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BOOK YL—CofUinned. 
FaoM TBS Aoctaaiow or Hbhst Vn. to thi 

DUTB or EUZABITH— A.D. 143S-I603. 
Chap. IX.— Ciril uid Military History. Baign of 

Edwud Siith, A.V. 1647-IM9 1 

Crap. X.— CiTil and HiliUi? History. Bmga of 

Edwud Sixth. AS. 1549-1GS3, .... 26 
Chap. XL— Ciril md Military History, Saiga of 

M«iy. A.IJ. 15G3-1SM, <2 

Chap. XII.— Civil and MiHtuy History. Beign of 

Mm7. A.n. 1B6B-IB68, 69 

Cbap. XIIL— aril ukd Milituy HiMory. B«lgn 

of EUzriMth. A.n. IGSB-ISeo, .... 74 
Chap. XTV. — Ciril and Military Histoty. Bdgn 

of Elimbirth. A.D. 1660-156% SO 

Ca*P. XT.— Ciril and Milituy Histoty. B«ign of 

Eliaabrth. a.b. 1666-1667, lOB 

Chap. XVI.— CSvil and Militaiy History. Beign 

of EUiabrth. a.d. 1667-1669, 121 

CbaP. XTII.— Ciril and Military Hiatoiy. H«ign 

of EUabstli. A,D. 166*-1672, .... 136 
Chap. XVIIL— Civil and Military History. Beign 

of Eiiabeth. a.d. 1672-1687 166 

CaAP. XIX.— Ciril and Hilitaiy History. BoigD 

oTEIiialMth. A.D. 1687-1603, .... 160 
Cbap. XX.— History of KaligiOD, from tbs Atum- 

■ion of Henry SaTonth to tlie Death of EUsabrtb. 

i.D. 1*86-1603, 200 

Cbap. XXT.— History of Society, from the Aoces- 

non of Hsnry Seranth to the Death of Eliubatb. 

A.D. H86-1603. 236 

EooK vn. 

Faoa TBI Acciisios or Jahbb T. to the Ri- 
noRATiOH or Chablxb n.— a.d. 1803-1G60. 

Chap. L— Ciril and Hilitaty Hiitatr, BeIgn of 
JaoMEInt. A.D. 1603-160^ .... 269 

Chap. IT.— Ciril and Military History. Beign of 

Jamea Tint. A.D. 1600-1613, 312 

Chap. IIL-^ril and Uilitaiy Hiatoiy. Bal<a of 

James Fint. A.D. 1614-lSU, .... 829 
CSAP. IV.— Ciril and Military Hiatoiy. Baign of 

Jamn Fint A.D. 1618-1621, 3U 

CHAP, v.— Ciril and Military History. Keign of 

Jamea Fint. A.D. I622-I626, .... 360 
Chap. YL — Ciril and Military History. Retgn of 

Charlea First. A. D. 1626-1637, . . . . 377 
Cbap. VIL— Ciril and Military History. Reign of 

CharlsaFint A.D. 1628-1629 391 

Chap. Vm.-'Ciril and Military History. Bslgn 

of Charles lint. a.d. 1639-1636 4U 

Chap. IX.— Ciril and Military History. Beign of 

Charitt Fitat. A.D. 1636-163S, .... 428 
Chap. X.— Civil and HfUtair History. Baign d 

Charlea Fint, A.D. 1637-1639, .... Ml 
Chap. XI.— €iril and Military History. Beign of 

CharleiFint. A.D. 16*0-1611 461 

Cbap. XII.— aril and IClitary History, Btignof 

Charles TizsL A.D. 1611, 179 

Chap. Xni.'-Ciril and Military Hieloiy. Beign 

ofCharlaaFint. a.d. 161M6^ ... 497 
Cbap. XIV.— ^ril and Military History. Bafgn 

of Charlea First, a.d. 1642-1641. . . . . 618 
Chap. XV. — aril and Military Hiatory. Beign of 

Charles First. A.D. 1644-1646, .... 636 
Chap. XTT.— Ciril and Military History. Btigo 

of Charles Ilrrt. A.D. 1616-1619, . . . . 668 
Cbap. XVn.— avil and Military History. The 

Commonwealth. A.D. 1619-1 660, . . . 67S 
Chap. Xmi.— History of Keligion, from the Ao- 

oeadon of Jamea KIrst to the Batoration cf 

Charles Second. A.D. 1603-1660^ .... 699 
Chap. XIX.— History of Sodaty, from the Ao- 

eeasion of James Tirst to the Itoatwation id 

Chsrlss Second, a.d. 1603-1660, . . . 919 

.V Google 

Chat. I- — Ciiil and HiliUrj Hiatorj. B«{gD of 

ChulM SMond. A.P. ]660-l«)l, . . . «< 
Cbap. II.— avil and ICUtur HUtoi7. Bdgn of 

CUrieiSMond. a.d. 1661-1675, . . . . « 
Cbap in.—aTil and HOJtaiy Hiitor;, B«iga of 

ChuloSMOnd. «.D. 167S-]6^t, . . . «t 
Chaf. IV.— Civil and UiliUry SltbtTj. Biign of 

Chu-lM Swond. A-D. 1S81-16SB, . . . , TC 

Chaf. VI.— Civil and HilltU7 Hiitai7. BaJ^of 
J«mei!l<K»nd. A.D. I6B5-168B, . . . . T 

CUAF. YII.— Hiitorj of ficligiim, from tfaa Bator- 
ation of CharlM Baoond to Um Barolnliao. 

A.D. 1680-1689, 7 

CrAF. VIII.— Hintoiy of Sodatr, from tlM Bart<»- 
■tioD of CLarlai Second to 
A.D. 1660-1639, . . . 

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UtOMTIDtlttOK, — Tb> SuFBZiiAtT or the Lav — Pmkce Bmsi ams CHtxr-Jranci Qikoiohi ; from Uw I 
C. W, Cop*, RA., inUHHauHCif Fmi. T.I. L, px. (SL 
BNOOATBD TITLE. — WDCEBa, from tb* Nonb-wat. — Fnmi u Orlginil Dniriag bj W. L. Lailsli. 

J, PliK TD ILWBImil 

Id WhlUhalL— Fmm HoUu, 
}. Oliphinl, 

BtrrLi or Pimu. . 

in thff Tower AnDomr, 

r, Lotd Bi^- 

-Fnm IjHiv' AntlqtiLISM 

10. BoiinaET Puce, Ixmden, ttom tha IUtct.— Fnna ■ 

Iirlnt b; BoUu, t 

11 Cot-RT HtSK or THE TiMX.— ettntfi R^tl Antlqultia, 1 
11 DDHBaH Bonn, Lcmdan. team tlu SItb. — Aflw 

13 SlON HOOBE. on U» Thuu*.— Piwn BouIbK or 
Und ud Walia, .... 

14. LadtJiibiOui.— AflarBoltaiD, 

ly Bathuid'h Cutlc. LaiuloiL-.-FrDm ■ print I^ E 
19. IvTKuoR or Br. FBin'g Cbaiti. In tba Tow 
Dnwn br T. 8. Bo]r^ ftom hi> Aaiab on thi q 
IT QCBii Hur.— Aflar Zucchero. 

15. HripecN QiUHHm, Biahop of T 

) Tunon' Oate, Tonr ot Londim.— Fi«n ■ 

VI. WooumocK. OilbKUlin. HsilitlngA.D. 1T14, 
11. FlACE or Bishop Hoopeii'i Martvi 

— PnUB ■ ■kxtsli oD Uia (pot. 
S2. KlCHOus RiDLET, Blafaop of London.— Fnna > 


K. Hvoa LAtiHcii. Biifaop of Wonattor.— Ftodi ■ 

!4. lui Mabtiu' ItEKcnuAi., Oibnl.— Fiom • Tla 

Uadoiula, ..... 

i. HATnuD Uova, BntfOrdafam.— Flom Hall'i 


iL in. TKE Old Beuht. Ac— F^om Votich dui 

iTr OP THE nHL^From E print mttrilnlad to ADfOA- 

mWiujAH CrciLiEltaiwudi Lord Buchlaj.— -Fnm 

3. Uasi QnEn or Stote.— PnBn > print ■ilo' PiiUin, 

4. RoBEBT DmiLET. Eul of LoicBtn.— AAoT Ziucharo, 
9. TBI BatAi. Cbatel, Hol^rood. — pnm ■ rim br 


DEEED.— Pmn > Tlaw b^ CEtMnnolo, 
T. CBAiatau.AB Caer.^ Hid-LothlaL — From ■ riair t 

B. A)n:ia,TBoosEi,nauCli*KiA-a Field.— PnoiEma 


B. DcmuK Caetu, Baddingtonahln. — Fnnn s riaw 1- 

0. LocuLETEi Castle, Einmihin.— Fnm e dnwing t 


H Caetu, YoAahln. — Fioai ■ drawing t 


i. TuTBDBi CAsriE. Staffmdihira.— Fiom a dnwing bf 
Back in tha Brituh HoHum, . 

I. RimirEH Castle. Pertluliin.— Billingi' AuliqniUBa 

i. The IUcE.~Fnim Foi'i Acta and Honnmanta, . 
1. BiEFKABCiaDEAiE— Atlerapiolnnlnthooolleolion 

of tha Uarqnia of Lothian. .... 
r. FoTEEETEOAV CflCBCH, with ilta Of tha Caatla.— 

WhElla/a Nanhampton•hi^^ 
i. COEioua 8ir.nai Witch or Masv Quran or Soon, in 

the poaaaaajon of SirTbonuu Diok Laudar. Batt.. 
). CocET or THE Castle or BupiE.—FroinFran«llonn- 

0. BibJobhBaweiiie— FToniUu"Hsioa1cvla.' 

1. Bib Habtth Fbouibher.— Fmn tha " Baroologia.' 
i. Tilbdbi Fobt. od tha Thamca. — From a Tlaw b) Stai 

S. The Bpanuu Aemad*.— Fion tha Tapaatr; In it, 
BouH of Lotdi, ngnied bj tha Social; of Anl 

;. Plu—Tee HABBOtrB or Cadu, . 

S. Bib Robebt Cecil, attonruds Eul of SaUitnur.— 

r. Kbex HooiE. London, from Ihs Rirar. — After Hollar, 11 

0. WiLLiAX TVHIUL— Frum tha "HeroologlE.'' . . X 

1. Chaieeb Bible ie the Chuecb or 8t. Choi. York.— 

Drawn b; J. W. Arober, fiom hla ikatafa on the ipot, 21 
I. The BiiTunHn Fuu^ m SwTHnEui — UABTrBunt 
or Ahhe Abeew Ann otheeb.— From Foi'a Acta uid 

). UiLEa CoTESDALi.— From B 1 



il AntiqoltlB, 

«T. ThiEj 

«8. Dbbh 


M. Put ■ 

T^ UoHEnui Hall, Chohln.— FnmBiittoD'i AmikltaiF- 

tnnl AaUqoitis, .... 11 

IS. PnupEimTic View ud Gioiiin) Fun or a LonxiH 
HoiHK. TlDW of UiabMh.— FnHD m dimwiag by 
Tbcups in Ilia fiouu CoUaDtltm, . . Zl 

TT. CwiDME. tlmo of Hhut VII,— Fnm Bofia MSB., SI 

79. Cocnnns, Uhm c< Hamr VIL— Fiam Roral iiDd 

HhIuidMSS. V 

T9. FuAU Anm, tlnw of Hhut VIL — Fnai Boitl 

80. Hin A]ii> Can, tlowtf H«iT Till.— Fnim t»tmttf 

• In poMlm of Mr. J. Aitj Raptoo, . K 

Bl. Cosnmn, tins irf Bmaj Till.— SalHUd from H(d- 

cm Huio» Ho™» Eut lluibun, NorMk. 

'luxw OF Bkausux Bau, Cbtibliv- — Tram 
HintfoniorEncliiad. . » 

K HAii, DitbTiUn.— Fnm Lriini^ Dnbj- 

T Hooai, HDTthiuDphiiuhln.- RlohudKiB'* 

SI. Fevau A-rmi, thM of HauT V1IL— Fnm Upartir 

Is iiriMiMliiii of Ht. J. AiltT Rapton, Si 

S). CsncHm, tiow of Bdnid VI.— Fr 

portralU, , 

U. CoRi'HE. Lom Boppm aid FAamfaAix.- From 
TntiK'i print cfQoHD El 


ooUectloB >t OoadiMi Comt, . ii 


Uon ■■ Qooditcb CdoR, .... II 
9i. Flcted ABUoua, tbdaof H«nTTTII. — Tnrmtiar^Bgj 

Inbruiof StrTbomu PerKaiAt IbUuus, . . il 

tar Plait or LoytioN tv thk tiub ot Qteem Euzadith, — 

Cblsflj thnntha pUnbj R. AggH, IMO. X 

SniHD. LoDdoD.— fioin ■ ritw bj J. T. Bmith, il 
91. Thb Bea> Qaubi. 8ooUi«ufe.— WilklDBn'i Loo- 

M. Katpoi* at 


1(W. Bam How J 


Bbctzu, Fomt of D*ul— nvm ft 

br T. 8. Boji IMni Um orf- 
Mu, ixnckm. . . . 1 

EulafBDrnr.— AlhrTiUlD, . S 

- innlitB] 

Hulaiu Has 

In tin Abbtj of AtUBsl, so. lIppaaiT 
3. Cssruiu or ai ImuHimiuir.- Aflw Hollii, 

6. InnAL Lxma— Btjb of Uu wIt prinled b 

BoulHukOfl pnlod, .... 

7. Tbe HroB CBOflH, Cha^HldB. — Fram a painti n g lat^ 
^ nt Cowdnij, St 


EOHi ViLum, Dnka of Bi 

print Attor Hidimal JlinvTBlt, 
). an Waltee RAixiaB. — From tl» print Id 

toijofUiaWBrIil.-BLieTT, , . . M 

]. CoinrTOoiTtio]um,BpaDlihAnibuiular. — FntmEpiiiit 

bj a. Pu. n 

L BAOoir'a HoDBE. QoibunbDiT, Hertlbrdilkln.— FRm 
B(iuiti» of &iglAnd uid WaIh, . BS 

I. New Hajx, Eiau.— Fnma Tiaw b7 Butlatt, . M 

1. Foot Boldieb witb Bosdachi, A.n. lUJi.— FVom 
Uajriclc'i AuciaDt ArmDm ST 

S. XtiaKmEB or TBI nsioD.— From Narrick, ST 

9. PUESAV or THE FEUOD. — FnHB HqTlck, . . ST 

7. The Palace or TaEOBALna.— From a plotun by ^An- 

ELEiI.- AftarTandrk^ . .ST 

lUErrA Uabia, Quam of CbArlca I, — Aftar Tan- 

Bib Thohai Cot 


-Aftar Co^aUnaJai 


Pux Di I.A nocanu a 



Jomc BEtBEE— 



rwy, Oitord, 

The Oeeat Cioce Towek, BotAalla.- Fron 

Ptanch print, 

The Hotel l 

French print. 

I. TwE Stab Chambkr, ffartiiilnalar~lBtarl<r of iba 

Principal Ream.— From in oricinal akaicb, . 41 

I WlLUAK PBYSBt- Prom a print bj HdUai, 41 

r. IiADn'a Palace at Fuiaau. — From Falknar'a Hlatoi7 

a. AncHBUHOP Ladd. 'Aftar Tandfka, 43 

>. iHioo JoHEf PoKnoo, wiat and of Old Bt. PEnTs.— 

Aftar HoUar, *' 

D. BuHOPjniOH.— From > print brTstna, 4S 

1, IiADMoaroir Castle, Comwall Fmn Vnaa and 

Cmwall niutrEtad, . .4! 

I. JOBl(IjILBCBin.—FromaprintbT Hollar, 4! 

I. Tbohai,. Baboe WEKTWDvni, Earl of StraflOrd.— 

Aftar Vudrta. 41 

t. JoBW Babtdeh.— From tlM atitna bj J. H. Fidar. 

A.RA., (n St Btepliana Hall, New Patua of Wart- 

B. OuvD 8t. Johe — 


HamUtm.- Athr a portnlt bj Vandjka, 



a. Thi AaoBBBBiir'a Pauoiv lamMlL— From ma Old 
1. Gnui. Lman (Ku-l << L*noX— Afi<r Tiadrka, . « 

t, Tou, Smn PhbKvOa P r u t wu .— from ■ print b; 

ldit*(ian) 4 

i. Husmru ammron.^Fnm Clanndon'i HMoit. ' 
I, io«H FvH,— Prom ■ print b) Honbnilmi, . . i 

T. BnD^En Vnw or ni Town or tionor. — From 

aidwinc tpwIq b«tw«il0fll ud iDSObrofdH of 

U0. BxMFTiKi CoDST. — From im old plctorr 

Et. WUI^ . I: 

TO Tat Horn or 
Comuwa.— Pnm ■ ikitiih hjr J. w. Anhsr. Ukan 
immadJataly Rlts tbo bnmliif of ths Bomai of 

I. Odusball, LODdon,— Fmn an old tIi 
PHuuit, Britiih If BHnm, . 

i, Oaocn*' Hall, London, Booth Vin 
lud"! LODlloU, 

t OnrzuL View or Hdll at tbi ri 

B Pnofca BcPCKT.—From ■ 

dM.— From ■ ikitch b; F. W. Pilibolt, F.S.A., SI 
t TBI PuiuB Chcbce or Kummi, Bncki, In whiufa 
/ohn Himpda ii bnriad.— F. W. Fslibolt, from hii 

9. EnmuiCB TO Bunoi fTampl* Btnrt).— J. B. Pimt, 
ftvm hit dimwing on tho spot, , . . U 

t. LoU) Falelud. — Fnnn ttw rtatns b/ John B^. In 
St. Stoplini'i H^ nn HmM oT Pwllunaat, . s: 

I. Ounui, bum the EmI. h it th* parlod. — Fnm 

t. IkatHnofov Cun^ Barkihln.— From ■ drawing bj 
BlH±. »i 

7. BdTboku FAi>rAZ.~From aprlnt hj HoUir, . & 
S. Tu Tbutt-Hddbi, Uibridgi, now tha Crown Inn. 

— J, W. Arcbn, tnm hla oiigiiiAl dnwLitg, ^ 

9. Nucn BATTLi-nEin.— From ■ drawtoc b^ Dnkn, it 
t. fUm-iXD Cun^ Hunmoulhahlro.— From ■ photo- 

I Bduht Homr. — Bakar^ NorlhunplDiiddn, . H 

1 ODiniLlarnm.— From B print hjHouhmkm. M 

S. CunoooKi Caittlk, Iiln of Wight.—From n Tin In 

Miidir'i Hampahln, . .Si 

e. Piu OuHiua^cmiai, Nnrpart, Iila ol WIfht, tha 
hoQH In wfaldh Cbftrlet L met tfan parllunantMrT 
ocmmteloHn in ISM,— Prom in orlgiul thatch, SI 

P. Budbr, s: 

VBrvmnnHuL—tlia Trial o( Charia I —Adapts 
b; J. L. WllltauDi from (ha fran tiipl aCB to Kalaim'i 
II«piirtaltbaTrial,16S4, . . . s; 

Tim bj J. T. Bmlth, 17 

FsDHT or THE BaMORiMo Bonn. WUlihalL— 

OdwbjlL 11ovl<— nnn tha anfraring faj Logfati, fit>4 
TaB OuaiHu Em Ikma Hodbk,— From a drawing 

bfTntna. esi 

Ml. OhHAHBiTED Homi. time of Jamea I., latalf lUBdini 
Id Little MocnAaldi — From • akatch br J. W. 

I, Old St. FwTi.— From tha print b 


HonizB. lonnwtf In Fleet Btreat.— 
From SmlUi'a Topographj of London, 0S0 

Couran or THBTnR.—FRan e(chlii(ibTD, Strop, HIT 
Bdui CHt1B.~From the ftontlapleee of "Coacb aiid 

Sedan," a treat (lOMX ■ . . . tn 

CoaTOHD or TBI TIME Or Jun I.— From ootampo- 
rarr [Mtirca, . .828 

Joalaa Oiclleh COM). . . . . SM 

Coennm or thi Nonurr, time cf Cherlaa I.— From 

Id. PmtTUi COSTDMIB.— From prlnta ot 

LI. Th> Globe Thutb^ Bankiide, : 
L3. The FojtTuva Theatu, Golda 

bTJ.W.AniM. . 

a TOHB, Btratford npon-Avo 

t. Quae Chuehratd, 

HoTTHE, Lrmdcm. The Urthplaoa tri 
m a print hj Hollar, 
laa BABrET.— Alter Comeline Janma 

iL Lett^ — Style, cloae < 



I FmiDU 

CunoEtt'i Corns. vbH hi 

h Bib Habbt Vaie. — PniBApriiilliTHod1askai,kn4r 
Or P. Ulr, « 

1. Bninor THETunorCuDLB Il.^Pnm UuMlof 
Uh lAnl U(b->duiiml JiiDB, Diika of York, onl ■ 
prloi of Uk* fiEfiiKl. , IT, 

1. OnouL Vm or lAin»( nooai thi Oiut Fni^ 
lak« ftva tbo Tooar of S^ Miut Otbjh, Honlb- 
<nit. — CuWUIt copiK) bf J. W. Antur, troa 

i. Tbohu (huonc, E>r1 of Omubj.—Fnm i 

iAkSIiP. Loljr. 
1. ]|DH.~Fim ui Did print kn U» Britidi 1 

1. TBI Rn BocsE. 
r. Loul WrujtM I 

fiaa print 


!. Auioaot SiDNET.— Fim Lodge'! Portnfia, . TI3 

>. The THi-KBKiFg.— Pram > ipecinini at Abtatafcrd, TIS 
>. Tmrcu or the Boon.— FocMndlt of Uh foint lu 

VlUw' Pnii* Crimioli Pnwiiisiidi, . 719 

1. JiHD It.— Fnim B print bf Vactoe, iftn KuJbr, 731 

s Dgtch piiat in Iba Cntwis Pnust, Brittih 

I. JtMBt, DiJiE or HoawcTH.— Fmu a Bo> print tltiw 

WiariDf, t: 

5, JtmjE JXTTSm.— Ftdiu a flue print mftcr Enollo . TJ 
g. Tbe White Bht, Tsonton, ItBuji/tmiaiaofdaiiat 
"tb* BloodT AKiia. "— Fmu a ikiloli bj J. W. 

I'l ttlliduili|l iB 

Id Uw Britidi H 

Ul Oui LoHDox WinsMiK. a: 

US. Ola Lovdcv Beuioe, tiin 


otUwOiHt Fin, . m 

Cam.-ifi>. tima if 

Chaib. II. ud Ju» II. -Fn- 


All-Rom .'ptctmis tlma rf 

L-htll- 11.. . 

h-F™. ii •psdium doc °p IB 

Bni CBEin»^Bi W>D>.-ARot Sir 0. KnaUir. ; 


■n.H0.pit.i, , Tl 
omth. print brFuUiana, - 7 
iKD Thee, in P«tj Fnua. Wait- 


hf J. W. ARlur, a«n hl> Aitti 

byT. B. B:^ft™lU..k«ohoi.th8.pot. 71 
Sabuei BtmHU-From e print (kj V,rt«, attar 

From a print br Vnto., altar 

jEBKt TiTion.- 
DusCor UabtUn 

Ubnuj. I««lao. 
BiiUati Uoaom 

FVom Uw portrait bj- Lombart. in 

ana print brB-Whita. . . Tl 
lom a dnirinc b; R. WUta, in tbt 










A.D. 1647-DEATH, A.I>. 1553. 

Awtii VI. inccesdi to Qit crown— Cli«tiLctBr of tbe Uu king— EdnoiHon of Edw»rd VI.— HU oirly proficiODcx 
— Rii goTBraon daring hi* minoTit; — The Eirl of Bertfurd'i intrigaes for ixntei^—Uc u ^ppointsd pratector 
— Hii difReult; in fnlfllling the Ut« kiui'a anstgamentt— Penrioiu and prurootion of leveTiil cDuiiiBn— Tlio 
pTotaeloT Iwcoma Dnka of Soiuenet — Bnml of ths old kii% and coron&tion ot thr now — Ths protector'a 
todoiTiMin to incTUM) hia pairar — Hs diiplacea tlig CliaucelloT Southunpton — Kb tnkea into bis own bands 
tlia nacntive f^TannDent— Prepamtiona for a war with Scotland— Tronblad aUta ot Scotland at thipi period 
— Tb» proteotor iniadea Scotland — Hia progma on tlia Bordent — Hia ancampniant at PreatonpaDa — Tka 
poBtion of the Seottiah arnij— Battle of Finkie— Defeat of the Scota— The proteator, after ]>ia Ttctory, rebuma 
to England— CaOMS of liia haat? relnm— DifdcQltiee of the Beformatioa in England— The kingdom divided 
into aix eirenita— Visitation over these circuit* to eetabliah tlia Raformatioii— Oppoaition of the bialiopa 
Bocner and Gardiner — Beforma in cliuroh and atata enacted by parliament— Law a againat meiidicitj — Crsii- 
Diar'i aoeleaiaatical altetmtiona — They are oppoaad by Biihop Oardioer — Gardiner eent to the Townr— Affain 
of Scotland— ScotUnd iuraded— The Scota aaaiated by troops from Franca — Hary of Scotland tent to France 
and affianced to tbe danphin — Skirmiahea in Scotland — Unfavourable cl6ae of thia infaaion- Troubles of the 
protector from hia brother, Sir Thomaa Soymour — Sir Thomas appointed high-admiral — Cbaraotenof the 
two brothan — Amhitiam proceedinja of the admiral — Ha uarria* Catliariue Fur, the qaeen-dowagei — En- 
dckToora to aapplaat the protectoi^lntrigaea for the ofSce of gOTemor to Uia lung— Chargea brought agaioet 
him on liii trial— He aubmita, and ia reconciled to hia brotbei^-ITa continnaa his ambitiaua praotioee — fie [i 
>l ftttanipting to marry the Princea* Elizabeth— He ia sent to the Tower- Hit trial and eiacntio:i. 

Although King lUarj had 

breatbed hia last at an earlj hour 
on the moraing of Friday, the 
S8th of Jaoaaiy, it is remarkable 
that the parliament, which, as 
the law then stood, was dissolved 
bj his death, met, pursuant to ad- 
journ ment, on Saturday the 29th, and 
proceeded to bosinees as usual. lDfact,the 
demise of the crown was kept concealed till 
Monday tbe Slot, when it was announced to the 
two houses, assembled together, by tlie Chancellor 
Wriothcsley. The news, accoriiing to the Lords' 
Jounwla, "was unspeakably sad and sorrowful 
to all the hearers, die chancellor himself being 
almont disabled by his tears from uttering tbe 
words." They soon, however, "composed their 
lamentations aTid consoled their griefs" by calling 
to raind the promise of excellence already held out 
by the youUiful sncc«an>r to the throne. Tbe 

same rapid transition "from grave to gay," the 
ordinary formality on such occasions, was ob- 
served in like manner at the first meeting of the 
privy council with the new king. 

It is hard to believe that, either in high placcK 
or in low, any other feeling thaJi a sense of relief 
and of freer breathing could have been produced 
by the dissolution of so terrible a tyranny as that 
of Henry VIII. had latterly become. It has been 
the fashion with our historians to hold forth this 
king, the storm of whose selfish passions fortun- 
ately chanced to throw down or to shake some 
old and strong abuses that might not otherwise 
have been so readily got rid of, ss the object oF 
the love and pride of his sulijects, as well as of 
the respect of foreign nations, to the last. Hia 
position and the circiiai stances of the time must 
have always given him an importance abroad, 
and mode his movements be watched with con- 
siderable anxiety; which would not be dimtit- 


,v Google 



ished by liis extreme wilfulncaa, and the sudden- 
new of those gusis of temper and inclination 
that chiefly detennioed his conrse, althoagh the 
very BAtne cauaee impaired hia real power of 
being either nerviceable or formidable to hia 
neighbourn. But, at home, do higher aeDtiment 
than one of aelf-interest cau well be supposed to 
have attached anybody to so sanguinary and 
heartiesa a despot; and it is evident that an op- 
pressive fear and bewilderment was the state 
into which his ferocious rule had thrown the 
generality of men in all classes. We see this 
alike in the prostrate servility of the parliament, 
and in the silent, despairing aubraiasion, after 
the failure of one or two convidsive local revolts, 
of the great body of the people. His son Eil- 
ward, indeed, has aet it down in his Journal,' 
that when " the death of 
Ilia father was ahowed 
in London," the same day 
on which the annonncc- 
ment was made to parlin' 
ment, there "waa great 
lamentation and weep- 
ingi' and he had nodoubt 
been informed that such 

, poss: 

bly, with a simplicity na- 
tiiml to his age and stn- 
tion, lie took it for gratit- 
ed that it could not have 
been otherwise. But it 
would have been inter- 
esting to be told by which 
of the two great parties 
that divided the popu- 
lation Henry was thus 

regretted — by the ad- Edtud vi.- 

herents of the Roman 

church, or by the friends of the new opinions. 
The former could hardly have remembered him 
with any feelings that would find their vent in 
tears; to the latter the accession of the new king 
waa the dawning of a fresh day from which they 
had everything to hope. 

Edward, when the crown thus descended upon 
hia head, had entered hia tenth year, having been 
Iwrii, as before related, on the 12th of October, 
1637. He hnd been '' brought up," aa he tells ua 
himaelf, " till he came to six years old, among the 
women." He was then placed under the tuition 
of Dr. Cox and Mr, Cheke, " two wull-leai-ned 
men, who sought to bring hitn up'iu learning 
of tongues, of the Scripture, of philosophy, and 
all liberal sciences." Another of the persona 
intrusted with the direction of hia education. 

' Printml hj Bi 
dli at KaoofU lo 


according to Strype, was Sir Anthony CooV, 
"famous for hia five learned daughters." Fe 
hud also masters for the French language and 
other accomplishments. In all tliese studies he 
had mode an uncommon progress for his years, 
and had been distinguished for a docility and 
diligence that would have been remarkable even 
in one who was not a prince and heir to a throne. 
"He was so forward in his learning," says Bur- 
net, " that, before he was eight years old, he 
wrot« Latin letters to his father, who was n. 
prince of that stem severity that one can hardly 
think that those about his son durst cheat him 
by making lettera for him."' All Prince Ed- 
ward's tutors were favourera of the Eeforroed 
opinions in religion, to which also his mother 
had been attached; and they hnd been perfectly 
successful in instilling 
their own views into tlie 
mind of their pupil, who, 
even in hia early boy- 
hood, was already avet^ 
zealous if not a learned 

Edward, when hia fa- 
ther died, was residing 
at Hertford,' whither his 
uncle, the Earl of Hei-t- 
ford, and Sir Thomas 
Brown, master of the 
horse, immediately pro- 
ceeded, and, having 
brought him to Gufiel.l, 
there announced the 
event to him and bis 
sister Elizabetli.' Tlie 
•■ - grief of the new king 

Aftgr uoibBiD. did not last long, any 

more than thatof hissub- 
jectfi. He entered London on the afternoon of 
Monday, tlie Slat, on the morning of which the 
news of Henry's decease had been made public 
and hia own accession procltumed, and, amid a 
great concourse of the nobili^ and others, took 
his way straight to the Tower.' The next day, 
Tuesday, the 1st of Februaiy, the gTeat«r part 
of the nobility, both spiritual and temporal, as- 
sembled about three o'clock in the afternoon, in 
the presence chamber, where, after they bad all 
knelt and kissed his m.ijesty's hand, saying every 
one of them, " God save your Grace ! " the lord- 

' Bona irf Ilm mrlj lutin IstUn of FrUioo Edvard to hli It- 
tL wkdDthfiTB nuT be toaad in BtFTp«'i BcctoiatHtal UtHorialf, 

of Bytffilah HiitoTy. OthWA 01? tti FoK'i Martjfjvloffg^ unit In 
Fwllw" Ckurrl. Iltlory. 

mom Ut« wriun hiie followgd, n)i hs wu It ButOald. 

> EixUm. at<m. ii. 31 . BtiTpi qiwUI u hii uthoritr for Iliiw 
dttalli u qScU nmrd in Ui« Utnldi' CoUisa. 


i.D. 1547-1649.] 


duuioellor proceeded to decl&re the purport of the 
deceased king's tut will and testament, which, 
however, had been in part read to the parliament 
the day before. It appeared that Ueury hail 
iioiiiiii&t«d the followiug sixteen peraonH to be 
Ida executors, and to hold the office of goTernora 
of his eon and of the kingdom tjll Edward should 
li&ve completed bis eighteenth 
year :— Thomas Cnwmer, Arch- 
bishop of Canterboiy ; Thomaa 
Wriothealey, Barou Wriothesley, 
the lord-chanccllor; William Pau- 
let, Baron St John, master of the 
household ; John Bussell, Baron 
BoaaeU, lord privy-Beal ; Edward 
Seymour, Earl of Hertford, lord 
(;reat-chnTuberlain; John Dudley, 
Viscount U ale, lord-adm iml ; Cuth- 
bert Tonstal, Bishop of Dnrham; 
Sir Anthony Brown, master of the 
horse ; Sir William Paget, secrr 
taryof state; Sir Edward North, 
chancellor of the court of augmeii- 
tntioUB ; Sir Edward Montague, 
cbief-JMstice of the Common Fleas; 
Thomas Bromley, one of the justi- 
ces of the King's Bench; Sir An- 
thony Denny and Sir John Herbert, 
gentlemen of the privy chamber ; Sir Edward Wot- 
lon, treasurer of Calais; and Dr. Nicolas Wotton, 
(lean of Canterbury. To these were added twelve 
otUerrt, under the name of a privy council: they 
were, Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel; William 
Parr, Earl of Essex ; Sir Thomas Cheyney, tresr 
surer of the household ; Sir John Gage, comp- 
troller ; Sir Anthony Wingfield, vice-chamber- 
lain ; Sir William Petre, secretary of state ; Sir 
Bichard Bich; Sir John Baker; Sir Balph Sad- 
ler; Sir Thomas Seymonr; Sir Richard South- 
well; and Sir Edmund Peckham. These latter, 
however, were to have no real power or authority, 
their functions being limited to the simple right 
of giving their opinion or advice when it was 
asked for. After he had recited the names of 
the council of government, the chancellor made au 
announcement which was more iraportaut, and 
must have made a greater sensation among his 
hearers than anything he had yet communicated. 
From the first prospect of the new reign, the 
Earl of Hertford, the uncle of the young king 
tliat waa to be, had begun to intrigue and lay his 

plana for seeming to himself the chief place in 
the government, llie following anecdote is re- 
lated by Strype;— ''While King Heniy lay on 
his death-bed in his palace at Westminster,' Sir 
Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, and Sir 
William Paget, amoug others, were at court; and 
Paget, being secretary of state, was much about 

HoLBEiH 0*Tc, Old 

his person, whom, being a man wise and learned, 
and well versed in the afTaira of state, both by 
reason of his office and his several embassies 
abroad, the earl prudently mode choice of for his 
iuward friend and counsellor. By the king's 
desperate condition the earl, well perceiving the 
crown ready to fall upon Prince Edward's (his 
nephew'a) head; ijefore the breath was out of his 
body, took a walk with Paget iu the gallery, 
where he held some serious conference with him 
concerning the government. And immediately 
after the king was departed, they met again, the 
earl devising with him concerning the high place 
he was to hold, being the next of kin to the 
young king. Paget at both meetings freely and 
at large gave him his advice, for the safe mana- 
gery of himself and of the mighty trust likely to 
be reposed in him ; and the earl then promised 
him to follow his counsels in all his proceedings 
more than any other man's."' At the first meet- 
ing of the executors after the kinj^s death, Hert- 
ford had succeeded in achieving the object of his 
ambition. When it was proposed that, for the 

R called Whltdwll. wli«n ntarj 
Vlir. diid.nib<nmd^oD one ilda by ths puk whloh Ri»b» 
loSt. J*Iiin'Pilw)g,U]daD thmtlw iidsbjllia Thum. It 
wu DTifimllj callfld Vork HooMe, tnm iU bvlDf ths paUoo of 
a* Anbblabop of York. CudlniO WoIhj' wu ths lul iirh. 
UAap wbo nldid In H. ud vhan h* lait tb* r(7>] hTonr, It j gluvl : 
*u ukaa poHHloB of bj Honry VIII. AFUr HOLiT hid Ap- I TodooK 
proprluad lt> UmMir tlili eplKC^ rstdmoii, he built a Bug- wu nt 
fejcmt gatdumH lu ftvai of U, oppoaltc th« entruioa Into tha ' Cromw 

D BdI- 

iedl«t«]j look Into hli 



[Cmi. AXD MiiJTABT. 

more ecaiTenieut deapfttch of baeiDew, one of their 
number shoiild be appointed merelj tn be a sort nf 
repreaentative or mouth-piece of ti»e whole, anch 
tn umnKemeiit whs objected to hy the Cban- 
eellor Wriothealey, who eoat«ncled that it would 
bt a vioUtion of the will, which mode them all 
eqoaJ, but who at the satne time protublj hoped 
to be able, without any formal appointment, to 
get into hJB own hande the chief power in the 
goTemraent bj nteans eimpl; of the eminent 
office he filled. He was also well aware who the 
president would be if one should be elected, and 
that with Mich a choice the whole policy of the 
govern ment would be turned sgainst the interest 
to which he attached himself; for Wriothesley 
was now accounted the head of the Cutholic 
parly, as Hertford was the strength and hope of 
the Protestants. The chancellor, however, seems 
to have stood alone, or nearly alone in his oppo- 
sition; on seeing which he gave up the point, 
and consented to go along with his colleagnes ; 
and in the end, after short debate, the Earl of 
Hertford was nnanimously nominated Protector 
of the Realm and Governor of the kin^s person, 
the panimonnt authority implied in, and neoes- 
sarily conveyed by theee high titles being, how- 
ever, vainly enough, attempted to be limited by 
the condition that he should not do any act 
without the advice and consent of the majority 
of theexecutois. The chancellor now annonnced 
to the nobility assembled around the king in the 
presence chamber that all the eiecutora bad 
agreed " that the Earl of Hertford should be 
governor of the young king during his nonage." 
"Whereupon all the said lords made answer in 
one voice, that there was none bo meet for the 
same in all the realm as he ; and said also that 
they were well content withal." ' The boy-king 
then returned them thanks, from himself, by 
which he may be nnderstood to have intimated 
his assent to what the execnlora had done. 

Hertford and his associates, however, had a 
great deal more to do for themselves than they 
bad yet accomplished. A strange clause appeared 
in Henry's will, requiring them tJ make good 
alt that he had promised in any manner of way; 
and it was afBrraed that he had reiterated this 
injunction verbally, with great eamestnesB, to 
those of them who were in attendance upon him 
while he lay on his death-bed. When the matter 
CMne to be inquired into, it was foand that these 
unperformed engagements, or rather intentions 
(for in most cases they do not seem to have 
amounted to promises), of the deceased king, 
nearly all regarded certain additional honours 
and other good things which he meant to bestow 
upon the executors themselves. Such at least 
was the testimony of Paget, Denny, and Herbert, 

' UtiTpe, Eetla. Mm. IL £1, 

to whom alone it appeared that he had coramn- 
nicated the particulars, fiurnet gives the follow- 
ing account; — "Paget declared that when the 
: evidence appeared against the Duke of Norfdk 
' and his eon the Earl of Surrey, the king, who 
' used to talk oft iu private with him alone, told 
I him that he intended to bestow their lands libo- 
' rally ; and since, by attainders and other ways, 
the nobility were much decayed, he intended to 
' create some peers, and ordered him to write r 
book of such as he thought roeeteet." Paget then 
proposed that the Earl of Hertford should be 
made a duke, and named, besides, a number of 
other peiw>nB who should be ennobled, or raised 
to a higher rank in the peerage. He "also pro- 
posed a distribution of the Duke of Norfolk's 
estate ; but the king liked it not, and made iSr. 
Gates bring him the books of that estate, which 
I being done, he ordered Paget 'to tot upon the 
Earl of Hertford' (these are the words of his de- 
position) 1000 marks ; on the T^rds Lisle, SL 
John, and Rossell, ^200 a-yeor; to the Lord 
Wriothesley, £100; and for Sir Thomas Seymour, 
£300 a-year; but Paget said it was too little, and 

stood long arguing it with him And 

he, putting the king iu mind of Denny, who 
had been oft a suitor for him, but had never 
yet in lieu of that obtained anything for Denny ; 
the king ordered ;£200 for him, and 400 marks 
for Sir William Herbert, and remembered some 
other likewise." Some of the persons that were 
mentioned for promotion, however, on being 
spoken to, desired to remain in their present 
ranks, on the ground that the lauds the king pro- 
posed to give were not sufficient for the main- 
tenance of the honours to be conferred on tiiem ; 
and other circumstances also induced the king 
to change his mind as to some pointe. At last, 
after many consultations, the nutter was finally 
settled as follows:^"The Earl of Hertford ta 
be earl-marshal and lord-treasurer, and to be 
Duke of Somerset, Exeter, or Hertford, and his 
son to be Earl of Wiltshit«, with £800 a-year of 
land, and £300 a-yeor out of the next bishop's 
land that fell void ; the Earl of Essex to be Mar- 
quis of Essex ; the Viscount Lisle to be Earl of 
Coventry; the Lord Wriothesley to be Earl of 
Winchester ; Sir Thomas Seymour to be a baron 
and lord-admiral : Sir Richard Rich, Sir John 
St. Leger, Sir WiUiam Willoughby, Sir Edward 
Sheffield, and Sir Chriatopher Danby, to be h&- 
roDS, with yearly revenues to them and several 
other persons. And having, at the suit of Sir 
Edward North, promised to give the Earl of 
Hertford six of the best prebends that should 
fait ill any cathedral, except deaneries and trea- 
Burerships, at his (the duke's] suit, he (the king) 
agreed ^at a deanery and a treasurership should 
be instead of two of the six prebendaries." Pa- 


A.D. 1547-1549.] 


get's t«atuuoiiy wu eoDfirmed in all pointa hy 
Denny and Herbert, who said, that when the 
secretary left the chamber the king had told 
them the snbBtonce o( what had passed between 
them, and hud luade Dennj read the particulars 
us set down in writing. "Whereupon," it 
added, "Herbert observed, that the secretary 
hod remembered all but himself; to which the 
king answered, he should not forget him ; and 
ordered Denny to write £400 a-year for him." 
Thus one of these disinterested friends was al- 
ways at hand, at the moment of need, to hel]j 
another. The executors now resolved to fulfil 
their late master's intentions, both, as Burnet 
puts it, "out of conscience to the king's will, and 
fot their own honoara" — that is, wc must sup- 
pnoe, for the sake of the honours and profits that 
would thereby accrue to them. They wet 
some difficulty about finding the means of paying 
the Tarious pecuniary allowances, being unwill- 
ing, it seems, to sell the royal jewels or plate, or 
otherwise to diminish the king's treaanre or i*eTe- 
nue, in caae of a war with France or the empe- 
ror ; hut they eventually found a resource in the 
sale of tlie chantry lands. Most of the new 
peerages designed by Heniy were conferred, only 
in moat cases other titles were chosen. Eeeei 
became Marquis of Northampton; lisle. Earl of 
Warwick; Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton; Sir 
Thomas Seymour was made Baron Seymour of 
Sndley and lord high-admiral ; Rich became Baron 
Rich; Willoughby, Baron Willoughby; Sheffield, 
Baron Sheffield. St. L^er and Danby declined 
both peerage and pension. As for Hertford, he 
"grew," to borrow the eipreaaionof his admirer, 
Strype, "an exceeding great man, swelling with 
titles." "This," proceeds the historian, "was bis 
style: Thu most Noble and Victorious Prince 
Edward, Duke of Somerset, Earl of Hertford, 
Viaconut Beauchamp, Lord Seymour, Governor 
of the pemoD of the King's Majesty, and Protec- 
tor of all bis Bealms, his Lieutenant-general of 
alt his aimies both by land and by sea, liord 
Uigh-treaanrer, and Earl -marshal of England, 
Governor of the Isles of Guernsey and Jersey, 
and Knight of the most Noble Order of the 
Garter." "Jkoaiue he was thus great," it ia 
added, however, "so be also was a very generoos 
and good man, and a sincere favourer of the 
gospel ; he was entirely beloved of those that 
professed it, and for the most part by the popu- 
lacj; and, therefore, was commonly called The 
Good Duie.' ' Burnet admits, that "when it was 
known abroad what a distribution of honour and 
wealth the council had resolved on, it was much 
censured ; many saying that it was not enough 
fortbem to have drained the dead king of all his 
treamre, but that the first step of their proceed- 

> &da. Mm. U. M. 

inga in their new trust was, to provide honours 
and estates for themselves ; whereas it had been 
a more decent way for them to have reserved 
their preteosionB till the king had come to be of 
age." He even goes the length of insinuating 

PnoTicnis J 

— AAa Holbnn. 

that there was much reason for doubting tbo 
'hole stoiy of Paget and his fellow-deponents, 
inasmuch as the will on which they pretended 
to found it bore date on the 30th of December, 
whereas their account appeared to impl; that it 
was not drawn up till nearly a month later, wbeu 
Henry was on his death-bed.' 

The ceremonies of burying the old, and crown- 
ing the new king, were the first afEairs that occu- 
pied the government. King Henry, after lying 
' state at Whitehall till the 14th of February, 
s removed to Sion House, and thence to Wind- 
sor, where he was interred in SLGeorge's Chapel, 
the 16tb, with extraordinary magnificence.' 
Foot days after the funeral of Henry, the 
coronation of his son took place in Westminster 
Abbey, in a numner varied in some respects from 
the ancient form, partly, ss it was declared in 
the order or programme, " for the tedious length 
of the same, which should weary and be hurt- 

1 peradventure to the king's majesty, being 
yet of tender age, fully to endure and bide out ; 
and also for that many points of the came were 
such as by the laws of the realm at this present 
not allowable." The most material inno- 

in, however, was in the commencing cere- 
mony, in which, instead of the king, as hereto- 
fore, first taking the oath to preserve the liberties 

lug that ia bad bg^ utleipiittd bj Bun 
" " ■ Iho ■Monnt printed bj Bttyp* •' 

itjoD, nitJiont Dotl"- 
11 IniBtfa, lu £>Tl<i, 

« B.Google 


[Cl71I. AITD UtUllRT. 

of tlie realm, and being then presented to the 
people, who were aaked by tbe archbishop if they 
werewilliug t« accept him and obej him m their 
liege lord, the order of tbe oath and the presen- 
tatioQ was reversed— the former not being admi- 
uiatered till after the king had been shown by 
the archbishop, whose addresa to the people also, 
as Burnet has observed, waa couched "in such 
terms as should demoostrate he was no elective 
prince; for he, being declared tbe rightfnl and 
undoubted heir, both by the laws of Qod and 
man, they were desired to give their good-wills 
and assents to the same, as by their duty of alle- 
giance tbey were bound to do." As usual, a ge- 
neral p.irdon for state offenders waa proclaimed, 
from which, however, were excepted, uloug with 
a few other nami^ those 61 the Duke of Norfolk 
and Cardinal Pole. 

The "Good Duke," with all his eminence of 
station and sounding titles, was far from being 
yet satisfied with the position he had attained. 
So long as the chancellor (»mtinned a member of 
tbe council,SomersetmuBthavefelt that his exer- 
cise of supreme power would be subject to a con- 
stant check ; and the crafty Southampton (Wri- 
othealey), on the other hand, seems to have been 
by no means thrown into despair, or any thought 
of abandoning his post, by bia discomfitui-e in 
their first trial of strength. In fact, it may be said 
to have been the eagerness with which he allowed 
himself to be carried away and absorbed by his 
political functions, that brought about his ruin. 
" itesolving,* as Burnet says, "to give himself 
wholly to matters of state," in order that he might 
have time to attend the daily meetings of the 
council, on tbe IStti of Febraary, without con- 
sulting bis colleagaes in the government, he put 
the great seal to a commiasioD in the Icing's name, 
empowering four masters of his court, or any 
two of them, to hear all manner of causes in his 
absence, and giving to their decrees the same 
force as if they had been pronounced by himself, 
on condition only that they should be signed by 
htra before their enrolment This act of impru- 
dence was immediately pounced upon by the op- 
posite party; the subject waa referred to the 
judges, who declared that the chancellor had 
committed an oKnce against the king which was 
punishable at common law with the loss of ofSce, 
and fine and imprisonment at the royal pleasure. 
Southampton, afWr an attempt to maintain the 
legality of the commission, offered to submit to 
have it revoked, if it were deemed illegal ; but 
these terms of accommodation were of coarse re- 
jected; and, at last, on the 6th of March, the 
council resolved that the great seal should be 
taken from him, and that he should, in the mean- 
time, be confined to his residence at Ely House, 
and be fined as should be aft«rwanl8 thought 

fitting. He remained a prisoner in his own 
house for nearly four months, and was only then 
discharged after he had entered into a reeogiiiz- 
ance of .£4000, to pay whatever fine shonld be 
imposed upon him. " Thus fell the Icvd-chan- 
cellor," says Burnet; "and in him the Popish 
party lost their chief support, and the protector 
his most emulous rival.' Burnet acknowledges 
tliat the proceedings against him " were sum- 
mary and severe, beyond the usage cf the privy 
council, and without the common forms of legnl 

The next measure of the protector wss to tolce 
into his own bonds the entire power of the exe- 
cutive government A week after the ejectiou 
of Southampton, by a commiaaion running iu the 
king's name, and signed by himself utd his 
friends Cranmer, St. John, Rnssell, Northamp- 
ton, Cheyney, Paget, and Brown, tbe duke was 
declared governor of the king and protector of 
the kingdom, withoat any participation on the 
part of the council, which was indeed dissolved, 
by the members being united in a new oouacil 
with the twelve persons who had been appointed 
to he their advisers by Henry's will, aud the 
whole being now constituted a naere council of 
advice, the protector being at the same time em- 
powered to add to their numbers to any extent 
he pleased. Iu other words, Somerset was iu- 
veated with the whole of the royal authority, 
and, iu everything save the name, made King of 

The frame of the government at home being 
thus settled, the attention of the protector wss 
immediately called to foreign affiurs. The treaty 
uf Campes (Tth June, 1946), had, as already re- 
lated, both established peace with France anil 
suspended active hostilities with the Scots, al- 
though Henry bad continued to keep up a secret 
intercourse with tbe Froteatanta in Scotland, as 
the party opposed to tbe govemment of the Eari 
of Arran, audJiad, after the murder of Cardinal 
Beaton, openly sent supplies to the authors of 
that atrocity, whom Arran was in vain endea- 
vouring to dislodge &om the castle of St An- 
drews. Henry, on his death-bed, is said to have 
enjoined the lords of his council that tbey should 
leave nothing undone to bring about the mar- 
riage between his son and the infant Queen of 
Scots, on which he had so strongly set his heart; 
and bis desire no doubt was that they should 
pursue that object, as he himself would have 
done had he lived, either, as opportunity aiwl 
circumstances might seem to invite, by negotia- 
tion and intrigue, or by a " rouf^er wooing. 
Someraet, accordingly, now addressed a letter •* 
the Scottish nobility, strongly urging upon them 
the policy as well as the obligation of f\iiriilii^ 
" the promises, seals, and oaths, which, by public 

,v Google 

>. 1047-1549.] 


aathoritT, liad pnaaed for coacludiug this mar- 
rUge.*' Thia appeal, howerer, prodaced little 
effect npon the fMctj that now predominated in 
Scotland. In fact, immediate!; after thia, hoati- 
iities between the two coun- 
tries recommenced, with an 
encounter bet ween an Englbh 
veaael called the Patuy, com- 
manded by Sir Andrew Dud- 
ley, brother to the Earl nf 
Warwick, and the LUin, "a 
principal ahip of Scotland.'' 
Both countries were n] ready 
making preparatiooa for a 
war on a greater scale, when 
an event happened that n)at«- 
rially nffecteil tlieir position 
towards each other. fVancis 
I. died at Kambouillet on 
the Slat March ; thus surriv- 
iog by little more than two 
months the King of England, 
with whom he had been so rouim or tkk c 

conatautly connected, either 
na a friend or au enemy, for more than thirty 
years. Since the accession of Edward, how- 
ever, arrangements had been made for having 
the late alliance between the two crowns re- 
newed : and the treaty had, in fuct, been conclud- 
ed at London, and wanted only to be formally 
ratifitd by Francis at the time of his death. 
That heaviest blow, as it was consideivd at 
the moment, that could have befallen the Pi-o- 
teatant causo on the Continent, enabling the em- 
peror, as it did, to cany everytbiog before him 
fnr a time both in Germany and in Italy, soon 
appeared likely to be no leas diaastroua to the 
some interest in Scotland. Henry II., the son and 
sncceaaor of Francia, preserved for a little while 
a ahow of amicable intercourse with England; 
but it was sufficiently evident from the first what 
coarse he was about to take. Under the control 
of the Duke of Ouiae and the Cardinal of Lor- 
i-aine, the brothers of the queen-dowager of Scot- 
land, who DOW, along with Arrsn, stood at the 
head of the Catholic; party and of the established 
Jtovemment in that country, the politics of the 
new King of France immediately evinced a com- 
plete return te the old ayatem of a close alliance 
with the Scots, as affording the most effective 
means of annoying and ernliarraasing England. 
When the treaty of London was presentad to 
Henry IT., he refused to sign it; and soon after 
lie openly took part in the war ou the aide of the 
Scottish government by sending a fleet of sixteen 
galleya, under the command of Leo Strozzi, prior 
of Capua, to assist the regent in reducing the 
ca stle of St. Andrews. Airan, after lying for 

'BauiMnotuItbaMtwlii ffa)>nnl. ' Ibid. 

five months before this fortress, had made a trace 
with the gairisoa in February: and when the 
French galleys arrived, in the end of June, he 
was engaged on a plundering expedition beyoud 

ufn.E or St. ahiuxvc. — Fn*m a dnwinf bf J. 01iphshi» 

the western marches, from which, however, he 
hastened home, bringing with him, according to 
the Scottish historians, a great booty, as soon aa 
he heard that the foreign Auxiliaries had made 
their appearance. Meanwhile, the holders of the 
castle in the beginning of March had concluded 
two treaties with the English protector, by which 
they bound themselves by every means in their 
power to procure the marriage of the infant 
Queen of Scotland with King Edward, and en- 
gaged to give their best aid to an English army 
which ahould be forthwith sent to Scotland to 
obtain poasession of the queen. It was also sti- 
pnlated, that aa soon as that object should be 
efllected they afaonld deliver the castle to the 
commisaioDWS of the English king. But the 
force that was now brought against them soon 
put an end to all hope of their continuing te bold 
out A blockade bj sea, cutting off their usual 
supplies, was now added te a much more skilful 
and effective bombardment from the land than 
Arran's Scottish engineers had been able to di- 
rect against them in the former siege. At last, on 
the S9tli of July, a great breach was made, and 
on the following day the besieged, among whom, 
to add to their other straits and sufferings, a pes- 
tilential sickness had for sometime been making 
considerable ravages, agreed te capitulate on con- 
dition only that their lives should be sjiareil, and 
that they should be conveyed to France. Arran 
recovered his eldest son, whom the murderer* of 
the cardiiial had found in the castle, and whom 
they had detained in captivity during the four- 
teen months they bad held the phuie. Amony 
the prisoners carried to France was the famous 

,v Google 


[Civil asd Uilhaht. 

John Enox, who had joined Norman Lesly and 
hie companions after the truce made with Arran 
in the preceding February. The castle of St. 
Andrews was demolished by order of the Soot- 
tiah privy council. It hoe ever since remained a 

The English protector had been for Boms time 
boay collecting an army for the invawon of Scot- 
land J and by the end of Augnst he was ready to 
set out for the north at the head of a well-ap- 
pointed fores, which appears to have amounted 
to above 20,000 men, of whom 6000 were cavalry ; 
a fleet of sixty-five veasela, of which thirty-fiv( 
were ships of war, and the remainder laden with 
ammunition and victuals, being equipped 
company the expedition, under the command of 
the Ijord Clinton. A joumal of this in 
8cotknd is extant, written by a person who 
served in the protector's army, which ib not only 
one of the most minutely curious records of that 
age, but one of the most vivid pictures of the 
realities of war ever drawn,' The author. 
Fatten, was conjoint judge-marshal of the army 
along with tlie afterwards celebrated William 
Cecil, and hia work is dedicated to Paget, whom 
he Btyles " his most benign fautor and patron." 
He is, of course, a professed worshipper of his 
grace of Somerset, upon whom ha heaps his lau- 
dation throughout with nnbounded prodigality. 
Yet, allowance being made for some coni-tly 
embellishment, he evidently, in the main, sets 
down what he aaw with his own eyes, and he 
teila his story with a hearty gosuping relish 
that of itself betokens a keen and quick-sighted 

The army having been collected at Newcastle, 
the protector rode thither from London, and was 
met six miles from the town on Saturday, the 
27th of August, by Warwick, the lord-lieute- 
nant, and Sadler, the master-treasurer. The 
next day a muster of the whole force was held; 
and on Monday, the 89th, they set forwaH for 
the Borders. Reaching Berwick on Priday. the 
2d of September, they found there Lord Clinton 
with the fleet, which immediately put to sea 
while the army rested a day, and then, on the 
Snnday, set forward on its march close along the 
shore. Having made their way, on the 6th, 
across the deep glen or valley of the Peathn, or 
the Pease (as it is commonly jirononneed), at 

'" Th. EipBlilkm Idlo SooUuid or th. nu^ wortWl, forluii. 
hM PfiEug Edwud Dnlu of SonuBt, otmle to mi meal nobis 
BoTimlfn I»rf tb« Rliv'i Ktittj Edwvd tha VI,. OoTBnwr 
of hb UlahaW Pmon. ud Pratootirr of hli Onot'i ndni^ 
domlBfcm^ uid •ub;»u ; nud* Id Uia Ont ^w of Ui H«]«t^. 
mow praqmroui wlgn, ud Hi out hj ir^ of DlMj. Bf W. 
r.ttm, Undonn.- ThI. nin-li™, whloh vu Bnt pnblldKU 
It t<nKl«i In IMS, «u nipriiiM tn (IMIjrtl.) Pmfmmu -tf 

ltd, Edln. iros. of * 

00 ooplm. ratla'i Hitty, 

Cockbumspath, the invaders began the work of 
war by sitting down before Donglas Castle, a 
bold belonging to Sir Ceorge Douglas. The txp- 
tain, Matthew Hume, the son of a brother of 
Lord Hume, made no vain show of resistance, 
but soon came forth, " and bronght with him," 
says our joumaUst, "hia band to my lord's grace, 
which was of twenty-one sober (poor) soldiers, 
all so apparelled and appointed that, so God help 
me {I will say it for no pruse), I never saw snch 
a hunch of beggars come out of one house toge- 
ther in my life." Six of the most decent of these 
aoarecrowa were detained; the rest were allowed 
" to gea their gate,"— that is, to go their way,— 
with an admonition that they wonld be hanged 
the next time Ihcy were caught. The castle was 
afterwards blown np with gunpowder, as wer« 
also Thornton and Anderwick, two other jwels 
or strongholds belonging to Lord Hume. 

The invading force continued its march close 
to the German Ocean, and, passing within gun- 
shot of Dunbar, encamped for the night in the 
neighbourhood of Tantallon Castle. Here they 
received the first certain intelligence of die posi- 
tion of the enemy. The next day, Wednesday, 
the 7th, turning to the west, they crossed the 
small river Lynn, the horse taking the water, 
the infanby passing over by Linton bridge. A 
number of Scottish prickera, or horse, were 
now seen on a rising ground not far from Hailce 
Castle, belonging to Earl Bothwell, some of whom 
appeared to be making towards the river, with 
the intention probably of picking up stragglen 
or attacking the rear of the English ca^ry, 
whom a sudden mist had enveloped while they 
were yet crossing the water. 

A communication was now established with 
the fleet, which lay over against Leith; and, the 
lord-admiral having come on shore, it was ar- 
iged that the ships of war should fall down 
the tVith, and take their stations opposite to the 
town of Mnsselhnrgfa, near to which the army 
lay. On the evening of the same day, Priday, 
the 8th, the En^ish encamped in the neighbour- 
hood of Salt Preeton, now called Prestonpans. 
The two armies were now separated by a dis- 
nce of little more than two miles, and each 
camp was to be seen from the high grounds in 
leighbourhood of the other. Both had the' 
) the north, while on the south, and about 
midway between them, rose, facing the west, iJie 
eminence called Fslside, or Pawside Brae, the 
termination of an inconsiderable range of hills 
extending in a direction parallel to the sea. 
npon this elevation, which was SDrraouttted by 
"a sorry castle, and half a score houses of like 
worthiness by it," alt tlie morning of Saturday, the 
Dtb, the Scottisli horsemen were seen "prank- 
ing" np and down ; bnt in the afternoon a party 

,v Google 


of English cavalry, having eet out to atbick them, 
Bueceeded id compelling them U> retire, though 
not till after a sharp Bkirmish, id vbich sereial 

lieraons were slain nnd taken prisoners on both 
&idea; among others, the son and heir of Lord 
Iluiue fell into the handa of the English, and 
that lord liimeelf, though he escaped, was se- 
verely hurt, and put hori de eombat hy a fsll 
from his horse. After this afiair, Somerset, 
Warwick, and others of the captains, attended 
hy a guard of 300 hone, proceeded to the hili to 
laJie a view of the Scottish camp. There, on the 
lower ground hetween them and the declining 
nin, glittered the white tenia of Arran's numer- 
oita host, disposed in four long rows running from 
east to wett, and about an arrow-shot asnnder, 
" not unlilce to four great ridges of ripe barley." 
Ripe, indeed, it might have been added, was the 
living harvest for the sickle! The position of 
the Bcots, however, was a very strong one : the 
sea, as already mentioned, skirted them to the 
north; a great marsh covered their opposite or 
right flauk ; while their front wss strongly de- 
fended by the river Esk flowing northward into 
the sea, with no great volume of water, indeed, 
hat yet with hanks ao steep and rugged as almost 
to defy the approach of an enemy. The ancient 
bridge over this river tbey hod token posseaaion 
of and " kept well warded with ordnance j" it 
stood within twelve score paces of the sea ; and 
in front of the bridge, on the narrow space of 
ground between it and the sea, they had also 
planted two field-pieces, and stationed some hock' 
butters or musketeers, under a turf wall. Be- 
tween Pawside Brae and the Esk stood another 
little insulated eminence, crowned by the parish 
rhutch of St. Michael's of Inveresk. A herald 
\0L. 11. 

' and a trumpeter came to the Eu^ish camp: the 
former professed to come from Arran with a 
proffer of honest conditions of peace, while the 
latter brought a personal chal- 
lenge fi-om his master, the Lord 
Huntly, to Somewet, whom the 
Scottish earl asked to fight 
him, either singly, or with ten 
or twenty more on ench side, 
and BO to decide the contest 
without further effusion of 
blood. The protector, as might 
liave been, and no donbt wss 
expected, declined both pro- 

It was now resolvisl te occn- 
py the hili on which stood St. 
Uichael's Church, and for that 
purpose, on thefollo wing morn- 
ing, that of Saturday, the lotb 
— long popularly remembered 
in Scotland as the Blaet Satur- 
day — the army wss put in mo- 
tion by eight o'clock. Upon 
coming in sight of the ground, 
they were greatly amazed to find that the Scots 
had crossed the river, and wete there before 
them; for that Arran would have quitted the 

advantageous position he held, and have thus 

left all his strong natural defences behind bis 

' Plgiue No, 1 ropiiMiita ■ hickbat. No, i, an anlugsd Bg- 

ttia priming ; B, illde or ihlrfd to ooter the priming, monjitiid 
wilh cfasoki U pnrtul lU InoldsliUI ntuni ; C, Unuul 
whfob being pnwid >t tha dins of polUng thi triggn' [He 

Id thA qulok mAloh, P, i 

'; B.tbrii 

lA atflok eonUdnt i 

longKl lo Hsnij VIII,, 

. It bum tha tKijit m 

• Google 



[C171I. AMD MlLlTART: 

back, was the loat thought that could have en- 
tered their heads. It should appear, hotrerer, 
that the Scots were afndd of their invaderB 
escaping them, and that their intention was, if 
they had not been thus euconntered in the in- 
termediate space, t« have attacked Somerset in 
his camp. When thej saw the English approach- 
ing, thej* advanced at a round pace; but their 
course was immediately checked bj a discharge 
of artiUerj from the admiral's gaUey, which was 
BO effective as to kill between twauty and thirty 
of them, their line of march, in consequence of 
the situation of the bridge by which they had 
passed over, being close upon the sea. This 
slaughter. Patten afGnus, so scared a body of 
4000 Irish (that is. Highland) archers brought 
by the Earl of Argyle, "that whereas, it was 
■aid, they should have beea a wing to the fore- 
ward (vanguard), they could never after be made 
to come forward." The whole advancing host 
now moved away to the right, with the object of 
gaining Fawside Brae; but here the English 
were before them, and succeeded not only in oc- 
cupying the brow of tbe hill, but in planting 
several field-pieces upon its summit, so as to fire 
over tlie heads of the men below. For this they 
were indebted principally to their great supe- 
riority in cavalry. As for the Scots, Fatten no- 
tices it as a remarkable circumstance, that "in 
ftti this enterprise they used for haste so little 
I he help of horse, that they plucked forth their 
ordnance by draught of meu." 

When they saw the English in possession of 
the hill-side, the Scots suddenly stopped, in a 
fallow field, where a great ditch or slough still 
divided them from the enemy. Undeterred by 
this obstacle, however, the Lord Gray proceeded 
to attack them, and, though many of his men 
stuck in tbe alongh, and they were also impeded 
by the cross ridges of the ploughed field, he 
dashed on and made his way up to the Scots, 
who stood atiil to receive the attack, only when 
their assailants were near upon them, "striking 
their pike points, and crying ' Come here, louns 
(iwcals), come here, tykes (dogs), come here, 
heretics,' and such like." It is affirmed that the 
left wing of the Scots was at first compelled to 
give way; but this seems to hare been only for 
a moment; the English soon turned round in a 
body to regain the hill. The Sight, in fact, seems 
to have been genpral, in so far as the common 
troopers were concerned ; the gentlemen alone 
(or a few moments tried to make a stand; in the 
rain attempt no fewer than tweuty-aiz of them 
were slain; Lord Gray himself was severely 
wounded in the mouth; and the Scots rushing 
up to the reyal standard actually got bold of it, 
and in the struggle succeeded in carrj-ing away 
a part of the statT. 

Patten's description of what he calls " tha 
countenance of the war," up to this time, bears 
vivid traces of the alarm and confusion in which 
he and his countrymen found themselves. An- 
other old English historian admits that "albeit 
encounters between horsemen on the one side 
and foot on the other, are seldom with the ex- 
tremity of danger, because as horsemen aui 
hardly break a battail on foot, so men on foot 
cannot possibly choM horsemen ; yet hereupon 
so great was tbe tumult and fear among the 
English, that had not the commanders been men 
both of approved courage and skill, or haply had 
the Scots been well-fumisbed with men-at-arnui, 
the army had that day been utterly undone."' 
Warwick, in particular, exerted himself in re- 
storing the self-possession of the men, assuring 
them that if they would only fallow their officers, 
the day was still their own. It was now seen 
that the impetuosity of the Scota bad involved 
an inconsiderable part of their force almost within 
a complete inclosure of tlieir enemies; on which, 
we proceeded, says Patten, "to compass them iu 
that they should no way escape us^the which 
by our power and number we were as well able 
to do as a spinner's web to catch a swarm of 
bees." The requisite dispositions were forthwith 
made hy the sererel officers with great skill and 
effect. " The master of the ordnance," continues 
the narrative, "to their great annoyance did gall 
them with bail shot and other out of the great 
ordnance directly from tbe hill-top, and certain 
other gunners with their pieces afiank from our 
rearward, most of our artillery and marine en- 
gines there wholly with great puissance and ve- 
hemency occupied thua about them. Herewith 
the full sight of our footmen, all sliadowed from 
them before by onr horsemen and dust raised, 
whom Uien they were ware in such order to be so 
near npon them. And to this the perfect array 
of our horsemen again coming courageously to 
set on them afresh." The tide and current of 
the "heady fight" were in a moment turned. 
Tbe Scots, staggered and bewildered, first fell 
back, and then began U> take t« flight Arrsn 
himself, their general, is said to have been the 
first to put spurs to his hotse — after him Angus; 
then the Highland archers, who bad never yet 
been engaged, fled in a body. " Therewith then 
turned all the whole rout, cast down their wea- 
pons, ran out of their wards, ofl' with their jacks, 
and with all that ever they might, betook them 
to the race that their governor began. Our men 
had found them at the first (as what could escape 
so many thousand eyes), and sharply and quickly, 
with an universal outcry. They fly 1 they fly I 
pursued after in chase amain; and thereto so 
eagerly and with such fierceness, that they over- 


*.T^ 10J7— 1648.] 



toA many, and apand, iodeed, but few. The 
torrent chiefly rolled itself oloDg three great 
lincfl ; oDe multitade took Ibe way bj the aauda 
to Leith ; another made for Edinburgh, either 
bj the highroad, or throngh the enclosed ground 
called the King's Fark ; a third, and that the 
moat numerous, sought Dalkeith, by crossing a 
lusnb, through which the English horse found 
it difficult to pursue them." 

Msnj thousands, however, were alangbtered 
in tiie flight, the protoctor'a people giving hardly 
any quarter. The prisoners taken amounted, in 
all, only to about 1500— little more, accordii^ to 
Patteu's account, than a tithe of tbe slain. The 
most distinguished among those that fell alive 
into tbe hands of the Euglish was tbe Earl of 
Huntly, lord-chancellor of the kingdom, whom, 
notwithstanding bis oeteolAtiaua measage to 80- 
meraet by tlie tnunpet«r, the Scottiah writers 
loudly accuse of treachery; the same authorities 
alaa assert that tbe Uastera of Bucban, Erakiue, 
and Graham, were put to death in cold blood, 
"after having rendered themselves on quarter 
promised."' Soon after five o'clock, however, tbe 
iord-protector being, if we may believe his judge- 
marshal, moved with pity at tbe aigbt of the dead 
bodies, and rather glad of victory than desirous 
of slaughter, staid the pursuit. But by this time 
it seems to have extended up to the walla of 
Edinburgh, and no more fleeing enemiea were 
auywbere to be seen for tbe sword to cut down. 
The victorious army then retumal to plunder 
the Scottiab camp. It stood, according to Fat- 
ten's description, in a field called Edmonaton 
Edgea, balf a mile to the west of Musaetburgb, 
and four miles from Ediobui^b; tbe apace occu- 
pied by the tents being about a mile in compass. 
Here, as soon as the English arrived, they set up 
a universal shout of gladness and victory, the 
Bhrillness of which is affirmed to have been heard 
as far aa Edinburgh. As for the spoil, there 
was found in the tents good provision of white 
bread, ale, oaten cakes, oatmeal, mutton, butter 
iu pota, and cheese; and also, in tboee of the 
principal persons, good wine aod some silver 
plate. Then they fell to stripping the bodies of 
the multitudinous dead. Aa many hands make 
light work, observes our journalist, it was won- 
derful to see in how short a time all the bodies 
ffere stripped stark naked throughout the whole 
space over wbi^ the puj:8nit and slaughter bad 
extended. He expresses great admiration of the 
athletic forma of the Scottish soldiers; their tall- 
ness of stature, clearness of akin, bigneaa of bone, 
und due proportion in all parts, he says, were 

' S« sir JuM DiilfDnr'i JibbIU. Asccrdlng to FiHsn. tha 
m kUlad bj tba toU^ And 

such, that, unless be had seen them, he wouLl 
not have believed the whole country had con- 
fined BO many weli'made men. All the day, 
during the fight and the sulisequent slaughter, 
the sky bad been cloudy and lowering; bat now, 
when the earth lay covered with the naked dead, 
a heavy rain fell for an hour, lightening the laden 
atmoapfaere, and refreshing tbe face of nature. 
About seven o'clock the Eugliab pitched their 
camp for the night on tbe neighbouring height 
of Edge-buckling-brae, otherwise called Pinken- 
cleugh, beside Pinkie Slough, about midway 
between their former station at Freetonpana and 
the spot where the battle was fought And thus 
ended the greatest defeat the Scots hod sustained 
since the disastrous day of Flodden Field, almost 
exactly thirty-four jeara before. 

The army rested here only till the morning of 
the following day, Sunday the 11th, when it re- 
moved to tbe neighbourhood of Leith. The fleet 
now, taking advantags of the nuiveraol terror 
into which the country had been thrown, pro- 
ceeded to sweep the sea of all Scottiah vessels, 
and to bum and ravage whatever parts of Ihs 
land it could reach. The island of Inchcolm in 
the firth was taken, and Eingbom and other 
towns and villages along the Fife coast were 
plundered and set oa fire. Meanwhile many of 
the neighbouring gentry came in to make their 
submission— and, for the moment, all active re- 
sistauce on the part of the Scottiab government 
and people was at on end. Both tbe capital, 
however, and its dependent seaport of Leith, still 
kept their gates shut against the invaders. Nor 
did Somerset deem it expedient to follow up his 
great victory by attempting to force an enti«oce 
into either of these towns. On Saturday, the 
17th, it was announced to the atmy that the fol- 
lowing morning the teats would again be struck, 
and the word given for setting out on their march 
bock to tbe Borden. That same day the town 
of Leith was set on fire — tbe writer before us 
hesitatingly attempts to insinuate, by accident, 
or at least without any commission from Somer- 
set — but the act waa too much in the spirit of 
that commander's uaual devastating and savage 
manner of carrying on war, to allow ua to have 
any doubt aa to its having been done by hia ex- 
press order. When the army set out the next 
morning at seven o'clock, the sky was still red 
with the flames that rose from the town, and also 
from some great ships in the harbour, that are 
admitted to have been designedly set on fire. As 
tbe English took their d^tarture. Patten says 
that the castle of Edinburgh "shot off a peal of 
twenty-four pieces," but none of tbe shot reached 
them. The chief part of the army directed their 
march south-east across tbe country; "but part 
of ne," he continues, "kept the way that the chief 





of the cliaae waa contiuaed in, vhenby we foand 
moat part of the dead corpKi Ijing very ruefuUr. 
with the coloar of their skins changed greenish, 
about the place thej had been smitten iu, m theu 
too, above ground, iinburied." 

Someraet, meanwhile, pntsued hii w&j honie- 
warda without loiiing much more time. He had, 
indeed, despatched Clinton with a few ships, "full 
fraught with men and muDition," to asaault the 
MStle of Broughtj, at the month of the T&j; and 
this fortresB, Which was the kej to that river and 
to the towns of Dundee and Perth, was soon 
compelled to Burrender. The first pause which 
he himself made was at Hume Cnstle, in the 
Mene, before which he sat down on the 19th, 
and made prapantions for an awault ; but after 
two dajs of negotiation, lady Home deemed it 
moBt prudent to jield up the place, on condition 
of the gairiBOn and herself being allowed to de- 
part with their lives and whatever else the; could 
cany away with them. He aUo halted tor a few 
dajB at Roxburgh, and built a small fort within 
the incloaure of an old ruined caatle there. After 
this, many of the persona in thst part of the 
country came in to make their snbmiseion. It 
appears, however, that Airan, with a small body 
of cavalry, had hung upon the rear of the retreats 
iiig army all the way from Edinburgh, although 
Le did not venture to do more than watch ite 
motions. At last, on Thursday, the S9th, the 
English gener&l recrossed the Tweed, and in a 
few days more anived in Loudon, oiler an ab- 
«eDce altogether of about six weeks. 

It is conjectured that intelligence of certain 
doings on the part of a "brother near the throne," 
which will presently engage our attention, hurried 
Somerset back to the English court ; but, inde- 
pendently of any auch sudden and secret motive 
for his hoaty return, the moment was as apt a 
one BB he could have cboaeu iu which to make his 
rs-appearance. 'rheScottiHhwar,indeed,of which 
he had undertaken the conduct, instead of being 
ended, was only begun ; nor had he even attempted 
to follow up, or to gather the fruits of, his first 
greHt BuccesB. But no subsequent achievement 
was likely to out-<laz£le the victory of Pinkie; nor 
could the glory of that victory be enhanced even 
by the roost favourable and decisive results, for 
already it Beemed not merely a battle won, but a 
kingdom oonquer«d. The protector, however, 
was careful to return without ahow, and Bflsunie 
n demeanour of the most condescending and re- 
tiring humility. He was immediately rewarded 
by Edward— in other words, by himself — with a 
grant of additional landod eatjitei to the value of 
XAOO B-year. He forthwith also prepared "to 
meet the parliament (for which the writs had 
l>een sent ont before be went into Scotland), now 
that he was so covered with glory, to get himself 


establishtid in his authority, and to du 
other things which required a session.''' 

The work of carrying forward the reformation 
of the church had engaged the attention of thu 
government from the commencement of the reign. 
Cranmer, in the words of the right reverend bi" - 
torian who has just been quoted, ''being now 
delivered from that too awful subjection that he 
had been held under by King Henry, reeolveil 
to go on more vigorously in purging out abases.' 
In these views the archbishop, besides the cordial 
assent of the young king, had the entire concur- 
rence of the protector, as also, since the expulsion 
of Wriothesley, of nearly all the members of the 
council that were of any influence or considera- 
tion. The only formidable opponent of the in- 
novations that remained even nominally a mem- 
ber of the government was Tonstal, Bishop of 
Durham, and he was relegated on various pre- 
texts 4o his distant diooese, and excluded from 
taking any part in public affaire. Of the othtr 
bishops, several went along with Cnutmer — 
namely, Holgate of York, Holbeck of Lincoh-, 
Goodrich of Ely, and especially the able and 
learned Bidley, who, in September of this year, 
was appointed to the see of Bochester On the 
side of the old opinions, however, was still ar- 
rayed a vast force both of numbers and also of 
other elements of power. If the boy who occu- 
pied the throne was an enthusioHtic Protestant, 
his Biflter, the Princess Mary, generally looked 
upon na the heiress presumptive, was as zealous 
and determined a Catholic; Somerset and his 
adherents of the new nobility had to maintain 
their position against the envy, the resentment, 
and the other natural antipathies of the whole 
faction of the ancient houses, depressed, indeed, 
for the present, but still deeply rooted and of 
great natural strength in the country; et'en of 
the headsof the church, both the greater number 
and the most distinguished, including, besides 
Tonstal, the fierce and unscrupuloua Bonner of 
Ijondon, and the courageous, politic, and acconi- 
pliahed Oardiner of Winchester, were opposed to 
the new opinions; above all, the immense ma- 
jority of the people of all classes had yet to be 
roused from their habitual attachment to the 
doctrines and the ritual of their forefathers. Iu 
these circumstances it was prudeutly resolved, 
"by Cranmer and his friends, to carry on the Re- 
formation, but by slow and safe degrees, uot 
hazarding too much at once."" They did not wait, 
however, till the parliament met, to commenct' 
what they deemed so good and necessary a work, 
but determined at once to proceed iljion tliu 
despotic statute of the last reign, which gave to 
the royal proclamation the full force of a legiala- 
They began by a repetilion ol 

,v Google 

.D. 1547- 



the lat« kind's vidtkticHi of diocMes. The kiog- 
dom vaa divided into sis circuitH, to e»ch of 
which wen appointed three or four visitorB, iu 
most cases parti; dei^ymen, partly lajiDeii. 
These viaiton were investod for the time with 
the aapreme epiritual Authority in their eoTeral 
disCricta, and with power to call before them, for 
eiuumDation, the dergy of all ranks, fr«m the 
bishop indiudve, aod even any of the laity iji 
every parish, whose evidence, as to its eccleaiaa- 
tieal condition, they ahoiild deem it expedient to 
obtikin. But their functions were not limited to 
the taking of evidence. A body of injunctions 
relating to a great variety of points of religious 
belief and worship was framed and put into their 
bands, which they were to publish wherever 
they went, with intimatioa that the refusal or 
neglect to obey them wontd be punished with 
the pains of escommimication, sequestration, or 
deprivation, as the ordinaries, whom the jusCicee 
of the peace were required to aasist, should an- 
swer it to the Icing. Tiiese orders were for the 
greater part tiia same that had been formerly 
issued by Cromwell ; but it was an important 
touovation thus to conjoin the dvil authorities 
with the bishops in the ezecntion of them. At 
the same time a collection of liomilies was drawn 
up, which were required to be read in every 
cborch on Sundays and holidays: every parish 
church iu England was ordered to be provided 
with a copy of a translation made for the purpose 
of Eramawi' Paraphrase on the New Testament, 
aa well as of the English Bible; the moat eminent 
preachers of the Reformed doctrines that could be 
found were dispersed over the kingdom along 
with the visitors, that they might with the more 
authority instruct the people ; while, by various 
r^nlations, the right of all other clergymen to 
(»«acb was gradually more and more contracted, 
till at last it was permitted to no one, even ai- 
thotlgh a bishop, who had not a license from the 
jHotector or the metropolitan. 

The visitors were sent out upon their circuits 
about the same time that the protector set forth 
on his expedition to Scotland ; and when Somer- 
set returned from the north he had the satisfac- 
tion of finding that they had completed theii- 
mission apparently with as much success as him> 
■elf. One of the injunctions was, that al) monu- 
ments of idolatry should be removed out of the 
walls or windows of churches; "and those," says 
Burnet, " who expounded the secret providences 
uf Qod with an eye to their own opinions, took 
great notice of this — that on the same day in 
which the visitors removed and destroyed most 
of the images in LondoD, their armies were so 
Bucceaaful in Scotland in Pinkie field." Both 
Bonner and Gardiner, however, had stood out 
against the new regiUations. Bonner, at first, 

would only promise toobserve the injunctions in 
so far as Uieywere not contrary to Qod's law anil 
the ordinances of the church : on this be was 
brought before the coondl, where, after offering 
a aubmiadon "full of vain quidditiea* (as the 
■ninato charactorizes it), he at last consented to 
withdraw bis protestation nnconditionaUy ; but, 
nevertheless, " for giving terror to otherx," it was 
deemed proper that he should be sent for a tjme 
to the Fleet Oardiner'a case was different ; IJte 
injnnctiona and homilies had never actually been 
offered for his acceptance, but he had objected to 
Uiem in a letter to one of the visitors before the 
visitation of his diocese had commenced. Bur- 
net, who transcribes this letter at length, being 
"resolved," as he says, "to suppress nothing of 
couaeqnence, on what side soever it may be," can- 
not help speaking of it in a tone of honest com- 
mendation, which is not the leas forcible for the 
indications of partizanship with which hia admis- 
sion is accompanied. "It has more,' he otiaarves, 
"of n ChrialLiii and of a bishop iu it than any- 
thing I ever saw of hia. He expresses, in hand- 
some terms, a great contempt of the world, and 
a resolution tosufferanything ratherthan depart 
from his ooBScience ; besides that, as be said, the 
things being against law, he would not deliver 
up the liberties of hiBcountry,but would petition 
agtunst them." He also wrote argumentative 
tetters against some things iu the injUDctiona and 
homilies both to the protector and to Cranmer. 
This was all that he had done when he was 
summoned before the council, and required to 
promise that he would obey the royal injanctions. 
He replied that he was not bound, then, to say 
whether he would or would not, but sboulil be 
prepared to make his answer to the visitors when 
they came to his diocese. This defence, however, 
availed him nothing: he also, as well as Bonner, 
was consigned tocloee imprisonment in the Fleet. 
Id this way the two moat formidable enemies of 
the course which the protector and Oanmer had 
entered upon, and were bent upon pursuing, 
were excluded from the parliament that was about 
to open. 

The two houses met on the 4th of Novembei-. 
The day before, "the protector," says Burnet, 
"gave too publican instance how much his proB- 
perous success had lifted him up; for by a patent 
under the great seal he was warranted to sit iu 
parliament on the right hand of the throne, and 
was to have all the honoura and privileges that 
at any time any of the undea of the kings tf 
England, whether by the father's or moUier'n 
ude, had enjoyed ; with a not obtlante to the 
statute of precedence." The new parliament, 
however, b^an its proceedings with some valu- 
able constitutional reforms, or rather restorations 
of the old constitution. Tbe first bill that waa 

,v Google 





} the Act 1 

broDght in (eventually formed it 
Edw. VI. c. IS) repealed the late 
which g»ve to the royal proclanuttion the force 
of law/erased all the additions to the law of trea^ 
aou that bad been made aioce the Sfith of Edw. 
III., and also Bwept away at once both the old 
lawe against the Lollards and ail the new felouiee 
created during the last reign, including the sta^ 
tut« of the Six Articles, and every other act con- 
cerning doctrine and matter of religion. Another 
act (the 1 Edw. VI. c 1) made an important in- 
novation in the ritual of religioiu worship, by 
ordering that in the sacrament of the Lord's 
Sapper the cup should be delivered to the laity 
as well Hs to the clergy. A third (the I 3Mw. 
VI. c. 2) put an en 1 to the old form (afterwsids, 
however, restored in the reign of Elizabeth, and 
still Bubsisting) of the election of bishops by txmffi 
iPtlire, on the ground that "the said elections be 
in very deed no elections, but only have colours, 
shadows, or pretences of elections, serving never- 
theless to no purpose, and seeming also derogatory 
and prejudicial to the king's prerogative royal;" 
and appointed that all collations to bishoprics 
shonld in future be made by direct nomination 
of the crown. Last in order of these measnres 
of ecclesiBStical reform, was brought in one in 
which many of the members of the government 
had a personal and pecuniary interest — the bill 
for making over to the crown all the chantries, 
colleges, and free chapels throughont the king- 
dom that yet remained usoonfiecsted. Thi« bill, 
which was fii'st brought forward in the House of 
Lords, was strongly opposed there, not only by 
the bishops attached to the old religion, but by 
Cranmer himself. It was vigorously pushed, 
however, by Henry'a executors, who, ss Burnet 
intimates, "saw they could not pay his debts, 
nor satisfy themselves in their own pretensions, 
formerly mentioned, out of the king's revenue, 
and BO intended to have these to be divided 
among them;" and they had the eager assistance 
of eveiy other noble lord who cherished any ex- 
pectation of sharing in the plunder. The mino- 
rity agaonst the bill on the first division consisted, 
in fact, only of Cranmer, and sir other bishops; 
and on the third reading the archbishop and one 
of theblsbops were absent, while another of them 
abandoned his bootless and profitless opposition, 
and went over to the court. In short, "those 
that were to g«n by it were so many that the act 
passed." It also met with much resistance in the 
commons from some of the burgh members, who 
particniariy objected to the clause giving the 
lands held by guilds to the king ; but they were 
pacified by an assurance that the lands in ques- 
tion should be afterwards restored; and the act 
was then quietly allowed to become law. The 
objects of the confiscation, an professed in the 

preamble of the act, were, first, the diacounge- 
nient of superstition ; secondly, the converting of 
the funds obtained by the suppression of the 
chantries "to good and godly uses, as in erecting 
of grammar schools for the education of youth in 
virtue and godliness, the further augmenting of 
the universities, and better provision for the poor 
and needy;"' but whatever may have been guned 
in the former of tbeee ways, in respect to the lat- 
ter the measnre proved a mere delusion. "For 
though the public good waa pretended thereby, 
and intended, too, i hope," says a writ«r well dis- 
posed to take the most hvourable view of all 
theae proceedings, "yet private men in truth had 
most of the benefit ; and the king and common- 
wealth, the state of learning, and the condition 
of the poor, left as they were before or worse.'" 
Another remarkable act, designated by tbe 
king in his journal "an extreme law," was also 
passed for the suppression of the still extending 
nuisance of mendicity, or, as it was entitled, "for 
the punishment of- vagabonds, and the relief of 
poor and impotent persons.'" All the provinon 
that was made for the latter objeet was merely 
by a clause directing that impotent, maimed, and 
aged persons, who could not be taken as vaga- 
bonds, should have bouses provided for tbeni, 
and be otherwise relieved in the places where 
they were bom or had chiefly resided for the last 
three years, iy the wiUing and ekaritablt ditpoti' 
tioni of the parithionert; but in the part of it 
directed against mendidty, the statute hu all 
the ferocity of a law passed in desperation, and 
fearfully attests, by the barbarous severity of its 
enactments, the height to which the evil had ar- 
rived. It was ordered that any person found 
living "idly or loiteringly' for the space of three 
days, should, on being brought before a justice, 
be marked as a vagabond with a hot irMi on the 
breast, and adjudged to be the slave for two yeare 
of the person informing Hgoiust him, who, it wafi 
added, "shall take tbe same stave, and give him 
bread, water, or small drink, and refuse meat, 
and cause him to work, by beating, chaining, or 
otherwise, in such work and labour as he shsll 
put him to, be it never so vile.* If in the course 
of this term the slave absented himself for tour- 
teen days, he was to be marked with a hot iron 
on the forehead or the ball of the cheek, and ad- 
judged to be a slave to hia said master for ever: 
if he ran away a second time, he was to suffer 
death as a felon. MastetB were empowered "to 
sell, bequeath, let out for hire, or give the service 
of their slaves to any person whomsoever, upon 
such conditions, and for such term of yews, m 
the said persons be adjudged to them for slaves, 
after tbe like sort and manner as they may doo' 

,v Google 

A.D. 1647—1549.] 



lui; other their mOTe&ble goodfl or chatt«U- 
maoter w«a likewise authorized to put a nag of 
iton ftboat the neck, ana, or leg of his slace/'for 
a more knowledge and anrety of the keeping of 
him." By anollier daiue, it was ordered, that, 
altboogh there ahould be no man to demand the 
Hrrices of Bach idle peraone, the jiuticea of the 
peace ahoald rtiU inquire after them, and, after 
bnmding tlu m, convej' them to the places of their 
birth, there to be uouriihed end kept in chaina 
or otherwise, either at the common works in 
amending highways, or in serritude to private 
persons. Finally, all persona that choee were 
anthorixad to aeize the children of b^gars, and 
to retain them aa apprentices — the boys till they 
were twenty-four, tjie girls till they were twenty 
years of age; and if they ran away before the end 
of their term, the master was permitted, upon 
recovering them, to pnniah them in chains or 
otherwise, and to osa them as eUvea till the time 
of tbeir^prenticeshipahouldhaTeeipired. This 
law can be chanct«rized as nothing else thou the 
formal re.«stabliBhment of alavery in England ; 
but it wonld prove no mere matter of form: 
from the extent to which, owing to a concurrence 
of cansee, b^gary and vagrancy had now spread, 
its despotic and oppreaaive character would be 
actually and severely felt by no inconsiderable 
portion of the people. Indeed, it helped, along 
■with other elements of popular exasperation, to 
produce the result tliat ensued not long after this 
in many parta of the kingdom, where mendicancy 
was converted into open and general rebellion. 

Parliament rose on the 24th of December, its 
last measure having been an act confirming the 
king's general pardon of state ofienders, from 
which, however, was excluded, along with a few 
others, the Duke of Norfolk, who still remained 
a prisoner in the Tower. Crwuner, neverthelees, 
continued to urge on his ecclesiastical alterations 
with unrelazing activity. On the repreaentatioa 
of the archbishop, that such things were oontrary 
to the gravity and simplicity of the Chiistian re- 
ligioD, an order was issued by the cotmcil, prohi- 
biting the carrying of candles on Caodiemaa Day, 
of ashes on Ash Wednesday, or of palms on Palm 
Sunday. This innovatioa was far from being 
relished by the bulk of the nation; for "the coun- 
try people," as Burnet observes, "generally loved 
all these shows, processions, and assemblies, aa 
things of diversion, and judged it adull business 
only to come to churcb for Divine worship and 
the bearing of seniu>ns; therefore they were much 
delighted with the guety and cheerfulness of 
those rites." Another proclamation soon fol- 
lowed, denouncing imprisonmeDt against whoso- 
ever should take upon him to preach, except in 
hill own house, without a license from the king, 
the visitora, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 

the bishop of the diocese in which he so preached; 
"to the intent,* as it was expressed, "that rash 
and seditious preachers should not abuse his 
highness' people." Remarks were made, Burnet 
tella us, upon the conduct of the council in thus 
going on creating new offences with arbitrary 
punishments, although the act was now repealed 
that Iiad formerly given them such extraordin- 
ary powers. It was argued, in their vindication, 
that they might still issue such proclamations iu 
the Icing's name, in virtue of the royal supre- 
macy in matters ecclesiastical; "yet this," adds 
the historian, "was much questioned, though 
universally submitted to." The next order that 
appeared, directed the removal of all imagea 
from all churches and chapels. At the same 
time it was commanded that all rich shrines, 
with all the plate belonging to them, should be 
seized for the use of the king: the council, it 
seems, were not ashamed to add, lAal the dotha 
Aat eoMTtd th&n tKotdd be eoiwerted to tAt *ue of 
fA« poor.' Soon after this was issued a royal 
proclamation, setting forth a new office for the 
public odnxinistration of the Lord's Supper, which 
bad been drawn up by a committee of bishops 
and divines: it directed that the sacrament 
should be given to the people in both kinds ; that 
tha« should be no elevation of the host; and that 
the whole service should be in the F. p gli B }! lan- 
guage. These Isolations were soon after fol- 
lowed by the publication of a short English cate- 
chism by Cronmer, " for the profit and instfucdou 
of children and young people." Finally, the com- 
mittee of bishops and divines proceeded to tbu 
composition of an entire new Liturgy, or book of 
the pnbtia services of religion, in English; but the 
publication of this important work was deferred 
till it should have received the sanction of par- 

Meonwhile, some further trouble had been 
given by the dexterous opposition, or at least 
passive resistance, of Oardiner to these proceed- 
ings of Cranmer and the government The act 
of general pardon had restored him to liberty at 
the end of the sesaion; and, accordingly, on the 
8th of January, 1C48, he was brought before the 
council and discharged, with a grave admoaitiou 
to carry himself henceforth revereaUy and obe- 
diently. He retlredto his diocese, but there still 
appeared in his whole behaviour what Burnet 
colls "great malignity to Cnuuner and to all mo- 
tions for reformation." "Yet," it is added, "he 
gave such outward compliance that it was not 
easy to find any advantage against him, espe- 
cially now since the council's great power was so 
mu(^ abridged." After a few mouths, however, 
as again summoned before the council, ou 

ang, I 
', er [ ii 

,v Google 




D of some a-'m compIaiatB ; and this time 
the t&ui ended by hu being sent to the Toner. 
The council here seem to have proceeded with as 
little regularitiras legal right; for it appears that 
the order for the biahop'a imprisoiunent was not 
signed when it was mads, bnt only aome jean 
after; as entered on the council-book, it has at- 
tiwhed to it the names of Somerset, Cranmer, St. 
John, Susaell, and Cheyney ; but Lord Ruasell 
liad, in the first instance, subscribed himself 
"Bedford," till, recollecting that he bad not that 
title at the time of malting the order, he drew 
his pen through the word, and sabstitiited "J. 
Russell!'' Gardiner, however, was thus once 
more placed where he could pre no active an- 
uf^Qce ; and he remained in close confinement 
throughout the reign, steftdily refosing all pro- 
posals of subinissioD or compromise, till at last 
he was deprived of his bishopric 

All this time the war in Scotland had not 
ceased to give both anxiety and occupation to the 
government, though the military operations that 
took place were not attended with any rery im- 
portant results. In an assembly of the Scottish 
nobility held at Stirling soon after the battle of 
Pinkie, a resolution bad been adopted on the 
suggestion of the queen-dowager to apply (or the 
aasistance of France, and with that abject to offer 
th«r infant queen in mairiage to the dauphin, 
and even to propose to send her immediately to 
be educated at the French court. This was, in 
other words, an offer to the French king of the 
Scottish crown. It was at once accepted by 
Henry, nor did he lose a moment in making pre- 
jiaratboB for the vigoroiu defence of a kingdom 
which he might now consider as his own. On 
learning what had been done, Somerset published 
an earnest address in English and Latin, to the 
jieople of Scotland, pointing out to them all the 
advantages they were throwing away by the re- 
jection of the Oatrimonial alliance with England, 
aa well as the loss of their independence and the 
other evils that were sure to follow from the 
French marriage, and calling npon them to draw 
back from the minons oonrse on which their go- 
vernment was leading them. This appeal was 
followed np by the arrival, toward* the eud of 
April, of a powerful English army under the 
conduct of the Lord Gray of Wilton, which ad- 
vanced straightway upon the nsighbourhood of 
the capital. The town of Haddington was taken 
and fortified, a garrison of two thousand men 
being left to hold it; some isolated CBstiea were 
battered down, or oompelled to surrender; Dal- 
keith and Musselburgh were burned ; but all these 
temin bad no effect in damping the spirit of the 
Scots — booyed up aa they were by tlie highest 
Lopes of the revenge they were soon to be en- 

abled to take by means of the ampl« aid promised 
tham by the French king. About the middle of 
June, the squadron conveying the expected for- 
eign auxiliaries arrived at Leitii. The force con- 
sisted of ahoat six thousand veterans *— partly 
French, partly German — under the cMnmand of 
D'Esse D'Espanviliers, a general of great gallan- 
try and experience. No time waa loat in pro- 
ceeding to active operations. It was resolved 
that the first enterprise of thu allied forces should 
t>e the recovery of Haddington ; and accordingly 
an army composed of the whole of D'Esse's men, 
and of about eight thousand Scots, under the 
command of Arran, marched upon that town. 
It was in the camp before Haddington that the 
parliament or convention of estates was assembled 
which ratified, amid the hurry and tumult of 
arms, and against not a little opposition, the 
treaty with the French king. The fleet which 
bad brought over the Frenish soldiers still le- 
mained in the Firth of Forth ; it now pat to sea, 
and proceeded at first in the direction of the 
French coast, bnt as soon aa it was fairly out of 
sight of land it changed its course, and having 
sailed round by the north of Scotland, entered 
the Clyde, and touched at Dumbarton, where it 
received on board the young queen with her at- 
tendants.* Mary reached the harbour of Brest 
in safety on the 13th of August, and was imme- 
diately conducted to St. Germain-en -Idiye, where 
she was contracted in the usual form to the 
Dauphin of France, then a child of five years of 
age, she herself being only a few months older. 
Meanwhile, Haddington remained unreduced, 
though still invested. At first the place had been 
sharply cannonaded, and various breaches bad 
been made in the walla; but D'Esse still did not 
think it prudent to venture upon an assaal^ and 
resolved to trnat to the hope of starving the gai^ 
riaou into a surrender. The strength and spirit 
of the latter, however, were soon after recruited 
by the arrival of a body of two hundred of their 
conntrymun, who "found means one night to 
paaa through all the watches on that aide where 
the Scots lay, and entering the town, and bring- 
ing with them great plenty of powder and other 
necesaaries, greatly relieved them within, and *o 
encouraged them that they seemed to make small 
account of their enemy's forces." A similar at 
tempt that was afterwards made by a troop of 
1300 horse from Berwick, nnder the oommand 
of Sir Thomas Palmer, had a different i"0»- 
The English horse were met by the F^ncb and 
Scots under D'Esse and Lord Hume, and were 
completely environed and put to the rout To* 

■ CorkKulj tnuuliUd bj &i JtB 


A.O. 1547— 1S4».] 

ra>WAKD TI. 


Scottish hietoriana usert tikkt the slain um) the 
priioiien on the part of the English in thia 
kffiur exceeded 1000 men. ImmediAtelynpon re- 
cdptof the intelligence «t theEngliah coart, orders 
vere given for the Advxnce acroaa the Borders 
of an army of 82,000 mrai, which had been rtused 
and pat onder the command of l<Vancis Talbot, 
Earl of Shrewsbury, as the lieutenant of the Dnke 
of Somerset. Lord Cliuton, at the same time, pnt 
to aea with a formidable fleet On the approach 
-of Shrewsburj, the besieging army retired from 
Haddington, and the eari entered that town, the 
gallant defenders of which were now reduced to 
the ntmost extremt^.' The earl left abundant 
■upi^ea, n<A only of "victuals, mnnitioa, and all 
other tlunga convenient," but likewbe of beal^j 
and atrong men to assist in mMntaining the de- 
fence. He then set forth to seek the Scots and 
n«neh,wb(Hn he found posted some ten or twelve 
milea oS, at Maaselburgh. Thej would not, how- 
ever, leave their intrenchmenta, and the Engliah 
did not venture to attack them. In fact, Uie 
earl and his great uwf forthwith tamed ronnd, 
and began their march back to England. The 
only other exploit they performed was to set 
fire to Dunbar, as they passed by that town on 
their retreat. Nor were the achievements of 
Lord Clinton and the fleet mote eondderable. 
iBalfoor informa na that Clinton landed some 
0000 men on the coaat of BVe, to apoil the 
eoantry ; " but before they did much harm, 
they were rencountered by the I^ird of Wemyas 
and the barons of Tife, all well honed, who rode 
them fiat down with dieir horaea, and having 
killed above 700 of them, farc«d the remnant to 
save themselves by wading in t^ sea to the 
oec^, before they could gain their flat-bottomed 
boats, having parched (acquired) no better booty 
than thoir backful of sbokea and wet skins." 
Th(7 afterwards made a descent during the night 
at If ontroae, where in like manner they were 
driven off by the peaaantiy, headed by &tkine 
of Bon ; of 800 who had landed, scarcely one 
in three getting back aaf e to the ships. " So," 
it is added, "the admiral returned, having got 
nothing but loss and disgrace by the expedition." 
.After the Earl of Sbrewabory had returned 
home, Lord Gray, who had been left as lieutenant 
of the north, made an inroad into Beotland, and, 
withont encountering any oppontion, burned and 
wasted Teviotdale and liddesdale for the space 
of BtwDt twenty milea. On the other hand, not 
long after this, on Tneodaf the 9th of October, 
an attempt was made by D'Bese to sarprise the 
town of Haddington,up tothe verygateof which 
he had got with hia men, at an early honr in the 
moming,b«fore bis presence was suspected. £ut 
when the assailants were on the point of complet- 

■ /folJUU. 

Vol. II, 

ing thur enterprise, a cannon that chanced to b« 
pointed upon the gate was fired off against his 
countrymen by a EVench deeertor who served 
within the town, which made auch alanghter 
among tiiem as to drive them back in disorder; 
and although D'Ease thrice gallantly led back 
his men to Uie encounter, they were finally foiled 
and beaten off with great loss. On this, the 
French commander retired to Leith, and fortified 
himself in that town. 

The English parliament re-assembled at 'West- 
minster on the 24th of November, having been 
prorogued to that day from tiie 10th of October, 
in consequence of the plague then being in Lon- 
don. The first question of importance that waa 
brotight forward was that of Uie marriage of the 
clergy. A proposition in favour of this innova- 
tion having been submitted to the lower house 
of convocation during the last session of parlia- 
ment, had been carried in that assembly by a 
majority of nearly two to one; and a bill to carry 
it into effect had been actually introduced in the 
House of Commons, thon^ it was not proceeded 
with. A dmilar bill waa now again brought 
forward, and, although it met with conaidin^ble 
oppontion, waa finally passed and sent up to the 
lords on the 13th of December. lu the upper 
boose it waa allowed to lie unnoticed till the QtL 
c£ February, I&49; but, being then taken up, was, 
after it had undergone aome alterations, to which 
the commons eventually assented, read a third 
time on the 19th, and passed, by a majority of 
thirty-nine to twelve. This was followed by an 
act establishing the use of the reformed Liturgy 
lately drawn up. Against both of these bills 
many of the biahopa, and a few also of the lay 
lords, entered protest*. The only other enact- 
ment of this session on the subject of religion 
that reqQires to be here noticed, is one that was 
passed "touching abstinence from flesh in Lsnt 
and other usual times.' The preamble of this 
statute declares, that "one day or one kind of 
meat of itself is not more holy, more pure, or 
more clean than anotheri' but, nevertheless, con- 
demns those who, "turning their knowledge to 
satisfy their aenauality,* had, "of late time more 
than in times past, luvken and contemned auch 
abstinence which hath been used in thia realm 
npon the Fridays and Saturdays, the embering 
days, and other days commonly called vigils, and 
in the time commonly called Lent, and other ao- 
customed times." The r^ulations with regard to 
the observance of fish-daj's which are laid down, 
and which need not be detailed, are then ushered 
in b; a statement of the considerations that had 
been kept in view in framing them, which "glances 
from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven," 
with a most edifying impartiality and compro- 
hensirenesa of regard. 


,v Google 





But (w afftkir of auiotlier kind wu also brought 
bttfore the parliament in the ooiuve of this aeaaiog, 
the history of which, from its conuuencement 
neiu-l; two years before, now falla to be related. 
The Earl of Hertford and hia younger brother 
Sir Thomas Seymour do not appear to have lived 
OD other than friendly terms down to the close 
of the late reign, during which the terrific temper 
of Heury made the fiercest and haogbtiest ^tirits 
qnul, and suppress the breath of their mutual 
animosities and rivalriea. But as soon as the 
furious old despot was dead, and the throne 
came to be filled by the child, whose near rela- 
tiooship t« the two brothers oombined with his 
years and his diapositiou to throw him entirely 
iuto their hands, and to make him the puppet of 
whichsoever of the two should succeed in getting 
before the other in their struggle for the prize, 
the natural opposition of their interesta, and of 
the circumBtanoes in which they were placed, 
dashed them against each other like two meeting 
tides. Both were amhitious, by natura as well 
•s by the temptations of their position ; and he 
not the least so who, by the arnuagamenta made 
on the accession of the new king, found himself 
without any share iu the govertuuent, while the 
other had contrived to conceiitrate iu liimaelf 
nearly all the powers of the state. The protector 
tried to purchase the acquiescence of his brother, 
both byhonounand more substantial beDcfita: 

Sir Thomas, as we have seen, was raised to the 
peerage, with the title of Baron Seymour of 
Sudley; he was also made high-admiral, the 
patent of that place being resigned to him by the 
new Earl of Warwick, who was, in turn, compen- 
sated with that of lord great-cbamberlaiD, which 

Somerset bimaelf had held, hut which he now 
exchaoged for those of lord high-b«a8urer and 
earl-marshal, forfeited by the attainder of Htn 
Duke of Norfolk ; and he was furthermore, by a 
royal grant, in August, 1548, put in possenion 
of the lordship of Sudlej, in Oloucesterahire, 
and of other lands and tenemente in no fewer 
than eighteen counties.' But a temper and views 
such as his were not to be thus satisfied. Though 
resembling each other in ambition and rapacity, 
in moat of the other points that marked their 
characters the two brothers were very unlike. 
The protector, slenderly endowed either with 
capacity or with moral courage, and probably 
conscious of these deficiencies, was in Uie habit 
of truating in all things more to his iusb^ments 
than to himself, and of seeking a support for his 
greatuesa in any prop he could find to lean upon. 
This timidity and want of self-dependence, to- 
gether with his vanity, made him on all occasions 
an tuiiioua affecter of popular applause, although 
hie whole courae demonstrates him to have been 
in reality one of the most self-r^;arding men that 
ever lived, and one of the most unscrupulous in 
the pursuit of hia own aggrandizement. Hia 
anxiety, however, to stand well in the public ea- 
timation, and perhaps a natural coldness of tem- 
perament, preserved him from some of those 
private irregularities which, more thaq anything 
else, destroy reputation, though the mischief they 
occasion bears no proportion in extent to that 
inflicted by some other vices of character which 
are not so immediately oSlsnaive; snd there was 
little or nothing to be objected to in his life and 
conversation under any of the heads of that 
household morality which is very generally re- 
garded as the whole code of morals. He was not 
only cautiously decent in hia private demeanour 
within this circle of duties, but he was a con- 
spicuous professor of religion and piety; and it 
is probable that he did take a considerable in- 
terest in those high questions by which all miudH 
were more or leas agitated, and certain strong 
views in regard to what constituted the peculiar 
badge and the great cementing element and iife- 
spirit of his party. But aithotigh he waa ex- 
tremely cautious of doiug anything likely to place 
him in an unfavourable light with the popular 
sentiment, it would be a mistake to imagine that 
he did not give loose to his natural temper, where 
there waa no such risk, in the most violent fa- 
shion. While he was all subservience to the 
huzzaing populace, and was at home completely 
under the government of his wife— a prood, 
coarse, cunning woman— at the council-table an<l 
elsewhere, to all who were dependent upon him, 
not excepting the men to whom in great part he 
owed hia elevation, he soon became the most im- 

in Slrme, J 

,v Google 

I. 1547—1549.] 



perions uid inaoleDt of the Bptnled cbildrea of 
fbrttme. The lord-adminl was Mrtainty not a. 
bett«r niAti thsn the protector; but the vien d 
hit character weiw for the moat part of a diferent 
kind. Thej were not vices that attempted to as- 
mune the ^ise of virtues — whether that be a 
commendation or the rererae; thej did not ao far 
do homagB to moralitj tut to skulk out of iight: 
the admiral aeemH to have openlj led a diMolute 
life, and was piobablr verj regardlees of imputa- 
tiona on the aeors of freedom or laiitj of man- 
nero, at which hia brother would have been ready 
to sink into the earth with shame and fear. It 
ia doubtful to whioh of the two reli^ns he be- 
longed, but pretty certain that he neither eared, 
uor profeMod to eare, much for either. In point 
of abilities he wm reckoned far the protector's 
superior. The popular breath, which the elder 
brother w aoliritonsly courted, the younger, as 
bold and reckleaB in this as in all things else, 
held in avowed contempt. Of the credit of high 
principle, or prind|Je of any kind, vei; little can 
be awarded to either ; each equally — the one in 
hie adulation of the multitude, the otber by hia 
haughty aristocratic profmsions and bearing — 
pursued, in the way that his peculiar tastes and 
temper dictated, the path of the same selfish and 
r^iacioue ambition. What small sjnonnt of 
hcmeaty may have belonged to either was, in So- 
menet, merely a natural attachment which he 
probably bad to those opinions in religion which 
were the distinction of his party, imd upon the 
profession of which he had taken his stand ; in 
Seymour, the eflrontwy of a profligate man, of 
too violent passions, and too prond a spirit, even 
to preteiid to virtues which he did not poopono. 

Bnmei's relation of the story of the lord-ad- 
miral, upon which the accounts of later writers 
an principally founded, is given by him as if the 
particulan were either notoriou, or had been ob- 
tained from some source that left no doubt as to 
their authenticity; but it will be found, upon ez- 
unination, that the whole detail is little more 
than B traiutcript of the charges made against 
Seymour by his brother and the couneil^that 
IB, of the mere assertions of his enemies, upon 
which, as we shall find, although he was con- 
demned and put to death, he was never tirought to 
trial, and of the truth of many things in which we 
have leally no evidence whatever. The statement, 
therefore, cannot be received with perfect confi- 
dence, although it may probably, in the main, 
be founded in truth. It is, however, in paria, 
confirmed by doctunenta that have been brought 
to li^t sinoe Burnet wrote, especially hj theae 
contained in the collection known by the name 
of the Burghley Paper*,' 

' k ttOtOinD of SiUi taptn nlatbii to kSUn li lbs nlcm 
■* Kkif But Tni., Edirud TI., Qohb Hu;, ud Qi» 

One of the lines of pursuit in which Seymonr*s 
talents, address, and personal advantagea, enabled 
him gteatiy to distinguish himself, was that of 
gallantry: his success with women was so bril- 
liant, that he had the popuhu- reputation of catch- 
ing hearts by art-magic. He now resolved that 
riches and power as well as pleasare siionld wait 
upon his victories in this career; and it is allc^^ 
that, in the first instance, he aspired so high as 
to have cherished the hope of gaining the hand 
either of the Princess Mary or of lier sister Eli- 
zabeth, the two persons nest in the order of 
Bucoeesion to the throne. His views seem also 
to have been at one ^me directed to the I^dy 
Jane Orey, in the presentiment that hers might 
pOBMbly, after all, be the head upon which the 
crown would light He found, however, that 
there were difficulties in the way of each of thne 
projects, and for the present he contented himself 
with the hand of Catherine Parr, the queen- 
dowager — "whom you manied," say the council 
iu their charge, "so soon after the late king's 
death, that, if she had conceived straight after, it 
should have been a great doubt whether the child 
bom should have been accounted the late king's 
or yours; whereupon a marvellotia danger and 
peril might and was like to have ensued to the 
king's majesty's succeaaion and quiet of the 
realm." In fact, Catherine appears to have 
thrown herself into his arms. 

Seymour had a twofold object in this marri^e 
— first, the acquisition of the wealth Ostherine 
had accumulated while she was queen, and the 
dower to which rile was now entitled ; ssoondly, 
that he mi^t gain the easier access to Qie king, 
and be the better able to win him over to his pui^ 
poees through the influence of Catherine, to whom 
Edward had always been accustomed to look up 
with respect and afi'eetion. In the first of these 
expectations he was in part disappointed, by his 
wife being compelled to sttrrsnder certain jewels 
of great value, which Henry bad given to her, but 
which the protector and the council insisted that 
she had no right to retain, after she had ceased 
to be queen-consort. In a lettea* to Seymour 
upon the subject of this and other points in which 
she thought she was ili-used, she seems to impute 
the treatment she bad received to SomersM's 
proud and violent wife. Whether it was the 
loss of her jewels, however, or whether the same 
consequence would have followed without that 
provDc&tion, poor Catheriue soon became little 
an object <rf envy to any of her sei; the hasbaud, 
to whom she had given herself with such preci- 

U HMSdd Hoiw. In Uia llbniy of Uw K^ ot 
teUabUT, by th* Sar. BubhI B^im, i-H., fOL Lwdoo, ITM. 

■niuamtoiniMofiiuA " " " — 

lUHd )7 Um Rn. WilUua MutiUd, fl 

,v Google 




pitate fondueaa, be^pui opeuty to ahow bow tired 
be was beoome of her, and to Renine bia old gsl- 
UntriM) before jataj montba hnd elapsed. In 
the meanwhile be had taken advantage of hia 
Opporttmitiet to ctunmence prwAULng apoa the 
jroung Diiod of bis royal nephsir. The object of 
ambition which, in the firat instance Kt itaeL, he 
had prc^toaed to bimMlf, aeema to have been, to 
wrest from bia brother the one of bis two great 
olfioea which gave him the ciutodj' of the royal 
person, thongh it ia probable enoagh that, if be 
had aocceeded in that, he would not have been 
long in making an attempt to get into his bands 
the government of the kingdom also. It ia charged 
againat him by the conncil that, after he had 
agreed and given his consent in writing to the 
appointment of his brother as "governor of the 
Idng'a majesty's penon, and protector (tf all his 
realms and dominions, and subjecte;' be had 
" attempted and gone about by indirect means to 
undo tliis order," and to get the gorerament of the 
king into bis own bands ; — that, " by corrupting 
with gifts and fair promises, divera of the privy 
chamber,* he had gone about to allure the king 
to condescend and agree to the same, his "most 
heinous and perilone parpoMS;" — that he had 
"for that intent," with his own hand, written a 
letter in the king's name, which be had given to 
his majesty to copy and sign, and which he in- 
tended to have delivered peraoually to the Honae 
of Oommona; "and there,* it is added, "with 
your fanton and adherents before prepared, to 
have made a broil, or tumnlt, or uproar, to the 
great danger of the king's majesty's person, and 
subversion of the atote of thia realm ;" — that he 
had spoken to " (Uvers of the conncil, and Uboured 
with diven of the nobility of the realm, to stick 
and adhere' to him for the attainment of his 
purposes ;— that be bad said openly, that [if he 
were crossed in hia deaigua] he would make 
that the blackest parliament that ever was in 
England! — that "the king's majesty being of 
thoM tender years, and as yet, by age unable to 
direct bia own things,* the admiral had gone 
about to instil into his grace's head, and to per- 
suade him to take upon himself the government 
and managing of hia own afiairs ; — that he had 
folly intended to have taken bia majesty's per< 
•on into his own hands and custody ; — that he 
had corrupted with money certain of the privy 
chamber to persuade the king to "have a credit 
towards ' him, " and so,' the article proceeds, 
" to insinuate you to his grace, that when he 
btcked anything, he should have it of you, and 
none other body, to the intent he should mislike 
his ordering, and that you might the better, 
when you saw time, use his kin^a highness for 
an initrument to this purpose." In a sort of 
answer which was wrung from hiui to part of 

the charges of the council, Seymour admitted 
that about Eaater, 1M7, he bad said to (Mie of 
the royal attendants, "that if he nug^ht have the 
king in his custody as Mr. Page had, he wonid 
be glad ; and that he thought a man might bring 
him (the king) through the gallery to hia (Sey- 
monr's) chamber, and so to his honae ; bat this, 
he said, he spoke merrily, meaning no hurt.' He 
owned also that, having some tima att4ir heard 
that, when there was formerly a lord-protector 
in England, the government of the kin^ person 
was pot into other hands, "he had thought to 
have made anit to the parliament houae for that 
pnrpoae, and he had the names of all the lords, 
and totted them whom be thought he might have 
to his purpose, to labour them ; bat afterwards 
communing with Hr. Comptroller at £ly Place, 
being put in remembrance by him of his aaent- 
iog and agreeing with hia own hand that the 
lord-protector sbonld be governor to the king's 
peraon, he was aahamed of hia doinga, and left 
off that suit and labour," These, it ia to be re- 
membered, are not bis own words under his own 
hand, but merely those put into his Dioath by the 
persons sent to examine him, in their report to 
the oonncil of what he said. He farther acknow- 
ledged that be had drawn np the letter, or "bill," 
as he calls it, to be laid before the Hooae of Com- 
mons, and had proffered it either to the king or 
Cheke, he forgot which. This had been done, 
after having "oaosed the king to be moved by 
Mr. Fowler, whether he could be contented that 
he should have the govertumce of him as Mr. 
Stanhope had." What answer he bad got either 
to this soggeation, or to hia proposal that the 
king should sign the letter, he profesaed not to 
remember. To the charge of giving money to the 
king, and to those about him, he said that at 
Christmas, 1S47, he hod given to Mr. Cheke £M, 
"whereof to himself £20, the other for the king, 
to bestow where it pleaaeth his grace amonpt his 
aervaata." He had also given some money — he 
did not remember how mnoh — to the groMus of 
the chamber. To Fowler, he admitted that he 
had ^ven money for the king ainoe the bc^inniug 
of the parliament then {February, 1549) sitting, 
to the amount of £if). "And divers times, be 
saith, the king hath sent to him for money, and 
he hath sent it. And what time Mr. lAtimer 
hath preached before the king, tlie king sent to 
him to know what he shonld gira Mr. lAtimer: 
and he sent to him by Fowler ilO, with this 
word, that £90 was a good reward for Mr. LatJ- 
mer, and the other he might bestow amongst hi* 
servants." These confessions made it apparent 
enough that he had sought to gun an ascendency 
over Uie king by suppljdug him with pocket- 
money, of which it appears that hia majeaty was 
kept very bare by my lord-protect<»'. But the 

,v Google 



most carious evidenee ajMrn tliia point, na well aa 
npoD ■ODM of the otber ch«i;ges brongtit agaiiwt 
Seyiuoar, is supplied by the Barghiag Paptr*. 
Here we hare, in the fint place, the teetimoaj of 
the king liiinself, given !□ Bevend itatements 
diawn up and anbicribed by himself. Edward, 
aa both men and children wUl do when in similar 
drcuTnatancea, may be aappoaed to soften what 
was blameable in his own part of the bnnneflB aa 
much aa poaaible, even if in ao doing be ihonld 
be led to bear a little bard up(m his nnforbmate 
uncle; but the tme Btate of tiie caw may be earilj 
pthered from hia aelf-excalpatory detidL After 
an acoooDt of hie refnaing to write some letter at 
Sej'motu's request, hia majesty proceeds : "At 
another time, within this two year at leaat, he 
nid, ye moit take upon yon youiaelf to rale, for 
ye ahall be able enough, ae well as other kings; 
and then ye may give your men somewhat, for 
your nuele is old, and I trust will not live long. 
I anawered, it were better that he shonld die; 
llien he said, ye are bnt even a very be^arly 
king now; yo have not to play, or to give to your 
aervaata. I said, l£r. Stanhope bad for me. 
Then he said he would give Fowler money for 
me; and BO he did, as Fowler told me. And he 
gave Cbeke money, as I bode him ; and also to 
a bookbinder, as Balmain can tell; and to divers 
othma at that time, I remember not to whom.' 
In another paper, Edward speaks of Seymour aa 
trying to prejndice him ag^nst the protector, by 
representing the expedition to Scotland, In whi<^ 
he was then engaged, as a very foolish and waate- 
ful bnsine^ "At the retnm of my lord, my 
nnde,' he goes on, " the lord-admiral said I wm 
too haahfnl in mine own matters; and asked me 
why I did not speak to bear rales, as other kings 
do. I said I needed not, for I was well enough. 
When he went into his country he desired me, 
that if anyUiing were said against him, I should 
not believe it till he came himself.' That Ed- 
ward, however, was not a mere passive recipient 
m these money dealings with his ancle, appears 
from another paper in this collection, being a 
letter written I7 the kin^s command, in June, 
1547, to the lord-admiral, by Fowler. After con- 
veying to Seymonr some warm ezpressiona of re- 
gard from his nephew, who had desired him to 
•ay, "that his mind and love, notwithstanding 
jour absenoe, is toward your lordship ss much as 
le any man within England "^the writer pro- 
ceeds; "Also his grace willed me to writo to 
yoor lordship, desiring you, as jonr lordship has 
willed him to do, if he lack any money to send 
lo your lordship. Bis grace desires you, if you 
Mmveniently may, to let him have some money. 
1 saked his grace what sum I should write to 
V>^T lordship for; his grace would name no sum, 
but IS it plMssd your lordship to send him, for 

he detemiliies to give it away, but to whom lie 
will not t«ll me as yet" " Tbeking^ majesty," 
it is added, in a style of aome importunity, "de- 
sires your lordship to send him this money as 
shortly as you cau; and because your lordship 
may credit me the bettor, his grace baa written 
in the beginning of my letter himself.* The 
paper accordingly has the following words written 
by Edward in his own hand, and with hia name 
subscribed :— "I commend me to you, my lord, 
and pray you to credit this writer.' To this we 
may subjoin, from the same repository, a part of 
the testimony of the Marquis of Dtwset, after- 
wards Dnke of Suffi>lk, who was eiamined prin- 
cipally touching another of the charges brought 
against Beymonr— his undertaking to marry the 
king at bis own vrill and pleasure, and endeavour- 
ing to seduce the marquis to his interests by a 
promise that Edward should be united to his 
daughter, the Lady Jane Orey. Dorset declares, 
"that the tdnifs majae^ hath divers times made 
his moan unto him, saying, that my ancle of So- 
metaet dealeth very hardly with me, and keepeth 
me BO strait that I cannot have money at my 
will ; but my lord-admiral both sends me money 
and gives me money.* These revelations illus- 
trate the characters both of the king and Somer- 
set, as well as the doings of the lord-admiral. 

