds to themselves; 
meainng thereby that man has a frey liberty nud power 
to do either g-ood or evil, and is master of his actions; 
and for this reason it is that the other Muhammadan.s 
call them Magiaus because they assert another author of 
actions besides Gqd.^ And indeed it is a difficult matter 
to say whrxt Muhammad's own opinioi\ was in this matter; 
for on the one side the Quran itself is pretty plain for 
absv>liite predr.stfnatioa, and many sayings oi Muhammad 
are recorded to that purpose* and one in particular 
wherein he introduces Adam and Moses dispntino before 
Got> in this manner; "Thou," says Moses, '''art Adam, 
wiion) God created, and animated v/ith the breath of life 
and caused bo be worshipped by the angels, and placed in 
paradise, from wheaoe mankind have been expelled for 
thy fault," whereto Adam, answered, "Thou, art Moses, 
whom GoD chose for his apostle, and intrusted with his 
V/ord by giving thee the tables of the law, and whom he 
vouchsafed to adnnt to discourse with himselt: how many 
years dost thou find the law was written betcre 1 was 
created r"' Says Moses, "Forty" "And dost thou not 
hnd," replied Aduin^ * these words therein, 'And Adam 
rebelled aoainst his Lord and transsiessed ' ? " wliioh 

^ Al M:iitarrizJ, al f;hahrist &.C., ^ Vid« Voa., ibid , p. 233, ^tc. 
i"bi(t - Idem ibid. ** Vide ibid , p. 237. 


Moses confessing, " Dost thou therefore blame mo," con- 
tinued he, "for doing that which God wrote of me that I 
should do forty years before T was created ? nay, for what 
was decreed concerning me fifty thousand years before 
the creation of heaven and earth ? " In the conclusion 
of which dispute Muhammad declared that Adam had 
the better of Moses.^ On the other side, it is urged in 
the behalf uf the Matazilites,, that Muhammad declaring 
that the Q.adanans and Muijiaus had been cursed by thf» 
tongues of seventy prophets, and being -asked who the 
Qadarians were, answered, " Tliose who assert that God 
predestioitted them to be guilty of rebellion, and yet 
paniahes them tor it/' AI Hasan is also said Ui have 
declared that God sent Muhammad to the Arabs while 
they were Qadarians or Jabarians, and laid their sins 
upon God : and to confirm the matter, this sentence of 
the Quran is quoted : 2 " Whf»n they commit a filthy 
action, they say, We found our fathers practicing the 
same, aaid God hath commanded u? so to do : Say, Verily 
God commandeth not filthy actions,"^ 
Thftsif4- 11. The Sifdtians held the opposite opinion to the 
M'utazilites in respect to the eternal attributes of Goi>, 
^vhich they atftrnied. making no distinction between the 
essential attribiiteg and those of operation ; and hence 
they were named Sifatian^ or Attribntists. Their doc- 
trine was that of the first Muhammadans, who were not 
yet acquainted with these nice distinctions: but this sect 
afterwards introduced another species of declarative attri- 
butes, or such as were necessarily used in historical narro- 
tiou, as hands Cace, eyes, &c„ which they did not offer to 
explain, but oontented hemselves wnth saying they were 
in the law, and that they called them declarative attri- 
butes.* Hovrever, at length, by giving variou;* explica- 
tions and interpretations of these attiibutes. they divided 

' )bn al Athir, fll BokhlrJ, sputl ' AJ Muiarrizl, apud eunrf., p| 
Poc. Bpec . p. 236. 237, 23^ 

' Cap. 7, V. «9. * A.1 Shjhrist; Poc. Spec, p 2.'.3. 





icto Hiany different opiuionH : some, by taking the words 
ill the literal sense, feO iiico the notion of a jikeuess or 
:similitudt» between VrOV, and created beings; to which it 
is said the Ivaraifcea among tlie Jews, who ai^e for the 
literal interpretation of Moses's law had shown thein the 
way ; ^ others expiaine<i them in another manner, say- 
ing that no creature was like God, but that they neither 
understood noi" thought it necessary co explain the precise 
signitiiation of the words, v/bich seem t^j alfirm the same 
of both, it being g-uffieient to believe that GoD hath no 
companion or similitude. Of this opinion was Malik Ibn 
Aus, who declared as to the expression of Gor/s sitting 
on his throne, in particular, that though the meaning ia 
known, yet the manner is unknown; and, that it is ne- 
cessary to bedeve it, but heresy to make any questions 
about it.- 

The sects of the Sifatians are : — 

I. The Asharians, the followers of Abu'l Hasan al tuo Asjia- 
Ashari, who was first a Mutazilite, and the scholai of 
Abu AW al Jobbaij but disagreeing from his master in 
opinioji as to God's being bound (as the Mutazilites 
jissert) to do always that which is best or most expedient, 
left him and '?et up a new sect of himself. The occasion 
of this difference was the putting a case concerning three 
brothers, the ferst of whom lived in obedience to Cod, the 
second in rebellion against him, and the third died an 
infant. Al Jobbai being ?^ked what he thought would 
become of them, answered, that the iir»t would he re- 
wardeti in paradise the second punished in hell, and the 
third nairher reward fvl nor puni =?hed. " But what," objected 
ai Asliai-i. "if the third say, I<ORD.. if thou hadsi giveii 
me longer life, that T might have entered paradise with 
ray believing brother it would have been better loi' ine?^' 
To which al Jobbai replied, "That God would answer, 
I knew thai if thou hadst lived longer thou wouldst 

■' Vide PcKj. Spec, ibid., p. z^a, * Yideeuud. il»id 




the attri- 
butes of 

have been a wickf'ci person, and therefore cast into heU." 
"Then," retorted ai Asharf, "the second will sr.y/O Lord, 
why didst thou not take rae away while I "A'as an infant, 
as <hou didst my brother, that T might not hav^i deserved 
to be punished for my sins nor to be cast into hell?*' 
To which al Jobbai conld return no other answer thati 
that God prolonged his life to give him an opportunity of 
obtaining the highest degree of perfection, which was best 
for him; but aJ Ashai'f demanding further why he did 
rot for the same reason grant the other a longer life, to 
whom it would have been equally advantageous, al Jobbdi 
was so put to it,thflt he asked whether the devil possessed 
him. "No," says al Ashaii, " but the master's asa will not 
potjs ^he bridge /*' ^ i.e., he is posed. 

The opinions of' the Asharlans were: i. That they 
allowed the attributes of GoD to be distinct from his 
essence, yet so as to forbid any comparisom t^ be made 
between God and his cteaiures/^ This was alBO the opinion 
of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, and David al Ispahan! . and othei:s, 
who herein followed Malik Ibn Ans, and were so cautious 
of any assimilation of Gou to created beings, that they 
declared whoever moved his hand while he read Diese 
words, " I have created wilh my hand," ot stretched 
foiih his Ihififer in repeating this saying of Muhammad, 
"The heart of the believer is between two fingers of the 
M^erciful," ought to hav« his hand and linger cut oft";"^ 
and the reasons they gave for not explaining any such 
words were, that it is forbidden in the Quran, and tliat 
such e:3fptications were necessarily founded- on coniecture 
and opinion, from v/hioJi no man ougnt to speak of tlie 
attributes of GOD.. because the words of the Qunui might 
by that means come to be uudeistood differently from the 
author's meaning; nay, some have been so superstitiously 
j-cnipulons in this mafter as not lo allow the words hand, 

■* Auctor nl Mavvakif, ei al Jfafadi, ^ Al-S^wilimt. apud Pcic. Spec, p. 
jtjjud P'lc... ubi suj).. jj. 2JO, &o. Ibn 230. 
KliAllikaiJ lu Vita al Jobbui * Id^ui, Apud eUcJ.; p. 22^, &c. 


face, and the }Tk.e, when they occur in the Quran to be 
rsFidered into Persiaii or any other languoge. but require 
th(!T(i to -be read in the very ovjoinal words and this they 
cali the safe way ^ 2. A3 to predestination, they held that 
GoJ> hath one eternal will, which is applied to whatsoever 
he willeth, both oi! his own actioa^j and those of men, so 
far ;is tliey arc created by bini, but not as they are Acquired 
ov gamed by them, thai he willeth both their gooi:) and 
their evilj their profit and their hurt, and as be wiileth 
and knoweth; he willeth concernini? men that AA/hich he 
knoweth., and hath conmiaiided the pen to write the same 
in. the Freser"vcd Table and this is bis decree and eternal 
immutable counsel and purpose.^ They also went so far 
as to say that in may be agreeable to the way of God that' 
man shoidd be commanded what he is not able to perform.^ 
But while they villow man some power, they seem to 
restrain it to such a power as cariuot produce anything 
new ; only God, say they, so orders his providence that 
he creates, after or under and together with evej-y created 
or new power, an action which is ready whenever a man 
wills it and sets about it; and this action is called Cash, 
i.e., Acqiut^ition, being in respect to its creation, from God, 
but in respect to 'it^ being produced, employed, and 
acquired, IVoni man,* And this being generally esteemed 
the ortiiodox opinion, it may not be improper farther to 
explain the same in the words of some other writers Tlie 
elective actions of nnen, says one, fall under the power of 
God alone; nor is their own power effectual thereto, but 
God causeth to exist in man power and choice; njid if 
there bo no im.pediment^ he causeth his action to exist 
also, subject to his powerj and joined with that and his 
choice ; wbicli action, as created, is to be ascribed to God, 
but as produced, employed, or acqaiied to mfm:* So that 
by the acquisition of an action is properly meant a man's 

"^ Vide Poc Spoc. ibid. ^ Idem, ibid., p 246, 

- Al Shahvist., npud eimd p. 245, ■* .\.l Shaha^C, aptidPoc Sp.;c, p 
&o. ' 245, .kc, 


jojuiiig or connf^cting tl»e same with his power and will, 
yet aUowiii^' herein no impression or influence on the 
existence thereof, save only that it is sii ject to hLs poAS'ei.^ 
Othars, however, who are also on the side of aV A-shM.rj", 
and reputed orthodox, explain the matter in a different 
manner and grant the impression or intluence of the 
created power of man on his action, and that this power 
is what is called Acquisition.'* But the point M'iU be still 
clearer if we hear a third author, who rehearses the various 
opinions, oi explications of the opinion of this sect in the 
foilowuig wordS; viz. : — Abul Hasan al Ash an assferts all 
the actions of men to he subject to the power of Gor>, 
being created bv him, a-nd that the power of man hath no 
)u0uen e at all on that which he is empowered to do^ but 
that both the power and what is subject thereto fall 
under the power of God. Ai Qadhi Abu Baqr says tha the 
essence or substance of the action i$ the effect of the 
power of God, but its bein^ either an action of obedience, 
as prayer, or an action of disobedience, as fornication, are 
qualities of the action, which proceed from the power of 
man. Abdal Malik, known by the title of Imam ai Uai-a- 
main, Abul Husain of Basra, and other learned men, held 
that the actions of men are effect»v;td by the power which 
Oou hath created in man, and that Gob causeth to exist 
in man both power and will, and that thib power and will 
do iiectfSSOTily produce that which man is empowered to 
do; and Abu Ishaq al Isfarayain taught that that which 
inaketh impression or bath influence on an action is a 
compound of the power of Go]) and the power of man.^ 
The same author observes that their ancestors, perceiving 
a manifest difference between those things which are the 
effects of the election of man and those things which are 
l»he necessaiy effects of inanimate agents, destitute both 
of kn-owledge and choice and being at the same time 

^ Aucior Shaih al MaWikif. apud * Auctor Shnrh al Tawdli>a. apiiii 
evind., p. 247, ennd. ibid., p. 248 &,c. 

' Al Shahmt., ibid, p 248. 


pressed by tke argaments which prove that Goi> is the 
Creator of all things, and coosequently of those things 
which are doue by men. to conciliate the matter, chose 
the middle way, asserting actions to proceed from th«i 
power of (jrOD and the acquisition of man, God's way of 
dealing with his servants being, that when man nitendeth 
obedience, God createth in him an action of obedience ; 
and when he intendeth disobedience, he createth in him 
an action of disobedience; so that man seemeth to be tlie 
eirective producer of his action, though he really be not^ 
But this,, proceeds l^e same writer, is again pressed with 
its ditilcultieb, because the Ycry intention of the niind is 
the work oX God, so that no man hath any share in the 
productim of his own actions : for which, reason the 
ancients disapproved of too nice an inquiry into this 
point, the end of the dispute concerning the same being, 
lor the most part, either the taking away of all precepts, 
pooitiye as ■^ell n,^ negative, or else the associating of a 
oompanion with GoD, by introducing some other indepen- 
dent agent besides him. Those, thevefoie, who would 
speak more accurately, use this form: There is neither 
compuiftion nor free liberty but the way lies between the 
two; the power and will in man being both created by 
God, though the merit or guilt be imputed urito man. 
Yet, after all, it is judged the safest way to follow the 
steps of the priraitwe Muslims, and, avoiding subtle dis- 
putations and too curious inquiries, to ieav€ the knowledge 
01 this matter wholly unto God.'- 3 As to mortal sin, the 

^ Aactor Shaib al Tawuiiya, ibid, free will is trtjaied e% p^offMo. 

pp. 249, 250. Therein the Moorish autlior, having 

^ Idem, ibid, pp. 250, 255. I trust /nentjoned the two opposite opinions 

the ceadfer will not be offended if, as of the Qadjurjana, who iiUuw free 

a further ilhistratioTi of what ha« will, and th« Jabarians, wh© make 

been said on this subjuct (in pro- roan a necewsar^ agetit (the former 

duciog of which I have purposely of which opiin'ons, he sivys, seems to 

kept to t)\e original Muhanimadan approach nearest to tliat of the 

exptessiojis) I transcribe a passage greater part of Christians and of 

or two from a postscript slibjoiued the Jews), declares the true ophiion 

to the epistle I have quoted above to l>e that of the Sunnis, who as- 

(§ 4i F) 85), in which the point. of sert that man halh power and will 



rf'Sn^'*'^' Ashan'ans taught, tliat if a believer gailty of such sin die 
without reperiLance his sentence is to be left with God, 
whethet' he pardon bim out of mercy, or whether the 
pvophet intercede for him (accordino: to that saying re- 
corded of him. " My intercession shall be employed for 
those among my people who shall have been guilty of 
gi'ievons cninea"j or whether be punish him in proportion 
to his demerit and afterwardS; through his mercy, admit 
hiiri into paradise but that it is not to be supposed he 

to choose, goofl rind evd. and oaii 
morfeovei know hf slialJ bfe rewarded 
if ha <3o wf»li. .*riii sh».il be piinif,hfccl 
if he do ill ; but that bo litpemls, 
n<>twit!mi:aiidiri(i-, on God's power, 
and wiUoth, if Gou willfith, bufe not 
CtberwiBe Then he proceeds biiefJy 
to refute the two extreme opinions, 
and first to prove thaf of the Qadi^ 
risns, though It "be agreeable to 
rV^C's justice, inconysttfnt wiib his 
attiil>utes of wisdom and power : 
"Sapifentia enilTi T>e)," s-'ijfi he. 
"crmipt-eVieodiL quicquid fuit e^ iu- 
tuium est ah eetei'niLato in ftn^m 
usque n\nndi et postea. fit ifct novl* 
ab aetferno oirni& opera crealururum, 
sive boMii, eivr* mtda. quae fuerint- 
creata cum potentia Dei, et ejua. 
Jibem (tt dcierminata veiVir.tatt^. !<i- 
CuL jpsi vi6un) fuit, X)er,rque noyit 
eum qui fnfcnrus erar mains, et ta- 
rnt»n ci-<aftvit «<um, et similiter bonaln, 
quem etiain creavit ; neque negari 
pot^t quin, El \pi>\ lih'.ii&set. potiiiftset 
OTones creare );x'aio?' : placuit ttun'^-n 
Peo cieJire lioiios ct roalas, cum Dto 
soli sit al«»f)lata' et libera, voluntas', 
et perfv^-cta f^leciio, et non houu'ni. 
Ita enitfi Salomon in snis provei-biia 
divir, Vitam et moCriin, honnm et 
mrthun, divitiab el paupurlui-ein esse 
et. venire h Deo Ghristiani ctiam 
dicunt S. Pauimn dix-isso in sui'< 
epi.*t«)iifl ; 1>icbt fetiam luliin) figufo, 
quare facis nmim vas &d honcrem. 
et lib ad vas ft<l contnineiiajn ? Cum 
igitnr miser homo Juerit rreatus i 
voluntate Dei el potenHa, nihil alind 
potest tribui ipi.i qviirj ip?f- s6^nsii-> 
cognosceudi et sentiendi 'Mi bt^ne vel 

nt;i!e facial-. Quit unicn rausii (id 
est. sensus coguoscindi) erjt ejui 
gir.riae vel po-.rffc C;>,u?a ; per ttlem 
eniin sendum wovit qviid bovu vel 
mall {.(Iveisna \jej prun-epti fpu«<vit." 
Tije opinion of the Jal''tri,ins, nU" 
the olher baad, he rejects \s Ofrrt- 
trary to rnnn',-- cun9cl«'ijsn>s.s of his 
own powpp and choice, and incon- 
sisrent with G(>J>'s justio.?, and '\)« 
havjn!,' s(ivfn mankind laws, to the 
obtei'vici^' 01- tran.s^ressir.g yi which 
he h8«. annexed rewards and punish- 
ments. After fchi5 be proceeds to 
explain l^lle third opip:V>Ji in the b>i- 
lowi'ng- wotds; "Terlia Opinio Zunis 
(i.e., Sonniti^nun) quie vcia est. 
affinnat, hoinini potfif^tatem &-^^e, sed 
JimiUte'ci a f-ua causa, id es'., depen- 
denUjia a Dei potentia <t volnurate, 
et propttr il'la,in coyniiiyiifDi qua 
.lf*lib»;rat bene vel male fEceve, tine 
digniiUi piTKn.i vel pra='min. IVT.Tni- 
featani, in retemitate rmn firiastj 
aliam poteotiam praeter Dei r.ostri 
oifiniputenti.-*, e cu|ns folentia pe.n- 
deluni onini.>\ po->.sil>iJia, id esL, quas 
poter»,nT, esse, cum ab ipso fuerint 
creata. Saplentia vprb Dei novjt 
feti&m q\v«: non sunt lutura : tt po- 
tent.ia ejus, etti non rreavftrit ca. 
pctnir tiufieti. 3| it;> Deo piaculsset, 
Xts novil aaptpntia Dei (^ua: oran.L 
iuipossTbib.i, id est, qu.Te non poteiant 
esse ; quas t3nr\fn rnillo ]>a<;to pen- 
dent ab ejus potentia •, ab ejas eniia 
po^cnliil nulla pendetil. nJaj posbi- 
biMa. Dicimus enim a Dei potentia 
nor. pendere croaie Deum ali'im ipsi 
sirnilem^ nee creare ajiquid qu<>d 
moveatui- et quies'iat simul eodem 





witi r':?raaiii for ever in hell with the infidels^ seeing it it? 
declared that whoevertshall have faith, in his heart Init 01 
the weight of an an;i;, shall be delivered from hell-fireJ 
And this is generally received for the orthodox: dootnne 
m this point, and is diametrically opposite to that of the 

These were the more rational Sifatians, but the ignorant 
part of them; not knowing how otherwise to explain the 
expressions of the Quran relating to the declarative attri- 
butes, fell into most gross and absurd i)pinions, making 
Goi^ corporeal and like creates! beings/' Such were— 

2. The Mushabbihites. oi' Assimilators, who allowed aTheMusbab- 
resemblance between God and his creatures/ supposing 

teinpore. cuni hsec sint ex imi)Os!bi- 
bilibus : compreliendic Lameii» sua 
sapieiitia tftle alitjiiid. noli peadere 
au eju3 potentin. ;V potfeMtiii igitur 
Dei pendet soltim quod potest esse, 
el po&slbile eat e>ssfc • qucP semper 
para la est dare east, poivsibilibu?*. Et 
SI hoc penitus coynoi.cajniu.-{, oognos 
cen;uo piiiiter oouie qnod. est, seu 
hiturmn est, sive ?iiat opera ijoistra. 
sive qmdvis alitiri, pcndere k foJa 
pottiitia De\. Et hoc non pnvatim 
iutelligttur. ned in geriere de onmi 
eo quod est et movetiir, sivc in coelia 
bive ill terrfi ; et nee aliqu^. poteutii 
potest imjtediri Dei potentia, cilri 
nulla alia potentia absoluta sit, pxm 
ter Dei ; poteutia vero riostra non 
Cot a sf'j 11131 ?i Dei potentia : e,t cura 
polentia uostra dicitur tsise a cau.sH 
sua. idee dicinuis pottiltiain uostram 
o.sse straniiuis coiMparatain euni po- 
tentia Dei : eo euiin tnodo quo stra- 
nien rnovetur fi aiotu maris, ila nes- 
tra poteutia et voluntft* a Dei potftii- 
tia. Itaqut' l)c;i potentia sempe»* 
est partita etiam Ji'j occideudaTn aii 
quem ; ut ai quis lionjinein occidat. 
non dicirnus, potentia houiiuis i<i 
factum. 3ed aa^rna poteutia Dei : 
erroj' euim est id tiibnei^ por<;i.di3e 
hoininis. Fotentia eiiiiii Del, cum 
semper sit psirata. et ante ipsum 
honiinexTj, ad occidendnui : si soia 
hominis potentii id factum <.sse 

dicerenius, et morerettir, potentia 
Hiixxb Dei (qua? ante erat I jail/ ibi 
endet frustra : <(uia post moi (eiu non 
potest potertia Dei eum itenmi occi 
dere ; ex quo st^que/etur potentiani. 
Dei imptnliri k potentia. hominis, et 
potejitiam boniims auteire et ante- 
cellere potentiam I)ei ; quod est ab- 
surdu/a et impossibile. Igit\ir Deua 
est qui operatur reterna suit poten- 
tia : si ver6 homini injiciatur culpa, 
give !n tali bomicidio, sive in aliis 
hoc eftt quantiim ad pra^^ept* et 
legem. Honn'ui tribuitur solixni 
opus externe, et ejus electio, quae 
est a voluntate ejus et pf^tencia t 
nou v^er6 interne, — Hoc est punctual 
iiiutl indivisibile et BbCietum. qnod 
a pauciseimif^ oapitur, ut ^apientissi- 
nnia Sjdi Hamet ElgAcelt (i.e. , 
DoDiinua -.Vbu Hdmed a! Ghaziili) 
affiijuat (cujus spiritui Deus conce- 
dat gloriam, Anien !) se<pientibus 
verbis ; Ita abdJtujn et profundi! m 
et abstnisnm est Intel] igere punetum* 
illud Libt^ri Arbitiii, ut neque chai- 
actt^res ad scribenduTO, neque, uUaj 
rationei? ad experimenduu]; sutticiaiit, 
et omneo, quotquot de hac re locuti 
sunt, haeserunt confusi in ripa (anti 
t-t tain spadosi raaris." 

' Al Shahrist , apud Foe., p. 25S. 

■''Vide Vuc.. ibid., p. 2$^^. kc j 
Abtdfav., p 167, (fee 

'^ Ai Maw^jkif, apud Pec, ibid 


him to be a figure comj'Osed of members or parts, either 
spiritual or corporeal, aud capable of local motion, of 
a:ieent and descent, &c.^ Some of this sect inclined to 
the opinion of the HuLilians, who beUeved that the divine 
nature might be united with the human in the same per- 
son ; for they granted it possible that God might appear 
in a human form, as Gabriel did ; and to confirm their 
opinion they allege Muhammad's svords, that he saw his 
Lord in a most beautiful form, and Moses talking with 
God face to face.^ And 
iiicKara- 3. The Karamiftus, or followers of Muhammad Ibn 

niians or _^ t 1 j i ■» r • • ^ t 

Mujassft- iiaram, called also Mujassamians, or Corporalists, who not 
only admitted a resemblance between God and created 
beings, but declared God to be corporeal.^ The more sober 
among them, indeed, when they applied the word "body" to 
God, would be understood to meaii that he is a self-sub- 
sisting being, which with them is the definitidn of body; 
but yet some of them affirmed him to be finite, and ciir 
cumscribed, either on all sides, or on some only (as beneath, 
for example), according to different opinions ; * and others 
allowed that he might be felt by the hand and seen by 
the eye. Nay, one David al Jawari went so far as to say 
that his deily was a body composed of flesh and blf^od, 
and that he had members, as hands, feet, a head, a longue, 
eyes, and ears ; but that he was a body, however, not like 
other bodies, neither was he like to any created being ; he 
is also said further to have affirmed that from the crown 
of the bead to the breast he was liollow, and from the 
breast downward solid, and that he liad black curled hair.^ 
These most blasphemous and monstrous notions were the 
consequence of the literal acceptation of those passages in 
the Quran which figuratively attribute corporeal actions 
to God, and cf the words of Muhammad when he said 

^ Al Shahrist., apud eund., ibid., ' Al Sbahrist,, ubi r<;ip. 

p. 226. * Idem, ibid., p. 225. 

- Vide M-arracc, Prodr., part 3, ^ Idem, ibid., ]ip. 220, 227 
p. 76. 


that God created man in his own image, and that himself 
had felt the fingers of God, which he laid on his back, to 
he cold. Besides which, this sect are charged with father- 
ing on their prophet a great number of spurious and forged 
traditions to support their opinion, the greater part whereof 
t]iey borrowed from the Jews, who are accused as naturally 
prone to assimilate GoD to men, so that they describe him 
a^ weeping for Noah's flood till his eyes were sore.^ And^ 
indeed, though we grant the Jews may have imposed on 
Muhammad and his followers in many instances, and told 
them as solemn truths things which themselves believed 
not or had invented, yet many expressions of this kind 
are to be found in their writings ; as when they introduce 
God roaring like a lion at ever)'- watch of the night, and 
crying, "Alas! that I have laid waste my house, and 
sufiferea my temple to be burnt, and sent my children into 
banishment among the heathen/' &c.^ 

/^ The Jabarians, who are the direct opponents of theTheJaba- 
Q.-'darians, denying free agency in men, and ascribing his SrvkW 
actions wholly unto God.^ They take their denomination Sione.^""*' 
from al jahr, which signifies necessity or compulsion ; 
because they hold man to be necessarily and inevitabh" 
constrained to act as he does by force of God's eternal and 
immutable decree.* This sect is distinguished into seveiul 
species, some being more rigid and extreme in their opi- 
nion, w^ho are thence called pure Jabarians, and otliers 
more moderate, who are therefore called middle Jabarians. 
The former will not allow men to be said either to act or 
to have any power at all, either operative or acquiring, 
asserting that man can do nothing, but produces all his 
actions by necessity, having neither power, nor will, nor 
choice, any more than an inanimate agent ; they also de- 
clare that rewarding and punishing are also the effects of 
necessiiy; and the same thev say of the imposing of 

^ Al Shahrist., ibid., pp. 227, 228. ^ Vide Abulfarag, p. \b6. 
2 Talm. Berachoth, c. l. Vide * Al Shahrist., al IVIawAkJf, et Ibn 
P')C., ubi Bup., p. 22S. al Kussd, apud Poc, ibitl, p. 238, &c. 


conimands. This was the doctrine of the Jabmians, the 
follo-weis of Jahm Ibn Safwaii, "who likewise, held that 
paradise and heil "^ill vanirjh pr be annihilated ^.fter- 
thoae who are destined thereto respectively shall liave 
entered them, so that at last there vill remain no exibting 
being besides GOD;^ supposing those words of the Quran 
which declare that the inhabitants of pui-ndise and of hell 
shall remain therein tor ever to be hvperbolicaj oiily, and 
iQtended fur corroboration, and not to denote an eternal 
duration iti reality.^ The mederate Jabariaus are those 
who ascribe some power to man, but such a powe^' as !)ath 
no influence on the action ; for as to those wiio grant the 
power of man lo have a certain iniiueuce on the action, 
which iuliuence is called Acqnisition, some ^ will not admit 
them to be called Jabarianr-*, though others reckon those 
also to be called middle Jabarians, and to contend for the 
middle opinion between absolute necessity and absolute 
liberty, who attribute to man .Acquisition or GonoinTence 
in producing the action, whereby he gaineth commendation 
or blatno (yet without admitting it to have any influence 
on the actiorf), and therefore make the Ashanans a branch 
of this sect* Having again mentioned the term Acquisir* 
tion, we may perhaps h^ve u clearer idea of what the 
Muhanimadans mean thereby when told that it is detined 
to be an action directed to the obtaiuing of prolit or the 
removing of liurt^ and for that reason never applied to any 
action af (;rOD, who acquJreth to himself neither profit nor 
hurt.* Of the middle or moderate -lalxarians were the 
Najarians and the Diidriaus The Kajiiriani; were the 
adlier«nts of al JIasari Ibn Muhammad al Najar, who 
taught 'that t.iOD vvafti he who created the actions of men, 
both ^ood and bud, and that man acquired them, and also 
that man's power had an iufluence on the action, or a 

' Al aViahriiit., al Mutari'/.zi^ fef Ibn ' Al Shahrist 
al Ku£sa, »|jafi cund., pp. 239. 843, * Ibn al Kussd ei »1 Maw^kif 
Ac. ' lbj» ai K'ussa, n.pud luc, ubi 

* Idem, ibid , p. 260. sap., p. 240. 


certain co-operation, which Le called Acquisition; and 
herei)! iip agreed with al Asharf.'' The Dimiiana Aveie the 
disciples of Diriir Ibn Amru, who held also that mms 
actions are really created by God, aiid that man really 
acquired them.- The Jaharians also say that GoD is abso- 
lute Lord of his creatures, and may deal with them 
according 10 hi? own pleasure, without rendering account 
to anv, and that if he should admit all men without dis- 
tinction into paradise, it would be 110 impartiality, or if 
he should cast them all into hell, it would be no injus- 
tice.^ And in this particular likewise they agree with the 
Asharians. wiix? assert the same,* and say that reward 
is a favour horn God, and punishment a piece of justice; 
obedience being by them considered as a sign only of 
future I'ewaid. and transgression as a sign of future pun- 

$. The Murjians, who are said to be derived from the iheMur- 
Jabaiians.^ These teach thiit. the judgment of every true 
behever, who hath been ji^uilty of a grievous s>in. will be 
deferred till the resurrection , for which reason they pass 
no sentence 011 him in this world, either of abaolution or 
condemnation. They also hold that disobedience with 

^ Al Shahrinfc., apud eund., p. 345. crfAtura sit ejus, uoc tacit cuiquair. 

' IdttHi, ibid. iujuiiain, etssi earn toruieT)!!-* ef 

' A:fi.iUa)ag, p. ;,6S. <!tc. pcenip sereri)i;j oirficiat : plus eniiij 

* Al fShaliristiri, iibi sup., p. 253, boni et cornmodi accepit ereatnra 

&c. quart Jo aecepit a 8U0 crcatore, 

' Shiirli ai Tawaiiiya, ibid. Totde qu^un jn- uannodi et dariiini qnaDri" 

satne etfect writf-a tue MoorisL au e.b bo darnjiatia ert et arlccta tof 

thorcpiOted abv>vt:, from wiiom 1 will nierttib et ptPius. H<if anum intfj 

vt-nture to tranioribe the folio win^ ligiiu-' si Deus ab.solute id I'acere*: 

passa*-^. witb wbicii be oonchTde.'s his Quando t^niiu T^feUf, pi<^iait ct mistt- 

I>is-conr«>e on Freewill : — " laieHet!- ricordia motu«, c-Vi^it aiiquo-' nt ipsi 

tus fere luiaiiie naturali novit Deuni sierviaut, Dounmis DeuH gratift "^uiJ 

esse recUini judicfcin et jastum. <jui id fiU-it ex iiihuita b*;iutate ; eti 

non ttliter a.ltirif creahirara qu^ni quanu<» aJiqiios dere'linquil., et pa>uis 

juste: rtidui Jjttum e^st; absolutuui (t tormentis alfioit, <:x jualitia el 

Douiinum. et banc (»rbia inat^hiuarn rectit\idiiie. ilt t<iu<jleni di<.)i)ii3s 

east ejus, et ab eo cr^iatatii ; Deujii ouin*^s poenas e-M; ju-sta.;? <p.ije a Deo 

naliis debere rationfcm r^ddere ciini veninnt, et nostni tantiiiu citJpa, et 

quicxuid agal, asfit jure propriobibi ; omnia bona ess*, k pietate et ttjiscri- 

<*t ita aV)3c>lutt potesit afficere prae/uio f;ordl». ejus iutinitfi.''* 
vel pa-'iia qufcui valt. ciiin onams * Ai Sliahiiat . ubj sup., p. 25C. 


faith lutrteth DOft, and that, on the other hand, o]:»edieTice 
with intidelity proficeth not.^ As to the reason of their 
name the learned differ, necause of the different significa- 
tions of its root, each of which they acaommodate Lo some 
opinion of the sect. Some think them so called because 
they postpone works to intention, that is, esteem works to 
be inferior in degree to intention and profesi?ion of thp 
faith ; "^ others because they allow hope, by asserting that 
disobedience with faith hurteth not, &c. ; others take the 
reason of the name to be their deferring the sentence of 
the heinous sinner till the resurrection ; ^ and others their 
degrading oi Ali, or removing him from the first degree to 
the fourth ; ^ for the Murjians, in some points relating to 
the office of Imdm, agree with the Kharijites. This sect is 
divided into four species, three of which, according as they 
bappen-to agree in particular dogmas with the Kharijites, 
the Qadnrians, or the Jabarians, are rtistinguished as Mur- 
jians of those sects, and the fourth is that of the pure 
Murjians, which last species is again subdivided into five 
others.^ The opinions of Muqatil and Ba&har, both of a 
sect of the Murjians called Thaubiinians, should not be 
omitted. The former asserted that disobedience hurts not 
him who professes the unity of God and is endued witli 
faith, and that no true believer sliall be cast into hell. He 
also taught that GoD will surely forgive ali crimes besides 
infidelity, and that a disobedient believer will be punished 
nt the day of resurrection on the bridge^ laid over the 
midst of hell, where the flames of hell-fire shall catch hold 
on him, and torment him in proportion to his disobedience, 
and that he shall then be admitted into paradise.' The 
latter hold that if GoD do cast the believers guilty of 
prievous sins into hell, yet they will be delivered thence 
after they shall have been sufhciently punished ; ijut that 

^ Abulfarag, p. 169. " idem, ibiJ. 

' Ai Fimue. ^ See supra, Sect. IV., p. 147. 

•^ Ibii ul Athi'r, al Mutaril/i. "^ Al Shahrist., ubi sup., p. 257 
* Al Shahrlst., ubi sup., p. 254, 4<r 


it is neither possible nor consistent with justice that they 
should remain therein for ev^er; which, as has been ob- 
served, was the opinion of al Ashari. 

TIT. The Kharijites are they who depart or revolt from TheKbin- 
the lawful prince established by public consent; and^"^' 
thence comes their name, which signines revolters or 
rebel? ^ The first who were so called were twelve thou- 
sand men wlio revolted from Ali, after they had fought 
under him at the battle of Saffain, taking offence; at 
his submitting the decision of his right to the Khalifat, 
which Muawiyah disputed with him, to arbitration, though 
they themselves had first obliged him to it.^ These were 
also called Muhaqqimites, or Judiciariaris, because the 
reason which they gave for their revx)lt was that Ali had 
referred a matter concerning the religion of Go&: to the 
.judgment of men, whereas the judgment, in suck case, 
belonged only unto GoD.^ The heresy of the. Kharijites 
consisted chiefly in two things : — i. In that they affirmed a 
man might be promoted to the dignity of Imam or prince 
though he was not of the tribe of Quraish, or even a 
freeman, provided he was a just and pious person, and 
endued with the other requisit-^ (jualifications ; and also 
held that if ilie imam turned aside from the truth, he 
might be put to death or deposed ; and that there was 
no absolute necessity for any Imam at all in. the world. 
2. In that they charged Ali with sin, for having left an 
affair to the judgment of men which ought to have been 
determined by GcD alone; and w^nt so far as to declare 
him guilty of infidelitj^. and to curse him on that account.* 
In the 38th year of the Hijra, which was the year follow- 
ing the revolt, all these Kharijites who persisted in their 
rebellion, to the number of four thousand, were cut to 
pieces by Ali, and, as several historians ^ write, even to a 

^ Al Shahrist., ubi sup., p. 261. * Idem. ibid. 

2 See Oekley's Hist. c,t tdo S.ira- ** Abulfeda, al Jaundbi, Eima- 

censi, v»I. i. p. 60, &c. cinus, p. 40. 
^ Al Shahrist., ubi bup.. p. 270. 

264 T^^fi PRELIMINARY DJSCOURSr.. [sfc. vni 

man , but others say nine of them escaped, and that two 
lied into Oman, two into Karmaa, two into Sajistau, two 
into Mesopotamia, and one to Tel Mawiuu, and that 
these propagated their heresy in those places, the same 
remaining there to this day.^ The principal sects of the 
Xharijites, besides tht Miiharjqiinites above mentioned, 
aiti six, which, though they greatly differ among them- 
shlve^ in other matters, yet agree in these, viz., that they 
absolnitdy reject Othraan and, preferring the doing of 
this to the greatest obedience, and alJuwino marriages 
to be contracted on no other terms ; that they account 
tliose who are guilty of grievons sins to be intidtU: and 
that they hold it necessary to resist the Imam when he 
transgresses ttie law^ One sect of them deserves more 
particular noti^'e, viz. — 
p.M-uiiar The ^^'uidians so called from ai Waid whicli signifies 

wiru^b. " the threats denounced by God against the wicked These 
Lire the antagonists of the MurjianB, and assert that hrt 
wlio is gnijty of a grievous sin ought to be declared an 
infidel or apostate and will be eternally punched in hell, 
thbugh he were a true believer;- which opinion of theirs, 
as has been observed, occasioned the tirst rise of the 
Mnt:izilites, One .Jaafar Ibn Mubashahar, of the p,pct of 
tlie Nudhiimians was yet more severe tlmn tiic Wuidians, 
pronouncing- hirn to be a reprobate and an apostate who 
steals but a grain of corn.^ 
ThoShi-ihb IV The Shfahs are the opponents of the Khaiijites: 
di.^tinffui»L- tlieir name propeily signifies sectaries or ydherent-^ in 
mul's'. " gen^U'til, but is peculiarly ubed to denote those of Ali fhn 
Talib, who mainiain liim to be lawful Xhelif'ah end Imam, 
and that the supreme authority, both m spirituals and 
teniporajs, of right belongs to his desceiidnnts. notwith- 
standing they may be deprived of it by t lie injustice of 
(«llieT:s or their own fear. They als»i teach that the office 

' Al Shahnstar.j See 0*kley's * Abultar., p. i6q ; Al Sliahiiet., 
Hist 0^. the Sarftcens ubi sup., p. apud Poc Spec . p. 256 
63 i ^ Vide Poc, ibid J p. 257 


of Imarn is not a coininoii thing, depending on the will of 
tbe vulgar, so tLafc they nnay set up whom they please, 
but a fundamental affair of religion, and an article? which 
the prophet couid not have negiecfed or left to the fancy 
of the common people ; ^ nay some thence called fmam- 
ians, go so far as to assert that relii^ion consisis solely in 
the knowledge of the true loiam.- The principal sects of 
the Shiahs are five, which are subdivided into an almost 
inaumerabJe nnniber, so that some nnderstand MuJiani- 
niad's prophecv of the seventy odd sects of tlie Shiahs 
only Their general opinions are — i. That the peculiar 
desijrnation or the Imam, and the testimonies of thy 
Quran and Muhammad coucrirnijii? bim, are necessary 
points 2. That the Imams ought necessarily to keep 
themselves fr^e from light sins as well as more grievous. 
3. That eveiy one ought publicly to declare who it is 
that he adheres to, and crora whom he separates himself, 
by word^. deed., and. engaeemeiil . and that herein theie 
should be no dissimulation. But in this last point some 
of the Zaidians. a sect so named from Zniri. the son of 
Ali snrnamed 7Ain al Abi(iin, and great-graiid>;on of 
Ali, dissented t'roni the rest 01 the Shiahs^ As to 
other articles wherein they agreed not, somt of them 
oaine pretty near to the notions of the Mutazibtes. others 
to those of thi* Muiahabbihites. and others to those of 
the SunniS'* Among the latter of these Muhammad al 
fUkir, another son oi' Zaiu al Abidi'n's, seems to claim a 
place , for his opinion as to rbe will of God was that 
God wilkth something in ua and something; from us, and 
that what he willeth from us he hath revealed to \is; for 
which reascui he thought it preposterous ttiat we should 
employ our thoughts about these thiut^^s which Goi) willeth 
in US, and neglect thase which he willeth from us : and 
as to God's deciee, he held that the way lay in the middle. 

1 AISl»ahrist.,ibid.,p.26i: Abul- * Trtem. ibid. Vide D'HerbeL, 
farag, p. 169. Bibi. Orient, art Schiab. 

» Al Shahristj ibid., p. 262. * Vide Hoc, ibid. 


and that there was neither compulsion nor free liberty.^ 
A tenet of tlie Khatlabians, or disciples of one A])ul 
Khattab. is too peculiar to be omitted. These maintained 
paradise to be no other tlian the pleasures of this world, 
and liell-fire to be the pains thereof, and that the world 
will never decay : which proposition being first laid dow^n, 
it is no W'Onder they went further, and declared it law^ful 
to indulge themselves in drinking wine and whoring, and 
to do other things forbidden by the law, and also to omit 
doinf; the thin<ijs commanded bv the law.^ 
Their vene- Many of +he Shiahn carried their veneration for Ali and 

r-itir-ii of All "^ 

and his de- his descendants so far tha,t they transorressed all bounds 

ftceudauts. ^ 

or reason and decency, though some of them were less 
extravagant tlian others. The Ghulailes, who had their 
name from their excessive 2e?»l for their Imams, were so 
highly transported therewith that they raised them above 
the degree of created beings, and attributed divine pro- 
perties to them; transgressing on either hand, by deifying 
of mortal men, and by making CxOD corporeal; for one 
while they liken one of their Imams to God, and another 
•while they liken God to a creature.^ Tlie sects of these 
are various, and have various appellations in different 
countries. Abdallah Ibn ^>aba (who h^d been a Jew, and 
iiad asserted the same thing of Joshua the son of Xun) 
was the ringleader of one of them. This man gave the 
following salutation to Ali, viz., " Thou art Thou," i.e., thou 
art God: and hereupon the Ghulaites became divided 
into several species, some maintaining the same thing, or 
something like it, of Ali, arid others of some of one of his 
descendants, affirming that he was not dead, but would 
return again in the clouds and fill the eyith with justice. 
But how niucli soever they disagreed in othei' things, tliey 
unanimously held a metempsvcbosis, and what they call 
al Hulul, or the descent of God on his creatures, meaning 

^ AJ Sbahrist., ibid., p. 263, * Idero, ibid. 

2 Idem, et Ibn al Kussi'i, ibid., p. * Itleni, iV)id., ]>. 764. Vide Mar 
260, &c. rac, Prodr , part 3, p. >io, &x. 


thereoy tliat God is Tjresent id every place,, and speaks 
with every tongue, and appears in some individual per- 
son;^ and hence some of them asserted their Imiims to 
be prophets, and at length gods.- The Nusainans and 
the Ishaqians taught that spiritual substances appear in 
grosser bodies, and th^at the angels and the devil have 
appeared in this manner. They also assert that OoD hath 
appeared in the form of certain men ; and since, after 
Muhammad, there hath been no man more excellent than 
Ali, ana, after him, his sons have excelled all other men, 
that God hath appeared in their form, spoken with their 
tongue, and made use of their hands ; ior which reason, 
say they, we attribute divinity to them.^ * And to sup- 
port these blasphemies they tell several miraculous things 
of Ali, as his moving the gates of Khaibar/ w?iich they 
urge as a plain proof that he was endued with a particle 
of diviuit}^ and with. sovereigTi power, and that he was the 
person in whosej form God appeared, with whose hands he 
created all things, and with whose tongue he published 
his commands ; and therefore they say he was in being 
before the creation of heaven and earth.^ In so impious 
a manner do they seem to wrest those things "which are 
said in Scripture of Christ by applying them to Ali. 
These extravagant fancies of the Sluahs, however, ia 
making their Imams partakers of the divine nature, and 
the impiety of some of those Imams in laying claim 
thereto, are so far from being peculiar to this sect, that 

♦ Talboys Wheeler, in his History of India, vol. iv. part i. p. 86, 
attributes these notions to all Sbiahs. He says, "They believe m 
God as the Supreme Spirit ; in Muhammad and his family as emana- 
tions from the Supreme Spirit." This statement is too sweeping; the 
views here attributed to' all belong to the S«jfi portioii of the sect. 

E. M. W. 

^ Al ShahriBtiini, ibid., p 265. ' Idem, ibid , Abtilfar., p. 160. 

