(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A Comprehensive Evaluation of Three Mussel Beds in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. [electronic resource]"

Illinois 

Natural History 

Survey 



A comprehensive evaluation of three mussel 

beds in Reach 15 

of the Upper Mississippi River 




Center for Aquatic Ecology 

Scott D. Whitney, K. Douglas Blodgett, and Richard E. Sparks 

Illinois Natural History Survey 
August 1996 



Aquatic Ecology Technical Report 96/7 



Disclaimer 



The findings, conclusions, and views expressed herein are those of tlie researchers 
and are not necessarily the position of the Illinois Natural History Survey or the 
Illinois Department of Natural Resources. 



Use of the term "Reach" 

Terms are important, because they determiiK our perception of the thing that is being described. Use of the term "pool" perpetuates 
a misconception among readers and resiewers outside the upper Mississippi Basin that there is Utile of the natural river left Readers 
assume that we are talking about "a deep, still place in a sueam or rKer" where the water is standing more than it is flowing. "Poor' is 
often associated with "stagnant". Many readers and reviewers outside the Mississippi Basin have the misconception that the ri\er is a 
polluted barge canaL or a series of large resersoirs. Some reviewers assume the river is altered that nothing about the structure and 
function of ecosystems could be learned by stud>ing it; i.e. the\ considered it as man-made as an agricultural field, boat harbor, canal, or 
storage resenoir Use of the word "pool" for any portion of the Mississippi is misleading, because "pool" commonly refers to small 
bodies of water (e.g., "puddles"). However, the term has been used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since at least the 1930's, when 
the 9-foot channel and associated navigation dams were constructed. The term "reach" is much nwre appropriate for the stretch of ri\ er 
between navigation dams or beUvcen bends in the river, indeed these are two of the standard definitions and common usage for "reach". 
'Pool should be a subset of "reach", because na\igation dams create wide deep places in the riser onl>' part of the distance upstream to the 
ne.vt dam. In addition, some na%igation reaches, such as Reach 15, are swift channels with scarcely an>' slackwater "pool" at all. 
Follouing are definitions of the two terms: 

Definitions of Pool and Reach 



Stein, Jess, and Laurence Urdang (eds.). 1971. The Random House dictionary of the English language. 
Random House. New York. 2059pp. 

Pool Reach 



1. A small bod>' of standing water; pond 

2. A puddle. 

3. An>' small collection of liquid on a surface. 

4. A still, deep place in a stream 



24. A continuous stretch or extent of something: a reach of woodland. 

25. Also called pound, a level portion of a canal between locks. 
28. a straight portion of a river between two bends. 



Brown, Lesley (ed.). 1993. the new shorter Oxford English dictionar/ on historical principles. Vol.2, 
N-Z. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 3801pp. 



Pool 



1 a. A small bod>' of standing or still water, especially one of 

natural formation Old English, b A small shallow 

accumulation of am liquid; a puddle. 

2. A deep still place in a river or stream 

4. A tank or other artificially constructed receptacle (to be) 

filled with water for swimming, diving, etc. 



Reach 



la. An enclosed stretch of water, a bay Long obsolete, except in 
Canadian dialect, b. A portion of a river, channel, or lake between 
U\o bends; a portion of a canal between Uvo locks. 
2. General. A continuous stretch, course, or exlenl in space or tine. 



Table of Contents 

Page 
List of Tables ii 

List of Figures n 

List of Appendices iii 

Executive Summary l 

In trod u ctio n 2 

Methods 2 

Study Sites 2 

Field Procedures 4 

Laboratory Procedures 6 

Data Analysis 6 

Speci es Ri chness an d Abundance ••- - — - - - - - 6 

Recaiitment -.- ..- ...- -.._ .._.^- 7 

Age and Growth ^.. - --.^ -..- _._._ _._._ 7 

Mortality -- - - -.- -. - -.-.- 8 

Zeb ra Mussel s -. 8 

Results and Discussion 8 

Species Richness and Abundance 8 

Recruitment 10 

Age and Growth 10 

Mortality 11 

Zebra Mussels U 

Management Recommendations 12 

Acknowledgments 13 

References 14 

Appendices following page 15 





List of Tables 




Table 


Description 


Page 


1. 


Number and percent of the individuals from each mussel species 
collected in Reach 15 of the UMR which were aged and weighed 
in 1987 and 1994-95 


8 







List of Figures 



Figure Description Page 



Location and legal description of Upper Mississippi River 
Mussel Refuges established by the state of Dlinois in July 1988. . 

Location of (a) Reach 15 in the Upper Mississippi River and (b) 
three study sites in Reach 15 



Location of Sylvan Slough study site (RM 485.8) in Reach 15 
of the Upper Mississippi River 



4. Location ofCase-m study site (RM 488 5) in Reach 15 of the 
Upper Mississippi River 



5. Location ofllliniwek study site (RM 492.4) in Reach 15ofthe 
Upper Mississippi River 



List of Appendices 



Appendix Description 


Pages 


A 


Unionid species richness aiid abundance 


A-1 toA-11 


B 


Calculated number of samples required to 
estimate actual density within specified level (%) 


B-1 to B-5 


C 


Density distributions based on shell length 


C-1 to C-32 


D 


Density distributions based on shell height 


D-1 toD-17 


E 


Density distributions based on mussel age 


E-1 toE-14 


F 
G 


Unionid mussel recruitment 


F-1 to F-4 


Commercial species age and growth 


G-1 to G-27 


H 


Zebra mussels {Dreissena polymorpha) 


H-1 to H-7 



Executive Summary 

Unionid mussels were collected by quadrat 
sampling at three sites in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River between July 1994 and September 1995; 
Sylvan Slough (rivermile (RM) 485.8) within a mussel 
refuge (commercially unharvested since 1988); Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) (commercially harvested); and Illiniwek (RM 
492.4) (commercially harvested). A total of 7,107 
mussels were collected representing 26 species, including 
one federally endangered species (Lampsilis higginsi), two 
state endangered species (Plethobasus cyphyus and 
Cumberland ia monodonta), and one state threatened 
species (ElUpsaria Uneolata). Illiniwek had the greatest 
mussel diversity and abundance with 25 species and a 
mean density of 118.3/m-, followed by Ca.se-IH with 23 
species and 86.7/m", and Sylvan Slough with 20 species 
and 53.4/m". Temp>oral trends in unionid abundance 
(1985-95) reflect significant declines (p < 0.001) in 
overall unionid densities as well as densities for individual 
species at both Sylvan Slough, where mean unionid 
density declined from 100. 1/m- in 1985 to 53.4/m- in 
1994-95 with 6 species showing significant declines, and 
Case-IH where mean unionid density declined from 
139. 2/m- in 1985 to 89.8/m- in 1994 with 4 species 
showing significant declines. The four mussel species 
which dominated our collections were Truncilla truncata, 
ElUpsaria Uneolata, Quadrula pustulosa, and Amblema 
plicala. Recent recruitment estimates for the ten most 
common sjjecies indicate a high degree of variability 
among sf)ecies and study sites. Some species, such as 
Megalonaias rierx'osa, exhibited very low recruitment 
densities (0.00 to 0.03/m-), while others like Quadrula 
pustulosa exhibited good recruitment densities (3.7 to 
4.3/m'^. Temporal trends in recruitment evaluated by 
recent recruitment densities and size-frequency histograms 
demonstrate the unpredictable nature of unionid 
recruitment; some species (i.e., A. plicata and Q. 
pustulosa) were fairly consistent, recruiting young 
individuals to their populations each year, while other 
species (i.e., M. nervosa and Q. metanevra) were more 
sporadic, recruiting young to their populations only once 
or twice within a ten-year period. On average, 
commercial mussel species {A. plicata, M. nerwsa, Q. 
pustulosa, Q. metanevra, and Q. quadrula) reached sexual 
maturity during their seventh or eighth year, with a range 
from 5 to 12 years of age. The time required for a 
commercial species to reach minimum harvestable size 
ranged from 19 to 24 years; M. nervosa took the longest, 
requiring 24 years to reach a shell height of 101.60 mm 
(4 inch), A. plicata required 21 years to reach a shell 



height of 69.85 mm (2.75 inch), and the three Quadrula 
species required 19 to 21 years to reach a shell height of 
63.5 mm (2.5 inch). 

We believe the current mussel refuges only exist 
on paper and subsequently do not provide the services for 
which they were intended. Our studies in Reach 15 
suggest illegal harvest has occurred in the Sylvan Slough 
refuge, since all commercial species collected within the 
refuge demonstrate a truncated size distribution at the 
minimum commercial size limit, a characteristic of 
harvested areas. In fact, individuals have been prosecuted 
for harvesting mussels in Sylvan Slough and other UMR 
mussel refuges. 

Zebra mussels {Dreissena polymorpha) were first 
established in Reach 15 during late 1991 or early 1992, 
but did not become abundant until 1995. Mean density at 
Illiniwek increased exponentially from less than Mrcr in 
July 1994 to 2,519/m- in July 1995. Similarly, zebra 
mussel infestation (% unionids with 1 or more zebra 
mussels) at Illiniwek increa.sed significantly from 1 % in 
July 1994 to 48% in September 1995. Mean and 
maximum degree of infestation increased from 
0.00/unionid and 2/unionid in July 1994 to 2.3/unionid 
and 37/unionid in September 1995. Length-frequency 
histograms indicate that at least one and possibly two 
zebra mussel recruitment events occurred in Reach 15 
during 1994 and 1995. These histograms also indicate 
that zebra mussels which settle in Reach 15 during May 
or June can reach 15- to 20-nmi in length by the end of 
their first growing season (October). Although rapid 
increases in zebra mussel densities and infestation of 
unionids represent an alarming trend, we did not observe 
any negative zebra mussel effects on the Reach 15 unionid 
populations (i.e., increased mortality, siphon occlusion, 
etc.) during the current study. However, based on past 
experience in the Illinois River, we predict that by 1996 
or 1997 unionid mussels in Reach 15 of the UMR will 
experience significantly greater infestations by zebra 
mussels and will subsequently suffer reduced fitness and 
increased mortality. 

Management recommendations concerning the 
protection of mussel populations in Reach 15 and 
throughout the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) include: 
(1) closing the commercial harvest of live Megalonaias 
nerwsa, (2) establishing entire reaches of the UMR as 
mussel refuges, (3) developing population models to guide 
and assist the management of mussels, and (4) monitoring 
zebra mussel densities and impacts in the Mississippi 
River. 



Introduction 

Unionid mussels are considered among the most 
endangered faunal groups inhabiting the United States 
(Shannon et al. 1993; Neves 1993). Fifty-one species of 
mussels occurred historically in the Upper Mississippi 
River (UMR)--a substantial portion (17 ^c) of the 297 taxa 
of freshwater mussels found in North America (Turgeon 
et al. 1988). In the UMR there are currently 18 mussel 
species listed as threatened or endangered includmg three 
federally endangered mussel species, Lampsilis higginsi, 
Potamilas capax, and Quadrula fragosa (Page et al. 
1991). Mussel populations in the UMR have been subject 
to a number of stresses, including (1) heavy commercial 
harvesting formerly for the production of pearl buttons 
and more recently to supply raw shell for the Japanese 
cultured pearl industry, (2) pollution from both urban 
centers and nonpoint sources, and (3) modification of the 
river for navigation (Sparks and Blodgett 1983; Sparks 
and Blodgett 1988). Between 1982 and 1986 massive die- 
offs of mussels occurred in the UMR (Neves 1987, 
Blodgett and Sparks 1987 a, b). Although the die-offs 
were investigated, the causes were never identified 
(Sparks et al. 1990). 

In response to the widespread mussel dieoffs and 
increasing commercial harvest, the Illinois Department of 
Conservation designated seven areas in the Illinois portion 
of the Mississippi River as mussel refuges in July 1988 
(Figure 1). The primary objectives of these refuges were 
to (1) protect endangered or threatened mussels, (2) 
provide a seed source to repopulate other areas, and (3) 
serve as imharvested reference areas for comparison with 
harvested areas. If populations in the harvested areas 
declined while those in the refuges maintained themselves 
or increased, then more stringent harvest regulations 
might be indicated. If populations in both areas declined, 
then other factors should be investigated, such as poor 
water or sediment quality, parasites, disease, or declines 
in the fishes that host and disperse the glochidia (larvae) 
of the mussels. 

Critical information concerning the life-history 
parameters and population dynamics of freshwater mussels 
is often lacking and desperately needed for the sound 
management and conservation of this resource. The need 
is especially crucial for commercially harvested species. 
Current regulations governing the commercial mussel 
harvest (e.g., legal species, minimum shell size, or 
season) are based on inadequate scientific information and 
typically reflect preferences of the shelling industry (Thiel 
and Fritz 1993). Monitoring and evaluation of the 
resource throughout the UMR rely heavily on annual shell 



buyers reports. The UMR states have yet to establish 
uniform regulations to govern commercial mussel harvest. 
The current system which regulates and monitors 
commercial mussel harvest in the UMR is antiquated, 
based on inadequate scientific information, and in 
desperate need of review and reform. It is especially 
important to reevaluate current mussel regulations and 
conservation strategies now that zebra mussels have been 
found in the Mississippi River. The U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service has predicted 20 species of mussels in 
North America will become extinct over the next few 
years as a result of the zebra mussel invasion (Biggins 
1992). Many difficult management decisions will likely 
be made in the coming years in attempts to preserve and 
protect the remaining mussel resource. Without reliable 
scientific information, management decisions may be 
ineffective or even cause further harm to mussel 
populations. 

The objectives of the comprehensive evaluation 
of Reach 15 mussel beds were to assess the status of 
harvested and unharvested (refuge) mussel beds by 
evaluating the following parameters: (1) species 
abundance and richness, (2) recruitment, (3) age and 
growth, (4) mortality, and (5) status and impacts of newly 
introduced zebra mussels. Long-term population trends 
were evaluated by comparison of results with those from 
previous scientific mussel surveys conducted in Reach 15. 



Methods 



Study Sites 



During 1994 and 1995, we quantitatively sampled 
three mussel beds in Reach 15 of the UMR near Moline, 
Illinois (Figure 2). One mussel bed. Sylvan Slough 
(rivermile [RM] 485.8), was located within a mussel 
refuge established in 1988; harvesting mussels in the 
refuge is illegal. Two mussel beds, Case-IH (RM 488.5) 
and Illiniwek (RM 492.4), are known to be commercially 
harvested (Figure 2). A more detailed description and 
location of each study site follows. 

(1) Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8): (Figure 3) - This site 
was chosen as a reference or unhar\ested site. It was 
designated as one of the seven mussel refuges in July 
1988 (Figure 1). Quantitative mussel collections were 
made at this site during 1983, 1985, and 1987 by the 
Illinois Natural History Survey (Sparks and Blodgett 
1983, Blodgett and Sparks 1987a and 1987b). These 
previous surveys reported an abundant mussels population 



(a) Geographical Location 



(b) Legal Description 





V>^niv,css; ^^j 


Iowa 


Mississippi^'' :^°^/ 




zr^^^^/y^'^ 


3.- 


^^„^^, Illinois / 


Des Moines 


J^ ) 


Riyer 

S4.-fc 




L.: ^ 1 


6.-*-*? 


s- 




V) 


Missouri 


NL w.^. 




7.-^t^ ' 



1.) /Ml of the area directly above Lock and Dam 12 (RM 556.7) from the 
center of the navigation channel east to the Illinois shoreline and 
northward to a line extending from RM 558,4 to the Blanding's 
Landing boat ramp, including but not limited to all of the area 
contained within the designated US. Military Reservation area. 

2.) All of the waters contained within Sylvan Slough from the Interstate 
74 highway bridge (RM 485. 8)west to the lower tipof^\rscnal Island 
(RM 482.6). 

3.) All of the area north of the center of the navigation channel to the 
Illinois shoreline lying between RM 433 (New EJoston Boat 
launching Ramp) to RM 433. 8 

A.) Pontoosuc Bay contained within and described as that area from the 
center of the main navigation channel and the Illinois shoreline 
located between RM 388.7 and RM 390 0. 

S.) All of the area east of the center of the navigation channel to the 
Illinois shoreline from the mouth of the Des Moines River (RM 
361.4) to the U.S. Route 136 bridge (RM 364.0) 

6.) /Ml of the area east of the center of navigation channel to the Illinois 
shoreline between RM 314.0 and RM 3160 located upstream of 
Hannibal, Missouri. 

7.) All of the area east of the center of navigation channel to the Illinois 
shoreline between Rjver Mile 238.4 (Basting's Landing) and RM 
240.8 (West Point Landing boat ramp). 



Figure 1. Upper Mississippi River mussel refuges (a) geographical location and (b) legal description. 



Figure!. Location of (a) Reach 15 in the Upper 
Mississippi Rj\er (UMR) and (t) 
enlarged \iew of Reach 1 5 to show 
stud>' sites where quantitati\e mussel 
samples were collected, 1994-95. 



(a) Reach 15 UMR 




Missouri 



(b) Study Sites - Reach 15 UMR 

Davenport 



kand Dam 14 




7 Dliniwek 
-''' fRM 492.4) 



Rock Island 



Illinois 



with a rich species assemblage including the federally 
endangered Lampsilis higgirisi. 

During the present survey quantitative samples 
were collected on three separate occasions at the upriver 
end of Sylvan Slough between the Interstate-74 highway 
bridge and the upriver tip of Arsenal Island (Figure 3, 
Table A-1). The location for each collection period 
differed slightly to prevent sampling on the same spot 
more than once. Substrate consisted primarily of sand/silt 
with small rock cobble and water depths ranged from 2 to 
4 m (6 to 10 ft). During our sample collections we noted 
extensive use of this area by recreation watercraft; on 
weekends as many as fifteen boats were observed floating 
or anchored within this small area of Sylvan Slough. 

(2) Case-IH (RM 488.5) : (Figure 4) - This site was 
chosen as a commercially harvested bed. Interviews with 
commercial musselors indicated this bed had been 
extensively harvested in the 1970's but has received only 
occasional commercial pressure in the past ten years. We 
observed two commercial mussel boats operating in this 
area during our summer 1994 collections. Quantitative 
mussel collections were made at this site in 1985 and 
1987 by the INKS (Blodgett and Sparks 1987a and 
1987b). These previous surveys reported mussels 
exceptionally abundant, the number of species 
exceptionally rich, and the federally endangered Lampsilis 
higginsi present. 

Quantitative samples were collected at this site in 
July and August 1994 (Table A-1). The collection area 
was adjacent to the main channel and 150 m out from the 
Illinois shoreline. Triangulation to the site was 
accomplished using a cement piling, boat ramp, and 
cement water tower (Case-IH logo on side). The site was 
located on a straight line between the boat ramp and 
middle cement piling and directly out from the cement 
water tower. The substrate consisted of extensive areas 
of bedrock with intermittent areas of sand and rock 
cobble. Water depths within the sampling area ranged 
from 4 to 6 m (12 to 20 ft.). 

(3) Uliniwek: RM 492.4 (Figure 5) - This site was also 
chosen as a commercially harvested bed. According to 
local musselors, this particular area (1) had been one of 
the more productive beds in Reach 15 in the late 1960's 
and early 1970's, but was depleted of commercial-size 
shells during the late 1970"s or eariy 1980's, (2) was no 
longer of commercial importance and most experienced 
musselors had moved on to more profitable beds, and (3) 
occasional inexperienced musselors had been observed 
working this area periodically in the past ten years. To 



our knowledge, this site has not been scientifically 
delineated or quantitatively sampled previously. 

Quantitative samples were collected on four 
occasions: June and August of 1994 and Jime and 
September of 1995. In addition, 415 mussels were 
collected qualitafively at this site on 1 December 1994 for 
use in sediment toxicity tests (Stoekel et al. 1996). The 
collection area was located approximately 1 rivermile 
downriver from Lock and Dam 14 and from 30 to 50 m 
offshore from Illmiwek State Park. Substrate was fairly 
uniform, consisting primarily of sand with occasional 
small rock cobble. Water depths ranged from 2 to 3 m (5 
to 9 feet). 

Field procedures 

During four sampling periods between July 1994 
and September 1995 we collected from 72 to 116 
quantitative samples representing a total surface area of 18 
to 34 m- at each of the three sites in Reach 15 (Table A- 
1). Quantitative samples were collected using procedures 
normally employed by the INHS River Research Lab 
(Sparks and Blodgett 1983, Blodgett and Sparks 1987a & 
1987b). Biologists using surface supplied diving 
techniques removed all material from within 0.25-m- or 
1-m- metal frames to a depth of 18 cm. Quantitative 
samples were collected by either the transect method, 
where the diver places a metal frame at 5-m intervals 
along a 100-m transect line anchored to the substrate, or 
by random placement, where the diver places a metal 
frame at random intervals while moving upriver. Samples 
were sent to the surface in separate nylon mesh bags and 
rinsed with river water through a series of four sieve trays 
(mesh apertures of 20, 10, 5, and 2 mm). Material 
retained by each tray was carefully examined to remove 
live and recently dead mussels. Mussels were classified 
as recently dead using the following criteria: (1) if soft 
parts were present, unable to close valves when prodded; 
(2) if soft parts were absent, the periostracum was intact, 
valves were firmly joined by the hinge ligament, and the 
interior nacre was shiny and not the least bit chalky. Live 
and recently dead mussels were identified to species 
(Cummings and Mayer 1992) and morphological shell 
measurements of length, width, and height (Stansbery 
1961) were recorded to the nearest 0.01 mm using digital 
calipers. Most of the mussels collected were returned to 
the river; however, a subsample of at least 30 individuals 
of the most common species was retained and frozen for 
further analysis. Zebra mussels attached to unionids were 
mdividually counted and measured (shell length). 




Figure 3. Location of Sylvan Slough stud>- site (RM 485.8) in 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. 




Figure 4. Locauon of Case-IH stud>- site (RM 488.5) in 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. 




Figure 5. Location of Ilhmuek study site (RM 492.4) in 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. 



Laboratory procedures 

Laboratory processing included both weight and 
age determination of individual mussels from selected 
species (Table 1). Frozen mussels were rinsed in warm 
water to remove ice from the exterior of the shell then 
weighed to the nearest 0.01 g (live weight). Next the 
mussel was forced open with a scalpel and soft tissue was 
removed; we determined wet weights for both tissue and 
shell. They were dried at 105°C to a constant weight and 
re-weighed to determine dry weights. Shells will be 
archived in Illinois Natural History Survey's mussel 
collection at the University of Illinois 
Urbana/Champaign. 

The estimated age of an individual mussel was 
determined by counting growth bands on the external 
surface of the shell (Chamberlain 1931, Stansbery 1951) 
and within thin radial cross sections of the shell and hinge 
ligament (McCuaig and Green 1983, Neves and Moyer 
1988). In 1994, from 10% to 30% of each of the 
following commercially harvested species were aged using 
both techniques: Amblema plicata, Megalonaias nenosa, 
Quadrula pustulosa, Quadrula quadrula, and Quadrula 
metanevra. The two methods of age analysis yielded 
comparable results (± 1 year); however, preparation of 
thin radial cross sections was very time consuming, 
requiring from 20 to 30 minutes per mussel compared 
with 1 to 2 minutes per mussel for external counts. 
Therefore, only external ring counts were used to age 
mussels collected in 1995. 

The age at which an individual mussel became 
sexually mature was estimated by recording the age at 
which a marked decrease in distance between external 
growth bands occurred on the external shell surface of 
adult mussels (Stansbery 1961, Stein 1973). This 
technique was performed after shells and tissue had been 
separated and dried, therefore, we were unable to validate 
this method by examination of the gonads for maturity 
and ripeness. The age of sexual maturity was determined 
from a subsample of randomly selected shells of adult 
mussels of the five commercial species, A. plicata 
(n = 78), M. nerx'osa (n = 29), Q. metanexra (n=12), Q. 
pustulosa (n = 38), and Q. quadrula (n = 28). The mean, 
standard deviation, and range of sexual maturity age(s) 
were calculated for each species. 

Daia Analysis 

Data recorded in the field and laboratory during 
1994-95 was analyzed in accordance with the five primary 
objectives of the study: (1) species abundance and 



richness, (2) recruitment, (3) age and growth, (4) 
mortality, (5) status and impacts of newly introduced 
zebra mussels. In addition to the information collected in 
the present survey, we also analyzed data collected from 
three previous quantitative surveys at the Sylvan Slough 
and Case-IH sites (Sparks and Blodgett 1983, Blodgett 
and Sparks 1987a and 1987b) to identify temporal trends 
in these mussel populations. We also reviewed two 
mussel survey reports from Sylvan Slough conducted by 
private consultants within the past decade (Stanley 
Consultants, Inc. 1993, Cawley 1989). Annual 
commercial harvest reports from Illinois, since 1963 
(Fntz 1988, Williamson 1995) and Iowa smce 1984 
(Ackerman and DeCook 1995) were used to evaluate the 
effects of long-term commercial harvest on mussel 
populations in Reach 15. 

Species richness and abundance 

Species richness was determined by tabulating the 
total number of species collected from quantitative 
sampling at each of the study sites. Abundance, typically 
referred to as density (number of individuals/m-\), was 
determined for each quantitative sample; data from all 
quantitative samples collected at each site from July 1994 
through September 1995, were averaged to determine 
overall unionid and species specific density means. 
Statistical comparison of density means among and within 
the three study sites was conducted using an extended t- 
test designed for comparisons of means obtained from 
unequal sample sizes. Statistically significant difference 
between means was determined at the p < 0.05 level. 

Mean densities were used to classify each unionid 
species as very abundant (> 20.01/m"), abundant 
(10.01 to 20.00/m=), common (1.01 to 10.00/m^, 
uncommon (0.34 to 1.00/m-), or rare (< 0.33/m^ 
(Table A-5). This arbitrary classification system was 
designed specifically for Reach 15 mussel populations to 
categorize species with similar abundance; it may or may 
not apply to other reaches of the Mississippi River. 

Using a technique described in Green (1979) we 
computed the number of samples required to estimate 
unionid density within 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50 % 
of the actual density with a 0.05% probability of being 
incorrect using the following equation: n = [(2SD) -f 
(xM)]", where, n = number of samples required, SD = 
standard deviation, x = desired level of accuracy (i.e., 
10% = 0.1), and M = mean unionid density based on 
samples collected 

Density distributions based on mussel age, shell 
length, and shell height were used to evaluate spatial and 



temporal trends in mussel populations among and within 
the Reach 15 study sites. Density distributions combine 
both mean density (no./m-^ and frequency distributions for 
a species within each study site (i.e., % of population by 
age or 5-mm size intervals). For example, the mean 
density for A. plicata at Illiniwek (RM 492.4) was 
10.34/m' and the percent of mussels within the 60-mm 
shell length interval (55.01 to 60.00 mm) was 14.6%; 
therefore, the calculated density of this size interval is 
10.34/m- X 0.146 = 1.51/m-. Density distnbutions were 
presented as histograms and in tabular format, the latter 
allowing one to calculate the mean density of a specific 
age group or size range by summing the mean densities of 
all mussels within the desired group or range. 

Recruitment 

We evaluated recent recruitment for ten of the 
more common mussel species we collected in Reach 15 
during 1994-95 (Appendix F). The size criteria to define 
a recent recruit was species specific and typically 
represented mussels less than three years of age. For 
most sfMscies, individuals less than 30-mm in length 
constituted recent recruitment. However, the size was 
reduced for small, short-lived species such as Truncilla 
truncata (< 15 mm), Obliquaria reflexa (< 15 mm), and 
T. donaciformis (<10 mm). Length-frequency and 
density tables were used to determine the percentage (%) 
and density (no./m'^ of recent recruits within the 
population at each study site and for each year sampled 
(i.e. Sylvan Slough 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1994-95) to 
evaluate recruitment patterns over the past decade. 

Age and Growth 

The relationship between mussel age and growth 
was evaluated using regression plots and regression 
formulas. Therefore, it is crucial that the reader have a 
basic understanding of these two techniques. We offer 
the following brief explanations: 

R^ression plots are used to determine the degree of 
relationship between the independent (X) and 
dependent (Y) variables. Regression plots 
attempt to fit a line to a series of data having 
specific X,Y coordinates. The more closely the 
data points fall along the line the better the 
relationship. The proportion (or percentage) of 
the total variation in Y that is explained or 
accounted for by the fitted regression is termed 
the coefficient of determination, r^, which may 



be thought of as a measure of the strength of the 
relationship. 

Rq;ression formulas are mathematical equations which 
describe the relationship between the X and Y 
variables by evaluating the regression coefficient 
or slope (b) and the y-intercept (a) of the best fit 
regression line (2Lar 1984). Knowing the 
parameter estimates of a and b for the regression 
equation, one can calculate the value of Y 
(dependent variable) at a stated value of X 
(independent variable). The closer the r value 
is to 1 the less variability there is in the data and 
therefore the more reliable the estimate of Y. 

The species and number of individual mussels 
used in growth analysis were limited to those which we 
had aged or weighed in 1987 and 1994-95 (Table I). No 
distinction was made regarding collection location (study 
sites); rather, growth analysis was based on composite 
mussel samples from all Reach 15 study sites. We used 
a stepwise procedure (Zar 1984) in selecting the 
regression formula which consistently provided the best fit 
(i.e., highest r^) for mussel growth data. 

Age-size relationships were best described by S"*" 
order polynomial regression formulas (y = a -I- b|X -I- 
b-,x- + bjx'). Mean shell measurements of each of the 
five commercial species (Appendix G, Part II) served as 
the dependent variables and mussel age as the independent 
variable in growth curves (regression plots). Regression 
formulas were used to calculate shell size (i.e., length, 
width, and height) at ages from 1 to 30 years. By 
switching the variables we derived regression formulas for 
each of the five commercial species to calculate age for a 
given shell length or shell height. Formulas based on 
shell length and age were used to calculate the age of all 
mussels which had not been aged. 

Size-weight relationships were best described by 
power regression formulas (y = ax''). Live and dry shell 
weights of individual mussels served as the dependent 
variables and shell length and height as the independent 
variables in growth curves. Regression formulas were 
used to calculate live weight and dry shell weight given 
either shell length or height. 

Mussel age-frequency histograms were 
constructed for five commercial species, A. plicata, M. 
nerwsa, Q. quadrula, Q. metanexra, Q. pustulosa, and 
two non commercial species, E. lineolata and O. reflexa. 
These histograms represented all individuals regardless of 
whether their ages had been determined from counting 
growth bands (estimated) or calculated from 3"* order 



Species 






1987 






1994-95 






Aped 




VVeiohed 
n 


Aged 


Weished 1 


n 




% 


n 


% 


n 


% 


Amblema plicata 


■ill 




100 




137 


20.2 


167 


24.7 


Megalomias nervosa 


131 




100 


_. 


79 


36.9 


98 


45.8 


Quadrula quadrula 


54 




100 


- 


33 


21.6 


57 


37.3 


Ouadnda metanevra 


78 




100 


- 


12 


7.3 


32 


19.4 


Quadrula pustulosa 


714 




100 


- 


146 


10.9 


210 


15.7 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


310 




100 


- 


- 


- 


106 


6.6 


Obliquaria reflexa 


153 




100 


... 


- 


- 


86 


14.9 



Table 1. Number and percent of the indi\iduals from each mussel species collected in Reach 15 of the UMR which were 
aged and weighed in 1987 and 1994-95. 



polynomial regression equations (calculated). In 1987, all 
mussels were aged, therefore these histograms represent 
only estimated ages. In 1994-95, only from 7.3% to 
36.9% of the individuals from each species were aged 
(Table 1), therefore these histograms consist primarily of 
mussels with calculated ages. Ellipsaria lineolata and O. 
reflexa were not aged in the current study, instead we 
used 1987 regression formulas to calculate their ages 
based on observed shell lengths. 

Mortality 

Mortality estimates were based on the percentage 
of recently dead mussels in our quantitative samples. 
Some researchers contend this method results in 
overestimation due to the misidentification of old dead 
shells as recently dead. In the present survey, we used 
the same method and definition we used in 1983, 1985, 
and 1987; thereby at least allowing comparisons among 
mussel surveys conducted by the INHS in the past decade. 
We have also conducted field trials to validate this method 
in the Illinois River: these data indicate our assessment of 
mortality is conservative and actual mortality rates are 
likely higher (INHS, unpublished data). This is due to 
the rapid discoloration, breakdown of nacre, and 
separation of the hinge ligament which often resulted in a 
mussel being identified as old dead when it had died 
within the past three months. 



Zebra Mussels 

Mean zebra mussel densities (by site and date) 
were determined from either the same quantitative 
samples from which unionids were collected (July and 
August 1994) or from a separate set of samples in which 
only zebra mussels were counted (July 1995) (Table H-1). 
Length-frequency histograms of zebra mussels collected 
at the Illiniwek site (RM 492.4) on five dates between 
July 1994 and September 1995 were used to evaluate 
population size structure and recruitment events. 

Zebra mussel infestation of Unionid mussels was 
reported as % Infestation (the number of unionids with 
one or more attached zebra mussels) and Degree of 
Infestation (the number of zebra mussels attached to an 
individual unionid). The degree of infestation of all 
unionids on each sample date was used to calculate a 
mean, standard deviation, and range for each study site 
and unionid species. 

Results and Discussion 

Species Richness and Abundance 

From July 1994 through September 1995* we 
collected a total of 7,107 native mussels representing 
twenty-six species from the three study sites in Reach 15 
(Table A-3 and A-4). Illiniwek had the most species (25) 
followed by Case-IH (23) and Sylvan Slough (20) (Table 



A-3). Four live threatened or endangered species were 
collected at one or more of the three sites: the federally 
endangered Lampsilis higginsi (Higgins eye), the state 
endangered Plethobasus cyphyus (Sheepnose) and 
Cumberlandia monodonta (Spectacle case), and the state 
threatened Ellipsaria lineolata (Butterfly) (Table A-6). 

The three most abundant species in Reach 15 
were Truncilla truncata (Deertoe), Ellipsaria lineolata 
(Butterfly), and Quadrula pustulosa (Pimpleback). In 
combination, these three species constituted 53% to 73% 
of the unionid populations at the three study sites (Table 
A-6). Amblema plicata (Threeridge) ranked seventh in 
overall abundance at Sylvan Slough (3.3/m-; 6.0%), third 
at Case-IH (14.0/m-; 15.6%), and fourth at Illmiwek 
(10.3/m-; 8.6%). Megalonaias nerwsa (Washboard) 
ranked between sixth and eighth in overall abundance and 
only accounted for 2-4% of the unionids collected at 
Reach 15 sites between 1994 and 1995. 

Mean unionid densities at the three sites sampled 
in the 1994-95 survey increased significantly (p < 0.001) 
in the upriver direction (i.e.. Sylvan Slough (53.4/m-) < 
Case-IH (86. 7/m^ < Illiniwek (1 18. 3/m=)) (Table A-12). 
This is likely attributable to the similar trend in mean 
densities of three of the more abundant species, E. 
lineolata, T. truncata, and A. plicata (Table A-7). Only 
two species, Quadrula metane\ra (Monkeyface) and 
Truncilla donaciformis (Fawnsfoot), had densities which 
increased significantly in the downriver direction 
(Illiniwek < Case-IH < Sylvan Slough). 

Temporal trends in unionid abundance reflect a 
significant decline (p < O.OOI) in mean unionid density 
at both Sylvan Slough (refuge) and Case-IH (harvested) 
over the past decade (Table A-12). Between 1985 and 
1995, six mussel species {A. plicata, M. nerwsa, 
Leptodea fragilis , Potamilus alatus, Potamilus ohiensis, 
and U. imbecillis) showed statistically significant declines 
(p < 0.001) in mean densities at the Sylvan Slough site 
(Table A-9). During the same time period, four species 
(L. fragilis, P. alatus, T. truncata, and T. donacifonnis) 
declined (p ^ 0.01) at the Case-IH site (Table A-11). 
No species showed a significant increase at either of the 
two sites. 

Mean overall unionid density at Illiniwek (98 
samples, 118. 3/m-^ and Sylvan Slough (116 samples, 
53.4/m=) were likely (p = 0.05) within 10% of their 
actual densities (Table B-1) based on the statistical 
technique described by Green (1979). Greater sample 
variance and fewer samples at Case-IH (72 samples, 
86.7/m^ resulted in an estimate within 15 % of the actual 
density. Although fewer samples were collected during 
quantitative sampling m Reach 15 during 1983 and 1987, 



density estimates were still within 20% of the actual 
density at Sylvan Slough and between 30% -40% at Case- 
IH (Table B-1). We also applied this technique (Green 
1979) to density estimates for individual species (Tables 
F-2 to F-4). Density estimates for abundant species at 
each site were the only ones which had a 95 % probability 
of being within 20 % -30 % of their actual densities (Tables 
B-2 to B-4). To estimate the uncommon or rare species 
with the same level of precision would require an 
unreasonably large number of samples (i.e., 1,000 to 
61,000 samples). 

Density histograms based on shell height for all 
commercial mussel species collected over the past decade 
at Reach 15 sites exhibit a truncated distribution pattern 
which coincides with the minimum commercial size limit 
(Appendix D). Possible explanations for this trend are: 
(1) shortly after reaching the minimum size limit all 
commercial mussel species experience a period of near 
complete mortality, (2) the minimum size limit is at or 
near the maximum achievable size for commercial species 
in Reach 15, or (3) commercial musselors are extremely 
efficient at removing adult mussels from the population 
once they reach the minimum size limit. Our data from 
Reach 15 mussel populations over the last decade indicate 
that the latter is the most likely explanation for the 
truncated distributions. For example, at Sylvan Slough in 
1983 and 1985 (Figure D-5) and at Case-IH in 1987 
(Figure D-10) there were relatively large cohorts of adult 
A. plicata in the 60- to 70-mm size intervals, just below 
the minimum commercial size limit. Within 2 to 4 years 
these apparently strong cohorts were missing or not 
evident from the population as they were not identifiable 
in subsequent histograms. The disappearance of these 
cohorts probably occurred within a few years after they 
grew beyond the minimum commercial size limit. Sylvan 
Slough was designated a mussel refuge in 1988, and yet 
seven years later (1995) the distribution patterns of the 
primary commercial species remain truncated at the 
minimum size limit similar to harvested beds, suggesting 
that illegal harvest occurred within this reflige. In fact, 
individuals have been prosecuted for illegally harvesting 
mussels in the Sylvan Slough refuge (Scott Wright, IDNR 
Conservation Warden, personal communication) 

The 1994-95 densities of commercial mussels 
with heights greater than the minimum size limit (legal- 
size) is extremely low at all three Reach 15 sites 
(Appendix C). The mean density of legal-size A. plicata 
ranged from a low of 0.24/m- at Sylvan Slough to a high 
of 1.12/m= at Case-IH (Table D-1). Based on these 
density estimates there are from 2,424 (Sylvan Slough) to 
11,314 (Illiniwek) legal-size A, plicata/h&:taTe (970 to 



4,526/acre) (Table G-8). There are even fewer legal-size 
M. nervosa, with densities from 0.06/m- to 0.24/m- or 
606 (Case-IH) to 2,424 (Illiniwek) legal-size mussels per 
hectare (242 to 970/acre) (Table G-8). 

