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Full text of "The concise Oxford dictionary of current English"

I 




4 



The Concise 

Oxford Dictionary 

of Current English 



Adapted by 
H. W. FOWLER and F. G. FOWLER 

Authors of 'The King's English' 

from 

The Oxford Dictionary 



SEVENTH IMPRESSION 






Oxford 

At the Clarendon Press 

1919 



It''? 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YOBK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE x 

THE steady advance towards completion of the great Oxford 
English Dictionary has made it possible for the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press to authorize the preparation and issue of this book, 
which in its own province and on its own scale uses the materials and 
follows the methods by which the Oxford editors have revolution- 
ized lexicography. The book is designed as a dictionary, and not 
as an encyclopaedia ; that is, the uses of words and phrases as such 
are its subject matter, and it is concerned with giving information 
about the things for which those words and phrases stand only so 
far as correct use of the words depends upon knowledge of the 
things. The degree of this dependence varies greatly with the 
kind of word treated, the difference between cyclopaedic and dic- 
tionary treatment varies with it, and the line of distinction is 
accordingly a fluctuating and dubious one. It is to the endeavour to 
discern and keep to this line that we attribute whatever peculiarities 
we are conscious of in this dictionary as compared with others of the 
same size. One of these peculiarities is the large amount of space 
given to the common words that no one goes through the day with- 
out using scores or hundreds of times, often disposed of in a line or 
two on the ground that they are plain and simple and that every one 
knows all about them by the light of nature, but in fact entangled 
with other words in so many alliances and antipathies during their 
perpetual knocking about the world that the idiomatic use of them 
is far from easy ; chief among such words are the prepositions, the 
conjunctions, the pronouns, and such ' simple ' nouns and verbs as 
hand and way, go andpwf. Another peculiarity is the use, copious 
for so small a dictionary, of illustrative sentences as a necessary 
supplement to definition when a word has different senses between 
which the distinction is fine, or when a definition is obscure and 
unconvincing until exemplified ; these sentences often are, but still 
more often are not, quotations from standard authors; they are 
meant to establish the sense of the definition by appeal not to ex- 
ternal authority, but to the reader's own consciousness, and there- 
fore their source, even when authoritative, is not named. A third 
and a fourth peculiarity are the direct results of the preceding ones ; 
if common words are to be treated at length, and their uses to be 
copiously illustrated, space must be saved both by the curtest 

1 The remarks likely to be needed for reference on pronunciation, inflexion, &c, will 
be found facing the letter A ; on the page before these remarks is a list of the abbrevia- 
tions used in the Dictionary. 

4347oO 



iv PREFACE 



possible treatment of all that are either uncommon or fitter for the 
encyclopaedia than the dictionary, and by the severest economy of 
expression — amounting to the adoption of telegraphese — that readers 
can be expected to put up with. 

In attaching this great importance to illustration, by the need of 
which the relative length of articles, and our manner of expressing 
ourselves on every page, are governed, we are merely acting, with the 
exaggeration imposed on us by our limited space, upon the principles 
of the O.E.D. That may be said to be the first dictionary for which 
the ideal procedure has been possible, that is, the approaching of 
each article with an open mind and a collection of examples large 
enough to be exhaustive, and the extraction from these of classified 
senses — the first dictionary, to put it another way, in which quota- 
tions have served not merely to adorn or convince, but as the 
indispensable raw material. This procedure — first the collection of 
sentences from all possible sources as raw material, and then the 
independent classification — we have often followed even in that 
part of our book (A — R) in which the O.E.D. , with senses already 
classified and definitions provided, was before us, treating its articles 
rather as quarries to be drawn upon than as structures to be repro- 
duced in little ; and in the later part (S — Z), where we had no longer 
the O.E.D. to depend upon, it has been our practice still more often; 
for many of the more difficult (i.e. especially the common and 
4 simple ') words, we have collected the quotations given in the best 
modern dictionaries (the Imperial, the Century, the Standard, 
Cassell's Encyclopaedic, Webster, &c), added to these what we 
could get either from other external sources or from our own heads, 
and then framed our articles, often without reference to the arrange- 
ment that we found in any of our authorities. Proceeding in this 
manner, it was almost inevitable that we should be very much alive 
to the inadequacy of mere definition and the need of constant illus- 
tration. That our examples have some general tendency to the 
colloquial, and include many usages for which room has not been 
found in dictionaries many times as large as this, is in harmony 
with our design of on the one hand restricting ourselves for the 
most part to current English, and on the other hand omitting 
nothing to which that description may fairly be applied. 

VOCABULARY 

The words, or senses of words, given are meant to be such only 
as are current ; ' current ', however, is an elastic term ; we might, 
but we do not, stretch it to include all words and senses used by 
Shakspere or in the Bible, on the ground that the whole of Shak- 
spere and the whole of the Bible are still commonly read ; thus the 



PREFACE 



archaic senses of addition (title), buxom (pliant), owe (own), sad 
(serious), sort (suit), and the archaic words shend (scold), wood 
(mad), familiar as they are to readers of Elizabethan literature, are 
not given. We do stretch it to include many words and senses that 
are fossilized, having in themselves no life or capacity for further 
development, but kept extant by being enshrined in perhaps a single 
proverb or phrase that is still in use ; of this sort are coil (confusion), 
preserved by 'shuffled off this mortal coil', and scotch (wound), 
preserved by ' we have scotched the snake, not killed it '. 

Again, of the many thousands of old or new scientific and 
technical terms that have a limited currency some are carried by 
accident into the main stream of the language and become known 
temporarily or permanently, vaguely or precisely, to all ordinarily 
well-informed members of the modern newspaper-reading public. 
For the purposes of a dictionary that is not to be bulky and yet is to 
give a fuller treatment than is usual in dictionaries of its size to the 
undoubtedly current words forming the staple of the language, 
selection among these intruders is a difficult but very necessary 
task. The most that can be hoped for is that every one conversant 
with any special vocabulary may consider us, though sadly deficient 
on his subject, fairly copious on others ; the meaning of many 
learned words that have been omitted as having no pretence to 
general currency may easily be gathered by reference first to the 
stem, which is often the subject of an article, or to another word of 
which the stem is clearly the same, and secondly to the suffix. 

In another class of words and senses the test of currency has led 
us to diverge in the opposite direction from the practice usual in 
dictionaries of this size ; if we give fewer scientific and technical 
terms, we admit colloquial, facetious, slang, and vulgar expressions 
with freedom, merely attaching a cautionary label ; when a well- 
established usage of this kind is omitted, it is not because we 
consider it beneath the dignity of lexicography to record it, but 
because, not being recorded in the dictionaries from which our 
word-list is necessarily compiled, it has escaped our notice ; we have 
not, however, consulted slang dictionaries nor made any attempt at 
completeness in this respect. 

SPELLING 

The spelling adopted is for the most part, but not invariably, that 
of the O.E.D. For instance, the verbs that contain the suffix -ize 
(which see), and their derivatives in -ization &c, are all given 
without the alternative forms in -ise &c, although these are still 
the commoner in British (as opposed to American) printing ; but 
such generally established spellings as judgment, rhyme, axe, have 



vi PREFACE 



not been excluded in favour of the judgement, rime, ax, preferred by 
the O.E.D., but are retained at least as alternatives having the right 
to exist. In dealing with verbs such as level, rivet, bias, whose 
parts and derivatives are variously spelt, the final consonant being 
often doubled with no phonetic or other significance, we have as far 
as possible fallen in with the present tendency, which is to drop the 
useless letter, but stopped short of recognizing forms that at present 
strike every reader as Americanisms; thus we write riveted, riveter, 
but not traveling, traveler. On another point of varying usage — 
the insertion of a mute e in derivatives in -able, -age, -ish, &c, to 
indicate the 'long' sound of the stem vowel (likable or likeable, 
milage or mileage, latish or lateish) — we have thought ourselves 
justified in taking a bolder line, and have consistently omitted the 
-e- ; it is against all analogy (or why not smileing, Romeish, doteage, 
tideal, indescribeable, desireable, exciteable ?), it is used chiefly in 
words not familiar or important enough to have their form respected 
as established, it obscures the different and more valuable use by 
which a soft g or c is indicated as in manageable and serviceable, and 
it tempts bad spellers to such monstrosities as unpalateable, loveable, 
and moveable. In words of the type ardour, colour, favour, where 
the O.E.D. recognizes both -our and -or, we have excluded the 
latter as being (except in particular words like horror and torpor, in 
which it is usually the only form) entirely non- British. Words in 
which -y- has intruded itself without completely dispossessing a 
more correct -i-, as sylvan, tyro, tyre, we have given with the -i- 
form either alone or placed first. In stating the plural of words in 
-o, we have found it impossible to draw any satisfactory line 
between the words that prefer -os and those that prefer -oes ; it may 
perhaps be laid down that on the one hand words of which the 
plural is very commonly used, as potato, have almost invariably 
-oes, and on the other hand words still felt to be foreign or of 
abnormal form, as soprano, chromo for chromolithograph, have 
almost invariably -os ; of many other words it may be said with 
confidence that they use one form only (cf . punctilios, noes) ; but 
the majority fluctuate, and we have not seen our way to doing 
otherwise. We have also to admit that after trying hard at an 
early stage to arrive at some principle that should teach us when to 
separate, when to hyphen, and when to unite the parts of com- 
pound words, we had to abandon the attempt as hopeless, and 
welter in the prevailing chaos. 



PREFACE vii 



PRONUNCIATION 

When the pronunciation of a word is not sufficiently determined 
by the placing of the stress-mark or by vowel quantities, further 
information follows in round brackets. The phonetic values of the 
letters employed in these, and the use of the stress-mark, are 
explained on the page facing the letter A. 

Derivatives are to be understood, unless the contraiy is indicated, 
as following the pronunciation of the main word under which they 
are given or to which they are referred in the etymological note. 

The pronunciation of many words is omitted on the assumption 
that the reader is already familiar with the normal values of some 
letters and combinations. The hard sounds of th and s, and the 
sounds of c (s) and g (3) before i, e, and y, are recorded only for 
special purposes; a vowel that is short before two consonants or 
a single final consonant, or long before a single consonant followed 
by e mute, is not usually marked; and the pronunciation of the 
suffix -ation (-ashn) and of the a in path &c. (-ah-, -a-) is not given. 

To some suffixes no less familiar than -ation pronunciation is 
added in view of certain ignorant or pedantic tendencies. The 
pleasant fiction that cottage is pronounced kotaj, though still pre- 
valent in dictionaries, has perhaps never deceived any one; but 
we have all heard furniture (-tur), knowledge (no-), and often (-t-). 
Against these and other results of the undue influence of spelling 
warnings are freely given. 

In the choice or rejection of alternative pronunciations the O.E.D. 
has always been consulted, but is not always followed. 

ORDER OF SENSES 

From the order in which the senses of a word are here given no 
inference must be drawn as to their historical or other relations, the 
arrangement being freely varied according to the requirements or 
possibilities of the particular word. Sense- development cannot 
always be convincingly presented without abundant quotation from 
authorities, and the historical order is further precluded by the 
uniform omission of obsolete senses. Occasionally, when a rare but 
still current sense throws light on the commoner senses that follow 
or forms the connecting link with the etymology, it has been placed 
at the beginning ; but more commonly the order adopted has been 
that of logical connexion or of comparative familiarity or im- 
portance. 



viii PREFACE 



ETYMOLOGY 

Etymology is given in square brackets at the 3nd of each article. 

Words of Teutonic origin are illustrated by all or some of the 
forms found in cognate languages. With words that have passed 
through several languages on their way to English, the forms taken 
in successive languages are recorded in full, with the following 
exceptions. (1) When OF or the like at the beginning of the etymo- 
logy is not followed by the old French form written in full, it is 
because the latter is identical in spelling with the English or differs 
from it only in some unimportant detail specified in brackets. 
(2) The Latin form of a Greek word is usually omitted, and is to be 
inferred according to the rules of transliteration given below. Thus 
(under pleonasm) ' f . L f . Gk pleonasmos ' is to be read ' f . L 
pleonasmus f. Gk pleonasmos\ A similar omission of a word in 
any other language implies absolute identity of form. 

Greek words are written with the corresponding English letters 
($> X' +> Pi pp\=P n > kh, ps, rh, rrh, and a, tj, w,=ai, ei, 6i), and not 
according to the Latin transliteration, the rules for which are as 
follows: Greek k= Latin c; ai=ae; ou=u; u (exc. in diphthongs) 
= y ; ei = i or e ; oi = oe (but in nom. pi. = i) ; g (before g or k) = n ; also, 
-6s (nom. masc), -6n,=±-us, -um; -es, -e, (1st decl. nom.)=-a; -on 
(nom.)=-o; -6s (genit.) = -is; -a (accus. sing. masc. or fern. ) = -em. 

French nouns of Latin origin are with few exceptions derived 
from the Latin accusative ; but the Latin nominative is here given 
except when (e.g. in words in -atio) a change of stress is involved. 

Greek i\ (e) and w (6), and the e of Latin infinitives of 2nd conj. 
(-ere, -eri), are regularly marked long. The accented letters (a, sb, 
&c.) in forms quoted from Old English or other Teutonic languages 
are long. 

F, G, &c, must not be taken to imply that the word to which 
they are prefixed is current, or is so spelt, in the modern language ; 
nor does it follow from a word's being given as OF that it is obsolete. 

The etymology often contains references in small capitals to 
words and suffixes. 

Hence introduces one or more of the direct derivatives of the word 
treated ; whence introduces such derivatives under a particular sense 
to which they are restricted ; so introduces words derived from 
another language ; hence or cogn. , whence or cogn. , introduce groups 
of partly English and partly foreign derivation. The suffixes of 
such derivatives are commonly printed in small capitals, and are 
thus referred to the suffix article in its alphabetical place. The 
numbers enclosed in brackets indicate subdivisions of the suffix 



PREFACE ix 

article, and are often used to distinguish among the possible senses 
of the derivative word those in which it is chiefly current. 

The first element of a Latin or other compound word is .often 
referred to a prefix article, and the remainder treated separately 
within brackets; meanings given within the bracket belong to the 
simple word, those of the compound being added if necessaiy outside 
it. Thus convene is [f. F convenir f. L C0T$(venire vent- come) 
assemble, agree, fit]. The stem vent- and the senses agree, fit, are 
here added for the purposes of convention and convenience, which 
are referred to convene. The first element of a Greek compound 
similarly treated is sometimes written according to the current 
(Latin) transliteration, to facilitate reference to the prefix article; 
Greek kakoepeia, under cacoepy, accordingly appears as CACO{epeia). 
Certain similar devices for saving needless repetition will, it is 
believed, explain themselves. 

The etymology of all words from A to R was drawn in the first 
instance from the O.E.D., but was occasionally modified after 
reference to Prof. Skeat's Etymological Dictionary (Clarendon 
Press, 4th edition, 1910). From S to Z Prof. Skeat's work has 
been our main authority, the Century and other dictionaries being 
consulted for the words that he omits. 



REFERENCE BY SMALL CAPITALS 

The use of small capitals for etymological purposes is explained 
above. 
In the same way reference is made 

(1) from the word treated to another word for the purpose of 
contrast, distinction, correlation, or the like. Of this kind are the 
references from slander to libel and scandal, from creationism to 
evolution and vice versa, and from tenon to mortise and vice versa. 

(2) from any member of a group to the word under which the 
group is collected or further explained. Ruby (print.) is in this 
way referred to type ; order (nat. hist.) to class 1 ; and the iron 1 , 
golden, and silver ages to brazen \ 

(3) from one or more words of a proverb or the like to that under 
which alone the proverb is explained. Play l and drake 2 contain 
such references to duck l , flesh and herring to fish \ 

(4) from a compound of the word treated to its other component 
for explanation. The sign ( = ) prefixed to such a reference indicates 
that the simple word treated is itself used in the sense of the com- 
pound. Thus, under pie 1 , sea-pie is merely referred (sea.-j>.) to sea, 
but magpie, besides being referred to the article magpie, is recorded 
(= magpie) as one of the senses of pie. 



PREFACE 



ABBREVIATIONS 

In any article, when the word treated in it is to be quoted or 
mentioned, its initial letter followed by a period is used instead 
of the whole word ; this stands only for the exact form that heads 
the article ; e.g., in the verb love, I. means love (verb or noun), 
but not loving, loved, &c. ; the plural of nouns is represented by 
doubling the letter ; e.g., in extreme, nut, ee., nn., mean extremes, 
nuts ; in the part of an article obviously restricted to a derivative 
the letter may stand for that derivative ; e.g., representation, given 
in the article represent, is followed by a bracket in which r. stands 
not for represent, but for representation ; in the part of an article 
restricted to a compound, the hyphened initials of the two parts are 
used ; e.g., when in doing ground-floor under the article ground the 
phrase get in on the ground-floor is to be explained in a bracket, 
g.-f. is used for ground-floor. 

Of other abbreviations, a list including all that are not either too 
obvious to need explanation or generally current (and accordingly 
to be found in the abbreviation lists given in the first article of each 
letter of the alphabet) follows on the opposite page. In this list, 
three points require mention : (1) the appending of &c. means that 
the abbreviation stands for derivatives or inflexions as well as for 
the simple word given ; e.g., metaphor &c. means metaphor, meta- 
phorical, or metaphorically ; explain &c. means explain, explains, 
explained, explaining, or explanation ; this system is used also with 
abbreviations omitted as obvious ; thus adv. stands not only for 
adverb, but also for adverbial and adverbially ; (2) abbreviations of 
nouns, such as ex. (example), prep, (preposition), are often used 
with the last letter doubled (exx.,prepp.) as plurals ; it has not been 
thought necessary to give these plural forms except in one-letter 
abbreviations (aa., nn.); similar plurals occur for forms that have 
been omitted as obvious iadjj. for adjectives &c); (3) abbreviations 
given in the list with initial capital have always the capital in use ; 
but those given with initial small letter have either form according 
to circumstances ; similarly, though the list is all in Roman type, 
the abbreviations are sometimes for reasons not affecting their sense 
printed in italics. 

June, 1911 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



a., adjective 
aa., adjectives 
abl., ablative 
abs., absolute &c. 
ace, according, accusative 
AF, Anglo-French 
alch., alchemy &c. 
alius., allusive &c. 
anal., analogy &c. 
ant., antiquities 
arch., architecture &c. 
Ass., Assyrian 
assim., assimilate &c. 
assoc, associated &c. 
astr(on)., astronomy &c. 
astrol., astrology &c. 
attrib., attributive &c. 
augment., augmentative 
&c. 

b., born 

back-form., back-formation 

bibl., biblical &c. 

Boh., Bohemian 

Bret., Breton 

c, century, circiter 

cc, centuries 

cl., classical 

cogn., cognate 

colloq., colloquial &c. 

comb., combination &c. 

comp., composition, com- 
parative 

compd, compound 

compl., complement 

compp., compounds 

conj., conjunction, conju- 
gation 

conn., connect &c. 

constr., construct &c. 

contr., contraction &c. 

cop., copulative 

Corn., Cornish 

correl., correlative &c. 

d., died 

Da., Danish 

dat., dative 

deriv., derivative &c. 

dial., dialectal 

d iff., different 

different., differentiate &c. 

dim., diminutive &c. 

dissim., dissimilate &c. 

Du., Dutch 

dub., dubious 

E, English 

eccl., ecclesiastical &c. 
ellipt., elliptical &c. 
erron., erroneously 
eth., ethics &c. 
etym., etymology &c. 
euphem., euphemism &c. 
ex., example 
exag., exaggeration &c. 
exc, except 

excl., exclusive &c., excla- 
mation &c. 
expl., explain &c. 
expr., expressing &c. 



F, French 
f., from 

facet., facetious &c. 

fig., figurative &c. 

foil., (the) following (word) 

found., founding 

Fr., French 

freq(uent)., frequentative 

&c. 
Fris., Frisian 

G, German 

gen., general &c, genitive 

Gk, Greek 

gr., grammar &c. 

Hind., Hindi, Hindustani 
hist., history, historical &c. 
hort., horticulture &c. 

i., intransitive 
imit., imitative &c. 
ind., indicative, indirect 
inf., infinitive 
inn., influence &c. 
instr., instrumental (case) 
int., interjection 
intr., intransitive 

joe, jocose &c. 

L, Latin 

LG, Low German 
lit., literal, literally 
LL, late Latin 

ME, middle English (1200- 

1500) 
med., medicine &c. 
mcd. L, medieval Latin 
mctaph., metaphor &c. 
MHG, middle high German 
min., mineralogy 

n., noun 

neg., negative &c. 

nn., nouns 

nom., nominative 

N.T., New Testament 

num., numeral 

O, old (with languages) 

obj., object &c. 

obs., obsolete 

occ(as)., occasional &c. 

OHG, old high German 

ON, old Norse 

ONF, old northern French 

opp., (as) opposed (to) 

opt., optics &c. 

ord., ordinary 

orig., origin &c. 

O.T., Old Testament 

part., present participle 
partie, participial 
path., pathology &c, 
phr., phrase 
pi., plural 
Pol., Polish 
pol., politics &c. 
pop., popular &c 



p.p., past or passive parti- 
ciple 

Pr., Proven ;iA 

pr., pronounce &c. 

prec, (the) preceding (word). 

pred., predicate &c. 

pref., prefix 

prep., preposition 

pres., present 

prob., probable 8r.c. 

pron., pronoun &c, pro- 
nounce &c. 

prop., proper, properly 

pros., prosody &c. 

Pro v., Provencal 

pro v., proverb &e, pro- 
vincial &c. 

R.-C, Roman-Catholic 
ref., reference 
refash., refashioned &c 
refl., reflexive &c. 
rel., relative 
repr., represent &c. 
Rom., Roman, Romance 

s., singular 
Sc, Scotch 
sci., science &c. 
sent., sentence 
Skr., Ganskrit 
somet, sometimes 
st., stem 

subj., subject &c, subjunc- 
tive 
suf., suffix 
sup., superlative 
surv., surveying 
Sw., Swedish 

t., transitive 
term., termination 
thr., through 
trans., transitive &c. 
transf., in transferred sense 
transl., translation &c. 
translit., transliteration 
typ., typography 

ult., ultimately 
unexpl., unexplained 
U.S., United States 
usu., usual, usually 

v., verb 

var., variant, various 

vbl, verbal 

voc, vocative 

vv., verbs 

W, Welsh 

w., with 

WG, West German 

*, sign affixed to all forms 
not recorded but merely 
inferred, with the excep- 
tion of those called Aryan 
or OTeut. (all of which 
are inferential) 



NOTE ON ACCENT, PRONUNCIATION, INFLEXION, AND 

FOREIGN WORDS 

ACCENT 

Accent is marked by the turned period ("), which is normally placed after the 
accented vowel or diphthong (a'etop, allow, a'ccent noun, acce'nt verb, exag- 
gepa'tion, exa*g , g , epatop) ; two equal accents in one word are both marked (ti*tbi*t) ; 
and the ■ is used for the secondary as well as for the main accent in long words where 
the former might be doubtful (cir'eumgypa'te, a*biogene*tieally). 

But the place of the turned period in syllables whose vowel sound is modified by r or 
re is after the whole combination (por'ter, pupe'ly), any possible confusion being 
guarded against by the - or ^ (mere'ly, but hepe'tieal). Similarly it stands after 
silent consonants (migh'ty, deb'top, blaek'guard), consonants that merely modify 
a vowel sound (eal'mness), or e mute following the accented vowel (blue'bell). 

Some miscellaneous examples are added :— fo'rest, fore'noon, for'tnight, fore'nsic ; 
bar'ring, ba Track; bal'my, ba'lsam ; arraig'n ; demes'ne ; sig'ning, si'gnature; high'er; 
Cadme'an; defray; bye'-law; da"ffadowndi*lly ; ca'noniza'tion. 

PRONUNCIATION 

When necessary, a bracket is placed immediately after a word, with directions for 
pronouncing it or some part of it. In these brackets, 

(1) Vowel sounds have the value shown by the roman-type letters in :— mate, mete, 
viite, mote, mute, moot ; rack, reck, rick, rock, ruck, rook ; caw, cow ; bah, boil. 

(2) Vowel-combinations with r (the r is not trilled before a consonant or mute e) are 
as follows :— 

wiare, mere, mire, move, demure, moor ; dowry ; part, pert, port. 

(3) Italicized vowels or vowel-combinations have the indistinct sound shown in 
again, moment, admiral, morose, support, certain, connoisseur, comfort, jealous, murder. 

(4) Each consonant or consonant-combination has only one sound; the value of 
ambiguous or specially used ones is :— 

eh as in loch ; dh as iwdhen ( = then) ; g" as in get ; jasin./e£; x\g a.sin singer ; ngg 
anin finger ; n-g" as in un-gardid (=unguarded) ; p as in rat (and see vowel-combina- 
tions above) ; s as in sister ; th as in thinketh ; tsh as in tship (=chip) ; w as in wit (and 
see vowel sounds above) ; y as in yet ; zh as in fuzhn (=fusion). 

Letters marked - or w# in the word itself have the same value as in the brackets, 
except that e is also used, when there is no danger of confusion, to show that e is not 
mute or part of a compound sound ; so ni"cety, ca'ffeine. 

INFLEXION 

The rules assumed, exceptions to which are noted in a bracket placed after a word's 
grammatical description, are as follows :— 

1. Verbs add -s in 3rd sing, pres., -ed in past and p.p., -ing in pres. part., -er to form 
agent-noun. 

2. Verbs and adjectives drop final mute e before -ing, -ed, -er, -est. 

3. Before -ed, -ing, -er, -est, -eth, monosyllabic verbs and adjectives double a final 
single consonant (except x) if preceded by a single vowel. 

4. (a) nouns, (b) adjectives, (c) verbs, in -y preceded by a consonant have (a) plural 
-ies, (b) comparative -ier, superlative -iest, adverb -ily, noun -iness, (c) 3rd sing. pres. 
-ies, past and p.p. -ied, agent-noun -ier. 

5. Nouns in -s, -x, -z, -ch = tsh, and -sh, and some in -o, form plural by adding -es ; 
others add -s. 

6. Monosyllabic adjectives and disyllables in -y compare in -er, -est ; others with 
more, most. 

FOREIGN WORDS 

Words usually or often printed in italics as either incompletely naturalized or com- 
pletely foreign are in sloping type. When either the word itself or any of its sounds 
is distinctly un-English, the reader is warned by a bracket containing, instead of pro- 
nunciation, the letter or letters standing for the language it belongs to. Otherwise, 
pronunciation is given for sloped words to the same extent as for others, but is often 
to be taken as merely approximate. 



ENGLISH DICTIONARY 



ABASE 



A, letter (pi. As, A's, Aes). (Mus.) note, and 
the corresponding scale. (In argument) first 
imaginary person or case. (Alg.) first known 
quantity. (Naut.) Al (a won), first-class ship 
in Lloyd's register; excellent, best, (colloq.). 
(Naut.) JE, thix*d-class ship at Lloyd's. 

Abbreviations (1) : ab, A.U.C. (urbe con- 
dita) ; able, A.B. (-bodied) ; acting, as 
A.A.Q.M.G. (assistant quartermaster gen- 
eral) ; assistant, as A.A.G. (adjutant general), 
A.Q.M.G. (quartermaster general) ; adjutant, 
as A.G. (general) ; aide, A.D.C. (-de-camp) ; 
anno, as A.D. (domini), A.H. (hegirae) ; ante, 
as a.m. (meridiem) ; army, as A.S.C. (service 
corps) ; Associate, as A.R. A. (Royal Academy) ; 
authorized, A.V. (version). 

Abbreviations (2) : ab init., ab initio ; Abp, 
Archbishop ; a c, account ; Adm., Admiral ; 
advt, advertisement ; aet., aetatis ; Ala., 
Alabama; Alas., Alaska; Alban., Bishop 
of St Alban's ; Ariz., Arizona ; Ark., Arkan- 
sas ; app., arrives. 

a 1 , an, a. (sometimes called indefinite article. 
Before all consonants except silent h, use a ; 
a history, a historian, though some still write 
an before h in unaccented syllable, but an 
hour : before all vowels except eu, u, use an ; 
an ulcer, but a unit, a eulogy, also a one. 
Placed after many, such, what, or any adj. 
preceded by how, so, as, too. Used with ap- 
parent plurals of number, a dozen men-a, 
dozen of men ; also with pi. adjj. few, good 
many, great many). (Unemphatic substitute 
for) one, some, any ; one like (a Daniel) ; (after 
all of, many of, &c.) the same (all of a size) ; 
(distrib.) each (£U0 a year, where a is orig. = 
foil.), [weakening of OE an one] 

a 2 , prep. On, to, towards, into, in. Mostly 
now written as pref., or oftener omitted than 
expressed, or confused w. a 1 . On : abed, afoot. 
To : ashore. Towards : aback, afar, aside. 
Into : apart, asunder. In : now-a-days, twice a 
day ; w. vbl nouns, passively, a-building, 
actively, was (a-) fighting, and esp. w. go, set, 
as he went a begging, they set the bells a ring- 
ing, [weakening of OE prep, an, on] 

a-, pref. f. various sources. (1) OE ar- or a-, 
away, on, up, out, and so to express intensity, 
as arise ; cf. G er-. (2) OE an, on prep. ; see 
prec. (3) OE of prep., as akin. (4) L ad- to, 
either directly, as aspect, or through F a- as 
achieve ; many words derived in the latter way 
have been later assimilated to L spelling, as 
a(d)dress, a(g)grieve. (5) L a, ab, from; 
directly, as avert, or through F a-, as abridge ; 
again somet. assimilated to L spelling, as 
a(b)stain. (6) L ex- out, utterly, through AF a- 
f. OF e-, es-, as amend. (7) Gk a-, an-, not, 
without ; directly, as amorphous, through L, 
as acatalectic, or through L and F, as adamant ; 
compounded chiefly w. Gk words, but also w. 
others, as a-moral. 

F.D. 



-a, suf. (1) Nn. f. Gk, L, and Rom. fern, sing., 
as idea (Gk), arena, (L), piazza (It.), duenna 
(Sp.), esp. Nat. Hist, terms, ancient or latinized 
mod. (hyena, dahlia), geogr. names (Africa), 
and names of women, ancient or latinized mod. 
(Lydia, Hilda). (2) Gk and L neut. pi. nouns 
(genera, phenomena), esp. names, often f. mod. 
L, of classes of animals (mammalia). 

aard-vapk (ard), n. S. -African quadruped 
between armadilloes and ant-eaters, [f. Du. 
aarde earth+mrA; pig, cf. OE fearh and L 
porcus pig] 

aapd-wolf (ard), n. S. -African carnivore 
between hyenas and civets, [see prec] 

Aap'on's beard (ar-), n. Kinds of plant, 
esp. Great St John's wort. [ref. to Ps. cxxxiii. 

Aar'on's rod (ar-), n. Kinds of plant, esp. 
Great Mullein and Golden Rod. [ref. to Num. 
xvii. 8] 

ab-, pref. Away, from, off, apart, [f. L ab, 
cf. Gk apo, E of, off, G ab-. In L reduced 
to a- before p, m, v, changed to au- before /, 
and to abs- before c, t; in F often reduced 
to a-] 

aba'ck, adv. Backwards. (Naut.) of square 
sails pressed against mast by head wind ; taken 
a., of ship w. sails in that state ; (fig.) surprised. 

[A2+BACK1] 

a'bacus, n. (pi. -ci pr. -si). Calculating-frame 
w. balls sliding on wires, used before adoption 
of the nine figures and zero. (Arch.) upper 
member, often square flat slab, of capital, sup- 
porting architrave. [L abacus f. Gk abaa? 
-akos tablet] 

Aba'ddon. Hell ; the devil (Rev. ix. 11)- 
[Heb. word, destruction (abad he perished)] 

aba'ft (-ahft), adv. &prep. (naut.). In stern 
half of ship ; behind. [a2+6o/£=OE be by+OE 
aeftan adv. behind] 

aba'ndon \ v.t. Give up to another's con- 
trol or mercy ; yield oneself completely to a 
passion or impulse ; give up (a possession or 
habit) ; forsake (a person, post), [f. OF aban* 
doner (a to+bandon jurisdiction, mettre a 
bajndon meaning to put a person under any 
one's, including his own, control)] 

aba'ndon 2 (or as F), n. Careless freedom, 
letting oneself go. [F ; see prec] 

abandoned, a. Profligate, [p.p. of aban- 
don i] 

aba*ndonee% n. (law). Underwriter to 
whom salvage of wreck is abandoned, [aban- 
don ! + -ee] 

abandonment, n. Giving up or forsaking ; 
being forsaken ; self-surrender ; careless free- 
dom of manner, impulsiveness. [f. F aban- 
donnement (abandon *, -ment)] 

aba'se, v.t. Lower, humiliate, make base. 
Hence aba'seMENT n. [f. OF abaissier (now 
abaisser) (a to + baissier to lower f. LL 
bassare f. bassus short)] 

1 



ABASH _2 

aba'sh, v.t. Put tojt tjt oopntepaooe ; (chiefly J 
in pass.) be confounded. Heact ; aba'sln- 
ment n. [f. OF esbair astound f. «» --A-(Q)± 
oaMr cry bah!; see -ish 2 & cf. punch = 
punish] _ , 

aba-sk, adv. In warm light. [a 2 +bask] 

aba'te, v.t. & i. Diminish (t. & i.). Do away 
with (nuisance) ; blunt (edge) ; lower (price) ; 
deduct (specified or unspecified part of price) ; 
mitigate (violence); weaken (energy). Grow 
less (of flood or epidemic). (In law) quash (writ 
or action). So aba'teMENT n. [f. OF abatre 
(a to+batre f. LL batere f. L batuere beat)] 

a'batis, aba'ttis, n. Defence made of felled 
trees w. boughs pointing outwards. Hence 
aba'tiSED 2 a. [F abatis, OF abaters f. LL 
*abateticius of throwing down ; cf. OF abatre, 
see abate] 

abattoir (F), n. Public slaughterhouse. 

abb, n. Woof, [a- (1) + web] 

A'bba, n. Father. Used w. Father in invok- 
ing God (Mark xiv. 36). [Aram.] 

a'bbacy, n. Office, jurisdiction, or tenure, 
of an abbot, [earlier abbatie (see -cv) f. LL 
abbatia (abbat- nom. -as abbot)] 

abba'tial (-ashal), a. Of an abbey, abbot, 
or abbess. [F, f. LL abbatialis {abbatia ab- 
bacy, -al)] 

a*bb6 (-a), n. Frenchman (orig. abbot) en- 
titled to wear ecclesiastical dress, esp. without 
official duties. [F, f . L abbatem nom. -as abbot] 

a'bbess, n. Lady superior of a nunnery. 
[OF abaesse (Pr. abadessa) f. LL abbatissa 
(abbat- abbot)] 

a'bbey, n. Buildings occupied by monks or 
nuns under an abbot or abbess ; the monks or 
nuns as a body ; a church or house that was 
once an abbey or part of it. [f. OF abate, Pr. 
abadia, f. LL abbatia abb AC v] 

a'bbot, n. Head of abbey of monks ; Abbot 
of Misrule or of Unreason, leader in medieval 
burlesque festivities. Hence a'bbotcv, a*b- 
botSHiP, nn. [OE abbod, f. L f. Gk abbas 
-at- (abba)] 

abbreviate 1 (-at), a. Relatively short (esp. 
in nat. hist.), [f. L abbreviatus p.p. of abbre- 
viare shorten (ab off or ad to+brevis short)] 

abbre' viate 2 , v.t. Make short (chiefly now 
of writing part of word for whole, but also of 
visit, story, &c.) Hence abbre vIation n. 
[f . prec. ; see -ate 3 ] 

A B C, n. The alphabet ; rudiments of any 
subject ; alphabetical railway guide. 

a'bdicate, v.t. Renounce formally or by 
default (a power, office, right ; also abs., esp. of 
the crown). Hencs abdic a 'tion n. , a'bdicat- 
ed 1 (2) a. [f. L AB(dica? , e declare), -ate 3 ] 

abdo'men, n. (Anat.) belly, including 
stomach, bowels, and other nutritive organs. 
(Zool.) hinder part of insects, spiders, &c. [L, 
etym. dub.] 

abdd'minal, a. Of the abdomen in either 
sense ; (of fish) having the ventral fins under 
the belly, [f. abdomin- stem of prec. + -al] 

abdo'minous, a. Corpulent. [asprec.+-ous] 

abdu'eent, a. (anat.). Drawing away (of 
muscles that open or pull back the part they 
are fixed to). [£ L abducent- part. st. of ab- 
(ducere duct- draw)] 

abdu'et, v.t. Kidnap ; take away (esp. a 
woman) by force or fraud; draw (limb &c.) 
from its natural position, [f. L abduct- see 
prec] 

abdu'etion, n. Illegal carrying off, esp. of 
a child, ward ; forcible carrying off of any one, 
as of a voter ; withdrawal of limb from natural 
position ; shrinking of sides of a wound, causing 
it to gape ; syllogism of which the minor pre- 



_ AB INITIO 

miss, and therefore the conclusion, is only 
probable, [f. L abductio (prec, -ion)] 
ubdu'etop, n. Person who abducts another ; 
(also a. muscle) muscle that abducts a limb. 

