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' "histor y of TEXAS 

1685 ^^ 1897 



VOLUME 11. "^ "' 




' •-) l 




dollars per annum for each of their children, while learning the " first rudiments," 
till they commenced to write, and eighteen dollars for the rest of their attendance. 
Each student educated in "the establishment" was required, on leaving, to pay ten 
dollars "gratitude money" for rewarding the teacher at the end of the teacher's 

In April, 1S30, another decree was made providing that until the Lancastrian 
schools can be established in the State the executive shall cause six primary schools 
to be established on the basis designated in the previous decree, with some modifica- 
tions, which were specified, reducing the pay of the teacher to fi\e hundred dollars 
per annum and gratitude money to six dollars per pupil. 

These efforts of the government, however, were not satisfactory, — at least, to 
the Texanos, — largely, perhaps, on account of the preference allowed Spanish o\-er 
English in the tuition ; and at a conveiition in 1832 at San Felipe de Austin, from 


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which the Castilian population held aloof, as if it were a disloyal assemblage of 
" Texanos Ainoicaiios," as the Mexicans termed them, a committee was ap]jointed 
to petition the State government for a donation of land for the purpose of creating 
a fund for the future establishment of primary schools. Little or no attention seems 
to h:ive been paid to such petition, if presented, but other pro\-is!on was made, of 
a limited character, to produce school funds. This was under a general decree of 
April, 1S33, whereby also Juntas were established, charged to take special care that 
the funds destined for the schools be used expressly for that object, and that they 
he not separated therefrom for any cause whatever. These Juntas were further 
required ti; provide schools anfi teachers, and to see that the teachers "do nr>t 
ren-ier useless by their example the lessons it is their duty to give on morality and 
good breeding." 

So far nothing of note was aceomplished bv the govrrinient towards establish- 
ing free schools, much kss a definite sy.stem of public education ; and, as offici.iUy 



reported by a commission of the government in 1834, while Texas was still a Mexican 
province, there were only three private schools then in operation in the province, — 
one on the Brazos, one on the Red River, and the other in San Antonio, where the 
teacher got twenty-five dollars per month for his services. (Report of Almonte.) 

In 1S44 a committee of the city council of San Antonio concluded that the 
charter of the city made it obligatory upon the council to encourage the opening of 
a public school, and recommended that the old court be so repaired as to serve for 
both court and school purposes ; and certain lots were to be appropriated for this 
object as soon as they would realize a fair price, but for some reason the land was 
not ordered to be sold till August, 1S49, and in accordance with the recommcnda- 
Uon of the council, a building was constructed for the double purpose of a court 
and school- house, but does not appear to have been used for a schoul. 

There were no free schools, established as such, by direct provision of the State 
government till, in 1854, long after the annexation of Te.xas to the United States. 

The period during which the Spaniards occupied Texas territory, — until the 
Mexican Revolution in 1821, — known as the "mission period," was remarkable on 
account of the efforts of the missionaries to establish their setdements for the conver- 
sion and education of the Indians. The chapels of the missions were generally built 
of stone, and strengthened like fortresses, to serve for tlie purposes of defence from 
the hostile natives, as well as for habitations, churches, and schools. The most impor- 
tant of these missi'jns at the time, and one of great historic interest, is the "Alamo,"' 
siill standing in a prominent degree of preservation in the heart of the city, and 
known in history as the Thermopylffi of Texas, where Travis, Crockett, Bowie, 
Bonham, and other heroic spirits fell in defence of the American settlers ; and " La 
Concepcion," near the citv, the walls ol whiclj, according to church traditions, were 
cemented with murtnr made up with niilk furnished as a sacred contribution by 
Indian converts, and partly from the breasts of Indian women. 

Action of the Republic of Texas.— Following the expressions of the Con- 
stitution of Coaluiila and Texas and the action of the government on the subject of 
education came the declaration of independence of the republic of Texas, adopted 
in 1836, at Washington, Texas, wherein, among other causes of complaint, it was 
declared that the Mexican government had "failed to establish any pufilic system 
of education, although possessed of almost boundless resources (the public domain) ; 
and although it- is an axiom in political science that unless a peojile are educated it 
is idle to expect the continuance of civil liberty or the capacity of self-government." 
Nothing was said about "teaching the church catechism," or anything to con- 
nect education with the church as a matter of government, as had been incorporated 
in the Constitution of Coahuila and Texas ; but it is notable that at the \-ery forma- 
tion of the organic law of the young republic attention was fixed upon the general 
domain, instead of direct taxation, as a means of providing for public education. 
How grandly the "axiom in political science," as it was expressed in the new 
declaration of the sovereignty of the people, worked in the promotion of education 
will be seen as the history progresses. The new Constitution made it the duty of 
the Congress of the republic, as soon as circumstances permitted, to provide by 

■■ The .!J.!»/L> w,-,s never .111 iiniiortant missiuu, e.xct-pt for the siege of the same in 1S36.— 


law a general system of education. Schools were soon developed by the impetus 
of increased population, academies and other educational institutions sought char- 
ters from the government, and, as the public records show, as early as June 5, 
1S37, the President of the republic, Sam Houston, approved " An Act to Incorpo- 
rate the Trustees of Independence Academy and the University of San Augustine," 
which were separate institutions, but were embraced in the same act of the first 
Congress of the republic of Te.x;is. The institutions were located at San Augustine, 
in San Augustine County. The same day, June 5, President Houston approved 
"An Act incorjwrating the Trustees of Washington College," to be located at or 
near the town of Washington, on the Bra/.os Ri\er. These acts of incorporation 
provided in effect, as do nearly all the charters granted by the republic, as well as 
by the State of Texas, for educational institutions, that they shall be accessible to 
all students without regard to religious or political opinions. Such institutions were 
generally maintained b\- subscriptions to their respective funds, or by tuition, or 
both, or in some way by private enterprise. The amount of property which they 
were to hold was generally expressed in the respective acts of incorporation, and 
the proj^crt}- was generally, but not always, exempted from taxation. Very often, 
too, upon application to the legislature, special acts were passed prohibiting tlie 
sale of intoxicating liciuors near the premises. Special qualification was made as to 
the Bible in two instances, — one in an act incorporating the "Texas Chri.-,tian Col- 
lege," to be !oc;aed uhere the largest subscription may induce, and providing that 
"the Bible may be fully taught, but no partisan, sectional, sectarian, or denomina- 
tional peculiarity shall be taught or encouraged in the college," and the other 
in an act incorporating " McKcnzie Male and Female College," in Red Ri\er 
County, which provided that "the Bible may be publicly read and used as a 

The idea of projecting a Uni\-er5ity to be supj^orted by the government took 
some shape in an act introduced in the Congress of the republic, entidcd " .-\n .Act 
to Establish the University of Texas," which, on April 13, 1S3S, was referred to a 
special committee (page 7, " House Journal" ), but, as far so the records show, \\as 
not further considered during that session of Congress. 

In his message of December 20, 183S, to the third Congress of the republic, 
comcned at Houston, President Lamar thus expressed his views as to the impor- 
tance of liberal landed provision for the promotion of public education, while the 
general domain was ample for tlie purpose : " The present is a propitious moment 
to lay the foundation of a great moral and intellectual edifice, which will in after 
ages be hailed as the chief ornament and Vilessing of Texas. A suitable appropria- 
tion of lands to the purpose of general education can be made at this time without 
inconvenience to the government or the people ; but defer it till the public domain 
shall ha\c f)assed from our hands, and the uneducated youths of Texas will consti- 
tute the living monuments of our neglect and remissness. A liberal endowment 
which will bi adequate to the general diffusion of a good rudimental education ui 
every district of the republic and to the establishment of a University where the 
highest blanches of science may be taught can now be effected without the expen- 
.dituro of a single dollar. Postpone it a few years, and millions will be neces.sar}' to 
acconiplir^h the gre:il design." 

^ n 

V 1 



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Grolp ok Dallas School 


Up to this time, however, CongrLSs had been too much engaged with the work 
of political rehabilitation to admit of proper attention to any but the more pressing 
demands of the government incident to the war for independence from Mexico and 
for protecting the people from Indian depredations. The permanent location of 
the Ciipital of the republic even had nut been determined, nor was the question 
settled till some time afterwards, when Lamar himself, acting with the special com- 
missioners, selected the site at Austin. 

Following and in line with Lamar's suggestions, Mr. Culleii, from the commit- 
tee on education, 10 \,hich was referred that part of the President's message re- 
lating to education, reported and strongly recommended the adojition of a bill 
entitled "An Act to Appropriate Certain Lands for the Purpose of Establishing a 
General System of Education," and proposing a grant of three leagues (_thirteen 
thousand two hundred and eighty-four acres) of the public domain to each county 
for establishing a primary school or academy in the county ; and authorizing the 
President of the republic to have surveyed from any of its \-acant domain twenty 
leagues of land, which are to be set apart and appropriated for the establi.^hmenf anil 
endowment of two colleges or universities, one in the eastern and the other in the 
western part of Texas. 

The act passed with fifty leagues substituted for twenty leagues, and was ap- 
proved January 26, 1839. The same day President Lamar approved an act estab- 
lishing and incorporating the "College of De Kalb" at De Kalb, in P^ed River 
County, the act naming a board of "superintendents," exempting the property 
of the college from taxation, and authorizing the board, in addition to selecting 
teachers and providing for the educational and financial management of the school, 
to "suppress and abate nuisances within half a mile in any direction fiom the 
premises," and to levy and exact a fine of from tv,-enty-five to one hundred dol- 
lars from all retailers of spirituous liquors sold within the prescribed limits. The 
Congress alr,o granted four leagues of land in fee simjjle for buiklings and apparatus, 
and "for promotion of arts, literature, and science." An act of 1840, "Estab- 
lishing Rutersville College in Fayette County," named a board of trustees, with 
usual powers, provided that pupils of all denominations shall have like ad\antages, 
exempted the college property from taxation, provided against selling liquor near 
the college, and granted four leagues of land for "college buildings and apparatus, 
and to promote arts, literature, and science," — all with the proviso that the college 
properly shall not at any time exceed twenty-five thousand dollars in value. The 
act was subsequently amended to extend the property limitation to one hundred 
thousand dollars, and requiring the trustees to apply to the District Court to abate 
the liquor nuisance in the college neigliborhood. 

All early effort of the government frjr promoting public free schools in tlie 
counties was an act of February 5, 1840, "In relation to common schools and 
academies and to pro\ide for securing the lands fonnerly appropriated for purposes 
of educatii.)!!." It made the chief justice and two associate justices (then existing 
ofiicers) of each county I'x officio a board of school commissioners, with full power 
in their respective cfiunties to receive, lease, and sell all property appropriated for 
the schools, and required them to h.ave located and surveyed the three leagues of 
land appropriated uiuler the act of Januarv 26, 1^139, and granted an additional 



league (four tliousand four hundred and twenty-tight acres) for the purpose of 
necessary scientific endowment, one-half of it for an academic school and the re- 
mainder to be distributed among the various common-school districts in the county. 
It provided that school districts be organized in tiie county when the population or 
interests of education required. 

Numerous pri\-ate as well as denominatiunal institutions ol learning were char- 
tered by ilirect acts of the republic and subsequent State legislation, till a law was 



enacted by the State prescribing a general mode for such incorporations, under 
which the charter articles, when framed accordingly, have only to be accepted and 
filed in the State department at Austin. 


The Congress of the United .States having passed resolutions pro\'iding for the 
anne.xation of Te.xas to the American I'nion, rer^ohitions of annexation were adontcd 
by the con\-ention of the people of the repuli'ic of Texas, held July 4, 1S45, at 
Austin, and, among other things, it was mutually provided that the Texas republic 
should retain as a .State of the I'nion all its vacant and unappropriated public 
domain. The Constitution which was adopted made an exception restricting State 
ajipropriations by declaring (Article 7, Section 8) that approj.riations for monev 
should not be made for a longer term than two years, "except for purposes of 
education." Aiticle 10 require.l the State to make "suitable provisions for the 
support and maintenance of public schools," and further pro\-idcd as follows : — 

"Sec. 2. — The legi.slature shall, as early as practicable, establish free schools 
throughout the State, and shall furnish me.ans for their support by taxation on 
property. Ana it shall be the duty of the legislature to set apart not less than one- 
tenth of the annual revenue of the 'State derivable from taxation as a perpetual fund, 
which fund shall be appropriated to the sup[)ort of free jniblic schools, and no law 
sliall ever be m.ule diverting said hind to any other use ; and until such time as th.e 
legislature sh.iU piuvide for the establisluiient of such schools in the several districts 


of the State, the fund thus created shall remain as a charge against the State passed 
to the credit of the free common-school fund." 

The precedent of municipal taxation for the support of free scliools was set by 
an act of the legislature, in 1846, authorizing the corporation of Galveston to le\y 
a tax for such purpose, limited to one-half per cent, on the value of the real estate 
of the corporation. 

An act of 1S49 exempted from ta.xation all buildings with furniture and library 
used solely for purposes of education, together uith the lands owned by etlucational 
institutions, on which they are situated, not exceeding tenacres. 

An act of January 31, 1854, appropriated two million dollars of the five-per- 
cent, bonds of the United States remaining in the State treasury as a school fund 
for the support and maintenance of public schools, to be called the " special school 
fund ;" the interest therefrom to be distributed for the benefit of the school fund. 

An act of January 30, 1S54, "to encourage the constniction of railroads in 
Te.xas," and the act of February 11, 1S54, relative to the Gahestoa and Brazos 
Navigation Company, appropriated "alternate sections" of lands in large quantities 
to the railroads and navigation companies and to the free-school fund, the corpora- 
tions being required to survey the school sections for the State, as well as their 
own lands. These grants aggregated many millions of acres, including about 
thirty-two million acres to the railroads. 

An act of 1856 provided that " no statute of limitations sliall run in fa\'0f of 
any one who has heretofore settled or may hereafter settle upon or occupy any of 
the lands that have heretofore been granted, or may hereafter be granted, by the 
.State for purposes of education." Other acts of 1S56 provided for "investment of 
the special school fund in the bonds of railroad companies incorporated by the 
State," and for the " disposition and sale of tlie fifty leagues of University lands." 

What was known as the "University Act of 1S5S" granted the University of 
Texas one 'hundred tl'.ousand dollars in United States bonds, then in the State 
treasury- ; transferred to it the fifty leagues of land originally set apart by the repub- 
lic of Texas for the "endowment of t\vo colleges or universities," and further set 
apiut to it "one section of land out of every ten sections which have heretofore 
been or may bo hereafter surveyed and reser\-ed for the use of the .State, under the 
act of January 30, 1854, to encourage the construction of railroads in Texas," and 
the act of I'ebruary 11, 1854, granting lands to the Galveston and Brazos Navi- 
gation Company. The Constitution of 1876 annulled the proposition as to the 
alternate sections, converting the lands to the free-school fund, and substituting to 
the University but one million acres of far less valuable lands, in lieu of some three 
million two hundred thousand acres to which tlie UrJversity was entitlctl under llie 
act of 185."^. 

The War and Reconstruction. — The constitutional convention of 1861, 
held during tlx; secession of the Southern States, adopted the Constitudon of 1S45, 
with various amendments, simply- adapted to the new order of things, but without 
any change of Article lo, on "education," or the two years' provision as to ap- 
propriations for educational purposes. This ]irovision was maintained till the ex- 
ception drop[jed from the Constitution of 1S76. 


After the war resulting from secession, commonly known as the " war of the re- 
bellion," came the Constitutiun as amended and ad(jpted by the convention of ib06, 
and some ordinances of the convention affecting previous action of the legislature as 
to the disposition of school funds, and an ordinance which further affected the funds, 
those of the University especially, on account of some of the proceeds of sales of the 
school and University lands !;aving been received in "Confederate money" during 
the war, the ordinance declaring the "war debt null and void." The other (Ordi- 
nance 12) was for "securing the common school and University fund," merging the 
funds in one title, as were the accounts of them subsequently kept by the .State 
comptroller, so that afterwards, when it \\as proposed to establish the Univer- 
sity, it was difficult to designate to what amount of the funds the University was 

The legislature had all along proceeded by statute, under llie existing organic 
law, to estabhsh free schools, and had incorporated the idea of providing for one or 
more State universities as part of the State system of education or free-school sys- 
tem of the State. The Constitution of 1S66 amended the provisions of Article 10 
on " education" by declaring that the legislature shall, as early as ]3racticable, cstal> 
lish a system of free public schools throughout the State ; and as a basis for the 
endowment and support of said system all the funds, lands, and other property 
heretofore set apart, or that may hereafter be set a[)ort and appropriated for the 
support and maimenance of public schools, shall constitute the public-school fund ; 
and said fund and the income derived therefrom shall be a perpetual fund for the 
education of all the white scholastic inhabitants of this State, and no law shall ever be 
made appropriating said fund to any other use or purpose. It further provided that 
all the alternate sections of land reser\'ed by the .State out of pre\-ious or future grants 
to railroad companies or other corporations for internal improvements, or for the 
development of the wealth or resources of the State, shall be set apart as the per- 
petual school fund of the State ; that the legislature shall hereafter appropriate one- 
half of the proceeds of sales of public lands to the- pcipetual sclior)] fund, and sliall 
provide for the le\'ying of a ta.x for educational purposes, and that the sum ari.--iiig 
from said ta.x which may be collected from Africans or persons of African descent 
shall be exclusiveiv appro{)riated for the maintenance of a system of public schouls 
for Africans and their children ; that the University funds shall be in\'ested in like 
manner provided for the public-school funds, and the legislature shall ha\'e ii" 
power to appropriate the University fund for any other purpose than that of th'' 
maintenance of universities, and shall at an early day make such provisions bs' law 
as will organize and put into operation the University. 

Next came the [leriod of "reconstruction," for restoring to the Union tli-- 
" rebel states," as they were called, during which a State Constitution was ad.ijitcvi 
in convention held under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, and it was finally 
ratified by the people in July, 1869. This Constitution reafilirmed the section I'f 
that of iS6fij fixing the basis of the public-schod endowment, except the c!an>c 
confining its use to the education of white children, which had to be changed under 
the reconstruction provisions against " race discriminations," and was so changefl .is 
to pro\ide that " the perpetual school fund shall be applied, as needed, exclusively 
for th.e education of all the scholastic inliabitant:, of the State, ar.d no law sh.all e\er 


be made appropriating such fund for any other use or purpose." It was also pro- 
vided that 

" All sums of money that mav come to this State from the sale of any portion 
of the ))u!)lic domain of' the Stat.- shall also constitute a part of the public-school 
fund. And tli-:- Ic-lslaturc .^hall appropriate all the proceeds resulting from sales of 
public lands of this State to such public-school fund, and shall set apart for the 
benefit of public school.-^ one-fourth of the annual revenue derivable from general 
ta.xation ; and shall also cause to be levied and collected an annual poll-ta.x of one 
dollar on all male persons in this State between the age.'; of twenty-one and si.xty 
years for the benefit of public schools." "And said fund and the mcome there- 
from 'and the ta.xes herein provided for school purjioses shall be a perpetual fund to 
be applied" as above staled. 

The Constitution secures these provisions by annulling the "Ordinance of 
Secession" of iS6i and all legislation based thereon ; and declares, in effect, that 
the legislatures which sat in the State from March, iS6i, to August, iS65, were 
unconstitutional and their' enactments not binding, except as to such regulations as 
were not violative of the Constitution and laws of the United States or in aid of 
the rebellion against the United States. The legislature which assembled in Austin 
on August 6, 1 866, is declared to h.ive been provisional only, and its acts were to be 
respected only so far as they were not violative of the Constitution and laws of the 
United States, or were not intended to reward those who participated in the late 
rebellion, or to discriminate between citizens on account of race or color, or to 
operate prejudicially to any class of citizens. It is further declared that ' ' All debts 
created by the so-called State of Te.xas from and after the 2Slh day of January, 
iS6r, and prior to the 5th day of August, 1S65, were and are null and void, and 
the legislature is prohibited from making any provision fur the acknowledgment or 
payment of such debts." 

L'ndcr tliese piovisions the University, though not then organized so as to be 
in any way a matter of concern in the war, suffered great loss by some seveniy-four 
thousand eight hundred and four dollars and forty-eight cents having been received 
in "Confederate notes" in payment for University lands and turned over to the 
Confederate Slates' depositary. As to other interests involved in the same way, no 
estimates appear to have been presented of the loss to tlie free-school fund and 
other special trusts resulting from the State being prohibited from paying any debt 
involving Confederate money, further than appears in a message of Governor Davis, 
April 29, 1S70, stating : — 

"The University fund and lands may, I suppose, properly be considered as 
jiart of the common-school fund, though not directly included tlicrem by the Con- 

" It will be noticed that in the comptroller's report of assets the accounts bear 
from year to ix-ar the iten>s 'Special srhuol fund, $79,409.50,' ' Universityland 
sale S10.-100.41,' and ' Si.x-per-ccnt. manuscript State bonds, for school tund, 
$320,^67.1-,.' These items reprerJent State warrants or State bonds issued durmg 
the war an'd rcpresentinir obligations which are now void and should no longer be 
borne on the comptroller's report^. But the comptroller considers it h.s duty to 
continue tiiem until the legislature directs otherwise." 


An act of 1S71 amended the general school law by providing that the board of 
education shall apportion the territory of the State anew into convenient educa- 
tional districts. The State superintendent was authorized to appoint the district 
supervisors, the supervisors were to ap[)oint the school directors and could act as 
examiners of teachers. Thus, the sch(j(jl otticers were ver)' numerous and involved 
an expense that was well calculated to exhaust the school fund, if not to bankrupt 
the State, if the system were maintained. At all events, it was too extravagant lor 
maintenance by the counties. 

Existing Organic Law. — The convention of 1S75 adopted the Constitution 
which was ratified the following year, and is known as the Constitution ot 1S76. It 
expresses, among the subjects for which the legislature may ' ' levy taxes and impose 
burdens upon the people," the " support of public schools, in which shall be in- 
cluded colleges and universities supported by the State and the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College." 

"Article 7, Sec. 2. — All funds, lands, and other property heretofore set 
apart and a])propriatcd for the support of public schools ; all the alternate sections of 
land reserved by the State of grants heretofore made or that may hereafter be made 
to railroads, or other corporations, of any nature whatsoever ; one-half of the public 
domain of the State, and all sums of money that may come to the State from the 
sale of any portion of the same shall constitute a perpetual public-school fund." 

Section 3 provides for setting apart annually one-fourth of the State revenue 
from occupation taxes, one dollar poll-tax, and such an ad va/orc/n State tax, not 
exceeding twenty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, as will suffice, with 
the available school fund from other sources, for support of the public free schools 
of the State for six months in the year : and authorized local taxation by the vote 
of school districts, not to exceed twenty cents on the one hundred dollars' \-aluation, 
the limit on the district-school tax not applying to incorporated cities and towns 
constituting separate and independent school districts 

Section 5 pro\'idi^s that the principal of bonds and other funds and princii:ial 
of sales of the school lands and the taxes herein authorized shall be the available 
school fund, to which the legislature may add, not exceeding one per cent, annually 
of the total value of the permanent school fund. 

SrTtion 7 provides that " Separate schools shall be provided for the white and 
colored children, and impartial provision shall be made for both." 

(~)ther sections regulate the sale of school lands and disposition of school funds 
to the counties, and the sale of asylum lands and use of the funds. 

•'Sec. 10. — The legislature shall, as soon as practicable, establish, organize, 
and provide for the maintenance, support, and direction of a university of the first 
class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, and styled ' The University 
of Texas,' for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, including an 
agricultural .'Ind mechanical department." 

.Section I T confirms all grants of lands and other projierty heretofore made to 
the University, provided that the one-tenth of the alternate sections of the lands 
granted to railroads, which were appropn.ited for the l.'niversity of 1 exas by act 



of February ii, 185S, entitled "An Act to Establish the University of Texas," 
shall not be included in or constitute 3 part of the permanent University fund. 

Section 12 provides for sellinj^ the University lands and collections of debts 
due on account of the University, and against granting relief to purchasers of the 
University lands. 

Section 13 constitutes the Agricultural and Mechanical College a branch of the 
University of Te.\as for "instruction in agricukure, the mechanic arts, and the 
natural sciem es connected therewith." 

" Sec. 14. — The legislature shall also, when deemed practicable, eslablisli and 
provide for the maintenance of a college or branch unixersily for the instruction of 
the colored youths of the State, to be located by a vote of the people ; pro\-ided, 
that no tax shall be levied and no money appropriated out of the general re\-enue, 
either for this purpose or for the establishment and erection of the buildings of the 
University of Texas. 

"Sec. 15. — In addition to the lands heretofore granted to the University of 
Texas, there is hereby set apart and appropriated, for the endowment, maintenance, 
and supjjort of said University and its branches, one million acres C)f the unappro- 
priated public domain of the State, to be designated and surveyed as may be pro- 
vided by law ; and said lands shall be sold under the same regulations and the 
proceeds invested in the same maimer as is provided for the sale and investment of 
the permanent University fund ; and the legislature shall not have power to grant 
any relief to the purchasers of saiil lands." 

Section 10 of Article ii provides that the legislature may constitute any city 
or town a separate and independent school district, and prescribes the requirements 
for authorizing city authorities to levy and collect a tax for the supjiorl and mainte- 
nance of public institutions of learning. 

The provision in Article 7, Section 5, that the legislature may add one per 
cent, annually of the permanent to the a\ailahle school fund, is known as the 
" Jester amendment," adopted in 1S91 and put into cflc-cl b\- the t\venl\--second 
legislature. It added two himdred and twenty-six thousand four hundred and 
eighty dollars to the available school fund in 1 S92. 


After the annexation of Texas to the I'nited -States, the public-school system of 
the State was subjected to various important changes. Naturally, at the organization 
of the government, the management of educatitjua! interests was largely left to the 
cities and counties and boards of school trustees, the counties being generally 
divided, when the population justified, into school districts with res[)ective school 
cotnmissioners. E\-entually subdivisions of school districts were allowed, under 
what was termed the " conniiunity system," where a sufificient number of the people 
petitioned for it to the school authorities. Cities and towns were allowed to incor- 
porate as "independent scIkjoI districts" under separate school boards and city 
school superintendents, and established "graded" and "high" schools, in addition 
to the and primary schools. The disposition of free-school funds of the 
coujUies, derived from State grants and special appropriations and taxation, was 
charged to the lount)' olHcers, suljject to Ifgi^hitive regulation. 


At first the State treasurer, and subsequently the State comptroller, was ex 
officio State superintendent of instruction, with a certain general supervision of the 
school fund and some direction as to its distribution and use in the several counties, 
reports of county-school finances and school work being required to be made to hiiu, 
and he to report to the governor as to the condition of such matters and the general 
interests of education in the State. This was before the population of Texas hatl 
grown so as to require a more thorough system of regulation. 

In iS68 the " reconstruction convention" set apart all the proceeds of the sales 
of public lands, and required that one-fourth of the State revenues and the poll ta.v 
of one dollar on each male citizen between twenty-one and sixty years of age be 
appropriated for school purposes. The scholastic population entitled to tuition in 
the free schools was to embrace all educable children between six and eighteen years 
of age, and the legislature was required to provide for the maintenance of the schools 
for four months during the year. 

The State comptroller was ex offcio .State superintendent of education till the 
ofifice of " Superintendent of Public Instruction" was established by the Constitution 
of i856, which prescribed four years for the term of service and fixed the salary at 
two thousand dollars per annum, besides creating a board of education to consist of 
the go\-ernor, comptroller, and the superintendent, and was charged with the " man- 
agement and control of the perpetual school fund and the common schools, under 
such regulations as the legislature may prescribe." Tlie first State superintendent 
of the public schools under these provisions was Pryor Lea, appointed by Governor 
Throckmorton, November lo, iS66. The existing go\-ernment and ofificers, how- 
ever, were displaced the following year under the " reconstruction acts" of Congress, 
and E. M. Wheelock, who was appointed superintendent by Provir-ional Go\crnor 
Pease, in August, 1867, served the balance of the four years' term, In May, 1S71, 
|. C. de Cress succeeded Wheelock, by appointment of Governor Davis, but was 
ousted from ofifice before his term expired by the installation of O. N. Hollings- 
worth, who was elected superintendent December 2, 1S73, on the same ticket wiih 
Governor Coke. 

Under an act of 1S71, the salary of the superintendent of public instruction was 
fixed at three thousand dr>llars, and the board of education was constituted of the 
superintendent, the go\-ernor, and the attorne\'-general. An act of 1873, besides 
keeping the salary at three thousand dollars, gave the superintendent a clerk at one 
thousand eight hundred dollars, and the same act provided for county-school boanis, 
the president to be ex officio county superintendent, the directors to be allowcfl four 
dollars a day, when eni])loyed in school work, for not over twenty days, and the 
county superintendent the s.ime pay for not o\er thirty days in the year. The sclnjol 
ad valorem tax was fixed at twenty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation of 
property-, and other disposition was made of funds from sales of school lands for sup- 
port of the schools according to the provisions of the Constitution. .•\n act of 1S76 
in effect aT)oHshed the office of State school superintendent by making no [)n>\i:^ii>n 
for it, but provided for a board of education composed of the governor, coni[itrolUr, 
and secretary of state, and allowed a clerk at a salary of fifteen hundred dollars per 
annum. The department of education was renrganized in t?^'^4, when the ofiice i>f 
suMerintendent of public instruction was revived and a new bo.ird of educatior. was 


created, consisting of the governor, comptroller, and secretary of state, with the 
State school superintendent ex officio secretary of the board, the term of office of 
the superintendent being two years, and the salary two thousand five hundred 
dollars a year, as they have since remained fixed. 

The secretary of the board of eclucadon. D. M. Baker, was appointed State 
superintendent, May 5, 1^84, by Governor Ireland. He was succeeded by O. H. 
Cooper, wlio was elected in November, 1886, and re-elected in November, 18S8, 
but, having resigned before his second term expired. Governor Ross appointed to 
the place H. C. Pritchett, w ho was elected to the office in November, 1S90, but also 
resigned before his term expired, and was succeeded by Governor Hogg appointing 
J. M. Carlisle, who was aftenvards elected and is the present incumbent of the office. 
Superintendent Baker, while secretary of the board of education, induced the legis- 
lature to make the office of State superintendent elective instead of appointive, and 
very materially systematized the workings and eficcti\-eness of the department of 

Important economic changes from the expensi\-e school systen of the " period 
of reconstruction" were found to be neccs->ary fallowing that period. Among those 
adopted was one recommended by Governor Roberts, classifying the teachers into 
several grades, so that great saving was effected in the salaries, instead of paying 
the teachers all alike. The prices of sale of the public lands were reduced, and 
various measures were taken for the more rapid disposition of them to produce 
greater funds for the support of the free schools and establishment of the University. 
What is known as the "fifty cents' act," reducing the price of the public lands to 
that figure, was suggested by Governor Roberts. The legislature also passed an act 
setting apart one-half of the public domain of the disputed territory of Greer 
County for the free schools, and reserving the other half for the public debt'; and 
some years ago Governor Hogg, while attorney-general, instituted suits for the 
recovery of several million acres of land, claimed to have been improperly granted 
to railroad companies, including over a million acres for railroad "sidings and 
switches." The suits were prosecuted with some success by Attorney-General Cul- 
berson, as were others to recover school lands originated by the latter officer, and 
the lands reverting to the State may accrue jxirtly to tiie benefit of the school funtl. 

According to statements of the land commissioner, some three hundred and 
fifty-two thousand acres of the "sidings and swifches" lands have so far been re- 
covered. The larger suits arc based on the constitutional requirement that one-half 
of all the public domain of the State shall be reserx'ed to the free-school fund, but 
it is a question whether lands recovered in these suits will revert simply to the jjublic 
domain, or any part to the benefit of the free-school fund, unless the legislature should 
so direct, and it might possibly do by dividing them between the free schools and 
the University, as was proposed to be done in an act prepared for the twenty-second 
legislature, but not introduced, as it was deemed inexpedient to attempt any pro- 
vision for dis]-)osing of the lands in advance of their recovery. 

The General School Law.— The result of legislation governing tlie school 
system has been the enactment of an elaborate general law, with various modifica- 
tions and closer adaptations at each biennial session of the legislature. The scope 
• Lost by decision of United States Supreme Court in 1S96.— Editor. 


of the law passed by tlie twenty-third legislature — that of 1893 — is indicated in its 
comprehensive caption, as follows : — 

" An act to provide for a more efficient system of public free schools for the 
State of Texas ; defining the school funds ; providing iov the investment of the jier- 
nianent fund and the apportionment of the a\ailab!e fund ; defining the duties of 
certain State officers in reference to the pul.ilic frer schools ; creating the offices of 
State and county superintendents ; providing ii-v their election and salary, and pre- 
scribing their ci'jalifications and duties ; jircs, ribitig the duties of other officers in 
reference to [vublic sclioob ar.d public-school funds ; making county judges ex officio 
county superintendents in all counties not ha\-ing county superintendents, and pro- 
viding for their compensation ; providing for the election of school trustees and pre- 
scribing their qualifications and duties ; providing for the cieation of school districts 
in all the counties of this St ite ; pro\-idiiig for the levy and collection of special taxes 
for the further maintenance of the public free schools and the erection of school- 
houses ; providing for boards of examiners and the issuance of teachers' certificates; 
providing compensation and prescribing the duties of teachers employed fliereunder, 
and preventing the altering or changing of teachers' certificates ; regulating the 
transfer of the school funds ; fixing the scholastic age ; providing for taking the 
scholastic census ; authorizing trustees to administer oaths ; and providing penalties 
for refusing to answer questions in regard to the age of children, and other penalties 
for violations of the pro\isions of this an ; repealing all laws and parts of laws in 
conflict with the provisions of this act ; and declaring an emergency." (General 
Laws, 1S93, Chapter 122.) 

The last report of Superintendent Carlisle shows that there are eleven thou- 
sand sewn hundred and tuenty-eight public-school teachers and one hundred and 
sixty-three cities and to^ns having graded public schools in Texas. 


According to the kist report of the State comptrt)ller of March 31, 1S93, the 
total amount of county. State, and railroad bonds held by the permanent school fund 
was $7,675,922, there being also on hand $609,073 cash to the credit of the fund. 
These items, with some $14,000,000 of interest-bearing land notes and about twenty- 
three million acres remaining unsold of the school lands, constitute the State's public- 
school endowment at this time. Some twenty million acres of the unsold lauds are 
leased at four cents an acre per annum, and the rentals are applied to the annual 
available school fund. The University lands are leaserl at three cents an acre, and 
the rentals are added to the available Uni\ersity fund. The price for leasing of 
both the school and Uni\-ersity lands for some years prior to 1SS7 was as high as 
six cents an acre per annum, having Inen reduced since to meet the decreased 
demand for grazing lands, on account of the reduced value of cattle. Besides the 
regular State endowment, each county has a separate special grant from the State 
of four leagues, — seventeen thousand seven hundred and twelve acres. As these 
lands are sold, the interest on the funds is applied aniiu.illv to the support of the 
schools. TJie lands thus granted to the counties aggregate some five million eight 
hundred and fifty-six thousand four luiiiflred acres, exclusi\-e of a general resiT\'atii >n 
from the pulilic domain, from which counties remaining unorganized are to h.a\e 
their four-league grants. 


In addition to the interest on bonds and land notes and rental from leases, die 
State levies an annual ad valorem school-tax of one and one-fourth mills, and appro- 
priates il, together with one-fourth of the occupation taxes and an annual poll-tax 
of one dollar per voter, to the available school fund. The entire amount of available 
school fund apportioned for 1S92 and 1893 for a scholastic population of 453,720 
while and 151,685 colored children, from eight to fifteen (since changed to from 
eight to seventeen) years of age, in the State, was $3,462,890, derived from the 
school-tax at twelve and a half cents on the one-hundred-dollar property valuation, 
and from interest on bonds, interest on land notes, leases of school lands, local 
school taxation, and the annual transfer of one per cent, from the permanent school 

The entire educational endowments of the State may be summed as follows : — 

Free-School Fund. 

Bonds ?7, 675. 9-2 

Cash 6.-'9,o73 

Land, 23,000.000 acres. Value 57,500,000 

Total State school fund $65,784,995 

CoL'NTV-ScnooL FuxD. 

Land, 5,856,400 acres. \'alue 14,641,000 

Total State and county school tuiids ^80,425, 995 


Bonds 5575.840 

Land, 2,020,040 acres. Value 5,050,700 

Grand total educational endowment 585,051,935 

Under the Constitution, funds of the University are limited to investments in 
bonds of the State and the United States ; but the school funds are not confined to 
these securities, and are mainly invested in county bonds in amounts proportioned 
10 the property values and constitu'Ional indebtedness of the counties apj^lying for 
the loans, and in this way the funds operate for local benefits within the State. 
County bonds thus held by the State in trust for the permanent school fund amount 
to $3,980,000, payment of which is guaranteed by the State. There are also 
$2,162,600 in State bonds held by the school fund, besides over $1,500,000 in 
railroad bonds belonging to the fund. 


The pro\ision for endowing a State university, as well as for establishing llic 
pui)lic free schools in Texas, and the legislation for organizing " one or more uni- 
versities," or, as the idea came to be modified, " The University of Texas," may be 
attributed for some measure of influence to the suggestions of President Lamar, 
who, in his message to the Congress of the republic of Texas in 1S38-39, urged 
liberal appropriations of land, while the domain was vacant and ample, for the pur- 
poses of education. His message doubtless had great weight in Congress, judging 


from the report of the committee on education, and the Hberality of the republic 
is no doubt what stimulated the State to still greater munificence in the endowment 
of the free schools and the University, — the former with perhaps the grandest schocjl 
patrimony in the world, and the latter with somewhat princely provision for its sup- 

As for the free schools, almost any provision for them within the power of the 
people would ha\'e been a matter of no great marvel, so far as the po[.>ular dispo- 
sition was concerned, as the people would have given almost any amount of the 
public domain ncces.-avy for their support, and took every occasion they could, all 
through the days of the republic as well as of the State, to augment the free-school 
fund. For the University, however, to secure land donations from the State, ap- 
propriations of an equal amount for the free schools were generally necessary, so 
jealous were the people, and the law-makers for them, of the University having 




any fnvors not accorded to the free schools. While, as Lamar expressed it, "the 
benefits of education were so universal that all parties could unite in its promotion," 
still the free schools, as something nearer to the necessities of the setders of the 
country, naturally engendered indifference to the early establishment of the Univer- 
sity, and, but for the urgent action of Governor Roberts and the University regents 
appointed by him under the act of iSSi, and others subsequently appointed, the Uni- 
versity would hardly have been put into operation as early as it was, in 1SS3, nor 
even then, under such favorable auspices as happened, but for an important ruling 
of State Comptroller Swain, which made available a large amount of funds of the 
University which had hitherto been restricted to the principal instead of the interest 
of the permanent funil. Under the Constitution only the interest of this fund, and 
no part of the principal in any event, could be used for operating the University; so 
that, although the institution was finally started as urged by its friends, its resources 
would b.-ive been rather meagre for immediate purposes but for soine eighty-six 


thousand dollars which the Swain riilin,i,' converted to the direct use of the institu- 
tion. The previous action, too, of Comptroller Darden, in calling attention to the 
subject, and thereby inciting the lec^islature to c\-entually consitler and determine 
the facts as to the legality of one hundred and thirty-four thousand dollars in bonds 
which the State had issued to the L'ni\ersity, must also be taken into account as 
m.iterial to the interests of the institution. So, also, should be regarded the action 
of ComiJtroUer Drown in turning the precedent and checking the use of University 
funtls foi- the Prairie \'iew School. 

Naturally there were efforts of many other friends of the University, and, as 
there had been all along, expressions of most of the executives of the republic and 
of the State in favor of higher education tending to the same purpose of an early 
organization of the L'ni\ersity ; but the action of the incumbent governor and 
comptroller, as high Stale officials with discretion and inclination to act in the 
matter, and the co-operation with the governor by the State Teachers' Association, 
and the legislation which resulted from such influences, were material agencies 
towards consummating the main object desired, of putting the institution at once 
into effect, and trusting to the people and the legislature for countenance and sup- 
port. But the objects of the friends of the institution had not been even so far 
realized, without great opposition, and with no special encouragement from the 
general public, owing to the still existing indifference to the advantages of the Uni- 
versity, — "a rich man's school," as it was termed, — as compared with the more 
universal advantages of the free schools, which 

in their combination of academies and primaries ' ■ -»— ■ •.-»'r^.-r-r™,, .^■..»™^.-~.~,.Trt,^ 
constituted what was most, if not all, thai was '. 

then desired in the way of education by the 
great mass of the pt^ople. ;.. i 

Governor Roberts's idea, in which he was ' 

strongly supported by influential members of '^ ''^'tN. 

the legislature and by able writers of the press, f ''<^ 

was to start the University and let it develop 1S^*.., "^ ^ - 

itself with such aid as the State could afford ■• ■• \ • 

or saw proper to extend, without waiting for ■ / 

some indctinitc j.>criod for vast resources to 

be accumulated to inaugurate it on some 7"'"^' ~ / 

grand plan, which might never be practicable. / /"' 

He favored IcgaliTiing the one hundred and ^ ' 

thirty-four thousand dollars in State bonds ■ 
before referred to belonging to the Univer- | 
sity, but which had been declared in\-alid, and j -.. ■ 

urged that two million acres be added to the l^-^Jf"'^- 
one million acres of land previously donated by .\sHBr.L s.mum 

the State for thc.LTniversity's endowment, and, 

further, personally appeared before the State teachers' convention at .Mcxia in 
1S80, to prevail upon it to consider the matter of devising a [il in to put the 
institution at once into practical t)[ieration. His plan was subsequently f. >innil.itrd 
at a second meeting of tlie associ.itii_>n, which at the governor's insMuce nui at Aus- 


till, and through a committee of the association a bill was prepared and submitted 
to the legislature for organizing the University. This is the bill which, with some 
changes credited mainly to Representative Hutcheson, of Harris, and Senator Ter- 
rell, of Travis, is said to be the one finally enacted, under which the University is 
now being operated. As finally drafted, the bill was probably based, for some of 
its [.ro'/ision-j al least, upon the dn'.ft presented by the teachers' committee, one 
feature of which, however, differed from the enacted bill, by providing for a presi- 
dent of the University, and another opposed the ereriiim of "dormitories, profes- 
sors' houses, and mess halls." The University regcn'.s, a few years ago, resolved 
to petition the legislature for authority to appoint such an ofTicer, but no further 
action seems to have been taken in the matter. ' As to the question of co-education 
of the sexes, Go\-ernor Roberts states that the suggestion was made by him to the 
teachers' convention at the same time he advised the establishment of normal 
schools. The "bonds of doubtful \'alidity," which he wanted to be legalized, 
were issued in lieu of United States bonds, donated by the State to the University in 
1S5S, and held to be invalid during the Republican administration of the State on 
suspicion that they had been used for raising funds in aid of the " war of the rebel- 
hon." Comptroller Bledsoe had classed them as "worthless," but Comptroller 
Darden referred them to the legislature, and they were validated in 1S83 by legisla- 
tive decision that they had been used for frontier protection from the Indians and 
Mexicans, and therefore were not liable to the inhibition on account of tlie Civil \Var. 
As has been noticed, in 1839 the Congress of the republic of Tc.xfls provided 
fur locating the capital of the republic, to be named the " City of Austin," and for 
selecting a uni\-ersity site on the same grounds ; and further set apart fifty leagues 
(two hundred and twenty-one thousand four hundred acres) of land for the "estab- 
lishment and endowment of two colleges or universities." The first Constitution 
of the State, that of 1S45, made no mention or pro'.ision in the matter, nor was 
there any material effort made by the legislature to establish a university, until, in 
1S55, a bill to provide for the "erection and support of a State university" was 
introduced and warmly discussed in the si.xth legislature. The issue was whether 
there should be one or more universities, or, dificrendy expressed, any university 
at all, and what actio:: was proper for such an enterjirlse. Ajiproytriations ranging 
from three lumdred thousand to one million dollars were proposed. C^ne member, 
Mr. Russell, distrusted the propriety of the movement for lack of transportation, 
and argued that they should first provide for internal improvements. ^Tr. Flanagan 
contended that " the time had come when the State cf)uld afford to support two 
universities such as the honor of this great State demanded." Mr. Bryan urged 
the economics of a university, "to unite the people and save the great expense of 
educating our children among those who were enemies to oui institutions." Sena- 
tor Maverick went so far as to argue that if we got a university it would soon have 
to be "abated as a nuisance ;" that " the whole thing was wrong ;" that we did not 
want "either one or two universities ;" "the sch<i'>ls must first be 
for the general wants of the people before we advance to academies and univer- 
sities ;" that "if a university was put on foot when n'^t demanded or properly con- 

■ A president was provided for in 1S95, and George T. Wi-iston was elected to that ofike 
JS96.— EurroK. 

LANE— THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF TEXAS. 443, it woukl be sure to set itself up as a secret, malignant enemy of the people ;' ' 
that " it was ciirirms that we must begin with a university, — so nice, so fine, and so 
religious!" Mr. Armstrong opposed colleges or universities as " hot-lieds of immo- 
rality, proHigacy, and licentiousness," and " having a tendency to create aristocracy 
and class legislation among the people," and preferred a " j)ractical and efficient 
sNsteiii of comn.uii schools, in which the exercises shall alternate between labor and 
study, St) that the b(.>dy of the student may be developed in proportion to the 
advancement of the mind." 

Tl.e legislature was sharj:)ly di\ided betvvcen the single univcrsit}- and the dual 
plan, and at first the majority was evidently agreed that it was the proper time to 
act, if a university was needed, while there were ample funds remaining in the treas- 
ury from the five million dollars in United States bonds paid to the State in 1S52 
for the Santa Fe purchase. A substitute bill, however, was ofiercd appropri.ning 
one million dollars of these bonds as an additional fund for the common schools, 
instead of for the University, and finally the wdH>le matter was referred to the com- 



Mkdicai. College at Galvhston. 

miltee on educ.Ttion and \ient over without final action during tluit session. The 
suliject was revivc<l in ths seventh l>:u;i.i!ature, in 1S57, when the debate was again 
interesting as an exhibition of the temper of the legisl.Uure and the sentiment of the 
people at that time. Mr. Kittrell, chairman of the House Committee on Education, 
spoke at length in suj;port of a report of the conunittee recommending " th.e estab- 
lisliment of a .State university as soon as practicable," and stated that he had just 
learned that die Senate committee had recommended a liberal appropriation in land 
and money for this object, and that there wa> still in the State treasury five hundred 
thousand dollars une.xpended balance of the United States bonds not needed for 
any other purpose. 

.Mr. Jennin'^s, who faxored the re[iort, tofjk occasion to argue that the medical 
department should Ik- locatetl at Galveston or Houston, and that the literary de- 
partment should not ])e at .Austin, adding : "I have tliree sons, and I say it in the 
presence of God and my country, that I wculcl kt them be uneducated stock-raisers 
and niiilc-dri\'ers before, in the eifort to become well educated, they should learn 


the accomplishments of Congress A\emic. " He wiinlL-d the literary department 
fixed on some "virgin league of land." 

Mr. Norton protested against taking the land and money of the people, — four 
hundred thousand dollars and four hundred and forty-two thousand eight hundred 
acres of lanii, — iis the Senate proposed, to establish one mammoth universitv- for 
the benefit of a privileged class, that the children of the rich may be educated and 
those of the poor neglected. He would favor appropriating the entire fund con- 
templated for the University to the common schools of the State. The speaker of 
the house, -Mr. Locke, did not believe the people vi ere ready for a university, and 
opposed its establishment. Se\ eral members spoke in favor of having but one, 
and deprecated the proposition of two universities as " rival institutions that would 
foster sectional feeling and discord among the people." It was even argued that 
the institution was antidemocratic, — not for the greatest good to the greatest num- 
ber ; that it would be a magnificent failure and an intolerable burden upon the 
people ; that its establishment would be legislating for a special class, and that class 
the favorites of fortune, who were the only ones that could and would take advan- 
tage of such an institution, and who were able to take care of themsehes ; that it 
would not be right, in case there should ever be a division of the State, for one 
sectipn alone to possess this mammoth enterprise, reared and maintained by the 
common blood and treasure of the whole State ; that the question should be more 
thoroughly canvassed before the people and their voices be hoard, as they are the 
ones to furnish the money to build the University ; and that the common-school 
system should be placed ujion a firm basis before "vesting the people's money and 
domain in any enterprise of doubtful expediency." 

The bill relating to the establishment of a State University came up again in 
the legislature in 1858, when the pending question in the house being its final 
passage, and the ayes and noes being demanded, several members asked to be ex- 
cused from voting. The constitutional objection, too, was raised that the bill em- 
braced the substance of a proposition which had been rejected. It finally prevailed, 
however, by a vote of forty-eight yeas to thirteen nays, and, as enacted into law, 
appropriated the fifty leagues of land set apart for the "establishment and endow- 
ment of two colleges or universities" to the "establishment and maintenance of 
the Uni\-ersiry of Texas," and also set apart and appropriated to the same piu-puse 
"one section of land out of every ten sections which have heretofore been or may 
hereafter be surveyed and reserved for the use of the State under the provisions of 
the act of January 30, 1S54, entitled ' An Act to Encourage the Construction of 
Railroads in Texas by Donations of Land,' and under the provisions of any general 
or special law heretofore passed granting lands to railroad companies, and under 
the pro\-isions of the act of Feljruary 11, 1854, granting lands to the Galveston and 
Brazos Navigation Company." These provisions were never observed on account 
of the intervention of the Civil War ; but, on the contrary, the main grant of the 
"tenth sections" was annulled by the Constitution of iS';6, which reappropriated 
all the grants before made except the tenth sections, for which it made only partial 
restitution by substituting one million acres to the l'ni\'ersity. An act of .-\pril 20, 
1SS3, made further, but still from comjilete, restoration by a donation of another 
million acres to "the Uni\ersity ani.1 its branches, including tlie brancii for colored 


youths," giving at the same time and in the same act one milHon acres to the free 
schools. Not only was the University thus deprived of a large portion of its en- 
dowment, but in several instances large amounts of its funds had been imperiously 
diverted by the legislature, and only in one instance was such spoliation prevented 
by executive action in the University's behalf. This was in 1S61, when Gov- 
ernor Lubbock vetoeci a bill appropriating University funds for the mileage and per 
diem of the members of the ninth legislature. An act of the same session of 1S83 
legalizetl ;f;i34,472. 26 in bonds issued tu the University by the State, but previously 
held to be invalid, and a certificate of the comptroller of the State's indebtedness 
to the Uni\-ersity for $10,300.41, and further provided tliat the sum of $256,272.59 
of that half of the proceeds of the sale of bonds not belonging to the common-school 
fund shall be transferred to the L'niversity fund in payment of said certificate and 
bonds, and the accrued interest on said bonds to the first day of August, 18S3, of 
which $45,104. 22 belong to the available University fund, alter which said certifi- 
cate and bonds shall be fully discharged. 

The University suffered great loss to its endowment not only on account of 
the large quantity of lands which it owned in excess of the million acres substituted 
by the Constitution of 1876, but on account, also, of the greatly inferior quality of 
the sufjstituied lands. Alluding to these facts, Judge Terrell, in a speech in the 
State Senate in April, 18S2, on the bill then pending to set aside two million acres 
of land for the University, said : "Had that law (act of 1S58) not been disturbed, 
b)' the Constitution of 1S76, the University would now own three million two hundred 
thousand (3, 200,000) acres of land, instead of having to apply to the legislature for a 
donatifn, which in effect would be but so much restitution of its original endow- 
ment. At the very time when the effort was made to despoil it of its endowment 
by a clause in the Constitution of 1876 (the effect of which those who made that 
instrument could not foresee) there was then due to the Uni\ersity one million seven 
hundred thousand (1,700,000) acres of land ; but by the Constitution of 1S76 all the 
alternate sections reser\ed by the State out of grants to the railroads, including every 
tenth section given to the University, were appropriated for public free schools, and 
one million r.cres only were given for the endowment of the University." The bill 
to ajiprojiriate the two million acres to the University did not pass, but was substi- 
tuted in the eighteenth legislature by the act of April 20, 1SS3, which, as before 
stated, appropriated instead only one million acres to the University and one million 
to the free schools. 

The opposition in the legislature, even at tliis period and later, was almost as 
remarkable as it was in the sixth and seventh legislatures, but more, perhaps, on 
account of finoritism for the Agricultural and Mechanical College than frum hostility 
to the L'ni\ersity. At one session, for instance, one member Tsince a strong friend 
of the L'ni\-ersity), while a vote was being taken for an appropriation for the college 
from the Uni\'ersity fund, could not refrain from exclaiming, " Remember the 
farmers' college'!" meaning the "A. and M. College," as it is generally briefly 
designated. Another member, \\hCTwas more a partisan of the college than a friend 
to the University, argued that the lei,n>liture could "starve the Univtr^ity out of 
existence it demolish it by tearing down its walls and bntliing it tu the ground :" 
and in tho twentieth k-^islature, in 1S8S, when the simple question involved in 


discussion was the repayment of University funds used by the State for other than 
the purposes of the University, a proposition which was so plain to the Senate as 
to induce that body to pass its bill appropriating over two hundred thousand 
dollars to repay the money with interest, a 
member of the House contended that "the 
State did not owe the University a cent," it 
being, he argued, " a case of justified diver- 
sion of funds intended for one purpose, but 
changed to another by subsequent enactment, 
— an argument which seemed to have its 
^ <^^ '^ effect, at least in the House, w hich voted a 

i«^ "loan" to the University, giving the appro- 

|;-!tU^.i^»' priation that designation, and conveniendy 

; \^f y disposing of the claims in lump to avoid 

, _^Jf> /^, ^^ admitting that they consdtuted any debt of 

the State, and yet requiring that the loan 
shall be "in full settlement and satisfaction 
''^ •"" of all the claims of the University." As thus 

'■ expressed, it was subsequendy enacted into 

• law in the general appropriation bill of the 

' • special session. The loan had been sug- 

gested by Representative Prendergast, and 
was accepted by Senator Simkins, who was at the time one of the University 
regents, as being the only concession likely to be obtained. 

Senator Pfeuffer, while president of the board of directors of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College, was the author of a scheme for the establishment of "dis- 
trict colleges" as "feeders for a university," and in 1SS4 he introduced a bill ac- 
cordingly, to provide for their support from the University fund, which, had it passed, 
would ha\e scattered and depleted the fund, and, in the opinion of the ad\ocates of 
the University, instead of " feeding" would have " bled the University to death." 
The bill was defeated at a subsequent session of the legislature, and after its defeat the 
author of it made a remarkable speech as a matter of personal pri\'ilege in the Senate, 
Martii 31, 1SS5, in which he undertook to disjiarage the University as compared with 
the College, but in a vein of satire that would apply to any institution of mere fanciful 
methods or imperfect means of instruction, and was, in fact, if ai^plicablc to either, as 
pertinent to the College as to the University. The University, however, had been in 
operation long enough for the people to realize something of its advantages, and that 
it was not "district colleges as feeders," but the direct benefits of the University 
itself, that were needed for the superior education of their children at home. In the 
grand march of an empire State in political importance they fell Texas should 
keep step to the music of educational jjrogress in other States, and hold her sons 
and danghlt Ts at home, by bringing the University of Te.xas fairly into competition 
by its innate excellence with the great uni\crsiues of the country. It was time, as 
Governor Roberts had e.vpressed it, that "Te\a.s, lik*- other States, should rear its 
own men in even.- stature of manhood, of intelligence, and of culture, according to 
their capacities and upon its own soil, and tl.ereby engender and preserve an intense 


homogeneousness in the character of its population, whicli must result in the con- 
centrated power and elevated prosperity of the whole body jwlitic in association." 

For years prior to this, a number of prominent men in and out of the legisla- 
ture, among them Ashbel Smith, John Cardwell, S. H. Darden, .^. \V. Terrell, 
and General Wigfall, some of them already mentioned, as well as Go\ernors Coke, 
Hubbard, Lubbock, Throckmorton, Roberts, and some of the earlier State execu- 
tives, and others in authority or of special influence, had more or less fa\ored the 
establishment of the L'ni\-ersity, — some of them, indeed, while it was a mere concept 
in the public niind, or, at best, an uncertain quantity in political estimation. Gov- 
ernor Ireland seemed to favor the establishment of se\'eral State colleges and then a 

The organization of the Agricultural and Mechanical Collej;e, in 1875, long 
before the University got into operation, in 1S83, and as a branch of the University, 

John Sk.^lv Hospital at Ga 

but under a separate bo.ird of control, created considerable and repealed friction in 
Icgislaliun, ou account of ditlcrence between the directors of the College and regents 
of the University, due to the efforts of the latter to pre\-cnt what they regarded as 
unreasonable appropriations for the College from the available resources of the L''ni- 
versity. This feeling was not even measurably mollified till 1891, when the con- 
trolling bodies of the hitherto and still separately managed institutions joined in a 
mutual anjieal to the twenty-second legislature for desired appropriations for the 
College and the University. As its organization stands, the College is still managed 
independently of any special supervision of the L''niversity regents. Its catalogues 
of students are published separately from those of the University, but as "the 
technical branch of the University." 

The title and purposes of the LTniversity of Texas were expressed in the Con- 
stitution of 1S76. which declared that "the legislature shall, as soon as practicable, 
provide for tlu' maintenance, support, and direction of a Uni\-ersity of the first, 
to be located by a \-ote of the iieojile of this State, and styled 'The l.'niversity of 


Texas,' for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, including an 
agricultural and mechanical department." 

Despite all obstacles retarding its organization, the University tinally got into 
operation, not under the acts of 1S58 and 1S66, but under the provisions of the 
Constitution of 1876, abridging as that did the landed donations to the University, 
and the act of March 30, 1881, and subsequent legislation, up to the date of its prac- 
tical inauguration by temporary use of rooms in the State cajjitol, in September, 1SS3, 
till the University's building was sufficiently completed for occupancy, January i, 1S84. 
In 1866, Governor Pease appointed, as the law then required and designated 
them, "Ten Administrators of the University of Texas." The appointees were 
Charles S. West, George B. Erath, Henry F. Gillette, William G. Webb, Robert 
Bechern, P. W. Kittrell, Gustave Schleicher, 
r---- ■ William S. Gl.iss, J. W. Ferris, and F. S. 

; Slockdale. The number was subsequently re- 
. j duced to eight, and in 1872 Go\'enior Davis 

appointed, as the board, James H. Raymond, 
; S. Mussina, C. R. Johns, M. A. Ta\lor, Ham- 
■ ■ ■*' i ikon Stuart, S. G. Newton, E. G. Benners, and 

j J. R. Morris. In 1S73 Governor Davis ap- 
1 pointed a new board, consisting of Edward 
■~* ] Degencr. James H. Starr, A. H. Bryant, George 

^■y } W.' Smyth, James W. Talbot, John W. Harris, 

\ ' i Hamilton Stuart, and John C. Raymond. 

I The "Board of Eight University Re- 

i gents," as the law subsequentl\- designated 
i them, was the one authorizerl by the University 
"I Act of 1 88 1, and was appointed by Governor 
Roberts and confirmed by the Senate, as fol- 

THOM..sD.WoOTHN,M.D. ^"'''^'- "^^^""'^^ J- ^'^^''"^■' J^""'^-^ ^^'- 'r''^^'-'^- 

morton, Richard B. Hubbard, Ashbel Smith, 
James H. Starr, A. N. Edwards, James H. Bell, and Smith Ragsdale. Dr. Ashbel 
Smith was chosen president and Regent Edwards secretary at the first meeting 
of the board, held No\-ember 14, 1S81, in Austin. Dr. Smith held his position to 
the time of his death. January 21, 1SS6, when he was succeeded by Dr. Thomas 
D. Wooten, who has been unanimously re-elected each year since that date. Mr. 
Edwards remained secretary of the board for a short while, and was succeeded by 
Mr. A. P. Wooldridgc, who, during his long sen'ice which followed, v.-as about 
equally active with the regents in gettino- the University organi/.ed by devoting 
attention to the details of the \^•ork so necessar\- for success. He resigned the 
secretaryship in June, 1S94, to take effect the following September, and J. J. 
Lane, of Austin, was elected to succeed him. Among the gentlemen who were 
successi\ely appointed to fill vacancies as they occurred in the regency up to 
the present time were: T. M.-Harwood, Thomas D. Wooten, M. L. Crawford, 
A. T. M-Kinnev. E. J. Simkins, George F. Moore, B. E. Hadrn, George T. 
Todd. S<ih Slu-pard. I,. C. Alexander, George W. Brackenridge. A, J. Ro^e, T. C. 
Thompson, W. L. Prather, F. W. B.ill, Ro!)ert E. Cowart, and Amory R. Stnrr. 


Ur. Wooten, as president of the board since 1SS6, and as the only member 
resident at the University, has been particularly zealous and instrumental in its suc- 
cess and advancement. It is not too much to say that to his labors, fidelity, and 
loyal devotion the University owes more than to any other individual regent who 
has served on the board ; and, indeed, more than to any other one man in Te.Kas. 

Regents Smith, Harwood, Siinkins, Clark, Todd, and Shepard and Secretary 
WooldriJge were p;u:ticularly useful, on account of their early and continued mem- 
bership in the board, in pressing the claims of the University before the legislature. 
The new members, Brackcnridgc, I'hompson, Prather, Ball, Cowart, and Starr, 
were also commendably earnest in their work ; and Mr. Brackenridge has been 
ncited for his indi\'idual liberality in gifts to the University. Other appointees either 
did not accept or served but a short time. -Mr. 
Ragsdale was a regent only about a year, on 
account of his election as proctor of the Uni- 
versity. Messrs. Simkins, McKinney, and Todd ; 
were at different times members of the legisla- " " 

ture, and in that capacity did good service in 
the University's behalf. a- 

The location of the University, rec|uired by 
the act of 1S81 to be made by a vote of the •" ' 

people, was a matter of great competition and 
he.ited controversy all over the State, resulting 
in fi.xing the main establishment, including the 
Academic and Law Departments, at Austin, and 
the medical branch at Gah'eston, where the 
Mediial College has lately been organized. 
Austin was also chosen, as the law required, 
by a vote of the people for the branch (not 
yet organized) for the education of the colored 
youth of the State, and the Agricultural and 

Mechanical College at Bryan had already been designated in the Constitution as a 
branch of the L'niversity. v.cie tlio relations of the l"ni\ersity and its several 
branches established. 

The corner-stone of the Uni\x-rsity was laid with imposing formalities, Novem- 
ber 17, 1S82, at Austin, in the jjresence of several thousand spectators, many of 
them from distant parts of the .St.ite. Honorable Ashbel Smith, piesident of the 
regents, delivered an address, which was followed by appropriate remarks by 
Goxernor Roberts and Attorney-General Mcl.eary. 

The .Academic and \a\\\ Departments having been already organized by the 
regents, the University was formally opened in the main University building, Sep- 
tember 15, 18S3, in presence of a large audience of citizens of Austin and other 
places in the State. As on the pre\ioas occasion. Dr. Smith was the piincipal 
speaker, and was followed in addresses by Dr. Mallet, chairman of the University 
faculty ; Governor Ireland, and others, .^.n interesting feature of the occasion w,is 
the presentation, in :ipni,,])ri.ite terms by .Mr. Dudlev G. Wooten. of a bust of ex- 
Governor Roberts, tendered to die University by the artist, Elizabet Xey. 
Vol.. II.— :ia 


The nicnibers of the faculty, who were all present, were Professors J. W. Mal- 
let (chairman), Leslie Wa<^gener, William Le Roy Broun, M. W. Humphreys, R. 
L. Dabney, and H. Tallichet, of the Academic Department, and O. M. Roberts and 
R. S. Gould, of the Law Department, both of whom had been chief justices of the 
Suijreme Court of Texas. Among the prominent gentlemen who were not appli- 
cants, but were solicited to accept chairs in the faculty, were Judge Cooley, of Michi- 
gan ; Professor Le Conte, of California, and Professor \V. T. Harris, since United 
States commibsioncr uf education, each at a salary of four thousand dollars. 

I'hc system of instruction adopted in the Uni\ersity is a combination of what 
is known, with reference to regular or special courses, as the elective and class 
methods. The four class distinctions — freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior — 
represent four years' study in the Academic Department. There are three courses, 
leading to separate degrees in arts, letters, and science ; and four special courses, 
directed mainly to engineering, to chemistn,', to geology, and to physics, and tend- 
ing to the same degree as the general course in science. There are also post- 
graduate courses. The degrees awarded are th(.»e usually given by American 
universities, with the exception that no honorary degrees are conferred. The sys- 
tem of distinct schools gi\e3 students the advantage of measurably directing their 
studies into channels pertaining to their intended avocations or professional pursuits. 
A number of fellowships have been established by the regents, entitling students to 
whom they are awarded to a salary each of three hundred dollars wliile a.ssisting to 
teach as ' ' fellows' ' in the University. 

The University, as required by the law under which it was organized, is open 
to male and female students alike and is conducted on the simple co-educational plan 
wherein the students of both sexes attend together in the class and lecture rooms 
witinout any special separate provision being made for either, further than the selec- 
tion of a lady member of the faculty as ad\-iser and guardian of the young ladies, — 
a position which is very satisfactorily tilled by jNIrs. H. M. Kirby, of Austin. 

A popular step taken by the regents, at the suggestion of the faculty, is the 
provision for correlating the University with the public schools by admitting gradu- 
ates of the schools without special examination at the LTniversity when the apjili- 
cants are from ap|)roved schools. This action had a tendency to better feeling 
between tlie friends of the free schools and the Uni\ersily. 

The annual catalogues of the L^nisersity show the following attendance of 
students from the beginning : — 

Sessions. AcaJeiiiic. L:nv Department. MeJical Department. Total. 

I.S.S3-S4 166 52 . . 218 

1SS4-.S5 I.S2 55 . . 207 

1885-86 I3S 60 . . I9S 

1SS6-S7 170 73 . . 243 

1SS7-SS 176 73 • • 249 

1SS8-S9 1S7 90 . . 277 

iS.S9-<)<j 230 78 . . 308 

1890-91 204 76 . . 280 

iS9'-<J= =73 92 23 3^S 

1892-^3 231 77 25 333 

1^93-94 249 IC.6 127 4S2 


The attendance of yoiin.i:,^ laclv students varied from about forty to sixty each 
session until the estahlishment of the School of PedagOLry, in 1891, served to in- 
crease the number to about one hundred on account of the larye attendance of lady 
teachers as students. 

The catalog'ucs of the A;^ricultural and Mechanical College lieinj:;' published 
separately from those of the University, the attendance at the College is not in- 
chuled in the above list. If added, it would swell the registry of matriculates in 
the Univer'^ity and all its branches for the session of i893-9.t to an aggregate of 
seven hundred and ninety-four students. 

The following gentlemen have filled chairs as professors, or associate or assist- 
ant professors, during various periods, in the 
I'nivorsity : — ' ' 

First faculty, elected . in 1S83 : J. W. 
Mallet, Leslie Waggenor, William Le Roy 

llroim, M. W. Humphreys, R. L. Dabney, '^ ■^. 

and H. Tallichet in the Academic Department, f^' ^ : 

and Gran U. Roberts and Robert S. Gould |; -S^SSr «» i 

in the Law Department. "'< '■'^■' 

Elected in 1884 : In the Academic Dc- 'v . •''^•y, 

partment, George Bruce Ilalstcd, James F. /' y 

Harrison, and Edgar Everhart. In 18S5, 
Alexander Macfarlane and Alvin Y. Lane. In 
18SS, J. R. S. Sterrett, George P. Garrison, 
Thomas U. Taylor, Robert T. Hill, and W. 
W. Fontaine. In 1889, Frederick W. Simonds 

and Thomas Fitzhugh. In iSyo, Morgan ', 

Callaway, Jr., and Walter Lefevre. In 1S91, j 

Sylvester Primer and (in the School of Peda- ' i i-slie Wacge-nlp 

gogy, organized in 1S91) Joseph Baldwin. 

(The organization of a school of pedagogy in the University was first suggested in 
1SS7, in an address by Professor Jacob Bickk-r, of Austin, pre.'^ident of the Texas 
Teachers' .Association, which convened in Dallas.) 

In 1S92 the following were elected : In the Law Department, Benjamin H. 
Fassett ; in the Aca'Iemic Department, Harold N. Fowler, Charles L. Edwards, 
and (ad interim') Edwin W. I'"ay ; and in 1893 the following: In the Academic- 
Department, V/illiam J. Battle ; in the Law I")epartment, Thomas .S. Miller and 
R. L. Batts. and, as law-kctiircrs, John W. Stayton, R. R. Gaines, J. L. Henry, 
and Thomas J. Ikown, justices of the .Suprf-mc Court of Texas, v.hfi perfomied the 
ser\ice gratuitously. 

Professor Bassett was about to assume the duties of his chair, but died soon 
after his election, in conser|uence of fatal injuries resulting from a fall on the strps 
of his hotel in .Ausun. In 1894 se\eral important changes were made in the 
faculty on account of some of the professors resigning and others being retired by 
special action of the regents, and as a result the following gentlemen were elected 
1" fill vacancies: Sidney E. Mezes, David F. Houston, H. W. Harper, Austin L. 
McKae, and W. W. Norman. 

452 A C0MPREHP:NSIVE history of TEXAS. 

Appointees as "instructors," not including those promoted to professorships, 
were J. J. Atkinson, E. E. Bramlette, I. H. Bryant, and J. H. Ray, appointed in 
18S3 ; Charles F. Gompertz and Mrs. Helen M. Kirby, in 1884 ; Carlo V'eneziani 
and John P. Nelson, in 1SS6 ; Sam J. Jones, in 1SS7 ; J. Magnenat and A. C. Jessen, 
in t8S8 ; Miss Jessie Andrews, in i88g ; Gillespie Lewis, in 1891 ; L. R. Hamberlin, 
in 1892 ; J. A. Bailey and R. A. Thompson, in 1S93 : and Arthur Ec[e\Te and E. P. 
Shock, in 1S94. 

Several members ni the faculty of the Medical Department at Galveston were 
elected in 1891 and others in 1892. The first proctor of the University was Pro- 
fessor Smith Ragsdale, elected in 18S3, and succeeded in 1S85 by Captain James B. 
Clark. A summer normal school was held in the University during the vacation 
of 18S7, when several members of the I'nivers^ty faculty assisted in the lectures. 

In 18S9 the legislature passed two special act? legalizing donations for pro- 
fessorships and scholarships in the University of Tc.\as or its branches, so as to 
accomplish and protect the objects of donors. The acts appear together, and, 
singularly enough, are almost identiral as they are published in the laws of 18S9, — 
one of them having been introduced by Representative Brown and the other by 
Senator McDonald. 

An act of 1891 provides for granting licenses to graduates of the Law Depart- 
ment of the University to practise in the courts of the State, upon presentation of 
tlieir diplomas from the University and certificates of good cliaracter from the com- 
missioners' courts of the counties of the residence of the applicants. 

The twenty-first legislature was the first to make special appropriations from 
the general revenue, independent of the University fund, for the "direct support" 
of the University, and subsequent legislatures have followed the precedent. Able 
argvmients were prepared in the matter by Judge Gould and Senator Maxey. 

The Medical College. — The inauguration of the Medical College at Galveston, 
as a branch of the Uni\ ersity, is the result of liberality on the part of citizens at 
Gaheston, and of the city authorities in co-operation with the action of the State, 
whereby the Medical Department has not only been put into operation sooner than 
it otherv.-ise would have been, but the University has secured an elegant property, 
known as tlic "John Scaly Ho.>piial." The hospital v^•as originally a gift from Mr. 
Sealy, who named "the City Council of Gaheston and the regents of the Uni- 
versity of Te.xas, jointly, for and on behalf of the Medical Department of the L'ni- 
versity of Texas, to manage and conduct the hospital for the benefit of sick and 
destitute persons." With the consent of the executors of the trust, it was donated 
to the State, on condition that the legislature would agree to appropriate fifty thou- 
sand dollars towards erecting at once at Galveston ihc Medical College building ot 
the University, which the vote of the people had decided should be located there 
"as soon as practicable." The condition^x proposed were accepted on the part of 
the State, and, at the next meeting of the legislature, in 1889, Galveston offered to 
donate twenty-five thousand dnllars \.\\y-in the further condition that the State would 
appropriate a like amount for the purposes of the institution, which projjosition was 
also accepted, and all that the terms required was consummated. Reprcsentnti\-e 
Gresham, of Galve-^lon, was pruticularly instnmiental in t;aining the co-operation of 
the legislature necessary to secuie t!ie benefits of the Sealy bequest. The hospital 


occupies the same block with the college building, both of which are elegant struc- 
tures, tinely equipped and admirably located on the 

Gulf shore. W nurses' training school is a feature 'I 

of the institution. ] 

The first annual session of the Colleg<; began ,] 

October i, i!S9i, and closed March 22, 1S92, with ? 

a carefully selected faculty provided, of which Dr. ^.;, j 

J. F. V. Paiiic, of Galveston, is the dean. Others "' ' j 

serving as professors were Urs. H. A. West, Ed- " j 

ward Randall, William Keiller, A. G. Clopton, S. i 

M. Morris, Allen J. Smith, James E. Thompson, ^ j 

and James Kennedy, and, as lecturers, Drs. R. W. ; i;,| 

Kno.x, H. P. Cooke, R. C. Hodges, George P. ' | 

Hall. David Corna, Gary H. Wilkinson, and George :- | 

H. Lee ; lecturers on medical jurisprudence, T. J. i_ | 

Ballinger, succeeded by Robert G. Street ; demon- h , I 

strator in anatomy. Dr. Thomas Flavin ; provost, """^'^^'j p y ^^,^^ 

James P. Johnson. 

In addition to the donation of the hospital from the John Sealy estate, the 
University has been favored v.ith other handsome benefactions, including ' ' Rrack- 
enridge Hal!," the gill of George W. Brackcnridge, a banker of San Antonio and 
one of the University regents, and withal a gentleman of fine literary culture and 
princely estate. The hall was fully equipped 
at his own expense for mess-quarters and eco- 
nomic li\-ing for the Uni\crsity boys ; and it 
has been intimated that Miss Brackenridge, of 
San Antonio, contemplates making similar pro- 
"'^ vision for the girl students. 

Independent of Colonel Brackenridge' s 
liberality as above, and in some other instances 
to the LTniversity, his advice as a successful 
business man has been of good service, and 
shows the wisdom of selecting such men for the 
regency of the institution. He was of diflcrent 
politics kom Governor Ireland, who appointed 
him, and wrote the governor that it was "the 
only olifice in his gift or in the gift of the peojile he would accept." In a recent letter, in 
answer to inquiry as to hi.-^ continued interest 
in the Uni\ersity. he stated that for the 'present 
he was too much engaged in protecting large 
interests to consider any proposition requiring 
a considerable expenditure of funds, and added : 
" It was mv inieiition, and is yet, to offer facilities of some kind to dcser\ ing 
stud(MUs dcsir.His and capable of acquiring higher education. The existing and 
pressing need of our social and p^Jitical sy>tem is to have a more edticated body 


of l;uv-niakcr.s and aclministrators. The present tendencies are to cliaos, and it is 
better and more humane to prevent it with brains than with brute force." 

A large and vahiabte collection of rare coins, medals, and other articles, of lirtu 
was recently jiresented to the University by Mr. S. M. Swenson, a prominent banker 
of New York and formerly a citizen of Austin. 
The gifts were accompanied with an interesting 
historical letter by tlie donor, which the re- 
I gents published as a University bulletin. Do- 

^^. nations of books to the Uni\ersity library, 

' ^ „ which embraces some twehe thousand \oi- 

I L^ gt umes, amount probably lo two thousand or 

i / .. ^ three thousand dollars in valijc, including some 

; \ '^^il^- ^^'^^ ^^'^ "^'^''y '^'^stly works presented by Mr. 

W. F>. Isham, of New York, and a nice collec- 
tion also from Dr. E. \V. Herndon, of Mis- 
souri. Colonel, at the meeting 
of the regents in .Se]5tembcr, 1894, presented 
to the University a large and valuable gift in 
its way of collections of sea-shells and other 
interesting articles. 

During the administration of Governor 
Ross, in 18SS, the State having received nearly 
■ -. one million dollars "indemnity money" from 

s. .M. s\»t.s«j.s. the Federal government for "frontier protec- 

tion," a strong effort was made, at the extra 
session of the t\\ entieth legislature, to get a good share of the fund which went to 
the general revenue towards ofTsetting the "old claims" of the University existing 
before the war, and amounting, with the long-accumulated inlei'cst, to over four 
hundred thousand dollars, as submitted in a report called for b\' the governor ; in 
presenting wliich the regents, as President Wooten of the board e.\pre.ssed it, 
"trusted that the money borrowed from the University fund in the time of the 
emergency of the State would be returned at the lime of the emergency of the Uni- 
versity." Governor Ross, in submitting this rej)o.'-t of the regents, added ; "It is 
not too much to say that justice to ;'. great institution demands that some action be 
taken with a \icw to repay the funds of which it has been deprived by State ageric)- 
for revenue purposes." 

The cl.ums in question were those which, with other items embraced seventy- 
four thousand eight hundred and four dollars, received by the Slate in "Confed- 
erate notes" fmni sak> of Universit)- lands, and inclutled nearly one hundred and 
forty thousand ilollars in interest, calculated on the above item alone, and were ilis- 
missed by the kgislature grantin.g the University, as previously stated, the loan of 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, which, though expressed as a loan, 
was in effect a donation to that amount. This action, which largely discounted the 
principal of the claims and almost wholly discard-.-d the interest, was a com]3romi-.e 
of various nuaMues propc^ed in tin; Uni\-eisity's behalf. One of them was a lull 
by Senator Arniir.travi lo repay divers amounts of Um'\er.-,ity lunds used by the 


State, and aggregating, with interest, some two hundred and seventeen thousand 
six hundred and eighty dollars ; another was by Representative liudgins, of similar 
character and for about the same amount ; another was by Mr. Grcshain to pay 
certain items of tlie claims and applying part of the money to the Medical College 
at Galveston ; and another was by Mr. McGaughey to loan the University one hun- 
dred thousand dollar^ for an intlelinice time and without interest out of the indemnity 

A bill gi\ing the regents control of the Uni\-ersity lauds was defeated in the 
House after having passed the Senate. Senator Carter was the author of an impor- 
tant bill, which, however, did not pass, to increase the available resources of the 
University. Bills by Representatives Curry, Erskine, and Baker, to divide the public 
domain in fair jiroportions between the free schools and the University, also failed oi 
consideration in either house. The local representatives at Austin, Mes.srs. Johnson, 
Smith, Moore, Hamby, McFall, and Wheless, generally advocated all measures jiro- 
posed in the interest of the Uni\ersity. 

Governor Ireland, in his message to the legislature in 1S87, alluded in friendly 
terms to the University and recommended that University fimds to the amount of 
tvventy-two thousand four hundred and ninety-five dollars and seventy-five cents, 
used for the Ti-airic View Schnol, should be returned. "The University," he said, 
"is in its infancy, but on a permanent basis. The faculty is an excellent one, and 
we look fon\ard to the near approach, of t'le time when our people will educate their 
children at home and the children of the State will crowd the walls of tlie Uni\ ersily 
of Te.xas." As to the genL-rally better feeling which ultimately prevailed towards 
the University, it was notable that Go\ ernor Hogg, in his second canvass, and tlie 
several candidates for governor, in 1S94, deemed it worth their while to [niblicly 
express themselves in its behalf. There is notably, too, much less opposition to the 
University, from teachers in the church schools, than prevailed for some years after 
the institution was opened. 

In iSy3, Elisal.ict .\'ev, an artist of Euroiie, who had settled in Texas, and was 
the first lady matriculate in one of the leading art schools of Europe and had pro- 
vided an art studio at Austin, memorialized the legislature in behalf of establishing 
an "academy of arts" in connection with the Uni\-ersity, staring : "The grounds 
for location of an academy of arts have been offered, and can be secured as a dona- 
tion to the State. The site offered is in con\'cnient distance of the Uni\-ersil\- of 
Texas, and such an academy could be established and equipped as a branch of the 
State I'niversity at comparatively small ex]jense, — say, ten thousand dollars. If the 
legislature should receive this proposition favorably, I will undertake to secure the 
necessary grounds and superintend the building and equipment of the academy, and 
when completed furnish instruction in sculpture free of chart;e." Her idea w.w 10 
begin the enterprise with a building constructed with reference tos\ic]i additions anil 
improvemenrs as would be required in response to the growing needs of pu[iil.- in 
the different departments of art, — sculpture, drawing, painting, and nuisic. 

The legislature took no definite action on the memorial, but the Art Association 
at .Austin brouudil the matter of establi>hing a school of lilieral arts at Austin to 
the ;ittenii'jn ul tlie University faculty, which unanimously adnptetl resolutions pre- 
SL-nted by the chairman, that " in llieir opinion such an academy of arts for in.4jnc- 


tion in music, paiiitini^, and drawing, as was proposed, would be of great service to 
the entire State in cultivatin>,| not only an appreciation of the beautiful, but an ability 
to apply the principles of art to works of use and ornament ; and that it would sup- 
plement the present work of the University by supplying instruction in important 
branches of manual and mental training, for which at present no provision h;is been 
made." The resolutions further expressed the hope that the efforts being made to 
enlist tlie co-operation of liberal friends in securing a permanent endowment for the 
academy may be crowned with complete success; and it may be added that if the 
opportunitv presented is not realized, it may be many years before such a desirable 
and important institution is established in Te.xas. 

Various attempts were made in the legislature to reconcile the difficulties which 
so long existed between the University and the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
such as a bill giving the Univi rsity regents entire control of the Uni\ersity and all 
its branches, including the College, and full management of all the lands, and a very 
comprehensive measure proposed by Representative McGnughey, since State land 
commissioner, entided "An Act to pay the old indebtedness of the State to the 
University, and to give the regents control of the University lands ; to better estab- 
lish the relations between the University and its branches, by placing them all under 
a new board of management, and giving them each additional and separate land 
endowments out of the Pacific Railway reservation as a compromise ; and making 
provisions for a'^cc-ptance of donations from Galveston and the execiUi'r of the 
Scaly estate for the early establishment of the Medical Department of the University 
at Galveston." One object of this bill was to increase the land endowment of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College to an extent thp.t would be satisfactory to the 
friends of the College, as an independent endowment of its own, to be accepted in 
lieu of anv future appropriations to the College from the funds of the University. 
This went as far as any action of the legislature could well go, to make the interests 
of the College and the University separate and clearly distinct, so as to prc\ent dis- 
cord between them. The College having been made a branch of the Uni\ersity by 
the Constitution, such relation could only be changed, so as to make them entirely 
independent of each other, by a vote of the people on a constitutional amendment. 
The l.>ill, however, was not even reported back to the House. 

Till' impolicy of State control of Unl\ crsity affairs, or mistaken management in 
at least one important instance, seems to have been demonstrated b_\- the imperious 
action of the State land board some years ago. For a long period what was known 
as "free grazing" was tolerated or seemingly at first could not well be prevented by 
the State, and as a consequence great herds of cattle, horses, and sheep were "free 
grazed" over the University lands, in conmion with those of the free schools and the 
general domain of the State, till finally the owners of the herds were forced by the 
"land-enclosure act" to enclose their ranges and lease the lands required for grazing 
their stock. At a time when the lands were most in demand for leasing (the school 
lands preferably to those of the I'nivcrsity on account of superior quality and loca- 
tion) the State land board refused to- allow the regents to lease six hundred thousand 
acres of the University lands at fi\e cents an. acre, bec.mse the board had estab- 
lished six cents as the minimum for all State lands, and would not relax the rule, 
although tile University land was too small a matter compared v.-ilh tht; immense 


domain of the free schools to affect competition. Thus, the University lost thirty 
thousand dollars, aimual rental of the land." 

The Uni\ersit\- had bolore this suffered by the State neglecting to collect over 
fifty thousand dollars due for arrears of interest on land notes, although the State 
used large amounts of the proceeds of the lands without attempting to return the 
money. The heaviest deal against the University, however, was the conversion by 
the Constitution of 1S76 of a vast quantity of the first donated and most valuable 
lands of the University to the free-school fund. As an estimate of the spoliation, 
cx-Laiid Commissioner Walsh, in a recent statement furnished by him, sununed un 
what the University should have had if the intentions of the early law-makers had 
been observed, as follows : — 

Fifty lea;.;ues at 51.50 per acre . ... J332,ioo 

Ten years' interest at ten percent 332,100 

One million seven hundred and fifty thousand acres at $5 per acre . . 8,750,000 

Interest on deferred payments (.say, twenty-five per cent, aggregate) . 2,187,500 

Total J.ti,6oi,7tx3 

"It is doubtful," he said, " if the University will realize ten per cent, of this 
amount from land donations. Twel\-c million dollars will probably not more than 
co\er a close estimate." 

Commissioner \\'alsh further stated that he called the attention of General 
Darnell and other prominent members of the convention of 1S75 to the fact that 
the million acres proposed to be substituted to the University for the railroad alter- 
nate lands would not be an equivalent by a rate of five to one, either in quantity 
or quality, for the original grant, but the convention seeined determined to make the 
substitution in the interest of the free public schools. General Darnell, in fact, 
suggested to him that "a million acres of land were enough for an)' kid-glo\e 

Governors Hubbard, Coke, and Throckmorton all alluded to the Universit)- 
lands, as originally granted, being \'ery valuable on account of their having been 
selt.cti fl chiefly in the most prosperous part of the Slate. 

Among the measures ijroposcd in the twenty-third legislature, in i.So.'?, was a 
proposition to divide the public domain between the free schools and the Univer- 
sity, but allowing the latter a liberal proportion, one-third or one-fourth of the lands. 
The bill was important not merely as a naked proposition, but in the light of con- 
trast with the provision made for other State universities, showing the advantages 
of a State tmiyersity ta.K, particularly as in Michigan, whose university is the leading 
one of the great West, and, indeed, the first real model of a complete State uni- 
versity in the United States. That great institution is endowed by an educational 
State ta.\ known as the " university ta.x," by which the income of the university 
grows proportionally with the increasing wealth of the .State ; so its support is 
niithcr a matter of constant controversy nor recurring question of legislation further 
than the legislature desires of its own motion to act in its behalf. Thus, as educa- 

tweiity-fourth Ie:<islnture ( 1S95) passed nn act Riviiig tiie control of tlic Uni- 
ids.— Editor. 


tional demands increase with the growth of the State, the University is developed 
mainly from its separate resources to keep up with the general development of the 
country and educational progress in other States. In this way the ta.x is not felt to 
be burdensome, as the increased income from it simply corresponds with the growth 
of the State in wealth to justify, as well as in population to require, improved edu- 
cational means of every character. Not only Michigan, but other States, some of 
them purposely to profit by her example, have adopted the ])lan of a State univer- 
sity ta.x as a sure and the readiest method likely to be acceptable for pro\iding a 
university fund that would be at once available without waiting for accumulations 
from interest on bonds or the slow process of land sales, and because, too, it removes 
such institutions from uncertain dependence upon special legislation for their main- 

The university tax in Wisconsin is one-eighth of a mill on the dollar, in Ne- 
braska it is three-eighths, in California one-tenth, and in Colorado three-fourths of a 
mill, which permanent incomes are generally supplemented by liberal appropriations 
by the legislature for buildings and other expenditures for the universities. Taking 
Nebrasl-.a University as an illustration of the rapid increase by the tax provision, its 
income, derived mainly from the tax, increased biennially as follows : For the years 
1883 and 1884 (during which the Texas University went into oiieration) the income 
for the two years was $107,164.52 ; for 1S85 and 18S6, $120,873.80 ; and for 1887 
and 1SS8, $170,585.65. 

For 1S89 and 1890, when the above figures were gi\en, the inconi';; for the two 
years was estimated at from $225,000 to §250,000, or for one year largely in excess 
of the present annual income of the University of Texas. And so, with all the 
great lanilcd provision made for the Texas University, it falls f:ir short in availabil- 
ity of the tax plan for producing the early re\enue which would probably have put 
the University into operation before the war, or at least long before there was any 
practical attempt for its organization. A university tax, even at the rate of that of 
California, of one-tenth of a mill on the present assessed realty values of Texas, 
would produce over $60,000, which, supplemented with the University's existing 
resources, would make an annual income of over $100,000 for the University. 

Of the variou.-, land grants as confirmed to the University, aggregating near 
two million five hundred thousand acres, there remained unsold two milhon and 
twenty thousand acres on December 31, 1891, as shown liy the last rejiort of the land 
commissioner, published in 1892. The permanent University fund, arising mainly 
from proceeds of sales of Uni\ersity lands, amounted, according to Comptroller 
McCall's report of August 31, 1S93, to $575,840, invested in State bonds, and a 
variable small amount in cash from such sales awaiting investment. 

As the I'niversity is now operating, with its sco]ve for usefulness widened, it 
has grown in pul'lic estimation until it has come to be regarded with something of 
the favor whiclu higher education should everywhere evoke, and which naturally 
does att.ich to public institutions as thevare kindly fostered antl develoj} and mature 
with the growth of the country. Though not yet what it must become, the Uni- 
versity of Texas is in some respects an exemplar in meeting imjiortant educational 
demands and promfjling the general well ire of the StaU;. and as such merits private 
benefaction.- as well as puljJic bupporl. What it still needs ir, U) give it a more prac- 


tical tendency b) providing grcalL-r facilities for instruction in arts, mechanics, and 
tcclinical work generally ; in a word, a thoroughly equijjped technological depart- 
ment at Austin, or an arts and science school of the highest order, like those of 
some of the Northern universities. 


This institution, which is located at liryan, in Brazos County, owes its founda- 
tion to the act of Congress of July 2, 1S62, as amended in 1S65, and to a resolution 
of tlie legislature of Texas, adopted November I, itiOG, accepting the provisions of 
the Federal grant, and the further legislation of the State in providing for the insti- 
tution, and the action of the county of Brazos in donating some eighteen thousand 
dollars in value of grounds and buildings as a bonus for securing the location of the 
College at Bryan. The Constitution of 1S76 made the College a branch of the Uni- 
\ersity of Texas, and it was formally opened for the reception of students on Oc- 
tober 4, 1S76. It has a permanent endowment of two h\indred and nine thousand 


do!]. US from proceeds zi the Federal land grant, which produces in interest an annual 
incoiui.: oi foaitecn tht>u5and tivo hundred and eighty dollars. It is fuiiher ni lin- 
taini d by tuition fees paid for students by the State, and by State appropriations, 
including generally amounts allowed by the legislature from the University fund. 
The fust board of directors met in Austin on July 16, 1875, and proceeded to 
organize the College, electing Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi (who, howwer, 
did not accept), president of the institution. The jjresent directors are : A. J. Rose 
(president of the board 1. \V. R. Cavitt, John D. Fields, John Adriance, and John 
E. Hollingsworth. E.\-Govei nor L. S. Ross is president of the College. 

An act of the legislature made the College the beneficiar)' of the annual appro- 
priation of fifteen thousand dollars granted to each State by act of Congress in 1SS7 
to equip and sup[)ort agricultural- experiment stations in the several States ; and an 
act of tlie twenty-second legislature apportioned one-fourth of the money to the 
I'r.iirie \'icw Normal School as "an agricultural and mechanical l)ranch of the 


The courses of instruction, as expressed in the College catalop^ue, "coverall 
that is comprised in the curricula of the best institutions of our times, except the 
ancient languages. The time usually devoted to these is here given to the applica- 
tion of the principles in the fields, shops, and laboratories. Mere te.Kt-book study 
is regarded as comparatively of little value unless supplemented by intelligent prac- 
tice in applied science. This practice occupies from six to eight hours per week. 
E.xperimental work furnishes the chief means of training students in accordance 
with this view, and hence a most important subsidiary object of this institution is the 
dibcoveiy and dissemination oi all suns oi information with regard to industrial 

" The recent action oi Congress in setting aside fifteen thousand dollars per 
annum for the establishment and maintenance of agriculluval experimental stations 


Assembly Hall, Agriclltukal and .Mechanical Coi lh;;;. 

in the several States will in a short time place at the dispos.-^l of the college the 
means for efficient experimental work, and offer to students the great advantages of 
observation and partici[iation in researches which promise important results for the 
benefit of the whole country. The ' agricultural experiment station' has been estab- 
lished at the College as one of its departments, and students in the agricultural 
course will hereafter iissist in the work of the station." 

As to manual labor the catalogue states : " It is taken for granted that every 
farmer-boy can learn at home such things as involve mere manual drudgery. It 
must, theiX'fore, he understO(.)d that the student will nut waste valuable time in labor 
which is not instructive. TheedueUion here given to voung men is not intended 



to make mere laborers of them, in the ordinary sense of the word. A student who 
graduates here may begin life as a field-hand ; but it is e.xpected that by virtue of 
his suiierior training he will be able speedily to find promotion and easily fill the 
highest position of honor to which his ability may lead him." 

" Military instruction is embraced by law in the objects of the College, and will 
be given such attention as is necessary for an honest compliance with the act of 

The annual catalogues of the College show the following atti^ndance of students 
from tiie beginning : — 

. 106 

. 261 

. 245 

■ 144 

Session 1876-77 

Session 1S77-7S 

Session 1S7S-79 

Session iS79-«o 

Sc-ssion tSSo-Si 127 

Session 1SS1-S2 25S 

Session 1S82-S3 223 

Session 1SS3-84 loS 

Session 1SS4-S5 142 

Session 1SS5-S6 170 

Session 1SS6-87 174 

Session 1887-88 211 

Session iSS.S-89 205 

Session 1889-9':) 272 

Session 1S90-91 316 

Session 1S91-92 331 

Session 1S92-93 293 

Session 1893-94 312 

The lalest estimated value of the property of the College, independent of the 
endowm^-nt fund, as given in the report of the .State Agricultural Bureau, is as 
follows : — 

Grounds and buildings . ^304,100 

Equipment, including; stock, machinery, apparatus, library, etc 77, 000 

Total value of property f3Si,i'jo 

During the administration of Governor Roberts, in 1879, there was some com- 
plaint of the studies of the College in agriculture and the meclianic arts being too 
much subordinated to other branches of instruction. Differences also arose between 
President Gathright and other otYicers of the College taking sides in the matter, on 
account of some statements publicly made by one of the adjunct teachers as to the 
qualifications of one of the professors. The tendency of the College interests on 
these accounts was such as to induce the governor, after consultation with the 
members of the College board of directors, of which the go\ernor was cx-oljuio 
p.rcsident, tn notify the faculty that if these matters could not be adjusted among 
themselves a reorganization of the College would be necessary. The differences 
proving irreconcilable.' the resignation of the president and others of the faculty 
involved in the controversy, and embracing all but two of the faculty, was requested. 
.-MI complied with the request but one, who stated that the board might discharge 
him, but he would not tender his resignation. The vacancies, however, including 
. the chair r^f the recalcitrant professor, were soon filled,— Colonel John G. James, 
president of the Te.xas Military Institute at Austin, succeeding President Gathright, 
and the College being opened at the ensuing fall term with the new faculty in charge, 
and the curriculum of studies re-> erted to the originally intended channels ; so tint 
th(^ College was no longer, as the governor had expressed it, "a mere liter.uv 
ac.idcmy with a military attachment," but was a combination of what the 
rccjuired it to be, as a branch of the L'niversity of Te.xas, for instruction in agrirul- 


ture, the mechanic arts, and the natural sciences connected therewith ;" and, as the 
Federal act for endowinij such institutions further expressed it, " without excludin;.^ 
other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics." 

The prescribed policy has since lieen more rigidly obserxed, and the institution 
is particularly flourishing under the administration of General Ross. 


Sam Houston Normal Institute. — In 1879 th<- Sam Houston Stvite Normal 
Schi^ol was oslablished for the purpeise of training competent teachers for the puljlic 
schools. It was named in honor of General Sam Houston, and is located at Hunts- 
\ille, the last place of residence of the distinguished hero and statesman. It is 
maintained by State appropriations, and is aided by donations from tliL- Peabody 

The school was opened October 10, 1879, with Piernard Mallon as principal. 
H. H. Smith succeeded Mallon, and was followed by Joseph Baldwin. The incum- 
bent of the position at this time is H. C. Pritchett, late State superintendent of 
instruction. All students sign a pledge to teach for a term of years in the public 
schools, corresponding to their term of studies in the institute, which is open to 
students of botli se.xes. The school is subject to the direction of the -State Board 
of Education, which appoints the local board of control. The institution is greatly 
indebted, not only for its establishment, but also for its continued success, to the 
liberality ot the trustees of the Peabody educational fund, the genei-il agents of 
the fund, P.arnas Sears and J. L. M. Curry, having canvassed the State and done 
ex'ervthing possible to build up and foster a normal school worthy of this great 
State. Governor Roberts co-operated heartily with them in the enterjirise. There 
are memorial windows of Hous'.on and Peabody in the main building. 

The property of the institute is valued as follows : — 

Grounds and buildings ;f 149.780 

Apparatus and library iS.ixxj 


Total don.Uions up to this time from the I'eabody fund aniMU.U 10 , . . f 
And fro:ii Si.ite ai-prupnalions 25''. "'^^ 

The catalogue for tlie session of 1S92-93 shows an enrolment of four hundred 
and eight students. 

Prairie View Normal School. — school is located near Hempstead, in 
Waller County, and as a branch of the Agricultural and Mechanical College at 
Bryan is governed by the directors of the College. It was organized by act of the 
legislature in 1876, entitled "An Act to Establish an .■Agricultural and Mechanical 
College for Colored Youtli.s." The act allowed twenty thousand dollars for the 
purpose, and the site then known as " Alta \'ista" was purchased, together with 
suitable agricultural lands. Not being sufficiently patronized to warrant its being 
maintained as a school of industrial training, it was converted into a Stale normal 
to meet the demand for trained colored teachers. 'I'he school was matle a branch 


of the College probably \sith an eye to re\cnue from the University fund. At least, 
such seems to have been the idea of the seventeenth legislature, which made some 
n[ipro|)riations to it direct from that fund. The school could not constitute the 
colored branch of the University which the law required, so as, in that way, to have 
support from the University fimd, for it had already been provided for locating the 
colored branch of the University at Austin ; but it could be, and so was, made a 
branch of the College at Bryan, as a means for succoring it along with the College 
(rom the University fund. Comptroller Brown, however, regarding appropriations 
of the trust funds of the University by such indirection as unconstitutional, refused 
to issue the warrants to cover them, and, as it transpired, no further attempt was 
made in that direction, and the State returned to direct appropriations for the school 
from general re\-enue, or the regular school fuiul. 

The first principal of the school was L. W. Minor, who was succeeded by E. 
H. Anderson. L. C. Anderson has been the principal since 1884. In 18S0 there 
were thirty-si.N: students, in 1890 there were one hundred and eighty, and in 1893 
there were two hundred and fifty students. Students of l^oth se.xes are admitted to 
the school. There are twelve teachers, all colored persons. The property of the 
school is valued as follows: Grounds and buildings, $125,000; apparatus and library, 

The school gets one-fourth of the congressional annual provision of $15,000 
for the agrirullural e.xpcriiiient station in Te.xas. 

Summer Normals. — For the benefit of teachers and others aiming for that 
profession the State a few years ago made appropriations for summer normal 
schools, one of which was held at the State University during the University vaca- 
tion, when several members of the Uni\'ersity faculty assisted as teachers to the 
classes and as lecturers. The Slate, however, discontinued the appropriations, and 
the normals, as well as what are called "teachers' institutes," were held in the 
various cilies and counties which provided for them. The .Summer Normals arc 
located and conductors of them appointed by the State superintendent of instruc- 

The Schools at San Augustine.^ — The town of San Augustine is situated 
on a beautiful and fertile strip of red-land country running in an east and west direc- 
lina through the counties of .Sabine, San Augustine, and Nacogdoches, which was 
well settled with good farmers as early as 1840, and from that time to 1S50 that 
town was one of the largest and best-improved towns in all Eastern and Northern 
Texas. It was situated thirty miles west of the Sabine River, on the old King's 
Highway, leading from Natchitoches in Louisiana through Nacogdoches and Bas- 
trop to San Antonio. The ^^■agon-road made along or near it, commonly called 
the "San Antonio Road," was the principal thonnighfare along which inmiigrants 
came to Texas by land, and it was the route of the first stage line through Eastern 
Texas. A master builder, a Mr. Sweet, erected a large two-story frame building 
and sold it to the county of San Augustine for a league of land that had been 
given to the county for the erection of an academy, though the school had the 
hi'jrh-sounding name of "The University." A small school having been taught in 
it for se\.ral years, in the year 1S43 a gentleman by the name of Montrose, nf 
medium si/e, about thirty years old, and of ajiparently good- manners and inlelli- 


gence, appeared at the hotel, and, learnin^r that there was a large school-building in 
the town, let it be known that he was a teacher. The boartl of trustees were soon 
assembled and sent for him. He was a man of few words and very positive in his 
utterances. He said, in substance : " All I ask is to give me control of the house, 
and I will build up a large school that will attract scholars to your town." They 
coniplii-d with his request, and before the end of the second session he had verified 
his assertion and had a large school, with numbers of scholars from a distance. It 
so continued for several years. One of his great merits as a teacher was his con- 
trol of the scholars in sthool by a legular system, and the anxiety he produced in 
them to attend school punctually and an ardent desire to attend to their studies. 
He did not seek to acquire favor in the community, e.xcept through his scholars, 
and was seldom seen upon the streets of the town or olhenvise in communication 
with its citizens. He taught school as a business strictly and had no ditiiculty in 
collecting his tuition through his scholars, although there was a great scarcity of 
money in the country. After his school increased his plan for assistance was to 
engage some of his advanced scholars to teach classes under his direction. The 
school soon became the pride of the town and surrounding country, w-ith a united 
recognition of its advantages. It may be instructive to tell how discord and con- 
tention were produced that ultimately led to bad consequences in reference to that 
and other schools in that place : 

A Methodist preachc! came there, fresh from "The -States," as the United 
States were then called, and preached a sermon in favor of ' ' perfect sanctification 
on this earth," the most numerous denomination of Christians there being Metho- 
dists. Professor Montrose, being a Presbyterian and a good reader, had occasion- 
ally read sermons, as a layman, to a few Presbyterians and others on Sunday. I!y 
their urgency he was induced to lead in public a sermon opposed to the doctrine 
advanced by the Methodist minister, who promptly challenged him for a public 
debate on the subject. Professor Montrose, though not a preacher, was pressed 
into the debate by his religious friends, moderators were chosen to regulate the de- 
bate, and it was held before a large audience. Professor Montrose simply read 
extracts from books when it came to his turn to speak, and he did it with such as to make it appear that he had achieved a victory over the chal- 
lenger. At once a religious storm was roised. There being a number of promi- 
nent Methodist preacher.s and other leading citizens of that denominati'-'n in the 
town and in the surrounding C(_>uutry, it was readily determined to put up in that 
place a Methodist college. A large three-story frame building was erected, and 
an excellent teacher, as well as preacher, was brought from Ohio to take charge of 
tlie college. His name was Janes, a cousin of Bishop Janes. Other Methodist 
preachers were engaged to teach in the cuUege and several Presbyterian minis- 
ters were engaged to assist Professor Montrose. Both schools prospered for sev- 
eral years, with scholars in each to the number of one himdred and fifty. San 
Augustine claimed to be the Athens of Texas. There arc two prominent citizens 
still living who were educated at one. of those schools, — Colonel Frank B. Sexton, 
who was a member of the Confederate States Congress, and Colonel J. V. Miller, 
of Gonzales, ex-memlvr of the United States Congress. Doubtless there are 
others living of the many since prominent men who received their education at one 


of those rival schools. The rivalry that made a spasmodic succcs.s for a time for 
both schools could not last long. Professor Janes left the college, and it declined 
and was sold to the trustees of the so-called university for a female institute. Pro- 
ft-ssor iMontrose, hampered with assistants, contrary to his own plan of getting 
them by engaging his advanced students, left and afterwards taught at Nacog- 
doches, and at Anderson in 1857. His only son, Thomas Montrose, is a promi- 
nent lawyer in Greenville, Texas. The university, as it was called, struggled along 
for a time under its trustees, but gradually declined, and that place has never been 
able to keep up a good school since its failure. Both of the buildings have been 
burned, and the vacant places where they stood attest the sad calamity of a religious 
rivalry entering the management of the schools of a community, where it assumes 
the character of bitter partisanship. i7sj>o(vo9 

Schools at Gilmer. — For a continuous period of ten years previous to the 
summer of 1S70 Professor Morgan H. Looney kept an excellent school at Gilmer, 
averaging largely over two hundred students annually, of all classes, male and 
female, young men and women, as well as the minor children of the town and 
neighborhood, during ten months each year. The school was attended by ad- 
vanced scholars from a hundred miles in every direction. His pupils were taught 
from the lowest grade to a high grade in the English and ancient languages, in 
mathematics, and in composition ;uid other studies. He was a man of medium 
size, vigorous in speech and action, had been thoroughly educated at the college at 
Milledgeville, Georgia, had taught school as a profession, and had two brothers 
that were teachers. One of them, Mr. Bud Looney, assisted him part of the time 
at Gilmer, though his assistants were generally scholars that he had educated, con- 
sisting of two young womjn who taught classes of girls and two young men who 
taught classes of boys. He also taught classes of both male and female students 
together. As a teacher of both high and low classes he had an e.xtraordinary capacity 
of explanation that made even the dullest student understand him. He artfully 
excited a lively inteiest in all of his pupils to learn, and with many of them to be- 
come well educated in the higher branches of learning. 

Equal to any other of his remarkable ])Owers as a teacher was that of the sys- 
tematic go\xrnmcnt of his school within the school-rooms, and of his students 
when not in tlie school- building. He took general supervision of his students 
everywhere, day and night, from the time of their enrolment until they left the 
school. Nearly e\ ery re:5idence in the town received his students as boarders, and 
any misconduct there, or upon the streets, or in the public-houses, would be re- 
ported to Professor Looney, his school and its management being the leading busi- 
ness enterprise of tlie little town. As p;irt of his government he had a set of rules 
regulating the conduct of his pupils both in and out of school-hours. Some of 
thi'm were that there must be no arguments leading to contentions about politics 
or religion ; that there must be no criticism upon the dress of any pupil, whether it 
was coarse or fine ; that everywhere young men were to act as gentlemen and young 
women as ladies ; that they must, govern themselves according to his rules, other- 
wise lea\e the school ; that while attending his school they must make learning 
tlu-ir exclusive Inisincss as a regular occupation. To enforce these and many other 
reijuireniento he Ojiencd his school e\erv Mond.iv morning with a brilliant lecture 

Vol. II.— ;o 


upon one or more of the rules, which were ilhistrated by interesting dissertations 
upon government generally. So interesting were these lectures that citizens of the 
town who had leisure would attend them frequently, and some of them regularly. 
A feature and object of the lectures was that if any of the larger students had been 
guilty of any violation of the rules or other imjTupriety during the previous week, 
it would be discussed, without naming the guilty party, in a way to make such 
improper conduct look extremely ofijectionaljlc, and sometimes ridiculous or odious, 
according to its magnitude. It had a wonderful corrective etTect. If he became 
tally satisfied that any of his larger students would not voiuatarily comply u ith 
his rules, he quietly gave him notice in person to leave the school. There were 
no trustees and no trials for misconduct, and it was not publicly known why the 
student loft. 