Recruitment 

Recent recruitment estimates from the ten species 
we evaluated in 1994-95 indicate a high degree of 
variability among species and study sites (Table F-1). 
Mean density of recent recruits ranged from a low of 
0.01/m- (M. nerwsa) to a high of 3.97/m- (Q. pustulosa). 
Densities of recent recruits were similar among sites for 
six mussel species (A. plicata, M. nerwsa, Q. metanevra, 
Q. pustulosa, Q. quadrula, and O. reflexa). The 
remaining four species (£. lineolata, L. fragilis, T. 
truncata, and T. donaciformis) showed significant 
differences in recruitment among sites; for example, the 
density of recently recruited E. lineolata was significantly 
greater at Illiniwek (3.34/m-\) than at the two other sites 
(Case-IH = 0.56/m* and Sylvan Slough = 0.65/m-) 
(Table F-1). Sf)ecies with the highest mean recruitment 
densities, Q. pustulosa (4.0/m-^, E. lineolata (1.5/m-), 
and T. truncata (l.S/m^^, were also the three most 
abundant species collected from Reach 15 in the present 
survey (Table A-5). Some species showed little evidence 
of recent recruitment at one or more of the study sites; we 
did not collect any M. nerwsa or Q. metanevra 
(Monkeyface) less than 30 mm in length from either of 
the two harvested beds (Case-IH and Illiniwek) and only 
one M. nervosa and two Q. metanevra at the refuge bed 
(Sylvan Slough). 

Recruitment information from Sylvan Slough 
(Table F-1) and Case-IH (Table F-3) between 1983 and 
1995 demonstrates the unpredictable nature of mussel 
recruitment. Some species exhibit fairly constant 
recruitment (e.g., Q. pustulosa) with relatively high 
densities of young mussels in most years, while others 
show evidence of sporadic recruitment (e.g., T. truncata, 
T. donaciformis, and M. nervosa). Interpretation of 
recruitment information is difficult since we know very 
little about the natural reproductive patterns of mussel 
species and how they are affected by environmental 
conditions (i.e., water temperature, floods, turbidity, 
etc.), biological factors (i.e., mussel abundance, host 
abundance, peak gravidity, etc.), or anthropogenic 
stressors (i.e., commercial harvest, recreational or 
commercial boat traffic, pollutants, etc.). 

Density distributions based on shell length 
(Appendix C) and age (Appendix F) facilitate the 
identification of strong or weak cohorts which can be used 



to ascertain long-term trends in recruitment. For 
example, most mussel species typically showed a modal 
age distribution produced by years of significant 
recruitment (strong cohorts) and years with poor 
recruitment and/or survival (weak cohort). Two mussel 
species, M. nervosa and A. plicata, which show very 
different recruitment patterns are discussed in greater 
detail. 

(1) M. nervosa exhibited relatively low densities of recent 

recruits (< 1.0/m^ in most quantitative surveys 
conducted by INKS in Reach 15 in the last ten 
years (1985-1995) (Tables F-1 to F-3). Density 
distributions based on age and shell length from 
1994-95, show few young (age < 7 years) 
(Figures E-1, E-3, and E-5) or small mussels 
(shell length < 85mm) (Figure C-2). In fact, 
the last significant recruitment by M. nervosa at 
our sites probably occurred in 1984-85 and can 
be identified in nearly all density distributions 
(age, length, and height) since 1987; for 
example, the density distribution (based on age) 
for M. nerwsa collected in 1987 Sylvan Slough 
shows a strong (6.88/m-) age 2-3 cohort (Figure 
E-2), which can be identified in the density 
distribution from 1994-95 as an age 9-10 cohort 
(Figure E-1). This indicates M. nervosa 

experiences infrequent recruitment success, 
possibly only once during this ten year period. 
Heath et al. (1988) suggested an approximate 7- 
year recruitment cycle for M. nervosa in the 
Wisconsin portion of the UMR. 

(2) A. plicata exhibited a more consistent recruitment 

pattern, with recent recruit densities typically 
between 0.23/m- and 0.68/m- in 1985 and 1995 
(Tables F-1, F-2, and F-3). Density 

distributions from all study sites (1983-1995), 
based on age (Figures E-1 to E-6), shell length 
(Figures C-10 and C-20), and shell height 
(Figures D-1, D-5, and D-10), show that A. 
plicata successfully recruit individuals to their 
population each year and occasionally produce an 
especially abundant cohort (1985-86, see 
Appendix E). 

Age and Growth 

We observed strong non-linear age-size (Tables 
G-3 and G-4) and size-weight (Table G-7) relationships 
for the five commercial mussel species (A. plicata, M. 



10 



nenvsa, Q. quadrula, Q. pustuhsa, and Q. metanevra) 
evaluated from Reach 15. Growth curves (Appendix G, 
Part IV) and calculated size-at-age (Appendix G, Part III) 
indicate growth rates of Reach 15 mussels are similar to 
other UMR populations (Woody 1988; Heath et al. 1988) 
and much lower than populations in the Illinois River 
(Whitney et al., unpublished data). Growth rates 
decreased sharply with increasing age. Annual increase in 
length for the five species can be summarized as: (1) 
mussels aged 1 to 5 grow greater than 7 mm/yr (up to 17 
mm/yr for M. nerwsa), (2) mussels aged 6 to 11 grow 
from 4 to 10 mm/yr, (3) mussels aged 12 to 17 grow 
from 2 to 4 mm/yr, and (4) mussels aged greater than 18 
grow less than 2 mm/yr. Species specific annual growth 
rates can be determined from Appendix G, Part III. 

On average, sexual maturity of most commercial 
mussel species (A. plicata, M. nenosa, Q. pustulosa, Q. 
metane\ra, and Q. quadrula) occurs during their seventh 
or eighth years, with a range from 5 to 12 years of age 
(Table G-2). 

The time required for a commercial species to 
reach minimum harvestable size ranged from 19 to 24 
years; M. nenvsa took the longest, requiring 24 years to 
reach a shell height of 101.60 mm (4 inch), A. plicata 
required 21 years to reach a shell height of 69.85 mm 
(2.75 inch), and the three Quadrula species required 19 
to 21 years to reach a shell height of 63.5 mm (2.5 inch). 
These values are similar to the results from other growth 
studies in the UMR (21 years for M. ner\-osa, [Heath et 
al. 1988]) and neariy double the time required by the 
same species in the Illinois River (e.g., A. plicata reached 
minimum commercial size in 9 years in Peoria Reach and 
13 years in the Alton Reach of the Illinois River [INHS, 
unpublished data]). 

Mortality 

Mean unionid mortality at Sylvan Slough reached 
30.4% in 1983; eight mussel species had mean mortalities 
greater than 25%, including M. nervosa (45%), Q. 
pustulosa (37.6%), A. plicata (34.9%), and T. truncata 
(33.3%) (Table A-8). Since 1983, mortality rates have 
generally declined; however, these high mortalities in the 
eighties likely contributed to the significant decline in 
abundance of many of these species during the past 
decade (Table A-9). 

During the current survey (1994-95), mean 
unionid mortality at the three study sites was estimated at 
0.81% at lUiniwek, 1.15% at Sylvan Slough, and 4.27% 
at Case-IH. We are concerned about the apparent 
increase in mortality at Case-IH, which has increased 



from 1.88% in 1987 to 4.27% in 1994. Amblema plicata 
showed increased mortality from 1.52% in 1987 to 6.67% 

1994 (Table A-10). Overall mortality rates of the other 
two sites appear to be within acceptable levels, since they 
are typical of most mussel populations we have sampled 
(INHS, unpublished data). 

Zebra Mussels 

We believe zebra mussels first arrived in Reach 
15 m late 1991 or eariy 1992. The largest individual 
collected in July 1994 measured 28.35 mm. From growth 
studies in the Illinois River, this individual would have 
been from 2 to 3 years of age (INHS, unpublished data). 
Length-frequency histograms (Figure H-1) indicate that at 
least one and at most two zebra mussel cohorts settled in 
Reach 15 in both 1994 and 1995. Growth rates of zebra 
mussels in Reach 15 (determined from length-frequency 
histograms) are similar to those observed in the Illinois 
River in 1993 (INHS, unpublished data), with mussels 
reaching a length of 17 to 20 mm in their first growing 
season. 

Zebra mussel densities at Reach 15 study sites 
have increased significantly between July 1994 and July 

1995 (Table H-1). The highest densities have consistently 
been found at the Illiniwek site where mean density 
increased exponentially, from 1.7/m- in July 1994 to 
2,519/m- in July 1995. Dunng the same period, mean 
zebra mussel density at Sylvan Slough increa.sed from 
0.6/m- to 426. 0/m". Much or the rivers flow is diverted 
away from Sylvan Slough by a rock seawall (Figure 3). 
This diversion may be the reason why fewer planktonic 
zebra mussel larvae (veligers) settled in Sylvan Slough 
than at Illiniwek. 

The infestation of native unionids at study sites 
increased from less than 1% in July 1994 to 48.9% at 
Illiniwek and 40. 1 % at Sylvan Slough in September 1995 
(Figure H-2). Similarly, the mean degree of infestation 
increased from 0.0 to 2.31/unionid at Illiniwek and from 
0.0 to 1.29/unionid at Sylvan Slough from July 1994 to 
September 1995 (Table H-3 and H-4). The maximum 
number of zebra mussels collected on an individual 
mussel was 37 on a Q. pustulosa collected from the 
Illiniwek site in September 1995 (Figure H-2). From our 
experience with zebra mussels in the Illinois River, we 
believe this degree of infestation is insufficient to create 
negative effects (i.e., reduced growth, restricted mobility, 
increased mortality) on unionid mussels. Ricciardi et al. 
(1995) used linear regression models to predict the 
intensity and impact of zebra mussel infestation on native 
unionids from field densities; their models predict severe 



11 



unionid mortality (> 90%) occurs when zebra mussel 
densities and mean infestation intensity reach 6,000/m- 
and 100/unionid. We predict that by 1996 or 1997 
unionid mussels in Reach 15 of the UMR will experience 
significantly greater infestations by zebra mussels and will 
subsequently suffer reduced fitness and increased 
mortality. 

Management Recommendations 

A primary objective of this comprehensive study 
was to provide resource managers with critical 
information necessary for the evaluation of management 
and conservation strategies to protect, preserve, or 
enhance freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi 
River. 

Analysis of quantitative data collected on mussel 
populations in Reach 15 of the UMR over the past decade 
shows that mussel populations have declined significantly, 
recruitment of many species is sporadic, mortality has 
been relatively high, growth rates are generally slow, 
illegal harvest has occurred in the mussel refuge, and 
zebra mussel abundance and infestation of unionids are 
increasing rapidly. We believe the following management 
actions could help to conserve mussel populations in 
Reach 15 and possibly throughout the entire UMR. 

(1) Close the commercial harvest of live Megalonaias 
nervosa (Washboard). Studies conducted by the INHS 
in Reach 15 since 1983 indicate M. nervosa populations 
have suffered a significant (p < 0.001) decline in mean 
density (Table A-9), most likely the result of extensive 
commercial exploitation, unexplained die-offs from 1982 
to 1985, and only one substantial recruitment event in the 
past ten years (Figure F-3). 

Commercial harvest reports from Illinois 
(Williamson 1994) and Iowa (Ackerman 1996) indicate a 
significant decline in the reported catch of live washboard 
despite a significant increase in fishing effort. In the 
Illinois portion of the Mississippi River 1 ,092,330 pounds 
of live washboard were reportedly harvested in 1987, 
compared to 49,967 pounds in 1994. In the Iowa portion 
of the Mississippi, 296,988 pounds of live washboard 
were harvested in 1986, compared with only 1254 pounds 
in 1992. In the past eight years the average price paid for 
live washboards has increased nearly 1000%, increasing 
from $0.22/lb in 1987 to $2.40/lb in 1995. As the 
number of live washboards has decreased, buyers have 
turned to dead (relic) washboards to meet the increasing 
demand of their Japanese consumers. In 1995 the average 
price paid for relic shell was $1.40/lb. 



In the late 1980's, Fritz (1988) recommended a 
larger minimum harvest size or a ban on the harvest of 
washboard in some reaches of the Mississippi River as the 
only alternatives to prevent the serious stock depletion of 
this species. Commercial harvest reports from 1987 to 
1995 and results from the present mussel survey of Reach 
15 indicate washboard stocks may be at or below the 
critical level required to maintain themselves, even 
without additional commercial pressure. At this point, 
merely increasing the size restrictions is an unacceptable 
alternative, as it would still allow the further depletion of 
the reproductive stock. If commercial harvest of live 
washboard is allowed to continue unchecked, they may 
soon be extirpated from some reaches of the UMR. 

(2) Establish entire reaches as mussel refuges. 

Although we support the need and rationale for mussel 
refuges, we believe the current mussel refuges only exist 
on paper and subsequently do not provide the services for 
which they were intended. Our studies in Reach 15 
suggest illegal harvest has occurred in the Sylvan Slough 
refuge, since all commercial species collected within the 
refuge demonstrate a truncated size distribution at the 
minimum commercial size limit (Appendix D), a 
characteristic of harvested areas. In fact, individuals have 
been prosecuted for harvesting mussels in Sylvan Slough 
and other UMR mussel refuges (Scott Wright, IDNR 
Conservation Warden, personal communication). 
According to Wright, enforcement is difficult in that 
shellers must be caught harvesting within the refuge 
boundaries. Once removed from the refuge, illegally 
harvested shells can not be distinguished from legal shells 
taken elsewhere. If an entire reach were designated as a 
refuge, any persons possessing shells on the water or at 
access sites (boat ramps) within the designated reach 
would be subject to prosecution. 

The Upper Mississippi River Conservation 
Committee's (UMRCC) mussel ad hoc committee, which 
is composed of representatives from the five UMR states, 
recently recommended that two entire reaches of the 
Mississippi River be set aside as mussel refuges. An 
ideal reach for designation as a refuge would have the 
following characteristics: (1) good baseline data (mussel 
recruitment, density, diversity, harvest, etc.), (2) high 
density of commercial and non-commercial species, (3) 
high species diversity, (4) presence of threatened, 
endangered, or special concern species, and (5) conducive 
to enforcement (limited access, law enforcement presence, 
and public support). We believe Reach 15 has all these 
characteristics and would be a good candidate for a 
mussel refuge. 



12 



(3) Develop population models to guide and assist the 
management of mussels. Mussel populations are in 
urgent need of protection and management, but there is a 
lack of information on which sound management practices 
could be based. Among the very basic questions which 
need to be answered are: are mussel populations 
undergoing long-term decline? If so, what are the 
contributing factors and their relative importance. For 
example, is the problem caused by reduced recruitment, 
increased mortality (due to harvest, zebra mussels, and 
natural causes), or some combination of both? What is a 
sustainable harvest level? What age classes or size classes 
should be protected from harvest? These are the types of 
questions addressed by population models that are in 
common use in fish and wildlife management, e.g., for 
managing the deer herd in Illinois. Similar population 
models need to be developed to guide and assist the 
management of mussels. 

The recommended approach in developing these 
models is to gather data that will be immediately useful to 
resource managers in the UMR in regulating harvest of all 
commercial species, but at the same time begin 
development of a population model for one commercial 
species. Field and laboratory data would be used in the 
model, which would eventually simulate the outcome of 
various management decisions and varying degrees of 
zebra mussel impacts. The initial model should be for A. 
plicata (Threeridge) which makes up most of the 
commercial harvest in the UMR and is common to most 
of the medium and large rivers of the midwest. The exact 
modeling approach should be left to the discretion of the 
modeler, but an example is the dynamic pool approach 
described by Pitcher and Hart (1982). 

Although a crude model can probably be 
developed in one year, refinement, calibration, and 
verification of the model is likely to take longer, 
especially since it will require at least 5 years of field 
work, perhaps more. The reasons for such a long-term 
program are: (1) a long time series of data is required to 
capture sporadic recruitment events and associate these 
with causative factors, and (2) it will take a long time to 
collect data that were not collected in earlier studies 
(fecundity, age/shell length relationships, repeated 
measures of marked individuals to determine growth). A 
long-term commitment should be made to this program, 
because it would be a waste of resources to start a 5-year 
growth study involving recapture of marked mussels and 
then not complete it because of lack of funding. 

Improved management of mussels does not have 
to be postponed until the model is completed however, 
because the field investigations themselves would provide 



useful information on the status of mussel populations. 
The technical basis for management decisions should 
improve rapidly as the model and its information base 
improve year to year. 

(4) Monitor zebra mussel densities and impacts on 
native mussels in the Mississippi River. Zebra mussel 
densities and infestation of native unionid mussels have 
increased significantly since 1994. Between July 1994 
and July 1995, zebra mussel densities at the Illiniwek 
study site increased from a mean of 1.5/m- to 2,519/m- 
(Table H-1) and infestation of native unionids increased 
from less than 1% to 48.9% (Figure H-2). As zebra 
mussel densities and unionid infestation continue to 
increase so will the likelihood of widespread unionid 
mortality. Without continuation of monitoring of 
Mississippi River zebra mussel populations to determine 
abundance and their effects on native unionid mussels, it 
will be difficult to justify the implementation of future 
mitigation strategies. Reach 15 would serve as an ideal 
location to continue to monitor the buildup and impacts of 
zebra mussel populations since we have quantitative 
baseline information on their abundance and infestation of 
unionids. 

Acknowledgements 

Funding for this research was provided by the 
former Illinois Department of Conservation (IDOC) 
(contract number PC 955391) which was reorganized into 
the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) 
effective 1 July 1995. Additional support was provided 
by the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) and the 
Upper Mississippi River System Long Term Resource 
Monitoring Program (LTRMP), a cooperative effort of 
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, National Biological 
Service, and natural resource agencies of Illinois, Iowa, 
Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. 

We are indebted to Peggy Baker representing 
Tennessee Shell Company; to Wayne Davis representing 
the Kentucky Fish and Wildlife Resources and the Mussel 
Mitigation Trust Fund; and to Michael Vanderford 
representing the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation 
for their early financial support which allowed us to hire 
the necessary personnel and purchase sampling equipment 
utilized in the Reach 15 study. 

We are grateful to IDNR commercial fisheries 
biologist Bob Williamson and former commercial fisheries 
biologist Don Dufford for their support. We are indebted 
to Bob Schanzle of the IDNR for his assistance as a diver 
and willingness to lend a hand whenever needed. 



13 



Darin Osland (INHS) served as project assistant 
and diver. Other INHS employees assisting as divers or 
field assistants were Lori Soeken, Curt Elderkin, Chad 
Heffren, Andy Hershberger, Mike Schroeder, Ted Snider, 
Jim Stoeckel, and Andy Williams. Stephanie Wickman 
served as office manager during this project and Cammy 
Smith provided additional secretarial support. We are 
indebted to Larry Gross and Jim McNamara for their help 
fabricating and maintaining field equipment. Lorin 
Nevling was Chief of INHS during this project and Robert 
Herendeen and David Philipp served as directors of the 
INHS Center for Aquatic Ecology; their support was 
appreciated. 

Additional assistance in the field and laboratory 
was received from Andrea Wiemer, an intern in the 
Illinois Energy Education Development (ILEED) 
program; volunteers Kim Elkin and Heather Kline; and 
the LTRMP Field Station staff. 

References 

Ackerman, G. and R. DeCook. 1996. Commercial 
harvest of freshwater mussels in Iowa, 1995. 
Annual Commercial Harvest Report. 6pp. 

Blodgett, K. D. and R. E. Sparks. 1987a. Analysis of 
a mussel die-off in Pools 14 and 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River. Illinois Natural History 
Survey Aquatic Biology Section Technical Report 
87/15. 26pp. 

Blodgett, K. D. and R. E. Sparks. 1987b. A summary 
of freshwater mussel sampling in Mississippi 
River Pool 15, Upper Mississippi River. Report 
to Illinois Department of Conservation. Illinois 
Natural History Survey Aquatic Biology Section 
Technical Report 87/16. 11pp. 

Cawley, E. T. 1989. A survey of the unionid mussel 
populations of the Sylvan Slough mussel 
sanctuary, Pool 15, Upper Mississippi River. 
Report to the Illinois Department of Conservation 
Research Project 3-427-R. 32pp. 

Chamberlain, T. K. 1931. Aimual growth of freshwater 
mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. 46: 
713-739. 

Fntz, A. W. 1988. Illinois mussel shell harvest, 1987. 
Annual Commercial Harvest Report, IDOC. 
10pp. 



Green, R. H. 1979. Sampling design and statistical 
methods for environmental biologists. John 
Wiley and Sons, New York. 

Heath, D. L., M. P. Engel, and J. A. Holzer. 1988. 
An assessment of the 1986 commercial harvest 
of freshwater mussels in the Mississippi River 
bordering Wisconsin. Mississippi River work 
unit summary report. Wis. Dept. of Natural 
Resources: La Crosse, WI. 

McCuaig, J. M. and R. H. Green. 1983. Unionid 
growth curves derived from annual rings: a 
baseline model for Long Point Bay, Lake Erie. 
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic 
Sciences 40: 436-442. 

Neves, R. J. 1993. A state-of-the-unionids address. 
Pages 1-10 in K. S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, 
and L.M. Koch, eds. Conservation and 
management of freshwater mussels. Proceedings 
of a UMRCC symposium, 12-14 October 1992, 
St. Louis, MO. Upper Mississippi River 
Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 

Neves, R. J. 1987. Proceedings of the workshop on die- 
offs of freshwater mussels in the United States. 
June 23-25, 1986 in Davenport, Iowa. 
Sponsored by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and 
Upper Mississippi River Conservation 
Committee. 166 pp. 

Neves, R. J. and S. N. Moyer. 1988. Evaluation of 
techniques for age determination of freshwater 
mussels (Unionidae). American Malacological 
Bulletin, Vol. 6(2): 179-188. 

Page, L. M., K. S. Cummings, C. A. Mayer, S. L. 
Post, and M. E. Retzer. 1991. Biologically 
significant Illinois streams. An evaluation of the 
streams of Illinois ba.sed on aquatic biodiversity. 
Project Completion Report F-llO-R. Illinois 
Department of Conservation and Illinois 
Department of Energy and Natural Resources. 
485 pp. 

Pitcher, T. J. and P. J. B. Hart. 1982. Fisheries 
Ecology, page 251. The AVI Publishing 
Company, Incorporated, Westport. CT. 414pp. 



14 



Ricciardi, A., F. G. Whoriskey, and J. B. Rasmussen. 
1995. Predicting the intensity and impact of 
Dreissena infestation on native unionid bivalves 
from Dreissena field density. Can. J. Fish. 
Aquat. Sci. 52: 1449-1461. 

Shannon, L., R. G. Biggins, and R. E. Hylton. 1993. 
Freshwater mussels in peril: perspectives of the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pages 64-68 in 
K. S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, and L.M. 
Koch, eds. Conservation and management of 
freshwater mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC 
symposium, 12-14 October 1992, St. Louis, 
MO. Upper Mississippi River Conservation 
Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 

Sparks, R. E. and K. D. Blodgett 1983. Effects of three 
commercial harvesting methods on mussel beds. 
Illinois Natural History Survey Aquatic Biology 
Section Technical Report 83/10. 44pp. 

Sparks, R. E. and K. D. Blodgett 1985. Effects of 
fleeting on mussels. Illinois Natural History 
Survey Aquatic Biology Section Technical Report 
85/8. 94pp. 



Thiel, P. A. and A. W. Fritz. 1993. Mussel harvest and 
regulations in the Upper Mississippi River 
System. Pages 11-18 in K. S. Cummings, A.C. 
Buchanan, and L.M. Koch, eds. Conservation 
and management of freshwater mussels. 
Proceedings of a UMRCC symposium, 12-14 
October 1992, St. Louis, MO. Upper 
Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock 
Island, Illinois. 

Williamson, R. A. 1995. Commercial mussel harvest 
from Illinois Waters in 1994. Aimual 
Commercial Harvest Report, IDNR. 13pp. 

Woody, Carol A. 1988. Reproductive biology, growth, 
and verification of three fish hosts of 
Magnonaias nerwsa (Rafinesque, 1820) 
(Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the East Channel of 
Navigation Pool 10, Upper Mississippi River. 
Masters Thesis, University of Wisconsin-La 
Crosse, WI. 



Zar, J. 



H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, 
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 718pp. 



Sparks, R. E., K. D. Blodgett, L. Durham, and R. 
Homer. 1990. Determination whether the 
causal agent for mussel die-offs in the 
Mississippi River is of chemical or biological 
origin. Illinois Department of Energy and 
Natural Resources - Water Resources Publication 
90/09. 27pp. 

Stansbery, D. H. 1961. The naiades (Moliusca, 
Pelecypoda, Unionacea) of Fishery Bay, South 
Bass Island, Lake Erie. Sterkiana 5: 1-37. 

Stein, C. B. 1973. The life history of Amblema plicata 
(Say, 1817), the Three-ridge naiad (Moliusca: 
Bivalvia). The Ohio State University, Ph.D., 
Department of Zoology. 174pp. 

Stanley Consultants. 1993. Mussel survey Sylvan 
Slough, Mississippi River, Rivermiles 485.3- 
485.8. 38pp. 

Stoekel, D. B., K. D. Blodgett, and R. E. Sparks. 1996. 
Sediment contaminants in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River. Final report to the Illinois 
Department of Natural Resources. 40pp. 



15 



Illinois 
==^ Natural History ^= 
Survey 

Appendices 



A comprehensive evaluation of three mussel 

beds in Reach 15 

of the Upper Mississippi River 




Center for Aquatic Ecology 

Scott D. Whitney, K. Douglas Blodgett, and Richard E. Sparks 

Illinois Natural History Survey 
August 1996 

Aquatic Ecology Technical Report 96/7 



List of Appendices 



Appendix Description 



A Unionid species richness and abundance 

B Calculated number of samples required to 
estimate actual density within specified level (%) 

C Density distributions based on shell length 

D Density distributions based on shell height 

E Density distributions based on mussel age 

F Unionid mussel recruitment 

G Commercial species age and growth 

H Zebra mussels {Dreissena polymorpha) 



Appendix A 



Unionid Species Richness and Abundance 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix A 

Unionid Species Richness and Abundance 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Description Page 



Table A-l: Summai-y of quantitative unionid sampling in Reach 15 - A-2 

UMR. 

Table A-2 : Mean ± standard deviation (SD) and range of live unionid A-2 

densities (no./m") at three sites in Reach 15 - UMR. 

Table A-3 : Number of Unionid species collected in Reach 15 A-3 

(1983-1995). 

Table A-4 : Scientific and common names of unionid species collected in A-3 

Reach 15 (1983-93). 

Table A-5 : Ranked species lists for Reach 15 sites. A-4 

Table A-6 : Species summary for three sites in Reach 15, 1994-95. A-5 



Table A-7 : Statistical comparison of mean densities of unionids among A-6 

three sites in Reach 15, 1994-95. 

Table A-8 : Species summary for Sylvan Slougli (RM 485.8), 1983-95. A-7 



Table A-9 : Statistical comparison of mean densities of unionids at Sylvan A-8 

Slough (RM 485.8) between 1983-95. 

Table A-10 : Species summary for Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1985-94. A-9 



Table A-11 : Statistical comparison of mean densities of unionids at Case-IH A-10 

(RM 488.5) between 1985-94. 

Table A-12 : Statistical comparison of mean densities of unionids between A-11 

sites and years in Reach 15. 



Page A-l 

Whitnev et al., Unionid Sun'ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table A-1. Summary of quantitative unionid mussel sampling in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River during surveys conducted by the Illinois Natural History Survey 
between (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1983-87. 



(a) 1994-95 
Site 




Number 


of quantitative samples 






0.25-m^ 


1-m^ 


Total 


Area 
(m^) 


July '94 


Aug '94 


July '95 Sept '95 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 
Case-IH (RM 488.5) 
Illiniwek (RM 492.4) 


80 
50 
40 


22 
22 


30 6 
30 6 


116 
72 
98 


34 
18 
29 


Total 


170 


44 


60 12 


286 


81 



(b) 1983-87 
Site 




Number of quantitative samples 






1-m^ 


Total 


Area 


May '83 


Sept '85 June '87 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 
Case-IH (RM 488.5) 


4 


8 8 
6 8 


20 
14 


20 
14 


Total 


4 


14 16 


34 


34 



Table A-2. Mean, standard deviation (SD), and range of live mussel densities (no./m-) from 
three sites in Reach 1 5 of the Upper Mississippi River sampled between (a) 1994-95 
and(b) 1983-87 



(a) 1994-95 

Site 




Mean ± SD/range of live m 


ussel densities (noJm-) 


July '94 


Aug '94 


July '95 


Sept -95 


0%erall 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


48,2±20.8 
(0-100) 




6S.9±30.3 
(12-124) 


45.0±15.0 
(21-63) 


53.4±25.0 
(0-124) 


Case-IH (RM 488.5) 


97.0±51.1 
(8-232) 


63.2±41.1 
(4-180) 






867±50,6 
(4-232) 


lUinmek(RM 492.4) 


150 7±42.7 
(56-2 W) 


124.5±41.4 
(56-188) 


82.7±34.2 
(24-180) 


837±15.3 
(66-110) 


118.3±48,8 
(24-264) 



(b) 1983-87 

Site 


Mean ± SD/range 


of live mussel den 


sities (no./m') 


May '83 


Sept ■ 85 


June ' 87 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 
Case-IH (RM 488.5) 


89.5±13.5 
(75-109) 


100.1±21,6 
(69-132) 

139.2±62.1 
(62-216) 


115.4±17.2 
(93-149) 

289.8±25.0 
(214-515) 



Page A-2 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun'ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table A-3. Number of unionid mussel species collected by the Illinois Natural History Survey 
during quantitative sampling at three sites in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi 
River between 1983 and 1995. 



Site 




Number of unionid species 




1983 


1985 1987 1994-95 


Total 


Sylvan Slough (RxM 485.8) 
Case-IH (RiM 488.5) 
Illiniwek (RM 492.4) 


18 


21 21 23 
19 23 20 


25 
24 
25 


Total 


18 


21 24 26 


26 



Table A-4. Scientific and common names of native unionid species collected in Reach 1 5 of the 
Upper Mississippi River during quantitative mussel surveys conducted by the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, 1983-95. Taxonomy follows Cummings and Mayer, 1992. 



Scientific 



Common 



1. Actinonaias Jigamentina (Lamarck, 1819)., 

2. Amblema plicata (Say, 1817) 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



Arcidens confragostts {Say, 1829) 

Cumberlandia monodonta (Say, 1829) 

Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820) 

Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1820) 

Lamps His cardium (Rafinesque, 1820) 

8. Lampsilis higginsi (Lea, 1857) 

9. Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823) 

10. Leptodeafragilis (Rafinesque, 1820) 

11. Ligiimia recta (Lamarck, 1819) 

12. Megalonaias nen'osa (Rafinesque, 1820).. 

13. Obliqiiaria reflexa (Rafinesque, 1820) 

14. Obovaria olivaha (Rafinesque, 1820) 

15. Plethobasus cyphyits (Rafinesque, 1820).... 

16. Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817) 

17. Potamilus ohiensis (Rafinesque, 1820) 

18. Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829) 

19. Quadnda metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820).... 

20. Quadnda nodulata (Rafinesque, 1820) 

21. Quadnda pustulosa (Lea, 1831) 

22. Quadnda quadnda (Rafinesque, 1820) 

23. Strophitus imdulatus (Say, 1817) 

24. Tnmcilla donacifonnis (Lea, 1828) 

25. Tnmcilla tnmcata (Rafinesque, 1820) 

26. Utterbackia imbed His (Say, 1829) 



.Mucket 

.Threeridge 

.Rock-pocketbook 

..Spectaclecase 

.Butterfly 

.Wabash pigtoe 

.Plain pocketbook 

-Higgins eye 

..White heelsplitter 

.Fragile papershell 

..Black sandshell 

..Washboard 

.Threehorn wartyback 

.Hickorynut 

.Sheepnose 

..Pink heelsplitter 

.Pink papershell 

.Giant floater 

.Monkeyface 

..Wartyback 

..Pimpleback 

-Mapleleaf 

..Squavv^oot 

..Fawnsfoot 

-Deertoe 

.Paper pondshell 



Page A-3 

Whitney et al, Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 







,^-v 








u 


r- 








« 








^ 








« 


^ 






(U 




> 


^ 


o 


?3 




cc 






oioioioioiDiQiaioictiQioiftia; 



5 
S -2 2 c g .5 ^ C 



1 = 



S -d 






k; Oj X O :§ --! ^ OiOj 









s 



c, Ojc^ O ^ ci; 






c i; c 

c c ^ =-5 

nil 

^ oj U c^ 



>/-i ^D t^ oc ON O 



in ^ r- oc ON o 



C-) (N fN 



^ - g = - 



5 -^ "^^ 



DiDiOiDiOiDiQiQiOiaiQi 



-: ^ 






'^ 5 

^ c S S 

^, s« - c; ^ >- 

< (^ :i ^ O) ^ 



G r 



S K 



'c: C c c 
s: ■=: 1= ^ ^ 



^ t^ iC ON O 



--V i2 <<<<UUCJUU 



^^ ^ G 











^—^ 


-- 


<i 





00 




CO 




TT 






















u 


^. 


i 






« 




U 






^ 




c 












Oi. 












Qi Qi cti oi a: fti 



S 5 



~ ? o. 



^-5 s -^ 



c: S S 5 






-i ^ .s 

^ S S .£« 



^'C;^Oi>^^d)CJ)i<^a,ci;0.^^i>j^ 



tNr^Ttir, vcr^ocosO 



^ r-- CO ON o 



• J«<UUUUUCJCJUU&ia;a:aittio=ia;a:Qiaia:(iicK: 







00 




00 


U 


TT 








^ 


VI 


Di-; 




3 





s. 


V3 


on 


C 




« 




> 


^ 


>-, 




cn 


QJ 



s: ":: 









2 5 



? ^ ^ -S 

1i ill 



C^i 



\^ r-- sc ON o 



u-i \C t~- ac On O 



r-1 



I 
'^ 

ON 
ON 



IT) 






m 






^ IT, 

C^ -r 



0<N00CV0000^00— OOOOOOOOOOr^^lJ- 

o — ooooo'od — 00 — oodooooooom--vo 



or^oocvooo 
ovooomooo 
o'vood— •do'do'jooo — oor-oooo<N 



Or^OOOOOOOOOOClOOOOOOOOOOOM-OO 
pr-ppopppoppppppppppprsippoopp 
d Hood odd odc>d(Nddo'o'cdd--do<N--o 



(^ cv -^ O r-i — 



ov r~ oc r- 

— r- o (-1 
d d cK d 



m\OOCr^O[^aC<NOOvOONOO 







n 










•^;5 






.^i? 


B 




:=? 






= « 


? 






n 








u "■ 


X ^ 










i 


5 ? 


c 


>-. 


^?^, 


^. 
































a 


Is 


s 




^2? 


c 




i: OS 


^ 




C/3 





O — CV O 
O U-l OC T 

d r- d d 



8?;88 = 



oovcvo^cooo-a-o 
r- cc r^. o — ^o r- o r-J ^ 

d d -*' d r^i oc d d — d 



c> oc o o 

CN d — ' — ■ 



r^f^^r^-Tl^r^f^O-T-TOf^W-, r^roe- 



CN o o o o 



(^ » C IT/ -T 

s — ir! o 



=' c = c; r4 c f^ c\ c d c o c" o 



O O W-, O o 



1/^ = s X oe 



or^ — r-Ovocr^O 



» o »s c\ tr, ir, 



Of, oc^oo — 00c 



OfNoooc — c^ — 



O oc f^ CC r^, O 



r- C^ (N •* 



r ^ ^ o 












tJ c 



■5 •? 



a o 



-.5:5 Siill I"! I |.§ 



"3 o c S s; S. 



'^ S =: « - .^ 5 



■g-S 8SJ-§-S-S-2-5 S^^^ 



C '2 -<^ 



•^ in vo 



ON O — 



^D 



V3 



Table A-7. Statistical comparison (t-test) of mean densities of unionids among three sites in Reach 1 5 of the 
Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. Statistically significant differences are denoted by the level of 
significance and the relationship (> or <) of mean densities. 

Reach 15 - 1994-95 



Species 


Comparison of mean densities between sites 


Illiniwek:Sylvan 


Illiniwek:Case-IH 


Case-IH:Sylvan 


1 . Actmonaias ligamentina 


NS 






2, Amblema plicata 


***> 


*> 


***> 


3. Arcidem confragosiis 


NS 






4 . El lip sari a I in eolata 


***> 


***> 


***> 


5. Fiisconaia flava 


**> 


NS 


**> 


6. Lampsilis cardium 


*> 


NS 


NS 


1 . Lampsilis h igginsi 


NS 


NS 


NS 


8. Lasmigona complanata 




NS 




9. Leptodeafragilis 


***> 


**> 


NS 


10. Ligiimia recta 


NS 


NS 


NS 


1 1 . Megalonaias nervosa 


NS 


NS 


NS 


12. Ob liquaria reflexa 


***> 


NS 


***> 


13. Obovaria olivaria 


NS 


NS 


NS 


14. Potamihis alatiis 


NS 


NS 


NS 


15. Pyganodon grandis 


*> 


NS 


NS 


16. Oiiadnda metanevra 


***< 


*< 


***< 


1 7 . Ouadrula nodulata 


NS 


**< 


NS 


1 8 . Ouadnda pustidosa 


NS 


*< 


**> 


19. Ouadrula quadnda 


NS 


**< 


NS 


20. Strophitus imdulatus 


NS 


NS 


NS 


2 1 . Tnmcilla donaciformis 


***< 


*< 


**< 


22. Truncilla tnincata 


***> 


***> 


***> 


23. Utterbackia imbecillis 


NS 






* - significant at p = 05 level 


** - significant at p = 


0.01 level ***-signi 


ficant at p = 0.001 level 



Page A-6 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun-ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



c ^ *- 



1/^ 

I 



00 



in 

00 

o^ 



00 



00 
00 



3 

c 





^ 


8P888888888S8888888S8 8S88 


«/^ 




^ 


OP-ioodooo'ooo(NOOooooo — 00<N — o 


^ 




g 














g^ 


r- 


gooog;ooo;COgoooooop;Of.o§og^ 


J 


1 

■j; 


g 


oddor^odd>/-id-<Noddoo — o — ooot-^g 




1 


^ 


8f;8S5888i^R§;^88S8 8S8SS8F:.?S 


S 


1 


i 


diNddvdodddm — 2^°"^°°""°?^ — °S — 2 


r^ 


c 


r-> 


8^88§S^8S8Sg88288S8S§8gS^ 


© 




i 


d^ddo;odvoooO|5-oo-oor:^§P;;2°fi?!'^ 


i 




s 


-Mf'^Ot~-Mr)OOsOO<00 — 








-5!— 8t--5-(N3«!^0'/^(NO — (N'OO'^OOsf', -T 


© 


c? 


3 


duSdorioddr-idMr-dddddooot^r^or-^oo 


© 


o^ 


g 


~ 


"" 


t 




8S88SS;^SSgS;^§§?^^§g5S-P^-5 




c 


£ 


§ 


•a 


g 


d •/-; dd.r;ddd CO dtN-rddTooi-OMj — 0"-.r~o 




1 


w-- 


8gS8SSg8SS§222g§gS2gg8SS2 


i 




g 


da;dd>/-.dddddmTrdd<Nddvodo< — d^<N4 


> 








1 


r-> 


§^?5?52§§8^S?i288^8§S8~SgS^^ 


§ 


:2 


^ 


d — dd«— — dodcK-Too^o — (NOjqf. Of, — r^ 










3S[^8PS§3S§;2SP,^?8£ = fi§SP^Sa§ 


_ 








o 




4 


g 


d^rd d u-idddf^di»i TT d — ooo'/^ — CNf, o^ot^o 


iri 






ov)r~oooi«»ao06'»'Tr<in'<Ioor<c\wiu^fncs'rr-< 


9\ 




?; 


1 


Sr<oooe-<s — i-Mcsovor^ — o — TM — aeo'TTfS 


n 






OMdovdodd-OMr-idoodoTfoTr-d'Toe-o 


fH 






S 


8S882?^8SS§8SSSgSS^§8S8S8 


o 






Q 


<N 








d(Ndd — dddmdmoidd-^domd^ — dmr 


^ 




1 


c 


iSii2?§i^2Sg22gg2§^?S2?gS 


© 


f 




1 


d^oddv^■dc;=od-T'Tdd-Tc■o■s^■d»-d^■e^d 


^ 


1 








"" 












^ 






8S§8gS888§^8SS^^S2SSg8^Sg 


! 