[as ABDUCT + -OR 2 ] 

abea'm (-em), adv. (naut.). On a line at right 
angles to the ship's length ; a. of us, opposite 
our centre.jabreast. [a 2 + beam] 

a'beeedar'ian (abisi-), a. & n. Arranged 
alphabetically, as the 119th Psalm ; elementary, 
ignorant. Pupil learning the alphabet (com- 
mon in U. S. ). [f . med. L abecedarium alphabet 

(ABCD + -ARIUM) + -AN] 

abe'd, adv. In bed. [a 2 +bed l ] 

abele (abel, a "hi), n. The white poplar, 
[f. Du. abeel I. OF abel earlier aubel f. LL 
albellus dim. of albus white] 

aberglaube (G), n. Excessive belief, super- 
stition. [G] 

a*bepdevi*ne, n. Birdfancier's name for 
the siskin. [?] 

aberrant, a. Straying from moral stand- 
ard ; (in nat. hist.) diverging from normal type. 
Hence abe'PPANCE, abe'PPANCv, nn. [f. L 
aberrant- part. st. of AB(errare stray)] 

abeppa'tion, n. A straying fx*om the path, 
lit. and fig. ; breaking of rules ; moral slip ; 
intellectual deficiency; deviation from type. 
(Optics) non-convergence of rays to one focus. 
(Astron.) displacement of heavenly body's true 
position to observer, [f. L aberratio ; see 
prec, -ation] 

abe't, v.t. (-tt-). Countenance or assist 
(offence or offender ; esp. aid and a.). Hence 
abe'tMENT, abe'ttER 1 , abe'ttOR 2 , nn. 
Abettor is the legal and the commoner general 
form. [f. 0_F abeter (a to+beter bait *)] 

ab e'xtra, adv. From outside. [LL] 

abeyance (-ba-), n. State of suspension, 
dormant condition liable to revival, (of rights 
&c. ; mostly in phrr. be in or fall into a.), [f. OF 
abeance (d to+beer = It. & LL badare gape)] 

abhor*, v.t. (-rr-). Regard with disgust and 
hatred, [f. L xn(horrere shudder)] 

abhd'ppenee, n. Detestation; detested 
thing (Uattery is my a.), [foil., -ence] 

abho'ppent, a. Inspiring disgust, hateful, 
of conduct, &c, often with to (person) ; incon- 
sistent (from) ; (archaic) feeling disgust (of), 
as, the Greeks were a. of excess, [f. L abhor- 
rent- part. st. see abhor] 

abhop'pep, n. (hist.). Nickname of those 
who signed addresses to Charles II in 1680. [ab- 

HOR-f-ER 1 ] 

abi'dance, n. Continuance, dwelling (in), 
abiding (by rules, &c). [abide + -ance] 

abi'de, v.t. & i. (past & p.p. abode some- 
times abided). Remain over ; continue ; dwell ; 
stand firm ; (with by) remain faithful to, act 
upon (terms). Wait for; encounter, sustain; 
submit to, suffer ; (negatively as I cannot, xcho 
can—1) put up with (noun or infinitive). [OE 
dbidan f. A-(\)+bidan bide] 

abi'ding-, a. Permanent. Hence abi'd- 
ing-LY 2 adv. [part, of abide] 

abiet-, stem of several chemical terms. Of 
resin, or fir. [L abiet- nom. abies fir-tree] 

a'bigail, n. Lady's-maid, [character in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady, perh. w. 
ref. to 1 Sam. xxv. 24-31] 

abi'lity, n. Sufficient power, capacity (to do 
something) ; legal competency (to act) ; financial 
competency to meet a demand; cleverness, 
mental faculty, (general in sing., special in pi.), 
[f. OF ablett t. L habilitat- n. st. f. habilis 
deft ; in F and E it was later corrected into 
habileU, hability, whence the mod. form] 

ab ini'tio, adv. From the beginning. [L] 



ABIOGENESIS i 

a'bioge-nesis, n. Spontaneous generation. 
(Allied words) a'biogene'tic, connected w. 
the doctrine ; a-biogene'tiCALLY adv., by 
spont. gen. or according to the doctrine ; 
abid*geniST(2) n., one who believes in it; 
abid'genous a., so produced; abid-g/env 1 
n., = abiogenesis. [f. Gk abios f. A- (1)+bios life 

-fGENESIS] 

a'bjeet, a. & n. Brought low, miserable ; 
craven, degraded, despicable. (Bibl. and ar- 
chaic) a person of the meanest condition. Hence 
a'bjectLY 2 adv., a'bjeetNESS n. [f. L ab- 
jectus p.p. of AB(jiccre=jacere throw)] 

abjection, n. Abasement, low estate. [F, 
f. L abjectionem (abject, -ion)] 

ab juration, n. Action or form of re- 
nunciation on oath, in all senses of abjure 
(in hist. esp. of the Stuart claim), [f. L 
abjuratio (abjure, -ation)] 

abjure*, v.t. Renounce on oath (an opinion, 
heresy, cause, claim, or claimant) ; swear per- 
petual absence from (one's country, &c). [f. F 
abjurer f. L ABijurare swear)] 

ablactation, n. Weaning from the mother. 
[f. L AB(lactatio f. lactarc suckle f. lact- nom. 
lac milk)] 

abla'tion, n. Removal (esp. in surgery, of 
any part of body) ; (Geol.) waste of a glacier or 
rock by melting or water action, [f. L ablatio 
f. AB(lat- p.p. st. of ferre carry)] 

a'blative, a. & n. The case in Latin nouns 
that expresses source, agent, cause, instrument, 
of action —from or by with the noun (usu. 
noun; adj. with case, sense, &c.). A. absolute, 
a construction of noun and participle inL Gram, 
giving time or circumstances. [F ablatif f. L 
ablativus brought from (ablat- see prec.)] 

a'blaut (or as G), n. Systematic vowel change 
in derivation, as in sing, sang, sung. [G] 

abla'ze, adv. & pred. a. On fire ; glitter- 
ing; excited. [a 2 +blaze] 

a'ble, a. Talented, clever; competent, 
having the means or power (to), esp. w. parts 
of be to supply the deficiencies of can ; legally 
qualified ; a.-bodied seaman (abbr. a.b.), of 
special class. Hence a'bLY 2 adv. [f. OF 
hable, able, (now habile) f. L habilis handy 
{habere to hold)] 

-able, suf. f. F -able f. L -a- of first conjug.+ 
-bill- see -ble. In F extended to vbs of all 
conjugg. In E now appended even to native 
vbs as bearable, nouns as clubbable, and phrase 
vbs as get-at-able ; prob. f. confusion w. the 
unrelated adj. able. (Meaning) able to (com- 
fortable), able to be (eatable), fit for (salable). 

a'blet, a'blen, n. Name for the freshwater 
fish bleak. [F ablette f. LL abula for albula dim. 
of alba white] 

a'blings, a'blins, ai'blins, adv. (Sc. & 
north.). Possibly, perhaps, [able + -lings] 

abloo'm, adv. & pred. a. In or into bloom. 

[a 2 +bloom] 

ablu'sh, adv. & pred. a. Blushing. [a 2+ 
blush] 

ablution, n. (usu. pi.). Ceremonial washing 
of person, hands, or sacred vessels; ordinary 
personal washing ; (sing.) water in which things 
have been washed, esp. in Catholic Ritual. 
Hence ablu'tionAR y l a. [f . L &B(lutio f . luere 
lut- wash, -ion)] 

a'bnegate, v.t. Deny oneself (something), 
renounce (a right or belief), [f. L AB(negare 
deny), -ate 3 ] 

abnegation, n. Denial ; rejection {of doc- 
trine) ; self-sacrifice (now oftener self -a.), [f. L 
abnegatio (prec, -ation)] 

abnormal, a. Exceptional, irregular, de- 
viating from type. Hence abnorma'liTY n.. 



ABOUND 

the quality or an instance of it, abnor'mal- 
ly 2 adv. [earlier & F anormal f. med. L 
anormalus corrupted f. Gk anomalos anoma- 
lous ; but now regarded as f. L abnormis see 
foil.] 

abnor'mity, n. Irregularity ; a monstrosity, 
[f. L abnormitas f. AB(nonnis f. norma rule) see 

-TV] 

aboar'd, adv. & prep. On or into a ship 
(ship either expressed or omitted) ; alongside, 
near, esp. close or hard a. Lay (another ship) 
a., place one's own alongside of her to fight ; 
fall a., fall foul of (another ship). [a 2 +board] 

abo'de, n. Dwelling-place, house ; stay, habit 
of dwelling, as in make one's a. [vbl n. of 
abide ; cf. ride, rode, road] 

aboi'l, adv. & pred. a. A-boiling, boiling. 
[a 2 +boil] 

aboiish, v.t. Do away with (customs, in 
stitutions). Hence abo'lishABLE a., abo*- 
lishER^abo'lishMENT, nn. [f. F ab o lir (-ish. 2 ) 
f. L abolescere inceptive of abolere become 
effete, destroy, (ab-, *olere grow)] . 

abolition, n. Doing, being done, away with. 
In the 18th and 19th cc. w. ref. to negro slavery 
and the movement against it, whence also 
aboli*tioniSM(3), abolitioniST(2), nn. [f. 
L abolitio (prec, -ion)] 

abo'minable, a. Detestable, odious, mor- 
ally or physically loathsome ; (by conscious ex- 
aggeration) unpleasant. Hence abo'min- 
ableNESs n., abo'minabLY 2 adv. [F (ab., 
abh.), f. L abominabilis f. AB(ominari f. omen) 
deprecate ; the older spelling was regularly 
abh., due to confusion w. homo, and the 
violence of the meaning (inhuman instead of 
ill-omened) results from the mistake] 

abo-minate 1 , v.t. Loathe; (by exaggera- 
tion) dislike, [f. L abominat- ; see prec] 

abo'minate 2 (-at), a. (poet.). Abominated, 
[f. L abominatus p.p., see abominable] 

abomina'tion, n. Loathing ; odious or de- 
grading habit or act ; an object of disgust (to). 
[F (abominate !, -ation)] 

aboriginal, a. & n. Indigenous, existing in a 
land at the dawn of history, or before arrival of 
colonists (of races and natural objects) ; (noun ; 
pi. -als, but aborigines commoner) aboriginal 
inhabitant or (rarely) thing. Hence abori- 
gina'liTY n., abori'ginalL y 2 adv. [f. L 
ab from-f origin- nom. origo origin + -al] 

ataori'gines (-ez), n. pi. (abotnginal usual for 
sing. ; also the indefensible form abort' gine, and 
rarely abd'rigin or -en). First inhabitants, or 
those found in possession by colonists (also of 
native plants and animals). [L, f. phr. ab ori- 
gine from the beginning] 

abort, v.i. Miscarry, have premature de- 
liver}* of a child. (Biol.) become sterile, remain 
undeveloped, shrink away, (of plants and ani- 
mals—the race, the individual, or part of the 
body), [f. L abort- p.p. st. of AB(oro'r£ be born)] 

aborted, a. Untimely born, undeveloped ; 
rudimentary (thorns are aborted branches). 
[ABORT+ -ed i (2)] 

abortion, n. Miscarriage of birth; the pro- 
curing of this, whence abortioniST(l) n. ; 
arrested development of any organ ; a dwarfed 
or misshapen creature ; failure of a project or 
action, [f. L abortio (abort, -ion)] 

abortive, a. Premature (birth &c) ; fruit- 
less, unsuccessful; rudimentary (organ &c), 
arrested in development. Hence abortive- 
ly 2 adv., abor'tiveNESS n. [f. L abortivus 
(abort, -ive)] 

abou'nd, v.i. (Orig.) overflow, either of 
vessel or of liquid. Be plentiful ; be rich (in) ; 
teem or be infested (ivith). {t. OF abunder t 



ABOUT 

abonder, habonder, f. L AB( undare, f. unda 
wave) ; the h- common in older F and E is due 
to confusion w. L habere have] 

abou't^adv. &prep. All round from outside, 
as coinpass it a., He is a. my path, beat a. the 
bush ; all round from a centre, as look or lay a. 
you; somewhere round, as lie a., hang a. (the 
door), the fields a. Oxford, people or objects a. us, 
have not a penny a. me ; here and there (in, or 
abs.), as smallpox is a., move or order a., he put 
the tale a. , I was much put a. (distracted), dotted 
a. the fields, man a. town ; near in number, 
scale, degree, &c, as a. half, fifty, right, tired, 
midnight, my size (somet. much a.); facing 
round, as right-a. turn, the wrong ivay a., put 
(the ship) or .go a. ; round a party, as take turns 
a., read verse a. ; occupied with, as a. my 
father's business, send a. his business, what are 
you a. ?, go a. to do, am a. to do (so all fut. 
participles) ; in connexion with, as quarrels 
a. trade, something wrong a. it ; circuitously, 
as he went a long way a., Ibrought it a., it came 
a. [OE on-biitan f. on+butan without (be by+ 
locative of ut titan out) ; orig. meaning is there- 
fore on the outside (of)] 

abou't 2 , v.t. Change the course of (ship) to 
the other tack. [f. about adv.] 

about-sledge, n. Largest hammer used by 
smiths. 

abo've (-uv), adv. & prep. (Adv.) at a higher 

Eoint (w. spec, meanings ace. to context) ; over- 
ead, on high ; up stream, upstairs ; in heaven ; 
on the upper side ; earlier in a book or article 
(as teas remarked a. ; the a.-cited passages ; 
the a.); in addition (over and a.) ; at least (a. 
a hundred). (Prep.) over, on the top of, higher 
than (a. par; can't get a. C— in music), up 
stream from, projecting from (head a. water; 
heard a. the tumult ; a. ground — alive), further 
north than, earlier in hist, than (not traced a. 
third century), out of reach of (a. criticism, 
measure, my understanding), too great or 
good for (a. meanness, one's station), more 
important than (a. all), of higher rank than. 
Above is also treated as a noun in from above. 
[f. a 2 +OE bufan (be by +uf an locative of uf- 
cf. G auf up)] 

abo've-board, adv. & pred. a. Undis- 
guisedly ; fair, open, [metaph. f. cards] 

a'bpacada'bra, n. Spell, magic formula ; 
gibberish. Cabbalistic word supposed when 
written triangularly, and worn, to cure agues 
&c. [L, etym. dub.] 

ab o'vo, adv. (Relating tediously) from the 
very beginning. [L; Hor. A. P. 147] 

abra'de, VTt, Scrape off, injure, (skin &c.) 
by violent rubbing. [f. L AB(radere ras- 
scrape)] 

abra'nehial, abra'nehiate, (ki-), a. 
Without gills, [a- (7) + Gk bragkhia gills + -al 
and -ate 2 ] 

abpa'sion (-azhn), n. Scraping off (of skin 
&c. ) ; the wounded place that results, [f. L. 
abrasio abrade, -ion)] 

abpea'st, adv. On a level and facing the 
same way ; keeping up, not behind, (of or with 

f>rogress, thought, &c, or as prep., a. the times). 
A 2 + BREAST !] 

abpi'dg-e, v.t. Shorten (interview &c); 
condense or epitomize (book &c. ) ; curtail 
(liberty ; of limbs &c. only now w. playful 
archaism) ; deprive (person of), [f. OF abregier, 
abreger. f. L abbreviare abbreviate] 

abridgment, -ement, n. Shortening (of 
time or labour), curtailment (of rights) ; epi- 
tome, abstract, [f. OF abrcgement I. abreger 
(prec, -mentI] 

abpoa'cb (-otsh), adv. & pred. a. Pierced, 



ABSOLUTION 

so as to let the liquor run (of casks). [a 2 + 
broach] 

abpoa'd (-awd), adv. Broadly, widely, in 
different directions ; in motion (there is a 
rumour a.) ; out of doors, in or to foreign lands ; 
in error (all a.). Also treated as a noun in 
from a. [a 2 +broad a. ; cf. along, at large] 

a*bPOgate, v.t. Repeal, .cancel, (law or cus- 
tom). So abPOg-A'TiON n. [f. obs. adj. abro- 
gate f. L abrogatus p.p. of AB(rogare propose 
law)] 

abru'pt, a. Sudden, hasty, disconnected ; 
steep, precipitous; (Bot.) truncated; suddenly 
cropping out (of geol. strata). Hence abpirpt- 
ly 2 adv., abru'ptNESS n. [f. L abruptus p.p. 
of AB(rumpere break)] 

abpu'ption, n. Breaking away of part 
from a mass. [f. L abruptio (abrupt, -ion)] 

abs-, pref. From, away, off. See ab-. 

a'bscess (-ses), n. Collection of pus formed 
in a cavity of the body. [f. L abscessus a going 
away f. ABS(cedere cess- go)] 

a'bsciss(e) (pi. -es), absci'ssa (pi. -ae), (-si-), 
n. Portion of given line intercepted between 
fixed point within it and ordinate drawn to 
it from given point without it. [L abscissa 
(linea) p.p. of AB(scindere sciss- cut)] 

absci'ssion (-si-), n. (surg.). Cutting off, 
violent separation, [f. L. abscissio (see prec 
-ion)] 

absco'nd, v.i. Go away secretly, fly from 
the law. Hence abseo'ndENCE, absco'nd- 
er *, nn. [f. L ABS(coNdere stow, f. dare put) ; 
orig. transitive in E also, then refl., then 
intr.] 

a'bsence, n. Being away from a place;' 
tinie of being away ; non-existence or want 
of; abstraction of thought (esp. in phr. a. of 
mind) ; rollcall. [F, f. L absentia (absent- 
absent l )] 

a'bsent 1 , a. Not present; not existing. Ab- 
stracted in mind, whence a'bsentLY 2 adv., 
absent-mi'ndED 2 a., absent-mi'nded- 
ly 2 adv., absent-mi'ndedNESS, a'bsent- 
ness, nn. [F, f. L absentcm nom. -ens part, of 
AB(esse be)l 

abse'nt 2 , v.refl. Keep oneself away. [f. 
F absenter f. L absentare f. absent- absent 1 ] 

absentee*, n. A person not present. A per- 
son habitually living away from home ; esp. a 
landlord so doing, whence absentee'iSM (2) n. 
[absent 2 -;- -ee] 

absidal. See apsidal. 

a'bsinth, n. Wormwood, the plant or its 
essence ; a liqueur made (orig. at least) from 
wine and worm- wood. [f. L f. Gk apsinthion] 

a'bsolute (-oot, -ut), a. Complete, perfect, 
pure (as a. alcohol), mere ; unrestricted, inde- 
pendent ; ruling arbitrarily ; out of grammati- 
cal relation (ablative a.) ; real, not merely re- 
lative or comparative ; unqualified, uncon- 
ditional ; self-existent and conceivable without 
relation to other things (the a., as noun). 
Hence a'bsoluteNESS n. [f. mid. F absolut 
(now absolu) f. L absolutus p.p. see absolve] 

a'bsolutely, adv. Independently, in and 
by itself; arbitrarily, without external con- 
trol ; without qualification ; without the usual 
accompaniments (as a transitive vb used a., 
i.e. without its obj.); unconditionally; posi- 
tively, though you would not believe it ; con- 
clusive^, completely, quite ; at all (w. nega- 
tives), [f. prec. + -L Y 2 ] 

absolution, n. Formal setting free from 
guilt, sentence, or obligation ; ecclesiastical 
declaration of forgiveness of sins ; remission 
of penance ; forgiveness. [F, f. L absolutionem 
(absolve, -ion)] 



ABSOLUTISM 

a'bsolutism, n. (Theol.) doctrine that God 
acts absolutely in the affair of salvation. 
(Polit.) principle of absolute government, [ab- 
solute + -ism (3)] 

absolutist, n. Partisan of political ab- 
solutism (also adj., as a. principles). A meta- 
f)hysician who identifies subject and object. 
ABSOLUTE + -1ST (2)] 

abso'lve (-s-, -z-), v.t. Set, pronounce, free 
(from blame &c, of sin, from obligation &c, 
or abs.) ; acquit, pronounce not guilty, [f. L 
AB(solvere, solut- loosen)] 

a'bsonant, a. Discordant, alien (from), un- 
reasonable, [f. ab- + sonant- part. st. of L .son- 
are sound on anal, of dissonant, consonant, 
and L absonus] 

absop'b, v.t. Swallow up, incorporate (be 
absorbed by, lose one's identity in) ; engross the 
attention of; suck in (liquids).; take in (heat, 
light, &c.) by chemical or molecular action, 
[f. F absorber f. L AB(sorbere sorpt- suck 
in)] 

absop'bable, a. Easily sucked in. Hence 
absopbaBiLir v n. [prec. + -able] 

absop'bed, a. Intensely engaged or in- 
terested. Hence absop'bedLY 2 adv. [p.p. of 

ABSORB] 

absopbefacient(-shnt), a. &n. Causingthe 
absorption or dryingup (e. g. of a tumour) ; agent 
that does this. [f. L absorbere absorb+ 
-facient] 

absop'bent, a. & n. Having a tendency to 
suck in (abs., or of) ; a substance of this kind ; 
one of the vessels in plants and animals (e. g. 
the root tips) that absorb nutriment, [f. L ab- 
sorbent- part. st. of absorbere absorb] 

absop*bingr» a. Engrossing, intensely in- 
teresting. Hence absop'bingfLY 2 adv. [part, 
of absorb] 

absop'ption, n. Disappearance through in- 
corporation in something else ; natural or 
medical removal of tissues ; mental engross- 
ment; sucking in of fluid, light &c, or nutri- 
ment, [f. L absorptio (absorb, -ion)] 

absop'ptive, a. Having a tendency to suck 
in. Hence absop'ptiveNESS n. [f. L absorpt- 
(absorb, -ive)] 

absqua'tulate (-kwot-); v.i. Make off, de- 
camp. [American-made jocular vb w. L pref. 
and suf.] 

abstai'n, v.i. Keep oneself away, refrain, 
(from). Refrain from alcohol, whence ab- 
stai'nER * n., abstai'niNG 2 a. [f. F abstenir 
f. L ABS(tinere tent- = tenere hold)] 

abste*mious,a. Sparing, notself-indulgent, 
esp. in food and drink. Used of persons, habits, 
meals. Hence abste'miousLY 2 adv., ab- 
ste'miousNESS n. [f. L ABS(temius f. temum 
strong drink inferred f. temulentus, temetum) 
+ -ous] 

abste'ntion, n. Keeping off (abs., or from 
any pleasure) ; esp., not using one's vote. [F 

(ABSTAIN, -ION)] 

abstep'gcnt, a. & n. Cleansing ; a cleansing 
substance, [f. L abstergent- part. st. of abs- 
(tergere ters- wipe)] 

abstep'sion, n. Cleansing, purgation. [F, 
see prec, -ion] 

abstep'sive, a. Cleansing, [f. F ( -if, -ive), 
as prec, -ive] 

a'bstinence, n. Refraining (from any 
pleasure, or abs. in sense of continence, fasting, 
or, usu. total a., going without alcohol). Somet. 
= foil. [F, f. L abstinentia (abstinent, -ence)] 

a'bstineney, n. Habit of refraining from 
pleasures, esp. food. [f. L abstinentia see 
prec. & -encv] 

a*bstinent,a. Practising abstinence. Hence 



ABYSM 

a'bstinentLY 2 adv. [F, f. L abstinent- (ab- 
stain, -ent)] 

a'bstpact 1 , a. Separated from matter, 
practice, or particular examples, not concrete ; 
ideal, not practical ; abstruse ; (with the, as 
noun) the ideal or theoretical way of regarding 
things (in the a.). Hence a'bstraetLY 2 adv., 
a'bstPactNESS n. [f. L abstractus p.p. of 
ABB(trahere draw)] 

a'bstpact 2 , n. Essence, summary; abstrac- 
tion or abstract term, [see prec] 

abstract 3 , v.t. Deduct, remove, (an obj. 
much &c is somet. omitted); (euphemism) 
steal ; disengage (obj. attention &c. somet. 
omitted) from ; consider apart from the con- 
crete; summarize, [f. abstract 1 ] 

abstracted, a. Withdrawn in thought, 
not attending. Hence abstractedNESs n. 

[-ED 1 ] 

abstractedly, adv. In the abstract, 
ideally ; separately (from— esp. after consider) ; 
in an absent-minded way. [-ly 2 ] 

abstraction, n. Taking away, with- 
drawal ; (euphemism) stealing. Process of 
stripping an idea of its concrete accompani- 
ments ; the idea so stripped, something vision- 
ary, whence abstraction - monger n. 
Absence of mind. [F, f. L abstractionem 

(ABSTRACT 1 , -ION)] 

abstpu'se, a. Hard to understand, pro- 
found. Hence abstru'seLY 2 adv., ab- 
stru'seNESS n. [f. L ABS(trusus p.p. of trudere 
push)] 

absup'd, a. Incongruous, unreasonable, 
ridiculous, silly. Hence absup'dLY 2 adv. [f. 
F absurde f. L absurdus (ab- utterly +surdus 
deaf, dull)] 

absurdity, n. Folly, unreasonableness; 
an absurd statement or act. [f. F absurdity f. 
L absurditatem (absurd, -ity)] 

abu'ndance, n. Quantity more than suf- 
ficient, plenty; overflowing emotion (a. of the 
heart) ; many people (there are a. who) ; afflu- 
ence, wealth. [OF (ab-, hab-, see abound), f. 
L abundantia (as foil., -ance)] 

abu'ndant, a. More than sufficient, plenti- 
ful; rich [in). Hence abu'ndantLY 2 adv. 
[OF (ab-, hab-, see abound), f. ~Labundant- part. 
st. (abound, -ant)] 

ab ur'be co'ndita, adv. (abbr. A. U. a). 
Counting from the foundation of Rome. [L] 

abu'se 1 (-uz), v.t. Misuse, make bad use 
of; deceive (archaic, but still used esp. in 
pass.) ; maltreat (archaic); revile, [f. F abuser 
f. L *abusare f. ab(«s- p.p. st. of uti use)] 

abu'se 2 (-us), n. Misuse, perversion (of) ; an 
established unjust or corrupt practice. Re- 
viling, whence abu'sivE a., abu'siveLY 2 
adv., abu'siveNESS n. [f. F abus f. L abusus 
n. f. abus- see prec. 

abu't, v.i. (-tt-). Have a common boundary 
with, border, (upon ; or somet. without prep, 
as trans, vb ; of estates or countries) ; end on 
or against, lean on, (of parts of a building), 
[mixed meanings f. OF abouter place end to 
end (d to+bout end), and OF abuter touch 
with one end (a to+but end)] 

abu'tment, n. A lateral support ; (esp. in 
architecture) that on which an arch or bridge 
rests ; point of junction between such support 
and thing supported, [abut + -ment] 

abu'ttep, n. (In law) owner of the adjoining 
property. [ABUT + -ER 1 ] 

aby, abye*, v.t. (archaic; past and p.p. 
abought). Redeem, pay the penalty of, (an 
offence ; usu. w. dearly, sore), [earlier abuggen, 
abeggen, f. A- (1) away+BUY] 

aby'sm, n. Earlier form, still used in 



ABYSMAL 

poetical style, of abyss. [OF abtsme f. LL 
*abyssimus superl. of abyssus abyss] 

aby'smal, a. Bottomless, esp. fig., as a. 
ignorance. Hence abysmalLY 2 adv. [abysm 
+ ^al] 

aby'ss, n. The primal chaos, bowels of the 
earth, lower world ; a bottomless chasm, deep 
gorge; depth (a. of light). [Earlier abime, 
abysme, f. F see abysm, later corrected after 
L abyssus f. Gk abussos bottomless] 

aby'ssal, a. More than 300 fathoms below 
sea surface (water, zone, mud). [f. LL 
abyssalis f. abyssus ; see abyss and -al] 

ac-, pref. to words in c-, k-, qu-. Properly 
the L assimilated form of ad- to, in addition. 
In passing through OF it became a- ; this being 
rectified later, ac- was mistakenly written also 
for a- representing other preff. (see a-), e.g. 
OE a- (on) in acknowledge. 

-ac, suf. forming adjj., which are often also 
(if not only) used as nouns. From Gk -akos, 
the modification of adj. suf. -kos appended to 
nouns in -ia, -ios, -ion, and imitated in L. E 
wds in -ac may be f. Gk (-akos), L (-acus), or F 
(-ague). 

aca'cia (-sha), n. Genus of trees, of Mimosa 
tribe, yielding gum arabic ; the Locust-tree 
or False Acacia, grown in England for orna- 
ment ; gum arabic. [L, f. Gk akakia ; perh. 
f. ake point (in ref. to its thorns)] 

a'cademe, n. (Prop.) = Academus (see aca- 
demy) ; (used by mistake in poetic style for) 
the Gk Academy, a college, university. [Gk 
Akademos see academy ; mistake perh. caused 
by Milton's ' grove of Academe ', P. R. iv. 144] 

academic, a. & n. Belonging to or agreeing 
with the philosophic school of Plato (academy), 
(w. ref. to some of his successors' views) 
sceptical; an ancient Platonist. Scholarly, 
(and by implication) abstract, unpractical, 
cold, merely logical ; (as sing, noun) member 
of a university, one too much enslaved to the 
principles (in painting &c.) of an academy; 
<as pi. noun) merely theoretic arguments, 
university robes. Of an academician or 
academy (a. rank), [f. med. L academic us 
see academy] 

academical, a. Belonging to a college 
or university ; (as pi. noun) college costume 
(commoner than academics), [prec. 4- -al] 

academically, adv. Theoretically, un- 
practically ; rarely also in any of the senses of 
the two precc. [prec. + -LY 2 j 

aca'demi'cian, n. Member of an Academy 
or art society, esp. of the Royal Academy of 
Painting &c. [f. F acadimicien f. med. L 
academicus (foil.) ; see -ian] 

Aea'demy, n. The garden near Athens in 
which Plato taught; Plato's followers or 
philosophical system; a place of study, in- 
cluding universities, but gen. used preten- 
tiously or depreciatingly of something between 
a school and a university ; a place of training 
in a special art (Royal Military A.) ; a society 
for cultivating literature, art, &c, of which 
membership is an honour, esp. the Royal A. of 
Painting &c. ; the R.A.'s annual exhibition, 
[f. F acadimie f. Lf. Gk akademeia (Akademos 
the man or demigod f. whom Plato's garden 
was named)] 

Aca'dian, a. & n. Nova-Scotian. [f. F 
Acadie Nova Scotia+ -an] 

-acal, compd suf. = -ac+ -al. Adjj. in -ac 
being often used as nouns also, -al was ap- 
pended to distinguish the adj. (demoniac, 
-acal), and even when there was no noun 
(heliacal). In adjj. -acal often differs f. -ac in 
suggesting looser connexion w. the orig. noun ; 



ACCENT 

e.g., cardiac arteries (of the heart), cardiacal 
herbs {having influence on the h.). 

a'caleph(e), n. Jellyfish, medusa, sea- 
nettle. [Gk akalephe nettle] 

acalyc- (akal- or akal-), stem of several bot. 
terms. Without calyx, [a- (7)+Gk kalux -ukos 
flower-cup] 

aca'nthus, n. A genus of plants, esp. Bear's 
Breech or Brank-Ursine ; a conventional repre- 
sentation of its leaf used in Gk architecture. 
Hence acanth(o)- comb. form. [L, f. Gk 
akanthos (akantha thorn f. ake point)] 

aca'psular, a. Not having capsule, [a- (7) 
+L capsula capsule+ -ar x ] 

acar'diac, a. (physiol.). Without a heart, 
[f. Gk akardios f. a- (l)+kardia heart+ -ac] 

aearpellous, a. Without carpels, [a- (7), 
carpel, -ous] 

acap'pous, a. (bot.). Not producing fruit. 
[a- (7)+Gk karpos fruit+ -ous] 

aeataleetie, a. & n. (A verse) not docked 
of a syllable, complete, [f. LL acatalccticus 
f. Gk akatalektos, see a- (7), catalectic)] 

aca'talepsy, n. Incomprehensibility 

(philos. term), the quality in the object answer- 
ing to agnosticism in the subject. So a cata- 
leptic a. [f. med. L f. Gk akatalepsia f . a- (7) + 
kata thoroughly +lepsis grasping (lab- st. of 
lambano take)] 

acau'lous, a. (also -e'seent, -ine, -ose) 
(bot.). Apparently stemless, having very short 
stem, [a- (7)+L caulis stem+ -ous] 

Acca'dian, a. & n. Of Accad in Shinar (Gen. 
x. 10) ; a language preserved in cuneiform in- 
scriptions. 

accede (-ks-), v.i. Enter upon (an office) ; 
join (a party) ; assent to (opinion or policy). 
Abs., or w. to if the office &c. is stated, in all 
senses, [f. L AC(cederc cess- come)] 

accelera'ndo (-ks-), musical direction. 
Gradually increase speed. [It.] 

accelerate (-ks-), v.t. & i. Make quicker; 
cause to happen earlier ; become swifter (of a 
motion or process), [f. obs. adj. accelerate f. 
L AC(celerare f. celer swift) ; see -ate 2 > 3 ] 

accelerated, a. (physics). Progressively 
quicker (a. motion). Hence aeceleratedLY 2 
adv. [p.p. of prec] 

accelerating", a. Causing progressively 
quicker motion (a. force), [-ing 2 ] 

acceleration (aks-), n. Making quicker; 
being made quicker. (Physics) rate of increase 
of velocity per time unit, as with falling bodies. 
(Astr.) a. of stars, time gained daily by them 
over sun ; a. of planets, increased velocity 
from aphelion to perihelion ; a. of moon, 
increase in speed of mean motion ; a. of tides, 
amount of local advance on calculated time, 
[f. L acceleratio (accelerate, -ion)] 

aeee'lerative, a. Tending to increase 
speed, quickening, [f. accelerate + -ive] _ 

accelerator, n. Person or thing that in- 
creases any thing's speed ; esp., one of a class of 
nerves and muscles, [accelerate + -or 2 ] 

a'eeent \ n. Prominence given to a 
syllable, whether by higher musical pitch 
(ancient Gk and L, Swedish and Norw.), or 
by stress (most mod. langg., but perh. not F). 
Three marks called acxde ('), grave ( v ), and 
circumflex C or *) accents (systematically em- 
ployed only in Gk, and to .a less degree in F) 
used for various purposes, e.g. to indicate 
syllabic pitch (Gk), quality of vowel sound 
(F), etymological hist. (F, E), metrical stress, 
syllabic stress (dictionaries &c), the fact of 
a letter's not being silent, or conventional 
distinction between homonyms (F). Indi- 
vidual, local, or national mode of pronuncia- 



ACCENT 



ACCOMMODATE 



tion; modulation to express feeling ; in pi., 
speech (poet.). (In prosody) rhythmical 
stress. (Mus.) stress recurring at intervals. 
(Fig.) intensity, sharp distinction. [F, f. L 
AC(centus -us = cantus singing) lit. transl. of 
Gk prosodia (pros to + ode song)] 

accent 2 , v.t. Pronounce with accent, em- 
phasize (word or syllable) ; put the written 
accents on ; heighten, make conspicuous, [f. 
obs. F accenter see prec] 

accentual, a. Of accent; a. prosody or 
verse, of which the principle is accent or stress, 
not quantity. Hence aeeentualLY 2 adv. 
[f. L accentus accent l + -al] 

accentuate, v.t. = accent 2 , but more used 
than it in the fig. sense, [f. med. L accentuare 
(accentus accent 1 ), -ate 3 ] 

acce'ntua'tion, n. Accenting (all senses 
from accent), [f. med. L accent uatio see ac- 
centuate, -ion] 

accept, v.t. Consent to receive (gift), 
answer affirmatively (offer, invitation, suitor) ; 
regard with favour (esp. unfair favour, as a. 
the person of, a. persons) ; receive as adequate 
(a. service of writ), allow the truth of, believe ; 
undertake (office) ; take responsibility for, 
agree to meet, (bill of exchange). Of may be 
added (exc. w. service of xvrit, bill) with a 
slight suggestion of formality or condescension. 
Hence aeeeptER 1 ^ [f. F accepter f. L ac- 
ceptare frequent, of AC(cipere = capere take)] 

acceptable (also a'-), a. Worth accepting, 
pleasing, welcome. Hence or cogn. ac- 
ce*ptabLY 2 adv., aeeeptaBiLiTY, acce'pt- 
ableNESS, nn. [F, f. L acceptabilis (accept, 
-able)] 

acce'ptance, n. Consent to receive (gift, 
payment, pleasure, duty) ; favourable recep- 
tion (act. & pass.), approval, belief; a. of 
persons, partiality ; engagement to meet a 
bill ; a bill so accepted. [OF ; see accept and 
-ance] 

acceptation, n. A particular sense given 
to a word or phrase"; its generally recognized 
meaning. [F, f. LL acceptationem (accept, 
-ation)] 

accepted, a. Generally recognized or 
believed in (Free & A. Masons, see free 1 - 
mason). Hence acceptedLY 2 adv. [-ed 1 ] 

acceptor, n. One who accepts a bill (pre- 
ferred to accepter in this sense). [AF acceptour 
f. L acceptorem (accept, -or 2 )] 

a'ceess (also -e's, see etym.), n. Approach; 
addition ; right or means of approaching (to) ; 
being approached (easy of a.); advance (a. 
and recess) ; passage, channel, doorway ; ad- 
hesion, growth, (usu. now accession) ; attack 
or outburst (of illness, anger, emotion). [The 
doubtful accent is due to double derivation. 
1. (sense attack, pron. a - -) f. F acces f. L ac- 
cessus n. f. AC(cedere cess- come) ; 2. (other 
senses, pron. akse's) direct f. L access us. The 
two pronunciations, however, have now 
ceased to be significant] 

a'ceessapy (also akse's-), n. & pred. a. (see 
also accessory). Helper in any act, one 
privy to it (as pred. a., be a., were made 
accessary) ; accompaniment, adjunct, [f. ac- 
cess + -ary ! formed as f. L access- like 
emissary, adversary, the adj. (first spelt 
-ary) being corrected later to -ory on L ac- 
cessoriiis drew the noun after it, and the two 
spellings are often confused] 

acce'ssible, a. Able to be reached or 
entered (abs., or to); open to influence, to the 
influence of, (to). Hence accessiBi'LiTY n., 
aeeessibLY 2 adv. [F, f. L accessibilis (ac- 
cede, -ble)] 



accession, n. Coming into presence or 
contact; coming into an office or condition 
(as manhood) ; being added ; assent ; thing 
added, addition ; (in law) improvement or 
natural growth of property. [F, f . L accessionem 
(accede, -ion)] 

a'eeessory (also akse's-), a. & n. (see 
also accessary). Additional, subordinately 
contributive (of things), adventitious ; a thing 
of that character, esp. in pi. the accessories. 
[f. LL accessorixis adj. (accede, -ory)] 

a'ceidence, n. The part of grammar, or a 
book, dealing with inflexions (i. e. the accidents 
or non-essentials of words) ; the elements of 
any subject, [corruption of accidents = F pi. n. 
accidens transl. of L neut. pi. accidentia the 
things that befall (a word), see accident ; or 
perh. direct f. accidentia treated as fern. sing, 
noun] 

a'ceident, n. Event without apparent cause, 
unexpected (so chapter of aa., unforeseen 
course of events) ; unintentional act, chance, 
fortune, (by a.) ; mishap ; irregularity in 
structure ; a property not essential to our 
conception of a substance (so of material 
qualities of bread and wine after transubstan- 
tiation) ; a mere accessory. [F, f. L accidens 
-entis part, and n. f. AC(cidere = cadere fall)] 

accidental, a. & n. Happening by chance, 
undesignedly, or unexpectedly ; occasional ;. 
not essential to a conception (so also an a. as 
n.) ; subsidiary. (Mus.) a, sharps, flats T 
naturals, and a. as noun, signs attached to- 
single notes, not in signature. (Optics) a, 
colours, those presented by subjective sensa- 
tion, not external. (In painting) a. lights, 
and accidentals as n., effects of other than 
ordinary day light. [F (now -el), prob. f. LL 
accidentalis f. accidens see prec] 

accidentally, adv. By ehance, uninten- 
tionally. [-LY 2 ] 

acei'pitpal (aksip-), a. Hawklike ; rapa- 
cious ; keensighted. [f. L accipitr- nom. -ter 
hawk + -al] 

acclai'm \ v. t. Applaud loudly or enthusias- 
tically; (w. obj. and compl.) hail as (king, 
winner, saviour; acclaimed him king), [f. L 
AC(elamare shout), spelling assimilated to 
claim] 

acclai'm 2 , n. Shout of applause, [f. prec] 

acclamation, n. Loud and eager assent to 
a proposal (voted, carried, by a.) ; shouting in 
a person's honour (usu. pi.), [f. L acclamatio 
(prec, -ation)] 

aeelima'tion, n. = acclimatization (see foil.), 
or distinguished from it as a natural process, 
not imposed on animals by man. [syncopated 
for acclimatation (acclimate f. F acclimater 

ACCLIMATIZE)] 

acclimatize (also a'cclimate), v.t. & i. 
Habituate (animals, plants, oneself) to new 
climate ; (rarely) become so habituated. Hence 
aecli'matizA'TioN (also acclimata'tion) 
n. [f. F acclimater (d to+climat climate) + 
-ize] 

aeelrvity, n. Upward slope of a hill (cf. 
declivity), [f. L acclivitas f. AC(clivis f. clivus 
slope)] 

accola'de (-ad or-ahd), n. Sign at bestowal 
of knighthood, whether embrace, kiss, or 
stroke on shoulder with flat of sword. (Mus.) 
vertical line or brace coupling staves. [F, f. 
It. accollata n. from p.p. st. of accollare (ac- + 
L collum neck)] 

aeeo'mmodate, v.t. Adapt (thing or person 
to another) ; prove such adaptation in, har- 
monize, (somet. w. implication of sophistry) i 
reconcile, settle differences between ; compose 



ACCOMMODATING 



8 



ACCOUTRE 



(quarrel) ; equip, supply, (person with) ; oblige, 
confer favour on ; find lodging for. [f. obs. 
adj. accommodate f. p.p. of L AC(commodare 
-at- f. commodus fitting = COM- + modus mea- 
sure)] 

aooo'mmodating , 9 a. Obliging, easy to 
•deal with, pliable, lax. Hence acco'mmo- 
datinffLYSadv., [-ing2] 
accommodation, n. Adjustment (e. g. of 
eyes for various distances) ; adaptation of any- 
thing to a purpose or meaning different from 
the original: self -adaptation ; settlement, com- 
promise ; serviceable thing, convenience (so in 
comp. as a.-road); lodgings, entertainment ; 
money loan (so in a. -bill *). [F f. L accommo- 
dationem (accommodate, -ion)] 
aceo-mpaniment (-urn-), n. Appendage, 
thing that attends another. (Mus.) subsidiary 
part vocal or instrumental, usu. the latter as 
used to support the voice, [f. F accompagne- 
ment (foil., -ment)] 

acco'mpany (-um-), v.t. Supplement (a 
thing with, as word w. blow) ; go with, escort, 
attend ; coexist with (of things), characterize. 
(Mus.) support (singer, player, piece) by per- 
forming additional part, whence aceo'm- 
paniST (also -nyist) n. After pass., by has 
almost ousted older with, now only used 
when accompanied = combined, [f. F accom- 
pagner (a to+compagne companion)] 

accd'mplice, n. Partner, usu. subordinate, 
in crime, [f. earlier & F complice (whether 
by mistake from a complice, cf. newt, or by 
assim. to foil.) f. L comphcem nom. -plex closely 
connected (com- +plic- fold)] 
accd'mplish, v.t. Fulfil, perform, com- 
plete, finish. Perfect (a person) in graceful 
acquirements, whence aeeo'mplishED 1 a. 
ff. OF acomplir f. LL AC(complere complete) ; 
gee^SH 2 ] 

acco'mplishment, n. Fulfilment, comple- 
tion ; thing done or attained, achievement ; 
faculty that perfects a person for society, 
(disparagingly) merely superficial acquire- 
ment, [f. F accomplissement ; see prec, 
-ment] 

aceompt, -ant, archaic for account, -ant. 
aeeop'd 1 , v.t. & i. Be in harmony or con- 
sistent (abs., or with ; chiefly of things) •, 
grant (indulgence, request, welcome, &c). [f. 
OF acorder f. LL AC(cordare f. cor cordis 
heart)] 

aeeop'd 2 , n. Consent (with one a.), mutual 
agreement ; treatj* of peace ; harmonious 
correspondence in "colour, pitch, tone ; assent 
(of one's own a.), [f. OF acord agreement («- 
corder accord 1 )] 

aceop'danee, n. Conformity, agreement, 
esp. in phr. in a. xcith. [OF acordance (as 
prec, -ance)] 

aeeop'dant, a. In tune, agreeing, (abs., or 
with). Hence aeeoP'dantLY 2 adv. [OF 
acordant as prec, -ant] 