Intimation of Seymour's practices was given 
to his brother, while he was in Scotland in Sep- 
tember, 1S47, by Paget, who had previously re- 
monstrated with the admiral on the oourse he 
was pnrsning. It ta uneer^in whether Uiere was 
any reconciliation between tiiem before the par- 
liament met inKovember; butsoon-aftormatters 
were brou^t to a oriais, by the lord-admiral's 
project of indndng the king to write the letter 
recommending his appointment as governor of 
the royal person. Burnet's narrative would seem 
to imply that the letter had been actually copied 
and snhacrihed \sy the king; but this is inconsis- 
tent both with what the admiral is made to say 
in hia answer to the charges of the council, and 
with Edward's own account. When the council 
discovered what he was about, they sent some 
of their members to confer with him in his bro- 
ther's name, and to urge him to proceed no far- 
ther ; but he refused to listen to them ; and he 
paid as little regard to an order of the council, 
which was then issued, summoning himtoappear 
before them. When they passed a resolution, 
however, that iio should be sent to the Tower, 
and deprived of all his offices, he deemed it pru- 
dent to make his 'submission; and, for the pre- 
sent, the affair ended by a seemingly perfect 
reconciliation being effected between the two 
brothers. In the oourse of the following yenr 
the admiral was gratified by a grant of a large 
addition to his revenues from the crowo. 



[ClYiX. AKI. Mil 

Bat neither thia bribe nor the escape he had 
made drew SeTmoor from the path of bU restless 
ambition. We have seen, that before the end of 
thia same year be had again begun to practiae 
upon the king and the persons about his majestj 
by secret gifts of inonej. For some time, how- 
ever, he restrained his bold and liaughty temper 
so far as not to coramit himself In any direct at- 
tempt to upset his brother's poorer. While he 
was thna lying in wait for what the course of 
erents might produce, his wife, the Qneen-dowa- 
ger Catherine, died, at Sndley Csatle, on the Stb 

; f:f^-- 

Adiib or Sddlet Caati^ — From X.'poaS AuilqultlH of ' 

(by of September, 1548, seven days after hav- 
ing given birth t« a daughter. From some ex- 
presmooa that fell from her iu her last hours, a 
suspicion arose that she had been poisoned, or 
otberwiae made away with by the act of her hua- 
band; bnt we are not entitled, from anything 
that is known of Seymour, to think it probable 
that he could he guilty of so black a crime bb 
thia; and the circumstances, as far as they have 
come down to ua, do not lend any countenance 
to a sormise which the partiality of some mo- 
dem wrilera to the memoiy tA the one brother 
seems chiefly to have inclined them to adopt 
against the other. 

"It is objected, and laid unto your charge," 
say the council, in one of their articles exhibited 
against the lord-admiral, "that yon have not 
only, before you married the queen, attempted 
and gone about to marry the king's majesty's 
sister, the I^dy Elizabeth, second inheritor iu 
remainder to the crown, but also, being then let 
(hindersd) by the lord-prote^r and others of 
the council, sithence that time, both in the life of 
the queen continued your old labour and love, 
and after her death, by secret and crafty means, 
practiaed to achieve the said purpose of marry- 
ing the said Lady Elizabeth, to the danger of the 

kin^a majesty's p««on, and peril of the ctate of 
tbe sarae." The evidence contained in the Bargh- 
leg Paptrt, if it doea not completely sustain this 
chai^, at least supplies a very interesting and 
remarkable chapter in the biography of the great 
Elizabeth. It should appear that Seymour, 
whatever were his designs upon the priuceas, had 
in his interest, or at any rat« as favourably dis- 
posed to him aa he could desire, no leas conve- 
nient a personage titan ber highness' govemesi, 
a Mrs. Catherine A^ley. Thomas Parry, the 
cofierer of the princess' iiouaehold, relates a oon- 
veraatiou he had with this lady, 
in which she admitt«d to him that 
even the Duchess of Somerset had 
:_ ~ ' found great fault with her "for 

:__"-- my Lady EILcabeth's going iu a 

_-~.~.~ S - night iu a barge upon Thames, 

and for other light pnrtci," and 
had told her, in consequence, that 
she was not worthy to have the 
governance of a king's daughter. 
On the subject of the court paid 
t^ the admiral to the princess, 
" I do remember also,' says Parry, 
"she told me that the admiral 
loved ber bnt too well, and had 
so done a good while, and that the 
queen(Catherine Parr) was jealous 
on her ahd him, in so much that 
lowwlanhin. one time the queen, suspecting the 

often access of the admiral to the 
lady Elizabeth's grace, came suddenly upon them 
when they were all alone, he having her in his 
afms, wherefore the qneen fell out both with the 
lord-admiral and with her grace also. And here- 
upon the queen called Mrs. Aahley to her, and 
told her fancy in that matter ; and of this was 
much displeasure." At this time, it appears, the 
princess was living with the queen-do wager; but, 
immediately after the above incident, she either 
removed of her own accord, or was sent away. 
But Mrs. Ashley may be allowed to speak for 
herself, at least in so far aa her somewhat naively 
eipreased detaila will bear to be quoted. In her 
"Confession," in which of course she coufeaaes 
as little as possible against herself, she states that 
at Chelsea, immediately after he was married to 
the queen, the admiral used frequeutly to come 
into the I^wiy Elisabeth's chamber before she was 
ready, and sometimes before she was out of bed. 
If aha were up, he would slap her familiarly on 
the back or on the hips; "and if she wer« in her 
bed, he would putopen the curtains and bid her 
good morrow, and make as though be would conn 
at her; and she would go further iu the bed, so 
that he could not come at her. And one morning 
he strave to have kissed her in her bed.* At 
this last and some other instances of boldness 





iin. Ashlej profeBMS to have been dul; shocked, 
and to b&ve rebuked the admini] as be deserved. 
Other insUueeB of the admiral'* audacity are 
given, but these ma; aerve as auffident speci- 
meiu. Hn. ABhIejr admita she had xeaaoa to 
Buppose that the queen wkb jealoua of the fuui- 
liarity betwixt her hoaband and the princesa; 
aod "she oaith alao, that Mr. Aehlej, her hue- 
band, hftth divers timea given this ezauinate 
wamiDg to take heed, for he did fear that the 
Iddy Elizabeth did bear aoroe eSection to mj 
lord-admiral; ahe seemed to be well pleaaed 
therewith ; and aometiroes she would blush when 
he were spoken of.' Elizabeth also makes her 
"Confession' among the rest; but it relates 
merely to whst had psased between her and Mrs. 
Ashley after the queen's death, on the subject 
of the lord-admiral's wish to marry her, and, oB 
might be eipected, contains nothing to her own 
disadvantage. She maintains that Mrs. Ashley 
never advised the marriage except on condition 
it should prove agreeable to the protector and 
the council. In a letter, however, which she 
wrote from BatGeld to the protector in January, 
1549, while the proceedings agabst Seymour 
were in progress, she meutiona a circnmatance 
which we should not otherwise have known — 
namely, that rumours had got abroad that she 
was "in tie Tower and with child by my lotd- 
admiral." These imputations she declares to be 
"shameful slanders,' and reqnesta that, to pnt 
them down, ahe may be allowed to come imme- 
diately to court. It appears, however, that all 
these examinations gave her no little disturbance 
snd alarm, though, young as she was — only en- 
tering upon her sixteenth year—alie bore herself, 
in the delicate and difficult position in which she 
was thereby placed, with a wonderful deal of 
the courage and politic management that she 
evinced on ao many occasions in her aft«r life. 

The lord-admiral'a renewal of his pretensions 
la the hand of Elizabeth after the death of his 
queen, aeems to have at once brought matters to 
another open quarrel between him and hia bro- ' 
tber. The Marquia of Northampton, one of the < 
persons whom he had sought to seduce to a par- 
ticipation in his designs, relates in his examina- 
tion, or confession, that Seymour had told higi 
" he was credibly informed that my lord-protector 
had said' he would clap bim iu the Tower if he 
went to my Lady Elizabelb; These threats, and 
the obstacle that presented itself to his schemes 
in the clause of the late king's will, which provi- 
ded that, if either uf the princeasea should marry 
without tbe consent of the council, she should 
forfeit her right of succession, roused all the 
natural impetuosity and violence of his temper, 
pnd drove bim again to intrigues and plota, and 
other measorea of desperaUon. One Wightmao , 

who held an office in his establishment, stated to 
the council that he and others of his friends bad 
earnestly dissuaded him " from writing of such 
sharp and unsavoury letters to my loixl-protec- 
tor'a grace," but withont effect It is asaerted 
that, seeing he oould not otherwise achieve his 
object, he resolved to seize the king's person, 
and to carry him away to his castle of Holt, in 
Denbighshire, one of the properties he had ac- 
quired by the late royal grant ; that for the fur- 
therance of this and his ulterior designs, he had 
confederated with various noblemen and others; 
that he had so travailed in the matter as to have 
put himself iu a condition to raise an army of 
10,000 men out of his own tenantry and other 
immediate adherents, in addition to the forces 
of his friends; and that he hod got ready money 
enough to pay and maintain the said 10,000 
men for a month.' He is alao chat;ged widi 
having, in varions ways, abused hia authority 
and powers aa lord-admiral, and of having ac- 
tually taken part with pirates agiunst the law- 
ful trader, "aa though," saya one of tbe artidea, 
"you were authorized to be the chief pirate, and 
to have had all the advantage they could bring 
unto you."' All these proceedings, it is affirmed, 
were "to none other end and purpose but, after 
a title gotten to the crown, and yonr party mode 
strong both by sea and land, with fumitiu^ of 
men and money suf&cient, to have aspired to 
tbe dignity royal by some heinous enterprise 
against the king's majesty's person." ' The coun- 
cil do not venture to indude in their indictment 
what Burnet has set down oa one of the lord- 
admiral's chief Crimea, his having "openly oom- 
pkined that his brother intended to enalave the 
nation, and make himself master of all;' aa a 
glaring proof of which be paiticnlarly pointed to 
a force of laneqnenets which the protector bad 
brought over and kept in bis pay. It appears, 
from the Burghleg Paperi, that tbe immediate 
ocCBoion of proceedings being taken against Sey- 
mour was a confession made to tbe coundl by 
Sir William Sharington, master of the mint at 
Bristol, who bad been taken up and examined 
on a charge of clipping, coiniug base money, and 
other frauds. Sharington had been, in the first 
instance, defended fay the admiral, who, it appears, 
was his debtor to a considerable amount ; but he 
eventually admitted his guilt, and informed the 
council, in addition, that he bad been in league 
with the admiral (o supply him with money for 
the designe that have just been recounted. There 
can be no doubt that Sharington made this con- 
fession to save bis own life; in point of fact, he 
woe, after a short time, not only pardoned, but 
restored to his former appointment. But the 

> AitittasfHtgfaTi 


,v Google 




adminl wa> instuitlj ^19di Jannai;, 1549) aent 
to the Tower. 

Sefiaonr bad now no ehuice of eaeape. Afaaii' 
doned bj er^rj friend on earth, he lay paanve 
and helpIeM in hi* pruon-honae, while "many 
mmplaintB,* aa Bnniet obaerreB, " being naoaUy 
brought against a ■inUng man,' all who aonght 
to make tbnr own poadtiona more aecore, or to 
adrauee themselvea in court favour, baateatd b> 
add their ooatribntion to the cbargca or the eri- 
dei^el^ which he was to be destroyed. Attempts 
wen made to pemiade him to sabmit himaelf, by 
woiUng both apoa his lean and hia hopes : but 
he would oonfes no part of the tieaaonable 
designa impnted to him. There is, indeed, no 
proof or jnobabilily whatever tbnt his newa ex- 
tended to Buytiiing beyond the mipplanting of 
Somefset; it waa a ataniggle for aacendem? be- 
tween the two Inothert, and nothing more. The 
proceedings taken against the accused were, from 
the b^inning to the end, a flagrant Tiolalion of 
all law and jostdce. After he had been aereral 
timea secretly examined, without anything ma- 
terial being exb«ct«d from him, by depntationa 
of the privy eonndl, on the S3d of Febrtiary tilt 
whole oouDcil proceeded in a body to the Tower, 
with the ctuuges against him drswn out in thirty- 
three aiticlca, to eudeavoor to bring him to nb- 
misnou. Bat to all their threats and peisnaaiona 
he insiated, as he had all along done, npon an 
open trial, and being Imiaght &ee to foce with 
hia accnsen. At last ha so for yielded to thtar 
importnnities as to say tliat, if they wonld leave 
the arlidca with him, he wonld consider of them; 
but even with thla proposal they refused to com- 
ply. Hie next day, " after dinner," the lord-chan- 
oellor, in the presence of the other councillors, 
"opened the matter to the king, and delivered 
his opinion for leaving it to the pariiament* It 
is pretended that this was the Arat time the sub- 
ject bad been mentioned— at least at the council- 
board— to Edward; and, therefore, the greater 
admintion was calliid forth by the jwompt judg- 
ment of the youthful sovovign, and the equani- 
mity with which he cooaeuted to sacrifice his 
imcle to the public weal. After each of the other 
conncillon had expressed his approbation of the 
course recommendod by the chancellor, and, last 
of all, ths protector, who protested "this was a 
nujst furrowf nl bnsineas to him, but were it son 
rir brother, he must prefer hia majesty's safety to 
them, for he weighed his allegiance more than 
his blood,' his majesty answered, "We perceive 
that there are great dungs objected and laid to 
my lord-admiral, my uncle, and they tend to 
treason; and we percnve that you require but 
justice to be done; we think it reasonable, and we 
will that you proceed according to your request" 
The very next day, a bill of attainder againat 

the lord-admiral was brought into the House of 
Ijords; all the judges and the kin^a council gave 
it aa their opinion that the articleB amounted to 
treason; various lords, who had already made 
depositions against the accused repeated their 
evidmce ; and the bill was at last passed without 
a diviaiou. Somerset himself was peeaeat at each 
reading. On the same day (the S7th) it was sent 
down to the oommcus. But here it encountered, 
at first, considerable oppoaition. "Many argaed 
against attainders in atMence, and thongfat it an 
odd way, that some peers should rise np in their 
places in their own house, and relate somewhat 
to the Blander ot another, and that he should be 
thereupon sttunted ; theiefore it was pressed 
that it mi^t be done by a trial, and that the 
admiral should be brought to the bar, and be 
heard ]de«d for himself." ' This heotation was 
at first attempted to be met by a meaaage from 
the other house, repeating, what had been inti' 
mated when the bill waa first sent down, that the 
lords who were aoquainted with the facto would, 
if required, repeat their evidence before the com- 
mons. But it was not deemed raqnisite even to 
go throo^ this formality. On the 4th of March 
a meaaage came from the kin^ which stated diat 
"he thought it waa not neecttary to send for the 
admiral;* and thereupon the bill was agreed to, 
in a houaa of about 400 membem, not more than 
tea or twelve voting in the negative.* Hie par> 
liameut having been pii»ogued oa tiie 14th — on 
which day the royal assent was given to the InII 
— on the 17th the council issued the warrant tor 
the admiral's execution. Burnet noticee it as "a 
littJe odd," that this order of blond should be 
ngned by Ciaiuner — a thing which be says was 
contrary to the canon law; bnt he makes no 
remark upon what will appear to most penoDs a 
still atranger indecorum, and a violatioa almost 
of the law of nature — that the first name attached 
to it should be that of the condemned man'a own 
brother!* The Bishop of Ely was immediately 
sent to convey to Seymour the detemiination of 
the government, and "to inistruct and teach hin 
the best he conld to the quiet and patient suffer- 
ing of justice.* The bishop reported to the ooiin- 
ell that the prisoner "required Hr. I^timar to 
cometobim; the day of execution to be deferred; 
certain of his servants to be with him ; his dangli- 
ter to be with my I^y Duchess of Suffolk to be 
brought np; and such like." To these requests 
the coundl instructed their secretary to write 

' HUjiB, in bit aotm le Harnid. hH (Ina ■ fall ■ 
duH proeaadlnp tmta tb« Jommaia ol lb* two IwMi* 




"ilmr rMoIute anftMr to the said tord-admiral;" 
by which appears to be meant that thej put their 
D^ative upon moat of them. The ezecatton took 
place on Wednesdaj, the 80th, on Tower-hili, 
when SejmMir died protesting that he had nersr 
committed or meant anytrcaMin against the kio^ 
or the realm.' It should appear that he was 
attended, aa he had requested, in his last moments 
fay lAtimer, who made some eztiaordinary re~ 
marfca, both on bis deaUi and hia life, in a sermon 
he preached before the king, a few dajs after. It 
was commonly observed, it seems, that tbe ad- 
miral had died very boldly, and that "he would 
not hare done to, had he not been in a just quar- 
reL* This la&ner declares to be "a deeeivablB 
argument" "This I will say," he proceeds, "if 
they ask me what I think of his death, that 
he died very dangcrooaly, irksomely, horribly." 
"He was," eonelndee t)ie aealons orator, "a man 
farthest from the fear of Qod that ever I knew or 
heard of in England. ... I have heard say he 
was of the opinion that he belisveil not the im- 
mortality of the Bool — that he was not right in the 
mBtter.'* Some additional toaches are given to 
the picture in another eennou:— "I have beard 
say, when that good queen (Catherine Parr) that ia 
gone, had ordained in herhoose doily prayer both 
tkefore noon and after noon, the admiral gets him 
out of the way, like a mole digging in the earth. 
Re shall be Lol^ wife to me aa long as I live. 
He was a covetous man, an horrible covetous 

ay Ti. 25 

man; I would there were no mo in England He 
was an ambitious man ; I would there were no 
mo in England. He was a seditions man, a con- 
temner of Common Prayer; I would there were 
no mo in England. He ia gone ; I would he had 
left none behind him." In ambition and covehius- 
ness, if not in oontempt of the Common Prayer, 
Seymonr, it is to be feared, did leave at least one 
man behind him who was fnlly his match. His 
danghter, of whom Qaeen Catherine had died in 
childbed, was an infant of scarce six months old 
when she lost her second parent; soon after which 
event she was, as her father had requested, com- 
mitted to tha charge of tbe Ducbees of Suffolk. 
As the child was ntterly penniless, aa well as an 
orphan, her uncle, the weattby and powerful 
lord - protector, in thus oonsigning her to the 
hands of strangerB, promised that an annual sum 
should be allowed for ber maintenance, and that 
aquantityof plate and otfaerfumiture which she 
had had in her nursery should be sent along with 
her to the house of the Dncheas of Suffolk. It 
will hardly be believed that neither the allowaneo 
in money, nor even the plate and other arUdes, 
could be got for many months out of the hard 
grip of Somerset and his duchesa : indeed, it is 
probable they never were obtained. Bat if So- 
merset ever did make any allowance for the aup- 
port of his niece, he was very soon delivered 
from the burden, for in a few month* more the 
poor child followed its parents to the grave. 



ropalsr tomnlti in Englind— Their canHs— Beligions chatscter imparted to them— Their progna in DeTOuhim 
~Th«r rappnwi on— Rebellion in Norfolk— Ita Tiolonoe and exeeMea— It ii mpprsBed bj the Earl of War- 
wiok — PacnHar chanotar of tbeaa imoTTeotioni — SUte of Sootland — Qnarreli between Um Etooti and th^ 
alliaa the Franch — I>iautiafMitlon againat the Protector Somsnet — OSenee ocodoDBd by hia arrogance and 
npactty—The £arl of Wanriok and the noblea combine aguoct hin — He <■ placed under arreet — He ia im- 
piisaiMil, tried, and fined — Peace conclnded irith France and Bcotland — Trial and eiacntion of Joan of Eeal 
— Biihop Bonner aent to priwn— Ecoleaiaitical sTsnti — Oppodtion of the Princeta Mary— The Dnlu of ScmeT' 
■at iDbignee to re^in power and office— The Earl of Warwick created Duke of Northumberland— Tbe Doke 
of Somerset ureiled on a charge of treason — Accniationa brou^t againat him — His trial and elocution — 
Proceeding! of parliament — Ambition of the Duke of NorthumbBrlaDd— He strengthecB himaelf bjr tamjly 
alliaooea — EudeaTonn to procnre the ineoenion (o the thitme tor his daughter-in-law Ladj Jane Qrej — Ed- 
ward in hii Un illnaa moved to that etfeot—Hia sonaent obtained— Death of Edward VI. , 

b HE tragedy of the lord-admiral was 
followed by a summer of popular 
tumult and confosion, such as had 
not been known in flngland since 
the rebellion of Jack Cade, almost 
exactly 100 years before. Several 
ntiaes of various kinds concnired at this crisis 
Vol. II. 

to throw the peasantry in all parts of the country 
into a state of extraordinaiy excitability, or what 
may be called a predisposition to disorder and 
insurrection. Tbe following passage occutb in a 


,v Google 




, AXD MiUTAr.T. 

letter trrilten by tha protector himaelf :— "The 
caosefl uid pretences of tben uproan and rwingB 
(ire divers and nncertftin, uid so fall of variet]' 
ahnoet in eveiy camp [aa tbejr call them), that it 
is hard to write whftt it ia ; ks je know ia like to 
be of people withont bead and rule, and that 
woold have they wot not what. Some crietb, 
Plnck down incloaurea and parka; some (or their 
oommonB; others pretend the religion; a nnmber 
would mle another while, and direct things aa the 
gentlemen have done; and, indeed, ell have con- 
ceived a wonderful hate agaiiut gentlemen, and 
Uketh them all aa their enemiea. The ruffians 
among them and the Boldiera, which be the chief 
doeia, look for spoil. So that it seemeth no other 
Uiing but a plague and a fnrj amongst the vileat 
and wont *ort of men."' The discontent of the 
people, in fact, aa usually happens, appears to 
haveoriginated in their actnal sufferings, although 
it may have been blown into a flame by provoca- 
tions addreased chiefly to their fancies and pre- 
judices, and, of eouree, would then be apt to catch 
at whatever principle or arrangement chanced to 
come in its way in any part of tiie whole machine 
of gOTemment or of sodety. One leading cause 
of the economical embarraaement and distress in 
which the kingdom wsa at thia time involved, 
appears to have been the exeenive depreciation 
which the eurrency had undergone iu the coarse 
of the lat« and the present reigns. This must 
necesBorily have enhanced the nominal prices of 
the necessaries of life, and, if wages did not rise 
in proportion, must have pressed with cruel 
severity upon the labouring classes. Bat the rise 
of the remonention for labour which, inanatural 
and healthy state of things, would have accom- 
panied the rise of the money prices of all odier 
things, is BBSerted to have been prevented in the 
present case fay certain peculiar circumstances, 
which acted partly bo aa to diminish employment 
ortbedemsjid for labour, partly so aa to aogment 
the nombera of persons dependent upon labour. 
The cause that principally diminished the demand 
for labour is affirmed to have been the conver- 
sion of land from tillage to pasturage, which was 
promoted by the increasing price at wool. It is 
certain that this change in the agriculture of 
the eoontry was a subject of general complaint 
throughout a great part of the eisteenth century; 
and repeated attempts were even made by the 
l^i^tnie to restnun its pn^ress, so that we 
must believe it to have actually, or at least ap- 
patently, taken place to some extent. But we 
are inclined to think that its real effect upon the 
market of labonr was greatly eiaggemted in the 
popular imagination. It ia, at least, not very 
easy to reconcile the alleged evil of diminished 

employment thence arising, with the nearly 
equally lond and frequent complaints which ai'e 
at the same time made of the diminution of the 
population, which is asserted to have followed 
from the same cause. We may obaerve, that the 
number ot persons having the commodity called 
labour to dispose of had, from a succeanon of 
canses, been on the increase in Eng^d for the 
last two centuries. So long as the system of 
villanage anbsiated in ila integrity, there oonld, 
properly speaking, be no market of labour, in so 
far at least as regarded the business of agricul- 
ture, then constituting the great field of the na- 
tional indnstry; the labonrer then stood iu the 
relation of a mere machine, requiring, indeed, like 
other machines, to be fed and maintained, bnt 
having nothing more to do with the dispose of 
his labonr than a modem steam-enghic. The 
decay, and eventually the extinction of viUanage, 
first gave birth, as ha* been already shown, both 
to freedom of labour and to pauperism— called 
into being at once the two classes of labourers 
for hire, wad paupers or beggars, which are really 
only the two dividona of one great class, that of 
the persons whose only exchangeable possession 
is their labour; the former being those who hare 
been able to dispose of this commodity, the latter 
thoee who have not. Every change that after- 
wards snapped any of theold attachments that had 
kept men practically fixed to the land, though 
not periiaps by any absolutely legal bond, added 
to the nnmber of both of these sections of the 
population. This was one of the effects of the 
breaking up of the old Norman feudalism in the. 
reign of Heniy VII., by the new facilities given 
to the gT«at landholders of alienating their eatat«B. 
It was also oae ri the efiiecta of the overthrow of 
the old ecclesiastical system in the last and the 
present reign. The nnmerous monastic eetablish- 
ments all had, as well as the great landholders, 
their crowds of retainers and depaidantA— partly 
tenants and servants who lived upon their estates, 
partly paupers and mendicants, who were fed by 
their charity. There were also the inmates of 
the religious bouses themselves, male and female, 
a far from insignificant addition. All these pel"- 
sons, or at lesst by far the greater number of 
them, were tJirown loose from tenures of shelter 
and maintenance, which might, in the case ot each 
of them, be considered more or less fixed and sure, 
and were sent to swell the overflowing str«am of 
that labour which had nothing but the chances 
of the market to tmst to. And nloag witik liir 
other causes contributing' to the same state cf 
things, may be mentioned even the uprooting af 
old feelings, habits, and connections, l^ the mwit 
ferment excited in men's minds hy the preacUug 
of the new opinions in religion ^fiercely resistCil 
by many, eagerly received by otheis, and by not 


1.D 154ft-lM3.] 



a few ctmied oat into all the extravagMieea of 
faoatidam nnd even of liceationuMn. It oould 
not be bat that thia gsnukl itAte of ezdtainent, 
ftmonating in rnouf caiea to enthnuann or deli- 
rium, tbould bave mBde nombers of people im- 
patient of all aober and r^ular industry, and set 
them adrift oa the aea of Ufa without «ilher chart 
or aim. It ia eaajr, from all this, to uadaiBtaiid 
bow the present iiiM)iT«ctioii took the shape and 
the Binrit it did. Its chief crj soon came to be 
the reitoration of the old religioo, and vengeance 
against tboM who had wrought and profited hj 
its downfall. The priesta, of eoutae, and other 
leaden lA the Fopiab party, found it eaaj to torn 
the gaca of the ezaapemted people upon the moat 
imme^ide Knd obvioua aonrcea of their nferiDgs, 
or what could be platudbly re)n««ented aa auch; 
and did not Defect BO hvourable an o( ' 
wtimag np their moat energetic feelings in behalf 
of ^e andmt Kpstiua and agidnat the innoTatione, 
which BBemed onlj to hare benefited a few of the 
upper clawwa at the expense of the great 
the nation. 

From Holinabed'a account, it wonld appear 
that a proceeding on the part of the protector, 
of Tei7 qaeationahle wiodon, or, at anj rate, ma- 
naged with bat little discretion, was the spark 
that kindled the flame. This was a proclamation 
whkh h« iBBued "against indoanrM, and taking 
in of fields and conimone that were accnstomed 
to li« open for tiie behoof of the inhAbitanta 
dwelling near to the same, who had grievoualj 
complained of gentlemen and others for taking 
from them the use of those fields and commons.'' 
It ia probable enough that some landholders 
may have acted in a harah and oppresaiTe mannei 

n thus Improving their eatatea; but it does not 
^ipear that any legal rights were generally vio- 
lated; and, at all events, if th«f were, this rcTal 
proclamation itself was as ill^al and anjnBt as 
anything tiiat the landlords could have done. It 
settled the matter in a very nummary way indeed 
— aimplj commandmg that all commons that had 
been inclosed should, mider a penalty, be laid 
open again by a certain day. "But how well 
soever,* proceeds the chronicler, " the setters forth 
of thia proclamation meant, thinking thereby, 
peradventore, to appease the grudge of the people 
tbtlt found titemselvea grieved with such indo- 
lurea, yet verily it tamed not to the wished 
effect, bat nither ministered occasicni of a foul 
and dangerons disorder. For whereaa there 
few that obeyed the commandment, the nnadvised 
people presuming upon their proclamation, think- 
ing they should be borne out by them that had 
set it forth, rashly witboot order took upon them 
to redress the matter; and Maembling th«naelvee 
hi unlawful wise, choee to them captains and 
leaders, broke open the endoaurea, east down 

ditches, killed up the deerjs'hich they foond in 
parks, spoiled and made havoc after the manner 
of an open rebellion." The narratives of the 
commencement of the disturbances are singularly 
'arious and oontradictMy. In fact, the convul- 
sion, which j^obably broke oat in different places 
nearly at the same time, seems to have n^iidly 
ipread in all directions, till it had extended itself 
)Ter the gTeat«r part of the kingdom. Accord- 
ing to Bnmet,the protector's proclamation against 
the inclosurea, which waa "kA out contrary to 
the mind of the whole council,* appeared afttr 
the first risiugs in Wilts and elsewhere; it waa 
designed to pacify the people, and was aooom- 
panied with another, indemnifying or pardoning 
the ioBurgenta for what was past, provided they 
sboold cany themselves obediently for the future. 
Commueions," proceeds the historian, "were 
also sent evnywbere, with an unlimited power 
to the commisaionen to hear and determine all 
causes abont enclosures, highways, and oottagea. 
The vast power these oommiaaioners assumed 
mnch complained of ; the landlords said it 
an invasion of their property, to subject them 
thus to the pleasure of those who were sent to 
examine the matten, without proceeding in the 
irdinary courts according to law.* A more illegal 
ind arbiteary act, indeed, than the issuing of 
these eommissions never wsa attempted in the 
moat deapolic times. Nor, prompted as it was 1^ 
a weak or interested craving after populari^, did 
it socceed in the only object it proposed to have, 
and for which all otiter considerations were dis- 
regarded — the Batisfying of the popular clamour. 
" The commons," proceeds Burnet, "being encour- 
aged t^ the favour they heard tiae protector bcav 
them, and not able to govern their heat, or atay 
for a more peaceable issue, did rise again, but 
were anew quisted. Yet the protector being op- 
posed much by die council, he was not able to 
redress thia grievanoe so fnlly as the people hoped. 
So in Oxfordshire and Devonshire they rose 
again, and also in Norfolk and Yorkshire."' 

It seems to have been in Devonshire that the 
religious cry was first raised. Here the commons, 
besides " Humphrey Arundel, Esq., governor ei 
the Mount," and other laymen, had for their 
captains a number of Fo}ush priests, by whose 
"instigation and pricking forward" they are 
said to have beeo diiefly excited and directed in 
thtix proceedings. Their riidng began on the 
10th of June, on which day they asaembled in 
armed array to the number of nearly 10,000 
men, " At oourt," says Boroet, " it whs hoped 

tet-.MIai.'rl.tlt-m, Tbawi 

w niaxt tandHicj ftf Um jmUirtos't mods of picmedlng, > 

» bM iptn laD* upUdt •nmch iBiiiIaH la till nadKi. 




[Civil 4BD MhjTjIbt 

this might be u eMil; dupened u the other ! wu Mnt in th« king's owd uuae. Edward wm 
riaiug* were; bat the protector wu against run- | tnade to begin bj «!! luti ng in stning ud iinn 
ning into eitranitiea, and ao did Dot more ao tenna, but atiU in the tone of penuadon, npou 
•peediiy aa the thing reqaiied.' At last, Bft«r| the gteatneaa of the royal authority, and the ob- 
the rebel* had tat down before Exeter, and b«d | ligation thftt lay upon the aubject to yield it til 
began touaMdt that city,' Lord Bnaaell waaaent obedience. Somepartagf the expcwtionhegiTe 
to oKMinler (hem with a amall force ; bnt either { of the kin^y office are eariooa and characteria- 
he found them in too great Btiength to be pra- [ ti& The rebels had jvoposed that the aettle- 
dently attacked, or he waa realnined by hia in- ment to be then made ahould atand till the king 
ibuctiona from adopting dedaire meanuee, and, waa of full age. In demonatntioo of the foUj 
keeping at a reapectfol-dlBtauce from the inaor- i of this aotiou, Edward infomu them that, ai- 
gent camp, he announced that he waa ready to . though "ai a tiatui«l man and creatore of Qod," 
reeeire any oomplainta they had to make, and to he had youth, and by his aufferance ihouM have 
trauarait them to the conndl. On this, Aninile] sge, yet as a king ha bad no difference of yeara.* 
and his followers drew up their demands, firatin They are afterwanla aaked to consider the foUj 
seven, and afterwarda in fifteen articles; the most they were committing iu making it neeeesuy 

material points of which were, that all the decrees 
of tile general conncils ahonld be observed ; that 
the statute of the Six Articles ahoold be again pat 
in force ; that the mass ahould be in lAtin ; Uiat 
the sacrament shonld be hanged up and wor- 
shipped, and that tiioae who refoaed to worship 
it shoold suffer as heretica ; that the sacrament 
shonld only be given to the people at EaBt«r, and 
in one kind ; Uiat holy bread, holy water, and 
palms should be again used, and that images 
should be set up, with all Uie other ancient cere- 
monies; that the priests shonld "sing or E«y, 
with an ftadiUe voice, Ood'a service in the choir 
* of the parish churches, and not Ood^ service to 
be set forth like a Ghriatmaa play* (so they 
press their notion of the new Liturgy); that all 
preachers in their sermons, and prieata in the 
mass, ibould pray for the souls in purgatory; 
that the Bible ahould be called in ; that Cardinal 
Pole should be made one of the king's oonncil; 
that every gentleman should be allowed only one 
servant for every 100 marks of yearly rent that 
belonged to him; that the half of the church 
lands should be given back to two of the chief ab- 
beys inevei7 county; and, finally, tJiat other grie- 
vances, more particularly affecting themselves, 
should be redreaaed, as the king should be ad- 
vised l^ Arundel and the mayor of Bodmin, for 
whom they desired a safe-conduct. Theae arti- 
cles, which certwnly do aavour of priestly inapi- 
ratioD, were transmitted to the council, at whose 
command Cranmer, whose departm ent they seemed 
principally to concern, drew up a formal and ela- 
borate reply to them, in which they were not 
only rejected in the mass, but severally argued 
agiinat a* contrary to right reason and the Scrip- 
tures. The Insurgents then reduced their de- 
mands to eight articles, being, in substance, a 
selection from their former propositions, with the 
addition d one, which it is strange should have 
been omitted in tbe fint instance, iuaiating 
that priests shonld " live chaste witbout mai^ 
riage." To these a long and eloquent answer 

that their king ahould spend that force npcu 
them which be had meant to bestow upon their 
foreign euemiea— " to make a conqnest of our 
own people, which otberwiseshould have been of 
the whole nalm of Scotland.* The menage can 
hardly be said to be "all penned,' aa Buiuet de- 
Bcribes it, "in a high threatening style," but it 
must be allowed that it risea to that at the clwe. 
"If ye provoke us further," it concludes, "we 
swear by the living God, ye shall feel the power 
of the same God iu our sword, which how mightf 
it is, no subject knowetb; how puissNit it i^ 
no private man can judge; how mortal, no Eog- 
liahman dare think." But the rebels, who by 
thia time hod been a whole month iu anns—fOT 
the paper is dated the Bth of Jnly— wera neither 
to be moved by its threats nor by its reasonings. 
The citizens of Exeter, however, perusted in 
keeping l^ir gates shut against them, although 
from the closeuees with which they were belea- 
guered, they were at length reduced to the moit 
distressing extremities. The rebels were [»o- 
vided with ordnance, which they planted a^inst 
the several gates of the town; and eventually 
they burned the gatea, and " broke up the pipes 
and condoits, aa well for the taking away of the 
wtLter coming to the city, as also to have the lead to 
aerve for their shot and pellets.'' On thia the citi- 
sens erected ramparts within the openings thus 
made, which were found much more efleotive for 
defence than the wooden gates oould have been. 
The becdegen next attempted to undermine the 
walla ; but in thia also they were foiled by the vi- 
gilance of the citizens, who, having discovered the 
trains, made them uaeleaa by deluging them with 
water. One great difficulty that the magistrates 
had to contend with was the existence of a power- 
ful Popish faction among the inbabitanta. These 
having been prevented by the authorities from 
admitting the rebels, eudeavourcd, by many pri- 
vate communications and stratagems, to favour 
their enterpriae, and counteract the efforts that 
were made to oppose them. And, what was 


i.D. 1M9 '1M3.) 



■till more perplexing, a dlTiaion at one time 
broke out in the Proteatuit party, in oooae- 
quence of » differenoe of opinion as to the me»- 
eores to be adoptod between two of their leaders, 
John Conrteuaj u)d Bamud Doffield, which 
rose to great Tiolence. Want of Tictnab also at 
length began to pinch them, so that while the 
ddzens were reduced to loaves of bran and other 
tuuaToitiy tnwh, tho inisonera in the jail were 
forced to feed npon horaefleah. All this while 
Lord Bnssall had been prevented from taking 
mj DieasnreB for the relief of the plaue hy the 
eitiaordinary neglect or procraatination of t^ 
goTemment, which, full of the conceit of pulling 
down the nbela hy manifeata«fl or sermons, would 
neither Knd him a ninforeement of men nor an j 
other supplica. When be sent Sir Peter Carew 
to the comi, that gallant person, who had acted 
with great promptitnde and decision at the first 
breaking out of the revolt, and woold probabljr 
hare supprened it at once if he had received 
aaj Ripport from the gorernment, waa afaanrdlj 
charged hy Bomanet with having been the eole 
oecasioQ of it, the ready tongue of Rich, the dian- 
oelbr, echoing his patron's accosation. Ruasell 
having long looked for tne soppiies in run, " was 
daily more and more forsaken of soch of the 
common people as at the first served and offered 
their service nnto him. And having but a very 
■mall guard aboot him, he lived in mare fear 
tlian he was feared* At last some money waa 
obt^Ded by certain merehanta of Exeter, who 
happened to be in the camp, pledging their cre- 
dit to those of Bristol, Lynn, Taunton, and other 
towns. By this time the rebels were actually on 
their march to attack the king's troops, which 
were now stationed at Honiton; but Rnssell, 
vhooe spirits were raised by the supply of money, 
on hearing of their advance, marched forth to 
oppose them, and the two armies met at Fen- 
nington bridge, where the rebels, in the end, sus- 
tained a complete overthrow. Shortly after. Lord 
Gray, with a troop of horse, and a band of 300 
Italian infentiy under Spinola, at last arrived 
from the capital, and, thus strengthened, RuMell 
marched npon Exeter; and, after defeating the 
rebels in another engagement, effected his en- 
trance into the hmished dty on the 6th of Au- 
gust, and raised the siege, which had now Iast«d 
five weeks. Before this saccese was achieved, 
however, a deplorable affair happened. Lord 
Cray, espying a multitude assemUed on a height, 
by whom he apprehended that he night be at- 
ta^ed, ordered the prisoners he had already 
taken— of whom the number was very oonsider- 
able— to be all killed, which waa done imme- 
diately, eveiy man despatching those he had in 
char^. Tbe dispersion of the insurgents was 
followed hj the same conduct on the part of the 

ruyal army, as if they had pnt to route a foreign 
enemy in his own country; "for the whole conn- 
try was then pnt to the spoil, and every soldier 
fcnght for his beet profit' Qibbets wen also 
set np in various places, on which great nnm- 
bers of the ringleaders in the rebellion were 
hanged. Otben, and especially Arandel, the 
chief captain, were carried to London, and there 
executed. It was redumed that abtnit 4000 in 
all perished, by the sword or by the hands of tlie 
executioner, of those engi^ed in this Devonshire 

" Abont the same time,' continues the chroni- 
cler, " that this rebellion began in the west, the 
like disordered horles were attempted in Oz- 
fordslure and Buckinghamshire ; but they were 
speedily suppressed 1^ the Lord Oray (rf Wil- 
ton." Elsewhere, also, both in tbe soutliem and 
eastern parts of the kingdom, similar attempts 
were made, and many disorders committed; but 
the only other quarter where the commotion 
rose to a seriou hogbt was in Norfolk. The 
Norfolk rebellion assumed a character altogether 
different from that of Devonshire, the complaints 
and demands of the people ronning, not at all, 
or very litUe, npon religion, but chiefly upon 
grievantMS affecting their worldly condition and 
points of temporal poliUcs. They were first 
roused in the early part of the the 
mmoura of what had been done by the commons 
of Kent in dirowing down ditches and hedgea, 
and opening inclosures. The first general linng 
of the people took place on the 6th of July, at 
Wymondham or Windham, about six miles from 
Norwich, on occasion of a public play, " which 
play had been accustomed yearly to be kept in 
that town, continuing for the space of one night 
and one day at the least" They began, in imita- 
tion of the Kentish men, by throwing down the 
ditches (or dikes) around inclosures; and, while 
they were thus employed, it is said that " one 
John Flowerdew of Betherset, gentleman, find- 
ing himself grieved with the casting down of 
some ditches, came unto some of the rebels, and 
gave to them forty pence to cast down tbe fences 
of an inclosure belonging to Robert Ket, alias 
Knight, a tanner of Wymondham, which they 
did."' The tanner, however, was more than s 
match for the gentleman at this sort of work: 
he without difficulty induced the same mob that 
had torn down his fences to aooompany him the 
next morning to certain pasture grounds belong- 
ing to Flowerdew, which were also surrounded 
with hedges and ditches. Flowerdew tried to 
persuade them to withdraw, bnt he could not 
rule or extinguish the flame so easily as he had 
blown it op, "Ket, beingamanhardyand forward 



[Civu. A 


to any despenle Bttempt that ilironld be taken 
in hand, was Btni^t cmtcTcd i&to inch eitunatioii 
with the commoiu thna anembled together in 
rebclliona wiae, that hia will waa accompliahed ; 
and eo thoae faedgn and ditchea belanging to the 
paatore groinidB of Mr. Flowerdew were thrown 
down and made plain. Hereupon waa Ket cbo- 
KQ to he their captain and rin^eader, who, beii^ 
reeolved to aet all on aiz and seven, willed them 
to be of good comfort, and to follow him in de- 
fence of their common liberty, being readj in 
the commonwealth's eanie, to hazard both life 
nnd gooda.* Bf aeceeaiona from all parta of Noi^ 
folk and Snffblk, the rioten, thai proHded with 
a mitable leader, rapidlf inereaaed, till " there 
were OMembled together into Ket^a camp to the 
number of 16,000 nngracioiu nnthrifta, who, bj 
the advice of their captiuni, fortified themselvee, 
and made provlaion of artillerj, powder, and 
other habiliments, which they fetched out of 
•hips, gentlemen's homes, and other places where 
an J waa to be foond; and withal spoiled the 
country of all the cattle, riches, and ooin on which 
they might lay hands." 

Aa time passed and nothing wM done to 
put them down, the congregated mnltitnde of 
ironrae grew more audacious, and proceeded to 
wone ontragea. From spoiling the gentry of their 
goods, they proceeded to seize their persons, and 
to carry them off jHieonera to their camp. "To 
conclade,''Bayathechronicler, "they grew to aueh 
unmeoanrable disorder, [hat they wonld not in 
niauy things obey neither their general captain, 
nor any of their govemora, but ran headliMig into 
all kind of mischief ; and made anch spoil of vie- 
tnals which they brought out of the country ad- 
joining unto their camp, that within few days they 
coneumed (beaidea grnit number of beeves) 20,000 
muttons, also awans, geese, hens, capona, ducka, 
and other fowla, so many aa they might lay hands 
upon. And, furtimmore, they apared not to 
break into parks, and ItiU what deer they couM." 
Meanwhile, the government stood by, and for the 
apace of nearly a month allowed the insurreetion 
to grow and proeper undigtnrbed. At lost, on 
the 31st of July, a herald came from the council 
to the rebel camp, "and proDoonoed there, before 
all the multitude, with loud voice, a free pardon 
to all that wonld dopart to their homea, and 
laying aside their armour, give over their trai- 
torous bc^n anterpriae.' But the only effect of 
his ofiar aoMna to have been to draw off eoma of 
the better sort, who had only joined the mob 
from compulsion or fear, and who nowaaw some 
prospect of being ptntected by the government. 
Ket himself, and the great maia of hia followers, 
kept th^r attitude of defiance, or at least of re- 
fusal to submit, declaring that they needed no 

pardon, since they had done notlung bnt whst 
belonged to the dn^of true aubjecta. Theyerea 
fiKiced their way into the city of Norwich, and 
carried off to their camp all the guns, artillery, 
and anuunnition th^ could find in it. When 
tlie herald roade another procUnwtioQ at the mar- 
ket-irface there, repeating the former cAcr, but 
thr«atening death to all who shoold not ioinu- 
diately acoefrt the king's pardon, they bade him 
get him thence with a mischief ; for they made 
no acGomt of such mannw ot mercy. After tbic^ 
every day aweUed the number of KetfafoUowen, 
The herald'a report convinced Somerset and tha 
council that they would never put down the nhel- 
lion by proclamationa; and then, at laat, it waa 
resolved to send against the Norfolk tanner a 
force of fifteen hundred borse under the Uarqaii 
of Northampton, together with "a small band ai 
It«lianB (also mount«d), under the leading ot i 
captain named Halateata.' The morqaiE took 
up hia quarters in the town of Norwich, whidi, 
in the first instance, he aucceeded in clearing of 
the rebels; but the next day they forced tbnr way 
back, drove out the king's troops, killing tiie 
Lord Sheffield and many other gentlemen, ss well 
BB taking many others priacmersi and fiaisbed 
their exploit hj plundering and aetttng fire to 
the city. Northampton, with the remnant of hit 
beaten force, made all haste to London. It wh 
now seen by the council tiiat the buaineH mnat 
be aet about in another fashion : an army of 
about 6000 man waa in readineae to serve in tbs 
war in the north: and "heranpon that noble 
chieftain and valiant Earl of Warwick, Istdy 
before ^pointed to have gone againat the Scot* 
and Frenchmen into Scotland, was called back 
and commanded to take upon him the condno- 
tion of thia army against the Norfolk rebala."' 
Warwick with some difficulty forced liis way into 
Norwich; but the incessant attacks of therebel«, 
and in part also, aa it afaould appear, his insuffi- 
cient supplies of ammunition, had made hia posi- 
tion almost desperate, when he waa relieved bv 
the arrival, on the £6th of August, of a relnforn- 
ment of 1400 lansquenets. Tha next day he 
marched out, and falling upon the enemy, who ba<! 
descended from the hill, and were encamped in 
a valley called Bnseingdale, he had the fortune to 
achieve an easy and decisive victory. The rebels, 
at the firat charge of the king's horse, tumetl 
round and fled, Eet, their great captain, or king, 
as he called himself, being, according to the chro> 
nicler, one of the foremost, and galloping away as 
fast aa his horse wonld bear him. The chief 
slaughter waa in the pursuit, which waa continued 
for three or four milea; the scveial elustera of 


X 1M9-1M3.1 



g multitude, u the; were snoce*- 
■ivelj oTBTtakeo, were eboni down in heapk. It 
was reckoned thftt the niunber of dead bodies left 
OD the ground exceeded 3A0O. This bloodj dftj- 
pot an end to the rebeUion. Ket,abaiidoiung or 
deeeriwl by all hie late foUowen and subjeota, 
was the next dM.y found concealed in a bani, and 
forthwith brought to Norwich. The ezacotiona 
wen not nnmennu; nine of the ringleaders were 
hanged upon the nine twsnchee of the "Oak of 
Befonnation;" a few otlien were drawn, hanged, 
and qnutered, and their heads and limbs set up 
in different parts of the kiogdom; and Ket him- 
wlf and his brother William, after bdng carried 
to London and ivneiffiied to the Tower, where 
diey were arraigned and found guilty of treaaon, 
wen aent back to Norfolk, and there hung in 
cbaina— the one on the top of Norwich Castle, 
the other on Windham ateeple. 

In the north alao, a* well as in the eaatand the 
weet, the same i^iirit of insniTeetion tsoke ont 
amot^ the people, bat thrar riaing vae checked 
before it became general by the apprehension ot 
their leaders, and hj the discouraging fiulure of 
the similar attempts made in other quarters of 
the kingdom; for the Yorlubire men were some- 
what later in stirring than their countrrmen in 
Devonshire and Norfolk. In Yorkahite the spirit 
of attsehment to the old religion, wliich animated 
the people of Devon and Cornwall, aeems to have 
been combined with the same levelling notions 
that formed the principal incentive to the rebel- 
lion in Norfolk and Suffolk. O^e Yorkshire 
iDsur^genta had assembled in foree to the number 
of above 3000 men, and had committed some mur- 
ders and other grievoue outmgee, before thej 
were pot down and dispersed. 

A revolt of the tabonring against the wealthier 
claasea was probably never attempted in aiij 
eoantry in circumstances appar^itlj more favour- 
able for Its anocess than thoae which the present 
state of England presented. The king was a 
minor, and the government a singularly weak 
one; the country was entangled in a foreign war, 
u well as torn by internal factions ; economical 
diCGcnltiea added to the embamssment ot new 
uid iraperfecUy settled institutions; all things 
nn the side of authority, in short, were unusually 
exposed and enervated ; on the other side there 
was all the sli^ngtli, if not of real grievances, of 
what was the same thing, deep-seated feelings of 
diiwalisf action and resentment, uid, if not of 
actual combination, at least of simultaneous ac- 
tion, sod of a diftuion of the inimreetionary 
■pint which, in respect of the masa of the com- 
menal^, might Im called national or univeraaL 
There was also much •ympathy on the part of a 
large portion of Uie mt of the nation with oi 
the principal SDttaining elements of the in 

rection — the aversion to the innovations in reli- 
gion; and, indeed, upon this eommoa ground a 
eoneiderahle number of parsons of the wealthier 
CT more educated cksson, lauded proprietors, and 
Fopiah priests, met and joined the insurgent la- 
iMoreis, and became their counsellors and leaden. 
That with all these advantages the attempt should 
have nevertheless so signally failed — been, not 
without some trouble, indeed, but yet so speedily 
and so completely put down — affords an impressive 
lesson of the hopelessness, in almost any circum- 
stances, of a contest of force waged by the class 
whose only strength is its numbers againiit the 
dasaes wiehiiog the property, the intelligence, 
and the established authofity of a. country. 

All this time the war had continued to be car- 
ried on in Scotland, though with little activity 
on either Bide,and no very important results; for 
the English government was too much occupied 
with the disturbed state of afikirs at liome to be 
able to strike any great blow; and, on the other 
hand, a considerable falling off had taken place 
in the cordiality of the Scots and their French 
allies, as well as in the interest which the French 
king had in pushing operations with any extrsr 
ordinary vigour. Henry had attained his main 
object for the present by getting the infant queeu 
into his hands ; and, at the same time, her de- 
parture could hardly fail in some degree to open 
the eyes of hersubjects to considerations to which 
the impetuosity of their feelings had till now 
blinded them, and to awaken some reflections 
not of a kind to pai them in very good humour, 
either with their insinuating and dexterous allies 
or with themselves. Both the nation and the 
government now began to complain loudly of the 
insolence of DTsse and hie soldiers; nor did their 
mutual dislike vent itelf merely in words. A 
short time before the French commander'B last 
uniucceasful attempt upon Haddington, a most 
serious fray had happened between some of his 
men and the cititens of Edinburgh, ia which the 
provoet, or chief magistrate, and bis son, and a 
considerable number more of the inhabitants, 
men, women, and children, were killed in the 
streets by the foreigners.' Towards the end of 
the year 1548 some English ships arrived in the 
Forth, and took and fortified the small isle of 
Inchkeith, but it waa gallantly attacked and reco- 
vered by the French, after they bad held it only 
sixteen days The English were also driven out 
of Jedbui^b ; the castles of Hume and Femihurst 
were retaken; and the flench made an inroad 
across the Borders, from which they returned with 
SOOprisonersaodagreAtqaautityof booty. Theae 
successes, hoverer, did not make I^Esse more 
popular with the Scots. According to Burnet, "the 
queen-mother and the governor had made great 






compUnte of him »t the eonrt of fYance, thai he 
pot Ae lutiofl to vast charge to little pnrpoae, so 
that he woe more tuisbbj to hia friends tb*ii his 
eoemiee; and hia last disorder tt Edinburgh had, 
on the one hand, bo taiaed the insolence of the 
French eoldiers, and, on the other huid, so alien- 
Kted and inflamed the people, that unleee another 
vere sent to eomntaod, who shonld gOTem more 
i&ildl7,*there might be great danger of a defection 
of the whole kingdom." In consequence, CEne 
waa recalled, and the command of the French 
forces in Scotland given to Marehal Termes.' In 
the conne of the present year (1549) the Scots re- 
covered, bj force of arms, both Fast Castle, in the 
aoiitl),and the more important fortress of Broughtj 
Castle, in the north. Haddington was once more 
plentifully supplied with proviaiona bj the £arl 
of Batland, newl; appointed one of the wardens 
of the marches in the room of Lord Om; ; bnt it 
waa, notwithstanding, eventually found neces- 
sary to evacuate that town.* Before this war 
against England had been declared by the French 
king, he had already led an army into the Bou- 
lognoia, and with little difficulty made hiuuelf 
master of the forte of Selaques, Ambleteuse, 
Newcastle, Blackness, and otbere there. He after- 
wards sat down before Boulogne ; and though the 
breaking out of the plague in the camp slackened 
their operaUons, and the coming on of winter 
finally induced them to raise the siege, the French 
succeeded in completely shutting np the English 
within the town ; and as they had in their hands 
all the neighbouring forta, there could be little 
doubt that the place would fall as soon aa the 
season should permit it to be reinvested. 

For some time past, since the acheme of the 
Scottish marriage was become impracticable, the 
protector had been desirous to make peace both 
with Scotland and France, and he waa now will- 
ing to agree to Hurrender Boulogne to Henry for 
a sam of money, in order to facilitate that ar- 
rangement. It ia probable that the last-men- 
tioned measure, however really wise and prudent, 
would not have had the national voice in its 
favour; at any rate, Ebmerset, in this instauce, 
yielded to the repreaentations of the conncii, 
who unanimously remonstrated against the pro- 
posal as h«nght with the deepest dishonour, tjieir 
conaciousnesa of having the popular feeling on 
their side having apparently emboldened them 
to aasume a more spirited tone than usual. 

The storm waa now fast gathering around the 
head of the protector which was to throw him to 
the ground. The seriee of military losses and 
unancceaaful operatioua in Scotland and France 

< BiuiUnig hji U»t CEaa nqiiBtol Imts of Ihi king to 

nused a mass of dissatisfaction. Ss. manage- 
ment of public a&in, indeed, in everything ex- 
cept in the advanoement of the alterations in ro- 
ligion — and there nothing had yet been secorel]' 
settled, and whatever had been done, or attemp- 
ted, was, to a great part of the nation, the very 
reverse of acceptable— had been, from the begio- 
ning, little else tium a continued eonrae <)f hlou- 
dering and miafortune. H disaster and disgrace 
had attended the national arms abroad, at home 
the kingdom had been involved in all the confu- 
sion and misery of civil war. Even the reputa- 
tion that was to be gained in the contest of una 
with the rebels he had left to be gatheted bj 
others—and of all others by the very man by 
whose military talents he had already acanelT 
escaped from being outshone on the only ocomon 
he had had of diatingniahing himself in that way 
since he had been placed at the head of aAira 
From the moment of the suppreasion of tiie re- 
bellion, the protector had almost an avowed rival 
and competitor for the supreme power in the 
Earl of Warwick. Warwick'a instigator, sgaiu, 
ia affirmed by Burnet to have been the ei-ebsn- 
cellor Southampton, who, although brought back, 
aa we have seen, into the council, "had notj'saji 
the right reverend historian, "laid down his se- 
cret hatred of the protector, but did all he aoDld 
to make a party against him." In other quarten, 
the wily ex-chancellor, from a memory tUmi 
with personal and party injuries, would brinj( 
out, to undermine hia old enemy, each dubiona 
or discreditable- passage of bis cueer, as suited 
the occasion, or tiie temper and poeitlon of the 
parties he addressed. Above all, to the gene- 
rality, and to thoee even whose interests attached 
them to the maintenance of the protector^ autho- 
rity, he would appeal with the blood-curdling 
question, What friendship, when his ambition 
stood in the way, could any expect from a man 
who had no pity on his own brothart The old 
nobility had hated Somerset from the firat, aa an 
upstart, and as one who laboured to bnild hii 
^[reatness on their depression, and on the general 
Bubveraion of the ancient order of things with 
which they were identified. Bat the arrogance 
with which he bad borne himself dlagusted msnj 
others, as well aa thoae belonging to this claM, 
with whom he had come in contact, and msde 
him bitter and powerful enemies on all honds- 
The very men who had diiefly aided in making 
him what he waa, finding their services requited 
only with hia endeavours to kick down the {xo^a 
upon which he had risen, had, for the moat port, 
in their hearts, if not openly, fallen ofi' from him ; 
and even in the council there was scarcely a mem- 
ber upon whoee attachment he could count, ex- 
cept his friends Paget and Cranmer. Nor barf 
his late conduct eveu advanced him in the r^ptrd 


».D. 1549— 1M3.J 


a he liad alwn^s 

of the mnltitude, whoae 
shown himaelf so anziou: 
darling popnlaritf mnat have snfibred no little 
diminntion by the state to which the aSkirs of 
the kingdom had been brought l^ hii adminift- 
tration both at home and abroad. Then his as- 
Bomption and rapacity were every day becoming 
more inordinate and glaring, and had now reached 
a height that shocked the public senee of decency 
OB well as of justice. Bnmet admits that "many 
btshope and catfaedmla had resigned many manors 
to him for obtiuning his favour.' He had got a 
patent, it seemi, authorizing him to take posaes- 
eion of such church lands, on pretence of reward- 
ing him for his services in the Scottish war — in 
which patent, by the by, drawn up of course by 
his own directions, the vain man had caused him- 
aelf to be styled "Dnke of Somerset 6y the ffraee 
of Ood'm if he had been a sovereign prince. It 
was also said, Bomet tells ns, that many of the 
chantiy lands bnd been sold to his friends at easy 
rates, for which it was concluded he had great 
presents. But the most obtrusive exhibition he 
made at once of his vanity and of his grasping 
and nnscmpulons practice of appropriation, was 
in the erection of a new palace for himself in 
London— the same that has bequeathed his name 
to the preaent Somerset House, in the Strand, 

UOHKBSET PLACt, froRi tlw BJ'CT. — TrciD ■ print 1 

which stands on the site that it occupied. Not 
uuly did the rise of this vast and splendid pile 
expose its owner to tbe reflection, "that when the 
kiiig was engaged in such wars, and when Lon- 
dun was mnch disordered by the plague that had 
been in it for some months, he was then bringing 
trehitecta frtMU Italy, and designing such a palace 
■•had not been seen in England ;"' men's indig- 


nation was eicited by many arbitrary exertions 
of power, in violation both of putflic and of pri- 
vate rights, to which he did not hesitate to resort 
in rearing this superb monument of his greatness. 
Besides compelling three bishops to enrrender to 
him their episcopal mansions, he had removed 
altogether a parish church which stood in the 
way of his plans, and had not only pulled down 
many other religious buildings in the neighbour- 
hood for the sake of their materials, but had, 
with barbarous recklessness, defaced and broken 
to pieces the ancient monuments they contained, 
and even irreverently removed and scattered the 
bones of the dead. It was impossible that such 
proceedings should not expose the protector's Pro- 
teatanUsm to the impntation of being at least ss 
profitable as it was consdenttons. 

During all the month of September (1549) 
there were great heats in the councili tbe enemies 
of the protector now no longer shrunk from 
speaking out, and avowing their determination 
to strip him oE bis exorbitant power. By the 
beginning of October the quarrel had arisen al- 
most to a contest of arms. "The council,' says 
the graphic account given by the king in hi? 
journal, "about nineteen of them, were gathered 
in London, thinking to meet with the lord-pro- 
tector, and to make him amend some of his dis- 
orders. He, fearing his state, 
caused the secretary, in my 
name, to be sent (from 
Hampton Court, where Ed- 
ward then was, along with 
Somerset, Cranmer, and Pb- 
get) to the lords (of the coun- 
cil in London), to know from 
what cause they gathered 
tlieir powers together; and 
if they meant to talk with 
him, that they should come 
in a peaceable manner. The 
next morning, being the 6th 
of Octeber, and Saturday, he 
commanded tbe armonr to 
be brought down out of the 
armoury of Hampton Court 
— about 500 hamesBPfl, to 
arm both hia and my men, 
•J RoUar. with all the gates of the iiouse 

to be rampiredj people to be 
raised: people came abundantly to the house." 
While the protector was making these prepara- 
tions at Hampton Court, Warwick and the other 
lords of the council were assembled at Ely Place, 
in London, from which they despatched orders 
for the attendance of the lieutenant of the Tower, 
and of the lonl-mayor and aldermen, all of whom 
appeared and consented to submit to their orders. 
They also wrote to the nobility and gentry iu 




. a>dUiut4rt. 

tlie diffureiit parts of tlie kingdom, infonuiug 
thorn of their designs audmolivea. "Tbatuigbt,' 
continuea the king, "with all the people, at oiae 
or teu of tlie clock of the aight, I went to Wind- 
sor, and there was watch and ward kept every 
night." Iq point of fact, Edward waa carried to 
Windsor hj his uncle, with an escort of 500 men, 
boUi Cranmer aud Paget accompanying tbem. 
Somerset's first impulse was to set his enemies at 
defiance; besides eurronndiag himself with an 
armed force, aa here related, and securing the 
king's person, before leaving Ham.pton Court he 
wrote to his friend Lord Ruasetl, who was still 
in the west country, calling upon him to hasten 
to the defence of the king's majesty in his castle 
of Windsor.' But this bold resolution speedily 
evaporated ; the next day be wrote to the council 
at London, informing them, that, provided they 
intended no hurt to the kia^a majesty's person, 
touching all other private matters they would 
find him disposed to agree to any reaaooable con- 
ditions they might require. The cooncil most 
have seen from this bumble— almost suppliant — 
communication that the late dictator lay at their 
feet. They took no notice of his propaaal for 
an accommodation, but, proceeding to the lord- 
mayor's house, there drew op and forthwith pub- 
lished a proclamation, in which, after enumerat- 
ing their several grounds of dissatisfaction with 
the " malicious and evil government " of the lord- 
protector^the lat« sedition of which he had been 
the occasion— the losses in France — bis ambition 
and seeking of his own glory, "as appeared by 
his building of moat sumptuous and costly build- 
' ings, and specially in the time of the king's wars, 
and the king's soldieiv unpaid" — his having held 
in no esteem "the grave counsel of tbe c 
selloi-B* — bis having sown sedition between the 
nobles, the gentlemen, and the commons — and hia 
having slandered the council to the king, and 
done what in him lay to cause variance between 
the king and his nobles — they declared hii 
be "a great traitor," and therefore "desired tbe 
city and commons to aid tbem to take him from 
the king." The next day, the 8th, they went 
the QnUdhall, where tbe common-council being 
assembled, and having listened to a narrative of 
alt that had been done, "declared they thanked 
God for tiie good intentions they had expressed, 
and assured tbem they would stand by them with 
their lives and goods."' Meanwhile, Somerset, 
quailing under the prospect that was becomi 
darker every hour, had made another effort 
save bimseU by a private appeal to his great rival 
Warwick, whom he reminded of the friendship 
of their early days, aud of tbe favours he had 

■ a»(bg IMhr, wnli U» Lend BonU^ BiHwhu UDMgQon 
at on ths irtwl* illHaanii>V. ">'*•'■ <B fo' ud OWiiuitHt. 
' Durnvt, ttoa MiniiUt ^ fA< CVniui/. 

conferred upon himi but Warwick was unl 
tbe man to be drawn off from his object hy such 
sentimentalities. At length, finding all negotia- 
,ion hopeless, he consented that a warrant shonld 
be sent to Loudon, under tbe king's band, invil- 
ing the council to come to Windsor. On the 12th 
of October, accordingly, tbe whole of tiie lorde, 
twenty-two in number, repaired thither; ou 
the 13th they assembled in council, and examined 
Secretary Smith aud others of Somenet'i sd. 
herenta or servants, who, as well as himself, had 
been previously placed under arrest; ou the 14lh 
the protector was called before them, when Uu 
treasons and misdemeanours with which hs wm 
charged were formally eihibited to him dnwn 
up in no fewer than twenty-eight articles i and 
on the same day bis royal nephew was conveyed 
back to Hampton Court, and he himself was sent 
to the Tower under tbe conduct of the Earla of 
Sussex and Huntingdon. 

This revolution at once placed the gDvenuiKnt 
in the hands of Warwick, with almost the saint 
substantial power that bad been wielded by tbe 
overthrown protector. For a moment South- 
ampton hoped to share tiie supreme authority 
with the new lord of the ascendant, whose rise 
be had so materially assisted — perhaps to con- 
tinue to direct him as \ai» protegi, or instrument: 
and the Popish party eagerly expected tbata largp 
share in the management of affairs would fall 
into the hands of one whose attachment to that 
interest was secured both by the pertinacity of 
bis temper and by the whole course of his life, 
which had so conspicuously identified him villi 
ite maintenance and championahip. But tbe dmo 
of intrigue proved no match, in the circnmstoncea 
in which Uiey were now placed, for the man of 
tbe sword ; Southampton was not even restorol 
his former office of chancellor; he and War- 
1 became wholly alienated from each 
other; be was removed from the council in the 
beginning of the foUowiug year, and soon after 
died, either of mere vexation and disappoiDtmeiit, 
or, as it was repoi-ted, having terminated his 
existence by poison. Warwick, too, was held to 
be inclined in bis heart to the old religion; but 
he had no principles upon this or any other sub- 
ject that be would allow for a moment to stand 
in tbe way of the interesta of his ambition, sod 
be very soon not only wholly forsook the Popish 
party, but took up a profession of zeal for former 
ecclesiastical changes that outran the views uf 
most Protestants. 

Tbe pai-liament re-ossembled on the 41ii of 
November; and, before the end of the year, sets 
were passed for the prevention of unlawful as- 
semblies; against prophecies concerning tbe king 
or his council; aud for repealing the late law i<u 
the subject of vsgabonds, which luul been fouud 

,v Google 

\ 1M&— ise3.] 



too «BVere to be cairied into effect. It was not 
tUI t)ie 9d of Janouy, ISfiO, that the case of the 
Itak» of Someiaet waa broagfat forward, bj a bill 
of paioa oad penaltiea being read for the first 
time agaiuBt him in the House of Lords, the alle- 
gttion* in which, being the aame twenty-eight 
Krticles on which he wae cotuigned to the Tower, 
were snpportcd hj a confession, ugnad with his 
own hand, which he had made on his kneea before 
the king and the council on the preceding 13th 
at December. He bad submitted to this humi- 
liatiou, it seems, on an assonuice being given to 
him that be should be gentl; dealt with if he 
wonld aubmit himself to the king's mere;. The 
bill, which inflicted depriTabon of all his offices, 
and forfmtnre (tf all his personal propert j, and of 
X^OOO a year of his revenue from his lands, passed 
both houses without opposition. He remou- 
stiated against the beavy amount of the fine ; 
but, on receiving a harsh reply from the conncil, 
be ibmnk back immediately to an attitude of the 
bam blest submission, and expressed his thankfal- 
iidas to them and the king that they had been 
content with merely fining him, when they might 
have juatly taken his life. On the Sth of Feb- 
ruarf be was released from the Tower; and on 
the Ifith of the same month be received a par- 
don. " After that,' says Burnet, " he cairied 
himself so humbly, that hia behaviour, with the 
king's great kindness to him, did so far prevail, 
that on the lOth of April after he was restored 
into faToor, and sworn of the privy council." 

Immediately after the rising (^ parliament, the 
appointments of great master of the household 
and lord high-admiral were conferred upon War- 
wick; and the Lords Russell and St. John ware 
created Earls of Bedford and WiLtehire, and ad- 
ranoed to the offices, the first of lord privy-seal, 
the second of lord -treasurer. la the end of 
March, after some weeks of negotiation, a peace 
sas concluded both with France and Scotland; 
the principftl condition of which was the snnen- 
<ler to France of Boulogne— that measure which, 
when proposed by the late lord -protector, Uie 
same members of the council who now assented 
to It had exclaimed against as the consummation 
of national disgrace. All that was demanded in 
return for this concession by England was a 
payment of 200,000 crowns at the time of the 
delivery of the town, and of as much more iu five 
months after, nnder Uie name of a compensation 
for the coat of keeping up the fortifications while 
it had been in the possession of this country. 
The late FneiiGh king had, in 1S46, agreed to give 
Henry VIIL a,OOO,OO0 crowns for the surren- 
der of Boulf^ne at the expiration of eight years. 
The peoaioa which Francis had bound himself 
to pay to Henry said his successors, with ita ar. 
t«aT^ «nM alau now given up. In truth, how. 

, the discredit of this treat;, though it was 
concluded by the present, belongs to the former 
government; for peace upon almost any terms 
had been rendered absolutely necessary by the 
losses already incurred, and the exhausted state 
to which the financee of the kingdom weie re- 

le remainder of this and the eerty part of 
the following year were principally occupied wtth 
the affairs of religion and of the church. Although 
ao Catholic was burned in this reign, the horrid 
immolation of nienand of wo Jien for their opinions 
io religion, was not altogether laid aside. The 
Sd of May this jear witnessed the execution at 
Smithfield, by the customary mode of death allot- 
ted for heretics, of a female named Joan Boeber,' 
or Joan of Eeut. Joan, who appeuv to have 
been a person of some education, and of a re- 
spectable rank iu life, had been apprehended 
more than a year before for holding and dissemi- 
nating certain peculiar notions about the incar- 
catdou of Christ, to the effect, as far as the expres- 
sions attributed to her are intelligible, that his 
body was not really, but only apparently of hu- 
man flesh. Being brought before a oommisBion 
appointed to examine and search aft«r all Ana- 
baptists and oliier heretics and contemners of the 
Common Prayer, of which Cranmw was the 
head, she rejected all their persuasions to recant 
her opinions; and was thereupon condemned as 
an obstinate heretic, and delivered over to the 
secular power. The young king, however, with 
the onperverted feeling natural to bis years, 
shrunk from signing the warrant for burning 
her, on which Cranmer was appointed to reason 
hitn out of his scruples; but all the elaborate 
arguments of the archbishop failed to satisfy him; 
and although he at last consented, with tears in 
his eyes, to set his hand to the paper, be lold 
Cnnmer that, if the act was wrong, it was he 
(Cranmer) who must answer for it to God, since 
it was done only in submission to his authority. 
It is supposed that, struck with some uncomfort- 
able feelings by this solemn admonition, Cran- 
mer wonld gladly have escaped from the execu- 
tion of the sentence; and both he and Ridley 
took great pains to prevail upon Joan to save 
her life by abjuration. But the enthusiast, court- 
ing martyrdom, treated all their exhortations 
with contempt; and she was at last consigned to 
the flames. About a year after Ififh April, 15fil), 
another heretic was burned in the same place — a 
I>utchman, named Von Paris, who resided in Lon- 
don in the practice of his profession of a surgeon; 
hiacr'me was the denial of the divinity of Christ. 
He underwent his death with great firmness. 
Burnet admits tiiat no port of Cranmet's life ex- 
posed him to mot« obloquy than the part he to<dc 



[Civil ahd HiLiTAtiT. 

iaUiesAexecations: "it wsaaaidhehadcoiiaeated 
both to lAmbert's and Anne AakeVa death in 
the former reign, who botli Buffered for opinions 
which he himself held now; and he had lunr pro- 
cured the death of these two peraonii ; and vhea 
he woa brought to sufier himself afterirarda, it 
was called a just retaliation on him." 

In August, 1049, Bonner, Bishop of London, 
won aummoued before the oouncil, and after being 
aliarply reprimanded for hia contumacr, wai 
rected to preach at Paul's Croes on the 1st of 
September, tliat be might give proof of hia or- 
thodoxy and Bubmiseion to the estBhliahed order 
of thiugs both in church aud state. Hia sermon 
did not give satisfaction: beiag appointed to ap- 
pear befui-a Cranmer, Ridley, and others, to an- 
swer for what he had aaid, or had omitted to say, 
be conducted hioiaelf with extraordinaiy bold- 
ness, aud, indeed, set hhi judges at defiance ; and 
the affair ended bj senteuce of deprivation being 
prouuuuced upon him, and his being conaigued 
to the Maisliabea, where he remained a prisouer 
throughout the remainder of this reign. In 
Api-il, 16C0, the vacant see of London was filled 
bj the transference of Ridley from Bocheater. 
The council next proceeded to deal with the 
cases of three other recusant bishops who lay 
imprisoned in the Tower— Oatdiuar of Winches- 
ter, Heatb of Worcester, and Day of Chichester, 
nil of whom refused te make submission, and 
were eventually deprived, and remanded into 
confinement, as Bonner had been, in the course 
of this and the two following years. In moat of 
the re-orrangements that took place in conse- 
quence of these ejecUous, tlie opportunity was 
takt^u of obtaining something more from the 
wealth of the church for the members of the 
government and their frieuds. Thus, when Rid- 
ley went to London, the lately established 
bishopric of Weetminster was suppressed; its re- 
venues, amounting t«> £BM, were made over to 
the see of Loudon, with the exception of rents to 
the amount of £\.<M reserved by the king; aud 
ths lands which had hitherto belonged to the 
latter see, yielding a rent of ^480, were imme- 
diately granted to certain of the king's wiuiaters 
aud officers of the household : Lord Wenlworth, 
the chamberlain, had £-2i5; Sir Thonias Darcy, 
the vice-chamberlnin, il9-t; and Hich, the chaji- 
cellor, £39.' 

One of the new episcopal appointments occa- 
sioned for some time no little trouble aud dispu- 
tation — that of the celebrated preacher John 
Hooper, afterwards the illustrious martyr, to the 
see of Qloncester, to which he was nominated in 
July, ISCO. Hooper, however, who had im- 
tabed from an int«rcouree with certain Calvinis- 
tio and other foreign divines, a predilection for 

' atiTpc Eedit. Utm. U. 3M. 

those views in religion, afterwards known by the 
name of Puritanism, at first obstinately mfniol 
to receive consecration in the canonical habits ; 
nor could all the logic and eloquence of Cianmer 
and Ridley, nor even the persuasion of hia friendi 
Bucer and Peter Martyr, who in great put 
shared his awn peculiar opinions, tor a loDg 
time induce him to yield the poinL At list, ie 
January, Ififil, he was, by royal warrant, com. 
mitted for his contumacy to the Fleet ; and hen 
he lay tdU he consented to the compromiss that 
he should be attired in the prescribed vcstmenti 
at his ordination, aud when he preached before 
the king, or in his cathedral, or in any publii; 
place, but should be excused from wearing them 
upon other occasions. On these oonditioiis he 
was consecrated bishop. 

Another alftur that considerably embamiMil 
the government, was the contumacy of the ladv 
Mary, the kin^a eldest sister, and the heiresa 
presumptive to the crowu. Soon after the com- 
mencement of the present reign this princew hail 
written te Somerset, expressing her opinion thxt 
all further changes in religion, till her brother 
should be of age, were contrary to the respect he 
and his colleagues in thegovenunentowedtothe 
memory of the late king, and could only have the 
effect of endangering the public peace. In replj, 
the protector addressed a long and earnest ex- 
hortation to her, in which he iiA.iniated that he 
believed her letter had not proceeded from her- 
self.' After the passing of the statute for ant- 
formity of worship, Maiy was informed by the 
council (in June, 1M9) that her chaplmns conld 
no longer besuffered to perform mass even in her 
private chapel ; but after some controversy, ou 
the interposition of her nude theemperor, whose 
assistauce the goverumeut was at this time aali- 
citiug, it was agreed that the new lawsbould not 
be enforced in her case, at least for the preseut 
The agitation of the subject, however, was re- 
newed after the conclusion of the peace witb 
France. All the applicatioua of the emperor's 
ambassadors, iu favour of hia niece, were for 
many months met by the goverumeut with a 
peremptory refusal. It was then rumunred tliat 
she designed to quit the kingdom, on which, in 
August, lOW), a tteet was aent to aea te prevent 
her escape. In December following two of licr 
chaplains were indicted. At last, in March, 1^1, 
she appeared personally befoi-e the council, when 
her royal brother himself brought all hia atorca 
of theological learning and jxiwers of reaaoniog 
to bear upon ber obstinacy ; but still her resolu- 
tion remuned unshaken. The next day (lUtii 
March) the imperial ambassadordelivaredaine*- 
sage from hia master, thatif thereqaestediudul- 
gence should not be granted to the priueeas, the 

,v Google 

>. 1049— ISfiS.) 


emperor would immediately' declare war. This 
iutinution staggered the council, and at tlie 
ment do aiiaver waa returDsd. But, on the fol- 
lowing day (die SOth), Ctanioer, along with Rid- 
lej and Fojnet, bsTing come to the king, and, as 
be tella ua in hia journal, declared it to be their 
opinion that, thoogh to give license to ein was 
siu, yet to suffer and winli at it for a time was 
excusable, Edward was persuaded to give way: 
"jet not so eaaitf ,' saja Burnet, "but that he 
buret forth in teaia, lamenting hia aiater'a obati- 
nitcy, and that he must snfTer her to continue in 
so abomiuaible a way of worship as he e«(«enied 
the mass.' The attempts to induce the priuceaa 
to oonfonn were soon renewed. In August fol- 
lowing the chief otBcera of her household were 
commanded to prevent ttie use of the Romish 
service in her family, and on their refusal to com- 
ply were committed to the Tower. Af t«r that 
the iord-cltancellor and others of the chief mem- 
benof the coondl were sent to hold a conference 
with her on the subject at her residence of Copt- 
liall, in Eosei; but she continued, as before, im- 

Since his liberation in February, ISW, the late 
lord-protector, though stripped of wealth as well 
na of power, had been restored to Ba much of court 
fuvuur aa his uephew could venture to show him 
under the rule of the new dictator. Warwick 
probably calculated that iu reducing him to con- 
tempt be had effected his political oxUnction not 
ksa completely than if he had taken his life; and 
be appears also to have hoped that, after having 
thus kicked the duke down, he might even be 
able to make out of one so newly related to the 
crown a useful prop of hie own rising fortunes. 
An apparently complete reconcilement accord- 
ingly took pUce between the two; and on the 3d 
of June the Lord lisle, the Eurl of Warwick's 
eldest SOD, was married at Richmond, in the pre- 
sence of the king, to the lady Ann, one of the 
daughters of the Duke of Somerset.' It was im- 
IKwaible, howeyer, that the fallen lord-protector 
luid the man who had supplanted him could ever 
cease to be rivals and enemies at heart so long as 
either lived. It appears that before the expira- 
tion of this same year Somerset had begun to 
take secret measures for recovering hia former 
'.ffice. Under the date of the 16th of February, 
1551, the king's jonmal states that a persou 
named Wbaley " was examined for persuading 
'livers nobles of the re^lm to make the Duke of 

■IB, Sir nstnrt DodliT. ■Avwudi tha haxnii Eirt Df 
wKBiuiladtatbgiUiiibMrafaiTJaliBllablut; "il 
URlSf^' mjttba mtrj la tb* ktnc^Jouiul, "tl 
mUiiiKiiUmaUiatdldatilTawhoAiniUant UI 

Somerset protector at the next parliament, and 
stood to the denial, the Earl of Rutland affirming 
it manifestly." On this investigation being in- 
stituted, Somerset's friend, Lord Gray, hastily 
took hia departure for the north, probably widi 
the design of making a stand there; and the 
duke himself was making ready to follow him, 
when he was stopped by being assured that no 
injury was intended to him, and the matter was 
allowed to drop. In a month or two after, how- 
ever, Warwick was made uneasy by the rep(nl 
of the duke being engaged in new tutrigues. 
Bumet admits that Somerset " seemed to have 
deugoed, in April this year, to have got the king 
again in his power, and dealt with the Lord 
Strange, that was much in his (the king's) favour, 
to persuade him to marry his daughter Joue." 
But the gathering storm was again dispersed for 
the present by the formality of a fresh reconcile- 
ment betireen the two parties. In Uay followinir 
the Harquis of Northampton was sent aa amba)i> 
sador to Paris to demand for Edward the hand 
of Benry's daughter Elisabeth ; this propoaal was 
immediately assented to by the F^ch king; 
after some negotiation it waa settled tiiat the por- 
tion of the princess should be 800,000 avwne 
(which waa only about a tenth part of what tike 
English commissioners had asked in the £rvt 
inatance), and that ^e should be sent over, "at 
ber father's charge, three months before she was 
twelve, sufficiently jewelled and stuffed."* 

In the folbwing September Warwick procured 
fw himself the important post of warden of the 
Scottish marches^ which enabled him to take 
effective measuresfor cuttingofTSomerset^ retreat 
to the north, in case matters abould again come to 
such a pass between tiiem aa to drive hia adver- 
saty into open revolt; and in the beginning of 
October he got himself created Duke of Northum- 
berland, hia friends and dependants, the Marquis 
of Dorset, the Earl of Wiltshire, and Sir William 
Herbert, being at the same time made respec- 
tively Duke of Suffolk, Marquis of Winchester, 

id Earl of Pembroke. Five days after the an- 
nouncement of these new honours, namely, on 
Friday the lethof October, the capital was startled 
with the sudden intelligeuce of the arrest of the 
Duke of Somerset, on a charge of conspiracy and 
high treason, and hia committal to the Tower. 
rss seized in the afternoon while on his way 
to the court at Westminster; Lord Gray and 
ithers of his friends were apprehended the same 
day; and tbe day after, the duchess, some of her 
female attendants, and a number of other per- 
ins, were all made prisoners. 

Such of the persons apprehended aa were will- 
ing to give evidence wer« now called before the 
council and examined. Among these, according 

• KinCiJoonil. 

,v Google 



In the king's journal, Palmsr repeated at least ao 
much of the story of the duke'i accuaera as related 
to a plot tor a revolt in London. If the attempt 
upon the gendarmerie, who were to be fallen 
upon and killed at the first rising of the iniiui^ 
reclJOD, had failed, the duke, according to the 
witness, was to "run through London and crj 
'Liberty! liberty I 'to raise the apprentices and 
mbble ; if he could he would go to the Isle of 
Wight, or to Poole." On the 26th, "Crane," says 
the king, "confessed the moet part, even aa 
'Palmer did before, and more alao, how that the 
plaoe where the nobles should have been ban- 
queted, and their heads stricken of^ was the 
Lord Paget'a house. . . . Hammond also con- 
fessed the watch he (the duke) kept in his cham- 
ber at uight. Bren also confessed mnch of this 
matter. The Lord Strange confessed how the 
duke willed him to stir me to marry his third 
daughter, the Lady Jane, and willed him to be his 
■py in all matters of my doings and sayings, and 
to know when some of my council spoke secretly 
with me ; thia be confe^ed of himself." How 
these depositions were procured we have no ac- 
count; the king does not appear to speak of them 
as being taken in bia presence, but rather as 
merely reported to him by the council. Mean- 
while everything possible waa done by the go- 
vernment to excite a strong feeling of public 
alarm. On the 17th "there were letters sent to 
all emperors, kings, ambasaadora, nobleman, men, 
and chief meu, into countries of the lat« conspi- 
racy:"' and on the 22d, all the crafts and cor- 
porationa of the dty were informed by a message 
from the king that the Duke of Somerset would 
have taken the Tower, seized on the liroad seal, 
and destroyed the city, and were charged care- 
fully to ward the several gates, and to appoint 
watehes to patrol all the streets. 

The indictment charging Somerset with hav- 
ing traitorously designed to seize on the king's 
person, and assume the entire government of 
the realm — with having, along with a hundred 
otheiB, intended to have imprisoned the Earl of 
Warwick — and with having conspired to mise 
an insurrection in the city of London, was found 
by thegrand jury at Guildhall; on which twenty- 
seven peers were summoned to sit as a court for 
bia trial in Weetmicster Hall — the Marquis of 
Winchester, the lord-treasurer, being appointed 
lord high-steward. The trial took place on the 
Ist of December. Except only that an oppor- 
tunity was given to the priaoner of making a 
public defence, it was scarcely characterized by 
any greater justice or faimesa than had been 
meted out hy the duke to his own brother. His 
judges were the very partin against whom he 
waa said to have conspired— Northumberland , 

Norlhampton, Pembroke, and the other leadiug 
members of the government ; and tlie wibieecea 
against him were not produced, but only their 
written depositions read. Somerset denied ill 
the materia] facta with which he waa charged. 
As for killing the Duke of Northumberiand and 
the others, however, he admitted that he had 
thought of sncb a project and talked of it, but 
on consideration he had determined to ahandos 
it: "yet," adds the notice in the king's jouiuil, 
" he seemed to confess he went about their death.* 
In ti-utb, thia black chat^, which would now 
excite so much horror, inasmuch as it did not 
amount to treason, waa probably regarded both 
by the prisoner and his judges as the lightest In 
the indictment. It was upon this, however,that 
he was condemned. The subservient court, in- 
deed, would have voted the conspiracy to imprison 
or take away the life of their master Northum- 
berland to be treason; but that nobleman himself 
had the grace to decline this compliment, acd aa 
Somerset was only found guilty of felony. On 
this verdict l>eing pronounced he thanked the 
lords for the open trial that had been allowed 
him, "and cried mercy of the Duke of Northum- 
berland, the Marquis of Northampton, and the 
Earl of Pembroke, for his ill-meaning againat 
them, and made suit for his life, wife, children, 
servants, and debts."' Ab soon aa he waa pro- 
nonnced goiltlesa of treason the axe was with- 
drawn, and he was carried back to the Tower 
nnaccompanied by that ghastly emblem. Hit 
royal nephew appears to have been perfectly con- 
vinced of his guilt, and in that feeling to have 
dutifully given himself no further concern nbont 
him. Qrafton, indeed, says that " he aeemeil to 
take the trouble of his unde somewhat heavily ;* 
but bia public demeanour, at least, gave no sigua 
of anything of the kind. While his uncle lay con- 
demned to death he was enjoying the merry fe^tivi- 
tiea audpaatimesof Christmas with, to all appear- 
ance, not less relish than usual. The court having 
repaired to Greenwich, where open house «u 
kept, there was, by order of the council, "» visa 
gentleman and learned," named George Ferrers, 
appointed for this year to be Lord of Misrule, 
"whose office,' says the clironicler, "is not un- 
known to such aa have been brought up la noble- 
men's houses and among great housekeepeis, 
which use liberalfeasting in that season." They 
did not even keep the sound of their revelry out 
of the hearing of Somerset in bis dungeon, for 
part of their mummery in the shape of a hmd 
and water [H-oceaaion was in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the Tower. 

Other shows and sports of the season are 
recorded with great unction by the king himself 
in his journal. Thus, on the 6th of January, 

I KlBf^ JooiuL 


ij). IHfl— 1653.1 EDWARD VI. 89 

aftera Uiumej in tlie morning, we lutve, at Dight, [ accomplices of the duke, Sir Miles Partridge, Sir 
first a pla;, in which, "after a talk between one | Ralph Yane, Sir Hicbael Stanhope, and SirTho- 

that was called Riches, and the other Youth, 
whether of them waa better,' and " tome pretty 
reaaoniag," six champions on each side "fought 
two to two at barriera in the hall;" and "then 
came in two apparelled like Almains, the Barl of 
OnuoDtl and Jacques Gran&do, and two came in 
like friars, but the Almuns would not suffer them 
to pUB till they had fought: the fiiars were 
Mr. Dmry and ThomaaCobbam. After thU fol- 
lowed twu maska — one of men, another of women. 

CocKT tlUK or THE TIME.— Stnlt'a nwil AnUr|iiltIi9 

Thru a banquet of 120 dishes." lu the hurry of 
All this making and feasting Edward had neither 
time nor inclination to think of his uncle, or to 
heai his endcavoura to move hini to mercy. So, 
u the chronicler puts it, "this Christmas being 
thus passed and spent with much mirth and pas- 
time, it was thought now good to proceed to the 
eiecution of the jadgmeut given agaiust the Duke 
of Somenet." The execution took place on Fri- 
day, the SSd, under which date his nephew has 
wolly noted that "the Duke of Somerset had his 
hfaJ cut off upon Tower-hill, between eight and 
nine o'clock in the morning.'' The duke met his 
dmth with great composure. As he was repeating 
the name of Jesus for the third time, the axe fell, 
ini! instantly deprived him of life.' Many per- 
sons, to preserve a memorial of him, dipped their 
handkerchiefs in his blood. 

Whatever may be thought of many of Somer- 
set's actions, and of hifl general character, his 
guilt in respect of the charges for which he suf- 
fered death must be held to be extremely doubt- 
ful; and it is not doubtful at all that be was 
condemned without a fair trial, and that he was 
nally sacrificed to the ambition of a worse man 
than himself. Of the persons apprehended as ihe 

' Far, trtm Um BrBrvu dI II twUsmui, who ni pnsnt. 

Arondel, were also tried, convicted, and ei 
cnlod together on the 26th of February. They 
all with their last breath protested their innocence 
of any design either against the king, or against 
the lives of any of the council. Vane said, that 
as often as Northnmberland laid his head oa his 
pillow he would find it wet with their blood. 

Parliament re-assembled on the 23d of Jauu- 
ary, IGfiS, the day after the execution of Somerset. 
Acta were passed for enforcing tbronghout the 
realm the use of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, as amended the precede 
ing year by a committee of bishops 
and divines, and already sanctioned 
hy the convocation; for amending 
thelawof treason, in which the im- 
portant principle was introduced, 
that DO person should be attainteil 
under the act unless upon the evl- 
denceof two witnesses given in the 
presence of the accused; for main- 
taining the observance of the fsKt- 
. days and holidays marked in the 
calendar; for the relief of the poor, 
in which the churchwanlens were 
empowered tocollectcontributions 
for that piirpoBe,and the bishop was 
directed to proceed against such 
parisbionera as refused to contri- 
bute ; for legalizing the marriages 
of priests and legitimizing their children; besides 
a few others relating chiefly to subjects of trade 
and manufactures. Some of the questions that 
arose occasioned a good deal of debate, and the 
divisions that took place in the commons showed 
that the existing government could scarcely count 
upon the attachment or support of a majority of 
the members in that house. Finding them thus 
impracticable, Northumberland, before they had 
yet sat for three months, or even granted the 
usual supplies, not only terminated the session, 
but dissolved the parliament, which had now been 
in existence tor nearly five years. This done, "it 
wafi resolved,' says Burnet, "to spend the summer 
in making friends all over England, and to have 
a new parliament in the opening of next year.' 

On the IBth of January, 1553, accoi-dingly, the 
nsual warrant was sent to the lord-chancellor, 
directing him to summon a parliament for the 
1st of March following; and then the most direct 
means were taken to procure a House of Com- 
mons composed, to as great an extent as possible, 
of the friends of the government. In several cases 
particular persons holding offices at the court or 
in the government were expressly recommende<l 
to the sheriffs in letters from the king.* Whfii 

> sirrrt, ut 1 

,v Google 



[Civil asd Militabt. 

the |MU-U&meiit met, the firat bill that was brought 
fonrnrd waa one for granting enpplies. Notwith- 
Btandiog the preponderance of Uie goveniinent 
partj in the house, it waa not passed in the com- 
inona without long aod eager debate, principal)}' 
occauoned, it isBuppoBed,b; the preamble, which 
attributed all the king's finauciftl difficulties to 
the aduiniatratitm of the Duke of Somerset The 
odIj other act of the Besaion requiring to be here 
noticed was one anppresaiug the bishopric of 
Durhain, and creating in its stead two nevr dio- 
ceses, one comprehending the county of Durham, 
the other that of Northumberland. Since the 
failure of his attempt in the lust session of par- 
liament to effect the deprivation of Bishop Ton- 
stal hj a bill of p^DS and penalties, Norilium- 
berland had accomplished that object by bringing 
the bishop before a new court erected for the 
specif pnrpose — aa open and daring an act of 
arbitrary power as if he had deprived him with- 
out any trial at all. The object of the depriva- 
tion of the bishop and the Buppreeeion of the see 
was soon made manifesL Parliament waa pro- 
rogued on the 3lBt of March, and in the course 
of the following month the suppressed bishopric 
was erected into a connty-pslatine, which was 
united to the crown for the present, but was in- 
tended to be ultimately devolved, with ail its regal 
privileges, on the Duke of Northumberland. 

Ueauwhile, however, n new prospect opeued 
upon the dnke'a ambition. For some time past 
the health of the young king had been in a yery 
infirm eUte, aud of late it had been visibly and 
mpidly declining. In tlie spring of the last year 

11 Huni^, tivai 111* niTM.— if 

tracted illness. In the beginning of the present 
year he was seized with a violent congh, which 
medicines would relieve; it was no doubt the 
consequence of disease formed in the lungs, bnt 
the auspicious credulity of the times attributed 
slow poison that had been given to 
roM so ill when the parliament met in 
the beginning of March, that he could not go 
down to Westminster, and the two houses were 
assembled the first day at Whitehall, In the 
beginning of May he seemed rather better; but 
this show of amendment soon disappeared — and 
by the following month it became evident that be 
conid not live many weeks. Thronghout his ill- 
Northumberland had sedulously laboured 
a his affection and confidence by a constant 
attendance and every manifeatntion of soHcitude : 
he had at the same time not neglected some 
other necessary preparations for the project he 
hand. In the beginning of May were 
celebrated with great magnificence, at the doke'a 
new residence of Durham House in the Strand, 
the marriagea of his fourth son, the Loril Guild- 
ford Dudley, to the Lady Jane Grey, eldest 
daughter of the Duke of Suffolk — of hisdanghter 
the I*dy Catherine Dudley, to the Lord Hast- 
ings, eldest eon of the Earl of Huntingdon — and 
of the Lady Catherine Orey, the Duke of Suf- 
folk's second daughter, to the Lord Herbert, 
the son of the Earl of Perabi-oke. Two of these 
alliances night seem to be intruded merely to 
aid generally in extending or strengthening his 
familyconnections and binding together the fabric 
of bis power; but the tliird had a higher aim. 
IVances, Duchess of Suffolk, the 
mother of the lady Jane Grey, 
whose hand was received by hie 
son, was the eldest of the two 
daughters and only surviving chil- 
dren of the Princess Mary, daugh- 
ter of Henry TIL, who had first 
bene married to Louis XII. of 
France, and then to Clirirles Bran- 
don, Duke of SutFolk, by whom 
she had her two daughters. After 
Edward, in the succeBsion to the 
throne, there stood between Ladv 
Jane, or her mother, by this de- 
scent, only the two princesses Marj- 
and Elizatieth, both of whom, by 
their father's command, had Ix^ii 
bastardized by acts of parliaments; 
and the liesoendanta of Mary Tn- 

dor's eldest sister Margnret, who 

had been attacked first by the measles and j married James IV. of Scotland but who had not 

n by the small-pox, and it is p«)bable that, been wcogniwd as havmg any claim in the w,ilot 

with a constitution naturally delicate, which he her brother Heniy Till., and whose repr^nta- 

ui suppoeed to have derived from his mother, he tive, the present infant Queen of Scolji, certainly 

never altogether shook off the effects of that pi^ I would have litUe chance of si 


sifully asserting 

,v Google 

A.t>. 1M9— 1603.] 



BDj rights she miglit be suppoaed to have to the 
Eugliah throne. NorthnmberlaDd therefore pro- 
poi«ed to bring the crown into his own family hy 
securing it for the head of his new danghter-in- 
Uw the I*dy Jane. 

Having vithont difficulty induced the Duchess 
of Suffolk to tnnafer her right to her eldett 
Haughter, he proceeded to unfold hia plan to the 
king. Before the anxious miud of thedjing boy, 
over whom he had acquired an extraordinary in- 
fliieni^, he placed an alarming representation of 
the dangers and caLuaities that were likely to 
arise from the succession of either of his sisters. 
Mary, the elder, was a bigoted Papist, and would 
certunly, the moment that she ascended the 
throne, proceed to undo all that had been done 
during her hrother'B reign, in the settlement of 
the true religion; yet she could not be set aside 
without urging a plea — that ot her illegitimacy 
^n-liich would at the same time equally exclude 
Elizabeth. The only safe course, therefore, was 
to pass by both; and in that case Edward's cousin, 
the smiable, accomplished, and thoroughly Pro- 
testant Lftdy Jane Grey, was obviously the per- 
son littent to be named as his successor. Edward 
acquiesced in the force of these argument*; and 
assuming himself to be entitled to exercise the 
same powers which had l>een nsed by his fa- 
ther Henry, he determined upon having a new 
entail of the crown executed to the effect the 
duke bad propoaed. Having sketched with his 
own pen a draft of the instrument, and signed a 
fair copy of it with hia name above and below and 
on each mai^n, he sent, on the llth of June, for 
Sir Edward Montague, chief-justice of the Com- 
mon Fleas, SirThomaaBromley,oneof the puisne 
justiees of the same court, Sir Richard Baker, 
chancellor of the augmentatjons, and Qosnold 
and Gry^n, the att^>mey and solicitor general, 
to attend the council nt Greenwich. When they 
came to him the next day, be received them in 
the presenoe of sever^ of the ooanaellors, shortly 
statt-d to them what he had made up his mind 
upon doing, and the reasons that had weighed 
with him, and desired them to draw up the in- 
strument in the proper legal form. They objected 
that the act of parliament which settled the suc- 
cession could not be taken away in the manner 
proposed ; but the king persisted in the command 
he had given. On the 14th they returned and 
intimated that, upon looking into the statutes. 

they had found tliat to draw such an iiisUnimeul 
as was proposed, would subject them to the juiins 
of treason. ITpon this, Northumberland came 
rushmg into the room in the greatest fury, called 
Montague a tnutor, and threatened him and the 
rest, " so that they thought he would have beaten 
them."' He said he waa ready to fight any man 
in his shirt, in so just a quarrel. In the end they 
were commanded to retire for the present; but 
the next day they were again sent for— and first 
Montngue and then the others suffer^ themselves 
to be partly persuaded, partly brow-beaten, into 
consenting to draw the will, the king declaring 
that it was his intention to have it t&tified in the 
parliament which was summoned to meet in Sep- 
tember, and agreeing to give them under the 
great seal both a commission to perform the act, 
and a pardon for having performed it. The ,in- 
strument accordingly was duly prepared, and, 
having been engrowed on parchment and carried 
to the Chancery, had the great seal affixed to it. 
After this, on the Slat, it received the signatures 
of all the lords of the council, of most of the 
judges, and of the attorney and solicitor general. 
Twenty-four members of the connoil, with Arch- 
bishop Cranmsr at their head, had also before 
this, on the command of Northumberland, signed 
another paper, pledging their oaths and honour 
to "observe every article contained in his ma- 
jesty's own device reapecUng tiie succession, sub- 
scribed with his majesty's hand in six several 
places, and delivered to certain ju<^es and other 
teamed men, that it might be written in full or- 
deri" to defend it to the uttermost; and if any 
man should ever attempt to alter it, to repute 
him an enemy to the kingdom, and to punish 
him as he deserved. 

Edward survived the completion of this trans- 
action only a few days. It is said that when his 
physicians declared they had no hope of his re- 
covery, he was intrusted to the care of a woman 
who offered to undertake his cure. Under the 
woman's treatment he grew worse every day, and 
the physicians were soon recalled; but he still 
continued to sink; and on the evening of the 6th 
of July, while engaged in prayer, he breathed 
hia last, having lived fifteen years, eight months, 
and twenty-two days, and entered upon the nxth 
month of the seventh year of his reign. 

• Google 



A-D. 1563 — DUni, A-H. 155*. 

niaudim of tba Dnkf of !«artliamb«rUud on Um daktb of Edward VI.— L*d; Jua Cnj pnuluHMd queen— 
CoaDter-|7ocluu*tioa of JUrj — Duke of NortliuniberUiul takes comiuad of tJie armr againet Uary— Htc 
caue adopted by tba people — XorthiubberUnd joine in proclaiming her — He U ^Treated and impriwaed— 
Politid condact of the Friiie«n Elinbeth— The Popiih buhope nileaBed from coofinemeDt— The Duke a! 
Northnmberland and his chief adharenta tried and executed — I'opery restored — PerMCOting ijmptomi 
^ovn bj Uai7 — Cimnuier impriaoned— MarT*! coronation— VTonbip paid to her bj the Popieh partj— Pro- 
fielaillillil condemned and Proteetanta pereecoted — ProtoetaTit biihope Imprieaned — Hie Proftatant ptilpiU 
■ilenoed — Utij't p»rtia!it7 for the Eul ot Devon — Propotali for her marriage to Philip of Spain-^The torn 
of the marriatce tnaty— It occaaiooi Wjatt'i rebellion— Pint euccemee of the rebellion — The rebel! attempt 
to g*in poMtiriop of London — They an defeated — Biacntion of Wyatl and liii accompUoea — Eliiabetli 
arrerted and eiamiiied ae privy to the rabellion- Her letter to her liiter Harf— EllEabeUi cotninitled to tU 
Toirer— Eieention of Lady Jaue Orey— Execution of the Duke of Suffolk, her father— Eliiabeth releueti tram 
the Tower — Arrival of Phihpin England- Hii marriage with the qneen — Hit atteinpta to win popnlaritj ia 
EDghod— Tba tean ot the holden of ehnroh landi quieted — Cardinal Pole racalled lo England — Jealcniy of 
the Engliih at Philip'* proceadingn — Uaiy'i bojieii of prodadiig ao heir to the throne — Joy of the PipiitioD 
the oeoaeion— Their ditappolDtmeut. 

E laJeut ftnd decision of tha Earl 
it NortbiimberUnd were far from 
■eiDg eqiud to hia ambitioD. Al- 
hough the de&th of Edward muet 
lave been expected for months, 
hat event seeme to have taken 
Iiim by BUrpriae, or at Icaat iu a very anprepare<l 
state. In order to gain a little time, he deter* 
mined to conceal the king's death — a common 
enough practice in deapotio govemmeata, and one 
which, as we have ieen, had also been adopted 
on the ilemiHe of Henry Till. He had even ne- 
glected the imptortaot measure of getting poases- 
aion of the persons of the two princeMca. The 
Lady Uary, it appears, had been summoned tu 
attend her half-hrother Edward on his death-bed; 
but having loiig been acquainted with Northum- 
l>erland'a secret practices, she showed no anxiety 
for thia journey to London, where her enemies 
were in their full strength. The snmmona was 
now repeated, as if Edward, though in extremity, 
were still alive; and Mary at last moved reluc- 
tantly from Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But the 
Earl of Arundt;!' despatched messengers to iu- 
fonn her that her brother was dead, and that 
Northumberland, who wbb plotting to place the 
lAdy Jane Grey on the throne, only wanted to 
make her a prisoner. On receiving tbia intelli- 
gence, Mary, who had advanced within a half a 
day's journey of the capital, changed her route, 
and went to Pramlingham Castle in Suffolk, 

seat«d near the sea, whence, if fortune frowneil, 
she might eaaily embark and flee to the nemieh 
dominions of her relative the Emperor Charles. 
The I«dy Elizabeth was in Hertfordshire: the 
had been summoned to court in the like manner 
as her half-uater Mary, and was also warned of 
the real state of afiairs by soma personal friend, 
who is generally supposed to have been S.t Wil- 
liam Cecil. She therefore remained where sh« 

Northumberland, having two days together 
consulted with his friends and dependants se to 
the best way of managing this great aSatr— the 
king's death being still kept secret — commanded 
the attendance, at Greenwich (where the d*«l 
body was lying), of the lord-niayor of London, 
ail aldermen, and twelve other oitizeua "of chief- 
est account.' On the 8th uf July the mayor, the 
aldermen, and the oitisens, went down to Green- 
wich, where Northumberland and some of the 
council secretly declared to them the desth of 
the king, as also bow, by his last will, and by hi* 
letters -patent, he had appointed and ordained 
that the Lady Jane should be hia sncceasor in 
the throne and sovereignty. The depatation, 
being shown the royaJ will, swore all^iance U 
Lady Jane, and were bound under a great penslty 
not to divulge these "secret passages" until they 
should receive orders from the council. The long 
conference being thus satisfactorily ended, the 
duke and three other lords repaired to Sion 
House, announced to Jane her elevation, anJ 
tendered their homage upon their knees; but her 
answer to their congratulations waa a flood of 

« »w- HMKiiird: Cwlitin »»jk; AiUn, Jftwin S"** 

,v Google 

i,D. 1563—1054.] iS-A 

bitter tflus. Grievoua indeed to her was the 
duuige which traiiBferreU lier from that silent 
' her congenial studies, to the din of 

eto.1 HMm.'— Fmu Bsuiis of 

a. metropolis and the troubles uf au 
throne. On the 10th of Julj', about threeo'clock 
iu tbe afternoon, Lady Jane Qrey was conveyed 
by water to the Tower of London, and there pub- 
licly received as queen ; for Northumberland was 
by this time informed not only of tlie flight of 
Uary, but of her being so well aware of all that 
was pnaaing that she was summouing the nobility 
to her standard. In the course of the evening 
after Lady Jane's safe arrival at the Tower, the 
death of King Edward was publicly divulged for 
the firat time, ajid Jane was proclaimed queen in 
the city, witli somewh&t leas than the usual for- 
mality. Tbe people of London wei-e cold and 
■ilent, many of them whiapeiing the uame of 
Queen Mary, and very few of them entering into 
the spirit of this revolution in the order of suc- 
cession. The amiable victim of the aiiibition of 
others had never entertained any sanguine hopes, 
and had resisted the project to Uie utmost. " So 
far was she from any desire of this advancement, 
she began to act her pai-t of royalty with mimy 
tean, thus plainly sliowiug to those who had ac- 
cess to her that she was forced by her relations 
and friends to tliis high but dangerous post.'' 
She was in the bloom of her youth, graceful aucl 
pretty if not beautiful^most amiable and unaf- 
fected— quiet, modest, attached to her young 
husband and her domestic duty —fund of retli-e- 

' TtilB miBlan. hIuaM on tli* Tlisn>« obout two nUn obore 
Chlivlak, li nuntd rrofn ■ ssnusnl of Brldfauils, Bmndod In 
1111 br HwT V. AlW tbe mppnidaii at (he monHtartea, llu 
bDiUingB wm TVtalned by tbe onrwu during the reign nf Henr? 
Tin., ud mn gnnted bj Edmnl VI to Ptctector Bmoencl. 
wlw fbnuded on ihetlteM the unnuttcbulldiiigUie noble nei- 
(Uboe. wbleJibeiloiif beenBieetftf theNoTthuDibeThnd AimUr. 

RY. +3 

ment and of elegant literature, and so acconi* 
plished that she rend Plato in the original Greek.' 
In the meanwhile Mary's friends had exerted 
themselves in Suffolk, in Norfolk, 
and in Cambridgeshii-e, where the 
^_ people detested Northumberland 

on account of his severity lu au)i- 
presaiug the recent rebellion iu 
those parts. There was indeed a 
very strong party among them thnt 
inclined to the Keformatiou ; but 
when Mary solemnly pledged her- 
self to make no change in the reli- 
gion or laws of EdwanI, even these 
men embraced liercause — the cause 
of l^itimacy — with Zealand affec- 
tion. It was a struggle betweeu the 
love of hereditary right and the at- 
tachment to the new order of things 
a. in the church, and the former feel- 

ing prevailed. The council and a 
great number of the nobility had gone to tlie 
Tower with lAdy Jane, where Northumberland, 
in a manner, kept them prisoners; but other men 
of high rank who were in the provinces had 
hastened to join Mary as soon as thej leame<l 
where she was. Forces, raised to serve tlie I^dy 

Jane or Northumberland, went o 

iT.QaeatiHuTn-evtfrbLkhedtheDriHieBterjr. < 
Elizsheth, Che monnftsiT ng igiln diwlTi 
hDRifl wBBgimiiledtDQeiiTTPercf, ninth Eul 
d. AJgOTDDb l*ttrj, nnn ot tbfl abuta uoblenm 






and even a Bmail fleet whicU was sent dovn the 
coast to intercept her in caM iHe ahould attempt 
to quit England, declared agftinat the uaurpation, 
and hoisted her flag. On the 1 2th at July, Mai? 
sent an order to Norwich for her proclamation iu 
that important cit^. The municipal authorities 
hesitated, being not ytt certain of the king's death ; 
but the next day they not only proclaimed her, 
but alsosent her men and anunuuition. She had 
already written to the membeTs of the coancil to 
claim the throne, which she said belonged to her 
by right of hirtli, by the decision of parliament, 
and by the will of her father. The council, who 
were at the mercy of Northumberland, replied 
that her claima were opposed by the invalidity of 
her mother's marriage, by custom, by the last 
will of King Edward, and by the general voice 
of the people! They had scarcely despatched 
this answer from the Tower, when they learned 
that Mary had moved to Eenninghall in Norfolk, 
and had been there joined by the Earb of Bath 
and Sussex, Sir Thomas Wharton, son to the Lord 
Wharton, Sir John Mordaant,Sir William Drur?, 
Suf John Shelton, Sir Henry Bedingfleld, and 
many other gentlemen of rank and influence. 
Northumberland now found himself in a dilem- 
ma: he dreaded the cabals of the counsellors and 
conrtiera if he left them behind, and he knew 
not whom to trust with the command of the army 
if be did not go himself with it At last he 
thought of placing the Dolce of Suffolk, I^dy 
Jane's father, at the head of the forces, which 
were to fall upon Mary before she should gain 
more attength, and, if possible, get possession of 
her person and bring her to U)e Tower. But 
Suffolk had no great military reputation, 
Northumberland waa more than half afi&id of 
truatiug him aloue, while the council, for their 
own uiety, were bent upon making the chief 
plotter go himaelf. Their manceuvre was facili- 
tated by the filial tenderness of I^dy Jane, who, 
" taking the matter heavily,* with sighs and 
tears requested that her dear father might tarry 
at home in her company. " Whereupon the 
council persuaded with the Duke of Northum- 
berland to take that voyage upon himself, say- 
ing, tliat no man waa so lit therefor, because 
that he had achieved the victory in Norfolk once 
already, and was so feared there that none durst 
lift up their weapons against him; besides that 
he waa the beat man of war in the realm, aa well 
for the ordering of hia camps and soldiers, both 
in battle and in their tente, aa also by experience, 
knowledge, and wisdom, be could auimate his 
army with witty penuasions, sod also pacify and 
ftUa; his enemies' pride with hia stout courage, or 
else dissuade them, if need were, from their en- 
terpriae. finally, >«jd they, this is the short and 
long, the queen will in nowise grant that her 

father ehall take it upon him." " Well," quutli 
the duke, " aince ye think it good, I and mine 
will go, not doubting of your fidelity to the 
queen's majesty, which I leave in your custody.' ' 
On the morrow, early in the morning, the duke 
called tor hia own hameea, and saw it made rraAy ■ 
at Durham Place, where he appointed all bis 
re^ue to meet. In the course of the day carta 
I laden vitb ammunition, and artillet? and 
field-pieces were sent forward. When all waa 
ready, Northumberland made a tender appeal Ut 
the feelings of the councU who were to be left 
behind, telling them that he and the noble per- 
sonages about to march with him would freely 
adventure their bodies and lives in the good 
cause, and reminding them that they left their 
children and families at home committed to their 
truth and fidelity. He also reminded them of 
their recent oaths of allegiance to the queen's 
highness, the virtuous Lady Jane, "who," stud 
be, " by your and otw enticement, ia rather of 
force placed on the throne than by her own seek- 
ing and request;* and in the end he bade them 
consider that the cause of God, the promotion of 
the gospel, and the fear of the Pi^ists, the origi- 
nal grounds upon which they had given their 
good -will and consent to the proclaiming of 
Queen Jane, bound them to the caose for which 
he waa preparing to fight.* Though nearly every 
man present bad made up his mind to declare fur 
Queen Mary as soon as bis back should be turned, 
they all pi'omised and vowed t« support the good 
cause, and Northumberland depauied. But aa 
he marched with his small army of 6000 men 
through the city, hie spirits were damped by 
the manner and countenance of the people, who 
ran to gaze at his passage, and he could not help 
bidding bis officers observe that of that great 
multitude not so much as one man had wished 
them success, or bade them " God speed." On 
the Sunday after his departure, Ridley, Bishopof 
London, whoae whole soul was iu the revolution 
as the only likely means to prevent the return of 
Papistry, preached at Paul's Cross, most elo- 
quently showing the people the right and title of 
the Lady Jane, and inveighing earnestly not only 
against the Lady Mary but also against the Lady 
Elizabeth, of whose religion, it ia evident, that 
doubts were entertained. The Londoners liateueit 
in silence. On that same Sunday, the leth of 
July, the lord- treasurer stole out of the Tower 
to bis bouse in the city, evidently to make ar- 
rvngements for the council going over in a body 
to Mary. He returned in the night, and two 
days after, Cecil, Cronmer, and the rest of the 
oouusellois, panuaded the imbeoile Duke i>f 
Suffolk that it was very necessar? to levy fresh 
forces and to place (hem in better hands — tb»t 


i.O. 1553—1554.] ma: 

U, in their own ; and that, to be of full use in 
support of hia dftugbt«r Queen June, ti^, her 
trusty and loyal council, must be permitted to 
leave the Tower, and hold their BittiagB at Bay- 
□ard's Castle, th«n the reaideuce of the Earl of 
Pembroke. The council were no aooner urived 
at th&t house than they declared, with one voice, 
for Queen Mary, and instantly despatched the 
Earl of Arundel, Sir WiUiam Paget, and Sir 
William Cecil, to notify their submission and 
eiceeding great loyalty. Id the course of the 
snme day the council aiimmoned the lord-mayor 

Bivif^iut'fl Ca»tlkJ — Fiom t print by RollAi. 

aud the aldermeu to Bayuard's Castle, and told 
thentthat they most ride with them ''into Cheap" 
to proclaim a new queen; and forthwith they all 
rode together to that street, where Master Gar- 
ter, king-at-anns, in his rich coat, stood with a, 
trumpet, and the trumpet being sounded, they 
proclaimed the Iddy Mai7, daughter to King 
Henry VIU. and Queen Catherine, to be Queen 
of EnglaJid, Fnuice, and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith.and Supreme Head of the Chitreh! "And 
to add more majesty to their act by some de- 
vout solemnity, they went in procession to Paul's, 
BiDging that sdffliiahle hymn of those holy fa- 
then St. Ambrose and St. Angnatine, commonly 
known by ita first words TV De<an.° The people 
seemed to triumph greatly iu this triumph of 
liereditory right; and all were joyful eioept a 
few who were zealously attached to the new re- 
ligion, and well acquainted with the fierce intol- 
eiauoe of Mary. The council then detached some 
compatues to besiege the Tower ; but the timid 
Duke of Suffolk opened the gates to them rw soon 

I Thla e*M;ii, ntiubid an th* bunbcil th* ThiunH. wufbiuHlad 
br Bviud. ( fijllowar of WlUUm tlu Conquun. tt wh (Or- 
CaitAd to tba cnnra La 1111, bj cnw <tf hii dtnsadiuit'. Hnir 
I, boloved ft on BnboTt FILi-RlDh«rd. k i^nuulKm of GilLflil 
Rut Clin. To tliia bmllj. In light of tha cutis, uppertilml 
Uv <4B» of cwtoUu mnd bumflT-liHrv of thfldt^of London. 
Tbi utls wu boiiHd In \va, ud wu nboUt bj Humi^n?, 
^BkooCQloooorter. OnhbdeaOiltiMpiuitwl bjHiiniJ VI. 
to mdiHd. Duke of York. Tbe outlswu npalnd or nbniU 

tY. « 

as they appeared, aud entering his daughter'ii 
chamber, told her that she must be content to be 
unqueened aud return to a private station. It ie 
said that the Lady Jane expressed joy rather 
than sorrow, and hoped that her willing relin- 
quishment of the honours that had been forced 
upon her, aud her ingenuous conduct, would pal- 
liate the error she had committed. While she 
returned to prayer in an inner room, her father 
poflted off to Baynard's Castle, where he joined 
the reetof the council, and subscribed the decrees 
they were issuing iu the name of Queen Mary '. 
In the meantime the Duke of Northum- 
berland, who bad marched as far as Bury, 
perceiving that the succours promised 
him did not come to hand, and receiving 
letters of discomfort from some of the 
council, had fallen back upon Cambridge, 
where, it should seem, he learned the de- 
fecUon of the fleet, and of the land troops 
that had been nused in the counties. He 
reached Cambridge ou the 16th of July, 
the day before the proclamation of Mary, 
in London ; and on the 20th of July, the 
day after that event, of which it appears 
he was well informed, he, with such of 
the nobility as were in his company, went 
to the market-cross of the town of Cam- 
bridge, and calling for a herald, pro- 
claimed Queen Maty, aud was himself 
the first man there to throw up his cap and cry, 
" Qod save her '.' He had scarcely played this 
part, in the hope of saving his neck, when he 
received a sharp letter from the council in Lon- 
don, commanding him to disband his army and 
return to his allegiance to the blessed Queen 
Mary, under penalty of being treated as a traitor. 
This letter was signed, among others, by I^dy 
Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, by Cranmer,and 
by Cecil. Tha order,as to the army, was scarcely 
needed, for most of the men had disbanded of their 
own accord, and almost all the lords and officers 
who had hitherto followed him, had passed over 
to Mary, and made their peace by accusing Nor- 
thumberhuid as the sole author and cause of their 
taking up arms against their lawful queen. On 
the following day, while the duke was still loitei- 
ing at Cambridge, not knowing whether to flee 
for hia life or to trust to Mary's mercy, and the 
encouraging circuntatance that some of the coun- 
cil, in reality, aud all, in apptaranoe, had shared 
in his treason, he was arrested by the Earl of 

bj Henrj VII. 