■| 




^ 


d fN d d <N d d d (N d t' <N d d d d d -3-' d d d d ^' ■»' — 




c 


i 


i 


s^siPiliis^^si^iiili^ii^^ 


© 






s 


82§§S§£8gSS§88S8SS8SS8SS8 


1 

o 






/2J 


m 








O-OOr-, O-OO-r', <NOOr-. O O^-Or-irj- 


d 




i 




ssssgssiSiSi§ii§s§i§g§s§§ 


o 






i 


^ 






^ 


» = oor----03voocf^ooto — MOO(so(N.ior-i 


so 




«^ 


r'rNlrSOM''0Cr^'^-v0vC-OTfOr-ltNI0N'-O — r- t- 


VI 






'o -' ■^"vcrj"'— -T '^'^''^Fj 






-T 




" M 




§ 




I- «s 






orsooorju-iorM — voc^ or- — rj-rf-o oc^r 


fS 


1 


i 




£^ M 


1 




O0C<NO<N-rr-O — tNr-r', — — O0\cr-r^ — OO-^OI-M — f^ 




x 


r- T ooor-, _ ^ -^ — ^ am 


© « 


c 


1 




00 (S 


x: 












^ O^u^or^r^r-, ^OOvOO'^ODOr', — Of^^^ 


96 








IT, SO 




SV 




f^ 2 




3 






s 5 






So -r 


« .= 


2 

1 


IllJflllllllllllllJIJIIII 










_r.r,;-r-^^r^ooo;d-rj^2:2s::2s:^?;?i?i^;Q 



51' 



t^i 



00 
IT) 

00 

3 

So 



C/5 





IT) 




















a\ 
















> 






A 


00 c/^ oo A c/2 A 


00 A 


A 


OO A 00 


A oo 00 


A oo 


_w 




o^ 




:z; :z; ^ * z * 


Z * 


* 


z * z 


* Z Z 


* Z 


o 
o 




l-H 




^t- ^K- 




* 




■X- 


* 




t--* 




* * 


* 


* 




* 


* 


6 




00 
















11 




c^ 
















a. 
























ITj 
















§ 




=^ 
















o 






A 


KAi U~l ^J^ ^J^ l\ ^J^ l\ 


c/3 A 


A 


00 oo oo 


O) 00 c/:) 


00 A 


'c 

00 




ON 


* 


-^7^7:7:. * 7^* 


Z * 


* 


z z z z z z 


Z * 


•^ 


V2 


»-^ 


* 


* * 


* 


* 






* 


1 




00 
ON 




■X- * 


* 


^ 






* 


: 


c 




















o 






















00 
















"5 


ON 


A 


c/^ c>o c/: OO l>0 OO 


00 V 


^ 


A t/^ 00 


V C/^ 00 


V A 


> 


^ 


7". 




z:z:z;:z;:z:z2* 


Z 


* z z 


* Z Z 


■»!■ * 




C/5 


ITj 






* 




* 


* 


* 


!ir 


0^ 


00 






* 








^ 


. 




ON 
















o 


'^ 


^^ 
















II 


C 


















Q. 


o; 


















^-> 


•c 


IT. 
















a 


c 


ON 
















c 


s 


^ 


A 


00 oo A ^ A 00 A 


^ A 




A 00 


00 oo 00 


OO A 


o 


E 


ON 


*■ 


:z :^ * :^ * :^ * 


Z * 




* z 


z z z 


Z * 


'c 








^<- ^(- * 


* 








* 


00 


o 


00 




* * * 


* 








* 


•^ 


c 


ON 
















« 


o 


















* 


'il 




















E 


00 


















ON 


A 


c/^ A c/:) oo c/5 V 


^ oo 




A V 


V 00 C/5 


V A 


1 


u 


00 
ON 




2: * z :z; :^* 


z z 




* 


* z z 


* * 
* 


_4J 
O 

d 
II 

D. 




XTi 


















00 
















tc 




ON 
















^ 






on 


m m /\ rj~i en a:i LTi 


C/^ 00 




00 00 


oo 00 00 


00 a^ 


c 
o 




00 


:^2;z*":z2;:z^ 


Z 2: 




z z 


z z z 


Z Z 




ON 
















00 

■55 








52 ^ 






? 


7//a pustulosa 
•ula quadnda 
lla donaciformis 


^ 


* 






C3 


Arcidens confragos 
FJlipsaria lineolata 
Fusconaia flava 
Lampsilis cardium 
Leptodeafragilis 
Ligumia recta 
Megalonaias riervo. 


II 




■52 ^ <3 

HI 

1-2-2 

o ?: ?: 


2 'S 

II 

^ 2 

II 


1 


'E 

50 








ti 
SI 


^ 

1 


. Pygan 
. Quadr 
. Quadr 
. Quadr 
. Quadr 
. Tnmci 




1 


rA en -rt ^r-i \d r- oo 


ON O 


^ 


CA m ^ 


u~^ \0 t~- 


od on' 





T 


5? 


5^ 


















■c 


S^ 


o 




£ 




























o 





o r- o CA o o o 



o r- o o o o 



oo o <?> ^o o 

O O <N — O 

■cr o ■^' p^ o 



oooo^ooooo-^ 

00000^00000^ 



OOO — OOfNvOO 
OOOOOptNt^p 

oo-t— •oooc— o 



o o o o 



a\ 

ON 

c 

00 

ON 

00 

ON 



IT) 

00 
00 






O C\ O <J-l 00 



o o o o o o r~- 



OOOOOOOr^ 



8s;c 



OC^OOC^^(NO^ 

dodd^d — <N 



M- VD Ov ■* O 



o o o o o 







D 










_ 






i7\ 














G 














F 


f^ 




ci 


g 


1 


3 


" 


























94 






Q 


ID 


a 




2 


c 

1 



^O O O ^O O tN •* 



vo — — r- 



OrOCvOOOOOC — 



oooooooooooooooooooooooo 
dr-id — — — ddtn'd — ^ — o — ddr-ivarsdo^fod 



o o o © c 
"T o e\ -T — 
f»5 — — -r — 



= o c 
f^ — ir; 



oooooooooooooooooooooooo 

Or'iU-iOOC — OOOOintNOLnt-- — OininoCOOf^CNO 

dr~-'dood — dddd<N<Nd-^ — ddd'^rsiorrijnTj: 



C r») f^ >/■, 



O OC — ON 



r- o o — (N >-o 



cn -* o r-- ON 



ro vO r^ O -^ ^ ^ 



be ^ 



s — -S 



2 s: =S 



■i^ o 



I s s s i -s ^ 






- 5e 






o -P 



11 



vo r~ 



ON O — 



MO r~- 



ON O 



ON &• 
< ^ 



Table A-11. Statistical comparison (t-test) of mean densities of unionids at Case-IH (RM 488.5) between 
1985, 1987, and 1994. Statistically significant differences are denoted by the level of 
significance and the relationship (> or<) of mean densities 





Case-IH (RM 488.5) 




Species 


Compa 


rison of mean densities between years 


1985:1987 


1985:1994 


1987:1994 


1. Amblema plicata 


**< 


NS 


***> 


2. Ellipsaria lineolata 


**< 


NS 


**> 


3. Fusconaia flava 


*< 


NS 


**> 


4. Lampsilis cardiimi 


NS 


NS 


NS 


5 . Lampsilis h igginsi 






NS 


6. Lasmigona complanata 






NS 


7. Leptodeafragilis 


NS 


***> 


***> 


8. Ligiunia recta 


NS 


NS 


**> 


9. Megalonaias nen'osa 


NS 


NS 


NS 


1 . Obliquaria reflexa 


**< 


NS 


NS 


1 1 . Obovaria olivaria 


NS 


NS 


**> 


12. Potamilus alatus 


NS 


***> 


***> 


1 3 . Pot am this oh tens is 


NS 






14. Pyganodon grandis 




NS 


NS 


15. Oiiadrula metanevra 


NS 


NS 


NS 


16. Ouadnda nodulata 


*< 


NS 


**> 


17. Ouadnda pustulosa 


**< 


NS 


***> 


18. Quadnda qiiadmla 


* < 


NS 


*> 


1 9 . Tnm cilia donaciform is 


NS 


**> 


**> 


20. Tnmcilla tnm cat a 


NS 


**> 


***> 


2 1 . Utterbackia imbed I lis 


NS 






* -significant at p = 0.05 level ** 


-significant at p = 


0.01 level *** - significant at p = 0.001 level 



PageA-10 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Table A-12. Statistical comparison (t-test) of mean densities of unionids at Reach 15 (UMR) between sites 
and years (1983 to 1995). Statistically significant differences are denoted by the level of 
significance and the relationship (> or <) of mean densities. 

Reach 15 Sites : 1983 to 1995 



Comparison 


of mean densities between sites and 


years 


Site 


Variables 


Significance 


Reach 15, 1994-95 


Illiniwek : Sylvan Slough 


AAA > 


Reach 15, 1994-95 


Illiniwek : Case-IH 


AAA >. 


Reach 15, 1994-95 


Case-IH : Sylvan Slough 


AAA> 


Reach 15, 1987 


Case-IH : Sylvan Slough 


AAA> 


Reach 15, 1985 


Case-m : Sylvan Slough 


NS 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


1983 


1985 


NS 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


1983 


1987 


A < 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


1983 


1994-95 


AA> 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


1985 


1987 


NS 


Sylvan Slougli(RM 485.8) 


1985 


1994-95 


AAA> 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 


1987 


1994-95 


AAA> 


Case-IH(RM 488.5) 


1985 


1987 


AA < 


Case-IH(RM 488.5) 


1985 


1994 


AAA > 


Case-IH (RM 488.5) 


1987 


1994 


AAA > 


* - significant at p = 0.05 level ** 


- significant at p = 01 level *** - sign 


ficantatp = O.OOnevel 



PageA-11 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Appendix B 



Calculated number of samples required to estimate 
actual density within specified level (%) 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix B 

Calculated number of samples required to estimate 
actual density within specified level (%) 



Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi Rrver 



Description 



Page 



Table B-1 : Calculated number of samples required to estimate unionid B-2 

density at three sites in Reach 15 (UMR). 

(1.) Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 1983-1995 
(2.) Case-IH(RM 488.5) 1985-1994 
(3.) Illinivvek(RM 492.4) 1994-95 

Table B-2 : Calculated number of samples required to estimate unionid B-3 

species density at Sylvan Slough (RM 485 .8) m (a) 1 994-95 and 
(b)1985. 

Table B-3 : Calculated number of samples required to estimate unionid B-4 

species density at Case-IH (RM 488.5) m (a) 1994 and (b) 
1985. 

Table B-4 : Calculated number of samples required to estimate unionid B-5 

species density at IlUniwek (RM 492.4) in 1994-95. 



Page B-1 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Table B-1. Calculated number of quantitative samples required to estimate unionid density at three 
sites in Reach 15 (UMR) within x% of the actual density with a 0.05% probability of 
being incorrect. Based on the formula : n = [(2SD) ^ (xM)]-, where : n = number of 
samples required, SD = standard deviation, x = desired level of accuracy (i.e., 10% = 0.1), 
and M = mean unionid density based on samples collected Numbers within rectangles 
indicate the number of samples collected met or exceeded the number of samples 
required for each level of accuracy (%). 



Reach 15 (UMR) 



Site 


Date 


Density 


Samples 
Collected 


S 


amples Requ 


ired 




Mean 


SD 


10% 


20% 30% 


40% 


50% 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 

Case-IH (RM 488.5) 
Illinmek (RM 492.4) 


June 1994 

June 1995 

Sept. 1995 

Overall 94-95 

1983 

1985 

1987 

1985-87 

June 1994 

Aug. 1994 

Overall 1994 

1985 

1987 

1985-87 

June 1994 
Aug. 1994 
June 1995 
Sept 1995 
Overall 94-95 


48.2 
68.9 
45.0 
53.4 
89.5 
100.1 
115.4 
107.8 

97.0 
63.2 
86.7 
139.3 
294.3 
216.8 

150.7 
124.5 
82.7 
83.7 
118.3 


20.8 
30.3 
15.0 
25.0 
13.5 
21.6 
17,2 
10.8 

51.1 
41.1 
50.6 
62.1 
94.3 
109.6 

42.7 
41.4 
34.2 
15.3 
48.8 


80 
30 
6 
116 
4 
8 
8 
16 

50 

72 
6 
8 

14 

40 
22 
30 
6 
98 












|74 


19 8 


5 


3 




77 
44 


19 9 


5 


3 


11 1 5 


3 


2 


|88 


22 10 


5 


4 


9 
19 
9 


2 1 


1 





5 2 11 


2 1 


1 





1 4 


1 








111 
169 
136 

79 
41 
102 










28 12 


7 


4 




42 1 19 


11 


7 


34 15 


9 


5 


20 


9 


1 5 


3 


10 
26 


5 


3 


2 


11 


6 


4 












1 32 


8 4 


2 


1 




44 
68 
13 


11 5 


3 


2 


17 8 


4 


3 


3 111 


1 68 


17 8 


4 


3 













Page B-2 

Whitney et al.. Unionid Sun'ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table B-2. Calculated number of quantitative samples required to estimate unionid species density at 
Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) in (a) 1994-95 (116 samples collected) and (b) 1985 (8 samples 
collected) within x% of the actual density with a 0.05% probability of being incorrect. Based 
on the formula : n = [(2 SD) ^ (xM)]-, where : n = number of samples required, SD = standard 
deviation, x = desired level of accuracy (i.e., 10% = 0. 1), and M= mean unionid density based 
on samples collected. Numbers within rectangles indicate the number of samples collected 
met or exceeded the number of samples required for each level of accuracy (%). 



(a) 1994-95 (116 samples) 

Species 


Density (/m') 




Samples Requi 


red 


Mean 


SD 


10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 1 


Ouadnila pustulosa 


14.15 


9.89 


195 


49 




22 




12 




8 




Ellipsaha lineolala 


6.80 


5.73 


284 


/I 




32 




18 




11 




Truncilla truncata 


8.44 


7.29 


298 


75 




33 




19 




12 




Obliquaria rvjlexa 
Quadrula metanevra 


3.94 
4.42 


4.03 
5.11 


418 
535 


105 




46 
59 




26 
33 




17 




134 




Amblema plicata 


3.25 


4.26 


687 


172 


76 




43 








Afegalonaias ner\'osa 


2.24 


3.18 


806 


202 


90 




50 








Tntncilla donaciformis 
Lep to dea fragilis 


4.49 
1.78 


6.50 

3,22 


838 
1309 


210 


93 




52 
82 








327 


145 




Quadnila quadrula 
Ligumia recta 


1.85 
0.28 


3.58 
0,99 


1498 
5001 


374 166 
1250 556 


94 




60 




313 




200 




Lamps! lis cardium 


0.25 


0,96 


5898 


1475 655 


369 236 


Utterbackia imbecillis 


0.22 


0,90 


6694 


1674 744 


418 268 


Plethobasus c\phvus 


0.32 


1,31 


6704 


1676 745 


419 268 


Quadnda nodulata 


0.29 


1,27 


7671 


1918 852 


479 307 


Potamilus alatus 


0.14 


0.74 


11176 


2794 1242 


698 447 


Actinonaias ligamentina 


0.10 


0.64 


16384 


4096 1820 


024 655 


Lampsilis higginsi 


0.10 


0.64 


16384 


4096 1820 


024 655 


Fusconaiaflava 


0.10 


0.64 


16384 


4096 1820 


024 655 


A/videns confragosus 


0.07 


0.53 


22931 


5733 2548 


433 917 


Pyganodon grandis 


0.10 


0,83 


27556 


6889 3062 


722 1102 


Strophitus undulatus 


0.03 


0,37 


60844 15211 6760 3803 2434 j 


Obovaria olivaria 


0.03 


0,37 


60844 15211 6760 


>803 2434 1 



(b) 1985 (8 samples) 

Species 



Density (/m^) 



Samples Required 



Mean 



SD 



10% 



20% 



40% 



50% 



Amblema plicata 
Lep to dea fragilis 
Ouadnila pustulosa 
Potamilus alatus 
Ttvncilla truncata 
Afegalonaias nerxosa 
Utterbackia imbecillis 
Quadrula quadrula 
Obliquaria rejlexa 
Etlipsaria lineolala 
Quadivla metanevra 
Pyganodon grandis 
Truncilla donacifonnis 
Potamilus ohiensis 
Fusconaiaflava 
Lampsilis cardium 
Ligumia recta 
A rcidens confragosus 
Quadrula nodulata 
Obovaria olivaria 
Plethobasus cypfnus 



9.80 
10.10 
19.80 
2.20 
12.60 
13.40 
4.10 
1.80 
4.10 
5.20 
6.60 
0.90 
6.50 
0.80 
0.50 
0.90 
0.20 
0.20 
0.10 
0.10 
0.10 



260 
2 90 
6,20 
0,70 
430 
4,70 
1,80 
0,80 
2,00 
2,80 
4,10 
0,60 
4,70 
0,70 
0,50 
0,90 
0,40 
0,40 
0,30 
0,30 
0,30 



28 

33 

39 

40 

47 

49 

77 

79 

95 

116 

154 

178 

209 

306 

400 

400 

1600 

1600 

3600 

3600 

3600 



100 
100 
400 
400 
900 
900 
900 



7 




3 




T 




1 


8 




4 
4 




; 




1 

2 


lu 




10 


4 




3 




-) 


12 


5 




3 




2 


12 


5 




3 
5 






19 


9 




20 9 


5 






24 11 


6 






29 13 


7 




6 


39 17 


10 




44 20 11 


7 


52 23 13 


8 


77 34 19 


12 



44 

44 
178 
178 
400 
400 
400 



100 
100 
225 



Page B-3 

Whitney et al,, Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table B-3. Calculated number of quantitative samples required to estimate unionid species density at 
Case-IH (RM 488.5) in (a) 1994 (72 samples collected) and (b) 1985 (6 samples collected) 
within x% of the actual density with a 0.05% probability of being incorrect. Based on the 
formula ; n = [(2 SD) ^ (xM)]-, where : n = number of samples required, SD = standard 
deviation, x = desired level of accuracy (i.e., 10% = 0.1), and M = mean unionid density based 
on samples collected Numbers within rectangles indicate the number of samples collected 
met or exceeded the number of samples required for each level of accuracy (%). 



(a) 1994 (72 samples) 

Species 


Density (/m^) 
Mean SD 




Samples Required | 


10% 


20% 


30% 40% 50% 1 


Truncilla tnincata 


18.00 


11.43 


161 


1 40 1 


18 




10 




6 




Amblema plicata 


14.00 


12.31 


309 


77 


34 




19 




12 




Quadrula pustulosa 


21.00 


19.44 


343 


86 


38 




21 




14 




Obliquaria reflexa 


9.17 


9.45 


425 


106 


47 




27 




17 




Ellipsaha lineolata 
Quadrula quadrula 
Leplodeafragilis 


13.78 
2.61 
2.06 


15.11 
3.73 
3.66 


481 
817 
1263 


120 
204 
316 


53 




30 
51 




19 
33 
51 




91 




140 


79 




Megalonaias nervosa 


3.61 


6.52 


1305 


326 


145 82 


52 




Truncilla donacifomiis 
Quadrula metanevra 


2.00 
0.83 


3.84 
2.00 


1475 
2323 


369 
581 


164 92 


59 




258 145 


93 




Quadrula nodulata 


0.61 


1.72 


3180 


795 


353 199 127 


Fusconaia/la\'a 


0.61 


1.72 


3180 


795 


353 199 127 


Lampsilis cardium 


0.50 


1.48 


3505 


876 


389 219 140 


Pyganodon grandts 


0.39 


1,36 


4864 


1216 


540 304 195 


Potamilus alatus 


0.17 


0.80 


8858 


2215 


984 554 354 


Llgumia recta 


0.11 


0.66 


14400 


3600 


1600 900 576 


Lasmigona complanata 


0.11 


0.66 


14400 


3600 


1600 900 576 


Obovaria olivaria 


0.11 


0.66 


14400 


3600 


1600 900 576 


Sljvphilus undulatus 


0.06 


0.47 


24544 


6136 


2727 1534 982 


Lampsilis higginsi 


0.06 


0.47 


24544 


6136 


2727 1534 982 



(b) 1985 (6 samples) 

Species 


Dens 
Mean 


ty (/m^) 
SD 






Samples Requ 


red 


10% 


20% 


30% 


40% 50% 


Truncilla truncata 


34.30 


15.20 


79 


20 


9 










5 








Amblema plicata 


16.30 


7.30 


80 


20 


9 


5 








Obliquaria tv/lexa 
Ellipsaha lineolata 


4.20 
15.50 


2.00 
8.00 


91 

107 


23 

27 


10 
12 


6 








7 




L ep to de a fragilis 


20.20 


10.80 


114 


29 


13 


7 






Truncilla donacifomiis 
Quadrula pustulosa 


7.30 
22.70 


4.30 
14.80 


139 
170 


35 
43 


15 
19 


9 


6 




11 


7 




Quadrula quadrula 


2.80 


2.00 


204 


51 


23 


13 8 


Potamilus alatus 


6.20 


4.70 


230 


57 


26 


14 9 


Megalonaias ner\-osa 


2.70 


2.20 


266 


66 


30 


17 11 


Lampsilis cardium 


1.20 


1.10 


336 


84 


37 


21 13 


Quadrula nodulata 


0.50 


0.50 


400 


100 


44 


25 16 


Fusconaia flava 


0.70 


0.80 


522 


131 


58 


33 21 


Utterbackia imbecillis 


2.70 


4.00 


878 


219 


98 


55 35 


Potamilus ohiensts 


0.70 


1.10 


988 


247 


110 


62 40 


Quadrula metanevra 


0.30 


0.50 


1111 


278 


123 


69 44 


Arcidens confragosus 


0.30 


0.50 


1111 


278 


123 


69 44 


Ligumia recta 


0.30 


0.50 


1111 


278 


123 


69 44 


Obovaria olivaria ' 


0.30 


0.50 


nil 


278 


123 


69 44 



Page B-4 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun'ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table B-4. Calculated number of quantitative samples required to estimate unionid species density at 
Dliniwek (RM 492.4) in 1 994-95 (98 samples collected) within x% of the actual density with 
a 0.05% probability of being incorrect. Based on the formula : n = [(2 SD) - (xM)]-, where : 
n = number of samples required, SD = standard deviation, x = desired level of accuracy (i.e., 
10% = 0.1), and M = mean unionid density based on samples collected. Numbers within 
rectangles indicate the number of samples collected met or exceeded the number of samples 
required for each level of accuracy (%>). 







(a) 1994 (98 samples) 
















Species 


Dens 
Mean 


ity (/m^) 


Samples Required 




SD 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 




Ellipsaria lineolata 


35.02 


18.14 107 


27 




12 




7 




4 




Truncilla truncata 


35.59 


21.26 143 


36 




16 




9 




6 




Amblema plicata 


10.34 


7.51 211 


53 




23 




13 




8 




Ouadrula pustulosa 


16.17 


12.11 224 


56 




25 




14 




9 




Obliquaha rejlexa 
Leptodeafragilis 


9.93 
3.83 


8.60 300 
4.36 518 


75 




33 
58 




19 

32 




12 
21 




130 




Afegalonaias nen.'osa 
Ouadrula quadrula 


2.77 
1.33 


3.16 521 
2.19 1085 


130 


58 




33 
68 




21 

43 




271 


121 




Truncilla donaciformis 
Lampsilis cardium 
Fusconaia fla\'a 


1.02 
0.63 
0.51 


1.99 1523 
1.45 2119 
144 3189 


381 169 


95 




61 
85 




530 235 


132 




797 354 199 


128 




Pyganodon grandis 


0.50 


1.65 4356 


1089 484 272 174 


Potamilus alatus 


0.34 


1.24 5320 


1330 591 333 213 


Utterbackia imbed His 


0.42 


1.55 5448 


1362 605 340 218 


Ouadrula melanevra 


0.33 


1.24 5648 


1412 628 353 226 


Ligumia recta 


0.24 


0.96 6400 


1600 711 400 256 


Arcidens confragosus 


0.20 


0.89 7921 


1980 880 495 317 


Lasmigona complanata 


0.16 


0.80 10000 


2500 1111 625 400 


Lampsilis higgmsi 


0.13 


0.70 11598 


2899 1289 725 464 


Obovaria olivaria 


0.13 


0.70 11598 


2899 1289 725 464 


Strophitus undulatus 


0.09 


0.58 16612 


4153 1846 1038 664 


Actinonaias ligamentina 


0.12 


0.90 22500 


5625 2500 1406 900 


Quadrula nodulala 


0.05 


042 28224 


7056 3136 1764 1129 


Potamilus ohiensis 


0.04 


0,40 40000 10000 4444 2500 1600 


Cumberlandia monodonta 


0.04 


0.40 40000 10000 4444 2500 1600 



Page B-5 

Whitney et al, Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Appendix C 



Density distributions based on shell length 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix C 

Density distributions based on shell length 

Pool 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Description 



Page 



Part I. Density distributions for unionid species from Sylvan Slough 
(RM 485.8), Case-IH (RM 488.6), and Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 
1994-95. 

Figure C-1 : Amblema pUcata - Threeridge 

Figure C-2 : Megalonaias nen'osa - Washboard 

Figure C-3 : Ouadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 

Figure C-4 : Quadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 

Figure C-5 : Leptodea fragdis - Fragile papershell 

Figure C-6 : EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly 

Figure C-7 : Obliquaria reflexa - Tlireehorn 

Figure C-8 : Tnincdla tnmcata - Deertoe 

Figure C-9 : Tnincdla donacifonnis - Fawnsfoot 

Part II. Densit>' distributions for unionid species at Sylvan Slough 
(RM 485.8) from 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1994-95. 



Figure C-10 
Figure C-11 
Figure C-12 
Figure C-1 3 
Figure C-14 
Figure C-1 5 
Figure C-1 6 
Figure C-1 7 
Figure C-1 8 
Figure C-19 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Ouadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Ouadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 
Ouadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 
Leptodea fragdis - Fragile papershell 
EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly 
Obliquaria reflexa - Threehom 
Tnincilla tnincata - Deertoe 
Tnincilla donaciformis - Fawnsfoot 



Part III. 



Density distributions for unionid species at Case-IH (RM 
488.5) from 1985, 1987, and 1994. 



Figure C-20 
Figure C-21 
Figure C-22 
Figure C-23 
Figure C-24 
Figure C-25 
Figure C-26 
Figure C-27 
Figure C-28 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Quadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 
Leptodea fragdis - Fragile papershell 
EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly 
Obliquaria reflexa - Threehom 
Tnincilla truncata - Deertoe 
Tnincilla donaciformis - FauTisfoot 
Page C-1 



C-2 



C-3 
C-4 
C-5 
C-6 
C-7 
C-8 
C-9 
C-10 
C-11 

C-12 

C-13 
C-14 
C-15 
C-16 
C-17 
C-18 
C-19 
C-20 
C-21 
C-22 

C-23 



C-24 
C-25 
C-26 
C-27 
C-28 
C-29 
C-30 
C-31 
C-32 



Part I. 



Density distributions for unionid species from Sylvan 

Slough (RM 485.8), Case-IH (RM 488.6), and 

Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 

Description Page 

Figure C-1 : Amhlema plicata - Threeridge C-3 

Figure C-2 : Megalonaias nodosa - Washboard C-4 

Figure C-3 : Ouadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf C-5 

Figure C-4 : Quadnda pustulos a - Pimpleback C-6 

Figure C-5 : Leptodeafragdis - Fragile papershell C-7 

Figure C-6 : EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly C-8 

Figure C-7 : Obliquaria reflexa - Threehorn C-9 

Figure C-8 : Tnincdla tnincata - Deertoe C-10 

Figure C-9 : Tnincdla donaciformis - Fawnsfoot C-11 



Page C-2 

Whitney et al, Unionid Survey - Pool 15 UMR 



Length 

Interval 

(inch) 


n 

* 








^ 

^ 


- 

as 


3 


»-5 


1^ 














•^ 

'n 
"S 


2: 




5^ 


'n 
>> 


■S ''-1 




d 

1 




<§ 




d 


d 


i 


d 


d 


d 


d 


w^ 

d 


1/^ «-~ 


d 


o 


rj 


© 


2§. 

o 


2 

© 


d 


d 


i 


si 


w 


X 

l 


1 


III d 


d 


d 


d 


1 


s 




d 


15 


^i 


?^ 


5. 


s 


!• 


§ 


3 

© 


d 


d 


© ill 


M 


c 
> 


1 


S2 

o o 




d 


s 

o 


§ 
° 


— 

2 


O 

d 


00 

d 


IT) 00 

5|5 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


IT) 

d 


d 


^ 

= 


©1© 


© 


Length 

Interval 

(mm) 


i^ 


^ "^ 


^ 




^ 


^ 

^ 


% 


> 


^ 




§ 




^ 


IQ 


§ 


0-1 


^ 


0\ 


•x 




:c 





^ ^P^ 





8 


s 




b 




n 




a 


^ 






H 


^ 


»o 






^ 




uo 


« 




as 


s 




^ 
y 


^ 


^ 


c3 


0^ 












• * 


• • 


• • 


F 


yj 


9J 


u 


X 


a> 




05 




o 


(A) 


;S 


j= 


a> 





C/3 



S o 



c < 



crs ^ ^ 
II H II 



% 















[ 


■ 








^ 














[ 










f 




c 










c 










E 




r 








1 


■ 






r- 


oT' 


[Z 

c 

[Z 

c 

c 

c 

D 

D 








i 








f 


[ 


i 
[ 




1 ■ ' 






i 


i , , 


1 


! , , 




t , , , 


i. , 








t 




1 




f 


1 


ITi 












c 








1 


Pi 


[ 


^ 








E 


^ 






t 


[ 


00* 






te 


fS 








E 


,C ' 




TT 








i 


TT 








E 


6ft 








i 








[ 


■^ 








1 


c: 














1 


- — - 

.1 

C 








[ 


^1 








■d 










= 











o VO (s oc 
«s ^" — ' o 



© ^ «N 00 ^ O 

a «' -^ d d Q 

(^Ul/OU) X4ISU3Q 



VO <S 00 rr o 




iS 



lip 

;: m iliii 



0^ 



III 






C/3 



;S 



^ .B- 

=2 '55 

6 



v 'J? <^' 
II Ji, II 

c •< IX 



"h £ 



c < 



























trt 








c2 


- 








; : 






■ 








r 


-^ 










































© 






m 
















r 


M^ 








01 


vri 




i ; [=: 


; : 






■ 








e: 




















p 








rm. 


IT) 








« T3 


" 






; i 


pm 


■ 








z 
















; : 1 

I i E 




y^' ^ 


■ 








L 


- «s 


? 
^ 






f) 


1 o 

11 
tl 

1 ° 


4 


in 


; : 1 




f "" 










-• 




i L. . , 


■ t 




1. 


4> 




1 






1 




: f , 


. 




[ ', ,'"■ 


^ 






ir^ 


ir-"^=^ — — 






t ,,. 


■2 
1/) 

ON 
00 


t 


cr 
c 
E 
o 


2 


■ 


: t , 


: it : : 


■ 




^ 




i : tz 
• ; : E 

i : \. 


1 ■ ' : : 








1—^ — 








r 




: i t 










1 


; :cz 




1 




«/■) 




























a fP 






c^. 








: : 
















W) 


6X 


^ E 


>, 




fS 






EZ 
















w 


so 


C 


o S 














; ; 




E 


■ 








m 




o d 






r4 




fr 


- : i 






-_ 








E 

r 








re 
c 






Of 




L 


- oc; 
oc' 






ON 








r 


IT) 


C/D 


II II 

= < 


II 


. 




,c 




E 


■^i 






■n' 








en 


. U^ 










n. 










Ml 




**:: 






s 










fO 










■ 


O 






■S 1 






^ 




















i^. 


c 




L 


■ ^i 
















."A 










o 


> 






I: • 














'^ 










■ 


J^ 


, i i , 




■a \ 






• = 










- IT) 











o o o o o o o o 



(jUI/OU) ;CJ!SU3Q 



^ s 

^ ^ u-^ 



in 



u-.- 














































Lengt 

Interv 

(inch 


^ 


On 


Ok 


». 


on 


an 


an 


K 


r^ 


K 


»^ 


>Oi 


vo 


ST. 


o-i 


»^ 


<r^ 


> "> 


>»• 


<Vl <V) 


'n 


<N 




^n 


^ 










<^ 




0\ 




'n 






o, 




'n 












5i 


«i 


<=> 


«J 


^ 


•^ 


~" 


*^ 


~" 


*^ 


fsi 


N 


N 


<^i 


N 


'^ 


'"^ 


1 


^ 


>■ >• 


"S 


S 




1 

E 


1 


s 


§ 


§ 


o 


VO 


§ 


s 


s 


s 


§ 


s 


S 


^ 


ri 


^ 


s 


1 
i: 

Si© 


© 


©© 


1 
©1© 


;T^ 




OiO 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© 


o i 1 i 1 


^ 


= 


??^- 


i 






























i 1 i i 1 1 






































^|x 


iii 


ill 
































[ 


1 i 1 




i 


«" 


w 


S 


§ 


t- 


t- 


S 




§ 


t- 




5 


S 


n 




^ 


§ 


s© 


© ©f© © ,© 


c 


m 




;«»; 


O 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© 


© 




^ 


U 


m 


11 


































I i ^ 


c 


Wi 


III 
































• M ■ f . 




> 


m 
o 


w 


§ 


^ 


§ 


VI 


00 




- 


s 


© 


V) 


00 


?5 


«s 


s 


^ 


o o ©■© © ©.© 










o 


o 


o 


a 


o 




o 


o 


© 


o 


© 


© 


© 


o 


O'k ( 1 f i ' 










m 






t 






















M M M 






































I 1 


, 1 




■s ^ ^ 






































1 




S ii E 


«^ 


«i 


«/^ 


^ 


;c^ 


^^ 


^ 


!? 






§ 


<5 


^ 


IQ 


§ 


5 


t 


sl 


^ ^ "^ 




J = ^ 












































IT. &> 



■R 


yi 


t 


^ 


•H. 


^ 


"5 


^ 


[^ 










^ 


s 


■q_ 












S^ 


s 


2 














^ 


s 
















^ 




ti: 


5- 


E 


i> 




S 




■9 
S 
a 


1 


1 


II 


II 


II 


c 


< 


X 



(jUi/-ou) Xjisuaa 



O) 






o . 
•c c2 

-I -a 



^ ^ lO 



.2 ."t: cc 

Q. 

in 



Length 

Interval 

(inchj^ 


^ 


s^s^ 


?i 


g 


a© 


a© 








t^ 


^ 


;^ 


^ 


s 


<r» 


^ 




^ 


5 


'n 


^ 


^ 


P! 


^' 


■as * 

i 


^ 


<5i 


*^ 




•^ 


•^ 




<N 


^ 


N 


r4 


N 


^ 


'n 


fri 


o^ 


fn 


> 


> 


> 


> 




^ 




































11 


11 


III 




11 




§ 


£22?:? 


^ 


r* 


S 


3S 


s 


^ 


s 






IT) 


§ 


§ 








w 


P 


si 


w 


E 


E 


o 


© © © 

1 




rl 




«M 


«s 




" 


.— 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 






m 








o 


■^ 


v? 




' 




















k& 


SSW: 








WA 




::::S:: 






^:i : 1 
























Hs; 


li 








mi 


m 


Mi 




■>-.— 










•-* 




■* 






rs 


r» 


r- 


SW: 


:¥«: 













iHi 




."!:: 4( 


oi<-! '^.ive 


(^ 




00 


.-< 




o\ 


as 


^^ 




f^ 


— 


O- 


:0: 




:0: 


©: 


« 


<»■ 


9' 


<» 




.■:jO:o[© 




_< 


o 


>i^ 


f^ 


-* 


r^ 


<s 


© 


O 


© 


SSW 


w™; 




?s 






::;:■>; 






^ 


u 


:';?! i ! 
























11 


ill 










,:;;|::::;; 






c 


1 : ^ 






















1 


11 


iii 




■•■ \A 


i II 












s 


© 








ir, 


i*> 
















^1 


\> 


o «n;oc r- 




•^ 


u^ 


o\ 




^ 


«? 




o 


A^ii» 


:.0. 


tf> 


;ss- 


©:: O 


<& 


»© 


c/3 


.:;■:, OiOJO 


"i" 




^l- 


<s 


" 


° 


© 


© 


ill 


11 






















































|Ef 


-^ 




^ 








<?. 




<?. 




<5) 


»^ 


«> 


!^ 


«> 


<^ 


<^^ 


«/-! 


§s 


5^ 


:q^ 


S ii E 




<N 


<N 


'n 


"^ 


> 


> 


«>-) 




^ 


« 






ao 








», 


J = — 
















































___ 


__ 


^_ 




__ 




^^ 








__ 


' 




__ 





■^ •-« -^ K ^ 




41 -a 

WD -2 
« o 

^1 



■g a ^■ 


lect 
mpl 
amp 








it 1 


§ 1 i 








c ° S 


Irg.^ 


crof 
area 
dens 


■I s ^ 


Se2 ^ 


II II II 


= <1K 



(jUI/'OU) yCjisuaQ 



F 






o 








t>2 r-v 




= 


:S c^ 




-S 


goS 




D. 


^B 




u 


cs u^ 






CI) ,— 1 


tn 




"^ r- 


ON 




Si3 


1 


w 


^ 


>3 


^ ?? 


ON 


■-2 


^T 1^ 


ON 


^ 


^ Oi 




C' 






■*-^ 


• • • • 


• • 


? 


V5 a> 


U 




a> ^ 


C5 


^ 




^ ^ 


;2i 



Q D 






1 


""■ 




~~ 


~~ 






— 


'"" 


""~ 




~~ 


^~ 






"^ 


~~ 


~" 


"" 










U: cB ^ 














































Lengt 

Interv 

(inch 
















1^ 


l\ 


K 


rv. 


VO 


VO 


>=• 


<'^ 


<^ 




> 


:? "* 


•v) 


•n 


•^ r* 


5^1 


"Si 


=2; 


"■ 


5:5 


•^ 


"^ 


"n 




5>; 


<N 


"1 


N 


^ 


N 


::? 


"v-l 




'nl'n 


s 


^ 


"I-* 




^ 
* 


ill 








© 
















© 






r<) 


g 


■t 


© 


f*^ 


r- 


(*> 


|;| II 








o 


f^ 




«N 


<-» 


r-i 




«N 


^0 


f^ 


«M 




f^ 




© 




© 


© 


© 


© 


o o 


¥ 


i 




© 


O 


© 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


° 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 




1 


^ 




• 










"" 




























K 






SI?? 


^ 


g 


i 


S 


§ 


§ 


g 




^ 


§ 


S 


g 


§ 


§ 


§ 


g 


z; 


^ 


= sfe 






o o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© © 


o 


o 1 © mi 


^ 


u 


II 




































[ 




1 1*1 




. 








































i liii 




> 


li 


s 


s 


^ 


§l2 


© 




as 


f^ © 


S 


§ 


© 


§ 


s 


s 


g 


S2 


Sl2^S!o 




C/2 




0'!0;0 


©1© 


© 


© 


© 


d ©■ 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


©t© 

1 


©|©©j 


-= "« ^ 








































i 1 


M^ E 




<i </-l 


•c^ 


"^ 


C^ 


«/l 


^ 


<^ 


<?t 


lO 


5^ 


0-1 


5V 


0-^ 


«^ 


<^ 


^ 


"^ 


t 


^ ~^ ~^ fN 


£ ii E 


' 




<N 


fN 


'n 


^n 








"^ 




>o 














J ^ ^ 








































r r 



E 


e 




E 


oo 


i-N 


00 


as 




ri 


=^ 





c < 





TT 






-^ 


^^ 




r- - 


j: 




ro 






1/^ 


o 


/^ 


f^ - 


C/2 


e 


Ov - 


c 




«s 


&n 


« 
t 


;^.- 





— 00 

00 
0^ 

o' 
o> 
©' 



iz" 



[s 



C" 



c. 
I 

I" 



E 

r- ^ — ' 



O00VO"*«SO OCVO-^fSOOO^-^fNO 

— ■ © o d d Q d d d d d d d d d d 



■g 


^ 




"o 


1 


E 
















■> 


■a 


c 




1 


J, 




^ 










u 




^ 


c 


^ 


























c- 


c 


i' 


^ 


s 

i3 


s 
-s 


^ 




c 








s 


n 


V 








II 


II 


II 


c 


< 


** 



(jUi/ou) /{^isuaa 



F 


^ ^> 


o 


"^ ^ 


'>^ 




t 






3 


•g-^ 


s 




1 




3 


^ Q<^ 




^ 


^ « u 


.&. 