2 Vide l»VHerbel., Bibl. Orient., ' See Prid.. Life of Mah., p. 93. 
art. Hakem BeamviUah, ' Al Shahrist., ubi sup., p. 266. 


most of the other Muhanima«laD sects nra tainted with, the 
sarae iimdness, there being many found miioDg them, 
and among the Suii'? esptcially, who pretend to be nearly 
related to heaven, and who boast of strange revelations 
before the credulous peopled It may ttot be amiss to hear 
what al Ghazali has written on this occasion. *' Matters 
are eunie to that pa^s,'" says he, " that some boast of an 
union with God, and of discoursing familiHrly with him, 
without tile interposition of a veil, saying, *It hath been 
thus said to us/ and 'We have thus spoken .' aft'ectinf; to 
imitate ilustiin al Hallaj, who was put te de:^^n for some 
words of this kind uttered by him, lie having o,aid (a^> was 
proved by credible witnesses^, '1 am the Truth,' ^ or Abu 
Yaxid al Bastarni, of whom it is related that he often used 
the expression, Subhani/ ?.e., ' Praise be unto me ! ' But 
this Wc^y of talking is the cause of great mischief among 
the cororaon people, insomuch that husbandmen; neglect- 
ing the tillage of their land, have pretended to the like 
privik'.ges, nature being tickled with dii^joarses of this 
kind, which furnish men with an excuse for leijving their 
o.ccupations, under pretence of purifying their souls, and 
attaining I know not what degrees and conditions. Nor 
i<5 there anything to hinder the mo«t stupid fellows from 
forhiing the like ]:>retet>?ij0H3 and catching at such vain 
expressioiii) : for wheuf ver what they say js denied to he 
true, tliey fail notao reply that our unbelief proceeds from 
learning and logic; affirming learniiig to he a vtil. and 
logic the worK of the mind ; whereas what they teil us 
appears only within, being discovered by the light of 
truth. But this is that truth the sparks whereof have 
flown into several countries and occasioried great mis- 
chiefa; so that it is more for the advantage of GoD V> true 
religion to put to death one of those who utter such things 
than to bestow life on ten others." * 

"* Poc Spec, p. 267. ' Vide ibid,, art. BaHhain. 

2 Vide D'Herbfl., Bibl. Orient,, * Al Ghazili. apud Poc. Spec, 
art. H&ll3ge. ubi sup, 


Thus far have we treated of the chief sects acnone the Main points 

. > fir -■ 1 ■ of difltvenrc 

Mnhainniadaiis of the first at>es, oiiittine to my anyt.hmQf betwoon the 
of the more irioderu sects, because the same are tuken tUe smuns 
little or no notice of by their o^'ii writers, and would be 
of no rise to our present design.' It may be proper, how- 
ever, to mention a word or two of the g real, schism at this 
day subsiisting between the Svmnis ;uid the Shiahs, or 
partisans of Ali.. and maintained on either side with im- 
placable hatred and furious zeal. Tboilgh the diiVerence 
arose at first on a political occasion, it has, notwithstand- 
ing, been «n well improved by additional circumstances 
and the spirit of contradiction, that each party detest and 
anathematise the other as abominable heretics, and farther 
from the truth than either the Christians; or the Jews.^ 
The chief points wherein they differ are — r. That the 
Sliiahs reject Abu Baqr, Omar, and Otbmun, the three 
first Khalifahs, as usurpers and intrudtrvS; wlieroas the 
Sunnfs acknowledge and respect them as rightful imams. 
2. The Shiahs prefer Ali to Muhammad, or at least esteem 
them both equal, but the Sunnis admit neither Ali nor 
any of tiie prc^-phets to be equal to Muhammad, j The 
Sunnis charge the Shiahs with corrupting the Quran 
and neglecting its precepts, and the Sbiahs retort the 
same charge on tlie Sunnis. 4. I'he Sunnis receive the 
Sunnat. or book of traditions of their prophet, as oi cano- 
nical authority, whereas the Shiahs reject it as apocry- 
phal and unworthy of credit. And to these disputes, and 
some others of less moment, is principally owing the anti- 
pathy which has long reigned between the Turk.s who are 
Suunis and Ihe Persians who are of the sect of Ali. It 
seems strange that Spinoza, had he known of no other 
schism among the MnhammadauS; should yet never have 
heard of one so publicly notorious as this between the 
Turks and Persians; but it is plain hr- did not, ov he would 

' The reader nui^ Tiieet vi/no some ^ ^i«if^ ibid., o. 10. an J Cliardiuj 
account of thfcii- in f icaat's br&teo£. Voy. dc Perse, i i, pp. 160, 170 
Ihe Ottoman Empirt, \. 2. c 12. &c, 


never have assigned it as the reason of his preferring the 
order of the Muiiammndan Church to that of the Roman, 
that there have arisen no schisms in the lormer since its 

As success in any project seldom fails to draw in 
imitators, Muhammud's having raised himself to such a 
degree of power and reputation by acting the prophet 
induced others to imagine they might arrive at the same 
height by the same means. His most considerable com- 
petitors in the prophetic office were Musailama and al 
Aswad, whom the Muhammadans usually call *' the two 

The former was of the tribe of Hunaifa,. who inhabited 
the piovince of Yaraama, and a principal man among 
them. He headed an embassy sent by his tribe to Mu- 
hammad in the ninth year of the Hijra, and professed 
himself a Muslim;"^ but on his return home, considering 
that he might possibly sliare with Muliammad in his 
power,, the next year he set up for a prupliet also, pre- 
tending to l.)e joined witii him in the couiniifc;sion to recall 
mankind froiri idolatry to the worship of the tiae God;-'' 
and he published written revelations in imitation of the 
<^uran, of which Abulfaragiiis"^ has preserved the follow- 
ing passage, viz.: "Now hath God been gracious unto 
her that was with child, and haih brought forih from 
her the soul which runneth between tlie peritonaeum and 
the bowels." Musailama, having fonried a considerable 
party ainc^ng tliOhe of Hunaifa, began to think himseii 
u])on equal terms with Muhammad, and sent him a letter, 
oifering to go halves with him,^ in these words: "From 

' The words of Spinoza tn-f :— quo tempore hscc superstitiu incepit, 

"Ordinom Romaiite tcclesiae — poli- nulin in eoruia ewlesia sclii-mata 

ticum et pluriniis iucrosum esse orta sunt." Optia Tostb.. p. 615. 
fateor; nee ad dtcipiendavn plebem, - Abulfed , p. l6o. 
ct hcmiiium uii!tiio;i cofcrcendum ^ Idem, Kimaa, p. 9. 
coinjriodioreii) Is»to ci«jd(.ff-in ni uido * H'i«t. DvnaKt.. p. 164. 
jVIahumciiacirfc kcclesiaj esst-t, qui * A.bulfcd., ubi sup. 
longc euudeui antccellit. Nam ii 

SEC. vni.l- Tilt: J-RELIMJNARY DISCOU.hKSE. 27, 

Musailama th.e ap)OStle of God, to Muhammaci the apostle 
of God. Now let the earth be half mine and half thine." 
But Muhammad, tliinking himself too well established 
to need a paiLner. wrote liini this answer : '*' From Mu- 
hammad the apostle of God, to Musailauia the liar. The 
earth is God's : he giveth the same for inheritance unto 
sucli of his servants as he pleaseth; and the happy 
issue shall atteind those who fear him."^ During the 
few months which Muhammad lived after this revolt, 
Musailama rather gained than lost ground, and grew very 
formidablfc, but Abu Baqr, his r.uccessoj, in the eleventh 
year of the Hijra, sent a great army against him, under 
the command uf that consummate general, Khalid Ibn 
al Walid, who engaLicd Musailama m a bloody battle, 
wherein the false propliet, happening to be slain by 
Wahshfl; the negro slave who had Idlled Hainza at Ohod, 
and by the i»ame lance,^ the Muslims gained an entire 
victory ten thousand of the apcstates being left dead on 
the spot, and the rest returning to xMuhammadism.^ 

Al Aswad, whose name was Aihala, was of the tribe ai ^swad 

111 ii •■' cA-i t'^*^ Second 

of Ans, and governed that and the otlier trices ot Arabs of "the 
descended from Madhhaj.* This man was likewise an 
apostate from Muhanjmadism, and set up for himself the 
veiy year that M-uhammad died.^ He was surnamed 
Dhii'l Haiiuir. or the laaster of the asses, because he used 
fretiuenily to say, " The master of the asses is coming unto 
me;"^' and pretended to receive his revelations from two 
onaeU named Suhaiq and Shuraiq.' Having a good 
hand at legerdemain and a smooth tongue, he gained 
mightily on the multilude by the strange feats which he 
showed them and the eloquence of his discourse;^ by 
these means he greatly increased his yjower, and having 

^ Ai liaidhawi, in Onriln, c. 5. * Al Suhaill, apud G&'^mer. ha 

'' Abtilfed., -ubi sui ' n^'fc. ad AbulL Vit. Moh., p. 15S, 

* Idem, ibid. ; Abulfar?y. p. 173 ; * Eliriac., p. o. 

Kliiiac, p. 16, &c. See Ockley s ' Abuiftda, ubi sup. 

Hist, of tlie ^aiacens, vol. i. p. 15, ^ h.\ Suhaili, ubi sup. 

ij.t. ' ^ Abulfeda, ubi sufi. 

272 THE PJ?ELJ!^IN4RY DTSCOURSB. [sec vjji. 

rnade himself master of Majidn and the territory of al 
Tayif,^ on the death of Eadhan, the governor oJ- Yaman for 
M.nhanunad, he seized that proiirice also, killing Shahr, 
the 801) of Badhan.. and takin.q to wife his Tvidow, whose 
father, the uncle of Firuz the Dailamite, he had also 
slain. ^ Thirf news being brought to Muhamrnad, he sent 
to his friends and to those of Hamdan, a puty of whom, 
conspiring wixih Qais ibn' Abd al Yaghuth, who bore al 
As wad a grudge, and with Firuz and al Aswad't. wife, 
broke by niglit into his honse, where Firdz surprised him 
and cut oif his head. While he was despatching he 
roared like a bnll; at which his guards came to the 
chamber door, but v^ere sent away by his wife, who told 
them the prophet wi^s only agitated by the divine inspira- 
tion. 'J'his was done the very niglit beCore Muhammad 
died. The next, morning the conspirators caused the foi- 
lowing proclamation to be made, viz., " I bear witness 
that Muhammad is the apostle of God, «ind that Aihaut 
is a liar;" and letters were immediately sent away to 
Muhammad, with in account of what had been done ; 
but a messenger from heaven outstripped them, and 
acquainted the prophet with the news, which he imparted 
to lus companions but a little before liis death, the 
letters themseive;? not arriving till Abu Baqr wa,s chosen 
Khalifah. It is baid that Muhammad, on this occasion, 
told those who attended him that before the day of judg- 
ment thirty more impostors, besides Musailaina and al 
Aswad. should apf)ear, and ev^^ry one of them set up for 
a prophet. The whole Mine, i/om the beginning oi' al 
Aswad's rebellion to his death, was about four muntlis.^ 

In the same eleventh year of the Eijra, but aftei the 
death of Muhammad, af> ^eems most ptobable, Tulaiha 
Tbn KhuwaiUd set up for a prophet^ and Sajaj Bint- al 
Miindai'^ for a prophetos::). 

' Abulfeda et Elmnclnus, ulii (>ijp. ^ Idem, iJ Jnnhaoi,, iil sup. 

3 T(terr:, ibut. 

♦ Tbn Si'olm.?h and Eiu^iiciuua ml] bar the daiisfh ht of u\ HinitR, 


Tulaiha was vf. the tribe of Asad, which adhered to 'riikiha Hud 
him. together witla great; iiumljeis of the tribes of Ghatfau *^^^' 
an.j Tay. Against them likewise wab K'halid sent, who 
engaged and put them to liigiit, obliging Tulaiha "with his 
shattered troops to retire into Syria, where he stayed till 
the dedth of Abu Baqr; then he went to Omar and 
embrat'ed Muhanimadisni in his presence, and having 
taken the oath of h'lelity to him, returned to his own 
country and people.' 

Sajaj. surnamed Omm Sadir, was of the tribe of Taicirn. 
and the wife of Abu Qahdaia, a .-soothsayer of Yamama. 
She was followed not only by those of her own tribe, but 
by several others. Thinkihg a prophet th6 most proper 
husband ior her, she went to Musailama, and married 
him , but after she had stayed witli him three days, she 
left hira and returned home.'^ What became of her after- 
wards I do not find. Ibn Shohnah has given us part of 
the conversation which passed at the interview between 
tliose t^vo pretenders lo inspiration, but the same is a 
little too immodest to be translated. 

Ill succeeding ages sevf^raJ impostor& from time to time 
started up. most of whom quickly came to nothing, hut 
some made a considerable figure, and propagated sects 
which continued long after their decease, 1 shall give 
a brief account of the most remarkable of them in order 
of time. 

Id the reign of al Mahdi th6 third Khafifah of the race Hakim ib 
of al Abbas, one HakiiJi ibn Basham,^ originally of Menl uudhis 
in Khurasan, who had been an under- sec-rfitary to Abu ^^^*^''"^^^' 
Muslini, the governor of that provicce, aod afterwards 
turned sotdjer, passed thence into Mawaralnahr, where he 
gave himself out for a prophet He )s generally named 
by the Arab writers al Mukanna, and sometimes hi Biirkai, 
that iS; "the veiled," because he used to cover his face with 

•* Elmacinus. p. (6 ; al Baiclhdwi. m Quran, c. 5. 
• Ibn SlK>hna.h. Vid? EluiHcinus, -p. 16. 
' (.ir Tbti Ate', according U> Ibn Sliohiiah. 


a veil or a -gilded mask, to conceal his deformity; having 
lost an eye in the wars, and being otherwise of a despicable 
appearance ; though his follo\Ters pretended he did it for 
the same reatjon as Moses did, viz., lest the splendour of 
his countenance should dazzle the eyes of th« beholders. 
He made a great many proselytes at Nakhshab and Kash, 
deluding the people with several juggling performances, 
which they swallowed for miracles, and particularly by 
causing the a])pearance of a moon to rise out of a well for 
many nights together ; whence he was also called, in the 
Persian tongue, Sazindali-mah, or the nioonmaker. This 
impious irnpostor, not content with being reputed a pro- 
phet, arrogated divine honours to himself, pre lending that 
the deity resided in his person ; and the doetiine whereon 
he built this was the same with that of the Ghulaites above 
mentioned, who affirmed a transmigration or successive 
manifestation of the divinit}-- through and in certain pro- 
phets and holy men, from Adam to these latter days (of 
vvhich opinion was also Abu Muslim himself ^) ; but the 
particular doctrine of al Mukauia was that tlie person in 
whom the deity had last resided was the aforesaid Abu 
Musliia, aiid that the same had, since his death, passed 
into hims.elf. The faction of al Mukanna, who had made 
himself master of several fortified places in the neiirhbour- 
nood of the cities above mentioned, growing daily more 
and more powerful, the Khalifah was at length obliged to 
send an army to reduce liirn at the approach whereof al 
Mukanna retired into one of his strongest fortresses, which 
he had well provided for a siege, and sent his emissaries 
abroad to persuade people that he raised the dead to life 
and knew future events. But being straitly besieged by 
the Khalffah's forces, when he found there was no possi- 
bility for him to escape, he gave poison in wine to his 
whole family, and all that were with him in the castle ; 

* 'I'hif? explaiu.s a doubt of Mr. atui corrected by Bespier. Vide 
Bayl« courfcrning a passage of El B&yle, JJic. Hist., art, Abuaiusiitnus, 
macjnus, os transiattd by Erpenius vers la fizi, et Rem. B. 


and wlieu they were dead he burnt their bodies, together 
with their clothes, and ail the provisions and cattle ; and 
then, io prevent his own body being found, he threw 
himself into the flames, or, as others say, into a tub of 
aquafortis, or some other preparation, which consumed 
every part of him, except only his hair, so that when the 
besiegers entered the place they found no creature in it, 
save one of al Mukanna's concubines, who, suspecting his 
design, liad hid herself) and discovered the whole matter. 
This contrivance, however, failed not to produce the effect 
which the impostor designed among the remaining part of 
his followers ; for he had promised thern that his soul 
should transmigrate into the form of a grey-headed man 
riding on a greyish beast, and that after so many years he 
w^ould return to them, and give them the earth for their 
possession: the expectation of which promise kept the 
sect in beini^ for several ases after under the name of 
M ubayyidites, or, as the Persians call them, Safaid jamah- 
ghian, i.e., the clothed in white, because they wore their 
garments of that colour, in opposition, as is supposed, to 
the Khalifahs of the family of Abbas, whose banners and 
habits were black. The historians place the death of al 
Miikanna in the i62d or 163d year of the Hijra.^ 

In the year of the Hijra 201, Babik, surnamed al Khur- aaWksind 
rami and Khurramdin, either because he w:as of a certain 
district near Ardaibil in Adhairbijan allied Khurram, or 
because he instituted a merry religion, which is the signi- 
fication of the word in Persian, began to take on him the 
title of a prophet I do not find w^hat doctrine he taught, 
but it is said he professed none of the religions then known 
in Asia, He gained a great number of devotees in Adhair- 
bijan and the Persian Iraq, and grew powerful enough to 
wage war with the Khalifah al jMamun, whose troops he 

^ They were a sect in the days of * Ex Abulfarag, Hist. Dyn., p. 

Abulfaragius, who lived about five 226 ; Lobb al Taw^rlkh Ibu Shoh- 

hundred years after this extraordi- nah, al Tabari, and Khondamir. 

nai-y event, and may for aught I Vide D'Herbel., Bibl. Orient., art. 

know, be so stilL Hakim Ben Hascbem. 


often be;ait, killing several of his generals, and one of tbein 
■with his own hand ; and by these victories he became so 
formidable that al Mutasjin, the successor of al Manuin, 
was ohiiged to employ the forces of the whole empire 
against him, The general sent to reduce Bdbik was 
Ai'shid, who havinQ overthrown him in battle, took his 
castles one after another with invincible patience, not- 
withstanding the rebels gave him gr^at annoyance, and 
at last shut up the impostor in his principal fortress, 
which being taken, Babik found means to escape thence 
in disgnise, with some of his family and principal fol- 
lowers ; but taking refuge in the territories of the Greeks. 
wa» betrayed in the following manner. Sahel, an Armenian 
officer, happening to know Bibik, enticed him, by offers 
of service and respect, into his power, and treated him 
as a mighty prince, till, when he sat down to eat, Sahel 
clapped himself down by him ; ai which Babik being 
sui^rised, asked him hovf he dvared to take that iibeity 
unasked ? " It is true, great king." replied Sahel, " ] have 
committed a fitult ; for who am 1. that I shduld sit at 
your ms^esty's table ^" And immediately sending for a 
smith, he made use of this bitter sarcasm, " Stietch forth 
your legs, great king, that this man may put fetters oa 
them/' After this Sahel ^ent him to Afshfd, though he 
had offered a large sum for his liberty, having first served 
him in his own kind by causing his mother, sister, and 
wife to be ravished before his face , for so Babik used to 
treat his prisoners Aishid havitie: the arch rebel in his 
power, conducted him to al Mutasim, by whose order he 
was put to an ignomiilious and cruel death. This man 
had maintained his ground against the power of the 
Khali'fahs for twenty years, and had cruelly put to death 
above two hundred and fifty thousand people, it being 
his custom never to spare man, woman, or child, either 
of the Muhammadans or their allies.^ The sectaries of 

* Ex Abulfarag, p. 152, &c. ; Eluiacinus, p. 141, itc, and Khuiidaniir. 
Vide D'Herbel., art. Btfbik. 

SEC. vul] the preliminary DISCOURSE. 277 

Babik which remaiued after his death seem to have been 
entirely dispersed, there being little or net mention made 
of then) by histerians. 

About the year 2^5, one Mahaiud Ibu Farav prefcended waha^'id 
to be Moses resuscitated, and played his part so well that 
several people believed on^ hiin, aad attended him when 
he was brought before the Khali fah al Mutawaqqih That 
prince, having been an ear- witness of his extravagant dis- 
courses, condemned him tJO receive ten buffets from every 
one of his followers, and then to be drubbed to deata; 
which was accordjngly executed : and his disciples were 
imprisoned till they came to their right minds.^ 

The Karmatians, a sect which bore an inveterate malic* The Karma 
against thu Muhammadans, began first to raise disturb- their 
ances in the year of the Hijra 278, and the latter end 
of the reign of al Mur.amid. Their origin is not well 
kTiown, out the common tradition is that a poor fellow, 
whom some esU K.armata, came from Khuzisian to the 
villages near Kiifa, and there feigned great sanctity and 
strictness of life, and that GoD had enjoined him to pray 
fifty times a day, pretending also to invite people to 
the obedience of a certain Imam of the family of Muham- 
mad ^ .and this way of life hvi continued till he had made 
a very great party out ot whom he chose twelve, as his 
apostles to govern the rest and to pi'opagate his doctrines. 
But the governor of the province, finding men /leglected 
their Work, and their husbandjy in particular^ to say those 
fifty prayers a day. seized Ihe fellow, and having put him 
iiito prison swore that he should die ; which being over- 
heard by a girl belonging to the governor, she,, pitying the 
man at night took the key of the dungeon irom under 
her master's head as he slept, and having let the prisoner 
out, returned the key to the place whence she had it 
The next morning the governor found the bird flown, and 
the accident beirjg publicly known, raised great admira- 

^ Iba Shobnah. Vide D'Herbel., p. 337. 


tion, his adherents giving it out that God had taken him 
into heaven. Afterwards he appeared in another pro- 
vince, and declared to a great number of people he had 
got about him that it was not in the power of any to do 
liira hurt ; notwithstanding which, his courage failing him, 
lie retired into Syria, and was Jioi heard of any more. 
Doctrmes His scct. howcver, continued and increased, pretendina: 
tices. that their master had manifested himself ta be a true 
prophet, and had left them a new law, wherein he had 
(jlianged the ceremonies and form of prayer used by the 
Muslims, and introduced a new kind of, and that 
he had also allowed them to drink wine, and dispensed 
with several things commanded in the Qunin. They also 
turned the precepts of that book into allegory, teachhig 
that prayer was the symbol of obedi^n^^e to their Inidm, 
and fasting that of silence, or concealing their dogmas 
from strangers: they also believed fornication to be the 
.sin of infidelity, and the guilt thereof to be incurred by 
those who revealed the mysteries of their religion or paid 
not a bliiid obedience to their chief. They are said to 
have produced a book wherein was written (among other 
things), "In the name of the most merciful God. Al 
Faraj Ibn Othman of the town of Nasrana saith that 
Christ appeared unto him in a human form and said, 
' Thou art the invitation : thou art the demonstration ; 
thou art the camel : ■ thou art the beast : thou art John 
the son of Zachaxias : thou art the Holy Ghost.'" ^ From 
the year above mentioned clip Karmatians, under several 
leaders, gave almost continual disturbance to the Xhah'- 
fahs and their Muhammadan subjects for several years, 
committing great disorders and outrages in Chald<^a, Arabia, 
Syria, and Mesopotamia, and at length establishing a con- 
siderable principajity, the power whereof was in its meri- 
dian in the reign of Abu Dhahir famous for his taking of 
Makkah, and the indignities by him offered to the temple 

* Apud Abulfarag, p. 27 5. 

SKC. vijl] the preliminary DISCOURSE. l-jf) 

there, but which decb'ned soon after his tirne aii'l came to 

To the Kannatiaris the Ismailians of Asia were very The ismaii 
near of kin,, it they Aveie not a branch of them. For these, 
who were also called al Mulihidah, or the lrai)iou3, and 
by the writers of the history of the holy wars, Assassins, 
agreed with the former in many respects ; such as their 
inveterate malice against those of other religions, and 
especially the Lluhamaiadans, their iinlimited obedience 
to their prince, at whose command they were ready for 
assassinations, or any other bloody and dangerous enter- 
prise, their pretended attachment to a certain Imam of the 
liouse of All, &c. These Ismailians in t}ie year 483 pos- 
sessed themselves of al Jabal, iji the Persian Iraq, under 
the conduct of Hasan Sahah, and that prince and his 
descendants enjoyed the same for a hundred and seventy- 
one years, till the whole race of them was destroyed by 
Holagu the Tartar.'^ 

The Batinites, which name is also given to the Ismail- 
ians by some authors, and likewise to the Karmatians/ 
were a sect which professed the same abominable prin- 
ciples, and were dispersed over several parts of the East.* 
The word signifies Esoterics, or people of inward or hidden 
light or knowledge. 

Auu'l Tayyab Ahmad, surnamed al Mutanabbi, of the Abu-iTay- 
ttibe of Joufa, is too famous on another account not to Jrdpheticai 
claim a place here. He was one of the most excellent '^''*^'^^" 
poets among the Arabians, there being none besides Abu 
Tarnam who can dispute tiie prize with him. His poetical, 
inspiration was so warm and exalted that he either 
mistook it, or thought lie could persuade others to believe 
it, to be prophetical, and therefore gave himself out to be 

•^ Ex Abnlfar., ibid. •, Eiinacin., p. ^ Vide Klmachi., pp. 1 74 and 286; 

174, &c. ; Ibu Shohnah, Klioiidamiv. D'Herbel, p, 194. 

Vide D'Herbel., art. Caririaih. " Vide Abulf ar. , pp. 361, 374, 380, 

- Abiilfar, p. 505, ivc. ; X>'H<?rbe]., 483. 

PP- 104, 437. 5«5. 620, and 7S4. 


a prophet indeed, uid thenc-e acquired his surname, by 
which he is generally known, ilia accuiDplishnients were 
too great not lo have some success; for several tribes 
of the A tabs Oa the deserts, particularly that of Qalab, 
acknowledged him to be what he pretendevi. J'.ut Liilu, 
governor in those parts for Akhfehid, king of F.'^ypt and 
Syria, gooo put a stop to the t'urther progress of this new 
sect by imprisomng tJieir prophet and obliging him to 
renounce his ehimericai dignity ; which having done, he 
regained his libfeii.y, aud applied himself soieiy to his 
poetry, by raeunc' \vjiereof he got very considerable 
riches, beini; in high esteem at the courts of geveral 
princes. ^1 M.utanabbi lost hi^ life, together with his 
son, on the bank of the Tigris, in defending the money 
which had been given him by Adad-ud-Daula sultan of 
Persia, against sornft Arabian robbers who demanJed it of 
him, with which money he was returaijig to Kufa, hip 
native city. Tliis accident happened in the year 334.^ 
Eiibaand The last pjretender to prophecy I ahall now uke notice 
of 18 one who appeared in the city of Amasia, in Natolia, 
in the year 638, and by his wonderful feats sed ced a 
great multitude of people there. He was by nation q 
Turkman, and called himself Baba, and had a disciple 
called Isaac, whom he sent about to invite those of his 
own nation to join him. Isaac accordingly, coming to the 
territory of Sumftisat, published his comnission, and pre- 
vailed on many to embrace his master's sect, especially 
among the Turkmans : so that at last he had six thousand 
horae at his heels, besides foot. With these Baba and hh* 
disciple made open war on all who would not cry out 
vvith them, "There is no God but Gud ; Baba is the- 
apostle of God," and they put great numbers of MuViam- 
madauh as well as Christians to the sword in those parts, 
till at length both Muhammadans and Christians, joining 
together, gave them battle, and having entirely routed 

Pnef . in Opera Motanabbis MS. Vide D'Herliel., p. 63S, &c. 


them put thorn all to ihe sword, ■except their two chiefs, 
who being taken alive, had their heads struck off by the 

I could mention several other impost.ors of the same 
"kirid Avhich have arisen among the Muhammadans since 
their .pro])het*s time, and very near enongh to complete 
the nnraber foretold by him , but I apprehend the reader 
is by this time tired as well as myself, and shall there- 
fore, here conclude this discourse, which may be thought 
already too loiiq for an introduction.* 

■*■ The. Wfllih4bis of Arabia arid India have figured too prominently 
in history aiid still, exercise too powerful an rtiflueuce upon Jibi^m to 
j ustify ihe omission of aii.y mention of them in a work like this ; 
accordiijplv we add Lli« following accoiuit of this sect, taken by per- 
nn'ssion frj)Di Hughes' Noixn on- Mahamvuidanism, second edition — 

'' Tbid sect was founded by Mnhamiuad, son of Abdul Wahhab, 
but as their opponents coulclnot call them ^vhummodnns, they have 
been distiuguialied by tlie name of tht fathex-.-of the founder of their 
sect, and are called Wahhdbis. 

" Sbfekh Muhammad was bom at Ayi'na, a village in the province 
ot Arad, in the country of Kajd, in the year a.d. 169 i. Having 
been carrifallj ins+ructed in the tenets of the Abislim religion 
accorrling to the teachings of the Hambali sect, he in due time left 
his natiye pJacej in company with bis fatber, to pertorrn tlie pil- 
grimage to Mecca. A t ^adina he wr..3 instructed by Shekh A hd uUah- 
ibo -Ibrahim of Najd^ «nd it is suppoted that vjbiist sitting at the 
feet oi'this cekbratt-d teache'!' the son of Abdul ^^'ahhab first rpaiised 
how far the rigid hues of IsUni had been stretched, almoet to break- 
ing, in the *^ndeuvour to adapt its stem principlos to U)e snpersti- 
tionib of idolatioiw Arabia. He accompanied his father to Harimala, 
and after bib father's death he. retnrne<l to his native vjHaore of 
Ayine., where he as&ujned the position of a reiigi-jus teacher. His 
tiiuching -met with a^cc^^/C'lancc. anvl he sooji acquired so great an 
influence over the people of those parts* that t)ie Giyvernor of Ii.ii>f<a 
i-ompel^ed him to leave the di.-uicl, and t.liy reformer found •■; frieivlly 
asylum in Derniab, under the protection of Muhammad -ibn-SaiiLd, a 
chief 01" corisiderabie inflnencfc, who made ihe protectior- of jbn- 
Abdal Wahliab a pretext for war with, the Shekh of Hr-ssa. Tbn 

' Abuharag, p. 479; Ibn Sbi>buab ; D'Hertiel., art. Baba. 

282 THE PRELlMfNAFY DISCOURSE. [5fx. viil. 

Saud mairied the daughter of Ibn-^Abdul-Wahljab, and established 
in his family the Wahhabi dynasty, which; after a chequered exist- 
evtca of more than a liundrcd years, stiJ.1 exists in the person of the 
Wahhabi chief at Ryadh.^ 

" The whole of E.i.>tern Ai-abia has embraced the reforaied doctrines. 
of the Wahbdbfs, and Mr, Palgrave, in his accmmt of his travels in 
those parts, has given an interesting sketch of the Wahhabi religion- 
ists, although he is not always correct as to the distinctive princijdes 
of their religious creed. 

•' In the great Wahhabi revival, political interests were united with 
religious reform, as was tliQ case in the gi'eat Puritan struggle in 
England, and the Wahh^bis soon pushed their conquests ijvor the 
whole of Arabia. In a.d. 1803 they conquered Mecca and Madina, 
and for many years threatened the subjugation of the whole Turkish 
Kmpire ; but in a.d. 181 i, Muhammad Ali, the celebrated Passha of 
Egypt, commenced a war against the Wahhabts, and soon recovered 
Mecca and Madina; and in 1S18 his son, Ibrahim Pasha, totally 
defeated Abdullah, the Wahhabi leader, and sent him a prisoner to 
Constantinople, where be was executed in the public square of St. 
J^soplda, December 19, i8i8. But although t)ie teniporal power of 
the Wahhdbis has been sabdued, they still continue secretly to pro- 
pagate their peculiar tenets, and in the present day there are numer- 
ous disciple? of th6 sect, not only in Arabia but in 'j'urkey and India. 
It is a movement which has influenced religious thought in every 
part of JtiUim." 

After givinc; a brief account of the Wahhibi movement in India, 
under the leadership of Sayyid Ahmad, who was slain in battle by 
the Sikh general Sher Sinj^h nt ijalakot in 1831, our author de- 
scribes the tenets of the Wahhabi faith as follows : — 

" I. They do not receive the decisions of the four orthodox sects, 
but .say that any man who can read and understand the Qur^ji and 
the sacred Hadtfi can judge for himself in matters of doctrine. 
They therefore reject /jma'^ after the death of the companions of 
the Prophet. 

'•' 2. Tliat no one but God can know the secrets of men, and that 
prayers should not be offered to any prophet, Wall. Pir, or Saint ; 
but that God may be asked to grant a petition for the sdke of a saint. 

' The following are the names of TurkI, assassinated 1830 ; Fayzu. 
the WahhfJbi chiefs from the eatab- died 1S66 ; Abdullah, still living, 
lishuient of the dynavity ; — Muhani- ^ By Jjma is meant "the iiuani- 
inad ■ itin - Sand, died A.D. 1765; mous conr-ent of the learnui doc- 
Abdul - Aziz, assassinated 1803; tors"--"tlife unanimoua constut of 
S.''Ajd-il.n-Abdiil A/.iz, died 1.S14 : the Fathers." 
AbdulJaL-ibii-Saud, oehoad«d 181 S ; 


" 3. That at the last clay Muhammad will obtain permission (izn) 
of God to intercede for his people. The Sunnis believe tliat per- 
mission has already been given. 

"4. That it is nnlawful to illuminate the shrinea of departed 
saints, or to prostrate before them, or to perambulate (<aic?<//) round 

" 5. Thai women should not be allowed to visit the graves of the 
(lead on a«3coant of their immoderate weeping. 

"6. Thai; only four festivals ought to be observed, namely, 'Id- 
ul-Fitr, 'Id-ul-Azh4, 'Ashiiraa, and Shab-i-Barat 

"7. They do not observe the ceremonies of Mnulud, which are 
celebrated on the anniversary of Muhammad's birth. 

" 8. They do not present offerings {nazr) at any shrine. 

"9. They connt the ninety-nine names of God on their fingers, 
and not on a rosaiy. 

*' 10. They understand the terms 'sitting of God' and 'hand of 
God,' which occur in the Qurdn, in their literal Qiaqiqi) sense, and 
not figuratively {majazi) ; but, at the same time, they say it is not 
3'evealed hov) God sits, or in what sense he has a hand, &c." 

From thi.s description it therefore appears that Waiihdbiism is 
Mu dim ProtL'stantism. It rejects everything contrary to the t'^ach- 
ing of the Quran and the Hadis, or inspired sayings of Muhammad. 
It asserts the risjht of private judgment in the inierpretaiion of 
Scripture. Yei huw different from Christian Protestantism! This 
delivers man irom the thraldom of a priestcraft born of the dark 
ages of Christianity, and sweeps away that accumulation of error 
which bad hidden for centuries the light of that Gospel which 
guides the world to wisdom founded on the fear of God, to civilisa- 
tion based on human freedom and >>rotherly love. But Wahh4biism, 
whilst reforndng the religion of IsUm, would sweep away the 
civilisation and learning which have been added to a narrow and 
imperfect faith, and carry the world back "to the dark age of the 
Arabian Prophet," and keep it there to the end of time. 

E. M. w. 





ReveoJed at Makkah. 


The cliapteis of the Qurdn are entitled Suras. Miiir, in his Life 
of Mahomet, Introduction, p. 7, says, " Weil has a learned note 
(Mohainuied, p. 361) on the meaning of the word Sura asu used by 
Mahonvet. It was proVjably at first eru ployed to designate any 
portion of his revelation, or a string of verses } but it soon afterwards, 
even during ]\Iahomet's lifetime, acquired its present technical' 

This chapter is held in the highest esteem among all Muslims, 
" who," says Sale, " give it several other honourable titles ; as the 
chapter of prayer, of praise.^ of thAXuksgivivg, of treasure, &o. They 
esteem it as the c'^uintessence of the whole Quran, and often repeat 
it in their devotions, both jiublic and private, as the Christians do 
the Lord's Prayer ■' 

The author of the Tafstr-i-Ravfi declares that "he who has read 
the Fdiihat has, as it were, read the. wdiole Quriin," According to 
this author, its separate clau&es contain the sum of the divine Httri- 
butea, ascriptions of praise, promises to believers, and threatenings of 
judgment against infidels, &c., as contained in the Qurdn, l\lus- 
lims always say Amen after this prayer. 

The; following transliteration will give the English reader an idea 
of the rhyming prose in which the Quran is written :— 

CHAP. I.j ( 288 ) [INTFOD. 

" Bistnilli-ti rahmaui rrahim 
Al-haunduiilUlii Rabbvlilumin 
Arcaiimarii'nahim ; 
Mdiiki yomi-d-dtn. 
fyaka Nabiidti waiytika nastdin. 
Ihdius's^irslt al xniistakiiTi ; 
Sirdt alazfna an ni^mtii niaihitn, 
Ghauj-'l-magbdhitLi alaihim walatlhillna." 

Muir regards this as the daily pi aye r of Mubaniraad dnring his 
search for light, previous to Ins app.tiuiptioii of the prophetic office. 
'* It was aiierwardis re-c&at to suit the requirements of public worship." 
- Life 0/ Makomet. vol. i, p. 59, 

Muslims are here nitt witli a difficulty as to the divine author- 
.sbip of their Scriptures, arising out of the form of address in this 
cliapter. The ortliotiox belief in regard to ihe origin of the Quran 
is that it was cnfM literally froiVi the divine original, which is 
engraved oij the Luh-i- Uijhffiz, or Prei-vervf d Table close by the throne 
of Goii. The speaker throughout is Gt>d. It is God's Word, But 
this chapter contains a prayer apparently suitAhle lor sinful men 
groping after divine light and heavcxly guidance. A.s the text 
•stands, the chapter clearly ciainis a human origin, and would expiess 
very well the desire of the Makkau reformer. Muslim comnieutaU'fC, 
however, avoid this ditticulty by eiplaiuins thi? chaptc^r as ati inspired 
model of prayer, revt;aied to instruoi the faithful hgw to pray, and 
they UTiderstand. it as introduced by the voTd "say." Ahdiil Qadir 
says, " God has enunciated this chapter iji the language bf his servants, 
in order that they wight thus address him." 

To us if seems in the mind of a Muhamrcadao, boasting of 
the absolute; perfection and purity ol the text of the Quran, and 
stickling for the very jots and tittles of the text, the omissioii of 
this word — a word without which the status of this whole chapter 
i» changeil -should arouse rerious objection to tuch a jnod-e of av^oid- 
iug a diliiciiUy. 

A«> to the priiyer itsr'elf, the Christian reader oanjiot but admiie 
»f,s spirit, ft js throughout earneat and devout, tnterpp^tinj^r ita 
Janguage in a ChristiaH uiaiiner, any one ruight respond to it 

Suppofiing thiy prayer to express the l"(;eliiig.s and aspirations oi 
the MakktiJi reformer at the tiine it was written, v»e could hardly 
regard hint «,«{». deliberate m)po.stor. ifad be continued bin search 
after truth in the spirit of this prayer, how ditterent would have 
been his religion froiu that which .he proclafnied in later years ! 

Concerning the formula, "In the «;ime of the most merciful God," 
8avary says, "U is prefixed to all the chapters (with the exception 

SIPARA f.j ( 28q ) [CHAP. T. 

of one). It is f'!y jecommended in ilie Quriin. Tlie Muhain- 
madaus pronounce it whenever they slaughter an animal, and at tJie 
conimencement of their reading, and of all important actions. Giaab, 
one of their ceiehrated authors, aays that wheii these words were 
sent down from heaven, the clouds fled on tlie side of the east, the 
winds were lulled, the !«ea was moved, the animals erected their ears 
to libten, and the devils wefe precipitated from the ce"iH>tial spheres." 

It is alrriost certain that Muhamma'd borrowed the idea of the 
Bismillah from the Jews and Sabains. The latter intidduced their 
writings with the words, " Bauain i yazdan bakbshaishgar dddar," 
i.^., In the ivime. 0/ God ih*( mercifut and the -pist. 

liodwell says, "This formula i^ of Jewish origin. It was in the 
first in6tau4:e taught to the Koreisch hy Oniayah ot Taief, the poet, 
who was a contemporary witJi, hut soiviewiiut older than, Muhijn 
mad. and who, during his mercantile journeys inU) Arabia Petrjiea 
and Syria, had made himself acquainted with the sacred books and 
doclriues wf Jews and Christians. Mahaminad adopted and cok 
Btantly used it.'' 

The two terms, ''llahman," the in^ciful. and *' I\ahini," the hle&sed^ 
have nearly the same meaiiing. The Tafsir-i-Raufi. explains the 
former as only applicabJe to God, while the latter may be applied 10 
the creature as well a& to God. Others explain the former epithet aa 
applicable to God as txercismg mercy towards his creatures, the 
latter as applicable to the mercy inherent in God. 


It (1) Praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures ; (2) sJSa. 
the most merciful, (3) the kitig of the day of judgment, n i. 

(4) Thee do we worship, aud of thee do we beg assistance. 

(5) Direct us in the riglit way, (6) in the way of tliose 

(1) Lcrd oj all crenxurea. "The original words are Rabbi'ialamin'a, 
which literally signify, Lord of the, worlda ; but niarTntna, in this 
and other places of the Quran, properly means thp tl ree species of 
rational creatun-.', men, genii, and angel.s." — Salt. Savary translates 
it, "Sover'ijgn of the woi-lds. Rod well has il, "Lord of worlds." 
Abdul Qadir of Delhi has it, " jjord of the whole world. " In the 
Teraian translation it is rendered "Cherisher of the Worlds." 

(6-7) *' This last sentence,' says Sale, "contains a petition that 
God wnnld leiui the supplicant into the true relij^ion, by which is 
tucant the Muhammadan, iu the Qurin often called ih'> rvjht way : 


CH.\P. I.j ( 290 ) [SIPARA I. 

to whora tliou basfe been gracious ; (7) not of lliose against 
whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go astiay. 

in this place more particularly defined to be the way of those, to whom 
God hath been g-racious, that is, of the prophets and faithful "vs'bo 
preceded Muhammad ; under which appellations are alao compre- 
hended the Jews and Christians, such as tliey were in the times of 
their primitive purity, before they had deviated from their rer<peetive 
institirtioiis ; not the Way of the ir/idem.'ievi^, w^iose signal calamities 
are mark.-^ of the just anger of Gtxi against them for their ohstinacy 
and disohcdience; nor of the Christians of this age, wlio have departed 
from the true doctrine of Jesus, and are bewildered In a labyrinth 
of error (JaUludd/n, Baidhdwi. &c.) Tliis is the common exposi- 
tion of the passage, thou;ih al Zamakhshari and some others, oy a 
ditterent ai'plication of the negatives, refer the whole U) the true 
believre, and rhen the sense will run thus : The ''jxiy of thoeC to 
whrm thiiu ha?t been graciouii, against whom t/njit art not irtctnuel. and 
who have not erred, which translation the original will very well 

These two vi"ws really coincide, inasmuch as the claim of Islam 
is that all true believers among Jews and Christians were Muslims. 

Abdul Qfidir eays that by thebe words we are to understaaJ four 
c1a.-s£b — the piophets, the righteous, the martyrs, and the -.^ood ; 
andhy ''thuse ajfain?t whom Cod i* incensed,' the Jewf> are indicated ; 
and if any otliei class be included, it is that of the Nazurencb. 

JNTROD.j ( 291 ) fCHAP. II. 



ReveoUed partly at Makkcuh and partly at Madina. 


*'The title of this clmpter was occasioned by the story of the red 
heiier " (in vera. 66-73) — Sale. 

*' In this Siira are collected the passages composed in the firtst two 
or three years of Mahomet's stay at Medina, TJie greater part 
relates to t!ie .lews, with biblical and rabbinical stories, notice of 
the change of the Kibla, &c. Tiie diseilTected citizens are also de> 
nouDced in it. There is likewise much matter ol a legislative 
character, prodnce'l during the iirst Medina stage, with additions 
and interpolations from the revelations of later stage.>." — Miiirs 
Lije of Mahomet, vol. iii , Appendix. 

The following i? a brief analysis of this chapter, based for the 
most part 011 Noeldeke's Qri-gine et Composition^i Surarwm. Qurani- 
carum ipsiusque Qurdni, showing Makkan and Madinii revelations, 
probable date of composition, and principal topics treated. 

Makkan Beoelations. 

These are found in 21-38, 164-172, and probably 254-257, 
285, and 2S6. They belong to the period of Muhamroitd's mission 
previou.« to the Hijra. 

M'ldina Revelations. 

These make up the bulk of the oha'Jfter, and are found in verses 
J-20, 30-153, 173-253, and 258-284. 

Ai> to the date of composition, verees 1-20, 39-153, 173-185. 203- 
253, and Z58--284, belong to the interval between thti Hijra and 
the early part of a..h. 2. Verses 154-163 were levealed soou after 
the battle of B&dr, a.e. 2. Verses 186, 187, belong to a.h. 3, and 

CHAP. ll.J 

( 292 ) 


verses 188-202 must be referred to a period shorHy before tlin 
pilgrimage lo Makkab in a.h. 7. 







I I6-I4I 



Analysis of the Chapter as to iU TeacHnfi. 

