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Full text of "Computer Age Magazine Issue 12"

ISSN 0144-3671 






ComputerA ge 



NOVEMBER 1980 




•Technology 
and society 

• Pascal -Z 
•Word 
processing v* 



The computer with growth potential 




Nol only is it ideal for the firs! 
computer user. Bui perhaps mor 
important, II can be expanded inl 
comprehensive business facility 
many varied company requi 

Single-user system 



a megabyte of floppy t 
under £4,000/ 

Perhaps your Initial 
Cromemco was its fie: 
management syster 






Multi-user system 

Fortunately, we can readily exp; 




entry, using the full screen idiloW^ 
simultaneously. 

Up to 72 megabytes 



megabytes 

Rely on MicroCentre 

Remember — al MicroCentre we fully 

isystems i rial's why 
UK distributors 
So trust your inilial Cromemco Inv 
to MicroCentre. And call us any lir 



*Price excludes Vi 



lively. Terminals and prin 



ccording lo Your company's future growth may depend 



For fj Cromemco... call the experts 

Tel. 031-556 7354 

Micro Centre 

Complete Micro Systems Ltd.. 30 Dundas Street, Edinburgh EH3 6JN 



Ggeveke 
electronics 

New MODEL 630 

LETTER QUALITY PRINTING AT REALISTIC PRICES 




BOB B I B 



•Interchangeable Metal/Plastic Print Wheels 
•Automatic Bi-directional Printing • Word Processing Options 
•Diablo Quality and Reliability "Paper Handling Accessories 

FOR INNOVATIVE DISTRIBUTION TO OEMs 
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ComputerA ge 



.£3". r 




Editorial 



Supersalesman 









IbImT C«&^ Contents °""""^ 

^____^H Vi)^ issue 12 


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REGINALD W. REVANS 


4 


A scathing indictment of the Complacent Society. 




. . . BUT VERY ABLE STEVE SHIRLEY 


10 






MICRO VOICES JOHN SANDEH5 


19 






. . . AND POLES APART BRIAN REFFIN SMITH 


19 






AND WHO WILL DRINK AT 




THE CREDITORS' WAKE? MARTIN BANKS 


21 


LETTER FROM AMERICA PETER KRASS 


23 


How a Beautiful machine was placed in the wrong market. 




ATTRACTING INVESTMENT CA SPECIAL 


25 






SUMS M R.G. MORGAN 


27 


SLAVES WITH SOME DECREES OF FREEDOM BOB COOKE 

PASCAL -* MARTIN BEER 


31 


35 


IVERSON'S LANGUAGE ALAN PEARMAN 


39 


The concluding article of the APL series. 




ASSEMBLER GIL FILBEY 

BRAND NEWS MICROSPY and ANTHONY ESGATE 


42 


45 


A special edition that includes a preview ol Ihe Which Computer? Show. 




ADDRESS BUS 

WRITING AN ASSEMBLER M. KING 

DATA BASE PRINCIPLES & TECHNIQUES CLYDE HOLSAPPLE 


55 


58 


61 


APPLICATIONS OF TESTROLOGIC FRANK GEORGE 
CHECKING ERROR RATES WILLIAM COLLINS 
ROBOTS AND THE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE B.I.M. 


54 


69 


71 






HANDLING DATA DARREL INCE 


73 






DESIGNED TO DEVELOP BORIS SEDACCA 

THE FUTURE OF LAW AND LAWYERS FRANK A. SHARMAN 

Will data Bases Bring easiet access lo justice? 
THE PREMIUM ON PROGRESS SUSAN CURRAN 

THE EXTRA PAIR OF HANDS PAUL HUDSON 


77 


S3 


68 


92 



Technology And Society 



Reginald W. Revans 




Questions 

& 
Answers 



old be cleaned 






a V thai the decline of Bri- for the cottage floor and it 

■v .111 eduction.. I imb.il- to r rudu,,. loLyuvo ,in,l . 



Buy a microcomputer for under £i,< 
and you could be on your own! 
Unless it's a Commodore PET. ( 



^^N 



QtTI.eCoinmO.Jore PET 



fr- ..» 



(]r commodore 



The Series 800 micro-computer is 
designed, developed and 
manufactured for ACT by 
Compu/Think in California - 
the heartland of silicon chip 
technology. It offers a range 
of features and facilities 
previously available only 
on mini-computer 
systems costing many 
times more. 




J 



ACT Series 800 Ct 

Low cost high technology 




" lll^h ,|V'I MliLT..;.i:i.'. -- 


ir-0 


rerrw 


ice Hie processing 


microcomputers 








' " .::..■ V' i.i. :■ .■■■■ ■■ ,■ 








* High resolution graphics 


fore 


JUCM 


■ml/scientific ancle. 


' ^|jll[ :i]'.-. ■■.'.■.]]! Lfl^ T;!- 


sir* 


rmac, 


o on one pan o( th 


' Ultra-lasl data transfer 








■ Full size screen - 64 character 


wide 


30 lines, giving th 


-IBM type keyboard 









HB COMPUTERS 



Posing the propel 

The foundation a! 



ing Ihes 



.■r'lhi? 



was framed and useful answers found to 
it, there are those ready to dismiss it as 

those who put its counterpart in later 
ages have needed to be persons of high 

intelligence and imn character. Trying to 
break through the concrete of established 
human practice and lo do something in'ie 
with the resources at one's disposal is 
among the most unrewarding of all hu- 

Britain, it is not Retting any easier. 

I he reason is so simple that must of Lis 

and-such a practice has acquired a repu- 
" "s very hard ' 



.epub 



cfhflt 



i;oing from the primitive fir 

■ siu-plus-devrlupmi; ,ccoti. 

salislactorilv posing and a 



Radical and marginal 

Until about 1940 the 



ingenuity had been brought to 
lore economically the question: 
make faster propellers and more 
wings?" and any aeronautical 



But then a fresh question altogether 
was posed: "May it not he possible to 
achieve whatever il is we are after in our 
conquest of the air by fiirv.'/iirn,' about 
propellers - perhaps even about wings as 



rtr.it't developed by marginal 
nts upon the original luch- 
after 1940, it has grown by 



Essay 



introduced in the i 



; "Over and above 



c I'm.) i- 



S Of Y 



'. But the 



it was not the answer to the old questions 
"How to make belter propellers" How tc 
build better wings?" that was being mors 
and more relentlessly pursued. It was ir 
the posing ol fresh questions altogether 
"Can we free ourselves from propeller; 
and wings?" "If so, how do we do it?' 
In theory, this is no advance on Abelanc 
Cain: "What use can we find for all Ihi; 
surplus meat and vegetables?" 

The history of Europe tells us that in- 
novators have a rough time. Christophci 




o/it; 



" Etc, e 



The benefits ol stupidity 



pid idiol ii"r think ol it. in which c.isl 
mosl stupid idiot has an ,id\ .image . 
the expert. This may tie deplorable. 









ideas and the laws I 
down to us by our forefathers - particu- 
larly if those ideas were brilliant and con- 
structive when they were first thought of; 
or when, as if by divine revelation, they 
sudd e til v broke through the baffling 
" ition, Our mythology 



ivith e 



mples. 



spider; New- 
ton and the apple; Watt and the kettle, 
Keynes and the hole in the ground; 
Thatcher and the banknote. All of these, 
just like the aircraft in 1940, are supposed 
to mark a turning point; the old remedies 
are seen no longer to work, and there is 
no future in streamlining or fine-tuning 
the traditional model. Something MrircirJ 
as distinct from more of the ingeniously 
marginal has to be done, perhaps ur- 
gently. . . . But how are they going to 
take it who live simplv bv (he traditional 1 
. . . Not even by trying to make il mar- 
ginally better? The fate of Christopher 
Columbus will tell us, and he was not 

It s 



I the 



rofesi 



was brought horn. 
poverty; he was tormented by detractors 
and was able to silence those who said 
he had made no discoveries solely by 
producing three Red Indians, the like of 
which had never been seen before, from 
behind a screen at a Roval reception. 
When he was Ihcu disparaged with the 
comment: "So what? Any fool can get 

stopped by the land. . . . What's the fuss 
about?", he invited his detractors to 
stand an egg on end; after trying for an 
hour around the Roval table they were 
unanimous that it could nol lie done. Col- 
umbus took the same egg, gave it a sharp 
tap to flatten the end, and stood it up. 

Exactly, precisely, absolutely like any 
bunch of experts in Britain lodav sudden- 
ly confronted with the limitations of their 
own vision - especially of their own ex- 

Ert or professional vision - the company . 
out a great roar: "Well, naturally, o'f 
course! It's obvious. All you need to do 

the cud so that it will stand on end. IVhal 
is so clever about that? Don'l vou think 
lhat even the most stupid idiot can think 



status quo and the greater the risk ol i 
troducing anvllune new 1 ; every accou 
tant knows that there are intelligent mi 
who attribute Britain's decline to the w. 

claiming to be an intelligent man ai 

sioii base yet given a satisfactory reply 

fueed . . . even if deliberately. 

iv purpose in this ess 



the 



o get a. 






ques 






:onomically or socially necps»?n 
ion one's time ought lo be Ir in 
- seeking to pose fresh question! 



urld seems 
to "have its problems, but I am iu.i all that 
sure what they are. How ought 1, steeped 
in ignorance, risk and confusion as much 
as anybody else 1 know, to spot what are 
the important questions to ask about to- 
morrow - as well as to keep up with the 
demands of mv profession be passing I In 1 
next series of certificated examinations?" 

The terror of the expert 



,; Christopher Columbus 
i his detractors but there 
nisations of experts, with 
assessors and moderators 



rank, from companion lo fellow lo as- 
sociate to ordinary to student, as well as 
press officers, social stewards, honorary 
treasurers, organisers of ladies' events, 
and others iar too miscellaneous to clas- 
sify, to make his innovatory approach .ill 
lhat difficult. 

He would have had a rough time facing 
the Royal Geographical Society had he 
come back from Watling Island for the 
first time this week; in addition to the 
sarcasm and disparagement of those who 
had not thought of the expedition them- 
selves, he would be up against all the 
experts demonstrating it impossible: like 
those who had proved from first princi- 
ples lhat human flight was impossible: 
and lhat all who tried it, from Icarus on- 
wards, were wasting their time and risk- 
ing their lives ; until somebody last year 
cycled by air across the English Channel. 

What is a breakthrough? 



orating his abode with a few forced itself 
upon his attention, so the director of the 
London art gallery, finding a lot of bricks 
over from the extension of his premises, 
decided to put some of them on show in 
geiimelric.il arrays suggesting the shape 
of the bricks themselves. 

But such inspiration is rare, simply be- 
cause o/ the weight of our tradition; the 
interest of the professions in keeping 
things exactly as they are means that few 
-boggling geniuses get the chance off- 
ered to the art gallery man. Thus it is that 
the lapanese, unhindered by any inti- 
mate knowledge of what So-and-So said 
yesterday or of what the Such-and Such 
Society resolved in 1930, are able to 
choose from our failure and stagnation 
what is probably worth haying a go at, 
and then of giving it a fair trial. Our 
greatest need is to encourage those in 
charge of our wealth-creating Industrie- 



but not fully aware that his very system 




of classification is more than something 




merely alpha-numerical, but is .1 power- 




ful determinant of the use to which the 








child from straying off the classifications! 




path-, laid down bv the parent. 




Thirdly, there is the idolisation of the 




past as such, whereby one particular 




patriarch may have references in the 




books (files, databanks, museums, librar- 




ies! far in excess of what, judged bv oth- 




ers, he or she deserves; bringing the 


encyclopaedia up to date is a terrifying 




business, like trying lo clear the duller 




out of Westminster Abbey - for, the more 




obscure the commemorated the greater 




the hullabaloo in trying to transfer his 








appropriate. 




Fourthly, [here is Ihe sedimentary role 





caught ol 
- ■ influc 



le of the 



Our examples so far - Ihe weaving of the 


hi iurge-1 an auoui masmg marg 
prove men is to existing methods 


surplus wool into Ihe ornamental tap- 


estry, the mission across the Atlantic, the 




let aircraft and Ihe cvcling aviator - may 


all be classified as break throughs. And 




once they have been classified thev may- 
be jus! as readily dismissed. "Only a 


Databanks as mausoleums 


break Ihrough; nothing more. High time 


But the central question for tho 


we had it, too. Been expecting it for 




years. Sole surprise is that we had to wait 


try, the data-processing profes 


so long." Bui there is now no question 


whatever else it might wish to 



history, filling the bowels of Cleo with a 
diet of lead; one emendation must spark 
off still others, and, before one knows 
what is happening, Ibe whole labyrinth 
of reference is alive with the cockroaches 
of dmibt. , . . Thus it may be that the 
knowledge workers are not, as is so gen- 
erally supposed. 



n Ihe age- 



d the 




change, bosti 
world around 



e shou 



a leaf out i 
our own book and, instead of self-sati 

fiedly congratulating ourselves upon tr 
answer (outcome! offered bv Ihe info 
mation revolution - thai over half I 
those employed are now 'knowledg 
workers' and thaf 






e shou 



.!.|l.,„( 



i. 'When 



.11 Ik- 



more important lo this country than lo 
understand the nature of the break- 
through, unless it is to be able lo take the 
next step and to bring a few of them 
about. Our productivity is slagnating for 
the simple reason that 'we have, as a na- 
tion, rested so long upon our oars; we 
have been fixated so long and so intently 
upon Ihe achievements of our tremen- 
dous past lhat we have lost Ihe ability to 
look at ourselves in the prescnl and to 
ask what questions we ought to be think- 

11 would be wrong to suggest lhat. giv 
en the need to do so, we are incapable o 
thinking of something novel; just as 
when Abel had more fleeces than hi 
knew what to do with the idea of dec 



e gumg I. 



nthis 



meets Ihe eye Firstly, there is Ihe role of 
the archivist, the keeper of the records, 
the guardian of the tradition, the librarian 
watching over the dead and over the 

past, valuing what he has got not only as 
a scholar but as an antique dealer, know- 
ing that whal is in his files may have 

uniqueness. 