.2i .ti c« 


r-^ 


«-> C/5 JW 




a> ''^ >- 



Length 

Interval 

(inch) 


n 


S^S^^i 


S22 


^ 


x^ 




K 

OS 


S^s? 


;^ 


{$ 


s 




5^ 


^^i^l^::;?;:;::^ 


P! 


^ 


';i ^ «s 


... 




"~" 


•>i 


"r 


N 


rs 


" 


-^ 


'n 


rnH;'-; s;^:s^^j 




j£ 


1 


^^^ 


















m 


as 


fs 


^^ 


so 


1 


■:ii ill 


1 




;i 







o 


fS 


r- 


r- 


V) 


«fi 


00 vo 


■* 






oc 


r*) 


'-^ 


o^ 


«i;S»! 


<»■: 


o 


a 


;0 




;f::|d!o|o 




•* 


[ 


"^ 


M 


f^ 




in 


'ir 


" 


© 


o 


o 


II 


II III 


': 


?i 


1 


- 


— - — j™.^ — 












1 1 


















m 




:\0 


fs 


f!^ 


r^ 


V) 


r- 


« Ko t- 


«M 


r» 








© 


© 


sp 








.t: w 


o:- = o 








«ri 


■o 


^1© ^ 


fS 


P-» 






^> 






O 


«► 




= S 


jO 


d 


© 


© 


© 


© 




r4 


r» 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© m 








^- 


i i ■:] 






























ii 








> 


OlOi — f — 




s 


^ 


— 


^ 


'I- 

=9 




^ 


§ 


ss 


S 


?o 




s 


w^ 


<»:H!i 


o 


© <£> 


\^ 




0|0|0 


o|o 


© 


° 


© 


© 


© 


© 


^ 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 




iii 










. . 










































•= « ^ 














































^^ E 




C^ 


^ <* 


'^ 


o 


o-i 


<?. 


>^ 


<?> 


»i 


^ 


<r^ 


5t> 


lo 


1*. 


>/1 


<& 


^l 


s :c? 


■a 


»i 




£ ii E 


' ' 




-, <N 




'n 


i^^ 




> 




lo 


« 
















•^ 


•^ 


•-^ 


J = -- 


































1 











"^ 




M E 


- ^ 


si* 




E « 


E o 


«s 


00 ri 


00 J; ui 


^ T? ^ 


t- 




T 1^ ? 








C < IX 


c 


< IX 


= < IX 



a. 

C/3 



•SI 

••5 & 

>1 w 



3 

ti 

s 
bi) 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




00 y 

01 



(jUI/*OU) ^ISU3Q 



C3 

^ in 



a. 



ngth 
erval 
ich) 


§ 


V3 


^ 






5^ 




s 


?:^ 




^ 


s 


55;^ 


> 


^ 


. 
<i-) 






;:; 


5 


^ 




s 


:=k?5 


^ 


^=■3 


^ 


■^ 


^ 


«> 


^ 


•55 


^ 


<^ 


?i =i 


?^ 


<;S 


"^ 


*-,-,«> 


-^ 


►«; 


•^ 


*~' 


< 


•~; 


'^ 


"" 


~^ 


(S 


-hh 


<N 




1 


lili 


II 


o 


«M 


^ 


s 


^ 


:2^ 


§ 


s 


^ 


^^^ 


r- 


«K 


r^ 


}f? 


g 




r^ 




Ul 

f^ 


s 




§s 


s 


[e 


S 






:°r 


o 


© 


o'i©' 

I 


© 


© 


© 


©* © ©• 


© 


© 


o 


© 


" 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© © © 


^ 


X 


:;|| gg; 




liiilli 






[ 


































.? 


1 


^si^ o- 




o' o: ~ 


^ 


- 


s = 


^ 


V) 


p 


J^SJK 


so 


S 


SO 


2 


S 


S 


»7) 


s 


^ 


^ 


^l§g 




s 


:;■;( 


■ T"J1® 


o 


© 


o © 


© 


© 


© 


© © ©■ 


© 


© 


© 


"^ 


© 


© 


© 


° 


o|o:o|©;o © 




c 














1 






















f 


Mi' 




95 


*;; 


If; 


?i 


8iS 

old 


s 

o 




o 




©■ 


s 

© 


©■ 


sil 


©■ 


3 


ID 

©■ 


© 


©■ 


2 


©1© 


= ^i 1 j 1 


-= "« ^~ 












[ 
























1 








1 1 1 


|o^ E 
£ i E 


<N 


> 


<5 


»c 5 


c; 


5:s 


JC 




^ 


^ 


a© * <N 
?H '^ *n 


> 


^ 


ac 


^ 


^ 


^ 


d^ 






> 




gs 


■J ^^ 




































1 













;5: 



I 

£! 

3 




o = 



(jUi/'ou) X^isuaa 



M t. 



t E 

£ E 



5 NO 
5i «> 



qtoq 



o I d o 



■* 00 

d|d 



d d 



lil 



^S 



t 

s 

WD 



Q in 






C3 ON 

^2 



.2i .t: « 

C/3 



? If 



E ^ 

00 £; IT) 

crs ^ r^ 
II II II 

= < tx 






c ^ 



C -5 

[=".1 



so 



00 S 



n 


i^ 




u 






fo 


c 






o 


J= 


<s 


6X) 




c 


fS 


u 







C/D 



© o o o o 
t/i -^ r^ r\ r^ 



s o o o © 

s -^ f^* ri -^ d ' 

(jiu/ou) Xjisuaa 



o © © 
^ rW <N 



ed. 
es. 
)les. 


collec 
esam; 


S > •£ 


samp 
anlitalJ 
liantila 












= ° £ 

eg ?r^ "-- 


^ = .^ 


erof 
area 
dens 


■is 1 


ifS i 


11 II II 


= <|x 



4) T3 

« .g 



s 

o 

I I 

1 ^ 



tif 


2 


§ 


»N 


vo 


^ 


i^ 


^ 


^ 


:^ 


^ 


^k 


>, 


:^ 




3 




;^ 


^ 


?^ 


2 


90 


5 


5 


g 


S5 


;5*>9orJ*o*>9o 


■21 = 




"a 


» 


«& 


«> 


«. 


« 


«> 


« 


«s 


sSj'i 


ss 


<=; 


<i 


?i 


«j 


<?; 


55 


«' 


5i 


■a- 


^ 


<=; 


*■ 








■£ 


i 








ii 


ii 


ii: 




11 


ii 


1 

( 






























n M ' ^ ■ 1'-^^ 




_s 


1 


o 




1 


m 


M 


^Sfr 


M 


;» 


'.» 


1 


S 




i 


P? 


o 


^^ 


S 


::: 


2 


£ 


§ 


i 


§ 


§ 


s 




1 




::ii: 


ill 




^i 


11 


ill 


ii 


m 






= :=> 
1 


= 


o 


o 


o 


» 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 




c 








:■:.?:■ 
















1 
















tm 




iss «*; 


:S;¥: 


':x& 


!:kw! 
















>::■:< 


























Ii 




is® BB? 








'€i 5 i ' 1 1 j • ' 


-ii 


:■; 




SSr 








>« 


o 




§ 


.-J- 




r^ 




^ 


_ 






sss 


:iffi BBS 


ijBS 


B:Bi 






5 ^ 


^. 




o. 


O; .<»■ 


•» 










"^ 








<-" 


r^ 


o 


<N 


a- 


<» 


H: :IS; 










^ 


u 






ii 


iii 


ii 










"' 


o 


O 


o 


© 


o 


o 


O 














m i \ I \ \fp 


c 






HSS 


?:;:;>: ¥::::::i 


ss:^ 






























P iii; 


ii 


si: 




iii. 1 M M 3 r.. 














■ i^':^ 


-« 


o!-" 




>c 


r~4 














fes; bb; 


■s** 


BB; 


iSB 






— 






«; 


sjiC^iC; ic;r; — ; <^ 


^■i 






<^ 








<^ 


o 


® 




^g^l ■■g^ 


O: 






45 < .— ; — i — — i — — ; — ; _ 




JA) 






II 


■i'l. ..[::.,.: 






! 


~ 


" 






o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


m ii: 


im 


iii 




ii 1 1 : \ i I \ ' 


-= « ^ 












































J|5 




fN 


'n 


>Y 






(^ 


•yi 


^ 


« 


~>i<N 


fn 


> 


■^ 


« 


t\ 


90 


Ov 


« 


^ 


"^^'i^/^ >^, *C f^ ; a; ' o- : c^: -- 'm: o- ■■.,; 1^ 











_ 












i 


















<N 


«s} <N!<N -N »^ r, ?^N^|:?:u:;U r^p^iXl; 



0^ 



Q to 









OS 

U 

3 






Ii 



ll 






c 



C-u 



_E" 






E r^ 







■^ «s o 

d d d 



00 ^ 

d d 



00 ^ "^ <s o 

d d d d d 



1^1 


o Q. 9- 


■^ c £ 


S - J1 


o .> ■;: 


ex. ^ B 


£ ■= ■•= 


^ = S 


y ~ S- 








5 ^ 1 


S .T -i 


& = .^' 


crof 
dens 


■S 7= £ 


= ,o V 


c H c 


II II 11 


= <l>^ 



0^ 

« .2 
^5 



(jiu/ou) Xjisuaa 



Part II. 

Density distributions for unionid species at Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) from 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1995. 



Description Page 

Figure C-10 : Amblema plicata - Threeridge C-13 

Figure C-11 : Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard C-14 

Figure C-12 : Ouadnda quadrula - Mapleleaf C-15 

Figure C-13 : Quadrula pustidos a - Pimpleback C-16 

Figure C-14 : Quadrula metanevra - Monkeyface C-17 

Figure C-15 : Leptodeafragilis - Fragile papershell C-18 

Figure C-16 : Ell ips aria lineolata - Butterfly C-19 

Figure C-17 : Obliquaria reflexa - Threehom C-20 

Figure C-18 : Truncilla truncata - Deertoe C-21 

Figure C-19 : Truncilla donaciformis - Fawnsfoot C-22 



Page C-12 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Pool 15 UMR 



c^ o 



I 

m — 



-:=; oo 

-^ 00 
00 ^ 



ill 


5j 


2; 




. 

Qi 




Jo 


90 


«o 




tv. 


N© 
^ 


^ 
^ 


J5 


s 




^ 
"! 




;^ 




5 
V 


s 




>• 


1 


i 


m 


i 


S 

o 


^ 


d 


s 




d 


is 


; 


d 


d 


d 


d 


s 

« 


d 


^ 

* 


d 


si 


i» 


i 


i 






d 




d 


2 
d 


d 


d 


d d 


d 


d 


d 


1 


d 




d 


d 


d 


si 

d sg; 


V 


.^5 


i 


■«• 






1 


d 


d 


d 


1 


od 


d 


2 


d 


3 




^ 


s 


d 


d d 






1 


5? 


« 


1 


li 


§ 

= 




d 


s 

d 


d d 


d 


i 


1 


;^ 


32 


r4 


^ 


d 


d 


II 


^ 


m 


m 
Wi- 
m 




- 


« 


>o 


^ 


^ 


? 


^ 


^ 


'C^ 


^ 


§ 




g 


!Q§ 


90 


t 


5 


S 


s 


5 


^ 


n 



c^C/3 



c 



Q ON 

li 

^ On 



m 



.2 2 



5 



t3 O. *i 1^ 



a. = 



I - 



E So 

00 OC ON 

c < li 




















































w^ 




2>. 
















































. o 


e 
























[ 










E 




[ 


i/^ 


£1 

D 












E 










tZ" 










1 

El 

I 




i 1 
E 

i [ 

1 D 


■ ON 

? 

in c 
»/l — 




« 












collected, 
samples. 
: samples. 


>, 






[ 




^ 


1 


j 


















1 










I v-m 


^ 








L ^■■^■' - 








r— t 








\ 




i D 

1 D 

C 

: C 


Ill 






r 
















L 
E 














E 
P 






L J 












^ 












E 










1 




! [ 


^ °| 












m 












r 










I 




i 


tn 5f 


-s? 
























a 










E 






•^ s 


511 














i 
E 












E- 

[ 










1 

1 

[ 

m 




[ 
1 1 

i 1 


■^1 

IT) 


111 

II II II 
















































iTi 








f^ 










. irj 










r- 












^ 




iT) 




00 










00 










00 








i 




4 




""1 




ON 










ON 










o\ 










rrs 








^* 










<-* 










l-^ 












On 








, 










, 








■ 












. 


T 




- ITi 







o u^ o *ri © I/) o IT* o IT) o »/) o «/^ o w^ o i/i o i/v o ir* o 
fs ^ -^ o o* (s fs 1-^ -^ o o <s fs ^* — ' o o fs ri ^ — ' o o 



(^ui/ou) X;isu3a 



*l! 


^^ 


4>i 


o 


o. 




«<i 


an 


K 




tv 


«v 


V^ 


vi^ 


S^ 


wi 


V-1 


w^ 


>!. 


> 


e: 




"1 


'n 


<s 


•N 


<s 










« 


^ 


» 


»> 




"1 






Ov 






<^ 








•n 














































JSj-i 


=; 


<=! 


=j 


«i 


Si 


"^ 


~" 




"^ 


*^ 


H 






«^ 


"^ 


-n 


-1 


'»> 


'^ 


fn 


> 


> 


"* 


> 


^ 




>^ 


•o 


"^ 
















Wi 


w 


W) 


































































? 


i 


i 


w 


s 


§ 


§ 


s 


§ 


§ 


3 


O 


g 


i 


s 


s 


i 


o 


•V 


o 


o 


o 


55 


s 


?> 


^ 


o 


© 


2 


i 


§ 


© 


S 


p 


«> 




2 


m 


i 


1 


O 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


d 


o 


O 


o 


d 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


* 


o 


o 




o 


o 


© 








* 






^::l 


^ 




'M 


1 




iiii 


























































H 














o 


ar 


O 


\r, 


s> 


»1 








an 


fn 


d 






i 








1 








i 










i^ 




is; 


;i 


1 




o 


o 


s 




t^ 




S 


d 


^• 


d 


d 


o 


d 


d 


d 




d 


d 


d 


dp 






■^ 


M 






iijij; 


























































■i"; 


'i'S 


■jS 


ii$)' 




;;» 




r) 


2 


§ 


§ 


« 


(*) 


§ 


§ 


s 


2 




^ 


ti 


§ 


» 




;ti 


s 


s 


3 


Jl^ 


3 


3 


S 


J? 






<9 


Q'- 




11; 


11 




11 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


o 


o 


d 


o 


o 


© 


o 


o 


« 


* 


e 






- 




*" 








<*;f^ 


WW 


i' 




30 


■s>-' 


<p 


9 


9 


'0'° 


§ 


o 


§ 


o 


s 


ir 


s 


>r, 


g 




g 


§ 


S 


§ 


§ 


S 


i 


?, 


g^ 


^ 


;5 


? 


S 


^ 


§ 


S 


f 


1? 


9: 
















o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


d 


d 


d 


o 


d 


o 


o 


d 


d 


o 


o 


o 


o 


= 


- 


© 


© 


© 




© 






til 


„ 


* 


•o 


^ 


jq 


^ 


-n 


> 


> 


^ 


>/^ 


1 


^0 


g 


>^ 






t 


S 


1 


§ 


«i 


>^ 


^ 


;ci 


^ 


'n 


1 


In 

> 


? 




1 




g 




































































i 1 



Q ffi 



S i^. 




'^' f«^' fW r4 r4 ^* -^ c d n n fs r^ -^' --h' d o n fO r4 H •^* --h' d © ri ro r^" rs ^ T 

(jUi/'ou) /^isuaQ 



Idd 



oo 






in 

I 
o^ 

^ c 

oo 

0^ 



bJ) 






^ 



oo 

ON 



^ 00 
>.ON 












^^ ^. ' 



^^ 


f 


fO 


-^2 


c 


ON 


13 'S- 


''^ 


fS 








c -^ 


« 


-sO 


^ 




o ^ 




1? 


B 


r- 


ji 


<s 


o D 
1^ 


f 

OJ 








•c «*. 




00 


t;; o 


4J 


n 



Q ffi 






U^_ 


"" 






~ 












~ 








■" 






















Ungt 
Inferv 
(inch 








» 




a^ 




«s 


K 


^v 


tx 












«-l 


*f 


> 


> 




<^ 


"^ 


»s 






«^ 








"^ 




"^ 
































«a 


'i 


«> 


'^ 


d 


"^ 


"^ 


"^ 


" 


'•^ 


r^ 


«^t 


<N 


«s 


<N 


<*; 


'n 


fn 


^n 


'n 


-r 




> 






>/-i 


11 


































i 




r- 






Mi 






:-s:k 






g 










tri 




1^ 


v^ 


ae 


9y 


«^ 


ON 


NO 


<m 








■ :■:■■: 




B:* 




CN 

2 


© 














•-" 






•-I 


-" 


ft 


<-" 




=. ■"¥> 


© 


© 


© 


es>- 




^ 




.1:1^ 


III 


- 


o 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


* 


© 


© 


o 


© 


~ :: 




! ■ 






1 


C- 




is: 






si; 






































iii 


E >"- 














g 




§ 































■5 


S 


*■ 




O 


■O: 






o 


















m 


W^ 


«* 


o: 


Wi: 




:<Si>^ 


g 


m 










O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


* 


O 


o 


© 














11 


i- 


ir, 


m 


IS 




II 




» 


o 


o 


o 


o 


SS 


<^ 


vs 


ON 


■t 


ll 


:• 














1 


gg 


o 


o 


« 


» 


»- 






















« 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


o 




:0^ 






















© 


© 


© 


© 


© 








; 










Q 




■ Sv. 






:■::■:.:■ 
































■.:.:■::: 


;: 


:»m 




(^ 


m 


11^^ 




iiii^ 


i 
































Ill 


i 


i 






— ; 


«& 


» 


o 


«• 






















"^ 


fir © 


© 


© j © j.flft 


•as. 


Oi 




- 














o 


o 


o 


o 






© 


© 


o 


o 






[ 1 




M 


-= « ^ 




i j 
























1 , 








UC E 




*i>^ ha 


"^i*. 


"^ 


I5N 


•/N 


s^ 


>o 


«< 


in 


Cl 


•n 


« 


sWsll 


s 


^ 


"^ 


n 


j|i 




•>,!>^ «N 
























^ 






! 






















1 t 












(jUi/ou) AjsuaQ 




O O O C O C O O O O O O O © O O O O O C O o o o o o o c 
\6 >/ Tt f«^' r^' — © vo it! ^ f^* r^ -^ o >d IT) '*' (^ «s --' o >o i/i -^T f<^ fs ^ c 



(jUI/'OU) XJ1SU3Q 






I 

m '— 

^ c 

■wx CO 

-^ 2 

— oo 

c ^ 
> ^^ 

— 00 

>>aN 



i « ,-^ 
















































^ fc -5 






Os 










K 


l\ 


«x 


t-^ 


























J|l 










































'n 






«a 


<» 


« 


<!> 


5S 


•*" 


"^ 


"" 


~~ 


•^ 


•N 


H 


<N 


«S 


<N ^-5 


", 


•n 


fH 


-; 


s 


S 


>• 


>• 


>r, 






W$ 


























j . i 1 


































































'T fS 




^ 


;:;■ o 


o 






© 


© 








t 


c~ 


90 








f. 






* 


o 


"^ 


* 


* 


© 


o 


© 


© 


* 


o 


© © 




% 


«:;«>^ 


o^ 


:^i 


>r; 


i 


. 


s 


3 


^ 


« 


^ 


IC 


?? 


^\^ 


1! '! ;i 

©,© ©t» © © 


^!- 








© o 


© 


* 


© 


o 


©|i-i 




*^ 


©■ © 


1 . P > ! ' ; 


.-V, 


^■l"' 




^ 


§g 






.r, 










^ 


4,. 




■ Mi 


= ^ 


-So 


o 




®.!® 












'^U» 






a 


■■] 




o 


o o 


©1© ©|o 


® 


o 


r4 


'■' 


4 






-) 


M M 1 M 1 i 


U-, W^ 


IT; 


© 


sgjsjJJjJJ, 


2? 


c ; « I =; ; s^ ;^- i c : cr : C3 1 o :o 






- 


■ i ! 1 1 i M i r 


= j© 


' 


© 


®{®.= t 1 s ; 1 


^ 13 


::,:,;;.;[ 










^i«.iirii?s •^['aj'^iiaiv-, is, 


>/-; ^ 


</-, 


<Si 


;Q-blgS|||SS5§ 












II 






■5 ^' 






-S§^ 














•^ 






r- 


6)S 




n 


t^ 






— 




IT, 


^ uT 


^^^ 


r) 






IT, 

0^ 








IS 






__ 




« 


so 


s 


^ 




"1 


^? 


£ 


r- 


-2 ;*=? 


J= 




.1:^ 


St 


f: 


D « 


i' 


1—1 



Q Di 



E o E ^ 



E o 

00 ON 



S "* ^. 

^ ? ^ 
II 11 ,11 



















• 














: 








































! 










[ 




c 


■ c 


M Mil- 








f 


i 

i 






a 


i 1 ■ , ■ 


(■■•.--■^■^^^^^^^ 


i :«] 




c 






t 


• ■ ■! 






c 




M 1 P 

i i : .[ 
M ME- 


















[ 


















[ 


















MM 










c- 














_. 














E- 










■ 


r* 


5 


IT) 


i M i E 


r- 










0^ 










« 


2 


00 




00 










_L 













^ 


o\ 




c^ 










CN 












■" 


"■ 














^ 












— ' 




-i — i — i — i 












hH 









0* -a 



6X)c 
Cm 



C/^ 







collect 
sampl 
c samp 




sample 
mtitativ 
lantitati 


^ 1 5- 


5 c = 




c ° I 


i fT 'i: 


^l.^ 


rof 
rca 
ens 




numb 
Total 
mean 


II II II 


= <U 



O IT- 



O IT/ O IT; O W"/ O «/^ O ITi O W^ O U^ O «/) © 

(jUI/-OU) ^ISUOQ 



>/^^ o >r, o 1/^^ c 

(S r4 — * -h' o c 



oo 



!S1 



I 



I 
^ c 






^l-o 



Sic: s 



11;: 



iiii 



, »S I (N, ! IV, Pr> 




bo 00 
Q in 






II II 



E 

c < 



= < 



= < 



Q tti 



fa 



"Sd f 



d 
OS 
© 

o 



r 



E 

E" 



izz: 



E 



{ - 



o «rj 



o u^ o irj © »/^ o w^ o >/^ o >/) o »r) o »ri o 

«s i-H '-J d o' <s fs ^* ^ d © <s ri --H »-I d d 



w^ o »/^ o 

(S (S "! ^ 



d d 



(^UI/OU) XJISU3Q 



I 

°°- r^ ^ § 

00 *::: >«^ ,^ 

1 "sis 

§ -j: ^ 2 

o .. .. , , 

^ 5« O t, 

f .2i .ti J« 

1 S^;2 



(U lU __ 



r; <^ 



ti 



1) _ 

n. _ 



4* -h" 



u-.. 




"" 




























" 




^ 














Lengt 
Interv 
(inch 


5> 


o> 




9, 


an 




ac 


«^ 




tv 


r-^ 


v^ 


^ 


><1 


w^ 


■o 


>/^ 


> 


> 


> 




f^ 


'^ 


»^ 






"^ 










M-i 


t^ 


o» 


»-, 












"0 


"n 






-~l 






^ 


5S 


«! 


« 


« 


«> 




■^ 


"^ 


"^ 


•^ 


<^< 




<N 


<s 


(N 


'n 


'n 


rn 


fn 


"i 


> 


s 


- 


s 




«v 


ill 






^ 


^ 






































1^ 




f 


1^ 


o 


o 




































OS«kI 


- 


E 




o 


d 


O 


o 


© 


» 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


O 


o 


° 


d 


© 


© 


© 


o 


© 


i 






it 


















,. 


ss 








i 






I/O 


g 


» 


II 




i 


— 


* 


9 


■<» 


















ro 












fS 


r*! 


;«>: 


<*■ 


1 


= 






11 


o 


o 


o 


o 


'" 


o 


o 






o 


^ 


e 


" 


'"' 


© 


© 


© 


o 


* 






>-, 


wo 








i 




§ 
















s 








^ 


^ 




^ 




1 


c 




» 


■<» 


:o 


o- 






















»- 












1 


:0 


s 


- 










d o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




'" 


'^ 




o 


" 


© 




© 






il 


















































i;s 




r^ 




in 


r; 


•n 


r> 


« 


I/O 


o 


Vi 


o 


IT, 


o 


1/0 


■n 


^ 


o 


<r, 


© 


© 


© 


© 


WO 


wo 


SW: 




2 


ft> 




o 






o 
















r- 


t^ 


l/i 








l/j 








;0 






o|o 


d 


o 


* 


o 


o|o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


o 


•^ 


© 


©|o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 




■c "3 ^ 


































1 














£ 2 E 


<^ 


^ 


•o 


^ 


«-) 


^ 


V-1 

"0 


% 


^ 




^ 


§ 


•^ 

« 


g 


IQ 


§ 


S^g 


S 


1 


5S 


« 


::; 


^ 


J = — 


























_ 






1 1 


_ 













T T if 



E ?5 



c < 



E ^ 

00 00 vo 

c •< IX 



^ I So 


























. 








c 














1 


i 


f 




t 


c 


:t 


t 


^ I , 


1 1 




, , , , 


[ 




1 


■ 1, , , , ] 




, , , 






1 




1 j 












f 




i, , , 








1 ■■ 









^ 


;[ 


!, , , , 1 


^ 1, V , , 


i , , , 1 


: it 


n 

c 
^ 




t 


, , , . , 


r' '"'1 


:L ..' ..'.,. 






L„. ...'. 


2 




L'...'J 
















L 


i 1 

1 i 


[ 


1 




li 


J 

J 
1 

m 
[ 




qoqso-^fSoooo^-i-fsoooo'O'^no oocso-^jsc 

— * d d d d d -h' d d d d © -^* d d d d © -h* d d d d c 



(jUI/*OU) X)ISU3Q 



I 
c^ 

^ a 



00 



E 

o 



O 00 
t(_ ON 

o ^ 

OOO 

ON 



;^ 


0^ 


r- 


cu 




00 












oo 




c 


as 


.^ 


> 


rn 


S 


00 

0^ 


00 




1/3 


a> 


^ 


O 


'W 


03 






o 


C/3 


^4> 



j: ^ ^ 


an 


■« 






Ov 


ix 


<o 


5 




e< 




> 


"N 


«^ 


an 


Vi 


> 


♦^ 


5^ 


t% 


li-l IV^ 




0\ 


f-v 




">! 


« 


00 


^ 






















»0 




« 


































^|-i- 


«: 


<sJ 


^ 


■s; 


« 


" 


<!5 


<aS 


«. 


«; 


«; 


^ 




"^ 


^^ 








"^ 


■^ 


"r 


""■ 


"^ 


"^ 


f^ 


<N 


<s 


«N 


»s 




^ 


it 




1 










^ 


























fn 










.1 


fe 


s 












= 




o 


o 






o 




o 












«0 






m 









«-« 


m 


- 


2 




i 


i 


o 


o 


* 


o 


9 


=■ 


o 


0,0 


o 


o 


* 


o 


o 


o 




© 


* 


* 











*^ 


14»| 


j^ 


II 


II 


ii 


m 
m 


i 


i 




§ 






o 


r^ 




>r) 




fn 


o 


w 




•o 


2b 




V7 





ft m 


« 


u 


1 


■5 


* 


'9' 


m 


m-. 




m 


i 


-" 


— 


o 


o 




m 




r4 




o 




t- 




r- 










'9) 


1 


5 




;i 




1 


m 


M 


o 


O 


o 


® 


o 


o 


o 


e> 


o 


d 


o 


o 


o 


oo|o 











e 





i^v 


i« 


II 


i| 


i 


M 


1 


1 


fo 


o 


o 


§ 






o 






o 


1*) 


- 




^ 






95 


r^ 


.^^^ 


1 




* 


■tu- 


m 


* 


« 


m 


w 








« 


•>« 




o 


— 


«= 






r^ 


t^ 


vo-f^ 


w^ 






5^^ 


f^ 


1^ 


^ 


Q 














li 


o 


o 


o 


ss 


o 


o 


o 


* 


o^o 


o 


- 


o 


o 


o|o 











•^ 




rn: 


M: 


;!: 




m 


1: 


i? P 




sis 


m 


ii 














i 










1 


%?.- 


,, 


--, 






























V) 


o o 


o 












s 




V)lw^ 










f 


:9-- 


w 


i5t; 


m 


m 


■9- 


w 


49' 


9- 


<9 


■e^i 


<» 


<s 




o o 


<= 


<« 


r< 


■^i =. 








r4 




«> 


« 


«■ 




- 








m 


















o 




oo 






* 


o=.|o 
















M ^ E 










* 


































^ 










«. 






























































^ J w 

































































00 50 W 
II " 1 
C < IX 



^ ^ ^ 
'-' 'J? fO 






"U 1) 

Ii 

-o a. 
4* •«; 

-° M 
Is 

I- 

£ ci. 

'53 ^ 

c o 



0) 



__ "* 



fS 



c 



CZ" 



tz 

tz- 



o 3i 



L' rA 9J 






c 



«sooovoTfrj©ooo^_'^fs©ooe^^Tf(s©oocvoTffsc 
— ^ o O O O ©* 1-3 O O O O O -H* o o o o o -I o' o' o o c 



T5 




"i 














y 


^ 







c^ 


5 




(U 


^ 








|- 


■1 




> 


rr 


1 








.2 

a- 




£:■ 


^ 


« 


^ 




^ 


•S 


■9 


■^ 


re 


i 


f2 


^ 


II 


II 


II 


e 


< 


Ix 



(jUI/'OU) X)ISUdQ 



I 

XT) ^H 



in 



00 
ON 



ro 



I I 



111 




•5i 




5S 


5 




3 
<!5 




5i 


5 


S 


* 


ao 


^ 

-i 


> 


2 


2 






K 


2 


•s 


g 


5 
•^ 




^ 
H 


<N 
<N 


3 


o 


1 


<*■; 


ill 


is 




d 




d 


d d 




?5 

d 


^i 


2 


^ 


J5 

d 


d 


i 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


2 
d 


d 


S 

d 


KI5' 
8« 


i 


i 


■IS 


i 


II 


is 


= 




d|d 


d 


d 


" 




s 


;§ 
N 


o 


2 


s 


s 


s 


«2 


d 




d 


illl 


^ 


1 

Q 






la;^; «^: .$«;; fi^ 


^p 




d 


8 

d 


?2 

d 


^ 

® 


d 


-^ 


S 


K 


° 


sfe 


i 


d 


d 


ii; 


S 

w 


,^" 


4^ 




n 

2 


=; » 


^ ^ <jj, ^ 


<P « 


1 


d 


d 




d 


d 


5 


1 


3 


1 


?, 


djdjd 


d 


II 


' -' ; 

a> « 9 


4, 

9 


9 


^ 


-c "a ^ 

III 


IN 


> « :«e 


« <s > 


^ 


JC 


SS 


;^ 


:^ 


?s 


^ 


:; 


:3! 


^ 


^ 


^'h 


i" 


? 


s?5; 


« 


S 


% 






C3 



s ■ 





! 


- 


-^■c2 


^ 




^•a 


c 




w a. 




o 














g-i 


c 




ss 


^ 




c h 


"Z^ 


t^ 






E 

1 1 

" II 



E 

00 

c < 



00 r= '-1 



E 


" 




si; 


II 


II n 


1 X 


C < 1 



. ^ 



;C' 



cz 




o yi\ 



O »/^ O W^ © W^ O i/J O IT) © i/J O lA^ o «/i © «rv o irv o itj c: 



(jiu/'ou) Xjisuaa 



I 

ON 



IT) 



5^ 



Is 

C/O ON 
C "^ 

-^ 00 

>^ON 
C/0 -^ 



g 5« O t. 

.=0 ON *^'' 

Is 

^ 00 

s: ^ 

i>H 00 
U-, OS 



<u pi 



(J 0\ 

Is 

• E OS 












i! E 



;iiii 



■LQ 






fM— ]— CM — OS© 

e s o 9|e> d 0,0 [d og 



aolf^li'CE* 



I I . I 

1 1 w-, \o 1 1-1 «s r- r») 
> = ©lo © ,0'© 



x-% i - 



E is 

< IX 






.cz 



E 
E 



o vq 

(S ^ 



<s _ 

2^ e: 






<s 00 -^^ o 'o <s 00 rr o vo (s 00 Tt o vo <s 00 Tt c 

-^ o o o, ^ « o o d. ^' ^ d d d -h" ^* d d c 



(jUI/OU) X4ISU3(J 



h ^ ^ 


collect 
:sanipl 
esamp 


III 


ves: 
quan 
qua 


i' p 


1 °l 


^x,^ 


erof 
area 
dens 


^3 1 




II II II 


c<lx 



Part III. 



Density distributions for unionid species at Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) from 1985, 1987, and 1994. 

Description Page 

Figure C-20 : Amblema plicata - Three ridge C-24 

Figure C-21 : Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard C-25 

Figure C-22 : Quadrula qnadrula - Mapleleaf C-26 

Figure C-23 : Quadrula pustulos a -Vim^XobdiQk C-21 

Figure C-24 : Leptodea fragilis - Fragile papershell C-28 

Figure C-25 : EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly C-29 

Figure C-26 : Obliquaria reflexa - Three horn C-30 

Figure C-27 : Truncilla truncata -DQQriOQ C-31 

Figure C-28 : Truncilla donaciformis - Fawnsfoot C-32 



Page C-23 

Whitney et al , Unionid Sunev - Pool 15 UMR 






3 
WD 



= 5 £ 



ii E 



m 




in 



ON 
ON 



1? 1?1 



. s 

E o 

«S OC TT 

r- 1" '^ 

c < IX 



k2 
6S: 



~ r- .. 



00 00 
S2 


^^ 




Q. 


1^' 


C/) 






c 




" !i> 




•o > 




s2 





C3 






r2 



00 ^^ 



o q 





fi 




a 


Tt 


' 


<s 


b 


U 


i 


V 




W -H 


« 


o 


ClH 


d 



«/^ s 





!2 


C 




1/) 




L 


u^ 


x: 


[ 


IT) 


OX) 

c 


t 


■* 


<u 



q q o c 
■o TT rJ c 



(^lu/ou) XjisuaQ 



Ill 


5S 

5i 








5 


3 








'n 


^ 

V 




^ 

V 


S5 








I^;* 3:3'^:^ 


ii 


-m. ["■]"] 1 1 


«> 


#' 


#; 


d 


i 


d 


i 


d 


« 
^ 


d 


d 


s 

^ 


2 


d 




d 


90 

* 


d 


d 




© 




tsit;|«ta|o aP; 


d 


©■ 


d 


2 




d 


i 

d 


i 

© 


d 


© 


d 


d 


d 


i 

© 




© 


i 

d 


i 


d 


© 


© 


d 


5 2^1: 


'» 


© 




ts;«[s:-; = ;«>:^ 




d 


i 


s 

« 


2 


5 


i 


1 


i 


© 


d 


i 


i 


© 


d 


© 


© 


d 


^ 


5 


* 


© 


-. 

m 




ip 

m 


^ 






•^ 


» 


icikiQ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




t 


•^ 

^ 


g 


IQ 


s 






5 


1 


s 


* 


<^ 


§ 


s 


s 


v^ 

5 


1 




L 


Sib 



ON 
ON 



:c2 



(u >^ 



Iu2 





C/5 


^ 


\ , 


a> 


^ 


c« 


M- 


u 


r/^ 


;2i 


^y 


4> 




Q. 






%■"- 


C/) 






<-; 
























C > 








^S 








^•5, 








W Q. 








^ -55 








C « 








.9 S 









Q o 



f ^ V 



E ^ 

< IX 






W) ON 



C'S 



CZI 



yri E 






o o o o o o o o* 



'^ (S c 

d d d 



(jUi/'ou) Xjisuaa 



«r< fcX ^ 






V OO 



^ 2t 



O)- 



s^s 



0^ 




E Sc 

t V 

< IX 



00 op >/^ 



E 



c < 



£2 

V5 OO 



OicjiS 



•5 r- .— 



V 00 



^^1 



Q -5 



[:■^-^ 









I- 



o vq M 
ri -^ — ' 



<S 00 -^ o ^ <s 

^ o d d '-I -^' 



00 '^ c 

d d d 



(jiu/ou) /^isuaa 



Length 

Interval 

(inch) 


^ 

^ 




<;5 


^ 

"^s 


<5; 


q 


<*> 


t~. 
w^ 

-^ 




1^ 


















5 

'H 


•^ 
^ 




^ 




1 

2 




^ 
O 


o 


o 




^. 


r- 


S 
"' 


^ 






OS 


^ 


© 


o' 


©■ 




III 










5 
1 


00 


o 


9. 


1 


© 


















u^ 
M 


in 

© 


©■ 


© 


i 




^ 

O 
;:<<; 


1 
1 










1/2 

ec 

ON 


o 


W: 




i 


>r. 


s 


o 

it; 


2; 

00 


r4 


^ 


° 
ri 


2 


s. 


© 




4= 


«> o'o 




1 


'■^ 


;,«> o 


Length 

Interval 

(mm) 


>/^ 


^ 


-1 


s 




^ 




^ 


^ 


_ 




^ 




^ 


!Q 


n 


S3^S^ 




5 

— 1 


1 







^ 








OS 
ON 






o oo 


>— 1 






?^ 


c 






3S 


cd 






^0^. 


r- 






Q ^^-^ 


00 






"s :i: 


OS 






^ 1— 1 






rf 


Quad 
Case- 


m 






00 
OS 














• • • • 


, , 




r- 


Vi ^ 






On 


a> ^ 


c: 


^^ 


urT 


g ^ 


^ 




00 
On 


C/5 






;_' 






« 


^ 






i- 


ii 






o 


p, 






c 


n, 






•-■ 


-^ 






s: 








Vf 








c 


^ 






ii 










4J 






TT. 
















.r. 