Aocorfidg to an old 

Tlew, It 

inslndsd I oiiiirs 

• rlMni 

tfasolule hsl^t 


with tb( irladowi li 

sbors tbe othsr. 



1. TbecutlnBu 


tlia KiHt firs of 1M«, A Turtles of i 


may itm bs HI 

m in the rl«r w«U o( 


which BOW m,i. 





D Mll.t 

Aruadel, who hated liim bi death, though a little 
before he had profewed&vishtOBpeDd hishetut's 
blood iu his service. The duke, trho was utterly 
devoid of greatoeu of mind, fell on hin knees 
before the earl, aud abjectly b^ged for life; but 
Amadel, whorvjoioed in hia rain aud abasement, 
carried him off to London and lodged him in the 
Tower, even as Qoeen Mary had commanded. 
The Ladj Jane, baring, "at on a stage, for ten 
days only peraonated a qoeen," was already in 
safe cnetody within those dismal walls; and the 
Earl of Wacwick, Lord Ambrose, and Lord Heniy 
Dudley, the three sons of the Dake of Northum- 
berland ; Sir A. Dudley, the duke's brother, the 
Marqnis of Northampton, the Earl of Hunting- 
don, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir John Gates, bis 
brother Sir Heiiry Gates, and Dr. Edwin Sandys, 
vice-chancellor of the univeraity of Cambridge, 
who had impugned Queen Mary's rights from 
the pulpit, were very soon lodged in the same 
fortress 1 and two daya after these committals 
Sir B^^er Cholmley, lord chief-justice of the 
Kin^e Bench, Sir Edmnnd Monti^e, chief-jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas, the Duke of Suffolk, 
and Sir John Cheke, were added to the list of 
■tata prisoners : but on the Slst of July the Duke 
of Sufblk, I^dy Jane's father, was discharged out 
of the Tower by the Earl of Arandel, and toon 
afUr obtained tha queen'* pardon. On the 30th 
day of this same bitsy month, the I^dy Elizabeth 
rode from her palace in the Strand (where she 
liad amved the night before] through the city 
of London, uid then out by Aldgate, to meet 
her sister Mary, accompanied by 1000 borae, of 
knights, ladies, gentlemen, and their servants. 
At this difficult crisie the conduct of Elizabeth, 
which is supposed to have been prescribed by Sir 
William Cecil — afterwards her own great minister 
Lord Burghley — was exceeding politic, and at the 
same time bold. When waited upon in Hert- 
fordshire by messeDgen from the Duke of Nor- 
thumberland, who apprized her of the accession 
of l^e lAdy Jane, and proposed that she, Eliza- 
beth, should resign her own title in oonsideration 
of certain lands and pensions, she replied that 
her elder uster Mary was first to be agreed with, 
aud that, during her lifetime, she could claim no 
right to the throne. She determined to make 
common cause with her sister against those who 
were bent on excluding them both ; she called 
aroimd her a number of friends to prevent her 
seizure ; she waited the coarse of events ; and, at 
the right moment, hurried to the capital, whence, 
as we liave seen, she set out, well attended, to 
welcome Mary aud give strength to her party.' 

The ijueeu travelled by alow jouraejrs from 
Norfolk t4i Waoslead, in Essex, where she ar- 
rivnl on the lit of August, aud was congratD- 

' *^(«. Ihliuti^l.- Si--'. OWllI.N. 

lated on her happy snccew by Elizabeth. The 
greater part of her army, which had never ex- 
ceeded 13,000 men, and which had never diswu 
a sword, was disbanded ; and on the 3d of Au- 
gust, attended by a vast concourse of the nobil- 
ity, Mary made her triumphant entrance throngli 
London to the Tower, where the old Duk* of 
Norfolk, Edward Courtenay, son to the Mar- 
quis of Ezet«r, beheaded in tite year 1A36, Oar- 
diner, late Bishop of Wincheeter, and Anne, 
Dowager-duchess of Somerset, presented th«m- 
aelves on their knees — Bishop Gardiner, in the 
name of them all, delivering a congratulatory tmt- 
tion, aud blessing the Lord, on tlisir onu account, 
for her happy accesaion. It was, indeed, a time of 
triumph forallof the Catholic party! Thequeeu 
courteously raised them, kissed each of theni, 
saying, " These are all my own prisoners," and 
gave orders for their immediate discharge from 
the Tower. A day or two after, Bonner, late 
Bishop of London, and Touatal, the old Bishop of 
Duriiam, were released from the harsh imprison- 
ment to which they Had been committed by the 
Protestant part^, aud immediate meamres weni 
adopted for restoring them and several of their 
friends— all zealous Papists — to thrir respective 

On the 18th of August, Johu Dudley, Dukeof 
Northumberlaod, his eldest sou John, Earl of 
Warwick, and William Parr, Marquis of North- 
ampton, were arraigned at WeHtminster Hall, 
where Thomas, Dnke of Norfolk, high-steward of 
England, the recently liberated captive— the sui^ 
vivor of his accomplished aon, the Earl of Surrey 
— presided at the triaL The Duke of Northum- 
berland pleaded that he had done nothing but by 
the authority of the council, and by warrant of 
the same under the great seal of EngUnd ; and 
be asked whether any such persons as were 
equally culpable with him, and thoae by whoae 
letters and commandments he had been diractsd 
in all his doings, might he his judgea, or ait apon 
hia trial as jurors] The latter query did him no 
good : the members of the council averrad that 
thty had acted under peril— that ihm/ had been 
ooeroed by the duke — and Suffolk (the father of 
I^y Jane!) Cranmer, Cecil, and the rest, oon- 
tinued U> sit in judgment, and with very little 
lose of time proceeded to pass sentence. The 
duke hesitated al no meanneai to avert hia doom ; 
but self-prostntiou was of no avail. When sen- 
tence was passed be craved the favour of such a 
death na waa uaually allowed to noblemen ; he 
besought the court t^i be merciful to his sons, on 
aooonnt of their youth aud inexperience; an<l 
then, as a last hope of gaining the queen's pardon 
by apostasy, he requested that he might be piT- 

• anr; CMlHii. 

.a Ui<: V 

,v Google 

*.!). IMS- 1564.] 



mitled to oouter with tome learned diviiie forth* 
settling of h'la couacience, and th&t her nujestj 
would be graciously' pleased to send usto him foor 
of her council, to whom he might discover cei^ 
tain things that neu-ly ooncemed the safety of tier 
rvalm. His aon, the Earl of Warwick, showed 
higher spirit, hearing his sentence with great { 

pBalma of Jfutrere and De Pro/imdu, bis I'aia- 
Jfotter, and sis of the first verses of the paaltn In 
U,Dom%i%e,tper<ai,wiA.ingiKit\i, "Into thyhands, 
O Lord, I commend my spirit' Then bowing 
towards the block, he said that he bod deserved 
a thousand deaths, and laying his head over it,' 
I his neck was instantly severed.' They took ap 
finnneaa, and craving no other favour than that his body, with the head, and buried it in the 
his debts might be paid out of his property con- | Tower, by the body of his victim the late Duke 
fiscated to the crown. The Marquis of North- I of Sometwt, so that there lay before the high 
arapton pleaded that, from 
the beginning of these 
tumults, he had dischar- 
ged no public office, and 
that, being all that time 
intent on hnnUog and 
other sports, he had not 
partnkea iu the conspi- 
racy; but the court held 
it to be manifest that lie 
was a party with the 
duke, and passed sentence 
on him likewise. On the 
next day Sir Andrew 
Dudley, Sir John Oates, 
Sir Henry Gates, and Sir 
Thomas Palmer, were 
condemned as traitors iu 
the same court.' On Tues- 
day, the 22d of August, 
the Duke of Nortbumbei'- 
land. Sir John Gates, and 
Sir Thomas Palmer, were 
brought forUi to Tower- 
liill, for execution. Wheu 
the duke met Sir John 
Gates he told him that be 
forgave him with all bis heart, although A« and -, altar 

<r St. Pvriai'a Ciuru, la 

from hij ikotoh or 

tha cmtned were the great cause of his present 
condition. Gates readied that he forgave the 
duke as he would be forgiven, although ha and 
hit high authority were the original canseaof the 
whole calamity. From the scaffold Northnmber- 
hnd addressed the people in a long and contrite 
speech, in which he told them that they should 
all most heartily pray that it might please God 
to giant her majesty Queen Mary a long reign. 
After he had spoken to the people, he knelt 
down, saying to those that were about him, " 1 
beseech you all to bear me witness that I die in 
the tme Catholic faith j" and then he repeated the 

I St. Peter's Chajiel t 

» headless dukes 

between two headless queens — the Duke of Som- 
erset and the Duke of Northnmberlaud between 
Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine How- 
ard, all four beheaded and interred in the Tower.* 
The head of Sir John Gates fell immediately 
after that of Northumberland. Gates also made 
a long penitential speech on the scaffold, telling 
the people that he had lived as viciously and 
wickedly all the days of his life as any man ;* 
that he had been the greatest reader aod worst 
obeerrer of Scripture of any one livii^. Sir 
Thomas Palmer was next beheaded, and in his 
dying speech he thanked God who had made 

A wu IDuiHlarbT Eilnjd 111.,-iiiiddsdicaladlii 
Iht un» of " St. Ptter In CUin^- annmoiJj aHiti " St. FMir 
UTlunili wKlim UwTowsr.' ThflbnUdliig iirimpLo widw-Jtb- 
uiu ud uMltiotu that Uiili ijrtliecirigiDiil itraiitiin nmiiui. 

It oooUliu Km 

• nocdnt 




of U<miT VII. 

Inaddidon tathiw 


l«t, thu 

« an tmrt 

>d in Uu> 

oJupol, FUl 


en: Cnnn 

nil. Bui or E 


of BdMmjiLoid.ftd 


of Siri^iJlth. 



Qnr, ud b 




•»>(>«liKl. Sua. 

,v Google 



[Civil axd MiiJTAKr. 

liiiii leorc more io one little diu-k comer of the 
Tower, than in all hia mauj tnfvels, 

On the day after these exeontioDB, Ctordilier, 
Itiahop of Winchester, was made chancellor; and, 
on the SundajfolloTing, the old Catholic serrice 
van BUDg in Latin in St. Paul's Church. It wbb 
fully eipecl«<t that the active Qardiner, would 
proceed at once to extremities against the Pro- 
testant pattj ; but for a short time there waa an 
awful pause. The Emperor Charles, whom she 
consulted on all affairs of importance, strongly 
advised the queen to prwieed in evBiything with 
the ntmoflt csntion — to wait the effect of Ume 
and example on the religious faith of her people 
— to punish only her prindpal enemies, and to 
quiet the apprehensions of the rest, who might 
be driven to desperation by over-severity.' Mary 
replied, " God, who has protected me in all my 
misfortunes, ia my trust. I will not show him 
my gratitude tardily and in secret, but imme- 
diately and openly."' She was fain, however, to 
issae a public declaration that she would con- 
strain nobody in religious matters, but must only 
insist that her people should refrain from the 
oflenwve expressions of "Papist" and "heretic." 
But the spirit of the zealot was not to be wholly 
repressed by any considerations of political ex- 
l>ediency. It was only nine days after the issu- 
ing of the proclamation that she had caused mass 
to be sung in the firat church in the city of Lon- 
don ; and she proceeded to establish a moat rigo- 
rous censorship of the press, and to prohibit ail 
persons from speaking against henelf or her coun- 
cil, btcavm all thai tkej/ did, or might do, vat for 
lAt honour of Qod and iha welfare of htr tuigecU' 
immortal louit. There can be no doubt that 
Mary was sincere in her convictions ; she was an 
honest fanatic, but her fanaticism was only the 
more dangerous from her honesty, and the per- 
suasion which she held in oommon with other 
zealots, that all her plans were for the service of 
the Almighty. Even the darkest mud fiercest 
passions wei'e in her oue masked by religion, 
and by filial piety ; and it appeared to her a av 
end duty to avenge on the reforming party Uie 
wrongs and sufferings of her mother Catherine. 
Mary's youth had been passed in gloom and in 
storms ; her father had alternately threatened to 
make her a nun and to take off her head ; he and 
liis ministers had forced her to sign a paiper in 
which she formally acknowledged that the church 
«he adored was a cheat, and that the mother who 
bore her had never been her fathet'a lawful wife. 
From the time of the marrime of Ajine Boleyn 
she bad been persecuted, insulted, and driven 
from place to place, almost like a common ciimi- 
nal luid vagabond. A woman of an angelic tem- 
l>er might, by mimculons exertion, have forgiven 

■iwf, qssud bj RiDBW. ■ IbhL 

all these wrongs ; a yo»ng woman, with a aunnd 
constitution, and its concomitant — a li^t and 
cheerful spirit, might have foigotteu them gra- 
dually in the full aunshine of prosperity; but 
Mary was thirty-seven years old, an age at which 
it is difficult to erase any deep impreasioos ; and 
partJy through the effects of long years of grief 
and fear, and partly through the defects of her 
original formation, her constitution was efaat' 
tered, and the ill-humonr and moroseneea of the 
confirmed valetudinarian were superadded to the 
other fertile causes which were to make her a 
curse to the nation. 

Tliis nnhappy woman, with an unhealthy mind 
in an unsound body, had all along conudered 
Cranmer as the greatest enemy of her mother, 
whose divorce he had pronounced. After being 
left at large from the day of her entrance into 
London to the 14th or 15th of September, the 
archbishop was suddenly arrested and committed 
to the Tower, with Latimer and some othera. 
There is an immediate cause assigned by some 
writers for hin arreet at this momenL Men re- 
membered Craumer'a conduct in the days of 
King Henry, when he sat at the head of tribu- 
nals which sentenced Protestants to tlie flames ; 
he was generally beUeved to be deficient in that 
extreme courage which braves torture and death ; 
and it was reported of him, that, in order to pny 
court to this most Catholic queen, he had engaged 
to restore the rites of the old church, and to offi- 
ciate pereon^ly in them. He had certainly never 
shown such courage before, and he could not be 
blind to the great risk he was running; but,beiug 
nsiisted by the learned Peter Martyr, he wrote 
and published {it is said) a manifesto of his entire 
Protestant faith, and his abhorrence of masaea 
and all other abominations of the Popish super- 
stition.' A few days Bft«r his arreat, Queen Mary 
went to the Tower by water, accompanied by the 
Princess Elisabeth and other ladies. Tbis waa 
preparatory to the coronation. On the last day of 
September the queen rode in great state from the 
Tower, through the city of London, towards 
Westminster, sitting in a chariot covered witli 
dotb of gold. Before her rode a number of gen- 
tleman and knights, then judges, then doctors, 
then biahops, then lords, then the council : after 
whom followed the knighla of the BatA in their 
rohea; the Bishop of Winchester, lord-chancel- 
lor; the Marquis of Winchester, lord high-trea- 
surer; the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Ox- 
ford, b«*ring the sword of state ; and the ItHtl- 
mayor of London, bearing the sceptre of gold. 
After the queen's chariot Sir Edward HasUugn 

,v Google 

A.a IMS— laSi] MA 

led h«r horaa in hand ; imd after her bone wme 
another chariot coTCred ftll over with white silver 
cloth, whereia sat aide by lide, with amiliug 
faecH, the Prinoeaa Elizabeth and our old fair- 
complBzioned and contented friend thb Ladt 
Ami OP Ci-btbbI On the morrow the queen 
went by water from Whitehall to the old palace 
of WestnuDiter, and there remained till about 
noon, and then walked on foot apon blue oloth, 
nhich was railed on each Bide, to St Peter's 
Clioreh, where she was solemnly crowned and 
anointed by Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, 
who took good care not to omit any of the an- 
cient rites.' 

Fire days after the coronation a parliament 
■Bsemhled at Westminster, and both Lords and 
commons soon garemelancholy proofs that they 
had made tip their minds 
to BiMt with the prevail- 
ing current, and to make 
no efforts for the protec- 
tion of anything except 
the estates of the church 
that bad fallen into their 
own hands. As there was 
scarcely a member in the 
upper bouae but had 
shared in the spoil in the 
lime of Henry aud Eil- 
ward, and as it was 
known that their only 
anxiety was for Uie pre- 
servation of what they 
had gotten, no apprehen- 
sion was entertained of 
Huy serious opposition on 
the part of the peers ; 

and as for the commoim, Ovtat Mabv.- 

they had long been timid 

and subservient in the extreme, and on the pre- 
KDt occasion, out of n prudent regard to their 
personal tiafety, those who were not Papists had 
contrived to keep away from parliament. The 
Tcrv Gist act of the new parliament was decisive : 
prooeedingB were opened in each of the houses 
l>r celebrating high mass; and the men who, a 
few jiears before, had voted the observance to be 
damnable, all fell on tlieir knees at the elevation 
of tilt host. Only Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln, 
tefosed to kneel ; for which he was harshly 
treated, and kicked or thrust out of the House of 
Wds. The first bill that was passed, in imita- 
tion of what was done by the Protestant party 
St the accesNOD of the late king, abolished every 
species of treason not contained in the statute of 

Edward IIL, aud every species of felony not set 
down in the statate-book previously to the first 
year of Henry VIII. They next declared the 
queen to be legilamate, and annulled the divorce 
of her mother pronounced by Cranmer, greatly 
blaming, the archbishop for that deed. Then, 
by one vote, they repealed all the statutes of the 
late reign that in any way regarded religion, thus 
returning to the point at which matters stood in 
the last year of the reign of Henry VHI., when 
most of the offices and ceremonies of the Homaa 
church, the doctrine of tnuuuhstantiatiou, the 
celibacy of the clergy, and other matters odious 
to Protestants, were fully insisted upon. The 
queen neither renounced tbe title of supreme 
head of the church — a title most odious, fi-ight- 
ful, or ridicidous to Catholic ears — nor pressed 
for a restitution of the 
abbey lands ; though, to 
give proof of her own 
disinterestedness, she 
prepared to restore of her 
own free-will all property 
of that kind which had 
been attached to the 
crown. It was quite cer- 
tain that the lords, who 
were so compliant in 
matters of doctiine and 
faith, that conceroed 
their souls, would have 
offered a vigorous resiat- 
auce to any bill that 
touched their estates or 
their goods and chattels; 
and Mary had been well 
warned on tliis point.' 
.ut« ZuDchoni Gardiner, who had al- 

ready dismissed all such 
of the Protestant bishops as would not conform or 
enter into a compromise, now summoned the con- 
vocation, to settle once more all doubts and dis- 
putations concerning the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper. With the exception of a few words 
spoken by John Ailmer, Richai-d Cheney, John 
Philpot, James Hadden, and Walter Philips, the 
Papists had it all their own waj. HarpsGeld, 
the Bishop of Loudon's chaplain, who opened tbe 
convocation with a sermon, set no limits to his 
exultation; and, in the vehemence of his joy and 
gratitude, he compared Queen Mary to all the 
females of greatest celebrity in Holy Writ aud 
the Apocrypha, not even excepting the Virgin 
Mary. It would scarcely be expected by people 
of ordinary imagination that it was posuble for 
any one to surpass the hyperbole of Harpefield ; 
and yet this feat seems fairly to have been per- 
formed by Weston, the prolocutor. 

,v Google 




. AUD McLtTiST. 

AfUr these orations the couvoca 
to buainesa, and in some matters came to impor- 
tant decisious without waiting for the authority 
either of the queen or the parliameut, being sure 
of the oae and eutertaining a well-merited con- 
tempt for the other. They declared the Book 
of Common Prayer to be an abominatioa ; they 
called for the immediate Huppreauou of the re- 
formed English Cntechism ; they recomraendad 
the most violent measures agninat all sach of the 
elergy as would not forthnitli dismiss their 
wives, aud adopt the Catholic opiuion as to the 
real preseDce. In London and the great dties, 
where the Proteataot doctrine bod taken deeper 
root, the change, thoagb rapid, wa« aoniewhat 
less sudden ; but in the rural districts generally, 
where tlie population had never been properly 
converted, the mass ^e-l^>pea^ed at ouue, aud 
every part of the Reformed aerrice was thrown 
aside even before any express orders to that effect 
from court or from convocation. Hosts of priests, 
aud particularly the residue of the abbeys and 
monasteries, who liad conformed to save their 
lives or to obtain the means of supporting them- 
selves, declared that they had acted under com- 
])ulaion, and joyfully returned to their Latin 
niaases, their confessions, their holy water, and 
the rest. Many again, who really prefemni the 
Reformed religion, were fain to conform to what 
they disapproved of, just as their ojipouents had 
done in the preceding reign, and from the same 
worldly motiveH. But still there were many 
hiarried priests who would on no account part 
with their wives, or receive, na the rules of sal- 
vation, tenets which, for years, they had con- 
ilemned as the inventions of the devil. Some, 
also, there were who had made to themselves, by 
their intolerance in the days of their prosperity, 
bitter enemies among those who wei'e now in 
the ascendent. The prisons began to fill with 
Protestant clergymen of these classea; and others 
of them, being deprived of their livings, were 
thrown upon the highways to beg or starve, as 
the motiks had been in the days of Henry YIII., 
their condition being so much the worse as they 
had wives and cliildren. 

About half of the English bishops, bending to 
the storm, conformed, in all outward appearances, 
with the triumphant sect.' Those who did not, 
or who were peculiarly obnoxious to the domi- 
nant party, were deprived of their sees aud what- 
ever they possessed, and cast into prison. Wc 
have alri'ady seen Ci-aumer and Ijalimer sent to 
the Tower. Shortly after, Holgate, Archbishop 
of York, was committed to the same state prison 
for man-iage ; and Ridley, Bishop of London, for 

preaching at Paul's Cross in defeuoe of Querii 
Jane's title, and for "heretical pravity;' Poyaei, 
who had held the bishopric of Winchester ianag 
Gardiner's deprivation and impriaonnieDt, wu 
also committed to prison for being married. 
Taylor, Bishop of Iducoln, who had refused In 
kneel at the elevation of the host in the House 
of Lords, was deprived "for thiukiug amiss am- 
cerniug the eucbarist;" Hooper, Bi^op of Wur- 
cest«r and Gloucester, for having a wife, aatl 
other demei'iUi Hariey, Bishop of Hereford, for 
wedlock and heresy ; Ferrar, Bishop ol SL David's, 
for the same offences; Bird, Bishop vi CbesUr, 
for marriage. Coverdale of Exeter, the tntu- 
lator of the Bible, was also ejected aud thron 
into prison, where he lay two years, not widioiit 
danger of being burned. Barlow of Bath and 
Wells, and Bush of Bristol, voluntarily resigntd 

On the 13th of November Cranmer was brought 
to triul for high treason, together with the l«d]' 
Jane Gi-ey, her youthful husband Lord Guildford 
Dudley, and his brother Lord Ambrose Dudley, 
They were all condemned to suffer death u 
traitors, by the very men who a short time hetoro 
had acted with them, and had sworn allegiance 
to Jane; but the youth of three of these victitM 
to the ambition and imbecility of others eicilal 
a lively sympathy in the nation, and the queeu 
sent them back lo the Tower, apparently »ith 
no intention of ever bringing them to the block. 
Even the foui-th victim, Uninmer, was respited, 
and was jmrdoned of liis treason ; but he wm 
sent tiack to the Tower on the equally perilons 
charge of lieresy. He was strongly advised by 
his friends, botli before his apprehension auJ 
also now, to atteinjit to escape out of the kins- 
dom, but he is said to have replied, that his tmitt 
was in God, and in his holy word, and that he 
had resolved to show a constancy worthy of » 
Christian prelate. He repeatedly professed to 
have a great desire to be admitted to ■ privab' 
audience of the queen; but Mary bad no inclina- 
tion to receive the man who had seale<] her 
mother's dishonour, and the party about her 
seconded this strong and natural feeling of »»et- 

Before parliament was dissolved the attiindfr 
of the old Duke of Norfolk was legally reversed, 
it heiaif declared, with some reason, that no 
special -matter had been proved either agwn"t 
liiin or his son the Earl of Surrey, except the 
wearing of part of a coat-of-arma. On the S1b( 
of December, a few days after the dissolution nf 
parliament, the church service began to be per- 
formed in Latin throughout England. At the 
same time the I^y Jane had the liberty of tbe 
Tower granted her, being allowed to walk i n the 

,v Google 

4.O. 1SM-1S64.] HA 

qtteen'H garden aod on Um bill; the Lord Guild- 
ford Dudley and hia brother vere treated more 
leniently than they had been; and the MarqaiB 
n{ Northampton «u set at liberty altogether. 
This moderation was a matter of marvel in those 
daye, nor did the queen fail in making a faronr- 
able impreaaion by remitting the subsidy voted 
to her brother by the preceding parliament : but 
uther circumHtancee sufficiently indicated that 
Mary wae determined not only to re-establish 
the Roman church, but ta prevent the teaching 
and preachiog of the Reformed doctrine. There 
waa scarcely by this time a pulpit in the king- 
<lom that was not silenced; and Gardiner, Bonner, 
ToDital, Day, Heath, Vesey, and others of the 
now restored Catholic bishops, were not likely to 
{lermit them to be eloquent again. The men of 
Suffolk, whone loyalty had placed lier on the 
throne, ventured to recal to her mind her solemn 
promises given to tbem on that occasion, that 
she would not change the Reformed religion as 
established under her brother. Oue of these 
remoustnuitB, who was bolder than the rest, was 
set in the pillory; the others were brow-beaten 
iuid insulted. Judge Hales, who had defended 
the queen's title with a most rtse courage, was 
arbitrarily arrested and thrown into a noisome 
)>riaon as soon as he showed an opposition to 
these ill«^, rasb, and dangerous proceedings. 
Tha upright judge was treated with euch severity 
that hia body and mind became alike disordered 
— he fell into a frenzy, and attempted suicide by 
cutting his throat. He was at length liberated, 
but it was too late ; insanity had taken a firm 
hold of him, and he terminated his life by drown- 
ing himself.' . 

Hai7, who had been affianced in her infancy 
to the Emperor Charles, to the French king, to 
the dauphiu, and who, iu the course of the last 
two reign^ had been disappointed of several other 
linsbauds, now determined to marry, in order, it 
appears, to make sure of a Catholic succession. 
It should seem, however, that she was not wholly 
devoid of the tender passion, for it is said, on 
ffxid authority, that she conceived an affection 
for the aon of the Marquis of Exeter — murdered 
in her father's days— the handsome and accom- 
plished young Edward Courtenay, whom she had 
liberated from the Tower on her first coming to 
Iiondou.* Upon this kinsman, whose flourishing 
youth and courteous and pleasant disposition de- 
lighted the whole court, she lavished many proob 
uf favour: she hastened to restoi« to him the 

' Blrnpi; Sbm; HalitiAti; ffodiriH. Nam, Li/t i] lonl Burtk- 

I Pnm Uh •«■ of foarteu lo thit of twKt;-^ thii rlctlm 
•f trnniv bwl bm donitd to nfMt, In ■ ckpUiritf whloh 
Unatiuadlo baparpetnil, Um Inrolnnluj oAnoe of Isbaritiiia, 
thmofb u Mtaintad btlur, Iha bkMd of (ha tiaiih Edwud — 
A.Un. JVnwfn of ft Omrt ^ liurai SiiabeA. 

BY. 51 

title uf Earl of Devon, to whit:h she added the 
whole of those patrimonial estates which his 
father's attainder had vested in the crown; and 
when people spoke or whispered of tlie wisdom 
and fitness of an English queen marrying a great 
English nobleman, descended (as she was herself 
by her grandmother) from the royal house of 
York, har coantenance relaxed instead of in- 
creasing its habitual severity. But the accom- 
plished Earl of Devon soon became suspected of 
indulging in anti-Catholic notions, and, what was 
almost as bad, he betrayed, as is said, a prefer^ 
ence for the queen's balf-sister Elizabeth. If 
there had been little affection between the royal 
ladies before, this circumstance was not likely 
to increase it; and a few mouths after Maiy's 
accession, we find Elizabeth retiring to her house 
of Ashridge in Buckinghamshire, attended by 
Sir Thomas Pope and Sir John Gage, who were 
appointed by the queen to keep a watchful eye 

The Emperor Charles, who had been solemnly 
affianced toherhimself nearly thirty years before, 
was now most anxious to secure the hand of Mary 
for bis son, the proud, the bigoted, the crafty, 
and cruel Philip, who then happened to be a 
widower. As Mary consulted her motlier's ne- 
phew in all her difficulties, Charles was enabled 
to press this suit for his son vith good effect. 
The imperial ambassadorB had couatant access, 
by night as well as by day, to the royal but 
elderly maiden; and one night, within three 
months after her accession, before any public ne- 
gotiation had taken place, and without so mucli 
as consulting her council, Mary solemnly pro- 
mised to marry Philip. For some time this en- 
gagement was concealed, but when it was whis- 
pered abroad it excited almost universal discon- 
tent, for the character of Philip, though not yet 
fully developed in action, was well known ; and 
it was reasonably suspected that the once free 
kingdom of England would be wholly enslaved 
and made dependent upon Spain and the em- 
peror. With these views the match was odious 
even to most of the Catholics, whose patriotism 
rose triumphantly above their bigotry. In the 
face of these feelings it was judged prudent )o 
proceed slowly and with caution. The match, 
however, was spoken of in parliament, and the 
commons even petitioned againat it — a circum- 
stance which is supposed to have hurried on the 

1564 Early in January a splendid em- 
bassy arrived from Spain, and, on 
the 14tb of the same month, Bishop Gardiner, as 
' chancellor, in the presence chamber, made to the 
; lords, nobility, and court gentry, an "oration very 
I eloquent," setting forth ttiat the queen's majes^, 
' partlj for old amity, and other weighty conside- 






ratioiu, had, after inncb suit od the emperor's 
and Prince of Spun'e behalf, determined, with 
the conient of the council and nobilitj, to mateb 
herself with the said prince " in most godly and 
lawful matrimony." After this exordium Glar- 
diner ezpltuned the conditions of the treaty. 

or HolMn. 

wliich, to disarm opposition in England, had 
heen made wonderfully mild, moderate, and 
generous on the part of Philip, who, of course, 
would reserve to himself the right of altering it 
thereafter as he should see occasion and find 
means for so doing. It was agreed that though 
Philip should have the honour and title of King 
of Eagland, the govemment should rest wholly 
with the queen, he (Philip) aiding her highness 
in the happy administration of her realms and 
dominions; that no Spaniard or other foreigner 
should enjoy any office in the kingdom ; that no 
innovations should be made in the national laws, 
customs, and privileges ; that the queen should 
never be carried abroad without her free consent, 
nor any of the children she might have, without 
consent of the nobility (there was no mention 
made of the commons, nor indeed of the parlia- 
ment). It waa further agreed that Philip, in the 
unlikely case of Mary's surviving him, should 
■etUe npon her a jointure of £60,000 a-year; that 
the male issue of this marriage should inherit 
lioth Burgundy and the Low Countries; and that 
if Don Carlos, Philip's sou by his former marriage, 
should die and leave no isnie, the queen's issue, 
whether male or female, should inherit Spain, 
Sicily, Milan, and other dominions attached to the 
Spanish monarchy!' On the nut d>y the lord- 
mayor of London, with bis brethren the alder- 

and forty citizens of good aubataace, wu 
court, where Oardiner repeated his 
oration, desiring them all to behave thenieelvea 
like good subjects, with hnmblenen and rejoic- 
ing for so happy an event. On this same day 
Bobert Dudley, one of the sons of the late Duke 
of Northumberland, was condemned as a traitor, 
the Earl of Sussex pronouncing sentence that he 
was to be drawn, hanged, bowelled, and quar- 

But if the treaty of marriage had been tenfold 
more brilliant In promises, it would have biled 
in satisfying the English people. Within five 
days the court waa startled by intelligence that 
Sir Peter Carew was up in arms in Devonshire, 
rssotute to resist the Prince of Spain's coming, 
and that he had taken the city and castle of Exe- 
ter. This news was followed, on the 2Sth, by 
intelligence that Sir Thomas Wyatt had taken 
the field with the same determination in Kent; 
and the mayor and aldermen, who had so re- 
cently been commanded to rejoice and make glad, 
were now told to shut the gates of the city, and 
keep good watch and ward, lest the rebels should 
enter. Sir Thomas Wyatt, son of the poet of 
that name, who has been associated in glory with 
the Earl of Surrey, was a veiy loyal knight of 
Kent, and, apparently, a Papist;' but he had con- 
ceived a frightful notion of the eruol bigotry and 
grasping ambition of the Spanish court. Al- 
though connected by blood with the Ihidleys, he 
had refused to co-operate with the Duke of 
Northumberland in the plot for giving the crown 
to lady Jane Grey, and had even been forward 
to proclium Queen Mary in the town of Maid- 
stone, before knowing that she had been pro- 
claimed elsewhere. Wyatt appears to have been 
a brave and honest, but rash man ; and the m»- 
jority of those who had engaged to co-operate 
with him, from different parts of the kingdom, 
were either scoundrels without faith, or cowards. 
The highest name of all was both : this was the 
Duke of Suffolk, lady Jane Orey'a father, who, 
to the astooiahment of most men, had been libe- 
rated from the Tower, and pardoned by Queen 
Mary. On the 25th of January, the very day 
on which it was known that Sir Thomas Wyatt 
had risen in Kent, tbis duke fled into Warwick- 
shire, where, with hia brothera the Lord John 
Orey and the Lord Leonard Grey, he made pto- 
clamation against the queen's marriage, and 
called the people to arms; "but the people in- 
clined not to him." The plan of the conspitv- 
tots seems to have been, that Wyatt should en- 
deavour to seize the Tower, where Ijuly Jane 
and her husband lay, and get poaseamon of the 


A.D. 15S3-1&64.] UA: 

atj of London; that Uie Dake of Suffolk Hhoold 
niw the niidl&nd ootmtiu, and C&nw the weat: 
but in ezecation tbej proceeded with a misera- 
ble want of concert and arrangement Od the 
S8th the old Dnke of Norfolk, with the Earl of 
Arondel, marched from London agaioat Sir Tho- 
mas Wystt, who had adv&nced to Bochester, and 
lak«a the castle. When the rOTaliBts reached 
Rochester bridge thej found it defended with 
three or four double cannonH, and by a numer- 
ons force of KflnUih mea Norfolk sent forward 
a herald with a proclamation of pudoa to all 
each Rs should quietly return to their homes, bat 
Wyatt would not permit the' herald to read this 
paper to the people. Norfolk then ordered an 
aanult; but when five hundred Londoners^the 
truned bands of the city — led by Captain BieCt, 
readied the head of the bridge, they suddenly 
stopped, and their captain, turning round at their 
head, and lowering his sword, said, "Masters, 
we go ahont to fight Against our native cotmtry- 
lom ot England and our friends, in a quarrel 
nnrightfnl and wicked -, for they do but coneider 
the great miseries which are like to fall upon us, 
if we shall be under the rnte of the proud Span- 
iards; wherefcH«, I think no English heart ought 
to say against them. I and others will spend 
o«r blood in their qnarrel." He bad scarcely 
finished, when the band of Londoners turned 
their ordnance against the rest of the queen'a 
forces, shouting every one of them, " A Wyattt 
a Wyatt !" At this defection the Duke of Noi^ 
folk and bis officers turned and Sed, leaving 
ordnanoe and all their ammunition behind them. 
The Londoners crossed the bridge, and three- 
fourths of the regular troops, among whom wer« 
some companies of the royal guard, went after 
them, and took service with Sir Thomas Wyatt 
and the insnrgente.' Whm the intelligence 
readied London all was M^t and confusion, 
especially at the court, where almost the only 
person that showed fortitude and composure was 
the queen herself. Wyatt ought to have made a 
forced march upon London during this constei^ 
nation, bnt he loitered on his way ; he did not 
reach Greenwich and Deptford till three days 
after the b9^ at Bochester bridge; and then he 
lay three whole days doing nothing, and allow- 
ing the government to make their preparations. 
The qneen, with her lords and ladies, rode from 
Westminster into the city, where she declared to 
the mayor, aldermen, and livery, that she meant 
not otherwise to marry tlian as her council should 
think both honourable and adnuitageouB to the 
realm — that she conld still continue unmarried, 
■s she had done so long— and therefore she 
trusted that they would truly assist her in re- 
; such as rebelled on this account. On 

I aw; HUbuAid; Otdwin. 


lame day on which she made this visit her 
spirits were cheered by intelligence that the 
Duke ot Suffolk had been discomfited in the 
midland counties, and that Sir Feter Carew and 
his friends had been put to flight in the west.' 
She issued a proclamation of paidon to all the 
Kentish men with the exception of Sir Thomas 
Wyatt, Sir George Harper, and the other gen- 
tlemen, offering as a reward to the man that 
should take or kill Wyatt, Unds worth ;£100 
a-year to him and his heirs for ever. On the 3d 
of Feljrnary, at abont three o'clock in the after- 
noon, Wyatt and his heat (who are differently 
estimated at 9000 and at 8000 men], marched 
from Deptford, along the river aide, towards 
Southwark. Wyatt placed two pieces of artilleiy 
battery at the Southwark end of the bridge, 
and caused a deep Wench to be dug between 
the bridge and the place where he was. Con- 
trary to his expectations, the Londoners did not 
throw open their gates, and he had not resolution 
sufficient to attempt an assault by the bridge. 
He again lost two whole days, and on the morning 
of the third day the garrison in the Tower 
opened a heavy fire of great pieces of ordnance, 
culverine, and demi-cannons full against the foot 
of the bridge and against Southwark, and the 
two steeples of St. Olave's and St Mary Overy. 
As soon as the people of Southwark saw this, 
they no longer treated Wyatt as a welcome guest, 
but, msking a great noise and lamentation, they 
entreated him t^i move elsewhere. Telling the 
people that he would not have them hurt on his 
account, he marched away towards Kingston, 
hoping to cross the river by the bridge there, 
and to foil upon London and Westminster from 
the west. It was four o'clock in the afternoon 
(on the 6th day of February) when he reached 
Kingston, and found about thirty feet ot the 
bridge broken down, and an armed force on the 
oppoBit« bank to prevent his passsge. Heptaced 
his gnns in battery, and drove away the troops ; 
with the help ot some siulors he got possession of 
a few boats and bargee, and repaired the bridge; 
but it was eleven o'clock at night before these 
operations were finished, and liismen were sorely 
fatigued and dispirited. Allowing them no time 
for rest — for his plan was to turn back upon 
London by the left bwik of the Thames, and to 
reach the city gates before sunrise — he marched 
them on through a dreary winter night. When 
he was within six miles of London the carriage 
of one of his great brass gnns broke down, and 
he very absurdly lost some honra in remounting 
the piece ; and so, when he reached Hyde Park, 
it was broad daylight, and the royal forces, com- 
manded by the Earl of Pembroke, were ready to 

) Baml of Olnw^ \mrii pl*7«d b< 






receive him tliere. Many of Wjiatt'a followera 
had deserted before be crossed the rivet- 
Kingston ; others liftd lingered behind during 
the night-march; and, nom, tnan^ more aban- 
doned liim on seeing that formidable prepnra- 
tiona were made against him. With great bra- 
very, however, he resolved to fight his 
through the rojal army, still entertaining a 
fident hope that the citizens wonld rise ic 
favour. After a short " thnndering with the 
great guns," he charged the queen's cavalry, who, 
opening their ranks, suffered him to pass with 
abont 400 of his followers, and then instantly 
ulonng in the rear of this weak van-guard, they 
cut him off from the main body of the insur- 
gents, who thereupon stood still, wavered, and 
then took a conti-ary course. In the meanwhile 
Wyatt rushed rapidly along Charing Cross and 
the Strand to Ludgate, which, to his mortifica- 
tion, he found closed against him. In v^n he 
shouted " Queen Maryl Ood save Queen Mary, 
who has granted our petition, and will have no 
Spanish husband !* A part of Pembroke's army 
liad followed Wyatt in his rapid advance, and, 
when he turned to go back by the same road, 
he found that he must cut his way through dense 
masses of horae and foot. He charged furiously, 
and actually fought his way as far as the Temple. 
But there he found that his baud was diminished 
to some forty or fifty men, and that further re- 
sistance was utterly hopeless, Clarencieui rode 
up to him, persuading liim to yield, and not, 
"beyond all bis former madness, surcharge him- 
self with the blood of these brave fellows." At 
last Wyatt threw away his broken sword, and 
quietly lurrendered to Sir Maurice Berkley, who, 
mounting him behind him, carried him off in- 
stantly to the court 

"The coming of Wyatt to the court t>eing so 
little looked for, was great cause of rejoidug to 
such as of late beforeetoodingreat fearof him."' 
He waa immediately committed to the Tower; 
and a proclamation was made that none, upon 
|)ain of death, should conceal in their houses any 
of his faction, but should bring them forth im- 
mediately before the lord • mayor and other the 
queen's juitices. "By reason of this proclama- 
tion, a great multitude of these said poor caitifis 
were brought forth, being so many in nnmber, 
that all the prisons in London sufficed not to 
receive them; so that for lack of place they were 
fain to bestow them in divers churches of the 
■aid city. And shortly after there were set up 
in London, for a terror to the common sort (be- 
canae the Whitecoats' being seat out of the city, 
as before ye have heard, revolted from the queen's 
part to the aid of Wyatt), twenty pair gallows, 
on the which were hanged in several places to 

> Hulbulud. ' Tht Tnliwl DuiIl 

the number of fifty persons, which gallowaes r^ 
mained standing there a great part of the summer 
following, to the great grief of good dtizens, and 
for example to the commotioners.'* In the course 
of a few weeks, about fifty officers, knighta, and 
gentlemen were put to death. Twenty-two com- I 

moo soldiers were sent down to Kent with Brett, 
the captain of the Trun-bands, who had deserted 
at Bodiester bridge,and they were there executed I 

as traitors, and gibbeted. About sixty were led in i 

procession, with halters about their necks, to the 
Tilt-yard, where the queen granted them a par- 
don. About 400 common men, in all, suffered 
death between the 7th of February and the 12th 
of March, and many were executed aft^rwarda.' 

The day bIIct the breaking out of Wyatt's 
rebellion was known at court, the queen resolved 
to arrest her half-sister Blizabeth and her former 
favonrite, the handsome Courtenay, Earl of De- 
von, who were both suspected (and it is by no 
means clear that they were falsely suspected) of 
being partakers in the plot. She sent three of 
her council— Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Edwartl 
Hastings, and Sir Thomas Com waliia^ with a 
strong guard, to Ashridge, in Buckinghamabire, 
where Elizabeth was suffering a real or feigned 
sickness. The worthy councillors did not arrive 
at tiie manor-house till ten o'clock at night ; the 
priucesshadgonetoreat, and refused to seelhem; 
but, in spite of the remoustrancee of her ladies, 
they rudely burst into her chamber, and carrie<l 
her in a litter to the capital. The deep int«rest 
she excited among the Londoners alsxmed her 
lies; and, after undergoing a rigid euimina- 
by the privy council respecting Wyatt's in. 
surrection and the rising of Carew in the west 
—of both of which attempts shs protested slie 
entirely innocent — she was dismissed from 
court in about a fortnight, and allowed to return 
to Ashridge. The handsome Courtenay was com- 
mitted to the Tower, in spite of his protestations 
of innocence. But Elizabeth had scarcely been 
liberated when Sir William Sentlow, one of her 
officers, was arrested as an adherent of Wyatt's; 
it was asserted that Wyatt had accused the prin- 
cess, and stated that he had conveyed to her in a 
bracelet the whole scheme of his plut ; and on the 
10th of March she was again taken into custody 
and brought to Hampton Court. On the Friday 
before Falm Sunday, Bishop Gardiner, chancel- 
lor, and nineteen members of the council, went 
down to her from the queen, and charged htr 
directly with being concerned, not only in Wyatt'n 
conspiracy, but also in the rebellion of Sir Puter 
Carew, and declared unto her that it waa tlie 
queen's pleasure she should go to the Tower. 

Upon Saturday following," says Holiushed 
(or rather Fox, whose words the old chronicler 


A.D. 1563—1564 ] 

bere trsnacribes), "th&t id, the next dkj, two 
lordB of the council (the one was the Earl of Sus- 
sex, tAe otAer t&all be namdtu) came and eertiflad 
her gTACO, ttwt forthwith she muert go unto the 
Tower, the twrge beiug prepared for her, and the 
tide now readj. In hearj mood ber grace re- 
quested the lords tbkb she might tarry another 
tide. But one of the lords replied, that neither 
tide nor time was to be delayed. And when ber 
grace requested him that she might be suffered 
to write Ut the queen's majeatj, he answered that 
he durst not permit that. But the other lord, 
more courteous and favourable (who was the 
Karl of Sussex), kneeling down, said she should 
have liberty to write, and, as a tnie man, he 
would deliver it to the queen's highness, and 
bring an answer of the same, whatsoever came 
thereof." Whereupon she wrote h letter, which 
has been preserved. She began by refei-ring to 
some former promises made to her by her sister 
JIary. She proceeded humbly to beseech hei- 
majesty t« grant her an audience, that she might 
answer before herself, and not before the meni- 
bciB of the i>rivy council, who might falsely 
represent her, and that she might be heard by tlie 
queen before going to the Tower, if possible^ if 
not, at least before she should be further coa- 
demneii. After ruiuiy protestations of innocence 
andeiprcsaiunsof herhope in the queen's nutui-al 
kindness, s)ia told Mary that there was some- 
thing which she thought aud believed her majesty 
would never know pro[)erly unless she heard her 
with hor own eui-s. She then continued: "I 
liave heaiyl in my time of many cast nway, for 
want of coming to the presence of their prince; 
and in late days I heard my Lord of Someivet 
say, that if his brother had been suffered to speak 
with him, he had never suffered; but the persua- 
wons were made to him so great, that he was 
brought in to believe that he could not live safely 
if the admiral lived ; and that made him give his 
consent to hia death. Though these persons are 
not to be compared to your majesty, yet I pray 
iiod, as (that) evil persuasions persuade not one 
Hiater against the other; and all for that they 
have heard false report, and not hearkened to 
the truth known. Therefore, once again, kneel- 
ing with humbleness of my heart, because 1 am 
not suflured to bow the knees of my liody, I 
humbly ci&ve to speak with your highness . . . 
And as for the traitor Wyatt, he might perod- 
venture write me a letter, but, on my faith, I 
never received any ti-om him. And as for the 
ropy of my letter sent to the French king, I pi'ay 
God confound roe eternally, if ever I sent him 
word, message, token, or letter by any means; and 
to this, my truth, I will stand in to my death."' 

BY. 65 

This letter, which was much more spirited 
than might have been expected, particulariy if 
we reflect that Elizabeth, in all piobabihty, was 
not ignoi^nt of the plan of the rebellion, availed 
her nothing. She never received the " only one 
word of answer' for which she humbly craved in 
a postscript; and upon the morrow, which was 
Palm Sunday, strict orders were issued through- 
out London that every one should keep tlie church 
and cftny bis palm ; and while the Londonerx, 
men, women, and children, were thus engaged, 
Elizabeth was secretly carried down to the Tower 
bywater,attendedby the Earl of Surrey and the 
other iMmtleu lord. The barge stopped under 
I'mitors' Gate. Then, comingout with one foot 

TmiToiB', TowiR or IfliDOs.'— From n liew hj BwrfT. 

Upon the stair, she said, "Here lamluth as true a 
subject, being prisoner, as ever landed at these 
staini; and before thee, Ood, I speak it, having 
none other frieud but thee alone!" Going a 
little fui'ther, she sat down on a stone to re»>t 
herself ; and when the lieutenant of the Tower 
begged her to rise and come in out of the wet 
and cold, she said, " Better sitting here than in a 
worse place, for God knoweth whither you bring 
me,'' She evidently apprehended an iiumediale 

id wu nlr ued tor Uh (dmlwon of iminrtuit p«- 

of IkM g>t« btwsrdi Uw ri*d 





executu>ii; but tfa« lords carried her to an inaer 
apMimeat, and left ber there in groat dismay, 
after aeeing the door well locked, bolted, and 

Bat before Elizabeth entered the Toirer gates 
other interesting victlnu bad isaaed from them 
to the grave. The Itidy Jane Grey, who had 
been condemned to death three months before, 
was indulging in the hope of a free pardon when 
the ill-managed inaurrectiou broke out. It bp- 
peara Terj evident that Mary had no intention 
of executing the eenteuce upon her, but now she 
waa easilj made to believe that the life of tbe 
lady Jaae was incompatible with her own safe- 
ty ; and, in leas than a week aft«r Sir Thomas 
Wjatt's discomfiture, she signed tbe death-wai^ 
rant both for Jane and her husband. On the 
morning of the ISthofFebmorj the Lord Guild- 
ford Dudley was delivered to the sherib and 
conducted to the scaffold on Tower-hill, where, 
after saying his prayers aiid ahedding a few 
teara, he laid his head on the block and died 
quietJy. The fate of this young man excited 
great commiMiation among the people, and as it 
waa calculated that that of his wife would make 
a still greater impression, it was resolved t<i exe- 
cute her more privately withiu the walls of the 
Tower. Mary showed what she and all Catholics 
considered a laudable anxiety for the soul of this 
youthful ncriiice, and Fecknam, a very Catholic 
dean of St PauFs, tormented her in her last 
hoon with argumenla and dispntatioas ; but it 
appaan that she was steadfast in the faith which 
she had embraced, and the doctriuee of which 
she bad studied under learned teachers witb uu> 
usual care. Ou the dreadful morning she had 
the strength of mind to decline a meeting with 
her husband, saying that it would rather foment 
their grief than be a comfort in deatb, and that 
they should shortly meet in a better place and 
more happy estate. She even saw him conducted 
towards Towerbill, and, with tbe same settled 
spirit that was Sied upon immortality, she beheld 
hia headless trunk when it was returned to be 
buried in the chapel of the Tower. By this time 
her own scafibld, made upon the green within 
thevergeof the Tower, waaall ready; and almost 
as soon as her husband's body passed towards 
the chapel the lieutenant led her forth, she being 
"in countenance nothing oast down, neither her 
eyes anything moistened with tears, although her 
gentlewomen, Elizabeth Tilney and Idistress He- 
len, wonderfully wept." She had a book in her 
hand, wherein she prayed uutil ahe came to the 
scaffold. From that platform she addressed a 
few modest words to the few by-standers, stat- 
ing that ahe had justly deserved her ponishmeut 
for suffering herself to be made the instrument. 

though unwillingly, of the ambition of othen, 
and that she hoped her fata mi^bt serve as s 
memorable example in after times. Sbe then 
implored God's mercy, caused hereelf to be dis- 
robed by her gentlewomen, veiled her own eyes 
with her handkerchief, aud laid faer head on tbe 
block, exhorting the lingering ezeoationer to tbe 
performance of his office. At last the axe tell, 
and her lovely head rolled away from the body, 
drawing teara from the eyes of the apectrtors, 
yea, even of those who, from the vvry banning, 
were beat affected to Queen Mary's canae.* 

The father of lAdy Jane, the Duke of Suffolk, 
who had been beaten and taken, like a blunder- 
ing schoolboy, and who was not worthy of the 
child whom his ambition and imbecility sacri- 
ficed, was tried on the 17th of February. He 
went to Westminster Hall with a cheerful and a 
very stout countenance, but at hia return he was 
very pensive and heavy, desiring all men to pray 
for him. There was need, for he was condemned 
to die the death of a traitor, and there waa no 
hope of another pardon for this man, whose 
"facility to by-practicee " had occasioned all or 
most of these troubles. On tbe 23d of February, 
eleven days after the execution of bin daughter 
and son-in-law, he waa publicly beheaded on 
Tower-hill. Other executions and numerous 
committals took place while Elizabeth lay in that 
state priaon. Sir Thomas Wyalt met his fate 
with great fortitude on the Ilth of April, so- 
lemnly declaring in his last moments that neither 
the I^cess Elizabeth nor Courtenay was pri>^' 
to his plans. About a fortnight after this eie- 
cutiou. Lord Thomas Grey, brother to the late 
Duke of Suffolk, was beheaded on Towerhill; 
and a little later, the learned William Thomas. 
late clerk of the council, who had attempted sm- 
cide in (iie Tower, was conveyed to Tyburn, and 
there hanged, headed, and quartered. 

Several times Elisabeth fanded that ber last 
hour was come. Early in the month of May the 
constable of the Tower was discharged of bit 
office, and Sir Henry Bedingfield, a bigoted and 
cruel man, was appointed in bis stead. This new 
constable went suddenly to the fortress with IW 
soldiers: the princess, marvellously diecomforted, 
aaked of the persons about her whether the lad.V 
Jane's scaffold were taken down or not, fearing 
that her own turn waa come. The circumitanre 
of Bediogfield'a appointment seemed very sus- 
picious : seventy years before Sir James Tyrw' 
had been suddenly substituted for Sir Bobert 
Brackenbury, and in tbe night of mystery and 
liorror that followed lyrrell's arrival in the 
Tower, the two prineea of the bouse of Vork 
had disappeared, and, as it waa generally ^ 
iieved, had been savagely murdered in their bed. 

,v Google 

*.D. 1053—1354.] MA 

But Elizabeth's fears were groundleiiai her sister 
had no intention of takin;; her life; and a few 
dajs after, on the 19th of U*.y, the rojal captive 
wae oonTe jed by water from the Tower to Rich- 
mond : from Richmond she was removed to 
Windaor, and from Wiodaor to Woodstock, where 

WoooetocK, H nlitlDi ji.d. 1T14. 

she was finally fixed under the vigilant eyea of 
the severe and auspicious Bedingfield. Six days 
after her Liberation, Courtenay, Earl of Devon, 
was delivered out of the Tower and sent down 
to Fotberingay CastJe, where he waa watched 
with equal vigilance. Meanwhile preptu-atious 
were making for the queen's marriage, and the 
people of London occasionally gave unequivocal 
proofs of their hatred of it, and of the changes 
introduced in the national religion. OnoneSun- 
day in June, as Dr. Pendleton was preaching Pa- 
pistry at Paul's Cross, he was shot at and nearly 
killed. A little before, the oourt and clergy were 
greatly enraged at finding a cat, with her head 
shorn and dressed like a Roman priest, hanged 
on a gallows in Cheapside ; and a little after, a 
still more violent excitement waa produced by a 
poor weDch who played the part of a spirit, aod 
anticipated some of the impositions of the Cock 
Lads ghost, " expressing certain seditious words 
against the queen, the Prince of Spain, the mass, 
confession, &c."' 

On the 19th of July, Philip, Prince of Spain, 
arrived in Soathampton Water. As the Connt 
of ]E^ont, one of hia ambassadors, had been 
violently assaulted some short time before by 
the people, who took him for his master, Philip 
came well attended with a body-guard and troops, 
KoA he lingered a few days at the place of his 
disembarkation, a« if in order to ascertain the 
bumour of the nation. There was a little cir- 



RY. 57 

cumstance which did not seem exactly calculaleil 
to give him confidence. The Lord-admiral of 
Enghmd fired at the Spanish navy when Philip 
was on board, because they had not lowered their 
topsails as a mark of deference to ^e Snglisli 
navy in the narrow seas. Four days after his 
arrival the prince travelled to 
Winchester, and there he was met, 
on the following morning (it being 
a wet day), by his mature bride 
Mary, who look no pains to con- 
ceal her impatience, being enabled 
in her conscience to plead her 
A anxiety for a legitimate and holy 
^ Roman succession as the only 
means of securing the faith in 
England. They had a long familiar 
talk, and, on the feast of St. Jamea, 
the titular saint of Sp^n — their 
nuptials were celebrated at Win- 
chester with great pomp. 

Uary bad summoned parliament 
some three months before her 
husband's arrivah both houses 
showed that they were stili jealous 
of the Spaniard, and theyadopteil 
further precautions to prevent 
hia ruling aa a king in England. Philip brought 
large sums of money with him ; but even money 
could not win bim the good-will of the corrupt 
courtiers. In a word, no one loved him but 
Mary ; and the fondness of a sick and exces- 
sively jealous wife was anything but agreeable. 
He soon showed ber the real motives of hia mar- 
riage, which ware, to become absolute maater of 
England, to wear the crown as if in his own 
right, and to dispose of all the resources of the 
country in his schemes of aggrandizement on the 
Continent. Though a bigot, he was certainly 
less anxious abont the qoestion of religion. Mary 
would have gratified bim at the sacrifice of the 
interests and liberties of her people: she sum- 
moned a new parliament, and Delected no meann 
likely to render it compliant. The Spanish gold 
waa distributed with a liberal hand; and, imitat- 
ing the precedent of former reigns, she wrote 
circular letters, commanding and imploring that 
the counties and boroughs would return such 
members as were wholly devoted to her interests 
and pleasures. This parliament met at West- 
rainster on the ISth of November : the lords 
being as aubservient as ever^the commons con- 
sisting wholly of Catholics or of men indifferent 
to the great question of religion. Both houses 
were ready to second the queen's bigotry, always 
with the old exception that she ahonld by no 
means force them to surrender the temporal 
fruita of their Ute schism. In the preceding par- 
liament, Marr had thought it prudent to retaiu 


,v Google 


[Civil akd Uiutabt. 

the title of Supreme Head of the Chnrch ; bal 
now she resolved to obtain ft repeal of the ftct 
passed in the time of her father, which irrevoija- 
blj annexed that title to the crown. The jealou* 
possessors of ftbbey lands and monaatic property 
■aw a long way bejond this mere renunciation 
of a title; aad they would not repeal the Act of 
Supremacy, until the queeu caused to be sub- 
mitted to them the pope's explicit confirmation 
of the abbej lands to their new proprietors, which 
confii-mation had been conceded from a coHTic- 
tioD that he mult either receive the English peni- 
tents on their own terms or lose them altogether. 
The pope's coDfirmatioa wu delivered through 
Cardinal Pole, the new legate for England, whoae 
attainder had been reversed by the present par- 
liament. With their minds thus set at ease as to 
their goods and chattels,' both houses w^n won- 
derfully compliant in matters of faith. They 
listened with contrite countenances to an iuvita- 
tiou from the lord-cardinal to return to the bosonj 
of holy mother church; they voted an address to 
Philip and Mary, acknowledging their repentance 
of the schism in which they had been living, de- 
claring their readiness to repeal all laws enacted 
in prejudice of the only true church, and implor- 
ing their majesties and the lord-cardinal to inter- 
cede with the pope for their absolution and for- 
giTeness. Oardiner presented this petition to 
Pole, and Pole, in the name of the pope, forth- 
with gave full absolution to the parliament and 
whole kingdom of England; and tJiU being done, 
they all went to the royal chapel in procession, 
singing Te tham. Without the least hesitation 
parliament revived the old brutal laws against 
heretics, enacted statutes against seditious words, 
and made it treason to imagine or attempt the 
death of Philip during his marriage with the 
queeu. But when Mary's minister proposed that 
Philip should wear, if not the royal, at least 
matrimonial crown, they showed a resolute op- 
position, and the queen was obliged to drop the 
project of his coronation, as well as that of getting 
him declaj^d presumptive heir to the en 
Nor was she more snccesBful when the attempted 
to obtain subsidies from the commons, in order 

I that thB Kn gHah [a 

g«nanl would hATfr ttunfld Jewi ot Tujki, If th4ir HTsnl^ 
o of tb* »bhiij UDdi V »b" c""™ 

iQ In the lundi of the raDwn, (Ht Hut fSO.OW i-i 

Jaauada dt SoaWit! Sbk! Balbalttd: OadwU; lUidMl^ 
tu; EtTf: Jliiiwf.- TUtni MmiArt of Lord BvtUt).-^ 
in of Courtouij, BuL or Daran, nm&infid darmuit, fmm 
ith 0( Ihij joniig ooblmuii, fcr nii»rlTtbrwo(iBtniim,tlll 

pnint mxV For tha hlMaij oT the tunua s>t Cooitanij, 

support her husband and the emperor in their 
irs with France. Philip found it necessary to 
court popularity, and recommended the release 
of some of the most distinguished of the prisoners 
in the Tower. The handsome Earl of Devon 
received permiaaion to travel on the Continent, 
but he died soon after (in 1M6) at Padua.* 

In her exceeding anxiety for issue, Mary mis- 
took the commencement of a dropsy for the sure 
sign of pregnancy; and when Cardinal Pole was 
introduced to her on his happy return to England, 
she Fondly fancied that the child was quickened, 
even as John the Baptist leaped in his motjier's 
womb at the salutation of the Ytrgin ! On the 
27th ot November the lord-mayor of London, with 
the aldermen all in. scarlet, assembled according 
to commandment in St. Paul's Church at nine 
o'clock in the morning, and in a great fog or mist. 
Dr. Chadsey, one of the prebends, preached in the 
choir in the presence of Bonner, Bishop of London, 
and nine other bishops; and, before he began, he 
read a letter from the queen's council, the tenor 
whereof was, that the Bishop of London should 
send out certain forms of prayer,' wherein, after 
thanksgiving to God for his great mercies to this 
kingdom in giving hopes of an heir to the crown, 
and infusing life into the embryo, they should 
pray for the preservation of the queen and the 
infant, and for her happy delivery, and cause Te 
Deiim to be sung everywhere. But the business 
did not end at St. Paul's Church : it was taken nji 
in both houses of parliament^ and it gave great 
occupation to the whole court " For then," 
says Godwin, "by parliament many things were 
enacted concerning the education of the babe; 
and much clatter was elsewhere kept about pre- 
parations fur the child's swaddling-clothes, cradle, 
and other things requisite at the delivery; until, 
in June in the ensuing year, it was manifested 
that all was little better than a dream." The 
parliament, in fact, passed a law, which, in cane 
of tbe queen's demise, appointed Philip protector 
during the minority of the infant ; but this was 
all that could be obtained in favour of the sus- 
pected Spaniard ; and shortly after Mary dis- 
solved the parliament in tU-Uumour.* 

wittr," with itroDgth uid Tklcu 

keap down tho henUn. 
• [t ipiHui from Ktifm wIU, wUdi <n> diMd Ui> SMb or 

lo thit tinu, iJie wu oanflflaiLt of bviDg fiwriiiU, (Or riw nuda a 
prorisiarx tOr Httllng tba oixtwa on har Ima. — Bir Fradaidk 
Xndiiea, Pritf P%im Sepaua i^ lln Priacm Mttrji; IMrad. lit- 
meir and Coff a} WIS, i» Appmlii. 


•.D. ISM— 1956.] 



CoDimanoaiiMnt of tba Uuud paneontloiu — The nurried priaU eompalLsd to do penuica — Eieontiou of Jolm 
Bc^Bi, of Bubop HDop«T, of Bitbop Femr, of Dr. BowUnd Tftjloi, of William Bnoch— OUwr aiecatioDi— 
Cradtica of tha Fapiih hiihop*, Gudioer tad BoniiU' — Trikl of Cnnmar, Bidlsy, mod Latiuivr — EiacuttoD 
ot Ridl«r ftnd lAliuier— Their baluiTioar »t tha itkka — Philip luvaa EngUnd — Muy aluiiu tha holdan of 
cbnrcli Unda — Damar of porliamuit in Totiog nippliaii — Dntli of Biibop Qtrdlner—Attanipta to nuke Cru- 
mar racint — Hin nnntation — Tcokcheiy of hit atiamia — Hit exaentioo — Cftrdiuil Pola lowJe Archbiihop ot 
CuitarbnTT — Fi«ab aiecntioris of Proteatuita— ^umrnuy of Popiih ■troaitiaa— Tra&tmeiit of PriDoen Eliza- 
tMth — Bar politk complluicas— Coaipetitora for her huid— Crud panaoutiou of har tutor, Sir Joliii CbiliB — 
Ad inqniiitorial eomiulBioa eatabliBltsd a^iut tlia Protsctuita— It> deipotio ponara Bad ioiquitooi prooaed- 
in^ — InenMa ot immarKlit; with paneiiutioD — Abdioatiou of tha Emparoc Charlai V. — He ii niocesdad b; 
bit aOD Philip— Deaign* uid coKlitiona of tba pope Kgainat Fbilip— Pbilip'a aocceaiai in Ital; — Be raririti 
EogUod — Endnronn to psnnade England to go to war with Franca — Hii endakToora teconded b; an acci- 
dast — Ha obtaina rainfoTcaments of Engliab troopa — Tbej diatiugaiab tbemMliaa at St. Qiuntm— Tha Dnka 
of GdIh takaa tha commaDd of tba French armj-^Ua onsipectedlj iiiTaata CaUia — Cirelna dafencai of the 
town— Calaii atormad, and its Enghih piiiaon couipalled to BUTaDdeT— Griaf ot tha Eagliih nation at tha 
loaaof CaUia— MaiT of Oniae, Quean dowagei of Scotland — Becomaa RajaDt of Scotland— Eodeavoara tuaat 
the Soota at war with England — Harriage of Mar?, ^ogbtar of Jamaa T., lo tba French dauphia — An Eng- 
liab arm; iuvadea Frasce— Death of Qaeeo Mu7~Har character. 

OK the Protertanta this year (1558) 
opened most gloomily. The queen 
sent Thomaa Thirlhy, the new Bi- 
shop of Ely, the Lord Anthosy 
MoDtacnte, irad Sir Edward Carne, 
or Karue, nith a very honourable 
tmin of geatlemen and others, as ambaasadon to 
Rome, to confirm the reconciliatioii of the nation 
with the Catholic church, and concert measures 
for the promotion of the old religion, to the ez- 
cloaion of all others. Bnt Uary wonted no 
foreign advisers to urge her into the paths of 
intolerance and persecution. The conviction 
waa deeply settled in her heart's core, and in her 
brain — and there wet« biahops of Engliah birth 
to insist npon it — that toleration in religion only 
l«d to indifference and the eternal perdition of 
nien'a aonla — that any reconciliation of parties 
or sects waa not to be thought of — that it was 
the duty of religious princea to exterminate the 
heretical infection — that the matt of tit people,^ 
After all, were attached to the discipline and 
doctrine of the only true church ; and that those 
of them who were not, would soon come bacic 
into the right way if all the heretical portion of 
the clergy, particularly the biahopn, were taken 

' KotviUBtaadlsc tha pngnrH mad* br Uw RaftumaUon 
iiaict Uw ihort n\ga of Edwmid VI., It la pnbabla that tUa 
•talnnsit n> aoTTHt. In London, and tb* gnat oJUca gana- 

Jl. Then aT^MAA, bo*- 
D thia leapect untmg Uu 

ao pari of England aoffend » moob 
. . II, tfaoogh lb«7, Lb aADt, bad wft bar cm 

Ibg thnna Dpon pnimlHa which bvUgotry oonld nerar pmmll 

from tfaem, and treated with wholesome severity. 
The prisoua were already crowded — the inquisi- 
tors had only to choose their victims, and pre- 
pare their stakes and fagots. There were several 
preludes and preparations to accustom the people 
to the degradation of theee spiritual teachers, 
whom, only two years before, all had twen bound 
by law to revere and obey. Some married priests, 
who would not leave their wives, were sent in 
procession round St. Rtul's Church with whit« 
sheets over them, aud burning tapers and scoui^gea 
in their hands ; and when this humiliating cere- 
mony was over, they were publicly whipped. 
These scenes were repeated in different parts of 
the kingdom ; and the unlucky wives of clergy- 
men were occauonally treated with equal con- 

The revived statutes against heretics— that is 
to say, the acts first passed against the I.>olIardB 
in the times of Kchard II., Henry IV., and 
Henry T.— were to take efiect from the SOth of 
January (1550). Previous to that great day of 
rejoicing, Bonner, with eight bishops and 160 or- 
thodox priests, made a grand procession through 
I«ndon to return thanks to the Almighty for 
the sudden renewal of Divine grace in the land. 
Then a commitsion sat in the church of St. K ary 
Overy, Southwark, for the trial of Proteatauts. 
^e first man brought before them was John 
Rogers, a prebendary of St. Paul's, who had 
been lying in Newgat« among CDt-throats and 
desperadoes for more than a year. When qnea- 
tioned and brow-beaten by hie judge, Rogers 
pointedly asked, " Did not you, youi-self, for 

Slotf.- Strjrp€. 





tweut; years, pray ajpunst the popeT "I was 
forced by cruelty," replied BiahopQe^iner. "And 
will you use the like cruelty to ub?" taid Bogers. 
The court sentenced him to the flames.' On the 
night after Rogers' martyrdom in Smitlifield the 
I'l-otestunt Bishop Hooper, one of the pillars of 
ihe Reformed church, was told that he was to be 
turned, not in Smithfield, however, but at Glou- 
cester, among his own people ; and at Oloucester 


lie was burned in a alow fire on the 9th of Feb- 
ruary. The same course was adopted odth Ro- 
bei't Fernr, Bishop of St. David's, a rigid man 
and of a rough behavioor, who was sent down 
fi-oro London to his own diocese, where he was 
burned alive on the 30th of March. About the 
same time fires were lighted in other parte of th» 
kingdom. On the eaatern side, on the very day 
that Bishop Hooper was burned at Gloucester, 
Dr. Rowland Taylor, who had lived for some 
time in the family of Archbishop Oranmer, who 
preferred him to the rectory of Hadleigh, i 
Suffolk, was burned in that town. This Tayli 
was one of the boldest of those who suffered for 
conscience sake, and, tike nearly every one of 
those Protestant martyrs, he was a man of hum- 
ble birth. From this Rowland Taylor descended 
the eloquent, the learned, the great and am' 
Jeremy Taylor, the antagonist of the Cliurch of 

Rome, and yet the advocate of toleration — one of 
the first and best of that holy band who taught 
that God was not served by the torment of his 
rUres. The now prevalent fanaticism of the 
Papists occaaionally awoke a like spirit oa the 
part of the Protestants. On Easter Da7, the 
most solemn festival of the Roman chorcb, one 
William Branch, or Flower, who had once been 
a monk of Ely, but who had embraced the Re- 
formed religion, stabbed a priest as he was «d- 
ministeriQg the sacrament to the people iu the 
manner of Rome in the church of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. No crime could be so frig:htfi)l 
as this in the eyes of the Catholics : there was 
no hope of escaping from a crowded church, 
and the enthusiast does not appear to have at- 
tempted it. On the S4th of April his lacrtle- 
giov* right hand was cut ufT, and then, " for 
opinioDB in matters of religion," he was burned 
in the sanctuary near to St. Margaret's Cbarch- 

Ihiring tlie festivities of Easter the Princess 
Elizabeth was summoned to court, that she might 
congratulate the queen, who bad taken her cham- 
ber at Hampton (Jourt, to he ddivered ; and it 
should seetu that Elizabeth acquittod hetsslf 
very dei:terously on this delicate occasion. Blit, 
to r«tum to the chief business of this deplorable 
reign, John Cardmaker, chancellor of the chuaeb 
of Wells, was burned at London on the last day 
of May; and John Bradford suffered the same 
cruel death at the same place about a month 
later. A little before, or a little after theae 
execuUous iu the capital, Thomas Hawkes, an 
Essex gentleman, was burned at Coggeshall ; 
John I^wrence, a priest, at Colchester ; Toni- 
kina, a weaver, at Shoreditch ; Pigott, a butcher, 
at Braintree ; Knight, a Imrber, at Maldon ; and 
Hunter, an apprentice to a silk-weaver, at Brent- 
Bishop Gardiner, the chancellor, who waa far 
ieaa cruel than many, BOOn grew weary of pre- 
siding in the horrible court at the church of St. 
Mary Overy: he withdrew as early as the month 
of Februaiy, when his duties devolved on an 
apt«r spirit, Bonner, Bishop of London, who poe- 
seeaed all the essentials for an inquisitor and fa- 
miliar of the Holy Office iu a greater degree than 
any Englishman we ever heard of. This prelate 
sat iu the consistory of St. Paul's, where the 

-; eodwin: KuU.' Daptttlia i</ Soailla, Um PnoiA 

lieoiil*, bat ODD KltotMha' dlBtei 
UuT uid bar bUhopa upaotaL : 
■nji. "Thli difths nmSnuCIon 

jiriiiV to titer'*'™- ' 

I Hoopo wu bnnild i 
In GICFiuadar. The q»l co whli 
nulad. lonf pdntad out bf tndltion, ^ 
utnsd In Hit, ^ BndliK Dpon II tbe n 
■tiik* to whMi ha had bam >ttKb«L It Uoow murtid b] 

9T fait ot the people 

» (tar to (It* him 

,v Google 

4.C. lW5-155a] MA 

lord-niKfor &nd certun of the kldennen wer« 
forced to ftttend. In thia court he could, with 
eaat Mid gT«ftt comfort to hinuelf, condemn men 
to the flames at the nte of h&lf a dozen anlay; 
but even Bonner waa too alow for tie govern- 
ment; the privy council kept continually urging 
him- forward in this frightful peraecution; and 
Mary and her husband addreesed to him one 
letter (if not more), aa if even he wanted exeite- 
luent to the proaecution of heretics.' Cardinal 
Pole, whose moderation and mercy caiuad him to 
be Mupected at Bome of entertaining himself 
some heretJcal notions, in vain endeavoured to 
atop the desti'octive torrent, and to prove to 
Alary and her government that the practice of 
peraecutjon was not only highly dangerous to 
theowelves but the acandal of all religion. 

Ever aiaee the month of March of the preced- 
ing year, Cnuuner, Ridley, uid Latimer, had been 
nmoved from the Tower to Oxford. The tno 
latter, like the primate, had favoured the usnr- 
jiation of the lAdy Jane ; and Ridley with great 
spirit, houeatly avowed that ha bad acted with 
Ilia eyea open — that be had never been actuated 
liy fear of Northumberland or of any one else, 
but merely by a conviction that that step was 

necessary and indispensable for ^e preservation 
of the Protestant religion. If Cranmer had had 
the Mine deoisioa and courage, it is pouibU that 
affaiis might have taken a different turn, or, 
At the worst, he would have had a better excuse 
lo plead than that of lus having gone into the 
■cheme of excluding Mary against his conscience, 
being ovei-powered by the importunities of the 
dying Edward. Ridley, and I^timer also, were 

■ Airwf; Krypt; BaUuii, Omd. tM. BnniM giTs 

BY. 61 

amenable to the same charge of treason as Cran- 
mer; but for very evident purposes it was re- 
solved to sink this offence in the more awful 
charge of heresy. The timid character of tlie 
primate was well known, and the Catholic party 
seem to have considered it possible to force all 
three to recant. 

On tiie 14th of A]iril, about five weeks after 
their first arrival at Oxford, they were brought 
out of their prisons to SL Mary's Church, where 
questJouB relating to transubstantiation, and the 
efficacy of the mass as a sacrifice and propitia- 
tion for the sins of quick and dead, were sub- 
mitted to them. They were allowed to debate 
these points in public, and, if they could convince 
their mortal enemies, then their prison gates 
would be opeued But ths orthodox controver- 
sialists did not give tbemeelves the trouble to 
preserve even the t^jpeanuice of fair play; they 
would allow their opponents no books — no time 
for preparation— nor would they let them argue 
together. Cranmer was to face alone their entire 
battery on the 16th of April, Ridley on the 17th, 
and Latimer on the 18th. On the dayappointed 
Cranmer appeared before the consistory as- 
sembled in the divinity school, and, with more 
courage than had been expected from him, he 
proceeded to support the tenets which he hod 
taught ; but there were many voices to one ; the 
doctors called him unlearned, unskilful, ignoraat; 
and the Oxfcn^l scholars very generally hissed 
and hooted, and clapped their hands, whenever 
he advanced any opinion they disliked. On the 
following day Ridley appeared in the same place, 
and met with much the same treatment; but 
Ridley had more nerve than Cranmer, and more 
learning than IjUioier, and to him ie generally 
attributed the glory of the contest on the Pro- 
testant side. But he might as well have held 
his tongue, for, whenever he pressed them closely 
with on argumentative sytlugism, they all lifted 
up their voices against bim together. " I have 
but one tongue," cried Ridley; " I cannot answer 
at once to you all." When poor Latimer was 
brou^t up to be baited on the following day, 
he was so weak and faint that be could scareelv 
stand. In spite of the persecutions which he 
hod himself directed when the current ran in a 
different direction, his appearance was calculated 
to excite sympathy in every breast except those 
of CMitroversiolists and dogmatists. "Ha ! good 
master," said the aged prelate to one of his judges, 
" I pray ye be good to an old man. You may be 
once as old as I am ; you may come to this age, 
and this debility." Cranmer and Ridley had 
disputed in Latin, but Latimer spoke in his mo- 
ther tongue, and was the better understood. But 
they would not permit him to proceed without 
frequent interruptions ; and the Oxford scholars 

,v Google 





hiaacA and hooted and laughed &t him, making 
altogether such a din that the dJTinity school 
looked more like a bear-garden than a scene ap- 
pointed for the discuaaion of dogmas deemed 
essential to the salvation of men's souls. Poor 
Latimer, a man of humble birth, and wmple, if 

HOOH LlTiMDi, Biihop of Womstar.— Fnm ii 

not rustic mauners, said, with a naivefl vbich 
would be amusing in other circumstances, that in 
his time and da; he had spoken before two great 
kings more tltiui once, for two or three hours 
together, without interruption ; " but now,* be 
added, " if I may apeak the truth, by your leaves, 
I cannot be suffered U> declare uty mind before you, 
no, not by the space of a quarter of an hour, with- 
oi.t snatches, revitingB, checks, rebukes, taunts, 
Buch as I have not felt the like in such an audi- 
ence all my life long." On the 2tith of April he 
waa again, together with Ridley and Cranmer, 
brought up to St Mary's Church. They were 
asked by the commisaionera whether they would 
now turn or not; but they bade them read od, in 
the name of God, for that they were not minded 
ro turn ; and so were they condemned all three 1 
For various reasons the execution of their sen- 
tence was suspended for nearly eighteen months, 
nod at the eud of that period (on the 16th of 
October, 1S55), Ridley and I&timer were led to 
the stake without Cranmer, who remained in 
jirison five months longer. In the ditch on the 
north side of the pleasant town of Oxford, and 
over against Boliol College, a great stake was 
erected. It was usual to preach a sermon to the 
heretics before burning them I and one Dr. Smith, 
who, for interest or fear, had renounced Popery 
iu King Edward's time, and who was now all the 
more zealous on that account, mounted the pulpit 
on this occasion, and delivered a vehement dis- 
course on the teit-— " Though I give my body to 
be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth 
nothing.* When the sermon was over Ridley 
stripped himself for the fire, giving away his ap- 
piirel, a new groat, some uutmegH and bits of gin- 

ger, a dial, and such other few things as he had 
about him; and among tbe by-standera were men 
too happy to get any rag of him. In the help- 
lesanees of old age I^timer had left it to hia 
keeper to strip him; but when he stood up in Ait 
ihrmtd, erect and fearless, by the aide of the 
fagote, he seemed, in the eyes of some of the b»- 
holders, to be no longer the withered and decrepit 
old man, "but as comely a father as one might 
lightly behold," Ridley was tied first to the 
stake. As tiiey were chiuniag I^dmer to the re- 
erse of the stake, the hardy old roan excWmed, 

Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play 
le man ; we shall this day light such a candle, 
by God's grace, iu England, as I trust shall never 

put out.* Then the flames arose, and Latimer 

B soon seen te expire in the midst of them ; 

t Ridley's sufferings were long and dreadful. 
The Lord Williams of Thame, the vice-chanoel- 
ler of the university, the other commisaionera 
appointed by the court, and a multitude of Ox- 
ford scholara and gentlemen, stood by and wit- 
nessed the whole, and for the most part with 
pious and complacent countenances, like men 
that felt the happy assurance that they wer« 
doing God service. But there were other spee- 
tatora who looked on with very different eyea. 
The fortitude of the sufferers confirmed Pro- 
testante in their faith ; every execution made 
some converts, and went to awaken a thorough 
and most lasting abhorrence of the persecuting 

About six weeks before these executions at 
Oxford, King Philip passed over to the Conti- 
nent, in no very good humour with our island, for 
he found that he had in a manner thrown himself 
away in a marriage with a disagreeable woman. 
Uaty'e uucomforteble fondness seemed to increase 
with his absence: she wrote him tender letters, to 
which he seldom replied, except when he wished 
her to obtun money for his use from her parlia- 
ment; and he entertained his courtiers (if not a 
miati«ss) with unmanly criticisms on his wife's 
person and manners. On the Slst of October, 
five days after the death of Ridley and lAtJmer, 
the parliament met in a mood less obseqnions 
than usual, and the queen, in her anxiety te 
serve the Chureh of Rome, excited a somewhat 
stormy opposition. Some months before, in her 
ardent zeal for the pope, she had the imprndeoce 
to consult certain members of the privy council 
touching the restoration of all the abbey hmds in 
England, which she told them she considered had 
been taken away from their proper owuen in 
time of schism, and that by unlawful means, and 
such as were coutrary both to the intereste of 
Qod and of the church. She told them that, for 
her own part, she considered a 

> eirjpi.- Fot; Otdmi 


jj). ISM— 1558.] MA 

tender of what the crown hftd received eHsential 
to MlvatiOD. From her rehemence it was ex- 
pected that she would press for the Hutrender of 
the lands lij whomsoever held, and on this head 
the sensitive psrli&meDt were never at their ease 
during the short remainder of her reign. But 
during the present sesuon she ontj required titem 
to l^«lize her restor- 
ing the first-fruits uid 
tenths, and tbu impro- 
priations vested in the 
crown. Even to this 
parliament objected ; 
ftnd when the commons 
same to vot« supplies, it 
was asked, with some 
violence, what justice 
there wu iu bixing the 
mbjert to relieve the 
sovereign's necessities, 
when she refused to 
svaii herself of funds 
legally at her disposal I 
— and it was also sug- 
gested that the Catholic 
clergy, who were grow- 
ing rich by the royal 
libei«lity, ought to 
make large sacrifices for 
the relief of their bene- 
factress. At last tlie 
house passed the sup- 
plies, but with a consi- 
derable deduction from 
the amount originally 
propoBMl ; and they also - 
passed the bills about 
the first - fruits, and 
tenths, and impropria- 
tions, but in such a 
spirit aa showed that it 
would be unsafe to urge 
them to further conces- 
uons in that direction. 
After a short session, 

Uieqneea dissolved par- ^" S*"™Ji^ 

lisment on the Sth of r™«' 

December.' Daring the session Bishop Qftr- 
diner, the chancellor, had gone to his final ac- 
count. He attended at the opening of the houses, 
and displayed his usual ability and energy ; but 
on the Uiird day bis bodily sufferings obliged him 
to qnit his post, and he expired of a painful dis- 

' Thit Bobli DDOiiuiinit, dadguad to 

I ■ totkl haighl of 
n g( at, OUh Btnn. H|)oii>ii>E 
id tha DulToil^ GiUarls, Oifoid. 

ST. 63 

ease on the 12th of November. The great sent 
was given to another ecclesiastic — to Heath, 
ArchbiBliopot York; but, though keen in the per- 
secuting of Protestants, the new chancellor had 
not the talent and address of the old one. 

Meanwhile (A.D. 1556) Mary's ncthankful hus- 
band kept presuug her for money, and atill more 
money. Tomakeuptor 
the scanty supplies vo- 
ted by parliament, she 
and her new chancellor 
had recourse to a variety 
of illegal and violent 
expedients. All the 
money was spent as soon 
as got ; the mass of it 
went to her husbaud or 
to Home. 

It appears that the 
court <»]culated that 
wheu Cnuuner should 
be no longer supported 
by the more courageous 
spiiit of Kidley and 
I^timer, he would tem- 
poiize,aa he had so often 
done before, and, in the 
fear of death, take such 
steps as would cover 
himself with infamy aiiil 
bring discredit on the 
whole Protestant party ; 
and that for these ex- 
press reasons he vas left 
alive. It sliould be 
mentioned, however, 
that there were other 
reasons, and that, aa a 
metropolitan, his case 
was reserved for the 
pope himself, the tri- 
bunal which had des- 
patched the two suSrS' 
gan bishops not being 
competent, in canonical 
u OiroHD.' lawj to take cognizance 

of it. By a grievous 
mockery the pope cited this ctoB« prisoner at 
Oxford to appear at Rome and answer for hia 
heresies. At the end of the eighty days, having 
taken no care, as it was said in the Papal in- 
strument, to appear at fiome, he was pronounced 
guilty, and Bonner, Bishop of London, and Tbirl- 
by, Bishop of Ely, were appointed conunisBioners 
to degrade him, and to see the sentence executed 
upon him. Cnuuner, who was delivered over to 
the secular power — for by a delicate fiction the 
persecuting church was never the executor of 
its own sentences — trembled at the near ap- 


,v Google 





proach of a horrible death, and betrayed that 
weakness upon which hia enemies had calcuUted. 
He had written iu abject terms to the queen be- 
fure, and, hy receiving the viaita in hia cell, and 
listening to the ai'gumenta of a learned Spanish 
monk— a certain friar Soto — and other Catholics, 
be aeems to bave wished that it should be be- 
lieved he was still open to convictioD. He now 
renewed bis applicaUons for mercy, and turned 
u readj ear to those who suggested that mercy 
might be obtained, though only bj recantation. 
It was a vital point with bis enemies to lead him 
to this; and, if (he truth ia told, they proceeded 
with a dexterity and malice truly infernal, eoft- 
euiug the liardBfaips of his captivity, which raigbt 
have rendered death less terrible, and giving him 
again to taste of the pleasures of life. They 
removed htm to the house of the dean of Christ- 
church, where he fared delicately, and was allowed 
to play at bowls and walk about at his pleasure. 
Not to dwell upon this miserable scene, in which, 
after all, Cranmer excites rather pity and com- 
passion than contempt, and in which he is far 
-more eaaHy excused than in many others of hia 
preceding career, he formally renounced the faith 
he had taught, and, as his enemies were not satis- 
fied with his signature to one scroll, he signed 
recantation after recantation until the number 
amounted to sii ! ' But if we make a charitable 
and a proper allowance for the weakness of human 
nature in the case of the victim, we can make 
none for the diabolical malice of his peraecutora, 
who, when they had thus, as they conceived, 
loaded him with eternal obloquy, led him to tlie 
stake. While the monks and the learned doctor* 
at Oxford were in great jubilee at having brou^t 
down to the very mire one of the proudest co- 
lumns of the Reformed church, Mary sent secret 
orders to Dr. Cole, provost of Eton College, to 
prepare his condemned sermon. On the 21st of 
March the prisoner was brought up to St Hary's 
Church, where Cole explained in the aarmon that 
repentance does not avert all punishment, as ex- 
amples in the Bible proved; that Cranmer had 
done the church and the Boman Cathohca so 
much mischief that he must die; and that their 
majeBtiea had, l>eBideB, other good reasons for 
burning him. The fiUlen Primate of England 
had learned the day before what was Intended for 
him, and, having no longer the slightest hope of 
life, he seems to have summoned up resolution to 
meet his inevitable doom like a man. Some lew 
men — their number was wonderfully small oon- 
aideriug that death of torture— had recanted 
when brought to the stake and offered the queen's 
pardon on that condition; but it was not to be 
expected that any one would do so when there 
waa no ofer of pardon, bat, on the contrary, a 

■ StiTpn hu pnbliitwd tham il 

certain assurance of death. Accordingly, Cran- 
mer acted as every man would have done in the 
like situation ; he renounced the pope and all hia 
doctriues— he gave a brief summary of his real 
faith~he protested against the atrocioiiB means 
which had been used— be accused himaaU of hav- 
ing, from fear of death, sacrificed truth and his 
conscience by subscribing the raeantationo. It was 
not convenient to permit him to miUce a long ad- 
dress ; he was soon polled down from the plat- 
form in the church on which be stood, and horriad 
away to the same ditch, over against Baliol Col- 
lege, where his more fortunate friends, Ridley 
and lAtimer, had suffered five months before. 
He was stripped to the shirt, and tied to the 
stake: be made no moan or uaelees prayer for 
mercy in this world : the deal^ which he liad ao 
dreadedj and for so long a time, seemed le« 
dreadful when he saw it faoe to fara. As soon as 
the flames began to rise he thmst into them his 
right hand — that erring hand which had ngned 
the recantations.' The Bomiah church of Eng- 
land, with all its absolute hopes, may almost be 
said to have perished iu the flames that conramed 
Cranmer. The impression made by his martyrdom 
was immense, and as lasting as it waa wide and 
deep. On the side of the Catholics, tbe patting 
him to death waa as gross an error in policy as 
it waa atrocious and detestable as a crime. 

On the very day after Craomer's death, Oardi- 
nal Pole, who bad now taken priest's orden, waa 
eonsecnted and installed Archbisbop of Canter- 
bury. But, though primate and Papal legate, 
and fully ooovinced of tlie atrocity and worse 
than naelessness of persecution, he coold not 
change the temper of 4he queen, nor stay the 
bloody hands of her favourites and ministera. 
Paul IV., who now wore the tiara, bad been bis 
personal enemy; and Pole, who apparently had 
Dot more courage than Cranmer, seems to have 
stood in awe of his fierce and intolerant spirit. 
On tbe S7th of June thirteen peraone, being con- 
demned for opinions concerning the sacrmmeat, 
were burned at Stratford-le-Bow.' "Neither did 
the cruelty of the persecutors exercise its^ on 
the living only : the bones of Uartin Bucer and 
Paul Phagius, long since dead, were dug up, for- 
mally accused of heresy, and, no man undertaking 
their cause (as who durst?}, condemned, and pub- 
licly burned in tbe market-place at Cambridge. 
And Pet«r Martyr's wife, who died at Oxford, 
waa disinterred, and with barbarous and inhuman 
spit« buried in a dunghill." ' 

In order that we may not have to return to 
this revolting subject, we will here throw to- 
gethera few other incidents, in completion of the 
picture of Mary's persecutioua. From the mar- 

.- Buml; airypi; Blimt, SMc* t^Mf X(An«ttm. 


AJ). 1535—1568.] UA 

^rdom of John Hogers, who AoSered on the 4th 
of Febnuuy, IfiSS, about six months after M&ry's 
ttcceaaion, to the firehutvictima, who were bomed 
Rt Canterbniy on the 10th of November, 1658, 
0017 seven days before her de&th, not fewer than 
£68 individuab, among whom were five bishops, 
tweDtjTi-oae clergymen, fiftjr-five women, and four 
diildren, were burned in different places for 
their religious opinions; and, in addition to these, 
there were several hundreds who were tortured, 
ruined in their goods and estates, and many poor 
and friendless victims that were left to die of 
hunger in their priaons. WHh the exception of 
some tew of the churchmen, these individuals 
were almost entirely of the middling or humbler 
rlrmnm thr lich and great, aa we have noticed, 
and as has been observed by several writers be- 
fore na, showing little disposition to martyrdom. 
Only eight laymen of the rank of gentlemen are 
named; but it would be unjust to represent all 
the aristocrat^ as supple hypocrites, though they 
did not eipioee themselves voluntarily to perM- 
cution. The Earls of Oxford and Westmoreland 
and Lord Willoughby got into trouble, and were 
censured by the councU for religion ; and the 
second Earl of Bedford suffered a abort imprison- 
ment. Among those who were said to have 
"contemptuously gone over the seas,' there were 
several persons of rank, whose property and in- 
tereete suffered during their forced travels on tiie 
Continent. Other individuals, who held profit- 
able places under government, voluntarily re- 
signed them, and retired to the obscurity of a 
country life. The politic Cecil, who in heart and 
in head detested the coarse pursued, which he saw 
to be as bad in a political aa in 
a rdigious light, conformed out- 
wardly to what he could not re- 
sist ; and it is said that he drew 
the line of conduct for the Prin- 
cess Elizabeth, recommeuditig 
humility and obedience, and cer- 
tain compliances with the times. 
But it is quite certain that Blizn- 
beth pOBseased a natural turn bo th 
for simulation and diBsimDlation, 
and that she scarcely stood in 
need of a guide and instructor in 
these particulars. She opened a 
chapel in her house, as com- 
nanded; she entertained mass 
priests; she kept a large crud 
fix constantly suspended in hei 
chamber ; she worked with her HaTiuin 

own hands garments for saints 
and Madonnas ; and, when permitted to visit 
the court, and take part in Uie entertainments, 
she also, as a price paid therefor, accompanied 
the queen in her religious processions, which 
Voi- 11. 

■tT. 65 

wtm conduet«d with great pomp, and in her visit* 
to the re-Catholicised churches, which were in 
part restored to more than their ancient mag- 
nificence.' Elizabeth suffered more annoyance 
and persecution in the way of matrimony than 
on account of relifpon. Philip, who. was most 
anxious to remove her by marriage out of the 
kingdom, proposed, and in feet inusted that she 
should give her hand to the Duke of Savoy, 
who came into England to press his own suit; 
but the princess obstinately refused, and had the 
art or good fortune to gun over to her side her 
sister Mary, who rarely opposed the wishes of her 
husband. Soon after the King of Sweden tried 
to obtMn her hand for his eldest son Eric The 
Swedish amliassador intrusted with this delicate 
mission was directed by his sovereign to make 
his application directly to Elizabeth herself, by 
a message in which neither the queen nor her 
council was at preseut to participate. Elisabeth, 
who confidently looked to the succession of the 
English crown, aa one well aware of the state of 
Mary's health and of her own great popularity 
with a lai^ portion of the nation, not only re- 
jected the suit, but resolved to turn the gallant 
and generous mode in which it was opened by 
the Swede to her own immediate advaiitage. She 
declared that she could never liateu to any over- 
tures of this nature which had not previously 
received the sanction of ber majesty. Her ma- 
jesty was charmed at this declaration, and the two 
sisters thenceforward lived in tolerable friend- 
Bhip. Elizabeth, who lavished her protestations 
of gratitude for the queen's goodness — her ac- 
knowledgments that fihe was bound to honour 

-From Hall'i BuninlAl HaJbi. 

serve, love, and obey her highness in all thiugs 

— passed the greater part of the remainder of her 

aiater's reign at her pleasant manor of Hatfield, 

I RdaHiau, b; Kichde, th* Vsnrtlu unbuHdar; Dapiat*m 



[Civil ahd Miutabt. 

with few privations, and no penonal hftrdahipH 
to endure. A tender heart might hars been 
r»cked uid tortured bj the fote of others; uid 
in one partienlar caae the rojall; doll feelings of 
Elizabeth most have been touched. Sir John 
Cheke, one of the finest scholars of that period — 
one of the best of men if he had risen above the 
intolerance and persecuting Hpirit of hia age, had 
been fveceptor to her brother King Bdmrd, knd 
had assisted in her own education. Sir John 
got free from the Tower, into which he was 
thrown for the part he had taken in the affair of 
lAdf Jane Orej, but alt his landed property was 
confiscated. Having obtained her majeaty's per- 
iniBsioD to travel on the Continent for a limited 
period, he went to Switzerland. Led by bis love 
of classical lore, he crossed the AIpe into Italy, 
and even visited Botne, the head-quarters of the 
reb'gion which he had attacked. la the begla- 
ning of 15fi6 he reached Strasburg, whence be 
addressed a letter to his dear friend and brother' 
in-law, Sir William Cecil, imploring him t« hold 
fast his Frot«stiuit faith. From Strasburg Sir 
John Oheke privately repaired on a visit to his 
two learned friends Lord Paget and Sir John 
Hason, who were then Mary's ambassadors in 
Flandera. Both these men were recent court 
converts to Catholicism, and Paget had testified 
great zeal. On bis retnni, between Brussels and 
Antwerp, Gbeke, with his companion Sir Peter 
Oarew, was arrested by a provoat.marshal of 
King Philip, bound hand and foot, thrown into 
a cart, and conveyed to a veaael which wae about 
to tuH for England. It seems titat his leave of 
absence had expired, and that there was no new 
political offence to be alleged against him except 
hisnot returning home at the time fixed. But tn 
these cruel jnoceedinga the queen and her hus- 
band, and the zealots of their party, aimed at a 
high object. Cheke, though a laynuui, had done 
almost as much as Cranmer in consolidating the 
Protestant church, and it was resolved to force 
him to recant. Gagged and mufSed, be was 
thrown into the Tower, and, to escape the stake 
and the miseries to which he was subjected, he 
ugned three ample recuntations, and publicly 
proclaimed his acceptance of all the tenets and 
doctrinca of the Boman eborch. But this was 
not de«med price enough for a liberation from 
priaon to riiAiae and obloquy : he was made to 
applaud the heavenly mercy of his peneeators; 
nay, it is said that he was obliged to take his 
seat on the bench by the side of Bishop Bonner, 
and assist that English inquisitor in sentencing 
his brother ProteBtants to the fiames at Bmithfield. 
Shame, remor«e,and affliction caused this accom- 

>/ KrmillH, tha Fnedi imbuador Th* ' 

ta OmitoiioMaUTM), 

plished man to die in the forty-seventh yearof 
his age of a death more terrible than baming-. 

Although the Inquisition never obtained a 
name or formal establiahment in England, all the 
worat practices of that institution ware adopted. 
An ecclenastieal oommission was appointed, with- 
out authority of parliament, for the efibctoal ex- 
tirpation of herepy. The oommissionara were 
empowered to inquire into all heresies, either by 
presentments, by witneaees, ch- by any other poli- 
tical way they could devise— to seize the bringen 
in, the sellers, the readers of all heretical booko — 
to examine and pitnish ail misbehaviour ia any 
cbnrch or cbtqiel, and negligence in attending 
maao, confession, and the rest — to by all prieata 
that did not preach pure Roman orthodoxy — 
and if they foand any that did obstinately per- 
sist in their hereaies, they were to pat tlian into 
the hands of their ordinaries, to be pimiahed ac- 
cording to the spiritual laws. The oommisuon^ 
had also full power to break open houaea, to 
search premises, to compel the attendanceof wit- 
nesses, "and to force them to make oath of ancfa 
things as might diEcover what they soi^t 
after.*' It appean from letters written to Lord 
North and others, that there was a standing 
order "to put to the torture such obstinate per- 
sons as would not eonfees." Informers were en- 
couraged and courted ; so that nearly every 
villun could gratify hia spite on his personal 
enemies by accusing them of heresy or of disre- 
spectful words; and, at the same time, secret spies 
were retiuned, who not only frequented public 
places, but also invaded the sacred privacy of 
domestic life. The justices of the peace received 
instmctioDS to call secretly before them one or 
two honest persons within their districts, or more, 
at their discretion, and impoee on them by oath 
or otherwise, the duty of secretly learning and 
searching out such persona aa "evil behaved 
themselves " in church, or that spoke against the 
king's or queen's proceedings. And it was set 
down iu the same diabolical instructions, "that 
lie information shiUI be ^ven taeret/y to the jus- 
ticca; and the same justices shall call the accused 
persons before them, and examine them, without 
declaring by whom they are accused.'* Althou)^ 
the character of the upper clasaes of society had 
been wofully deteriorated, the naturally frank 
and generous spirit of the English people revolted 
at such practices; and not the hundredth part of 
the mischief was done which might have been 
expected from the estahliBliing of such a system. 
This was the period of persecution for religions 
opinions; the efforts and the succeM of Luther, 
Calvin, and the other Reformers, had excited a 
fury among the Catholics which nothing short of 
blood and life could allay. The penal fires were 

,v Google 

ASt 15S3— 15fi8.] Ui 

blnzing from one end of Europe to the other; and 
terrible as was the brief lage of Harya reign, 
Eaglftnd, as compared with must other ChriBtian 
couutneB, was dagularlj' tortoiute.' 

Maiy'a care for ^le souls of her Babjects did 
not improve tbeir nvoali. Without going to the 
full length of some Frotcatant writers, we ma; 
aMert, npon good evidence, that crime w>b on 
the inereaae, and that capital offences, indepen- 
denUjr of thoae ol a religions kind, greatly multi- 
plied. Fifty-twD petaODs were condemned and 
execated at Oxford at one anize. Loathsome 
offHices le-^pe&red : ti>e highways became again 
insecure. On more thuk one occasion men of 
rank became thieves and cnt-purses. In this 
Qnlncby year London and other cities were 
Tinted bj the "hot burning fevers" which were 
partjcnlarly fatal to old persons. In the follow- 
ing jear the ooDotry was afflicted bj an extreme 
dearth, sod pestilence stalked in the rear of far- 
mine. Plots and consplradee, also, were not 
wanting, for which such abundant caosea were 
ministered in the violation both of dvil and reli- 
gious liberty. 

.-,- Hut's husband Philip was now 
King of Spun, and abwllute Lord of 
Naples, Riciiy, the Mihuiese, the Low Countries, 
the Indies, and other fair and fertile countries, 
which well deaerved a better master. This had 
not happened by the death, but by the voluntary 
resignation of his father Charles Y. The empe- 
ror and king, who had been for forty years the 
mightiestpotentate in Europe, becoming suddenly 
sick of worldly dominion — 

" Cast orowDf for ntam^v »inv — 

Though only fifty-five years old, and with his 
faculties, both mental and physical, to all ap- 
pearanoe nnimp«ured, he determined to renounce 
liis mnny crowns. On the 25th of October, IfiSS, 
he met the states of the Low Countries, ex< 
plained to them the reasons of his resignation, 
absolred them from their oaths of alliance, 
and devolved his authority on Philip — weeping, 
it is said, as he reflected on the burden which he 
imposed upon his eon. A few months later be for- 
mally resigned to Philip all his other dominions, 
and all his titles, with the exception of the lofty 

BY. 67 

one of emperor, which it was not in his power to 
bestow.' He chose for his retreat the monastery 
of SL Just, situated on the frontiers of Castile 
and Portugal, near to Placentio. He survived 
about two years, chiefly occupying his time in 
cultivating a little garden, reading divinity, mak- 
ing clocks, and trying experiments and inven- 
tions in mechanics. Many things are related of 
him in his retreat; one of the best, which is pro- 
bably as true as any of them, being that, upon 
finding he could never make two clocks to go 
exactly alike, he deplored the pains he had tAkeu, 
and the blood he had shed, in order to make 
all mankind think and believe in one way.' 

It was not always that the moat Catholic king 
enjoyed the faronr of the court of Borne; foreven 
in that high quarter political considerations or 
personal animosities continnaliy interfered with 
the spiritual scheme. Paul lY,, who, as a bigot, 
and as the first that introduced the tribunal of 
the Inquisition in Borne,* might have been ex- 
pected to lean towards the congenial fanatimsm 
of Philip, hated the Spaniards with an Andent 
and hereditary hatred, and, as a neceasair conse- 
quence, favom«d the French and their party in 
Italy; for, without the arms of France, the pope 
saw no possibility of overthrowing the dominion 
of Sptun, which, be it said, was oppressive, and 
barbarizing, and odious to the Italian people. 
The great ability of the Emperor Charles had 
imposed respect; but Paul thought the acceaaion 
of Philip, in such unusual circnmstauees, too 
good an opportunity to be lost, and, before the 
new king was well settled on his throne, the pon- 
tiff opened negotiations with the French. He 
set on foot plots and conspiracies in Naples, his 
native country, which was groaning under the 
weight of Spanish misrule ; and he finally arranged 
a grand plan, by which the French king was to 
expel Philip by force of arms, and take posses- 
sion of the Neapolitan kingdom, of the Milanese, 
and the other states in Upper Italy, which his 
ancestors had claimed, and several tiroes held, 
though for very short periods. But Paul had 
formed an erroneous estimate of Philip, who was 
ever vigilant and suspicious, and who soon ob- 
tMned intelligence of the secret manaenvrea in 
Italy. In an opportune moment, at the end of 
the year 16S&, he sent the Duke of Alva to take 

11 Un ud Di 

,. thgn anij Gaxdinul CsnR^ > >'atpi}UUii, 
— It wu imdrntd frightful bj 

u of pnnBdim ; t 

* CbMfJm had Hoorad it BlnHlT totdi tamOwrPardlDUid. wbi 
HOIK tbe bnparor Fwdinand L ' Di ntu; Sajli. 

* TIh rial iBVMUoa n* ftnt OMUIA^ at Roma t? tlu 

Knd tbd flnt thing ths BonuDB tlld after Uiadeatb of thboiljoni 
potitiff (whJah happonod Id luo] wai to bum th« trlbtmal of tba 
H0I7 OOca, to UbeiaU aU Uie primwi tnr matlsn of nliglDn, 
and to niM ^ka priaoiu of tba InqaiiitLcn t4 tlia gnnad- It ll 
a gnat mlitaka to mppoH that thia horrid tribnoa] wh thoM 
paworTil at Homa. Maaj of tha popoa datdtod It. Tbt tnia 
■oiBxs of tti ml^t wai pot baTimd ths Alpa, but Uia Pjumasa — 
[n Spain and Fortogal. In a oonaMttabla part of Italf It waa 





npon liimBelf tLe goveiument of Naplea. Before 
tois, Alva was gcvemer of Milan, and now he 
had the supreme command of the whole of Italj 
that appertained to the SponiardH, whose armies 
were reinforced in order to meet the French 
(then preparingtocrouthe Alps nkder the Duke 
of OoUe) and keep down the Italian people, who, 
in manj places, were ready to rise. The pope 
was in a paroxysm of rage, which did not permit 
faim to wear an almost useless mask. He 
rested And threw into prison Oarcilasso de la 
Vega, who wtis then at Bomeaaambasaadorfrom 
Philip ID his quality of King of England ; and he 
imprisoned and put to the torture De Tassis, the 
Roman poatmaster, for passing certnin letters writ- 
ten in the Spanish interest. The Duke of Alva, 
who soon afterwarda massacred the Proteet&nts 
in heaps in the Low Countries, showed little de- 
licacy towards this turhulent head of the Catholic 
church ; anticipating his movements, he marched 
an army across the Neapolitan froDtiers into the 
Roman States. The Spaniards spread confusion, 
destruction, and terror through the whole Papal 
territory: people fiod from the city of Rome, ex- 
pectbg another sack, and not doubting that the 
troops of hia moat Catholic majes^ would prove 
as bloodthinty and rapacious aa the aniiliariea 
under tiie Constable Bourbon: but Paul IV., 
who had the fierce spirit of a pope of the four- 
teenth century, woold not listen to terms of ac- 
commodation ; and though one of his nephews, 
the Cardinal Carafia, hod a conference with the 
Duke of Alva, they concluded nothing bat a 
truce for forty days. In the meanwhile, not- 
withstanding a aolemn truce for five years, which 
still existed between i^^once and Spain, the Duke 
of Onise had led an army through the psases of 
the AJpe, and waa looking forward with bright 
and aot iiiireaaanahle hopes to the conquest of 
Lombardy.' This was the state of affairs in 
Italy towards the end of the year 1556. In the 
month of March of the present year (I5S7} King 
Philtp gratified hia wife Mary with a short visit, 
and he entered London in some state, being ac- 
companied by the queen and divers nobles of the 
realm.' But it was soon seen that his most 
Catholic majesty had not come for love, the sole 
object of hia visit being to drive Maty and her 
council iuto a declaration of war agaiost France. 
This, however, was not so easy a matter as he 
hud fancied : Cirdiual Pole and nearly the whole 
of the council opposed the measure ; and even 
euch of the niniHtry as were more compliant 
dreaded the effects of a war with France, which 
wHB sure to be accompanied by a war with 
Scotland, in the present denmg^ state of the 
finances and evident iU.humour of the people. 

1 uiumobA, Storia Cinlt d^t M 

But the Spanish interests were served by a stniDge 
accident Among the nnoierons Eoglish refo- 
gees in Fnaoe was one Thomas Stafibrd, a per- 
son of some rank and influence, who entertained 
the notion of revolutionizing England. With 
only thirty-two persons he cromed over from 
fVance, landed at Scarborough in TorkshiR, 
and surprised the castle there : but, on (he third 
day they were all made prisonera by the Earl of 
Westmoreland, without effusion of blood ; Staf- 
ford, Richard Saunders, snd three or four othtri, 
among whom was a Frenchman, were sent up 
to London, committed to the Tower, and there 
tortured into a confeeuon that Henry IT., the 
French king, had aided and abetted their euter- 
prise ; which wofl not altogether improbable, as 
the French court knew what Philip and tbe 
Spaniards wei-e doing in London, ss well as th« 
devotion of Mary to her husband's inteieats. 
Upon the S8th of Uaf , Stafford was beheaded on 
Tower-hill, and on the morrow three of his com' 
paniouB were drawn to Tybum and there exe- 
cuted, BichardSaundBra,whohadprohablylieeD 
a traitor, or had divulged more than the rest, re- 
ceived the queen's pardon. Making the most of 
what had happened, the queen accused the French 
court of encouraging many traitorous bands of 
her subjects — of giving an asylum to her out- 
laws, who were maintained in France with annual 
pensions, contrary to treaty — of sending over to 
the castle of Scarhorongh, Stafford and others in 
French ships, provided with armour, monition, 
and money; and on the 7th of June she made a 
formal declaration of war — perhaps the first de- 
claration of the kind thoroughly unpopular with 
lation. Having obtained what he wanted, 
and earnestly recommended the instant raising 
of troops to act as auxiliaries to hia own anny 
on the northern frontiers of France, Philip took 
his departure on the 6th of July, and, happily 
for England, he never returned! It was diUicalt 
— most difficult — to do her husband's bidding; 
but, with great exertions, Mary levied lOl* 
horse, 4000 foot, and SOUO pioneers, and sent 
them over to Flanders in the end of July, under 
the command of the Earl of Pembroke, with ths 
Lord Robert Dudley, for his master of the ord- 

Ajnidst this din of war, the Lady Anne of 
Cleves died very quietly at Chelsea. She It^ft a 
good name behind her among the people, sud 
buried like a princess royal in Westmmster 

Having joined the bands of Flemings, Ger- 

ans, Italians, Dalmatians, Ulyrians, Croats, 

and o Aers, that formed the army of King I'bilip, 

the English marched with this mixed host, ander 

the supreme command of Elizabeth's rejected 

*amj Bolmiltrd. 


.D. 1556—1558.] MARY. 69 

□r, the Dnke of Savoy, od« of the most Ap- I guise. When Pbilip obtained a bint of the in- 

tended project of Guise, he offered to reinforca 
the gurisoD of CkImm with a body of Spauiab 
troops ', but the English council, with a jeiJouaj 
certainly not groundless, declined this offer. But 
at the same time they were unable to make any 
ready effort themselves, even when warned of the 
danger: the English navy had been allowed to go 
to wreck and rain :' to victual the remnant of it, 
to send the boopa to Flanders, the queen had 
seized all the corn she could find in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, without paying for it : to meet the ex- 
penses of that expedition she had forced the city 
of London to lend or give her ;C60,000; she 
had levied before the legal time the second year's 
subsidy vot«d by parliament; she had iwned 
many privy seals to procure loans from people 
of property; she had, in short, ezhaosted her 
I for her husband, and at the moment of 
she appears to have dreaded calling her 

proved captains of those times; and they soon 
distinguished themselves by their bravery in a 
fierce battle under the walls of St Quentin, 
vhere many of the chief nobility of IVnnce were 
either sMn or taken prisou< 

stematiou was spread among the French, that it 
was thought by many that Philip might have 
tnkeu Paris had he marched immediately upon 
it. But Philip waa always wary and cautious; 
nor does he appear ever to have contemplated 
the doing of much more than the forcing of the 
Duke of Guise to come out of Italy. He sat 

downbefore the town of St Quentin, which made 

a gallant resistance for seventeen days, during 

which the French had time to fortify Paris, and 

to call up troope from the provinces. But an 

invadiug army of 60,000 men was so formidable 

that they were obliged even to recal the Duke of 

Guise, and, as Philip had calculated, that general, 
who had advanced to the fron- 
tiers of Naples, hurried back 
across the Alps. To prolong 
the campaign in an easy man- 
ner, Philip ordered the Span- 
inrds, English, Croats, and the 
rest, to lay siege to Ham and 
Cattelet, whicb places they 
took, and then,onthe approach 
of winter, they retired into 
quarters in Flanders. 