One of his rules was that there was to be no familiar coniniunication be tween 
the girls and the boys. That rule was suspended occasionally, with permission for 
the boys, large and small, to call upon the girls Saturday evening (not longer than 
nine o'clock at night), and accompany them to church on Sunday, which was gen- 
erally done in the most genteel manner. No one of the churches was particularly 

Composition was taught as a special study each Saturday forenoon, by Pro- 
fessor Looncy himself, for an extra tuition fee of five dollars per session. Those 
students vho sought to be taught composition v,-erc divided into three classes, — 
first, second, and third,— according to their advance in education, each class being- 
taught separately. The manner of teaching was as follows : Professor Looney 
would write upon the blackboard a subject, it usually being a sentence taken from 
some book, cither \ery simple or otherwise, according to the grade of the class 
present. He would divide and subdivide the subject as might be necessary. The 
members of the class, with paper and pencil, would copy the subject as presented 
on the blackboard. The professor would then deliver a lecture upon the subject, 
making pointed explanations of each part of the subject in th.e hearing of the class, 
which each member of the class would reproduce and read before him at a given 
time, for his verbal correction as to the matter and style and pronunciation in the 
reading. In his advanced classes he would select subjects at diflerent times that 
admitted of a wide range of discii.-Bion upon government, ethics, literature, history, 
and science, that furnished his students with an immense amount of varied informa- 
tion and excellent style of expression and speaking that soon enabled them to write 
original compositions that excited the surprise and admiration of their hearers. 
This was conspicuous at the examinations, lasting three da)-s at the end of each 
session, which were usually attended by at least six or eight hundred visitors, who 
were seated in the large room of the second story of the building during the exami- 
nations. It should not be omitted to state, as a part of his system of elementary 
education, that for each one of the five days of each week of the session there was a 
lesson in English grammar, in which all those studying it, or who had studied it, 
participated, though it might not last one-half an hour, and the school at its close 
each day had a general S[)e!!ing lesson. Ever>-thing considered, it was a model 
school, under the direction and supreme control of one man, and many were the 
young women and men wlm received a good substantial education at it. 


During three years — 186S, 1S69, and 1S70 — ^Judgc O. •^L Roberts, afterwards 
Governor Roberts, moved with hij family to Gilmer, to send his children to thai 
school and to teach a law school in connection with Professor Looney's school. 
He also taught book-keeping for the benefit of young men who were not able to go 
ofl to a school for that purpose. His habit was to give two or three hours to his 
law classes, and, having a successful law practice, to devote the balance of the day 
to his office and law business, much the same as if he had not been engaged in 
teaching. The courts of that county were attended by very able lawyers, among 
whom were Colonels Lafayette Camp and David B. Culberson, which made the 
practice there very interesting. Judge Roberts, in addition to his teaching, deli\- 
ered weekly lectures in the school upon law, the State, and scientific subjects, 
synopses of which were made and published in the local paper. His law school 
turned out a number of students who made successful lawyers, among whom may 

4 "M 






be nieiuiuned Judge Sawnie Robertson, of the Supreme Court, Attorncv-General 
John D. Tem[)leton, Judge Aldredge, and .Mr. Thomas Montrose. Honorable 
Charles A. Culberson, governor of Te.xas, attended the Looney School. 

Unfortunately, when Professor Looney's school was at the zenith of great pros- 
perity, the professor was induced, on account of the failing health of his wife, to 
move, in the fall of iS'o, to Northwest Arkansas. He al'andoned his great woik, 
shedding tears on his departure, and the Looney School was closed at Gilmer. 

Denominational Schools. — .-\mong the earliest church schools chartered in 
Texas were Rutcrsville College and Baylor L'niversity. the former at Rutersville, in 
l-\aycltc County, and the latter at Independence, in Washington County. Both 
were granted charter privileges by the republic of Te.xas, the college in 1S40 and 
the University in 18.^5. Baylor University was long prosperous at Independence 
under the presidency of Dr. William Carey Crane, who was an intimate friend and 
the literary e.xccutor and of General Sam Hou>ton. Alter his death it 



i ? 

was consolidated with Waco University, wliich was chartered in 1861, and the in- 
stitutions thus consolidated are known as "Baylor University at Waco," with 
Rev. Rufus C. Burleson as its president, who was also a contemporary and warm 
personal friend of General Sam f louston and one of 
,— — ~^ the most noted educators in the country. This in- 

^y^ stitution has always been a Baptist favorite. An 

.• \ attendance of nearly eight hundred students, the 

session of 1893-94, ''Attests the great popularity of 
the institution. The Baylor Female College, also 
chartered in 1845 and removed from Independence 
t / to Helton in 18S5, is also operated under the tacit 
' \ -.:,:.^,. indorsement of the Baptist Church. 
X.- __.-,;■, "" ./ . '■^■"''A RutersvilleCollcgc was the first Methodist school 

''//'& 'i l'^'"---''^-' ■ ■' i'' chartered in Te.xas, and was but one of many of the 
" , '■•: I , / /;■ , , early educational enterprises put on foot by that 

Runs c KiKi I SON church, which did well for some ) cars, but continued 

to e.xist only as the nucleus for other schools. Among 
the earlier establishments may be mentioned the McKenzie College at Clarksville, 
Wesleyan College at San Augustine, and the Soule University at Chapel Hill, 
some or all of which were operated at considerable expense to tlie churcli for the 
school pnij^eriy. It was the failure of such scattered cr.terprises led to the 
concentration of further eflorts of the church and the adoption by its several con- 




, GciTLlCt. 

ferences of 

nianent ami ^ysti ir.ili.- .-uljusnii 

lliis State." Accordingly, by 

lulion offered in 1869 l)y Re\-. V. A. Mood, providing for " per- 

ir.ui.- .•uljustnicnt of tl'.e educition il interests of the church within 

It of the conferences and S])ecial <ict of the 



legislature, the chartered rights of Riitersville, McKcnzie, Wcsleyan, and Soule 
Colleges accrued to the "Southwestern Unixersity" at Georgetown. 

The establishment of Rutersville College was inspired by Rew .Martin L. Ruter 
during his missionary service in Te.xas. The first president was Rl\-. Chaumcy 
Richardson, who was succeeded by Rev. William Halsey, and he by Rev. HoniLT 
S. Thrall. McKenzie College had its beginning in 1S41, but was not chartered 
until several years later. It had but one president, Rc\ . J. W. P. McKenzie, who 
died after sonic forty years' continuous service. Wtbleyan College was chartered 
in 1S44. Rev. Lester James was the first president. Soule University was char- 
tered in 1856. Its first president was William Halsey. 

Other denominations, if not so early in the field, have been proportionately 
active and enterprising in school work. The following is a list of the more or less 
prominent denominational schools in operation in Texas. \_Al>l>reiialiojis. — Bp. 
for liiaptist Church ; C. C. for Christian Church ; Cath. for Catholic Church ; Ep. 
for Episcopal Church ; Meth. for Methodist Church ; I'r. for Presbyterian Church ; 
C. Pr. for Cumberland Presbyterian Church ; C. S. for Colored Schools] :— 





Name and Loc.iiioM of Schools. 





Austin CoUtKe (Pr.l, Sherman 




S. M. Luckett, 

Adrt-Riin I'nivcrsitv (C, C.V Thoq, Springs (now at Waco) 
Fort W^.rthi-,,.. .T^.r. i%!,ih., Kon Wonh 



Addison Clark, 

1 13.000 


U. L. Fisher. 


Sister Marv .MHdred. 

i^''.'- . ■■'■,■■, y' 'h ..Georgetown 



Rev. J. H, McLean. 



Mother Marj- Joseph Dall- 

St. .M..^.;. L lit,.; L..:!L^).S..r. An-.onio 



Bro'lhcr lohn Wolf. 


E. H, Wells. 

Crsu'l'ine Academy r&th.)'i Sail .Antonio '.'.'.'. '. '. '.'.'.'. 


Superioress Madam St, 

Rev. and Mrs. O. A, Carr, 

Crtrr-Piirdcttc Christni' Co!!,-~(WC. C.!. Sherman 





Rev. W. F, Lloyd, 



F.J, Squires. 



.Mrs. Lucv Kidd Key. 


E, P. Williams. 




B, D, Cockrill. 

r':" V' '■ ' "' '■'■. ^v;:^'^""'^ ;::::;;::;; 



A. A. 
Mother St, Paul. 


.\.J. Kmersnn. 



Georjre O. Thatcher. 



Miss Maria K. Toibert. 



P.J. Hurlh. 

'h'' ; . ■ • ., '.. \ .'.'.'.'.'. \ ['. \ [ 



Rev, Rulus C. Burleson. 



0. E. Arhuckle. 

•?-'■ " - " -y • ■ ■■• '■ ::.^~(;a!vi5toll .'.'.''.'.'.''. 



Mother M. Pauline. 

1^ ' ' ^ : ■ . ; r ., Weitherford 


Rev. I.S Howard. 

ei ■ ' ■ , ^i..i, V chip^i Hill 


R..V ■■; M .;...ii,..,-. 




K. . •,■ . ( ,.-, 



K • . • 1 , . ■ . • ■ 

I''.' ' '' '■.' ' ■' 1 1 ■■- I '''.'.'.'.'.'. '. 



il'.- ■ , ^ !■: . 

1;,.,. 1; 1. .M.L.^liuud, 

m'.v ,.; 


. - •,s--h:in''""'!': : ; ; ; 

30.000 1 . . . . 
20,000 1 . . . . 


Rev.J. H, Harrison. 

Rev. John K.Smith. 
H. T. Ke.alin.;. 


Rev. David Abner. Jr. 


M. H.Krovles. 

6o.=ioo 1 . . . . 

I So 

Kev. William M. Brown. 

San, H.,i 


Viie iC..^ 


5.000 1 . . . . 

Rev. T. M. Dart. 

Other Institutions.— Other institutions of a more or less educational char- 
acter nro :— 

Institute tor tiie Blind, located at Au^tin ; Dr. Frank Rainey, suijoriiitentlent. 


Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, at Austin ; \V. A. Kendall, superintendent. 

State Orphan Asylum, at Corsicana ; W. S. Worsham, superintendent. 

Institute tor Blind, Deal, and Dumb Colored Children, at Austin ; \V. H. Hol- 
land, superintendent. 

The Bayland Orphan.s' Hou'ie at Houston .vmd Buckner's Orphan Asylum at 
Dallas are recognized as excellent private establishments for the care and education 
of orphan children. There are also orphan asylums or children's homes, under 
church sup'.rvision or maintained by public charity, in Fort Worth, Galveston, 
Houston, and San Antonio, and some other points in the State. 

Conclusion. — .As seen from the history presented, the wisdom of the founders 
of the Texas republic and the liberality of the people of Texas, in pro\idiiig for 
public education, have conduced to the establishment of perhaps the grandest edu- 
cational fund in the world, — over one hundred million dollars ! 

As for the University of Texas, two specially important measures have been 
suggested in the minds of its friends for making its resources more largely and im- 
mediately available : one by additional pro\-ision by the State of a special University 
tax and the other to authorize bonding the University lands — say, for three or four mil- 
lion dollars, or even five million dollars — and holding the lands in trust for the interest 
and sinking fund and eventual payment of the bonds, and in the mean time leasing 
the lands to produce an annual rental to meet the interest and ultimately extinguish 
the principal of the obligation. In tiiis way the lands could be withheld from sale 
till the demand for them, increasing with the wealth of the State, rendered them four- 
fold more valuable or worth, say, ten million dollars, or twelve million dollars, which 
would put the amount, in point of income from its endowment, on a footing with 
most of the great universities in other States. The propriety of a separate uni\-cr- 
sity instead oi a branch university for the colored youth of the State is a matter 
which is calculated to excite attention for some time, or at least till the provisions of 
the Constitution on the suljject are changed or more practically considered. It has 
been argued that the proposed colored branch of the Texas Uni\-ersity was to have 
been established in deference to public sentiment in behalf of the freedmcn of the 
State. But while, as a matter of policy incident to the war, this was then naturally 
to be expected, it is now believed tliat the branch establishment is no longer as 
desirable, in the estimation of the colored people and in acknowledgment of their 
claims under the Constitution, as would be the organization of an independent 
university for them, whether at Austin or Bryan or some other place, for the highest 
possible education cf their children. 




lOUNDARIES AND AREA.— Texas, the most southerly of the United 
States, ib bounded on the east by Louisiana and Arkansas, on the north by 
Arkansas, Inchan Territory, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, on the west by 
New Mexico and the republic of Mexico, and on the south by the Gulf of Mexico. 
Its situation, as related to the continental area, is midway betAveen the .Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans and about equidistant from the equator and the arctic circle. In 
latitude it extends from the mouth of the Rio Grande, in twenty-five degrees fifty- 
seven minutej, to thirty-six degrees thirty minutes, — the northern line of the Pan- 
handle. El Paso, or Frontera, which is the most western point in tlie State, is in 
longitude one lumdred and six degrees forty minutes, while the extreme eastern 
point, on the Sabine River, is ninety-three degrees thirty minutes west of Green- 
wich. The entire area, as estimated by Mr. Henry Gannet, chief geographer of the 
United States Geological Survey, is two hundred and sixty-five thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty square miles. Of this total area, however, the same authority esti- 
mates that three thousand four hundred and ninety square miles are covered with 
the waters of coast-bays, rivers, and lakes, which, if deducted, will leave a total land 
area of two hundred and sixty-four thousand seven hundred and fifty-two square 
miles, — .about one-eleventh of the entire area of the United States. By reason of its 
position and of its great extent, stretching as it does over thirteen degrees of longitude 
and more than ten of latitude, it comprises in its varied features, in addition to those 
which may be claimed as peculiarly Texan, many of the characteristics of the States 
contiguous to it, and thus forms the connecting link between the Gulf Slope, the 
Mississippi Valley, the Great Plains, and the Rocky .Mountains, as these great 
divisions converge towards the south. 

Phj'sical Aspect. — Were it possible to view this great area from such a 
point as would bring it all within the range of vision, a plain over seven hundred 
miles in breadth from east to west and over nine hundred from north to south 

' In the preparation of this article, the writer has consulted such publications as were 
accessible to him, includins^ the reports of the survey of the Pacific Railway and the Mexican 
boundary, reports of the tentli census, tlie various reports of the seo!o;.rical survey of Texas, 
general works On the Slate, maps, and n\any special articles bearin:.; directly upon the subject. 
But to this much has been added from knowled:.;e gaintd through personal observation, and 
it is to that extent an original contriliution t.) the subject. Yahuible assistance was rendered 
by Professor K. V>. Cope, of Philadelphia, .".iid Mr. J. A. Sin.t,dey, of Giddini^s, in the prepara- 
tion of portion o! the article relating.; to thf r'artmi of the State, and the statements made 
are lar^jcly taken from tiicir publications or private communications. 



would be seen ; its northern and northwestern border raised to a height of one 
mile above tlie level of the sea, its sui-face as a whole gently slo|)ing to the east, 
southeast, and south, until, at its farther extremity, it dips one hundred fathoms be- 
neath the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Two notable depressions would be obser\ed 
in this plain,- — the valley of the Nueces and the great central basin carved by the 
waters of the Red, Brazos, and Colorado Rivers and their predecessors. Minor 
depressions woukl also be observed along the various water-courses ; but, while in 
these valleys many liilJs appear, no high mountains would be seen except west of 
the Pecos, where the plain is broken by single peaks and detached mountain 
ranges. By virtue of their origin, the hills of a small area in Central Texas and 
another in Greer County may lay some claim to be called mountains, although now 
of only moderate elevation. Outside of these three areas the physiographic unit 
is a plain, in which erosion by the natural agencies of air, rain, wind, and frost has, 
by the carving out of the valleys, sculptured the hills, thus producing the present 
varied aspect and topography of the State. 

The topographic features of an area are largely controlled by the character of 
its geological substructure and the manner of their development ; therefore, before 
defining these, it may be well to glance first at the geology of the State. 

Geology. — The oldest rock materials in this Texan region of which definite 
knowledge has been obtained are found in I.lano, Burnet, and adjacent counties. 
While granites occur beyond the Pecos, and h.ave been supposed to belong to 
a similar age, the fact is not definitely determined. These ancient or archean 
materials consist of granites, gneisses, schists, and marbles, which are cut by 
numerous intrusions of eruptive rocks, and are highly altered by metamorphism. 
While our knowledge of the conditions surrounding the development and extent 
of this most ancient land is necessarily limited, the present surface exposures arc 
doubtless only remnants of a much greater area, and they may have been part of 
a mountain chain or elevated plateau which stretched northward towards the Lake 
Superior region and westward towards the Pacific ; yet there is found, in the present 
plateau formed by these rocks, the pivotal point around which all later formations 
have been developed, and a monumental area of the earliest dry land of the region 
known a? Texas. These rocks w ere strongly folded by the con\ulsions to which 
the)' were subjected, and it was in the great furrows of this archean island, or, more 
probably, archean headland, that the lowest sedimentary rocks v.'ere deposited. 
Their composition proves that they were derived in part from the materials of the 
land, and the deposits give unmistakable evidence of having been formed along the 
shores of the ancient sea. They also show that the area was subject to fluctuations 
of level, but, in spite of these fluctuations and the struggle of the powers of the sea 
and air to destroy and submerge this land, it grew and extended its borders by add- 
ing an irrc;gular fringe of one formation after another, until, at the beginning of the 
coal period, it was at least as large as our Central Mineral Region. The crumpled, 
faulted, and disturbed condition of many of the rock sheets, their metamorphism, 
and the presence of intrusive or erupti\e rock materials .among them, show the 
continuance of those volcanic forces which so characterized the archean era. East 
of th<: Pecos these great activities, however, seem to have lost much of their power 
pre\ious to the beginning of the carboniferous period, and after that time had their 


strongest manifestation within this central resjion, and witli, perhaps, a sin^rle excep- 
tion did not greatly aftect the surrounding deposits of later age. 

The northern shore line of this land area of carboniferous times, with its 
numerous bays and headlands, is plainly traceable through Lampasas and San 
Saba Counties to-day. and in the sea, which stretched northward to the Ouachita 
Mountains and westward to or beyond the Rocky Mountains, were deposited the 
sands, clays, coals, and limestones of that period. The deposits east of the Llano 
Estacado show several changes of level, and consequently indicate seas of varying 
depth, caused by alternate elevation and subsidence, while to the west deep-sea 
conditions prevailed and the deposits are chiefly limestones. 

Gradually the shore lines widened, the bottoms of the seas were elevated or 
silted up, and land-locked waters were created, which favored the formation of the 
vast deposits of gypsum and salt which are found in the upper permian. Finally, 
the paleozoic era, or that characterized by the older types of life, was closed by 
the emergence of the old sea-floor, and the region north and west of Llano, in- 
cluding the country west of the Pecos, became dry land. 

This land area, the total extent of which cannot now be surmised, was then 
subjected to erosive agencies similar to those which are operating to-day, from the 
effects of which, in the eastern portion of the region, resulted the base-levelling of 
the permian and carboniferous beds, while in the west great valleys were carved out 
and mountain masses left standing high in air. During the early mesozoic era a 
body of brackish water existed in the region now known as the Llano Estacado 
and eastward for an unknown distance, and in this were laid down the beds of the 
triassic. Since no traces of any deposits of the Jurassic age have been recognized, 
the conclusion is that dry land prevailed all through that period. 

At the beginning of the cretaceous the mesozoic sea began its encroachment 
from the west and south, and, while it was unable to surmount all of the residual 
mountain blocks of trans- Pecos Texas, and therefore deposited its sandstones, clays, 
and limestones along their flanks and in the valleys, it gradually crept northward over 
the base-levelled area of Central Te.xas, submerging the greater part of it and cov- 
ering it with deposits of gravel, clay, and limestone, the thickness of which de- 
creased rapidly towards the north. 

The rocks of this division are typically exposed on the Texas and Pacific Rail- 
road between Milsap and a point four miles east of Fort Worth, and on the Colorado 
River between Smithwick Mills and Austin. 

The Caprina limestone of this period is of considerable thickness and hardness, 
and has had great influence in determining the topography of the State. It is only 
by reason of its erosion that we possess our present knowledge of the deposits of 
the carboniferous and permian, which \vonld otherwise be buried several hundred 
feet beli-yv the surface. The granite highlands in Llano County seem to be the 
only area which escaped the covering of this almost uni\-er5al limestone mantle. 

In mid-cretaceous times this Caprina limestone, with whate\er material may 
have overlaid it, again became a land area in North Central Texas, and remnants of 
it may now be seen in the line of hills south of the Texas and Pacific Railway as 
far west as Big Sj.irings. and in detached blocks and bultes, such as Double Moun- 
tain, McKenzie's Peak, etc., north of that road. 


During the upper cretaceous the sea extended from New Jersey along the bor- 
der of the Adantic and Gulf of Mexico, covering a large part of Texas and the 
western portion of the continent. The rocks of this period in Eastern and South- 
ern Texas consist of the sandstones of the Lower Cross-Timbers, the clays lying 
east of them, the white limestone of the Uallas-Auslin region, the blue and yellow 
clays of the main Black-W^axy Prairies, and the more sandy beds succeeding. 
Along the Rio Grande border the same rocks arc found except the lower sands, 
which are missing cver)-^vhere south of the Brazos River, save perhaps along the 
flank of the Diabolo Mountains. In addition, however, we find extensive deposits 
of still higher beds, consisting of sands and clays with seams of coal, and above 
these a great thickness of limestone and clays, all of which are the direct continua- 
tion of similar beds in the western portion of the continent. In the trans-Pecos 
country, the closing of this period was marked by vast flows of lava, which occur 
not only as thin beds among the uppermost members of the series and cut them 
in the form of dykes in \-arious directions, but cover these beds in places to a depth 
of three himdred feet. 

These eruptions were accompanied by great faulting and slipping of portions of 
the earth's crust, so that along the fault-lines it sometimes happens that two beds 
of rock, one of which was originally two thousand feet above the other, lie side by 
side, showing that one has fallen or risen that far below or above its proper place. 
This volcanic activity is manifested east of the Pecos b\" dykes of basalt coming up 
through the cretaceous, and by knobs or hills of the same material forming a direct 
line from Mount Inge to Pilot Knob south of Austin. The earliest of the two 
principal lines of .this faulting in West Texas runs north and south, the other east 
and west. To the action of the latter we probably owe th.e escarpment paralleling 
the Southern Pacific Railroad west of San .Antonio ;'nd extending eastward to and 
be}'ond Austin, known in part as the Balcones. To the effects of the other is seem- 
ingly due the fact that these beds ha\e so narrow an exposure in the \-icinity of 
Eagle Pass, and that the line between the tertiary and cretaceous in that area has 
practically a north and south direction. 

The close of the cretaceous ushered in the cenozoic era, marked by more 
modern furmsof life and a varied mammalian faiuui. The waters of tlie present 
Gulf of Mexico were still connected directly with the Pacific Ocean, as is evidenced 
by the occurrence of certain species of shells in the lower Te.xan beds and those of 
like age on the Pacific Slope, which are not found in contemporaneous deposits of 
the Atlantic border proper. All of that portion of the State north of the Balcones 
and west of the ninety-seventh meridian, including trans-Pecos Texas, was dry 
land. From ihi.- land area the rivers brought down their burdens of sand, clay, 
and lime, and deposited them in bays or comparatively shallow waters similar to 
those otthe present Gulf coast. Succeeding the earliest clays and limestones there 
was a great coal-making age, and in it were formed the de[iosits of Iirown coal and 
lignites in beds extending along the entire Gulf shore of that time, fiom Red River 
to the Rio Grande. Then followed a period of marine or brackish-water deposits, 
accompanied by or alternating with lagoons and peat-bogs, in which were formed 
thin betls of biown coal and the iron ores of East Texas. To this period belong 
also the red hills and the beds of grecn-sand marl of the same region. 


Follo'.ving this came a series of clay deposits and a belt of sands, sandy clays, 
and brown coals, such as are seen at Rockland, Trinity, LaGrange, and westward 
to the Rio Grande. L^pon these were deposited another series of clays, and with 
ihem, so far as surface exposures are known, ended the eocene or lower division of 
the tertiary. It \'. as during- or ju.-^t following this period that the Gulf of Mexico was 
finally separated from the Pacific Ocean, the marine faunas of the two areas being 
quite different after this. 

As this additional land v/as added to the pre-e.\isttng area by gradual elevation 
above the sea, the degradation of the entire surface was continued and the materials 
were carried out and deposited in the waters off shore. This continued erosion so 
lowered the level of the region of the Llano Estacado that towards the end of the 
middle tertiary or miocene time a lake was either formed there or possibly may 
have been extended southward from the northern lakes, and into this a considerable 
section of the country was drained. In the limy sands of this lake-basin (aptly 
termed mortar-beds by Professor .Marsh) are great quantities of bones of the land 
animals w hich lived in and were characteristic of that age. Along the Gulf shore, 
howe\-er, marine conditions still existed, as is proved by the boring of the Galveston 
deep well, in which, at a depth of over two thousand feet, shells were found identi- 
cal with those of the same period in Florida and the Bahamas. 

The pliocene, or upper tertiary, was a period of great erosive activity. The 
lake condition of the Llano l^stacado continued and was extended to the area of 
the coastal slope south of the Balcones, but whether as a direct continuation of the 
Llano lake or as a separate basin has not yet been positively determined. Its rock 
materials consist of heavy beds of gravel and sand, clays, and conglomerates of sand 
with balls and fragments of clay, capped by a white, limy clay knowit as adobe. In 
the eastern portion of the State the lime is largely replaced by ferruginous material, 
and in many [ilaces the middle clay member is missing and the adobe caps the gravel 
bed, or so permeates it as to form heavy beds of congloinei'ate. These beds are 
characterized, both in the Llano Estacado region and on the Coastal Slope, by the 
vertebrate fossils they contain. 

West of the ninety-se\-enth meridi'Ln and south of the Balcones this adobe cov- 
ered the entire area, and, \\licre it became dry land through the drainage or dr)'ing 
up of the lakes, formed a wide, white, clialk-hke plain. 

This wh.ole area has also been subjected to oscillations of more or less local 
character, besides sharing in continental movements, the elevation of the Rocky 
Mountains having given it its present tilt to the southeast. 

With the emergence of these deposits the tertiary era closed and the quatcrnaiy 
began. E'luring this period (and probably earlier also) lake conilitions existed 
through the trans- Pecos, in which area erosive activity was very great, the valle)'s 
between* the mountain ranges, which were the sites of these lakes, being filled in 
places with detritus to a depth of more than twelve hundred feet. A lake e.xi.sted 
also in the country ea^^t of the Llano Estacado, but at a considerably lower level. 

On the Llano Estacado and Coastal Slope depressions and valleys were eroded, 
and in these were deposited' the ashy sands of the Equus beds, with the fossil 
remains of extinct horses, etc., followed in the litter area by the coastal clays and 


Physical Geography. — The greater physical divisions of Texas arc ' the Gulf 
Slope, the Central Basin, and the Mountain Systems. 

The first two of these divisions are series of plains, while the last includes the 
connecting link between the Rocky Mountain ranges crossing from New Me.vico 
into Mexico, between the Tecos and the Rio Grande, as well as two areas now much 
degraded, but once forming portions of ranges of great age. The plains of the Gulf 
Slope may be dix'ided into the Coast Prairies, the Tertiary or Lignitic belt, the 
Black-Waxv Prairie, and tlic Grand Prairie. The sul)di\isions of the Central Basin 
are the Denuded Areas, the Seymour Plateau, and the Llano ELstacado. The 
Mountain Systems comprise the Wichita Mountains, the Granite Highlands of the 
Central Mineral Region, and the trans- Pecos Mountains and their intervening 
lake-basins or flats. 

The Coast Prairies. — The Coast Prairies present in their substructure the 
most recent accretion to the land area of the Slate. This marginal fringe or plain, 
which is almost level and extends interiorward for a distance varying from fifty to 
one Inmdred miles, is but a portion of the last terrane deposited in the waters of the 
Gulf. The elevation which added it to the land surface was insufficient to raise the 
entire area above the sea, and a portion of it is, therefore, to be found below the 
rolling waves of the American .Mediterranean. Its structural limit is marked by the 
one-hundred-fathom line of sea-depth, beyond which the bottom of the sea slopes 
downward with great rapidity. Were the level of the sea low ered six hundred fe.;t, 
it would, therefore, add many square miles of lai;d to our coast, and an increase of 
depth of on-e hundred feet would decrease the present area of the State one-tenth 
and engulf some of our fairest cities. While in a general way the features of this 
area are a continuation of those of the other Gulf States east of Texas, tl.ere are, 
nevertheless, striking differences to be noted. The comparative absence of marsh 
land is one of these, for, except the Scibine marshes, in the eastern portion of the 
State, there is comparatively little marsh land on the coast. It is true that, owing 
to the defective drainage, many low places are to be found in which water stands in 
small lakes for some time after heavy rains ; yet these are not true marshes, which, 
outside the limited area of sea-marsh, exist only in some of the bottom lands adja- 
cent to the larger streams. The coast line differs also from that of the other Gull 
States in having an almost continuous chain of islands and peninsulas along Us 
front, instead of being indented by large bays extending many miles inland. 

The plain is new-born. The eroding fingers of Time ha\'e only begun to hollow 
channels in its surface. Tlie streams, crossing it in tlieir flow gulfward, mo\e slug- 
gishly between low banks, with few if any tributaries, and many of the channels, on 
their approach to the Gulf, are buried in large estuaries. The Brazos alone of the 
Texas rivers has cut its way through the clay of the belt which it did so much to 
form, -and empties its waters direcdy into the Gulf. The land bordering these estu- 
aries, instead of sloping gradually up from the water, forms high, vertical banks, and 

■ The eady writers on Texas f 1S36 to 1840-) cHvitted the Stale into the level, undulating, and 
mountainou-^ or hillv re-ion. Tlie first corresponded to the Co.i-'t Prairies of the present clas- 
sitirntion; tiie second to the Li-nitic and P.Iark-Waxy subdivisions; while the third was .-\t 
first our Grand I'rairic. and i.itcr, .is tlie horders were extended, it was nr-uie to iiichide tlie 
niouiitaiii region west of the Pecos. 


open prairies stretch to their very edge. The increase in elevation of this plain from 
tlie Gulf shore to the northwest is so gentle as to be almost imperceptible, its averajje 
being only about one foot per mile. It is slightest near the coast, becoming some- 
what more rapid as the interior border is reached. 

Outside the drainage channels the level of the surface is broken only in two 
ways. The first of these comprises small mounds, which dot the surface in many 
]K>rtions of the area, the origin of which ha\ e been variously attributed to the work 
of ants, the results of " hog-wallow," and to the action of mud volcanoes, such as 
arc now to be seen in the delta of the Mississiiipi. These mounds are usually 
only a few yards in diameter and rarely three feet in height. The other and more 
pronounced interruption is a series of mounds, of which Damon's, in Brazoria 
County, may be cited as an example. This mound covers ten thousand acres, and 
has a vertical height of eighty feet. The extreme flatness of the country surround- 
ing it makes it an object of much greater prominence than it otherwise would be. 
It probably marks the site of an island in the quaternary seas, of rock materials 
older than the coast clays which surround and partially cover it. 

Along the banks of the streams is a growth of timber, and dotted here and 
there over the surface of the prairies lying between them, trees, single or in clumps 
or motts, break the general monotony of the landscape. In the eastern portion 
the long-leaf pine-flats cover a small area, and the short-leaf or loblolly pine-forests 
extend as far west as Houston. For many years the prairies were given over to 
stock-raising, and the land was not considered valuable for agricultural purposes, 
when, in fact, the sands and clays of this area form excellent soils, the value of 
which is being proved on the fruit farms between Buffalo Bayou and the Brazos. 

The Lignitic Timber Belt. — Passing from the level coast country to the lig- 
nitic timber belt, the surface gradually becomes more and more undulating, and 
farther inland rolling and even hilly ground succeeds it. The northern limit of this 
plain is the main Black-AVaxy Prairies, and in arc?l extent it coN'ers nearly one- 
third of the State. In elevation it varies from one to seven hundred feet in East 
Texas (which latter height is, however, only attained by a few of the iron-capped 
hills), while the highlands of the Bordas, on the southwest, rise more than one 
hundred feet higher. The region, although treated as a single plain, is in reality 
compound, and might more concisely be described as plains and valleys in plains. 
The plains are, if terms may be applied which suggest their geologic relationship, 
the Reynosa, Fayette, Yegua, Marine, and the Lignitic. The principal basins are 
those of the Nueces and Red Ri\crs. The intermediate streams form valleys nar- 
row in comparison with these, but,, by their number have partially 
destroyed the ancient plateau whose remnants scattered through the area tell plainly 
of its former extent. 

The Reynosa. or that strip of neocene deposits which furnis the first of the 
component plains immediately north and west of the Coast Prairies, might almost 
be considered a part of that area but for its more undulatory character and the 
different rock materials of which it is composed. In the place of heavy clays 
with interstratifu'd beds of sand, sand and gravel, with clay and limestone, occur. 
East iif the Colorado the uppermr.^t beds of this plaia are present as sand and 
gr.ivel, cole 'red uKue or less strongly red by the ferruginous matter the)- ha\-c re- 


ceived from the iron-ore region north of them. To the west of that stream the 
ferruginous matter is replaced by lime derived from the cretaceous area north of it, 
and forms the adobe rock of the southuest. These upper beds have had an arcal 
distribution much greater than at present, and, while they may not have covered the 
higher points of the old iron-capped plateau, are known, by the occurrence of frag- 
mentary deposits, to have covt-red all of the lower-lying lands of East Texas. In 
the west the adobe or lime conglomerate covered nearly the entire region north- 
ward to the Balcones, and now forms the divides between all of the principal 
streams and occupies thc' highest elevations of the region. 

The general topography of the eastern portion of this plain is undulating, but 
there are places where, from greater induration and stronger erosion, decided hills 
are formed. Such are those near Willis and the Sun Mound west of Waller. In 
the west the Reynosa prairies sweep northward in gendy swelling ridges to the 
escarpment south of the Nueces River, which is best known by its Spanish name 
of Bordas. So steep is the descent to the north from the top of this plain that it is 
often difficult to find a suitable place for a v»'agon to descend into the valley, which 
lies from one to three hundred feet below. 

Immediately west of the clays which occur below the base of the Reynosa 
Plain are the underlying Fayette sands and sandstones, with opalized wood and 
fine beds of clay. These deposits, like the Reynosa, form a gently inclined plain 
with gradual ascent on their southern slope, but breaking away abrujitly on the 
north and west, thus forming a disconnected range of hills whose northward-facing 
scarps and bluffs (often one hundred and fifty feet in height) can be traced from 
Rockland, on the Neches, westward by Trinity, Muldoon, and Tildcn to the Rio 
Grande. To these beds of sandstone is due one of the marked features of the 
course of all of the Texas rivers in their '^^iilfward flow, — a sharp east or northeast- 
ward deflection, such as tliat of the Trinity on the northern boundaiy of Walker 

Passing towards the interior, the next subdivision is a broad belt of clays and 
lignites, which here and there from local causes assert themselves in the form of 
hills, to whose gently rolling area has been given the name of a stream — the Vegua 
— which flows entirely across it at it> most typical locality- 
North and west these are succeeded by more compact rock niateri:ils and a 
more rugged topography, — -those of the Marine Bed.s, — with brown sandstones in 
the west and heavy deposits of iron ores in the east, which ha\e withstood the wear 
of time and preserved, as rugged timber-co\ered hills, the highest elevations of the 
whole area, .save only those of the Rordas. North of these are the Lignitic Cla^-s 
whose gendy rolling hills melt almost imperceptibly, from a topograjihic point of 
\\f\\\ into the Bhck-W;ixy Praiiies of the cretaceous. The stream cliannels which 
cross the Lignitic Plain sho\i- that they have passed through many changes of le\-el, 
and their t<road, terraced bottoms tell of ele\ations and depressions, while the lakes 
and deserted channels plainly speak of their capricious change of course. The 
eastern portion of this plain is densely forested, with only a few scattered prairies ; 
the part is less thicklv wooded, and i:sually with trees of more stunted 
growth, v.]\h- tliat. portion wrst of the P'rio Ri\er omprises rollir.g pnuries with 
thickets of mesquite and jungles of cL.ipanu-! and prickly pear. In this timber belt 




r.?^'' -/■3-tyi\»-''J^>^^,'^<0'-{'.i^.i-»,' --.-<? ;^ '-ri;^-^ 


— the low lands covered with pine, the uplands clothed with oak and liickory — is 
found the termination of the forests of the Atlantic rt%Mon, which to the west are 
gradually replaced with plants more akin Vy the Mexican ilora. 

The Black- Waxy Prairies. — Lying north and west of the Lignitic Plain, and 
scarcely separable by ap|iearance from the northwestern portion of it, is that great 
body of agriciilti'ral land, the famous Pilack-Waxy Prairies. Its greatest width is 
on Red River, where it extends from Denison eastward almost to the northeastern 
corner vi the State, — a distance of one hundred and forty miles. Going southward 
it becomes more and more n;irrov.-, until on the Colorado it has a width of only tea 
miles. Towards the Rio Grande, however, it again widens out and extends along 
that river for eighty-fi\-e miles. Southwest of San Antonio, while the materials 
remain tlu; same as those of the region to the northeast, it gradually loses its black- 
waxy character, owing most probably to ditTerence of climatic conditions. The 
western boundary of this plain is formed by the Lower Cross-Timbers between Red 
River and the Brazos ; south of the latter stream it is approximately a line joining 
Waco, Bclton, and Austin, from which point to the Rio Grande it occupies the 
area between the Lignitic Plain and the foot of the Balcones. Its rock material is, 
generally speaking, marly, as it consists of clays and lime-rock, which occur not 
only as such, but intermingled in almost every imaginable proportion. 

Its topography is for the most part gently rounded hills, whose gi'aceful con- 
tours pleasingly suggest their English homologue, — the "downs." In the more 
limy portions, known as the Austin Limestone, vertical bluffs fifteen to twenty feet 
in height are not uncommon, where earth fractures have somewhat disturbed the 
regularity of the deposits, where erosion has cut through them along some stream 
channel or along their western face, and where a scarp is formed by the more rapid 
weathering of the underlying clay. On the Rio Grande there is a more broken 
surface, — higher hills and a more precipitous scarp, — due to the greater induration 
of the rocky materials and the different conditions of erosion. 

In elevation this plain varies from three hundred and fifty to five hundred feet 
above the sea in the east, but west of San Antonio it rises to seven hundred feet 
and over. South of Austin there is a considerable elevation known as Pilot Knob, 
— a group of rounded hills of basalt, remnants of one of the old volcanoes which 
existed in the cretaceous sea. Other similar remnants and "necks" occur nearer 
Austin, and to the westward from San Antonio to the Rio Grande, as dykes and 
hills. W'h.ile this nlaiu is predominantly a prairie region outside the Lower Cross- 
Timber belt, ne\-ertheless it is not entirely barren of trees and shrubs. Great live- 
oaks dot its expanses, and the streams which meander across it are sometimes 
fringed with narrow strips of timber, often thickly overgrown with moss in the more 
southern piirtions of the plain. 

The Grand Prairie. — East of the Colorado Ri\-er that area included in the 
Grand t'rairie is but the continuation of the black prairie in general character, modi- 
fied somewhat by the harder rock materials of which it is composed. West and south 
of that portion of the main area, however, the character changes, and in the country 
between the Colorado and the Pecos and in the numerous detached masses that mark 
the former extension of the same conditions as far north as the head-waters of the 
Brazos a tojjography exL-^ls largely controlled by a peisistcnt bed of liniesto:ie, the 


surface rock of a greater part of the area, u hich lies in level or gently inclined beds, 
forming a vast plateau on the south and flat-topped buttes and mesas in the Basin 
Region on the north. No other single rock formation has had so wide an influence on 
the topographic development of the State. That part of the Grand Prairie between 
the Upper and Lower Cross-Timbers, the former of which occupi<;s the surface 
exposure of its lowest (geologically) sandy beds, has been called the Fort Worth 
division. At Decatur and elsewhere its western boundary is a bold escarpment, 
but at places it loses this precipitousness and rises more gradually from the older 
beds bclov. it. The water.-; of the Trinity and Brazos have cut their way through 
the plain. The elevation of this divison has an average along its eastern border of 
five hundred feet, which in its western part increases to twelve hundred or fifteen 
hundred feet. Points within its boundaries are still higher. The Plateau division, 
beginning near Austin, stretches westward from the Colorado across the Pecos and 
is merged into that mountainous region. It is entirely cut through only by the 
channels of the Colorado and Pecos Rivers. Between these streams it forms a 
gently sloping plain, deeply furrowed by canyons along its southern border, its 
northern boundary cut into bays and promontories and carved into fantastic crenu- 
lations by the head-waters of the Colorado. North of the main plateau are de- 
tached ridges of flat-topped hills and single buttes or mesas, all of like character, 
scattered o\ er an area of thousands of square miles. 

Beginning at Austin, at an elevation of only six hundred feel, this Plateau 
division risca to tiie uesn- ard, and in tlie extreme western part of Gillesjjie County 
reaches an altitude of two tliousand two hundred and fifty feet. It maintains this 
altitude and even increases it towards the west. The southern boundary of this 
plateau is the escarpment of ele\ation known as the Balcones, v.-hich practically 
continues from the Colorado westward to the Rio Grande, and has almost \'ertical 
walls which in places attain a height of one hundred to two hundred feet above the 
black prairie at its base. F'rom the foot of this escarpment, or from the canjons cut 
into it, flow the great springs at San Marcos, New Braunfels, and elsewhere. 

The topography of this plateau is that of simple drainage erosion without ex- 
tensive denudation. The streams, with their many-pronged branches, have cut 
numberless deep and narrow canyons, but the hard limestone layers ha\c not been 
destroyed mpidly enough to keep pace v.ith the stream erosion, and iiuiumLrable 
peaks and buttes, ridges, and mesas are the result. Its surface is almost treeless 
except the low mcsquite and similar trees and the fine growth of pecan along the 
canyons of its southward flowing streams. Its agricultural possibilities are far 
greater than ha\-e been supposed, and much of the area now used only for grazing 
can be profitably utilized for farming purposes. 

The Basin Region. — The Basin Region of the northern portion of the State 
consists of four distinct denuded areas separated by remnantal strips of their former 
coverings. The area extends from the f(3ot of the Grand Prairie and Granite High- 
lands on the east and south to the Guad.ilupe Mountains on the west and the 
Wichita Mountains on the north. 

The area is first divided into' a northern and southern portion by the line of 
cretaceous-capped hills, buttes, and mesas south of the Texas and Pacific Railway, 
and the northern portion is again subdivided by a strip of m:iterials of later age dian 


the Llano Estacado beds. The southern subdlvibion touches the yrariite hiyhlands 
on the southeast, and stretching westward joins the western portion of the noriliern 
di\ision in Mitchell County. West of tiie Llano Estacado another denuded area, 
similar to that just east of the plains, is found between the scarp and the Guadalupe 
Mountaias. It is the valley of the Pecos River. The general elevation northwest- 
ward is very gradual, being only twelve to fifteen hundred feet in the entire distance 
of over two hundred miles. In these divisions are distinct classes of topography for 
each of the various rock systenl^3 which arc represented, — carboniferous, perniian, 
tiia^f.ic, and cretaceous. There can be little doubt that the lower cretaceous at one 
time covered the entire region, and in many places in the carboniferous area it is so 
lately worn away that the present land surface is appro.ximately that which was 
originally engulfed by the cretaceous sea, the original contours of which have been 
preserved throughout the intervening time by this rock mantle. These ancient 
rounded forms, representing a very advanced stage of erosion, differ from the topog- 
raphy which is the resultant of the present erosion on the same beds. This latter 
has been often described as resembling steps, with the rise on the eastern face and. 
the tread dipping gently to the northwest. This is caused by the alternations of the 
limestones and clavs, the latter of which, being more easily eroded, are more rapidly 
cut awav, letting the fragments of the overhanging limestones fall in great masses 
over the incline. Thus, passing northwestward, an alternation or succession of scarps 
of greater or less height must be crossed, running in a northeast and southwest 
direction with nearly level ground between. This general step-like expression is, 
however, so interrupted, cut through, and modified by drainage channels that a hilly 
country is the outcome. This is especially the case in the coal measures, where a 
series of high hills and deep valleys results, as at Canyon, or flat-topped hills and 
level valleys between, as in the counties of Stephens and Young. When the red 
beds of the permian are reached a more level country is found, and one for the most 
part A\ ith rounded contours by reason of the prevailing clayey nature of the beds. 
The few hills which interrupt the undulating plains are usually capped with gypsum 
and are but of moderate height, the only prominent elevations being the cretaceous- 
capped buttes and mesas. These begin with Double Mountain, in Stonewall County, 
and extend westward to the Llano Estacado. They rise five to six hundred feet 
above the general level, and in their immediate vicinity canyons ha\-e been cut so 
deep that they cannot be crossed except under the most favorable circum.stances. 
As the Llano Estacado is approached and the gypsum and clays of the permian gu e 
place to the conglomerate and sands of the triassic, a sharper tojiot'.raphy is found, 
and the hills, although not very high, are stecp-siilcd. 

The Seymour Plateau. — This plateau, of very recent oiigin, varying in 
width from sixteen to fifty miles, stretches nortliwest from the Texas and I'acihc 
Railway west of Sweetwater to the Red Ri\er north of Yernon. It has a length of 
one hilndred and sixty miles. It is bounded on the west by a range of gypsum 
hills, and its elesation varies from twelve to si.xteen hundred feet. This level plain, 
once a continuous plateau throughout its entire length, has been cut through by 
many streams, and their beds are now in some cases one hundred and fifty feet 
brlow its upper surface. Nevertheless, despite these interruptions, its general flat- 
ness of suriace is still well preserx-ed. 
Vol. II.— 31 


The Llano Estacado. — This great plateau — the Stockaded Plain, as Pro- 
fessor Dana An;^'licizes its Spanish name— occupies the greater portion of the 
western half of what is known as the Panhandle. Steep escarpments, whose wall- 
like faces rise in height from one hundred and fifty to four hundred feet, bound it 
on the east, north, and west. On the south its boundary is not so well defined, as 
it desrends graJu.illy until it merges into the pbiteau country. In its present extent 
it is but the remnant of a much greater area which reached from its present southern 
boundary far to the northward, probably connecting with the plains of Kansas and 
Nebra.ska, and from the Guadalupe Mountains on the west an unknown distance to 
the east. In origin it is closely akin to the lake-basins of the trans- Pecos Mountain 
system. Its outline is very irregular, but its greatest length and greatest breadth 
are each about two hundred miles. It is one vast plain with a gentle inclination from 
northwest to southeast, the elevation of the northwestern point being four thousand 
five hundred feet, while at the southeastern corner it is only two thousand eight hun- 
dred feet. So level is it that one standing on its surface seems to be in the midst of 
a great bowl whose gently sloping sides rise up to meet the overarching sky. Its 
continuity is, however, broken by canyons of greater or less extent, and its surface 
is dotted with lakes, several of which are permanent, some containing fresh water, 
wliile others are salt. 

In the southv\cst the general level is broken by a few sand hills, which change 
their position with every wind. On the eastern side great canyons penetrate into 
the plains for longer or shorter distances. All of the canyons have flowing streams 
in them, but usually the walls are so steep and precipitous that it is impossible to 
cross them even on horseback. Even the ascent to the top of the plains from the 
lower ground around them can be made at comparatively few points. 

The Granite Highlands. — Lying at the point of junction of the Fort Worth 
and plateau divisions of the Grand Prairie, and at the time of the deposition of those 
divisions a land area which v>as not co\ercd by the lower members of the Grand 
Prairie, are the Granite Highlands of Burnet and Llano Counties, with their fringe 
of paleozoic rocks. In extent they cover about three thousand square miles, and 
to the east, south, and west are completely surrounded by the Grand Prairie, and 
even along the northern border reninantal patclies of similar deposits are found. 
In elevation these highlands vary from seven to eighteen hundred feet, and, as has 
already been stated, formed the starling-point or core of our entire land area. 
V.'hilo it is c<imi>anitively small in c.vtent, this granite highland has a topography as 
complex as its rock materials are diverse. The granitic rocks occur as a series of 
plateaux extending from Burnet County, on the east, westward through Llano into 
Mason. Bare, rounded peaks of similar rocks, such as Niggerhead Peak, in Bur- 
net County, and the King Mountains, in Llano, form a separated and irregular 
cordon along the flanks of these plateaux, while peaks of later date are found along 
the outer«borders of the older beds and are pardy covered with still newer rocks. 
Where these l.ittcr rocks, the canibriai-., form the surface, they break down in bold 
and picturesque clift's, as on Sandy Creek in Llano County and elsewhere. Sur- 
rounding these .sand)' beds of the cambrian are the silurian limestones in more 
rounded contours, forming the outer frin-e of the region, which for picturesqueness 
is unexcelled by any ia the State. In many parts it is fairly well tlnibereii with 


oaks and pecan, and during the sprin,^^ its scattered prairies are carpeted with 

The Wichita Mountains. — The western terminus of the Wichita Mountains 
is all that touches Texas. Here a few scattered peaks of granite stand witness to 
the fo.mer extent of a mountain range of early times, which had close affinities with 
the granitic highlands of the Central Mineral Region, as shown by the similar rocks 
composing it, and by the ]iar.-dlelism of the disturbances which have operated on it. 
Eastward, in the Indian Territory, these granites are flanked by silurian limestones 
and form a more connected range. 

Trans-Pecos Mountains. — Far-stretching plains, in whose immensity ordi- 
nary differences of elevation are so dwarfed as to make little impression against the 
general flatness ; here, a sharp peak or rounded summit, rising solitary from the 
boundless plain ; there, a mountain mass of rock, flat-topped, steep-sided, deep- 
canyoned, gray, and bare ; on this hand, a cluster of peaks, whose jagged tops 
accentuate their deeply ravined sides ; on that, low ridges, one face rising so sheer 
as almost to preclude their ascent, the other descending in a gentle slope ; here, a 
range with granite core, making brave front against the plain, but soon lost in the 
all-surrounding level, which here and there and everywhere sweeps round and 
through the hills, and mountains, covering and hiding all connections and masking 
their true relations, until they seem indeed "mountains buried to their knees" in 
seas of sand. Such is the area of mountains and lake-basins which occupies two- 
thirds of the entire trans- Pecos region, extending along the Rio Grande from the 
New Mexico line to the great bend,— a distance of two hundred and fifty miles, with 
an average breadth of eighty miles. The mountains are spurs of the Rockv Moun- 
tain range (or are the result of the same mountain-building forces which formed 
tliat range), which, dividing in New^ Mexico, crosses Texas in four distinct lines or 
axes of elevation. The most prominent of these is the eastern, which, in a general 
way, may be said to form the divide between the Pecos and the Rio Grande. The 
western spur has a very small extension in Texas, while the two intermediate ones 
are somewhat lower than the Guadalupe Mountains to the east. In addition to the 
general slope from the divide east and west towards the rivers, the 1e\-el of the 
country as a whole also descends towards the south, tlie general elevation toward-; 
the Rio Grande being one thousand feet or more lower than in the northern portion 
of the region. Therefore, while the reladve height of the mountains above tlie 
plains may be the same in both sections, the actual elevations of the more northern 
of tlu-ni will be the greater. 

Along tlie two railr<3ad lines which cross the region tra\-ersing tlic flats, the 
cle\-alions \ary from three thousand six hundred to four thousand six hundred feet, 
and exceed this only on the di\ ide. The peaks and mountain masses rise to a 
height of fifteen hundred to two thousand feet, or even more, above this general 
level. *The average direction of these major axes of elevation is from northwest to 
southeast, and the different ranges and clusters of mountains grouped by their re- 
lations to these are the Franklin'Mountains, which are the southern continuation of 
the Organ Mountains : the Hueco, Quitman, and Eagle Mountains ; the Comanche. 
\Vind, Diabolo, Carrizo, Van Horn, Viejo, and Chinati Mountains ; the Guadalupe, 
Limpia or Davis, and Maravillas or Santiago .Mountains. 


This grouping, while given for convenience of description, does not indude all 
the elevations of the region, for, in addition to these, there are single peaks or clus- 
ters (occupying intermediate positions or cross-trends), especially in the southern 
part of the area. Rounded hills, flat-topped mesas, and sharp-crested ridges of 
cretaceous rocks are also scattered here and there through the plain as elevations 
which, although of less height than the ranges proper, are, nevertheless, greater 
than those of prominences dignified by the name of mountains in other portions of 
the State. The Franklin range, lying directly north of El Paso, contains peaks 
which rise nearly three thousand feet above that city. The mountains are com- 
posed of granite and porphyries, capped and flanked by limestones of various ages. 
Between these mountains and the Hueco range to the east lies the broad Lanoria 
Mesa. The mountain cluster knov.n as the Hueco lies partly in New Mexico and 
partly in Te.xas. On its western side are located the Hueco tanks or springs and 
it is continued by hills of less elevation, with frequent interruptions of level ground, 
southeastward to the Ouitmans, which have their beginning just south of the 
Southern Pacific Railway line a few miles west of Sierra Blanca. Lying across 
the track to the north of this point are four peaks, the principal one of which rises 
fully two thousand feet above the plain. Composed of quartzitic materials, the 
white color of the Sierra Blanca Mountains, as they are called, is streaked by red- 
brown only in the deep ra\'ines that score their sides. They are sujiposed to be 
the re?ull of thv intrusion between the strata of a great body of basalt or other 
eruptive rock, which has lifted the upper beds to their present position. The Quit- 
man Mountains consist of two ranges, separated by a narrow valley looking north. 
The range nearest the railroad, which is much the smaller, is composed almost en- 
tirely of granitic rocks whose rugged peaks rise fifteen to seventeen hundred feet 
above the valley, but the more western one, while in its more northern part corre- 
sponding to its companion range, contains more porphyritic and basaltic material 
towards the southeast, and these are finally succeeded by limestones. 

The Eagle Mountains, which are also in this trend, are peaks of porphyry 
thrust skyward through beds of limestone and clays of the carboniferous and cre- 
taceous age. Between them and the north range of the Ouitinans are several 
ridges of cretaceous rock, sometimes as much as five hundred feet in height. At 
the foot of the Eagle Mountains, on the northern side, arc the Eagle Springs, for 
many year-^ a stage stand and the scene of many conflicts with the Indians. It is 
now the watering-place for hundreds of cattle. 

The third range, beginning with the Cornudas and Wind Mountains in New 
Mexico, finds its southern continuation in the Sierra Pricta and Diabolo Mountains, 
with a great escarpment facing east\\'ard, but whose slope to the west, while rough 
and broken, is nevertheless more gradual. About eight miles north of the Te.xas 
and Pajific Railroad the main body of the Diabolo Mountains ends in an escarpment, 
many parts 'of which are almost perpendicular. This portion of the mountains is 
composed of a red grit or sandstone, capped by limestones of carboniferous age, 
cut through in places by dykes and sheets of basalt and porphyry, while hundreds 
of feet below, in the flat to the south, are low hills and ridges of cretaceous rocks. 
A bhiff, forming the southern termiiiatif>n of a spur of this range and very similar 
to it in composition, faces the Te.xas an.! P.icific Railroad near Eagle Flat Station, 

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and in the schistose materials which underlie it is the connection between the 
Diabolo and the Carrizo Mountains to the south. 

The last-named mountains arc largely made up of such schistose material 
flanked by limestones, and are connected in a general way with the Chinatis, some 
seventy miles southeast. In the Van Horn Mountains, which are part of this con- 
nection, not only the older granitic and schistose materials are met, but newer 
eruptions as well. These are followed by tlie later ridges known as Viejo or Rim 
Rock Mountains and their continuation, which are composed of cretaceous rocks 
sloping gently upward from the east, capped with eruptive material to a depth of 
three hundred feet, and having almost vertical cliffs facing the Rio Grande. In the 
Chinati Mountains are again seen the carboniferous limestones accompanied by 
granites and other eruptive rocks. As a rule, the elevations along this axis are not 
so great above the general level as those of the others. 

The Guadalupe Mountains begin in southern New Me.xico in a low ridge, and 
increase both in height and width as they stretch southeastward, until they find 
their culmination in Guadalupe Peak, which rises three thousand feet above the 
valley at its base, two thousand feet of that height being a sheer precipice. This is 
probably the highest point in the State, being something over eight thousand feet 
above the sea. These mountains are composed almost altogether of carboniferous 
sandstones and limestones, and on their western side present a precipitous escarp- 
ment facing that of the Diabolo to the southu-est. The eastern side of the moun- 
tains slopes more gradually towards the valley of the Pecos, and is cut by many 
deep and tortuous canyons. South of the peak the range is continued by foot-hills 
of carboniferous or permian limestone, their bluffs still facing westward, to the Texas 
and Pacific Railroad near Kent, where they are succeeded by lower hills composed 
of cretaceous rocks. 

The Limpia or Da\-is Movmtains cover an area about forty miles in length by 
thirty in width, between the Texas and Pacific and Southern Pacific Railways. 
They are largely composed of granite, porphyritic and volcanic rocks, forming 
high peaks, like Gomez Peak at the northeastern corner ; ranges with serrated 
tops, as the Savz-Tooth Mountains ; steep, perpendicular cliffs, as in the vicinity 
of Fort Davis ; or more rounded contours, as at \^'ild Rose I'ass. Limestones of 
various ages occur in these mountains, and numerous springs burst forth from the 
contact of the intrusive porphyries with the other rocks. Such are Apache and 
Antelope Springs, near San Martine. These are the best-wooded of all the moun- 
tains of the region, and Limpia Creek, in the vicinity of Fort Da\-is, affords suffi- 
cient water liY a certain quantity of irrigation. South of Alpine, the Maravillas, 
or Santiago range, extends southeastward through Brewster and Foley Counties, a 
distance of sixty-five miles or more, towards the Rio Grande, where it meets the 
Rosillos, Corrazones, and Chisos groups. All these mountains are built up of 
■ igneous rocks, w ith limestone, sandstones, and shales, and are as yet little known. 

The flats between the various mountain ranges are the sites of old lakes, the last 
stages of some of which may now be seen in Salt Lake valley, between the Diabolo 
and Guadalupe Mountains. These lakes probably existed in the region during 
long periods, for borings lia\'e jjenetrated more than a thousanrl feet without pa.iS- 
ing through the dejuisits which belong to them. They are at least as old as the 


quaternary', from the fact that certain elephant remains have been found in them, 
and, from certain "calico hills" in the Rio Grande valley, it is probable that they 
existed even in tertiary times. These flats are covered with a lii.xuriant growth of 
gramma, or mesquite grass, which, although usually brown in appearance, will 
freshen with very little rain-fall and clothe the plain in richest verdure. Catclaws, 
greaseweed, Mexican dagger, cacti of various kinds, and many other plants of 
Mexican relationship grow upon them, and they are the grazing ground for herds of 

Rivers. — Texas is drained by rivers flowing from the outer edges of the 
different great plains, radially towards the Gulf, the character of tlie streams dif- 
fering among themselves, and each stream varying according to the plains through 
which it passes. The two limiting river systems are the Arkansas and Rio Grande. 
These, although their head-waters approach very nearly to each other, separate 
rapidly and find their way to the Gulf at points hundreds of miles apart. 

The oldest drainage of the State is probably that of the Colorado, which may 
have had its inception before the deposition of the coal measures, and, although 
often interrupted and diverted, it has returned again and again to its work of erosion, 
and in places has reconquered and holds to-day its old drainage channels. On the 
emergence of tlie land, at the close of the paleozoic era, erosion scored and ravined 
its surface, and the predecessors of the Brazos and the Red Rivers were born. 
Through long ages they continued their work, cutting down and bearing away the 
soil and rock, until the cretaceous sea overwhelmed them and built new rock-beds 
above their channels to a heiglit of hundreds of feet. Again the sea-floor became 
the land, and again the rivers came to the attark, and have not only regained the 
territory they had lost, except that here and there an outpost is left to tell the extent 
of their victory, but have in addition scored deeper into the underlying beds. W^ith 
each new accretion of land new streams gradually developed, the old ones extended 
themselves gulfward, and at the same time continued to advance their head-waters, 
thereby growing in both directions. 

The various systems ma)- be grouped under the following heads : Rivers having 
their origin outside of the .State, — Canadian, Red, Pecos, and Rio Grande ; rivers 
of the Central Basin, — Trinit)-, Brazos, and Colorado ; ri\ers of the Grand Prairie, 
— Sabine, Neches, Guadalupe, and Nueces ; rivers of the Reynosa, — San Jacinto, 
Buffnlo, Bernard, Lavaca, etc. ; and streams nf the Coast Prairies. 

' The Canadian has its origin in New Mexico, on the eastern slope of the narrow 
Taos range of the Rocky .Mountains, only a few miles from the waters of the Rio 
Grande, which flows at the western foot of the same range. Running eastward 
it drains the northern portion of the Panhandle through a \-alley twenty to sixty 
miles in width and hundreds of feet below the level of the Llano Estacado, — a 
valley which has been cut by the waters of this river since the final desiccation of 
Xhe old lake-basin. The stream which now winds through this valley is so shrunken 
as to appear incapable of having performed so herculean a task. 

Red River is classed with the. Brazos and Colorado as having its origin in the 
canyons of the .Staked Plains, hut one branch, the Prairie-Dog-Town Fork, reaches 
into New Mexico, and it must, thorcfcire, be classed with the rivers originatintj 
without the .Stale. This fork, as well as the others, is still at work channelling 



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deeper into the plain, and they have cut canyons hundreds of feet in dcfpth and 
many miles in length through its comparatively soft materials. In addition to the 
amount of water furnished by the upper beds of the Staked Plains, as the erosion 
cuts through the underlying conglomerate of the triassic, it taps the great water-bed 
of the Llano and the pure water gushes forth from springs, furnishing streams which 
flow boldly out from the plains only to sink and disappear when they reach the 
adjoining belt of sand. After crossing the sands of the triassic and reaching the 
permian hcdp, the water of these streams dissolves portions of the salt and gypsum 
existing therein, and is then more or less saline or g)'pseous for many miles of their 
course. The river takes its name from the amount of red clay held in suspension, 
which it derives from these red beds in its passage through them, and which it car- 
ries onward throughout its course. After following an almost eastward course for 
many miles, forming the northern boundary of the State for the whole distance, from 
the intersection of the North Fork and one hundredth meridian, it turns southward. 

In the system of lakes along the western boundary of Louisiana, only one or 
two of which, like Caddo Lake, reach into Texas, there exists a condition which in 
earlier times was very prevalent among the various streams in their passage across 
the Hgnitic plain. To-day, along these rivers, may be found such old lake-basins 
plainl)- defined, which have been filled in with sediment from the overburdened 
stream that, by later elevations, has been given fresh erosive power, and has cut 
new chaiuiels through them to the underlying rock. 

This river drains twenty-nine thousand square mile.-^, more than one-tenth of 
the entire State, and yet, east of its own principal forks, has no large aflluents on 
the south side, except Pease River, the Wichita and Sulphur Rivers. Like all the 
Texas rivers, it has in the eastern part of its course its first and second bottoms 
between its channel and the uplands. The first of these has deep-red, sandy or 
waxy soils, heavily timbered with cotton-wood, elm, ash, walnut, pecan, etc. Beyond 
this is the second bottom or higher elevation, of dark, sandy loam, extending back 
to the bluffs. These bottoms are from one to two miles wide, and are succeeded by 
high, rolling uplands, ten to fifteen miles in v.idth, timbered with oak and hickory, 
and interspersed with little prairies. 

The Sabine, which for a portion of its length forms the between 
Louisiana and Texas, is a river belonging to the black-prairie drainnge, and its 
head-water erosion has reached northwestward into Hunt ;'.nd Collin Counties. Its 
course is southeast until it reaches the intersection of the ninety-fourth meridian and 
the thirty-second parallel, when it turns southward and finds its way to the Gulf 
through Sabine Bay. It owes its name, it is said, to the Mexicans, who calk-d it, 
after the cypresses which line its banks, the ".Sabinas." Light-draught boats ply 
in it and run as high as Logansport. Its waters also form the logging way by which 
the saw-mills at Orange receive their supplies of timber. Its total drainage area is 
t\\enty thousand four hundred square miles. 

The Xeches is also one of the more recent riveis, and lias not >et carved its 
Vay back to the black prairie, but has .expended its energies on the deposits of the 
timber-belt region, w hich owe their present topogra]ihic form between tlie waters of 
tlie Sabine and Trinity priiicijially to its opi-r.itions. Its principal aflhient is the 
Angelina, an.l it tinaliy mingles its waters with thcjse of ibc .S.\bine in S.ibiae Hay. 


The Trinity River, although usually included with the rivers of the Grand 
Prairie, has stretched its arms over into the coal measures, and drains the area be- 
tween Red River and the Brazo;!, between the ninety-sixth and ninety-eii,'hth 
meridians. Southeast of this its basin is more restricted, being limited on the east 
by the Sabine and Neches, and, as it nears the Gulf, by the San Jacinto on the west. 
Its total drainage area is eighteen thousand square miles, and its estimated a\-erage 
discharge is seven thousand cubic feet per second. 

Boats of light draught have made their way from its mouth as far up as Dallas, 
and work is now in jjrogress to render its reaches below that city navigable. 

The canyons of the Llano Estacado, which are occupied by the head-waters of 
the Brazos, are similar to those of the Red River, and an idea of the amount of 
water in them can be had from the fact that the Silver P'alls of White River, a 
tributary of the Salt Fork, furnish thirteen million gallons daily. As in the case of 
Red River, the waters, after passing out from the plains, sink into the sands, and 
the lower reaches are strongly impregnated with salt and gypsum until the beds of 
the permian are crossed. The northwestern portion of the drainage basin of the 
Brazos is very wide, and its forks. Elm, Double Mountain, and Salt, spread over 
two degrees of latitude. As it flows southward, however, the main basin narrows 
until in Brazoria County it is less than ten miles in width. Its total drainage area, 
which is the greatest in the State, is estimated at fifty-nine thousand si.\ hundred 
square miles. 

In its flow towards the Gulf the Brazos crosses the \arious formations with 
their rock-sheets of different hardness, its general course being almost at right 
angles to the strike of the beds. It ha,s on this account a very tortuous channel, 
flowing through a valley which in places is wide with bluff hill-sides bordering it on 
either side, while at others these bordering hills close in upon the channel and it 
flows in narrower confines. The former phase is well shown in N'oung Countv, 
v.-hile in the western part of Palo Pinto County the latter condition prevails. .A.fter 
reaching the limestones of the cretaceous in Hood County, the valley has a width, 
including the uplands, of from five to ten miles, and is timbered with oak, pecan, 
etc. ; but on reaching the softer rock materials of eastern Bosque and Hill Counties 
the valley widens antlthe first bottom has occasionally a width of .is much as two 
miles, and the second bottom spreads five miles on either side of it. 

In the Lignitic Plain the bottom lands are usually wide, with growth of large 
timber, — oak, elm, ash, pecan, etc. In this area there occurs a feature which is 
repeated in the Coast Prairies. In Robertson County the Brazos valley not onlv 
includes the river itself, but the Little Brazos as well. In other words, the Little 
Brazos occupies a portion of the former channel of the larger ri\-er. This is also 
the case with the Caney or Canebrake Creek of Brazoria County. The red and 
muddy waters recei\ed from its northwestei n branches arc carried down and de- 
posited on the bottom lands from the black prairie to the Gulf, adding to their 
fertility y<-,ir Ny year. Mueli of the coastal plain between the San Jacinto and 
the Brazos was formed in a similar manner when that area was the bav into which 
the Hr.izos poured its sediuu-nt-laden waters. 

As has been already stiitrd, the Colorado River and its triluil.irirs represent 
the oldest drainage svsiem of the .State, and have had a most exxntful career. It 






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•.: ^^> 






began its work early in the history of the land, and, although destroyed by incur- 
sions of the sea, it revivcri as soon as the land area again appeared, and has now 
cut its way thrt)ugh the solid limestones above Austin, and enters the black prairie 
region through a canyon. Its head-waters reach to the New Mexican line, and to 
their work is due the beautifully sculptured northern scarp of the plateau region. 
Beginning as it does south of the main gypsum area, its waters are not so saline or 
gj'pseovis as those of the rivers north of it. The largest streams among its tribu- 
taries are the Conches, San Saba, Llano, and Pedernales. Its drainage area is 
forty-one thousand two hundred square miles, and its bottom lands, like those of 
the Brazos, are synonyms for fertility. Below Austin its valley is wide and the 
bottoms are heavily timbered with cotton- wood, ash, walnut, elm, etc. The soils 
vary from reddish sandy to dark alluvial loams. The uplands are high and rolling, 
with broad skirts of post-oak timber, cedar brakes, or open prairies. 

In its flow through Bastrop and Fayette Counties numerous instances may be 
obser\ed of the prevalence of lakes along its course in the earlier stages of its growth. 

The Guadalupe and its branches, the principal one of which is the San Antonio 
River, are by far the most beautiful streams in the State. Having their origin -n 
the plateau region, and being fed by the great springs which burst forth along its 
base, their limpidity brings them into still greater contrast with the turbid waters of 
the rivers east and west of them. That part of the Guadalupe from its inception to 
New Braunfcls has traversed the rocky plain of the plateau, cutting itself a channel 
of narrower or wider limits as the conditions rendered possible. At New Braunfels 
it reaches the black prairie and flou.s among the rounded hills through timber- 
covered banks. Farther down the trees become larger and the great pecan groves 
skirt its banks and overhang its pellucid waters in ail the loveliness of sylvan quiet, 
broken only by the cry of the wild turkey or the footfall of the deer. Its waters 
and those of its affluents have been used for irrigation for many years. 

The Nueces drainage occupies far the largest area of any ri\er west of the 
Colorado, and includes all of the streams between the San Antonio and the Rio 
Grande Ri\ers north of the Bordas. Its head-waters have cut their way deep into 
the plateau region, where they are fed by great springs from the underlying sands. 
The Nueces drains about nineteen thousand square miles, and in its course from the 
cretaceous table-land to the Gulf has greatly exaggerated the tendency of all the 
rivers of Te.xas, having their source in or north of the lignitic belt, to be deflected 
eastward or northeastward in passing through the harder portion of the Fayette 
sands. Tlius, from its source in the Nueces Canyon, in Edwards County, it flows 
south and southeast to the southern portion of La Salle Coimtv, where, suddcnlv 
swiiigi.-ig at ri'^lit angles to its former course, it (lows northeast lor more than fifty 
miles, until, at Oakville, it resumes its normal course even more abruptly than it 
left it. It has numerous tributaries, among the principal of which are the Frio and 
Atascosa Rivers, Elm, Los Raices, Olmos. Salado, Prieto, Sul[)!uir, Gamble, 
Lapara, Ramirena, Lagarto, and Penitas Creeks. The wanderings of the Nueces 
itself through this area are in part recorded by the lakes which still exist along 
some parts of its course. csp(;ci.illy in La Salle and Dimmit Counties, where several 
long and coniiiaratively narrow bodies of water are found. Some of these are 
directly conr.e.ted wiili ihc present channel and are still utilised by the water in 



time of flood, while others have been forsaken entirely and are now simply indica- 
tions of the course of the ri\-er at some former time. The character of the deposits 
along its lower reaches shows that this part of the basin has also been the site of 
many lakes, which have since been filled up and again exposed by the erosive 
action of the river or its tributaries in still later times. Indeed, it would ap[)ear in 
places as if ihu river had been a chain of lakes stretching in and out among the 
higher groimd which formed its banks and now constitute the second bottoms and 
the highlands. The ch.mges, of course, are not confined to times before the 
present, bat arc even now in progress in several places. 

In spite of the facts that the drainage channels of the Nueces are so abundant, 
that many of them start from the plateau with streams of limpid water, and alto- 
gether make sucli a goodly show as water-course's upon the map, it frequently 
occurs that at certain seasons of the year many of them are perfectly dn,' and at the 
surface, at least, innocent of moisture. Indeed, a great alteration has taken place in 
these channels during the past forty years. Before the settlement of the country 
many of these creeks were constant in their flow, and the grass, beginning at the 
water's edge, stretched out on either side of them over wide, open prairies. The 
advent of the stock-men into this ideal and beautiful grazing region gradually 
worked a change in the conditions. The cattle ate down the grass and broke up 
the turf by tramping, so that the strong winds which prevail and the heavy rains 
which fall occasionally had full sweep at the nnderlying sand. Together these 
filled up the channels of the creeks to such an extent that they now carry water on 
the surface (july after heavy or continued rains, although an abundant supply may 
be had in many of them at other timr-s by sinking shallow wells in their beds. The 
channels are comparatively small and the valleys are not wide. The water is gen- 
erally clear except in time of flood, and the streams are fringed with skirts of timber 
by which their course can easily be marked for many miles across the prairies. 

The Rio Grande, rising in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, flows southuard 
through New Mexico to the Texas line. While it receives a considerable volume 
of its water in this distance, much is taken out for irrigation purposes and a part of 
what is left sinks into the sands which form its bottom, .so that at Paso del Norte 
the \'olume i.s n^t what it would otherwise be. Below this point it forms the boun- 
dary between Texas and .Mexico for a distance of more than thirteen hundred 
miles, in which it receives no tributary of note on the Texas side except the Pecos, this great length into consideration and omitting the Pecos drainage, the 
Rio Grande drains a smaller area in Texas than any other ri\er, the a\erage width 
of the strip drained by it being less than fifteen miles. The various channels open- 
ing into it are for the most part comparatively short, dry arroyos, which are the 
result of the character of the rainfall in the region. At times this is torrential, car- 
r\-ing e\erything with it and washing deep channels, which, the rains being passed, 
may remain dry for months together before a fresh torrent broadens or deepens 
them. The topography of its valley is therefore of a much younger type than 
would be the case under different conditions of rainfall. The course of the Rio 
Grande from El Paso to the boundary between Coahiiila and Chihuahua is ap[)roxi- 
mately that of the trend of the Rocky Mountains as manifested in the portions of 
that range cro^sing trans-Pecos Texas ; but at this point the river makes a great 











■ r 


bend, " producing one of the most remarkable features on the face of the globe, — 
that of a ri\ er traversing at an oblique angle a chain of lofty mountains and making 
through these on a gigantic scale what is called in Spanish America a canyon, — 
that is, a river henniied in by vertical walls." At the mouth of San Francisco 
Creek it again resumes its general southeastward course, which it maintains until 
the Gulf is reached. For many miles below El Paso the river-bed is a sandy plain, 
which is often entirely dry or with water standing in pools. At other times great 
floods pour down its channel and spread out into llie valley. Farther down the 
ri\er the hills diaw closer in, its channel is more contracted, and the canyons and 
rapids begin as the Bofecillos Mountains are reached. Between the canyons which 
mark the passage through the difiterent ranges (San Carlos, San Vincente, Carmen 
etc. , of the boundary survey) the valley is narrow and broken. Below San Fran 
cisco Creek, as far as the northern line of Webb County, it flows in a valley cut 
through the limestones and clays of the cretaceous. This valley is in places three 
or four miles in width, and the river meanders through it, leaving broad valleys on 
one side or the other, which are fertile and susceptible of irrigation by its waters. 
In other places it, too, forms canyons, and the valley and the channel are co-e.xteu- 
sive. Throughout the lower portion of this reach the river is thrown into a series 
of rapids by the beds of harder rocks forming obstructions to its flow as the gende 
dip carries them down to the water-level. Below the IMaverick-Webb county line, 
the valley, narrow in places and widening out in others, is also hemmed in by high 
hills, and the rapids continue at intervals nearly to Roma. Below Roma the river 
flows through banks of sand, limy sandstone, and silt in a channel which is continu- 
ally changing, and finally it debouches into the Gulf through a delta, as it extends 
the land area outward by the amount of sediment it carries. The Rio Grande is 
na\igable for boats of light draught as far north as Edinburg or Hidalgo, in the 
county of that name, and under favorable circumstances they ply even as high as 
Rio Grande City. 

The principal affluent of the Rio Grande in Te.xas is the Pecos River, and it ha.^ 
even been suggested that the Pecos is the older river of the two, and that the capture 
of its channel by the Rio Grande is a work of comparatively recent times. The 
head-waters of the Pecos are found in New Mexico just south of those of the 
Canadian, and as it flows southward it takes the same general course as the Rio 
Grande, and for the same reason, following the eastern flank of the mountains as 
the latter does the west and centre. 

The streams of the Reynosa are the consequence of and assistants in its erosion, 
their head-waters being now supplied from springs near its inner margin. Upon the 
elevation of the Coast Prairies their channels were extended to the Gulf. The San 
Jacinto is marked by lake conditions in the Reynosa Plain, but when it reaches the 
Coast Prairies it flows gently through banks of clay and sand to San Jacinto Bay. 
Buffalo Bayou, a stream with narrow bottoms and steep banks of clay and sand, also 
empties its sluggish waters into the same bay. 

Similar streams are the Bernards, Lavaca, Aransa.s, etc. 

Still younger are the creeks of the Coast I'rairies, which occupy positions 
betueon and parallel to the courses of the lanrer streams. 

Islands. — The fringe of islands and peninsulas along the coast are for the most 


part keys, formed by the action of the waves of the Gulf and separated from the 
mainland by sounds or bays. These inlands border the entire coast, hut e.ust of 
Galveston they occur only as shoals or drowned islands. Beginning on the east we 
have Sabine Bank, Trinity Shoal, and Ship Shoal with their connecting bars ; then 
Bolivar Peninsula, followed by Pelican Spit to Galveston. Galveston Island and an 
unnamed peninsula mark the sea-line to the mouth of the Brazos. From the head 
of Matagorda Bay the various peninsukis and islands form a line almost contimious 
to the mouth of the Rio Grande, and vessels may ply the entire distance in the 
land-locked bays and lagoons. These lagoons and bays, separating the outer fringe 
from the mainland, have a width of from ten to twenty miles. The islands are 
usually banks of sand, covered with sand dunes fifteen to twenty feet high, which 
are shifted by every wind. The longest of these islands is that extending from 
Corpus Chriati Bay to Brazos Santiago, a distance of more than one hundred miles, 
and is named Padre Island. 

Lakes. — Te.xas has no large lakes, but scattered through the various parts of 
the State there are many small bodies of water, some of which are closely connected 
with the rivers, occurring in the bottoms reached by the flood waters, or marking an 
entirely deserted channel of the stream. Others occupy depressions and are fed by 
springs or by the drainage of the surrounding country, while a few are formed in 
"sink-holes," the source of supply being not so apparent. The most of the lakes 
within the Coastal Slope are within the Lignitic Plain. Among these may be noted 
Grand Lake in Montgomery County, Clear Lake in Harris County, Eagle Lake 
in Colorado County, Espantosa Lake in Dimmit County, and many others. In 
Cameron and Hidalgo Counties there are several salt lakes, one of which is about a 
mile in diameter, and the chain of salt lakes in the basin between the Diabolo and 
Guadalupe Mountains has already been mentioned. The lakes of the Llano Estacado 
vary in size from half a mile in diameter to Sabinas Lake, in Gaines County, which 
is si.x miles long and four miles in width. These lakes are numerous, some of them, 
like the Sabinas, being salt water, but many of them are fresh, being fed by springs 
around their sides. In addition to these there are hundreds of others known as wet- 
weather l.^kes, which hold water during a portion of the year. 

A region of such extent must necesharily present great di\-ersity of climatic 
conditions. Tlvj eastern portion of the State lies within the humid belt, a large area 
in Central Te.xas is subhumid, while portions of West Texas, especially in the basin 
of the Rio Grande, are distinctly arid, some of them presenting well-marked desert 

Rainfall. — The belt of greatest rainf.ill is confined to the coastal [ilain, the 
average at GaKeston being given at 52 inches and at Palestine at 47 inches. This 
decreases southward, however, and varies greatly through diflerent years. Thus, 
the " Bulletin of the Texas Weather Service" gives the rainfall of Gaheston for 
the year 1S93 (which was extremely dry), at 35. 4S inches ; Palestine, 30. 5S inches ; 
Corpus Christi, 20.50 inches ; and Fort Brown, 14.36 inches. 

The avenge rainfall of the black -prairie region is about 35 inches, but in 
1S93 the records shuw at .\ustin only 17.77 inches; Paris, 33.70; San Antonio, 



1 1 '^/rurr^ 


18.30; and Waco, 22.13. ^^ ^^^ plateau region, the rainfall, which is usually 
somewhat smaller, especially towards the west, in the subhumid belt, has been 
considerably less for two or three years past, falling as low as 16.96 at Boerne and 
7.07 at Fort Clark, in 1S93. 

The Central-Basin Ilegion lies largely in the subhumid belt, and he a\crage 
annu.d rainfall closely appro.ximates 25 inches. In 1S93 it varied from 11.92 
at Brownwood to 21. 85 at Graham and 19. oS at All)any. The rainfall of the 
Panhandle, although usually a little under 20 inches annually, in some years neaily 
doubles that amount, 37.07 inches being reported at Fort Elliott in 18S5. 

West of the Pecos the decrease is equally marked, for, while the a'.erage of 
five years at Fort Davis gave an annual precipitation of nearly 20 inches, the aver- 
age at El Paso did not e.xceed 13 inches, and in 1893 it was only 10.86 inches. 

In a report on the rainfall of the Pacific Slope and Western States and Terri- 
tories, made in 1888, General Greely, chief signal officer, does not hesitate to ex- 
press the opinion "that the trans-Mississippi and trans-Missouri rainfall is slightly 
increasing as a whole," and states that a continuous record, kept at Austin and 
covering thirty-two years, shows that the mean rainfall during the last si.xteen years 
is 5. 1 inches greater than for the fiist sixteen. This is borne out by the records at 
Ringgold Barracks and ai Fort Bliss. An examination of this report shows that the 
least yearly rainfall known in Texas varied from 4 inches about El Paso to 40 inches 
in a narrow belt east of Dallas, while the heaviest yearly rainfall recorded gives 20 
inches on the Rio Grande, 70 inches at Houston, and 1 10 inches in Northeast Texas. 

Temperature. — The temperature varies as widely as the rainfall, the least 
variation in the extremes being in the coast country, while the greatest is in the 
trans- Pecos and Panhandle. During 1893 the mean temperature at Galveston was 
70.3°, with a minimum of 37° and a uiaximun; of 92° F. At Amarillo, with a 
mean of onlv 36.1°, a minimum of 4° was obser\'ed and a maximum of 102'' F. 
At Fort Hancock, on the Rio Gninde, the greatest variation of the year is found, 
— a minimum of 3° and a maximum of 110° F.,— although its mean is 10° below 
that of Galveston, being only 59.8° F. The following statement from the reports 
of the weather bureau gives the maxima and minima for the months of July and 
Decembi r, i.'S93, for the several places mentioned : — 

Galveston 71° 92 

Talestine yo° loc 

Austin 70° iix- 

Abilene 67° 102 

Amririllo 61° gS^^ 17' 63° 

Fort Hancock 56=' 107° 4" 76" 

The apparently higher temperature of the western part of the State is largely 
cou'iter.iclo.l by the ele\ation of the region, dryness of the atmosphere, and the 
breezes, which are continuous ; and to this must be added the fact that the 
nights are cooler than on the coast. 

The rapid changes of tempcratiuf accr,ninan\-ing the "northers" i.s a fcaturt- 
of inleresi. Fri.:n a summer lv..-at the tempcr.Uure will fall within a few hours to or 








below tlve freezing-point. These sudden extreme variations are, ho^vever, very 
rare, and are confined to the inithvinter months. Premonitions also precede them, 
well known to the olfler inhabitants, which give time for preparation to meet them. 
In pciint of salubrity the climate of Te.xas is unsurpassed, the general exhilara- 
ting b,ihniiu;:;s of tlie atmosphere frequently giving rise to the expression that "it 
is a iilca:.urc simply to live," and justly entiding the State to be called "the Italy 
of America." 


Tlu- principal forest grovvch of the State is confined to its eastern portion, the 
westward extension of the maritime or Atlantic timber belt ending about mid- 
way between the Trinity and Brazos Rivers. These forests, which are mainly of 
pines, are in three belts. The lower one, the principal growth of which is long- 
leaf pine, reaches to within twenty miles of the Gulf and is succeederl on the north 
by forests of "loblolly" pine and hard woods, and these by a belt of short-leaf 
pines and oaks, which stretches to Red River. Towards the western margin of this 
upper belt the pine disappears altogether and the forest consists of oaks, with 
hickory and ash. In the swampy bottoms bordering the eastern, gulfward-flowing 
streams, large bodies of cypress are f(jund. In their fertile, alluvial plains are also 
found elms, catalpas, wild plums, and sumach, and in many places the undetgrowth 
of vines and shrubbery is very dense. 

These forests, covering so large a portion of Eastern Texas, are the basis of a 
great lumber industry, and furnish a supply of building material not only for the 
untimbered portions of Texas, but for Kansas and other Western States as well. 

Among the evergreens none have a richer foliage than the stately magnolia, 
and the dark green of its satiny leaves forms a background well suited to the velvety 
softness of the great lilcssoms which co\ er it in the spring. 

To the west of the pineries more open forests of post, black-jack, and other 
oaks, alternating with open prairies, occupy a considerable area in the lignitic jilain, 
and continue westward to the Nueces Ri\-er in a belt twenty to fifty miles wide. 
In the midst of this, in Bastrc>p County, a small body of pine occurs. 

The fio/s d' arc is common along the banks of streams in Eastern Texas. 
Among the giants of the forest may be noted tb.e li\-e-oaks in the Colorado \alley 
near Columbus. 

The Cross-Timbers are two bodies of small, stunted, post and black-jack oaks, 
which extend in long, irregular belts from the Indian Territory south through the 
prairie region. The Lower Cross-Timbers mark the v.estern border of the Black- 
Waxy Plain from Red Ri\-er to Waco, a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, 
and their greatest width is about fifteen miles. The Upper Cross-Timbers occupy in 
a general way the area of outcrop of the trinity sands, or basal beds of the Grand 
Prairie, and the entire carboniferous area as well. They appear in the latter as 
bodies of pc>st-oak wherever the beds are siifificiently. sandy to support their growth, 
but on the more clayey soils are more scatteringly distributed. 

West of the Colorado Mexican forms of vegetation appear, and the mesquite ' 

'The mesquite is scr.idii.illy exteiidinf; its range east and south, being found cast of the 
Trinity and in th.j' Prairies.' 



.j.-^-i—Jt-..-._. .-^i-f^ 


(the beans of which are largely used as food for cattle), Mexican persimmon, 
various acacias, and other small trees take the place of Eastern forests. The river 
bottoms are for the most part well timbered with cotton-wood, elms, hackberries, 
ivillows, etc., and the pecan, which has become of considerable commercial impor- 
tance on account of its nuts, is found in the \icinity of the principal streams, as far 
west as the Devil's River. The western cedar covers the white limestone hills of 
the Colorado valley and e.xtends westward into the trans- Pecos Mountain region, 
where it is joined by the Chihuahua pine, Pignon pine, and the upland li\e-oak. 
Through the northern portion of the Stale are found bodies of shin-oak, known as 
shiimeries, having its dense growth in the beds of sand which occur at various 
localities. Throughout the cretaceous area and in part of the Reynosa Plain the 
cactacea: abound, and two-thirds of the species found are peculiar to the region. 
When grass fails for pasture the prickly pear is often the entire subsistence of the 
cattle in certain portions of the W^est. Of the woody growth may be mentioned the 
Algerita {Berbcris iri/oliala), the Texas persimmon {Rhus 7iticrophjlla) , etc. A 
small agave is common, and the resurrection plant prevails from the Devil's River 
westward. The western portion of the State, including trans-Pecos Texas, is the 
place of greatest abundance of cactaceer, both in species and in quantity, and by 
far the greater number of them are peculiar to the area. Fouquiera splcudens, 
with its long, thorny stems and clusters of scarlet flowers; grcaseweed or creosote 
bush, an ephedra, with leafless branches, and other characteristic shrubs are mingled 
with the century plant {_Ar;ave Americana), lecheguilla, and several yuccas, "which 
by reason of their numbers, size, and mode of gro\\th are striking objects in the 
floral landscape." 

In the valley of the Rio Grande the screw bean {Prosopis pubcsccns), or tor- 
nillo, is \ery common. 

In'the Rio Grande region are c/tapciyra/s or dense thickets of varii)Ui Mexican 
trees and shrubs, consisting of acaci;is, mimosa, mesquite, and many cithers, usually 
.armed with thorns often so thickly intergrown as to be almost impenetrable. 

The principal grasses are the gramma and mesquite. 

The growth of timber along the ri\-er bottoms, notably the lower reaches of 
the San Jacinto, Trinity, VJrazus, Colonido, etc., has already Ijecn mentioned in the 
description of the ri\-ers. 

The number and variety of flowers \\hich deck the jirairies or breathe out 
fragrance frum thicket, chaparral, and wood have been claimed by some to have 
gi\en the .State it.i name. While thi.^ is proliably an error, the fact remains that 
during tiie spring acre upon acre of bloom is found upon the prairies, forming 
veritable carpets of flowers, and the flowering shrubs and vines are no le;s abundant 
in various portions of the State. 


In faunal relations, as in other respects, Texas occupies a transition ground 
between the sj-'ecics of animals, birds, etc., common to the more eastern and 
northern regions and those of the Mexican pro\inces, the types of both being here 
commingled. While manv of the species of eastern and noj-thern provinces are 
cummon in the eastern poiiion of the State, they are rare in the west, and numerous 
Mexican species abundant in tlie west do not extend to the eastern or northern 


parts of the State. This is true of animals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and of land-shells. 
In addition to this, it may be noted that many of the species of birds wnich are . 
found in Te.xas present varietal characters entitling them to subspecihc rank, usuall)- 
on account of their paler (bleached-out) plumage or smaller size, sometimes both 
combined. The Te.xan " Bob White" is an example in this line, where the usual 
brown colors of the eastern species arc replaced by gray and the blacks by browns. 
It may be that closer study of these various differences will finally result in making 
the Texan region a sub-province. 

Among the mammals belonging to the Mexican province '.vhich are found in 
Te.xas may be mentioned the jaguar {C'l/cia o/ira), the ocelot {FiUs paidalis), 
armadillo {Dasvpiis pcba'), and the peccary {Dicolylcs torquatus). While these 
animals are principally confined to West and Southwest Texas, they are sometimes 
found farther east. The armadillo, which up to a few years ago was unknown east 
of the Nueces River, has now extended its range to the Brazos east of Austin. 
Formerly great herds of buffalo roamed the Western prairies, but now there 
remains only a single herd in the pasture of Colonel Goodnight, in tlie Panhandle. 
Antelope are still abundant in the western portion of the State, and black-tailed or 
mule deer and big-horn sheep are occasionally found in the mountains of traiis- 
Pecos Texas. In the more eastern part the red deer is common. The brown bear 
( Ursus Americanus) is also found there, but occurs still more abundantly in the 
forest region of East Texas. j 

Among the wolves may be noticed the lobo, or loafer, and the prairie-wolf, or 
coyote. The foxes are represented by two varieties, the red and gray, and the I 

skunks by four. The wild-cat {Lyhx rn/us) is abundant, and the civet-cat {Bas- I 

saris ashiia) is also found. The prairie-dog is so abundant as to be a public | 

nuisance, destroying the grass as badly as an overst(jcking of cattle would do. The 
Texan hare, or jack-rabbit, is very abundant. | 

Among the other animals common to Texas and the region east may be men- 
tioned the panther, beaver, squirrels of various species, gophers, badgers, opos- 
sums, raccoons, swifts, etc. 

Birds are very numerous, both in numbers and in species. Among the game i 

birds, the prairies of the coai-t and lo\\-er °ligniilc plains are at times covered witli 
wild-geese ; ducks of various kinds frequent the streams and lakes ; the pinnated 
grouse, or prairie-chicken, is found from the Gulf to the Staked Plains ; curlew, 
plover, and snipe are abundant, as are quail of different kinds ; v/ild-turkeys are 
found along the river bottoms, especially in the region of the ])ccan gro\'es. A.mong 
birds of prey are found the bald-headed eagle, the vulture or turkey-buzzard, the 
crow and raven, and various hawks and o\vIs. 

The song-birds are represented by the mocking-bird, nonpareil, 
canar)', and various warblers. 

Among the Mexican and South American birds found in Texas may be noted 
the St. Domingo grebe, California gull, black-bellied tree-duck, the jabirn, Mexi- 
can jacuna, scaled partridge. Gamble's partridge, and Massena partridge. The 
paisano, chaparral cock or road-runner, is an abundant resident. The red-billed 
pigeon, although rare, is found on the Rio Grande, and both tiie white-fronted and 
Inca doves brcid in the St.'.te. The v. hite-taiVil hawk is found from Northern to 


Southern Texas. Amon<j the casual visitors may be noted the harpy eagle, cop- 
pery-tailed trogon, Aplamado falcon, and frigate-bird. The pigmy owl is abun- 
dant and can be seen at the mouths of prairie-dog holes all over the prairie. 

Roth the Te.xan kingfisher and the Texan woodpecker are confined to the 
western portion of the State, and extend into Mexico and the Western United 
States. A Texan variety of Merrill's parauque is found along the lower Rio 
Grande. In addition to these there are several species of humming-birds, four 
of fly-catchers, the green jay (Audubon's), and the hooded oriole. The Texas 
sparrow and Sennet's warbler are West Texas forms which extend into Mexico, 
while the golden-cheeked warbler, which is common in the highlands of Guatemala, 
is known in the United States only from the cedar-brakes at New Braunfels. 

Among the reptiles are the alligator, various tortoises, numerous species of 
snakes (of which the copperhead, water-moccasin, and rattlesnake are alone con- 
sidered dangerous), the horned toad (two species), and lizards of several species. 
Among the lizards are five species belonging to the Mexican province, and one 
Mexican snake {Sibmi anntilatian') is also found in Western Texas. 

No less than two hundred and thirty species of fishes are given by Messrs. 
Evermann and Kendall ' as belonging to the Texas fauna. 

"With regard to its fresh-water fishes, Texas is chiefly remarkable for the 
abundance of species in its lowland streams. A large proportion of its species are 
confined chiefly or almost wholly to the streams of the narrow strip known as the 
coast-plains region. The lower portions of the larger streams crossing this teem 
with many species of valued food fishes, such as the channel cat, chuckle-headed 
cat, mud cat, buffalo, large- mouthed black bass (the trout of the South), \-arious 
species of sunfishcs, and the fresh-v.ater drum. . . . The coast of Texas is also 
remarkable for the number of brackisL-water species, the single family of cyprino- 
dontidee being represented by at least nineteen species, most of which are found only 
near the coast." 

Among the two hundred and thirty species enumerated are the sho\'cl-nosed 
shark, saw-fish, sting-rays, eagle-ray, sturgeon, three gars, eleven \-aricties of cat- 
fishes, suckers, pike, mullet, sea bass, snappers, red fish, croakers, flounders, etc. 
The streams of the central, northern, and northwestern portions of the State are 
well .supplied with ba-s, catfish, bufialo, .sunfish, etc. 

The invertebrate faima is equally varied. The crustaceans are represented by 
lobsters, crabs, shrimj), crawfish, and wood-lice ; the myriapeds by both millipeds 
and centipeds Spiders are abundant in species, and brilliant colors and singular 
forms are found. The tarantula is the largest and fiercest of the tribe, although 
not so venomous as often reported. Among the in; ccts are many species of neu- 
roptera, beetles, butterflies and moths, diptera, etc. 

The mollusca arc also well represented. Mr. Singley ° enumerates five hundred 
and sixty-nine species, di\idcd as follows : terrestrial species, ninety-seven ; fresh- 
water species, one hundred and twenty-iix ; marine species, three hundred and fort\-- 
six ; and he states that future collections may largely increase the latter two divisions. 

■ Bulletin of the United Stntes Fish Coniniission for TS92, pp. 57-126. "The Fishes of 
Texas :uk1 the Ri.i Grande IVisin." 

' Fourth ,-\nnu;il Report oi the Geological Sur\-ev of Texas. "Texas Molhisca," p. 300. 
Vol. II.-32 


The oyster and clam {^Grathodon ciineaid) are very abundant on the coast, 
while the streams abound in mussels, or unios, some of which, in the Colorado and 
its tributaries, have furnished pearls of good quality. 


The resources of the State from an agricultural point of view have long been 
recognized. The richness of the soil, the ease with which it can be tilled, the tem- 
perate climate permitting ficld-work to be done at almost any time, and the good 
average ro.irit":dl in that portion of the State devoted to farming have all contributed 
to this renown. Certain areas have earned high reputation for fertility or adapta- 
bility to certain crops, while others, in reality of nearly equal value, have been passed 
over almost entirely. The Black- \Va.\y Prairies of Central Texas and the bottom 
lands of the rivers have long held a pre-eminent place for fertility ; the red lands of 
East Texas and the Cross-Timbers areas have become noted as fruit-growing lands ; 
but it is only lately that the Coast Prairies and the lands of Northwest Texas have 
attracted the attention they deserve and have begun to be utilized. 

Soils. — The alluvial soils, or those of the bottom lands, are of every possible 
variety, from the black hammock of the smaller streams to the chocolate loams of 
the larger, but all alike are of great fertility. The principal bodies of these soils are, 
of course, connected with the river systems — Red, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, Gua- 
dalupe, and Nueces ; yet there are valuable bodies also along the minor streams. 
These lands have been formed from the materials deri\'ed from the different beds 
over which the rivers flow in their upper reaches, mingled with animal and vegeta- 
ble matter carried down and deposited in the less rapid waters and broader chan- 
nels of the lower coimtry. In many places they are still subject to periodical inun- 
dations, and the materials deposited at such times are in themselves fertilizers of 
value. Such deposits, half an inch or more in thickness, have been made by a 
single inundation, and the depth of fifty feel, which is clai:ned for the alluvial soil 
of the Brazos in the "sugar-bowl," shows the possibility of indefinite culti\'ation 
without impoverishment. 

Of all these alluvial soils that of the Brazos is considered the most valuable, 
both for fertilitv and endurance. It is the most extensive body in the State, and 
will compare favorably in all respects with the richest alluvial land in the world. 
The valley has a length of about three hundred miles and its width in this distance 
will average four miles. The principal soil is a chocolate loam, which occurs in 
belts from r>ne-half mile to one mile in width, and is regarded as the best on 
account of its perfect drainage, easy tillage, and great fertilit_\-. Cane-brakes, a 
dense timber <:rowth, and bowers of grape-vines almost cover the land. It shows 
no diminution of fertility after fifty years of culti\'ation. The soil of the ash and 
elm lantls in the Coastal Slope is not nuich esteemed, but the black peach-soil, 
named from its abundant growth of wild peach, is easily tilled and especially 
adapted for sugar-cane. The otlv. r soils vary not only with the ilifterent com- 
position of the materials of the various plains, but through the modihcations of 
these materials from subsequent submergence, erosion of overlying beds, and local 
transportation by both water and winds. 

While there are large areas of residual soils, or those dcri\'ed directly \rQn\ 


the underlying- rock materials, each belt of which is therefore dependent on and 
characteristic of the plain in which it occurs, there are also those which ha\e been 
derived from other sources, but the study of the geology of the State has not yet 
proceeded far enough to thoroughly classify them. The soil of the Coastal Plain 
is usually a sandy loam, with subsoil of red or yellow clay. This is almost all 
suscejjtible of cultivation when properly drained, and portions of it are very fer- 
tile. The farms between Galveston and Houston show its especial adaptability to 
fruit culture and for market gardening. When the underlying clays come to the 
surface, residual soils of black, waxy character are found, especially west of the 
Brazos. The Reynosa Plain has a black, sandy soil in the eastern portion of 
the State, which is replaced beyond the Brazos by chocolate loam and black, 
waxy lands covered in places by brown sand. These are also fertile soils. The 
black prairies of Washington and Fayette Counties occur in this belt, but are 
probably closely akin to the coast clays. The Timber-Belt Plain has soils of 
various characters. The uplands of much of the pine region are covered with 
gray sand of little fertility, but the lowlands and valleys, with their sandy loams, 
are very productive, although usually not so enduring as some other soils. In the 
area underlaid by the marine division of this plain are the red lands of East 
Texas, long noted for their richness and adaptability to fruit culture. 

The black, waxy soils, comprising the main prairies of that name and a 
smaller strip of similar character just east of the Lower Cross-Timbers, have for years 
been recognized as one of the finest bodies of agricultural land known. They are 
almost entirely prairie soils, and take their name from their waxy character when 
wet. While more difficult to till than some of the lighter soils, their fertility and 
endurance are such as to make them the favorite outside the bottom lands, even if 
they do not rival these in popularity. 

The soils of the Grand Prairie are for the most part shallow and rockv. Where 
they are of sufficient extent for cultivation they usually consist of chocolate loams. 

The soils of the Central-Basin Region also vary according to the character of 
rock materials underlying them. The hill-tops are usually sandy, while the valleys 
have red soils and the mesquitc fl.its a very productive, dark, stiff, or waxy clav. 
Farther v. est the chocolate loam predominates and forms the wheat soil of the 
Panhandle country. 

The soil of the Llano Estacado is chiLtly of a brown loam, sometimes sandy, 
and well adapted for farming or fruit culture. The mesas and flats of trans-Pecos 
Texas ha\-e soils which arc sufficiently rich to guarantee fine production if sufficient 
moisture can be supplied. They are red sands or sandy loams. 

Corn, oats, and cotton are grown almost everywhere, the latter having been 
successfully raised even in the Panhandle. The adaptability of the coast country 
for sugar and rice culture has been fully proven, as has that of the more northern 
portions for wheat. Tobacco is also being successfully grown in several counties of 
East Texas. ■ Xcarly all the field crops of the United St.ites can be grown some- 
where within the borders of the-State. 

Melons of diitercnt kinds find here their highest development, and by suitable 
selection of location almost every fruit and vegetable of temperate or subtropic 
chinato in;iy be grown. Year by > ear the growth of vegetables for foreign markets 


is on the increase, and carload after carload is shipped northward weeks before they 
are in the market from any other source. 

Irrigation. — Irrigation was first introduced into Texas by the founders of the 
Missions. Of the ditches constructed by them for this purpose those on the San An- 
tonio and Rio Grande are still in use, but those farther eastward fell into disuse with 
the abandonn\eat of the Missions and have little left to even mark their location. 

-Along- the Rio Grande ditches have been added from lime to time, until water 
is now bein;; taken out for irrigation purpi ises at a number of places, and near its 
mouth there is a sugar plantation of considerable size which is under irrigation by 
water from the river. Numerous projects for increasing the acreage of irrigable 
lands in its valley are in contemplation, the principal of which are those in the 
vicinity of El Paso and above Eagle Pass. The ditches on the San Antonio River 
have also been increased and the area under irrigation considerably enlarged, but it 
is nowhere practised to the extent which the volume of the water and the available 
land render possible. 

Irrigation has been practised to some extent in LLmo and adjoining counties, 
but the ditches are small and of very limited capacity. In Tom Green County, 
however, irrigation from the Conchos has attained somewhat larger proportions and 
has been quite successful. 

On the Leona, below Uvalde, several irrigation enterprises have been projected. 
One of these was the growth of sugar-cane by irrigation. Works were constructed, 
sugar-houses built, and the experiment given a trial, but it did not prove a success- 
ful venture ; partly, at least, from lack of proper transportation facilities at the time 
of its operation, and the work was abandoned. At present the only irrigation of 
any extent on the Leona is at Batesville, the results being sulTicient to convince the 
most skeptical of its value, for during the past three years, when the surrounding 
country vv-as parched with drought, this locality has been a veritable oasis. Excel- 
lent results have also been obtained at E'el, where ^\■aler from San Felipe 
Springs is used to irrigate the valley between Del Rio and the Rio Grande. The 
land which can be irrigated amounts to five thousand or six thousand acres, and 
such a thing as failure of crops is unknown. 

Among ilie largest works in the State are those on the Pecos River, above 
Pecos City, and there are a few others in different portions of the State, but tlie 
aggregate is by no means what it should be under prevailing conditions. 

The future of Texas is largely bound up in the develojmient of irrigation, and 
the possibilities of agricultuie in the subhmnid and arid portions of the State under 
its influence can hardly be overestimated. In these regiims there are many streams 
which can be dammed and their flood-waters stored for use in the adjacent valleys ; 
ravines and caiiyons otter like favorable opportunities in many parts of the State, 
and, by taking advantage of these, many places which under existing conditions are 
little better than desert lands can be made into perfect garden-spots. 


The a\ailabk' artesian water-supply of the State is confined to the Coastal .Slope. 
While a feu- flnving wells occur in the northern basin, they are so highly charged 
with saline matter that tlioy cannot be used for ordinary purposes. In the coastal 


area, however, the dip of the rock material gulhvard, or in the same direction as 
the slope of the country, and at a slightly greater angle ; the alternations of the 
porous, sandy beds with clayey or other impervious strata ; the lack of disturbance 
or deeply eroded channels, and the heavy rainfall, are circumstances which furnish 
ideal conditions of artesian water-supply. While flowing wells caimot be had 
throughout the entire area, a large portion of it is underlaid by these valuable 
water-beds, and at many places two, three, or more flows can be had from different 

The principal water-bearing sands are the following : — 

Productive in Coast Prairies { l^J f ^>-"°^'1 ^f'' } • Neocene. 

I. The Lapara beds. > 

■ r The Fayette sands. \ 

Productive in Lignitic Plain -j The Marine beds. >■ . Eocene. 

V The Carrizo sands. J 

The Lower Cross-Timl.ier sands 
The Palu.xy sands. 
The Trinity s.inds. 

Productive in Black and Grand Prairies . \ The Palu.xy sands. r Cretaceous. 

In addition to these there are beds of sand in the coast clays and other di\i- 
sions which furnish sniall flows, and flowing wells from the sandy 
limestone between the Palu.xy and Trinity sands are not uncommon. 

The different beds of sand outcrop, or appear as the surface rock, in bands of 
v;irying width, rudely parallel to the Gulf coast. They are separated from each 
other by broad bands of clays, sandy clays, and limestones. The rainfall of the 
area is in part absorbed by the porous beds and carried downward towards the 
Gulf between the under and upper clays, or other impervious rocks, and furnishes 
a v,ater-supp!y as long as it can be reached by boring. The wells nearest the 
area of out-crop and at the same general elevation are negative, non-tlowing, or 
surface wells, while those farther south and at lower levels us>ially give excellent 

The \\-ater-bcaring sands neaiest the coast arc those of the Reynosa division. 
comprising the orange-colored beds cf Willis, Hempstead, Alleytoii, and elsewhere 
in East Texas, and their more limy and therefore whiter extension to the west, as 
seen at Beeville, San Diego, and elsewhere. In the east the water gotten from 
these sands is usually of excellent quality, if the wells be not bored directly on the 
Gulf coast ; but on the coast they generally yield salt water, and the same is true 
of some of the uells in the southwest. The area in w hich u;iter is to be expected 
from these sands is that of the Coast Prairies. A local thinning out, change of 
character, or induration of the water-bearing bed may occur here or there, but in 
the greater part of the area water can be obtained from them, and at places less 
than fifty feet above the Gulf flowing wells may be secured at depths of from one 
hundred and fifty to one thousand feet and over, depending upon the portion of tlie 
country, distance from outcrop, etc. To these water-beds we owe the line flowing 
Wells at Houston and in the country between that city nnd Gah'cston, as well as 
ui.inv others to the east and west. 


The Lapara beds arc also water-bearing, consisting as they do of sand with 
balls, strings, and beds oi clay, but the water they afford is almost always salty. 
This is especially noticeable along the Nueces River, south of Oakville, for along 
that stream almost every spring and sipe which comes from these sands is brackish 
or sulphurous. Therefore, while the inclination of the beds carry them below the 
Coast Prairies, and they could probably be reached at much less depth than is 
sometimes attempted for artesian water, they are not likely to prove of use. These 
sands were those reached in the Galveston deep well, between one thousaud five 
hundred and ten and two thousand nine hundred and twenty feet. 

The P'ayctte sands, as has been stated in the descrijition of the Coastal Plain, 
extend from Rockland on the Neches by Riverside, La Grange, and Tilden to the 
Rio Grande. They are more indurated in places than are either of the two pre- 
ceding beds, but in many places the sands and sandstones are sufficiently porous to 
carry a good supply of water. So far few wells have been sunk into these sands to 
prove their water-bearing character, but the water, while doubtless saline or sul- 
phurous in some of the sands, from the mineral matter contained in them, should 
be of excellent quality from other beds which are comparatively free from such 
impurities. They were not reached by the Galveston well. 