Secondly, there i- the role of Ihe tav- 
onomisf, the student of classification, the 
filing officer proud lo be able to retrieve 
anv piece of information (data) called for 
by the administration within 20 minutes, 
or 2(1 micro-seconds, as (he need may he; 



ing applied? 

provcmenls in the human condition is it 
all directed? When there are twice 13 

farmworkers, coalminers, nurses and 

ro.ld sweepers, how is Iheir product, 
more knowledge, lo be applied? To make 
the work of the humble labourer more 
effective?" ... We would hope so , . . 
But what, in fact, is happening' Produc- 
tivity is falling, goods are becoming 
scarce and thus expensive; apples have 
disappeared; and on children's feet, 
shoes fall to bits at the end of a week, 
employers complain that their recruits 
from school cannol add up and cannot 

There is no evidence, then, lhat the 

knowledge industry does much to help 
wealth creation. Ihe explanation must he 

useful production, il is inflating Ihe ranks 
of bureaucracy: more civil servants, more 
local government officers, more organis- 

terceplors and controllers, more officials 



more, of Ihe overheads thai are not only 
a charge adding to the costs of wealth 
creation, but also of those who manipu- 
late the levers of power when, at a time 
of retrenchment and economy, it has to 
be asked "Who is to suffer the cuts 1 

heads themselves who cheerfully, like 

of self-sacrifice? Will they not rather be 
meeting, in expensive hotels by the sea- 
side, to discuss Ihe safeguards of their 



I- lor Ihe 






try is no! to be turned solely to the ad- 
vantage of those who enter it? 

The nemesis ol early brilliance 



1 MdlL.il M 



vanting to handle one wi 



dbyll 



ourselves into believing that more and 
more expert teaching, whether on com- 
puters, silicon chips or industrial leader- 
ship, is going to supply us with 
them. . , . But this should not disturb us 



.. be.:oni. 



mat they are using it, ir 
io master. There is no particular reason 
to think that those at present building 
such marvels as the fi-ffi generation ma- 
chines are going to know quite what to 
do with them. It would be interesting to 
hear them debating among themselves 
why :t i^ tli.it Ihe two g.-trat pioneers of 
the knowledge revolution. Britain .in.: 

u'n-' i-l mcnstru! productivity 'A 



would b 
the specific i 



i then 



!i,HiH-ys. 

ven if il ii. 
>nde to be 






Yonder 






we insist upon asking are now quite use- 
less (however much we may regret it, 
bearing in mind our devotion to the past), 
then all we need to do is simple. We lake 
a handful of person- who genuinely want 
hi know whdl fn-h qui—lioi-- they ought 
io be asking themselves (be;.iuse they 
deep trouble if 



!.!«■■: 



»). ■ 



t then 



n in the verv conditions of ignoranc 
ar.d confusion which [hey need to 
out. As soon as they have had long 
igh to draw 'he hr>i irr-.vrfecl map 
rrr matnlilv to do anything -even to 



from the first industrial revolution to 
show how fixed may become our funda- 
mental percep ti on of the world and vei 

him ingenious our constant adaptation 
rtrurarf it. All the major processes of ihe 
cotton trade - now virtually extinct in inc 

country of its birth - sprang into existence 
wilhin a few short years of each other, 



'before one knows what is 
happening, the whole 
labyrinth of reference is 

alive with the 
cockroaches of doubt 



The critical question and how (o pose it 

■There is, and can be, no general answer 
Io this question, because there is, and can 
be, no general theory of search, if one 
does nol know what one is looking for, 
there can be no general guidance aboul 
finding ii. And it is no good merely say- 
ing thai one is looking for something 

delail what are Ihe criteria of suitability. 
Indeed, the experts are always in dan- 
ger of seeking for the more suilable in 



Each 



:- 



it then 



i stopping the m 
eessary Insight, each helps the 
an apprentice David, to und 
iw ihe imaginations ol all rend 

iwn the familiar grooves of Ir 
eless past; the sel learn wilh an 



ofheii 






e theii 



This is not the place to go ii 
Ihis approach, now known as 
lire (although nol to David o 
of Samuel).' For all thai, il wil 
thing, if every expert - even I 



.. suggest that 
.ion ot nper.i 
ht.',;lv h.'lpc! 
and its allies, 

uch less than 

?d by the tre- 



uli.ilh .lble Ii' i.i mv ,i he.v.iei spe.ir. 
.nee Ihev kne^ c.i'lull'. ue.s I.H-cording 
i Parkhursl} about 9'fj" tail, anv fellow 
lunirvman of 10' or over would have 



,:ong ..: 



r in the . 



top of their prof 


ssion 


s, is lobe found an 


intelligent persi 






new questions v 




haring with others 


his ignorance 












of his colleague 




possibly, rekindle 


a desire to think 







> trying to answer what 
is by now the wrong question. Faced with 
ignorance, risk and confusion Ihe need is 
to pose a fresh question; this is not 
"Where do we find our 10' man?" but 
"Given that there is no such a man, how 
do we get rid of Goliath?" The answer is 
well known; it demanded the vision of 
the non-expert David to see, firstly, thai 



Applications 



The Disabled 



Steve Shirley 



. . . BUT VERY ABLE 




One of the hallmarks of a profes: 
side the immediate needs of its 
current members, to wider issues. The 
BCS (British Computer Society) has al- 
ways done a great deal ior students. 
Since 1975, it has also had a very active 
Committee ior the Disabled. This has 
groups centred on Manchester and 
London; with other subgroups develop- 
ing. The aims are dual: to further the 
application of computing techniques to 
meet the needs of the disabled; and to 
utilise (he skills of the disabled within the 
industry. 



omplnver is paid t3t> a 
Registered disabled person 
nvment. Tin- (rial period. 
eks was then extended In 
'\en that can be unrealinti 



ended 



The Microcomputer 

is improved, and particularly as infant 
ortality has dropped, more and more 
.■i.iple ^rviiT. and live longci. uho 
ive severe physical disabilities I dislin- 
jish between phv^iea] ,ii-..i bill tie-, men 
1 illness and mental handicaps Those 
ho are doubly disadvati lacked tend to be 
pe-L-asl by their physical disabilities. 



itioned on the l.lp. and builds them illli 
sentences which appear on an ordinal 
TV screen which is linked to the unit b' 
the aerial socket. The connection betweei 
the wordhuard and the processor bo» i 
an invisible inlra-red link; this dispense 
with loose, trailing wires. 

Letters on the wurdboard make it poss 



y disa 



people i 



through us- 
ing the aids available and a stubborn per- 
sonality plus some helping hands. 

Everyone sunn accumulates a home full 
ol gadgetry. each item being used to 
solve a particular prohlem. It is being able 

to solve many pmWi'ws with era- box that 
makes microcomputers such a valuable 
aid. 

There are two ways of using microcom- 
puter technology for the disabled. Avail- 
able microcomputer based equipment can 
be adapted to soil a particular disability: 

alternatively, purpose-built systems can 
be produced. Each approach lias a differ- 
ent application and market. Neither ap- 

so it is still often difficult for the quality 



■ to be ir 



roved fi 



The blind telephonist is nowadays al- 
most a stereotype. Similarly, the technol- 
ogy exists to allow a suitably (mined 
receplionisl !•■ be l.'lalh deal and wl do 
the job perl eel] v ucll. Microcomputer 



signal-, '.he , 



any w 



t the 



duced by the Queen's Atv.ird-Wmniiig 
firm, Medelec, in Old Woking, Surrey. 

National Health. Dr. Hamilton, the in- 
ventor, has said. 'Since wheelchairs are 
provided on the NHS, the right to talk 
should be as fundamental as the right to 



See no Evil 

The Optacon, the Optical Tactile Con- 
Incorporated HSU. by-passes braille and 
can be used to 'read' printed ten( includ- 

papei or YOU. With an estra adaptive 



and c 



1 typist 



The Right lo Talk 

Combining the words 'speech and 
'link', Splink is the name of a new elec- 
tronic system designed to bridge the 
communication gap between the Speech- 
handicapped, the deal or those mi fie ring 
from both disabilities, and their families 
and friends. 

Activated be a microprocessor, it con- 
sists of a small wordboard alphabeticallv 
printed with 950 of the most commonly 



and is fully portable; a few have beet 
funded by the Department of Employ 

Catch 22 



The employer r 
me seeing rhrtmg 
ositive skills the a 

te unemployed. 
Similarly, there 
i £5,000 to pay fo 



BUSINESS APPLICATION SOFTWARE 



WORD PROCESSING 






IECSPINWRITER TELEVIDEOTVI-912C NORTHSTAH HORIZON 



Wordstar 

'robably the most powerful word 
irocessing package available on 
iny microcomputer 



fleo odiling: re.t is displayed on a screor 
wnsriul editing commands: leu can t> 



rafcm 






ib 'Sn^o'™! to h 91 ,hB USe ' Ca " c "° ose eilher a rB 99 Bd Dr i» Elllied ngM 
wagraph Indmrt: lemi 



' WordStar will line-up The decimals 



iv) to be executed, with automatic return to W 

■«l i i-:iMwertul file merging 
'■■'■■■ ■■■■■.. ■: ... ■■.,-.. ... 

ila where enables are specified, ever in m 
••iii..n;,i I...J (om, letters lo be created with a s 
wing. The same dafa file can be used tor boll 
Utiple copy printing': allows the same file to 



Mdstar is :■ :i -..r.n-. ,.■ .-.-, -.■..] 1H .: criinno anc- word processing, proorar 
dlwareVManual", C235/C20 >"~™ rj^uw™ 

«IP(terge (WordStar reisuiiixil |g a powerful file merging IdoI. Variabl 



STOCK CONTROL 



ANADEX DP9500 TELEVIDEOTVI-912C 



Inventory 

Comprehensive Stock Control, 
Sales and Purchase Management 
System 



hyena of North Slai BASIC 



16) Accounl record m 



The Mowing Bn 
I ExIonrJing Ihe 



"Price of Software includes manual "100% credit if software is purchased later 
„-..„. Prices and specifications subject lo change without prior notice 

DEALER ENQUIRIES WELCOME — PLEASE WRITE OR PHONE FOR LATEST CATALOGUE 
PLEASE SEE BACK COVER FOR FURTHER DETAILS 



JH niNTERAM 



INTERAM Computer Systems Limited 

59 Moreton Street, London, SW1 
Tel: 01-834 0261/2733 Telex: 925859 



The Disabled 



I, „ their persist, ■„,-,. .„!,] their employ 
perspicacity. 
The Queer Elizabeth'-; 1 raining Q 



"fbein R juundhi anJ ri]rl H .. lri)v Sl|] K . llu , v|[li . The Queen Elizabeth's 1rai.ii.ie. C 



bettered w 
ence lor many hundreds of d 
women and voime. people 



MATE, Memory Assisted Terminal 
wiln Hi ill .bi-,1 I H-! ri il k,v k„l,iii>: Mr 



:ems. supplcmci 
•omputersvsterr 
5. enou S h to lifl 



The whole package can be produced lor whirl 



uri.l-.-i-, ' ' 


The Chip 


d It is on 
r a short 


i.ihk 




the 


ever — the guide dog for the blind 




o^ IrX 


K 


^Another 


rtiw 


Educating a Nose and some Toes 


-'■lill'r,™L 


h,''pnm 


rv di 


shlme'lic' 


equ 


ready; the abilitv In write is slowly ocini; 
replaced in our modem world by the 
ability to type or, as we tend to say now- 


m,ike friends, 


import; 
LK-t .in m 




upS \y.lW 
lnpl,-.l 1. 


T 


There is a very lightweight and simple 
typing devke which requires (he use of 
only one hand. Others have learnt to kev 
using a stick held in the mouth or fas- 
tened to the forehead. One of the most 


do'; to be abl 

this is more 
takes a loop li 


poss.hl 
Sard toe 
H-.-i-i-.iT 





,e and their end 
he computer w 
t. Over 131) to! 
rently employee 
UK. The figure 

the Disabled i: 
: both (he Rovs 
,e Blind (RNIB 



r, Geoff Busby, who always types T fjps for Disabled 



Initialed bv (he BCS'a Cor 

(he Disabled. Hire,. fOPS (Training Op- ] 

control is bis "right foot, has learnt to pommities Scheme) programming counv de: 

speak using a computer. es for the severely disabled are being run ed 

He uses his to.il to .'per.it,- ; i-i.u'nn, tin- v.-.i- .,1 tjn.-rr I '.-.■-.. ,-ii- - i ■:■ im, I," 

■.: Inch makes audible sounds. I he control College in 1 v.ilherhead. 



Blind (BCAB). 