In fact, the coming of Guise 
out of Italy, which was so pro- 
fitable to PhilipJ was a mortal 
blow to Maiyj for that active 
commander, after aeeuring the 
northern frontiers, reeolved to 
sit down before Calais in the 
depth of wiutar, and vigor- 
ously, and with A large army, 
commence a siege which, for 
»gea, had been deemed utterly 
hopeless, Calais, which the 
English considered as impreg-- a. CmiIii, b, 

nable, and as perfectly secure d*g!Im1S^ 

from an assault during the 
winter, had generally its garrison reduced at I parliament together to ask for 
Uiat season ; but in the present Year, throutth I And thna w*m ths wmV «„„ 
want of money and t 
Philip, that reduction 
thirds of the whole for 
vember two skilful Ii 
»nd Delbene, reconnoit 
fiJrta wljftcent, having | 
' 'n.g whDlo at th« blune ii 

I, Diteli filial <ri 
to Doalogaa. 




he, with the other, and an unuBually heavy train 
of artillery, marched towards Nieulaj, or Newn- 
ham Bridge, &nd, attacking in force an outwork 
at the village of St. Agatha, at the head of the 
causeway, drove the garriaoii into Newnham, and 
took pogaesuon of th&t ontwork. The English 
lord-deputy Wentworth feeling that, from the 
miserable weaknesB of the gairiBOn, he c 
spare no assistance for the defence of the other 
outworks, ordered them to be evacuated as soon 
as they should be attacked. This was done at 
Newnham Bridge, whence the captain retired 
with his soldiers into Callus ; but the ontwork of 
Riaebank surrendered with its garrison. Thus, 
by the third morning of the siege, the Doke of 
Guise had made himself mairter of two most ii 
portant posts, of which one commanded the en- 
trance of the harbour, the other the approach 
across the manhes from Flanders. The next 
day, he battered the walls near to the Water- 
gate, in order to make the English believe that 
he intended to force an entrance at that point, 
and cause them "to have the less regard unto the 
defence of the castle," which was the weakest 
partof the town, and the place " where the French 
were ascertained by their espials to win easy 
entry;' and while the garrison lost time inrfpair- 
ing a false breach made by the Watergate, Guise 
suddenly brought fifteen double cannons to bear 
upon the castle, which, with astounding n^li- 
gence on the part of the English govercmeut, had 
l)een suffered to fall into such decay tliat it tot- 
tered at the firet cannon shot, and a wide breach 
was made in it before evening. When that was 
done. Guise detached one body to occupy the 
quay, and another, under Strozzi, to effect a lodg- 
ment on the other side of the harbour; but Strozzi 
was beaten back with losfl. About eight in the 
eTening, at ebb-tide, De Grammont was thrown 
forward with some 300 arquebusiers to recon- 
noitre the great breach in the castle. The ditch 
was broad and deep, but the water was low, hav- 
ing been partially drained off, and the French 
had brought up by sea a great quantity of hurdles 
and other materials to facilitate the passage. 
Upon Grammont's rejiort that the breach seemed 
to be abandoned. Guise threw himself into the 
ditch, and forded it, not finding the water much 
above his girdle ; his men followed in great haste 
— and happy men were they to enter the rotten 
old castle without resistance. The Lord Went- 
worth, as the best thing that could be done, had 
withdrawn the English aoldiers, had made a train 
with certain big barrels of gunpowder, and now 
anticipated the pleasure of blowing the castle and 
the Frenchmen into the air together. But this 
train was badly laid; the French, coming up out 
of theditch witii thcirclothes wringing wet, mois- 
tened the gunpowder, and saw Uie attempt to 

destroy them fail After passing tha night in the 
castle. Guise sent on his men to the assault of the 
town, which he fancied would be taken with 

equal eaae ; but the marshal, Sir Anthony Agar, 
with a small body of biSTa men, repulsed the 
French, and drove them back to the ^stle. Sir 
Anthony next tried to drive them from that posi- 
tion, and persevered till he himself, his son and 
heir, and some fonrBoore officers and men, wer« 
Ifud low in front of the eastle-gate. So miswably 
weak was the garrison, that this sm&ll Iom of 
men was decisive. Having in vain expected aid 
from Dover — having received no tidings, nor m> 
much as a sign— the lord-deputy on that same 
night demanded a parley. The EVench acceded, 
but would grant none but the hanhest terms of 

About two of the clock next day at after- 
1, being the 7th of January, a great ntuaber 
of the meanest sort were suffered to pass oat of 
the town in safety, being guarded through the 
army with a number of Scottish light-honemen, 
who used the Ekiglish very well and friendly; and 
afterthiSjCveiyday for the space of three or four 
days together, there were sent away divera wm- 
Bs of them till all were avoided, those only 
excepted that were appointed to be reeerved for 
prisonera, as the Lord Wentworth &nd ethers 
There were in the town of Calius 600 English 


A.D. 1556—1566.] MA 

■oldieTB ordinaiy, and no more ; and of the towoa- 
men not fully 200 fighting men (a smaU garrison 
for the defence of Bach a town), and there were 
in the whole number of men, women, and cbil- 
drea (»» they were accounted when they went 
out of the gate), 4200 peraoiu." ' 

ThoB waa loat, iu six days, the town of Calais, 
which had coot Edward III. an obstinate uege of 
more than eleven months, and which the English 
had kept through all the varietiea of their for- 
tune for Sll ;eat% 

The grief of the English coort, and the vexv 
tion of the people, were as great as the joy and 
triumph of the French, Yet, except as a humili- 
ation to military fame, and as a blow to national 
pride, the loaa was not so serioua. Calais, indeed, 
hard been reckoned "ai one of the eyea of Eng- 
land,' but it was an eye constantly in pain and 
peril, costing immense mmi for its care and cure ; 
sod it was soon found that England could see 
i-erjr well without it The people, howeTer, long 
murmured and lamented, and the government 
was di*gTa<«d and depressed in the eitreme by 
this neidt of a war which they had engaged in 
withont justice or reason. At the same time the 
Scots, acting on the usuad impulse from France, 
began to stir upon the Borders. After the peace, 
which we have mentioned in the preceding reign, 
the Queen-dowager Mary of Guise made a journey 
to Fnmce, carrying with her many of the princi- 
pal Soottish nobility. She visited her daughter 
Mary and her relations, and arranged a grand 
political plan, by which, on her return, though 
not withont difficulty, the Earl of Arran was in- 
duced to resign the vhole government of the 
kingdom into her hands.' On the 12th of April, 
1S54, she aswuned the name of regent. In this 
capacity she acted chiafly under the guidance of 
D'Oisel, a Frenchman of great ability. Her gov- 
emment, upon the whole, was judicious and bene- 
ficial to Scotland; it would have been more so 
had the regent not been obliged to make sacrifices 
to the politics, religion, and interests of her family 
and friends in France. When Mary declared 
war in the preceding year, the French court re- 
quired the Queen.regeut of Scotland to make a 
diversion in their favour. She summoned a con- 
vention at Newbottle, and requested the states to 
concur in a declaration of hostilities against Eng- 
land ; but the Scottish nobles, in part from a 
jealousy of the French, in part from their con- 
viction that the war would be unprofitable, re- 
fused their assent. Upon this, she ordered lyOisel 
to begin some fortifications at Eyemouth. As this 
was upon ground mentioned in the last treaty 

< Ana had bem gmtUM irlth Ftmii pnuiMii, >Mli the 
U(k-«uidiyg UtUof Daka of CtulaUanalt. ud vitli > pubUc 
KknowMfiaaiut hk rt(bt u nut b^ ((ABC Uie jnmf Mu7) 

!T. 71 

with Edward, part of the garrison of Berwick 
made an inroad to prevent the erectiim of tha 
works. This proceeding, as she had calculated, 
exasperated the Scottish people, who anon retalin 
ated in their own fashion by making forays into 
England, without waiting or caring for any de- 
claration or orders from the government. But 
when D'Oisel, in person, undertook the siege of 
the castle of Wark, the council prevented him, 
and not only recalled him, but gave him a sharp 

After the French king had visited Calais he 
made great haste for the accomplishment of the 
marriage between Francis his eldest son, called 
the dauphin, and Mary Stuart, daughter and sola 
heirof JameBV.,lateKiDgofScol1and. Thegreat 
political importance of this match will be devel- 
oped in the following reign. For the present it 
will saf&ce to stale that Mary Queen of Scots, in 
the sixteenth year of her age, was onited to a 
sickly, silly boy, a few mouths younger than her- 
self, and that the memoiable marriage was solem- 
nized in the city of Paris on the 24th of April 
(1S68). Before this great event, bat at a time 
when it was known it would take place, and 
when the nation was smarting with the pang of 
the recent loss and di^race at Calais, Queen 
Uary snmmoned a parliament that she might 
implore for more money. This parliament met, 
and the members being evidently excited by a 
passionate desire to recover Calais, or to vindicate 
the honour of the national arms by giving some 
notable defeat to the French, without making 
any reflections on the arbitrary methods recently 
resorted to by the queen for the raising of money, 
they proceeded to vote her a fifteenth, a subsidy 
of 4t. in the pound on land, and 2i. 8d. on goods, 
to be paid in four years, by equal instalments. 
From this liberal parliament the queen turned to 
the clergy, who readily granted her Bt. in the 
pound, to be paid in the like manner in four years. 
With the money thus raised, Mary hired a number 
of ships, and despatched a fleet of upwards of 100 
sail of all sizes, but chiefly small, under the high- 
admiral, Edward Lord Clinton, who was ordered 
to join King Philip's squadron, and while the 
French king should be engaged in the field with 
the Spanish army and their auxiliaries, to lay 
waste his coast and surprise some of his towns, 
Brest in particular. But the expedition was 
badly managed: instead of making at once for 
Brest, Clinton and the Flemish admiral lay to, 
near the little town of Conquet, where one morn- 
ing at break of day they sounded their trumpets, 
"as the manner was," and, "wi^ a thundering 
peal of great guns," awoke the poor inhabitants. 
They landed with little or no opposition, and, 
mastering the town, "put it to the sackage, with 
a great abbey and many pretty towns and villages 

,v Google 


[Civil and Miutxiit. 

lb.~l«n* who. ou, n... found gr»t rto» ol ! gromd v«j .MM; » Ita »»W, n«r » 
riUwurflgoodboolie.." Ali^thkbglcriou. Gnvelinei H. fort.arf h« l.ft jmg, .»d 
•xcSit Ihw m»irfi«l «.»» w.y up th« couulir, brought hl< right lank to thi buit of the nrer 
bnmto. mot. villi«e. «iid houiwi i md then th« 1 Atr, clo.. to it. mouth. Wli.n th« Spraard. 

began cannoiiadiDg, the tea Eug- 
lish ahips which happened t« be on 
th&t part of the coast, attracted bj 
the aound of battle, sidled np th« 
river, opened a tremendous fire upon 
the right flank of the French, and 
contributed materially to one of tlie 
moat decisive victories gained dur- 
ing these vrara. The Marshal da 
Termea, Yillebon, and manj' other 
distinguished Frenchmen were 
taken priBonera. Not a few of the 
r men ran into the sea and perished 
there. Only a few half-naked fugi- 
tives escaped both death and cap- 
But a greater piece of good for- 
tune for England was approaching 
than would have been the recapture 
of Calais and fifty such victories as 
that of Gravelinea. About the be* 
ginning of September the queen fell 
sick of a prevalent disorder, vaguelj 
called a cold and hot borning fever, 
which appears to have been nothing 
more than a bod sort of ague. Our chroniclers tell 
us that the disease — whatever it was — was fatal 
only to persons in advanced life: but Uary bad 
long been preniaturely old, and when she was at- 
tacked her heart was bruised and broken. She 
removed from her favourite reaidence of Harop- 
loQ Court to Westminster, where aha lay "lan- 
guishing of a long sickneaa nntil the 17th of 
November, when between the home of five and 
six in the morning, she ended her life in this 
world at her house at St. James',* having reigned 
five years, four months, and eleven days, and 
lived a wretched life of forty-three years and nine 

Within twenty-two hours of the queen's death 
her friend and kinsman Beginald Pole, cardinal- 
legate, and Archbishop of Canterbuiy, expired at 
Lambeth;' his death being a mnch sorer injury 
— a more fatal blow to the Catholic church in 
England, than that of Mary, whose fierce bigotry 
advanced, perhaps, more than anything the cause 
of the BcformaCioii.' 

It has been the fashion with Protestant writers 
not to allow thisunhappywomanasingle virtue; 
and yet, in truth, Mary had many good and 
generous qualities. She was generally sincere 

Bmr or tbk Time.— Fnm ■ print ■ttribatad (o AogiutH 

English retreated to the sea-side, where their 
ships lay ready to receive them; but their allies, 
the ElemingB, being more covetous of spoil, or less 
cautious, passed farther into the interior, and 
beiug encountered by the power of the country, 
lost 400 or 500 men before they could regfun their 
ships. Notwithstanding Clinton's having with 
him a considerable land force under the command 
of the Earts of Huntingdon and Rutland, he was 
alarmed at the reports of the forces collecting or 
collected in Brittany, under the Duke of Es- 
tampes, and thought it best not to attempt any 
assault against the town of Brest, or to stake 
longer stay thereabouts.* A small squadron of 
ten English ships performed more honourable 
service. The Marshal de Terraes, governor of 
Calais, had made an irruption into Flanders with 
an army of 9(HK) foot and 150U horse. He easily 
forced a passage across the river Aar, or Aire, (o 
Dunkirk, burned that town to the ground, and 
scoured and desolated the whole country almost 
as far as Newport; but there he was euihlenly 
checked by Count Egmont. Apparently through 
the sujierior marching of the Spanish infantry, 
Egmout got to Gravelines before de Termes, and 
tlirew Bk jMUl of his army between the French 
and the lovnt of Calais, their only sure place of 
retreat. A general battle was thus inevitable, 
and to fight it the French genend chose his 

rn li (Wirini— (uio 


AD. 155.1—1658,] MA 

^anU high-minded, and sliruuk from that trickery 
and treacherj in atate niat(«n which her more 
fortouftto uBter Elizabeth adopted without heai- 
UitioD as a general rule of couducL Notwitb- 
stAoding h«a: «ad experience of the world, and 
the depreaung inflaences of ill-health, she was 
capable of warm and lasting friendshipe: ta a 
niistreaa she was not odIj liberal, but kind and 
attentive, even towards the meanest servant of 
her household; she was charitable to the poor, 
and moat eonsiderate for the afflicted; she was 
the first to snggest the foundation of an estab- 
lialuuent, like Chelsea Hospital, for the reception 
of invalid soldiers, and in her will she appro- 
priated certain funds to this national object.' 
like all the reat of her testamentary bequests, 
this was utterly neglected by her sacceasor, not- 
withstanding the dyingqueeu's earnest, entreaties 
that she would suffer the intention of her will to 
l>e caiti^ into effect.' 

Nor was Mary deficient in acquirements aud 
M<>MmpliBhuient8. As well as her junior half- 

JT. 73 

sister, she bad received what may be called a 
learned education ; she had some acquaintance 
with Greek, and not only read but also wrote 
latin, and her letters in that language wen 
pmised by Erasmus. Among her accomplish- 
ments are enumerated embroidering, dancing, 
and music. She played three instruments — the 
virginals, regals, and lute.' 

In most matters her taat« wna more delicate 
and better than that of Elizabeth, and though 
she bad less personal dignity, and cared not "to 
go slowly and to march wiLli leisure and with a, 
certain grandytie," as her hnlf-sister always did 
when in public, she never gave way to violent 
gesticulation and the swearing of gross oaths, 
which her successor was almost as much addicted 
to as her father Henry. But as a queen all these 
qualities and accomplishments (abilities of a high 
order she had none) were of the slightest value, 
and their insignificance is shown in the records of 
her miserable reign, and the boundless triumph 
over all of her master-passion.' 

lUble quUtiH, wl 

lilting thai Ulb Pmict 
tbo Iknlu of » _ 
LnlfnH UiM Mur'> tiAga wi 

tiilitj to hi> n>U(lon. 

had a tem^'tAtkni ta 

wlwUj dnnlad ta Spain, 

inglariooa, bix aftiMr 

that, altbongh Dunansntic 

of diAimnlatlcm aa bar iJiUr, mud of breach 

baDd^ that Bha obMaaltlj and wilfull; 

fpnt; and that the wonh with which Carta haa cmcJudad the 
laiaetor of thla anlamented eoverelfCD. though little pleaalog 

aticm to the htink of rolu, iha left It, bf her lea- 

t pnKA of Marj't pceeatBingeoxiie 
hut bl«at< OD the other aide will 

(kUlnhiTaoithhlinibjeot. He 
oofu. reljiog Dcraalorallj on the 
lonbtfOl kliulof oHdaiiie. giTui« an ioteip'et'tlai it otbtr 
hj wmrda uid thln^ whloh thoj will eoamlj hoar, and 
od then drawing ooncluloni directly eootnr^ to what the 
ronld juatliy, Hmne, krrowjn^ thjit Mar? BuJl^nd ■ 
wiAtched etata of health, and having othar good erldenoo to go 
npon, deecrlbed bar aa being uf a lonr and anUsn diapoamon. 
Tbla, H}a Sir Piaderlck Hailden, li u Inaonuaoj notoiioiH to 
thoee Kl all aofoalnted with the hlitor; of the period ; and ts 
anpport hie opinion ha mentiont that Mmij vie once eeeo te 
lau^ hfartU]' at a tninblei at nreanwinh— that ahe kept In her 
■arihie a ftmaje Jialar (everr king at the time ke|;t a fbcd nTTMl) 

the Pritr Ptnl Szpfm. and inn 

hoUdaj^ Sir I'rederlek If addan bffeU BmlthBeld, and the In* 

that blaied Is iU parti of the klstdom during thie AlBfm 



L AKD iiaJtSKT. 


ELIZABETH. — ACCKSSION, A.D, 155fl— DEATH, A.D. 1630. 

Elizabeth prooUitawl queen— Fopnlu' joy kt her Mcesuon—Her kmbignoiu condncl kbont tlie Httlenitnt of nlifimi 
— F«£euite *t hsi' entr&ace into Loudon — ^Har ooroDfttioa — Sha la urged to declATe heriiiteatioDBftbout religioD 
—Enutmants of pu-liamant for its MttlemeDt — DieutiifiKtioii of the Fapiate^EtUabelh Tsjacti tha advice of 
parliament to mitrry — Froteatajitiam re-cHtabliahed in England — Penalties inSicted on PapistB — DepriTatioa aod 
imprisonment of the Popish bishops — BUiabeth's legitimaey denied bj the Guisea — Reform»tion in Scotland — 
Effscta of John Knox's preSiching—Deoiolttian of abbeys and monasteiies— Mary Stuart becomea Qoean of 
Franee — CoDtentinn between Hary of Oniae, Begent of Soatlaud, aud the Protestanta — Elisabeth aids tbv 
Scottish Froteatants — Kegotiationi between theci and bet miniiten — Tbe contert maiDtainod id Scotlaod hj 
French and English money— Leith fortified by French troops against the Scottish Protestaata — Tbe Soota 
aided bj troopa from England — Siege of Leith — Death of ilary of Oaise^Cspitulation of I.eiCh~Suiton to 
Elimbeth tor marriage. 

ft T the time of Mary's demiHe the pai^ 
9 liament was sitting. Herdeathwas 
g concealed from tbe public for aome 
^ hours ; but, before hood, Heath, 
t Archbishop ofYork,wboliad been 
si !ord - chanc«llor Hince Giirdiner'B 
decease, weut down to the House of Iiords, and 
tent immediately to the speaker of the commons, 
desiring him, with the knights and burgeaseH, to 
repair without delay to the upper house, in 
order to give their as- 
sent in a case of great 
importance. Heath 
then announced in due 
form that God had cal- 
led to his mercy tbe 
late sovereign lady 
Qneen Mary — a heavy 
and grievous woe, but 
relieved by the blessing 
Ood had left them in a 
true, loyal, and right 
inheritress to the crown " 
—the I^dy Elizabeth, 
second daughter to the 
late BOTsreign lord of 
noble memory. King I 
Henry VIII., and iis- , 
ter unto the said late 
queen. Not a chal- 
lenge was nuaed to her 
title ; the Lady Eliza- 
beth was acknowledged Qima EusuETu.- 
in both honses, which 

reaounded with the shouts of " God save Queen 
Elizabeth, and long and happy may she reign !" 
and in the course of the day ^e was proclaimed 
amidst lively demonstrations of popular joy. The 
bells of all the churches were set ringing ; tables 
were spread In the streets, " where was plentiful 

eating, drinking, and making merry;" luid at 
night bonfires were lighted in all directions, and 
the skies were reddened by flames which had 
not consumed human victims.' Elizabeth whs 
at Hatfield when she received the news of her 
easy accession. She fell npon her knees, ei- 
claiming, in Latin, " It is the Lord's doing, and 
it is marvellous in our eyes."' On the following 
day several noblemen of the late queen's coimcil 
repaired to her : she gave them a kind reception, 
but pieseatty showed 
her decided preference 
for Sir William Cecil 
— the astute, tbe most 
politic Cecil — whom 
she instantly appoint- 
ed principal seo^tary 
of state. On tbe S3d 
of Novemberthe queen 
removed from Hat- 
field, with a joyous es- 
cort of more than KXK) 
personB. At Highgate 
she was met by tlie 
bishops, who, kneeling, 
acknowledged their al- 
leipauce: die received 
them very gracionaly, 
giving to every one of 
them her hand to kiss 
with the exception of 
Bishop Bonner. At 
-Atur ZuBiiMo. the foot of Highgate 

Hill she was very duti- 
fully and hDnouia.bly met by the lord-mayor and 
whole estate of London, and so conducted to tfa« 

.^ Dmiu JiUiiai iri Mnf, t< I 

HliaMltKMlitiHMTii. Than 

n Ood fci my tHtpttl. 


A.D. 1848—1660.] 



Cbftrter-houBB, then oecapied u & town rmideaoe 
by her friend Lord North. On the aftemooQ of 
Hondaj, the SStb, ihe entered into the dt; at 
Crippl(^t«, "and rode in ststa along by the Wall 
to tiiB Tower:" hero BberenjMned till Monday, the 
6th of December, when she remoired by water to 
Somenet House. The ambiguity of her conduct 
with regard to religion had been well studied; 
and it appears quite certain that her compliances 
in the former reign Iiad deceived many into a 
notion Uiat she was really the good Catholic she 
profeaaed herself to be j otherwise it is difficult 
to unilerstand the unanimity of the lords, for 
the majority of the upper house were Catholics, 
and both the biahopa and the lay peers would 
have been disposed to resist her claim if the; 
had expected that she woald renture to disturb 
the eatabliahed order of things. The mistake 
was confinned by her retaining in her priry 
conudl DO fewer thiui thirteen known and sincere 
Catholics who hod been membars of that of her 
sister, and the seven new counsellors she ap- 
pointed, though probably known to herself to be 
zealoQs ProteBtonts, did not bear that character 
with, the rest of the world ; for one and all of 

L, kftorvudft Lord Burghtoj. 

them, like her favourite minister Cecil, 
ebronk under the fiery bigotry of Mary, and 
had Donformed to the Boman Church. Even 
decency demanded some little time, but policy 
re^jnired more; and we feel convinced that if 
had not been eatablished beyond the reach of 
doubt that the Catholics had lost ground im- 
mensely, and were no longer the majori^ of the 
cation, Elizabeth, who was never in her heart 
thorough Protestant — who scarcely went lardier 
with the Reformers than her father had da 

would have left the Roman church undisturbed. 
She was too cool and calculating tor a zealot; 
and even the fate of her mother, and the circum- 
stances of her own birth, failed to excite har. Id 
fact, Elizabeth seems to have adopted, at the be- 
ginning of her reign, the maxim recommended 
by the most crafty of then living politicians — 
that tJie Protestants should be kept iu hope, the 
Papists not cast into despair.' Her real inten- 
tions were kept a profound secret from the ma- 
jority of her council; and her measures of change 
and reform were concerted only with Cecil an<l 
one or two others, who appear to have been most 
thoroughly aware of the hot that the Protestant 
party had become infinitely stronger than the 
Catholic On the 13th of December the body of 
Mary was very royally interred in Westminster 
Abbey, with all the solemn funeral rit«B used by 
the Elomau church, and a mass of requiem; and 
on the S4tb day of the same mouth a grand fune- 
ral service for the late Emperor Charles V. wan 
celebrated in the same place and in the same 
manner, with a great attendance of Catholic 
prieets, English and foreign, and of noble lords 
and ladies of the realm. And yet, if we are to 
believe a letter written at the time, Elizabeth, 
on the very day aft«r these obsequies, refused to 
hear mass in her own house. 

On the ISth of January the queen took her 
barge, and went down the river, being attended 
by the lord-mayor and citdzens, and greeted with 
peals of ordnance, with mnsic, and many trium- 
phant shows on the vat«r. Bhe landed at the 
Tower; but, this time, it was not as a criminal, at 
the Traitors' Gate, but as a triumphant queen 
preparing forbercoronation. Upon the morrow 
there was a creation of peers ; it was not nnme- 
roas, but Henry Carey, brother to Lady Knowles, 
and son to Mary Boleyn, her majesty's aunt, was 
included in it under the title of Iiord Hunsdon. 
On the morrow, being the 14th of January, 1669, 
the queen rode with great majesty out of the 
Tower. The lord-mayor and eiUeens had been 
lavish of their loyalty and their money; the 
artists had exhausted their ingenuity and inren- 
tion; and all the streets through which the pro- 
cession passed on its way to Westminster were 
furnished with stately pageants, sumptuous shows, 
and cunning devices. The figures of the queen's 
gnmdtatherand grandmother, father and mother, 
were brought upon the stage, and Henry VIII. 
and Anne Boleyn, with a glorious forgetfninees 
of the past, were seen walking lovingly together. 
Prophecies and Latin verses were prodigally ex- 
pended on the queen; nor was there a parsimony 
of English verse ot rhyme. In another pageant 
Time led forth his daughter Truth, and Truth, 
greeting her majesty, presented to her an English 


,v Google 




. AlTD MlUTAir. 

Kbl& In the last pageant of r]1 there Btood "a I reBtoreroTO- the home of larfteL" GogaudMi- 
wgemly mud meek penonage, licbly (Lpparelled in gi^, deaertJng their poeia in Gnildhall, stood to 
pttriiameot robes, with asceptie in her hand, over , hoaonrthequeeii,oneonendiudeof Temple B«r, 
whoee bead wu written ' Deborah, the judge and , ntpporiiiig a wondronH tablet of I^tin Tent, 

which expoanded to her majetit]' the hidden sense 
of all the pageants in the city.' Her behaTioor 
during tbis daj was popular in the extreme; and 
from the beginning to the end of ber reign she 
poB8e»ed the art of delighting the people, when 
ahe thought neceiwaiy, with little condescenuons, 
amilee, and cheerful worda. On the following 
daj, being Snndaj, the ISth of Jannarf, Eliza- 
beth waa crowned in Weatminater Abbey b; Dr. 
Oglethorpe, Bisiiop of Carlisle, and aftenrarda 
die dined in Weatminater Hall. The ceremony 
of the eraonation was regulated strictly in the 
ancient manner of the most Catholic times, but 
there was one remarkable drcnmatanoe attend- 
ing it Either from a aospicioa of the course she 
intended to pursue, or from a somewhat tardy 
recollection that, by the laws of the Bomaa 
church, Elizabeth was not legitimate, or in con- 
sequence of orders received from Rome since the 
death of Mary and their congratulatory visit to 
Elizabeth at Higfagate, every one of the bishopa, 
with the exception of Oglethorpe, refused to per- 
form the coronation service. From whatever 
cause it might proceed, this refractorinen of the 
bishops was a great political mistake on the pttrt 
of the CUhoUca.* 

On the very day after her coronation tlie Pro- 
testanta pressed her for a declaration of her in- 
tentions aa to religion. They must have felt 
alarmed at die Popish celebrotioDa in the Abbey; 
but it was some time before the cautious queen 
would in any way commit herself. Before thia 
application, however, Elimbeth had taken the 
important step of authorizing the reading of the 
Liiturgy in Ekiglish, and had shown at least a 
fixed determination to prevent the Catholics 

Tba UiliU* ud 
vt dnpoxj of Uh prtn- 

n jvoWblj th* iuAifikiA of Juns r 

from re-lighting the fires at Smithfield. Vet, at 
the same time, to the scandal of all Frotefltantt, 
she forbade the destruction of images, kept her 
crucil!z and holy water in her private i^pel, 
and strictly prohibited preaching on controver- 
sial points generally, and all preaching whatso- 
ever at Paul's Cross, where, be it said, nelthw 
sect had been in the habit of preaching pean 
and good-will toward men. There was an addi- 
tional cause for the queen's alowneaa and circnm- 
apection. Upon the death of her sister the Eng- 
lish exiles for religions opiniona flocked hack to 
their country with a zeal sharpened by persecn- 
tion. Of these men many woul<l have carried 
the Reformation wholly into the path of Calvin 
and Zwingle, being disposed, after their theolo- 
gical studies in Switzerland, to dissent widely 
from the Anglican church as established in the 
reign of Edward VI.; and, what was not of less 
importance, some of them thought that the re- 
publican system, which they had seen to suit the 
little cantODB among the Alps, would be a pre- 
ferable form of government for England, and 
they were well furnished with texta of Scnptnre 
to prove the nselesanesa and wickedness of roy- 
alty, la a moment of indeciaion the queen had 
directed Sir Edward Came, her sister's ambaas*' 
dor at Rome, to notify her acceeaion to the pope; 
and the Protestants must have been delighted 
and reassured when Paul IV, haaUly replied 
that he looked upon her aa illegitiraate, and thst 
she ought therefore to lay down the goTemment, 
and expect wiiat he might decide. After thii, 
she could not be expected to become an adherent 
of Popery, 

Ten days after the coronation (on the 85th of 

ntibfldt«d bf k tew Ueui. holdi m bUMl of fotu maaJoiBa^ tnu^ 
p«tonuddnranBn • AWiiutHl.' «•* 

• Btoi Uh Biibapof ChIU* nlBotuU J ownud <a IHl U" 


AJk isjss— isao.] £] 

Jaaaarj) Elizabeth met lier firat parliunent, with 
X wtM reaolation of leaving them to settle the 
religiou of the state, meieljr giving oat, through the 
ahle Oedl, and the scarce); leu able Sir Nicho- 
lu B»eoti, now keeper of the eeale, what were 
her real wishes. Lordi and amnions showed 
vonderfnllT' eager desire, as they had done in tl 
daya of her imperiona father, to adapt themselrcfl 
to preciael; such a church r^iimen m she in her 
wisdom might propase. Thej enacted th«t the 
fint-frniU and teudis slionld be restored to the 
crown — that the queen, notwithstanding her sex,' 
■honid in right of her legitimacy, be supreme 
bead of the church — tfant the laws made coa- 
ceming religion in EdwArd's time should be re- 
established in full force — that his Book of Com- 
mon Prayer in the mother-tongiie should be re- 
stored and used to the eiclusion of all others in 
all places of worehip. The Act of Snpremscy, 
though the most ridiculous or the most horrible 
of all to the Catholics on the Continent, met with 
no opposition whatever; but nine temporal peers 
and tiie whole bench of bishops protested in the 
lords agunst the bill of uniformity, establishing 
the Anglicmn Liturgy, notwithstanding the pains 
which bad been taken to qualify it, and to soften 
certun posBSgm most offensive to Catholic ears. 
A mbric directed against the doctrine of the real 
presence was omitted, to the avoidance of the 
long-standing and bitter controversies on ^is 

One of the first measures taken up by Queen 
Haiy had been to vindicate the fame of her 
mother Catherine of Aragon and her own legi- 
timacy; and it was expected that Elizabeth, if 
only ont of filial reverence, would pursae the 
same course for Aer mother, Anne Boleyn, who, 
OS the law stood, had never been a lawful wife; 
but she carefully avoided all discussion on this 
point, and satisfied herself with an act declara- 
tory, in general terms, of her right of succession 
to the throne, in which set all the bishops 

Acta were passeil empowering the queen upon 
the avoidance of any bishopric to exchange her 
teuUts and parsonages appropriate within the 
diooMe for an equivalent portion of the landed 
estates belonging to the see. But the more active 
o( the Protestants were checked and disappointerl 
when they brought a bill into the commons for 
the restoration to their sees of Bishops Barlow, 
iicoiy, and Coverdale; another, for the revival of 
farmer statnt«s, passed in the reign of Edward 
VL, authorizing the crown to nominate a commis- 
aoQ for dniwing np a complete body of Chnrch 
of Kigland canon law; and a third for the resto- 

BETB. 77 

ration of all such clergymen as bad been deprived 
for marriage during the late reign. The lost bill 
was given np by command of Elizabeth herself, 
who was not Protestant enough to overcome a 
prejudice agunst married prieata, and who, to 
the end of her days, could never reconcile heraelf 
to married bishops.' The two other bills also 
failed, for the bishops whom it was proposed to 
restore were married men ; and as for the com- 
mission for a canonical code, Elizabeth enter- 
tained a salutary dread of the sealots. 

It was not possible altogether to avoid recrimi- 
nation. Nor dtJ the Catholics — now the weaker 
part? — on all oocasions submit in silence to such 
castigation. Dr. Story, who had acted as royal 
proctor in the proceedings against Cranmer, and 
who had given other proofs of bis zeal and in- 
tolerauoe, had the boldness to lament that he and 
others had not been more vehement in executing 
the laws against hereey. " It was my counsel," 
said this doughty priest, " tbot heretics of emi- 
nence should be plucked down as well as the 
ordinary sort, nor do I see anything in all those 
afbirs which ought to make me feel shame or 
>w. My sole gn€!, indeed, is, that we 
laboured only about the little twigs: we should 
have struck at the roots." It was understood 
that he meant hereby — what, indeed, had been 
proposed by several— that Elixabeth should have 
been removed out of the way while her sister 
lived. Soon after delivering this speech Dr. 
Story escaped out of the kingdom, and fixed 
himself at Antwerp under the protection of the 
Spaniards. There he ought to have been left, 
pardcnlarly as his notions were every day be- 
coming leas dangerous; but Elizabeth caused 
to be kidnapped, to be brought over to Eng- 
by stratagem, and executed as a traitor — a 
proceeding as base as that of her sister M!ary 
with regard to that zealous Protestant refugee 
Sir John Cheke. Bishop Bonner, notwithstand- 
ing the unei^aivocal marks of the queen's dis- 
pleasure, attended at his post in parliament, and 
presented to the Lord-keeper Bacon certain 
articles drawn np by the convocation, and endea- 
ed, in poi-t by ingenious compromises, in 
part by more open proceediuga, to limit the au- 
thority of the queen, and maintain that of the 
popie, in matters of faith and ecclesiastical discip- 
Bacon received the said articles courteously, 
no further notice was bdcen of them, and 
the convocation, after a aeriea of odjourDraenta, 
separated in dismay.* The way in which the 
parlifunent had recognised her title was highly 
Ltisfactory to Elizabeth; but they were less for- 
tunate in their treatment of another high ques- 

• Tim iiiiTi^iiTiii of ■ CMbolls « 

< IMtnAid; »r>(W; ftinia. 



[ClVn. AND ^lutUBT. 

tion. In the conne of Uub Ksnion a deputation 
was Mnt to lier majeMy bj the oonunona with 
elu addren, "the principal matter whereof most 
spocially was to move her grace to marriage, 
wherel^ to all their comforts they might enjoy 
the royal issue of her body to reign over them," 
Elizabeth received the deputation in the great 
gallery <d her palace at Westminster, called the 
Whitehall; and when the speaker of the Honae 
of Commons had solemnly and eloquently set 
forth the mesmgo, ahe delivered a remarkable 
answer — the first of her many public declarations 
of her intention to live and die a virg:in queen : 
— "From my years of understanding, knowing 
myself a servitor of Almighty God, I chose this 
kind of life, in which I do yet live, as a life 
most acceptable unto him, wherein I thought I 
could best serve him, and with moat quietnsm 
do my duty unto him. From which my choice, 
if eiUier ambition of high estate offered unto me 
by marriages (whereof J have records in this 
presence), the displeasure of the prince, the es- 
chewing the danger of mine enemies, or the 
avoiding the peril of death (whose measenger, 
the prince's indignation, waa no little time con- 
tinually present before mine eyes, by whose 
means if I knew, or do justly suq)ect, I will not 
now utter them ; or, if the whole cause were my 
sister herself, I will not now charge the dead), 
could have drawn or diasaaded me, I had not 
now remained in this virgin's estate wherein you 
see me. But so conatant have I always con- 
tinued in this my determination that (although 
my worda and youth may seem to some hardly 
to agree together), yet it is true that to this day 
I stand free from any other meaning that either 
I have had in times past or have at this present 
In which state and trade of living wherewith I 
am so thoroughly acquainted Qod hath so hither- 
to preserved me, and hath so watchful an eye 
upon me, and so hath guided me and led me by 
the hand, as m; full trust is, be will not suffer 
me to go alone." After these somewhat round- 
about, ambiguous, and ascetic expreBBioua — which 
were anti-Protestant, inasmuch as they showed 
a preference for a single life — she gave the com- 
mons a foretaste of that absolute and imperaUve 
tone which she soon adopted;— "The manuer of 
your petition," said she, "I do like, and take in 
good part, for it is simple, and containeth no 
limitation of place or person. If it bad been 
otherwise I mnat have misliked it very much, and 
thonght it in you a very great presumption, being 
nu£t and altogether unmeet to require them 
that may command." In still pluner terms she 
told them that it was their duty to obey, and not 
to tske upon themselves to bind and limit her in 
her prooeedings, or even to press their advice 
Upon her. As if doubting whether the 

would rely on her detanxunation of never many- 
iug, she assured them that at all events she would 
never choose a hnsband but one who should be 
as careful for the realm and their safety ss she 
heraeU was; and she made au end of a very loag 
speech by saying — "And for me it shall be Boffi- 
cient that a marble stone declare that a queeo, 
having reigned such a time, lived and died s 

At this moment Elizabeth had received one 
matrimonial proposal, Uie strangest of the many 
that were made to her. When she announced 
to King Philip the death of his wife and her own 
accesdon, that monarch, regardless of canonical 
laws, made her an instant offer of bis own hand; 
for, BO long OB be could obtain a hold upon Eng- 
land, he eared little whether it was througli s 
Mary or an Elizabeth. With a duplidty Which 
was the general rule of her conduct she gave 
Philip a certain degree of hope, for she was vmy 
anxious to recover Calais through his means, and 
England was still involved in a war both with 
Fmnce and Scotland on hia acooont It wonlil 
besides have been dangerous to give the Spaniud 
any serious offence at this moment. 

On the 8th of May, Elizabeth's first psrliament 
was dieeolved, and on the Ifith of the same 
month, the bishops, deans, and other churchmen 
of note, were summoned before the queen and 
her privy council, and there admonished to maka 
themselves and their dependants conformable to 
the statutes which had just been enacted. Arcb- 
bisbop Heath replied by reminding her majesty 
of her siatei's recent reconcIUation with Bome, 
and of ker ovnpromut net to ehangt lAe rdigion 
wkich thefoand by lam atabluh^; and he told 
her that his conscience would not sufier him to 
obey her present oommands. All the Inshopn 
took precisely the same couise as Ueatb; aod 
the government, which evidently had expected to 
win over the majority of them, was startled si 
their unanimous opposition. To terrify then 
into compliance, certain papers, which had been 
sealed up in the royal closet at the death of the 
late queen, were produced by advice of the Esrl 
of Sussex ; and these documents, which had bio 
dormant during two short reigns, were found, or 
were made, to conttun proofs that Heath, Bonner, 
and Gardiner, during the protectorate of Somer- 
set, had carried on secret intrigues with Kome, 
with the view of overthrowing the English gov- 
ernment of that time. But the bishops, feeling 
themselves screened by two general pardons from 
the crown, continued as firm as ever; and the 
council wisely determined that these papers could 
not fairly be acted upon, and resolved to pit>c«ed 
merely upon the oath of supremai^, which they 
saw the prelates were d^ermined to refuse at all 

,v Google 



costa. ItsppevB that this oAth was fint offered 
tu Bonner on the 30th of May. Bonner refuaed 
to Bwear, upon which proceedings were instituted 
to deprive him of biB bishopric. In the course of a 
few months the oath wasteadered to the rest, and 
thej all refused it moat decidedly, with the Hiogle 
exception of Kitchen, Bishop of LlAndaff, who 
had held that see since I54S, through all changes, 
and who was detemiiDed to keep it.' A consid- 
entble number of subordinate church digaitariea 
were also deprived bj means of this teat; but the 
great body of the clergy complied when, in the 
courae of the summer, the queen appointed a 
general visitation to compel the obaervance of 
the new Protestant formularies. Before the eud 
of 1SS9 the E^Iiab church, so long contended 
[or, was lost for ever to the P^>ists.' In the 
course of the same year the two statutes, com- 
monly denominated the Acta of Supremacy and 
Unifonnity, were converted into the firm basis of 
that leetrictive code of laws which, for more than 
two centuries, pressed so heavily upon the adhe- 
rents to the Koman church. By the first, every 
conacientioDs Catholic, who refused to take it, 
lost the rights of citizenship, and might at any 
time be viaited with heavy paina and penalties. 

The seoond statute trenched more on the natu- 
nl rights of conscience; it prohibited, under pain 
of forfeiting goods and chattels for the first 
offence, of a year's imprisonment for the second, 
and imprisonment for life for the third, the udng 
of any but the established JAtjitgy of the Church 
of England ; and it moreover imposed a fine of 
1«. on every one that should absent himself from 
the only true Protestant church on Sunday and 
holidays.' By this act the Catholic rites, how- 
ever privately celebr&ted, were interdicted. In 
some respeota, where it was not deemed expe- 
dient to irritate persona of very high rank, the 
government connived at the secret or domestic 
exercise of the Boman religion; but such cases 
were rare even in the early part of Elizabeth's 
reign ; and the restored Protestant clergy, who 
liad learned no toleration from their own suffer- 
ings, propelled the agents of government into 
the paths of persecution. Aa early as 1A61, Sir 
Edward Waldegrave and his lady were sent to 
the Tower for hearing mass and keeping a Popish 
priest in thetr house. Many othei's were pun- 
ished for the same offence about the same time. 
The penalty for causiug mass to be said was only 

100 marks for the first offence, but these eases 
seem to have been referred to the Protestant 
high commission court, and the arbitrary Star 
Chamber, whose violence, however illegal, was 
not often checked. About a year after the com- 
mittal of Sir Edward Waldegrave and his lady, 
two zealous Protestant bishops wrote to the 
council to inform them that n priest had been 
apprehended in a lady's bouse, and that neither 
he nor the servants would be sworn to answer to 
articlee, saying that they would not accuse them- 
selves. After which these Protestant prelates 
add^'':iSoina do thiiii tkta if thu print might 
bt pat to tome kind of tormetU, and to driven 
to confem what he knowelh, hi might gain the 
pieerit majuty a good mait of money bt/ the 
maetei thai he hath raid; but this tire refer to your 
lordthip't mtdoia.'' It is dishonest to deny so 
obvious a fact, nor can the denial now serve any 
purpose: it was this commencement of persecu- 
tion that drove many English Catholics beyond 
the seas, and gave rise to those associations of 
unhappy and desperate exiles which continued 
to nieuace the throne of Elizabeth even down to 
the last years of her loug reign. In the same 
year, 1559, which saw the enforcing of the Sta- 
tutes of Supremacy and Uniformity, the queen 
published certain iajuneiiont after the manner 
of those of her brother, and, for the better part, 
expressed in the very laiue words aa those of 
Edward, twelve years before. There was, how- 
ever, a greater decency of language in several of 
the daoses, and the Church of Borne was treated 
with more courtesy than in Edward's time. Ac- 
cording to Edward's commands, images, shrines, 
pictures, and the like, were to be destroyed, nor 
was any memoiy of the same to be left in walls 
and glass windows. Elizabeth enjoined that "the 
walls and glass windows shall be neverthelesB 

Meanwhile the monastic establishments were 
universally broken up ; three whole convents of 
monks and nuns were transferred from England 
to the Continent; many of the dispossessed clergy 
were conveyed to Spiun in the retinue of Feria, 
the Spanish ambassador, and the deprived bishops 
were committed to safe keeping in England. The 
number of these prelates was not so consideisble 
as might have been supposed. Through various 
circumstances, but chiefly by deaths (Cor tbe re- 
cent epidemic had been very fatal to elderly per- 

be]l««d or prof^Md mceordtni to 

liBHof HaiTT VIIL, wlwD hanosi* 
nltjfslal Rumuiliin hsid b; tint 

<WM to UiK crown, ha tanad baok 
k*< eri^iuUj itulBd, ind btomo < 
Nun ha tnmad PrrtintaBl italn, i 
b&liojinoDf LlADdaff bo tha j««r15 

la TOTKl wiU. In tha 

to nj tlut ooe of thi 
<1 Oilndal, Biihop at Lomlan, wl 
iince atka, in (ha Uma of Huy. 





D MlL1T*W. 

Bona), there vere mnny vacaueies at Elizabeth's 
acceMion, so that (Kitchen of Llandaff, as already 
mentioned, being allowed to retain his aee) all 
the bishops that she had to deprive were, four- 
teen in actual poaBestiioii, and three bishops elect. 
For some time after their depriTation these pre- 
lates were left to themselves and their poverty; 
but on the 4th of December (1059) Heath, Bon- 
ner, Bourne, Tuberville, and Poole imprudently 
drew upon themselves the queen's attention bj 
|ire»entiiig a petition, iu which, after praising 
her virtuous sister, Queen Mary of happy mem- 
ory, who, being troubled in conscience with what 
her father's and brother's advisers had caused 
them to do, had most piously restored the Catho- 
lic faith, and extinguished those schisms and 
heresies for which Ood had poured out his wrath 
upon most of the malefactors and misleaders of 
the nation; they called upon the queen to follow 
her example without loss of time, and concluded 
by praying that God would turn her heart and 
preserve her life, and also make her evil advisers 
ashamed and repentant of their heresies.' Eliza- 
beth replied, in gi-eat wrath, that these very 
memorialists, or at least Heath, Bonner, and 
Tuberville, with their former friend, "their ffreat 
Stephen Gardiner," had advised and flattered her 
father in all that he did; and shortly aft«r the de- 
prived bishops were committed to prison. Bon- 
ner, the worst of them, was conveyed to the 
Marshalsea on the 20tli of April, 1660, where lie 
was kept for more than nine long years, when he 
was liberated by death, on the 6th of September, 
1569. After passingdifferentpcriodsintheTower 
and other prisons, all of them, with the exception 
of Bonner, were quartered by government, appa- 
rently from motives of economy, npon the Pro- 
testant biahopewho had succeeded them, or upon 
rich deans or other dignifieil churchmen— an ar- 
rangement which could not have been very agree- 
able either to hosts or guests. 

The settlement of the national religion had 
cost Elizabeth and her council much more time 
and trouble than the adjustment of the difficul- 
ties in the foreign relations of the country. After 
a little n^otiation, England was included in a 
general treaty of peace, signed at Cateau-Cam- 
bresis on the 2d of April, 1G69, within six months 
after her accession. The only impediment had 
been in Elizabeth's earnest desire to recover pos- 
session of Calais, but, by the advice of Cecil, she 
wisely consented to a clause in the treaty which 
saved her honour, though it could not have led 
hertobelieve that any King of France would erer 
liave either the will or the power to fulfil it. It 
was agreed that Calais should be retained by the 
French king for eight years, and that at the end 
of that period it should be delivered to the English 

qneen or her successor, upon certain condition*.' 
Scotland, as the ally of France, was induded in 
the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. Philip of SpaJn 
did not, for the present, conceive or show aoy 
serious displeasure at Elizabeth's declining the 
honour of his hand : he soon after took to wife 
the daughter of Henry II., King of France, who 
had been affianced to his own son, Don Carlos; 
and he warmly recommended to Elizabeth, as a 
husband in every way suitable, his own conan, 
the Archduke Charles of Austria, son of the Em- 
peror Ferdinand. 

According to every canonical law of the Bomin 
church, according to the notions of nearly every 
Catholic in England, the claim of Mary Stuart 
to the English succession was far preferable Ut 
that of her cousin Elizabeth. The Guises repre- 
sented that Anne Boleyn's marriage had never 
been lawful — that it had been pronounced null 
and void by a sentence of the church — that the 
attainder of Elizabeth's blood had never been re- 
versed even by her own parliament, and that Uaiy 
of Scotland, though passed by in the willofHeniy 
YIII., and overlooked by the EngUah nation, 
was, by right of descent and purity of birth, id- 
disputably entitled to the throne. In a Hbd 
moment (or Mary, she and her husband quar- 
tered the royal arms of England with their own, 

Fmm ■ •«! In tb« Rajnil CDlicction of Fnuws. 

and even assumed the style of King and Queen 
of Scotland and England. But Elizabedi did 
not wait for this provocation to a most deadly 
quarrel She resolved to anticipate events— to 
undermine the authority of Mary in the neigh- 
bouring kingdom, so aa to leave her neither a 

' "Thl>'Hliii)>tJ«FnniihUii«'><»Uoctlcii>slPui>.>B^ 
HU to hiTa b«« SMd bf Miuj daring ba widoitlHwi "" 
whilit ih* MwrtKj hn- rif bt of iBBUBldo la ll» Hiwn of ™«- 

,v Google 

A.D. 16fi8— 1560.] ELTZJ 

Sixittiah nor an English throne; mid thia plan 
WB8 ftcted upon through » long series of jaars 
with eonBanunate and wonderful art Bnt the 
condition of Scotland serred Elizabeth better 
than ail the akill of her statMmen and diploma- 
tists, greftt as it woa. That conntry waa rent by 
factiona and religions controTorsiee, more fierce, 
more determined than ever. Mary's mother, the 
qneen-regeut, like the whole family of the Ouises, 
was devotedly attached to the Church of Bome, 
and, as a IVeuchwoman, ehe was natnraUy the 
enemy of the Scottish Reformers, who had all 
along leaned to England. The Beformers pillaged 
monasteries, bomed churches, and committed 
otiier excesses; and the Catholics still cried for 
the stake ami fagot against these sacrilegious 
miscreanta. Uary of Quise, the qaeeu-reg^t, 
invited or snmiDoaed all the Beformed cle^ to 
appear at Stirling on the 10th of May, 1569, to 
gire an account of their conduct. These Befor- 
mem went to the place appointed, bnt so well at- 
tended with armed friends and partizans, that 
thsir opponents were atterly dannted. The re- 
mit of this meeting was, that the queen-regent, 
in the preseDoe of their superior force, pledged 
her word that no proceedings should be insti- 
tuted for deeds that wers past, provided only 
they would remiuD peaceable for the future. 
According t« the Beformers, they had scarcely 
dispersed when she, without any new stir or 
provocation on their part, caosed them to be pro- 
ceeded against in their absence. Bnt it most be 
observed that many of the Beformers were men 
of the most ardent zeal, who considered the re- 
maining quiet under the rule and dominion of 
Papists as an abominable connivance with Satan. 
Among these must certainly be included the 
famous John Enoz, the very head and front of 
the CaJvinistic Beforroation in Scotland — the 
pnptl and bosom friend of Wiahnrt, who had per- 
ished at the stake in Oudinal Beaton's time. On 
the 11th of May, the very day after the meeting 
at Stirling, John Knox preached in Perth with 
his usual vehemence against the mass, idolatrous 


worship, and the adoration of saints and imsgai. 
Wlien a priest proceeded to say mass as usual, a 
boy called this act idolatry — he received a blow 
—he retaliated by throwing stonea at the priest, 
and damaged a church picture. The iconoclastic 
fury spread like flames running over gunpowder 
— pictnrea, atatuea, marble fonts were broken to 
pieces, wherevar they could be isached — " temjde 
and t«wer went to the ground' with hideous 
(Tash.' The Eeformera of England had rested 
aatiafied with the destruction of the ornaments 
and accessories, and had, geneislly, left the 
walla of the abbeys untouched; but the zeal of 
the Scots was far more unsparing— they wished 
not to leave one stone upon another, and it was 
a maxim with John Knox that the best way of 
preventing the rooks from ever returning was 
to destroy their nests. The queeu-r^ient had no 
means of checking this spirit of destruction. 
John Xnox, by a, single blast of his spiritual 
trumpet, asaembled an irregular but a numerons 
army; and now the churchea and monasteries 
which had escaped before fell almost as suddenly 
as the walls of Jericho at the tmrapet of Joshua. 
Of late nearly the whole body of the Bcottish 
>bility had fallen off front the queen-regent 
and enrolled themselves under the banner of 
Knox, who, after all, was the real chief and 
leader of this holy war. Many of ths lords acted 
from a conscieutions dislike of ths old superati- 
tions; bnt thei-e were few of them whose Mai 
for the gospel light was not allied with a greed 
after worldly lucre: and as for toleration, when it 
was not found in England, it could scarcely be 
looked for in Scotland. Matters were made 
much worse when the queen-rc^nt brought in 
fresh troops from France to support her insulted 
and tottering government. The rabble, how- 
ever, who had not made up their minds to die 
martyrs, submitted in the towns and places where 
theee disciplined troopa were stationed, and the 
Protestant cJtiefs were fain to conclude another 
tre^y, and to content themaetvea with toleration 
and freedom of conscience, without insisting upon 

mmj u> uT ol th 

n. DUf li**> anMol tbg mob 
At ths tat tinu, I muit itpntMa Uwt ipiiit 
m penoDi to nag^lj ixn^aiarit^, wid dwell vltii 

.»»|»..j......l md Ubnal - Inri , will It 

. b* *ntIaaUBtfT nnc. (DC lb* muflad 
1f 1 n» i of -'11' — , toni pletiina, ind nlud tomnl I will 
(BftiUtwud iv.tiBt I look ajn ths dtnraotkn oT th«a* 
smmBts M ■ ptses of gooi polier, whfoh oontrflntal 
lUlf (s ths OTSiUuoiw of Ihs Romu CsUialk isUgioii, ai 
fimaU«o(lt«i>4s»tblUiB«t ItwHcfatof ' ' 

wtfcMim* of tvmplosi s^ tbs iploidld «Lpi«zmtiB ot Ito wcnhip, 
thmt ths Pof^li cJiqnh fmmMn±. tfft thfl ■«■■« Slid Jmaglutioiu 
of tba psople. Thsrs ocpold not, thsrefOn. bs s mors nooflarfU 
usthod or stMoklBf It thu ths dsmoUtion of tbaK Thsn b 
morn wlidinD thin muj Hm h> psnslira, in ths mudm which 
Knox Is said to bun liumlialiid. ' Thst tba bast wv to kssp tbs 
o pnU dows their wid.' In de- 
Lbltsbls nil thseo bnlldEiiff wbleh 
of tAo WKdsDt npaiUtJon {«■- 
oept whit wsn FsqaMts for the Frotsst m t wonhlp) , tJks Rs- 
SRmart oDlf HtoJ « the piinslplss of ■ prodat lenanl, who 
MM Ihs outlas ud ftirtiaoMloBi whldi bs k nuUs to hssp,* 
ud whkA ml^it sftorwsfdibe idndsiid duplojad J^lnst Mm 
bj tha aiMinT. Had the; ban itlowsd (o nmilii, the Popleh 
olersy VDold not haTs ooaaed to hHlnlgs bope^ aod to maks 






Lhe immediate and total aappresBion of Fapistiy; 
but this thej onlj considered as a temporary sacri- 
fiee of principle to eipedieney — as a connivance 
whict was not to last ; )uid headed hj tlie Earln 
of Argjle, Morton,and Glencaim, the Lord Lorn, 
Erakine of Dan, and others, tbey formed a gene- 
ral Protestant league, entered privately into 
agreements, and, Btyling themselveti the Lords 
of the Congregation, published a Bolemn protest 
against the abominations and corruptloDS of 
Popery. Among thow who went over to the 
Lords of the Congregation, was the Earl of Arran, 
formerly regent, who had now for some years re- 
joiced in his French title of Duke of Chatelle- 
ratdt, and whose religion was of a rety elastic 
nature. But their principal leader — a man of ex- 
tisordinary abilities, whatever we may think of 
his honour or virtue — was James Stuart, prior, 
or commendator, of the monastery of St. Andrews, 
a natuml son of the lat« king, the unfortunate 
James V,, and half-brother of the beautiful 
Uary Stuart This man professed a wonderful 
Eeal for the new religion, whereby, not less than 
by his talents, he attached to himaelf what was 
now most decidedly the popnUr and the stronger 

At this critical moment the absent Mary Stuart 
had become Queen of FraniM, a transitory gran- 
deur, which only lasted as it were for a moment, 
uid which tended still further to increase the 
jealousies of the Scots and to embarrasB her 
friends in her native country. Her father-in- 
Uw, Henry IL of France, had not been very 
happy since the ugning of the (to him) disadvan- 
tageous treaty of Caleau-Cambresis, but the im- 
mediate cause of his death was an accident&l 
wound in the eye from a broken lance while tilt^ 
ing. He expired on the 10th of July, 1SS9, in 
the forty-first year of his age, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, the huaband of Maiy, under 
the title of Francis II. In this manner the Scots 
became more and more confirmed in Uieir idea 
that their country waa to l>e held and treated aa 
a Freuch province or dependence ; and hence 
every Frenchman, every ship, every bale of goods 
tliat arrived from France was looked upon with 
a jealous eye. Nor did Frands and Mary, on 
their accession to the Fr^ich throne, neglect to 
take measures for the re-establishment of the 
royal power in the northern kingdom. In the 
end of July, 1000 French soldiers landed at Leith ; 
and that the spiritual interests might not be 
neglected, Francis and Marj- sent with these men- 
at-arms a certain number of orthodox divines 
from the Sorbonne. With these reinforcements, 
and giving out that more were coming, the queeO' 
r^^nt took possession of I^ith and quartered 
the odious Papistical and foreign soldiers on the 
townspeople When the citizens of Iieith com- 

plfdned, she assured them that the measure wu 
necessary for the preservation of her dauf^ter's 
throne, and that she could not, and would not, 
desist until the lords should dismiss their umed 
men. The Lords of the CougregaUon had of 
course less intention than ever of laying down 
the sword — their party was daily increamng,aud 
that of the queen-dowager was as rapidly declin- 
ing. At this crisis it seems to have fallen prin- 
dpally to the preachers to expound the lawful 
nesB of resistance to constituted authorities^ and 
in BO doing some of them occasionally brosched 
doctrines, which, however sound in themsdres, 
and adopted in later times, were exceedin^j 
odious to all the royal earn of Europe, whether 
Catholic or Protestant. But the Scotch Protes- 
tants soon found that the CUholics were still 
powerful — that many, even of their own com- 
munion, disapproved of their extreme measures, 
and looked upon their conduct as rebellion— thst 
the foreign troops were formidable from the ex- 
cellent state of their disdpline and appointmenta 
— that the chief fortresses of the kingdom were 
in their hands — that money was pouring in froni 
France, and that the Lords of the Congregatdou 
were, as usual, excessively needy. In this emer- 
gency, they resolved to apply for assistance tn 
the Queen of England. Elizabeth was solenmly 
bound by the recent treaty of Cateau-Cambiesii 
to do nothing in Scotland to the prejudice oF 
Uary's rights and authority; but then Mar}', 
since the signing of that treaty, had behaved dis- 
respectfully to one of Elizabedi's servants; and 
it was known or ahrewdly suspected that tbe 
Catholic fanatics, who mainly ruled the ooundli 
of the fVench court, were determined, on Ihefiist 
favourable opportunity, to asaert the Scottish 
queen's rights and strike a blow in England for 
Mary, Qod, and church. We will not pretend 
to say that, if all these provocations had been 
wanting, Elizabeth would not have adopted pre- 
cisely the same line of conduct, which was nothing 
but a drawing out of the old line of Henry VIII., 
which tell to her as a political heii^looni. When 
the matter was debated in the English coundl, 
there was, however, some difference of opinioD, 
and a strong repugnance on the part of the queen, 
to what was deemed the anarchical polity of John 
Knox. The Scottish lords, or rather the great 
English statesmen who espoused their cause, put- 
ting aude the delicate question of rebellion and 
aiding of rebels, represented that the Fiendi 
were keeping and increasing an army in Scot- 
land, and Miming Hi nothing less than the entiro 
possession or mastery of the country; that Scot- 
land would only prove a step to England; that 
when the Protestants there were overpowered, 
the French and Catholics would undoubtedly ttj 
to place Maty Stuart on the throne of England, 

,v Google 

AJi. 1868— lOfla] ELIZi 

and renew the tyraimj of Mary Tndor; that the 
Rnfety of the queen, the state, the church, the 
liberty of England, depended esaentially on th« 
tun which aflkire might take ia ScotUod.' The 
correcbieBa of these viewa wai undeniable, and 
it was therefore reeolved to support the Protee- 
t*nt nobility in their struggle with the quew- 
regent; bat with aach secrecy aa neither to bring 
upon the Iiorde of the Congregation the odium of 
being the friends and penuonen of Snglaud, nor 
to engage Elizabeth in an open war with her 
rioter and riraL' Elizabeth had not far to look 
for an agent competent to manage this buaineas: 
our old friend %r Balph Sadler, who knew Scot- 
Und better than any Englishman, who had been 
in old times the bosom friend of tiie Scottish 
lords in the pay of Henry VIIL, many of whom 
fignred in tlie new movenientfl, had quitted his 
runJ retiremeDt at Hackney on the acoession of 
her present majesty, who had forthwith appointed 
him to a seat in her privy council. He was full 
of energy, and he entered on his new daties with 
a happy anUcipatiun of success. In the course 
of the month of August, Cedl issued a couunis- 
sion to Sir Balph to ssttle certain disputes con- 
ceming Border matters, and to superintend the 
repaiiB which it was proposed to make in the 
fortifications of Berwick and other English foi^ 
trasBCB on or near to the Borders. Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, and Sir James Croft, the go- 
vernor of Berwick, were joined in the commission, 
but more for form tlian for anything else; for 
Northumberland, as a Papist himself, was sns- 
peeted — and the whole business was, in fact, io- 
tmst«d to Sadler. The repairs which were ao- 
toally b^un on a large scale at Berwick seemed 
a Tery suffident reason to account for Sadlei^ 
protracted stay; and Elizabeth had "thought 
necemary to provoke the qaeen-r^;ent, her good 
sister, to appoint some of her miniatera of like 
qualities to meet with the said earl (Northum- 
berland) and the said Sir Ralph and Sir James.' 
Sadler was thus Inmight into contact with Scot- 
tish commissioners, whom ha waa instructed to 
bribe. By hia privata powers and instructions, 
in Cecil's hand-writing, be waa authorized to 
confer, treat, or practise with any manner of 
penon of Scotland, either in Scotland or Eng- 
land, for his purposes and the furthering of the 
queen's service ; to distribula money to the dis- 
a0ected Soots, as he should think proper, to the 
■monnt of £3000, bat he waa always to proceed 
with such discretion and secrecy, that no part of 
his doings should awaken suspicion or impair 
the peace lately ooncladed between Elizabeth and 

ir (ChU; with U 

■ VkHs fltaWt Blofimphlal HnnolTi^ Sli tUlph Badlar, pis- 
tai %o IM BLau rapm ini IMtn iifBiT HalfA aailtr, Kiti^ 
taoBV, sUtad bj .^nhiir CU?ord. 

Scotland. Sir Ralph soon reported progress to 
the cool and circumspect CecU, telling him that 
if the Lords of the Congregation were properly 
encouraged and comforted, there waa no donlA 
aa to the result On his arrival at Berwid he 
bad found in that town a secret meaaenger sent 
from Snos to Sir James Croft (who appear to 
have been old friends}, and by msans of this 
messengn' they signified to Knox that tlity wished 
that Mr. Henry Balnaves, or some other discreet 
and trusty Seotaman, might repair "in secret 
manner" to such place as they had appointed, to 
the intent that they might confer touching affairs. 
Bir James Croft had understood from Knox that 
his party would require aid of the queen's majesty 
for the entertainment and wages of 1500 arqne- 
buaiers and 300 horsemen, which, if they might 
have, then France (aa £noi said) should "soon 
understand their minds." To thia demand for 
aid, Sadler had so answered as not to leave them 
without hope: but he ia anxious "to understand 
the queen's majesty's pleasnre in that part, wish- 
ing, if it may be looked for that any good efiect 
shall follow, that her majesty should not, for tlie 
spending of a great deal more than the charge of 
their demand amonnteth unto, pretermit such an 
opportunity." Bnt it was money, ready money, 
that the Scottish Reformers needed. "And to 
say our poor minds unto you," continues Sir 
Balph, "we see not but her highness must be at 
some charge with them ; for of ban vordt only, 
though they mag be eomforlahU, get can they re- 
ceim no oomfort." This letter was written on the 
SOth of August (ISe9), immediately after Sadler's 
arrival at the scene of intrigue, and on the same 
day John Knox was requested to send his secret 
agent to Holy Me. By a letter dated on the 
24th of the same month, Elizabeth told Sadler 
that he should immediately deal out "in the 
secretest manner' the money committed to him 
at his departure from London, " to such penons 
and to such intents as might most effectually 
further and advance that service which luui been 
specialty recommended unto him." And on the 
aaue day Cecil addressed to Amu, or Chatel- 
Isranlt, a much more remarkable letter, which 
it should appear Sir Balph was to forward to its 
destination. From some expressions used by 
Cecil, it should almost seem that Elizabeth enter- 
tiuned the uoUou of uniting the two kingdoms 
under her own dominion, without any reference 
to the rights of Mary; but the Scottish nation 
was certainly not prepared for any such measure, 
nor did the fastest pace of the Lords of the Con- 
grcfpition come up with it. On the SSth of Au- 
gust the Queen-regent of Scotland, in the name of 
PrancisandMary, King and Queen of the Frendi 
and Scots, appointed Scottish conunisalonsrs to 
treat with Sadler and NoHhnroberlaud for the 

,v Google 




iettlement of the Border diaputra, the release of 
prisoneTB on both aidefl, and the establiahisg a 
sound and lastiiig tninquillity on the frontiers of 
tho two kingdoms, the seat of ancient and fierce 
enmities. These coninuBaionen were the infam- 
ous Jamea Hepbam, Eart of Bothwell, who, a few 
yean later, inrotved Queen Maij in di^nee and 
deatnictioD ; Sir Richard Maitland of I«thiiigton, 
father of the celeb»t«d secretary of Maiji M>d 
Sir Walter Cor, or Ker, of Cessford, ancestor 
of the Dnkes of Roxburgh. Sir Ralph Sadler 
thooffht fit to postpone the meeting to the 11th 
of September, and ^fl Scottish commisaioners do 
not appear to have been sensible of the fact that, 
in the meanwhile, those of England were activelj 
corresDonding with the inBorgenta. Great caution 
was used in that matter. In conformity with 
Cecil's advice, a comfortable letter was drawn up 
between Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James Croft 
to the Lords of the Congregation, expressing their 
heariy sonvw at understanding that their godly 
enterprise, tending principally to the advance- 
ment of God's glory, and neit to the safegnard 
and defence of their natural country from the 
conqnest of the f^nch nation, should be nnfor- 
tnnately stayed and interrupted.' Bnt this letter 
was not sent to its destination; and it seems to 
have been stopped in consequence of the joamey 
into Scotland of the son and heir of the Dnke of 
Chatellerwilt, who had been in England in close 
conference with Cecil, by means of whom the 
neceasaiy encouragement might be transmitted 
to the insurgents by word of mouth, Ihns dimin- 
ishing the chance of committing Queen Eiieabeth 
as a fomenter of the rebellion. 

The ez-regenfs son, who at this time bore his 
father's former title of Earl of Arran, stole into 
Scotland with an English pass, under the aasumed 
name of Uonsienr de Beaufort, and he was accom- 
panied by Master Thomas Randall, or Randolph, 
an able and intelligent agent of Queen Elizabeth, 
an adept in secret intrigues, who assumed, for the 
nonce, the name of Bamyby.' This Randall, or 
Randolph, alias Bwnyby, remuned a consider- 
able time in Scotland, being in fact the reeident 
envoy of Elizabeth to the Lords of the Congre- 
gation. He occasionally corresponded directly 
with the queen's council, but more generally wiUi 
Sir R. Sadler. On the 8th of September, three 
days before the appointed meeting with the com- 
missioners of the Queen^'^nt of Scotland, Sadler 
wrote to inform Cecil that Mr. Balnaves had at 
last arrived at midnight from the Lords of the 
Congr^ation, and had made him " the whole dis- 
course of all their proceedings from the be^n- 
ning,* English money and promises had worked 

H "a ffmtlsDui of (nir good bnthBT thtt Frvoh Ung / ' BunjT^, 

the denred eSect; the Lords of the CougtegatioD 
were encouraged to strike another blow. 

In an armistJoe concluded at the Links of Leitli 
on the 24th of the preceding month of July, it 
was covenanted — 1. That the town of Edinboigta 
ahonld use what religion they pleased. £. That 
no one should be prosecuted for religion. 3. That 
no garrison should be placed in Edinbor^ A 
dispute arose concerning the posseasion of the 
hig^ chnreh of St. Giles' in Edinburgh, which 
the queen-regent denred to retain for the exer- 
cise of the Catholic worship, and which the 
Reformers were equally eager to occupy. But, in 
fact, John Knox was determined to drive the 
Romish clergy from every church, from every 
altar, whether public or private, and thus, ivaar- 
diatety after the agreement of the links of Leith, 
he extended his demands, inusting that mats 
should not be aud even within the precineta of 
the palace of Holyrood. Sadler granted the 
Lonb of the Congregation for the preeent ^2000, 
telling their envoy, that if tbej made a good use 
of it, and kept the secret, and the queen's konatr 
untouched, they should soon have more. Bal- 
naves returned well satisfied to the Lords of the 
Congr^ation, who took the money as secretly u 
possible. In the same long letter, in which he 
reports all that had passed with Balnaves, Sir 
Ralph informs Cecil that there were other Scotr 
tish Protestants, as Kirkoldy of Grange, Ormes- 
ton, and Whitlaw, "which hava spent much for 
this matter, whereof they be earnest proseentors; 
and, having lost fifteen or uxteen months' pay, 
whioh they should now have had out of Prance,' 
looked for some relief, and had been put in sontB 
hope thereof; "but," continnes Sadler, "becaose 
we have been so liberal of the queen's pnne, 
albeit it pleased bar majesty to commit the same 
to the discretion of me tiie said Sir Ralph, yet 
we would he glad to know how her higimess 
liketh or misliketh what we have done befon we 
do any more." Eliabeth was obliged to send 
down more money to Berwick, some of which 
was paid to Eirkaldy, Omeeton, and Whittaw, 
and some, it should appear, to the Earl of Arran, 
the son of the Duke of Chatetletault the ei-re- 
gent In a day or two Arran was safely deliv- 
ered in Teviotdale to one of his friends, who 
undertook to convey him surely and secretly to 
his father in the oastle of Hamilton ; and it ^ 
pears to have been after this return of his son 
that the ex-rcgent fully dedared for the Lords 
of the Congregati<m. Meanwhile, on the ap- 
pointed day, Sadler, with Croft and the Earl of 
Northumberland, met the commissioners of the 
queen-regent upon the frontiers. A dispute about 
the wording of their respective commissions con- 
sumed some time, and then, with proper diplo- 
matic slowness, Sadler proceeded to business — a 





bnsinera which, like all Border dispoteo, coald be 
lengthened ad it^nUvm. Daring theae diacua- 
doiis Knox Bent his preachen over the country ; 
the qaeen-regent "feU into a gre&t malaiicholf 
and diaplaaanre ;' the Gongregatioii began to as- 
•emble, and the Frenchmen begui to deviae meana 
for their own defense. Had die but known h^ 
the intrigaea that were at work, the queen-regent 
had good reason to be melanehol;. Her secra- 
tuj, William Maitland, wrote to Sadler's aaao- 
ciate, Sir Jamee Croft, desiring him to hare no 
leas good opinion of bim than heretofore, and 
ofibring his service to the qaeen'a majesty (Eliza- 
beth) in anything that he could ■. "and further," 
safB Croft inajointletter, "he sent me word that 
he attokded upon the regent in her court no longer 
than till he might have good oocaaion to revolt 
unto the Frateetantfl * At the same time, how- 
ever, mors troops arrived from EVance, and more 
fVench money was placed at the diapoeal of the 
qneen-iegent and her party. John Enox was 
greatly alanned as to the FmuA money, and h« 
immediately beaooght Elizabeth ta coouteract its 
dangerous effects ta Uie Protestant interests by 
sending more EaglUh money into Scotland. On 
his recent return from Oeneva through England 
he had had an interview with Cecil, and evidently 
had arraaged beforehand the plan of his opera- 
tions.' He corresponded afterwards with the 
English secretary and others in England; and on 
the Slat of September, under the feigned name 
of John Sindear, he wrote to Sadler's colleague, 
Croft^ a remarkable letter from Bt. Andrews. 
Aft«r mentioning the return of the younger 
Arran, and how the Lords of the Congregation 
had departed for Stirling to join him and his 
father, the Dnke of Chatelleraidt, at Hamilton 
Castle, he passed at once to the question of 
money, and told Mr. Secretary that unless mcn« 
money waa aent, especially for some chiefs whom 
he had named in writing, it would be impoauble 
for them to serve in this action.' 

Thoea who take the least bvourable view of 
the chaiBcter of John Knox can hardly suspect 
that he wanted money for himself, bat he knew 
(he world and the mercenary character of most 
of the Scottish chiefs; and, besides, the sinews of 
war appear te«lly to hare been wanting, and the 
CUholic party, as we have seen, were drawing 
fimds from France. For a time it was a struggle 
of the pnrse between England and France. Eli- 
labeth, at all times parsimonious, was at the pre- 
sent poor and embartaseed, and yet, under the 
wise guidance of Cecil and Sadler, she ciwtinued 
to send gold down to Berwick. Meanwhile the 
French fortified Leith, as if "intending to keep 
themselves within that place, and ao to be maatera 

of the chief port and entrance iuto that part of 
Scotland i" and the Lords of the Congr^^on 
attempted to get possession of Edinbnrgh Castle, 
in which, however, they were defeated by Lord 
Erakine the governor, who profeaaed to obaerve 
neutrality between the contending parties, and 
refused to admit either Froteatanta or Catholics. 

In spite of all the precaution of the English 
queen and the marvetloos address of her agent, 
Mary's mother was not altogether blind to what 
was passing, and she complained, through her 
commissioners, that, without her license and 
knowledge, many of the Scottish insut^Dts were 
allowed to pass through England into Scotland, 
and also out of Scotland into England, to work 
ntisohief to her government. It ia indeed certain 
that the Cardinal of Lorraine, and others who 
directed the councils of that very youthful couple, 
would have made Francis and Maiy quarter the 
English anas under any circumatouces ; but not- 
withstanding this, Elizabeth, with reference to 
her own conduct, could not jnstly allege that the 
first provocation to their mortal quarrel pro- 
ceeded from Uary. It ia almoat idle to consider 
thia as a moral question, or as an afbir directed 
personally by the - two rival princesaes ; but as 
many writera have viewed it in this Ught, it may 
be proper to make promineut one or two little 
facto, hiary was only in her seventeenth year, 
her hualwnd was nearly a year younger, and both 
were entirely guided by others. Elizabeth was 
in her twenty-aiith year, the mistress of her own 
council and actions, an experienced and moat 
competent person. If, therefore, a false and un- 
fair direction was given to the policy of Mary, it 
was her misfortune, or an offence for which 
morally she was not accountable, but in Eliza- 
beth such a thing would be her own crime. 

The ex - Regent Chatellerault took occasion 
openly to declare himself ou the French fortify- 
ing Leith, and he told the queen-r^nt that she 
moat either dislodge them, or be sure that the 
nobility of Scotland would not suffer nor endure 
it. The regent replied that it was surely as 
lawful for her daughter to fortify where she 
pleased in her own realm as it was for him, the 
duke, to build fortifications for himself at Hamil- 
ton Castle, and that she would not remove the 
French from Leith unless she were compelled by 
force. As soon as these matters were known at 
Berwick, where agents and spies were constantly 
going and coming, Sadler wrote a short but sen- 
tentious letter to his old acquaintance the duke, 
assuring his grace that if it might lie in so poor 
a man as be was to do his grace any service, he 
should find him most willing and ready thereto, 
to the uttermost of hia power at all times. The 
duke and the Lords of the Congregation sup- 
pressed the abbeys of Flusley, Kilwinning, and 

,v Google 





Donfermline, burning all the imagea, idols. Bud 
Popish stuff in the same, and bj means of Alex- 
ander Whitlaw, " a godly man and mott afec- 
lumate to England" they aaaured Sadler that thej 
would take the field after harreet agaiuat the 
FreDch — <nd]/ Ihtt/ v>aiUed tome more taoney, with- 
out which they should not be able to keep their 
men together. At the same time Enox sued 
again for relief fur certain Scottjsh leaders whom 
be would Dot name, but whom Sadler set down 
as the Earl of Qlencaim, the I^rds of Dun, Or- 
nieBtoii,andOrange,andAleianderWhitlaw. La 
Brosae and the £iahop of Amiens had arrived with 
a few troops at Leith, and more were expected. 
I u this posture of affairs Badlerrecommended the 
immediate spending of .£4000 or ^COOOO, which 
lie thought might save the queen's highness a 
great deal another way. While they were get- 
ting ready this money in England the regent 
wrote to the dnke, reproving him for joining 
with the Lords of the CongregatioD, and accusing 
him and the said lords of their practices with 
Queen Elizabeth. At the same time the regent 
spoke of a new agreement, offering to leave off 
fortifying Leith, to secure liberty for all men to 
use their conscience, and \a send the French out 
of Scotland by a certain day ; but the duke an- 
swered that he could do nothing without the 
Lords of the Congregation. The sum of i^SDOO 
in French coin was down at Berwick by the lOtb 
of October ; and from Berwick it soon found its 
way into the pocketa of the Lords of the Congre- 
gation ; but atill those chiefs were slow in taking 
the field; and Sadler, through Thoniaa Bandolph, 
aliaa Bamyby, told them that they ought to be 
more diligent in this great and weighty busineaa. 
A few days afterwards Sir Ralph was still more 
pressing, telling the Lords of the Congregation 
that they ought "to take their time while they 
have it, and thereby prevent the malice of their 
enemies." Bandolph, who was moving about 
with the Scottish lorda, aasured Sadler that some- 
thing would be done preaently, for the queen- 
regent had set forth her proclamation, and the 
Lords of tiie Congregation had aluo set forth thtir 
proclamation "aa vehement on the other side, 
with full determination to fall to no composition." 
By this time contiuual vexation and alarm had 
broken the health of Mary of Guisa. "Some," 
writes Bandolph, "think that the regent will 
depart secretly ; some that she will to Inch- 
keith, for that three ships ar« a-preparing. 
Some say that she is very sick : some say the 
devil cannot kill her." In the same secret de- 
spatch, which, like most of the rest, was written 
in a dpher, Bandolph says that the prior of St. 
Andrews has just sent to the Earl of Arran a 
powerful letter said to be received out of France, 
contjuning many news of the great preparations 

making in that country against Scotland, utA 
earnest advice to the lords to aesk ud of Eng- 
land ; "which letter," adds the adroit agent, " I 
guess to savour too much of Knox's style (o 
come from France, though it will serve to gcod 

The queen-regent by this time had conveyed 
all her property out of Eolyroodhonse and £diii- 
buif^h, into Leith. At last, the Lords of the 
Congregation, with the Duke of Chat«lleranlt, 
and hia son the Earl of Arran, at their hesd, 
marched upon the capital ; the regent, with the 
French and the Scottidi lords of the Catholic partj 
who yet adhered to her, withdrew at their vp- 
proach within the fortified lines of Leith, there 
to await ud from France. The lords called a 
parliament, and summoned U> E^dinborgb all the 
genUemen living upon the Borders, upon pab of 
treason in case of non-attendance. On the S2d 
of October Balnavee' reported that all hope of 
concord had that day been taken away, by reuon 
that blood had been drawn largely on both side*.' 
At the same time he pressed for more vuma/, and 
asked for some English gonpowder.* Two days 
after, the Lords of the Congregation themselves 
addremed Sadler, telling him that they had de- 
prived the queen-regent of her authority, hv 
common consent of all the lords and barone pre- 
sent at Edinburgh — that they had openl; pro- 
claimed her deprivation, had inhibited her offi- 
cers from executing anything in her name, and 
had further denounced " her F^'ench and aaaa- 
tante* as enemies to the commonwealth. Touch- 
ing the lords' request for mor« money and for 
gunpowder, Sadler replied that he trusted they 
would consider ucrtcy above all things — that he 
did not see how he could send them powder 
without an open show and manifestation of Eh- 
aaMth aa an enemy to the French, who were 
then in peacs and amity with her: and yet he 
adds, if they can devise which way the saniBnuy 
be secretiy conveyed unto them, in such sort t» 
it could not be known to come from England, he 
could be well content that they had as mnch 
gunpowder as might be spared from Berwick 
conveniently. And likewise for money, he waa 
in good hope of having some to send them soon, 
but he prayed that they would use such precau- 
tions and mysteries as the importance of the 
matter and the Aonour of Queen Elizabeth re- 
quired, and be more close and secret in their 
doings and conferences. Knox, who could re*- 

> lU blood WM dnn tn ddnoUiaoDU 
Lajth. Kdoi. in hii hiitoiT, aft that thu 
but ttithout gnat (Uucbta. 

» In pimUnc Mmidl, BalBin Mttat tt cut ■ itHmrtlm ™ 
htaoollMgw. B( Mill Budaipb Id •hik Unir biiwnn. t>» 
Knjfii.h oamBii^oiHn. in hb aunt, Uxt tlu UKI* montr ^ 
had tna^t wlUi Um hid goiH bnUn Uuo £SO00 itmU ti>« 
(0D« IstnuM loujUidj' da* 


A.O. 1858 -1660.] 


non like a politiciBs, had written to Croft or to 
Sadler, aajing that the queen-regent " had plainly 
■poken tlit she kiiew the raeans how to frustrate 
the erpectationa of tiA from Enghmd," by de- 
liveriDg up Calais t« Qneen Elizabeth ; and ha 
had evidently eipreagod himself aa if he sua- 
pected that the English court was coquetting in 
that direction. Sir Ralph was very earnest ia 
KmoTing this doubt He replied, almost elo- 
quently. This letter was written on the 87th of 
October: on the last day o( the same month Sir 
Balph addreaed Bandolpb, telling him that he 
expected every day some good answer from the 
coDTt toaehing tie mon^, and that, in the mean- 
time, ha forwarded by the laird of Onnetton 
j£lOOO sterling in French crowns. As Ormeston 
wastraTsUingfiom Berwick towardsEdinbnrgh, 
he was set npon by Lord Bothwell, who took the 
money-bags ^ra h'm and kept them, apparently 
for bia own nse. Ormeston reached the capital 
" sorely hurt ;* upon which the Earl of Amn and 
the prior of St. Andrews went with 200 horae- 
lueo, 100 footmen, and two pieces of artillery, 
to Lord Bothwell'a house, " trusting to have 
found him ; howbeit they came too late only by 
a quarter of an hoor.' They, however, took bis 
house and threatened to burn it to tha ground, 
and declared the eail atraitor, unless he retomed 
the money. Thislosswasamost serious mishap; 
bat though both Elizabeth and her chief adviser 
Cecil were grieved to the heart by it, they soon 
sent more money. At the same time Knox (whose 
Bla*l of the Tnanpei agaimt the Mbnttroitt S^- 
meni of Women always grated harshly on tha 
queen's ear) hod excited appreliension, and jea- 
lousy, and disgust, at the English court by bis 
advocacy of tha Calvinistic discipline, and of po- 
litical tenets that seemed both republican and 
democratic. " Of all others," writes Cecil to 
Sadler, " Knox's name is most odious here, and, 
therefore, I wish no mention of him hither."' 
But Cecil was as deeply convinced as ever of the 
Qt^Mssity of supporting the Protestant insurrec- 
tion. " It is here seeu,* ha says, " by such to 
whom it hath been secretly committed, that the 
end of this tAeir matter is certainly the beginning 
<if outs, be it weal or woe ; and therefore, I see 
it will follow necessarily that we must have good 
regard that they quail not." In this letter, which 
is dated on the 3d of November, he goes much 
farther than he bad hitherto gone, aitthoririug 
Sadler to tell the Scottish lords that, if they would 
forthwith raise a sufficient force, and venture on 

His mitiusi Aa do good hi 

the siege of Lsith, all the charges should bti 
home for them; and that if they took Leitb, in 
case of the French making any array by ssa to 
invade Scotland, they should be met and hin- 
dered if their power appeared greater than the 
Scottish Protestants could reasonably withstand. 
Sadler entered completely into these viewa, 
and was of opinion that now deception could no 
longer be practised, by resson of the mischief 
whichhadbefalleoOrmestOD. Succour was tbare- 
fora sent in more boldly to the Lords of the 
Congregation, who, at last, beleaguered Leith. 
But in so wretched a stats of discipline whs this 
Scottish army, that at eveiy sortie the French 
took them by surprise, and gained an advantage 
over them. On the 6th of November the Pres- 
byterians, commanded by the Earl of Arran and 
the prior of St. Andrews, were surrounded in 
the msrshes of Bestalrig, and defeated with 
some loss by a portion of the French garrison. 
Their retreat to Edinburgh was nearly cut off, 
and when they got there they fell to serious de- 
bating, the end of which was, that the Eari of 
Olencairn, with some other lords, resolved to 
leave the capital in order to collect more man. 
But, finally, upon perceiving that the greatest 
part of their force, " which consisted of the eom- 
TTumt thst were not able to abide and serve any 
longer npon their own costs and charges," ware all 
departing from them, the whole of the Congrega- 
tion evacuated Edinburgh, and retreated to Stir- 
ling by uigbL At the latter place Knox finished 
a sermon which he had commenced at Edinburgh 
before the departure, and, according to his own 
acconnt, "the lords were mnch erected" by it. 
He was, no doubt, the great animating principle 
in this remarkable contest: hut, while he was 
preaching at Stirling, the qqeen-regent and the 
French re-entered the capital in great triumph. 
I ■an Notwithstanding the effective 
preaching of John Knox, and the 
reviving spirit of the Scottish Protestants, it soon 
became evident that something more must be done 
for them than the sending of money to the needy 
nobles; and when Elizabeth learned that the 
queen-regent was promised fresh supplies and 
troops from France, she resolved to make such 
preparations as should prevent tha Scots from 
being crushed. Therefore, without altogether 
giving up her secret practices, or stopping her 
private subsidies, she began to prepare a fieet and 
an army. Her warlike preparations were soon 
nunoured abroad, aud at this moment tlie French 
court really made her an offer of the immediate 
restitution of Calais, provided only she would 
not interfere in the a&irs of Scotland. To this 
tempting offer Elizabeth replied, that she could 
never put a fishing-town in competition with the 
safety of her dominions ; and she continued her 

,v Google 



prepuatioiiB, and intimated to the Ijorda of the 
CoDgregKtion that she wu dow ready to eater 
upon a treaty with them. The Scottish lorda 
choae for their nc^liat^ir the able William 
Maitland of Lethingtou, irho had now deaertad 
from hia post of aecretorj to the regent, a step 
he had been contemplating for some time. If 
the English queen had anj lingering doubta and 
miagivingB as to braving a war, thej were eoon 
remored bj this troly aceompliahed diplomatiBt. 
On the STth of Febiwr she co&claded, at Ber- 
wick, a treaty of mntual defence, which waa to 
last doring the marriage of the Queen of Soots 
with the French king, and for a year after; ahe 
■olemnlj promised never to lay down her aims 
till the Frencb ahonld be entirely driven out of 
Scotland ; and ahe gave eqoally Bolemn aworan- 
oes that she would not attack tiie Ubertiea, laws, 
and niagea of the Scots.' 

In the montli of March, notwithatanding the 
stormB of winter, the English fteet, which eon- 
aiated of thirteen large ships of war, besides trsn- 
sports, appeared in the ilrth of Forth, and at a 
critic&l moment, for 4000 Frenchmen, horse and 
foot, had been detached from Edinborgh and 
Leith, and were then engaged in ravaging the 
fertile and Protestant connty of fHfe. D'Oisel, 
their general, who had not proceeded nnmolested, 
and who was checked by the appearance on his 
left flank of numerous Scottish bodies under the 
prior of St. Andrews, Lord Ruthven, and Eir- 
kaldy of Grange, was transported with joy at the 
sight of the gallant fleet, which he mistook for the 
long-promised ships of D'Elbeenf, and he wasted 
a great deal of valuable gunpowder in firing a 
salute. But, preeently. Winter, the English ad- 
miral, hoisted his flag, and at that unwelcome 
sight D'Oisel turned, and began a difficult and 
dangerous retreat. He, however, reached Edin- 
burgh, where he found the queen-rq;ent in an 
alanning state of health. Foraeeiog the dangers 
and hardships to which her sinking frame would 
be exposed in a besieged town, the brokeu-hearted 
find dying Maiy of Guise implored the Lord 
Erskine to receive' her Into the castle of Edin- 
borgh ; and his lordship, who still maintained his 
curious neutrality and independence, granted her 
an asylum upon condition that she should take 
only a few attendants into the castle with her. 
Quitting his royal misbvss, bis steady and affec- 
tionate friend, for ever, D'Oisel threwbimself into 
Leith. That place had been well fortified before, 
and now he employed a short time allowed him 
by the enemy in adding to its defences ; and, 
notwithstanding the fact that the English at- 
Caeked Leith rather like bnU-dogi than sotdieis, 
D'Oisel and ^e French engineers must have 
Bvinoed very ooosidenble skill The whole force 

of the IVench now in Scotland did not exceed 
SOOOroen. An&i^h anny,anionnting to6000 
men, nnder the Lord Grey de Wilton, having 
marched by Berwidc to Freeton on the eth dt 
April, 1C60, joined a considerable force brought 
thither by the Lords of the Congregation ; and 
while the fleet blockaded the port of I«itfa, and 
prevented the airival of any anccour from France, 
the united armies of Scotland and England laid 
siege to the town on the land side. The Marqnis 
d'E]b<Biif had embarked for Scotland with a l^tge 
force, but his transports were scatl«red hy a 
storm, and either wrecked on the coast of Hol- 
land or driven back to France. In this way the 
English fleet bad no opportunity of distinguish- 
ing itself in battle. The land troops soon gave 
glaring proofs that they had in a great degree 
lost the habit of discipline, and that they were 
nnskilfiilly commanded. They opened their tren- 
ches in ground utterly unfit for the pnrpoA, and 
their guns were so badly pointed as to make little 
or no impression on the bastions which the French 
had thrown up, or on the walls of Leith. llieir 
line of circumvallation was loose and ragged, and 
■o little vigilance was used, that for some time 
the French broke through it with impunity. It 
soon appeared that Leith, "though not thought 
inexpugnable, would percase be found of snch 
strength as would require time, and that the 
greatest want which the Scottish chieftains did 
fear was lack of moneg; for, otherwise, they were 
of good courage." This courage, however, bad 
been damped by sundry suspicions and misgiv- 
ings. At the very commencement of hostilities, 
even while the Scotch and English were en- 
gaged with the French, Sir Jamea Croft and 
Sir Oeorge Howard had an interview with the 
queen-regent in Edinburgh Castle. This circum- 
stance instantly excited the suspicion of the Lords 
of the Congregation, who apprehended that Eli- 
zabeth had empowered her diplomatic agents to 
make a separate peace, upon conditions advanta- 
geous to herself, and that thus the Scottish insur- 
'genta would be abandoned to the vengeance of 
the !FVench and the queen-mother. And we have 
veiy satisfactory evidence to prove that their 
feats were not altogether groundless.* There 
can be little donbt that the selfish and vacil- 
lating Duke of Cbatelleranlt and several noble 
lords of his party, who were at beat hut luke- 
warm Protestants, would have entered with Eli- 
zabeth and the queen-regent into any " reason- 
able accord" that would have promoted their per- 
sonal interests, and that they would have left 
John Knox and the Congregation to shift for 
themselves: but^most anspicionsly f or the latter, 
Eliiabetli's agents, and VLarj of Guise, who te- 
ttuned a h\^ s]Mrit eves in death, oould not 


4.D. 1558—1560.1 


ngree; tha treatj in Edmbnigh Caetle waa br 
oir, and in a few days the English queen reeolTed 
that the si^e of Leith should be more earnestlj 
[jn>Heciit«d, and her forces both by sea and land 
augmeoted. At the same time the English com- 
manders vera Inalracted not " to cootema or 
neglect any reasonable offers of agreement* that 
might be made by the Prench. But these veterans 
for a long time had no inclination U> make any 
offei-B, and they continued to defend Leith with a 
skill and bravery which gained for them high hon- 
our among aoldiers in every part of Europe. Ac- 
cording to Brantome, a seal was put t^i a soldier's 
repatation if be could say that be had served in 
this g^U&ut defence of Leith.' On the side of 
the English and Bcota the operations advanced 
very slowly, and their labour was repeatedly ren- 
dered of no avail by the ingenuity of the Tnach 
engineera. At last a bad breach was made, and 
towards this the English, who at least had lost 
none of Uieir phyaical coui'age, rushed in blind 
fury, heedless of the well-directed artillery of the 
enemy: but when they came to use their scaling- 
ladders they found tbera far too short for the pur- 
pose, and after a dreadful struggle they were re- 
pulsed and obliged to flee to their intrenchments, 
leaving a ditch half filled with dead— tbe victims 
of the ignorsnce or inceDsiderateuess of their 
officers. The English were so much dis[Hrited 
by their ftulnre on this and other occasions, that 
they talked of a retreat; but more money was 
sect down to their Scottish alliM, and the Duke of 
Norfolk, in addition to several smaller bodies 
despatched already, forwarded a reinforcement 
of 2000 men. Thus the siege was carried on 
more closely than ever, or, rather, it was con- 
verted into the closest of blockades. 

Matters were in this state when, on the lOtb 
of June, the queen-regent breathed her last in 
Edinburgh Castle. On her death-bed she sent 
for her daughter's half-brother, the prior of Bt. 
Andrews, and some others of the Lords of the 
Congregation, to whom she earnestly recom- 
mended her absent child their queen. The death 
of Hary of Guise hastened the conclunon of a 
peace, which, however, the French government 
was made to desire by other circumstances and 
alarming demonstratioDS, which, at the least, 
threatenedFrancewilbafieTcecivilwar. Thetwo 
brodiera of the deceased Queen-regent of Scotland, 
the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Qnise, 
who in fact governed the French kingdom in 
the name of Francis and Mary, had excited the 
deadly animoaity of the French Prot«stAnts, and 
i^ other great and powerful factions : they had 
recently discovered an extensive conspiracy di- 
rected against the whole house of Lorraine, and 
though they had jwevented its outbreak for the 

present, they well knew that the eonspirat«rs 
would never be reconciled to them. At such a 
moment they could not spare fresh troops for the 
very doubtful and expensive struggle in Scotland, 
and even the veterui force blocked up in Leith 
was much missed and ila return anxiously de- 
aired. BliEabeth opened a ready ear to some 
overtures made by the house of Lorraine, and it 
was finally agreed that her commissioners should 
have a meeting with certain French commis- 
sioners in the town of Berwick on the 14th of 
June. The able men appointed by Elizabeth 
were Cecil and Dr. Wottou, dean of Oanterbaiy; 
the French uegotjators were Hontluc, Bishop of 
Valence, and the Count de Randan, both men of 
conBummate abilities. These diplomatiats, who 
seem to have been very fairly matched, met, and 
proceeded on the 16th of June to Edinburgh. 
Several days were consumed in settling condi- 
tions; but on the 6th of July, about three o'clock 

the afternoon, the Lord Grey de Wilton, Sir 
William Cecil, and Sir BaJph Sadler, gave orders 

" le besiegers' camp that there should no piece 
be shot nor show of hostility be made; and on 
the following day Sir iEVancis Leake and Sir 
Gervase Clifton, accompanied by two French 
gentlemen, were sent into the town of Leith to' 
eignify unto M. d'Otsel, the Kehop of Amiens, 
La Brosse, Uarigny, and other the French lords 
and captains, that they were come thither by 
command of the commisaioDers of France and 
England to cause the peace already concluded to 
be proclaimed, which accordingly was done. Leith 
then surrendered, and the French governor 
D'Oisel regaled the captains of the besi^^ers witb 
a banquet of thirty or forty dishes, in which the 
only flesh used was that of a salted horse — a cir- 
cumstance which, as it baa been observed, marks 
national manners and IVench skill, as well as 
extremity to which the place had been re- 

The treaty, which was the joint production of 
Cecil and Sadler, was highly advantageous to 
Elizabeth. Besides Leith, Dunbar and Inchkeith 
were to be surrendered, and the fortifications de- 
itroyed ; the administration of aSaira in Scotland 
vas to be vested in a council of twelve Scottish 
loblemen, of whom seven were to be named bv 
the queen, and five by the parliament^ no foreign 
forces were thenceforward to be introduced into 
Scotland without the full consent and will of the 
Scottish parliament; an indemnity was stipulated 
for bU tbinge passed in Scotland since Msreh, 
1358; and every man was to be restored to the office 
he held before these hostilities, while no French- 


> rim dm Onaidi a 


■ Wallrr SaO, atow nji, " Whna mi pnpand m Ui 

tmiiqiHl of tUrtr DT (Mr dlAn. ud j«t WFt ana ettboT of 
Aah, uTtin QM of m pgir d am l bdrae. ■> wu ATOuhad b; 






man waa ever to hold anj otEce in ScQtUnd. On 
the subject of religion, the main canee of the 
Inta var, it was af{reed that the eatatee of the 
kingdom ahoold report to Queen Marf aud her 
hnaband their opinion and their visbes touching 
that matter. At the same time there waa a aepa- 
rat« treaty made between France aud England, 
bj which France recognized the right of Eliza- 
beth to her crown, and agreed that Mary, in time 
to come, sbonld neither aasnme the title nor bear 
the uma of England.' 

The removal of the foreign troops secured the 
triamphant sapremacj of the Protestant party, 
now l^e najoritf of the Scottish nation of all 
rlnimrn. and which henceforward bad the field 
almost entirely to itself. 

While the Scottish affairs were aa yet un- 
settled, the English queen's vanity was flattered 
by another pressing offer of mai-riage from her 
old suitor Eric, who bad now ascended the throne 
of Sweden. In his extreme anxie^ for this 
match, Eric sent his own brother, the Duke 
of FinUnd, to plead in bis behalf. The Buke 
arrived at Harwich, where he waa honourably 
received, and conducted to London. Those who 
knew her best, knew well that Elizabeth had 
never the intention of making any such marriage. 

Sir Kalpb Sadler, who was then at Berwick, wrote 
to Bandolph in Scotland, that the King of Sweden 
had sent a great anibaaHador to the queen's ma~ 
jesty with great and libenU offers, " which you 
maybesure,''headda,"wiUtakeno place." Afew 
days after his arrival, Cecil, evidently in amaze, 
saya, " We also hear that the Archduke of Aus- 
tria is on the way hitherward, not with any 
pomp, but rather, as it may seem, by post, in 
stealth. The King of Spain is earnest for him. 
What may come time will shortly show, I 
would to God her majesty had one, and the rest 
honourably satisfied.'' The Duke of Austria did 
not come, aa jraa expected; but the Kingof Den- 
mark entered the arena, aud being unwilling that 
his neighbour and rival, the King of Sweden, 
should bear off so glorious a prize, he sent hia 
nephew, the Duke of Holstein, inki England to 
try his fortune with this most royal vii^n. An 
elegant writer* has made a parallel between Eli- 
zabeth and the fair and wealthy Portia ; but the 
queen could hardly exclaim — "While we shut 
tlie gate on one wooer, another knocks at the 
door" — for she kept her door open for several 
suitors at once, coquetting with Sweden, Den- 
mark, and Austria, to say nothing of minor pre- 



The Soot* dincard Pop«ry— Thej ertalilidi Pro! 

tioD — DiiturbuiM in Holjrood Chapel — Mmzj'i iDtarriaw with John Bnoi — Diiliks of Mar]''B nibJMt* ta her 
amnssmsDts— Knoi'( Tepubliwniim — PoTsrt; at ths Seottiih B«fcirmed clng;— ^Knni's mnoiutmicil on tho 
mlycot — Incraaw of EliotlMth'a TeMnrees — Har J»IotUf of riiali — 8bi alliss faanelf aitb the f rototaaU tf 
tha Continont— Hncnenot nr io Fmiaa^Eliaibath itid* the Hugntoots — AgUD urged by tb« parliament to 
mKTy— New !»*• in ftivirar of tha rojul mpranuwy — Opporition of the Popish p«rty— l*wi >ga,init witeh™, 
As.— Hngneoot mr continit«l in Fruuw— Treatj of Cfttherina da" HniicI with tha Hngnanota— Tba En^li 
guriion in HaTre compeliad to apitnlata — Tbay bring the pl»gii» into Loudon — A po«M with Fnas*— 
TionUei of Queen Mar; in ScotUnd—Her progrea into the Highluidi — Battta of Comobie — Harj'a soiton — 
Blinlxth'i duplicity ~8ba propaaet the Earl of Leieaatcr M ■ boaband to Uaiy—Worthlea ohataotw of 
LaicMitai^Hii favour with Eliaheth— Interriaw of Mary'i ambaaaador with Laicaatgr— Lord Darnlay appasn 
a* a niitor of Mary— Hi« reUtionihip to hei^-Hia ohaiaotar— Progreii of Wi mdt—He ia aeeapted hy Haty— 
Inlrlsnei oannectad with tbii union— The Proteitant lordi oppoae it— Tbe "Bound-about Raid "—Plight of 
the ininrgenta icto England— Thair iwsptiou tarn Elizabeth- Uary't eomplaizits ^aiuat tha Earl at Moray— 
Sba joinatbe Catholia alliuics againit Protertantiiin. 

Ij S soon as the Scota were relieved of 
I the presence of the French army 
they proceeded to settle their reli- 
gion. The parliament assembled 
tha 1st of August, 1560, in 
greater numbers than had ever 
been known before ; and their first buuuess was 

to receive and discuss a petition from the chief 
Lords of the Congregation, who required a formal 

goLdan dnanu of manybof Uulr aDTaalgn ^'' and ha mutiou 
pajtloularlj'SlTWUUwn Pickering, "a|«nUaDuui we]llwnk,of a 
naiTDW taUle, but muoh Atsamad fbr lili iDamijig, hIa fauidioaa 
wij of llTins. ud tits mauagBQivit of ■oma ambaariH Iptd FraOH 
and QwaiaDy ;" HaDxy. Eari of Arond^ a Tain. Ibima] man ; 
and Bobvt Dndlay. ailarwama Iba mitotloBB Garl it Ij^oaatat 


A.D. laeo— 1568.] ELIZA 

and natioDftl manifeato against the Clinrch of 
Jtome. Without much debate the parliuuent 
adopted the declaration that the anthoritj of the 
Bomam church waa aa QBurpatioD orer the liber- 
tiefl and couBciences of ChriBtian oien, an odioua 
tyranny not to be home. This nuuufesto wae 
aeoomptoiied by a confesaioD of faith, in which 
they renounced all the teneta and do);j;[nas of the 
church that had been attained by the Beformers 
of Qermany, SwitEerUnd, and ^gtand, and dis- 
ovued for ever the whole authority of the pope, 
A few year* before, the Beformera would hnve 
been contented — or, at leaat so they affirmed — 
with liberty to follow the dictatee of their own 
conidence, and to wonihip God lu the way they 
tbongbt best; but now that they were the power- 
ful party, they showed a most fixed resolution 
not to allow to othera the eweet and precious 
liberty they had claimed for themaelvee. They 
meoaeed with eecutar punishments those who 
continued to warship according to the manner of 
tbrir fathers, and proceeded to enact the most 
oppreenve lawa against the Catholics. Whoso- 
erer officiated in, oi' was present at a mass, whs, 
in the first instance, to be punished with confis- 
cation of goods and imprisonment at the discre- 
tion of the magistrate; for the second offence he 
was to be banished ; and for the third to suffer 
death. The Presbyterian form of discipline was 
adopted, and bishops and other dignitaries were 
declared to be limbs of Papal superstition and 
tyranny. "When they had proHMeded thus far, 
they consulted with their absent queen, and sent 
oTer Sir James Sandilands, formerly prior of the 
KnightB Hospitallers, to France, to demand the 
ratification of their acts. Mary not only refused 
her assent to the statutes passed against the reli- 
gion in which she had been brooght np, but de- 
nied the validity of the parliament which bad 
been summoned without her consent, and she 
and her husband would not even ratify the trea- 
ties of Edinburgh. It is said that Uary's uncles, 
the Prince* of Lorrune, aptjily expressed their 
resentment, and teeretly made preparations for 
invading Scotland with a French fleet and army, 
and in order to renew the civil war there, imme- 
diately called together alt those who, like the 
Lord Seaton, still adhered to the ancient reli^on; 
bat if tbeee intentions were really entertained, 
they were all frustrated by the sudden death of 
Francis II., Mary's weak and imbecile husband, 
who expired on the Sth of December, 1660, after 
a reign of seventeen months. His brother and 
sacceasor, Charles IX., was in his eleventh year, 
snd with small promise of being healthier or 
more inteUectual than Francis. By this acci- 
dent, however, the chief power of tha govern- 
ment fell out of the hands of Mary's nnclee into 
thoao of her mother-in-law, the infamous Cathe- 

BETH. 91 

rine de' Media, who had no affection for the 
beautiful yonng widow. Catherine, iu an nn- 
happy hour for France, was appointed regent. 
Mary was now treated both dtareapectfully and 
harahly, npon which she retired wholly from the 
court, and took up her re^dence at Bheims. 
The destinies of these two relations were so cast, 
that whatever was prejudicial to Mary was bene- 
ficial to Elizabeth. By the death of Francis, the 
English queen was freed from the perils attend- 
ing the close union of Scotland and Fiance,' and 
from pretenuons which might have been dan- 
gerous if urged at the moment with the whole 
power of the French monarchy. On the death 
of ber husband, Mary had desisted from bearing 
the arms and title of Queen of England; and now 
Tbrogmorton,' a diplomatist of the school of 
Cecil and Sadler, who was residing in France, as 
ambassador, received insti-nctions to work upon 
the mind of the young widow, and induce her to 
ratify the treaties of Edinburgh. This Mary 
refused to do, principally on the ground that, by 
one of the clauses of the Fi^ncb treaty, her un- 
disputed right of being at least next in succesuon 
to Elizabeth, would, ss she had been taught to 
consider, be committed or impaired. Soon after, 
when Mary was making up her mind to return 
to her native country, she requested Elizabeth to 
grant her a safe-conduct ta cross the seas into 
Scotland, and allow ber to pass through England 
if absolutely necessary. This application was 
made through D'Oisel, who bad returned from 
France aa Mary's ambassador; and it should ap- 
pear that Elizabeth, in refusing the permission, 
gave way to anger and indecorous expressions of 
resentment in public' 

There was one party in Scotland that would 
gladly have left tiarj where she was; and there 
were some men who would aa gladly have seen 
her—even at this moment when she was untried, 
and when little was known of her, except her 
attachment to the old reli^n — a state prisoner 
in the hands of Queen Elizabeth; bnt the mass 
of the nation retained a certain loyalty and ro- 
mantic affection for the orphan deaeendant of 
their kings; and it was found indispensable to 
recal her in an honourable manner. The person 

■» pntV puialj iMad b; CaH In m Ml 
Ihs BcntUT HTI-" B; tU* cor dmlll, our A<«'> <■ &Mt«' 
Hh&ll Bud » to U of Uiali dupudllDii." liam /Hsiclj maut 
tha SDtmlt* of titj who btA » itaaaj bsen in ami, ud vho 
wan alnnt nadr Is t«ka np usu igaln, arm bafim Dib; hHI 
triad th^TOOiigqiuHi. CsgUoddilDttuiuulattaT, "I tUnk 
pUlnl; ths iODgsr lim Snottiih qnacm'i affliln ihMl tung In u 
DDOBniiiit}, the longar will It ba on aha ihalL hnia nuh ■ malsb 
la BURlaga H dull cAul n-'—Hardritcti Stett Pafin. All 
thk wM iwt of ■ •jMam whkh wm ntrsr tatarnpted bj tha 
Encliab Doiirt (111 Mai; wu nlnad ud dlafnead. 




[Civil aitd Mhjtabt. 

chocen to Degotiate thia retam, Emd to conduct 
Mary to her native country, was her half-brother, 
Janies Stuart, prior of St. Andrews, who had 
beea a principal agent in all the changes and re- 
volutions which bad taken place during the last 
three eventful years. The Catholics of Scotland, 
alarmed at the choice of this agent, and tearing 
the effect he might produce on hia half-sister, re- 
solved to send an ambassador of their own at the 
sometime; and they selected for this office Lesley, 
Bishop of Ross, an historian of credit and ability, 
whose fidelity to Mary during her afflictions 
commands honour from all honourable and feel- 
ing hearts. Three of her French relatives, the 
Duke of Aumerle, the grand prior, and the Mar- 
quis of Elb<euf, together with the Marquis Dam- 
ville and other French noblemen, agreed, how- 
ever, to accompany her into Scotland, and to see 
her safely lodged in her capital. In the month 
of August Mary embarked at Calais with a heavy 
heart. As she bad been brought up in France 
from her infancy, she was naturally more French 
than Scoteh, and it needed no great power of ex- 
aggeration to view Scotland as a very turbulent 
and very onattractive country; while, if Sfaiy 

IftBT Quid or aeon.— Aftw P1UI14, 

was at all conversant with its history, she must 
liave known that the people had murdpred all 
the kings of her most unhappy race, or sent them 
to the grave broken-hearted. She had been 
queen, though but for a short time, in the rich 
and fertile country she was leaving : until very 
recently she had been gay, and happy, and hon- 
oured, among a cheerful people; but wliat might 
await herinapoorandbarKuIandf There was 
nearly everything to sadden and darken the pro- 

spect, and nothing to enliven it but a yonthfol 
hope, not likely to be strong in such a moment : 
there was also the dread of being captured by 
Elizabeth, who had refused her a safe-conduct; 
nor, though the mattor is debated, is it quito dear 
that an English fleet in the Channel had not 
orders to intercept her. As her own little fleet 
glided from the port, she kept her eyes &ied on 
the coast of France, often repeating, "Farewell, 
France — farewell, dear France — I shall never see 
thee more!* She arrived safely at Leith on the 
IQtb of August, and her spirits revived on seeing 
the honest enthusissm of the common people, 
who crowded the beach to salute the only relic 
of their kings, who had been torn from them in 
her childhood, and whom they bad scarcely hoped 
ever to see again. But the lords had taken small 
pains to do honour to her reception, or to "cover 
over the nakedness and poverty of the land.'' 
Tears came into the young queen's eyes aa she 
saw the wretehed poniee, with bare wooden sad- 
dles or dirty and ragged trappings, wbicli had 
been provided to carry her and her ladies from 
the water-side to Holyrood, then a small and dis- 
mal place, consisting only of what is now the 
north wing. But again her spirits revived at the 
enthusiastic plaudits of the people, who seem to 
have been enraptured at her youth and beauty 
and graceful and condescending demeanour. For 
a time even religious intolerance was soothed 
into tranquillity by the ingratiating manners and 
conduct of the young queen, who intrusted the 
chief management of a&irs to her half-brother, 
James Stuart, and to Maitland of Letbington, 
both men standing well with the people and thu 
preachers. It should appear that when James 
Stuart went over to France he had promised to 
Mary the free exercise, within her own house, 
of her own religion, notwithstanding the warning 
of John Knox and the rest, that to import one 
mass into the kingdom of Scotland would be more 
fatal than to bring over a foreign army of 10,001) 
men. The Protestante, however, were resolved 
to stop the queen's msasea at starting. On the 
Sunday after her landing, when preparations 
were made in the chapel at Holyrood, they said 
to one another, "ShaU that idol, the mass, again 
have placel It shall not!" And the jotxofi 
Master of Lindsay called out in the coort-yard 
of the palace, that the idolatrous priest should 
die the death according to God's law. Mary's 
half-brother had great difficulty in appeasing this 
tumult, and saving the Catholic priest from being 
murdered at the foot of the altai-. But it did 
not suit James gtusrt to set himself forward as 
the defender of idoIati7; and while he stood with 
his drawn sword by the door of the chapel, he 
ingeniously pretended that it was only to prevent 
any Scot from entering to witnees the abominable 


«.D. 1560—1366.] ELIZA 

ceremonj within.' It was immediatelj after tluB 
riot, that John Kdoz, in the first of his mftny 
ralebnted interviewB, undertook tQ convert the 
qneen. Of (he perfect honesty of his zeal, of hia 
tboTongh conviction that the csnae of the king- 
dom uxi of Christ was in danger so long as there 
■ma a Papist on the throne, there can be no 
doabt; jet it has been often objected that Knoz 
was aingalarlj nnfiC to be an apoetle in high 
places, EUid that the coune he pursued from the 
very beginning, when, aa it has been remarked, 
Maiy had probably never heard a single word of 
argumeot against the faith she profeBsed, was 
cahmlated only to alienate a high-spirited sove- 
reign. It ia said that he knocked at her heart 
until Bbe shed tean;* but theae were tears of 
oflended pride — teara forced from her by long- 
cherished feelings. The sagaciooa Bandolph, 
who, like hia emplc^ora, was an utter Htraager to 
thie religious enthusiaam, plainly intimated to 
Cecil tiiat Knox wai pursuing a wrong courBe. 
"I eommend,' says he, "better the success of bis 
doctrine and preachings than the manner of 
them, tbongh I acknowledge his doctrine to be 
sound. His daily prayer for her is, that God 
will turn her heart, now obstinate against Ood 
and his truth ; and if his holy will be otherwise, 
that he will strengthen the hearts and hands of 
the chosen, and the elect, stoutly to withstand 
the rage of tyrants.' This was, in other words, 
to pray that the Protestants might rise in general 
rebellion against their young queen, and depose 
her, unless she forthwith abjured her religion. 
As for rage and tyranny, they were certainly not 
at this time on the side of the throne: the C^thO' 
lica, as a political party, were crashed, and Mary 
had not the daring zeal to attempt their re-eleva- 
tion at the expense of a civil war. 

When Utii7 removed from Edinburgh to Stir- 
ling she found the same intolerance of her now 
persecuted cbnrch: the people, inflamed by their 
preachers, rose tDmoltuously, and threatened 
with death all such as should partake in the 
idolatry of the mass. Here the queen wept again; 
but seeing no remedy, she followed the advice of 
ber half-brother, and by issuing proclamations 
<d banishment agiunst the monks and friars, and 
by other steps in favour of the Protestants, she 
obtained for a time a tacit permission to worahip 


ra llA In n thu GW tnmi- 

TiHHteTiuUUwqnHi: bg knooiM n buUlf npan hs baut 
Uut Ik nuda bar wstp. nweU joa knixr tboe he of tHat hi 
UatwiUdoUul u wall fn iii(«r H for (rial, llun^ in IbU 
<li4LadjHi..wUldl-ci»w]tb>m<. ShaohugadhlBiwlUi 

God in her own way — l»U tUvayi in prtvaie. But 
almost as much as their hatred or dread of the 
mass, was that of the Scots against the amuse- 
ments of Mary, and especiaUy that of dancing, 
which she imported from the Freuch court, and 
endeavoured to naturalize in Scotland. Nothing 
could be more unsuitable to the temper of such 
a people, especially amidst the stem realities of 
a religious revolution ; and the Beformers were 
scandalized at the levity of these festivals, which 
were kept up in Holyrood till the unwonted hour 
of midnight. John Knox denounced this dancing 
from the pulpit, under the contemptuous epithets 
of "fiddling and flinging," and not only con- 
demned the practice as a covert for worse indul- 
gences, but as an insult to the afflicted conditjou 
of the realm.' It was in vain Maiy tried to wiu 
the favour of the zealous Reformer. She pro- 
mised him ready access to her whenever be should 
desire it; and entreated him, if he found her 
conduct blameahle, to reprehend her in private, 
rather than vilify her in the kirk before the 
whole people. But Knox, whose notion of the 
rights of his clerical office was of the meet tower- 
ing kind, and who, upon other motives besides 
those connected with religion, had declared a 
female reign to be an atxHuiuation,* was not 
willing to gratify the queen in any of her de- 
mands. He told her that it was her duty to go 
to the kirk to hear him — not his duty to wait 
upon her. There was certainly a proud Calvin- 
istic republicanism interwoven with this wonder- 
ful man's religious creed. Elizabeth afterwards 
blamed Maiy that she bad not sufficiently con- 
formed to the advice of the FrotestAut preachers; 
but if Elizabeth herself had had to do with such 
a preacher as John Knox, she would, having the 
power, have sent him to the Marsbalsea in one 
week, and to the pillory, or a worse place, in the 
next. Notwithstanding their avowed contempt 
of worldly riches and honours, we are justified in 
believing that the poverty to which the Presby- 
terian clergy were condemned by a grasping and 
selfish aristocracy bad much to do with their 
over-severity. It would lead them to exclaim 
against pleasures from which they were excluded 
by an iron barrier; and then, except in the pul- 
pit, where, correctly and incorrectly, they could 
enlist the gospel in their service, they were little 
or nothing, being condenuied, through want of 
worldly means, to a stinted and obscure way of 
life. In the same maimer, the meadioant orders 
of monks — the preaching frian, the Dominicans, 
and others — were fierce and intolerant against 
all worldly pomp and pleasure; but when these 
monastic orders attained ease and competence, 
and some of them wealth, they became mild and 


< 9/ t^ Tnatftt againit (A 




[Cint. AUD MlLtTAKT. 

fjrbemiQg in theae respects. Bnt the Scottiali 
lords, by &bHorbiiig Beorly the 'whole of the pro- 
pert; of the tkucient church, left not enough to 
remoTe the asceticism ot the new one. Tbeee 
nobles affected surprise, ttnd espreesed n very 
■incere diipleaaure, when the Pre8byI«TiaQ minis- 
ters put in their claim for a share of the monsstic 
and other church property, which, in ways both 
direct and indirect, had fallen almost entirely 
into the hands of the aristocracy, in most caseB 
eren without any intervention of the court, which 
was thus depriTed of that means of strengthen- 
ing its party. It was with extreme reluctaiK» 
that the Scottish ■tateamen were induced to listen 
to a proposal that the church revenue shonld be 
divided into three shares, to be applied— first, to 
the decent support of the new clergyj secondly, 
to the encouragement of learning, hj the endow- 
ing of schools and coll^ee; and, thirdly, to the 
support of the poor. This plan was proposed by 
the Reformed dergy, as a proper m^od for the 
rebuilding of the temple: on which the astute 
Maitland of Lethington asked whether the nobles 
of Scotland were now to turn hod-bearers in this 
building of the kirkl John Knox boldly replied 
that they might find a woree employment, and 
that those who would not aid in building the 
house of God should look to the security of the 
foundatJouB of their own houses. But the elo- 
quence of the vigorous Reformer was leas preva- 
Wt with the iron-clad and iron-handed barons 
than with the delicate queen of nineteen snmmere; 
he oould droM no tears from their eyes; and being 
resolved to keep what they had gotten, they 
voted his plan of partition to be "a devout ima- 
gination " — a vrell-meant, but visionary system, 
which could not possibly be carried into execu- 
tion. And though, at a later period, the Scottish 
parliament were obliged to make some provision 
for the Reformed clei^, the appointments were 
miserably small A hundred marks Scotch per 
annum, not quite six pounds sterling — an excel- 
lent sum to keep men down to the starving point 
— was the usual revenue of a parish priest; some 
few, indeed, got thrice that amount; but the whole 
sum allowed for the maintenance of the national 
church, oousisting of about lOUU parishes, fell 
short of £4000 sterling: and even these paltty 
endowments vere irrqpilarly paid, and very 
much begrudged, by the hungry nobles, who were 
fattening on the lands with which the piety of 
their ancestors and of the old kings had enriched 
to excess the Roman church. It was the very 
Lords of the Congrt^tion, who bad pretended to 
go band-in-hand with Knox and his disoi{des 
(without whom they would have been crashed), 
that cut down the allowances to this niaerable 
scale. The prior of SL Andrews, the queen's 
half-biother, and the sworn friend of John Enoi, 

thought the clergy well paid with these hod- 
bearer^ stipends; for the levying and paying of 
which Wiriiart ot Ktlarrow, another moat se^ 
ous Reformer, was appoint«d comptroller. Knox, 
though not greedy of worldly pelf, was sufficiently 
loud in his lamentations. " Who would have 
thought," cried he, "that when Joseph ruled in 
Egypt, his brethren would have come down 
thither for com, and returned with their sacks 
empty 1" But his complaints had no mors effect 
than the rumblingof distant thunder; andthongh 
the Lords of the Congregation were pretty ctm- 
stant in their atlAndance at the kirk, they alwaya 
considered that the preachers departed from the 
true doctrine when Uiey spoke of worldly gooda. 
And in this manner the l4«Bbyterian clerg; cmi- 
tinued to be kept in a state of body and mind 
most favourable to spiritual intemperance, lliey 
had already adopted one of the worst prsctieea 
of the Roman church — that of persecuting for 
matters of belief; and they soon took up anotha- 
— that of making search and inquest into llie 
private and domestic concerns of men ; and it 
may be doubted whether the confessional chair 
of the Popish priest was a more mischievoos 
or distressing engine than the one which they 
adopted. Omittiug many tedious or revolting 
detaiis, we will merely mention one significsat 
fact. During the queen's absence from Holyrood 
some of the populace of Edinburgh broke into 
her chapel, defiled the altar, and committed all 
kinds of indecent outrages. Mary was naturally 
indignant at this proceeding, and two — onljf two 
—of the rioters were indicted. Upon this, John 
Knox wrot« circular letters to the Uthful — to 
men having power and good broadswords—cbaig- 
ing them to come up to Bdinbuigh and protect 
their persecuted brethren. 

While Elizabeth watched with increasing plea- 
sure the turbulence of Uary's subjects, ehe 
checked her own with a firm hand, her govern- 
ment being to the full as despotic as that of her 
father, but infinitely more wise, keeping gene- 
rally, though not always, in view high national 
objects. By her frugality she was soon eoaUed 
to pay off the great debts of the crown, and to 
regulate the coinage, which had been debased by 
her predecessors. She made large purchaaea of 
arms on the Continent; she introduced, or greatly 
improved, the arts of making gunpowder and 
casting cannon; and, what was of foremost impor- 
tance, ehe directed her energies to the increase of 
the naval force, so that she was soon jnsUy en- 
titled to the appellations of Restorer of Naval 
Glory, Queen of the Northern Seas,' 

Bnt the thread of Eli^beth's career was alw^v 
of a mingled yam— the little, the mean, and th* 
henf bnins mixed with what was great and noble. 

,v Google 

A-D. 1560-1566.] 

and DAtioti&l, and the faenelf, ia the worda of her 
OTTD miniBter, Robert CeeU, being more thAS & 
man, and, in truth, Bometimea ieu than ft wonuu,' 
She not only dreaded the claima to tiie mcoeMion 
of Mary Queen of Scota, bnt she was aUo moet 
}e*louB of the weaker rights of the line of Sof' 
folk, and ahe peraecnted the Lady Catherine 
Ore]', the heireaa of thia house, with an uttrelent- 
Utg apirit. 

EJUiabeth was made to feei, in 
A.D. 16C2. jj^^y .^yg^ j,^ ^^ Catholic 

priaoea of Europe regarded her oud her jmxxed- 
ii^ with an evil eye, and to nuptet that conatant 
machiuatiooa wers on foot in France to expel her 
from the throne, and to Beat Uary Queen of Soota 
in her place. Shey therefore, resolved to ally her- 
■dt with theProtestont powers on the Continent, 
and to avail hecwU to the ntmoat of the religioua 
uimositiea of men both at home and abroad. 
Hie persecuUona practiaed by Philip and the 
French court made it easy for her to put heraelf 
in a position of great might and reverence, ae 
the head and protector of the Protestant religion. 
Her coarse was shaped out by the instinct of 
self'preaerration, and net by any religions zeal ; 
sod in ponuing it she was inevitably induced to 
enoontage revolted aubjeda in tlieir wan with 
their govemnients — thos beginning in her own 
practice the system which she afterward accnsed 
her enemiee of carrying on against heiaelf. 