The Marine beds contain beds of sand which have been proved by actual 
borings to be water-bearing. Indeed, nearly all of the flowing wells west of the 
Nueces derive their supply from them. This includes the well at Pleasanton and 
those of Frio County, which, although somewhat saline, are nevertheless made use 
of. Similar wells may be obtained throughout the lowlands of the entire broun sand- 
stone area, and, while the water is not the best, it is fairly good in many places, 
and will afford stock-water at least in others. Besides, if better water be wanted, it 
can be procured throughout the same area by sinking deeper wells into the red and 
white sands of the Queen City beds or Carrizo sands. These beds forni a clear and 
distinct horizon from Cass County in the northeast to Carrizo Springs in the west, 
at which place artesian water was first secured from them. They lie between the 
gray sands of the lignite beds and the basal clays of the Marine beds, and, although 
sometimes mineralized in their upper portion, as a rule furnish excellent v.-ater. 
The only flowing well in Western Texas which these sands supply, with the excep- 
tion of the Carrizo Springs district, is that at Cotulla. This well, ten hundred and 
twenty feet deep, only reaches the upper portion of the beds, and the water is 
impregnated with common, Epsom, and Glauber salts. Better water could probably 
have been secured from fifty to two hundred feet lower. These Carrizo sands are 
destined to be great water-fmnishers for the ^■alley of the Nueces and its tributaries. 

The Eowc-r Cross-Timber sands, as the name indicates, are those on which arc 
found the strip of scattered forest stretching southward from Red River to Waco. 
South of the Brazos the sands are replaced by clays. These sands greatly resemble 
those of the Marine beds not only in appearance, but in mineral contents, and the 
water from them is, therefore, frequently more or less saline. It is from these beds 
that the non-flowing wells at DeniSon, the flowing wells of Dallas, and very many 
others north of the Brazos are supplied. 

The shallow fl-nvs at F.irt Worth and elsewhere in the same region are from 
the Pakixy sands, a bed \s liich, in the Red River region, is scarce!)- separable from 


the Trinity. Southward, however, a wedge of sandy limestones, the Glen Rose beds, 
gradually separates the two, until finally, in the neighborhood of Austin, the upper 
or Paluxy sand disappears as such, being merged into the sandy limestone. The 
flows from this bed are sometimes very strong, as shown by the well at Marlin and 
the first flows of the Waco wells. The water, however, is often sulphurous and con- 
tains both salt and Glauber's salt ; so that it is frequently necessary to cut oft this 
tlow by piping through it and going still deeper to the underlying Trinity sands for 
water of a satisfactory quality. 

Like the Lower, the Trinity or Upper Cross-Timber sands owe their name to 
the timber belt which occupies a portion of their outcrop. They are the greatest 
of all our water-bearing beds, and the wells already flowing from them furnish a 
volume of water exceeding that of many of our rivers. Not only so, but from 
them also arise the great springs which issue from the line of faulting beginning 
at Belton and stretching westward via Austin along the Balcones ; and the San 
Marcos, and other rivers to the west, all have their origin in the waters gushing 
upward from those sands through natural artesian wells made by this line of fract- 
ure and faulting. The water from it is pure and practically free from mineral taint, 
and the supply has proved abundant. Flows have been secured throughout a large 
part of the Fort Worth division of the Grand Prairie and nearly to the eastern 
^(\^ii of the black prairie east of it. South of the Colorado no wells are known 
sa\x' those of San Antonio which have their supply from it, but others can be 
gotten. In the Plateau Region, while it will furnish all necessary water, flowing 
wells can be secured only at a few places. 


Although the agricultural resources of Texas arc very great, they are rivalled 
by the deposits of useful minerals, which are not only varied in kind, but occur in 
deposits of such richness and extent that their utilization can hardly be much longer 
delayed. Their present undeveloped condition is not due to any deficiency of the 
minerals and ores, either in quantity or quality, but rather to a lack of effort or, in 
some cases, to misdirected effort. Attcmjjts at their development properly directed 
have been successful, and mines and manufactories arc now being operated with 
profit in different parts of the, but these are insignificant compared to the 
possibilities. While private exploration and enterprise have done much to call 
attention to this wealth of minerals, it has been the work of the Geological Survey to 
dt;termine what minerals occur in workable quantities, their locatiini, extent, and 
quality, and, although much has already been accomplished, the investigation is by 
no means complete 

Of the metallic minerals, ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, man- 
ganese, and, probably, bismuth exist in workable quantities. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc. — The precious metals, gold and 
silver, occur botli free or "native," and also in connection with the ores of copjjer, 
lead, and zinc. The deposits- of these ores are confined to two well-defined but 
widely separated districts, outside of which there is little hope of finding them in 
qu.intitics sufficient to repay the cost of mining. One of these, comprising Llano, 
Ma,on, witii parts of Burnet, San Saba, McCulloch, Gillespie, and Bianco Counties 


in Central Texas, is called the Central Mineral Region, while the other, including 
the counties of El Puso, Jeff Davis, Presidio, Bucliel, and Foley, lying between tlie 
Pecos and Rio Grande, in the extreme western portion of the State, has bt-en 
named the trans- Pecos Region. 

The mountain peaks and ranges of the trans-Pecos district are, as has beep 
stated, a part of the great Rocky Mountain range Ciossing from Colorado and New 
Mexico into the republic of Mexico. Composed of similar rock materials, the 
Texan portion contains also the same character of mineral deposits. The surface 
indications of the metalliferous veins are numerous, easily distinguishable, and con- 
tinuous over considerable distances. These indications consist of iron outcrops or 
gossan, quartz veins from a few inches to more than fifty feet in width, outcrops of 
spars, etc. 

In the Quitman Mountains free gold has been found in the outcrops of fissure 
veins in the granitic rocks and in float specimens, one of the latter assaying as 
much as seventeen ounces per ton. Akhough the prospects are so flattering, no 
work of any consequence has yet been done. 

Free gold also occurs in small quantities in the sands of Sandy Creek, Llano 
County, in the Colorado River, and in a few other localities, but at these places the 
quantity seems to bo too small to warrant mining. 

Native silver occurs in the trans-Pecos region, and has been mined for several 
years at the Presidio and Cibolo Mines, near Shatter, in Presidio County, the mills 
of which have a capacity of one thousand ounces per day. These may be said to 
be the first well-equipped and successful mines in the State. It is also found as 
wire silver, in small quantities, in cc>nnection with the copper ores of the Hazel 
Mine, in the Diabolo Mountains of El Paso County. 

The principal deposits of the precious metals, however, will probably be found 
in connection with the ores of copper, lead, zinc, and iron. 

In the Quitman range, as well as in the adjacent mountains, the veins show, 
at and near the surface, small quantities of copper carbonates or galena, sometimes 
both. Somewhat lower down galena forms the body of the ore, but is gradually 
replaced in part by blende or zinc sulphide as greater depths are reached. Nu- 
merous pruspecting shafts have ben sunk in region, and some rire has been 
shipped by the Bonanza, Alice Ray, and others of the- bctter-de\-eloi)C(l mines. 
They are not now in active operation, because of the lack of suitable reduction- 
works \iithin shipping distance and the refractory character of the ore. 

In the Carrizo Mountains there are also a number of prospect sliafts, or rather 
"scratches," some of them showing impregnations of copper carbonates and an 
iron lead, which in places carrier, gold and silver. 

In the Diabolo Nfountains and foot-hills there are very well deiined leads, 
showing copper carbonates in the upper portion, passing into sulphides as moderate 
depth is attained. The Hazel Mine in this range is one of the best-developed mines 
in the district. -The main shaft is about six hundred feet in depth, with cross-cuts 
and drifts. The principal ores are copper glance and gray copper, both silver 
bearing, — silver glance and native silver. The gray copper has yielded assays up 
to two thousand ounces of silver to the ton, and some of tiie copper glance has ex- 
ceeded six lu'.ndred ounces of sih'er per ton. 


While the Eagle Mountains do not show as favorable indications as the Quit- 
man or Sierra Diabolo, there has been some prospecting done, which shows the 
existence of small quantities of galena. 

In the Apache or Davis Mountains a little prospecting has been done, but the 
indications of ore deposits are somewhat obscured by the la\a-tiuws, and for that 
reason their \-aliie is not so readily determinable. 

The Mount Ord range contains large ferruginous leads, assays from which 
show the presence of silver, and prospect shafts luue disclosed fair veins of silver- 
bearing lead ore near the surface. 

The Chinati Mountains, or, as they were formerly known, the Sierra Pilares, 
in Presidio County, have, in addition to the silver deposits at Shafter, veins of 
galena which are silver-bearing, and also some ores containing bismuth. While 
prospecting has shown that these are probably in paying quantities, no develop- 
ment has so far been had, except the mines at Shafter, to which reference has 
already been made. 

The mountain ranges to the south and east have not been so thoroughly ex- 
amined, but from specimens collected the existence of ore deposits containing the 
precious metals with copper and lead is a certainty. 

In the Central Mineral Region nothing like systematic mining for the precious 
metals, lead, or copper has been attempted. Zinc is almost entirely wanting in 
this district. The copper deposits are directly connected with the oldest rocks 
of the region, and not only are veins found showing impregnations of the copper 
carbonates, but the sulphides, such as bornite, chalcopyrite, etc., occur, usually 
carrying silver or gold, or both. Much prospecting has been done on these de- 
posits, but up to this time no mines of value have been developed. While the 
indications are favorable for the occurrence of copper in workable quantities, a dif- 
ferent manner of work from the desultory prospecting hitherto carried on will be 
required to show what really can be depended on. The same may be said regard- 
ing the deposits of lead in this region. Hand specimens of both these metals give 
high assays for gold and silver, while others contain none at all. 

Copper is also found in the Permian formation, or the "red beds" of North- 
vest Texas, where it occurs in three belts, extending from the Brazos to Red 
River. The ore does not occur in veins, but is a deposit in beds of clay, which 
are from two to four feet in thickness, and tlie copper is irregularly distributed 
through them. It is sometimes found in a pseudomorphic form where the sul- 
phide of copper has replaced the fibre of the wood. In other j^laces it occurs in 
nests of rounded nodules, and at some localities the clay bed is so impregnated 
as to form a low-grade ore, analyses showing from one to four per cent, of coppi-r. 
Silver is sometimes found in the ore. It has not been developed to any extent 
as yet, but if suitable methods of concentration be found it may become the basis 
of a considerable industry. 

Iron.-^Outsideof the trans-Pccos region, the iron ores of which have not been 
examined, there are two other districts in which they are known to be in workable 
quantities, — the Central Mineral Region and the Iron-ore Region of East Texas. 

The ores of the East Texas region are all limonites or hvdrated peroxides, 
and occur in bed^ in the tertiary di-posits. The two principal kinds are the lami- 


nated and geode ores. The former, which was possibly the earher in time of 
de])osition, is foimd in beds from one to four feet in thickness, lying almost hori- 
zontally, and forming the tops of many of the hills. The geodc ores, which occur 
at a .slightly later stage in the deposits, are in beds of considerable thickness. This 
character of ore is most plentiful in the northern portion of the region, while the 
laniinated orej predominate iu the southern part. It has been demonstrated, by 
actually tracing them out, that workable deposits of these ores cover an area of more 
than one thousand square miles. 

The efforts ar development have met with various degrees of success. In the 
fifties the first furnace was erected in Cass County b)- Mr. Nash, and was run 
successfully for several years. In iSoi, the eighth legislature, by joint resolution, 
invited the government of the -Southern Confederacy to consider the propriety 
and Importance of establishing "foundries" and manufactories in this region for 
the manufacture of ordnance and arms. In response to this invitation the Con- 
federate government took charge of some of the furnaces already in operation and 
ran them for the purpose indicated. Others were erected in various localities, 
and gun-b:..rrtls and other munitions were manufactured. A few other furnaces 
were erected during the period by private capital, and thus the total number 
was considerably increased, although the output of iron was comparatively small, 
on account of the small size of the works. These furnaces — or bloomaries, for 
the most of them were of this character — made an iron from the rich ores of this 
region whicli was verj' malleable and tough, and in travelling through the country 
to-day there is frequently found articles in daily use among the farmers which they 
claim were made directly from the ore at the ' ' Foundry, ' ' as the furnaces were always 
called. There are records of the following bloomaries or furnaces besides that of 
Mr. Nash, already mentioned : Sulphur Fork Iron Company, located just west of 
Springdale; Hughes' Furnace, one and one-half mile^ southeast of Hughes' Springs ; 
Young's Iron Worl-cs, eight miles southeast of Jacksonville ; Phillcti's Iron \Vorks, 
eight miles south of Rusk ; Nechesville Bloomary, near Nechesville ; and the Kick- 
ajioo Bloomary, six miles from Linn Flat. There may have been one or two others, 
but no record of them has been obtained. Some of these were burned previous to 
or ab.Hit thr time of the fall of ihc Confedi;racy ; o.-.e ur two continued operations 
for a fev,- vcars afterward, but v.-ere finally abandoned. 

In 1870, the Kelleyville Furnace, situated five miles north of Jefferson, was put 
in blast and run until 18S6, when it was closed down. 

The "Old Alcaide" Furnace, of twenty-ti\-e tons' caj^acity, at the Rusk 
Pcnitentian.-, went into blast in No\ember, 1SS5, and has run every year since 
that time. The most notable work of this furnace, which is run with convict 
labor, is the castings which were furnished for the new capitol building, including 
the artistic architectural work of the pillars for the first, second, and third floors. 
A pipe foundry is run in connection with this furnace, using its product without 
rcmclting. In 1S92 a new [lipe foundry was built, \,'ith a cajiacity of seventy-five 
tons per day. The pig-iron made at present is largely used in the manufacture 
of car-wheels, for which purpose it is especially well adapted. 

* The I^one Star Iron C(inipan\- pr Jefferson operate a furnace of si.vty tons' 
capacity, which iirst went into l.ilast on March 15, 1891, and has bee-n run each 


year since. The iron is reported excellent for the manufacture of car-wheels and 
also for general foundr_\- purposes. 

The ores of this region are conijiaratively free from phosphorus and sulphur 
and are easily reduced, the yield at the " Old Alcalde' ' Furnace being forty-eight to 
fifty per cent, of iron from the roasted ore. 

Since coke is not available, all the furnaces use charcoal for fuel, and the cost 
of this is the stumbling-block which has so far prevented the development which 
would otherwise fuue resulted from the existence of so large a bod\- of such excel- 
lent ore. 

The ores of the Central Mineral Region comprise magnetites, hematites, and 
the various hydrated sesquio.xides of iron usually included under the general name 
of limonites or brown hematites. 

The magnetites occur in connection with the oldest rocks of the region, in 
several well-defined bands or belts which have a general northwest and southeast 
course. Seven of these bands have been recognized and mapped, and the ores 
found in them are shown, by analyses made by the chemists of the State Sur\-ey, 
to be equal to any in America. They are, in fact, high-grade Bessemer ores, 
containing only traces of phosphorus and sulphur, and with a percentage of 
metallic iron ranging as high as sixty-eight per cent. A considerable amovmt of 
prospecting has been done by use of diamond-drill and cross-cuts and pits at 
numerous locations along the central and western portion of the area. The Olive 
Mine is located near the town of Bessemer, on the Austin and Northwestern Rail- 
road, and has already reached a depth of two hundred and fifty feet. Machinery for 
pumping and hoisting has been erected, and the company is making arrangements 
forshipjiing the ore. 

Connected with the basa! cambrian rocks are e.xtensi\'e deposits of comminuted 
s;mdy ores, which were derived from the magnetites by erosion along the early Cam- 
brian sea-shore. While these ores occur only in patches, it is probable that some 
of them will be found to be workable. The soft ores or limonites, while not always 
abundant enough to sustain a metallurgic industry by themselves, may become im- 
]iortant sources of revenue in addition to the other iron ores. They are directly 
connected with the magnetites, and occur in veins, many of which have been traced 
and mapped by the Geological Survey. 

Th.e qu.ility of these ores, taken in connection with the evidences of adequate 
supply, warrants the statement that this region must be the seat of a ver)- important 
iron industry if the proper fuel-supply can be developed within a reasonable distance ; 
and, even if that be impossible, the quality of the magnetites themselves will ensure 
their being mined and shi[)ped to such places as may have the necessary fuel. 

It may be noticed in this connection that the distance by rail from Llano to 
Birmingham, Alabama, is a thousand miles less than the point from which the hard 
ores of Lake Superior are now shipped to those furnaces.' 

Manganese. — Manganese ores occur both in the Central Mineral Region and 
u\ trans- Pecos Texas, but the' latter have not yet been examined. The ores of the 

' ' \~'>r the details of these deposits, with the analyses of the various kinds of ore, reference 
U tn:i.k- t.) llv Fir^t .\iuiiial Report of llie (^colo-ical Survey of Texas, pp. 34S c/ scy., and the 
.Second Annual Report of the Geological .Survey of Texas, pp. 60S fi srf. 


Central Mineral Region are associated with the older rocks and dip at various 
angles, sometimes standing almost vertically. The ores occur botii as oxides aiul 
silicates, although the latter are not available at present for use as a source of man- 
ganese. They are found in the enclosing rock as lenticular layers varying from a 
few inches to several feet in thickness. They have been prospected at the Spiller 
Mine in Mason County by sinking shafts and diamond-drill borings, with the result 
of proving clearly that the deposit is workable both in quality and extent. Other 
localities which have been prospected nre the Kothmann tract, Horse Mountain, and 
certain places in Blanco County. In addition to these, deposits of manganese ores 
also occur in many places in veins as a constituent of limonitic iron ores. 

Tin. — This metal occurs atone or two localities in the Central Mineral Region, 
and also among the ores of the trans- Pecos area, but nowhere has a workable 
quantity been found up to the present time. 

Coal. — The development of a country depends to a large extent upon the 
existence in it of an adequate fuel-supply. While wood, when sufficiently abundant, 
may answer for fuel up to a certain point, manufactures and industrial operations 
require a more concentrated and better combustible, such as can only be found in 
the fossil fuels which occur at many different horizons from the carboniferous to the 
present, the older, as a rule, being the better ; but even the youngest, under proper 
conditions, can be made serviceable. The aggregate area which is underlaid by 
beds of fossil fuel in Te.xas is very large. In the northern central i>ortion of the State 
the coal measures occupy an area of several thousand square miles. In the vicinity 
of Eagle Pass, on the Rio Grande, there is a second basin belonging to the upper 
part of the cretaceous formation. A third, but as yet only partially explored, basin 
of similar age occurs on the Rio Grande border, in Presidio County ; but V^vfar the 
most extensive beds are those occurring in the tertiary area, which stretches en- 
tirely across the State from Red River to the Rio Grande. 

The coal of the first three basins may be classed as bituminous, while that of 
the tertiary is known as brown coal and lignite. 

In the Central Coal-Field, by which name we know the region underlaid by 
the true coal measures, there are nine distinct seams of coal, two of which at least 
are of workable thickness and of good quality, and a third appears in places to be 
of sufficient thickness to give it economic value. 

The first seam appears at the surface in Wi=;c County, some eight miles west of 
Decatur. Its line of outcrop continues in a southwestern direction nearly to the 
southwest corner of that county, when it turns more sharply westward and appears 
in the southeastern portion of Jack County. Thence it crosses into Palo Pinto, 
near the northeast corner of the county, and its various outcrops appear in a south- 
southwest direction entirely across this county and down into Erath, until it finally^ 
disappears beneath the white limestone hills of the cretaceous and is found no 
more. On this seam are located several mines and prospect holes, among which 
may be mentioned tl-ose of \\'ise County Coal Company, Mineral Wells Coal Com- 
pany, the Lake Mine, Carson & Lewis's, Adair Coal Crmipany, and Texas and 
Pacific Coal Company, Of these the latlcr has a cajucity of two thousand tons 
per d.iy. 

The second seam is llrst observed outcropping near Bowie, in Montague 



':. t 




fc^^kiA../;..--^,.^ . 


Count)-. I'""r(im this point it bends southwestvvard, passing- north of Jacksboro, 
tiirouyh Belknap, when it tarns south, running just west of Eliasville, by Crystal 
Falls and Breckenridge, to and south of Cisco, when it, too, passes under the cre- 
taceous ridge. South of tliis ridge the scam appears again on Pecan Bayou, in 
Coleman County, and from this point the outcrops e.vtend in a southerly direction by 
Santa Anna Mountain to Waldrip, in McCuUoch County. The Stephens Mine, in 
Montague County, and various prospects in Jack County are on this seam. Con- 
siderable work has been done in Young and Stephens Counties, 'but lack of trans- 
portation facilities has prevented the mines being opened. The seam becomes 
thinner and much poorer towards Cisco, graduating into a material little better 
than bituminous shale. On the southern portion of this seam, where it again 
becomes of good quality, numerous prospecting shafts have been sunk, as at Wal- 
drip, on Bull Creek and Home Creek, and at the Silver Moon Mine, north of 
Santa Anna Mountain. Preparations are now being made to oyjcn a mine at Rock- 

The thickness of the two seams is about equal, averaging some thirty inclies. 
They are also similar in having usually one or more partings of clay or slate an inch 
or more in thickness. The beds dip towards the west or northwest not more than 
sixty feet per mile, and as the surface of the countr}^ rises ve:-y gradually in that 
direction it will be possible to secure coal from the beds for a considerable distance 
west of tliese outcrops at less than six hundred feet in depth. Their linear outcrop 
is fully two hundred and fifty miles in length, and if they be workable for ten miles 
west of the line of outcrop they have an area of two thousand five hundred square 
miles of coal land. Even if only two-fifths of this prove ad-npted to coal-mining, 
it gives a thousand square miles, e.ich of which is underlaid by two million five 
hundred thousand tons of coal. 

While the quality varies considerably in places, careful selection results in a 
fuel giving perfectly satisfactory resul's. Its value as a steaming coal has been 
thoroughly proved by the Texas and Pacific Railroad. Its coking qualities, 
although only tested once in a practical way, seem to be excellent. 

The Eagle Pass Coal-Field has a probable area, according to Mr. J. Owen, 
of one hundred and tu enty square miles. The coal, which is of cretaceous age, 
has a dip towards the southeast and a measured thickness in the mine of over 
four feet. Tlie Hartz Mine, located about four m.iles above Eagle Pass, has been 
in operation for a number of years, with an average output of about twenty thou- 
sand tons annually. The coal has been used principally by the Southern Pacific 
Railway. About three years ago that company commenced work on the western 
extension of the same coal-field in Mexico. A boring at Eagle Pass proves the 
extension of this coal-seam in that direction. It was found at a dei)th of five hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. While somewhat friable, this coal, when properly selected, 
is an excellent fuel. 

The Caj)ote basin lies in the ^-allcy of the Rio Grantle, between the Chinati 
and Eagle Mountains. The coal mined at San Carlos is of the same age as that 
at Eagle Pass, but seems harder and not quite so friaVjle. The workable coal 
lies in two benches separated b)' a 3(.-am of slate of \-ariahle thickness. In the 
dilturent tunnels examined, the lower bencli, which is the harder coal, has an 


average thickness of two feet or o\-er, and the upper was fully as thick. In places 
this widens out to a total of si.x fet-t or more. The partiii.cj is not so thick but 
that both benches can easily be mined together. While the western portion of 
the valley is very much broken and faulted, that part in which the work is being 
done, and from which the coal dips back into the mountains, seems to be perfectly 
regular in its stratification and undisturbed by faulting, although a monoclinal fold is 
seen towards its southern end. The average dip is to the northeast at an angle of 
five degrees. 

Trial of the San Carlos coal for- steaming purposes has been made on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, and it proved satisfactory. Tests of the coking qualities 
of the lower bench have been made with good results, and will be followed by others 
in ovens built at the niines. 

So far as could be determined by a rajjid e.xamination, this deposit of coal, on 
account of its quality and extent, as well as from its location in a region otherwise 
practically destitute of fuel, must f>rove to be a prominent factor in the development 
of the western portion of the State. Specimens of similar coal from t«-o other 
localities in the same region have been obtained, but the deposits have not yet 
been satisfactorily examined. 

The beds of brown coal and lignite are found in connection with the deposits 
of the tertiary age, which stretch across the State between the main Black-Waxy 
Prairies and the coast. While the brown-coal beds have not been found every- 
where u ithln this area, their existence is known in more than fifty counties. 

The bes.t, and probably the largest deposits as well, are found in connection 
with that division of the tertiary named from their abundance in it, the Lignitic. 
The known occurrences begin in Bowie County near Red River, and e.xtend south- 
west through the counties of Cass, Marion, Harrison, Morris, Titus, Hopkins, 
Camp, Upshur, Wood, Raines, Van Zandt, Smith, Henderson, Anderson, Free- 
stone, Limestone, Leon, Robertson, Milam, Lee, Bastrop, and Caldwell. P"rom 
this point the deposits are not very well known until Atascosa and Medina Counties 
are reached, where again the coal is found and can be followed \\est to the northern 
part of Zavalla, and through Dimmit and Webb Counties to the Rio Grande. The 
existence of the brown coal and lignite tiiroughout this area is shown by many out- 
croppings and numerous well-borings, in addition to the mines which ha\e been 
opened on it. The coal itself resembles most closely the brown coals of Bohemia. 
It occurs in beds more or less lenticular, perhaps, and of a thickness varying from 
four to twelve feet. As a rule, the bed of coal is of massive structure, but contains, 
scattered here and there through it, the remains of trees in a lignitized condition. 
Mines have been opened in various localities at different times, and the coal has 
been mined with greater or less success for several years. The princijial mines now 
in operation are the Santo Tomas, near Laredo ; the Lytle, Medina County ; 
Mowatts's, Bastrop County ; Rockdale Mining and Manufacturing Comjiany, Milam 
County ; Vogel, Milam County ; Calvert Piluff, Roberl.^on County ; Alba, Wood 
County ; Athens, Henderson County. 

The second series of brown-cOal deposits occurs in connection with the green- 
sand beds lying southeast of the deposits just mentioned. They are usually thinner 
than the beds of the lignitic division, bul are in places of good quality and in beds 

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of sufficient thickness for exploitation. Still, a third scries of beds from two to 
fourteen feet in thickness is found in connection with Yegua clays, which, while 
not so compact as those of the Lignitic division, are nevertheless of economic 

The investigations in comparing the Texas brown coal with that of Europe has 
shown that under proper couJilions it ii fully capable of replacing bituminous coal 
for any and all household, industrial, and metallurgic purposes, and proved to be 
most e.\cellent fuel. The deposits are so situated and of such extent as to permit 
mining and deliver}- in the various markets of the State at prices far below anything 
that can be attained with bituminous coal under the most favorable conditions, and 
the fuel value is such as to compete successfully with any and all bituminous coals 
which are accessible. Under proper conditions as to fire-boxes, grate-bars, and 
drafts, the raw coal may be used for all purposes in stoves and grates ; under sta- 
tionary boilers or locomotives ; as part fuel in iron-smelting ; for burning clay, 
bricks, cement, lime, etc. 

In the form of producer gas it may be used for any and every purpose for 
which such a fuel is applicable. It can be made into an illuminating' gas and used 
for lighting and heating, or it can be made into an artificial fuel with coal-tar or some 
similar agglomeranL, and the resulting briquettes will constitute a fuel which can be 
used in the same manner, as satisfactorily and for the same purposes as any ordinary 
bituminous coal. 

Asphaltuin. — This material exists in Texas under several conditions. Tar 
springs occur in various portions of the State, which are simply the seepage from 
deposits of the material, and the sour lakes of Hardin and Liberty Counties may be 
included in them. The main deposits, however, consist of beds of sand, sand- 
stone, or limestone, in which bitumen exists as an impregnation in amounts varying 
from one-tenth to one-fifth of the entire rock material. Among the asphaltic sand- 
stones may be mentioned the various deposits occurring in the tertiary belt of East 
and South Texas, like those near Palestine, in Anderson County : the beds at Saint 
Jo, in Montague County, and a portion of the deposit near Cline, in Uvalde County. 
The principal asphaltic limestones are found in the vicinity of Burnet and near 
Cline, in Uvalde County. As a rule, the deposits in the limestone are richer than 
those in the sand. While in many cases the so-called aspliallums seem to be only 
the residue from the evaporation of the oils, and only to be classed as heavy oils, 
at others, either from different condilions of genesis or a more ad\a]iced evapora- 
tion, they are true asphaltum. 

The deposits of asphaltic sands have been utilized but little as yet. While small 
amounts have been used at Palestine and St. Jo for sidewalks and streets, and have 
proved very satisfactory, their extended use at other points is largely dependent on 
more favorable transportation facilities. 

So far as can be learned, the use of the asp>haltic limestone has been even more 
limited than the sands. A manufactured product from the Uvalde asphalt, under 
the tratle name of " Litho-Carbon," has been widely advertised, but no great quan- 
tity of the asphaltum has been used up to the present. 

Oils. — C)il occurs in small ([uantities in \-arious portions of the State. It 
usually acdinip.inies the tar springs and deposiis of bitumen v.-liii,!; are fouutl in the 


tertiary area and in the fish-beelri of the cretaceous It is found in the counties of 
Sabine, Shelby, Nacogdoches, San Augustine, Anderson, Grimes, Travis, lic-xar, 
Encinal, and others. It also occurs in the southern portion of Brown and certain 
other counties of the Colorado Coal- Field. 

The principal development has been in the Nacogdoches and Bexar Counties. 
A number of wells were bored south of Nacogdoches, a pipe-line constructed be- 
tween them and the railroad, and tanks built at the station ; but, although the ship- 
ments previous to this had been remunerative, no oil has been shipped for two or 
three years. South of San Antonio wells hav-e been dug which have yielded small 
amounts of oil for several years. All of the oils so far found are heavy and well 
adapted for lubricating purposes ; but, while the deposits are of some economic im- 
portance and will doubtless be worked, and while a possibility exists that they may 
be found in larger quantities, there are no grounds for a positi\-e statement that 
such an event is probable. 

The occurrences of gas are also wido-si>read, but quantities so far found are 
inconsiderable. It has been obser\'ed most frequently in connection with the tar 

Fertilizers. — The fertilizers of the State, so far as they have been deter- 
mined, are the bat-guanos, gj'foum, green-sand marls, and calcareous marls. As 
yet no phosphates of any kind have been found in workable quantities. 

Bat-guanos are found in caves in the limestones of Williamson, Burnet, Lam- 
pas;is, Llano, Gillespie, Blanco, Bexar, Uvalde, and other counties. These caves 
are of various sizes, and the accumulations in them are not all of equal value, some 
being so situated that water has access to the beds, dissolving and carrying off 
parts of the valuable salts, while others are injured by fire. This guano is as valu- 
able as the Peruvian, and large quantities of it have been shipped to other States 
and to Europe. 

Gypsum, which is used as "ground jslaster" for top dressing many crojis, 
occurs in large deposits in the permian beds of the Abilenc-W'ichita country, and is 
also found throughout a large portion of the tertiary area along the streams and 
scattered tlirough the clay as crystals of clear selenite. It has been little used for 
this purpose in Te.xas. 

Ctrcn-sand »'arl, which is a mixture of clay and green-sand, often containin j' 
quantities of shells, occurs both in the tertiary and cretaceous beds. In its \mal- 
tered condition it is of a more or less pronounced green color, but when altered 
chemically under atmospheric influences it assumes a great variety of colors, form- 
ing much of the red or yellow sandstone of East Texas. The marls have been 
tested in sc\eral localities and have proved to be well suited to fertilizing the sandy 
soils, and for renewing and increasing the fertility of those thai ha\'e been worn out. 
While no deposits have been found of sufticii-nt richness to bear long railroad trans- 
portation, they are rich enough to be of great economic value to the farmers in 
whose \icinity they occur, since, in addition to the phosphorus and potash they 
contain, the sliells are a source of lime, which is often beneficial to the soils. 

Cah-arrow: marls are ^ cry abundant, those of the cretaceous and upper ter- 
tiary being the most extensive of the deposits. Very little use has been made of 


In addition, there are certain clays which may become of value as fertilizers 
because of the considerable quantities of potash they contain. 

Clays. — The variety, extent, and quality of her clays entitles Te.xas to take 
rank among the first manufacturers of clay products. Within her borders are found 
materials suitable for all purposes, from common building-brick to f)orcclain of the 
finest quality. Beginning with the more recent formation brick loams appear in 
most of the river \alleys, and among the materials of the coast clays are some that 
are suitable for coar.ser stoneware, drain.-tile, etc., and others which, from, their re- 
fractory ch.iracter, are well adapted for the manufacture of charcoal furnaces and 
possibly of sewer-pipe. Still others seem adapted to the manufacture of vitrified 
brick for paving. In the tertiarv deposits are clays of all grades. In the upper por- 
tion of the eocene are beds of clay of light or even white color, some of which are 
well suited to the manufacture of every grade of earthenware below that of porce- 
lain. Clays of this character have been secured in various localities,— from Ange- 
lina to and below Atascosa County. In this same belt, in connection with the 
brown coals, fire-clays of excellent quality occur, and also other clays sufficiently 
high in iron and alkalies for the manufacture of vitrified brick. Many of the clays 
<if the cretaceous are of value not only for brick and earthenware, but as part of 
the raw material necessary for the manufacture of Portland cement. In the car- 
boniferous and permian are ver)- extensive deposits of brick, fire, and pottery clays. 
Some of the pormian clays are very similar to those used so extensively in England 
for the manufacture of tile. The kaolins, or china-clays, are found among the 
deposits of the tertiary age, and also as secondary' deposits in the cretaceous lime- 
stones west of San Antonio. The former are largely confined to the horizon known 
as the Carrizo sands, at the top of the lignitic division, and are mixed with sand, 
from which they may be easily separated by washing. The latter occupy basins 
eroded in the cretaceous limestones in Edwards and Uvalde Counties, and some 
of the deposits are remarkably pure. Others contain an admixture of lime and 
other impurities. 

The development of the clay industry in Texas has hardly begun. It is true 
that there are numerous brick-yards, and that the ontput of ordinary building- 
brick and pressed brick is assuming a large total ; that vitrified brick are suc- 
cessfully m.ide in one locality, and that several small potteries are actually at 
work on the common grades of earthenware ; but as )-el the best deposits are 
hardly touched. 

Bricks.- — The principal localities in the coast country for the production of 
building-brick are Virginia Point. Cedar Bayou, Harrisburg, and Houston, where 
liri'.k arc made both by hand and by machine, and are of \'arious shades of red or 
brown. Austin is supplied by yards using the Colorado alluvium, the bricks being 
a light brownish yellow, and both soft-mud and dry-pressed brick are made. San 
Antonio receives her principal supply from works located at Calavera;;, on the San 
Antonio River.' Several yards at Laredo use the alluvial deposits of the Rio 
Grande in making brick of good quality. Dallas has large brick-yards using the 
alluvial deposits of the Trinity, and to the west, on the Texas and Pacific Railway, 
are manufactories of pressed brick utilizing shales of the carboniferous age and pro- 
uucing Ijrick r.f a \ers' pleasing color. 

'Vo... 11.-33 


At present there is only one paving-brick eslablishment in operation in the 
State, that at Garrison, the product of which is used for street-paving in Houston. 

Fire-brick and other refractory goods have been manufactured at Flatonia, 
Kosse, and Athens during the last few years. The Athens factory is turning out 
furnace-linings which are found to b(? \ery satisfactory in use in the iron furnace at 
the Rusk Penitentiary. Charcoal furnaces are manufactured by a factory at Har- 
risburg. Potteries making ordinary stoneware, black or salt-glazed ; curbing, drain- 
tile, flower-pots, and sewcr-pipe are located at Weatherford, Denton, McDadc, 
Henderson, Athens, Tcxarkana, Ladonia, Elmsdorf, etc. The amount produced 
is small compared with the demand for such goods, the greater part of which is 
brought in from outside the State. 

The kaolins of Robertson and Edwards Counties have been tested at some of 
the Eastern potteries, and their excellent qualities proved, but so far the deposits 
have not been developed. 

Refractory Materials. — In addition to the extensive deposits of fire-clay, 
which exist in- connection with the bitunu'nfius and brown coals of the State, other 
refractory materials, such as graphite, soapstone, mica, and asbestos, ha\-e been 

Gra;>hite occurs to a limited exicnl in the Central Mineral Region as graphitic 
shales. While the greater portion of it is too impure for use, some specimens 
have been recently obtained which are of much better quality, and may pro\e to 
be of economic value. Soapstone is found in large quantities m the same region. 
One of the best exposures is about two miles south of west of Smoothing Iron 
Mountain, and the most favorable district for its further occurrence is between 
House and Smoothing Iron Mountain, and to the vest of tliat area in Llano and 
Mason Counties. It also occurs southeast of this district, in Llano, Gillespie, and 
Blanco Counties. As a lining for furnaces and other purposes which do not 
require a very firm texture this material is fully suitable, and it can be cut or 
sawed into blocks or masses of any desired shape, with a perfectly smooth surface 
if desired. 

While mica is a very abundant material, both in the Central and trans-Pecos 
Regions, it is not commonly of sucli transparency and size as to be commercially 
valuable. Specimens containing both these requisites are found in both localities, 
and worV'.able deposits may yet be found. 

Asbestos of good quality is found in the Central Mineral Region, in the south- 
ern part of Llano and the northern edge of Gillespie Counties. It may also extend 
into Burnet. While there has been considerable inquiry for it recenth", no ship- 
ments ha\-e yet been made. 

Sulphur. — Native suljihur has bc-en received from Edwards County, and has 
also been found in some quantity in 1-1 Paso County, but the deposits ha\-c ni)t 
yet been examined. 

Strontia. — Two minerals ha\iiiv this e.irth as a base (celestite and stron- 
tianite) are found in the lower magncsian rocks of the cretaceous of Central Texas. 
Its best-known occurrences arc at Mount Bonncll, near Austin, and in the vicinity 
of Lampasas, the latter locality bein.g that from which the largest amount has been 
taken. It has not been worked commciciallv. 






Salt. — This useful material, like many other valuable mineral deposits of 
Texas, is wide-spread. Along the lower coast there are numerous small lagoons 
which e.xtend inland from the Laguna del Madre and Corpus Christi Bay, and in 
these, during the summer, salt is produced naturally from sea-water by solar 

Still farther inland in the same region are salt lakes, of which Sal del Rey, in 
Hidalgo County, is the principal and may be taken as the type. This lalce is about 
three miles in circumference, has been for many years, and is still, the source of 
supply for the people on both sides of the lower Rio Grande. The brine is so strong 
that it deposits with considerable rapidity, and the salt is comparatively pure as dug 
from the bed. 

In addition to these lakes in the Gulf region, others occur in Salt \'alley, be- 
tween the Diabolo and Guadalupe Mountains, in El I'aso County, reaching to the 
New Mexico line. 

Throughout the red-beds region the constant recurrence of such names as Salt 
Fork, Salt Creek, etc., tell of the pre\alence of the material, — a ;)re\-alence little to 
the taste or comfort of the traveller in that region who is dependent on such streams 
for water. These creeks derive their salinity from the deposits of the perniian age, 
whose strata include beds of rock-salt of great thickness. The only development 
at present is that by two companies at Colorado City, both of which have sunk 
wells tlirongh the beds of salt, which is lifted as briii^^ and the salt manufactured 
by evaporation. These beds have been penetrated at other places as well, but so 
far no other works have been established. 

Salt is found in salines also as rock-salt. The principal salints are : Jordan's ; 
Grand Saline, Van Zandt County ; Stein's Saline and Brooks's Saline, Smith 
County ; and those of Anderson and Freestone Counties. These salines generally 
occujjy a depression surrounded by wooded hills. The depressions arc sometimes 
marshy or during the winter months hold a body of water, which evaporates as the 
summer approaches, leaving an incrustation of salt on the ground. Salt was made 
at several of these places in former years by digging shallow wells and evaporating 
the brine gotten from them, but at present litde is being done with ihe surface 

At Grand Saline, however, in boring a deep well \^ith the hope of striking a 
stronger brine than tluxt at the surface, a !)ed of rock-salt was encountered at a 
depth of two hundred feet, into which the drill entered one hundred and fifty feet 
without passing through it. This has since been developed gradually, until at the 
present it produces large quantities of all grades of salt. 

Building Material. — Outside of the Coast Prairies almost every portion of 
the .State contains building stones of one kind or another. So varied are they and 
so widely distributed that it is impossible to enter into details regarding them. The 
Reynosa furnishes a white, limy, clay "adobe," which is quarried in large blocks 
and used extensively for building in the southwest. The sandstones of the Fayette 
furnish excellent quarr\- material, and the court-house at La Grange and many other 
public buildings throughout the area testify to their utility and beauty. It has also 
been largely used in the GaK-eston jetties. The brown sandstone and green-sands 
of the Marine bcvls furnish bnildin'r matLiial which is used throu'diout that rei^ion, 


the Rusk Penitentiary being built of the latter and the court-house at Pleasanton 
of the former. In the Lignitic are workable beds of gray, siliceous limestone which 
are very durable. The limestones of the cretaceous vary in hardness, but many 
deposits of excellent quality exist, and numerous quarries are 0[)en on them. Two 
localities may be mentioned, — the first near Austin, where the shell limestone 
known as Austin marble is gotten, and the other at Granbury, in Hood County. 

The limestones and sandstones of tlie coal measures not only furnish building 
materials within their own borders, but are shipped to various parts of the State, 
ani.1 the bame is true of the I'ecos red sandstone, which is coming Into general use. 
Tlie marbles of Llano, liurnet, San Saba, and adjoining counties are of excellent 
color and take a fine polish. The various granites are too well known from their 
use in the State capitol building and various other structures to need comment. 
The serpentines and other ornamental stones of the same region must find general 
favor as soon as their possibilities arc properly known. The granites, porphyries, 
and marbles of trans-Pecos Texas are equally valuable, the marble, indeed, being 
superior to any others so far found in the State. 

Lime is made in various portions of the State, but the best is probably that 
from the Ihnestoncs of the cretaceous, and its manufacture for commercial purposes 
is principally carried on in that area. 

Materials for Portland cement are found throughout the same area, and factories 
e.xist at San Antonio and Austin, where cement of good quality has been manu- 

From the vast deposits of gypsum through the perniian or red-beds region 
plaster of Paris and various cements may be manufactured. Two plaster factories 
are at work near Quanah. 




IT was the original purpose of the Publisher of these volumes to make this Part 
of tlie work contain a complete account of the operations of Texas troops in 
the war between the States, as well as a narrative of events within the State 
during that period. But the great difliculty and delay incident to procuring full 
and accurate details of the subject from those who were reasonably expected to 
furnish tliem, finally compelled the publication of the History without the complete 
realization of the design as at first conceived. It was concluded to postpone the 
preparation of a thorough history of Texas and Texans in the Civil War to a sepa- 
rate volume, which has been definitely arranged for, to appear in the near future. 
What is here presented, however, will furnish a very fair idea of the organization 
and ser\ices of Texas soldiers in the Confederate armies during the years from iS6i 
to 1865, as well as a succinct account of the condition and experiences of the State 
itself for the same period. The first portion of the narrative, covering operations 
on the coast and in the interior of Texas, is a compilation by Charles 1. Evans, 
Esq., from official reports and documents, and from valuable manuscripts furnished 
by Colonel John S. Ford, Major K. M. Van Zandt, and other ex-Confederate 
ofiicers and soldiers, to whom special acknowledgments are due. The several sepa- 
rate chapters on noted brigades and subordinate organizations arc duly credited to 
their authors, and their merits speak conclusively for themsehes. Although the 
Publisher has not received as much practical aid in tlie collection of the materials 
for this department of the work as he could have wi.shed, lie is yet under many and 
grateful obligations to the old Confederates throughout the State for their cordial 
encouragement and sympathy, and it is believed that they will enjoy and prize even 
this brief and imperfect compilation of the records of their heroic services in the 
greatest war of modern times. At no distant date it is hoped that their interest in 
this work \. ill be rewarded by the publication of a complete and appreciative nar- 
rative of their part in the stirring scenes of those days. 

The Publisher. 



LORDER, 1861-1865. 

WHEN the secession convention assembled, Brevet Major-General David E. 
Twiggs was in command of the United States troops in Texas. After 
passing the ordinance of secession on the ist day of February, 1S61, it 
elected a Committee of Public Safety, of which John C. Robertson was chairman. 
This committee appointed J. H. Rogers, T. J. Devine, S. A. Maverick, and P. N. 
Luckett commissioners to treat with General Twiggs relative to the surrender to the 
State of the government property under his control, but the first named did not act 
with the commission. Upon presenting their credentials from the convention to Gen- 
eral Twiggs and demanding the public property, he acceded to the demand, and 
appointed a military commission, consisting of Major Vinton, Major Maclin, and 
Captain Whiteley, of the army, to negotiate with them respecting the terms and 
details of the surrender. These commissions met in the city of San Antonio on the 
9th of February, and continued their conferences from day to day until the 15th, 
when intelligence was received that the action of General Twiggs had been disap- 
proved by the War Department at Washington City, and that he had been removed 
froni command and Colonel C. W. Waite ordered to relieve him. The Committee 
of Public Safety, seeing in this change a strong probability that the arrangements 
made with General Twiggs would not be carried out by his successor, took imme- 
diate steps to seize the government property by force. Ben McCuHoch, Henry E. 
McCulloch, and John S. Ford were appointed colonels of State troops, with instruc- 
tions to lead three separate bodies of volunteers to designated points and demand 
of the officers commanding the United States troops an evacuation of the State and 
tlie surrender of all government property to the State of Texas. Colonel I'>cn 
McCulloch was directed to lead the volunteers under his command to San Anto- 
nio, Colonel Henry E. McCulloch to lead those under his command to the \-arious 
posts on the northwestern frontier, and Colonel John S. l''ord to lead those under 
his command to the posts on the lower Rio Grande. Accordingly, on the morning 
of the i6th of February, a number of volunteer companies, which had assembled 
near the city of S;ui .-\ntonio under Ben McCulloch to enforce the demand of the 
committee, marched into the city, placed sentinels at the various department offices, 
and quietly took possession of ever_\-thing, including about thirty thousand dollars 
in gold and silver coin. 

The companies participating in this scii^urc were commanded by Captains John 
A. Wilcox, James DuR, S. A. Maverick, W. M. Edgar, and others. 

Durin- the rime that tb.esc trans.tcticns were taking pl.ire at San Antonio, 
Henry E. McCulloch, witli several coaipanios of volunteer St.ite troops, was de- 



manding' and receiving, in the name of the State of Texas, the surrender of all 
the military posts along the frontier north of San Antonio. Among the officers at 
these posts, Captain E. Kirby Smith, who was in command at Camp Colorado, on 
Jim Ned Creek, in Coleman County, surrendered to Colonel Henry E. McCuUoch, 
resigned his commission in the United States army, tendered his services to the 
Confederate States and afterwards became a distinguished lieutenant-general, and 
was in command of the Trans-Mississippi Department at the close of the war. 

While these operations were taking place in the u estern and northwestern por- 
tions of the State, Colonel John S. Ford had proceeded to Houston and Galveston, 
where he was organizing an e.xpedition of \'olunteers for the capture of Fort Brown 
and other posts on the lower Rio Grande. Upon his reconunendation, Hugh 
McLeod was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his command, and a camp was organ- 
ized, where all late United States soldiers who desired to enli.jt in the army of the 
Confederate States could do so and find a stopping-place. Mr. E. B. Nichols, a 
prominent citizen of Galveston, was appointed commissioner on the part of the 
State government to co-operate with Colonel Ford, and to receive the public prop- 
erty which should be turned over by tlie officers of the United States government. 
Out of his own private fortune he furnished means to defray expenses, and, with the 
assistance of other distinguished citizens, chartered the steamer General Rusk and 
the schooner Shark for the transportation of the volunteers from Galveston to 
Brazos Santiago ; and on February 19, 1S61, six companies, consisting of about 
five hundred men, commanded by Captains Edwards, Odium, Redwood, Conner, 
\'an Buren, and Davis, sailed from Galveston and came to anchor oft the bar at 
Brazos Santiago on the 21st. Mr. E. B. Nichols and Colonel Ford went ashore at 
once, and, after some negotiation with Lieutenant James Thompson, of the United 
States army, commanding a small body of men guarding some stores on Brazcjs 
Island, these were withdrawn and the stores were taken in charge by the Texans. 
The State commissioner, Mr. Nichols, and commander of the troops. Colonel Ford, 
proceeded to Brownsville, leaving Lieutenant- Colonel Hugh McLeod in command 
of the troops at Brazos Island. Captain Bennett H. Hill, of the P'irst United States 
Artillery, was in command at Fort Brown, and refused to recognize officially the 
authority of the commissioner on the part of the State of Texas, but several infor- 
mal and friendly interviews were held between them. Captain George Stoneman, 
aftenvards a general in the Union army, was in command of a siiuadron of the 
Second United States Cavalry, and expressed himself as being very hopeful of a 
peaceful solution of the political troubles. 

By a calm and prudent course on the part of the representatives of the State 
government, which was met in a similar spirit by the United States officers, a con- 
flict was avoided, although it was difficult to restrain some of the hot-lieaded men 
and subordinate officers among the State troops. 

On February 25, Mr. Nichols returned to Galveston to raise more troops and 
forward them to Brownsville, and four large companies under Colonel B. F. Terry 
were forwarded and reached Brazos Santiago, March 22. This reinforcement 
raised the number of State troops to about fifteen hundred, and a conflict was im- 
minent any day. As illustrating the feeling among the United States army officers, 
it is related that those at Brownsville refused to meet or receive an introduction to 


Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh McLcod, on tht ground that he was a graduate of the 
Military Academy at West Point, and had, in an unsoldierl)- manner, surrendered 
his command in the Santa Fe expedition. This most unjust accusation piqued 
Colonel McLeod very much, and its being entirely groundless did not prevent his 
e.vtrcnie mortification and earnest desire to precipitate a conflict between the State 
and United States troops ; but cooler counsels prevailed, and, while the relations 
were very strained all the time during the joint occupancy, actual hostilities were 
prudently avoided. 

On March 3, 1S61, the United States steamship Daniel Webster arrived off 
the bar, and it soon became known that Major Fitz-John Porter, assistant adjutant- 
general on the staff of General Winfield Scott, was on board. He assured the 
representatives of the State government that his mission was a purely pacific one, 
and that under his orders a collision could not occur, unless it was precipitated by 
the Te.xas forces. He also expressed himself personally as favoring a peaceful 
solution of the troubles between the States ; and announced that as soon as the 
necessary transportation arrived, all the United States troops would take their de- 
parture. When Major Porter left Fort Brown he placed Captain Stoneman in 
command of the United States troops at that place, with instructions to receive all 
public property as it arrived there from the interior posts, and to turn it over to the 
State authorities in accordance with the agreement previously made between General 
Twiggs and the State commissioners at San Antonio. 

It was agreed between the State autliorities and the commander of the United 
States forces that all the L'nited States troops should be remo\'ed from Texas, those 
at San Antonio and contiguous points being ordered to Green Lake, near Indianola, 
and those on the Rio Grande to Brazos Santiago, to await transportation to the 
north. L'pon the expected withdrawal of the L^nited States troops, the question of 
the protection of the frontier against Indian depredations and forays by Mexican 
banditti began to attract the serious attention of the State authorities. Much well- 
founded apprehension was felt and expressed that serious conscciucnces would 
result from leaving the frontiers entirely unsupported ; and the Committee of Public 
Safety began at once to address itself to this question. Two regiments of mounted 
men were ordered to he raised for this purpose ; and before they were completed, 
the Pro^■isional Congress of the Ccnfcflerate States had passed an act authorizing 
the raising of a provisional army. I'ndcr this act. these two regiments were mus- 
tered into the Confederate army for the period of six months. These were the 
First Regiment Texas Mounted Ritles, commanded by Colonel H. E. McCulloch, 
and garrisoned the posts on the northwestern frontier from Fort Mason to Red 
River ; and the Second Regiment Texas Mounted Ritles, connnanded by Colonel 
John S. Ford, which garrisoned the jiosls from El Paso to the mouth of the Rio 
Grande. These regiments were soon filled up, and ample provision made for the 
I)rotection of the frontiers. 

l"p to this time the delusive hop- harl been indulged by many that war \\nuld 
not result from the secession of the Southern States, and the United States troops 
were being permitted to depart in jicacc ; but on Aj^ril 17, after the hf)Stile demon- 
strations in Charleston harbor and the firing on Fort Siunter, Colonel H. Fl adi.lre.-,sed a comniunication to the Conietlerate States .Sccrelarv of War. 


suggesting that when the agreement was made to permit the United States troops 
to leave the State with their arms war did not exist ; but that since then the condi- 
tions had materially changed, and war between the North and South was clearly 
imminent, if not already begun. Under these changed conditions he suggested it 
would be right and proper not to permit the armed forces of the enemy to march 
out of the territory with their arm.s and equipments; and that unless ordered to 
the contrary at once, he would require them to surrender their arms and disperse. 
The .Secretary of War replied by approving the course indicated by Colonel McCul- 
loch, and ordered him to hold the United States troops as prisoners of war ; but 
before any action had been taken by him, on April 21, Colonel Earl Van Dorn 
assumed command of the Department of Texas, under orders from the Confederate 
States War Department, and proceeded forthwith to carry out these instructions. 
A few days afterwards, on April 25, seven companies under Major C. C. Sibley, of 
the Third Infantry, surrendered to Colonel \'an Dorn at Saluria, and were paroled 
as prisoners of war. The surrender was not made by Major Sibley without at- 
tempting to escape on the transports that were awaiting him in Matagorda Bay. 
The intention to attempt to escape having been discovered by Colonel Van Dorn, 
he seized the steamship Star of the West before Major Sibley reached her anchor- 
age, which he was intending to do in the steamship General Rusk. Four steamers 
arrived from Galveston the night of the 24th, with about one thousand armed vol- 
unteers and several pieces of artillery, and completely cut off the escape of the 
United States troops by sea ; and a land force of twenty-one companies of volun- 
teers having arrived from the interior. Major Sibley was obliged to surrender on 
the terms proposed. The companies composing the Land force which assembled to 
back up the demand of Colonel \'an Dorn with arms, if necessary, were commanded 
by the following officers : Captain Herbert, of Colorado County ; Captain Scar- 
borough, of De \\'itt ; Ca[-)tain McDonnell, of Caldwell ; Captain A. C. Horton, of 
Matagorda ; Captain W. R. Friend, of De Witt ; Captain Hampton, of Victoria ; 
Captain Upton, of Colorado ; Captain Hall, of Fort Bend ; Captain Jones, of Gon- 
zales ; Captain Williams, of Lavaca ; Captain Fulcrod, of Goliad ; Captain Kyle, 
of Hays ; Captain D. M. Stapp, of Calhoun ; Captain Searcy, of Colorado ; Cap- 
tain Phillips, of La^'aca ; Captain Finlay, of Lavaca ; Captain Pearson, of Mata- 
gorda ; Captain C. .S. Olden, of Jackson : Captain Barkley, of Fayette ; and Cap- 
tain Gordon, of Matagorda. 

Several companies under Captains Pitts, Tot)in, Ashby, Bogges, and Nelson, 
with a battery of light artillery under Captain W. M. Edgar, all commanded liy 
Colonel H. E. McCulloch, made a forced march from San Antonio to get in at the 
capture, but did not arrive until after the surrender. 

On the gtli of May six coini)ani(_s of the Eighth Infantry, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel I. \'. D. Ree\-e, surrendered to Colonel H. E. McCulloch at San 
Spring, fifteen miles west of San Antonio, while on the march from Fort Bliss to 
that city. The volunteer companies participating in this capture were the oni^s 
heretofore mentioned as having marched from San Antonio under Colonel McCul- 
loch, — one under Captain James H. Fry ; a battalion of six companies under 
Captains Maverick, Wilco.x. Kampmanii, Navarro, and Prescott, commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel James Duff and .M.ijur John C.ui.'Iar, ; one conipan_\- under Cip- 



tain Goode ; two companies of Ford's rej^imcnt under Captains Walker and Pyron, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel John R. Baylor ; and a battery of light artillery 
imder Captain Teel. 

A short time prior to the surrender of these troops, Mr. F. W. Lander, a 
special commissioner from President Lincoln, arrived at Auitin to nigotiate with 
Governor Houston, with a view to rendering him such aid as might be necessary 
to sustain his authority in overcoming the secession movement ; and to this end 
Colonel Waite was ordered, in case Governor Houston indicated to Mr. Lander a 
willingness to enter into the scheme, to erect fortifications at Indianola and hold the 
place until reinforcements could be sent him. This moxcment, however, fell 
through for the want of Governor Houston's acquiescence. He not only declined 
the profteretl assistance, but protested against it most strongly. He wrote to 
Colonel Waite as follows : " I have received inielhgence that vou have, or will soon 
receive, orders to concentrate your conmiand at Indianola, in this State, to sustain 
me in the exercise of my official functions. Allow me most respectfully to decline 
any such assistance of the United States government, and to most earnestly protest 
against the concentration of troops or the erection of fortifications in Te.xas, and 
request that you remove all such troojjs out of this State at the earliest date practi- 
cable ; or, ai any rate, by all means take no action to-.^ards hostile movements until 
further ordered by the government at Washington City, or particularly of Texas." 

At the same time Mr. Lander wrote Colonel Waite from Austin that his mis- 
sion had been undertaken by order of the Secretary of State of the LTnited States, 
and was endorsed by General Scott and President Lincoln ; but that it had neces- 
sarily failed on account of the determination of Governor Hou.'-tiin to protest against 
such military aid being renderc-l hini. 

In May Colonel W. C. Young entered the Indian Territory with a regiment of 
volunteer State troops and captured Forts Arbuckle, Washita, and Cobb, the . 
I'nited States troops retiring towards Kansas upon his appioach. Me made a 
treaty of peace with the Chickasaw Indians, agreeing that the Confederate States 
would feed and protect tlieni, as had been previously done by the United States 
government ; and turned over to them all the government stores found in the above- 
named forts. 

In the e.uly days of 1S61. during the excitement incident to the secession of 
the State and the withdrawal of the L'nited States troops, the United States steam- 
ship Slat o/lhc ll'csi was captured by Texas volunteers oft the Texas coast near In- 
dianola, which created intense and wide-spread excitement at the time, owing purtly 
to the fact that this was the vessel which had a short time previously attempted to 
carry supplies of ordnance and commissary stores to Fort Sumter, and thus drawn 
fiom the ConlLilerate batteries at Charleston the first shot of the great Civil War 
which reverberated around the world. The exact date of this incident cannot be 
fixed defmitel)-. The War Records publislied by authority of the United States 
government c^jntain no reference to the afrair, and the date as well as the details 
have been gathered from the memory of gentlemen who participated in it. From 
these it appears that it nmst have occurred about April 17, because the capture was 
only a f<;w days prior to the surrender of the I'nited Stat.s troops under M.ajnr C. 
C. Sibley at Indianola, and this is known to luue been on the 25th d.iy of April. 


From Captain William Scrimf,'eour and Captain Robert G. Murray, the farmer 
of whom was the pilot and the latter fireman on board the General Rusk, and Mr. 
Robert -M. I'ranklin, who was a member of the Galveston Artillery, and all of whom 
are now honored residents of the city of Galveston, the following facts are gleaned. 
It seems that as soon as Colonel Earl \'an Dorn was appointed to the regular army 
of the Confedei ate States, he formed the design of compelling the surrender of all the 
United States troops in Texas and discharging them on parole, and in compliance 
therewith li'j arri\-ed at Galveston on April i6 and called for meetings of the several 
volunteer military companies at their respective armories. At these meetings he 
announced tliat he had instructions from the Confederate War Department to call 
for volunteers, and to raise a force which would be adequate to insure the surrender 
of all the Federal troops in Te.xas without the necessity of bloodshed ; and as a 
large body of such troops were then marching from San Antonio to Indianola with 
the intention of there embarking for the Noi thrrn States, he desired to raise imme- 
diately a sufficient force to proceed by water and intercept them at Indianola. The 
steamship Matagorda, a freight and passenger packet of the Harris & Morgan Line, 
Captain John Y. Lawless, commander, was then lying at the wharf in Galveston, 
ready to sail on her regular trip to Indianola, and Colonel Van Dorn detained her 
to carry the volunteers. By midnight he had only secured about eighty men, as 
the holiday soldiers of that period had not as yet learned to move on such short 
notice. He decided, however, to proceed at once with these and take tlie chances 
of recruiting his force after reaching Indianola, and he left Galveston about four 
o'clock A.M. on the morning of the 17th with the following force, viz.: a detach- 
ment of the Galveston .Artillery, consisting of twenty men and two si.K-pounder field 
pieces, under Lieutenants Van Buren and Malone ; the Turner Rifles, forty men 
strong, under Capt;iin John Mueller, who was afterwards captain of Company F, 
Second Te.xas Infantry, and was killed in the assault on Battery Robinett at 
Corinth, Mississippi ; and a detachment of twenty men from the Wigfall Guards. 
All of these were volunteers, who had not yet enlisted in the Confederate service. 

As the Matagorda approached Pass Cavallo, the entrance to Matagorda Bay 
and Indianola, a large steamer was discovered lying at anchor off the bar. The 
men were ordered below, out of sight, and the Matagorda, about an hour before 
sunset, glided by the unknown steamer into tlic bay, and stopped her engines oppo- 
site the Powder Horn wharf. To the surprise of all on board, the shore was found 
to be dotted with the blue coats of the Federal soldiers, who had reached the coast 
earlier than expected, and in such numbers as to deter Colonel Van Dorn from 
demanding their surrender, as his orders were not to precipitate a conflict. Without 
landing, the Matagoi'da steamed across to the Saluria wharf, when after night she 
called by signal her companion steamer, the General Rusk, wliich was lying at the 
Indianola wharf, about fifteen miles up the bu\'. The Rusk, under command of 
Captain Leon Smith, ran down to the Matagorda, and gave the information to 
Colonel \'an Dorn that the steamer outside the bar\\as the Star of the West, noted 
as the vessel which drawn the fire of the first gun of the Civil War ; and that 
arrangements had been made to use the ]\i:.J: \\\ carrying the Federal troops across 
the bar to this transport. 

This uas tb.e first intellic'ence which Coluiiel Van Dorn had of the presence of 



the Star of the West, but he at once determined tn ca[)ture her, and quickly formed 
his plan of doing so. 

He transferred his entire force to the Rusk and sailed out for the purpose of 
surprising the transport. The moon was shining brightly, painting with all the 
colors of the rainbow the fleecy Gulf clouds as they were driven lantluard by a 
half gale from the south. As the General Rusk passed over the bar the dim out- 
line of the Star of the West, plunging and tugging at her cable, apjieared upon the 
horizon ; and in a short time the ships were within hailing distance uf each other, a 
voice from the watch on the transport, came over the rolling billows : " Ship ahoy! 
avast there, you'll run in to us ! What vessel is that?" The answer was returned 
in the stentorian voice of Captain Leon Smith : " The General Rusk ; I have some 
troops for you ; stand by to catch our line." The captain of the transport replied : 
" Keep off, you'll tear my ship to pieces ; I cannot let you come alongside in this 
gale !" "All right," returned Captain Smith, " I ha\-c orders to sail for New York, 
and will have to put the troops back on shore." This caused a short parley on the 
transport, after which came the words : "Send us your line." The Rusk's cable 
was made fast, and after a hard pull by both sailors and soldiers she was brouglu 
alongside the anchored transport, both vessels pitching on the hea\-y swell so as to 
make the boarding very difficult. The orders to tlie men were to board quietly and 
scatter over the vessel in squads, without disclosing their character, and without 
ih.iiig any violence, if it could be avoided. 

The officers and watch on the transport rendered every assistance to tluir su]i- 
posed friends in getting aboard, and when it was accomplished the boarders scattered 
about the quarter-deck, engine-room, and forecastle, ready and prepared to o\er- 
come any resistance which might be offered. Colonel Van Dorn approached the 
captain of the vessel, n.ade himself known, and informed him that he had taken 
possession of the vessel in the name of the Confederate States. Tliat officer was 
probably more surprised than ever before in his life ; he cursed and swore as none 
but a .sailor can, and declared that a d— d ungentlemanly trick had been played 
upon him. As was natural, he took the loss of his vessel very hard, and was quite 
morose during the subsequent trip to New Orleans. 

After the capture of the ship it was ascertained that she was an unarmed trans- 
port, with a crew of about forty men, one si.x-poundcr carronade, and a large supply 
of fireworks for signals. The Texans were not aware of the unprotected condition 
of the ship, and it is not probable that Colonel Van Dorn himself was ad\-ised of it ; 
for the promiricnt part taken by her at Charleston in the inaugiuation of the bloody 
scenes of ci\-il war would naturally cause them to expect that she would be pre- 
paied for any emergency. 

The prize and the General Rusk were carried to GaK-eston. Imt tlie Star of the 
West, drawing too much water to cross the b<ir, was ]>laced under command of 
Captain Sam Farwell, of the steamship Mexico, and sent on to New Orleans. After 
entering the- Mississippi Ri\-er the ;rissage to New CJrleans was one continuous 
ovation from the sympathetic crowds which lined the river-banks at the plantations. 
News of the capture had flashed over the wires, and the first ocean steamship sail- 
ing under the luT^r di a new-born nation inspireil its votaries with unbounded enthu- 
si;i:sm ; and the litUe carronade on deck w;ls kept hot all the way to New Orleans, 


responding to tlie salutes of the generous friends. Upon arrival at that city the 
prize crew received a royal welcome amid booming cannon and blazing fireworks, 
and the midnight scene was one of unalloyed rejoicing. The ne.xt day the prisoners 
were paroled and sent north, the Texans discharged ; and for three days the hos- 
pitable citizens of the Crescent City entertained them in princely style. Each man 
received his mileage of forty-tive dollars, returned to his home, and was soon in- 
volved in the black vorte.K of war, where he was a gallant participant in more 
bloody, but not more exhilarating scenes than the capture of the S/ar of the West. 
This vessel was carried up the Mississippi River, thence into the Yazoi>, and about 
a year after her capture was sunk by the Confederates in the Tallahatcliee Riser at 
Fort Pemberton, to prevent the descent of the Federal fleet under General Wash- 
burnc into the Yazoo River, in his expedition to take Vicksburg in the rear. 

When Colonel \'an Dorn returned to Galveston, he found the volunteer com- 
panies at that city still unprepared to take the field, and he proceeded to Indianola 
overland, and was joined on the route by the volunteer companies from Colorado, 
De Witt, Matagorda, Caldwell, Victoria, Fort Bend, Lavaca, Gonzales, Goliad, 
Hays, Calhoun, and Jackson Counties, before named, and the volunteers from Gal- 
veston, having gone by water, arri\-ed in Matagorda Bay in time to witness the 
surrender of the Federal troops from a distance, but did not reach the shore in time 
to participate in the achievement. 


During the summer of iS6i the blockading fieet of the United States navy 
appeared off the city of Galveston, declared all the ports on the coast in a state of 
blockade, and prepared to enforce the order. Vessels were anchored off all the 
harbors and commerce suspended. The coast of Te.xas was in a very defenceless 
condition, there being no fortifications at any point, and but few heavy guns were 
in the State. Some large guns from New Orleans for the defence of Gaheston 
were sent up Red River to Alexandria, and thence overland to Houston, but they 
did not arrive until late in the fall. There was a great scarcity of lead, pow der, and 
ammunition of all kinds, as well as arms. This matter soon attracted the attention 
of t!ie ronmianding general, and he instructed the quartermasters to make arrange- 
ment.-; for the shipment of cotton to Mexico with which to jjurchase ammunition. 
The commanding general, being without means to put the coast in a state of 
defence, called on the owners of slaves throughout the State to hire them to the 
government for the purpose of building fortifications. This appeal was very gener- 
ally responded to. and a large number of negroes put to work building fortifications 
at Galveston, .Sabine Pass, \'clasco. and other places. These were paid for in Con- 
federate States money, which, at that very early period of the war, was a\'ailable as 
currency for the purchase of articles that were to be had in the country. Until the 
money could be recei\ed, the patriotic citizen? of Galveston and Houston advanced 
five thuUbaTid tlollars to General P. O. Hebert for these purposes, and took the 
obligations of the government until it could be repaid them. 

On the of September. Colonel \'an Dorn, having been promoted to briga- 
dier-general and ordered to Richmond, relinquished the command of the Dejiart- 
ment of Texas to Colonel H. \\. McCull'ich until the arrival of his successor. 


Brigadier-General P. O. Heberl, and on the iSth of September General Hebert 
arrived and assumed command. 

During this year the e.xcitement was very great throughout the .State, and the 
military ardor ran high. A great many companies were organized all over the 
State, and the announcement was made by the Confederate States authorities, in 
the early part of the year, that only a limited number of troops from Texas would 
be accepted. This determination was prompted by the strong fieace sentiment in 
the North, which for a time gave promise of prevailing, that the Southern States, 
the "erring sisters," as they were called by Horace Greeley, be permitted to go 
their way in peace. From the beginning there was a very decided preference 
manifested by Te.xas for service' in the ca\-:ilry, and a verv' marked indisposition to 
enlist in the infantry or artillery, while the authorities wanted the latter more than 
the former. 

The State authorities also insisted that all the troops raised in Texas should 
remain in the State for the purpose of defending the State against an e.Kpecled 
invasion, and the authorities of the Confederate States seemed for a time to have 
lent a willing ear to this demand. For these reasons a numlier of independent 
companies left the State singly, at their own expense, for the scenes of hostilities in 
Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri, and were there organized into regiments, and 
some fully organized regiments also left the State for a like purpose. 

Aliout three o'clock on the morning of November 8, i86t. a small party of 
Union sailors in launches from the blockading squadron entered pjolivar Channel, 
at Galveston, and captured the schooner Roya! Yacht, with its cre\\-, which was the 
private property of Captain Thomas Chubb, and was doing service for the Confed- 
erates in watching the blockaders. 

In February, 1S62, a force of marines from the blockading ship Afton landed 
on Mustang Island and burned the dwellings of Mrs. Clufl and Mrs. Mercer, and 
captured the patrol-sloop used by Captain Neal's company of cavalry. The ship 
shelled the town of Aransas Pass, but without any loss of life to the inhabitants. 
The intention of the blockaders was expressed by them to be to break up the coast- 
wise trade that was being carried on through the bays and inlets nl'-nig the coast. 
On the 2 1st of February they captured a sloop entering Corinis Christi Bay from 
Hagdad, laden with medical supplies for the government, and the same party came 
very near being captured theniseUes by Caj)tain B. F. Neal's company. 

On April 4, 1862, the United States steamer Mo»lffotncrv appeared oft Fort 
San Luis, at San Luis Pass, near the ^\•cst end of Gah-eston Island, hoisted the 
English flag and signalled for a pilot. Lieutenant O. ^\^ Edwards, w ith seven men 
of Captain Ballou-e's company and a citizen named A. G. F'oUet, went out to the 
steamer, and they were all taken prisoners and carried away. Two launches from 
the steamer enteri'd the bay and burned the schooner Columbia, loaded with cotton, 
and waiting a favorable opportunity for running the blockade. 

On A[)ril 22, 1S62, Captain Kittredge, of the blockading ship off .Aransas Pa.^s, 
entered the bay with a small body of men in two launches, and captured the 
sciiooners Democrat, Swan, and Musiaus; ; and as they were attempting to return 
to the blockading ship. Major William O. Yager, with thirty-two men in two sloops, 
cut them oft. Thicy could not get their prizes out by the schooners, so they aban- 


donee] them and took to their launches, returning to Blind Bayou and entereil it. 
Major Yager, with his force, abandoned his boats and hurried across the land to 
intercept them, and did so, when the enemy abandoned their launches and took 
to the sand-hills, and escaped in the darkness. Major Yager recaptured the crcus 
of the Democrat, S:c'a?t, and MitsUtiig, who were found to be handcuffed ; and 
among the various articles captured in the enern)''s launches were several pairs of 

During the months of August and September, 1S62, the blockading fleet at 
Cor()Us Christi was very active. On the i6th of August four of the ememy's ws- 
sels bombarded the town, but were driven of! by the Confederates under Major A. 
M. Hobby with two pieces of hea\y artillery. And again on the iSth of the same 
month the enemy bombarded the to\\n, and landed a cannon on the beach with 
about forty men, who advanced upon the fort, firing the cannon as they advanced, 
under cover of the tire from their ships. Major Hobby, \\ith twenty-five men, 
charged the land force and drove them back to their ships. 

On September 12, 1862, Captain Kittredge, who commanded the blockading 
fleet at Aransas and Corpus Christi Bays, went to Corpus Christi town under a flag 
of truce, requesting permission to convey the family of E. J. Davis, a citizen of 
Te.vas who had joined the Union army, to New Orleans. Major E. F. Gray, com- 
manding the Confederates at that place, referred the matter to General Hebert, and 
notified Captain Kittredge that he could not return an answer for about ten days, as 
it would take that length of time to hear from head-quarters ; whereupon Captain 
Kittredge withdrew and proceeded down the bay some fifteen miles towards the salt- 
works, on Laguna del Madre. Major Gray sent Captain John Ireland with fifty 
men to watch his movements, who secreted part of his men in a vacant house near 
the shore at Flower Bluffs. On the i4lh, after shelling the sand-hills for a time, 
Captain Kittredge, with seven men, landed and fell gracefully into the trap set for 
him, and, with all his companions, was captured by Captain Ireland, with their arms 
and equipments and one flag. 

On the morning c>f September 23, 1S62, two sail-vessels of the blockading fleet 
entered Sabine Pass and opened fire on the Confederate fort at that place, which 
was promptly replied to. The cannonading continued all day, but the Confederate 
guns being of inferior calibre their shots fell short, while the enemy's long-range 
guns threw their shot into and around the fort. The yellow fever had been raging 
among the Confederate troops for some time, and in consequence Major J. S. Irvine, 
of Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Spaight's battalion, who was in ctmimand at Sabine 
Pass, had furloughed most of his men, and at the time of the attack there were only 
thirty men at the post. When niglit came. Major Irvine determined that it would 
be a needless exposure of the men to attempt to hold the works any longer, and 
retired to Beaumont, spiking the four cannon in the fort and removing all other 
property. Two of his men who had been recently attacked with yellow fever were 
not in a condition to bi: moved, and thev were left in the hospital in the c.Tre of 
comiietent nurses. 

On the 26th of September the two \-cssels anchored op[)osite Sabine town and 
sent some men ashore, but offered no indignity to the citizens and committed no 


On the night of the 27th oi September the enemy sent three launches with forty 
men up to the mouth of Taylor's Bayou, a short distance above Sabine, and 
attempted to burn the raih'oad bridge across that stream, but the tire was extin- 
guished by the guard stationeil there. They carried away with them three citizens 
whom they found in the vicinity, and returned to Sabine, occup\-ing the town. 
They committed no depredations on the citizens at the town of Sabine and pro- 
hibited their soldiers from mingh'ng with tliem. 

On the 20th of October, iS52, a small party of the enemy burned the railroad 
depot, about a nnle from Beaumont, but did no other damage in the vicinity. 

All efforts by Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Spaight, who wa.s in command at 
that place, were completely paralyzed by sickness among the troops. The yellow 
fever and the measles were both prevailing in his camp at this time, and more than 
half of his men were unfit for duty. 

On the morning of October 4, 1S62, the Harriet Lane, one of the ships of the 
blockading fleet off Galveston harbor, crossed the bar, fl)-ing a white flag ; and 
when opposite Fort Point, at the east end of tlie island, a shot from the Confederate 
batterj' was fired across her bow, and she immediately came to anchor. An oflicer 
from the ship soon after landed in front of the battery, and asked for an interview 
with the commander of the post. L'pon being advised of this, Colonel Joseph J. 
Cook, the Confederate commander at Galveston, repaired to Fort Point, and was 
informed by the officer that the commander of the fleet desired him to send out a 
messenger to receive a communication from him. Having no boat at the Point, 
Colonel Cook returned to the city and immediately despatched a messenger from 
the wharf in a boat flying a white flag. The messenger left the wharf about one 
o'clock P.M., and before he reached the Point the Harriet /,«7/t- weighed anchor 
and steamed out to the fleet, when she and four others, with a mortar boat in tow, 
came in over the bar. A shot was fired from the Fort Point battery in front of the 
foremost of the advancing \-essels, and they came to anchor about where the Har- 
riet Lane had previously anchored. The messenger boat under the flag of truce 
was but a short distance off, when the enemy, disregarding their own flag of truce, 
immediately opened fire from all their vessels with about twenty guns on the Fort 
Point battery, and soon disabled the only gun in it. The Confederates then spiked 
the gun, set fire to the barracks, and retreated to the city. The five vessels steamed 
up the channel and anchored opposite the city, and took up the messenger under 
the flag of truce. About half-past three p. m. Colonel Cook's flag of truce messenger 
returned from the fleet, bearing a demand from Captain Renshaw, its commander, 
for the immediate surrender of the city. Colonel Cook sent a reply refusing to 
comply with the demand, and informing the commander of the fleet that there were 
many won)en and children in the city, and asked for time to remove them. After 
some negotiations it was agreed that no attack should be made for four days ; that 
during this time the Confederates should not construct any new, nor strengthen any 
old, defences ; and the fleet should not approach any nearer the city in the mean 
time. During this time the city was evacuated by the Confederates, all the public 
property having been removed, and all but a few of the citizens departed. Colonel 
X. R. Debray, who was in command of the Conferierates, began at once to strengthen 
the fortitications at \'irginia Point, and determined to resist the enemy at that place. 

Vol. II.— j4 


Althout^h the ships of the blockadinjj fleet hiy in the bay in front of the city, no 
troops were landed upon the island, and there was no actual occupancy of the city 
by United States troops until December 25, 1S62. 

On the iii.fjht of October 29, 1S62, a small body of Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. 
Spaight's battalion, under Captain Marsli, secreted themselves below the tou n of 
Sabine, and ;is the United States steamer Dan, with a schooner in tow, approaclied, 
going up the channel, the Confederates poured a heavy fire into the crowded decks,' 
not more tlian a hundred yards distant, killing and wounding about thirtv of the 
enemy. As soon as the vessels got out of range of the Confederates' rifles they 
opened upon them with grape and canister, but did no damage. The next morning 
the enemy took revenge by vigorously shelling the defenceless town and burning 
Wingate's saw-mill and dwelling and Stamps' s dwelling. 

On December 8, 1S62, while Cajjtain H. Wilke, commanding post at Corpus 
Chri.-^ti, and Captain John Ireland, with seven men of the latter's company, were 
on the sailing-sloop Queen of Ike Bay, sounding the depth of the water in Corpus 
Christi Pass, they were attacked bj- twenty-two men in two launches from the 
blockading bark Arthur. As the wind was blowing strong from the north and the 
Pass too narrow for tacking, the Confederates turned the Queen of the Bay towards 
the Gulf and ran before the wind for Padre Island. The launches pursued them, 
using both sails and oars, and gained on them slightly. The Confederates ran 
their boat ashore close to the bluffs on Padre Island, jumped out and secreted 
themselves in the hills within about tuo hundred yards of the boat. As the enemy 
approached the Queen of the Bay, thinking they had an easy victory, the Confed- 
erates opened fire upon them with good effect, for they at once changed their 
course and made for Mustang Island, on the opposite side of the channel. Here 
they beached both of their boats, and, taking only their guns with them, proceeded 
farther up the beach. When about a thousand yards from the Confederates they 
stopped and commenced firing at them, when the latter returned the fire, killing 
one of their number. During this time the wind blew the launches from the shore, 
and one came directly towards the Confederates, and Captain Ireland with two men 
waded into the water waist-deep and secured it. He found one man dead and 
another viounded in the boat, with many articles of clothing, arms, and ammunition. 
The other launch, whose sail u-as btill hoisted, drifted towards the Gulf, and a sailor 
named Jack Sands took a yawl and went after it and brought it in safely. After 
securing the body of the man who was killed on Mustang Island the party returned 
to Corpus Christi without the loss of a man. 

On October 31, 1S62, two of the blockading steamers appeared before the town 
of Lavaca and cast anchor about eleven o'clock .v. m. At one o'clock p.m. the com- 
mander of the vessels sent a boat with a flag of truce to the shore, which was met 
by Major D. D. Shea, commanding the post, with four citizens. A short interview 
succeeded, during which the surrender of the town was demanded by the Union 
ofiicer. Major Shea replied that he was there to defend the town, and should do 
so to the best of his ability with all the means at his command, and requested time 
for the removal r.f the women, children, and sick persons from the town. The 
Uniun oliicer rcplie-d that one hour was the time he was authorized to grant, but, in 
consideration of the fact that an epidemic oi yellow fever was still raging in tiie 


town, he would extend the time to one hour and a half. At the expiration of this 
short time the vessels moved up in front of the town and opened fire from both 
steamers on the town and batteries. There were still many women and children in 
town who had been unable to leave for want of time. The batteries promptly 
returned the tire, and, although many of the men had but partially recovered from 
the fever, they stood to their guns with great coolness and courage. Their fire was 
so well directed that both the vessels were struck several times, and one of them 
pnrtially disabled. They soon steamed oiit of range of the batteries, when the\ 
anchored and kept up a steady bombardment until night. The ne.xt morning they 
again opened fire upon the town and batteries, but did not again venture in range 
of the batteries. No lives were lost on the shore, but the houses in the town were 
very nuich damaged by the enemy's shot and sliell. The citizens acted heroically 
in rendering assistance to the soldiers in defence of the town, and Mrs. Dunn and 
Mrs. Chesley, and the beautiful and accomplished young daughters of the latter, 
arc particularly mentioned as genuine heroines. Amid the hea\ie3t of the bom- 
bardment they carried to the soldier.^ at the batteries lunches of coffee, bread, and 
meat, in utter disregard of the peril which they incurred from the flying shot and 

On October ro, 1S62, Major-General J. B. Magruder was ordered to take 
command in Texas, superseding Brigadier-General Hebert, and on November 29 
assumed command of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, with head- 
quarters at Houston. He imsnediately began to de\'ise measures for the recapture 
of the city of (iaheston, making several visits to tlie city at night and ascertaining 
the situation and condition of affairs there as well as he could. The plan of attack 
was boldly conceived and brilliantly executed, and reflects great credit upon all who 
wtjc- engaged in it. The enen^y's fieet lying in the bay consisted of the Harriet 
Lanr, carrying four heavy guns and two twenty-four-pounder howitzers, com- 
manded by Captain Wainwright ; the Wcst/icld, of Commodore Renshaw, 
a large propeller carrying eight heavy guns ; the Clifton, a steam propeller of four 
heavy guns ; the Sachevi, a steam propeller of four heavy guns ; two armed trans- 
. ports, two large barks, and an armed schooner. Three companies of the Forty- 
second Massachusetts Regiment occupied Kuhn's wharf, which was strongly bar- 
ricaded, and the planks torn up between the barricade and the land. The two 
Huflalo Hayou steamboats, Bayou City and Neptune, were fitted up by General 
Magruder as gunboats, protected with bales of cotton, with one tender for each, 
loaded with wood for fuel. The boats were prepared and commanded by Commo- 
dore Leon Smith. The Rayou City was under the immediate command of Captain 
i lenry S. Lubbock, with Captain A. R. Wier, of the First Regiment Heavy Arlil- 
kT\-, commanding the artillery, and Captain Martin commanding the riflemen, con- 
sisting of a comjiany of dismounted cavalry armed with F^nfield rifles and double- 
barrelled shot-guns. The iWpttme was under the immediate command of Captain 
Sangster, with Captain Harby conmianding the artillery, and Captain Snyder com- 
manding the riflemen, also anued with Enfield rifles and double-barrelled shot-guns. 
Colonel Tom Crc-en accomp«u#?»^ the expedition, on board the Bayou City, in com- of the land forces on the boats, and Colonel .A.. P. Ragbv, his second officer, 
on board the A'rptiiue. To Colonel Josepli J. Cook, of the First Regiment Heavy 


Artillery, was intrusted the command of the storming party of about five himdrcd 
men, composed of volunteers from Pyron's rci;iment, under Brigadier-General 
W. R. Scurry ; from Elmore's regiment, under Lieutenant L. A. Abercrombie, 
and Gritiin's battalion, who were furnished with ladders with which to scale the 
wharf occupied by the enemy's infantry. 

The land forces under the iiumeuiate command of General Magruder, in addi- 
tion to the storming party under Colonel Cook, comprised a number of volunteers 
from Sibley's brigade, v^'hich was passing through the State on its way from New 
Mexico to Louisiana. Si.x. heavy siege-guns and fourteen pieces of field artillery 
were carried across the bay on the railroad bridge, and hauled into the city by hand, 
the infantry and dismounted cavalry doing the work of horses. An eight-inch 
Dahlgren gun was mounted on a flat-car, to be run out on the railroad track on the 
wharf west of Kuhn's wharf occupied by the enemy's infantry, and within three 
hundred yards of where the Harriet Lane was anchored. Captain S. T. Fontaine, 
of Cook's regiment hea\'y artillery, was sent forward in advance with three of the 
siege-guns to Fort Point, at the east end of Galveston Island, sujjported by six 
companies of Pyron's regiment of cavalry (dismounted), under the personal com- 
mand of Colonel C. L. Pyron ; while the other forces, with the artillery, were placed 
in position along the bay front o* the city, co\ciing a distance of abfiut two and a 
half miles, with the centre resting opposite the Central wharf. Twehe o'clock was 
the hour agreed ujiun for the attack to be made, but it was considerably later than 
that when the signal was fired'from the centre gun by General Magruder in person. 
This was promptly responded to by aii almost simultaneous discharge along the whole 
line. The attack was promptly replied to by the Harriet Lane and the Owasco, 
the vessels lying nearest the wharves, and by the Massachusetts troops behind the 
barricades on Kulm's wharf. Colonel Cook gallandy led the storming party under 
a galling fire of the enemy's infantry, through the water where the jiLinking of the 
wharf had been torn up ; but when they reached the barricades it was discovered 
that their scaling-ladders were too short, and, therefore, they could not reach the 
wharf. They then sought cover in and behind the buildings nearest the wharf, from 
which the)- did eftective work with their rifles. The Dahlgren gun on the flat-car 
was run down the railroad track on to the Brick wharf, and it poured a flanking 
f;rc into the enemy's infaiitiy behind the barricades on Kuhn's wharf. As daylight 
was approaching, and the Confederate gunboats had not arrived, it was evident that 
the position assumed by General Magruder at the time of the attack could not be 
maintained in daylight against the heavy guns of the Union fleet ; and, therefore, 
orders were issued for the withdrawal of the artillery for the purpose of erecting 
fortifications, with a view to the permanent occujjation of the city. But before 
these orders were carried out, and just about daylight, the Bayou City and Neptune 
came steaming down the bay, and immediately engaged the Harriet Lane in gal- 
lant style, one of them running on each side of her and pouring on her deck a 
deadly fire from riilcs and shot-guns. The Harriet Lane got under way, ran down 
the Neptune and sunk her ; b\it at the same time the Bayou City drove her prow 
imo the iron wheel of the La)ic in tin- face of the broadsides from her heavy guns. 
The moment the \e~.-els struck, Cnmmudore Leon Smith, sword in hand, leaped 
upon the deck of tile Lane, followed by the Nolimteers on the Bayou City: and 


after a short but fierce contest, the enemy hoisted the white flag and surrendered. 
The other vessels and the infantry on the wharf then hoisted the while flag also. 
At the beginning of the engagement the IVcst/ield was at anchor in liolivar Chan- 
nel, and in attempting to get into position for action ran aground on Pelican Spit ; 
and after several ineiTectual efforts to get her off, Cominodore Renshaw blew her up, 
and in the e.xplosion lost his own life with six of his crew. The steamers which had 
hoisted the white flag drifted slowly towards the bar, and while officers w ere pro- 
ceeding to receive their surrender, they steamed off over the bar and proceeded to 
sea with white flags flying, under the fire of Captain Fontaine's guns at P'ort Point. 
It is a somewhat remarkable coincidence that these same vessels entered Galveston 
harbor but three months before under the protection of the white flag, and now took 
advantage of the same protection to make their escape. 

The Union loss was the Haj-Tict Lave, one schooner, and two barks, and about 
four hundred prisoners, the number of killed and wounded on the Harriet Lane 
not being reported ; but among the former were Captain Wainwright and Lieutenant 
Lea, of the Harriet Lane, and Captain Wilson, of the Oicasco. The Confederate 
loss was twenty-six killed and one hundred and seventeen wounded. 

One of the saddest incidents of thi.s fratricidal war was presented in this engage- 
ment. Immediately afier the capture of the Harriet Lane, Major A. M. Lea, of the 
Confederate army, who was serving on General Magruder's staff, stepped upon her 
deck, and the first object which met his astonished gaze wiis his own son, Lieutenant 
Lea, of the United States navy, the second officer of the ship, lying upon the deck 
mortally wounded. The son lived but a short time, and died in his father's arms.' 
The next day Captain Wainright and Lieutenant Lea were buried in the same grave 
with Masonic and military honors, and the father of the latter. Major A. M. Lea, of 
the Confederate army, conducted the funeral services. 

Among the killed of the Confederates were Captain A. R. Wier, command- 
ing the artillery on board the Bayou City, and who was the first man to volunteer 
for the expedition, and Lieutenant Sidney A. Sherman, a son of General Sidney 
Sherman, who commanded the Texan cava!r\- at the battle of San Jacinto. 

When the Confederate army reached the suburbs of the city on its ad\'ance. 
General Magrurler sent a staff officer with a number of ambulances to the Ursuline 
convent, with instructions to place the conveyances at the di^-posal of the nuns for 
their removal to a point of safety ; but, while recognizing the courtesy extended to 
them, these noble women expressed a preference to remain and nurse the wounded, 
and tendered tlie use of the convent as a hospital, and right nobly did they dis- 
charge their self-imposed duty. 

On the 3d of January, the United States steamship Cambria arrived outside with 
a number of troops on board under Colonel E. J. Davis, of the First Texas (Union) 
Cavalry, and seven companies of the Forty-secrin<l Massachusetts, and as the block- 
ading vessels had sailed for New Orleans after their discomfiture, the officers of the 
Cambria had no information of the rcc.ijitnre of the city. .She came to anchor and 
sent in a boat with several men for a, pilot, when a pilot-boat was sent out to her under 
Captain T. W. Payne, a sailor of Gaheston, with instructions to entice her in. He 
boarded the Cambria, when she sailed av.ay w ith him and sent the pilot-boat back. 
General .Magruder and Captain Mason ^peak in the hi,:^'he-~t terms of Caj.itain Payne 


and deplore his capture, but there seems to be some doubt as to his deserving their 
pniise and sympathy. Mr. Lewis Bach, acting purser of the Cai/ifiria, says that 
Captain Payne betrayed to the commander of the Cambria tlie fact that Galveston 
was in the hands of the Confederates, and thus enabled her to escape. 

Among tlie men on the yawl boat which came in from the Cambria for a pilot 
was a man n.micd Thomas Smith, recently a citizen of Galveston, who had deserted 
from the Confederate army, and who was accused of setting fire to the city several 
times before his desertion, and had been known as " Nicaragua" Smith. He was 
shortly afterwards tried by a court-martial, con\-icted, and shot in accordance with 
the rules of military law. 

This brilliant achievement very much elated the Confederates, and caused 
great rejoicing among their friends. Shortly afterwards General Magruder was the 
happy recipient of congratulatory letters from the President of the Confederate 
States and many of the generals and prominent citizens. The Congress of the 
Confederate States and the legislature of Te.xas passed resolutions of thanks, and 
commending the gallantry of the men engaged in the affair. But among all the 
congratulations received by General Magruder, it may well be doubted if any gave 
him more genuine pleasure than one from General Sam Houston. From his re- 
tirement at Huntsville, under date of January 7, 1S63, he wrote: "It gives me 
great pleasure to mingle my congratulations with the many thousands that you have 
received. You, sir, have introduced a new era in Te.xas by driving from our soil 
a ruthless enemy. You deserve, sir, not only my thanks, but the thanks of every 
Te.xan. Your advent was scarcely known in Te.xas when we were awaked from 
our rcvcry to the realities of your splendid victory. Its planning and execution 
reflect additional glory on your former fame, as well as on the arms of Te.xas. 
Most sincerely do we trust that a new era has dawned upon us, and that you may 
be enabled again to restore Te.xas to her wonted security. We hope that Texas, 
with so gallant a leader as you are, general, will yet show to the world that she is 
capable of defending her own soil, notwithstanding she has already been drained of 
her only resources, which have been transferred to otlier battle-fields. You will 
find that all Texans want is a general who is capable of leading them to victory, 
and now having obtained that, I hope you will ever find them ready to second your 
efforts, and that your future may be as glorious as your past. When you arrived 
here, general, you found our country without organization, without plans for our 
defence, and our situation most deplorable. What few resources we had were with- 
out organization, without discipline, and without everything that was calculated to 
render the means she had efficient. "\'o\i have breathed new life into everything ; 
you iKu-e illustrated to them what the>' can do, and most sincerely do I trust that 
the past may only be the dawning of the future, and I pray that under the guidance 
of a Divine Being you may be enabled to carry out the regeneration of Texas. It 
would give me pleasure, general, to call and pay my respects to you, but that I 
have recently arisen from a sick bed." 

On the night of January 4, 1S63. Captain E. S. Rugelcy, of Colonel R. R. 
Brown's regiment, with about forty men, went down the bay on the gunboat Carr, 
for the purpose of making a night .ittack upon an intrenclied camp which the 
enemy had erected on the [)cnin:iu!.i. The [larts- li--ft tlie gunboat in three small 


boats about ten o'clock at nii^ht, to row quietly up to the shore near the encam[)- 
nient, and when about half-way a most terrific norther began to blow, and two of 
the small boats were capsized and twenty-two of the party drowned. 

On Sunday night, January. 11, 1863, the citizens and soldiers at Galveston were 
startled by hearing firing at sea, and were on the lookout for some startling news. 
lUit no explanation of the firing was known for some time aftenrards. Then it was 
a'icertained that the cause of the firing was an engagement between the United 
States steamer Hatteras and the Confederate Cruiser 2go. Acting Master S. H. 
Partridge, of the Hatteras, gives the following account of the affair : — 

About three o'clock p.m., Sunday, January' 11, 1S63, a strange vessel hove in 
sight to the southeast of the blockading fleet off Galveston. The Hatteras was 
ordered to give chase, and as she approached the stranger the latter appeared as if 
endeavoring to escape. After dark the Hatteras gained rapidly on the stranger 
and overtook her, lying to, but under steam. As the Hatteras came alongside her 
officer hailed and asked what ship it was. She answered: " Her Britannic Majesty's 
ship Spitfire." The officer of the Hatteras then ordered a boat to go aboard the 
stranger, and when the boat was lowered Mr. Partridge was ordered to take charge 
of it and board the stranger. Before the boat was half a boat's length away the 
stranger opened fire. It was returned by tlie Hatteras, and both vessels strtrted 
ahead under full head of steam, e.xchanging broadsides as fast as they could load 
and fire with big guns, for about twenty minutes, and with musketry from both 
vessels. All this time Mr. Partridge had been trying to board his ship, but could 
not catch up with her. After the musketry had ceased he discovered that the Hat- 
teras was stopped and was blowing of? steam, and that the stranger was alongside 
of her for the purpose of boarding. He heard the crew of the stranger cheering, 
and knew that the Hatteras had been captured ; and instead of gi'v'ing himself up 
as a prisoner, rowed back to the fleet in the darkness. The United States steamer 
Brooklyn went out the ne.xt day and found the Hatteras sunk. 

This affair occurred about sixteen miles south of Galveston. 

On January 31, 1S63, the two Confederate cotton-clad gimboats Josiali Bell 
and Uncle Ben passed out of Sabine Pas:; and attacked a Union war-ship of nine 
guns and a schooner of two guns. The Union vessels sailed out to sea, and after 
a running fight of about two hours the Confederates overtotjk them, and by a 
deafUy fire from the infantry and dismounted ca\-alry secreted behind the cotton 
bales, compelled their surrender about thirty miles from land. P.oth vessels, the 
Morning Liglit and the Velocity, with one hundred and thirty prisoners, and about 
one hunVlred thousand dollars' worth of military stores, were captured and carried 
into Sabine. Major O. M. Watkins, of General Magruder's staff, commanded the 
Confederates, and Captains P'owler and Johnsun, sea captains, commanded the Bell 
and Uncle Ben, respectively. The land forces on the boats were a detail from Com- 
pany E, Cook's regiment hea\'y artillery, under Captains Odum and O' Bryan, 
and Lieutenant.^ Dowling and Aikcns, and details of riflemen from Colonel Pyron's 
cavalry regiment and Colonel A. AV. Spaight's infantry battalion, under Captains 
Nolan and A\'cock, aggregating three hunflrcd. 

On the afternoon of April 17, i.So;,, a party of seven men from the lilockading 
licet landed on the Louisian.i shore opposite Sal.>ine Pass, and made quite extended 


observations from the light-house. As soon as informed of this Lieutenant-Colonel 
W. H. Grittin, of Grifhn's Battalion, Twenty-first Texas Infantry, commanding- the 
Confederates at that point, determined to lay a plan for the capture of the ne.\t 
party that should land. Accordingly, on the night of the same day, he placed a 
party of thirty men of his command, under Lieutenant W. J. Jones, of Company 
C, and Lieutenant E. T. Wright, of Company D, in the light-house and the dwell- 
ing-house near by, with instructions to keep themselves well under cover. About 
elesen o'clock the ne.xt day thirteen men in two small boats from the blockading 
ships Cajuga and New London landed some si.x hundred yards from the light- 
house. Three of this party approached very cautiously to within a few. yards of 
the light-house, when, upon demand, they surrendered. The others immediately 
ran for their boats, followed by the Confederates, led by Lieutenant Jones and Lieu- 
tenant Wright, and quite a spirited running fight took place. Captain McDermot, 
of the Cayuga, with his boat and five sailors, were captured, the captain being 
severely wounded. Captain Read, of the A^ciu London, escaped with the other 
men in his boat, but ever}' man in it except one was wounded, Captain Read losing 
an eye besides other wounds. Captain McDermot died of his wounds about two 
o'clock the same day, and his body was sent aboard his ship under a flag of 

The only casualty among the Confederates was the death of the gallant 
Lieutenant E. T. Wright, who was shot through the head while bravely leading 
his men in the fight. 


" Nesohdion i. Be it resolved, by the Legislature of the Slate of Texas, That 
the thanks of the Legislature are hereby tendered to General J. B. Magruder asid 
the officers and men under his command for the brilliant victory which they gained 
over the Federalists at Galveston on the ist of January last. To Major O. M. 
Watkins and the officers and men under his command for their gallant conduct at 
Sabine Pass and the recapture of that post and capturing the blockading vessels of 
the enen\y ; and to .^Iaior Daniel Shea and the officers and men under his command 
for their brave defence of the town of Lavaca ; and to Major Hobby and the officers 
and soldiers under his command for the repulse of the enemy's attack on Corpus 
Christi, the conimencement of our success on the Texas const ; and to Captains 
Ireland and Ware and the officers and soldiers under their command for their 
exploit in the capture of Captain Kittrcdge and his men near Corpus Christi : and 
to Captains Ireland and Wilke and the officers and soldiers under their conmiaiifl 
for their good conduct in defeating the enemy's attempt to capture one of our 
\-essels and in capturing his barges in the bay of Corpus Christi ; and to Captains 
Santos Benavides and Refugio Benavides and the officers and men under their 
command for their vigilance, energy, and gallantry in pursuing and chastising the 
banditti infesting the Rio Grande frontier. 

" Resolution 2. That the governor be requested to transmit a copy of these 
resolutions to General J. R. Magruder and the other officers mentioned, with the 
request that they make them known to the officers and men under their command. 

"Approved March 6, 1S63." 

On May 3, 1S63. Captain E. E. Hobby, of Company P. Eighth Texas In- 
fantry, widi twenty-eight men. att.icked three launches wiili forty men as they 
approached the shore of St. J'lseph's Island, near Aransas Pass, and captmed one 


launch nnd h\'e prisoners. The second launch, being about three hundred vards 
from tlic shore, also hoisted the white flag, when Captain Hobby ordered the firing 
to cease, and while his men were securing the prisoners and arms in the first launch, 
the blockading bark having opened fire on them, the second one began to pull out 
for the bark under cover of the fire. The Confederates again fired on it, doing 
much e.xcculion. They could distinctly see the men in the l.iunch drop their oars 
and fall in the boat, and se%-cral bodies were seen floating in the \\ater. It reached 
the Vwrk with onl\- two men in it. 

On May 30, 1863, about si.>: o'clock .\.M. , a Union force of almut one hundred 
and fifty men. in four launches from the United States frigate Brooklyn effected a 
landing at Point Isabel and burned a small schooner which was in the ser\ice of. the 
Confederate custom-house ofticials. Lieutenant J. B. Amnions, of the Thirty-tliird 
Texas Cavalry, with eleven men, was stationed there to guard the schooner Eager, 
which had just succeeded in running the blockade with a cargo of merchandise, and 
to obser\x' and report the movements of the blockading fleet. He was unable, with 
his small force, to prevent the landing of the launches, but he burned the Eager 
and her cargo to prevent them falling into the hands of the enemy, and, after 
e.xchanging a few shots, retired, and the launches returned to the Brooklyn. 

For a long time the Rio Grande frontier had been the scene of depredations by 
lawless characters and bandits from Me.xico. Many murders were committed, and 
numbers of horses driven across the ri\'er by them. The leader of one of these 
bands was a Mexican named Octaviano Zapata, who was encouraged by the repre- 
sentatives of the United States in Mexico, and had already received, or been 
promised, a commission as colonel in the Union army as a reward for his zeal, and 
actually displayed the United States flag in one of his raids. During this summer 
this noted outlaw made a raid into Texas, drove off large quantities of stock, and 
murdered Colonel Jesus Garcia Ramires. Major Santos Benavides, of the Thirty- 
third Texas Cavalry, v.ith thirty-nine men and three lieutenants of Company H 
and th'ity-five men and two lieutenants of Company D of that regiment, followed 
tiie outlaws into Mexico, overtook the band near Micr and routed them after a 
livc-iy engagement. The bandits fled, leaving ten of their number dead upon the 
ground, including their leader, Zapata. 

On the 8th of September a spirited affair took place at Sa!)ine Pass, which 
d'-featcd a contetnpi;^ted invasion of the Slate and reflected great credit upon the 
Confederate arms. About half-past six o'clock .\..M. of that day a large force of 
Union and gunboats appeared olT the Pass and bombarded Fort Griffin for 
about an hour, and then withdrew. The Confederate forces consisted of Company 
I- (Davis Guards), Cook's regiment of heavy artillery, numbering forty-se\-en men, 
under the immediate command of Lieutenant Richard W. Dowling, Captain F. H. 
Odium of that company being in command of the post, and the small cotton-clad 
gunboat Uncle Ben, carrying a small force of infantry under Lieutenant Joseph O. 
Cassidy, of P, A. W. Sii.iight's h.utalion. The armament of Fort Griffin 
consisted of two twenty-four-pounder smooth-bores, two thirty-tuo-poundcr smooth- 
bores and two thirty-two-pounder howitzers, — six guns in all. 

The Unio;i furces consisted of the gunboats Clifton, Sachcnt. Arhona. and 
(•ranil,- City, under the command of Lieutenant-Commander P'riJerick Crocker, 


United States na\y, and eighteen transports laden with about fifteen thousand 
infantry, artillery, and cavalry, all under the command of Major-General W. B. 
Franklin, Ninetecntli Army Corps. 

About elexx'n o'clock A..M. Captain Odium sent the gunboat Uncle Ben down 
from Saliine City to F"ort Grifliii, when she was fired on by the Union gunboats, 
and about three o'clock 1'..m. the gunboats began to advance towards the fort. 
The Clifton steamed up the Te.xas channel, and the Sacliem up the Louisiana 
channel, both firing on the fort as they advanced, and were followed by the other 
two gunboats. 'I'he Confederates held their fire until the leading gunboats were 
within about twelve hundred yards, when they opened upon them a rapid fire. At 
the third round a shot penetrated the steam-drum of the Sachoii and she hoisted 
the white flag. All the guns of the fort were then turned upon the Clifton, and for 
about three-quarters of an hour the contest was lively and e.xciting. A shot from 
the fort carried away the tiller- rope of the CI if Ion ; she became unmanageable and 
drifted around and grounded about fi\e hundred yards below the fort, when she 
also hoisted the white flag. The other guTiboats and transports steamed out of the 
Pass and returned to New Orleans. With the two gunboats were captured about 
three hundred and fifty prisoners, including Lieutenant-Commander Crocker, thir- 
teen cannon and a quantity of bmall-arnij, stores, etc. The Union casualties were 
three officers and ninety-four men ; of the Confederates not a man was hurt. 

This brilliant pffair was heralded over the ciiuntry, and the Confederate com- 
manders took advantage of it to encourage the failing spirits of tlie citizens and 
soldiery, and the Confederate Congress passed a resolution extending thanks to 
Captain Odium, Lieutenant Dowling, and the Davis Guards for their daring, gal- 
lant, and successful defence of Sabine Pass. 

The e.Kpedition to Sabine Pass was intended to be the entering wedge of an 
invasion of Texas, and, had it been successful, there can be little doubt but that the 
State would have been subjected to all the horrors accompanying the triumphant 
march of an invading hostile army. As having saved the State from such a 
calamity, the gallant defence of Sabine Pass cannot be too highly a])preciated. 

On October 26, 1863, Major-General N. P. Banks sailed from New Orleans 
with an army of about sc\x'n tliousand troo[>s, with the a\-owed intention of hoisting 
the L'nion Hag on the soil of Texas at the mouth of the Rio Grande Ri\-er, cap- 
turing the city of Brownsville, and by a movement up the river cut off the very 
ini[5ortant trade between Texas and Mexico, and by a simultaneous movement 
eastwardly along the coast capture the cities of Houston and Galveston ; and by 
these operations acquire control of the State. The United States government 
seemed to regard it as all-important that its flag should float over some portion, if 
ni)l all, of the State of Texas. The most urgent communications were written to 
the authorities at W'ashington by the governors of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire demanding the invasion and occupation of Te.xas. Their influence was doubt- 
less brought to bear through the influi-nce of A. J. Hamilton, who had been 
appointed military governor of Texas by the President of the L'nited States, and his 
friends in the North and East. Genera! Banks says that in August, 1863, he was 
informed by the authorities at W'ashington that there were important reasons why 
the flag of the United .States should be established in Texiis with the kast possible 


delay ; that there were reasons other than military why the operations against Texas 
should be undertaken before others which had been suggested by him. He further 
Siiys that he was advised that this object could be best eflected by combined land 
and naval movements upon Red River to Alexandria, Natchitoches, or Shreveport, 
and the occupation of Northern Texas : tiiat tiiis line was recommended as superior 
jur niiiitary operations to the occupation of Galveston or Indianola, but that the 
tinal selection was left to his judgment. 

He also says tiiat the ditliculties attending a mo\-enK-nt in the direction of 
Shrc\eport — a route which had been thoroughly explored in the spring campaign 
of 1863 — satisfied him that it was impracticable, if not impossible, for the purposes 
entertained by the government. That the selection of the line of operations having 
been left whh him, he made immediate preparations for a movement by the coast 
against Houston, selecting Sabine Pass as the point of attack. He regarded it as 
possessing advantages over any other route by reason of its being immediately con- 
nected by the Gulf of Mexico with Berwick Bay, then in his possession, and with 
New Orleans by the Mississippi River, and by rail from Berwick Bay. His 
objective point seems to have been Houston, the occupation of which would have 
placed in his hands the control of all the railway communications of the State, 
reduced to subjection the most populous and productive portion of the country, and 
enabled him to move at any moment into the interior in any direction, or to fall 
back ujion Galveston, which could be defended with a very small fierce. The 
failure of the ill-fated expedition to Sabine Pass under General Franklin having 
notified the Confederates of his purpose and rendered it impracticable to repeat the 
attempt at that point, and the instructions of his government being imperative, he 
then began an attempt to carry them out by a movement towards Alexandria and 
Shreveport, or, if possilMe, across the southern part of Louisiana to Niblett's Bluff. 
He says that it was soon found to be impiacticable, if not impossible, to enter Texas 
in direction, because the country between the Teche and the Sabine was 
without supplies of any kind, and entirely without water ; and the march of three 
lumdred miles across it with wagon transportation alone, where it was certain to 
meet the Confederates in full force, was necessarily abandoned. He also says that 
a movement in the direction of Alexandria and Shreveport was equally impracti- 
caWf ; that the route lay over a country entirely destitute of supplies, which had 
l>een repeatedly overrun by two armies, and which involved a march of five hundred 
miles from New Orleans, and nearly four hundred from Berwick Bay, with wagon 
lraiir,poriation only, mostly upon a single road, very thickly wooded and occupied 
by a thoroughly hostile pojnilation. And becoming satisfied that it was impossible 
t-' execute the orders of his government for the occupation of Texas by cither of 
theM,- routes, he decided, as the only alternative for the accomplishment oi this 
object, that the attempt to get a foothold on the southwestern frontier of Texas, 
along the Rio Grande, should be made. 