^ 






C/2 



^ I ^' 

II 11 II 

c -< IX 



II ^ T 



E © 
r< «2 '-' 

c •< IX 



EC 






ti 



B.= 



[ro 



r" 



o o 



o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c 
vo <s 00 t' d d so <s 00 '^' d d vc <s x -q-' d 





H " -5. 


y ^i 


s ^ r; 






9- S ■§ 


§ 1 1 






1 = - 


.■= "— c 


- O o 




s- s .$■ 


erof 
area 
dens 


nunib 
Total 
mean 


II II II 


c<|x 



6JD| 






(jUi/ou) /^isuaa 






tl 
£ 



£ « ^ 


~ 


""" 


~~ 


^ 


^~ 


"~" 


^^ 


"^ 








^ 




""" 




^~ 


^ 










■"" 






M & -s 


5^ 


«>\ 


», 


Os 


at) 


ao 


«p 


K 


r~v 


K 


rv 


"o 


-o 


sci 


v^ 


V-i 


v^ 


> 


> 


> 


IV) 


fn 


^n 


<^ 


c b s 






X-l 








<>> 


•ri 




«s 




<>» 


"^ 








•n 
















^ =^ 


<=; 


<fc- 


^ 


^ 


?s 


<i 


~^ 


— i 


»«; 


*" 


N 


f^ 


'N 


N 


fN 


f^ 


^n 


<r; 


'<•> 


'n 


> 


>»^ 


> 


> 






:**':' 




im 










" 




























^^^ 


■¥■ 


.J^ 




^ 


m 




mi 


\B 


M 


oe 


r-i 


vo 




^ 








«s 


^ 


^ 


^ 


g 


§ 


VO 




^^l^l^i 


p 


)i' 


<S>: 


o 


■<& 


<=>. 


fN 


«^ 


f^ 


*^i 


so 


■»* 


o 






«^ 


SO 


i-* 


^" 


o 




e 


jQj» 


« 


1 

s 








II 


O 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


^i 


«s 


f4 


<^ 


«si 


o 


d 


© 


® 


© 


o 




s 


*i 










































ri. 


4 


^1# 


■■■■^i 


i 




Wi 


Q 


3 


§ 


^ 


5! 


{C 


§ 


sg 




o 


(Ti 


§ 


§ 


f<^ 


V) 


S 


rt 


2 


i 


5 


o 


;:?■* 




A 








o 


* 


o 


O 


d 


«N 


n 


f^ 


-* 


^0 


r^ 




(^ 


fS 


^ 


o 


© 




i« 












ii 


























» 


lt«l 


-"iii^- i>i 




1/^ 


:ii: 








ii 


r- 


o 


^ 


1/) 


^ 


fS 


SO 


o 


r- 


VO 


:g 


t^ 


l^f^^ 


>i^ 


> fei ^j| 




s^ 


Oi 


O 


;Oi: 


O: 


m 


q 




V\ 




1— ' 


"* 


M 


o 


-* 




<» 


-o 


^ 


« 


o 




Ol 






^i 




ii 


ii 




o 


o 


* 


"" 


o 


"^ 


© 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


c 




^-s 




'J 


Sfl 


igth 
^rval 
m) 




<a 


«o 


<s 


x^ 


la^ 


«o 


^ 


Vl 


<* 


«^ 


<^ 


«^ 


ja 


!^ 


<a> 


«^ 


«) 


>o 


% 


s 


^ 


«c 


? 


5 -5 c 


' 








«N 


"n 


•^ 


"> 




'^ 


«ri 


■"O 


VO 






so 


ao 


as 


o\ 


^ ' 


^ ' 




1-5- 



















































•SI 



I- 



en -*; 

C O 



~c s ~ 



.2i .t: c« 

C/5 



T t V 



so *^ rj) 



«s w ^. 
r- 1?! <s 

c < l>< 



x: 

C/2 



[z: [ 



di 



O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o c 
•T) -^ f^ <s -^ ©■ ■^' fO <s -h' d ■^' ro <s 1-' c 




a> : 

WD- 

0N ' 



(jUi/ou) yCjiSuaa 



Length 
Interval 
(fnch) 


^ 

^ 




^ 
^ 




s 

^ 


0© 


^ 
^ 




















5^ 






5 

M 




^ 

^ 




c 


1 


Hi 


o 


?5 

d 


d 


d 


o 


o 




d 


d 


d 


i 


i 


d 


o 


O 


d 


i 


d 


d 


d 


d 


i 


ON 


iiiii 




d 


W3 

r- 

d 


§. 


© 


fo 


d 


d 


Q 






s 

•^ 


^ 


i^ 


1 


2 


^. 


3. 


2 
n 


1 




^^^1 






IS 


■11 


11 


IT* 

00 
0\ 


1 


M 


d 


o 


d 


f- 


d 


d 


d 


d 


2 




i. 


2 


2 


3 


2 




^. 


! 


00 

d 


o 


1 


Length 

Interval 

(mm) 


**■> 


^ 


«^ 


^ 




^ 


ic; 


^ 


> 


^ 




^ 




^ 


^ 


% 


S2 


^ 


^ 


"N 






s§ 



>+- 


Q "^ 


(^ 


^ 


^ ^ 




1 




T3 




■^ Csi 


r^ 


■^ 


Q w 


00 


o 
Si 


Is 

•=^ on 


a^ 


■c; 




•2 


m 


d On 


00 


^ -a 


.. .. 


.. 


o it 


^ « 


u 


£2 







e 

If ^ T 



E 00 



r- T '-H 









-5 



— 00 



bx 



o o o o o o q q o q q q q 
00 ^' ■*' (S d so -^ ri d vo "^ r5 c: 







(jUi/ou) Xjisuaa 






Z 3 E 



■I 



O ?&-^|^ (S? ^-sfcio «•■ Sn;»^|«i|Sa; -- 



! 

vo!<— Cv "H rn 
S ■'- r^ tn t-~ 



•N > ^ SC 



'ill': 



•2 ^ 



ON 



E is 



1^- 



^ 00 

u2 



V5 a> i_ 



bos? 



S^S 



'ID 



s 



r- ._i •— 



C/5 



ti 



C" 



dz' 









o <i <s 






[ ^ = 



[■^ 



c^ 



"^ O vo <N 

© d — ' -H* 



<S 00 -^ c 

^ d d d 



Giu/-ou) X^isuaa 



J= « ^ 


"~ 


^ 


— 










~ 


~ 


~~ 


~ 










"^ 






























^5^1 


3n 


V^ 






!> 


t^ 


"^ 


'n 




9< 


r\ 


N» 




SS 


an 


Vfl 


>r 


»N 


^ 




•^ 


'^ 








«o 


'^ 






*« 


^ 




-N 


fn 


^n 


> 




S 






ac 




«a 






<N 




> 


<^ 




« 




















^ =^ 


^ 


«> 


■a' 


«;i 


<=; 


<=>• 


'^ 


" 


<i 


-^ 


^ 


<^ 




*~^ 


"^ 




"^ 


"" 


"^ 


•^ 




•^ 


"^ 




"^ 


r4 


«N 


<vi 


<N 


N 


































































i 






S 


S 


8 


f- 


00 


g 


S 


a\ 




r^ 

m 


«M 


ON 


^ 


;?. 


?J 


£ 


R 


S 


^ 


M 


2 


s 


5 


S 




^ 


s 


^ 








* 


O 


© 


- 


«j-h 


e 


e 




o 


o{o 


o 


O 


° 


© 


^ 




«N 


<-« 


© 


© 


© 


© 


® 


O 


© 


® 


2 






















! 











































■^ 


:*"' 






" 






I 
























t. 


^ 







■n 


^ 


(St A 


■Ci' 


o' 


'.Jj': r-i ; ri 


IS 


3 


U~i 


g 


sis 


i 


}Q 


^ 


li? 


i 


3 


^ 


^ 


2 


?, 


ro 




«^ 


W 


m 


«■ 


a 


- 


I 1 






iirr 




fn 


^ 




-r 


if) 


OS 


« 


o\ 


ON 


to 


(*) 




- ©1© 


V 


..r^^ 




If) 




mm 




ill: 




























Wl 


^ 






1 




1 






•ir 


c 


« s> 


•ss 


o 


■<» <is> is* 


«& 






n 


o 


n 


o 


'^l 


q 


Vj 




f^ 


s^ 




o 


ol 


O 


« 


t» 


e. 














.:...:..|..:.:...:.: ,.:.-.■ 




o 


» 


o 


" 


fS 


f^ 


(S 


rn 




" 




" 


* 


O ; -■ 


'' 












-= ■« ^ 

1 1: E 
























ao 


^ 






sc ao ?i «N >l<0 acl<^ 


Z a E 


"^ i'* 1 ^ t** 1"^ 


»^j^:^ ^ r^ 


<N 


•N 




<N 


'n 


'n 


'', 


^n 


'n 


> 


> 


> 




J = - 


Ml 


1 1 








_ 










_ 











'?/* XO'';''^ \0 



|i 

CO '^ 



2 00 ^ 
^ Cr^ t^ 

Is- 

K U ^ 



(r> o 


^ 




a> ^ 


w 


^^ 


^ ^ 


^ 




Q. 






C/2 




"« 
^ 







o o o © © © o o © © © © o o o o o © c 

(S O' 00 so -^ fS ©' ©' 00 so -^ (S ©' ©* 00* vo Tt (N c 



Ml 
« o 



(jUi/'ou) XjisuaQ 



u 






s 






o 






ch 


03 




? 


? ^ 








OS 

c 


.=2 


ss 


a 


T3 0: 


r- 


:2k 


00 

ON 






|| 


|J i 


•rf 




00 

ON 


1 § 




,, 


t^H r-' 


v) a> 




JC On 


a> -^ 


Kh^ 


w c/:) 


^ 


S "^ 


a> 


Ji 00 

=^2 


C/5 




•S^' 












^2 






f^-a 












X) -55 






c .2 
























JS 






'C i- 


















^ Cu 






;^D 












Q "o 






00 






<s 






U 






£ 












WD 












E£< 











E ^ 



^ o 



d 







d--:;: 



^- 



^ 








f^ 




-A 


^ 


0^ 




jy 


•^ 


fS 


^ 


^ 


E 


P^E 





S^ 


^ 


u. E 


« 


^ 


> 




1 


1 

Ft 


i 

a- 


2 -E 


1 
§ 

a- 



B 


1 











M 


■p 


ri 


c 




g 


f2 


^ 


^ -c 


II 


II 


II 


0\ 


S 


< 


X 



[■;: 



[■«-- 



■^ fs o oc 'O -^ fs o (S o 00 ^, -* rj o fs o oc ^ rr fs c 

'^ '^ '^ d d d c d -^ -h" d d d d d '-J »-* d d d d c 



(jUi/-ou) X^isuaa 



Appendix D 



Density distributions based on shell height 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix D 

Density distributions based on shell height 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi Rrver 



Description 



Page 



Parti. Density distributions for commercial mussel species from 
Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), Case-IH (RM 488.6), and 
Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Figure D-1 
Figure D-2 
Figure D-3 
Figure D-4 



Amblema pUcata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nen'osa - Washboard 
Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Ouadnda piistidosa - Pimpleback 



D-2 



D-3 
D-4 
D-5 
D-6 



Part II. Density distributions for commercial mussel species at Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) from 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1994-95. 



Figure D-5 
Figure D-6 
Figure D-7 
Figure D-8 
Figure D-9 



Amblema pUcata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nen'osa - Washboard 
Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Ouadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 
Ouadnila metanevra - Monkeyface 



D-7 

D-8 

D-9 

D-10 

D-11 

D-12 



Part III. Density distributions for commercial mussel species at 
Case-IH (RM 488.5) from 1985, 1987, and 1994. 



Figure D-10 
Figure D-11 
Figure D-12 
Figure D-1 3 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nen'osa - Washboard 
Ouadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Ouadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 



D-13 

D-14 
D-15 
D-16 
D-17 



Page D-1 

Whitney et al , Unionid Sun-ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Density (no./m^) 



poo 
b ^ k) 



p pppppppp p p p o o 
ui lu Ia» *o U s> ui ii. In b '«- k) l»j ■*» 



p p 
In as 



c 

° 65 



.3 



^:^.] 



i^i] 



.Hi 

3\ 




C/3 
3" 
2. 

3- 

n 
cfq" 

5' 

7 



so 



'"" 5' 





C/5 


OS 




13 






<t 


o 


(/) 


o 


lO 


plf. 


rt 




ffi 


5/5 


I, 



> = 
II II 

1^ oc 



II II II 
K> i -J 

'as ce *^ 



^ 

&: 






r OJ "I 






at 



1 






i1 


i 
S5; 


§ 


i; 


^ 


i; 


% 


b; 


^ 


bi 


^ 


t^ 


i^ 


HI 


bo 


MM 


ssio o 


g 


m 

T 
i 




p 


k 


o 

s 


p 


p 


P 


i 


b ••!»|» 


V3 

3 


? 


ON 


^ j i ; : i M •: 


i 


p 
g 






p 


P 


1 


i 


s 


s 
^ 


p 


o 


i 


P 


n 

2 




In : \ m iU 

1 1 i i 1 llililM 


S 


1 

'1^ 


« 


11 


o 

b 


p 


p 


© 


o 


o 

i 


o 

k 


n 


1 




.-MM 


1 ■ 1 11 


i 1 




II 








11^ 






1 ! 

•i 1 ^ 


Si* 

[ 1 




L_ 




— 


■a 




51 


ill 



c 

O 85 



Density (no./m^) 



p •-> K) w *. tyi p H- s> oj jti. y» p ^ s» w *. 

oooooooooooo ooooo 



b b 



r-.i 



.13 i 



13 



^D 






1^ 



^.^ 



II H II 

— K> ^ 

0^ S oe 

3" "" 



o 3 
3 " 



in 

■^ ffi C/3 



c1 



to 



-pi' o g 

^ rt ^ 



3 
1 


1 IJ^i^ i 1 1 1 M 


^ 


i 


% 


b; 




t-^ 




"^ 


S 


V, 






^'~^_^ 


M M i j i 1 






g 


So 




Ja 


E 


O 
.-J 




i 


ip 
1 


'i 




"c 
o 


i M M 

\ ■■''■■■'■ \ 


O 


p. 


1 


E 


^ 


r 






I 




o 
-J 


r 


l) 


1 




P 


P 


n 

1 

2 


3 

1 


?■ 
^ 


111 

t i 1 


i i ■ 


b bib 


p 
s 


s 
'^ 




g 


H 
^ 


^ 


^ 


s 


g 


5 


s 


p 
3 


5 


p 


5' 
1 






s 

i: 


[ 






1 1 




£ 


k 


N 
^ 


^ 


^ 
^ 


u 


oo 


«e 


5a 






5 




111 






ii-a 
oi-a 
6-a 
8-a 



>fOBq9|duii J - vsopiisrid vpupvnQ 

jBspidBj/^ - vpiApvnb vpupvnQ 

pjBoqqsByW - vsoA^idu svivnopSdj^ 

9§pu99jqX " ^woijd viudiqwy 



6-a 3Jn§!j[ 
8-a 3Jn§!j[ 
i-a 9jn§ij[ 
9-a ajn§!j 
S-a 9Jn§!j 



9BBJ 



uoj;duDS9a 



•S6-^66l pu« 'L861 'S861 'e86l uiOJJ (S'SSI^IMH) M§no|s 
uBA|Xs ;b saiDads pssniu iBpjaiuuioo joj suopnqu^sjp X^isuaa 



11 ^^^d 



Density (no./m^) 



p O I— 7- K> K> 

b In b In b In 




b In b In b In b In b In b l/> b In b In b 



1 
.1 

J 
1 
3 
3 



m. 



.Z3 



n 



a 



«>> 00 =e 



\o 00 oe 



^1 > 

1 II 



3 -. 



a 
1 


J.JjJ 1 M 


S 


. 


§ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


bi 


I f 


D;i5!'^ 


Height 

Interval 

(mm) 











s 


'-J 


P 








= 
H. 


5=r 


; i 


£ 




be 


d...:.:.:..l,..:...i:.-.:.:i.-.-.:i ..:.:.:■ 




= 


pip 


1 




- 



15 


s 




'lth° 


if 


ill 


on 


3 
1 


In 




1 




P: 


itis 




® 


p 


W 


C^ 


s 






S 


c = = 

'ff^ k> tJ 
W '^ 'J\ 


'— '-ss 


' 


s2 
5 




M ] 

MM 


d 0^0 let 







p 

^5 


P 





5 


Se 


00 


P 


b 



Si 





i 


II- 


3 












s 


£ 


bit;; 

! 




N 
S 




N 

^ 


^ 




^ 




ae 


00 




i 


1 


5S 


iff 



-4 OR 



-J 5 

Ln ;< 



2? 

ere' 

c 

a 



O 3 

ir 



SI < ?• 






00 ^ 

^ 5 
00 S 



^ 



^. ■>• n> 



-a 

~ rD c/5 

— c/o ;k 
^ 9 ^ 






I 



Density (no./m^) 




p N- K» U( ii. P T' 

© b b b b b b 



K) J*) jU 

b b b 



o ^ 
b b 



oj i». p -- {n> _u» .u <j\ 

a o o a o 'a b b 



^.! 



] .! 



p 



C Q- 



M tL ^ 



06 ^^ 





;s i ^^ 1 5 j vl 


^ 


;« 


§ 


pc 


1 

i 


ss;§ 


Si! 


5i 


ii 


^ 


11 M 


2 3^ 

~^ a; X 


o 


IIP 


p 




■o 


Uj 


p\p 




o 

* 


,p 
-J 




p 




1 


o 


Mi 


s 


b 


1 


p 


P PiP 

1 1 


p 


p 


c 

i 


o 




t ; : i 




^ 

^ 


■iiiSpio 


o o 


1 


p 


i 






P P 


p 




o 


s 


-1- 


1 t..;. 


=^ 


l| 




^iri"!" 




'= 


1 




=U!.= 

538 

1 


o 

* 


3 


o 

* 


5 




o 


o o p 11 
up;o u. ¥:■■■■■ 


p 


^ 




i [ 1 








[ ! 




55|§ 


£ 


^ 

■;;; 
* 


I 1 ■ 

i 1 f 


III 







= 


< r^ ^ 




f^ C/5 O 




»5 ;;.• ?S' 




-t rt IS 




•• .. .. 




^ C/D > 




4ega 
ylva 
983, 






D '~~- 




^ ^ ^ 




^ C/i S 




00 ;:r !^ 




y g s- 




_-cr3 ^ 




^ ^ ;5 




oo ^^ J5 




^ p^ ^ 




p S§ 




3 j^ !^ 



^ 00 

I 



poo 
b k> lu 



Density (no./m^) 

o o poooopppppppppp^ 
b\ be b KJ !u ON bo b k» *. as be b s) lu on bo o 




CM ■ 








































^ 


il 








































'] 




















1 


















N> . 


B 


























1 J— 1 








^ 


m 










i 




























P 


\ 






































1 




























i 








^^ 


"1 








































D 










i 
1 










:! 






_J 








^. ^ 






1 


= <^« 


] 






1 








-^ \ 




1 


1 


1 ON, 


3 
^ 












:::::::| 




::i::;::::::.::| 


1 


?D5 












mm,^\ 






























3 








































^^ 00 , 








































in 




























! 












^ . 




























! 












CA 


















































— 




































o - 










^ 












1 1 












^^ 










M^ 










^ 












^o 












^ 










VO 












Oiii. 












?^ 






















22 
















































fc- ■ 










'/» 






















































































' — 


' — ' 










: 

























po O 



O S. 

C o 

■a 3 



> =:! 



^ 5 



^ rt c« 



S^ 



(-•to 









a 

1 


SiSsial 




^ 


^ 


i; 


% 




Height 

Interval 

(mm) 


hJ 




p 


P 


i 


P 


Ojoloi 


3 

2 




o 


^|^:^ri^^^|^';^[^i^,S§ 


is 


P 


p 
i 


P 

o 


p[p 
iS 


p 




MiSr 


1 


1 


I- 
o 






p 


gs 


£ 


p 




1 


i 


p 


P: 




:|S;:|| 


i 


P 

1 


be 


i 


1 1 M M -^ 




1 


oe 


p 
2 


p 


o 

s 


p 


p 


p 

to 


p 

5 


Tk ^|5 


■o fit 










1 1 


is 




k; 




N 
^ 


^ 
^ 


\i 


^ 
^ 


£ 


Oe 


^<.l^ 
g^^ 




lit 



VO <-< 



^tO 3 




Density (no./m^) 






3 — cr 



p — to OJ i» (y» ON p ►- K> OJ jU Ui 0^ p — N) OJ *-. (yi On p —> K> W *.. V» 0\ 

b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b 



2. 'J^ 



n 

D 

.a 



T OS.' 






3 



XI > = 

II ll II 

K> oe o« 









>o 




00 




C/l 


> 


3 






oe 


ce 





Cfq 


^ 


c 




•n 


o 


« 




a 


o 


oc 


o 




. en 




M5 


73 a 






O 


o s 


. VO 





^ 


o 


'" 


~. 


-J 


CTQ 


C 


o 










K> 










S" 
ft 

5 


2 


a. 
o 

3 


ON 


&: 


(£ 














^— s 
















s 


? 


^ 



OJ N^ ft TO 






ft' ^ n 
^ n lyi 



3 


gtSslllis*^^^^ 


0\ 


§ 


1^ 


^ 


6; 


^ 


till 


1 


ill 


i 


.1*; 


M- 


o 








is 


i 


1 




o e 




)0 

be 

o 


1 




o 




p 
D5 


i 


*i 


H 

^ 




H 




riP rir-ip'p':. 


ll 


o 


sS =j:ts;^-; cjist; i^l^; 


■1 


p 
« 


}ji 


ij 

^ 


-J 


5^ 


CN 


s 


fejS 


- 


1 


« it 


Si 




M M M M I; rlU 


5 


N» 


-J 


b, 


5 


i 

i 


-l^l^l= : 


1 




*» 
;::! 


[ i I 






►j ►j K> 

I 








in 


> ^•i<a■?>|?6ii&j?^ 

1 M 1 M 


m 



S C/D ^ 

I 



Part I. 

Density distributions for commercial mussel species from 

Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), Case-IH (RM 488.6), and 

Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Description 



Page 



Figure D-1 
Figure D-2 
Figure D-3 
Figure D-4 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Quadrula qiiadrula - Mapleleaf 
Quadrula pustulosa - Pimpleback 



D-3 
D-4 
D-5 
D-6 



Page D-2 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



til 


5S 




5S 




S 
«» 


0© 


3 




r-^ 


t^ 

©> 




^ 
N 


3 




s 


•^ 

^ 


^ 

-n 




;> 








I.I 

E ~ 






d 


2; 
d 


d 


"7 


d 


c 


£ 


n 


5 


^ 






:2 

d 




1^ 


- 


\ 


d 


d 


d 


R 

o 






i 


§ 


i^ 


J 


r^ 


* 


S 


^ 1 1 ■ ' 
= St J:: C: CrtO'OlO 




o 


5^ 
= =>■ 

1 


i 


1 


d 


d 


30 

d 


2 

d 


3 


d 


d 


d 


d 


<N 


oULL^^LLl 


Us 


•^ 


■a 


<^ 




^ 


•c 


•o 

"^ 


% 


'^ 




■'i 


§ 




S 


JQ 


g 


T^ 





s s 

Q ^ 



cS2 



.2i ."t: c« 



^ ^ ?=5 

^ 7 "^ 



S o 

«S «2 TT 



= < l» 



S P5 



< IX 



O C/3 J" 




ro 


«> >- 






a. 




(^ 


in 


j= 


fO 




w 


<n 




c 


Ov 










N»^ 












c: 


^ 




^ 





qS 



o£ E: 












[,„i 



^^ 








>n 




r 


•d ./i ^ ^ 




y i" £ ^ 




S o ?i ^ 


ativ 
itati 
Ihc 


§ 1 1 ^ 






■^ ^ E 1 


■g o 5 1 


•3 i 2 ^ 




1^ 1 E 


c i3 ^ -2 






II 11 II II 


c <|x-- 



Q i 



3 



O I/) 



o IT) o i/^ o "/^ o IT) o iTi © «r> o «r, o >r, o 
<s -■ -^ o o (s fs -^ f-h' o Q ri fs -h* ^ o d 



(jUI/-OU) X4ISU3Q 



-« o o r- 








1 — 








— |— 


1 — 




— 


— j 










— 








~" 


"■" 


~ 


:; 


m 












^ 










^ 








> 


> 


> 


"-1 


v^ 


P 


r* 


<N 


fr, iy^ 




OS -i. 


■^ 


«^ 




Os 




f^ 


"n 


















''V 






:£j-^ 


=; 


^ ^ 


«i 


55 -"^ 






■^ 




<N 


<N 


fN 


<s 


<N 


-n 


fn 


i*^ 


fn 


'n 


> 










Y 




mwi 












































1 










_ 






V> 


„ 


^ 


„ 








© 


_ 


^ 


ON 


» 


<s 


^ 


N« 








o 


O « 


= 






o 


S 


e 








n 


■9 


n 


—, 




- 






^ 


E 






© d 


o 


o 


o 


* 


* 


* 


o 


o 


o 


o 










- 








^51 3= 






11 ill 


ill 


1 
























i i 


















v.-> 


o 




(S 




r? 


o 




f^ 


fo 


90 






*- i ^ 


^ 








o 


« 






c 


« 


Tftrj 




'T 




n 










I ■■ 




,•: i. 




o 




o 






© 


© 


© 






g 








Sssi 




















1 : ' 


c 








::::! 
























E 




.u. 














, 




■V 


T 


•wir- 


r- 


^ 










» 




o 


o 






f^ 














« 






■.■;-:d; = io 


did d 


o 


r> 


o 


s 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


O 


© © 


© 


© 




1" 








1 [ 


I 












































































^ 


« 


•^ 


^ 


^k 


^ 


^^ 


!» 

■n 




« 
*« 




^ 


;q 


^ 


S 


S 


S 


iS 


<a 


>^, 


g 


X c - 










I 




! 






















r 









— — 1 = © © isi> f^ 



_ ON 



III 



ft c« 


a> 






|c c> 


-^ 


« 


t-~ 


^ « 


c/^ 


^ 


fo 


"S ^ 




V5 


2 a. 






ro 


f ^ 






-^ n 


■5 






U IT. 


j= 






C 0\ 


— i 






^ «s 


(U 








•« 






cc ^ 


§..■ 








« =;^ 






c t^ 










•S 85 






^ ri 






.£ 


li 






6X f~" 

=5 S 


■f^ 






i^^ I! 



Q S 
Q 



u. 



[ 



[■^ 



000000000000000000 o' 



Q I 

W o 

ft* -2 

D 



(^ui/ou) Aisuaa 



> -A 

S ^ ^ 

-| c/D 2 

5 -^ 00 

c/3 — 



in 



OJl 



O) 



Height 
Interval 
(inch) 




= 


0\ 


s 


s 

«> 


so 


s 




t^ 






^ 
K 






















1 


O 


:*■ H 


S 

o 


i 

d 


1 


s 

d 


d 


r3 

d 


d 


i 

d 


WO 


d 


o 


-as 


o 


^ 


«• 


o o 


1 


i 
i 


1 


t 1 


?• 


w-v 


oe 




f^ r^ f^ Ctw C- O * ~ C C Oi^ 


c 

a 


^ 










i 


:; s o 
i 


.... 1 

i i = = = = . ; 


-j'^rf rr 


11 1 


-, 


«1 




T 


% 


'Q 


^ 
"^ 


1^ 


«! 
^ 


■^ 

^ 


g 


!Q§ 


5 


t 


5 


1 


'^, ^i'^'<» 



c < 



« S 

S ^ 

CO 00 vo 

II 11 II 

c ■< IX 



S o 

*p On 



i2 ^ 



g ON 



1^ 






5 ♦^ 
.5 5^ 



.^ o 



Q Qi 





M M [- 
M M P 
M i ME 

^ — i — i — i — i — 




MM 


oc 

ON 


M Mc: 




-t-Mb:i: 


••■;••• rt 


t 


M , , 


n, , , 


1 1 ir~ 

! i ; EI 
M M[ 
M M [ 


i :| 


i i il^ 

M MC 

M 1 t: 

M M [ 
MM! 




L 




[ 






4< 



1.1 







y 




)^ 










c 




2. B -c^r^ 










« P > .2P 


i:i ■£ 5 y 


a. H ■= — 




s — = O 

^ S s -= 








^ = - 'S 


■?'B 1 y 




£• = -ST' o 


sill 




£ "S I c 




= (- = c 


II II II II 


c < |x-— 



f^ rn <s «s 



I c o rj fs rJ 



■ d © n 



(jUi/ou) AjsuaQ 



Part III. 

Density distributions for commercial mussel species 
at Case-IH (RM 488.5) from 1985, 1987, and 1994. 



Description 



Page 



Figure D-10 
Figure D-11 
Figure D-12 
Figure D-13 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nej^osa - Washboard 
Qiiadnda quadnila - Mapleleaf 
Quadnda pustidosa - Pimpleback 



D-14 
D-15 
D-16 
D-17 



Page D-13 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun'ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 






Height 

Interval 

(inch) 






<=5 








So 


K 

^ 








^ 
M 




J5 


S 
" 




-5 


fy5 fn 


4.] 3 
4.33 








e o -. 'i 


d 


o 


o 




r~ 


f^ 

s 


as 


N- 




t^ 


^ ' \ \ ' ' 
t^i<^^c o o o <:tf* 
dlO:0 1 ^ 1 


i 


E 

© 
c 


00 


1/-, r- 

o o "^ f^. 

= o 


2 


i 




§ 
■* 






r4 




IT) 


so 




] 


i 


oc 


o o c — . 

o 


5 

d 


* 


d 


2 


d 


d 


^ 


^ 


^• 






Height 

Interval 

(mm) 


x^ 






' 


JQ 


^ 




_ 


> 


^ 






^2 


i 


^ 




t 




1 


!Q 




§ 






00 00 

52 



11 









^ a. 



d 




C" 



[V^ 



Q % 




































y 
























IT, 
















'J- 


















































-a 


■n 





CN 


^ 


y. 


-^ 





■^ 




- 






n 


re 


II 












u 


P 


Sj 


V 


.i 


— 


5 


Q. 




^ 






















7; 


- 


y 




2 


^ 


'^ 


















— 


c 


^ 


■ = 








y 








p 










c- 






n 


— 


'•^ 






y 


^ 


3 






















y 










c 


H 




c 


II 


II 


II 


II 


e 


< 


X 





o o 

06 "O 



0000000000 
'Trsovo-^fso'^d'^fs 



(jUi/'ou) Xjisuaa 






■S 2i E, 




On ""^ 



^^ 2 J;2 C2 
os •> <ri v-i 

ftS S >* S 



d o 



:^i 



ON 
ON 



^ 00 -- 









•2 ci:^ t- 
s: ^ ON 









- « 






^u2 



t/3 W 1. 

C/5 






1 o 






— 00 



ON i 
d 



1/5 



^ 


•o 




o 


-t 




E 




i/i >o 


1^ -is 


:S E £ II 


:^ o ^ f 




&i .§ f 


§11-1 


o B g. Jf 




■^ = E S 










ibcr of 
il area 
in dens 
iiniim 








II II II II 


c <!><■- 



I 



D 



O 00 

— * d 



'O -*_ (S o w^, ■*, f<^^ fs »-< o 1/^ ■*_ r^^ <s ^_ o 

d d d dddododdciciocisi 



(jUi/-ou) y^isuaQ 



Height 
Interval 
(inch) 




<55 




- 


S 

^ 




2 






0\ 




<^5 












5: 




5^ 


^ 
S 


^ 

^ 






E 
d 


i 


■:■:;:■:■ 


i 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


„ 

•* 

° 


d 


d 


d 


o 


00 

q 
d 


' 




-■k 




:||;;;|i 


ill 


d 


d 


d 


d 


1 






d 


00 

d 


"^ ' ^ i 1 1 
^i® ill 


c-jci 


S 


i 


+ 


<»|c> 


d 


0\ 

d 


d 


d 


o 




o 


d 


d 




ojo 

1 


1 


Height 

Interval 

(mm) 


<^ 




^ 


iq 


^ 


^ 


^ 


!? 


^ 


:^ 


55 


:2 


g^ 


§ 


So 


^ 




1 1 


"^ 


^ 

"> 



o 




'Tf 






tfa 


/'"N 


ON 








-2 "^ 

^ oo 


0^ 
















s 




ki 






^ 


^2 


(^ 






s 


^ ^ 

^ K 


oo 






1 


ON 




^ 


^ ON 

2 -a 


1^ 

0)U 


in 

00 
ON 




f^ 

TT 

■* 










n 




S ^ 






;^ 


00 — 


^ ^ 


;2i 






±?^ 


D- 




c 


ON 


« — 


C/) 




^~^ 


fS 



E 55 

< 1^ 



E i?5 






I5X) £: 

— 00 









[ ^ 

































^ 








ir. 














































i\ 


f- 














B- 


























o 


r: 


•A 


^ 


o 


p 


> 






^ 


fi 




















j^ 


1 


1 




























■B 


o 


n 


y 




















s 


i;. 


p 


o 


P 


^ 


E 




t-1 






JD 










c^ 


c- 


r 
















C 




'- 


n 


II 


II 


II 


II 


c 


< 


X 





6X-I 



On '5 



fcX) s c = 



«n 


o 


yr> 


o 


IT) 


© 


o 


yrt 


o 


IT) 


o 


o 


yr> 


o 


•T! 


<s 


r< 


— 


— 


o 


o 


(S 


-H 


-^ 


o 


o. 


(S 


— 


-N 


O 



(jUI/-OU) X4ISU3Q 



11 ii 



11 




£ 




^ 




? 


g"^ 


0^ 

ON 




^ 


O 00 


<— 1 




Cl 


>^ 00 






£ 


ss 


C3 




S 


"^Q^ 


r- 




^ 


Q ^ 


00 




a 


"s d: 


ON 














1 ^ 


tn 




Ii 


oo 

ON 




.. .. 


, , 






zs 






TTn- 


W CT) 


^ 




^ •^' 


a> 


JZ 




a. 




«-> 




C/5 




c 


•S u.' 






^"^ 


c 3^ 






« 


^s 






e: 


«-S 






!V 



E 



s ^ 

«s «o ^* 



^1 

•S.2 



.22 a« 
•o a, 

I I 



9 





II 

s 


i.i^ 




■ II 
= < 


IX 






II " ¥ 
s < \x 




;^. 






















--s- 






















fo 






















■^ 






















?. 






















n 




























. 
















^. 






















fS 


























I i I 








j 










t- 




i i [ 








i 








r 


»s 




! i C 








[- 








r" 


r- 




1 1 C 
i 1 [ 
i 1 
i 1 
1 \ C 








C" 








c 
[" 
r 


^ 


1 






00 


i 


n- 










1 ■ ■■■ 


00 


1 


d 




\ 1 C 


1 — 






IZ 


1 — 






f" 


6 




i 1 1 


2 






[ 
[ 








[ 


<s 






















o 












' — l" 







^ 








& 


1 










« 


o 








0. 


•p 








^ 




D 


»/^ 










•a 


(Tn 






<o 






IT) 










n 


00 






1= 






-1 


It 


^ 
& 


r- 

3 






_a 


y, ^- 


uj 


■p 








- '2 


> 








ij 


c ■- 


■■3 


— 






wo c 


" q 


r: 


^ 






(/^ — 




cr 


- 


















fT) CD 


■3 "n 












!■£ 


>;. 








•n = 


^ c^ 


s 


E 

c 

■F- 








II 




- 






3 ,0 




■a 






»S 




c 


C 








II II 


II 


II 






iT) 


= < 


X 









o q 
lA d 



<s -< — 



q q q q o q 
d wo' d vi d wo 

(jUi/ou) itjisuaa 



Appendix E 



Density distributions based on estimated age 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix E 



Density distributions based on estimated age 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Description 



Page 



Parti. Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 



Part II. Case-IH (RM 488.5) 



Part III. Illiniwek (RM 492.4) 



E-2 



Figure E-1 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-3 

species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1994-95. 
Table E-1 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-4 

unionid species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1994-95. 

Figure E-2 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-5 

species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1987. 
Table E-2 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-6 

unionid species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1987. 



E-7 



Figure E-3 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-8 

species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1994. 
Table E-3 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-9 

unionid species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1994 

Figure E-4 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-10 

species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1987. 
Table E-4 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-1 1 

unionid species from Case-IH (HM 488.5), 1987. 



E-12 



Figure E-5 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-1 3 

species from Illimwek (HM 492.4), 1994-95. 
Table E-5 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-1 4 

unionid species from Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Page E-1 

Vvliitnev et al., Unionid Sunev - Reach 15 UMR 



Part I. 

Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 



Description Page 



Figure E-1 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-3 

species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1994-95. 
Table E-1 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-4 

unionid species from Sylvan Slougli (RM 485.8), 1994-95. 

Figure E-2 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-5 

species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1987. 
Table E-2 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-6 

unionid species from Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8), 1987. 



Species: Scientific - Common (Abbreviation) 
Amblema pUcata - Threeridge (AmPl) 

Megalonaias mimosa - Washboard (MeNe) 

Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf (QuQu) 

Ouadnda metanevra - Monkeyface (QuMe) 

Quadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback (QuPu) 

Ellipsaria lineolata - Butterfly (ElLi)^ 

Obliqiiaria reflexa - Threehom (ObRe)^ 



' - were not aged in 1994-95 survey, age calculated from shell length using age/length regression 
equations from 1987. 



Page E-2 

Whitnev et al., Unionid Sun'ev - Reach 15 UMR 



Figure E- 



Frequency histograms of density (no./m-) at age for selected unionid species from Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. Unionidswere 
collected from 116 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 34 m-. 



9 11 



Estimated Age (years) 

13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 



|ji-_ 



nmm 



Amblema pUcata 
x=33/ni^ 



nnnn^nnnn^nnn^;.;.m. 



^rir^nmli 



Megalonaias nervosa 

x=2.2/m^ 



nfl "n n, 



JIO 



Quadrula quadrula 
x=1.9/m^ 



nnnni lOn^i' 



Mr-. r-, Fl 



.^nll 







Quadrula metane\'ra 
x=4.4/m^ 



I In! I[ I Irln7nn r-n^ _ ^ 



Quadrula pustulosa 
x=14.2/m^ 



On 



HRr 



hD 



ElUpsaria lineolata 
x=6.8/m^ 



n nn Hnn, 



n 



Obliquaria reflexa 
x=3.9/m^ 



on 



HL 



3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 
Estimated Age (years) 

Page E-3 

Whitnev et al , Unionid Sun-ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Density distributions based on estimated age for selected unionid species from Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. Unionids were 
collected from 1 16 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 34 m^. 



Age 
(vrs) 


Density (no./m^) 


AmPl 


MeNe 


OuOu 


9uMe 


OuPu 


EILi 


ObRe 


1 
2 



0.09 




0.03 



0!09 



0.03 


0.09 


0.47 


0.03 


0.78 


0.43 


0.16 


3 


0.12 


0.10 


0.09 


0.03 


1.12 


0.56 


0.36 


4 


0.18 


0.03 


0.31 


0.03 


1.75 


0.53 


0.69 


5 


0.21 


0.07 


0.22 


0.12 


1.42 


0.78 


1.15 


6 


0.24 


0.03 


0.09 


0.18 


1.09 


0.34 


0.43 


7 


0.12 


0.14 


0.06 


0.18 


0.91 


0.25 


0.39 


8 


0.33 


0.20 


0.06 


0.25 


1.51 


0.31 
0.65 


0.23 


9 


0.30 


0.31 


0.13 


0.15 


1.27 


0.23 


10 


0.18 


0.14 


0.22 


0.37 


1.27 


0.43 


0.13 


11 


0.15 


0.17 


0.16 


0.28 


0.84 


0.37 


0.03 


"""o 



0'"" 



" 

"1' 






12 


0.12 


0.27 


0.06 


0.15 


0.69 


0.34 


13 


0.18 


0.20 


0.03 


0.12 


0.57 


0.25 


14 


0.03 


0.07 


0.06 


0.31 


0.39 


0.37 


15 


0.15 


0.10 


0.03 


0.31 


0.18 


0.19 


16 


0.06 


0.00 


0.09 


0.37 


0.15 


0.16 


17 


0.15 


0.00 


0.03 


0.31 


0.06 


0.06 

"" "' 

' 

"' 

u 




18 


0.09 


0.07 


0.00 


0.18 


0.03 
0.03 

■" 


19 


0.03 


0.00 


0.03 


0.06 


20 


0.09 


0.07 


0,00 


0.15 


21 


0.15 


0.03 


0.06 


0.25 







' " o' 


22 


0.06 


0.03 


0.00 


0.15 


23 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.15 








0__ 

__0^ ' 


' 












24 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.06 


25 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 
0.06 
0.06 
0.00 
0.03 
0.03 
0.00 
0.03 










26 


0.06 

0.03 



0.00 

0.03 









27 





28 








29 




















"o 










30 




? 