! aceop'ding, adv. (only now in the compd 
conj. a. as, and the compd prep. a. to). A. 
as : in proportion as (of a process varying w. 
another) ; in a manner depending on which 
of certain alternatives is true. A. to: in a 
manner consistent with or degree proportioned 
to ; on the authority of. [-ing 2 ] 

aeeop'dingly, adv. As the (stated) circum- 
stances suggest ; therefore ; a. as = according 

as. [-LY 2 ] 

aeeop'dion, n. Portable musical instru- 
ment made of bellows, keys, and metal reeds. 
Hence aeeop'dioniST(3) n. [f. It. and LL 
accordare attune see ACCORD l ; termination 
imitated f. clarion] 



aeed'st \ v.t. Make up to and address, open 
conversation with. [f. F accoster f. LL ac- 
(costare f. costa rib)] 

aeed'st 2 , n. Greeting, opening remark, [f. 
prec] 

accowchement (-ooshmong, or as F), n. 
Lying-in, delivery m child-bed. [F] 
accoucheur' (-oosher), n. (fern, -exise pr. -erz). 
Man-midwife, midwife. [F] 
aeeou'nt 1 , v.t. & i. Consider, regard as, 
(followed by obj. & complement or infin. ; a. 
him a hero, wise, to be guilty). Be accounted 
of, be esteemed (alw. w. little, much, Sec). 
Account for: give reckoning (of money held 
in trust); answer for (conduct, performance 
of duty) ; explain the cause of ; serve as ex- 
planation of (that accounts for it) ; (sport) be 
responsible for the death of, kill. [f. OF aconter 
f. LL accomptare for *AC(compxitare L = com- 
pute) ; the form aceompt is due to 14th-c. 
correction in F passing into E, the oldest E 
being acunte (see AC-)] 

aeeou'nt 2 , n. (1) Counting, calculation, in 
phrr. cast accounts (reckon up), money of a. 
(names not of coins, but of sums, as guinea). 
(2) Reckoning of debit and credit, in money or 
service. Statement of money received and 
expended, with balance ; so open or close an 
a. with, render or send in, pay or settle, an a. ; 
a. current (whence a/c = account), one kept 
going w. occasional entries; joint a., in which 
two persons not otherwise partners count as 
one; keep aa., enter all expenditure for com- 
parison w. income ; balance or square aa. with 
some one, receive or pay the balance due ; cash, 
profit-and-loss, &c, a., headings of subdivision 
in ledger; sale for the a., on the Stock Exch., 
not for cash, but payable at next periodic 
settlement; A in a. xcith B, having credit 
relations with ; for a. of, to be sold for (person) ; 
OTi a., as interim payment; on one's a., for 
his service; on ones own a., for and at one's 
own purposes and risk, whence generally on a. 
of, because of, and on no a., by no means, 
certainly not. A favourable result of the 
reckoning, profit; find one's a. in, profit by, 
turn to a., make useful. Statement of ad- 
ministration as required by creditor ; ask, 
demand, yield, render, an a., call or bring to 
a. ; extended from money to conduct generally, 
so the great a., Day of Judgment, gone to his 
a., dead ; give a. of, find cause of, explain, (in 
sport) give a good a. of, dispose of (opponents, 
game) successfully. (3) Estimation. Person 
or thing of, or held in, some or no a. ; make 
little a. of; take into, leave out of, a. ; take a. 
of; lay one's a. with, include in one's calcu- 
lations, expect. (4) Narration, report, descrip- 
tion, of event, person, &c. [f. OF acont (a to 4- 
cont f. LL comptum for computum f. L com- 
putare compute)] 
aeeou'ntafole, a. Bound to give account, 
responsible, (for things, to persons, or abs.); 
explicable (somet. followed by for). Hence 
aeeountaBiLiTY, aeeoirntableNESS, nn., 

[f. ACCOUNT 1 + -ABLE] 

aeeou'ntant, n. (Law) one liable to render 
account; defendant in an action of account. 
Professional keeper and inspector of accounts : 
a.-general, chief a. in public offices; whence 
aeeoirntantSHiP n. [F (15th c.) accomptant 
part, of accompter OF aconter account 2 J 

aeeou'tpe (-ooter), v.t. (-tring, -tred). Attire, 
equip, esp. w. special costume (chiefly used in 
p.p.). [f. med. F accoustrer (now accoutrer) 
etym. dub., perh. AC- + coustre vestry-keeper 
and so rober which is perh. f. LL *cxistor f. 
custos guardian] 



ACCOUTREMENT 

accou'tpement (-obtrem-), n. (usu. in pi.). 
Equipment, trappings. (Mil.) soldier's outfit 
other than arms and garments, e. g. belt, straps, 
valise. [MF accoustrement (prec, -ment)] 

aeepe'dit, v.t. Gain belief or influence for 
(adviser, advice); send out (ambassador, &c.) 
with credentials to person, to or at a court; 
a. thing (saying, policy) to person, or a. him 
loith it, put it down to him. [f. F AC(crediter f. 
credit credit)] 

aeepe'dited, a. Officially recognized (per- 
sons); generally accepted, orthodox, (beliefs), 
[p.p. of prec] 

aeepe'te 1 , v.t. & i. Grow together or into 
one ; form round or on to, as round a nucleus ; 
attract (such additions), [f. L accret- p.p. st. of 
AC(cresce?'e grow)] 

aeepe'te 2 , a. (bot.). Grown into one with 
something else. [f. L accretus p.p. see prec] 

aeepe'tion, n. Growth by organic enlarge- 
ment; the growing of separate things (as 
particles) into one ; the whole resulting from 
this ; adhesion of extraneous matter to any- 
thing ; the matter so added ; (Law) == accession, 
also increase of legacy &c by share of failing 
co-legatee, [f. L accretio (accrete \ -ion)] 

accrue* (-00), v.i. Fall (to one, from a 
thing) as a natural growth, advantage, result ; 
esp. of interest on invested money. Hence 
accPUE'D 1 (2) a. [f. obs. accrue n. = F accrxie 
p.p. of accroitre OF acreistre f. L accrescere 

ACCRETE *] 

accumulate, v.t. & i. Heap up, gain by 
degrees, (usu. fig., a fortune, ill will, &c, or 
abs.), amass, make money; take (University 
degrees) by accumulation (obj. expressed, or 
abs.), i. e., more than one step at a time ; grow 
numerous, form an increasing mass or heap 
(lit. and fig., as dirt, disasters, had accumu- 
lated), [f. obs. accuvudate a. f. L &.c(cumidare 
f. cumxdus heap), -ate 2 > 3 ] 

accumulation, n. Collection (act. or 
pass.), amassing; money-making; growth of 
capital by continued interest ; combination of 
distinct acts into one (degrees, see prec, or 
church services &c); a mass (as snow, papers, 
property), [f. L accumxdatio (prec, -ion)] 

accumulative, a. Arising from accumu- 
lation (a. proof, evidence, now being ousted by 
cumulative); so arranged as to accumulate 
(sinking fund) ; acquisitive, given to hoarding. 
Hence aeeu'mulativeLY 2 adv. [as prec + 
-ive] 

accu'mulatop, n. One who collects; 
money-maker; taker of degrees by accumu- 
lation; apparatus for storing electricity. [L 
(as prec, -or 2 )] 

a'ccupate, a. Careful, precise, in exact 
conformity with a standard or with truth. 
Hence a*eeuPACY n., a'eeupateLV 2 adv. [f. 
L AC(curare f. cura care), -ate 2 ] 

accursed (-id), aecup'st, a. Lying under 
a curse, ill-fated ; involving misery, execrable, 
detestable, [p.p. f. obs. accxcrse earlier acurse 
(a- imitated as intensive f. OE ar- see a- (1) + OE 
cursian curse v.)] 

accu'sal, n. Sometimes used for foil. [f. ac- 
cuse + -al (2)] 

accusa'tion, n. Accusing ; being accused ; 
a charge of offence or crime ; indictment. [F, 
f. L accusationem (accuse, -ion)] 

accusative, a. & n. A. case (or a. as noun), 
the grammatical case used in Gk & L for the 
goal of motion or obj. of action ; in uninflected 
langg., applied to the wd that stands as obj., 
though with no mark of case. Hence ac- 
eusati'VAL adj., aeeu'sativeLY 2 adv. [F 
(-if, -ive), f. L accusativus lit, transl. of Gk 



j!J ACETATE D 

aitiatike causal (also accusing), the goal or 
obj. being the final cause of motion or action] 

accusatorial, a. A. procedure See., in 
which prosecutor and judge are not the same, 
opposed to inquisitorial, [as foil. + -al] 

accu'satopy, a. A. language, manner &c, 
conveying or implying accusation, [f. L ac- 
cxisatornus (foil., -ory)] 

accu'se (-z), v.t. Charge with a fault, indict, 
(person), whence p.p. as noun, the accused; 
blame, lay the fault on, (person or thing, as 
the times). A. as offender, of offence. Point 
to (subj. evidence, &c, obj. a person). Hence 
accu'SERi n., aeeu'singxY 2 adv. [earlier 
acuse f. OF acuser f. L AC(cusare-causare f. 
caxisa cause)] 

accu'stom, v.t. Habituate (oneself, person, 
or thing, to do or to; commoner in pass.), 
[earlier acustom (see AC-) f. OF acostximer (now 
accoutumer) (a to, custom)] 

accu'stomed, a. In vbl senses ; also, 
usual, [p.p. of prec in obs. sense make usual] 

ace, n. The one on dice ; ambs ace, throw of 
two ones, deuce ace, of two and one (formerly 
two ones); the one on dominoes, cards; one 
point at racquets &c ; the "smallest possible 
amount, hair's-breadth, as xcithin an ace of; 
ace-point, first or starting point on backgam- 
mon table. [F as f. L as unity] 

-acea, L suf. freely used to form names 
(neut. pi. agreeing w. animalia) for orders of 
animals; the names are L and pi., the sing, 
being supplied by E adjj. in -ace an used as 
noun ; so the Crustacea, a crustacean, [f. L 
-aceus (-ac- + -e-us) compd adj. formative] 

-aceae, L suf. freely used to form names 
(fern. pi. agreeing w. plantae) for orders pf 
plants, [f. -aceus see prec] 

-acean, a. & n. suf. As adj., = -aceous; as 
n., see -acea. [f. L -aceus see -acea + -an] 

Aceldama (-k-), n. Field of bloodshed, 
scene of slaughter. [Acts i. 19] 

-aceous, suf. freely used to form adjj. to the 
Xat.-Hist. nouns in -acea, -ace^e, as crustace- 
ous, rosaceous, [f. L -aceus see -acea + -ous] 

acephal-, stem of several bot., zool., & eccl. 
terms. Headless, [f. LL f. Gk akephalos f. a- 
(l)+kephale head] 

ace'phalous, a. Headless ; recognizing no 
chief; (Zool.) having no part of body specially 
organized as head; (Bot.) with head aborted 
or cut off; (in prosody), (verse) wanting the re- 
gular first syllable, [as prec. -f -ous] 

a'cerbate, v.t. Sometimes used for ex- 
acerbate. 

acep'bity, n. Astringent sourness, harsh 
taste ; bitterness of speech, manner, or temper, 
[f. F. acerbity f. L acerbitatem (acerbus sour- 
tasting, -ty)] 

a'cepvate, a. Growing in compact clusters 
(of spines, &c). [f. L acervare (acervus a 
heap), -ate 2 ] 

ace'scent, a. Turning sour, rather sour, lit. 
and fig. [f. L acescere inceptive of acere be 
sour (ac- sharp), -ent] 

aeet-, stem of many chem. terms. Vinegar. 
[L acetum vinegar (acere be sour)] 

acetabulum, n. (pi. -la). (Rom. antiq.) 
cup to hold vinegar. (Zool.) cup-shaped sucker 
of cuttle-fish, &c. ; socket of thighbone, or of 
joints in insects. [f. L acetum vinegar •+• 
-abulum dim. of -abrxim receptacle] 

acetap'ious, a. (Of plants) used in salads, 
[f. L acetaria salad plants, neut. pi. of acetaris 
(as acetic, see -ar 1 )+ -ous] 

a'cetated, a. Treated with acetic acid, 
[p.p. of acetate v. (acetic+ -ate 3 ) not otherwise 
used 1 



ACETIC 

ace'tie, a. Pertaining to vinegar, [f. L 
acetum v inegar+ -ic] 

aee'tify, v.t. &i. Convert into vinegar; be- 
come sour. Hence acetiFicA'TiON, aee'tifi- 
er 1 (2), nn. [as prec. + -fy] 

a'cetous, a. Having the qualities of vine- 
gar ; sour, [as prec. + -ous] 

aee'tylene, n. A colourless gas, burning 
with a bright flame, [as prec, see -yl and 
-ene] 

acharnement (F), n. Ferocity; gusto. 

Aeha'tes (-k-). Faithful friend of Aeneas 
(Verg. Aen.); any faithful friend. 

acne 1 (ak), v.i. SufFer continuous or pro- 
longed pain. [OE acan; earlier and correct 
spelling of the verb was ake] 

ache 2 (ak), n. Continuous pain. [OE sece f. 
acan v. ; earlier pronunciation of the noun was 
atsh (cp. bake batch, wake watch )] 

ache 3 (atsh), n. Name of letter H. 

aehie've, v.t. Accomplish, carry out; ac- 
quire ; reach (an end). Hence aehie'VABLE a. 
[f. F achever (a chef venirl. LL ad caput venire 
come to a head with)] 

achievement, n. Completion, accomplish- 
ment; thing accomplished; escutcheon or en- 
sign armorial in memory of a distinguished 
feat ; = hatchment, [f. F achevement (achever 
achieve)] 

achi'lous (-k-), a. (bot). "Without lips. [f. Gk 
-a- not+kheilos lip-f--ous] 

achlamy'deous, a. (bot.). Without calyx 
or corolla, [f. Gk a- not+khlamus -udos cloak 
+ -eous] 

aehpoma'tie, a, (opt.). Free from colour; 
transmitting light without decomposing it. 
Hence achpoma'tiCALLY adv., aehro- 
mati'ciTY, aehpo*matisivi(2), nn., aehro*- 
matiZE(3) v.t. [f. Gk akhromatos (a- not+ 
khroma -matos colour) + -ic] 

a'cid 1 , a. Sour; (Chem.) with the essential 

Eroperties of an acid 2 . So aei'diTY n. [f. 
i acidus (acere be sour)] 

a'cid 2 , n. A sour substance; (Chem.) one 
of a class of substances that neutralize and are 
neutralized by alkalis, and are compounded of 
hydrogen and another element or elements, and 
of which the principal types are sour and turn 
vegetable blues to reds. [f. prec] 

ael'dify, v.t. & i. Make, become, sour; 
(Chem.) convert into an acid. Hence aci'difi- 
able a., acidiFiCA'TiON, aci*difiER 1 (2), nn. 
[as acid, see -fy] 

aeidi'metep, n. Instrument for measuring 
strength of acids, [as prec, see -meter] 

aci'dulated, a. Made somewhat acid. [p.p. 
of acidulate v. (foil. + -ate 3 ), not otherwise 
used] 

aci'dulous, a. Somewhat acid. [f. L aci- 
dulus (dim. of acidus sour) + -ous] 

a'cinus, n. (pi. acini). One of the small berries 
that make up a compound fruit such as the 
blackberry ; the compound fruit itself ; seed 
of a grape or berry; (Anat.) racemose gland. 
Hence aci'niFORM a. [L, = berry, seed] 

-acious, suf. forming adjj. meaning 'in- 
clined to ', ' abounding in '. [f. L -ax -acis, 
added to rb stems to form adjj.,+ -ous] 
i -aeity, suf. forming nouns of quality corre- 
sponding to adjj. in -acious directly f. L 
-acitat- or thr. F -acite'. 

acknowledge (aknol-), v.t. Admit the 
truth of ; own (person &c to be something) ; 
recognize the authority or claims of ; recognize 
in legal form ; express appreciation of ; an- 
nounce receipt of ; reward (a service), [a- (2)+ 
knowledge ; or from the obs. nouo acknow- 
ledge] 



10 ACR E 

acknowledgment, -ement, n. Act of 
acknowledging ; thing given or done in return 
for a service, message, &c [prec. + -ment] 
acli'nic, a. A. line, magnetic equator, on 
which magnetic needle has no dip. [f. Gk 
aklines {a- not+klino bend) + -ic] 

a'cme, n. Highest point, point of perfection. 
[Gk,= point] 

a'cne, n. Pimple ; disease marked by pim- 
ples, [perh. corrupt, of acme] 

aco'ck, adv. (Of the hat) in cocked fashion ; 
defiantly, [a prep. + cock v.] 

a'eolyte, n. Inferior officer in the church ; 
attendant, assistant; novice, [f. Gk akoloiiihos 
follower] 

a'eonite, n. Monk's-head or wolf's-bane, a 
poisonous plant; extract from this. Hence 
aconi'tic a., aeo'nitiNE 5 n. [f. F aconit f. 
Gk akoniton (etym. dub.)] 

a'corn, n. Fruit of the oak ; a.-shell, multi- 
valve cirriped, allied to barnacles. [OE secern, 
perh. w. orig. meaning 'fruit of the open 
country ' (OE secer) ; conf us. w. com] 

aeotyle'don, n. Plant with no distinct 
seed-lobes. Hence aeotyledonous a. [f. 
mod. L acotyledones f. Gk a- not + kotuledon 
cup-shaped hollow (kotule cup)] 

acou'chy (-ooshi), n. Small rodent allied to 
guinea-pig. If. Facouchi, perh. f. native name 
in Guiana] 

acou'stic (-ow-), a. Pertaining to the sense 
of hearing. Hence acou*sticALa., aeoirstie- 
alLY 2 adv., aeoustrciAN, aeoirstics, nn. 
[f. F acoustique f. Gk akoustikos (akoud 
hear)] 

aequai'nt, v.t. Make (person, oneself,) 
aware of (ivith facts, that, hoiv, &c); make 
oneself familiar (with circumstances &c) ; 
(pass.) have personal knowledge of (with person 
or thing), [f. OF acointer f. LL ACcognitare 
f. cognit- p.p. st. of co(gnoscere come to 
know)] 

acquaintance, n. Knowledge of (with) 
person &c more than mere recognition and 
less than intimacy ; person(s) with whom one 
is acquainted (pi. now usu. -ances in this sense). 
Hence aequarntaneesHiP n. [f . OF acoint- 
ance (acointer acquaint)] 

acquest, n. Thing acquired; (Law) pro- 
perty gained otherwise than by inheritance, 
[f. OF acquest f. LL acquistum i. L acquisi- 
tum (see acquire)] 

acquie'sce (-ies), v.i. Agree tacitly ; a. in, 
accept (arrangements, conclusions). So ac- 
quie'seENCE n., aequie'scENT a. [f. MF 
acquiescer f. L AC(quiescere rest)] 

acquire*, v.t. Gain by oneself and for one- 
self; (of qualities &c.) win (person a good 
name &c) ; come into possession of; an ac- 
quired taste (not natural), [f. OF acquey^e f. 
L. AC(quirere quisit- = quaerere seek)] 

acquisition, n. Act of acquiring; thing 
acquired. So acqui'sitivE a. , aequi'sitive- 
ness n. [f. L acquisitio (as prec, see -ion)] 

acqui't, v.t. (-tt-). Pay (a debt); declare 
(person) not guilty (of offence) ; discharge one- 
self of (duty, responsibility) ; a. oneself (per- 
form one's part) ivell, ill, &c [f. OF aquiter f. 
LL *AC(qxdtare - L quietare settle f. quies -etis 
rest)] 

acqui'ttal, n. Discharge from debt ; deliver- 
ance from a charge by verdict &c. ; per- 
formance (of duty), [prec. + -al (2)] 

acqui'ttance, n. Payment of debt ; release 
from debt ; receipt in full. [f. OF^aquitance 
(aquiter acquit, see -ance)] 

acre (a'ker), n. Measure of land, 4,840 sq. 
yds ; piece of tilled or enclosed land, field (only 



ACREAGE 

in special uses, as broad act., GocVs A., Long 
A . ). Hence ( - )a*CPED 2 a. [f . OE secer, acer (cf . 
OHGj achar L ager Gk agros Skr ajras) tilled 
or enclosed land (orig. open country) ; adopted 
in med. L as acra, in OF as acre, hence mod. 
spelJing for the regular aker] 

acreage (a"kcrij), n. Amount of acres; 
acres collectively or in the abstract, [acre + 
-age] 

a'epid, a. Bitterly pungent, irritating, corro- 
sive ; of bitter temper or manner. Hence 
aeri'diTV n. [irreg. f. L acer -ais pungent-f 
-id, perh. assimilated to acid] 

a'crimony, n. Bitterness of temper or 
manner. So aerimo'nious a., aepimo'ni- 
OUSLY 2 adv. [f. L acrimonia pungency (acer 
-cris sharp ; see -mony) perh. thr. F aciimonie] 

A'epita, n. pi. (zool.). Animals with no dis- 
tinct nervous system, [mod. L f. Gk akritos 
undistinguishable (a- not+A;rmo distinguish)] 

acpo- in comb. Highest, topmost, terminal ; 
tipped with ; at the point or extremity of. [f. 
Gk akros topmost, outermost] 

a'cpobat, n. Rope-dancer, tumbler. Hence 
acpoba'tica., aepoba'ticALLY adv., a*ero- 
batiSM n. [f. F acrobate f. Gk akrobatos walk- 
ing on tiptoe, climbing aloft (acro- + batos 
vbl adj. f. baino go)] 

a'crogen, n. (bot.). Cryptogamous plant 
having perennial stem with growing point at 
extremity, as ferns and mosses. Hence aepo*- 
genous a. [acro- + Gk -genes born] 

a'epolith, n. Statue with head and extremi- 
ties of stone, [acro- + Gk lithos stone] 

acpd'nychal, a. Happening at nightfall 
(esp. of rising or setting of stars). Hence 
acpo'nyehalLY 2 adv. [f. Gk akronukhos 
(acro- + nux nuktos night) + -al] 

aepo'petal, a. Developing from below up- 
wards. Hence aePO'petalLY. 2 adv. [acro- 
+ L petere seek + -al] 

aepd'polis, n. Citadel or elevated part of 
a Greek city, esp. of Athens. [Gk akropolis 
(acro- +polis city)] 

acpo'ss, adv. & prep. In the form of a cross, 
as with arms a. ; forming a cross with, making 
angles with, (object expressed or understood), 
as a line drawn a. (the road) ; into contact 
with, as came a. a tiger, an instance; from 
side to side (of), as run a. (the road) ; on the 
other side (of), as by this time he is a. (the 
Channel), [a prep. + cross 1 ; Caxton has in 
cross f. F encroix] 

acpo'stic, n. Poem or other composition in 
which the initial (single a.), the initial and 
final (double a.), or the initial, middle, and final 
(triple a.) letters of the lines spell a word or 
words ; Hebrew poem of which the lines begin 
with the successive letters of the alphabet. 
Hence aepo'stie a., aero'stiCALLY adv. 
[acro- + Gk stikhos row, line of verse] 

act l , n. Thing done, deed ; process of doing, 
operation, as in the very a. of, A. of God 
(operation of uncontrollable natural forces) ; de- 
cree passed by a legislative body &c. ; main 
division of a play ; (in Universities) thesis main- 
tained by a candidate for a degree &c. [f. F 
acte f. L actus -us doing and f. L actum thing 
done ; see foil.] 

act 2 , v.t. & i. Perform a play or part ; per- 
sonate (character in a play or in life), as a. 
Othello, a. the fool; perform actions, behave, 
as a. (behave) generously, a. (serve) as in- 
terpreter, a. upon (execute) a suggestion, a. 
up to (put into practice) a principle ; perform 
special functions, as the policeman declined to 
a., the brake refused to a., alcohol acts on the 
brain, [f. L agere act- do] 



11 ACULEUS 

a'cting", a. In vbl senses, esp : doing duty 
temporarily, as A .-Captain ; doing alone duties 
nominally shared with others, as A.-Manager, 
-Trustee, [act 2 -f -ing 2 ] 

Acti'nia, n. (pi. -ae, -as). Genus of Zoophytes 
belonging to the family Actiniadae ; (pop.) 
sea-anemone, [mod. L f. Gk aktis -inos ray] 

actinism, n. That property of the sun's 
rays by which chemical changes are produced, 
as in photography. So acti'nic a. [as prec. + 
-ism] 

a'ction, n. Process of acting, exertion of 
energy or influence, as men of a., put in a., a. 
of an acid ; thing done, act ; (in drama) series 
of events represented ; mode of acting, manage- 
ment of body, &c, as a. of a player, horse, 
piano ; mechanism of an instrument ; legal pro- 
cess; engagement between troops. [F, f. L 
actionem (as act 2 , see -ion)] 

a'ctionable, a. Affording ground for an 
action at law. Hence a'etionabLY 2 adv. 
[action + -able] 

a'ctive, a. Given to outward action ; work- 
ing, effective ; energetic, diligent ; acting of 
one's own accord, acting upon others ; (Gram.) 
the active voice comprises all forms of intransi- 
tive verbs, and those forms of transitive verbs 
that attribute the verbal action to the person 
or thing whence it proceeds (the logical subject), 
as We punished him ; not, like the forms of the 
passive voice, to the person or thing to whom 
it is directed (the logical object), as He was 
punished by us. Less correctly, verbs are 
themselves called active. Hence activeLY 2 
adv. [F (-if, -ive), f. L activus (as act 2 , see -ive),; 
or direct f. L in theol. phr. vita activa] 

activity, n. Exertion of energy ; quality of 
being active, diligence, nimbleness ; (pi.) active 
forces, spheres of action, [f. F. activite f. med. 
L activitatem (as prec, see -ty)] 

a'eton, n. Jacket of quilted cotton worn 
under mail ; mail-plated jacket of leather &c. 
[f. OF auqueton (mod. hoqueton) padding, 
padded jacket, f. Sp. alcoton (mod. algodon) 
cotton f. Arab, al-qutun the cotton] 

a'ctop, n. Dramatic performer, whence 
a'ctPESS L n. ; (rarely) doer. [L, = doer, actor 
(as act 2 , see -or 2 )] 

a'ctual, a. Existing in fact, real; present, 
current. [f. F actuel f. LL actualis (actus 
vbl n. f. agere act 2 ; see -al)] 

aetua'lity, n. Reality ; realism ; (pi.) existing 
conditions, [f. med. L actualitas (as prec, 
see -ty)] 

a'ctualize, v.t. Realize in action ; describe 
realistically. Hence aetualizA'TiON n. [ac- 
tual + -ize] 

a'etually, adv. In actual fact, really ; for 
the time being ; even (strange as it may seem). 

[-LY 2 ] 

a'ctuapy, n. Expert authority on rates of 
mortality and other details of life, fire, or ac- 
cident insurance ; (formerly) registrar, notary. 
Hence actuap'iAL a. [f. L actuarius amanu- 
ensis, book-keeper (actus; see actual and 
-ary i)] 

a'ctuate, v.t. Communicate motion to (a 
machine &c); serve as motive to (person). 
Hence actUA'TiON n. [f. med. L actuare 
(actus, as prec, see -ate 3 )] 

acu'ity, n. Sharpness, acuteness (as of 
needle, acid, disease, wit), [f. F acuite f. med. 
L acuitatem (acus -us needle ; see -ity)] 

acu'leate (-at), acu'leated, aa. (Zool.) 
having a sting; (Bot.) prickly; pointed, in- 
cisive, [f . L aculeatus ( aculeus, see -ate 2 )] 

acu'leus, n. (pi. -I). (Zool.) sting; (Bot.) 
prickle. [L aculeus sting, dim. of acus needle] 



ACUMEN 



12 



ADDUCT 



acu'men, n. Keen discernment, penetra- 
tion. [L acumen -minis anything sharp (acuere 
sharpen)] 

acu'minate 1 (-at), a. (nat. hist.). Tapering 
to a point, [f. L acuminare (prec), see -ate 2 ] 

aeuininate 2 , v.t. Sharpen, point; give 
poignancy to. Hence aeuminATiON, n. [as 
prec, see -ate 3 ] 

aeu'te, a. Sharp, pointed ; (of angles) less 
than a right angle ; (of diseases) coming sharply 
to a crisis, opp. to chronic ; (of sensations, senses, 
intellect) keen ; (of sounds) high, shrill ; (of 
letters) bearing the acute accent. Hence 
aeu'teLY 2 adv., acu'teNESS. n. [f. L acuere 
-ut- sharpen] 

acuti- in comb. Sharp, as -foliate sharp- 
leaved, -lobate sharp-lobed. [L comb, form of 
acutus acute] 

-aey, suf. forming nouns of state or quality 
from or modelled on L -acta or -alia or Gk 
-ateia, (1) n. of quality f. L -aci-a f. adjj. in 
-aci- : fall- deceive fall-aci- deceitful fall-aci-a 
fallacy. (2) n. of state or quality f. L -ati-a f. 
nouns in -at- (nom. -as, -i- being part of stem 
or connecting link) : med. L primat- primati-a 
primacy ; and by analogy supremacy. (3) n. of 
state f. med. L -ati-a f. nouns in -atus : ad- 
vocat-us advocat-ia advocacy ; and by analogy 
curacy. This formation was extended to adjj. 
f. L -atus to form accuracy, obstinacy, from 
accurate, obstinate, where L has nouns in -atio ; 
hence other L words in -atio appear in E with 
■acy where E has no corresponding adj. in -ate, 
as conspiracy; similarly, E -acy for L -atus 
(n. of 4th decl.), as magistr-atus magistracy, 
gives rise to episcopacy as if f. E episcopate ; 
and lunacy is formed to match lunatic on anal. 
ol diplomacy diplomatic. (4) n. of state, through 
L, f. Gk -ateia f. n. in -ates or vb in -ateuein: 
peirates peirateia piracy. 

ad-, pref. (1) f. L ad to, with sense of motion 
or direction to, change into, addition, adher- 
ence, increase, or mere intensification. Before 
cfglnpqrst, and prob. before b, ad was in 
later L assimilated ; before vowels and d h j 
m v, it was unchanged. In OF, L ad, wherever 
recognized as such, became a-, even before 
vowels, as aorner f. L adornare ; but later 
the spelling was Latinized, sometimes with 
changed pronunciation, both in F and still 
more in E, where the OF forms had been 
adopted. (The use of ad-, ab-, in pairs like 
adoral, aboral, situated at and aicay from 
mouth, is unknown to L.) (2) The pedantic 
spelling ad- for a- was sometimes extended to 
a- coming not from L ad- but f. L ab- (advance 
F. avancer L ab-anteare), f. OF en- (addebted 
OF endeM), f. OF es- f. L ex- (affray OF es- 
frayer), f. OE a- (accurse ME a-curse), &c; so 
admiral f. Arab, amiral. New native com- 
pounds with E a- were falsely spelt in the same 
way. 

-ad, suf. of nouns. (1) f. Gk -ad- (nom. -as), 
in collective numerals (monad, dyad, triad, 
chiliad, myriad) ; in fern, patronymics (Dryad, 
Naiad) ; in names qf poems (Iliad, and by anal. 
Dunciad, Rosciad) ; and in family names of 
plants (liliad, asclepiad). (2) f. F -ade ; see the 
more usual -ade. 

a'dage (-Ij), n. Traditional maxim, proverb. 
[F, f. L adagium (ad to +agi-, root of aio I say)] 
\ ada'gio (adahj-), adv. a., n., (mus.). Leisurely; 
(n.) adagio movement. [It.] 

A'dam, n. The first man; old A. (unre- 
generate condition), A.'s ale or wine (water), 
A.'s apple (projection of the thyroid cartilage 
of the larynx). [Heb. a-dam man] 

a'damant, n. A thing impenetrably hard ; 



(formerly) loadstone ; diamond. Hence ada- 
ma'ntiNE 2 a. [f. OF adamaunt i. L adaman- 
tem (nom. -mas) f. Gk adamas -mantos un- 
tamable (a- not+damao I tame) ; used in Gk 
of the hardest metal, prob. steel ; in med. L of 
the loadstone, from confusion with ad-ama li- 
tem having an attraction for ; from 17th cent., 
often a synonym for diamond] 

A'damite, n. Child of Adam, human being ; 
unclothed man; (Eccles.) name of sects who 
imitated Adam in this respect; (pi.) a section 
of humanity supposed by some to be alone de- 
rived from Adam. [adam+ -ite] 

ada'pt, v.t. Fit (a thing to another) ; make 
suitable (to or for a purpose). Hence or cogn. 
adaptaBiLiTV, adaptATiON, nn., ada'pt- 
able, ada'ptiVE, aa. [f. F adapter f. L ad- 
(aptare f. apt us fit)] 

ad capta'netum (vu'lgus), adv. &a. (Cal- 
culated) to take the fancy (of the rabble). [L] 

add, v.t. & i. Join (one thing to another), 
as a. your entreaties to mine, a. insult to in- 
jury, this adds to (increases) our difficulties, he 
added (stated further) that—, a. up or to- 
gether (find the sum of), a. (perform the pro- 
cess of summation) cori^ectly, a. in (include), 
[f. L AD(dere dit- = dare putfi 

addendum, n. (pi. -da). Thing to be added ; 
appendix, addition. [L gerundive of addere 
add] 

a'dder, n. Small venomous snake, esp. 
Common Viper; Puff, Death, Horned, A., 
species of Viperidae; Flying A., dragon-fly; 
A.'s tongue, genus of ferns, [f. OE nxdre (cf. 
OLG nadra, OHG natra) serpent ; n- lost in 
ME by wrong division of a naddre into an 
addre ; nedder survives in dial.] 

addi'ct, v.t. Devote, apply habitually, (to a 
practice), as his tastes a. him, he addicts him- 
self or his mind, he is addicted, to ; (Rom. Law) 
deliver over by sentence of a judge. So ad- 
di'etiON n. [f. L &r>(dicere diet- say) assign] 

addi'tion, n. Process of adding ; thing 
added. [F, f. L additionem (as add, see -ion)] 

additional, a. Added, supplementary. 
Hence addi'tionalLY 2 adv. [prec. + -al] 

a'ddle \ a. A. egg, rotten one, one that pro- 
duces no chicken ; empty, vain ; muddled, un- 
sound, as a.-brained, -head, -pated. [f. OE 
adela mud (cf. MLG adele G adel) ; now used 
only as adj.] 

a'ddle 2 , v.t. & i. Muddle, confuse ; (of eggs) 
grow addle, [f. prec] 

a'ddled, a. Made addle, [addle a. assim. to 
p.p. form, apparently before addle v. existed] 

address J , v.t. Communicate with (by word 
or letter), as a. myself or my remarks or a 
letter to a person, a. an audience, a. a letter 
(write on cover directions for delivery) to a 
person; apply oneself to (a task). [f. F 
adresser f. LL *AV(drictiare f. drictum for 
directum direct)] 

addre'ss 2 , n. Readiness, skill, dexterity, 
adroitness ; superscription of letter, name of 
place to which person's letters are directed ; 
act of dispatching a ship; manner, bearing, 
in conversation ; (pi.) courteous approach, 
courtship, [f. prec. and f. F adresse n. f. 
adresser) 

addressee*, n. Person to whom a letter is 
addressed, [address l + -ee] 

addu'ee, v.t. Cite as proof or instance. 
Hence addireeABLE, addu'eiBLE, aa. [f. L 
AT>(diccere duct- lead)] 

addu'eent, a. (physiol.). (Of muscles) draw- 
ing to a common centre, [as prec, see -ent] 

addu'et, v.t. (physiol.). Draw to a common 
centre, [as adduce] 



ADDUCTION 



13 



ADMEASURE 



addu'ction, n. Act of adducing; act of 
adducting. [F, f. L adductionem (as prec, see 

-ION)] 

-ade, suf. of nouns. (1) f. F -ade, the form in 
which Pr., Sp., or Port, wds in -ada f. L -ata 
(fern. sing. p.p. of verbs in -are) were adopted 
in F, often supplanting native F -be direct f. 
L, as in accolade OF acolee. Now a living suf. 
both in F wds, many of which are borrowed 
by E {tirade, gasconnade), and in E (blockade, 
orangeade) ; E drops F e in ballad, salad. 
Meanings : action done (tirade, fusillade), body 
concerned in action or process (ambuscade, 
cavalcade), thing produced by action or from 
material (masquerade, lemonade). (2) f. ¥ -ade 
f. Gk -ada (nom. -as), as decade ; but in E usu. 
-ad. (3) f. Sp. or Port, -ado, masc. form corr. 
to (1) above, with similar meaning (brocade), 
or that of the person affected (renegade). 
a'denoids, n. pi. Mass of spongy tissue 
between back of nose and throat, often hinder- 
ing inflation of lungs, [f . Gk aden -enos acorn, 
gland] 

adept, n. & a. (One who is) thoroughly pro- 
ficient (in anything), [f. L adeptus p.p. of 
AT>(ipisci = apisci f. root ap-) attain, used in 
med. L as title by alchemists who 'had attained ' 
the great secret] 

a'dequate, a. Proportionate (to the require- 
ments); sufficient. Hence a'dequACY n., 
adequateLY 2 adv. [f. L Avaequare make 
equal (aequus), see -ate 3 ] 
a deux (F), adv. & a. For two ; between 
two. 

adhere*, v.i. Stick fast, cleave, to (a sub- 
stance, person, party, opinion), [f. L ad- 
(haerere haes- stick)] 

adher'ent, a. & n. Sticking (to substance) ; 
due to ; connected with (to) ; (n.) supporter (of 
party &c). So adhep'ENCE n. [f. F adherent 
(as prec, see -ent)] 

adhe'sion, n. Adhering (lit. and fig.) ; give 
in one's a., announce ones concurrence, [f. 
F adhesion f. L adhaesionem (as adhere, see 

-ION)] 

adhesive, a. Having the property of ad- 
hering ; sticky. Hence adhe'siveLY 2 adv. 
[f. F adhesif, -ive (as adhere, see -ive)] 

adhi'bit, v.t. Put on, affix ; apply, ad- 
minister, (remedies). So adhibi'tiON n. [f. 
L AT>(hibere Mbit- = habere hold) employ] 

ad hoc, a. Arranged for this purpose, special. 

a'diaba'tie, a. (physics). Impervious to 
heat, maintaining a constant temperature. 
Hence a*diaba*tiealLY 2 adv. [f. Gk adia- 
batos impervious (a- not-hdia through+ba£os 
passable f. baino go) + -ic] 

adia'ntum, n. Genus of ferns including the 
True Maidenhair; {pop.) Black Maidenhair. 
[L, f. Gk adianton maidenhair, lit. un wetted (a- 
not +diaino wet)] 

adia'phorism, n. Latitudinarianism. So 
adia'phoriST n. [f. Gk adiaphoros (a- not 
+diaphoros different f. dia apart+j>/terdbear) 
+ -ism] 

adieu (adu - ), int. & n. Good-bye ; make, 
take, one's a., say good-bye. [F (d to+Dieu 
God)] 

ad infinitum, adv. Without limit, forever. 
[L] 

ad i'nterim, adv. & a. For the meantime. 
[L] 

a'dipoeere, n. Greyish fatty substance 
generated in dead bodies subjected to moisture. 
[f. F adipocire (L adeps -ipis fat-f- -o- -Voire 
wax f. L cera)] 

a'dipose, a. & n. Pertaining to fat, fatty ; 