Unbelievers and hypocrites reproved . . . verses I-20 
Exhortation to the worship of the true God . . „ 21-38 
Jews and Christians urged to accept tlie claim of 

Muhatnmad to be a prophet of God . . . „ 39-'02 
The opposition, of Jewf> and Christians to M^uham 

raad's prophetic pretejisioiis combated 
The doctrine of abrogatibn enunciated 
A Qibla declared to be niinecessary ... 
The Jews denounced and the religion of AbraliRm 

declared to be the true Isliim .... 
The Jews finally abandoned and the Arabs accepted 

by the adoption of Makkah as the Qibla of Islam 
The bereaved friends of those slain at Badr roniforted 
Makkans exhorted U) faith in God, and directed to 

obsei;v« the law respecting forbidden meats 
Law coneerning lawful aud unlawful food (delivered 

at Madiua) 

The sum of Mui^liuj duty .... 

The law of retaljation 

The law concerning bequests .... 

The law concernmjr fasting .... 

The of fiainadhaii . . . . 

Th,e pilgdm ige to Makkah and war foi the faiih 

Hypocrites and true bolievera contrasted 

£xboit.iitioji to a hearty acceptance of fsl^iii . 

The doon\ of iiitideU pronounced 

Tho Jews reproached ..... 

Suffering to be patiently endured . 

Sundry law.s relating to almsgiving, war, wine, lots, 

orphans, marriage, women, oaths, and divorce . „ 214-^42 
The duty of warring in defence of religion enjoined 

by precept, and illustrated by tho history of 

former prophets ..... 

The Throne Ve:''se 

The doctrine of the resucroction illustrated 
Exhortation una encouragement to almsgiving 
Usury forbidden • . .... 

Tlifi law concerning contracts and debts . 
Tile prophet'^ confession and praver 







1 88-202 


207, 2o3 





285, 286 

SIPARA I.] ( 2v93 ) fCHAP. II. 


(i (1) A. L. M. (2) 'Jlierc is no doubi in this book; it Iv T- 
is a diroction to the pious^ (3) wlio believe in the mysteries 
of faith, who observe the appointed times of prayer, and 
distribute ahns out of what we have bestowed on them, 
(4) and who believe in that revelation, which hath been 
sent down unto thee and that wliicii hath been sent down 

(1) A. L. M. There are nventy-uino chaptertj which begin with 
certain letters, and hese the Mutiammadans believe t(. conceal pro- 
found mysteries thjit have not Leon coiuiMunicated t<j any but the 
prophet ; notwitlistanding which, various explanations' of them have 
been proffered (see frelim. Disc, sec. ili.) Sale ears, "None of the 
nuuierouo conjectures as to the meaning of tliese letters is more 
l)lau8ible than that of Golius, who suggests the id-ea that they were 
originall/ inserted by the amanuensis, and that they stood t)r the 
phrase Ahmt li Mnhimmad, i.e., by the command of Muhammad." 

(2) There is no doubi in this book. Tlie author of tiie notes in 
the Roman Urdii Quran well ob«-erves, that Muhammad has cast 
doubt upon his Quran by the constant etiort to show that there is 
no room for doubt. For where there is no cousciousness of guilt, 
there is no anticipation of a crimina! charge. The contrast between 
tile Quran and the Christian Scriptures in this respect is very 

The Tafdr-i- Rauji explains that when the infidels charged Mu- 
hammad with being a juggler, a pott, and a collector <>f stories, many 
were in doubt about the tmth of the Quran. A<ioordingly some said 
Qne thing, some auothei- ; wherefoie God settled the minds of the 
faithful by the declaration of this vertic. The tame writer regards 
these words as an answer to the pxayei of the previou? chapter, 

{'S) Mysteries of faith. " The Arabic word ia Ghaib, which proi)erly 
signifies a thing that i.3 absant, at a great distance, or invisible, such 
a.s the resurrection, i)aradiso «,nd hell. And this is agreeable to the 
language of Scripture, whif.h defines faith to be the evidence of things 
not seen (Hob. xi i ; 2 Cor. iv. i8, and v. 7)." — Sale Kodwell trans- 
lates it ^^ unseen.'^ 

Are not Muslims chargeable with diisobedience to this precept of 
the Quran when they refuse to believf." tlie mysteries of the former 
Scriptures, the Trinity in unity, the Sonsiup of Christ, &c. ? 

Appointed cvrnes of prayer. See Frelim. Discourse, sec. iv, p. 169. 

(4) That u)hich luith been aent dmim before thee. "The Muiu*mma- 
dans believe that Go<l gave written revelations not only to Moses, 
Jesus, and Muhammad, but to several prophets, though they'acknow- 
ledge none of those which preceded the Qur^n to be fiow extant 
except the Pentateuch of Moses, the Psahus of David, ^nd the Go.spel 
of Jesus, which yet they say were, even before Muhammad's time, 


CHAP, n] ( 294. ) [SIPARA I. 

ufito the prophets before thee, fliid have firm assurance ot 
the life to come : (5) these are directed hy their Lord, and 
they shall prOvSper. (6) As for the unbelievers, it will be 
equal to them whether thou admonish them, or do not ad- 
monish them ; they will not believe. (7j G-od hath sealed 
up their hearts and their hearing ; a dimness covereth their 
sight, and they shall suilfer a grievous punishment. 
2' II (8) There are some who say, We believe in God, and 

the last day; but are not reaJly believers: (9) they seek 

altered and corrupted by the Jews and Christians, and tlierefore will 
uot allow our present copies to be genuine " — SaU- 

iSmt down. lor tlie Muslim belief as to the manner in win^h God 
revealed the Scriptures, ?^ee Prelirn. Discour&e, see. iii. p. io8. 

Fi/rnt. assurance of the life io eortie. "The original word, al akJdrat, 

f)roperly signifies the loiter }mt of any thin <^, and by way of excel- 
ence the next life, the latitr or future state after doath ; and is opposed 
to alduuya, this world, and al oiJax, tha former or present life." — Sale. 
Kodwell translates, " And full faith have they in the life to come.'' 

The assuraiice predicate* I of the true believers is in regard to the 
fact of a judgnient-day aud a future state, not of theii certain par- 
ticipation in the joycs of heaven. Muhnmniadans regard anything 
like assuraneo of faith, m a Chrisrii^n sense, as gross presumption, 
and as tending to ain by breaking down the barriers against its com- 
miasion. Nevertheless, the plain teaching of the Qur^n and of the 
traditions — see Miahoi't-'ul-MostSblh, chap. i. — clearly assures ^nrt^ 
salvation to all Muslim.^. Why any Musliui should express a. doubt, 
or rather hesitjite to confess his usiju ranee as to aalvation, may be 
accounted for partly by his unwilliiigtieas to anticipate the divine 
decree, partly because of the teach in:^s of the theologians respecting 
purj^ftory, and lastly, because of the protest of the conbcience against 
apian of salvation without aloneni«»nf. 

(6) They will not helUve. The Tafsir-i- ftaiffi ra.iaes the inquiry why 
God sent prophets to inftdeis whom he knew would not believe, 
and in reply siays they •were sent (r) to pronounce condenmation 
against them, ard (2) to deprive them of the possible excuse that no 
prophet had been gent to them. 

(7) Tl^e doctrine of this verse is tliat infidels " who will not be- 
lievo " have been condemned t3 judicial blindness, which portends 
th« more awful punishment of hell. Sale says ; "Muhamitiad here 
and elsewhere imitates the truly inspired writers in making God, 
by operation oti the minds ot reprobates, prevent their convi>r.-jion.'' 

(8-10) The persons referred to here were probably hypucriticai 
disciples from among the Jews. Abdul Qadir says the reference is 
to Ibn Abi and his Iriendd, who, when reproached by the prophet 
for his hypocrisy, declared themselves to be true followers of IsW.m. 
Muslim commentators, however, never want for historical characters 
wherewith to illustiate the Qur4n. 

5IPARA I.] ( 295 ) [CHAP. II. 

to deceive Goo, and those who do believe, but they 
deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. 
(10) There is an infirmity in their hearts, and God 
hath increased that infirmity ; and they shall suffer a 
most painful punishment, because they have disbelieved. 
(Ij) When one saith unto them, Act not corruptly in 
the earth ; thev reply, Yerily we are men of integrity. 
(12) Are not they themselves corrupt doers ? but they 
are not sensible thereof. (13) And when one saith unto 
tliem, Believe ye as others believe ; they answer, Shall we 
believe as fools believe ? Are not they themselves fools ? 
but they know it not. (14) When they meet those who 
believe, they say^ We do believe: but when they retire 
privately to their devils, they say, We really hold with 
you, and ojily mock at those p^oj'ile : (15) God shall mock 
at them, and continue them in their impiety ; they shall 
wander in confusion. (16) These are t^fi men who have 
purchased error at the price of true direction : but their 
traffic hath not been gainful, neither have they been rightly 
directed. (17) They are like unto one who kindleth a 

(11 j Act not corruptly. "Some expositors understand by this the 
sowing ot false doctrine, and corrupting people's principles." — Sale. 

(13) BeLiivi ye as others btlieve, i.e., aa the first folio v/ei*s of Isldm 

(14) Devils Tlieir leaders and friends, so Taf&ir-i-Raufi. 

(15) fihall wander in cortfusiov. For the manner see next veisc. 

(16) llieir trajlc hath not been gainf\d, die. According to the 
Tafsir-i Ii.f/uji,.the re war"! of their hypocrisy is that they are infidels, 
whilst regaf<ling tbemselves as ot the faithful ; hereticB, whilKt 
thinking tbeniaelvea eoniid in doctrine ; ignorant, whilst thinking 
themeelves learnod ; doomed to deisiriiction, whilst fancyiu;; them- 
selves in the way oi' salvation, (Jompare this witli tbe teaching of 
Paul in 2 Thesfj. ii. j i, 12. Was there ever .a more t^triking example 
of thin very kind of reprobation than the Arabian prophet himself? 
The earnest reformer of Maklvah he«oni as the cruel and sensual de- 
ceiver, and yet the apparently self-deceived politician of Madlna. 

(17) .Like unto one who Idndlctk a firt, etc. The author of tbe 
notes in the Koman Urdu Qardn, referring to the claim that the 
Qnran is in every respect absolutely perfect, and therefore in itself 
a standing miracle, culls attention to the want of agreement in the 
number of tlie firet and last parts of this verse. The first half of ihe 
sentence, and consequently the parable also, is incomplete. Sale 

Chap, ir.] ( 296 ) Fstpara i. 

five, and when it hath enlightened all around liini, God 
laketh away their light und leaveth them in darkness, they 
shall not see , (18) itu^y are deai, dumb, and blind, therefore 
\riU they not repent. (19) Or like a stoiriiy cloud from 
heavon, fraught with darkness, thunder, and lightning, they 
put their fingers in their ears hecause of the noise of the 
thunder, foi fear of death ] God encompasseth the infidels : 
(20) the lightning wanteth but little of taking away their 
siglit ; 30 often as it anlighteneth theiii, th'^y walk therein, 

suggests the number may have K-en. thus changed in affectation of 
the prophetic t^tylt, and that the sense " may be completed' by adding 
the words, he tum^ from it, shuts his eyes, or the like." "Mubammau 
coMinares thoi-e who beiioved not in him to a man- who wanta to 
kinitle a tiie. but as soou as it burns up and ihe flames yive a light, 
sliuta hi$ cy^6, lest lie aliould see. As if he bud said, You, Arabians, 
have loiig desired a prophet of your own nation, and now I am sent 
untx^ you, and liave plainly proved my mission by the excellence 
ot my doi;trine and revelation, you resist couvietion, and refuse to 
believe in me ; therefore shall God leave you in your ignoraxice." — 

(19, 20) Or like a stormy cloud fron heaven^ <tc. " Here Muhammad 
compares the unbelii'-ving Arabs to people caught in a violent storm. 
To perceive the beauty of this (-omparison, it musi be observed tbat 
the Mubammadar doctors say this tempest is a type or image of the 
Qurin itself : the: thunder signifying the threats therein contained ; 
the lightning, the promises ; and the darkness, the mysteries. The 
tenor of the tlireats makes them stop their eai-s, unwilling to lu?ar 
truths 80 disaffieeajjle j wlien the promises arc read 10 them ihey 
attend with pleasure ; but when anvthing mystetioue or ditlicult 
of belief occurs, they «ir«nd stock-etiU, and will not submit to be 
directed."---*Va/£, Jahiluddin. 

Abdul Q4dir obfterves that up to this point three clusst-.s have bt!en 
described — true believers, inftdol*, and hypocrites. Tbi« latter class 
is referceU to in thif> parable. They fear the diftlculties of Ihcir pro- 
i'essiop as a traveller fears the thunder in a dark ni»ht. As u 
traveller guided by the /ightning moves on, but finding himself 
enveloped in darkness again stops stock-still, so the hypoc j ite bojuPs 
times professes his faith, at otlier times denies it, according on hiii 
' circumstances are those of peace or danger. 

The Tajsfri-Rauji explams the jftorm a& symbolic of the dangers 
incurred in fighting against the infidels. The hypocritejj thrpugh 
fear hid themselves, desiring to escape the tiangor ; but as sc>on as 
they saw the glitter of the booty, they made, jjr.'ut profeusions of 
loyalty to Islam. "In ehort, while they had the hope of scciuring *; 
share in the booty, they professed themselves friendly and were lui- 
some jn praises ; but when they were confrotited by the fear and toil 
(of tlu; bjtttle), they became inimical fanlt-hnder.s." 

51PA.RA i.j ( 2(^7 ) l^ciJ/r. ir 

but when darkness coiiietb on them, they stand still : 
and if God so pjeased he would (3ertainly deprive them 
of tlieir henrin^r and their sio:ht. for God is miirhty. 

II (21) men of Makkah, seivn your Lord who hath It s 
created you, and thos« who have been before y.ra: 
perad venture ye will fear him; (22) who hath spread 
the earth as a bed for you, and the heaven ius a r.over- 
ing, aud hath caused water to descend from lieaven, 
and thereby produced, fruits for your sustenance. Set 
not up therefore any Equals unto God, against your 
o^vlJ knowledge. (23) If ye be in dl)ubt concertiing that 
revelation which. we have sent down unto our servant, pro- 

(21) Omen of Maklcah. The passage beginning wiUi thia vers*? and 
endiiig, wiib. verge S8 belongs to t];e Makkan period of Muho,iMmaU*8 
mi Vision. 

(22) Set "not up tJierefore any eiji^.tals Unto God, (!:c. Tbis .is the 
rational GoiKlusiou fiom the considerations before mentioned. It 
rrvhtais to us tbe grar.d laotive-poYcr within Iht bobom of Makkan 
reformer. He has listened to the testiniony of conscience to a 
Supreme Beitig, tlie Creator, Preserver, and Benefactor. .He here 
appeals to his countrymen to come to thig aame sonrce of light, and 
Id abaiidon idolatry, which contnidicts their own reaaon. Thu pas- 
gage ho.s Homethmg of the sublimity of siiuilar passages in the Old 

(2;i) If yt be in doubt . , . produce a chapter like unto if. 1 ri cliap. 
xvii. yer. 90, this challenge is prest^nted iri the following boaisiiiil 
declaration: '* Verily i(' men and genii were, purposely assembled 
that they luight produce a book like this Quran, they cpuld not pro- 
duce one like unto it, although the one. of them aasistW the (jthei." 
Will thoFe %ho would exonerate Miihammad from the charge of 
being an impostor explain how an honesi man eould put these words 
into the mouth of God 1 If Muhammad be the author of the Qurdn 
— and all apologists regaM him as such — he munt have knoivn that 
even the most excellent hunaatn compot;ition had no claim to be called 
inspired , yea, further, it is inconceivable that he should haVe beem 
so self-deeeivcd as to fancy that when he put these words into the 
mouth of God, he vas speaking the -words of G(A, and n(>t those 
.of his own inventjon. Which is greatcn-, the credulity which can 
behove an honest man, of high interiigenoe and poetic genius, capable 
of such SAilf-deceptioTi as this, or that which beitevee a w-i':'ked man 
and a deliberate impostor capable of feigning sincerity and honest 
piety ■? it be observed this riaim "wj^s ever set up at Mldhift. It. 
Was there that the question of being an honest reiormer 01 a prophet 
of Arabia was decided. 

" If any one has a mind to tyst this boastful claim, let him read 


CHAP. Jl] ( 298 ) [SIPARA I. 

duce a chapter like unto it, and call upon your witnesses 
besides GoD, if yc say truth. (24.) But if y(; do it not, nov 
shall ever he ahU to do it ; justly fear the fire whose fuel is 
Tuen and stones, prepared for the unbelievers. (25) But 
bear good tidings unto those who believe, and do good 
works, that they shall have gardens watered by rivers; so 
of leu as they eat of the fruit thereof for sustenance, they 
skcdl say, This is what we hav(^ formerly eaten of ; find they 
shall be supplied with several &orts oj fruit havinf» a mutual 
resemblsnee to one another. There shall tljey enjoy wives 
subject to no impurity, and there shall they continue for 

the 40th chapter of Isaiah, the 145th Pf'&ljn, the 38th erf Job, arid a 
liuiidred och-er passages in the Chiihtiari Scriptures, which are in 
etylo and diction superior to th(^ Qur4u. It may be said that the 
beauty of the oiifsriiial cannot be rendered m a tr mi relation. Very 
woU ; thib ia equally true or the IransVations of the Christian Scrip- 
tures. Besides thc«e there are hiiii.hcdfi of b(^ks which, in poirii of 
matter, arrangement, and inBtrutiticn, are auperioT to the Qurdn." 
Thus wiites the author of the notes on the RoiUiin Urdii QurArt 
The 3an)e auth^or gives the namOH and titles of a number of Arabic 
authors and bfx)ks, which deny the claim of Muhammad and M'a- 
hammadana respecting the divine perfection of the Qitr^.n, among 
whom are the foiuider of the sect of the Muzddryans, Lsa-bin-Sdbih, 
al Muzd4r, and others. Gibbon describes the Quriin as an'^'incolie- 
rent rhapsody of fable, and precept, and declamation, which some 
times crawls in the dust, and bometimea is loht in ih a clouds." — 
Decline a/tid Fall of Rcmian Em/pire, vol i. p. 36$, Miimun's edition. 
See also Prelirru Discouree, 86ct. iii. p. 103. 

Your tiyitneanei' besides God. Your false gods and idols-— ^said in 

(24) Whose fuel is men and siomes. Men and idols. The Tayjsfr-i- 
Rau^ gives the opinion of Ronic comiaentators that clouds, apparently 
Udi'n with refjeshing sliowers, v/ill potir down torrents of stcn(;H, 
which will greatly increase the heat, nnd torments of hell ! 

(25) This i& what we bats/ormtrly eaten of. "Some comment-iitori? 
(Jalalain) approve of thi< sense, snppoijing the fruits of ]>aradi8e, 
though of various tastes, are alike in colour and outward ajjpea ranee ; 
but others (Zaniaklishari) think the meaning to be, that the inhabi- 
tarite of that place Avill find there fruits of the same 01 the like kinds 
as they used to eat while on earth.' — 3aJe. 

There (hey shall e^ijoy wives mhject io no impurity. "It is very 
remarkable that the notices in the Coran of this voluptuous paradise 
are atviost encirdif confined to a time when, whatever the tenaency of 
his desires, Mahomet was living chaste and temperate with a single 
wife of threescore years of age. 

■'It is LoLeworthy that in thto Medina Suras, that is, in all the 

SIPARAI.j ( 299 ) [chap. IT. 

ever. (26) Moreover, God will not he ashamed to pro- 
pound in a parable a gnat, or even a more despicable thing : 
for they w!io believe will know it to be the truth from 
their LoRD ; but the unbelievers will sny, What raeaneth 
God by this parable? he will thereby mislead many, and 
will direct many thereby: but he will not mislead any 
thereby, except the transgressors, (27) who make void the 
covenant of God after the establishing thereof, and cut in 
sunde)' that which God hath connnanded to be joined, and 
act corru])tly m the eartn. : they shall perish. (28) How is 
it ihai ye believe not in God ? Since ye were dead, and he 
gave you lite; lie will hereafter cause you to die, and will 
again restore you to life, then shall ye return unto him, 
(29) It is he who hath created for you whatsoever is on 
earth, and then set his mind to th^ cTeatioii of he-a.ven, 

voluminous revelationis of the ien yoars followixig the Hegirii, women 
are only twice refeiTed to as eouslitutiiig cnn oi tb<; deliglits of para- 
dise, and on both occasions in these simple words : And to them 
{hQliey^TH') Uiere shall he tht^reifi pwc mves. Was it that the soul of 
Mahomet had at that period no lonjriTiga after what lie had then to 
satiety the enjoyment of] Or that a closer runUict with .[ewish 
principles and morality repressed the budding pruriency of tlie reve- 
lation, and covered with meritecl confusion ti»e picture of hits sensual 
paradise which had been drawn at Mecca?"— -^Mir'a Life of Mahoimt, 
vol. ii. p. 143. 

The pai'adide of Isldm is the garden of Eden inhabited, by men and 
women with canial appetites oi" infinite capacity, and wiih abiUt\ 
rnd opportunity to indulge them to the full. We strain onr eyes in 
vain tg catch a glimpse of a spiritual heai'en anywhere in the Quran. 

(26) God will not be ashamed tc propound in a parable a gnmi. 
'*Oo<.l ia no more aBhamed to propound a gnat as a parable thaii to 
use a more dignified illustration. — Savary. This was rc-vealed to 
refute the objection of infidels, that the employment of such parables 
Ava.s beneath the dignity of God. — Abdul Qadir^ Yahya, d-c. 

The tranmji-es&ors. Infidels and hypotitites. The Tafdr-i-Ravfi 
says the transgressors are distinguished by three characteristics : 
covenant-breaking, dissolving all connection with one's relatives, 
and t^uarrels omen ess. This is, of cours^e, a mere paraphrase of the 
next verse. 

(28) Ye were dead^ d-e. Sale, on the authority of Jalaluddin; 
pargpLrasea thus : " Yt wert dead whilt in the loins of your lathers, 
and he gave you life in your mothers' wombs ; and after death ye 
.^iuili again be raised at the re^unection." 

(29} ,S&ven heavens. See the same expresoion in chapters xli. n, 

CHAP. H.j ( 300 ) [SIPARA I. 

aud formed it into iseven heavens ; he knoweth all 
t 4' II (00) Wiien thy Loud said anto the angels, I am going 

to place a Hubstitute on earth; they said, Wilt thou place 
there one who "svill do evil therein, aoid shed blood ? but 
we t'elebrate thy praise, and sanctify thee. God answered, 
Verily I know ihat which ye know not: (31) aud he 
taught Adam the Jianms of all things, and then ]>roposed 
them to the angels, and Baid, Declare unto me tlie names 
of tlie&e things if ye say truth. (32) They answered, I'raise 
be unto thee; we have no knowledge but what thou 
teachest us, for thou art knowing .and wise. (33) GOD 

ItV. 12, ixvii. '3, and Ixii. 14. It is probably borrowed from the 

(30) A mhstitute on earth. Literally, a Jdialifahy vicegerent. 

" Concerniu^ the creation' of Adam, here intimated, the Muham- 
madans have several peculiar traditions. They say the uilgQls Gab- 
riel, Michael, aud Isralil were sent by God, one alter another, to fetch, 
for that purpose seven handfuls of earth from different depths and 
of iliffeient colours ( whence some account for the various coniplexion;s 
of mankind) ; bnt the earth being apprehensive of the consequence, 
aud de!>inng them to represent her fear^to God that the creature he 
desigmid to form would rebel agaiust him and diaw down his curse 
upon her, they returned without performing God's command ; where- 
upon he »eat Azrail on the saniu errand, who executed his commis- 
fcion without remorse ; for which reason God appointed that angel to 
separate the souls from the bodies, being thereiote called theanydof 
death. The earth he had taken wac carried into Arabia, to a place 
between Makkah and Tayif, where being first kneaded by the angels, 
it was afterwards fashioned by God himself into a hunian form, aud 
left to dry (Qur4n, chap. Iv. v. 13) for the space of forty days, or, a& 
Others say, aH m^y years, the angel&in the meantime often visiting it, 
aud Iblis (then one of the angels who are nearest to God's presence, 
afterwards the devil) ahioug tiie rest ; but he, not contented with 
looking on it, kicked it with his foot tillit rung, aud knowing God 
designed that creature to be his superior, took a secret resohition 
never to acknowledge him at such. After this God animated the 
figure of clay, and endue<l it with an ijitelligent soul, and when he 
had placed him in paradise formed Eve out of his left side (Jalilud- 
din, &c.)" — iSale. 

They ^aioL, Wilt ihou place there onf, tic. This knowledge on the 
part of the angels, bays the Tafsiri-Eutufiy wns either derived'from a 
divine revelation to that'eifect, or from a perusal of the writings on 
fhe pre6€rve<l tabjcs. 

(;i2, 3;i) (jod aaid^ Adu-.a, tell them names. "This story 
Muaammad boiToWcd Lorn the Jewish iraditions, wnich say tl\at the 

SlTARA l] ( 3«I ) [chap. U. 

said, Adciui, tell them their names. And wheu he had 
told them their name^, Gop said. Did J not tell you th^t 
I know the secretf? of heaven and earth,, and know that 
which ye discover, and tliat which ye conceal ? (34) And 
when we said unlo the angels, Worship Adarn ; they ail 
worshipped Aim, except Iblis, who refused, and was pulled 
up with pride, and became of the nwrnoe/r of trnbelievers. 

arigela haviujj spoken of luaji With some conterapt when God oon- 
pulted thern about his creation, God luiujo answf^r that the man was 
wiser tliaii they ; and to convince them of it lie brought all kinds of 
animjd* to them, and asked them their names.; which they not being 
able to tell, he put the same question to the men, who uflraed them 
one after another : and being asked his own name ami God'.s name, 
he answered veiy justly, and ga^^e God tliO i.ami". of Jehc.vak."' — 

(34) Wlien w^ snid unto the angeh, H^orshijo Addm. Sale says tJie 
auf»els' adorlnj^ Adam, ia mentioned in the Talmud. "The original 
word signifies profferly to prwftrate oveielf till the forehead touches 
the ground, wliii.h is uic humblest postiu'e of adoration, and tsfiictly 
due to God only ; but it is sometimes, as in thia j)lace, used to ex- 
press the civil woTSiJip or homage which may he paid to creatures. 

Except IUi$. The story of IbHts .-ind the angels probably owes its 
origin to.lewish tradition. The name Wls^ivom halas, a wicked 
pcPson. may have been derived by translation from the o vov-ripii oi 
the N<iW Testament, Matt, xiil 19, 38; \ John ii 13, 14. The 
Tafsh-'i-Ravfi Kiys the name of .Iblts before this di.sobedicuce was 
AzaiiU, and ihai; IhiB name was given to indicate hig now hopeless 
condition. Muhammad probably atlopted the name most familiar to 
his countrymen whilst relating a stoty derived from Jewi h souroef*. 
Mu.-ilim comuieutatois, bdieving the angels to be impeccable, and 
denying tliat they propagate their species, :irgue that Iblis is of the 
genii, and the <njr^n, chap, xviii. 4.8, aeems to prove tha< Muharumiid 
regarded him as the father of the genii. 

The whole doctrine of the Qurdu ooncertiing Iblis and the genii, or 
Satansof the Quran, hasbec-n borrowed, lor the most part from fJhe Magi 
of Persia, and the attempt to identify them in theQuntn with the Satau 
and evil spirits of the Bible is so uusncoessfui a~s to form a plain indi- 
cation of the fojger'a hand. A companion of the two l^ooks on this 
subject will reveal more than om^ instance wherein the Quran, not- 
withstanding it^ boust that )l preserves and confirmt^ the teaching of 
the former Sfiiiptures, tails to attest the te.vhing of the Bible. 

Because of ike nwmbcr of 'wnhelievers. Sale says, " The occasion of 
tlie devil's fall has some aflinity with an opinion vv'hicti has beert 
pretty much entertained among Christians (Irenesus, Lact., Greg. 
Myssen, (Slc), viz., that the angels being informed of God's intention 
to oreaie man after his own image, and to dignify hiuuat\ nature by 

CHAP. H.] ( 302 ) [SIPARA I. 

(35) And we said, Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in 
the garden, and eat of thereof pleiitifully wher- 
ever ye will ; but approach not tViis tree, lest ye become of 
the nuinber of the transgressors. But Satan caused them 
to forfeit j?rt'rarf2$t;, and turned thom out of the state of hap- 
p%ness wherein they had been; whereupon we said, Get ye 

Chris^t's asfeurning it, some of them, thinking their glory to be eclipst d 
thereby, euvifcd man's happiness, and so revolted.'' 

(35) I)u-ell thou find thy wij> vn the gardtn. Muhaniinadars believe 
the ivsideuce of Adaia and Evft before the Pall to have been paradise 
or heaven, the place to which all good ^Muslims go. 

This tree. '* Concemin<^ this tree, or the forbidden, fruit, the Mu- 
liarnmadan^. ag well as llie Chrisiians, have various opinions. Scane 
say it waa au ear of wheet ; some wiJl iiave it to have been a-Ag-ti-ee, 
and otJiei-s a vine. The story of the Pall is lold; with some further 
druumblances, in the beginning of the seveiith chapter. '''—i6V/«. 

But Satit-n. JFtodwell calla attention to the change from Ibha, the, 
calumniator, to SAinn^ the hafe.r ''They have a tradition that the 
devil, offering to j^et into paradise to teinpt Adam, was not admitted 
by the KLiard j whereupon he begged of the animals, one after au- 
otlier, to carry )iim in, that he might speak to Adam and hif? wife ; 
but th(jy all refused hmi, excej>t the .^erpetii,. wiio took him between 
two of his toetli, and so iiiti-oduCed him. They add that the serptnL 
was then of a beautiful form, and not in the Bliape he nov/ bears — 

We said, Get ye dovm. '* The ^f uhaniraadans say that ^^hen. they 
were cast down from paradise, Adam fell on the isJe of Ceylon or 
Sar&ndib, and Eve near Jiddah (the port of Makkah) in Arabia ; and 
that after a separation of two hundred Vt-ar? Ad^m wa.s, on his re- 
pentance, coiKiuctfcd by the Angel Gabriel to a niouutain nearMakkah, 
where he found and knew hin wile, the mouutoin being ttience named 
Arifat, and that he afterwards retired witii liev to Ceylon. 

" ft may not be improper hero to mention auctther tradition con- 
cerning che gigajitic btature of our fust parents. Their prophet, they 
say, aitirmod Adam to have l)een as Ull us a high palm-tree ; but this 
would bp too much in proportion, if that v/ere really the print of hi.» 
foot, which i.s pretended to be eiuch. on the top ot a mountaijj in the 
isle 01 Cbylon, thence named Pico de Adam, jud by the Arab writer's 
Rahun, beinj^ somewhat above two spans lung (though others say it 
is seventy cubits long, and that when Adam aet one foot here he had 
the other in the sea), and too little, if Eve were of so enormous a size, 
ti3 is said, when her head lay on on<; hill nf-ar Makkah, her knees rested 
on two oth''.rs in the plain, about two musket-shot'? asunder." — Sou. 

The Ta/s'/j'i'-Raufi regards these words as b^ing addre.ssed to the 
seTUv?n« a"* well as to Adam and Kve. 

The one 0/ ijon an eneray unto the othrr, i.e., Sataa. an enemy of man. 
or tht allnsioa niay be to enmity between Adani and Eve, typifying 
t.h'i eniG.ty between ihe faithful ;ind the iriiidels. — Tafdr-i- ttauji. 

SIPARA I.j ( 303 ) [chap. II. 

down, the one of you an enemy unto the oth<er; and there 
shall be a dwelling-place for you on earth, and a provision 
for a season. (36) And Adam Teamed "words of j^rnyer 
from his Lord, and G-od turned unto him, for he is easy 
to be reconciled and merciful. (37) We said, Get ye all 
down from hence; hereafter shall there come unto you a 
direction from me, a,nd whoever shall follow my direction, 
on them sha.ll no tear come, neither shall they be grieved ; 
(38) but they who shall be unbelievers, and accuse our 

(36) Adam hammed Vuorde of p-aycr, the. There is a difference oi 
cpinion among the cotnmentAtors as to what these woi'd^ were. 7'he 
TaMr i-Kaufi accepts the opinion that they were the wor-ls of the 
creed, " L,4il4ha-iiJal-Uho, Muhainma'l-vir-Rusul-ullah,*' God he is 
God, and Muhonviaad u iht apostle of Ood. But all aucb tiaditionarv 
statements are the cntgrowth of <i desire to <:xalt Munamumd. One <>f 
the traditions makes Adam say vhat "As soon as the breath cacje 
into my hoJy I opened my eyer^, and saw the worda, Ld-ildha-i,llaL~ 
Idho, Mit.haiiimad-ur-Rusiil'uUdh written on the lietivens. ' 

The purport of the verse seems to he that God taught Adam, in a 
general way, the words he then reyealcd Joi- tlie benefit of himself 
and hia children, Adam being regarded aB the propiu-t of Go<J to his 

God. tuTiitd to him, for he is easy to he reconciled. Rod well trans- 
hitfcs, " For he loreth to turn." Ail the Quran requires lo secure the 
favour of God is i& repent, i.e., to submit to the will of God and ask 
pardon for sin. 

(o7, IJb) J-let'eafter shall cauM . . , a direction. " Cod here pro- Adam that his v.i] I shon id be revealed to hira aiui his posterity ; 
which projuifee the Muhammadans believe was fulfilled at several 
time? by the ministry of several prophets, from Adam himself, who 
was the til St, to Muliammad, who was the last. The number of bookB 
I'evealed uato Adam they saw was ten'' (Jaldluddm).— .Sa/e. 

And wli.oeve^ shall jollcru} my direction, d^r.. The Tafsir-i-Rmifi 
conceives the idea that the story oi Adam was placed at the very 
beginning of- the Qurdn as a warning to ail his posterity. He says, 
'■ God has narratetl the story of Adam before he tells of othera, in 
order thac by showing his people how ihey were adored by tiie 
angels, t])rough Adam, in \vho>;e loins they were hidden, and yet, 
instead of being drawn to him by tiis goodiies.s, th jy have turned 
front him, broken. his ooniuKindmfiits, and have not been ashamed. 
Thtsn in the expu!.-ion of Adam fr(<m psu'ddi/jc, as here I'elaied, he 
intimates thut notwithstanding the nearness of Adam to liimself, and 
the adoration of angels bestowed i,i];>on Mn, yet, foi- one act of dis- 
obedience, was expelled irvm pyrfidise. Wheiefore he says, i^ear me, 
and dare not tc* disobey my commands, lest I refuse to receive you 
into paradise, at th-i judgment-ilay." 

And accAse oiir siynd of fubchood- Concerning the word here trans- 

CHAP, fl] ( 304 ) [STPARA I 

sigDS oC t'iVlseliood, tbey shall be the companions of JuM- 
fire, therein shall, they remain for ever. 
^j. 'I (39) children of Isruel, remember my favour wliere- 

with J have favoured you ; and perform your covanant with 
me, and 1 will perform wy covenant with you; and revere 
me: (40) and believe in tho. revelation ^]\\Qh. T liave sent 
down, confirming that which is with you, and Vk) not the first 
who i^elieve not therein, neither exchancrc mv siiihs for a 
small price ; and fear me (41) CKitlie not the truth with 
vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own know- 

lated signs Sa-le sftys. "This w.jrd has variou.s significations in the 
Qumn ; soinetiine>i, as in this passage, it signifios diviw- m-e'ation or 
Scripture in general, sometimes the verses of tbt Qnran in particular, 
and at other times rUibtt miracles. Bur, the aense is easily difatiu- 
guisbed by tlvi context." 

Tki'y fihaU be the compapioris of h^cU-Jire, Oicnin shall they remain 

Jor ever. The sufleiings of the damniKi are deBcribed in chap. i\v. 

19-ai, xxv ii-i 5, x.vxvii. 61 71, and Ivi. 40-56, Tliia punishment 

ist-iemal, and varies in intensity arcordihp to the hcinuusnebs of din. 

Hell is divided into aovfn apartments. For description of each 
see PreViininaiy l)iscoui>r, sec. iv p. 148. 

(39, 40) cTiUdten of Israd. . . . believe in the revelation which I 
have sent down cvnftrminij that which is with ycu. *' H lie Jewa are here 
called upon to receive the Quran, as verifying and r.oniiriuing the 
Pentateiicli, paitioularly with rcopect to the unitv of (Jod ana the 
mission of Muharamad- And they are exhorted not to con c«nil the 
paHsages of their law -vvhioh bear \vitnev«i8 to thosH lruthf>, nor to cor- 
rupt them by publiahin^ talse copie>'ioi'the Pentateufli, for wliich the 
wiitors were bul poorly patd." — Sale, on the autkcrrity of Yahya and 

For passages of the Quran attestiiij^ the genuineness of the Chris- 
tian and Jewish S<:riptures. Hee Judex under the word Quran. 

A careful conaideration o( the ijnjujrt of such p issaees as this ought 
to convince every honest Mnslirn of the fa«'.t tliar Muhamrnad cer- 
tainly did regard the Scripturus t/ier i.arrevt amruig Jews ami Chris- 
tians as the ])ure Word of God. If he did not, then the Qurdn. 
atte.^rs, verifies, nnd confirms a lie ! See chap. hi. 93. \. 70, vi, 90, 
91, X. 97, and xlvi. 11. 

(4!) Cloliinnot tht truth wUh vnrrUy, neither conceal the truth againH 
your own knoi.cleclg^. Bodwell translates the latter part of the verse 
thus : Hide not the tnUh wk^i ye. knov) it. On this he writes a? fol- 
lows; " Mulianimad rarely accused tlie Jew.s and Chririlians' of cor- 
luptinf?, but oiten of misrepresenting, their ?acred hooks, in order 
to fivade his claims His charges, however, ary alway-s very vaguely 
worded, and his utterances upon this subject are tan-tamouiit to a 
strong testimony in favour of the uuin)]K'ttchabte ii^tejrily of the 

srPARA T,] ( 305 ) [chap. ir. 

ledge ; (42) observe the stated times of prayer, and pay 
your legal alms, and bow down yourseht;s with those who 
bow down. (43) Will ye command men to do justice, and 
forget rour own souls ? yet ye read the book of the law : do 
ye not therefore understand ? (44) Ask help with perse- 
sacred books, both of the Jews and Christians, so far as he knew 
them." The Tafslr-i-Rauji confirms th**, position taken above. It 
paraphrases thus : '* Do not mingle with the truth tiiat tlie praise of 
Muhammad is recorded in the Pentateuch the lie of a denial, and do 
not hide the ti-uth that he is the prophet of the last times, for yon 
know that this prophet 13 a prophet indeed. Whj then do ye deli- 
berately hide his praise and title (of prophet), and make yourselves 
the prisoners of hell I" 

Trie whole force of this exposition rests on the admission that the 
Jews were in possession of the uncorrupted Scriptures. 

Again, it is noteworthy that the corruption charged is not directed 
a.sjainst the Scriptures, but acr^^iriAt their irUerpretauon of those Scrip- 
tures. The author of the, notes on the Roman Urdu Quran calls 
attention to thefact, that while Muhammad would conciliate Jews 
and Christians by the pretence that his Qurdn confirms their Scrip- 
tures, he constantly misrepresents and falsifies them. This is true 
of both their doctrinal teaching and historical statement. It must, 
however, be observed tliat this inconsistency was not always due to 
the intention of the Arabian prophet, but generally to his ignorance. 

(42) Stated times nf yraijer . . . legal alms. The prayer (siddt) ot 
the Muslim diifers fron^. what the Christian calls prayer iu that it 
consists invariably of the repetition of ascriptions of praise to God 
and of petitions for divine blessing uttered iv the Arabic layiguage^ 
and is almost entirely mechanical. The mind and the heart of the 
worshippers are alike shut up to the words and forms of the stereo- 
typed prayer. The Arabic diia exjuesses more nearly the Christian 
idea of prayer. This, too, probably corresponded more nearly to 
Muhanunad's own idea of suJdi. 

Legal almiji {zikdt) are levied on money, gi'ain, fruit, cattle, and 
merchandise. The object for which it is levied is the support of the 
poor. It amounts to about two and a half or three per cent, on 
annual profits. 

Although tliese words are addressed to Jews, the prayer and alms, 
concerning which exhortation is made, are Muslim, i.e., of the kind 
and form belonging to the last dispensation of the one true religiorj. 

For nearly all the rites and forms ot" religion, Islam finds sanction 
in the volnme of traditions. This fact affords a strong argument 
against the Quran as the inspired Scripture of a new dispensation. 

,(43) Ye read the book of me law, i.e., the Pentateuch. This verse 
affords another proof that Muhammad belitv^ed the Jewish Scrip- 
tures then extant to be the genuine Word of C-od. 

(44,45) Ask help with perseverance and prayer, d^c. Abdul Qddir 
translates, " Get streno:th by toil and prayer," &c., and paraphrases, 
*' Make it (prayer) a habit, and the duties of religion will become 
easy." " • U 

OHAP. II.) ( 306 ) [SIPARA I. 

verance and prayer; this indeed is grievous unless to the 
humble, (45) who seriously think they shall meet their 
Lord, and that to him they shall return. 
K 6'- II (46) children of Israel, reuiember my favour 

wherewith I have favoured you, aud that I have pre- 
ferred you above all nations; (47) dread the day 
wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another 
soul, neither shall any intercession be accepted from 
them, nor shall any compensation be received, neither 
shall they be helped. (48) Reniemher when we delivered 
you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed 
you, they slew your male children, and let your females 

T'he hum.hle,uho seriousl// i/iink they shall vuiet their Lordy and that 
to him they shall return. Sentiinent.-ii like these ex! libit the vast moral 
superiority of MuhaTumad's teaching with regard to God and man's 
relation to him over that of his idoJatroiis coiintrvmen and of idola- 
ters of any country.. The' influence of passages lik«>. this must be 
taken into account if , we would understand the power which the 
Quran exerts over Muslims. 

(46) O children of Israel^ r^memher my favour, *i'C. The object of 
passages like this was to conciliate the Jews by appeals to their 
national pride, and by an attempt to imitate the >ityle nf their pro- 
phets in nis exhortations to them. Passages of tlie Qur4n hke this 
concerning tlie children of- Israel evince considerable knowlecige of 
the history uf tlie chosen people. And yet the error which is here 
mixed up with the truth, without any apparent design, would seem 
to show, that Muhammad had not access to the Jewish Scriptures 
directly. It is therefore most probable that he obtained his infor- 
mation from Jewish friends, who had themselves an imperfect 
knowledge of their own 'Scriptures. 8ee on this -subject Muir's 
Lif^ of Mahomet, voL ii., supplement to cliap. v. 

(47) Dreeul the day wherein one soul shall not niake satisfaction for 
another soul. "Tiiis verse, often repeated, contradicts the notion of 
Muhammad a' an intercessor, and, of course, contradicts Scripture 
also, unless undei"stood thus: — 'The guilty shall not atone for the 
guilty.'" — Brinckman's Notes on Isjam, 

The author of the Tafulr-i-Ravfi thinks this verse is addressed to 
unbelievers, and regards it as teaching the certain damnation of all 
who have not secilred the intercession of Muhammad. 

(48) Then slcr your male children. The Tafdr-i- Ravfi, gives a 
story which illustrates the habit of Muslim commentators of invcnt- 
ingi /ml or y to ex ])]tiin the indelinite sUdemeUts of the Qurdn". The 
stoiy IP that Pharaoh ]iad a dream, in which he saw a lire issue 
fortn from the Ti:mp]e at Jerusalem. The fire consumed him and 
his people. Calling his wii^e men, lie asked the meaning of his 
dream. They told him that a person would be born from among 

siPARA I.] ( 307 ) [chap, ir. 

live : therein was a great trial from your Lord. (49) And 
when we divided the sea for' you and delivered you, and 
drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on. (50) And 
when we treated with Moses forty nights ; then ye took 
the calf /or your God, and did evil; (51) yet afterwards 
we forgave you, that peradventure ye might give thanks. 
(62) And when we gave Moses the book of ■ the /ai«?, and 

the children of Israel wlio woukl destroy both him and \\\^ nation. 
Accoidingly he ordered all the male children of the Israelites to be 
destroyed. When some twelve thousand-^accordincf to others seventy 
thousand — infants had been destioyed, his subjects interfered, and so 
far moditied Pharaoh's intention tbat lie spared the children born 
every alt*irnate year. During one of these years Aaron was born ; 
but Moses, being born tlis following year, was jjlaced iji a basket 
and allowed to float down the Nile. On its reaching the palace, 
Pharaon drew the basket to shore and found the infant Moses in it. 
His wife at once declared that the child did not belong to the Jews, 
and proposed to adopt it as their own, inasmuch as they had no 
children. Thus was preserved by hia enemy. See also 
Quran, chaps. viL, xx., and xxvi, &c. 