31 






"" 


32 





33 








34 














35 














T 









__0 



36 


.. Q ^ 



Mean 3.25 2.24 



1.85 



4.42 14.15 



6.80 



3.94 



Page E-4 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Figure E-2. Frequency histograms of density (no./m-) at age for selected unionid species from Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987. Unionidswere 
collected from 8 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 8 m-. 

Estimated Age (years) 

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 



1.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 

6.0 
4.0 
2.0 
0.0 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 

6.0 
4.0 
2.0 



0.0 
1.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 
1.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 



mn 



n n 



oDD 



Amblenta plicata 
x=6.5/m^ 



mm 



■ m ■- 



n 



Alegalonaias nervosa 
x=14.5/m^ 



a___ 



■ n Rn nm 



Quadrula quadrula 
x=1.3/m^ 



a 



I I 



t 



n 



nl \M In 



Quadrula nteUiitevra 
3f=9.0/m' 



n 






nnnnnR 



mmm m 



m\ in 



Dt 



Qu a dm la pustii losa 



DmE 



on 



n 



Ellipsaria Uneolata 
x=6.1/ni^ 



nn 



nDlt 



Ohliquaria reflexa 
x=4.9/ni^ 



3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 

Estimated Age (years) 
Page E-5 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table E-2. Density distributions based on estimated age for selected unionid species from Sylvan 
Slough (RM 485.8) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987. Unionidswere 
collected from 8 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 8 m^. 



Age 
(vrs) 






Density (no./m^ 


) 






AmPl 


MeNe 


OuQu 


OuMe 


OuPu 


ElLi 


ObRe 


1 


0.13 



2.63" ■ 






0!l3 




o.iF 



0.25 


0.25 


0.25 


2 


0.13 


0.00 


1.01 


3 


0.50 


6.88 


0.38 


1.00 


0.64 


0.38 


4 


0.75 


0.63 


0.00 


0.50 


2.63 


0.64 


0.88 


5 


0.25 


1.50 


0.00 


0.13 


1.13 


0.89 


0.25 


6 


0.00 


0.38 


0.13 


0.38 


3.13 


0.89 


0.38 


7 


0.25 


0.13 


0.00 


0.25 


6.38 


1.14 


0.63 


8 


0.50 


0.25 


0.13 


0.63 


4.25 


0.51 


0.38 


9 


0.50 


0.13 


0.13 


0.38 


2.88 


0.13 






' 



10 


0.63 


0.00 


0.00 


0.88 


1.63 


0.13 


11 


0.25 


0.00 


0.00 


0.63 


0.63 


0.51 


12 


0.38 


0.50 


0.13 


0.63 


2.13 


0,13 


13 


0.38 


0.00 


0.26 


0.75 


0.50 


0.13 




0_"" 

" o' " 








^0 








14 


0.38 


0.13 


0.13 


0.13 


0.25 
0.13 
0.38 


0.00 





" 


^ 



u 




b 






15 


0.63 


0.13 


0.00 


0.25 


16 


0.13 


0.38 


0.00 


0.50 


17 


0.13 


0.13 


0.00 


0.38 


0.25 

"0.25 

0.50 

0.00 


18 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.25 


19 


0.00 


0.13 


0.00 


0.13 


20 


0.25 


0.13 


0.00 


0.38 


21 


0.00 


0.13 


0.13 


0.00 


0.00 
0.13 



' 







22 


0.13 


0.13 


0.00 


0.38 


23 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.13 


24 


0.25 



~ 

. ^ 

"■' 


0.00 


0.00 


0.38 


25 


0.00 

0.25 



\ 






0.00 


0.00 


26 


0.00 


0.13 


27 


0.00 


0.13 


28 


0.00 
0.13 


0.13 

0.00 
0.13 


29 


30 



Mean 6.50 14.50 



.30 9.00 28.40 6.10 



4.90 



Whitney 



Page E-6 

al,, Unionid Sun-'ev - Reach 15 UMR 



Part II. 

Case-IH (488.5) 



Description 



Page 



Figure E-3 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-8 

species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1994. 
Table E-3 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-9 

unionid species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1994 

Figure E-4 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-10 

species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1987. 
Table E-4 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-11 

unionid species from Case-IH (RM 488.5), 1987. 



Species: Scientific - Common (Abbreviation) 

Amblema plicata - Threeridge (AmPl) 

Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard (MeNe) 
Quadrula quadnda - Mapleleaf (QuQu) 
Quadnda metanevra - Monkeyface (QuMe) 
Quadnda pus t id OS a - Pimpleback (QuPu) 
EUipsaria lineolata - Butterfly (ElLi)^ 
Obliquaria reflexa - Threehom (ObRe)^ 



' - were not aged in 1994-95 survey, age calculated from shell length using age/length regression 
equations from 1987. 



Page E-7 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



E-3. 



Frequency histograms of density (no./m=) at age for selected unionid species from Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994. Unionids were collected 
from 72 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 18 m- 

Estimated Age (years) 

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 



zo 

1.6 

1.2 

as 
a-i 

0.0 

as 
a6 
a4 
a2 
ao 
a4 
aa 
a2 
ai 
ao 
a4 
as 
a2 
ai 
ao 

2.5 
2.0t 
1.5 
1.0 

as 
ao 

1.6 
1.2 

as 
a 4 
ao 

1.6 
1.2 

as 
a 4 
ao 



_mm 



DQ 



Amhlcma p lie at a 
x=14.0/m^ 



nnnmnnr 



il^mcp , n^ «^ 







Megalonaias nervosa 
x=3.6/m^ 



Ddd 



nrir^nrnnnFlnnnr 



.. ^[]o p [ 



Quadrula quadrula 
x=2.6/m^ 



nn. 



Quadrula metanevra 
x=0.8/m^ 



nRHnn H n 



nnn 



n 



n 



Quadrula pustulosa 
x=21.0/m^ 



nnn^r^ 



Ellipsaria Uneolata 
x=13.8/m^ 



t.^.] L.,.l [^ i ~T^ -^ r^y, r 



D 



Obliquaria reflexa 
x=9.2/m^ 



Q 



a 



> 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 

Estimated Age (years) 
Page E-8 

Whitney et al , Unionid Sun.-ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table E-3. Density distributions based on estimated age for selected unionid species from Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994. Unionids were collected 
from 72 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 1 8 ml 



Age 
(vrs) 






Density (no./m^] 








AmPl 


MeNe 


OuOu 


OuMe 


OuPu 


ElLi 


ObRe 


1 



0.16 
0.21 
0.42 


.Jiili 

.™0^"" : 


0.06 


0.05 
0^05 
0.16 
0.21 






6' 



0.38 


0.71 


0.33 


2 
3 


0.66 


0.82 


1.09 


0.71 


1.92 


4 






0.06 


1.74 


1.42 


1.04 


5 


0.47 


0.00 


0.16 


1.09 


1.31 


1.43 


6 


0.78 


0.17 


0.16 


0.54 
0.92 


1.20 


1.15 


7 


1.09 


0.61 


0.27 


1.31 


0.82 


8 


1.35 


0.39 


0.43 


1.90 


1.15 


0.60 


9 


1.09 


0.22 


0.16 


0.11 


2.50 


1.15 


0.27 


10 


1.41 


0.28 


0.27 


0.22 


2.60 


1-04 


0.05 


11 


0.88 


0.44 


0.32 


0.06 


2.28 


0.98 


0.11 


12 


0.88 


0.1 1 


0.11 


0.06 


1.84 


0.93 


0.11 


13 


0.68 


0.17 


0.16 


0.00 


1.36 


0.44 


0.16 


14 


0.88 


0.06 


0.00 


0.11 


1.03 


0.33 


0.00 


15 


0.88 


0.17 


0.05 


0.00 


0.43 


0.16 


0.05 


16 


0.42 


0.06 


0.00 


0.06 


0.33 


0.05 


0.00 


17 


0.42 


0.11 


0.00 


0.00 


0.38 


0.05 


0.00 


18 


0.36 


O.ll 


0.00 


0.00 


0.11 


0.00 


0.05 


19 


0.16 


0.22 


0.00 


0.06 


0.22 


0.05 


0.00 


20 


0.21 


0.11 


0.00 


0.06 


0.00 


0.05 


0.00 


21 


0.26 


0.11 


0.00 


0.06 

'""""o^ 

^ 



'_"'o 
0^ 

~ 



u 









0.00 


0.00 


0.05 


22 


0.16 


0.11 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.05 


23 


0.21 


0.06 


0.00 


0.11 
0.16 






0.00 


0.00 


24 


0.16 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


25 


0.10 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


26 


0.00 


0.06 


0.00 
0.00 
0.05 










_ 






0.00 


0.00 


27 


0.00 


_0 
tt 






(t 
















0.00 
0.05 





(► 





u " 



0.11 






u 







28 


0.16 
" 0.05 


29 


30 


0.00 
0.05 


31 


32 


0.05 


33 


0.00 
0.05 


34 


35 






36 



Mean 14.00 3.61 



2.61 



0.83 21.00 13.78 9.17 



Page E-9 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



E-4. Frequency histograms of density (no./m=) at age for selected unionid species from Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987. Unionids were collected 
from 8 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 8 m-. 

Estimated Age (years) 

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 



6.0 
5.0 
4.0 i 
3.0- 
2.0- 
1.0 
0.0 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.0 
1.6 
1.2 
0.8 
0.4 
0.0 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.0 
25.0 
20.0 
15.0 
10.0 
5.0 
0.0 
5.0 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 


4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
0.0 



nnO 



Amhlema plicata 
x=40.6/m^ 



nn^nrn^n^nni 11 Innnnnnn 



Megalonaias nervosa 
x=1.9/m^ 



fl 



□on 



iH 



w 



Quadrula quadrula 
x=5.5/m^ 



nnr-^nr-. 



r^rnPHri 



Quadrula metanevra 
x=0.9/m^ 



rLDfl 



n n 



mMk 



Quadrula pustulosa 
x=61.1/m^ 



O 



D 



Ellipsaria lineolata 
x=32.8/m^ 



[jnrTinnnririnnn 



J 



Obllquaria reflexa 
x=14.4/m^ 



m 



OIL 



3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 

Estimated Age (years) 
Page E-10 

Whitney et al , Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table E-4. Density distributions based on estimated age for selected unionid species from Case-IH 
(RM 488.5) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987. Unionids were collected 
from 8 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 8 m-. 



Age 
(vrs) 


Density (no./m^) 


Am PI 


MeNe 


OuQu 


OuMe 


OuPu 


ElLi 


ObRe 


1 





.,:,.:. .0,.,.,.., 


..::.:::.:.:.0,:: ,.....:., 


0.13 


0.75 


0.63 


0.38 


2 


0.75 


0.25 


0.13 


0.00 


1.13 


1.13 


1.77 


3 


0.87 


0.38 


0.25 


0.13 


2.13 


5.13 


3.41 


4 


1.37 


0.00 


0.00 


0.13 


6.64 


5.63 


2.40 


5 


3.37 


0.25 


0.63 


0.26 


6.01 


4.76 


2.53 


6 


5.25 


0.25 


1.63 


0.00 


11.64 


3.13 


0.88 


7 


2.50 


0.00 


1.00 


0.00 


24.92 


2.25 


0.76 


8 


1.37 


0.00 


0.25 


0.00 


2.13 


1.13 


0.51 


9 


0.87 


0.00 


0.25 


0.13 


0.88 


0.50 


0.25 


10 


0.50 


0.00 


0.13 


0.00 


0.63 


1.00 


0.25 


11 


0.75 


0.00 


0.25 


0.00 


0.25 


0.50 


0.38 


12 


0.62 


0.00 


0.13 


0.00 


0.63 


0.63 


0.13 


13 


1.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.13 




^0 


0.63 


0.75 


0.00 


14 


1.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.50 
0.38 

0.25 
0.75 
0.25 
0.00 
0.50 

T"~'~ 

a 
J 



i)'" 

"" 
'" ^ " 




1.63 


0.25 


15 


0.50 


0.00 


0.00 


1 


0.13 


16 


1.25 


0.00 


0.13 


0.00 


17 


1.87 


0.00 


0.00 


1 


o' 









0.13 


18 


2.50 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


19 


3.12 


0.13 


0.13 




" 


0.00 
0.25" 


20 


1.37 


0.25 


0.13 


21 


1.62 


0.13 


0.25 





22 


2.00 


0.13 


0.13 





0^ _ 

" "' 

o" 

i}_ 

6" 
■^ 0^^ ^ 

~"" 


23 


1.12 


0.13 


_ 0_ 

' ' 

" b' 


~" ' 


0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.13 





b" " 






1 o~ 

'0 





24 


2.00 


25 


0.87 


26 


0.87 




~' ""^ 



^„.^.^., 




27 


0.37 


28 


0.37 


29 


r~o;i2 


30 


0.37 


Mean 


40.60 


1.90 


5.50 


0.90 


61.10 


32.80 


14.40 



Page E- 11 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sur\'ey - Reach 15 UMR 



Part III. 

Illiniwek (RM 492.4) 



Description Page 



Figure E-5 : Frequency histograms of density at age for selected unionid E-13 

species from Illiniwek (HM 492.4), 1994-95. 
Table E-5 : Density distributions based on estimated age for selected E-14 

unionid species from Illiniwek (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Species: Scientific - Common (Abbreviation) 

Amblema plicata - Threeridge (AmPl) 

Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard (MeNe) 
Ouadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf (QuQu) 
Quadrula metanevra - Monkeyface (QuMe) 
Quadnda piistidosa - Pimpleback (QuPu) 
Ellipsaria lineolata - Butterfly (ElLi)' 
Obliquaria reflexa - Threehom (ObRe)^ 



' - were not aged in 1994-95 survey, age calculated from shell length using age/length regression 
equations from 1987, 



Page E-12 

Whitney et al-, Unionid Survey - Reach UMR 



Figure E-5. Frequency histograms of density (no./m^) at age for selected unionid species from 

Illiniwek(RM 492.4) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. Unionids 
were collected from 98 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 29 m*. 

Estimated Age (years) 

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 



1.2 
1.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2- 
0.0 



0.4 1 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 

0.4 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 

0.4 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 

2.5 

2.0 

1.5 

1.0 

0.5 

0.0 

4.0 

3.0 

2.0-t 

1.0 

0.0 

1.6 

1.2 

0. 

0.4 

0.0 



Mm 



Amblema pUcata 
x=10.3/m^ 



DnnnnHn 



nFlr^^F^I. 



Pin 



DnO 



Megalonaias nervosa 
x=2.8/m^ 



J\nW. 



rfl 



r— It II 1r-i 



JL 



JL 



Quadrula quadrula 
x=1.3/m^ 



lln'nrinFln'Rn 



n^ __ m ^ pp^ 



Quadrula metanevra 
x=0.3/m^ 



-^3 CyiF?aF^^a _ rmr^ 



m 



Quadrula pustulosa 
x=16.2/m^ 



QIQ 



uU 



F"1 rp r^ -^ r-n ^ -, 



J 



Ellipsarla Uneolata 
x=35.0/m^ 



E 



IFirpr^m ^ 



Ohllquaria reflexa 
x=9.9/m^ 



^nrp. 



1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 

Estimated Age (years) 
Page E-13 

Whitney et al , Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table E-5. Density distributions based on estimated age for selected unionid species from Uliniwek 
(RM 492.4) in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. Unionids were 
collected from 98 quantitative samples covering a surface area of 29 m-. 



Age 
(yrs) 


Density 


/ (no./m' 


) 


AmPI 


MeNe 


QuQu 


QuMe 


QuPu 


ElLi 


ObRe 


1 


0.02 






0.03 




^ 


0.21 
0.07 







0.03 




. 

0.03 
1.74 ~ 


3.30 


0.21 


2 


0.27 


3.46 


0.63 


3 


0.22 


2.33 


1.98 


4 


0.24 


0.19 


2.41 


1.64 


5 


0.68 


0.09 


2.62 


3.22 


1.39 


6 


0.93 


0.12 


0.09 


0.00 


1.60 


2.87 


1.14 


7 


0.90 


0.09 


0.09 


0.00 


1.74 


2.37 


0.97 


8 


1.05 


0.19 


0.05 


0.00 


1.26 


2.52 


0.67 


9 


0.61 


0.37 


0.14 


0.03 


1.60 


2.41 


0.25 


10 


0.71 


0.34 


0.07 


0.03 


0.95 


2.64 


0.34 


11 


0.54 


0.28 


0.09 


0.03 


0.95 


2.29 


0.29 


12 


0.64 


0.19 


0.07 


0.03 


0.82 


1.75 


0.08 


13 


0.51 


0.03 


0.23 


0.00 


1.02 


1.09 


0.00 


14 


0.49 


0.16 


0.05 


0.03 


0.27 


0.62 


0.13 


15 


0.42 


0.06 


0.02 


0.03 


0.37 


0.43 


0.08 


16 


0.44 


0.12 


0.00 


0.00 


0.20 


0.47 


0.04 


17 


0.29 


0.03 


0.02 


0.00 


0.20 


0.23 


0.00 


18 


0.17 


0.06 


0.02 


0.00 


0.27 


0.23 


0.00 


19 


0.34 


0.09 


0.00 


0.00 


0.07 


0.12 


0.00 


20 


0.17 


0.03 


0.05 


0.00 


0.17 


0.08 


0.00 


21 


0.12 


0.00 


0.00 


0.07 


0.00 


0.12 


0.04 


22 


0.15 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.08 

Q _ 

■' T^ '~ 



'o' 




0.00 


23 


0.07 


0.03 


0.05 


0.00 


0.07 


0.00 


24 


0.05 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.07 


0.04 

_0__, 



25 


0.10 


0.09 






0.00 


0.00 


26 


0.05 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


27 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.10 





28 


0.02 


0.00 





0.00 


0.00 





29 


0.02 


0.03 








0.00 


0.00 













30 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 

0.03 




0.00 

0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
~0.00 
0.00 
0.03 


31 


0.00 


0.00 


32 


0.02 


0.06 


33 


0.02 


0.00 















34 


0.00 


0.00 





35 


0.02 


0.00 







36 


0.02 


0.03 



Mean 10.34 2.77 



1.33 



0.33 



.6.17 35.02 9.93 



Page E-14 

Whitnev et al., Unionid Sur\-ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Appendix F 

Unionid mussel recruitment 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix F 

Unionid mussel recruitment 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi RKer 



Description Page 



Figure F-1 : Recruitment of unionid mussel species at Sylvan Slough F-2 

(RM 485.8), Case-IH (RM 488.5), and Illimvvek (RM 
492.4), 1994-95. 



Figure F-2 : Recruitment of unionid mussel species at Sylvan Slough F-3 

(RM 485.8), 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1994-95. 



Figure F-3 : Recruitment of unionid mussel species at Case-IH (RM F-4 

488.5), 1985, 1987, and 1994. 



Page F-1 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Figure F-1. Recruitment ofunionid mussel species at three sites in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 
1994-95. Length-frequency distributions (Appendix C) were used to calculate percentage (%) 
and density (no./m-) of individuals within the specified size range. 



Species 


Recruitment 


Size 
(mm) 


Percentage (%) 




Density (no./m^ 


) 


Sylvan 
Sloueh 


Case 


Illiniwek 


Mean 


Sylvan 
Slough 


Case 


Illiniwek 




Amblema plicata 


<30 


7.42 


3.96 


6.59 


5.99 


0.24 


0.56 


0.68 


0.49 


Megalonaias nervosa 


<30 


1.52 


0.00 


0.00 


0.51 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


Quadnda metanevra 


<30 


1.40 


0.00 


0.00 


0.47 


0.06 


0.00 


0.00 


0.02 


Quadnda pustulosa 


<30 


30.34 


17.73 


23.93 


24.00 


4.30 


3.72 


3.90 


3.97 


Quad ru I a quadrula 


<30 


19.68 


14.89 


16.67 


17.08 


0.36 


0.40 


0.22 


0.33 


Ellipsaha lineolata 


<30 


9.59 


4.03 


9.54 


7.72 


0.65 


0.56 


3.34 


1.52 


LeptodeafragUis 


<30 


21.83 


56.76 


23.88 


34.16 


0.37 


1.17 


0.92 


0.82 


Obliquaria rejlexa 


<15 


6.99 


2.46 


4.76 


4.74 


0.21 


0.22 


0.48 


0.30 


TruncUla truncata 


<15 


10.91 


11.80 


44.83 


22.51 


0.93 


2.13 


1.42 


1.49 


TruncUla donaciformis 


<10 


31.43 


2.78 


0.00 


11.40 


1.41 


0.06 


0.00 


0.49 



Page F-2 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Figure F-2. Recaiitment of unionid mussel species at Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) in Reach 1 5 of the Upper 
Mississippi River, 1983, 1985, 1987, and 1994-95. Length-frequency distributions (Appendix 
C) were used to calculate percentage (%) and density (no./m-) of individuals within the 
specified size range 



Species 


Recruitment 


Size 
(mm) 


Percentage (%) 




Density (no./m^ 


) 


1983 


1985 


1987 


1994-95 


Mean 


1983 


1985 


1987 


1994-95 


Mean 


Amblema plicata 


<30 


0.00 


3.84 


9.61 


7.42 


5.22 


0.00 


0.38 


0.64 


0.24 


0.32 


Megalonaias nervosa 


<30 


0.00 


0.93 


3.45 


1.52 


1.48 


0.00 


0.13 


0.50 


0,03 


0.17 


Ouadrula metanevra 


<30 


0.00 


7.17 


2.78 


1.40 


2.84 


0.00 


0.12 


0.25 


0.06 


0.11 


Onadrula pustulosa 


<30 


16.86 


16.45 


9.72 


30.34 


18.34 


3.50 


3.27 


2.77 


4.30 


3.46 


Ouadrula quadrula 


<30 


9.09 


1.89 


10.00 


19.68 


10.17 


0.25 


0.13 


0.13 


0.36 


0.22 


EUipsaria lineolata 


<30 


0.00 


2.38 


4.17 


9.59 


4.04 


0.00 


0.12 


0.25 


0.65 


0.26 


Leptodea fragilis 


<30 


5.40 


3.70 


10.98 


21.83 


10.48 


0.50 


0.37 


1.14 


0.37 


0.60 


Obliquaria reflexa 


< 15 


0.00 


3.13 


2.56 


6.99 


3.17 


0.00 


0.13 


0.13 


0.21 


0.12 


Truncilla truncata 


<15 


0.00 


0.00 


0.63 


10.91 


2.89 


0.00 


0.00 


0.13 


0.93 


0.27 


Truncilla donaciformis 


< 10 


0.00 


0.00 


3.92 


31.43 


8.84 


0.00 


0.00 


0.26 


1.41 


0.42 



Page F-3 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun'ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Figure F-3. Recruitment of unionid mussel species at Case-IH (RM 488.5) in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River, 1985, 1987, and 1994. Length-frequency distributions (Appendix C) were 
used to calculate percentage (%) and density (no./m-) of individuals within the specified size 
range. 



Species 


Recruitment | 


Size 
(mm) 


Percentage (%) 




Densi( 


y (no./m^) 1 


1985 


1987 


1994 


Mean 


1985 


1987 


1994 


Mean 


Amblema plicata 


<30 


3.48 


5.23 


3.96 


4.22 


0.23 


2.12 


0.56 


0.97 


Megalonaias nen'osa 


<30 


4.55 


0.00 


0.00 


1.52 


0.66 


0.00 


0.00 


0.22 


Quadmla metanevra 


<30 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


Quadrula pustulosa 


<30 


21.33 


14.73 


17.73 


17.93 


6.06 


8.99 


3.72 


6.26 


Quadrula quadrula 


<30 


5.88 


4.55 


14.89 


8.44 


0.08 


0.25 


0.40 


0.24 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


<30 


1.08 


4.59 


4.03 


3.23 


0.07 


1.51 


0.56 


0.71 


Leptodea fragilis 


<30 


11.58 


7.12 


56.76 


25.15 


1.20 


2.38 


1.17 


1.58 


Obliquaha reflexa 


<15 


0.00 


0.00 


2.46 


0.82 


0.00 


0.00 


0.22 


0.07 


Truncilla tnincata 


<15 


0.00 


0.36 


11.80 


4.05 


0.00 


0.25 


2.13 


0.79 


Truncilla donacifomiis 


<10 


0.00 


2.98 


2.78 


1.92 


0.00 


0.26 


0.06 


0.11 



Page F-4 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sur\'cv - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Appendix G 



Commercial Species Age and Growth 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix G 

Commercial Species Age and Growth 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Description 



Page 



Part I. Summary tables on age and growth of unionid mussels from 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. 
Table G-1 : Number of years to reach minimum commercial size. 

Table G-2 : Number of years to reach sexual maturity. 

Table G-3 : Formulas to calculate unionid age from shell length or height. 

Table G-4 : Formulas to calculate morphological shell measurements 

from unionid age. 
Table G-5 : Illiniwek (RM 492.4) - regression parameters of 

morphological shell measurements. 
Table G-6 : Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) - regression parameters of 

morphological shell measurements. 
Table G-7 : Formulas to calculate (a) live weight and (b) dry shell weight 

from shell length or height. 
Table G-8 : Estimated abundance and weight of commercially sized /4. 

plicata and M. nervosa. 

Part II. Average observed morphological shell measurements of 
commercial mussel species of various ages from Reach 15 of 
the Upper Mississippi River, 1987 and 1994-95. 
Table G-9 : Amblema plicata - Threeridge 

Table G-10 : Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 

Table G-11 : Ouadnda qiiadnda - Mapleleaf 

Table G-12 : Ouadnda pustidosa - Pimpleback 

Table G-13 : Ouadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 

Part III. Calculated morphological shell measurements of commercial 
mussel species of various ages from Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River, 1987 and 1994-95. 

Table G-14 : Amblema plicata - Threeridge 

Table G-15 : Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 

Table G-16 : Ouadrula quadnda - Mapleleaf 

Table G-17 : Ouadnda pustidosa - Pimpleback 

Table G-18 : Ouadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 

Part IV. Growth curves for commercial mussel species from Reach 15 
of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987 and 1994-95. 



Figure G-1 
Figure G-2 
Figure G-3 
Figure G-4 
Figure G-5 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Ouadrula quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Ouadnda pustidosa - Pimpleback 
Ouadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 
Page G-1 



G-2 

G-3 
G-3 
G-4 
G-5 

G-6 

G-7 

G-8 

G-9 

G-10 



G-11 
G-12 
G-13 
G-14 
G-15 

G-16 



G-17 


G-18 


G-19 


G-20 


G-21 


G-22 


G-23 


G-24 


G-25 


G-26 


G-27 



Part I. 

Summary tables on age and growth of unionid mussels 
from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River. 



Description 



Page 



Table G-1 : Number of years to reach minimum G-3 

commercial size. 

Table G-2 : Number of years to reach sexual maturity. G-3 

Table G-3 : Formulas to calculate unionid age from shell G-4 

length or height. 

Table G-4 : Formulas to calculate morphological shell G-5 

measurements from unionid age. 

Table G-5 : Illiniwek (RM 492.4) - regression parameters of G-6 
morphological shell measurements. 

Table G-6 : Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) - regression G-7 

parameters of morphological shell measurements. 

Table G-7 : Formulas to calculate (a) live weight and (b) G-8 

dry shell weight from shell length or height. 

Table G-8 : Estimated abundance and weight of G-9 

commercially sized A. plicata and h4. nervosa. 



Page G-2 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Table G-1 : Number of years for five mussel species fi-om Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River to 
reach minimum commercial size limit. Age determination based on polynomial regression 
formulas (Table G-3), 





Minimum 


Years to reach 


minimum 


Species 


commercial size* 


commercia 


1 size 


(inch) 


(mm) 


1994-95 


1987 


AmbJema plicata 
(Threeridge) 


2.75 


69.85 


21 


25 


Megalonaias nervosa 
(Washboard) 


4.00 


101.60 


24 


25 


Quadrula metanevra 
(Monkeyface) 


2.50 


63.50 


— 


21 


Quadrula pustuJosa 
(Pimpleback) 


2.50 


63.50 


19 


20 


Quadrula quadrula 
(Mapleleaf) 


2.50 


63.50 


19 


20 


' - measured from the center of the hinge side and at a right angle across the shell to the outer edge (shell height). 



Table G-2 : Estimated number of years for five mussel species to reach sexual maturity in Reach 15 of the 
Upper Mississippi River. Values based on observed decrease in distance between growth 
bands on individual mussels collected in 1994-95. 



Species 


n 


Estimated years to 


maturity 


Mean 


Std. Dev. 


Range 


Amblema plicata 
(Threeridge) 


78 


8.19 


1.37 


6-12 


Megalonaias nervosa 
(Washboard) 


29 


8.17 


1.10 


6-10 


Quadrula metanevra 
(Monkeyface) 


12 


7.17 


1.19 


5-.9 


Quadrula pustulosa 
(Pimpleback) 


38 


7.58 


1.81 


6-11 


Quadrula quadrula 
(Mapleleaf) 


28 


8.36 


2.00 


8-11 



Page G-3 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sur\ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table G-3. Formulas to calculate unionid age (yrs.) from shell length or height (mm) for species collected in 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. All relationships were 
best described by a third order polynomial regression formula. 

Example: Calculate the age of a A/ega/onfl/a5 wen 0.^(7 collected in 1994-95 with a height of 88.9 mm (3.5 inch). 
Calculations: y = 0.0000688.\' - 0.0083326x- + 0.4076798x - 3. 1385823 

y = 0.0000688(88.9)' - 0.0083326(88.0)- + 0.4076798(88.9) - 3.1385823 

y = 0.0000688(702595.37) - 0.0083326(7903.2 1) + 0.4076798(88.9) - 3. 1385823 

y = 48.3385615 - 65.8542876 + 36.2427342 - 3. 1385823 

y= 15.59 years old 

(a) 1994-95 



Species 


y 


X 






Formula 




l^ 


Amblema plicata 


age 


length 


V = 


= 0.000061 Ix^ 


-0.0063227x= + 0.3293202x 


-2.0603603 


0.9820 




age 


height 


y- 


= 0.0001352x' 


- 0.0103458x^ + 0. 3845092X 


-1.6220988 


0.9861 


Megalonaias uen'osa 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0000 150x^ 


-0.0017899x- + 0.1043503x- 


f 0.8485574 


0.9817 




age 


height 


y = 


= 0.0000688x5 


-0.0083326x- + 0.4076798x 


-3.1385823 


0.9513 


Qiiadnt la p ustulosa 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0000801x5 


- 0.0037934x2 + 0.2010223X 


-0.2367326 


0.9832 




age 


height 


y = 


= 0.0001789x5 


-0.0118251x=+0,3874485x 


- 1.1206431 


0.9652 


Quadrula quadrula 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0000611x5 


- 0.0063227x2 + 0.3293202X 


-2.0603603 


0.9820 




age 


height 


y = 


= 0.0000648x5 


+ 0.0017484x2 -0.1600863X- 


f 5.4257652 


0.9448 



(b) 1987 



Species 


y 


X 






Formula 


H 


Amblema plicata 


age 


length 


y = 


-0.0000268x5 


+ 0.0096861x= - 0.45 1 1657x + 7.3304427 


0.9448 




age 


height 


y = 


-0.0000463x5 


+ 0.0153635x= - 0.6001301X + 7.8939737 


0.9467 


Megalonaias nen'osa 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0000156x5 


- 0.002 1 1 94x2 -f 0.1 768499X- 2. 10644 16 


0.9412 




age 


height 


y- 


= 0.0000410x5 


- 0.0037773x2 + 0.2273856x - 1 .7508804 


0.9497 


Qiiadnda metanevra 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0001713x5 


- 0.0156912x2 + 0.6016140X - 5.0779275 


0.9838 




age 


height 


y = 


0.0004565x5 


-0.0414700x2+ 1.3772656X- 12.7058843 


0.9834 


Quadrula pustidosa 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0002077x5 


- 0.0169617x2 + 0.6108890X - 4.5812617 


0.9818 




age 


height 


y = 


= 0.0002409x5 


- 0.0201669x2 + 0.7151071X- 5.4470434 


0.9741 


Quadrula quadrula 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0001973x5 


- 0.0209885x2 + 0.878790]x - 9.2126875 


0.8617 




age 


height 


y = 


~- 0.0000628x5 


+ 0.0013627x2 - 0.0559941X + 2.3033227 


0.8073 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


age 


length 


y = 


-0.0000249x5 


+ 0.0089175x2 . 0.4059395X + 5.6305060 


0.9126 




age 


height 


y = 


-0.0000576x5 


+ 0.0142301x2 - 0.4725642X + 4.9521332 


0.9092 


Obliquaria reflexa 


age 


length 


y = 


= 0.0004491x5 


-0.0351957x2+ 1.0376130X- 8.6958402 


0.9760 




age 


height 


y = 


= 0.0004641x5 


- 0.0269657x2 + 0.6638447x - 4.1366390 


0.9845 



Page G-4 

Whitney et al., Unionid Suney - Reach 15 UMR 



Table G-4. Regression equation parameters of growth curves (Figures 1-5) for unionid species collected in 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. Formulas can be used to ^ 
calculate morphological shell measurements (mm) from unionid age (yrs). All relationships 
were best described by a third order polynomial regression formula. 

(a) 1994-95 



Species 


y 


X 






Formula 


l^ 


Ambkma plicata 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 
y = 
y = 


= 0.0050071x3 
= 0.0039842x3 
= 0.0045958x3 


- 0.3666344X- + 9.8249057x - 0.4260532 

- 0.2602081X- + 5.883 121 8x + 0.8669406 

- 0.3 191360X- + 7.97201 17x + 0.7129795 


0.9912 
0.9789 
0.9898 


Megalonaias nervosa 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 
y = 

y = 


= 0.0177900x3 
= 0.0062956x3 
= 0.0120926x3 


- 0.9967481x= + 19.9961039x - 9.2124276 
-0.3839674x- + 8.1506566x- 5.9351060 
-0.7049751X-+ 14.4179442X- 8.6804480 


0.9817 
0.9518 
0.9752 


Quadnda piistulosa 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 
y = 
y = 


= 0.0095563x3 
= 0.0062383x3 
= 0.0057603x3 


-0.4591499x2 + 8.7732342X- 1.6112619 

- 0.3273931x2 + 6.0829175X- 1.9140641 

- 0.375 1007x2 + 8.2306743X - 1 .7984754 


0.9930 
0.9904 
0.9927 


Qiiadrula quadnda 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 

y = 
y = 


= 0.0051816x3 
= 0.0059529x3 
= 0.0076875x3 


- 0.3269566x2 + 8.1284370x + 2.9573194 

- 0.3206641x2 + 6.0501791X + 0.5701078 

- 0.4373603x2 + 8.9145035X- 1.4862868 


0.9741 
0.8928 
0.9570 



(b) 1987 



Species 


y 


X 






Formula 


r^ 


Amblema plicata 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 
y = 
y = 


= 0.0068550x3 
= 0.0035412x3 
= 0.0052136x3 


-0.43 18429x2 + 9.7916577X + 3.2610581 

- 0.2238239x2 + 5.0539655x + 4.2486195 

- 0.3297364x2 + 7.4764151x + 4.6248189 


0.9904 
0.9908 
0.9908 


Megalonaias nerx'osa 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y = 
y = 
y- 


= 0.0109224x3 
= 0.0038476x3 
= 0.0069224x3 


-0.6825639x2+ 15. 5587462x + 5.0508338 

- 0.2468855x2 + 5.8132082x + 3.0244842 

- 0.4460882x2 + 10.5656144x + 4.6659580 


0.9830 
0.9851 
0.9845 


Quadnda metanevra 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y- 
y = 
y- 


= 0.0047743x3 
= 0.0023107x3 
= 0.0041474x3 


- 0.3053982x2 + 7.2113570X+ 10.6592964 

- 0.1524142x2 + 3.8090437X + 6.9840649 

- 0.2597647x2 + 5.8559550X+ 13.9737817 


0.9737 
0.9725 
0.9705 


Quadnda pustidosa 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y- 
y- 
y- 


= 0.0062338x3 
= 0.0036749x3 
= 0.0056265x3 


- 0.3614091x2 + 7.6985955X + 4.3316920 

- 0.2213104x2 + 4.8644087X + 3.3442995 

- 0.3372531x2 + 7.4ioi475x + 4.1748952 


0.9951 
0.9937 
0.9940 


Quadnda quadnda 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y- 
y- 

y- 


= 0.0061609x3 
= 0.0034844x3 
= 0.0060794x3 


- 0.4005523x2 + 8.9274096X + 5.1 135483 

- 0.2238107x2 4. 4.8979279X + 3 8328803 

- 0.3782481x2 + 8.0639853x + 3.1 1503 18 . 


0.9762 
0.9724 
0.9596 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y- 
y- 
y-- 


= 0.0206120x3 
= 0.0086633x3 
= 0.0165539x3 


- 0.8801632x2 + 13. 1422716X + 5.3824389 
-0.3699364x2+ 5.6840818X- 0.1292106 

- 0.7072558x2 + 10.61 73476x + 2.3427725 


0.9735 
0.9736 
0.9731 


Obliquaria reflexa 


length 
width 
height 


age 
age 
age 


y-- 
y- 
y- 


= 0.0157802x3 
= 0.0134031x3 
= 0.0089603x3 


- 0.06259 11 1x2 + 8.607 1230X + 9.6129379 
-0.531 7640x2 + 7.4484997X + 6.9729323 

- 0.3563955x2 + 4.9559685x + 4.4767819 


0.9911 
0.9914 
0.9926 



Page G-5 

Whitney et al.. Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Table G-5. Regression equation parameters of morphological measurements from mussels collected at 
Illiniwek site (RM 492.4), 1994-95. The relationship between morphological measurements 
were best described by a power regression equation (y = ax^b). Equation parameters are as 
follows : y = dependent variable; x = independent variable; a = y intercept; b = regression 
coefficient (slope); r- = coefficient of determination; and n = number of individuals plotted. 