.Accordingly, on October 26, 1S63, be sailed frum New Orleans with a force of 
aUiut seven thcjusand men, with thirteen transports and three gunboats, for the 
louth of the Rio Grande. His army reached Brazos Santiago on November i, and 
thi/ mxt day occupied Bra/.ns Island. On the fith his army marched for Browns- 
M-lf, .ind the Confederate force under (JL-nenil H. P. lire, bein- too weak to oiTer 


any resistance, was withdrawn, and fell back to Las Animas Ranch, after burninsj 
the barracks, all the cotton in the town, and all the public stores which could not be 
moved, and General Banks's army entered the town on the morning; of the 7th. 
General Banks reported that the Confederates had burned the t(jwn, or a portion of 
it ; but this is not true. The tire from the burning barracks communicated by acci- 
dent to some houses near by and destroyed a block of buildings in front of the ferry, 
but it was not the wanton act of the Confederates. Accompanying this expedition 
was Colonel E. J. Davis, a prominent citizen of Western Texas, with a regiment 
of cavalry composed of some Union men who had left the State on account o; 
their Union sentiments, and some Mexican bandits from both sides of the Rio 

Among the several companies of Mexicans \^■hich had been received Into the 
Confederate service along the Rio Grande was one commanded by a Mexican 
named Adrian T. \'idal. A few days before the arri\al of General Banks's army 
this company was on duty at the mouth of the Rio Grande, and General Bee sent 
orders for it to come into Browns\ille to perform garrison duty in the place of the 
three companies of the Thirty-third Texas Cavalry, which had been ordered to 
Houston. The order was not obeyed, and General Bee then sent Privates Dashiell 
and Litteral, of Company A, Thirty-third Texas Cavalry, to ascertain the cause of 
disobedience, and with renewed orders for Vidal to bring in his company at once. 
They met \'idal with his company on the road about fourteen miles below Browns- 
ville and started to return with them, and when a short distance had been travelled 
the Mexicans opened fire on Dashiell and Litteral, killing the former and wounding 
the latter badly. He made his escape and returned to Brownsville with the alarm. 
and General Bee made immediate preparations for defence. There were only nine- 
teen soldiers in the garrison, but a volunteer company of about one hundred citizens 
was soon raised, and these met the mutineers near town and drove them back. In 
the mean time Captain Richard Taylor arrived with Company A, Thirty-third Texas 
Cavalry, and gave close pursuit to the Mexicans and drove them across the river. 
When Captain Taylor reached the left bank of the river where Vidal had just cros.sed 
he was met with scoffs and jeers by a large party of several hundred Mexicans and 
L'nion men on the riglit bank of the ri\ er. \'idal soon after joined the I ^nion army 
with his company, and the evidence is very strong that he joined the Confederate 
army for the purpose of betraying it, and at the suggestion of reprc?entati\x-s of the 
United States government. 

Upon the arri\al of General Banks at Brownsville he found a chronic state of 
revolution prevailing in Matamoras. A few days before his arrival the notorious 
Juan N. Cortina, in conjunction with Jose Maria Cobos, had deposed Manuel Ruiz, 
governor of the state of Tamaulipas, and incarcerated him in prison. Then Cor- 
tina, w ith his characteristic treachery, raised a revolt against his coadjutor Cobos. 
and had him and two of his friends executed by shooting them on the plaza in the 
presence of a.i immense crowd of citizens, and released Ruiz from j;ii!. Fretendiiig 
to be a friend of Ruiz, who was popular with the masses, he restored him to power, 
and the next day whispered to him that he thought his life was in danger if he 
remained in Matanioras, and tendered him an escort of twenty-five of his men if he 
desired to lea\e the citv. Governtir Ruiz rightly comiirchended this meant 


assassination, and was glad of the opportunity to sa\'c his Hfe by crossing to Texas, 
without waiting for the treacherous escort of Cortina, and askiiiy protection of 
General Banks on the day of his arrival. 

Cortina being thus in power, received the United States troops, with whom his 
sympathies were while they were in the ascendant, with great cordiality ; and showed 
his entire willingness to be serviceable to General Banks by forcibly seizing three 
steamboats belonging to King and Kennedy, citizens of Texas who were in sym- 
pathy with the Confederate States, and turning them over to him. 

On the 13th of No\-ember, 1S65, General Banks left Bro\\ns\ille for the pur- 
pose of moving against the passes east of Point Isabel, carrying with him about 
fifteen hundred men, one battery of light artillery, his gunboats, and two of 
the light-drafi. river .steamboats of King and Kennedy, which Cortina had turned 
over to him. His command reached the pass at Corpus Christi on the i6th, but 
his lightest draft vessels, drawing three and a half feet, finding only two and a half 
feet of water on the bar, could not enter. It was then decided to land his forces on 
Mustang Island, which was successfully accomplished. The landing was made on 
the south end of the island, and about five hundred men under Brigadier-General 
Ransom marched up the island without opposition, until they reached the north end, 
where they were met on the morning of the 17th by Captain William H. Maltby's 
company of the Eighth Texas Infantry and Captain Garrett's company of State 
troops, all under command of Major George O. Dunaway ; and after an engage- 
ment of more than half an hour the Confederate force, numbering about one hun- 
dred men, surrendered to the largely superior force of General Ransom. The 
Union force captured three siege-guns, all the small-anns of the Confederates, and 
ten small boats. The next day General Ransom crossed over to St. Joseph's Island, 
where he was reinforced by several more regiments of infantr}^ and Major-General 
C. C. Washburn assumed command of the expedition. On the 22d of November, 
General Ransom pushed on up St. Joseph's Island with his forces, and when near 
the north end was met by a flag of truce from the Confederates, to inquire as to the 
fate of their comrades who were on Mustang Island. Major Charles Hill, who was 
in command of this party with the flag of truce, was killed, under circumstances of 
suspicion that he was shot while under the protection of a white flag. Some of the 
Confederate officers so charge it, but General C. C. Washburn in his report to 
General Banks, from Cedar Bayou, dated November 25, says: "A rebel major was 
shot on yesterday. His body was found this morning. He came down with a flag 
of truce. A sergeant from General Ransom's command swam over to him. He got 
into a dispute with the sergeant, and drew his pistol and shot him, wo'jnding him 
?e\erely. Our soldiers, witnessing the struggle, fired, and the major was seen to 
ihnp away. 1 lis body was found a few hundred yards from where he was struck. 
His inquiry was as to what had become of the Confederate troops that were on 
Mustang Island." In his report of this incident, Brigadier-General Ransom, who 
was in immediate command of the Union troops engaged, says thai he reached 
Cedar Bayou (the channel which sejiarates St. Joseph's Island from Matagorda 
I.-land) about noon the 23d of November, "where my advanced guard of mounted 
inf.mtry, under command of Captain C. .S. Ilslev, Fifteenth Maine, had a slight 
skirmish with a scouting [larty of the en'.'iny, in which Major Charles Hill, com- 


manding the rebel party, was killed, and Sergeant James Saunders, Company F, 
Fifteenth Maine, was slightly wnimded." 

Ex- Governor John Ireland, who at the time commanded a company at P'ort 
Esperanza, says in a recent letter that Major Hill left the fort and went down the 
island some twenty miles. At a bayou he met the Federals under Geiieral Banks, 
and for some purpose he showed a white flag. Instead of sending a flag to meet 
him, the Federal commander ordered a large stout man to strip himself and swim 
across to Hill. He did so, and at once seized Hill and held him at arms' length 
while his comrades shot Hill to death. There was no quarrel or difficulty ; it was a 
pure assassination. Major Hill was not a citizen of Texas, and is first mentioned in 
General Magruder's report of the recapture of Galveston ; and on June 8, 1863, 
he is recommended by General Magruder to the War Department for promo- 
tion to major of artillery. In that recommendation he is designated as First 
Lieutenant Charles Hill, of \'irginia, acting assistant chief of artillery, Western 

On November 25, 1S63, the Union army crossed the channel bet«-een St. 
Joseph's and Matagorda Islands, and on the morning of the 29th appeared before 
Fort Esperanza, on the north end of the latter. The fort was occupied by about 
five hundred Confederates under Colonel W. R. Bradfute, and contained eight 
pieces of heavy artillery, one a twelve-pounder, and the others twcnty-four-pounders. 
After driving in the Confederate pickets, the enemy opened fire on the fort with 
two land batteries and the heavy guns from two gunboats, which was promptly 
returned by the guns in the fort. After a heavy bombardment all day, the Con- 
federate commander determined to evacuate the fort, as it was too apparent that 
the three thousand Union troops would soon cut him off from the mainland, and 
his surrender would be a question of a very short time. So about ten o'clock that 
night he withdrew his force and crossed to the mainland, blowing up his nvagazine j 

and destroying what property he could. The enemy's loss was one killed and ten | 

wounded, and the Confederates lost one man killed and six prisoners, the latter 
having been left to fire the magazines and pontoon bridge, and were captured. 

On the 30th of November, General Washburn crossed about one thousand of his 
men over to Matagorda Peninsula, but before his entire force of four thousand men 
had crossed he received orders from General Banks to remain at Esperanza until ! 

further orders. Part of his command was puslied on up the peninsula as far as j 

De Crow's Point, and with the occupation of Matagorda Island and Peninsula, and ! 

the contiguous points on the mainland, the enemy seemed satisfied during the month I 

of December, and made no effort to penetrate to the interior of the State. December { 

23, 1863, a brigade of I'nited States troops marched from Saluria and occupied \ 

Indianola. • | 

The movements of the invading army caused great activity on the mainland } 

among the Confederate troops in preparation to meet the invaders. Several points { 

along the -coast of the mainland were fortified, the State troops were ordered to the i 

field, and, with the consent of Lieutenant-General E. Kirby Smith, General Tom I 

Green's division was ordered back to Te.xas from Louisiana. ' 

Shortly after the arri\-al of the Union army at Brownsville Gem-ral Banks sent ' 

an expedition up tlie Rio Grande for the purpose of capturing all the cotton it ' 


might intercept in transit from Texas to Mexico. This force was under the com- 
mand of Colonel E. J. Davis, of the First Texas (Union) Cavalry, with his own 
n-^^inient and the Thirty-seventh Illinois Infantry. Part of the force went up on 
the steamboat Mitstaiig belonging to King and Kennedy, and which had been 
sci/cd by Colonel Cortina and turned over to General Banks. The expedition 
went up the river as far as Rio Grande City and captured eighty-two bales of 
cotton, which were sent down the river to Brownsville. Colonel Davis remained 
:(f Rio Grande City and in the vicinity for se\eral ninnths ; and in March, 1864, 
marched from there up the river for the jnirpose of capturing Laredo, where he was 
deftLited by Colonel Santos Benavides on the 19th of that month. 

Brigadier-General A. J. Hamilton, a former citizen of Austin, uho had espoused 
the Inion cause and been appointed a brigadier-general in the United States army 
and militarv- governor of Texas, arrived at Brownsville, December i, 1S63, and for 
the first time since his appointment assumed to exercise the functions of his office 
upnn the soil of the State. He was accompanied by his stafi, civil as well as mili- 
t.iry, composed principally of shrewd New Englanders who had rendered him 
fmancial aid during his e.xile, and had now accompanied him for the purpose of 
t. iking advantage of the opportunities for speculation which the expedition to and 
occupation of Texas b)- the L''nited States army was expected to present. General 
Hanks, commanding tlie expedition, does not seem to have been imposed upon by 
these s<itellites of General Hamilton, for his estimate of their character and purposes 
;ls expressed in his correspondence with Mr. Stanton, referred to in another part of 
this cha])ter, seems to have been justified by subsequent events. 

In January, 1S64, after the return of Generul Banks to New Orleans, Major- 
(it-neral N. J. T. Dana, of the L'nited States army, occupying Brownsville, discovered 
a plot hatched by Captain Jasper K. Herbert, assistant adjutant-geneial to Brigadier- 
General A. J. Hamilton, and one Turner, an agent of the United States Treasury 
I)<-partment, in which they had agreed v>ith Governo! Jesus de la Serna, of the 
^t.Ue of Tamaulipas, to deli\er to him on his requisition certain Mexican citizens 
wlio were then reaigees in Brownsville ; and to recompense them for their services 
in complying with this requisition in the name of General Hamilton, Governor 
.S';rr,a. by pmckimation, under the pretext that the Confederates were in friendly 
communication with the h'rench and therefore enemies of Mexico, was to seize all 
the Confederate cotton and other property then in M.itamoras, ha\-e it confiscated, 
cundvmaed, and sold, and the proceeds divided into four parts, one for Serna, one 
i'>r ilic United States consul, one for Captain Herbert, and the other for Turner. 
Be it said to the credit of Mr. Pierce, the consul, that he gave the whole scheme 
a^.tv to General Dana, and Captain Herbert was arrested and tried by a court- 
m.!ni...l com ened b\- and on charges preferred by General Dan.i. He was convicted 
on thi: charges, but President Lincohi decided that the convicticm was, by law, 
"void and inoperative," because General Dana, who convened the court, was also 
th<- .-iccuser in the case, and ordeied his discharge from custody with a reprimand, 
l«.rause the oflence of which he had been found guilty was of so grave a nature that 
1! rnultl not be allowed to pass unrebuked. With a seeming desire to place Captain 
'hi'., a in company more suited to his ])eculiar t.ilents ami traits of character, Mr. 
l-i:io>lii closes liis consideration of the case b_\- orderin.::; him to "report in person 


without delay to Major-General B. F. Rutler, commanding Department of Virginia 
and North CaroHna. " This mayor may not be one of those grim, unconscious 
jokes for which Mr. Lincoln was so noted, but it bears strong marks of his facetious 

January 3, i.'^64, Major-General Francis J. Herron took command of the United 
Stales troops oil tiic Rio Grande, uilh head-quarters at Browns\illc, relieving Major- 
General N. J. T. Dana, who took command of tlie forces on the Texas coast with 
liead-quarters at Fort Esperanza. 

On January S, 1S64, a Union gunboat commenced shelling the Confederate 
fortifications at the mouth of Caney Creek, opposite Matagorda Peninsula, which 
was continued at intervals during the day. In the afternoon a transport loaded with 
troops appeared close in shore about si.\ miles below the fortifications, manifesting 
an intention to effect a disembarkation on the mainland ; but Colonel A. Buchel, 
commanding a brigade of Confederates, mo\'ed his command down opposite the 
point where the transport appeared, and if the enemy had any intention of landing 
there, they abandoned it upon this show of resistance, and went away in the direc- 
tion of De Crow's Point. The next day the gunboat fired about forty shots at 
the Confederate battery, and then retired. The Confederate loss was one man 
of Company E, First Te.\;as Cavalry. Again, on February 7, a gunboat fired 
about sixty shots at the fort with great accuracy, wounding three men and three 

On the night of January 12, 1864, one of the periodic Mexican revolutions 
broke out in Matainoras which was characteristic of that heroic city, in wliich the 
notorious Colonel Juan N. Cortina overthrew and deposed the governor, Manuel 
Ruiz. The fighting between factions was fierce and furious, the forces of Governor 
Ruiz numbering about eight hundred men and four pieces of artillery, and those of 
Colonel Cortina about six hundred men and four pieces of artillery. During the 
fight, INIr. L. Pierce, Jr., the United States consul at Matamoras, despatched a mes- 
senger to Major-General Francis J. Herron, commanding the United States forces 
at Brownsville, informing him that he and his family were in danger, as well as 
about one million dollars of public funds in his possession, and asking the protection 
of the United States army. About the same time General Hcnon received an 
invitation from Governor Ruiz to send troops across the river for the protection of 
the lives and propertj- of American citizens in Matamoras, declaring his own 
inability to protect them. General Herron then promptly despatched Colonel Henry 
Bertram, of the Twentieth Wisconsin Infantry, witli four companies, to the heroic 
city of Matamoras, took charge of the consulate, and at seven o'clock next morn- 
ing renio\-ed the [Hiblic funds and the families of American citizens tci P.rowns\-ilie. 
Cortina declared himself governor of the state of Tamaulipas, and Ruiz sought 
refuge in Texas. 

On January 15, 1864, the Union troops, under Colonel Geo. W. K. Dailey, 
evacuated Pass Ca\allo, after liaving torn down nearly all the liouses by order of 
Major-General Herron, and shipped the lumber to Brazos Santiago. The heavy 
guns which were ca]jtured from the Confederates at Fort Esperanza were also 
canied away. Eserything combustible, except t'le residence of Colonel Forrester, 
was burned and the forts blown up. 


Oil February 11, 1S64, about seventy-fi\e men of the enemy landed at Lamar, 
a village on the east side of Aransas Bay opposite Fulton, and tore clown a large 
warehouse they foimd there, removed all the lumber they could carry and loaded it 
on a large scow which they brought with them. The men were then turned loose 
for indiscriminate plunder, and they entered almost every house and took whatever 
they desired. Among the invaders were several citizens of Corpus Christ! ; one a 
Captain Anderson and his son were the most conspicuous. Mr. J. B. Wells, a 
citizen of Lamar, i)layed the role of the inoffensive citizen and obtained much infor- 
mation from the officers. They told him th^it all the citizens of Corpus Christi had 
gone over to the invaders ; that they had upon Mustang Island a Tc.\as regiment 
enlisted in Corpus Christi, and that General Banks had twenty-five thousand men, 
with whom he intended taking Galveston ; but that their heaviest force, and the one 
upon which they mainly depended, was coming by way of Red River, and that 
Texas would be overrun in less than three months. 

Oil F'ebruary 22, 1864, a squad of twenty-five mounted men of the enemy were 
out eight miles from Indianola on the Lavaca Road, driving a herd of cattle which 
they had gathered upon the prairie, when they were attacked by a small party of 
Confederate cavalry under the command of Major J. T. Brackcnridge, of the Thirty- 
third Texas Cavalry Regiment, and three of them were killed and fourteen taken 
prisoners and sent to Houston. 

In March, 1S64, one Dietz, a captain of engineers, who was sent out by Gen- 
eral Magrudcr to inspect roads, fords, and ferries on the mainland opposite Mata- 
gorda Bay, came to the house of a Mr. Adams, on Hincs's Bay, in an ambulance 
drawn by a pair of mules, and accompanied by his servant. He rode around the 
countr\' several times examining the approaches from Matagorda Lsland to the main- 
land ; and one day he went out alone riding a horse which he had borrowed from 
Mr. Adams, taking his compa-^s and telescope with him. He ne\'er returned, and 
Captain E. P. Upton, commanding the local defence company of State troops, 
scoured the shores of the bay for thirty miles in search of him, but without success. 
It was suspected that he had unexpectedly met with a marauding party of Union 
soldiers and been either taken prisoner or killed. But the report of Major-Gencral 
D.uin to General Banks from Pass Cavallo, dated .March 7, 1864, explains the mys- 
terious disappearance of Captain Dietz by saying that he had deserted from the 
Confederate army, was then, with him at Pass Cavallo, and had given him much 
valuable information. It seems that this man Dietz carried with him plans of the 
fortifications at GaK'eston and the coast, and topographical drawings of the country 
bordering on the coast, and was rewarded with a position in the Union army by 
Major-General John A. .McClernand. 

On .March 13, 1864, Major .Mat Nolan, of Ford's regiment. Second Texas 
Mounted Rifles, with a detail of sixty-two men, under Captains Ware, Cater, 
Tavlor, and Richardson, came up with a party of about a hundred men of the 
enemy posted in a dense thicket about fifty miles southwest frnm loanciuete. The 
enemy were under command of a Mexican named Cecilio Balcrio, who was a captain 
in Colonel John L. Haynes's Second Regiment (Union) Texas Cavalry, and they 
made a determined fight. F"or some fifteen minutes the tight was hand-to-hand, 
and of the most desperate character, but the enemy were repulsed and fled from 

Vol.. II.— 35 


the ground. K-aving five of their men dead, and thirty-one horses with equipments 
in the hands of the Confeder.ites. 

Colonel John S. Ford says that Captain Balerio's son was an enterprising spy 
who was frequently in Corpus Christ! for the purpose of obtaining news of the 
movements of the Confederates and conveying the intelligence to his father's camp, 
whence it was sent out by courier to Brownsville, and that Captain Richardson cap- 
tured him in the very act of spying. When the spy was confronted with the usual 
penalty in such cases under the military code, it was hinted that possibly his life 
might be spared if he would divulge the site of his father's camp and lead a party 
of Confederate soldiers to it. The struggle in the mind of the young man was a 
long one, but the love of life pre\-ailed. He was placed on a horse with his feet tied 
underneath, and, after an all-night march, the secret camp in the chaparral was sur- 
prised just at daybreak. The son was permitted to escape, and soon rejoined his 
iather, who also made his escape in the darkness. 

On March 15, 1S64, Major Mat Nolan left his station at Banquete with about 
fifty men for the purpose of capturing a party of the enemy who were reported to 
have landed at the Oso and were collecting cotton. He found that the enemy had 
landed as represented, and that their force consisted of ninety-three men. They 
had already collected a lot of bales of cotton, and left with it for Corpus Christi. 
He found two wagons loading with cotton at tlie house of W. S. Gregory, and he 
arrested Mr. Gregory, Thomas S. Parker and his son Peter, who were a.ssisting him 
with the cotton, and sent them, together with the wagons and teams, to Banquete. 
His scouts having ascertained the strength of the enemy at Corpus Christi, and that 
they had sent for and momentarily expected reinforcements by boats from Mustang 
Island, Major Nolan at once .sent a courier to Captain Ware, on the San Fernando, 
ordering him to join him v.ith forty men, and proceeded to Corpus Christi in pursuit 
of the enemy.. About one o'clock p.m. of the 16th he encountered the eneniv's 
pickets near the town, and ascertained that the m.ain body was posted at the wharf 
behind some ninety-five bales of cotton which, had been brought in from the O.-^o 
and other points. At the same time three sail-vessels were observed in the bay 
approaching the wharf. He waited here for the reinforcements under Captain W.-ire, 
but they did not come, and al'oul dusk the vessels landed and aliout seventy-five men 
disembarked from them. Being unable to attack with any show of success with the 
small force at his command, Major Nolan in\-c.sted the town all night with a view to 
prevent communication with the surrounding country, and to [)ick up any small 
party that might be thrown out by the enemy. About eleven o'clock of the 17th, 
having concealed most of his forces in the chaparral, with two officers and sev'en 
men, he, in (lerson, drove the enemy's pickets into the town on the south side, 
killing one and wounding one, with only one man wounded in his party. The 
enemy then rallied and threw out a heavy force, when the Confederates retired 
before them to the line of the chaparral, where they made a stand and kept the 
onem.y within the town. During the day the ci'tton was loaded on the vessels, and 
at ten o'clock at night the wliole force of the enemy embarked, taking with them 
the f.amilies of several men who had joined them. 

Owing to the fact that the town was full of helpless women and children, manv 
of wl;i:)m were the families of soldiers serving in the Confederate army, and knowing 


that a fight in the town would e.\[)ose them to great danger, Major Nohm did not 
deem it proper to enter the town ujjon the heels of the enemy and harass their 
embarkation. On the i.Stli, still keeping the town invested and his main force con- 
cealed, Major Nolan entered with a [jart\- of twenty men, and found that the enemy 
had made close searcli for several well-known Southern men with a \iew to their 
arrest. They had searched the residence of Colonel Lovenskiold and Major Nolan's 
own residence, and had arrested Miss McMahon and kept her confined under 
guard for some timi', mistaking her for Mrs. Nolan. Upon disco\ering their mis- 
take, however, they released Mis5 McMahon. I'fiey also arrested Miss Savoy, 
mistaking her fe;r a Mi.^s Mullen, a sister of a soldier in the Confederate army. 
Several of the male citizens were also arrested and kept confined the day of the 
skirmish, but were released when the enemy depaited. Several citizens of the 
town — H. W. Berry, Christian Anderson, Thomas Finney, and others — who had 
joined the Union army, and were, therefore, called renegades b)- their neighbors, 
were seen with the enemy, and were under arms. 

On March 19, 1S64, about two hundred Aniericans and Mexicans under 
Colonel E. J. Davis, of the First Texas (Union) Regiment, marching up the Rio 
Grande from Brownsville, attacked the town of Laredo. Their advent was un- 
known to the citizens until they were within a very short distance. Colonel Santos 
Benavides, a brave, trusty, gallant, and loyal Mexican citizen of Texas, was in 
command of the Confederate forces at Laredo. The advancing enemy avoided all 
roads, having been piloted through the chaparral by Mexican spies well acquainted 
with the country, and hence were unobserved by Colonel Benavides' s pickets until 
in close proximity to the town. As soon as their approach was known. Colonel 
Benavides a.ssemh'ed his small force, consisting of about forty-two men of Captains 
Refugio and Cristoval Benavides' s companies and about thirty men of Captain 
Chapman"^ company and a few American volunteers. The citizens rallied gal- 
lantly to the assistance of Colonel Benavides, and aided in erecting barricades on 
the plaza. After posting Captain Chapman's company and the citizens for the 
defence of the interior of the town. Colonel Benavides proceeded to the outskirts 
with the forty-two men of his regiment, divided them into squads, and placed them 
in the adjacent liou ;cs to await the approach of the enemy. When within about 
half a mile from the town the enemy halted, formed several assaulting parties of 
about forty men each, and charged upon the houses occupied by Colonel Benavides 
anil his men. The brave Benavides says : "As soon as they came in reach of our 
guns my men gave the Texiis yell, connnenced firing on them, and compelled them 
to retreat to their main force." The eneiny then advanced on foot, keeping up a 
rapid fire, which was returned \^ith splendid effect by the Confederates, as they 
were "full of fight," as described by their commander. The fiylu was kejit u(> 
until dark, when the enemy retreated atiout three miles below town and encamped. 
The Confederates maintained their position all night, expecting a renewal of the 
attack at any moment. About two o'clock that night reinforcements arrived for 
the Confederates from Lapata, about twenty-five miles north of Laredo, where 
Colonel Benavides had encamped the larger part of his regiment on account of the 
abundance of grass for his horses, and for whom he had sent a courier as soon as 
the advance of tlie enemv was discovered. The arrival of reinforcements caused 


such general rejoicing that it was manifested by the ringing of churcn bells and the 
blowing of trumpets, which doubtless gave the enemy sufficient warning for thtm 
to make their escape. Early the next morning Captain Refugio Benavides, with 
sixty men, uas sent to tlank the enemy and get into their rear, but upon reaching 
their camp, he found that they had retreated in great disorder, leaving five horses 
branded U. S. and a large quantity of camp equipage. Lieutenant-Colonel George 
H. Giddings, who was in command of the Confederate forces at Eagle Pass, con- 
sisting of about one hundred and fifty men, uas al.-,o sent for by Colonel Benavides 
at the time of the attack, but he did not arri\e until the enemy had made tht-ir 

On March 21, 1864, the blockading steamship off Velasco passed to the east- 
ward, s(jme three miles from the Confederate forts, and opened fire on the steam- 
ship Matagorda, u hich was aground on the bar. She fired four shots, which passed 
over the vessel and exploded some distance beyond her. The blockader then passed 
to the eastward again, and the second time came down within range of both the 
land batteries, when tlie Confederates opened fire on her, and a spirited engagemi-nt 
took place. One shot struck the blockader, when she retired to sea, and came to 
anchor about three miles off. 

Under date of March 23, 1S64, Major-General John A. McClernand, com- 
manding the United States army in Texas, reports from Matagorda Island that a 
number of colored refugees had escaped from Port Lavaca and brought within the 
Union lines tht; Confederate schooner Fanny Fern. No mention by Confederate 
reports is made of this affair. 

On April 3, 1S64, one Bingham, a companion of T. P. McManus, and who held 
a commission in the Union army, crossed the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass and 
robbed the stage running between that place and San Antonio and several freight 
wagons, carrying off the stage horses and a number of mule teams into Mexico. 
They carried a\^-ay a negro boy, a sla\-e, who escaped from them and returned to 
Texas. He reported to Captain J. B. Weynian, commanding the post at Eagle 
Pass, that Bingham's band was encamped near Monclova Viejo, where they had 
accumulated a large quantity of stolen plunder and many horses and mules. Cap- 
tain Weyman at once demanded of the commandant of Piedras Negras that these 
robbers be arrested and dehvered to the Texas authorities, to receive the punish- 
ment justly due to their crimes, and that the stolen property be returned. Captain 
Weyman also oficred to go with the Mexican soldiers to point out the camp of the 
robbers and assist in their capture. A halting r<_'j)ly was given by the Mexican 
commandant, promising to return the stolen property if it could be found, but re- 
fusing to surrender the robbers and declining the services of Captain Weyman and 
his company in arresting them. He enacted the farce of sending out fifteen Mexi- 
cans under the pretence of hunting for the stolen property, In his report of this 
affair, Captain Weyman says that if the course so far pursued by the Mexican 
authorities is continued the whole Rio Grande frontier will be broken up. That 
renegades from all portions of Texas are continually arriving on Mexican territory 
in that vicinity, animated with the strongest personal hatred to all Confederates 
and the Confederate cause, and are tolerated, if not protected, by the Mexican 
authorities. Tlial it wa.s a matter of q;eneral notorietv that ofhci-rs of tlic United 


States army had their well-known recruiting officers and agents in the town of 
Picdras Negras, as well as commissary and quartermasters' stores from which they 
were publicly supplied. He sums the whole matter up, so far as the Mexican 
authorities are concerned, when he says : " When we have a strong force they are 
civil and obliging, and grow insolent when our force is weakened." 

On April 12, 1864, two of the Union boats, the Zephyr 7iX\6. the Eslrella, each 
with a company of iiifantry on board, left Pass Cavallo for the purpose of recon- 
noitring u[) Matagorda Bay and gaining information respecting the movements of 
two vessels inside the peninsula. At the Matagorda reef they met the Confederate 
gunboat Carr and the armed schooner Buckkait, when an interchange of shots 
took place, the Confederate boats retiring before the superior guns of the enemy's 
vessels. The same evening the Zephyr captured a small sloop on her way from 
Matagorda City to Lavaca, but the crew escaped by jumping overboard in the 
shallow water and wading to the shore. The next day the Zephyr and the Estrella 
sailed to Indianola, and thence to 01i\er's Point, in Trespalacios Bay, where they 
captured another small sloop and burned still another. 

On May 6, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel William II. Griffin, Twenly-first Te.xas 
Infantry (A. W. Spaight's regiment), in command at Sabine Pass, captured the 
gunboats danitc Ci'ly and Wave, at Calcasieu Pass, Louisiana, witli one hundred 
and seventy-four prisoners. He reports a loss of eight killed and twelve wounded, 
and claims that the enemy's loss was twenty killed and nineteen wounded. 

Major J. Simpson, of the Union army, reports that he arrived at Calcasieu on 
Sunday, the 8th of May, at seven a.m., on the steamer Ella Morse, Captain Pej;- 
per. She crossed the bar and entered the river, and when within about five hun- 
dred yards of the two gunboats, things looking a little suspicious, he stopped the 
boat. Then the Granite City fired a broadside at her. She then ran down the 
river with the Granite City following and firing at her for about half a mile, when 
she was attacked by sharp-shooters from both banks of the ri\er. The pilot was 
wounded, and Captain Pepper took the wheel and ran the bioat out and escaped 
to New Orleans. 

On May 22, 1R64. the blockader at the mouth of the Brazos River gave chase 
to the schooner Siino;aree, which appeared in the ofifing southwest of Velasco. 
Afier passing out of sight from Velasco the was captured and placed in 
charge of a prize crew, consisting of an ensign and si.K men, Captain McCtosky, of 
the Stingaree, and his crew remaining prisoners on board the schooner. The 
steamer then sailed back towards her anchorage, the Stingaree following in her 
wake. Captain McClosky then produced some liquor, and in a siiort time suc- 
ceeded in getting the prize crew drunk, and at the proper moment, with the aid of 
his own crew, secured their arms, made prisoners of the prize crew, and resumed com- 
mand of his vessel. Captain McClosky continued in the wake of the steamer until 
within about four miles of \'elasco, when he changed his course and made all sail 
for the beach. The steamer immediately gave chase, firing se\eral shots at her, 
but without effect, and the Stingaree was beached about two miles west from 
Velasco. In the mean time, Lieutenant-Colonel II. P. Cayce, of the Thirteenth 
Te.xas Infantry, commanding the port at Velasco, seeing the movements of the 
schooner, sent to her assistance a company of cavalr_\' and twenty-five infantry. 


During the contest on board the schooner two of tlie prize crew escaped in 
small boats and one of Captain McClosky's crew was lost overboard. The other 
five of the prize crew were made prisoners. 

On June 19, 1S64, a body of Union men, aided by a considerable number of 
Mexican bandits, made a very serious attack on Eagle Pass with the intention of 
capturing the government property, including several hundred bales of cotton which 
had been accumulated there. The post was commanded by Cajstain James A. Ware 
with thirty-four men. Captain Ware had recei\-ed intimations that some hostile 
movement was contemplated, and made the best preparations for defence which 
were possible with the small force at his command. The attacking party was under 
the command of one T. P. Mc^Ianus, who had been sent to Piedras Ncgras for the 
purpose of organizing this expedition. About ten o'clock in the morning the 
attacking party attempted to cross the ri\-er at a point three miles above the town, 
but finding the ford impracticable, they subsequently eflected a crossing about five 
miles higher up, and immediately commenced to march against the town. Recei\ing 
a check from the Confederate pickets they retired about si.x miles from town, un- 
furled the United States fiag, and waited for reinforcements from the Mexican side 
of the river. During the day they received a considerable augmentation to their 
numbers, consisting of Union men ^\ho had sought refuge in Me.xico and Me.xican 
robbers, who were always awake to any enterprise which promised an opportunity 
for plunder and [.illage. Captain Stone's company of home-guards under Lieu- 
tenant Burke and Captain Pickerell's company of twenty-five men were called out 
by Captain Ware, and, although only about half of them were armed, they were as 
advantageously posted as the small force and want of arms would allow. About one 
o'clock on the morning of the 20th the attack was made by about one hundred 
nic-n, and Captain Pickerell and his company, after a gallant defence, were driven 
from the hospital building, with a loss of five men severely wounded, nine of their 
guns, and all of their horses. After having posted the home-guard company 
behind temporary- barricades in the streets of the town. Captain \Vare with four 
men started to the relief of Captain Piclierell, not knowing that he had been driven 
from the building occupied by him. and was captured by a guard which the enemy 
liad left there. In the mean time the enemy marched into the town, and met with a 
haridsoinc repulse from the home-guards under Lieutenant P)Urkc from behind the 
barricades. In the confusion incident to the repulse and retreat of the enemy 
Captain Ware made his escape. About daylight the enemy retired the river 
without having effected tlieir purpose or doing any injury to the property. The 
loss of the enemy was one man killed and six wounded. 

After the first attack the enemy received large accessions to their numbers, and 
evidently intended to make another. The better class of citizens on both sides of 
the river promjitly responded to the call of Captain Ware, and on the night of the 
22d the second attack was easily defeated. The Mexican authorities of Piedras 
Negras threw e^-try obstacle in th'> way of the citizer.s of that town crossing over 
to the defence of Eagle Pass, even prohibiting them from crossing the river at the 
public feny ; but many of them found other means of passage. The contiuct of 
the Mexican authorities towards the reinforcements for the McManus party was 
in strange contract with that displawd towards tho^e v.ho wished to cross the river 


to aid in the protection (jf life and pr'.perty. These were gi\-en every facility for 
crossing tlie ri\ er, and no effort whatever was made to prevent or stop the organiza- 
tion or movements of the lawless band whose object was known to be plunder. 

In their official correspondence Generals Dana and Herron both approve the 
doings of McManus, and speak of him as having been sent by them to pillage and 
plunder a defenceless frontier. 

In the latter part of 1863 Colonel John S. Ford organized at San Antonio an 
expeditionary force for the recapture of Brownsville, and dining that winter and 
the followiiig spring was actively engaged in its organization. Early in Juno Colonel 
Ford, with four companies of his own regiment and two of Colonel Santos Bena- 
vides's regim.ent and one section of artillery from Captain H. H. Christmas's light 
battery, under Lieutenant C. B. Gardiner, formed a junction at Como se Llamo 
Ranch with Colonel Baird's regiment of Arizona troops, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Showalter, and with all the best mounted men proceeded to m.arch on Las Rucias 
Ranch, twenty-four miles from Brownsville, where Captain Temple, of the Union 
army, was stationed with two companies one hundred and fifty strong. Colonel Ford 
succeeded in capturing two- Mexicans at Carricitos Ranch, who were forced to guide 
the Confederates through the chapa?ral \.o Las Rucias. On June 25, 1S64, the ad- 
vance arrived vvithin a few hundred yards of the enemy without being discovered, 
and Captain James Dunn was ordered by Colonel Ford to take his company and 
feel of the enemy lighdy, so as to compel them to develop their strength. Instead 
of doing so he charged boldly into the midst of the enemy and was killed at the 
head of his company. Colonel Ford, seeing that Captain Dunn had brought on the 
engagement, although contrar>- to orders, with that prescient judgment cliarac- 
teristic of the born soldier determined to take advantage of the mistake, and 
promptly ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Showalter into action, who was immediately 
followed by the companies of Captain Tom Cater and Captain Cristoval Benavides. 
The enemy were dislodged from all their covers behind \h& jacah about the ranch, 
and fell back behind the bank of a /agiina, whence they maintained a heavv fire. 
At this point Lieutenant Gardiner brought- his two guns into action, and did fine 
work in dislodging the enemy from behind the bank, where they could not be 
reached b)- the cavalry on account of tiie water and boggy ground in the Liniiiia. 
Finally, those who had not made their escape across the Rio Grande, or been killed 
or wounded, surrendered. The Confederates captured two wagons and teams 
complete and a quantity oi much needed stores, and took thirty-six prisoners. 
Their loss was three men killed and fuur wounded. The loss of the Federals 
was twenty killed, twelve wounded, among them Captain Temple, and thirty-si-'v 

Captain James Dunn, who was killed in the first charge, was an old frontiersman, 
one of Jack Ha\ s's rangers ; and after having served the State of Texas long and 
faithfully, fell at the post of honor and of danger while gallantly leading his men in 
a headlong charge. The \ shouts of his comrades was sweet music to his 
dying ears. 

In the official reports of Major-General Ih-'rron, commanding the l.'nited .States 
troops at Rrowns\ille, the name of the r^mcli at which this alfair took j) is called 
Las Rcnas ; but il is wrong ; the correct n.une i-S Las Rucias. 


After the atLiir at Las Rucias, Colonel Ford withdrew his command to Carrici- 
tos Ranch to rest and recuperate his men and horses, with a view to the final strug- 
gle for the reoccupation of Brownsville. During the four weeks that the command 
lay at Carricitos almost daily skirmishes occurred with the enemy's pickets in the 
dense chaparral, but they were usually bloodless. On July 25, Colonel Ford 
moved on to Brownsville and formed his line of investment in Dead Man's Hollow, 
on the outskirts of the town, and the enemy retired within their intrenchments. 
The Confederates were placed at great disadvantage in not having any artillery. 
Lieutenant Gardiner ha\'ing returned to San Antonio pursuant to orders, on account 
of not having sufficient men to handle the guns : the men of the cavalry companies 
having refused tn either volunteer or be assigned to duty in the artillery, even tem- 
porarily. The enemy declined to come out of their works to fight, and Colonel 
F"ord was too prudent to risk an assault in the face of superior numbers and several 
pieces of artillery. Colonel Ford pressed up close to the enemy's works several 
times with the purpose of drawing them out upon the open field, but without suc- 
cess. In one of these affairs fifteen of the enemy were wounded, but the Confed- 
erates did not have a man hurt. 

There were a number of Te.xans in Matamoras at the time, and several of them 
came over to the Texas side and joined P'ord's forces in the effort to recapture 
Brownsville. Among them were Colonel John ^L Swisher, an old citizen of Austin 
and a veteran of the battle of San Jacinto, and Dr. Charles B. Combe. Colonel 
Swisher was riding one of Dr. Combe's horses, and in the midst of one of the 
heaviest skirmishes, when the bullets were flying thick and fast, and Colonel Swisher 
was exposing himself and horse rather recklessly, as Dr. Combe lliougiTt, the latter 
called out to the former : "Take care, there, Swisher ; you'll get my horse killed !" 
The old man blazed up at once, and stammered back at the doctor : " Da-da-damn 
your old horse ; yo-yo-you don't care if I get killed !" Those who knew Colonel 
Swisher and remember how badly he stuttered will appreciate the joke. 

In a few days the Federals evacuated the city, and on July 30, 1S64, the 
advance of Colonel Ford's command under Lieutenant-Colonel Showalter re-entered 
and occupied it. Giddings's battalion pursued the retreating enemy on the road to 
Brazos Santijigo, and about fifteen miles from Drownsvillc Captain Robinson of that 
command came up with their rear-guard, and after a spirited brush drove it upon 
the main 'oody, killing two men and capturing two prisoners. When the Confed- 
erates catered Brownsville they found Major E. W. Ca\e, of Houston, in command 
of a company- of citizens and business men, t>;mporarily organized for the protection 
of life and property against the depredations of the lawless element which predom- 
inated th.-it section in the absence of a sufficient military force to overawe them and 
keep tlieni in subjection. 

On August 9, 1S64, a party of about sevent}--fi\-e negroes, from the Union 
Corps d' -Afrique Engineers, was sent to Point Isabel from Brazos Santiago, for the 
purpose of tearing down the houses and removing the lumber to the latter place for 
the construction of quarters for the troo])s. While engaged in tearing down the 
houses they were attacked by Lieutenant Colonel George H. Giddings with a small 
force oi cavalry and dri\ en to the stc.micr which brouglu them over, after killing 
two of tliem and wounding several otheis. 


The next day the colored troops were sent back on the same errand, under the 
jjrotection of a strong infantry force from the Ninety-first Illinois and the Nineteenth 
Iowa Regiments, and, as they were too strong to be attacked by the Confederates, 
thcv tore down every house in the town and shipped the lumber to Brazos Santiago. 

In August, iSG^, Lieutenant-Colonel Showaltcr succeeded by a bold and adroit 
movement in capturing the L'niied States steamboat Ark in the Rio Grande River, 
a short distance above its mouth. The boat was carried to Brownsville, and a ses- 
sion of the Confederate States court con\-ened with Hon. Thos. J. Dcvine presiding. 
and by regular proceedings it was condemned as a prize of war, and sold for thirteen 
thousand dollars. 

On September 6, 1864, a strong body of Union cavalry, with one piece of 
artillery, were crossed over to the Tnainland from Brazos Island, and advanced up 
the Rio Grande for t'le purpose of attempting the capture of a herd of cattle which 
was being held in the bend of the ri\cr just above the White Ranch. The advance- 
guard of the enemy was met at the Palmito Ranch by a small detachment of Con- 
federate cavalry under Captain Richard Tajlor, of the Thirty-third Te.xas Cavalry, 
and a brisk skirmish ensued ; but the main body of the raiders with artillery soon 
arrived upon the ground, and the Confederates were forced to retire, and the enemy 
succeeded in driving oft the cattle. 

Captain Taylor fell back with his company upon the main body of Baird's 
regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Showalter at Palmito Ranch, and preparations 
were there made to resist the advance of the Federals. A detachment of the 
French army, in support of Ma.ximilian's pretensions in Mexico, had landed at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande the latter part of August, and driven Colonel Juan N. 
Cortina, who commanded the Republican troops of Mexico, back from the coast, 
and when the United States troops advanced up the river on the Texas side, Colonel 
Cortina opened fire with artillery on the Confederates at Palmito Ranch. They 
returned the fire with small-arms, killing several of the Mexican cannoneers, and 
then retreated to Brownsville. The enemy, however, did not follow, and Colonel 
Cortina sent a small part of his command across the river to reinforce the Federals. 
He, however, did not cross in person, as it was said that he was afraid of the adverse 
iniluence of his lival, Colonel Canales, being used for his overthrow during his 
absence. He was very friendly towards the Federals, and it was then said by those 
most intimate with him that he \v;ls scheming for a commission as brigadier-general 
in the United States army. 

At all events, a very cordial feeling existed between Colonel Cortina and the 
officers of the L'nited States army, which was doubtless prompted on Cortina' s part 
b)- his great aml'ition, and his sagacity enabled him to see that the United States 
government was the stronger, and would ultimately succeed. The evidence is 
pretty clear, howc\er, that the United States officers only intended from the first to 
use him for their own purposes : encoumging him to make raids across the Rio 
Grande River into Texas, under the ini|il!i.d promise of a commission in the L'nited 
States army. 

The terms of intimacy and the friendship) existing between the two is abim- 
d.tntly shown liy the fact that Brigadier-General William A. Pile, commanding 
L'niied States forces at Brazos Santiago, rej.torts, under dale of November 14, 1S64, 


that he then had on hand belonging^ to tlie Mexican governnitnt, and which had 
been loaned to him by that government, the following property, viz. : two hundred 
and twenty-one muskets, twenty-four ritles, one hundred and fifty-seven bayonets, 
two hundred and twelve cartridge-bo.xes, four drums, five trumpets, three six- 
pounder rifled brass cannon, with carriages and limber-chests, fifteen horses, and 
ten mules. 

Upon the arrival of the French army at the mouth of the Rio Grande River, 
Colonel John S. Ford at once placed himself in communication with its commander, 
and throuLdi his untiring etiorts a very fnendly feeling was at once established be- 
tween their officers and the Confederate States authorities. Repeated efforts 
made by the latter failed to embroil the United States authorities in a conflict with 
the PVench, and se\'eral indignities which ihe F'rench offered the United States 
government were unresented and unnoticed. 

By a preconcerted arrangement between the Union commander at Brazos San- 
tiago and Colonel Cortina, it was provided that the latter should cross the Rio 
Grande abo\-e Brownsville and attack that city at the time of a simultaneous attack 
from below by the Union forces, but its miscarriage resulted in a signal defeat of 
the latter. On the morning of September lo, 1S64, a small body of Confederate 
cavalry on picket duty at San Martin Ranch under Captain W. H. D. Carrington, 
of Giddings's battalion, observed a force of about two hundred and fifty of tlie 
enemy ajiproaching. Captain Carrington withdrew his small force and sent to 
Colonel Giddings for reinforcements. About half-past two o'clock Lieutenant- 
Colonel George H. Giddings, with the companies of Captains Carr, Saunders, and 
Benavides, met Captain Carrington, who had drawn the enemy along slowly, and, 
after placing about one hundred of his command under cover in the resaca, sent the 
other thirty out to meet the enemy and drew them into an ambuscade. The ruse 
succeeded so well that when the whole Federal force charged the decoy party, the 
latter retreated precipitately and the former fell into the trap. 

When the Federals charged up to the resaca, the Confederates, who were dis- 
mounted under the bank, poured a deadly fire into their ranks, before which they 
turned and fled. The Confederates then mounted their horses and jjursued them 
several miles. The Federal commander. Major Noye?, was so closely pressed that 
he threw away his clothing and pri\ate papers, which fell into the hands of the 
pursuers. The Federal force engaged was two hundred and fifty men, and they 
lost eigh;)--si.x killed, w ounded, and missing, and one stand of colors. The Con- 
federate force engaged was one hundred and thirty men, and they lost one man 
killed, one wounded, and four horses killed. 

The intended co-operation of Colonel Cortina failed ].>rincipally because some 
of th'' leading oftict-rs under his command disapproved of his plans, and when his 
force reached the river above Brownsville these officers made a pretext of the 
slightly swollen waters for not crossing and returned to Matamoras. But so con- 
fident were the Federal authorities of the fruition of the plan of capture that a de- 
tailed account of the recapture of Brownsville was published in the New Orleans 

Twenty Mexicans belonging to Corlina's command, who had gone to Brazos 
Santiago to join the Uniun forces, were caplured un t!.e 12th of September by the 


Confederates and turned over to General Tomas Mejia, the commander of the Im- 
perial -Mexican army at Matamoras, who enrolled them in his army. Although not 
within the scope of this history, it may be mentioned as an interesting fact that 
when the Imperial army of Me-\ico under General Mejia occupied Matamoras, 
Colonel Cortina was not untrue to his instincts as a traitor, but joined the enemy 
himself and attempted to betray the entire garrison. In this, hovvever, he was 
partially foiled by the watchfulness and patriotism of his subordinate, Colonel 
Canalcs, who escaped to the Te.xas side of the river with a large number of the 
Republican Mexican troops. Upon their arrival they stacked their arms and asked 
refuge of Colonel Ford, the Confederate commander. This was granted, and their 
arms purchased and paid for. 

A few words concerning General Mejia may also be pardoned. He was^ full- 
blooded Cerro Gordo Indian, very dark, of the pure Aztec type, and was rugged, 
honest, candid, and fearless. He received his education at the Mexican military 
academy at Chapultepec, and was a trained, educated soldier. He was one of the 
prominent men of the nation who had joined in the in\-itation to Prince Maximilian 
to assume the imperial crown of Mexico, in which he was actuated by the purest 
motives of patriotism. Warned by the frequent revolutions which had disturbed 
the peace of his native country, he believed that this was the only way to assure it 
a stable government capable of protecting the lives and property of its citizens. 
He surrendered with the Emperor Ma.ximilian at Oueretaro, and the commander 
of the victorious Liberal army was his former friend. General Escobedo, whose life 
Mejia had saved on one occasion. At a late hour the night before Maximilian, Mejia, 
and Miramon were to be shot, Escobedo entered the prison cell of Mejia and told him 
that at a certain hour he would find a man on guard who knew him and who had 
orders to let him pass. He gave him directions how to reach an indicated point, 
and said : "There you will find a saddled horse ; mount him and leave ; save your 
life, and permit me to repay the debt of gratitude which I owe you." His calm 
reply was: "I thank you, general, but I will stay and die with the epiperor ;" 
and he died as he had lived, a true patriot, unawed by fear, and met death with 
the stoical fortitude of his race. 

At this place it may not be inappropriate to rf_-fer, for the purpose of correc- 
tion, to a glaring misstatement in Bancroft's "History of Texas." He prints a 
letter, without disclosing the name of the writer, but he is evidently a Mexican, 
which represents the French army, five thousand strong, as moving against Mata- 
moras, when General Cortina, with three thousand Mexicans, attacks the invaders ; 
Colonel John S. Ford crosses the Rio Grande, takes a large number of cattle to the 
French, and attacks Cortina in the rear. That hero whips both his assailants and 
drives the French back to Bagdad and Ford across the Rio Grande ; he crosses 
over with his whole force, including artillery, and drives the Texans from Browns- 
ville. He hoists the L'nited States flag and informs the Ferleral commander at 
Brazos Santiago of the event, and places the city at his dispo^.il. The pseudo-his- 
torian evidently fixes this Quixotic achievement on the 9th of September, 1S6.1.. It 
is well known to hundreds of rclia!)le men now living that no such an event ever 
took place, and Colonel P'ord himself denounces the narrative as the falsehood of a 
calumniator, and not the mistake of a historian. If ariv proof was needed to dis- 


prove tiie statement, the testimony of the hero of the episode himself is not want- 
ing. In 1S91, Colonel Ford was in the City of Me.xico, saw General Cortina, and 
obtained from him the following repudiation ; — 

", October 17, iSgi. 

" Sir, — At your request, I ^vi^l state the accounts in Mr. Bancroft's ' His- 
tor>' of Texas,' on page 40.S and other pages, contain mistakes. The account of 
my having burned Roma is without foundation. No such thing ever occurred. 
The statement in Mr. Bancroft's ' History of Texas' that Colonel John S. Ford 
passed the Rio Grande in 1S64 and carried beef to the French invaders of Mexico, 
and afterwards joined the French forces in an attack on the Juarez troops com- 
manded by myself, in which the French and Confederates were defeated by me and 
forced to retreat, is an error. No such thing ever occurred. 

" The same author states that I, subsequent to the engagement, — an untruthful 
account of which he publishes, — passed the Rio Grande and captured the city of 
Brownsville in 18G4. Mr. Bancroft must ha^■e been imposed upon by some man 
who was in the habit of stating falsehoods. The reputed capture of Browns\-iIle in 
1864 never look place. Mr. Bancroft could have learned this had he applied to me 
for the facts. 

"This letter will, I hope, convince the public that Mr. Bancroft's utterances 
in respect to these affairs are utterh' unreliable. 

" I am, sir, your obedient servant, 


"To CoLC>NEi. JoHK S. FoRD, of San Antonio, Texas." 

On the nth day of March, 1S65, Brigadier-General James E. Slaughter, who 
was then in command of the Confederate forces on the lower Rio Grande, received, 
through Mr. Charles Worthington, an invitation from Major-General Lew Wallace, 
of the United States army, to meet him in consultation at Point Isabel, for the 
purpose of a friendly talk. Accompanied by several members of his staff and 
Colonel John S. Ford, General Slaughter repaired to the designated point, about 
t\venty miles from Brownsville. The parties held a conference which lasted twenty- 
four hours, and terminated in the submission by General Wallace of the following 
written communication, a true copy of which has been furnished by Colonel Ford 
for tlii. work :— 

" At your instance, I beg lea\e to submit the following points upon which it 
is possible, in my judgment, to secure inmiediate peace. 

" For the sake of a perfect understanding permit me to say : — 

" First. The proper authorities of my government hn\e not authorized me to 
present terms or make overtures of any kind to anybody. 

"Second. As you will observe, the propositions are drawn with special refer- 
ence to the trans-SlississippI region, and to what, I think, is a certainty that they 
will prove acceptable to my government. It should be understood, therefore, that 
they are by no means in the nature of finalities. It would be presumptuous in 
me to undertake to announce in my name what may be the result of negotiations 
sincerely concluded by parties properly empowered. 

" Third. I will venture to suggest that, considering the present situation in 
the region alluded to. your highest present obligations are to your army, your civil 
authorities, and your citizens. A voluntary settlement on your part cannot, in my 
opinion, be hojied for unless the honor, hajipiness, and security of these classes are 
guaranteed. T<i this en^l my projiositior.s are drawn. 


"Propositions. — First. That the Confederate military authorities tif the trans- 
Mississippi States and Territories ao^rec, voluntarily, to cease opposition, armed and 
otherwise, to the re-establishment of the authority of the United States government 
over all the ret^ion above designated. 

" SetONii. That the proper authorities of the United States, on their part, guar- 
antee as follows : — 

" I. That the officers and soldiers at present actually comprising the Confed- 
erate army pro[)er, including its 6o?ia Jidc attaches and employes, shall have and 
receive full release from and against all actions, presentations, liabilities, and legal 
proceedings ot every kind, .--.o far as the government of the L'nited States is con- 
cerned, upon the simple condition that, if they choose to remain within the limits 
of that government, they shall first take an oath of allegiance to the same ; if, how- 
ever, they, or any of them, choose to go abroad for residence in a foreign country, 
all such shall be at liberty to do so, without obligating themselves by such oath, 
taking with ihem their families and property, with liberty of preparation for such 

" 2. That such of said ofticers and soldiers as shall determine to remain in the 
United States shall be regarded as citizens of the United States government, in- 
vested as such with all the rights, pri\ileges, and immunities now enjoyed b}' the 
most favored people thereof. 

" 3. That the above guarantees sliall be extended to alt persons now serving as 
civil ofticers under the iMational and .State Confederate governments at present 
existing in the region above particularized upon their complying with one or the 
other of the conditions mentioned, viz. : residence abroad or taking the oath of 

"4. That persons now private citizens of the region named shall be included 
in and receive the same guarantees upon their complying with the same conditions. 

"5. As respects rights of property, it is further guaranteed that there shall be no 
interference vath existing tides, liens, etc., of whatever nature, e.xcept tliose derived 
from seizures, occupancies, and proceedings of confiscation under and by virtue of 
Confederate laws, orders, proclamations, and decrees, all of which shall be consid- 
ered and treated as void from the beginning. 

" Lastly, it is further expressly stipulated that the rights of property in slaves 
shall be referred to the Congress of the Llnited States. 

" The above, as it seems to me, offers a sufficient basis for a definite settlement. 
If it could be accepted in the spirit it is offered, I believe we would be a reunited and 
happy pcr.ple. 

" I am veiy truly your friend and obedient ser\-ant, 

" Lew ^V.\L.I..\^^:, 
" A/aj.-Gcn. Ih/s., U. S. Army. 
"To Bkig.-Gex. J. E, Slaughtkr and 

CoL. John S. Ford, C. S. Army." 

During the interview General Slaughter and Colonel Ford disclaimed any 
authority to act upon any proposition which General Wallace might submit, but 
could only report the matter fully to their superior military authorities. They had 
agreed between themselves to talk as litdc as possible, but hear all that Genera! 
Wallace had to say. General Wallace, also, upon his part, disclaimed anv authority 
to act for his government, but distincdy stated that General Grant would endorse 
whatever he might do in the premises. " And," said he, " whatever General Grant 
recommends Mr. Lincoln will do. I su])[)OSe it is now the same with the govern- 
ment at Richmond, in regard to General Lee." Said he; " :\Ir. Lincoln declined 
to meet the Confederate eomniissifmers, but General Grant wrote suggesting he 


should do so, and Mr. Lincoln obeyed with as much promptness as if the suggestion 
had been a military order and he a soldier." 

He said that he proposed to treat directly witli the militar)- authorities of the 
Trans-Mississippi Department, remarking frequently during the interview: " Tli^: 
armies must make peace ; they alone have the power to enforce treaty stipulations ; 
politicians must have nothing to do with tiie matter. What is tlie use of treating 
with the civil authorities? they are powerless." 

He also assigned as a reason for making these propositions to the military 
autht>nties of the Trans-Mississipj'i Department, " that the Confederate government 
had abandoned that department ; that the people thereof had a perfect right to take 
care of themselves, and it was their bounden duty to adopt such measures as the\- 
found necessary for their self-preservation." He insisted that they might now 
return to the Union without the imputation of coercion, as the territory composing 
■it was not being formidably invaded, or even threatened with immediate invasion, 
nor would it be until the termination of the demonstration against Mobile, which 
was then being made. He said it would be a matter of no consequence to the 
Southern people whether their slaves were emancipated by their own voluntary act, 
by the action of Congress, the amendment of the Constitution, or by an invading 
army ; that wherever an army of the United States went the slaves were freed, and 
hence the. futility of Mr. Lincoln's proclamation. 

To these suggestions the Confederate ofScers replied that the Trans- Mississippi 
Department could not honorably entertain any propositions on the line suggested, 
unless they were also submitted to the other States of the Confederacy ; that the 
Confederate government alone had the powci' to treat. General Wallace asked : 
"Did not the Slates go out of the L'nion by separate State action ?" The Con- 
federate officers replied: "They did ; and they have a right to secede from the 
Confederacy for just cause ; but we feel bound to our brethren on the other side of 
the Mississippi by a stronger tie than our Constitution,— our plighted faith to stand 
by them. Honor forbids us to deliberately desert them." 

Inuring the conversation General Wallace acknowledged thni the negro jjre- 
sented himself in every phase of the question as a stumbling-block ; neither the 
North nor the South knew what to do with him. The Conledei-ate officers told him 
there uas an inconsistency, an injiistice, in asking Texas and the other .States to go 
back into the L^nion by sacrificing many millions of dollars without compensation ; 
tiuit Mr. Lincoln's proclamation declared the negroes free, and the proposed amend- 
ment to the Constitution emancipated them. 

He replied : " Let me toll you confidentially, we regard Mr. Lincoln's procla- 
mation as a great mistake. It is looked upon by the most intelligent men of the 
North, outside of the radical abolition [.larty, as a nullity, and \iill be treateii ac- 
cordingly. The amendment to the Constitution will probably not be ratified by a 
sufficient number oi States to gis'e it \alidity for years ; indeed, it may never be. 
Slaverv in the returning States w<:iuld be go\xnned by the action on that ainenu- 

During this protracted inten-iew General Wallace also referred to the struggle 
then going on in Mexico between the adherents of the i".ni[:)eror Maximilian and 
the Republicans led by President Juarez. He asserted uneqni\ocally that tlie 


government of the United States intended to enforce the " Monroe doctrine," and 
refuse to recognize any empire in Mexico, but would aid the Juarez party, and in 
the end place Mexico under the protection of the United States. 

He descanted upon the glory of such an undertaking, appealed to the preju- 
dices of Americans to enlist their sympathies in a cause which proposed to establish 
upon this continent a policy pecuharly American, and invited the Trans-Mississippi 
Department to assist in the consummation of the work. He suggested tlx: {irola- 
bility of his government sending a navy of three hundred armed vessels into the 
Mediterranean Sea as a demonstration of strength. Colonel Ford asked him if he 
did not consider it probable that the execution of these plans would involve a war 
with France, England, and their allies. He replied, unhesitatingly, that lie did ; 
but made no secret of his confidence in the ability of the reunited Americans to 
hold their own, even against such formidable European powers. 

In pursuance of General Wallace's suggestion, it was then decided not to fight 
any more on the Rio Grande ; that a desperate encounter in that out-of-the-way 
place, if all of both sides were killed, could have no effect whatex'er on the final result. 
. It was also agreed that the adherents of President Juarez, who presented them- 
selves, should have facilities afforded them of passing over the intervening space 
between Brownsville and Brazos Santiago ; that a Confederate general would escort 
them to the Union lines and there turn them over, and many distinguished Mexicans 
were thus passed away from Mexico. 

The above propositions of General Wallace, with the reports of General 
Slaughter an':l Colonel Ford as to the details of the interviev^•, were immediately 
forwarded under the seal of secrecy to Major- General John G. Walker at Houston 
by a special messenger, Lieutenant -Colonel Fairfax Gray. Instead of for^varding 
them on to Licutenant-Gencral E. Kirby Smith, commanding the Trans-Mississippi 
Department, General Walker had them published in the Houston newspapers ; his 
reason for doing so, as he aftenvards explained to Colonel Ford, being that the 
character of the reports made by General Slaughter and Colonel Ford had been so 
greatly misrepresented that he thought it best to have everything connected with 
the interview published, in order to al'av undue excitement. 

These documents have nf>t yet been published in the records of the War of 
the Rel^ellion, but will in all probability be published in due time. 

During the spring of 1S65 every thoughtful man felt that the downfall of the 
Southern Confederacy was a matter of a very short time. The little army of Texans 
on the lower Rio Grande, very much depleted by many leaves of absence and some 
desertions, had been lying idle for two months ; seeming to be waiting for something 
unusual to turn up. Some occurrence out of the ordinary of passing e\-ents seemed 
to be expected ; it miglit be the end of the war, or it might be the end of the world, 
which many would equally have welcomed, for they felt sure that the war would not 
otherwise terminate than with disaster to the Southern cause. 

On the 12th of May the garrison ;'t Brownsville was electrified by the news tliat 
Giddings's battalion at Palmito Ranch, twelve miles below Brownsville, had been 
attacked by the enemy, capturing their camj), nitions, clothing, and two sick sol- 
diers. Preparations were at once made to reinforce Captain W. N. Robinson, 
comni.inding (jiddings's battalirm, and give the enemy battle ; and all the available 


force was hurried to the front. The cavalry and artillery horses were in a most 
pitiable plight, the former scarcely able to bear their riders, and the latter could 
with difficulty draw the gun-carriages at a moderate.- trot. Arriving in the vicinity 
of Palmito Ranch on the morning of the 13th, it was learned that Captain Robinson 
had attacked the enemy the evening before and driven them back from Palmito 
Ranch to the W'h.ite House, about four niil-s, but that they had been reinforced and 
were then advancing. 

Colonel Ford, who was in immediate comruand of the Confederates, by three 
o'clock P..M. had made such preparations as were possible with his inadequate 
force to meet the enemy. Anderson's battalion of cavalry, commanded by Cap- 
tain D. M. Wilson, was placed on the right, and Giddings's battalion on the 
left, and one section of Captain O. G. Jones's battery of light artillery placed in 
the road, one on the left, and the other held in reserve. In a short time the 
skirmishers became engaged, and then the artillery opened with quite a rapid firt-. 
The shot and shell did considerable execution, and seemed to throw the enemy 
into confusion. It was evident that they were not aware that the Confederates 
had any artillery until the guns opened, and this was afterwards confirmed by 
the prisoners captured. The artillery fire checked the advance of the main body 
of the enem\-, thus leaving their skirmish line unprotected ; and as soon as Colonel 
Ford disc<;vered this, he ordered the cavalry to charge. This they did w ith im- 
petuosity, and captured the whole of the skirmijh line. By this time the main body 
was in full retreat, and a simultaneous advance was made along the whole Con- 
federate line. The artillery moved forward at a gallop, amid the shouts of excited 
men, now and then taking positions on the elevated points adjacent to the road and 
firing at the routed and retreating enemy ; and the cavalry harassed their flank and 
rear v ith repeated charges, in which great gallantry was displayed. Thus the fight 
continued for seven miles, the enemy now and then endeavoring to make a stand 
and check the pursuit, but as fast as they did so they were driven from their posi- 
tions before they had time to recover from their demoralization. Many of the Union 
soldiers jumped into the Rio Grande, some swam over to the Mexican shore, and 
many were drowned in the muddy waters of the river. The strength of the Uiiion 
force engaged was about eight hundred infantry, and they lost thirty killed and 
wounded whn were found upon the field, besides those who were lost in the river, 
one hundred and thirteen prisoners, and two stands of colors, one of which belonged 
to the Thirty-fourth Indiana Regiment ; and a great quantity of guns, accoutrements, 
and clothing were scattered along the v.hole lif.e of retreat. The Confederate forces 
engaged consisted of Giddings's and Anderson's battalions of cavalry, the former 
commanded by Captain W. N. Robinson and the latter by Captain D. M. Wilson, 
their combined strength being about three hundred men, and Captain O. G. Jones's 
battery of light artillery of six guns, with Lieutenants C. H. Williams, Charles I. 
E\ans, J. M. Smith, and S. Gregory and about seventy men. Their loss was five 
men wounded, but none of them dangerously. 

It was learned for the first time, from the prisoners who were captured, that the 
Confederacy had fallen, that its armies east of the Mississippi River had surren- 
dered ; and the Union officers, thinking that the Confedc rates had also heard of the 
termination of the war, had marched up from Hr.izos Sanii.igo to take possession of 


Brownsville, not expt^ctinsr any resistance. This was the last blow struck for State 
rit^hts. Tb.e first clash of arms at Bull Run had ushered in the great Ci\il War amid 
the e.xultations of the victorious Southern soldiers, and the curtain now fell upon the 
last scene of the dark and bloody drama amid the victorious shouts of the Tc.xans 
at Palmito Ranch, — the last b.a.ttle of the war. 


In August, 1 86 1, Lieutenant May.^, of Comiwn\- D, Second Regiment of 
Mounted Rifles, with a party of fourteen men from Fort Davis, went in pursuit of 
a large body of marauding Apache Indians, and attacked their village. After a 
most desperate fight all the Texans vs-ere killed, except a Mexican, who came in 
with the intelligence. A detachment was sent out to ascertain tlie truth of the 
Mexican's statement, and when it arrived at the scene of conflict, the dead bodies 
of several men were found who were recognized as belonging to Lieutenant May's 
command, as well as the hats and boots of others, and a number of horses that had 
been killed. 

On October 14, Sergeant W. Barrett overtook a large party of Lipan Indians 
from Mexico, on the Nueces River near Fort Inge, and had a desperate hand-to- 
hand engagement with them. It had rained on the Texans that day, and their 
guns having got wet, ver^' few of them would fire. Those whose guns were thus 
rendered useless drew their sabres and attacked the Indians with great fierceness. 
The casualties were ten Indians killed, and three of the Texans were killed and one 
man and one horse wounded. 

On the ist day of November following. Captain James B. Bany, of Colonel H. 
E. McCulloch's First Regiment of Mounted Rifles, had a li\ely running fight of 
several miles with a party of Comanche Indians, on Pease River, a tributary of 
Red River, in which twehe of the red-skins were killed, while the Texans had only 
two mi-n wounded. 

The State militia of the Twentieth Brigade, under Brigadier-General Nathaniel 
Terry, met at Robinson's Mills, in Tarrant County, in August, 1863, for the pur- 
pose of organizing for protection against raids by the Indians. Their depredations 
upon tile frontier had created such intense excitement among the militiamen from 
Parker and Johnson Counties that it was almost impossible to retain them in camp 
long enough to organize, as their families were in immediate danger. In one 
family the mother was killed and four children carried off ; in anothei' family the 
mother and two children were killed and two children seriously, if not mortally, 
woimc'ed. Several men had been recently killed and many herds of horses driven 
oil. Prowling bands of Indians had been seen in so many neighborhoods that the 
settlers were satisfied tliat there was great and immediate danger from their incur- 
sions, and called aloud for supplies of ammunition, of which there was a great 
scarcity. One band of the savages had been seen within twenty-five miles of Fort 
Worth, ^uid had stolen a number of hurses. In August of that year, near Robin- 
son's Mills in that county, a Mrs. Brown, whose husband was absent in the army, 
was murdered by them at her own house in broad dadight, and two young men 
and a young l.idy seriously, if not dangerously, wounded. 

In December, i'^63, they made a raid into C'loke County, and murdered nine 

Vol. II.— 36 


citizens and three soldiers and wounded three soldiers and four citizens and burned 
ten houses and a quantity of grain. A number of citizens left their homes and 
moved farther east, some of them in a very destitute condition, without bedding or 
a change of clothing. The Indians dro\e oft a large number of horses on this raid, 
and the route along which they left was strewn with horses killed by them. All 
the houses in Gairiesville were crowded with refugees from the northern and western 
portions of the county, and great e.xcitement fjrevailed all over the coimtry. A 
man who was engaged in a tight with these Indians reported to General McCul- 
loch that they were well armed, fought gallantly, and that sevenil of them wore 
heavy whiskers and spoke good English. 

The country west of San Antonio and along the Pecos River became the 
rendezvous not only of Union men on their way to Me.Kico, but of deserters from 
the Confederate army and renegades whose chief occupation was plunder and 
pillage, and murder also if necessary in order to accomplish their purposes, hi 
May, 1S64, the companies of the Frontier Regiment, Colonel J. E. McCord 
commanding, which had been stationed in that section, were withdrawn and the 
inhabitants left in an entirely defenceless condition, subject to the depredations 
of the Indians as well as the worse foe, renegade white men and Mexicans. In 
May, 1S64, CapUiin William Wallace, an old Texan and one of the most skilful 
Indian-fighters on the frontier, was killed by Indians from Mexico, not more than 
twenty miles west of San Antonio, and all of his stock driven off. About a 
week previous to this a party of Indians appeared on the Hondo River, thirty miles 
west of San Antonio, killed one citizen, and drove off a large number of horses. 

The citizens had no confidence in the partially organized troops of the frontier as 
a means of protection. i^Iost of them were believed to be men who had fled from 
the interior of the State to avoid conscription, were Union men, and friends of and 
sympathizers with the deserters and renegades who infested that region. A perfect 
reign of terror prevailed in the countr}- near Camp Verde, and many of the settlers 
were forced to remove back from the frontier for safety. 

In October, 1SG4, a large party of Indians, numbering some three hundred or 
four hundred, made a raid into tlie settlements adjacent to Fort Belknap, in Youn;.^ 
County, murdered several families, and drove off a large number of hoises. L.ieu- 
tenant N. Carson, of Company D, Colonel James Bourland's regiment, witli four- 
teen men, attacked them on Elm Creek, but the Indians showing up from the 
brush in such large numbers. Lieutenant Carson ordered his men to fall back, 
which they did in good order and fighting from one position to another. After re- 
treating a short distance the Texans reached the house of Mr. McCoy, w here the)- 
found two women, and they were taken up behind two of the men and the retreat 
continued, the Indians following in hot pursuit. They destroyed McCoy's house 
and carried oil e\er)thing in it, and destroyed all the clothing and caniji equi- 
page of the soldiers in their abandoned camp. The Texans had five men killed 
and sc\-eral wounded, among the latter being Lieutenant Carson ; and several 
of the Indians art known to. have been killed and wounded, but they were 
carried off. 

After killing ele\en citizens and burning as many houses they left in a north- 
wcsteiK- direction, c.irrvinu off se\en women and children. 



A great many of the men who votei.1 against secession afterwards gave in their 
adhesion and support to the Southern cause ; they opposed secession on grounds 
of poHcy alone. Rut many others refused to do so to the last. Some were very 
outspoken in the expression of their Union sentiments, and in the heat of political 
excitement much crimination and recrimination were indulged on both sides, which 
not infreqiiently resulted in bloodshed. Sometimes the [lolitical sentiments of men 
furnished a pretext for persecution and the seekmg of vengeance engendered by long- 
standing feuds or personal grievances. The sentiment in favor of the Southern 
Confederacy was well-nigh unanimous ; the opposition, though quite respectable in 
numbers, was unorganized and without a leader. It is true that several men who 
had been quite prominent in public affairs espoused the Union cause, but none of 
them possessed to any considerable degree the faculties of organization, and they 
were lacking in many of the essential qualifications necessary to fit them for great 
leaders in great emergencies. Among the more prominent men who espoused the 
Union cause with strong convictions were ex-Governor E. M. Pease, Hon. A. J. 
Hamilton, and Hon. John Hancock, of the city of Austin, and Judge E. J. Davis, of 
Nueces County. Along the Rio Grande, in and around the towns of San Antonio, 
Austin, and P'redericksburg, and in the counties of Austin, Fayette, and Colorado, 
the Union sentiment was very strong. For some time after hostilities had begun 
the minority seemed content with a sullen silence ; but few of them left the State 
for the purpose of joining the Union army. They mostly contented themselves 
with expressing their pleasure and satisfaction with the success of the Union arms, 
or were correspondingly depressed by the successes of the Confederates. Their 
refusal to take Confederate money in trade was regarded as disloyalty to the Con- 
federate States, and brought upon them the denunciations of their neighbors who 
sympathized with the Southern cause. These and other acts brought about such a 
persecution as to cause many Union men to leave the .State and seek refuge in 
Mexico, where they hoped to receive assistance in getting to the United States. 
These repaired to the consuls of the United States at Matamoras and Monterey, 
and were b}- them taken caie of until thrv could be sent to New Orleans. They 
generally found a refuge on board the shi[>5 of the blockading squadron at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande ; and on June 16, rS63, Captain Charles Hunter, com- 
manding the United States steamer ^Montgomery at that jilace, informed the State 
Department at Washington that he then had forty of such refugees on board his 
vessel, and that between seventy and eighty others had been sent to New Orleans 
on the Koi^inffton. He also says that he had on board his vessel three Union 
gentlemen from Texas, men of influence ; that one was a judge, another a celebrated 
lawyer, and the ether an influential politici.m ; and their mission was to go to 
Washington City to sec President Lincoln and suggest the immediate occupation of 
Texas by L'liited States troops. Under date of Octc.bcr 30, 1S62, I'utUr 
wrote from New Orleans to the LInited States consul at Matamoras to notify all 
Union refugees within his reach to come to Matamoras for the jjurpose of being- 
transported to New Orleans : that within thirty days he would send a boat to bring 
away such Union Texan refugees as wouKl like to enlist in a Texas regiment which 


he was tlien organizing, and intended sending them to Galveston in a short time. 
This regiment doubtless was the one afterwards known as the First Texas (Union) 
Cavalry, and commanded by Colonel E. J. Davis. Again he wrote the consul, 
under date of November 12, that he proposed to send down the First Regiment 
Texas Volunteers, with some other troops, to Galveston ; and that he would arrange 
with Colonel Davis of that command, and with Rear-Admiral Farragut, that 
refugees who desire may be sent to Galveston from Te.xas and Mexico for the pur- 
pose of ha\ing them enlist in the army. The Confederate officers along the Rio 
Grande boldly charged that recruits for this regiment were openly recruited and 
enlisted in Mexico, and that this violation of neutrality was connived at by the 
Mexican authorities. In a protest by General H. P. Bee addressed to Don Albino 
Lopez, governor of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, under date of F"ebruary 3, 1S63, 
he says that on December 26, 1862, an armed party of Mexican citizens crossed into 
Texas, attacked a train of government wagons, murdered three of the teamsters, 
and, after plundering the train of all its contents, recrossed the Rio Grande and 
found shelter and protection on the soil of Mexico. And on the same day another 
party crossed the Rio Grande at Ro Clareiio and murdered an estimable patriot and 
citizen, the chief justice of Zapata County, Don Isidro Vila. This party was followed 
across the ri\ or by Captain Refugio Benavidcs of the Confederate army, and pun- 
ished as their crimes and atrocities merited. He says : " If these outrages had been 
committed by the disorderly population ^\liich had notoriously existed on the 
frontier, an excuse might be sought in the unsettled state of the country and that 
concomitant lawlessness which is incident to so demoralized stale of society, and 
might have been classed with the many other instances of irregularity which have 
occasionally and unfortunately marked the history of the two countries. But these 
outrages present other and graver characteristics. They were committed b)- the 
First Regiment of Union troops, commanded by Antonio Zapata, composed of 
Mexicans, carrying with them the llag of the United States and claiming to be the 
representatives of that nation, with v.hom the Confederate States were at war." 
That "the authorities of Mexico have been repeatedly warned of these frequent 
violations of neutrality, but these warnings have been with.out efl'ect, and the soil of 
Texas has been desecrated and the blood of her people been slied b\' those who 
sheltered themselves under the neutrality of the flag of Mexico ; and so far from 
being restrained from future evil, or punished for past offences, were then preparing 
for a repetition of those outrages." 

He says that "he has proof that Mr. L. Pierce, the United States consul at 
Matamoras, whose exit, from Texas, where he resided for many years, was marked 
by improprieties f)f conduct which rendei him a fit rcpresentati\'e of the United 
States, has originated and, with specious promises of the plunder of Texas ranches, 
has organized and put in the field thi:, band of outlaws in Mexico." 

Replying to this communication, Gox'ernor Lopez says : " There is a floating 
population on the Rio Grandi; frontier, consisting of individuals who altcrnatelv 
claim citizenship in Mexico or Te.xas, as suits their purposes, and who change their 
residence whene\'er oblisjed to do so by the prosecution which always follows them, 
thus evading the laws and securing immunity. Thi> inhabitants of Mexico have 
suffered from these men every species of outrage, which wont unpunished because 


the facility for crossing the river rendered abortive the eflorts of the authorities, 
who, though powerless, were not ignorant of the names of the perpetrators. 
Availing themselves of the domestic disturbances in Tamaulipas, they raised the 
banner of party as a cloak for their co\'er of crime. These men, who have com- 
mitted so many outrages upon the peaceful inhabitants of the frontier, are precisely 
the same who call themselves the ' First Regiment of the Union.' " 

On March 6, 1S63, Colonel E. ]. Davis arrived at the mouth of the Rio 
Grande on board the United States steamer Honduras witfi a party of about one 
hundred and eighty soldiers. He and five others landed on the Me.xican side and 
proceeded to Matamoras, where Colonel Davis's family had been sent by the Con- 
federate authorities to meet him, and awaited him. For a week he remained in 
Matamoras, activel 3' engaged in enlisting men for his regiment. About four o'clock 
on the morning of March 15, 1863, while waiting with a number of companions at 
the mo.uth of the river to go on board the Ho7iciitras, about one hundred men, 
"consisting," as General Bee says, "of citizens and soldiers off duty," crossed the 
river to the Me.xican shore, and, after a serious conflict, captured Colonel E. J. Davis, 
Captain W. W. Montgomen,-, of General A. J. Hamilton's staff, and four others, 
and brought them over to the Texas shore. The Davis party made a vigorous 
resistance and wounded two of the attacking party, and several of the Davis party 
were killed and wounded. Governor Lopez immediately demanded of General 
Bee, in courteous terms, the release of the prisoners and their return to Mexican 
soil, and General Bee promptly repudiated the act as not having been authorized by 
him, and promised to return the prisoners if they could be found. After diligent 
search by General Bee, Colonel Davis was found and set across the river with all of 
his companions, except Captain Montgomer)', who had been hanged. General Bee 
disclaimed all knowledge of the names of the parties engaged in this affair, but Go\- 
ernor Lopez informed him, for the purpose of enabling him to arrest and puni.-h 
them, that Colonel George W. Chilton, Captain Brevvin, and Dr. McKnight were of 
the party, but it is not known whether his information was correct. In December 
following, after the arrival at Brownsville of Hon. A. J. Hamilton, military governor 
of Te.xas, one Dick Hamilton was accused by the affidavit of Richard Pendergrast, 
a citizen of Bro\vns\'ille, made before I. B. McFarlaud, judge of the Provisional Court, 
a part of Governor Hamilton's administration, with the murder of Captain Mont- 
gomery. He said th.-Jt there were seven men who participated in the hanging of 
Captain Montgomery, one of whom was Dick Hamilton, then in Matamoras ; that 
he saw him hanging by the neck to a mesquite-tree four days afterwards. This 
affidavit was made for the purpose of extraditing Dick Hamilton, but, owing to a 
disagreement betux-en Governor Hamilton and Genera! Dana as to the mode of 
proceeding, the extradition was not accomplished. 

When the State seceded, Hon. A. J. Hamilton was a representative in the 
United States Congress from Texas, ha\ing been elected over General T. N. Waul 
at the preceding election. He refused to resign, as the other Representatives and 
Senators did, and served out his term. He was then appointed a brigadier-general 
in the L'nion army, but does not seem to have ever performed anv active milit.iry 
service in the fieUl. On November i.], 1862, he was .ippointed bv the President of 
the I'nited States niilit.iry governor of Te.\a3, and most of his efforts secin to ha\'e 


been directed to inducing the United States government to invade Texas. He 
brought to bear, tlirough his efforts, the powerful influence of the governors of 
several Xorihurn States, and succeeded in his etiorts. One of these communications 
from Go\eri!or John A. Andrew, of Massachusetts, to the authorities at Washington, 
under date oi November 27, 1S61, is interesting after the la])se of more than thirty 
years. He says : " I wish to call your special attention to a subject which has been 
pressed upon my notice by some of our most jnacticd, experienced, and influential 
business men, and which I cannot but regard with nuicli favor. It is that the 
Federal government should make its next domonstration upon the coast of Te.xas, 
the State easiest to take and hold, with larger public consequences dependent upon 
such action than any other. Texas we virtually bought ; her rebellion makes her a 
dependency for treatment under the war power :uid through Congress. The force 
when landed should proclaim martial law, v^ith reference to the future action of 
Congress, when the proper time arrives to free all the sla\es, compensating loyal 
owners if necessary." 

Among the results which he points out to bo accomplished by such an expe- 
dition are the following :— 

" First. W c flank the whole rebellion. 

" SiYond. We open a way out for cotton. 

" Thud. We cut off future annexations in the interest of the rebels, and 
demonstrate to foreign powers that this war is to stop the spread of slavery. 

" Fovrili. Instead of loyal men leaving Texas, as they are now doing', for Cali- 
fornia and elsewhere, they will remain, and in a few years will fill Texas with a 
European immigration, which will demonstr.tte. as the Germans of Texas are now- 
doing, that cotton can now be raised without slaves, though hired negroes may also 
be used. 

''Fifth. Galveston is but six hundred miles from Lawrence and St. Joseph, 
and a railroad will run through Texas and .Arkansas to those places, and the ques- 
tion of conflict of systems of labor and power will be settled forever, leavino' 
the question of slavery in the cotton States for philosophical treatment, unless it 
becomes necessary to settle it under the war power before the present war is 

•'These points are urged, not in the intcres:- of abolitionists, but by leading 
coiimiercial men ;>nd capitalists, as fairly coviing un.der ihe lu^cessities and rules of 
war. Marti-.d law proclaimed, events wiil no livnibt educite the people and the next 
Congress to a wise solution of all questions which may after\vards arise in connection 
with slaves an'J slavery in an exceptional State or dependencv like Texas. 

"By such seizure and treatment of as is briefly indicated above it is 
urged that we shall have at the end of the \v.-,r material guarantees that will pre\ent 
any such compromise or settlement as to make .1 renewal of the struggle for seced- 
ing or ancithcr rebellion po.ssible." 

When General Banks's expedition t.' the .'^outh started its destination was 
unknown, but thought to be Texas, and Gener.U Hamilti-in with a large retimie of 
followers accom])anied it. When thev found it to sto;-, a.t New Orleans, 
were very much disappointed and grew quite \\Tathy. General Banks's opinion of 
them is not very flattering, and shows that he w.i.s irritated by their importunities 
and disgusted with their unblushing e'Tror.terv. In a communication to Secretary 
Stanton, dated January 7, 1S63. he sax's : — 


" I desire to call your attention to the position of General Hamilton, not for 
the purpose of troublinj; you with responsibilities connected therewith, which I am 
willing to assume myself, but to protect my administration from infamous calunuiia- 
tions propagated by men on his staff. ^ly intercourse with the general has been 
[ilcasant. He is not a bad man, but lacks decision and force of character. I have 
treated him with profound respect up to the line of my duty. I did not, however, 
(irocl.iini to him nor to those associated with him my destination. They ascer- 
t.iined that for the first time when we were in New Orleans. . . . His impatience 
and the violence of those about him led me sooner to send a detachment of troo[)s 
to (",al\-estori than I should otherwise have done, and is immediately the cause of 
the small loss the army has sustained there. This was, however, upon consulta- 
tion with Admiral Farragut and General Butler and the fullest confidence that our 
troops would be safe under the protection of the fleet. 

"General Hamilton is surrounded by men who are here for the basest merce- 
nary purposes. Disappointed in their objects, they ha\e been unsparing in their de- 
nunciations of the government, and especially of myself. They came on board the 
government transport Iliiiwis without my knowledge and against m)- orders, and, 
as General Hamilton has said to me, have influence over him in consequence of 
pecuniary advances made to him while in the North. I desire it to be understood 
by the government that any representations made by them to the government or 
the people will be at least only a partial statement of the truth, if they be not en- 
tirely false. The strongest government in the world would break down under such 
a system of plunder as they desire to organize. If the whole State were for the 
Union, it would turn against the government if the purposes of such men were 

" 1 know the dift'iculties of my situation, which are very numerous and \-ery 
great, and intend to do my duty faithfully while here, a duty from which I would, 
in the failing condition of my health, most gladly be relieved ; but I cannot sutler 
the indecency, fal-ehood, and corruption of these men to go without check. You 
need not be surprised, therefore, if they are ordered to leave the department." 

Halleck to Ranks, Januar}- S, 1863, says he is directed by the Secretary of War 
to reply that General Hamilton's commission as go\-<.Tnor of Texas will lie re\-okcd. 

A\'hile there was a profound sentiment of opposition to the Southern cause in 
many localities, no definite expression was given to it. It was almost as much as a 
man's life was worth to publicly declare such sentiments, and as a general rule 
those who entertained them wisely refrained from giving expression to them ; but 
the enforcement of the Confederate States conscript law was the occasion of strong 
resistance in some instances to State and Confederate authority. Many Union men 
sought to escape service in the Confederate army by flight into Mexico, and others 
went thither for the purpose of making their way into the Union lines at New 
Orleans and other points with the intention of enlisting in that army. Often squads 
of such men were intercepted by Confederate soldiers and arrested, and in many 
instances were forced into the arm)-, but they usually deserted the first opportunity 
which olTered of making their escape. In the summer of 1S62 a company of about 
seventy Unionists started from Travis County to make their way to Mexico to join 
the Union army, and Lieutenant C. D. McRae, of the Second Regiment of Mounted 
Riflemen, who was on a scout with ninety-four men, struck their trail on the south 
fork of the Guadalupe Ri\er. He pursued them four days, and at daylight on August 
1 1 overtf)ok them on the Nueces River, about twenty miles from Fort Clark. He 
alt.ic!:ed them widi great vigor in their camp, killed thirly-tuo of them, captured 


eighty-three head of horses, thirty-three guns, thirteeii revolvers, and all their 
camp equipage and enough provisions for one hundred men for ten days ; and the 
sur\'ivors of the band sought safety in the adjacent cedar-brakes. Lieutenant had two men killed and eighteen wounded. The party of Unionists were 
composed of si.xty-three Germans, one Mexican, and five Americans, and all except 
the Americans are s.iid to have fought with great fury and desperation : these fled 
at the first fire. They were commanded by a German by the name of Fritz Tcgc- 
ner, who lived in the cil}' of Austin. 

In the countiis of Austin, Fayette, and Colorado there was much opposition 
manifested among the Germans to the enforcement of the conscript law ; but this 
does not seem to have been prompted by any devoted attachment to the American 
Union, but to have been a decided indisposition to serve in the Confederate or any 
other army. They were mostly small farmers, and they were decidedly opposed 
to leaving their families and farms for any considerable length of time ; and their 
views and sentiments are expressed in a communication to William G. Webb, Brig- 
adier-General, Second Brigade Texas State Troops, signed by several German citi- 
zens of Fayette County, dated January 4, 1S63, as follows ; — 

"At a public meeting held by the citizens in Beigel Settlement, Fayette 
County, Texas, on January 4, 1863, the following declaration was adopted as an 
expression of the sentiments of said meeting : — 

"The measures taken by the government to protect this State against invasion 
are so far-reaching and serious in their consequences that they fill our minils with 
dread and apprehension. 

"The past has already taught us how regardlessly the government and the 
county authorities ha\e treated the families of those who have taken the field. We 
have been told that they would be cared for, and what, up to this time, has been 
done? They were furnished v ith small sums of paper money, which is almost 
worthless, and which has been refused by men for whose sake this war and its 
calamities were originated. 

"Last year we made tolerably good crops ; the prospect for the next is not 
very encouraging, and we cannot look forward with indifference upon starvation, 
which we apprehend for our wives and children. Although it has been said that we 
will not be needed for more than three months, the lime for planting will then be over 
and our children may go begging, for the sniall pay which we are to receive for our 
services is insufficient to bread for our families. We and our families are 
almost destitute of clothing, and have no means for getting enough to protect us, 
even imperfectly, against the cold, from which cause sickness and epidemics result, 
as has been experienced in the army, where more men ha\-e fallen victims of disease by the sword of the enemy. 

"Last autumn we applied to procure cloth from the penitentiary, but up to 
this time we have not been able to obtain any, whereas negro-holders, whom we 
could name, can get such things and fetch them home. For these reasons we sym- 
pathize with all the unfortunate who h.ave to provide for their own maintenance, and 
hope that our authorities will look u|.ion us as men anil not as chattels. With what 
spirit and what courage can we so fight, and tliat, moreo\'er, for principles so far 
removed from us ? 

"Besides the duty of defending one's country, there is a higher and more 
sacred one, — the duty of maintaining the families. What benefit is there in pre- 
serving the country while the families and inhabitants of the same, nay, even in the 
army, ;'.re bouTid to peiish in misery and starvation? 


" In view of the foregfoinc;, we take the liberty hereby jointly to declare that 
unless the army, and we, obtain a guarantee that our families will be protected, not 
only aijainst misery and starvation, but also against vexations from itinerant bands, 
we shall not be able to answer the call, and the consequences must be attributed to 
those who caused them. 

"Furthermore, we decline taking the arm)- oath (as prescribed) to the Con- 
federate States, as ue know of no law uliich compels Te.xas troops, who are designed 
for this State, to take the same. ' ' 

In other portions of tlie State the spirit of disloyalty to the '.Southern cause 
took even a bolder turn. In Medina County a committee of German citizens who 
were loyal to the Confederate States appealed to the military authorities for protec- 
tion against the aggressiveness of the Unionists. This committee, consisting of 
Frank Reicherger, Charles de Montel, Thomas P. Wycale, and G. S. Haas, repre- 
sented that a majority of the citizens of that county were disaffected towards the 
government of the Confederate States ; that most, if not all, of the county officers 
elected in August, 1863, were of conscript age, known to be disloyal, and in no 
way qualified for the oriices to which they were elected ; while their opponents 
were men of tried loyalty, above the conscript age, and known to be well qualiiicd 
for the respective offices for which they offered ; that the result of the election was 
that every secession candidate was defeated by a majority of five to one, while men 
just released from prison, where they had been incarcerated on ch.arges of disloyalty, 
were triumphantly elected. 

They further represented that the sum of thirteen hundred dollars, which had 
been appropriated by the legislature for the support of families who were dependent 
on soldiers in the army, was distributed by the Commissioners' Court to the families 
of deserters and traitors, while the indigent families of soldiers of known loyalty 
who had been secessionists from the beginning of the war did not receive any part 
of it. They invoke the protection of the military, inasmuch as the ci\-il authori- 
ties cannot and will not protect them ; and abk that the local authorities he pre- 
vented from further injuring loyal citizens and their families, and from rewarding- 
treason and disloyalty. 

The rigid enforcement of the conscript law caused many appeais to the courts 
to test its validity, but it was held by the .Supreme Court not to be unconstitutional, 
in opinions deii\ered by Chief Justice Royall T. Wheeler and Associate Justice 
George F". Moore, but in which Associate Justice James H. Bell dissented. 

In 1S63, Dr. R. R. Peebles, D. J. Baldwin, and Zinke were arrested on 

the charges of treason and plotting to release the Union prisoners confined at 
Hempstead, and, on application to the Supreme Court for discharge under the writ 
of habeas corjius, the)' were released. 

A number of Mexicans, residents of Zapata County, refused to bear allegiance 
to the Confederacy, and openly declared their intention of supporting no govern- 
ment except the United .States, and, r.'itlier than take the oath of allegiance to the 
Confederate Stales, retired into Mexico. In October, 1862, they made a raid into 
Texas near Cari;^o, and drove off a large number of stock, but were inlercepted in 
tlieir raid by Captain Mat Nolan, of the Second Regiment Mounted Rilles, and a 
number of ihe:n killed. 


In May, 1864, Captain William B. Pace, commanding; the local company of 
State troops at Lampasas, reported that a short time previously William E. Willis 
and Gideon Willis came into that country from Mexico, for the purpose, as they 
stated, of recruiting for the Union army, and were reported to have enlisted a com- 
pany of about one hundred men. They passed over the country in small parties, 
threatening the destruction of the property of all secessionists, and for a time caused 
almost a reign of terror among those peaceful hamlets ; but the appearance of Licu- 
tenant-Coionel Jackson, with several coinjiaiiies of State troops, in the community, 
had the effect of allaying the apprehensions of the inhabitants and causing the 
Willises and their comrades to keep quiet. 

In Wise and Denton Counties there was a very strong Union sentiment, and many 
deserters from the Confederate army congregated there in such large numbers that in 
the early part of the year 1S64 grave fears were entertained that an insurrection would 
occur. For a time there was intense excitement for fear that those citizens who 
were supjjorting the Southern cause would be murdered and robbed by a gang of 
outlaws commanded by a nrited character named Fox, associated with the hostile 
Indians on the frontier. The people appealed to the military authorities for pro- 
tection, and Colonel James Bourland sent a detachment from his regiment under 
Lieutenant Hamilton to investigate the state of affairs, and to arrest deserters and 
conscripts. He found that a large body of men who were defying the authorities 
were encamped in a thicket some tweh'e miles southeast from the town of Denton, 
in Elm Creek bottom, and had been engaged in stealing supplies of every descrip- 
tion from the citizens living in the neighborhood, and had "pressed," as they called 
it, shot-guns and six-shooters, by .going into the houses of citizens and taking them 
w ithout leave, and had taken horses from citizens on the highways. 

One William Parnell, a fonner resident of Denton County, who had gone to 
the North and joined the Union army at the outbreak of the war, returned in the 
latter part of the year 1863, and was at the head of this disaffected clement, about 
one hundred and fifty strong, and publicly proclaimed his intention of leading them 
through to the North as soon as the gras-. would do to tra\-el on. These men re- 
ceived infomiation of the preparations being made by Colonel Bourland to attack 
them, arid loft the country, g'oing in a westerly direction to join another party com- 
posed principally of deserters and conscrijits who had assembled on the Concho, 
and thence made their way to New Mexico. 

The sciUinicnt of dissatisfaction and disloyalty to the Southern cause seems to 
have perwaded different commands of the State troops to a considerable extent. 
One J. M. Luckey, captain of the State troops in Parker County, was arrested and 
sent to Houston in May, 1S64, charged with attempting to incite the soldiers to 



THE number of troops furnished by the State of Texas to the Confederate 
army is a matter of great surprise when the smallneba of the entire popu- 
lation is taken into consideration. By the census of i860 the State had a 
population of six hundred and four thousand two hundred and fifteen, which at the 
usual ratio would give the State a population above the age of twenty-one years of 
about one hundred and twenty thousand, and to say that seventy-five per cent, of 
this number were in the army would not be an unreasonable statement. The State 
furnished forty-five regiments of cavalry, twenty-three regiments of infantry, twelve 
battalions of cavalry, four battalions of infantry, one regiment of heavy artillery, and 
thirty batteries of light artillery to the Confederate army, which passed beyond the 
control of the State authorities ; and besides these, the State maintained at its own 
expense five regiments and four battalions of cavalry and four regiments and one 
battalion of infantry. The usual allotment of one thousand men to each regiment, 
five hundred to each battalion, and one hundred to each battery of light artillery, 
would give a total of eighty-nine thousand five hundred soldiers furnished out of 
an adult population of one hundred and twenty thousand. It would thus seem 
that Texas was, indeed, a nation of soldiers. 

The following list only includes those organizations which were mustered into 
the Confedernte army. Besides these there were five regiments and four battalions of 
cavalry and four regiments and one battalion of infantry maintained by the State at 
its own expense, but as these did service in the State exclusively, and were not 
engaged in any active campaigns, their history would be a dull detail of dreary 
camp life, and is therefore omitted. 

Resides the troops furnished the Confederate army by Texas, the Union senti- 
ment in the State was so intense that many left their homes and joined the Union 
army. One full regiment and another partially recruited, with two or three inde- 
penilent companies, are all the regularly organized commands of Texans that were 
in the Union army ; hut it is belio\ed that half as many more left the State and 
joined organized commands from other States. The most conser\ati\e estimates 
place the whole number of Texans who served in the Union army at two thousand. 


First Lancers. (See Twenty-f^rst Ca\-alry Rcgimtnt. ") 

First (Spr/^/U's) lufantry liallalio,!. (Merged Into Fifteenth Regiment.)—, J. \\\ Speight ; major, James 1^ Harrison. 



First Battalion, Sliarp-sliootcrs. — Major, James Burnet ; Coini)any A, captain, 

B. I). Martin ; Company H, ca|,tain, Brid-cs ; Company C, captain. Wirt 

Smith ; Company D, captain, J. M. Hurt ; Company E, captain, Jesse Ku\ken- 

This commanrl was raised in Grayson am.! adjoining counties early in 1S62, 
saw some hard service, and did soiiu effective fic,diting in Louisiana, around Baton 
Rouge, and in Mississipjn at Jackson, Raymond, and other places, under General 
J. E. Johnston. 

First Texas Ratiffo s. (See Eighth Texas Cavalry, or Terry's Rangers.) 

First Cavalry Regiment, Arizona Brigade.— Colonel, William P. Hardeman ; 
lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, Peter Hardeman ; major, Michael Looscan ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Edward Riordan ; major, Alexander \V. Terrell. (See history of Green's 
brigade. ) 

First Indian Texas Regimeiit. (Sec Twenty-second Texas Cavalry.) 

First Regiment Partisan Rangers.- — Colonel, Waller P. Lane ; lieutenant- 
colonel, R. P. Crump ; major, A. D. Burns. 

This regiment took a con.=;]Mcuous part in repulsing General Banks's Red 
River expedition in the spring of 1S64. 

First Cavalry Battalion. (.Merged into Thirty-second Cavalry.) — Major; 
lieutenant-colonel, R. P. Crump. 

First Cavalry Battalion, Arizona Brigade. (Also called Fourth fiattalion. ) — 
Major ; lieutenant-colonel, A. H. Da\idson ; major, Michael Looscan. 

.Served in New Mexico, Arizona, and Louisiana. 

'The First Regiment Heavy Artillery «-as raised during the summer and fall of 
1861 for the purposes of coast defence. Its field officers were : colonel, Joseph j. 
Cook ; lieutenant-colonel, John H. Manley ; major, Edward Von Marten. 

Colonel Cook being a graduate of the L^nited States Naval Academy at An- 
napolis, and having ser\ ed several years in the na\'y, ga\'e to his regiment the full 
benefit of his knowledge, skill, and experience, and the command soon rose to the 
highest degree of proficiency. Several companies of this regiment manned the 
siege-guns on Galveston Island, and the other companies were stationed at different 
points along the coast between Sabine Pass and \^elasco, where they frequenih- 
tried the mettle of their guns on the blockading fieet. A portion of the regiment, 
commanded by Colonel Cook in person, took a prominent and creditable part in the 
rera])ture of the city of Gaheston, January i, 1SG3, for which they received the 
highest commendations by General Magruder in general orders. 

Company F of this regiment, of which F. H. Odium was captain, was stationed 
at Sabine Pass, and on the Sth of September, 1S63, during the temporary absence 
of Captain Odium, General Franklin, of the Union army, attacked the place with a 
large fleet, with the intention of landing his corps of fifteen thousand men for the 
invasion of Texas. Tlie company was at the time commanded by First Lieutenant 
Dick Dowling, who drove back the invaders, captured two gunboats and three 
hundred and fifty prisoners, which, having been accomplished with only forty-tuo 
men, has passed into history as one of the most wonderful achievements of tln' 
Civil War. For the details of this Ijrilliant a.ffair the reader is referred to the account 
given of it under the head of Military (.)perations in Te.xas, in a former chapter. 


The regiment served with constancy and unflinching devotion to duty to the 
end of hostilities, and only surrendered its guns when the great conflict ended. 

First Regiment Texas Mounted Riflemen. — Among the first, if not the first, 
military commission issued by JetTerson Davis as President of the Confederate 
States was one issued by him to Hen .McCuUoch, a distinguished citizen of T.e.xas, 
authorizing him to raise and command a regiment of mounted riflemen for twelve 
months' enlistnsunt for the protection of the Texas frontier. This commission was 
transmitted to Bl-h McCulloch by Mr. Da\is without consultation and with authority, 
if he did not accept it, to transfer it to whoever he might select, witii the assurance 
that his selection would meet the approval of the War Department. As Henry E. 
McCulloch had, by the authority of the secession convention, just captured the 
I'nited States military stores at Camp Colorado, F'ort 

Chadbourne, Camp Cooper, and Fort Belknap, had p^'5f'»'"'--'--'--^5»«.t"^if«-sw'P^^-frT'f 
taken possession of these posts in the name of the l- 
State of Te.xas, and had volunteers then stationed * 
at these places defending the frontier of Te.xas, Ben r 
McCulloch transferred this commission to him, with ; 
the request that he accept it and raise and command \ 
the regiment. This he did. at once authorizing each \ 
of the following-named gentlemen to raise a com- \ 
pany for the regiment, viz.: William G. Tobiii, of f 
Be.xar County ; Governeur H. Nelson, of Bexar | 
County ; William A. Pitts, of Travis County ; Travis \ 
H. Ashby, of Gonzales County ; Green Davidson, i 
of Bell County ; Thomas C. Frost, of Comanche [ 
County ; James B. Barry, of Bosque Count}- ; Mil- 

,,'0 tr>ii- . e Ti-ij General Hksry E. McCulloch. 

ton Vl. boggess, of Rusk County ; Sam Richardson, 

of Harrison County ; James H. Fry, of Burleson County. Messrs. Tobin, Nelson, 
Fry, Pitts, Boggess, and Richardson were instructed to report at San Antonio with 
their respective companies by the 15th of April, while Messrs. Frost, Davidson, and 
Barry were ordered to report at Camp Colorado, Fort Chadbourne, and Canip 
Cooper, where they were already on duty by authority of the secession con\-ention. 
.■\11 of these gentlemen raised organized their companies and reported promptly 
cxcein Mr. Richardson, \\ho failed, and a company raised in Lamar Coimty, com- 
manded by Captain Milton Webb, was accepted in his stead. The regiment being 
thus organized. Colonel McCulloch not having been furnished any money to equip 
and maintain it, and being the first and only military ofhccr in Texas at that time, 
I>roceeded at once to organize the Military Department of Texas, with Major Mack- 
lin chief commissary, Major Joseph F. Minter chief quartermaster and ordnance 
oft'icer, and Captain W. T. Meckling assistant adjutant-general, with head-quarters 
at San Antonio. He also appointed Captain Wash. L. Hill, of Travis County, 
quarierma.sier of tiiis regiment ; M.ajor John R. King, of Wilson Countv, connnis- 
sary ; William O. Veager, of Guadalupe County, adjutant ; and Dr. Henry P. 
Howard, of Bexar County, surgeon and temjiorary medical purveyor of the post of 
.San Antonio. Colonel McCulloch th.en prevailt-d upon Governor Edward Clark 
and the military connni^sion, composed of Hon. .Samuel .-\. .Ma\'erick, Dr. Phili[) 


N. Luclcett, and Hon. Thomas J. De\ine, who had been appointed by the con\en- 
tion to receive the military btores at San Antonio when captured by Colonel lien 
McCulloch, to turn them over to him as the only representative of the ConfcderaH' 
States in Texas. This gave him the means not only to equip and maintain his 
own regiment, but also such other Confederate troops as might be enrolled and 
organized in the State. These i)rc.ceedings were duly reported to and appro\ ed 
by the War Department of the Confederate States, and Colonel Earl Van Dorn 
was sent to relieve Colonel McCulloch of the command of the Department of Te.\as. 
As soon as the companies were rauitercd in, Colonel McCulloch ordered an elec- 
tion for field officers of the regiment, and, although he had been appointed colonel 
and was then acting under the appointment, he was unwilling to command volun- 
teers without their consent, so he submitted his name to them for their approval. 
Although he had some opposition, he was elected colonel of the regiment by a 
handsome majority, and Captain Thomas C. Frost was elected lieutenant-colonel 
and Edward Burleson major. Before the term of service expired Major Burleson 
resigned, and Captain James B. Barry was elected major. The regiment occupied 
all the old United States posts on the northwestern frontier, and other strategical 
points from the mouth of the Big Wichita on Red Ri\'er to Fort McKavitt. The 
services rendered by this regiment during its organization were of inestimable value 
in protecting the settlers on the frontier against Indian raids, and with unflinching 
gallantry they held back the horde of ruthless sa\-ages who sought to take ad- 
vantage of the absence of so many men in the army to plunder the setdements and 
murder or carry into barbarous captivity the helpless women and cliildren. Many 
were the fierce encounters with savage tribes of which no record was kept, 
and for long years many traditions prevailed on the border of the daring courage 
of many men of this regiment in such conflicts. Among them may be mentioned 
the running fight on Pease River between a detachment of this regiment under 
Major Barry and a party of Indians, in which manv of the latter were killed. 
Another bloody afTair waa the attack by fifteen men of Company A, under Sergeant 
W. Barrett, upon a camp of I.ipan Indians, October 15, 1S61, near Fort Inge, in 
which ten Indians were killed and several woimded, with a loss on the [iart of the 
Ttxans of three killed and fine v.oui.'Jed. Upon ilie expiration of its term of ser- 
vice six companies of the regiment disbanded and joined other regiments in different 
fields of action, and the other four were organized into a battalion, of which Pr. 
Joseph Taylor was ekrted major, and it was called the Eighth Texas Ca\alry Bat- 
talion. Robert A. Myers afterwards liecame major of this battalion, and it, w ill". 
William O. Yager's battalion of six companies, was merged into Colonel Buchel's 
regiment, which took the name of the I'irst Texas Cavalry Regiment, made vacant 
by the expiration of the First Regiment of Mounted Rifles. At tlu- expiration of 
the term of service of this regiment it was succeeded in frontier defence by the 
"Frontier Regiment," commanded successively by Colonels James .M. Norris and 
W. E. McCord, which was subse(]iienlly designated as the Fourth Ca\ali\- 

Fir'st Texas Ca:'ii/r\'/i!(f;w/,->ifl//!{r/!t/'s). — This regiment was organized in 
1S6: by the consolidation of Tayl-.r's l-.i-luh Battalion and ^'ager's Third 
talion. The former the of McCulK.cirs First Regiment .;f Mounied 


Rifles, and was fcirined at the time of the expiration of the enlistment of McCul- 
loch's regiment. The following were the field officers of the First Te.xas Ca\alry 
at its organization : colonel, Augustus Bucliel (promoted from lieutenant-colonel of 
Third Infantry KegimentJ ; lieutenant-colonel, William O. Yager ; major, Rol.iert 
A. Myers. 