Fiance, under the regency of Catherine de' 
Medidl, soon became the Bocne of confusion and 
anarchy. The Protestants of the south took up 
arms for the liberty of ctmscience ; and in IfiSl 
the goTemment coneented to a hollow treaty, by 
which they were to be allowed the free eierciae 
of their religion. But the Duke of Gluiae, the 
leader of the Catholic party, goon infringed this 
treaty, and having poasenion of the person of 
the young king, Charke IX., he dictated to the 
regent, who, however, wanted no atimuloa. She 
was a real bigot, while Guise's religious zeal was 
more than half feigned and politic. The Pro- 
testants, or Huguenots, as they were called in 
France, flew once more to arms, under the com- 
mand of the Prince of Condi, the Admiral Col- 
tigny, Andelot, and others, and fourteen armies 
were preaeutly in motion in different parts of the 
kingdom. The sucoesa was various — the fury of 
both parties pretty equal. The parliament of 
Paris, which was very orthodox, published an 
edict, authorizing the Catholics everywhere to 
masMcre the Protestants ; and the Protestants 
replied by making sharper the edges of their 
own Bworda. Woraeu and children flocked to the 
ranks on both sides, and partook in the c&rnage. 
The HognenotB, notwithstanding their great iufe- 



riority in numbers, pressed the Catholics so hard, 
that the Duke of Quise waa bua to solicit aid 
from Philip IL ; and that sovereign, for various 
raoaona, beddea his deaire to check the apreod 
of hM«i7 into his dominions in Flanden, gladly 
entered into an alliance, and sent ais thousand 
men and some money into Fnnce. Upon this, 
the Prince of Cond£, the chief leader of the 
Huguenots, solicited the assistance and proteo- 
tioa of Elizabeth; and be offered to her, as an 
immediate advantage, poasessiou of the important 
maritime town of Havre-de-Groce. After aome 
short negotiations, during which Sir Henry Sid- 
ney, the able and accomplished father of the 
more famous Sir Philip Sidney, was seut into 
France, ostensibly to mediate between the Catho- 
lics and ProtestantH, Elizabeth concluded a com- 
pact with the Prince of Cond6, furnished him 
with erane money, and then sent over three 
thousand men, under the command of Sir Edward 
Poynings, to take possessirai of Havre. No de- 
claratioQ of hostilities waa made to the F^«nch 
oourt, and Elizabeth asserted to the foreign am- 
bassadors that her only object was to serve ha 
majesty of Franoe, and to free him from the 
hands of the Quiaea, who, aeoording to her ver- 
sion, held the youth an unwilling prisoner. Soon 
after his arrival, Poynings was obliged to throw 
some reinforcements into Bousd, wiiich was be- 
sieged by the Cbtholica under the command of 
the King of Navarre and the Duke of Uont- 
morency. This detachment was cut to pieces 
to a man ; for the besi^ers carried the place 
by assault, and put the garrison to the award. 
But the handful of Englishmen behaved bravely, 
and, before they met Qieir fate the Catholic 
King of Navarre was mortally wounded.* As 
the Huguenots were still strong in Normandy, 
Elizabeth resolved to reinforce her very small 
army; and she sent over Ambrose Dudley, Earl 
of Warwick, the elder brother of her favourite, 
with a fresh force of tbree thousand men.' War- 
wick took the command of Havre, aud began to 
fortify that place, which was threatened with 
a siege by the Duke of Quise, the captor of 
Calais, the expeller of the English, whose party 
was strengtbeoed by the odium excited against 
Cond£, far calliDg the old enemies of his conntiy 
back to it, and giving them aomethiug like a firm 
footing in it Havre, indeed, might have been 
made a second English Calais. 

By means of &iglish money, a considerable 
body 1^ Proteatont soldiers were engaged in Ger- 
many ; and Uiis fot«e and others under the com- 






). 1663. 

nuud of AadeLot Mid tlie Adniinl CoUigDy, ob- 
liged Quiae to moTe from the Seine and the neigh- 
bonrbood of Havre towards the Loire, where the 
Hngaenota ware verj powerfnl, poseessing the 
dt; of Orleaiu. After a renuu-iuble campaign, 
daring which the Hognenota, under tbe sdmiraJ 
and Cond£, threatened tbe cit; of Paris, a fierce 
battle was fonght at Dreuz, and the Protoataute 
were defeated. Th»«&ir, bowerer, was not Terj 
deciuve; and, to support Colligny, Elizabeth aent 
over some more moite;, and ofiered to give her 
bond for a farther sum if he coald find mer- 
chants disposed to lend on sncb a secoritj.' 

At this moment the queen's ex- 
chequer was emptj, and she was 
obliged to snminiHi a parliament — a bodj for the 
wisdom or authority of which she oever testified 
much respect. Almost as eoon as this parliament 
met, the odious subject of tbe auocessioD and ma- 
trimony wss renewed. Elizabeth had just under- 
gone that dangerous disease the sm&U-poi, and, 
as her life had been despaired of, people hod been 
made more than ever sensible of the perils likely 
to arise from a disputed sncceasion. The com- 
mons, therefore, voted an address t4i her majesty, 
in which, after mentioning the civil wars of for- 
mer times, tbey entreated her to choose a hus- 
band by God's grace, engitgiug on their part to 
serve, honour, and obey the husband of her 
choice: or if, indeed, her high mind was for ever 
set against matrimony, tbey entreated that she 
would permit her lawful successor to be named 
and acknowledged by act of parliament. Being 
thus placed between the sharp home of a dilem- 
ma, and being fully resolved on do account to 
acknowledge the rights either of Mary Queen of 
Scots, or of the I^dy Catherine Grey, the repre- 
sentative of the Suffolk line, whose children she 
had just bastardized, she pretended that her reso- 
lution of living and dying a virgin wss shakeu ; 
and, without making anything like a positive 
decUratioD, she gave them to understand that 
she might be induced, for the sake of her people, 
to think of marriage. Nearly at this moment 
another suitor appeared in the field. The Duke 
of WQrtemberg, a German Protestant prince, 
offered his service to the queen "in case she 
were minded to marry." 

The parliament wss obliged to be satiaGed with 
the queen's evasive answer, and to proceed to 
other business. A most remarkable law they 
passed was the act of "sssurance of the queen's 
royal power over all states and subjects within 
her dominions." This was, in effect, an extension 
of the former acts of supremaiy. For asserting 
twice in writing, word, or deed, the authority of 
the pope, the offender was subjected to the pen- 
alties of treason : all penons in holy orders were 

bound to take the oath of supremai^, as wrae 
also all who were advanced to any degree, either 
in the nniversities or in the inns of coort, all 
schoolmasteia, officers in coort, and membera of 
parliament; and a second refusal of the oath was 
made treason. JBy a strange restriction, consid- 
ering that some of the noblest families were Ca- 
tholics, tlie statute did not extend to any num of 
the rank of a baron, it being assumed, as a con- 
venient fiction, that no doubt could be ent^- 
tuned as to the fidelity of persons of such rank. 
All Elizabeth's parliaments were zealously Pro- 
testant: in this the House of Commons were 
sincere : hut in the lords there must have beo) 
considerable dissimulation, as the known Ca- 
tholics seldom mode any oppbsition. In the 
present session, however. Lord Hontacnte showed 
some spirit. He opposed the bill of asranmce, 
and contended, in favour of the English Catho- 
lics, that Uiey were loyal and dutiful subjects, 
neither disputing, nor preaching, nor caoung 
tumults among the people. But Elizabeth could 
never repose confidence in a sect which conld not 
but believe iu her illegitimacy; and the B}Hrit 
of disloyalty which no doubt existed in many 
breasts, notwithstanding the assertion of Mont- 
acute, was naturally increased and strengthened 
by these very pensi acts directed against them. 
It is quite cert^n that Elizabeth never thon^t 
of trying the grand and humane experiment; bat 
it would indeed not "be safe to assert that a more 
conciliating policy would have altogether dis- 
armed their hoetiUty." * An increase of violence 
produced a seeming conformity ; but the Catho- 
lics had recourse to what has been justly called 
the usual artifice of an oppressed people, and met 
force by fraud. This was the most dangerous of 
all slates ; and Eli^beth and Cecil fairly acknow- 
ledged that their system of coercion woe a failnie, 
when they compltuned that they conld not take 
the Catholics for good Protestants and Ic^ sub- 
jects, though they constantly attended the An- 
glican choi'ch, and prayed for tlie queen in the 
words of the Litui^. If no forcu had been 
adopted — if the adherents to the old church had 
been allowed the free exercise of their religion — 
the government at least might have known who 
were Catholics and who were not; but now it 
was impossible to distinguish between the un- 
willing converts to force and the willing converts 
to persuasion, and use, and time. And, as men 
always hate intensely those who degrade them 
in their own eyes, or force them to commit acts 
of subservience and baseness, Elizabeth became 
more and more an object of detestation to this 
class. It was during this same sesuon that the 
law against false prophets wss passed, and it was 
accompanied by a statnte against conjuration. 


A.n. 1560—1566.] EUZA 

encbADtments, tad witehimft. It should ftppeu 
'as if the people of England had not jet adviuieed 
to ft concUttoD in which thej could do without a 
certain pabulum of credulity, and that. it wag 
peLLUBMj that the superstition which had loet 
its old food — Buch aa saints and Mndonnaa and 
miraclea — should find some Dew nonriehment. 
In Um conuttiea where the conunoa people are 
fed with legends and miracles, there ia little or 
DO belief in witches and ghosts; and, for a long 
time after the Beformation, the people in moat 
countries seem to have believed in witches and 
ghosts becanse they were no longer alloned 
believe is saints and miradw The chronicles 
remark that the preceding jeu' had been verj' 
awfol on account of the great number of m< 
strona bnths, and pi-obafalj tbis was believed 
be the effect of witchcraft and conjuration. Bnt 
all kinds of insane notions were rei; prevalent- 
The penal statutes now passed only increased 
the number of mad prophets, conjurors, and 
called witches. Having voted the queen a supply 
of a mibaidj', and two-fifteentbs, the parliament 
was prorogued. Still further to enable the queen 
to prosecute her continental scheme, which was 
popular with Protestant chnrchmen, and with 
the majority of the nation, as being in favour of 
men who were co-reltgioniats, or nearly 
convocation of the clergy voted her a subsidy of 
six shillingB in the pound, payable in three years. 
Apparently some of this money was immediately 
eenb to the Huguenota, and some to the Earl of 
Warwick, who, however, received strict orders to 
keep bis troops within the walls of Havre, and 
not to join theAdmiralColligny in the field, who, 
without his assistance, had reduced most of the 
places in Normandy which held for the Guises. 
The admiral, however, eomplaiuad to Elizabeth 
of the strange neutrality of her little army, and 
his EMmplaints became louder when he saw that 
the Duke of Quise was preparing to crush the 
Protestants on the I^ire, and that he was laying 
siege to Orleans with every proapect of taking 
that city. But soon after Onise was ssaaasinated 
by Poltrot, a young gentleman of the Huguenot 
por^, and the death of this brave leader and 
accomplished soldier, which happened on the 
S4th of February, 1663, induoed the French Ca- 
tholics to ofier conditions of peace and recon- 
ciliation. The admiral, who knew her well, 
maintained that there was no trusting the Queen- 
r^nt Catherine de' Medici ; but he was over- 
ruled by his anociates, and, iu the end, another 
lioUow pacification was concluded between the 
Preudi ProtMtants and the French Catholics. 
la this hasty and unwise treaty the Huguenots 
took little or do care of the interests of the Eng- 
lish queen, merely stipulating that if she would 
^ve up Havre, her charges and the money she 
Vol, XL 

BETH. 97 

had advanced should be repaid by the fVeneh 
court, and that Calus, at the eipfration of the 
term before fixed, should be restored to her. In 
this instance Elizabeth's anger got the better of 
her discretion : she sent Warwick orders to de- 
fend Havre to the htat against the whole French 
aionarchy j for Protestants and Catholics were 
now alike anxious to see the English out of 
France. Iu taking possession of this place the 
English had expelled' nearly all the fVMkch inha>- 
bitants, so that they had little to fear in thai 
direction. Warwick had about SOOO men with 
him, and during the siege Sir Hugh Paulet con- 
ducted to him a reinforcement of 800, The Con- 
stable Montmorency, so receutly in alliance with 
the English, took the command of the besieging 
army, in which also served the Protestant Prince 
of Cond^ who, more than any one, had led Eliza- 
beth into the late treaty with the Huguenots. 
The brave Admiral CoUigoy, who still doubted 
the good faith of the queen-regent, kept aloof. So 
important was the enterprisp in the eyes of the 
government that Catherine de* Medici took her 
SOD, the young king, with nearly the whole court, 
to the besieging camp, and called upon all loyal 
EVenchmen to repair to the siege'. In the month 
of May, notwithstanding some gallant sorties 
made by the English, the French established 
themselves in favourable positions round the 
town, and began to battor in sundry places. 
During the whole of the month of June they 
tried iu vain to force an entrance, and they were 
several times beaten out of their trenches. On 
the 14th of July the besiegers made an assault 
with 3000 men, and were repulsed with the loss 
of four hundred. On the S7th of the same 
month the French desperately made fresh ap- 
proaches, and "were made by the English gun- 
ners to taste the bitter fruit that the cannon and 
cnlverins yielded." But the besieging force was 
numerous, and the walls were so effectually 
breached, that on the following day, the 2Sth of 
July, 1563, a capitulation was signed, the French 
agreeing to permit the garrison to depart with 
their arms, baggage, and whatever goods be- 
longed to tlie Queen of England or to any of her 
subjects, and to allow the English six whole days 
to embark themselves and their property. It was 
a sad embarkation, the sick and feeble having to 
carry those who were in a still worse st&te, and 
I men in health being exposed to the closest 
itact with the plague patients, for a. pestilence 
which had broken out among the garrison was 
other than tlie deadly plague. And these 
plague patients brought the frightful disorder 
with tliem into England, where it committed 
great ravages, spreading into various parts of 
the kingdom, and raging so fiercely in Loudon 
that, in the course of the year, it carried off 






20,000 pereoQS.' The Cittholic portj aaw in these 
things a visible muiifestatioa of the wrath of 
Heaven at the cb&ngea which had taken place In 

This first of Elizabeth's continental wars was 
anSiclently discouraging, and she readily cod- 
sent«d to give up the cause of the Protestants in 
FVance, and to conclude a fresh peace with the 
qneen-regent, who was most earnest in detaching 
her from the Huguenots. A peace signed at 
Troyes, on the 11th of April, 1564, was shortlj 
after proclaimed, with soand of trumpet, before 
the queen's majesty in hercaatlaof Windsor, the 
French amhasBadora being present. By this new 
treaty Eliznbeth delivered up the hostf^[«B which 
the French had gi veu for the restitution of Calais ; 
but she received 220,000 crowns for their libersr 
tion. Tiie questions of the restitution of Catws 
and other matters were left in the state they 
were in before the late hostilities, each party re- 
taining its claims and pretenaionB, which were to 
be setlled by after negotiation.' 

In this interval Scotland Jmd been the scene 
of many turmoils and more intrigues. The gay, 
the handaoTue, and accomplished queen gradually 
gained ground in the affections of the people; 
but she wns Huirounded by a remorseleFS set of 
nobles — a class of men who had rarely lived in 
peace, even under the government of the hardiest 
and most skilful of their kings. In 1S62, the 
Ihike of Chatelleniulfs son, tha Earl of Airan, 
accused the Ear) of Bothwell and others of a plot 
to murder tha Lonl James Stuart and Maitland, 
in order to get poasession of the power which 
they monopolized between them. It was soon 
made to appear that Arran was mad ; and this 
unfortunate young nobleman was secured in the 
caatle of Fyiiiiburgh, Tu reward the services of 
the Lord James, the queeo, who treated him as 
her brother, conferred upon hira the earldom of 
Mar and the land belonging to it — a measure 
whiuh greatly incensed the powerful Earl of 
Huntty, who had hitherto occupied, without 
challenge, some of the estates included in the 
earldom of Mar. While there was hot blood 
upon this subject, Sir John Goi'don, one of the 
Earl of Huntly'a sons, engaged in the public 
streets of Edinburgh in an aHHy with Lord 
Ogilvie, a friend of the Lord James. The queen 
caused both these disturbeni of the peace of her 
capital to be placed under arrest ; but Sir John 
Gordon soon escaped out of prison, and fled to 
hia father in the Highlands. The Lord James, 
who appears to have been anxious to enter on 
the estate of Mar under the cover of the royal 
presence, chose this very moment for conducting 
hia sister on a royal progress to the north. The 
journey was fatiguing, and the queen evervwhere 

met with a cold reception tima the Highland 
clans, who were accustomed to consider the will 
of the Earl of Huntly aa a thing far above the 
royal authority. As she advanced, appreheowona 
were even entertained for her personal safety; 
and all the persons in her retinue, not excepting 
the foreign ambassadors, did regular duty about 
her like soldiers, keeping watch and ward against 
surprise. On her arrival at Inverness the castle 
was held against her by some of the Gordons. 
An entrance was obtained by force of arms, and 
the captain of the Uttle garrison was put to 
death for a very unequivocal proof of didoyaltv. 
As it was found that Lord Erskine posaesaed a 
legal right to the earldom of Mar, Stuart gave 
up that claim, and obtfuned the much greater 
earldom of Moray in its etead. From this time 
the former prior of St. Andrews will be desig- 
nated by the title of the Earl of Moray — a name 
which was soon made a, sound of terror in the 
queen's ears. If the Earl of Huntly had be«ii 
enraged before, he now became desperate; for be 
had received a grant of the we^thy earldom of 
Moray as far back as the year 1948, and liad 
ever since enjoyed the estates belonging to it. 
He summoned together bis raas&ls and allies, 
determined to defend his title with the sword. 
On the Beth of October, while Mary was still in 
the north, a fierce battle was fought at Corrichie, 
near Aberdeen, almost under her eyes, fier 
brother, the Earl of Moray, who had hastily col- 
lected some Soutliland men, and won over soma 
of the Highland class, gained acomplete victor^'- 
The Earl of Huntly, in fleeing from the field, was 
thrown from his horse into a morass, and thrn 
smothered: hia son. Sir John Oordon, was taken 
prisoner. The body of the old earl was disco- 
vered, and carried before parliament, by vhicb 
sentence of attainder and forfeiture wm pro- 
nounced upon it ; his son was condemned to the 
block, and butchered by a clumsy executioner nt 
Aberdeen. The whole of this great family wm 
reduceil to beggary; but, five years after, Mary 
allowed their attainder to be reversed. There ia 
no very satisfactory evidence to establish the fart, 
but it was generally said that, if the Earl of 
Huntly had proved tha victor in the battle of 
Corrichie, he would have seized the queen, and 
forced her to marry one of his sous.' BeporU of 
this kind, and the circumatanoe of there beiug 
no heir to the crown, made the Scots as aniions 
about the maniage of their queen as were the 
English about the marriage of theirs. Nor wa' 
there any greater want of suitors in ScotUnd 

a, "Th* m itf tb> Etil of HidUT b" 

lo put ths mown on Uu bod «( Uu d^'* 
D blm-'—ltuud. MS.. liwW l» 

,v Google 

4.t>. 1560—1566.] EUZJ 

thui in Englniid, Mary hud none of her rival's 
sTsraioiu to sluuiug her Aathorit)'' «i th & hosbaiid, 
but there wm an immeDse difficult; in the wa; 
of % proper choice. Her own inclination would 
havs led her to an alliance with some foreign 
prince ; and her French relationa successively 
proposed to her Don Carlos, then heir of the 
Spkniah monarchy; the Duke of Anjou, one of 
the brothers of her late hnshand; the Cardinal of 
BourboD, who had only lately taken deacon's 
orders ; the Duke of Ferrara, and some others. 
But all these suitora were odious to the mass 
of the Scottish nation, aa Catholics; and Eliza- 
beth let it be understood that any idliance of that 
kind, aa opening the way for her foreign enemies 
U) ber dominions, would occasion on immediate 
irar with England. Mary, though urged on by 
the princes of the house of Guise, was not dis- 
posed to provoke this danger, and she even con- 
descended to consult with Elizabeth, as to a 
choice which might be alike agreeable to both 
countries. In the summer of 1563 a personal 
interview at York between the two queens was 
spoken of; but Elizabeth, from various motives, 
the least of which was not her jealousy of her 
rival's superiority in beauty, artfully pnt off the 
meeting till the next year; and, in fact, she never 
met Mary at alL In order to detach Don Carlos 
from his punuit, she held out hopes of renewing 
an old treaty, and of marrying him herself. In 
her anxiety to conciliate, and to secure her suc- 
ceaaion to the English throne in case of Eliza- 
beth's dying without issue, Mary despatched Sir 
James Melville to London, in order to ascertain, 
if possible, what kind of a husband it was that 
would give entire satisfaction to her grace. All 
this condescension and franknexa — for the Scot- 
tiab queen, to all appearance, honestly meant to 
abide by Elizabeth's decision — was met with 
fi-aud and the rooat artful duplicity. Elizabeth 
proposed, as a fitting husband, her own favourite, 
the Lord Robert Dudley, who, on the 29th of 
September, 1S63, attained to his well-known title 
of Earl of Leicester. Mary, who could not have 
been ignorant of bo notorious a fact as the at- 
tachment which Elizabeth had for this showy 
nobleman, must have seen that he was only 
named to lengthen and embarrass these delicate 
negotiations. Nor was tlie Earl of Leicester, who 
had little to recommend him beyond his hand- 

BKTH. 99 

some person, iu any way a suitable match for 
that queen. 

The man whom Elizabeth thus delighted to 
honour enjoyed a very bad reputation among the 

people, who, with a sad confidence, anticipated 
his marriage with the queen.' It was believed 
that, in the fulness of his hope that Elizabeth 
would marry him, he had murdered a young and 
beautiful wife, whose death was certainly atten- 
ded with very mysterious circumstances. Ac- 
cording to a striking account, which, whether 
wholly correct or not, conveys perfectly the 

Roarar Dvulei, BuI of Lticmua.— Alter Zusehsm. 

popular opinion of the time—" as his own wife 
stood in his light, as he supposed, he did but 
send her to the house of his servant Foster, of 
Cumnor, by Oiford, where shortly after sho had 
the chance to fall from a pair of Ht&ira, and so to 
break her neck ; but yet without hurting of her 
hood that stood upon her heatl. But Sir Bichard 
Varney, who, by commandment, remained with 
her that day alone with one man, and liad sent 
away per force all her servants from her to a 
market two miles off— lie, I say, with his man, 
can tell jou bow she died."' The stars had been 
consulted by order of the great Cecil, who either 
was not too wise a man to give credit to aa- 

_.. -*U. Bor. f-™ th« .!«»«-■■ v™ 

i. ^ for hb own pniKb. wd IU* b-r- 

Ukin lOr * ralonj In Cha nwKhs of WiOag. ud offniiif Uw 

u hl> irnn CDuunodllT. md for grwUixB 

-n ill ir ba b« not lUpinl « maaiea In 

uid fill IHcb«d VmM7 h!m»1f [tki rr<rultill vUlain 0/ S™(C. 

nnfHaUnDiidkt.Barltfljia^ln: Thn. 

UiiicAtK0 ifoT7| disd ahniit Uia nuns tlnui in Landmi, criad ptM- 

m duril^ th. h.<mrit.'. lift, uA U tb. 

a. tm 1706, wfani Umt "m P"bU.I*J h)- 

inhdldldwarhimloplaM. Thewueiil»orB*ld>rin BMIar. 

ktnamiui u mj lord, pva out Uu whola bet ■ URla bxfcni bw 






trology, or meant that hia mlstreas should be the 
dupe of a. very prevailing superstition i and the 
stars had told that the queen should be married 
in thu'thir^-firat year of her age to a foreigner, 
and bear one son, who would be a very great 
prince, and one daughter, who would be a very 
great princess. Butthequeen,who,weareconvln- 
eed, thoaghb not of mnrrTing at ali, continued her 
Btrange coquetry with Leicester, and Cecil's stars 
were fairly put out by mor« popular prophecies, 
which Leicester purposely encouraged, about the 
bear and i-agged staff. The queen's ill-placed par- 
tialtly to this bold bad man had excited alarm in 
various quarters; and nearly three years before 
sheodvancedhim to the rank of Earl of Leicester, 
and gave him Kcnllworth Chatle, the report of 
his having murdered bis wife had been made 
known to her majesty. Nay, even Cecil, who 
for a long time stood in dread that Elizabeth 
would give her hand to Leicester, and who sub- 
sequently Dontrived to renew the matrimonial 
treaty with the Archduke Charles of Austria, in 
order to prevent this fatal measure, made a me- 
morandum, which waa probably shown to her 
majesty, of the earl's being " infaraed by death 
of hie wife," and being "far in debt," besides 
other demerit^.' And yet Elizabeth did not 
change h« eouAtct, and Leicester still felt such 
high hopes t» taqnarrel with all itho favoured 
the Austrian aatdi. 

To return to Mary's ambassador, whose head, 
clear as it was, seems to have been made giddy 
by matches and counter-matches, and female jea- 
lousies and intrigues, Melville proceeds to state, 
that Elizabeth expressed a great desire to see 
Queen Mary; and, aa this cuuld not hastily be 
brought to pass, ahe appeared with great delight 
to look upon her majesty's picture. 

The Earl of Leicester conveyed Melville in his 
barge from Hampton Court to London. On their 
way he asked the wary Scot what his misti-ess 
thought of him for a husband. "Whereunto,' 
■ays Melville, "I answered very coldly, as I had 
been by my queen commanded : and then he 
b^an to purge himself of so proud a pretence as 
to many so great a queen, declaring that ha did 
not esteem himself worthy to wipe her shoes, and 
that the invention of that proposition of marringe 
proceeded from Mr. OecU, his secret enemy : for 
if I, said he, should have appeared desirous of 
that marriage, I should have offended both the 
queens, and lost their favour." It is difficult to 

ID lUFudraslit* effiBc 

liT uklni pnbUolj whsUw It van In 


receive, as a sincere declaration, anything that 
fell from the lips of that dezterons courtier,' the 
Earl of Leicester — most difficult, where all were 
playing parts, and all consummate actors, to 
ascertain the real project in hand. It appears, 
however, almost certain, that the presumptuous 
favourite had not yet given up all hopes of mar- 
rying Elisabeth ; and he wsa certainly the man 
to prefer her, with the rich and great kingdom of 
England, to her more youthful and far more beau- 
tiful rival, with BO poor and turbulent a kingdom 
as Scotland. It has been suggested by an elegant 
writer,' who has shown great tact in tiwnng 
some of the windings and intricacies of Eliza^ 
beth's character, that she encouraged this matri- 
monial project pnrely as a romantic trial of 
Leicester's attochmeut to herself, and pleased her 
fancy with the idea of his rejecting for her a 
younger and a fairer queen; and this notion not 
only accords with the virgin queen's taste and 
manners, but alaowith the project she evidently 
entertained of perplexing Mary, and delaying 
her marriage with any one else. 

Melville returned to Scotland, and fonnd him- 
self bound to assure his mistress that she could 
never expect any real friendship from Eli^- 
betb, whose professions were full of falsehood 
and dissimulation. Mary's aubjects, being very 
anxious for an heir to the throne, grew weary of 
these long delays, and a stroi^[ party pointed ont 
another match which had many things to recom- 
mend it. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was first 
cousin to Mary, and second cousin to Elizabeth, 
being the eldest son of the Earl of Lenuoi, by 
the Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of the 
Queen-dowager Margaret, sister of King Henry 
VIII., by the Earl of Angus, the second husband 
of that unruly and dissolute woman. In other 
words, he was the son of Mary's aunt (by the 
half-blood), the lady Mai^ret Douglas, and the 
grandson of Eliiabeth'a aunt, Margaret Tudor. 
The Earl of Lennox, it will be remembered, be- 
udes stealing the French money, and attempting 
to betray Dumbarton Castle, adhered steadily to 
the English interests, for which he suffered ban- 
ishment and the forfeiture of all his estate* in 
Scotland. He retired to Enghmd, which had 
been his home ever since — a comfortable home, 
for Henry VIII., in recompense, not only gave 
him the hand of his niece, the Lady Margaret 
Douglas, but also some good estates in York- 
shire, Henry Lord Daruley bad been bom and 
brought up in England, and even hia mother, 
the I^y Margaret, Counteaa of Lennox, was a 
native Englishwoman, having been bom in IfilS, 
jnat after the expulsion of her parents from 
Scotland. With this lady it should appear that 
theQueen of Scots had for some time maintaimd 

,v Google 

) IS60— 1S66.] 



an amicftble convspoudencej for, when she (lt<- 
Bfatched Melville to the English oiirt, ahe i) 
Btructed him to deid with mj Xady Margaret 
«n<i with sundry friendB ahe had in England of 
different opinions,' To the crown of Scotland 
theLeDDoz family could lajno prospective claim; 
but if, according to a notion not altogether aban- 
doned in that age, a rosle were to be held as in 
all circiliQstaucea coming before a female repre- 
sentative, Henry Lord Damley, the son of this 
Margaret, Conntesa of Leunoi, might, in case of 
failure of the issue of Henry VIII., have advanced 
a claim to the English throne, whii.-h was capable 
of being placed in competition with the claim 
of Queen Mary herself; and hence the desire of 
streugtheuing the pretensions of the Queen of' 
Scots by uniting the two claims. But this union 
excited painful feelings in the breast of Elizabeth, 
who liked not to think of any one succeeding her, 
bat nrbo seems to have entertained a horror of the 
notion of the succession falling to Mary, whom she 
evidently hated more as a woman than as a sove- 
reign. And yet even here she adopted no clenr 
courae, but, on the contrary, aa if she foresaw 
the fatal results, she played into the hands of the 
Lennox family, and permitted things which ahe 
might have prevented, and which led directly to 
the onion. When the Earl of Leunoi applied 
for leave to go to Scotland, to solicit the reversal 
of his attainder, and to press his wife's claim aa 
heir female to the earldom of Angus, she gave 
her royal license, and apparently with pleasure. 
After twenty years of exile, Lennox arriveil in 
Scotland, where Queen Mary received him very 
courteously, and procured from the Scottish par- 
liament the reversal of the attainder with resti- 
tution of his estates. His lady's claim on the 
earldom of Angus was given u^j— for it was held 
to be a male fief, and, what was worse, it was in 
the tenacious grasp of the powerful Earl of Mor- 
ton, the chancellor, who managed it in the name 
of his nephew Archibald Douglas;* but the 
queen's liberality softened the pang of this dis- 
appointment. The attainder was scarcely re- 
versed, when the exiled lord began to adopt 
measures for placing his son Henry by Mary's 
lide ou the throne. 

A few weeks after Elizabeth had again put 
forward Leicester, she permitted Heury Lord 
Damley, "the tall lad," aa she termed him, to 
go to Scotland. Damley was nn Englinh sub- 

ject, and it would have been no extraordinary 
stretch of prerogative in those days to have pre- 
vented his journey, if Elizabeth had been so 
minded. Daruley set sail for Scotland in the 
beginning of the year lSf>5, and on the 16th of 
February he waited upon Queen MaryatWemysa 
Custle, in Fife, where he was moat courteously 
received. Though so very tall, he was well pro- 
portioned, and altogether a handsome young 
man. He was in hia twentieth year; the queen 
three years older. He possessed all the courtly 
accomplishments of the times — was gallant, 
showy, and liberal of his money, with which he 
was well supplied from England. He thus 
readily won the good-will of Mary's courtiers 
and atteniianta, and made a favourable impres- 
sion on her own hewt; so that personal regards 
united with political ones to recommend this 
fatal marriage. But, according to a contempo- 
rary account, it was afterwards ascertiuned that 
there was magic used to charm the queen! ■ It 
appears, however, that notwithstanding this 
charm, and the more real charm of Damley's per- 
son and manners, the queen at first gave hia suit 
a modest repulse, and avoided committing herself 
until she had consulted with her half-brother 
and others. Damley was not discouraged, nor 
did he disdain to seek, by flatteries and other 
means, the counteuance of David Rizzio, the 
queen's favourite and private secretary. The 
Earl of Moray did not oppose the match at this 
time, and it was recommended by Maitland. In- 
deed, according to one account given by the party 
most friendly to Mary, her half-brother had 
planned the match, and pressed her into it, hop- 
ing to retain his great power in the government if 
she married a young, inexperienced, and thought- 
less youth. The estates of the kingdom were 
asisembled at Stirling, in the month of May, and 
the business being formally proposed to them, 
they also recommended the marriage-~the Lord 
Ochiltree alone refusing his consent, and profess- 
ing openly that he could never agree to a king 
who was a Boman Catholic— for the Earl of Len- 
nox, notwithstanding some temptations to change, 
had adhered to the old religion, and had brought 
up his son in the same faith.* 

When intelligence of these proceedings reached 
the English court, Elizabeth wsa, or feigned to 
be, wouderfully incensed, and her privy conncil 
drew up a list of imaginary dangers attending 

• MUrilU. 

< Bnl Morloa ind Arcbituld Daaglu. irbo inmrudi i 
A*h vciiffad la the tdiuiIv of Dunl*/, pBTor finipiTfl 

•r Hut*! cDDdnn wu publlibad K Puii, In 
Ui](arliig io iBptlTltr in BnfluuL For thi 
pH« of tpnUl plowling. Inrt Uisn !■ In It «t 

* VfbjtAkor, howoTBT, cualonili 
httwr Kt tLiM ILue. vA ftir ths n 

dolphuTiUut "mjLord DunltjwL 
■oaiKiDiH ba fOaLta wHb tha qum t 
lut diiji hilb bam it tba hriidu.'' 

b Duiil4j uid 1l 




[Civil AMD Uilitart. 

■uch a UDion. Maitland, who -wke despatched hj 
Queen Mary to Loodon to expIfUD matters, met 
nith a bad reception ; and Sir Nicholas Throg- 
morton was oent down to Edinburgh to declare 
bar Eugliah majeat/s diBCont«nt at the projected 
match. This skilful negotiator returned well re- 
warded; bnt he haA been unable to dieauade Mjkry 
from the marriage, which, ss he told Cecil and his 
mistreaa, was "niisliked of all the substaace of 
the realm," An importAQl part of his mission 
was to intrigue with the 'EaA of Moray and the 
discontented Proteat«nt lords, and to promise 
them Elizabeth's assistance against their queen. 
"I think," says Cecil, writing to Sir Thomas 
Smith, on Throgniorton's return, "that my Lftdy 
Lennox ehall be committed to some farther cus- 
tody; and iny lords, her husband and son, shall 
forfeit that they may [have] here with us ; and 
because it is likely their foundation in England 
13 upon Papists, the Protestants here shall re- 
ceive more comfort, and the Papists more dis- 
grace." ' A few days after tbia was written the 
Countess of Lennox and her yoanger son were 
committed to a rigorous confinement in the 
Tower, sjid all the property possessed by that 
family in England was seized by Elizabeth. 
&£ai7, it appears, had assured Sir Nicholas Throg- 
morton that the match had proceeded too far to 
be set aside with honour; and she took consider- 
able pains to prove that Henry Daraley possessed 
thoae recommendations which Elizabeth had de- 
manded as essentials in the husband she should 
choose. He was, for example, an Englishman; 
and Elizabeth had set it down as a primary 
point that she should marry an Englishman. 
She even offered to delay the nuptials, if, by so 
doing, she might hope to ohtain the approbation 
of her dear sister and cousin. But further she 
would not go ; nor could more in reason be ex- 
pected from a high-spirited woman and an in- 
dependent sovereign. This correspondence by 
letters and ambassadors occupied some time; and 
the fatal marriage of Mary and Dai-nley was far 
from being so precipitate an affiiir as it 
ally represented. Elizabeth had i 
her old intrigues with her old friends the Lords of 
the Congregation; and tbese lords, who had been 
prepared by Throgmorton, turned a willing ear 
to her suggestions, beginning [o rumour abroad 
that there would be no safety for the Protestant 
religion if the Catholic queen were allowed to 
have a Catholic husband. It suited this party 
not to heed the facta that Mary was no bigot, 
and that Damley was little more than a Papist 

in appearance.' The first to fall from the yonng 
queen's side was her own half-brother, the Earl 
of Moray, who of a sudden became jealous of 
young Damley, ima^ning that, young and 
thoughtless as he was, he had betrayed an incli- 
nation to abridge both his political power and 
hia vast estates. There were plenty to drive on 
Damley in this direction. One showed a map of 
Scotland and the possessions of Moray marked 
upon it. Damley said it was too much. His 
words were repented to make mischief ; but Mary, 
to make peace, " willed I>amley to eicuse himself 
to Moray." ' The earl had quarrelled with John 
Ejiox, who had accused him of conniving at the 
queen's masses and idolatries; but now a sudden 
reconciliation took place between the crafty poli- 
tician and the zealous preacher, Moi-ay engaging 
to extirpate the false worship for ever. The 
Duke of Chatellerault, who was as prone to 
change and intrigue as ever, soon joined Moray; 
and Glencaim, the Enrl of Argyle, and others, 
speedily followed his example, forming a confede- 
racy to oppose the mai-riage upon the grounds of 
the dangers it would bring to religion, and the in- 
conveniences it would draw upon the state. Mean- 
while the preachers were not idle; andthedevont 
citizens of Ediuburgh, inflamed by tlieir dis- 
courses, made a great tumult. Upon Mary's 
return from Stirling to her capital, the Assembly 
of the Kirk, countenanced by the Earl of Moray, 
demanded by a formal act that the qneen should 
conform to the Protestant faith, and abolish the 
Roman worship throughout the realm, not only 
amongst her subjects, but in her own person 
and family. This proposal was followed by some 
more reasonable clauses respecting a better pro- 
vision forthe miserably poor Presbyterian clergy; 
and the document ended by entreating the young 
queen to suppress immediately in her realm all 
vice and immorality. To these demands the 
queen returned a genlle answer in writing. As to 
the mass, she said that she was not yet convinced 
that it was idolatrous: she desired all hcrIori»g 
subjects not to urge her to act against her con- 
science, as she hud neither in times past obliged, 
nor intended for the future to oblige, any man to 
a forced compliance, but had granted toall liberty 
to serve God after their own persuasion. She pro- 
mised to do her best to relieve the want* of the 
established clergy. But she had not sufficient 
confidence in her own royal power to engage tlint 
there should be no more vice and immorality in 
Scotland, and she left that particular clause un- 

fool, thil U th« »< 
bin Dxn Undi Um Ibu 
' Altbonfb DirataT, •• ■» 

'rigU. Dtmitj hud liDuliid, Ilka 
IT with Bnilnud. fai uid ittiy •>>ouJ 
un EUuliMh) 

I ft prwdlng QoU, tfU 


i.D. ism—isee.] euza 

A series of dai'k plots anil conspinwieB was 
misaawhile set on foot by both parties, tor Mary 
hnd Btill a powerful party that recommended the 
mBiTuge. Damley, who showed hia ti-ue char- 
iicter betimes, u latd to have made arrangementa 
for aasaaatnating the Earl of Moray ; and Moray 
(this fact is positive), in conjunction with the Earl 
of Argjloaud other lords, encouraged by the Eng- 
lish queen, hiid an ambush for the purpose of 
making Damley, hia father, and the queen pri- 
soaera, with the intention of delivering up the 
two former to Elizabeth, and placing Mary in 
jomesure prison in Scotland. Both plots failed; 
and on the 38th of July, Damley, having pre- 
viooaly been created Earl of Koaa aud Duke of 
Kothesay, was proclaimed king at the market- 
croaa of Edinburgh, and the next day he was 
nuuried to the queen, accorrling to the Catholic 
rilnal, in Ihe royal chapel at Holyrood house.' 

Thi Rotu. CiiAr 

The Earl of Moray, the Duke of Cliatellerault, 

the Earls of Argyle, Gleucaira, and Hothes, who 
bad already garrisoned their castles and pur- 
chased (leilh Engliih mon^y) much ammunition, 

BETH. 103 

flew to arms ; but, before they could aasenible 
their forces, the queen in person met thero at 
the head of a royal army. Mary, who took the 
field before the honeymoon was past, was clad in 
light armour, and carried pistols at her saddle- 
bows. Her quickness and decision disconceri^ 
the lords, who, without facing her, began to re- 
treat, marching rapidly from place to place, aud 
lighting nowhere ; so that this strange campaign 
got the name of the " Round-about Raid."' In 
the end, notwithstanding their turning and 
doubling, they were fain to disband their forces 
and See into England. As they bad taken up 
arms at the instigation of Elizabeth, tbey made 
sure of her aid aud protection ; and Moray and 
Hamilton, the noble abbot of Kilwinning, posted 
up to London to explain. But the EngUah queen 
had seldom a very lively sympathy for the weak 
and unfortunate; and by this time, what with 
her succouring tha Iluguenota in France, and, 
over and over again, the insurgents in Scot- 
land, she had obtained among crowned heads a 
character which she was anxious to be rid of. 
The French and Spanish ambassadors, and the 
envoys of other powers, had loudly coiupltuned 
that she was setting a fatal example, by coun- 
tenancing rebellions and insurrections, and be- 
traying the cause of sovereigns in general. 
Among living monarchs there was not one that 
entertained higher notions of the regal dignity, 
or who was less tolerant of popular discontents at 
home. She was stung to the quick by those re- 
monstrances, and being, beHides, fearful of pro- 
voking a coalition against her, she absolutely 
refused to receive the two envoys unless they 
agreed U) declare pubUcly that she had in nowise 
incited them to the late insurrection, and thai 
there neither was nor had been any correspon- 
dence or understanding between her and them. 
The Earl of Moray and the abbot of Kilwin- 
ning, who probably knew perfectly well that this 
was only to throw dust in the eyes of foreign 
courts, agreed to say whatever she chose. Then 
the adroit Elizabeth admitted them to an andi- 
ence,at which she took care that the French and 
Spanish ambassadors should be present. And 
when the two Scots had finished their. solemn 
declaration exculpating her, she turned short upon 
them, saying, " You have now spoken the truth) 
for neither I, nor any iu my name, hath instigated 
your revolt from your sovereign. Begone, like 

1^ dmnih (tbit of the Ciuian(tiU]. Than h 

maUona n^ftrdln^ DuuJajt'b tofal dl|(iaitf — bj 

th tbi lUj iKfftTt Kbja Durriafa, It wi 

B.Tlsd IxKg, imd tnttad u ndi ; bf ths noniil, which i 

lad the daj t^/lcr the mAirii^v, H wv dinct«d (lut th« qoBf 

lUud iliaald bs «;lal Ivv. iind that aU pablk dc 

M DamLflj wiH pnxUimBd, n* 

LLAHft (buTTDwlog lik«Tabbitt],(£f ji/OHn 
jpton, juKpli Unit quTtti arrirtrml m AntUtm.—riiBietriur.lic. 
>C«U hai (iTSB u aneanDt Id hit aim <nj of thia nonuk- 
lomdinf lo falm, WonT Uatlflad biAin Ood 

,v Google 





The noble and quasi'TOiitl Mots)', and the 
bigh-bom Eilwinning went ; but it wafl onl 
the Mutheni aide of the Scottiah borders, where 
Elizabeth not onljr suffered them to ekulk and 
to coireepond with the factjous in Scotland, but 
also Bupplied them with money. Mary, how- 
ever, waa strong in the affections of a portion of 
her people, and she proceeded with spirit agiunst 
the fugitive lords : they were summoned to ap- 
pear, and, fiuiing to do so, were declared rebels. 
One Tamworth, a dependnnt of the Earl of Lei- 
cester, was sent down to Scotland with a special 
mission : Mary, who must have known the en- 
couragement which the English court had given 
to her half-brother and thereat, "refused utterly 
that Queen Elizabeth should meddle to com- 
pound the conb^)versies between hersabjectaaud 
her." In order not to recognise Damley as king, 
Tarn worth did not apply for a pass, for the want 
of which he was very properly arrested by Mary's 
authorities on bis return homeward. Randolph, 
who stayed, ventured to tell Mary that she could 
be sure of Queen Elizabeth if she would. The 
queen replied that she had not begun this quar- 
rel, adding, " It was h4r fault, for I demanded 
those things in Lord Leicester that were fit, and 
she refused. This man that I have taken bath a 
right — a riffAt — he (Leicester) had none! For 
your part, Mr. RandslI, you hold intelligence 
with my rebels, especially Moray, against whom 
I will be revenged, should I lose my crown," 
For this rage against her half-brother— and we 
have only partial evidence to prove that it was 
BO vehement, and we know by positive facts that 
it was not lasting— there should seem to be suffi- 
cient ground in the Eari of Moray's conduct 
Almost the first nse that Mary made of her royal 
authority was to aggrandize and enrich the Bas- 
tard ; she had placed in his hands nearly the 
whole power of the government — she had con- 
sulted his wishes in all matters, and yet he had 
taken up arms against her, had allied himself 
with her enemies, and had aimed at depi-iving 
her both of her crown and her liberty. The sub- 
ject, real or pretended, of the quarrel was one 
nearest to a woman's heart ; and if, as there are 
grounda for believing, Moray had at first pro- 
posed, or strongly recommended the match with 
Darnley, his condnct in making that marriage 
the pretext of his rebellion was surely to the full- 

eat degree embittering and exasperating. And 
yet, in spite of these gronnde of wnUh— Uie 
greater part of which were as clear as the tan 
at noon-day — the English agent alludes in mjt- 
terious terms to some secret and disgusting causes 
for Mary's enmity. And here we may rcmu^ 
that Randolph, who was a scandal-monger of th« 
first order, most have known that there wa^ a 
taotc for such dark rumours id the Englidi court, 
and that Elizabeth encouraged indecent scan- 
dals and reports— things which were afterwardB 
turned against herself.' 

Mary convoked a parliament for the purpose 
of attainting Moray and his aeaociates, and^^ 
curing the consequent forfeiture of tiieir eMaUs; 
but it was presently seen both Uutt her vengeance 
was not implacable, and that most of the fugitiTe 
lords were qutt« ready to parehaae pardon hy 
abject submission. These lords, indeed, vho 
had co-operated but not coalesced, bad soon dis- 
agreed in their misfortunes. Their leaders, the 
Earl of Moray and the Uuke of Chalelleranlt, 
had rebelled upon very different principles— Mo- 
ray, with an eye tu the keeping or increasing his 
authority, and Chatellerault with an eye to the 
succession, for he was still generally acknow- 
ledged as the next heii-to the throne after Mary. 
The duke, that man of many changes, was made 
of more pliable materials thai) the «arl, and wss 
the first to negotiate with the queen, who befur« 
the assembling of parliament bad promised him 
and bis party a separate pardon. Herat's 
friends then applied in his behalf, and some of 
Mary's partisans in En^and reconiiaended to 
her as a wise step, and as oae likely to please all 
Protestants in hvih king<l<Nus, an immediate am- 
nesty in favour of him and his party, who were 
men celebrated throughout the island for their 
zeal for the Reformed docbines. The queen waa 
ready to sign a free pardon, when her uncle, th« 
Cardinal of Lorraine, who was in many respects 
her evil genius, and to whose wisdom and expe- 
rience she always paid great deference, advised 
her against the measure^ and she allowed the 
proceedings to go on in the pariiament. There 
was another matter, however, which she had 
more at heart, and that was tc procure some 
degree of toleration for the Catbolica, and for 
herself the exercise of her religion withont in^ 
sulta and himnlts. During the preceding festival 

■t. in all his dain^ tfaB banourof tba Altuigh^ 
ioQ at the Pifitottuie nli^^lDn ; vu] EUsibeth 
• Tuj Rnmdlr to hlu bafiin tha imbuHdon," H^liig 
rorld «aid or nport«d of b«r, the wduIiI 

her, tta kntw that Almightj God migbt jortlj » 
with tha like tmalAt in bar a> 
■I ipHoh UT huthai with him." 

roMita. Thaw thin^n were ohlallT. hot no 


oompmsl bf 

Englidi Flpirta who hid bean driysn in 

iiil;:ud tbaCal)»Uag«ien%giiTa> 


,v Google 

K 1366—1567.; 



of Eaater a Catholic priest had been seised by 
the people in the act of saying mass, and with 
his BKoerdotal habit and a chalice of the sacra- 
mental iriue tied to his hand, he had been boand 
to the markiat-croas of Edinburgh, and there 
pelted with filth and mud, which the mob called 
serving him with his East«r eggs. The greatest 
zealot Bg« ■""»•■ Fopeiy of the present day will 
surely excuse Uary for attempting to put an end 
to outrages such as this; butwbetherit were that 
the intolerance of her people provoked areaiition 
or (which was more likely) that she was drawn 
in by her uncle the cardinal, Mary .took another 
step of a more questionable nature, and joined 
the great Catholic alliance, which was headed by 
France and Spain, and had been carried to an 
intquitoQB height of cruelty and treachery by a 
DieetiDg of Roman bigots at Bayoune, in 1564. 

It may, however, be said in palliation, that Sfary 
was doubtlem ignorant of the extent of this foul 
coufederHcy against religious liberty as well as of 
the atrodoue means intended, and that the power 
and ill-humour of Elizabeth absolutely drove her 
into the anna of the ancient allies of Scotland, 
who now, on account of religion, could no longnr 
be acceptable allies to her people. 

A D 1566 Mary forbade Randolph hercourt, 
ailing, upon good grounds, that 
thongh ostensibly the amboHsadar of a friendly 
power, he had taken part with her rebels, and 
assisted them with money; but this sharp.eyed 
agent and versatile intriguer had everywhere 
Scotchmen in his pay, and he bad learned ail 
about the secret negotiations with France and 
Spain, and had communicated the intelligence 
to Cecil and Elizabeth.* 



Worthing conduct of Drntnl^ — He disguata Qneon Haiy — David Blzdo'i enreer in Scotland— DBraIe;'i jsalonar 
of him— Plat of Dunlaj ud tba Bcottuh noblca Bgiintt Rlizio— Ha ie uauaiiuted in tha palaca of Holyrood 
— The Earl ot Honr and the buiiabad lords reoalled — Th« morderen of Riizio compellod to flee to England 
— Damlaj continaea bii wottlileaa eoone — Birth ot Juuea VI. — Bliubath'i reception of tba tidings— fiaptiiiD 
of Jmus* — Eliiabeth niged to nomioata ber suoceMor — She prumiMa to inarr;— Muy'i olainu to tha incaeaiion 
in ths English throne — The murdereti of Riuio recullad to Scotland — Tba Earl of Bothwell deairei to muT/ 
tbe Seottiili qneeu — Hia intereonrse with the qneea — Quarrels botneeo Mu7 and Darnley— Damley thrutens 
to lesia the kingdom — Botbwell nounded b; an ontlavr—Mai^'a viait to him — Evil aurmiaea occiaiouad bj the 
riait — Damlay'B aicknesa— Ha ia broaght to Edinburgh for recoTery— Hia myatsrioaa murder — Bothwell ana- 
pectad of tbe mnrder — He ia cleared by a mock trial~Ha ohtaiua ■ recommendation aa a fit hnaband to the 
qaeSD- He esTriea off Hary to his oaatl« of Duabu— She leturaa to Edinboigh with Botbwall— Shs marriea 
BothweH.— Her unhappLneaa aftar tha manuga. 

|1eAS'WHIL£ the Scottish par- 
liament proceeded in their mea- 
<a against the Earl of Moray 
and the other fugitives from 
the "Kouud-about Baid," and 
) doubt was entertained of 
their convicting them, when their proceedings 
were suddenly stopped and an entirely new course 

given to Mary's wrath by a savage murder, di- 
rected by her hust>and. The love between Mary 
and Henry Damley was of the briefest duration ; 
and it ia established beyond a doubt that its first 
interruption was entirely owing to the miscon- 
duct and bmtality of the husband. Thisvainand 
shallow young man had his head turned by his 
sudden elevation, and there were not wanting 

ttletj of EnflUnd m 

beRHDS pKnliarJf int«natLnf 

wlUl HooUand. We luvs iseu in Di 

EnglUi bl«D^lu^ by «i- 

r caprlca and JaaIdiuj, ■■ tJuy bars bsan auppoHd ta 1 
IS hiatoriana, fnm hoatila pr^ndka; by othan. fron 
to aidta HupriBa at ooutraatad qaaliUs in tl>* lanrt cl 
and nHm «p«lall7 at a uoioo of htfh facqltis w' 
~ U fOlblaa It baa appaarod thai tha anppcaed InSoai 
It be really ttaud in nagot 





ft MlUTART. 

plotting roen who, for their own porpoaes, en- 
coDTnged hU «xtniTagai)c« and disaip&Uoa. Be- 
fore he had been nuuried two months his inao- 
lence nod ■rrognnce drore aw&j from the conrt 
even his own father, the Eari of t«Dnoi, who ie 
Bud to hare predicted that nome fearfnl cfttB»- 
trophe wonld follow.' Acting under the persna- 
nion of ill-designing men, the foremoat of whom 
was the Earl Morion, Chancellor of Scotland, 
who represented to him that it was absttrd that 
the queen sfaoald bear rule over him, since both i 
nature and the law of God required that the wife 
should be in inbjection to her hnsband, he pre- , 
tended to rule in his own right, and imperionslj 
clumed the whole anthoriCj of gOTerament. 
Mary, who would hardtj yield to violence, might 
have conceded much to affection ; bat, almost 
from the first week of his marriage, he neglected 
the handsome qneen and gave himself ap to low 
indulgences. Where all eyes were watGhful,and 
most ejren desirous of inch an event, it was im- 
possible to conceal this disagreement. Elizabeth's 
ageuta diligently reported the progress ot the 
wretched broil. 

The effect of this coodunt on a higb-spirited 
woman was inevitable ; Marj became weorf of 
the society of the drunkard and brawler, who 
wonld threaten her servants and draw bis dag- 
ger in her presence, and somewhat checked that 
liberolilj with which she bad heaped money and 
honours upon him. The imbecile Damley, who 
wonld not see the provocation and insupportable 
insults he had given, conceived that the queen's 
favour most have been alienated from him by 
some person having an influence over her heart ; 
and it appears that certain noble lords who had 
taken offence at the favonrite, or were anxious 
to drive matters to eitremities, suggested or 
strengthened the suspicion that this individual 
was Bizzio, the queen's secretary. David Hizzio 
had come to Scotland, a short time before this 
wretched marriage, in the suit of Morata, the 
ambassador of Savoy: he was a person of what was 
called low birth, but be bad beeu exceedingly 
well educated, and, among many other accom- 
plishments, was on excellent musician. Mnry's 
love for music amounted to a pasaion^good 
musicians were rare in Scotland— nud she was 
iiiituroUy attracted to the accomplished Italian, 
who soon evinced other and higher abilities thnii 
those of playing wiil singing. His knowled^ of 

1] writuif u 
Tonne king It k iiwlent u hia blimr ia rtmij of ) 
iii«it.uiillid*pHMiltn>iiilh«Douni"— Ellij, BUI 
h* WM MtTBtud lo Uw qtiHu'a ilda, lUudolpb U 
" D*ib1«7'i InhaTloitr !• nich (hu ba ii dnpiied. . 

particularly usefnl for carrying on 
her foreign correspondence ; and when her French 
necrc tary left ber, she promoted him to tint coii- 
fideatial office, which, of necessity, occasioned hia 
being constantly about the queen's persoa. It 
was instantly deemed a crime that the qneen 
should employ a foreigner in dntiea for whicb 
there were probably no natives that were 6t; 
and the proud nobles, who despised literary st- 
tainmenta and accomplishments which they did 
not possess themselves, considered the Signor 
David OS niithing bnt a base-bom fiddler, and 
were highly incensed at the favour and confi- 
dence reposed in him. Sometimes they voeld 
rudely sboulder him, aud make grim foees at 
him in the very presence-chamber ; but still st 
otbnr times, some of them would not scmple to 
cajole and flatter him, and make bim preaeuta 
when they b%A favoare to ask of the queen. It 
ia Bud that Rizzio was intoxicated with hia pro- 
motion, aud showed pride and ostentatiou. It ii 
pinb&ble that there waa some truth in Uie acca- 
aation ; and it is certain, that those who afler- 
wards accused him, fostered these feelings bj 
tbeir bnsenessand trucklingtohim;batyettlierf 
is good evidence to show that the poor Italiao 
saw his position in its true light, and was snxioui 
for more security with a little less honour. He 
lamented to the ingenuous Melville, who wa* 
now constantly at Mary's court, that the favour 
and confidence of the queen exposed him to envy 
and danger.' For a long time Uiere was not ao 
much as a bint breathed of there being any im- 
morality in the queen's predilections; and, ac- 
cording to tradition, David Rizzio was not the 
sort of person likely to excite a criminal and 
dangerous passion, being iU-favoured, if not de- 
formed in his person, and considerably odvanceil 

Kizdo was, as we have mentioned, a confidant 
of Damley when that young man began hia 
courtship of the queen ; and it appears that be 
forwarded Damley*s suit with whatever power 
he possessed. When Daruley arrived at the Scot- 
tish court Rizzio had only been two monttiB in 
Mary's service, Mary's affection for Damley 
was immediate, and it lasted till the latter for- 
feited it by bis gross miscouduct, Rizzio being all 
the time neither more nor leas about the queen 
than before and after. According to the account 
of those lenst prejudiced sgainst Mary, Daraley'a 

nupidDU. whioh klml ot mim Ulii »U 
3- I lauBOAaA), ol tJOf othar. cw won* beu."— Origiul LHur. 
m quoted by Kaaaw. Htn w Bud ttia EngUili igmt ipailrai 
- \ ot ^a vtij probttblt Mtaaa i ntHon of DAjnlaf by £iW tn^jftu a( 

hjia UtUit hflaporof IWHbJfcta; but ito pv^uoaLoo qui idiui^ 


i. D, 1566—1567.] ELIZA 

attvage hfttred of the Itoliim aroae not from aay 
lovB-jealouBj, but from the fkTourite'a taking the 
libertj to remonslrate with him on hiB treatment 
of the queen, and from liis being euspectsd by 
Dantlej of advising the queen never to bestow 
on him the matrimonial crown. These gronnde 
of batred, which, in a man like Damley, were 
quite sufficient to account for what followed, are 
mada prominent even in the acconnta of thoee 
who are disposed to take the worst view of ^e 
queen's coudact ; bnt tAey add to then, as ano- 
ther incentive to the murder, the paaaion of jea- 
lousy, which, according to their showing, there 
were suspicious circumstances to jnstify. What- 
ever were his motives, when Dandey spoke of 
revenge to some of the nobles, he found them 
dispoeed to encourage the feeling, and unscrupu- 
loiu as to the means to be adopted for its gratifi- 
catioQ. Tbey all hated the favourite ; some pei^ 
haps the more, because tliey had debased them- 
selves before him ; and as several hot Presbyte- 
rians engaged in the plot, some of them, no 
doubt, thought that it would be a very merito- 
rious deed to murder a man who corresponded 
in the queen's name with the pope of Borne.' 
Among the latter was the fierce Lord Buthven 
— a nobleman in good favour with the Lords of 
the Congregation and the preachers — who rose 
from a bed of sickness to have a principal hand 
in the bloody deed. The Earl of Morton, who 
bad encouTttged Darnley's pretensions to the ma- 
trimonial crown, and who was still chancellor of 
the kingdom, though suspecting, on his part, that 
Mary meant to take the seals from him, and give 
them to her Italian secretary, engaged all the 
rest of the Douglases, legitimate or illegitimate, 
to take up the quarrel of their iintman — for 
Daroley, as a descendant of the Earl of Angus, 
waa of Douglas blood — and it perfectly agreed 
with their family notions that Damley should be 
king in bis own right, and supreme over Uary. 

I. 107 

But there were still various other motives h«- 
tuating some of the conspirators, who wished to 
stop the proceedings in parliament— to recai the 
Earl of Uoray, with the other banished lords, 
whom they considered as the champions of the 
kirk, and who were excessively Jealous of the 
Earl of Bothwell, who, after a variety of adven- 
tures, including a short exile, had been recalled 
urt. This turbulent, dangerous man, of an 
ancient and powerful famUy, and hereditary Lord 
Uigfa-admiral of Scotland, was recommended to 
Maty, notwithstanding his profession of Protes- 
tantism, by his constant adherence to her mother 
the queen-regent, and by his seemingly steady 
and disinterested devotion to her own interests. 
These indeed were circumstances apt to make 
her overlook his extravagance and the other de- 
fects of bisioipetuous character; but when Mary's 
half-brother, the Earl of Momy, accused Botli- 
well of an attempt to assassinate him, he found 
protection from the queen, and was obliged to 
Qee the country. He returned in 1064-5, main- 
taining his innocence. Moray insisted on bis 
being brought to trial, and proposed attending 
the justice court with SOOO men in arms. Feel- 
ing that an accuser with such witnesses was not 

be faced, Bothwell fled over to France a se- 
cond time, and there remained till Moray's dis- 
grace and flight, when Mary recalled him, and 
gave him the command of all the Scottish mar- 
ches; and, according to Mary's own account of 
the dork transaction. Lord Buthven, with bis 
dagger still reeking with the Italian's blood, 
told her that they had done the deed because 
she maintained the ancient religion, refused to 
receive the fugitive lords, maintained friendship 
with foreign princes and nations, and received 
into her cguncil the Earls of Bothwell and Hunb- 
ly, who were traitors and allies of Bizzio.' 

These noble lords, however, were determined 
to make the act appear as Darnley's, and to ob- 

Hanllr, Bothmll. uhI A1 
af tiB CuboUs jitrtj. Tbof, with tt 
6imatAti Xuj fnm jfeldjug to Uwantn 
loih* imdnit eaanmcl al HsItIUs, uhll 
1i«r to imrdon v powsrftil ■ bcdj trf nt 


of tlH icu of IMO. br u undlipnicd )i«Uame 

flu lUbrnwd cbmcb the priTUflgH which II had pnftbvUj 

ver^ with wbioh ha BxecaUd wl 
dgna ; uid with tha hrllliuit uid hworutvit LotUn^toD, ad- 
miroA hj bU partis bnt aoanelr tnatad bj anj ; for in tha 

tha good are cAan compellad to andoia tha ao-operatkni of tba 
biuL In tliiacan tha■Iiltdlord^ofwhamIIluTWKVHlIn' 
J>^oaohabl■ aa Ibfl wrruptin^ powor of intaatlna war will anfl'er 
man iUBg to GoutinuB in that nnhajipj condition of aodety, 
Tnnat not ba hflld Co ba pijltlaai^ aren altlioQ^ tfaa moat do- 
plorabla part of tha aouiQt wbiG^ enanad ihonld ba dl»ctJ> 
aactjbad to the kuown dapravit^ of their aaodBtv. or to tbe 
acddeiLti whl^ Daoall^ attend lawLfaa braila." — Sir JaUHa 
Haakintoah. Bill. Bug. 




[Civil a 

3 MaiTART. 

tAiu what they might represent u royal, if doL 
legaJ BQthority. They made Damley aign a 
(ol«mn docanient, in which be took the conapi- 
ratoTB under his eapecMl protection. Mar; was 
at this time eevcD moDthB advanced in pregnancy 
with her first and only child ; and it has been 
cot unreaeouably concladed that it was intended 
to cause the death of more persons than the un- 
fortunate favourite ; for, after mature delibera- 
tion, it was resolved tocommit the murder Iwfore 
her very eyes whilst she WHS 
iu this critical condition. 
The bloody bond was sign- 
ed on the Ist or the 5th of 
March : on tlie Sth of the 
tnme III on th,ataeven o'clock 
in the evening, just as the 
queen was fiiiiBhing her 
Bu ppei', audquietlyconvem- 
ing with the Coimteits of A r- 
gyle and Arthur ErskiMi-, 
the governor of Holyrool- 
house, who sat at bible with 
her, while Rizzio was seat^l 
at hiB meal at a side table, 
acconliiig to his usual cus- 
tom when he whs in wait- 
ing, and while several at- 
tendants, male and female. 

that he left the weapon up to itx hilt in the body 
of the victim. The tears and entreaties of Mary, 
the shrieks of the Cooutesa of At^le and the 
servants, made no more impression on the hearts 
of these men than on their steel breastplates: 
while some stood before the queen with cocked 
pistols (and one of them, named Andrew Ker," 
is said to have presented bis pistol close to her 
body, swearing that he would destroy both her 
and the c.hild within her), the others dragged 

1 the r 

r the 

apartment adjoining, the 
king suddenly entered, and, 

placing himself behind the CnaiiBeii is Uoltiiooe 
qneeu, gazed savagely on 

the secretary. In the next miuute Dainley 
was followed by the Lord Rutbven, pale and 
ghastly from recent disease and present spite, 
and in complete avmour. Close ou Rutbven'a 
'ste|)s stalked several other coniipiiutors, all iu 
armour like himself. Darnley spoke not a 
word, but Buthven, in a hollow voice, Imde 
Rizzio rise and come forth, for the place he sat 
in did not become him. Perceiving what was 
meant, the queen started up, and asked her hus- 
band whether he knew anything of this foul 
attempt; aud,'Ou his denying it, she commanded 
Lord Ruthven, on pain of treason, to quit her pre- 
sence. The poor Itjilian, iu the meanwhile, had 
run behind the queen's table, and now, seizing 
the queen by the skirts of her garment, implored 
her proWction, and crieii aloud for juslii'e. But 
Rutbven and his satellites overturned the tnble 
upon the queen and the secretary, and then 
l>amley held the queen's arms, trilling her that 
their business was only with the secretary, while 
the rest of the murderers dragged Rizzio froni 
his hold. Then George Douglas, a l>astanl of the 
Angus family, pulling out the king's own dagger, 
•truck Rizzio with it, and with so deadly a blow 

Rizzio into the ante-chamber, and there de- 
spatched him with fifty-six wounds. While thin 
savage deed was doing, Morton, the Chancellor 
of Scotland, whose special duty it was to protect 
and enforce the laws,kept the doors of the palace 
with a number of armed men, in order to pre- 
vent any one entering to succoiu" the queen. As 
long as there was life in the victim, or a hope of 
life, Mary implored and wept, offering to give up 
Rizzio to the laws if he had offended them ; but 
when told that be was dead, alie is said to have 
exclaimed, " 1 will then dry my tears and think 
of revenge !" She was in great fear of miscarri'- 
iLig, and sent for the midwife at eight o'clock. 
Darnley, who was as great a fool as villain, now 
Httem])ted to console her, and to eionerale him- 
self by accusing and cursiug his accomplices 
But this was not before Euthveu and the rent 
had withdrawn. At this moment Mary saw nn 
means of esi-a|ic out of the hands of the biitchei-K, 
who had placed their armed retainers round tlie 
palace, unless through her hunliand, and she 


4.D. 1566-1S67.] ; ELIZA 

niade the imbecile and bewiTdered Damlej be- 
lieve that she accepted his jmti&cation, andfnsl; 
pardoiied him. On thefollowiugdaj, to tbemr- 
prise of tboee who were not in the Beoret, the 
Eftrl of MoKij and the banished lords presented 
themselves at Holyrood, pretending that the; 
had come to stand their trial briore their peers 
in parliament — a step which they were notliketj 
to take had the; not. known of the projected as- 
saasination, which waa sure U> prodace a revolu- 
tioD at court. It appears, indeed, cei'tain that the 
fugitive lords, who had been in hiding aeax the 
Borders, hod received due warning; and there 
sre reaaoos for believing, what is poaitivelj as- 
serted hj some, that Elizabeth and Cecil were 
accessories both before and after the deed, and 
that the Esrl of Moray biniselt was not only 
duly informed, but an original promoter of the 
plot Tha web of this intrigue is altogether so 
inCncate, the treachery of such a compounded 
nature — for everyboily was betraying every one 
else, and working for a separate object— that the 
mind ia utterly bewildered and tost in the maze- 
It appears, however, that the Eurl of Moray 
and Am associates expected to find Morton and 
Ruthven placed at the beiid of affaire ; but that, 
as this did not happen, through the defection of 
Damley, who now stood for his wife, they in- 
stantly agreed to shape a. different course, and to 
take part with the queen, conclading that her 
enmity agAinst them would be swsUowed up by 
her wrath at the more recent and moat intoiep- 
able injury she had suffered: aud they were quite 
ready to give up their quondam friends, and 
profit by their downfall. Moray, apparently, 
through the agency of Damley, who was equally 
ready to forget or deny the solemn bond which 
he had signed with Buthven and his party for 
the murder of Rizzio — a deed therein declared to 
lie for the glory of God and tha advancement of 
true religion — formally agreed to detach himself 
and his friends from the iiit«resta of the assas- 
sins, and to aid the queen in bringing them to 
justice. Upon this, Morton, Buthven, and the 
rest, fled to those very hiding-places in the Eng- 
lish marches which Moray and bis associates 
had jnst abandoned, and from which Morton aud 
Rnthveu had recalled them. 

When Mary met her half-brother, forgetting 
all former wrongs, and r^arding him again as 
her natural defender in the midst of the blood 
and treachery and iron hearts that surrounded 
ber, she received him with open arms, kissed 
him, and imputed her ill-usage to his absence, 
weeping in a mixed passioa of joj and auguish. 
The Earl of Moray wai, te ail appearance, 
equally affected; and the fuithful Melville, who 
was present, relates that be shed tears. But 
we have pretty good evidence to show that 

Mot«y was dissimulating, as also that he had 
been engaged in th« plot for Rizzio's murder, 
a fact which has been disputed by historians 
ous to Diake the. best of the godly eail. 
The IBail of Bedford and Randolph, who wrote 
joint letter to the privy council of Eaghwd, 
giving a cool, if not an approving account of the 
assassination, say, at the end of their narrative : 
— let "The Earl Morton and Lord Rnthven, 
finding themselves left by the king, for all his 
Mr promises, bonds, and aubscriptions, and see- 
ing the others tall from them, tavinff the EaH of 
Moray and «ucA Of were of the last enterpriie, 
thought best to provide for Uiemselves, and so 
every one of them take their several way where 
they think that they may be most at ease or 
surety." Sd. "My Lord of Moray, by a special 
servant sent unto oa {that i», to Bedford and 
Jtandolph, vrho were at Bermek), deaircth your 
honours' (EuzAsarn's paivr oocmcil!) favour 
aud protection to these noble men aa his l_Mo- 
i^i) dear friends, and meh a* far hu aaki hath 
given thit adventure." And in the postscript to 
this same letter the noble earl and the rising 
Randolph give, to tkeir protector* the lords of the 
privy council, a list of " the names of such as 
were doers and of counsel iu this Inst attemptate 
committed at Edinbui^h." In this list appear 
the Earl of Morten, chancellor; Sir John Balen- 
den, justice-clerk, or second judicial authority of 
Scotland ; Lord Ruthven ; bis son, the Master of 
Rnthven; his brother, Alexander Ruthven; Lord 
lindsay; tbe Laird of Lochleven;- Mr. Adam 
Erakine, abbot of Cambuskenneth ; Andrew Ker; 
Andrew Cunningham, aon to the Earl of Glen- 
caim ; Mr. Archibald Douglas ; Oeorge Douglas, 
uncle to Damley; Ormeston, who afterwards had 
a hand in Damley'a own murder ; Thomas Scott, 
under-aheriff of Strathearu; the Laird of Car- 
michael, and rixteen other distinguished assassins, 
including Maitland of Lethington, to whose name 
is put " secret," to show that he was not as yet 
suspected. "All tbeae," add Bedford and Ran- 
dolph, "are men of good living, besides anuml>er 
of other gerUlemtn.' They also mention tliat two 
lairds and a provost had been tfdieu aud impri- 
soned, and that the Earl of Lennox, Damley's 
father, had been ordered to leave the court.' 

During these transactions tbe Earl of Both- 
well and the Earl of Hnntly (son of the attiunted 
earl, slain, in 1563, at Corrichie) had done their 
best to serve the qneen. According to one ac- 
count, they were both in HoljTood at the time 
of Bizzio's murder, and iufeor of their own lives, 
escaped out of a window.' They collected troops 

^ Tba vbold of ihlM lipporlant u 
bf Sir BmiT EUii, from tbt oiigiiuJ u 
in Brit, Mu., in hli Or; 

■ L«tUr tlom tUndill, or Rudulpfa, t 
oni>cil.-Ha>t. MS3. 

,v Google 



[CiTIL A. 


immediaUlj ; And vben Hatj went with her 
hiubanil to Duobur Castle, they waited upon him 
with all their friends, who among them had col- 
lected an armj ot 8000 men — & meaBure which, 
not less than the winning over of the Earl of 
Many, had induced Morton and Riithven 
flee acrow the Borders. On Mary's return 
Edinburgh, all her odveraariea were diapened ; 
and the king moat solemnly protested before the 
council, that he had never consented to S: 
David's death i that the murder bad been 
mitted much against his will, and that he would 
in no manner protect the murderers. tTpoowbich, 
the next day, proclamation was made at the 
croaB of Edinburgh against the lords, and declar- 
ing the king's innocence. But these lords were 
safe in England, where Elizabeth, for her 
purposes, left tbem undisturbed ; and when Mary, 
in concert with the French court, demanded that 
she should gi ve them up as men guilty of the 
worst of crimes, she coolly replied that she did 
not think it proper so to do until the ScotUsh 
queen's anger against them should be somewhat 
moderated.' Mary prosecuted seven of the mur- 
derers of Kizzio, but only two mean men were 
executed. The great men, as we have shown, 
were kept out of her reach by one who professed 
herself a wonderful venerator of justice; and 
Mary, who was certainly not fond of blood, pro- 
bably felt that it would be both nofair and ab- 
surd to punish their miserable retainers and 
instruments. It has also been surmised that 
she was aoiious to close the proceedings, in 
order to screeu one who was still her husband. 
For a short time — it may well be imagined that 
the time was vary short— Mary, Damley, and 
Moray seemed to agree tolerably well — the 
queen dividing her power between her hnsband 
and brother. But Damley was irretrievably 
lost in habits and in reputation, and, fool though 
he was, it was difficult for bim to believe that, 
&ft«r such wrongs, his wife's reconciliation 
could be sincere. He sought refuge from his 
painful thoughts in wine and low company, and, 
though be absented himself, he was jealous ot 
every person that approached the queen's ear, 
ever fancying that there was a plot on foot to 
avenge on him the Holyrood murder. As early 
as the 4th of April, scarcely a month after that 
deed, Randolph wrote to Cecil— "The queen has 
now seen all the covenants and bonds that passed 
between the king and the lords, and now finds 
that his declaiution, before her and the council, 
of his inuocunee of the detith of Rizzio was false, 
and is grievously offended that, by this means, 
ho had seeked to come by the crown-mstrimo- 

I BareUtti Paprrt: Zaudomi USS., u iiiioted by Raiudst. 

On the t9th of June, 1566, Mary, in the mMle 
of Edinburgh, was delivered of a son, afterwarda 
James the Sixth of Scotland and Fiist of Eng- 
land. It had been agreed beforehand that Eliza- 
beth should stand godmother to the infiut Junn, 
and Mary now despatched the diligent and faith- 
ful Melville to London. Melville did not epare 
the spur: he took horse at noon and rode to 
Berwick that night; and on the fourth day he 
reached London, where his brother Eobert »m 
residing as Mary's ambassador. Sir fiobert scat 
immediately to adverUse Secretary Cecil of tti« 
birth of the prince, and Cecil pasted forthwith 
down to Greenwich, where he found his mistr^m 
in great glee daneing after mipper. [Her snppen 
were not subject to such intermptions ss those 
of her rival.] "But," says Melville, "so soon ai 
the Secretary Cecil whispered in her earthenewa 
of the prince's birth, all her mirth was lud sside 
for that night. All present marvelled whence 
proceeded such a change ; for the queen did at 
down, patting her hand under her cheek, bunt- 
ing out to some of her ladies that the Queen uF 
Scots was mother of a fair son, while she wia 
but a barren stock.* On the following mondng, 
when Melville had his audience, all this was 
changed. Elizabeth met him in herbestapparet, 
saying that the joyful news oommnnicated by 
Secretary Cecil had recovered her out of a heavy 
sickness which she had lain under for fiFt«en dayg : 
and therefore," adds he, "aha welcomed me with 
meny volt,' and thanked me for the diligence I 
had used in basting to give her that welcome intel- 
Ugence. The day after his audience, where the aiit- 
ing of the queen was too transparent, he received 
royal letter, with the present of a fair chain.' 
Her English majesty accepted with alacrity the 
office of godmother; and, as it was a long journey 
for ladies, she appointed two men, the Earl of 
~ ' 'ord and Mr. Carey, son of her kinsman Loi'd 
Hunsdon,* with a goodly retinue of knights and 
intlemen, to act as her proxies. As, however, 
female was indispensable, the Countess of Ar- 
gyle, one of the spectators of Riszio's murder, 
was appointed to represent Elizabeth at the bap- 
tismal font There were two godfathers, the 
King of fVance being joined by the Duke of 
Savoy, and these princes were represented by 
their respective ambassadors. The ceremonj 
was performed at Stirling by the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews, according to the Roman Cathohc 
ritual. During the time of Divine service the 
Earl of Bedford, and all the Protestant gentle- 
men sent down by Elizabeth, stood outside the 
chapel, not daring to partake in the idolatries 


A.D. 1366-1S67.] ELIZ.' 

of the mass. "Uary waa penure and rneUn- 
choly;* Damlej did not appear at all, and hia 
absence waa macb noticed. The fact was, he 
had Bta<red awaf t« save hia pride, for Elisabeth 
bad fltrictly charged the Earl of Bedford and the 
EogUshmen in his companj not to treat him 
king; and to avoid the mortification of being 
refuaed the royal title before the whole court, he 
kept awaj from the chrieteuing. 

But, between the birth and the baptisi 
Jamea, Dsmley had beeome more than 
estnmged from the qaeeo, white the Earl of 
Bothwell had obtained complete poaaeaaioa of 
the royal favour. It waa agunat the Earl of 
Moray, however, that the wrath and machina- 
tions of the wealc king-eonaort were nov 

Meet of the cootemporsry writen assert that 
Duntey really had a design against the life of 
[be qneen's half-brother, and Moray was n 
man likely to fo^^ve him Utia intention. At 
the same time, the friends and dependants of 
Morton and Ruthren entertiuned a deadly hatred 
agsinat Daruley for his behaviour after the mur- 
der of lUzdo ; and they said, among themselvea, 
that he deserved to die the death of a coward 
and tnutor for sacriSdng men whom Ad had 
induced to stain their hands in blood. In short, 
Damley had enemies in all quarters, and friends 
in none; and it may have been fear which 
made him embrace at oue moment the project 
of travelling on the Continent 

The birth of James teuded la more ways than 
one to increase the ill-humoura and jealousies of 
Elizabeth. It revived the spirit of Mary's parti- 
Eana in England, who were mostly, bnt not all, 
Catholics. These men, seeing the English queen 
still nnmarried, and likely for ever to remain so, 
began to calculate as a certaiaty on the euccea- 
rion falling, if not to Mary, to her sou ; for at 
this time the line of Suffolk had almost dropped 
out of notice. It appears to have been this ^ig- 
lish party that got up on alarm as to the un- 
settled state of the succession ; but as the danger 
in ease of Elizabeth's death, was so great and ao 
obvious, all parties soon joined in presung for 
some settlement, either by Elizabeth's marriage 
or otherwiw. It was scarcely possible for Mary 
to be indifferent to this question, and in an nn- 
Incky hour she again pressed her rival to name 
her socoesaor, and obtain from the pariiament a 
recognition of her own rights. In fact, during 
some stormy debates in both houses,' Mary waa 

SETH. 1 1 1 

mentioned aa being the firat in the order of suo- 
ceasioa after Elizabeth. But this extraordinary 
woman stopped further proceedings, by declaring 
that she intended to marry, and to have, by God's 
grace, an heir of her own body. These debates 
occupied a cooaiderable part of the months of 
October and November, and both lonis and com- 
mons showed a determined spirit to which they 
had long been strangers — the commons even pt^> 
posing that the question of supplies and Uiat of 
the ancceesion should go hand in hand. Then 
our old friend, Sir Balph Sadler, with a serious 
face told the commons that he had heard the 
qneen's majesty declare, in solemn manner, that 
she would take a husband for the good of her 
people. As the house was in all probability not 
quite eonvinced by Sir Ralph, Elizabeth ordered 
Secretary Cecil, Sir Francis Knollye, Sir Ambrose 
Carr, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and 
Sir Edward Rogers, comptroller of her household, 
to make the same declaration. The commons, 
however, seem to have been still unconvinced ; 
they joined the question of the marriage with the 
question of settlement, and were proceeding with 
earnestness when Elizabeth eommatuM them not 
proceed further in that matter. This impera- 
tive order gave great discontent; but the com- 
mons had not aa yet settled what were their 
privileges; and Paul Weittworth, the member 
that ehowed more spirit, ventured'ontj to douit 
whether such an interference on the part of the 
crown were not an infringement of the liberties 
and privileges of the house. Cecil endeavoured 
store good humour and a confidence which 
he scarcely felt himself, by assuring them that 
Elizabeth pledged to the house the word of a 
queen that she would marry; after which he 
made some statements which confirm, what ought 
r have been doubted by historians, that 
Elizabeth hod been a most troublesome prisoner 
the days of her sister Mary. Speaking in the 
name of her majesty, Cecil told the house, that 
Lamingofasuccessor must be attended with 
great danger to her own person; that she had 
herself eiperieoced, during the reign of her sister, 
how much court waa usually pud to the next 
heir, and what dangerous sacrifices men would 
make of their present duty to their future pro- 
ipecta; and that, therefore, she had delayed the 
naming of any successor. But still the commons 
restive^Bome of them even declaring that 
the queen was bound in duty to secure them 
against the chances of a civil war and a disputed 
isaion ; that, by persisting in her present 
conduct, she would show herself the stepmother, 
not the natural parent of her people, and would 
seem to dew're that England should subsist no 




[Civil and Uiut^rt. 

longer than sh« ahanUl have the gloiy and aa- I tketT«atyof£duiburgb, which had been deferred, 
tiafactioQ of goveming it. Never bad the com- a« ahe siud, "upoD acoountof aome wordstherein 
mona beeo so bold. Elizabeth was alarmed into . prejudicial to ite qaeen's right and title befont 
civility : she called up the speaker to court, aa- l all othen, after na.* But a complianoe with thia 
siirod him tli»t ahe waaslDcere in her intention of would have been nothing leaa than a reuunciatiou 
marrying, but repeated her prohibition as to the < on Mary^ part of all rights to the Englinh sue- 
debates atiU going on. The membera, however, ceaxion (for so much waa implied iu the treaty of 
showed a determination not to obey thia com- j Ediubiirgh), only aoftened by a promiite from 
maud; upon which she waa gmcioualj pleaaed , one whose merit in promise-keeping had not been 
to revoke it, and to allow the house the liberty ' very couapicuous. It might, indeed, have been 
of debate. The Utter wiae meaaure cooled their , better for Mary had she gratified her imperious 
heat, and they voted the aupplies without hamp- rival in thia particiiliu'; but her refuaal was 
ering them with conditions. Soon after this, the ' neither unjust nor uureaaonabte, but perfectly 
queen diasolved the parliament; but it waa not I conaiatent with an honest diplomacy. Elizabeth, 
conaiatent with her temper and her notiona of however, was furious. We have not evidence to 
prerogative to permit them to depart without a I prove the full extent to which her conscience per- 
leaaon. As it was Elizabeth'a policy never to do 
anything unpopular with one hand without per- 
forming some popular act with the other, she 
remitted payment of part of the supplies voted 
to her, making that roeraorable and captivating 
speech — that moDey iu the puraea of ber anbjecta 
waa aa good to her aa in her own escliequer.' 

On the Stli of November, while the debatea 
were at the warmest in the English parliament, 
Mary addressed a letter to Elisabeth's privy 
council, calling to mind that her hereditary right, 
aa had lately been mentioned iu parliameut, was 
indiapntable. "And, albeit," continues Mary, 
"we be not of mind to press our good aist 
tker than aholl come of her own good pit 

to put the matter in question, yet likewise we ford, she granted the murderers a free panji 
will be judged by the laws of England. We do and within a few days the Lords Morton, Ruth- 
affecUiousIy require you to have respect to justice yen, and Lindsay, with seventy-five other conapi' 
with indiffarenoy, whenever it shall please the tators, chiefly the followers of Morton, return* 
queen to put it in deliberation." As the Eng- into Scothmd, where, within six mouths, thi_ 
liah parliameut was actually engaged on the , disgraced and dethroned their forgiving sove- 

mitted her to go, but it ia certain that she threw 
more, activity into intrigues and proceedings 
which had never been interrupted, and Bought 
to preserve tranqnitlity at home, and to avoid 
naming an odious successor, by stirring «p fre><h 
troubles iu Scotland. Her agents at Edinburgh 
had continual conferences with Moray: the lor<la 
who had murdered Rizzio were taken under 
her special and avowed protection: and when 
the Earl of Bedford attended at the chrialauiug 
of James, he was inatructed by his sovereigu and 
Secretary Cecil to take advantage of that happy 
moment to plead to Queen Mary iu their hvour. 
. Mary, as we have seen, was not happy or cheer- 
I ful at that moment ;' yet, at the petition of Bed- 

matter, and seemed determined to press Eliza- reign. Damley, who i 

I Stirling Cnatle, 

beth to a decision, nothing could well be more quitted that place for GUagow a 
a matter of course than Mary's mentioning her beard that the queen hod caused the privy seal 
own claims at such a moment. But the meosiu-e ! to be pnt to the panlon of Morton, a man whom 
evidently chagrined her rival, who waa further j he had good reason to dread. According to John 

■ritated by a request urged by Melville- 
cause certain persons, now living, to be examined 
of their knowledge of the manner of the Isat tes- 
tament of King Henry."' The will of Henry 
VIII., which barred in the most irregular man- 
ner the Scottish line, was indeed the only oletocle 
to Mary's hereditary claim, and thia will waa 
suspected to have been a forgery. Elizabeth, 
who waa reaolvetl to do uo auch thing, instructed 
the Earl of Bedford to tell Mary that she meaiit 
to examine her father's will as soon as she should 
lind it convenient; but, on the other hand, he 
was to refiuest the Scottish queen fully to confirm 

*« hrWI; la hi* Juumti, "Iu 
'• mijslT did mull ■ fii at 

Knox, Damley left the queen abruptly, " without 
good night." Bothwell, on the contrary, testified 
great joy at the recal of the exiles, and even 
went to meet Morion, with whom he had a long 
conference at Whittingbam, on tlie Scottish bor- 
dera; where, according to Morton's confession, 
when hia own hour came, be was admitted into 
the secrels of a conspiracy for murderiug Dam- 
ley.' At the aanie time the Earl of Moray, who 


A.D. 1566- 1567.] ELIZA. 

bad pleaded for the exUeti ia England, conducted 
tbe Earl of Bedford to hia honae in Fife, and 
there treated him "with much honour, great 
cheer, and conrteoos entertainment,' things which 
we are entitled to anrmise, were but a carer to 
more aerioua transactions. 

It should appear that Both well, whose andacitj 
wiu equal to anything, conceived Uie notion of 
nuurying the queen, building' confidently on her 
affection for his penon. Yet this scheme must 
have been recent and sudden, as also the love of 
tbe qaeea, upon which it ie said to have been 
founded. Bothwell, not ux months before, bad 
loarried the sister of the Earl of Hnntly, and, 
though he got rid of this incumbrance, he would 
scarcely have taken a wife if he had then contem- 
plated a union with the queen. Mary, on tlie 
other hand, seems to have given no very atriking 
i>roof of an ardent and headlong paaaion. Some 
little cireumstanoeB usually cited agmnst her ad- 
mit of a very different explanation from the one 
generally given. We mnst here descend to min- 
utiae otherwise unworthy of a place in history. 
Un tbe 27th July, Mary set sail in a. vessel, man- 
ned by Bothwell, for Alloa, about thirty miles 
up the Forth. This waa called by her enemies 
a going away with the pirates and with Both- 
well; but that earl, as lord high-admiral, was the 
jiropier person to attend to such a voyage, and the 
pirates were Scottish sailors under his command. 
The queen, who was recovering from the effects 
of child-bearing, was too weak to trftvel on horse- 
liack, and it appears that aha had no wheel-car- 
riage. But even if there had been a carriage 
and good roads (which were altogether wanting), 
a voyage by sea was prefenble under all circum- 
BtancA. Tbe queen was going to visit the Earl 
of Mar, a most honourable and devout man, 
according to the showing even of his enemies; and 
that nobleman, together witli Moray and most 
of her officers of state, besides Bodiwel), accom- 
]iauied her. Damley, it is tne, chose to go by 
land ; bat Dsmley, beaidee being in different case 
from hia convalescent wife, was at open enmity 
with the Earl of Uoiay, and was besides, way- 
ward and capricions, like a spoiled boy. On the 
29th of July the queen returned to Edinburgh 
to meet the n«ncb ambaasador, who had arrived 
to congratulate her upon her safe ddivery ; and, 
on the 1st of August, she ascended the Forth 
again to Alloa, when her husband joined her 
and remained two nighta with her. During 
this time Secretary Haitland, who hadabaoonded 
after Rizxio's assassiaation, in the arranging of 
which he had played a foremoat part, was 
doned in spite of BotiiwelL On the 4th of 
August Mary again descended the Forth, 
took up her abode at Holyrood, to all appearance 
much improved in health by h^ stay at AUoa 

lETH. 113 

and her short sea voyages. For two days after 
her retnm she and her husband agreed well 
tc^iether, and when diseenrions broke out the 
e of Bothwell was not mentioned; but it 
said that Damley was offended with the 
queen for keeping so much company with Moray, 
her half-brother, and then her prime miniater; 
and it was at this moment that Damley is ac- 
cused of threatening to make away with Moray. 
In spite, however, of these broils, Mary and 
her husband, attended by Euntly, Moray, and 
other nobles, hunted together in Peeblesshire for 
three or four days, and returned in company to 
Edinburgh on the 20th of August. On tbe 22d 
of the same month Maiy and Damley went to 
Stirling, carrying with them Prince Jamsa. 
Leaving their infant in Stirling Castle, they 
went together to hunt for a few days in Olenart- 
ney, in Perthshire. On the 31st of August they 
returned to Stirling, where they remained toge- 
ther, with their child, nearly a fortnight. On 
the ISth of September Mary went to Edinburgh 
to attend public business, and Damley refused 
to accompany her. On the Slst of the same 
month the queen returned to her husband. Two 
days after she repured alone to Edinburgh, hav- 
ing in vain endeavoured to make her wayward 
husband go with her. It was at this crisis that 
Damley spoke of going abroail: his own father, 
the Earl of Lennox, informed the queen of this 
strange design. Mary instantly laid Lennox's 
letter before her privy council, and, on that same 
night at ten o'clock, Damley arrived at Edin- 
burgh; but he would not enter Holyroodhouee 
unless three of the chief nobles who were there 
should be dismissed. These were, according to 
one account, tbe Earla of Moray, Argyle, and 
Rothes; according to another, Moray, Bothes, 
and Secretary Maitland, In no contemporary 
account is there mention made of Bothwell, and, 
in addition to hia old grounds of jealousy and 
enmity against Moray, it is mentioned that 
Damley was at this moment enraged because he 
could not obtain such things as he sought — to 
wit, the dismissals of Secretary Maitland, the 
justice clerk, and the clerk of registry. Ou 
the morrow, when Damley came to his senses, 
the queen, in presence of the privy council and 
the Bishop of Boss, took him by the hand and 
conjured him (o say whether she had ever given 
him offeuoe, and to state the true cause of bis 
discontent. He declared that the queen bad 
never given him any cause of complaint, and 
that be had no real intention of quitting the 
kingdom ; aud yet, when he returned from the 
council, he aaid to the queen, "Adieu, madam, yon 
shall not see my face for a long space.' Hs 
went to Glasgow to bis father and hired avesMl, 
and kept it in resdinev as if be really meant to 


,v Google 





ubaoond. Heui'e atso lie wrute a letter to the 
queen, Htatmg grievances whiuh he would Dot 
meutiou before; aud yet in those grievances there 
ia HI) mention ol Bothwell, or hint of any Jea- 
lousy on his account. Daruley compliiined, flrat. 
that the queeu did not trust him with so much 
authority, nor wa«atnuch pains to advance him. 
and to make him bu honoured by the nation, as 
formerly; aecoudly, that nobody attended him. 
and the nobility avoided his company. To these 
avowed grievouceB Mary replied that she had 
(."onferred ao much hoooiir on him bb had ren- 
dered hereelf very uneasy ; and that he had 
abused her favours by patronizing a conspi- 
racy against her; but, DOtwithstandiog this, she 
had continued to show him such respect that, 
though those who entered her chamber with him 
and murdered her faithful servant, had named 
him as their chief, yet she had never accused 
liim thereof, but excused him, as if she had not 
believed the fact. (This [lassage proves, what 
has scarcely ever been doubted, that Mary was 
not deceived by Darnley's protestations of Inno- 
cence, and that his share In the murder of Riezio 
was a crime she could never forget or really tor- 
give, however much she may have been dis- 
posed, for the sake of a;)pearauces, to live on 
friendly terms with her husbaud.) Thirdly, that 
OS to his not being attended, the fault was his 
own, as she had always offered hira her own ser- 
vants, and could not compel the nobles to Wait 
upon him since it ftaa his own deportment and 
want of courtesy which drove them from him 
This reply was drawn up by the piivy council ; 
and a letter addressed to the Queeu-mother uf 
Pnuice, declaring that Daruley had no ground of 
complaint, but, on the contrary, the beat reason 
tu lock upon himself as one of the moat fortunate 
princes of Christendom— if he had only known 
hia own happiness and made a prop>er use of hia 
good fortune— was signed by Huntly, Argyle, 
Moray, Athole, Caithness, Rothes, Secretary 
Maitlaud, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, the 
Bishops of Galloway, Rost, Orkney, aud Dunkeld. 
And Jje Croc, the French ambassador, wrote at 
this vety moment;— "Tt is in vain to imagine 
that Daruley shall be able tu raise any disturb- 
auce,for there is not one person in this kingdom 
that regards him any further than aa agreeable 
to the queen ; and I never saw her majesty so 
much beloved, esUieiued, and honoured, or so 
great harmony amongst all her subjects as at 
present, by her own conduct ■"' During part of 
theee transactions ButliwelT was not at court, aud 
Daniley's petulance was not directed against Aim, 
but against Moray aud Maitland, two men who 
were seldom insulted with impunity, or disap* 
|ioiated in carryinK any scheme they proposed— | 

I men of consunuuatti craft, who could always turn 
the fiercer villainies of others to their own pur- 
I pose. Tn the uftemoou of the Gth of October, 
Bothwell, ill dischai-f^ of his duties an warden 
1 of the marches, left Edinburgh for the Borders, 
, which were, as usual, tu a disturbed state. Ou 
' the 6th of the same mouth Mary, according to a 
j purpose declared many weeks before, went to 
Jedburgh to hold Justice Ayres, or to superin- 
I tend the proceedings of the circuit courts, a com- 
mon practice, at the regular seasons, with Scot- 
tiah sovereigns. On the same day that Mary set 
out for the Borders, Bothwell was wounded at 
Hermitage Castle by an outlaw of those parts 
named Eliott of Park, whom he had attempted to 
make prisoner with his own hand. The news of 
this affray reached Mary at Jedburgh, where she 
was attended by most of her officers of state. 
It has been stated by an elegant, but not very 
correct historian, that she instantly flew ou the 
wings of love tu Bothwell;' hut it is proved by 
the most authentic documents that she did nut 
quit her duties and engagements at Jedburgh 
until eight days had elapsed. This materially 
changes the aspect of the story. " A journey 
undertaken," says Walter Scott, " after such an 
interval, has not the appearance of being per- 
formed at the impulse of passion, but seems rather 
to have Bowed from some poUtical motive ; and 
the queen's readiness to take arms in person, 
both previously to the battle of Corriehie and 
at the Round-about Raid, may account for her 
dauntlessly approaching a disturbed district in 
ber dominions without supposing her to be act- 
ing upon the impulse of a guilty passion, or even 
an iuordiaate favour for her wounded officer."' 
On the 16th of October Mary rode on horseback 
from Jedbui^h to Hermitage Castle, to vi'iit 
the wounded Bothwell. The distAlice between 
the two places was about twenty English miles ; 
hut she rode back to Jedburgh ou the same day, 
not stoj^ing to sleep at Hermitage, which was 
Asr castle and not Bothwell's, Histonaus in 
geuerai are not good horsemen : they have con- 
sidered this journey as something much more re- 
markable than it really was in a spirited, active 
woman of four-and-tweuty, who was a most ex- 
cellent horsewoman, and they have fancied that 
no motive abort uf an amorous one could possibly 
make the queen ride forty statute miles in one 
day! But Mary was likely to ride forty miles 
in a long autumn day for mere pastime, and in 
the present case there was a sufficiently strong 
motive in her desire to investigate the cause of 
an outrage committed on one who, by right of 
office, represented her royal authority, and who, 
in her eyes, even without love, may have ^p- 
peared as an active aud deserving lieutenant. 

• Holn-rtiuii, «.4t. Si-M. ' '"^rtui. oivT 


^.r. 15CG-l.-,ii7 j EUZA 

Uot, aRMD, if Uie journey had heeo so terrible 
sihI Mm7 ao lost to shuiue as they represented, 
she iroald ecarcelj hare be«a at the trouble of 
riding back to Jedbnrgh before nigbtset in. Tit 
the enfeehleil stAte of lier health the long ride 
did, howerer, prove snoiewhat aerioux, for, on 
ifae foUoiHQg dav, the ITth of October, the queen 
vaa seized with ii duigerouH fever, which, in 
ronjunctiou with uaeaainess of mind, caused 
partly bj her hnsbend, and her apprehension 
of aome freeh conspiracy*, or of some murder 
like tbnt ot Rizzio, brought her alranst to the 
point of death, and kept her during ten nhole 
dara in a very doubtful state. Intelligence of 
the qae«-n's ilhiesa was aent immeiliatciv to i 
Damley, who was thin nu 
farther off than Glatigon^, 
and who showed great in- 
difference on the receipt of 
it. The French ambaaaa- 
■lor and the Bishop of Boa" 
both wrote to Paris, relttt- 
ing the dangerous state of 
the (lueen, and complain- 
ing of her husband's re- 
i;lect Diimley at last took 
(be road to Jedburgh, but 
be ili^l not arrive there 
till the SSth of October. 
The queen, now ronva- 
leswnt, retreiveil him but 
iNTollv, and the very next 
ilay he left her ngain. It 
■Jionld appear, however, 
that Damlej stood in drea<1 
!•! Moray and Maitlanif. 
who were almost constant- i?r.mi: 

1v with his wife, and wh<i 

liad taken meMnres daring her illiieas to ex- i 
elude him and hiH father fruni all sliai-e in the | 
government in case the disease sliould prove mor- I 
tn\.' On the 9tfi of November Mary, having ' 
tinished the businem of the Ayre.s, left Jedbnrgli | 
for Kelso, where she held s couucil on the fnl- \ 
lowing day. "She then retume<l by the Merse, ' 
and being desirous to see Berwick afar otF, nhe | 
nsoeoded Halidou Hill, being well escorted by ' 
troops of Borderers on horseback. The English 
;;.irri^4(>n of Berwick honoureil her with many 
nhots of artillery; and Sir John Fi.>rstcr,one of the 
wardens of the English border, came with other 
officers out of Berwick, and conferred with her ' 
mijesty as U> the keeping of good order in those ' 

BKTH. I t-> 

wild district^.' Melville, who was of the party, 
adds, " The king followed her about where she 
rode, getting no good countenance, and therefore 
he passed to Glasgow, where he fell sick for dis- 
pleasure, as was alleged, not without some limit 
of an ill drink by some of his servants.'* Bnt, 
according to all other u<voiint«, Dnmley had 
gone straight to Glasgow after his short visit to 
the qneen at Jedburgh. On the 19th of No- 
vember Mary proceeded to Tantallon Castle, and 
thence, on the following dny, to Craigmillar. 
Here, according to Le Croc, the French ambas- 
sador, she was sick and melancholy, and in the 
hands of the physician. About a week after her 
arrival nt ri-aigniillnr, Piivnley, whose conduct 

wmA aiKfthsr ilvk plot iti fiwt. (ind that tbe Eatlj 
Botfavall ud HoB-tir sntorpriHd tha >UiighMr uI the Eu] 
jlor^t. bnt the l^ni IIonH fWDe ilitn with forca uid pr» 

can be rcdiiceil to no rational rule, cnme to visit 
her, and remained n week! Tlie queen was at- 
tended by nearly her whole court. Moray was 
there, and so also were Argyle, Iluiitly, Both- 
well, and Maitland. In the beginning of L>e- 
ivmber Maitland and Moray, after conferring 
with Argyle, Ilinitly, and Bothwell, resolved 
that the queen should lie divorced from her un- 
suitable husband. It appears that all these lordn 
were perfectly agreed as to this plan, hut thai 
Tifoniy kept in the back ground, leaving the 
[irincipal manngement of the affair to the adroit 
and eloquent Miiitland, who liore a personal and 
bitter hstreil to Daniley. But when the plan 
was laid before the queen, she rejected it without 
hesitation, saying that snch a measure conid not 
l.e adopted without throwing discredit on her 
own charai'ter and doubts on the legitimacy of 
her child; nor conld the eloquence of Maitland 
and the eamestnetw of Bothwell overcome tliii- 

' U^iiBi. 

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repugnance— a atriking proof th&t up to this 
time at least, she was chuy of her reputation, 
and aniiouB to pi'eserve it even at the cost of 
gre»t Bufferiug. 

A few days after this debnte, the queeii was 
at Stirling for the baptism of her child. There, 
as we have related, she pardoned the daric-souled 
Morton and his confederates ; and then it wsa 
that Bothwell, Maitlaiid, itnd Morton met at 
Whittingham, where it ia Huppoaed, and, in fact, 
almost proved, that theg concerted the murder of 
Damley, who, after the ceremooies at Stirling, 
in which he did not partake, had again retired, 
aa we have seen, to Glaagow. This doomed man 
could know uothinfrof the secret meeting between 
Bothwell, M&itlaniJ, and Morton ; but he well 
knew that the returned exiles were athirst for 
vengeance against him. lie reached Glasgow; 
but a frightful disease — the aniaU-poi — was there 
before him, and he caught the infection imme- 
diately. When iuformed of his malady, the 
queen sent him her own physician.' Wlien her 
own life wna in danger at Jedburgh Darnley 
had shown no aolicitude. She did not go to 
Glasgow herself, but the historiana who ceusure 
her on this account seem to forget that ahe hiul 
an infant (o attend to, and that the disease waa 
iu the highest degree contngioua. The queen 
set out from Stirling with the young prince fur 
Bdinburgb, where aha arrived on the Hth of 
January, 1567. Tlie capital rung with different 
rumours, some of whidi reached her ears, and 
gave her great uneasiness. It was said, for ex- 
ample, that Darnley intended to crown his infant 
aon, and to take the government on himaelf. 
But by another rej>ort, which aeems to have been 
equally prevalent, Damley was to be put in ward, 
tai he could not bear some of the nobles who at- 
tended the court, ao that he or they must leave 
it. Other reports, however, had spread on the 
Continent, and Mary's ambassador at Paris in- 
formed her that the Spanish ambassador had 
desired him to warn her of some aecret plot 
which was ready to be made at Edinburgh, and 
conjured her to double her guards. Yet, after 
writing to her ambaflsador in Frjiiice, that she 
knew from good authority, that the king, lii 
father and adherents, were talking and thinking 
of doing her some injury, only that their power 
was not equal to their will, Mary ra>nsented to a 

The Eirl of Bedtlird, wha npa mlmiat oil tha ipot. wa*B la C«it 
en tha Mil otJsnuirj:— "Tbekiiig li now utlliaf[dw with his 
lAttuii,. (lid then lieth full of tha mullpokH. lo whom th* 
quean h»lh leiit herphytidan."— OTigtnmlLaMetlnHlnlBPBlitpr 
UlHoe, qnoted by Ksilh nud QuUdwix. 

frebh reconciliation, which is said to have been 
brought about by her physician, who had at- 
tended Damley, and seen him out of danger-, 
and then aet out for Glasgow, where she urivej 

th of January. Her interview with her 
husband is described as having been frieLdly, if 
not affectionate, and, aa he was oaitvalescent, h« 
agreed to accompany her Itack to Edinburgh iu 

E of a few days. On the BSth of Jan- 
uary they left Glasgow together, Mary travel- 
ling, as uaual, on horseback; Damley, on account 
of his weakness, being carried in a kind (rf litter. 
They rested for nearly two days at linlithgaw 
the pleaaantest palace iu Scotland— and tbej 
reacjied the capital on the last day of Jauuai^'. 
The king's infectious illness was assigned as su 
imperative reason for lodging him out of tJie clow 
and crowded palace of Holyrood, where hie wife 
and his child resided. A lonely house called the 
Kirk-a-Field, situated near where the Coll^ iif 
Edinburgh now stands, but which was then in thf 
auburba of the town, had been chosen for him bv 
the queen'a physician, who is siud t« have pre- 
fen'ed it on accountuf its open airy situation, and 
U> have fitted it up for the king's reception. Thin 
house belonged to one Robert Balfour, the proTosl 
of the collegiate church af St. Mmy. Here <h- 
queen visited him daily, and Beversl times slept iu 
achamber under that of the kiug. "But many,'' 
sayn Melville, " suspected that the Earl of Both- 
well had Borne enterprise against him (Darnley).' 
Upon the fatal day, Moray, who, be it obsei-vBd, 
invariably managed to be out of the wny nhen 
anything doubtful and dangerous was to be done, 
absented himself from the court under pretence 
that hia wife had fallen sick iu the country. This 
opportune abaence is certain, and if we are to 
believe more questionable authority— the lealous 
advocates of the queen — Moray, upon his jour- 
ney, speaking of Darnley'a behaviour, totd u per- 
son in whom he reposed his chief confidence, thkt 
the king would not live to see another day.' 
This same evening the queen, with several of the 
nobles, spent with her huabaiid, whom she ouly left 
at eleven o'clock at night, in order to be present 
at an entertainment in Holyroodhouse, which 
was given on occasion of the marriage of Selas- 
tian Auvergoac,oueiil heraervants. About tlirei; 
hours lifter her departure, at two o'clock iu tlic 
morning of the 10th February, the ancient paino; 
and the city were shaken by a violent exj^losioii ; 
and when people went forth to see, they found 
the house of Kirk-a-Fteld utterly destroyed, snil 
the bodies of Damley and hia valet' lying iu thi.' 
gaj-ilen without any marks of violence on their 
persons. The body of Darniey was carried to ii 
house close at hand, was laid within a chamber, 
and kept by one Sandy (or Alexander) Druwrn ; 
I - DMioi) Laler'a &-/-un a/ tin Qfrx o/Srai. 


AD. 1566-1567] ELIZA 

but, &dda Melville, " I could not get the sight of 
him.' When Melville vent tothe palace he found 
her m>j«Bty kept her chamber. He mjs, " I 
came to the ch&mber-door the neit muming 

r the Kirk-i Fiald.— From 

After the raurdei-. The Earl Bothwelt aajil that 
her majesty was sorrowful and quiet; for he 
came forth and told me he saw the atraugest 
accident that ever chanced^to wit, the thunder 
cnjue out of the Itift (sky) and had burnt the 
kitif^B house, and himself found lying dead a little 
diatance from the house under a tree, and willed 
me to go up and see him, how that there was not 
& hurt nor a mark in all his body." ' 

Never was an atrocious murder more clumsily 
exe<:uted. The elements had been qniet that 
night, and even an ignorant eye could detect the 
effects of a mine of gunpowder. Suspicion im- 
mediately fell npon Bothwell, but not so imme- 
diately either upon the queen or upon Morton 
and Maitlaud, and the others who were after- 
words proved to have been accessories and in 
part active participants in the deed with Both- 
well. Some light will be thrown on the horrid 
mystery by oar narration of succeeding events, 
aud the reader will weigh the preceding facts, 
which we have endeavoured to state clearly and 
without bias. In truth, our own mind is not 
made up as to the long and hotly debated que&- 
ti'in of the queen's innocence or guilt in regard 
Ui her hual)and'B murder. Notwithstanding the 

BETH. 117 

popular accusation of Bothwell, as being the chief 
murderer. Secretary Maitland, Morton, Huntly, 
Argyle, in fact all her ministers, and nearly every 
person that approached her, not excepting even 
her brother Moray, continued their 
close friendship with that desperate 
man, and joined together in maintain- 
itig his innocence. But several of 
them could not admit his guilt with- 
out proclaiming their own. There is, 
at least, a doubt in favour of the queen 
— perhaps even in favour of Moray — 
bnt there is none as to the rest having 
taken part, more or leas actively, in the 
murder. These very men, however, 
acting aa the queen's ministers, issued 
a proclamation on the ISth of Febru- 
ary, offering a rewanl of SOOO pounds 
for the discovery of the murderers. 
On the 16tb pf the same month pla- 
cards were set up in the public places 
of Edinburgh, designating the Earl of 
Bothwell and three of his servante as 
iis7j. the murderers. At this moment Mary 

was plunged in grief and dismay; and 
the same ministers— the allies of Bothwell— 
offered a fresh reward for the discovery of the 
author of the placards. No person, either of 
high or low degree, had courage to come forward 
in the face of the government. But, in the 
dead of night, fierce voices were heard in the 
streets of Edinburgh, charging Bothwell as a 
principal, and the queen as au accomplice. 
Other persons, however, were named in the Ijlte 
maimer; and no one pressed any specific charge, 
till Damley's father, the Earl of Lennox, at the 
beginning of the mouth of March, sent from 
Glasgow, where he was collecting his friends. 
to request the queen that such persons as were 
named in the placards should be arrested. He 
was answered, tliat if he, or any, would stand to 
the accusation of any of the persons so named, 
it should be done ; but not by virtue of the 
placards or at his request. This information wp 
derive from Henry Killigrew, whom Elizabeth 
had sent down ostensibly to condole with Mary, 
and who, on the very day of his writing (the 8th 
of March), had dined with Moray, Huntly (then 
chancellor), the Earl of Argyle, Lord Bothwell, 
and Secretary Miutlaud — the whole party being 
still bosom friends.' On the 17th of March the 

point i> «1U 1 tajtiai. 

l«y«ukiU»). Aovrd- 


ha wu stiKlutalT cnud. he ODuld nerer Cudt thit the peoplu 

bf hondndi; Uwt tilt 

would belJsxi Uiit Uie lightning had Oiit arrted Dunlsr out 

«ilhurt. AcooTding to 

hi> Iwl, ud thB houK 

tbs tm, und hAd thai nduoKl ll» boaw to ■ Iwp o( ruiu. 


iHHt n»l<r . tna tn ■ 

' LvtMr from RilU«nw to CceU. •■ gi'an br Chilmen. Th« 





Carl o( Lennox maile a more formal 
of Bqthwell and others.' On the 21st Bothwell 
wi*8 allowed by Mary and her miniBtera to get 
iuto hU own hand:) the strong ciutle of Edin- 
burgh. On the 2Hth of the same month an order 
was issued by tlic privy council for Bothwell' 
trial to take pliwe ou the 12th of April. Lennox, 
n-lio is more than suspected of having had a. prin- 
ciyaX share in the murder of Ki^zio, and in other 
distionourable plots, complained of violence and 
injustice ; and he wrote not only to Mary, but 
Queen Eliznbeth, to obtain a poatponement of the 
trial, stating, with some reason, that the time 
was too nhort to allow him to collect his wit< 
nessea.and that lie could not aafely present him- 
self where the murderera of liis non were not only 
nt large but in possession of power and favour.' 
But it was determined, in apite of this remoii- 
Btrance, that the court of juaticiary should pro- 
ceed to trial ou the day fixed. Lennox then ad- 
vanced from Glasgow to Stirling, on his way to 
Edinburgh ; but here his feam overcame him— 
he wrote hid excuses — and then fled with all hoate 
into England, where be was kjndly received by 
Elir(d>etfi. On the 9th of April, before the trial 
cameou, Moray, having with great difficulty ob- 
tained the queen'H jierraisaion, .<et out from Edin- 
burgh for France. He took his journey Lbrougli 
EngUnd, where he also was well received; And lio 
took care not to return until (he course of events 
left all but the throne open to his ambition: iud 
yet his absence could hardly exonerate him from 
"tiHpicion of treaclierous dealing ; for the '■un- 
ning UaitUncI was his sworn ally and coadjutor; 
and be,, and others equally devoted to the earl. 
remained quietly at thcii poets till the vessel of 
the rtate wab fairly driven upon the rocks. On 
the appointed day, when the justiciary court 
opened, Bothwell appeared at the bar, lupportej 
on tht omkand bg MitUland, on the other bg Mor- 
ton. No evidence was produced—no prosecutor 
appeared — and Botliwell was necesearily acquit- 
ted; though, by this time, there was scarcely a 
man ui the kingdom but felt .iwured of kii guilt. 
On the 14th of April, two days after this acquit- 
tal, a parliament assembled in a regular tDanner 
at Edinburgh. It wa;. opened bv the queen'H 

1 muMutnlal wllli Utrj. bu tli> t;n| 

Id notHTlTeat Uoljrnail UU ibg rrrj moniinj 

Pnnn Ih* Mth «f Mui^ to the isih of A| 

B ityt. » tut. u ■ tinsd Jmnwy (rum B 

aaDtll]ff«ide4, tha EoflliBh qu«n hjut 

nM fan illuwed fcr th* num. withoal 
>lUii(wllh taerminiitnmmllowbicfor 

t on the leth her majesty ap- 
peared in fienou, Bothwell carrying the seeptr^ 
before her. The psj'liamcnt cooGrraed to the 
murderer all the estates and honoura be had re- 
cently received, and at the same time all their 
estates and honours to the nobles who had acted 
with him or were willing to aid him in his am- 
bitious designs. Old forfeitures were reversed, 
new grants wero made, every man looking eagerly 
for a share in the queen's liberality. An allu- 
sion was boldly made to the late charges against 
Bothwell, and accusations by placards or h\\\* 
stuck up secretly in the streets were prohibited. 
No Scottish parliament at this time could over- 
look tbe great question of religiou, The present 
drew up A bill for tbe reiiouncing of all foreign 
jurisdiction in ecclesiaEtical aSiure, and for con- 
firming and ratifying vhe Protestant doctrines 
and church government ; and the queen readilv 
>yal assent to this bill, which be- 
stowed a constitutional sanction upon the Bc- 
foriued church, and proclaimed a total renuncia- 
tion of.the authority of Rome. Bothwell was 
indefatigable in this parliament, evidently hoping 
to conciliate the preachers. DLiring the sittiuR 
of the jiarliament reports got abroad of an in- 
tended marriage between the queen and Bothwell. 
" The bruit began to rise," says Melville, "that 
the queen would marry the Earl Botliwell, who 
hail, six months before, nuu-ried the Earl of 
Huntlj'a sister, and would part with bis own 
Whereat every good subject that loved the 
s honour and tlie prince's surety had sore 
hearts, and thought her majesty would he dis- 
honoured and the prince in danger to be cut off 
by him that had slain his father; but few or 
none durst speak in the contrary. Yet my Lord 
Herrie?, a worthy nobleman, came to Edinbur^ 
well accompauied, and told her majesty what 
bruits were passing through tbe country, of the 
Earl Bothwell murdering of the king, and liow 
that she was to marry liira; requesting her ma- 
jesty, most humbly upon hia knees, to remembei- 
upou her honour and dignity,and upon the surety 
of the prince, which would all be in danger of 
tiucell (destruction) in case she married the 
said earl; with many other great persuasions to 
eschew such utter wrack and incouvenienlti Kt 
that would bring on. Her majesty marvelled at 
such bruits without purpose, and said that there 
J such thing in her mind." 
lome remarkable details in Melville's ile- 
are honestly and correctly given —and onr 
own impression is that they are so in the main - 
Mary was evidently nt this mOinent coerced by 
the rnfSanly audacity of Bothwell, who wan atill 
in t'lmte alliance with Maitland and all her min- 
isters, and permitted by them to menace her true 
friends in her own palaro. Immediately after 


AH 1566—1587.] ELIZ/" 

the riaing of parliament, Buthwcll invited the 
leading niemberB of that body, lay and ecclesiaa- 
lie, to an entertainnient in an Edinburgh tavern,' 
and declared to them his purpose of marrying 
the queen. Hereupon he drew out a bond from 
hia pocket, wherein, after n full recoguition of 
Ilia innocence of the late king's murder, he (Botli- 
weL). was warmly recommeuded as a suitable 
match to her majesty in case she should conde- 
scend to marry with a subject; and the bond fur- 
ther stated that the subscribera thereto pledged 
ihemaelves to advance the said marriage at the 
risk of life and goodi. Voluntnrity, or through 
fe:ar, eight bishops, nine earla, and seven lords 
subscribed the paper, which Bothwell then re- 
tumedtohiH pocket. Maitland and the ex-Chan- 
cellor Mort^in countenanced and supported him; I 
they put their signatures to the bond; and with j 
them signed Argyle,Ituthes, 
anil Boyd, who were all 
nwuru allies of the Barl of 
Moray, and who had join- 
ed in bb rebellion on the 
queen's marriage with Dani- 
ley. Amongthe other names 
appears even that of Lord 
H erries, for all the part he 
had taken, according t« Mtl- 
ville, only a few days before. 
Fburdsyn after the signing 
of thia bond Bothwell col- 
lected about 1000 horse, un- 
•ier pretext of Border sei-- 
vice, and lay in wait for the 
t|ueen,who was then return- 
ing from Stirling Caatle, 
whither she had been to 

vint her infant son. At th« d, 

Koulbrigs, between Linlith- 

'•om and Edinburgh, Bothwell rode up to lier, ttiiU 
look her majesty's horae by the bridle. His men [ 
twk the Earl of Huntly, the Secretary Lething- 
lon, and Melville, and letting all the rest go free, i 
orried them with the queen as captives to the 
■tfroDg castle of Dunbar. Huntly (though bro- 
ther to Botbwell's wife) and Maitland were cer- 
ubly williug priaoners — wete plotters in the 
■Urk buaioessi but after all that has iseeu said 
and written, there is some doubt whether the 
i|neen were not taken by surprise and force; and 
this is the point moat decisive of Mary's charac- 
ItT, far more so than the subsequent act of mar- 
riage with Bothwell. It she went knowingly 
Mid willingly, she loaded hereelf with a crushing 
weight of guilt and folly; but if she were carried 
iiMAj by violence, the marriage would appear, in 

' Tb« ^MH* WA« k*pt b; ofw AiimlLa. Hmo tha (kmom 
"uiKIkia wa* cmUnl " AiiaUt't SoKor.'— m nana which wu 
^fUrwird* anfdiad to tb* IxRiia n tanrn itialf. 