(50) 7'Aeri toolc ye the calf for your God, and did evil. " The person 
who cast this call', the Muhammadans say, was (not Aaron, but) al 
S^mairi, one of the principal men among the children of Israel, some 
of whose descendants, it is pretended, still inhabit an island of that 
3iame in the Arabian Gulf. It was made of the rings and bracelets 
of gold, silver, and other materials which tlje Israelites had bor- 
rowed of the Egyptians ; for Aaron, who commanded in his brother's 
absence, having ordered Sdmairi to collect those ornaments from the 
people, who carried on a wi(^ked commerce with them, and to keep 
them together till the return of Moses, al Simairi, understanding 
the founder's art, put them all together into a furnace to melt them 
down into one mass, which came out in the form of a calf. The 
Israelites, aocastoraed to the Egyptian idolatry, paying a religious 
Vk'orship to this imuge, al S^inairi went further, and took some 
dust from the footsteps of the horse of the Angel Gabriel, who 
m&rched at the head of the people, and threw it intc> the mouth 
of the calf, which immediately began to low, and became ani- 
mated ; for such was the virtue of that dusi." — Sale, on avtilioriiy 
t)f Jalaluddhi. 

Some write IS explain that Samairi discovered the virtue of this 
dust of the footsteps of Gabriel's horse by pbt^erving that wherever 
such footsteps were there green grass immediately appeared. Others 
account for the voice in the golden calf by referring it to Satan, 
who, entering it, began to say to the people, '* I am your preserver, 
wherefore worship me," 

(51^ Fet afterwards we forgave you, i.^,,. those who did not actually 
worship the golden calf. See ver. 53. 

(52) When ut gave Moses the book. We have here one instance, of 

CHAP. II.J ( 308 ) [SIPARA I. 

the distinction hetvjeev f/ood and ^ml, tliat peradveiiture ye 
rnighv be directed. (5H) Ard when Moses said unto his 
people, my people, verily ye have injured your own 
souls, by your taking the calf /br your God ; therefore be 
turned unto your Creator, and slay those among you wi^io 
have been guilty of that crime ; this will bo better for you 

which this chapter furnishes many, wherein the Quiu« shows the 
ignorance of Muhammad with respect to the history of the Jews «i8 
eontAineU in the books of Mofiea, The "Book"' of the law (the 
Torah or Pentateuch) is here i'cpresented as given fo M-oa^ in the 
Maunt, wlieregs tlio stor}^ refers to the giving of the two tiibles 
(Arabic, Alw4h, meanicg tahlets) containing the teh couimaiidmentB 
only. See Exod. xxxiv^ 5^8. 

For further exposition of discrepancy betweeii the Qur&n and tlie 
Pentateuch, see comment* ou chap. Vii., ver?. 104'-163, where is 
recorded the most detailed account of the exodus of Israel from 
Egypt and God's dealing« with them in the wiidt^rness to be found 
in the Qurdn. 

And he disttnction heiween good and evil. Rodwell translates, 
'•and the illumination," chap. xxi. 4Q. 

The Arabic word here translated distinction is Furqdn, a name 
which, among Mushms, is given solely to the Qurdn. The author 
of the notes on t)ie Pvoman Urdu Qurdn argues from the use of this 
word, which is derived from the Syraic, that Muhammad must have 
had access t(» the writings of Syjian ( 'hristiane, and esijecially to the 
rommentarv of the Old fijid New Testaments by Ephraim, a Syriati, 
in whi>:tr a great many stories similar to tho?e of the Qurdn are 
8»i ] to be recorded, una in which the Pentateuch ia uniformly called 
the Furq6ji. 

That this word may have been introduced into Muhammad's 
vocabulary from Syrian sources is altogether probable, but the 
gtorieis of the Qui^n bear no traces of having been copied from, or 
even learned from, any written record. On the contrary, they every- 
where bear the marks of having been recorded in the Qur^n from 
hearsay sources. Any written record in the hands of Muhammad 
would have enabled him to give more accurate statements of fact, 
and thus would have better confirmed his claim that the Qurdn 
atte8ts the former Scriptures. 

The meaning of the term Furqan, as applied to Scripture, is not 
"thatwlii'^h u divided into sections " (Hughes' Notes on Muham- 
madanism, p. 11), but iiuit which divides beiur.ert, good and evd, "that 
peradventure ye inight be directed," 

(63) }'e have injured your own wuls. Rodwell has it, " J'e have 
sinned to your own hurt." The allusion ia to the slaying 'of certain 
of their number for the sin of idolatry. 

iS/Vw/ thost aiiinnfj you. dc. Lit. sla^ one another. 

"In this particular the narralion agrees with that of Moses, who 
ordered the Levites to slay every man Ins brpiher ; hut the Scripture 

SIPARA I.] ( 309 ) [chap. it. 

iu the sight of your Creator": and the^-mtpon he turned 
unto you, for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. 
(54) And when ye said, O Moses, we vvii^ not helieve 
thee, until we see God manifestly; therefore a punish- 
ment came upon you, while ye looked on ; (55) then we 
raised you to life after ye had been dead, that peradven- 
ture ye might give thanks. (56) And we caused clouds 
to overshadow you. and manna and quails to descend 
upon you, saying. Eat of the good things which we have 
given you for food: and they injured not us, but injured 

says there fell of the people that day about three thousand (the Vulgate 
bays 23,000) men; whereas the commeritators of the Quran make the 
number of the slain to amount to 7o,ocx) ; and add, that God sent a 
dark cloud which hindered them from seeing one another, lest the 
sight should move those who executed the sentence to compassion." — 
Sale, and Jaldluddin. 

(54) When ye said, Mones, we will not Jjelieve tiue, until we see God 
manifesf-ly. "The persons here meant are said to have been seventy 
men, who were made choice of by Moses, and heard the voice of God 
talking with him. But not being satigfied with that, thfey demanded 
to see God ; whereupon they were all struck dead by lightning." — 
Sale, Ismail ihn AH, Tafsir-i-Raufi. 

As tliii> statement is nowhere corroborated in the Bible, it is pro- 
bably derived from Jewish tradition. 

(55) Then we raised you to life. The Tafsir-i-Raufi states that 
Moses, seeing his seventy companions stricken dead, immediately 
interceded for their restoration to life, on the ground that the people 
might suspect him of their murder. God then, on Moses' iuterce^- 
fiion, restored them to life. See also Rodwell's note on this passage. 

(56) Wt caused clouds to ooershadow you. The pillar of cloud, and 
may be ttie pillar of fire also (Exod, xiii, 21, 22). Some commentators 
say that the cloud was as a canop> over the Israelites to shield them 
from the heat of the sun (Tafsir-i-RauJi). 

Manna and quails. '' The Eastern writers say these quails were of 
a peculiar kind, to be found nowhere but in Yamun, from whence 
they were brought by a soutli wind in great numbers to the Israelites' 
camp in the desert. The Arabs call these birds Saliva, w^hich is 

Eiainly the same with the Hebrew Halwini, and say they have no 
ones, hut are eaten whole."-- ^^Sa/*^, 

A great variety of opinions have been entertained among Muslim 
commentators as to what maiina represents, e.g., flour, honey, 
heavenly gifts bestowed secretly, &c. As to the quails, some have 
it that they were dressed in the air and^ baked by the heat of the 
sun before they fell on the grc-wnd. 

As to the Salwi having no bones (see Sale's note above), the fact 
is, their bones are so tender that many eat tliem along with the flesh. 

CHAF. II.] { 3»0 ) [SIPARA I. 

their own souls. (57) And when we said, Enter into thi? 
city, and eat of the iwovislons thereof plentifully as ye 
will ; and enter the gate worshipping, and say, Forgive- 
ness! we will pardon you your sins, and give increase 
unto the well-doers. (5.8) But the ungodly changed the 
expression into another, different from what had been 
spoken unto them ; and we sent down upon the ungodly 
indignation from heaven, because they had transgressed. 
K T* (59) And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, 

►Strike the rock with thy rod; and there gushed thereout 
twelve fountains accordiyig to the number of the tribes, and 

And they injiired not u% hut injured their own. souls. Savary 
translates this passage, ""iour murmurs have been injurious ouly to 

The Taft^ir-i-Raufi seems to refer the injury spoken of in this verse 
to the wandering ;n the wilderness. 

(57) Enter i/iis citt/. Some qommentatorB suppose this city to be 
Jericho, others Jerusalem. — Sal^. 

The author of the notes on the Roraan Urdu QurAn takes the 
allusion to be to a "city of. refuge." This mixing up of events, 
some of winch happened in the wilderness, others in the Holy 
Land, and still others which happened nowhere, added to which is 
the narration of events as t)ccurriDg successively, wjiose chrono- 
h>gical order is widely different, shows the ignorance of the Arabian 

Say forgiveness. " The Arabic word is Hittaton^ which some take 
to signify that profession of the unity of God so frequently used by 
the Muhammadans, La ildha ilia 'lldho, There is no Oed but God" — 
tSeUe, faldlvddin. 

(58) But the ungodly changed the expression, cc. 'According to 
JaMludclin, instead of Hittaton, they cried JJ ibbat fi shalrat, i.e., a 
grain in an ear of barley ; and in ridicule of the divine command to 
enter the cit"? in aii humble posture, they indecenily crept in upon 
their breech.— >Sa/«, Yahya. 

Indignation from hedveix. "A pestilence which carried off near 
seventy thousand i)f them.'* — Sale. 

(59) Strike the rock. "The commentators say this -was a stone 
which Moses brought from Mount Sinai, and the same that fled 
awav with his garments which he had laid upon it one day while he 

" They describe it to bp a square piece of white marble, shaped 
like a man's head ; wherein they differ not niuch Irom the accounts 
of European travellers, whoj^ay this rock stan<ls among several lesser 
ones, about a hundred paces from Mount Horeb, and a]ipeaTs to have 
been loosened from the neighboiiring mountains, h.iviocf no cohe- 
rence with the others ; that it is a huge mass of red gianite, almost 

S1PA.RA I.] ( 311 ) [CHAP. II. 

all men knew their r<?sj[?«c^ti7e , drinking-place. Eat and 
drink of the bounty of GOD, and commit not evil on the 
earth, acting unjustly. (60) And wnen ye said, Moses, 
we will by no means be satisfied with one hind of food; 
pray unto thy LoRi> therefore for us, that he would pro- 
duce for us of that which the earth bringeth forth, herbs 
and cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and onions; Mos< 
answered^ Will ye exchange that which is better, for that 
which is worse? Get ye down into Egypt, for there shall 
ye find what ye desire: and they were smitten with vile- 
ness and misery, and drew on themselves indignation 
from God. This they mffercd, because they believed not 
in the signs of God, and killed tlie prophets unjustly ; 
this, because they rebelled and transgressed. 

[} (61) Surely those who believe, and those who Jndaize, 

round on oue side, and liat on the- other, twelve f^,et high, and as 
luaiay thick, but broader than it is high, and ahoufc fifty feet in 
circum f erence. " — Sale, Jaldluddin. 

Tiaelve fountains. '' Maryacei tliinks this circumstance looks like a 
Rabbinical fiction, or elt^e that Muhammad confounds the \rater oi" 
the rock at. Horeb with the tvvelv«; •vvells at Elini.'' — Sfdr.. 

All men knew their (hinkinq- place. Rodwell translates, ''ail men," 
but understands "each triJ^e.'' He adds, ** This incident is perhaps 
inadvertently borrowed from Exod. xv. 27." 

(60) We vnll by no means be satisfied xvith one kind of food. This 
refers to the second luurniuring' of the Israelites. See Num. xi. 
5, &c. 

Mose& answered . . . Get ye dotmi to Egypt. According to the Pen- 
tateuch, this is not oal_y not ■svhat M<).=es said, but what he would not 
bave Siiid. Cf. Exod. xxxii. 9-14, with Num. xiv. 13, &c. 

Thi& itmy suffvred^ because they . . , kilkd ilie propheU. Muslim 
commentators, folio wffig the anachronism. of this passage, insf a uce, 
JqIiu Baptist and Zachariah'as being among the loartyred prophets 
refen-fed ti» liere ! 

(<51) Surely th.oi,". v'ho believe, rfr, "Irom the^e words, wbich are 
ro|mated in the fifth ihapter, several -wnters have wrongly concluded 
tliat the Mnhammadans hold it to be the doctrine of their prophet 
that every ninn may be saved in his own religion, provided he be 
sincere and lead a good lite. It is true some of theii' doctors do 
agree this to be the purport of the words, but th^-n they .■say the 
latitude liereby grunted was ioon revolted, for that this passage 
id abrogated by several others in the Quran, w^hich expressly declare 
that none can be s-aved who is not of the Muhamniadan faith ; and 
particularly by liiose words of the third chupter (ver. 84), Whoever 

CHAP. II.] ( 312 ) [SIPARA I. 

and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believeth in God, and 
the last day, and doth that which is right, they shall have 
their reward with their Lord ; there shall cmne no fear on 

foUoweth any other religion than Islam (i.e., the Muhammadan), it 
ahall not he accepted of hmx- aufl at the last day he ahall be of those who 
'perish. However, others are of opinion that this passage is hot 
abruv:^ated, but interpret it differently, taking the meaning of it to 
be, that no man, whether he be a Jew, a Christian, cr a Sabian, 
shall be exclnded from Balvation, provided he quit his erroneon^ 
religion and become a Muslim, which they say is intended by the 
following Avords, Whoever believeth in God and the last day, and doth 
that which is right. And this interpretation is approved by Mr. 
Rt'iand, who thinks the words here import no more than those of 
the apostle, In every nation he that feareth God and worketh righteous- 
nes» is accepted of him (Acts x. 35) ; from which it must not be 
inferred that the religion of nature, or any other, ia sufficient to save, 
without faith in Christ {Relig. Moham., p. 128)."" Nd/se. 

R.)dwell ideniifies the Subeiies with the so-calied Chiistians of 
St. John. See his note on this passage, 

Brinckman thinks the fairest interpretation of this passage to be 
as follows :— "Jews, Christians, Sabian«, whoever become Mo.^lems, 
shall be saved if they become Moslems, and they shall be safe uo 
matter what was their previous religion.'"' — Rotes on Isldm, p. 53. 

Abdul Qddir and the Tafsir-i^RauJl render the passage as making 
faith in God and the last day and the performance of required duty 
the condition of salvation, no matter what a man's infidelity may 
have consistod in before he believed. They agree in regarding Jews 
and Christians as infidels. 

The true exT)lanatioii of this j^assage, so often quoted in contro- 
versyj will be made evident from the lollowMng considerations : — 

(i.) The passage is addressed to the people of the Book (Ahl-i- 
kitdb), as appears from the context. Rodwell describesthe '' Sabeans " 

(2.) Muhammad did not regard ail Jews and Christians as infidels 
(ch.ip. iii. 113 and 199). He every^vhere describes Is! Am as the ojie 
only true religion given by God to men through the medium of the 
prophets. It was the religion of Adam, of Noah, of Abraham, «)f 
Moses, and of Jesus. Jews and Christiiins, &c., therefore, who 
believed '' in God and the last day," and did " thrit which' was right," 
lofre trv£ Muslim s. Only those Jews and Christians who rejected 
Muhammad as the prophet of God are stigmatised as inhdels. In 
this passage and passages of similar purport Muhammad assumes 
that ne is the prophet oi the true faith, and really strives to con- 
ciliate Jews and Christians by endorsing their religion as true. He 
Would have them abjure the errors into which they had fallen, and 
return to tin; simple faith and practice of their, or lather God's 
relijjion, as now langht by the prophet of God. 

It follows liom this, that as a true Jew nnist receive Jesus Christ, 
and hence become a Chrisuan, if he would be saved, .so a true Chris- 

SIPARA 1.] ( 313 ) [CHAI'. II. 

them, neither shall they be grieved. (62) Call to mind also 
when we accepted your covenant, and lifted up the moun- 
tain of Sinai over you, saying, Receive flie law which we 
have given you, with a resolution to heef it, and remember 
that which is contained therein, that ye may beware. 
(63) After this ye again turned back, so that if it had 
not been for God's indulgence and mercy to'^ards you, ye 
had certainly been destroyed. (64) Moreover ye know 
what hefdl those of your nation who transgressed on the 
Sabbath day; We said unto them, Be ye changed into 
apes, driven a.w ay from the society qf men, (.(Jo) And we 

tian I ecfeive Muhammad, and henee become a Muhainmadan, if 
lie would b« saved. 

Granting) as Muslims do, that Muhammad is the prophet be 
claimed to be. therf» is nothing in this passage incoiisLstenl with his 
usual teaching as tt? the way pf salvation. 

(62) Li/ted up the mountain 0/ Sinai over yen. "The Muham- 
madan tradition ie, that the Israelites refusing to receive tlie law of 
Moses, Ood tore up tlie mountain by the root-*, and shook it over 
their heads to terrify them inte a comphauoe."— &^« and Abdul 

Kodwell has clearly demonstrated the Jewish oirigin of this state- 

(63) After this ye a^in twrn^d back. Some commentators (Tafsir-i- 
Rauji.) liiink these words refer to the rejection of Jesus, but more 
I)robably they refer tu the rebellion at Kadesh-Barnea, or some 
similar ew.nt connected with the journey in the wilderness. 

(64. 65). Be ye changed into apes, dhr,. "The story to which this 
passage ref«r;5 is as follows : — In the days, of David 3<>nie Lsraeiites 
dwelt at Allah or Elath, on the Bed Sea. where on the night of the 
Sabbath tlie lish used to come in great numbers to the ehore, and 
stay there all the Sabbath to tempt them ; but the night following 
they returne<l into the sea.&gain. At length some of the inhabitants, 
negiecilng God's command, catched the on the {Sabbath, and 
dressed and ate them , and afterwards cut canal?; from the sea for 
the fish to enter, with sluices, which they shut on the Sal^bath, to 
prevent their return to the sea. The other part of the inhabitants, 
who strictly observed liie Sabbath, used both oersut^sion and force 
to stop this impiety, but to no purpose, the otienders growing only 
more and more obsiiuate ; whereupon David cursed the Sabbath- 
breakers, and God transformed tbeih into apes. It is said that ane 
going to see a fdend of his that was among them, found him in the 
shape of a,n ape, mo\ing Lis eves about AViklly, and asking him 
whether he was not such a one, the ape made a sign v,'ich hi.^ head 
that it was he : whereupon th'* friend said to him, ' Did iiui 1 advise 
you to desist? '' at wluch the ape wept. They add that these unhappy 

CHAP. II.J ( 314 ) [SIP ARA I. 

Jiiade them an exaniplft unto those who were contemporary 
with them, and unto those who Ciimo after them, and a 
warning to the pious. (oG^ And when Moses said unto 
his people. Verily God commandeth you to sacrifice a 
cow ; thoy answered. Dost thou make a jVst of us ! Moses 
said, God forbid that T should be one of the foolish. 

people retuaincd three dayo in this coiiditiou, and were aitei'wards 
deatroyed by a wind wliirh bwept them all into the sea." — Sale. 

JRoilwell says theit? is no traco of thi« legend in ibe TtUniudists. 
Conip. chap. vii. 164. 

The Tafsir-i- Kaufi says the number tlins changed into apes was 
seventy thoiisan'l, a number very yommonly assigned by ^luilim 
vritera to everv displfiv of divim; jud.uimt'iit. 

(66) Verily Ihd comnnmdeth yon to.<t.H'rifire a covk "The ocoji:«ion 
of this sacritice is thns i-elated : — A. certain man at Ins death left liis 
gon, then a child, a cow-oalf. Avhich •^'anderefl in the desert till he 
came to age, at which tinio his mother told him the heifer was hi?, 
and bit) him fetch her and sell her for three pieces oi' gold. AVhe.u 
the young man came to the market with his heii'er, an anjfol in the 
shape of a man accosted him, and bid him isix pieces of gold for her ; 
but he would not take the money til] he had asked his mother's 
consent, which wlien he had obuaiiiod, he returned to the market- 
place, and met the angol, vho now offered him twice as much for 
I he heifer, provided he would say nolhing of it to hi<< motlier; but 
the Tt»ung niiin reftising, went and acquainted her with the addi- 
tional offer. The woman perceiving it wft.-j an angel, bid her son go 
back Mid ask Lini what must be done with th«^ heifer ; whereupon 
the angel told tlie voung man that in a little time the children of 
luTael wonhl buy that heifer of him at any pric»*. And soon after it 
happened that an Israelite, named llammiel, was killed by a rela- 
tion of his, who, to pivvent discovery, conv( yed the body to a place 
cousinerablv distant from thai where the fact was committed. The. 
friends* of the shiin man accused some other persons of the murder 
before Moses; but they denying tiie fact, ami there being no evi- 
dence to convict them, (hxl commanded a cow, of .'S\ich and such 
particular marks, to be killeil ; but therr Ixjing no other which 
Answered the description except the orphaJiV beifer, they were 
obliged to buv het for as much gold ns hor nirfe would hold ; accord- 
ing to *»me, for her full weight in gold, audos others s;iy, for ten 
viines us much. This heifer they sacrificed, and the de^id body 
being, by .livine direction, stjuck wilh a part of it, revived, and 
it^mding up, ijumed the person who had killc»i him. after whicli ii 
immediately fell down dead again. The whole story seems to be 

^ The Tafsit' t-H'iuft has it thftt compen««tiou »gainst his aeigii. 
the nninlorer hiniseU becMoe the hours. 
acuu;»er. and set >ip ft ol&im for 


( 3^5 ) 

[chap. II. 

(67) They said, Pray for us unto thy Lord, that lie would 
show us what cow it is. Moses answered, He saith, Slie 
is neither an old cow. nor a young hoifer, but of a middle 
ago between both • do ye therefore that wliich ye are 
commanded. (68) They said, I'ray for us unto thy T.nKp, 
that he would show u.<s what colour she is of. Moses 
answered, He saith, She is a red cow, intensely red, her 
colour rejoiceth the beliolders. (69) They said, Pray for 
us uuto thy LoHD, that he y,'o\i\dfu7'th€r show us what cow 
it is. for several cows with us are like one another and we, 
if God please, will be directed. (70) Moses answered, He 
saith, She is a cow not broken to plough the earth, or water 

borrowecl from the red heifer, which was ordered by ihe Jewish law 
to be burnt, and tlie ushes kept for purifying those who h<;ppened 
to touch a dead corpse (Num. xix.), and from the lieifer directed to 
be slain for tlie expiation of a certain murder. See Deiit. xxi. 1-9." 
— Sale^ on authority of Abulfeda. 

The Tafslr-i-Jlauji, dilating on this story at groat length, gives it 
with some variations from the version given above, yet substantially 
the fiame ytory. 

ThiK piece of history w manifestly manufactured by the commen- 
tators to explain a verv c^bscnre passage. The substance of the stor^' 
is guthtvied from the Qurilii (see succeeding veises). The passage is 
an addii.ional proof tliut Muhammad was not in possession of a copy 
of the Jeyvish Scriptures. His information must have been received 
from some one who was himi^elf ignorant of the Scriptures. Cer- 
tainly Muliammad could not have garbled the Mosaic account to 
malie his Qurdn appear as a n«w r(^velation, as haH been charged 
upon him {NoieA on Roman Urdii (^iirdn). A deliberate garbler, 
with the Pentateuch before Kim, would have done belter work. The 
pas.sage is perfectly incoherent, as the invc7Vted history of the Mualim 
commentators shows. 

(68) t^he is a red o>u\ intensely red. "The original is yellow, but 
this word we do not use in s^M?aking of the colour of cattle." — *SV/^«, 

It seems to me the peculiar colour in here intended as a sign to 
indicate what cow. The succwding question,, a-s well as the preced- 
ing, d"«M'ing that Moses should pray for them, is presented to show 
the uubeiifif ami havdiress of heart on the paii of the Jews. They 
doubt tlie inspiration of Moses, wherefore these numerous question."*. 
See Ta/sfr i-liavfi, in loco. 

(70) Moits ansu-ered, He saith, <<'''. Muhammad liere presents 
Moses as a prophet of God like himself. He, like Muhaiumad, the 
inspired pi-ophel, delivers the precise message of God word foi' word. 
But the iuspiiation hort? and elsewliere aftribulod to the prophets 
in the Q'urdn is a very dilfemit thing from that attributed to them 


CHAP. 11 J ( 316 ) [SIP.\RA I. 

the field, a sound one, there is no blemish in her. They 
said, Kow hast thou brought the truth. Then they sacri- 
liced her ; yet they wanted but little of leaving it undone. 
jl (71) And when ye slew a man, and contended among 
yourselves concerning him, Goo brought forih to light 
that vv-hich ye concealed. (72) For we said, Stnke the 
dfud body with part of the sacrificed cow : so God raiseth 
the dead to life, and showeth you his signs, that perad- 
venture y i may understand. (73) Then were your hearts 
hardened after this, even as stones, and exceeding them in 
hardness : for froin some stones have rivers bursted forth, 
others have been rent in sunder, and wa.ter hath issued 
from them, and others have fallen down for fear of God. 
.P)U.t God 13 not regardless of that which ye do. (74) Do 

in the Bible. Tiiis tact affoids arioLher instaucf of the falsehood of 
the claim that theQiirdri attests t!ie Christian Scriptures cli. xd. in). 
77te^ wanted hut little of Itairing it undone. "Because oi' tl'e exor- 
bitant price which they were obtiged to pay for ihe heifer. — Bak^ 
and the Tafxir-i- Rauji. 

(71) When ye slew a man^ &c. The commentators are troubled to 
reconcile this charge of niuHer against the. whole nation, when, 
according to their history of the transaction, it was the net of only 
one man. 'J'he Tafsir-i Haufi conceives the Jews orenerally as becom- 
ing partners in crime w;th the one guilty person by tliejr unwillfnji- 
nesri to use the divine instrumentality to aiscover the muiderr , and 
their readiness to charge th-e ciime upon one another. 

(72) Strike Qu dead body untk part 0/ the mc>r>jiced coio. There is 
considerable learning displayed in the discussion as to -what part of 
the cow was used for this purpose. The -weight of learning is pretty 
well divided between the tongue and the end of the tail ! 

(73} Hardened, after this, i.e., after tlie sacrifice of the cow, tlie 
restoration to life of the murdered, and the conviction of the inur 
d<»rpj'. The events here alluded to are not, for a wcndei, described 
by th'! comni'entators. iVom what follows. il, appears to nie the 
allumon 18 to their rejection of the prophets, and especially of 
Midiammad (ver. 74). 

Utherska/vt- fallen down for /eu'>- of CoU. Sonie think the alluaiou 
heie to be to the toiterini,' of the rocks from themountaii»-Mide under 
an eartiiquuke shock. (.)theia have quoted much tradirion to show 
the literal fnlHlment of this in connection with the jirophet, stones 
doin^ olteisaiice to him. See Tafsir-i- Raufc. 

(74) D'i ye tkei'efore dt'sire the Jews should believe you? lloJwell 
translate;:-, '"■ Desire ye then that for jouj' sakes {i e., to please you., O 
Muslims) the Jews should belici/r, ? " 

The negative here suggested as an answer to this question throws 

sn\4 uA I.] 

( 3^7 ) 


ye therefore desire tbftt the Jews should believe you ? yet 
a parfc of them heard the word of GoD, and then perverted 
it, after they liad understood it, against their own con- 
science. (75) And when they meet the true believers, 
they say, We believe: but when they are privately assem- 
bled together, they say, Will ye acquaint them with what 
God hath revealed unto you, that they may dispute with 
you concerning it in the presence of your Lord ? Do ye 
not therefore understand ? (76) Do not they know that 
God knoweth that which they conceal as well, as that 
which they publish? |j (77) But there are illiterate men Nwr. 

eoine light on the various examples of Jewish unbelief related In the 
preceding context, the narratiori of which closes with the preceding 
verse. The object of these statements is primarily to show the simi- 
larity of Arabia's prophet to Moses, and, secondarily, t<> aiouse in 
Arab minds that fanatical hatred of the Jews wliich was soon to vent 
itself on the Bani Quraidha and other tribes. See Muir's Life of 
Malwmet, vol. iii, pp. 255-291. 

Yet a part of them heard . . . then perverted it. They listened 
with apparent interest to the words of the Qiir^n, and gave Muham- 
mad reason to believe they received H a? the Word of God, but after- 
wards were led to changetheir minds, probably through the influenca 
of their more stable-minded brethren. 

(76) And when they meet the true hdievers, they say, We believe* 
These are the hypocrites referred to in ver. 74. More likely they 
were ignorant Jews, who were really drawn toward Muhammad 
when in his presence and under his influence, but who were drawn 
away again by the influence of other Jew.s who were adverse to 
Muhammad. "Failure to ally themselves to him was quite sufficient 
to put them under the ban of hypocrisy. 

The Tafslr-i' Raufi instances Qab, who was assassinated about this 
time by the order or consent of Muhammad, on account of his oppo- 
sition to IsUni, as one of these hypocrites. 

When tiiey are -privately astemhled together, they Bay, dk4. Abdul 
Q4dir translates " one says to another," instead of "tliey say." Ho 
comments as follows : — " The hypocrites were in the habit of telling 
t^e Muslims, in order to wiji their favour, what was written in their 
books concerning Muhammad ; but his enemies, finding fault wiih 
thera, objected to their placing .such proofs in their hands," ije*, of 
the Muslims. Does not thits verse throw some light on the source 
from which Muhammad obtained the garbled accounts of the hi«itory 
and experience of the prophets found m his Qurdn l Ignorant Jewa 
related the stories iinpertectly to the followers of Muhammad, who 
repeated them still more imperfectly to their prophet, who erabcdied 
Lhem ivi the Qurdn. 
(77"^ niiterate men . . . u-ho know not the hook. • "Among them the 

CHAP. 11.] ( 318 ) [SIPARA r. 

among them, who know not the book of the law, but only 
l/iiig stories, although they think otherwise. (78) And 
woe unto them, who transcribe corruptly the book of tJie 
Law with their hands, and then say, This is from God : 
that they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe 
unto them because of that Avhich their hands have written ; 
and woe unto them for that which they have gained. 
(79) They say. The fire of hell shall not touch us but for 
a certain number of days. Answer, Have ye received any 
promise from Goi> to that purpose? for God will not act 
contrary to his promise : or do ye speak concerning God 
that which ye know not ? (80) Verily whoso 'doth evil, and 

vulgar know the Pentateuch only by tradition. They have but a 
blind belief."'— Salary. 

The author of the notes to the Eoman Urdu Quran well observes 
that this passage implies that, in Muhamniad's estimate, the Jewish 
Scriptures were extant and Entirely credible, and that tbey were read 
and understood by their doctors. 

(78) Woe unt« tnem, who transcribe corruptly, the. hook of the Law with 
their hands, and then say, This u from God. "■ ^'hene are they who 
form sentences as they please for tlic people, and then ascribe them 
to God 'or his prophet." — Abdul Qadir. 

Tlie inference diavvn by modern Muslims froni passages like this, 
that, according to the Quran, the Jewish and Christian Scriptures 
have been corrupted, and are thei'efore no longer credible, is entirely 
unjustifiable. Admitting the charj;e made here against certain- Jews 
to be true (and the ChriHtian need not deny it), it proves nothing 
concerning.the text of present copieM; On the contrary, the charge 
implies the exibtence, at that date, of genuine copies. 

That they may sell it for a small 'price. This formula occurs repeat- 
edly in the Quran. Its ineatiiiig is, that the gain arising from such 
a coui-se would be small compared with the loss of the soul in hell. 

The Tahir-i-Raufh m\9XQfi a story Lo the ejffect that certain Jews 
were bribed to pervert the Mosaic description of Antichrist or 
Dajjal, so as to make him c^^jrrespond in size, complexion^ and 
other\y^ise to Muhammad. 

(^9) A certain nunibvr of days. " That is, says Jaldluddi'n, forty, 
being the number of days that their forei'athers worshipped the 
golden calf, after which they gave out that their punishment should 
cease. It is a received opinion among the Jews at present that no 
person, be he ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, snail remain in 
hell above eleven months, or at mofet a year, except Dathan and 
Abiram and atheists, who will be tormented there to all eternity." 

(80) Whoso doeth evil. "By evil in tJii& c^se the commentators 
generally imderstand polytheism or idolatry, which sin, the Mu- 

SIPAKA I.j ( 319 ) [CHAP. IF. 

is encompassed by his iiiiquity, they shall he the compauions 
of hell-f\v%, they shall remain therein, forever : (81) but they 
who believe and do good works, they shall be the com- 
panions of paradise, they shall continue therein forever. 

\\ (82) Eemem/M?- also, when we accepted the covenant K j «>• 
of the children of Israel, saying. Ye shall not wcjrship 
any other except God, and ye shall show kindness to your 
parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, 
and speak that wliich is good unto men, and be constant 
at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye turned back, 

hamimidans believe, unless i-»:pented of in this life, 13 unpardonable, 
and will be punished b^'- eternal damnation ; but all other sins they 
hold will at length be iorgivHn." — Sale. 

The final pardon oi" sin, however, is true only of Muslims. For 
the kdjlr or infidel, i.e.^ any one who rejects Islam, there- is eternal 
burning (chaps, xi. 53 and xli. 28). 

Companions of Jim. The Quran everywhere represents the pains 
of hell as being thofe produced by firfe. Everywhere the prophet 
seems to gloat over the horror.-^ of the punishment meted out to tiie 
lost in perdition. See references in Index under the word Hell. 

(81) B'it they who believe and do good 'woi4,:s, i.e., Muslims j)er- 
forming th-e duties re([uired by their profession. 

The statement made in these verses would seem to conti-adict that 
of such passages as speak of salvation by the grace ol" God, e.f/., chap. 
xxiv. 21. But thei-e i.s not necessarily any more contradiction here 
than in similar passages of the Bible, where the doctrines oi faith 
and works seem ix) be inconsistent with each other. Tlie gi-ace of 
God is bestowed upon the ground of faith, which is inseparable from 
good works. 

(82) The covenant of the cJiildren of Israel, dx. It is noteworthy 
that the Qurdn nowhere makes allusion to the ceremonial rites of 
sacritice as a sin-offering, when narrating the religious duties of the 
Jews. Even the famous passage in- chap. xxii. ."^6-40, where sacritice 
is recoginsed as a rite appointed by God unto every nation, and tlie 
story of the " Yellow Cow" (vers. 66-70), do not indicate a sacrifice 
in any Jewish sense as having atoning efficacy. Muhammad could 
hardlv have known so much of .Judaism as is manifest in the (^unin 
—could not have met with so many Jews a'-* he did in Madina, 
without knowing something at least of their ideas of sacrifice. Tiio 
conclusion would seem well founded that he deliberately eliminated 
the whole idea of atonement from what he declared to be tlie Word 
ot God, and, therefore; never permitted the doctrine of salvatioji by 
atonement to appear as having divine sanction in any disptmation. 
With facts like this before us, it is very difficult to exonerate tln^ 
rfutbor of the Q,ur4n from the charge of deliberate forgery and con- 
scious imposture. 

CHAP, n,] ( 320 ) [SIPARA T. 

except a few of you, and retired afar off. . (83) And when 
we accepted your coveimi)t., saying, Ve shall not shed your 
hroihers blood, nor dispossess one another of your habita- 
tions; then ye confirmed it, and were witnesses the^ret^. 
(84) Afterwards ye were they who slew one another, and 
turned several of your hreihren out of their houses, mutu- 
ally assisting each other against them with injustice and 
enmity ; but if they come captives unto you, ye redeem 
them : yet it is equally unlawful for you to difeposseas 
them. Do ye therefore believe in part of the boolc of the 
law, and reject other part thereof? But whoso among 
you doth this, shall have no other reward than shame in 
this life, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent 
to a most grievous punishment ; for Goi) is liOt regardless 
of that wJiich ye do. (85) These are they who have pur- 
chased this present life, at the price of that which is to 
come ; w^herefore their punishment shall not be mitigated; 
neither shall they be helped. 
R \'i' II (86) "We formerly delivered the book of the law unto 

(83) Shall 7U>t shed your brother's hlood. Rod well translates, " your 
nwii blood,'' and explains as follows : *' Tlie blood of those who ai-e 
as your own flesh." 

(84) Yet it is equally unlawful for you tr> dUpossess them. " Tins 
pat^sage was revealed on oecaaion of some <|uanels which arose 
bf'tween the Jews of the tribes of Quraidha, and thope ot al Aws. al 
Nadhlr, and al Khazraj, and came to that height that they took arnia 
and destroyed one another's habitations, and turned one another out 
of their hcmses ; but when any were takmi captive, thc-y redeemed 
them. When they were asked the reason of their acting in this 
•manner, they answererl, that they were commanded by their law to 
redeem the captivefi, but tluit they fought out of ehanie, lest their 
chiefs should be deapif^ed." — Sale, on authority of Jaldlud<Jin. 

(8ft) \S'ho have purchased this present fife, dbc. Thif? clear recog- 
nition of the importance of 8eekin;:j happiuesff in the life to cc»ino, 
together with thtj personal character given to the Judge of all trieii, 
have not been the least potent factors in gaining; induence lor Lslim 
aniong its votaries. 

Shall not he helped. By the int-evcciision of prophets and angels to 
save them irom wrath on the judgment-day. 

(8C) And caused apostles to iixccs^d him. '' It is recorded that there 
wei-e four thousand prophets, move or less, bel ween Moses rind .b-.-jus, all 
of whom obeyed the precepts of the Pentateuch, e.g., Joshua, Simeon, 
Job, David, Solomon, Elijah, Zacharayu, and John Baptist. They 

SI PARA 1.] (321 ) [chap, rr.. 

Moses, and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave 
evident miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and streng- 
thened him with the holy spirit. Do ye therefore, 
whenever an apostle coineth unto you with that which 
your souls desire not, proudly reject Mm, and accuse 

were sent in order to proclaim and enforce tlie law, for the corrup- 
tions (of the text of the Word of God) made by Jewish doctors had 
been spread abroad. Wherefore these apostles were, so to speak, 
divine teachers and renev/ers of the true religion. Such are referred 
to in this verse." — Taffilr-i-Raufi. 

This anthority states, in this same coixnection, that a prophet was 
sent at the beginning ot everr century, and that at the beginning of 
each millennium a great prophet (Nabi ul Azim) was sent. This 
state of things continued until the coming of Muhammad, who, beiuf^ 
the last of the prophets, closed the book of inspiration and established 
the true faith in perfection. He does not, however, seem to sec the 
inconsistency of this theory with the fact of the four thousand ]»rophets 
belonging to the Mosaic di -pen nation before mentioned, nor does he 
show by what process the disposition of doctors of divinity to corrupt 
the text of Scripture has been changed in the last dispensation. If 
the former f^ci'iptures were corrupted io spite of the foui thousand 
prophets, how about the Qur^n in a dispensation devoid of prophets ? 

And gave evident miro.des to Jesus the son of Mary. These were — 
(i) speaking when an infant in his mother's arms ; (2) making hirSa 
of clay when a child, and causing them to fly away ; (3) healing the 
blind-born; (4) cleansing lepers; and (5) raising tlie dead. See 
chaps, iii. 48 and, v. no. 

Ihese passages, while recognising Jesus ae a worker of miracles, 
everywhere ascribe them to divine power ext€rnal to him. He is 
only " the son of Mary." 

And strengthened him iiith the holy spirit. *' We must not imagine 
Muhammad here means the Holy Ghost in the Christian acceptation. 
The commentators say this spirit vras the angel Gabriel, who sancti- 
iied Jesu-s and constantly attended on him." — Sale^ Jaldhidain. 

In chap, iv, 169. Jesus is said to be "a spii'it proceeding from 
God," BO that he would ap]iear, according to the Quran, to be the 
Holy Ghost. Muslims even accord to his followers the creed, 
" There is one God, and Jeyus is the Spirit of God," as expressive of 
the truth. In chap. xxi. 91, Mary's conception is said to have been 
diif to the hreaih-jvg hy God of hie spirit into her. And in chap. iii. 
45, Jet>u3 i& called the '•' Word proceeding from Himself" %.e., God. 
Now, while it is nerlain that these expresHions, and many others of 
a siiiiilav inipori in the Quran, do express the doctrine of the divinity 
of Jesus, aci well as of the Holy Ghost, it is peifectly clear that 
Mvhainmad '/lever 'I'nteadeA to express that idea. For instance, in 
chap, iii, 47, it is evulent that Muhammad regarded Jesus as a 
creature. And in chap iv. 169, 170, where Jesus is culled tlie 
■' word which he (God) conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding 
from him,'' this very expression, -which is one of the strongest in the 


CHAP. II.} ( 322 ) [srPv».RA I. 

some of imposture, and slay otliers ? (87) The. Jews say, 
Our hearts are uncircumcised : but God hath cursed them 
with their infidelity; therefore few shall believe. (88) 
And when a book came unto them from God, confirming 
the scriptures which were with them, although they had 
before prayed for assistance against those who believed 
not, yet when that came unto them which they knew to he 
from God, t\\Qy would not believe therein : therefore the 
curse of God shall- be on the infidels. (89) For a vile 
price have they sold their souls^ that they should not 

Quran, is followed by the command, " Shj not, there are three Gods," 
which is evidently intended to deny the idea, of the divinity of Jesus 
as well as of Mary. Nevertheless, the iaci 01 such expressions being 
used in the Quran can only be explained on the ^;round that they 
were in use among the Arabs in Miibanimod's time in a Christian 
sense, and that Muhammad either used tliem, while explaining away 
their meaning, in order to commend his doctrine to Christians, (»r, 
as is more probable, he used them without understanding their 
Christian iraport himself. See Muir's Life of Mofuiinet, vol. ii; p. 138- 

The unintentional testimony of Muhammad to the character of 
Jesus is a subject worthy the hiudj of the Christian controversialist. 

The Ta/sir-i-IIusuini gives four opinions of Muslim commentators 
as to the import of the expression " holy spirit :" (i.) The h'>ly soul 
of Jesus ; (2 ) the angel Gabriel ; (3.) a potent name whereby he was 
able to raise the dead ; and (4.) the Gospel. 

And accuse some of imposture. The prophet of Arabia, as is his 
wont, here likens the treatment he received at the hands of the Jews 
to that endured by Jesus, wliom tbey rejected as an impostor. The 
pa.ssage shows that Muhammad u-ois regarded as an impostor by the 
Jews of Madina at least. 

(87) But God hath cursed them with their injidelity, therefore few 
ahall believe. Rodwell readers it, " God liath cursed them in their 
infidelity : few are they who believe." 

Savary has it : " God cursed them because of their perfidy. Oh, 
how small is the number of the true believers !" 

(88) And when a hook came, unto tht^m from Ood. The Qurdn, 
wliich Muliammad heve distinctly claims to be the Word of God. 

They had bi'fore prayed, dec. " The Jews, in expectation of the 
coming of Muhammad (according to the tradition of his followers), 
used this prayer : O God^ -fvelp us againM the unbelievers by the projthaC 
wko is to he sent in the Imt tinuiB.'' — Sale., 

Which they knew to be from God. Another charge of deliberate 
rejection of his clainjs, 

(89) Old of envy ^ becausn God sendxth down hia favours to such of his 
servants as he pleoseth. Envious of " the gift of th« prcxphetic office, 
&c., to a pagan Arab, and not to a Jew." — Hodwett. 

SIPARA I.] ( 323 ) [chap. H 

believe in that which OoD hath sent down ; out of envy, 
because God sendeth down his favours to €uch of his 
servants as he pleaseth : therefore they brought on them- 
selves Indignation on indignation ; and the unbelievers 
snal] suffer an ignominious punishment. (90) When 
one saith unto them, Believe in that which God hath 
sent down; they answer, We believe in that which 

" It is remarkable that Muhammad accuses the JewB of rejecting 
him for the same reason their elder? and priests had refused Christ, 
namely, for enyy^—Brinckman, iVofes on Jslam. 

This assumption of Muhammad, like that of deliberate rejection 
of him whom they knew to be the prophet of God, and of that which 
they knew to be the Word of God (i.e., the Qurdn, see ver. 88), is 
purely gratuitous. He liad failed to give his Jewish hearers one 
single good reasou for beliering him to be sent of God as a prophet, 

K. Bos worth Smith (Mo^iammed and Mohanimedamsm, p. 14, second 
edition) is surprieed "that the avowed relation of Christianity to 
Judaism has not protected JsMm from the assaults of Christian 
apolo(?ists, grounded on its no less explicitly avowed relation to the 
two togeil:er." But sureJy "avowed" relationship can afford no 
protection to any religion against assault. The avowed relationship 
must be proven to be genuine. Mere assertions on the part of Jesus 
never could have established any relationship between Christianity 
and Judaism. This relationship is only established by showing 
Christianity to be a development of Judaism — a development de- 
manded by Judaism itself. Until it can be shown that Islam is a 
further development of both Judaism and Christianity, all " avowed " 
relationship cdunts for nothing. The ground of assault on the part 
ot Christian apologists is the inanifest disagreement between IsUm 
and its " avowed relation " to Christianity. 

(90) That which Ood hath sent down. The Qurdn. The Tafsir-i-Ra uji 
understands the allusion to be to the Gospel also, but this opinion is 
not well founded. The latter part of the verse undoubtedly refers 
to the Qiirin alone, and the allusion here must be to the same thing. 