(n.) animal fat. Hence adipo'siTY n. [f. 
L adeps -ipis fat+ -ose] 

a'dit, n. Approach; (of mines) horizontal en- 
trance ; act of approaching, [f. L Amtus -us 
(ire it- go)] 

adja'eent, a. Lying near, contiguous. So 
adja'CENCY n. [f. L AD(jacere lie), see -ent] 

a'djeetive, a. & n. Additional, not standing 
by.itself, dependent : a. colours (not permanent 
without a basis); Law A. (subsidiary part of 
law, procedure) ; (Gram.) a., noun a., the name 
of an attribute, added to the name of a thing 
to describe the thing more fully. Hence ad- 
jeetrvALa^adjeeti'valLYSja'djeetiveLY 2 , 
advv. [F (-if, -ive), f. L adjectivus f. AT>(jicere 
ject- = jacere throw), see -ive] 

adjoi'n, v.t. Join, unite, (one thing to 
another) ; be contiguous with. [f. OF ajoindre 
f. L AT>(jungere junct- join)] 

adjoup'n (-era), v.t. & i. Put off, postpone 
postpone further proceedings ; (intr., of persons 
met together) suspend joint proceedings and 
separate ; change the place of meeting. Hence 
adjou'pnMENT n. [f. OF ajorner f. LL ad- 
jurnare appoint a day (jum-vis day, cf. It. 
giorno F jour, f. L diurnus daily f. dies 
day)] 

adju'dge, v.t. Adjudicate upon (a matter) ; 
pronounce judicially (that a thing is or a thing 
to be) ; condemn (person to penalty or to do) ; 
award judicially (thing to person). Hence 
adju'dg-MENT n. [f. OF ajuger (as foil.)] 

adju'dicate, v.t. & i. (Of a judge or court) 
decide upon (claim &c.) ; pronounce (person to 
be something); (intr.) sit in judgment and 
pronounce sentence. Hence adjudicA'TiON, 
adju'dieatOR 2 , nn., adju'dieatiVE a. [f. 
L AD(jndicare f. judex -ids judge), see -ate 3 ] 

a'djunet, n. Subordinate (thing, person, 
to another); personal enhancement; (Gram.) 
amplification of the predicate, subject, &c. ; 
(Logic) non-essential attribute. Hence ad- 
jirnetivE a., adjirnetiveLY 2 adv. [f. L as 
adjoin] 

adjure* (-joor), v.t. Charge (a person) under 
oath or penalty of curse (to do) ; request 
earnestly. Hence adjupATiON n. [f. L ad- 
(jurare swear) in LL sense ' put person to an 
oath '] 

adju'st, v.t. Arrange, put in order; har- 
monize (discrepancies) ; adapt (to standard or 
purpose). Hence adju'stABLE a., adju'st- 
ment n. [f. 16th-c. F adjuster (mod. Fajuster) 
f. med. L adjustare (not, as was thought, ad 
+justus just, but)f. OF ajxister, ajouster (mod. 
F ajouter) f. LL AT>(juxtare bring together f. 
juxta near) ; those meanings of OF ajuster that 
seemed connected with L Justus being given 
to the new adjuster, formed when the conn, 
of OF ajuster with adjustare came to be con- 
cealed by the new spelling ajouter] 

ad j u'tage, aj-, n. Mouthpiece of an artificial 
fountain, [f. F ajoutage (ajouter add, join ; 
see prec. and -age)] 

a'djutant, a. & n. Assistant ; (Mil.) officer 
in the army who assists superior officers by 
communicating orders, conducting correspon- 
dence, &c, whence a'djutancY n. ; gigantic 
Indian stork, [f. L adjutare frequent, as foil., 
see -ant] 

a'djuvant, a. & n. Helpful, auxiliary ; 
person, thing, that helps. [F, f. L Ai>(juvare 
jut- help), see -ant] 

ad fi'bitum, adv. (abbr. ad lib.). At pleasure, 
to any extent. [L] 

admea'supe (-zher), v.t. Apportion, assign 
in due shares, [f. OF amesurer f. LL ad- 
(mensurare measure)] 



ADMEASUREMENT 



admeasurement, n. Process of admea- 
suring ; comparison ; dimensions, [f . OF a- 
mesurement (as prec, see -ment)] 

adminicle, n. Auxiliary ; (Law) corrobora- 
tory evidence. Hence admini'culAR x a. [f. 
JjADmdniculum prop (?namis hand)] 

admi'nistep, v.t. & i. Manage (affairs) ; 
dispense (justice, sacraments, to) ; tender (oath 
to) ; furnish, give, (thing to) ; apply (remedies 
to) ; (intr.) act as administrator; contributed 
(one's comfort &c). Hence admi'nistrABLE 
a. [f. OF aministrer f. L xn(ministrare min- 
ister)] 

administration, n. Management (0/ busi- 
ness) ; management of public affairs, govern- 
ment; the ministry, the Government; (Law) 
management of deceased person's estate ; Let- 
ters of A., authority to administer estate of 
an intestate, opp. to probate ; dispensation (of 
justice, &c); tendering (of oath); application 
(of remedies), [(perh. thr. F) f. L administratio 
(as prec, see -ation)] 

administrative, a. Pertaining to manage- 
ment of affairs; executive. Hence admi'ni- 
strativeL y 2 adv. [f. L administrativus (as 
prec, see -ive)] 

administrator, n. Manager ; one capable 
of organizing ; one who performs official duties 
(of religion, justice, &c.) ; applier or giver (of) ; 
one authorized to manage estates for legal 
owner during minority, &c, or estates of one 
who dies without appointing competent execu- 
tors. Hence admi'nistratorsHip, admi'n- 
istraTRix, nn. [L, as administeRj see -or 2 ] 

a'dmirable(-mer-), a. Surprisingly good, ex- 
cellent. Hence a'dmirabLY 2 adv. [F, f. L 
admirabilis (as admire, see -able)] 

a'dmiral (-mer-), n. Commander-in-chief of 
a country's navy (in England, formerly Lord 
High A.); naval officer of highest rank, com- 
mander of fleet or squadron ; A. of the Fleet, 
A., Vice- A., Rear- A., the four grades of A. in 
England ; privileged commander of fishing or 
merchant fleet; ship that carries the a., Flag- 
ship ; Red A., White A., two European species 
of butterfly. Hence a'dmiralSHip n. [f. OF 
amiral f. Arab, amir commander al of the 
(Faithful, Sea, &c), Latinized as amvralis, but 
refashioned (see ad-) as admiralis, and con- 
fused with L admirari wonder at, whence 
med. L admirabilis mundi ruler of the world] 

a'dmiralty, n. Office of admiral ; branch 
of the executive that superintends the navy 
(in England, Lords Commissioners of A.) ; 
Court of A., tribunal for trial and decision of 
maritime questions and offences, [f. OF ad- 
miralty ; see admiral and -ty] 

admira'tion (-mer-), n. Pleased contempla- 
tion ; (formerly) wonder ; the a. of, admired by ; 
note of a. (!). [F, f. L admirationem (as foil., 
see -ation)] 

admire*, v.t. Regard with pleased surprise 
or approval; (formerly) wonder at, wonder, 
[f. F admirer f. L \D(mirari wonder at)] 

admir'er, n. One that admires ; lover, [ad- 
MIRE+-ER 1 ] 

admi'ssible, a. (Of idea or plan) worthy 
to be entertained; (law) allowable as judicial 
proof; capable of being admitted (to office or 

Eosition). Hence admissiBi - LiTY n. [F, f. 
L admissibilis (as admit, see -ble)] 
admi'ssion, n. Admitting, being admitted, 
(to society of persons or class of things); ac- 
knowledgment (of thing as true, that it is 
true), [f. L admissio (as foil., see -ion)] 
admi'ssive, a. Tending to admit, [f. L 
admissivus (as foil., see -ive)] 
admi't, v.t. & i. (-U-). Allow (person &c) en- 



1 * ADORER 

trance or access (to place, class, privileges, &c) ; 
accept as valid or true, whence admi'ttedLY 2 
adv. ; acknowledge (thing to be, that it is) ; 
(abs.) this, I admit, was wrong; (of enclosed 
spaces) have room for; a. of, leave room for 
(doubt, improvement), [f. F admettre f. L. 
XD(mittere miss- let go)] 

admi'ttable, a. Capable of being admitted 
(usu. to a place), [prec. + -able] 

admittance, n. Admitting, being admitted, 
(usu. to a place). [admit+-ance] 

admi'x, v.t. & i. Add. as an ingredient; 
mingle (with something). So admi'xtURE n. 
[ad-+mix; perh. due to admixt, really f. L 
admixt- p.p. of xT>(miscere mixt- mix),* but 
taken for an E p.p.] 

admd'nish, v.t. Exhort (person to do, that 
he should do); give advice; warn (of a thing); 
inform, remind, (of a thing, that). Hence ad- 
mo*nishMENTn. [OEamonestf. OF amonester 
f. LL admonestare irreg. f. AD(m,onere monit- 
warn) ; amonest having dropped final -t (sup- 
posed to be p.p. ending) became admonish on 
anal, of aboliss abolish &c] 

admoni'tion, n. Admonishing ; warning, 
reproof. So admo'nitORY a. [E OF amoni- 
tion f. L admonitionem (as prec, see -ion)] 

act nau'seam. adv. To a disgusting extent. 
[LJ 

adno'minal, a. Belonging to an adnoun; 
attached to a noun. [f. L adnomen variant of 
agnomen in the sense (not L) 'attached to a 
noun' (ad to+ nomen noun)] 

a'dnoun, n. Adjective, word added to a 
noun substantive; adjective used substan- 
tively. [L L ad to+NOUN on anal, of adverb] 

ado* (-00), n. Action, business, fuss ; difficulty, 
[f. Norse at ( — to with infinitive)-}- do; much 
ado prop. =much to do; but much being taken 
as adj., ado is treated as n.] 

-ado, suf. of nouns. (1) f. Sp. or Port, -ado 
f. L -at us p.p. of vbs in -are, as desperado L 
desperatus (desperare); sometimes changed 
in E to -ode, as renegado, now renegade. (2) 
Ignorant refashioning of nouns in -ade f. F 
-ade — Sp. -ada It. -ata, as crusado Sp. cruzada, 
scalado Sp. escalada. 

adole'scent (-esnt), n. & a. (Person) growing 
up, between childhood and manhood (11 to 
25) or womanhood (12 to 21). So adole'SGENCE, 
-ency, nn. [F, f. L AD(o"escere ult- incept, of 
olere grow), see -ent] 

Ado'nis, n. Beautiful youth loved by 
Venus; beau, dandy; (Bot.) genus including 
Pheasant's Eye ; (Entom.) the butterfly Clifton 
Blue. [Gk, '£. Phoen. adon lord, title of a 
divinity] 

a'donize, v. refl. & i. Adorn, dandify, (one- 
self) ; play the Adonis. [adonis+-ize] 

ado'pt, v.t. Take (person) into a relationship 
he did not previously occupy; take (idea, &c) 
from some one else; choose. Hence adopt- 
aBi'LiTY, ado'ptiON, nn., ado'ptABLE a. [f. 
F adopter f. L AD(optare choose, frequent, 
of obs. opere opt- wish) adopt esp. child] 

ado'ptive, a. Due to adoption, as a. son, 
father; apt to adopt. Hence ado'ptiveLY 2 
adv. [F (-if, -ive), f. L adoptivus ; see prec. and 
-ive] 

adore*, v.t. Regard with the utmost respect 
and affection; (poet.) worship as a deity; (in 
R. C. Church) reverence with representative 
honours (the Host &c). So ador'ABLE a., 
ador*abLY 2 adv., adorA'TioNn. [f. F adorer 
f. L AD(orare speak f. os oris mouth) salute 
worship] 

ador'er, n. "Worshipper; ardent admirer, 
lover. [prec-f-ER 1 ] 



ADORN 



15 



ador*n, v. t. Add beauty or lustre to ; furnish 
with ornaments. So ador'nMENT n. [f. F 
adorner f. L \T>(ornare furnish) deck out] 
adow'n, ad v. & prep, (archaic.poet. ). = do wn 3 . 
[f. OE of dime off the mount (see down 1 n.)] 

ad rem, adv. & pred. a. To the point ; to 
the purpose. [L] 

adri'ft, adv. In a drifting condition, at the 
mercy of wind and tide or of circumstances. 
[a prep.+DRiFT 1 ] 

adroi't, a. Having address, dexterous. 
Hence adroi'tLY 2 adv., adroi'tNESS n. [F, 
orig. = rightly (a to+droit right f. OF dreit 
f. LL drictiim f. L direction right; see di- 
rect 2 )] 

adry", adv. & pred. a. Dry; thirsty, [a- 
+DRY 1 on anal, of aeold, at hirst, the prep, a in 
these being misunderstood] 

adseiti'tious, a. Adopted from without; 
supplemental, [f. L AT>(sciscere seit- inceptive 
of scire know) + -itious] 

adscriptus gle'bae, a. & n. (Serf) at- 
tached to the soil. [L] 

a'dsum, v.i. I am here. [L] 

a'dulate, v.t. Flatter basely. So adu- 
Ia'tion, a'dulatOR 2 , nn., a'dulatORY a. 
[f. L adulari faAvn on, see -ate 3 ] 

Adu'llamite, n. M.P. seceding from Liberal 
Party in 1866. [Adullam (1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2)+ 
-ite] 

adu'lt, a. & n. (One who is) grown up; 
mature, [as adolescent] 

adu'lterant, a. & n. (Thing) employed in 
adulterating, [as foil., see -ant] 

adu'lterate 1 (-at), a. Stained (in conduct 
or in birth) by adultery ; (of things) spurious, 
counterfeit, [as foil., see -ate 2 ] 

adu'lterate 2 , v.t. Falsify by admixture of 
baser ingredients. So adulter a # tion, adu'l- 
teratOR 2 , nn. [f. L adidterare corrupt (a- 
dulter adulterer, perh. f. ad to+alter other); 
replaces obs. vb adulter f. OF] 

adu'lterer, n. One guilty of adultery. So 
adu'ltePESS 1 n. [f. adulter v. (see prec. and 
-er 1 ); obs. adulter, avouter, are f. OF avoutre 
f. L adulter] 

adu'lterme, a. Of, born of, adultery; a- 
dulterated, counterfeit ; illegal, unlicensed, [f. 
L adulterinus born of adultery, spurious 
{adidter adulterer, see -ine 1 )] 

adu'ltery, n. Voluntary sexual intercourse 
of married person with one of opposite sex, 
married (double a.) or not (single a.). So 
adu'lterous a., adu'lterousLY 2 adv. [f. 
OF avoutrie, aiilterie (L adulter adulterer, 
see -y 1 ), reformed on F adultere f. L adulte- 
i rivm] 

adu'mbral, a. Overshadowing, shady, [f. 
ad- + L umbra shade + -al] 

a'dumbrate, v.t. Represent in outline; 
faintly .indicate; typify, foreshadow; over- 
shadow. Hence or cogn. adumbrAHON n., 
adu'mbraTiVE a. [f. L &D(umbrare f. umbra 
shade), see -ate 3 ] 

ad un'auem (fa'ctus), a. Highly finished. 
[L] 

adu'st, a. Scorched,'dried up, parched ; sun- 
burnt; atrabilious, gloomy, [f. L.AD(z*rere ust- 
burn)] 

ad valor-em, adv. & a, (Of taxes) in pro- 
portion to estimated value of goods. [L] 

adva'nee 1 , v.t. & i. Move or put forward; 
promote (plans, persons) ; bring forward (claims, 
suggestions) ; accelerate (events) ; pay (money) 
before it is due ; lend ; raise (price) ; (intr.) move 
forward; make progress; rise (in price) ; (p.p.) 
far on in progress, as advanced studies, ideas. 
So adva'neeMENT n. [f. OF avancer f. LL 



ADVERSE 

abanteare (abante = ab away + ante before, 
whence F avant ; see ad-)] 

adva'nee 2 , n. Going forward; progress; 
personal approach, overture; rise in price; 
payment beforehand, loan; in a., before (of 
place or time), [f. prec. and f. F avance n. (as 
prec.)] 

advantage 1 (-ij), n. Better position, prece- 
dence, superiority; favourable circumstance, 
whence advantageous a., advanta*- 
g-eousLY 2 adv. ; (in Tennis) next point or game 
won after deuce points or games; have the a. 
of, gain an a. over, have, acquire, a better 
position than ; take a. (avail oneself) of a cir- 
cumstance; take a. of (overreach) a person; 
take a person at a. (by surprise) ; a.-grounct 
(usu. vantage-), position that gives superiority, 
[f. F avantage (avant; see advance v. and 

-AGE)] 

advantage 2 ( ij), v.t. Be beneficial to ; be an 
advantage to; further, promote, [f. F avan- 
tager (avantage; see prec.)] 

a'dvent, n. Season before the Nativity; 
coming of Christ, Incarnation ; second coming 
of Christ; any (important) arrival, [f. OF 
advent, auvent f. L adventus -us arrival f. 
XD(venire vent- come)] 

adventi'tious, a. Coming from without; 
accidental, casual ; (Law, of property) coming 
from a stranger or by collateral, not direct, 
succession. Hence adventi'tiousLY 2 adv. 
[f. L adventicius (med. L -itius) coming to us 
from abroad (as prec, see -itious)] 

adventure 1 (-tsher), n. Risk,danger; daring 
enterprise ; unexpected incident ; commercial 
specvilation ; hazardous activity, [f. OF aven- 
ture i. L adventura (res thing) about to happen 
(as advent)] 

adventure 2 (-tshe?-), v.t. & i. Hazard, im- 
peril, (oneself, thing); incur risk; dare to go 
or come (into, in, upon, a place) ; dare to enter 
on, upon, (undertaking), [f. OF aventurer (as 
prec.)] 

adventurer, n. One who seeks adven- 
tures ; soldier of fortune ; speculator ; one who 
lives by his wits. [f. F aventurier (as ad- 
venture 1 , see -er 1 )] 

adve'nturesome, a. Given to adventures. 
[adventure x + -some] 

adventuress, n. Female adventurer; 
woman on the look-out for a position, [f. ad- 
venturer, see -ess] 

adventurous, a. Rash, venturesome ; 
enterprising. Hence adventurousLY 2 adv. 
[f. OF aventuros (as adventure 1 , see -ous)] 

a'dverb, n. Word that modifies or qualifies 
an adjective, verb, or other adverb, express- 
ing a relation of place, time, circumstance, 
manner, &c. (e. g. gently, so, new, where, xohy). 
[f. F adverbe f. L ADverbimn (verbum word, 
verb) transl. of Gk epir^rhema addition to a 
predication] 

adver'bial, a. Pertaining to an adverb ; of 
the nature of an adverb. Hence ad ver 'bialu Y 2 
adv. [ f. L adverbialis (adverbium ; see prec. 
and -al)] r _ . 

ad vet- hum, adv. & a. Word for word. [L] 

a'dversary, n. Opponent, antagonist, 
enemy ; the A., the Devil, [f. OF aversier f. I* 

udversarius opposed (as adverse, see -ary 1 )] 

adver 'sati ve, a. (Of words, &c. ) expressing 
opposition or antithesis. Hence adve'rsa- 
tiveLY 2 adv. [f. L adversativus (adversary 
oppose, see foil, and -ive)] 

a'dverse, a. Contrary, hostile, (to) ; hurtful, 
injurious, (to) ; placed opposite. Hence a'd- 
verseLY 2 adv. [f. OF avers I L AV(vertere 
vers- turn)] 



ADVERSITY 

adver'sity, n. Condition of adverse for- 
tune ; misfortune, [f. OF aversite f. L adver- 
sitatem (as prec., see -ty)J 
adver't, v.i. Refer to (in speaking or writ- 
ing), [f. 14th-c. E averte f. F avertir f. LL 
AT>(vertere=~L vertere turn) draw attention to ; 
F avertir (see ad-) was written adv- to dist. 
it from obs. avertir f. LL avertere turn away 
(ab), and E adopted this in advert and ad- 
vertise] 

a'dvertise (-z), v.t. & i. Notify, warn, in- 
form, (person of thing, that) ; make generally 
known (thing by circular, in journal, also abs.) ; 
a. for, ask for by public notice, [f. F avertir (st. 
-iss-) ; see advert] 

advertisement, n. Public announcement 
(usu. by placards or in journals), [f. F aver- 
iissement (as prec, see -ment)] 
advree, n. Opinion given or offei'ed as to 
action, counsel ; information given, news ; (pi.) 
communications from a distance; (commerc.) 
formal notice of transactions, [f. OF avis f. 
LL *advisum {ad to+visum p.p. of videre see)] 
advi'sable, a. To be recommended ; ex- 
pedient. Hence advisaBi'LiTY, advi'sable- 
ness, nn., advi'sabLY 2 adv. [f. foil. + 
-able] 

advi'se (-z), v.t. & i. Offer counsel to ; (com- 
merc.) announce ; take counsel with. [f. F aviser 
f. LL advisare (advisum, see advice)] 
advi'sed, a. Deliberate, considered, whence 
advi*sedLY 2 adv. ; judicious; ill-a., injudici- 
ous, [p.p. of prec] 

advi'sory (-z-), a. Giving advice ; consisting 
in giving advice, [advise + -orv] 
ad vitam aut cwlpam, adv. During 
good behaviour. [L] 

a'dvoeaey, n. Function of an advocate ; 
pleading in support of. [f. F advocacie, -tie, f. 
med. L advocatia (as foil., see -acy)] 
a'dvocate 1 (-at), n. One who pleads for 
another; one who speaks in behalf of (pro- 
posal, &c); professional pleader in courts of 
justice ; Facidty of Aa., Scotch bar ; Lord A., 
principal law-officer of crown in Scotland. 
Hence a'dvoeatesHiP n., a'dvoeatORY a. 
[f. F avocat f. L advocatus p.p. (as n.) of ad- 
(vocare oall)] 

a'dvocate 2 , v.t. Plead for, defend, recom- 
mend publicly, [f. prec] 
advowson, n. Right of presentation to a 
benefice, [f. OF avoeson f. med. Ytadvocationem 
function of patron (as prec, see -ion)] 
adyna'mia, n. Want of vital force ; phy- 
sical prostration. Hence adyna'mic a. [Gk 
adunamia (a- not+dunamis power)] 
a'dytum, n. (pi. -ta). Innermost part of a 
temple ; private chamber, sanctum. [L, f. Gk 
aduton not to be entered (a- not+duton vbl adj. 
of duo enter)] 

adze, n. & v.t. Tool for cutting away sur- 
face of wood, like axe with arched blade at 
right angles to handle ; (vb) cut with a. [OE 
adesa, etym. dub.] 

se, ae, symbol repr. a vowel sound betw. a 
and e. (1) In OE short se repr. orig. Teut. short 
a, the sound o f . a in man ; replaced after 1100 
usu. by a sometimes by e. Long se repr. same 
sound prolonged, and was replaced in 13th c 
by e or ee. (2) In 16th c se was reintroduced to 
repr. L ae and Gk ai ; as, xdify (L aedificare), 
xther (Gk aither). In familiar wds se gave 
place to e, {edify, ether), being kept (pron. e) in 
some Gk and L proper names (JEneas, Caesar, 
but Judea, Etna), in names of Gk and Roman 
antiquities (xdile, xgis), and in some scientific 
terms (xtiology, phxnogamous but pheno- 
menon, museum). 



16 AESCULAPIUS 

-se, -ae, pi. suf. of L nouns of 1st decl. in -a, 
and L form of Gk -ai pi. of nouns of 1st decl. in 
-e, -a, -es, -as ; kept in non-naturalized words 
{laminae, larvae), esp. in proper names (Hera- 
clidae) and names of animal and plant orders 
(Felidae, Rosidae) ; varying with -as in some 
wds ace to degree of familiarity (actiniae, -as) 
or of technicality (mathematical formulae, 
theological formidas) ; familiar wds take -as 
{areas, hyenas, Jidias). 

ae'dile, n. Roman magistrate who superin- 
tended public buildings, shows, police, &c 
Hence ae'dilesmp n. [f. L aedilis (aedes 
house, see -ile)] 

ae'ger (ejer), n. (In Eng. univv.) note certi- 
fying that student is ill. [L,=sick] 
aegis (e'jis), n. Protection, impregnable de- 
fence ; (Myth.) shield of Zeus or Athene. [L, 
f. Gk aigis, etym. dub. ] 
aegro'tat, n. (In Eng. univv.) certificate 
that student is too ill to attend examination, 
&c [L : = he is sick (aeger)] 
Aed'lian, a. (1) Of Aeolis, district of Asia 
Minor colonized by ancient Greeks ; (Mus.) A. 
mode, ninth of the church modes. (2) Of 
Aeolus, god of winds ; A. harp, stringed instru- 
ment producing musical sounds on exposure 
to wind. [f. L Aeolixis (1. Aeolis Gk Aiolis ; 
2. Aeolus Gk Aiolos) + -an] 
Aeoiie, a. & n. Aeolian (dialect), [f. L 
f. Gk aiolikos (as prec, see -ic)J 
ae'olipyle, -pile, n. Instrument fpr show- 
ing force of steam escaping through narrow 
aperture, [f. F xolipyle f. L Aeoli pylae f. 
Gk Aiolou pxdai gates of Aeolus, god of 
winds] 

aeolo'tropy, n. Change of physical quali- 
ties consequent on change of position, [f. Gk 
aiolos changeful + -tropia turning] 
ae'on, e*on, n. An age of the universe, 
immeasurable period; eternity; (Platonic 
philosophy) a power existing from eternity, 
emanation or phase of the supreme deity. [L 
aeon f. Gk aion age] 

a* e rate, v.t. Expose to mechanical or 
chemical action of air; charge with carbonic 
acid gas (formerly called fixed air). Hence 
aePA - TioN n. [f. L aer air+ -ate 3 ] 
aer'ial, a. Of air, gaseous; thin as air, 
etherial ; immaterial, imaginary ; of, in, the 
atmosphere, atmospheric; existing, moving, 
in the air. Hence aeria'liTY n., aer'ialiA' 2 
adv. [f. L f. Gk aerios {aer air)+ -al] 
aerie, aery, eyrie, eyry, (aeri, lr i), n. 
Nest of bird of prey, esp. eagle, or of raven 
or other bird that builds high up ; human re- 
sidence perched high on mountain ; brood of 
bird of prey. [f. med. L aeria, aerea, f. F 
aire, perh. * f. L area level ground or L 
atrium hall] 

a'eriform, a. Of the form of air, gaseous ; 
unsubstantial, unreal, [f. L aer air+ -form] 
aero- in comb. Air, atmosphere, as : -drome, 
aviation course ; -dyiiamics, branch of pneu- 
matics treating of air in motion; -lite, -lith, 
meteorite ; -naxd, balloonist, whence -nauti- 
c(al), aa., -naidics, n. ; -plane, flying-machine 
using plane(s) for support; -stat, aviator, 
(formerly) balloon ; -static, of air-navigation or 
aerostatics (science of equilibrium and pres- 
sure of air) ; -station, air-navigation. [Gkcomb. 
form of aer air] 

aeru'glnous (efoo-), a. Of the nature or 
colour of verdigris, or copper-rust. [f. Yirugi- 
neux f. L aeruginosus (aerugo -inis verdigris f. 
aes aeris brass, see -ous)] 
Aescula'pius, n. Roman god of medicine ; 
physician. Hence Aeseula'piAN a. [L] 



AESTHETE 



ae'sthete (es-), n. Professed appreciates of 
the beautiful, [f. Gk aisthetes one who per- 
ceives (as foil.)] 

aesthe'tic, a. Belonging to the apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful ; having such apprecia- 
tion ; in accordance with principles of good 
taste. Hence aesthe'ticAL a., aesthe'ti- 
calLY 2 adv., aesthe'tieiSM, aesthe'tics, 
nn. [f. Gk aisthetikos (aisthanomai perceive, 
see -ic)] 

aestho- physio'logy, n. Scientific study 
of the organs of sensation, [irreg. f. Gk aisth- 
perceive+PHYSiOLOGYj 

aestival, estival,(e*stival, esti'val), a. Be- 
longing to, appearing in, summer. [F (es-), f. L 
aestivalis f. aestivus (aestus heat), see -ive, -al] 

ae'stivate (est-, est-), v.i. Spend the summer, 
esp. (Zool.) in state of torpor, [f. L aestivare, 
see -ate 3 ] 

aestiva'tion (est-, est-), n. (Zool.) aestivat- 
ing ; (Bot.) arrangement of petals in flower-bud 
before expansion, [f. prec, see -ation] 

aetio'logry, n. Assignment of a cause ; 
philosophy of causation ; (Med.) science of the 
causes of disease. So aetiolo*g"iCAL a., 
aetiolo'glealLY 2 adv. [f. L f. Gk aitiologia 
(aitia cause, see -logy)] 

af-, pref. = ad- before/. 

afar*, adv. From a distance ; at, to, a dis- 
tance (in prose, usu. a. off), [f. OE feor far 
adv., with prepp. of, on] 

a'ffable, a. Easy of address, courteous, 
complaisant. Hence or cogn. affaBi'LiTY n., 
a'ffabLY 2 adv. [F, f. L affabilis f. AF(fari 
speak), see -ble] 

affair*, n. Thing to be done ; concern, busi- 
ness, matter, as that is my a. ; (pi.) ordinary 
pursuits of life ; a. of honour, duel ; (colloq., 
of material things) a gorgeous &c. a. [f. OF 
afaire (a f aire to do), cf. ado] 

affe'et 1 , v.t. Practise, use, as a. a costume ; 
[of things) tend to assume (form, shape, &c); 
assume (character), as a. the freethinker ; pre- 
tend to have or feel (indifference &c.) ; pretend 
(to do), [f. F affect er f. L affectare aim at, 
pretend to have, frequent, of AF(ficere feet- = 
facer e do)] 

affe'et 2 , v.t. Attack (as disease); move, 
touch, (in mind), whence affe'etingxv 2 adv. ; 
produce (material) effect on ; (pass., archaic) be 
assigned, allotted, (to particular service &c). 
[(perh. thr. F) f. L afficere attach to (see prec.)] 

affeeta'tion, n. Studied display of; arti- 
ficiality of manner ; pretence, [f. L affectatio 
pursuit after (as affect 1 , see -ation)] 

affe'eted, a. Artificially assumed or dis- 
played ; pretended ; (of persons) full of affecta- 
tion, artificial, whence affe'etedLY 2 adv., 
affe'etedNESS n. ; (with adv.) disposed, in- 
clined, (toivards or abs.) ; attacked (as by dis- 
ease) ; moved in the feelings ; acted upon 
physically, [affect a > 2 + -ed j ] 

affe'etion, n. Affecting; mental state, 
emotion, whence affe'etion al a. ; disposition 
(toivards) ; goodwill, love, (toicards) ; bodily 
state due to any influence ; malady, disease ; 
mode of being ; property, quality, attribute. 
[F, f. L affectionem (as affect 2 , see -ion)] 

affe'etionate (-at), a. Loving ; fond ; (of 
things) showing love or tenderness. Hence 
affe'etionateLY 2 adv., affe'ctionateNEss 
n. [Latinized f. F affectionn6] 

affe'etive, a. Pertaining to the affections, 
emotional. [F (-if, -ive), f. med. L affectivus 
(as affect 2 , see -ive)] 

a'fferent, a. Conducting inwards or to- 
wards, as a. nerves, a. vessels, [f. L AF(ferre 
bring), see -ent] 



17 AFFLUX 

affettuo'so, adv. (mus.). Feelingly. [It.] 

affi'ance », n. Faith, trust (in) ; pledging of 
faith, esp. plighting of troth in marriage, [f. 
OF afiance f. after trust f. LL AFfidare (fides 
faith), see -axce] 

affi'ance 2 , v.t. Promise solemnly in mar- 
riage (usu. pass.), [f. OF afiancer f. afiance, 
seeprec] 

aff ida'vit, n. Written statement, confirmed 
by oath, to be used as judicial proof. (Strictly, 
deponent swears an a., judge takes it; but 
in pop. use deponent makes or takes it.) [L,= 
has stated on faith or oath, f. AFfidare, see af- 
fiance 2 ] 

affi'liate, v.t. (Of an institution) adopt (per- 
sons as members, societies as branches) ; attach 
(persons, societies) to, connect (them) with, (a 
society) ; (Law) fix paternity of (illegitimate 
child on putative father) for purpose of main- 
tenance ; ascribe (child) to its parent ; father (a 
thing) upon, trace (it) to. So affiliATiON n. 
[f. L AYfiliare adopt (filius son), see -ate 3 ] 

affvned, a. Related, connected, [f. F affine 
(afiin f. L affinis, see foil.) + -ED 1 ; no vb in F 
orE] 

aff i'nity, n. Relationship, relations, by mar- 
riage ; relations, kindred, in general ; structural 
resemblance (between animals, plants, lan- 
guages) ; (fig.)similarityof character suggesting 
relationship, family likeness ; liking ; attrac- 
tion ; (Chem.) tendency of certain elements to 
unite with others, [f. F. affiniU f. L affinita- 
tem (AFfinis related, lit. bordering on, f. finis 
end, see -ty)] 

affip'm, v.t. & i. Assert strongly, aver; 
make formal declaration ; (Logic, Gram.) state 
in the affirmative MLaw) confirm, ratify, (judg- 
ment). Hence affir'niABLE, affir'matORY, 
aa. [f. OF afermer f. L AFfirviare (firmus 
strong)] 

affirma'tion, n. Affirming, esp. (Law) 
solemn declaration by person who con- 
scientiously declines taking an oath. [F, f. L 
affirmationem (as prec, see -ation)] 

affir'mative, a. & n. Affirming, answering 
yes ; (Logic) expressing agreement of the two 
terms of a proposition; answer in the a., 
answer yes, say that a thing is so. Hence 
affir'mativeLY 2 adv. [F (-if, -ive), f. L 
affirmativus (as prec, see -ive)] 

affi'x 1 , v.t. Fix, fasten, (thing to, on); im- 
press (seal, stamp) ; add in writing (signature, 
postscript); attach (censure, salary), [(perh. thr. 
MF affixer, occas. refash. of OF aficher F 
afficher) f. med. L affixare frequent, of L 
af( figere fix- fix)] 

a'ffix 2 , n. Appendage, addition; (Gram.) 
addition placed at the beginning or end of 
root, stem, or word, to modify its meaning, 
[f. F ajfixe f. L affigere ^see prec)] 

affi'xture, n. Affixing, [f. affix l after fix- 
ture ; correct form (on L) would be affixure] 

affia'tus, n. Communication of super- 
natural knowledge ; divine impulse, poetic or 
other ; inspiration. [L vbl n. f. AF(flare blow)] 

affii'et, v.t. Distress with bodily or mental 
suffering, [f. 14th-c afflict adj., f. OF aflit f. L 
AF(fligere -flict- dash)] 

afni'etion, n. Misery, distress; pain, cala- 
mity. So affii'etiVE a. [F, f. L afflictionevi 
(as prec, see -ion)] 

affluent 1 , a. Flowing freely, copious; 
abounding (esp. in riches), wealthy. Hence 
or cogn. a'ffiuENCE n., a'ffiuentLY 2 adv. [F, 
f. L AF(fluereflux- flow), see -ent] 

a'ffiuent 2 , n. Tributary stream, [f. prec, 
prob. after F] 

a'ffiux, n. Flow towards a point, esp. of 



AFFORD 18 

humours ; accession, [f. med. L affluxus -us, 
vol n. as affluent] 

affop'd, v.t. (With can) have the means, he 
rich enough, (to do), manage to spare ; furnish, 
hestow; (of things) yield supply of. [OE gefor- 
thian (ge- pref. implying completeness -\-for- 
thian advance f. forth forward) ; ge- was re- 
duced to a-, which was corrupted to af- after 
L (see ad-)] 

affo'pest, v.t. Convert into forest or hunt- 
ing-ground. So afforest a tion n. [f. med. 
L. AFforestare (foresta forest)] 

affpa'nehise, v.t. Free from servitude or 
obligation, [f. F affranchiss- lengthened st. of 
affranchir (a to +franchir free f. franc, see 
frank)] 

affray*, n. Breach of the peace, caused by 
fighting or riot in a public place, [f. OF effrci 
f. esfreer, vb f . LL EXfridare (\A\>fridus f. Teut. 
fridhu, OHfridh, peace); cf. afraid] 

affpigrh't *, v.t. (archaic). Frighten, [late 
formation on fright v., partly due to obs. 
affright p.p. of OE *afyrhtan (a- intensive)] 

affrig-h't 2 , n. (archaic). Alarm, terror, [f. 
prec] 

affpo'nt 1 (-unt), v.t. Insult openly; put to 
the blush, offend the modesty or self-respect 
of ; face, confront, [f. OF afronter slap in the 
face, insult, f. LL AFfrontare (frons -tis face)] 

affpo'nt 2 (-unt), n. Open insult, as put a. 
upon, offer an a. to, feel it an a. [f. prec] 

affu'sicn, n. Pouring on, esp. of water on 
the body in one kind of baptism ; (Med.) pour- 
ing of water, usually 50° to 70° Fahr., upon fever 
patients, [f. L af( fundere fits- pour), see -ion] 

afie'ld, adv. On or in the field (esp. of 
labour or battle); to the field; away from 
home, at a distance, as /or a. [a prep.] 

afire*, adv. & pred. a. On fire (lit. & fig.), [a 
prep.] 

afla'me, adv. & pred. a. In flame, in a glow 
of light, (lit. & fig.), [a prep.] 

afloa't, adv. & pred. a. In a floating condi- 
tion ; at sea, on board ship, in naval service ; 
full of water ; floating in the air ; out of debt, 
paying one's way; in full swing; in general 
circulation, current ; (Commerc.) in currency as 
negotiable document ; unsettled, adrift. [OE 
onflote (on prep. + float n.)] 

it fond (F), adv. Thoroughly, fully. 

afoo't, adv. & pred. On one's own feet; 
astir, on the move ; in operation or employ- 
ment, [a prep.] 

afore', adv. & prep. (Xaut.) in front, in 
front of, as a. the mast ; (archaic) previously, [f. 
OE on foran' '(on prep. + foran, adv., in front, 
dat. of for, which was used as noun or adj.] 

afore- in comb. Before, previously, as -cited, 
-going, -named, -said ; -thought, premeditated, 
■&s_malice a. ; -tune, previously, [prec] 

a fortiori, adv. With stronger reason, more 
conclusively. [L] 

afpai'd, pred. a. Alarmed, frightened, (abs. 
or of); a. (of the consequences, and therefore 
unwilling) to do a thine/, a. of a thina's happen- 
ing, a. lest it should happen, a. (that) it will 
happen, [p.p. of obs. vb affray f. OF esfreer, 
see affray] - 

a'fpeet, -pit, -pite, n. Evil demon in 
Mohammedan mythology. [Arab, 'ifrit] 

afpe'sh, adv. Anew, with fresh beginning. 
[a- (3) + fresh] 

Afpika'ndep, n. & a. Native of S. Africa 
born of European (esp. Dutch) settlers ; A.Bond, 
organization for furtherance of A. interests and 
ultimate formation of United States of S. Africa, 
[(perh. f. S.-African Du. Afrikaander) f. Du. 
Afrikaner n. Af rican, altered on Enalander&c] 



AGAMOGENESIS 



aft, adv. (naut.). In or near stern of ship ; to- 
wards the stern; fore and a., from stem to 
stern, lengthwise (also as adj. f.-and-a.). [OE 
seftan cogn. w. Goth, aftana from behind, f. 
afta behind (a/ off + -ta superl. suf.) ; after, aft, 
are orig. compar. and superl.] 

a'fteP 1 , adv., prep., conj. Behind (prep. & 
adv.) ; in pursuit t»f, as run a., inquire a. ; con- 
cerning, as look, see, a. ; for, as hanker, yearn, 
a. ; following in point of time ; a. (the lapse of) 
three months ; in view of, as a. such behaviour ; 
next in importance to ; according to, as a. this 
pattern, a. a fashion ; in imitation of (person), 
as a. Rembrandt ; in allusion to, as named a. ; 
(conj.) in, at, the time subsequent to that at 
which, as a. he went, goes, has gone, had gone. 
[OE aefter (af off + cornpar. suf. -ter) cogn. w. 
OHG aftar, Gk. apdtero ; cf. prec] 

a'ftep 2 , a. Later, following, as a. years; 
(Xaut.) hinder, posterior, as a. cabin, masts. 
[f. prec] 

a'ftepbipth, n. Membrane enveloping the 
foetus in the womb, so called because its 
extrusion follows that of the infant, [after a.] 

a'ftepglow, n. Glow in the West after 
sunset, [after a.] 

a'ftep-g-pass, n. Grass that grows after 
first crop has been mown for hay, or among 
stubble after harvest, [after a.] 