Until the spring of 1S64 this regiment served in the State entirely, doing gar- 
rison and picket duty at different points al(jng the coast. Portions of the regiment 
engaged in some unimportant skirmishes with the Union troops on Matagorda and 
otlier islanels .;t the time of the attempted inx'asion of the State f^y General Banks. 
When the Union army under Major-Gencral Banks started on the celebrated Red 
River expedition this regiment was among those which marched from Te.xas to 
reinforce the Confederate army which was opposing him in Louisiana. It arrived 
at Mansfield on April 5. 1864, just in time to take a prominent part in that bloody 
liattle, in which its gallant conduct largely contributed to the Confederate victory 
and won unfading laurels. Its losses in that engagement and in the battle of 
Pleasant Hill the ne.xt day were heavy, including among the killed its bra\-e colonel, 
whose conspicuous gallantry attracted the attention and favorable notice of the com- 
manding general. Colonel Biichel was a German by birth, and received his mili- 
tary education and training in the Prussian army, and the high degree of efficiency 
to which he brought his regiment was largely attributable to this cause. Since the 
close of the war the State of Te.xas has honored his memory by naming a county 
for him. The regiment also participated in the subsequent engagements at Pleasant 
Hill and Yellow Bayou, and maintained the high reputation which it had won at 
Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. 

The Second Texas Infantry.^ — In the early summer of 1S61, Captain John C. 
, Moore, of the regular Confederate army, who was in command of the defences at 
Galveston, upon the recommendation of General Earl Van Uorn, who was then 
commanding in Te.xas, received authority from the Confederate \\''ar Department 
to organize a regiment of infantry for service in the war beUvecn the States which 
was then belie\'ed to be impending. As soon as this was known steps were at once 
taken to raise troojis. 

During the nK.mths of July and August, 1S61, several companies of this regi- 
ment were mustered into service, and the organization was completed by the enrol- 
ment of the others during the first week in September. The completion of the 
regiment was then reported to the V\'ar Deiiartmcnt, and it was accepted a,~ the First 
Te.xas Infantry Regiment, and the commission then issued to Colonel Moore by 
President Uavis so designated it. But a few days afterwards intelligence 
received that the number of the regiment had been changed to the Second ; the 
explanation gi\en being that several independent companies from Te.xas having 
reached Virginia liad been organized into first a battalion and then a regiment, 
of which Senator Wigfall was made colonel, and claimed the right to be called the 
First Texas. This was thouglit at the time to he the result of political influences at 
the Confederate capital, but it was acquiesced in, and the name of the Second Te.xas 

By Charles I. Evans. 


Infant!-}' accepted, with some feeling of disappointment. Although it was the first 
infantr>- regiment organized in the State, and justly entitled to that designation, the 
determination was universal that it could be of as much service to the Southern 
cause, and achieve as much fame, under the designation of the Second. At the 
completion of its organization the regiment was composed of the following com- 
panies and oflicers, viz. :- — 

Coiapanv A was raised in Harris County, and its officers were : captain, Hal 
G. Runnels ; tirst lieutenant, Dan Gallagher ; second lieutenant, John Roach ; 
junior second lieutenant, Joe Smith. 

Company B was raised in Harris County, cliiefly in the city of Houston, and its 
officers were : captain, William C. Timmin? ; first lieutenant, James W. Mangum ; 
second lieutenant, James D. McCleary ; junior second lieutenant, Andrew S. Mair. 

Company C was raised in Harris County, on Cedar Rayou, and its ofiicers 
were : captain, Dr. Ashbel Smith ; first lieutenant, J. P. Harrcll ; second lieu- 
tenant, M. A. Lea ; junior second lieutenant, P. M. Woodall. 

Company D was raised in Harris County, and its officers were : captain, E. 

F. Williams ; first lieutenant, Ed Daly ; second lieutenant, Andrew Gammel ; 
junior second lieutenant, James E. Poster. 

Company E was raised in Robertson and Brazos Counties, and its officers 
were : captain, Di. Belvidere Brooks ; first lieutenant, J. H. Feeney ; second lieu- 
tenant, George Green ; junior second lieutenant, J. L. Arnett. 

Company F was raised in the city of Galveston, was composed almost entirely 
of Germans, and its officers were : captain, John Mueller ; first lieutenant, Jackson 

McMahan ; second lieutenant, Dittmar ; junior second lieutenant, Ferdinand 

H alley. 

Company G was raised in Burleson County, and its officers v/ere : captain, 
John W. Hood ; first lieutenant, C. C. McGinnis ; second lieutenant, E. J. Chance; 
junior second lieutenant, Joseph C. Rowland. 

Company H was raised in the western part of Burleson, in what is now Lee 
County, and its officers were : captain, N. L. McGinnis ; first lieutenant, Thomas 
S. Douglas ; second lieutenant, Jerome I. McGinnis ; junior second lieutenant, 
George Harris. 

Company I was raised in Gonzales County, and its officers were : captain, 

G. \\'. L. Fly ; first lieutenant, W. D. Gofi ; second lieutenant, Reuben de Borde : 
junior second lieutenant, George Weakky. 

Com[)anv K was raised in Jackson County, and its officers were : captain, 
Clark L. Owen ; first lieutenant. Dr. A. B. Dodd ; second lieutenant, Maurice K. 
Simons ; junior second lieutenant, Joseph M. B. Hayiiie. 

The ret;imental officers were, by appoi'itment of ijic War Department, as fol- 
lows : colonel, John C. Moore ; lieutenant-colonel, William P. Rogers ; major, 
X. B. de Bray. 

SfaJ^. — Adjutant, J. H. Feeney, first lieutenant, Company E ; regimental 
quartermaster and commissan,-, J. M. R. Haynie, second lieutenant. Company K ; 
surgeon. Dr. Howard. 

,-\ short time ^'.fter organization. Major de Bray was pr^jmoted to be colonel of 
a cavalry regiment, and Captain Hal G. Runnels, of Company A, was promoted to 


be major. The lieutenants of Company A declined promotion without an election 
of the compan)', and in truth they preferred another man for captain. They waived 
their rights, and an election was held, which resulted in the unanimous choice of 
Sergeant William Christian, of Comjiany B, and they cheerfully acquiesced in it, 
and rendered to him, as captain, faithful and patriotic obedience. 

During the first four months, the regiment was quartered in cotton compresses 
and warehouses in the city of Galveston, and si.\" hours every day, except Sunday, 
were spent in the most arduous drilling. Both officers and men worked and studied 
hard to become as proficient as the drill-master told them the}- ought to be ; but 
there was much complaint at the strict discipline and hard drilling, and much 
cliafing at the delay which retarded the advance of the regiment to the front, where 
active service was to be seen. The men were anxious to go forward to the scenes 
of conflict and participate in the glorious achievements which they confidently 
believed awaited them ; and much fear was expressed that the war would be over, 
the Yankees whipped, and the independence of the Southern Confederacy estab- 
lished before they could have an opportunity of firing a gun in the glorious cause. 
But whatever chafing and impatience may have been felt at the time, it was after- 
wards acknowledged that during this period, by reason of the rigid discipline and 
hard drilling to which the regiment was subjected, was laid the foundation of its 
subsequent achievements, among which was the proud distinction of being the best- 
drilled regiment in the Confederate army. 

While stationed at Galveston, Lieutenant M. A. Lea, of Company C, resigned, 
and Lieutenant P. M. Woodall was promoted to second lieutenant and R. D. 
H.'iden to junior second lieutenant. 

In December, 1861, the regiment was mo\ed from Galveston to quarters near 
Houston, called Camp Lubbock, and sometimes Camp Bee. While at this place 
.,the venerable and majestic form of General Sam Houston was frequently to be seen 
moving among the men. He had a kind and encouraging word for every one, and 
claimed to be a private in Company C, commanded by his friend Dr. Ashbel Smith. 
To the inquiry if he was not too feeble for the service, he would reply, " I can at 
lea^t stand on the right of the line and be counted." 

At last orders came for the regiment to report to General \'aa Dorn in Arkan- 
sas. The day before its departure the hidlcs presented the regiment with a beauti- 
ful silk battle-flag, which was received with the usual flow of oratory. At the same 
time General Houston addressed the regiment in a fatherly talk. He said, among 
other things, that while he had disagreed with the masses of his countrymen as to 
the policy of secession, he doubt as to the legal right of the State to secede ; 
that he believed it would ha\e been the best policy to have remained in the Union 
and to ha\e fought for our rights under its flag ; he portrayed the strength and 
advantages which the North possessed, the ease with which the Confederacy could 
be cut in two on the Mississij)pi Ri\er, and suggested a policy of concentration west 
of that ii\er. which, had it been adopt.-d, might have prolonyod the struggle until 
the recogjiition of its independence .by some of the great European powers would 
have made the Southern Confederacy a possible success. He did not speak of 
those things, he said, to discour.igc : he hojied tluit they would not prove true ; but 
" to be forewarned wa.s to be forearmed." He fuithei s.iid that he v>ms not ashamed 
Vo,.. Il._j7 


to have his name linked with that of the regiment ; that he saw in the men compos- 
ing it the material that w ould reflect credit upon the State and add lustre to any 
name that might be connected with it ; and he knew that he would hear only good 
reports of it. He gave it his parting blessing in most pathetic terms, and bade it 
be strong and \aliant, remembering that his eyes and prayers should follow it, and 
he committed his beloved son to its fate. 

When marching orders were recei\-cd, Lieutenant Feency requested to be 
relieved from duty as adjutant and allowed to rejoin his company, whicli was 
granted, and Lieutenant James W. Mangum, of Company B, w as appointed adjutant 
in his place. Lieutenant J. C. Rowland, of Company G, resigned about this time to 
enter the cavalry service, and Dr. Dodd, first lieutenant of Company K, resigned, 
and Second Lieutenant ^L K. Simons was promoted to be first lieutenant, J. ^L 
B. Haynie ad\'anced to second lieutenant, and W. H. Kirk was promoted to junior 
second lieutenant. 

On March 12, 1S62, the regiment went by rail to Beaumont, on the Neches 
River, thence by steamboat to Weiss' s Biufl, and from there overland to Alexandria, 
Louisiana. Here the whole regiment embarked on a large river steamboat down 
Red River to its mouth, and thence up the Mississippi to Helena, Arkansas. At 
this place orders were received to proceed to Corinth, Mississippi, by way of Mem- 
phis, and Corinth was reached on the evening of the ist of April, 1S62, the regiment 
being about tliirteen hundred strong. 

On the 3d of April, the line of march was taken toward.-, the little hamlet of 
Monterey, in Tennessee ; many of the men having worn out their shoes on tlie trip 
from Texas were barefooted, but no murmur of complaint was heard. The 
immense columns of moving troops were something new, and were looked upon 
with wonder and admiration. After the entire da\- was spent in waiting, camp was 
pitched not more than two miles from where the regiment had started in the 

The next day it reached Monterey, and bivouacked near there that ni;,'-ht. 
The regiment having been assigned to the Third Brigade, connnanded by Brigadier- 
General John K. Jackson, Withers' s division, Second Corps, was placed on the 
right of the Confederate line, next to Chalmers's brigade. 'Ihe brigade was com- 
posed of the Second Texas, Colonel John C. Moore ; Nineteenth Alabama, Colonel 
Joseph Wheeler ; Eighteenth Alabama, Colonel Eli S. Shorter ; Seventeenth Ala- 
bama, Colonel Robert C. Ferris ; and Captain L P. Girardey's battery of light 
artillery. On Friday night the regiment bivouacked within three or four hundred 
yards of the enemy's camiJS, and could distinctly hear their roll-call and occasional 
conversations. Orders were received not to speak above a whisper, and the night 
was a silent b\it anxious one. At daylight the next morning the regiment moved 
forward in column of companies as a part of the reserve, and it was not long before 
General Gladden's brigade in its front became hotly engaged, and at this time the 
regiment had one man killed, Private James Forni-\-, of Company B (the first cas- 
ualty in the regiment), and two or three wounded before it had ever fired a gun. 
However, about eight or nine o'clock it moved to the right, and took position on 
the right of Gladden's and the left of Chalmers's brigades, on Lick Creek. Soon 
after taking ijosition its skirmi_^h line met the enemy's and dro\-e it back ; but in 


the first engas^ement, among other casualties, Captain Brooks, of Company B, was 
mortally wounded. Following the enemy some two or three hundred yards to the 
brow of a hill, on the opposite side of a ravine, the regiment opened fire and ad- 
vanced to the hill, when the clear, ringing tones of Colonel Moore's \oice was 
heard from one end of the regiment to the other in the command, " Doul'le-quickl" 
The regiment sprang forward as one man up to the brow of the opposite hill ;md 
halted. The breathing spell here was a short one, as the enemy a short distance 
in front w ere firing on the regiment from their camps and from behind houses with 
deadly precision. After a momentary survey of the situation the colonel gave 
the order, "Charge!" which was obeyed with such impetuosity as to dri\e the 
enemy from the camp with considerable loss on their side, for the killed and 
wounded were scattered all through the camp. Thus was kept up the engagement 
for a mile and a half, ciiarging line after line in the enemy's camps, they sometimes 
giving way slowly and stubbornly, and at other times breaking and running in a 
confused rout. At one time during the day the regiment met a Union battery of 
light artillery going thn'Ugh the woods to take a position, not knowing that the 
Union line had been driven back and that it was outside of it. The drixers mounted 
on their horses and the gunners sitting on the ammunition-chests, with the battery 
fully equipped, were all captured without the firing of a gun. Among other casual- 
ties. Captain Ashbel Smith, of Company C, was wounded in the arm. Shortly 
after tliii^, when the regiment had advanced near half a mile farther, a large body of 
the enemy was discovered on the left in the inter\al between the .Second Te.xas and 
Gladden' s brigade, and the regiment fell back about one hundred yards for the 
purpose of charging them at a left half-wheel But just as the line had been dressed 
for executing the movement, the cry of "White flag!" was heard, and an officer 
rode up an 1 said that his brigade wished to surrender to the Te.xas regiment. 
Captain John W. Hood, of Company G, sent to the front to receive the sur- 
render, and soon returned laden with the swords of the officers. This proved to be 
Prentiss's brigade, about three thousand strong, and they were turned over to a 
regiment of cavalry, who escorted them to the rear. The regiment advanced over 
a broken country, and as it approached several camps nf ihe cneisiy and threw 
forucird liiv:.s of Ijattlc, they fled as soon as the Texas \ell was raised. Ai last the 
right of the regiment rested on the south bank of the Tennessee River, between the 
mouth of Lick Creek and Pittsburg Landing. After proceeding down the river 
some distance it halted in front of a high hill, which was crowned witli artiller)-, 
and anxiously awaited the order to charge. Word was passed along the line that it 
was waiting for other troops to come u]i and take position on its left and join in the 

Several times the forward mo\'ement was ordered and then countermanded, but 
the enforced delay was fatal to the golden opptirtunity for complete victory, and, 
darkness now coming on, the regiment was withdrawn a short distance, where it 
bivouacked for the night. All night long the whooping and yelling of men, the 
rumbling of wagons and artillerv', told all loo plainly of the arrival of reinforcements 
for the enemy. The men had had nothing to eat all day, except such as they were 
able to snatch from the well-spread tables in the enemv's cam'ps and from the 
cooking-vessels on the fire as they hurriedly passed through in pursuit of the fleeing 


enemy. The rain fell steadily all nlyht, and the men huddled around in groups, 
seeking what rest they could, with their arms in their hands. 

Before daylight ne.xt morning it was discovered that the regiment wa.s between 
the enemy's new line of battle and the Tennessee River, and silently it retraced its 
steps u]-> the ri\ er to the mouth of Lick Creek and then turned off to the south, and 
in a httle while met with some other remnants of the late victorious army in front of 
the enemy's line. About this time Colonel Moore was placed in command of a tem- 
porary brigade, consisting of th.e Second I'e.xas and the Nineteenth and Twenty-first 
Alabama Regiments, and Lieutenanl-Colonel Rogers took command of the Second 
Te.xas. Shortly afterwards the regiment was ordered forward, as was said, to sup- 
port General Breckinridge, but as it advanced, unsuspecting the enemy in Its imme- 
diate front, the supposed line of General Breckinridge pro\ed to be the enemy's, 
and opened a murderous fire upon the front and tianks of the regiment, so that it 
wa\ered and fell back beyond the range of the enemy's guns. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Rogers here reformed the alignment, made a short talk of encouragement, and 
ordered the regiment to advance. When in sight of the enemy's line, he com- 
manded '• Charge!" the men sprang forward with a yell, and the regiment pursued 
the flying enemy nearly half a mile. Following up the pursuit, the regiment arrived 
at the edge of a ploughed field, which was quite green with wheat just coming up, 
and it was here halted and reformed. 

In cndeaxoring to drive the enemy farther the regiment was repulsed. In this 
contest with Genera! Buell's fresh troops the loss in the regiment amounted to 
m.ore than the entire los.s of the preceding day. The fire of the enemy was at close j 

range, and the number of the killed largely exceeded the wounded. The regiment i 

slowly fell hack with saddened hearts, and was among those troops which cohered j 

the retreat of tlie army to Corinth. The loss in the regiment during both days i 

amounted to about thirty-three and one-third per cent, in killed, woundt.d, and j 

missing, and of those known to be killed about ten per cent. 

Thus ended the bittle of Shiloh, one of the most memorable engagements j 

in modern warfare. The retreat w?= a sad and weary march for the e.xhauslcd j 

men, along a nuiddy road, obstructed by mired and broken-down vehicles, under a 
drenclung do\\ npour of rain. , 

In a few days an order by General Beauregard was read on diess parade com- 
mendino the regiment for its gallantry in the recent battle, and in commemoration 
thereof directing that the name "Shiloh" be inscribed upon its battle-flag. After ! 

the battle, J. M. B. Haynie asked to be relieved from service as regi- j 

mental quartermaster, and he returned to the line and took command of his com- I 

panv, K, and Lieutenant Maurice K. Simons, of the same company, was thereupon . 

made regimental quartermaster. Colonel Moore was promoted to brigadier-general 
a short time after, and some who were among the missing, but whose fate was 
unknown, were promoted for distinguished gallantry in action, and the offices were 
reserved for them many months awaiting their return, a d.iily renu'nder of their sad 
fate. But few of the brave fellows ever appeared to claim the reward of their gal- 
lantry and patriotism : tlic others n-st in uiuuarked graves upon the field made 
famous by their heroic deaths. 

Upon the promntion of Colonel Moore to brigadier-general. Lieutenant Maurice 


K. Simons, regimental quartermaster, was promoted to brigade quartermaster with 
the rank of major, and Lieutenant James W. Mangum was promoted to assistant 
adjutant-general on General Moore's staff with the rank of captain ; Lieutenant 
Arthur K. Leigh, transferred from the artillery, was 
made adjutant of the regiment, and l^ieuteiiant J. i. rr-^"- 
McGinnis, of Company H, was assigned to duty as ; 
regimental quartermaster. Sergeant G. F. Johnson, • 
of Company G, was promoted to second lieutenant 
of that company, vice J. C. Rowland, resigned. He 
was among the missing, and was promoted for gal- 
lantry in battle. j 

In Company E an unusual fatality occurred; , _, j 

the captain and first lieutenant were both killed in ■• \ . -^ ,,',-^' < 

battle, and both the second lieutenants died of dis- f , ^,- i\^ ' ^^' ■ '\ 

case within ten days afterwards, and Sergeant Wil- .' '^ . ~^/ . j 

Ham Holder was promoted to captain, u/cf Brooks, '.'"t.v ^/ w- "^ 

killed ; Sergeant William Allen was promoted to first f /, ./' ^ •& ] 

lieutenant, vice J. H. Feeney, killed ; Sergeant John General John c. .moore. 

Lloyd was promoted to second lieutenant, vice George 

Green, deceased ; and Sergeant Gillis was promoted to junior second lieu- 
tenant, vice J. L. Arnett, deceased. 

Camp duties, almost constant picket duty, with an occasional skirmish with 
the enemy's pickets, and the general routine of a soldier's life passed with recurring 
regularity for about a month. There was much sickness among the men during 
this time, and many deaths occurred. About this period, but the e.xact time 
cannot be ascertained, the following changes took place in the of^hcers of Company 
C, \-iz. : Lieutenant Harrell resigned on account of ill health, and Second Lieuten- 
ant P. M. W'oodall was promoted to tirst lieutenant and B. W. Le Conipte and O. 
J. Conklin, the Litter from Company B, were made second lieutenants. 

Among the killed at the battle of Shiloh was Captain Clark L. Owen, of Com- 
pa'iy K, wIki had served in the Mexican War with distinguished gallantry as colonel. 

Major Maiu-ice K. Simons, who entered the service as second lieutenant of 
Captain Owen's compan}- and had been promoted to brigade quartermaster, had 
also served with distinction in the Me.xican War, where he had lost one leg, and 
prior to his promotion presented the nnjst unusual spectacle of a man o\\ a crutch 
ser\-ing in the inf.intry. But he was always found v/herc duty called, and all the 
sur\ Ivors of the regiment have abundant cause to remember him for his watchful 
can- of their interests after his promotion. 

On the evening of the 8th of May the regiment was ordered out, and took a 
SDUtherly direction from Corinth. All were wondering what was its destination, 
when the line of march was suddenly changed to tlie left, in an easterly direction. 
All nipht long tlie march was kept uji at a quick step over hills, through bogs and 
quai^mires, the men floundering in the mud. Just before day a halt was called and 
a little rest taken. While sprawled upon the ground, seeking what repose was 
po>sii)le under the circumstances, the startling sound of cannon was hean.1 not more 
than half a mile to the left, followetl by a brisk rattle of musketry. Instantly every 


man was upon his feet and tho order to fall in promptly obeyed. The regiment 
had been resting on a hill near Seven Mile Creek, a short distance south of the 
road leading from Corinth to Farmington, and at the sound of batde advanced at 
V double-quick up the creek towards the bridge. General Ruggles's division had 
attacked General Pope's advance-guard lightly, so as to draw him out away from 
the creek, and the Second Te.xas was sent around to take the enemy in the rear, 
burn the bridge, and cut off their retreat. When it reached the road at the bridge 
but one brigade of the enemy was on the west side of the creek. A part of it was 
confronting General Patton Anderson's brigade, and two regiments of it were en- 
sconced in a cut in the road, and as the Second Te.xas charged up the hill across 
an old field they fled, and made their escape through the bog and water almost 
waist-deep with severd parting volleys sent after them. Among other plunder 
were captured all the well-filled knapsacks of this brigade, and they contained 
many treasures of which the Tcxans stood in great need. About a thousand stand 
of small-arms and fort>' or fifty prisoners were also cajitured. This was the battle 
of Farmington, w hich furnished General Pope the occasion for one of his boastful 

On the return to camp picket duty was resumed ; the enemy approached 
nearer and nearer, day after day, and light skirmishes became more frequent, 
indeed of almost daily occurrence. On the evening of May 29, 1862, the regiment 
broke camp about dark and took up the line of march to the southward. After 
marching a few miles at quick-step the march was diversified by the double-quick, 
and was kept up all night, with alternations from one to the other. A little before 
daylight next morning a lurid glare lit up the horizon in front, indicating that a 
mysterious fire was raging. A short time after this discovery terrific explosions 
were heard, as if a spirited engagement of artillery was in progress. These unknown 
but exciting ])henomena added to the celerity of the march ; but before the regiment 
reached the scene of conflagration the depot at Booneville, warehouses, and long j 

trains of cars filled with ordnance and commissary stores were a smouldering mass j 

of ruins. The only persons in sight were several hundred sick Confederate soldiers | 

and a few dead and wounded of brith armies. Then it was found out that the regi- | 

mont had been running a race all night with Sheridan's cavalry, trving to beat him ■ 

to Booneville to save the stores at that place. j 

Abou*" June 5, 1S62, Major Rurmels resi';nod, and the follnwing prominiuns 
were made to fill the vacancies caused thereby, and by the promotion of Colonel i 

Moore to be brigadier-general, \]?.. : Lieutenant-Colonel \Villi;im P. Rogers t<> be j 

colonel, I'/rr Moore, promot.d ; Captain .Ashbo! Smith, of Company C, to be 
lieutenant-colonel, t'w Rogers, promoted ; Captain \V. C. Timmins, of Companv ! 

B, to be major, vtrc H. G. Runnels, resigned. The promotion of Cajjtain Smith j 

to be lieutenant-colonel over the head of Capt:iin Timmins, who was his senior, may j 

seem to military critics to ha\e been irn.gular. and to imply a slur upon the niilitarv i 

char.-.cter of th(.- latter; but the tiuth will leveal one of those cases of unselfish 
patriotism and deference to his senior in years which was peculiarly characteristic 
of the noble and chivalric Tiunnins. and whic-h was manifested on more than one 
occasion by the officers and men of this regiment. Living witne.sscs can attest that 
this was done at the voiunt.irv request of C:iptain Tinnnins, made without the 


knowledge of Caj^tain Smith ; and that when Captain Mangum, his former first 
lieutenant, and the then assistant adjutant-general, endeavored to persuade him not 
to waive his seniority, he calmly replied that he had fully determined to do so, 
because, ;is he expressed it, " Captain Smith is an old man, who has long been in 
public life, n.nd has served the republic and State of Texas in various civil capacities, 
and I am a young man and can afi'ord to wait." And in compliance with his 
unwaveriiig determination, he was promoted to be major of the regiment and Cap- 
tain Smith to be lieutenant-colonel. 

The regiment arrived at Tupelo about June 5, where it remained in camp with 
the whole army about three months. During this summer the drilling, which h:id 
been neglected for some time, was again resumed. The first colonel was now the 
brigade commander, and he thought that his old regiment was the best-drilled regi- 
ment in the army. The first colonel of the Third Louisiana Infantry, Louis Hcbert, 
had also been made a brigadier-general, and he took issue with General Moore, and 
claimed the palni for his old regiment. The result was that the two regiments liad 
to march out twice a week to test the matter in competitive drills and reviews before 
some general officer as umpire. In these contests the Second Texas always carried 
ofl the honors ; but the Third Louisiana was a splendid regiment, and was well 
drilled. Shortly after arriving at Tupelo, Lieutenant-Colonel Ashbel Smith returned 
to Te.xas to enlist recruits for the decimated ranks of the regiment. 

During the time the regiment remained at Tupelo many promotions were made 
to fill vacancies in the different companies. In Company B, First Lieutenant Jas. D. 
McCleary was promoted to captain, vice W. C. Timmins, promoted to major ; 
Second Lieutenant A. S. Mair was promoted to first lieutenant, and Sergeant 
. Ambrose J. Hurley was promoted to second lieutenant. In Company C, First 
Lieutenant P. M. Woodall was promoted to be captain, vice Captain Ashbel Smith, 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel ; Second Lieutenant B. W. LeCompte was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant and Lieutenant O. J. Conklin to second lieutenant. In 
Company D, First Lieutenant Ed. Daly was promoted to captain, vice E. F. 
Williams, who had been missing since the batde of Shiloh, and the other lieutenants 
\vere advanced to the higher grades, hut the promotion from the ranks to fill the 
junior second lieutenant's place cannot be recalled. In Coinji.inv G, First Lieu- 
tenant C. C. McGinnis was promoted to captain, vice John W. Hood, resigned on 
account of ill health, and Lieutenant E. J. Chance having also resigned for the 
same reason, .Sergeant George W. Parker was promoted to first lieutenant and 
Thos. N. Persons to second lieutenant. In Companv I, Second Lieutenant Reuben 
de Horde became first lieutenant, vice \V. D. Gofi, promoted to ca[)tain of Company 
K, and Lieutenant Geo. Weakley having died, L. J. Duren was promoted to 
second lieutenant in his stead. In Company K, W. D. Goff, first lieutenant of 
Company I, was made captain, vice Clark L. Owen, killed at Shiloh ; Secfind 
Lieutenant J. M. B. Haynie was promoted to first lieutenant, vice Maurice K. 
Simons, pronu'lcd tn brigade i:|uartermaster ; and Sergeant John Tucker, of Com- 
pany A, was promoted to junior second lieutenant. 

About July 25, 1S62, General Bragg departed for Tennessee with a p^ntion of 
the army, and Genera! .Sterling Price took command of the balance. On the i^tli 
of .September, G^'neral Price's army moved to Gunto\vn and SaltilN), and a few davs 


afterwards advanced in a northeasterly direction towards luka. Durinq- the day of 
the 15th the Second Texas was deployed as skirmishers, advancinij all day throu;^di 
the woods, and struck the enemy's skirmisii line in the afternoon. After exchang- 
ing a few shots the enemy retreated, and the Confederates followed cautiously. 

As the vicinity of luka was appro. iclied it was observed that most of the farm- 
houses, including all improvements, had been burned, but some few had been left 
uninjured. The explanation gi\-cn was that the burned houses were the homes of 
the sympathizers with the Southern cause, and that those unburncd were the homes 
of Unionists. The groups of women and children, thinly clad and barefooted, gath- 
ered around the ashes of their belox'ed homes, was doubtless sufficient to arouse 
feelings of retaliation, but the Southern soldier scorned to make war upon the weak 
and helpless. As the Confederate army advanced upon luka the enemy retired, 
leaving a large quantity of stores in possession of the Confederates, which was 
quite acceptable to that army. Tlie same evening that luka was reached the 
Second Texas was ordered out on skirmish line to the west of the town, just south 
of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to feel the strength of the enemy, with 
the other regiments of Moore's brigades and Bledsoe's battery in reserve. It soon 
came in contact witli their skirmish line, and a spirited exchange of leaden compli- 
ments took place. The field was open and well suited to a practical application of 
the tactics of the skirmish line, in which the regiment had become most proficient 
upon the drill-s;ro'and, and Colonel Flogcrs put it through some manct-uvres ne\er 
before attempted in the face of the enemy. 

For three days and nights the regiment was kept on the skirmish line, with a 
constant exchange of shots with the enemy all day, and rallied by fours and sleeping 
on their arms at night, with haversacks pretty well filled with bread, crackers, 
cheese, and canned goods taken from the stores left at luka by "our friends the 
enemy. ' ' 

\Vhile the Second Texas, supported by the other regiments of Moore's brigade. 
was manoeuvring in front of the enemy, they were detaining and holding in check 
General Ord, with about si.x thousand men, who had been sent by General Grant 
from Burns\'ille to form a junction with General Rosecrans, who was marching 
from Corinth to att.ick General Price at luka ; and on the evening of the 19th 
of September, while General Ord was being thus entertained, a bloody battle was 
going on, about three miles south of him, between two brigades of General Little's 
division of Price's army, about three thousand strong, and General Rosecrans' s 
army, numbering over ten thousand. 

General Ord did not know anything about it until after the battle over, and 
says in his report that he did not hear a gun of the condict, because: a strong wind 
was blowing in the direction from his position towards the battle-field. In the 
engagement that day between Litde's di\-ision and General Rosccrans's army, the 
latter was driven back about half a mile, with heavy losses on both sides. Very 
late that evening the Second Texas was called in, formed in line with the brigade, 
and the whole command double-quicked about three miles south, and took position 
between the late contending armies to co\-er the retreat of General Price. Only one 
little brush took place between Moore's brigade and the enemy under General 
Rosecrans, which occurred about dark. The enemy did tint pu;,h forward that 


nisfht, and after standing on picket all night, the Second Texas moved into Iiika 
about daylight next morning. It being impossible to prevent General Roserrans 
and General Ord from forming a junction next morning, General Price determined 
to evacuate luka rather than risk an engagement with their superior combined forces ; 
and while the enemy were awaiting a renevcal of the battle, General Price moved 
southward, carrying with him the great quantity of stores which he had captured. 

The Second Texas and Bledsoe's battery formed the rear-guard on this retreat, 
as usual, and the enemy were marching into luka before the rear-guard left, 
but did not fire a gun. About seven or eight mile.s from luka the enemy's cavalry 
overtook the rear-guard, and the regiment formed across the road behnid a dense 
thicket, with the battery in position in the centre of the line ; and when the enemy 
approached to within about fifty yards, the commruid was given to fire, and a deadly 
volley of artillery and musketry was poured into their ranks willi telling effect. The 
enemy's loss must have been very heavy, for the woods were full of riderless horses 
and staggering men, and the little squadron of Confederate cavalry charged among 
them and captured some prisoners. This ambuscade taught the enemy a severe 
lesson, and they gave no further trouble. 

The regiment reached Baldwin, Mississippi, on the 22d of September, where it 
remained only a few days, and then took up the march towards Pocahontas, Mhich 
place it reached on the ist day of October, 1862, after ha\'ing formed a junction 
with General Van Dorn's army at Ripley. The entire amiy, composed of Maury's, 
Hebert's, and Eovell's divisions, then marched northward as if to threaten Boli\ar, 
Tennessee. It bivouacked near Chewalla, a station on the Memphis and Charles- 
ton Railroad, ten miles west from Corinth, on the night of the 2d, and at four 
o'clock next morning the march was resumed, but the direction was suddenly 
ch.mged eastward. About ten o'clock in the morning the order to advance was 
'received, and the command moved forward cautiously with its skirmish line deployed 
in front. In a short time the skirmishers of the Second Texas became engaged with 
those of the enemy, and the other regiments of the brigade coming up during the 
engagement, one of them mistook the skirmishers of the Second Texas for the 
enemy, fired upon them and killed Lieutenant J. M. B. Haynie, of Company K, and 
six privates. During this fight on the skirmish line Major William C. Tinnnins, 
commanding the skirmishers of the Second Texas, was severely woimded in the arm, 
and Captain John Mueller, of Company F, took his place as acting major. The main 
column coming up, the skirmish line was withdrawn and the engagement soon 
became general. The enemy, however, retreated at the first charge, and fell back 
behind the old Confederate breastworks. After a short halt at this place the advance 
was cautiously resumed, and it was soon discovered that the enemy had made a 
stand at an intrenched camp which was strongly fortified. .A. stubliorn resistance 
was here made and some very hard fighting was done, but an impetuous charge 
with a yell dro\e the enemy from their jiosition. At a short distance to the rear 
they made an<tlier stand, seemingly with greatly increased numbers, and they 
returned the attack with a gallant charge upon the Second Texas, but the regiment 
met it with a furiou.s counter-charge, cutting the enemy's line in two and capturing 
some three hundred prisoners. At this juncture several Union batteries opened a 
treniendon.-^ fire U])on the right of the Te.vans, from an elov;it<.'d position on the 

5S6 A C0MPREHP:XSIVE history of TEXAS. 

south side of the Memphis and Charleston Railroaci, and the Second Texas was 
ordered to capture and silence them. Upon arriving at the foot of the elevation 
occupied by the batteries, Colonel Rogers discovered that they were supported by 
a brigade of infantry^ and sent to General Moore for reinforcements. After waiting 
about an hour Johnson's and Dockcry's Arkansas regiments of Cabell's brigade 
arrived, and the three made a most impetuous charge, driving the enemy from their 
position in confusion and capturing two batteries of light artillery. The Second 
Tc.\as soon afterwards recrossed the railroad and hastened on to the front, where 
the brisk hie indicated that the enemy were making another stubborn resistance. 
For some time the fight went on in the open woods, the enemy yielding stubbornly 
and contesting every inch of ground, and then returning with a desperate but 
unsuccessful charge. The foe slowly retired to an intrenched camp situated upon 
an elevation between two prongs of a creek, where fresh troops had already been 
massed. Here was presented the most determined stand which the enemy had 
made during the day, but after some hard fighting, with heavy losses on both sides, 
the Union troops were finally driven from their camp and intrenchments at the point 
of the bayonet. The Union officers tried gallantly to stem the tide, Brigadier- 
Generals Richard J. Oglesby and Pleasant A. Hackleman both being desperately 
wounded in vain efforts to rally their beaten soldiers. In this camp tlie Te.xans 
found bread, butter, cheese, crackers, and other food in abundance, and while 
enjoying a short rest partook of the enemy's hospitality during their absence, the 
first food tliey had tasted that day. When driven from this position the enemy fled 
precipitately to the protection of their inner fortifications at Corinth, and the tired 
Texans followed them slowly. About sunset the exhausted Confederates, with 
empty cartridge-boxes, halted within about half a mile from Corinth, and very near 
the inner fortifications. The Second Texas lay on its arms that night, with pickets 
up to within one hundred yards of the breastworks and forts. The loss of the 
regiment was very heavy, the hard day's work had been a severe strain upon the 
physical endurance of those who were still in line, and that night they slept soundlv 
in the face of the enemy, without anything to eat. Among the wounded that day 
were Lieutenant Artluir K.>li, adjutant of the regiment, and J. Halbert Rogers, 
the youthful son of the colonel. 

Before daylight on the morning of October 4 the Confederate artillery opened 
a vigorous fire ujion the enemy's works, which was promptly returned in a spirited 
manner, and a lively duel continued until some time after daylight. During the 
early morning there was some sharp fighting cw the skirmish line in front of the 
Secontl Texas, in which the enemy's skirmishers were driven in and their com- 
mander, Colonel Joseph A. Mower, of the Eleventh Missouri Regiment, was se- 
verely wounded and taken prisoner, but again fell into the hands of his friends that 
evening upon the retreat of tlie Confederate army. This is the same gentleman 
who was afterwards a distinguished major-general in the Union arni\-, and became 
celebrated under the sobriquet of " Fighting joe .^Iower. " 

After the enemy's skirmishers had been dri\-en in, preparations were made for 
the assault upon the works. Directly in front of the Second Texas, a short distance 
north of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, was Battery Robinett. with three 
twentv-pounder siege-'4'uns, and in liattcrv Williams, just on ilie south side of the 


railrond and about two hundred yards in the rear of Robinett, there were four 
twenty-four pounders and two eight-inch howitzers. On the eminence between Bat- 
tery Williams and the railroad were the six guns of Battery F, Second United States 
Light Artillery, and on the south side of the same fort were two guns of the Second 
Illinois Light Artillery, all commanding the field to the westward and sweeping the 
hill-side in front of Robinett. In addition to these, a section of two guns of the 
Eighth Wisconsin Light Artillery occupied a f)Osition just north of and close to 
Battery Robinett, between it and the Chewalla wagon road, sweeping the top and 
side of the hill in its immediate front. These were the positions of the Union artil- 
lery, seventeen guns in all, bearing on the field in front of the Second Te.xas, over 
which it was about to make one of the most daring and desperate assaults of the 
war. The infantry of the Union army was also placed in the most favorable posi- 
tions for dealing destruction to the assaulting column. The P'orty-sex enth Illinois 
Regiment lay behind the railroad just in front of Battery Williams, about opposite 
Battery Robinett, fronting north and sweeping the hill-side in front of the latter with 
their deadly Springfield rifles. The Forty-third Ohio occupied the breastworks to 
the south of Robinett, extending from the fort to the railroad, and the Sixty-third 
Ohio occupied the breastworks on the north side, with its left near the fort. The 
Eleventh Missouri was lying down under the hill, about fifty yards in the rear of 
Robinett. with its right and left wings extending opposite the Forty-third and Sixty- 
third Ohio respectively. The Twenty-seventh Ohio occupied the trenches on the 
right of the Sixty-third, and the Thirty-ninth Ohio was still farther to the north, on 
the right of the Twenty-seventh, with its right wing facing north, at right angles 
with the line of its left wing and of the Twenty-seventh and Sixty-third. The 
order to charge had been expected every moment since daylight, but, owing to the 
sudden illness of General Louis Hcbert, commanding the left division of Price's 
corps, the initial attack had been delayed until about ten o'clock. During the 
inter<.-al of waiting the men were subjected to the most intense mental strain, as all 
old soldiers know that the suspense of waiting just on the eve of battle is more 
trying on ihc nerves than the actual conflict, in which men seem to lose the power 
of rcHrction amid the excitement and dangers of the combat. When the order to 
advance came the mi.ii obeyed it w ith wonderful alacrit)-, the diflcrent regimeuL-; 
being massed in columns of five lines of two companies each. Wlien they encoun- 
tered the abatis of trees, which had I'cen felled with their tops outward and the 
limbs interlocked, with smaller branches carefully interwoven, the formation was 
considerably broken under the terrific fire of the enemy's artillery, but each man 
picked his way through, and all advanced as rapidly as possible towards the common 
point. Battery Robinett. As soon a^^ the abatis was passed, a slight reformation, 
under a heavy fire, was made, and the lines sprang forward with the regular Texas 
yell. When they reached the bro\r of the hill they were staggered by a murderous 
fire from both artillery and infantry, the infantry regiment behind the railroad cut 
poin-ing a deadly enfilading fire into tiic right flank of the Texans, while the thunder 
of the artillery was deafening and its awful showers of grape and canister most 
destructive. Under this galling fire the front lines recoiled upon the rear ones, and 
the whole seemed to resistlessly float back down the hill upon the flaming crest of a 
rolling bil'ow of fire. With words of cncourageiriMU from the colonel a hurried 


but partial realisjnment was effected, and tlie order to charge again given. The 
men responded with redoubled fury, but human strength seemed unable to with- 
stand that besom of destruction. The slaughter was fearful, and the assaulting 
column was again blown back down the hill. As they yielded the second time to 
that overpowering force, the fourth man fell with the colors in his hand, and 
Colonel Rogers seized them and rode back in the midst of his heroic band. Once 
more forming them in a ragged line, he asked if they were willing to follow him, 
and they responded with a yell of approval. The order to advance wa.s again 
given, and the colonel rode straight up the hill directly towards Battery Robinett, 
with the colors in his hand. He kept his eye on the fort and graduated the pace 
of his horse to the pace of the men, and the colunm moved forward at double- 
quick, with heads bowed to receive the deadly missiles like men do when facing a 
blowing rain. Their ranks are literally ploughed through and through, but the 
living close up the open ranks left by their fallen comrades and press fo^^vard 
directly to the fort. Colonel Rogers rides into the ditch around the fort, followed 
by the head of the column, and as the others come up they scatter around either 
side of the fort. The right wing of the .Second Texas is met by the determined 
front of the Forty-third Ohio on the south of Robinett and a hand-to-hand conflict 
ensues ; but the onset of the Texans is made with such reckless desperation that 
the Ohioans are put to flight, leaving one-half of their number upon the ground 
either killed or wounded, its brave colonel, ]. L. Kirby Smith, being among the slain. 
On the north side of Robinett the left wing of the Second Texas comes in contact 
with the Sixty-third Ohio, and, after a bloody contest at close quarters, the Ohioans 
are driven back at the point of the bayonet, leaving fifty-three per cent, of their 
number upon the ground, and the section of light artillery at that point makes its 
escape to the rear. 

While these bloody conflicts are taking place on both flanks of the fort. Colonel 
Rogers climbs upon the parapet and plants the flag of his regiment in triumph upon 
its top ; and the men who follow him leap fearlessly down inside the fort, and, uith 
others who ha\-e in the mean time crawled through the embrasures, engage the can- 
noneers in a ilesfierate hand-tn-hand conflict. It is short but fierce, and thirteen 
out of the thirty-si.\ men of the First United States Infantry who man the siege- 
guns are either slain or wounded, their gallant commander. Lieutenant Robinett, 
being among the latter. Battery Robinett is captured and silenced, but Battery 
Williams continues to pour its deadly fire of shot and shell into it upon the strug- 
gling mingled mass of friend and foe, while the Forty-sc\-enth Illinois, from its 
elevated position along the railroad in front of l.attcry \\'i!liams, sweeps tb.e f)ara- 
pets of Roliinctt with long-range rifles as the Texans clamber up them and do fear- 
ful execution. In the mean time a dreadful hand-to-hand conflict has been raging 
in the very heart of the town. The other regiments of .Moore's brigade, led by 
General Moore in person, passing on the north side of Robinett, ha\'e penetrated 
to the centre i>f -the town : and ar(jund tiie railroad depi'it, the Tishomingo flotel, 
and the Corinth House the unequal contest was waged ; and even in the yard 
around General Rosecrans's head-quarters tlie fighting was furious. Hut the 
hi ;ivy reserves of troops which the Union commander had massed in the centre 
and southeast portioris of the town met the sh.-Utrrnl ;.ilunins of the Confederates 


and literally "plucked the rose, victor}-, from the thistle, defeat." The ammuni- 
tion of the Confederates having become exhausted, they were driven back by sheer 
force of numbers. Some of them mounted horses which were hitched in the streets 
and in the yarti of Genera! Rosecrans's head-quarters and made their escape amid 
showers of bullets. The victorious reserves of the enemy march upon Roljinett 
from the town, and General David S. Stanley advances from the south with the re- 
formed I'orty-third Ohio and two fresh regiments. The little band of Te.\ans in 
and upon Robinctt see that the day is lost. Wlien Colonel Rogers saw the over- 
whelming forces of the enemy approaching after the repulse of the Cftnfederates in 
the centre of the town, his first thought was to save the lives of as many of his men 
as po.ssible. and he waved his handkerchief from the top of the parapet in token of 
surrender ; but the enemy either did not sec it, or, seeing it, refused to recognize 
it, for the firing continued from both advancing columns. He told the men around 
him that " the enemy refuse to accept our surrender ; we will sell our lives as dearly 
as possible." With the utmost calmness he ordered his men to fall back into the 
ditch on the outside of the fort, and there gave orders for the retreat ; and climbing 
out of the ditch with the flag in one hand and his pistol in the other, the remnant 
of the regiment clustering around him as the central figure, the little band retreats 
backwards as it returns the fire of the advancing enemy. During all this time the 
Eleventh Missouri Regiment had not fired a shot ; but about the time that the re- 
treat w.-^s commenced it rose from its cumbent position, rushed upon and around 
the fort, and poured a murderous fire into the retreating band of Te.xans, and their 
intrepid leader falls, pierced with eleven wounds. The flag falls across his body, 
and those heroic men, recalling the vows made at Houston when that banner was 
presented to the regiment by the ladies of Texas, seize and bear it away amid the 
deadly storm. The whole Confederate army is already in retreat ; General Ville- 
pigue's brigade of Lovell's division marches by the left flank across the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad and interposes between the shattered ranks of Maurey's 
division and the expected pursuit. But no pursuit is made ; the conquerors stand 
,aghast at the combination of fortuitous circumstances which has rescued them from 
annihilation. They are enchanted with their own prowess, seem satisfied with their 
n.irrov.- escape, and make no effort to follow up the victory. The smoke of battle 
clears away and the ground is seen to be strewn with the dead and woimded. It 
is a veritable field of carnage. There lay the lifeless forms of the knightly Rogers, 
the gallant Mueller, and the intrepid Daly, surrounded by a host of heroic com- 
panions. Mississippi's soil is sanctified by the blood of Texan heroes. The whole 
country was electrified by the news of this fearless assault ; illustrated papers in the 
North contained pictures of the heroic sacrifice, and it was characterized by many 
as the most gallant deed of the war. 

The next day General \'an Dorn sent Colonel W. S. Barry, of the Thirty-fifth 
Mississippi, into Corinth under a flag of truce, with a detail to bury the Confederate 
dead, but General Rosecrans sent him back with the following note: "Major- 
General Rosecrans's compliments to Major-General Van Dorn, commanding officer 
Confederate forces, and states that jirovision has been made for the burial of the 
dead, and a soldier's tribute will be paid those who fell fighting bravely, as did many 
in Maurey's division." 


In his report of this battle General Sterling Price, whose corps was the only 
one engapjed, says : "The history of this war contains no bloodier page, perhaps, 
than that which will record this fiercely-contested batde. The strongest expressions 
fall short of my admiration of the gallant conduct of the officers and men under 
my command. Words cannot add lustre to the fame the>' have acquired through 
deeds o^ noble daring, v.hich, living thruugh future time, will shed about every 
man, officer, and soldier, who stood to his arms through this struggle, a halo of 
glory as imperishable as it is brilliant." 

The loss of the Second Te.xas during these two days' fighting was about fifty 
per cent, in killed and wounded. This was a very heavy loss, but when the terrible 
odds are considered, even this is not so much a surprise as that any escaped at all 
from the fearful cid-de-sac on the second day. 

But the fire of the Te.xans must have been more deadly than that of the enemy, 
for the conmiaiiders of the two regiments which they encountered, the Forty-third 
and Sixty-third Ohio, officially reported that their regiments lost fifty and fifty-three 
per cent, respectively on the second day alone. 

The remnant of the Second Texas, with the balance of General Price's corps, 
bivouacked the night of this bloody day on the Pocahontas Road, about six miles 
from Corinth, where the nearest water was accessible. Captain N. L. McGinnis, of 
Com[)any H, being the senior officer present, took command of the regiment. It 
is but a matter of justice that history should record the name of private Ben Weed, 
of Compan)- I, as the man who bore the flag of the regiment from the field when 
it fell from the nerveless grasp of the gallant Rogers. Tliis young man was but 
eighteen years old at the time, and died about three weeks afterwards in the Texas 
hospital at Quitman, Mississippi, of disease contracted in the Corinth campaign. 

The next morning the Confederate army began its retreat towards Rijiley, 
Mississippi, but in the afternoon was intercepted at Davis's Bridge, on the Hatchie 
River, by a large Union force from BoIi\ar, Tennessee, under Generals Ord and 
Hurlbut ; and Moore's brigade, being in front, first came in contact with the enemy. 

When within two or three miles of the bridge the order to double-quick was. 
given, and it was obeyed with wonderful alacrity, considering that the men were so 
much exhausted by hunger and hard service. The Second Texas was in the rear of 
the brigade, and as the bridge was reached the front regiments were thrown across 
and rapidly formed in line of battle. The whole brigade at this time did not have 
more than three hundred men in ranks, and all of them had not crossed over the 
bridge when the enemy's batteries opened on it and knocked it to pieces beneath 
the feet of the men, some of them going down with it. When the Second Texas 
reached the bridge it was gone, and so it formed a line facing the ri\-er. The few- 
men who had crossed the river made a gallant resistance, but were eventually driven 
back to the bank of the river by the greatly superior forces of the enemy, and swam 
or waded across. 

When the Confederates retreated m uler the bank of tlie ri\er, the enemy came 
charging after them, and the Second Texas received them with such a hot fire that 
the pursuit was speedily checked, and nearly all of the Confederates succeeded in 
getting acniss. The enemy were held in check by the close and accurate fire of the 
Second Texas for more than an hour, w hen ii w as reinforced bv Phiier's and Cabell's 



brigades, and then they were held at bay by these combined forces until the Con- 
federate army mo\-ed down the river about six miles, built a bridge on the dam at 
Crum's Mill, and crossed over in safety, the Second Texas being the last to cross. 

The march was resumed to Ripley, and on to Holly Springs, « here the army 
tarried but a few days, and then moved south twehe miles to Lumpkin's Mill, where 
it airived about the loth day of October, and expected to go into winter quarters. 
The men had no tents and \er)' little bedding, and they suttered greatly from the 
extreme cold. The snow-fall was the heaviest ever seen by many of the men ; but 
by digging ca\es in the hill-sides and the banks of a deep gulch, co\ering them 
over with puncheons and dirt and building great fires at the openings, they were 
moderately comfortable and kept from freezing. While heie, the army was sus- 
tained entirely by the voluntary contributions of the citizens of the surrounding 
country ; foraging parties were sent out almost daily, and they never returned 
empty-handed. The good, patriotic people seemed glad to divide what little they 
had with the soldiers, and the quantities of sweet potatoes, pumpkins, cashaws, 
cornmeal, some fresh meat and a litde bacon, constituted a welcome feast for the 
hungry men. Rut such a good thing was not destined to last long, and about the 
middle of Noxeniber the army took up the march for Abbeville, still farther south. 
The weather still continued very cold, and the men constructed winter huts at this 
place, eight by ten feet in size, by leaning slabs together so as to form a steep roof, 
and covering them with a layer of grass and cornstalks, and throwing dirt u[>on 
this. The inside was then dug out a foot or two in depth, and it made a very 
acceptable protection against the cold. The men, however, enjoyed the protection 
of their winter quarters but a short time, as the regiment was soon ordered back 
across the Tallahalchee River on jiicket duty. Most of the time the army remained 
in Abbe\-ille the Second Texas was on this kind of duty, and during the time had 
two or three li\ely skirmishes with the enemy. It rained almost incessandy, the 
river was \ery high, and the water spread over the bottom from knee- to breast- 
deep, and every time the men went to or returned from the picket line they had to 
wade or swim it. 

On the 2d day of December the army continued the retreat to Oxford, and, as 
usual, the Second Texas formed the rear-guartl. A detail from the regiment burned 
the bridge, and when it left Abbeville the branches of the trees were stiff with ice, 
the ground was frozen hard, and many of the men were barefooted ; but their move- 
ments were accelerated by occasionally hearing the noise made by the army of the 
enemy, off to the right, as it moved along the railroad parallel with the road on 
which the Confederate army was retreating. With the' exception of a litde brush 
with the enemy's advance-guard at Water \'alley, and another at Coffeeville, there 
was no fighting on this retreat. The weather was very severe, and the men were 
badly prepared to withstand it. They had scarcely anything else to eat during the 
time than sweet potatoes ; and if one wants to die with heartburn, just let him try 
that diet exclusively for a week. The citizens along t!ie route were kind and hospi- 
table, seeming anxious to share their last crust with the soldiers. At one place where 
the regiment stopped to camp for the night, the old gentleman who lived near by 
came into c:\mp and said : " Roys, it's awful cold ; just pitch into that fence there 
and burn all the rails you can to-night." It was generally tho.ighl that he knew 


the boys were goins,' to do that anyhow, and he intended to put a j,rood face on the 
matter by inviting' them. But all doubt of the genuineness of his hospitality was 
removed when he further told them that there was a house full of sweet potatoes 
up in the yard, and for them to come up and get all they wanted. 

At Oxford and Cofieeville, the latter place particularly, the ladies showed their 
love for tlie soldier boys. These noble women lined the streets as the regiment 
passed through, accompanied by servants bearing great hampers of rakes, chicken, 
ham, pies, sandwiches, salads, and steaming hot coflcc, and the regiment was halted 
long enough to partake of their bountiful hospitality. \o women ever appeared 
to man so like ministering angels as did those lo\ely Mississippi ladies to that lot 
of ragged Texans. 

The regin\ent arrived at Grenada the 5th day of December, and after a much- 
needed rest resumed the duties of camp life, with pleat}- of drilling. During the 
sojourn here President Davis visited the West and re\iewed the army. During that 
review, as the general officers and their staffs passed along the line, following in the 
wake of the President and his staff, not a word was uttered until General F'rice 
approached, and then the cheering and hurrahing for "Old I'ap" marked his 
course along the line of the army. 

While at this place Lieutenant-Colonel Ashbel Smith was made colonel, vice 
Rogers, killed at Corinth ; Major William C. Timminswas made lieutenant-colonel, 
i-ice Smith, promoted ; Captain N. L. McGinnis, of Company H, was made major, 
vice Timmins, promoted ; and Lieutenant B. W. LeCompte, of Company C, was 
made adjutant. A number of promotions were also made in several of the com- 
panies. .'\mong those now remembered v\-ere, in Company B, Sergeants Ster- 
ling Fisher and Dan C. Smith, wlio were made second lieutenants ; in Company C, 
Second Lieutenant B. W. LeCompte v%-as made first lieutenant, vice R. D. Haden, 
resigned ; the other officers were promoted one grade, and T. S. Reeves was pro- 
moted to jimior second lieutenant ; in Company D, Lieutenant Andrew Gammel was 
promoted to captain, vice Ed Daly, killed at Corinth ; in Company F, Lieutenant 
Jacksi.m McMahan was promoted to captain, vice John Mueller, killed at Corinth ; 
in Company H, Lieutenant Thomas S. Douglas was promoted to captain, vice N. L. 
McGinnis, promoted to major ; Second Lieutenant J. L iNIcGinnis was promoted 
to first lieutenant ; Junior Second Lieutenant George Harris was made second 
lieutenant ; and Sergeant W. A. Parks was made junior second lieutenant. 

Christmas dinner was eaten here, and two days afterwards the regiment started 
to Vicksburg by rail. The l>oys enjoyed that railroad lide immensely, as it was the 
first they had had since the preceding March, when they rode from Houston to 

Upon arriving at Vicksburg, al^out eleven o'clock in the night of December 29, 
the regiment immediately took up the march to reinforce General .Stephen D. Lee, 
who was confronting a large army of the enemy under General W^illiam T. Sher- at Chickasaw Bluffs, seven miles from \'icksburg. The march was accelerated 
by tidings that fighting had been going on all d.ay. After floundering along in the 
rain and mud all night, the advance of the regiment reached the Bluffs about sun- 
up, Wet, bedraggled, and completely covered with mud. There uere then only 
about eighty men in line, but these took j^osition in the rifle-pits, and the balance. 


singly and in squads, ciime strat,rt^liiig in during the day, and b)' noon they were ail 
in their places, about two hundred and fifty or three hundred strong. 

When the legiment arrived a heavy cannonading was going on between the 
Confederate artillery, planted on the hills and blutts in rear of and overlooking the 
rifle-pits, and the Union artillery, located down in the swam]) across Chickasaw 
Bayou ; and the sloping field in front of the rifle-pits was thickly strewn with the 
enemy's dead and wounded. The enemy had made five desperate assaults on the 
works the day before, and, although many reached to within a few feet of the rifle- 
pits, a,-, was evidenced by their dead bodies still lying there, the assaults were 
repulsed every time with tremendous slaughter. Two or three days were spent 
lying in the trenches, drying clothes and jiractising at long-range sharp-shooting. 
In his report General Sherman .says that this rifle practice cost his army the li\-es of 
several valuable officers and men and many wounded. About eleven o'clock on 
the 2d day of January, 1S65, a member of the Second Texas came to the con- 
clusii>n that the enemy had e\-acuated their works across the bayou and ventured 
upon the field on a tour of discovery, and, as he was not fired at, the conclusion 
immediately became general that there was no enemy in front, and the field soon 
became covered with Confederate soldiers. In a few minutes General Stephen D. 
Lee came galloping up, and ordered a company of the Second Te.xas to deploy as 
skirmishers and advance upon the enemy's works. This was dgne in a few minutes, 
and the bayou and works were soon cleared and not a Union soldier was in sight. 
The skirmish line continued to advance, and when a large field was reached the 
whole regiment was deployed as skirmishers and advanced towards the enemy's 
landing on the Yazoo River. Near the centre of the field a corporal and five or six 
men, who were guarding a large pile of commissary stores, were captured, together 
with the stores. As the river was a]jproached a line of battle could be seen drawn 
up on the bank, and a large number of steamboats crowded with blue uniforms and 
about a dozen gunboats were in the river. When within about one hundred yards 
of them the command was given to "Commence firing!" Until then not a shot 
had been fired by the enemy, but they all looked on at the advancing skirmish 
line as if it were drilling for their entertainment. After firing a few shots the two 
regiments of infantry on the bank marched oft by the right flank down the river at 
double-quick, and the decks of the steamboats were cleared with great rapidity. 
The gunboats began pouring their broadsides across the field, and for better pro- 
tection against their fire the Tcxans rushed forward and took position behind the 
levee just on the river bank and behind a very large and tall pile of bales of hay. 
From these positions they poured a deadly fire into the immense crowds upon 
the steamboats as they hurriedly cut their cables and passed out of range around 
the bend of the river. A great many men were seen to jump into the water 
from the top decks of the boats, as they could not get doun the narrow stair- 
ways fast enough. When the steamboats were out of sight the Texans turned 
their attention to the gimboats, and soon became so proficient at shooting into 
the port-holes that they could oot fire a shot as they passed up and down the 
river. During the engagement the fire of the guns ignited the hay behind which 
many of th.e Texans were standing, and in a short time the whole pile was ablaze, 
and a shot from a gunbuat .struck the burning pile and n]ad..- a fine disjilav of fire- 

VoL. II.— 3S 


works, when the men abandoned it and sought refuge under the low bank of the 
bayou juit to the right, which forms a confluence \\ith the river at this point. 
Finding the exchange of shots with the gunboats to be unprofitable, the regiment 
was withdrawn ; but this experience taught the men an important lesson by which 
they profited, — that gunboats were not near so dangerous as they appeared to be. 
The only loi.s in tliis engagement was the gallant commander of the regiment, 
Lieutenant-Colonel William C. Timmin.s, whose ankle was shattered by a rifle-ball. 
This necessitated amputation, and he died under the operation. He had scarcely 
recovered from the wound received at Corinth., and his system was too feeble to 
withstand the shock. His loss was deeply- lamented, for he possessed many of the 
elements of a fine soldier, and was one of the bravest, most patriotic, and unselfish 
men who ever died in his country's cause. One man was struck on the breast by a 
Minie-ball, wliicli knocked him breathless for a short time, but he soon recovered 
without any otlier inconvenience than a se\'ere bruise. 

The enemy under General Sherman ha\ing' completely failed to reach Vicks- 
burg by this route abandoned the attempt and retired up the Mississippi River, and 
succeeded in capturing Arkansas Post a few days afterwards. A short time after 
this affair the regiment went ii!to camp a short distance from where it occurred, in 
a beautiful walnut grove, which was called, in honor of its lamented lieutenant- 
colonel, "Camp Timmins." It remained here about two months, and during the 
time Colonel Ashbel Smith returned from Texas with about one hundred and fifty 
recruits. These were apportioned among the companies in proportion to the 
strength of each one, so as to make them nearly equal in numbers. They proved 
to be good men, wortliy of the State, and fit comrades of the brave men who made 
the reputation of the gallant Second Texas. 

About the same time Major N. L. McGinnis was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 
vice VV. C. Timmins, killed, and Captain G. W. L. Fly, of Company I, was pro- 
moted to major, rice N. L. McGinnis, promoted. Lieutenant James McFarland, 
transferred from General Moore's staff, was promoted to cajjtain of Company I, 
vice Fly, promoted to major. In Company G, Sergeant John S. Atcliison was pro- 
moted to second lieutenant, vice Frank Joimson, deceased ; and Lieutenant J. R. 
Henry, ha\ing been transferred to the Second Texas from another regiment at his 
own reqviest, was assigned to duty temporarily with Company G to fill the place of 
Lieutenant Persons, who was disabled from a wound received at Corinth. In Com- 
pany K, H. McDonnell and E. A. Mathews were promoted to second lieutenants, 
vice J. M. B. Haynie, killed at Corinth, and John Tucker, transferred to the ar- 
tillery. March llie regiment was ordered to F'orl Pemberton, at the junction 
of the \'alibusha and Tallahatchee Ri\ers, forming the Yazoo, which was being 
defended by General W. W. Loring with a few troojjs against the attempt of 
General Washburn to descend to the rear of Vicksburg by those streams. The 
whole regiment embarked on an immense Mississippi steamboat, and the trip was a 
pleasing recreation. The waters were very high, the whole face of the country 
seeming to be iiumdated, e.xrcpt an occasional high bluff. Upon arri\-al at F'ort 
Pemberton, the whole Confederate force confronting General Washburn's entire 
army was Wau'l's Texas Legion and a few artillerymen. The old steamshiij 67.;^ 


of the West was sunk in the Tallahatchee opjmsite the Confederate fortifications, 
and chain-cables stretched across the channel prevented the enemy's boats from 
descending the stream. With the exception of one or two cannonades there was 
very little fighting here. A scouting party of fifteen men under a lieutenant from 
the Second Te.vas was kept constantly on watch up the river to observe and report 
the niovenients of the enemy to General Loring ; and they occasionally let their 
valor — or more correctly speaking their lo\-e of fun — get the better of their discre- 
tion and prompt them to fire upon the enemy's boats. This always resulted in a 
return of the lire in hea\-y broadsides, which cut wagon roads through the cane- 
brakes, but fortunatel)- no damage was e\er done the Te.xans. At this place the 
regiment had its first serious experience in making breastworks. It was tiiought 
that the enemy miglit cross the river above and come in on the rear of the fortifica- 
tions, and \ery suddenly one afternoon a good long line of rifle-pits was ordered 
to be constructed. The regiment worked at it by details the whole night lorig, and 
next morning the rifle-pits were there where there had been none the day before. 
At one time the enemy came down on the opposite side of the river from the 
Second Texas, and some very fine and spirited rifle practice was indulged, but 
they went back to their boats in a few days. The water began to recede, and, for 
fear he might get caught high and dry on the little stream. General Washburn re- 
traced his steps up the Tallahatchee and through the bayou, which in time of high 
water connects it with the Mississippi River a short distance below Memphis. 
The Second Texas returned to its old quarters at Camp Timmlns about the middle 
of April and enjoyed a short rest and recreation, which was much needed. About 
the ist day of May it was ordered down to Warrenton, on the Mississippi River, 
twelve miles below Yicksburg, to guard the road leading from Grand Gulf to that 
place. The regiment remained on this duty about two weeks, during which time 
rations were very scarce'; but the men did not sufifcr greatly on this account. There 
was plenty of cornmeal in the countiy, and bread was plentiful. Occasionally the 
men could buy some butter, eggs, and poultry, and some of the good people f\u- 
nishcd a small quantity of milk ; but these were not the staples upon which the men 
subsisted. It was soon discovered that the ditches in and around the town of 
Warrenton were full of crawfish and that they were palatable. Then it was an e\-ery- 
day occurrence In see forty or fifty men coming into camp with guiuiysacks filled 
with the fish swung on a rail or pole carried on the shoulders of two men. Nor 
were they difficult to catch. The water being shallow, they were scooped up by 
the hands in large quantities. It was generally conceded that they were as fine 
fish as ever were eaten. Honey was also to be had in abundance. Some enter- 
prising scout discovered one day that almost every cypress-tree in the swamp near 
by was a bee tree ; and the first honey obtained was from the top of a large tree 
tlial had been cut oft by a shell from a Federal gunboat lying in the river. When 
it fell to the ground, it was examined and found to contain about a barrel of honey. 
There was not an axe in camp, and the problem as to how the honey was to be 
obtained bccaine a puzzling one. At last some prying eyes discovered a cross-cut 
saw in a gin-house near by and the great problem was solved. That .saw went to 
the swamp at once with a crowd of men and the work began in earnest. Many 
giant cypress-trees succumbed to its teeth, antl the result was the whole camp 


soon hnd an abundant supply of honey as well as crawfish, and it became known as 
"Camp Crawfish and Honey." This camp was a beautiful location in a magnifi- 
cent gro\ e of magnolia-trees, which the men were loath to abandon. The broad 
creamy-white leaves of the flowers are \ery sensiti\-e to the delicate scratch of a pin, 
which makes a histing impression, and many letters were written upon them to 
loved ones at home and many love sonnets Here traced upon them by those who 
possessed the divine gift of poetry. 

One beautiful sun-bright Sabbath morning, wliile divine services were being 
held, and in the niidst of the chaplain's prayer, the boom of a cannon was plainly 
heard off to the east, and the prayers of all at once became more ardent and earnest. 
Even those who had just suspended an interesting game of "old sledge," and hid 
their cards beneath the corner of a blanket spread upon tlie groimd, became quite 
serious, and forgot to resume the game when the service was ended. These were 
the guns at the battle of Baker's Creek or Big Black, and was the signal that the 
Union army was making the circuit successfully, and was approaching Vicksburg 
from the rear. After services were concluded the bugle sounded the "rally," the 
pickets were called in, and the regiment took up the march to Vicksburg, where it 
arrived that evening. May 17, 1S63, and took position in the fort on the Baldwin's 
Ferry Road and the trenches adjacent to it. 

As the regiment passed along the streets, many ladies thronged the sidewalks 
and encouraged the men by words of praise and declarations of undying devotion 
to the cause. As they read " Shiloh," " Farmington," "luka," and "Corinth" 
on the regimental flag, many were heard to e.\claim ; "Thank God, there's the 
Second Texas ! They'll never desert us !" Could anything on earth apjieal more 
strongly to the pride and courage of brave men ? 

The fort occupied by the regiment was the most advanced position on the 
whole line, and v.-as on a hill just to the right of the Baldwin's Ferry Road, which 
circled around the left side of it through a deep cut ; and a disconnected rifle-pit 
led off from its right in the direction of the Jackson Railroad, there being a .space 
of ten or twelve feet between the two which was entirely unprotected. This fort 
and rifle-pit were occupied by the si.K right companies of the regiment, under the 
immediate command of Colonel Ashbel Smith, with Major G. W. L. Fly second in 
command. The other four companies, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel N. 
L. McGinnis, occupied a rifle-pit on the opposite side of the road and about a hun- 
dred yards in the rear of the fort on the crest of a lower hill. The fortifications 
were found to be very poorly constructed and afforded very little protection to the 
men behind them ; therefore the first night and the ne.\t day were sjient in work- 
ing on them, making the ditches deeper and raising the breastworks. The re- 
maining trees in front were cut away and the houses burned. As the gray dawn of 
morning began to break on the iSth, the columns of dust rising above the hills to 
the east foretold the approach of cavalry upon the hill-tojis, and the appearance of 
an occasional battery of light artillerv as it " unlimbered to the front" announced 
that \''icksburg was invested. Soon the puffs of white smoke and the occasional 
rattle of musketry told that the skirmish lines of the tvio armies had met. As the 
enem)-'s infantry advanced in strong force the Confederate skirmishers fell back, 
u-hile thr shriek of shells passed above their heads. In a short time the artillery 


firing on both sides became rapid and fierce, the enemy throwing battery after bat- 
tery into position with great rapidity, until every hill and mound seemed to be 
crowned with engines of destruction. At occasional intervals their infantry would 
appear and apjjroach near enough to attract the fire of the Confederate infantry, 
but would hastily retire as the well-aimed shots from the trenches warned them of 
the danger of approaching too near. The Confederate sharp-shooters had a fine 
opportunity for displaying their marksmanship, and they made good use of it on 
the enemy's artillerists. Thus wore the day away, and as darkness covered the 
beleaguering and the beleaguered armies as with a mantle, both seemed eager for 
the approaching carnage. All night long the rumble of artillery and the noise of 
moving troops could be heard as the enemy went into position, and when the dawn 
of another day rose over the hills, it revealed to the eyes of the beleaguered im- 
mense siege-guns crowning almost e\'ery hill-top, and long lines of bayonets glisten- 
ing in the morning sun. By sunrise the cannonading had commenced, and as the 
day advanced it became louder and more tenific. Nor was the enemy's infantry 
idle, but it kept up a continuous tire from every available position where the men 
could find shelter, and seemed bent on wasting as much lead as possible. By the 
middle of the afternoon the whole line was one continuous blaze of fire. The 
Texans, vs'ho had e\cr been uncovered in the thickest of former battles, could not 
fully realize that this was a battle. They stood in small groups, here and there, 
where the best outlook could be had, picking out their targets, and with unerring 
aim pouring a deadly fire into the enemy's columns and batteries. They were cool 
and deliberate, and, as ordered, were not disposed to waste any ammunition, but 
made every shot tell. They were eager for the fray, and seemed anxious to find 
out how it felt to engage the enemy from behind breastworks, as they had always 
previously been on the other side of them. A few weak efforts were made to advance 
upon the works, the enemy boldly presenting themselves to view, as if the mere ap- 
pearance of such a form.idable army flushed with recent victories was sufficient to 
frighten the Confederates ; but upon being met with a determined fire, they soon be- 
came satisfied there was no efficacy in the charm of their appearance, and retired be- 
hind the hills. As night approached tlie smoke of battle enshrouded hill and valley 
in a seeming to shut out each of the contending armies from the \ieu' of the 
other. About sunset, the new guns and fresh troops which had boon brought into 
positions during the day seemed anxious to add their voices to the roaring tumult, 
and the whole line burst out afresh in maddened fury with smoke and flame and 
shot and shell, and witii a spirit of defiance the Confederate batteries answer back 
the angrv challenge. Tons upon tons of iron and lead are pouied into the be- 
leaguered city, and go screaming, howling, and mewing through the air above the 
fortifications. Houses are fired in the suburbs of the city, and as the lurid flames 
light up the awful scene, the sun iiides his face behind the western horizon, as if V> 
shut out the sight of the dreadful spectacle. As darkness approaches thousands of 
screaming shells course- thniugh S])ace, leaving behind a comet-like train of blaze 
and sjjark, crossing and recrossing each other, sometimes meeting in mid-air like 
angry demons. Great quantities of incendiary shells, charged with Greek fire, arc 
seen to ex[)lode in the air and sjiread out immense sheets of liquid fire in red, blue, 
and green, and fill tb.e air with a stifling stench. Few eyes could close in sleep 


amid such novel and exciting scenes. P'ickets were thrown out to guard against 
surprise, and food, water, and ammunition distributed along the trenches. Repairs 
were made in the earthworks where needed, so far as it was possible to do so, and 
five or six smooth-bore muskets, with plenty of buck-and-ball cartridges, were dis- 
tributed tij each man. The ne.\t day passed with the same exciting scenes, and 
with [reparations for the ex[)ected assault. At peep of day on the morning of the 
2ist a signal-gun is heard from the hill near General Grant's head-quarters, and in 
a moment the whole line of the enemy, seven miles long, bursts forth in one con- 
tinuous blaze with a tremendous roar. The earth quakes and the hills tremble for 
an hour or more beneath this fearful cannonading. After daylight, the infantry join 
the infernal chorus, and lend their rattle, and whiz, and whir to the tumult. The 
day wears away with some terrific artillery duels, and many guns, are dismounted ; 
but the Texans have become accustomed to the fearful din, and, grown tired of long- 
range rifle practice, so they occupy their time with games, and with chopping into 
slugs the Minie-balls shot into the breastworks by the enemy, with which to load 
their smooth-bore muskets and return them to their owners. Late in the e\'ening 
the morning's revelry of cannonading is repeated, and after an hour or two the din 
dies gradually away and lea\es the night's entertainment to the sullen roar of the 
mortar batteries (jn the river-side and the random firing of the siege-guns on the 

The morning of the 22d dawned bright and clear, and the Texans having 
become more accustomed to the unwonted noise, rose refreshed by the night's rest 
in the trendies, ready and anxious for the fray. An ominous silence pcn-aded the 
entire lines. The curling smoke from the enemy's camp-fires could be seen rising 
far and near in a semicircle around the beleaguered city, and just as the sun rises 
upon the peaceful scene the signal-gun again wakes the echoes of battle, and the 
whole line of the enemy, from the Mississippi River on its left to the bluffs of the 
Yazoo on its right, is instandy one continuous semicircle of fire. The awful roar 
from this blazing crescent is deafening, and the fearful concussion throws many men 
off their feet. The din and roar cease as suddenly as it had begun, and an ominous 
and death-like stillness pervades the scene of the late tumult. Many eyes are 
peering over the breastworks to see what it means. Every man stands to his place 
with one gun in his hand and five others leaning against the breastworks within 
easy reach. Ever)' eye is strained to catch the first view of the advancing hosts, 
and every muscle is set with the rigidity of steel. Presently the cry is heard from 
many lips, "There they are! here they come!" and, as if by magic, a line of blue 
bursts into view over the brow of the hill not over a hundred yards away ; and as it 
advances at double-quick with bayonets at the charge it is quickly followed by four 
others in double ranks. It was certainly the most superb spectacle that the eye of 
a soldier ever beheld. Their step is firm, their bearing erect and confident ; their 
faces beam with determination, and their eyes glisten with the anticipation of certain 

When the front line was within fifty yards of the trenches, and while the cry of 
"Vicksbiirg or hell!" was upon their lips, the order, "Fire!" ran down the 
trenches, and the report of the answering volley was as of one gun. Without 
looking to see wliat execution had been done, eatlr man drops his empty piece and 


takes the loaded j^uns nearest him, one after another, and fires as rapidly as nimble 
fingers and experienced hands can bring them to bear, and the firing thus continues 
for several seconds. There is no wavering in the front line of the enemy ; it is 
absolutely moued down as with a scythe, — utterly annihilated. Those following 
stagger and reel under the deadly fire of the Tc.xans ; then they break and run from 
the top of the hill, some to the rear and some to the right and left, staggering and 
falling as they run, seeking protection in the gullies on either side. A shout of 
victory, a regular Te.xas yell, makes the welkin ring, and runs around the entire 
line. One lone man is seen approaching the trenches in a run, with the United 
States flag in his hand. Not less than a hundred men take deliberate aim at him, 
some of them firing two or three times, but he does not falter. A shout is heard 
from many lips, " Don't shoot him ! he is too brave! don't kill hiin ; let's capture 
him alive!" and the firing ceases ; the color-bearer mounts the breastworks to the 
right of the fort, and the colors of the Ninety-ninth Illinois Regiment are taken from 
his hand by a member of the .Second Texas and waved in triumph at the enemy." 

The field being now cleared in front of the Te.xans, it could be seen that the 
enemy had made a lodgement on the outside of a fort some four hundred yards to 
the right, just on the Jackson Railroad, and had pkuUed three stands of colors on 
it. The Te.xans in the fort and rifle-pits now turned their attention to some very 
effective rifle practice at the enemy there, and as their advanced position enabled 
theni to Civer the entire front and left of the captured fort, it was not long until 
those of the enemy who were exposed to the unerring aim of the Tcxans moved 
around to the right of the fort or tumbled into the ditch below. It was not more 
than an hour, however, until a portion of Waul's Texas Legion advanced from the 
reserve and recaptured the fort, with a number of prisoners, throwing ropes over 
the flag-staffs in regular Texas cow-boy style and drawing in the colors which the 
enemy had planted on the parapets. 

A view of the field in front of the Texans re\ealed a saddening sight. Upon 
the ground occupied by the foremost line of the enemy when the first volley of the 
Texans was fired lay two rows of dead and desperately wounded men, almost as 
perfect in alignment as in life, but a short while before, as thev gallantly advanced 
to the assault ; and from there on back to the brow of the hill the ground was 
literally covered with dead and disabled men. 

Most of this carnage was committed with the rifles and muskets of the Texans, 
for but one cannon in the fort was used against the assaulting columns, the other 
having been dismounted before the assault was made. The losses among the 
Te.xans were not great, but several were killed and wounded in the fort during the 
bombardment before the assault, and, as there was no opjxirtunity for remo\iiig 
them, the men in many places stood astride of their dead and wounded comrades 
in the narrow ditch while defending against the assault. 

A small body of the enemy had got into the ditch outside the fort occupied by 
a portion of the Second Texas, and tried to scale the parapet, but e\ery one of 
them who attempted it was killed, and they soon abandoned the effort and began to 

' The name of the color-bearer of tl\e Xinety-niiuli Illinois Regiment was Thomas J. 
Hifj^ins, and Charles [. Kvans, corpornl of Conij^any G, Second Texas Regiment, took the 
flag from his hand as he mounted the brenstuorks. 


throw hand-grenades into the fort. The Texans immediately caught on to this 
game, and threw them back before they exploded, and the explosion usually took 
place about the time they fell back into the ditch, with very disastrous effect among 
those who had set them in motion. They very soon became tired of the game, 
and sadly repented ha\-ing suggested it, for as soon as they quit it, the Texans, 
having a quantity of six-pounrler shells in the fort, began preparing them with very 
short fuses and throwing them over in the ditch w iih deadly effect. The men in 
the ditch soon called for quarter and begged piteously for their li\-es, when the 
slaughter aas suspeicdcd. I.ait they couid ivjt get out of the ditch, so tln-y remained 
prisoners there until night, when the living, dead, and wounded were all brought 

Until about fi\-e o'clock that evening the rifle practice at long range was 
spirited, and the artillery kept up a desultory firing. At that hour the enemy were 
seen to be again massed in large numbers for an assault. The acK-aiicing line was 
soon discovered at different points, but the assault was not general like the one in 
the morning. It seemed as if the enemy had picked out several different places as 
weak points, one of which was the fort occupied by the Second Te.xas, to hurl 
themselves against these. This time there was only a slight demonstration in front 
and on the right of the fort occupied by the Te.xans, but on its left, and on the 
rifle-pits occupied by the left companies of the regiment, the assault was most ]Der- 
sistent and determined. Immediately following the charging lines of infantry, one 
field-gun of the Chicago Mercantile Battery was run by hand up the ravine to the 
left of the fort, and, when within about fifty yards of it, commenced a rapid fire at 
the top of the parapet and into the embrasures. The gun was most skilfully 
handled, and did the fastest firing ever known. The embrasures had been filled up 
with cotton-bales, and the-)- were knocked out almost as fast as they could be rolled 
back. At the same time a perfect shower of Minie-balls was skimming the top of 
the parapet so closely as to prevent a head from appearing above it : and as they 
glanced upon the ciitton-bales each one picked off a small piece, and the fort was so 
thickly filled w ith cotton floating on the air as to obscure the vision for any con- 
siderable distance. Quantities of this cotton caught fire, and it required the greatest 
care to prevent its communicating to the ammunition-chests. The enemy were 
repulsed in front of the rifle-pits in gall nit .'■lylc and with fearful slaughter, but this 
seemed to dri\'e the sur\'ivors back into the head of the gully, or ra\'ine, on the 
left of the fort, and from this cover tliey made their vv'ay into the cut in the road 
which wound around the left side of the fort. Here they soon massed in large 
numbers and threatened the rear of the fort. At this juncture, just at twilight, a 
portion of Comf)any B in the rifle-pit on the right of the fort was ordered into the 
fort to reinforce it, and Colonel Smith called o\!t from the fort for some of the men 
on the extreme right to run to the deej) exit in the road at the rear of the fort. 
Inmiediately some fifteen or twenty men from Company G rushed over the hill and 
around the rear of the fort into the cut, where they poured an unerring fire from 
behind some cotton-bales into the confused, struggling mass of the enemy. Those 
of the enemy in front were falling and crying for qua-ter, while their comrades v. ere 
pushing them on from the rear in a \ain endeavor to get into the rear of the fort. 
While this liandful of Texans in the road, assisted bv their conn'ades in the fori, 


were pouring a deadly fire into this body of the enemy, General Martin Green with 
a brigade inarched out between the road and the ritle-pits of the left companies of 
the Second Texas, attacked the enemy on the right flank with great vigor, and they 
surrendered just after dark. This closed the carnage of the day. 

The guns of the Te.Kans had set tire to the cotUni-bales in the road, from behind 
which they fired on the enemy, and by the time the attack by General Green was 
made, the whole scene was lighted u]) by the bright flames of the burning cotton, 
and the fierce co:<flict between ihr eneniy and thos<; Missourians and Loulsianans 
under General Green presented a grand and brilliant spectacle from the'ele\ated 
position of the Te.xans. The Second Texas lost seventeen men, killed i:i the fort, 
and several wounded, but the loss in the trenches was very small. 

The niglit was spent in repairing the works, replenishing ammimition, and 
cleaning up arms. Another large cannon was brought into the fort to replace the 
one which had been disabled in the morning, and all necessary preparations were 
made for a renewal of the conflict the next day. The enemy were remarkably quiet 
all night ; the only reminders of their presence were the regular periodic roar of the 
mortars on the river-side and the rising shell as seen by the lighted fuse as it poised 
in the air and exploded with terrific sound abo\e the city, or crashed through houses 
as it descended to tlie earth, and the moans of the brave men who lay dying but a 
few feet away. 

No further attempt was n.ade by tlie enemy to carry the works by assault, 
but they sat clown to a regular siege. Morning and evening there was a regular 
serenade of all arms. Throughout each day the crack of the sharp-shooter's rifle, 
with an occasional volley of musketry, was heard ; and all night long, as regular as 
a clock could tick the min;ites, the roar of the mortars sent forth their immense 
shells, and the rising and falling of the twinkling fuses and the terrific explosions 
in the air lighted up the midnight gloom. Rut the incidents of each day were 
exciting and kept the nerves strung to the higl\csl tension, and each to-morrow was 
looked forward to for a renewal of the assault. 

As each day passed, the moans of the enemy's wounded became more distress- 
ing, but they al~o became fewer in numbers, because, from lack of attention, moi.t 
cif the v.ounded ilied. Every day the Tcxans would call nut to the Union 
soldiers to come and carry ofT their wounded comrades and give them proper atten- 
tion, assuring them that they would not be fired on, but they heeded not the appeal. 
They even oflercd to go out on the field and bring them inside themselves, if 
assured that they would not be fired on, but this was refused ; and they fired at the 
Texans whenever they discovered them on the field at night, trying to relieve the 
sufferings of the Union wounded. Two days after the assault, the groans of a 
wounded man lying in the head of a ravine about forty yards in front of the 
trenches became so loud and piteous as he begged for water, that a young man in 
the Second Texas proposed to go out to him w ith food and water, if his captain 
would permit him. With die acquiescence of his captain, he mounted the breast- 
works with a canteen of water and a haversack in one hand, and waved his handker- 
chief to the enemy. They cried, "Come on!" and the Texan advanced to the 
ravine where the wounded man lay, and handed liim the food ami \\-at(T, for which 
he was very graieful. }le talked with him a few minutes, and ascertained that he 


was a lieutenant in the Eighth Indiana Regiment, and that his thigh was broken. 
The Texan bade him good-by and started to return to the trenches, when nearly 
every Union soldier who could sec him fired at him. His clothes were cut in 
many places, but not a shot broke the skin. 

As the days pa;;sed, the scen'j in front became more ghastly. The bodies of 
the dead swelled to an enormous size, and their skins turned black as they lay 
in the hot sun. The stench from the decomposing bodies became so intolerable 
as tu make many of the living sic!;. Every day it u'as expected that General 
Grant would ask for a truce to bury his dead, but the request never came. At 
last, on the morning of the 25th, General Pemberton tendered to General Grant a 
cessation of hostilities long enough for him to bury his dead and carry oft the 
wounded. By this time there were but few of the latter. The offer was accepted, 
and at si.\ o'clock that evening the enemy's details appeared upon the field for 
this purpose. The soldiers of the two contending armies mixed freely for about 
two hours, and those of the Northern army were unstinted in their abuse of 
" Grant the Butcher," as they termed their commander, for his inhumanity. They 
were anxious to find out how many men the Confederates had in Vicksburg, and 
in reply to the oft-repeated question some of the Te.xans would answer, ' ' A million ;' ' 
another, "A thousand;" and one man put the question at rest by assuring his 
interlocutor that he had taken the trouble to count them all that morning, and 
that tliere w ere exactly nineteen hundred and twenty. 

The next day the enemy were quiet, but after this the same routine was gone 
through e\cry da)- : a bombardment of all arms in the early morning and late in the 
evening, regular and spirited rifle practice all day, and the roar and whiz and burst- 
ing of the mortar-shells all night. The enemy, however, were not idle. They had 
details at work day and night digging tunnels under the hills so as to reach a point 
directly underneath the Texans, at which to plant a mine and blow them up. On 
account of the peculiarity of the soil the strokes of their picks could be plainly heard 
and their location fixed pretty accurately, and the Te.xans went to work counter- 
mining. By digging the ditch around their fort about fifteen or twenty feet deep 
they were enabled tri capture the enemy's miners when they emerged from their tun- 
nels into the ditch. In this manner the fort was amply protected. One diversion 
was furnished by the enemy rolling large bundles of green poles, ten or twelve feet 
long, five feet high, and bound together with wire, up the hill in front of the Texans, 
with sharp-shooters behind them, to pick oft every roan who showed his head abo\c 
the breastworks, and others to dig a trench behind the roller as they pushed it 
along. These furnished occasion for some spirited and deadly rifle practice ; but at 
night a small body of Texans would make a sortie on the enemy, destroy their 
rollers, and sometimes capture the men behind them. Another diversion was fur- 
nished by the enemy placing a field battery of light artillery about two or three 
hundred yards from the rifle-pits to the right of the fort, the guns of which, after 
about an hour's practice, were so trained with small charges of powder as to throw 
six-pounder shells against the hill-side in front of the breastworks in such a manner 
as to make them ricochet am! fall into the trenches. They were immediately picked 
u;i In- the Texans and thrown i>ai-k over tlie lirea>tworks, but it req-ii.-ed \-erv rapid 
handling to get tliem out Ijefore thry ex[)loded. After one had been killed and 


one or two wounded, the Texans provided buckets of water at regular intervals, 
and as soon as a shell struck the ground it was seized by the nearest man and 
soused into the water. This effectually prevented any more e.xplosions, and no 
other damage was done by these shells ; but it was amusing to see how much the 
men were entertained with watching and catching these dangerous missiles. 

In a short time provisions began to grow scarce. The Te.xans were put upon 
half rations, and after a while their rations were reduced to bread made of cornmeal 
mixed with nieal of ground peas. This was varied Vvilh bread made of gromid rice 
mixed with wheat flour. 

The beef soon gave out, and their only dependence for fresh meat was the 
tough, stringy flesh of the traditional army mule. Sugar and tobacco were the only 
things of which they had an abundance, and in these they fairly revelled. There 
was at no time any absolute suffering for the want of food, but the rations were 
greatly reduced, and of very inferior quality. It may be that the short rations were 
better for the health of the men, cramped up in the ditches as they were, with ver>' 
little exercise. Day after day the bombardment continiied, and almost e\-erv day 
some of the Texans were killed or wounded. Every day tlie rifle practice was 
spirited, and if a man's head was raised above the breastworks but a second, a 
dozen or more Minie-balls would come whizzing at it. Many devices were resorted 
to for drawing the enemy's fire, to find out his exact location, and then to fire on 
him while his gun was empty. One of these was for a man to place his hat on the 
end of his ramrod and raise it slowly and cautiously above the works, while several 
others at various points wide apart would be on the lookout with their guns ready, 
and pour a terrific and accurate fire into the enemy as soon as their hiding-places 
were discovered by firing at the hat. 

Before the city was invested, a number of the residents left to escape the horrors 
of the expected siege, but a great many remained. Of these, quite a number left 
their comfortable homes and moved into caves dug in the hill-sides for greater safety 
against the shot and shells of the besieging army. Much has been published con- 
cerning the trials and hardships of these "cave-dwellers," and it is not likely that 
they have be^n exaggerated. Many buildings, ]iub1ic and private, were destroyed, 
and a number of non-combatants were killed and wounded. The hospitals seem to 
have been a favorite target for the heavy arti'ler)- of the besiegers, and the City 
Hospital, situated on the outskirts, suflercd severely. A nmnber of wounded men 
and several attendants we^e killed. 

A surgeon, his assistant, and a wounded soldier were all killed one day by the 
same shell, while the former two were engaged in amputating the latter' s limb, and 
two nursL-s wen; wounded at the same time. One night a mortar-shell from the 
river batteries penetrated the building from roof to basement, and explodetl in the 
ground underneath with such terrific force as to hurl some dozen or more men from 
their cots to the floor ; and many of the wounded were removed by their friends 
from this lu.^si>ii:il into tents in other parts vi the city. Tlie courage, devotion, and 
patriotism displayed by the noble ladies of \'icksburg during the siege have never 
been surjiassi'd by anything in history. At nil hours of the day and night they 
were constant \ isitors at the hospitals, ser\ing as \-oluntee-r nurses, administering 
soothing potions, or w itii their delicate hands washing and dressing the ugly wounds 


of the heroes who had stood between them and a desolating foe in defence of a 
cause for which both were willing to sacrifice their lives and all save sacred honor. 
They never entered without bringing such delicacies as they could command ; and 
cheering smiles and words of hope and encouragement radiated from their very 
presence. When they departed, they carried with them many blessings and the 
devotion of many chivalric hearts. They would walk the streets on their errands 
of mercy, with shells from the land batteries screaming in every direction and the 
fearful roar of the morlar-shells o\erhead, with as much unconcern as if on a shop- 
ping expedition, ^\■hen a man heard the dreadful roar of a mortar-shell overhead, 
he was sure to look up to see if it was going to descend upon him, and try to dodge 
it ; liut a woman was always observed to quietly make her way, without seeming to 
notice the threatening presence of the dreaded monster. 

At last the day for the surrender of the garrison arrived. For forty-seven 
days and nights these heroic men had been exposed to burning suns, drencliing 
rains, damp fogs, and heavy dews, and during all this period they never had, 
by day or nighr, the slightest relief. Tlnry were on duty all the time, confined 
to the narrow limits of a trench, with their limbs cramped and swollen, without 
exercise, constantly exposed to a murderous fire of shot and shell, while the enemy's 
unerring sharp-shooters stood read}" to pick of! every one whose head appeared aho\-e 
the breastworks. 

Many had met death with a smile upon their lips, all had cheei-fully encountered 
danger, and w ithout a murmur had been borne privations and hardships well cal- 
culated to test their manhood. They had made a heroic defence. They had held 
the place for seven weeks against an enemy five times their number, who were 
admirably clothed and fed and abundandy supplied w-ith all the appliances of war. 

Whenever the foe attempted an assault, they drove him back discomfited, 
covering the ground with his killed and wounded. There was no prospect of relief, 
nothing was to be gained by further resistance, and tlie Confederate conmiaiidcr 
wisely concluded to capitulate. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of July 4, 1863, the Confederate army marched 
out of the trenche-^. stacl:ed arms, then returned to the rear, and bi\ouacked in the 
valleys and upon the hill-sides, while detachments of the victorious army marched 
in. The Confcdeiates remained prisoners here until the nth, when the ceremony of 
paroling them was complr-ted and they were permitted to depart. During this time 
General Grant ordered rations to be issued to them from his own stores, and they 
were not stinted in the supply. 

Nearly all of the regiment made their way back to Texas with their paroles in 
their pockets ; but a feu- went with the balance of the army into parole camp at 
Demopolis, Alabama. The regimental flag was not surrendered, but a member of 
Company B secreted it on his person and carried it out. He gave it for safe-keep- 
ing to a lady near Snyder's Rluff, who is said to have buried it. What finally 
became of it is wrapped in mystery ; but some of the men claim that the same oKl 
flag was with the regiment after its exchange and reorganization in Texas. If so, it 
must have been dug up and brought to Texas by some one, but by whom is 
unknown. In the fall of 1.S63, after the Vicksburg prisoners had been exchanged, 
the regiment was reorganized at Houston, ami served on the coast in Texas until 


the dose of the war. The summer of 1S64 it was on duty at Galveston, and 
suffered considerable loss from yellow fever, but it fought no more battles. 

At the reorganization of the regiment the following promotions were made in 
the different companies : In Company B, Lieutenant A. J. Hui k)- was made captain, 
fiic James D. McCleary, resigned ; and Lieutenant Dan C. Smith Imving resigned, 
Second Lieutenant Sterling I-'isher was made first lieutenant, and Samuel W. Allen 
and James T. Rell were made second lieutenants. In Company G, Second Lieu- 
tenant George W. Parker was made first lieutenant, z-ice Thomas N. Persons, who 
had died of wounds received at Corinth, and Henry Martin was promoted to second 
lieutenant. In Company H, Sergeant W. A. Kno.x was promoted to second lieu- 
tenant, vice J. I. McGinnis, resigned. In Company I, First Lieutenant Reuben de 
Borde was promoted to captain, ince James McFarland, resigned ; and Captain de 
Borde having died of yellow fever in 1864, Lieutenant L. J. Duren ^\•as made cap- 
tain, and John .M. Bell, W . C. Billings, and J. D. Harper were made lieutenants, 
ranking in the order named. In Company K, Second Lieutenant H. McDonnell 
was promoted to first lieutenant, vire Kirk, killed at \'icksbutg ; Junior Second 
Lieutenant F. A. Mathews was promoted to second lieutenant, and S. D. Robb 
was promoted to jimior second lieutenant. 

In May, 1865, at the close of the vi-ar, tlie Second Texas stacked arms for the 
last time, gazed with sad hearts upon the furling of the banner of the "Lost 
Cause," and returned to their homes to resume the peaceful pursuits of life. 

The history of this gallant regiment would be incomplete without personal 
notices of its first two commanders, to whom it was so much indebted for its discipline 
and proficiency, who participated witli it in the trying ordeals through which it 
passed, and who are entitled to share in the glory and renown which it has achieved. 
Brigadier-General John C. Moore, the first colonel of the Second Regiment of 
Te.xas Infantry, was born, in Hawkins County, East Tennessee, in 1824. He 
worked on his father's farm during the busy seasons and attended one of the neigh- 
boring schools during the winter months until he was si.xteen years old. At that 
age he entered Emory and Henry College, Virginia, where he remained for four 
years. In- the year 1845 he received an appointment as cadet at the West Point 
Military Academy, and graduated in 1849 seventeenth in a class of forty-three 
members. L'pon his graduation he was assigned to duty in the artillery corps of 
the army, and resigned in 1855, holding the rank of first lieutenant in the Second 
Regiment of Artillery. In 1S56 he entered upon the profession of civil engineering, 
and ran the locating line of the railroad from Morristown to Cumberland Gap, East 
Tennessee, on the road which at present crosses the road from Kno.w ille to Bristol 
at the former i)lace. 

After a \'ear of service in this business, an<.l only receix'iiig about tu'O months' 
salary, the company becoming bankrupt, he quit the f)ro[essioii in disgust and 
tvirned his attention to teaching, to which he has devoted twenty-eight years of his 
life. . '" 

In January, 1S61, he resigned a professorship in Shelby Colh'gc, Kentucky, ac- 
cepted a captaincy in the service of the State of Louisiana, and was assigned to 
d'.itv in the arnilery at Fort Jackson, below N\ w Orleans. In Ajiril, i85r, he was 
notified of his ajijiointment as a captain in the regular army nf the Confederate 

6o6 A C0MPREHP:NSIVK history OP' TEXAS. 

States and ordered to proceed at once to Galveston, Texas, and to take such 
measures for the defence of that city as he might find necessary and as were possi- 
ble. Here he laid the foundation for those defensive works which were afterwards 
carried forward by others. While in command at Galveston he received authority 
from the War Department of the Confederate States to raise a regiment of infantrv 
in Texas for the Confederate army, and the regiment was raised and organized as 
related in the foregoing history of the Second Texas. 

The first engagement in which Colonel Moore participated was the battle of 
Shiloh, v.hcre his conduct v^as distinguished for coolness and courage. He com- 
manded the regiment during the first day of the battle and was assigned to the 
command of a temporary brigade the second. The soldierly qualities there dis- 
played by him so attracted the attention of General Jones M. Withers, command- 
ing the division, and of General Bra.xton Bragg, commanding the corps, that they 
immediately recommended him for promotion. His promotion to brigadier-general j 

followed soon after the battle, and he commanded a brigade composed of his old j 

regiment and four others, with a battery of light artillery, at the battles of Farm- j 

ington and Corinth and the siege of Vicksburg. At all of these places he was ever 
found at the post of duty and of danger, and he handled his brigade with the skill 1 

of a thoroughly-trained soldier. i 

At the assault upon the enemy's inner works at Corinth, October 4, 1862, he { 

was conspicuous for his gallantry. He led the left wing of his- brigade over the in- \ 

trenchmcnts of the enemy and forced them back into the heart of the town, where j 

a hand-to-hand conflict ensued, until compelled to retire before the overwhelming I 

reserves of the enemy, which had been thrown into the town the previous night. j 

On the retreat of the Confederate army from Corinth, General Moore com- j 

manded the advance-guard, and when intercepted and attacked at Hatchie Bridge j 

by a heavy force of the enemy under Generals Ord and Hurlbut, consisting of j 

twelve regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and four batteries of artillery, amount- j 

ing to a force of six tliousand, he made such a vigorous defence with his own j 

brigade, which was not exceeding three hundred strong, and one battery of light 
artillery, as to induce those doughty warriors to believe that they had encountered | 

the whole of Price's and Van Dorn's armies, estimated by them at twelve thousand j 

men, as they say in tlieir reports of the aflair. After the fall of Vicksburg he was j 

transferred to another field of service, and commanded a brigade with great skill and j 

sagacity at the batdes of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. 

After the Confederate army fell back to Dalton, Georgia, General Moore was 
transferred to the ordnance department, and was in charge of the Selnia Arsenal 
when the Federal General Wilson on a caxalry raid captured that city and destroyed 
the works. Having recei\ed notice of tlie enemy's approach about twelve hours 
■ before they reached the city. General Moore loaded two steaml->oats with ordnance 
stores and the most valuable machinery from the arsenal and proceeded with them 
to Mobile. A few days after his arrival at Mobile that city was evacuated by the 
Confederates, and in attempting to reship and save all the property under his con- 
trol ht; t.'irried a little too long, and w.15 captured before le;u-ing the city. 

After the: close "f the he leturued to Texas, and has since been engaged j 

in teaching in that State. j 



Colonel William I*. Rogers, the second colonel of the Second Texas Infantry, 
was born in the State of Georgia in the year 1818, the second of sex-en children. 
In early boyhood his father removed to North Mississippi and settled in Monroe 
County, where he was raised. He inherited the military talent from his father, who 
had served as cajitain with distinction in the Indian wars under General Andrew 
Jackson. He was given a good medical education, and before he was twenty-one 
his father set him up as a full-fledged M.D. , with the then usual supply of drugs, 
books, etc., in Lowndes County. But his career as a doctor was short-lived, for as 
soon as he reached his majority he showed that he had inherited from his father at 
least one characteristic for which the latter was conspicuous. He broke loose from 
the paternal restraint, abandoned the profession which w;i3 so distasteful to him, and 
commenced the study of law. During his youthful struggles in acquiring a legal 
education he supported himself part of the time by editing a Whig newspaper at 
Aberdeen. He married in 1S40, in his twenty-second year, and his newspaper 
venture not proving a success, his struggles with poverty for a time were \'ery 

On the call for troops to lake jKirt in the war between the United States and 
Mexico, young Rogers enlisted at Columbus, Mississippi, and was elected first 
lieutenant of the company of which Colonel A. K. McClung, the noted duellist, was 
captain. On the organization of the regiment at Mcksburg, before departing for 
Mexico, Jefferson Davis was elected colonel, McClung lieutenant-colonel, and to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by McClung's promotion young Rogers became captain of 
Company K, First Regiment Mississippi Rifles. 

During the war with Mexico he contributed as much as any other one man to 
the glory and renown which made this regiment so famous, and at the battles of 
Monterey and Buena \'ista his courage and reckless daring were most conspicuous. 

Under the Whig administration of President Taylor, after the close of the war 
with Mexico, Captain Rogers was appointed United States consul at Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, where he remained about four years in the discharge of his official duties. 
He removed to Texas in 1851, settling in Washington County, and made his 
second start in his chosen profession at the old town of Washington, on the Brazos. 
His success is \\'ell known to the older members of the bar, and is well attested by 
the num!>er of important cases in the rei)orts of the decisions of the Supreme Court 
in which his name appears as counsel. In 1.S59 he removed to Houston, Texas, 
and continued the practice of law at that place until the Civil War commenced. 

In politics he had always been an ardent Whig, and adhered to the fortunes of 
that party until it went down in defeat, and then he supported the American or 
"Know-Nothing" party during its short but stormy life. During his residence 
in Texas he was a zealous supporter and warm personal friend of General Sam 
Houston, and stumiicd the State in advocacy of his election in the memorable 
campaign for governor in 1S59. 

At the beginning of the agitation he was opposed to secession, principally upon 
the grounds of policy, but when he saw that the Southern people were determined 
upon that course, he cast his fortunes with them, and was elected a delegate to the 
secession convention which assembled in January, 1S61. In that body he voted in 
favor of the secession ordinance and signed it. When it became evident that war 


would bo the result ol the secession of the Southern States, he tendered his sen-ices 
to the Confederate War Department, which were accepted, and he was first assigned 
to duty in the training and drilling of a battalion of troops near Houston. Upon 
the organization of the Second Texas Infantry Regiment he was appointed its 
first lieutenant-colonel, and during much of the time that it was stationed at Gal- 
veston and 1-fouston he commanded the regiment, Colonel Moore being on post 
duty. When the regiment was ordered to the scene of hostilities he was on a 
sick-bed, but followed soon after its departure, and arrived in time to participate 
with it in the battle of Shlloh. In this engagement he acquitted himself with credit 
on the first day as second officer of the regiment, and on the second day, during 
the temporary absence of Colonel Moore, who had been assigned to the command 
of a brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers commanded the regiment, and led it in 
two of the most desperate charges upon the lines of General Nelson's fresh troops 
that were made upon that sanguinary field. Soon after the batde of Shiloh he was 
promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment, vice Colonel John C. Moore, promoted 
to brigadier-general, and he continued to command it in all its arduous sen-ices 
until his heroic death. 

During the whole of this period of six months the life of Colonel Rogers is so 
intimately intenvoven with the life and sen-ices of the Second Texas Regiment that 
the history of one is necessarily the history of the other, and much that has been 
written in detailing the sen-ices of the latter need not be repeated here. 

During the first day's fighting at the battle of Corinth he handled the regiment 
with the most consummate skill, and was with it in everj' position of danger. In 
the se\eral assaults upon the enemy that day he was in the midst of the foremost, 
and among the first to enter their intrenched camps. All that day, from about ten 
o'clock in the morning until near sunset, he was almost constantly under tire, 
directing the movements of the skirmishers, driving the enemy back as they resisted 
stubbornly, and assaulting and capturing two intrenched camps. His figure on 
horseback was so conspicuous that his men constantly expected to see him fall, but 
he seemed to bear a charmed life ; and his noble bearing, encouraging words, nnd 
conspicuous gallantry seemed to inspire his men to deeds of the most reckless 

Next day, Oct'jber 4, 1862, was made the evei-memora!i!e assault upon the 
enemy's inner and strongest fortifications. In that he led his regiment directly to 
the attack on Battery Robiiiett, and twice did tlio heroic band stagger and recoil 
before the deadly fire of the enemy's siege-guns, light artillery, and infantry, but as 
often was it rallied by its noble commander and again led to the assault, and at last 
made a lodijement in the ditch around Battery Robinett. This time Colonel Rogers 
rode into the ditch with his men following him, and with own hand planted the 
battle-flag of the Second Texas upon the parapet of the fort. When he saw the 
overwhelming forces of the enemy approaching, after the repulse of the Confederatrs 
in the centre of the town, his first thought was to save the lives of as many of liis 
men as possible, and, with this object in view, he waved his handkei'chief from the 
top of the parajiet in token of surrendiT, but the enemy continued to fire upon him. 
Then, ordering his men to retire to the ditch uutside the fnrt, he preparir.l ir. 
retreat. Witli the colors in on..- l-i:ind and his revolver in the other, firing at the 


advancintc enemy as ho slowly retired with the remnant of his regiment around him, 
he began the retreat. Here he fell, about twenty paces from the fort, pierced by 
eleven wounds, surrounded by scores of heroic dead. The generous commander 
of the Union army ordered his body interred witli milit:iry honors upon the field 
where he fell, and caused the grave to be enclosed with wooden pickets, and to 
this day a few of these decaying palings are all there is to mark the sacred spot 
where Rogers and his Texans put on immortality. His fame is national ; his heroic 
death oni' of the most brilii uU illustr.ition.s of American chivalry. 

In closing his report of this battle, General \'an Dorn says : " I cannot refrain, 
however, from mentioning here the conspicuous gallantry of a noble Texan, whose 
deeds at Corinth are the constant theme of both friends and foes. As long as 
courage, manliness, fortitude, patriotism, and lionor exists the name of Rogers will 
be revered and honored among men. He fell in the front of battle, and died 
beneath the colors of his regiment in the \ery centre of the enemy's stronghold. 
He sleeps, and glory is his sentinel." 