Example: Calculate the shell width and height ofanAmblema plicata (Three ridge) with a shell length of 92.56 mra {y = ax'^b) 
width = 0.8195 >: 92. 56^0.9065 = 49.67 mm - 25 4 mm/iirh = 1.96 inch 
height = 1.0722 x 92 56'X).9302 = 72.35 mm - 25.4 mm/inch = 2.85 inch 



Species 


y 


X 


a 


b 


r^ 


n 


Amblema plicata 


width 


length 


0.8195 


0.9065 


0.9649 


167 




height 


length 


1.0722 


0.9302 


0.9827 


ini 




length 


width 


1.4253 


1.0643 


0.9649 


167 




height 


width 


1.3696 


1.0131 


0.9610 


101 




length 


height 


0.9971 


1.0565 


0.9827 


101 




width 


height 


08514 


0.9486 


0.9610 


101 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


width 


length 


0.1601 


1.2247 


0.9016 


565 




height 


length 


0.5743 


1.0728 


0.9798 


173 




length 


width 


5.6614 


0.7362 


0.9016 


565 




height 


width 


3.2606 


0.8392 


0.9415 


173 




length 


height 


1.7949 


0.9133 


0.9798 


173 




width 


height 


3144 


1.1219 


0.9415 


173 


Megalonaias nerwsa 


width 


length 


0.3771 


1.0112 


0.9255 


70 




height 


length 


0.5610 


1.0513 


0.9883 


34 




length 


width 


3.4470 


0.9153 


0.9255 


70 




height 


width 


2.1239 


0.9548 


0.9483 


34 




length 


height 


1.8163 


0.9401 


0.9883 


34 




width 


height 


0.5710 


0.9932 


0.9483 


34 


Obliquaria rejlexa 


width 


length 


0.4006 


1.0861 


0.9521 


170 




height 


length 


0.5897 


1.0975 


0.9919 


46 




length 


width 


2.6366 


0.8766 


0.9521 


170 




height 


width 


1.5263 


0.9994 


0.9667 


46 




length 


height 


1.6575 


0.9038 


0.9919 


46 




width 


height 


0.7300 


0.9672 


0.9667 


46 


Quadrula pustulosa 


width 


length 


0.7398 


0.9658 


0.9685 


275 




height 


length 


0.9658 


1.0007 


0.9899 


64 




length 


width 


1.5169 


1.0028 


0.9685 


275 




height 


width 


1.4497 


1.0070 


0.9787 


64 




length 


height 


1.0741 


0.9892 


0.9899 


64 




width 


height 


0.7467 


0.9719 


0.9787 


64 


Quadrula quadrula 


width 


length 


0.6841 


0.9495 


0.9687 


43 




height 


length 


0.8678 


0.9932 


0.9932 


18 




length 


width 


1.6687 


1.0202 


0.9687 


43 




height 


width 


1.5423 


0.9968 


0.9916 


18 




length 


height 


1.1831 


1.0000 


0.9932 


18 




width 


height 


0.6680 


09948 


0.9916 


18 


Truncllla truncata 


width 


length 


0.4154 


1.0980 


0.9542 


563 




height 


length 


0.6609 


1.0599 


0.9676 


203 




length 


width 


2.4966 


0,8690 


0.9542 


563 




height 


width 


17162 


0.9267 


0.9715 


198 




length 


height 


1.6248 


0.9130 


0.9676 


203 




width 


height 


0,6142 


1.0483 


0.9715 


198 



Page G-6 

Whitney et al.. Unionid Sunev - Reach 15 UMR 



Table G-6. Regression equation parameters of morphologica] measurements from mussels collected at Sylvan 
Slough site (RM 485.8), 1994-95. The relationship between morphological measurements were' 
best described by a power regression equation (y = ax'^b). Equation parameters are as follows : y 
= dependent variable; x = independent variable, a = y intercept; b = regression coefficient 
(slope); r^ = coefficient of determination; and n = number of individuals plotted. 



Example: Calculate the shell width and height oCanAmblemaplicata (Three ridge) with a shell length of 92.56 mm. (>' 
width =1.0138 X 92.56^.8571 =49.13 mm - 25.4 mm/inch = 1.93 inch 
height = 1.0400 ^ 92.56'X).9328 = 71.01 mm - 25.4 mm/inch = 2.80 inch 



ax-^b) 



Species 


y 


X 


a 


b 


H 


n 


Amblema plicata 


width 


length 


1.0138 


0.8571 


0.9421 


111 




height 


length 


1.0400 


0.9328 


0.9855 


55 




length 


width 


1.2507 


1.0993 


0.9421 


111 




height 


width 


1.4189 


0.9948 


0.9594 


55 




length 


height 


1.0178 


1.0565 


0.9855 


55 




width 


height 


0.8228 


0.9644 


0.9594 


55 


Ellipsaria lineolata 


width 


length 


0.1725 


1.1977 


0.8988 


175 




height 


length 


0.5453 


1.0892 


0.9797 


81 




length 


width 


5.5838 


0.7505 


0.8988 


175 




height 


width 


3.5760 


0.8149 


0.9342 


81 




length 


height 


1.8678 


0.8994 


0.9797 


81 




width 


height 


0.2811 


1.1463 


0.9342 


81 


Megalonaias nervosa 


width 


length 


0.4347 


0.9771 


0.9106 


66 




height 


length 


0.7203 


0.9953 


0.9831 


41 




length 


width 


3.3050 


0.9319 


0.9106 


66 




height 


width 


2.6178 


0.9034 


0.9584 


41 




length 


height 


1.4963 


0.9877 


0.9831 


41 




width 


height 


0.4203 


1.0609 


0.9584 


41 


Obliquaria reflexa 


width 


length 


0.4515 


1.0558 


0.9486 


110 




height 


length 


0.7197 


0.9953 


0.9860 


71 




length 


width 


2.4494 


0.8985 


0.9486 


110 




height 


width 


1.6706 


0.9639 


0.9553 


71 




length 


height 


1.4359 


0.9497 


0.9860 


71 




width 


height 


0.6854 


0.9911 


0.9553 


71 


Quadrula pustulosa 


width 


length 


0.6041 


1.0213 


0.9801 


407 




height 


length 


0.8438 


1.0388 


0.9926 


222 




length 


width 


1.7413 


0.9596 


0.9801 


407 




height 


width 


1.5105 


0.9950 


0.9880 


221 




length 


height 


1.2074 


0.9555 


0.9926 


222 




width 


height 


0.6891 


0.9930 


0.9880 


221 


Quadrula quadrula 


width 


length 


1.0972 


0.8426 


0.9420 


48 




height 


length 


0.9918 


0.9725 


0.9818 


38 




length 


width 


1.1248 


1.1179 


0.9420 


48 




height 


width 


1.2563 


1.0573 


0.9795 


38 




length 


height 


1.0825 


1.0096 


0.9818 


38 




width 


height 


0.8673 


0.9263 


0.9795 


38 


Truncilla Iruncata 


width 


length 


0.3922 


1.1102 


0.9739 


234 




height 


length 


0.5451 


1.1187 


0.9891 


109 




length 


width 


2.4700 


0.8773 


0.9394 


234 




height 


width 


1.5716 


0.9634 


0.9877 


109 




length 


height 


1.7696 


0.8841 


0.9891 


109 




width 


height 


0.6492 


1.0252 


0.9877 


109 



Page G-7 

Whitney et al., Unionid Suney - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table G-7 : Formulas to calculate (a) live weight and (b) dry shell weight from shell length and height 
(mm) for commercial mussel species collected in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 
1994-95. The relationship between weight and shell size was best described by a power 
regression (y = ax'^b). Equation parameters are as follows: y = dependent variable; x = 
independent variable; a = y-intercept, b = regression coefficient (slope), r- = coefficient of 
determination; and n = number of individuals plotted. 

Example : Calculate the live weight and drv' shell weight for fwc Amblema plicata ha\-mg measured shell heights of: 75.10, 
85.01, 72.52, 76.15, and 91 23 What is the present commercial value of these mussels ($0 86/lb dry shell)? 

Calculations: y = ax^b 

Live weight (g) = (O.OO 13 -75.10^2. 8266)+{0,0013- 85.01 "2. 8266)+(0.0013 ■72.52-2. 8266)*(0 0013- 76.15^2. 8266)+(0,0013- 91, 23"2, 8266) 
= 260.39 + 369.64 + 235.89 + 270.81 + 451.30 
= 1588.03 g - 454 g'pound = 3.50 pounds 
Drj' shell weight (g) =(0.0O13-75.10-2.7444)+C0.0O13-85.0r2.7444)+(0.OO13-72.52-2 7444)*(0.OO13-76.15-2.7444)+(0,0O13-91.23'2 7444) 
= 182.58 + 256.56+ 165.88+ 189.67 + 311.42 
= 1106.10 g + 454 g'pound = 2.44 pounds @ S0.86/pound =$2.10 







(a) Live 


weight (g) 








Species 


y 


X 


a 


b 


r^ 


n 


Amblema plicata 


Live wgt 


length 


0.0015 


2.6419 


0.9814 


167 




Live wgt 


height 


0.0013 


2.8266 


0.9853 


167 


Megalonaias nervosa 


Live wgt 


length 


0.0002 


3.0167 


0.9776 


98 




Live wgt 


height 


0.0007 


2.9424 


0.9704 


98 


Quadnila metanevra 


Live wgt 


length 


0.0005 


2.9200 


0.9765 


32 




Live wgt 


height 


0.0001 


3.4266 


0.9543 


32 


Quadrula pustulosa 


Live wgt 


length 


0.0011 


2.7847 


0.9333 


210 




Li\e wgt 


height 


0.0015 


2.7103 


0.9441 


210 


Quadrula quadrula 


Live wgt 


length 


0.0012 


2.7035 


0.9508 


57 




Live wgt 


height 


0.0010 


2.8381 


09897 


57 







[b) Dry shell 


weight (g) 








Species 


y 


X 


a 


b 


r^ 


n 


Amblema plicata 


Dr>' shell wgt 


length 


0.0015 


2.5620 


0.9733 


172 




Dry shell wgt 


height 


0.0013 


2.7444 


0.9779 


172 


Megalonaias nervosa 


Dr\' shell wgt 


length 


0.0002 


2.9057 


0.9643 


100 




Dr\' shell wgt 


height 


0.0007 


2.8437 


0.9626 


100 


Quadrula metanevra 


Dn,- shell wgt 


length 


0.0005 


2.8487 


0.9574 


32 




E>r\- shell wgt 


height 


0.0001 


3.3415 


0.9348 


32 


Quadrula pustulosa 


Dn shell wgt 


length 


0.0014 


2.6490 


0.9551 


204 




Dn- shell wgt 


height 


0.0016 


2.6358 


0.9619 


204 


Quadrula quadrula 


Dr\- shell wgt 


length 


0.0011 


2.6574 


0.9464 


57 




Drv' shell wgt 


height 


0.0009 


27893 


0.9849 


57 



Page G-8 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sur\ey - Reach 15 UMR 



0^ 






"O '55 



Is 

1 1 



C/5 S^ 



« 6X S 



C/5 M^ 



S.£f I 



<N — 



2 £ I 

1-1! 



"O O M 

** II ~^ 

'E "11 

E I f 



§8 "^ 



i r ^ 



a ^ ^ 

^ rf (N 

ci (S II 

^ 't A 

W <-^ K 

^ t^ 
111 

S J e 



ill 



■S -5 =5 
i ^ 5 



O 



-J fi 



Part II. 



Average observed morphological shell measurements of 

commercial mussel species of various ages from Reach 15 

of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987 and 1994-95. 



Description 



Page 



Table G-9 : Amblema plicata - Threeridge 

Table G-10 : Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 

Table G-11 : Quadnila qiiadnila - Mapleleaf 

Table G-12 : Quadnda pustulosa - Pimpleback 

Table G-13 : Quadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 



G-11 
G-12 
G-13 
G-14 
G-15 



Page G-10 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sun-ey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



«N<N(N(NfNrvlfStNfS(N(NfNrN(N(N<N(NfN(Nr^ 



Is 



o o o o — — ' — — — ■ — — ■ — ■ — ■ — ' — ' — ' — — ' ——.■—— — — ' — 



II 



(N«N(NeN(N(NtNm(Nf^( 



irommmmmmrocof^ 



ro — •^ •^ iri ro m (N O r~- On — Tf r~- On ^ 00 O r^ ro CO r^ O t~- iOn t-~- ^ t-~- 
r-' CO 00 vo ON rn m' oo ro CN vi' tj-' o r-~' rn — ' (N ro m' r-' m iri vo iri S iri' r~-' — 



'^ rr rr TT 



r~ On (N (N 



-*»sf*5-^»rj\or-ooONO 



vo o m m 



r- ON CO r^ t^ 



•^ n -* «/v 



15 «^ .fci 







X 

M 


1 00 00 
1 1/1 00 


ri oo — 
O — <v^ 


-:)• <N (N CO <N (N 
OO ON O — (N rs 


oo (N ON 

<^ '^ -^ 


O (N 00 
m NO ^ 


pJf^p:! 


s i 


ON 1 1 1 


CO — 1 

ON o ! 


5S i 


t~~ 








:£ 


' o o 


— — — 


— — (N (N »N JN 


(N tN fN 


ra <N fS 


JN <N <N 


(N ' 


<n' ' ' ' 


fN m 


<-!<-. 


^ 








; o 00 


^ Tj- o 

r- ON — 


— 00 vo (N r-- o 


NO ON 00 
VO NO NO 


I/-) cs r^ 
t^ r^ r^ 


00 ON o 


r- 1 


?; i i i 


ON 00 i 

00 On 1 


8^^ i 


(N 




^ 


_c 


^ 

X 


' o o 


o o — 








— — (N 








— (N ' 


(N 








M 


! vo o 


(^ -"^ VO 
<N -^ 00 


>/-i NO r^ rf r- NO 
tN m ^ r- r~ r-- 


00 ON r^ 

ON ON — 


00 ON U-l 
(N fN (N 


TT 00 00 
>y^ rj- u--> 




r^ 1 j 1 

00 1 ! ! 


oo CO 1 


ON ON 1 


fS 




93 




5 


' o — 


^^ ' ^ ~" 


rS (N (N (N (N (N 


fN (N (^ 


m ro m 


rn rn m 


^ 


r-i ' ' ' 


m m 


r-i r-i 


^ 








1 r- (N 


(N >/^ ro 
<N O ^ 


O m On ON Tf ro 
r- t^ (N (N ro r^ 


NO (N NO 
I/', rj- (-M 


00 NO t^ 
r^ rr O 


Tj- r-i r- 

-O (-4 




mill 


O CO ; 


CO ^ 1 


g 








4< 


— <N 


^ O 00 
<N d r^ 


NO 00 — >/-, NO NO 

Ti- T3- un ly, 1/-I wn 


NO 3 NO 


r-i NO r«-i 

NO NO NO 


ON ON ON 
NO NO NO 


(N' ' 


? ■ ' ' 


{C^ ' 


r-' oo' ' 


ro 




^ 


i 

"? 


^ 


1 (N ro 


O On rr 
r^ r- 00 


NO 00 >y-i </-! r- CO 
r^ ON O i/-! r- o 


3 ON NO 


J^gS 


S O F^ 


ro ] 


§ i i i 


^?^ i 


^JC i 


^ 








^ 


' '^ — 


On 0-, r- 
— (N (N 


r-i -^ t^ CO On 00 
r-i (^ m m r^ f<-i 


On (N (N 

m Tf Tf 


■^ (^ u-1 

'^ TT TT 


>/n ON O 


5 


oo' ' ' ' 


S o ' 


O r-) ' 


NO 






&: 


£ 

M 


iic^ 


m NO ro 

m NO — 


O U-l Tt fN NO NO 
(N O r- NO r^ — 


NO rr ON 
r- o TT 


in m (N 


— — (N 

00 r^ O 


r- 1 


'^ ! 1 1 


00 in 1 


r- NO 1 

— On 1 














— NO r- 

r^ r-) Tf 


i;;§2S^R 


t^ r~- 00 


ro f^ (N 

00 00 00 


ON 00 — 
oo 00 ON 


S ' 


r- ' ' ' 

On 


S CO ' 

On on 


O O ' 

o o 


o 






in 




























Tt 


c 


O (^ OO 


■^ 00 On 


— r- CO t^ (N 00 


U^ rt NO 


ro r- (N 


ro (N ' — • 


— c 


— O O O 


m — O 


— — o 


— 






Ji? 


— »S (^ 


■* VI vo 


r- 00 ^ o — »s 


f^ ■* W^ 


NO r- 00 


ON O — 


fM r^ •^ l/V NO r- 
fs »s fs «s r^ fs 


sas 


— fs fo 


^ 


5 


< 


± 











61 



Om '5 

P 





— 


.c 


1 \ociOONr-~^t~->om 


1 1 -^ 


1 m 00 (N — 1 


Tj- CS OO 00 tN 1 


.^ . , , , 








.2* 


1 0> <N 1/-1 00 On >/^ -^ /O 


1 I ■=> 


] -^ r-i >/^ >0 1 


I/O -^ NO On r- I 


' ^ i IN 








•s 


' o ^' — — ' — (N <N ri 


' ' r^ 


' r-i rW rn n' ' 




1 ^ ... 1 






W) 


^ 


1 T3-rviCT>>/^Of^r~^ 


1 1 00 


1 ON OO a\ On ] 


NO ON r-> On NO 1 


.NO 1 1 1 1 






4J 


^ 


j ir^r-ooo— •^mM- 


1 1 "^ 


On 00 O — O 1 


1 ^- ] III 






■5 


■^ 


' d d d — ' — ' — ■ — ■ — 


' ' — 




— — r-i ri (N ' 


' (S ' ' ' ' 






^ 


, ^O — '/-1'/^t~-Tj-Ovm 


1 1 CN 


1 r- O On OJ 1 


t~- On LTi t^ t^ 1 


.NO ... . 






"Sd 


1 m 00 <N ^ r-~ vo •<*■ r~- 


1 1 <^ 


j 00 00 On — [ 


QS f^ „ jy-, _. 1 


] m ] III 




-«-< 




c 


' ^ — .' r-4 (N (N rW r-1 rW 


' ' TT 


' TT •^' rr' tri ' 


Tj-' Tj- ir-. i/-) iri ' 


' ITi ' ' ' ' 




« 




J 














9J 


















*3? 




.^ 


. — ^r~r~--'— oo^miA 


1 1 (^ 


, ^ ^ — — , 


o t-~ un i~~ NO , 


1 o , , , , 




a; 




fr 


1 r-i-^r-imvDCNiJ^r- 


1 1 (^J 


1 — CC (^ ^ 1 


O 00 ro ^. >yo ] 


[ ri . 1 ] 1 




&£ 




&£ 


1 TJ-' (N d r-' cK w-i (N >o' 


1 1 r^ 


! r-' un On — ' 1 


d \6 r^' r; ^' ' 

On 00 On O On 


! On' 1 ' ' • 




« 




"S 


CNr^-<3-'^'3- '0v0>0 


t^ 


C« oo 00 On 


On 




u 




X 














1 


£ 


J= 


, ONOm — vor-^ooON 


1 . o 


, ON 00 ir-, o , 


NO — ^ ^ NO , 


. t^ 1 1 . . 




■£ 


^ 


1 r~- r-i ^o vo 00 (^1 r^ o 


« 


1 — Tj- (-1 "O 1 


r- — lyo r- r) 1 


. t~~ . ... 






J 


' m 00 (N vb t~~ vo '^ t~- 


1 ! r^ 


1 00 r- On' o ! 


ON oo' — tn (N ' 


1 rr' 1 1 1 1 






■^ 


^— (NCNtNr^r-ir^ 


•^ 


TT rr tT >y^ 


■<3- -r]- iTi m i/"i 


lAi 






E 


M) 

J 


1 t^-On— r^r-~ii/"j^O^ 


I 1 >o 


a, IT, ^ y/^ 
j 00 On 00 — 1 


^ r- — o CO , 

(N t^ f^ W-) (N I 


1 ^ 1 1 1 1 








1 TT Kn t~-' r- d <N oo' Tf' 

mT3-Ln\or-ONooaN 


1 Ig 


1 r^' — NO d 1 
(N (N (N r2 


vo' -- d — — ' 1 
c^i rj r-i ^ (^ 


' ^ ' 






















^^ 


I^ 


e 


or^c«>j^"^ur, — CN-^ 


o o ^ 


O — — r^ ^ C 


(N m CN CN — O 


O (N O O O O 


r^ 


00 


(N uo — 












o> 














"« 


g 




— fSfj'itu^vor-QOON 


o — ♦sf^'^w^vor-oc 


ON O — «S (^ -v 


W^ NO t- 00 ON o 
fS fS (S fS fS (^ 


1 







fr 


. tnoor-rrt^NOON — — (^ooNONOw-i-^ 
] oocNONOcs'/^r-ON — — cNr^r^r-iT) 


1 m 
1 ''^ 


•^ (S o ri o . 

r~~ I/O 00 On 00 I 


1 1 ^ 1 1 1 








■~ 


' o— — — <N(N(N(Nr^f^r^r^r^r^m 


' r~i 


r^ m r^ r^ r^ ' 










X 


















. r^Lnr^r-Noooooonr~-tniriur, ino 
] -rrNONOoor-iTj-'srNor^r-oooooNONCN 


1 f^^ 


wo OO O ^ r- 1 
— r^ n r~4 o | 


1 1 ^ 1 1 1 




& 

« 


' OOOO— — — —— — —— — — (N 

. oinr--(Nror~-Tr-^<NONONr-oooN 
1 r^ooinTj-mi/ooo— -^^Nor^-ONONON 


1 '^ 


(N — ri cN cnI ' 

NO O W-, — NO . 

— r) ^ uo tri 1 


. . ro . . . 
1 1 O 1 1 1 




4J 




S 
1 


■ — — — cNr^mm^TTTr^^TT'd-'^ 

c^lmoO' — ^on— •^— — ooooONmr^'^ 
. uriNO— t^tnONONONOi/'iCNrJ^OlON 


. "^ 


in U-, ir, W-, lA) ' 

rJ On r^ (N TT , 

O ro ^O ^ ^ . 


. . ^ . . . 

oo 
1 1 ^ 1 1 1 

1 1 g 1 1 1 




WD 

2 




. . — ^ (vj t-^ — r- tT d no On On r^ uo >^ ''O On 

(Nro(N'^>/oNor-r-~r^r^oooooooNoo 


'g 


On 00 ON On On 




^ 


E 




, NO'*'Aia\-^ooNr^r--oor-NoooNO 
1 ooTj-ONONor-i/or-ir^ONOONNOi/oo 


1 r-~ 


— o r) — r- , 
r-~ r) On ^ wo . 


1 1 '~^. 1 1 1 






= 


1 d NO u-i fs ^ r~-' r-' d ro ■^' r~-' no on on Noi 


' r- 


Tj- W-, w", r-~ r) ■ 
wo -"a- W-, wo wo 


1 1 00 1 ' 1 






E 


oi) 

s 


, r-ONON^r-ioo- 2^o^28!5??l£^^ 

1 ON 00 t- ro wo -O NO O - ON O q '^. n NO 

1 (si vci On — Tt' d t~-' •£> <N ro ON — ^ ^ NO 

ro'^r^NoooONONO- — — (N<N(Nr4 


iS 

I On' 


r) ^ t~- — ^ 

— — rr On r^ 1 

— (n' oo' On' — ! 
ro ro ro ro -^ 


1 1 «N 1 1 1 
1 1 ro 1 1 1 

W", 




^ 








o^ 


e 


O — m— rO' — ^ONNO~~NOONr^'/-i — (^IM 


o oi 


T3- — — (N — O 


o o — o o o 




^ 


&r 


— fSf^-^w^vor-ooovo — riro'^w^NOt-oo 


ON O — M fO -^ 


IT/ SC 1^ 00 ON O 
fS fS (S fS fS fO 


f2 


■< 


^ 









31 



On -a 





r 


^ 






















1 On O 


iON(SCNNOON>nOOONON 1 


•«i- 1 


1 oo r- 00 NO 1 1 


1 ■ On 


1 r- 1 








1 VO O 


1 <-> NO ^. r- 00 00 i^ (N TT ^. 1 


m 1 


] n r^ m r-i j | 


! 1 n 


1 f"" 1 










' d — ■ 


1 ^ ^ „ ^ „■ ^' csi (NJ ri (N ' 


(N ' 


' CN (N (N (N ' ' 


' ' (N 


' CN ' 






s 


^ 


1 00 On 


ir^oooor-Ttr-ioo(Noooo i 


r^ 1 


1 ir^ m NO iri 1 1 


! ! ^ 


! rT" 1 






^ 


."i 


I ^ NO 


|OnOO — CN<Nm-<ti/n«n ] 




1 in I/-) NO li^ 1 ! 


1 1 ^ 


1 t~- ] 






1 


^ 


' d d 


1 o — •' — ■ — — ■ — ■ — — ■ ^' — ' 


'-" 


' ,— ^ — — ' 


^ 


— 




^ 




,£ 
















« 




"Sd 


1 ^ NO 


iir^O(N>nONONON"^r^(N 1 
|nOOnOnO — — -^w^oooo ] 


rr- 1 


1 <N — — O 1 1 


1 1 m 


1 m 1 








! 00 — 


r- 1 


j 00 00 o oo 1 ] 


1 I °* 


j ^- 1 








^ 


' d — 


1 „■ ^ ^ c^ c^ c-i <N (N csi <N ' 


(N ' 


' (N r^ r-i (N ' ' 


' ' (N 


' rn ' 




N 
'7: 




^ 


, m — 


r-Nor-f^'-r^csNO^Tj- , 




, 00 in On <N , , 


1 1 <^ 


1 ^ , 




V 




."!> 


1 w^ «ri 


1 m o ^ 00 On o m r~- (^ — | 


^. i 


j m — TT O j [ 


^. 


I ^ 1 




M 




1 r~-' in' 


1 i/~i >— 1 — Tf r-~ r-m iTi ro m 1 


ON 1 


> d O iri d ' 1 


1 1 o 


1 d ' 




c: 




4i> 


— (N 


r^-^TT'^-^-^iri'/^NONO 




NO NO NO NO 


NO 


t^ 




u 




s 


















S2 


















< 


44 


^ 


, •— ' m 


,00— ooroTr(Nr-ooo^ , 


00 , 


, On in 00 NO , , 


1 1 "^ 


1 ^ r 




"S 


^ 


^^ 


[ NO r^ r<-i NO •<?• — O — , r-J — ] 


00 1 


1 T]- m — CN j j 


^. 


1 ■"* 1 






"5 


:^'^' 


' fW r-' r-' On — — ' >/-i NO d d < 


00 1 


' On On <N On ' ' 


! 1 ^ 


1 tt' 1 






■^ 




CN(NfN(Nr^r^mr<-i-<rTr 


m 


r-, r-1 -^ r-1 


(^ 


-^ 






S 


f 


, (N TT 


,000—0 — ^0000 , 


^ 1 


, (N in 00 On , , 


^ 


_ 








M 


j NO TT 


joomr- — r-r-rii/^ooNO j 


^. 1 


j NO n m — j j 


i i ^. 


1 o 1 








C 


! d o< 


1 — oo' 00 cNJ in' i/S m' TT — — 1 


o 1 


1 ^ _■ ^ ^ , , 


! 1 ^ 


1 d ! 








V 


(N (N 


•rrT3-T3-i/^iniriNONor~-r~- 


r- 


r~~ r-~ t^ r- 


r- 


00 




00 




e 


O — m 


om'^oomm— (N<No) — O 


— o 


O — — r-i — O O 


o o — 


o — o 




0^ 


































_„ 


S^ 


&? 


<— «S fO 


•*>/)vor-oooNO — r^f<^-^>/^ 


NO r^ 


00 OV o — n fO -^ 


w^ vo r- 


00 ON o 




<^j 








.— -^ fs n «s fs fs 


<S fS fS 


«S fS 1^ 



61 



CM (N O (N r-l (N n (N 



r~- ON m rj On 



(NCNCNr^) 'fN<NCN(N(N<Nr^(N 



mmoo , m'^mONOO 

O (N — j NO r4 ^ r- Tj- r^ 

00 d r-' 1 tt' o — d ■^' tt 

' — ' r^ r~n mmmmmin 



00NO'^t~~r-~m — — ,r~--^ 

ininmiriO— ooo ir^ON 

NO o r- tt o in ri tt ' r-~ rr 

inNOmNO^ONONONO NONO 



■Tfin , fScNrr^-irioo ,tNoooo— O-^O ,mON 

(N-^ j ONr-~— (nnocn jinrooor~-(NinrroN ir--o 

in On ' O tT r- 00 d — > r~ on on rf rj (N no m' ■ -rf On 

mr*^ ■^•^mmNONO NONONor-r-r~-t~~-t~^ oot~~- 



OX) £ 



O O — — in o 



— <«Sf^ Trw^NOt^oooNO 



— — r4 O (N 







.2f 


<N -^ r- 

to VO oo 
d d d 

^ ;g- On 
ro -^ W-, 

d d d 
TT r- o 

i/^ VO On 

d d d 


— O NO 

— <-l l/^ 


— O O O to o 
NO OO On O O — 


r) o NO 

(N (N (N 
(N (N <N 


— (N ON 
Tt r-i tf 

H (N <N 

NO m, NO 




2.51 1.65 2.48 


2.77 1.77 2.68 






1 


S 

"Sd 

c 


1/1 00 in 

r- 00 o 


§0r:;5^p;0 




2^S 


S.SS^.SS^. 


r~- in <N 

r) rj r-i 

(N <N <N 


in 00 — 
rr ri m 
CS (N (N 


— OO 

rsi (N 


« 

.§ 




nJ 








a> 




'S 


— — 00 
(N Cl O 


o 00 r- 

— O >J-) 


m (N O O NO ly^ 
On NO CN On O (N 


On m o 
(N r- rr 


(^ NO — 
(N On (N 


— 00 
(N On 


1 OO 1 1 

1 ^. 1 ! 


. ITi . . . 1 

. O c 1 1 1 




2 




r^ NO (N 
— — (N 


oo r^ ON 
(N r^ f^ 


O w^ OO O (N ro 
T]- Tt rr ly^ >n >n 


NO m r- 
m m m 


:5S^S 


ss 


1 m 1 1 

NO 


1 00 ' 1 1 1 




a; 


TT 00 O 
^ (N - 


oo r-~ — 

O r<l NO 


o NO xr o ^ TT 
IT) >/i (N O t-- in 


ON ro On 
Tl- — — 


p-g 


On (N 

o Td- 


i§ i i 


1 '^ 1 1 1 1 
1 On 1 > 1 1 






= 


On' ;::; ^ 


2?]^ 


r-~ o CNi rr -^ in 

<N m r^ r-i r^ r-i 


t^ r- 00 

m r^ ro 


O On (N 
■^ m Tf 


(N O 


1 CN ' ' 


1 TJ- 1 1 1 1 






E 


Ml 


NO '^ rj 

NO On On 


§22S 


On O (N OO ON NO 
— t~- (N On — (N 


O in On 

NO — OO 


t^ ro NO 
oj in r- 


NO NO 

r- ON 


1 <^ 1 1 

] NO j j 


, ^ , , , 1 
1 (N 1 11 1 






< 


C 
C 


(^ NO (N 
— — (N 

^ fS fO 


ON rr o 

(N r-i -^ 
Tj- t~- CO 

r-. ly-) • — 

■* w^ so 


(N NO On -- PO ^ 
TT ^ 'J- in m m 

t^ 00 ON o — n 


r- t^ 00 
m m, ir, 

On NO rr 

f^ ^ vn 


r-i o (^ 

NO NO NO 

in 00 -a- 
NC r~- 00 


NO NO 

ON o 


1 m 1 1 

NO 

o — o o 

— «N f^ -^ 
«N «N n «N 


1 O 1 1 1 1 

o — o o o o 

IT) \0 f- 9C as <z> 

»N fN <S M <S f<^ 


s2 


o^ 
















O 







ex) 


NOCNltNt^t^^r^OONOTTONO— OOn 

(N-^ooocNmmNOooooON— — m — 


1 r) o 00 1 1 1 1 1 

jr^r'ifNIIlllllllll 








X 


OOO— — ———'- — — <N(NtN(N 


' <^i CN (N ''''■''''' ' 








i 


NOONNO-^oooONOTTmr-O-^oOror^ 
— <N in r- 00 00 o — r~] r-4 f^ r-> r^ in •^ 


i^CNON 

\Z:2Z i i i i i i i i i i i 




So 

CO 


c 


W) 

c 

WD 


— oor<-iONO(N(N-*<Nr4r--<Tt--r-m 

mTj-ooOf^mNOr-ONONO— — mrJ 


l^-^NOiill] ]]]]]! 




•35 




ooo— ' — —— — — — rirNiririri 

oo'nONr-iONr-NOr<-i(N — c^OOOnnOtT 

Tj-r-r-— (NtNr-NOr-iNO-rrm-^rom 


' CN (N ri ' 






"5 
S 


X 

■5 


voOor-cNroONCNr-^NOor-ifioom 
— fN<Nf^r'>r^Tr'3--^ininininin 

oooo^t^mONT}-.— oooNOr-iNOinr) 

— P-,(NNO(Nr^OOO(N(NON— ONf-CM 


'0000001111 

m m m, 

,inoo, 

1 mD !^ ON 1 1 1 j ] 1 ] j ] 1 1 






^ 


Tf'r--'rtOO(N(NNOON — (NCNtTtTOONO 
— — (N(N(NCNmroromr^r^r-i 


■ Nooor-'i '1 

(-1 (^ r-i 






E 


£ 

M 


Q^rs-^mONin cNCNNor-mcN ocn — 


,0\— 'r-.,, ,, 

j— ONr^j[][j]]j]j| 








^ 


r-~'(N — r-cNr-i— 'Trcooo(N-^inot^ 
— (NfNr^mTr-^Tr-^minmNOm 


\0 <> '^ 






c^ 








\o 




s 


, — i , — ^r^'^'^ONTroomTj-r^-'TrTj-Min 
— r^n■<*w^No^-soo^o — f^f^-^i/i 


o. — ooooooooooo 

Not^oooNO — <NfO'*i/^Nor~-oooNO 


(2 









D 



II 

u o 

,w .23 



o 3 



s 


^ 


«n 






JD 


ij 




^ 




O) 


S 


t*- 


1) 


rn 


> 


S 


^ 


F 


^ 


<i< 








3 


rr 








r~~ 






e 


On 


"(i) 


C 








-o 










r ( 




t 

O 


8 


^ 










> 


1 


ex 

i 


JO 




o 


j^^ 


^ 


g. 




X 


< t3 



(^(N\oroMDOor~-ON^>oor-i/-i— — cpoor~-MD i^ocn^o icnvooo 

O O -^ —' — — — — — — CN <N (N (N (N (N CN (N (N tN ' (N CN (^i ' CN fN CN 

o o o o ^ <D o — — ' — '■ ^ ■— ' — •' — ' — ' '-' — ■' — --■ — • ^ _' _; ' — — : ^' 

O O — ^- ^ — ^ (N (N (N tN CN fN (N <N (N CN (si (N (^i ' CN CN CN ' m ro (^ 



CN'^^CNONON'v^'^CN^OON^ 

o ^ ^^ 00 o ^/~i '^ """^ ''^ '"^ '^^ '^^ 



v'-j-^rsNU'-A"^ CNOO^Ov^r^l — OOCN 
OOONOOCNmcNu^t^— O'^ ~ 



VO r-i On 00 CN O OO O r-- On CNrn iv^ rf 00 ^O OO 00 O O- 
^^CNCNr^'^-^mmTr'^Ln'^>Jomi/->v-)ir)iri>OiA 



moor-^-NOm — oor~-ooTtONoo-^c~-4cNOt~^>/^ 
crNr~-cNmcNmooONONO>/~iONm— OvtnONm — 
m rj-' ir)\r) On NO 00 00 O O 
CNCNCNCNmf^ror-immrorot^mmTr'^ 



On — NOmND'^CN — O 



Ttmrnr^iOTf^or-NOr^ONr^ooNOooONiot--— i/^ 
ON <N i>^ CN >/-i i/^ CN CN ro O ri 00 -^ in ■^ r~- •^ O ^ — ; 
r<-i (N On •— iri r^ O NO m no On O r^ CN 00 Tf' r~- 00 O O 
— CNCN'^TtTrTj-i/^inurii/^NONONONDNONDNOr^t-^ 



r- Tj- NO 

•^ On r-i 


1 ^^^ 


CN r^ CN 

NO NO NO 


1 -rr lAi i/^ 

NO NO NO 


t~- NO 00 

r^ NO CN 


, CO — — 

1 r~- r- — 


CN r-> c^) 

'^ -^ '^ 


1 r-> Tj-' LT, 

-^ -^ ■^ 


— lA) NO 

00 ON NO 


, m r- r-i 
1 — NO r-i 


r-i uo f<-i 
r- r- r- 


1 NO r- 00 
r- r- r- 



« o 

3 



— — 'Tj-iy-ir^r<-icN>A)t-nr~ 



-HfNf^-^iriNOt^SCONO 



CN •^ (^ CN 



Part III. 



Calculated morphological shell measurements of 

commercial mussel species of various ages from Reach 15 

of the Upper Mississippi River. 



Description 



Page 



Table G-14 : Amblema plicata - Threeridge 



Table G-15 
Table G-16 
Table G-17 
Table G-18 



Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Qiiadrula pustulosa - Pimpleback 
Quadnda metanevra - Monkeyface 



G-17 
G-18 
G-19 
G-20 
G-21 



Page G-16 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



o o o ^ ^ ^ --' ^ --' rs H H H r^i (N H H H r^' r4 H M r^i ^^^ r^ rs <N r^ r^ r^) r^ r<^ (^ rn 



O O O O O ' 



(N (N <N <N 



inoo — Ti-%oooOfS-<3->/^^r-oooNOOO' 

O O — ■ —:—'—■ (Ni (N <N rs (N <N <N fN r-i r-i' rW - 



m r^ m ro m r^ 



ooOr<-iONfN''J'ONOOr'^ — 

^ 00 -^ On ■^ 00 (N ^ O^ ^~ m iri r-- 00 O 



00 On ON 
O ^ '^ 



— r-oor~-r-~ONi/-it-oooi/-iv/^(Nooi/*i'>or^i 

. — ^r<-i(N0O — — ON'^t^ON00^rO00mr~~ — • 

— '*' r-' C^ (N '*' iri' r~-' oo CK O — ' (N H r^' r^' Tf • 



r^r-mvDOOi/-)Ost^Oi/-)-*(Nm — — u^C 
v,£)— 'ONONfNONON'^'^oooo-^vOiri— -^^ 

fN ^ 00 in H r^ (NJ r~- — tt r~- o (N -^ ^ r~ oo on o — — rj r^ 
^cN(Nr^'^'^mwr)vo^vDr^r-r^r^r~-t^r^oooooooooo 



Tt r-i ^ fN — :5 O 
o-i (N TJ- O O '^. ^. 

^ - , ^ , - . . V , so o< j:^' ^' 

cocoooooooCnOnOnOnOO 



m ^ r~- ON 






MPO'^»r)vor-oooNO 







1 


r-i — ^ 
f^ VO 00 
O O O 

^D \0 Tt 
(N Tt vO 

o o o 


§.--. 


r- r<-) r-- 

^. °°. '^. 