a'ftepmath, n. After-grass, [after a. -f- 
math mowing, OE ??i3eth f. OTeut. root ??i36MOW] 

a'ftepmost, a. (naut.). Nearest the stern, 
most aft. [OE xftemest, a treble superl. of af 
off with compar. suf. inserted, a/+ te (r) + me 
+ st] 

afternoo'n, n. The time from noon to even- 
ing, as in, during, the a., on Wednesday a., 
(fig.) the a. of life, [after prep.] 

a'fteppieee, n. Farce or smaller entertain- 
ment after a play, [after a.] 

a'ftepthouglit, n. Reflection after the act ; 
later expedient or explanation, [after a. or 
adv.] 

a'ftepwapds, adv. Later, subsequently. 
[OE xftaniceard, a. (xftan aft + ward, cor- 
rupted in OE to xfterweard, + adv. genit. 
suf. -es] 

ag"-, pref. - ad- before g. 

a'gra (or crgah'), n. Commander, chief officer, 
in Ottoman empire. [Turk, agha master] 

agai* n, adv. Another time, once more ; a. 
and a., time and a., repeatedly; ever and a., 
now and a., occasionally ; as much a., twice as 
much; half as much a., one-and-a-half times 
as much ; further, besides ; on the other hand, 
as these a. are more expensive ; back a. (to the 
original position or condition) ; in return, as 
answer a. ; in response, as rocks echoed a., 
glasses rang a. ; proportionately to specified 
act or condition, as the loaded table groaned 
a. [OE ongedn, ongxgn (on in + gagn oppo- 
site), cf. G entgegen ; 12th-c againes (see -ES) be- 
came against by confus. w. superlatives] 

ag-ai'nst, prep. In opposition to, as fight a,, 
I am a. reform ; in contrast to, as a. a dark 
background ; in anticipation of, as a. his 
coming, a. a rainy day; in preparation for, as 
learned a. pickpockets ; into collision with, as 
ran a. arock, (colloq.) ran a. (chanced to meet) 
a friend ; opposite to, as a. the horsepond (usu. 
over a.), [see prec] 

a'gami, n. Tropical American bird, the 
Trumpeter, [native name in Guiana] 

aga'mie, a. (zool.). Characterized by absence 
of sexual action, [as foil. + -ic] 

a'gamoge'nesis, n. Asexual reproduction. 
So ag-amogrene'tic a., agamogene'tic- 
ally adv. [as foil. + genesis birth] 



AGAMOUS 19 

a'gamous, a. (biol.). Without (distinguish- 
able) sexual organs, [f. L f. Gk agamos (a- not 
+ gamos marriage) + -ousj 

aga'pe *, adv. & pred. a. On the gape ; open- 
mouthed with wonder or expectation, [a prep.] 

a'gape-, n. Love-feast held by early Chris- 
tians in connexion with Lord's Supper. [Gk, 
= brotherly love] 

a'garie (or aga'ric), n. Mushroom ; name 
of various fungi, [f. L f. Gk agarikon perh. f. 
a place A garia] 

agastric, a. (zool.). Without distinct ali- 
mentary canal, [f. Gk a- not + gaster -tros belly] 

a'gate (-at), n. Name of several varieties of 
precious stone (semipellucid variegated chalce- 
donies) ; burnishing instrument of gold- wire- 
drawers; (in U.S.) the printing-type called in 
England ruby. [f. F agathe (lGth-c.) f. It. agata 
f. L f. Gk akhates agate] 

Aga've (-1), n. (bot.). Genus of plants in- 
cluding American Aloe. [f. L f. Gk Agaue, 
prop, name in myth.] 

aga'ze, adv. On the gaze, [a prep.] 

age \ n. Length of life or of existence ; Moon's 
a., time elapsed since new moon ; duration of 
life required for a purpose, as come of a., full 
a. (in Eng. Law, 21 years), a. of discretion (14), 
over a. ; latter part of life, as peevishness of 
a. ; a generation ; brazen x &c. a. ; (Hist., Geol.) 

fjreat period, as Patriarchal A., Ice A.; (colloq.) 
ong time, as waiting for aa. [f. OF aage, 
eclage, f. ~LL*aetaticum f. aetas -atis contraction 
of aevitas iaevum an age) ; see -age] 
age 2 , v.t. & i. (Cause to) grow old. [f. prec] 
-age, suf. OFf. LL -aticum 'belongings' neut. 
of adj. suf. -aticus -atic (med. L -agium is 
readofrted f. F, e.g. homagium f. hommage 
instead of hominaticum) ; afterwards added as 
living suf. in F and in E. Meaning: (1) collec- 
tive belongings or aggregate of (cellarage) ; (2) 
function, condition, (baronage, bondage) ; (3) 
action (breakage) ; (4) fees payable for, cost of 
using, (cartage, demurrage). 
aged, a. (a'jid) having lived long, old ; (ajd) of 
the age of, as a. thirteen. Hence a'gedNESS 

n. [f. AGE V. + -ED J ] 

a'geless, a. Never growing old. [age n. + 
-less] 

a'gency, n. Active operation, action, as 
moral, free, a. ; instrumentality, as by the a. 
of; action personified, as an invisible a.; (Com- 
merc.) office of agent; establishment for busi- 
ness purposes, as JReuter's A. [f. med. L 
agentia (L agere do, see -ence)] 

agenda, n. Things to be done, items of 
business to be considered at a meeting; me- 
morandum book. [L, neut. pi. of gerundive 
of agere do] 

a'gent, n. One who exerts power or produces 
an effect ; (of things) efficient cause ; a natural 
force acting on matter, as chemical a. ; one 
who does the actual work ; a. provocateur (F), 
a. enticing one suspected of sedition &c. to 
commit himself, (improp.) ringleader. So 
age'ntiAL (-shl) a. [as act 2 , -ent] 

agglo'merate 1 , v.t. & i. Collect into a 
mass. Hence agglomerA'TiON n., ag"- 
glo'meratiVE a. [f. L AGglomerare (glomus 
-meris ball), see -ate 3 ] 

agglo'merate 2 (-at), a. & n. (Collected into) 
a mass; (Geol.) mass of volcanic fragments 
united under heat, opp. to conglomerate, [as 
prec., see -ate 2 ] 

agglu'tinate l (-at), a. Glued together ; con- 
sisting of simple words combined into com- 
pounds without change of form or loss of 
meaning, [f. L XGglutinare (gluten -tinis glue) 
see -ate 2 ] 



AGNAIL 

agglu'tinate 2 , v.t. & i. Unite as with 
glue; combine simple words to express com- 
pound ideas; (t. & i.) turn into glue. Hence 
agglutinATioN n., agglu'tinativE a. [as 
prec, see -ate 3 ] 

a'ggrandize, v.t. Increase the power, 
rank, wealth, of (person. State) ; exaggerate, 
embellish. Hence aggra'ndizeMENT, n. [f. F 
agrandir (st. -iss-) prob. f. It. AG(grandire f. L. 
grandis large)] 

a'ggravate, v.t. Increase the gravity of 
(burden, offence, &c); (colloq.) exasperate jj 
(person). SoaggravA'TiON n. [f. 1*ag gravare * 
make heavy (gravis), see -ate 2 ; replacing obs. 
aggrege f. OF agreger f. *LL aggreviare)] 

a'ggregate 1 (-at), a. & n. Collected into 
one body ; collective, total ; (Law) composed 
of associated individuals, as corporation a. ; 
sum total ; assemblage ; (Physics) mass of 
homogeneous particles; in the a., as a whole, 
[f. L AGgregare unite in a flock (grex gregis)] • 

a'ggregate 2 , v.t. & i. Collect together; 
(trans.) unite (individual to company). Hence 
aggregATiON n., a'ggregativE a. [f. prec] 

aggre'ss, v.t. & i. Begin a quarrel ; (trans.) 
attack. So aggre'ssiON, aggre'ssc-R 2 , nn. „ 
[f. F aggresser f. LL aggressare frequent, of 
AG(gredi gress- — gradi step)] 

aggressive, a. & n. Of attack ; offensive ; 
disposed to attack; assume the a., begin the 
quarrel. Hence aggre*ssiveLY 2 adv., ag- 
gre'ssiveNESS n. [as prec, see -ive] 

aggrieve, v.t. Grieve, distress, oppress, 
(usu. pass.), [f. OF agreveras aggravate] 

agha'st (agah-, aga-), a. Terrified ; struck 
with amazement, [p.p. of obs. vbaoas^(A-(l)+ ■ 
gasten, OE gxstan, alarm)] * 

a'gile (aj-), a. Quick-moving, nimble, active. 
Hence or cogn. agi'liTY n., a'gileLY 2 adv. 
[F, f. L agilis (agere do)] 

a'gio (aj-, aj-), n. Percentage charged on ex- 
change of paper-money into cash, or of one 
currency into another more valuable ; excess 
value of one currency over another ; exchange 
business. [It;, = ease] 

a'giotage (-ij), n. Exchange business ; specu- 
lation in stocks ; stock-jobbing. [F f. agioter 
(prec. -{-connecting -t-) ; see -age] 

agi'st (-j-), v.t. Take in live stock to feed; 
charge (land or its owner) with a public burden. 
Hence agi'stMENT n. [f. OF agister (d to-f 
gistcr f. hjacitare frequent, -of jacere lie)] 

a'gitate, v.t. Move, shake ; disturb, excite, 
(feelings, persons) ; revolve mentally, discuss, 
debate, (plans &c) ; (abs.)keep up an agitation 
{for), [f. L agitare move to and fro, frequent, 
of agere drive, see -ate 3 ] 

agita'tion, n. Moving, shaking ; commotion, 
disturbance, (mental or physical) ; debate, dis- 
cussion ; keeping of a matter constantly before 
the public ; public excitement. [F, f. L agita- 
tionem (as prec, see -ation)] 

agita'to (-tah-), adv. (mus.). In an agitated 
manner. [It.] 

a'gitator, n. One who agitates, esp. politic- 
ally ; apparatus for shaking or mixing. [L 
(see agitate and -or 2 )] 

a'glet, ai'glet, n. Metal tag of a lace ; 
spangle or other metallic ornament of dress ; 
tagged point hanging from shoulder upon 
breast of some uniforms (usu. aiguillette) ; 
catkin of hazel, birch, &c [f. F aiguillette dim. 
of aiguille needle f. L acucula — acicula dim. 
of acus needle] 

aglow, adv. & pred. a. In a glow, [a prep.] 

a'gnail, n. Torn skin at root of finger- 
nail ; (formerly) corn on toe or foot. [OE 
angnxgl f. ang- (Goth, aggvous) tight, painful, 



AGNATE 



-\-nxgl (Goth, nagls) nail (of iron &c), hard ex- 
crescence fixed, in the flesh ; mod. sense, and 
forms hang-nail, (Sc.) anger-nail, result from 
false etym., nail being taken as finger-nail] 
a'gnate, n. & a. (One who is) descended 
by male links (also, by male or female links) 
from same male ancestor; sprung from same 
forefather, of same clan or nation; (fig.) akin, 
of same nature. So agna'tic a., agna'tiox 
n. [f. F agnat f. L agnatus related by father's 
side (ad to+ gnatus born p.p. of (g)nasci f. stem 
gen- beget)] 

agno'raen, n. A fourth name sometimes 
assumed by Romans ; (loosely) nickname. [L, 
(ad to+(g)nomen name)] 

agno'stic, n. & a. One who holds that 
nothing is known, or likely to be known, of the 
existence of a God or of anything beyond 
material phenomena ; pertaining to this theory. 
Hence agno'stieiSM n. [f. Gk agnostos un- 
known (a- not+gno- know) ; see -ic] 
A'gnus Ca'stus, n. Tree once held a 
preservative of chastity. [L, f. Gk agnos (name 
of tree), confused w. hagnos chaste, whence 
L castus is added] 

A'gnus Dei, n. (Rom. Cath.). Part of Mass 
beginning A. D. ; figure of lamb bearing cross 
or flag ; cake of wax stamped with such figure 
and. blessed by Pope. [L, = lamb of God] 
ago', a. & adv. (Adj., always following 
noun) past, gone by, as ten years a. ; (adv.) long 
a., long since, [orig. agone p.p. of obs. vb ago 
(A- forth+GO)] 

ago'g, adv. & pred. a. On the move, eager, 
expectant, [perh. f. OF en gogues (goguc fun, 
etym. dub.)] 

agd'nie, a. Making no angle ; a. line, line 
of no magnetic variation, [f. Gk agonios with- 
out angle (a- not+gonia angle)+ -ic] 
agorii'stie, a. Pertaining to athletic con- 
tests (esp. of Ancient Greece) ; (Rhet.) polemic, 
combative ; strained, aiming at effect. Hence 
agoni'sticAL a., agoni'sticali.v 2 adv. [f. 
Gk agonistikos pertaining to a combatant, 
agonistes, in the games (agones f. ago lead, 
bring)] 

a'gonize, v.t. & i. Torture; suffer agony, 
writhe in anguish ; contend in arena, wrestle 
(lit. & fig.) ; make desperate efforts for effect. 
Hence a'gonizingLY 2 adv. [f. med. L agon- 
izaref. Gkagonizo7?iaicontend (agon,see-pvec.)] 
a'gony, n. Mental anguish ; a. column (in 
newspaper), column of advertisements for 
missing friends &c. ; paroxysm of pleasure ; 
pangs of death ; extreme bodily suffering ; 
struggle, [prob. formed by Wyclif on Vulgate 
L agonia f. Gk agonia contest, anguish ; see 
agonistic] 

agou'ti, agoirty (-goo-), n. Genus of rodents 
of Cavy or Guinea-pig family, esp. a hare-like 
animal of W. Indies, [(thr. F) f. native Ind. 

aguti] 

agrap'ian, a. & n. Relating to landed 
property ; a. outrage (arising from discord be- 
tween landlords and tenants) ; relating to culti- 
vated land ; (n.) advocate of redistribution of 
landed_ property, whence agrar'ianiSM n., 
agrap'ianiZE v.t. & i. [f. L agrarius (ager 
agri land, see -ary l )+ -an] 
agree*, v.i. & t. Consent (to proposal, state- 
ment, to do) ; concur (with person that) ; be- 
come, be, in harmony (ivith person); (pi.) a. 
together, cannot a., get on with one another; 
suit the constitution of, as work, lobster, does 
not a. with him; (Gram.) take same number, 
gender, case, person ; (trans.) bring (balance, 
items of accounts) into harmony, [f. OF agreer 
f. LL *AGgratare make agreeable (gratus)] 



20 AIGRETT E 

agreeable (-rerbl), a. Pleasing (to or 
abs.) ; (colloq., of persons) well-disposed (to a 
thing, to do, or abs.) ; conformable to, as a. to 
all experience. Hence agree'ableNESS n., 
agree'abLY 2 adv. [f. F agreable (agreer 

AGREE, See -ABLE)] 

agree'ment, n. Mutual understanding, 
covenant, treaty ; (Law) contract legally bind- 
ing on parties ; accordance in opinion ; (Gram.) 
concord in gender, number, case, person. [OF 
(agreer agree, see -ment)] 

agr6ments (F), n. pi. Agreeable qualities 
or surroundings. 

agrestic, a. Rural, rustic ; uncouth, [f. L 
agrestis (ager field) -h-ic] 

a'grieulture, n. Cultivation of the soil. 
Hence agricu'lturAL a., agrieu*ltup(al)- 
ist, nn. Kprob. thr. 17th-c. F) f. L agricultura 
(ager agri field-f cidtura culture)] 

a'gpimony, n. Genus of plants, esp. species 
A. Eupatoria, common in Britain, [f. L agri- 
monia perh. f. Gk argemone, etym. dub.] 

agrd'nomy, n. Rural economy, husbandry. 
So agPond'mic(AL) aa., agrono'mics, 
agro'nomiST, nn. [f. Gk agronomos overseer 
of land (agros land+-7io??ios f. nemo dispense), 
see -Y !] 

agpou'nd, adv. & pred. a. Upon the bottom 
of shallow water, as be, run, a., (of ships), [a 
prep.] 

a'gue (-u), n. Malarial fever, with cold, hot, 
and sweating stages ; shivering fit ; quaking 
(lit. & fig.); a. -cake, enlargement of spleen or 
liver caused by a. Hence a'gUED 2 a. [OF, f. 
L acuta sharp] 

a'guish, a. Of the nature of ague ; tending 
to produce ague ; subject to ague ; ague-like, 
quaking; coming by fits and starts. Hence 
a'guishLY 2 adv. [f. prec. + -ish *] 

an, int. expr. sorrow, regret, surprise, ad- 
miration, entreaty, remonstrance, dislike, con- 
tempt, mockery, [not in OE ; ME has a, perh. 
f. OF a, ah] 

aha 1 (ahhah - ), int. expr. surprise, triumph, 
mockery, irony, [f. ah+ha; formerly written 
a ha] 

aha 2 , n. See ha-ha n. 

ahea'd, adv. & pred. a. In advance ; in 
the direct line of one's forward motion, as 
breakers a. ; straight forwards ; forward at a 
rapid pace, as go a. ; in advance of (lit. & fig.). 
[a prep.] 

ahea'p, adv. In a heap, all of a heap, [a 
prep.] 

ahe'm, int. used to attract attention or gain 
time, [lengthened form of hem] 

ahoy, int. Nautical call used in hailing. 
[a int.+HOY] 

a huts clos (ah we klo), adv. With closed 
doors, in private. [F] 

ahu'll, adv. (naut.). With sails taken in and 
helm lashed on lee side, [a prep.+HULL] 

ai (ah"i), n. Three-toed Sloth of S. America, 
[f. Braz. ai, repr. its cry] 

aid 1 , v.t. Help (person to do, or abs.); pro- 
mote (recovery &c ). [f. OF aider f. L adjutare 
frequent, of xv>(juvare jut-)] 

aid 2 , n. Help ; (Law) help claimed by de- 
fendant from one who has joint-interest; (Hist.) 
grant of subsidy or tax to king, (later) ex- 
chequer loan ; helper ; material source of help 
(usu. pi.), as aa. and appliances, [f. OF aide, 
aiude (Prov. ajuda) f. LL adjuta, fem. p.p. of 
adjuvare aid j used as n.] 

aide-de-camp (a'dekong), n. (pi. aides-de- 
camp pron. a'dekongz). Officer assisting general 
by carrying orders, &c. [F] 

aigrette (a 'grit), n. Lesser White Heron 



AIGUILLE 



(usu. egret) ; tuft of feathers or hair ; spray 
of gems &c. [F, dim. f. OHG heigir] 
aiguille (a'gwil), n. Sharp peak of rock, esp. 
in Alps. Hence aig-uillESQUE a. [F, see 
aglet] 

aig-uillette (agwilel), n. See aglet. 
ail, v.t. & i. Trouble, afflict, as what ails 
him ? ; be ill. Hence ai'lMENT n. [f. OE eglan 
(cogn. w. Goth, agljan) f. egle troublesome 
(Goth, aglus)] 

aim 1 , v.t. & i. Direct (blow, missile, at) ; 
point (gun &c) towards {at) ; direct an act or 
proceeding against {at) ; (intr.) deliver blow, 
discharge missile, {at) ; take aim (abs.) ; form 
designs (abs.). [prob. f. two vbs (1) Picard. 
amer, OF and Prov. earner, f. L aestimare 
reckon (2) OF aesmer f. LL adaestimare ; ME 
sense was estimate] 

aim 2 , n. Direction of a missile at an object, 
as take a. ; design, purpose, object, whence 
ai'mLESS a., ai'mlessLY 2 adv., ai'mless- 
ness n. [f. prec] 

afn6 (a'na), n. Elder son (cf. cadet). [F] 
air 1 , n. (1) Gaseous substance enveloping 
earth, mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, 
breathed by all land animals ; atmosphere ; 
free space overhead, as birds of the a. ; un- 
confined space, as open a. ; fresh a., also 
simply a., a. not exhausted of its oxygen ; 
breeze, light wind; take a., become known; 
(of projects &c.) quite in the a. (uncertain) ; 
(of opinions, feelings) in the a., spreading about ; 
castles in the a., visionary projects. (2) Ap- 
pearance, as an a. of absurdity ; mien, gesture, 
as with a triumphant a. ; affected manner (esp. 
in pi.), as gave himself aa., aa. and graces; 
(Mus.) melody, tune, esp., in harmonized com- 
position, predominant (usu. soprano) part. (3) 
Combb. : a.-ball, inflated toy ; a.-bed, inflated 
mattress; a.-bladder, one filled with a., in 
animals or plants ; a.-brake (worked by a.- 
pressure) ; a.-chamber (in hydraulic machines), 
a. -receptacle which when condensed maintains 
constant pressure; a.-en^me (actuatedby heated 
a.) ; a.-gun (projecting balls &c. by elastic force 
of condensed a.) ; a.-jacket (inflated, to support 
wearer in water) ; a.-line, bee-line ; a.-poise, 
instrument for weighing a. ; a.-pump, machine 
for exhausting a. of vessel by strokes of 
piston: a.-ship, machine for navigating a., 
esp. without balloon ; a.-thermometer (with a. 
instead of mercury) ; a.-threads (of gossamer 
spider) ; a.-tight, impermeable to a. ; a.-trap 
(preventing escape of sewer-gas) ; a.-way, ven- 
tilating passage in mine. 1(1) OF f. L aerem, 
nom. aer f. Gk aer (ad breathe). (2) perh. 
developed f. (1) in F ; taken by E f. F about 1600] 
air 2 , v.t. Expose to open air, ventilate ; dry 
at fire; (refl.) go out into fresh air; parade 
(qualities, grievances, theories, fine clothes). 
[f. prec] 

air-less, a. Stuffy ; breezeless, still. [air+ 
-less] 

air'y, a. Aerial, lofty ; breezy ; immaterial ; 
of thin texture ; light in movement ; sprightly ; 
graceful, delicate ; unsubstantial ; superficial, 
flippant. Hence air'iLY 2 adv., air'iNESS n. 
Umi + -Y2] 

aisle (d), n. Division of church, esp. one 
parallel to and divided by pillars from the nave, 
choir, or transept ; passage between rows of 
pews. Hence aislED 2 a. [f. OF ele f. L ala, 
contr. of axilla wing; confused in E with 
He island, refash. with this as isle, and again 
modified to aisle after F refash. axle (on L 
axilla); the F spelling aisle (after med. L 
ascella = L axilla) is mere coincidence ; sense 
passage from confus. of Lala w. OF allee alley] 



21 | ALARY 

ait (at), n. Small isle, esp. in a river, fperh. 
f. OE iggath, iggeoth ; eyet, eyot, are artificial 
spellings on islet and F Hot] 
ai'teh-bone, n. (Cut of beef lying over) 
buttock or rump bone. [ME nage f. OF nache, 
nage, f. LL *natica, adj. (L natis buttock)+ 
bone ; for loss of n (a nage- becoming an age-), 
cf. adder ; pop. etym. gives H-, ice-, edge-, bone) 
ajar* 1 , adv. (Of doors) slightly open, [a 
prep. +char (OE cyrr a turn)] 
ajar* 2 , adv. In a jarring state, [a prep.+ 
jar n.] 
a-ki'mbo, adv. (Of the arms) with hands on 
hips and elbows turned outwards, [etym. dub.] 
aki'n, adv. and pred. a. (Connected) in rela- 
tionship ; (allied) in character, [a prep.] 
-al, suf. (1) Adj. f. L -alis (adj. suf. varying 
w. -aris -ar 1 by dissim. f. prec. syllable, as 
regularis but generalis) direct or through F -el 
(since corrected to -al in E) ; now appended 
freely to L nouns (cordial), Gk nouns (colossal), 
L adjj. (individual), and Gk adjj. in -kos, -oides, 
(comical, rhomboidal); -ical indicates vaguer- 
connexion w. the orig. n. than -ic (comic paper, 
comical story), cf. -acal; other suff. are some- 
times appended, as generality, centralize. (2) 
Nouns f. L -alis, -al, -ales, -alia, parts of above 
used as nouns (rival, animal, annals, Saturn- 
alia), with new imitations (cardinal, regi- 
mentals), -alia became in F -aille, in E -aille, 
-ail, -al (L sponsalia, OF espousaille, E 
spousaille now espousal), the last now freely 
imitated to form vbl nn. (reprisal, recital, 
bestowal), partly on false anal, of bridal, 

BURIAL. 

a la (ah lah), prep. After the manner of, as 
a la Russe, a la Reform. [F, for a la mode] 

alaba'ster (or a"l-), n. & a. Name of several 
varieties of carbonate or sulphate of lime ; 
(Mineral.) massive fine-grained sulphate of lime 
(Modern, Gypseous, A.), as distinct from the 
carbonates used by the ancients for holding 
unguents (Oriental, Calcareous, A.) ; box made 
of a.; (adj.) of a., like a. in whiteness or smooth- 
ness. So alaba'striNE 1 a. [f. OF alabastre 
f. L alabaster f. Gk alabast(r)os, etym. dub.] 

a la carte, adv. By the bill of fare. [F] 

ala'ck, int. (archaic) expressing regret or 
surprise, esp. in phr. alack-a-day. [perh. f. a 
int. -Ha A; lack] 

ala'erity, n. Briskness, cheerful readiness, 
[f. L alacritas (alacer brisk, see -tv)] 

a'lamode, it la mode, adv. & a. In the 
fashion, fashionable ; a. beef, scraps of beef 
boiled down into stew ; a. silk (also as n., 
alamode), a thin glossy black silk. [F (d la m.), 
= in the fashion] 

a'lar, a. Pertaining to wings ; winglike, 
wing-shaped ; (Bot. & Physiol.) axillary, [f. L 
alaris (ala wing, see -ar 1 )] 

alar'm 1 , n. Call to arms ; warning sound 
giving notice of danger ; warning, as give, take, 
the a. ; excited anticipation of danger ; (Fenc- 
ing) stamp on ground made with advancing 
foot ; a.-post, place for troops to assemble at in 
case of alarm ; mechanism that sounds the 
alarm (usu. ala'rum); alarum-clock, one with 
apparatus that rings at appointed hour. [f. OF 
alarme f. It. allarme (all'arme ! to arms !) ; form 
alarum now only of alarm-signal] 

alar'm 2 , v.t. Arouse to sense of danger; 
disturb; agitate, excite with fear. [f. prec] 

aiar'mist, n. One who raises alarms on 
slight grounds; panic-monger. So alar'xniSM 
n. [alarm n.+ -iST] 

alarum, n. See alarm n. 

a'lary, .a. Pertaining to wings or winglike 
parts, [f. L alarius (ala wing, see -ary i )] 



ALAS 



ala's, int. expressing grief, pity, concern, 
[f. OF ha las (mod. F h&las) f. ha ah -Has lasse 
•wretched f. L lassus weary] 

Ala'stop, n. Avenging deity, nemesis. [Gk 
(a- not+last- f. lath- forget)] 

a'lateidi, a. Having wings or winglike 
appendages, [f. L alatus (ala wing, see -ate 2 )J 

alb, n. White vestment reaching to feet, 
worn by priests, and by some consecrated 
kings, [f. LL alba (tunica) white (tunic)] 

a'lbaeore, n. Large species of Tunny ; other 
fish of same genus. [f. Port, albacor (F 
albicore, also used in E) f . Arab, al the + b ukr 
young camel, heifer] 

alba'ta, n. White metal, German silver, 
[f. L albata whitened (alb us white)] 

a'lbatross, n. Family of birds allied to 
Petrels, inhabiting Pacific and Southern 
Oceans; esp. great A., largest of sea-fowls. 
[17th-c. algatross, perh. f. obs. alcatras Frigate- 
bird (f. Sp. and Port, alcatruz f. Arab, al- 
qadus the bucket, Arab, name of Pelican, 
from its supposed water-carrying habit) ; -b- 
under influence of L albus white] 

albe'it (awl-), conj. Though, as a. that he 
failed, a. he failed, he tried a. without success. 
*[ = all though it be that] 

a'lbert, n. (Also A. chain) kind of watch 
chain, [f. Prince Albert consort of Queen 
Victoria] 

albe'seent, a. Growing white, shading 
into white, [f. L albescere (albus white), see 
-ent] 

albi'no (-be-), n. Human being marked by 
congenital absence of colouring pigment in 
skin and hair, which are white, and eyes, which 
are pink and unable to bear ordinary light ; any 
animal so distinguished. Hence albi'nESS *, 
a'lbiniSM, nn. [Port., orig. of white negroes, 
f. L albus white] 

a'lbite, n. White or soda feldspar, [f. L 
albus white + -ite l ] 

a'lbum, n. Blank book for insertion of auto- 
graphs, photographs, &c. [L, neut. sing, of 
albus white] 

albu'men, n. White of egg ; a constituent 
of animal solids and fluids, of seeds, and of 
tuberous or fleshy roots, found nearly pure 
in white of egg; (Bot.) substance found be- 
tween skin and embryo of many seeds, usu. 
the eatable part. Hence albirminosE, al- 
bu'minous, aa. [L albumen -minis white of 
egg (albus white, see -men] 

albirmenize, v.t. (phot.). Coat (paper) with 
an albuminous solution, [prec. + -ize] 

albu'minoid, a. & n. Like albumen ; (n. 
pi.) proteids, class of organic compounds form- 
ing chief part of organs and tissues of animals 
and plants. Hence albuminoidAL a. [f. 

ALBUMEN + -OID] 

albup'num, a'lburn, n. Recently formed 
wood in exogenous trees, sap-wood. Hence 
albup'nous a. [L alburnum (albus white)] 

aleahest. See alkahest. 

Alca'ic, a. & n. Pertaining to Alcaeus (Gk 
lyric poet, b. c. 600), or to the metre he invented ; 
(n. pi.) Alcaic strophes, [f. L f. Gk Alkaikos 
(Alkaios)] 

alehe'mie, a. Pertaining to alchemy. Hence 
alehe'micAL a., alehe'miealLY 2 adv. [f. 
med. L. alchimicus or F alchimique : see al- 
chemy and -ic] 

a'lehemist, n. One who studies or practises 
alchemy. Hence alchemi'stic(AL) aa. [f. 
OF alquemiste ; see alchemy and -ist] 

a'lchemize, v.t. Change as by alchemy ; 
transmute, [back-formation on prec] 

a'lchemy (-k-), n. Chemistry of the middle 



22 ALEURON 

ages; esp., pursuit of the transmutation of baser 
metals into gold (also fig.), [f. OF alquimie f. 
med. L alchimia f. Arab, al-kimia, al the + 
kimia, apparently = khemia (Gk form of native 
name of Egypt, but confused with Gkkhumeia 
pouring f. khu- perf. st. of khed pour, whence 
the spelling alchymy)] 

a'lcohol, n. Pure spirit of wine ; any liquor 
containing this ; (Chem.) large class of com- 
pounds of same type as spirits of wine. Hence 
a'lcoholATEMS) n., aleoho'lic a. [med. L, 
f. Arab, al the + koh'l powder for staining 
eyelids (kahala v. stain)] 

a'lcoholism, n. Action of alcohol on human 
system, [prec. + -ism] 

alcoholize, v.t. Saturate with alcohol ; 
subject to alcoholic influence. Hence alco- 
holizATioN n. [alcohol + -ize] 

aicoholo'metep, n. Instrument for measur- 
ing alcoholic strength of spirits. Hence al- 

COholO'METRY n. [f. ALCOHOL + -O- + METER] 

Alcoran (a'lkorahn, alkoralrn), n. Koran, 
sacred Mohammedan book. Hence AIcop- 
a'nic a. [(thr. F) f. Arab, al-qoran the reading 
(qara'a v. read)] 

a'leove, n. Vaulted recess in room- wall, 
esp. (in Spain) recess for bed; recess in garden 
wall or hedge ; summer house. [F, f. Sp. 
alcova, -ba, f. Arab, al-qobbah the vault (qubba 
v. vault)] 

a'ldehyde, n. Colourless volatile fluid of 
suffocating smell, obtained by oxidation of 
alcohol ; class of compounds of this type. 
Hence aldehy'dic a. [abbr. of L alcohol 
dehydrogenatum (deprived of hydrogen)] 

a'ldep (awl-), n. Tree related to Birch ; other 
trees not related, as Black, White, Red, A. [OE 
alor, aler (cf. ON blr, elrir, OHG elira, mod. G 
erle, eller) w. phonetic d] 

alderman (awl-), n. Magistrate in English 
and Irish cities and boroughs, next in dignity 
to Mayor. Hence aldepma'nic a., a'ldep- 
mariSHiP n. [f. OE aldor patriarch (aid old 
+ -or noun suf.) + -man] 

a'ldermanry, n. Ward, district of a 
borough having its own alderman ; rank of 
alderman, [prec. + -ry] 

A'ldine (awl-), a. Printed by Aldus Manutius, 
Venetian printer of 16th cent. ; name of 
certain style of type. [f. Aldus + -ine n 

ale, n. Liquor made from an infusion of 
malt by fermentation, flavoured with hops 
&c. ; merry-making at which ale was drunk ; 
alecost, costmary ; a.-house, one at which ale 
is retailed ; a.-wife, woman who keeps an ale- 
house, American fish allied to herring. [OE alu] 

a'leatopy, a. Depending on the throw of 
a die or on chance, [f. L aleatorius (aleator 
dice-player f. alea die)] 

alee*, adv. & pred. a. On the lee or sheltered 
side of ship ; to leeward, [f. OX d on+hle 
shelter ; see lee] 

a'leg'ap, n. Sour ale ; malt vinegar, [f. 
ale+ egre = F aigre sour, on anal, of vinegar] 

ale'mbie, n. Apparatus formerly used in 
distilling; also fig., as a. of fancy, [f. F 
alambic f. Arab, al the + ambiq still f. Gk 
ambix -ikos cup ; lembick, limbeck, were usu. 
in lo-17th cc] 

aleP't, a. & n. Watchful, vigilant; lively, 
nimble ; (n.) warning call, alarm ; on the a., on 
the look-out. Hence alep'tLY 2 adv., alep't- 
ness n. [f. F alerte, earlier allerte, d Vairte, 
f. It. alVerta (alia to the +erta look-out, watch- 
tower, fern. p.p. of ergere f. L erigere erect)] 

aleup*on, aleup'one, n. Albuminoid sub- 
stance found in seeds of plants, &c. [Gk 
aleuron flour] 



ALEXANDRINE 

Alexa'ndrine, a. & n. A. {verse), iambic 
line of six feet or twelve syllables, [f. F alex- 
andrite of doubtful orig.] 

alexiphar'mie. a. & n. (Having the quality 
of) an antidote, [earlier -ac f. F alexiphar- 
maque f. Gk alexipharmakon remedy for 
poison (alexo keep o&'+pharmakon poison)] 

alfresco, adv. & a. In the open air ; open- 
air, as a. lunch, [f. It. alfresco in the fresh (air)] 
la'lga, n. (pi. -ae). Sea-weed. Hence a'lgTAL, 
a'lg-oiD, alg-olo'gficAL, aa., a*lgiST(3) (-j-), 
algo'LOGisx, algro'LOGV, nn. [L] 

a'lgebra, n. Investigation of the properties 
of numbers by means of general symbols ; 
quadruple a., quaternions. Hence alge- 
bra'icUU aa., alg-ebra'iealLY - adv., a'lge- 
braiST, a'lg-ebriST, nn. lit., f. Arab, aljebr 
reunion of broken parts (jabara reunite)] 

a*lg*id (-j-), a. Cold, esp. of cold stage of 
ague. Hence algi'diTV n. [f. F algide f. L 
algidus (algere be cold, see -id l )] 

a'lgorism, n. Arabic (decimal) notation ; 
cypher in a., mere dummy, [f. OF augorisme 
f. med. Lalgorismus f. Arab. al-Khoxcarazmi 
the man of Khiva, surname of a mathema- 
tician ; mod. misspelling -ithm by confus. w. 
Gk arithmos number] 

alguazi'l (-gwa-), n. Spanish warrant- 
officer or sergeant. (Sp. (now -cil) f. Arab. 
al-wazir the vizier, minister (icazara carry on)] 

a'lgum, n. Tree mentioned in Bible (2 Chron. 
ii. 8 ; in 1 Kings x. 11 wrongly given as almug), 
prob. a kind of sandal- wood. IHeb. ; a foreign 
word perh. = Skr. valguka sandal-woad tree] 

Alha'mbra, n. Palace of Moorish kings at 
Granada. Hence alhambrE'SQUE a. [f. Arab. 
al-hamra' the red house] 

a'lias, adv. & n. (pi. -ases). (Name by which 
one is called) on other occasions. [L, adv.] 

a'libi, adv. & n. (The plea that when an 
alleged act took place one was) elsewhere. [L, 
adv. ; old locative of alius another] 

a'lidad, -ade, n. Index of astrolabe, quad- 
rant, &c, showing the degrees cut off on the 
arc. [F (-ade), f. med. L alhidada f. Arab, al- 
'idadah the revolving radius (acid upper arm)] 

a'lien l , a. & n. Not one's 'own ; foreign, 
under foreign allegiance ; differing in nature 
(from) ; repugnant (to) ; stranger ; non-natural- 
ized foreigner ; one excluded from ; (Law) a.- 
friend, -enemy, alien owing allegiance to 
friendly, hostile, country. Hence a'IieniSM(2) 
n. [OF, f. L aliemis belonging to another 
(alius)] 

a'lien 2 , v.t. (Poet.) estrange ; (Law) transfer 
ownership of. Hence a'lienABLE a., aliena- 
bi'lity n. [f. OF aliener f. L alienare (as 
prec.)] 

a'lienate, v.t. Estrange ; transfer owner- 
ship of ; turn away, divert (from). Hence 
a'lienatOR 2 n. [f. L as prec, see -ate 2 ] 

aliena'tion, n. Estrangement ; transference 
of ownership ; diversion to different purpose ; 
(mental) a., insanity, [f. MF alienacion f. L 
alienationem (as prec, see -atiox)] 

alienee*, n. One to whom transfer of pro- 
perty is made, [alien 2 + -ee] 

a'liform, a. Wing-shaped, [f. L ala wing + 
-form] 

aligh't 1 , v.i. Dismount (from horse), de- 
scend (from carriage) ; settle, come to earth, 
from the air. [OE alihtan (a- (l)+lihtan light)] 

allgfh't 2 , a. Kindled; on fire; lighted up. 
[p.p. of obs. alight kindle ; now only used pre- 
dicatively, on anal, of a-blaze and other adv. 
compds] 

aligrn, ali'ne, v.t. & i. Place, lay, in a line ; 
bring into line ; esp. bring three or more points 



23 ALL 

into a straight line, as a. the sights (of rifle) 
and bulVs-eye; (intr.) form in line (as troops). 
Hence alig-n.MENT n. [f. F aligner (a to 
+ ligner f. L lineare (linea line)] 

ali'ke, pred. a. & adv. Similar, like ; (adv.) 
in like manner. [OE gelic a. gelice adv. (OHG 
gelih, mod. G gleich) f. ge- together + lie like ; 
alsof. OX alikra. cilika adv. (cogn. w. OE anlic 
a. anlice adv.) f. a prep, on, to, + lik like] 

a'liment, n. Food; (fig.) support, mental 
sustenance. Hence aliment al a., ali- 
mentalLY 2 adv. [f. L alimentum (alere 
nourish, see -mext)] 

alimentary, a. Nourishing; performing 
functions of nutrition, as a. canal ; providing 
maintenance, [f. L alimentarius (as prec, see 
-ary i)] 

alimenta'tion, n. Nourishment ; mainten- 
ance, [f. med. L alimentatio (alimentare, as 

ALIMENT, See -ATION)] 

a'limony, n. Nourishment; maintenance; 
allowance due to wife from husband's estate, 
on separation from certain causes, [f. L alt- 
mania nutriment (alere nourish, see -mony)] 

a'liquot, a. & n. A. (part), part contained by 
the whole an integral number of times, integral 
factor, [f. F aliquote f. L aliquot some, so 
many] 

-ality, compd noun-suf. = -al + -TY. Quality, 
or instance of it, (generality, a g.) 

ali've, adv. & pred. a. In life, living ; fully 
susceptible to (an idea, &c); active, brisk, as 
(colloq.) look a., be brisk; swarming icith, as 
river a. with boats; any man a. (whatever); 
man a.! (colloq. expletive), [f. A prep.+ME 
live, OE life dat. of lit life; = on life] 

ali'zarin, n. Pied colouring matter of 
madder, [f. F alizari madder prob. f. Arab, al 
the + 'acarah extract (acara v. press) ; see -in] 

a'lkariest, n. Alchemist's supposed uni- 
versal solvent (also fig.), [sham Arab., prob. 
invented by Paracelsus] 

alkalescent, a. & n. Incipiently or slightly 
alkaline (substance). Hence alkale'SGENCE, 
alkale'seENCY, nn. [f. foil., see -escent] 

a'lkali, n. (pi. -lis, -lies). (Chem.) series of 
compounds called bases, including soda, potash, 
and ammonia, highly soluble in water, pro- 
ducing caustic or corrosive solutions that 
neutralize strong acids, and turn vegetable 
yellows to brown, reds to blue, purples to 
green ; (Commerc) caustic soda, caustic potash, 
other alkaline products. Hence a'lkalifi*- 
able a., a'lkaliFY v.t. [f. F alcali f. Arab. 
al-qaliy calcined ashes (qalay fry)] 

alkali'metry, n. Measurement of strength 
of alkalis. Hence alkalimetPiCAL a. [al- 
kali + -metry] 

a'lkaline, a. Of alkalis ; of the nature of an 
alkali ; a. metals, those whose hydroxides are 
alkalis, [f. alkali + -ine j ] 

a'lkaloid, n. Nitrogenous basic substance ; 
esp. vegeto-alkaloids, vegetable alkalis. Hence 
alkaloi'dAL a. [f. alkali + -oid] 

a'lkanet, n. (Plant whose root yields) a red 
dye. [f. Sp. alcana (f. Arab, al-henna the henna 
shrub) + dim. suf. to dist. this shrub from 
henna] 

all (awl), a., n., adv. (1> (adj. w. noun &c. 
expressed or .understood). The entire, as a. 
day, a. England, a. his life, a. this, take it a., 
a. whom I saw ; the greatest possible, as a. 
speed; (w. pi.) the entire number of, as a. 
men, a. the others; a. kind of, every kind of; 
any whatever, as renounce a. connexion. (2) 
(n.). All men, as a. are agreed ; (w. of) the 
whole, every one, as a. of it, a. of you ; every- 
thing, as that is a., a. is lost; one's whole 



ALLAH 



24 



ALLOY 



property, as he lost his a. ; a. but, everything 
short of (used adv.), as a. but impossible, he 
tvas a. but drowned; a. in a., of paramount or 
exclusive importance ; at a., in any way, as not 
at a., did you speak at a. ? (not in affirmative 
sent.); in a., in total number; one and a., a. 
and some (archaic), a. and sundry, a. indi- 
vidually and collectively. (3) (adv.). Wholly, 
quite, as dressed a. (orig. an adj.) in white, 
a. covered with mud, a. right, a. the better, 
a. the same, a. at once, a. too soon. (1) Combb. : 
A.- father, Odin, God; A. Fools' Day, first of 
April; A. Saints' Day, general celebration of 
saints, November 1st ; A. Souls' Day, day of 
supplication for souls of faithful deceased, 
Nov. 2nd. All is prefixed to many adjj., as 
a.-bountifid, a.-righteous, a.-sufficient, and 
esp. topartt.,as a.-suMcing, a.-seeing, a.-know- 
ing. [com.-Teut. : OHG al, ON allr] 

A'llah, n. Name of God among Moham- 
medans. [Arab, allah contr. of al-ilah (al the 
+ ilah god = Heb. eloah] 

allay", v.t. Put down, repress ; alleviate (pain 
&c.) ; diminish (pleasure ace), [f. A- (1) + lay 
v. ; confused with obs. allege alleviate and obs. 
allay alloy] 

allegation, n. Alleging ; assertion (esp. one 
not proved), [f. F allegation f. Lallegationem 
(allegare allege, see -ation)] 

allege (-ej), v.t. Affirm; advance as argu- 
ment er excuse, [f. adlegiare E Latiniz. of 
OF esligier, Norm, alegier, f. LL exlitigare 
clear at law ; but treated as repr. L allegare 
cite, adduce, which would give alleague (cf. 
F alUguer)] 

allegiance (-jans), n. Duty of subject to 
sovereign or government; loyalty (lit. and 
fig.). [ME ligeaunce f. OF ligeance (liege) ; ch- 
added in E perh. thr. confusion with obs. 
allegeance, n. f. prec] 

allegdTie, a. Pertaining to, of the nature 
of, allegory. Hence allego'ricAL a., alle- 
goTiealLY 2 adv. [f . F f . L f . Gk allegorikos 
(as foil., see-ic)] 

a'llegorize, v.t. & i. Treat as an allegory ; 
make allegories. Hence a'llegoriST n. [f. F 
allegoriser f. L allegorizare (as foil., see -ize)J 

a'lleg'OPy, n. Narrative description of a 
subject under guise of another suggestively 
similar ; emblem, [f . L f. Gk allegoria (alios 
other + -agoria speaking f. agora assembly)] 

allegretto (mus.). Somewhat briskly. [It.] 

alle'gro (-la-), a., adv., n. (mus.). Lively, 
gay ; (movemejit) in brisk time. [It.] 

allelu'ia (-looya), n. Song of praise to God. 
[f. L f. (Septuagint) Gk allelouiaf. Heb. hallelu- 
yah praise ye Jehovah] 

alle'viate, v. t. Relieve, mitigate. Hence 
alleviATiox, alle'viatOR 2 , nn. ; alle'via- 
tiVE, alle'viatORV, aa. [f. L xileviare lighten 
(levis light), see -ate 3 ] 

a'lley, n. (pi. -eys). Walk, passage, esp. in 
park or garden; narrow street; blind a., one 
closed at end ; enclosure for skittles &c. [f. OF 
alee,F alUe, walking, passage, f. alter go, etym. 
dub.] 