The Talking Typewriter 



hanisn 



,— nil, 



has BO different positions. Some 


repre- v 


edon in Essex - 


all students eventually 


sent words and numbers but m 


st arc f 


und employmi 


-it which, in view ol the 


Cwilicte 








British Computer Society 








Disabled Living Form da linn 








InternatlunriJ business M.iohin, 


(IBM) 








i (ICL) 




01788.7273 


Medeler. Limited 






0462 - 70.131 


National Computing Centre 








Queen Elizabeth Training Colle 
















lelesor.sr.ry Systems Ins". (TSI) 






09905 - (*Srt 



also nive spoken status infor 



w = '"' n """ "'""""' 


The Disabled 


3% 


1" employee-, iii .ill hui Ihi' smallest 


Ceilre lor Computerised Aids 


IM.'*. •,.,n,pl„,,l,lc-„ M „„ D 


™ loca 


piviTnmcil are exempt but both 
,m .'Mi'll.Til record i>l employing 1 1n ■ 



pier items such as thick-handled spoons 
for those with a weak grip. 


an example of someone doing it would 


entirety 








People's reaction lo labels varies with 




Register of Employers 


age. The elderly, in particular, overreact 












with age. 1 seem io spend mv time shout- 




but reiamres considerable refinement and 






continual updating. Because there was 


saying 'But [ don't need a hearing aid. I 




such a shortage nl people able to even 




drama bcallv. Soi 


uiuiorstaiid t lie lechnologv lei alone be- 








There are same times simple solutions. 




industrv will accept Mimewf with two 


Mv mother-in-law is BB and now rcallv 


for instance - an. 


heads if cither is intellectually able. Com- 






puting work uses a lot of thinking com- 


one? Oh no, that would be terrible. But 


populace. Other i 


pared wilh the amount oi reading and 


an emptv shopping basket on wheels is 




"Tiling required I here is lillle emphasis 


perfectly acceptable lo her and she now 


retraining periods 




uses this consistently as her walking aid. 










to most computer jobs whether the chair 






someone sils on has four legs or two 








real, tangible, benefit. 1 can park on a 








the quality of life 


Labels 


Many people would never register as 










typed or type-cast by labels. Can we 


Registration is very occasion ally an actual 


fe«S 1,5.8 » Ufl, 



11 help the disabled 



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Consumer Microelectronics 



Speech 



John Sanders 



MICRO 
VOICES 



refits 

i. However, the advent of LSI 
(Large Scale Integration) circuits specifi- 
rallv designed for them nmins that voice- 
interactive products can now be made 



E 



ncabulary in l!ni;li-li fAme 

areign language. 

Although somewhat limited, ih 

will have a go at translating, f 

phrase keyed in English i 




c,i leu la lor- si zed j;ddj;.'N u-huli talk Fairly spe 

clearly. I say fjirly. hi'iause their First hui 

product. Speal iim/ ;>;«■!,'. is nut word per- gan 

feet monosvlLiblcs hki' IV A 1 K cm Mnind displav-re 
to insensitive ears like WOK The mere 
recent translation 'calculator' with plug- 




further examples el predi 
neworsoonloiheAmerk.il 
sometime later, to British hi 

How does voice generation wo 
company, Votra.x, is about to n 
speech synthesiser, a 22-pin CrV 



(eJrnv e.ich nhonem... 
is CAT, (K-AE-T), requii 
I memory. By aimp,irisi 




Speech 



recognise. 

At Ihe forefront oi voice development 
is a computer adaptation produced by 
Ohio Scientific which both 'talks' and 
hears'. T spoke to Bill Bordy, Ohio's chief 
engineer, who put the computer through 



duced by ITT- in addition to th 
cassette recorder with a taped : 
inviting the caller to leave a message, 
the signal, this machines pives .1 sign 
five 'beeps'. The owner can phone h 
and, by a pre-set code, interrupt 
beeps with his voice (Ihe miichine i 
ren ionise the voice or the won]-., jus 
sound and Ihe intervals): the mac 
will then regurgitate the nicssap.'-.. 
More complex are evperinrnl.il 
and TV controllers product- J l>v the 
shiba Company. Here two people 




. He 



its paces tor me. Bill eipl.iuicd th 
two years now Ohio have been 
oping a 'talking computer usurp tl 
trax 'phoneme' system. In fact 
computer was rather under-emp 
offering i]ui/./es and m.uhs |»..hl, 
passcrs-hv at Ihe exhibition. So I 
him to get it to speak my nam. 

.,..., - L | 1", -*'. 'I ;> :■: :-'■■ ■' I'M" 11 -" 

said 'Sanders' in a remarkablv clear hu- 
man-like voice. He was lucky that m> 
name is spelled phonetically. The com 
puler also has a vocabulary of severa: 
thousand words and in Ihe hands of ar 
experienced operator ii produced re 
markablv clear responses. The mosl in- 
terestinR adaptation of the computer 

to recognise Hid words .11 command frorr 
each of twelve operators. So, Bill gave 1 



IMMI'L MR: Hive Student quiz. To 



indetstand. So, for instance, they can 


"""" '<"»""»" »-» 


A NEW SPEECH CHIP 


tasks tor the speech chip to exhaust the 








The TMSS200 has a single- ended ouiput 




drive, allowing simplicity in the ouiput 






Solid Slate Speech'" Chios. Designated 


TTL-comoalible. Interlace, logic on me 


the TMSS200, Ihe speech chip allows 


TMS52Q0 chip permits microprocessor 




access to non-speech dala stored In the 


microprocessor- Based systems. 


TMS6100 ROM. 




The new MPU-compatible speech chip 


specially designed lor easy inierface to a 






is oflered in a ZB-pln plastic dual-in-line 




package which Is 0.6 inches wide with pin 






computer speech synthesiser peripheral 




art) is ■Jest'y si; 'fori lor a wide' variety ot 




Indusinai eec comi-e tia; applications 


(PMOEl. also .!■■ ■■■■■■■■ ■■ 




announced TMS51O0 speech criip. Like 




the TMS51D0. speech encoding on the 








Linear Predictive Coding (LPC). As the 






aM 




toP 5 ^ 


model ol Ihe human vocal tract and an 


w*^ 


anility la predict a speech sample based 








Linear Predictive Coding is a technique 








speech By determining Horn original 














oul (FIFO) butler The FIFO Butler allows 


random inputs. An on-chip 8-Bit D.'A 




convener translorms digital Information 




processed through the lilier into synihetic 


(PROMs), erasable PROMs, random- 


speech. 




Samples ol the TMSS200 will be 




available In Ihe lourth quadei ol 19S0 with 














processing unit (CPU) 10 lend to olher 


A Texas Instruments news re/ease. 



COMri.TH.R: Fin' I lul I-. i.irnv;. iJuc-tiiT 

by Iwo equals. Your answt 

please, 
BILL; Six. 

COMPUTER: Three on.' .,.,(,-,;'.■■, ■!ur; Hit '< 

Question number li.n.r. rnulti 

not belung? a- green, b. snow 

pie Yutl answer please. 

COMPUTER; b„ good job. Question numbe 

COMPUTER: One [msiiuerprtHn$ Ihe 1 
sjinriFr). The answer is lour 

fOMPUTl H: V.mr.inswer please. 

BILL; Three 

COMPL'TEK: three Very Rood. (Jiu.-i.1ii> 

reel spelling for forty Your ar 
swer please. 

COMPUTER; False. Very good. (Jueslio 



COMPUIT.R: .'. IKO.'O i.bj. Question inimbei 



COMPUTER: False. That 
COMPUTER: (fattrnijiefflj 



[■ill explained thai seven nut of r 
ivss not milypk.il ill ,i v,,us[iii!ion r, 
.illuum.c. lor II-,,. noisv ^.urroonJi,^.. 
i.li'.il ii'ridilMiii tin' ivmpuler li.is .1 




of 'averaging' tn i K n,,rr minor diffcron.v. 



COmpLll.Tj ivill flL'llLT.lllv 





nthow 


phr 


ses and sen- 


l.iu.j.r.l ■ 


1 'J™* H 




cept complex 


Kllllur 11 


, anolh 




mbling block 


seems likely 


to be the di 


kultv „f tho 








v other Hi. in 


lli.' f -nii;i.im 




Recognising words 


...nirleM.1. 


* 














likely to ,,.,■ 


our lock 


and 


. K hl switches 
















It'L-tninifiillv- 


speiikicis k 








torn, ...rllrii 


compu 


ers. 


nifice equip- 


With US 


lanufacti 


rers 


selling voice- 




nils lor 




;i S2III! IL.-iSj 


.ind v,,i,-,- K , 


era lion 


hips 


or .lboul ^2 



-.vuihiimi solid ■-,,„ (i« iiilllfLlliii^ I m'l.'.Jr li'.ir. ,-irr,7r,i ,i;i ,j iiiym-nii-i-lik,- :,- 
hwfif. .'.'i.virvVr .1-1 ,'.l ;<■..! s/iv m;,i;i,>;„i : ,,,;,■,.,.. ,„■;<■ ,',iW,.. P/„„,,|f, >-iT-is.-']«/io-i is 
li.i.'Ji ini'w.'.'.m.'Vv .i.'/ii iimilnil.-oillu ,1'iii ilu- ilma ,(-, ! if :^ii,i ](,■,( ,-u ,'/«■ sii.s/t'w'- 
.n-uwi;i,ri,-uji,'i; ii.'.v (Nfnirr. 17], ■ susfiW ;■= „i„!l,iN,.- r,.ii ,i )Lv,.-,f •,-,■ M (.inlm-.r, 
'.Ura,t.\" SC-OJ dup. 



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Computers and Art 



Discourse 



Brian Reffin Smith 



...AND POLES APART 



v irustv RML 3HUZ w 
use a tot o£ little di 
iupplies. displays ; 




thr& 



v flouting the law), 
perhaps surprisingly, work v 
I got, 1 suppose, an average 
lours sleep a right, for 22 davE 
i; and drank much vodka. ' I 



11 IdlUve 



However, with the kind help of Centra] sm 

«ilhil'.'ii,-h ',h.i- r P ,., ^n ,-,.,-i|U.-vi (he ' r '' 1L wurk.hop, on aspects of art, de- 

PC1211. Ten hours before I was due to 51 S" n »d mu *"' ""B"i|; from the psy- 

depait lor Warsaw.. I settled down to read ihnlogy „| perception through |i.iyn,i 

the eicellent - though at times uninlen- ae '~ "'" 

tionallv hilarious - manuals, 1 did not ln B 

then need to take them with me as the on drinking straws, 

BASIC" and operating -Went, though al Alld ' l,scl1 ""■' 1,lll,J M, '"T machine 

limes idiosyncratic, were quite sensible. Irequenlh . It served ,i, a -fr.nc.hl cv.implr 

'or taking the Sharp '■' , rl ^"" m P" ,l, r- »' 1 ' 111 ™ "Iked about 

nd that if I was random numbers, ran programs on hin- 

■ r whatever here or rh y ,hr rn-.. played games: and tr.insl.ited 

.1^-. muster ,n i cal aim pit- word- and phr.i-.os Horn Ptili-.li to 

nv awkward ques- tnglish. (Once you write the program, 

PC1211 might be >' l ' u |'«n™ibcr the words anyway. The 

|Cn ' Though its liquid crystal display covers 

y sign of the j^,,, d '"^ ^^ ^^oXe^ 



rt things with ESP. You 



paler. 'Guaranteed to break the ice at 

patties'. .1- Montv Pvlhon savs. 


uiscourse 


Americans, thev were nearlv all 'good 






Obviously this is not a review of the 


quotation marks, were 'our neighbours 




than others, All I can sav is that I found 
















But they, knowing themselves to be in 


can use it innovativelv, where larger ma- 


cited about language and art, makini; and 










but thcv were, as well, wise in the way 




off, and still retains the program intact!) 


that we might be wise if the North Sea 


still were Poles, and ' Socialists, good 












things 


peimarket - 'SuperSam - always had 






there was'little chtfc^We had meal' ev- 


'Indeed, the PC 1211 might 




en dav in thi- student canteen, even roast 


be advertised as the one 


seed that makes U all come true, that 




that can reach parts other 




There were Levi and Wrangler jeans in 


computers cannot reach. 


(good). I doubt it, but 1 hope so. Mo mat- 


and pieces of Socialism mixed in with 
Pepsi Cola, Polski Fiats and Marlboro. 


Thev knew computers, art and English 
visitors for what thev were. I think. 


- it's been, what, nearlv a year?) - no 
matter what - in Poland, anyway - I am 
a reformist. 1 salute reform, In my work 
and art I shall try to make great claims 


at the local cinemas. Then, too, there 


though - mv colleagues confirm it - that 
we all fell in love with each other, literally 


long as we're told. Frequent indifference 


and metaphorically. 1 was crving like a 
loony on the cold grev morning we left 


And for writing, here in Computer Age, 














but meaning so much more 


a.m. to see us off, jumped up to hit the 


apology at all, ■ 



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The Micrascene 



Viewpoint 



Martin Banks 



,15 no great, surprise la me 
king in bed and opening the 
g mail, I came upon a copy 



might say something thai profound or 
coherent early on a Thursday morning. 

Upon opening said trade paper, how- 
ever, I saw enshrined in pride of place 
on ihe fronl page word of the demise of 
lsherwoods, a Pel-oriented dealer oper- 
ation in Lulon. Like a growing number 
of companies before ii, Tsherwoods had 
financially succumbed, and joined the 
noted ranks of such companies as fhe 
SSUl- Sin.'p chain, and Cumpelec. Though 

no definite new-,, then- .ire -.uggestiuns 
that lsherwoods will join the Bvte Shop 
and Compclec in being rescued, bought 
oui. taken over and revitalised, etc etc. 

Now, this piece isn't about I.sher woods 
as such, but it could be considered as 
being about [slier woods in general - the 
hundreds of local computer dealers out 

have writ before, there are going to be 
, joining byti 



AND 
WHO WILL DRINK 

AT THE 
CREDITORS' WAKE? 



USA. It takes little e 



ling bigg"- 
product thai tend 



any prisoners, especi.illv amongst 
dealer fraternity. 