The Second Texas Cavalry Regiment.- — The convention which passed the 
ordinance of secession, seeing the great importance of raising troops for the protec- 
tion of the Texas frontiers against Indian depredations and Mexican banditti, 
authorized the enlistment of two mounted regiments in the State ser\'ice to take 
the places on the frontiers of the Ignited States troops, some of whom had already 
surrendered and all of whom were expected to soon leave the posts. The first 
regiment was supplied by authority of the Confederate States War Department, as 
has already been described in the history of the First Regiment Mounted Riflemen 
under Colonel Henry E. McCulloch, and the second regiment was authorized by 
the State government to be raised by Colonel John S. Ford. As soon as it was 
raised it was mustered into the State service. May 17, 1861, as the Second Regiment 
Mounted Rifles, for one year. The State government being badly prepared for the 
equipment and maintenance of troops in the field, and it being the general opinion 
that the Confederate States ought to protect the Te.xas frontiers the same as the 
United States had done prior to the secession of the State, strong influences were 
brought to bear upon the former to accept this second regiment, as it had authorized 
the raising of the first ; and, finally through the influence of General Ben McCul- 
loch and his brother, Colonel Henry E. McCulloch, the W'ar Department of the 
Confederate States was induced to do so, and on the 23d of May, 1861, this second 
regiment was mustered into the Confederate army for one year as the Second Texas 
Mounted Rifles. Its officers at the organization and at the date of its muster into 
the Confederate army were as follows : colonel, John S. Ford ; lieutenant-colonel, 
John R. Raylor ; major, Edwin Waller. The commanding oflicers of the com- 
panies were as follows : Company A, captain. Peter Hardeman ; Company B, cap- 
tain, Charles L.Pyron ; Company C, captain, William Adams ; Company D, captain, 
Janus Walker : Company E, captain, Isaac C. Stafford ; Company F, captain, D. 
F. Richardson : Company G, captain, John Donaldson ; Com]:)any H, captain, H. A. 
Hamner ; Company I, captain, John Middkton ; Company K, captain. Mat Nolan. 

About the' 1st of June, 1S61, Companies A, B, C, D, E, and H, under com- 
mand 01 M.ijri! Edwin Waller, left Camp Leon, near San Antonio, en route to New 
Vol.. II.— 39 


Mexico and Arizona, for the purpose of opening up the route to Southern Cali- 
fornia, and to watch the movements of Union troops in that country and guard 
against an invasion from the west. Company C was left at Fort Da\is and Com- 
pany H at I'ort Clark ; Company F was stationed farther north, on the waters of 
the Llano River, to protect the frontier settlers against Indian depredations. The 
other companies of the regiment were held by Colonel John S. Ford on the lower 
Rio Grande to protect that section against Me.\ican marauders an<:l to keej) open 
communication between San Antonio and Mutamoras. 

l.'jjon the arrival of the battalion under Major Waller near the head of De\irs 
Ri\er, he received intelligence that the government military stores which had been 
abandoned by the Federal troops at Fort Bliss were in danger of being retaken by 
the Federals stationed at Fort Fillmore, some fifty miles above there ; and to prevent 
such recapture Major Waller sent a special detail of one hundred men from his 
command to proceed by forced marches to Fort Hliss. After an arduous march of 
nearly five hundred miles this detail arrived at P'ort Bliss, July 4, 1S61, and to 
their inexpressible delight saw the Confederate flag flying from the flag-staff. It 
seems that Major McGolTm, a citizen of El Paso and an ardent sympathizer with 
the Confederate cause, was, single-handed, holding the fort against all-comers. 

In a short time the remainder of the battalion arrived, and with it came 
Lieutenant-Colonel John R. Baylor, who at once took charge of all the abandoned 
go\-ernment property in that section. He aL--.o strengthened liis forces by organiz- 
ing one or two \olunteer companies, and conceived the idea of capturing Fort 
Fillmore, then garrisoned by about seven hundred regulars under Major Isaac 
Lynde, of the Seventh Infantry. Accordingly, on the 2s(h of July, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Baylor with about two hundred men, after a forced march, arrived near 
Fort Fillmore just before daylight, with the intention of surprising the sleeping 
garrison. But a deserter from his command gave information of his presence, and 
the beating of the long roll announced the readiness of the LMiion troops to recel\'e 
the Te.xans upon hostile terms. For this reason Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor did not 
deem it prudent to make an attack at that time, and he passed around the post, 
through the village of San Tomas, and went into camp just above the town of 
Mesill.i. He ca[)tvired seven of the Union soldiers in San Tomas, and after extract- 
ing all the information he could respecting the location and movement of the 
Federal troojis in New Mexico, released them, and permitted them to reti'rn to 
Fort Fillmore. At the same place the Te.xans also captured a quantity of clothing. 
shoes, blankets, arms, and ammunition. 

On the evening of July 25 the L'nion troops marched out towards Mesilla for 
the purpose of attacking the Confederates ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor posted 
his men in positions behind the adobe houses and corrals, and awaited the attack. 
About five o'clock their cavalry was discovered approaching the town b}- the main 
road, and soon afterwards the infantry came in sight, bringing with them three 
howitzers. Tlu y formed within about three hundred yards, and a flag was sent in 
to demanil the " unconditional and immediate surrender of the Te.xas forces." To 
this demand Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor returned answer that " we will fi.ght first, 
and surrender after\\ard.-; ;" and as soon as it was received the enemy opened on the 
Te.xans with tb.e howitzers. After four or five rounds of shell, grajie, and canister, 


the cavalry formed and advanced up within two hundred and fifty yards, preparatory 
to making a charge. A few well-directed shots from the Texans, killing four and 
wounding seven of the enemy, threw them into confusion, and they retreated 
hastily, running over the infantry. In a few minutes the enemy retreated towards 
the fort, and Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor, fearing it was a feint to draw him into a 
trap, did not puisuc. All the next day the enemy seemed to he intrenching and 
preparing for a vigorous defence ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Bayloi sent a courier to 
Fort Bliss for reinforcements with artillery. 

However, it seems that Major Lynde did not inti-nd to attempt to hold the fort, 
for early on the morning of the 27th the columns of dust seen rising on the Fort 
Stanton Road, in the direction of the Organ Mountains, some fifteen miles distant, 
told of his retreat. The fort had been fired, but this the Texans soon extinguished, 
and started in pursuit, with the intention of intercepting the enemy at San Augus- 
tine Pass. Upon reaching the foot of the mountain, the rear of the retreating- 
column, composed chiefly of famished stragglers endeavoring to reach water, was 
overtaken. These were disarmed, gi\-en water, and carried on to the spring. 
Upon arrival there, twenty-four soldiers were found last asleep upon the ground 
around a spring, so great was their exhaustion. As soon as the men and horses 
were refreshed, the pursuit was resumed, and in a short time the enemy's cavalry 
were found drawn up to cover the retreat of the infantry through the pass. These 
Wert- cl uirged by Captain Peter Hardeman with his company, and the enemy retreated 
in haste, leaving all their wagons, artillery, and supplies in the hands of the Texans. 
Upon gaining the summit of the pass, a plain view of the road leading to the San 
Augustine springs was presented, showing the fainting, famished soldiers straggling 
along. These threw down their arms as the Texans passed and begged for water. 
At the main springs the enemy were drawn uj) in line, but did not further resist, 
and surrendered unconditionally, after having burned the regimental colors. 

The Union forces consisted of eight companies of infantry, four of cavalry, and 
four pieces of artillery, the whole numbering about seven hundred men. The 
Texans at the surrender v.ere less than two hundred men. 

The prisoners v.-ere marched to L?s Cruces in a few days and all paroled. 
Tlif news of the fall of Fort Fillmore and the capture of .Major Lynde's command 
created consternation among the Union troops at Fori Stanton, and that post was 
abandoned after the destruction of a considerable portion of the supplies and 
government property ; and all would liave been destroyed but for a rain-storm, 
which extinguished the tires. 

On receipt of the news of the e\'acuation of P'ort .Stanton. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Baylor sent Company D, under Captain James Walker, to that pust for the purpose 
of taking possession of and preserving the government property. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Baylor then took a strong position near the village of Picacho, to intercept 
Captain I. N. Moore, of the Second United States Dragoons, who, it was learned, 
was n: loiile to reinforce Fort Fillmore with two hundred and fifty men ; but before 
reacliing that point Captain Moore recfn\'ed intelligence of the fall of the fort and 
rapture of its garrison, and immediat'-lv burned up his transT)ort.iti'''n and su|)])li'js 
and made his escape to Fort Craig. 

W'liile at the vilrige of Picacho the Confederates were joined by General Albert 


Sidney Johnston, who had resigned his commission in the United States army and 
was on his way from Cahfornia to tender his services to the Confederate States gov- 
ernment. Numerous frays with the hostile Indians and small detachments of Union 
troops occupied the attention of tliose companies of the regiment under Lieutenant- 
Colonel H;iylor during the fall, in all of which the Te.\ans displayed the gallantrv' 
which usually characterized them. Lieutenant-Colonel Baylor, in pursuance of 
instructions from the Confederate States War Department, ha\ing assumed the func- 
tions of ;>u\ernor of the Territory of Arizona, most of the operations of this regi- 
ment in the field were under the immediate command of Major Edwin Waller. 

In August, 1861, Lieutenant Mays, of Company C, which had been left at Fort 
Davis, in command of fourteen men of that company, went in pursuit of a party of 
Indians who were making a raid through the country ; and coming upon a large 
village of Apaches, attacked it with intrepidity, and in the desperate fight which 
ensued all the Te.xans were killed, only one Mexican escaping, \iho returned to the 
fort with the sad intelligence. 

In December, i8Gi, Brigadier- General H. H. Sibley arrived in New Me.xico 
with reinforcements, took command of the Department of New Me.xico and Arizona, 
and with a brigade of Te.xans drove the Union forces from the Territories after several 
bloody engagements, the principal of which were at V^al Verde and Glorietta ; but 
the country being almost entirely destitute of supplies, the disadvantages of attempt- 
ing to hold the country became so apparent that those Territories were evacuated by 
the Confederates, and they fell back to San Antonio, Texas. When the Second 
Texas Cavalry returned to San Antonio its twelve months' enlistment had expired 
some three months before, but the regiment remained together in its original organ- 

In the fall of 1S62 all the original companies excejrL F", which had joined 
another regiment, rendezvoused at San Antonio, and reorganized by re-enlisting 
" for thiee years or during the war." Captain William G. Tobin raised a company 
which took the place of Company F in the original organization, and the following 
field officers were elected, to wit : colonel. Captain Charles L. Pyron ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Captain James ^^'nlker: major, Captain John Donaldson. John A. Wallace 
was ajipointed adjutant ; W. M. Milby, quartermaster ; Dr. G. H. Doran, surgeon ; 
and Rev. W. J. Joice, chaplain. The captains of the different companies upon the 
reorganization were as follows : Company A, John T. Aycock ; Company R, D. M. 
Poor ; Company C, James Read ; Company D, George L. Patrick ; Company E, 
William I'.dwards : Company F, William G. Tobin ; Company G, Cole McRea ; 
Company H, James Roark ; Company 1, W. A. Spencer; Company K, Mat 

The entire regiment was then furlnughed for sixty days, and the men re\-isited 
their homes, and upon their return, well mounted And tolerably well ccjiiipped, the 
regiment marched to Houston. This regiment was one of those selected by General 
Magruder for the recapture of Galveston City, and in that brilliant achie\-ement six 
companies su[)ported the battery of heavy artillery at Fort Point, and the other four 
were in the attack on the PViriy-second Massachusetts Regiment on Kuhn's wharf. 
A short lime afterwards two hundred picked men from this regiment were chosen for 
the attack on thc^ blockading squadron olT Sabine P.lss, and particip.ited in that 


brilliant aflair. January 21, 1863, under Major O. M. Watkins and Captain Charles 
Fowler, which resulted in the capture of the Morning Light and Velocity, two of 
the enemy's vessels, thirty miles from shore. The regiment remained in Galveston 
until about May i, 1863, when it was ordered to Louisiana. It marched on foot 
from .N'iblett's Bluff to Washington, it having been dismounted sii\ce the battle of 
Galveston, where it was attached to Major's brigade of cavalry. By forced marches 
the brigade eluded the Federals and reached tlie Mississijipi River opposite Port 
Hudson while that place was being besieged by General Banks. The object of the 
movement seems to have been to attempt to devise some means for the relief of the 
garrison, but after a consultation with General Frank Gardiner, the commander, by 
General Major, who crossed the .Mississippi Ri\-er l.)y night in a skiff for that pur- 
pose, it was determined that nolfiing could be done with the inadequate forces at 

The brigade then proceeded down the Mississippi Ri\x"r, and one day the 
mounted regiments captured a large number of horses, ponies, and mules, and the 
Second Cavalry Regiment was remounted on them. Mounted upon these, 
witliout bridles or saddles, the regiment presented a motley cavalcade ne.xt morning 
when the march was resumed. The brigade cut the Morgan Railroad between New 
Orleans and Benvick's Bay, and on June 23 the Second Texas Cavalry attacked a 
large force of Federal troops at La Fourche Crossing, supposed to number about 
three thousand. Colonel Pyron led the regiment in an impetuous charge against 
the enemy in sight and drove them back ; but just as victory seemed to be within 
his grasp a large reinforcement of the enemy rolled in on the cars, attacked the 
Te.xans in flank, and drove them back with a loss of one hundred and thirty-six men, 
killed, wounded, and missing. Colonel Pyron was wounded three times, having his 
horse killed under him ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Walker was shot down and severely 
wounded inside the enemy's breastworks and captured, but in a little while made 
his escape in the darkness, and returned to his command. Next morning, under a 
flag of truce, the dead were removed from the field and buried in a Catholic cemo- 
ter>' at Thibodcau.wille. Twenty-nine brave men were laid in one long trench, 
with no winding-sheets save a few woU-worn army blankets. The chaplain being 
busily engaged at the hospital ministering to the wounded, in his absence a Catholic 
priest performed the burial service. 

The brigade then pushed on towards Brashear City, tearing up the railroad as 
they went, but did not arrive at that place until after its capture by General Ton.i 
Green. However, the attack of General Major on the railrr>ad and tearing it uj.i 
cut oft the g.irrison from New Orleans, pre\'ented reinforcements from reaching 
them, and thus malerially aided in the cajiture. 

The Second Texas Cavalr\- was again dismounted, its captured animals turned 
over to a newly-recruited Creole regiment, and then it was [)lacod in a brigade 
commanded by Brigadier-General J. W. Speight. This act of injustice so incensed 
the men that many of them became wry much discouraged. This brigade mined 
to Vennilionville, and all of the men who could obtain certificates of sickness or 
disability did so, and returned to Texas on furloughs. The reginKmt soon became 
so decimated frf)m this cause that its efficiencv was almost destroyed. Those of 
the regiment wlio had been furloughed reported ii\ a few montlis to Colonel P\-ron 


at San Antonio, a number of recruits joined, and the remnant of the regiment that 
had been left in Louisiana were ordered to Texas, and until the end of the struggle 
it did duty within the State at Galveston and otlier points. 

Second Cazalry BaltalioJi, Arizona Brigade. (.Merged into .Second Cavalry- 
Regiment. ) — Lieutenant-colonel, George W. Baylor. 

Second Cavalry Regiment, Arizona Brigade. — Colonel, George \V. Baylor ; 
lieutenant-colonel, John \V. Mullen ; major, Sherod Hunter. 

This regiment was in the Arizona campaign under General .Sibley, and did 
some very eilLCtivc service in Louisiana the latter part of the war. 

Second Lancers. (See Twenty-fourth Cavalry Regiment.) 

Second Te.vas Partisan Rangers.- — Colonel, B. Warren Stone ; lieutenant- 
colonel ; colonel, Isham Chisum ; lieutenant-colonel, Crili .Miller ; major, James G. 

This regiment performed meritorious service in New Mexico and Arizona, and 
was also an active jjarticipant in repulsing General Banks's Red River campaign in 
the spring of 1S64. 

Second Infantry Battalion. — .Major, Martin. 

Third Artillery Battalion. — Major ; lieutenant-colonel, Jose[)Ii J. Cook ; major, 
Augustin S. Labuzan. 

This battalion was consolidated w-ith the First Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

Tliird Lancers. (See Twenty-fifth Cavalry Regiment.) 

Third Infantry Battalion. — Major, J. E. Kirby. 

This command was organized, in 1861, for six months' service, and was sta- 
tioned at Virginia Point. After the expiration of its term of enlistment in 1862, 
its members nearly all re-enlisted in Waul's Legion, and ser^-cd in that command 
till the end of the war. 

Third Cavalry Battalion, Arizona Brigade. (Merged into Third Regiment.) 
— Lieutenant-colonel, George T. Madison. 

Third Cavalry Regiment, Arizona Brigade. — Colonel, Joseph Phillips ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, George T. Madison ; major, Alonzo Ridley. 

This command was in the ill-fated Arizona camjiaign, and in the Louisiana 
campaign the latter part of the war. 

The Third Texas Infantry Regiment. — This regiment was mustered into tlie 
Confederate States army in the fall of 1S61 by special order of the War Depart- 
ment authorizing Colonel Earl Van Dorn, then commanding the Confederate forces 
in Texas, to accept six regiments of infantry enrolled in Texas. Its first officers 
were : colonel, l^hilip N. Luckett ; lieutenant-colonel, Augustus ISuchel ; major, 
Edward F. Grav. 

Shortly after the organization of the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Buchel was 
commissioned colonel of the First Texas Ca\a!ry Regiment, and Major Gray was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and Captain John H. Kampman wa.s promotid 
to major, and these continued to be the field officers to the end of the war. Its 
services were confined to the Ihnits of the State, principally doing guard duty at 
Galveston and other points on the coast, and there is no obtainable information of 
its ha\ing particip.iicd in a single engagement. It was composetl of a fine body of 
men, and in the earlv days of its orijanization was well drilled and in a fine state of 


discipline ; but, ;is is usually the case with troops not in active service, discipline was 
relaxed and its morale deteriorated to a very great extent. 

Third Texas Cavalry Regiment. — This regiment was organized and mustered 
into the Confederate army at Dallas, June 13, 1S61, with the following field ofificers : 
colonel, l-2!kanah Greer ; lieutenant-colonel, Walter P. Lane ; major, George W. 
Chilton ; adjutant, M. D. Ector. 

At various periods during its service, Hinchie P. Mabry became lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel ; Robert II. Cumby, colonel ; Giles S. Boggess, major and 
lieutenant-colonel ; J. J. A. Barker, major ; and Absalom B. Stone, major. 

The ten companies composing the regiment were from the following counties, 
and were commanded by the following-named officers, viz. : Company A, Harrison 
County, captain, T. \V. Winston ; Company B, Rusk County, captain, R. H. 
Cumby ; Company C, Cherokee County, captain, Frank Taylor ; Company D, Hunt 
County, captain, Joseph R. Hall ; Company E, Shelb}- County, captain, D. M. 
Short ; Company F, Kaufman County, captain, Isham Chisuni ; Company G, 
Marion County, captain, H. P. Mabry ; Company H, ^\'ood County, captain, Jona- 
than Russell ; Company I, Cass County, captain, William Bryan ; Company K, 
Smith County, captain, David Gaines. When organized the regiment was about 
twelve hundred strong. 

This regiment was also called the South Knnsas-Te.xas Regiment. As soon as 
it was niu'=tcred in the regiment departed to join General Ben McCulloch in Mis- 
souri, arriving at Fort Smith, Arkansas, about July 20, 1S61, and on August 31 is 
reported in the monthly return of McCulloch' s division with an efTecti\-e strength 
of ten hundred and twent\'-six men. From July 25 to August 11 it took part in 
the operations on Crane Creek, Missouri, and at the battle of Wilson's Creek, 
August 10, attracted the attention of both Generals Price and McCulloch for its dis- 
tinguished gallantry. It is especially mentioned as having captured Totten's Union 
batter}' in a desperate charge. Lieutenant-Colonel Walter P. Lane had his horse 
shot under him in this charge, and he continued to fight on foot until he mounted 
another whose rider had been killed. Adjutant M. D. Ector and Captains Wins- 
ton, CvuTiby, Taylor, Short. Hall, and others are honorably mentioned as ha\-ing 
acted with great gallantry during the battle. 

In the vi-inttrof 1861-62 llio regiment was sent to the Indian Territory to rein- 
force the Confederate troops under Brigadier-General D. H. Cooper, and took a 
prominent part and distingiiished itself in the engagement at Round Mountain. 
November to, 1S61, Chusto-Talasah, December 9, and Chusten.alah, December 26. 
Of the last-named engagement Colonel James Mcintosh says in his report that this 
regiment, "led by those gallant officers. Colonel Lane and Major Chilton, breasted 
itself for the highest point of the hill, and rushed over the rugged side with the 
irresistible force of a tornado and swept everything before it. The brave Major 
Chilton, while approaching the summit of the hill, rerei\-ed a severe wound in the 
head, but with unabated vigor continued the fight." The regiment was also in 
the memorable pursuit of the noted Creek chief Hopoiethleyohola with his band, 
who h.-id espoused the L'nion cause in the early part of January, 1S62, which 
was prolific in the most exciting incidents of Indian warfare. It also partici- 
pated in the battj.- of Pea Ridge, or I'.lklinrn Tavern, March 7, 1S62, where the 

6i6 A C0.M1'RP:HI:.\SIVE history of TEXAS. 

gallant Texan, General Ben McCullocli, was killed, and acquitted itself with great 

When the army in Arkansas and Missouri under Generals Van Dorn and Price 
was ordered to Corinth, Mississippi, to reinforce the army under General Beaure- 
gard, soon after the battle of Shiloh, this regiment was dismounted and accom- 
panied it. At the battle of luka, Mississippi, Sep- 
] tember 19, 1S62, it maintainett its reputation as a 
-j**^^'**!! fighting regiment. 

, .' i In his otticial report of that engagement Gen- 

^/s' -^vS &'v v?^ ' eral Sterling Price says : " The brunt of the battle 

\ , •■ , ;■■" of luka fell upon Hebert's brigade, and nobly did 

it sustain it, and worthily of its accomplished com- 
mander and of the brigade, which numbers among 
j:y ■ its forces the ever-glorious Third Louisiana, the 

'■ * Third Texas (dismounted) Ca\-alry, and Whit- 

field's Texas Legion. The Third Louisiana and 
I Third Texas had already fought under my eyes at 

' ' / the Oak Hills and at Elkhorn. No men have 

ever fought more bravely 01" more victoriously 
„ ,, „" ' than they, and he who can say hereafter, ' I be- 

longed to the Third Louisiana or the Third Texas,' 
need never blush in my presence. In this the hardest-fought fight wliich I have 
ever witnessed they well su?tained their bloodily-won reputation." 

Its commander, Colonel H. P. Mabry, was severely wounded, and never served 
with the regiment again. 

At the battle of Corinth, October 3 and 4, 1S62, this regiment was again under 
fire as a part of the Second (Colbert's) Brigade of Hebert's division. On the first 
day it steadilv drove the stubborn enemy before it and forced them to retire behind 
their strongholds ; and on the second day it bore a conspicuous part in that gallant 
but unfortunate assault, which, on account of its daring and intrepidity, electrified 
the whole country. Its position on that day was on the north side of the town, 
and it charged the enemy's works some di.stp.nce northeast of the famous Battery 

In Xo\-ember following, this regiment, with the Sixth, Nintli, and Twenty- 
seventh Ca\'alry (dismounted), was remounted, and afterwards served with distinc- 
tion as a part of Ross's cavalry brigade. 

S/x//i 7e.vas Cavalry Regimoit. (.Also called Second Texas Cavalry in the 
early part of the war.) — This regiment was organized at Dallas, Texas, September 
6, 1861, with the following field officers, viz.: colonel, B. Warren Stone; lieuten- 
ant-colonel, John S. GriHith ; major, L. S. Ross ; adjutant, Lieutenant D. R. 

The ten ci.Miipanies comjiosing the regiment were from the foIJouing couIltic.^, 
and were commanded by the following-named officers, viz.: Company A, Kaufman 
County, captain, .\. J. Hardin ; Company B, Kaufman County, captain, Joh.n S. 
Griffith : Cnmp.inv C, D.illas County. ca[itain, Fayette Smith ; Company L), Gray- 
son County, cai't.iiii, Btnven ; ConifMny E, Van Zandt County, captain, Jack 


Wharton ; Company F, Dallas County, captain, Robert Guy ; Company G, McLen- 
nan County, captain, Peter F. Ross ; Company H, Bell County, captain, Robert 
M. White ; Company I, Henderson County, captain, H. W. Bun^'ess ; Company 
K, Collin Count)', captain, J. W. Throckmorton. 

The regiment at its orrjar.ization was about eleven hundred and fifty stroncr. 
Soon alter org.mi/ation this regiment marched to the support of General Ben 
McCulloch in Missouri, and on December 21, 
1861, is reported in liis command with an aggre- 
gate strength of nine Imndrcd and thirty-five, 

and eight hundred and sixty-five present for ..^ 

duty. It took an active part in the stirring and / "^^ ' 

bloody scenes there in the latter part of 1861 

and the early part of 1S62. At the battle of '"^^ '^^' 

Chustenalah, December 26, 1S61, against the 
Creek Indian chief Hopoiethleyohola it was dis- ^"~' --■'• y- 

tinguislicd for conspicuous gallantry. It also 
distinguished itself at the battle of i'ea Ridge, or .,--■' 

Elkhorn Tavern, March 7, capturing a Union -' ^ ■• 1 

battery of light artillery, which was inflicting 
severe injury on the Confederates, in a brilliant 
charge. After the battle, and on the retreat cf 
the Confederates, if performed most valuable 
service as rear-guard to the army, and to its 

untiring energy, watchfulness, and courage is coio.n^el I'mfk f koss 

due the praise of saving the wagon-trains of the 

Confederate army. Shortly after this affair it was dismounted and went to the 
east of the Mississippi River to reinforce the Confederate army at Corinth, and while 
it was with that army acquired new laurels for its intrepid courage at the battle of 
Corinth, October 3 and 4, 1S62, where it was in Phifer's brigade of Maury's division 
in the assault upon the enemy's works a short distance north of Battery Robinett, 
where the greatest slaughter of the Confederates took place. In November following 
the regiment was remounted, and thereafter became a part of Ross's brigade. 

Ninth Texas Cavalry Rcgrmcnl. (Also called Fourth in the early part of the 
war.) — This regiment was organized in Grayson County, October 2, 1861, with the 
following held ofticcrs, viz. : colonel, William B. .Sims ; lieutenant-colonel, William 
Quayle ; major, Nathan W. Townes ; adjutant, Dud W. Jones. 

The companies composing the regiment v^ere from the following counties, and 
were commanded by the following-named officers, to wit : Company A, Tarrant 
County, captain, T. G. Berry ; Company B, Fannin County, cnptrn'n, Gid Smith ; 
Company C, Grayson County, captain, J. E. McCool ; Company D, Tarrant County, 
captain, M. J. Brinson ; Company E, Red River County, captain, J. C. Hart ; Com- 
pany F, C;\ss County, captain, W'. E. Duncan ; Comj)any G, Hopkins Count\-, 
captain, L. D. King ; Company H, Lamar County, captain, J. D. Wright ; Com- 
pany 1, Titus County, captain, Charles S. Stewart ; Company K, Hopkins County, 
captain, J. P. Williams. The regiment numbered about ten hundred and fifty nun 
at its oryaniz.ition. 


As soon a.s it was mustered in, it marched to reinforce General Ben McCulloch 
in ilissouri. ^ As it passed throui^h the Indian Territory, it reached the Cherokee 
Nation about the time of the Indian troubles around Fort Gibson, and rendered 
valuable service to Colonel Douglas H. Cooper, commanding the Indian Depart- 
ment for the Confederate States. Four companies of the regiment, under command 
of Lieutenanl-Colonel William yuayle, participated in the battle of Round Moun- 
tain, November 19, 1S61, fought between the regularly constituted authorities of 
the Creek Nation, who had espoused the cause of the Confederate States, on the 
one side, and a disaffected element of the Creeks led by the Chief Hopoiethleyohola, 
who had espoused the side of the Federal government. This regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Sims, also took an active and gallant part in the battle of Chusto-Talasah, 
December 9, but does not seem to have been with Colonel James Mcintosh when 
he fought the battle of Chustenalah, December 26, 1861. The report of Colonel 
Cooper shows that this regiment was at that time with him on the Verdigris River, 
in his attempt to get in the rear of Hopoiethleyohola, and upon the retreat of that 
chief pursued him to the Kansas line. 

The regiment then marched to reinforce General \'an l^orn in Arkansas, and 
at the battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn Tavern, March 7 and 8, 1S62, constituted 
part of General Ben McCulloch' s division, and bore a gallant and conspicuous part 
in that bloody engagement. 

Shortly after this the whole of General Van Dorn's ainiy was ordered across 
the Mississippi River to reinforce General Beauregard's army at Corinth, and this 
regiment was dismounted and accompanied it. While in Mississippi, as a part of 
Phifer's brigade of Maury's division, it participated in the ill-fated attack on Corinth, 
October 3 and 4, 1862. In this engagement the regiment made the assault upon 
the enemy's works a short distance north of Battery Robinctt, and it was distin- 
guished for its gallantry, its loss being very heavy. 

The officers of the Twenty-seventh Ohio Infantry Regiment claim that the 
colors of the Ninth Te.x;is Cavalry (dismounted) were captured in the assault on 
Corinth, October 4, 1862, but sur\'ivors of that regiment are very positive in their 
statement that it was not the flag of their regiment which was captured, and bring 
to bear on the controversy very strong testimony that they did not lose any flag. 

In a recent letter, Lieutenant-Colonel .Simpson, of the Twenty-se%-enth Ohio, 
says, that " whatever regiment bore the flag which was captured by our regiment, 
it was as gallant a set of boys as any foe could care to meet." 

In Novemfier, 1S62, this regiment was remounted, and thereafter became a 
part of the cavalry command known as Ross's brigade, and for a further account of 
it tlie reader is referred to the history of that command. 

M hit/'ichr s Lcffion. (Afterwards called the Twenty-sevenlh Regiment Te.xas 
Cavalry.) — Early in 1S61, Captain John W. Whitfield, of Lavaca County, raised a 
company of cavalry in that county, and marched post-hasie to Missouri to join 
General Ben McCulloch. L'pnn his ,'.rr!\;il there he was joined by Captain E. R. 

Hawkins with a company from Hunt County, Captain Murphy with a company 

from Arkansas, Captain J. H. Broocks with a company from San Augustine County, 
Texas, and Ca])tain B. H. Xorsworthy uith a company from J.isper County. These 
five companies were at first organized into a br.ttalion with John W. WhittielJ 


commanding, with the rank of major. In January, 1S62, General Ben McCulloch 
ordered Captain E. R. Hawkins to return to Texas for the purpose of recruiting for 
this battahon, in order to raise it to a regiment. He succeeded so well that in a 
short lime he returned with eight fuH companies, which with the others were 
organized into Whitfield's First Legion in April, 1862. Captain Murphy's Arkan 
sas company having been transferred to a battalion from that State, left the legion 
composed of twelve companies with the following-named captains, viz. : J. N. 
Zachary, from Hunt County ; James Ingraham, from San Augustine County ; J. T. 
Whittield, from Lavaca County ; B. H. Norsworthy, from Jasper County ; J. West, 

from Red River ; Ed. O. Williams, from Lamar ; Bivins, who died, and was 

succeeded by J. W. Boyzer, from Red River ; J. M. Cook, from Titus County ; 
Dave Snodgrass, from Arkansas ; R. W. Billups, from Hopkins County ; O. P. 
Preston, from Lavaca and Jackson Counties ; and Henry M. Barnhart, fro.m Titui 
and adjoining counties. 

Of the legion thus formed John V\^ Whitfield was colonel, E. R. Hawkins 
was lieutenant-colonel, and J. H. Broocks was major. 

The original battalion participated in the battle of Elkhnrn Ta\'eru, in Arkan- 
sas ; and soon after the organization of the legion it was dismounted and sent with 
the other troops of General Van Dorn's army to reinforce General Beauregard at 
Corinth, Mississippi. While in this part of the army this command took part in the 
battle of luka, September 19, 1862, and added new lustre to Te.xas arms by its 
courageous conduct. In a desperate charge upon a battery of artillery one hundred 
and si.x officers and men were killed and wounded, but the battery was taken, and 
double that number of the enemy were killed. The legion was also at the battle of 
Corimh, October 3 and 4, 1862, but did not participate in the bloody assault. 

The next dw, October 5, the legion, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel E. 
R. Hawkins, performed valuable and gallant ser\'ice at Davis's Bridge, on the 
Hatchie Ri\'er, in foiling the attack of the enemy upon the retreating Confederate 

.Shortly after this the legion was remounted, its colonel, John W. AVhitfield, 
wa? promoted to brigadier-general, and with the Third, Sixth, and Ninth Texas 
Cavah)- Regiments was organized into a cavali')- brigade under his command. 
General Whitfield's failing health soor, forced his retirement from acti\-e service, 
and Brigadier-General L. S. Ross succeeded to the command, and tlie further 
histoiy of the legion will be found in the history of Ross's brigade. 

Upon the promotion of Colonel John W. Whitfield to brigadier-general, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel E. R. Hawkins was promoted to colonel, Major Broocks to lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and Captain John T. Whittield was promoted to major. 

Jxoss's Cavalry Brigade. — The command known as Ross's brigade was organ- 
ized at Granada, Mississippi, in November. 18(12. It was composed of the Third 
Texas Ca\alry. .Sixth Texas Ca\-alr\-, Ninth Texas Ca\-a!ry, and Twenty-seventh Cavalry (also called Whitfield's Legion). Each one of these was comjiosed 
of ten companies, except the Twenty-seventh, which contained twelve. They were 
enlisted carlv in the war and had seen hard service prior to the formation of this 
brigailo. Thev hafl been dismountetl when sent from the Trans-Mississippi De- 
liartniiiit tu Missis.sippi, and there served as dismounted cavalry; but in No- 


vembcr, 1862, tlieir horses arrived from Texas, and they realized their long-deferred 
hope of beini; remounted and scr\ing as cavalry, for which they had enlisted. 

When firyt organized the brigade was commanded for a time by Colonel J. W. 
Whitfield, of the Twenty-seventh, and upon his numerous absences on account of 
ill health it was ci^mmaiided t)y Lieutenant-Colonel 
I 1 John S. Griffith, of the Si.xth, and for a time liy 
• j Colonel H. P. Mabry, of the Third. It was placed 

^^^;<*:Ji»_^ i in the same command with \V. II. Jackson's brigade 

^ y I of Tennessee and Mississippi ca\'ali-y and McCul- 

^i .^ .— . ^f j loch's brigade of Missouri ca\-alry, all under the 
% ^ ' command of General Earl Van Dorn, and known as 
" , '-r ,"■ i Van Dorn's cavalry corps. The first expedition of 

this corps was in December, 1S62, when it recap- 
'> tured Holly Springs from General U. S. Grant, with 

a large number of prisoners and the destruction of 
I several millions of dollars' worth of stores, munitions, 

i ■'- -,.' etc., which had been accumulated there for a de- 

' ■ ' scent on the rear of Vicksburg. This so discom- 

Genlral L. S. Ross. r , ^ , ^ , • 

filed General Grant as to cause hnn to retreat to 
Memphis and abandon this route to Vicksburg. Soon afterwards the brigade at- 
tacked and destroyed a Federal stockade at Davis's Mill, on the Hatchie River, 
after a hard fight, pushed on into Tennessee, and made a bold attack on Boli\ar. 
But the enemy ha\-ing concentrated a strong force at Grand Junction, the Confeder- 
ates were forced to retire to Central Mississippi. On this raid as many prisoners 
were captured and paroled as there were Confederates in the corps, a large num- 
ber of horses and muL'S wore captured and brought off, and an immense qu.intity 
of Stores destroyed. The Texas brigade bore its full share of the burden in this 
daring raid, and added new laurels to its already well-earned fame. The winter 
w-as spent in Mississippi between Aberdeen and Vicksburg, and on the Sth of 
February, 1S63, the command took up the line of march for Tennessee by the way 
of Bainbridge Fern,-, on the Tennessee River. The weather was intensely cold, 
with almost constant r.un and sleet, the streams all swollen anfl often frozen o\-er. 

On March 5 they attackeei a large force of Federals at Thompson's -Station, 
and after a fierce contest, in which the Confederates were twice repulsed, they at 
last carried the day after a desperate charge, and captured the entire Federal force 
of some two thousand three hundred men. In this assault the Texas brigade, led 
by Colijncl J. W. Whitfield, dismounted and chorged on foot with six-shooters in 
hand, which, after discharging, they used as clubs. 

They then threatened Nashville, caused serious apprehensions among the 
Federal commanders, engaged in almost daily skirmishes, some of v.-hich rcsnhed 
in fierce and hotly-contested battles. On April 10 the Texas brigade, in conjuiic- 
ti'iii with J.icks m's brigade, made a charge upon the V'nion garrison at Franklin, 
but the enemy were too strong and the Cop.fcderates were repulsed. On the 7th 
of May, General \'an Dorn was assassinated at Spring Hill by a citizen residing 
near that place, and the death of the daiing commander put an end for a time to the career r>f the cavalry corps. On May ig, Drigadier-General W. H. Jack- 


son, in comniantl of the division composed of his old bricjade and the Texas brigade, 
with King's Missouri battery, was ordoreiJ to join General Joseph E. Johnston in 
Mississippi. They readied Johnston's army at Canton, Mississippi, June 4, and 
were at once put to work harassing the rear of General Grant's army, then be- 
sieging \'icksburg. Constant skirmisliing was the almost daily life of the soldier 
at this time. On the 4th of July the enemy moved out from \^icksburg towards 
Jackson in heavy force, driving everything before them. The Te.xas brigade, 
under General Whitfield, \\ho had been promoted to brigadier-general, opposed 
this strong force day and night. Before tlie enemy reached Jackson, Cjeneral Whit- 
field led the brigade around their flank, jtressed to the rear, and captured a large 
pioneer train, with its wagons and cavalry escort, and carrietl the latter, with the 
mule teams, into Gener.d Johnston's lines. 

For the ne.xt three months the brigade hovered around the army of the enemy, 
allowing no small bodies to get far froni their stronghold without a fight, and in 
some instances a capture ; manv hard skirmishes and some bold dashes were in- 
dulged, with plenty of hard fighting. During this time, in October, General Whit- 
field's health failed, and he was granted leave of absence and returned t6 Te.xas. 
Colonel H. P. Mabry, of the Third Regiment, then took command of the brigade. 
December 16, 1863, Colonel L. S. Ross, of the Sixth Regiment, having been pro- 
moted to brigadier-general, assumed command of the brigade and promised to give 
the boys something to occupy their minds. On the 22d the brigade mo\ ed towards 
the Mississipi River, but the destination was unknown. It proved to be a trip to 
the vicinity of Greenville, Mississippi, to put a large quantity of arms and Con- 
federate money across the river for the use of the Trans-Mississippi Department. 
Several attempts had been made, but so far unsuccessful. The weather was fear- 
ful ; the rain and cold' made the roads almost impassable, and the progress wa.s 
necessarily slow and tedious. One night a sudden freeze encased the entire train in 
the mud, and it was impo.ssible to turn a wheel. The brigade was about eight miles 
in the advance, and the Ninth Regiment was dismounted, returned to the wagons 
on foot, and each man took two extra guns besides his own and each oflicer took 
three and carried them to their horses, and late that evening the guns were safely 
deposited on the river bank amid a blinding storm of sleet. That night one boat- 
load was carried over, and the whole was accomplished in three days. During the 
time the boys could not resist the temptation to exchange sheets w ith some gun- 
boats, which resulted in a terrific shelling of the woods. 

The latter part of January the brigade returned to the Yazoo, and on the 2Sth 
of that month had a sharp engagement with a transport convoyed by a gunboat. 
Again, on Februar>- 3, they engaged in quite a severe battle with a gunboat and a 
transport near Liverpool, in which a force landed from the transport was driven 
back to the boat after a hand-to-hand conflict. On the 5th of February the brigade 
attacked a large number of vessels lying in the Yazoo River at Yazoo City, in 
which the I'ght battcrv- attached to the brigade did some splendid work, dri\ing 
ihe fleet from the front of the city. The enemy landed a considerable force a short 
distance below the city, and the Confeder.ites attacked it and drove it back to the 
boats after quite a severe engagement. Februarys a large force of Federals nio\-ed 
out of Vick^buig acro>3 tlie State ol Mi.,sissip|M, and the brigade foliinved and 


harassed its rear all the way to Meridian. While in the vicinity of Meridian a bat- 
talion of negro troops in Federal uniforms stumbled upon the brigade one day 
while resting for dinner, and the Confederates pursued them nearly to Yazoo City, 
killing quite a number of them in a running fight. On the 5th of March the brigade 
attacked the Union troops stationed at Yazoo City and drove the whole garrison to 
the gunlioats tor piotection. About three hundred of the enemy were killed and 
captured, and one piece of artillerj- fell into the hands of the Te.xans. During the 
months of March and April, 1864, the brigade was engaged in scouting and skir- 
mishing with the caeniy and in routing a band of bushwhackers in North Alabama. 
May 14, 1S64, the brigade joined General Joseph E. Johnston's army at Rome, 
Georgia, where it was at once dismounted and sent in front "to feel the ejiemy." 
Here a stubborn battle was fought, and the brigade maintained its reputation as 
hard fighters. During this campaign a series of skirmishes ensued, often merging 
into hard- fought battles. At New Hope Church the Te.xas brigade held an army 
corps of the enemy in check for several hours in a stubborn hand-to-hand fight with 
its adx'ance columns, one of the most noted instances of pluck and audacity. The 
latter part of July General McCook attempted with a large force of cavalry to de- 
stroy General Johnston's communications with the rear, and the Texas brigade 
followed him, and after several days' hard fightins,^ captured his command near 
Newman, Georgia, after killing one hundred and fifty, wounding two hundred and 
fifty, and capturing twelve hundred prisoners, a battery of artillery, tliirteen am- 
bulances, and one thousand head of horses and mules. About the middle of 
August General Kilpatrick, with a force of five thousand cavalry, made another 
attempt to accomplish what General McCook had failed to do ; and the Te.xas 
brigade followed him, 'hung on his rear and flanks, and assailed him so vigorously 
that he gave it up and sought the railroad at Lovejoy Station, where he found a 
large force of Confederate infantry, when he turned back, and after a bold dash he 
cut his way through with large losses. The Te.xans turned upon him and drove him 
back into the Federal lines. The months of September and October were spent in 
watching the enemy's pickets, looking after their scouting and foraging parties, 
and keeping close watch of every movement. Prom the time when the brigade 
reached Rome to the fall of Atlanta was one hundred and nine days, and the cam- 
paign averaged a tight for e\'ery day, and many of them were hard-fought battles. 

On October 24, 1S64, in compliance with orders, the Texas brigade withdrew 
from its position near Cave Springs, Georgia, crossed the Coosa River at Gadsden 
the'following day, and by rapid marches arrived in front of Decatur, Alabama, the 
evening of the 29th. It was here halted to obser\e the movement of the enemy 
while the Confederate army rested at Tuscumbia. 

On the morning of November 8 a strong reconnoitring party of the enemy, 
consisting of three regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, came out from Decatur 
on the Courtland Road, and it was promptly met by the Te.xans, and after a shaip 
skirmish was driven back with some loss. 

On the 2ist of November, all tilings being ready for the advance of the Con- 
federate army into Tennessee, the Texa.s brigade was ordered forward, following in 
the rear of Armstrong's ! brigade. The effective fighting strength of the brigade 
at that time was as follows : Third Texas Cavalry Regiment, two hundred and 


eighteen ; Sixth Texas Cavalry Regiment, two hundred and eighteen ; Ninth Texas 
Cavahy Regiment, one hundred and ten ; Twenty-seventh Texas Cavalry Regi- 
ment (Whitfield's Legioiij, one hundred and forty ; making a total of six hun- 
dred and eighty-six. With this small force they joined the advance into Tennessee, 
strong in heart and resolved to make up in zeal and courage what was lacking in 
numbers. The day after crossing Shoal Creek, General Armstrong, still in ad- 
vance, came up with the Federal cavalry at Lawrenceburg. The fighting was chiefly 
with artillery, the battery witli the Texas brigade participating freely and to good 
effect. About sunset the enemy withdrew in the diicction of Pulaski, and early 
next morning the Texas brigade was ordered to take the ad\ance and move out on 
the Pulaski Road. About twelve miles from Lawrenceburg it met the Federal 
pickets and drove them in. The Third Texas dismounted and, with two squadrons 
from the Twenty-seventh Texas, moved forward and attacked the enemy, forcing 
them from several successive positions, and following so closely and vigorously as 
to compel the precipitate abandonment of their camp with a large quantity of forage. 

The next da\-, within five miles of Pulaski, the brigade changed direction to the 
left, following the route taken by the enemy on their retreat the evening before, and 
arrived about noon in sight of the village of Campbellsville. Mere they found a large 
force of the enemy's ca\alry, which jnovcd to be Hatch's division, drawn up and 
ready to resist the advance of the Confederates. 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. Boggess, in command of the Third Texas, was ordered 
to dismount his regiment and move it to the front. Young's Columbus, Georgia, 
battery, attached to Rcss's brigade, was hurried up from the rear, jilaced in posi- 
tion, sujiported by the Sixth Texas, Colonel Jack Wharton commanding, and com- 
menced shelling the enemy's lines. In the mean while the Ninth and Twenty- 
seventh Texas were drawn up in column on a field to the right of the road, to be 
used as circumstances might require. After a very severe shelling by the Georgia 
battery the enemy showed by their movements a disposition to withdraw, and 
Brigadier-General Ross, believing this to be a proper moment to press them, ordered 
the whole brigade forward. The Ninth and Twenty-seventh Texas Regiments, led 
by their respective commanders. Colonel Dudley W. Jones and Lieutenant-Colonel 
J. T. Whitfield, ru-^hed forward at a gallop and, passing through the village, fell uj;on 
the enLKsy's moving squadrons with such irresistii)Ie force as to scatter them in ever)' 
direction, pursuing and capturing numbers of prisoners, horses, equipments, small- 
arms, accoutrements, and four stands of colors. The enemy made no effort to 
regain the field from which they had been driven by the Texans, but while endeav- 
oring to withdraw their shattered squadrons their rout was made complete by a 
vigorous attack in fkmk by General Armstrong's brigade, and about sunset the last 
of them disappeared, in full flight, towards Lynn\ille. 

The loss of the Texas brigade in this affair was only five men wounded, while 
they captured eighty-four prisoners and all their horses, equipments, and arms, 
sixty-five beef cattle, and four stands of colors. Without any further opposition 
Ihey arrived next day in front of Columbia, and took position on the Chapel Ilill 

No\-ember 26 was spent in front ot the enemy's works, 'kirmi^hing freelv and 
keeping up a lively demonstration. Pciiig reliewd \>y tliL iiif.Uitry on the morning 


of the 27th, the britradc moved over to the Shclbyville I-'ike, and next nuirnin.g 
crossed Uuck Ri\cr at the mill nine miles above Columbia. Here it was directed to 
the riglit, on the Shclbyville Road, and when near the Lewisville and Franklin Pike 
again encountered the Federal cavalry. The Third Te.xas was sent forward to attack 
a train of wagons which was moving in the direction of Franklin. The regiment 
succeeded in reaching the pike, but was there met by a superior force of the enemy 
and dri\-en back after a spirited engagement. Seeing this, General Ross directed 
Colonel E. R. Ilawkiu^ to hurry up with the Twenty-seventh Regiment to the assist- 
ance of the Third, and ordered a charge. It was made in gallant style, and resulted 
in forcing the enemy from the held in confusion, with the loss of several prisoners 
and the colors of the Seventh Ohio Cavalry. In the mean while Colonel Jack 
Wharton with the Si.xth Te.xas charged onto the pike to ttie right of where the Third 
and Twenty-seventh Regiments were engaged, and captured an entire company of 
the Seventh Ohio Ca\alry, three stands of colors, several wagons loaded with ord- 
nance, and a considerable number of horses with their equipments. The Ninth 
Texas, under Colonel Dudley W. Jones, having been detached early in the day to 
guard the road leading to the right, was not otherwise engaged during the evening 
than a slight skirmish with the enemy's pickets, in which several prisoners were 
taken. It was then after night and very dark. The enemy had disappeared in 
the front and retreated in the direction of Franklin, but General Ross thought pru- 
dent before establishing camp to ascertain if any force of the enemy had been cut 
off and yet remained between his command and the ri\'er. For this purpose Colonel 
E. R. Hawkins was ordered up the pike with his regiment (the Twenty-seventh 
Texas), and had proceeded but a short distance when he was met by a brigade of 
the enemy's cavair}'. An exciting fight in the dark ensued, lasting about half an 
ho\ir, when the enemy, having much the larger force, succeeded in passing by the 
Texans, recei\ing as they did so a severe fire into their flanks. 

The next day at Hurt's Cross-Roads, where the other commands of cavalry took 
the left towards .Spring Hill, Ross's brigade advanced up the road towards Frank- 
lin. After advancing some distance it turned towards Thompson's Station in search 
of the enemy, who had disappeared in the direction of Franklin after being com- 
pletely whipped. When near the station a few wagons were discovered moving on 
the jiikc, and General Ross sent Colonel Jones with the Ninth and Twenty-seventli 
Regiments to intercept and capture them. At the same time the Third and Sixth 
Regiments were drawn up in line, and a squadron from the Third despatched to 
destroy the de[)ot. Colonel Jones was partially successful, capturing and destroying 
one wagon and securing the team. He then charged a train of cars which had 
come up from the direction of Franklin, when the engineer becoming frightened cut 
the engine loose and ran ofl to the south. The train thus freed ran down grade, 
and, in spite of obstructions thrown on the track, rolled back under the guns of a 
block-house and was saved. The guard, however, and all the men on the train 
were forced to jump off, and were taken prisoners. In the mean time the enem\- at 
the depot, having obscr\-ed the approach of the squadron from the Third Texas, 
applied the torch to all valuables, fncluding a train of cars loaded with ordnance, 
and cvacuntnl the \Ance. Having accomplished all that could be done there, Gen- 
eral Riiss fell back to a point near Spring Hill, to a«-ait orders frc>m the di\-ision 


commander, General \V. H. Jackson. About midnight orders came to again strike 
the pike and attack the enemy's train, then in full retreat towards Franklin. Guided 
by an officer of General Forrest's staff, who knew the country, the pike was soon 
reached, and, when distant about half a mile from it, three regiments were dis- 
mounted, the Ninth remaining mounted to guard the horses, and the advance was 
made cautiously on foot. The Te.xar.s got within about one hundred yards of the 
enemy's train without being discovered, when theTwents'-seventh Regiment, being in 
ad\'ance, fronted into line, tired a well-directed volley, killing se\eral men, a number 
of mules, and rushing forward with a yell produced a perfect stampede among the 
teamsters and guards. They captured thirty-nine wagons with teams and a number 
of prisoners. .After remaining in possession of the pike for a short time the brigade 
silently withdrew upon the approach oi several bodies of the enemy's infantry, 
which, coming up from opposite directions, by mistake commenced firing into each 
other, and e.xchanged several volleys before discovering their error. Occupying a 
position ujjon the neighboring hills overlooking the pike, the Te.xans viewed the 
Federal army in full retreat. While this was passing, a regiment of the enemy's 
cavalry appeared in an open field in front of the Texans, as if to challenge them to 
the combat. The Sixth Texas attacked it in an impetuous charge, completely 
routed it, and drove it behind the infantry column. Keeping along parallel with 
the advancing columns of General Hood, the Texas brigade crossed the Harpeth 
River three miles abo\e Franklin that evening, where only a small body of the 
enemy appeared to dispute the passage. Half a mile farther on, however, a regi- 
ment was found drawn up in line. The Ninth Texas at once advanced to the 
charge and routed them, but in the pursuit was met by a larger force, and was, in 
turn, compelled to give back, the enemy following in close pursuit. The Third 
Texas then rushed forward, checked the advancing squadrons of the enemy and 
hurled them back broken and disorganized, capturing several prisoners and driving 
the others back to the main line. The infantry of both armies coming up at this 
time engaged in a terrific combat, and the cavalry retired and took position on the 
flank, after having thus opened the bloody battle of Franklin. The gallant bearing 
of the men and officers of these two regiments on this occasion is referred to by 
General Ross as deserving of special commendation, and he says in his report : " It 
affords me much gratification to record to the honor of these noble regiments that 
the charges made by them at Harpeth River have never been and cannot be sur- 
passed by cavalry of any nation." By this charge the Texans gained jiossession of 
an eminence overlooking the enemy's position, which they held until late that after- 
noon, when, discovering an intention on the part of the Federal commander to 
advance his entire force, they withdrew to the south side oi the river. Very soon 
the whole line of the enemy advanced, but, upon finding that the Texans had fallen 
back across the river, retired, and during the night withdrew towards Nashville. 
The next day the brigade moved forward, arrived in front of .Nashville on December 
3, and took possession of tlie Nolansville Pike, tiiree miK-s from the city. Just in 
front was a line of works, and General Ross, wishing to ascertain what force occu- 
pied it, had two squndrnns of the Si.-rth Texas to dismount, deploy as skirmishers, 
and advance. It was then discovered that the line was only occupied by the 
enemy's skirmishers, who withdrew upon the approach of tlie Texans. Having 
Vol.. II.— 40 


been relieved by the infantry soon after this, the cavalry retired to the rear, and 
were ordered to cook up rations. 

On the morning of December 5 the brigade marched to La Vergnc and found 
a small force of the enemy's infantry there, which took refuge inside the fort, but 
they surrendered after a feeble resistance. Moving thence to Murfreesboro', when 
within a few miles of the city the enemy's pickets were encountered, and, after 
a stubborn resistance, driven back by the Third and Sixth Texas, dismounted. A 
few days afterwards Major-General Forrest in\'ested Murfreesboro' with his cav- 
alry corps and one division of infantry. The duly assigned to the Texas brigade 
was to guard all the approaches to the city from the Salem to the Woodbury Pikes, 
in which it was engaged in skirmishes almost daily. 

On December 15 the brigade captured a train of cars from Stevenson, hea\ily 
loaded with sujiplics for the garrison at Murfreesboro', about seven miles south 
of that city, which was guarded by a regiment of infantry. The guard fought des- 
perately for about an hour, ha\ing a strong position in a cut in the railroad, but was 
finally routed by a most gallant charge by the Sixth Texas, supported by the Third, 
and one hundred and fifty prisoners captured ; the others escaped to a block-house 
near by. The train contained fully tuo hundred thousand rations of sugar, coffee, 
hard-bread, and bacon, and the Texans regretted they were unable to carry it all 
with them, and were compelled to burn it. 

The next day, in consequence of the reverse to the Confederate arms at Nash- 
ville, tlie brigade was withdrawn from the front at Murfreesboro', was ordered 
across to Triune, and thence to Columbia, crossing Duck River on the evening of 
the iSth. On the 24th of December, while bringing up the rear of the army, the 
enemy charged the rear-guard of the brigade at LynnsviUe with a hea\'y force, and 
threatened to carry all opposition before them. The Sixtli Texas, forming hastily, 
met and hurled them back, administering a severe lesson and giving a most whole- 
some check to their ardor. Again, when the Conf'jdcrate arm)' was crossing Rich- 
land Creek, near Pulaski, its rear pressed hard by the pursuing enemy, the Texas 
brigade held thim in check by a bold front until all had crossed over. The next 
day, as rear-guard, the brigade was constantly engaged with the enemy's advance ; 
and nine miles from Pulaski, when the Confederate infantry halted and formed, the 
enemy made a determined effort to turn its right flank. General Ross discovered 
the movement in time to defeat it, and drove the flanking column back in confusion. 
At the same time the infantry charged and captured the enemy's artillery, adminis- 
tering such an effectual check that they did not again show themselves that day. 
Early the following morning, the enemy, still not satisfied, made their appearance, 
and the infantry again made dispositions to receive them. Reynolds' s and Ector's 
brigades took position, and the Ninth and Twenty-seventh Texas were drawn up in 
column of fours immediately in their rear. The fog was dense, and the enemy 
advanced very cautiously. When near enough to be seen, the infantry fired a volley 
ard charged. . At the same time the two Texas regiments sprang forward, ar.d. 
passing through the infantry, crossed Sugar Creek in the face of a terrific fire, 
oxercame all opposition in a gallant charge, and pursued the thoroughly routed foe 
Cjuite a mile, Ciptiiring twelve prisoners with their horses, besides killing numbers 
of others. From the prisoners captured it was 1< arned that the attacking enemy 


were Hammond's brigade of cavalry. After this the enemy did not again show 
themselves on this retreat, and without further interruption the brigade rec'rossed 
the Tennessee River at Bainbridge on the evening of December 27, 1864, and 
went into camp at Corinth, Mississippi. 

The losses in the brigade during this campaign into Tennessee, lasting thirty- 
nine days of almost constant fighting, were as follows : Third Te.xas, two men 
killed, three officers and tu'enty-two men wounded, one ofilTcer and two men cap- 
tured, total thirty ; Si.xth Te.xas, six men killed, three olTicers and nineteen men 
wounded, one man captured, total tweuty-nine ; Ninth Texas, four men killed, 
seventeen men wounded, one man caj)tured, total twenty-two ; Twenty-seventh 
Texas, six men wounded ; making an aggregate loss of eight-seven. They cap- 
tured in the campaign and brought off five hundred and fifty prisoners, nine stands 
of colors, several hundred horses with equipments, and overcoats and blankets 
sufificient to supply the whole brigade. Besides these, they destroyed two trains of 
loaded cars, one with ordnance and the other with commissary stores, and much 
other valuable property belonging to the Federal government. 

In his report of this campaign. General Ross, the brigade commander, says : 
"Before closing my report I desire to record an acknowledgment of grateful 
obligations to the gallant officers and brave men whom I have the honor to com- 
mand. Entering upon the campaign poorly clad and ill prepared fen undergoing 
its liardships, these worthy votaries of freedom, nevertheless, bore themselx-es 
bravely ; and I did not hear a murmur nor u itness the least reluctance in tiie dis- 
charge of duty, however unpleasant. All did well, and to this I attribute, in a 
great measure, the unparalleled success whicli attended all our efforts during the 
campaign." He also particularly mentioned, as having acquitted themselves with 
zeal and efficient co-operation on trjing occasions. Colonel D. \V. Jones, Colonel 
E. R. Hawkins, Colonel Jack Wharton, and Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. Boggess, who 
commanded their respective regiments, as well as Lieutenant-Colonel P. F. Ross 
and Major S. B. Wilson, of the Si.xth Texas ; Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Whitfield 
and Major B. H. Norsworthy, of the Twenty-seventh ; Major A. B. Stone, of the 
Third ; Major H. C. Dial, of the Ninth, and the members of his staff. 

Fn im Corinth the brigade moved down to Central Mississippi the latter part of 
Januar) , 1S65, and there engaged in picket duty in front of \'icksburg, covering a 
front of about one hundred miles. Small skirmishes with foraging parties of the 
enemy weie of almost daily occurrence, but they had no severe fighting. 

After the fall of the Confederacy the brigade surrendered at Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, Colonel D. ^V. Jones commanding. 

Fourth Cavalry Regiment, Arizona Brigade. — Colonel, Spruce M. Baird ; 
lieutenant-colonel, Daniel Showalter ; major, Edward Riordan. 

Was in the Arizona campaign, and after the evacuation of that Te^ritor^' by 
the Confederates this regiment served the balance of the war in Texas, on the 
lower Rio Grande, and was at Browns\ille when the war closed. 

Fourth Infantry Battalion. (German Battalion, si.x months' organization.) — 
Major, Theodore Oswald. 

Fifth IZci^iment Partisan Ram^^frs. — Colrmel, Lconidas M. Martin ; lieutenant- 
colonc:!, WilHani N. Weaver ; major, Willi. im N. Mayrant. 



Served in Arkansas and the Indian Territory. 

Fifth {Hubbard's) Infantry Battalion. (.Merged into Twenty-second Regi- 
ment.) — Lieutenant-Colonel, Richard Bennett Hiibljard ; inajcjr, Elias Everett Lett. 
Sixth Cavalry Battalion. — Major; lieutenant-colonel, Robert S. Gould; major, 
VV'illiani \V. \^eser. 

Sor\ed in Tex:is and Louisiana. 

Si.vtii Infantry Regiment. — Colonel, Robert R. Garland ; lieutenant-colonel, 
Thomas Scott .Anderson ; major, Rhoads T'isher ; major, Alexander M. Plaskell ; 
major, Alexander H. Phillies, Jr. 

Was organized in iS6i, went to Arkansas in 1862, and was surrendered at 
Arkansas Post in January, 1S63. After its exchange it was consolidated with the 
Tenth Texas Infantry, and served east of the Mississippi River, in Ector's brigade. 
Seventh Infantry Kegiinent. — Officers : Colonel, John Gregg ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Jeremiali M. Clough ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, Hiram Brinsnn 
Granbury ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, William Lewis Moody ; major, 
Kleber Miller Van Zandt. 

This regiment was enlisted early in 1861 and repaired immediately to Ken- 
tucky, where it took an active part in those stirring scents which resulted in the 
withdrawal of the Confederate army under General 

'^ ' ' Albert Sidney Johnston from that State. It was at 

j F"ort Doneison and conducted itself with distinguished 
bravery, and its lieutenant-colonel, J. M. Clough, 
with twenty others, was killed in a gallant charge 
upon tlic enemy. Upon the surrender of that place 
^'••- ^5?* ^ the regiment v%as confined as prisoners of war at 

\'^% "" Camp Douglas for nine months, during which time 

the suffering of the men was almost incredible. After 
their the regiment immediately took the 
field again, and with the Confederate army which 
General Grant dro\e before him with such brute 
force of superior numbers from Grand Gulf to Jack- 
son, Mississippi, in his victorious march to the in- 
vestment of X'icksburg. It participated iii the battles 
of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, and Baker's 
Creek, during which its losses were heavy. It was 
afterwards engaged in the Tennessee campaigns as a 
part of Gregg's brigade, and kept up its well-earned 
„....,....„ j„„> .,^^..^. reputation as a fighting regiment. It gave two gen- 

eral officers to the Confederate army, in the persons of Brigadier-Generals John 
Gregg and II. D. Granbury, both of wliom Texas feels proud to claim as her sons. 
Seventh Infantry Battalion. — Major, S.unuel P.oyer Davis. 

Eighth Irfantrv Battalion. (Merged into Eighth Regiment. )— .Major, Alfred 
M. Hobby. 

Eighth iHobhys) Infantry Regimen!. (Formed from Eighth Battalion.)— 
Colonel, .A. M. Hobby; licutenant-eolonel, Daniel D. Shea; major; lieutenant- 
colonel, John Irelar.d ; major, John .-\. \\ ruou. 


\>:^ k 


This regiment ser\'ed in Texas durincf the wliole time f)f the uar, until General 
Banks's Red River campaign, when it went to Louisiana and took part in the 
batdcs of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. 

A'inlli Battalion Partisan Rani:crs. — .Major, John L. Randolph. 

N^iiit/i (jVic/io/s's) Infantry Rrj^inu-nt. (.Also called Fifth, si.x months' or- 
ganization). — This regiment was raised in the 
summer of the year 1S62, chiefly for the purposes ; 
of guard duty in the city of Galveston. Its field \ -j^S&i-oS^ 

officers were : colonel, E. B. Nichols ; lieutenant- ' I: B ' 

colonel, Josiah C. Massie ; major, Fred Tate. I ,^ «?« «» ^ 

It was enlisted for only si.x months, and \ ."'. -j 

during that period its service was confined to * '^ 

patrol ar.d guard duty at Galveston and contigu- 
ous points. It is not known to have ever met the 
enemy, but at the expiration of its term of enlist- 
ment many of its members enlisted in other com- 
mands, and rendered efiticient service to the 

Southern cause. Nearly all of the companies re- . / 

enlisted en jnassc in Waul's Legion, and formed ' | 

the basis of that celebrated command. [• ' • /;^ 

A' inlh {J laxrv's) Infantry Rcghuenf. (Also f ' C, . ^^.^r^'_ ' ■ '^k 

called Eighth. )— Colonel, Samuel B. Ma.\cv ; i^J^^i^AV. ,..:. ...v. i;" .:-...: JiiJ 

1 1 TTTMi- TT 17 t- , ' ■, Coi-O.NLIL .\. M. HoBB\-. 

colonel, William H. Young ; lieutenant-colonel, 

VVilliam E. Bceson ; lieutenant-colonel. Miles A. Dillard ; major; colonel, \\'ri>.;ht 

A. Stanley ; major, James Burnet ; major, William M. Harrison ; major, James M. 


This regiment was one of the earliest to enlist, and imnnxliately v.-ent to Ten- 
nessee to report to General Albert Sidney Johnston. It was at the battle of Shiloh, 
and distinguished for its braver)-. It also went through the Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky campaigns under General Bragg, and was with the ill-fated expedition of Hood into Tennessee in iS6-|. It gave one major-general, S. B. Ma.xev, 
and one brigadier-general, Wiiiiam H. Young, to die Confedciate army. It v/as 
one of the regiments in Ector's brigade. 

Tet'Jh Cavalry Battal'\vi. (Merged into Fifth Partisan Rangers.) — Major. 
Leonidas M. Martin. 

Tcntli Cavalry Rro;i>nr)it.—Co\ont\, Matt F. Locke ; lieutenant-colonel ; col- 
onel, C. R. Earp ; lieutenant-colonel, James .M. Barton : major; lieutenant-colon.el, 
Washington de Lafayette Craig ; major, Wilo\- P.. Ector ; ni.ijor, Hulum IX E. 

This regiment scr\-ed in, Louisiana, and .Arkansas the earlier jjart of the 
war, but was ordered east of the Mississippi River, where it uas consolidated with 
the Fourtcentli Texas Cavalry, and dismounted. It was in Ector's brigade in the 
Tennessee campaigns. 

Tenth Infantry Regintrnf. — Colonel, Allison Nelson ; lieutenant-colonel ; col- 
onel ; Roger O. Mills ; m.ijor ; lieutenant-colonel, Robert B. ^'oung ; major, John 
R. Ivennard ; major, Seymour C. Brasher. 


This regiment sened in Texas and Arkansas until January 1.S63, when it 
was captured at Arkansas Post. After its exchange it was consolidated with the 
Sixth and Fifteenth Te.\as Infantry, and became a part of Dcshler's brigade in 
Cleburne's division in the Tennessee campaigns. 

Elfvoith Caz-ahj R£!:^iinenf. — Colonel, John C. Burks ; colonel, George R. 
Reexes ; colonel, William C. Young ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, Joseph Murphy 
Rounds ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, James J. Diamond ; lieutenant-colonel, Robert 
W. Hooks ; lieutenant-colonel, Andrew J. Nicholson ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; 
colom. 1, Otis -M. Mesr-ick ; major, Henry F. Bone; major, John W. Mayrant ; 
major, John B. i'uryear. 

This regiment served in Arkansas for a time in the early part of the war, but 
in 1S63 was sent cast of the Mississippi River, where, with the Eighth Texas 
Cavalry, it formed a part of General Joseph Wheeler's celebrated cavalry corps. 

Ekvcnth (Spai^^hfs) Cavalry and Infantry Battalion. (Formerly Sixth 
(Liken'sj Battalion.) — Lieutenant-colonel, Ashley W. Spaight ; major, J. S. 

Eleventh Infantry Regiment. — Colonel, Oran M. Roberts ; lieutenant-colonel; 
colonel, James H. Jones ; lieutenant-colonel, A. J. Coupland ; major, Nathaniel 
Jackson Caraway ; major, Thomas H. Rountree. 

This regiment saw much active ser\'ice in Louisiana, and gained distinction as 
a pari of Walker's divibion during General Banks's 
Red River campaign. 

Turlfth Cavalry Battalioji. (Merged into 
I Brown's Thirty-fifth Cavalry.) — Lieutenant-colonel, 
' I Reuben R. Brown ; major, Samuel William Perkins. 

' '*£S'«;t ■ Served on the coast in the State altogether, 

j '^^) ^ s \ Txvc/fth Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, William 

i ■; ..^ _, ■ i H. Parsons ; lieutenant-colonel, Andrew Bell Burle- 

I . ' son : lieutenant-colonel, John ^\^ Mullen ; major, 

1 fT^'^' ,. Lock] in Johnson Farrar ; major, E. W. Rogers. 

' This regiment served in Louisiana and Arkansas. 

: Tzrclfih Infantry Regiment. (Also called 

' Eiyhtii. ) — -Colonel, Overton Young ; lieutenant-colo- 

! nel, Benjamin A. Philpott ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, 
William Clark ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, James W. 
Raine ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, Erastus Smith. 

LOLOStU REUBliN R. I;k jUN. , . . . . . 

This regiment served in Louisiana and Arkansas. 
Thirteenth Infantry Regiment. — This regiment was organized in the fall of 
1S61, with Jiiseph Bates a.s colonel, and he continued to hold that position until 
the close of the war. Reuben R. Brown and Henry P. Cayce were lieutenant- 
colonels at different times, and Robert L. Foard, Ste[)hen S. Perry, and Lee C. 
Roimtree were major;. Its ser\-ices were exclusively confined to guard duty along 
the coast between Galveston and Matagorda ; and while the regiment participated 
in no gc-neral engagements, detachments from it frequently mot marauding parties 
from the L'nion troops on Matagorda Island and from the blockading vessels, and 
iuvariablv drove ihem from the mainl.un.1. 


Colonel Ov 

This regiment was ordered to Louisiana in May, 1S63, and arrived at Rrashear 
City the day after its capture by the Confederates, where it remained abdut seven 
weeks, and then returned to Texas and resumed 
its former service on the coast. Here it re- 
mained until disbanded at the close of hos- 

Tliirtccnth Caiahy Regiment. — Colonel, 
JohnH. Burnett; lieutenant-colonel; colonel, An- 
derson S. Crawford ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, 
Charles Roambrose Bcaty ; major, Elias T. Scale. 
Fourteenth Cavalry Battalion. (Merged into 
Thirty-third Cavalry Regiment.) — Major; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, James Dull ; major, James R. 

Fourteenth Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, 
John L. Camp ; colonel, Matthew Duncan Ec- 
tor ; colonel, Middleton Tait Johnson ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Abram Harris ; lieutenant-colo- 
nel, Samuel F. Mains ; major, Thompson Camp ; 
major, Fleming H. Garrison ; major, Lem Purdy. 
This regiment saw some service in Loin'siana 
and Arkansas, but its principal service was in Tennessee, where, consolidated with 
the Tenth Te.\as Cavalry, and dismounted, it formed a part of Ector's brigade. 

Fourteenth Infantry Regiment. — Colonel, Edward Clark ; lieutenant-colonel, 
William Byrd ; major, Augustus H. Rogers. 

The principal service of this regiment was 
with Walker's division in Louisiana. 

Fifteenth Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, 
George H. Sweet ; lieutenant-colonel, William K. 
Masten ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, George B. 
Pickett ; major, William H. Catliey ; major, \'a- 
lerius H. Sanders. 

This regiment, consolidaled with 
second Texas Ca\-alry, and disn 
part of Ector's brigade in the 

Fifteenth Ltfant'y Regiment. (Formed from 
First (Speight's) Infantry Battalion.) — Colonel, 
J. W. Speight ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, James 
E. ?Larrison ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, John W. 

This regiment saw some service in Louisi.uia 

CoLONtL J. L Camp. and Arkansas, but its chief service was in the 

Tennessee cam[)aigns, where it was consolidated 

with llir Sixth ai\d Tenth Texas Infantry, and formed a part of Dcshler's brigade 

in Cleburne's liivision. 

lunied, formed a 
Tennessee cam- 


Sixkenth Caicihy Rci^inunt. — Colonel, William Fitzhugh ; lieutenant-colonel ; 
colonel, Edward Pearsall Grejjg ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, William W. Diamond. 
The principal service of this regiment was as a part of Walker's division in 
resisting General Banks's Red River campaign in Louisiana. 

Sixteenth Infantry Rcgisiient. (Al.-,o called Seventh.) — Colonel, George 
Flournoy ; lieutenant-colonel, James FI. Shepard ; major ; licutenaiu-colonel, 
William FI. Redwood ; major, Xenojihon B. Saunders. 

This regiment was a piart of Walker's di\ision in Louisiana, and participated 
in all the engagements during Banks's Red River campaign. 

Seventeenth Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, George Y. Moore ; colonel. James 
R. Taylor ; lieutenant-colonel. Sterling B. Hendricks ; major ; colonel, Thomas ¥. 
Tucker ; major, lieutenant-colonel, John McClarty ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, 
Scbron M. Noble. 

In Cleburne's division, Deshler's brigade, in the Tennessee campaigns, where 
it was consolidated with the Eighteenth, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-filth Te.xas 
Cavalry, and all dismounted. 

Seventeent/i Infantry Regiment.— Colond, Robert Thomas Pritchard Allen ; 
lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, George W. Jones ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, Joseph 

Zachariah Miller ; major, Robert Dickinson Allen ; 

I ■ . major, John W'. Tabor. 

I , In Walker's division in Louisiana. 

"*■"* ^ Eighteenth Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, 

I ^ ^' Nicholas H. Darnell ; lieutenant-colonel, John T. 

I f, '5*^^'^ Coit ; major, Chas. C. Morgan; major, William 

I ■^ ,f-.. 3 A. Ryan. 

~\s^ '* " This regiment saw some service in Louisiana 

* ' (..- "*>,. ^'^^ Arkansas, but is chiefly distinguished as a 

■" part of Deshler's brigade, Cleburne's division, in 

I the Tennessee campaigns, where it was consoli- 

/■., dated with the Seventeenth, Twenty-fourth, and 

V ^ » ' Twenty-fifth Te.xas Ca\-alry, and all were dis- 

■ mounted. 

■ ■ Eighteenth Infantiy Regiment. — Colonel, 
CoLCNEL NATiiANiEi. M. BiKFORD. WllHam B. Ochiltrce ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, 

David B. Culbertson ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; 
colonel, Thomas Reuben Bonner ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, Wilburn 
Flenry King- ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, John R. W^atson ; majrir ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel ; colonel, Joseph G. W. Wood ; major, Matthew A. Gaston. 

Was in Walker's division in the Louisiana campaigns of 1863 and 1.S64. 

Nineteenth Cavalry Regimetil. — Colonel, Nathaniel M. Burford ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Benj. W. Watson ; major, Joel T. Davis. 

Was in the I.ouisiana campaigns of 1S63 and 1S64. 

A'ineteenth Infantry Regiment.— .Co\onii\, Richard Waterhouse, Jr.; lieutenant- 
colonel, Robe-rt H. Graham ; major ; lieutenant-colonel ; colonel, Ennis Ward Tay- 
lor ; major ; lieutenant-ccjlonel, William L. Crawford ; major, Augustus C. Alien. 

Was in W.diier's division in the campaigns. 



Tipenlicth Infanlry Regunent. — This regiment was organized in the spring of 
1862, with the following field officers, who continued to fill the same throughout 
the war, viz.: colonel, Henry M. Elmore; lieutenant-colonel, Leonard A. Abcr- 
crombie ; major, Robert E. Bell. 

The rank and file were, for the most part, competed of middle-aged men ; heads 
of families and many prominent citizens were among 
them. It never saw any ser\'icc outside the State, 
but was mostly engaged in guard duty at Galveston, j^^^.jr- 

Sabine Pass, Beaumont, and Niblett's Bluff, on the %' '''4 ':St cdi 

Sabine River. It was stationed at Virginia Point Pj?* ^ 

in December, 1862, and was honored by being ^ * --^sSjl 

selected by General Magruder as one of the regi- f t" -'.- ^ 

ments to participate in the recapture of the city of _^.-^\ s. ' " 'j**,^ 

Gahestoii on the morning of January i, 1863. ^^ '*- , ',_ "^ 

During the previous night the entire regiment '"'' * 

crossed over to Galveston Island, hauling several ^-^ / 

large siege-guns by hand, which they carried by "'^'S''^ 

a circuitous route and planted in advantageous 

positions before tlie attack was made. Two com- ^^^^^^^ „^^.^^. ^, ^^^^^^^_ 

panics of the regiment, being better armed than 

the others, were among the attacking party, v.-hich captured several companies of 
a Massachusetts regiment on Kuhn's wharf, and lost several men from severe 
wounds. The regiment remained in or near GaKeston until the close of the war. 

Ticenticlh Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, Thomas Coke Kass ; lieutenant-col- 
onel, Andrew J. Fowler ; lieutenant-colonel, T. D. Taliaferro ; major, Dempsey W. 
■ Hroughton ; major, John R. Johnson. 

Ser\ed in Te.xas, Indian Territory, and Arkansas. 

7\('S)ily-/irst Cavalry Regiment. (First Lancers.) — Colonel, George Wash- 
ington Carter ; lieutenant-colonel, De Witt Clinton Giddings ; lieutenant-colonel, 
Robert Neyland ; major, Benjamin D. Chenoweth. 

Served in the Louisiana campaigns. 

Tu-enly-Jhst Texas Infantry. (A. \\. Simight's regiment. ^—Spaight's regi- 
ment, TexHs Volunteer Infantry, was organized No\-enibcr 20, 1S64, by the con- 
solidation of six companies of Spaight's battalion with four companies of Griflin's 
battalion. The two battalions thus merged were organized in May and June, 
1862, respectively, and the service rendered by them becomes a necessary part of 
the history of the regiment. 

Field and staff officers of the regiment : A. W. Spaight, who entered the 
service as a private, rose to captain and afterwards to lieutenant-colonel, was pro- 
moted to colonel ; W. H. Griffin, major and afterwards lieutenant-colonel of Grif- 
fin's battalion, was retained as lieutenant-colonel ; F. C. McRevnolds, who had 
sen-ed as caf.tain and been promoted to major of GnlTm's battalion, \^as made the 
major ; John T. Johnson, adjutant of .Spaight's battalion, was retained as adjutant ; 
and A. B. Tro\'el was ]ironioted from the ranks in Wanl's Legion to ensign. 

Officers retired and assigned to other conunands ; J. S. Irvine, who had been 
private, captain, and vs-as major of Spaight's battalion, resigned on surgeon's cer- 


tificate of disability ; Captain B. W. Brown, assistant quartermaster, was retired on 
the same grounds, tlie effects of a severe wound ; and Assistant Surgeon J. A. 
Blanchard, of Spaiglit's battalion, was assigned to duty in the Twentieth Regiment, 
Texas \'olunteer Infantry. 

Companies : CajJtain O. N. Marsh's Company A, Captain George W. O' Bry- 
an's Company 13, Captain Samuel Evans's Company C, Captain J. H. Deegan's 
Company D, Captain W. C. Gibbs's Company E, Captain W. B. Duncan's Com- 
pany F, Captain I. M. Givens's Company G, Captain B. E. Gentry's Company H, 
Cajjtain W. J. Car^^on's Company I, and Captain Thomas Leonard's Company K. 

The three companies, K. D. Keith's, of Spaight's battalion, and Cook's and 
Bickley's, of Griffin's, were attached to Bates's regiment, Texas Volunteer In- 

At the battle of Galveston, on tlie ist of January, 1863, four companies of the 
regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Griffin were engaged, — namely, Evans's, Dee- 
gan's, Gi\ens's, and Carson's, and formed a part of the attacking forces in the 
assault on the Federal troops barricaded on Kuhn's wharf. 

In August, 1S62, yellow fever breaking out at Sabine Pass, Spaight's battalion 
was withdrawn to Beaumont, and the post and fort abandoned by orders from the 
commanding general ; thereupon the harbor was en- 
^ tered and occupied by two armed vessels. Morning 
.,^.^ ' Light and Velocity. Ii; the expedition, composed of 

, ' y "tsj, I about three hundred artillery, infantry, and cavalry, 

•^.i volunteers from Pyron's and Cook's regiments and 

=r^ "5^ 1^ Spaight's battalion, fitted out to capture or drive out 

»>.-■-< 'J' \ these vessels, one hundred and eighty men and twelve 

• ._' jf> ; officers of Spaight's battalion were engaged in the sea 

V. .-, ■- ' '". ! fight on the 24th of January, 1S63. When it is con- 

I -- , j sidered that the attack and capture of these vessels, 

carrying thirteen heavy guns, was made twenty-seven 
miles off-shore by two light-draught river craft, the 
Josiah Bell and Uncle Ben, with an armament of one 
heavy rifled gun and one twelve-pounder and about 
three hundred Enfield rifles, the annals of war may be 
searclied in \ain for a more hazardous undertaking so successfully accomplished. 
To Captain Charles Fouler the honor is justly awarded of fitting out and conduct- 
ing this perilous expedition to its fortunate issue. 

In the night attack and capture of the garrison at Brashcar City, Louisiana, 
now Morgan's City, in 1S63, Spaight's battalion participated, and after tiie battle 
was assigned to the duty of rear-guard on the retreat made necessary by the arrival 
of a largely superior force from New Orleans. Here it was supplied for the first 
time with a full complement of Enfield rifles and fixed anmnmitiou and much-needed 
clothing as a part of the spoils of victory. 

On the 7th of September, 1S63, Captain K. D. Keith's company of Spaight's 
battalion, with Captain Odum's company of Cook's regiment, composed the gar- 
rison at .Sabine Pass, and participated in tl'.e memorable defence of that post, in 
which l«o Federal gunboats Sachem and Clifton werr disabled and cnjitured and a 


force of six thousand troops was driven off, and the initial movement for the in\asion 
of Texas defeated. 

In the l)attle of Fordoche, Louisiana, September 28, 1S63, Spaight's battalion 
formed a part of the Texas brigade which bore the brnnt of the tight against the 
Federal infantry force protected by a high levee surrounding the Sterling planta- 
tion. Its loss in killed and wounded was one in seven of the men it brought into 
the engagement. General Tom Green, in a letter to his wife, written the tla)- after 
the battle, says : " It was one of the most desperate fights on record, and one in 
which there was more d.iuntless courage disiilayed than any other, perhaps, in the 
war. Nothing can be imagined more terrible on the same scale." And in his 
official report, after bestowing warm praise on the Texas troops "for their per- 
sistent courage and valor," thus refers to the field and company officers: "To 
Lieutenant-Colonel Harrison, commanding Spaight's brigade, and Lieutenant-Col- 
onels A. W. Spaight and Clack and Major Daniels, who led their commands to the 
attack, all honor is due, and also to the officers of their several commands, who 
displayed great coolness in tlie action. The heavy loss of Spaight's brigade shows 
the desperate nature of the conflict." He concludes with a high tribute to the 
gallantry of Lieutenant John B. Jones, acting assistant adjutant-general of the 

On the 8th of May, 1864, Marsli's, O' Bryan's, Gibbs's, and Gentry's com- 
panies of Spaight's battalion, and Evans's, Dec-gan's, and Gi\'ens's, of Griftin's, 
with Hughes's light battery and Howard's company of Daly's battalion, in com- 
mand of I^icutenant-Colonel Grifhn, attacked and captured two Federal vessels. 
Granite OVr and Wave, at Calcasieu Pass, Louisiana. These vessels, feeling secure 
from attack by reason of their heavy arniaraent, ventured inside the harbor, and 
were moor-^d within rifle range of the shore. Although surprised by the boldness 
and vigor of the attack delivered at sunrise, they made a stubborn and persistent 
defence, the Wave keeping up the fight and pouring a broadside into the ranks of 
the Confederates after the Granite City had displayed the white flag. Two hundred 
prisoners, a large quantity of arms and ammunition and ship-stores were the fruits 
of the capture. Coincident in time and in co-operation with this movement, 
Colont! Spaight, with the remainder of his command, made a forced march on 
Lake Charles, Louisiana, from his post at Beaumont, Texas, in order to head otf 
and defeat a detachment of three hundred troops reported by scouts to be on their 
way from the vessels below to Lake Charles for the purpose of seizing and bringing 
out or destroying several boats laden with Confederate cotton and lying at that 
point. Balked in their purpose by the opportune occupation of Lake Charles by 
the small Confederate force, and apprised of the attack on the vessels at Calcasieu 
Pass by the heavy tiring, which could be distinctly heard at Lake Charles, the 
detachment of raiders, it is thought, retreated by way of the river, and, finding their 
vessels captured, made their way o\erland to Brashear City, the nearest Federal 
post. In 'he absence of ca\-alry, it was not practicable to ascertain their movements, 
much less to make successful pursuit. 

Tivcnty-srcond Cavalry Rts^imcnt. (Also called First Indian-Texas Regiment.) 
Colonel, Robert H. Tavlor ; lieutenant-colonel, William H. Johnson ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Thomas Lewelling : major ; colonel, James G. Stevens ; major ; lieutenant- 

636 A COMPREHENSIVP: history of TEXAS. 

colonel, John A. Buck ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, George \V. Merrick ; major ; 
lieutenant-colonel, Robert D. Stone. 

Tuienty-second Infantry Regiment. (Formed from Mubbard's Fifth Battalion.) 

' ^ If ' 

Colonel N. C. Golld. Colo.nel C. C. Gillespie. 

— Colonel, Richard B. Hubbard ; lieutenant-colonel, Elias Everett Lott ; major ; 
lieutenant-colonel, John Job Canon ; major, Benjamin F. Parkes. 

AVas a part of Walker's di\ision, and participated in the Louisiana campaigns. 
Twenty-third Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, Nicholas C. Gould ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Isaac A. Grant ; major ; lieutenant-colonel, John A. Corley ; major, Wil- 
liam B. Caton. 

Was in service ia Texas and the Indian Territory until the spring of 1SG4, when 
it went to Louisiana to meet General Banks's Red River expedition, and then it took 
an active part in all the engagements of that campaign. 

Turnty-Jonrt/i Cavalry Regiment. (Second Lancers.) — Colonel, Francis Col- 

lett Wilkes ; lieutenant-colonel, Robert Reese Ney- 

" "■ land ; major ; colonel, William A. Taylor ; major ; 

. t lieutenant-colonel, Patrick H. Swearingen. 

f This regiment first saw service in Louisiana and 

\ ^ _ Arkansas, and was captured at' Arkansas Post in Jan- 

^ % uary, 1S63. After its exchange it served in the Ten- 

" ' "^ |Fj nessee campaigns, where it was consolidated with tlie 

•'^S\ * ' Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Twenty-fifth Texas 

'- •" ^- Cavalry Regiments, and was in Dcshler's brigade, 

^ Cleburne's division. 

j y''^ • \'^ ' ; Tu-enty-fifth Cavalry Regiment. (Third Lan- 

t ■ . *■' ' cers. ) — Colonel, Clayton Crawford Gillespie; lieu 

j ' .iJ*^.. ; "^ tenant-colonel, William Madison Neyland ; lieuten- 

; \ ant-colonel (declined), Francis J. Boggs ; major. 

'' Co. ONE. K c w.LKKs ' Joseph X. Dark ; major, Edward Bradford Pickett. 

This regiment v.-as in service in Louisiana and 
Arkansas until the spring of 1S64, when it was cajjtured at Arkansas Post. After 
it was exchanged it uas consolidated with the Sevente.Mitii, Eighteenth, and 


Twenty-fourth Texas Cavalry Rt-ijiments, and took part in the Tennessee cam- 
paigns, in Dcshler's brigade, Cleburne's division. 

Turnty-sixth Cavalry Mcgiiiunt. — Colonel, Xa\ier Blanchard dc Bray ; licu- 
tenant-colonel ; colonel, John j. Myers ; major , lieutenant-colonel. Medard Menard; 
major, George W. Owens. 

Tliis regiment was raised in 1862, and was in Te.xas till the spring of 1S64, 
when it went to Louisiana to meet General Banks's Red River expedition, where it 
particijjated in all the engagements of that campaign, including the battles of 
Mansfield and I' Hill. Its colonel, X. 11. de Bray, \\as promoted to be 

T'ix-enty-sez'cntli Cavalry Reginunt. (See Whitfield's Legion, history of Ross's 
brigade. ) 

Twevty-cigtith Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, Horace Randal ; lieutenant-col- 
onel ; colonel, Eli H. Ba.xler, Jr.; major ; lieutenant-colonel, Henry G. }lall ; major, 
Patrick Henry. 

This regiment saw active service in Arkansas and Louisiana, taking a prominent 
part in repulsing General Banks's Red River campaign in the spring of 1864. 

Tiicnty-ninth Cavalry Regi///fiif. —Colonul, Charles de Morse ; lieutenant- 
colon;!, Otis G. Welch ; major, Joseph A. Carroll. 

This regiment was in the Indian Territory, where it performed valuable services 
during t-wo years. 

Thirtieth Cavalry Regiment. (Also called First Partisan Rangers. ) — Colonel, 
Edward Jeremiah Gurley ; lieutenant-colonel, Nicholas William Batde ; major, 
John H. I)a\enport. 

This regiment sen-ed in the Indian Territory. 

Thirty-first Texas Cavalry. — This regiment was organized in April, 1862, and 
the term of enlistment was "for the war," be it long or short. I,ts field officers 
\\erc : colonel, Trezevant C. Hawpe ; lieutenant-colonel, George W. Guess ; major, 
Frederick J. Malone. 

Company A was r.iiscd in Dallas County, and its commissioned ofticers were : 
cajjtain, W. W. Peak ; first lieutenant, Thomas F"lynn ; second lieutenant, William 
Smith ; third lieutenant, M. I. Moore. 

Company B was raised in Bo.-.que Count}', ;ind the names r,f only two of its 

commissioned oflicers have been ascertained, \ iz. : captain. Anderson ; first 

lieutenant, Milton Jack. 

Company C was raised in Be.xar County, and its commisbioncd officers were ; 
captain, John Dunc:in ; first lieutenant, James Ti\ey ; second lieutenant, C. I. 
Church ; third lieutenant, Hale. 

Company D was raised in Erath County, and its captain John R. AValler, 
but the names of the other commissioned officers are unknown. 

Company E was raised in W'ise County ; Edward A. Blytlie was its cajjtain, 
but the names of the lieutenants are unknown. 

Company F was from Travis County, and its commissioned officers were : 

captain, William Thompson ; first lieutenant, Robertson ; second lieutenant, 

S. M. Cain ; third lieutenant, J. T. Gre-g. 

Company G was from DalLis County, .iikI its commissiniui,l officers were : 


captain, Georeje W. Barton ; first lieutenant, Z. E. Coombcs ; second lieutenant, 
VV. H. F. Nichols ; third lieutenant, D. H. Russell. 

Company H was from Hunt County, and its commissioned officers, so far as 
ascertained, were : captain, A. J. Marshall , first lieutenant, A. Cameron ; second 
lieutenant, Spencer. 

Companv 1 was 'al^o from Hunt County, and the only commissioned officer 
ascertained was : captain, A. J. Rumpas. 

Immediately upon its organization the regiment marched to Little Rock, 
Arkansas, and reported to General Hindman. It was Liy him ordered to -Southwest- 
ern Missouri, and reached Fayetteville, Arkansas, in July, 1S62. It marched into 
Newton County, Missouri, in August, and was the first Confederate force to meet 
Colonels Shelby and Cockrell when they came out of Missouri with recruits for the 
Confederate army. It went through the campaign in Southwest Missouri and the 
Indian Territory in the fall of 1S62, participating in the battles at Newtonia, Sep- 
tember 30, 1S62, Prairie Grove, and Old Fori Wayne. 

The regiment was dismounted in November, 1862, and was placed in a brigade 
with the Twentieth and Thirty-fourth Texas Cavalry Regiments, which was com- 
manded by Colonel W. R. Hradiute at the battle of Prairie Grove. A short time 
jirior to the fall of Arkansas Post this brigade was ordered from Fort Smith, where 
it was then camped, to Little Rock ; but upon arriving at Clarksville, Arkansas, 
the order was countermanded, and the Fifteenth Texas Infantry Regiment was 
added to the ttrigade, and its colonel, J. W. Speight, was placed in command, and 
the Twenty-second Texas Cavalry, under Colonel James G. Ste\'ens, was also 
added to it. The brigade as thus organized then retuincd to Fort Smith. }5riga- 
dier-General William Steele says in his report that he found this brigade, com- 
manded by Colonel Speight, at Fort Smitii, when he arrived there, January S, 
1863, badly disorganized, without discipline, and almost destitute of clothing and 
supplies. The weather was bitter cold, the men suUered great hardships, and 
many of them were unarmed. At Charleston, Arkansas, in January, 1862, a de- 
tachment of this brigade, which w as marching in the without arms, was surprised 
and captured by a company in the Union army commanded by Martin D. Hart, of 
Hunt County, a brother of Hardin Hart, who v.-as district judge of the Dallas dis- 
trict during reronstniction days. At the .s.ime time the brigade transportation was 
destroyed. Some six or eight days aftenvards Captain Hart captured by 
Colonel Piiil Crump, was court-martialed imci shot ; but the charges and sjjecifica- 
tions against liim are imknown. 

In May, 1H63, the brigade, with the exception of the Twentieth Texas Cavalry, 
which was left at Fort Smith, m;irchi:d to Shrevcport. Louisiana, and v:is by 
General E. Kirliy Smith ordered tijuards the Mississijjpi Ri\er to guard th.U sec- 
lion against in\•a^ion. At the time of the fall of \'icksburg and Port Huds. >n this 
brigade was at Iberville, forty miles from New Orleans, and participated in the cam- 
paigns in that section of the country in the fall of 1S63. In the winter of this year 
Hrigadier-General C. J. Polignac, a distinguished Frenchman who had volunteered 
h:s services to the Confederate .States, was placed in command of this brigade ; and 
>i:i.!.r his leadership it took part in the Loi;i-iana campaign of the spring of 1^:14, 
■'-''^:-\i Banks's expedition uj. R.-d River. At the battles of!-:. 


Pleasant Hill, and Ycllou- Bayou the bri_;j;a(lo aajuitted itself with great credit, was 
distinguished for its gallant conduct, and achieved renown for itself as well as its 
brave commander, who led it in the thickest of the fight. During the time that 
General Polignac commanded the brigade its drill and discipline were very much 
imi)roved and its general efficiency raised to a high degree. After the death of 
General A. Moutou, at Mansfield, .May S, 1864, General Polignac was promoted to 
the command of the di\ision, and Colonel James E. Harrison, of the Fifteenth 
Te.xas Infantry, was promoted to brigadier-general and assigned to the command 
of this brigade, and continued to command it to tlie close of the war. 

Colonel Hawpe resigned while the regiment was at Fort Smith, and Major 
Frederick J. Malone was promoted to colonel, and Captain \V. \V. Peak, of Com- 
pany A, was promoted to major. First Lieutenant Thomas Flynn was promoted 
to captain of Company A. In Company B, Captain Anderson resigned in De- 
cember, 1863, and First Lieutenant Milton Jack was promoted to captain and W. 
M. Park to first lieutenant. In Company C, Captain John Duncan was severely 
wounded at the battle of Prairie Grove, September 30, 1862, and lost a leg, in 
consequence of which he resigned, and the other officers of the company were, pari 
passu, promoted to fill the vacancies caused thereby. In Company D, Captain 
John R. Waller resigned, and W. E. Carter was promoted to fill the vacancy. In 
Company F, Captain Thompson resigned, and First Lieutenant J. T. Gregg was 
promoted to captain. In Company G, Captain George W, Barton resigned, and 
First Lieutenant Z. E. Coombcs was made captain. Lieutenant Nichols having 
died of wounds received at the battle of r^Iansficld, and Lieutenant Russell ha\ing 
resigned, E. D. Bennett was promoted to first lieutenant. 

Thirty-second Cavalry Regiment. (Also called Fifteenth. ) — Colonel, Julius A. 
Andrews ; lieutenant-colonel, James A. Weaver ; major, William E. Estes. 

This regiment saw some ser\-ice in Louisiana and Arkansas, when it was sent 
to Tennessee, where it saw hard sci-vice and acq\iitted itself with credit. It was 
there consolidated with the Fifteenth Texas Ca\'alry, and dismounted, forming a 
part of Ector's brigade. 

Thirty-third Cavalty Regiment. (Formed from P'ourteenth Ca\-alry B;(ttalion. ) 
— Colonel, James Dull ; lieutenant-colonel, James R. Sweet ; major, John H. Rob- 
inson ; major, Santos Ben.avides ; major, John T. Brackinridge. 

This regiment ne\'er left the State, but performed active and valuable services 
on the Rio Grande frontier from Laredo to the mouth of the river. DilTerent com- 
panies of it had numerous encounters with marauding parties from .Mexico, and 
several were at the battle of Palmito Ranch, May 13, 1865, the last engagement of 
the war. 

Thirty-fourth { .■llexandcr s) Texa^ Cavalry J\legiincnt. — The Thirty-ffuuth 
Texas Cavalr\' (dismounted) was org.uii^ed in the Indian Territory, I'eljru.irv, 1862, 
and was composed of ten full companies of about one hundred men each, raised in 
North Texas the latter part of 1S61 and the eady I'art of 1862, and the officers of 
the regiment from first to last were as follows : Colonel, A. M. .'Mexander ; lieuten- 
ant-colonel ; colonel, John H. Caudle : lieutenant-colonel, George H. Wooten ; 
major ; lieutenant-colonel, WJHiam .M. Hii.-h ; major : lieuten:uit-C(:)lonel, John R.! ; major, .M. W. r)a\enport ; major, .Sevier Tackell ; major, Thomas J. Dove. 




Company A of the rcijinicnt was from Tarrant County, and its captains from 

first to last were M. W. Davenport, Crowley, and Baldwin. Company 

B was from Grayson and Cook Counties, and its captains were H. K. Hodges and 

E. T. Morris. Company C was from Lamar County, 

~ n and its captains were George A. Provine and Stephen 

D. Ross. Company I.) was from Red Ri\-er County, 

and its captains were J. H. Caudle and Rr)ant. 

Company E was from Fannin County, and its caji- 

tair.s ■\\ere Myrii.k and A. J. Duckworth. 

Company F was from Palo Pinto and Erath Coun- 
ties, and its captains were Scanlan, Thomas 

Hunter, and William Metcalf. Company G was 
from Collin County, and its cajilains were J. O. 
Straughn, \V. M. Bush, and W. N. Bush. Com- 
pany H was from Grayson County, and its cap- 
tains were Wallace and Thomas J. Do\-e. Com- 
pany I was from P^annin, and its captains were • 

.1 and J. H. Roderick. Company K was from 

~ " "" Red River County, and its captains were 

COLONKL A. .M. .^LE.XANUEK. . /' ' 

Hemmmg and Edward Iitus. 
The regiment served in the Indian Terrilory, Arkansas, Missouri, and Louisi- 
an.i, and was engaged in the battles of Spring River and Newtonia, Missouri, as 
cavalry. The regiment was then dismounted and so remained during the war. 
The regiment fought the batde of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, under General Roan. 
It was then transferred to Louisiana with the brigade under the command of Col- 
onel Speight, where it was placed in camp of instruction and thoroughly drilled in 
infantry tactics by Colonel Will H. Trader. After which General C. J. Polignac 
was placed in command of the brigade until he was promoted to a major-generalship 
on the battle-field at Mansfield, when Colonel James Taylor was placed in command 
of the brigade and was killed the same evening. Colonel R. D. Stone was then 
placed in command of the brigade until he was killed at Yellow Bayou, more com- 
monly known in history as the battle 01 Norwood's Plantation. General W. H. 
King was then placed in command of llie brigade, and conimanded it until the 
close of the war, when the brigade was disbanded at Hem[)btead. Texas. The 
regiment u as in the battles fought in Louisiatia, to wit : Trinity, Harrisonburg, 
\'idalia, Man, held, Pleasant Hill, Man:,ura, and Yellow Bayou, or Norwood's 

At the battl..- of Mansfield the regiment, under the command nf Major W. M. 
Bush, was left to support the St. Mary's battery. After the Confederate line had 
advanced across the field to the edge of the timber, where they were held in check 
l)y a most destructive tire from the enemy, the Thirty-fourth Texas was ordered to 
their sujjport, and with the regular Texas yell made one of the most successful 
charges ever made by any regiment, before which tlie enemy gave way. and the 
regiment captured the Xim's battery, broke the centre of the enemy's lines, and 
1>\- a ilin!^ fu.- on that part of the Federal line eng.aged with .Mouton's old brigade, 
cau.sed tlieat to burrendcr to that briijaile and to the Thirty-fourth Texas. Here 


the regiment threw away their old muskets and equipped themselves with tl>e J 

splendid Entield rirtes captured from the enemy. At Pleasant Hill. Poligii.ii'"s | 

brigade having suflcred severely at Manstield the day before, and the men being J 

weary, were held in reserve until the engagement became general, with some waver- | 

ing of the Confederate line, when the brigade was ordered to the front, and as they | 

pa.s.-^ed General Dick Taylor he encouraged the brigade by telling them they had j 

won the day at Manstield, and he looked to them on that occasion. The brigade, i 

including the Thiriy-fcnirth Texas, went gallantly to the front, sustaining heavy Itw-^, ; 

and sucteeded in routing the enemy in their front juit at nightfall. In the Loui^i- ! 

ana campaign there were twenty-si.x officers of the line belonging to the Tliirtv- I 

fourth Te.xas engaged, of wiiich the regiment lost in killed and womided nineteen. j 

and the non-commissioned officers and privates suffered in | 
about the same pro])ortion. 

Tliirty-fifth ( BrotL-n' s) Cavalry Kegnn'^tit. (Formed •» t- «b 

from Twelfth Battalion.) — Colonel, Reuben R. Brown ; lieu^ V .^'-'7 i 

ten.nnt-colonel, Samuel W. Perkins; nuijor, Lee C. Roun- ■^''''''■''^' \ >\ ^ 

This regiment v.-as stationed in Te.xas until the spring > - ^■— -s£ 'I I 

of iS'.i-i, when it went to Louisiana to meet General Banks's ' •:f''^'sT|W-ii { 

Red River campaign. There it saw active service for the ' \ 5^.' \ 

only time. ..V.i> I 

r/a>iy-Ji/t/i (I.ikcus's) Cara/rj Rt'ffwieni. (Formed ;' , ■fl 1 

from Likens' s and Burns's Cavalry Battalions.) — Colonel, %' -';| j 

James B. Likens: lieutenant-colonel, James Randolph Burns ; '_ j i^ 3 

major, William A. Worthani. - ; ■ 1- | 

Was stationed in Te.xas until the spring of 1S64, when f .j | ', \ 

it went to Louisiana with otiier Texa-, troops to meet General f I | j| ] 

B.iuk^'s Red River expedition. ^ 1 . U/ \ 

'J'hiiiy-sLxih ( Woods's) Cavahy Re,s;iment. (Also { - 

ciUed Thirty-second Regiment.) — Colonel, Peter C. J.j-j 

Woods ; lieutenant-colonel, Xat Benion ; major ; lieutenant- *"" 

colonel, Willi.nn O. Hutchison : major, Stokely ^L Holmes. 

Took an active and conspicuous part in defeating Gen- 
eral Banks's Red River campaign in the spring of 1S64, but was not engaged i:-. 
any other active service. 

.■\i:d,>io>i' s Cavalry Rrs:imrnt. (Formed from Border's and Fulcrod's C.iv- 
alrv B.iit.ilions. )— Coloi'.el, Thomas Scott Anderson ; lieutenant-colonel, Jolm P. 

BMidrr; major. Jules A. Randle. J 

Jicrdtr i Cavalry Kro^imcid. — Cf^lonel, John P. Border ; lieutenant-colonel. j 

Philip Fulcrod ; major, Paniel Egbert. j 

Bourlaud's Cavalr\' Rt<:iincyi{. (Frontier Regiment. )— Colonel, James Bour- \ 

land ; lieutenant-colonel. John R. Di-imond ; m.ajor, Charles L. Rotl \ 

ISradford Cavalry /vVir/;;/f;//.— Colonel, Charles M. Bradford ; lieutenant-col- \ 

onr!. Walter L. Mann : major, Thomas R. Hoxey. .] 

It.crniS Cavalry liatlalion. (".Merged into Likens's Thirty-ti'th C.ivalrv. )— j>nel, J.;nus R. Burns. i 

Vol.. n.-.u \ 


k- i0\- 


Daly s Cavalry Balialion. — Li^jutt-nant-colonel, Andrew Daly ; major, SamuL-l 
G. Ragsdale. 

Was in activt- service in Louisiana. 

De Bray s Battalion Texas Cavalry. (Merged into Twenty-sixth Cavalry. ) — 

Lieutenant-colonel, Xavier Blanchard de Bray ; 

• ^ 1 major, SaniuelBoyer Davis ; major, John J. Myers. 

Fiilcrod' s Cadets, Battalion Cavalry. (Merged 

into Anderson's Cavalry Regiment.) — Licutenant- 

^ \ colonel, Philip I'ulcrod. 

f i^ :Sn-. ? Gano's Cavalry Battalion. (Merged into 

CV - ■ Seventh Kentucky Cavalry, September, 1S62. ) — 

Lieutenant-colonel, Richard ^L Gano. 

Giiltlings's Cavalry Battalion. — Lieutenant- 
colonel, George H. Giddings. 

Was in active service along the Rio Grande, 
having numerous skirmishes with marauding par- 
ties from Mexico, and was at the last battle of the 
I war at Palmito Ranch, May 13, 1865. 
I Herbert' s Battalion, Arizona Brigade. — Lieu- 

I ; ^ -.. — - — tenant-colonel, P. T. Herbert; major, George ^L 

CoLo.stx John P. BoRun.K. 

I' razer. 

Was in Ne\\- Mexico and Arizona and the Louisiana campaign of 1S64. 

Mann s Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, W'alter L. Mann ; lieutenant-colonel, 
William F. Upton ; major, John tl Oliver. 

Morga)i's Cavalry Battalion. — Major, C. L. Morgan. 

Served as independent scouts in Missouri and Arkansas. 

Mullen s Cavalry Battalion, Arizona Brigade. (Merged into Second Regi- 
ment.) — Lieutenant-colonel, John W. Mullen. 

Ragsdale' s Cavalry Battalion. — ^Lajor, Samuel G. Ragsdale. 

Was in active service in Louisiana. 

Saufley s Seouting Battalion.— yV6:]Ox, W. P. Saufley. 

Terrell's Cavalry Regiment. (Also called Thirty-fourth.) — Colonel, Ale.x- 
ander W. Terrell; lieutenant-colonel, John C. Fioberlson ; major, Hiram S. Mor- 
gan ; major, George \^^ Owens. 

W.-is actively engaged in the Louisiana campaign of 1S64. 

Terry s Cavalry Regiment. — Colonel, D. S Terry ; lieutenant-colone!, S. H. 
Urooks ; major, J. ^L Ev.uis. 

\]'ellss (Rivalry Battalion. (Merged into Wells's Cavalry Regiment. )— Lieu- 
tenant-colonel, John W. Wells. 

Wells's Cavalry Regiment. (Also called Thirty-fourth. )— Colonel, John W. 
Wells ; lieutenant-colonel, Chaplin Good ; major, L. E. Gillette. 

Haul's Legion. — This command was organized at Brenham, Texas, in tliL 
summer of 1S62, with a battalion of infantry, a battalion of cavalry, and a battery 
of light artill'-ry. It was recruited principally from Xichols's six-months' regiment 
and J. E. Kirhy's battalion, whos<.- term of enlistment had ju-t expired ; but many 
n(:w recruits al^o join'.:d. The fiehl oUicers at tlie (.>rganization were : colonel, 


Thomas N. Waul ; lieutenant-colonel of infantry, B. Timmons ; lieutenant-colonel 
of cavaln,-, Leoniclas Willis ; major of infantry, Allen Cameron ; caf)tain of artiller)-, 
William Edgar. The staff consisted of : quartermaster, H. B. Andrews ; ordnance 

otticer, Broadnax ; surgeon, Dr. Edward Randall ; adjutant. Lieutenant 01i\-er 


Tlie command consisted of twelve companies of infantry, si.\ of cavalry, and 
one battery of light artillery. The names of all the commanders of companies can- 
not be ascertained, but the following have been furnished by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Oliver Steele as a partial list : captains of infantry, L. D. Bradley, C. S. Boiling, 

James WVigley, Otto Nathusius, Voigt, Samuel Carter, H. Wickeland, and 

Hicks. Captains of cavalry, Harwood is the only one remembered. 

The battery of artillery, under Captain Edgar, left the camp of organization 
first, marched to Arkansas, and did good service in that State and Louisiana, until 
its capture with the Second Louisiana Cavalry while on picket duty, a few days 
prior to the batdes of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. The cavalry battalion left soon 
afterwards and proceeded to Mississippi. 