All-ha'llow(s), n. All saints (in heaven), 
as All hallows' day, Allhallowmass. [all4- 
halloio f. OE hdlga saint] 

i allia'ceous, a. Of the genus Allium, in- 
cluding garlic, onions, and leeks ; smelling, 
tasting, of garlic &c. [f. L allium garlic + 
-aceous] 

alli'ance, n. Union by marriage ; relation- 
ship ; confederation (esp. between States) ; 
community in nature or qualities ; (Bot.) group 
of allied natural Orders, [f. OF aliance (as 
ally !, see -ange)] 



a'lligator, n. Genus of saurian reptiles of 
crocodile family, found in America; other 
large American saurians ; a. apple, pear, fruit 
of W. Indian trees ; a. tortoise, snapping turtle, 
[corrupt, of Sp. el lagarto the lizard f. L 
lacerta] 

alli'terate, v.i. (Use words that) begin with 
the same letter. Hence alli'tepatiVE a., 
alli'terativeLY 2 adv. [f. L ad to + litera 
letter + -ate 3 , on anal, of obliterate] 

alliteration, n. Commencement of words 
in close connexion (esp. in early Teut. poetry, of 
accented syllables) with the same letter, [f. 
prec. + -ation] 

a'llocate, v.t. Assign, devote, (to person or 
object) ; locate. Hence alloeATiON n. [f. 
med. L xilocare (loctis place), see -ate 3 ] 

al(l)6*dium, n. Estate held in absolute 
ownership, without acknowledgment to a 
superior (opp. to fexidum). Hence allo'di \ i , 
a., allo'dialL y 2 adv., allo'dialiSM, alio* 
dialiST. nn. [f. med. L f. G *aldd entire property 
(all+OLG 6d estate); sometimes written allod, 
allody] 

alld'gamy, n. (bot. ). Cross-f ertilizatiou. [f . 
Gk alios other + -gamy] 

alfo'nge (F), n. Slip of paper gummed to end 
of bill of exchange to give room for further 
endorsements. 

allo'pathy, n. Curing of a diseased action 
by inducing another action of a different kind 
(opp. to homoeopathy). Hence allopa'thic 
a., allopa'thiCALLY adv., allo'pathiST n. 
[f. Gk alios other + -pathy] 

allophylian, a. & n. (One whose native 
tongue is) neither Aryan nor Semitic, [f. L f . Gk 
allophulos (alios other +phule tribe) +-ian] 

allo't, v.t. (-U-). Distribute by lot or with 
authority ; assign (to), [f. OF aloter (a to + 
loter divide by lot f. lot, Teut. wd, OE hlol)] 

a'llotheism, n. Worship of strange gods, 
[f. Gk alios other + theos god + -ism] 

allo'tment, n. Apportioning ; lot in life ; 
share allotted to one ; small portion of land 
let out for cultivation, [f. F allotement (aloter, 
see prec. and -ment)] 

allo'tpopy, n. Variation of physical pro- 
perties without change of substance. Hence 
allotro'pic(AL) aa., allotro'piealLY 2 adv., 
allo'tropiSM n. [f. Gk allotropia f. allo- 
tropos (alios other + tropos manner f. trepo 
turn)] 

allottee*, n. One to whom allotment is made, 
[f. allot + -ee] 

allow, v.t. Admit (thing to be, that) ; (U. S.) 
form the opinion (that) ; permit (practice, per- 
son to do) ; (refl.) indulge oneself in (conduct) ; 
(intr.) admit of; give (limited periodical sum), 
as a. him £200 a year ; add, deduct, in considera- 
tion of something ; a. for, take into considera- 
tion, make addition or deduction corresponding 
to. Hence allow'ABLE a., allowabLY 2 adv. 
ff. OF alouer f. (1) L Ahlaudare praise, (2) L al- 
locare place] 

allowance \ n. Permission ; tolerance 
(of) ; limited portion, esp. yearly income ; de- 
duction, discount ; make a. for, allow fer. [f. 
OF alouance (as prec, see -ance)] 

allowance 2 , v.t. Make allowance topper- 
son) ; supply (thing) in limited quantities, [f. 
prec] 

alloy* 1 , n. Standard, quality, (of gold or 
silver) ; inferior metal mixed esp. with gold or 
silver (also fig.); mixture of metals, [orig. 
allay f. OF aley (F aloi) t. aleier combine f. 
L Ahligare bind ; meaning influenced by con- 
fusion with F d loi to law] 

alloy* 2 , v.t. Mix with baser metal? mix 



ALLSEED 

(metals) ; debase ; moderate, [f. F aloyer f. OF 
aleier, see prec] 

a'llseed (awl-), n. Name of various plants 
producing much seed. 

a'llspice (awl-), n. Jamaica pepper, Pimenta, 
supposed to combine flavour of cinnamon, nut- 
meg, and cloves; other aromatic shrubs, as 
Carolina A .,_ Japa n A . , Wild A . 

allu'de (-00-, -u-), v.i. Refer covertly, in- 
directly, to ; (improp.) a. to, mean. [f. L al- 
(ludere lus- play)J 

allure", v.t. Tempt, entice, win over, {to, 
from, person, place, conduct) ; fascinate, 
charm. Hence allure'MEXT n. [f. OF aleur- 
rer attract (a to + leurrcr lure)] 

allu'sion, n. Covert, implied, indirect, re- 
ference (to), [f. L allusio (as allude, see 

-ION)] 

allu'sive, a. Containing an allusion (to) ; 
abounding in allusions; (Her.) a. (canting) 
ar?7i$. Hence allu'siveLY 2 adv., allirsive- 
ness n. [as prec, see -ive] 

allu'vion (-00-, -u-), n. Wash of sea, river, 
against shore, banks ; flood ; matter deposited 
by flood; (Law) formation of new land by water's 
action. [F, f. L Ahluvionem (nom. -vio) f. luere 
wash] 

allu'vium, n. Deposit of earth, sand, &c, 
left by flood. Hence allu'viAL a. [L, neut. 
of adj. xiluvius (luere wash)] 

ally l , v.t. Combine, unite, for special ob- 
ject to, with, (esp. of marriage and alliance 
with foreign states) ; (of things) allied to, con- 
nected with. [f. OF alier i. L AiAigare bind] 

ally* 2 , n. Person, state, &c, allied with 
another, [f. prec] 

a'lly 3 , n. Choice playing-marble of marble 
or alabaster, [perh. dim. of alabaster] 

a'lmaihi, n. Egyptian dancing-girl. [Arab. 
'almah knowing (alama know)] 

a'lmagest (-j-), n. Great astronomical 
treatise of Ptolemy ; other books on astrology 
and alchemy, [f. F f. Arab, al the + majisti = 
Gk megiste greatest] 

A'lma Ma'ter, n. Name used of Universities 
and schools. [L,= bounteous mother] 

almanac (awl-), n. Annual calendar of 
months and days, with astronomical and other 
data. [med. L, etym. dub.] 

a'lmandine, n. A garnet of violet tint, 
[corrupt, of obs. alabandine f. L alabandina 
(Alabanda, city in Caria)] 

almigh'ty (awl-), a. All-powerful, esp. A. 
God, the A. ; (slang) great, (adv.) exceedingly. 
Hence almig-h-tiNESS n. [OE xlmeahtig (all 
adv. + MIGHTY)] 

a'lmond (ahm), n. Kernel of a stone-fruit 
borne by two trees (siceet, bitter, a.) ; allied 
to plum and peach ; anything a.-shaped ; A. 
(Tumbler), kind of pigeon. [f. OF almande 
f. L f. Gk amygdale ; al- perh. by confus. w. 
Arab, al the] 

a'lmonep (or ahmn-). n. Official distributor 
Of alms ; Hereditary Grand A., Lord High A„ 
(officers in royal household of Great Britain), 
[f. OF aumoner f. LL almosinarius = eleemosy- 
narius (as alms, see -ary 1 )] 

a'lmost (awl-), adv. Very nearly (qualifying 
v., adv., adj. ; also noun, as his a. impudence). 
[f. all + most adv.] 

alms (ahmz), n. (usu. as sing.). Charitable 
relief of the poor ; donation ; a.-folk, alms- 
man, (supported by charity) ; a.-giving ; a.- 
house, one founded by charity for reception 
of poor. [OE xlmysse f. L f. Gk eleemosune 
compassionateness (eleemon adj. f. eleos com- 
passion)] 

a'lmug. See algum. 



25 ALTAR 

a'loe (-6), n. Genus of plants with erect spikes 
of flowers and bitter juice ; (pi.) purgative 
drug procured from juice of aloes; other 
plants, as American A., Agave. [OE aluwe f. 
L f. Gk aloe] 

aloe'tic, a. & n. (Medicine) containing aloes, 
[f. Gk aloe aloe on false anal, of diuretic &c] 

ald'ft (or -aw-), adv. & pred. a. High up (lit. 
and fig.) ; upward, [f. ON d on, to, -Wop* sky, 
loft] 

alo'ne, pred. a. & adv. Solitary; standing 
by oneself (in opinion &c) ; let, leave, a., ab- 
stain from interfering with ; (adv.) only, ex- 
clusively, [f. all adv. + one] 

alo'ng-, adv. & prep. From end to end of ; 
through any part of the length of ; onward, 
as get a. ; a. xcith, in company with, in con- 
junction with; all a., all the time; a.-ships, 
directed fore and aft ; a.-shore, a. by the shore, 
a. and on the shore ; alongside, close to side of 
ship ; alongside of, side by side with (lit. and 
fig.). [OE and-lang (and- against, facing, + 
lang_\ong), orig. adj.] 

aloo'f, adv. & pred. a. Away, apart, (lit. and 
fig.), as stand, keep, hold, a.; (Naut.) away 
to windward, as spring a. (cf. luff). Hence 
aloofNESS n. [f. Aprep.+LOOF] 

alou'd, adv. Loudly ; not in a whisper ; 
(colloq.) palpably, as reeks a, [f. a prep. + loud ; 
cf. foil.] 

alow* (-6), adv. (naut.). In, into, lower part 
of vessel, [f. a prep.+LOW a.] 

alp, n. Mountain-peak ; (in Switzerland) 
green pasture-land on mountain side; Alpis, 
mountain range separating France and Italy, 
[(pi.) f. L Alpes prop, n., etym. dub.] 

alpa'ca, n. Kind of llama with long woolly 
hair ; its wool ; fabric thence made. [f. Sp. 
(Arab, al the + paco, native Peruv. name)] 

a'lpenstock, n. Long iron-shod staff used 
in climbing Alps &c. [G, = stick of the Alps] 

a'lpha, n. Greek name of letter A ; A. and 
Omega, beginning and end; (Astr.) chief star 
of constellation. [Gk, f. Heb. aleph ox, leader] 

alphabet, n. Set of letters used in a lan- 
guage ; first rudiments. Hence alphabetic 
a. [f. L alphabetxim (Gk alpha, beta, first two 
letters of alphabet)] 

alphabetical, a. Of the alphabet, as a. 
order. Hence alphabe'tiealLY 2 adv. [as 
prec + -ical] 

A'lpine, a. Of the Alps or any lofty moun- 
tains, [f. L Alpinus (Alpes, see alp and -ine 1 )] 

A'lpinist, n. Alpine climber, [f. F alpiniste 
(as prec, see -ist)] 

alpea'dy (awl-), adv. Beforehand ; by this 
time, thus early, [f. all adv. + ready] 

Alsa'tia, n. Province west of Rhine, de- 
batable ground between France and Ger- 
many; White Friars in London, once sanctu- 
ary for lawbreakers. Hence Alsa'tiAN a. & n. 

a'lsike, n. Kind of clover. [Alsike in 
Sweden] 

a'lso (awl-), adv. In addition, besides, [f. 
all + so ; orig. in antecedent and relat. as well 
as demonstr. functions, now superseded in 
relat. by its shortened form as, and in antec. 
by as and so] 

alt, n. (Mus.) high tone, esp. in a., in octave 
above treble stave beginning with G ; (fig.) in 
a., in an exalted frame of mind. [Pr., f. L altum 
high] 

a'ltap (awl-), n. Flat-topped block for offer- 
ings to deity ; Communion Table ; lead to the 
a., marry; a.-cloth, (prop.) linen cloth used at 
Communion or Mass, (loosely) silk frontal and 
super-frontal ; a.-piece, reredos. [f. L altare 
(alius high)] 



ALTARWISE 



26 



AMAZON 



a'ltapwise, adv. In the manner of an 
altar. 

alta'zimuth, n. Instrument for determin- 
ing altitude and azimuth of heavenly bodies. 
[alt- for altitude + azimuth] 

a'ltep (awl-), v.t. & i. Change in character, 
position, &c. Hence or cogn. altepa- 
bi'lity, altePA'Tiox, nn., a'ltePABLE a. [f. 
14th-c. F altdrer f. med. L alterare (L alter 
other)] 

a'lterative, a. & n. Tending to alter; (n.) 
medicine, treatment, that alters processes of 
nutrition, [prec. + -ati ve] 

a'ltepeate (alt-, awlt-), v.i. Dispute hotly, 
wrangle, {with). So altepeATiON n. [f. L 
altercari, see -ate 3 ] 

a' Iter &go, n. One's other self ; intimate 
friend. [L, lit. other I] 

altep'nant, a. & n. Alternating ; (Mineral.) 
of alternating layers; (n.) a. quantity. [F, 
part, of alterner f. L alternare alternate] 

altep'nate 1 (awl-, -at), a. (Of things of two 
kinds) coming each after one of the other kind ; 
(Biol.) a. generation (by a. processes, as first by 
budding,nextby sexualreproduction); a. leaves, 
angles, (placed alternately on the two sides of 
stem, line). Hence altep'nateLY 2 adv. [f. L 
alternare do one thing after the other (altemiis 
every other f. alter other), see -ate 2 ] 

alternate 2 , v.t. & i. Arrange, perform, (two 
sets of things) alternately ; interchange (one 
thing) alternately with, by, another; (of two 
things) succeed each other by turns ; (of a 
whole) consist of alternate things ; (of one class 
of things) appear alternately with another. So 
altepnA'TiON n. [f. prec] 

altep'native, a. & n. (Of two things) 
mutually exclusive ; (strictly) permission to 
choose between two things ; (loosely) either of 
two possible courses, as / had no (other) a. ; one 
of more than two possibilities. Hence altep*- 
nativeLY 2 adv. [f. med. L alternativus (as 
prec., see -ative)] 

although* (awl-), conj. Though, [f. all adv. 
-f though] 

a'ltitude, n. Height ; depth ; (Geom.) length 
of perpendicular from vertex to base ; height 
above sea level; (usu. in pi.) high place; (fig.) 
eminence, [f. ~Laltitudo (altus high), see -tude] 

a'lto, n. (mus.). Highest male voice, counter- 
tenor ; its musical part ; female voice of simi- 
lar range, contralto ; its part ; singer with alto 
voice ; a.-clarinet, -viola, instruments similar 
to the clarinet, viola, but of higher pitch. [It. 
alto (canto) high (singing)] 

altogether (awl-), adv. & n. Totally; on 
the whole ; (n.) an a., a whole, [all a.] 

a'lto-pelie'vo (-rile'vo), n. (sculp.). High 
relief. [It. alto-rilievo] 

a'ltpuism, n. Regard for others as a prin- 
ciple of action. Hence a'ltruiST n., al- 
tpui'stic a., altPui'stiCALLY adv. [L Fa?- 
truisme (It. altrui others' f . L alteri huic to this 
other, see -ism)] 

a'lum, n. A double sulphate of aluminium 

and potassium ; series of salts including this ; 

family of compounds including these ; (Mine- 
ral.) various native minerals, alums proper 

and pseudo-alums. [OF, f. L alumen] 
alu'mina, n. One of the earths, the only 

oxide of aluminium, [f. L alumen alum, on type 

of soda &c] 
alumi'nium, n. White light sonorous 

ductile malleable metal, not oxidized in air, 

used for instruments and as an alloy; a. 

bronze, alloy of a. and copper, [f. alumina ; 

formerly alumium, aluminum] 
alu'minous, a. Of the nature of alum or 



alumina, [f. F alumineux f. L ahaninosus 
(alumen alum, see -ous)] 

alu'mnus, n. (pi. -ni). Pupil of a school or 
university. [L, = foster-child] 

a'lveolate (-at), a. Honey-combed, pitted 
with small cavities, [f. L alveolatus f. foil., 
see -ate 2 ] 

alve'olus, n. Small cavity ; socket of tooth, 
whence alve'olAR * a. ; cell of honey-comb ; 
conical chamber of a Belemnite. [L, dim. of 
alveus cavity] 

a'lways (awl-), adv. At all times ; on all 
occasions, [f. all a. + way ; alway (now archaic 
or poet, for always) orig. meant ' all the way, 
continually', always (gen. case) having prob. 
the sense ' on every occasion '] 

am. See be^ 

a'madou (-00), n. German tinder, prepared 
from fungi, used as a match and styptic. [F 
f. Pr. (OPr. amador), f. L amatorem lover 
(amare, see -or 2 )] 

amai'n, adv. (archaic, poet). Vehemently; 
in all haste, [a prep. + main, OE msegn, force] 

amalgam, n. Mixture of a metal with 
mercury, as gold a. ; plastic mixture of any 
substances (also fig.), [f. F amalgame, med. L 
amalgama, perh. f. L f. Gk malagma an 
emollient (malasso, st. malak-, soften)] 

amalgamate 1 (-at), a. Combined, esp. of 
languages, [f. med. L amalgamare (as prec, 
see -ate 2 )] 

amalgamate 2 , v. t. & i. Mix ; unite 
(classes, societies, ideas) ; (of metals) combine 
with mercury. Hence amalgamATiON, 
ama'lgamatOR 2 , nn., ama'lgamatiVE a. 
[f. prec, see -ate 3 ] 

amanue'nsis, n. (pi. -nses). One who writes 
from dictation. [L, adj. used as n., f. (servus) a 
manu secretary + -ensis belonging to] 

a"marant(h), n. Imaginary unfading 
flower ; genus, including Prince's Feather and 
Love-lies-bleeding; purple colour. Hence 
amapa*nt(h)iNE * a. [f. F amarante f. L f. 
Gk amarantos everlasting, name of a flower 
(a- not + maran- st. of maraino fade) ; h by 
confusion with Gk anthos flower] 

amapyllis, n. Genus of autumn-flowering 
bulbous plants. [L, f. Gk Amarullis, name of 
a country girl] 

ama'ss, v.t. Heap together ; accumulate (esp. 
riches), [f. 12th-c F amasser (d to + masser f. 
masse mass n.] _ 

a'mateup (-tur), n. One who is fond of; 
one who cultivates a thing as a pastime. 
Hence amateup'iSH a., amateup'ishLY 2 
adv., amateup'ishNESS, amateup'iSM, nn. 
[F, f. L amatorem (amare love, see -or 2 )] 

a'mative, a. Disposed to loving. Hence 
a'mativeNESS n. [f. L amare love, see -ative] 

a'matory, a. Pertaining to a lover or to 
sexual love. Hence amatop'iAL a. [f. L 
amatorius (amare love, see -ory)] 

amaupo'sis, n. Partial or total loss of 
sight from disease of optic nerve. Hence 
amaupo'TTC a. [Gk, f. amauroo darken 
(amauros dark), see -osis] 

ama'ze 1 , v.t. Overwhelm with wonder. 
Hence ama'zedLY 2 , ama'zingLY 2 , advv., 
ama'zeMENT n. [a- (1)+ maze v., etym. 
dub.] 

ama'ze 2 , n. (poet,). = amazement, [f. prec] 

A'mazon (a-), n. Fabulous race of female 
warriors in Scythia ; female warrior (lit. and 
fig.) ; masculine woman. Hence Amazo'n- 

ian a. [f. L f. Gk (prob. foreign word, but ex- 
plained by Greeks as a- not + mazos breast, 
from destruction of right breast to facilitate 
use of bow)] 



AMBAGES 



27 



amba-ges (-jez), n. pi. Roundabout ways. 
[L {amb- about + ctg- f. agere drive ; 16th-c. E 
had a'mbage, pi. a'mbages] 

ambassador, n. Minister sent by one 
sovereign or State on mission to another (usu. 
A. extraordinary); minister permanently re- 
presenting sovereign or State at foreign court 
(Ordinary, Resident, A. ; formerly A. Leger) ; 
A. Plenipotentiary (with full power to sign 
treaties &c.) ; official messenger. Hence am- 
bassado'PTAL a. [f. F ambassadeur f. OSp. 
ambaxadorf. med. Li*ambactiator agent-noun 
of ambactiare f. ambactia office f. Celt, am- 
bactus servant (ambi about + a g- drive, cogn. w. 
L agere)] 

ambassadress, n. Female ambassador; 
ambassador's wife. [f. prec. -f -ess ] ] 

a'mbep, n. Yellow translucent fossil resin, 
found chiefly on S. shore of Baltic ; a. Fauna, 
flora, animals, plants, of which remains are 
found in a. [f. F ambre f. Arab, 'anbar am- 
bergris, to which the name orig. belonged] 

a'mbergrris (-es), n. Wax-like substance 
found floating in tropical seas, and in intestines 
of sperm-whale, odoriferous and used in per- 
fumery, formerly in cookery, [f. F ambre gris 
gray amber] ■ 

ambidexter, a. & n. (Person) able to use 
left hand as well as right; double-dealing. 
Hence ambidexte'riTY n. [med. L (amb- on 
both sides 4- dexter right-handed] 

ambide*xt(e)rous, a. =prec. Hence ambi- 
de'xtrousLY 2 adv., ambide'xtrousNESs 
n. [as prec. + -ous] 

a'mbient, a. Surrounding, circumfused. 
[f. L ambiens -entis part, of ambire go about 
(amb- on both sides + ire go)] 

ambiguity, n. Double meaning; expres- 
sion capable of more than one meaning, [f. 
med. L. ambiguitas (as foil., see -TY)] 

ambi'guous, a. Obscure ; of double mean- 
ing; of doubtful classification; of uncertain 
issue. Hence ambi'guousLY 2 adv., am- 
bi'guousNESS n. [f. L ambiguus doubtful f. 
ambigere (amb- both ways + agere drive) + 
-ous] 

a'mbit, n. Precincts ; bounds ; compass, ex- 
tent, [f. L ambitus a going round (ambire, see 

AMBIENT)] 

ambi'tion, n. Ardent desire for distinction ; 
aspiration (to be, to do) ; object of such desire. 
[F, f. L ambitionem (ambire -it-, canvass for 
votes, see ambient and -ion)] 

ambi'tious, a. Full of ambition ; strongly 
desirous (of & thing, to do) ; showing ambition, 
as an a. attempt. Hence ambi'tiousLY 2 adv. , 
ambi'tiousNESS n. [f. L ambitiosus (as prec, 
see -ous)] 

a'mble 1 , v.i. (Of horses &c.) move by lift- 
ing two feet on one side together; ride an 
ambling horse, ride at an easy pace ; move in 
a way suggesting an ambling horse, [f. F 
ambler f. L ambulare walk] 

a'mble 2 , n. Pace of an ambling horse ; easy 
pace. [f. F amble f. ambler, see prec] 

amblyd'pia, n. Impaired vision. Hence 
amblyd'pic a. [Gk, f. ambludpos a. (amblus 
dull + ops opos eye)] 

a'mbo, n. (pi. -bos, -bo'nes). Pulpit in early 
Christian churches. [LL, f. Gk ambon] 

amboy'na(wood), n. Finely marked wood 
of an Asiatic tree. [Amboyna Island] 

ambro'sia (-zia, -zhya), n. (Myth.) food of 
the gods; anything delightful to taste or 
smell ; bee-bread, [f. L f. Gk, fern, of ambro- 
sios of the immortals f. ambrotos (a- not + 
(m)brotos mortal)] 

ambro'sial (-zial, -zhyal), a. Divinely frag- 



AMERICAN 



adv. 



rant ; divine. Hence ambro'sialLY 

[f. L f. Gk ambrosios, see prec. and -al] 

a'mbry, n. (archaic). Pantry; wall-press; 
dresser ; closed recess in wall of church, [f. L 
armarium tool-chest (arma tools, see -ary *), 
with I for r by dissim., and phonetic -&-] 

ambs-ace (amz-), n. Both aces, lowest throw 
at dice ; bad luck ; worthlessness. [£. OF 
ambes as f. L ambas as, see ace ; also written 
ames-] 

a'mbulance, n. Moving hospital following 
army ; waggon for conveying wounded off field 
of battle. [F (L ambulare walk, see -ance)] 

a'mbulatory, a. & n. Pertaining to walk 
ing ; adapted for walking ; movable ; not per- 
manent. (N.) place for walking ; arcade, cloister, 
[f. L ambidatorius (as prec, see -ory)] 

ambusca'de 1 , n. Ambush, [f. F embus- 
cade f. It. imboscata or Sp. emboscada (imboa- 
care, see ambush v. and -ade] 

ambusca'de 2 , v.t. & i. Lie, conceal, in am- 
bush, [f. prec] 

a'mbush * (-60-), n. Concealment of troops, 
troops concealed, in a wood &c ; (generally) 
lying in wait; make, lay, an a., lie in a. [f. 
OF embusche (as foil.) ; am- perh. due to 
ambages] 

a'mbush 2 , v.t. & i. Conceal (troops, only 
in p.p.) ; lie in wait for ; (intr.) lie in wait. [f. OF 
embuscher (Sp. emboscar, It. imboscare) f. LL 
*iM&o.scare (boscus bush) ; see prec] 

dme damnee (ahm dahna"), n. Tool, de- 
voted adherent. [F] _ 

ameer', amir* (-er), n. Title of various 
Mohammedan rulers in Scinde and Afghani- 
stan. [Arab, amir commander (amara com- 
mand)] 

ameliorate, v.t. & i. (Cause to) become 
better. Hence ameliorA'TioN, ame'liora- 
tOR 2 , nn., ame'lioratiVE a. [f. F ameliorer 
f . OF ameillorer (d to + me illorer f . L meliorare 
f. melior better)] 

ame'n (a-, ah-), int. So be it, [f. L f.Gk f. Heb. 
amen certainty, certainly (aman strength)] 

ame'nable, a. (Of persons) responsible (to 
law &c or abs.) ; (of things) liable to ; capable 
of being tested by (to) ; responsive, tractable. 
Hence amenaBi'LiTV, ame'nableNESS, nn., 
ame'nabLY 2 adv. [AF, f. amener bring to 
(a to + mener bring f. L minare threaten), see 
-able] 

ame'nd, v.i. & t. Abandon evil ways ; 
(archaic) improve in health ; correct an error 
in (legal document), make professed improve- 
ments in (measure before Parliament) ; make 
better. Hence ame'nd able a., ame'nd- 
ment n. [f. OF amender f. L Emendare free 
from faults (menda fault)] 

amende honorable (F), n. Public apology 
and reparation. 

amends, n. Reparation, restitution, com- 
pensation, as make a. [f. OF amendes penalties, 
fine, pi. of amende reparation f. amender 
amend ; pi. now treated in E as sing.] 

ame'nity, n. Pleasantness (of places, per- 
sons, &c) ; (pi.) pleasant ways. [f. L amoenitas 
(amoenus conn. w. amare love, see -TV)] 

a me'nsa et to'ro, adv. From board and 
bed. [L] 

ame'ntum, ame'nt, n. Catkin. Hence 
amentA'CEOUS, amenti'FEROus, ame'nti- 
form, aa. [L, = thong] 

amer'ee, v.t. Fine ; (loosely) punish. Hence 
amer'eiABLE a.,amer*eeMENT, amer'eia- 
ment, nn. [orig. amercy f. AF amercier (a at 
+ mevci mercy)] 

American, a. & n. Belonging to continent 
of America or to United States. (N.) native of 



AMERICANISM 



28 



AMPHIBIOUS 



America of European descent; citizen of 
United States, [-ax] 

Americanism, n. Word or phrase peculiar 
to or extending from United States ; attach- 
ment to, sympathy with, United States, [prec. 
+ -ism] 

Ame'pieanize, v.t. & i. Naturalize as an 
American; make American in character; 
become American in character ; use American- 
isms, [as prec. + -ize] 
ames-aee. See ambs-ace. 
a'methyst, n. Precious stone, kind of 
quartz, purple or violet ; Oriental A., rare 
violet variety of sapphire. Hence amethyst- 
ine ! a. [f. OF ametiste f. L f. Gk amethustos 
not drunken (a- not+vbl adj. f. methusko in- 
toxicate f. methu wine), the stone being sup- 
posed to prevent intoxication] 
a'miable, a. Feeling and inspiring friendli- 
ness; lovable. Hence amiaBi'LiTY, a'mi- 
ableNESS, nn., a'miabLY 2 adv. [OF, f. L 
amieabilis amicable; confused with OF 
amable (mod. F aimable) f . L amabilis lovable 
(amarc love, see -ble)] 

amia*nt(h)us, n. Mineral, variety of as- 
bestos, splitting into flexible fibres ; green 
fibrous chrysolite. [L, f. Gk amiantos undefiled 
(a- not+vbl adj. f. miaino), i. e. purified by 
fire, being incombustible ; lov-h-cf. amaranth] 
a'mie, a. (chem.). Pertaining to ammonia, 
[f. ammonia + -IC] 

a'mieable, a. Friendly ; done in a friendly 
spirit. Hence amicaBi'LiTV, a'mieable- 
ness, nn., a'mieabiA" 2 adv. [f. L amieabilis 
(amicare make friendly f. amicus, see -ble)] 
a'mice 1 , n. Square of white linen worn by 
celebrant priests, formerly on head, now (in 
Church of Rome) on shoulders, [earlier amyt 
f. OF amit f. L amictus garment; -ce, or -s, 
perh. due to confus. w. foil.] 
a'mice 2 , n. Cap, hood, cape, of religious 
orders ; badge worn by French canons on left 
arm. [f. OF aumusse, perh. f. Arab, al the+G 
miitze cap ; early confused w. prec] 
amfcus curiae, n. Friend of the court, 
disinterested adviser. [L] 
ami'd, ami'dst, prep. In the middle of 
(lit. and fig.) ; in the course of. [OE on middan 
(dat. of mid) in the middle, followed by geni- 
tive ; see also -es] 

a'midin, n. Soluble matter of starch ; starch 
in state of solution, [f. amid- com. -Rom. form 
of L amylum starch + -in] 
ami'dships, adv. In middle of ship. [f. 
amid + ship + -es] 
amir, n. See ameer. 

ami'ss, adv. & pred. a. Xot up to the mark ; 
out of order; wrongly; untowardly, as come 
a. ; take a., take offence at ; not a., appropriate. 
[Aprep.+Miss n.] 

a'mity, n. Friendship, friendly relations, 
[f. F amitie, earlier amiste, f. pop. Lamicitatem 
(amicus friend, see -ty)] 

a'mraeter, n. Instrument for measuring 
force of electric currents, [f. am(pere) + 
-meter]_ 

ammo'nia, n. A colourless gas with pungent 
smell and strong alkaline reaction, spirit of 
hartshorn ; (Chem.) large series of compounds, 
analogous to ammonia ; Liquid A., solution of 
a. in water, [f. foil.] 

ammo'niac, a. & n. Of the nature of am- 
monia; Sal A., hard white crystalline salt, 
said to have been prepared from camels' dung 
near temple of Jupiter Ammon ; Gum A. (also 
A.), a gum resin used in medicine and as 
cement. Hence ammoni'acAL a. [F, f. L f. 
Gk ammoniakon belonging to Ammon] 



ammo'niated, a. Combined with am- 
monia, [f. prec. + -ATE 1 (3) + -ED J ] 

a'mmonite, n. Fossil genus of Cephalopods. 
[after med. L cornu Ammonis horn of (Jupiter) 
Ammon, see -ite">|2)] 

ammunition, n. Military stores (formerly 
of all kinds, now of powder, shot, shell, &c); 
a.-boots, -bread, -hat (supplied to soldiers), [f. 
F amunition, vulg. amonition, by confus. of 
la munition (see munition) with I amonition] 

amne'sia, n. Loss of memory. [Gk, = for- 
getfulness] 

a'mnesty, n. , & v.t. Intentional overlooking ; 
act of oblivion, general pardon; (v.t.) give a. to. 
[f. L f. Gk amnestia oblivion f. amnestos a. 
(a- not+wme- remember)] 

a'mnion, n. (pi. -ia). Innermost membrane 
enclosing foetus before birth. [Gk, = caul (dim. 
of amnos lamb)] 

amoe'ba (ame-), n. Microscopic animalcule 
perpetually changing shape. Hence amoe'bi- 
form, amoe'boiD, aa. [f. Gk amoibe change] 

amoebae'an, a. Alternately answering, [f. 
L f. Gk amoibaios interchanging (amoibe 
change), see -an] 

amo'ng, amo'ngst (amu-), prep. In the 
assemblage of, surrounded *by ; in the number 
of ; within the limits of (collectively or dis- 
tributively), as five shillings a. us, divided 
a. us ; in comparison with, as one a. many ; 
by joint action of, as kill him a. you ; reci- 
procally, as quarrelled a. themselves. [OE on 
gemang (on in +gemang assemblage I. gemengan 
mingle) foil, by gen. case ; see -es] 

a'mopous, a. Inclined to love ; in love ; of, 
pertaining to, love. Hence a'moPOUSLY 2 
adv., a'morousNESS n. [OF, f. L amorosus 
(amor love, see -ous)] 

amorphous, a. Shapeless ; anomalous ; 
(Min., Chem.) uncrystallized ; unorganized. 
Hence amop'phiSM, amop'phousNESS, nn. 
[f. Gk amorphos shapeless (a- not + morphe 
form) + -ous] 

amop'tize, v.t. Alienate in mortmain ; 
extinguish (debt, usu. by means of sinking 
fund), whence amortizATiON n. [f. F amor- 
tir (st. -iss-) bring to death f. LL* admortire 

(ad mortem to death)] 

amou'nt 1 , v.i. Come to (so much) ; be equi- 
valent (in significance) to. [f. OF amonter f. 

amont upward (a mont hillward f. L ad 

montem)] 

amou'nt 2 , n. Total to which a thing 

amounts ; full value, significance, &c. ; quantity, 

as a considerable a. (of), [f. prec] 
amoup* (-moor), n. Love-affair; intrigue. 

[F, = love f. L amorem, nom. -or, f. amarc] 
amoupe'tte (-moor-), n. Petty love-affair. 

[F, dim. of amorir] 
amour- pro' pre (a 'moor-pro *pr), n. Self- 
esteem. [F] 
ampere' (-er), n.. (electr.). Current that one 

volt can send through one ohm, unit of current. 

[name of electrician] 
ampersa'nd, n. The sign & (and, L et). 

[also ampus-, ampassy-, ampussy-, corrupt, of 

' and per se ( = by itself) and '] 
amphi- in comb. Both, of both kinds, on 

both sides, around. [Gk, prep.] 
Amphi'bia, n. pi. Division of Vertebrata, 

intermediate between reptiles and fishes, as 

frogs, newts, &c. Hence amphi'biAN a. & n. 