That goes equally as well for Com. 
* II the other supplier 



risherwood, and s. 



i. Other: 



,, dunh! 



onlv per 
'.lack. 



scnal computer business is fun. Full of 
pi'irplf '..iin l j 1 1 - kuhk"- ,uid idiosyncrasies 
thii: peupk e.nrv uith them. They can 

assorted collections of liggers. weirdoes. 
an' ver Kii-w.il inlcrlectewals hang out 

new, maybe 'ev.-n do a little htnanew,. 
These are the people that, by and large, 

in this country; and from my own point 



Elbow. 

fun from the pc 

BUSINESS. ' 



'etha 






, . The 1 
supplier, 
re there 



:r the I 



the 



e of 



ought of being downright nasty to 

what are the dealers to do if they 

diser", or the wrath of a well-pro- 

Those who know me well will, at this 



-fiii.K I. 



rtpon- 



$150 



Take Apple, for example (in mam 

ways the best example of the Apple Tan- 
dy Pet triumvirate that rules the world ir 
personal computers, because its business 
has been built solely on that produc 
group). In just a handful of years, this 

a garage, to a manufacturing operator 

with estimated sales this yi 

Markulla, is revealing. He trips out 
growth rate figures like other people talk 
golf scores. "Oh, we're looking at around 
70% per annum, out to 1985", he'll sav 
matter-of-factlv. Next vear, just to be dif- 
ferent, the plan is to double this vear's 
sales. A cool $300 million is Ihe aim; and 

shouldn't get there. 

But to get to that growth rate from a 

high starting paint is an entirely different 

starling. In common with the ulher lead- 



nonth ) should make any exception: 

re goes. 

;t Flic Cmi s ••(•,■ .Vim: --. :jfj, crti,i imi:- 



sess where growth r 
monthly rather than 
igures that British Ste, 
porate right arm to rt 



That factor is margin, the difference 
between the buy price and the sell price. 
It would appear that the average margin 

where in the 25 to 3096 ballpark, ft would 
also appear, through admittedly limited 

network adds a thumping great margin 
before passing a product on. Mark-ups 
no! a million miles from 100% are often 
muttered darkly. 
Given that these suggestions are tol- 



dmolog\ products .is p' 
juts, lh.it, ne in fad not s 

m.mv ponplf ihuughi :. 

t and suppor 



Viewpoint 



wth r 



5 heavily into what 



dealer margins of only 25-30% 



How about the CRA 






doubl be that lliev need large juppnrl 
and administrative organisations, so ihal 
they can support the dealer. That is why 



The personal computer 
business is fun. ' 



Leaving behind lor now the thought Ol 
Tim Keen and Colin Stanley .■pL'ialin ( ; .if 
fvins pickets, there is one last point I 



Amhiif, a Mackintosh put 



Does your microcomputer 

suffer from 

hiccups? 



vicinity of your miciacarneuler (Ircr 



f Cetronic Limited 



,-:l Bern i ■.■.-.! i P' McdelConslanlVc 



News 




Letter from America 


Peter Krass 


Vie Tl 99/4 - a m™f'r-Mirm'M?ii/ beautiful 




MM 


Tolal combined memory is 72K bvtes - 


MriteMte'tBllrfiMlhMi*. 




They 


26K bytes of internal ROM, IfaK bytes of 
random access memory (RAM) and up to 


Mhc word this month is "big". The 




•r 


30K bvtes of ROM 'in each software 






J A J.T. 1 ~> ^_ 


module. 


« ductors, Tesas Instruments (TI). is 




no T.hiiio<h 


The 99/4 also has an optional 13-inch 


Irving to make a big splash in the big 




UU UllXllgiS 


colour monitor, which sells (or $450. Al- 


riot-su-big machine, the 99/4. And the 




V£«C 


eouipped" with a radio b r. (RFJ 


■L-oiupjny spent bit; money trying In build 




Die 


modulator, which allow- m, , m to hook 






w*h 










There are five optional peripherals, as 


flop. 

The 99/4. introduced in ]gne 1979, is 
TI's only entry these days in the micro- 




in Texas 


well: a thermal printer (S400), o speech 

module (il5t.ll. a Ry-2.12 interlace ($225) 
and a disk tonlrollcr and drive [S300 and 


computer game. Il came with all the 






5500). 


flourish e>pecred whenever the wraps 






Some other features include five oc- 


are pulled ofl a new product. But no mat- 








ter how loudly Tl heals its drums, micro- 






video display and Tl BASIC. This is a 


computer dealer?, users and industry 


| 


-i^T^S^fep^P 


version of Ihe popular programming 




L 




language. And according to TI, it is fully 


not the machine they've been waiting far. 


w 


* \M mm 


compatible with both ASCII and the BAS- 


The technology behind the 99/4 is in- 






IC specifications of Ihe American Nation- 


novative; it just doesn't seem to be what 






al Standards institute (ANSI). 


customers want. Unlike nearly all the 






But TI's marketing strategy for the 99/ 


other micro vendors in the U.S., Tl is 








pushing the 99/J as a computer strictly 






dition to distributing the micro to com- 


for the home. These Jays, most vendors 






puter retailers, TI has sent the 99/4 to 


would have us believe that their mighty 






several department stores, hoping to 


micros are as useful af the office as they 






reach a wider group of customers. And 


















I^SlSrChjXlr^^lS! 




■1-1 C-nyulii ,rn,T ri.Uv nuwitor. 


A recent visit to New York's presti- 








gious Bloomingdale's department store, 


es. And TI apparently though! it could 








To thaf end, TI's engineers designed 


pany. f.nu pieiuv in. run 10 mane bim- 
ware for the Tl 994, you need substantial 
cash- about $50,001 i « ,-d 


this comment out, The machine was boll- 
e'd onto a counter and was surrounded 
by its peripherals, which were no! in 


hardware and solln _irelh.it thev believed 
could be understood by anyone. One fea- 


Info 

tha 
par 


>paper, agrees and explains, ■[ ihink 
s what pul Apple where it is: third- 


one in the store seemed to know what to 
do about it. 


These modules contain the 99/4's ap- 




is?ia?£?, a 5 w York ' s Super 


The machine's lackadaisical sales have 


plication salt ware plus some read-on.lv 


Bu 


also prompted TI to offer rebates and dis- 


memory (ROM) - up to 3UK bytes. Ac- 


ph 




counts on the 99/4. And back in April, 


cording to the company, putting ROM 




Ihe company lowered the price by un- 


into the software pack allows them to 






bundling the machine - the computer 


keep the size of the computer's ROM 




l"VhTn'^ l Vp,,;;,n",'-,.,M; : i : 








together for SI, 150. Now, on top of Ihe 






vsun. :■■ .- 1. .'■■ ' !■■■( users And 


unbundling and the rebales, some deal- 


room in the machine's RAM ior user 


sr£ 


ers are adding their own discounts. And 


The modules are a little smaller than a 


ope 


rating sw.e-n bu-uu---. They il,.nl 
11. (here'- pleilli ot good programs 


machine for as little as S599. 


rigari'Ue pack and cost between S.K1 and 




When things look darkest, there's al- 


470 each Applications, solely for home 




ways a corporation's view of things. A Tl 


use, include 'Home Financial Decision-, ' 




h money.- CrimalJiV shop seem, to 
be seen, and Apples by (he bushel 




'Personal Record Keeping,' 'Video 
Games' and Household Budget 


'■ 


judge the machine, despite the fact that 
it hasn't sold well. 'People compare our 


Management.' 




micro to other companies' products. But 



not caught on. Simply stated, it is 
ensive In manufacture these mod- 
al onlv Tl is making them. 1 
v, with Apple micros, for example, 
s a vasl wealth of software made 4 


There has also been word that 


iiie '" 


The TI sourc 

99/4 are now 'i 


problem.' 
e adds thai 
oling and 

fins' Trot. 


is company' 
larki'ting lb 


of small companies beside Apple b 

■\ll voii need t„ make Apple soft- p 
- an Apple computer and a tape 1 


roducl, and at (950, not badlv 
s central processing unit (CPU) 
ed bv TI's TMS99I10 16-bit mi 


decen 
priced 


tng,' he says. 


ter is by a. 


concentrating 

■ 

sngement wilh 



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changes of this type over the years to 
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Another route lor development of 'h. 
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Overview 



Bob Cooke 






m 




Slaves 

with some degrees 

of freedom 



n a precisely located workpiecc. They 
ill perform Ihis action whether or not 

le workpiece is there, 11 is arguable 
iiether this tvp,> of machine is ,1 robot. 
b) 'Pick and place' robots which move 
about modem These are the meal common. Almost the gripper at the end of the robot arm to 

irocessor-based, robots (, W niv 7iliH!i ,hv oi ihis v, lr iety. ■".■.■'. .ird p'.aco n ,,V - 



■ with valve * 4 Tllev can be mobile for 

; t^usistors. applications. 

- logic and, .. .. . 




1. ROBOT AXES 



.K.nnple.m 
although not 



"form of rudimentary >ie,hl. Much effort 
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some prototype Ml Hm.' image pmf«- 
ing systems have been developed. (5). 

Tactile sensing is by no means perfect- 
ed and much research is being carried oul 
10 produce cheap and efficient tactile sen- 
sors. Static robot design seems to be ev- 



Ovetview 



ions. The most imp. 



ion or 'plug in' soml 



level. For example, before he- „p,, r , ll( , r overriding this for the mor 
particular tf.sk it must compute complex operations. 

nun.' ih„iplv Ih.in Hie pure robot dc 
iigned to do" the same job. In addition 
vorkcrs would be retrained, not made 




('...rj..,p.',- ,'."],.N.| ',-.',r,-.rv,ri. I/.;'. U."-.'l'- 



■ Uh. since ,1 H.-bil device can direct 
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urrent'robo^pplkalJonsT Granted tl 

A possible future robot then could in- be ™P°«™ 



log Z8IX10 or the Motorola 68000. log 



ther 



is enough motive pol- 
es to complete the tasl 



ins. there could 

lertts- The domestic robot ever- 
ts away, and although single- 



.,',,' Why use robots al all? 



ased robots. G Distil it 





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istructions are simple and learning quickly DRAW and MOVE 
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Language 



Review 



Martin Beer 



PASCAL 2 



Nut only do Ithac; 



.ascal-Z has been developed bv Ith- 
'aca Intersvstems. as a high-level 
language for use on their ZSO based 
computer system, the DPS-1 This 
n, which is based around their 5- 



: inpi 



idefheC.F.U., 
iutp'ut in- 



rv.ir.iHcl interface card and a double-den- 
sitv disketlc controller, there are a num- 
ber of other interesting ones available. 
These include a 10-bit analog-lo-digital 
end digilal-to-analog converter (which 
gives eight channels of each>, an EPROM 

gramming nol only the currently popular 

27lWaiid27lfi. hut also the larger capacity 
2732 and 2764, for when Ihey become 



Spim"''i™S«'o P ll 


i drive panel, so that a turn-key system can be 
-alions installed. The program can be loaded in 
scover directly from diskette, or stored in read- 


to '■« n m 


»..„, 


««« 


I 


( """ I 


I J 




L< 




( 






MAIN SRC 






L.„_( 


«_« 




\ '( 






,. „ .... . i 


EL 


( 






LIB REL 


1 


prog COM 


/ J 


™,» 


/„,„...,„,/ 


v -\ 


Si. 





eluding O.C.S.D. Pascal], Pas< 
lerates code which can be run dir 

is makes it much easier to use Pa 
lo develop applications which 
!ntuaHy be run on small dedicatee 



liable, 



scal-Z are currently 

Intersvstems' own operating system, 
IPOS, and the other to run on Iheindus- 
try standard, Digital Research CP/M and 
MP/M. The version reviewed runs under 
CP/M, and my comments will be con- 



this is the one of interests 
The initial output of the I 



n the form of ma- 
assembled, using 
Assembler-Z, pro- 



vided. Once the code ) 



mcrocomputers, only those rou lines 
which are actually called are included in 
he final code file. This can save ronsider- 
ible memory space, particularly when 
)nly a few routines out of a large library 

The code is then ready to run. There is 
i Linker option which automatically. 
oads and executes the program, as soon 
is linking is completed, or the code file 
ran be executed directly, as with anvolh- 
•t CP/M .COM file. All this can be done 
directly, under the control of the pro- 




Review 



PASCAL User Manual and Report. This 
is a good point, since it means that Ihe 
system manual does not have to cover 
normal programming in PASCAL but just 
those areas which differ from the stan- 
dard language and the running of the 
compiler. For Ihe newcomer to PASCAL, 



copping program] and STAT (ihe file sta- 
tus program), and our standard text edi- 

part of ihe package, so vou must either 
use F.D (the edilor provided as part of the 
CP.'M package), or buy one of the more 






e Ihe o: 



■that 






rif 



it then 



which rr 



1 M-"-' 



o byte 



used by CP/M), and another with an c: 
pan.dcd -^ mool I able, which re 
(plus CP/M). Once the progra 
piled it will, of course, run □ 
far smaller than this, unless 

The Package 



the standard for distributing CP/M sof- 

tems, whereas there are a multitude' of 
different formats for double-density dis- 
kettes. Both are very full The first con- 
tains the compiler, assembler and linker, 
together with then associated files, and 
several demonstration programs. There 
are also text files which describe how la 
use the system, in simple terms; and a 
list of documentation changes, which 
have not vet been included in the man- 
uals. Both were found to be very useful 
The other diskette contains the assem- 
bler source of all the routines in the sys- 

main Mined or modified, as necessary, by 
the user. Most users will probably only 
use this diskette for occasional reference 
purposes, but it is very thoughtful of Ith- 
aca to provide the information. The Link- 
er also acts as a Library Addition, and 
Update program, so that everything 



Installing Ihe Compiler 

The first job when Installing the com- 

. piler is to make copies of both system 

diskettes, and put the originals away 

safely. Once this has been done it is then 

o build up a Pascal system dis- 

e which includes OVM. useful CP/M 

utilities, and those files from the system 



your own (in PASCAL ' 

The files required to i 

cute a program (see Tal 

kette. I chose to use the version of the 
compiler with the extended space for the 
symbol table and so copied the files 
PAS2254 and PASCAL54. COM on the 
system diskette to PAS2 and 
PASCAL.COM respectively on the CP/M 



diskett 



s of the 



fully 



m,-H-rod,'linih..n til-. MALVhliC pr 
ed. Only MAIN.SRC need be co 
since the others arc required for s| 
purposes. One, CMA1N.SRC is a 
commented version of the main macro 

lion purposes only, since if it was used 

to assemble the compiler output, the pro- 

when using the uncommented version. 
The other version, called EMAIN.SRC is 
used when assembling procedures and 
functions which are to be linked to other 
Pascal programs. 