Tn/it which hath been sent dovm to us. The Pentateuch, 

Tkey reject . . . the truths confirming that which is with them. See 
note on ver. 40, This statement, so Jn*equently reiterated, is one of 
the chief of the points inviting attack upon the Qur^n, Tlie question 
to be decided is one of fact. Does the Quran confirm the doctrine, 
the history, and the plan of salvation by atonement set forth in the 
writings ot Moses I If not, then the Quran is a forgery, and Mu- 
hammad an impostor, the Qur<in being witness. 

Muslims are so thoroughly convinced 01 the force of this argument 
against them that they see no way of evading it except in the claim 
that the Pentateuch now in use among Jews and Christians is either 
in whfde or in pai t a forgery. 

ISay, Why tjierefirrv have ye slain the prophns of Ood ? See Matt, xxiii. 
S7- i^o Rod well ; but see also notes 01: ver. 6a 

CHAP. II.] ( 324 ) 

hath be(3n sent down unto lis : .and 1 1iey reject what 
ha;th been reveahd since, although it be the truth, con- 
firming that which is with them. Say, Why there- 
fore have ye slain the prophets of God in times past, 
if ye be true believers ? (91) Moses formerly came unto 
you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took the calf /or 
yovr god and did wickedly. (92) And when we accepted 
your covenant, and lifted, the mountain of Sinai over 
you, sai/i/ig, Keceive the law which we have given you, 
with a resolution io per/onn it, and hear; they said. We 
have heard, and have rebelled: and they were made to 
drink down the calf into their hearts for their unbelief. 
Say, A grievous thing hath your faith commanded you, if 
ye be true believers ? (93) Say, If the future mansion with 
God b^ prepared peculiarly for you, exclusive of the rest 
of mankind, w^ish for death, if ye say ttuth ; (94) but they 
will never wish for it, because of that w^hioh their hands 
have sent before them; God kuoweth the wicked-doers ; 

(91) The calf. See notes on ver. 50, 

(92) Lifted ike mouvtain of Sinai over you. See note on ver. 62. 
We have heard arid rehcUed. Mnshci commentators oxpreBS a 

variety of (.'pinions in regard to these words, e..g., they cried aloud 
"we h<ave heard," but said softly "and rebelled,'' or 'Sve have heard" 
with our ears " and rebelled " with our hearts, or tliat their fathers 
heard and they rebelled; or that some said "we have heard," and 
others "and rebelled;" or, fiji ally, that two different occasions are 
referred to, one of obedience and another of rebellion. See tafsir-i- 

Sai/, A griivom thing, d:t. " Muhanimad here infers from their 
forefathers" disobedience in worshippirig the calf, at the same tiuie 
that they pretended to believe in the law of Moses, tliat the faith of 
the Jews in his time was as vain and hypocritical, since they rejected 
him, who was foretold therein, as an impostor." — Sale, Yahya, Bai- 

(93) If the future mannon . . . loish for death, if ye say truth. 
This same claim can be set ut) witli eq^ual justice against Muslimg, 
who holvi iiUt no hope of salvation to such as reiect Islam. The 
Tafstr-i-Raufi regards the words as being addressed to believers as a 
tent cf thfir faith. Tried by such a tost, there are indeed very few 
true Muslims. 

(94) That which their hands have sent before theyn. ''That is, by 
reason of the wicked forgeries which they have beeii gnilty of in 
respect to the Scriptures. An expression luuch like tJiat of St. Paul 

SXPARA I.] ( 325 ) [chap. II. 

(95) and thou slialt surely find them of all men the most 
covetous of life, even more than the idolaters : one of them 
would desire his life to be prolonged a thousand years, 
but none shall reprieve liimself from punishment, that his 
life may ))e prolonged : God seeth that which they do. 

li (96) Say, Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel (for he hath 1\TT- 
caused t?ie Qiirdn to descend on thy heart, Ijv the permission 
of God, confirming that which was before reveled, a direc- 
tion, and good tidings to the faithful)- (97) whosoever is an 
enemy to God, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel, 
or Michael, verily God is an enemy to the unbelievers. 
(98) And now we have sent down unto thee evident 

where he says, that some tnen's sins are ope7i beforehand, going before 
to judgment." — Sale. 

God knomth the vncked-doers. This, with a multiUide of similar 
pjissages in the Quran, clearly emphasises the truth of God's omni- 
science. It is one of those truthfs which has given IsUm so much 
moral power, and which asserts its superiority over the various 
form.-5 of heathenism with which it cornea In contact. Such truths 
regarding God account in great measui*e for its influence as a " mis- 
sionary religion." 

(06) Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel. "Tl)e commentators say that 
the Jews asked what angel it was that brought the divine revelations 
to Muhammad ; and being told that it was Gabriel, they replied that 
he was their enemy, and the messenger of wrath and punishment ; 
but if it bad been Michael, they would have believed on him, be- 
cause that angel was their friend, and the messenger of peace aud 
plenty. And oti this occasion, they say, this passage was revealed. 

That Michael was really the prote<*tor or guardian angel of the 
Jews we know from Scripture (Dan. xii. J) ; and it seems *,liat Gabriel 
was, as the Persians call him, the angel. of revdaiioyis, being frequently 
sent on messages of that kind (Dan. viii. 16; ix. 21; liuke 1. 19, 26); 
for which reason it is probable MuhAmmxid pretended he was the 
angel from whom he received the Quran." — Sale, Jalaluddin, Yahyor. 

(98) Evident signs, " i.e., the revelations of this book." — Sale. " The 
Qurdn and miracles."- -T^a/sfr-t^jRawj?, The word Aydt, here trans- 
lated signs, is that which is used to denote the various sections or 
verses of the Quran. As these verses were claimed to be a standing 
jniracle, :aid wt:re for this reason called signs, the allusion of the pas- 
sage is to the revelations of the Quran, as Sale has it. 

A^ to the 'laim of Muslim tradition and of modern Muharama- 
dans that Muhdmmad wrought miracles, it is sujBicient to say that 
such a claim is made directly in opposition to the repeated declara- 
tion of the Qur4n to the contrary. See vers. 118, 119; chap. iii. 
1 84, 185 ; chap. vij. 34-36, 109, iir ; chap, x. 21, &c. 

CHAP.!?.] ( 326 ) [SIPAR\I. 

signs, and none will disbelieve tLem but the evil-doers. 

(99) Whenever they make a covenant, will some of them 
reject it ? yea, the greater part of them do not believe. 

(100) And when lliere came unto them an apostle from God, 
confirming that' scripture which was with them, some of 
those to whom the scriptures were given cast the book of 
GrOD behind their hacks, as if they knew it not : (101) and 
they followed the device which the devils devised agams'- ti)e 
kingdom of Solomon, and Solomon was not an uni)eliever ; 
bat the devils believed not; they taught men sorcery, and 
that which was sent down to the two angels at Babel, 
Hdnit and Mardt ; yet those two taught no man until they 
had said, Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an 

flOO) An apostle from God, Cffijirming that scripture which was with 
ihem. Muhammaa here reitetates his claim to be an apogtlfe con- 
finning the Jewish Scriptures. He would also be recognised as an 
apostle pf God because he confirms the Jewish Scriptiires. He there- 
fore attests the divine character of th(i Scriptures (.'.xtant in his timi. 
See also note on ver. 90. 

(101) T/(» device which ihe devils devised. "The devils having, by 
God's permission, tempted Solomon without success, they made u«e 
of a trick to blast- his character. For they wix>te several books of 
magic, and hid them under that prince's throne, and after his death 
tola the chief men that if they wanted to know by what means Solo- 
mon had obtained his absolute power over men, genii, and the winds, 
they should dig under his throne ; which having done, tliey found 
the foresaid books, which contained impious sup^irstitions. The 
better sort refused to learn the evil arts therein delivered, but the 
common people did ; and the priests published this scandalous stoiy 
of Solomon, which obtained credit among the Jew.s, till God, say 
the Muharamadana, cleared that kiDg by the mouth of their prophet, 
declaring that Solomon was no idolater." — Sale, Yahya, Jaldlnadlii. 

"Babel is regarded b^ the Muslims as the foimtain-head of the 
science of magic. They suppose H^riit and MdriH to be two angels 
who, in conse<j[uence of their want of compassion for the fraila es of 
mankind, were sent down to earth to be tempted. They both sinned ; 
and being permitted to choose whether they Would be punished now 
or hereaiter, chose the former, and are still suspended by th«,; feet at 
Babel in a rocky pit^ and are the great teachers of magic."— I,a7w on 
chap, iii., note 14, 01 the Thousand and One Nights. See also Rod- 
well's note. 

HdrM and Mdr^U. '' Some say only tiiat these were two magicians 
or angels .^ent by God to teach men magic and to tempt them ; but 
o*.heT3 tell a longer fable, that the angels expressing their surpriee 
at the wiukedneas of the sons of Adam, alter prophets had been sent 

SIPARA J.] ( 327 ) [CHAP. IT. 

unbeliever. So men learned frorn those two a chonn by 
which they might causa division between a man and his 
wife ; bat they hurt none thereby, unless by God's per- 
mission, and they learu(;d that which would hurt them, 
and not proiit them ; and yet they knew that he who 
bought that art should have no part in the life to come,. 
an.d woful is the pHce for whieli they have sold their souls, 
if they know it. (1 02) But if they had believed, and feared 
GtOd, verily the reward tfiey aiould have had from GOD 
would have been better, if they had known it. 

Ij 1,103) O true believers, say not ta oa/r apostle, "Kama;" 11 l'^ 
but$ay "Undhiirna;" and hearken : the infidels ehall suffer 
a grievous piiiiishn)eiit. (104) tt is not the desire of the un- 
to ttieui with dlvinQ commissions, God bid tbem choose two out of 
their own number to be sent ddwu to be judges on earth. Wh«ro- 
npou they pitclied upoi) Harut and Miirut, who fcxecuied their office 
wiUi mtegrity for some time, till Zuharah, or the planet Venus, de- 
scendijd and apjx^ared b^d'ore them in tho- shape of a beautiful woman, 
bringing a complaint against her huabanrl (though others say she 
WAS a real woman). As soon as thev aaw her they fell in love with 
hdT, and endeavoured to prevail on her to satisfy their desires ; but 
she flew up again to heaven, whither tlie two augels also returned, 
but were not admitted. However, on the intercession of a certain 
pious man, they were allowed to cht^ose whether they would be 
punished in this life or in the other ; whereupon they chose the 
former, and now siifler punishment accordingly in Babel, where 
they are to remain till the du> of judgmeni. They add thai if a 
man haa a fancy to learn magic, he may go to them, and hear their 
voice, but cannot see them, 

"The Jews have something like this of the angel Shamhozai, 
who having debauched himself with women, repented, and \)j way 
of peiia/)oe "Hung himself up between heaven and earth. (See 
BereshJt Rabbah in Gei). vi. 2).'' — ^S'l/zJe, Yakm, JaMluddin, <kc. 

(103) Say mi to our apostle. ^^Raina. ; '' hut say " UndMirna" " Those 
two .A.rabJc words have both the same signiiication, viz., Lock on lis, 
and are a kind of salutation. Mu.hammftd had a great aversion to 
the first, because the Jews frequently used it ui derision, it being a 
word of reproach in their tongue. They alluded, it seems, to the 
Hebrew \'erb ^^1, ma, which signifies to he had cr mischievous J' — 
ISfde, JuLHudclin. 

" TiWna," ixH pronounced, means in HeVjrew, " &ur had one; " but in 
Aiabic, ^^look onua." — Hodwell, Ahdul Qddir. 

(lOo) Whatever 'oer&e we shall ahroyate, or causae thee to forget, tee 
icill hnng a hetter than it, or One like unto it, " Im4m Baghawi says, 
■ that file number of abrogated verses has betu variously estimated 

CHAP. II.} ( 32S > [STPAP-A I. 

believers, either among tho?>e unto whom the scriptures have 
been given, or among the. idolaters, that any good should 
oe sjnt down unto you from your Lord : but God will 
appropriate his mercy unto whom he pleaseth ; for God is 
exceeding beneficent. (105) Whatever verse we shall abro- 
gate, or cause tlwe to forget^ we will bring a lietter than 

from five to fi\ e hundred." — Hughes' Introduetion to thu Roman Urd& 
Quran, 1S76, p. xix. 

Tlie Tafsir Fatah-ul-Ay^iz tlescrVoes three classes of ahroj]rate<i pas- 
sages : (i.) M'hem one verse or passage if* ^uhsiitufed for another; 
(2.) where the raeaning and ibroe of a jmssage if! ab-''ogated by the 
addition of anotlier passage; both passages being letaiufed in the 
book ; and (3.) wb.ere the passage is remo-ved entii'ely from both 
the book and the memory of those who may have heard ic. See 
on this subject Introduction to Muir's Life of Mahomet, pp. xxii, and 
icxvLj also Prelimmary Didconrse, p. no. 

Brinckman, in his Notes on Islam, draws from this passage the 
following conclusion :— "If God gave Verses to Muhammad and then 
cancelled them, it utterly destroys the notion that the original of 
the present Qui'4n, as we now have it, was written on the preserved 
table from ail eternity by irod. If it be f^aid that God tnonghi it 
better to vri th (3 some versc^s after declaring them, it looks as if 
Go*i, like man, did not know fie future ; and as we do not know 
fer .'I certain iy what words were cancelled, we cannot tell which 
verse it is best for us to attend to." 

The doctrine of abrogation, as taugltt in this passage and others 
(xiii. JB9 and xvL 103), sprang up during' Mohiunnad's prophetic 
career as a matter of necessitv. The prophetic pasea^es bein^ deli- 
vered piecemeal, and generally as the religious or political ciroum- 
slonces of the prophet demanded, it came to pass T.hat some oi the 
later deliverances were contradictory to former ones. The Jews, 
ever alert in tlieir Opposition Ut- iho. pretensions of the new religion, 
pointed out the discrepancies already mHuifest in the so-railed re\e- 
lations. C>bjections of this order could not but seriously influence 
the popularity of the prophet among his r.ountrjmen, and even 
jeo:<ardi3e his cr<^dit in the eyes ot his own followers. Undfir cir- 
ouia^tanceB likethe'e Muhammad promulgated the doctrine of abro- 
gation, a doctrine which not only secured the allegiance of those 
whose faith had bten shaken by Jewish objections, but which has 
oerved to strengthen his followers in all ages in their controversy 
with Jews and Christians. 

The claim of the commentators is: (i.) That God is a sovereign, 
<»nd is therefore at liberty to change or abulish his laws at his own 
discretion ; (2.) that abrogRlion on his nan. does not imply any 
impi'rfectiou in the laws rhanged or abouslied, as Jews and Ohri^- 
1ian.s had declared, but ihat circumstances of time, place, &.c,., caUed 
lorth new law^s, jites, and ceremonies. Ail God's laws, rites, and 
ceremonies, ordained for the guidance of his creatures, are good and 

STPARA r.] ( 329 ) [CHAP- II. 

it, or one like unto it. Dost tliou not know that GOd is 
almighty ? (106) Dost thou not know that unto God be- 
longeth the kingdom of heaven and earth ? neither have 
ye any protector or helper except God. (107) Will ye 
require of your apostle according to that which was for- 
merly required of Moses ? but he that hath exchanged faith 

true for the ttoe and mider the cin'aiihstauces in which they were 
giv-en and for which they Avere inteuded. 

Now, while it may be admitted tlu\t the abrogated passages of the 
Q, may thus be upheld against the objection that they militHte 
{igainst the perfection of the divine character, asswning, as Muslims 
do, tlie inspiration of tlie Quran, yet thi.-* uoctriiie will not serve 
their purpopo when applied to the alleged abrogation of the Sciip- 
tures of the OhI and New Testamenti^. 

On this point it becomes na to ailmit freely that God has abro- 
gated in one age rites, caremonietj, and laws which were commanded 
in another. We claim this much iu our controrersy with Jews con- 
cerniBg the rites and ordinances of the M6s;iic dispensation relating 
to clean and unclean meats, sacrifices and olfcirings, tiie observance 
of cerLain feasts, h(dy days, jnlgrimages, &c. This doctrine is clearly 
maintained bv the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Galatiana and 
by the author of the fioistie to the Hebvews. 

But when the Muslim seeks to apply this principle of abrogation 
to the great cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith, as taught con- 
sistently throughout the whole Bible, and thus attempt.^ to reconcile 
the forrner Scriptures with the contradictory teachings of the Quran 
concerning the being and attributes of God, the Trinity, the Soneiii p of 
Christ, the Holy Bpiiit, and thfi Atonement, njjt to mention historical, 
facts and the spirit of prophecy, the Ci'.ristian does fairly take excep 
tion to this doctrine of abrogation. No amount of argument can 
ever so reconcile the Qurdn with, the fotraer Scripturis, which it 
professes to confirm, as to make it possible to accept both as the 
Word of Go<l. If the Bible bo acknowie<lged to be the Word of 
God (and every Muslim is bound to do so), then, all reasonable con- 
cession to the doctrine of abrogation being made, the Quran must 
still be rejected. 

Dost 7wt thou. hMUf that God is Almighty? This is given as the 
reason why Cod may abrogate any portion of his Word. It ia the 
reason given by all Mujslini commentators. " He can. do as he 
pl'.'asea.*' But God cannot lie. He cannot deny eternal truth, his- 
torical facts, and his own nature. " He cannot deny himself." 
Compare the teaching of Jesus iu Matt. v. 17. 

(107) Thai v:kick u<u fvrmerly required of Moses t "Jaldluddin 
Rays that what the Jews required of Moses wa-s that they might 
see God manifestly. The Tafsir Humini, however, has it that they 
demanded that M uhatnmad should show them such a complete book, 
given at one tim«, as was given to Moses. Whatever the allusion 
may be, one thing is evident, viz., that Muhammad was troubled 

CHAP. II.] ( 330 ) [SIPARA I. 

for infidelity, bath already erred from tLe straight way. 
(108) Many of those unto whom the scriptures have 
been given, desire to render you again unbelievers, after 
ye have believed ; out of envy from their souls, even 
after the truth is beeome manifest unto them; but for- 
give thern, and avoid thifm, till Gop shall send his eom- 
80U. mand ; for God is omnipotent. (109) Be constant iw 
prayer, and give alms , and what good ye have sent 
before for your souls, ye t-hall find it with God; surely 
God seeth that which ye do. (110) They say, Yerily none 
shall enter paradise, except they who are Jows or Christians: 
this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof oj this^ if ye 
speak truth. (Ill) Nay, ]mt he who resigneth himself to 
God, and doth that which is right, he shall have his reward 

and displeased at the disposition of his follo-wei-s to require of him. 
similar e\idence of his prophetic missicn to that given by Moses." — 
Votes on Bvman Urdit Qumn, 
(i08) Out of envy frmi their souls, So. See notes on ver. 89. 
Butforgivc them, and avoid them. These words indicate Ihe policy 
of Muhammadj so long as be was too weak to use the moi-e cojiyinciug 
argument of the sword in tlie conti'oversy with the powerful Jewish 
tribea of Madina. The faithful were not to wage war against them, 
but to forgive them, and to prevent their exerciaing any evil 
influence, they were to be avoided. The Tafsir-i-Raufi paraphrases 
this passage thus : " Forgive and pass them by. until God tevea] his 
domniand concerning their slaughter or their payment of tribute." 

(109) Be constant in 'prayer. Prayer is the first of the five prin- 
cipal duties of the Muslim. It consists iu the of!iiring 01 ascriptions 
of praise to the deity with, supplication fur divine blessing five times 
a day. The times for prayer are : (i.) In the evening at four minutes 
after sunset ; (2.) just after nightfall ; (3.) at daybreak in the morn- 
ing;, (4.) at noon, as soon as tlie sun begins to decline from the 
meridian; (5.) midway between noon aud sunset. See also note on 
Ter. 42. 

And alms. The giving of zak(% or legal and obligatory alms, is 
another of the five duties. The idea was probably borrowed from 
the Jewish tithes. See note on ver. 42, and Preliminarv Di&coursej 
p. 172. 

(110) Th^y say^ Verily none sluiU aifer paradUe, exdipt they who are 
Jews or Christians. "This passage was revealed on occasion of a 
dispute which Muhammad had with the Jews of Madlna and the 
Christians of Najr^ each of them asserting that rhose of their 
religion only should be saved." — Sale. Jaldtuddiu. See note on 
ver. 61. 

(111) iVay, but he who resigneth himself to God, and doth thai wh/ich 

SIPARA J. 3 ( 331 ) [CHAP. II. 

with his LoBD : tliere shall come no fear on them, neither 
shall they be grieved. 

I'l (112) The Jews say, The Christians arc grounded on 11 
nothing ; and the Christians vsay^ The Jews are grounded 
on nothing; yet they lofli r<iad the scriptures. So like- 
wise say they who know not the scripture, according to 
their saying. But God shall judge between them on the 
day of the resur ection, (concerning that about which they 
now disagree. (113) Who is more unjust than he who pro- 
hLbiteth the temples of (tOD, that his name should be re- 
membered therein,and who hasteth to destroy them ? Those 
men cannot enter therein, but with fear: (114) they shall 

ii rightyidbc. Here we have first a deuial of the teaching of Jews 
and C/hri8tian3 that a profession of, and obadience to, the require- 
ments of their religion is necessary to salvation. As tJiis is also 
the teaching of the Muslims, the force of this denial of it by 
Muhammad can only be evaded by the convenient doctrine of abro- 
gation. Secondly, Ave have here a declaration that resignation to 
the will of God and right doing, which Jal^uddln interprets as 
"asserting the unity of God," are the sole conditions of salvation. 
If 80, then men are still under the law, and so cannot be saved, 
seeing none can fulfil its requir€;raents. If so, theti the Gospel of 
Jesus, wliich the Qur^n claims to have attested, is untrue, 

(112) The Jews say, The Ohridians are ground'id on nothing, dc. 
"The Jews and Christians are here accused of devjjing the. teuth 
of each other b religion, notwitliptandiug thej read the Scriptures; 
whereas the Pentateuch bears testimony to J^jsua, and. the Gospel 
bears tentimony to Mosea." — Sale, Juldlnddin. 

Yet they both read the Scriptures. Tbi&is fortliev testimony to the 
Jewish anU Christian Scriptures, as not only extant and in general 
use among Jews and Christians, but also to their credibility. The 
plain inference from this passage is that Muhammad re?;arded them 
as genuine. Whence then the ground for the chaige matle by him 
that the Jews and Christians changed and corrupted their Scriptures 
(ver. 41) l The answer is, that he did not charge upon them the 
crime of corrupting tlie text, but of pervertiuQ and concealing the 
mmning of their Scriptui'es. 

The charge made by modern ?»f uslims as to tlip corruption of the 
Bible text cannot be justified by any fair interpretation of the 
Qurdn. This is a\\ arrow borrowed from the quiver of Christian 

Thity who hiow not the ScHpture. The heathen Arabs, who sided 
with Jews and Ciiilstians in their debutes. 

(113, 114) Who is more unjust than he who prohihiieth the temples 
0/ God, dtc. " Or hindereth men from paying their adorations to 

CHAP. II.] ( 332 ) [SIPARA 1. 

have shame in this world, and in the next a grievous 
punishment. (115) To God beio7igeih the east and the 
west ; therefore whithersoever ye turn yourselves to pray, 
there is the face of Gou ; for God is omnipresent and 
omniscient. (116) Th^y say, God hath begotten children: 
God forbid ! To him helongeth whatever is in heaven, and 
on earth; (117) all is possessed by him, the Creator of 

God in those sacred places. This passage^ says JaUluddln, was 
revealed on news being brought that the Romans bad spoiled the 
temple of Jerusalem ; or else when the idolatrous Arabs obstructed 
Muhammad's visiting the temple of Makkah in the expedition of al 
Hudaibiya, which happened in the bixth year of the Hijra." — 'Sale. 

But Rndwell points out tliat this verse is misplaced here, in case 
it has reference to the Makkans who obstructed Muhammad's visit to 
the Kaabali in the sixth year of the Hijra. 

*' Muhammad little thought how this verse foreshadowed his suc- 
cessors. The Mosque of Omer at Jerusalem and the Mosque of St 
Sophia will occur to the reader." — Brinckman^s Notes on Ish&m. 

Those men cannot enter therein hut with fear. This verse is referred 
to as authority for eicludiog Ghristiaus from the Musjid, especially 
from the Kaabah. 

(115) Whithersoever pe turn yourselves to pray, there is the face of God. 
This verse is regarded by all cojnmentuLors as abrogated by ver. 
145. It is said to have been revealed in] the interval between the 
abrogation of the command to pray tovrard Jerusalem and the final 
command to turn toward Makkah. A multitude of stories have been 
invented to explain the verse, but their recital would be unprofit- 

For Cfod is omnipresent and on>,ni8cient. This is given as the reason 
for requiring no Qibla. Even the Muslim must be struck witli the 
very strange inconsistency between this reasonable statement and 
the rfeason assigned in ver. 145 for the command to turn to Makkah 
as the Qibla. 

(116) They say, God hath begotten chi'ldren. "This is spoken not 
.-nly of the Christians and of the Jews (for they are accused of 
holding Uzair or Ezra to be the Son of GckI), but also the pagan 
Arabs, who iiuagined the angels to be daughters of God." — Sale, 

This charge indicates the ignorance of the Arabian prophet. 
Neither Jews nor Cliristians ever said God begot children in the sense 
here ascribed. The charge was probably due to an inference drawn 
from th«< laiigua^e used by Christians, and perhaps by Jews, in speak- 
ing of Christ and his people as the *' Son of God'' and "the children 
of God " The charge against the Jews that they called Ezra the Son 
of God (xjhap. X. 30) is; entirely without proof, and altogether beyond 
the region of probability. 

(117) Be, and it is. The-doctrine that God creates out of nothing 
is here clearly recognised. Alio bin entire sovereignty over all things. 

SIPARA !.J ( 333 ) [chap. IT. 

heaven and earth ; and when he dreceeth a thing, he only 
saith unto it, Be, and it is. (118) And they who know 
not the scHptures say, Unless God speak unto ns, or thou 
show us a sign, ')m will not believe. So said those before 
them, according to their saying : their hearts resemble 
each other. We have already sho^n manifest signs unto 
people who firmly believe; (119) we have sent thee in 
truth, a bearer of good tidings and a preacher; and thou 
shale not be questioned concerning the companions o£ 
hell. (120) But the Jews wLU not be pleased with thee, 
neither the Christiaus. until thou follow their religion ; 
say, The direction of God is the true direction. And 
verily if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge 
which hath been given thee, thou shalt find no patron or 
protector against God. (121) They to whom we have 

(118) Or thou ahow us a si^n. This passage points to the strong 
preBsure brought to bear u^ots. Muhammad, not only by Jews and 
Christians, but also by the Arabs, in their coiist.ant demand for 
njiracles. Such passages also dearly show that Ivluhammad wrought 
no JiiiradeB. 

Wc have alrtndy sliovm manijed iigns, Muhanjmad here probably 
alludes to th*^ verm {Ai/dt, si^ins) of the Qurin as manifest signs to 
be] i.^ vers. 

(119) We have sent- thee . .. a preacher. This is Muhammad's 
claim concerning himself. He ever sets himself forth as a preacher, 
yet as a messeneer of God, an apostle, by whom the Q^uran was to be 
conveyed to and enforced upon' the world. The power by whicli it 
was to be enforced, at the time this passage was writt^en, was persva- 
sion. The pains consequeiit on unbelief were the pains of hell-fire. 
Believers were not yet made by the power of the sword. 

Thmt ahMlt not he question<!d concerning the companion of hell. Tlie 
Tafsh- Husaiiu says tliese words were spoken in reply to tiie inquiry 
of Muhammad concerning his paients, who had died in idolatry. 
The meaning, however, seems t;) be that the prophet was not to 
dispute, but simply to 'proclaim' the ti-uih. If men would not believe, 
the responsibility rested with them. They thereby proved them- 
fcelves to be <:oinpanions of hell. 

(120) Until Oiov follov: their religion. We iecTrn from this passage the 
grov'iTig division between the^lews and Christians and Muhammad, 
who is now regarded as teaching doctrine which is far from attesting 
the Jaith of Abraham, Moses, an«i Jesus. Even Muhammad recognises 
" their religion'' as different from his own, but yet different only as 
heresy differs from ortliodox.y. 

(121) 2^^^ to whom we have given the hool. Sale, m his translation, 


1 5 

CHAP. II.] ( 354 ) [^tPARA I. 

given the book of the Qurdn, and who read it with its true 
reading, they believe therein ; and. whoever believeth not 
therein, they shall perish. 
t' II (122) O chOdren of Israel, remember my favour 
wherewith I have favoured you, and that I have pre- 
ferred you before all nations; (123) and dread the 
day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for 
another soul, neither shall any compensation be accepted 
from them, nor shall any intercession avail, neither shall 
tli«y be helped. (124) Re^iTvemh^r when the Lord tried 
Abraham by certain words, which he fulfilled : God said, 
Verily I will constitute thee a model of religion unto 
mankind ; he answered, And also of my posterity ; God 
said, My covenant doth not comprehend the ungodly 

supplies tlie vords " of tfu Quran " after this sentence. Some Muslim 
commentators understand the passage In the same way ; but the 
sentiment of the whole passage, aa well as the inierpretatiou of moat 
Muslim commentators, w against it. The reference is to Lhe Jewish 
and Christian Scriptures, and the meaning of tiie passage then is, 
"The diiectioD of God is the true direction," i.e., Isl^m, and those 
Jews and Christians who read their own Scriptures "with its true 
reading," i.e., who do not change or twist the evident import thereof, 
" they believe therein." 

We have in this pafcsuge a distinct witness of Muhammad lunteelf 
to the genuinenesfl and credibility of the Scriptures eriant in hia 
own time, and in use aiaong Jews and Christians. 

(122) children of Israel. . . . / have preferred yo% before all 
nations, i.e., "until the time ol' Muhammad. Then the descendants 
of Ishmael were not so approved by God." — Brinek'man'i NoUi, on 

This ver83 and the next are identical with vers. 46 and 47. 

(124) Remember xchcn the Lord tried A hrahmn. "God tried Abraham 
chiefly by commanding hira to leave his native country and to oflfer 
liifi son. But the commentators pappose the trial here meant related 
only to 3ome |>urticular ceremonies, auch as circumcision, pilgrinuvge 
to the Kaabah, several rites of purification, and the like." — Sale. 

Which hefidjilled. Which Ahrabara fui^Ued by leaving liis home 
and country, and, as Muslims believe, by offering up Ismail as a sjacri- 
fce. See chap, rxxvii. 101-107. 

Verily I will constitute thee a viodd of religion. "I will establish 
thee the leader (»i the people." — Savari/. 

" 1 have rather expressed tho meaning than truly translated the 
Arabic word Jmdfn, which answers to the Latin Antiaia. This title 
the Muhammaiians giv^i to their priests who begin the prayers in 
their mosques, and whom all the congregation follow."— /Sa/e. 

SiPARA I.] ( 335 ) [chap. II. 

(125) And when we appointed the holy house of MaJckahio 
be a place of resort for mankind, and a place of security ; 
and said, Take the station of Abraham for a place of 
prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham and Ismail, 
that they should cleanse my house for those who should 
compass it, and those wlio should be devoutly assiduous 
there, and those who should bow down and worship. (126) 

(1 25) The holy house. " Thai is, the Kaabah, which is usually called , 
by way of eminence, the house. Of tjie sanctity of this building and 
other particulars relating to it, see the Preliminary Discourse, p. 

The station of Abraham. '*A place so called within the inner 
enclosure of the Kaabah, wnere they pretend to show the print of his 
foot in a stone." — Sale. 

According to the Tafsir-i- Ravji, Abraham visited the house of 
Ismail in his absence, but not liking the treatment he receired 
from his wife, left with her a message for his son, which was under- 
stood by Ismail to express a desu*e that he should divorce his wife. 
This he did, when he married another. Abraham came again in the 
absence of his son, and being urged by his daughter-in-law to descend 
from his caiael and to permit her to wash his nead, he declared that, 
owing to a vow not to leave his camel till he had completed his 
journey, he could not get down. Being pressed, however, he so far 
consented, that with one foot on his camel and the other on a stone 
he had his head washed ! This is " the place of Abraham." 

And we covenanted wiih Abraham and Ismail, <£;c. The purpose (jf 
this passage seems to have been: (i.) To confirm in Arab minds their 
own traditions respecting Abraham and Ismail as the founders of 
the temple at Makkah, and (2,) to present the prophet of Arabia as a 
reformer of Makkan idolatry, as Abraham was said to have been. 

Throughout the Qurjin Muhammad endeavours very adroitly on 
the one hand to imitate the Old Testament prophets, and on the 
other to make it a])pear that the circumstances of trial and opposition 
under which the Old Testament prophets laboured were precisely 
similar to those under which he laboured. 

For most {satisfactory reasons for regarding this whole Muslim 
hist<:)ry of Abraham and Ismail as utterly unworthy of the least 
credit, see Introductioa to Muir's Life of Mahomet, pp. cxciii., cxciv., 
Eind ccix. note. 

The adoption of Arab and Jewish legend current in his day as 
true, and the promulgation of it as of divine authority, might be 
reconciled with the theory' that Muhammad, though self -deceived, 
vet was honest in his prophetic character. But when we add to this 
nis vacillation between the temples at Alakkah and Jerusalem, fixing 
on the latter first, then expressing himself indifferent to either, and 
finally settling on M&kkah, the inconsistency is a little too striking 
to tally with such a theory. 

CHAP, n.] ( 336 ) [SIPARA 1. 

And when Abraham said, LoRB, make this a territory of 
security, and bounteously bestow fruits on its inhabitants, 
such oi them as believe in God and the last day ; God 
answered. And whoever believeth not, I will bestov on 
him little ; afterwards I will drive him to the punishment 
olhell-&YQ; an ill journey shall it be! (127) And when 
Abraham and Ismail raised the foundations of the house, 
saying. Lord, accept i^froin us, £(»r thou art he who heareth 
and knoweth: (128) Lord, make us al.=?o resii,^ned unto thee, 
and of our posterity a people resigned Unto thee, i^nd show 
us our holy ceremonies, and be turned unto us, for thou 
art easy to be reconciled, and merciful. (129) Lord, 
send them likewise an apostle from among them, who 
may declare thy signs unto them, and teach them the 
book of the Qwrdn and wisdom, and may purify them ; for 
thou art mighty and wise. 

(127) And when Abraham and Ismail raisei the fmindations of ike 
house, d:c. Muir, in hi? Life of Mahrrninty Iwtrodv.ction, pp. cxci. 
and cicii., shows the whole story to be most cieurly n legendary 

(1 28) Lord, make us also resigned. " The Aiabic woiTl is Muslimuna, 
in the singular Muslim^ which the Muhammadans take as a title 
peculiar to theniselves. The Europeans generally write and pro- 
nounce it MusalriumS' — Sola. 

P.odwcll has greatly impr<^*vc'd the translation hy retaininp; the 
original form of the word, "Lord, make us also Muslims, and our 
posterity a Mu-slim people," tic 

(129) Lord., send mem Itkemne an apostle from among them, who tnay 
declare thy signs un,tc tJiem, the. If tliese words had been ]>ut into 
the mouth of Moses, we might regaid them as an allusion to Deut. 
xviii. 15. As they stand, and regarded in the light of Muhammad's 
prophetic pieten6;ons. the resemblance is probably accidental. 

Underlying ihese words thure is the claim of the Quraish to be 
the children of Abraham, a claim which has little positive evidaiicc 
in its favour. The negative proof derived from the lact that the Jews 
never denied il is, after all, very much weakened when we consider 
that a claim to be an Ishmaelite would be a matter of small interest 
to a Jew ; besides, the general ignorance of Arabia and its peoplo 
prevalent everywhere would naturally lead them to regard all Arabs 
as Ishmaelite?. Under such cir':uiustanceb, the silence of the Jews 
carries little weight with it. 

^' And m^doin, i.e.^ the. meaning of the QurAn, or its declarations 
G8 to things requiied and forbidden, as to things clean and unclean, 
and thus tnrough the law to purily them.'"' — Tafslr-i-Iiaufi 

siPAi-'A.n. ( 337 ) [chap. ir. 

but he whose mind is infatuated? Surely we iiave 
chosen him in this world, and in that which is to 
come he shnll be one of the righteous. (131) When 
his LoHD said unto hinri. Resign, thyself ww^o me; he 
answered, I have resigned myself uuto the liORD of all 
creatnj'es. (132) And brahaia bequeathed this rdigimi 
to his cliildren, and Jacob did the same, snying, My 
children, verily God hath chosen this religion for you, 
therefore die not, unless ye also be resigned. (133) Were 
ye present when Jacob was at the point of death ? when 
he said to his sons, W^honi will ye worship after me ? 
They answered, We will worship thy God, and the GoD 
of thy fathers Abraham, and Ismail, and Isaac, one GoD, 
and to him will we be resigned. (134) That people are. 
now passed away, they have what they have gained, and 
ye Eifiall havf what ye gain ; and ye shall not be questioned 
concerning that which they have done. (135) They say, 
Become Jews or Christians that ye may be directed. Say, 

(130) The religion of Abraham, i.e., l»la/a. Whilst such language 
was intended to serve the purpose of winning the Jews, it expresses 
no real concession to them. In so far as they differed from IsJdm, 
just so far had they departed from " the religion of Ahraham." 

(132) And Abraham bequeathed this religion to his chiidren, and Jacob 
did the snir.e, d;c. That tlie religion refenvd to here is Islim is 
evident from the latter part of the verse. Understood in the sense 
intendpd by Muhammad, viz., that the Muslim faith was the religion 
of Abraham and the patriarchs, this statement is false. Accordingly, 
we have here a statement, which, if overthrown, carries with it tlie 
whole fabric of Muhammadanism built upon it. Either the religion 
of Isliini was the religion of Abraliam, Isaac, and Jacob, or it was not. 
If it was, let us have the evidence of the former Scriptures, the 
■witness of the former prophets. Failure here must stigmatise the 
wholb system as a forgery. 

(134) Tiit'^f have ivhat they ham gained. "Or, deserved. The 
MulmtnTn-'idoin notion, as to the imputation of moral actions to man, 
which tliev c&ll ^wi'ii ur acquiaition, \s sufficiently explained in the 
Prel'imiriacy Discourse," p. 156. — Bah. 

Ye shnll not be- quedioved concerning that which they have done. 
Neither their virtues nor their vices will be :accredited to you. 
Every man shall answer for his own sin. See chap, xxxv. 19. 

(135) 7VJey my, Becovne Jews or Christian!}, tha^ ye riutfy be directed. 
Sai/, Nay, d'c. We here learn the estimaie whi> h Muhammad put 


CHAP, ll.j ( 338 ) [SIPARA r. 

Nay, wefollovj the religion of Abraham the orthodox, who 
was no idolater. (136) Say, We believe in God, and that 
which hath been sent down unto us, and that which hath 
been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismail, and Isaac, 
and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered 
unto Moses, and Jesus, and that which was delivered unto 
the prophets from their Lord : We make no distinction 

upon the Juaaism and Christianity of hie dav. They were systems 
of idolatry : the Jews regarding Ezra as ttie Son of God, as the 
commentators allege ; the Christians holding to a Trinity which, 
with Muhammad, consisted of GW. Mary, and Jesus. See chap. iv. 
169; comp. chap. v. 116, and chap. x'\x. 36. The Muslim is 
taught to regard himself as a follower of that faith from which botJi 
Jew and Christian had wandered, the faith of Abraham, " who was 
no idolater." 

The orthodox, Arabic Hanif, n)ftrining one who has turned from 
good to bad, or from bad to gooii. Hf-re the meaning is one who 
has turned from idolatry to the worship of the true God. See Rod- 
well's note on chap. xvi. 121. 

(126) Say, We oelieve in God., and thai- which hath been sent down 
to us, d-c No passage in the Qurdn sets forth more clearly than 
this the claims of Islam. It is the one true religion 0^ all trie fro- 
2>hets and apostles of God. It was the religion of Abraham, of Moses, 
and of Jesua. Upon this foundation the whole structure of Islam 
gtands. The controversy between the Christian and the Muslim is, 
mainly, one as to fact. The principal question is, Dons Jsldm con- 
serve within itaelf the systeTii of spiritilal truth, the historical fads^ 
and the flan of salvation set forth in the teachings of the patriarchs a'lid 
prophets of the Old Testament dispensation, and of Jesus and his Apostles 
in the New? This is the pi»int which Mu.slims ever seek to evacle, 
and yet this is the point which, above all others, they are bound to 
establisu ;8ee also above on ver. 132). 

Tliat which hath been sent down unto Abraham, d:c., . . . we 
make no distinction between any of them. Two points of import- 
ance in thf- controvcisy with Muslims may be noted here : — First, 
it is here q^serted that written revelations (books) like unto the 
Quran were ''sent down" from God "unto Abraliam, and Ismail, 
and Isaac, and Jacob," Where is tlie evidence of the truth of these 
statements? Where the proof tliat Ismail was a prophet at all? 
The Muslim will say that the te.stimony of the Quran is sutficient 
evidence. This is the argument of Muhammad himself in the next 
verse. But this <ame statement declares that the writings of Moses 
and Jesus are, «qually with the Qurdn, to be regarded as the inspired 
Word of God. This is our second point. If, now, the Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments contradict or fail to corroborate these 
assertions of the Qiuan, then the Quran points to Mie evidence wliich 
refutes its own statements. Th" assertion of modern Muslims, that 
these books, the writings of.Moses and Jesus included, are nu longer 

SfPARA I.] ( 339 ) [CHAr. IL 

"between any of them, and to God are we resigned. (137) 
Now if they believe according to what ye believe, they 
are surely directed, but if they turn back, they are iu 
schism. God shall support thee against them, for he is 
the hearer, the wise (138) The baptism of God Jtxjive we 
received, and who is better tlian God to baptize ? him do 

extant, and that the books in the hands of Jews and Chiistians are 
either forgeries or old copies ol the Scripture so full of corruptions 
us to be no longer credible, is itself evidence of the desperation of 
the Muslim apologist. Such an assertion is, of course, incapable of 
proof. Notwithstanding, it is marvellous with wliat pertinacity the 
assertion continues to be made. 

(137) If they turn back, tkey are in xckism. This last clause ia 
translated in Rodwell, "fAcT/ cut thernselven off from you;" in the 
Tafslr-i-Raujiy "are in opposition - and enmity to you;" ill Abdul 
Qddirs translation, " are opposed to you." 

On his entry into Madina, Muhammad courted the favour of the 
Jews. Hoping to bring them over to acknowledge his prophetic pre- 
teusionc, he expressed much reverence for the patriarchs of th^ Jews, 
and espechdly for Abraham, "the orthodox." A siiuilar desire to 
win the influence of the Abyssinian " Naidshi," and tlie Christian 
tribes of Yaman, drew forth from him similar expressions of respect 
for Jesus. . His was the religion of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. 
Why should they not acknowledge hiiu, seeing he had been sent to 
confirm the Scriptures of both Jew and Christian 'i His neighbours 
and fellow-townsmen, the Jews, demanded of him the proof of his 
claim. Failing to satisfy this very reasonable demand, he soon found 
the Jews to be his keenest opponents, whose objections he could not 
silence, save by the assassin's knife and the fanatic's sword. This 
verse marks the growing antipathy towards these. Failure to obey 
the "prophet" was now evident apostasy from God ; refusal to accept 
the doctT-iues of Islam, evidence ofeumity toward the Muslims. 

God will support ikee against them. The bloody triumph over the 
Bani Quraidha and the Bani Nadhir is here foreshadowed. Argu- 
ment and miracle being denied hini, Muhammad still relies on God. 
With this faith he instigates the assassination of Abu Afak, of Kdb, 
and Ibn Sanina ; exiles the Bani Nadhir and Qainucda ; and orders 
the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Bani Quraidha in cold 

It is said that the blood of the Khalifah Othraan, which was shed 
by an assassin s hand while reading the Quran, fell upon the words 
of this verse. See Rodwell in loco. 

(138) TJie baptism of God have we received. Rodwell translates 
this t>ass<ige, " Islam is the baptism of God," but says, " The original 
simply has ' Baptisvi of GodJ -This may be understood either of 
Islam generally, or, with Ullman, in the more restricted sense of 

Sale says, " B\ baptism is to be undenst^od the religion which God 


CHAP, ir.j { J40 ) [SIPARA II. 

we worslilp. (139) Say, Will je dispute witli us con- 
ceraing GoD» wlio is our Lord, and your Lord ? wo liave 
our works, and ye have your works, and unto him are we 
sincerely devoted. (140) Will ye say, truly Abraham, 
and Isinaij and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were 
Jews or Christiana ? Say, are ye wiser, or God ? And 
who is more unjust than he who hideth the testimony 
which he hath received from God ? But God is not regard- 
less of that which ye do. (141) That people are passed 
away, they, have what they have gained, and ye shall have 
what ye gain, nor shall ye be questioned concerning that 
which they have done. 
seoonh jl ri42) The foolish men will say, "What hath turned 

then, from their Qibla, towards which they formerly 
prayed? Say, Unto God helongeth the east and the 
west : liG directeth whom he pleaseth into the right 

ifisfcituted in the beginning ; becetuse the signs of it appear in the 
perfion \vho professes it, as the signs of water appear in the clothes 
of him that is baptized." 