BETH. 1 1!) 

I the eyes of moat women of thai time, as the only 
I means of covering her honour. Melville, who 
I was, as we hiive seen, with the ([Ueen when she 
was taken, is nut very clear on this point; he Bays, 
however, that Bothwell, after taking the queen's 
bridle, "boasted to marry the queen, who would 
or who would not; yea, whether she would her- 
self or not." But he addB^"Captain Blaiketer 
(or Blackadder), that was my taker, alleged that 
it was with the queen's own consent." Yet here, 
it should be observed, that Blackadder, as an 
officer or servant of Bothwell — as a person ac- 
tively engaged iu the transaction-- would natur- 
ally make such an assertion; for if it was against 
the queen's consent, the act was uothing less than 
treason in all concerned. On the following day 
Melville was let out of Dunbar Castle, and per- 
mitted to pass home. But Bothwell kept the 

queen five days in thut foi-tress, diu-ing wliich 
none of her subjects made suy efforts for her re- 
lease — a remarkable fact, susceptible of at least 
two interpretations : either they lielieved that 
she was there willingly; or they wished to see 
her utterly defamed and ruined by a marriage 
with Bothwell. The most active of the nobles 
had conspired to bring this about: Maitlanil, 
who remained with her in the castle, continued 
to urge lier to this step. Mary afterwards com- 
plained that, while under this thraldom, not a 
sword was drawn tor her relief; but after their 
marriage a thousand swords flew from their scab- 





.AND Miutabt. 

bardB to drive Bothvell from the constrj Aud 
lieraelf ftwn her throne. On the 29th of April 
the daring nuui brought the queen bacL to Edin- 
burgh Castle, and plnced her in seeming liber- 
ty, but she was in fact still in a snare, entirelj sur- 
rounded by crafty snd remorseless men. "Af- 
terwards," says Mel rille, " the court came to Ed- 
inburgh, and there a namber of noblemen were 
drawn together in n chamber within the palace, 
where they subscribed, all, that the marriage 
between the qneen and the Earl Bothwell waa 
very meet, he beiuR well friended in Lothiaos 
and upon the Borders, to cause good rale 1« be 
kept; and then the queen could not but marry 
him, seeing he had rariahed ber and lain with 
her against her will. I cannot tell how nor by 
what law be parted with his own wife, sister to 
the Earl of Huntlf." This hurried parting with 
hia wife wBBone of the most revolting features of 
Both well's conduct ; and yet, in this respect, he 
^7as scarcely more infamous than his high-bom 
wife herself, or her brother the Earl of Huntly, 
chancellor of the kingdom and guardian of the 
purity of the laws ! He commenced a process iu 
the consistory court of the Fopisli Archbishop of 
St. Andrews for a. divorce, on the plea of consan- 
guinity; and his wife, in collusion with him, sued 
ber hnsband in the Protestant court of commis- 
saries of Eklinburgh for a divorce, od a charge of 
adultery. She had been previously gratified by 
Bothwell with a grant for life of the lands and 
town of Nrther Hailes in Haddingtonahire; and 
Runtly, her brether, continued in the chMcat in- 
timacy with Bothwell, and was even present at 
his marriage with the queen. Both the ecclesi- 
astical courta proceeded with as much speed as 
Bothwell could have required, and on difierent 
grounds paaaed sentence of divorce. A few days 
after, the queen appeared in the court of Besaion, 
and there declared before the chancellor, the 
judges, and several of the nobility, that though 
she had been earned off and detained against her 
will in Ouubar, and greatly injured by the Earl 
of Bothwell, yet coDsidering his former great 
services, and all that might be hereafter expected 
from his bravery and ability, she was disposed 
not only to forgive him, but also to exalt him to 
higher honours. Bothwell, of course, hod made 
the best use of his bond signed by the bishops, 
und earls, and lords at "Aiuslie's Supper;" and 
it is generally admitted that this document had 
great weight with Mary, who, it should appear, 
did not see it until she was at Dunbar. And 
now the Mid great lords, spiritual and temporal, 
who had signed the deed, got from the qneen a 
written BMurance that neither they nor their des- 
cendants should ever be accused on that account.' 
Itesolving to have liis new mairiage performed 

in a strictly Protestant aud Presbyterian manner, 
Bothwell commanded that the banns should be 
published in the regular parish church at Edin- 
burgh. John Knox was then absent, hut hia 
place waa supplied by hia friend and colleague 
Craig, whOj after aome hesitation, published the 
banns aa required, and then protested frmn the 
pulpit that he abhorred and detealed the in- 
tended marriage as unlawful and scandalooa, aud 
solemnly charged the nobility to use their influ- 
ence to prevent the queen from taking a step 
which would cover her with infamy. But the 
nobles were far indeed from any disposition to 
make efforts in this way, the influence of the 
greater part of them being engaged to promote 
Lhe match, and no complaint on their part being 
made against it until it wss completed, and the 
queen irretrievably lost Bothwell was now 
created Duke of Orkney ; and on the 15th of 
May, only eight days after the dissolution of his 
former marriage, he waa united to the queen. 
"The marriage," aaya Melville, " waa made in the 
palace of Eolyroodhouse, after a preaching by 
Adam Bodewell (or Bothwell), Bishop of Orkney, 
in the great hall where the council uses to ait, 
according to the order of the Reformed religion, 
and not in the chapel of the mass, aa was the 
kin^a marriage." On the same day, however, the 
ceremony was also performed iu private accord- 
ing to the Catholic forma. At the public cele- 
bration there was a great attendance of nobles. 
A Few days after, Le Croc,the French ambsaaador, 
represents Mary aa being in the extremity of gidef 
and deapair, "On Thursday the qneen aent for 
me, when I [wrceived somethiug strunge in the 
mutual behaviour of her aud her huabaud. She 
attempted to excuse it, and said, ' If you aee me 
melancholy, it is because I do not choose to be 
cheerful — becauae I never will be so, and wish for 
Dothing but death,"' This does not look like an 
amorous bride who had eagerly thrown herself 
into the arms of her lover. Envoys were sent to 
England and to France to communicate the queen's 
marriage, and to counteract the rumours which 
were afloat. Elizabeth, who had certainly been 
warned beforehand by Morton and Maitknd- 
the very men who were moat active iu bringing 
about the match — now prepared to lend her as- 
aiatance to them in taking up arms against the 
queen. Jlorton, as hss been observed, wss aware 
that, by ruining Mary, he should gratify Elixa- 
beth, aud raise his own party to the management 
of affairs; and, after the lapse of n few short yeara, 
when Moray, who was the first to atep to greatneaa 
by Mary'a fall, was lud in a bloody grave, we 
shall aee this same Morton, one of the murderers 
of Rizuo aa of Damley, made Regent of Scot- 
land, under the protection of the English queen. 

,v Google 



Tbe ScDtlisli iioblM JiKOiitaatcJ with their queeu's iuBiTi»KB— TLey attampt to seite lier acil BotLwnll -The 
qawD aTid Butbwell escape— Tlig; raiie mi aruij agtunat the co;ife(ientcd nublsB — Botliwell'a idle challenge 
It Csrberry Hill— He rB^irej from the field— Marj gmrenderi to the lorde— Her trottmeut on beiug brought 
to Ediabiuigh— She ia neat pritaiier to Lochleven— Bothwell's escape from Scatland— HU miienble ead — Pro- 
caedizi^agaiiiat Half — Siie ia com pel lad to ahdicale in favour oE har»D-~Tha Earl of Moray appoiated reeent 
— nil interview tvitb Mary at IdchleTau— Earl of Morton's profitable promotiona— Miry eacapes fruiu Loch- 
leren — Raise* aa army— lie defeat at Langiide— Mary's flight into England — abe is treated as a prisoner— 
lUiiabcth rcfUKu no interview until Mary liae proved ber iaaoceace iu Dunley's murder— Mary's iugntiatiii}; 
behaiiour t.i liei kBcpers— Ebiabeth'siulriguea to weaken tha oauno of Mary— Mary's impmdeiil avowali— ate 
II muoved tn a marc tacurs coofinement — Mary writa to Elizalietb— She conBants Iu a trial about the murder 
^ber Ikuaband— Heetiuu of commiuiou for that purpose at Yorli- tart of Moray's conduct on the trial— 
I'roofi aililacad ol Mary's complicity in tbe murdar of Uarnley- Answers of Mary's cominiiiuonar;i—UaitlaDd 
intrigue* with tbe Uuke of Xurfolk in behalf of Maiy- Earlof Moray's additional charges RKaiast Mary- 
He produces llie silver casket and its contente— Authenticity of ber letter* denied— Eliabeth's equivocal 
serdict et the clou of the trial— Her partial bahavlour to tlie Karl of Moray — Mary removad to Tulbury 

S aoop a^ the queen's lionour wa? 
iiisepanilily connected with Both- 
well, then Morton, Maitland, and 
the i-est liegan to talk agniiist the 
luikiriage, to revire the mournful 
J fiite oF Daruley, und to iiitimate 
that Bothwell wiw giiilty ot that murder. At 
lirst, nil this was said caiilioiisly aud Hecretly; but 
as eooii an tbey had wen th^ efTecta of snoh dis- 
eourseii, and tiie great force they could rely upon, 
they openly declared [hemnelves; aud three weeka 
idler the m.irriage tiley ftew to flnuH, o^tenajbiy 
ouly to piiaiah their colleagtie aud brother ne- 
iKuaiii, Bothwell, to Recure the persoD of tlie 
young prince, nnJ to liberate th« qtteeu from the 
i-ontrol of her husband. Tbe coufedemcy of the 
lords wna, in fact, explicitly declarett to be fur 
the protection of the queen aiid her sou againat 
the guilty Bothwell ; but they had already deter^ 
mined to dethrone Mary, aud crown the iiifaut 
Jaraea. Ou the 6tb of Jnuf, before any declara- 
tion troM roaiie, they attempted to seize tb« queen 
nod Bothwell iu Borthwick Ca-itle, about eight 
uileaHnnth-eaalof Ediuburtjh; but the earl easily 
«^<caped, and after him the queen, drsgiiised in 
male attire, rode without atopping, ori a common 
saddle, to the caatle of Uunbar. Tlio coafederat«s 
counter-marched upon Edinburgh, where the 
populace joined them. It Iran atill rejwrted that 
the life of Prince Jamea was iu dauget, though 
tbe Earl of Mar, who had joined the confetleraey, 
had him in perfect safety in Stirliltg Qistle. The 
oonfederat«a assumed the power of goyemment, 
issuing proclamations, as if the qnoen bad been 
already dethroned. They called upon all the 
queen's people to join their standard under pain 
Yot. II. 

ot being deemed niiu-derefs of tliu late king; and 
iu order to move men's heails, they circulated 
printed papers, detailiug the atrocities of Both- 
well. Still, however, with the txcejition of the 
lower orders, few flocked to their standard ; aud 
at tliis moment the corporation of Edinbui^h 
sent a cleputatioo to Mury, to excuse the city for 
admitting the confederated nobles. Tlie queen, 
ill the mean.vhile, aummoued hei faithful sub- 
jt!cta iu the adjoining counties; and, by the end 
of two days, 2000 fightitig men from the Lytbians 
aud the Merse gathered round her standard at 
DuuUir. Here ahe ought to havt remained — for 
the castle va^ iilmoet impregnable, the iK)nfede- 
rates had little ur no artillery, and their force 
waa not increasing so tnpidly aa her own. But 
the queen, who was always bold and decisive in 
the face of such dan^eta.aa. these, and who could 
ugt have forgotten haw the lords fled before her 
iu the Bound- about llaid, niarche<l out of Dunbar 
towania Edinburgh ou the 14th of .lune. She 
halted at Gladsmulr, where alie uiused a procla- 
uiation to be rea<l to her little army, exposing 
the profesBiourt of the iusurgeuts, declaring that 
Ijei' late marri^e with Bothwell had been con- 
tracted and solemnized with the couseut aud at 
tlie persuasian of the chiefs ofi the iusurcection, 
a.<) their own hand-writings testified, and affirm- 
ing that, though tbey a&cted ta feat for tlii; 
safety of her sou {ichoieia in lAeir ovm pMteitioH)t 
yet they ouly aimed at ovarthrowibg herand her 
posterity, in urder that they themselves might 
enjoy the ai^reme power. That night she lay 
at Seton. On the following morning, Sunday, 
the 15th of June, exactly one month after her 
marriage, she advauced to Carberry Hill, and 






there Jrew up In onltr vt lmttle---for the insur- 
gents had fuivsnced from Edinburgh to meet Iier, 
and efood in battle nimj in two divisions, the 
one commnnded bj the Earl of Morton, the other 
by the Eurl of Athole. While the two ai-mieg 
Btood tlina in presence of each other, the aged 
Le Croc Bdvanced to the inBurgents, and endea- 
voured to effect a peaceful itccommodation. The 
Earl of Morton maiie answer that they had taken 
arme cot against the queen, but against the mur- 
derer of the king; that if alie would deliver up 
Bothwelj, or put him from her company, they 
would return to their obedience, but thjit, other- 
wise, they would make n day (if it. And then 
the Earl of Glencaim told the French ambagaador 
that they were not come to that field to ask par- 
don for what they had done, but rather to give 
pardon to those who hod sinned. While thia 
lengthened conference lasted, Bothwell sent a 
herald ofTering to prove his inuocence by the old 
ordeal of single combat. Two of the inHurgents 
miccemively accepted the challenge, but Both- 
well objected to both as being of inferior rank. 
According to one account', he now challenged, by 
name, the Earl of Morton, who is said to have 
accepted the challenge, and to have chosen the 
weapons and the mode of fighting, which was to 
be on foot, with two-handed aworde. These 
two would have been fairly pitted, but neither 
seema to have beeu willing to set liis life on such 
a caat : and, in the end, there was no fight at all 
between them. Lord Lindsay, it is said, offered 
bimaelf in Morton's place. But Mary refused 
her consent to this duel; and there were no doubt 
many with her who were unwilling to atake their 
cause on the uncertain issue of a single comhat. 
It sliould appear that, during this idle bravado- 
ing, the force of the confederates was increased 
by arrivals from Edinburgh, which was only 
about five miles in their rear, and that symptoms 
of disafTection were observed among the queen's 
troops. Tiie crisiH is described in very different 
ways. Some say that Bothwell's heart failed 
hin) — that, after demanding a promise of fidelity 
from the queen, he niounte<l his horse and gat- 
loped away for Dunbar Castle, leaving her to fall 
into the hands of her enemies: and Camden adds, 
that the nobles, with Morton, giLve him necret 
notice to provide for himself by flight, lest, being 
taken, be might impeach them of the part they 
had had in the Damtey murder. According to 
another account, the queen sent a herald to desire 
that Kirkaldy of Orange, the best soldier of Scot- 
land, and a man who retained some chivalrous 
feelings, might wait upon her to settle terms of 
accommodation. The lords consented, and gave 
the Liurd of Orange full authority to treat with 
Ihs queen. He propoae<1, it is nid, in their 
nameo, that Bothwell tliould depart off the field 

until the cause might be tried, and that the queen 
should pass over to them, and use the counsels of 
her nobles, who bound themselves thenceforward 
to honour, serve, and obey her majesty. The 
queen assented, and Grange thereupon took Both- 
well by the hand, and desired him to depart, 
promising that no one should oppose or follow 
him; and thus Bothwell passed away with the 
consent of the insurgent lords. Kirkaldy then 
tAok the queen's bridle-rein, and led her down 
the hill to the confederates. Morton waited upon 
her to ratify the promises which had been made 
to her on their Itehalf, and he assured her that 
she should be more honoured and obeyed than 
any of her progenitors had ever been. But as 
Mary advanced into the lines all this homage 
and respect vanished — tlie armed ranks closed 
around her with menacing gestures and the 
coarsest reproaches. The common soldiers and 
the rabble from Edinburgh cried out that oke 
ought to be burned as a Papist, a prostitute, and 
murderess. They carried her on to Edinbui^b, 
where she arrived at seven o'clock in the evening, 
covered with tears and the dust of the roads, anil 
in that state they led iier on horselmck thitnigli 
the principal streets, some of the mob carrying 
a white banner before her. whereon were rudely 
painted a figure of her husband D.tmley lying 
strangled under a tree, and a figure of Prince 
James, his son, kneeling beside it, with a label 
issuiug from his mouth with these words npon 
it: — "Judge and avenge my cause, O Lord I" 
They lodged her in the provost's house, which 
WHsbesetthe whole night by tlie yelling populace. 
When she arose in tlie morning, the first object 
that met her eyes was the same dismal banner. 
As soon as she was able, she sent Maitland to 
request that the estates of the realm might be 
summoned forthwith, as she was willing to sub- 
mit to their determination — she being present 
and heard in defence of her own cause. But it 
<lid not suit Morton and his confederates to adopt 
this legal course; and on the following evening 
they hurried her under a strong guard to the 
castle of Lochleveii, situated on an islet iu the 
loch or lake which bears that name, in Kinross- 
shire. This castle was chosen not only on account 
of ita difficult situation, but because it was the 
property and stronghold of Sir William Douglas, 
a uterine brother of the Earl of Moray, and pt«- 
sumpljve heir to Morton.' Mary was txeateii 
with exceeatvc harshiiesB in this her first place ef 
captivity; and the whole conduct of the con- 
federate lords was contrary to the agreement 
upon which the qneen placeil herself in their 

I Hony '■ natiier. tha Ladr UufitM EnUna, iaw^Ur of 
John. Srth Eul of Mu, *fl«nwda aui4ad Sir Bebwt Dnitlaa 
at LoAlHM. utd hj lilm bBXDH tba nHnhar c< Hr WIlUui 
Dnwlu. who «■• ■ wsr muiscUoa itf 1mm ttootlai^ Earl <i( 


«.i). I5GT-1561)J ELIZ.4 

liandaatCarbeiTy Hill. KLrkaldy of Grange was 
incuiBed at their conduct, and upbraided them 
vith having broken their word, and made liim, 
in hoaonnble soldier, the means of deceiving the 
iineen with lying promisea. 

It was not long before Bothwell had fled the 
Lingdom for ever. On the 26th of June there 
na iseued an act of the privy council fur appre- 
bending him, he being charged witik the murder 
of Damlej, and with raTi^hing the queen's per- 
mi and enforcing her to marry him (this was, in 
a nuum«r, declaring the queen innocent) ; aud 
tbey offered a reward of 1000 crowns to any one 
ihat should bring the traitor and raviaher to 
Edinburgh. If they had realty wished to have 
Bothwell there, they would have puraued a very 
diOerent courae, and left him much less time. 
Some twenty days after the queen's imprisonment 
ill LochleveD, Bothwell quietly retired by water 

LocHLETEH Ciixni.—Vnm > driwin; hj Q. 

from Dunbar Castle into Morayshiie, where he 
stayed some time. Ue next sought shelter in his 
dukedom of Orkney, but he was refused admit- 
tance into his own castle there by his own keeper 
or lieutenant. In his desperate fortunes he called 
BroandbimsomeNortheni pirates, and threatened 
to SCOOT the seas with a blood-red flag. The lords 
then thought proper to despatch a sm:dl fleet after 
hiib from Leith. If they had caught him, there 
can be little doubt that they would have buried 
Bithwell and his secrets in the ocean; but he 

' It it genenll; bslitisd thst Bathnoll wu iltUiiiod hy Ihi 
IlBjii^ gorenimflat In ohpiivltr tiU bedlodjn l!^Ta, in the culjs 
of Hftlm^ in (hA protipoe ot Schneuvn, now & pAit of Sweden, 
bvi vtaich iben bcJoogfld to (Il« kingdom of DODDurk. A fvw 
jAji^o thuv *Aa diHorerfld, in tti« rojal IlbruTDftbocutlo 
of DnnniBglwliu. in aw*di 

mat ot bu lUcbt, which ippMH bj 

BETH. 123 

fled to the coast of Norway, where he w&s, after 
a few months, taken by the Danish government, 
who considered hiw as a pirate, and threw him 
into the castle of MaJmii, where he is said to 
have gone mad.' At the point of death, nearly 
ten years after, he is said to have solemnly de- 
clared, upon his oath, that he himself committed 
the murder of Darnley by the ccuusels of Moray, 
Morton, and others; but this poiiit, like most of 
the rest, is involveil in doubt and obscurity, and 
Bothwell's dying declaration, or testament, as it 
was called, was purposely kepi out of sight by 
Elizabeth, into whose hands it fell. 

The confederate lords had pretended that they 
only kept tlie queen in ward till the dangerous 
Bothwell should be expelled the kingdom; and 
Elizabeth, or Cecil for her, represented to foreign 
courts that England would make efforts for 
Mary's liberation as soon as Bothwell should be 
out of the kingdom ; but, 
when this expulsion hail 
really been effected, the lord* 
kept her in as close confine 
ment as ever, and, changing 
their tone altogether, they 
declared that she should be 
dethroned on account of 
misgovei-umeut, and com- 
pelled to resign her crown 
to her infant son, or, in other 
words,the entire govern ment 
to her half-brother, Moray, 
and his party. There was, 
however, a strong party that 
opposed this violent scheme, 
thinking that they had gone 
far enough already, and that 
yio\. the queen might now be 

safely tnisted with the go- 
vernment. By the end of June, many of the 
noblest families of Scotland, including the 
Hamiltons, the Earl of Huntly, the gallant Lord 
Herries, and others, began to devise measures 
for her protection, aud insisted thnt she ought 
to be restored to her liberty and her throne, 
upon certain equitable conditions. But Mary's 
enemies were more powei'ful than these friends, 
and the townspeople very generally were set 
against her, and induced by their preachers to 
cry aloud, not merely for her dethronement, but 

hUd by Ibo Buiiiatjiie Club (4(d, E 
t. bowenr. being iDOnlj' BolhinU'i ' 
t, propnrad Appuvotly vttb the riei 





u MiuTARr. 

Iior execution. On Uie Ifitli of Judp, the d«y 
uftei Maiy'a jouniejr to Lochleven, the Earl of 
Olencaim, witii his aervButa and others, went 
into the queen's chapel nt Holyrood, broke down 
the altar, and demolished the pictures, images, 
•ind ornaments. The preachers higlily com- 
mended this work ; but we are not informed 
what they ssiid to another tranaactiou which took 
place on the same day: for the insurgent nobles 
seized all the queen's plate, jewels, and other 
moveables, without anything like a le^^l autho- 
rity. The confederates now sssumed the title of 
the "Iiords of the Secret Council" — an appro- 
printe name. 1^0 Earls of Athole, Mar, and 
Glencaim, the Lords Rnthven, Hume, Semple, 
Sanquhar, and Ochiltree, were members of this 
council-, but the real leader was the Earl of Mor- 
ton. Having let Bothwell escape — and it seems 
tliat they were also glad to see Sebastian, the 
[{tieen'a French servant, who was strongly sus- 
pected, get safe oul of the kingdom^they seized 
Captain Blackadder and a few very obscure per- 
Hons. The captain waf condemned and executed 
for Damley's niiirder; but at his death he would 
no ways confess hiniHelf guilty. Four othera, by 
onlers of the Lords of the Secret Council, were 
ironed arvl tormtMtd, then tried niid executed ; 
bnl the lords did not find it convenient t^ puli- 
liah either their trials or their confessions. On 
the 23d of July, Villeroy had arrived on a specinl 
inisaion from France, and desired to speak with 
the queen; but the lords, who expect<^ii no favour 
from that side, refused to admit liiiii. A very 
different reception was given to Sir Nicholas 
Throgmortoti, a special envoy from Eiiiabetli, 
who found himself among old friendxi and who 
in a vei7 few days recommended his mistress to 
be favourable to the Lords of the Secret Council, 
who covld do ker hett lervice. Soon after, Throg- 
murton informed his court that he could get no 
access to Queen Mary, whose life was in great 
danger, and that he found it would be difficult, 
if not impossible, to induce the lords to send 
Prince James into England — a plan which, for 
obvious reasons, Elizabeth aud Cecil had much 
at heart. He mentions having had some con- 
ference with Mr. Knox and Mr. Craig, whom he 
had requested, as he saya, to preach aud persDade 
unity.' The Assembly of the Kirk having met 
at Edinburgh, chose Geoi^ Buchanan for their 
moderator, and put themselves in close leagiu 

with the Lords of the Secret Council ; t.aA, lu 
increase the prevailing enthusiasm, the assemblr 
appointed a public fast to be held in Edinborgli 
for a whole week. Elizabeth, meanwhile, niiA<! 
a decent show of remonstrating with the Lonlt 
of the Secret Council on the uiidatifuloess af 
their conduct ; but she did nothing to prevent il 
or succour her relative Mary; and Throgmorton, 
her negotiator, was the bosom friend of ikmt 
lords, and a man that, both upon political aud 
religious grounds, would rejoice at the overthrow 
of the Popish queen. Throgmorton, as we have 
seen, was denied access to Mary. The commnsi- 
cations he received from her, or concerning her, 
were all conveyed through Maitlaud or the Lwli 
Lindsay and Ruthven ; and hence, to say DOlhiu<,' 
of his oum nolent prejttdicet, his despatches to tlii: 
English court are not entitled to all the ereilil 
which has been given to them as historical docu- 
ments.' The two great and real objects of his 
mission were to get possession of Prince Jamia 
and to prevent Mary's going to France. 

At the same time these cunning worktiiL'ji 
threatened the French court that, if it made anv 
effort in favour of the captive queen, they would 
throw themselves wholly into the arms of the 
English, and, peradventure, make Mary taste of 
sharper [langs. And the Hamiltons and the r«?t 
of the noiilea opposed to the Lords of the Secrrl 
Council took no Bte{iii for her release, waiting, it 
should seem, for the return of their head, tliK 
Duke nf Chatellerault, who, as welt as the Earl »f 
Moray, was absent in France. Thus abandonwl 
by all, and beset with dangers and threats ul 
death and worse, the captive queen, on the 24tli 
of July, put her hand to a deed in the presenci- 
of Ruthven, Lindsay, and Sir Robert Meh-ille,' 
by which she resigned the crown in favour of thr 
baby James, then about fourteen months old. 
At the same time she was forced to sign a com- 
mission appointing her half-brother Moray to bv 
regent during the minority of her son. Lindsay 
and Ruthven, who were chosen for the buMness 
on account of tlieir auperior brutality, soleuuty 
swore that the deeds liad been signed freely and 

Now was the time for the Earl of Moray t-i 
return to Scotland) but he was careful to take 
London in his way; and. if we could leant wbnt 
passed then between him aud Elizabeth and 
Cecil, we should have the clue to many mrste- 

■Hart. M«.,qu«<dh, IU«n.«. 

poHKl, of Btr Andrtw Meinile, oho ippwi in hIUb. 

Qd«>. «i^ .1 bar dUth. Th— It™ MtlrU.. » 

lilrd «f Rtith In Fife, from whom m imaaiM ih 

hto, >•«> in drt^Ung th. Kcreurr-. nm -"// th«« b. a, 

men and mnUmprmrisi. Andnw HalTltl, imihaar u 


lift, hu nomtlj Imh pflntoil bj "" Wodrow Sori 

J<UIW H-lTilU. Ih. mnthnr of tb> J(™i»l.'ii^d ,d^ \7{, »r 

oditi™, lS4a. 


i.o. 1567— ISfiS-l ELIZA 

ries Mor»y left Loudon oq the 31»t of Jul;, 
about & week after his aiater had been made Ut 
sign the deeds in Lochleven Castle. When lie 
reached Berwiuk he was met by a deputation 
from the lords : when he reached Edinburgh, on 
the 11th of August, he was received with all 
honour and joy bj- Morton, Ruthven (aon of the 
murderer of Rizzio), Mftitluid, John Knox, and 
all the preachers. It was evidently not without 
calculation that the astute Moray did not arrive 
tiUafter the coronation of hia nephew. Tliftt pre- 
vious ceremouy had been performed at Stirling 
on the 29th of July. Throgmorlon had orders 
not to attend ; and it appears that none of the 
foreign ambassadors were present. About the 
middle of August, Moray, with others, went to 
Lochleven, where he held a " long conference 
with Mary, in which he told her all her l>ad 
government, and left her that night with no 
hopes of life, and desired her lo seek God's 
nierey, which was the only refuge she could ex- 
|>eet." Next day, Moray gave her some hope of 
life and preservation of her honour, telling her 
that her liberty lay not in his power, and that it 
was not her interest to ask it— that the things 
that would hazard her life wece any disturbance 
or rising made in her favour, any attempt to 
escape from her prison, any encouragement given 
to her party, any eugngement on her part to in- 
duce either the French king or English queen to 
attempt her liberty by force or treaty, or any 
further signs of affection for Botliwell. In con- 
fUisiou, Moray erhorted his sister to repent of 
her sins, and regard the confederate lords as her 
l>est friends, who only sought the refomiatioo of 
her religion and niomls. Moray had ali-eady 
professed a decent reluctauce to step into his 
lister's place ; and so, on the S£d of August, he 
was proclaimed regent, protesting " that it was 
now pant deliberation ; and as for ignominy and 
c^tumniation, he had no other defence against it 
but the goodness of Go'i, his upright conscience, 
and his intent to deal sincerely in his office,"' 
One of his first measures was t« destroy the seals 
which bore the name and titles of the queen; his 
next to get possession of Edinburgh Castle; and, 
on the S4th of the same month, Sir James Bal- 
four, Bothwell's lieutenant, who had for some 
time been driving a good bar^in for himself, Bur- 
reodered the fortress, upon condition of h:iving a 
free pardon for his concern in Damley's murder, 
a pension out of the revenues of the priory of 
St. Andrews for his son, and ^esOOO in cash. On 
the 30th of September, being aided by Morton, 
the regent got posBession of the strong castle of 
Dunbar. Soon after he heaped fresh honours 
Had emoluments upon the murderer Morton — 


BETH. 1 25 

thus confirmiug the sospieious of thousands, 
that this man had done hia business during liis 
alisence in France. He restored him to the office 
of chancellor, which he had forfeited by keeping 
the door while Biithven and his satellites mur- 
dered Rizzio; and to this high legal office, by a 
curious combination, he added that of lord high- 
admiral, which was left vacant Jiy the flight anil 
attainder of Bothweli. Morton, chancellor and 
high-admiral, wHs also made sheriff of the shires 
of Edinburgh and Haddington, and received 
sundry other emoluments. He accompanied 
the regent on an expedition to the south, where, 
under pretence of pu&isbing the moss-ti-oopera 
on the Borders, they took vengeance on several 
districts which had manifested an affection 
for the captive queen. Whenever there waa a 
Sue to be imposed, Morton was there with an 
open palm. If this curiona revolution had been 
conducted with any attention to constitutional 
forms, a parliament^ would have been called at 
leaat six months earlier; but at last Moray as- 
sembled one at Edinburgh on the 15th of Decem- 
ber, in order to legalize the recent changes. The 
Hamiltons kept awayjthe seats were crowded with 
the partizans of Moray; Morton presided as chan- 
cellor, and his nephew Angus, a boy of fourteen, 
carried the roya! crown, and voted with his uncle. 
John Kiioi preached at the opening of this pnr- 
liament, and exhorted them to begin with the 
affairs of religion. It was not likely Uiat this 
subject should be neglected, for Moray's main 
strength was in the preachers, whom, however, 
he left almost as poor as he found them. All the 
acts which had been passed in 1660 against Po- 
pery were revived, and new statutes, in accor- 
dance with the spirit of the times, were added to 
them. Other acts were piassed confirmingall that 
had been done in the deposition of the queen, 
and the appointment of Moray to the regency. 

On the 3d of January, four obscure men, sei'- 
vants and retainers of Bothweli, were executed 
for assisting iu the murder of Darnley : it is S(ud 
that they all acknowledged their guilt, and ac- 
quitted the queen. But by this time— in part, 
no douiit, owing to the awkwanl course pursued 
in parliament and in the privy council — in part 
from the favours heaped upon Morton and others 
who had gone hand in hand with Bothweli to 
the very lost moment — many who before had 
deemed Mary guilty, now began to consider her 
as innocent — as a victim to the craft and villainy 
of others. The Hamiltons still banded together; 
all who were disappointed in their ho|)es of profit 
and advancement from the revolution, joiued 
them more or less openly; and nothing was want- 
ing but the presence of the queen to induce these 
men to try the fortune of the sword. Mary was 
most vigilantly watched ; but she was resolute, 

,v Google 



ebe wad adroit, aJiil Hlie potuessed in her person 
mid manner a chnrni whicli few men could resist. 
She had also b«yoiid her priaon walls, ajid the 
deep waters of Lnclileven, friends and servanta 
who were enthuaiaaticaHy attached to her, and 
ready at every moment to peril life in her behalf. 
C\)nunuDicationa were opened with the ialet ; 
bands were atationed in ambush round the loch; 
horses were provided, the fleetest that money 
could procure "On the 25t!i of March," writes 
Sir William Drury to Cecil, "she enterprised au 
escape, and was the rather nearer eflect through 
her accuRtomed long being a-bed all the morn- 
ing "' But Dotwitbslanding this failure, and the 
consequent increase of vigilance in her keepers, 
the queen repeated her attempt on the 2d of 
May. Within the castle there wus a lad of 
seventeen or eighteen, called William Douglas, 
or the " Little Douglas," who is supposed to have 
been a relative, either legitimate or illegitimate, 
both of the lord of the castle and of the Regent 
Moray. He is described as lieiug a imot and 
simple lad, who escaped suspicion on account of 
hU innocence and simplicity. He stole the keya 
of the caatie from the keeper's chamber, where 
they were always det>osited, sut the queen at 
liberty in the middle of the night, locked the 
castle gates upon all the inmates, threw the keys 
into the loch, led the queen with one female at- 
tendant to a little skiff, and then rowed her to 
shore. There the Lord Seton, George l>ouglBa, 
and a party of the Hamiltons, received her with 
tninaporta of joy, and carried her in triumph to 
Hamilton. Many of her friends were prepared; 
others came in on the morrow, and a aolemu asso- 
ciation for her defence was drawn \ip and signed 
by the Earisof Argyle, Huntly, Eglintou, Craw- 
ford, Cnssilis, Rothes, Montrose, Sutherland, Er- 
rol, by nine barons, by nine binhopa, and by mauy 
other gentlemen. These chiefs presently brought 
4000 or 5000 men into the field, and, placing the 
queen in their centre, they moved from Hamil- 
ton towards Dumbarton. The Regent Moray 
nas lying at Glasgow, holding courts of justice. 
At 6rst he was thunderstruck, and would not 
believe in the jioBsibility of his sister's escape. 
Seme of his friends advised him to retire from 
Glacgow to Stirling, and avoid an eucounter; 
but Moray, who was a goo<! soldier, knew the 
difference between the undisciplined host that 
followed the queen and the regular trooiis which 
he had alwut him ; and he also counted on the 
resources of the town of Glasgow, and the reli- 
gious zeal of its inliabitants. Mary offered a 
free pai-don to all save five—the Kirl of &ioi-too, 
the Loitl LiiiiltMv, the Lonl Seniple, Sir Janies 

Balfour, and the provost of EdinbnrgL ; but the 
lords were not inclined to any composition, but 
spoke of killing the queen, whom they had found 
so difficult a prisoner. The two armies met on 
the 14th of May, at Ijuigside, in the neighbour- 
hood of Glasgow, and attacked each other with 
desperate fury. Mary remained on an adjacent 
hill, the spectatress of the doubtful fight. Now 
victory appeared to incline to her party; but anon 
her evil genius Moiiou, sweeping round an emi- 
nence with a strong detachment, charged her 
friends in flank, broke them, and decided the day. 
The defeated fled iii all directions; and thequeeu 
herself, attended by the Lord Herries and a few 
other friends, rode almost without stopping to 
Duudrennan Abbey, in Galloway, near to Kirk- 
cudbright, and sixty miles from the field of battle. 
Here she was brought to an awful pause. There 
were only three courses open to her: — she might 
remiun, and throw herself iijion the mercy of her 
subjects — upon men who hod shown her little 
mercy; she might Ree to France; or, lastly, she 
might seek a refuge in England. The first she 
naturally avoided, as what would lead to certain 
destruction; she would have adopted the second, 
but there was no ship to France; and the voyag'?, 
whether she circumnavigated England or Scol- 
land, was dangerous on many accounts, besideri 
that of the elements Tliere remained, then, 
the desperate resource of a flight into EugUnd, 
and upon this she finally resolved. Her wioett 
counsellors represented this course as the mu^t 
dangerous of the three; but Mwy would not l*- 
lieve her I'oyal sister Elizabeth cajiable of ihe 
conduct they surmised. The Lord Herries then 
wrote to Lowther, the deputy captain at Carlisle, 
informing him of hix (queen's situation, and ask- 
ing whether she might go safely into England 
EliEHbeth could not have had time to hear of the 
battle of Ijingside, and to send down positive 
instructions, but she was certainly well informed 
by this time that Mai'y had no chance of success, 
and might have given orders in contemplation of 
a sure defeat; or, again, her officers near the Bor- 
ders, who were in communication with Moray, 
might of tliemselvet have devised a plan for en- 
trapping the fugitive queen without any direct 
breach of promise on the part of the high autho- 
rities. Lowther, the deputy, wrote a doubtful 
answer, saying that Lonl Scro]ie, the warden of 
that march, was at court, whither he had wTittcu; 
but if the queen found herself obliged to croet 
the Borders he would meet and protect hi-r till 
his mistress's pleasure was known. Without 
waiting for this letter,* Mary, with sixteen atten- 
dant*, the chief ol whom was the honest aiiil 

>Thet«l«rwui»t i«Ri'«l. ilib'Hililkppru. till MUTT- ■ 


A.D. 1567— 1569. j 

([xllMit Xcrd UerrieF, embarked ii 
tishing-boat Co craa tbe Solwa/ Firth; and oo | 
the eveaiug of Sunday, the 16th of May, 1568, ( arrived at Workington, in Cumberlaud, trith- I 
out mouev, without a change of raiment — vith ' 
nothing but the tender affection of her almost 
belpleaa retinue, and her hope in the magnani- 
mity of Elizabeth. She immediately wrote to i 
that "good sister," informing her of her miafor- 
tuned, and her arrival in her domiuione. Some < 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood, tvlio probably 
entertained just notions of the sacred rights of | 
hrupitality, gave her a kind reception, and hon- | 
(iiirably conducted her to Cockermoutb, where, I 
on tbe following day, Lowther waited upon her 
with what appears to have bceu a little army. '. 
Od the following day Mary wns conduct«d to 
Carlisle, and lodged in the castle, not as a royal 
and nofortunate guest, but as a prisoner. Sir ' 
Franna Enollys, who was sent down post to the 
aoTth with letters and "messages of comfort" 
from Elizabeth, greatly praised Lowther's good 
behaviour and discretion tJiwards her highness, 
in securing the fugitive queen, and in refusing to 
admit the Earl of Northumberland into Carlisle 
Castle with any mora company than hie page. 
It in evident that even at this moment Northum- 
berland was an object of suspicion. KnoUys, 
in ineutioning that the ear! met him in York- 
shire, says, that he had with him Sir Nicholas 
Fairhx, Sir William Fairfax, his son, Mr. Hun- 
gate, and Mr. Vavasor, who were "all unsound 
in reli^on," and had been with his lordship at 
Cirlisle. The great uneasiness of Elizabeth as to 
any commanication between her royal prisoner 
nnd her own subjects professing tbe ancient reli- 
gion, is a very significant feature in the history. 
Lord Scropc, the warden and govemor of Cur- 
lisle, was despatched from Cork nearly at the 
same time aa Knollya, and they both waited 
upon Queen Mary in Carlisle Castle, apparently 
on the 28th or 29th of May, haviug previously 
spoken with Lord Uerries, who hoped that Queen 
Elizabeth would either give hia mistresa aid and 
comfort, or permit her to pass through England 
into France to seek relief elsewhere. They deli- 
vered their sovereign's letter, in which Mary was 
told that Elizabeth contd not honourably i-eceive 
her iuto her presence until she was cleared of 
all suspicion of being concerned in Damle/H 
murder. Mary had expected a different treat- 
menL She solemnly affirmed to Scropo and 
Knollys, that both Maitland of Lethington aud 
the Lord Morton had been concerned in the 
murder of her husband, as could well be prove<l, 
although now they would seem to prosecute the 
murderets. Tbe two envoys repeated that their 
inistreM waa " inwardly sorry and very much 
griered" that she "could not do her that great 

BETH. 127 

honour to admit her solemnly and worthily iuto 
her presence by reason of this great slander of 
mui-der; but they assured her of her highneas'e 
great affection, and that if she would dnpend 
Tipon her higbness's favour without seeking to 
bring in atrangera into Scotland, then uudoubt> 
ediy her highness would use all the convenient 
means she could for ber relief and comfort. 
Mary agreed to send up Ixird Uerries to London 
to plead her cause with Elizabeth, and she then 
dismissed Scrope aud Knollys, " complaiuing of 
delays to her prejudice, aud the winning of time 
to her enemies." 

On the following day, or the day after— it waa 
the 30th of May — Knollys and Scrope had an- 
other interview with Mary, who inveighed against 
her brother Moray and his adherents, saying, 
among other things, " tliat when she was but nine 
days old they had a reverent and obedient care 
of her, but now that she waa twenty-four years 
old they would exclude her from the government." 
Knollys, who was fully aware of the main course 
which bis royal mistress meant to pursue {for the 
silver boi, with letters from Mary to Bothwell, 
true or forged, which was afterwards brought 
into the case, had really no weight whatever in 
Elizabeth's decision], ventured to tell the Scot- 
tish queen that, in some eases, princes might be 
deposed by their subjects lawfully; and he men- 
tioned the caae of a prince falling into madness. 
" And,' added he, " what difference ia there be- 
tween lunacy and cruel murdering^ Mary, 
however, had almost captivated the cautious vice- 
chamberlain, with her beauty, and spirit, and 
graceful familiarity. " And yet," he says, " this 
lady and princess is a notable woman. She 
seemeth to regard no ceremonious honour besides 
the acknowledging of her estate regal. She show- 
eth a diapoaition to speak much, to be bold, to be 
pleasant, and to be very familiar. She showeth 
a great desire to be avenged of her enemies; she 
showeth a readiness to expose herself to all perils 
in hope of victory, . . . So that, for victory sake, 
pain and peril seemeth pleasant unto her; and in 
respect of victory, wealth and ali things seemelh 
to her contemptuous and vile. Now what ia to 
be done with such a lady and princesa, or whe- 
ther such a princess and lady be to be noorished 
in one's bosom, or whether it be good to halt and 
dissemble with such a lady, I refer to your judg- 
ment.' The vice-chamberlain then proceeds to 
recommend a bold and direct course, in order to 
prevent any danger to Elizabeth.' From the 
tone of his letter he was evidently not very par- 
ticular as to tbe proofs which might be brought 
against Mary; it was only necessary to declare 




[Civil and Miutabt. 

Iier guilty, au<l so prevent any luiiK-liief to Qiie«n 
Elizabeth, wbo, by auch a. sentence, would be 
justified iu assisting tlie R«geut Moray, and keep- 
ing his sister a, close prisoner. 

Lord Herriea did little good with Elizalielli, 
who induced him, in a manner, to appoiDt her 
judge or arbitrator betneeu Mary and tier sub- 
jects. At his solicitation, however, the English 
qiteeu thought fit to seud an agent, Mr. Middio- 
niore (or Meddlemore), into 8i:otlaud, to stop the 
civil war there; for Mary's pavtizan8,thovigh sore- 
ly pressed and persecuted, were not wholly dis- 
couraged by the battle of I^ngside, and the Earia 
o( Huutly and Ai-gyle were up in arms in her 
favour. This Middleraore, whose secret inatruc- 
tious were no doubt of it very different kind from 
that which was given out, travelled northward 
with Lord HeiTies, to the great " diacontsntu- 
tion"of Sir Francis KuoUys, who was not let 
into idJ the seci'et, or informed of the real object 
of his errand. But aj soon a.i this Mr. Middle- 
more got afi'oss the Borders, he hastened rather 
than retarded Moray's buainesa, and encouraged 
the regent iu his energetic measures against those 
who favoured the queen. On the 21at of June 
the Scottish queen urote a striking letter to her 
good sister and cousin, which woa forwarded to 
London by means of a geuUemiui who had been 
despatched by the French court to ascertain the 
real situation of the fugitive, and the manner in 
which ahe waa treate<l iu Eiigland.' Here the 
captive eonipUina that Middlemore, who was 
sent, as was pretended, as a safeguard to her 
faithful BubjectB, had allied himself with her ene- 
luies, wlio, iu her presence, had destroyed the 
liouse of one of her priucipal barous, and who 
were now treating her friend^ and adherents more 
harshly than ever. " Mine enemies," she con- 
tinues, " proceed still fai-ther, and boast that they 
ai-e autliorized by Aim; acid while they are exe- 
cuting their euterpriae, wiiich tends to the cuu- 
qneat of my kingdom, they abuse yoti, witli a 
hope of proving to you their false calumnies, 
which the unequal treatment we ore receiving 
would make me fear, if my iuuoceuce and reli- 
ance on God, who has hitherto [irotected me, did 
not give me nsaunuice. For, consider, madam, 
they have now the authority which belongs to 
me — the sovereign power by usurjNktion, my pro- 
]ierty to bribe an<l corrupt, the finesses which are 
at their command throughout the country— and 
your own niiiiiatera, who, day by day (at least 
aonie of theui), write to them and advise them 
what to do that they may convince you. Would 
to Goil you knew what I know of them I" " I ciui- 

' A. lo lier limlDnnt. liiry W)^ Iu tUi. luis loller lo Blia- ' 
t«th, " [t sri»« n. to h>T<> H Uitlg cwuluii u pnim tb* ' . 
IrthAvlonr oT jaur mlnlaUin, tor of youTHlf I ouutot auU will ' 

not do less," she continues, " than complain to yon, 
and beg you to send fur me, that you may hear 
my griefs, and assiat me aa promptly as necesaity 
reqiiires, or permit me to retire into France or 
elaewhei-e. . . . And I entreat you, as you see 
what are tlie effects, do not make an uuequal 
combat, they being armed, and I destitute; on the 
coQtrury, seeing the dishonour they do me, make 
up your mind to assiat me or let me go; for, with- 
out waiting for their giving me a third assault, I 
must supplicate both the King of France and the 
King of Spain, if you will not have regai-d to my 
just quarrel; and they, restoring me to my place, 
then will I make you know their falsehood and 
my innocence: for if you let tliem conquer the 
country first, and then come to accuse me after, 
what shall I have gained by submitting my cause 
to you? , . . I blame no oue; but the very worm 
of tlie earth turns when it is trodden upon."' 

On thesameday on which she wrote thia letter, 
Mary told Knnil/s that abe expected to be let go 
into France, ur to be put safely into Dumbai'tou 
Castle, " imleH3,''Bhe iulded, "she will hold me aa 
a prisoner, for I am sure that her highness will 
not of her honour put me into my Lord of Mo- 
ray's hauda." Under her circutnstaucea, nothing 
could be more imprudent than her continual talk 
about Frauce aud Spain; but abe again assured 
Knollys that she would seek aid in those quar- 
ters, became she had promised her people aid by 
August " And she said that she had found that 
D'ue which she had heard often of before her 
coming hither, which waa, that ahe should have 
fair words enow, but no deeds, . . . And, aaith 
she, I have made great wars in Scotland, aud I 
pray God I make no troitblea in other realms 
also."' This, if true, was another iinpmdence. 
Knollys was, or pretended to be, much stRrtled; 
aud he again advised a close union with Moray, 
throwing a little devout unction into his worldly 
policyaud tenderness for Eliz;»beth. Othercour- 
tiers and statcHmeu did their best to increase the 
alarm. Sir Henry Norris wi-ole from Paris U> 
warn Cecil, on the authority of an anonymous 
informer, that the queen's majesty " did now hold 
the wolf that would devour her," and that " it is 
conspired betwixt the King of Spain, the po|ie, 
and tiie French king, that the queen's niajestv 
sliould be destroyed, whereby iht- Queen of Scotn 
might succeed her maje.ity.'" Tliis alarm, con- 
sidering where Mary thcu was, was ratlier riili- 
culous, yet scarcely more so than some of the 
hundred other stories which followed in a ertr- 
cfitdo of liorrorn, and which never ceased till 
Elizabeth had brought her rival to the block, 

■ Biinr*(r)r ISIalt Faptrt. Tlw Mm li lUtad CU-Uila, U» :1M 
in. Lika lU HuT'i InUn. augpt > 'WT <^< It I* in Kiwih. 
■LMHrbuD Ki»U;«uCWI,aiit*d>lMarJuua,IMS. 

,v Google 

It WM bmh resolved to carry her further into the i ahoald come into England for that purpoee. Blie 
r«&lm to some place of greater safety, being "welt assured the Ea^ish queen that she had warned 
moated round." Mary made a apirited protest, , her faitUul iubjecta who were still up in arms 

that waa of no avail; aad on the 16th of July she 
ma carried under a stroofc escort to Bolton 
C^tstle, a house of Lord Scrope's, in the north 
riding of Vorksbire, not far from Middleham.' 
By this removal Mary was cut off from all com- 
munication with her subjects, eiceptiug such as 
Eli^ieth chose to admit. Sir Francis Knollya 
and Lord Scrope dealt very sharply with all Eng- 
lish subjects that attempt«i1 to see or correspond 
with the captive, particularly if they were Pa- 
pista. They thought Bolton Castle a much safer 

t Casiu. — Fnim n dnwing b; WhltCock. 

I^aoe than Carlisle, but, at the same time, they 
tnggcated that their prisoner should be moved 
•till farther from the Bordera, telling Cecil, how- 
ever, that Uary, though otherwise very quiet and 
very tractable, declared that she would not remove 
any farther into the realm without construnt. 
On the SSth of July Mary wrote another letter 
to Elizabeth, telling her that she relied on her 
former promises, and expected that she wonld re- 
place her in her kingdom, when she had beard 
her justify her own conduct, and expose that ot 
her enemies. She consented that Moray and 
Morton should be heard on the other side, as 
Bizabeth required, and that theae two lords 

I>ln with 7«m; ud U Odd 
11 bfl bormd to jou Aw 

for her to abstain from hostilities, and the seek- 
ing of any aid from France; that she hereelf had 
withheld her despatches to France and Spain, in 
order to avoid contracting any farther obligations 
in those parts, desiring that if she were to be re- 
instated it might be only by means of the Eng- 
lish court.' The whole of this letter is cool and 
diplomatic, except where she speaks of Moray.' 
Elizabeth, however, cared little for her warmth 
on this head, for she and the regent had come to 
a perfectly good understanding. Moray, on his 
side, had a confident reli- 
ance on Cecil; and he sent 
up hia secretary, John 
Wood, to London, to show 
the minister and the queen 
copies of sundry secret j)a- 
pera. The regent, how- 
ever, was not so ready as 
his imprisoned sister to 
bring matters to an issue; 
and though Elizabeth wrote 
to him to come into Eng- 
land with a commissioner, 
to treat, and to answer to 
the Scottish queen's com- 
plaint, he found it very easy 
to delay so doing till the 
mouth of October; and 
during all that time he was 
allowed to establish his own 
authority in Scotland, and 
was even assisted by Eliza- 
beth in so doing. It will 
strike eveiy reader, that 
possibility of constituting a court 
to try Mary, and, until the very last moment, 
it was pretended that Elizabeth would merely 
arbitrate iu a friendly manner, or that, if any 
party was to be tried, it should be Moray with 
his adherents. But Herries clearly foresaw the 
course which would be pursued, and he guarded 
against it as well as he could with forms and de- 
clarations of his sovereign's entire independence 
of the English crown. Elizabeth declared that if 
Mary would " commit her cause to be heard by 
her highness's order, not to make her highness 
judge over her, but rather as committing herself 
to the council of her dear cousin and friend," her 
liighnesB would treat with the Scottish nobles, 
and bring things to a happy conclusion. Eliza- 

beth would, for example, restore the Que 

1 of 

■ Mu7 tud began to odl HoniT iwi / 
biotbir ; ind in thl> partktnUr l«It« ib 
Monr l> anil nlitad to ha mijiitj of Bngluid pc 

• Google 



Scots la her royal seat, by hooouTBbli 
dation, the Queen of Scots agreeing, tliat the 
lonU and all her other aohjecta should continue 
in their honours, Bta tea, and dignities; and this 
was the promiae in case of Momy making out 
"soma reaaou agaiuat her;' but, it Moray and 
his party should fail in proving anything againat 
the queen, than her majffirty Elizabeth would 
replace Mary absolutely by force of arms, Marj- 
agreeing in this case, and aa a reward for Eliza- 
beth's assistance, to renounce alt claims to Bng- 
laud; to convert her close alliance with France 
inUi a league with England ; and to use the conn- 
ael of her dearest sister and her estates in parlia- 
ment in abolishing Papistry, encouraging Pro- 
testantism, and in establishing in her dominion 
the Episcopal and Anglican church — an order of 
things considered by John Knoi, and the whola 
body of the Puril&ns, aa only a few degrees less 
idolatrous than the Church of Rome. Thus, in 
all cases, Mary was promised her liberty and her 
restoration to her kingdom. But very different 
language had been held in secret with Moray; to 
him it had been declared, that if he could estab- 
lish his sister's guilt, she should never return to 
Ticotland; and it had also been intimated that he 
could eaiilif prove what he desired. 

The famous commission met at York on the 
4th of October. Elizabeth was represented by 
the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Sussex, and Sir 
Ralph Sadler, who was still alive and atirring, 
though thia business was destined to embitter his 
old age. Mary was represented by Lesley, Bishop 
of Boss, the Li>i'dBHerrie9,Liviugston, and Boyd, 
Uamilt«n,abbotof Kilwinning, Sir John Gordon 
of Lochinvar, and Sir James C'ockbum of Stir- 
liugr the Kegent Moray appeared in person, at- 
tended by the Earl of Morton, the Bishop of Ork- 
ney, the Lord Lindsay, the abbot of Dunfermline, 
Maitlnnd of Lethington, James M'Gill, Henry 
Bnlnaves, the I^ird of Locbleven, and George 
Buchanan [the celebrated poet and historian). 
On the 8th of October the friends of Mary, as 
the plaintiir, were allowed to open the charges 
against Moray and hia associates. In the after- 
noon of the same dny Moray and his colleagues 
artfully said to the Duke of Norfolk, that they 
were "desirous to understand that, if in this ac- 
tion they shall prove all things directly where- 
with they may and do emburden the queen, their 
sovereign's mother, how they be assured to be 
free and without danger of the said queen's dis- 
pleasure, and what surety may be had for the 
young prince, their king, if the ahouid be reatored 
in her former estate?" Elizabeth's commisaioners, 
who, ngsiust the spirit of the agreement, had 
allowed Moray to refuse hia sister the title of 
sovereign, and to advance the coronation of the 
infant Jamea aa a constitutional act, now de- 



parted still more widely from the promises which 
had been given to Mary and her agent Lord 
Herriea. They said that, indeed, their mistrestfa 
desire " hath always been, from the beginning, 
that the said queen might be found free, specially 
from the crime of her husband's murder; never- 
theless, if her majesty shall find to be plainly and 
manifestly proved (whereof she would be very 
sorry) that the said Queen of Scots was the de- 
viser and procurer of that murder, or otherwi*# 
was guilty thereof, surely her majesty would 
think her unworthy of a kingdom,aiid wonld not 
atain her own conscience in maintenance of such 
a detestable wickedness by restoring her to a 
kingdom."' Moray then declared that it was set 
forth and published in Scotland that Mary should 
be either amply restored, or otherwise by some 
degrees restored, and sent home amongst them, 
by the Queen of England. Elizabeth's commis- 
sioners, with a bold face, denied that any such 
promiae had ever been made. But Moray was 
not fully satisfied, anapecting that, although the 
Queen of Scots were not wholly restored, yet she 
might, "peradveutura, be relieved in some degrees 
by the queen's majesty, which might breed unto 
them no little danger."* On the following day, 
when he and hia commissioners were to give in 
their reasons against Mary, Maitland raised cer- 
tain doubts as to the extent of the commission 
given by Elizabeth to Noi-fulk, Sussex, and Sad- 
lei; -lat, " For that they see no express words in 
the commission to authorize her grace's commis- 
sioners to deal in the matter of the murder ;"2dly, 
"That delay might be made in judgment, which 
would he very dangerous to them." He tlien, 
with Moray and the other commissionera of that 
side, moved that Elizabeth ought to be adver- 
tised of these their doubts, " apecially tor that it 
standeth them upon, and they think it very rea- 
sonable that her grace should put them in suffi- 
cient surety to he free from danger of the queen, 
their sovereign's mother, before they enter to 
declare against her." A letter was, therefore, 
despatched to Elizabeth, to request additional 

But Moray and Maitland certainly did not 
wait for an answer to charge Mary with such 
things as, to use their own words, they had 
"hitherto been content rather to conceal than 
publish to the world to her infamy and dis- 
honour,"' They secretly laid before the English 
commissioners translations of certain letters in 
French, said to have been written by Mary to 
Bothwell, some just before the murder of her 
husband, others before the seizure of her per«>n; 
two contracts of marriage ; and a collection of 


AD 1567-1569.] £L1Zj 

love Bonneto, described ae being the queen's com- 
position, and as sent by her to Botbwell.' On 
the 11th of October, before any answer could 
have poHBibly been received from court, the Eng- 
liah conunisBioneTS made an abstract from these 
papere, which might tend to Mary's condemna- 
tion for "Afr consent and procnremeut of the 
murder of her huaband, as far forth as they could 
by their reading gather.' They liad evidently 
read the letters mid the amorous rliytncs with 
great attention; but they omitted altogether 
making any inquiry touching the authenticity of 
these papers, which from first to last Mary and 
her friends maintained were foi^ries. They as- 
sumed, "from plain and mauifest words contained 
in the said letters, that the inordinate and filthy 
love between Mary and Eothwell " was proved ; 
that she bad bated and abhorred her husband 
Daniley ; that she had taken her journey from 
Edinburgh to Glasgow, to visit him when aiok, 
with the intent of inveigling hitn to Edinburgh, 
where he was murdered, &c.' These sweeping 
conclusions, as well as the documents upon whicli 
they were founded, were carefully concealed from 
Mary's commissioiiers, who were requested to 
seek an enlargement of their comniisBion, or, in 
other words, to ask their mistress to agree, in the 
dBH[,to aukuowledgeEIizabeth'sauthority. Lord 
Herriea raised some objections, but Mary agreed 
to alter the wonls of her commission, and ndd a 
clause that her commissiunei a might treat, con- 
clude, and determine all matters and causes what- 
soever in controTnrsy between her and her sub- 
jecto.' She still, liuivever, maintained the per- 
fect independence of her crown, while Moray 
and her enemies now showed themselves ready 
to acknowledge Eiiaibeth's aupi-eraacy over Scot- 
land, that, as "superior lady and judge over that 
realm, she might determine in this case." In 
3 time, Moray presented to the 
n answer to tlie chains of his 
queen, in which he alleged that his friends had 
never taken up arms but against Buthwell — that 
they had afterwards sequestrated their quetn 
because she adhered to Bothwell — SJid tliat they 
had at last accepted her resiguation, which wns 
willingly given merely from her disgust at the 
( power, and never extorted 

ftt W wtm i ntw , hj hnndnilt of penoDM. frieodj li well u tvm 
■o Mur. fa(t mDrt at wham knev b« budwHtlni; imd tK 

■«wr ilMmptad ; th»t tfcoj irnts In m mummlno ot jaiaitt* 

BETH. ]31 

from her. To this Mary's commissioners replied, 
that the queen had no means of knowing lbs 
ntrocilies of Bothwell, who had been acquitted 
by a Scottish jury, and wcommended to her as a 
huaband by the Scottish nobility— that she had 
ever been desirous that Bothwell should be ar- 
rested and brought to trial — that the resignation 
of the crown was extorted from her — and that 
Throgmorton, the English ambassador, had ad- 
vised her to sign that paper, as the only means 
of saving her life; assuring her, at the some time, 
that, under circumstauces, such an net could 
never be considered binding on her part. Mnry 
had by far the best in the controversy; but she 
did not know that she was only fighting with 
shadows. The city of York, in the meantime, 
had become the scene of the most complicated 
intrigoes. Tlie Ehike of Cliatellerault, who had 
lately ri-tumed from France, made a faint efibrt 
in favour of Mary. Other Scottish nobles were 
nnxiouB for a compromise, and the settlement of 
a government iu which they should all have a 
port '. and Moray at this moment would have 
agreed to allow his Bi3t«r a large revenue, pro- 
vided she would confirm her resiguation of the 
crown, and consent to reside in England with an 
English huaband. We profess our utter inability 
to understand the complex game — we do not \»- 
lieve that it ever luis been, or ever will be, clearly 
understood : but the words of the Earl of Sussex, 
one ot Elizabeth's commissioners, contained an 
undisputed fact, which is that these parties tossed 
between them the crown and public affairs of 
Scotland, caring neither for the mother nor the 
child, but seeking to serve their own turns with- 
out any reference either to Mary's guilt or inno- 
cence.' Maitland, whoae ways were always iu- 
Bcrntable, suggested a marriage between Mary 
and the Duke of Norfolk, her divorce from Both. 
well being effected ; and he hod the address to 
bring Norfolk, perhaps Miiry herself, iuto this 
scheme. But what seems the most extraordinary 
part of this story is, that the Regent Moray hin)- 
self entered into the project, and professed a 
great earnestness for the marriage with Norfolk, 
whose favour with Elizabeth, he pi-etended, would 
enable him to procure tranquillity to Scotland, 
and place the Protestant religion in security, [t 

'k, la Lodgfl. Tba Dukfl of Nur- 

11 partlcnUr (nnu. the which bdii^ dealt, tba^ 
voniM tilbet of qiuflb or king-"— Ovtdvll- 




[Civil a 

is barely posaible to uudent&Dd how Moray could 
fall in with such a gcheme,' even for the moment; 
but he may bave been iip«ll-bouiid by ths supe- 
rior crafl and audacity of Maitland, whose whole 
■oul was an intrigue, and who, eiuce hia late ar- 
rival in England, may have even proposed to 
bimseU the daring scheme of overthrowing ElizA- 
beth and of placing Mary on her throne. It did 
not I'equire hia talent to see that the whole Ca- 
tholic population of England was oppressed^ 
that many Protestants were averse to Elizabeth's 
government— and that the Duke of Norfolk, who 
was both rich and brave, bad an immense party 
in the north, counting among his friends the 
great Earls of Westmoreland tmd Northumber- 
land, who, upon many grouuda, were dissatisfied 
Urith ^e queen and with Cecil. Maitland of late 
bad not been eager to press the question of Mary's 
guilt, and, even if be had done so, it would coat 
little to a supple man like him to change bis 
tack, and hold her up as the model of queens and 
women. And he certainly assured Norfolk that 
Mary waa innocent of her husband's murder. 
But Maitland waa watched with vigilant eyes : 
bis intrigues with the Duke of Norfolk were dis- 
covered, and an order came suddenly down from 
London for the instant removal of the conference 
from York to Westminster. Elizabeth now 
openly declared that Mary should never be re- 
stored ta the crown of Scotland if Moray could 
make good hie accusations ; and she assumed aa 
a right that ebe and her privy council should 
proceed to sentence.' At the same time Elizt^ 
beth joined Leicester, Cecil, Bacon, and others, to 
the commission, and commanded the immediate 
attendance not only of Norfolk and Sussex, who 
had purposely kept out of the way, but also of 
tbe Earla of Northumberland, Westmoreland, 
Shrewsbury, Worcester, and Huntingdon, of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of 
London. Mary, it should appear, made no com- 
plaint until she learned that Moray bad been 
admitted into the presence of Elizabeth, iu vio- 
lation of a promise given by the English queen ; 
but then she ordered her commissioners to requii 
of Elizabeth, in the presence of her court and the 
foreign ambassadors, that she, too, might be al- 
lowed to go up to London, in order to meet her 
accusers face to face. Mary's commissioners 
were coldly received ; and the opposite party 
were not only encouraged, hut excited by Eliza- 
beth and Cecil to nrgs publicly their ch&rgi 
At the end of November, Moray, therefore, de- 
clared that Mary bad been "persuader and co 
mander'of the murder of ber husband: and b( 

he ought to have stopped; but be went on to add 
the incredible charge (which caat a doubt on all 
the Teat), that she had also intended to canse the 
death of tbe innocent prince, ber own son, " and 

transfer the crown from the right line to a 
bloody murderer and godless tyrant." Maiy'a 
steadfast friends, the Bishop of Rosa and Lord 
Herries, then demanded of Elizabeth, that, as 
she bad admitted Moray And hia associates into 
her presence to accuse their queen, she would 
also be pleased to admit into the same presence 
Mary herself to prove her own innocence; and 
they represented, at tbe same time, that the jun 
of their sovereign ought to be detained in 
the country. Elizabeth replied that this was a 
difficult subject, which required long delibeni- 

and she would never give any other answer 
to their requests. Mary's commissioners then 
did what they ought to bave done long before — 
'ith the advice of the French and Spanish am- 
bassadors, they declared the conference to be at 
an end.' But Cecil would not acc^ their pro- 
test and declaration, and tbe mock conference 


(be pTtiJaDlad in&h^, | 

* Pmceedingi In tht oouncil ■( Himplon Conrt, W ' " " 

At last came the decisive n: 
14th of December the Bari of Moray produced a. 
silver box or casket full of the origiwd love- 
letters, sonnets, &c.; and he contended that these 
uuproved and unsifted documents, together with 

previous decree of the Scottish parliament, 
were quite sufficient to establii^ the queen's 
guilt. Elizabeth had had copies of these docu- 
ments long before, but she waa deairona that there 
should be an open and unreserved production of 
the originals. The papers were laid before the 
privy couucil, including Norfolk, Northumber- 
land, Westmoreland, Leicester, and all the great 
earls, and letters written by Mary to Elizabeth 
nere laid beside them, that the band-writings 
might be compared. But, instead of asking the 
councO to pronounce on the authenticity of the 
documents, Elizabelii merely told them that 
Mat; had demanded to be allowed to answer to 
the charges in the royal presence, and that she 
now thought it inconsistent with her modesty 
and reputation as a virgin queen to admit her. 
And on the following day she sent for the Bishop 
of Boss and Loi-d Herries, and told them that 
she never could receive their mistress into her 
company, and that Mar; ought to answer the 
charges in some way, or submit to eternal infam;. 
If we are to believe the Spanish ambassador, 
Elizabeth and her minister had been thwarted 
In council by the great earls, some of whom had 
shown a little spirit, and checked a little tbe 
terrible fury with which Secri-tary Cecil sought 
to destroy Mary: but we can scarcely believe that, 
nnder any circumstances, either Elizabeth or 


Cecil wish«d at present to do more than cover 
the «pUv« queen with iliagnce, aud to oppress 
her with imputationa of eDormous guilt, which 
might rend«r her odious and harmleas. Mary, 
though labouring under every difficultj, would 
not ait down in silence like a convicted criminal, 
and she rejected, with scorn, a proposal made to 
her hy Knollys, at Elizabeth's orders, that she 
should ratify her reflignatiou of the crown, and 
m save her honour — her enemies upon that oon- 
dition agreeing not to publish tlieir proofs against 
her,' She immediately wrote to her commis- 
lOooera, bidding them declare to Klizabeth aud 
hrr council, that, "where Moray and hia accom- 
plicea had aaid that she knew, counselled, devised, 
persuaded, or commanded the murder of her hus- 
band, they had falsely, traitorously, and wickedly 
lied, impatisg unto her the crime whereof they 
(hemaelves were authors, inventors, doera, and 
some of them the proper executioners." She 
mIemnJy denied that she had stopped inquiry and 
dua puniahnient. "And," she continued, "they 
cbai^ UB with unnatural kindness towards our 
dear aon, alleging we intended to ha^e caused 
him follow bis father hastily: howbeit the natural 
love a mother beareth to her only child is suffi- 
cient to confound them, and merits no other an- 
■wei : yet, considering their pioceedings by-past, 
who did him wrong in our womb, inteading to 
have slain him and us both, there is none of good 
judgment hut they may easily pereeive their 
hypocrisies, with how they would fortify them- 
selves in oar son's name til) their tyranny be 
bett«r established." She then revoked her order 
for breaking np the conference, saying, "And, 
to the effect our good sister may understand we 
are not nilling to let their false invented allega- 
tions pass over in silence (adhering to onr former 
protestations), we shall desire the inspection and 
doubles of all they have produced against us; and | 
that we may me the alleged principal writings, if 
they have any, produced. And with God's grace 
Ke shall first make such answer thereto, that our 
innocence shall be known to our good sister, and 
all other princes, so that we but liavs our good 
sister's preseuce, as our adversary has had, and 
reasonable space and time to get such verification 
as pertains thereto." Elizabeth took no notice 
of Uiis remonstrance, and Moray's silver box was 
never submitted to examination. The Bishop of 
Ross put into Elizabeth's own hands a plain and 
striking defence to the charges which had been 
produced, affirming — 1. That nothing was alleged 
hut presumptions. 2. That it could not be proved 
that the letters in Moray's box had been written 
with her own band ; " and she was of too much 
honour to commit snch a fact, and of too much 
wit to have conceived such matter in writing." 

' AnyWiy auU Pa/nni AwloH. • HiiTtliUt Statt Prptn. 

BETH. 133 

3. That neither her hand, nor seal, nor date was 
to the lettara, nor any direction to any. 4. That 
her hand might easily be counterfeited: "whereof 
some assistant to the adversary, as well of other 
nations, as of Scots, can do it;" and that, "by 
comparison of writings, no truth can be had.' 
G. That, for the marriage with Bothwell, the no- 
bility solicited and advised it, and subscribed 
thereto, especially some of the adversaries, as by 
a writing under their hands would be testified.* 
At the same time, Mary reminded Elizabeth that 
she had promised her that she "would have her 
queen still'— that she would uever permit her 
own (the Scottish) aubjecta to sit in judgment 
upon their queen, and that she would bide all ex- 
tremities rather than look back from the hope 
that was given her. "And,' writes Knollys pri- 
vately to Elizabeth, " unless your majesty will 
proceed against her, and forcibly maintain my 
Lord of Moray's govsntment, you shall never 
bring her to a yielding; for she hath courage 
enough to hold out aa long as any foot of hope 
may be left unto her.' 

During the Christmas holidaja the commission 
reposed from ita labours; but three or four sep- 
arate parties prosecuted a variety of intrigues. 
After the holidays the Bishop of Boss, who bad 
received fresh instructions from his mistress, 
wuted npon Elizabeth, to demand copies of the 
documents, that Mary might answer them, and 
prove her accusers to be liars as wall as traitors. 
Elizabeth coolly replied, that she must take time 
to deliberate on such demand; but she now gave 
as her own opinion, what she had before ordered 
Knollys to suggest to Mary as his own friendly 
fldvice^that it would be best for her to resign 
her crown, and lead a peaceful life in England. 
The bishop assured her that his mistress bad 
authorized him to declare that she was resolved 
rather to die than do any such thing— that her 
last wonl in this life should be that of a Queen of 
Scotland.* The bidhop was brought up before 
the full council ; but he gave the same bold an- 
swer; and ontbe 11th of January, 1669, Elizabeth 
put a strange end to the conference, which of late 
had been carried on at Hampton Court. She 
told the Regent Moray, before her court and 
ministers — in private tier conversation was dif- 
ferent— that nothing bad been proved agunst 
the honour and loyalty of him and his adherents, 
but that they, on the other hand, had shown no 
sufficient cause why she should conceive any evil 
opinion against the queen her good sister. This 
was admitting Mary's innocence of the crimes for 
which alone it had been pretended she was de- 
tained a prisoner; but, as we have said before, 
the question of Mary's guilt or innocence had 
little to do with any of these measures. Eliza- 


134 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. [CmL a»d Miutast. 

beth, who had trieil to get possesBionof tlie Scot- i joumejfroin Loodon^ — EUkabeth sent doim strict 
tish queen by vuioua means, was fully resolved ordera to her uuhappj Tice-chomberlaio Knallje, 
to keep her now that efae had got her. She and to Lord Scrope, to move the Queeo of Scobi 
turned to Moray, and assured him that he might | with all haate to Tutbury, as a ylace farther in 
safely go back to Scotland, and rely apon her the realm and more secure. Mary liad protested 
good-will. The Bishop of Robs then told her j that she \rould not move farther from the BoT' 
der except by force : and many unuecesaar; pains 
were taken to make it be believed that bo forcr 

On the Seth of January, in inclement weather, 
without money, or the proper means of transport, 
the Queen of Scots and her att«ndant3, male and 
female, were obliged to mount some sorry atcedii. 
which hod been lentto Knollys by the Btsbopof 
Durham. Mary's friend. Lady Livingsloa, m 
taken ill on the road, and left behind at Hother- 

thnt if his mistrew's accusers were permitted 
return to Scotlaod, it would be most unfair to 
detain her a prisoner in England; aud he and his 
colleagues solemuly protested, in Mary's name, 
against any act which should be performed whilst 
she remained in captivity. The regent locked up 
the originals, and took tbem with him ; Elizabeth 
kept copies of the love-letters and sonnets. Nor 
was this alt : Moray wauted money, and she 
gave him i,'5000 ; he wanted a proclamation 

satisfy certain national jealousies in Scotland, ham. At Chesterfield the queeu herself o 
and he got it; he wauted an unusual pass for the j plained of the violent pain of Ler aide to which 
lords wardens of the Euglish marches, and let- ithe bad been subject ever aince the Biizio mar- 
ters of favour to the English nobility near tlie der, and also of headache, so that the cavalcade 
Borders, and he got tbem also. was obliged to remain at a gentleman's houae 

If we are to believe some extraordinary state- near Chest«rfield, where tbey had good accom- 
ineuts which were afterwards made upon the modations, which seem to have been wanting ia 
Duke of Norfolk's trial, Moray did not depend all other parts of the journey. It was not until 
wholly upon the assistance of Elizabeth,' but pro- theSdof Febru.i>; that the captive queen reachol 
cured from his sister Mary 
letters to her friends in the 

north, both English and - "" \. ■ 

Scotch, to give up their ■.-..-'- ^ ,-. "^^ .••./"--. ^, ...^i .l;_^^, 

design of setting upon him, 
and to permit his peaceful 
return to Edinbui-gh; Mo- 
ray having, according to this 
showing, entered fully into 
the Duke of Norfolk's pro- 
ject for marrying Mary. 
But we think one part of 
the story disproved by an 
intercepted letter written 
by the captive queen to Iter 
subjects in Scotland, and 
calling upon them to as- 
semble and resist the regent 
to the best of their might, 
and to do all the evil they 
could to the said rebels, 

and to stop their returning Tnwtav Cistti.— h«io»d«i>ingby Biwk, in iih Briudi NnMnm. 

home if it were possible.* 

Escorted by an English guard, the earl reached ; Tutbury Castle, a strong place upon the river 
the city of Edinburgh on the 2d of February, j Dove, in Staffordshire, the property of the Earl 
1569, after an absence of nearly five months. I of Shrewsbury, under whose charge she was now 
But before he got there— before he began his | placed; but the poor vice-chamberlain Knollys, 
■n»«»mi_otH»»7..^„ptp«>fl««lu>tb.Bord«.. aV, -"hose wife had died at court without hU being 
ilita "Bij Doment Ixptd Uniudon. "bo ir» u Berwiok, wroM ! allowed to make a journey to see her, was "M ^ 
toC««r.i™.gr«tnirimJil«rUotSoMUi«i-th.t, Uevod from his cliargp, being joined in conuni'- 
ui. .».. ■>t HuuUj bud pithenKl "'"' unaer tne earl. , . . ■ 
tiu7, uid iDBuii to imii 1 iHn pur- Elizabeth was soon made to feel that, ii 

It Iha Bui of HuulJ; buit gutheniil . 

solving to keep Mary in captivity in the heart of 
En^anJ, she liad done that which ca«t a Ihresl- 

,v Google 

AD l564-lS7i,l ELIZ^ 

«iiing cloud orer her own liberty and greatueeD, 
Hud deprived her of her peace of mind: in fact, 
fur many jeua slie waB incesaatitly haunted with 
the fears of plots, escapes, and bloody retaliation ; 
uo castle seemed strong enongb, no keepers sure 
enough, for her hated rival, who, in many re- 
spects, had bemme more dangerous to her than 
evN. From time to time these jealousies and 
apprehensions were stirred np by zeatoua Protes- 
tauts and the friendn of Cecil. Ueanwhile some 
of Elizabeth's noblest subjects were secretly de- 
vising how they might liberate the prisoner — 
ptrkap* how they might revolutionize the whole 
ooonUj, and place Mary upon the throne of 
England 1 and foreign princes were openly com- 
plaining of the English queen's cruel and un- 

BETH. 185 

seemly treatment of a crowned head —of one who 
wag as much an independent-princess as heroelf. 
But no foreign power was at the time either in n 
condition or in a disposition to hazard a war with 
the powerful Queen of England for the weak 
and ruined queen of a weak, poor, and anarchic 
country. To their remonstrances Elizabeth re- 
plied, that they were all labouriug under a great 
mistake — that she was the dear siater of Mary, 
the best friend she ever had — that she had given 
her an asylum, when her subjects drove her from 
her kiugdom and Bought her life — that she had 
been delicately watchful of her reputation, and 
had suppressed, and wus still suppressing, docu- 
ments which would render her infamous to her 
contemporaries and to all future a^pea, 



Affain of tha Hngnenoti in Fnnca— DapmnoD t>{ the NgtlierUndt under tb« Spauiali rule— Philip II. eatabluliM 
th* laquiBtion— Kevolt in tbe Nstherloudi-^Tlie Dake of Alva KDt to inppreu it— Hii ungninai? proueed- 
iogt— Akrm of tbe Hu^Booti ot Fnnee— The; nrolt agaiiut thsir Uag— ConSicU of Alva iritli tbi Pro- 
testant troops in ths NBtherlandii—Hatriuionial negotiatioD of Qnwn Blintbetb with tb* Arohduk* Charlea— 
Duke of Norfolk Heka the Qnetu of Scota in marriage— Condition! propoaw] for thii nnion—Eliiabetb wamii 
him againit it — One of the mnrdersi* of Daniley apprahendsd and exeonted in Sootland — Hit alleged con- 
fsMion*— Tha Dnka of Norfolk lent to tbe Toner- Eliabath wnda aid to tha H ngnanoti— SnmaMM and 
dafeati of the Hoguanota — PriTataeriug war of the Eagliih against tbe Bpaniarda — Miiundentandinga with 
Franca — Elizabeth ooTertl; anitta tha Hngnenota— Francs and Spain retaliate by itirring np Iha English 
Papiata— A reballion of tfaa Papilla on tha Borden— Tba; attempt to liberate Queen Uar;— Tbaj are defsat«j 
—Tbe Earl of Northnmberlaad, their leader, impriioned in ScoUsnd— Lord Uacn rebela, and ii defaated— 
AMannation of the Eari of Moray— Civil war in Scotland —DeatniotiTe Eugliah invaaioD (* Seotlaud— 
Eaaontjoiu of Papati tn London— fitatntea enaotad agsiuat tbam- Tha Puritans of England— EUnbath'a 
aatipathf to tbam— Tbrit racoanful rariitanoa to her deapotio flDoroacbmanta — Embasij to France— Negotia- 
tioDi for the mattiage of Blinbath to a FVench priuo*— Endeavoura of tbe ambaiaj to prqjndim Ihe canaa of 
Quean Hary— Freab plot) of tha Papieta for her liberation— They ara del«ctBd—Ths pablismiud kept iDalami 
-Trial of tha Duke of Norfolk— Ha i> eondemned and eiecnted- Tha Earl of Northumbatland ddivared to 
EUtabath— He ia •leeoted — Continnanoe of (lie civil wan in Scotland. 

■REAVING Mary in her prison at 
Tutbury Castle, we must now take 
np several important events which 
occurred previous to her commit- 
tal there. The burning heat of the 
Huguenots and Catholics, added 
to the heat of ambition (for the princes and great 
met! on both sides were, for the most part, indif- 
ferent to the question of religion) kept France in 
a blaze. In 1564 Elizabeth's friend, the Prince 
of Cond6, was disgusted by being refused the 
poBt of lieutenant-general of the realm, left va- 
cant by the death of the King of Navarre; and 
as the Protestants saw th&t the treaty of peace 
made in the preceding year in order to expel the 
Euglisb from Havre was not kept, and that the 

court was revoking the liberty of conscience, it 
was easy for the prince to assemble once more a 
formidable army. Bnt for some time-the Hugue- 
nots were kept in awe in the north of fVance by 
a large force, which the court had collected to 
guard the frontier from any violation that might 
arise out of the disturbed state of the Nether- 
lands, whose discontent, which became in the end 
another war of religion, was at first common to 
both Protestants and Catholics. The industrious 
and commercial citizens, who had grown enor- 
mously wealthy under the rule of the Dukes of 
Burgundy, saw their prosperity dwindle and 
waste away as Boon as the government of their 
country was transferred by marriage to the mon- 
archic and despotic Spaniards. Charles V , a 





. A>D MlLlTAHl 

native of the country, had some Bympathy with 
the people, and was too wise to force them at all 
poiiitBi but wheu hia dominioii fell to hia bigoted 
gon Philip II., no moderation wm preserved. 
The nobility were iusulted, the merthaats were 
robbed by illegal imposts, the privileges of the 
free dtiea were violated, and every coDstitutional 
right was declared to be of no weight agiuDst 
the will of the monarch — the anointed of the 
Lord, the chosen of Heaven, And while few or 
no Dutchmen and Belgians could find proviuon 
or promotion in Spain, Spaniards were thmst 
into almost every office in the Netherlands. The 
rich abbeys, which had hitherto been pogsesaed 
by natives, were dissolved to found bishoprics, 
and these new sees were all given to foreigners. 
Under these circumstances it is not strange that 
even the Catholic clei^ of the Nether] anUa 
should become disaflectetl; but, to their honour 
be it said, this portion of the Roman church, or- 
thodox as it was, abhorred the Inquisition, which 
Philip very soon resolved to establish in the 
country as a completion of his benefits to it; and 
some of them who regretted the spread of Pro- 
testantism, asked whether it were not better to 
employ milder remedies than lire and sword. But 
Philip had no taste foi mild remedies, and he 
told one of his ministers who had ventured to 
reason with him, that he would rather lose all 
his kingdoms than possess them with heresy.' 
A detestable tribunal, after the model of that of 
Spain, was therefore established. The power- 
ful Prince of Orange and the Counts of Egmont 
and Horn placed themselves at the head of their 
countrymen, and a confederacy, in which the 
Catholic* acted with the Proleatanta, was formed 
in the spring of 1S66, with the avowed object of 
putting down this institution, and with the more 
secret design of recovering the eonstitntional 
rights of the country. The Duchess of Parma, 
who governed the provinces in the name of 
Philip, yielded to the storm, and declared that 
the Inquisition should be abolished. At this 
point the Catholics and Protestants separated: 
the latter required not only an exemption from 
the secret tribunal, but libeily to profess and 
t«ach their own doctrines: the Catholics wei-e 
qnit«aati8fied with what had been done, and were 
not at all disposed to do more for the rights of 
conscience, nor indeed to tolerate any o|>en pro- 
fession of the Reformed faith. The Protestants 
therefore met in their places of worship with 
arms in their bands. The preacher preached 
with his sword naked before biin, the congrega- 
tion, men, women, and children, carrieil arms or 
bludgeons. In Antwerp and other great trading 
cities, which were crowded with English and 
Oermao Protestants, Uie people set the regent at 

defiance. At the same time the country people 
who were out of the reach of the Spanish garri- 
sons, not only gave an asylum to the persecuted 
preachers, but began to declare that it was time 
to root Papistry out of the land: and they soon 
proceeded to knock down the churches, to break 
the images, to destroy the pictures, and to do all 
that had been done in other reforming conn- 
tried. Presently Antwerp became in Catholic eyes 
a horrible scene of impiety and sacrilege. Only 
the Walloon provinces refused the signal and re- 
mained devout and tranquil.* For a short time 
the Reformers bad the field to themselves, but 
then the Duchess of Parma fell upon tbem with 
a mixed host of Spaniards, French, and Wal- 
loons. A battle was fought near Antwerp; but 
the burghers and peasants were as yet unequal to 
a contest with regular troops : some were homed 
alive in a house to which they bad fled for refuge, 
some cut to pieces, and some drowned in the 
Scheldt as they were fleeing from their pursuers. 
Then, partly by force and partly by stratagem, 
the regent introduced a strong garrison into 
Antwerp. Her severity, it is said, was tempered 
by clemency, but her master Philip had detei'- 
mined that no clemency should be shown to men 
who were doubly damned ax heretics and rebels. 
He recalled the Duchess of Parma, and des- 
patched the famous Duke of Alva, who was as 
admirable as a military commander as he was de- 
testable as a bigot, of as a passive instrument to 
despotism, with an army still more formidable 
from its discipline than from its numbers, to re- 
store obedience and a uniformity of belief in the 
Low Countries. At the approach of Alva, the 
Prince of Orange retreated to his principality of 
Nassau; Egmont and Horn, who stayed in the 
hope of justifying their conduct, were cast into 
prison; the rest of the leaders fled to England and 
France, The success of Alva alarmed the Pro- 
testants everywhere; in England and in Scot- 
land it cast a cloud, which was never to be re- 
moved, over the fortunes of Mary, but it was in 
France that it excited the wildest panic. The 
Huguenots, who were lUways a minority, «iw 
that they must be crushed, and maintatined that 
Alva was specially appointed to carry into eBtct 
the secret ti-eaty of Buyonne, for the forcible res- 
toring of all Protestants to the obedience of the 
chnrch. With this conviction the Huguenots re- 
solved to anticipate their enemies. The Prince 
of Cond6 renewed an old correspondence with 
the Prince of Orange, with the English court, and 
with others interested in opposing the Bayonne 
treaty; and he, with Colligny and other chiefs 
of the party, laid a plot for sur)>risiug the king 
— the contemptible and wretched Charles IX.— 
and all his court at Mnnceaux. 


,v Google 

4.D, law- 1672.] ELIZ/ 

King Cb«rlea wu nved from the hands of 
bU Protestant snbjectB by the fidelity and bra- 
Tery of his Swiss mercenaries. Elizabeth had 
sent Coad6 money and advioe; and il has been 
Mserted that she vaa privy to thin plot, and that 
her ambnssador, Sir Henry NurHs, wai deeply 
implicated in its amngemetit What is more 
certain is, that when the conspiracy failed and 
the Huguenots were driven into an open and 
despenit« war, Cecil instnieted Korris to comfort 
tbem, and exhort them to persevere. Charles 
soon found himself shut up in his capital; but he 
was liberated, or freed from a siege, by the battle 
of St Denis, in which the Hiignenots were de- 
feated. The Constable Montmorency, however, 
was slain, and the king found himself obliged to 
conclude another hollow pacification. In the fol- 
lowing spring (1C68), 3000 French Protestants 
CKMsed the northern frontier, to join the Prince 
of Orange, who had taken the field against the 
Spaniards. In the month of June the Prince of 
Orang« waa obliged to relj-eat before the Dulceof 
Alva ; bat in Angnst he re-appeared witL 20,000 
men. Alva skilfully avoided a battle with tbU 
Boperiar force, and manoeuvred in such a man- 
ner as to exhaust the strength, spirits, and re- 
sonroes of the Protestants. At the end of the 
campaign, the Prince of Orange was obliged to 
reerosa the Bhine, and disband what remained of 
hi* anaj. Theae Proteatatt troops had been in 
a good measure raised by English money, secretly 
nipplled by Elizabeth, who at the same time waa 
at peace with Philip, and in public took care to 
proclaim her respect for the Spanish monarch, 
and her dislike of all rebellions; nor did she relax 
her efforts, or despair of success to the insurgents, 
either in the Netherlands or in France. The 
goremment of the latter country had given, in 
the preceding year, what might have been con- 
sidered a provocation to war, but she and Cecil 
were det«nuined to have no open war. When, 
at the expiration of the tenn fixed by the treaty 
of Cat^aD-Cambreais, Sir Henry Norris deman- 
ded the restitution of Calais, the French chan- 
cellor quoted an article of the treaty, by which 
EHizabeth was to forfeit all claim to that town I 
if she committed hostilitiea upon France; and 
further told Norris that, as she had taken pos- 
■eeeton of Havre, she had brought herself within 
the scope of that claose. 

In 1667 Elizabeth had entered anew into ma- 
trimonial n^otiationa. Her old suitor, the Arch- 
duke Charles, wrote her a. very flattering letter, 
■nd Uiongh she had not the most distant inten- 
tion of marrying him, she despatched the Earl of 
Sussex on a solemn embassy to Vienna. There 
were two particular obstacles to be overcome: — 
tbe queen would niarry none without sight of his 
person beforehand, and without his agreeing to 
Vol. II. 

BETH. 137. 

adopt her own religion.' Sussex, who was anxious 
for the match, attempted tu obviate both these 
difficulties,' This matrimoniBl negotiator, nrlio 
had been deceived by his mistre&a and by his own 
eagerness for the marriage, assured the archduke 
that Elizabeth did not now mean a lingering en- 
tertaining of the matter, but a direct proceeding 
to bring it to a good end, with a determination 
to eonaummate the marriage if conveniently 
she might. The archduke anid, that he had 
heard so much of Elizabeth's not meaning to 
marry as might give him cause to suspect the 
worst; but he was, or pretended to be, satisfied 
with Sussex's assurance, and, putting off his cap, 
he said he would honour, love, and serve her 
majesty all the days of his life, provided only she 
would bear with him for bis conscience; but 
wheu Sussex hinted tliat he (the archduke) was 
only temporizing ia matters of religion, and 
might be expected to change his faith, " in order 
to settle in this marriage," tlie Austrian prince 
honourabljand frankly informed him that he was 
mistaken^that his ancestors had always held the 
religion which he held — ^that he knew nothing 
of any other religion, and therefore could have 
no mind to change. And then he asked, how 
the queen could like him in any other thing, if he 
should be so light in changing of his conscience.* 
The archdulce afterwards wrote letters to Eliza- 
beth herself, to stipulate for the liberty of hear- 
ing mass in England, in a private room uf the 
palace, at which none but himself and his ser- 
vants should attend — consenting to accompany 
the queen to the Protestant church regularly, 
and even to intermit for a time the exercise of 
his own religion, if any serione disputes should 
arise thereupon. But Elizabeth now fell back 
upon the fears and the strong religious feelings 
of her Protestant subjects, prot«stiug to the Aus- 
trian that they would never tolerate a Catholic 
prince, and pointing out to them how difficult it 
was for her to find a suitable husband; and there 
is little doubt that the majority of the people 
were more content to see her remain single than 
to see her marry a Catliolic. The treaty was 
carried on for years; but in the end the archduke 
found a lesi difficult bride in the daughter of 
Albert, Duke of Bavaria. The queen ought cer- 
tainly to have kept a matrimonial secretary, for 
alt these interminable negotiations, added to the 
weight of his other business, nearly proved too 
much for Secretary Cecil, who was constantly 
praying to the Lord to deliver him from them. 

1 HanlaictrviiSi'^ey Paptn: EllW CaVralan, 6b. 

t Hon thui ■ yc»r botore ObtU tnfnnDB.! bii friend Sir ThoBa 
Smith, Uut " ths wholB liability of Englud fknmnd thli mstd 
vtrymooh;" adi| thjtt "my Lord at Ldloeiftflr halh bflhj«v«< 
hiniHlf 'nj- witelT to sllow of it."— Suit. 

' Iorf(ie. AU tlita mitUr, with mm laHicnlii™, i< rontninB 
In Mini ntCten bf tlu> uiDiHuilar Siwai lo Etl»I»tb Iwnllf. 


,v Google 



[Civil and Hiutart, 

But iutrigiie* for an obnoxious nurrUge — th&t 
of the Duke of Norfolk with the Queen of ScoU 
— were now iu full activity. In that dishonour- 
able age it wna a common practice (as it has been 
in some ltil«r timefi), for people to enter into 
plots for the sole pui-pose of betraying them to 
the govemmeut, and reaping a, snitable reward. 
There were too many engaged in the present 
sdieme to nllow of any hope of secrecy. Even 
before Moray had returned to Scotland, or Queen 
Mary had been removed to Tutbury Castle, Eli- 
zabeth had alternately repi-oached and tempted 
the Duke of Norfolk, who assured Ler that if 
there had been a talk of his marrying the Scottish 
<]ueen, the project had not originatwi with hira, 
and had never met his wishes — ^'and if her ma- 
jesty would move him thereto, he would rather 
bo committed to the Tower, for he meant never 
to marry with such a person where he could not 
be sure of bis pillow." ' The allusion to the fate 
of Damley gratified the queen, and she accepted 
Norfolk's excuses. But it is said that only a day 
or two after his making this protestation, the 
duke conferred in secret, in the park at Hampton 
Court, with the Ear! of Moray, and then with 
the Bishop of Roas, anil Maithuid of Lethington, 
when he agreed that if Mary could be restored 
to her liberty and her throne he would tnarry 
her; they, on the other hand, assuring him, that 
snch a nobleman as himself, courteous, wealthy, 
and a Proteatant, could not fail of restoring tran- 
quillity to Scotland, and maintaining peace and a 
perfect understanding between the two countries. 
It should appear, however, that Norfolk did not 
commit himself very seriously until he was pro- 
pelled by the insidious favourite Iieicester, by the 
EstIb of Arundel aud Pembroke, and by Sir 
Nicholas Throgmorton, the experienced diploma- 
tist and plotter, who had suddenly coaJesced with 
Leicester, in the hope of throwing Cecil into the 
Tower, and changing that minister'a system for 
one that would more promote his own interesta. 
Throgmorton and Leicester were, in effect, the 
most active in pressing the match : but Norfolk 
turned round auddenlr, being probably startled 
at the danger, and recommended Leicester him- 
self, who had formerly been proposed to Mary 
by Elizabeth, to many the captive queen. Lei- 
cester adroitly declined the honour. Norfolk 
then put forward his own brother, the Lord 
Henry Howard, but be also whs afraid. 

At last the duke agreed to be the husband, 
and then a letter, subscribed by the Earls of 
Leicester, Arundel, and Pembroke, and the Lord 
Lumley, waa privately mldreesed to Mary in her 
prisou, urging her to consent to the mniriage, 
but requiring her at the same time "to relinquish 
all Buch claims as had been made by her to the 
■ Irtrtliut faptn. 

prejudice of the queen's rsajesty; and that reli- 
gion might be stablished both in Scotland and 
England ; and that the league of France might 
be dissolved, and a league made betwixt England 
and Scotland; and that tbe government of ScoU 
land might be to the contentstion of the Queen 
of England."* And the Duke of Norfolk is said 
to have assured as well the Scottish qneen as the 
lords who sobscribed this letter, that unless these 
articles were agreed to, he would have nothing 
to do with the matter. Leicester aud the others 
assured him that if Mary would agree to the 
articles, then riey would "be means to the queen's 
majesty to like of the marriage."' Norfolk and 
his friends stud afterwards, that they had as- 
sured themselves, from the letter being vriilen 
bj/ the Eati of Leicetttr, there would be nothing 
in it "but for the queen's majesty's security."' 

Mnry was ready to do a great deal in order to 
open her prison gates, but she demurred at this 
propiosal, stating that the previous consent of 
Elizabeth was neceesary, and that aU her aula' 
mitieM had, in eg'eet, arum out of her titter'* wrath 
at her marrioffe wUK Dctndey. The lords, how- 
ever, naturally thought that it would not be dif- 
ficult to overcome her objections; and Norfolk, 
in bis own name, wrote letters to the fair captive 
as H lover and liberator. These letters wereeou- 
veyed to the queen bv the Bishop (tf Boss. He 
was true to his trust, but Norfolk had admitted 
into the secret Wood, the agent of the Regent 
Moray, and this Wood soon put himself in direct 
communication either with Elizabeth or Cecil, or 
probably with both. The consent of the French 
and Spanish courts to the match wa* asked 
through their ambassadors: everything seemed 
to favour the project and flatter the ambition of 
Norfolk. Many of the principal nobility of Eng- 
land encouraged him, aud none remonstrated, save 
the Earl of Sussex, who saw clearly the real nature 
of the plot, and the ruin it would bring upon his 
friend the duke. Sussex wrote to Cecil, regret- 
tiug the great coldness vhich he had observed 
between him and the Duke of Norfolk; a feeling 
which, he says, must have had its origiu in mis- 
representations and the ill offices of their ene- 
mies — of men who were eager to profit by their 
dissensions and miu them both.* Norfolk, ou 
the faith uf promises pledged, was fool enough 
to expect that the Ear] of Moray would now ap- 
prove the articles of marriage, and charged Mait- 
lond to open the subject to her majesty of Eng- 

The regent pretended to recommend his sister's 
liberation to a Scottish parliament which he hnd 
assembled; but, at the same time, he was taking 
all the menaui'es in his power to keep heraclo<vr 

■ BttrgWl raptri. ' Ibid. 

* Ibid. ' Lodta-. MwtnM^Kl. 

,v Google 

AD 1564—157?.] ELIZd 

priaoaer in EugUud thau ever, Here Maitlaad 
uid he quitrrelled ; for the utute Becretarj, dia- 
utiaded with Momj'a gOTemmeut, and full of 
Ilia grand state intrigue, which embraced England 
aa well as Scotlaitd, was now more anxious for 
the reetoratioii of Mary thaa be had been two 
Tears before for her deprivation. But Maitland, 
for the moment, was overmatched, and, fearing 
for hia life, and cursing what he called the double 
dealiiig and perfidj of Moraj, he fied from £din- 
buTftfa to seek an aayluiu in the mountains of the 
Lorth In the mouth of August, EUizabeth and 
her court being at Famham, and the Suke of 
Norfolk being in attendance on her, there sud- 
deulj amee a wbiiperiog among the ladies of the 
court, "who," as Camden saith, ''have much 
sagacity in smelling out amatory matters,' that 
the Queen of Scots and the dnke were privately 
eontrneted t« each other. Etizabeth took the 
imprudent Duke of Norfolk to dine with her: 
Ae was conrtfous as uoud ; but, when she rose 
from table — still, however, "without any show 
ef displeasure" — ehe bade him "be very careful 
en what pillow he reeted his head." The court 
then proceeded to Titchfield, where the Earl of 
If iceater found it convenient to fall very sick- 
sick, it was said, unto death ! Alarmed— and, 
ta id generally represented, still amorous- -Eliza- 
beth Ben tc the bedside of her unworthy favou- 
rite, who, with many sighs and tears, began to 
disdoae every particular of the plot into which 
he had inveigled Norfolk. Leicester received a 
fond pardon, Norfolk a severe reprimand. The 
duke protested that he had never meant ill to 
her majesty, and readily promised to let the pro- 
ject drop. But Elizabeth could not coucesl her 
anger against him, and Leicester, who was soon 
up and well, began to treat him rudely. The 
duke, upon this, left the queen, promising to re- 
turn withiu a week ; but, after paying a short 
visit tc London, he went into Norfolk, and fixed 
himself at hi^ great house of RenninghiiU. At 
the same time, the Earia of Arundel and Pem- 
broke, who had signed the letter which Leicester 
had writtm to Mary, withdrew from court. 
I7pnn tbia the queen became greatly alarmed. 
The Earl of Huntingdon and the Viscount Here- 
ford werv joined iii coromisuon with the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, "to prevent the departure and 
vscape out of the realm" of Queen Moiy, which, 
it was Bait], "could not be but both jteriloua and 
very dishonourable to us and our realm."* Ui^ 
;^nt requisitions were sent to Kenuiiighall for 
llie immediate appearance of the duke at court; 
snd it should appear that the government sus- 
pected that he was arming his friends and re- 

• Cbiidm.- Burgkley Fafrt ' ADgUfji }>apn. 

> Soifclk l<U CdcU, b; latUr. that ha wu 111 ol ft ttnt aad 

While the matrimonial intrigue had been in 
progress, one Paris, a Frenchman, commonly 
called French Paris, was apprehended in Scot- 
land on a charge of being actively concerned in 
the Damley murder. Here seemed to be an op- 
portunity of filing the guilt on Mary more di- 
rectly add convincingly thau the letters of the 
silver box had done; and Elizabeth sent down to 
Moray to request, or command, that the prisoner 
should be delivered up to her. But Moray re- 
plied that French Paris was already executed. 
This liorrid execution has been justly aasumed 
as a circumstance casting much doubt on the 
nature of the Frenchman's confessions. If Paris 
had been really diHposed to make such important 
revelations, hiit life ought to have been preserved, 
in order that he might deliver his evidence, if 
not before Queen Elizabeth, at least before a 
Scottish parliament or court of law; and Mary 
the accused, or her advocates, ought to have had 
the opportuuity of cross-examining the prisoner. 
There was no urgent motive of fear of a rescue, or 
of auy other kind to prevent his lying fora while 

prison, Paris was only a page or footman; he 

IS well ironed (he had been tormerUid before); 

d his life was at all times in their bauds, lu 
sliort, to use the words of a writer who was iu- 
atftutly struck with the parallel case furnished 
by Shakspeare, "Thefactof having put Paris in- 
stantly to death, with every other person con- 
nected with the murder, resembles the act of the 
usurper in the play, who stalw the wai-dera of 
Duncan, lest a public eiamiuatiou should pro- 
duce other sentiments in tiie minds of the judges 
than those whicli he who really committed the 
crime desired sliould be inferred."* Instead of 
French Paris, the regent sent the English queen 
two depositions which the prisoner vmt taid to 
have made before his trial. We need not stop 
to inquire whether they were made fmfore tor- 
ture. In those inyaironing and tormenting -vifre 
coupled together — that is, in all such caaia the 
prisoner was put to the rack as soon as he was 
caught. This practice was of itseif enough to 
cast a doubt on all confessions when they were 
unsupiiorted by other evidence. But tliese very 
depositions difiered. In the first, Midtland of 
Lethiiigton was charged as the original contrivei* 
of the plot for murdering Damley; the Earls of 
Argyle and Huutly, with Balfour, weresetdown 
as accomplices iu the murder; and the Earls of 
Morton, Ruthven, and Lindsay, as the abettors 
and supporters of Bothwell, Here there was no 
mention of the queen ; but in the second deposi- 
tion it was inserted that Mary had been privy 

• XnnrM'l' l^iJMrt. 

* Viilta Hwtt, H-*. »<*■ 




[Civil a. 

1 MlLtTABT. 

uid aaaeutiiig. Miiitlniid, it will be remembered, 
was at this moment a fugitive from the wrath of 
the regent, who had resolved to destroy him, 
well knowing that nothiug but death could pre- 
vent the Machiavelli of Scotland from intriguing 
and manauvring. The most cunniiig men have 
roomeutajy fita of credulity. Maitland was made 
to believe that the regent was deairoua of a re- 
conciliation with him; he went to Stirling, where 
Moray welcomed him by putting him uuder ar- 
rest, and naming a day for liia trial. Then, 
counting upon the priaouer'a fears, he urged him 
to become the open accuser of the Duke of Nor- 
folk, iuid of others, their common f rienda, in Eng- 
land. But thia, Maitland, who seems to have 
been in no fear at all, flatly refused ; and on the 
day apptointed for hia trial the Becretary's friends 
assembled in sach numbers that Moray was fain 
to put off the process for an indeterminate pe- 
riod.' But the work must be doue ; and now 
Moray himself undertook the odious office of in- 
former, and forwarded all the Duke of Norfolk's 
tetters to the Bnglinfa queen, humbly protesting 
that he had not devised the project, aud that he 
would never have given hia feigned assent to it 
had it not been fo preserve hia own life. When 
this evidence was in Elizabeth's hands, or when 
it was promised her, she again invited the Duke 
of Norfolk to court; and this nobleman, trusting 
that her anger had cooled, at last obeyed the 

anxious to le&m the art of war on tented fields- 
France, where they foaght along 
with Cond6 and Colligny, but of course not under 
English colours. Among these volunteers was a 
youth who afterwards rose to fame. " They wei-e 
all," says De Thou, "a gallant company, nobly 
mounted and accoutred ; but the moet noted of 
them all was Walter Baleioh." This gallant 
band, however, was far too weak to tarn the tide 

fortune. At the battle of Jamac the Hugue- 
nots were defeated, and their leader, the Prince 
of Condf, being t^en prisoner, was shot in coIJ 
after the battle by Montesquiou, captain 
of the guards to the king's brother, the Dake of 
of Elizabeth's suitoi-a. Being rein- 
forced by some Protestant troope from Germany, 
the Huguenots gained a victory at La Roclic! 
Abeille ; but, in the b^liming of October, a few 
days before Norfolk's committal to the Tower, 
they were again defeated, aud with tremeadous 
slaughter, at Moncontour. 

At the same time Elizabeth, by a measure of 
very questionable morality, had f^ven a deadly 
provocation to the powerful Philip. She had 
sent over money and men to the Prince of Orange, 
but, as this was done secretly, she could deny 
that it had been done by her authority. But in 
the course of the preceding autumn (1668) a 
Spanish squadron of five sail, carrying stores 

id money for the payment of Philip's army ii 

summons, and set out from Kenninghall. At ' the Low Countries, took refuge on the Ekiglish 

St. Alban's, on the 2d of October, he was met by 
Edwaixl Fitzgarrett, a gentleman of the court, 
who attached him, and conveyed him to the 
house of Mr. Wentworth, near Windsor.* On 
the 9th of October the duke was brought up to 
London and committed to the Tower. On the 
nth of the same month the Bishop of Rosa, who 
in vain pleaded hia privilege as the agent and 
ambassador of a crowned head — the helpless pri- 
soner Mary — was sharply examined at Windsor, 
and then committed to prison. At the same 
time the Lord Lumley and some others of less 
note were placed under arrest; "and the queen's 
majesty willed the Earl of Arundel and my Lord 
of Pembroke to keep their lodgings, for that they 
were privy of this marriage intended, aud did 
not reveal it to her majesty."' 

The alarm of the English Protestant court was 
the greater on account of the successes which 
had recently attended the Catholic arms on the 
Continent, notwithstanding the encouragement 
and asaiatAUce sent to the French Huguenots by 
Klizabeth, who, of late, had permitted many of 
her subjects— mm e zealous for religion, 

' IMta (Rim C«dl to ar Hmiy K> 
tbat he thlnka none ot Uwm lukJ anj 
oittMH Uiat aj Lord of PanbnlH mi 
(lie qUMa*! mi^|«itr, bit ha don iw( ni 

coast to escape a PrDt«stant fleet which had been 
fitted out by the Prince of CondS. For a while 
the queen hesitated: she wsa at peace with Spain 
— a Spanish ambassador was at her court, and 
her own ambaasador, Mr. Mann, was at Madrid: 
but the temptation was very strong — the money 
was destined for the support of those who were 
mercilessly bent on destroying a people who pro- 
fessed the same religion as her own subjects; 
and, besides, Elizabeth much wanted money, for 
she had spent, and was then spending, a great 
deal to support the Protestant reli^on abroad. 
In the end it was resolved to seize the specie, 
upon pretence that it, in truth, belonged not to 
the King of Spain, but to certain Italian bankers 
and money-lenders, who had exported it upon 
speculation. The Duke of Alva presently reta- 
liated by seizing the goods and imprisoning the 
persons of all the English merchants he could 
tind in Flanders. On the 6th of January Eliza- 
beth resolved in council that the Spanish amlias- 
sador should be admonished of the strange pro- 
ceedings of the Duke of Alva, and asked whether 
he took this act to be done by the King of Spain 
or not ; that he, the ambassador, should be let to 
understand that her majesty can do no other for 
her honour and for satisfaction of her subjects 
than arrest all the subjects of the king his 

,v Google 

A 0. 1561— 1572.) ELIZA 

miut«r, and likewise appoiiita womt gentleineti to 
keep guaitl orer him (the uabaMiador) in hia 
bouse, until she may hear what sbtkU become of 
her sabjecta; and that some Bhips should be aeat 
to the seas to atop all vessels paning for Spain 
or for the Low Countries.' But accordiug to 
La Motbe Fte£loD, the uarrow seas wei-e alreaily 
swarmiug with Englioh privateers — the (Veui-b- 
man calla them pirates— and with urmed vesseU 
mannetl by French and Flemish Protestants; and 
he mentions that Elizabeth had had a long con- 
venation with the priucipal commander of the 
•ea-rovevB. The Eoglish cruisers of course oSereil 
no Riolest&tion to the Prot«atant privateers of 
the Low Countries, but nssiiited them in landing 
troops on the French coast for the service of the 
Huguenots.' The French court and the court of 
Spain were almost equally incensed; but they 
had both so many troubles on their hands that 
they resolved |o avoid for the present a declara- 
tion of war. Privateering tlourished and trade 
decayed, but the English ships had not the whole 
harvest to themselves: coruairs under the Spanish 
flag, or under no flag at all, pillaged peaceful and 
bi>De«t merchantmen, and occasionally committed 
depredations on the English const. At the end 
of January, however, the French government, 
after remonstrating t^pinst the supplies sent in 
English ships to the Huguenots, seized all the 
EkiKlish merchandise in Rouen. There was a 
loud outcry in England at this seizure, and some 
of the lords «E the council advised an immediate 
declaration of war agaiust France. Elizabeth 
made great preparations as if for immediate hos- 
tilities, taking care that the foreign ambassadors 
should be made to see the formidable state of bar 
ai'senals and the warlike spirit of her subjects.' 
At the same moment plots against the French 
^vemment were discovered in Brittany, in Nor- 
mandy, and in the neighBburhood of Calais. It 
was suspected that the English court was no 
stnmger to these conspiracies, and lor many 
months great apprehensions were entertained 
lest the town of Calais should be put into the 
hands of Elizabeth as the price of greater services 
to the conspiratoi-s. Meanwhile the privateers 
were reinforced, and they now received permis- 
sion to take and plunder tlie ships of France as 
well as those of Sptun. At last, in the month of 
March, the French court demanded from Eliza- 
lieth u formal declaration as to whether she 
wished for peace or for war, and they only allowed 


her fifteen days to make up her mind. When 
Ia Mothtt F^eion delivered his message, Eliza- 
lieth again assured him that she was most de- 
sirous of maintaining p^ace — that if ths King of 
France would liberate the English property at 
Rouen she would deliver all the French property 
which had been taken by her privateers, a class 
of men whose exploits, she aaid, she had always 
much detested, having freqaently given orders 
to have them punished.' She denied that she 
had ever niaintuned any intelligence with French 
subjects; but, in the end, she told the ambassador 
that the afiair was of such weight she must refer 
it to her whole cooncil. Again the*more ardent 
of the Protestant lords would have recommended 
an open drawing of the sword ; but a double war 
with France and Spain was unpromising, and, 
at the end of seven days, the queen declared 
that it was her full intention to be at peace with 
France. This declaration was taken for what it 
waa worth; and while the French n^otiator 
echoed promises of good- will, he saw with delight 
that troubles were breaking out in Ireland, and 
dissensions in the Boyish cabinet connected with 
Leicester's project for overthrowing Cecil, and 
with Norfolk's scheme for marrying the Scottish 
queen,* In a very few days after Elizabeth's 
pacific dedaiHtlons, it waa found that her ambas- 
sador at Palis, Sir Henry Norris, was agtun in- 
triguing with the Huguenots and promising them 
assistance. Upon this the Oench government 
made a fresh seizure of English merchandise at 
Rouen, O^ais, and Dieppe. Elizabeth's priva- 
teers retaliated on the French coasts; but she 
again d^otiated, and promised to put an end to 
that kind <rf warfare npon condition that the 
French should i-ecal their commissions, for they 
also had begun to fit out swarms of privateers. 
But again, within a few weeks, Elizabeth gave 
audience to envoys from the Hugoenote and to 
envoys fi-om the Prince of Orange, and the other 
leaders of the Protestants in the Low Countries, 
who all wanted from her loans of money, arms, 
and gunpowder. She held a grand review of her 
troops, horse and foot; and, inSamed at this os- 
pect of war, many gentlemen bought themselves 
swords and pikes and went over to join the Hu- 
guenots, Elizabeth denied that this last was done 
by her permission, but presently a fleet of ships, 
armed for war, and escorted by the largest vessels 
in the queen's service, set sail for Rochelle, which 
was, and long continued to be, the principal port 

' AlTAvntoT«rtba8leuTd'AiKd«Tm«tatnAtftluiitlbaaiot]«)r. 

hhnlbfliv two d*7*T that hv might na and be&r^D ihat piiDcipaJ 
gnat •blpi of »■! U-Cdmijiemlaiut iN^onulifiie dt la KuUi 
Fni/lim. ThtaolddlpIniutirtm%htwtiUanipUiiartl»UtU« 




[Civil ahd Militart. 

aiid Rtronghold of tlie Freoch ProtesUiits. But 
this fleet was detaiued by contmy winds; the 
Huguenots were defeated in the interval, and 
then Elizabeth made Cresh proteatiitiotu, and 
igaaeA a proclamation against privateers aud all 
Buch BN made war witliout her license upou the 
French king. Her conduct had irritated the 
French court to the extreme, and as the power 
of the Protestants iu France seemed to Ik broken, 
it wBd resolved, by parties aa craftj aa herself, to 
give encouragement, if not more, to the Catholics 
in BngUnd, and to excite an interest iu all the 
Papisticalcountries of the Continent in fjivoiirof 
the captive Mar)-. The Duke of Alva entered 
into this scheme; a Floreutine, named Sudolfi, 
well acquainted with Engbtnd, acted aa agent for 
the pope ; and sanguiue hopea were entertained, 
if not of restoriug England h> the bosom of the 
rhurch, of distracting aud weakening her by in- 
terna] dissensions. 

The penal atatutea against the professor* of the 
old leli^on had gradually increased in severity, 
fiud aa the Catholica triumphed on tlie Coatiuent, 
their religion became more and more an object of 
suspiciou and of persecution in Eugkud. Eliza- 
beth cared little for the dogmas of either church. 
She was altogether free from intolerance as to 
speculative opiniona iu religion, unless they weut 
to weaken the royal prerogative. Her intoler- 
ance was all of a political kind, and she perse- 
cuted, not because men believed in the real pres- 
ence, but because she believed that no CaUioIic 
could possibly be a loyal subject.' In the month 
of October, immediately aftei the Duke of Nor- 
folk's arrest, the counties of York, Durham, and 
Northumberland betrayed symptoins of open in- 
surrection. Doctor Nicholas Morton came from 
Rome with the title of Apostolical Peniteutiary. 


a the n 

a of energy and ability, aud connected with 
some of the beet families in the north. At the 
same time Queeu Mary had found means to esta- 
blish a correspondence vith the Catholic Earl of 
Northumberland, with the Earl of Westmoreland, 
whose wife was the Duke of Norfolk's aiater, 
with Egremont Ratcliffe, brother of the Earl of 
Sussex, Leonard Dacre, the Tempests, the Nur- 
toua, and the Marquen6elds. Most of these no- 
blemen were excited by mimy motives, the chief 
of which was the restoration of the Catholic faith 
iu England. Their ostensible leadei' was the .Earl 
nf Northumberlaud,avi!ry niuuiticeut but a very 
weak lord. He talked inij<rudeut]y aud did no- 
thing; and when at last, in the middle of No- 
vember, he put himself iu niotiori, it van only 

because he was frightened out of bed at the dead 
of night in his house at Topcliffe in Yorkshire, 
by a panic-fear that a royal force was approach- 
ing to seize him. He then rode in haste to the 
castle of Branspeth, where he found Norfolk's 
brother-in-law, the Earl of Westmoreland, sur- 
rounded with friends and retainers, all ready to 
take arms for what they considered a holy cause. 
I On the morrow, the 16th of November, they 
openly raised their banner. If an ingeuioos stra- 
tagem had succeeded, that banner would hare 
floated over the liberated Mary. The Countes^t 
of Northumberland had endeavoured to get ac- 
ceM to the captive queen, iu the disguise uf a 
nurse, ID theiutention of exchanging clothes with 
her that she might eeo^. But as thu device 
had miscarried, the insurgents proposed march- 
ing to Tutbury Castle to liberate tlie queen by 
force of arms. They issued a proclamation cftll- 
ing upon all good Catholics to join them, and, 
marching to Durham, they burnt the Bible and the 
Book of Common Prayer, aud celebrated mass in 
the cathedral. From Durham they advanced to 
Clifford Moor, where they held a council of war, 
finding to their great discomfort that their forces 
did not increase — that the people south of them 
regarded their proceedings witli horror — and that 
even many Catholic gentlemen, instead of join- 
ing them, were repairing to the royal banner, 
which was moving northwards with the Earl of 
Sussex. They also learned that Sir Qeorge Bowes 
was assembling an army iu their rear. Under 
these circumstances an advance was deemed too 
desperate; aud, in fact, if they bad got to Tut- 
bury they would not have found what they 
sought, for tlie Queeu of Scots had been removed 
in great haate to Coventry.' With 7O0O men 
Northumberland and Westmoreland retreated to 
Raby Caatle. Their retrograde movement forced 
Sir George Bowes to throw himself aud his forces 
into Barnard Caatle. A part of the insurgent 
army laid siege to this fortress, -wliich aurren- 
Uered upon terma in a. few days, while the rest 
besieged and took the seugMirt town of Hartle- 
pool, where they eetabliahed theruselvea, in the 
confident hope uf receiving sucMur from the 
Spaniards in the Low Countries, aud, if they had 
uot before, tliey now certainly despatched agents 
to treat with Alva, the great champion of Catho- 
licisui. Meauwhile the royal army lay inactive 
at York, a circuniatAni'e which made Elizabeth 
suspect the loyalty of the Eiirl of Sussex, who had 
been iu former tiuea a close friend to the Duke 
of Norfolk, and whose own brother, Egremont 
Ratcliffe, was now out with the insurgents. Sir 
Ralph Sailler wan hurried down to York, to ex- 
ercise his sharp eye aud detect wliat were the 
I'eal feelings of Riiwiex. 