[f. L f. Gk amphibia (zoa) (animals) living in 

both elements (amphi- + bios life)] 
amphibio'logy, n. Branch of zoology 

treating of Amphibia, [prec. + -logy] 
amphi'bious, a. Living both on land and 

in water ; connected with both land and water ; 



AMPHIBOLOGY 



29 



ANAEMIA 



having two lives, connected with two classes, 
&c. Hence amphi'biousiA- adv. [f. am- 
phibia + -ous] 

amphibo'log-y, n. Quibble ; ambiguous 
wording. Hence amphibolo'giCAL a. [f? F 
amphibologie f. L f. Gk AMPHi(bolia t. ballo 
throw) ; assim. to words in -logy] 

Amphi'ctyons, n. pi. Deputies from ancient 
Greek states forming council. So Amphic- 
tyd'nic a. [f. Gk amphiktuones neighbours] 

a'mphigam, n. (bot. ). Plant with no distinct 
sexual organs. Hence amphi'gamous a. 
[f. F amphigame (amphi- + Gk gamos mar- 
riage)] 

amphigoup'i (oori), a'mphigopy, n. 
Nonsensical composition. [?] 

amphio'xus, n. The fish Lancelet. [f. 
amphi- + Gk oxus sharp] 

amphi'poda, n. pi. Order of Crustacea, 
with feet of two kinds. Hence a'mphipod 
n., amphi'podAX, amphi'podous, aa. [am- 
phi- + Gk pons podos foot] 

amphi'prostyle, a. With portico at both 
ends. [F, f. L f. Gk amphiprostulos (amphi- 

+pr0Stul0S PROSTYLE) 

amphisbae'na, n. Fabulous serpent with 
head at each end;.(Zool.) genus of worm-like 
lizards. [L, f. Gk amphisbaina (aviphis both 
ways +&airto go] 

amphithe'atre, n. Oval or circular build- 
ing, with seats rising behind and above each 
other round a central open space ; part of a 
theatre; (fig.) scene of a contest. Hence 
amphithea'triCAL a. [f. L f. Gk amphi- 
theatron (see amphi- and theatre)] 

Amphrtryon, n. Host, entertainer. [Mo- 
liere, Amphitryon, iii. 5] 

a'mphora, n. Greek or Roman two-handled 
vessel. [L, f. Gk amphorcus for amphi(2?/* ore us 
t. phero bear)] 

ampho'rie, a. (med.). Like the sound pro- 
duced by blowing into large vessel with small 
mouth, [f. prec. + -ic] 

a'mple, a. (-er, -est). Spacious ; extensive ; 
abundant ; copious ; quite enough. Hence 
a'mpLY 2 adv., a'mpleNESS n. [F, f. L 
amplus] 

a'mpliative, a. (logic). Extending a simple 
conception, [r. L ampliare Aviden {aviplus), 
see -ative] 

amplification, n. Extension, enlargement ; 
making the most of a thing, [f. L amplificatio 
(as foil., see -ation)] 

a'mplify, v.t. & i. Enhance ; enlarge (story, 
statement) ; expatiate, [f. F amplifier f. L 
amplificare (as ample, see -fy)] 

a'mplitude, n. Breadth ; abundance ; wide 
range ; dignity ; (Astr.) space by which celestial 
body rises, sets, wide of due east, west. [F, f. 
L amplitudo (as ample, see -tude)] 

ampu'lla, n. Roman two-handled flask ; 
vessel for sacred uses ; (Biol.) dilated end of 
vessel, canal, duct, in an animal. Hence am- 
PuIIa'ceous a. [?] 

a'mputate, v.t. Cut off (part of animal 
body &c. or abs.). Hence amputA'TiON, 
a'mputatoR 2 , nn. [f . L amputare (amb- about 
+ putare prune), see -ate 3 ] 

amu'ek, adv. Run a., run about in frenzied 
thirst for blood (also fig.), [f. Malay amoq rush- 
ing in frenzy] 

a'mulet, n. Thing worn as charm against 
evil (lit. and fig.), [f. L amuletum, etym. dub.] 

amu'se (-z), v. t. Divert from serious business 
(with trifles, by trifling) ; tickle the fancy of ; 
be amused with, by, at. So amu'SABLE, 
amu'sivE, aa. [f. OF amuser cause to muse 
(causal a to+muser stare)] 



amu'sement, n. Pleasant diversion ; ex- 
citement of risible faculty ; pastime, [f. F 
amusement (amuser, see prec. and -ment)] 

amygda'lie, a. Of almonds, as a. acid. 
[f. L amygdala almond + -ic] 

amygdaloid, a. & n. (Igneous rock con- 
taining mineral nodules) of almond shape, [f. 
Gk amugdale almond + -oid] 

amyla'ceous, a. Of starch, starchy, [f. L 
amylum starch + -aceous] 

a'myloid, a. & n. Starchy (food), [as prec. 
+ -oid] 

an, a. See a, adj. 

an-, pref. (1) f. an — on, as in anon, anent. (2) 
f. L ad before n, see ad-. (3) f. L an- = ambi-, 
as in ancipitous. (4) f. Gk ana-. (5) f. Gk an- 
— a- not (before vowel), as in anarchy. 

-an, suf. of adjj. (often used as nn.), f. L 
-anus direct or through F -ain (the early E 
form, retained in certain, captain, chaplain) 
or -en, or It., Sp.. Port., -ano, and freely used 
in new words ; added esp. to names of place, 
system, zool. order, or founder (Chilian, Angli- 
can, reptilian, Lutheran) ; often as E termina- 
tion to L adjj. in -ius, giving -ian as a mere 
phonetic variant (cf. Christ-ian, Moham- 
med-an). See also -ane. 

a*na, n. (With pi. anas) collection of person's 
memorable sayings ; (collect, pi.) anecdotes, 
literary gossip, about a person. [= -ana] 

ana-, pref. = Gk ana up, back, again, anew ; 
before a vowel an-. 

-ana, suf. Neut. pi. of L adjj. in -anus (see 
prec.) appended in 16th-c. F to names = the 
sayings of; in E from 18th c, now including 
anecdotes about, publicationsbearingon, places 
or persons, as Tunbrigiana, Shaksperiana. 

anaba'ptism, n. Re-baptism; doctrine of 
anabaptists, [f. L f. Gk anabaptismos (ana- 
■rbaptismos baptism)] 

anaba'ptist, n. One who baptizes over 
again ; (opprobriously) = baptist. Hence ana- 
bap ti'stiCAL a. [as prec, see -ist] 

a* nab as, n. Genus of fishes that leave water 
and ascend trees. [Gk part, of anabaino walk 
up] 

ana'basis, n. Military advance, esp. that 
of Cyrus the younger into Asia, narrated by 
Xenophon. [Gk, = ascent f. ANA(6ai«o go)] 

anachro'nic, a. Involving anachronism ; 
out of date. [f. ana- -f Gk khronos time*+ -ic] 

ana'chponism, n. Error in computing 
time ; thing out of harmony with the present. 
So ana'chponi'stic a. [f. F anachronisme 
I. Li f. Gk anakhronismos f. anakhronizo (as 
prec.)] 

anaela'stic, a. Pertaining to refraction ; 
springing back with crackling sound, as a. 
glasses, [f. Gk anaklastos refracted f. ana- 
(klao bend)] 

anacolu'thon, n. (pi. -a). Sentence, words, 
lacking grammatical sequence, [f. Gk ana- 
kolouthon (an- (5)+akolouthos following f. a- 
copul. +keleuthos road)] 

anaco'nda, n. Large snake of Ceylon ; 
large S. -American Boa ; any large snake that 
crushes its prey. [?] 

anacpeo'ntic, a. & n. (Poem) in the manner 
or metre of Anacreon's lyrics ; convivial and 
amatory, [f. L Anacreonticus (Gk Anakreon, 
name of poet)] 

anacpu'sis, n. (prosody). Unstressed syllable 
at beginning of verse, [f. Gk anakrousis 
(A^Akroud strike up)] 

ana'dpomous, a. (Of fishes) ascending 
rivers to spawn, [f. Gk ANA(dro?nos running) 
+ -ous] 

anaemia, n. (med.). Lack of blood, un- 



ANAESTHESIA 



30 



ANBURY 



healthy paleness. Hence anaemic a. [f. Gk 
anaimia (an- (o)+hai?na hlood)] 
anaesthesia, n. Insensibility (lit.), [f. 
Gk anaisthesia (an- (5) + diathesis sensation 
f. st. aisthe- perceive)] 

anaesthetic, a. & n. (Agent) that produces 
insensibility. Hence anaesthetiCALLY adv. 
[f. Gk anaisthetos insensible (as prec) + -icj 
anaesthetize, v.t. Render insensible (lit. 
and fig.). Hence anaesthetizATiON n. [as 
prec. -r -ize] 

a'naglyph, n. Embossed ornament in low 
relief. Hence anag-ly'phic a. [f. Gk ana- 
gluphe (glupho carve)] 

anagnop'isis, n. Denouement in a drama. 
[L t'Gk, f. anagnorizo recognize] 
anago'ge (-je), n. Spiritual or allegorical 
interpretation. So anag-d'grcUL) aa., ana- 
go'giealLY 2 adv. [L, f. Gk anagoge i. anago 
lead up (an- 4)] 

a'nagpam, n. Transposition of letters of 
word or phrase, to form new word or phrase. 
Hence anagramma'ticl al) aa. , anagram- 
matiealLY 2 adv. [f. F anagramme f. Gk 
A~s\{graphd write), see -m] 
anagpa'mmatize, v.t. Form into an ana- 
gram. Hence anagra'mmatis.M, ana- 
gra'mmatiST, nn. [f. Gk anagrammatizo 
(as prec, see -ize)] 

a'nal, a. Pertaining to, situated near, the 
anus. [f. anus + -al] 

a'nalects, analeeta, n. pi. Literary 
gleanings, [f. L f. Gk analckta things gathered 
(ANAlego pick up)] 

analeptic, a. & n. Restorative (medicine). 
[f. Gk analeptikos f. ASA(lambano take) re- 
store, see -ic] 

analogic, a. Of analogy, [f. L f. Gk ana- 
logikos (as analogy, see -ic)] 
analogical, a. According to analogy ; ex- 
pressing an analogy. Hence analo'glealLY 2 
adv. [prec. + -al] 

ana'log'ist, n. One occupied with analogies ; 
philosopher who saw in words images of the 
things they expressed, [as foil., see -ist] 
ana'logize, v.t. & i. Represent by ana- 
logy ; show to be analogous ; employ analogy ; 
be in harmony (with), [f. analogy 4- -ize] 
analogous, a. Similar, parallel, (to). Hence 
ana'logousLY, 2 adv., ana'logrousNESs n. 
[f. Lf. Gk analogos (ana up to+logos propor- 
tion) + -ous] 

a'nalog'ue (-6g), n. Analogous, parallel, word 
or thing. [F, f. Gk analogon neut. adj., see 
prec] 

ana'logy, n. (Math.) proportion ; agreement, 
similarity, (to, with, between) ; analogue ; (Logic) 
process of reasoning from parallel cases ; 
(Lang.) imitation of inflexion or construction of 
existing words in forming inflexions or con- 
structions of others, without intervention of 
the formative steps through which these at 
first arose; (Nat. Hist.) resemblance of form 
or function between organs essentially diffe- 
rent, [f. L f. Gk analogia proportion (as ana- 
logous)] 

a'nalyse, v.t. Examine minutely the con- 
stitution of; (Chem., Physics) ascertain the 
elements of a compound ; find, show, the 
essence of (treatise &c.) ; (Gram.) resolve 
sentence into its grammatical elements. Hence 
a'nalysABLE a. [f. F analyser (analyse, as 
foil.) ; also -yze in E by assim. to vbs in -ize] 
analysis, n. (pL -yses). Resolution into 
simple elements (in all senses of the vb) ; bowl- 
ing a., register of the result of each ball. [f. L 
f. Gk analttsis f. aha(Iuo loose)] 
a'nalyst, n. One skilled in (usu. chemical) 



analysis, [f . F analyste f. analyser analyse, on 
anal, of nouns in -iste -1ST f. vbs in -iser -ize] 
analytic, a. Pertaining to analysis. Hence 
analytics n. [f. med. L f. Gk analutikos (as 
analysis, see -ic)] 

analytical, a. Employing the analytic 
method ; (Lang.) using separate words instead 
of inflexions. Hence analy tiealLY 2 adv. 
[prec. + -al] 

anamnesis, n. Recollection (esp. of a pre- 
vious existence). [Gk (ANAmimnesko remind)] 

anamor'phosis, n. Distorted drawing ap- 
pearing regular from one point; (Bot.) ab- 
normal transformation. [Gk anamorphosis 
(AXAinorphoo transform f. morphe form, see 
-osis)] 

ana'nas (ana-, anah-), n. Pine-apple, [prob. 
f. Peruv. Ka?ias ; also anana, -s being taken 
for plural] 

ana'ndpous, a. (bot.). Without stamens, 
[f. Gk anandros husbandless (an- (o).+ aner 
andros male) + -ous] 

a'napaest, n. (Prosody) foot consisting of 
two short syllables followed by one long. 
Hence anapaestic a. [f. L f. Gkanapaistos 
reversed (ana- + paid strike)] 

ana'phora, n. Repetition of word or phrase 
in successive clauses. [L, f. Gk anaphore = 
carrying back f. ANA(phero bear)] 

a'nareh (-k), n. (poet.). Leader of revolt, [f. 
Gk anarkhos without ruler (an- (5)+arkhos)] 

anar'ehie, -ieal, aa. Lawless. Hence 
anar'ehiealLY 2 adv. [as prec. + -ic, -ical] 

a'narehist, n. Advocate of anarchy. So 
a'narehis.M n. [as prec. +-ist] 

a'narehy, n. Absence of government ; dis- 
order ; confusion, [f. Gk anarkhia (as prec.)] 

anap'thpous, a. (Greek Gram.) used with- 
out the article ; (Physiol.) jointless. [f. an- (o)+ 
Gk arthron joint, article, + -ous] 

anasarca, n. A dropsical affection. Hence 
anasap'cous a. [f. Gk ana wp+sarka (nom. 
sarjc) flesh] 

anastatic, a. In relief ; a. printing (from 
reliefs on zinc plates), [f. Gk anastatos set up 
(ANAsto- stand up) + -ic] 

ana'stomose, (-z), v.i. Communicate by 
anastomosis, [f. F anastomoser (anastomose, 
as foil.)] 

anastomd'sis, n. Cross connexion of 
arteries, branches, rivers, &c. [Gk, f. anastomoo 
furnish with mouth (stoma), see -osis] 

anathema, n. Accursed thing; curse of 
God ; curse of the church, excommunicating a 
person or denouncing a doctrine ; imprecation. 
[L, = excommunicated person, excommunica- 
tion, f. Gk anathema thing devoted, (later)' 
accursed thing (AXAtithemi set up)] 

anathematize, v.t. & i. Curse, [f. F 
anathernatiser f. L f. Gk anathematizo (is 
prec, see -ize)] 

anato'mical, a. Belonging to anatomy; 
structural. Hence anato'miealLY 2 adv. [f. 
L f. Gk anatomikos (as anatomy, see -ic)] 

anatomist, n. Dissecter of bodies ; (fig.) 
analyser, [f. F anatomiste, see foil, and -ist] 

anatomize, v.t. & i. Dissect ; (fig.) analyse, 
[f. med. L anatomizare f. anatomia anatomy, 
as if f. a Gk anatomizo] 

anatomy, n. Dissection ; science of bodily 
structure ; anatomical structure ; analysis ; 
(pop.) skeleton, mummy, emaciated creature, 
[f. F anatomie f. L f. Gk anatomia abstr. n. = 
ANA(tome f. temno cut)] 

anatta, n. Orange-red dye, used for colour- 
ing cheese. [?] 

a'nbupy, amb-, n. Soft tumour on horses 
and oxen ; disease of turnips and allied plants. 



-ANCE 

[perh.= a ng-berry (OE ang- painful, cf. ag- 
nail)] 

f -ance, suf. forming nn. of quality or action, 
chiefly thr. F -ance f. L -antia and -entia f. L 
pres. part, in -ant-, -ent- (nom. -ans, -ens). OF 
gave -ance both for existing L -antia, -entia, 
and for wds formed in F on same model ; thus, 
assistance, nuisance, "where L would have 
-entia. Later F followed L vowel: ilegance, 
temperance (L -antia), but diligence, prudence 
(L -entia). E adopted F forms of both kinds, 
and usu. retains F form ; but after 1500 -ence 
was in some wds restored where L would have 
-entia, and mod. formations follow L vowel. 
F -ance also became living suf. in E on native 
vbs as furtherance, forbearance, riddance. 

a'neestor, n. Forefather. Hence a'nces- 
tPESS 1 n. If. OF ancestre, ancessor, f. L ante- 
cessor, -orem, f. AXTE{cedere cess- go), see -or 2 ] 

ancestral, a. Belonging to, inherited from, 
ancestors, [f. OF ancestrel (ancestre, see prec. 
and -al)] 

a'neestry, n. Ancestral lineage ; ancient 
descent; ancestors, [f. OF ancesserie (as an- 
cestor, see -y !)] 

a'nehithere (-kither), n. Fossil animal, size 
of small pony, regarded as ancestor of the horse. 
[f. Gk agkhi near + therion wild beast] 

a'nehor 1 (-k-), n. Heavy iron, composed of long 
shank, with ring at one end to which cable is 
fastened, and at other end two barbed arms, 
used for mooring ship to bottom of water ; 
sheet, bower, hedge, -a., (largest, middle, 
smallest size) ; (fig.) source of confidence ; cast, 
weigh, a., let down, take up, a. ; at a., anchored ; 
come to (an) a., anchor; a.-plate, heavy piece 
of timber or metal serving as point of support 
for cables of suspension-bridge &c. ; a.-watch, 
watch set while ship lies at anchor. [OE ancor 
f. L ancora (not anch-) perh. cogn. w. or adop- 
tion of Gk agkura (st. agk- hook)] 

a'nehor 2 , v.t. & i. Secure (ship) with anchor ; 
(fig.) fix firmly ; (intr.) cast anchor, come to 
anchor, [perh. f. F ancrer f. ancre anchor] 

a'nchorage, n. Anchoring; lying at an- 
chor ; anchorage-ground ; (fig.) thing to depend 
upon ; anchorage-dues. [prec. + -age] 

a'nchopess, a'neress, n. Female an- 
choret, [f. obs. anchor (OE ancra, short fox-m 
of L anachoreta,^ see foil.) + -ess l ] 

a'nehoret, -ite, n. Hermit ; person of 
secluded habits. Hence anehore'tic a. [f. 
F anachorete f. L anachoreta (med. L -ita) 
f. Gk anakhoretes (xaAkhoreo retire, see -ete), 
influenced by OE ancra, see prec] 

ancho'vy (also a'ntsho-), n. Small fish of 
herring family ;a.-sauce, a.-toast, (made, spread, 
with anchovies) : a.-pear, W. -Indian fruit eaten 
like mango, [f. Sp. anchova perh. f. Basque an- 
chua (perh. =antzua dry)] 

a-nchylose (-z), v.t. & i. (Of joints, bones) 
stiffen, unite, [f. foil.] 

anchylo'sis (-k-), n. Formation of stiff joint 
by consolidation of articulating surfaces, [f . Gk 
agkulosis (agkuloo crook f. agkulos, see -osis) ; 
•ch- for -c- to preserve hard sound] 

ancien regime (F),n. Time before French 
Revolution. 

a'neient 1 , a. & n. Belonging. to times long 
past (esp. before fall of Western Roman Em- 
pire) ; having existed, lived, long ; the A. of 
Days, God ; the ancients, civilized nations of 
antiquity. Hence a'neientLY 2 adv., a*n- 
cientNESS n. [f. F ancien f. LL antianum 
(ante before, see -an) ; -t by confus. w. -ent] 

a'neient 2 , n. (archaic) = ensign, [corrupt] 

a*neientpy, n. Ancientness ; old-fashioned 
style, [ancient + -by] 



31 ANEROID 

a'ncillapy, a. Subservient, subordinate, 
(to), [f. L ancillarius (ancilla handmaid, see 

-ARY 1 )] 

a-ncon, n. (Physiol.) elbow ; (Arch. ) quoin of 
wall or rafter, console, pretended support to 
cornice; A. sheep, race with long bodies and 
short legs, the fore-legs crooked. [L, f. Gk 
agkon bend, elbow] 

-aney, suf. Mod. E different, f. -ance (see 
-Y 1 ), usu. denoting only quality or state, as 
opposed to -ance, which has besides this mean- 
ing that of action or process. 

and, conj. connecting words, clauses, and 
sentences, as cakes a. bxins, black a. broxen 
bread, buy a. sell. Special uses: four a. 
twenty (but twenty -four); two hundred a. 
forty, two thousand a. forty (but two thou- 
sand four hundred) ; ttco a. ten pence, two 
jjounds a. ten pence (but two pound ten) ; 
miles a. ( = innumerable) miles ; nice a. 
(= nicely) thin; try a. (to) come, mind a. 
(to) bHng ; there are books a. (different kinds 
of, good and bad) books ; two a. two, by twos ; 
stir, a. (= if you stir) you are a dead man. 
[OE and prep. = against, end conj, f. OTeut. 
*anda, *andi] 

anda'nte, adv. & n. (mus.). (Movement) in 
moderately slow time. [It.] 

ancfanti'no (-te-), adv. & n. (Movement) 
rather quicker (orig. slower) than andante. 
[It., dim. of prec.] 

a'ndiron (-irn), n. Firedog, for supporting 
burning wood on hearth, [f. OF andier (mod. 
F landier), etym. dub.] 

androe-cium (-re-), n. (hot.). The stamens 
taken collectively, [f. Gkandro-mole+oikion 
house] 

andrd'gynous (-j-), a . Hermaphrodite, 
whence andro'gynr i n. (Bot.) with stamens 
and pistils in same flower or on same plant, [f. 
L f. Gk androgunos (aner andros male-f gune 
woman) + -ous] 

-ane, suf. (1) Variant of -an, usu. w. differ- 
entiation (germane, urbane, humane), but some- 
times alone (mundane). (2) (Chem.) formed to 
give a series with Gk -ene, -ine, -one, for 
naming hydrocarbon types. 

a'necdotage, n. Anecdotes ; (facet.) garru- 
lous old age. [-age] 

a'necdote, n. Narrative of detached inci- 
dent; (pi.) unpublished details of history. Hence 
a'needotisT n., a'needotAL, anecdo't- 
ic(al), aa. [f. med. L f. Gk anekdota things 
unpublished (an- (5) + ekdotos f. ekdidomi give 
out)] 

ane'le, v.t. (archaic). Anoint ; give extreme 
unction to. [orig. anelien (an- (1) + elien oil f. 
OE ele, n. f. L oletim] 

ane'mograph, n. Instrument for record- 
ing on paper the direction and force of wind. 
Hence anemogra'phica. [f. Gk anemos wind 

+ -GRAPH] 

anemo'meter, n. Instrument for measur- 
ing force of wind, whence anemome'tric a., 
anemo'METRY n. ; apparatus for showing 
wind-pressure in organ, [as prec. + -meter] 

ane'mone (-nl), n. Genus of plants, esp. 
A. nemorosa (also called Wind-flower) ; Sea A., 
popular name of various actinoid zoophytes, 
[f. L f. Gk anemone daughter of the wind (as 
prec. + -one patronymic suf.)] 

anemd'philous, a. Wind-fertilized, [f. Gk 
anemos wind, see -phil] 

ane'nt, prep, (archaic, Sc). Concerning. 
[OE has on efen on a level with] 

-aneous, suf. f. L adjj. in -aneus (-an- -f -eo) 
+ -ous. 

a'neroid, a. & n. A. (barometer), one that 



ANEURYSM 



82 



ANIMAL. 



measures air-pressure by its action on elastic 
lid of box exhausted of air, not by height of 
fluid column, [f. F aneroide (Gk a- not + 
neros wet, see -oid)] 

a'neupysm, -ism, n. Morbid dilatation 
of an artery; abnormal enlargement. Hence 
aneupysmAL, -i'smAL, a. [f. Gk aneu- 
rusma (aneuruno widen out f. eurus wide)] 

anew", adv. Again ; in a different way. 
[A- (3) + new] 

anfraetuo'sity, n. Circuitousness, in- 
tricacy, (lit. and fig.); (usu. pi.) winding pas- 
sage, [f. F anfractuosite t L anfractuosus 
f. anfractus a bending (amb- about -\-frangere 
fract- break), see -ose and -ty] 

a'ngel, n. Divine messenger ; lovely or inno- 
cent being ; minister of loving offices ; old 
English gold coin (in full a.-noble), from 6s. 8d. 
to 10s., showing Michael piercing dragon; 
good, evil, a., attendant spirits ; a. (messenger) 
of death ; a.-fish, kind of shark, [f. L angelus 
f. Gk aggelos messenger, used to transl. Heb. 
maVak messenger (of Jehovah)] 

angelic, a. Pertaining to angels; like an 
angel, of superhuman qualities ; A. Doctor, 
Thomas Aquinas. Hence angelic al a., an- 
ge'liealLY 2 adv. [f. F angelique f. L f. Gk 
aggelitcos (as prec, see -ic)] 

angelica, n. Aromatic plant, used in cook- 
ing and medicine ; candied angelica root. [f. 
med. L (herba) angelica angelic herb] 

angelo^latpy, n. Angel-worship. *[f. Gk 
aggelos, see angel and -latry] 

angelo'logy, n. Doctrine as to angels, [as 
prec. + -logy] 

a'ngelus, n. Devotional exercise commemo- 
rating Incarnation, said by Roman Catholics at 
morning, noon, and sunset, at sound of bell 
(a.-bell or a.), [f. opening words Angelus 
domini] 

a'ngeP 1 (-ngg-), n. Rage, hot displeasure, 
[f. O^Sangr trouble (root ang strait)] 

a'ngeP 2 , v.t. Make a*ngry, enrage, [f. ON 
angra vex (as prec.)] 

angi'na (-j-h n. Quinsy ; a. pecto?*is, spasm 
of chest resulting from over-exertion when 
heart is diseased. [L angina quinsy (formerly 
thought to be angina, whence usu. E pronunc), 
cf. angere choke and Gk aghhone strangling] 

angio- in comb. = Gk aggeion vessel dim. of 
aggos chest, chiefly in terms relating to seed- 
or blood-vessels. 

a'ngle 1 , n. Space between two meeting 
lines or planes ; inclination of two lines to each 
other ; acute, obtuse, right, a. ; corner ; sharp 
projection ; a.-iron, L-shaped piece of iron to 
strengthen frame work; a.-ivise, angularly. 
Hence (-)a*nglED 2 a. [F, f. L angulus dim. 
of *angus, cf. Gk agkos bend] 

a'ngle 2 , v.i. Fish with hook and bait (for 
or abs.), lit. and fig. [f. obs. n. angle hook (OE 
angul cogn. w. OHG angul mod. G angel, cf. L 
uncus and angulus, see prec.)] 

A'ngle 3 ,n. (PI.) Low-German tribe settled 
in Northumbria, Mercia, and E. Anglia. [f. L 
Angina f. OTeut. angli- (OE engel) f. Angul 
a district of Holstein (as prec.)] 

a'ngle p, n. One who angles ; (Zooi.) a British 
fish that preys upon small fish, attracting them 
by filaments attached to head and mouth, [f. 

ANGLE 2 + -ER 1 ] 

A'ngliean, a. & n. (Adherent) of the re- 
formed church of England, esp. of High Church 
£rinciples. Hence A'nglieaniSM n. [f. med. 
i Anglicanus (Anglicus f. Angli English)] 
A'ngtice (-se), adv. In English. [L] 
A'nglieism, n. English idiom ; English 
political principles, [f. foil., see -ism] 



A'nglicize, v.t. Make English in form or 
character, [f. L Anglicus English + -ize. 

Anglo- in comb. English, as A. -Catholic; 
of English origin, as A. -American; half Eng- 
lish and half — , as A. -French (entente &c). 
[comb, form of L Anglus English] 

Angloma'nia, n. Excessive admiration of 
English customs. So A'ngloPHOBE, Anglo- 
phovbia, nn. [prec. + -mania] 

Anglo-Sa'xon, n. & a. English Saxon (as 
distinct from Old Saxons of the continent) ; 
Old English (people, language) before Norman 
Conquest (in this dictionary called OE) ; of 
English descent (wherever found), whence 
Anglo-Sa'xonDOM n. [f. L Anglo-Saxones 
(pl.)J 

Anglo-Sa'xonism, n. Belief in claims of 
the Anglo-Saxon race. [prec. + -ism] 

angola, angor'a, n. Fabric made from 
wool of angora goat; A. cat (long-haired 
variety), [f. Angora (L Ancyra, Gk Agkura), 
town in Asia Minor, corrupted to angola] 

angostur'a, angus-, a. & n. Bark used 
as febrifuge and tonic, as A. bitters, [f. Angus- 
tura, town on the Orinoco, now Ciudad Bolivar] 

a'ngpy, a. Enraged, wrathful, resentful, 
(at, about, thing, at, with, person) ; irritable, 
passionate. Hence a'ngpiLY 2 adv. [f. anger 
n. +-y2] 

a'nguine (-g w-), a. Snake-like, [f . L anguis 
snake, see -ine 2 ] 

a'nguish (-gw-), n. Severe bodily or mental 
pain. [f. OF anguisse, angoisse choking (It. 
angoscia) f. hangustia tightness (angustus, cf. 

ANGINA)] 

a'ngulap, a. Having angles; sharp-cor- 
nered ; placed in, at, an angle ; measured by 
angle, as a. divergence ; wanting plumpness ; 
wanting suavity. Hence angula'PiTY n., 
angulaPLY 2 adv. [f. L. angularis (angulus 

ANGLE, See -AR *] 

amgulate (-at), a. Formed with corners. 
Hence a'ngulATE 3 v.t., anguLVTiON n. [f. L 
angulare, see -ate 2 ] 

ang-usti- in comb. With narrow — , as 
-foliate, -rostrate, (leaves, beak). [L angustus 
narrow] 

anhydrous, a. (chem.). Without water of 
crystallization, [f. Gkanudros (an- (o) + hudor 
water) + -ous] 

anigh*, adv. & prep. Near. [mod. sham 
archaism, after afar] 

a'nil, n. Indigo (shrub and dye). [F, = Sp. 
anil f. Arab, an-nil (al the + nil f. Skr. nili 
indigo] 

a'nile, a. Old-womanish ; imbecile, [f. L 
anilis (anus old woman, see -ile)J 

a'niline, n. A chemical base, the source of 
many dyes, obtained originally from indigo, 
now chiefly from coal-tar. [anil'+ -ine 5 ] 

ani'lity, n. Dotage, [f. L anilitas (as prec, 
see -ty)] 

animadvep'sion, n. Criticism; censure, 
[f. L animadversio (animadvertere -vers-, see 
foil, and -ion)J 

animadvep't, v.i. Pass criticism or cen- 
sure on (conduct, fault, &c). If. L animad- 
vertere t animus mind + xo(vertere vers- 
turn)l 

a'nimal, n. & a. Organized being endowed 
(more or less perceptibly) with life, sensation, 
and voluntary motion ; other a. than man ; 
quadruped ; man no better than a brute ; per- 
taining to the functions of animals, as a. 
spirits (natural buoyancy), a. magnetism (mes- 
merism) ; pertaining to animals as opp. to 
vegetables; carnal. Hence a*nimalLY 2 adv. 
[L, for animate neut. of animalis having 



ANIMALCULE 



33 



ANNULET 



breath (aninia breath, see -al) ; the adj. orig. 
f. L adj.] 

animalcule, n. Microscopic animal, [f. L 
animalculum (animal, see prec. and -cule)] 

anima'lculism, n. Reference of physio- 
logical phenomena to agency of animalcules. 
So anima'leuliST n. [f. prec. + -ism] 

a'nimalism, n. Animal activity ; sensu- 
ality; doctrine that men are mere animals. 
[animal + -ism] 

anima'lity, n. Animal nature or system ; 
merely animal nature ; the animal world, [f. 
F animalite (animal a., see -ty)] 

a'nimalize, v.t. Convert into animal sub- 
stance ; sensualize. Hence animalizA'TiON 
n. [animal + -ize] 

a'nimate 1 (-at), a. Living; lively, [f. L 
animare quicken, see -ate 2 ] 

a'nimate-', v.t. Breathe life into ; enliven ; 
inspirit (esp. in p.p.); an animated (lively) 
discussion ; inspire, actuate. Hence a'nima- 
tedLY 2 adv., animA'TiON, a*nimatOR 2 , nn. 
[f. prec, see -ate 3 ] 

a'nime (-ma), n. A W. Indian resin used 
in making varnish; other resins. [F,= ani- 
mated (by the many insects contained)] 

a'nimism, n. Doctrine of the anima mundi 
(that phenomena of animal life are produced 
by an immaterial soul) ; attribution of living 
soul to inanimate objects and natural pheno- 
mena ; spiritualism (as opposed to materialism). 
Hence a'nimiST n., animi'stic a. [f. L 
anima life, soul + -ism] 

animo'sity, n. Active enmity (against, 
between), [f. F animosite f. L animositatem 
(animosus spirited f. foil., see -ose and -ty)] 

a'nimus, n. Animating spirit ; animosity. 
[L, = soul, mind, mental impulse] 

a'nise (-is), n. Umbelliferous plant with 
aromatic seeds, [f. F anis f. L f. Gk anison, 
anethon, anise, dill] 

a'niseed, n. Seed of anise, used as a car- 
minative. 

anise'tte (-z-), n. Liqueur flavoured with ani- 
seed. [F, dim. of anis anise] 

aniso- in comb. Unequal, as -merous, un- 
symmetrical, -sthe'nic, of unequal strength. 
[f. Gk anisos (an- (5) + isos equal)] 

a'nker, n. Measure of wine and spirits in 
Holland, N. Germany, Denmark, Sweden, 
Russia, and formerly in England (83 imp. gals) ; 
cask holding the quantity. [Du., etym. dub.] 

a'nkle, a'ncle, n. Joint connecting foot 
with leg; slender part between this and calf, 
[earlier ankel (Du. enkel, G enkel) f. root ank- 
bend (ci. L angulus) ; OE has ancleow perh. f. 
Du. anklaauw (ending assim. to klaauw claw)] 

a'nklet, n. Ornament or support for ankle, 
[prec. -f -let] 

a'nna, n. Sixteenth part of a rupee ; half a., 
quarter a., E. Indian coins. [Hind, ana] 

a'nnalist, n. Writer of annals. Hence 
annali'stic a. [f. foil. + -ist] 

a'nnals, n. pi. Narrative of events year by 
year ; historical records, [f. L annates (libri) 
yearly (books) f. annus year, see -al] 

a'nnates, n. pi. (Rom. Cath.) first year's 
revenue of see or benefice, paid to Pope. [f. F 
annate f . med. L annata year's proceeds (annus, 
see -ade)] 

anneal, v.t. Toughen by gradually dimin- 
ishing heat, temper (lit. and fig.), [f. an- (1) + 
OE xlan burn, bake ; partly also f. OF neeler 
enamel f. LL nigellare blacken (nigellus, dim. 
of niger)] 

anne'ctent, a. Connecting, as a. link. [f. L 
as annex, see -ent] 

Annelida, n. pi. (zool.). The class of red- 

F.D. 



blooded worms. Hence a'nnelm^ n., an- 
ne'lidAN a. [mod. L, f. F anneles ringed (OF 
annel ring f. L a(n)nellus dim. of anulus ring) 
+ ida, cf. -id 3 ] 

anne'x, v.t. Add as subordinate pare; ap- 
pend (to book &c.) ; take possession of (terri- 
tory &c); attach as an attribute, addition, or 
consequence. Hencefor cogn. anne'XABLE a., 
annexA'TiON n. [f. F annexer f. annexe 
thing joined f. L AN(necte?°e nex- bind)] 

anne*x(e), n. Addition to a document ; 
supplementary building. [F (-xe), see prec] 

anni'hilate, v.t. Blot out of existence. 
Hence annrhilatOR 2 n. [f. L xsnihilare 
(nihil nothing), see -ate 2 ] 

annihilation, n. Utter destruction ; (Theol.) 
destruction of soul as well as body, whence 
annihila'tioniSM, annihila'tioniST, nn. 
[F (annihiler f. Las prec, see -ation)] 

anniversary, n. Yearly return of a date ; 
celebration of this. [f. L anniversarius (annus 
year + versus turned, see -ary *)] 

anno aetatis suae, phr. In the — year of 
his or her age. JL] 

Anno Do'mini, phr. In the year of our 
Lord, of the Christian era, (usu. A.D.). [L] 

a'nnotate, v.t. & i. Furnish with notes 
(book, author) ; (intr.) make notes (on). So 
annotA'TiON, a'nnotatOR 2 , nn. [f. L an- 
notare (nota mark), see -ate 3 ] 

announce, v.t. Proclaim ; intimate the 
approach of ; make known (without words) to 
senses or mind. Hence annoirneeMENT n. 
[f. OF anoncer f % L ADnuntiare bear a mes- 
sage (nuntius messenger)] 

annoy* 1 , n. (archaic, poet.). Annoyance, 
[f. OF anoi, enoi (OSp. enoyo, OVenet. inodio) 
f. L phr. in odio in hatred, hateful ; -n- doubled 
by assim. to ennoble &c] 

annoy* 2 , v.t. Irritate; molest, harass, [f. 
OF anuier, anoier, t com. -Rom. inodiare (as 
prec)] 

annoyance, n. Molestation ; vexation ; 
disgust, [f. OF anuiance, anoiance {anuier, 
see prec. and -ance)] 

a'nnual, a. & n. Reckoned by the year ; re- 
curring yearly; lasting for one year; (plant) 
that lives only for a year ; (book &c) published 
in yearly numbers. Hence a'nnualLY 2 adv. 
[f. OF annuel f. L annualis= class. L annalis 
(annus year, see -al)] 

annuitant, n. One who holds an annuity, 
[f. foll._+ -ant, by assim. to accountant &c] 

annu'ity, n. Yearly grant ; investment of 
money entitling investor to series of equal 
annual sums ; life, terminable, perpetual, a. 
(ceasing at death of investor, after specified 
term, on repayment of principal) ; immediate, 
deferredovreversionary,a.(commenc'mg &t end. 
of first interval of payment after investment, 
after specified interval or event), [f. F annuite 
f. med. L annuitatem (annmis yearly, see -ty)] 

annui, v. t. (-11-). Annihilate ; abolish, can- 
cel ; declare invalid. Hence annu'lMENT n. 
[f. OF anxdler (mod. F annuler) f. LL AKnul- 
lare (nullus none)] 

a'nnulap, a. Ring-like ; a. space (between 
inner and outer surface of cylinder) ; a. liga- 
ment (girding wrist and ankle) ; a. eclipse of 
sun (when moon, projected on sun's disk, 
leaves ring of light visible). Hence a'nnu- 
larLY 2 adv. [f. L an(n)ularis (an(n)idus ring, 
see -ar 1 )] 

a'nnulate(d), a. Furnished, marked, with 
rings ; formed of rings. Hence annulA'TiON 
n. Tf. L annulatus (as foil., see -ate 2 )] 

a'nnulet, n. Small ring ; (Arch.) small fillet 
encircling column, [f. L annulus ring + -et *J 

2 



ANNULOID 



31 



ANTECEDENT 



a-nnuloid, a. Ring-like. So annulo SE ! a 
[as prec. + -oid] 

annu-nciate (-shi-), v.t. Proclaim; inti- 
mate as coming or ready, [f. L annuntiare 

ANNOUNCE, See -ATE 3 ] 

annuneia'tion (-si-), n. Announcement ; 
intimation of the incarnation, made by the 
angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary; festival 
commemorating this, Lady-day, March 25th. 
[f, F annonciation f. L annuntiationem (as 
prec, see -ation)] 

annirneiatop, n. Announcer ; indicator 
showing in which direction attendance sum- 
moned by bell or telephone is needed, [f. L 
annuntiator (as prec, see -OR 2 )] 

a'node.n. (Electr.) positive pole (cf. cathode). 
[f. Gk anodos way up (ana up + hodos way)] 

a'nodyne, a. & n. (Medicine, drug) able to 
assuage pain; (anything) mentally soothing. 
[f. L f. Gk anodunos painless (an- (5) + odune 
pain) 

anoi'nt, v.t. Apply ointment, oil, to (esp. 
as religious ceremony at baptism or on con- 
secration as priest or king) ; moisten, rub ; the 
Lord's Anointed, Christ, (also) king by divine 
right, [f. obs. adj. anoint f. OF enoint p.p. of 
enoindre f. L iN{ungere unct-)] 

an 6m ali # stic, a. (astr.). A. year, time 
earth takes to pass from perihelion to perihe- 
lion ; a. month, time moon takes to pass from 
perigee to perigee, [f. Gk anomalos anomal- 
ous + -1ST + -ic] 

ano'malous, a. Irregular; abnormal. Hence 
ano'malousLY 2 adv., ano'malousNESs n. 
[f. L f. Gk anomalos (an- (5) + homalos even)] 

ano'maly, n. Unevenness of motion &c ; 
irregularity; (Astr.) angular distance of planet 
or satellite from its last perihelion or perigee. 
[f. L f. Gk anomalia (anomalos see prec)] 

anomo- in comb. Irregular, as -carpous, 
bearing unusual fruit, -phyllous, with leaves 
irregularly placed, [f. Gk anomos without law 
(a- not + nonios)] 

ano'n, adv. Soon, presently ; (of contrast) 
now again ; ever and a., every now and then. 
[OE on an into one, on dne in one (body, mind, 
state, way, movement, moment)] 

anona'ceous, a. Pertaining to the pine- 
apple, [f. mod. L anona pine-apple (cf . ananas) 

+ -ACEOUS] 

a'nonym, n. Person who remains name- 
less ; pseudonym, [f. F anonyme (as foil.)] 

anony'mity, n. State of being anonymous, 
[as foil., see -tv] 

ano'nymous, a. Of unknown name ; of un- 
known authorship. Hence ano'nymous ly 2 
adv., ano'nymousNESS n. [f. Gk anonumos 
nameless (an- (5) + onoma name)] 

ano'smia, n. Loss of sense of smell, [mod. 
L f. an- (5) -f Gk osme smell] 

ano'thep (-u-). pron. & a. (pi. other a., others 
pron.). An additional (one), as try a. pear, 
try a. ; a counterpart to, as a. Solomon ; such a., 
a. of the same sort; a different (one), as take 
this towel away and bring me a. ; (contrasted 
or coupled with one) one man's meat is a. 
man's poison, taken one with a. ; one a. [an+ 
other ; in OE other was used by itself, an not 
yet being weakened to indef. article] 

anoup'ous (-owr-), a. Tailless, [f. an- (5) + 
Gk oura tail + -ous] 

a'nserine, a. Of the nature of a goose ; 
silly, [f. L anserinus (anser goose, see -ine 1 )] 

a'nswep l (-ser), n. Reply ; defence ; solu- 
tion ; thing done in return, [orig. = solemn affir- 
mation to rebut a charge, OE andswaru f. 