Abdul Qddir translates it *' The Colour of God," and comments thus 
in the margin : "The Christians had a- custom that when any one 
was introduced into their religion, they prepared a yellow colouring 
matter with which they coloured the man's clothes and person. 
This ver!*c; was spoken in opposition to this practice." The Tafslr-i- 
Raufi, givoi? the fame translation, and refers it tu the baptism of 
infants by immersion in watur coloured yellow, which was used for 
their purification. He understands the verse to mean, *'that purifi- 
cation of Muslims from the contamination of idols by faith in God." 

(139) Will ye dinpute with us concerning God, d!;c. '^ " These words 
were reveaLi<l 'i:»ecau8e the Jews insisted that they first leceived the 
Scripcures, thai their Qibia was more ancient, and that no prophets 
oould arise amon}j the Alabs ; and therefore if Muhammad was a 
prophet, he must hrive been of their nation."-^ (S'oi«, Jaldluddin. 

(140) Jews or Chrintians. The author of the notes on the Roman 
ITrdii Quvdn calls attention to the anachronism of applying the 
names "Jew" and "Christian" to those who were dead centuries 
before these titles had any existence. 

Who hideth I he ttdirnony, &c. "The Jews are a^^ain accused of 
corrupting and suppressing the prophecies in the Pentateuch relating 
to Muhammad.' — ^ale. 

On this subject see further rrclim. Disc, yj. io6, and notes on 
verse 74. 

(142) Wlmt hath turned them from their Qihla, dc<i. / "At first, 
Muhammad and his followers observed no particular rite ia turning 

srpARA 11.] ( 341 ) [chap. it. 

way. (]43) Tlina have we placed you, ArabiaTW, an 
in termed iato nation, that ye may be witness against the 
rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness 

their faces towards any certain, place or quarter of the world when 
they praj^ftd, it being declai'e<i to be perfectly indiiforent (ver. 115). 
Afterwards, when the prophet fled to Madlna, he dire ctea them to 
turn toward!? the temple of Jerusalem (probably to ingratiate hiniyelf 
with the Jews), which continued to be their Qibla for six or seven 
mouths , but either finding the Jews too intractAbh, or despairing 
otherwise to gain the pagan Arabs, who could not foi-get their respect 
to the temple of Makkah, be ordered that prayere for the futiu'e should 
be towards the last. Tiiis <;liaiige was made in the second year of 
the Hijra, and occasioned many to fall from him, taking offence at 
his inconstancy." — ikule^ Jal&luddin, 

The "foolish men "^ were the Jews and the disaffected among the 
people of Madimi. Their folly consisted in their inability to recou- 
cile the statement of Muhammad in vei*. 115, and his practice, for 
fifteen months, in turning towanis Jerusalem, with the new coljmiand 
to turn towards the temple of the idolaters. Every appeal to reason 
was deprecated, and those claiming the right of private judgmenr 
were stigmatieed as fools. All who failed to acquiesce in every 
proposal of the " prophet " were disaffected. JfJdm then, as now, 
demanded th^ entire submission of the intellect, fia well as ihe wiil. tc> 
the dictum of the infallible prophet of an uuattcsK'.d revelttioiu 

Say, J'lilo God biil^/igeth the east and the west. This is used as an 
argument to justify the change of Qibla. Grod m.ay do as he pleaseth 
nitii his own. The same statement is used in vty\ 115 to shoj^' that 
710 Qibla was necessary on the ground tiiat God is everywhere present. 
" Whitliersucver ye turn yourselves to pray, there is the face of 
God." It is a very convenient argument that will both prove the 
rationality of turning from one Qibla to another, and at the same 
time disprove the necessity for a, Qibla at all ! 

(i43) Tlius have we jmced >/oti, Arabians, an intermediate nationj 
tf-c, Savary translates thus : " We- have established you, chosen 
people, to bear witness against the rost of the nation, as your apostle 
will bear it against you." 

Rodweil says, "A central people,' instead of ''intermediate 

Sale says, "The commentators (JalAluddiu, Yahya, 6oC.) will have 
the meaniny to be. that the Arabians are here declared tu be a most 
just and yood natiojj."' 

The idea intended seems to me to be this : Makkah with the Kaabah 
being now constituted the sacred city of JsHm, as Jerusalem with 
the temple was the sacied city of the Jews, Arabia was thereby made, 
so to Hjieak. the centre of the world in matters of religion, and, con- 
sequeutly, the An bians were constituted witnesses for the tiue 
religion a.^ainst the reat of mankind even as Muhammad wa8 a 
witness for islam against them, or, as Rodwell translates " in regard 
to tht-m." 

CHTAP. JT.] ( 342 ) [SIPARA 11. 

against you. (14-4) We appointed tlie Qibla, towards 
which thou diiist formerly ^my, only that we might know 
him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth 
back on the heels ; though this change seem a gi'eat matter, 
unless unto those whom God hath directed. But God 
will not render your faith of none eilect; for God is 
gracious and merciful unto man. (145) We have seen 
tliee turn about thy face towards heaven with, uncertainty^ 
but we will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Qibla 
that will please thee. Turn, thf:refore, thy face towards 
the holy temple of Makkah ; and wherever ye be, turn your 
faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture 
hath been given, know this to be truth from their IvOHD. 

Thug early -vve see the idea ftf a universal IsMm leveloped in the 
mind of Muhammad. 

(144) We af'p&irUed the Qiblttf , . . only that wg might knoxo him 
'tjdho foUoweth the apostle, from him who turneth back on the heels. Many 
of Muhammad's followers, especially those who had come out from 
among the Jews, -were ofl/mdcd at the manifest inconsistency of 
changing the Qibla from Jerusalenv to tlie idolatrous city ol" Alakkah 
with its pantheon. They naturally apostatised and returne<l t<» the 
faith of their fathers. Muliammad now pretends that the change 
WAS made as a test of their faith, whereas nothing i& clearer than the 
fact, that, failing in his attempt to win over the Jey's by the deference 
he had shown to their religion and the holy city, he now adopts ,a 
similar policy iit recognising the Kaabah as the holy place, towards 
which prayer is to be made, in order to conciliate the favour of the 
Arabians. The duplicity and worldly policy of the "prophet'' was 
too manifest to e!»tape the not oe of even many of his own di.sciples. 
These are the '* foots" and "disaffected." When facts Wt-re against 
the prophet of Arabia, it was only 8t» much the worse for the facts ! 

But Ood will not render your faith of -none effect. " Or will not 
suffer it to go without its reward, while ye prayed towards Jeru- 
salem." — Sale, 

(145) Turn, therefore^ thy face towards the holy temple, dx. Abdul 
Qadir sa^vs tjiat whilst Jerusalem was the Qibla, MuhaniTnad desired 
lo tuvn toward the Kaabah, and accoi-dingly prayed "toward heaven," 
Jioptng for the command to change the Qibla to Makkah ! 

Then f^ vAom the Scripture hath been Cjiven know this to be truth 
from Uicir Zord; i.e., the Jews know that this change of Qibld is in 
accordance with the divine commantl. The Taf^r~i-Rait/i under- 
stands Christians to be also alludad to under the expression "they to 
whom the Scriptur»' hath been given ;" but the circuiustances under 
wbioht the pascwge was written, viz., the final breach between Mu- 
naranmd and Judaism, would limit the application here to the Jews. 

SIPARA 11,] 

( 343 ) 

[chap. it. 

Goo ia not regardless of that which ye do. (146) Verily 
althougii thoa shouldest show unto those to whom the 
scripture hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will 
Hot follow thy Qibla, neither shalt thou follow their 
Qibla ; nor will one part of them follow the Qibla of 
the otlier. And if thou follow their desires, after the 

Of course, the words have an equally fit application to Christians. 
In this verse we tind di.stinct traces of deliberate deception and 
falseliood on the part (»f Mnhanmiad. (a.) In liis pretending to nave 
been displeased with Jeiusalem as the Qibla. He had been prayinj^ 
ttiward it for lifteeu months, had taught others to pray in like 
njanner, and had even built the first moixjue of Islam with the pulpit 
towards Jerusalem. Hifi "displeasure," therefore, evidently grew out 
of his failure to win over t:he Jews, coupled with hi^ desire to gain, 
influence among the Arabs by constituting their sacred city the 
Qibla of" his religion. (6.) Again, the assertiun that the Jews knew 
by the teaching of their Scriptures that such a change was from the 
Lord, is so jdainly false as to render it impossible to account for it 
oil any rational ground other than that of deliberate fabrication. 

It may be said that Muhammad was deceived by the representa- 
tions of his converts from Judaism. If so, it would truly show him 
to be the ''ignorant prophet." Bur it must be remembered that this 
is not the word of Muhammad but, according to Muhammad'.^ claim, 
the Word of God. He it is who is here made to sanction ''the re- 
pres(*ntatioii>s " of such <'.onverta. liut regarding these statements as 
matle by Muhammad, we think his character, his shrewdness, his pro- 
found knowledge of the men he had to deal with, all combine to make 
the th*!ory of his being bimbelt fleccived exceedingly i?Ti]»roi. table. 

(146) Verily allhouyh thou shoidJest show . . . oU kinds of mjnt^, d-c. 
The opposition of the Jews liad become s«» decided as to leaver i.o 
hope of a reconciliation. They ]U)W cliorged him with worshipping 
towarrl a heathen teinple, and with fickleness. These objections he 
now strives to uicet by such '' revelations" an this. "But it was the 
victory at Badr, one or two months atter, and the subseo^uent ho^ 
tilitie^t against the Jewa, which furnished the only eifective means 
for silencing theb- objections." — Muir's Life of Mdhomet, vol. iii. p. 45. 

Nor Kill one ^^art if them follow the Qilla of the other. " That is, 
each religion has its own (appointed) Kibla ; he refers, apparently, 
to Chrisliiins turning towards I he east and Jews towards Jerusalem ; 
whence Mahomet would argue a propriety in hia having a peculiar 
r.nd distinctive Kibla for UlAni.''—JfuirsI>ife of JfiJiomd, \ol iii. 

]). 45. !'»'<■• 

Muslim commentators refer the w:ord.s to the Jews and Chri«tian^'. 
I tliink the reference is to tht- Jewn entirely. The preceding 
and succeeding context seen)s to demand this limitation. The his- 
tory of the passage stems alh<o to demand it. The reference, ".hen, 
may be to <me of three po:iS.ibl9 dilfcrenoes of o})inior. among the 
Jews: (a.) Some may have que^lioued the propriety of worsaippiug 

CHAP II.] ( 344 ) [SIPARA li. 

knowledge which hath heen given thee, verily thou wilt 
become orie of th» ungodly. (HT") They to whom we have 
given the scripture know our o'jwdle, even as they know 
their own chiklren; but some of them hide the truth, 
against their own knowledge. (148) Truth is from thy 
Loud, therefore thou shalt not doubt. 
1'^ T^ (! (149) Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to 
which they turn themselves in jrrayer ; but do ye strive 
10 run after <.rood things ; wherever ye be, God "v^ili 
bring you all back at the resurrection, for GoD is al- 
mighty. (150) Ay»d from what place soever thou comest 
forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple ; for this 
is truth from thy LoRD; neither is Go!i3 regardless of 
that which ye do. (151) From what place soever thou 
comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple ; 
and wherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest 
men have matter of dispute against you; but as for 
those araorig them who are unjust doers, fear them not, 

lowards any Qibla, seeing the, holy temple was destroyed; or 
(b.) the allusion may be to those who had espoufcd tlie caufee of 
ibUm ; or, (c.) wliat is most probable, relerence may be had to the 
ancient difference in the holy mounts of Jew and Samaritan (JohD 
iv . 2o and refei;ftnGet! . 

(147) 7'Kny to whrnn, we hcfV6 niven. the Scnvtum kiiou) nur apostle, 
euti lu t/ii>.y know their own children. "That is, the Jews are really 
convinced of the truth of MuhammadV mifsion." — Rodwell. 

Is not the alJuBion to those who had now become the conyerts 
of Ifllaui ? Such a view is favoured by the concluding sentence, 
" but some of then) hide the tvutb," &c., referring to tlie unbelieving 
Jews. 3 1" it do not have such a re'erecci', then we must place this etat©- 
Hjfcui iu tho catalogue of deliberate fal»rioalions. See note on ver. 145. 

Acrprdinii to Abdul Q^dir's translation, the reference is Lot to 
Muhammad bui to the propriety of the change of Qibla. The pas- 
sage tlien nicrely leiteratcs the statement of ver. 145. 

(148'/ Trvth in froni thy L,ord. The *' truth" referred to here is 
the new doctrine ^f the Qibla. See the pame expression in vers. 
J 45 and 150, 

( ] 51 ) Lest iven huve vuntar 0/ disjmte again ft you. Mnham mad had 
acquired sutlicient experience of the injury likely to be inUioted 
u}K)L his religion by disputes conceniiug the proper Qibla to allow 
the possibility of any such disputes iu the future. All must here 
afler turn toward Makkah in prayer. 

UnJ^ist dofrs; i.e., Jews end disaffected Arabs. 


( 3i5 ) 

[chap. n. 

but fear me, tbat I may accomplish my grace upou yoii, 
and thai ye may be directed. (152) As we have sent 
unto you an apoatle from among you, to rehearse, our sigmj 
unto you, and to purify you, and to teaeh you the book of 
th^ Quran and wisdom, and to teach you tiiat which ye 
knew not: (153) therefore remember me, and I will re- 
member you, and give thanks unto me, and be not unbe- 

(152) An apostle from among y/u. The uatiolis, thus dis- 
tinguished, having rejected their prophets, are here regarded a<i 
apostates. C.'ouipai-e with chap. x. 14. The Ar8l)S are now declared 
to be the chosen people of God, and, by implication, the Jews are 
stigmatised as rejected of God. The policy of the ** prophet " is now 
to flatter the national pride of his ccimtrynien, and to quicken their 
zeal for religion by the doctrine that they are now, as believers, the 
favouriten of Heaven. 

To rehearse our signSy i.Cy the verses of the Qurdn, regarded as eelf- 
evideatly divine. 

To yiurijy you from idolVitry and ceremonial defilement. The 
Taf»ir-i- Raiiji adds, " He (the apostle) asks pardon for you, tiiat you 
may be pure from your sins." Mubamn.«d, however, never claimed 
any such mediatorial office. In the Qur^n he repeatedly rejects the 
idea of a mediator altogether. See chap. vi. 50 ; vii. 188 ; xxxix. 42, 
&c. Islam icipiires no m»^diator ; Muslims will be saved because they are 

The fact, however, that Muhammad hai< been conistituted a medi- 
ator by his followers, rn)twithstauding the teaching of the Qurdu, 
coustituteb a powerful argument against Ishim. Muslims, like other 
fallen men, feel their need of a mediator. They ch-'se Muhammad 
for their intercessor ; but the Quran rejects the idea altogether, See 
chap. xliv. 4i, 42, and references noted above. Islam, therefore, fails 
to satisfy the /eit want-s of sinful men everywiiere. 

The hook o^ tlie Qurhn. Tlie terra boojcy which is here used to de- 
scribe the collection of pa.ssages of Muhammud'ti revel atioii^ gives us 
reason to Iteliove ibat the Qurjln was record* d in book form in the 
days of Muhammad himself. It is so often referred t-) under this 
appellation — the same as is applied to the writings of Moses — as to 
leave the impression that numerous copies were extant among the 

(153) Remember 7/>^, and I loill remember yo-u. The Tafsir-i-Raufi 
comments on this as follows: — "Eemember me with gifts, that 1 
may ramember you witli favours ; or remember me with worship, that 
T may remember you vnth benefits ; or remember me with prayer, 
1hat I may remember you with blessing;^ ; or remember me cimong 
the people, that 1 may I'cmember jou among the angels." 

Tnis passage, with the ccmiqeiiLary, expi-essits the legal spirit of 
Muhammadanism, not^vilh»tanding the consiaul declaration that 
G<^d is "mercifid and gracious," 

CHAP. 11.] ( 346 ) [sfPARA II. 


t » • 11 (154) trvc believers, beg assistance with patience 
and prayer, for God is with the patient. (155) And say 
not of tbose who are slain in fight for the religion of 
(tod, that ihey art dead; yea, iheij an living: but ye do 
not understand. (156) We will purely prove you 'by 
affijicting yon in some measure with fear, and hun^^er, and 
decrease of wealth, and losi> of lives, and scarcity of fruits : 
but bear good tidings unto the patient, (157) who, when a 
misfortuue befalleth them, say, We are God's, and unto 
him shall we surely return. (158) Upon them shall be 

(155) And say nut of thorn who are slain inftA^hifor ihsreligicrt of 
Ood, that thev are riead. Kodwell renders " in fight " by the phrase 
"on God's path," 

" The original vrords are literally, viho are slain in tiie way of God ; 
by \vhich expres-sion, frequently occurring in the Quian, is always 
meant war undertaken against, \inbelieverb for th*) propagation of 
the Muhammadan faith." — Sale. 

Abdul Qadir says "that believers are hei>: encouraged to labour 
and ^^athev strength for the crusade," 

Vea, they are liviny. "'J'he souls of martyrs (for such they esteem 
those who die in battle against infidels), fays Jaldluddin, are in 
the crops of gnien V)ir'i!?, which have liberty to fly wherever they 
please in paradise, and feed on the fruitj? tliereof." — Sale. 

(lOG) Wcwill mrely prove ijou by atflicting j'ou in some measure 
With fear and hunyer, dx. This passage, beginning with ver. 154, 
WM intended to comfort those who had lost friends among the slain 
at the battle ol Badr, and also those of the companions who, having 
SuH'ered Joss of property and hoalth in the emigration Irom Makkah, 
had not yet enriched themseives by the pJtinder of the caravans of 
the unbeiiever.-. 

(J 67) M^c are God's, and unto him shall vm sir-ely return, "An 
expression frequently in the mouths of the Muhammadans when 
under any gnai affliction or in any imminent danger." — Sale. 

This seidejtce is believed to be ladeu with merit to those who use 
it in cii'cumstaaces of Inal and alfliction. Even when the trial is 
past, if tlie pious repeat it at the remembrance of their griet, 't is 
said to bestow great merit. The comuiciitators have drawn from 
this verse and the one following the doctrine that sin is wat^luvl 
away from the pouls of believers by means of stdferiug. The Tafair-i- 
Jiauji declare.'?, on the authority of Tinuuzi and oihers. that the mnn 
who hji.-} lost three sons by death may bo absolutely certain of entei - 
iug paradise ; the gate? of hell, or Either purgatory, are closed 
against him, and luuon more to the same effect. AfHiciion is there- 
fore submitted to by the Muslim in the ]>erf.'<M assurance that he 
will be the recipient of blessing hereafter. Thus it is robbed of its 
uses as a waiuiujj or as a judgmeni from God on account of -An. 


( 347 ) 

blessings from their LoKD and mercy, 
rightly directed. (159) Moreover Safa 
two of the raominients of ( ron : whoever 
pilgrimage to the temple of Makkah or 
be no crime in him. if lie compass them 
him who voluntarily performeth a good 

[CHAl II. 

and they are the 
and Marwah are 
therefore goeth on 
visiteth it, it shall 
both. And as for 
work ; verily God 

(159) Moreover Staffi and Marwah are two of the monuments of God. 
rf-c. Savary translates this verse as follows ; — " Tie who shall have 
pcrfoMHcd tke'pH.grimage of Makkah, and shall have m.nted the holy house^ 
shall he exempt td, f ram offering an e/pidtory victmi, provided that lie 
rnaketh the circuit of those two mountains. He who aoeth beyond wluit 
the precept requireth shall experience the gratitude of the Lord.'^ 

" Safi and Marwa are two mo an tains near Makkah, whereon wwe 
anciently two idols, to which the pagan Ariibs used to pay a super- 
stitious veneratioi) (Prelim. Disc, p. 42). JaUluddin says this 
pastsage was revealcl because tlie fouowers of Muhammad made a 
wcruple of going round theso mountains, as the idolaters did. But 
the true rea^^on of his allowinj^ this relic of ancient superstition seems 
to be the difticnlty he found in preventing it. Abu'l Qasim Hiba- 
tnllah thinks these last words are abrogated by thoae other, Who loill 
reject the religion of Abraham, except he who hath infatuated his sold ? 
(ver. 130). So that he ^vill have the meaning to be quite contrary 
to the letter, as if it had been, ii shall be no crime in him if he do no^ 
mmpass them. However, the expositors are all against him, and 
the ceremony of running between tliese two hills is still observed at 
the pilgrimage" (Prelim. Disc, p. 187). — Sale. 

The Tafsir-i-Ranji and Tafsir Fatah al azi% relate that in former 
time« two pill.irs were erected on these two hills to commemorate 
the judgment of God upon two notable sinners, Asdf, a man,, and 
NailU) a woman, who had committed adultery in the holy Kaabah. 
When the people fell into idolatry they worshipped these as images 
of God. This worship Muhammad abolished, whereupon some 
doubted the propriety of going round these hills. This verse was 
revealed to remove their scruples. 

The true reason for this " revelation " is given by Sale in his note 
quoted above. Muhammad found it easier to break the idols of hi» 
countrymen than to overcome their superstitionSj hence the tolera- 
tion of an idolatrous custom, which the commentators would have 
us believe to be a rolic of the religion of Abraham. 

God is grateful. The author or tln^ notes on the Roman Didu 
Quran eayg, "The teaching of is that whoever performs 
the pilgrimage to the Kaabah, according to the commandment, has 
great merit ; t)ut he who of hii* own accord make? the circuit of 
two mountains, has such great reward that God becomes grateful 
and obligated to hini ! " He then compares with this the contrary 
teaching of the Bible (see Job xxii. 3, and Luke xvii. 10). 

But sui-ely gratitude may be ascribed to God on the same priuciple 
that re]>entance is attributed to idm in the Bible. 



CHAP. II.] ( 348 ) [SJPARA fl. 

is grateful and knowing. (IGO) Tliey who conceal any of 
the evident signs, or the direction which we have sent 
down, after what we have manifested unto men in the 
scripture, God shall cur^e them; and they who curse 
shall curse them, (101) But as for those who repent 
and amend, and make known -what they concealed, I 
will 1»8 turned unto them, for I am easy to be recon- 
ciled and merciful. (162) Surely they who believe not, 
and die in their unbelief, upon them shall be the curse 
of God, and of the angels, and of all men; (103) they 
shall remain under it forever, their punishment shall not 
be alio via ted, neither shall they be regarded. (164) Your 
God is one God ; there is no God but He, the most mer- 

ll (165) N'ow in the creation of he^aven and earth, and 

(160) Thefij v>ho conceal ariy of tn« evident signs, cbc. ; z.e., the Jews. 
See note 011 ver. 145. 

In the Scripture. Rodwell 8avs» " in the Book,'^ the allusion being 
to th'i Jewish Scriptures. 

TKey who cune. The Tafslr-x-Rjbufi understands the relerence to 
the " angela, men, and genii." He al»t> ])rocaulgate8 the strange 
doctrine that when Muslima cur«<e one another, 'teeing tliat curse.-? 
cannot affect one of the faithful, \\\py fajl upon the Jews and others, 
who are ju&tly eacpused to a cur«e. 

" Yahya internrets it of the ciirstR which will be given to the 
wicked, when tney cry out because of the punishment of the 
gepulchre (see Prelim. Disc, p. 127), by all who hear them, that is, 
by all creatures except men and yijumV —Sah. 

<16l) Make kaooyn what they conceale«l. Rodwell translates 
"make, known the truth," <'.e„ of Islam 

(162, 1 63) (J'ftou them chall he the curse of Ood. '^Ihese verses clearly 
teach that all are lost except Muslims. Their punishiuent i& also 

Neither shall tfhey be regarded. *' God will not wait for their rd- 
pentauce. " — JaUiluddin. 

(lf)4) i'our (rod IS one God. Thu padsuge beginning with this verse 
and cufiing witli verise 172 is probably Makkan. The truth here 
enunciated ia taught with equal clearness In the Bible (Deut. vi. 4, 
Mark xii. 29). It might have been addressed to Jews at Madlna, but 
the verEes I'ollowing, being addre^sc-d to idolaters, decii It against this 
view. The idolaters oi the Madiua period of Muhiuniund's miuidtry 
weTii spoken of in different terms. 

(165) Thif verse, f-ays the Tafsir-i-RaiiJi, contains eight signs of 
divine power, thereby demonstrating the ;.niperioijty of the one true 


( 349 ) 

[chap. n. 

the vicissitude of rught and day, and in the ship which 
saileth in tlie sea, laden with what is profitaWe for man- 
kind, and in the rain water which GoD sendetb from 
heaven, quickening thereby the dead earth, and replenish- 
ing the same with all sorts ot cattle, and in the change of 
winds, and the clouds that are compelled to do service 
between heaven and earth, are signs to people of under- 
standing: (166) yet some men take idols beside God, and 
love them as with the love due to God ; but the true be- 
lievers are more fervent in love towards God. Oh, that 
they who act unjustly did perceive, when they behold 
their punishment, that all power belongeth unto God, 
and that he is severe in punishing. (107) When those 
who have been followed shall separate themselves from 

God over the tlu'oe hundred and sixty idols which the Makkans wor- 
shipped. The (Christian will be reminded of a similar style of 
argument used by the Apostle Paul at Lystra, and also at Athens 
(Acts xiv. 15,-17, and xviii, 24-29). 

Compelled to do service. " The original word signifies properly that 
(ire pressed or compelled to do personcd service without hire, which kind 
of servite is often exacted by the Eastern princes of their subjects, 
and is called by the Greek and Latin writers angaria. The Scripture 
often mentions this source of compulsion or force, Matt, v; 41, xxvii. 
32, &c/ — Sale. 

(166) True believers are more ferve'iit in lave towards God. Love to- 
wards (led is here recoQ-niied as a characlenstic of believers. And 
yet tills is a doctrine rarely taught in the Quran. In the Christian 
Scriptures this doctrine inay b»i comnared to Jordan, flowing conti- 
nually in an ever- widening sti'eam through the length of the Holy 
Land ; but, in the Qur^u, it is like the occasional spring in the de- 
sert. The love of God is rarely presented as a motive to obedience. 

Ohj that they who act nnjustly did perceim. " Or it may be trans- 
lated, Although the unc/odly a-ill perceive, &c. But, some copies, instead 
oiyara, in the third person, read tara, in the -second : and then it 
must be rendered, Uh, if thou didst see when the un<fodly beheld th-dr 
jmniahnient, &c." — Sale. 

We have here an illustration of the fact that the Quran, in its 
original text, is not entirely pure, as some writers seem to think. It 
has its various readings, like other ancient writings. A critical exa- 
mination of any considerable number of old manuscrij>t3 would pro- 
bably reveal, a gi'C:at many more such readings than are now known. 
Yet It may be safely asserted that the text of the Quran is the purest 
of all work? of a like antiquity. 

(167) Those who have 'Utr- /ollowed, 4:c. ''That is, when the 

CHAP. II.] ( 350 ) [SIPARA II. 

their followers, and shall sea the punishment, aud the 
cords of rdat'ioa between thein shall be cut in sunder ; 
(168) the followers shall say, If we could return to life, we 
would separate ourselves from them, as they have iiow 
separated themselves from us. So God will show them 
their works; they shall sigh grievously, and shall not 
come forth from the fire of hell. 

R2 1 . . 

"5"' il (1G9) O men, eat of that which is lawful and good on 

the earth ; and tread not in the steps of the devil, for he 
is your open enemy. (170) Verily he commandeth you 
evil and wickedness, aud that you should say that of God 
which ye know not. (171) And when it is said unto them 
who believe not, Follow that which God hath sent down ; 
they answer, Nay, but we will follow that which we found 
onr fathers practise. What l though their fatliers knew 
nothing, aud were not rightly directed ? (172) The unbe- 
lievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that which 
heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his 
voice. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore do they 

broach ers or heads of new sects shall at the last day forsake or wash 
their haads of their disciples, as if they were not accomplices in their 
KU per«til i ons. " — Sal e. 

(168) Thef(>llowers shall say, dhc. There shall be mutual antipathy 
between the leaders of false systems of religion and their followers. 
They shall spend an eternity of sighing and reqret in the flames of 

(169) Eat of that which u lawful. Addressed to the Makkans, who, 
in the "times of ignorance," had departed from the religion of Abra- 
iiam, and being idolaters, ate things forbidden, especially swine's 
flesh. So faithfully do Muslims obey this command that they regard 
even the name of the' forbidden meat as polluting. 

Thj devil. Batan is ihe avowed enemy of mankind, and the insti- 
gator to idolatry and blasphemy. See chap. viL 16, 17. 

(171) We will follow that which we found our faUter$ practise. The 
reproof here administered contains an important rule which may well 
be urged upon modern Muslims themselves. Nothing is more mani- 
fest tlian their perfect satisfaction with the religion of their fathers, 
and their unwilUngness to consider even the possibility of their 
fathers having been mistaken. Such texts as this are very useful for 
those who would arouse them to examine the grounds of their faith. 

(172) Lihe one who crieth aloud, <kc. Abdul Qadir paraphrases 
thus : " Teaching infidels is like calling to wild animals, who may 
hear a sound, but who do not understand." 

SIPARa II.] ( 351 ) [CHAP. 11. 

not understand (173) true believers, eat of the good 
things which v?e have bestowed on you for food, and re- 
turn thanks unto GoD, if ye serve him. (1 74) Verily he 
Hath, forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and 
blood and swine's flesh, and that on which any other name 
but God's hath been invocated. But he who is forced by 
necessity, not lusting, nor returning to transgress, it shall 
be no crime in him if he eat of thosf things, for God is 
gracious and merciful. (176) Moreover they who conceal 
any paii of the scripture which God hath sent down unto 
them, and sell it for a small price, they shall swallow into 

(173) A true believer. Addressed to the people of Madiim. See 
Kodwell on ver. 21. The exhortation correspoiids with that of ver. 
169, addressed to the Makkans. The teaching here is, however, 
fiiore expiicu, d'3 tailing the articles forbidden. 

T}ie redundancy found here ia probably due to the judgment of 
those wlio compiled the Quran under the direction of Othmdu. Had 
this portion of the chapter been recited by Muhammad liiraself, we 
ehouid not have this medley of Makkan and Madlna passagoa. A 
tradition, on tlie authority of Hudhaifdh, relates that Muhnnimad 
was in the habit of repeating the chapter of the Cow several time.-} 
during a single night, besides other portions of the Qur^n (Matthews* 
Mishqii'-nl-Maedbih, cliap. xxxii.) Such an exercise, in addition to 
ordinary sleep, would be impossible. It is therefore probable that 
TTiuch additional matter was added to these chapters by the compilers 
of the volume now ealled the Qur^n, tiiough the names of the chap- 
ters and Home portions of them were undoubtedly in use in the days 
of Muhammad. To these were ndded other revelations gathered 
from the contents of the box in Hafza's keeping and from the memo- 
ries of men. 

(174) He hath forbidden, dx. Godfrey Higgins, in Inn Apology for 
the Lift and Character of Mahomet, p. 33, expresses the belief that 
these proliibition*; wei'e made for unitary reasons. But it is much 
more likely that he adoxtted them from the religion of the Jews. 
►Sanitary considerations would liave required the prohibition of 
cameVs flesh as well as that of swine. Yet modifications were made 
out of deference to Arab prejudice, as was dojie in the changing of 
the Qibla. An illustration of this is found in the permission to eat 
canul's tife^ih, already alluded to. 

(M which any other 'name, dho. " For this reason, whenever the 
'Muhammaduiis kill any animal for food, they always say Bismillah^ 
or, In the name of (jod : which, if it be neglected, they think it not 
lav\-ful to eat of it." — ^cde. 

Forced hy necessity. That is, if forbidden meats be eaten under 
compulsion, or to save one's life, — ibdul Qddir, Tafstr-i-Raufi. 

(175) See notes on ver. 160. 

CHAP. II.] ( 352 ) [SIPAKA TT 

their "bellies nothing but fire ; God shall not speak nnto 
them on the day of resurrection, neither shall he purify them, 
and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. (176) These 
are they who have sold direction for error, and pardon for 
punishment : but how great will their suffering be in the 
fire ! This th^y sJuill endure, because God sent down the 
book of the Qurdn with truth, and they who disagree con- 
cerning that book are certainly in a wide mistake. 
Rx'BA. II (177) It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces 

T) 22^ in grayer towards the east and the west, but righteousness 
is of him who belie veth in God and the last day and the 
angels, and the scriptures, and the prophets ; who giveth 
money for God's Bake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, 
and the neeay, and the stranger, and those who ask, and 
for redemption of captives ; who is constant at pmyer, and 
giVeth alms and of those who perform their covenant, 

(176) Sold dirixtion ff^r trmr, dc. An exposition of the phraBe^ 
" Selling for a small price," ver. 175. 

God sent down the book of the Qurdn. Many Muslim connnentators 
agree in referring the "book" to the Pejitateuch. The meaning 
then would be that the Jews shall be accounte<l worthy of the pun 
iphment above de-scribed, Vjecause, having the Pentateuch by them^ 
with its prophecies concerning Muhammad, they have "coiicealea 
the Scriptures which God hath sent down unto them.'' The passage 
is not explicit, and may refer also to the Quran. The former view 
agrees best with the preceding context, the latter with what follows. 
Modern Muslims, by their " Qoncealment of the former Scriptures," 
and their constant disputing " coticeruing chat Book," bring them- 
selves under the condemnation of their own protihet. 

(177) Right eous^iess is of him who believeth in God, (Sec. This is one 
of the noblest verses in the Qurdn. It clearly distinguishes between 
a formal and a practical piety. Faith in God and benevolence to- 
wards man is clearly set forth as the essence of religion. U contains 
a compendium of doctrine to be believed as well as of precept to be 
practised in life. 

The Scriptures. Not only the Qurdn, but the "former Scrip- 
tures," accepted l)y Jews and Christians, besides the writings (Sahil^) 
of Adam, ten,of Seth, fifty, of Enoch (Idrim), thirty, and of Abraham, 
ten, in all one hundred an<l four books. 

The jirophets. This word being in the masculine plural, Miishm 
commentators generally agree tliut there were no prophetesses. For 
doctrine and practice set forth here, see Preliminary Discourse, 
p. 117. 

siPARA II.] ( 353 ) [chap. ij. 

when they have covenanted, and who behave themselves 
patiently in adversity, and hardships, and in time of vio- 
lence ; these are they w^ho are true, and these are they who 
fear GoD. (178) true believers, tlie law of retaliation is 
ordained you for the slain : the free shall die for the free, 
and the servant for the servant, and a wompii for a woman ; 
but he whom his brother shall forgive may be prosecuted, 
and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, 
and a fine shall be set on him with humanity. This is 
indulgence from your Lord, and mercy. And he who 
shall transgress after this, hy killing the murderer, shall 

(178) For the Mosaic " law of retaliation," see Levit. xxiv. 17-22. 
The Quiaiii modifies this law, which was probably nearly identical 
with the ancient Arab law, so as to distinguish between the life of a 
freeman and that of a slave, between the life of a woman and that 
of a man, and to provide for the settlement of a blood-claim by the 
payment of money. It is scarcely necessary to point out the fact that 
this law deals a blow at the equality of man, based on Jt universal 
brotherhood, and that it opens the door to untold oppression and 
tyranny of masters oVer servants, of husbands over wives, and of man 
over woman. It cannot be fairly claiiued that the moral and soda.! 
laws of Isliim are even an advance on those of Judaism, much less 
on those of Christianity. The law as here stated is abrogated by 
chap. V. 49, and xvii. 35. 

The free shall die for the free, . . . woman for woman. "This is 
not to be strictly taken ; for, according to the Sunnat, a man also is to 
be put to death for the murder of a woman, Kegard is also to be 
had to difference in religion, so that aMuiiaramadan, though a slave, 
is Tif)t to be put to death for an infidel, though a freen^an. But the 
civil magistrates do not think themselves always obliged to conform 
to this last determination of 'the Sunnat." — Sale, Jaldluddhi. 

He whom his brother shall forgive, <kc. — Rodwell translates this pas- 
sage ; " He to whom his brother shall make any remission (that is, 
by killing the manslayer), is to be dealt with equitably ; anatohiui 
snould he pay a fine with hberality." Savary translates thus : "He 
who forgiveth the murderer of hi> brother {brother used in a religious 
seuse) shall have the right of requiring a rea&onab e re(- aration, which 
shall be thankfully paid." So. too, in the main, Abdul Qadir, Hus- 
aini, and Tafsir-i-Raufi. The meaning is, that %\ henever a murderer 
has been spared by tLe avenger of blood, he must pay a fine to the 
f^aid avenger. This must then be regarded as a final settlement. 
If, after receiving the amoimt of the fine, he avenger kill the man- 
slayer, he " shaU suffer a grievous punishment." Presumably he 
would be regarded as a common murderer. Sale says, "This is 
the common practice in Muhaiumsdan countries, parlicidarly in 

Z . 


CHAP. I!.] ( 354 ) [SIPARA n. 

3i!0er a grievous pimisbment. (179) And in this law of 
retaliation ye have life, O ye of Urt<l-ers tan ding, that per- 
adventure ye may fear. (180) It is ordained yon, when 
any of you is at the point of death, if he leave any goods, 
that he bequeath a legacy to his parents, and kindred, 
according to what shall be reasonable. Tliis is a duty 
incuirJbent on those who fear GoD. (181) But he who shall 
ciiange the legacy, after be hath heard it heqncathtd by the 
dying person, surely the sin thereof shall be on those who 
change it, for God is he who heareth and knoweth. 
(182) Howbeit he who apprehendeth from the testator 
any mistake or injustice, and shall compose t}i£ matter 
between them, that shall be no crime in him, for God is 
gracious and merciful. 

11 (183) O true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it 
WHS ordained unto those before you, that ye may fear 

(179) In this law . . . ij6 have lip. , i'.«., this law has been enact*?cl 
as a benevolent measure, whereby blood-feuds might be finally settled, 
and thus life be saveti. 

(180) A If^acy to }m parents, dx. Muslim commentators, on the 
authority of Bajilbdwi, sa\ this law was enacted to conectthe custom 
of the ancient Arabs, whereby parents and relatives wei-e sometimes 
disinherited in favour of the r^^ligious mendicant. These translate 
the words rendered in the text^ '* This I'i a duty incumhent on," d'C, m 
as to read, '' There is a duty toward the temperate, ' i.e., faqirs or men- 
dicants; and they nnderetaml that not more than one-third of the 
property uf the testator may he devoted to such per.sona. >low- 
ever, they believe this ]aw to have been abrogated \)y the law con- 
cerning inheritance in chap, iv., and that there is therefore now no 
law requiring theiii to will any of their substance to charitable 
objects. See Abdul Q4dir in. loco. 

The principal passages of tlie QuMn relating to the law of inhent- 
ujice are the J<diowing : — chaps, iv. 6--J3, 175, and v. 105-107. 

(181, 182) These versef^ contain a warning to those who woiTld 
tamper with a will after it has 1>een made, ftnd at the same time pro- 
vide for the conection of a will made contrary to law. Souie writers 
understand them to refer to the friendly mediation of those who suc- 
ceed in securing a change in the will, in tlie interest oTjui^tice, before 
tho death of the testator, bee Tajs'ir x-Iiauli. 

(183) A fasi is ordained^ dc. Muir, in hit> Ltfe of MahomeLvoX. 
lii. pp. i.'j, 48, conjectures that fa^tin^was not ubt«rved by the Mup- 
lims till after the liight to ^ladina. The followitig is his account of 
its institution — 

" Two or three months after his arrival iu iyiedina. Mahon\et oL 

sfPARA n."| ( 355 [chap. ii. 


■ ^" 

H God. (184) A certain number of days shdll ye fast: but 
B he among you who slmll be sick, or on & journey, shall fast 
H an equal number of ofcher days. And those who can keep 
^P it, and do not, must redeem thnr neglect by maintamiug of 
a poor man. And ne who voluntarily dealeth better unih 
the poor wan than he is obliged, this shall be better for 
him. ;But if ye fast, it will be better for you, if ye knew 

served the Jews, on the tenth day of thejr seven month, keeping the 
great fast of the Atonement, and be readily adopted it for hia own 
people. Prior to this, fasting does not appear to have been a pre- 
scribed ordinance of Islam. It was established at a period when the 
great object of Mahomet was to Bjrnholiee with the Jews in all their 
mlcs and ceremonies. 

''But wh^n it became Ids endeavour to cast off Judaism and its 
cu8tom5», tlii.s fast was superseded by another. Eii^bteen months 
after hia arrival in Medina, Mahomet promulgated, as a divine com- 
mand, that the foil owing month, or Ramadhan, was to be henceforth 
observed as an annual fast. Although the new ordinance was 
professedly similar in principle to that of the Jews, tlie mode of iw 
observance was entirely different." 

This s'ei^e is said to be abrogated by ver. 187. 

(184) A certain iiumhcf of days ; the whole of the month Eama- 
ilhau. See next verse. 

Ttiosc who can Jceep it, d:c. Sale says, " The expositors differ much 
about the ineardug of tins passage, thijiking it very impro)>able that 
people should be left entirely at liberty eithei' to fast or not, on com 
|iounding for it in tliis manner. Jalaluddin, therefore, supposes the 
negative particle not to be und€rstx)od, and that this is allowed only 
to those who are not able to fast, bj' rciuson of age or dangerous sick- 
ness ; but afterwards he says, that in the beginning of Muharamad- 
auiam it was free ior them to choose wlifither they woidd fast or 
maintain a poor man, which lilx-rty was soon after taken away, and 
this passage abrogated by the following : Therefore let him who shall 
he, 'present in this tnonth, faaf the same montii. \et this al'vogatiim, hi 
says, docs not extend to women with child or that give suck, lesL 
the infant suffer. 

" Al Zamakh^hari, having first given an explanation of Ibn Abbas, 
who, by a different interpretation of the Arabic word YtitUcdndhu, 
which signifies cayi or are able to fast, render.^ 't, Those who find great 
difficuUi/ therein, tSic, adds an exposition of his own, by supposing 
something to be understood, accordii.g to which the sense will be, 
Those who can Ja$t, and yet have a legal excuse to break it, rnust 
redeem it" kc. 

Abdul Qadir understands thrit those who are able to fa^t and do 
not are here re<|U]red to redeeni their neglect, as Sale has it in the 
text, by feeding a pt-or man for one day. So. too, the Taf.4r-%-RauJi. 
Bodwell, also, in his translation, recognises the same meaning. 

CHAT. II.] ( 356 ) [SIPARA II. 

it. (185) The month of liamadhan sJiall ye fast, in which 
th« Quran was sent down /rom heaven, a direction nnto 
men, and declarations of direction, and the distinction 
between good and evil. Therefore, let him among you who 
shall be present in this month, fast the same month ; but 
he who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like 
number of other days, God would make this au ease unto 
you, and would not make it a difficulty unto you ; that ye 
may fulfil the number of days, and glorify GOD, for that 
he Kath directed you, and that ye may give thanks. 
(186) When my servants ask thee concerning me, Verily 
I am near: I will hear the prayer of him that prayeth, 
when he prayeth unto me : but let them hearken unto 

(185) Ramadhdn. The ninili month of the Muslim year, in the 
liittcr part of which occurs the Laylut ul Qadr, or Night pf Power, in 
which the Quran" was brought down to the lowest heaven. See 
Hughes-' Notes on Muhamviadanism, chap. ix. ; also Prelim. Disc, 
p. 177. 

The distinction. The Arabic word mfurqdn^ a terra derived from 
the Hebrew, and applied to the Pentateuch as well as to the Quran. 
See ver. 52. 

Shall be present; i.e., " at home, and not in a stranjje country, where 
the fast cannot he performed, or on a journey." — Sale. 

Children who ha-ve not reached the age of puberty are exempt 
from the observance of this fast. 

God would make this an ease unto you. This is said in reference to 
the sick and others exempted above. It may also refer to what is 
said below in ver. 187. With all these alleviating circumstances, 
however, the strict observance of tliis fast, during the long days of a 
tropical summer, is anything but an ease to the Muslim. Muir 
thinks Muhammad did not foresee the hardship that would ensue in 
the observance of thii* fast, when he changed the Jewish iiit«rc&lary 
year lor the lunar (Life of Mahomet, chap. iii. p. 49). But there is 
reason to believe the month occurred originally during the hot 
season, the word Ramadhdn being derived hoxtx ramddh, to burn. 
The words of the text, therefore, probably refer to the present ob- 
servance as bein^; easy iu comparison with the more rigid practice in 
the beginning. This interpretation presiuues that this passage was 
revealed some tinie after ver. j 83. 