On August 18, 1S62, the twelve companies of infantry took up the line of march 
for Clarksville, Te.xas ; but while cji ronle the direction was changed for Monroe, 
Lcuisi;'.na, with the intention of joining General \'an Dorn in Mississippi. The 
command crossed the Mississippi Ri\er at Vickshurg, October i, 1S62, and was 
joined by the cavalry battalion under Lieutenant-Colonel Willis. .Soon after this 
the infantry was moved to Holly Springs, where it arrived a few days after the 
battle of Corinth ; and the cavalry battalion was detached from it and never served 
with it afterwards, but formed a part of Brigadier-General J. R. Chalmers's cavalry 
brigade. At Holly Springs the infantry was reorganized by being divided into t\\ o 
batt.'ilions of six companies each, viith B. Timmons lieutenant-colonel and Allen 
Cameron major of the first, and James Wrigley lieutenant-colc.inel and 01i\cr 
Steele major of the second. 

During the latter part of the year 1862 and the early part of the year 1863 
the legion ser\-ed as a separate brigade, under command of Colonel Waul, in Lovetl's 
division. In February, 1863, it was sent to Fort Pemberton, at the head of the 
Yaj-oo River, u liere it performed gallant ser\icr in the repulse of General Wash- 
burn's expedition dovvn the Tallahatchee Ri\-er, in the ill-starred attempt to take 
Vicksburg in the rear. After General Washburn's repulse, the legion, except 
Captain X'oigt's company, was sent to X'icksburg. That compan)' was left to guard 
Fort Pemberton, and, u'hen en route to join the legion after the in\'cstment of 
Yicksburg, was captured at Yazoo City and sent to tlie North to prison. The olln-r 
eleven companies took a prominent and gallant part in the defence of the city of 
Vicksburg. It occupied a position in reserve in the rear of Brigadier-General 
Stephen D. Lee's brigade, at the point where the railroad from Vicksburg to Jack- 
son runs through the fortifications. When the grand assault was made on May 23, 
1863, a lodgement was made by about sixty of the enemy in the ditch around the 
fort on the railroad, and the Twentieth Alabama Regiment was driven from it. 
Upon the call for \-oluiiteers from Waul's Legion to retake the fort, Captain L. D. 
Bradley and Lieutenant James Hogm.- responded with iheir conipnnies. and, led by 
Major Oliver .Steele, the fort was rec^nitured in g.illaiit style, taking sixty prisoners 


and capturing- two stands of colors. Major-Gcneral Carter L. Stevenson, com- 
niandinc;' the division, says in his report : "A more gallant feat than this has not 
illustrated our annals during the war. The preparations were quickly and quietly 
made, but the enemy seemed at once to divine our purpose, and opened upon the 
angle a terrific fire of shot, and shell, and musketry. Undaunted, this litde band, 
its chivalrous commander at its head, rushed upon the work, and in less time than 
it requires to describe it it and the flags were in our possession. Preparations were 
then quickly made for the use of hand-grenades, when the enemy in the ditch, 
being informed ol our purpose, immediately surrendered." 

Afti.T the long and tedious defence, during which many gallant feats v.'cre per- 
formed and many brave men killed, among them Major Allen Cameron, the legion 
surrendered with the balance of the Confederate army, were paroled, and returned to 
Te.xas. After the e.xchange the legion reassembled at Houston ; and Culmiel Waul 
having been promoted to brigadier-general, Lieutenant-Colonel Timmons was pro- 
moted to colonel. Major Oliver Steele was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and 
Major Allen Cameron having been killed at the siege of \'icksburg. Captain Otto 
Nathusius was promoted to major. After its reorganization the legion served to 
the end of the war, at Galveston and other points on the Te.xas coast. 

The FiontiLi- Kc}^ii>ient, Texas Cavcby. (Afterwards designated as the Forty- 
si-xth Te.xas Ca\-alry. ) — This regiment was organized in February, 1862, in pursu- 
ance of an r.ct of the Texas Legislature passed in January, 1862, to take the place 
of iNIcCulloch's First Regiment Mounted Riflemen, whose term of enlistment was 
about to expire. The first field officers appointed by Governor Lubbock were : 
colonel, James M. Norris ; lieutenant-colonel, Alfred T. Obenchain ; major, James E. 
McCord. The captains of the ten companies were : 
^ C. C. Callan, succeeded by Thos. C. Wright, M. 
B. Lloyd, W. G. O'Brien.H. T. Edgar, John W. 

_■ ...^ 1 Lawhorn, R. M. Whitcsides, Joseph Ward, 

1 .' \ I Rowland, \\'iHiam Bauty, succeeded by Alonzo 

\ >ij *«8? «*! I j^^^3_ White. 

■ "^'^ i I The strength of the regiment was about twelve 

! hundred and fort)' men, and was kept up to near 

! "t.,. ! that figure during the term of its ser\-ice, and the 

men were superbly mounted at their own expense. 

j The companies were so disposed as to occupv 

twenty camps along the line of the frontier, from 

; '. 1 the mouth of Big Washita on Red River to Fort 

McKavett ; the space between the camps was 

patroled twice daily, and in addition a detachment 

of scout-, from each company was kept constantly 

in the field. The service rendered by this regiment 

is said to ha\e been the most efficient ever given the frontier, and that during the 

two years of its service more stolen property was recaptured and more marauding 

Indians killed than were recaptured and killed by the United States troops from 

annexation to 1S61. 

During the first jx-ar's service of the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Obenchain 

C01.ONUL Ja 


was killed in an altercation with two privates of the regiment, at a point near where 
the town of Breckinridge, Stephens County, now stands, and his body was interred 
on the prairie. 

After ser\'ing with the regiment about one year. Colonel J. M. Norris resigned, 
and Major J. E. McCord was promoted to colonel, J. H. Harry to lieutenant- 
colonel, and \V. J. Alexander to major. W. \V. Reynolds was quartermaster, W. 
R. Chase commissary. Dr. I. R. W. Warrell surgeon, Dr. J. G. Barbee assisiant 
surgeon, and Lieutenant Abram H. Lee was adjutant. 

The legislature intended that this regiment, when organized, should be trans- 
ferred to the Confederate States service ; but in making the tender Governor Lub- 
bock coupled the condition with it that the regiment should not be removed from 
the frontier, and it was rejected by the Confederate War Department, and the 
regiment remained in the State service until the election of Governor Pendleton 
Murrah. I'pon his succession to office Governor Murrah unconditionally trans- 
ferred the regiment to the Confederate States, and it was then designated as the 
Forty-sixth Texas Cavalry Regiment, C. .S.A. ; and in the spring of 1S64 it was 
ordered to Harrisburg, Texas, where it was attached to Bankhead's brigade, and 
remained there till the close of hostilities. 

After this time the frontier was left entirely unprotected, and became the 
general rendez\-ous of deserters, renegades, hostile Indians, and Lawless plunderers 
generally. The frontier receded upon the settlements as far as San Saba, Haniilioii, 
Lampasas, and Corvell Counties on the northwest ; and even several years after the 
close of the Indian depredations were frequent in those counties. 

The members of this regiment shared fev.- of the honors of the war, but the 
dangers which they encountered were exceeded by few others ; and the numerous 
unmarked graves which excite the curiosity of the settlers in the section of country 
covered by them, attest many a bloody encounter with hostile savages. No flowers 
are strewn upon their graves on Decoration Day, no monuments are erected to their 
memory, but the vast extent of country then depending upon them solely for pro- 
tection suffered none of the horrors and few of the privations of war ; and its 
brave defenders are still held in grateful remembrance by the early settlers upon the 
Texas fionti',r. 


Thr GooJ-Pc!i(^/as Battery. — This battery was organized at Dallas, Texas, in 
the early siininier of 1S61, and was compo.sed of fifty men from Dallas County 
under Caj^tain J. j. Good, and fifty men from Smith County under First Lieutenant 
J. P. Douglas. At its organization the following were elected commissioned ofticers : 
captain, J. J. Good ; first lieutenant, J. P. Douglas ; second lieutenant, Alf. Da\is ; 
third, J. N. Boren ; fourth lieutenant, W. Harris : and the following 
non-commissioned officers : orderly sergeant, Ren Hardin ; first sergeant, Thomas 
H. Hoyd ; second sergeant, W. J. Sanders ; third sergeant, Mitch Gray : fourth 
sergeant, J. B. Long ; fifth sergeant, Thomas A. Hord ; sixth sergeant, James 

The company, having been pro\ided \\\\.\\ six guns, took n[) the line of march 
for Fort Smi-h, .Arkansas, to join General Bon McCulloch in Missouri. It reaci-.ed 
the ncighfiorliood of the Confederate ami)- in time tr> hear the guns of the battle of 


Oak Hill, but did not arrive there in time to participate in that en;j;agemcnt. It, 
however, receivt-d its baptism of fire the following- spring at the battle of Elkhorn, 
where it acquitted itself with great gallantry. It accompanied the army of General 
Van Dorn to Corinth, Mississippi, and while there, the terms of enlistment having 
expired, the ni'-n all re-enlisted, the comisany reorganized as a four-gun battery, and 
the following officers were elected : captain, J. P. Douglas ; senior first lieutenant, J. 
N. Boren ; junior first lieutenant, John H. Bingham ; second lieutenant, Ben Hardin. 

While at Corinth the battery took part from a distance in the battle of P'arm- 
ington, but the enemy retreated so precipitately that it was mostly a running fight. 
When the Confederate army retreated to Tupelo this battery went with it, and 
from there it went with General Bragg on his movement into Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky. At Chattanooga it was attached to Brigadier-General P. R. Cleburne's 
brigade, and followed its fortunes closely. At the batde of Rogersville it bore a 
conspicuous part, in which the gallant Lieutenant Boren was killed by a cannon- 
shot. Lieutenant Hardin having been severely wounded, and Captain Douglas 
assigned to the command of all the artillery on the field, the command of the bat- 
tery devolved upon Lieutenant Bingham, with Sergeants Mitch Gray and W. J. 
Sanders each in command of a section. The action resulted in a victory of the 
Confederates over a greatly superior force of the enemy, to which the Texas battery 
largely contributed. 

At Richmond, Kontuck3% the battery bore an active and gallant part in the 
defeat of General Nelson's fine army. After this battle two more guns were added 
to the battery, and two new lieutenants were necessary. To fill these vacancies 
W. J. Sanders and M. L. Fleishl were elected. The battery then pushed on to 
Covington, but fell back in time to participate in the battle of Perryville, and took 
an active part in all the battles of that campaign. At Chickamauga, that fierce and 
bloody contest, the Te.xans fought their guns with unusual gallantry, pushing them 
for\vard by hand in the ven.- face of the enemy. This was doubtless the most san- 
guinary battle in which this battery took part, and the reports of the officers show 
that its brave members well maintained the reputation of Te.xans for gallantry'. At 
Missionary Ridge it ako bore a conspicuous part, and maintained its v.'ell-earned 

It then fell back with the army to Dalton, and in the following spring partici- 
pated in what is called the Georgia camivaign, from Stony Face to Rcsaca. During 
this campaign there were but few days when the guns of the Texans were not heard 
reverberating among the Georgia hills. 

It was also with General Hood's campaign into Tennessee, and participated in 
all the engagehients during that unfortunate expedition. During the retreat of 
General Hood's army, this batter}-, being with the rear-guard, was one day sur- 
rounded by the Fourth United States Regular Cavalry, and the guns wrested from 
the unarmed artillerymen ; but the men made their escape, and managed to reach 
Columbus, Mississippi, with the Confetlerate army. From this place the company 
was sent to Mobile. Alabama, to mtin the siege-guns in the fortifications at that 
city. After the evacuation of Mobile the company was again equipped with a com- 
plete onttit for field service, but never got an opportunity to use it, as it was soon 
aftervvards surrendered near Meridian, Mississippi. 


This is the only Texas battery of artillery which served east of the Mississippi 
River, and its record for gallantry and eiticient service is as much a matter of pride 
to Texans as the enviable record of many Texas regiments of infantry and cavalry. 
It participated in battles and skirmishes tlie enumeration of which will gi\e a correct 
idea of its activity. The following is a list of the engagements in u hich its guns 
were heard : — 

I, Elkhorn, March 7 and S, 1S62 ; 2, Farmington, Mississippi, May 9, 1S62 ; 
3, Richmond. Kentucky, August 20, 1862 ; 4, Murfreesboro', Tennessee, December 
30 and 31, 1S62 ; 5, Liberty Gap, Tennessee, June 30, 1S63 ; 6, Elk River, Ten- 
nessee, July 3, 1S63 ; 7, Chickamauga, Georgia, September iS and 19, 1S63 ; 8, 
Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, Xovember 25, 1S63 ; 9, Resaca, Georgia, May 14 and 
15, 1S64 ; ID, Xew Hope Church, Georgia, May 20, 1864 ; 11, Lost Mountain, Geor- 
gia, June 15 to 17, 1864 ; 12, Mount Zion Church, Georgia, June 22, 1S64 ; 13, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Georgia, June 23 to July 3, 1S64 ; 14, Beech-Tree Creek, Georgia, 
July 20, 1S64 ; 15, Atlanta, Georgia, July 22, 1864 ; 16, four miles west of Atlanta, 
August 6, 1S64 ; 17, Baugh House, August 12, 1864 ; 18, Joneshoro', Georgia, 
August 31, 1S64 ; 19, Florence, Alabama, October 30, 1864 ; 20, Shoal Creek, 
Alabama, Xovember 5, 1864 ; 21, Columbia, Tennessee, November 29, 1864 ; 22, 
Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864 ; 23, Nashville, Tennessee, December 15 
and 16, 1864 ; 24, West Harpeth, Tennessee, December 17, 1864 ; 25, siege of 
.Mobile, Alabama, Februar\- and March, 1S65. 

C/irisiiims's Baltery. (Consolidated with Jones's Battery.) — Captain, H. H. 
Christmas ; first lieutenant, Walter W. Blow ; second lieutenant, Charles I. E\-ans ; 
second lieutenant, C. B. Gardiner. 

This battery was organized as a four-gun bafcery in the fall of 1S63, was sta- 
tioned several months at San Antonio, and, after failing to raise enough men to 
fully man it, it was consolidated «ith O. G. Jones's battery, Lieutenant Evans 
taking one section into that battery. Lieutenant Gardiner going into Nichols's bat- 
tery, and Lieutenant Blow and Captain Christmas taking staff positions, ^\'h!le 
stationed at San Antonio, one section of this battery under Lieutenant Gardiner was 
engaged at the battle of Las Rucias Ranch and did effective ser\-ice. 

Jones's Batit-ry. — Captain, O. G. Jones ; first lieutenant, C. H. Williams ; fir.-;t 
lieutenant, Charles 1. Evans ; second lieutenant, S. Gregorv ; second lieutenant, J. 
M. Smith. 

This battery was organized early in 1S63 as a four-gun battery, and served at 
Galveston part of the time, and was also in Louisiana at the capture of Erashear 
City. In the fall of 1S6.}. it was made a six-gun battery by the addition of another 
section from H. H. Christmas's battery, under Lieutenant Ciiarlcs I. Evans, and 
sent to Brownsville, where it remained till the close of hostilities. This battery has 
the distinguished honor of firing the last gun of the war at the battle of Palmito 
Ranch, May 13, 1865. 

Greer s Rocket Battery. — Captain John S. Greer. 

Was in service at Galveston and Houston, Texas, and in Louisiana. 

Dege's Battery. ( Formerly Fox's. )— Captain, A. E. Dcg^ ; lieutenant, 

Goodfellow ; lieutenant, McConndl : lieutenant, Hopkins. 

Was in service on the Gulf coast, jiart nt the time as heavy artillery. 


Daskieli' s Battery. (Formerly Abat's. ; — Captain, George R. Dashiell. 

Was in the State most of the time, but served a short while in the Indian Ter- 

TecP s Battery. — Captain, Tre\anion T. Teel. 

There seem to have been two batteries of liirht artillery from Texas called 
by this name. It is well known that the one commanded by Captain T. T. Teel 
was in the Arizona campaign, and at the same time another Teel's battery is men- 
tioned as being among the Texas troops in Missouri, and Arkansas, and as going to 
Corinth, Missi.-;sippi, with General \'an Dora's arm\-. 

Valvcrde Battery. — Captain, Joseph D. Sayers ; lieutenant ; captain, T. D. 
Nettles ; lieutenant, John Reil)-. 

This battery was captured from the Union army at the battle of \'alverde by 
Sibley's brigade, and was manned by volunteers from different Texas regiments in 
Arizona. It performed valiant ser\'ice in tliat campaign, and afterwards distin- 
guished itself in Louisiana. (Sec the history of Green's brigade.) 

Pratt's Battery. (Afterwards Hynson's Battery.) — Captain, J. H. Pratt; 
lieutenant ; captain, H. C. Hynson. 

This battery served in the Indian Territory, Arkansas, and Missouri. 

lAm'et!' s Battery. — Captain, Sylvanus Howell ; first lieutenant, W. A. Routh ; 
first lieutenant, B. F. Fuller ; second lieutenant, C. H. Stith ; second lieutenant, 
Willi.nm Green. 

Served in the Indian Territory and Arkansas. 

Creusbaur s Battery. (Afterwards Welhausen's. ) — Captain, E. Creuzbaur. 

Served in Texas and Louisiana during the whole war, part of the time as heavy 
artillery on the coast. ^Lay 6, 1S64, with six field-guns, it took part in the capture 
of Calcasieu, Louisiana, and did efficient ser\-ice in that State. 

Fo.xs Battery Light Artillery. (.Afterwards Dege's. )— Captain, P. Fox. (See 
Dege's Battery, ante.) 

Lee's Battery. — -Captain, Roswell W. Lee ; lieutenant, Henry Forrester. 

This battery sen-ed with distinction in the Indian Territory and Arkansas. 

Gonzaks's Texas Battery. (Also called Hughes's Battery. ) — Captain, Thomas 
Gonzales ; lieutenant, Henry Angel. 

Was on duty along the coast during the w ar. 

NcaFs 75;7//f;;)'.— Captain, B. F. Neal. 

This battery was on duty along the coast, most of tl'.e time at Corpus Christi 
and Saluria. 

Daniels' s Battery. — Cijjtain, James M. Daniels ; lieutenant, S. M. Hamilton ; 
lieutenant, J. J. Wilson. 

Served in Arkansas and Louisiana. 

Wilson' s /lattery. — Captain, Wilson. 

Was in service at Houston, Galveston, and Sabine Pass. 

Gibson' s Battery. — Captain, WiUuim E. Gibson. 

Served in the State, along the coast during the war. 

Krumbluuir s Battery. (.Afierwards. Stafford's. )—Cai)lain. W. Butler Krumb- 

Was ia service in the Tcriitorv and Arkansas. 


Nichols's Battery. — Captain, William H. Nichols ; lieutenant, Charles B. Gar- 
diner ; lieutenant, Antonio Robira. 

Was stationed at Galveston until the sprin;^^ of 1S64, when it was sent to 
Louisiana to meet General Banks's Red River expedition. 

Shea's Battery. — Captain, D. D. Shea. 

Was in the State, doing service along the coast. 

Hughes's Battery. (Also called Gonzales's Battery.) — Captain, Robert J. 
Hughes. (See Gonzales's Battery.) 

Moseley s Battery.— C^YilMn, William G. Mosele}-. 

Was in the service in Arkansas and Louisiana, taking an active part in the 
repulse of General Banks's Red River expedition in the spring of 1864. 

Haldeman' s Battery. — Captain Horace Haldeinan ; first lieutenant, A. R. 
Graves ; first lieutenant, G. P. Bass ; second lieutenant, Charles Spanii ; second 
lieutenant, W. P. Allen. 

Was in the service in Arkansas and Louisiana, taking a conspicuous part in the 
repulse of General Banks's Red Ri\-ei' expedition in the spring of 1S64. 

McMahan s Battery. — Captain, M. V. McMahan ; first lieutenant ; captain, 
Henry B. Fontaine ; second lieutenant, James Nolan ; second lieutenant, Sam 

Was stationed at Gal\-eston until the spring of iS6^, when it went to Louisi- 
ana and assisted in the repulse of General Banks's P.ed River campaign. At 
the battle of Mansfield its ofticers and men were particularly distinguished for 

IJynson s Battery. (Formerly Pratt's.) — Captain, H. C. Hynson. (See Pratt's 
Battery. ) 

]\'illkL' s y?<7//fn'. — Captain, H. WWW.q. 

Was in the service along the Gulf coast all the time, sometimes manning the 
siege-guns at the different coast fortifications, and at other times scr\-ing as light 

Stafford's Battery. (Formerly Krumbhaar's. ) — Captain, William >t. Stafford. 
(See Krumbhaar's Battery.) 

\lel!n,'u,ens Battery. (Formerly Creuzbaur's. )— Captain, Charles Wel- 
hausen. (See Creuzbaur's Battery.) 

J\rae!i>is Bat/ery.—Ca.-pX3.\n, Sack held .Maclin. 

Served altogether within the State. 

Abat' s Battery. (After\vards Dashiell's. )— Captain, E. Abat. (See Dashiell's 
Battery. ) 

A'iiess's Battery.— C:\Y,\.mn, J. M. Ruos. 

This battery did service at Pass Cavallo and other points along the coast, some- 
times as hea\'y artillery. 

Mariuion s Battery. — Captain, • Marmion. 

Served in the State. 
. Mechtixg's Z.'^/z'fn'.— Captain, W. T. Mechling. 

Sir\-ed in the Stale. 

I lo-.e s Battery.— Q.-A\^t.\m. M. G. Howe. 

Served on the co;ist as heavy artillery. 


Edi^ar" s Battery. — Cnptaiii, William Edgar ; first lieutenant, John B. Grumbles ; 
first lieutenant, J. M. Ransom ; second lieutenant, N. R. Gomey ; second lieuten- 
ant, H. Hall. 

This battery was raised as a part of Waul's Leginn, but went to Arkansas in 
1S62, antl w;is actively entcagcd in that State and in Louisiana. It was particularly 
distinguished in tlie campaign in the latter State in the spring of 1864, fighting 
General Banks during his celebrated Red River expedition. During the retreat of 
General Taylor before General Banks, this battery, with a portion of the Second 
Louisiana Cavalry, was the rear-guard ot his army, and at Henderson's Hill, the 
night of March 21, 1S64, they were both surprised and captured by Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Joseph A. Mower, of the Union at my. 


First Texas Caz'alry Regiment. — Colonel, Edmiuid J. Davis ; lieutenant-colo- 
nel, John L. Ilayncs ; lieutenant-colonel, Jesse Stancel ; major, Alfred L. Holt ; 
major, Edward J. Noyes. 

This regiment sci-ved along the coast of Te.xas whenever the Union army was 
in possession, and whenever they left Te.xas it returned to New Orleans and served 
in Louisiana. 

Second Texas Cavalry Regimetit. (Never fully organized.) — Colonel, John 
L. Haynes ; lieutenant-colonel, George \Y. Paschal. 

VidaVs Cmipany Partisan Rangers.- — Adrian L Vidal was the captain of this 
company, composed entirely of Mexicans, raised for the Confederate army, and, 
after serving several months in that army, deserted in a body to the Union army. 

July 14, 1S64, by order of Major-General E. R. S. Canby, at New Orleans, 
the Second Regiment was consolidated with the First under the name of the First 
Texas Volunteer Cavalry. 

Hart' s Cavalry Company. — ^L^rtin D. Hart, of Hunt County, raised this com- 
pany in the early part of the war, and engaged in acti\'e partisan ser\-ice as an inde- 
pendent company in Missouri and Arkansas. Hart was captured by the Confed- 
erates, court-martialed, and shot. 




EARLY in the spring of iS6i a nunibor of companies were formed in different 
portiuns of Te.xas w itii tiic purpose of joining the army in Virginia, as tlie 
men were impressed with the belief tliat the fiercest fighting would be done 
on the soil of the Old Dominion. The men forming these companies were among 
the best in the State, — young, strong, vigorous, brave, from all trades and profes- 
sions, determined to conquer and willing to die for the cause. These volunteers 
for the Virginia battle-fields were formed into about thirty companies, averaging 
over a hundred men each, ar,d were placed in camps of instruction at scattered 

Colon.! John ^L^rshall, editor of the Sfa/c Gazette, Austin, went to Richmond, 
Virginia, and upon his return brought the information that these troops would be 
received into the Virginia army with company officers, but would not be organ- 
ized into regiments until they reached Richmond, as the President reserved to 
himself the authority of appointing regimental officers. 

This wa ■. discouraging to those who had counted ujion going off with living 
colors, fully prepared to enter the arena at once. Many g;i\-e up the idea of going 
to Virginia and joined other branches of the service operating in Texas and the 
Trans-Mississippi Department. A sufficient number, however, to form three regi- 
ments adhered to their purpose of going to \'irginia. 

They v\ x-re ordered to rendezvous at Harrisburg. Rrigadier-General Earl Van 
Dorn was tl;or. in conmiand of the Dc[iartmt:nt of Texas. lie was ordered to send 
on these volunteers at once, but kept them in camp of instruction until he could 
send a messenger to Riclimpnd to remonstrate against the order. When tlie mes- 
senger returned, "General Van Dorn was to obey orders." This weary waiting 
was trying to the men so anxious to reach the seat of war. .Several companies left 
without orders, and reached Richmond just after the battle of Manassas. These 
afterwards composed the First Texas Regiment. 

The first instalment sent off by authority reached Richmcjnd on September i2, 
iS6i, after m.iny difficulties in obtaining transportation. They were stationed 
below Rocketts, on the York Ri\-er Railroad, near the city, in what was styled 
"Camp Texas," in honor of the " L(^ne Star." 

As soon as their camp was arranged President Davis rode out and made them 
a speech, giving them a hearty welcome to the Confederate service in \'irginia, 
using this language :"*' Texans ! The troops from other .States ha\-e th'Mr reputa- 
tions to L;ain, but the sons^ the defenders of the Alamo have theirs to maintain. 



I am sure you will be faithful to the trust." How faithful they pni\ed, their record 

The Fifth Regiment organized with J. J. Archer, colonel ; J. B. Robertson, 
lieutenant-colonel ; O. T. Quattlebaum, major ; Colonel Robertson the only Texan. 
The Fourth Regiment was organized with John B. Hond, colonel ; John Mar- 
shall, of Austin, liculenant-cC'lonel ; and I'radfute IV'arwick, of Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, major. Had President Davis looked with jjrophetic ken into the future, he 
could ha\-e matle no wiser selections. 

Colonel H.iod was si.x feet two inches in height, broad, full chest, light hair 
and beard, blue eyes, commanding in appearance, dignified in demeanor, gentle- 
manly and courteous to officers and men ; a man 
to hold the love and command the respect of all 
who came within his influence. He had seen 
acti\'e service on the West Te.xas frontier, had 
been severely wounded in an engagement with 
Indians years before, loved Te.xas, had tendered 
his sword to the Confederacy some time before, 
and was awaiting orders at Richmond. He soon 
felt himself identified with Texas troops. 

The rank and file were composed of very 
young men. Take the Texas regiments altogether, 
the privates were the very yoimgest in the whole 
Confederate army, — many of them only fifteen 
years of age. Well was it for them morally that 
their officers were men of sterling worth and high- 

GL.stKAi. Joii.N B. Hood. , . . , 

toned principles. 

The organization being complete, new life became infused into officers and 
men, and a system of drilling was inaugurated destined to draw forth all the sol- 
dierly qualities of the troops. 

In November orders were received to send the baggage away and prepare for 
the march. Everv eve brightened, every heart was joyful, but not for several da_\s 
did they know they would join General Joseph E. Johnston on the Potomac at 
Dumfries. Part of the way was made by cars, part by marching. They understood 
the enemy was awaiting them, and went forward at a li\ely rate, until informed 
there was no demonstration on this side the river. 

Wiicn Dumfries was reached and a camping-place selected, the men proceeded 
to build winter quarter.s. as the weather became very cold ^nd disagreeable. Here 
they were joined by the First Texas Regiment, under command of Colonel Louis 
T. Wigfall. This body of men, as before stated, had gone to Virginia at their own 
expense, one company at a time, while awaiting orders in Texas, until they num- 
bered six companies, and were organized first as a battalion, with Colonel Wigfall 
in command. When a sufficient number arrived they were formed into a regiment. 

During the reorganization of the army, when regiments from the same State 
were thrown together to more closely identify tlieir interests, the First Texas was 
ordered to join the Fourth and Fifth at Dumfries. Louis T. Wigfall was colonel, 
HuLdi McLeod lieuten;mt-colonet, and .■\. T. Rainey major. 

- .,.j 






CoIoiK-l Wigfall was United States Senator {rom Texas. He was intellectual, 
brilliant, and talented, a fine, forcible speaker, an argumentative reasoner ; consid- 
ered in Te.xas one of her most gifted sons. He early took a stand with his oun 
people, speaking with vim and energy on the subject so dear to his heart, — State's 
rights. Lieutenant-Colonel McLeod was a valiant soldier in the Te.xas Revolution, 
and had led the Santa Fe e.vpedition in 1S41. Major Rainey was a lawyer, prac- 
tising his profession at Palestine, Te.xas, previous to the war. 

These regiments — First, F'ourth, and Fifth — were now organized as the Te.xas 
Brigade. Colc;nel Wigfall was appointed brigadier-general, and, at Colonel Mc- 
Leod' s death, Colonel Rainey was in command of the First Regiment. 

The other officers assisted Colonel Hood in all his plans, and nothing but good 
feeling existed between them all during that first u-inter, bjjent in the sleet, snow, and 
cold of tile Dumfries camp. 

Details from each regiment were made for officers to return to Texas on recruit- 


ing service. The cabinet officers of the go\-(rnnient were p.irticnlarl}- anxious to 
get more regiments from Texas and fill up those decimated by sickness. Those 
appointed U- this service succeeded in obtaining new members for regiments alreatly 
in the field, but no new regiment was ever added to the brigade from their own 
State. The Eighteenth Georgia, and a portion of Hampton's Legion (Soutli 
Carolina) for a while, aftenvards formed a portion of the Texas Brigade. 

Earl\- in ^Lu■ch General McClell:\n deterniined to advance upon Richmond vfa 
the peninsula. The \'irginia peninsula, running down between the J.imes and 
York Rivers, had been fortified and batteries placed at various important points, 
all under coniniand of General J. R. Magruder, who, with a force not exceeding 
eight thousand, had by skilful manctuvres occupied this territory with Confederate 

When General .McClellan mo\ed his base of operations, it necessitated also the 
removal of tli:; Confederates ne.u the I'olom.ic. On March 5 the pleasant relations 


at Dumfries were broken by a detail being ordered from the Texas Brigade to rei)ort 
to General Wade H.impton, to act as rear-guard to his command as it moved back 
via Man.issas to Fredericksburg. On March S the brigade was decam[>ed. 

March 1 1 , Colonel Hood received notice of his a])pointment as brigadier-gen- 
eral, and that he was assigned to the Texas Brigade. While this was gratifying, 
because ot the close intimacy with, tiie men of the brigade while colonel of the 
Fourth Regiment, yet it gave him some annoyance. 

General Wigfall had been elected by the Texas legislature as Confederate 
Senator, and had, tlureiore, left the t'.clJ, but Colonel Arclier, of the Fifth Regiment, 
ranked him by seniority, and it was not customary to promote officers over the head 
of their superiors. Colonel Archer acted nobly on this occasion, went to General 
Hood, was one of the first to congratulate him upon the honor conferred, and 
expressed his earnest approbation of the appointment and entire willingness to 
serve under him. To a man as proud and scnsiti\c as General Hood this was a 
pleasing episode, for, had Colonel Archer acted otherwise, it would have been 
exceedingly disagreeable. 

The troops crossed the Rappahannock at Falmouth, and took position near 
Fredericksburg ; from thence marched by Milford Station. Here they took the 
cars for Ashland, a small village abo\-e Rir-hmond, on the Fredericksburg Road. 
Here they again took up the line of march for Yorktou-n, where the>- arrived in 
good condition, considerii-.g the weather, v;hich General Hood pronounced the worst 
he had ever endured in a march. 

At Yorktown they were assigned to the reserve corps, and camped upon the 
gi-Qund occupied by Washington's army during the Re\-olutionary War. A line 
of fortifications had been thrown up by General Magruder, and they were daily 
detailed to act as sharp-shooters, — the Federal pickets advancing within two hun- 
dred yards of their works. Not much damage was done, as only a few were even 
wounded, but they watched one another's movements with sleepless vigilance. 

Thi- evacuation of the peninsula became imperati\'cly necessary, from the fact 
that the troops were confronted by a superior force, and flanked right and left by 
navigable streams, occupied solely by the enemy's fleet. The Texas Brigade acted 
again as rear-guard from Yorktown, reaching Williamsburg. 

The next morning a fierce onset was made. The Federals \\-ere repulsed with 
heavy loss, amounting to about five thousand, killcfl, wounded, and missing, the 
Confederates about twenty-five hundred. 

It became evident na\t day that the F'ederals were only trying to retard the 
jjrogress of the evacuation, and were landing troops by gunboats and transports up 
"SVirk River at F.ltham's Landing, opposite the village of West Point, the terminus 
of the York River Railroad, which runs from that place, about forty milca, to Rich- 
mond. Here, too, the Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers unite, forming \'ork 
Ri\er, and the design was to cut the Confederate army in twain right here and 
intercept them, .while McClellan advanced upon Richmond. 

General Franklin landed two regiments from his gunboats on York River at 
Eltham's Landing, near the village of Barhamsville, New Kent Coimty, May 7. 
The Tex:is Brigade was marching as rear-guard, and encountered the Federal picket- 
line which liad been throunoul. G'-aeral Hood inline cliatelv ordered his men to 


move up, which they did at double-quick, and the Hne of battle was formed on the 
brow of the hill. Beyond this hill, which had a precipitous descent, was an ojjen 
field six or se\en hundred yards in width. Beyond this were fi\-e or si.K companies 
of the enemy, who fell back into tlie timber, our men firini^ some random shots. 
General Hood ordered Company B to act as skirmishers. They .advanced across the 
open field, entered the timber, and commencetl a running fight. Another and 
another company was ordered to the support of the skirmishers, until si-^c were now 
engaged. The Federals made a stand behind an old mill-dam, and a spirited 
engagement ensuei;!. Tlie firing became general, and the enemy, many of their 
guns missing fire, threw them down and fled. 

While the Fourth Regiment was thus engaged, Colonel A. T. Rainey, of the 
First Regiment, ordered his men to attack the left wing. Getting his regiment 
into position, they received the fire well on an open road, the I""ederals in the 
brush. The slaughter was 'so great that Colonel Rainey ordered his men to fall 
back into the woods about one hundred yards, where they were halted and com- 
manded to kneel and await the approach of the enemy's force. He was exceed- 
ingly nervous about whether his men or himself would stand fire, as they were 
all raw troops, but was compelled to appear cool and collected to inspire con- 
fidence in his men. When the regiment fell back, the Feilerals, supposing they 
were retreating, came on with a yell to within thirty steps. The Texans unflinch- 
ingly recei\ed the fire, pouring volley after volley into their ranks. After fighting 
about hall an hour, and discovering the Federals did not advance, the Texans were 
ordered to rise and cliarge. They gave a yell and sprang- forward. The Federals, 
seeing the siui.ilion, turned and fled to their gunboats, about four or five hundred 
yards distant, with the Texans in full pursuit. 

Genera! }iood arrived with his staff just then. Perceiving that they were about 
to run under the fire of the gunboats, a courier v,-as despatched to order Colonel 
Rainey to halt. They did not obey tlie order. General Hood himself now came 
up and ordered, " Colonel Rainey, halt your regiment !" This order w;is obeyed. 
In this action the Texans engaged were about seven hundred ; Federals, eigh- 
teen hundred or two thousand. Lieutenant-Colonel Black, Captain Decatur, and 
twenty privates were killed and .some thirty or forty wounded. The Federal loss 
was three hundred killed and wounded, and one hundred and twenty-six prisoners, 
according to General Hood's ofificial rejjort. 

This affair was of great importance. President Davis, in conversation with a 
Texas Senator, said, in speaking of the Texas Brigade: " They saved the rear of 
the army and the whole of our baggage-train." General Gustave Smith, in a 
letter to Colonel Horace Randall, said: "The Texans won inmiortal honor for 
themselves, their State, and their commander. General Ilo^id, at the battle of 
Eltham's Landing, ojiposite West Point." 

The Texas Brigade was drawn up in line of battle on May S in front of Dr. 
Tyler's residence, five miles west of New Kent Court-House, but the enemy made 
no attempt to attack. They moved up the road and formed a new line of defence, 
until the army could take position near Richmond. The next day they marched to 
the Chickahominy, a distance of six miles, but the road wms blocked with baggage- 
trains and artillery, the mud le:u-ful, while the r.iin jxjured. in toirents. Alter many 


vexations die Chickahominy was at last passt-d, and they were safe on the Rich- 
mond side, at a place calletl " Pine Island," three miles from the city. 

On .May 26 they recei\ed orders to march, and, after going to and fro along 
the Chickahominy, hnally moved down tht Nine-Mile Road to within a mile and a 
half of the enemy, where they halted and waited for the signal of battle. 

The Te.xas Brigade was under fire during the two days' fight at Seven Pines 
(May 31 to June i), but not directly engaged, much to tlie chagrin of the men. 
Alter the battle they were thrown to the front. Ever)- day two hundred men and 
the reijuisite number of officers v,-ere dr-talleJ to act as spies and sharp-shooters. 
These men operated beyond and independent of the regular pickets, and became a 
terror to the enemy. 

On the morning- of June 7, a party, under Lieutenant Jcmison, of the I'ii'st 
Regiment, Lieutenant Barziza, of the Fourth, and Lieutenant Nash, of the P'ifth, was 
ordered by General Hood to drive in the enemy's pickets. They attacked the out- 
posts. The pickets fled pell-mell, but, perceiving that there was only a small force, 
returned and resisted the advance of the Te.xans. A regiment of Federals came in 
sight, and the Te.xans dropped back under cover of their batteries, having lost six 
men and the Federals about fifty. General Hood issued an order complimenting 
officers and men for the brave attack. 

General Robert E. Lee was now placed in command, and thenceforward directed 
the movements of the army in front of Richmond. Just at this juncture of affairs 
Genera! Lee forined his plan of attack upc.m General McClellan. As part of the 
general movement to execute that plan the Texas Brigade, belonging to Whiting's 
di\-ision, moved by railroad via Lynchburg to Charlottesville, and thence to Staun- 
ton. The men were astonished at this move, and were instructed when asked 
vherc they were going to reply, " I don't know." 

When they reached Staunton they joined General Jackson, and orders were 
issued to return at once to Charlottesville and Hauiiver Jimction. From Ashland 
the troops were marched in a southeasterly direction on the morning of June 20. 
Below the city the Confederates attacked the intrenched enem\- at Mechanicsville, 
only three miles from the city. Night brought an end to the fighting, and the 
Federals retreated to Gaines's Farm, where they were strongly intrenched. Next 
morning the attack was renewed. As soon as General Lee was advised that Gen- 
eral Jackson had arrived and made his connection at Cold Harbor, the attack was 
made simultaneously along the whole line. 

It was on this memorable June 27 that Hood's Texas Brigade made the repu- 
tation which one of their number quaintly said " nearly exhausted them to achieve, 
and nearly finished them to maintain." The battle had waged hot and thick, but 
no break was made in the intrenchments. The Confederates marched boldly u]\ 
but were mowed down by a blinding, continuous shower of shot and shell, and 
\\ ere unable to successfully make any headway against the Federal line. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon General Lee came up to General Hood 
and told him the works must be carried. "Can you break his line?" General 
Hood replied : " I will try." 

The Texas Brigade consisted of the Fir>t, FourUi, and Fifth Texas Regiments 
and the Ei'^rhtecnth Geortria Regiment. Whiting's division con.-,istcd of the Fourth 


Alabama, Second smd Eleventh Mississippi, Sixth North CaroHna, the Texas Bri- 
gade, and the Hampton Legion. The division, with the exception of Hood's 
brigade, had been actively engaged for some time when General Lee spoke to 
General Hood. The latter says : 

" I immediately formed my brigade in line of battle, witii Hampton's Legion 
on the left. My line was established and moved forward, regiment by regiment, 
when 1 disco\cred, as the disposition of the Eighteenth Georgia was completed, 
an open fiold on its right. Holding the Fourth Texas in reserve, I ordered the 
advance and galloped into the open field, from which point I could see at a dis- 
tance of about eight hundred yards the position of the Federals. 

" They were heavily intrenched upon the side of an elevated ridge. At the 
foot of the slope ran Powhite Crtck, which stream, together with the abatis in 
front of their works, constituted a formidable obstruction to our approach, whilst 
batteries, supported by masses of infantrj-, crowned the crest of the hill in the rear, 
and long-range guns were posted upon the south side of the Chickahominy in 
readiness to enfilade our adsancing column. The ground from which I made these 
observations was open the entire distance to their intrenchments. I determined to 
advance from that point, to make a strenuous efTort to pierce the enemy's fortifica- 
tions, and if possible to put him to flight. 

" I therefore marched the Fourth Texas by the right flank into this open field, 
halted and dressed the line while under fire of the long-range guns, and gave posi- 
tive instructions that no man should fire until I gave the order, for I knew if the 
men were allowed to fire they would halt to load, break the alignment, and very 
likely never reach the breastworks. I, moreover, ordered them not only to keep 
together, but in line, — that I would lead the charge. 

" ' F'orwaid, march !' was sounded, and we moved at a rapid, but not a double- 
quick pace. Meantime my regiments on the left had advanced some distance to 
the front through the wood and sviamp. 

"Onward we marched under the constantly increasing shower of shot and 
shell, while to our right could be seen some of our troops making their way to the 
rear and others lying down under a galling fire. 

" Soon we attained the crest of the bold ridge, witliin about one hundred and 
fifty yards of the breastworks. Here was concentrated upon us from batteries in 
front and flank a fire of shell and canister, which ploughed through our ranks with 
deadly effect. At a quickened pace we continued to ad\ance without firing a shot, 
down the slope, over a body of our soldiers lying on the ground, to and across 
Powhite Creek, when, amid the fearful roar of musketry, I gave the order to fix 
bayonets and charge ! 

"With a ringing shout we dashed up the- steep hill and over the breastworks 
upon the ver>' heads of th.e enemy. The Federals, panic-stricken, rushed preciiji- 
tately to the rear upon infantn,- in s\ipport of the artillerv. Suddenly the whole 
joined in the flight towards the valley beyond. At this juncture some twenty guns 
in rear of the Federal line on the hill to the left opened fire u[)on the F'ourth Te.xas 
Regiment, which changed front and charged in that direction. I despatched every 
officer of my staff to the main portion of the brigarle in t!ie wood to tlie left, in- 
structing them to bear the glad tidings that the I'ourth Texas had jjierced the 

Vol. II. — 42 


enemy's rear and to deliver orders to push forward with utmost haste. At the same 
moment I discoxered a F'edcral brigade marching up the slope h'om the valley 
beyond, evidently with the purpose to re-establish the line. 

" Meantime the long line of blue and steel to the right and left wavered and 
finally ga\e way as the Eighteenth Georgia, F"irst and Fifth Texas, and Hampton 
Legion (^ South Carolina) moved forward from right to left, completing a grand 
left wheel of the brigade into the very heart of the enemy. 

" Simultaneously with this movement burst forth a tumultuous shout of vic- 
tory, which wa.s taken up along the whole Confederate line. I mounted my horse, 
rode forward, and found the Fourth Te.xas and Eighteenth Georgia had charge of 
a Federal regiment which had surrendered to them." 

General Jackson says officially : "In this charge, in which upwards of a thou- 
sand men fell, killed and wounded, before the fire of the enemy, and in which 
fourteen pieces of artillery and nearly a regiment were captured, the Fourth Te.xas, 
under the lead of General Hood, was the first to pierce these strongholds and sci;;e 
the guns." 

The day was won, but at a terrible sacrifice. Hundreds were killed, hundreds 
wounded and suffering upon the battle-field. The brave Colonel Marshall, of the 
Fourth, was killed early in the charge, cheering his men to victory. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Bradfute Warwick then assumed full command, and with matchless daring 
led his men through the shower of death ; picking up a fallen flag he planted it 
upon the breastworks in the supreme moment of victory, was stricken down, and fell 
mortally wounded. The wounded were taken to Richmond to the hospitals on 
litters and in ambulances ; the dead buried on the battle-field. 

General McClellan had occupied a semicircular line from tlie vicinity of Ash- 
land to James River, a distance of about twenty miles, while the Confederates were 
inside the semicircle. 

By the turn of the tide at Gaines's P'arm General McClellan was compelled to 
give up his northern strongholds, including possession of the FVedcricksburg and 
Central Railroad. Thus cut off from his avenues of supply, it was soon known that 
he was retreating towards the James River. Following up the retreat, General Stuart 
with his cavalry was doing- good service in the direction of White House, each day 
capturing and destroying property and sending large bodies of [irisoners to the rear. 

General Hood v>as ordered to advance on Saturday, but was compelled to wait 
until a bridge destroyed by the eneni)' could be repaired. 

On Sunday, June 29, occurred the fight at .Savage Station, and at the close of 
the day McClellan was eluding the Confcderatts in full retreat. On Monday the 
pursuit was resinned, the troops advancing upon the enemy at Frazier's Farm, on 
the New Market Road. The Federals made a desperate resistance. All day 
the men fought, a.s regiment after regiment was thrown against the Confederate 
advancing column. Night closed with the battle still raging. The day's work did 
not end until half-pa-^t ten o'clock, when the Federals stopped their advance, 
" concluding with the achievement of the field, under the most trying circum- 
stances, which the enemy with overwhelming numbers had not succeeded in 
reclaiming." This was one of the most remarkable long-contested fights that had 
occurred, — thi- loss dreadful to contemplate. 


On Tuesday, the Federals continued their flight towards their gunboats, and 
were now in communication with tlieir suppHes. 

At Malvern Hill they occupied the crest of the hill, fortified antl prepared to 
receive an attack, — commanding an undulating field which fell to the right into a 
plait! or meadow. Here their batteries were massed, strongly su[)ported by in- 
fantry, — everything ready for another terrible day's work. General Magruder 
commenced the attack. About five o'clock, after being engaged all day, the order 
was given to charge the works and drive the men from their position. The troops 
sprang to the encounter, rushing into the held at full speed. The enemy's breast- 
works sent forth a murderous storm of grape and canister. Officers and men went 
down by hundreds, but still the line dashed on, until two-thirds of the distance 
across the field was accomplished. The line wavered anel fell back to the woods. 
Twice was the effort made with tlie same result. The conflict slackened as night 
came on. The men had not carried the fortifications, but they occupied the field 
and posted their pickets within one hundred yards of the F'edcral guns. It was a 
stubborn assault on the part of the Confederates, and, while not a brilliant victory, 
as Gaines's Farm, ga\-e the enemy no advantage, and was- the last of the "Seven 
Days' Fights." 

Malvern Hill is considered by soldiers and historians the most sanguinary of 
that series of bloody engagements. The official report places the Confederate loss 
at three thousand, the Federals fifteen thousand, but there is no doubt the Con- 
federate loss was greater than reported. Strong men shudder when they recall 
Malvern Hill, — lines rushing on, hurled back, others taking their places, the living 
sweeping over the dead, and still the battle raging. 

The Federal army was not annihilated, but was driven to the co\-cr of their 
gunboats. The siege of Richmond was raist-d, a large army had been put to flight, 
while the Federal government forgot to boast of the sjieedy termination of the 

The wounded of the Te.xas Brigade were taken to the hospitals, and their 
officers and friends found it difficult to visit them and bestow the little attention 
they could render. 

The brigade was on pirket duty f"r a \ihile after hostilities ceased, and finally 
were again ordered on the march, and pitrlud their tents on the same ground from 
which they had moved on the morning of May 31 to march to the battle-field of 
Seven Pines. 

"Thus they had completed a tour of five hundred miles, passing through 
several b'oody engagements, and at the end of forty days w-ere at the same place 
they started." Here they rested for a while, and the clraplain and officers pro- 
ceeded to the city to look after their stricken comrades. Finding it impossible to 
give any concerted care to their wounded, scattered sometimes three or four miles 
apart, it was decided to procure a building, and with the help of the ladies, and 
some assistimce from the government, furt)'-si.x beds were soon ready for occu- 
pancy. Rev. Nicholas Davis was placed in charge, and a Te.xas hospital became 
an institution of the city of Richmond. Mrs. President Davis and other friends of 
the Texans rendered efficient help. The \'oung Men's Christian Association also 
took an interest in the enterprise, providing, food, and other supjjlies. 


Here the men met coniradus of their own State and were better satisfied, while Mr. 
Davis attended to their spiritual as well as temporal wants. 

During the year this hospital was in operation. Afterwards the surgeon in 
charge was Dr. Lunday, a Te.xas physician, who practised his profession after the 
war in Houston, and died in that cit>-. The members of the brigade will ever 
cherish hib memory with kindh'est feelings of regard because of his u ork in behalf 
of the sick and wounded of Hood's soldiers at Richmond, \'irginia. 

The government at Washington issued a call for three hundred thousand more 
troojis, and Major-Gcneral Pope was placed in command of the Army of the 
Potomac, who changed the base of operations back to the Rappahannock River. 
He issued orders from " head -quarters in the saddle," lioasted of his ability to cope 
with his adversary, until the newspapers North caught the inspiration and believed 
him the greatest leader of the age. 

"Stonewall" Jackson had quiedy left the lines below Richmond and made his 
wa)- rapidly to the Rapidan. On August S his command engaged the Federals at 
the battle of Cedar Mountain, — one of the most severe and rapid engagements of 
the war, resulting in a decisi^■e victory. 

The Texas Brigade was not engaged in this battle. After resting and recruit- 
ing, as before stated. Whiting's division had been ordered to move north, but the 
destination was a mystery. General Jackson was gone. General Longstreet was 
gone, but under which leader they would fight was unknown. They took up the 
line of march until they reached the Rappahannock. The weather was hot and 
many were stricken with sunstroke. Still General Hood moved forward until he 
reached Freeman's Ford. He found the enemy had crossed in front of General 
Trimble. The battle was already begun. The artillery had been at work some 
time, and now the sharp-shooters were marking their objects. 

The Texas Brigade took position on General Trimble's right, and Colonel 
McLaw's brigade on his left. The line of battle was formed, the order " Forward!" 
was given, the line of the Federals was instantly broken, and they were dri\en 
headlong into the river. The rout was complete ; many were shot in the back, 
others while attempting to recross the river, and three hundred killed and wounded 
in the riv< r and along the shore told the tale of this day's destruction. 

The men had only green corn for food, as the wagons did not arrive until the 
night of the 23d. Soon the camp was busy cooking rations, when the order came 
to mo\ <■. Supper was in every stage of preparation, except ready to eat, but mili- 
tary law must be obeyed. The next day they had time to cook, and continuing 
the march until, on the 2Stii, they reached Thoroughfare Gap. Jackson had passed 
through unmolested, but the Federals now occupied the gap, which was a narrow 
defile in the Bull Run Mountains, with crags and slopes close around, protected by 
a wall of stone on either side. Genera! Hood had joined General Jones's division, 
and it was determined to force a passage through this strong position, — the advan- 
tage being on the Federal side. 

General Jones's advance immediately opened fire, and, pressing vigorously on, 
he dro\c them before him from the slope and gap, and led his men to the other 
side. The whole line quickly followed, pa.->sed through, and bi\-ouacked on the field 
beyond. About one hundred of the enemy were killed and captured in this en- 


counter, with but few casualties on the rebel side, while General Jackson's cannon 
were distinctly heard in the direction of Manassas. 

Next day the Te.xas Brij^ade was thrown to the front, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Upton, of the Fifth Regiment, was placed in command of a picked force of about 
one hundred and fifty skirmishers, directed to act as advance-guard and dri\'e the 
enemy before them. This gallant officer and his brave marksmen pushed the Fed- 
erals so rapidly as to be frequently under the necessity of halting for their c>un 
troops to come up. Early in the day they came upon the main body of the Fed- 
erals upon the plain of Manassas, ha\-ing pursued the retreating guard eight miles. 

Forming line of battle they awaited orders, as General Jackson was engaged 
upon the left in deadly combat. The division was formed across the pike, Hoi^id's 
brigade posted on the right and McLaw's on the left. Between Hood's left and 
Jackson's right, which rested about one mile south of Gro\eton, there was a gap of 
several hundred yards. Here were planted the Washington Artiller)-, of New Orleans, 
and several other batteries, commanding the ground over which General Pope was 
advancing. He threw forward a heavy column, making a desperate elTort to divide 
the line. The artillery opened I'lie, and the advance was repulsed. Again ati 
advance was made, again driven back, the fight becoming general along the entire 
line of Jackson. 

General Lee disco\-ered reinforcements were coming to aid the discomfited 
Federals. General Hood was ordered hy General Longstreet to make a demon- 
stration on the enemy's left. Instantly the order was gi\-en, theflash cif hre belched 
forth along the line, the din became horrible, — artillery thundering and infantry tiring 
continuously. The advancing column wavered, fell back, took another position, 
a'dvanced again, but were again driven back. Thus on and on they retreated until 
night put an end to the progress of troops and gave shelter to a \-anquishcd army. 
About nine o'clock it was discovered that the Federals and Confederates were 
n>i.\ed up curiously. General Hood discovered the state of alTairs, informed Gen- 
eral Lee, and asked permission to call off his men, which was given, and at two 
o'clock in the morning they were withdrawn from the immediate presence of the 

August 30 found thv two armies lying close together. The Frckrals bad moved 
up and occupied the ground Hood had abandoned for want of support. Picket 
firing and artillery duelling began at an early hour. 

"Our line of battle was an obtuse crescent in shape anfl fnc miles long." 
The Federal line of battle conformed itself to the Confederate, and took also a 
crescent form. 

Hood's brigade belonged to Longstreet's corps, and occupied a place on the 
extreme left. During the morning the fighting did not amount to more than an 
artillery duel. At one o'clock the Federals commenced a series of invitations to 
compel the Confederates to bring on the general fight by advancing both upon the 
right and left, but were promptly repulsed. Suddenly, at four o'clock, our bat- 
teries "belched forth a volley that seemed to shake the earth." A column of in- 
fantry had mo\-ed out to attack Jackson. A second and third column made their 
appearance, moving boldly forward until within range of sninl!-arms. These troops 
were the crack corps of tlie Federals, under General S}-kes and M'lrell. "As the 


fight progressed, Genera! Lee moved his batteries to the left and opened fire, only 
four hundred yards distant. The column broke, the men fell back to the rear. 
Jackson's men now went into the charge upon the scattering crowd, left without 
a leader." In the severe action Jackson's left advanced more rapidly than his 
right, and the line of battle became changed. Longstreet, who had hitherto not 
been engaged, took the golden opportunity to attack the left tlank of the enemy in 
his front. 

Hood's brigade, being on the left, ch.arged the turnpike. Here occurred 
another brilliant achievement of these men, crowning Hood's Te.xans again with the 
laurels of a just renown for intrepid courage. Sickles' s Excelsior Brigade of Zouaves 
had been for several days an.xious to come in contact with the Te.xans. During 
the charge, while the men were steadily advancing upon the zoua\es, who occupied 
an eminence with their batteries in the rear upon the brow of the hill, General 
Longstreet sent rapidly for General Hood. He had instructed Hood nut tf) allow 
the division temporarily commanded by him to move so far forward as to throw 
itself beyond the prompt support of the troops he had ordered to the front. 

General Hood, on leaving his men to receive his superior's instructions, gave 
the order to " press the enemy back to the bank, and then halt under the shelter of 
the hill." The temptation was too strong for them to halt, and they moved right 
on, up the hill to the battery of five pieces frowning down upon them and scattering 
destruction in tlieir midst. The Texans ad^'anced, and under the deadly fire suc- 
ceeded in dri\-ing the zouaves beyond their guns. 

When General Hood returned he found the brigade was not where he had 
ordered them to h.alt, but had run over the battery and were in the \alley beyond, 
"pouring their deadly fire into those splendid troops which McClellan had eulogized 
so highly before Richmond." When he came up with them he said : " Boys, you 
don't know how proud I am of you ! You have behaved gallantly ! \'ou ha\e 
done nobly ! You have fought like heroes !' ' 

The day ended with victory for the Confederates on the plain of .Manassas, 
thus twice baptized in the blood of heroes. The loss on both sides was severe. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Upton, of the Fifth Texas, was left dead upon the field, and 
Colonel Robertson, of the P'ifth, was wounded while heading his men far out upon 
the front of the most advanced position. 

Rev. Nicholas Davis says of the r\vn engaged : "Colonel Wf>fford, of the 
Eighteenth Georgia (Hood's brigade), Lieutenant-Colonel Gary, of Hampton Le- 
gion, Lieutenant-Colonel Carter, commanding the Fourth Texas, and Major Town- 
send particularly distinguished themselves, as also did Captains Hunter, C. M. 
Winkler, E. A. Cunningham, Barrett, Mertin, Darden, Rlanton, Barziza, and others. 
General Hood said of all engaged with him that day : ' As to their gallantry and 
unfiinching cnurage, they stand unsurpassed in the history of the world.' " 

The Texans captured during this engagement si.x stands of colors and five 
pieces of artiHery. From all reliable sources it appears that General Lee had from 
one hundred and thirty-five to one hundred and forty thousand to contend with on 
this occasion, and according to Dr. Jones 'his biographer), the whole Confederate 
force in Northern Virginia was only sixty-nine thousand five hundred and fifty-nine 
men able lor active dutv. 


Our loss amounted to six thousand, while that of the Federals approximated 
thirty thousand. General Lee paroled seven hundred prisoners on the battle-hcld. 
When the roll was called in the Texas Brigade after this battle it was found to be 
reduced fully half its numbers, — killed, wounded, and missing. The wounded and 
dead Texans were scattered over a distance of two miles. Field hospitals were im- 
pros'ised, and many were taken to neighboring- farm-houses and cared for by the 
ladies, many sent to hospitals at Warrenton. Gordonsville, and Charlottesville. 
After the dead were buried and the wounded cared for the march was continued, 
and General Lee manifested his [jlan of crossing the I'otomac into Maryland. 

Some time during the second battle of Manassas Hood's brigade captured 
some Federal ambulances. Major-General Evans, of South Carolina, ordered 
General Hood to turn them over to his men. This General Hood refused to do, 
saying he would cheerfully obey if he had been ordered to tuin the captured prop- 
erty over to General Lee's quartermaster, but considered his men had a better right 
to them than troops from another State. General Evans was his superior in com- 
mand, and ordered General Hood to be placed under arrest. On the march to 
Maryland he was ordered by General Longstreet to proceed to the rear at Culpcper 
Court-House and there await the assembly of a court-martial. General Lee became 
apprir-ed of the matter, and sent in^tructions that he should remain with his com- 
mand, but continue under arrest. 

Genera! Lee crossed the Potomac into Maryland on September 4. Long.=itreet's 
corps, to which was attached Hood's brigade, was finally massed at liagerstow n, 
after destroying the railroad bridge of the Baltimore and Ohio Road over the 
Monocacy River, which was effected by the Texans. From thence they moved 
through Frederick City and Boonsboro' to Hagerstown. 

On the morning of the 14th they were ordered back to South Mountain to 
meet the advance of McClellan, who was endeavoring to "break through Boons- 
boro' Gap, di\ide our lines, and defeat our armies in detail, as General Jackson had 
gone with his troops to Harper's Ferr\-." 

The Texans had grown very indignant at the injustice to General Hood, and 
were now ordered into line of battle just before reaching the gap. This was 
obeyi'd. Next came the command to ford the river. This was not obeyed. Gen- 
eral K\ans wanted to know the reason. "Give us Hood," they replied. "We 
will fight under no other !"' General Evans became angry and threatened to turn 
a brigade upcm them. This did not frighten them, so he sent to General Lee the 
message that the Texas Brigade had mutinied. 

When the cause was explained, General Lee sent General Hood back to his 
men. When he was seen approaching, the brigade opened ranks and allowed him 
to pass through, and as he passed alnng the line hats flew up and cheer after cheer 
rent the air, notuitlistanding they ucre in the face of the enemy. After retching 
the head of the colunni the clear sounding " forward !" rang out and the men will- 
ingly obev'.d. 

General Lee said to hini. in a \oice betraying his emotion : "1 will suspend 
your arrest until the impending battle is decided." He knew well the valuable 
services rendered liy General Hood .md his Texan.s, and coukl ill alk>rd to sacrifice 
military eliquetle lo the danger eoiuVdnling the army at this critical nuunent. 


Genera! D. H. Hill's division was already in and around Boonsboro' Gap, and 
the battle began at daylight. Longstreet arrived at four o'clock at the pass, and 
his men were rapidly sent into the mountains. The fortunes of the dav were 
becoming desperate, when Longstreet' s reinforcements arrived. "Evans was 
assigned to the extreme left, Drayton to the right, and Hood and his ragged Te.\ans 
occupied the centre." 

The Federals advanced over the rngi;ed way, cheering at their success. 
General Hood was ordered to the right, as the troops on that side were giving 
aw.a)-. Ho orderei.1 the brigades under his command to fi.x bayonets ; then, when 
the enem)- came within one hundred yards, to charge. They obeyed with a 
genuine Confederate yell, and the Federals were driven back in confusion over and 
beyond the mountains. The ground lost was regained, and reinforcements were 
prevented from being sent against General Jackson, who was confronting General 
Miles at Harper's Ferry. 

General Lee evidentl)- had not expected to fight at Boonsboro', as General 
Hill had only been left there to watch the enemy while General Jackson went to 
Harper's Ferry and General Longstreet to Hagerstown. General McClellan had 
only decided to mass his troops after a despatch to General Hill fell into his hands, 
and by a masterly effort defeat the Confederates by preventing concert of action ; 
hence this engagement. 

After a long debate, Generals Lee. Longstreet, and Hill decided to fall back 
towards Sharpsburg, and accordingly the troops crossed the Antietam to Sharps- 
burg, where they took position on the morning of .September 14. General Jackson, 
with the remaining divisions of Lee's army, after a forced march, reached the vicinity 
of Sharpsburg on the morning of September 16. 

The Federals crossed the Antietam abjve the position of the Confederates. 
Having obtained j)Ossession of Compton's Gap on the direct road from Frederick 
City to Sharpsburg, they were pressing the Confederates and seemed determined 
upon a decisive batde. On the march to .Sharjjshurg General Hood's tu'o brigades 
and I'robel's cavalry acted as rear-guard. The men had received no meat for 
several days, subsisting principally upon preen corn and apples, but they were 
cheerful and dcllant, — eager to meet the Federals again. During the afternoon of 
the i6th. Hood was ordered to take po.^itlon in an open field near the Hagerstown 
Pike. This position of General Hood was intended to meet the advance of Federals 
who had crossed the Antietam beyond the ranges of the Confederate batteries. 
General Jackson was on Hood's left. During the same afternoon the enemy made 
an attack upon Hood, but his men repulsed them gallandy, driving them back some 
distance. Night put an end to the contest, leaving the two lines in such close 
quarters that tb.e men were able to hear distinctly the orders of their conmianding 

General Hood went in search of General Lee to request that his brigade be 
relieved from tlie presence of the enemy, as the men were suffering with hunger and 
fatigue. General Lee sent the brigades of Lawton, Trimble, and Hayes, of Ewell's 
division, to their relief, but e.\acted the promise that they sb.ould return to their 
former position at a moment's notice if necessary. 

Now commt-nced a hunt lor the supply-wag. ms. It nearly mornip.g before 


the men had their food cooked, — many only preparing the meal when the message 
came, "General Lauton presents his compliments, with the request that you come 
at once to his support," and the brigade was at once ordered back to the relief of 
La\\ton's troops. The Eederals had commenced firinj:;;' along General Lawton's 
front at three o'clock. As the Texans marched back to their position of the 
pre\ious ti-eiiing, a courier brought the tidings that General Lawton was wounded, 
and General Hood must take command. As they crossed the pike and filed 
through a gap in the fence, Lawton was borne in a litter past the men. To show 
the perilous position to which General Hood was now required to take his men we 
quote from General Jackson's ofhcial report : — 

"General Lawton, commanding division. General Walker, commanding Law- 
ton's brigade, were severely wounded. More than half of the brigades of Lawton 
and Hayes were killed or wounded, and more tlian a third of Trimble's, and all the 
regimental commanders in those brigades except two were either killed or wounded. 
Exhausted of their ammunition, thinned in their ranks, Jackson's di\ision and the 
brigades of Trimble, Lawton, and Hayes retired to the rear, and Hood, of Long- 
street's corps, again took the position from which he had been relieved." 

The sun had just risen, and in Hood's front were drawn up in battle array 
heav) C(,ilnm;is of Eederal inf;intry, nc_>t less than two corjis, says General Hood, 
and to oppose them General Hood had about two thousand effective men. With 
Lawso.T in command of one brigade and Woflord, of the Eighteenth Georgia, in 
command of the other, they marched forward to the assault. 

The reader asks why a division and three brigades were remo\ed and only 
two brigades sent to take their place at this critical moment. General McLaws had 
been ordered to move forward at the same time as General Hood, but he was 

The otlds were greatly against them, yet they %\ent gallantly into the fight, 
driving the enemy from the wood and cornfield upon his reserves, and forcing him 
to abandon his guns upon the left. Genera! Hood, re.alizing his terrible position, 
sent to General Hill for troops to a3si^t in holding the left of his line. Each time 
the courier returned with the answer, " No troops to spare." 

Every man v/ho withstood the carnage that day at .Sharpsburg agrees that to 
Hood's brigade that was the most terrible day of the four years' service. The bat- 
tle raged along the line for five miles, but the leaders did not realize that in front 
of Hood's men the enemy had massed his strength, did not know of McLaws's 
tardiness, and were abashed when they learned how Hood's Texans had withstood 
the hottest fire of the day. General Hood says in his official report :-— 

" Here I witnessed the most terrible clash of arms by far that occurred during 
the war. Tlie two litde giant brigades of my command wrestled with the mighty 
force, and, although they lost hundreds of their ofilcers and men, they drove them 
from their position and forced them to abandon their guns on our left. One of 
these brigades numbered only eight hundred ai.d iifiy-four men." 

The First Texas lo^t in the cornheld fully two-thirds of their number, and 
whole ranks of brave men were mowed down like grass. The enemy began an 
enfilading fire, as tlie Confederate line was in a right angle, and. the dnislon wiis 
coniijclled to mo\e to the left and rear Xi> close up tht- unoccupied space to Jackson's 


right, that gtncral li:iviny moved his troops, lea\-ing their left entirely exposed. 
The most de.idly combat waged until every round of ammunition was exhausted. 
General McLaws arrived at half-past ten A..M., when General Hood, with colors 
flying, mo\td to the wood in the rear. The men supplied theni.selves with ammu- 
nition and returned to the wood, \vhich ground was held till a late hour in the 
afteinocn, v% hen tliey moved to the right and bi\'Ouacked for the night. 

A correspondent of the New York Herald said of this part of the engage- 
ment : " That those ragged, filthy wretches, sick, lumgry, and in all ways miserable, 
should prove su'-h heroes in the fight is p;ist e.xplanaliou. Men never fought better. 
There was one regiment that stood up before the fire of two or three of our long- 
range batteries and regiments ot infantry, and tliough the air was vocal with the 
whistle of bullets and the scream of shells, there they stood and deli\-ered their fire 
in perfect order." 

This regiment was Hood's brigade. They had passed through so many 
engagements their ranks had been thinned to the proportion of a regiment. 

With regard to failure of reinforcements. General Hood remarked that "he 
was thoroughly of the opinion that the victory of that day would have been as 
thorough, quick, and complete as on the plains of Manassas if General McLaws 
had reached the field, even as early as nine o'clock." 

Next day the two armies were confronting each other with no disposition to 
renew the attack. The F"ederals report that where General Hooker engaged the 
enemy's left (in front of Hood) there were twelve hundred and fifty wounded. 
The Confederate loss was heavy, — estimated at from five to nine thousand. 

McClellan was in command, and said in his official report : " The next morning 
I found our loss had been so great and there was so much disorganization, I did 
not consider it proper to renew the attack, especially as I was sure of the arrival 
that day of two fresh divisions, amounting to about fourteen thousand men." 

During the iSth, General Lee wailed for General McClellan's advance, but 
as none was made, he withdrev," his army to the south bank rif tlie Potomac, cross- 
ing at Shepherdstown. No attempt wa^ made to prevent the evacuation of Mary- 
land. General McClellan's official report shows that he had in action at Sharps- 
burg eiglity-se\cn thousand one hundred and sixty-four men. Official reports also 
show that Cienerai Lee's whole strength at Sharjisburg was only thirty-five thousand 
and fifty-four. 

The New \'ork Tribune indign.unly summed uf) the situation : "(ieneral Lee 
leaves us the debris of his late camps, two disabled pieces of artillery, a few luuidred 
stragglers, perhaps two thousand of his wounded, and as many of his unburied 
dead. He takes with him the supplies gathered in Mar)-land and the rich spoils of 
Harper's P'erry. The failure of Maryland to rise was the only defeat Lee sustained. 
His retreat over the Potomac was a m.asterpiece, and the manner in v.hich he had 
combined Hill and Jackson for the en\elopment of Harper's Ferry, while he checked 
the Federal column at Hagerstown and the gap, was proi\ibly the grandest achieve- 
ment of the war." 

The Texas Brigade marched to a jioinl near Winchester, wh.cre they rested after 
their exhausting labors. Genera! Lee was so murh pleased witli their record that 
he wrote t(_> Senator W'igfali on the 21st urging him to secure more regiments from 


Texas : "I rely upon those we have in all tight places, and fear I have to call upon 
them too often. With a few more such regiments as Hood now has, as an example 
of daring and bravery, I could feel more confident of the campaign." 

On September 2S, General Hoorl delivered an address to his men congratu- 
lating them upon their success and bravery. His arrest, which General Lee had 
suspended at Boonsboro' Gap, was never reconsidered ; in lieu thereof he soon re- 
ceived the promotion to be major-general. During the reorganization of the army 
which followed, placing regiments of .States together, the Te.xas Brigade lost the 
Eighteenth Georgia, which up to this time had stood shoulder to shoulder with 
them in every conflict. The men regretted the change, but gained the Third 
Arkansas Regiment, thus throwing all the regiments from the Trans-Mississippi 
togetlier in the Te.xas Brigade. 

"The loss sustained by the division of two brigades after leaving Richmond 
was two hundred and fifty-three killed upon the field, si.xteen hundred and twenty- 
one wounded, and one hundred missing, making in all one thousand nii\e hundred 
and seveiity-four." 

While at Winchester, Generals Longstreet and Hood revicued the troojss. 
Regiment after regiment passed until there came one bearing a flag filled with 
hole.-. Tiie ensign who bore it walked with a manly tread, proud of his colors. 
It was a Lone Star flag and belonged to the Fifth Regiment, had been pierced 
fifty-sevcn times, and seven ensigns had fallen under it. Another passed, made by 
Miss Loula Wigfall and presented to General Hood while commander of the 
Fourth Regiment. Nine ensigns had fallen under its folds on the field. It had 
gone through eight battles which had occupied eleven days, and brought oft the 
battle-scars of sixty-seven balls and shot, besides the marks of three shells. This 
was the flag Colonel Warwick, of thi? Fourth, planted on the bre.istworks at 
Gaines's Farm and still clasped as he fell mortally wounded in the moment of 

The First Regiment carried its old flag through every battle until at Sharps- 
burg, when the ensign was shot down unobser\ed in the cornfield while changing 
position to prevent being flanked, and it fell into the hands of the encmv. They 
mounted it on a band-wagon, proud of their trophy, and carried it in trium]->l\ to 
Genera! McClellan's head-quarters. 

About the 26th, Longstrect's corps was again on the marcli, mn\-ing with the 
rest of the army, greatly improved by rest and discipline. The brigade halted at 
Culpcper Court-House, and here. November r, Colonel J. B. Robertson, of the 
Fifth Regiment, by the recommendation of General Hood, recei\-ed his appiiint- 
ment as brigadier-general, and entered at once upon his duties. 

Here also came the intelligence that McClellan had been sacrificed to popular 
clamor, and that General Ambrose Burnside, of Rhode Island, was appointed to the 
command of the Federal army. He concentrated his force on the nortli bank of 
the Rappah.annock. General Lee crossed to the south bank oi the Rai)idan, and 
by the latter part of November the Federal and Confederate armies were confront- 
ing each other at Fredericksburg. 

When General Robertson was ap]>i>inled to the command of the Texas F5rig,\de 
he appointed .Major J. H. Liltlelield quarteruia.-.tor. He found thai through the 


immense dcmainls upon the quartermaster's department there was little prospect for 
obtaining sufficient clothing to protect the men from suffering through tlie winter. 
They were too far from home to find relief from that source. The matter coming to 
the knowledge of Mr. Davis, chaplain of the Fourth Regiment, he let their wants be 
known through the papers, and the ladies of Rich- 
j • : mond and the Young Men's Christian Association 

' nobly contributed to their necessities in the way of 

j shoes, clothing, etc. 
-' ' — '■'■ When General Hurnside was placed in su- 

preme command of the Federal army, he began 
active preparations for another attempt to capture 
the Confederate capital. General Lee had moved 
to the south bank of the Rappahannock, where his 
line stretched along the river some thirty miles, 
I y'^''''-f:;~'^i : guarding the different crossings. General Burnside 

I ''■; ■ t^ '-.. phiuted upon Stafford Heights, just opposite Fred- 

! •> ericksburg, an immense armament of heavy artillery, 

f \' —fully one hundred guns, — commanding the river- 

[ bank ojjposite and the plain upon which the city 

"' "■ stands, and giving shelter to his men while they 
constructed pontoon bridges for the army to cross. 
On the morning of December 1 1 they opened fire at daylight upon the pickets 
stationed to resist their advance, and raked every street and lane of the city with a 
galling fire. This was the beginning of the battle of Fredericksburg. 

During that battle Hood's brigade was not actively engaged. They were in 
line of battle with Longstreet's corps, repelled with ease the feeble attempt made 
upon their front, and stood as interested spectators and reserves while McLaws's 
division and the AVashingtoa Artillery repulsed the attack made upon Marye's 

After the battle the army became comfortable in winter qu.arters. Details were 
sent to different Southern States for recruits, a reasonable number of furloughs were 
granted, and the Te.xans who remained in camp v.ere put back to the rigid discipline 
General Hood always tried to nmintaiii. 

Not long was this rest enjoveil, as unexpectedly Hood's and another division 
of Longstreet's corps were detached for service on the south side of the James 
River in February and took up the line of march for Suffolk. This movement was 
never satisfactorily understood by officers or men. It was not explained why one- 
fourth of the army was sent away when General Lee had reason to e.\pcct an 
advance by General Hooker, who had superseded General Burnside, imless it was 
that an attack U])on Richmond was feared from that quarter. Nothing was ever 
accomplished by the movement. 

Finally,- when General Hooker crossed the Rappahannock, General Longstreet 
was ordered to General Lee's support. A short delay ivas unavoidable, as the 
wagons were off in North Carolina in search of forage, but every effort was made to 
join Lee, and while on a forced march, came the intelligence of the victory at Chan- 
cellorsville and tlie mortal wounding of Genera! Jackson. 


The division continut-d the march without resting, and camped on the Rapidan, 
near Gordonsville. In a letter to General Hood, General Lee said : "I wished for 
you much in the last battle, and believe, had I had the whole army with me, General 
Hooker would ha\e been demolished I grieve much over the death of Jackson. 
I rely much upon you. Vou must inspin; and lead your brave division so that it 
may accomplish the work of a corps." 

The river was again flowing between the two armies. General Lee began to 
inaugurate measures for freeing \'irginia froiii the invading army b\' transferring his 
base of operations to Northern soil. The month of May was spent inspecting the 
troops and providing transportation for artillery and supplie.s. 

The Te.xas Brigade, under General Robertson, remained near Gordonsville 
until the line of march was taken up. on June 3. and it mo\ed to Culpeper Court- 
Housc. The Confederates had cleared the \'allcy of Federals when General Ewell 
reached Winchester, which he captured after a short but stubborn resistance. A 
portion of Ewell' s corps crossed the Potomac soon after at Williamsport. 

On June 24 the whole of Hill's corps cro.ssed the river at Shcpherdstown, the 
Te.vas Brigade, Hood's division, under Longstreet, having previously crossed at 
Williamsport. The columns reunited at Hagerstown and ad\anred into Pennsyl- 
vania, camping near Chambersburg on June 27. 

General Hooker, having failed to prevent General Lee penetrating into Penn- 
sylvani.a, was removed and General George G. Meade placed in command, who 
mo\-ed at once to meet Lee towards Chambersburg. General Lee had designed 
attacking Harrisburg (the Confederate cavalry having explored the southern region 
of Pennsylvania near enough to Harrisburg for their trumpets to be distincdy 
heard), but news reached him on the night of the 29th that Meade had crossed the 
Potomac and the head of his column had reached South Mountain, thereby threat- 
ening communication with his base of supplies, and compelling him to concentrate 
his forces on the east side of the mountain. Generals Ewell, Hill, and Longstreet 
were ordered to proceed to Gettysburg. 

The battle-field of Gettysburg was not the choice of either commanding gen- 
eral. " Lee had not designed to engage in a pitched battle .at this time, 
but, being confronted by the enemy, was compelled to shoxi- fight." 

The troops advanced slowly, but on July i three divisions of Hill's corps met 
the enemy in front of Gettysburg, driving them back a short distance from the town. 

About five miles from Gett>-sburg the mountain rises abruptly several hundred 
feet. Upon this height, known as Round Top, General Meade rested his left 
flank, his right being upon the crest of the range, about a mile and a half from 
Gettysburg, his line in the shape of a crescent. 

Ewell was sent to the riglit, Longstreet to the left, and Hill to the centre. The 
commands v.ere brought up as rapidly as po.ssible after the order was issued to con- 
centrate at Gettysburg. Hood's division arrived in front of the heights about day- 
break and filed into an open field. General Lee's anxiety increasing, it was decided 
to begin the fight without waiting for the troops still on the march and advancing 
as rapidly a,s possible. 

General Hood was ordered to place his di\is!nn across the Emmett.'^'uurg Road 
and attack. Notwithstanding the seemingly impregnable character of the enemy's 


position, Benning's brigade of Hood's division, with the First Texas Regiment, suc- 
ceeded in gaining temporary possession of the advanced Federal hne,' capturing 
three guns. The other Te.xiis regiments, impeded by the boulders and sharp 
ledges of rock, were unable to keep up and render the necessary support. Never 
did the Te.xans fight more desperately against difficulties as General Robertson led 
them to this uiisuceessfiil assault, lie always contended this was the most appall- 
ing situation of the war.' In the midst of the thundering carnage General Hood 
was severely wounded in the arjii and borne from the field, while hundreds of 
Te.xans strewed the field, and their comrades were comjielled to retire before reach- 
ing the summit. The day closed without decisive result. 

Ne.xt da)- General Lee decided to mass his forces and storm Cemetery Hill. 
At twelve o'clock the battle began and raged with fearful \iolence until sunset. 
The storming party, with Pickett's Virginia division in front, made a renowned 
charge, managed to enter the advanced works of the enemy, and got possession of 
some of his batteries. Suddenly the Confederate artillery. ceased firing, and while 
the intrepid charge recei\-ed without wavering great sheets of shot and shell, their 
foe moved around fresh bodies of soldiers and sought to gain their rear. Instantly 
the order was given to fall fack, contesting every inch of ground, but conscious 
that no bravery was able to gra.sp a \ ictory, and that annihilation or capture would 
be inevitable had they continued. The enemy did not follow below their works, 
but the day was lost. General Lee rode among his broken troops quiet, placid, 
uttering cheering words to the men. They answered his appeal, the wounded 
even taking ofi their hats and cheering him. Without panic or confusion he con- 
ducted tlieni by detachments back to the position from which they had first drisen 
the enemy. " All this has been my fault, and you must help me out of it the best 
you can," he said. 

He began his retreat across the Potomac by way of Hagerstown, which he 
reached July 7. He issued an inspiring order to his men complimenting them 
upon their bravery in action and coolness in retreat. No impediment was thrown 
in his'way, and he recrossed the Potomac, through the mountain fastnesses, until he 
rested quietly once more on the south bank of the Rappahannock. The Te.xans 
suffered at Gettysburg more heavily the first day, not being so prominently en- 
gaged afterwards. The wounded Hood followed the retreating army in an ambu- 
lance, suffering with his disabled arm and chafing at the enforced inactivity. 

President Lincoln, when shown the heights held so persistently by Northern 
■■.oldiers, said : "I am proud to be the countryman of the men who assailed these 

During the lull in the storm that followed the Gettysburg campaign Long- 
street's corps was detached from the army of Northern Virginia (General Lee con- 
senting to remain on the defensive) and sent to the relief of General Bragg, com- 
manding the Aimy of Tennessee. 

General Rosecrans, the Federal commander, pressing on through East 
Tennessee to force his way into the heart of the cotton States. General Bragg had 

' Sptit to be marked by llie jjovcriiineiit a'^ the scene of most desperate re- 
sistance, uherc the Texans lost eiRhty-tliTee p'.-r cent, or their men. 


fallen back near Chattanoot;a. Cumberland Gap had been surrendered. As it 
was impossible to hold Chattanooga with Rosecrans advancinj,^ so rapidly, the 
Confederate forces took position on the road leading south of Chattanooga, front- 
ing the east slope of Lookout Mountain. Chattanooga is the great gate-way 
throvigh ihr mountains to Georgia and Alabama. On one side rises Lookout 
Mountain, on the other the heights of Missionary Ridge. East of the latter is 
Chickamauga Valley, following the course of Chickamauga Creek. The Confed- 
erates were concentrated along this stream in communication with the railroad at 
Ringgold, Georgia. To this point General Longstreet's men were hastened by 
rail through Virginia, Xorth and South Carolina, and Georgia, leaving General Lee 
about September 5, reaching Ringgold in time to move forward to Chickamauga, 
reinforcing General Bragg on the afternoon of the 18th in time for the expected 
conflict, Rosecrans having massed his forces at Chattanooga. 

General Hood, \\ho was still under treatment for his wound, w^ith his arm in a 
sling, determined to follow Longstreet's corps when they passed through Richmond. 
After reaching Ringgold he was ordered to Reed's Bridge, and to assiune command 
of the column advancing against the enemy. Here he met his men for the first 
time since Gettysburg, and they gave him a touching welcome. 

During the first day he drove the enemy six or seven miles across the creek. 
Ne.xt day General Longstreet assigned to him the direction of the left wing of the 
army, placing five divisions under his command. General Kragg's plan of attack 
was to commence the assault on the right and gradually extend it to the left. 
General Rosecrans massed his forces on the right ; the left met with less resistance, 
and from nine until half-past two o'clock General Hood's men wrestled with the 
foe, who fought desperately. 

On went Hood's division, the Texas Brigade hotly engaged, when a body of 
Federals rushed upon their flank and rear, and they were suddenly forced to change 
front. General Hood, always on the alert for his old brigade, galloped down the 
slope in the midst of his men, who speedily corrected their alignment. At this 
moment Kershaw's division was brought forth under General Hood's direction, 
who ordered a change of front, when the men rushed forward all along the line, 
penetrated iiUo tiie wood, over and beyond the enemy's breastworks, which gave 
way along his whole front, crowning the day with success. 

Just wheii victory was certain, General Hood was pierced with a Minic-ball 
through his right thigh, and fell from his horse into the arms of the men of his old 
brigade, — ■! singulai coincidence while commanding five divisions. After the battle 
he was renio\ed on a litter, — his leg amp\itated at the thigh, — afterwards to At- 
lanta, and llience to Richmond. On the day he was wounded General Long- 
street telegraphed from the battle-field to the Confederate authorities urging his 
promotion to lieutenant-general. It was January following before he received the 
promotion and was placed in command of the Army of Tennessee after General 
Johnston's rcm(.i\'at. 

The battle-ticld of Chickamauga was the last time he commanded his old bri- 
gade, and to them he paid this tribute : " In almost every battle in \'irginia it bore 
a conspicuous part. It acted as the advanced guard of Jackson when he moved upon 
McClellan auiund Richmond; and almost without an exceptional instance it was 


among the foremost of Lon^jstreet's corps in the attack and pursuit of the enemy. 
It was also, as a rule, with the rear-guard of this corps whenever faUing back before 
the adversary. If a ditch was to be leaped or a fortilied position to be carried, 
General Lee knew no better troops upon whom to rely. In truth, its signal achieve- 
ments in the war of secession have never been surpassed in the history of nations." 

Although the battle was a signal success, General Bragg made the appalling 
confession that he had lost at Chickamauga two-hfths of his troops, including 
many field otticers. Rosccrans's retreat to Chittanooga was disorderly. General 
Longstreet wanted to intercept his progress, bat General Bragg refused ; reported 
his supplies were reduced, and he hoped by cutting off the enemy's communication 
to force an evacuation of Chattanooga. He advanced up and over Missionary 
Ridge, where the army halted and remained many weeks. General Bragg was 
holding the Federal army at the point of starvation when he pursued a strange 
policy ; he detached Longstrect's corps, while confronting the enemy, and sent him 
off on an e.vpedition against Kno.xville, in East Tennessee, to attack Burnside. 

While General Longstreet did all possible to sustain himself in an isolated situ- 
ation, yet it was a season of greater suffering and privation than anything expe- 
rienced by the Te.x'as Brigade during the struggle. Not only was food scarce and 
poor, but they suffered for want of clothing,— many were barefooted. General 
Robertson did what he could for their comfort, and when General Longstreet 
went into winter quarters got furloughs for them as far as practicable. On one 
occasion he protested against marching his barefooted men in the snow, when their 
bleeding feet the day before had left stains along the road, and ignored the order 
sent from he;id-quarters. He was relieved of his command for insubordination and 
court-martialed. General John Gregg, a Texan, who had commanded a brigade in 
Bragg's army, was appointed to the command of the Texas Brigade, and General 
Robertson was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Department. Soon after the 
brigade moved to the railroad, all juliilant at the prospect of returning to Virginia 
and (ieneral Lee, and reached Cobham, \'irginia, seven miles from Gordons\ille, 
on April 2,S. 

On April 29, General Lee reviewed the First Army Corps (Longstrect's) and 
paid the Texas Brigade a high compliment, speaking of it as the best fighting bri- 
gade of the coips. General Lee's army thought they could cope with General 
Grant, the new commander of the Federal Army of the Potomac, but felt more 
comfortable to have Longstreet again with them. Congress passed new conscrip- 
tion laws, both for men and animals, and did all possible to provide for the army. 

General Grant became the hero of the North after the disaster of Bragg at 
Missionary Ridge. He was promoted to lieutenant-general, and transferred his 
influence to the Army of the Potomac. He conceived the crowning plan for 
crushing the rel>cllion. One column was to march under Slierman through the 
centre of the Confederacy, destroying all within reach. Another, under Sheridan, 
\va.s to lay waste the beautiful valley of Virginia. Butler was to operate by 
the Peninsula, while he led in person the grand Army of the Potomac. 

General Lee allowed General Grant to cross the Rapidan unmolested, while he 
thought he was surprising Lee. Grant's object was to pass through tlic Wilrlerncss 
to the roads I'Ctueen Lee antl Richmond. General Lee rosoK'ed to ficrht him in 


those pathless woods, "where artilk-ry would be least available, where massise 
columns would be most embarrassed, and where Southern individuality would be 
specially effecti\-e." 

Hood's brigade marched on May 4 from their camp to Orange Court-House. 
Next day they proceeded until night, when they learned that Grant had crossed 
the Rapidan with three corps, under Sedgwick, Warren, and Hancock. At dawn 
the following day Wilco.x's and Heath's divisions of A. P. Hill's corps were retreat- 
ing, [Messed by the enemy, borne back by the advancing wave of overwhelming 
numbers, after holding the ground the day before. 

Dr. Jones says : " It w<is a crisis in the batde when the head of Longstreet's 
corps dashed upon the field. General Lee came to meet them, and found the old 
Te.xas Brigade, led by the gallant Gregg, in front. As he rode up he said : ' Ah ! 
there are my brave Texans. I know you, and know you can and will keep those 
people back.' They greeted him with cheers as they liurried to the front, but were 
horrified to find their beloved cliief was going \\ith them into the thickest of the 
fight. They began to shout: ' Go back. General Lee I Go back! General Lee to 
the rear!' A ragged veteran stepped from the ranks and seized his bridle, and at 
last the whole brigade halted and exclaimed with one voice : ' We will not advance 
unless General Lee goes back ; but if he will not expose himself, we pledge our- 
selves to drive the enemy back. ' General Lee saw Longstreet, rode oft to give 
him some order, the gallant Texans rushed forward and redeemed their pledge. 
The rest of Longstreet's corps hurried to the front, Hill's troops rallied, the enemy 
was driven back in confusion, and only the wounding of Longstreet prevented the 
utter rout, if not tlic crushing, of that wing of General Grant's army." 

Next day they lay in their breastworks, and on the Sth marched to Spotts_\-l- 
vania Court-House, where they entered breastworks. There were sharp-shooting 
and an attack on the loth. A storming column struck the Fourtli Texas, crossed 
the works, and entered a gap in the fortifications. Those who entered were killed, 
wounded, or captured. All along the line they were repulsed. 

Then followed that series of strategic movements and sanguinary conflicts 
known as the batdes of the " Wilderness," and ending with the siege of Petersburg. 
The Texans took their full sliare in the fighting with their accustonnxl bravery. 

The 'J'exas Brigade marched from Cold Harbor to the Chickahoniiny, through 
Gaines's Farm, crossed the Chickahoniiny, the York Ri\-er Road near Savage Sta- 
tion, and over the battle-field of Se\en Pines, passing on pontoon bridge over the 
James River, and participated in the engagement of June 17, where tlie enemy had 
taken possession of Beauregard's ad\anced line. They charged this position, when 
the line of skirmishers fled or were taken prisciners. During this affair the brigade 
was subjected to a most galling fire of shells from the enemy's main line, about one 
thousand yards distant. 

They passed through Petersburg next day, where they were refreshed by coffee 
distributed by the citizens and ladies, and entered the fortifications surrounding the 
city, where they relieved the troops occupying the trenches. Here they remained 
day after day, — literally burrowing in the ground, so close to the enemy's line that 
it was unsafe to raise their heads abo\e the works, as sharp-shooting was continually 
goiiig on, varied by shelling. Their iond. consisting principally of corn bread and 
Vol. II.— 43 


bacon, was prepared by a cooking detail in the rear, and they watched chances to 
go after water. Duty in the trenches was very unpleasant. One-third of the offi- 
cers and men were on the alert at night, and every one was ready at a moment's 
notice for a surprise ; yet the health and spirits of the men were perfect. They 
tantalized the enemy in every conceivable way, amusing themselves singing religious 
songs or playing chess. At times it •.vould be si.v days before they were relie\cd even 
for a day, so as to permit them to write letters, change clothing, and hear the news. 

On the night of July 27, General Grant threw three corps of his army across 
the north siile of the James, and the impression prevailed that he would try and reach 
Richmond between the James and the Chickahominy. As developed, this move- 
ment was only a feint to compel General Lee to scatter his forces. To be in readi- 
ness. Genera! Lee sent Field's and Kershaw's division of Lougstreet's corps and 
Wilcox's and Heath's division of Hill's corps to the north side of the river. The 
Te.\as Brigade, part of Field's division, recrossed the James on jjontoon bridges as 
before, and passed near the battle-field of Malvern Hill, where they remained on the 

On the morning of July 30 the mine was exploded at the point occupied pre- 
viously by the Texas Brigade in front of Petersburg, and an opening was made for 
the enemy to enter. "He did enter, only to be driven back, engulfed by the 
disaster planned for others, — to die fearful, ghastly deaths !" Prisoners said the 
Texas Brigade had given them so much trouble, they had hoped to extinguish it 
at the grand upheaval and collapse, but as General Lee had fortunately sent the 
brigade, only the day before, north of the James, it did not participate in the great 

On August 15, on the north side of the James, on the left of Field's division, 
temporarily under command of General Gregg, the Federals made an attack which 
the Texans handsomely repulsed. 

General Lee's line on the north side of the James extended from Chaffin's on 
the ri\er to the New Market Road, on both sides of Four Mile Run. The Texas 
Brigade occupied the extreme left of the infantry at a place called "Phillips's 
House," with General Gary's South Carolina cavalry supporting them on the left. 
The fortifications at this jioint consisted of earth-works five feet high, with a ten-foot 
ditch beyond, and an intricate abatis some fifty yards in front. 

On September 2S, General Gregg, in command of all the foices on the north 
side of the river, sent word to the ofricers of the brigade that Grant had been 
crossing over a heavy force all night, and at daylight he was expecting an attack. 
Sharp-shooting commenced at dawn of day, and soon the attack on "Phillips's 
House" was made. 

Pollard s.u's of this affair : "The enemy in \ery heavy force had re.iched the 
abatis, thirty or forty yards in front, but were met by a most terrific and galling 
fire, which mowed them down with terrible slaughter. The white troops fled in 
great confusion, but the entangled brush greatly impeding their speed, many of 
ihem fell under the well-aimed rifles of the Texans. The negroes, who were driven 
u\> at the point of the bayonet, lay flat upon the ground, just in rear of tlio abatis, 
hoping thcnbv to shield themse-lves from the sad liavoc in tli<-ir ranks, but the 
Texans, niuuniin' tlu; works, shot tliem like sheep led to the shaml)ies. " 


The New York Herald said: "One hundred and ninety-four negroes were 
buried on that spot, and counting the wounded at five times that number, which is 
a low estimate, at least twelve hundred killed and wounded cumbered the ground 
in front of that little brigade." The Texans lost not one man. 

Early on the ninrning of Octol>cr 7, General Gary's cavalry and a force of 
Confederate infantry of I'"ield's division surprised the enemy by an attack between 
four and five miles below the city. They fled to their intrenchments, a short dis 
tance to the rear, where they were followed by our troops and made a desperate 
resistance. Our men did not dislodge them, as they were reinforce-d from Fort 
Harrison, but they were not allowed to regain their former position. A private 
letter conveyed this ncv.-s : "We charged the enemy's works between the Darby- 
town and New Market Roads and suffered heavily. General Gregg among the 
killed." This was the brief notice of a catastrophe the Texas Brigade had never 
been called upon to bear, — the loss of a general on the field. It was a dreadful 
exjjcrience, and the circumstances touched the stoutest hearts. 

The Texans had driven the enemy into their breastworks, and were advancing 
steadily under a murderous fire when Genera! Gregg \\ as stricken down. The men 
recoiled about one hundred yards in the rear of their somewhat disordered line. Cap- 
tain Kerr, adjutant-general on General Gregg's 

staff, deserves special notice for his coolness. r ' ^ 

Coming down the line close to Lieutenant- : j 

Colonel Winkler, in command of the Fourth 
Regiment, he said in a low tone: "Gregg's 
killed." Walking back a moment later, with- 
out relaxing a muscle, he again spoke : "Bass I 
is v,-ound('d ; you must take command of the b;i- 
gade." Under the pitiless fire and confusion, 
Colonel Winkler ordered the color-bearer to a 
small depression of the ground, gave the order, ., j 

"Dress to your colors !" when everv man was ^>v ! 

at his place and the line reformed. Lieutenant -A ' • 

Shot well, of General Gregg's staff, asked per- "«. 

mission to take three men and a blanket and go \ 

out to recover General Gregg's body. This was j - * ^i -l 

gi\en, and in that rain of shot and shell, where colo-nll c. .m. w.nkukk. 

it seemed nothing could live, they ran out, 

rolled his body in the blanket, and safely bore it to the rear. The brigade was now 
withdrawn from the field, and hostilities ceased. 

When Lieutenant Shotwell's brave act was reported to General Lee, by special 
order he complimented the gallant action, the brigade, and the temporary com- 
mander for remaining at the post of duty until all possible was accomplished under 
the trying circumstances. 

The men were deeply grieved at the death of their commander, who had led 
them so successfully upon so many hard-fought fields, but were gratified tliat his 
body liad been recovered. His remains were placed in a casket and t.iken to Rich- 
mond, where he lay in state at the cai.itol in the ILill of Representatives, envel- 


oped in the flag he had defended with his life, and covered wiih floral offerings of 
a people always proud to honor the brave. 

The brigade was permitted to attend the funeral on Sunday, — the only time 
during the four years' conflict they were able to pay the last tribute of respect to a 
comratle. Postma.ster-Genenil John H. Reagan, Colonel F. R. Lubbock, of Presi- 
dent Davis's staff, both Texans, and the members of the Texas delegation in Con- 
gress, acted as pall-bearers. President Davis and cabinet attended in a bodv. The 
hearse containing the remains wasfollo\\ed by a soldier leading the general's horse, 
ready caparisoned, and the battle-scarred veterans who had never quailed before the 
enemy, now wiih bowed heads and arms reversed, marched behind the body of 
their beloved conmiantler. At Hollywood the casket was deposited in a pri\ate 
vault to await the wishes of his wife, now impossible to consult. 

"General John Gregg was a native of Lawrence County, Alabama. In 1S51 
he located at Marshall, Texas, where he rapidly rose to eminence as a lawyer, and 
was elected judge of a judicial district. He belonged to the secession convention, 
and was a delegate from Texas to the Provisional Congress at Montgomery. On 
the initiation of the war he returned to Te.\as and recruited the Seventh Regiment 
of Infantiy and was elected colonel. He participated in the defence of Vicksburg 
and Port Hudson. He was wounded at Chickamauga, and soon after assigned to 
the command of the Texas Brigade in Longstreel's corps, then operating in East 
Tennessee. Hi- participated with ihi-- corps in iiiost of the battles afterwards of 
the Army of Northern \'irginia. He fell in the battle of New Market Road. The 
crowning glory of his military career was his defence of Richmond. General Gregg 
was a man of good literary and scientific attainments, of extensive reading, of large 
intellect, and a profound thinker." 

- On October 13 the brigade participated in an engagement on the Darbytown 
Road, in which the Confederates were victorious after a fearful day's work. On 
the 2Sth they had an engagement on the Williamsburg Road, killed, wounded, 
and captured a large number of Federals, sustaining little loss. Troops were con- 
tinually on the move, scouting parties brought in many stragglers and captured 
many battle-flags. General Longstreet particular!)- complimented the work of the 
28th aftt-r looking over the ground. 

General Field's forces occupied a line of works a mile and a half beyond the 
Richmond fortifications, which were three miles from the city. In December the 
Texas Brigade began to feel secure for the winter, when a slight fall of snow made 
its appearance. All were rejoiced : but, alas ! next day they were ordered to move 
at daylight with tliree days' rations. " General Longstreel's reconnoissance out in 
front of the rnnny" wa> the wording of the ordi-r. Twenty-four hours later it 
deveIopc<l ii'.to only a still-hunt, and the brigade was ordered back to its formt r 

Many surmises were made as to the probability of a new brigadier-general and 
some little anxiety exprcsscii. resulting in petitions of each regiment to have their 
colonel commanding appoiiitcd, but none was ever made. Colonel Winkler con- 
tinued in (ommand after General Gregg's death until Colonel F. S. Bass, of the 
First Regiment, recnvi-rcil from hi^ wonnrl. When Colonel Powell, of the I"!:t!i 
Regiment, roturt'.fd from prisun Li:<_- in the winter, he, as ranking ot'iicer of the 


brigade, assumed command, which he retained to the end. The only generals who 
commanded the Texas Brigade were Wigfall, Hood, Robertson, and Gregg. 

The time passed jjleasantly in winter quarters. A large chapel of logs was 
constructed and services were held every Sabbath, prominent divines from Rich- 
mond and other places going down to preach to the soldiers. The Texas dele- 
gation in Congress, Postmaster-General Reagan, Colonel Lubbock, ex-governor of 
Texas, and other distinguished friends, often went out, sjjent the evening, and 
sometimes remained all night, contributing their quota to the social life of the camp. 
The most frequent of these visitors was General John R. Baylor (member of Con- 
gress), who had distinguished himself on the frontier of Texas in Indian tights and 
was afterwards military governor of Arizona. His fund of anecdote was inexhausti- 
ble, and, as he discussed congressional and military matters with a freedom of one 
familiar with all phases of life, he was at all times a valuable acquisition to any 
crowd. He not only made it pleasant at head-quarters, but mingled with the 
soldiers on the line, and, if the prospect of a fight presented (there were many orders 
to be ready for an attack), he shouldered his musket and went to the front. 

Pro\isions became scarce and rations short, yet they managed to extend such 
hospitality as possible to visitors. Dried peas was a favorite dish, occasionally 
varied by a little bacon, — one pound shared by eight men, — a few potatoes, etc. 
When coffee and sugar were issued, there was no meat. The furloughed soldiers 
went into other States, and on their return brought back many boxes of edibles for 
their comrades. When one man had two pairs of shoes his needy brother was 
certain to get one of them. Cheerfully they accepted the hard fare and scant)- 
clothing without a murmur. 

Two subjects engrossed their attention. One was the possihility of the whole 
brigade getting furloughs to Texas and to return in time for the spring campaign ; 
the other, th.e fear that in the general reorgani;'ation of the army tiieir brigade 
would be consolidated with troops from other .States, the regiments having become 
so decimated as to make this seemingly necessary, thereby losing their identity, 
there being no other Texas troops in the Army of Northern \"irginia. 

General Lee declined to ;illo\v the furloughs to Texas, saying in his order : 
" It will be impossible for these brave men to return in time. No brigade has 
done nobler service or gained more credit for their State. Though I should be 
gratified at every indulgence shown this brigade, I cannot recommend this." 
They acquiesced in the inevitable, especially as General Lee was generous in 
allowing furloughs in other States nearer camp. 

When the fear of consolidating the brigade was uppermost, the men held a 
meeting and appointed Major W. H. Martin (''Old Howdy" ), of the Fourth Regi- 
ment, to present their protest against such a measure to the President. General 
Lee was present at the inter\iew, and said : " Mr. President, before you pass on 
that request, I want to say I never ordered that brigade to hold a position that they 
didn't hold it." Mr. Da\ is replied : " .Major Martin, as long as there is a man to 
carry that battle-flag you shaH remain a brigade !" The order from General Lee 
assuring them of the President's decision was enthusiaslicall)- recei\ed, and served 
as a balm to the refusal of ftirloughs to Texas. 

General Lee had favored the ll.uupton Ro.ids conference and was anxious for 


honorable terms of peace. After that failure he determined to address a personal 
letter to General Grant and see what could be done. " WHien these o\'ertures also 
failed, there was no man more determined to fight it out to the end, and he went to 
work to make the best possible disposition of his little army." Congress, in at- 
tempting to do something to alleviate the situation, passed a resolution creating 
General Lee commander-in-chief of the Confederate armies, but he declined the 
responsibility, as he and President Davis had always entertained the most friendly 
relations, had always acted in unison, and he did not wish to sever these ties by 
any act of personal aggrandizement. The 1 e.\as Brigade retained its courage and 
spirits, although the ofticers were worried to find some of their men were coolly 
taking "French leave," becoming discouraged b)- hunger, privation, a poor sup- 
ply of clothing, and deciding to go home to their necessitous families. President 
Davis said : ' ' This absence without leave could not be called desertion, as the men 
did not go (i\cr to the enemy." 

In spite of the harsh criticism of their own Senator, Wigfall, they still had conli- 
dence in the military genius of General Hood, and freely discussed his disasters in 
the West, affirming, if he had commanded the same material as his old brigade and 
division, he would not have been unsuccessful. He was still their idol, and they 
revereritly gathered up his faded laurels and crowned him anew as their hero, and 
the greatest of Confederate generals save Lee and Jackson. 

Two events of interest occurred during the stay in winter quarters. One was 
the presentation of fi\'e golden stars sent from Te.xas by a lady, who stated that they 
were made of gold too precious for ordinary use, and she wished to bestow them as 
testimonials to the bravest privates of the Texas Brigade. A committee was ap- 
pointed to designate who should be entitled to wear these stars. Their presenta- 
tion was an impressive scene.— the committee declaring among so many valiant men 
it was the most difficult task of their lives. 

The other event of importance was a re\ iew of the troops on the north side of 
the James River by President Davis, Generals Longstreet, Field, and others, which 
was an imposing military spectacle. Everything was in order, the men with polished 
guns glistening in the sunshine, clothing neat as possible imder the circumstances, 
gallant officers riding along their front, receiving the salutes of the men, and ever 
antl anon pausing to acknowledge a demonstration of respect, whiif the bands 
played their most inspiring airs. It was hard to realize, amid this brilliant pageant, 
that these men and olticers were living upon the scantiest rations possible. 

There was an engagement on the south side of the James, when Pegram's 
division made a gallant resistance to an attack near Hatcher's Run, and drove the 
enemy from the field. The troops on the north side were ordered to rccei\ e an 
attack on February 4, but no advance was made. 

About the early jiart of .March, General Lee held a conference with President 
Davis with regard to the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg and retiring 
to\^arcl^ IXuuille, where sujiji'.ies could be collected and a junction made with the 
army of General Joseph E. Jnhr.ston. 

On the night of ,-\[)ril i it became kriT,vn that the Federal troops had been 
renioM-d from the north side of the rivtr, Ijut no had yet been entertained 
by the Texas llrigade, v.'ho were occupying the same po.^ilion to the extreme left of 


General Lee's extended line, stretching for twenty miles on both sides of the 

That day they received the news of the successful repulse by Pickett's Virginia 
division of the cavalry line contesting for the prize of the South Side Railroad near 
Petersburg, and supposed all was going well in that direction. As soon, however, 
as this repulse was reported to General Grant, another army corps was marched 
rapidly to their relief. On April i, the combined forces of cavalry and infantry 
advanced against the Confederates, who were driven from their position at Five 
Forks in confusion. Matters now looked critical for General Lee, who was com- 
pelled to move to his inner line of defence at Petersburg, and the siege of the city 
seemed inevitable. 

The fighting on .April 2 began at daylight. General Lee's line was assaulted 
and pierced in three different directions, the Federals capturing Fort Mahone, one 
of the largest of the Petersburg defences. Here the Confederates made a desperate 
struggle, but were unable to cope with overwhelming numbers. Here fell General 
A. P. Hill, — a severe blow. The events of the day decided General Lee's course, 
and he sent a telegram to President Davis advocating that Richmond should be 
evacuated simultaneously with the withdrawal of his troops. 

Longstreet's forces on the north side of the James, under command of General 
Field, had been ordered to move without any knowledge of their destination, and 
all day Sunday they were passing through the city en route to join General Lee at 
Petersburg. Being on the extreme left of the line, the Texas Brigade was among 
the last troops to cross the river at Richmond, Sunday night. By the time Peters- 
burg was reached retreat seemed a duty, but to retreat with poor transportation 
and no supplies seemed at least a forlorn hope, and the troops did not know the 
strait- to which General Lee was reduced, nor did they stop to consider the situa- 
tion. Still were they determined to follow their great leader. 

"General Lee's losses were irretrievable, though in killed and wounded only 
about two thousand, but he had lost his entire outer line of defence around 
Petersburg and the South Side Railroad, his important avenue of supply to 
Richmond." All he could do was to evacuate as quietly as possible during t!ic 
night, and order su;>p!ics to meet him at Amelia Court-House, his objective-point 
being Danville, as jiroposed in his conference with the President. What he hnd 
considered a strategic movement now assumed the proportions of a dire military 
necessity. He commenced his retreat from his intrenchments around Petersburg on 
Sunday night, anfl got his army safe across the Apjiomattox River, intending to fall 
back to Danville. With his transportation in such a dilapidated condition, cijn- 
stantly menaced by the Federal caxalry, and retarded by the state of the roads, he 
had yet greater cause for alarm. His army, which at that time numbered, from the 
most reliable sources, scarcely twenty-five thousand men, now began to shrink away 
in anticipation of defeat, and many lost that spirit that had so long upheld them in 
hours of (lis istcr as well as of success. The line of r«jtreat was marked by aban- 
doned caissons, strewn with knapsacks, blankets, arms, and accoutrements. E\ery- 
thing was thrown away that hindered the speed of flight, and, without fcjod, the 
brave remnant of a noble band pressctl to that fate so sadly waiting them. 