The COMPILE Macro provided runs 
the Compiler, Assembler and Linker in 
order from the boot diskette, but allows 



these files. This allows me lo 
tween diskettes holding diffe; 
grams without the need 



files lit is, however, advisable lo 
copy of the file transfer program 
the beginning of every diskette, s 




stored in normal CP/M executable forma! 
(in a file .suffixed .COM). [I a compilation 
listing is requested (by selecting Lhf ap- 
propriate rompiler opiion] " 



Review 



' , * ■■ ' '■ ■ . ' pr,.,ed<m-s \[W. MARK and RELEASE. 

* ' , ' , , ".',',' rallu-r ill. in MAY ,m J DISPOSE, .IS do- 

Ipiii Jrlkl 1 ,1 or. 1 II:- ., j . ., „ . . ^ k ' . 

; , . i scrilvd iii the Ki-p.>r( \part from these, 

i'l !■■■ ^'lliu'-T iniv"'^ ''"' r '' lvils "" ' 1,l ' 1 '" ltv m running stan- 



prneedure RESET; and ,i new file is en 
afed for output by using REWRITE, i 
the same way as sequential text files ai 







debugging code wh 



iguage i 



(Ran 



m'i'r.' aWn' ii^'l'unrr, '■-.ink' ivaliing Other extensions include the STRING 

both memory space and machine lime. data '>["'■ which supports strings of yar- 

any error me—age-, generated are milv 'able length. ,nul .in e\ceptinn clause in 

going to confuse the new user. the CASE statement. An APPEND pro- 

An interesting option is the ability to cedure has been added to the language 

compile CASE statements .is a series of '« assist in their manipulation. Several 

_ " r. The first other routines (i.e. to find the lenglh of 









11 I 1 ""' 



nig: lo lu-d 
-iabie ( 



tringv 



The Compiler allows the programmer to 
choose the most -riil.lble method (,.r each 
CASE statement. If no option is specified, 
however, all CASE statements are com- 
piled as a sequence of conditions, since 

Language Extensions and Restrictions 

The PASCAL language supported by the 



n Library, but 
must be declared as EXTERNAL within 
the user's program. The exception clause 
in the CASE statement is a most useful 
addition. It is implemented in the form 
of an ELSE clause, wh ' 



than the 

r'-.rr.-.nt-l 



with - 



. This it 



it following the CASE. Since the 
'■ an error condition 

ned,thePASCAL- 



lackot ihe full file han- 
f Pascal. The first is a 
n which applies also to 

d the second is probably 
interlace ol the system 
A. 
itation Is ample, and 






eeded h 



actly h 



n the 



■s> the BOOT diskette tu 
compile programs. The inclusion of a file 
to explain how to use the compiler in 
simple terms on this diskette was a good 
idea. II proved very useful. It does as- 
sume that the new user e. already familiar 
with the operation ol CP/M, and does not 
describe how to use the COMPILE ma- 



it the 






-humid \- 



their system mainly 
ther specialists who 
irk this out for them- 

"need to provide this sort of information 
yet. Another indication of this is that they 

piler, Assembler and Linker manuals 
bound together If programs are to be 
written only in PASCAL, only the Com- 
piler manual is really necessary, with the 
other two kept for occasional reference. 
If, however, programs are required to in- 



length of one 
tofar " ' 



Ihe procedures in Assembler; 
case, all of the facilities otthes, 
win be required. If, on the ol 



own right. This is bee 
ol the far ilities often 
PASCAL programme 
writing programs in 
veloping your own 
that all the features l 



■5 PUT Random- Wo 



mill CPM. eersion 2.C1. 



jened for reading using the standard 



mm summer 
mMmm 

X-Data introduces the new range of 
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Language APL Series Alan Pearman 

IVERSON'S 
LANGUAGE 

Starting with functions 



■(ructions and is a powerful adjunct to we are left with fust two statements ' a function 

APL. Our aim is lo get you started with 

functions rather than give a comprehen- S + t X I. Opcnin B and 

rie^dttoutcUethe R*-Bl\ /S cos.ng e te^n^ 

available APL literature, which is now e»- mode. Vou s 

tensive, For further information on Which is reasonably ramprehensible closing del. 

functions. APL. Tfie first statement ravels X just in a <• s P cdil 

IMPORTANT: (working from right '.■■ left) flrjl S ets the lion5 

if you an not ufmg APL'VSt). mu1 the maximum reduction of S - ie. selects the 2 ' [U^™ Thelunctior 

fnces between St.uukui AFi an,/ ■!;>[..■ smaller of this and II (which we have ini- ihcvrvmbol 

VW Hmmrtls the end of this part, tiallyset to 100). , ht . ..* <a 

The following is an example of an APL to "run" it. Tins is dune as follows 



:.' IVfii'Ll hi A 



VR-HI X;S 
[10] $«-,* 
[20] fc-BLl/S 






SI 10 50 120 60 



which is dnnebv typing (he function name 
die primitive), 1 is returned. Note that 



APL Series 



R*-BI X;S;Ll:L2\LZiL^;LS;LB 


«*«» 








v <function header> 


Dummy 


A dummy variable is a ipe- 


Wl-j Xiti.' 


j 


_ 


nd APL responds with the first 














Tiber 


















indicative of its meaning. If 


[W] *B/0 








[10] 






v 






in 


filing you to type in the first line. 








lineM. Th 






"S™" 1 ?™"?," ™"puh7mm 




LARCE replace R. 




r "branch". 






Global 




The rules for brand 












Anything that is not local. 














:-!''-'\;udCSiB"iwn 




* branch ,D ' 






im 



normally in immediate ~~* D ' 5 a 5 f* di ' 1 instruction which -. a „d AH. responds with the next aval- 
mode. However, as men- means "exit the function." able line number (which will ncvcrbe line 
Honed above, any variable 3.~<nuIlveclor>mcansdnnotbranth: CKfl). In our example, we type 
defined or referenced with- execute the ne<t statement 

in a function is global if it is UPLUS 

Ual m the'tuncifw h'ad " These rules aredifficult tograsp initially [»] 

1 l we suggest th.ii you simply accept them at 

MORE ON THE FUNCTION HEADER ^Recafnhal B is if X and Y are conform- APL responds this 

The function headeris, ignoring locals, a b| e and 1 

. ,„ Atthisstag 

eader. and APL will respond 
with'lineCllU, which means thai you have 

you may have typed 
WWG 

[101 



APL responds this 



Ft*BI X 


1/0 


the arfrument HI? The answer is that the 


0/0 

(mill vector) 


syntax, or rules, of a defined function is 


this is unfamiliar). 
Then, line £40]: 


the same as for a pnmitive: a monadic de- 
fined function has its argument to the right 
ol (he function name. 


What would vou deduce from a header 
such as 


-►3/0 






L*-X PLUS Y ' 


ruIe(2labove)ifXandYareno 
able, execute the next line othe 




There are a number of ways 


as primitives. Indeed, no-argument (mla- 


in general form is 



■ sil(;p«>l -VPLUS" 

DISPLAYING THE FUNCTION 

We assume that vou have opened PLUS 

■ <condition>/<line number:- and APLhasretumedCZQj.Thenertstep 

is to display the function. This is of course 

here conditi on > reduces to 1 or fj. If the " o1 necessary, bul prudenl. To achieve 



You may wish lo satisfy yourself that B 
returns if X and Y are the same length or 
' ■ and 1 otherwise Now 



> add Lnes foil. The- 



OPEN THF. FUNCTION 
;r the following fu 



APL: ■*- p monadic v -> V APL: 

ASCII: - shape & - G ASCII :- 



APL: y p monadic g v APL: 5 Q *■ AH*: v * pmonadic ; □ p dyadic 

ASCII: G shape L & ASCII: c L _ ASCII: G_ shape % L reshape 



by typing the next a< 
the closing del typed 



een Ihe header (line CM) and 



line Clio. 
This is achieved as toll 

from the above cvam pic. 

1SH PLUS i 
[10] B+X+I 
t»J -LAST LINE 1 
[30] [6] SMlp.Jtl'p.J - 
130] [71 Ml 
130] [9] B/'X AND X HO 

[30] [a] -B/a 

mthebracketsanddi 



■X-XfCh'iABLi:' 



-J6C« 

njvb.'ihos 



uiynur 



APL Series 


■ Also, some of the funcoo 
above are given alternative 


- intmduo 






tedasdefinm 


Line deletion, type Type A line 


functions In the ASCII set. 


£lPneKretum>. 




Ljadic 


EXERCISE 


r ™iiu» 


mK 


1. Enter 


: sL- 


I" 


VR+MEAN X 




" 


APL will respond with "[ID] ". 


When used in conjunct 


n with redu 


2. Now enter as follows (APL types 




L-t, the single 




ch.ara.cler representation <\ 


revious pag 




MUST BE USED. 




[10] N+p.X 


There are a large numbe 


iffru-d lur 


[20] R++/.X 


tons. The complete list folic 




[30] fl--ffiAf 








Remaining APL prim Hives 


nd symbols, 


3 Display the function bv entering 


and the ASCII repress 
APL Sjlftol ASCII 


tation. 


CD] 


Monadic 


Dyadic 














5. Enterlhefollowingexamplts 

<a\ MKAM 1 5 3 


I ; 


„L 



(a) MEAN 1 2 3 

lb) r*?sopioo 

(c) lQQxAffiM y 



SPUfS 

no] [o] 

VB+X plus y 
[10] fl*-((p.J) = P 1 J , ) v (l=p,J)*l=e.r 
[2!] ft-11 

[30] B/'S: dOT Jf jVCT COSFCBMABLE' 
[40] -fl/Q 

[so] jf**+y 



L-ASCri CONVERSIONS USED; 
t is not feasible to have a direct conv 
It from APL to ASCII character si 
s is mainly due to the existence of ov 



we see that the function has been renum- 
bered. APL always renumber? a function 

We may delete lincC60] by typing 

[60] <retum> 

write, eg. typing 

[10] R*-' ERROR' 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STANDARD 
APL AND APLfVSO 
In function definition mode there are It will be seen that, whilst most of tl 
een APL7VB0 symbols are reasonable- and sometii 
identical - a few are a little unnah 



QUAD SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND 
VARIABLES 

APL allows various actions to be pi 



standard APL, nar 
APL/VBO 



Then 



Programming 



FORTH Series 



Gil Filbey 



FORTH. Thffin.i,trtid,-,i,itOHIII,i ! 



I intend this article to be useful to 
anyone who has little or no ac- 
quaintance with assembly language 
rogrammiri);. ll would be .in advaii(.i>;i'. 



ASSEMBLER 



,1li FOKTH and lOjl U 1 

?£s?£ Instructions 
iS± and Data 












id to he pro- 


notion is the address FDED (a si<!een-hil 


you've ( 






ine i-odl 
land if y 


What does 
,.d a -hyU'-i 


IH^^rS 








7 The . 






Welik 










- The accumulator, 1 should add. is used 












ZfEdl 


ouflhe^^alVT^ga^'ll^sim 


snd ™ J., 8 ? 1 ™!' 




within that 


mpul.itinj; them Had the sequence been 
AS 20 20 ED FD 


were™ 


Dmething which looks remarka 








Then the first 20 would have been 
changed lo the address 20 in the memory, 


The p 
off; on o 




to a plural noun a 




ve^Tu^ 


with the mrtoil- ol addrew. 20 la Vern 
page' or one-byte address), and the a L - 


(gates) a 


n be represented by 00, 01. 10 








cumulator would then runs been loaded 

with the contents of (hat address. Chans 
ins from A9 to A5 did that |ust al the 


can be s. 










word 'they' converted 'flies' lo a plural 


tore. We 

SEE 




dollar sign to indie 






AD 20 20 ED FD ? 

Everything is now changed, because AD 

5.ivs"kud the .Kvomul.itivr with the con- 






















tents of the address 20 20" In other 


The adv 


anlages of the binary numbe 








words it has changed the role ol Mh 20's. 


represen 


d binary logic operations. Fur 






umbers fed 


Then what about ED TO? Well, ED is 
the command to subtract from the accu- 
mulator the contents ol the follpivine, 
two-byle address which is 11 F D. Had 


thermor 










these five numbers represented a short 




such gate patterns into binar 


A9 20 2D ED FD 






sMiid-alone profit a mine then U I) mifiht 
















point on a graph. 






■e. The first 


However, .had it been a subroutine 


Whils 






nber. The 'A9' in front 




machine 


it is bad for people. Too man 


of it forces this, s 


ice A9 is 


,in operator 


6 would have followed FD written, of 



:tidental AD in- 



FORTH Series 



the contents of 60 FD fr 

frrfirvlii ;-;.m ;!,',■,■( hi fiiprf.'.vl 



starling address in n 

5 follows 

9 20 ZO £D FD 



The explain lion oft 



CUDb SCREEN DATA IDA, SYMBOL 



-allu all- th LIJUI 3LKEEIN UftlA I.IJfl, 

- ™ UB Jp ,nL JSR, NEXT IMF, END -CODE 



to interpret any number as a symbol, and 
write it on the screen, we rename Ihe 
programme SCREEN. DATA is treated as 
an address 20 (decimal) and SYMBOL as 
anolher. Whatever I put in the address 
'DATA' will be interpreted as an ASCI! 