(186) 1 xcill hear the ^irayir. The special reference is to prayers 
offered during the fast. Faith and ob(<iience are here declared to be 
necessary to successful prayer. S traditiou says, "The person who 
observes the prayers ])articulaily appointed for the nights of l?ama- 
dhdn, shall be forgiven all hi?; past fault© ! " Surcl}'' if the fast be of 
tiitficult obicrvance, the way of pardon seems ea^y enough. 

STPARA IlJ ( 357 ) [chap. II. 

me, and believe in me, that they may be rightly directed. 
(187) It is lawful for you, on the night of the fast, to go 
in unto your wives ; they are a garmejit unto you, and ye 
are a garment unto them. God knoweth that ye defraud 
yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto you, and 
f.orgiveth you. Now, therefore, go in unto them; and 
earnestly desire that which God ordaineth you, and eat 
and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white thread 
from a black thread by the daybreak : then keep the fast 
until night, and go not in unto them, but be constantly 
present in the places of worship. These are the prescribed 
bounds of God, therefore draw not near them to transgress 
them. Thus God declareth his signs unto men, that ye 
may fear him. (188) Consume not your wealth among 
yourselves in vain ; nor present it unto judges, that ye 
may devour part of men's substance unjustly, against your 
own consciences. 

II (189) They will ask thee concerning the phases of the K 
moon ; Answer, They are times appointed unto men, and 

(187) This verse seems to show clearly that the Muslims at first 
felt bound to continue, in some measure, the rigour of tlie fast 
during the night. 

They are a garment unto you, dkc. ** A metaphorical expression, to 
■t signify the mutual comfort a man and his wife find in each other." — 

' 'iEarnestly desire. Some commentators understand this to have 
special reference to the desire for children. 

A white thread from a black thread. A form of expression used by 
the Jews also (sec Rodwell), signifying early iiawn. 

Be constantly pressiJig, dc. This .seclusion is called 'Itiqdf, and is 
observed by remaining in the mo8<|ue during the day, abstaining 
irojn all worldly thoughls and conversation, and by reading the 
C^uran and religious books. Hughes Notea on Muhammadanism, 
chap. x\. 

(188) This verde is undei-atood by Muslim commentators to for- 
bid every species of prodigality and dishonesty in dealing witli one 
another. If so, scarcely any precept of the Quran is so universally 
transgressed as this. 

(18S)) Enl^r your houses, dc. **Some of the Arabs had a supersti- 
tious custom after they had been at Makkah (in piigrimage,a8 It sterns), 
on their return home, not to enter their house by the old door, but 
to make a hole through the back part for a paissage, which practice is 
here reprehended,'' — Sale. ; •'•■a^ 



CHAP. II.] ( 358 ) [SiPAPA IT. 

to shou- the season ofi\iQ pilgrimage to Makkah. It is not 
righteousness that ye enter your houses by the back parts 
thereof, but righteousness is of him who feareth God. 
Therefore enter your houses by their doors ; and fear Goo, 
that ye may be happy. (190) And fight for the reh'gion 
of God against those who fight against you; but trans- 
gress not hy attacking them first, for God loveth not the 
transgi^ssors. (191) And kill them wherever ye find 
them, and turn them out of that whereof they have dis- 
possessed you ; for temptation to idolatry is more grievous 
than slaughter; yet fight not against them in the holy 

(190-193) Fiifht for the religion of God. Thi? ia, perhaps, the first 
expressed command of the Arabian prophet to establish his religion 
by the sword. Whilst in Makkah he appeared in the simple garb of a 
preacher, and this he retained for a while at Madhia (ver. 119 snpra). 
There he advised his persecuted followers to flee from their eneivues. 
Even at Madina he advises them to "forgive and avoid " tlieir adver- 
saries (ver. J08). He now finds himself in circumstances to take a 
bolder, though certainly a less noble stand. The Muslims ar«^ now to 
figiit not only in defence of their faith, but are enjoined to overthrow 
idolatry by the sword (see ver. 193). Tt is probable that a number 
of injunctions, delivered at different times at Madina, are gathered 
together in this passage, inasmuch as the strong language of ver*. 
I92.and 193 is scarcely reconcilable with tlie injunction of ver. 190 
to fight simply in defence of Isldra. 

091) Kill them, dc Much is made of expressions like this, by 
some r'hristian apologists, to show the cruel character of the Arabian 
prophet, and the inference is thence drawn that he was an impostor 
and his Qur^n a fraud. Without denying that Muhammad was 
cruel, we think tliis mode of assault to be very unsatisfactory to say 
the least, as it is capable of being turned against the Old Testament 
ScriptiireJ*. If the claim of Muhanmiad to have received a divine 
command to extenninate idolatiy by the slaughter of all impenitent 
idolaters be admitted, I can see no objection to his practice. The 
question at issue is this, Did God command such slaughter of idola- 
ters, as lie commanded the destruction of the Canaanites or of the 
Anifilekites ? Taking the stand of the Muslim, that God did so com- 
mand Muhammad and hiB followers, his morality in this respect may 
be defended on precisely the same ground that the morality of Moses 
ami .Joshua is defended by the Christian. 

Fight not . . . in the holy temple ; i.e., the Kaabah. Ordinarily, 
the sanctity of the temple at Makkah would have been a safeguard 
to an enemy, but the antipathy between the Makkans and the 
Muslims was now so great as to make it probable that the latter 
might 1)6 attacked even in the Kaabah. This permission is, howevjer, 
abrogated by chap. ix. 5. 

SI PARA Ti.J ( 359 ) [chap. II. 

temple, until they attacl: you therein ; but if they attack 
you, slay them there. This shall be the reward of infidels. 

(192) But if they desist, God is gracious and merciful. 

(193) Fight iherefore against them, until there be no 
temptation to idolatrtj, and the religion be God's; but if 
they desist, then let there be no hostility, except against 
the ungodly. (194) A sacred month for a sacred month, 
and the holy limits of Makhi.h, if they attack you therein, do 
ye also attack them therein in retaliation; and whoever 
transgresseth against you by so doing, do ye transgress 
against him in like manner as he hath transgressed against 
you, and tear God, and know that God is with those who 
fear hiin. (195) Contribnte out of your substance toward 
the defence of the religion of God, and throw not your- 
selves with your own hands into perdition ; and do good, 

(192) If they desist, dec. If they repent and accept l^iliim,, Tafsir-i- 

(193/ Until . . . the religion he God'». This expresses the breadth 
oi" the claim of Isldm. Idolatry must be extirpated, and the religion 
of Isldm be vindicated by God as his own, through the overthi-ow of 
idolatry. It is probable that Muhammad had a.s yet no idea of ex- 
tending his religion beyond the borders of Arabia, but the idea here 
attached to it would logically lead to its propagation eveiywhere. 

Except against the ungodly ; t.c, thoSe who were worthy of punish- 
ment on other grouudt: than that ot their faith. 

(194) A sacred morUh. See Prelira. Disc, p. 228. Rodwell trans- 
lates : '' The sacred muntli and the sacred precincts are under tiie 
safeguard of reprisals," and says, -"The meaning of this difficult 
passage is, that in wars for the cause of religion, the sacred month 
and the temple of Mecca may be made the time and scene of con- 
tests^ which then and there are usually prohibited." 

Transgress against him. Contrast this with the teaching of Christ 
(Luke vi. 27 -31). Love to enemies is a doctrine anknowaj to Islam. 
Forgiveness of such, whenever enjoined (ver. 108), was dictated as a 
matter of policy, not of compassion or love. 

(195) Contribute ofyour substance. The duty enjoined here is not 
identical with that of giving ^iA;^i or legal alms. It means more, 
having reference to all that may be necessary to carry on a holy war. 
The verse is closely connected with those preceding. The faithful 
are therefore not only to kill the infidels, but spend their substance 
freely to help other;-, especially the Ghdzis or fanatical crusaders of 
Isldm, by supplying thero with food and the materials of war. 

llirow not yourselves . . . into perdition; i.e., "be not accessory to 
your own destruction, by neglecting your contributiomj towards the 

CHAP. II.] ( 360 ) [SIPARA II. 

for God loveth those -who do good. (196) Perforin the 
pilgrimage of Makkah, and the visitation of GoD ; and, if ye 
be besieged, senid that offering which shall be the easiest ; 
and shave not your heads, until your offering reacheth the 
place of sacrifice. But, whoever among you is sick, or is 
troubled with any distemper of the head must redeem 

wars agaiflet infidels, and thereby aaflering them, to gather strength." 
— Sale, 

Do good. Do good to the Oh^Ms. If they are in want, give them 
money ; if on foot, give them carriage ; if married and unprovided, 
mve them equipment. "Wiihout doubt God ia a friend of tnem that 
do good. — Tafsir-i-Rauji. 

This passage illustrates how easily readers of the English transla- 
tion of the Quran may boi misrled by the bias of their own language. 

(196) Perform the 'pilgrimagt and the visitation^ i.e., the HajJ or 
greater pilgrimage, and Umrah or lesser pilgrimage. The former is 
absolutely' necessary, provided the Muslim possesses the means 
necessary for the journey. The latter is nieritorious, and its rites 
may be performed at any time, while the rites of the Hajj may only 
be performed on the three days intervening between the seventh 
and tenth of the month. Dhul Hajja, See Prelim. Disc, pp. 186-188, 
and Hughes' Notes on Muhammadani9m, second edition, chap. xxii. 

The rites and ceremonies connected with the HaJJ and Umrah are 
exceedingly puerile, and decidedly inconsistent with the spirit of 
IsUm. The idolatrous customs of the ancient Arabs, though sancti- 
fied by the teaching of the Qurdu and the example of Muhammad, 
but poorly comport with the monotheistic teaching of the reformer 
of Makkah, and come far short of " confirming the former Scriptures." 
Ita sanction by Muhammad is one of the darkest blot.-:, on his religion, 
and shows at the same time how far the politician of Madina differed 
from the preacher of Makkah. How his apologists fail to see th& 
inconsistency of his conduct and teachiv.g nere, not only with the 
dignity of a prophet of God, but with the character of an honest 
man, ^8 beyond our comprehension. The kissing of the Black Stone 
and the Yamdni Pillar was so manifestly inconsistent with the doc- 
trine of Islam, that naught but the example of the prophet and the 
implicit obedience of his followers secured its perpetuation. The 
fiery Omar, kissing the stone, said, "Verily I know that thou art a 
stone ; thou dost no good or harm in the world, and if it was not 
that I saw the prophet kiss thee, I would not kiss thee 1'' — Matthews' 
Mishqdt ul Masdhih^ book ii. chap. iv. part iii. 

If yc he hesic.ged. By sickness as well as by enemies. 

i<cnd that offering, cfc. The offering must be at the rate of one 
goat for a Hingle person, or a cow or a camel for every seven persons. 

Shave 'not your heads, dc "For this was a sign they had com- 
pletetl their vow, and performed all the ceremonies of the pilgrim 
age.*' — Sale, Jaldluddin. 

SIPARA 11.] ( 361 ) [chap. II. 

tlu shaving his head, by fasting, or alms, or some offering. 
WLen ye are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the 
visitation of the temple of Makkah until the pilgrimage, shall 
bring that offering which shall be the easiest. But he who 
iindeth not anything to offer, shall fast three days in the 
pilgrima^ge, and seven when ye are returned : they shall 
be ten dags complete. This is incumbent on him whose 
family shall not be present at the holy temple. And fear 
God, and know that God is severe in punishing. 

jl (197) The pilgrimage 7nust he performed in the known K 1 
months : whosoever therefore purposeth to go on pilgrim- 
ag3 therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, 
ncr quarrel in the pilgrimage. The good which ye do, 
God knoweth it. Make -gioYision for i/our journey ; but 
the best provision is piety; and fear me, ye, of under- 
standing. (198) It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek 
an increase from your Lord, by trading during the pil- 

Fastin<jy or alms, or some offering; i.e., " either by fasting three days, 
or feeding six poor people, or sacrificing a sheep." — Sale. 

He who tarrieth, d:c. *' Tb is passage is somewhat obscure. Yahya 
interprets it of him who marries a wife during the visitation, and 
performs the pilgrimage the year following. But Jalaluddin ex- 
pounds it of him who stays within the sacred enclosures, in order to 
complete the ceremonies which (as it should seem) he had not been 
fible to do within the prescribed time." — Sale. 

(197) The known months; i.e., Shawal, Dhul Qaada, and Dhul 
Hajja. See Prelim. D\o., p. 186. 

(198) It nhcdl he no crime, dec. In the dflvs of Muhammad, as at 
the present time, Makkah was dependent for its importance as a city 
upon the great annual pilgrimage. Situated in a comparatively 
barren region, not only its own food-supply was brought from 3. dis- 
tance, but also the provisions necessary for the multitudes flocking 
to it from aU parts of Arabia had to be procured by caravans from 
the hurnnmchiig country. For this reason it was possible for many 
pilgrims to carry on a profitable trade while fulfilling the require-, 
nients of their religion. The service of Ood and mammon could 
thus be undertaken at the same time. The temporising policy of 
the Arabian prophet is here again apparent in sanctioning a practice 
which he either couli not puivenl, or which, if condoned, would 
minister to the purposes of liis religion. He not only does so, but 
actually suggests a worldly motive as an incentive to the perform- 
ance of an otherwise liard'duty. The gifts of mammon now became 
"an increase from your Lord." Compare with our Lord's treatment 
of the servants of mammon at Jerusalem (John ii. 14-16). 

9 ' 

CHAP. II.] ( 362 ) [SIPARA II. 

grimage. And when ye go in procession from Arafdt 
remember God near the holy monument; and remem- 
ber him for that he hath directed you, although ye were 
before this of the nurnher of tho^e who go astray. (199) 
Therefore go in procession from Mdience the people go in 
procession, and ask pardon of (irOD, for God is gracious 

Procession, "The original word signifies to rusk Joricard impetu- 
ously, as the pilgrirtis do when they proceed from. Araiat to Muz- 
dalifa."— S'a/e. 

Arafat. -' A mountain near Makkah, so called because Adam there 
met and knew his wife after a long separation. Yet others say that 
Gabriel, after lie had instructed Abraham in all the sacred cere- 
monies, coming to Arafat, there asked him ii'.hekneto the ceremoniea 
which had been shown him, to which Abraham answering in the 
affirmative, the mountain had thence its name.*' — Sale. These 
sjtories are probably inventions, suggested by the meaning of the 
word Arafdt. See also note on ver. 35. 

7V(e holi/ monument. " lii Arabic, Al Mashar al haram. It is a 
moun-tain in the farther part of Muxdalifa, wher^ it is said Muham- 
mad 3tood praying and praising God, till his face became extremely 
shining." — Safe. This legend is probably adapted from the story of 
the shining of Moses^ face on Sinai. 

Remember him, (he. The heathen customs of circling round the 
Kaabah, kiss,ing the Black Stone, capering between Arafdt and Muz- 
dalifa, and throwmg pebbles in Mina, are to be- sanctitied by prayers 
and praise to Allah. The skeleton of Arab stone-worship and 
magianism was thus clothed in the habiliments of Isldm. See, on 
this sui)ject, Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. i., introduction, pp. ccxii. 
and ccxiii. 

(199) Go in procession. Rodwell translates, "Pass (m quickly." 
Abdul <^adir has it, "Go to the circling," i.e., of the Kaabah (tawdf). 
It is generally understood by tlie commentators to refer to the return 
from Muzdalifa to the Kaabah. 

Aisk jMrdon of QoA The Mishqdt ul Masdhik gives a tradition, on 
the authority of Ibu Omar, as follows : " The apostle of God said, 
When you see a pilgrim, saldm to him, and shake him by the hand ; 
and tell him to ask pardon for you, before he enters into his own 
house ; because his faults have bften forgiven, and hie supplications 
are approved." — Book xi. chap i. part 3. 

The duty uf asking pardon was cOTumanded the prophet himself 
as well as his followers (see chap, xlvii. 21). Tradition repeatedly 
represents Muhammad as seeking pardon for sin. " Verily I ask 
pardon of God, and turn from sin towards him, more than seventy 
times daily." " I ask pardon of God one hundred times a day.*** 
Such are the sayings ascribed to Muhammad. —Afi*'^5<J-< ul Miudhih, 
book X. chap. iii. part i. In another place in this same chapter 
Muhammad is declared to have taught the monstrous doctrine, that 
when a Muslim says, " O my patron ! T have been guilty of a fault, 

siPAKA II.] ( 563 ) [chap. ir. 

and merciful. (200) And when ye have finished your hoJy 
ceremonies, remember God, according as ye remember your 
fathers, or with a more reverent commemoration. There 
are some men who say, Lord, give us our portion in this 
world; but such shall liave no portion in the next life; (201) 
and there are others who say, Loud, give us good in this 
world and also good in the next world, and deliver us from 
the torment of hell fire. They shall have a portion of that 
which they have gained : God is swift in taking an account. 

|[ (202) Itemember God the apjpui'rited number of days ; ?<i=iF. 
but if any haste to depart from the ralky of Mfna in 
two days, it shall be no crime in him. And if any 
tarry longer, it shall be no crime in him, in him who 
fearetli God. Therefore fear God, and know that unto 
him ye shall be gathered. (203) There is a man who 
causetli thee to marvel by his speed) concerning this 

forgive \i" God says to the angels, " Did iry servant know that lie 
had a fV'fender who forgives and punishes ? 1 have pardoned him : 
then tell my servant to commit fanlts aa oftien as be likes, as long as 
he asks jatdon !" With such doctrines impliciily received, is it any 
wonder that Muslims are immoral? that ordinar}'^ sins should seem 
to them a light thing I Is it any wonder they shoidd fail to see the 
need of an atonement, seeing God may even license sin for the 
delight lie has in liearing his servantt^ asking pardon ? This is 
perhaps the most damning doctrine of Isldm. It says, I*eace, peace, 
where there is no peace; it lulls the vilest sinners to the sleep of 
death ; it dishonours the God of holiness, and saps the foundations 
of morality and true piety. 

(200) Remcmhcr God accordinff as ^e remember your fathers. Ahdul 
Q4dir tells us that the Arabs, after completing the rites of pilgrimage, 
spent three days in Makkah in rejoicing, during \^ liiohthey recounted 
the deeds performed by their fathers. Tlie Muslims are here com- 
manded U) spend these three days, called Jydm-nt-Tashriq, in remem- 
bering God instead of reni'imhering their fathers. 

There are some men; i.e., unbelievers. — Ta/sir-i-RavJi. 

(201) T/rere are others; i.e., hypocrites. — Tafslr-i-Raufi. 

They shall have a 'poriion. ITiey yrill be rewarded according to 
their works. 

Swift in taking account. " For he will judge all creatures, says 
Jalilnddin, in the space of half a day." — Sale. 

(202) Ajypointed number of days. Three days (see note on ver. 200). 

(203) There is a man, <ix. " This person was al Akhnas Ibn 
Shuraic], a fair-spoken dJssep:ibler, who swore that he believed in 
Muhammad, and pretended to be cJne of his friends, and to contemn 

CHAP. M.] ( 364 ) [SIPARA n. 

present life, and calleth GoD to witness that which is in . 
his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee; (204) 
and when he turneth away from ikeCy he hasteth to act 
corruptly in the earth, and to destroy that which is sown, 
and springeth up: but God loYeth not corrupt doing. 
(205) And if one say unto hiirl, Fear God; pride seizeth 
him, together with wickedness; but hell shall be his 
reward, and an unhappy couch shall it be. (206) There 
is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake of those 
things which are pleasing unto Goi> ; and God is gracious 
unto his servants. (207) O true believers, enter into the 
true religion wholly, and follow not the steps of Satan, 
for he is your open enemy. (208) If ye have slipped 
after the declarations of our will have come unto you, 
know that GoD is mighty and wise. (209) Do the infidels 
expect less than that GoD should come down to them over- 

this world. But God here reveala'to the [jrophet his hypocrisy and 
■wickedness." — SaU, JaldLuddin. 

(204; To destroy y <kc, " Setting fire to his neighbour's corn, niid 
killing his asses by night." — Sale, Jaldludatn. 

The TafsiV'i-Rauji regards these verses as descriptive of all 

(206) A man who selleth, dha. "The person here meant was one, 
Snhaib, who being persecuted by the idolaters of Makkah, forsook 
all he had, and fled to Medina." — Sakf JcUdluddin. 

A groat variety of stories have been invented by the commentators 
to illustrate passages like this. See Ta/sir-i-RauJi in loco. 

(207) i/nter into the true religion wholly. TJiis exhortation Is 
thought to refer to Huch Jewish and Arab converts at Madina as 
had not yet adopted all the rites and customB of tlie new religion. 
Jewish converts had scruples about using the fiesh and milk of 
camels for food, being contrary to the teaching of the Mosaic law. 
The Arabs were not all hearty in accepting the innovations made 
upon the customs of their fathers in order to make a dilference 
between them and the unbelievers, especially in the rites and cere- 
monies of the pilgrimage described above. The temptation of such 
to ap<jHtuiise from Islam is here ascribed to Satan. 

(208) Jf ye have slipped. Rodwell's translation is preferable : ^' If 
yc la]-»se." 

O'od If, mi(jhlij and wise. Mighty to punish apostasy, and wise to 
discern it. 

(209) Overshadoioed with clouds. The allusion here is to the storm 
which destroyed the infidela in the days of the prophet Shuaib. See 
cbap. vii. 92. 

SIPARA IL] ( 365 ) [CHAP. II. 

siiadowed with clouds, and the angels also t but the thinff' 
is decreed, and to God shall all thinf:js return. 

tl (210) Ask the children of Israel how many evident K To' 
signs we have showed them ; and whoever shall change the 
grace of Goi> after it shall have come unto him, verily God 
will be severe in punishing him. (211) The present life 
was ordained for those who believe not, and they laugh the 
faithful to scorn ; but they who fear God shall be above 
them, on the day of the resurrection : for God is bountiful 
unto whom he pleaseth without measure. (212) Mankind 
was of one faith, and God sent prophets bearing good 

Angels. Referred to as the ministers of judgment and the keepers 
of heli. See chap. Ixxiv. 29. 

(210) Evident signs; i.e., the miracles wrought among them by 
foriner prophets, especially by Moses. — Tafsir-i- Raufi. 

Whoever shall change the grace of God. By the grace (translated 
loon) of God, liodwell understands the Quran to be intended. The 
Tafsir-i- Raufi seems to refer the expression to the Pentateuch or 
Jewish Scriptures. The meaning would then be that those Jews, 
who objected to Muslim practice on the ground that it contradicted 
their Scriptures were guilty of changing or perverting the Word of 
God. This I believe to be the true interpretation of tliis passage, 
inasmuch' as there is no reason to believe the Jews ever attempted 
to change the Quran in any wa} , Certainly they did not at this 
stage in the history of Islam. Such being the rase, Muhanjmad Jays 
himself open to the charge of having conimitted the crime he here 
threatens with the " severe punishment " of God. The fear of incur- 
ring this punishment is one of the reasons why Muslims have been 
so scrupulously careful to preserve the text of the Qurdn. 

(211) The present life, dec. Savary translates thus: " The life of 
this world is strewed with flowers for the unbelievers. They make 
a scoff of the faithful. Those who have the fear of the Lord shall be 
raised above them at the day of res'irrection. God dispenseth as he 
pleaaeth his innumerable gihs." 

The Tafslr-i- Raufi tells us that the very reason why infidels are 
prospered is that they may be filled with contemptuous pride «nd 
run madly on the way to desti action. But although they scoff at 
tlie p(>or slave-followers of Muhammad, such as Bilal and Amar, yet 
these shall be exalted far above them at the resurrection day. 

This kind of consolation satisfied the poor companions during the 
trials of the early days of their exile in Madina, Bat the successes of 
Muslim aim.s soon secured a glory sufficiently comforting to the Arab 
mind for the present life at least. Their prosperity has brought 
with it a pri<i'€ not unlike that a.scriLed to the unbelievers by the 

(212) Manhiid was of one faith, Muhammad here teaches the 
truih, that oiiginally there was but one religion in the world. But 

CVTAP. FI.J ( 366 ) [SIPAKA U. 

tidings, and denouncing threats, and sent down with Lhem 
the scripture in truth, that it might judge between men of 
that concerning which, they disagreed : and none disagreed 
concerning it, except those to whom the 8anie scriptures 
were delivered, after the declarationa of God's will had 
come unto thera, out of e.nvy among themselves. And 
God directed those who heiieved, to that truth concerning 
which they disagreed, by his will : fur GoD directeth whom 
he pleaceth into the right way. (213) Did ye think ye 
should enter paradise, when as yet no such thing liad 
Happened unto you, as hath happened unto those who 
have been before you ? They sutfered calamit3^ and tribu- 
lation, and were afflicted; so that the apostle, and they 
who believed with him, said . When 'urill the help of God 

this reh'gion from time to time became corrupt. Hence prophets 
were sent to correct abuses and restore the religiori of God to the 
obildreri of men. Tney brought with thera Scriptures, breathing 
"good tidings and denouncing threats," and "jadging between men 
concerning wlvieh tbej'^ disagreed " ''ITiis religion, according to the 
Qurdn, is tsUm. The Scrlpturesj of the Old and New Testanmnta 
are then '"the Scripture in truth." If, therefore, Muhannnad be a 
})rophet of God, bis doctrine must agree in all essential particulajs 
vvitii the teachings of Moses and Jesus. Do they ^ If not, Muham- 
mad is a false prophet, on his own showing. 

None diaiyreed . . . except those, dc. The reference is to tlie Jews 
who refused to accept the Qurt^n as the Wurd of God The state- 
ment, however, is not literally true, for multitudeti uf heatlien in 
India, China, and Africa still " disagree.'' The p:ii»>^age, however, 
shows that at this srage Muhammad had only the Jews and Arabs 
in mind. Tlie idea of a universal Irilain, ihough logically involved 
iu his doctrine, does not atam to have been yet fully developed in 
his mind. 

God directeth whom he pleaseth. The doctrine of election is here 
expressly taught. 

(213) Did ye think yr Amdd enter jxcradi'se f <f?c. This verse was 
addressed to the Makkau fugitives who suffered grievously from 
huhger and p<jverty during the first years of their e.vile. They are 
pointed U) the sufferings of God's people in former a^es. 80 Tafair- 
i Rauji. The allusion n.ay, iiowever, be to the sufftrmgs endmed by 
himself and tlie first beUevers in Makkah, when persecuted by th* 
Quraish. There is apparently evidence of great courage in adversity 
and firm trust in God in tlie words, " Is not ihe help oi" Ciod nigh ? " 
The expression may, however, simply point to the prospect of suc- 
cess due to the now growing poliljcal power of the Muslimi at 

SrPARA II. "I ( 367 ) [chap, II. 

come? Is not the help of GoD nigti ? (214) They wijl 
ask thee what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, The 
good which ye hestow, let it he given to }>arents, and kin- 
dred, and orpiians, and the poor and the stranger. Wliat- 
soever good ye do, God knoweth it. (2X5) War is 
enjomeci you against the infidels ; bnt this is hateful 
unto you: yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better 
for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for 
you • but God knoweth and ye know not. 

|! (216) They will ask thee concerning th6 sacred month, R Yi' 
whether they may war therein : Answer, To war therein is 
grievous; but to obstruct the way of God, and infidelity 
towards him, and to keep men from the holy temple, and 
to drive out his people from thence, 33 more grievous in 

(214) What they sludl baiiow in ahns. That " charity begins at 
home" was a truth of Islam as well a.s of CLxietianity is evident trora 
the injunction in this verse. The contributions of the. Musliuis were 
as yet too meagre to supply the wants of any outside their own com- 
lu unity, yet we see the " stranger" is still to share the benefit of Arab 
hospitality and generosity. On the subject of legal alm.s, see notes 
:on verg. 42 and 109. This verse was afterwards abrogated. See 
chap. ix. 60. 

(215) War is enjoined ^ou. See note on ver. [95. 

/'his is hateful unto you : yet, i!bc. The hatf^'ulness referred to here 
was probably due to the reluctance of some of the Muslims to fight 
against their own relatives and fellow-townsmen. By the infideh we 
must understend the Makkans specially to be designated., Muham- 
mad had now determined to resort to the sword to accomplish what 
his preaching had failed to do. The divine sanction to his belligerent 
purpose was now promulgated. But the doctrine w^as unpalatable to 
some, and Muhammad had no litile difficulty in aecuring obedience 
to it. Even the rule limiting the distribution of booty to those who 
assisted in the fight for it was scarcely aufficieni: to a-rouse their 
martial spirit. See chap, xlviii. 15, 16. 

(216) To 'wcir therein is grievous. See notes on vera, j 90- 194. 
The commentators agree in assigning the occaston of this revelation 

to the attack of Abdullah Ibu Jahash and his party of Muslims upon 
a Quraish caravan at Nakhla, beUveen Makkah and Tayif, during the 
sacred month of Rajah. The attack wa? made by the express orde-' 
of Muhammad, though afterwards he denied having ordered them to 
atiaek during the sacred month. Tne unbelievers taunted him and 
hia Muslims, charging them with perfidy and cowardice in attatkihg 
men from assault by the customs of the times. Even the 
Muslims felt the disgrace thus brought upon them. They reproached 
Abdullah and his followers for what they had done. But the prophet 

CHAP. li.J ( 368 ) [SIPARA II. 

the sight of God, and the tenptation to idolatry is more 
grievous tlian to kill in the sacred months. They will not 
cease to war against you, until they turn you from your 
religion, if the}^ be able : but whoever among you shall turn 
back from his religion, and die an infidel, their works shall 
bo vain in this world, and the next; they shall be the 
companions of hell-^ve, they shall remain therein forever. 
(217) But they who believe, and who fly for the sake 
of religion, and fight in God's cause, they shall hope 
for the mercy of God; for God is gracious and mer- 
ciful. (218) They will ask thee concerning wine and 
lots : Answer, In both there is great sin, and also some things 
of use unto men ; but their sinfulness is greater than their 

was equal to the occasion. He affected displeasure. Tlie booty was 
put aside "without division until this revelation was made, declaring 
war at such a time to )>e "grievous," but assuring the Muslims 
that the conduct of the Makkans and the temptation to idolatry was 
more grievous than killing in the sacred months. After the recep- 
tion of this revelation the booty was divided among the marauders, 
Muhammad receiving the fiftli part thereof, thus condoning, if not 
actually sanctioning, the conduct of the transgressors. Can it be 
believed that Muhammad was not guilty of imposture in producing 
such a revelation under such circumstances? For a fuUei- account 
of this affair, see Muir's Life of Mahomet^ vol. iii. pp. 70-74. 

(217) Thei/ who . . . Jiyht in God's cause. Literally, T/iey, who 
strive earnestly in the way of God. " The word {Jihad) is the same as 
that subsequently used for a religioiis war; but it had not yet 
proliably acquired its fixed application. It was employed in its 
geiieral sense before the He^ira, and probably up to the battle of 
Badr." — Muir^s Life of Mahomet, voL iii. p. 74, note. 

This verse is said to have been revealed for the special purpose of 
comforting Abdullah and his companions, 

(218) Concerning wine. " Under the name of trine all sorts of 
strong and inebriating liquors are comprehended." — Prelim. Disc.y 

And lots. " The original word, al Maisar, properly t-ignifies a pai- 
ticular game performed with arrows, and much in use with ^Le pagan 
Arabs, But by lots we are liere to undcrstajid all gamt-s whatsoever, 
which are subject to chance or hazard, as dice, cards, lirc." — Sale. 

Though lots are forbidden to Muslims on the ground that they are 
** a great sin " and " an abimiination of the work of Satan '' (chap. 
V. 92), yet the angels are said to have c«ist lots to determine which of 
them " should h;ive the education of Maxy " (chap. iii. 44). 

Some thimjs of use urUo msn. " From these words some suppose 
tjiat only drinking to excess and too frequent gaming are prohibited. 

STPARA I!.] ( 369 ) [(.HAP. II. 

use. They will ask thee also what the/ shall bestow in 
aims : (219) Answer, What ye liave to spare. Thus God 
showeth his signs unto yon, that peradventure ye might 
Sfefiuiialy think of this present world, and of the next. 
(^220) They will ;ilso ask thee concerning orphans : Answer, 
To deal rigiiteously with them is best ; and if ye inter- 
lueddle with the w^amagement of what helongs to them, do 
them no loroipj ; they are your brethren: GoD knoweth 
the corrupt dealer- fi'OTn the righteous ; and if God })lease, 

Ami the rabdeTntt* wae of wijie t)icy also think is allowed by tl'.ese 
words of the 16th chapter (ver. 6'^), And of the fruita of palmArees 
and orapesye nbhiin { ndjriatlng dnnk, and also good nourishment But 
the iDore r*jceiYef! opitiion is, that both driukiug wme or other strong 
]i(liiois in any quanlity and playinjj: at any game oi" chance, aro 
ahfbolutely forbidden." — SaJ*.^ on thf authority of Jaldluddin andZam- 

Ooiiiparing t\\h pfi«;sage with cliup. iv. 42, cha]>. v. 92. and chap, 
xvi. 69, the copciusloit seeiiLs fairly drawn that w'mf- and lot* were 
forbidden on the ground that their ^^'as frau<;}it with great evil, 
as f*lated in tne text, though their occasional use to men is admitted. 
Muslims came to prayer in a state of drunkenness, f>nd. quarrels and 
bloo<1 feuds grew out of the use of lot.'). Tiiey ^veue tJierefore totally 

(21!)) What ye have to xpan. See note on ver. 2,\\. There the 
question relates to beneficiaries, here to the amount to be bestowed. 
But fiee also note.s on ver. 42. 

(220) Concenung orphans. The following, from R. Bo^worth 
Sii)ith";5 Mohuram'fd and, Mohammedanism^ \^. 251, second editioHj is 
eloquenUy misleading :--"Tiie orphan was not le.s's than the slave 
the object of the prophet's pecuUar care, for he hud been an or['han 
hiirt!^e'!f ; and wbat Gud had done for him, he was anxious, as far as 
might be, to do for others, The poor were always present witJ« him, 
and tLcii- condition never absent froio his mind.'' He bhould 
not have forgotten to say that tliisi soh'r.itude, so far as it went, did 
7jot go ])eyoiid the Mu^^lim circle; that, having made thousandti of 
orphans by his wars against the iuOdels, he was in duty bound to 
care for tiieni ; and thai orplmns being Muslims (for the children of 
infidels and Jewi or Chri.stians, .slain for their unbelief, were made 
Mu.'^lims by compnlslou) were t(; be caree for, not only because they 
were orphans. l>ut because tbey weie brethren. Whilit giving the 
Arabi:!n piophet due credit for tb.-^t kindliness of feehng wliich he 
bometimes exhibited towards^ the poor ytid helpless, and which buds 
e;:pie.ssion i,n the Quran, we cannot shut our eyes to the fact thac 
he was an utt(!r stranger to tli&t universe] clianly which is the cJiief 
glory of Chriftianilv. 

i/v/i' intermeddle y *.«., if you make us(; of iliei; money or propeiiy 
in carrying on yotu' own busine=^^ uliairs, "do tlicm no wrong," 

2 A 

CHAP. II.] ( 370 ) [SIPARA II. 

he will surely distress you, for God is mighty and wise. 
(221) Many not women wJio arc idolaters, until they be- 
lieve : verily a maidservant who bolieveth is better than 
an idolatress, although she please you more. Arid give 
not women who heliere in marriage to the idolaters, until 
they believe : for verily a servant who is a true believer 
is better than an idolater, though he pleaae you more. 
They invite unto hell-fire, but GoD inviteth unto j^aradise 
and pardon through his will, and dech'ireth his signs unto 
men. that they may remember. 
xCTe' 11 (222 j They will ask thee also concerning the courses 
of women : Answer, They are a pollution : therefore sepa- 
rate yourselves from women in their courses, and go not 
near them, until they be cleansed. But when they are 
cleansed, go m unto them as God hath commanded yon, 
for God loveth those who repent, and loveth those who 
are clean. (223) Your wives are your tillage; go in there- 
fore unto your tillage m what manner soever } e vvill : 
and do first, some act that ma?j he ■profitaLdc unto your 
souls ; and fear God, and know that ye must meet him ; 
and bear good tidings unto the faithful. (224) Make not 

SVill surely distress you, viz., "By his curse, which will certainly 
bring to nettling what ye shall wroug v,he orphans of" — Sale, 

^221) Marry not . . . idoI.afer.<. This law was probably copied 
from thii riMjuirernents of both rJiidaism and Chiistiaiiily ((/. Dcut. 
viu 3, 4, and 2 Cor. vi. i4-i6). Abdul Qudir sayn this prohibition 
docs not apply tu .lews and Chtiritians, and that Muslims are per- 
itiitted to iutermauy with them. 

(222, 223) These verses, with the disgusting comments of Muslim 
expositors, too iiidecout to IilkI a place in this work, leveal the sen- 
sual character of the Arabian proplict and his followers. They 
uccount lor the <legradatiou ot Muslim women. And yet this liceu- 
tioufc! mandate is clothed in the g.u'b uf piety, and its pert'ormauce 
is to be accompanied by acts of devotion and charity. See Sale in 

(2i:4, 225) i/a/.v not God t^i; ohject of your oaths j i.e., " So as to swear 
frequently bj him. The word translated ohjed properly tagnifies a 
butt to shoot at with arrows." — Sale. 

yet the example of the prophet himself, af> t<i8titied by scoref; of 
traditions, and the te^iching of the Qnnin (see chaps. Ji., Ixxix., 
Ixxxvi., xci., xcii., xciv., &c.), justify the most piomiscuous and 

SIPARA II.] ( 371 ) fCHAP. n 

God the oTjject of your oaths, that ye will deal justly, and 
be devout, and make peace among men; for God is he 
who heareth and knoweth. (225) God will not punish 
you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths ; but he will 
punish you for that which your hearts have assented unto ; 
God is ruerciful and gracious. (226) They who vow to 
abstain from their wives are allowed to wait four months : 
but if they go back from their vow, verily God is gracious 
and merciful ; (227) and if they resolve on a divorce, God 

varied use of oaths by all things in heaven and earth, Allah not 
excepted. Compare our Lord's teaching,' on this sijlject (Matt. v. 
34-37, xxiii. 16-22), and it will be seen how far th-.- Quran comes 
shon of "confirming the former Scriptures" on tliis pohit. 

That ye ivill deal, justly y d:c. "Some commentators (JaUluddin, 
Yahya, &c.) expound this negatively, That ye wilt not deal justly, nor 
he. devout, d-c. For such wicked oaths, they <»ay, were customary 
amoii^ the idolatrous inhabitants of Makkah, which gave occasion to 
tlie following saying of Muhammad : When ijoio swear to do a thing, 
and afterwarJs find it better tp do otheitoiM, do that ivhicA is better, 
arid make void your oath" — Sale. 

The ])Ositive rendering is ciearly llie right one. The exhortation 
then seems to be, that by abstaining from the use of Ood's name in 
ordinary oaths, men would leel at liberty to break their rash vows 
when their fulfilment would involve the performance of a M'icked 
act. This view is borne out by the teaching of the next verse. 

(226) Those who vow to abstain, dbc. Rodwiill translates thus : 
" Those who intend to abstain," &c. The Tapir-i-IiauJi and Abdul 
Qadir understand an oath, and not an intention, to be meant, and 
translate accordingly. The passage therefore supplies an instance 
in which an oath n)ay be violated, but the oath must not be in the 
name of (iod (ver. 224). Indeed it se'^ms to us that this is the special 
case provided for by the general principle enunciated in ver. 225. 

Pour months. " That is, they may take so much time to consider , 
and shall not, by a rash oath, be obliged actually to divorce them." — 

Others are of opinion that such an oath does .not liave the force of 
an actual divorce for the period of four mouths. , If, however, it be 
maintained for that period, a divorce is thereby declared, and the 
parties would ha% e to oe married again to render their living togesther 
lawful. See Tafsir-i-Raufi in loco. 

(227) If they resolve on a divorct; i.e,, within, or at the terminatit>n 
of, the four months. 

(rod is he who lieareth and lcnoV)eth. These words, so often repeated 
in the Quran, express alike the pleasure and displeasure of God. 
The context decides which is intended. , Compare vers. 127, 1^7, 
244. and 256. They generally have reference to matters of faith. 
Exhortations in regard to Xh.^ practice of vehgion usually end with the 

'^'^fAP. II.] ( 372 ) [SIPARAII. 

is lie who hearetli and knowetli. (228) The wcmen v)ho 
are divorced shall wait concerning themselves until they 
have tlieir courses thrice, and it shall not be lawful for 
them to conceal that which G-OD hath created in their 
wombs, if thev believe in God and the last day ; and their 
husbands will act more justly to bring them back at this 
time, if they desire a leconciliatiou. The women ought 
also to heliave toioards their husbands in like manner as 
their husbands shcndd hehave towards them, according to 
what is just: but the men ought to have a superiority 
^ ^ over them. GoD is mighty and wise. 
Iv 1 3' 11 (229) Ye may divorce your waives twice; and then 

expression, "God knoweth that which 3'e do," or "Go4 ^eeth that 
which ye do." Here, while divorce is permitted and legislated for, 
the will of God seems to be against it. 

(228) The divorced shall wait, etc. " This is to be understood of 
those only with whom the marriage has beeu coDsummated ; for as 
to the others there is no time limited. Those who are not quite past 
child-bearing (which a woman is reckoned to be after her courses 
cease, and she is about fifty-five lunar years, or about fifty-throe solar 
years old), and those who axe too young to have children* are alJosved 
three months only ; but they who are with child must wait till they 
be delivered." — iSale^ Jaldluddin. 

For tlie various kinds of divorce recognisefi by Mut^lim law, see 
Prelim. Disc, pp. 207, 208, and Hughe>s' on MuhavirnadanUm, 
p. 182. 

That which God hath a-eated, d-c. "That is, they shall teii the 
real truth, whether they have their courses, or be with child, or not ; 
and shall not, by deceiving their husband, obtain a separation from 
him before the term be dccoinplished, lest the first husband's child 
should, by that means, go to the second, or the wife, in case of the 
first husband's death, should set up her child as his heir, or demand 
her maititenance during tlie tinit; she went with buch chiJd, and the 
expense.s of her lying-in, under )>retence that she waited not her full 
prwHcribed time." — .SV/,/«, Yaft,ja. 

Thf wionen ought also io behave towiirrh their husbaria's, dx. Hue- 
band.s Wk-re exhorted' to *'brliig hack " their wives dui-ing the pre- 
scribed );fr«ed of waiHog, provided the wives desired a reconciliation. 
The only mcjining yd the exiioitation tO the women is that they 
should hv willing to go back to husbands, provided the huabarids 
desired to be reconciled. Lest such a stjitement should predicate 
equality oetween the sexes, the c)ause is added, "but the. men ought 
to have a .superiority over theiu." 

(229) Ve may divurct your wiifts twict. Compare the JNlosaic law, 

SIPARA II.] ( 373 ) [CHAP. IT. 

either retain th^ra with humanity, or dismiss them with 
kindness. But it is not lawful for you to take away any- 
thing of what ye have given them, unless both fear that 
they cannot observe the ordinance of God. And if ye 
fear that they cannot observe the ordinance of God, it 
shall be no crime in either of them on account of that 
for which the wife shall redeem herself. These are the 
ordmances of God ; therefore transgref?s them not ; for 
whoever transgresseth the ordinances of God, thoy are 
unjust doers. (230) But if thi husband divorce her a third 
time, she sliall not be lawful for him again, until she 

Deut. xxiv. 1 -4. Here we find the Quran, which professes to attest 
the toi mer Scriptures, giving eaiictioti to that which ie declared by 
Mosea t^ be "aboiuination before, the Lord." The doctrine of abro- 
gation cannot be made to apply in such a case, \jriless it be a«-lraifcted 
that what js "ahouiination before the Lurd" in one ago juay be 
acceptable to him in afiother. 

What ye have given thmii ; it., the dowry, -which must not be lees 
than ten dirhams (Hughes' Notes on MvJuunmadniiis-m, p. 177). The 
dilHouhy of divorce amontf Mnslim.s is greatly increased by their 
iflsistiiig on large dowrie-s being settled upon their daughters whf^n 
given in marriage. Unless this dow ry be voluntarily remitted by the 
■wife, it must be paid bj the husband divorcing her against her v)ill. 

Unless both fear, dx\ In this case the wife consents to the divorce- 
ment, thereby forfeiting ber dowry. 

It shall be no crime, d;v,; i e., '^If she prevail on her husband to 
dismiss her, by releasing part of her dowry." — H-'Ue. 

This release is usually obtained by the most outrageous abuse of 
the wife, oflen making hor willing to forfeit the whole of her dower 
rather than live with her brutal husband. This law of the Qur£n is 
responsible for sack treatment of women. It makes her the helpiess 
victim of her husband'.^ cupitiity and tyranny. 

(230) But if tier husband divorce lur a third time, Ac. See Prelim. 
Disc, p. 207. The SifishqfU ul Musdbih relates a number of tradi- 
tions on this subject, too indecent for repro<luction here, showing 
how this law is to be fulfilled, and how pious Muslims have vainly 
sought to evade the rigour of its requii-eiaent. See Bombay edition 
in ITrdii, vol. iii. pp. 176-178. 