ON o o 
O r^ m 

(N (N (N 

00 1/-1 — 
TT <^ NO 


oo VO fN 
fO -^ m, 

oi r4 <N 

NO O r^ 

VO r- t^ 


(N oj cm' 

VO CO o 
r-~ f- 00 


O m m, 

r- r- r- 

M fsi (N 

— (N (^ 

00 00 oo^ 


CO O fN 
t^ CO CO 
fN' fN fN 

Tj- mi VO 

00 00^ 00 


fN fN fN fN fN m m CO fO r^ 

t^CTv^f^voOTj-OvOr^ 
OO CO 0\ 0\ ON O O — — CNl 




{ 


— -vD ON 

00 ON q 


— — o 

(N r^ Tj- 


& 
























^ O (N 
r-i r- O 


— 00 ro 
m m 00 


m m Tj- 

O fN T3- 


O m ON 
NO r^ 00 


— — o 

O — (N 


00 VO (N 
(N rn '^ 


t^ fN r-- 

■^ m mi 


— TJ- 00 

NO NO NO 


— moOfNt^fNoOTt — O 

r-i^r-oooooNONO — fN 






^2 


o o — 




(N (N (N 


(N (N fN 


r^ r-i (^ 


r-1 r'l r-1 


r^ ro r-) 


(^ m r^ 


c^r-ir-ir^rof-imTtrfT 


1 
1 




^ 


r~. <N 00 

r-, ^ «3 


ON r- V-N 


^^§ 


<N--ND 

— ON f^ 


mS§ 


^?;S 


^5:^5^ 


r^ NO mi 
mi — r-- 


NOr-it~-— ON-rrr-fN — t^ 
mor^Nomr-ONO'a-T]- 




ii 


°°:^?^ 


r- ro CO 
r^ m r^ 


(N VO ON 
■^ ^ 'd- 


ni m 00 
m mi mi 


NO NO VO 


mi VO r~ 

NO NO NO 


§SS 


t^ F^ r^ 


fNmr^^mNOOOON — r^. 

r-t^t^r^t^t^r~(^ooco 






£ 


ON fN OO 
•^ VD <N 


ON CO VO 

■<T (N NO 


^P^S 


VO o 00 

VO Tt 00 


ziss 


O mi ON 

r- (N NO 


rr fN NO 

O r-i mi 


00 o NO 
r~- o fN 


r-m^^-mi — mioomfNON 
mONrtOOOr-OOfNOOND" 




E 

= 


^ 


^o-;£ 


o rr r- 

fN tN «N 


O r-1 in 


r- ON o 
(^ m '^ 


(N r-^ '^ 
'^ -^ -^ 


Tf mi mi 
^ ^ Tf 


NO NO NO 

'S- ^ TT 


NO r- r^ 
■^ -"^ ^ 


r^r-oooNONO — ro-^NO 

■^■^■^■^■^mimimimimi 


1 

1 




J 


TJ- O 00 

Soooo, 


ri ^ — 

m — Tj- 


o r-- m 
— rs ON 


r~- m f^ 

— ON f^ 


^§t? 


fN -^ fO 
■^ (N 00 


Tl- oo 00 

fN Tj- m 


ON fN — 
mi mi -^ 


ONOOfNmir-~TfOC--f;ON 
fN — oJmiONNO^m, 




ONt-~ir, r^O^O(Nr-~— ^ONm 


^^« 


(-n m. NO 
00 CC 00 


00 ON O — fN ro 

00 00 ON ON C^ ON 


Tj-' mi NO t< 00 ON g fN ^ NO 


C5 


II 


— fS f) 


■* W^vO 


r- 00 ON 


o — »s 


PO TT 1/) 


NO t^ 00 


2:g^ 


fS fi -T 
fS »S »S 


w^vor-oooNO — »srn-v 



« .-a 

« -a 



>^ ON (N li^ 00 -- r-i W-, r-~ CO o -- rsi f^ r^ -^ i/-^. >^. ^. ^. f^. f-~. t^. <», °°. t^^ <^. P ^. <^* 



r^ i/~) r-- oo 



rnTrm>Ai\or~r~oocioONO\CN 



tN(N(N<N(N(N (N(N(N (N(NCN 



r- ?^ CO r^ S o f^ >o 00 o r) ^ w-> \o r- oo On o o -- -- r-i <^ r^ TT "^ MD r~. CO o 



(N (N m ro m 



■q- Tj- TT rr 



ONr--f^r^--o^ONr-Tr(NooTt>^Ttr-r-0;NOrsr^--riON-ooog:^P^g 

C~- O i/^ CN CN >/^ ■-■ -- NO^ -- -- 00 -- -- 00 r^ ^ 00 On On ON ON On •— -^ ON r-. (^. '-J. 

tt -^^ <N d t^' <-i On' Tt oo' (N ^' o< — Tf' vb r-' on' d — r i r^ ^' u-; ;o oo ON o g g ^ 

■— CSf^'^-*>/^>^^^r^l~^f~~«500'>=°0'>'ONONO\ONOvONONONON0222 

ONaN>^r-o«/^Tro«j^(N<NoornooNOONO--;2-r^NOON^cNr--or^O(N|-. 
5^ \0 rn u^ Tt 00 On t~~ -- r^ r-l 00 r^ iri ^o u^ ^ -- r-- r^ s« n C^ ij^. -- On 1-- t-- 1^^ 
no' f^' 00 m' NO ON r-i iri 00 d H (^ >J^ ^' K 00 On' d o _- -- r-i H (^ TT 'J i^ NO J-- ON 






-r.f^^.A^«r^occ^o--JS23:f2i2i:22SMp3;^^;^J5Pi?5?i^ 







•s 

X 


oo\cscsNor---^r~r--TrooooNr-rnONrnNOON(Nir)cocNco^tS(N^ONNO 
CN NO -"-J in 00 -- 4 NO 00 O -- r^ rn_ '^ w^. "/-^ MD^. ^, ^^ =«. =«. On "O — (N r") w, 
O o — ' ^ — ' (N CN (N C~) r'i rW rW rW r^' r^ rn (^ r^ r<-i rW ri' r^' ro r^ r-i -^ •<?■ -^ ^ -^ 


4J 

.a 

1 


■g 




t^iAiOoir-iONOON — — or-r-ioo — >j^t~-ON— rir-iwir-ON— -i/^onttooo 

Or^NOOOOCNrnTrNOr-OOOOONONOOOO— — ——' — — CNC^i*^)!^"^. '^. 

d d d d — — '- — —— — —' — — <^J (N (N ri cn (N oi ri (N ri rsi n r) cn ri r-j 




c 


ONNONOoeoor^cou-^ONOo^oooNco^fNicor^ON'Aifs-— •— ;^ONr-Ov>A)i^ 
r^ o NO (N NO ■=- 'd- r- o c^j '^r NO t-- 00 On o -- -- rj (N r^^ in ^. r- 00 o <N LT, 00 
0^^(si(Nf^rrir^Tr'Tr^'Trrr^^'iriiiOinin>A,ir.«joi/^ir,ini/-.NONONOvO 




J 






'S 

X 


^r^NooNONom'^ovON — =«=«2?^<='!^r£2=^':;'^:£2::i£S^2g 

o ^ in '^ <^ o 00 t^ r- o r- r- — — r^ o — - On r~- ■* — o ^ '^ "" ~: "^^ f^^ ~, °°. 
tr{ r~-' oo' 00 r-' m' -- r- <n r-' d r^ no oo' on' -- <n H r^ ^' -r^' no t^' oo g g g ^ — >^ 

"^^fvjr^TfLnvONor-t^oooooooooooNONONONONONONONONOoSSz:;!! 




E 

1 


c 


^f^r-ir^ — — ^<^)— t--TrNONOONoor~~ONONONOor~-— m, (Nr^-^in^^o 
SSSf^ONOm^ONONTrS^ON ONir>oinoor-ii/-iO«^. cso-^. oo 


4 

c^ 




C8 




-nn^.^^.-oc^o--rj22^:£!::22:s;:P3;:i^;c]j5P^S?^S 



00 >, 

^ 'S 









r^ O lo 
rr r^ a\ 


t^ r- TT 

— ro w-i 


O m m 

t^ 00 On 


>/^ m o 

O — <N 


NO — •^ 

(N m m 


r- ON — 
(^ m -"^r 


CN ro -^ 
Tl- ^ ^ 


ir> NO r~- 
■<3- -^ ■^ 


ON CN m 
Tj- «n in 


IT) NO r~ 








o o o 

Tj- O in 
m w-> \o 

d d d 






ts ts cs 

Tl- On (^ 
f^ m TJ- 


(N (N (N 

r- o (N 

Tj- iri ly-i 


CN (N (S 

■^ NO r- 
I/-) m in 


CN (N <N 

r^ 00 oo 

iri iy-> in 


CN CN CN 

ON ON O 

m in NO 


CN CN CN 
— CN m 

VO NO NO 


CN CN CN 

NO NO r-~_ 




1 

.E 




^.^,o 


<N O t^ 
-. <^. '^. 


2 

1 


^ 
























^S^ 


r^ ON CTs 
(^ 1/-1 t^ 


t^ r^ NO 
On — (S 


00 00 r- 

m TJ- w^ 


"5 O Tj- 

NO r~ r- 


r-~ 00 CO 


1/-1 NO r- 

CO CO CO 


00 On -^ 
OO CO On 


On On On 


8S2 






o o — 


^ ^ ^ 


— (N <N 


<N <N (S 


CN <N (N 


CN CN CN 


CN CN CN 


CN CN CN 


CN CN CN 


ro m m 




J 
























^ 


s?s^ 


f:?S 


— m 00 

— V^ Tf 


— ■'T (S 

O — On 


00 NO ON 

f^ m -"a- 


— NO t~- 

CN r- — 


00 r^ >ri 
T3- r- o 


00 NO CN 

— rr 00 


O r-i NO 
ro ON r-~ 


CN (^ NO 

00 — r~- 




'Z 

X 


2!::?; 


ON -^ On 
<N r^ n 


(^ NO ON 
■^ -^ -^ 


(N TT «/-^ 
i/~) KT) W-) 


r- 00 On 


NO NO NO 


— — — CN CN (^1 

NO NO NO NO NO NO 


m r^ Tj- 

NO NO NO 


iri r- 00 

NO NO NO 




1 


.£ 
^ 


„ ^ — 

in r- ^ 


r- NO (N 

O - Ov 


m 00 (^ 
r-i -"^ m 


(N r- o 

ON (N ^ 


■<i- o o 
en — r- 


00 ^ O 
— l/^ 00 


O ^ NO 
O — (N 


NO OO T^ 

<-l Td- NO 


■^ CN O 

00 — m 


O r-1 CN 

o NO -"r 




F 


^ 


00 (S -o 


O r-i in 
CN (N (N 


oo O (N 
(N r-i f^ 


m >r) NO 
r^ tn m 


r- 00 00 
m r<^ r-i 


On On On 
r-i r^ n 


o o o 
-^ -^ -^ 


o o o 
■^ -^ -^ 


o — — 
"^ rr ^ 


CN CN Cl 

•^ -^ TT 






^ 
M 


iri r4 vo 

^O 'S- ■^ 


s;^?; 


On in ^ 

o o m 


On in — ■ 
'^ O CN 


— On ON 
O ^ NO 


m ON NO 
NO r-i CJN 


On (-1 O 

r^ r-- o 


1/-1 — CN 

CN >n 00 


CN -^ (N 

CN r- -"^ 


0\ O 00 

CN Tf r~ 


00 




C 
,1 


f^ — 00 
-- CS (N 


?;?^ 


o -"i- t-- 

m 1/-1 ly-i 


O r^ in 

NO NO NO 


r~- 00 On 

NO NO NO 


O ^ — 

r-~ r- r~- 


CN CN r^ 

r- r~- r- 


m r-i m 
r- r~- r- 


rj- Tt 1/-1 

r- r- r~- 


NO r- OO 
r- r- r-- 


&) 
^ 


? 
>> 


— «S f^ 


•^ tr) \o 


r- 90 o^ 


O — M 


f^ •^ u^ 


so r- «e 


ON O — 


CN fO -^ 
CN «S CN 


w^ NO r- 

CN CN CN 


00 ©N o 
»S CN en 











Ml £ 



CNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNfNCNCNCNCNCNCNmr^ 



o o o o o 



(N CN m r^ -^ m 
CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN r^ m m m ro ro rn f^ ro rW rn 



O'^r^t^ — CNCNr-CN— OOONOOONr-r^r^Or^NOTf 

oNOinNO^-ON— r--ONNOoor~-mNor^NOTr— r-"-^ 

t^' tT .— r--- rn r~- CN in 00 ^- rn in r-~ OO ON d ^ CN CN r^ Tj- tT in NO 00 On •— rn NO ON 

— cNCNr«-iro'^TtTru-)>/-)iomiAimNONONONONONONONONONONor^r-r-~r~- 



t~- m o 00 r- 00 

TTm NO 00 On— m NO On 



■ lAi 00 On O ON 

' r~- NO On r-~ 00 



— TtOCNm— inoONNO>/^oo— NONOr~-ooONm'^NOCNNOcNr^roinro^- 
ri^ ■^ O O in NO CN in rn On (N CN ^- r~- CN NO O rn in ON rn 00 in r-i -^ r-- rn CN in CN 
vo '-' ^ d m NO On— m' rf' NO r- 00 00 os os d d d d ^ — cn m -rr m' r- o\ — ■ ■^ 

--— CNCNCNCNmmmr^r'-ir-ir-ir^f^-rr-rrTr'^'^-^Tr'^'^-^-^-^inin 



m— Om — o-^oomNOt'-ONin 
>n On CN rr r- o r^ r- m O On o ■^ 

O r~ Tf O NO 1— I m On r^ no On CN ^t NO 00 d CN rW ■^ NO t-~- 00 d ^ CN •* NO r- d CN 

— -^cNmmTfTj-TtmmmNONONONor-r-t^r^r-t~~r-oooooooocooooNON 






r) fN r-i (N r^ r-) (N <N rJ (N (N cN <N c-4 rj r4 CI (N (N (N 



o o o o o 



o o o — • — — — -— — (N (N r~i (N r-4 oj oj ri <n cj cn rj rN (n oj ci (N r-4 ri ri m 



r--.' r-i vo ov (N >r-i r-' cK — ro ■^ ^o r-^ c<d od cK o o —• — ■ — (N (n r^ -^ -^ i/S >o t~~- 0\ 



^ 00 rf c^' •^' od (N >/S 00 — ' ro iri r~- 00 On O — H oj m -^ >r-> ^ r^ OO cK •— (^ >/"i 00 



OX) 2 



0-1 



(N(NMCNCN<N(NCN <Nd(N(N(N(N (NCN(SCNrJ<N 



.= g 



irimmONmiri»/^'^r)oor^jr~-Om>/~i>OooON— rJ-^t^O-^ONi/^i^ncNcN-^ 

— mi/~iVOOOONO — OOmr<-i■Tr■^'d"•^■^■^>^l^'"|'^l'^^'v0^t^OOO^O^- 
O O O O O — ' — ' — — — — ' — ' — ' — — — '' ————— — — — ■ — ■ — .' — -■ — (N (N 



O On O n 



On On m ON 



r-J CN (N M M r-) M Ol O O 04 (N (N m r-1 r^ m ro rn 



\r^— r~-ONOrO— OnOn^C) — ^(NO^r4tN00\0r-\O^— -^r-vOr-itN^O 

ofNNOTrr--r^'rroNOt~~ooNTrr~-r^TrO'^\oooONO— r-imoor^ooNO 
vri m Ov in O w-i On (N MO 00 — <N ■rr m' \o r-~ od od od od od on' on on o^ on o •— — m 



i/-)Os\0000'^\OOnvO— ONr-J'<5-0(N'/-imoO\OONC4 000-^— t~-Tj-r~Om 

00 ON ''^. '^. -~ ^ r~~ c^ oo TT ^ r~- U-. (N t^ -— iri 00 c) NO r-4 00 t~~ r~. o iri ■^ vo r-i m 
CO 00 (^ f^ ^~ "^ 'nO od o CN m ■^ lA,' »o MD r- r- r-~ od od on On o — m ■^ no od — tt 



go 



c N 
o 'K 



5 -° 



O Ph 



E Ei 










.2f 


TT o ro r^ C4 00 

•^ r~ ON — r^ ■* 


r^ NO oo 
NO r- 00 


^.o2. 


o m o tt r- -- 

CN CN r^ r^ m ■T 


(-1 NO ON 

•^ ■^ -^ 


--.", 


CN r-- CN 

VO NO t- 


g^S^ 














C~-i CN CN CN CN CN 

r~- o r-i NO 00 o 
TT m m m m NO 


CN CN CN 


rsi rsi rsi 


CN CN CN 


CN CN CN 


C8 




1 


^ 00 r^ r-~ On o 
r^ •«?• vO r- 00 o 


S2jq. 


(N 00 m 

r-1 r-i xr 


CN m m r~- ON — ' 

NO NO NO NO NO r- 


P^.g 


«.«.^. 


o o o o o — 
















C9 






On -^ r~ t^ vo n 

VO On — m >^ t^ 


ssss 


^ '^ <N 
CN r^ -^ 


C7\ m — m On r-i 
TT m NO NO NO r- 


NO O CN 

r~ r- 00 


00 00 CTs 


S^^S^.::).2^. 1 






^ 


o o — ■ — " ^ — ■ 


— ' rj cN cN rj (N cN (N rs (N cn ri 


CN CN CN 


CN CN (N 


CN CN r~i 


r^ (^ m 


2 




1 


(y^ 0\ <N 00 O — 

(N vo 1/-1 r~ >r^ r- 


m >0 iv-i 

tt r- NO 


00 r- in 
^ r^ CN 


t~~ m ro m CN O 
00 CN -^ rr f^ — ; 


— cTs r-- 
00 ^ — 


00 NO '^ 
00 NO >n 


NO m -^ 
in r- — 


r- NO r-~ 

r- NO 00 


1 




X 


^ r-' rW 00 f^' t-~^ 

^ — (N (N r-) P-1 


-^ ■^ -^ 


O CN rf 


m' r-' oo' ON o '-' 
m m m m NO NO 


— CN CI m TT m 

NO NO NO NO NO NO 


NO K On 

NO NO NO 


d CN '^' 

r- r- t-- 








(^ r^ ^ O On \0 
(js (N O lAi iy-> r^ 


^ 00 00 

00 ON 00 


m r~- o 
m ON c^4 


un <n CN r- rj- r^ 

CN — On m — NO 


00 — r»^ 

O >n ON 


00 r~- CN 

r^ 00 tT 


NO O 00 

o 00 NO 


— r-i CN 

r~- ON ro 




E 
E 




r- o t-- cN 00 NO 

in On no On NO On 


(N <N !^ 

— wr> O 
00 (N rl 


rW ■^' NO 
m r^ (^ 

— ON r- 
O m -^ 


r~-' 00 oo' ON o o 
m m m r-i T3- TT 

00 >0 r-i — uo NO 
CN 00 (N Tf TT m 


■^ -^ TT 
r- C^l ro 

^ ON NO 


CN CN ri 

^ -^ -^ 

r-i >n CN 

r^ O 00 


r- (N o 

NO NO r- 


NO r-' a\ 

rt ^ ^ 

in On m 

ON m O 








c 


r~~ m On '^ On m 

-^ CN cs (^ m -^ 


r~' — rr 

rr lAi in 


r- on' — ' 
m m NO 


rn -^ no' t^' oo' On 
NO NO NO NO NO NO 


d d — 
r-~ r- r~- 


CN m r*^ 
r^ t^ r- 


Tj-' in NO 
r- r- r- 


t— ' ON — ' 

r- r- 00 


< 


— «S f<^ ■^ 1/^ NO 


r- 00 On 


O — CN 


'^ 2 ''^ S ^ 2 


2S?; 


«s n -t 

CN CN CS 


1/2 NO r^ 

CN CN CN 


00 On O 
CN CN CO 









a" '2 

On :3 



u S 



Part IV. 



Growth curves for commercial mussel species from Reach 15 
of the Upper Mississippi River, 1987 and 1994-95. 



Description 



Page 



Figure G-1 
Figure G-2 
Figure G-3 
Figure G-4 
Figure G-5 



Amblema plicata - Threeridge 
Megalonaias nervosa - Washboard 
Quadnda quadnda - Mapleleaf 
Quadnda piistulosa - Pimpleback 
Quadrula metanevra - Monkeyface 



G-23 
G-24 
G-25 
G-26 

G-27 



Page G-22 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sunev - Reach 15 UMR 



Figure G-1. Growth curves based on the average observed size at age (Table G-5) of Amblema plicata 
collected from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. All 
growth curves were best described by a polynomial regression formula (Table GA).^ 
Coefficient of determination (r=) values for each growth curve are listed. Minimum commercial 
shell height (Dlinois) and average age at sexual maturity (Table G-2) are also shown. 




I ' ' ' I ' ' ' I ' ' ' I 
8 12 16 20 24 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



110 



Length (r^ = 0.9904); ••5- Height (r^ = 0.9908); \ Width (r^ = 0.9908) 




T 

12 16 20 24 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Page G-23 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Figure G-2. Growth curves based on the average observed size at age (Table G-6) ofMegalotiaias nen'osa 
collected from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. All 
growth curves were best described by a polynomial regression formula (Table G^). 
Coefficient of determination (r-) values for each growth curve are listed. Minimum commercial*" 
shell height (Illinois) and average age at sexual maturity (Table G-2) are also shown. 





-J-Length (e = 0.9817); "q Height (r^ = 0.9752); 


V Width (1^ = 0.9518) 


loU " 






^^ 




(a) 1994-95 




140 - 


-^^-f"^''^^ 


- 


120- 
100- 




^^•-r^""*^^ 


Minimum size limit ^^^' 


--0 


•/ ^^^.^.. 


■ 


80 - 




■ 


yn 


A ^' 




60 - 

40- 

in - 




_ ---' 


- 


7 p -^ ■.■^■ 


Avg. age at maturity 


_ 


20 - 
0- 


• 

— ^ , , r-^ r—r— 


/ 

— ' 1 r-j— r-T— r ■, r , , , , , i 


1 , < , 1 , < , 1 , < 



5 = 



8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



160 

140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 





"5"Lengtli (r^ = 0.9830); "q Height (r' = 0.9845); \ Width (r' = 0.9851) 






: (b)1987 


■ 


^^^,,...,— -""^ 




.^ 


; Minimum size limit ^^'''""^ 


\^ .o..^^ •^O^*"^' 


.•V 


/^n 




' 


/ ,^^ 


- -'V - • 


.. ■ 


A^.-'* 


Avg. age at maturity 


_ 


" '' >' 

1 s r— p-T 1 ^ 


/ 

"" ' ' 1 ' ' ' 1 ' ' ' 1 ' ' ^' "I 





6 


(/) 




»■ 




fp 










5 


3 




rft 




&s 


4 






■^ 




« 


3 


3 




3 




(■^ 




W3 


2 


^ 




3 




rj 




3- 


1 





12 16 20 24 

Estimated age (yrs.) 

Page G-24 

Whitney et al., Unionid Sunev - Reach 15 UMR 



28 



32 



36 



Figure G-3. Growth curves based on the average observed size at age (Table G-7) o^Quadrula quadrula 
collected from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. All 
growth curves were best described by a polynomial regression formula (Table G^). 
Coefficient of determination (r-) values for each growth curve are listed. Minimum commercial ' 
shell height (Illinois) and average age at sexual maturity (Table G-2) are also shown. 




8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Length (r^ = 0.9762); -o* Height (r^ = 0.9596); V Width (r^ = 0.9724) 




8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Page G-25 

Whitney et al., Unionid Suney - Reach 15 UMR 



Figure G-4. Growth curves based on the average observed size at age (Table G-8) o^ Qiiadnila pustulosa 
collected from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in (a) 1994-95 and (b) 1987. All 
growth curves were best described by a polynomial regression formula (Table G-4). 
Coefficient of determination (r^) values for each growth curve are listed. Minimum commercial ' 
shell height (Illinois) and average age at sexual maturity (Table G-2) are also shown. 



110 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 






-J-Length (1^ = 0.9930); -q' Height (r^ = 0.9927); \ Width (i^= 0.9904) 




(a) 1994-95 














■ 






Minimum size limit 


- 




3^ 




^ «r^r^ 






-^-«t5W*^*^' 


'&' 


. 


, 


r*^ 






%^ 




yC 


::...■'■---'- 


■• - 


• 






- 


- 




Avg. age at maturity 








'''!'''!''' 


''!''' r r ' T yT T T J T T T 






8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Length (r^ = 0.9951); •5' Height (r^ = 0.9940); V Width (r^ = 0.9937) 




8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Page G-26 

Whitney et al.. Unionid Sunev - Reach 15 UMR 



Figure G-5. Growth curves based on the average observed size at age (Table G-9) of Quadrula metanevra 
collected from Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River in 1987. All growth curves were best 
described by a polynomial regression formula (Table G^). Coefficient of determination (r^) 
values for each growth curve are listed. Minimum commercial shell height (Dlinois) and average 
age at sexual maturity (Table G-2) are also shown. 



3 
C/5 



Length (r^ = 0.9737); "q Height (r^ = 0.9705); V Width (r^ = 0.9725) 




T 

8 12 16 20 24 

Estimated age (yrs.) 



Page G-27 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 



Appendix H 

Zebra Mussels {Dreissena polymorphd) 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River 



Appendix H 

Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi Ri>er 



Description 



Page 



Table H-1 : Summary of quantitative sampling for zebra mussels at 

three sites in Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 
1994-95. 



H-2 



Figure H-1 : Length frequency histograms of zebra mussels collected at H-3 

Illinivvek study site (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Table H-2 : Population size structure of zebra mussels collected at H-4 

Illiniwek study site (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



Figure H-2 : Zebra mussel infestation of native unionids at two sites in H-5 

Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1994-95. 



Table H-3 : Zebra mussel infestation of native mussel species at Sylvan 

Slough study site (RM 485.8), 1994-95. 



H-6 



Table H-4 : Zebra mussel infestation of native mussel species at 

llhniwek study site (RM 492.4), 1994-95. 



H-7 



Page H-1 

Whitnev et al , Unionid Sun'ev - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Table H-1. Summary of quantitative sampling for zebra mussels at three sites in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River, 1994-95. 





Quantitativ 


e Samples 


Zebra 


mussel density (#/m^) 


Site / Date 




No. 


Size (m^) 


Mean 


Std.Dev. 


Range 


Sylvan Slough (RM 485.8) 












22 July 1994 




72 


0.25 


0.6 


1.4 


0-4 


12 July 1995 




12 


0.625 


426.0 


263.3 


56 - 992 


Case-IH (RM 488.5) 














20 July 1994 




50 


0.25 


1.2 


2.9 


0-12 


15 August 1994 




22 


0.25 


34.2 


33.8 


0-128 


Illiniwek (RM 492.4) 














22 July 1994 




40 


0.25 


1.7 


2.7 


0-8 


17 August 1994 




22 


0.25 


36.7 


24.5 


0-88 


11 July 1995 




12 


0.625 


2518.7 


730.5 


1344-3728 



Page H-2 

Whitnev et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 



Figure H-1. Length frequency histograms of zebra mussels collected at Dliniwek site (RM 492.4) in 
Reach 15 of the Upper Mississippi River from July 1994 through September 1995. 
Data used to generate these histograms is presented in Table H-2. 

Length Interval (mm) 

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 



35 
30 
25- 
20- 
15 
10 

5 


30 i 
25 
20 
15 
10 

5- 


30-t 
25 
20- 
15- 
10 

5 


30 
25 
20 
15 
10 

5 


30 
25 
20 
15 
10 

5- 





22 July 1994 




17 August 1994 




rff^ RS^^^»- 



01 December 1994 




11 Julxl995 




26 September 199^^ 



__.^^Hi|Wn»iqi|Hi 



9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 

Length Interval (mm) 
Page H-3 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 15 UMR 





1 


o o o rr oo o 


m m-o 


ooovs— Tj-r^oor-JO 


r^r-)0\oou-iaNavONC>avOOOooo 


1 




o o o r- oo i/^ 


o >n v-| 


ciir, o^^O^«/-^mooo 


u-lSOv^OO— (N<N«i-i(N'i-iOOOOOO 


"« 


O O O O O r^' 


sd oo' cK 


ro rsi r-~' r-i rg r^ od oo' x-i 


rW — o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 


1 


^ 














^ 












_c 


o o o o o o 


o r^ o 


O — n-jrjsovsocsoso 


oorfr--Trr-'S-oc — — Tfr--Trr-ooco 


1 


^ 


i 


ooo ooo 


0(-,0 


O r-J '* O so vO (N oc o 


>nr--r^r-r'ir-Tr — — t^r^t^r<-)OOOC; 


o o o o o o 


o o o 


O r-i •^' '*■' O O rW oo Tf 


r^' o o o o o — — — ' o o o o o o o o 


"Sd 
c 


t^ 




























IT) 








1 1 


!« 


^ 


o oo 00 "/^ 00 ce 


r- r-- lo 


oc«r-iinr^oooot--CNO 


^_-^-O^^C^00OOOOOOOOOO 


i 


"Z 




o >/-i >/-^ r~- u-i 1/-, 


— _ r^ 


>/-, r- 1^ CN w^ i/^i — — p-i 


^--r', r^J-^O-^^OOOOOOOOOC 


? 


1 


o o o — ■ o o 


— ' — 1 — ' 


O — — (^' o o — ' oo' cs' 


— — so' «y-; so' ^' O O O O O O O O O O C 


s 
B 












N 

O 


i' 


o o o o o o 


ov c^ 00 


r^l"*oo(Nr<^^oooo^O 


ooooooooooooooooc 


§ 


E 


oo o o o o 


o rr'3- 


Ttr^r^oOf<ias->s--<j->/-i 


OOOU-iOOu-, OOOOOn-noOOC 


o o o o o o 


o — rsi 


oo' o — ' r-' r-' •o (N — o 


o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 


« 












f 


o o o o o o 


O — OOroOOOOOOvooCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


o 
o 




<- 


ooooooo^ocwnoooooor^-oooococoocoooooocoooooo 




»N 


o o o o o o o o' >/S 


roOOOOOO— ;«-) 


Oiriiy^Ov-iOOOOO^r-iOOOOCO 




r^ 




(N 


rsi — 








■ — ' 












J= 1 


s 










"i 




ll 














— »S <^ ■>* W", vo 


r~-ooo\0 — (Ni^-^u^sor-ec 


0^0— rAi^-^iTiSOr-ooosO— «MfO-^ir, 


? 











It 



ON r. 













w, 






a; 


ON 

1 


ooou-isor^— oovy-,— u-,oounO'*t--o^'* — Tfoo — r^r-j'^r-i-^oooooo 


© 
00 

o 


— "*i/-isoaNOC^ — (--)(--) 1/-, sor^r-j — 










c 








._ 








^ 


1 


OOOOOOO — OOsOtNOOsDsOsOrf— r-(vj— (N — <N^r<-ir<->(N — (N— OOOO 




OX) 


— ■ r^ <r-| w, m (N — 


c 


r^ 






.2 
















~- 


•TT 








0\ 






1 




O — — m — — rsifNr^— r^r^io — — r^T(-soCNC3Nocso — l^— OOOOOOOOOO 


r- 


i 


_ 1 ^ __ (-sj (VJ 1 










E 


~ 






« 


. , 








i 






oooooor-4r<iinr-^(^Trso>nTt«/^m— OOO — OO— 'Ooooo— — OOO 


s 


N 


— r^-^ m m — 


O 


i 






d 


1 








(H 


ooooooo>/-i— ^oooooor^— o — — o — ooooo — oooooo 


I^ 












r-^ 


















!« 


5 «^ 






e* ^? 


— »Hf^-*i/^soi^wo\0 — fSfOTtinsor-oooso— «sr<^Tru-jsor-oooNO— r^rotiA, 


S ii E 


— .— —— — —— — — — r^r^r^r^r4r^r^«Mr^Mroror<ir<ir-)'^ 


H 


-> ^^ 







Figure H-2. Zebra mussel infestation of native unionids at two sites in Reach 15 of the Upper 
Mississippi River from July 1994 through September 1995. (a) % Infestation refers to 
the number of unionids with one or more attached zebra mussels, (b) Degree of 
Infestation refers to the number of attached zebra mussels on each unionid. 




July 
•94 



\ug. Dec. July 
'94 -94 '95 

Sampling Date 


%'^' 


Page H-5 

Whitney et al., Unionid Survey - Reach 1 5 UMR 







»/1 

On 


1 


O 




o 


CTs 




fN 







fS 


ON 


ro 











m 





r^4 
rsi 

















^—^ 


















































_-o 


«J 


















































c o 

.2 "c 


Q. 


ei) 


o 


tN 


o 


r~- 




















f^ 








^ 








rsi 


r- 





•iO 


r- 





o\ 


> 


o 


m 


o 


r-j 

















>/", 


p 













r^ 


NO^ 








p 





<s 




o 


— 


o 


— 


r^' 











r-i 


'rf 














r-i 





— 


— 








— 





-^ 


*S 3 




















































« — 




















































iZ VI 




E 
















































e 2 




o 


!2 


o 


in 











■.£> 





"* 


VO 





2 


- 


^ 





OC 


~ 


- 


- 


NO 





»n 


M 3 


_>. 


ok 

> 


^ 


(N 


o 


m 











^ 





^ 


^ 





^ Q 





u-i 


(^ 


ON 


Tf 


^ 


_ 








22 


o « 


3 


o 


\o 


o 


r- 











lO 





r- 


^. 





m 





r- 






P 


P 





ON 








aj 


o 


^^i 


o 




















(N 


— i 





rr' 


— ■' 


— 


r^ 





r^ 


— ' 











^ 


l! -^ 




















































M S 






















































? 


E 


o 


- 


o 


- 

















- 














- 





- 

















- 


d 


^ 


o 




o 



















(--) 


^ 


































^ 




^ 


o 


o 


o 
































































o 


o 


o 



























































6 






in 


o 


ON 


o 






















■■£> 

















•^ 


^ 





r^ 


^ 





^ 






1 


o 




o 




















iri 





c5 



















■^ 





NO 


oc' 





d 




e 


c^ 


























































































































































-2 


u^ 


















































VI 


0\ 


o 


_< 


o 


r^ 











on 





r- 


^ 





r- 





r^ 


r^ 


in 


— 





r-j 


^- 





00 




«2 

C 


\ 


o 


oc 


o 


^ 











rn 





^ 


oc 

NO 





^ 


§ 


oc' 




"* 


OC 


§ 


— 


On' 





d 






"^ 


















































S 


s 




















































o^ 


o 


1/-1 


o 


00 

















<N 







































*^i 






_>. 


o 


r- 


o 




















r- 
































d 






-^ 




















































VI 


















































■o 


1 


o 


t-- 


o 





- 


- 





^ 


^ 


r. 


(N 





— 








- 


oc 


0^ 





NO 


m, 
m, 


- 






V 


J^ 


















































u 




















































o 


u^ 




















































o< 




r^ 


o 







r^ 




ITi 




NO 


10 





m 




fN 


m 


^ 


OC 




r^ 


rs| 


^ 


i: 




i:« 


>> 




m 




VO 








— 






m 








"" 




2 


(N 




oc 


ON 




^ ^ 




■o 


3 




















































"^ 


















































*C 




















































O 


Tj- 




















































^ 

i 

^ 


r^ 




rN 


oc 

r-4 


' 


"* 


(N 




^ 


00 
ITl 


r- 


" 


NO TT 


r^i 





wo 


mi 







r-4 


B 


r-l 


SH 






1 


1 
1 


s 
i 


t 

1 


5 

11 


11 

11 


"I s 

II 


1 

1 


g .2 
11 


ll 

^-2 

ll 

^1 


60 


1 

^ 



III 

-S -S -S 

ill 


1 


1 
1 


i 


1 
1 

s 


i2 1 








— 


r^- 


m 


^' 


^ 


^o 


^' 


00 


on' 





= 


r-i 


r>-i '^' 


lO 


NO 


- 


00 


ON 





(N 


r-4 







W)-2 





0\ 


E 


o 


rn 


o 


o 


- 


r. 


o. 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


1^. 


2 


o 


o 


o 


s 


o 


- 


p: 


VD 


^ 


r^. 


2 


o 






ii 


»v 


o 


o 


o 


o 


VO 


^ 


m 


o 


o 


(-; 


o 


o 


r- 


o 


o 


o 


8 


o 


o 


as 


r'l 


r<-i 


9 


8 


o 


,— ( 




Cl. 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


ro 


o 


o 


o 


o 


vn 


r~ 


o 




o 


c 


c 


r~ 


oc 


m 




o 


'^. 




o 


v-i 


o 


o 


(N 


-- 


- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


vo' 


-■ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


H 


(N 


VO' 


d 


(N 


^ 


ri 


!2 


HI 


a 


r^ 


^ 


r- 


o 


fS 


Kn 


^ 


o 


o 


■^ 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


in 


o 


o 


r-i 


>n 


r^ 


o 


s 


o 


><o 


'c 


T^ 


E 




" 






— 














— 










~ 






~ 


" 










"" 


M-i 


t 


DJD 




r-1 


8 


8 


5 


r^ 


5 


8 


8 


o 


8 


r2 


^ 


8 


8 


8 




88 




OC 


8 


8 


£^ 


8 


00 


^ 3 


-s 


_■ 


(N 


o 


o 


^ 


<N 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


_■ 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


r^ 


d 


o 


^ 


f' 


d 


d 


d 


d 


^ 


^^ 


,„ 
























































I 


1 


o 


r. 


o 


o 


- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


r. 


<N 


- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


•^ 


- 


o 


o 


04 


o 


•^ 


i 


. 


Q 


r^ 


o 


o 


uo 


o 


o 


o 


o 


8 


r~ 


rn 


00 


o 


o 


o 


o 


8 


o 


r^ 


(N 


8 


o 


o 


o 


r- 


ll 


r 


o 


m 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


m 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


(N 


fN 


c 






1-H 


Q 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


TT 


^ 
























































s^ 




o 


^ 


o 


o 


■^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


ve 


i 


8 


O 


8 


8 


o 


8888 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


s 


< 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


■^ 


X 
























































.^ 


1 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


o 


•* 




1^ 


8 


§ 


8 


8 


8 


8888 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


88 


8 


88 


8 


8 


8 


§ 




-? 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


o 


d 


d 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 




1^ 


o 


CN 


o 


o 


On 


o 


r- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


r-i 


00 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


m 


o 


o 


o 


fS 


o 


0^ 




o 


3 


o 


o 


o 


o 


s' 


8 


o 


o 


o 


9C 


?;■ 


o 


o 


o 


8 


d 


8 


m 


8 


8 


S' 


wK 

TT 


d 


^ 




C/3 
















"~ 


















^ 




"" 




~ 


" 










ts 


o 


ec 


o 


o 


(^ 


t^ 


f1 


o 


o 


o 


o 


CN 


CN 


o 


o 


o 


Cv 


o 


o 


Tf 


'^ 


c 


o 


'^ 


Q 


o 


e 


§ 


c< 


8 


o 




^' 




o 


o 


r~' 


o 


H 


s 


o 


o 


o 


s 


d 


d 




f^ 


8 


d 


? 


d 


^' 


"ea 


1? 


o 


o 


o 


5-5 


fN 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


r-1 


(N 


r^ 


o 


^ 


3 


o 


o 


o 


fN 


fs 


o 


3 


C 


o 


«s 


1 

c 


o 


(N 


o 


o 


nn 


o 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


r^ 


(N 


oc 


o 


o 


o 


o 


'^ 


^ 






d 


d 


r- 


d 


■^* 


S 


M^ 


o 


„ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


q 


^ 


o 


o 


o 


c 


o 


o 


c 


o 


o 


o 


q 


o 


o 


o 


VO 


I-" 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


^ 


d 


o 


d 


d 


d 


^ 




i^ 


o 


o 


3 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


3 


c 


3 


c 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


c 


c 


(N 


3 


^ 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


^' 


^ 


d 


1 


1-^ 


o 


m 


o 


o 


Cv 


fs 


(^ 


- 


o 


fN 


o 


^ 


^ 


- 


- 


o 


- 


o 


- 


m 


^ 


c 


>ni 


E: 


>ni 


K2 


t/3 


t^ 


f^ 


in 


M 


o 


t^ 


r-1 


^ 


- 


o 




r^ 


r: 


m 


(N 


- 


o 


Cs 


c 


- 




"* 


- 


^ 


!c 


O 


g^ 


o 


"^- 










— 






































~" 




a. 


1? 


- 


o 


o 


o 


r4 


r. 


y/-t 


o 


- 


U-l 


m 


^ 




o 


- 


o 


- 


c 


o 


r^ 


c^ 


r. 


- 


~ 


- 


12 00 


•o 
























































1 


-<- 


o 


s 


— 


o 


s 


>/-, 


lr> 


— 


o 




o 


r- 


n 


o 


(N 


— 


r^ 


m 


o 


s 


^ 


o 


'J- 




" 


S^ 


3 


t? 


o 

1 


B 


rj 


2 


M 

^ 


U-, 


'^ 


' 


c 


r4 


fl 


" 


o 


' 


ITi 


^ 


<N 


in, 


o 




- 


' 


oc 


§ 


"^ 


»7) r3 






1 

1 

"i 
1 

1 




f 


1 

i 

1 


^ i 

^ 1^ 


1 

11! 


i 


1 

<1 


i 


2. -S 


1 


1 

1 
1 


1 


1 


"a 


|| 

II 




1 

1 
ft 


1 
1 


j 

s 


^1 






^ 


H 


(^ 


J^ 


'/-I 


>o 


K 


z. 


cK 


o 


z: 


(N 


m' 


2: 


in 


!£ 


:^ 


X 


2 


3. 


r-i 




OJ 


3' 


in