Now 



n the i 



i! hi K h I, 






NEXT is the 
FORTH, of an add 
into FORTH when 
run. END-CODE is 



dress FDED in I' 
subroutine will ir 
heldintheaccum 



t doesn't flash. It is 
his is because Iher. 
ciing this located at 



m,ifi.iziiie 
is ECHO, 



ODE SC RI-.!-:.\ DATA I. DA, SYMBOL 



: PUT DATA ! SCREEN ; 

All appears roughly the same a 
new PUT would wo'rk just like th< 
There is a difference, though, r 
partly by dumping out SCREEN - 

' SCREEN CFA 2 + » DUMP 



D 4E 7E :0 ED FD . , . . etc. 
Notice AD and -ml A5. This is because 
rawWr is essentially a 2-Byte address; 
id bo LDA. has to be the two-byte form 



.'ext month we will explore son 

lays of addressing and even pi 
:e a useful programme. 



J. \l:V[|.Yil', END CODE. 



531) to have the name SYMBOL; l 






We were ready to buy a computer." 




I'd realized the potential of [he n 

technology lor a longtime, Myc 



Which Computer? TIil- more 1 learned 

about computers and word processors 

the less sure 1 wji ofm.ikmgarjiion.il 

decision. 

The Wlritb Computer? Show 

Then I learned nfthc philosophy 
behind ,1 new computer exhibition to 
be held in November, the 
Which Computer? Show. 

Obvbuslv, this show was jiiitth 



DataanA Word Processing 
Problems 

A little Liter, the subject of 

with business friends. It became 
apparent we jII laced the same 
dilemma. We accepted the teehn 



best possible wa\ 

[explained to th. 



Wlik-ht 

would b 



The show tojjuidc 
decision -making 



of the Which Computer! Show, 

Mv friend- md o illci^ius mm 
all leel the same way. We have all made 

November. 

Of course. I will he spending a 



The Winch Computer? Show. 

November zs • & at NEC, 
Birmingham 

An unparalleled opportunity t< 

present and future ol computers and 
word processing. 

Act now. and clip the coupon li 



ouroption-.sceworkingcoi 
talk about -..tt« ate. inu-Mie 

Which Computer? Show, 232 ActonLane,Lon4on Wf-sDL Telephone 01-74.? jrji Telex^ozS 




~h Computer? Show, ji; Acton Lane. London W+ <DL 
.. business card or letterhead to this coupon for more 
in and your executive registration card. 
; people visiting from my company. 



end details of exhibiting at the Which Computer- Show [J 



BRAND NEW 



Lsrf- 



ft compiled by Microspy 
with Anthony Esgate 



12 



kJ. 



This middle section may either be pulled out ot photocopied 
then filed for reference. It will be comprehensive and range 
over the whole field of products, services, events and courses 
PU stands for Personal User SB stands for small base - that is. 
small budget or small business. MB - medium base, medium budget or 
medium business. BB - big base, bio budget or big business Addresses 
are to be found at the end of Brand Hews. 



The 



BirmLiijihai 

S.25-28 November; 



Show 



re as at 181 Septembar 1980 followed b; 



3 BUSINESS COMPUTERS FOR OVER f 



B COMBINING WP Al 






Information For The Visitor 






BMG 


500 


NEWISH. All-Bntisl m 


rocompu- 


a BUSINESS COMPUTERS U 


QFR CI SOTO 


Bytron* 




S^Sr^™ 


All-Briiish 


S3U?, 


:;e: 


Dacoli 


Democrat 


NEW. Novel Scottish n 


ultiple-mi- 


ACT 


600 


■/deocon- 


Da ' aGeneral 


Nova EC lips 


Established best-sell in 




" ADDS 


MdBvWw 


\! t, V : 


Dgico 


M28 C 


additions. 








sbs?- 






Ruler range fealunng 


■:-3iv .;.. 






































Sord 


Japanese videocomp 


jler P with 




Turnkey 


■:i J. SH 


Honeywell 


Level S 


Ealb™ed nd rrtrteom S ' 


utei 1 °l,r,r 






■ 



01 -LITE NEB-Oacked US-di 



^fei 








$m@@&&£ 


BRANDS 


" DlgiCO SPfllNGBOA 
□RG Cado 


D NEWISH line of business^ pro- 
model is well below C15.O0D all 
■ ftware - easily expanded 


! BUSINESS COMPUTERS OVER illMOO 

■-,«=,: nih.rjuo-s "--li hi,=;--e=s s V ste-™ a- a turnkey price normally 

above Ihe E'SuDu nul .'.'v:!- \W; car rr.P.v, a rv, ,= <■ 

pandable system wih an a ■. : :rce <ange irom ccow [3X0 ro 
over £60000 


Ego 1000,2000 


ftXss 






Exlelgh Sord 

General Oanlel Sysle 
Computer 

" interset IS20O0 
Kesho Durango 


weMhough. ' 

trom a NEWISH affiliate ol an es- 

MEW in Ihe Hamilton catalogue is 

the D-gita L-ucmcnl Co PC"- 

150 

NEWISH British micro line with 


tc ms 

Computer 

BlUdCMp 

Britannia 

CBS 


Alpha Micro 

Equinox 300 
Data General 

PDP-11 
D<6 


Business packages on DEC mm- 


• LSI Computers M-ONE 


Well-established and well- 1 iked 
with RECENT additions to its 








Walling and DDC120 


Generalised business software on 
-3 German -r.rro but w ;h a pa- 


Data 


Micrasrar 


b u lfmfc™mTu"ef^dTh™g S h 


■■ Mascom CS50 
Micrologic Apple II 


Data General minis, starting al 
Dai a General CS50 model 


DCC 
■■ Digico 

DftG 


SPRING BOAR 
Cado 


Business systems on this 
puter family. ^ ^ ^ 


Petalect Commodore 


Estab s-a; suppie* ol systems 




DATAPACT 




□ ■COM ZB9 

SOM Intertec 
Software MCZ 

Consultants Graphic 
— Siar Auditor 


NEW ..- 0. nn-.-MMiurr. 

Systems "based on this US micro 

Specialised In accounting sol- 

spec.llc programs. NEW is twin- 
vfji... ii.oiior Model 50. 
-.'anrlarrl applications available 


MAI 


Qantel 
Level 6 

POP-1 1 
Basic Four 

Data General 


NEWISH British microcompute' 


"" s v s,em B0 ° 800 


commercial 800 to he launched 

Established all-British NEB- 
backed ql amour company * th ih; 
s-ngin-user model 
Established vendor of business 

3000 and now BOOO. Also NEW- 
ISH MjinP.-l dr-v c.» alio*;, sev- 


Nexus. 


Level 6 




Systime 700 
" Taylor-Wilson Commodore 


PMSL 


SOLUS 


Business packages to be demon- 


Telecomputing TECS 4500 


Sih™ilSHre. a I. 


Software 

Consultants 


r- 


32 SJ2™ 1 


Viasak Apple 




"" Taylor-Wilson 


MultiPET 


SlrioiTomX^to'X™ 


- Wang LVP 


L0*-p™c'edTgh-pe V rtarm O a , ncevi- 








-Wilco* 


K:e< will- NEW system, deuelop- 
launched a" Show. 


:::z 


Tate 


Sepr(£?riSpu1e; 



£tn* 



BUREAUX 



■ : ■ ■ .'■'. : 
engtbs in Imancia 



WUl.lUM 


s 


feL~ 


„"""-—■"« ""• 


ass-ta 


use en "" SWTP AUTOIEXT 
accounting and SyEtlme WORD-11 


A ":,- ■■ ■ ^llj 


CM ml lech,- ^V'-WNso. WORDCRAFT 


a^'^TVe'^Cc^dore 


enlure^alween Ventek Dalapoint 


Mul I i- function word and data pro- 


^minster ai Wafla 0>S - VS 
,roup with many 


VS is a business computer wiln 
:■■■: r ^ i ii. OIS is a word 


raThae dwavi ' y ,EWDflTA AND THE BUSINESS USER 

e , s y 5y^ em t nc "" s un aern0115 " a ' e a v.awdate capability an (heir 


vices [SSing Barlc 




his bureau ,s a major Information 



TSB Computer Services 
5 WORD PROCESSORS 



•" Q-CDM 
Telecomputing 



lion m 0*tc 



', COMBINING WP AND DP (Word -Process™ and Data 

,"'.'. '.■'■;. '"■'' 

:.r:.,-l,u ,:.-.,,. ;,r,fj iiy -<;.: e,-;.:i no production ot form letters 

.':'■"■' i-v ■ ■■. ■!,■ 









ADD WORD 




Microword 


















SAGA 













WORD-11 new 'liirii- 



AI DATAWRITE NEW wi 

ailing and 00C 120 Word"pi 






vtasak Floppy disc dnues tor Apple (US) 

' ? VSTEMS F ? R PARTICULAR BUSINESS AREAS 



f"SL SOLUS 







(Jpzzlcil 


tiki BRAND NEWs 




SDM 11 HELP, ADVICE. INFORMATION 






55-5! -re ■■'■* i-'ser one way or another 










Safe Computing Alias Computer 




Mascom Constants 






MPL 






SDM flusrass CcmpuPnq 


Magazine 




SWTP CMG 


mapTcomrJuleStogra'up 6 ' 1 ""^ ' 




Nexus Comouter Adb 






CBS Compute. Knowledge 


. -parr.., l.-.cri lee consul- 




Commodore 






MAI 181 


!mplemeniaion r suppo n rt fl subE8que ' 11 




MPL F ln,ernBll0nal 


'■'. ■■ ■ 




Commodore lCFC 


i:,-,-','-l,.,ii-v.. md naming oflihcot Qi 










SWTP ° re institute of Data Pracess- 


.'iiOO -ember -'Pieioianal body 


motor (actors 


f:2[ mo Management 

MPL MSifl ftjw Oiwr Business 


Magazine 


plant maintenance 


Software Architects MP| _ 


: . ■ ' ■ '.'■ ..: "'\'' " 


wholesalers 


SDM /tte^nl« TSB Compute, Services 


Sancy'dpe-ation associated with 




Ji&rtP 




SET 


Universal \^-^,:^/ 12 REGIONAL INTEREST 


ascompuerseeo o 










PMSL act Computers 


Bum.ngham 




War rent Point adds 


N,™ Mai;;--. • : -.:-i.-.- and Manchester 




ADP 




aceoumno 


/,'■'..',',;,; ,.,. ■ ;:.: 


Woking. Surrey 






Wolverhampton 


■C LIVING WITH A 


COMPUTER Atlas Computer 






I-. ■..;■;■ ,i ■:!:■■■ ., ■ II. i ■■-' ■■■ ■ ■■■!■ -■ ,>,■■,. ,; , - 




no-moe- rapp 


Baric Computing Services 


Ri ■ham Head oiler; tml many local of- 




Major suppl-' 'I '■• " J'-'*')sys BGam GMioo E-..ii:irniiii 














Swindon, Wilts 


BCS Specialist Gro 


p lo- Tns \3* J-- ■■■ ■ ' - : ■ <•-. B':anri,i"':"r,i':''[..jl t - 


Dudley 










lunol oryiic.i' , 1 ill- :■'"■" T ''-: BMiif 


Business Computing Magazine 




sub-group ot the British Computer So- Specialist Group tor [tie 












capped people In the computer Bytronl* Microcomputers 


Farnham. Surrey 






Birmingham 




computing work can be dene r,r, y :■■»■ c H a Consul l,ir : i 




Cetrome 


the disabled Centre- Me 
Mams voltage condHioners to even oul 


l.:i-..:l:.n mead nll.r_e ::-.:■ -r..irv I'.ii al ol- 
1 ces ™na the country) 




Hiccups in eleci-c '■-■ -.-Jpt-v bidden Cetronlc 


Ware . ferito'dshire 










havoc w ; lh elechr-nin instruments r. ,-. :a Cc.mr'.w Systems 
- a~,oi-s Irj- i>(. .l I.M..I ■■■■■■■: ii. i; '■■ ircor ,'mi- Cl-i rioter Manage 


An- ■!>.... -,L,gh. Norfolk 




Coy-dor ii' .:.i.i olltc civ subsidiaries 




sales and cahircin; irrJurHnrj nuns -err Group 












is Specialised lease Imaricing tor small commodore Business 












egulpmenl Compulel 


B'a.:kne.i Berkshire 




Or- ci ■!■ -i- ,.:,..i'|mi. ■ ''-I- .:.-.i 








Sale. Cheshire 
























Bury St. Edmunds, Suitlolk 










':";';; ^T-^rj;;r.-.:,h , ;i l , , M';-iu.r'' : ' ^;;; :! 


Bsihg Scotland 














'' ' ,"'" .:. ., ,, Datasaab 




Marvelim 








Buffacea i ■ ■ ■ ■'■ ;■;■ . : -; l: .'; :: ca " D DC International 


Twickenham Mmdlese.- 










Disc packs and cartridges plus a line ol rj Lfl 






VDU and disc accessories D RG Ui.snrr.r, h'-nc; nes 


Wr«, inn "j.. per -Mare, Avon 


Tliree Counties 


tVaiu' -upp i- "1 '■■ai'XX", ■ ir ■ J .!>■■.-■■ r.WB 


Mi-oi- ...f,.-...: B...-.-.i-i-jhamshiie 




DP/WP consumables Ego Computer Systems 


Warlay West Midlands 


Vlasa* Electronics 


Several computer ;*-■.: SSSO'V inn'-. Hbll Dala Systems 
plies Another ol the main itslM ■■ jrdei Enterprise Computers 






Answer. Derbyshire 








ables ol all types Systems 





BRAND NEW, 



Exleigh Business Penzance, Cornwa 

Systems 0mpUle, London (and sever 

- ,v1 ' ! - :■■■[■■. Irtj Shetf.eu 



- 


Perl F mar Dal a System 

w . ..... ■■,,,. 