Muir, in his Life of Mahowet^ vol. iii. p. 306, new edition, p. 349, 
referring to this law, says : "In the rules regarding divorce there is 
one which (much as I might desire) cannot be pfl^issed over iii silence. 
A husband may twice divorce bis wife, and each time receive her 
back again. But when the words of separation have been thrice 
repeated, the divorce i.s irreversible. However unjust or injurious 
the action, how much soever the result of passion ^r of caprice, liow- 
ever it may uiFect the interests not only of an innocent wife but also 

CHAP. 1/. ( 374 ) [SIPARA II. 

marry another husband. But if he aho divorce her, it 
shall be no crime in them if they return to each other, if 
they think they can observe the ordinances of Oop, and 
these are the ordiuancea of GoD ; he declareth them to 
people of understanding. (23 i) But when ye divorce 
women, and they have fnlfillftd their prescribed time, 
either retain them with humanity or dismiss f.hem with 
kindness; and retain them not by violence, so that ye 
transgress ; for he who doth tins surely injureth his own 
souh And make not the signs of (tOI) a jest : but remem- 
ber God's favour towards you, and that he hath sent down 
untQ you the book of tfie Qurdii, and wisdom admonish- 
ing you thereby; and fear GoD, and know that God is 
^"'30 " (232) But when ye have divorced your wivefj, and 

KT4' they have fullilled their prescribed time, hinder them not 

of her innocent children, however desirous the huiband may be of 
undoing the wrong, the decision cannot be recalled ; the divorced 
wife can return to her husband but on one. condition, iiud that is thac 
she shall first be married to anotner, and after cohabitation be again 
divorced. The tone of Mahometan iiianntr.H may be iruaj/ined from, 
the functions of the tem'porary husband (Mostahil), hired to legaliiie 
remarriage with a thrice- divorced wife, liaving passed into a pro- 
verb.^ buch flagrant breach of decer^ey, such cruel \nolation of the 
modesty of an unoffending vife, may be an abuse the full exUut of 
which was not at the time coutemplaied by Mahomet, but it i« not 
the less an abuse for which, as a direct result of the unnatural aud 
revoltinjT provision framt-d by him, Mahumet is justly responsibh'." 

But ij ht also divorct lux. The Qur4n everywhere presumes that 
divorce is the sole prerogative of the hul^baud. The idea of a wite 
claiming the right was foreign to Muhammad's mind. He regarded 
women as a lower order of beings, intervening between the "lave and 
their lorda. The elevation of woman to her true position is iinpos- 
aibjie under Isldiu. 

It shall be no crime, rfrc. This is a direct contradiction of the teach- 
ing of the Bible. See note on ver. 229. 

(231) Retain them not by vioUnce; i.e., by oblifjing them to pur- 
chase their liberty with piirt of their dowry. — Hok. 

(232) JlinUef tliem- 9iot from marrying their husbands; i.e., their 
former husbands, froui wliom they have been divorced. If tlie 
parties are willing to remarry. th*rir relatives are not to interfere. — 
^iipi.r-^i- Rauji. 

I "A th<nwwund lovers rather than one i-'ostahil."^ — BurckhardCs Arabic 
Proverbs, p. z\^ 

SIPA-RA II.J ( 375 ) [chap. II 

from marrying their husbands, when they have agreed 
among themselves according to what is honourable. This 
is given in admonition unto him among you who believeth 
in God, and the last day. This is most righteous for 
you^ and most pure. God knoweth, but ye know not. 
(233) Mothers after they are divorced shall give suck unto 
their children two full years, to him who desireth the 
time of giving suck to be completed ; and the father ghall 
be obliged to maintain them and clotlie them in the mzan- 
/i^t€, according to that which shall be reasonable. Ko per- 
son shall be (jbliged beyond nis ability. A mother shall not 
be compelled to what is iinreasmuthle on account of her child, 
nor a father on account of his child. Ana the heir of the. 
father shall be obliged to do in like manner. But if they 
choose to wean the child heforp. the end of two years, by 
common consent and on mutual consideration, it shall bo 
no crime in them. And if ye have a miud to provide a 
nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in 
case ye fally pay what ye offer he,r, according to that 
which is just. And fear God, and know that God tseeth 
whatsoever ye do, (234) Such of you as die, aud leave 
wives, their wk-es must wait concerning themselves four 
montlis and ten days, and when they shall have fulfilled 
their term, it shall be no crime in you, for that which 
they sliail do with themselve.s, according to what is reason- 
able. God well knoweth that which ye do. {2^6) And 
it shall be no crime m you, whether ye make public over- 
tures of marriage unto such women^ within the said four 
months and ten days, or whether ye conceal such your 
desiyns in your minds : GoD knoweth that ye will re- 

<233) And (he heir, dec. ; i.e., in cv^e the ftitiier die before lUe child 
is weaned. 

C2.34) Four monihs and Un fbiys. " That is to say, before ihey 
marry aguin ; and thi.^ not only tor decency sake, but ihitc it may 
he kuown wiiether tliey be 'V\/ith child by ibe deceased or tiot.^' — 

It shall he no crime;: z.e,,, **il; they look out for new liu&bandi" ~ 

CHAP. II.] { ^76 ) [SIPARA II. 

member tliem. But make no promises unto them privately, 
unless ye apeak honourable words ; and resolve not on the 
knot of marriage until the prescribed time be accomplished; 
and know that God knoweth that which is in your minds, 
therefore beware of him and know that God is gracious 
and merciful. 

R3 1 
15* !| (23G) It. shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your 

wives, so long as ye have not touched them, nor settled 
any dowry on them. And provide for them (he who is at 
his ease must provide according to his circumstances, and 
he who is straitened according to his circumstances) neces- 
saries, according to what shall be reasonable. This is a 
duty incumbent on the right-eous. (237) But if ye divorce 
them before ye have touched them, and have already- 
settled a dowry on them, ye shall give, them hali of what 
ye have settled, imless they release any part, or he release 
'part in whose hand the knot o£ marriage is ; and if ye 
release the whole, it will approach nearer unto piety. And 
forget not liberality among you, for God seeth that which 
ye do. (238) Carefully observe the appointed prayers, 

(237) Unless they release any part, ti^c; i.e., " unless the wife agree to 
take leKs tli^n half her dowry, or unless the husband be so generous 
as to give her more than half, or the whole, which is here approved 
of as most commendable.'* — Sale. 

(238) Carefully observe the appointed prayers. The command has 
reffeience to tlie five daily prayers. See Prelim. Disc, p. 165. Four 
of these are distinctly uientioned in chap. xxx. 16, 17, and all Muslim 
commentators understand the liith to be included in the " evening " 
prayer of ver. 16. Mr. Bo&worth Smith id therefore mistaken m 
saying that "the five daily prayers, like the rite- of circunjcision, are 
not enjoined in the Koran itself." — Moh<bm.rfied and Mohammedanism^ 
note on p. 196. 

Apologists for Muhammadanism are fond of dilating at great 
length upon the fervour of Muslims in prayer, and "missionaries 
and the like" are severely condemned for bringing .again Pt Muslim 
prayers lite chur^'e of being "merely lifeless forms and vain repeti- 
tion?." ' If ftjivour in prayer consists in ptuictilious perforniance of 
a presciibed ruaud of bowing and prostration, or the 'repetition of a. 
formal service of prayer in a foreign tongue, then the fervour and 

^ Introruicirion to Lar.t's SdutioM from the Kunin by Sb«nle} Lane Poole, 
p. bcxiiiu. 

SIVARA U.] { 377 ) [CHAP. H. 

and the middle prayer, and be assiduous therein, with 
devotion towards Cor». (239) But if ye fear any danger, 
j[)ray on foot or on horseback ; and when ye are safe 
remember Goo, how he hath taught you what as yet ye 
knew Jiot. (240) And such of you as shall die and leave 
wives, ought to bequeath their wives a year's mainten- 
ance, without puttirrg them out of thsir houses: but if 
they go out voluntarily, it shall be no crime in you, for 
that which they shall do with themselves, according to 
what shall be reasonable: (tod is mighty and wise. (241) 
And unto those who are divorced, a reasonable provision 

reahty of Muslim prd.yer must be ackriowledj^ed. But, whatever may 
be tboujrht, of the probable character uf Muslim prayer in the earlier 
days oi Isldra, we think no man ac^uainLed with the "worship of 
iao<iern Muslims cun accre^lii them generally vvith haying any true 
conception of the f^piritunl characier of prayer, much le^s of striving 
alter real heart couimunioa with God. Granting that Muhammad 
liad a correct idea of prayer, uo .system could have been invented to 
destroy all vestige of real prayer .vhichi would have succeeded better 
than triis stereotyped service of laUm, So far as the great mass of 
Muslims are concerned, the ment of prayer consists in its performance 
accordiT];^ to the external rile, and not in putting forth Leai-t desires 
alter God. 

The mi^idle prayer; i.e., 'Jsar. 

With demotion. The devotion consists in the puiiciilious perform- 
ance of the prescribed round of bowing and prostration, previous 
ablution, aud perfect silence during prayer. Here again the English 
reader is raislevl by the language Oi an English translation. See any 
Muslim commentary on the pa-siage. 

(240) Abdul Qr'idir says this law was abrogated by the law of 
Inheritance, in which each lieh-'s portion is dehuitely fixed (see chap, 
iv. iij which refers to the wife's share); and tlxe Tafsir-i-Raufi 
declared it abrogated by ver. 234. Rodwell 5>ays thi* passage "is 
certainly older tiian the connaencement of Sura iv." The view of 
Abdul Qadir is therefore probably correct. So far as we are aware, 
the Muslim law of inheritance is based upon chap. Iv. 11, in so far aa 
H relates to the share of the wife or wives in the property of a deceased 
husbfliid. It is fortunate for the millions of Mrislini widows that 
the spirit of the prophet became mdre liberal in this respect as tlie 
years rolled by. "it is difficult to estimate the amount of niiseiy tliat 
would have resulted had the law of this verse remained in force. 

(241) Unto thoBe ivho are divorced. The hussband, in making his 
bequest, is requii-ed to provide tor the support of bis divorced wives 
during the period of Waiting (ver. 228), provided .^uch period be not 
accomplished at the time of making bequest. Tiie Tafsh--i-Bavji 
regards this law as still in force. 



CHAP II.j ( ^7^ ) [srPARA ir 

is also due: this 'is a d\xtj incumbent on those who fear 
God. (242) Thus GrOD declareth his signs unto you, that 
ye may understand. 
6' II (243) Hast thou not considered these who left their 
habitations (and they were thousands), for fear of death ? 
And (tOd said unto them, Die ; then he restored them to 
life, for God is gracious towards mankind ; but the greater 
part of men do not give thanks. (244) Figlit for the 
religion of God, and know that God is he who heareth 
and knoweth. (245) Who is he that will lend unto GoD 

(243) 'Those who Iqft thiir habitations. " were some of the 
cbildreu of Israel, wlio abandoned tbeir dwellings because of a 
pestilence, or, as others say, to avoid ^ervirig in a religions war ; but, 
as they fled, God struck them all dead in a certain valley. About 
eight days or more after, when their bodies were corrupted, the 
prophet Ezekiel, the son of Bazi, happenint^ to pa<is that way, at the 
sight of their banes wept ; whereupon God said to him, (Jail tc t/Wi, 
Ezekiel, and I loill restore them to liff. And accordingly on the 
prophet's call they ail arose, and lived several years after ; but they 
retained the colour and stench of dead corpses as long as they lived, 
and the clothes they wore changed as black as pitch, which qutlitie.^ 
they trap.^mitted to their posterity. As to the number of these 
Israelites the commentators are not a«r(»ecl ; they who reckon least 
say they were 3000, and tliey who reckon most, 70,000. This story 
seems to have been tf ken from Ezekiel's vision of the resurrection of 
dry bones. 

'* Some of the Mohammedan writers will have Ezekiel to have been 
one of the jmlges of Isi'ael, and to have succeeded Othoniel the son 
of Caleb. They aUo call this }>rophet Jbn al ajuz, or the fwi of the 
old woman, because th(;y say bis mothtr obtained him by her prayera 
in her old agft." — Sale, Jacdlvddin, Yahya, ttc 

This is another instance of the failure of thi^ Qur4n to confirm the 
teaching of the "funrier Scriptures." The purpose of Muhammad iu 
relating this story appears in the exhortation of the next verse. 
Muslims must not fear death, lest they be ])unished with death aud 

(244) Fight for the religion, of O^d, (See notes on vers. 190 and 191.) 
Rodwell regants the exhortation of tiiese verses as iiaviog special 
reference to tiie (doming struggle with the people of Madina. We 
think the jmrpose of Muham*uad had a much wider riinge. Tie 
certainly ha<l special referenc^e to the conflict with the Makkans in 
the exhoriaUons < if vers. 191-193- All hi>: teaching conctrning the 
Qibia and the pilgrimage, all bin legialaMon for the company of the 
faithful, points to the contiuc-Jt of Arahia. nod the establishment of 
IsUm throughout ii.-> boimds by the sword. 

(24.5) Who in hi thai will tendj th:.; i.e "by wntributing towards 
the establishTrent of his true rtiligion." — Sale. 

siPARA II.] ( 379 ) [chap. II. 

on good usury ? verily he will double it unto liira mani- 
fold ; for God contracteth and oxtendetli Iris hand as he 
pleaseth, and to him shall ye return. (246) Hast thou 
not considered the assembly of the children of Israel, 
after th^, time of Moses ; when tliey sai/i unto their prophet 
Sarnvel, Set a king over us, that we may fight for the 
religion of God. The j^rophd aiwweved, If ye are enjoined 
to go to war, will ye be near refusing to fight? They 
answered, And what should ail ua that we should not 
fight for tlie religion of God, seeing we are dispossessed of 
our habitations and deprived of our children ? But -arhen 
they were enjoined to go to war, they turned back, except 
a few of them: and God knew the ungodly. (24-7) And 
their prophet said unto them. Verily God hath set TaKH, 
king over you : they aaswered How shall he reign over 
us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, 
neither is he possessed of great riches? Samuel said, 
Yerily God hath chosen him before you, and hath caused 
him to increase in knowledge and stature, for God giveth 
his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth , God is bounteous 

(246) That v;e may iiuht for the religion of God. Tke children of 
I.srael said, " Wp will have a king over lis ; that we al«o may be 
liiie all the nations ; and that our king may judge us, and go o>H 
before us, and fight our battles" (i Sam. viil. 19, 20). 

T]ie, garbled rendering of Israelitish history in this verse and those 
following illustratep at once 'Muhammad's ignorance of the Bible 
Bfcory, and his unscnipnJous ada,f)tation of Jewish tradition to the 
purposes of hi.s propnetic ambition. Grantitg that he was nn- 
acquainted with ttie Scripture narrative, and that he was dependent, 
for his information on Jewisli tradition, I cannot see how jhe can. be 
fairly exonerated from the charge of deliberate imposition here. 

Seciny tec are Jisiioesesaeil^ dx. The commentators retate a story in 
iDustrat'nu of this pa.-^3age to the effect that God, on account of their 
defection iiom the true faith, permitted Goliath lo invade their 
country, and to destroy their hal>itati«)ii8, and carry their children 
mto captivily. 

(247) Ana' their prophe.t. The name of thi« prophet is not f^'iren 
in the original. Some comn;entators think be was Ishmufl (.Samuel^: 
others, that Joshua ia rtjferred to; and others, that his name.waa 
Shi maun.— Tafsir-i-Jianji. 

TdW, SauL 

CHAR 11.] ( 380 ) [SiPARA II. 

and wise. (248) And tbeir proplic-t said unto them, Yerily 
the sign of hir. kin^doiri shall be, that the ark shall corae 
unto you : 1 herein shall be traQquillity from your LORDj 
and the relics wiiich have been left by the family of 
Moses and th.e family of Aaron ; the angels shall bring it. 
Verilv this shall be a sign unto you. if ye believe. 
I 1 • \l (249) And when Taliit departed with his soldiers h« 
said, Verily Oou will prove you by the river ; for he who 

(248y Thr si(iii of his kingdom, Jbe. Gumpare this story with the 
Biblical account (r Sam. chap, xi.) 

The arh Arabic ci-?»^U]i = Coptic Hebrew Hip. ^''I'his ark, 

says Jalaluddm, contained the imagt'S of the prophets, and waa 
tjent down fvoni beavei) to AiJani, and at length carue to the Jsraelitea, 
who put ^eat conti^leiiee therein, and continuallj carried it in the 
froiil of their anny, till it was? taken by the Aninlekites. But on 
thia occasion the angels brought it back, in the sight of all the people, 
aud placed it at the feet oi T41tit, who w?8 thereupon uniinimously 
acknowledjred for their king. 

**This relation seeui.-= to h.ive^ arisen from some imperfect tradition 
of the taking and .st-ndiiig back the ark by the Philistines." — Sale. 

Tranquility. Atabic Ij^^L^, Seo BodwelVs note in loco. 
Alfci) Peuricff's Dictionary and Glossary of the Kor4a under ' • ' 

'^ Ti anfjuilyity. Tbat is, because of the great confldeuce the Lsraeiitea 
placed m it, having won several battles by its uiiraculous asfiatance. 
I imagine, however, that ihe Arabic word SaJcinaty which signitiee 
tranquillity or 'security of viind, and is so understood by the com- 
mematorg, may not improbably mean ihe divine presence or plo'ry^ 
which used to appes.r on the- ark, and which the Jews expreseed by 
the same word, Bh'whinah." — Sale. 

The rdicA. " Tlie^e were ihe shoes and rod of Moses the mitre 
of Aaron, a pot of D^anna, and the broken pieces of the two tables of 
the law." — Side, Jalaluddiri.. 

Tfi'6 angeis tiiiall bring it. The author of the Notes on the Roman 
Urdu Qnrdn joints out that these angels were "two milch kintl" 
AIkIuI Qddir yays the angels dr<jve ihc kine. 

(249^ (rod will proif you by the river. The story of Saul is here 
CKufounded with that of Gideon (comp. Judges vii.), and with David's 
conflict with Goliath ! And yet this ridiculous jumble is declared 
below (252) to be re.hearfe>e«.l by Crod unto Muhamnuid " with tnjth." 
Js it possible to believe Muhammad siiicere aod consriously truthful 
while making a statement like this? lie must have received his 
informiition lespecting Israelit.ish history from tlie Jews or Jewish 
converts to Idjam, either directly, or, as is more probable, indirectly. 
Uow could he imagine that he bad received it by a divine revelation"? 
I confess my entire inability to reconcile such facts wiih any thctiry 
of tiaiJuciuation or self-decepfion. 

SIPARA III.] ( 38T ) [CHAP. II. 

drinketh thereof shall not be on my side (but he who shall 
not taste thereof he shall be on my side), except he who 
drinketh a draught out of his hand. And they drank 
thtireof, except a few of tliom. And when they had passed 
the river, he and those who believed with him, tJiey said, 
We have no strength to-day, against Jaliit and his forces. 
But they who considered that they should meet God at 
the resurrection said, How often hatli a small army dis- 
comfited a great one, by the will of God ! and God is with 
those who patiently persevere. (250) And when they 
went forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said. 
O Lord, pour on us patience, and confirm our feet, and 
hel}) us against the unbelieving people, (2.j1) Therefore 
they discomfited them, by the will of God, aud David slew 
Jaliit. And God gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and 
taught hiiu his will ; and if God had not prrr/ented men, 
the one by the other, verily the earth had been corrupted ; 
but God is beneficent towards Ms creatures. (252) These 
are the signs of God : we rehearse them unto thee with 
truth, and thou art surely one of those who have been sent 
hy God, 

!! (253) These are the apostles ; we have preferred some TmRD 
of them before others ; some of them hath GoD spoken 
unto, and hath exalted the degree of others of them. And 
we gave unto Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs, and 
strengthened him with the holy spirit. And if God had 

(251) And God . . . taught him. his vjill. ^^ Ox what he pleased to 
teach Lim. Yaliya most rationally under8td.nds- hereby the divine 
revelations which David received from God ; but JaMluddln, the 
art of making coats ot mail (which the Muhanimadaiis helieve was 
T-bat prophet's peculiar trade) aud the knowledge of the language of 
bir<;h.'" — Siale. 

C252) Thou art surely . . . sent Irij God. Look at this stat-jiaentin 
the light of my note on (249). 

(263) Jeam the son of Mary. " Christ was, with Mohammed, the 
greatest of prophets. He had the power of working miiacles ; he 
spoke in his cradle ; he made a bird out of clay. He could give siglit 
to the blind, atul even rai^e the dead to life. He is the Word jto- 
ceeding from God ; his name is the Messiah. Illustrioas in this 
world and in the next, and one of those who have near access to God. 

CHAP. U.J ( 382 ) [SIPARAUI. 

SO pleased, they who came after those apostles would not 
have contended among themselves, after manifest signs 
had been sliown unto them. But they fell to variance ; 
therefore some of them believed, and some of them believed 
not ; and if GOD had so j>leased, they would not Ijave con- 
tended among themselves: but GoD doth what he will 
iA/ ~2~' II (254) O true believers, <»ive ulms^ of that which we 
have bestowed unto yuu, before the day cometh wherein 
there shall be do merchandising, nor friendship, nor in- 
tercession. The infidels are unjust doers. {255) Goo ! 
there is no GoD but he ; the living, the self-subsisting : 
neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him ; to him belongeth 
whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth. Who is he that 

' He is strengthened by the Holy Spirit,' for so Mohanuned, in more 
than one passage, calls tlie Angel Gabriel." — R. Bosworth Smithy Mo- 
hammed and Moharnmedanisin, p. 271, second edition. 

But that which, beyond all question, exalts Jesus abov'3 all the pro- 
phets of IsMm, Mnliammad himself not being excepted, is his airUess- 
'ncss. Both the Quran and the Sunnat attribute a sinful character 
to all tiie propiiets excepting Jesus, who appears everywhere as being 
absolutely immaculate. Hb is the Sinless Pjiophet of Islam. 

JVith the holy spirit. " It is clear that at ai later period at least, if 
not fi'om the first, Mahomet confounded O'abriel with the Holy Ghost. 
The idea may have arisen from some sucn mieappreheiision a.^ the 
ibllowing :--Mary conceived Jesus >iy t)ie power of tlie Holy Gliost 
which ovei-shadowed her. But it Wits Gabriel wlio visited Maiy to 
announce the conc<'prion ol the Saviour. The Holy Ghost was, there- 
fore, another name lor Gabriel. We need hardly wonder at this 
ignorance, when Mahomet seems to have believed that Christians 
held Maiy to be the third person in the Trinity." — Muits Life of 
Mahomd, new edition, p. 47, note. See also notes on ver. '86 

They fe.ll at varianoa. I'he allusion is to the various sects into 
which tlie followers of fotmet "apostles '' became divided. This was 
in accordance with the will of God. Jt, would seem that God willed 
that the followers of Muhammad ihould be no exception m this 

(254) G'ivv. alms. See notes on vers. 42, 109, and 214. 

(266) God! tlierii is no God, (he. "This veiae contains a magmfi- 
cent description of the divine majesty and providen«;e ; but it must 
not be supposed the translation comes up to the dignity of the ori- 
ginal. This passage is justly admired by the Mvihammadans, who 
recite it in Oieir piayei-a ; and some of them wear it about them, 
engraved on an agate 01 other precious stone." — Salt. 

This verse is called the ^Ayat vl Kurti, or The Throne verse, and 
is frefiuently used by Muslims In prayer. The Mishqdt uL Masdbih 

SrPARA HI.] ( 583 ) fCHAP. II. 

can intercede with him, but through his good pleasure? 
Jle knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come 
unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his 
knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. His throne is ex- 
tended over heaven and earth, and the jj reservation of both 
is no burden unto him. He is the high, the mighty, 
(256) Let there be no violence in religion. Xow is right 
direction manifestly distinguished from deceit : whoever 
therefore shall deny Taghiit, and believe in God, he shall 
surely take hold on a strong handle, which shall not be 
bi-oken ; God is he who heareth and seeth. (257) God is 
the patron of those who believe ; he shall lead them out of 
darkness into light : but as to those w-ho believe not, their 

(Matthews' edition, Vol. i, p. 203) lecords the following tradition con- 
cerning JL : — " Aii Ibn Aba TaUb said, ' I heai-d the propliet say in 
the pulpit, "Ihat person who repeats ^Ayat -ul Kurd alter every 
prayer, notliing prevents him entering into j-aradise but life ; and 
whoever A-dja *Ayat nl Kvru when he goes to hi;* liedchiuiiber, God 
will keep him in safety, his house, and the house of his neighbour.*' 'f 

Bis ihrone. " Thi^ throne, in Arabic called Kurs>\ is by the Mu- 
hamraadans supposed to be Gotl's tribunal or seat of justice, being 
placed under that other called at Arsh, which they say is his inj])e- 
rial throne. The Kursi allegorically signifies the divine providence, 
which sustains and governs the heaven' and the eaith, and is iuti- 
nitely above hiiman comprehension.'' — iSale. 

This is, without doubt, one of the grandest veraes of the Qur4n. 
Its place in the text does not seem natural. It sounds more liiie one 
of the impassioned effusions of the preacher of Makkah than the utler- 
ance of the Madina politician. 

(256) No viole^ire in religion. " This passage was particularly 
directed to some of Muhammad'a first proselytes, who haying sons 
that had been bi-oughtup in idolatry or Judaism, would oblige them 
to embrace Muhaiomadism by force." — ^Sale, Jaldladdin. 

There is an apparent contradiction between tiiis verse and veises 191 - 
1 93 and 244 of this chapter. The comment of Jaldluddin given by Sale 
as quoted here affords a key 10 reconciliation. It was stiil politic to 
exercise moderation at Madina, but being at war with the Makkaws, 
and anticipating the coming conflict with the unbelievers elsewhere, 
the Muslims' weie i ncited- to "" light for the religion of God." This 
•warfare was for the present ostensibly in self-defence, but the war- 
riors were being educated for a career of conquest in the not distant 

Tdgh^t. '■' This won! properly signifies an idol, or whatever is 
"worshipped besides God — pai-ticularly the two idols of the Makkans, 
al Lat and al Uzza; and also the devil, or any seducer."' — Sale 



CHAP. IT.]* ( 384 } [SIPARA III. 

patrons are Ta^hiit ; tl\ey sViall lead them from tlie lif^lit 
into darknesi; they sliall bo the companions of heU-iiTe, 
tbey shall remain therein for ever. 
3~* i! (258) Hast thou not considered him ^vho disputed wlih 
Abraham concerninpf his LoTv'O, becani^c God liad j^iven 
him the kingdom ? When Abraham said, My Lord is he 
who giveth life and killetli ; he answered, I give life and 
1 kill, Abraham said, Voiily God bringetb ihe sun from 
the east, now do thou bring it from t]»e west. Whereupon 
the infidel was confounded : for God directeth not the un- 
godly people. (2cJ'J) Or hast thou not considered how he 
behaved mIio })assed by a city which had been d(.'stroyed, 
even to her foundatioUvS ? He said, How shall Gud (|uicken 
this city, after she hath beeii dead ? And God caused him 
to die for an hundred years, and afterwards raised lum to 
life, jfnd God said, How long hast thou tarhed hen ? Ho 
answered. A day, or pnrt of a day. God said, Nay, ihou 
hast tarried here a humlred years. Now look on thy food 
and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted; and look on 
thine ass : and this Iwuc v;e done that we might niake the© 
a sign unto men. And look on the bones of thine, ass how 

(268) Him who disputed ivith Abrohavi. "■Thhwiv, Nimrod, who, 
:is Uie commenuatorH !>a_v, to ]irove his povcr of life and de>itli by 
oculai' demonstration, caLise<l two men to be bron;.^ht bffV're him sh 
the same tiuii, oiic* of whom he slew oml saM:''l the other uhve. As 
to thifc, tyrant's pev.^ecution of Abialiam, f«ee chap. xxi. (vt-rj.-. .52-70;, 
and tl»e notes thereon."— ^Wc. 

(259) Ih vho passed by a c^'fy, <ic. "The jierson l)erfi m^ant Av-a.^ 
Uzair or Ezra, who riJiii;^ on an a.*s by tbe ruiiis of Jerusalem, after 
it had been destroye<] by tiie Chaldeans, aoubte-d in his mind by 
what means God could raise tlie city and its inhubitanis again ; 
whereupon God caused 1dm to die, and he remaiiicd in that condltiun 
one hundred vears ; at the end of which God restored him to life, 
and he lound a basket of ligs and a cinj^e of wine he had with him 
not ill ihe least (Spoiled or corrupted ; buthib as^ was dead, the l>oiies 
only remain iti^, and these, while the prophet looke*! on, were raised 
and clothed with flesh becoming uu a.-s again, which being inspired 
with life, began imni'idiately to bray {Jahnaddiny Yahya). This 
apocryphal story may perhaps have caken its rise from Nehemiah's 
viewing of the ruins of Jerusalem" (Neh. ii.^— ^'a/e. 

The Qurdn is' here agaiu at variance with the facts of Jewish 

SIPARA JJl.] ( 385 ) [CFIAP. II. 

we rai^^^e them, and aftfrwards cloUie them with fh'sh. And 
when this was sliown unto him, h(3 said, 1 know that GoD 
is able to do all thi)jof?. (260) And when Abraham said, 
O LoKD, show me how thou wilt raise the dead ; God said, 
J)ost thou not yet believe ? He answered. Yea, but I ash 
t)m th at my heart may rest at ease. ( J ob said, Take there- 
fore four birds, tind divide them , then hiy a part of them 
on every mountain ; then call tbem, arid they shall come 
swiftly unto thee : and know that God is mighty and wise. ^^ 35 
II (261) The similitude of those who lay out tlieir sub- ^ 4 * 
stance, for advancing the religion of God, is as a grain of 
corn which produceth seven ears, and in every ear an 
hundred grains ; for God giveth twofold unto whom he 
pleaseth : God is bounteous and wise. (262) They who 
lay out their substance for the religion of God, and 
afterwards follow not what they have so laid out by 
reproaches or mischief, they shall have their reward 
with their Lord ; upon them shall no fear come, neither 
shall they be grieved, (263) A fair s})eech and to for- 
give is better than alms followed by mischief. God is 

(260) Shmo me how thou wilt raise the dead. ** The occasion of iliis 
request of Abraham is «aid to have been on a doubt proposed to hiju 
l»y the devil, in human form, how it was possible for. the several parts 
of the corpse of a man which lay on the seashore, and had been partly 
tlevoured by the wild beasts, the birds, and the tish, to be brought 
together at the resurrection," — /Sale. 

Take four birds and divide them. "These birds, according to the 
commentators, were an eagle (a dove, say others), a peacock, a raven, 
;ind a cock, uhich Abraham cul to pieces, and mingle<l their flesh and 
leathers together, or, as some tell us, pounded all in a mortar, and 
dividing the mass into four parts laid them on so many mountains, 
l)ut kept the heads, which he had preserved whole, in his haru'. 
Then he called them each by their name, and immediately one part 
flew to the other, till they all recovered their j&rst shape, ami then 
came to he joined to their respective heads. 

" Thi« seems to be taken from Abraham's sacrifice of birds men- 
tioned by Moses (Gen. XV.), with sonie additional circumstances." — 
iSaki Jaldluddin, Abdul Qddir. 

(262) Eeproaches or 'mischief; i.e., either by reproaching the person 
whom they have relieved wnh what they have done for him, or by 
exposing his poverty to hi;^ prejudice." — Sale^ Jdldluddin. 

See notes on vers. 42, 109, and 214. 


CHAP. 11.] ( 3S6 ) [SIPARA TIL 

rich and merciful. (264) true believers, iiiake not your 
aims of none effect by reproaching or mischief, as he who 
layeth out what he hath to appear unto men to give alms, 
and believeth not in God and the last day. The likeness 
of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which 
a violent rain falleth, and leaveib it hard. Tney cannot 
prosper in anything which they have gained, for God 
directeth not the unbelieving people. (265) And the 
likeness of those who lay out their substance from a desire 
to please God, and for an eetablishment for their souls, is 
as a garden on a hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and 
it bringeth forth its fruits twofold; and if a violent rain 
falleth not on it, yet the dew fidleth thereon : and GoD 
seeth that which ye do. (266) Doth any of yon desire to 
have a garden of palm-trees and vines, through which 
rivers flow, wherein ye may have all kinds of fruite, and 
that he may attain to old age, and have a weak offspring ? 
then a violent fier}' wind shall strike it, so that it shall be 
burned. Thus God declareth his signs unto you, that ye 

TV 37. may consider. 

■" ^ " 11 (267) O true believers, bestow alms of the good thinojs 
which ye have gained, and of that which we have pro- 
duced for you out of the earth, and choose not the bad 
thereof, to give it in alms, such as ye would not accept 
yourselves, otherwise than by coDuivance : and know that 
God is rich and worthy to be praised. (268) The devil 
thre:iteneth you with poverty, and commandeth you 
filthy covetousuess ; but God proniiseth you pardon from 

(266) A gard(n of palm-tuet, dhc. " This garden is an emblem of 
ahiis given out of hypocmy or attended with reproachis, whicli 
perith, and will b»; of no service hereafter to tbe givtr." — &ahy Jfildl- 

(267) Otherwise thnn by connvuance. "That is. on having some 
amends uxade by the seller of su'ili goods, either by abatement of the 
price, or giving somethinj? else to the buyer to make up the vnlne."' 
— Sale, 

(268) The devil ihreateneth . . . hd God jiroiruseth. Satun deters 
from Kivin;^ by suggesting possible poverty. Ood eucouragt^s to give 
by the promise of pardon and aalvatiou. t'ompare Ver. 271. infra. 

SrPARA III j ( 387 ) [CHAP. II. 

himstsli: and abundance : GoD is baunteous and wise. 
(2^'>9) He giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth ; and he 
unto whom wisdom ia given hath received much good: but 
none will consider, except the wise ot heart. (270) And 
whatever alms ye shall j^ive, or whatever vow ye shall vow, 
verily God knoweth it; but the ungodly shall have none 
to help (kf'm. (271) If ye make your alms to appear, it 
is Well; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the 
poor, this will he better for you, and will atone for your 
sins ; and God is well informed of that which ye do. 

(272) The direction of them belongeth not unto thee ; but 
God directeth whom lie pleaseth. The good that ye shall 
give in alms sJcall redound unto yourselves ; and ye sliall 
not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of God. 
^nd what good thing ye shall give in alnis, it shall 
be repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly ; 

(273) unto the poor who are wholly employed in fighting 
fur the religion of God, and cannot go to pnd fro on the 
earth ; whom the iguorant man thinketh rich, because of 

(271) If yov> mn^^. yout ahm in appear, it is welU This contradicts 
the teaching of our fjonl (Matt. vi. 1-4). Tho. M'hole of MuhfiniTiiad'a 
exhortation in these verses (271-274) is basied upon the idea that 
almegivin^ is proftttOole both in this world anH the world to com«. 
As an additional motive, he condono-s and thereby encourages tiiat 
human pride which in willing to give for the sake of the reputation 
lor lil)erality acquired thereby. 

Ifyc <}onceal them . . . this will he hd,ter foY you. This translation 
agrees with that of Abdul Q^dir, the Tafsir fhtssaini^ and the Tafsir- 
i-Raufi, This part of the exhortation is then in agreeTueiit with that 
of Mutt, vi, 1-4. Both public Riving and private charity are com- 
mende.d. See alfo ver. 274. 

lUit Ilodwell translatc^s this clause thus: "Do ye conceal them 
and give them to the pooc ? This, too, will be of advantage to you." 

Abdul Q.'^dir paraph raspR the verse thas; "If you make your 
alms to apv<i-ir, it »iS well, iav othera wii^ be encouraged to ^ive ; but 
if you conceal thf.;n, it if? b^.tter, becauHc the poor will not bd made 
abhamed by exposing their poverty." 

WtU af.unefor your dn-a. This sc'iitiment contradicts the teaching 
of the Bible, that " without shedding ot blood there is no remission." 

(272) Te shall not give imless, d:c. ; i.e., "for f,he sake of a reward 
hereafter, and not for any worldly consideration." — SaU. 

(273) The poor wholly employed infighting (see notes ou ver. 195). 
H vQ we obatrve that Muhammad's exhortations to the performance 

CHAP. II.] ( 388 ) [SIPAJIA III. 

thoir )n(:>desty : thou shall know them by this mark, they 
ask not men with iiaportunity ; and what good ye shall 
give in alms, verily God Ivnowelh it. 
iiuB/i. II (274) They whe distribute alms of their substance 

1) -3-8 night and day, in private and in public, shall have their 
reward with the LorDj on them shall no fear come, 
neither shall they be grieved. (275) They who devour 
usury shall not arise fnTni the dead, but as he ariseth 
whom Satiin hath infectod by a touch : this shxill hapyen 
to Uum because they say, Truly selling is bui as usury : 
and yet CIod hath perm i« ted selling and forbidden Usury. 
He therefore who when there coraeth unto him an admoni- 
tion from his Lord abstaineth /rom usury for ^he future, 
shall have what is past forgiven him, and his aiiair be- 
longeth unto God. But whoever returneth to usury, they 
shall be the compai»ions of hell-fiTe, they shall continue 
therein forevei. (276) God shall take his blessing from 
usury, and shall increase alms : for God loveth no infidel, 
or ungodly person, (277) But they who believe and ao 
that which is right, and observe the stated times of prayer, 
and pay their legal alms, they shall have their reward 

of religious duty were closely connected with his scheme for political 

Their modesty. If ever thie virtue belonged to a ghdzi or Muslim 
warrior, it has long since been supplanted by the most impudent an 
cruel audacity. 

(274) See notes on ver. 271. 

(276) Whom Satan hath infected; viz., MHke demotiiacs or pos- 
sessed persons ; that is, in great liorror and distraction of mind, and 
convulsive agitation of body." — Sale. 

Usury is one of the seventeen kabira or great sins. Hughes' Notes 
on Muhammadanistn, p. 139. 

Shall have what is past forgiven. Repentance thus atones for past 
sin. Til is, again, contradicts the teaching of the " former Scriptures." 
The Tafsir-i-Havft, while recognising the above as a possible inter- 

{)retation, prefers another, viz., that those who had borrowed money 
)efore the d.ite of the prohibition of usury, are hereby relieved from 
the respnusibility of payment of interest ou their debts. This in 
ex post facto law of a kind scarcely creditable to Jsldni, And yet, 
this interpretation seems to bo borne out by the exhortation of ver. 

(277) See aotes on vers. 3-5, 37, 38, and 177. 

SlPARA III.] ( 389 ) [chap. IL, 

with their Lord : there shall come no fear on them, neither 
shall they be grieved. (278) O true believers, fear God, 
and remit that which remaineth of usury, if ye really 
believe ; (279) but if ye do it not, hearken unto war, 
which is declared against you from God and his apostle ; 
yet if ye repent, ye shall have the capital of your money. 
Deal not unjustly wi^A others, and ye shall not be dealt 
with unjustly. (280) If there be any debtor under a diffi- 
culty of paying his debt, let his creditor wait till it be easy 
for him to do it ; but if ye remit it as alms, it will be 
better for you, if ye knew it. (281) And fear the day 
wherein ye shall return unto God; then shall every soul 
be paid what it hath gained, and they shall not be treated 

jl (282) O true believers, when ye bind yourselves one li 7 • 
to the other in a debt for a certain time, write it down ; 
and let a writer write between you according to justice, 
and let not the writer refuse writing according to what 
God hath taught him ; but let him write, and let him 
who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear GoD his 
Lord, and not diminish aught thereof. But if he who 
oweth the del)i be foolish, or weak, or be not able 
to dictate himself, let his agent dictate according to 
equity ; and call to witness two witnesses of your neigh- 

(278) Reviti Jud which remaineth; i.e., "the interest due before 
usury was prohibited. For this some of Muhammad's foUowerti 
exacted of their debtors, supposing they lawful l^^'^ might." — SaUy 
Jaldluddin. See also note on ver. 275. 

(280) JVait till it be easy for him, d-c. This regulation does great 
credit to Muhammad, and is yet carried out in praclice by many of 
his followers. 

(281) A7i(l fear the day, dx. " The fear rather than the love of 
God is the spur of Isldm." — Poole in Introduction to Lane's Selections 
from the Koran, p. Ixxx. 

(282) His agent. "Whoever manages his affairs, whether his 
father, heir, guardian, or inierjtreter." — Sale, Jaldluddin. 

A man and two women. Another illustration of the Muslim, esti- 
mate of woman. She is but half a man ! A maii, too ignorant to 
dictate an article of agreement, may still he equal to any two women, 
however intelligent; lor "if one of those women should mistake, the 
other of them will cause bur to recollect ! " 

CHAP. II.] ( 390 ) [SIPAR/ III. 

Ixmring men; but if there be not two men, Ut there he a 
man and two women of those whom ye shall choose for 
witnesses : if one of those women should mistake, the 
other of them will cause her to recollect. And the wit- 
nesses shall not refuse, whensoever they sliall be called. 
And disdain not to write it down, be it a large debt, or be 
it a small one, until its time of payment : this will be more 
just in tlie sight of God, and more right for bearing wit- 
ness, and more e^wy, that ye may not doubt. But if it be 
a present bargain which ye transact between yourselves, 
it shall be no crime in you, if ye write it not down. And 
tak(' witnesses when ye sell one to the other, and let no 
harm be done to the writer, nor to the witness ; which ii 
ye do, it will surely be injustice in you: and fear God, 
and God will instruct you. for God knoweth all things. 
(283) Ana if ye be on a journey, and find no writer, let 
pledges be taken : but if one of you trust the otiier, let 
liim who is trusted return what he ia trusted with, and 
fear God his Lord. A nd conceal not the testin«ony, ior 
he who concealeth it hath surely a wicked heari: God 
^ knoweth that which ye do. 

"» ' jl (284) Whatever is in heaven and on earth is God's; 
and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or 
conceal it, God will call you to account for it, and will 
forgive whom he pleaseth, and will punish whom he 
pleaseth; for God is almighty. (285) The apostle bo- 
lieveth in that which hath been sentrdown unto him from 

(283) Return what he is truxted with. Forbids a breacu of trust 
find fill embezzlement. — 'I'afsiri-Ravji. 

(S184) Whether ye maniffd that ivhicli is in your nivads^ (.be. Abdul 
Qadir says tliat ou ht^ariuj^ iliese words, one of the companions sjiid 
that this copiinaiid was exceedingly difficult to perform, whcriuipon 
the following two verses were revealed. He understands these verses 
ns mitigating in some degree the rigour of Uiif, coruiuund. Modern 
Muslims Kcnerally agr';e that thoughts of evil only acquire a moral 
character by thur inunifestation in word or deed. 

Will for (five whifin he pUaseth, Pardon of sm hce depends on the 
will of God uloue, C^nnpare notes on vers. 271 aud 275. 

S(PAI;AIII.] ( 391 ) [chap. II. 

his Lord, and the faitliful also. Every one of them be- 
lievetli in GoD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his 
apostles : we make no distinction at all between his 
apostles. And tliey say, We bave heard, and do obey; 
we implore thy mercy, O Lord, for unto thee must we 
return. (286) GrOD will not force any soul beyond its 
capacity : it shall have the good which it gaineth, and it. 
shall suffer the evil which it gaineth. O Lord, punish us 
not if we forget or act sinfully : Lord, lay not on us a 
burden like that which thou hast laid on those who have 
been before us ; neither make us, Lord, to bear v/^hat 
we have not strength to bmr, but be favourable unto us, 
and spare us, and be merciful unto us. Thou art our 
patron, help us therefore against the unbelieving nations. 

(285) We make no dtstinction at all hetucen his apostles. This verse 
contradicts ver. 253 and cliap. xvii. 57. 

** But thia, say the Muhaiumndans, the Jews do, who receive Moses, 
but reject Jesus ; and the Christiana, who receive both those prophets, 
but reject Muhammad." — tSale, JakUuddin. 

(286) A burden like that which thou hast laid on those who, dc. 
" That is, on tlie Jews, who, as the commentators tell us, were ordered 
to kill a man by way of atonement, ta give one-fourth of their sub- 
stance in ahiiP, and to cut off an unclean ulcerous jjart, and were for- 
bidden to eat fat, or animals that »livide the hooi, and were obliged 
to observe the sabbath, and other particulars wherein the Muharama- 
dans are at liberty." — Sale, Jaldhtddhif Yahya. 

See note on ver. 284. 

Abdul Qadir says, "God a[)pr(»vt;d of this prayer and accepted it. 
This command no longer rests heavily upon, us, so that the thouglits 
of the heart are no longer taken into account, and sins of carelessness 
are forgiven ! " 

The QuT^n, then, seems to be responsible ^or the general insensi- 
bility of Muslims to sin, and especially to siuiul states of the heart. 
The doctrine of personal holiness is alike foreign to the Qurda and 
the experience of the followers of Isldm. 




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