,v Google 

itt 1561—1572.1 



Wh«n Sussex hnd remained ne&r1r& moath at i fered to eichAoge Nurtbumherland for Muy.* 
Vork lie w&i jained by the lord-adniir«l uid the | Thus Northiimb«rUnd remained in captivity in 
Earl of Warwick with 13,000 men, nised in the I Lochleven. After » while the Earl and Cunnt- 
4uuth, and of indisputable ProteBtantiam and ' eas of Westmoreland, Egremont Batcliffe, and 

the other refugees, were 
conveyed to the Spanish 
Netherlanda, But the ven- 

. geauce of the law, unmiti- 

gated by any royal mercy, 

> fell upon the retaiuere and 

; friends of the fugitives. On 

the 4th and 5th of January 
threescore and six indiviil- 

., uala were executed in Dur- 

ham atone; and thence Sir 

'~ Oeorge Bowes, with hie exe- 

cutioner, traversed the whole 
country between Newcastle 

:; and Netherby, a district 

~ sixty miles in length and 

forty miles in breadth, "and 
finiling many to be fanton 
in the said rebellion, he did 
see tbem executed in every 
market-town and in every 
w«E»)*T€ ASD w*Lia or H*iirLEP«». viltagc, as be himself (says 

Dnan bf J. W. AnJiar, ftoin hia ikrtcb on tb* ipol. Ston) reported untO me.* 

All that country was dotted 
in every direction with gibbets, Elizabeth imi- 
tating pretty closely the conduct of ber sanguin- 
ary father on the suppression of the Pilgrimage 

Among the Catholic gentlemen whose loyalty 
bad been suspected by Sadler, was Leonard Dacre, 
the representative of the ancient family of the 
Dacrea of Giilsland. This bold man had resolved 
to risk his life and fortunes in the cause of the 
captive queen, whom he regarded with a roman- 
tic devotion: be raised a gallant troop to join 
Northumberland and Westmoreland; but when 
thorn two weak earls fled so hastily, he enden- 

loyalty. He then marched northward. The 
J>iike of Alva bad ventured nothing for the in- 
rargenta; they were ill supplied with money and 
provisions, and they retreated towards the Scot- 
tish borders. Their iofantrypresently disbanded 
and fled in all directions, but a body of about 600 
horee dashed into Liddesdale, being escorted by 
3II0 Scottish horse, the partizans of Mary, who 
had fondly hoped to see tbem bring their queen 
with them. Elizabeth instantly demanded that 
the fugitives should be delivered Dp; but, not- 
withstanding all his good-will to serve her, the 
R^;ent Moray found it impossible to comply with 
ber request The Earl of Westmoreland, with j voured to make Elizabeth believe that he had 

bis enterprising wife, E^montRatcUBe, Norton, 
Marquenfield, Tempest, and the rest, had been 
taken under the protection of the Humes, the 
Scotta, the Kers, and other Border clans, who set 
the authority of the r^ent at defiance. Moray, 
however, bribed Hector Grsme, or Graham, of 
Harlow; and that traitor delivered up the Earl 
of Northumberland, for which deed the fierce 
Borderers wiahed to have Gneme's head, that 
ihey might eat it among them for supper.' The 
unfortunate earl was sent by the regent to the 
oitleof Lochleven, the old prison of Queen Mary. 
When Elizabeth pressed htm to deliver up hia 
captive, that she might do justice on him, Moray 
■fleeted adelicateconcemfor bis owu honour and 
the honour of bis country; but he afterwards of- 

1 arms, not for, but againtt the insurgents. 
But Elizabeth and her council were seldom over- 
reached or deceived, and an order was sent down 
to the Earl of Sussex to arrest Dacre, cautiously 
and tecrttly, as a traitor. He fled; but he re- 
solved to try his good sword before he submitted 
to the hard doom of exile and beggary. Within 
a month from the flight of Northumberland, 
Dacre waa at the head of 3000 English borderers. 
But before a body of Scots could join him, he wan 
attacked on the banks of the river Gelt by a far 
superior force, commanded by Lord Hunsdon. 
Leonard Dacre, however, was not defeated with- 
out a desperate battle. He fled across the Bor- 
ders, where he waa received and honourably 
entertained by some noble friends of Mary, and 
he soon after passed over to Flaaden. 

,v Google 



[Civil and Militaht. 

Before thU riung of Leonard Dacre the itegent 
Moraj bad gone to hia account : and it has been 
reasonably conjectured that the hopes of the Eog- 
li»h insurgent had been excited by this event io 
Scotland. On hia return from Elizabeth's court, 
and thu mock trial of hia sister, Moray had en- 
countered manydifficultiesibuthehadtriumpbed 
over them all by laeanB of English money and 
his own wondrous caution and deiterity. There 
was one Hauilton of Bothwell-Haugh, who had 
been made prisoner lighting; for Queen Mary at 
lAngside. With other nien in the like situation, 
he had been condemned to denth ; but the regent 
had pardoned biro and all the rest with a few ex- 
eeptiuna. Bat life was all that was granted to 
Botliwell'Baugh. His bouse, hia lands, were 
declared to be forfeit^, and were given by the 
regent to one of his favourites, who brutally 
drove ont Botbwell-Haugh's wife, half-naked, by 
night, into the fields. The poor woman, who had 
recently been dehvered, became frantic, and in 
the morning she waa found a maniac Her hus- 
band swore that he would make the oiiginal au- 
thor of the horrible injury he had sutfered pay 
for it with his life. He consulted with the Ha- 
miltons, bis kinsmen, with the retainers of the 
Duke of Chat^lletanlt, and these men applauded 
his design, and assisted him in carrying it into 
execution. Bothwell-Haugh engaged an empty 
boDse in the principal street of Linlithgow, 
through which the recent waa aocuatomed to pass 
frequently on hia way to and from the palace. 
There he lurked for some time; hut at length, 
on the 22d of January, 1570, he saw the regent 
riding up tii« street, accompanied by Sir Henry 
Gates, and by Drury, the marahal of Berwick, 
who had been sent by Elizabeth to treat for the 
giving up of the Earl of Northumberland and 
others. He levelled hia carabine at Moray, shot 
him through tlie body, and then, though hotly 
pursued, escaped into France.' On the very 
night of the murder, the Scotia and the Kers 
dashed across the English frontiers with unusual 
fury, and apparently with the purpose of pro- 
ducing a breach between the two nations, or of 
giving fresh encouragement to the malcontents of 
Northumberland and Westmoreland.' It ia said 
that, when intelligence of this untimely death of 
her half-brother was conveyed to the captive 

queen, she wept bitterly, fugetting, for the mo- 
ment, all the injuries which he had done her. 

On Moray's death, the Duke of Cbatellerault 
and the Earls of Argyle and Huntly asBumed the 
government as tlie lieutenants of Queen Mary. 
Kirkaldy of Grange, who had long regretted the 
overthrow of the queen, and the pari he had had 
in it, put these noblemen in poaseasion of the 
capital and of Edinburgh Castle. But the oppo- 
site faction, or the Inn^t men, as they were called, 
from their pretended adherence to the in&nt 
James, under the guidance of the Earl of Morton, 
flew to arma, denied the authority of Mary, and 
invited Elizabeth to send a strong English artnj 
to their support This was precisely what Eliza- 
beth intended to do for her own interests. In 
the month of April, under the pretence of chas- 
tising those who had made the raid in her doiui- 
H on the night of Moray's murder, she sent 
armies into SL<ot]and. The Lord Scrope en- 
tered on the west, the Earl of Sussex with Lord 
Hunsdon on the east. Accordiug to no less 
an authority than Secretary Cecil, Sussex and 
Hunsdon, entering into Teviotdale, gave 300 vil- 
Inges to the flames, and overthrew fifty castles 
— mostly, no doubt, mere Border peels.' Nor 
was tlie raid of the Lord Scrope in the west less 
destructive. After a week's campaign of this 
sort, the two armies returned out of Scotland, 
and the Earl of Lennox, the father of Daraley 
and the grandfather of the young king, was sent 
down from England, as a proper person to have 
the rule,by Elizabeth, who of late had taken hitn 
into favour. But Lennox presently found that 
he could do nothing without an English army at 
his back; and on the 26th of April, Susaex and 
Hunsdon entered Scotland anew, and laid ai^;e 
to Hume Castle and Fast Castle, both belonging 
to the Earl of Hume, who wsa doubly obnoxious 
for hie friendship to Mary, and for his haviog 
given an asylum to Elizabeth's rebels. Both 
castles were taken, but none of the English refu- 
gees of any note were found in them. On the 
11th of May, Sir William Drury, the marshal of 
Berwick, peuelrated into Scotland with another 
force, consisting of 1200 foot and 400 horse. 
Having received hostages from the king's men, 
Drury marched to co-operate with the Earl of 
Iienuox, who was engaged in laying waste the 

■ TlwnbHqiiHit talnoiT of tbli Uamllbin at BoUmll.Huigh 
!■ IHtltf known, but It ^tpHrt thftt^ fortf -ninfl j«ui Aflar mur- 
dorlnf th« ngmt, ha Ibund * qnlflt gTV/9 [a the chnrchjard of 
■ eoontrj ptriah of Arnhln. 

"The fBU of MoiBj'i nuQB l> ttngutir. ttta imang con- 
•pimwu wd taUn am, in wi ig« torn In yieaa bf cnntaiiUnt 
fjkctlona. Coat«DporaJT writon t^ne in uotbLnf. Indeel, but 
hb gn^t AlftlitSa, and tobergotlc nvolutlon. Aipong the pmpla, 
h* wu long mBOTAhoml u 'the good rfignut,' partly nrora thefr 
Pzotstuit tml, but in m gnat mcMuan from ■ itrung Hnae ot 
tha nnwont*] Hcnrit)' of lift and propuij snjojsd io Boulliud 

■ po-ertd pirtj hu for nowlj thne ennturiia dnhnud aiul 
ouligned him. In ordsr to <iitnu« ftnm tho psrrenion of htitoij 
u h;pot)iiilj«l wah toMrreuiicnanforhii anhipi:^ ilMaT 

did nil tb«t be uppetn to h»T<™iitiotBlj nbrtilned ftum doing." 
— BIT JimiB Hick III (oah, llultri <^ Bui/laitit. 

,v Google 

I 1564— ISTil 


VK]e of the Clyde, aud dtstmyiDg tbe CMtlw of 
Ibe Duke of Ohateltei-auit and the hoiuM of all 
that bore the Dame of Hamilton, Tfaeir ven- , 
gpance was ao terrible, that that grratfiimilT, with 
neM-ly the entire clan, was luDugbt U> the verge 
of ruiu. Drurj returned to Berwick on the 3d ; 
of Juoe, haviug done n great deal iu tbe waj of 
destruction in a very abort time.' 

It WAS during these fljiug caiupaignB in Scot- 
land that the pope, Pius V., found a man bold 
enough to nfflz hia bull of excommunication to 
the gates of the Bishop of Iflndon'a t«wa resi- 
dence. Elizalietb and her conncil seem to have 
been thrown into a wonderful conatemation, aa 
if their wure not nware that the thunders of the 
Vaticau lind become an empty noise. The gen- 
tlemen of the inne of court were atill auspected 
of being unsoand in religion: the first search and 
inqueat aeema to have been made among tAein, 
atid another copy of tbe bull was found in the 
cbamberof a student of Lincoln's Inn. The poor 
student was presently stretched on the rack, and 
then, to escape torture, he confessed that be had 
received the paper or parchment from John Fel- 
ton,a|ientlemauofproperty wholivednearSouth- 
wark. FeltanwBBappreheadedandstretchedupon 
the aame infernal instrument: he acknowledged, 
before he was laid upon the rack, that it was in- 
deed he who had adized the bull on the gates, 
but more than this no torture could force from 
him. Ue was kept in the Towei from tbe 2fith 
of May to the 4th of August, when he was ar- 
raigned at Guildball, snH found guilly oF high 
treason.' Felton boir hid horrible fate like an 
enthusiast, elevated liy the conviction that he had 
been doing God service; but, at the same lime, 
to show that he bnre the queen, penionallf, no 
malice, he drew a diarooud ring from his finger 
of the value of £4W, and sent it to her as a 
present. His wife had been mNid of honour to 
Hary and a friend to Elizabeth. A conspiracy 
made by certain gentlemen and others in the 
raunty of Norfolk was detected ashort tinie after 
the exhibition of the bull of excommunication; 
hnt it appears that there was no connection be- 
tween the two things. John Throgmorton of 
Norwich, Thomas Brook of Boleaby, aud George 
Bedman of Cringleford, all people of condition, 
and devoted friends to the Duke of Norfolk, were 
arreated, tried, and all three hanged, drawn, and 
qoartered. In the evidence produced against 
them wasa proclamation of their composition, iu 

granted a subsidy of Oi. in the ponnd by the clerg}', 
besides two-Ufteenths and n subsidy of 2i. 8d. in 
the pound on tbe laity, " to wardsreimbursing her 
majesty for her great charges, in repressing the 
late rebellion in the north, and pursuing the re- 
beltt and their faitours into Scotland." But there 
was other business of a more remarkable nature 
than this liberal voting of supplies. A hill was 
brought in with the object of crushing the pre- 
tensions and the partizans of the Scottiiih queen, 
and isolating the English Catholics more than 
ever from the pope and their co-retigionists on 
the Continent. It was declared to be high trea- 
son to elium a right to the succession of the 
crown, during the queen's life, or to say that the 
crown belonged to any other person than the 
queen, or to publish that she was au heretic, a 
schismatic, a tyrant, an infidel, or usurper, or to 
deny that the descent of the ci-own was deter- 
minable by the statutes made in parliament. It 
was farther enacted, that any person that should, 
by writing or printing, n^ention any heir of the 
queen, except the same were the naturtd ittue of 
her body,' should, for the first offence, snfler a 
year's imprisonment; and, for the second, iocui' 
the penalty of prtemvnire. Another bill enacter) 
the pains of high treason against all HUch ■■< 
should sue for, obtain, or put in use any bull ni- 
other instmment from the Bishop of Rome. By 
another bill, all persona above a certain age were 
bound, not only to attend the Protestant chnrch 
regularly, but also to receive the sacrament in 
the form bylaw established. Beside* tbe unfor- 
tunate insurgents of the north, many individualii 
of rank, among whom was Lord Morley, bad re- 
tired to the Continent, in order to avoid perse- 
cution, or a compliance with forma of worship 
which they believed to be erroneous and sinful: 
another bill was, therefore, brought in, com- 
manding every person who bad left, or who 
might hereafter leave the realm, whetlier with 
or without the queen's license, to return in six 
months after warning by proclamation, under 
the pain of forfeiting his goods and chattels and 
the profits of bis lands. By these enactmentit 
the Catholics could neither remain at home with- 
out offence to their consciences, nor go abroad 
without sacrificing their fortunes. There was a 

wu utuU/ witb ohild, ud Uia i 
■ftflr wbtti At bocuiw liablv ki i 
Tbtn la ft patm^ Id ft ]«ttor froi 

lUTDbvr of iTidvcflnt Jokiv 
lomiMld tbftt tlMqDHn 
3rt ipmid tli« widvr IDOD 
onihgi ftnd fainilDg flto. 

[loirlii( jMw, rhioh, i[ nvtbing mota, ■• mr oddly « 

livrliftUi bndiuaiig* In 




[Civil asd Militart. 

talk of a retuoDHtratitv, but the House of Com- 
niutia' aiiil the people were most zealoualy Protes- 
tant ; and the CatliiiliL- lonla in the upper house, 
though foi-ming a coimiiierahle party, had not 
i»urage t<) clo niuth. Elizabeth, however, volun- 
tarily gave up her bill for the forced taking of 
the sacrament— a thing horrible in Catholic eyes. 
But it was (lot every ctaaa of Protestants that 
was to rejoice and be glad. There was one class 
of them, great, and conatiuitly iacreasing, dan- 
gerous from their enthusiasm, odioui from their 
repubiicaa and democratic notions, that were 
feared equally with the Catliolics, and hat«d 
much more by the queen. TheM were the Puri- 
tuna — men who had inibibed the strict notions of 
Calviu — a sect which Elizabeth, however much 
she hated it herself, had forced upon Queen Mary 
in Scotland. This sect bad always taught that the 
church of Christ ought to be separate from, and 
independent of the state — a doctrine that went 
ta overthrow the queen's supremacy. But there 
was another heinous offence which Elizabeth 
could never forgive: they fraternized with the 
Puritans of Scotland ; they regarded John Knox 
as an inspired apostle^ Knox, who had written 
af>ainst "the monstrous regiment of women." 
The first striking instance of actual punishment 
inflicted upon any of them was in June, 1567, 
when a company of more than a hundred were 
seized during their religious exercises, and four- 
teen or fifteen of them were sent to prison. They 
behaved with much rudeness and self-sufficiency 
on their examination; but these defects bt>came 
worse and worse under the goads of persecutiou. 
Yet, at this very moment, unknown Ui Elizabeth, 
three or four of her bishop* were favourable to 
the non-conforming ministers, in whose scruples 
touching many ceremonies and practices in the 
church they partook ; and iu her very council 
the Earls of ISedford, Uuntingilon, and War- 
wick, the Lord-keeper Bacon, Walsingham, Sad- 
ler, and Knollys, incliued from conviction to the 
Puritans, while Leicester, who saw that their 
numbers were rapidly increasing - that iu the 
great industrious towns, the strength of the peo- 
ple, or lifn itat, they were becoming aroiu/ett 
— intHgned with theiu underhnnil, In the view 
of furthering his own ambitious projectJ*. In 
the preceding year Thomas Cartwright, the IaiIj 
Margaret professor of divinity at Cambridge, .uid 
a muu of virtue, learning, and a ready elo- 
quence, had eluctrifictl numerous andiinces by in- 
culcating the unlawfulness of any form of church 
government exr*pt the Pi'esbyterian, which he 
maintained to have been tliat instituted by the 
first apostles; and the same powerful Puritan 
Boi)n liegan to make a wider wid more lasting 

• Bj ths • 

impression by his polemical writings. Iu the 
House of Commoiu, which was so very auti- 
CaUtolic, there was a large and powerful section 
who agreed with Cartwright, mid who were bold 
enough to show their discontent at the queen's 
churcli. In this present parliament they iotn^ 
duced seven bills for furthering the work of rv- 
formation and for extirpating wliat they con- 
sidered as crying abuses. Elizal>eth waa furious; 
and, iu her own way, she conuuauded Strickland, 
the mover of the bills, to absent himself from the 
house, and await the orders of her privy council. 
But Strickland's friends, who were beginning to 
feel their strength, moved that he should be 
called to the bar of the house, au<l there made 
to state the reason of his absence. And as this 
reason was no secret to them, they proceeded to 
declare that the privileges of parliament buti 
been violated in his person ; that^ if such a mea- 
sure was submitted to, it would form a daugeroua 
precedent; that the queen, of heraelf, could nei- 
ther make nor break the laws. This housf. 
said they, which has the faculty of determiuiug 
the right to the crown itaelf, ia certainly compe- 
tent to treat of religious ceremonies and church 
discipline. The ministers were astounded, and, 
after a cousultatiou apart, the speaker proposed 
that the debate should be suspended. The house 
rose, but on the very next morning, Strickland 
re-appeared iu his place, and was received with 
cheers! Elizabeth's caution had prevailsJ over 
her anger; but she felt as it her royal preroga- 
tive bad been touched, and her antipathy to the 
Puritan party increased. In a political ssnse 
this was agreat revival; and the base servility of 
inrliament would hardly have been cur«d but 
for the religious enthusiasm. The case of Stnck- 
land was the first of many victories obtained over 
the despotic principle— the Brat great achieve- 
ment of a chiss of men who, in their evil and in 
their good, worked out the cause of constitu- 
tional liberty (o a degree which very few of them, 
even at a later period, foresaw. At the end of 
the session not all Elizabeth'it prudence could 
restrain her wrath. At her ^mmaud, the Lunl- 
keeper Bacon informed the i^uniinous that their 
conduct had been strange, unbecoming, and uu- 
dutiful ; that, as they had foi^tteu thenutelves, 
they should be otherwise remeuibered; and that 
the ipieen's highness did utterly disallow anil 
condemn their folly, in meddliug with thiugx 
not ap|>ei'taining to them, nor within the ca)>ii- 
city of their understanding. But this only con- 
firmed ihe Puritanic suspicion that Elizabeth, 
in conjunction with some of her bisliops, really 
thought of creating herself into a aort of Pr»- 
testaut poj)*, that was to decide as by t Uiviiii' 
inspiration and legation iu all malUirs relating 
to the next world. 


1 II. 1364 - 137i.J ELIZA 

Nutwtth><laiHliiig tlie otnissioiiB vmde by p&r- 
liamPiit. llie bialiopa coottnued to exact a. sub- 
Hcnpti>iii tn tlie whole Thirty-nine Articles, and 
tn il?privc Hiicli niiniatera oa refused to aubecribe 
Iheni. Pni'ker, Archbishop of Canterbury, oJso 
lierwvGTed iu his persecutions, which only wanted 
ail iKcsBtonal burning to render them a tolerable 
tTiLiUtiaii of tlie doings in the dnys of Qaeen 
Msry. The Puritan ministers were hunted out 
of their churches and seized in their coDTeuticlea; 
iheir hookn nere suppressed by that arbitrary 
trill of the queen, which would allow of nothing 
Leiug puhliflhad tliat was ofTeusive to her; they 
■ ere treated harshly in all civil matters ; they 
wpre constantly called before the detestable Star 
Chamber; they were treated with contumely and ; 
i-iilicule, and the members of their congregations < 
tvere dragged before the high commission for , 
listening to their sermons and forms of prayer; ' 
mil whenever any one refused to conform to the i 
iloctrinesof the Eatabiishment, be was committed i 
to prison. There were not wanting instances of 
persons being condemned to imprisonment for [ 
hfe, and numerous were the cases in which whole [ 
families of the industrious classeH were reduced to 
l^ggary by these persecutions. Tliiscourt of high 
rammisBioD has been compared to the luquisi- 
tiaa; and, in fact, there was a great family like- 
ness between them. It consislerl of bishops and 
delegatea appointed by the queen, Parker, the 
primate, being chief commissioner. They were 
authorized to inquire into all heretical opinions; 
to enforce attendance iu the Established church, 
and to prevent the frequentation of conrenticlea; 
to suppre^ unorthnlox and seditious books, to- 
t^her with nil libels against the queen and her 
government; to take cognizance of all adulteries, 
fornications, and other offences liable to the ec- 
clesiastical law, and to punish the offenders by 
Bpiritual censures, fine, and imprisonment. Par- 
ker always maintained that bold measures would 
terrify the Noncouforjiiats into hia orthodoxy; 
"for," s^d he, in a letter to Cecil, " I know them 
to be cowards."' He never made a greater mis- 
take! A very alight knowledge of history might 
have taught him that people excited by religi- 
ons enthusiasm are always brave. What was to 
come he might hardly have foi-eseen, even if he 
had made a juster estimate of theirspirit; for the 
"tniggle, now begun, never ceased till the Puri- 

BETH. 1 47 

tans laid both mitre and crown in the dust nt 
their feet. 

A report had got abroad that the Queen of 
Scots was sought in marriage for the l>«ke of 
Anjou, one of the brothers of the French king, 
and though Elizabeth held Mary in a close pri- 
son, she was idarmed at this news. Iu order to 
prevent any such scheme, she entered into ne- 
gotiations with Charles IX,, or ratlier with his 
mother Catherine de' Medici, once more pretend- 
ing to offer herself as a bride. But there were 
other causes which rendered the friendship of 
the French court very desirable. The Hugue- 
nots seemed crushed and powerless after their 
defeat at Moncontour; there s^peared no hope of 
their renewing the civil war in the heart of the 
kingdom; and if Fiunce, at peace within lieraelf, 
should throw her sword on the side of Spain and 
zealously take up the Catholic cause, the result 
might be dangerous, particularly at this moment, 
when there was great <liscontent in England, and 
when the Prateatatits at home seemed almost on 
the point of drawing 'he sword against one an- 
other. The sagacious Walaingham was sent over 
as ambassador to France, with such complicated 
instructions as must base puesled even him. 
One of his principal duties was to blacken the 
character of JIary; another to lengthen out the 
matrimonial negotiation an much as possible, 
making sure, in the meantime, not merely of a 
I truce, but of a fixeil ti-eaty of peace with France. 
He was also to have some by-deallnga with the 
Huguenots; but he was to be more than ever 
that matter, and to profess 
that her majesty, his 
aversion to rebellious 
subjects of all kinds. After many months had 
been consumed, it was said that the Duke of 
Anjou declined the match because Elizabeth 
insisted, as a (in« qiid non, thathe should change 
his religion.' Tlien his younger brother, the boy 
Duke d'Alen^on, was spoken of. In the spring 
of the year 1572, Walsmgham was joined by Sir 
Thomas Smith, who was sent on a special mis- 
sion, and it was not till then that this new mat- 
rimonial bnainesB was fairly entered npon. El'i- 
zaljeth had been veied and distressed by reports 
that the Duke of Anjou had declined the match 
on account of certain mmours, that she had had 
I two children by the Earl of Leicester, and an 

'BlTTpe, I ft of Park 
•f Anjm, g(< 

I tusft an mallcnaiit. b cooinfie •> oowardlj, a bodj u ill jiot 
England Bxpflrtuhud tnja thiA ttwtbR'. *nd it ■> noflt for aI] aart of muilf exerciHi, tbirt I 
ibioanUs porbxil at Uie Diika I nuntr conld |i«iiiid« dthV that hs oould do lOTlhliig gnniDui, 
■• loo asU mifltd lij i g, happU; jiiihim ths hoDoun. gmdaTum. uid gnod tbrtunta 

b; the King 

Ajul u toz thla prlnn whom jdq 

iTTB to Roanj. aftarwuda Duke of Rullr. 

And whirtB'iir Bhoir of 

I luTo DO mM Ukisg Im liIn>."-8iBHmdl, B 

,v Google 



[Civil a 


B iutiraacy with Sit Chriaiopher Hattfln 
besides ' Walaingham wua instructed to com- 
plaiu of these f 311I reports; and Catherine de' Me- 
dici was fain to protest she had never believed 

Sir Thomas Smith sjid Walsingham, between 
them, had prevented the taking of any serious 
steps for the release of the captive queen, in 
which, indeed, the French court hud never showed 
much eamestnees.' Though allies in rehgiou, 
there were many old jealousies between his most 
Chrisliaii and his Catholic majesty: the English 
envoys revived tliese feelings, and Mary's cor- 
respondence with the Duke of Alva was turned 
to good account. They told the French king 
and his mother that there were letters inter- 
cepted of the Queen of Scots to the duke, im- 
ploring for his assistance, and ofTeriug to send 
her son. Prince James, to be brought up iu Spain, 
and proposing other thiiigti which would make a 
)]eFpetual pique between England and Scotland, 
France and Spain; and they informed Cedl that 
Kiug Charles had exclaimed, in acknowledging 
Mary's imprudence — "Ah! the poor fool will 
never cease till she lose her head: in faith they 
will put her to death ; I see it is her own fault 
and foily— 1 see no remedy for it: I meant to 
help, but if she will not be helped, Je ne puU 
mai», that is, I cannot do withal." Charles had 
indeed requested that Mary might be sent to 
live in Fnuice; and had said that, by the ties of 
relationship, he was bound to secure to her a 
kinder and milder treatment But the captive's 
HufTerings were forgotten in the bright prospect 
of seeing one of his brothers married to Eliza- 
beth. He agreed to leave her where she was, 
and began the arrangement of an alliance ofieu- 
sive and defensive with the English queeu's able 
envoys, altogether disregarding the wai-ning of 
his own ambaHsador, who had assured him that 
Elizabeth would never marry any one. 

While these negotiations had been in progress 
the case of Mary had been still further com- 
plicated, the hatred of Elizabeth increased, and 
the whole Protestant party in England thrown 
into agonies of alarm, by revelations of plots and 
conspiracies. In the month of April one Charles 
Bailly, a servant of the Queen of Scots, was 
seized at Dover as he was returning from the 
Duke of Alva with a packet of letters. The 

ebunbn da U Rsjns iDnqu'dls «t mu llct, 11 (iMominr] I'Mtoit 
ingiri da liv bullar U dismiie u lieu de b dnmB d'hoDDCur, 

la Uallu fViuton. Tlia imtinindrrr u;i Itut, It Die ijutigitlon 
uT tfaa Eul gf Aruodal ud olLan, Iha Dul-c ctT A'd'>U: hul 'iin. 
lund to compUiD of Uuh hmlllultlaa to ttie qimn hnnaU I 

t WiUugliam vu Inalmctad ta bj that Hu? i>u kiadlj 
traaMdud libanlljauppUad witb aTarytlilcgi but L> Mnttas 
Ftafkm had InfOrmad hla amrt tbil >be aaa hanhl; tiatsd. 

Bishop of KoHS ingeniously cjntrived to exchange 
these letters for uthen of an insignificant kind, 
which were luiil before the council; but Eliza- 
beth and her ministers sent Baill; to the Tower 
aud to the rack.' Under torture Bailly con- 
fessed that he tiad received the packet from 
Budolfi, formerly an Italian banker iu London, 
and that it contained assurances that the Dake 
of Alva entered into the captive queen's cause, 
and approved of her plan for a foreign invasion 
of England — that, if authorized by the King 
«f Spain, his master, he should be ready to co- 
operat« with 40 and 30. Bailly said he did not 
know the parties designated by the ciphers 40 
and 30, but that there was a letter in the packet 
for the Bishop of Ross, desiring him to deliver 
the other letters to the proper parties. Suspi- 
cion immediately fell upon the Duke of Norfolk. 
That nobleman had Iain iu the Tower from the 
9th of Octolier, 1569, till the 4th of August, 1570 
(the day on which Felton was arraigned for the 
affair of the bull of excommunication), when he 
was removed in custody to one of his own houses, 
in consequence of the plague having broken out 
iu the Tower. Some time before this delivery 
he made the moat humble submission to the 
queen, beseechiug her most gracious goodness to 
accept him again iuto favour to serve her in any 
manner that it should please her to direct and 
command. He acknowledged himself in fault for 
that he did unhappily give ear to certain motions 
in a cause of marriage to be prosecuted for him 
with the Queen of Scots ; " but surely," he adds, 
"I never consented thereto into any respect, 
save upon reasons that were propounded to in- 
duce me for your highuess's beueht aud surety." 
He theu solemnly binds himself to have nothiug 
more to ilo with the marriage or with anything 
that concerns Queen Mary.' Cecil lad lung since 
assured the queen that it would be -sei-y difficult 

ake high treason of anythiug Norfolk bad 
done as yet. Of course the duke, though he 
had been teu months a prisoner, had never been 
brought to any trial, but only interrogated and 
cross-questioned by the lords of Uie privy coun- 
cil. Nor did he even now obtain much more 
than a milder sort of imprisonment. He was 
watched aud closely warded in his own house by 
Sir Henry Nevil; he was afterwards removed 
to the house of another noblema:i devoted to the 

t, and then to another, and auother, being 
everywhere in custody or closely watthed. He 
petitioned the queen, Cecil, aud others, to be re- 
stored to his seat in the council;— this was re- 

i him ; and it was a ihing which the sove- 
reign, having the free choiue of her counsellors, 
might refuse without the infringement of law or 
constitutional right. He requested that he might 

J Burghlry Popm. 


A.O. 1564—1572.] ELIZA 

lie permitted to attend in liisplucem guu-lituneDt; 
imt ttiiu also was refiued, and illegally, for he 
had beeu convicted of no treason, no crime by 
law. If Norfolk bad been ever bo well inclined 
to ke«p hia engagement, this was certainly the 
vaj to make Lini break it in sheer deiiperatiou. 
Upon the arrest of Bailly he was more closely 
looked to; but some mouths elapsed before the 
matter was brought to his own door. At the 
eud of August, 1971, one Brown, of Shrewsbury, 
curried to the privy council a certain bag full 
of money, which he s^d he had received from 
Hickford, the Duke of Norfolk's secretary, with 
directions to cany it to Bannister, the dnke's 
steward. The lords opened the bag, andcounted 
the money, which amounted to i'SIO. But there 
ttas soBiething else in the bag that gave them 
n>ore trouble, iu the shape of two tickets, or 
Doles, wntten in cipher. As Bi-own named Hick- 
ford, the poor secretary was apprehended, and un 
the 2d of September, he deciphered the two notea, 
which, with the money, were destined for Lard 
Berries in Scotland, who was making fresh ex- 
ertioDB there with her party iu favour of the cap- 
live qaeen. SirRalph Sadler wasimmediately sent 
for to guard the Duke of Norfolk, who was then 
at Howard House; where, on the 5th of Septem- 
lier, on a strict examination, he denied all that 
Hickford had confessed. Two days afterwards 
lie was committed to hia old apartment in the 
Tower.' In the meanwhile Bauniater,aud Barker, 
another secretary of the duke's, bad been ur- 
reated; and as the Bishop of Boas had long been 
iu custody with the Bishop of London, the Bishop 
of Ely, and others, it was easy to lay hold of 
him.' Hickford did not stop at betraying the 
key to the ciphers; he confessed niauy other 
things against his master the duke, without 
much pressing, and voluntarily offered to show 
Kome secret places iu his house where his master 
had deposited letters. As the rest of Norfolk's 
servants were much attached to their luaster, 
nod would, confess nothing till they were tor- 
tured, or threatened with torture, it has been 
supposed by many that this Hickford had been 
fur Slime time iu the pay uf the court Banuis- 
Ur's fortitude and fidelity did not give way til! 
be had suffered torture, bnt Barker's forsook him 
when he was shown the horrid rack. On the 
9>th of September Sir Thomas Scuith, the matri- 
monial diplomatist, wrote to Cecil, now Lord 
Bnrghley,' in a plensant humour, "We have," 

It thfl BoQt^ bUhcpp wu n^ 

lucnatffl BuoD Bnighlej in 1911. 
ilaof WindiaUru luid lii|h-tnuun 

BETH. 149 

said he, "good hope, at last, that we may come 
home : we tbiuk surely, that we have done all 
that at this time may be done, Uf Bannister 
with the rack, of Barker with the extreme fear 
of it, we suppose to have gotten all. BoDDlster, 
indeed, kiioweth little. . . , Barker wan common 
doer in the practice, but rather, it may seem, 
chosen for zeal than for wit."' He then proceeds 
to telt the upright Cecil that he and his coadju- 
tors bad been putting Barker's confessions into 
proper order— that is, they had been tampering 
with the evidence which they had procured by 
threatening a weak and silly man with the rack. 
Barker confessed sundry other things, in a most 
confused way, which went to prove that Norfolk 
had never intermitted hia correspondence with 
the Scottish queen, neither during his first con- 
fineroent in the Tower nor after his release from 
that prison — that he had corresponded with the 
friends of Mary iu Scotland by means of the 
Bishop of Ross, and with the Duke of Alva by 
means of fiudolfi, who had once delivered to 
him a letter from the pope. Although Smith 
had asserted that Bannister knew little, they 
made his evidence declare a good deal, and so 
shaped it as to make It agree with that of Barker 
and Hickford. When it came to the turn of the 
Bishop of Boss to l>e questioned, that prelate 
was found deficient in the nerve and courage 
which he had recommended to Bailly; but it is 
much easier to excuse his want of fortitude than 
the atrocity of his inquisitors. The bishop 
claimed the privileges of an ambassador, assert- 
ing tliat, even if he had been somewhat impli- 
cated, he wns not licible to their jurisdiction, 
Iwing the representative of an independent sove- 
reign; but Loi-d Burghley cut him short, by say- 
ing that he must answer or be put upon the r^k.' 
Then the bishop wavered, but still be did not 
confess until he was told that his depositions 
were merely required to satisfy the mind of 
Queen Elizabeth, and should not be used agMUSt 
the life of any inau. The duke had continued to 
di-ny everything, .-is at first, " with such confi- 
dence and ostentation," say Sir Thomas Smith 
and Dr. Wilson, "that he did astonish un all, 
and we knew not how we should judge of him." 
But when the commissioners showed him the 
confession of Barker and his otiier servants, 
the letters of the Queen of Scots, of which they 
bad obtained possession through Hickford and 
! Barker, and the deposition of the Bishop of Ross, 
he exclaimed that be was betrayed and undone 
by his couGdence in others, and began to confess 
to sundry minor charges; for he never allowed 
that he had contemplated treason against bis sove- 
reign. Upwards of fifty interrogatories were 
put to him in one day; hut the purport of the 

■ I 




[Civil a 

1 Military. 

disclosnres which were then mcule is unlcn< 
as the waniiuation cannot be found.' 

But the rumoura which were xeiit Abroad be- 
yond the <iungeon-c«lla and the vnlla of tlie 
Tower, and iiidnstriously'apread among the peo- 
ple, were of a terrific nature. Tlie Duke of Alva 
was coming with an army of bloo<ly Pnpiats to 
bum down London, and exterminate the qiieen, 
the Protestant religion, and all good Protestants; 
and the pope wan to send the treasurea of Borae to 
forward these deeds, and was to bless theni when 
(lone. Everi- wind might bring legions of ene- 
niiea tothe British coast; every town in England, 
every bouae, might conceal some desperate trai- 
tor and cruel Papist, Imimd by secret oaths to 
join the invadera, and direct their slaughter and 
their bnrning; so that none should escape that 
professed the true religion, and none suffer that 
bore the marks of the beast of Rome. A won- 
derful alarm was eicited by one Herle, who dis- 
closed what was called a plot for murdering some 
of her majesty's privy council.' Kenelm Barney 
and Edmund Mather, men as obscure as himself, 
were put upon their metal in the Tower, Hfi'le, 
their former associate, being witness against them. 
All that could be proved i^inst them was, that 
they were two contemptible scoundrels (eacli 
ready to betray the other), who were discon- 
tented with the court and the present govern- 
ment, which gave no promotion except to such 
" a^ were perfumed and court-like," tneauing audi 
men as I>eice3ter and Hatton;and who had talked 
in public-houses and lodging-houses about rescu- 
ing the Duke of Norfolk from the Tower and 
from certain deatli. Little confiilence can l>c 
placed in the revelations of such men, whose 
imaginations were stretched by the rack and the 
dread of death. But on the trial Mather and 
Barney were convicted ou the strength of their 
joint contefiflions, and on the evidence of Herle. 
They were drawn from the Tower to Tyburn, 
and there hanged, bowelled, and quartered, for 
treason. Herle received a foil pardon.' 

Much time had beens[>entiu preparing forthe 
public trial of the Duke of Norfolk ; but at length, 
on the I4th of January, nearly a month before 
the executions Inst alluded to, the queen named 
the Earl of Shrewsbury, the keeper of Queen 
Mary, to be lord high-steward; and Shrewsbury 
summoned tweuty-six peers, selected by Elizabeth 

an<l her ministerijto attend in Westminster Hall 
on the 16th day of the same month. Among 
these were included, with other members of Eli- 
zabeth's privy council, Burghley who had been 
active in an-anging the prosecution, and the Earl 
of Leicester, who bad originally excited Noi-folk 
to attempt a marriage with the Seotf iali queen, 
who had signed the letter to Mary, .-ind who was 
now athirst for the blood of tlie unfornnate pri- 
soner, his miserabledupe. Ou the day appointed 
the peers met in Westminster Hall at an early 
hour in the moniing, and the duke was brought 
to the bar by the lieutenant of the Tower ami 
Sir Peter Carew. The lonls were assisted by tbo 
judges and all the law officers of the crown. 
About half-past eight the loi-d high-Bt«ward stood 
up at his chair bare-headed, and the gentleman- 
usher holding the white rod before him, the ser- 
jeant-at-arms made prociamation. The duke, 
with a haughty look perused the countenances of 
all the lords, first those on the right hand of the 
lord high-steward and then those on the left. 
After a fretih proclamation of silence, the clerk 
of the crown called njwn the dnke,—" Thomas, 
Duke of Noi-folk, late of Kenninghall, in the 
county of Norfolk, hold up thy hand." The duke 
held up his liand, and then the indictment was 
read, charging him with comjtassing and imagin- 
ing the death of the queen, with levying war 
against her within Ihe realm, ^nd with adhering 
to the queen's public enemies. The overt acts 
charged were; — " Ist. That, against the express 
command of the queen upon his allegiance, he 
had endeavoured to many the Queen of Scots, 
and supplied her with money, well knowing that 
she claimed a present title to the crown of Eng- 
land ; 2d. Tliat he had sent sums of money to the 
Earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland, 
and other pemons concerned in the rebellion in 
the north ; 3d. That he had despatched one Itii- 
doifi to the pope, to the King of Spain, and the 
Duke of Alva, in onler to excite them to send a 
foreign army into England, to join with such « 
force as he, the Duke of Norfolk, might raise for 
the purpose of making war against the queen 
itbin the realm, with intent to depose her, and 
effect his own marriage with the Queen of 
Scots; 4th. That he had relieved and comforted, 
with money and otherwise, the Lord Herries and 
other Scots, being the queen's public 

i would proWbL)' lun bHb cuvftiJJj pn ' ebe in coming U 
7t thb tuiocH wu glTSD bf Herle in ■ blood) ■ deal," u 

ni >rith ■ eliot upon tb* tanca, ar 
lb* oonTt, irilh ■ plilol." tl* Uxa 

letter to lonl B 

7<>nr Rurden. tohireiUln font lord^lp. The'blch notfUlen | i 
Dill, luiil fontlnnlBf Id UiefomieTniHhlit, the htdgbt of jnxir ' i 
itudj' vtudaw !• takni lovud* the (uisn, Diiadtnc U thej | 

, Mr. Wright |mb1ialiH mrmnl lellen, if 
bf Herle to Biirghl»', on ircnr eUl* mittD 


i.D 1564—1572.] E 

Tbe dukf besought tU« lords, if tb« law would 
permit it, thai be oiight be allowed counael. 
(JatUue, the chief-justice, told him that the kw 
lU'twed iiu counsel in cases of high trSBdOD. Upou 
'Il14 Norfolk complained that he \iaa hardly 
liuidled. " I have hnd," said ho, " very short 
warniug to provide an aaewer to so great a mat- 
ter — not fourteen hours in all, both day and 
luglit, I have had short waruiug aud uo books; 
neither boi>ks of statutes, nor so much as a bre- 
viate nf the statutes. I am brought to fight 
without a weii]M>n." He said that he na 
unlearned Diaii— ^ihat he hoped that they would 
utit overlay him with speeches; that his memo 
waa uever good, but now much worse than 
was. The duke, however, showed no Lick of 
memory and ready wit, aud his acquaintance 
with the statutes and with Braclon was such 
that the attorney-gen eml thought proper to b 
him with his nice kuowlcflge of the litw. lie 
pleaded Dot guilty, nuiintatuiug— Ist. Thut the 
(jueen of Scots was not the enemy or competitor 
of his sovereign ^that, nn the death of her hus- 
band, the French kiug, she put away the title of 
Queen of England — that, though her aaaumption 
'if that titlit was now cited fls the sole proof of 
her being au pnemy, and having always been 
u> enemy, yet the queen, his mistress, had had 
friendaliip witli her during the ten years which 
had elapeed since that olTeuce, stoiidtug godmo- 
ther to her Bon, aud doing other kind otficca, and 
that, therefore, iu trying to marry the Scottish 
queen, or in aasiating her, he was not guilty of 
treaaou. 2d. That he had never spoken with Ru 
dolfi the Italian but once, and then only regard- 
ing some- private loan and banking business; 
bearing from him, indeed, that he (Rudolfi) wa.i 
intending to seek aid of money among the friends 
of the Scottish queen, but, ss he (the duke) un- 
deratood him, not for the purpose of levying war 
in England with this money, hut merely that it 
might be applied by Mary to her own comfort 
■ud the encouragement of her own faithful sub- 
jects in Seothmd. ad. That he had uever sup- 
plied the English rebels in the north with money 
at the time of their insurrection, although he 
acknowledged having since sent some assistance 
to the Countess of Westmoreland, who waa his 
ewn flister.and in the greatest distress; aud that 
he had given his opinion as to the proper mode 
of distributing certain sums which had been 
■ent into (loudei's by the pope for the relief of 
the noble English exiles. He admitted that a 
letter from the pope, of about six or seven lines 
in l*tin, and banning, Diieciefili, laialvin, had 
been delivered to him ; but he said that he was 
olfeiided with this liberty, and asked what he 
had to do with the pope, who was an enemy to 
iu> religiou and his country I 

BETH. 1 ."H 

Norfolk, who in his early life had been the 
pupil of the puritanic fox, the martyrologiat, and 
whu had always passed for a good Protestant, 
vowed rej)eatedly on his trial that ha would r.i- 
ther be torn to pieces by wild horses than enter- 
tain for a moment the notion of any change of 
religiou, Evei7thin? (he duke said was declared 
to be false, and was met by the written deposi- 
tions(all cobbledaud garbled)of his servants and 
accomplices. When he objected to such evi- 
dence he waa told that the oaths of the wituessea, 
who had sworn to all they alleged, were worth 
more than his bare denial. He demanded to be 
personally confronted with the witnesses ; but 
thin waa denied to him. There was, indeed, one 
witness produced, but he had kuown neither 
fhains nor torture; he was an agent who had 
been employed by theEurl of Leicester to ensnare 
the prisoner, and it woulij have been well for the 
decency of the process if he hud been kept out qf 
sight altogether. We have mentioned iu what 
manner the evidence of the Bishop of Rosa had 
been extracted: Dr. Wilson, the master of the 
requests, and who, with Sir Thomas Smith, had 
taken his depositious, wanted him to appear iu 
court and give hia evidence orally, but, lacking 
in courage as he was, the bishop refused, saying, 
"I never conferred with the duke myself iu any 
of these matters, but only by his servaute, nor 
yet heard him apeak one word it any tinie against 
his duty to his prince and country; and if I shall 
be forced to be present, 1 will publicly profess 
before the whole nobility that he never opened 
his mouth maliciously or traitorously against the 
queen or the realm.* Norfolk repeatedly said 
that the bishop was a very timid man — that 
Barker was a timid man — that only Bannister 
had courage united to fidelity, and that he was 
"shrewdly cramped' when he made the false 
confession they produced. And then Barham,- 
the queen's Serjeant, moat impudently asserted 
that Bannister had been no more tortured than 
the duke himself had been. The famous letter 
Ipating Norfolk, wi'itten by Moray, the late 
regent, was read in court, together with a letter 
said to have been sent by the duke to Moray, 
without going into any proof of the genuineness 
of those documents.' A great deal of the evi- 
dence went u[ion mere hearsay, and that at second 

third hand, but the strangest thing of all— the 
grossest possible interference of the queen — oc- 
curred in enforehig that particular part of the 
prosecution which related to the Rudolfi conspi- 
racy. The solicitor-general stood up, and said, 
"1 have also, my lords, one thing more to say to 
you from the queen's own mouth. The lords of 




[Civil AND Miutabv. 

tlie privy council do know it very well, but it U 
not meet here, in open presence, to be ottered, 
because it toucheth otheni that ok not here now 
to be named; but, by her bighness'a order, we 
pray their loi'dHbips that they will impart it unto 
you more p.-irt.iciilarly. In Flanders, by the am- 
bnMiador o[ a foreign prince, the whole plot of 
this treason was discnvered; and a servant of his, 
not roeaniug to conceal so foul anil diahonoiirable 
a practice, gave intelligence hither by letters. 
But I refer the more particular declaration 
thereof to the peera of the privy council,'' No 
objection was mined by any one to this strange 
declaration; on the contrary, they all acted ae if 
it were decisive of the case, and at eight o'clock 
at night, when the trial had lasted twelve hours, 
tlie peera unanimously returned a verdict of 
guilty. Then the edge of tlie axe was turned 
towards the duke, and the loid-atewKrd said— 
"Tboma8,Duke of Norfolk, the lords, your peers, 
having now found you guilty, what have you to 
Bay why I may not proceetl to jndgraentr The 
duke replied, "The Lord's will be done, and God 
be judge between me and mine accusers:" and 
then the lord high-steward, wiih tears in his eyes, 
pronounced judgment:— "Thomas, late Duke of 
Norfolk, you have been indicteJ of high treason, 
and my lords, your peers, have found you guilty: 
therefore, this court doth award that you betaken 
hence to the Tower of London, and from thence 
be drawn through the midat of London to Ty- 
burn; and there you shall be hanged till you 'be 
half dead, and being alive you shall be cut down 
quick, your bowels shall be taken forth of your 
Ixxly, and burned before your face ; your liead 
shall be smitten ofT, and your body shall be di- 
vided into four quarters; your head and quar- 
ters to be set up where it shall please the queen's 
niBJeety to appoint: and the Lord have mercy 
upon your soiil." Then the duke said, "This, 
my lord, is the judgment of a traitor; but (strik- 
ing himself bard upon the breast) I am a true 
man to God and the queen as any that liveth, 
and always have been so.'' 

We are not informed as to the countenance 
and behaviour of Leicester, who eat through the 
trial and Toted thp dex'h of his confiding and 
generous-hearted victim. 

The mode in which a case of coustructive trea- 
son was made up will auord a curious exercise 
to the mind, and may be studied at length with 
some advantage.' But, after all, it will not he 
easy to arrive at any clenr notion of the extent 
of Norfolk's imprudence or guilt. That the Rii- 
dolfi conspiracy compassed and imagined the 
overthrow of Elizabeth, in part by the aid of 

foreign arms anil foreign money, there can be 
little doubt; but it would have been DO uuuaual 
case if the conspirators bad cloaked and concealed 
their extremest views from the duke, who was 
evidently a tool in the hands of more crafty, 
more daring, and inveterate plotters. If he were 
privy to the conspiracy in its full extent — which 
he always denied, and which was never proved 
against hira by unsuspected evidence— he was 
guilty at the least of misprision of treason. He 
Ls to have had a thoroughly English heart; 
not only a patriotic feeling for the indepen- 
dence of bis country, but also many of the pre- 

iling national prejudices against foreigners of 
all kinds, not excepting even the Scota. Our 
own impression is, that he contemplated nothing 
more than the reinstating of Mary, the sharing 
in her authority in Scotland, and in her hopes of 
the English succeiMion on Elizabeth's death. As 
a man of honour (if we may speak of anch a 
character in such a time), the worst part of his 
conduct was his breaking bis word to Elizabeth; 
but even there be was goaded and maddened by 
her harsh usage, beset by agents ever ready to 
work on his susoeptible temper, and fasdnaled 
by the letters and messagea of Mary. 

But, though thus condemned, Elizabeth hesi- 
tated to inflict capital punishment on so popular 
a nobleman, who was her own kinsman, and who 
had been for many yean her tried friend. Five 
days after his trial the duke wrote a long letter 
to her majesty, confessing that he had been un- 
dutiful, that he had most unkindly offended; but 
he stiU denied that he had ever contemplateil 
treason. He told the queen that be was now 
but as " a dead dog' in this world, and preparing 
himself for a new kingdom— that he would not 
ask her for life, but only beseech her to extend 
her merciful goodness to his poor orphan chil- 
dren. Elizabeth insidiously urged him to make 
an ample confession, and accuse others; but this 
Norfolk nobly refused, even when pleading for 
his children. "Tlie Lord knoweth," he says, 
"that I myself know no more than I have lieen 
charged withal, nor much of that, although, I 
humbly beseech God and your majesty to forgive 
me, I knew a great deal too much. But if it bail 
pleased your highness, whilst I was a man iu 
law, ♦" have commanded my accusers to have 
been brought to my face, although of my own 
knowleilge I knew no -nore than I have particu- 
larly confeB8ed,yet, if it had ple.tsed your majesty, 
there mi^ht jtPi'chance have Uilted out somewhat 
amongst tliem which might have made nomc- 
wbat for mine own purgntion, and your highncw 
perchance hove thereby known that which is now 
imiliscovered. . . . Now, an if it please your ma- 
jesty, it is t4Mi late for me to come face to face U> 
do you any service; the one boing a shamelesH 


A.D. 1564—1572] ELIZA 

Scot, Bud the other an Italiniiified Eoglislimai],' 
their faces will be too brazen to yield to any 
truth that I sh&ll charge them Tvith." ' This let- 
ter WM written fmin the Tower on the 23J of 
Jaiiiiary. Ou Saturday, the 8Ch of February, 
Elizabeth signed the warrant for the duke'a exe- 
ciiljaa on the Monday following; but at a Ute 
tioar on Sunday night she summoned to her pre- 
sence the wily Bui'ghley, who had been earueat 
with her to permit the law to take its course. 
The queen, accordiug to Biirghley's own words, 
"now entered into a great misliking that the 
duke ahould die the next day, and said »he nim. 
and should be, disquieted, and that she would 
Lave a new warrant made that very night to the 
sheriffn, t« forbear ttutil they should hear further ; 
and BO they did."' Auotlier waiTunt was couu- 
ternianded in the same manner, and a third, ob- 
tained, as the queen gave out, by importunate 
coBnsel, on the 9th of April, was recalled with 
her own hand at two o'clock in the moraiDg. She 
was evidently most anxious to lighten the odium 
of the execution, or to shift it from herself. The 
preachers, who had of late received regular poli- 
ticnl inHtructions from her council, took up the 
matter, and, unmiudful of the evangelical for- 
bearance, clamoured for vengeance on the duke. 
Private let(«T8 were written to the same effect 
to her majesty, but still she hesitated. In the 
meanwhile, parliament had assembled. On the 
16th of May the commons oommnnicated with 
the lords, and then drew up a petition to the 
throne, representing that there could be no safety 
till the duke was dead. The fanatic reasoning or 
declamation of the commons had a wouderful 
effect out of doom — every Protestant seemed to 
echo their call for blood; and at last Elizabeth 
put her hand to a death-warrant, which was not 
revoked. Out of regard to his high rank, the 
brutal punishment awarded by the sentence was 
commuted into beheading. Ou the 2d of June, 
1572, at eight o'clock in the morning, the duke 
was brought to a scaffold erected upon Tower- 
hill, attended by Alexander Nowel, deau of St, 
Paul's, and Foi, the martyrologiat, who had for- 
meriy been his tutor. Dr. Nowel desired the 
multitude to keep silence; after which the duke 
made a dying speech, which was nearly always 
expected, if not forcibly exacted, on such occa- 
sions. He proceeded to confess neither more nor 
leas than he bud done on his trial; to aver that 
he had never been Popishly inclined, tlio ugh some 
of his servants and acqiuiintance were addicted 
to the Romish religion. Then, after the reading 
of a psalm or two, he said, with a loud voice, 
"Lord Jesua, into thy hands 1 commend my ipiiut.' 
The headsman asked the duke's forgiveness, and 

I AUodtiw to Iht BlihD|i Dt Rw ud B«k«. 
' AvfUir Popfr*, • IbHL 

Vol. IJ. 

BETH. ] ,53 

had it granted. One offering him a handkerchief 
to cover his eyes, he refused it, saying, "I am 
not in the least afraid of death." He then fell on 
his knees, pniyini^, and presently he stretched hin 
neck across the block, and his head, at one blow, 
was cut off, and showed by tiie executioner to 
the sorrowing and weeping multitude.' "It is 
incredible," continues Camden, a spectator of the 
sad scene, " how deai'Iy he was loved by the 
people, whose good-will he had gniued by a 
princely muniSeence and extraoi-dinary affabili- 
ty. They called likewise to mind the uutimeiy 
end of his father,' a man of extraordinary leam- 
i[ig, and famous in war, who was beheaded in the 
same place five and twenty years before,' 

But the Protestants, whose wiM alarms had 
not yet subsided, were ea^r for a still greater 
sacrifice, and tliey turned a reiidy ear to an anony- 
mous casuist, who proved, in his own way, that 
it stood, not only with juatice, but with the hon- 
onr and safety of Elizabeth, to send the unfortu- 
nateQueenof Scotsto the scaffold; and to another 
writer, who supported his arguments with num- 
berless texts of Scripture, all made to prove that 
Mary had been delivered, into the hands of Eli- 
zabeth by a special providence, and deserved to 
die the death, because she was guilty of adultery, 
murder, conspiracy, treason, and blasphemy, and 
because she was an idolater, and led others to 
idolatry,* Both houses would have proceeded 
rtgaiiist the captive by bill of attainder, but Eli- 
zabeth interfered, and they were obliged to rest 
satisfied with passing a law to make her unable 
and unworthy of succession to the crown of Eng- 
land.' The captive queen had been restored to 
her old prison in Tutbury Caatle immediately 
after the defeat of the Earl of Northumberland, 
and, after some hurried removes to Chatsworth 
and other places, she was now at Sheffield Castle, 
in the tender keeping of Sir Balph Sadler and 
my Lady Shrewsbury, who both wished her in her 
grave, and seized the opportunity afforded by the 
trial and condemnation of Norfolk to exult over 
her sufferings, and insult her to her face. 

But Mary had soon to weep for more blood. 
The Earl of Northumberland, after lying more 
than two years a prisoner in Lochleven Castle, 
was basely sold to Elizabeth by the execrable 
Morton, who, during his own exile in England, 
liad tasted largely of the northern earl's hospi- 
Ulity and generosity. This transaction was the 
finishing touch to the character of the murderer 

> Tin ucoinplUhed Eul ot SnmT, tlw iMt doU« rlntliD of 
Uiabsth'i ttOtar. • VSicu. 

• Google 



[Civil Aim Ucutabt. 

of Rizzio. He permitted WlUUm Douglas, the 
lAird of Lochleven, to enter into ii negotiation 
with the exiled Countess of Nortliumbcrland for 
llie liberation of her husband. Two thousand 
pounda, the price agreed upou, was de|>08ited by 
the countess at Antwerp. Morton, at tlie same 
time, drove another bargain witli Elizabeth. In 
tlie month of June or July tlie uufortuiiate earl 
was carried on boai'd a veHael to proceed, as he 
vae told by these infernal traitors, to join his 
dear wife in Flanders. We need scarcely add 
what followed; as a matter of course he was 
landed at Berwick, the first English port; from 
Berwick lie was couduc:ted to York, and there 
beheaded without a trial. The earl, in the par- 
lance of those times, coitUnued obstinate iu reli- 
gion, and declared he would die a Catholic of the 
Pope's church. Sir Thomas Gargrave, who com- 
municates the particulars of the earl's execution 
to Lord Burghley,add8,"Ibe8eech the Almighty 
to preserve tbe queen's majesty and all good sub- 
jects from their (the Papists')- deceitful and cruel 
practices, the which, in my opinion, they intend, 
if time would serve. They have too much liberty 
and scope, and wax hard-hearted, wilful, and 

In Scotland many bad forfeited their lives (or 
their passionate attachment to Mary. Encouraged 
and assisted by Elizabeth, the father of Darnley, 
the imbecile Lennox, had established himself in 
the regency. More than a year before Norfolk's 
death, he gained, by surprise, the strong castle of 
Dumbarton, which had held out most gallantly 
for the queen. Among the prisoners taken in 
that fortress was Hamilton, Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, whom Lennox caused to be hanged at 
Stirling without trial. The civil war than raged 
more fiercely than ever. The regent, iu a parlia- 
ment, attainted Secretary Majtland as one of the 
assassins of hb son Daralej, and some chiefs of 
the house of Hamilton for their oppo»tion to the 

■ Wright, (in™ 

nlunlilfdHllinUi. ITbi 

of PnUaUul Butholo 

king's government. He osaembled a second par- 
liament, with the intention of passing more at- 
tainders, but his own hour was come. The Earl of 
Huntly, Lord Claude Hamilton, and Scott of 
Buccleucb, secretly assembled 600 men, made a 
night march, and got posseaaion of the town of 
Stirling without opposition. The Hamiltons,on 
their onslaught, cried, "Bemember the arch- 
bishop!" for the prelate of St. Andrews was of 
their kindred, though only illegitimately so.' In 
a few moments they broke open the lodgings of 
Che ptinci{)al lords of the regent's faction, and 
made them ail prisoners, together with Lennox 
himself. It was the intention of the insurgents 
to convey their capUves to Edinburgh Castle, 
which was stitl in their hands ; but Morton 
escsj«d, barricaded his bouse, and made a vigor- 
ous resistancei tlie burghers of Stirling rose upon 
theintruders; some troops arrived under the Earl 
of Mar, and the victors found themselves ob- 
liged to turn and flee. One of the Hamiltons, 
determined that the regent should not escape, 
bade him remember the archbishop, and shot 
him through the head. As another regent was 
now wanting, the lords nominated the Earl of 
Mar— a man far too honourable for those men 
and those times. Morton had more power than 
the new regent, and was the devoted friend and 
servant of Elizabeth, whom he obeyed in ail par- 
ticulars. But, in spite of Morton and Elizabeth, 
the banner of Mary still floated over the walla of 
Edinburgh Qistle ; and in the mountains of the 
north the Gordons and other Highlaudera kept 
her cause liugetdng on. 

Under the able management of Watsiogham 
and Sir Thomas Smith, the treaty with IVance 
had been concluded in the month of April, ISTS, 
about six weeks before the Duke of Norfolk's 
execution. The French king bound himself tu 
give Elizabetli aid in all cases of invasion what- 
soever; but Elizabeth did sot show any readiness 
in proceeding with the matrimonial treaty, which 
was interrupted and renewed several times, and 
altogether ingeniously prolonged for tlie ^>ace of 
ten years. 

« Dnk« of ChiUllciuill, tin 



Wnnm-r- ol St. BuUiolomsw— Inildii 

■acompauisd— FuUawnl b; ui ontorr 
in ScoilsDd— Death of Cbarlm IX oC 1 
in tha y«tberUndB— Eliubeth aid* thi 
conduct — Tbe dake 


of Hie Frenoh court to iffsot it— Atrocitiu witL vhicb it wu 
EngUud for Mkiya de&th — Birl of Morton sitccsedi to the TSgeoc; 
mm, and aocenion of hia brothsr Hear; III.— War foi iDdepandence 
ivolt— She ii ngun soaght in muritge by ths Daks of Aojau- Usr 
ita EogUod — rronblei in Iraluid — Flotiuid outbreak! aguDit the 
Engliih ucondODCy— Adkire in 9eatUDd-^un«' »i!y fkTouritea — Tbejproaaro tbe downtkll of tbe Earl of 
Morton — Hif aiecu Won— Intrigues in Scotland tor tha Ubecation of Miry — Tba " baid of Ruthroa" — AUrnia 
at Popish coasiiiiaoiaB in England- Eisoatioo* of Fapiiti — The ThroctiaiortoD plot — EiecutioD of Frwicu 
Ilkiockmorton — Fraah penal itatatgs against tbe Papbtn — Naval exploits of the Bagliah agtuoBt the Spaniards 
in Annrioa— Elizabeth aidi tha Netbeiluida againat Spain — Tha Babington conspiracy — Detection and exe- 
ootion of the coaspintora — Earl of Leiceator'B proposal to poiraa Qnaea Mtxj — Treatmeot of ISnzj in her 
difrerent priaooa— She is charged with being aoceasoiy to Babington's conspiracy— Her denial of the charge — 
Deogn annonaead to bei of bringing her to trial— The trial held at Fotheringay Castle— She is charged with 
coDOpiiing the death of Elizabeth— Her ansver and dafenoe — The Attampte to inculpate har — She is pronounced 
gniltT and santenoed to die — Popular triumph at tbs aeataaoe — Mary's heroistu — Fraitleu interposition of 
Henry III. to save her— Apathjof James, her eon— Intriguea to thwart his applioations in her behalf — 
iniiabetli's irreeolotion to conGnn Hiry's sentence— She at last aigna it— Elizabeth's attempts to throir tha 
blame on olhera — Uary'B conduct on receiving the aentance — Her praparationa for death — Her execution — 
Eliabath's hypocritical conduct on receiving tidings of the eiecntion. 

I) HE English queen hnd been feast- 
at Kenilworth C'lutle wilhtht 
Eart of Leicester, iwd had reached 
Woodatock on her wny homeward, 
when she received the dismal intel- 
ligence of the maeaacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew, at Purls. The late paciScaCioQ be- 
tween the French Catholics and Huguenots had 
been aa hollow afi all tbe preceding onea. The 
nominal head of the Huguenots waa the voung 
King of Nararre, afterwards Henry IV. of 
France; but the real leader was the veteran 
ligny. Admiral of France. In the spring of 1571, 
King Charles professed a wonderful engemesa to 
reconcile the two parties, and offered the hand of 
his sitter to Henry of Navarre. At the i 
time, he tempted CoUigiiy with the offer of the 
command of a great Freni^h army to be sent ' 
FlandeiB to co-operate with the Prince of Orange 
against the King of Spain. In the summer of 
the same year, Charles again eameatlj solicited 
the admiral to repair to court, writing to him 
with his own hand, and secdiug the letter, backed 
by warm solicitations from the adiiiirarg near 
relations, by the hands of Teligny, the admiral's 
son-in-law. The admiral, in the autumn of 1571, 
went to Bloia, where Charles was keeping hiH 
court. He was received with all honour — was 
restored to all his former dignities, and the king 
called him " Father.' Meanwhile the match be- 
tweeu Henry of Navarre and the Princess Mar- 
paet went on; and on the ISth of August of the 
prewat year (1572) the marriage was celebrated 
at Parii. Colligny and a great number of the 

Protestant lords attended. The three following 
days were spent in festivity. On the fourth day 
(Friday, the 22d ot August) the admiral attended 
a privy council, after which he went to the tennis- 
yard with the king, the Duke of Quise, and others 
of the court. As he walked thence homeward 
through the streets an arquehuae was dischai^ed 
at him from the window of a house occupied by 
a dependant of the Dulce of Guise. He was 
struck in two places, but neither of the wounds 
was dangerouB. The Huguenots crowded to his 
house nttering menacing language against the 
Ouises, for they suspected that the Ihike of 
Guise had directed the blow in revenge for the 
death of his father, who had been assassinated 
by Poltrot, the Huguenot, at the siege of Or- 
leans.' On Saturday, the 23d, the queen-mother 
held secret conferences in the Louvre, and after 
dinner, or about uoon, she entered tlie king's 
chamber, where her other son, the Duke of Anjou, 
and several lords soon joined her. All united in 
representing to Cliarles that the Huguenots were 
at that moment plotting his destruction, and that, 
if he did not destroy them before night, he and 
his whole family would be sacrificed liefore the 
next morning. According to his own account, he 
thereupon gave a reluctant consent to a general 
lacre, the execution of which was intrusted 

Colllgnr. The nugoenot* rfi 
iona as nail as ths Csthnlla. NsaH^ fOur jaars bafoie this 
LtLompted SMSBliisMiiii of Colligny, ah attempt wsa mads to 
uiinlcraiHilhsrafQinen >lafT'sanclgB,t>MCBnlinaIofLorrsln«, 
Lt Rhalms.— Lettsr rrvm Blr Henry Norrls to Caidl,(iTED bf 


,v Google 



[Civil ahd Military. 

to the Uukeaof Oui^;, Anjnn.and Aumal^Mon- 
tespSD, and Mimlial Tuviinaes, vho are gene- 
rally believed to have arranged the whole plan 
befoi-eband with the queen - mother. ChArlee 
atid Catherine then went to an open bnlcoiiy to 
await the result, the young king trembling all 
over. At a, concerted signal — the toUing of the 
church bell of St. Qennuin I'Auxerrois — the work 
at blood began. The house of Culligny was buret 
open, and he and all in it were murdered. The 
butchers threw the bodies out of the windows iuto 
the etreeta, where they were treated with brutal 
indignity: and theu the tocaiu was «ounde<l from 
the parliament house, calling upon the people to 
protect their religion and their king. Foi-thwith 
idl Paris resounded with the horrid cries of 
"Death to the Utiguenota!— Kill every man 
of them!— killl— kill!" And the ProteatonU, 
wherever they could be found, were atrociously 
slaughtered^ men, women, and children. To 
wards evening proclamation was mode, by sound 
of trumpet, that it was the king's wilt that the 
slaught«r should cease ; but the Parisians were 
drunk with blood, and the maaaacre wua partially 
continued through that night and the two toUow- 
iog days. Scenes of precisely the same sort were 
enacted in Bouen, Lyona, and other cities. In 
Paris alone, SOU men of i&nk, and nearly 10,000 
of interior conditions, were butchered in cold 
blood. All were not Huguenots, for many a 
Catholic took this easy opportunity of despatch- 
ing his personal enemy without regard to his 
creed. In all France 30,000 individuals are said 
to have perished on St. Bartholomew's Dny and 
the days of slaughter which followed it.' 

Of the French Protestants who escaped the 
massacre, some threw themselves into Bochelle, 
whence they cast an imploring sye towards Eng- 
land: others fled across the Channel, until every 
English port on the south coast was crowded with 
them. The English people woidd have rushed 
at once into a war to punish the treacliery and 
cruelty of the French Catholics ; but Elizabeth 
peremptorily forbade any of her subjects to tnke 
up arms except on their own account, and as pri- 
vate volunteers. She did nut recal her ambas- 
sador; nay, she scarcely interrupted her matri- 
monial treaty, though she was glad to have on 
opportunity of telling the French court that a 
visit to England, which had been projected for 
her young suitor, the DukeofAlen^n, would not 
be desirable in the prescut temper of her people.* 

■ nu nunxinr of the deod is TArionilj alAtfld, locordinr (a 
t)iBnU(ioDaflher«rtlai>riIiDg. HttOOO. 10,000, 40,000, TO.OOO, 
100.B0O: D« ThDii, Adriuii, Da l^mg. ftnd Iha uithar of n 

■' tliit ruitbtr pan] vhich 

One at the firat elbeta in Eagland of the St. 
Bartholomew niasBaci-e was an outciy for ttie 
immediate execution of Queen Miiry, a measure 
recommended by nearly the whole bench of bish- 
ops, from Parker the primate downwards. On 
the 5th of September, Sandys, Bishop of London, 
proposed to Burghtey forthwith to cut off the 
Scottish queen's bead, who, he said, was the in- 
firm part in the foundation of the existing state 
of things. The queeu still shrunk from the 
odium of publicly imbruing her hands in her 
rival's bloodi but she thought that it might be 
possible to get the thing safely done in Scotlanil. 
Killigrew was sent down to Edinburgh to arrsnge 
the matter, being chaT;ged not to commit his so- 
vereign's honour by any too open proceeding. 
He was, in short, to keep himself in public to the 
settliogof a treatyof paciiicution between the re- 
gency and Mary's adherents iu Edinburgh CosUe 
and elsewhere; but, in private, he was to pro- 
pose the delivery of Mrjy into the hands of her 
enemies, that she might "receive that she hnil 
ileserved there by order of justice."' 

But this negotiation fell to the gi-ound through 
the unusual honour of the Regent Ifor, who was 
actively employed in arranging a very different 
pacification. He was labouring to effect a genetaJ 
union of the several rivol foctions into which the 
Scottish aristocracy was divided, on object for the 
accomplishment of which he seems to have b^n 
prepared to share his powtr with Maitland, Kir- 
kaldy, Morton, and the other parties who had 
hitherto opposed his odministratiou. In the midst 
of these patriotic negotiations, the Earl of Mor- 
ton invited the regent to hia house at Dalkeith, 
and treated him very nobly; but the regent took 
a vehement sickness, which caused him to ride 
away to Stirling, where he died on the 28th of 
October of this present year, 1572. Some of his 
friends and the common people suspected he had 
"gotten wrong" at Morton's banquet.' On the 
24th of November Morton was chosen regeut 
under the auspices of Elizabeth, whom he had 
already served in many particulars. Hia power 
had always been great, and now that it was su- 
preme in Scotland, he devoted it to the two great 
objects of enriching himself by forfeitures and 
doing tlie will of the English queen, (a.d. 1573.) 
Killigrew remained with the new regent, and 
assisted him in arranging a separate treaty with 
the Earl of Huutly and the Hamiltons, by which 
Kirkaldy of Grange, Maitland of LethiugtoD, 

(ood niuil that Uia ltk< b« not MMniptvl >niong ttiEm 
Ifio ounnuniled towamll good speadmth the mort w 
icon, uid T*t n Id dial u that the mitlii (Svj'tt 


AD. 1572- 1687.] EUZi 

and the others in Ediubargb Cnstle, were left to 
ibemselvn to prolong a now hopelem struggle for 
Queen Miry. Maitland proposed an honourable 
capitulatioD : Morton insisted on an uncondi- 
tioDal surrender. At this crisis Elizabetli sent 
ui army from Berwick, under Dnirj the marshal, 
who was fun.iihed with heavy artillery, and with 
instructiona to lay the castle in ruins. Though 
sUrving and destitute, the garrioon, under the 
brave and skilful Kirkaldy, held out for thirty 
four d&ys, when they surrendered, eipressly to 
Drury aud the Queen of England, upon a general 
promise of favourable terms. But Elizabeth or- 
dered that MaiUand and Kirkaldy should be 
delivered up to Morton At last all Maitland's 
undermining and counterminiDg were nt an end. 
and his subtle genius stood rebuked and helpless- 
he ended bis days on the 8th of June, a few weeks 
after the surrender of the castle. According to 
one account he took poison, and "died a Roman 
death;' according to another, the poison was ad- 
roiniatered to him by Morton.' On the 3d of 
August following the gallant Kirkaldy was 
hanged and quartered as a traitor, and thus per- 
ished Qie last remnant of Mary's party in Scot 

ror at Vincennes, in the twenty-siith year of his 
age. He was succeeded by his brother the Duke 
of Anjou, a former Buitorof Elizabeth. This new 
king, Henry III,, was detested by the Protestants 
for the part he had taken in the massacre; and 
he tad not been a year on the throne when he 
detected a conspiracy to murder him, in which his 
own brother, the Duke of Ajenfon, Elizabeth's 
present suitor, was deeply implicated. Alenfon 
escaped from the court, and began to levy troops 
for another war in conjunction with young Hen- 
ry, the then Protestant King of NaTarre. They 
both applied to Elizabeth for assistance; but she 
preferred the office of mediator, and, on the 14lh 

BETH. 157 

of May, 1576, a treaty was concluded, by which 
the Huguenots were to have permission to wor- 
ship Ood in their own way in public churches, 
and Alenfon obtained the hononn, titles, and 
appanage which had been enjoyed by his elder 
brother Henry previous to his accession. F>oni 
this time Alenfon was styled Duke of Anjou. 
But this pacification was scarcely achieved wheu 
Henry III. placed himself at the head of a Ca- 
tholic league, formed by the majority of his sub- 
jects, and in the month of February, 1577, ha 
annulled at a blow the privileges granted to the 
Huguenots, who thereupon proceeded to take up 

At this momeut the minds of Elizabeth and 
her ministers were rather occupied by the affairs 
of the Netherlands than by those of France. The 
Prince of Orange, after a tremendous stnig^e, 
had succeeded in establishing the independence 
of Holland and Zealand, and the Duke of Alva 
had been recalled to wither and die under the 
frowns and ingratitude of his master, Philip, for 
n he had waded in blood.* Alva had been 
succeeded by Zuniga.commendatorof Bequesens, 
who, by policy and gentle meaiores, detached 
many of the partiians of the Prince of Orange. 
That prince, in his increasing diiBcnlties, offered 
the sovereignty or the protectorship of Holland 
and Zealand to Etizabeth, who was assumed to 
bearepresentstiveof their ancient princes by her 
descent from Philippa of Hainault, the wife of 
Edward III. The qneen hesitated, and changed 
her mind more thaji once, but at last declared 
that she could not in conscience accept their offer, 
but that she would act ss mediatrix between 
them and their lawful sovereign, Philip. This 
answer was given in the month of February, 1676, 
but events occurred with wonderful rapidity, 
which wholly changed the queen's plans. Re- 
quesens died, and was succeeded by John of 
Austria (a bastard son of the late Emperor 
Charles V.). a brave and popular commander; 

illlgnw hiiDHlf uji IhBl JlilUud di>d not oiUuHil •m- 
of poiioD. MalTllltuid RpMtlnrosd agTM Id B^int iliit, 
nmndand bj EUubMh. h> digd "iflar th> Romu 

n." Kmij, in a iMtar tddi^Hd tn hex in bn dwd buid. 

id Eli^bflih of thft poEiDnIng of UaJtUind 

iTtnuilF llb«n; on (bo Donllnenl at 


r, -htcb 

m, Iba eulMd ip 
n ind«pej>d«i)« 1 



Ti G*nji 

mljlit ki» hin onght addillimiil boldni 

tbt friunplt tnd opioloiu ot Eaglraid, with which thirj 

m for nrigHm wtn th« ProtoBtAntt of llimt BuTgundiui 
Ei«B. Qurlva V. iTogan Uf prr«cribe that bod^ of hii lab- 
ln thsHDnmn-of IMl. mIUt ht bad holiten ui imperW 

utd aa vlkt ddI ml) tor the goxiudieiii dI th* smpin. 

Aponolic Bee, oi wbo poaoaasd Lutheran boo^ or biibouTAj 

lh«ii who won) napiicUd of hsmr. SoIidUtlon tbr fD(itiTa 
wu prohit^tAL— not axceptiui tatbart, lona, or DrotbRV. Etsd 
bj iwuitation of borenj^ no ftrth«T gna ooold be««ni*d ttitn 

od began u> tie ipUM m UN. FYom tbut tmiB.' nja Fitbiir 
I, 'Up tbr paaoe of Catoau.Cambreaia in 15&&, tbnv wtn 
M Proleatanta hangad, Mmded, biirwd milTe» or bniMil 
3D Nstharlanda.' Orotiua. tn wrltii^ of a Ut«r period, aiti. 






and it was rumoured thnt. Dot sntisSed with the 
aubjugation of the whole of the Netherlands, he 
coDteinptated an invasion of England, and a mar- 
riage with the Queen of Scots. At the aaine time 
the Prince of Orange, in hia despair, talked of 
offering the sovereignty of his couiitrj to Eliza- 
beth's suitor, Alen;on, now Duke of Anjou. Upon 
this Elizabeth concluded an alliance, offensiTe and 
defensive, with the Orange party, protesting all 
the while to Philip that she merely intended to 
preserve to him the Netherlanila from the grasp 
of the French, and to herself the kcingdum of Eng- 
land free from invasion by his ambitious half- 
brother, Don John. The English negotiator oo 
thik occasion was William Davison, The queen 
had already furnished large sums of money, but 
now they were in want of more, and Davison en- 
gaged to procure it on their giving adequate ae 
eurity. The Dutch diplomatist produced the 
valuable jewels and plate which bad been pledged 
by Mathias of Austria to the states of Uol- 
laod; and, on these things being sent to England, 
.£50,(K)0 were advanced for present exigencies.' 
In spite of the new spirit which had been infused 
intA them by the English treaty, the Dutch were 
defeated in the great battle of Oemblours. They 
then applied, iu a breath, to the Protestant 
princes of Qermany, to Elizabeth, and to the 
Duke of Anjou Cassimir, another of the Eng- 
ti'sh queen's suitors, niai-ched into the Nether- 
lands with a powerful army, and Anjou soon fol- 
lowed with 10,000 meu. Neither, however, could 
do much against such great commanders as Don 
John and Alexander Famese, Prince of Parma, 
who had recently arrived with another army of 
Spaniards and Italians. The Duke of Anjou ex- 
cused bis want of success by pleading his anxiety 
not to offend Elizabeth ; anil at this very moment 
he was renewing bis suit with a rikre ardour. He 
wnt over Siroier, a nobleman who possessed un- 
common skill in amorous matters, and who wa^ 
irresbtibly witty and gallant. This Simier soon 
giuned an extraordinary ascendency over the 
mind of tbe queen, to whom he constantly repre- 
sented that hia employer, Anjou, was almost dy- 
ing of love for her. He did more: he disclo-ied 
to her that tlie Earl of Leicester had recently 
married iu private the widow of the late Earl of 
Essex. According to popular rumour the fn- 
Tcurite had poisoned Essex to make way to hif 
bed. Leicester stormed and protested; but, for 
the first time in his life, he found his royal mis- 
tress implacable. He was severely reprimimded, 
nud pta<^ in confinementalGreenwicfa. Id the 
following summer (1580) the Duke of Anjou 
suddenly appeared at Greenwich, having tra- 

' Sir H»rrt. XtchoU., l,/r ,/ WJI-am Ain»>i, Hacnui; -t \ 
auitributuD to (b* hlrtm; et llili mgii 1 

veiled thither in disguise. The strong and mas- 
culine mind of Elizabeth was weaker than that 
of a child in some points, and this was one of 
them. The romance of the thing quite fascinated 
her. After a few days of ardent courtship, and 
much private talk, Anjou went his way. A few 
(lays after his departure Elizal>eth assembled the 
lords of her council, and submitted to tliera "the 
great question.' These lords were divided in 
opinion — some of them representing the danger 
to religion from a Catholic husband; the sinful- 
ness of allowing the mass to be set up, though in 
private, in the royal palace; the peril to her ma- 
jeaty'slife, it, at herage (she was nowiuherforty- 
uinth year), she should have issue; aud the use- 
leaaness of the marriage if she had not' Every 
account of Elizabeth's conduct at this critical mo- 
ment is startling and perplexing, but most of 
them would lead us to believe that she was now 
really anxious for a marriage with this young 
prince. Bui-ghley, the scarcely leas adroit Wal- 
aingham, her relative Hunsdon, Mildmay, Sadler 
— all were loat in amazement, and doubt, aud 
dread. It is said that she shed passionate tears 
upon finding that they did uot unanimously peti- 
tion her to marry, as they had done before. They 
were, however, too careful of their liberty and 
their places to offer any open opposition to what 
seemed to be the queen's wiahea; and they ac- 
tively drove on to its conclusion a preliminary 
matrimonial treaty with Simier. But in two 
months Elizabeth again declared that she would 
die a virgin queen. Again, however, in a few 
months, when n splendid emliassy from Cather- 
ine de' Medici arrived in Lonrlou (it was in the 
spring of 1581), she agreed that the marriage 
should be concludeil within six weeks, but with a 
pi-ovision that she should be at liberty to change 
her mind again if certain secret stipulations were 
not previously fulfilled. It is ditHcult to under- 
stand, even with full reference to all her political 
relations at home and abroad — it is impossible 
to reconcile to any Hied and wise principle the 
vacilUtiug conduct of the qnceu. The states of 
the Netherlands, where her influence was great, 
formally elected the Duke of Anjou to lie their 
sovereign; and when that prince marched into 
the country at the head of 16,0(X) men, heedless 
of her old anxieties about French ambition, she 
sent him a i>re.-«nt of KMl.iKX) crowns. Chiefly 
by means of this seasonable ^d, Anjou gaineil 
many successes. On the approach of winter be 
put hia troops into winter-quarters, and hurried 
over to England, whither, it is said, he was now 
warmly invited by Elizabeth. His arrival was 
welcomed with fireworks and other rejoicings; 
and soon after the queen, before her whole court. 

« Burglilfi, Fitpiri. SaJlty. 

,v Google 

4D 1572— 1587.1 



took a. ring from her Goger, aoil put it upon hin. 
Hereupoa the aewa was spread abroad upon the 
winga of the nitid that the queen wag going to 
marry at last. In Paris the news whs, that the 
match could know no further impediment; in 
Antwerp and Brussels they lit bonfires and dis- 
charged artillery, na if iL had really taken place. 
But, in the ni^ht, Elizabeth had talked with some 
of her council, and in the morning Anjou found 
hi^ affianced bride pale and in tears; aud before 
he left her apartment he was assured that she 
could never marry.' It was, however, some time 
before these matters were made public; and the 
zealous Protestants continued to rail against the 
marriage, heaping all kinds of abuse, not only on 
the Duke of Anjou, but on the whole Fi-eneh na- 
tion, and much marvelling that the queen had 
not a better recollection of the feast of St. Bar- 
tholomew. The preachers had begun the attack 
some time before, by condemning t)ie intended 
match from the pulpit, but they had been pretty 
well silenced. After staying three months iti 
England, Anjou prepared to depart, pledging, 
however, his word to the queen that he would 
Roon return. She accompanied him fi^ far as Can- 
terbury, aud there took leave of him, weeping 
like an amorous girl.' Ou his arrival in the 
Netherlands, Anjou found very different employ- 
ment: Alexander Parnese wasnot yet conquered, 
and the Prince of Orange possessed in reality the 
power which nominally belonged to the French 
prince. Dissensionsbrokeoutbetween the French 
and the Dutch, and, in the mouth of June of the 
tollowiiig year, Anjou, having witnessed the loss 
of the greater part of his troops, fled back to 
France. Soon after his return he fell into a lin- 
gering illness, of which he died in the month of 
June, 1684 — we need scarcely add, " not without 
suspicion of being poisoned.'' 

We have alluded to the troubles of Ireland, 
and to the views in that direction of France aud 
Spain. That country had never been well go- 
verned or tranquil for a single year, but the dif- 
ference of religion was now a perennial source of 
havoc and desolation. Sometimes the English 
pale wa.1 wasted by fire and swoni ; hut, gene- 
rally speaking, the undisciplined Irish were the 
victims of that merciless war. Shane O'Neil was 
basely assassinated, and his lands, comprising the 
greater part of Ulster, were vested in the Eng- 
lish crown as. early as 1668. Numerous colonists 
were sent over from England to occupy these 
lands, where they bad to maintain themselves 
by the sword, for the dispossessed pmprietoni 
struggled bard to keep their inheritance. In 
1573 Waller Devereui, Earl of Esaei, undertook 
to subdue aud colonize the district of Clan-bubny. 

1 Camdm: Mtuin Ot limr,.- DmiH. 

• Lrttar gf Lrnd Tulbe^ in Lodn lUiutraUmu- 

He set sail with a small army of his own raising, 
but met with little success; he was wretchedly 
seconded bj the peiinrious and jealous court of 
England; and he died at Dublin in 1576, sus- 
pecting himself that he was poisoned.' The- Irish 
priests naturally looked to the pope and the Ca- 
tholic powers for assistance. From time to time 
they received encouraging messages from France 
and Spain ; but the first to send them any real 
Jince in the shape of troops was Pope Gre- 
gory Xm, Sii hundred diacipliued troops and 
3(NX) stand of arms were embarked at Civita- 
vecchia, the nearest port to Rome, to fall down 
the Mediterranean, to touch nt Lisbon, there to 
take on board Fitzmorris, an Irish exile, and 
then to proceed t^the Irish coast. But Stukely, 
the oificei to whom this expedition was intrusted, 
proved a traitor or a mad adventurer ; on reach- 
Lialxiu he offered his services to Sebastian, 
King of Portugal, and, instead of going to Ireland 
fight the English, he went to Africa to fight 
the Moors, who slew him, and King Sebastian, 
aud all his host, at the buttle of Alcasar. Fitz- 
is, who was a brother or lialf-brother of thft 
Earl of Desmond, sailed from Lisbon in the right 
direction, but he had with him only about eighty 
Spanish soldiers, a troop of Irish and English 
Catholic exiles, and Saunders, the Jesuit, whom 
the pope had named his legate. Such a force 
could maintain itself nowhere, and the Irish had 
Buffered so severely that tliey were slow to rise. 
Fitzmorris, therefore, lingered among the moors 
and bogs; but in the following year, 1680, there 
a great rising, and an Italian officer in the 
pay of the pope, arrived from Portugal with 6IX» 
~ 10 men, 5(KK> stand of arms, and some money. 
But these foreigners were presently assaulted 
both by sea and laud, in an unfinished fort at or 
near to Smerwick, in the county Kerry, Two 
memorable men were in the English camp — 
Edmund Spenser, the author of the Faerie Queen, 
1(1 Walter Raleigh, then the captain of a com- 
pany. The latter, who, in some respects, was 
not in advance of his age, took a conspicuous 
part in the carnage which ensued, and the gentle 
Spenser justified the atrocious deed with his pen. 
After resisting for three days, San Giuseppe, the 
Italian commander, hung out a flag of truce, and 
sent n secretary to the lord-deputy, the Lord Grey 
of Wilton, whom Spenser calls " a most gentle, 
affable, loving, and temperate lord ! ' to treat for 
grace. According to Spenser, this was flatly re- 
fused,* The Irish and foreign writers assert that 
the Lord-deputy Grey of Wilton promised the 

jicb Knollj., L, 

,v Google 



[Civil and Militabt. 

foreigners tbeir live* i upon which they Itud down 
their arms, and were all maaaaered in cold blood, 
with the eieeption of one Irish uoblemau and a 
few Spanish officers j and, aa veteran troops do 
not lay down tlieir arma, even in extremities, 
without Home such assurance, it may be conjec- 
tured that a promise, at least of lite, waa given. 
The English continued in that sharp couree, and 
brought under the insurgents of Ulster and Con- 
uaught. lu 1583 the Earl of Desmond, who had 
lain concealed for nearly three years in the wildest 
part of the country, waa tracked and killed on 
his own hearth-stone by one Kelly of Moriarty, 
who cut off his head and sent it to Elizabeth. 
The earl's head was fixed upon London bridge ; 
and for aome time there waa peace iu Ireland. 

In Scotland there was confusion, intrigue, and 
treachery. The Regent Morton had acourged the 
country with a rod of iron, plundering in all di- 
rections, tampering with the coinage, and seek- 
ing every means to enrich himself. In 1578 a 
convention of the nobility insisted that James, 
who waa now in hia thirteenth year, waa of a 
proper age to govern by himself. Morton waa 
taken by aurpriae, and retired, aa to the beat 
place of safety, to Lochleven Cuatle. About 
three montlia after, he contrived to obtain posses- 
sion of the person of the young king, and to re- 
sume hia authority. The Earis of Argyle and 
Athole raised an army— aa they said, to i-est-ue 
their aovereign from the captivity of the Doug- 
lases; but when a battle seemed inevitable, the 
English ambassador interfered, and patched up 
a reconciliation. Soon after, Morton gave a ban- 
quet to his adveraaries; and the Earl of Athole, 
the chief of these, died of the dinner. And soon 
there ran a rumour that Morton was negotiat- 
ing for the delivery ol James into the hands of 
Eliiabeth. At this moment Eani6 Stuart, Lord 
of Aubigny, arrived from France, where he had 
been educated. He waa the son of a second 
brother of the Earl of Lennoi, the father of 
Damley, and consequently a near relation to the 
young king, who at once took him into extraor- 
dinary favour. This, the first of James' many 
favourites, waa handsome, graceful, and accom- 
plished. Hia rise was proportionately rapid ; he 
became Duke of Lennoi, captain of the guard, 
first lord of the bedchamber, and lord high- 
chamberUiin. But nuder this favourite, who 
knew little of Scotland, or of busineaa of any 
kind, there was a minor favourite, James Stuart, 
commonly called Captain Stuart, the second son 
of Lord Ochiltree, a family which also claimed 
kindred with the royal house. The capUin, who 
had a turn for treachery and intrigue equal to 
that of Morton, bad fuHy resolved to work thi 
fall of the regent; and this he achieved after 
many difficulties, [or Morton nan strong in the 

prejudices and fears of the people, who were led 
to believe that the Duke of Lennox was an agent 
of the Guises, commissioned to restore the masa 

Scotland. Morton hud procured an net of 
parliament to ratify every proceeding of hia 
regency, and to indemnify him for any illegal 
jxerciaeof authority. It waa, therefore, deemed 
imprudent to prosecute him for any part of his 
conduct as regent ; hut Moiton, long before hi« 
regency, bad been vehemently suspected of hav- 
ing ft share in the murder of tbe king's father; 
and Captain Stuart, now created Earl of Arrwi, 
induced Jamea to proceed against him on thia 
int, alleging that tbe act of indemnity did 
not reach to tbe murderers, and that a 
upon this fact would equally carry with i1 
forfeiture of Morton's life and of hia i] 
wealth and wide eatates, which would all fall to 
the poor king. The acute villain hod grown 
somewhat dull with age; he allowed himself to ' 
be thrown into prison. Elizabeth sent down her 
old agent fiandolph to interpose in hia favour. 
The Prince of Orange and the Protestant King 
of Navarre also interfered — for Morion wa* 
deemed a sturdy Protestant, while the royal fa- 
vourite, the young Duke of Lennox, waa sus- 
pected of P.ipiatry. But these representations 

e not regarded, and Randolph, who waa found 

plotting with the Earl of Angus, waa obliged 

to flee tor bis life.' Elizabeth even collected troops 

near the Borders to intimidate the Scota ; but 

is measure waa met by the levying of au army 

Scotland, and James was made to send a mea- 
senf^r to demand explicitly whether the CJueen 
of England wished to have peace or war. Her 
majesty then abandoned her creature to hia faW, 
delicately protesting that it would not become 
her to make war iu defence of a murderer, and 
old Morton, after a very irregular trial,' waa ex- 
ecuted by the " maiden," a rude kind of guillo- 
tine, which he himself had introduced into Scot- 
land a abort time before. And thus perished 
aiTother Regent of Scotland. A portion of the 
trial ia intereating, as bearing upon the question 
of Mary's guilt or innocence. The unanunous 
verdict of the jury brought the prisoner In guilty 
of concealing, or being art and part in the mur- 
der of Henry Damley; and it was proved pretty 
clearly that bis kinsman and confidant Archibald 
Douglas, and his servant Binning, were acluslly 
employed iu the murder. It waa also shown that 
he had given a bond to Bothwell, to aecuro him 
from pimiahment for that deed; and a paper was 
produced, which was Mid to be Bothwell'a dying 
lieclBiatiou, and which exonerated the queen 
from ail share in the dark transaction. Morton, 

,v Google 

)72 1587.] 



after seuteuce, coufeaaed to tlie miiiiaUn of tbe 
kirk that, ufioii his return fi-om EngUn'I, aft«r 
hia exile for hia part in the Biaugbter of David 
BiEzJo, the Eurl of Bothwell and his kitieniaii 
Arvbibald Douglas bad so- 
licited bim to btke part io the 
projected murder of Daruley; 
but he affirmed that be de- 
ciiDed BO doing, unless Both- 
wel) could produce to hiiu the 
qneEti's sign-manual id war- 
rant of the deed. He alleged 
that Bothwell had promiiied 
him to giroduce auch an asau- 
rance; but he admitted that he 
neaer did, and that he never 
saw anythiDg from tbe queen 
to authorize the mnrder. Hin 
aerraut hinnitig was executeil 
the day aftor his master; but 
tbe far more guilty Archibald 
Douglas escaped into EDgland. 

After the death of Morton, i,,.,^ 

.Tamni nominally governed 
the kingdom by hiniaelf; but, in fact, the whole 
LiiaiDeKi of tlie state was managed, or mis- 
managed, by his favourite, the young Duke of 
Lennox, and by James Stuart, the new Earl 
nf Amiii. The latter waa as unprincipled as 
Morton, without hia ability and experience, aud 
Ilia private life was outrageously dissolute. He 
*oon commenced an intrigue for the overthrow 
of the young Duke of Lennox, who had firxt put 
him in the way of court promotiou ;an(l tlie course 
he adopted speedily brought about the ruin both 
Iff his patron and of himself. At this moment 
tbe Catholics of Euglaud turned an anxious eye 
to the north, not only hoping tliat James, now 
that he n-as relieved from Morton, would make 
some exertions for his afflicted mother, but also 
that he might be won over, if not to their church, 
to ■ toleration of it and hia feelings in this re- 
spect would be of no small imiiortance, as they 
all probability succeed to 
Active intrigues were set 
in direction of Parsons, the 
Jesuit. Waytes, an EugliHh Catholic clergyman, 
and Creigbton, a Scottish Jesuit. Btit it waa 
stated by, or for the king, that he waa in a state 
of extreme poverty, and that, unless he nere re- 
lieved and succoured from abroad, he must of 
necesuty submit to the will of Elizalieth. Far- 
»oas flew to Spain, Creighton to Rome : Philip 
made James a present of 12,(KKJ crowns; tlie 
pope promised 40(10 crowns. Mary was made 
privy to the intrigue, and she offered, upon cer< 
lain conditions, to legalize James's irregular ac- 
cession. The English court was no stranger to 
what was paming, nor to the new conspinicy 

Vol. II- 

wbich ensued. The Eai'l of Gowrie, a son of the 
murderous Ruthveii, invited James to his castle 
at Ruthven. The unsuspecting king accept^ 
Ids invitation, and found himself a close prisoner. 

saw that he would 
the English throne. 

ta i^iUTlJi.— Billiuvi' Aiilk|ultteiuf liuutliuiil. 

Then the authority of the state fell to the Earl 
of Mar, the Master of Olamia, the Lord Uli- 
phant. and others, supported by the preachers, 
who ]>roclfumed to their congregations that there 
had been a plot on foot to restore the mass and 
Queen Mary. Arran was taken and thrown into 
a dungeon: Leimox fled to France, where he die<l 
soonaft«r. When the news of her son's captivity 
reached Mary, she foresaw nothing less than his 
absolute ruin or murder, and putting ber own 
griefs out of consideration, she wrote a letter 
full of maternal tendemesa and anxiety to Elizv 
betb, imploring her to iutorfere and save her 
only child. But Elizabeth was well satisfied 
with what had taken place, and she now left the 
aSaira of Scotland to themselves. But the lords 
had never contemplated the violent measures 
B'liich had suggested themselves to the affrighted 
imagination of a mother, and James, boy as he 
waa, waa their match, at leaxt in dissimulation. 
He duped hia jailers into a belief that he forgave 
what had been done; he recovered his liberty, 
summoned a convention, and resumed the exer- 
cise of his authority, having formally pardoned 
all concerned In the " Raid of Ruthven." 

All this called for fresh precautions on tlie part 
of Elizabeth, who sent down her dexterous min- 
ister WalsiLigham. Intrigues almost iiiexplica- 
ble followefl in rapid succession, and llie Euglisli 
court was kept in an unceasing agony of alarm 
by rej>orts of foreign invasions aud inroads across 
the Borders, insurrections at home, plots against 
the queen's life, Englinh St. Baitholomcws. In 
tills state Elizabeth gave full course to the penal 
code against the Catholics, which had been made 





. AKD Military. 

mora nnd more severe, nnil U> Llie feaivi aud fnna- 
ttciacn of her Prutestant subjects. Spies and in- 
forinera were let loose till the land swarmed with 
them: the adherents to the old faith were in- 
cessantly hornisseii, cuct into pi-ison on vague 
Husiiicioiiij, mined in their property snd prospects. 
The conduct of government towards the Catho- 
hcs sonieirhut refiembled the brutal praake of a 
set of boys who drive and torment a dog until he 
is mad, and then ahoot him fur Iwiiig dan;;erous. 
And yet, after all, no dangei>ous Catholit.' con- 
sph'Hcy wiis ever tnu'ed to any great or [wwerful 
number of English subjects— wits never brought 
home to the do«iii of any hut a fi:w fauati:« and 
inveterate plotters who had caught the iiitectiuii 
of the times, when the ordinary proceedings of 
govemmeuta looked more like pUitx and intrigues 
than Htale biiHiness. Every man was tempted 
to woi'k destructiou on his pei'donal enemy by 
the ease of the [iroce^s with whii-h he could accuse 
him of being unsound in I'eligion and ilisoffected 
in politic!!. In this way Arden, a gentleman of 
an ancient family in WiLrwickahii'e, wan sacri- 
ficed to the revei^e of his neighbour, Leicexter. 
Arden's son-in-law, Somerville. and IIiill. a mis- 
nionary priest, ami Arden's wife, were convicted of 
a conspiracy upon evidence extracte<l by the rack. 
Somerville strangled himself, or was strangled bi- 
Others, in Newgate. Ai-den suffered the hon'ible 
death of a traiU>r. Hall, the priest, who had 
confessed on the rack, was suffeml to live. Before 
this tinie Campion, an English Jesuit, who had 
lieen lurking in England, vm put to the rack. 
He confessed nothing but the writing and dis- 
tributing of works in favour of the (Church of 
Rome, nor does it appeal' that he was cliaiged 
with any conspiracy, but he was executed with 
three priests named Sherwood, KLrby, and Bry- 
ant. Notwithstanding the prevailing fanaticism 
and panic which held in suspense all the gener- 
ous feelings of the nation, people be^an to mur- 
mur at the frequent and increasing use of tor- 
ture ; and Burghley found it expedient to de- 
fend himself against public opinion. He giro- 
tested that the .leHuit C'aniploii had been racked 
HI ffeiUli/ that he was soon after able to walk 
about and sign his confession.' Elizabeth did 
more : she proclaimeil tliat tortiipe ahould reaae : 

but it ceased only in this specious proclamation 
— in reality it became more active than ever. A* 
the vile trade of an informer was a profitable one, 
many ingenious individuals took it up: and there 
was a wonderful increase of intercepted letters, 
forged documents, and lists fouud hid in Catho- 
lic houses— found, we believe, in three cases out 
of four, by those who had put them there — by the 
agents of the government. Philip Ilowanl, Earl 
of Arundel, sou of the late Duke of Norfolk (one 
of the poor orphans for whom he had ao implored 
and prayed), grew up a moody, melancholy man, 
and became a convert to Catholicism. From that 
moment he had been allowed no ■'est. To escape 
iniprisonmenta and questionings, and the fat« of 
his father anil his grandfather, who had both suf- 
fei-uil on the block, he I'esolved to quit hia coun- 
try, and, at the moment of departure, he wrote 
an affecting letter, whioli was to lie delivered to 
the queen when he shoidd be out of her i-each. 
Sut some of his own servants, and the master of 
the vessel in which he intended to seek ai 
liiui abroad, were i'« f/if pa_^ of Bar^Mei/, and on 
their timely information he was seized oti the 
coast of Sussex, brought up to London, and 
signed to the Tower, wheif> he died some yearn 
after in a miserable condition. Before his con 
mittal, the Eni-I of Northumberland, the brothi 
of the last enrt, beheaded at York, had destroyed 
liinisetf by discliargiug three pistol- bullets into 
liis left breast in order to baulk Queen Eliza- 
liethof the forfeiture of his lauds. He had been 
accused of conspiring to liberate Queen Mary.' 
Passing over many other victims, we proceed to 
(he Throckmorton plot, which was detected by 
the court, or invented by it, in 1584. Francis 
Tiirockmorton, a gentleman of (lieshire, was ar- 
resteil on the evidence of an iutercepled letter 
written by one Morgan, a supposed adherent of 
the Queen of Seota, though an agent of Burgh- 
ley's, who was in France, and who, according to 
this letter, informed him tliat Mary's ue]>hew, the 
Duke of Guise, was now ready to invade England 
for the puriKwe of liberating his relative. It 
wn-s firoved beyoud a doubt that no such jirepa- 
nition existed in France; but that was nothing. 
Throckmorton waa laid upon the rack : he wan 
Hileiit under the fii-st torture; he was rackeil 

■ 8omm' T.-«^. 

tb 1,^ cJlheSkrlrfV-orth «l«l.ulortbrt. r d-lh 

In ■ IMt«-an iiiftnwl IMWr—wrilWn » ■ liter peilvd, by 

Mir W«llrr lUWull to Bi.rshl.y. ma. Sir HuLurt C'oul, iwm 

nigiHliiiR bim m ffX tha VaA of Kmi put <hiI of IIh wij, im.l 

nd> nf > mat.. priaHwc in tlH To»<T. T« pmve tfa< miolde. 

not to f,nr >ft« KTBDge hT>iu th« «rJ> .Dn. ItaMsh »!: 

•■mniFnt )>rnn|lil lunrinl out Hullsn. who ifflrawd Hut 

■■ NurthnniberlmiU thw nnw ii Uiiuks not of H»tlaii'. imo. 

h«l iBl.1 s *< to th.«rt ; ^d .noll»r .Ut. pru-awr. nWHl 

let kim go br .11 ht. l«.lin»."-fl,/(rt(., Fn^^,. 

ir1hj.iMrnntotUMn«iB»QfPr1oe. But thf. Pria. though 

It thii be not Ml Mnnning « ■ fiict known buth lo Kiltigh 

oiurt«l7. m nnt pnidmd.— HdwiU'i Sn** Tria*!. 

>Mn luurdwtd by th< <»»([ii««< o( Hittou. «> m wohIh- 

fnlly mhUkoii. A> wb hiin r«<i.>« loul > d«Kl rvjM SihI 

nion 11.U. OI.6 lanllel «t tbl. |»rt«l. 


D. 1572— 1S87.] 


Kg&iu, iui<I wRd Btill Hilent; he was tortui'eU »| 
third time, and stIU confessed not. He whs led 
a fourtli time U> the rack, and then certain papem ' 
were exhi)iit«d to him which were said to have ' 
heeti disroveretl ia his house and then the! 

hati n 

reived consecmtisn from the Bishop of 

Forty days were allowed them I 

wretched mail made some confessioua iu wbicli 
he jm|ilicated Meadoza, the Spanish amliaasador. 
Burghley aummoned the iirabaasador before the 
jtrivy connei!, and charged him with practising 
ngainiit the state. Mendoza indignantly repelled 
the charfie, and retorted by aecusiii;; Burghley of 
■■cil>bing bis master King Philip ; of encouraging 
the rebelh'oiis subjects of Spain; and, amongst 
iither thiiiga, he charged a certain counsellor of 
her majesty with having engaged the brother of 
a certain lord to nmrder Don John of Austria. 
The ambassador was sent out of the kingdom. 
Throckmorton, after a strange trial, was seat to 
the gallows and the e seen lionet's knife at Ty- 
burn. On the scaffold he declared that there 
had been no conspiracy, and {calling God to wit- 
ness) that the confession he had made was a mere 
fiction invented to save his body from further 
torture. The Lords Paget and Charles Anmdel, 
who had been named in the intercepted letter, 
had escaped into France, whence they put forth a 
declaration ntating that they had fled because 
they feared Leicester and Walsiagham, and he- 
criuse they knew that their innocence would not 
avail them against forged letters. 

1584 ^^ *''* untumn of this year Eli- 
zabeth auniraoned a new parlia- 
ment ; for, notwithstanding her thrift, she was 
deplorably in want of money. The commons 
voted liberally, and at the same time thej passed 
fresh penal statutes against the Catholics. The 
blow was priiicipally directed against the Jesuits, 
tlu seminary jiricats, and all English priests who 

the, kingdom for ever: if found after that term 
they were tn die the death of traitors; and all 
those wliu concealed them, or gave them hospi- 
tality, would l>e held as being 
guilty of felony. All persona 
knowing of such priests being 
within the realm, and not dis- 
covering them within twelve 
days, were to be fined and ini. 
prisoned. The English Catho- 
lice, having no schools allowed 
to them at home, had of late 
yearaseut their sons abroad tor 
education, more especially to 
the college of Donay, a large 
establishment conducted hy the 
' Jesuits, who bad obtained 
great reputation as teachers: 
but it was now enacted that all 
such students abroad as did 
not return home within six 
months after proclamation 
made should he deemed trai- 
tors ; that all who furnished 
them with money should incur a premunire ; 
that parents sending their children to such semin- 
aries without liceuse shoald forfeit .fllH); and 
that the children there educated should be dis- 

The Catholics presented a petition against the 
late enactments, vindicating their loyalty and 
their religion- declaring that they utterly ab- 
horred all such projecU of assassination as had 
recently been spoken of^and held that neither 
priest nor pope could license that which was sin- 
ful. Richard Shelley, of Michael Grove, iu Sus- 
sex, undertook to pi'esent this petition to the 
i^ueen, who forthwith committed him to prison, 
where he died after a confinement of some years. 
The captive Queen of Scots, who saw herself 
altogether abandoned by her only child, now 
thought that every night would be her last. 
What seemed to aim at her life was an associa- 
tion recently entered into, called the Protestant 
ABsociatiou, against all the enemies of Queen 
EliTaheth. The members of it solemnly swore 
to defend the queen, and to revenge her death 
or any injury committed against her. Leicester 
was at the head of it, and it had been cnnfirmed 
by parliament. 

The state of Elizabeth's foreign relations at 
this time was altogether anomalous. There was 
and there had been no declaration of war witli 
Spain, but yet, ever since 1670, when the groat 
Drake obtained a regular 





u MiuT*ni 

mander auJ others who followed liia example had 
bet^Q plunderiog iu the Went Indies, in tjpaiiiah 
America, and in the Pacific. The right which 
S()aiu aaaumed of oonBiilering the New World as 
treauu re- trove, and of excluding from its com- 
merce the ships of all other nations, was indoeil 
monstrous; but, on the other hand, it will be dif- 
ticult to consider Ui-ake, Hawkins, and the rest, 
in any other light than that of buccaneers, how- 
ever much we may admire tlieir daring Bpii'it, and 
the great coDtributions they made in the coui'se 
of their marauding expeditions to the sciences of 
aavigatiou and geography. Di-ake, in the course 
of three expeditions, had plundered the Siianish 
towns of Nombre de Dioa and ('^rthagena, and 
nearly all the towns on the coast of Chili and 
Peril, and had destroyed or tnken an immense 
number of Spanish ships, retnrning from each 
voyage with immense booty. Elizabeth insisted 
that she and other nations had a right to navi- 
gate those seas, aud to visit the porta which the 
jealousy of the Spaiiiarils kept closed to all Have 
their own flag, and that it was contrary l« the 
laws of nations to treat iutrudeLB oa ])iratea ; but 

there being no declaration of war, she certainly 
committed in this way manifold acts of real piracy. 
Again, in the Netherlands, the King of Spain 
was everywhere met by English money and Eng- 
lish resources, which hud enabled those whom 
he termed bin revolted aubjects to prolong the 
"truggle year after year. For a long time Eliza- 
beth furnished her aid with all possible secrecy, 
denying to the Spanish court that she ever abetted 
rebels. But the course of events forced her to 

adojitamoreopeu practice; and though she again 
declined the sovereignty or protectoruhip of the 
country, slie, in ISHS, sent over a niyal army of 
600() men, having bai^fained with the States that 
they should [Miy all expenses, and deliver tu her, 
as securities, the town of Brill and Flushing, and 
Rammekins, a strong and important fort. The 
ijueeu's paasiouate regard for Leicester had cooled 
aincethe revelation of hie secret marriage with 
the Countess of Essex ; and that earl was now 
|>ermitted to take the command of the army iu 
the Netherlands, where he entertained very am- 
bitious pi-ojects, and displayed a woful want both 
of militjiry and civil ability. Without consulting 
his mistress, lie induced the Stales to name him 
(.•overuor-general of the Low Countries, and to de- 
clare his authority supreme and Hbnolute, jointly 
with the council of state. Elizabeth wi-ot« to 
him in a fury, teUing him to remember the dust 
from which she had raised him, mid to do what- 
ever she might commanil as he valued his neck. 
The States, who ha*l thought to plenae the queen 
by elevating her favoui'ite, were in great per- 
plexity, and I^icester soon showed them, iu other 
ways, that they had committed a lamentable mis- 
take iu iutruiitiug a sovereign power to such an 
incapable, arrogant, and insolent man, whose first 
ojierations were to cnkmp the freedom of com- 
merce, which had given life and energy to the 
insurgents. In the field he was pompous, vain- 
glorious, and inefScieut, presenting a wretcheil 
contmst to Alexander Farnese, the Prince tit 
Pannn, who still prolonged the struggle for Spain 
with remarkable generalship. He carefully 
avoided a battle, and his greatest affair of arms 
was an attack upon Zutphen, which failed, and 
which would scarcely deserve a mention iu his- 
tory but for the death of the gallant and accom- 
plished Sir Philip Sidney, who perished there in 
the twenty-fifth year of his age.' The best-mau- 
aged part of Leicester's campaign was his huutiug 
all C<ttholics from places of profit and trust, and 
his captivating the Calviuistic preachera of tbu 
Low Countries by such measures, and by a very 
sanctimonious bearing. When the States ven- 
tured to call him to account for his gross miscon- 
duct, this noble grandson of a tax-gatherer and 
extortioner* promised redress, but complained to 
his creatures that one of his rank shonld be qnea- 
tioned by shopkeepers and artizans.* In the 
winter of 1081!, having pacified the queen, he re- 
turned to England, stilt, however, retaining the 
power intrusted to him in the Low Countries. 

By this time there began to rise a rumour that 
the King of Spain was preparing to invade Eng- 

I sir PhUlp »idnsj ■*• niplui 
nds u light to lukllHi. 
■ For ths faiitoTT uf Liicntar'i 

gniKUUbaT, Dsdlar. tlw ad- 
piBof IIcsiT Vir and Hoit 

,v Google 

^D. 1572— lfi87] ELIZi 

hnii with a tremendous force, and some Catholic 
plot or other at home waa the uewa of ever; day. 
bloat — nttarly every onit — of theiie conspirociea 
were coujared up by the imagintttion, or were 
altogether obscure and ioaignificaut ; hut, in the 
uitumn of 1586, a real plot was discovered, al 
the head of which waa Anthony Babington, a 
young English Oatholic of an enthusiastic tempei-, 
irho was brought to consider that it would be 
glorious in this world and acceptable in the next 
if he could assassinate Elizabeth and deliverQueeu 
Hary from a mptivity which was now rendered 
&n unceasing torture, physically as well as morally. 
Babington had several accomplices, and one of 
these, named Pooley, put himself in direct com- 
munication with Walaingham, who was iuformeil 
of every particular from the first rude arrange- 
meat of the scheme, and who permitted the plot 
to go on in order to implicate Mary. Wheu he 
had played with the mwterous threads of this 
intrigue for ikostks, mil had woven % complete 
web round the cgnspirators^ he opened the subject 
to Elizabeth, and soon ftfter proceeded to a«t 
Ballard, a seminary priest, whom Camd^ calls 
'' a silken priest in a soldier's habit," waa suddenly 
nrreated. Babington and the rest, who were all 
young men of fortune and acquirements, fled ; but 
Babington waa taken in a few days, at Uarrow- 
on-the-Uill, with Gage, Chamock, Barnwell, and 
Don, in the house of Bellamy, theircommon friend. 
Titchborn, Tiavere, Abington, Salisbury, Jones, 
and Tilney were seized in other places, and of 
tlie whole number only Edward Windsor, the 
brother of Lord Windsor, escaped pursuit. These 
were so base and mercenary conspirators — they 
were such high-apirit«d and intellectual young 
men as could not have been easily matched in the 
kingdom. But it appears that they were all put 
to the rock, or at leaat threatened with it; a gra- 
tuitoua atrocity, for Walsingham, Burghley, and 
the queen knew precisely all that could possibly 
be known of the bosinesa. While this was doing 
the belb of London rang merrily for their appre- 
hension — bonfires were lit— and on the morrow, 
banquets were spreail in the streets, with sing- 
ing of psalms and praising Qod for preserving 
her majesty and people.' The fate of the pri- 
soners, however, on account of their youth, their 
honourable condition in society, and their pt«- 
viously unimpeached characters, excited some 
commiseration, and this seems to have been the 
canse of the government arraigning them not all 
at once, but in two separate bodies, notwith- 
gtnnding the great legal objection that their case 
was one and indivisible. On the 13th of Sep- 
temlier, certain of them being put upon their 

.BETH. 1 63 

trial were condemned as (rait^ira, and execnteil 
on the 20th, with a scrupulous attention to the 
atrocious processes prescribed by law, being all 
cut down while life waa in them. The other 
seven were tried on the 15tb, arid were all exe- 
cuted on the Slat, but, iu this more fortunate 
than their companions, they were allowed to 
lisng till they were dead. The place selected for 
their execution was Lincoln's In ti Fields, "even 
the place where they had used to meet and con- 
fer."' With the exception of Babington, itseemn 
to be extremely doubtful whether any of these 
gentlemen contemplsted the murder of the queen; 
and, with the single exception of Babington, all 
of them behaved chivalrously and nobly, endea- 
vouring to take blame to themselves rather than 
cast it upon their companions. Most of them 
maintained that their views were confined to 
liberating the captive queen, a project likely to 
take firm hold of young und romantic minds. 
Bellamy 4f Harrow appeai-s to have suffered 
uerely because some of the fugitives were found 
in his house. His wife escaped tbivugh a mis- 
er in the indictment, A statute had been 
just passed to meet the case, and to bring Mary 
to the block ;' and as what was deemed evidence 
against her bad been secured from the Babing- 
ton conspiracy, Elizabeth's council now proposed 
an immediate .trial of the Scottish queen. But 
even now Elizabeth hesitated, to the dismay and 
secret wrath of Burghley, Walaingham, Sadler, 
and the rest of the ministry. At this moment 
Leicester, who was abroad, stepped in with what 
he considered a master-piece of advice, propos- 
ing a little quiet poison. Walaingham, who bod 
the chief management of the affair, objected to 
such a course as being contrary to God's law; 
upon which the earl sent him a canting preacher 
to prove that such means against such a person 
were quite justifiable by Scripture, There was 
then a talk of shortening the captive's life by 
increasing the rigour of her treatment, which, iu 
fact, had already been rigorous enough to make 
11 sickly cripple of that once healthful and beau- 
tiful woman. At last, giving herself up entirely 
lo the advice of Walaingham, Elizabeth issued a 
commission to try Mary and pronounce judgment 
upon her according to the act I'ecently ])BSBed. 
There was uo want of high uames or of legal 

• HUtnts n Bit e. I. Bt thli ttatnM 11 hu euscted tint 
Iwtoty-taof or won of Cbe privj dodiki] auJ Hgpdh of Loidi, 
tu bfl (lepuMd tiy tho qiwon's op mr BJ^ to n, iho^Ud nwk« iiiqiil 

iii'tHuniDaT«r nnplajBd that migbt lay vluia b, liia DTawn of 
EnglAncL^ And thAt thEpArwn forwlioni (iihy Khom tlwy thouM 
att«iDpt tbff Hmtf. ■honlfk ht utterly Incapuble i>r thu erowa of 
EngLand, dvpiiTerl vhoUj of jiU ri^Til irjd TItJ* to It. Mtd pro- 
HCBtsd to daub b/iU hllhfal lubjicti, If 




[Civil a 

FOTBEunoa) CuuBca, > 

autfaoritiM in this most illegnl eomnuBBion. There 
were the Chancellor Bromley, the Lord-treaau- 
rer Burghley, the Earla of Oxfort, Keat, Derby, 
Worceater,Rutl»nd,CumberIand, Warwick, Pem- 
broke, uid Liucoln; the Viacount Montagae, the 
Ixirda Abergavenny, Zouch, Morley, Stafford, 
Grey, Lmnley, Stourton, SandyB, Weiitworth, 
I^fordiuit, St. Johu of Bletsoe, 
<V>iuptou, and Cheney; Sir 
Jamea Crqft, Sir ChrJBtopher 
Jlatton, Sir Francia Walaing- 
ham, Sir Ralph Sadler, Sir 
Waller Mildmay, and Sir 
Amyaa Pauletj Wray, ohiet- 
jiiBticeof the Common Pleas; 
Anderson, chief-juatice of the 
King'a Bench ; Mfiuwood, 
chief baron of the eicliequer; 
and Gawdy, one of the jus- 
ticea of the Common Flens. 