Field's division of Longstreet's corps, to which Hood's brig.idc was attached. 


covered in the rear of the line of retreat, engaged in innumerable skirmishes, burned 
bridges over which they passed, and with the same spirit of determination followed 
the fading fortunes of their leader, who, in the midst of all his perplexities, never 
meditated such a contingency as surrender. 

The Tcxans were too far from home for the temptation of straggling from the 
ranks to be entertained, and, footsore and weary, they struggled on, believing the 
union with the Southern army would be effected, and the reverse be changed to 
victory. They had always fought against such odds, the idea of the abandonment 
of the c;'.usc nc\er was allowed to find lodgement in their most secret thoughts. 

The details of that last retreat and of the final surrender at Appomattox are too 
well known to require repetition here. 

- When the news of the surrender reached the Texas Brigade, in the rear of Long- 
street's corps, details of men were busy throwing up intrenchments. A messenger 
was despatched to tell them to desist from their work, but they could not understand 
the order. 'General Lee has surrendered!" They could not believe that; but 
upon being assured there was no alternative, he must surrender or cut his way 
through the whole P'ederal army completely surrounding him, one brave fellow 
threw au-ay his pick, dropped his hands despondently, exclaiming: "I'd rather 
have dici-l than surrendered ; but if Marse Bob thinks that is best, all I've got to say 
is that Marse Bob is bound to be right as usual." 

The next day General Lee delivered to his trofips the last order emanating 
from that peerless soldier, which will go down the ages as a touching memento of 
that sad day at Appomattox : — 

" He.\d-Quarters Army or Northern \'irgi.nia, .-Xpiil lo, 1S65. 

" After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and 
fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to over- 
powering numbers and resources. I need not tell the sur\-i\-ors of so many hard- 
fought battles who have remained steadfast to the last that I have consented to this 
result from no distrust of them ; but, feeling that valor and devotion could accom- 
plish nothing that could compensate for the loss that would have attended the con- 
tinuation of the contest, I have determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those 
whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen. By the terms of 
agreement otficors and men can return to their homes and remain there until 

" You will take with you the salisiacrinn that proceeds from the consciousness 
of duty performed ; and I earnestly jiray that a nieiciful God will extend to you 
His blessing and protection. With an unceasing admiration of your constarjcy and 
devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous 
consideration of myself, I bid you an afiectionate farewell. 

" R. E. Let:, General." 

After disbanding, the members of "Hood's Texas Brigade" dispersed to their 
liomes, aided in the work of reconstruction after the grand collapse of the Con- 
federacy, and many of them have occupied the most ex.Uted positions of honor and 
trust in the gift of the people of their appreciative State. 

They united together a few years after the surrender as " Hood's Texas 
Brigade .•\ssociation." ICwry year on June 37, the anni\'crsary of the battle of 
Gaines's Farm, where they tirst di.-iiiiguislied themselves by turning the tide of 


battle in favor of the Confederates, they meet in friendly reunion at some appointed 
place where they are invited by the citizens. They enjoy the hospitality of the 
people, \\ho vie with one another in tlius honoring the brave, talk over their old 
battles and war e.xjjeriences, and socially enjoy the companionship, for a brief 
period, of those to whom they vowed fraternal fellowship amid the shock of disaster 
and baptism of sorrow at Appomatto.x. 

"The sons of the defenders of the Alamo" proved themseh'es worthy de- 
scendants of their illustrious sires, and on the bloody battle-fields of Virgiiiia main- 
tained the reputation so grandly made in their immolation upon their country's 
altar so long ago. Their record will remain as untarnished as that of the Tenth 
Legion of Ca;sar or the Old Guard of Napoleon. 


terry's tixas rangers. 

ON the stage between Austin and Rrenham, in March ol the fateful year 
1 86 1, three delegates returning from the secession con\ention were dis- 
cussing the prospect of war. Believing an invasion imminent, and to 
repel it the duty of every man in the South able to bear arms, they determined 
to offer themselves to President Da\-is and to set about raising troops for the 
field. These men were Frank Terry, a wealthy sugar-planter of Fort Bend 
County, frank, generous, and courtly, a typical Southerner of ante-bellum times, 
Tom Lubbock, a commission merchant of Houston, and kinsman of Terry, and 
John Wharton, planter and lawyer, of Brazoria, a native Texan, with all the 
ardor of youth and the stimulus of a fighting family behind liirn. Terry and Lub- 
bock staited overland for Montgomer}-, Alabama, but Wharton, tliiuking to make 
the trip more quickly, went by \\ay of the Gulf and 
,,.,.-o-.-.^,^ was taken prisoner. After a detention of two weeks 

..'■' >, and some heavy tongue engagements with the 

enemy, he was released, and, returning home, re- 
.■<'p^l'>2r - \ cruited a company of young planters, the Company 

J \ B of the " Rangers." In the mean time Terry and 

j ■ <^ -^ iT^r \ Lubbock, catching the enthusiasm east of the Mis- 

sissippi, ru.^hed on through to \'irginia just as " Ma- 
jor-General Scott had his orders got to push on his 
columns to Riclimond." They reported to General 
Longstreet, arid served with distinction on his staff 
J \f at the battle of Manassas. General Beauregard, 
'■•; k ,* in liis official report of tlie engagement, "finds it 

\ "^' > proper to acknowledge the signal services rendered 

"V,^^ .-^ ^>' Colonels B. F. Terry and T. Lubbock, of Texas. 

CoLONKt. tmT^ias LuBf.ocK. They madc \a!uable reconnoissances of the enemy's 

position and carried orders to the field. Colonel 
Terry, with his unerring rifle, se\x-red the halliard, and thus lowered the Federal 
flag floating o\-er the court-house, and also secured a large Federal garrison flag 
designed, it is said, to be unfurled over our intrenchments at Manassas." A short 
time afterwards Terry and Lubbock received their commissions, with orders to 
"recruit a regiment of skilled horseman for inmiediate scr^'ice." Returning to 
Texas, they established head-quarters at Houston and issued the following call for 
vi'lunteers ; 




" Aujfust 12, 1861. 
" Havincj been authorized by the Secretary of War of tlie Confederate States 
of America to raise a regiment of mounted rangers for service in \'irginia, we 

hereby appoint Captain to raise and enroll a full company, to consist of one 

captain, one first lieutenant, two second lieutenants, four corporals, one blacksmith, 
two musicians, and from sixty-four to one hundred jirivates, and to report the same 
to us on or before the ist day of September next. Each man will be required to 
furnish equipments for his horse and to arm himself. The company will be trans- 
ported free. The term of ser\-ice will be during the war unless sooner discharged. 

"B. F. Tekrv. 
T. S. Lubbock." 

No Highland torch ever gathered Scottish clan more quickly than did this call 
muster young planters, professional men, merchants, — the "kid-glove gentry" of 
the Old South. They came from every direction, with flags flying and bugles 
blowing, their young hearts aglow with patriotism and pride, eager to set out for 
fear the war might be over before they could reach Virginia to see the fun and ^\ in 
their spurs. In less than thirty days ten companies of one hundred men each had 
reported at Houston, been sworn in for "as long as this war shall last," and, with- 
out -waiting to organize a regiment, started on their way to Virginia amid the 
waving of handkerchiefs and the tearful "God speed you" of sweethearts and 
wives. At New Orleans Terry received a letter from General Albert Sydney Johns- 
ton, th.en recruiting an army at Bowling Green, Kentucky, requesting that the 
" Rangers" report to him, and promising that while under him they should bean in- 
dependent command. A vote was put to the regiment and the voice was for Ken- 
tucky. Colonel Terry made a halt at Nashville to enable the different companies 
to overtake him. The dare-devil reputation of the " Rangers" had preceded them, 
and one of the questions asked by coquettish bright eyes was, "Where are your 
horns?" A flourished sombrero was to prove the bright head underneath incapa- 
ble of growing 'em ! About the middle of November Terry reported to General 
Johnston at Bowling Green, and though he was a commissioned officer, he pro- 
ceeded to organize his regiment on the good old democratic plan of election by 
majority, with the following result : colonel, !>. F. Terry ; lieutenant-colonel, T. -S. 
I^ubbock ; major, Thon.ias Harrison ; adjutant. .Martin A. Royston ; quartermaster, 
B. A. Botts ; commissary, R. H. Simmons ; surgeon, J. M. Weston : assistant sur- 
geon, Robert E. Hill ; sergeant-major, William B. Savers ; quartermaster-sergeant, 
M. F. Deballegath}- ; ordnance-sergeant, James Edmondson ; hospital steward, 
Thomas J. I'utls. Tlie regiment was mustered into sc•^^■ice as the Eighth Texas 
Cavalry, l)ut was better known to thu army and to fame as "Terry's Texas Ran- 
-■gers." At Bowling Green soldiering began in earnest. Cold, pri\ation, and con- 
stant exposure scourged with camp diseases these delicately bred youths, of whom 
manv died and some were discharged and sent home. From Bowling Green Major 
Thomas Harrison was sent with two companies on a scout to Jamestown, where, 
disco\eriiig a force of five thousand Yankees, he wry properly faced about and 
returned to Bowling Green. This did not suit our young bloods spoiling for a 
fight, who in derision dubbed him the "Jimtown Major." Afterwards, in leading 
the regiment into battle. Major H:'.rrison would call out, " Now follow your Jim- 
town M.ijor," and they would ride and, through storm of shot and shell. 


who follnwed. Another scouting party to Green River had a "little brush" with 
the Yankees, but without casualties. Early in December Colonel Terry was ordered 
to the Louisville Pike to join a small force of infantry under General Hindman. 
At Woodsonville, December 17, 1861, the " Rangers" made their first charge, and 
gallant Colonel Terry was killed in leading it. The main bodv of the Federal army 
was lying at Camp \Vood on Green River. Colonel Willich, with a regiment of 
German troops, had been sent across to test the strength of the Confederates, and 
had deplo}-ed his men behind fences, haystacks, and trees near the river. Colonel 
Terry lind iiistmctinn:, tiom General Hiudman to decoy the enemy up the hill, so 
that he could use his infantry and artillery with effect. Leaving General Hindman 
several miles in the rear, Terry came upon the enemy's pickets at half-past nine in 
the morning. Ordering Captain Ferrell to take half the regiment and move to the 
right of the enemy, he with the other half marched rapidly to the left. A deep 
railroad cut di\-ided the two commands imtil they reached an open field, wliere, at 
a given signal, they simultaneously charged. Colonel Terry on the left, at the 
head of his seventy-fi\'e "Rangers," charged upon three hundred of the enemy 
behind their defences, routed and drove them back, but fell mortally wonnded. 
At the same time Ferrell had made a headlong charge on the right, the "Rangers" 
discharging their S'hot-guns within thirty yards of the Federals and their six-shooters 
in their faces. Retiring and reloading they made a second charge, when Major 
Royston was seen coming across the railroad bridge in a storm of shot to tell them 
of Terry's death and that Ferrell was now in command. Hindman's infantry 
coming up, the " Rangers" moved back to carry their dead colonel and their 
wounded to the rear. General Hardee, in his official report, says of this charge : 
"The conduct of the ' Rangers' was marked by impetuous valor. In charging the 
enemy. Colonel Terry was killed in the moment of victory. His regiment deplores the 
loss of a beloved and brave commander, the army one of its ablest officers." There 
is a slight discrepancy between the reports of this fight. General Duell reports, 
"the rebels ingloriously defeated." Some days after the batde the scouts cap- 
tured a I'ederal otiicer who was in the fight on Terr)''s side of the railroad. Among 
his papers was a letter to his sweetheart, in which he says : " The ' Texas Rangers' 
are as quick as lightning. They ride like Arabs, shoot like archers at a mark, and 
fight like desils. They rode upon our bayonets as if they were charging a com- 
missary department, arc wholly -without fear themselves, and no respecters of a 
v.ish to surrcjulcr." Lieutenant-Colonel Tom Lubbock was seriously ill with 
typhoid fever at Nashville when Colonel Terry was killed, but he was unanimously 
clecled by the regiment to fill the place. Lubbock died a few days afterwards, and 
Captain John A. Wharton, of Company B, was elected colonel. In General Johns- 
ton's retreat to Corinth the "Rangers" were continually scouting, dashing to tlie 
rear for supplies, and through and around the Federal camps for information. In- 
dividual acts of daring were of daily occurrence. 

The latter part of March, 1862, Judge David S. Terry, of California, and Mr. 
Clinton Terry, of Brazoria, brothei-s of Colonel Frank Terry, joined the regiment. 
The sick and wounded reported for duty, and the opening guns of Shiloh found 
them in the saddle and ready. Wharton's olTicia! report to General Beauregard 
reads as follows ; 


"The ' Ranqers" were holdiiif,' the bridge across Owl Creek oa Sunday, the 
6th. Here I received an order from General Beauregard to cross Owl Creek and 
co-operate with the left of the army. Reporting to General Hardee, in command 
of our left, I was ordered to dismount the ' Rangers' and protect a battery then 
opening on the enemy. The enemy apparently retiring, General Hardee ordered 
me to pursue them. Mounting the command. I prom])lly proceeded in the direc- 
tion I supposed them to be, when the head of the column received a heavy fire 
from a large force lying in ambush. Having been compelled to cross a boggy 
ravine in single file, the head of tiie regiment was full four hundred yards in advance 
of the rear, when I and t>.venty or thirty of those in advance came under a hea\ y 
fire from the concealed Federals not forty yards distant. Clinton Terry fell mortally 
wounded at my side. It being impossible from the nature of the ground to form 
for a charge, I drew off the regiment in good order, with some few wounded, myself 
among the number. I then dismounted my men and joined the infantry in o«r 
rear. After a severe struggle we succeeded in driving the enemy back. I then 
mounted again, going to the extreme left to a batterv' that needed support. I threw 
five dismounted companies forward as skirmishers. My men behaved most gallantly, 
advancing upon the enemy and chi\ing them through the camp which they were 
guarding. I encamped for the night on the extreme left, iir-ar tiie battery I had 
been sustaining. My command lay upon their arms during the night prepared for 
action. On Monday, April 7, the left flank of the army fell back about daylight. 
At ten, General Beauregard ordei'ed me to charge the right of the enemy, which 
was heavily pressing our left. I was compelled to pass through a wood down the 
sides of a ravine. Again this threw the head of the regiment in advance of the 
rear. L'poa rising a hill, I found it occupied by the reserves of the Eederali 
advancing in line of battle, who opened a disastrous fire upon us, killing and wound- 
ing many and disabling my horse. I withdrew the command a short distance. 
While thus engaged on the left, our army fell bock upon Shiloh Church, and I 
returned to a position in the rear of our infantry to protect the retreat ordered by 
General Beauregard. On Tuesday morning my wound became so painful— having 
been in the saddle for two d.iys after it was received — that I decided to report 
myself at Corinth, turning over my command to ^Lajor Harrison. 1 respectfully 
refer you to Major Harrison's report of a brilliant charge led by himself on Tuesday 

"John A. W'h.vktu.v." 

Of this charge Harrison reports to Colonel Wharton : "We captvired forty- 
three prisoners, leax'ing forty dead on the ground. My loss was two killed, seven 
wounded, among them being Captain Gustave Cook, Lieutenants Smry and Gordon. 
Colonel Bedford Forrest, who volunteered into the charge with us, was slightly 
wounded. The ' Rangers' acted throughout the affair with adn\irable coolness 
and courage. I cannot say more than that they fully sustained the ancient fame 
of the name they bear. They could not do more. I cannot discriminate between 
.them, because each one displayed a heroism worthy the cause we are engaged 

Near the middle of April a Kentucky regiment under Colonel Adams and the 
"Rangers" under Wharton were sent to scout in Middle Tennessee, and 
floundered about without purpose for a montii. On May 10, Captain Houston, 
with the First Kentucky Cavalry and a detachment of the "Rangers," was 
ordered to cut off the retreat of the enemy on Flk Ri\er. They had a sharp 
fight near the railroad bridge at Bethel. Captain Harris ami five "Rangers" 
were killed. C)[ the Fedeial.-i se\enteeu were killed and forty-nine taken pris- 


oners. Captain Houston was given much credit in the reports for this skirmish 
On June 9, 1S62, the "Rangers," under that heaven-born cavalryman, Colonel 
Bedford I'orrest, were brigaded with the Fourth Tennessee under Colonel Ba.xter 
Smith, First Georgia under Colonel Crews, and the Second Georgia under Colonel 
J^auton. lip to this time the " Rangers" had been, as General Johnston promised, 
an independent command. Bragg was now in command of the Army of Tennessee, 
and his slogan, "On to Kentucky." Forrest began the forward movement, and 
made his first raid in the rear of the Federal army. Like "Stonewall" Jackson, he 
was always an unknown quantity tu the enemy, cutting his line of communication 
to-day, and to-morrow destroying his supplies miles away, dashing into wagon-trains 
and capturing arms, ammunition, medicines, stores, and prisoners by the score. 
At McMinnvillc F'orrest reorganized his command. The Fourth Tennessee was 
now under Captain Paul Anderson, Colonel Ba.xter Smith having been captured. 
This Tennessee regiment was known to the armv as "Paul's pcojile," not from 
having " met the Lord in the highway and been converted," but from the affettion- 
ate manner Colonel Anderson had of speaking of them as "my people." This 
dashing young officer had all of Forrest's scorn for tactics. His command were 
volunteers from "Lebanon in the Cedars," and he had christened it " Ccdar- 
-Snags." His morning e.xercise was : " Fall in, Cedar-Snags ! Double up on Jim 
Britton ! Double up ag'in ! March !" In battle his commands were : " Attention, 
Cedar-Snags ! I ine up on Jim Britton ! Charge !" This was all the tactics he 
knew or needed. 

At Murfreesboro' General Buell had a force of two thousand infantry and a 
battery of artillery guarding his supplies there. Forrest determined to capture 
them. Late in the afternoon of July 12, 1862, twelve hundred men started on ati 
all-night's ride to Murfreesboro'. At Woodbury, in the middle of the night, 
women, "like angels in white," came to the windows to cheer them on. One 
grief-distracted wife caught Colonel Wharton's stirrup and besought him to rescue 
her husband, w ho was to be hung as a spy at noon in IMurfreesboro' . Wharton 
assured her that if he li\ed he would. In the gray light of the summer's dawn the 
order came down the line, "Halt! Dismount! Tigliten girths! Recap guns!" 
Here Forrest sent a courier to Ct'lonel \Vhartoii for a trusted officer and ten men. 
Lieutenant Weston and ten men from Company H were sent to hitn. Forrest said : 
" Lieutenant Weston, I desire the pickets in our front captured without the firing of 
a gim." Shortly Weston reported the duty done. Then, like the surge of the sea, 
was heard the beat of their horses' hoofs as they galloped into Murfreesboro', 
Forrest and Wharton leading. By some mistake only the "Rangers" followed. 
Wharton with one hundred and twenty men charged on the infantr)- at the right of 
the town, who, notwithstanding their surprise, defended their camp gallantly, 
pouring a galling fire into the " Rangers," wounding Colonel Wharton and causing 
him to fall back. Forrest on the left charged on the artillery, but, on looking back, 
he found only thirty or forty " Rangers" behind him. He rushed back for his 
Georgians, and, getting lost in the town, rode up to a house and routed out a citizen 
in his night-clothes, and, mounting the frightened man behind him, made liini 
pilot him to his men. He charged back to the relief of the "Rangers," and with 
incomparable coolnes:, begcUi iii.s stialegy of "biufi. " Marching his men in and 


out around the court-house, he sent a lla;^'' of truce to General Crittenden with this 
order : — 

" MuKFREKSiiORo', July 13, 1S62. 
" Gkneral. — I must demand an unconditional surrender of your force as pris- 
oners of war, or I will have every man put to the sword. You are aware of the 
overpowering; force at my command, and this demand is to prevent the effusion of 
blood. I am, general, 

" Your very obedient servant. 

" N. IJ. Forrest, C. S. A. 

After a short consultation with General Duffield, who had been wounded in 
Wharton's charge on the infantry. General Crittenden, thinking Bragg' s whole 
army upon him, surrendered at discretion his entire command, eighteen hundred 
and sbcty-four privates, four commissioned olticers, a battery of four guns, arms, 
ammunition, stores, horses, and mules, to the amount of a half-million of dollars. 
The mortification of the Federals was extreme when they found' that Forrest had 
not enough men to guard his capture. When offered parole. General Crittenden 
drew himself up and haughtily replied that he did not recognize ,§-?/fr///«.r as sol- 
diers, and refused. Forrest shrugged his shoulders, saying, "Very well," and 
ordered two 1)ig West Texans, in buckskin and armed to the teeth, to guard him. 
These old campaigners gave each other the wink and the general a most imcom- 
fortable half- hour by telling ferocious yarns about what they weie in the habit of 
doing with prisoners. It was not long before Forrest was petitioned for a parole. 
A pleasing instance of the amenities of war occurred in Captain Ferrell's charge with 
Forrest on the artillery. A citizen had volunteered to go with the " Rangers" 
into the fight. In the charge he was severely wounded and about to fall from his 
horse, when Private Graber, of Company B, caught him, and, as the command 
scattered, was left in the field with the wounded man. Coming to a fence, which 
the " Ranger" could have jumped without difficulty had he been alone, he coolly 
dismounted, under a rain of bullets, and pulled the fence clown. The Federals, 
seeing the gallant act, ceased firing and cheered him as he carefully bore his man 
out of danger. 

From Murfrccsboro' I'ornst made his celelrated feint on Nashville, causing 
panic and wild confusion in that devoted town. In his official report he says: " I 
hear the enemy was badly scared. I regret exceedingly I had so few men. I 
might have captured the city without trouble." The Murfreesboro' fight made 
Forrest a brigadier-general, and he was given command of a division. Wharton 
was now in command of the brigade and Major Harrison of the " Rangers," and 
Biagg and Buell were racing towards Louisville, the "Rangers" in front of Ruell 
stubbornly contesting every mile of his march. At Bardstown, Kentucky, Wharton 
was ordered by General Wheeler to hold a certain position for a given time, to allow 
Bragg to move away. The brigade was in an open field, men and horses resting. 
The "Rangers" had been in the saddle forty-eight hours, and most of that time 
fighting. The scouts sent to reconnoitre came flying in to report that they were 
surrounded by Buell's army. Captain Jarmon's company, guarding the rear, was 
seen moving rapidly towards the regiment. Colonel Harrison remarked to Whar- 
ton • " There i^ great danger when Jarmon retreats in a hurr)-. What had best be 


done?" Wharton replied : "Charge tliem outright. Up, Rangers, and at them I" 
And ai the Fedral cavalry, like a great blue cloud, charged down upon the little 
band with drawn sabres, gallant Ben Polk wrapped his bridle-reins around the 
pommel of his saddle, and, holding his six-shooter in his right hand, blew a defiant 
charge with his left. Jarmon wheeled into position, and the " Rangers" with a wild 
yell thundered down upon the advancing column. White got to one side with his 
two small cannon to allow the rear to pass, and, seeing a place to operate, unlimbered 
and poured shot into the enemy over tiie heads of the " Rangers.'" The Federals 
broke in confusion, throwing arms and accoutrements away as they scattered, — 
"Texas six-shooter against Yankee sabre, and victorious." Wharton had cut his 
way througii to Wheeler, and was made a brigadier for this charge. 

On the morning of the iSth of October, after twenty-three days of hard fight- 
ing, hunger, and hardship, they were halted on Harrodsburg Creek, near Perry- 
ville, Kentucky. The Federals held a position on a timbered ridge opposite, 
on which they had posted one hundred and twenty cannon. The Confederate 
army lay along the blufl of the creek ; between the tuo armies was an open field. 
While Bragg was awaiting an attack by the enemy's artillery in the morning, Bucll 
sent a detachment to flank his rear. To extricate himself, Bragg ordered his cav- 
alry to attack. Wharton's brigade moved out on the flank of the Federals until it 
was in line on the right of Hardee. Wheeler's cavalry filed in from the main body 
and assumed position on Wharton's right. It was soon discovered that the Con- 
federate cavalry was to make one grand charge, and to push on until the Federal 
army should change its front or repel them. Wharton and his staff took position 
at the head of the "Rangers," and a charge was ordered. They mo\'e like the 
wind on the batteries belching flame. Whole sections of the brigade are mowed 
down, but they ride steadily and faster until they reach the cannon's mouth, and 
the six-shooter does its effective work. Cheer after cheer comes up from the Con- 
federates in the \alley, and Hardee and Cheatham ascend the hill in one of the most 
superb infantry charges of the war. Slowly the Federals give back, and night 
closes with the Confederates in possession of the field. In the night Bragg falls 
back towards Cumberland Gap, and the hotly-contested field of F'erryville is 
"without results." 

Bragfj's retreat from Kentucky « a:, jiushed by Buell uith energy and deci.-.ion, 
the " Rangers" guarding his rear. In Tennessee, the latter part of 1S62, the duty 
of the '■ Rangers" was relaxed. They were at home among the warm-hearted and 
hospitable Tennesseans. Warm firesides, "square" meals, and the smiles of pretty 
girls made an Eden on earth awhile for the war-worn soldiers. From the report on 
Christmas morning, they had recruited to an effecti\e force of six hundred and ninety 
men, fi\c hundred and se\"enty-two in camp and a hundred and eighteen off on 
special duty. December 27, Roserran.s (now head of the class in "Lincoln's 
Academy for the graduation of young and sudden field-marshals") confronted 
Bragg on Stone Ri\'cr, near Murfreesbcao'. Wharton was sent with five days' 
rations to the rear of the Federal army, to cut off conmumications and supplies. 
He returned to the front on the morning of the 31st. and was ordered to attack 
the Federal pickets. Driving thcni in, his command fell brick and stood in line 
of balde under severe shelling from the enemy's artillery. He heard the cry ; 


"The enemy is giving way. Brinij up the cavalry," but it proved only a fall-back 
for the rcser\es to move up. Then the Confederates gave way and a cavalry charge 
was ordered. This continued all day. At night, the " Rangers" were ordered to 
the rear of the Federals for information. They found Rosecrans's army hurriedly 
retreating, leaving its wounded, its wagons, everything behind. The -'Rangers" 
returned to report the wonderful news, and found General Bragg in full retreat. 
Each army "skedaddling" from the other, — spectacle for gods and men ! 

Early in i86;5 the " Ratigers" were again with, now a major-general 
in Wheeler's division. In February, Forrest with eight hundred men made a raid 
to Fort Donelson, of disastrous memory, at this time heavily protected by gun- 
boats. He did some sharp fighting but without success, and returned to Shelby- 
ville. At Donelson, Sam Maverick, of San Antonio, distinguished himself by swim- 
ming the Cumberland River, in a drix'ing sleet, and setting fire to a number of the 
enemy's transports. During the winter and spring Forrest captured three thousand 
wagons, eight thousand mules, quartermaster's and commissar}- stores, and prisoners 
without number. He was always on the wing, swooping down upon the enemy 
when least expected, raiding from Sparta, Tennessee, to every point of the compass, 
— at times into Kentucky, again towards Nashville, fighting and dashing away 
seemingly into space. In April, the Eleventh Texas was mounted, and with Duke's 
regiment, the First Kentucky Cavalry, was sent to Wharton. In June, Bragg began 
his retreat to Chattanooga, Wharton's brigade doing picket duty in his rear, fighting 
at Gray's Gap, Allison, Deckard, Battle Creek, and Trenton. From this long and 
hard campaign the " Rangers" went into camp at Cave Springs, near Rome, 
Georgia, with two hundred and fifty men and one hundred and sixty horses fit for 
service. Here they rested for two months, and returned to peaceful and pleasant 
ways of life. Chaplain Bunting, mindful of their souls, now that ho was not bind- 
ing up their wounded bodies, held a series of revival meetings. A Masonic lodge 
was formed, and "pie-rooting" and flirting kept pace with the more serious busi- 
ness. General Wharton having had three horses killed under him, and having 
refused to run for governor of Texas (his mother had refused for him, saying her 
son's place was "at the front, as long as there was need for a man there"), the 
" Rangers" determined to present him with the finest charger Confederate money 
would buy. They bought a magnificent bay thoroughbred, and sent to San Antonio 
for a thousand-dollar Mexican saddle, all embroidery and jingling silver. They gave 
a grand barbecue, and the whole surrounding country being invited, came and 
pitched their tents along with the soldiers. Private John B. Rector (now a grave 
and reverend L'nitcd States district judge) presented the horse to Colonel Wharton 
in a speech full of war poetry and fire-eating eloquence. Spread-eagle oratory and 
fun were the order of the day. 

The " Rangers" were in fine condition when they broke camp at Silver Creek. 
The command had recruited to four hundred and twelve men. Rosecrans was 
marching towards Chattanooga with s'^venty thousand infantry and artillery, to 
drive his famous "wedge into the. Confederacy." Burnside mo%ing towards 
Knowilic with twenty-five thousand men. Longstieet's corps had been sent from 
\'iiginia to reinforce Bragg and make a decisi\e stand against Rosecrans. The 
Coni(.derate army now numbered s!\ty thousand, making the two armies more 
Vol. II.— 44 


nearly equal than they had ever been. The •' Rangers" were sent out on a line to 
Alpine, Georgia, to prevent a flank movement of the enemy. At Al[)ine and other 
mountain passes they had eight se\ere skirmishes with the Federal ca\ airy. They 
were scouting during the day and strengthening weak points, and were on guard 
three nights at a time. Tliey now became familiar with the axe, in felling timber to 
obstruct these passes. They were at Aliiine one day, Somer\-illc the next, and on 
the third at McLemore's Cove. The 19th of September found them moving rapidlv 
upon the left flank of the enemy towards Chickamauga. Rosecrans's army was dis- 
tributed up and down the w est side of the Chickamauga Valley, Chickamauga Creek 
separating it from the Confederates. The Federals made a vigorous attack on 
General Walker's corps on the 19th, but were gallantly repulsed, the Confederates 
capturing several batteries of artillery. In the afternoon Hood's whole front became 
hody engaged, and continued fighting with varied fortunes until niglufall. On the 
morning of the 20tli, Breckinridge made a forward movement on the right against 
Thomas, and about eleven o'clock Longstreet on the left.. Hood advancing in the 
centre. Rosecrans's line slowly gave way, but contested every foot. Late in the 
afternoon the Confederate line made a forward mo\-ement of its entire length, a 
mighty tide of resistless force, carrying the field triumphantly. The Federals retired 
towards Missionaiy Ridge. Night fell, but with a brilliant moon. Longstreet 
ordered Wheeler to dash forward with his cavalry between Chattanooga and the 
enemy, and sent a courier to General lM-;'.gg to say that a forward movement of his 
whole line would capture Rosecrans's army. General Forrest climbed a tall tree to 
find out for himself what was going on, and seeing the Federal army a disorganized, 
panic-stricken mass, straggling in flight, he shouted to a staff officer : "Tell General 
Bragg to ad\-ance the whole line. The enemy is ours." But General Bragg called 
in the stragglers, and in his official report says : " The darkness made further mo\-e- 
ments dangerous." The Federal loss was greatly larger than that of the Con- 
federates, but Bragg makes the ajipalling statement that he has lost two- fifths of his 
army. During the day of the 19th Wliarton's command, with the exception of the 
" Rangers," was dismountetl and ordered to charge a battery posted on a hill over- 
looking the valley, the " Rangers" going around and charging from the rear. The 
fight was so stubborn that a Confedeiate and a Federal ensign crossed their color- 
poles. The command suffered severely, one of the wounded, Colonel David S. 
Terry, being a volunteer for the occasion. Wharton moved on to Gordon's .Mills, 
crossing the ground Hood had just fought over. Trees had been shot into splinters, 
and the undergrowth looked as if mown by a reaper. Dead men and hos|)itals 
marked the field for two miles. On the 20th, the "Rangers" were dashing here 
and there, charging and f.alling back, until night, when they were sent with Wheeler 
to intercept the Federal flight. Late in the afternoon. Captain Gordon, of Wharton's 
scouts, riding up to a small stream, found himself face to face with a squad of 
Yankees. With the effrontery of a "Texas Ranger" he coolly called to them 
to " Stack arms and conic over here, cv I will turn my battery loose on von." 
Instandy the white Hag went up. and the whole sixty of them stacked arms, and 
were movcfl back to his ten scouts waiting a short distance awav. 

For da)-s after Chickamauga the "Rangers" were on scout fluty, following 
Rosecraiij.'s retreat to Chattanooga. Tlu-y Giptured their food and ate it in the 


saddle. Men slept in the saddle from exhaustion. Tlic regimental report, on 
October i, shows that forty per cent, of them had been killed, wounded, and cap- 
tured, — one-fourth of these off duty forever. On the i8th of October, 1863, Gen- 
eral Rosccrans was relieved from the Army of Tennessee, and U. S. Grant assumed 
command with autocratic powers. He telegraphed Thomas to " hold Chattanooga 
at all hazard.s." Bragg had invested Chattanooga, and held the Yankee army there 
at the point of starvation. Wheeler's cavalry, to which the "Rangers" were at- 
tached, had been sent to the rear to cut off supplies. Near McMinn\ille, after a 
sharp fight, he captured seven hundred prisoners and a train of 5e\-en hundred 
wagons loaded with ammunition and other stores. He then attacked Mc.Minn\ille, 
capturing another large train and five hundred and thirty prisoners, and destroving 
several bridges and the railroad track. He moved on to Shelbyville, where he 
captured and burned a large amount of stores. The army supplies captured and 
destroyed by him in this raid is without precedent in the annals of raiding. 

Near Shelbyville the " Rangers" had a desperate skirmish with Wilder' s 
cavalry, which charged down upon them with a battery of eight guns as they turned 
into the Louisburg I'ike, cutting them off from Wheeler's main body. Colonels 
Cook and Christian and Ben Polk were wounded as the regiment cut its way through 
to Wheeler. The " Rangers" were now sent to Kno.xville, to guard Longstreet's 
rear, and were with him during the East Tennessee campaign against Rurnside, then 
intrenched at KnowiUe. The territory to be scouted over was large and full of 
secret foes (dastardly traitors to their own people), the cavalry few and worn out 
by long and hard service, the horses barely fit for use. Incessant vigilance being- 
necessary, the men were continually on duty. The soldiers were without tents, and 
often with no other food than parched corn, scouting and skirmishing through snow 
and sleet, swimming swollen streams, — sometimes their clothes were frozen and their 
horses' manes and tails solid icicles when they reached the opposite bank. The 
Texans were ordered to take the fords below the other troops, in order to rescue 
the soldiers who were swept from their horses. On one occasion Private Tom Gill 
swam his horse across with an Alabamian, clutched by the hair, in each hand. At 
Strawberry Plains, almost star\'ed, they came upon a track of flour which they traced 
to a covered outhouse. They appro[)riated their "find" in short order, but before 
they could get their biscuits made a good angel, in the shape of a woman, ran uii 
and told them that the flour was poisoned. A test was made, and enough poison 
found to kill Longstreet's army, much less the trc>ub!esomc " Rangers." 

I'"rom the ist of January, 1S64, they were raiding continually. They crossed 
and recrossed the Tennessee River six times, going around the Federal army, cap- 
turing supplies an<l prisoners, fighting and falling back, until the 13th of April, at 
Cleveland, Tennessee, w here thc\ made a gallant stand, but were driven back to 
the main army. In the mean time, Bragg had been defeated at Chattanooga and 
Missionary Ridge by the " Great Hanmierer" and had retreated to Dalton, Georgia, 
where he was removed and Joseph E. Johnston placed in command. Grant had 
been transferred to the Army of the Potomac, and Sherman had taken command 
r'f the \N'cstern army, — his battle-cry, "On to Atlanta." He moved on to Dalton 
in three columns, under Thomas, .Schoficld, and .McPhcrson. Here Johnston was 
expected to L;i\e baule, but' in.stead he rutreated towards Atlanta. 


Johnston in his retreat would get into position and offer battle. Sherman 
would make a feint in front, while his flank would be on the move towards Johns- 
ton's rear with nothing to oppose it but Wheeler's cavalry. At Resaca the 
"Rangers" had a short and sharj) tight. At Cassville they made a daring and 
successful charge. They were on Wheeler's left, dismounted and lying in the 
sunshine holding their horses, one coinp.uiy on jiicket. Suddenly the two regi- 
ments in front were thrown into disorder by the Federal cavalry charging into 
their midst and hammering them with their sabres. "To mount! To mount !" 
sounded Polk'.-> bugle; " Cliargc 1" and making the woods ring with, "If you 
want to smell hell jist jine the cavalry," the " Rangers" dashed to the rescue, the 
si.\-sh()Oter again victorious. At New Hope Church and at Big Shanty they were 
dismounted, fighting as infantry and doing work with picka.xe and spade, building 
the breastworks which General Johnston thought so necessary. Napoleon said, 
" An army that remains behind intrenchments is beaten." At New Hope Church, 
at Altoona and Marietta, there was battle royal for hours, and again at Atlanta, 
where Johnston began at once to strengthen the defences. Early in July Johnston 
was removed and Hood placed in command. F"rom Dalton to Atlanta Sherman 
had lost forty thousand men ; Johnston had not lost a regiment, nor a wagon, nor 
(his soldiers say) a wagon-pin in that most wonderful retreat of historj-. He had 
won the admiration of his own army and the very careful respect of William 
Tecumseh Sherman. 

After the battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood, needing correct information of 
Sherman's movements, asked Wheeler for a careful, fearless, and trusted officer 
and a small force, and Captain A. M. Shannon and three men from each comjjany 
of the " Rangers" were sent to him. Shannon's order was, " Reliable information 
at all hazards. ' ' 

Captain Shannon di\'ided his men into squads ; each squad had orders to 
rendezvous at certain points at given times for further instructions, their mo\e- 
ments to be independent but sure. Woe to the Yankee house-burner, thief, and 
ravisher found in their path ! They watched for Sherman's torch from the highest 
points, and when they saw a column of smoke a signal was given, and like a small 
cyclone they rushed down upr.n the "bummers" before they could recover thi;ir 
amis or make resistance. Hut these miserable offscourings of the earth rarely re- 
sisted, oftener falling on their knees to beg for their coward lives. Mr. Claiborne 
gives this extract from the diary of a private in Company B : "August 9, 186.}. 
Saw a large smoke about a half-mile to our left. Ten of us started to investigate. 
Found eighteen or twenty Yankees burning house and gin of I\Ir. K. Yankees 
looting, women and children trying to save anything they can, negroes dancing 
and singing. We moved upon them from two sides, and in a moment were among 
them, our si.\--shooters doing full duty. Killed nine, wounded seven, balance pris- 
oners. Gave horses and grub to the family. Whipped a few of the negroes and 
■warned them, divided greenbacks, arms, and accoutrements, and moved out for the 
next little expedition at hand." 

In July Sherman invested Adanta, and sent .Stoneman and McCook, with nine 
thousand cavalry, to tear up the railroad tracks around Macon and m()\-e on to 
Andersonville. The purpose of the raid v^aa t<.. capture Andersonville and release 


seventy thousand prisoners there and to turn them against Johnston's rear. Har- 
rison's and Ross's brigades under General W. H. Jackson met McCook at Newman, 
Georgia, and repulsed him, capturing two guns and a number of prisoners and 
leaving many killed and wounded. "On the whole," Sherman reports, "the 
cavalry raid is not deemed a success." Hood now sent Wheeler with his entire 
cavalry to raid on Sherman's line of communication. On the 31st of August, 1S64, 
Hood telegraphed to Richmond that it was necessary to abandon Atlanta. Sher- 
man ordered the evacuation of the city, and the women and children were dri\ en 
from their homes at the point of the bayonet. General Hood, prote.-ting that this 
was "ungenerous and unprecedented cruelty," this modern Attila replied : "Talk 
this to the marines, not to me. ^\'a^ is cruelty." His orders in Tennessee had 
been to "treat Southern sympathizers as wild beasts," and well did his troops 
obey him. Wherever his horse trod he left the abomination of desolation behind 

Hood began his march in the rear of Sherman towards Tennessee, leaving only 
Wheeler's cavalry to annoy and delay the "march to the sea." The " Rangers" 
fought the Federal cavalry daily. At Aiken, Soutli Carolina, they fought artil- 
ler)-. At Johnstown, Anderson Court-House, Wilmington, Ayresboro', Harris- 
boro', Buckingham House, and around Raleigh they had sharp skirmishes. On 
the loth of March, 1S65, General Watle Hampton surprised General Kilpatrick at 
Monroe's plantation, that brilliant soldier barely escaping with his life, and leaving 
his Arabian charger and his octoroon lady-love in his sudden flight. The Confed- 
erates captured a large amount of stores and arms. General Tom Harrison and 
his chief of staff, Major W. B. Sayers, wore wounded in this charge. From the 
fight with Kilpatrick to Bentonville, North Corolina, where the " Rangers" made 
their last charge, was a ten-days' battlt,-. Cook and Jarmon, the last of the field 
officers, were wounded and sent to the rear. Colonel Cook had so often been 
wounded that the soldiers called him "their Yankee lead-mine." Captain Doc 
Matthews, of Company K, a youth of twenty-three, was now in C(jmmand of the 
regiment, and Colonel Ba.\ter Smith, of Tennessee, after a twenty-two months' im- 
prisonment, was in cliarge of the brigade. In the Ccnfiay Magazine of OctolK-r, 
1S87, Captain W. R. Frientl, a " Raiiger" who was there, gives the following ac- 
count of thii famous charge : — 

"The writer, who for four months, during the trying and exciting march from 
Adanta to Bentonville, had been absent by reason of wounds, joiried the reginiPtit 
on the 22d of March. The Confederate army was reported to be on the south side 
of Mill Creek. A high causeway, a quarter of a mile long, led through marshv 
and boggy ground to a bridge o\er the stieam. I heard firing about a mile south 
of us. Soon this causeway was filled with a disordered mob of Confederate cavalry 
making gfiod time finding the rear. From them it was learned that at least a corps 
of the enem\-'s infantrv had attacked and driven them back, and while they were 
telling the tak' the ent-my gained the high bank of the opjiosite side of the creek 
and cut off the only line of retreat for Hardee's army. Just here firing was again 
heard on the south side, and knowing the ' Rangers' were there, the writer ^•cntu^ed 
to tread the dangerous |vith to share their fate and fortune. As he ascended the 
opposite hill. General Hardt-e and a f-.-w ^taff niticcrs and cmn-icrs wirr on the riL,du 
of the roael. As the enem\- ap[)r(iached Butler's ca\ali\-, they retired su hastily 


that General Hardee asked : ' Are there no troops, no men here to check this 
advance?' It was siiijgested that the ' Ran,c;ers" were in reserve, and Hardee 
ordered them u]). When the head ot the coUiinn approached, the veteran eye of 
the general scannins; the juvenile face of Matthews indicated the belief that if the 
salvation of the army depcntled on him all was lost. But to his order, ' That this 
advance must be checked,' the quick, decisive reply of Matthc^vs, 'We arc the 
men to do it, general,' gave him hope. The order, ' Forward, Rangers ! P'ront 
into line !' was given by the captain. As the regiment passed the general, he and 
his bi.\teen-year-old son Willie, who had the day before enlisted in Company 1), 
tipped their hats to each other. And, as gallantly as at the first charge at Wood- 
sonville, the ' Rangers' raised a yell and spurred at the long blue line of infantry 
regardless of disparity in numbers. The enemy, scarcely making a stand, iirerl a 
volley or two and retreated as if panic-stricken. Almost the first shot fired struck 
Willie Hardee, killing him instantly. The writer met the regiment as it reformed 
near General Hardee and General Johnston, who had joined him. A more gallant 
band ne\er returned from victory. Black as Mexicans from exposure, pine-smoke, 
and the lack of soap, ragged and dirty, a bronze front they formed, one hundred 
and fifty of them, all that was left of two thousand. They had made their last 
charge, the last regular fight of Johnston's army." 

Thirty days aftenvards, at Greensboro', North Carolina, Johnston formally 
surrendered to Sherman, and all was over. 

"All is gone, — 
But the raeniory of those (ki\T. ; of the ranks that met the blaze 
Of the sun adown the hill. Charge on charge, I see them still. 

All is Rone,— 
Yet I hear the echoing crash, see the sabres gleam and flash ; 
See the gallant, headlong dash. — All is gone." 

From their enlistment until the surrender the "Rangers" maintained them- 
seh'cs at their own and the enemy's expense. 'True to themselves and their cause, 
they neither flinched nor faltered, but fought on until their flag was furled forever. 
They felt that the reputation of the heroes of the Alamo and San Jacinto, and later 
the fame of the border frays of that dashing ranger. Captain Jack Hays, rested 
upon them ; and with de\-otion and heroi.-ni, throueh victory and defeat, each man 
was cr.untcd worthv. No battle-eong been jienned for them, no history written 
of their \-ator ; but not Travis nor Crockett, not Rusk nor the elder Whartons, 
offered their lives a more willing sacrifice to n cause they believed just. 

The patience and silent heroism of that after-struggle with poverty and changed 
social conditions, under a military despnii^m that pales into insignificance th.e 
Russian occupation of Poland, — so-called " reconstruction," — who can fitly portray 
it? Some day, in a new generation, a new Car!)-le, poet and historian, will tell the 
story to a listening \\orld. Thrice hajipy the State that claims such sons, doing 
their duty nobly, whether in storm of hatde or stress of life. 

In December of each year the remnant of the old regiment meet to ride and 
raid, in the track of old armies, und."r the shadow of the Tennessee mountains, liy 
whispering streams, under silent stars, growing young and dashing and heroic again 
as they thrill to the shock of old battles. God's blessing rest u[)on them, until 
that last bugle calls them to "fall in" with the shadowy line, two thousand strong, 
on the other side. 




DURING the Civil W'ar Texas sent many thousand gallant soldiers to the 
held of battle. \Vhere all acquitted themselves witli honor it is useless to 
make comparisons. Although the great battles of the war were fought 
east of the Mississippi River, it should not be forgotten that the post of duty is the 
post of honor, and that there is as much danger in contests betw een small armies 
as there is when the forces engaged are numbered by corps and divisions instead of 
by brigades and battalions. It shall not be my purpose to compare Valverde with 
Manassas or Mansfield with Chickamauga, but without detracting from the glory of 
others, simpl}- to tell the tale of what Green's cavalry brigade did for the Con- 
federacy, from August, 1861, until May, 1S65, during "the period of the war" 
according to tlie terms of their enlistment. Let their actions tell the bloody story. 

Although there was much talk of secession during the Presidential canvass of 
i860, and until the 4th of March, 1S61, the day of Lincoln's inauguration, and 
despite the fact that by that time all of the Gulf States had actually seceded, very 
few people in Te.xas believed that there would really be any war. Even the echo 
of Sumter's gun., on the 12th of April, 1S61, failed to convince our people that 
there would be anything more than a display of an armed force, and then they 
thought that the government at \\'ashington would "bid the erring sisters depart 
in peace." Howe\-er, companies were organized and drilling all over Te.xas, and 
when the news of the great batde of M massas reached the State, these isolated 
companies ruslied to their several rendezvous and rapidly organized into battalions, 
regiments, and brigades. 

General H. H. Sibley, who had been a captain in the United States army, and 
had been stationed in the Territory of New Mexico, resigned his commission and 
tendered his services to the Confederacy. He was at once commissioned a briga- 
dier-general, and authorized to raise a brigade for the occupation of New Mexico. 
He had only to let it be known that he wanted men, and thirty companies were at 
once on the march to meet him .it San Antonio. On the 27th day of August, 1S61, 
a company, raised in Guadalupe and Caldwell Counties, and commanded by Cap- 
tain William P. Hardeman, was mustered into the service, and was classed as Com- 
pany A of the First Regiment of this brigade. The ne.xt day Captain John S. 
Shropshire from Colorado County enrolled his company as Company A of the 
Second Regiment of .Sibley's brigade. Da\- after day new companies arri\cd and 
were mintered inti) the service of the Confederate States "f<ir the period of the 
war, unless sooner dischaiged by the pmper authorities," until on the 2Gth of 



October thirty com[);inies were organized into three regiiiienls ; and these, witli 
three sections of artillery armed with two mountain howitzers each, composed the 

During these two months these regiments were being drilled and taught the 
duty of the soldier at camps of instruction on the Leon and Salado in the imme- 
diate vicinity of San Antonio. This education was much needed, although many of 
the companies had been organized for several months, and had been drilling in the 
vicinity of their homes, waiting to be called into active service. These regiments 
were all ca\a!ry, or they might have been called mounted infantry. After the regi- 
mental ofticors had been appointed, the first regiment of the brigade was called tlie 
Fourth Texas Mounted Volunteers, the second regiment was called the Fifth Te.xas 
Mounted X'olunteers, and the third regiment was called the Seventh Texas Mounted 
V'oluntcers. These designations were afterwards changed to the Texas Volunteer 
Cavalry instead of Texas Mounted Volunteers, the numbers remaining the same. 

The brigade organization consisted of Brigadier-General H. H. Sibley ; Major 
A. M. Jackson, assistant adjutant-general ; Captain R. R. Brownrigg, quarter- 
master ; Cajjtain Grirlin, cummissary ; Dr. Covey, brigade surgeon ; Major W. L. 
Robards, aide-de-camp ; Thomas P. Ochiltree and 
y''^ ^>- Joseph E. Dvvyer, volunteer aides. 

'' ' ' \ '^^^ Fourth Texas Cavalry had the following 

\ regimental officers : colonel, James Reiley ; lieu- 

/ . \ tenant-colonel, William R. Scurry ; major, H. W. 

/ ' ' ) Raguet ; quartermaster, H. E. Loebnits ; commis- 

f I sary, Captain Nobles; adjutant-general, Reiley ; 

surgeon, Dr. William Southworth ; assistant sur- 
geons, Drs. J. W. Matchett and Taylor. 

The Fifth Texas Cavalry was commanded by 
Colonel Thomas Green, and had the following field 
and staff oflicers : lieutenant-colonel, Harry C. 
McNeill ; major, Samuel A. Lockridge ; quarter- 
Gi.sERVL wiiLUM Stf.fle mastcr, Captain M. B. Wyatt ; commissary. Captain 

Josei)h P.eck ; adjutant, Lieutenant Joseph D. .Savers; 
tart BiMgeons, Drs. J. M. BronaugH and J. R. 





The Se\-enth Te-xas Cavalry had the following officers : colonel. Will 
Steele ; lieutenant-colonel, J. S. .Sutton ; major, A. P. Bagby ; quartermaster 
Captain Ogdcn ; commissary, Captain Lee ; adjutant, Thomas Howard ; surgeon 
Dr. George Cupples ; assistant surgeons, Drs. Hunter and Greenwood. The Rew 
.Messrs. L. II Jones and William J. J''iycc were chaplains in the brigade, and weix 
quite as ready fj handle the musket or the pistol as the Bible or the hymn-book. 
The names of the thirty captains commanding the companies in the brigade ar. 
here given, but the most distinguished will be mentioned in connection witi 
marches and battles in which this command was engaged. 

This sketch will necessarily be more or less imperfect from the fact that in 



numerous battle- 
v\ere almost enli 

;ly destro 

i.suakies of war th.e records 



The long and tiresome march from San Antonio, Texas, to Fort Fillmore, New 
Mexico, a distance of more than a thousand miles, showed the eagerness and deter- 
mination of the volunteers to meet the enemies of Texas on their own ground, and 
thus prevent an invasion of the Lone Star State. The brigade marched in detach- 
ments, — these being separated from each other by a few days' travel in order to 
secure water and grass for the horses and mules, and for convenience in camping. 
The first detachment of the Fourtli Texas Cavalry started for El Paso on the 23d of 
October, 1S61, and the first detachment of the Fifth left San Antonio for the same 
destination on the loth of November. The march, after the brigade had proceeded 
a little beyond the frontier settlements of Castroville and Uvalde, lay through an 
unbroken wilderness, watered at long intervals by clear streams, water-holes, lakes, 
mountain sjirings, and sparsely timbered, more or less undulating, and in sections 
mountainous. It is needless to detail the hardships of this long journey, for, al- 
though to the troops they seemed at the time very great, the perils and 'pains of 
scouts and battles afterwards endured so far eclipsed the privations of marching 
and star\-ation as to make them appear trivial. 

Tlie command reached the upper Rio Grande on Christmas night, after a 
wearisome march. During all this time there was no rain, and no forage fur the 
horses, reliance being had exclusively on the prairie grass, which the animals could 
crop around the camp at nights and mornings. Having reached the ri\er near old 
Fort Quitman, the companies moved on up the Rio Grande, and in a week covered 
the eighty miles of valley and reached Fort Bliss on New Year's day, 1862. 

All of Green's regiment having arrived at Franklin, they rested there several 
days, and then proceeded in detachments farther up the ri\ er. 

While the brigade was proceeding by detachments to the general rendezvous 
at Fort Thorn, they were considerably annoyed by the forays of hostile Indians, 
attacking small squads and especially isolated wagons or herds of horses, instigated 
purely by love of plunder and not from any desire to take part in the Civil War. 
During the month of January the Fourth and Fifth Regiments and six companies 
of the Seventh reached Fort Thorn, where General Sibley had established his head- 
quarters, and reconnoitring parties were sent out in the direction of I'ort Craig, 
where it was evident that the Federal forces would make a stand. 

In the mean time, for several months, Colonel John R. Baylor had been occu- 
pying the lower portion of the Territory, and had captured several posts and a large 
number of prisoners, with ccmsiderable quantities of supplies, which were of great 
use to General Sibley and his brigade. 

The forces under Colonel Baylor were now united with Sibley's brigade, and 
the whole conmiruid under General Sibley was designated by the somewhat high- 
sounding title of the " Army of New Mexico." On the 14th of February the entire 
available Confederate force was united on the right bank of the Rio Grande, about 
ten miles below Fort Craig. Major Lockridge, with about six hundred men, moved 
up to within i! mile and a halt to rc.^onnriitre, Ijut did not succeed in drawing the 
Federals out of the fort. On his, return to camp he captured a scouting party com- 
posed of twenty-one Mexican soldiers. These men were on the following Sunday 
released on parole. 

On the i6th uf February, 1S62, the brigade drew U[) in line of batde on the 


right side of the Rio Grande, near Fort Craig, and in the afternoon a sharp skirmish 
ensued, in which one man was wounded on the Confederate side, the Union loss 
being unknown. \V. C. Burton, of Company F, of the Fifth Texas Cavalry, was 
the wounded man in this the first engagement of the brigade. Three days were 
spent in manoeuvring, and on the 19th the Confederates crossed the river to the east 
side and camped near the stream. Here they cooked three days' rations and slept 
on theii* arms. The ne.xt day they passed F"ort Craig, in full view of it from the 
hills, on the left bank of the Rio Grande. .Another skirmish ensued, without an) 
loss on either side as far as is know 11. The counti y over which the troops marched 
was a trackless desert of sand, yet they kept toiling on hour after hour during the 
night through the ra\ines and over the hills, resting but a short time, and daylight 
found them on the crest of the ridge two miles from the river, overlooking a green 
valley with a mesa lying to the southwest between the Confederates and the fort. 
The men and their horses were much jaded and nearly famished for want of water ; 
but between them and the river Lay a large Federal force, and it was plainly evident 
to all the Te.xans that if they drank vrater that day they would first have to fight for 
it. At nine o'clock the battle began. The Te.\ans opened fire with their light 
batteries of artillery. 

General Sibley, being quite unwell, remained in the rear, and intrusted the 
command of the Te.xans on the field to Colonel Thcunas Green, of the Fiftli Cavalry. 
His force consisted of the Fourth and Fifth and five companies of the Seventh 
Regiment of Te.xas Cavalry, Pyron's battalion of mounted men, and Teel's, Ful- 
crod's, and Riely's batteries, numbering, all told, not exceeding two thousand men. 
The artillery were si.v-pounder mountain howitzers and numbered about ten pieces. 
The cavalry were armed with shot-guns and pistols, e.xcept two companies, B and 
G, of the Fifth Regiment, and G of the Fourth Regiment, who were supplied with 
lances. The Union forces under General Canby consisted of fifteen hundred regular 
infantry and a battery of artillery, all well armed and equipped ; also of a regiment uf 
volunteers from the Territory of New Jle.xico under the famous Colonel Kit Carsem 
and other leaders. Altogether the Federals numbered about seven thousand effective 
men. To the advantage of superior numbers General Canby added that of a choice 
position, having his men posted along the river-bank and in the thick grove of large 
cottonwood-trecs which covered the ground near the stream. Pyron brought on 
the engagement and was hard pressed by heavy forces, but held his ground until 
reinforced by th.e remaining Te.vans, who arrived on the field before ten o'clock. 
All the Texas cavalry were then dismounted except four companies of the Fourth, 
under .Major Raguet, and the squadron of lancers from the Fifth, led by Captain 
Lang. The dismounted men were posted by Colonel Green in a dry slough or 
depression about eight hundred yards from the F'cderal lines. Here they remained 
for hours under a heaxy fire of artillery. The men busied themselves in digging 
with their bowie-knives shallow trenches for protection and in watching the bursting 
shells, which for the most part went clear over them, and fell among the horses some 
distance away, causing them to be several times removed farther from the scene 
of aciion. The Filth Regiment was conimanded by Lieutenant-Colonel H. C. 
McXcill. w ho caused shallow wells to be dug in the rear of his lines to supply the 
nivn with driiiking-water. The I'dUiih Regimeiil was undei' the leadership of 


Lieutenant-Colonel William R. Scurry, who bore himself with great gallantry 
throui^liout the action. The Seventh Regiment was commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. S. Sutton, who was killed while leading his battalion in the charge. The 
Federals, first moving against the right wing of the Te.xans, were repulsed and 
retired on their artillery. Then large bodies of Federal cavalry appeared, pressing 
both wings. Green ordered Lang to charge with his lancers on the right and 
Raguet with his battalion on the left. The object of this was to di\ert attention 
from the centre, where a charge was ordered along the whole line. Raguet and 
Lang, while gallantly leading their men against overwhelming numbers, were both 
killed, and lost many of their men in killed and wounded. Lockridge led the 
charge of the Fifth and Scurry of the Fourth, comprising altogether fourteen com- 
panies. The men charged in line of battle, and ran for eight hundred yards in the 
face of a deadly fire of artillery and musketry before reaching the battery and the 
line of infantry posted to support it. The order to the Te.xans was : " Save your 
shot-guns until near enough to make their fire effective." Many reserved their fire 
until they were at the wheels of the cannon, and there was a hand-to-hand fight 
over these si.x-pound field-pieces. Major Lockridge fell dead about ten paces from 
the caimon's mouth, and the captain of the Federal battery, the gallant McRae, fell 
dead by his guns. Nearly every man of this artillery company was killed, wounded, 
or captured. Their defence was hardly less heroic than the charge of the victors. 
A charge of tlie Federal caxalry made a gallant efiort to recapture the guns, but 
was repulsed, and only succeeded to some extent in covering the retreat of the 
infantry, many of whom perished in crossing the river. The retreat of the F'ederals 
was aluTist a rout, and had it been closely followed up the fort migb.t ha\e been 
captured. But I'ort Craig -.vas seven miles away, and the Union commander sent 
in a flag of truce asking lea\'e to bury his dead, and in the mean time night came 
on and closed the carnage. 

General Sibley, having assumed command at seven p.m., ordered the pursuit 
of the Federal army to be abandoned. 

The \-ictory of the Te.xans was complete, and, supplied with water from the 
river and forxl from tht; ha\'ersark5 abandoned by the Federals in th^-ir llight. they 
bivouacked on the field. The brigade lost thirty-nine killed and one hundred and 
sixty-nine wounded. Among the killed were Captain \'on Hoedel, of the Fourth 
Regiment, and Lieutenant David H. Hubbard, of Company A, of the Fifth Regi- 
ment. Captain Lang died of his w ound/. at Socorro a few days later. The Federals 
lost one hundred and twenty-nine killed, six hundred and nineteen wounded, and 
thirty missing. Many of the New Mexican militia shortly afterwards deserted, from 
the panic caused by their first meeting with the Te.xans, who, they said, "'fought 
not like men hut like (!e\-ils. " 

This battle was called " \'alverde" (green vallry), from the name of the 
ground on which it was fought, lying in a bend of the Rio Grande on its lefc bank, 
about se\en miles above Fort Craig. Soon after the battle an artillery company 
was formed to man the si.x pieces captured on the field of \'alverde. This' bat- 
tery was pl.icei.1 in commam.! of Captain Joseph 1). .Sayers who served up to 
that time as first lieutenant and adjutant of the Viith Texis Cav.-ilry, on Colonel 
Green's staff. It was callvd tlie " \'alvi.-rdc Battery" in hor.ur uf the Confederate 


victory gained on the 21st of Fcbrunry, 1.S62 ; and in pl.icini^ Snyers in command 
of it, Colonel Green said he knew the Confederate captain would stand by it as loiiy 
as the Union captain had done, — that was " until death." 

In addition to the si.x pieces of artillery, about three hundred Minie niu.skets 
were also captured on the battle-field. These arms were of good use, as they were 
immediately issued to the men, replacing as far as they would go the shot-guns and 
hunting-rifles with w hich the Confederates had been previously armed. The Fed- 
erals, having retreated seven miles down the river along the right bank, sent i:i 
a flag of truce just before sunset asking permission to bury their dead, which 
request was granted. Under co\er of darkness they recovered a part of their 
cannon which had not yet been secured by the victors. The Confederates biv- 
ouacked on the field of battle, having reached the ri\-ci- and obtained water in plenty, 
though at the cost of blood and life. Remaining one day (Saturday) on the field 
of N'alverde, on the morning of the 23d (Sunday) the Confederates began an 
advance movement up the Rio Grande, ha\ing crossed o\er to the right bank and 
leaving Fort Craig unreduced in their rear. They proceeded up the ri\er to a 
small village called Socorro, where they established a hospital and left all their 
wounded who were not able to travel, and continued their march to Albuquerque, 
where they arrived in a few days without any serious opposition. 

On March 26, 1862, Major Charles Pyron, with a small force composed of 
some of Baylor's mcii and two pieces of artillery, halted in Apache Canon, twenty 
miles from Santa Fe on the road to Fort Union, and Companies A, B, C, and D, 
of the Fifth^ Cavalry, under Major Shropshire, had marched out from Santa 
Fe and bivouacked at the mouth of the cafion. Pyron and Shropshire's force 
combined amounted to about two hundred and fifty men. About ten o'clock, 
Major Chivington, of the First Colorado Volunteers, with four hundred and eighteen 
men moving towards Santa Fe from Fort Union, captured Pyron' s pickets and sur- 
prised the advance in the Apache Canon. The Confederate battery opened on the 
Federals, and thus warned Shropshire's battalion, which, without waiting for further 
orders, fell into line on foot and marched at once to Pyron' s assistance. Coming 
up with the artillery at a point to which Pyron had fallen back, .Shrojjshire divided 
his men and sent tv.o companies on each side of the canon up the side of the moun- 
tain, depIo)'ed a^; skirmishers to meet the enemy, who had alre.idy adopted similar 
tactics. .Some of the men, from Conijiany A for the most part, advanced on the 
right considerably beyond the main Imdy of Pyron's men with the artillery in the 
caiion, and the artillery being hard pressed by the Federals retreated, together with 
the troops supporting the battery. Company F, of the Colorado Volunteers, made 
a charge on hor.-,eback down the canon, and, being followed by tlie infantry, swept 
around to the right ami left, cutting the Confedcnite line in two, and took each 
party in the rear. Thus the day was lost to the Confederates ; being outflanked, 
outnumbered, and outgeneralled. they fell back to their camp at the mouth of the 
canon, near Johnson's Ranch, in some disorder. The Federals only held the field 
long enough to gather up what prisoners they could find, and then under cover of 
night fell back ahnnl seven miles to Pigeon's Ranch aiul aw.tited reinforcements. 
The Federal loss in skirmish was reported by Major Chivington to b<- five killed 
and fourteen wounded. The Coiifrderaics ha.d two killed and three wounded, 


besides seventy-one who had been surrounded and taken prisoners. Company A, 
of the Fifth Te.xas Cavalry, being farthest in advance, suffered most severely. After 
the skirmish, Pyron, who was in command as the senior officer, held his ground 
and sent couriers to Green and Scurry for reinforcements. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Scurry, being nearest, only si.xteen miles away, at Gallisteo, arrived on the morn- 
ing of the 27th, and aw.iited all day for the Federals to attack, but they did nut 

Lieutenant-Colonel Wni. R. Scurry ha\'ing arrived at Pyron's camp at three 
o'clock on the morning of March 27, as soon as it was light made a thorough 
examination of the ground to ascertain the situation of his own forces and the posi- 
tion of the Federals. He so disposed his troops as to be ready for an attack, and 
thus remained until the morning of the 2Sth. Then he left a small guard with his 
wagons and advanced to meet the enemy. He had under his command a portion 
of nineteen companies, amounting to about a thousand men. Of these, however, 
owing to the number on detail and sick and disabled, only about six hundred were 
fit for duty and actively engaged in the ensuing combat. At about ten o'clock in 
the forenoon the two small armies came into collision at a point in Glorietta Canon 
about one mile west of Pigeon's Ranch. Colonel Slough, of the First Colorado 
Infantry, had left Kozlowski's Ranch at about eight o'clock the same morning with 
about thirteen hundred and fifty effective men ; having in the mean time sent Major 
Chivington with four hundred and thirty picked men to march around the mountain 
and to capture and burn the Confederate wagon-train. As soon as the respective 
forces met, the Confederate cavalry under orders retired slowly and, dismounting, 
came into action on foot. The artillery, consisting of four pieces, was advanced 
rapidly to a slight elevation in the cafion, and immediately opened fire upon the 
advancing Federals. The Confederate infantry was rapidly deployed into line, 
extending from a fence on the left to a pine forest on the right, across the road 
which led through the narrow defile, and completely blocking the way and dri\'ing 
in the Federal pickets. The Federals then brought up their artillery, consisting 
of two batteries, eight pieces, — six twelve-pounders and two six-jiounders. The 
infantry were at the same time thrown out upon the flanks, taking positions on the 
mountain-sides to tlie right and li;fi. During tlie whole day tlie Confederates were 
acting on the aggressive and the Federals on the defensive. The Federal left wing 
under Colonel Tappan, occupying a position covered witli trees and large boulders, 
was especially difficult to dislodge, and offered a stubborn resistance. It was at this 
point that the Confederates charged under the gallant Major John S. Shropshire, 
who was killed, and Captain D. \V. Shannon, of Comi^any C, of the Fifth Regiment, 
was at the same time captured. .Shropshire fell by the hands of Private Pierce, of 
Company F, First Colorado Volunteers. On the fall of Shropshire his men retired, 
but renewed the charge successfully later in the day. On the Confederate left 
Colonel Scurry directed the operations in person, Major Raguet commanding the 
centre and Major P)Ton the right. A large body of Federals, availing themselves 
of a gulch that ran up the centre of an enclosed field on their right, sought to turn 
the Confederate left flank ; but Scurry, perceiving the movement, advanced his 
men, charging through the clearing some two hundred yards under a heavy fire, 
and fell upon the T'cderals in the irv\:h with kni\-s and i)ist<:ils. l'"or a short time a 

702 A COMPRKHENSIVF: history of TEXAS. 

most desperate and deadly hand-to-hand conflict ensued, when the steady courage 
of the Confederates prevailed, and their antagonists broke and fled in the wildest 
disorder and contusion. Major Raguct charged rapidly down the centre, driving 
the Federal artillery before him ; however, the Federal batteries made a stubborn 
resistance, took a new position, and renewed the contest three several times before 
they linally lost the da)-. 

Lieutenant Bradford of the Confederate artillery having been wounded and 
carried oil the field, and his battery having no other otlicer to command, it was 
hastily withduu.n. Colonel Scurry seeing this, ordered the battery to again 
advance, and made a pause to reunite his forces, which had in the action become 
somewhat scattered. When again ready to advance, which was not long after, he 
found the Federals strongly posted behind a long adobe wall that ran nearly across 
the caiion, and a large ledge of rocks in the rear. The artillery having returned 
to the front under Sergeant Patrick and Private Kirk, again opened fire on the 
enemy. Major Shropshire was sent to the right and Major Raguet to the left, with 
orders to advance through the pine timber and attack the Federals on both the 
flanks. The centre having been posted on the road, with orders to charge as soon 
as they heard the sound of their comrades' guns on the flanks, Scurry sent Pyron to 
the assistance of Raguet, and he went to the left to find Shropshire and learn the 
cause of the delay in making the assault. Colonel Scurry, finding that Shropshire 
had been killed, at once assumed immediate command of the right wing and 
attacked the Federals at the ranch ; at the same time Major Raguet and Major 
Pyron opened a galling fire on the left from the rocks on the mountain-side, and the 
centre charging down the road, the F'ederals were driven from the adobe wall to the 
ledge of rocks in the rear, where they made their final stand. Here their batteries 
of eight guns opened a furious fire of shell, grape, and canister upon the ad\ancing 
Confederates, who, heedless of the iron storm, pressed bravely on in a heroic effort 
to capture the batteries. Meeting here a strong force of infantry, the conflict wa.xed 
hotter than it had been before. The Confederate right and centre united on the 
left. The heroic Scurrj-, the intrepid Raguet, the courageous Pyron, pushed for- 
ward, followed by their men. until the muzzles of the guns of the opposing lines 
touched each other. Inch b\' inch the Federals held their ground until their artil- 
lery and their splendid train of a hundred wagons had time to escape. Then the 
Federal infantry broke ranks and fled from the field. In their precipitate flight tliey 
cut loose the teams and set fire to two of their wagons. The Confederates kept up 
the pursuit until they were forced to halt from the extreme exhaustion of the men. 
The battle lasted from ten in the morning till five in the afternoon, about seven 
hours, and during this time great valor was displayed on both sides. The artillery 
took position right along with the infantry and fought in close quarters. A solid 
shot from the Federal battery struck a cannon of the Confederates full in the mu/:zle 
and disabled it. The dress of the Coloradoans and the Te.xans was so similar that 
they could hardly tell each other apart even at close quarters. 

The Federals retired under cover of the darkness to Kozlowski's Ranch, 
whence they had started out that morning to capture Sinta Fe. Rut this victory of 
the Confederates was not unattended w ith disaster. The wily mountaineers a 
general in coumiaiiil. Slough had .sent ChivingLon to the rear, where lie v.ith a 


force of four hundred picked men fell upon the wagon-guard of the Confederates, 
consisting of about two hundred sick and disabled men commanded by Chaplain L. 
H. Jones, and defeated them, capturing sixteen of their number and dri\irig off the 
rest towards Santa Fi. The wagons were all burned, and Rev. Mr. Jone.s, while 
holding a white flag in his hand and offering to surrender, w as shot and dangerously 
wounded by the cart-burners. Doubtless Chivington would have attacked Scurry 
in the rear had it not been for the circumstance that about the time the wagons 
were consumed a jjarty of five Federal prisoners arrived from the front and were 
recaptured. They told Chivington of Scurry's victorious advance, so he beat a 
hasty retreat by the same route which he had taken in the morning, giving orders 
that the prisoners should be shot in case he should be attacked in his flight. 

The F^ederal loss in the battle of Glorietta, according to the best information 
at command, was forty-four killed, sixty-four wounded, and thirty missing. The 
Confederate loss was thirty-six killed, sixty wounded, and sixteen captured. But 
among the slain the Texans mourned the daring and impetuous Major Shropshire 
and the accomplished and heroic Major Raguet : the former of whom fell early in 
the day, and the latter in the last and nmst desperate of the charges. The gallant 
Captain Buckholts and Lieutenant Mills, after fighting gallantly all day, fell near the 
close of the conflict. M;ijor Pyron's horse was shot under him and Colonel Scurry's 
cheek was twice grazed by whizzing bullets. Colonel Scurry having lost his supply- 
train was in great straits for subsistence, but he permitted the Federals to bury their 
dead, and remaining upon the field during the 29th, performed the same sad service 
for the fallen Texans, and on the night of the 2gth countermarched to Santa Fe to 
procure supplies and transportation. 

During the campaign in New Mexico the soldierly qualities of Captain William 
P. Hardeman were conspicuously displ.iyod. On the route from X^alvcrde up the 
Rio Grande he observed with much anxiety the demoralization likely to ensue from 
the fact that a large portion of the horses in the F'ourth Regiment had been lost and 
killed in battle. Knowing that discipline and organization could not be maintained 
with a part of the men mounted and a part on foot, he proposed to Colonel Scurry, 
who was in command, to dismount the P^onrth Regiment :ukI turn over their horses 
to the other regiment- and the b.itury just formed. Through his influence, backed 
by the elo(]aence of Scnrry, this change was effected, to the great gratification of 
General Sibley, who in his report speaks of the self-denial of the men of the Fourth 
Regiment in the highest terms. Again when it was necessary for the new-made 
infantry to cro.-.s the river, which was encrusted with ice near the banks half an inch 
thick, the men hesitated until Hardeman, the oldest man in the regiment, led the 
way, wln-n all plunged in waist-deep with a cheer for "Old Gotch" that made the 
\alley ring. General Sibley, finding that Captain Hardeinan could control his 
men, placed him with his company on (police duty at Albuquerque to preserve order 
and protect priwatc property. 

When tlie rest of the army movei.; on towarils Santa Fe and Fort Union, 
Hardeman was left in command at Albuquerque, to garrison the town and preserve 
the commissary stores, on which tlic whole Confederate forci- depended for subsist- 
ence. About the ."^th da\- of Aj-jril Canln- mo\ed up foim Fort Craie wilh about 
fifteen hundred men, and knowing that Hardeman only .about two hundred men 


all told, including about forty convalescents from the hospital, he supposed that the 
Confederates would at once either retreat or surrender. 

Caiiby's column marched right on up to the town without even halting the 
baggage- wagons, until they were greeted by a si.K-pound shot from Hardeman's 
artillery. The P'ederals then retired a short distance and made an attempt to enter 
the town by the road from the east. But " Old Gotch" moved his guns behind tlie 
adobe walls and gave Canby another greeting from his battery. The Federals then 
drew of! and camped, and placing their twenty-four pounder in position shelled the 
town, altliough il was full of women and children supposed to be friendly to the 
Union cause. 

They invested Albuquerque for five days and nights, shelling the town and 
driving in the pickets, but not assaulting in force. During all this time Hardeman 
and his company lay on their arms and did not remove their clothing for an hour's 
sleep. But they saved the town and the commissary stores on which Sibley depended 
to feed his men. Had these stores been lost, the whole Confederate outfit would have 
been compelled to surrender. 

Though in point of bloodshed this engagement appears insignificant in com- 
parison with others occurring in this Territory during the Confederate occupation, 
the heroic determination which characterized the struggle, and the results achieved, 
entitle it to particular mention. 

Leaving Albuquerque on the 12th of April, Sibley's army took its course dovvn 
the Rio Grande, the Fourth Regiment crossing over to the right bank and the 
Fifth remaining on the left bank of the stream. For three days they continued 
marching in this fashion, as if despising their antagonists or inviting attack. A 
small ])arty of Kit Carson's regiment of Mexicans killed a couple of stragglers of 
the Fourth Regiment, and were in turn attacked by the " Brigands" (a company 
of Californians in the Confederate service), who killed two of them and captured 

In the mean time General Canby with a force from Fort Craig had formed a 
junction with Colonel Paul from F'ort Union at Tijeras, on the I3lh, and, turning 
quickly, marched thirty-si.x miles and arrived at Peralta before Colonel Green knew 
of his ajiproach. A !iiountain liowityor and seven wagons loaded with supplies, 
having been detained by the deep sands of the roads and the weakness of the 
teams, were captured by the Federals. The escort of the train made a stubborn 
resistance, which resulted in a loss to the Confederates of si.x men killed, two 
wounded, and tweiuy-two captured. In the mean time, Sibley, learning that 
Green had been attacked, sent Scurry with the Fourth Regiment to his relief. 
Colonel Paul with his column and three companies of the Third United States Cav- 
alry attacked Green's men, but they made no impression on them except to drive, 
in their skirmishers, with a loss to the Federals of one killed and three wounded. 
The fighting continued all day, both with small-arms and artillery, but neither 
party deemed itself strong enough to attack the other in their impro\ised breast- 
works behind. ditches and adobe walls. The only loss sustained by the Confeder- 
ates was one man wounded accidentally b\- a shot fr.Mn a comr.ide. The Federal 
loss was not asccrt.iiiied. 

During the ni-ht Colonel Gicen crossed over the river and joined the main 


body of the Conftderates on th'.- left bank of the Grande. Though Green was 
taken unauan-s he stood his ground bra\-ely, and though Canby had the Texans 
almost surrounded with a greatly superior force, he lacked the nerve to attack 

After the fight at Peralta, Sibley's army marched leisurely along down the 
Rio Grande on the right bank, Canby's forces following on the left, in sight of each 
other. General .Sibley states that it was at first his intention on leaving Albu- 
querque to pu^h on by tlie ri\-er route, being two days in advance of Canby, and 
attacking Fort Craig before his arrival to demolish the fort. This design appears 
to have been defeated by the rapid movements of the F"edcrals after effecting a 
junction of the forces from Fort Craig and I~ort Union at Tijeras on the 13th of 
April, and their sudden appearance at Peralta on the morning of the 15th, before 
the Fifth Te.xas Cavalry had succeeded in crossing tlie river. 

It being deemed impracticable to attack Fort Craig in the crippled condition 
in which Sibley found his command at this time, it was determined to leave the 
river and seek a route through the mountains, and thus reach Donna Anna below 
Fort Craig without the hazard of another general engagement. Major Bethel Coop- 
wood, who was familiar with the topography of the country, was selected for " the 
difficiJt and responsible task of guiding the little army through this mountainous 
and trackless waste. " Accordingly, on the night of the 17th of April, all the wagons, 
amounting to thirty-eight in number, winch could be dispensed with, and all sur- 
plus supplies, were abandoned or burned, seven days' rations were packed on 
mules, and the weary and perilous march through the mountainous desert was 
begun. The Confederates left the Rio Grande, and, after marching o\'er a very 
rough countr)' more than seven hours, came to the head of a canon, which they 
followed down until nearly daylight, making a distance of about fourteen miles, 
and bivouacked without water. Eight miles farther on they reached water, which 
was very brackish, and here the ad\ance waited for the rear to come up. On the 
19th the Texans resumed their march, — five miles to the head of Salt Creek and 
twenty more to Bear Spring, which were covered by the infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery. Along this route it was nccessar)- for the men to tic ropes to the cannon 
and drag them up the mountains. Scurry set the example by dismounting and 
taking hold of the ropes himself. Each regiment had a battery to pull along, and 
divided out the guns among the several companies. The men cheerfully surrendered 
their horses for use in the artillery carriages and put their own shoulders to the 
wheels in the steepest places. Conspicuous among those who toiled at this self- 
imposed task was Major William P. Hardeman, of the Fourth Texas Cavalry, who 
by tlie force of his example was worth a hundred men. Passing along narrow 
defiles, toiling up precipitous hills and mountains, crossing tremendous canons, the 
weary, starving Texans pursued their march hour by hour and day by day. Now 
and then a herd of antelope would cross their track only to fall before their unerring 
rilles and replenish their depleted commissary stores : water was only to be had at 
long and wear\' intervals, and then in insufficient quantities and sometimes scarcelv 

On Friday, April 25, the wearv. di^pirited soldiers arrived at the valley of the 
Riri Grande at tiu- north of Sheep Canon, a poiiU about five miles below Alamosa 

Vol. II.— 45 


and forty mWcs below Fort Craig, after nine clays of incredible hardsliii^s and priva- 
tions and a journey of one hundred and fifty miles through a wilderness of mountain 
peaks and almost bottomless canons. 

This was a wonderful retreat in more than one respect. The patience and for- 
titude of the men ^^■erc as remarkable as the misfortunes which they had to encoun- 
ter. Had Canby followed up the retreat with the mounted men he had just received 
from Colorado, he must have succeeded in capturing the entire Confederate force, or, 
if he liad confronted the toil-worn Confederates when they turned in to seek the Rio 
Grande again below Fort Craig, he could have compelled an immediate and uncon- 
ditional surrender. The subordinate officers and the men among the Texans cannot 
be praised too highly for their courage, fidelity, patience, and fortitude, and every 
soldierly quality, except discipline. 

General Sibley having reunited the remnants of his little army along the Rio 
Grande about Fort Fillmore, in the latter days of April, 1862, began his prepara- 
tions to evacuate the Territory of New Mexico. By ihe first days of August the 
last of the Confederates had left New Mexico and Fort Bliss, Texas, and Sibley's 
brigade had reached San Antonio and been furloughed to rest, recruit, and re-equip 
themselves with clothing, blankets, and such supplies as they could obtain from 
their friends and relatives at home. 

The short furlough given to the members of the brigade after their return from 
New Mexico having expired, the several regiments were ordered to rendezvous in 
the vicinity of Hempstead on the 28th of October. This order was promptly 
obeyed, and the men returned to duty with renewed energy and refreslied patriot- 
ism. Most of them had been re-outfitted with arms and horses furnished by them- 
selves or their friends at home, but they were wholly v.ithouL tents or uniforms, and 
many of the necessary munitions of war were wholly lacking. 

The brigade was, however, reorganized and drilled daily in squad and com- 
pany, and weekly or oltener by regiments, and now and then was assembled in 
review. These occupations were continued during the months of November and 
December, 1862, at Camp Groce and in that neighborhood, where there was plenty 
of provisions and forage. 

On October 10, 1S62, Major-General John B. Magruder was assigned to the 
command of the District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, reliexing Brigadier- 
General Ilebert. Sibley's brigade was at that time in camp near Hempstead, pre- 
paring for their march to Louisiana, for^hich field of operations they had marching 
orders. General Hebert, deeming Galveston untenable, had evacuated it and with- 
drawn the main body of the Confederate troops which had occupied it to the main- 
land, still holding the bridge across the bay and a small earthwork at the island end 
of the bridge opposite Virginia Point. When General Magruder took command of 
the district he determined, if possible, to free every inch of Texas soil from the foot- 
steps of the invaders. For this purpose he caused two river steamboats, the liavou 
City and the Ncf>tuiH\ to be transformed into rams, and rudely armored by a pro- 
tection of their boilers and a' barricade of cotton-bales. The next step was to get 
these boats manned by soldiers to ser\ e as marines. A call was made for volunteers, 
snd liand-bills were posted all over the citv of Houston urging the people to enliit 
in this service. Captain Leon Smith, who had been a seaman or a naval officer. 


was to have command of the expedition on the vvntcr, while General Magruder in 
person commanded tlie forces co-operating from the land. Either the extreme 
hazard of the expedition or the fact that Leon Smith was a stranger deterred the 
citizens and many soldiers from volunteering to man the boats. In this extremity, 
at the suggestion of Lieutenant-Colonel Baghy, General Magruder sent for Colonel 
Tom Green. He unfolded to him the plan of attack, and asked him to take three 
hundred men from his brigade and embark on the boats under the command of 
Captain Leon Smith. This Colom 1 Cireen declined to do, insisting that his rank 
should be respected on the sea as well as on the land. It was finally concluded that 
the command of the flotilla should be intrusted to Colonel Green, with Captain Leon 
Smith as a sort of sailing-master. Green returned to his regiment and called for 
volunteers in the following famous order : — 

"Soldiers: You are called upon to volunteer in a dangerous expedition. I 
have never deceived you. I w ill not deceive you now. I regard this as the most 
desperate enterprise that men ever engaged in. I shall go, but I do not know that I 
shall ever return. I do not know that any who go with me will, and I want no man 
to volunteer who is not willing to die for his country, and to die now." 

Every inan in the Fifth and Seventh Regiments, to whom this order was 
addressed, volunteered in response to this call. The Fourth was some distance 
away and did not hear of the expedition in time. However, sixty of them volun- 
teered, but were ordered back to their regiment. Three hundred men were selected, 
half from each of the two regiments, the Fifth and Seventh, to serve as marines. 
Those from the Filth embarked on the Bajvn Cily, and the detachment from the 
Seventh on the Nephtnc. The Bayou City, the largest of the two boats, was the 
flag-ship, as it might be called, and was under the immediate command of Colonel 
Green. The Neptune, the fastest boat, was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bagby. Each boat had a tender to supply her with wood and other necessary 
materials. In addition to these hoise-niarines. Lieutenant Harby, with a company 
of infantry acting as artillery, was ordered on board the Neptune. On board the 
Bayou City were also Captain Weir's company of Cook's heavy artillery regiment, 
V. ho had volunteered and were ordered to this service from the Sabine, and Captain 
Martin's company of cavalry from New Iberia, Louisiana. The volunteer marines of 
the naval expedition were armed with Enfield rifles and double-barrelled shot-guns. 

General Magruder had in the land force Cook's regiment of heavy artillery, 
six companies of Pyron's regiment, portions of Elmore's regiment and Grififui's 
battalion, Reiley's regiment, and the remnants of Green's and Steele's regiments of 
the Sibley brigade. Tb.c Confederates also had twenty pieces of artillery, of which 
six were heavy siege-guns. The Federals had taken possession of the city of Gal- 
\eston on its evacuation, but with a very small force. On the 24th of December 
three companies, D, G, and I, of the Fortv-second Massachusetts arrived at Gal- 
veston in the steamer Saxon, and the next day landed on Kuhn's wharf, which 
they fortified. They patrolled the city during the day, but withdrew into the-ir 
fortifications at night. The Federal fleet, then lying in the waters of (Galveston, 
consisted of the Hariri Lane, carrying fciur hea\-y guns .and tuo twonty-four- 
pounder howitzers, commanded by Capt.iin Wainwright, United St Ues navy ; the 


Westfield, flag-ship of Commodore Renshaw, a large propeller, mounting eight 
heavy guns ; the Owasco, a similar ship to the West field, mounting eight heavy 
guns ; the Clifton and the Sachem, both steam propellers, having four heavy guns 
each ; two armed transports, two large barks, and an armed schooner, with tuo 
other schooners. 

Such was tile formidable array which the Confederates had to encounter in their 
heroic cflorts to recapture the Island City. The land forces moved off after dark. 
and arrived w iihin the city limits without opposition. Captain Fontaine was sent 
with his artillery company, sup]iorled by Colonel P\Ton, with six companies of his 
regiment, to secure Fort Point and make an attack from that quarter. Colonel 
Cook was placed in command of a storming parly of about fi\X' hundred men, de- 
tailed from Pyron's and Elmore's regiments and Griffin's battalion. These were 
provided with scaling-ladders with which to mount the Federal fortifications on 
Kuhn's wharf. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Mobly was posted at Virginia Point to protect the base 
line of operations, and the rest of the land forces were under command of Brig- 
adier-General Scurry, lately lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Te.xas Cavalry. 
General Magruder led the centre in person, and approaching within a short distance 
from the wh.irves discharged the first cannon, which was the signal for a general 
attack by land and sea. This was responded to by an almost simultaneous fire 
along the whole line of the Confederate land forces. Colonel Reiley, who 
joined the Sibley brigade at Bray's Bayou on the 31st of December, took command 
of it there. Lieutenant-Colonel McNeill was in command of the Fifth, and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hardeman of the Fourth. The Seventh was in command of Major 
Gustave Hoffman. This brigade, just as the first gun was fired by Magruder, 
marched into Galveston at double-quick from Eagle Grove, where they left the 
train which brought them from Houston. Lieutenant-Colonel McNeill was ordered 
to take some men from his regiment and man a nine-inch colunibiad that was half- 
way in position at the railroad depot. This duty he performed with credit. McNeill 
was a graduate of West Point and a fine officer in any branch of the serx'ice. The 
firing of the guns from the ships was a beautiful sight to see, — from a safe distance, 
— but the boniba fell thick and fast around the Confederates as they were marching 
in double-quick time to their several points of attack ; and, as it was impossible to 
charge these sea-batteries, their discharges were all the more unwelcome. Three 
shots pierced the custom-house and made it uncomfortable for those seeking shelter 
behind its walls. 

In the mean time the moon had gone down, but there was briglit starlight, 
showing the I'ederal ships plainly as they rode at anchor in the harbor. These 
from the first kejit uj) a very heavy discharge of shells, alternating with grape and 
canister. The Confederates stood by their guns and gave shot for shot. Colonel 
Cook with his storming part}', finding the scaling-ladders too short for use, after 
some hot work, withdrew to the shelter of tlic buildings on the nearest wharf. As 
the Federal fire from the ships, was very dangerous and deadly, and daylight came 
on to show the position of the Confederate artillery more exactly, General Magruder 
withdrew the cannon to places of greater security. This delicate duty was per- 
formed by Geiieral .Scurry with great skill and gallantry. The contest between the 


gunboats and the infantry on the Northern side and the attackinsr Confederates on 
the island, lasted about two hours and a half, and grew warmer every minute. 
Such was the condition in which dayligiit found the land forces under Magruder, 
when Green with his cotton-clad boats came dashing down to the rescue. 

The flotilla moved off from Hanisburg, in Buffalo Bayou, at two p.m. on the 
31st of December, 1862. Although the service was novel and known to be ex- 
tremely dangerous, such was the confidence of the Texaiis in their commander, 
Colonel GreC!i, that the expedition to some extent the appearance of a pleasure 
excursion, — at least until it entered Galveston Bay. At midnight the little fleet 
passed Half-Moon Shoals, and proceeded down the bay to within five miles of the 
city ; but the signal-gun being silent, the marines returned to the shoals and awaited 
the booming of Magruder'-s cannon. Tliis was heard with joyful hearts at half-past 
four New Year's morning, 1863, and immediately the flotilla was started for the 
city under a full head of steam. The scene as it appeared to Green and his men 
was magnificent. The artillery duel between land and sea in the clear starlight 
nude an illumination siijietior to an}- other class of fireworks, rivalling in splendor 
the aurora borealis. Then the sound of artillery was the sweetest of music to the 
ears of these veteran soldiers. Their hearts beat high with patriotic imjiatience, 
and they « ere eager to encounter the invaders of Texas soil. They had not long 
to wait. The Ncpliaie, being the fastest boat, was the first to engage the Federal 
fleet. Moving to the larboard she passed the Harriet Lane, and was struck amid- 
ships by ft round shot, and sunk at once to the bottom ; but the water was so shal- 
low that the riflemen on the upper deck were able to do serious execution picking 
off the gui-iiiers on the Harriet Lane, and this they did in martial style. The Bayoit 
O'/j' slowly but surely came into action, but in the advance her best piece of artillery 
was bursted, killing the brave and lamented Captain Weir. The Confederate ram 
kept on her course and ran her prow directly into the wheel-house of the Harriet 
Lane and stuck fast, disabling the Federal vessel and careening the Bayou City. 
Then, under orders from Colonel Green, the Texans grappled the Harriet Lane 
and boarded her, cutting away the netting as they went. Sergeant Carson, of 
Company A, of the Fifth Regiment, v.-as the first man on board, followed closely 
by Captain I.eon Smith and oihers. Colonel Green was soon on deck among his 
men, and the victory was complete. Captain Wainwright was killed and Lieutenant 
Lea of his ship met the same fate. The father of Lieutenant Lea was among the 
forces manning the Bayoji City. As soon as the Harriet Lnne was taken, the Forty- 
second Massachusetts surrendered to Colonel Cook, and the Federal vessels in the 
harbor hoisted the white flag. .A. truce was agreed on for three hours between the 
vessels in the harbor. This truce did not extend to the land forces ; though, with 
the surrender of the Massachusetts troops, the firing ccascil. 

In the mean time Commodore Renshaw, who was on board the Westfield, 
which in attempting to assist the Harriet Lane had run aground on Pelican Island, 
was unable to manceuvre his vessel, and the Clifton, which had come to her assist- 
ance, being unable to float her, he determined to blow her up. The Mary Boa rd- 
?nan also tried to help the W'extfield iM. but failed. At about ten A.M., while the 
truce ^\as still in force, Commodore Renshav. . having pourer] turpentine over the 
magazine, set fire to the IVestfield with his own hand. He then stepoed down 


into his boat, in wliich were his lieutenant, his engineer, and two oarsmen. The 
magazine of the Wcstfifld e.xploded prematurely, blowing her to pieces and de- 
stroying the boat and all on board of it, including the ill-fated commodore. Then 
the Federal fleet having secured a pilot, under command of Captain Law, went 
over the bar. In this ignominious flight, made in violation of the truce, were in- 
cluded the Ozc'cisco, the Clifton, and the Sachem, all gunboats, followed by tlie 
Saxon, the Boatdman, and two schooners. There were left in the hands of the 
Texans the Harriet Lane, two barks, and a schooner. The Te.xans thus captured 
one fine steamship, two barks, and one schooner, ran ashore and destroyed the 
flag-ship of the commodore, drove off two war steamers, all of the United States 
navy, and three armed transports, and took over three hundred prisoners. The 
number of guns captured was fifteen ; and a large quantit)' of stores, coal, and 
other material also was secured. The Neptune having been sunk in the beginning 
of the contest, her officers and crew, with the exception of those killed in batde, 
were saved, as were also her guns. The loss on the Confederate side was twenty- 
six killed and one hundred and seventeen wounded. The alacrity with which offi- 
cers and men, all of them totally unacquainted with this novel kind of service, some 
of whom had never seen a ship before, volunteered for an enterprise so extraordinary 
and apparently desperate in its character, and the bold and dashing manner in which 
the plan was executed, are certainly deser\-ing of the highest commendation. 

The l;ri-ar!e remained on Galveston Island for sixteen days, and then returned 
to Hempstead and Navasota ; and about the niiddle of February started on the 
march for Louisiana. 

General Richard Taylor having been assigned to the command of the District 
of Louisiana, in the fall of 1862, made vigorous and suc- 
cessful efforts towards putting Louisiana in a position 
of defence. The nature of the country, covered as it is 
^^/irj-.^ with rivers and bayous and indented with bays and 

^^,;:-^^^--^*^\ estuaries, rendered it peculiarly difficult to protect from 

the ravages of gunboats and the inroads of land forces 
shelterefl by these floating batteries. 
*• ■ T'~ F Early in February of 1S63 Green's brigade, just 

from the victorious encounter with the F~ederal fleet at 
' ' ;. Galveston, was ordered to reinforce General Ta)lor in 

^.-?' ', "\ Louisiana. The regiments set out separately and 

I ■- j marched by different routes, and finally arrived during 

[ I the second week in March at \arious camps in the 

\-icinity of Opelousas. Waller's battalion had been in 
Louisiana for several months, and, after the batde of Bis- 
landand the promotion of Green to the rank of briga- 
dier, was attached to Green's brigade. Waller may be said to have opened the 
Louisiana campaign by his successful attack on the Federal forces at Bayou Dcs 
Allemands, in the fall of 1862-. and the capture of two companies of infantry and 
their guns. His men were equipped afterwards with the captured arms, and used 
them to advantage in manv encounters with the Federal forces. 

On the 2SLh of March, 1S63, General WeiLzel sent the gunboat Diana up the 


Bayou TC-che, from Berwick's Bay, supported by a land force, and attacked the Con- 
federate outposts. The Federal skirmishers were repulsed, and Captain Joseph D. 
Sayers with a section of the X'alvcrde Battery advanced rapidly, and opened lire from 
the banks of the bayou on the gunboat and silenced her artillery in short order. The 
Diana surrendered with two companies of infantry on hoard. Her thirty-two-pound 
Parroit and two field -guns pro\-ed a valuable reinforcement to the Confederate ar- 
tillery. The Diana, though protected by railroarl iron and thoroughly armed and 
equipped, was not equal to the valor displayed by Captain Sayers and his light artil- 
lery, liarl)- in April, 1803, the Federal forces were massed at Berwick's Bay six- 
teen thousand strong. They were commanded by Generals Weitzel, Emory, and 
Grover. On the i2tli the Federals, twehe thousand strong, marched against Bb- 
land, where the Confederates had up slight earthworks. Another Federal 
force, four thousand in numbei, under command of General Grover, entered Grand 
Lake, endeavoring to turn Taylor's left flank and cut oft his retreat at Yokeley's 
Bridge abo\e Franklin. The main body of the Federals under Weitzel arrived in 
front of the earthworks at Bisland in the afternoon, and threw out skirmishers and 
opened on the Confederate lines with artillery. Taylor had the Confederate forces 
arranged as follows : Mouton's division, numbering six hundred men with si.x pieces 
of artiller)', occupied the left, and held the ground from the lake to Bayou Teche. 
The gunboat Diana, under command of Captain Semmes, occupied the bayou, and 
was supported by two twenty-four-pound cannon on the right bank of the stream. 
Si.xteen hundred men and twelve pieces of artillery held the ground between the 
Teche and the incomplete railroad embankment. Green's two regiments — Fifth 
and Sevenths-occupied the extreme right, being dismounted and fighting on foot. 
Colonel Reiley with his regiment, the Fourth, and the Second Louisiana Cavalry, 
with a section of artillery, were at Hu^chin's Point, on Grand Lake, awaiting the 
approach of Grover in his attempt to make the flank movement. With nightfall 
on the 1 2th the firing on both sides ceased, and the two armies bivouacked on the 
field. On the morning of the 13th Weitzel began his forward movement very 
leisurely, awaiting the success of Grover's flanking expedition. As the day ad- 
vanced the Federal firing grew heavier, and his twcnty-four-pound PaiTOtt guns 
made ihf-ir presence felt. The Confederates were short of amnnmilion for their 
artillery, and Major Brent thought it best to reser\e the supi)ly for emergencies. 
On the extreme right the Federal artillery fire was severely felt by Green's brigade, 
but his veterans stood their ground w ithout flinching, though they suffered consider- 
ably in killed and wounded. Among the latter was Ca[)tain Joseph D. Sayers, of 
the Valverde Battery, who here received wounds which kept him on crutches (but 
not out of service) until after the war. The Diana, being subjected to a heavy 
fire from the Federal Parrotts, was disabled, and it was necessary to withdraw it 
from the action for repairs, causing a loss to the Confederates of their best gun. 
The Federals some time during the afternoon formed as if going to make a general 
assault on the Confi derates, who awaited the attack with eagerness, but for some 
reason it was not made. Night again brought quiet, and both armies slept on their 
arms. .At nine o'clock at night Colonel Reiley rc{)orted to Genera! Taylor that 
Grover had latided at Hutchin's Point with his inf;uUry and artillery. Of course 
an immediate retreat was necessary, fur should (.irover reach and hold Yokeley's 


Bridge, near New Iberia, Taylor's army would be caught in a trap. Mouton 
silently withdrew from his position with his trains and his artillery, followed by his 
infantry. Scnimes brought the Diana during the night softly past Franklin in 
time to participate in the contlict with Grover, but was compelled after the engage- 
ment to blou- up his boat, ha\ ing saved his crew, but, being the last to leave, was 
hinijiclf captured. Green with his two regiments composed the rear-guard, and 
opposed the advance of the Federals with such vigor as to save the trains and gi\e 
the infantry and artillery time to pass Yokeley's Bridge. However, the Confeder- 
ates were compelled lo abandon the two twenty-four pounders and one piece from 
Cornay's battery, which had been disabled in the action. Everything else was 
brought oft. 

Grover in his advance from Hulchin's Point had stopped half a mile short of 
the road and the bridge, and Reiley witli his own regiment and Vincent's and a 
section of artillery, aided by Clack's battalion, attacked him just at daylight, 
charging his lines and taking his men comjjletely by surprise. But as the day 
broadened the weakness of the Confederates was exposed, and they were compelled 
to retire to the timber near the road. This mo\enient was effected without dis- 
order, though the gallant Colonel Reiley was killed and Vincent wounded and 
other losses were incuned. But the ad\ance of the Federals was arrested. Mouton 
with his infantrj- came to the rescue, and Green held Weitzel well in check. 
The last wagon and foot-soldier jiassed "S'okeley's Bridge ; Green retired sullenly, 
firing on the Federal advance, and, passing the bridge, Taylor's army was saved. 

Though Taylor was defeated at Bisland, his escape under the circumstances 
had all the moral eflect of a \'ictory. His resistance encouraged the people and 
impressed the enemy with re.spect. He retreated slowly by way of New Iberia and 
VermilionviUe to Opelousas. Green had the post of honor, the rear-guard, 
throughout the retreat. He made a prolonged stand at Bayou Vermilion until 
night and destroyed the bridge. Taylor retired by easy marches to Red River 
above Alexandria, and Weitzel, after raiding Alexandria, turned to the east, crossed 
the Mississippi, and invested Port Fludson. Mouton with his and Green's brigade 
turned west towards the Sabine and recruited their wasted energies. 

During the Teche campaign there were about one hundred men belonging to 
the Fifth that were on detached service. In the latter part of March, 1863, at a 
camp near Ale.\andria one night a call was made for "volunteers to go on a secret 
and dangerous service," and, as usual, there was a rush to get on the detail. It 
was intended that the detachment was to go on board the U'cl>b, which was being 
fitted up as a gunboat by being barricaded with cotton-bales. The detachment was 
placed in command of Major Shannon and marched to Marksville, near Fort De 
Russy, and there camped until the early days of May, when it rejoined the regiment, 
not having seen an enemy or fired a gun. Great was the disgust of these volunteers 
not to have participated in the battle of Bisland and the masterly retrei'.t for which 
Colonel Tom Green was made a brigadier-general. 

During this campaign the- Confetlerates lost in killed, wounded, and captured 
about tweh'e himdred and fftv nien ; many of the latter were stragglers from the 
Loui.~!.in.i tmops. who fell out on the retreat to visit their homes and tarried too 
long witli theii friends. The Federal loss w;is great, but the number is unknown. 


After Weitzcl had crossed the Mississippi, Green returned from Niblett's Bluff 
on the Sabine, and with his brigade scouted over the Teche country during the 
months of April and May, 1863 ; but Federal soldiers were scarce west of the 
Atchafalaya, and the Confederates were not strong enough to cross that bayou. 

Early in the month of June, 1863, General Tom Green, under the orders of 
General MouCon, iao\ed with his brigade to the lower Teche country for the pur- 
pose of reconnoitring the Federal position at Brashear Citv, and to collect and fit 
up a small fleet of light boats prejiaratoiy to an attack on that important stronghold. 

On the night of the 22d of that month Green moved to Cochran's sugar-house, 
two miles from Berwick's Bay, with the Fifth Texas Cavalry, Second Louisiana 
Cavalry, Waller's battalion, the Valverde Battery, and a section of Nichols's 
battery. Here, leaving their horses, the dismounted men were thrown forward 
before daylight to the village called Berwick City, opposite; Brashear City, where 
the Federals were encamped about two thousand strong. In the mean time Major 
Sherrod Hunter, of Baylor's regiment, on the evening of the 22d, had taken three 
hundred and twenty-five picked men from the Fifth Te.xas Cavalry, Waller's bat- 
talion, Rountree's battalion, Second Louisiana Cavalry, and Baylor's regiment, and 
embarked in small boats and sugar-coolers, numbering altogether forty-eight, at the 
mouth of Bayou Teche, in order to attack Fort Buchanan in the rear. He pro- 
ceeded up the Atchafalaya into Grand Lake and, halting, muffled all the oars, and 
again set out silently for the point of destination. After a stcad> pull of eight 
hours the little mosquito fleet landed in the rear of Brashear City. Here they found 
the shore ver>- swampy, and had to wade ashore and abandon their boats, such as 
they were, in the deep water, thus cutting off all means of retreat. Being here 
delayed by the difificulty of finding the road, it was not until after sunrise that, 
crossing a pplmetto swamp in single file, they reached the open ground in full \iew 
of Brashear City, some eight hundred yards distant. 

At dawn of day. Green, finding the Federals in quiet slumber, waked them up 
by a cannonade from the Valverde Battery. The first shot exploded in the centre 
of their camp, at a distance of nine hundred yards, causing the greatest confusion 
and panic. The Confederates fired forty or fifty shots into the Federal camp before 
they made any reply at all. Their fust shot was from the gunboat lying at anchor 
in the bay not far below Berwick City. After daylight the Federal gunboat 
advanced towards the position of the Confederates, hut a few well-directed shots 
from the Valverde Battery drove her off to a position about a mile below, where 
she opened on her assailants with her heavy guns. About the same time several 
batteries from the eastern shore of the bay opened on Green's men. The well- 
directed shots from the Federal cann<;n caused the Confederate arlillcry se\eral 
times to shift their position. A heavy gun from the fort above the city, with the 
garrison of that fort, was brought down opposite Green's position, and opened a 
hea\y fire on his brigade. This, together with the retreat of the gunboat, left the 
way open for Major Hunter and his forlorn hope to make their unexjiected attack. 

Having rested his men in the edge of the swamp until Green had engaged the 
Federals on the west side of the bay and attracted all their attention, Major Hunter 
now approached to within about four hundr'-d yprds of Fort Buchanan and drew up 
his men in line of b;ittle. Dividin'.; his lurces into two columns, he chargetl the 


Federal forts and the camps above and below the railroad depot at the same time ; 
concentrating on the railroad building, where the main body of the {-"cderals were 
posted under cover. Hunter's men advanced rapidly under a heavy fire from all 
parts of the Federal lines. After a severe hut brief conflict the Federals sur- 
rendered at about half-past seven o'clock in the morning. The surprise was com- 
plete ai'.d the \iclory overwhelming. 

The Federal loss was forty-si.\' killed, forty wounded, and seventeen hundred 
prisoners. The Confederates lost three killed and eighteen wounded. 

The Confederates captured tlu: camp and all the ecjuipage, stores, and muni- 
tions, valued at more than a million dollars. Among the spoils were tweh-e twenty- 
four- and thirty-two-pound siege-guns and two thousand five hundied stands of 
small-arms, about two hundred wagons and three hundred tents, and two thousand 

The camp was given up to pillage. This was about the only time that this 
brigade ever looted a town or a camp. Rut few of tlio men could carry away their 
plunder, for Green ordered a pursuit, and they i't once set out on their march for 
Bayou Bixuf. 

During the evening of the same day Green came up with the Federals at 
Ramos, and there had quite an animated skirmish with them. The Federals had 
burned the railroad bridge and the wagon bridge and \\-ere v>ell fortified on the east 
bank of the bayou ; hut finding that they were outflanked by Green with a part of 
his command on the east side of the Bceuf, they hastily retreated. On the night of 
the 23d Green crossed a small detachment over the Ramos and approached quite 
near to the Federal position on the Ba;uf. 

Colonel Major's command having approached the rear of their position, the 
Federals surrendered abuut four hundred men on the morning of the 24th of June. 
Thus ended this three days' campaign with a second victory for Gieen and his 

On th.e 26th of June, 1S63, General Mouton issued an order from his hcad- 
quarteis at Thibodeaux, commanding Genera! Green with his cavalry division to 
take possession of the Federal fort at Donaldsonville. He took up the line of march 
about eiglit o'clock that night with Hardeman's, McNeill's, and Herbert's regi- 
ments of his own brigade, and Lane's, Stone's, and Phillips's regiments of Major's 
brigade, and Semmes's battery. After marching the entire night the troops en- 
camped within nine miles of Fort Butler about sunrise on the 27th, Saturday. 

Here Green rested his troops and their horses, and proceeded to collect all the 
information possible relative to the situation and strength of the defences at Donald- 
sonville. He learned that the fort was garrisoned by about four or fi\'e hundred 
Federal troops, and that there were five gunboats lying in the ri\er opposite. 
He also learned that the approach to the fort was through an open plain nine hun- 
dred yards wide, and that there was a ditch around the fort, on all sides but that 
ne.xt the river, sixteen feet wide and twelve feet deep ; making it impossible to scale 
the works except by the use of strong planks or scaling-ladders. From his camp 
at the ford and Davenport Plantation he wrote General Mouton, giving him this 
information, and expressing the opir.ion that an attempt to storm the fcjrt would be 
attended with great loss of lite and no adequate benefit, even if successful. He 


further suggested that the object of the expedition being to annoy and capture, if 
possible, the Federal transports in the river, it could be better and more safely 
accom])lished by taking a position below the town of Donaldson\ille. He added 
that until he arrived at that point he had no idea of the position, strength, or feasi- 
bility of takinc' the fort, or the value of it when taken. He then detailed the prepa- 
rations he was making for the attack, and strongly urged General Mouton to come 
down and take command ; adding again that he thought the fort could be rendered 
nugatory by taking a position below it, thus coni[ie]ling the garrison to come out and 
fight in the open field. To this letter General Mouion replied, approving the views 
of General Green as to turning the fort ; but the letter was not received by Green 
until after the assault had be