Pn.T.r- ::: mpij|Bfs 
O-Com Electronics 


5 Srough. Ber 
Woking. Sur 

Halifax. Yor* 


(Inco- 


Lercester. 


other 


Sauna Office Machines 
SOM Co-u.ii.- :>,,■.,■,■■-, 
.'!.,: BCr-| .,1,-1 ,■: in 


Edinburgh 
Bebington. rv 




™«™ Update 

AMENDMENTS S DELETIONS TO EXHIBITORS 1 1 






memory for 9H35B is 22918 flylss F 



r fir/-: vivs yn ■.. .. , :■.... 

on all 470 processo-s BB(AMDAHL IBM). 
HEWLETT-PACKARD 

H!z\\:r.::-FACK'\Rr- '*u n, M uersmns of 



tyzztd 3RAND 



Opzzial 




REDLAND AUTOMATION 



'itmlOl lor SGS-ATES NANOCOMPU- 



IDAUTOMATIOHMiP.fi li-EVi.mer- 



HHRP 
HHHH 

HBBO 

KB B B 




WLLBANK COMPUTERS LTD 

IK COMPUTERS LTD. SYSTEM 1( 

s. OHers CP-'M i.jrd-a.i,: ,-■ 







Mach 








Engim 










in irwratlwpprnijiam'ri.na. =,■,■■; 










D^Qf^^t^mduflMaEEla^ 


z 


^'.'■' 


recently wan a £5000 prue in 
Microprocessor Competition 


upgradable Bidirectional RS232 






owle both li e «.bilily anu high 


























/WO SYSTEMS LTD MICRO 8 








at.ng ana Air Conditioning Con- 


"• 


i. :,..... 


and response 






ikmM 




^Dzztal 


BRAND NEWs 


s !■-"!?!» saisraffl 


;;iij'ialirLia...A--.|Mdi..i __-.: -■.., 1 ,-:■■, ■ 


available In addition BUILDERS 
MERCHANTS 


ming ol components Production 


IC--.S 01 tacit lirii, !..i:,..-. ■ -.'.:; ;:■■ u' :■■.-■.■■ 

determined by software package supplied 
with each system System comprises LED 

■ . . ■!■■ . ■ !,..■ ; :■■ . . ; 

Common equipment is connected radially 
to operators by sinulv Svv,-.y cabo MO- 
BILE RADIO 

□ ICQLL DATA SYSTEMS 

DICOLL DATA SYSIEMSP-CCOE coir.pal ■ 


SENTINEL 

SENTINEL 'first company lo ofter a 16-bit 
microcomputer implememat.on o( Bus.ness 

language DBL Senr.neis -mge ol 16-W 


Applications 


ANAGRAM SYSTEMS 

*MG«M SVSTOVtSSALES LEDGER AND 
INVOICE PRINTING PACKAGE (or Com- 
modore PET Written almosl ertirely in 350: 

tar program which dyrrarrt 

application programs Irom diskette (appro- 
JO nan Mon.'cr conla.nss.mpie database 

ace stor ng an types ol record on one phys- 
ical t.le Also marrams record ot cu-enl 
activity on a control tile, prcy.des lul screen 


DEC LSI '■ LU.rpjtc'.. l'Jl. MB(UCSD- 

IAN0SLER SOFTWARE 

LANDSLER SOFTWMflEPAYROLL 'PLUS: 
plain paper payroll system. Designed lo In- 


ZILOG 

ZHOGMCZ-1 lloppy disk microcomputer? 
are to become available with CP/M corn- 
pat ble hardware Systems will run CP/M 


d an en E very sc reen d i so ay has assoc i ated 
operator neip lac ,ty Ps-j,ig.- r, jpocls jo 
to 500 customer; on a rs-etle Dela.ls :■! 


data; analysis etc MB(PET) 

LIVEPORT 

LIVEPORT Word Processing Pac to disk 
iCPM.I linke.s irco'porat.ng routines to. 


:™«.,cp», ' 


Processors, 
Memory boards etc 


APPLIEO COMPUTING AND SOFTWARE 
LTD. 

APR. IFF, COMPUTING AND S0FTWAR5 
LTOSPIC 1 mini-computer production plan- 


:■ r.'copolisdisk. CompnsesCP' 
M 1 d2;3 lor Sorwrur pus, .HI slanrinroCP 
M i.i. ii.cs. Microdot; BASIC .rterpretet ■•«■■ 




sFr r " ' : ' '- 


P U. SB. MB( SORCERER. CP M SYSTEMS) 


Acknowledge (AACK) signal. BKbytes 
PROW/POM. Addresses up to 1Mb ol mem- 






...-.,. ,,.,,, H , v "/;■■■'■;"■; .■■ 


operators. Complete harawarcand software 
paciaye costs 'rem i:.".mr> sol'ware or v 


SGOPfl i.-. poos ana documents con- 


MULTIBUS eompalible Available Irom ME- 
MEC Systems Ltd OEMS 

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WRITING AN 

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J 



iii-,"r., ■,;)■:,. ,m„' Jiwlft .■■■■.'..... iv.iiI.iWl'. but li.|v,m>iu,,r,',i-;,>ris I decided At this piiinl. two .ii lie IV 111 HlfUHhl 

WnAriiypursfinwOafwniiiT.in to write one myself. I! was a challenge, came together hi give me the basis of th 

and had the advantage that during the design. The first was the result of [imkin; 

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ure the budget in l°79, [ de- understand each of the 6502's machine PET. Vou can basically filter any uld ga 

dded that, if I was going to buv a code instructions, which would prove bage and it will be stored. Only "at e\ec 

■ i was the time. So I very beneficial later. Hon fime will the BASIC Interpreter™]! 






JUMP ROUND ASSEMBLER SOURCE CODE!! 



I : SCRLF STO C 



ASSEMBLER 

SOURCE 
STATEMENTS 



Fi K .ls,„ > w-.1h...|,-u 
\i>le tfi.lt. in tile 1iri.il 



E PRESENT END OF ASM CODE II 



ASSEMBLER PROGRAM ITSELF 









Assembler 



■ ■ OB ■:.,) ■"■— ™*H ■-":- -V ::. M .,.,„,... 

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the attual .tea*n fdWmi a*m.-i P" | ' ' ™e ' ■ ' ' hegenei .; j: ,, jS .| ,,. funiAIWHK where 

lUarodhourrhcclttng WRK is a data b>T* 

»n,',l I...,-. ■ .1 ■ 



Only at execution time will the 

BASIC Interpreter realize that 

it is garbage' 





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Is vice president of Micrc 


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lie 7-Stcp Procedure 1 


rSrt 


m Efcsfen; 


Step 


feUMUd^tan 


type 




Stepl [fthereisal-to-1 


relal 


mship (or 




nearly so) betwe^ 




,l.l(.l iU'lll 




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1 




1 




1 




NiMse 


ass 


1 




,„1NM 


—■*«■ 



teacher office no. - TONO 
name of activity - ANAME 
description of activity - ADES 
cuiirsc litle-CTLE 
course number - CNO 
section number - SNO 
course subject - 5UBJECT 



• Do SNAMF. and 5ADD have a I 

BOdated with it mid does a studei 
dress typically have only one sl 
name associated with it?) YES, so ; 
gate SNAME and SADD into same i 
type and refer to it as STUDENT: 

STUDENT 

SNAME 

SADD 



• Are SSN and SNAME nearly 1-1? A 
social security number has Dsiy one stu- 
dent name associated with it and a stu- 
dent name typically has tmly one social 

Thus asRfesate SSN into the same record 
type as SNAME giving 



DBMS 



a student may be taught hv many (N) 
ot yet in a teachers. (This N-ln-M relations!'" ' 
eco'rd type dealt with in Step 7). 



SNAME 

SADD 



SECTION 
| SNO [ 


SUBJECT 
[SUBJECT | 





has no relationship to SUBJECT, 
COURSE. SECTION or 7 
does nol have a 1 
STUDENT. 



• Arc TNAME arid SNAME nearly I 

TNAME is not incnrpur.ilud n 
STUDENT. 



• Do STUDENT and TEACHER have a 
1-N relationship? In at least one sense 
they do: A teacher can advise many (N) 



TEACHER STUDENT 

~| AI>VISI : S . ISNAME I 
SADD 





i Are there anv unattached record 

ypes? 

fes (ACTIVITY). 

■ Which ol [he other record Ivpes seems 
nost closc-lv related to ACTIVITY in a 
■onceptual sense? STUDENT. 

* Student is more closely related to ac- 



work schema by means ol an N:M PAR- 
TICIP (participation) giving: 
fne Dl 

STUDENT is arbitrarily the owr 
PARTICIP. So each STUDENT occur- 
rence can own many ACTIVITY o 
ronces via Ihe PARTICIP set Conversely, 
each ACTIVITY occurrence can be a 
bv manv STUDENT occurrence 
PARTICIP. 

Sicp 7: 

Ikmships that liavv nut been incorporated 



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Frank George 



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(NRDO. 



Parti 



[mini; dei it l'>) are derived from Dccisit 
Tables, so lei me giic thi> simple*! po- 






APPLICATIONS 

of 
TESTROLOGIC 



ms 



« redrawn ,15 .1 Teslroloe, jw- 
I // for no, / for ves and X for 
■ N, and we do not care wfifch. 



] lie program 1- drawn .■•..iillv , 
i. with lint's Iii colour, and it 
nto Explorer whirh contains i 



der the middle 



Applications 
Theapplicafloi 



d" first divide them 




1 with the filters 
n red. The other 



II tlu' answers to all votir qi 

re. If Ihev were all 
.v all the tillers to I 

TOuld si 



nd ll 



e of colour rathcj filters then 



and the red would be obscured. In prac- 
tice, We would expect some of the an- 
swers to yield V and some N, so we gel 
the dark iine composed of red on green, 
gre.ii or red ..:. : tv.uk which look the 

Tlu* rr.eai.- 'i . ;■. '1. . 1 'I . 






1.1 1 h .1 



Testrolog 



JlgUOL 



f [he 



■ne albeit) in an '■■.ill our aitack on the 

ing, problem- solving 
and argan'~"~- 



mlmg is .1 mailer .il interpretation. In (he Any remaining sem 

mure complicated examples reference would be shown up by tesling il on 

(cl. sub-rou tines), since the matte* is too finally, ne should add that the Te 

comple* for any one program. tiolog tan be used interactively; a que 

Choice of a holiday could be an exam- J'™ ans wered in a particular way Cf_ 

pie, where some factors arc common lo leild '" ''-''■'in.il check io.R. looking up a nin 

^nvyi-ihlelh.lidaviHownuichcanyou r^" 1 ' 1 "' hook, or the- brier handbook and _^_ 

where von ..in go. .in J ihi vill lead lo ,k! '' '""' , ! send you to a the proven 

Stf'^^ZenT Ihtl'mlu'ln ^M^ll'^y'fHlNm^ucrl^Jte tnTie^^^en^g^a^^ge 
■■■■>"«■■■ -ii-.d ■■■■■1 ■■.. ■ .louotk- -i,,,,!, there is dso the range of off-the-shelf ari. 

" ""* P 1 "* ■ | cod Particular Applications off-the-cuff activities referred to above 

no brochure which have mostly been already tried oi 

imong the more abstract of the importance or' Fesiiolot; in two range ol activities actuallv referred li 

■ solved (and therefore de- special kind- of applications. iho fir:.! is above, and also those implied (e.g. game 



information that no 



heir method- . 



with by off-lhe- and the seconc 

Dperational Re- important (pro 

twork Analysis. In the first , 

rurtstic versions planning dena, 



applic; 



the' 



■. risk. inab, i, 



The: 



.i "hole range ol applications I here are mam people concerned with 

and acquisition a, part of a cor- Foundos P ro lessor Ceo rj>e and Mr I-..A 

levelopineni plan We would taviruiii ireccnth or Hie MarionaJ ['In— 
he marketplace for dem ' 



place eoold itself he influenced by adve 



supply back-up teams for a wh 
of such applications. 

In Conclusion 

Let us simply say that with Ti 



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mn R 



ndusti 









mment - and the benefits 
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HANDLING 
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Part W Towards Database 



I 



iv.iv 01 ori^nisinj; .1 till' when records ir 
that file pre tu be processed in order. Ji 
is impMi.lii.,il tu use this form of organ 
isation when records are to be prates: 



terprises that utilise. 