Mary had been moved from 
□ne prison to another, aacli 
remove being to a worse place, 
and to a harslier keeper. In 
ihe apring of the preceding 
year. Sir Ralph Sadler had 
lieen appointed to take charge 
of her, to hia own great giief ; 
for Elizabeth bad become ao much alarmed, that 
no degree of vigilance and severity towards the 
captive could eatiafy her. There waa a aort of 
poetical justice in what happened. Sir Ralph'a 
old age was mode wretched through the Seuttish 
queen, whoae power he had uuderiuioed by match- 
leas intriguea iu her infancy, and he prayed for 
death to deliver him from hia difficult charge 
and his miatress'a jealousy. He waa superseded 
by Sir Amyaa Paulet and Sir Drew Drury, both 
fanatical Puritana, and frieuda of the Earl of 
Leicester. About Chrietniaa they had carried 
her, in a deplorable atate both of body and mind, 
to Chutley Castle, in Staffordshire. On the 6th 
of August, a few days before the arreat of Bal>- 
ington, ahe was taken from Chartley, under pre- 
text of an airing, and carried by force to Tixhsll, 
in the aame county. She was carried back to 
Chartley in a few weeks; but, in the interval, her 
two faithful secretaries, Naue and Curie, had 
been taken into cuatody and conveyed to Wal- 
eingham'a houae, where they were kept; her ca- 
binela at Chartley had been broken open, and a 
large chest had been filled from them with lettera 
and papers, and conveyed to Walsingham, On 
tire 10th of Deeember, Paulet discharged what 
ha called Mary'a stiperSuoua servants, and seized 
all her money and jewela. Mary resisted at first; 
"but,' he says, "I called my servants, and aeut 
for bars to break open the doors, whereupon she 
yielded." According to the jnilcr'a own account, 

he found her in bed, Buffering greatly, and being 
bereft of the use of one of her hands.' A few 
days after the eieculioa of Babington and the 
twelve other victims, orders were sent down to 
Sir Amyas Faulet to remove Mary with all po^ 
sible care and vigitanoa from Chartley to Fother- 
in gay Castle, in Nortbomptonshii'e.the last scene 

TBI CuiLE.'— WluU>)''iN<>nliui|i(audiin. 

of the captive'a sufferings. There had been for 
soma time aatauding order to shoot the prisoner 
if she were found trying to escape, or it any dan- 
gerous attempt at rescue should be made. Paulet 
again pretended that nothing more was meant 
thou to revive the queen by giving her a change 
of air; but, avoiding the public roads, he led her 
al>out from one gentleman's buiise to another, 
and Mary knew not whither ahe was going until, 
at last, ahe saw herself Hhut up within the dismal 
walls of Fotheriugay. When Elizabeth learned 
that ahe waa aafely lodged there, her gratitude 
burst forth in an unusual enthusiasm to the able 
manager of the journey. "Amyas, my moft 
faitlifu! and careful servant," wrote the queen to 
the jailer, " God Almighty reward thee treble- 
fold for thy most troublesome charge so well dis- 
charged!" Shortly after, Paulet received orders, 
"in case he heard any noise or diaturbance iu 
Mary's lodgings, or in the place where ahe waa,' 
to kill her outright, without waiting for any fur- 
ther power or command. Before the trial, m 

■ L«ttv fFDfn Bir AmjuM Pati]«t to WftlalnfhKtn. ■ii>iM«d hy 
lUiuDV. At ttili nwoMnt «• end WaUnthuD Umaiitlni. •• 

tha ought ; and he wlds. " Om aiiu do di 

«r DjithaokftilDflH for Ul« fraat lud ■! 

■d God W - 

■ rothgrin^v Ci 

tw «nlneDC« (o tbe right of Uis ohwh \ mad. 


A.D. 1572—1587.] ELIZA 

iift«r it, Elizabeth would bare preferred any kiud 
of dekth to that of i.n execution under her owu 
waiTiuit. But though Hhtv had a narrow escape 
one night when the chimney of her wretched 
(luiigeon took fire, she lived on. At length, on 
the nth of October, thirty-six of the Englieh 
commiasioDera arrived &t Fotherio^y Castle ; 
and on the following day they sent Sir Walter 
Mildmay, Faiilet, aud Barker, a public notary, 
ta deliver to the prisoner a letter from Elizabeth, 
charging her with being accessory to theBabing- 
ton conspiracy, and informing her that they were 
appointed to t*y her for tliat and for other trea- 
soDa. Mary read the letter with compoaure, and 
replied, with great diguity, to the eoramiaaionera, 
that it grieved her to find her dear sister misin- 
formedi that she had been kept in prison until 
she was deprived of the use of her limba, not- 
withstanding her having repeatedly offered rea- 
sonable tind safe conditioiiH for her liberty; thnt 
she had given her majeHty fidl and faithful notice 
of several dangers which threatened her, and yet 
had found no credit, but had always been slighted 
and despised, thouj^h so nearly allied to ber ma- 
jesty in blood ; that when the Protestant aaso- 
ciation was entered into, and the confirming act 
of parliament made upon it, she clearly foresaw 
that, wliat«ver dangers should arise, either from 
princes abroad, or ill-dispoaed people at home, or 
for the Aake of religion, the whole blame would 
l>e thrown upon her; that it seemed moat strange 
that the queen should command her, her equal, 
to submit to ati'ial as a subject; that ahe waa an 
independent queen, and one timt would do no- 
thing that might be prejudicial to her own ma- 
jesty or to ber son's rights; that her mind would 
not sink under the present calamity. " The kws 
aud statutes of England," continued Mary, "are 
nnknoivn to me; I am void of counsellors, and 
cannot tell who shall be my peers. My notes and 
papers are taken from me, and no one dares ap- 
pear to be my advocate. I have committed no- 
thing against the queen — have stirred up no man 
against her, and am not to be charged but from 
my own words or writings, which I am sure can- 
not be produced agMnst me. Yet I cannot deny 
that I have recommended myself and my condi- 
tion to foreign princes," On tlie next diiy, Pau- 
let and Barker returned to her From the coramis- 
sionen, to ask whether ahe persinted in ber an- 
swer. She replied that she did most firmly. "But 
this," added ahe, "I had quite forgotten: the 
queen mya I am subject to the laws of England, 
and to be triad and judged by them, beconse I am 
under the protection of them. But to this I an- 
swer, that I came into England to demand ber 
aid and assistance, and have ever since been de- 
tained a prisoner, so that I could not enjoy the 
protection of the laws of England; nor could I 

BETH, 1 67 

ever yet uiidenstnud what manner of laws Ihty 
were." ' In the afternoon of the same day, there 
went to her certain selected persons from among 
the commissioners, "with men learned in the 
civil and canon laws," to petnuade her to a com- 
pliance. The Lord-chancellor Bromley and the 
Lord-treasurer Burghley justified their authority 
by their patent and commission; told her that 
neither her state as a prisoner, nor her preroga- 
tive as a queen, could exempt her from subjec- 
tion to the laws of England, and threatened, if 
she refused to plead, to proceed ngtunst her, al- 
though she were absent. She replied, with un- 
diminished firmness, that she was no subject, nor 
liable to English law; that she would rather die 
a thousand deaths than dishonour herself by any 
such submission; that, however, ahe was willing 
to answer all things in a free and full parliament; 
aud that, as for this meeting, it might probably 
be devised against her, wlio was already pre- 
judged to die, to give some legal show and colour 
to their proceedinga; and, theriffore, she desired 
they would look to their consciences, and remem- 
ber that the tlteatre of the whole world is much 
wider than the kingdom of England,' She then 
complained, in a touching manner, of ber hard 
usage ; but Burghley interrupted her, aasuring 
ber that the queen his mistress had always ti«at^ 
ed her with a rare kindness! A few hours after, 
they sent her the list of the names of her jndgea, 
"to let her see they designed to proceed by equity 
and reason," Although neoily every name was 
that of an inveterate enemy, she mode no excep- 
tions against the commissioners, which would 
have iteen useless; but— what was equally use- 
less — she objected strongly to the late act, upon 
which their commission was founded, as being 
unjust and unprecedented, and purposely con- 
trived to ruin her. She said that she coidd not 
away with the queen's laws, which she had good 
reason to suspect; but that she was heart-whole 
still, and would not derogate from the honour of 
her ancestors, the Kings of Scotland, by owning 
herself a subject to the crown of England, and 
that she would rather perish utterly than answer 
.IS tJie queen's aubject and a criminal person. 
Here Burghley interrupted her, saying, " We 
will, nevertheless, proceed against you to-morrow, 
as absent and contumax," Mary replied, "Look 
to your consciences,"' Then the perfumed and 
court-like Vice-chamberlain Hatton said, " If 
you are innocent you have nothing to fear; but 
by seeking to avoid a trial, you stain your repu- 
tation with an everlasting blot." This timely 
npeecli made a great impression, and on the fol- 
lowing morning Mary consented to plead for tha 
sake of her reputation, but on condition that her 
protest against the authority of the court should 


I Jliva g/ AlwAfU. 






\if nUowed. Burghley Enked ber if she would 
nppear at lier trial, provided h*r protest was 
entered iu writing, without being fully admitted 
by them. Here Mary ought to have replied 
with a decided n^^tive; but, in reality, protest 
or DO protest was of the slightest conBt^iience; 
and as they had threat«necl to proceed in her ab- 
sence, and as they could easily force a weak and 
liel pi ess woman to their bar, the qiieeii consented. 
On the litth of October the coramissioneis as- 
Bembled iu the presence-chamber of Ftitheringay 
Castle. At the upper end of this hall was a va- 
cant chair of state, royally canopied, as if for the 
Queen of England, and " below it, and at oome 
distfljice over against," was a chair witJioiit any 
canopy, for the Queen of Scots. The com- 
misHioners and their assistants, including the 
most expert lawyera of the day, sat upon benches 
placed towards the wall on either aide of the 
apartment. Mary had no nssistatit — no papers 
— no wituesBM ; for everything had been taken 
from her: and yet, even according to the preju- 
di(*d accounts of her enemies, she displayed won- 
derful self-possession and address; and, in the 
striking words of a modern, and perhaps too 
favourable bistorian, she for two whole days 
kept at l)ay tlie hunters of her life.' Upon her 
first entrance, as soon as she had taken her seat, 
the Chancellor Bromley told her that the moat 
serene Queen Elizabeth, being informed, to her 
great grief and trouble of mind, that she bad 
conspired the destmction of her person and of 
the realm of England, and the subversion of reli- 
gion, had appointed this present commission to 
liear how she could vindicate herself from the 
charge, and make her innocence appear to the 
world. Mary then ■■ose, and said, that she had 
come into England as a friend and sister, te ask 
the (dd which had been promised her, and had 
ever since been detAiiied a prisoner: and then she 
repeated her protest against the authority of the 
court. The chancellor denied that any aid had 
been promised her; but there he stopped, not 
venturing to explain, promise or no promise, by 
what law Eliwibeth had constituted her a state 
prisoner, or attempt to lessen the odium which 
had been cast ou the national hospitality. But 
he told her that, as she had been living in Eng- 
land, slie was subject to the English laws, and 
that tbei-efore her protest could not be admitted. 
It was, however, agreed that her i>rote8t should 
1* recorded, together with the chancellor's reply 
to it. They then read their commission at full 
length, ami, as it was wholly founded upon the 
late act, she again proUsted against the said act as 
bfing made expressly againut herself. Bui^hley, 
who would have had the grass growing over her 
grave many years before, told her that the vali- 

dity of laws and acts of pariiamrat did not de- 
pend upon their antiqaity — that new laws weiv 
as good as old ones, and equally binding— ■Uiot it 
did not become her to apeak against them — and 
that, in spite of her protests, they were all re- 
solved to proceed agninst her by that said act of 
parliament. Mary said that she was ready to 
hear and answer concerning any fact against 
Queen Elizabeth. Then Gawdy, the queen's Ser- 
jeant, opene*! the case against her with an histo- 
rical account of Babington's conspiracy; asBertiog. 
at the close of his oration, that she knew of it, ap- 
proved it, assented to it, promised her assiatance, 
and showed the way and means for effecting it. 
When the Serjeant had done speaking, sundry 
co^i«i of letters which were said to have been 
written to her by Babington, and by her to Bab- 
ington and others, were produced. Accordtngto 
these second-hand documents, which contained n 
scheme of the whole conspiracy, the captive queen 
had not only invited foreign powers to the inva- 
sion of England, but had also encouraged Babing- 
ton and his associates to aaansainate their sove- 
reign. During the reading of these letters Mary 
was calm ; but when, in the Inst letter, mention 
was made of the unfortunate Earl of Amnde), 
the son of the Duke of Norfolk, she bnrst into 
tears, and said, " Alas! what has the noble house 
of Howard endored for my sake !* But, presently 
drying her tears, she replied to this part of the 
evidence, declaring that she knew not Babington, 
nor ever received any such letters from him, imr 
wrote any such to him— that they who pretended 
that she had written to Babington ought to pro- 
duce her letters iu her own hand-writing, ainl 
that if Babington wrote letters to ber they ought 
to prove that she received them. There was, in- 
deed, she said, a packet of letters put iuto her 
hand about the time alleged, but they had been 
written almost a year before, and she kuew not 
who sent them. She said that mauy persons, 
com pass! ouatiug her hard fate, had secretly maile 
her offers of service, but that she neither excited 
nor encouraged any of these, thongh she, a close 
prisoner, cut off from the world, and for long 
periods from all knowledge of what was passing 
in it, could not hinder their enterprises. She 
was not answerable for the deeds of othei-s. She 
had, indeed, used her best endeavours for the re- 
covery of her liberty, as iiJitiire itself dictated 
and allowed ; and to this end she had solicited 
the affiistance of her friends. Others might lun^e 
attempted dangerous designs without her know- 
ledge; and it was an easy matter to counterfeit 
ciphers and characters. Although she deuieil 
promiitiug an invasion of England, she was less 
emphatic on that point thau on the accusation of 
being privy to the plot agtunst Elizabeth's life: 
here she vowed repeatedly that she would never 


*.D. la?;— 1M7.] 


nuike aliipwreck of her soul bj engs^g in such 
a Uoody cnnte. In reply to a letter said to have 
been written by her to provok« an JDvasioii, she 
declared that she auspected Wal^gliMn as the 
author of that letter ; and Walaingham, in hxt, 
had handled eveiy letter in his own wa;.' But 
the bronzed aeeretaiy stood up in hia place, and 
lolemnlj called God to nitneee that he had done 
nothing in nudice,iiothiiigiu)worthy of an honest 
man: and no doubt he thought that an honest man 
m^t da more than he had ever done for the salce 
of the qoeeD and the FrotealAnt tettlement. The 
greateat wei^t of evidence was made to lie in the 
confeaaion of Babingtun, and the extorted depoei- 
tions of her own servauts, Naue and Curie. In 
regortl to BabingCou, she objected that, if her 
advnrtariea had wiahed to discover the truth, 
they woald have liept him for a witneas, instead 
of putting him to death — that hia confession, if 
reall J made in the manner nov Bet forth, was of no 
valoe, aa it might have been dictated by the hope 
of merej : aa to the secretaries, she replied that 
Naae was a simple and timid man, and that Curie 
was the follower of Nans; their depnaitionstuight 
have proceeded from their anxiety to save their 
own lives. Naue, she said, had formerly com- 
mitted the oSence of writing certain things in 
her name without her authority. Bhe demanded 
to be confronted with her two oecretariea : the 
commiamonera refused to produce them. Then 
Mary urged that the majesty and safety of priU' 
CCS muat fall to the ground if they were to de- 
• pend in this manner upon tlie writing and teitti- 
mony of se<»^tarie« — that she wEis sure, if Naue 
and Curie were there present, they would clear 
her of all blame in this case— tliat if they hud 
not taken away all her notes and papers, she 
might answer more particularly to what was ob- 
jected. There was auother and a strong objection 
to the testimony of Naue and Curie, even if their 
depaeitioDS were free aud ongarbled : they had 
both been awom, as secretaries, to keep her .se- 
creta^ if they had accused her truly they hod 
perjured themselves to her; if falsely, they per- 
jured themselves to the Queen of Englaud.' Tlie 
praeecotoni read the heads of aeveml letters, ad 
dre«ed to the lately expelled Spanish ambassa- 
dor, Menduzn, and to Sir t^-ancis Euglefield. 
(.liarlea Paget, and other Englishmeu abroad, 
among whom was one Morgan, who had ull along 
been in the pay of Waleinghum. We have no 
doubt, in our own minds, tliat the captive queen. 

her despair, wrote letters of thia kind, approv- 
ing of a [dan of invaaioD, and offering to contri- 
bute to ita success, by inducing her friends in 
ScotUnd to take up arms, to seize the person of 
James, and to prevent Elizabeth's friends from 
inding Scottish troops to her assiatance; and it 
is quite certain, from the perfect machinery he 
had at work, that Walsingham might obtain 
tssion both of her despatchea and of the let- 
ters wiitten to her from abroad. It was not, 
however, considered decent to explain the nature 
of this machinery, and it was alleged that tlie 
ori^pnal drafts of these despat^ihes and the foreign 
letters were all found amongst her papers at 
Chartley^a most improbable circumstance, con- 
sidering the situation of Mai'y, liable every mo- 
': to intrusion and seizure. And yet some of 
these letters from abroad, g^arhled aa they might 
have been, went luther to disprove than to prove 
Mary's actual participatiou in the plots against 
Elizabeth's life. In regard to the whole of them, 
Mary said that they bore no relation to the de- 
struction of the queen ; and, if foreigners endea- 
voured to set her at liberty, that was not to be 
mputed to her as a crime : she had at several 
times let the queen know that she would seek to 
procure her release from that hard captivity in 
which she had been kept for nearly twenty years. 
The commissioners insisted that it was fully 
proved, by some short paasages in letters she ha^l 
written to Mendoza, that there was a design on 
lier part to convey her right in the English suc- 
cession to the King of Spain. To this charge she 
replied, that being a close prisoner, oppressed 
with cares and deprived of all hope of liberty, 
and daily declining through sicknesaand sorrow, 
she had been advised by some to settle the suc- 
cession upon the Spaniard, or upon tome Eng- 
lish Catholic; and that she had given offence to 
of lier friends by refusing to approve of any 
such scheme. " But," she added, " when all my 
liopea of Euglaud became desperate, I resolved 
o reject foreign help." She again desired 
that her papers and her secretaries Naue and 
Curie might he prodaced, and this was again re- 
fused: she requested an adjoummeut, with the 
aid of counsel, and this was refused. She again 
demanded to be heard in full parliament, or 
that she might speak with the queen in conn- 
in person. The oommissioneni, who liad re- 
'ed fresh instructions from Elizabeth, would 
grant nothing; but the chief of them, including 

,'' Affl CauhWti, " whftdi d«7HHled whollj open 

tbs cndft of b>i MO 

taUriH. ind thsr IM( Mn« tuvagbt bH 



»ngtl»p»pl.,- •■ 

■■Nbb'. .pologT" 

Um Jm-1. to ISM, 

Ht b* hut MooUr appcmtd Uw prinopal 

«iota. of «<i-«oii ngiO-t hh mlrti— 



,v Google 




Burghley, Walsingham, anii Uattou, took her 
Aput from the rest — ahe riaiug up, " with great 
preseni.'e uf countenauce," bhvs Uiundeu — iuid 
apoku to her for soiue time. During this secret 
uoiiferenoe Uiuy wan obaerveil to be much agi- 
tated. The commigaiouera then Eidjoumed tlie 
KMSembly to the 25th of October, theu to meet not 
iu presence of the prisoner, nor iu Putheriu- 
gay Castle, but iu the Star Ciuimber at West- 

On the appointed day the comtniseiouera, with 
the exception of the £aj-lB of Warwick and 
Shrevabury, luaembled iu the Star Chamber, to 
wliich other lorda were summoned. They nOK 
brought before them Naue oud Curie, who affirm- 
ed upon oath, and, aa it was eipresaed, "only iu 
respect of the truth, fmnklyand voluntarily, with- 
out any torture, coDStmint, or threatening," that 
the letters, and copiesof letters, before mentioned, 
were genuine and true; and that all was true 
which they had before confeesed and subscribed. 
This over, without any further ceremony, the 
court pronounced sentence against Mary, daugh- 
ter of James v., comtiiouly called Queen of Scot- 
land; "for that since tlie conclusion of the session 
of parliament, viz., since the lat day of June, iu 
the tweiity-aeveuth year of her majesty's I'eign, 
and before the date of the commission, divers 
matters have been compassed anil imagined 
withiu this realm of England by Anthony Bab- 
ingtou aud others, with the privity of the said 
Mary, pretending a title U) the crown of this 
realm of England, teni'.ing to the hurt, death, 
and destruction of tlie royal peiiion of our lady 
the queen: aud also for that the aforesaid Mary, 
pretending a title to the crown, hath herself com- 
passed and imagined within this realm divers 
ualt^ra tending to the hurt, death, and destn)c- 
tiou of the royal person of our sovereign lady the 
queen, contrary to the form of the statute in the 
commission aforesaid specified.'" 

Mary clearly foi-eaaw that the departure of the 
commissioners from t'otheriiigay wonid lie fol- 
lowed by the arrival of the exei'utiuner; aud she 
t4>l(l Sir Amyaa Paulet that history made men- 
tion how the realm of England wait used to nlieil 
royal blood. But tliuugh Elizabeth liad pro- 
cured a aeutence, she paused iit the prospect of 
the block, being resolved, as was usual with her, 
to make the weight of blooil seem to fall upon 
others. And there were others, Including the 
highest uaiueo in the kingdom, and among the 
represeutativea of the people, who seemed quite 
ready t<i take the burdeu upon their own con- 
lU'ieDoe*!. Uu the 20th of October, four days aftei- 
the passing of the sentence, the )Hir1iaiiieut ii> 

• BmiMt Fapm; JfcnlvM Fn^n.- CtoMdm.- Uvw^. SiO 
Mill, RiuiHr, (Ml Wrifkl. 

sembled, aud on the 12th of November both 
houses, oddreHsiiig the queen, implored her li> 
give orders for the immediate execution of the 
Queen of Scots, Mr. Serjeant Puckering, the 
speaker, in name of the commons, pointed out 
the very dangerous consequences of ^tpa^iuK any 
longer the life of that wicked woman. . He theu 
quoted examples from the Bible of rulers whu had 
incurred the vengeance of the Almighty by dhow- 
ing mercy to their euemien, as Saul, wbo bod 
Bsved KingAgng, and Ahab, who had preserveil 
Benhodad. The speaker eude<l by saying ihat 
they relied upon her princely resolution, aud that 
they accounted the execution ns a thing that 
would be unto Qud most acieptable. Elisabeth 
commenced her reply by expressing gratitude for 
the special cai-e which Provideucti hod taken of 
her, and by asserting that her uature was so de- 
void of malice, that even uow, although slie liBil 
been convicted of treason, if she tliought Mary 
would repent, and ber emissaiiea not puraue 
their designs — or, that if they were two milk- 
I maids, with pails upon their arms, aud it waji 
merely a. question which involved her own life 
without eudaugeriug the religion and welfare of 
her people— she would roost willingly pardon all 
her ulfences. She then (mthetically declared that 
if, by her own death, the kingdom might l>e bet- 
tered, she would willingly die, liaving nothing 
worth living for. Nextshe reproached the house 
for their frequently standing more ujiun form 
than matter— more upon the words than the 
sense of the law; complaining that the late act of * 
parliament aliout treasons (which had been de- 
vised iu her own closet) bad bivught her into 
a great strait, by obliging her to give directions 
for her kiuawomou's death, which wax to her n 
most griex'iiiM and irksome burden. But, then, 
changing ner tone to keep up the pauic-alartn. 
and the cry for blood, she said that she would 
tell them a secret ; that she lately eaw it written 
that an iwth was taken within a few days by oei-- 
selves, aud thereupon xbe exi>reHsed her mindful- 
ness of their oirii oalh nf atrnK-iation for the secu- 
rity of her jterson. She ended hei' lung discourse 
by saying " tlut i>he Ihoucht it ivipuxite, with 
earnest prayer, to beseech the l>iviue Majesty hi> 
to illuminate her understanding, aud tu inspire 
her with his gmce, tlmt slie might see clearly to 
do and determine that which should sen's to thv 
establishment iif His church, preservation of Iheir 
estates, and the |>ro«perity of the commouwealtli 
under her charge; wherein, an alie knew delays 
are daiigemuH, they should, with oil couveuieuce, 
have her reaolutiun.' When a few days had 
pawed, slie sent a message t« the lords and oom- 
mona, earnestly charging Uiem to consider whe- 
ther some iither means might not be suggeBled. 


4,i>. 1DT2— 1&S7.] 



The two lioiueM ilelibdrHtud mid uuufmred with 
one iiiiath«r, uid theu untuiirauuely replied tlut 
no other souuil aiiit uiHured laeana could bi: de- 
vised for the naivty of the realm, religion, and 
kei inajest/B jierMu. But Elizxbeth had no 
doae acting. In reply to thi» address she said 
thiit she bad hud a fearful struggle with berself 
— that she had entertained a greedy desire and 
hungry will that their cuusultatlonH might have 
had another issue — thatBhemustconiplam,thongh 
not uf them,aii(o tbeni; for that she i>erueiYedby 
their advice, prayers, and desires, that oiily her 
injurer'H bane mnst be hei- security. But, in the 
luenntioie, whispers had been spi-ead abroad by 
those who knew Elizabeth's character, and these 
runiouTB she inet by declaring, that if any per- 
sons were so wicked as to suppose that she pro- 
longed this time only to make a show oF clemency, 
they did her so great a wrong as they could hardly 
recompense — that she, in referring the subject of 
Mary's eiecutiou to parliament, had earnestly 
desired tlial every one should act in that matter 
according to his conscience, and that, if her 
ministcTB had not signified as much to them, 
they had not done their duty towards her. She 
said that she bad just cause to complain that she, 
who had pardoned so many rebels, and winked 
at so many treasons, should now be obliged to take 
the life of such a person. Many opprobrious 
hooks and pamphlets had accused her of being a 
tyrant, which was, indeed, news to her; but what 
would they now say if a mvden queen should 
spill the blood of her own kiuswomaol Yet it 
were a foolish course to cherish a sword to cut 
her own throat ; and she was infinitely beholden 
to them who sought to preserve her life, Then 
she reverted to a round-about, oracular style, 
saying, " If I should say I will not do what you 
require, it might, peradveuture, be saying raore 
than I mean ; and if I should say I will dd'ft, it 
might, perhaps, breed greater peril than those 
from which you would protect me." 8he then 
gave a few comfortable words to the members 
before they returned to their counties, and dis- 
misseil tham.' 

A few days after, on the 6tb of December, she 
ordered the sentence of death to be proclaimed 
in various parts of London and in other places, 
which was done in great state, and with infinite 
rejoicings. In Ijondon every house was illu- 
minated, the beils were rung from every steeple, 
bonlirea were lit in every street, and there was a 
great singing of psalms in all parts of the city.' 
Lord Bnckhunit and Mr. Robert Beale, accom- 
panied by a great troop, were sent to Fotheringay 
Castle to announce her doom to the captive, ami 
to tell her in Elizabeth's name what especial fa- 
Tour had been shown to her in her trial by the 

appointment ot many distinguished noblemen 
and the whole of the privy council to be her 
judges, instead of obliging her to appear before 
the comiaou criminal courU, Buckhurst ami 
Beale were instructed to obtain, if possible, a 
confession of guilt from Mary, who, it waa cal- 
culated, would lose heart and courage at the 
close prospect of death. But Elizabeth had 
formed a wrong estimate ot the strength of her 
rival's character. Mary, whatever may have 
been her former errora or guilt, suffered and died 
like a heroine and a martyr. She received the 
message, not merely with firmness but with cheer- 
fulness, saying that she was a-weary of this world 
and glad that her troubles were about to end. 
Tlie two messengers were accompanied by a Pro- 
testant bishop and a dean, according to iheir no- 
tion, to direct her conscience and administer spi- 
ritual comfort in this ex ti'emity— according to 
ier notion, to persecute her with their heretical 
intolerance in her last moments. She wholly 
rejected their assistance, but begged, in the blessed 
name of Christ, that she might be attended by 
her own almoner, who was in the castle, though 
long since separated from her. Buckhurst and 
the Prot«stant priests harshly told her that, do 
what she might, she could hardly die a saint, 
even in Catholic eyes, seeing that she had been 
fairly condemned for attempting to murder their 
queen. Once more Mary, with the name of her 
Savioar in her mouth, denied that she bad ever 
devised, counselled, or commanded the death of 
Queen Elizabeth. When left to herself and her 
Catholic chaplain, she wrote a letter to the pope 
and another to the Archbishop of Glaisgow, in 
rbich she called upon her relatives of the house 
of Guise, who bad been accused equally with 
herself, to vindicate her character. A few days 
after, her jailers. Sir Amyas Pautet and Sir Drew 
Drury, informed her that, as she bad refused to 
make any submission or confession, and as she 
was now dead in law, she had no right to the in- 
signia of royalty which hitherto had been left to 
her in her prison. Mary replied that she was an 
anointed queen -that, in spite of Elizabeth, her 
council, and her heretical judges, she would still 
die a queen. When Paulet's servants took down 
her canopy of state, and disrobed her of the regal 
oruamenta, the austere Puritan himself sat down 
with hifl hat on in her presence. Mary then 
wrote her last letter to her rival, telling her that 
her mind was free from malice and resentment 
— that she thanked God that he was now pleased 
to put an end to her troublesome pilgrimage — - 
that the only favours she would ask were that 
she might not be privately put to death, and that 
)ier servants and others might be allowed to 
witness her end' — that her faithful attendsnta 


,v Google 



[Civil, t 


luifjlit Lave liberty to leave Euglaiid without dis- 
tiirboDce, and quietJy enjoy the email legacies 
she had bequeathed them, aud that her body 
might be oiiveyed fi>r interment to France. 
These thi[igB she besought her to grant in the 
name of Christ, bj their near relationship, by 
the memory of Henry VII., their common ances- 
tor, and by hor own royal dignity. 

In the meanwhile Henrj- III., King of Finance, 
had sent over BelliSvre as a special arabaasador 
to intercede for Mary'a life, Bellievre was a 
pedant and a poor negotiator, but there seems to 
be uo good reason for suspecting his sincerity. 
Elizabeth, ncconling to the report of bin miseion, 
ileferred, with infinite malice, giving him au- 
dience, pretending, first, that some birod assas- 
sins, unknown to him, had got mixed in his 
I'etinue, with the design of t&king her life; and 
then, that the plague had broken out among bis 
followers cm their journey. It waa while she 
was sending these evasive answers to Belli^vre 
that parliament proceeded to confirm the sentence 
and to press for the execution. At last, on the 
7th of December, she sent for the ambassador to 
liicbmond, where she received him, seated ou 
II throne and surrouuded by her chief lords. 
Bellii^vre remonstrated in forcible language. Eli- 
zalteth betrayed signs of strong emotion, bot met 
all bis rejiresentations with the reply that this 
was the third time the Queen of Scots had at- 
tempted her life. According to De Thou, Bel- 
liSvre pledged his sovereign's word thai tlie Duke 
of Guise would give bis own sons as hostages for 
the future conduct of Mary, if her life were 
spared. Elizabeth told him, in a word, that such 
guarantees would be of little use when she was 
murdered. Bellidvre returned to London, where 
he remained some days, anxiously wtiiting for a 
definitive answer, and then, getting none, he in- 
timated that as they had proceeded even to the 
recordingof a sentence of death there was no need 
for his making a longer stay iii England, and he 
demanded bis passport. Eliiabeth neither sent 
him an answer nor his passport He wrote again 
and requested an audience — she was indisposed 
and could not be seen : be caused a letter to be 
put into the hands of Walsingbain, wbo enga^d 
to get an answer the next day. On the next 
day BeltiSvTe received a verbal metiage, that the 
queen was pleased to grant a delay of twelve 
diiys. He still lingered about court, in the hopes 
of doing some service; and, on the 0th of Janu- 
ary, 1587, when Mary had been prepared to die, 

be was summoned to Qreeuwich, where Elizabeth 
condescended to hear at length his arguments 
agunst the execution of the infamous sentence. 
His pleading was interlarded with references to 
classical history, philosophy, poetry, and the Old 
Testament: but these things were after the taste 
of the queen and her court. He told her that 
the race of common and low people is of lead, 
but that of kings is of gold — that from royally 
royal deeds are looked for^that princes, though 
not always equal in grandeur and power, are 
equal in royal dignity and (be right which cornea 
from Heaven — that it would be a bad example to 
show the world that princes could die on a block 
like common people. Vet some of his nrgumentfl 
were well put and unanswerable. In reply to the 
position that strangers, even of I'oyal dignity, are 
subject to the laws of the country which they 
have chosen for their residence, ha said that it 
was necessary to prove a free choice, and that 
the world knew the Queen of Scots had been 
kept in England wholly against her will. Eliza- 
beth heard the ambassador with tolerable pa- 
tience until he told her that if she proceeded to 
such rigorous and extraordinary judgment his 
master could not do otherwise than resent it : hIic 
then expressed herself in terms " almost of in- 
dignity.' Bellifivre then prepared to depart, but 
he was requested to remain a few days longer. 
On the 14th of January he received his passport 
and went his way, with the conviction that hi» 
intercession had been fruitless, and that no- 
thing could allay the queen's thirst for revt^nge.' 
L'Aubespine de Cbateannenf, the i-esident am- 
bassadoi', resumed the ncgotintioni hut he was 
presently silenced by Ijeing accused of taking 
part in a new plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth. 
The queen and her ministers, indeed, pretended 
that they gave no credit to this foul charge, but 
they nevertheless intercepted his despatches and 
threw hissecretary into prison. The French king, 
in his rage, interrupted his diplomatic relations; 
but being made to feel that the insultwasamere 
trick to prevent further interference, he soon sent 
over another envoy to interpose l>etween Mary 
and the scaffold. 

In the course of nature James of Scotland. 
though a less powerful sovereign, ought to have 
been infinitely more earnest than Henry of 
France; but James wasglnd that his own mother 
should be kept in a captivity which left to him 
the occupation of the throne^' he was besides 
always slow and inert; and he may possibly have 

• IMlltT 

U bit «i AQiMma. pu M. 

B ponuu tltiich«d Co the uabutj , 

1 On ttiA^th of Octobnr. 1&BS» when Ellubeth wju prap&rinv 
hor Domnilnion for Fothfrringaj Cialle. JuAd told Coanrilet, 
thd Fnncb Ma bwaJ or, thil be b>ved bin nathsr ■■ tnisob ■■ 
baton ftnd datj commvidflil. bqt bB«mbl not Jlkt berfiObdDcC, 
■ud 1[»ew Tsiy waU tliat sbelud iiomonc™il vUltowmplabiiu 


4D- 1372— IMT] ELIZA 

conifurted hiniseK with a doubt whether Eliza- 
beth irould really proceed to execntiou. The 
King of France certainly thought it uecesaary to 
aw&keu this tender sou to a mum of hie parent's 
danger, luid about & mouth after sentence was 
passed in the Star Ctiaiuber he exhorted him by 
nil meaua to take hia mother's part.' Ou the 
last daji of November, 15S6, the French ambns- 
sador iiiformed his maater that Ktug Jamea had 
pn>tuis«d to intercede for his mother through his 
ambassador, Eeith, "an honest mac, but rather 
English;' that Kiug James had told him, in his 
oraculnr way, that the case of the queen hia 
mother n'os the most strange that ever was heard 
of, and that there was uothiug like it since the 
creation of the world; that he had writteu witii 
his own hand to Elizabeth, and to four or live 
great men in Eughind, as also to Walsiughani, 
telling the latter, in particular, to desist from 
his bad offices, for otherwise he, James, might 
du him some displeasure. " But," contiuuee the 
ambassador, "several lords and great roeu are 
dissatisfied that he hath sent Keith, a man of so 
little importance, and a pensionary of England. 
They say that in an affair of such consequence, 
IB whidi the life of his mother is concerned, 
vbich ought to be as dear to him as his own. 
might he not have found in his kingdom suuil- 
othera who would have considered the mission 
aa an honour, and would have devoted their lives 
and property to it, if it had been necc-ssury — 
oSeriug, too, to undertake the journey at their 
oivu expense) This leads them to imagine that 
tbere is some secret understanding with the 
Queen of England, in which they are further 
confirmed, because the inatrnctiona for Keith 
were diiiwo up by the kitig, Lethiugton, and 
Uray, without being communicated to auy of 
the others." At this time Jomes'a resident am- 
bassador at Elizabetli's court was the notori- 
ous Archibald DougUa— an appoiDtnieut about 
equally disgraceful to both courts. There was a 
talk of sending the new £ai-l of Bothwell, Francis 
Stuart — a grandson of James V. by his natural 
■on John, styled Prior of Coldingham — an im- 
petuous and frank man, devoted to Mary, to nt^o- 
tiate for her at this extremity; but tliis project was 
defeated by the intrigues anil artifices of Archi- 
bald Douglas. A month later Courcelles com- 
phtiaed that the King of Scotland did not seem to 
have much at heart any embassy in his mother's 
favour.' The king however made, through Eeith, 

BETH ■ 173 

something like a spirited remonstrance, at which 
Elizabeth was so em-aged, that she was well nigh 
driving her poor pensioner from her presence. 
James instantly took the alarm, and wrote an 

bumble latter of apology, declaring that he did 
not impute to her personally or directly the 
blame of anything that had been done against 
his mother, and he only besought her to suspend 
further proceedings until the arrival of the Master 
of Gray. At the mention of this name Elizabeth 
must have been satisfied, for the Master of Oray 
was a venal courtier who had long been in her 
interests.' There were, however, some lords in 
the Scottish council who were more anxious about 
Maiy than was her own aon, or who knew the 
character of the Master of Oray better than 
James did ; and, at the instance of these men. 
Sir Robert Melville was joined in commission 
with Gray. Melville exerted himself l-o the 
utmoat to save the queen's life — Gray assured 
the English court that no mischief would ensue 
from her death. At their first audience Eliza- 
beth declkred to them that she was immeasurably 
sorry that there could he no means found to save 
the life of their king's mother with assurance of 
her own— that she had laboured hard to preserve 
the life of both, but it could not be. At a second 
audience, the Master of Gray requested to know 
whether Queen Mary were alive, tor a rumour 
iiad got abroad that she had been privately 
despatched. "As yet," replied Elizabeth, "I be- 
lieve she lives, but I will not promise fur an 
hour." Melville trusted that the poor queen 
might be allowed to live on, seeing that the chief 
nobility of Scotland were ready to deliver them- 
selves as hostages that no other plot or enterprise 
should be made on her account against the Eng- 
lish crown; or that, if it pleased Elizabeth to 
send her into Scotland, King Jamea would en- 
gage himself that no harm should ever be done 
by her or on her account. Elizabeth, turning to 
the Earl of Leicester and others of her favourite 
lords, expressed her scorn and contempt both of 
the King of Scots and these his proposals. She 
was then aaked by the Scottish envoys how the 
Queen of Scots could really be esteemed so dan- 
gerous? " Because she is a Papist, and they say 
she shall succeed lo my throne," was the harsh 
but honest reply of Elizabeth. It was replied 
that Mary would divest herself of her right in the 
English succession in favour of faer son. Thi* 
was an allusion which Elizabeth could never bear, 

thii«i, that ba hid mm IMUn in Iw buHl-<rrillDg, whtch 
pniiiil hm lU-wlU lowuili bim, uhI that ba know leij well 
that lb* bad Euad4 fraqmnt Bttempta to appotut a mgent In 
DoMlaud. tud dapriT* him of thalhiuna,— Imunrr. 

■ Latter Auto Utnrjr 111. la Co(l^aUB^ Ilia Frenoh ■—■— — 
dor <n Scotland -Aa~»rr. 

« klllg will CD 

dared that ba wi 

to dorlvA advantagH 

hlnusll H* inaiUnlT di 
I connunca nx with Encland. ««] 
ilclude him from the BucceHaiau la th> 

tilth of .\ijgufit, DuTfrhlej anten in h 
^flOP, deUveiad to tha Uutar of Qni 
alu footmen iu Suotlaud tOi Uh Lo 




[Civil a 

and luaiiig all l«m|M!r she shrieked, "She liatli 
iit> such right ! She is declared ioc&pable oE suc- 
ceeding!' Upon this it was ni^ed thnt there 
was then an end ot danger from the Fapist«, and 
that Mar;, being so debarred, could not be bo 
veiy perilous. But Elizabeth said, that though 
Mary's right waa indeed annulled, the Papiats 
still considered it as existing. The rejoinder wns 
inevitable: if the Queen of Scots gnve up all 
right in favonr of her son, who was a Prot«atant, 
she could never again pretend to claim tt, and 
her renunciation ahould proceed with consent of 
friends, and in free and legal form. I^iceBt«r 
ezplaiued that the King of Scots would tlina be 
placed, with regard to the succession, in precisely 
the same position as bis mother now occupied. 
Elizabeth, who hated all successors, Catlioiic 
or Protestant, screamed again — " Is that your 
meaning! Then should I put myself in worse 
case than before ! By God's passion, this were to 
cut mine own throat ! He shall never conie into 
that place or be party with me !" Gray replied 
that the King of Scotland must become party 
with her majesty when he succeeded by his 
mother's death to her claims of every kind. The 
queen cut short the conference by telluig them 
that it waa the that had kept the crown on their 
king's head ever since his infancy. She then 
turned to leave the room. Sir Robert Melville 
followed her, tenderly beseeching her to delay 
the execution. She exclaimed " No ! not for an 
hour!" and disappeared. Upon receiving intelli- 
gence of this conference, James assumed for a 
moment a more becoming tone, an<) in a letter 
written with hia own hand to the Master of 
Gray, be charged him to spare no pains nor plain- 
ness in this ease— to be no longer reserved in 
dealing for his mother, for he had been so too 
long. But at this moment Gray was bargaining 
with Leicester and Walsingham, and privately 
telling Eliubeth that "a dead woman bites not." 
Walsingham at the same time wrote to James, 
expressing his surprise at bis interference to 
rescue the mother that bore him from a bloody 
grave, and telling him that, as a Protestant 
prince, he ought to feel that his mother's life 
was inconsistent with the safety of the Reformed 
churches of England and Seotiand. To maintain 
his dignity James recalled from the English c<)urt 
his ambassadors, who, with the exception of Mel- 
ville, had sold his mother's blood. And what was 
the next proceeding of this king, the descendant 
nf a hundred kings I Did he call an army to the 
Bor(ler»l--No ! He issued an order to the Scot- 
tish clergy to rememl>er his mother in their public 
prayers — and, with very few exceptions, they re- 
fused to ]iray for the idolater and Papist. 

Elizabeth was not wholly without nhirm at the 
recal of the Scottish anibnssadorsi but JameH'H 

strange conduct gave her confidence. Still, how- 
ever, she seemed undecided, and was constantly 
heard muttering t« herwlf, Aut fer, aut/im: n* 
ferian feri.' It was again deliberate.1 in the 
cabinet, whether it would not be better to dis- 
pose of Mary secretly. At this moment Walsing- 
ham, who had managed the whole matter' very 
prudently, got up a lit of sickness, and, withdraw- 
ing from the court, left the after responsibility 
to fall ou Secretary Davison. Shortly after re- 
ceiving the petition of parliament to carry the 
sentence into execution, Elizabeth had caused the 
Lord-treasurer Burghley to draw out the death- 
warrant. Burghley gave this warrant to Davison 
to get it engrossed, ordering liim to bring it for 
the queen's signature as soon as it was done. 
When Davison presented the warrant to Eliza- 
beth, she commanded him to reserve it till a 
mora convenient season.' He accordingly kept 
it by him five or six weeks, during which time 
Leicester severely reprimanded him for not pre- 
senting it, and Burghley once reproved him in 
Elizabeth's hearing for not bringing it up. On 
the Ist of Febniary, a few days after the depar- 
ture of James's ambaBsadors, Davison was sent 
for primUdi/, to bring the warrant that the queen 
might sign it. At this very time, to keep up the 
alarm, reports were spread all over the kingdom, 
that London was set on fire by the Papista, that 
the Duke of Guise was landed, that Mary had 
escaped, that Queen Elizabetli was murdered. 
The Protestants became almost frantic; and still 
further to prolong the illusion, a hue and cry 
was published by order of government for tlip 
apprehension of Mary, as if she had really bro- 
ken the strong walls of Fotheringay Castle. This 
time, when Davison presented the warrant, Eliza- 
beth, after reading it, called for pen and ink, 
signed it, and laid it down by her upon the mats, 
telling him that she had been induced to dirlay, 
out of regard to her own reputation, wishing it 
to appear that she had not violently adopted th(> 
measure from any feeling of malice or revenge 
towards the Queen of Scots. After some flippant 
discourse, some smiles, and some irony, she told 
the secretary to take np the warrant and carry 
it immeiliiktely to the great seal, cautioning him 
to get it sealed as privately ai pottiUe, as she 
entertained suspicions of persons about the lonl- 
chancetlnr, and feared that, if the warrant wer^- 
divulged befoi-e it was executed, it might \n- 

I Fltlier bmr nilb tier, or wnIM har: Mclk*, lot lUuu I.- 


I. 1373—1587.] 



cre*se her owu persoual danger. She expressly 
comnu^kded him to use despatch, tmd to send 
down tha w&rnmt to Fotheriugfty Castle with- 
out troubling her agfuu on the subject, or letting 
her hear anjrthing more about it iiutil it was 
executed. DaviaoD offered to go to the chan- 
cellor forthwith, but ehe commanded him to 
wail till the evening. She deeired bim op his 
way to call on Walaingham, who had token to 
hia bed, and to tell him that she hod signed the 
warntnt; " because," aa she sud jestingly, " the 
grief he «ill feel on learning it will nearly kill 
him outright." Davisou was leaving the apart- 
ment, when she began a complaint agniost Sir 
Amyas Faulet and others, who, aa she sidd, might 
have reudeied the signing of the waiTant unua- 
ceasaiy; and she expressed a wish or a hint that 
Dnviaon or Walsingham might yet write both 
to Sir Amyaa and Sir Drew Drury, in order to 
Miutul their disposition as ta privUely deepatch- 
iug the Queen of Soots ! Davison, who had al- 
waya shrunk from the secret murder, assured 
her that it would be merely labour lost; but, 
finding her extremely deurous to have such a 
l«ttar written to the two jailers, he says that to 
aatiafy her, he promised to signify her plea- 
sure, and then took his leave. On his way 
from the royal apnrtment the aeuretary called 
upon Bitrghley, and found him at home, cloiieted 
with Leicester; be showed his warrant, and they 
both enjoined him to usa despatoh and neglect 
all other bumnesa. Later in the day he called 
iipau Walsingfaaoi, showed tlie warrant, and ar- 
ranged with him the matter of a letter to Sir Aiu- 
yas Paulet and Sir Di-ew Drury. Ue then pro- 
ceeded to the lord-chancellor^a, where, when it 
waa almost dai4t, at about live o'clock in the even- 
ing, the great seal was put to the warnint. From 
the chancellor's he returned to Walaiugham'H, 
and found the tettnr reitiiy to Iw despatched. 
According to this infamous document, though 
WalsiDgham and Davison recoiled themselves 
from secret sssassbatioii, they were capable at 
their mistresf^s command, of recommending it to 
others. They told Sir Amyas Paulet that they 
found by speech lately uttered by her majesty, 
that she doth uoto in thum 1xith (Paulet and 
Brury} a lack of thut cam and zeal that slie 
lookMl for at their hands, in tliat tbey had not in 
all thie time, of themselves, without other provo- 
cation, found out some way (□ thmlen the Ufa of 
lAai queea. " Whereiu," continue W^singham 
and Davisou, " besides a kind of lack of love to- 
wards her, she nototb greatly thut you have not 
that care of your own particular safeties, or rather 
of the preservation of religion and the public 
good, and prosperity of your country, that rea- 
son and policy commandeth, especially having so 
(!ood a warrant and ground for the satisfaction 

of your conscience towards God, and the dis- 
cbarge of your credit and reputation towards the 
world, (u tht oalk of aaociatiim which you both 
have so solemnly taken aud vowed, and especially 
the matter wherewith she standeth charged being 
BO clearly aud manifestly proved against her. 
And therefore she taketh it most unkindly to- 
wards her, that uieu profeeaing that love towards 
her that you do, should, in any kind of sort, for 
lack of the diHcbarge of your duties, cast the bur- 
den upon A«r; knowing, as you do, her indisposi- 
tion to shed blood, especially of one of that sex 
aud quality, and ao near to her in blood as the 
said queen is.*' Upon leaving Walsinghani, Dsi- 
vison went to hia owu house in London, where 
he slept. The next morning, about ten o'clock 
(no very early hour for those times), filizabetli 
sent for him, and asked whether the warrant 
hud passed the gi-eat seal: he informed her 
that it had. She asked why he had used such 
haste? Davison repUed, that he had used Uo 

one of his narratives he observes, that, as twenty- 
four hours had elapsed since she had given him 
orders to get the warrant sealed, she could not 
suppose that he had not obeyed her commands. 
He asked her whether it was still her inten- 
tion to proceed with the aSkir, and she replied 
that it was, though she thought it might have 
beeu belter bandied, because this present course 
threw the whole burden upon herself. Davison 
obsei-ved, that be knew not who else could hear 
it, seeing her taws made it murder in any 
man to take the life of the meanest subject in 
her kingdom, except by her warrant. She ab- 
ruptly broke into a great commendation of Arch- 
ibald Douglas, the worthy kinsman of Morton, 
and wished that she liad but two such coun- 
sellors. Seeing that Davison took little notice 
of that discourse, she rose up and walked a turn 
or two in the chamber: then oue of the ladies en- 
tertained her with some other discourse, and he 
left her fur that time. He went down to Sir 
Christopher Hatton, the vlce-cbamberlaln, ami 
told that courtier what had passed, addiu^r, tluit 
he feared it was the queen's intention to throw 
this burdeu from herself if she could ; " remem- 
bering him how things had passed in the case of 
the Duke of Norfolk, the imputation of whose 
death she laid heavily upon my Lord-treasurer 
Burghley tor divers years together.' In the end, 
Davison says he told Hatton plainly, that, not- 
withstanding the directions she had given him 
for sending down the warrant to the commis- 
sioners (which haply she thought he would ad- 
venture for her safety and service), he was ab- 
solutely resolved not to meddle in it alone. Hat- 
ton agreed to accompany him bstantly to tho 
■ Li/r ^ Davidaoik. 




[Civil a»d Miutart. 

lord- treasurer. Burgtiley approved of Davison's 
resolutior not to proceed singly, and agreed ba 
submit the matter to the wholj of the privy 
eounci). Id the meautiuie he desired tlmt the 
warraikt might be put into hia haada, and Davi- 
eoB, in the presence of Hatton, delivered it tii 
Btirghley, who kept it till it was sent away to 
FotheriDgaj. The next morning, the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, Burghley nasembled thecouncil in hia 
chamber, and they unanimonaly consented to have 
the execution liastened, "knowing how much it 
imported both to themaelvea and the whole realm, 
and having ao clear a testimony of her majesty's 
])leasure as her own warrant nnder her hand and 
great seal of England." They also eitpreased their 
UDwiUingness to trouble her majesty any further 
on the subject; and then calling for Mr. Beale, 
the clerk of the cnnncil, as the fitteat person, they 
deliberat«ly gave him the death-wBiraut and let- 
ters of inatruction to the commissioners.' Ou the 
following morniug Daviaoo went to court, where 
he found her majesty in conversation with Sir 
Walter Raleigh. She presently called Dn^vison 
to her, and,.as if she had understood nothing of 
these proceedings (the meeting of her whole 
uouncil, the writing of the letters, &c.), she aaid 
to him smilingly, that " the overnight she had 
dreamed a dream, that the Queen of Scots was 
executed, and that she had been in her dream bo 
angry against hira therefore, that she could have 
done anything to him." At firat the secretary 
treated thisasajest, for her majesty whs "bo plea- 
sant and smiling.* But Duvison knew his mis- 
tresa; a moment's reflection excited an uncomfort- 
able doubt — and he asked whether, having pro- 
ceeded so far, she liad not a reaulutt intention to 
esecutethesentence. She answered yes,and swore 
a great oath, but said that she thought it might 
have been done in another way, and she asked 
him whether he had not heard from Sii Amyas 
Paulet. Hereupon Davison produced Paulefn 
Hjiswer to the infamous epistle which he and 
Walsiugham had written. It appeared that Pau- 
let, though unfeeling, had a conscience. In great 
grief and bitterness oi mind be deplored that he 
should have lived to see thiu nnhappy day, in 
which he was requii-ed, by direction from his 
lu'ist gracious sovereign, to do an act which God 
and the law forbade. His goods, his life were at 
her majesty's disposal; he was ready to lose them 
the next mon-ow if it should so please her, but 
God forbid that he should make ao foul a ship- 
wretk of his conscience, or leave so great a blot 
to his (Hist^rity, as to ahed hloofi without law nnd 

Kant, uid wUeh wu ilpiiid bf Biu|Ii1>t, tha Eul af Uerb;, 
UmmUa. ChKl« Rawivd, Hnii»l™, Cobhim, Fnnrti KnoUjt, 
IIitloB, Wildngluim, uid DaiiKo. Li wu laJd Uwt hia tonlttalji 

li* pnaMiliuft hmlB to ta knjit n 

warrant. Elizabeth then called Paulet, lately 
her "dear and faithful Paulet," a "precise and 
dainty fellow;" and waxing still more wrathful, 
ahe accused him and others, who had taken the 
oath of association, of perjury and breach of faith, 
they having all promised and vowed great things 
for her, and performing nothing. 
ever, that there were some who would do the 
thing for her sake, and she named one Wing- 
field, who with some others would have done it. 
Upon which Davison once more insisted on the 
injustice and dishonour of secret assassination, 
and upon the great danger which would have been 
brought upon Paulet and Drury if they had con- 
sented. On the 7th of February, at the very 
moment when the walls of Fotheringay Castle 
were echoing with the noise made by the work- 
men in erecting Mary's scaffold, Elizabeth b^an 
an earnest conversation with Davison, on the 
danger in which she lived, telling him that it 
was more than time that theaffMr was concludeil, 
Hwearjng a great oath, and commanding him to 
write a sharp letter to Sir Amyaa Paulet. The 
secretary, being " somewhat jealous of her drift "" 
cautiously replied, that he imagined such letter 
was unnecessary. She then said that she thought, 
indeed. Sir Aniyas would look for it; and tJien 
oue of her ladies entering to inquire her majesty's 
pleasure as to wliat should I>e had for diuner,ahe 
suddenly broke off the conversation and ilis- 
niissed Davison, who never saw her Face again.* 

On this same day the arrival of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury at Fotheringay Castle was announced 
to Mary, who knew what it meant, as Shrews- 
lury was earl-marshal. He was attended by 
the Earls of Kent, Cumberland, aud Derby, by 

Dr two miniaters of the gospel, and by Beale, 
the clerk of the council. Mary rose from her 
l>ed, dressed hei-aelf, sat down by a small table, 
with her servants, male and female, arranged on 
each side of her. Then the door was thrown 
open and the earls entered, and Beale proceeded 

L'ad the death-warrant. When Beale had 
■lone reading, the quceti crossed hereelf, and with 
great conijmsure told them, that she was ready 
for dciith — that death was moat welcome to her, 
though she had haiilly thought that, after keep* 
iig her t^\'eiity years in a prison, her sister EHiza- 
i)f-th would so dispose of her. She then laid her 
liand on n book which was by her, aud solemnly 
pi-otested that as for the death of the queen, their 
sovereign, she had never imagined it, never sought 
it, never consented to it. The Earl of Kent, who 
■leema to have thought that the value of an oath 
ilepeniled upon the book that was touched, rudely 
exchUmeil, "Thatiaa Popish Bible, and there- 
fore your oath is of uo value." " It is a Catholic 

r llruTU NinlH. 1|A Iff miliam Dantem, ind tlu iin- 


TaiLmieiit," nrpliwl ibe queen, "and therefore, 
my Inril, au I helirve that to be the true version, 
my oath is the luon- to be relied upon." The 
Earl of Kent then iiuule a long discourse, advis- 
ing her to by naide her siiperatitioua follies and 
idle trumperies of Popery, to embrace the tnie 
faith, aad to accept in her lant agonies the spiri- 
tual services of the dean of Pe.terbomugh, a very 
learned and devout divine, whom her majesty 
had mercifnlly appointed to attend upon her. 
Mary rejected the dean, and asked again for 
her own chaplain. Here the Enrl of Kent told 
her that her death would be 
the life of Aii religion, as her 
lite woald have been its death. 
He retnseil her the attendance 
of her chaplain and confessor 
as being contrary to the law of 
God and the law of the land, 
and dangerous to themselves. 
After some long and desultory 
conversation, in which she put 
the touching question, whether 
it were possible that her only 
son coiild have forgotten hi» 
mother, she calmly turned to 
the earl - marshal, and asked 
when she was to Buffer. Grenl- 
ly «g;itfl(ed, the Earl of Shrews- ci'mo™ 

bury replied, "To-morrow morn- 
ing at eight." Tlie earls then rose to depart. 
Before they went, she inquired whether her late 
aeuretary Naue were dead or alive. Sir Drew 
Dniry replied, that he was alive in prison. " I 
proteHt before God," ahe exclaimed, putting her 
hand again ou the Catholic Testament, "that 
Naue hiin brought me to the scaSbld k> nave 
his own life. But the truth will be known 
hereafter." Then they all withdrew, leaving 
the doomed queen alone with her attendants- 
Presently she baile them dry their tears, and 
f^ve ordei's that supper might be hasteneil, 
"for that she had a deal of bnsinewi on her 
hands." That night ahe supped very spariTigly, 
as her manner was, and while she sat at table, 
she asked one who waited upon her, whether the 
force of tnith was not great, since, notwithstand- 
ing the pretence of her conspiring agunst the 
queen'a life, the Earl of Kent had just told her 
that she must die for the security of (A«> reli- 
gion.' When supper was over, having called her 
servants before her to the table, she drank to 

BETH ^ 177 

them all, and they pledged lie r in return upon their 
knees,mixingtears with their wine,aTid imploring 
her pardon for any offences they might have com- 
mitted against her. She forgave them, and aske<l 
forgiveness of them, and then delivered some 
Christian advice as to their future conduct in life. 
She then distributed among them the few thinga 
she had, and retire<l to her chamber, where she 
wrote with her own hand two sheets of paper as 
her last will, and three letters, one to her confes- 
sor, one to the King of France, and the other to 
her consin the Duke of Guise. This done, sho 

prayed and read alternately till four o'clock in 
the morning, when she threw herself upon her 
1>ed and slept. 

At break of day she roue, assembled her little 
househcld, read lo them her will, distributed all 
her clothes, except those which ahe had put on, 
ba<le them farewell, and retiring to her oratory 
threw herself upon her knees before au altar. 
About eight o'clock the sheriff of the county en- 
tered the oratoiy and told her that the hour was 
come. She roee, took down the crucifii, ami 
turned to take the lost few steps which were be- 
tween her and the grave. She came forth with 
an air of pleasantness and majesty, dressed in a 
gown of block satin, with a veil of lawn fostened 
to her cani and descending to the ground. Her 
chaplet was fixed to her girdle, and she kept 
in her right hand the ivory crucifix which ahe 
had taken from the altar. In an ante-chamber 
she was joined by the noble Ionia and the two 
knightswho had been her hard keepers, and pre- 
sently she found standing in her path her house- 

I Thi. Ml, 

a MbH ntcb, aid to h*i* bttn pmtDUd hf npnHnt<ngtta«giinleDofEdsn. UHiKhitthscnieifiiiini. Titan 
d of bobOQT, MuT Bvton. nudb liitD Lh« pot- ^ krs nmundad Hj a|>pro|ffiKt« Lktiq mattoo*. The watch ifi 
Mmuu Dick Lmidsr. who Inhsrttad II Ibnxigh opsned Yj nreniDg the >kuU,iDd piidoti tbs upper |nr1 xT >( 
I7. tram ohom h< lo rtanandad. Ths luinna 1 In thspalm of the hud. uid thai lifting Ihenppeijiv, which 
re engnTed with Ibn foUoirliic uhJeoU: — On rite* ana hln£«. 1iieM*,an thepUtonr lii). ik a repnevntation 
Uxtmheiid of thenknll li the H(on of Death, heahnf ■ •ojtbe ' of U>e naliTttjr. The whole i> of rich dmlgn anil bsautifol *nrli 
ind lioar-glM>~al (he hack. Time deroning all thlngi The ' mamhtp. Thomlinodal*, but themaker'. name, with Ihiplice 
aij^npanof thoknll ii diThlat Into two aHnpartmenu. one ' of o^analtaidm— "MoraK. Buiis ~— «rr (D^nKsd un thr w«k). 

Vol. tl. 1S9 . 

,v Google 





steward, Sir Robert Melville, who had been de- 
nied access to her for the last three weeks. Thw 
old and faithful creature feU upoa hia knees be- 
fore her, and with a paaaioii of teaiB lamented 
his hard fate which would make him the bearer 
of such sorrowful news iuto Scotland. And when 
he could proceed no further, by reason of his sobs, 
the queen said to him, "Good Melville, cease to 
laraeut, but rather rejoice, for thou sbalt now 
see a fiuaJ period to Mary Stuart's troubles. The 
world, my servaut, is all but vanity, and subject 
to more sorrow than an ocean of tears can wash 
away. But, I pray thee, take this message when 
thou goeut, that I die true to my religion, to Scot- 
land, and to France. God forgive them that have 
thirsted for my blood as the hart longeth for the 
water brooks ! Commend me to my son, and tell 
him I have done nothing to prejudice the king- 
dom of Scotland." Old Melville still wept ; the 
queen wept also, and kissing him said, "Once 
mora farewell, good Melville; pray for thy mis- 
tress and queen." She then addressed herself to 
the lords, requesting them to treat her servants 
with kindness, and permit them to stand by her 
at her death. To the last request the £^1 of 
Kent objected as inconvenient, saying that it was 
to be feared that they would be troublesome to 
her majesty and unpleasing to the company — 
tliat if they were present at the execution they 
would not fail, aa Papists all, to put some su- 
perstitious trumpery in practice; and perhaps 
then! would be a dipping of handkerchiefs in her 
grace's blood, which it was not decent in them, 
the Proteataut loi'ds, to admit of, "My lords," 
said Mary, "I will give you my word they shall 
deserve no blame, nor do such things as you 
mention; but, poor souls, it would do them good 
to see the last of their mistress; and I hope your 
mistress, as a maiden queen, would not deny me 
in regard of womanhood, to have some of my 
women about me at my death. Surely you 
might grant a greater favour than this, though I 
were a woman of leas rank than the Queen of 
Scots." Kent was silent; and the other lords did 
not choose to take the responsibility of granting 
what was asked. Mary then said, with some 
vehemence, "Am I not cousin to yoiir queen, 
descended from the royal blood of HenryVIL.B 
raamed Queen of France, and anointed Queen o< 
Scotland?" At length, after much consultation, 
the lordedetermined tocomplyinpart; and Mel- 
ville her steward, her apothecary and surgeon, 
and two of her maids, named Kennedy and Curie, 
were allowed to attend her to the scaffold. The 
procenion now moved forward to the great hall 
of the castle, headed by the sheriff and his offi. 
cent. In the hall stood the scaffold, which wai 
raised about three feet from the ground, and cov 
ered all over with black cloth, with rails around 

Upon the scaffold there was a low stool, a, 
cushion, and a block, all covered with block. The 
queen mounted the scaffold without any change 
of countenance or any faltering, and took her 
place upon the stool. On her right hand stood 
the Eiu-1 of Kent, on her left the Earl of Shr«ws- 
bury; tbe rest of the company, which, by Eliza- 
beth's ordara, consisted of vety few persons, 
stood in the hall, without the rails. Immediate- 
ly in front of her was the headsman from the 
Tower, in a suit of block velvet, with hia assist- 
ant, also in black. The warrsnt was mad by Mr. 
Beale ; when it was ended the company crieit 
B loud voice, "God save Queen Elizabeth!" 
All the time Beale was reading the warrant .the 
Queen of Scots looked cheerful and easy. At 
the end of it, she bade them recollect she was a 
sovereign princess, not subject to the laws and 
parliament of England, but brought to suffer by 
injustice and violence: she declared again that 
she hod not sought Elizabeth's death, and said 
that she pardoned from her heart all her enemies. 
Here the dean of Peterborough stood up, and, 
iterrupting her, began a long disoourse upon 
her life, past, present, and to come. The queen 
itayed him once or twice, saying, "Mr. Dean, 
trouble not yourself, I am fixed in the ancient re- 
ligion, and, by God's grace, I will shed my blood 
for it." The dean would not be silenced: he still 
pressed her to cliange herfaitli; he told her that 
his gracious mistress was very cai-eful of the wel- 
fare of her immortal soid,and had commistione<l 
him to bring her to the ouly right path. If a)ie 
would recant even now, there might be hopes of 
mercy ; if she refused she must inevitably h«r 
danine<l to all eternity. "Good Mr. Dean," ou- 
Hwered Mary, with more earnestness than before, 
" trouble not yourself about this matter: I was 
bom in this religion, I liave lived in this reli- 
gion, and I will die in this religion." So saying 
she turned aside from him; but the dean again 
faced her, and again thundered ont his aermon. 
At last the Earl of Shrewsbury ordered him 
to cease preaching and proceed to pray: and 
whilst the dean prayed in English, Mary prayed 
alone in Idtin, repeating the ]ienitential paalnw 
with great warmth of devotion. When the dean 
had done she pmyed in English for the church, 
her son, and Queen Elizabeth. She then kissed 
her crucifix, saying, "As thy arms, O Jeau, were 
stretched upon the cross, so receive me, U God, 
into the arms of mercy." "Madam," said the 
Earl of Kent (a fit patron and comjianiou to such 
a dean), who was horrified at her kissing the cru- 
cifix, "you had better put such Popish trumpery 
out of your hand, and carry Clirist in your 
heart." Mary replied, " I can hardly bear this 
emblem in my hand without, at the same time, 
bearing him iu my heart." The two eieciitinnnK 


A'v 1572—1587] 

tben came forward, aud, kneeliug before ber, 
aaked forgiveness. Her women began to pei^ 
form their last office, disrobiDg their mistresB; 
bnt the hendameD were in a hgny and inter- 
fared, pulling off with their own rude bands a 
part of her attire; upon which ahe observed to 
the earla that ahe waa not used to be undressed 
by such attendants, or to put off her clothes be- 
f<we so much company. Here her servauta could 
no longer cout^u their feellDgs, but she put her 
finger to her lips, kissed them again, and bade 
them pray for her. Then the maid, Kennedy, 
took a handkerchief, edged with gold, in which 
the euchariat had formerly been inclosed, and 
fastened it over her eyes. The executioner led 
her to the block, and the queen, kneeling on th( 
rushiob before it, said, with a clear and unquail- 
ing voice, " Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend 
my spirit!" But the headsman's nerves were 
not in such good order; lie probably entertained 
the notions of the times about the sacredneM of 
royal blood, and he was disturbed by the groans 
nnd lamentations of Mary's servants ; peihaps 
of all present, except Kent and the dean. He 
trembled, and struck so badly that it cost him 
three strokes to cat the neck asunder. At last, 
when the head had fallen on the scaffold, he took 
it np, and holding it at arm's length, exclaimed 
officially, "God save Queen Elizabeth!" The 
dean of Peterborough added, "Thus perish all 
her enemies!" The Earl of Kent, ajiproaching 
the headless body, cried in a louder voice, "So 
perish all the enemies of the queen and gospel!" 
Everybody else was silent; not a voice said Amen 
to the dean and the earL The queen's little lap- 
dog was observed to have crept under her clothes. 

BETH. 171) 

and would not be removed tiU force was used, 
and afterwards it would not leave the body, but 
went aud lay down between the head and shoul- 

On the oioming after the execution a despatch 
arrived at court fnim the Earl of Shrewsbury. 
The despatch was carried by Mr. Ifenry Talbot, 
Shrewsbury's son; and Burghley, to whom it 
was delivered, immediately sent for Djivison, and 
after consulting Ilattou aud some other privy 
counsellors, he agreml not to acquaint the queen 
suddenly with the execution. But by the hour 
of noon the report was spread in the city, where 
the ProtestsjitB testified their joy by ringing all 
the church bells and lighting bonfires. It was 
impossible that Elizabeth could remain ignorant 
of these things; she learned all the particulars 
in the evening, but did not then take the least 
notice of the event, "nor show any alteration 
at all." On the next morning, when she was 
officially informed of the execution, she sent for 
Sir Christopher Hattou, and with an appearance 
of wonderful grief, declared that she had never 
commanded or intended lAai thing, and Ifud the 
whole blame on the privy council, but chiefly on 
Davison, who had abused the trust she had re- 
posed in him by allowing the warrant to go out 
of his hunda Davison hurried to court fearing 
evil, as the whole of the privy council had 
acted with him in the matter; but the counsel- 
lors, who knew that there must be a victim, 
itrougly advised him to absent himself from court 
for a few days. Poor Davison took tlieir advice, 
the I4th of February he was shut up in 
the Tower. At the same time the queen turned 
the engines of her pretended wrath against Burgh- 

' JAb; Oa'^m; Onu .■ Jlo6(rt«n.- CHalwfTi . IF/Ulir Snll. 

•In onW to ml. s. 11 qugm onr her powerfnl nobUfy, 

Hbt iiHldm hncj for Umiley— th« tia^tii hmilinritin (h< 

iTm at wonhlp. wilhmt «dtiii| l)u< Mfgnm^n dlitnut of Uia 

bUI to hn. Br tlentlnf tn tho ntik of Ilr hniband ud king 

wm tb> quUflattou th.t Hu7 Htoirt bmnglit «itb luto 

tioH-hj hfr •liddnn ■Tdnlon and dlwwl f'-r him-hr muklnc 

ntn* md diignrt lh»t ibK lift ■ hrilUut ud nflmd conrt, lo 

domlnlDniofhoTanamr before ihewHUalL aanltwonJd b* 

uil DM at ill cinmnupKl—du n->nwn>l tbm wllh u de- 

gtuilvl In hH ; Uld ■»« cutlni hnlMlf on tht min^ of Ellia- 

Ku« odt of pUa. ■ Ferlloo. haatj, . qukk hit r<«l_ ii.- 

(nabiDed vJtb tba ulnnna ftodom of n •cldow AltbD,«fa 

b» dknni tal on th« ConllnenI, to »>alt or Intsrhn iiMttaUj on 

■MiDC Willi ■ bMkr Kn» tbD- fcult. 10 wUcfa ri. .» 

herbshjLir. ThoiniamElloniwhlchilwattnniitisillnEnglilid. 

ImpWlal bybv portliun and hnctimctai. gbahndthslm- 

VnilMin, to nprant bsnalf u tha Iggitinut* bdr lo Ux cniro 

rtdn, bf sming IJhi diotli or «lleof h« mart anUrpHung 

of Enclud. nnd thiB miula hHMir EJIiibMh. ri»l ; ilM KT«d 

puliuu. Thsmnhllme cnuulsdlKinHdu Ruiii«,HiHlnd, 

ponuM of d«p«lng Ellnbath nnd ntdring MurHtnut, be 

(h«]tafon»d.«lii><r«»ol.<>l to>D«iDtai»ui]I ctebtbe 

tn,m pl>c<iv th* CUwUcqiHOD on tba tbnmaof ar«t BrilalB. 

nHfioo. w,«ntk» U>.,l»d .«Hl*L 

odU oondHtad h« to th. «lliild ."--Klrirt. Hirto7, ^f Mar^ 





Icy, who was Htruck with alarm, ftuil withdraw 
Ui his own liouBe fur mmiy daye, wheiice he wrote 
the most, humiliating letters to his niistreas. The 
day aflvr the arrest of DavisoD, Walsiiighain, 
who had recovered from hia illueas at the very 
uick of time, retumed to court, where for some 
weeks he had the principal mauagemeut of affairs 
in his own haada. Oue of hia firat duties appears 
to have been to devise a message to tiie Freuoh 
king, aHSuriiig him of her majesty's iguorauce of 
the sending of the warrant, her soi-row at the 
execution, and her deteruii'jatieu to puuish her 


But Boun Uurghley tuid the rest 
emerged frum this artiticiiil mist, and only Wil- 
liam Davisuij was made a seap^oat or samfice, 
being condemned to pay a fine of £10,000, and 
be imprisoned during the queen's pleaanre. Tlie 
)>oor seci'etary BiilTei'ed miserahly from imprison- 
ment, palay, and utter poverty, tor the treasury 
seized all his property to pay the fine; and thus 
he lived through the seventeen long years ti3 
which the remainder of Elizabeth's reign was 
drawn out, with full opportunity to meditate upon 
the consequence of putting his tnist in princes. 


Hpl«ueJ by ■ ponaiou 

Junes advertised of thi eiecutioD of bis luotLer— He 

troublas — Huitility of Spain OQ sccoiint of Mary's executiuu— Navnl eiploiu of Sir Flsucii Drake m, 
tbfl Span iirdi— Til e Spwiiali Annnda— Frepantioua in BngUnd tn reiiat the luruioD — Hilitar; niiutar at 
Tilbur; Fort— Tbe ArauiilH leta sail— Succwsful n^istance of thr Baglttb— liiffannt encountgn with the 
Annada— Its Baal diiperajoQ— Death of tlie Earl uf Lei cuter- -Elizabeth lelaota the Karl of ^Bei aa ber new 
faroarit*— Spain invaded otider tlie conduct of Eh»(— Quarrels between Ebhi and Lord Burghlej—EeMX 
employed in ths wan againit Franco aod Sjiain— He quarrela with the qoeen— Alleged conspiraciea of the 
Papist! to asiaaaiij ate Eliiabetb-Iriab iiisuirectiou— Emiei sent to noppro* it— He huiriei back to London 
uncalled— PDuiihment for bis diullowed arrival— He attempts to raise rebellion— Its epeedy bUppresaioD — 
Trial of Euai- His conduct in prison-Hit execution— Character of the Earl of Eteet— BeMUtuieDt of Uie 
people on acoonnt of his ejieoulion— The Gowrio oonspiraoy iu Scotland— Eliiabetli'e last meeling with her 
parliament— (.'oiiiplainta gainst nionopolieii brooght before it— The Spaniards audit the Iritli ininrreotiou — 
It is defeated— Eiiiabetli's last Ulaen-Sije nouiinstas Kins Jauia of Scotland as her niocessor—Her death. 

weeks after tli 

f. Sir Robert Curew, son of her 

ive, Lonl Hunsdon, was de- 

:hed by Elizabeth to make her 

ses to King James for the 

ler of his mother. On first 

learning the news, it is said that the royal dastard 

and pedant buret into tears, and threatened to 

move heaven and earth for vengeance. In the 

letter presented by Sir Robert Carew, Elizttbeth 

told James of the nnutterable grief which she 

felt on account of that " unhappy accident" which, 

mlAovl Afr tuowtedgejhBd happened in England. 

She appealed to tlie supreme Judge of heaven 

and earth for her iauoceuce; said she abhorred 

di4timTiialion-~t\iB,t she hod never intended to 

carry the sentence into execution— that she waa 
punishing those who had frustrated ber merciful 
iiiteutiotiB; and she added that, as no one loved 
him mui-e dearly than herself, or boi-e a more 
anxious concern for his welfare, slie trusted that 
he would consider every oue as his own enemy 
who endeavoured, on account of the present aeri- 
dent, to excit« any animosity between them. All 
Jxmes'B mighty wrath soon evaporated, and he 
sat down quiet and contented, with au increase 
of the gieusion which Elizabeth had long been 
paying him. Mid with n hope that his dutiful 
conduct would clear all obstrnctiona to hia auc- 
c«Baion to the English throne on the death of its 
present occupant.' 
Circumstances and her own happy arts went 

I Thg fOUowini 

Uloart, oD luaniing I 

itooUuul, bad •«&«1 dnimii lo braik i 
Kugland. Tbat it tcu bu duty to do both as a ton and a kin; 
.\sa pubLio flvldance of thitmptoie, Jamoi b11dii«1 tta Jaiui 
free admission into his territoricfl ; he even invited them thithtu 
. Kalbec Cxichlon ntumed In Edinburgh, and with him Patboi 
GeorgB Duii0, Rubert AbanTomby. and WJIliam Ogilvy. Uude 

InCrl^use of El 

her aMjandBucy over (he tlmjd mind ot Jan»s. who^ in that 
of tampettA, took fright at the iibBll«l cJond. The can- 
icy WH pinved-Blkibxh railed up the Jeniit* wilb il; 

I eipellsl all Che &then; whtli snivtly 1 
I OgllTy, and Ahercromby, to ngard hfi law i 
no «irect He did more : Abercromby wai s 


AD 1587-1603.] ELIZA 

ei|ually iu EliznbetL'H favour iu disarming the 
reacDtmentof Fmace. Slie madeapublioapology 
to the ambassador L'Aiibeapine for the harali 
treatment he had received, took him by the hand 
to a corner of the room, told hLm tliat the greatest 
of caliuuitiea hfid befallen her, and swore 
Hundry great oatha tliat she was iunocent of 
Miu-y'a death. Foar of her council, ahe said, 
had pluyed her a trkk: they were old and 
faitliful servants, or by God she would have 
all their heads oiT: She said that what 
troubled her moat of all was the dJHpleasure 
ot the king his master, whom she honourod 
above all men. L'Aubespiue remarked 
that she hid all aloug given assiatauce to 
the enemies and revolted Bubjectsof FraJice. 
Here she drew a nice distinction, saying 
that she liad doue nothing agaiust U^ury, 
but Ikad only a&iisted the King of Navarre 
againat the Duke of Guise. But the civil 
war continued to rage in France, and Henry 
III. was soon glad to have her couutenance 
tu the murder of the Guises. If that 
uiihappy family were bigoU and persecutors and 
chief directors of tlie massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew, they certainly found no faith or mercy 
themselvea. In December, 1588, Henry III. 
Becretly disti-ibuted forty-five daggers to as many 
oaaasaina in the castle of Blois: the Duke of 
(itiise. Queen Mary's cousin, who had been in- 
vit«d as a guest, was set u[>oii and murdered at 

BETH. 181 

the door of the king's chamber. On the morrow 
his brother, the cardinal, was aseaasinated in a 
like barbarous manner; aud the Proteetanta 
were only prevented from making public rejoic- 
ings at tiieir fall by the better eeuse and feeling 

of nuking hinufllf jDutflr morv auni J Df Eng^uid ilid Sootllud. 
tfafi luviDclblfl Armada hod bssn diipsnod by bLomu ; It ia uc 
^un^er on a fl«t thfct ths gloomy eArt/naij of PromtAjitEani 

10 diioonU were d*Ujr tjoglnoing to be feJt 

Enjluid and in SoDtliDd. Tbo quaan hul baan ri|lit Iu l>ar 
cilnilitioiit; Fithai Gordon trm baiiiihst flom tha ktngdom. 

naw pnteit tar hunaaing tha Cattanllc*. ElUibotb iinUad 
h«irot it, both for har k<ugilom ud for Inlainl.''— /fi'ifai.* 

From Fmica MonunwuUile e( Pillomqua. 

of their great leader, Du Pleesis Mornay. The 
Uatholica became more fifcroe and formidable than 
ever, the pope launched the aentonce of excom- 
munication, the doctors of the Sorbonne released 
the Hubjecta from their oath of allegiance, and a 
few months after, as Henry was laying aiege to 
his own capital, he was assassinated by n fanatic 
monk named Jiu.'i{iieH Clement.' 

of Eliubatli iiHl bar cvunaallon in Eniluid, Mid of M> 
bia n mc — on Lii SootUsd: HHlng that It dalJbantislT u^sa 
tlutlawn tbe horron of tbo Leagna wan praAmbla to tha toLar^ 
tJonoftbaChrlitlaDitrortbBRarornun.— SaatfiAnnAdiiiMMC, 
Potdiqut rt LilUrairt dt la Compagtiit de /tnM — compM^ nr Iu 
. Tbliworklain 

Lb portnuta nod fkcaii 




[Civil a 

} MlLIT^iBT. 

Kiog Philip of Spain, wlio was exasperated to 
the extreme by the bold and briUiaut expeditions 
of Drake and othere to the Weat lodiea, was in 
a different position from that of the French aod 
Scottish kings ; and making the moat of the re- 
cent tragedy at Fotheringay Castle, he branded 
Elizabeth as a murdereaa, and animated hie people 
with a desii-e of vengeance. She on her aide 
made some politic efforta to disarm his resent- 
ment. Leicester, who had returned to Holland, 
soon became an object of contempt. She re- 
called him, allowed the Hollanders to put Prince 
Maurice of Orange in hia stead, and then geemcd , 
very well disposed to give up the Ppoleatant 
cauBe in the Netherlanda. She kept the precau- 
tionary towna, as they were called, and greatly 
did the Netherlander* fear that she would sell 
these keys of their dominions to the Spanish 
king. Burghley opened negotiations with Spun, 
and two foreign merchants, an Italian and a 

Fleming, were introated with a secret mission to 
the Duke of Parma, who still maintained himself 
in the Netherlands. Bnt Elizabeth and her 
ministers soon saw that no sacrificea they could 
make would disarm the animosity of the Span- 
iards, and every wind brought them newa of im- 
mense naval and military preparations in Spain 
and Portugal.' While the queen continued to 
negotiate. Sir Francis Drake was despatched with 
a fleet of thirty sail, and ordered to rieatroy all 
the Spanish ships he could find in their own 
harbours. Never was a commiaaion more ably 
or more boldly executed. On the 19th of April 
(1567) he dashed into Cadiz Roads, and burned, 
sunk, or took thirty ships. He then turned hack 
along the coast, and between Cadiz Bay and Cape 
St. Vincent, he sunk, took, or burned lOOveeaels, 
beudee knocking down four caatles on the coast. 
From Cape St. Vincent he sailed to the Tagns, 
where be challenged the Marquis de Santa Craz, 

and took, almost under the shadow of his flag, 
the Si. Philip, a ship of the largest size. These 
operations materally tended to delay the sailing 
of the Spanish Armada for more than a year, and 
allowed Elizabeth time to prepare for her defence. 
But Philip, whose power on the whole had in- 
creased rather than diminished siuce the first 
commencement of his enmity with Elizabeth — 
for if he had lost Holland, he had annexed Por- 
tugal to hia dominions — was not to be put from 
hia purpose of invading England. He obtained 
from the pope aupplies of money and a renewal 
of the bull of excommunication against Elizabeth. 
He levied troops in all directions, he hired ahtpa 
from the republic of Genoa and Venice, he took 
up all the proper vessels possessed by his subjects 

Bin HjUiTin PnansHiiL— Ftddi the"HaTix)loglL~ 

of Naples and Sicily, he pressed the construction 
of othere in Spain, in Portugal, and in that part 
of Flanders which still belonged to him, where 
shoals of flit-bottomed boats were prepared for 
the transport of the Duke of Parma and 30,000 
men. Although it was resolved to encounter the 
invaders by aea, instead of waiting for their land- 
ing, yet, through parsimony, the whole royal navy 
of England did not, at this moment, exceed thirty- 
six sail; but merchant ships were fitted out by the 
nobles and people at their own expense,and armed 
for war, and Drake, Hawkins, Frobisher, names 
scarcely eclipsed by all the heroes who have suc- 
ceeded them — men who had lived their lives on 
the ocean, and girdled the globe in their daring 


A-D. 1587—1603.] 



eipeditioDB— the beat aeamen of the age, were ap- 
pointed to the commaDd uuder the high admiial. 
Lord Howard of Etfingham. The entire number 
of ahipa collected oa this critical occasion was 
191 ; the number of sekmen waa 17,400, the total 
smouiit of tonnage being 31,935.' The I>ut«li 
were applied to for their assistance, " and," wya 
Stow, " the^ came roundly ia with threescore 
aail, brsve ships of war, fierce, and full of spleen." 
The fleet was distributed at various points, for it 
could not be Icnown where the enemy would at- 
tempt their laiidiug. The lord- admiral, who 
guarded the western coast, divided his force into 
three Bquadroua. Drake was detaclied towards 
Ushant to keep a look-out; Hawkins cruised be- 
tween the Land's End and Scilty Islands ; Lord 
Henry Seymour cruiaed along the coaat of Flau- 
ders, blocking up the Spanish ports there ; and 
other captains constantly scoured the Channel, 

Ab it 'was given out that the Spaniards intended 
to stul up the river and strike their first blow at 
London, both sides of the 
Thames were fortified, under 
the direction of Federico 
Gi&mbelli, an Italian deserter 
from the Spanish service. 
Oravesend was strongly for- 
tified, and a vsst number of 
barges were collected there, 
for the double purpose of 
serving as u bridge for the 
paeaage of horee and foot be- 
tween Rent and Essex, and 
for blocking up the river to 
the invaders. At Tilbury 
Fort, directly opposite to 
Gravesend, a great camp was 
formed. Nor was there leaa 
stir and activity inland. 
There was not a comer of 
England which did not ring Ti 

with preparation, and mus- 
ter its armed force. The matitiuie counties, 
from Cornwall to Kent, and from Kent to I^n- 
Golnahire, were furnished with soldiers, both of 
themselves and with the auiiliar; militia of the 
neighbouring ahires, so that, upon any spot where 
a landing might be effected, within the space of 
forty-eight hours an army of 20,000 men could 
be assembled. The Catholics vied with the Pro- 
testants in activity, in zeal, in patriotism ; and 
as their gentlemen of rank were generally ex- 
cluded from command by the jealousies of the 
Protestants, although the lord -admiral himself. 

Lord Howard of Effingham, was a Catholic, they 
served in the ranks like common soldiers, or they 
embarked in the ships to do the work of common 
sailors. When the lord-lieutenants of the dif- 
ferent count iea returned their numberx, it was 
found that there were under arms 130,000 men, 
exclusive of the levies furnished by the city of 
London. The force assembled at Tilbury Fort 
consisted of 22,000 foot and 2000 horse, and be- 
tween them and Loudon were 26,000 men levied 
for the protection of her majesty's person, com- 
manded by her kinsman Lord Hunsdon, and 
10,000 Londoners. A confident hope was enter- 
tained that the fleet would be able to prevent 
any disembarkation, but it was provided, in case 
of a landing, that the country should be laid 
waste, and the invaders harassed by incessant 
attacks. The queen never shone to more advan- 
tage than at this warlike crisis, and though she 
kept her peraon between the capital and the near 
camp at Tilbury Fort, the fame of her brave de- 

■hiH ihliB of ti'S •nivinDr u> tm miinp*. urn iMigm^ 
Saglilh tblin : tmt than win IbitT-llTe ihlia TiDCins In 
to 1000 lou ; uid Uionf h the RwgMA fl«t ootQoinber 
tiDudA, itiantinbHUMgnwul^UunoDS-lwlfuf U»> 

portment and her encouraging words were spread 
everywhere. She reviewed the Londoners, whose 
enthusiasm was boumllesa; and when the arrival 
of the Armada was daily expected, she reviewed 
the army at Tilbury Fort, riding a war-horse, 
wearing armour on her back, and carrying a mar- 
shal's truncheon in her hand. The Earls of Essex 
and Leicester held her bridle-rein, while she de- 
hvered a stirring speech to the men. "My loving 
people," said the qjieen, " we have been persuaded 
by some that are careful of our safety to take heed 
I how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, 
for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not 
desire to live to distmst my faithful and loving 
people. Let tyrants fear ! 1 have always so be- 
haved myself, that, under God, I have placed 
my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loynl 

,v Google 



[Cmi. AHD MlLITAr.T 

liuarte aud good-will of my aubjecte; anil, there- 
fore, I am come ttmongat you at this time, not as 
for my recreation and sport, but being rmolveil 
in tlie midst and heat of the battle to live or die 
nninnsst you all— to lay down for my Ond, for 
my kiiii^dom, and tor my peojile, my honour.and 
my bi.Hid, even in the dnat. I know that ( have 
but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but 
r hav-e the heart of a kin([, and of a King of Eng- 
land too, and think foul scorn that Parma or 
8pain, or any prince of Europe, bIiouU darw to 
invade the borders of ray realms!" Everything 
in this camp speech waa exciting and appropriate 
except a laudation bestowed on the general; for 
her lieuleDnnt was none other than that carpet- 
kuigbt and moat inethcieiit commander, the Elarl 
of Leicester. 

It had been arranged by the Spanish court 
that the Armada shoidd leave Lisbon in the he-' 
ginning of May, but the Marquis de Santa Onizi 
waa then sinking under the fever of which he, 
died; and, by a singular fatality, the Duke of 
Paliano, the vice-admiral, and an excellent oflicer, 
fell flick and died nearly at tlie name time. Philip 
found a difRcnlty in ivplaciiig thew two com- 
mandern. Afteraomedelay heguve the anpreme 
command to the Duke of Med inn-Sid on ia, witu, 
iiiflteail of being the beat sailor in S^iaiu, was no 
Bailor at all, and wholly ignoiunt of mai'itime 
affairs. Martinez de RecaUlo, who was appointed 
vice-a<(iuirat, waa, however, n aenman of goo<l 
experience. At last, the In\-imcibi,e AtmADA.aa 
the Spaniards called it in their piide, aet sail from 
tlie Tagua on the S!)th of May. It consisted at 
tbia time of about IHO veEtseln of all hIzch; 46 of 
these were galleons and Inr^r ships; in were 
pink-bnilt s)d)«; 13 werefrigsteit. They mounted 
altogether 24.31 guosofdiRerent calibres, Inad- 
ditiou to the mariners, they carried ue.vly 80,000 
land troo|)s, among whom were 200(1 volunteers 
of the noblest families in Spain. But this mighty 
fleet, when steering towards Corunna, where it was 
to take on board more troops and stores, was 
overtaken olF Fiuisterre by a great tempest, and 
disperaed. Four large shi[is foundered at sea; 
the rest reached Coruuna and other ports on that 
coast, but considerahly damaged by the storm. 
This occasioned a fresh delay, which, however, 
might have proved fatal rather than favourable 
if £lizal>etha advice had been Eollownl by her 
brave commanders. A report reached London 
that the enemies' ships had suffered so much that 
they could not possibly proceed on their eipe^li- 
tion this year; and as the coxt of the English fleet 
was great (thongh the government only bore a 
port of it), the queen, from motives of economy, 
made Secretary Walsingham write to the admiral 
tn tell hiin to lay up four of his largest ships, and 

discharge their .crewa But Lonl Howard of 
Effingham nobly replied to this letter, that, rather 
than dismantle any of his ships, he would take 
.upon him to disobey his mistress, and keep them 
afloat at bis own charge. The admiral now called 
a council of war, wherein it was determined to 
sail for the Spanish coast, ti> complete the de- 
struction of the Armada, if no enabled, or to 
ascertain, at all events, its real condition. A 
brisk north wind soon carrieil him to Corunua, 
whither he chased before him fourteen Spanish 
ships whii-h were at sea. Having ascertained 
the truth, he became anxious to return, lert u 
part of their fleet might make the coast of Eng- 
land in his absence. Favonrol by a change of 
wind, he soon reached his station at Plymouth, 
where he allowed iiis men a little relaxation ou 
shore. On the IDth of July, one Fleming, a Scot- 
ti:'h pirate or privateer, sailed into Plymouth, 
with intelligence that he had seen the Spanish 
\\fft aK the Uzard. At thi' moment most of 
the captains and officers were on shore playing 
at bowls on the Hoe. There was au instant bus- 
tle, and a calling for the shipe' boats, but Drake 
insisted that the match sboiikl be played out, 
as there was plenty of time both to win the 
game aud beat the Spanianln. Unfortunately 
the wind was blowing hard in their teetli, hut 
they contrived to warp ont their ships. On Ihe 
following day, being Saturday, the £(>th of Jidy. 
tliey got a full sight of the Armaiia Htanding 
luajestically on — the vessels being ilrawu np in 
the form of a crescent, which, from horn Ui honi, 
measured some seven miles. Their great height 
:ui<l bulk, though imposing to the nnskilleil, gave 
confi<lence to the English aeamen, who reckoned 
it once upon having the advantage in tackin;; 
^Liii] manipuvring their lighter craft. At first it 
was exjiected that the SpanianlM might attempt 
a landing at Plymouth, but the Duke of Medina 
ntlbered to the plan which had been prescrilml 
to him, and which was to nteer quite through 
the Channel till he should rt«rh the coast of 
Flanders, where he was to raise the blockade of 
the harbonrs of Nieuport and Dunkirk, main- 
tAJned by the English and Dutch, make a junc- 
tion with the Duke of Parma, and bring that 
prince's forces with him to England. Lord 
Howard let him pass, and then followeil in his 
reBr,avoiding comingto close qunrteni, and watch- 
ing with a vigilant eye for any lucky accident 
that might arise from ctosh winds or irregular 
sailing. And soon a part of the Spanish fleet 
was left consideralily astern by the main division, 
where the Dnke of Medina kept up a press of 
sail, as if he bad no other object in view than ■•> 
get through the Channel as fast as possilite. Ite 
made sif^als to the slower sliipa to keep u)i, 
which they could not, and he still kept every 





•ail beut. The Ditdaiii, a piunace, commotided 
liy Jauas Bradbury, now commenced an attBL-k by 
poariDg a broadside ioto oue of the Inggards. 
Lord Howard, in hiaowaahip, tlie Art Royal, en- 
gaged a great Spamah galleon, aod Drake, in the 
ftevenffe, Mawkina, in the Victori/, and Frobiaher, 
in the Triumph, ranging up gallmitly, bi-ought 
into action all the galleons which had fallea astern. 
The rear-admiral Recaldo was with this diviaioo, 
and fought it bravely; but Ilia lumbering ships 
Uy tike logs on the water in corapariBon with the 
lighter vesaels of England, which were manage- 
able aud in hand like well-trained steeds. Before 
any asBiatance could come from the van, one of 
the great Spaniarda was completely crippled, and 
another — a treasure-ship, with S5,00() ducala 
nixtard — ^was taken by Drake, who distributed 

the money amongst the sailors. The Duke of 
Medina hove-to, till the slower ships came up, 
and then all of them, under press of sail, stood 
farther up the Channel. This first bnish gave 
great spirit to the English, and there were iu it 
several encouraging circumstancea. It was iieen, 
for example, that the tail Spanish ships could 
not bring their ordnance to bear, firing, for the 
greater [lart, over the English without touching 
them; and that the surer fire of the latter told 
with terrific effect on those huge ships crammed 
with men, soldiera, and sailora. Howard re- 
turned towards Plymouth, where he was to be 
joined by forty sail. In the course of the night 
one of the greatest of the Spanish ships was 
burned, purposely, it is said, by a Flemish gunner 
on board. It waa a dark night with a b^vy sea, 

Tut 3»HiuI Asaui:!.— From tbaTapanrriuthaB 

and Borne of the Spaniards ran foul of each other, 
to their great mischief. 

Oa the 23d, Howard, who waa reinforced, and 
who had received into his division Sir Walter 
Raleigh, came up with the whole Armada off 
Portland, when a battle began, which lasted 
nearly the whole of that day. The English fought 
loose and at large, avoiding a close combat or 
boarding. They kept separate, but always in 
motion, tacking and playing about the enemy, 
pouring in their fire aud then sheering out of 
range, returning before the Spaniards had time 
to reload, giving them another broadside, anil 
then sheering ofT as before. According to Sir 
Walter Kaleigh, Sir Henry Wotton compared it 
tit to a morrice-dance upon the waters! But 
ouee or twice the dying away of the wind ren- 
dered these maoteuvres impracticable. A divi- 
jion of five merchantmen, led by the gallant Fro- 
biaher in bis great ahip the Triumph, was cutoff 
from the rest, and brought to close action for two 
while houra. Hut, at the same time, oue uf the 
Vol. 11. 

English squadrons cut off a division of the Arma- 
da, and crippled every ship in it. Then Howard, 
from the .iJritAo^, signalized, and this victorious 

squadron, by means of sweepers and tow-boats, 
was brought into position to the rescue of Fro- 
biaher. These victorious ships reserved their fire 
till they were close alongside the Spaniards, The 
darkness of night interrupted the battle : in the 
course of the day the English had taken a large 
Venetian argosy aud several transports. Neit 
day the Spaniards showed small inclination to 
i-enew the fight; and it was apparent tliat they 
wished to hold on to the place appointed for their 
junction with the Duke of Faimu. The Eugliah, 
on their side, were not in fighting condition, for, 
by a shameful parsimony, they had been poorly 
supplied with gunpowder, and by this time they 
had burned all they had on Ixiard. Howard, how- 
over, detached some barques and pinnaces, which 
returned with a supply towards night; but a day 
had been lost. On the morning of the !Sth, he 
came up with part of the Armada, off the Isle of 




[Civil a 


Wight, where Cnptwn H&wkiiu took & Urge 
Portuguene galloon. Prcaeutly it fell a c&lm ; the 
great ships of Spain lay motionless upon the 
water, and weiv much too heavy to be towed. 
The English craft, of tho lighter kind, weie easily 
towed by their long bonts. When n breeze s])rmig 
up, Frobisher was set upon by several gajleous, 
and was in great peril, but the While Dear and 
the ElixAeth Jmuu came up to hia relief. Other 
ships muged up on either aide, and the battle 
seemed becoming general, but the English had 
a0ain bamed all their gaiipoiedcr! Hnving shot 
away the maimuost, aud otherwise shattered the 
Duke of Medina's owa ship, they took advantage 
of the wind aud sheered off. 

On the morrow, the 26th of July, thu Anuada 
sfdled up the Cluuiuel with a fair breeze : Howard 
liung on their rear, now aud then keepiug up a 
feeble fire. He hud resolved not to renew the 
struggle till they came to the Straits of Dover, 
for he knew that a Btrong squadron, under Lord 
Henty Seymour and Sir Thomas Winter, would 
be ready there to take part in the action. As 
he followed in the wake of the Spaniards, he re- 
ceived ammunition and all proper supplies from 
shore; and hia force wsh continually increaseil by 
small ships and men out of ail the havens of the 
realm; for the gentlemen of England hired Hhips 
from all parts at their own charge, and with one 
accord came flocking thither. There was a clear 
sky and a leading wind, which enableii tlie Span- 
iards to come to anchor before Calais on the 27 th. 
Ifence Medina-Sidotiia would huve prot^eeded to 
Dunkirk, but he was strongly advised to remain 
where he wna; aud he sent, ovei^laud, a messen- 
ger to the Buke of Parma, entreating hini to de- 
tach some fly-boats, without which he could nut 
cope with the light and active English ships, aud 
to hasten the embarkation of his ti'oups, which, 
he repre«euted, might efleet a lauding in Eng- 
land under cover of his fire. But both these re- 
quests were childish and absurd. Although Sey- 
mour and most of the English ships had left the 
station to co-operate with Howard, a small divi- 
sion remained with the Dutch, who closed Parma's 
only outlets, Nieujwrt and Dunkirk, and who 
were more tlian sufficient to scatter aud sink his 
flat-bottomed boats, if they had put to sea. But, 
besides that these boats, which hail been hastily 
constmcleii with bad materials, were already roU 
ting and falling to pieces, disease had broken out 
among the land-troops, and owing to the delayed 
arrival of the Armada, their provisions were ol- 
moet exhausted. Thus Parma could ilo nothing 
till the blockade was cleared and pro|>er ships 
with provisions were supplied to him. When he 
had lost a whole day. the Duke of Medina 
thoughtof making for Dunkirk; butinthemean- 
wlule Seymour nnd Winter hod joined Howard, 

and he was hemmed in by 140 English sail "fit 
for fight, good sailors, nimble and tight for 
tacking about." Tho Spaniards, however, were 
well ranged, their greatest ships being pUiccU 
seawai'd, next the enemy, like strong uastlea, 
the lesser being anchored t)etween them and the 
shore. Tlie English found that in this poaitiou 
they mnst fight to disadvantage, but they hit upuu 
a slijttagem which pi-e»enlly broke this array. 
Eight small ships were gutted, Lwaiueoi'sd with 
pitch, rosin, and wild-fire, filled with combuati- 
bles, and placed under the desperate guidance of 
Captain Young aud Captain Prouae, who, at the 
dead of night, favoured by wide and tide, led them 
close to the Spanish line, took to their boats, 
fired the traius, and escaped. The S|)Bnianla, 
who remembered some terrible fire-ships which 
lukd beeu used against theni by the Dutch in the 
Scheldt, began to cry, "The fire of Antwerp! 
the fire of Antwerp!'' Some cut their cables, 
others let their hawsers slip, aud in haste, fear. 
and confusion, put to sea. In this dreadful dis- 
order the largest of the galeasses ran foul of 
another ship, lost her rudder, floated about at the 
mercy of the tirle, and was then stranded. When 
the fire-ahipa hod exploded, and the danger was 
over, a gun was fired from the duke's ship as a 
nignal to the Spaniards to return to their former 
(KHiition; but the gun wai heard by few, because 
" tliey were scattered all about and driven by 
fear, some into the wide sea, some among the 
shoala of Flandei'd." When morning dawned, 
the English renewed the attack on the scattered 
^UiulrouM. One fierce attAck was made on the 
great galenas, atr:iuded near Colaia, but the small 
craft coutd not board her until the admiral sent 
100 meu iu his boats uuiler Sir Amyns Preston. 
The Spaniards made n brave resistance ; but in 
the eud their captain was shut through the head; 
they were boarded at all points, cut to pieces, or 
thrown overboard aud drowned. Iu this huge 
bottom were found fiO,000 ducats. At other 
places, Drake, Hawkins, Raleigh, Cumberland, 
Seymour, and BVobisher, gained many advnu- 
tAgcH. One of the capital ahip of the Armada, 
a large galleon of Biscay, sa:ik under the English 
fire. Tlie Stta Mitileo, commanded by Diegu 
Pignatelli, a Neapolitan, iu attempting to cover 
another ship, was mked by the Rainboa and 
Vfingiiaiil. and finally compelled to surrender by 
a decisive bi-ondside from a heavy Dutchman. 
Another great Spaniard, dismantled end rent, 
drifted, fell ashore, and was taken by the raari- 
ners of Flushing. Two ketches foundered nt wa. 
Still, iiowever, the rest of the fleet rallied, and 
the Spaniards, who had ahown no deficienry of 
courage, cried for revenge: but the Duke of Me- 
dina-Sidunia had had enough of (his war. and 
i^llinff a council, he resolved to make hia way 

,v Google 

An. laST- 1603] KLIZA 

)>a<;k to Spain in the bent muiDer lie coulil; and 
as it yraa held dangerous to attempt the English 
iu their narrow aeas, he resolved to steer north- 
w«rda and retnn) to Spain by sailing round Scot- 

Ou the laiit day of July, Drahe wrote to W«l- 
tii ugh am — "There wiu never anything pleased 
me better than the weing the enemy flying with 
a BO»itherly wind to the northwurd. We have 
the Spaniards before us, and mind, with the grace 
of God, to wrestle a pull with them." No one 
can doubt of the activity and good-will of Dnike, 
of rVobisher, of any one of the great eapUins 
engaged ; but yet the Spaniai'ds were allowed to 
fio down the wind without much pursuit. "The 
•iliportiinity," says Sir William Monson, "was 
losl, not through the negligence or back ward nesH 
of the lord -ad mi ra), but mei-ely through the want 
of providence in those that had the charge of 
furuiahingand providing for the fleet ; for at that 
lime of so great advantage, when they came to 
examine their proviaioiia, they found a general 
scarcity of powiler and shot, for want of which 
Ihey were forced to return home. Another 
oppiortiiuity wa.<! lost, not mnch inferior to the 
other, by not sending part of our fleet to the west 
of Ireland, where the Spaniards of necessity were 
to pass, after so many dangers and disasters aa 
they had endured. If we had been so happy aa 
to have followed their course, aa it was both 
thought and discoui-sed of, we had been absolutely 
victorious over this great and formidable nnvy; 
for they were brought to that necessity that they 
would willingly have yielded, aa divers of theni 
confessed that were shipwrecked in Ireland."' 
In effect, when the Siianiards had luunded the 
Urkneya, they were dispersed and shattered by a 
tremendous tempest, the more perilous from their 
want of a proper knowledge of those seas and 
coants. They threw overboard horees, mules, 
artillery, and baggage. Some of the ships were 
dashed to pieces among the Orkneys and the 

■ TVuirvrf Rjnet /Imuttt 4tf tki Jt'ait in Sitaitt. ThamDHrk' 
■■)!« flict Df tlifi flaaC bsing Loft buv t^unbiiukHioii 1b ronarmvl 
hy k latter wtlttan on the 8t1i of Augiut, from ch« oajnp at 

— fVrt^. It appeeft, howe¥» 
tbg Pirtli of Forth. 

A part or riie flset fbHows 
lud SmtlMi nut. u br ■ 

■.prrl: K»l*'y,' mn 
lada ninal lian odM Phi1i|i Imnnw alnTta, tar 
>r«BQla him u too wak «ITvtiuitl} Ui rafol ofni 
ilcp«Dil«nll7 M 

lliif hnriUltim of OthnrtiK dc' 
Fmm. " Tin Bttulu ruado h; Cilh 
«vtr. did not bring down," >i9 1*7*; 

BETH. 1 S7 

Western Isles, some were etrajidetl iu Norwov, 
Etorae went down at sea with every soul on board, 
some were coxt upon the irou coaat of Argyle, 
and more tli!\ri thirty were driven on the coast 
of Ireland, where the popular name of Poit-na- 
Spagna, bestowed on a pkce near the Giant's 
Causeway, recals a part of the fearful catAstrophe. 
Those who fell among the Scotch were made pH- 
soners by King James ; but the poor Spaniards 
who fell among the Irish had a worse fate— an 
eternal blot on the glory of those who inflicted 
it. The English feared that they might join the 
Irish Catholics, who were again in insurrection; 
and Sir William Fitzwiliiam, the lord-deputy, 
sent his marshal, who drove them out of their 
hiding-places and butchered 2IK) of them in cold 
blood. The rest, sick and starved, committed 
themselves to tlie greater mercy of the waves in 
their shattered vessels, and for the most part 
were drowned. A small squadron waa driven 
back to the English Channel, where, with the 
exception of one great ship, it was taken by the 
English, or by their allies the Dutch, or their 
other friends the Huguenots, who had equippe<l 
many privateera at Rochelle. The Duke of 
Itfedina, about the end of September, an-ived at 
Santander, in the Buy of Biscay, with no more 
than sixty sail out of his whole fleet, and these 
very much shattered, with their crews all worn 
out with cold, and hunger, and sicknesf, and 
looking like spectres. The Lord-admirat of Eng- 
land had anchored safely in the Downs on the 
6th of August, having lost but very few men and 
only one vessel of any consequence. Military 
skill and flat- bottomed boats could avail the Duke 
of Parraa nothing against the victorious navy of 
England ; and though an alarm wafl absurdly 
kept up for some months, the danger was over 
from the moment that the disorganized Armada 
retreated to the north.' About the middle of 
AngiiBi, the camp at Tilbury Fort was broken 

or nilxbisf. He looked •rlUi a 

to deetro> [t dvnTwliere ; tlie fn 
UliertT r^ conidenoA to hlin appaered 

t blBciTil Hiid murium dnpo^i 

lert)' on the MTtli. nil mesna teeriMd gml 111 I 
>1 hhn. hii conKHenoe munlHl tnrn no cnift 
nt mtniBht towanU hjB nh^ect tJiroii^h Dl 
crln>ea than ware e»flr InvlAho] by ni 

but hte pestilential 

led prorlnofl nil 
Hte nneiiiaii uier uoUiei In bloo 
dltpeoplod tbe kingdoms that v 




[Civil asd Uiutart. 

When the disbaDding of the troops wm over, 
tlie Earl of Leicester took bis departure from 
cowrt for Kenil worth Castle, but he fell suddenly 
ill on the road, tud died at Combury in Uiford- 
Bhire, on the 4th day of September. The queen 
did not appear to grieve much for hie loss, and 
almost immediatelj after his death sh« caused 
fais efi'ei:t8 to be sold by auction, for Ilia satisfac- 
tion of certain debts he owed her treasury.' The 
fkct was, the queen had beeu for some time pro- 
vided with another darling, to whom she trans- 
ferred the strange affection which for so many 
years she had bestowed on Leicester. This new 
favourite was Bobert Devereux, Eitrl of E«ei, 

RonsT Diraaet, Eul of Eaai.— Altar Olirer. 

son of the unfortunate earl who had died in Ire- 
land, and whose wife had beeu very irregularly 
married to Leicester. At first the queen hated 
him on his mother's account, but this feeling 
guve way to an admiration of hia handsome 
parson and vivacious dispositioD. He was made 
master of the horse, knight of the Garter, and 
captain-general of the tavalry in 1587, before 
he was twenty years of age. Upon the death 
of Leicester he succeeded at once to the dan- 
gerous post of prime favourite — a post alroost as 
disagreeable as it was dangerous, for it called 
for the daily and hourly exercise of flattery 
and gallantry towards an old woman, a sort of 
service which ill suited the frank and impe- 
tuous character of Esaei. 

Don Aiitiinio, an illegitimate 
A.D. I.)&9. ijgpjjg^ ^f Henry, King of Por- 
tugal, and one of the pretenders to the crown of 

wH polMMd toy fall Witt; lb* Hbar, lUl Ui dolh haJ bmi 

that kingdom, had taken refuge in England, 
where for some time he was left to piue in abject 
poverty. But now Elizabeth resolved to use 
him as a means of annoying Philip of Spain, in 
his recent usurpation of Portugal. She boldly 
set forth that Don Antouio was a legitimate 
prince, and her parliament, breathing revenge 
and conquest, voted her most liberal supplies, 

id petitioned her to carry the war into Philip's 
dominions. She told them that she was very 
poor, and needed all the money they had voted; 
but thereupon sn association, headed by Drake 

id Norris, undertook to defray the greater part 
of the expenses, and in a short time they collected 
an armameut of about SCO sail of all sizes, carry- 
ing nearly B0,(.)0O men. Don Antonio embarked 
in royal state, and the fleet commanded by Drake 
set sail. It was acwoely gone out of Plymouth 
when the queen was thrown into tender anxietiea 
by missing the young Earl of Essex, who bad 
disobeyed her orders, and gone to indulge his 
taste for war. The eipeditioa was badly planned, 
miserably supplied with money and ammauition, 
and but lamely conducted after the laudlfig of 
the troops. It was also disgraced by cruelties 
unusual even in that age. Drake repured in 
the flrat instance to Corumia, where he took four 
ships of war and burned the lower town. The 
troops, which were commanded by Sir John 
Norris, defeated a body of Spaniards iutienched 
in the neighbourhood, but Uiey could not take 
the upper town ; and as their powder began to 
fall short, and sickuess to rage in their ranks, 
they were re-embarked and carried to Peniche, 
on the Portuguese coast. From Peuiche the 
fleet proceeded to the mouth of the Tagua, while 
the army ntarched through Torres-Vedras to 
Lisbon, proclaiming everywhere their Don An- 
tonio. But, cnntmry to their expectations, no 
one joined the Don, and they found the country 
laid wBSte and bare. There was only a weak 
Spanish garrison within Lisbon, and the English 
said they would certainly have taken that capital 
if it had not been for their total want of proper 
artillery! Famine was now added to sickness; 
and Norris, who had disagreed with Drake as to 
the management of the campaign, thought the 
best thing to do was to re-embark and return 
home. The young Earl of Essex displayed a 
romantic bravery, yet the campaign, on the whole, 
was exceedingly inglorious. When they counted 
their numbers at Plymouth, more than one-half 
of their 20,000 had perished, or were missing. 

On his return to court, Essex found that he 
had I)een nearly supplanted in the royal favour 
by Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Charles Blount, 
the latter, second son of Lord Mountjoy, and a 
student in the Temple; but he soon prevailed 
over these asplranta. Baleigh was aent into 

,v Google 

Ai>. ia87- 1603.1 EUZA 

IrelaDc), where he reuiainei] foreeTeral jearaj and, 
after fighting a duel with him, EsBex contracted 
a great friendship for Blount, who soon after- 
wards became Earl of Mountjoj. But though 
Essex enjoyed the queeD'sgood graces, and readily 
obtained gifta acd favours for himself, he was 
generally UDSucceesful iu his nppticationa for his 
friends, being constantly thwarted by the jealousy 
of the Ceoila,and their party. In 1590, when 
Walaingbam, the principal secretary, died, Eases 
earnestly pressed the claims of the unfortunate 
William Davison, who had been sacrificed to a 
state subterfuge; but the "old fox," as Essex 
called Lord Burghley, waa resolved to put his 
8on Robert, afterwards Earl of Siilisbury, in Wal- 
siugham's place. Tl)e queen, beset by these rival 
pardes, had recourse to one of those middle means 
which were familiar to her ; she desired Burghley 
to take upon himself the vacant place, with per- 
mission to his sun to act as his assistant. Eaaei, 
vho was rather passionate than malicious, soon 
forgot the dispute, bat it waa treasured up in 
the eold, hollow heart of Sir Boljert Cecil. About 
this time Eraaz married the widow of the Latneuted 
Sir Philip Sidney, who was a daughter of Wai- 
singliam. This waa gall aud wormwood to the 
qneen, who, however, gradually seemed to forget 
the offence. 

In the following year, 15SI, the earl, whoee 
ruling passion was a love of military glory, passed 
over to France with a small army of 4000 men, 
to assist Henry of Navarre, now Henry JV. of 
Prance. Henry, on the death of his predecessor, 
found himself opposed by the French Catholic 
League, and obliged to strengthen his right of 
birth with the right of conquest. He attempted, 
indeed, to disarm the hostility of the Catholic 
party by large eoucesnioDS ; but this so incensed 
the Huguenots, who had hitherto been his sup- 
port, and in whose religion he had been brought 
up, that they threatened to leave him to the fury 
of his enemies. He was forced to abandon for 
a time the siege of Paris, aud to retire into Nor- 
mandy. At this crisis he applied to his old secret 
ally, Queen Elizabeth, who very opportunely sup- 
plied hitn with ^20,000 in gold, and with some 
troops. Essex greatly distinguished himself, and 
tost by a musket-shot his only brother, Walter 
Devereui, to whom ha was fondly attached. 
Other expeditions were sent over from time to 
time, that contributed to check the enemies of 
Henry, particularly iu Brittany, where the 
Spaniarda,in alliance with the loi-ds of the League, 
had landedaconsiderableforce. This war, though 
Homewhat costly, and contributing in no very 
direct manner to any English interest, was very 
popular with the Protestants; hut in 1593, Hen- 
ry, to secure peace to his throne, embraced the 
Catholic religion. Elizabeth charged him with 

BETH. 189 

perfidy and double-dealing; but when tlie French 
king agreed to maintain an offensive and defen- 
sive war agfuust Philip, as long as Philip should 
remain at war with England, she was fain to be 

Henry IV. derived no very great advantage 
from his war with Spain, to which Elizabeth had 
bound him. He saw Champagne invaded and 
Burguudythreatened,Picardyovernin and Doul- 
lena and Cambrai takeu by the Spaniards; aud 
iu the month of April, 159E;, the Archduke Al- 
bert, who had succeeded to the government of the 
Spanish Netherlands, took from him the town 
and citadel of Calais. Elizabeth, who bad of late 
been very sparing of her money and troops, was 
alarmed at the latter conquest, which brought 
the Spaniards, who were again talking of inva- 
sion, to the very threshold of her owij door, and 
her grief and consternation were great, as her 
two chief naval commanders, Drake and Haw- 
kins, had died of sickness and vexation in the pre- 
ceding year, in the course of a very unsucccMful 
expedition to Spanish America. She now took to 
writing prayers, and Sir Robert Cecil told Essex 
that no prayer is so fruitful as that which pro- 
ceedeth from those who nearest in nature aud 
power approach the Almighty ; but the Lord 
Howard of Effingham, thinking that something 
more waa wanting, suggested another attack upon 
the Spanish coast; and in the month of June, 
1596, a fleet of 150 sail, with 14,000 land troops, 
sailed from Plymouth. The lord-admiral took the 
command of the fleet, and the Earl of Eases of 
the army; but to make up for the inexperience 
and rashness of the young earl, he was ordered 
to submit all important measures to a council of 
war, composed of Sir Walter Kaleigh, Sir Geoi;ge 
Carew, and other tried otScem. In the month 
of June the fleet sailed into Cadiz Bay, and in 
defiance of the fire from the forts and battlements 
and fifteen laige men-of-war, they got into the 
harbour, where, after a fierce fight, which lasted 
six hours, three of the largest of the Spanish ships 
were taken, and about fifty sail were plundered 
and burned. As soon as this was over, Essex 
disembarked a part of the laud force, aud on the 
next day he forced the city of Cadiz to capitulate. 
The inhabitants paid 12,000 crowns for their 
lives; theirhouses, their merchandise, their goods 
of all kinds were plundered by the conquerors, 
and the whole loss sustained by the Spauiai*dB 
on this occasion was estimated at 30,000,000 dn- 
cate. Essex, who was the real hero of this short 
campaign, would have retained the conquest, and 
he offered to remain at Cadiz and Isia de Leon 
with 3000 men, but he waa overruled, and com- 
pelled to re-embark, having first seen the forti- 
fications razed. 

On the return of this expedition, which was not 


190 mSTORY OF ENOLASl), [Civil ami Miutaht. 

ubteiitiibove ten weeks, (lU^naiDuaaiid jeuluusieB j the deetriictiuii ut the iivw Ai'iiiaila iu itx own 
broke out among the comniandera, and the queeu i [wrLa, for the inCerceiJthig of the tieiisare ships, 
was inceuseJ at the small portion of the plunder and the hsmsaing the Spanish eonatfi Mid colouies. 
which was brought to lier treasury. The Cecils | The command whb given to the ardenl; Essei, 
had taken fidvastage of his absence to undermine I who had under him Lord Thomns Howard and 
the great cr-nlit of Easex, and now he was iimi- | Sir Walter Raleigh. The fleet sailed from Ply- 
mouth in the month 
of July, 1597, but 
it was nliitost im- 
mediately driven 
back upon the coast 
by n tremendous 
storm, which dis- 
abled many of the 
ships. It did not 
get toseangain till 
the ITthof August, 
by which time the 
men had eaten up 
all their provisions. 
Although Emex 
captured three Spa- 
niah ships, which 
were returning 
diouslyAssatledfn>niallHi<ieH,atulSir Walter Ra- j from the Uavannah, and whiuh were valued at 
leigh intrigued against bin), iind claimed to him- ;£lU0,OO0,and although hetook, in the Azores, the 
self the chief merit of the expedition. Essex waa 1 ialesof Fayal,Gi-acioga,and Flores, which theEiig- 
sinking to rise no more, when it lucky accident i lish could not keep, his expedition wns considered 
came to his fuMixlaiice. Tlie Sininisb treasure i a failure. A Spanish fleet had threatened the 
shipsfmm the New World arri veil safely in Spain, ; English coast in his absence, and on his return th« 

with 20,000,01)0 dollars on board. Essex 
tAined that he had projected a voyage from Cadiz 
to Terceira, for the purpose of intercepting this 
rich prize, and that he certaiidy should have 
■uceeerled in iloing so had he not been thwarteil 
and overruled bj' the creatures of the Cecils. Old 
Ilurghley, who made some false steps to recover 
the good-will of Essex — things almost unaccount- 
able in such anmn^wHs called to his face a mis- 
creant and cowanl, and driven for a time from 
court. Ebwx wan sr>mewhat over-proud and con- 
fident on this victory, but rot being capable of had been secretly negotiating with France, inti- 
a lasting hatred, he I'onsented, iu the coiu-se of a ninteU that it would gladly include England in a 
few montlis, to a regular treaty of peace and gcnei'al peace, and in the month of May, l5iHi, 
"i the Cecils, which was managed, for : Sir Robert Cecil, who had been o 

queen received him with frowns and reproachea 
Tlie earl, who was furtlier incensed by some steps 
gained in the government by Sir Robert Cecil and 

hia friends, retired to his house at Wanstead in 
Essex, and, under pretence of sickneas, refused to 
go either to court or parliament. But the queen, 
who was conalautly quarrelling with him when 
present, could not bear his prolonged abjence, 
and she got him back by ci-eatiug him hereditary 

At thia moment Spain, which for si 

his own purposes, liy Sir Walter Raleigh 
in the beginning of the year 15fl7 Essex qiuir- 
relled with tlie queen for promoting his personal 
enemy, TIenry Tjord Cobham, to the office of 
warden of the Cinque-porl;', which he, Essex, had 

Paris, brought direct proposals for a t