■ssed 



rased, en- In order to illi 

lumber of cullies were, cor 
ind more cial example of a 



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flee 



Thus a typical tapiml of the tilt mighl aratt . f,| t ., r X ] m{ , ,. .„„,.„, „„,„. Ideally this amendment in the bonus payment svs- 

conlain (Figure 1). dala should only be held once. This du- tern which requires .1 r.ik-ul.iiinn nased 

plication can lead to a large waste ol not only on sales this month but on salos 

of records ol empk>vees. Ilu' lurm.il „| M k?s ''■l ti J 1 1 "ht-u: ' i"l v.'-' cl lip I iJ-'m ■ '1 1'.' M -''.-,ni ■ vW lieki in the h-nus file. All the pro- 

these records is: /see Figure A) tain a large number of .h.ir.uters, as in grams which use this file would then 

the address field. There is also .1 degree have to be modified. In an enterprise 

The enterprise also hasra fmanrtoesdwiw of duplication in the salary file and the with a 



i-essing these file 



■r this scheme a file 






highlight the disadvan- 



at riifftwFtr fim,-.. The salan 
amended on Monday, the personnel file 
on Tuesdav and "the bonus file on 
Wednesday. Between Monday and 
Wednesday the data describing an 
employee's address will be inconsistent; 

74 




follow e< 



Series 



IS are constructed 
s cf articles in the 



of files. This duplica 



.■rti.'Mn 



by having a st'paratt' ,-r-i of rirun/j with the 
format: f see Figure B) 
Each employee would be represented 

■ 'cation of 



The eli mill.-. Hun or duplicate data is 

DBMS. This article has pointed out the Hotsappte's DBMS ■ 

vantages of multi-file organisations cf Mathematics, The Open 



e that 



i.plovee 






salary file: typically, this field w 

Similarly the personnel pointer' odd v 
mint to (he cniplovec's personnel recc 
and the bonus pointer Held will iviii! 
the employee's bonus record. The d 
yam i Figure 2j shows fragments of t 
three file- .1 no -he enrrespt iodine, nan 



unnhor .i.ioii- 



number — the multiple i 






:r.ie.i!ieiil ur the personnel 
.llre.idv had its name, idi 
and address fields Udure 
shown in Figure 3. 



In order to eliminate this fo 
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At the bottom end is a software-only activity with Tacilitii 

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e number of different devices sup- 
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Zilug ZB0. Motorola t.800. Texas In- 
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Zilog has two distinct products: the 

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.stem with the memoir mapping lea 

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NCF allocates disk space, schedule; 
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/ilo K Z.HI.I;ind F.nrchild H*"!! proceSMU 
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The Motorola EXORclser IMS8HM602 12 
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The systoi 

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The future 
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people j;.-! 
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THE PREMIUM 
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the 


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[reactions, some of them ex- 
iple* but many relatively ruu- 
arlioularly well suited to the 



■ new oppcrtuni- 
opening up. But 



increasingly becoming user driv 
Whereas manv managers in the 19Mb 
and early 70s were happy to leave all data 
processing activity to the experts, now 
the company's gen era list managers are 
grow mg steadily mure aware of the tech- 
nical possibilities, ft is they who are 

The pressure grows 



ready the basic reference 



icld ol lomputen-ed underwriting Devclopmen! of fhe 

i the change process. direct or indirect selling of insurance the trend towards ter 
coloring new opportunities-, through the computer. par i of Norwich Unii 






pace; and meanwhile some of the smaller the ■traditional 1 type m insurance com- of the company's business is handled 

are rivalling them in the spread ol Iheir handling a ie-v » id, ■anee ol business, svstcm will enable them to communicate 

The insurance industry can be broken size the general business' (excluding HeadOflue ivlul,' retaining an authon- 

company. alone, for instance, spreads over amend Typical, tor instance, is the data entry 

panies accept the risk to be insured, in erv night the computer prints mil he- ,,ess where about s.viy terminals are ctit- 

relurn for Ihe pavment of a carefully cal- 'ween five and cighl thousand sheets of renllv in operation, fhe on-line system 

dilated premium. Their basic tasks are to data, which form the main record ol the handles Ihe acceptance phase, tram key- 

ceptance and premium r.n-meni. to han- Small sections of these records are ihrmmh the auiomaiic production of an 

die the investigation and payment ot being placed on-line, partly on an ad hoc acceptance letter, to payment of the first 

funds they hold for investment, olution of specific queries. The task ol takes ever, and the policy documents are 

Insurance brokers, on the other hand. transferring all this twsa ve d.ilabase is produced by the central computer 

ict a~ iim/iL-. mt'diaimi; he! ween the in- a daunting one. 'i . a i ',.- I '. nnis department. 

surers and their clients. They do not bear Lister, the Assistant General Manager in Norwich Union's computer complex is 

the risk themselves, hut negotiate cover- charge of data processing, can as yet set located at then head office in Norwich, 

comes primarily in the form ol a com mis- Norwich Union is currentlv changing as the system develops, 

sion percentage on oremiums. though in over from ICL L904S computers lo IBM, Ter 

some cases they will be paid on a direct and has already overflowed Irom the IBM a slaj 

circumstances they carry tun related ser- much of Ihe MSil.s, onto a adB. The Data to be 

vices for either or both parties, from the Processing department handles around gree I 

surveying ot risks to the issuing of two thousand -v-lem changes a year, but have, 

policies. even this is less than sufficient to catch altera 



i the In these -jvu.ili- 

busi- On ihi.. .k-rk.Lt L- 

n on keys in data can p., 

nthe the appnn.-h ,.i 1 

Ipfui role to in-i-r opoa - 













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The British' Insurance linkers' As 
arion has been partimlarlv active in 
area, and has a Smaller Firms Sy- 
( ummittiv which eoni-ent rales or 






as aic already well adva 
-,-rls [which arc r.-piiudmVL? in HIKA- ^' ; r ^ F ^ j"^, ^."i.',-' [?*, "}'', '. 
ovktc summaries of ll 



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initial and projected running 



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Word Processing 



Paul Hudson 



i:,-tu l\, ,■'.',11,. vi,',, 1 Hit ppni'P i..",O lr "i< , --^r,' ,',l 
■ ■- I'lp , ,"i,'h, !,',,■ ,,W.:i,',./ .:,..,■ !u-i- I'lfi 
,<■,.', J pi J jpj,I,pIInp( pp-p.i wiiPMjfrjrs'i? sfwrerf in; 



f|i„- 



ol ll, i,' 






processor. 

The first artide looks at milestones in 

the development ol word processing, and 

The second article ei 






,::licl. 




The 
exKpairldf hands 



typing everything again. I 

ig - espe- 
cially when A. B Dick, Philips and Rank 
Xerox also produced machines which 
used map cards. Bui technology was 
moving on. The floppy disk appeared. A 
floppy can store perhaps 30 - ISO pages 




„et bogged down in history. 
mply going to pick out four mtlc- 

g which have significantly 
need the composition of today's 
;t. They are: 
magnetic card, 



The magnetic card 






ick of 90 cards. 

During the seventies, M1M established 
their magnetic card typewriters io offices 
thro j ghoul the world. They improved 

productivity because thev separated ty- 
ping [rum printing, Udiling was simple 
the typist typed only the changes, and 
ic machine- integrated the change* with 
io unaffected text to produce a clean 
final copy. At least that was the theory 
' " ■■ '.f the changes affected otilv 
icpage. But inserting tour 
' ing of a 






iet s'.niiig to h:- am- mope precise I 
- we cm argue about page si/c^ till 
cows come home; but. in practice, 

:r page mi one magnetic card. Then 



The h"h70 Information Distributor is a 

er printer and photocopier which can ac- 
cept data over the phone from a 
computer, reformat it, print on both sides 
of the paper using more than one type- 
face, number and collate the pages - and 
it also uses mag cards It's rather like 
lining a starting handle on Concord - bul 
it looks as it the mag card mav be around 
for a while yet. 






n the I 



that wasn't so easy in practice, as many 
a typist found when she was juggling a 
slack of cards to gel lite page endings 
right. 

Neverthejess, it was much better than 



Word Processing 



get lost 

zhanged ( 

'((iiir mlo memory. The typist i 



The 



pill a 



y viewing it en the 
screen, and on any word processor wor- 
thy of the name she can print something 
else on the printer a! the same time So 
not only are typing and printing separate 

scheduling, both screen and printer can 
be kept busv and productivity boom!.. 
("With careful scheduling" is "the most 
important part of that sentence; I'll ex- 
pand this point in the third article). 

You may be surprised to know that Un- 
developed as ions agn as 1969 bv Lexi- 



types 
ferenl 



(■hich embody very dif- 

There arc single-line displays ("thin 
windows", in the jargon.) We can hardly 

usually a whole line, jus! 15 or 20 char- 
acters perhaps, They do separate typing 
from printing; and, when she's editing, 
the typist can see a few words at a lime 
instead of working blind. But while thev 
give a glimpse of the possibilities of 
screen-based editing, they're very re- 
stricting. You're not reading this article 
20 characters at a lime. You're aware of 
paragraphs and the page format. Each 
word makes sense in the contest of Ihe 
whole. A thin window is OK for correct- 
ing you move sentences and paragraphs 
around. Vou need to see Ihe contest. 
The most common screen size displays 



which simulate a typescript by showing 

the cursor based on Ihe typing line, this 
idea attempts to copy the typewriter's 
method of text entry on to a screen. Pre- 
sumably the idea is to ease the transition 
from typewriter to word processor. But 
whv? An electronic screen is not a piece 
of paper Why should it Iry to look like 

One final point about screens. They're 

designed to make lily easier lor the typist. 
She shouldn't have to worry about line 
endings as she does on paper. Practically 
all screen -based si stems have word wrap- 
around: if the typist types a word near 
the right margin and it ; s loo long to tit on 
the line, the software automatically 
moves Ihe whole word to the beginning 
ol the next line. Believe it or not, there 



The price of electronic typewriters - 
liltle as HI, 200 is a good indication 
where they are in Ihe market. It's belt 
to think of them as electric typewrite 
with more flexible facilities, rather th; 
scaled-down word processors. Super 
dally thev may look very attractive. B 
like word pnves-uus with thin window 
their limitations can be frustrating. Or 
company was wry keen to use a woi 
processor, but less enthusiastic at tl 
£8,000 price-tag. They bought an ele 
Ironic typewriter instead. After tw 
s they were grumbling that its men 



ory w 
The 






m then lint Ihe 



The electronic typewriter 



typewriter. II is what its name implies - 
a typewriter that works electronically, not 
mechanically. Don't confuse it with a 
word processor. A £30 cassette plaver 
and a £4,000 hi-fi both reproduce music, 
but you wouldn't consider them equally 
useful alternatives. The electronic type- 
writer has a few facilities; basically, to 
help tot entry. Its internal memory mav 
hold as few as ien lines of le*t. So it's 
useful for simple error correction and the 
storage of simple formats such as the first 



through a communication 
optical character reader, and you'll have 
the besl of both worlds - simple text entry 
and error correction on Ihe electronic 
typewriter, and powerful editing and 
manipulation of stored text on Ihe word 
processor. You now have a glimpse of a 
practical iotegialcd office system. 

The software package 



i.irh,,.,'- w,|l 
icivd oniric- 



AES WORDPLEX LAUNCHES A NETWORK 
OF WORDPROCESSING BUREAUX 


and the instant print shop comes the 


cXX^s W |otkio^fo, a mor ^ eTn 1 e, e 


logical extension, the Wo rdp recessing 


prised™ wort VS. £m££ 


wider public. 

The first of the kind sited in 

launced by AES Wordplex of 32 
Fitzroy Square, London. 


I'NR 






wor^rocessToc, ~ms m° Western 


i.iF 81 


AES Wordplex is planning a network 


iA=i 


Wordplex Word processing Bureau* 


1 1L ta 


independently financed and operated, 
but with equipment, training. 

supplied by AES Wordplex. The first 
franchisee. Lorraine Everett, had 

AES Wordplex saw in it the blue 


1 % JI 

LORRAINE EVERETT: flrB Wordplex 



no surprise. tVord processing i- mil si 
ply another compute. application; if' 
j.illihin.ili.'ii ,11 people, pnii L'Jurr-. ,1 
equipment. Concentration on the sc 
ware at the expense of the other fach 
is unlikely to produce a salisfacU 



isolation of .in air-conditioned fortress. 

puling ;"" ('vu'Wt'Mi'i'. While each typing 
|nb may differ, they all share two char- 
acteristics: they're wanted yesterday, and 
mine's more important than yours. The 
software must be able to cope with these 
erratic human demands, and it must be 
easy to use: we don't want gibberish like 
'syntax error' or 'return without gosub'. 



Other 



Word Processing 

processor is a computer designs. 
dand 






I -'--m.'. 



Youm 



ng package I 

Dedicated word processors come in a]] 
shapes and sizes. Some of the cheaper 



don't share the logic) so that ai 
ponent which breaks down doesi 
the rest of the system 

You may like the idea of data 
ing and word processing on tl 
machine, but beware! Words ar 



.Mil. n, 



■i' than el 



typewriters. Others 
components from whin; yuu 
system which makes the best 
component. A typical da 



build a 
of each 

lies fas- 
is she's 



other 



i and d: 



i proo 



t.in.l.ir.l I. 



"and ir 



mam packages, i 
nunc, lor a typist. 
Hardware is important too. Clear 

boards with clear function keys - they all 
make life easier for the typist. So, do treat 
word processing packages with caution. 
You'll be lucky to get a decent word pro- 
cessor for less than t7,0O0, so you 
shouldn't expect much from a ODD 



What's available now? 



ter than a typist 
printing large volt 
thc printer will be 
So it makes sense to have two or three 
screens sharing a printer, but that may 
mean they also share a floppy disk, and 
that's Far less flexible than each screen 
using its own floppy or all sharing a large 
disk. So it vuu order a multi-screen svs- 
' ' ' facil- 



and data process! 
u-iih all program- '.haiing the same li 
i- rn.it r.i-.v. I Ihic .,!,.■ IL'iJu.nr n ,■:■!, 
too - do vou have a kevhnard "ill 
niir:ifi;i ;\id .III,: '-.nld proiC-sim; hi 
linn kevs; do the keys carry several 
.oriptions; do vou have to change the 
tops for each application? 

If you're considering a package, ex; 
ine it carefully. It may he simply .1 i 



u nnJ .'i 



are shared, and 
endence each screen has. 
e that 'shared facility' and 'shared 



text with n 

not even display le 

at the tops of the '1 

You could try us 
popping up all ovi 
quality varies. A sc 
swaps its typewrite 



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