OTeut. andsivara- (and- against + * sward- 
affirmation f. swarjan, OE swerian swear)] 

a'nswep 2 , v.t. & i. Reply, as a. me, my 
question, to me, to my question ; a. to (acknow- 
ledge, have) the name of X; a. (summons to) 
the door ; reply to (charge) ; be responsible (for 
person or thing) ; a. (correspond to, also a. to) my 
hopes, your description ; a. (fulfil) my purpose ; 
will not a. (do, succeed). [OE andswarian (as 
prec)] 

a'nswepable, a. Responsible (to person, for 
act) ; (archaic) corresponding (to), [prec. + -able] 

ant, n. A small social hymenopterous in- 
sect celebrated for industry, emmet, pismire ; 
a.-eggs, larvae of aa. ; a.-catcher, a.-thrush, bird 
of thrush family living on aa. ; a.-eater, name of 
various animals that live onaa. ; a.-fly, winged 
a., used as bait in angling; a.-hill, mound 
over ant's nest, conical nest of termites ; White 
A., termite, destructive social insect of neuro- 
pterous order. [OE xmete, 6mete, cogn. w. WG 
*dmaitjo (a off + maitan cut) ; xmete became 
ant, emete emmet] 

ant- = anti- before vowel. 

-ant, suf. forming adjj. (& nn.) f. F -ant (or 
direct) f. L -antem, -intern, -entem, accus. of 
pres. part. (nom. -ans, -ens). OF levelled all L 
partt. under ending -ant, though later F pre- 
served L -ent-. E adopted F -ant as -aunt, 
which on loss of accent reappeared as -ant (de- 
fiant L dijffidentem, pliant L plicantem, Ser- 
jeant L servientem, tenant L tenentem). Most 
old wds retain -aiit, but since 1500 some have 
been refash., universally (apparent) or partly 
(dependent, -ant) ; belligerant (L belligerare) is 
wrongly changed to -ent on L gerere. Mod. 
wds in -ant are f. L -ant-, direct or thr. F, or 
on L anal, (rarely where no vb exists, as be- 
nignant on anal, of malignant). Noun mean- 
ings : (1) personal agent, (2) thing, esp. drug, pro- 
ducing effect. 

anta'cid, a. & n. Preventive of acidity (esp. 
in stomach), [a nt- + acid] 

anta'gonism, n. Active opposition (to, 
against, thing ; between two ; come into a. 
xoith) ; opposing principle, [f. Gk antagonisma 
(as foil., see -ism)] 

antagonist, n. Opponent, adversary; (Phys.) 
counteracting muscle. Hence antagonist- 
ic a., antag-oni'sttCAi.Lv adv. [f. Gk ant- 
agonist's (as foil., see -1ST)] 

anta'g-onize, v.t. Oppose actively (in E 
use only of like forces; in U.S. person may a. 
thing) ; counteract, neutralize ; render an- 
tagonistic, pit against each other, [f, Gk ant- 
agonizomai (agon contest, see -ize)] 

anta'lkali, n. Substance that counteracts 
an alkali. Hence anta'lkaliNE l a. [ant- + 
alkali] 

antaphpodi'siac (-diz-), a. & n. Preventive 
of venereal desire, [f. ant- + aphrodisiac] 

antap'ctic, a. Southern, of south polar 
regions ; A. Pole, S. pole of earth or heavens ; 
A. Circle, parallel of 66° 32' S. [refash. f. OF 
antartique f. L f. Gk ANT(arktikos arctic)] 

ante-, pref. =L ante before, prep, and adv., 
used esp. in E to form adjj. with or without 
adj. ending, as ante-reformation(al). 

antecedence, n. Precedence, priority, (in 
time or causal relation) ; (Astr.) retrograde 
motion, [f. L antecedentia (as foil., see -ence)] 

anteee'dent, a. & n. Previous (to) ; pre- 
sumptive, a priori ; preceding thing or circum- 
stance ; (Logic) the part of a conditional pro- 
position on which the other depends ; (Gram.) 
noun, clause, sentence, to which a following 



For other compounds of ante- see ante-. 



ANTECHAMBER 35 

(esp. relative) pronoun or adverb refers; 
(Math.) first term of a ratio ; (pi.) past history 
(esp. of persons). Hence anteee'dentLV 2 
adv. [f. F antecedent f. L ANTE(cec£ere go), 
see -ent] 

a- n tech amber, n. Room leading to chief 
apartment, [f. F antichambre (and- for ante- 
•rchambre chamber)] 

a'nteehapel, n. Outer part at west end of 
chapel, [ante- + chapel] 

a'ntedate *, n. Date before the true time 
(esp. of writing), [ante- + date n.] 

a'ntedate 2 , v.t. Affix, assign, an earlier 
than the true date to (document, event) ; pre- 
cede; anticipate, [f. prcc] 

antedilu'vian, a. & n. Belonging, referring, 
appropriate, to the time before the flood ; (n.) 
old-fashioned person, (also) very old person, 
[f. ante- •+- L diluvium deluge + -an] 

a'ntelope, n. Deer-like ruminant genus of 
animals, [f. OF antelop f. L anthalopics f. Gk 
antholops, etym. dub.] 

a'nte meridiem, phr. (abbr. a.m.). Be- 
tween midnight and noon, as 7.30 a.m. [L] 

antemirndane, a. Existing, occurring, 
before creation of world, [f. ante- + L mundus 
world + -ANE] 

antena'tal, a. Previous to birth, [ante- + 
natal] 

ante'nna, n. (pi. -ae). Sensory organ found 
in pairs on heads of insects and Crustacea, 
feeler ; (Bot.) irritable processes in male flower 
of some orchids. Hence ante'nriAL, an- 
te'nnARV 1 , antenni'FEROus, ante'nni- 
form, aa. [L,= sail-yard, perh. f. Gk anateino 
stretch out] 

antepe'ndium, n. Veil for front of altar. 
[L AUTEpendium (pendere hang)] 

antepenu'lt, a. & n. Last but two (orig. 
and usu. of syllables), [abbrev. of L (syllaba) 
antepaenultima, see foil.] 

antepenirltimate, a. & n. =pree. [f. L 
ANTEpaenultiinus (paene almost + xdtimus last) 

+ -ATE 2 ] 

antepra'ndial, a. Before-dinner, [f. ante- 
+ L prandium + -al] 

antep'iop, a. More to the front ; prior (to). 
Hence anterio'PiTV n., antep'ioPLY 2 adv. 
[L,=fore, former, f. ante before] 

a'nte-poom, n. Room leading to another. 
[ante- + room] 

anth-, pref. = anti- before aspirate. 

anthe'lion, n. Luminous ring projected on 
cloud or fog bank opposite to sun. [late Gk, 
neut. of anthelios opposite to sun (anth- + 
helios sun)] 

anthelmintic, a. & n. (Medicine) of use 
against intestinal worms, [f. anth- + Gk hel- 
ming -minthos worm + -ic] 

a'nthem, n. Composition sung antiphon- 
ally ; prose composition (usu. from Scriptures 
or Liturgy) set to sacred music ; song of praise 
or gladness. [OE antefne f. Rom. *antefena 
f. LL antifona f. Gkantiphona, seeANTiPHON, 
E development being ante'fne, ante'mne, 
a'ntem, a'ntheni] 

a'nthep, n. (bot.). Part of stamen contain- 
ing pollen ; a.-dust, pollen ; a.-valve, opening 
by which pollen is shed. Hence a'nthePAL, 
anthepi'FERous, a'nthepoiD, aa. [f. F an- 
there f. L anthera medicine extracted from 
flowers f. Gk anthera flowery, fern. adj. f. 
anthos] 

antho'log-y, n. Collection of small choice 
poems, esp. epigrams, (orig. Greek); literary 
collection. Hence antho'logisT n. [f. L f. 

For other compounds of ante- see ante-. 



ANTICIPATE 



Gk anthologia (anthos flower + -logia collec- 
tion f. lego gather)] 

A'nthony (-to-), n. St. A., patron of swine- 
herds ; A., smallest pig of litter ; (St.) A.'sjire, 
erysipelas. 

a'nthpacite, n. Non-bituminous variety of 
coal. Hence anthpaertic, a'nthpaeitous, 
aa. [f. L f. Gk anthrakites coal-like (anthrax 
-akos coal)] 

a'nthrax, n. Malignant boil ; splenic fever 
of sheep and cattle ; malignant pustule caused 
in man by infection from animals so affected. 
[L f. Gk,= carbuncle] 

anthropo- in comb. =Gk anthropos man, 
as : -ce'ntric, centring in man ; -geny, study of 
origin of man ; -graphy, science of geographical 
distribution of mankind ; -lite, -lith, fossil man ; 
-metry, measurement of human body; -phag- 
ous, -phagy, man-eating. 

a'nthpopoid, a. & n. Man-like ; (n.) being 
that is human in form only, esp. a. ape. [f. Gk 
anthropoeide.fi (anthropo-, see -oid)] 

anthpopo'logy, n. Whole science of man ; 
physiological and psychological science of 
man ; study of man as an animal. Hence 
anthPopolo*g"iCAL a., anthpopolo'gieal- 
ly 2 adv., anthropo'LOGiST n. [as prec. + 
-logy] 

anthropomorphic, a. Of the nature of 
anthropomorphism, [as foil. + -ic] 

anthropomorphize, v.t. Attribute hu- 
man form or personality to (God &c. or abs.). 
Hence anthpopomop'phiSM, anthpopo- 
mop'phisT, nn. [as foil. + -ize] 

anthropomorphous, a. Of human form, 
[f. Gk ANTHROPOraorjjftos (morphe form) + -ous] 

anti-, pref. =Gk anti (before unaspir. vowel 
ant-, before aspirate anth-) opposite, against, 
in exchange, instead, rivalling : in words f. Gk, 
and as living pref. in E (1) combining with 
nouns to form nouns, anti- having adj. force 
= ri\Sil(-pope,-king), opposing, counter, (-choru.s, 
-league), reverse of (-climax) ; (2) forming adjj. 
on nouns governed by anti- (slavery society, 
-vaccination league) or on adjj. implying *a 
noun so governed (-national, -ritualistic), with 
sense 'opposed to'; many of these are also 
nouns, esp. names of medicines (-dysenteric) \ 
(3) forming derivative nouns and adjj. by addi- 
tion of a suf., esp. -ist, (-alcoholist, -tobacconist, 
-Sabbatarian) with sense 'one opposed to', also 
corresponding abstract nn. in -ism (-Darwin- 
ism) 

a'ntiap, n. Upas tree of Java ; poison thence 
obtained. [Jav. antjar] 

antibi'lious, a. Of use against biliousness. 
[anti- (2)] 

a'ntie, a. & n. (Archaic) grotesque, bizarre • 
grotesque posture (usu. pi.) ; (archaic) mounte- 
bank, clown, [f. It. antico f. L antiquus ancient, 
apparently from ascription of grotesque work 
to the ancients] 

a'ntiehpist, n. Enemy of Christ ; great 
personal opponent of Christ expected by early 
church to appear before end of world ; the 
Pope. [f. OF ante-crist f. L anteehristiis f. Gk 
antichristos (anti- (1) + khristos Christ)] 
antiehpi'stian, a. Pertaining to Anti- 
christ ; opposed to Christianity. Hence anti- 
ehpi'stianiSM n. [f. prec, with extended 
meaning] 

anticipate, v.t. Use in advance ; forestall 
(person or thina:) ; accelerate, as a, one's ruin , 
discuss, consider, realize, beforehand ; look 
forward to, expect, (event, that it will happen). 
Hence anti'eipANT a. & n., anti'cipatiVE 

For other compounds of anti- seo anti-. 



ANTICIPATION 



36 



ANTITHESIS 



a., anti'cipativeLY 2 adv. [f. L anticipare 

(anti- for ante- + -cipare f. capere take) see 

-ate 2 ] 

anticipation, n. Action of anticipating (in 
senses of the vb) ; (Med.) occurrence of pheno- 
mena before usual time; (Mus.) introduction 
beforehand of part of a chord about to follow, 
[f. L anticipatio (as prec, see -ation)] 

anti'cipatop, n. One who anticipates. 
Hence anti'eipatORY a. [L (as prec, see 
-or 2)] 

antielrmax, n. Opposite of climax, addi- 
tion of a particular that weakens the effect ; 
descent contrasting with previous rise. 
[anti- (1)] 

antieli'nal, a. (Geol.) forming ridge on 
which strata lean against each other, and 
from which they slope down in opposite direc- 
tions ; (Anat.) with upright spine towards 
which spines on both sides incline, [f. anti- + 
Gk Mind lean + -al] 

antiey'elone, n. Rotatory outward flow of 
air from atmospheric area of high pressure ; 
whole system of pressure and outward flow. 
[anti- (1)] 

a'ntidote, n. Medicine given to counteract 
poison or disease (against, for, to). Hence 
a'ntidotAL a. [f. L f. Gk antidoton neut. of 
ANTidoios given against] 

antigrd'pelos, n. pi. Waterproof leggings, 
[perh. for anthygropelos (anti- (2) + Gk liugros 
wet+pelos mud)] 

anti-Ja*eobin, a. & n. (One) opposed to 
the Jacobins (revolutionary party in France, 
1789) or the French revolution, [anti- (2)] 

antilo'garithm, n. Number to which a 
logarithm belongs, as 100 is the a. of 2. 
f anti- (1)] 

anti'logy, n. Contradiction in terms, [f. 
Gk antilogia (anti- + -logia speaking)] 

antimaca'ssap, n. Covering thrown over 
chairs &c, as protection from grease or as an 
ornament, [anti- (2)] 

a'ntimasque, -mask, n. Grotesque inter- 
lude between acts of masque, [anti- (1)] 

antimonar'chical, a. Opposed to mon- 
archy, [anti- (2)] 

a'ntimony, n. Brittle metallic substance, 
bluish-white, of flaky crystalline texture, [f. 
med. L antimonium, prob. of Arab, orig.] 

antino'mian, a. & n. Opposed to the obliga- 
toriness of moral law; pertaining to Antino- 
mians ; one who maintains that the moral law 
is not binding on Christians, [f. L Antinomi, 
name of sect in Germany (1535) alleged to 
hold above opinion (anti- + Gk nomos law) + 

-AN] 

anti'nomy, n. Contradiction in a law, or 
between two laws ; conflict of authority ; para- 
dox, [f. L f. Gk ANTiwowia (nomos law)] 

antipathe'tie, a. Opposed in nature or dis- 
position (to). Hence antipathe'tiCAL a., 
antipathe*tiealLY 2 adv. [f. Gk ANTipat/ieo 
<as antipathy), see -ETIC] 

antipa'thie, a. Of contrary character (to) ; 
<Med.) having, producing, contrary symptoms, 
{f. F antipathique f. antipathie (as foil.)] 

anti'pathy, n. Constitutional or settled 
aversion (against, to, between persons), [f. L 
f. Gk antipatheia f. AXTipathes opposed in 
feeling (pathos -eos)] 

antiphlogistic, a. & n. (Medicine, paste, 
&c) reducing inflammation. So antiphlo- 
gi'stiNE 4 n. [anti- (2)] 

a'ntiphon, n. Versicle, sentence, sung by 
one choir in response to another; prose or 



verse composition consisting of such passages ; 
anthem, [f. F antiphone f. med. L antiphona, 
fern, sing., f. Gk ANTip/iema (neut. pi. of anti- 
phonos) things sounding in response (phone 
vocal sound)] 

anti'phonal, a. & n. Sung alternately ; 
responsive ; collection of antiphons. Hence 
anti'phonalLY 2 adv. [OF (antiphone, see 
prec. and -al)] 

anti'phonapy, n. Book of antiphons. [f. 
med. L antiphonarium (as antiphone, see 

-ARYl)] 

anti'phony, n. Antiphon ; antiphonal sing- 
ing ; response, echo. [f. Gk antiphonos, see 
antiphon and -Y !] 

anti'podes, n. pi. Place(s) diametrically 
opposite (to each other), esp. region opposite to 
our own ; (sing, antipode, pron. -6d) exact 
opposite (of, to). Hence anti'podAL, anti- 
pode'AN, aa. [f. L f. Gk antipodes having the 
feet opposite, pi. of ANTipous adj. (pons podos 
foot)] 

a'ntipole, n. Opposite pole ; direct opposite. 
[anti- (1)] 

a'ntipope, n. Pope elected in opposition to 
one (held to be) canonically chosen, [f. F anti- 
pape f. med. L antipapa ; assim. to pope] 
antiquarian, a. & n. Connected with 
study of antiquities ; large size of drawing 
paper ; antiquary, whence antiquaP'ianiSM 
n., antiquap'ianizE v.i. [as foil. + -an] 
a'ntiquapy, n. Student, collector, of anti- 
quities, [f. L antiquarius (antiquus ancient, 
see -ary *] 

a'ntiquate, v.t. Make obsolete (esp. in 
p.p.), abolish as out of date; make antique, 
[f. obs. adj. antiquate (L antiquare f. antiquus 
ancient, see -ate 2 ] 

anti'que (-ek), a. & n. Of old times ; exist- 
ing since old times ; old-fashioned ; after the 
manner of the ancients ; archaic ; relic of 
ancient art or of old times ; the a., antique 
style. Hence anti'queNESS n. [f . L antiquus, 
anticus, former, ancient (aide before ; cf. 
posticus), whence also antic] 
anti'quity, n. Ancientness ; old times, esp. 
time before middle ages; the ancients; (pi.) 
customs, events, precedents, of ancient times ; 
(usu. pi.) ancient relics, [f. F antiquity f. L 
antiquitatem (antiquus, see prec. and -TY)] 
antipphrnum, n. Genus of plants, Snap- 
dragon. [L, f. Gk antirrhinon (anti counter- 
feiting + rhis rhinos nose)] 
antisabbatap'ian, a. & n. (Person) op- 
posed to observance of Sabbath, [anti- (3)] 
antiscopbu'tic, a. & n. (Medicine) against 
scurvy, [anti- (2)] 

antiscpi'ptupal, a. Opposed to Scripture. 
[anti- (2)] 

antise'ptic, a. & n. (Agent) counteracting 
putrefaction (lit. and fig.). Hence antise'pt- 
ically adv. [f. anti- (3) + Gk septikos putrefy- 
ing (septos adj. f. sepo rot, see -ic)] 
antiso'cial, a. Opposed to principles on 
which society is based, [anti- (2)j 
anti'stpophe, n. (Lines recited during) re- 
turning movement from left to right in Greek 
choruses ; inverse relation. [L f. Gk,=turning 
about (ANTistrepho turn against)] 
antistPO'phic, a. Pertaining to antistro- 
phes. [f. Gk antistrophikos (as prec, see -ic)] 
antithe'ist, n. One opposed to belief in ex- 
istence of a God. Hence antithei'stic a., 
antithe'iSM n. [anti- (3)] 
anti'thesis, n. (pi. -theses). Contrast of ideas 
expressed by parallelism of strongly contrasted 



For other compounds of anti- see anti-. 



ANTITHETIC 



37 



APHONIA 



words ;- opposition, contrast, (of, between, two 
things) ; direct opposite (of, to). [L f. Gk (vbl 
n. f. AXTitithemi set against)] 

antithetic, a. Of the nature of antithesis ; 
contrasted ; consisting of two opposites. Hence 
an tit he* tie at. a., antithetical 1 v 2 adv. [f. 
Gk antithetikos (as prec, see -ic)] 

a'nti -trade, a. & n. A. (wind), one that 
blows in opposite direction to trade wind. 
[anti- (2)] _ 

antitrinitar'ian, a. & n. (One) opposed to 
doctrine of the Trinity. Hence antitpini- 
tar'ianiSM n. [anti- (3)] 

a'ntitype, n. That which a type or 
symbol represents. Hence antity'piCAL a. 
[f. Gk ASTitupos responding as an impression 
to the die (tupos stamp f. st. tup- strike)] 

a'ntlep, n. Branched horn, branch of a horn, 
of stag or other deer. Hence antlePED 2 a. 
[f. OF antoillier f. LL antocularem (ramum) 
(branch) in front of the eyes (ante- + oculus 
eye) ; orig. = lowest branch j 

antonoma'sia, n. Substitution of epithet 
&c. for proper name (e. g. the Iron Duke) ; use 
of proper name to express general idea (e. g. 
a Solomon). [L f. Gk, f. Axronomazd name 
instead (onoma name)] 

a'nus, n. Posterior opening of alimentary 
canal in animals. [L] 

a'nvil, n. Block (usu. iron) on which smith 
works metal ; (Physiol.) a bone of the ear. [OE 
onfilti, etym. dub.] 

anxi'ety (angz-), n. Uneasiness, concern ; 
solicitous desire (for a thing, to do), [f. L 
anxietas -atis (as foil., see -tv)] 

a'nxious (-ksh?<s), a. Troubled, uneasy 
(about) ; earnestly desirous (for a thing, to do) ; 
causing anxiety, as an a. biisiness. Hence 
a'nxiousLY 2 adv. [f. L anxius (angere choke) 
-f- -ous] 

a'ny (e-),a, &pron. (With interrog.) one, some, 
(no matter which), as have you a. wool ? hare 
you a. of them? was a. Frenchman there?; 
(after negative expr. or implied) cannot see a. 
difference, to prevent a. loss, cannot find a. of 
them; (in affirmative sent.) whichever (of all) 
is chosen, every, as a. chemist will tell you. at 
a. rate; a. one (adj.), whatever individual is 
chosen; a. one (pron.), any person, anybody. 
[OE xnig (cogn. w. OHG einic, mod. G einia, 
Du. eenig) f. an one + -ig adj. ending (see -Y <L ), 
here perh. dim.] 

a'nybody, n. or pron. Any person ; if you 
wish te be a. (of any importance) ; two or three 
anybodies (ordinary people). 

a'nyhow, adv. & conj. In any way what- 
ever; in any case, at any rate; at haphazard, 
as does his work a., things are all a. 

a'nything-, pron. & n. Whatever thing ; 
a thing, no matter which ; a thing of any 
kind. 

a'nyway, adv. & conj. = anyhow. 

a'nywhere, adv. In any place. 

a'nywise, adv. In any wise. 

a'orist, a. & n. (Gram.) indefinite, implying 
no limitation ; (Gk Gram.) a. (tense), one de- 
noting simply occurrence (in indicative, past 
occurrence), without limitations as to con- 
tinuance &c. So aori'stic a. [f. Gk aoristos 
unlimited (a- not+horizo limit f. horos)] 

aop'ta, n. Great artery or trunk of the 
arterial system, issuing from left ventricle of 
heart. Hence aop'tic a. [f. med. L f. Gk 
aorte that which is hung (aeiro lift)] 

a outrance (F), phr. To the death. 

ap- = ad- before p. 



apa'ce, adv. Swiftly, quicklv. [a prep*-r- 
pace] 

a-panage, app-, n. Provision for main 
tenance of younger children of kings, &c, 
(orig. province or lucrative office) ; perquisite ; 
(of territory) dependency ; natural accompani- 
ment or attribute. [F, f. apaner endow with 
means of subsistence f. med. hAvpanare (pan is 
bread), see -age] 

apart, adv. Aside, separatelv, indepem 
dently, (from); set a., [devote, reserve, (for); 
jesting a. (laid aside), [f. F « part (a to, part 
side)] 

apar'tment, n. Single room of a house ; 
(pi.) set of rooms, [f. F appartement f. med. L 
appartimentum (APpai'tire apportion, sec 

-MENT)] 

apathe'tie, a. Insensible to emotion? in- 
different. Hence apathe'tie ally adv. [f. 
foil., after pathetic] 

a'pathy, n. Insensibility to suffering ; pas- 
sionless existence ; indolence of mind. [f. F 
apathie f. L f. Gk apatheia f. apathes without 
feeling (a- wot+pathos -eos suffering] 

ape^n. Tailless monkey (gorilla, chimpanzee, 
orang-outan, gibbons) ; imitator, mimic ; play 
the a., mimic; Sea A., fish (Sea Fox). [OE 
apa masc. ape fern. (Du. aap, OHG affo, 
MHGaffe)] 

ape 2 , v.t. Imitate, mimic, [f. prec.) 

apea'k, adv. & pred. a. (naut). Vertical, 
as oars a. [f. F a pic (a to, at, pic, summit, so;. 
peak)] 

ape'psy, n. Lack of digestive power, [f. 
Gk apepsia (a- not+pepto digest)] 

aper^u (F), n. Summary exposition, con- 
spectus. [F, p.p. of apercevoir perceive] 

ape'rient, a. & n. Laxative (medicine), [f. 
L aperire open, see -ext] 

apeTitive, a. & n. = prec. [f. F aperitif f. 
med. L aperitivus variant of apertivus (as 
prec, see -ive)] 

a'pertupe (-tsher), n. Opening, gap ; space 
through which light passes in optical instru- 
ments, [f. L apertura (as prec, see -ure)] 

a'pepy, n. Mimicry ; apish performance. 
[ape n. + -ry] 

ape'talous, a. Without petals, [f. Gk ape- 
talos leafless (a- r\ot-\-petalon leaf) -f -ous] 

a*pex, n. (pi. -ices, -exes). Tip, top, peak; 
vertex (of triangle, cone). [L, = small rod at 
top of flamen's cap, peak, tip, perh. f. op- fit to. 
cf. vertex f. vertere] 

apha'sia, n. Loss of speech, as result of cere- 
bral affection. Hence apha'sic (-z-), a. & n. 
[Gk,f. aphatos speechless (a- not+pha- speak] 

aphe'lion, n. Point farthest from sun (of 
planet's or comet's orbit). [Graecized f. mod. 
L aphelium L Gk aph' heliou from the sun] 

apheliotPO'pie, a. (bot.). Turning from the 
sun. Hence apheliotpcpiCALLY adv., a- 
phelio'tPopiSM n. [f. Gk as prec. -{-tropikos 
turning (trepo)] 

a'phesis, n. Gradual loss of unaccented 
vowel at beginning of word, as in (e)squire. 
[Gk, = letting go,f. aphiemi (apo away-f/ue??*i 
send)] 

aphe'tie, a. Pertaining to aphesis. Hence 
a'phetiZE v.t. [f. Gk aphetos vbl adj. (as 
prec.) + -ic] 

a'phis, n. (pi. a'phides). Plant-lice, minute 
insects, the food of ladybirds, and tended by 
ants for the honey-dew they yield. Hence 
aphi'diAN a. [?] 

aphonia, n. Total loss of voice. [Gk, f. 
aphonos voiceless (a- not+ph&ne voice)] 



For other compounds of anti- see anti-. 



APHORISM 

a'phopism, n. Short pithy maxim ; defini- 
tion. Hence or cogn. aphopi'smic, apho- 
ri'stie [-ist], aa., aphori'stiCALLY adv. [f. 
Gk aphorizo (apo- + horizo f. horos boundary), 
see -ism] 

aphrodi'siac (-diz-), a. & n. Venereal; 
(drug) producing venereal desire, [f. Gk aphro- 
disiakos f. aphrodisios (Aphrodite Venus), 
see -ac] 

aphyllous, a. (hot.). Naturally leafless, 
[f. Gkjzphullos (a- not+phtdlon leaf) + -ous] 

apiar'ian, a. Pertaining to bee-keeping, 
[as foil. + -ax] 

a'piapy, n. Place where bees are kept. 
Hence a'piapiST n. [f. L apiarium (apis 
bee, see -arv 1 )] 

a'pical, a. Belonging to an apex ; placed at 
the tip. Hence a'piealLY 2 adv. [f. L apex 
-icis + -al] 

a'pieulture, n. Bee-keeping, [f. L apis 
bee+cuLTURE] 

apie'ee, adv. Severally, each, as fiife pounds 
a. [orig. a piece] 

a'pish, a. Of the nature, appearance, of an 
ape ; ape-like in manner, silly. Hence a'pish- 
ly 2 adv., a'pishxESS n. [f. ape n. + -ish] 

aplomb (F), n. Perpendicularity; self- 
possession. [F, = a plomb according to plum- 
met] 

apnoe'a (-nea), n. Suspension of breathing, 
[mod. L, f. Gk apnoia f. apnoos breathless (a- 
not + pnoe breath)] 

apo-, pref. (before unaspirated vowel ap-, 
before aspirate aph-), = Gk apo prep, off, from, 
away, un-, quite ; in compds f. Gk, and in 
mod. scientific wds (not on Gk anal.) with 
sense 'detached, separate". 

apo'calypse, n. Revelation, esp. that made 
to St John in island of Patmos; book recording 
this. So apo'caly *ptic( al) aa. , apo'caly *p- 
tiealLY 2 adv. [f. L f. Gk apokalupsis (apo- 
kalupto uncover)] 

apo'cope, n. Cutting off of last letter or 
syllable of word. [Gk (APOkopto cut off)] 

apo'epypha, n. Books of Old Testament 
included in Septuagint and Vulgate, but not 
originally written in Hebrew, nor counted 
genuine by Jews, and excluded from Canon at 
Reformation. [LL apocrypha (scripta) hidden 
writings f. Gk apokruphos (APOkrupto hide 
away) ; treated in E as sing., with pi. -as] 

apo'epyphal.a. Of the apocrypha ; of doubt- 
ful authenticity ; sham, false, [as prec. + -al] 

a'pod, n. Bird, reptile, fish, without (or 
with undeveloped) feet or ventral fins. Hence 
a'podAL a. [f. Gk apou-s footless (a- not+ 
pous podos foot)] 

apodi'ctic, -dei'etie (-di-), a. Of clear 
demonstration ; clearly established. Hence 

apodi'ctiCALLY adv. [f. L f. Gk apodeiktikos 

(APOdeiknumi show, see -ic)] 

apd'dosis, n. Concluding clause of sen- 
tence (cf. protasis) ; consequent clause of 

conditional sentence, wherever placed. [L f. 

Gk (APOdidomi give back)] 

a'pogee (-j-), n. Point (in orbit of moon or 

any planet) farthest from earth ; greatest 

distance of sun from earth when latter is in 

aphelion ; (fig.) most distant spot, highest point. 

Hence apogre'AN a. [f. F apogee f. L f. Gk 

APOgaion (neut. adj.) away from earth (gaia, 

ge, earth)] 
apolau'stic, a. Self-indulgent, [f. Gk apo- 

laustikos (APOlaud enjoy, see -ic)] 
Apo'llyon, n. The Deril. [f. Gk apolludn 

part, of apolluo (apo- + olluo destroy)] 
apologetic, a. & n. Regretfully acknow- 
ledging, excusing, fault or failure ; vindica- 



38 APOTHECARY 

tory ; (n., usu. pi.) argumentative defence, 
esp. of Christianity. Hence apologpe'ticAT, 
a., apologre'tiealLY. 2 adv. [f. F apologetique 
f. L f. Gk apologetikos (apologeomai speak in 
defence, see apology and -ic)] 
apo'logrist, n. One who defends (esp. 
Christianity) by argument, [f. F apologiste f. 
Gk apologia, see apology and -ist] 
apo'logize, v.i. Make an apology (for). 
[f. apology + -ize] 

a'polog-ue(-og), n . Moral fable. [F, f. Lf. Gk 
apologos fable (apo of£+logos speech)] 
apo'logy, n. Regretful acknowledgment 
of offence ; assurance that no offence was in- 
tended ; explanation, vindication, [f. L f. Gk 
apologia defence (apo away + -logia speak- 
ing)] 

a*pophtheg*m (em), n. Terse saying; 
pithy maxim. Hence apophthegma'tic 
(-eg-) a., apophthegma'tiCALLY adv. [f. Gk 
apophthegma -matos (APOphtheggomai speak 
out)] 

apople'ctic, a. Pertaining to, causing, 
apoplexy ; suffering from, tending to, apoplexy. 
Hence apople'ctiCALLY, adv. [f. L f. Gk 
apoplektikos (APOplesso strike completely, see 
-ic)] 

a'poplexy, n. Malady arresting powers of 
sense and motion, usu. caused by effusion of 
blood or serum in brain, [f. F apoplexie f. 1* 
f. Gk apoplexia (as prec.)] 
aposiope'sis, n. (rhet.). Sudden breaking-off 
in speech. [L, f. Gk f. APO(.s£op<zo keep silent)] 
apo'stasy, n. Abandonment of religious 
faith, vows, principles, or party, [f. L f. Gk 
apostasia (xvosta- withdraw)] 
apo'state (-at), n. & a. (One) guilty of apos- 
tasy. So aposta'tiCAL a. [F, f. L \-ta) f. Gk 
apostates (APOsta- withdraw)] 
apo'statize, v.i. Become an apostate {froyn 
one to another), [f. LL apostatizare (as apo- 
state, see -ize)] 
a poster/or*/, adv. & adj. phr. (Reasoning) 
from effects to causes ; inductive. [L, = from 
what comes after] 

apd'stil, n. Marginal note. [f. F apostille, 
etym. dub.] 

apo'stle (-si), n. Messenger, esp. any of the 
twelve whom Christ sent forth to preach 
Gospel; first successful Christian missionary 
in a country, as a. of Germany ; leader of re- 
form, as a. of temperance ; a. spoons (with 
figures of aa. on handles). Hence apo'stle- 
ship n. [f. OF apostle, apostre (mod. apotre)i. 
L f. Gk apostolos (xpostello send away) ; OE 
had apostol] 

apo'stolate, n. Apostleship ; leadership in 
a propaganda, [f. L apostolatus (as prec, see 

-ATE 1 )] 

aposto'lic, a. Pertaining to the Apostles ; 
of the character of an apostle ; of the Pope, 
papal, as A. See, succession. Hence apos- 
to'lieAL a., aposto'licalLY 2 adv. [f. F 
apostolique t. L f. Gk apostolikos (as apostle, 
see -ic)] 

apo'stpophe 1 (-fi), n. (rhet.). Exclamatory 
address, in course of public speech or in poem, to 
particular person (often dead or absent). Hence 
apostpo'phic a., apo'stPophizE v.t. & i. 
[L f. Gk, lit. turning away (as foil.)] 

apo'stpophe 2 (-fi), n. Sign of omission of 
letter, or of possessive case, (e. g. can't, boy's.) 
Hence apostpo'phic a. [confused w. prec, 
but prop, three syllables (-strof) ; F, f. L f. Gk 
(he) apostrophos (prosodia) (the accent) of 
elision (APOstrepho turn away)] 

apo'thecapy, n. (archaic). Druggist, phar- 
maceutical chemist, as Apothecaries' Company. 



APOTHEOSIS 



39 



APPLY 



[f. OF apotecaire f. LL apothecarius f. apotheca 
f.Gkapo£ftefce storehouse (APOta'Mewu lay away), 
see -ary 1 ] 

apotheo'sis, n. Deification flit. & fig.) ; 
canonization ; deified ideal ; (loosely) release 
from earthly life. Hence apo'theosiZE v.t. 
[L f. Gk (APOtheoo make a god of, f. theos god, 
see -osis)] 

appa'l (-awl), v.t. (-11-). Dismay, terrify. 
Hence appa*lling"LY 2 adv. [peril, f. OF apalir 
make pale ; but cf. pall v.] 

appanage. See apanage. 

apparatus, n. (pi. -uses). Mechanical 
requisites for scientific or other work ; organs 
by which natural processes are carried on ; 
critical a., a. criticus, materials for critical 
study of document. [L (APvarare make ready 
for, see -ate 1 )] 

appa'rel *, v.t. (-11-). Attire, aress. [f. OF 
apareiller f. Rom. * xnpariculare make fit 
(pariculus dim. oipar equal)] 

appa'rel 2 , n. Ornamental embroidery on 
ecclesiastical vestments ; (archaic) clothing, 
dress, [f. OF aparail f. apareiller, see prec] 

appa'rent {or -ar-), a. Manifest, palpable ; 
seeming ; heir a. (whose right cannot be super- 
seded by birth of nearer heir, cf . presumptive). 
Hence appa'pentLY 2 adv. [f. OF aparant 
f. L as appear, see -ent] 

apparrtion, n. Appearance, esp. of a super- 
natural being; ghost. [F, f. L apparitionem 
(as appear, see -ion)] 

appa'pitop, n. Public servant of Roman 
magistrate ; officer of civil or ecclesiastical 
court ;' herald, usher. [L (as prec, see -or 2 )] 

appea'l 1 , v.i. Call to (higher tribunal) for 
deliverance from decision of lower (also abs.) ; 
a. to the country (i. e. from parliament), dissolve 
parliament ; call to (witness) for corroboration ; 
call attention to (evidence) ; make earnest re- 
quest (to person, for thing or to do) ; pictures a. 
(address themselves) to the eye, do not a. (prove 
attractive) to me. [f. OF apeler f. L APpellare 
address] 

appea'l 2 , n. Act of appealing; right of 
appealing; Court of A. (hearing cases pre- 
viously tried in inferior courts), [f. OF apel 
(as prec.)] 

appea'lable, a. That can be appealed 
against ; that can be appealed to. [appeal v. 
+ -able] 

appeap*, v.i. Become, be, visible ; present 
oneself formally, publicly; be published; be 
manifest ; seem. [f. aper- st. of OF apareir f. 
L APparere -rit- come in sight] 

appear'ance, n. Act of appearing (in vbl 
senses) ; look, aspect ; semblance ; to all a. (so 
far as can be seen) ; save, keep up, aa. (outward 
semblance) ; apparition, phantom, [f. OF apar- 
ance f. L apparentia (as prec, see -ence)] 

appea'se (-z), v.t. Pacify, quiet, (strife, 
anger, person) ; soothe ; satisfy (appetite, pre- 
judice). So appea'SABLE a., appea'seMENT 
n. [f . OF apeser, apaisier {a to + pais peace f. 
L pacem, nom. pax)] 

appellant, a. & n. Appealing ; (Law) con- 
cerned with appeals; (n.) one who appeals to 
higher court. [F (as appeal *, see -ant)] 

appellate (-at), a. Taking cognizance of 
appeals, as a. jurisdiction, [f. L as foil., see 
-ate 2 ] 

appellation, n. Name, title; nomencla- 
ture. [F, f. L as appeal 1 , see -ation] 

appellative, a. & n. (Of words) designat- 
ing a class, common (as opp. to proper) ; com- 
mon noun, applicable to any member of a 
class; appellation. Hence appe'llativeLY 2 
adv. [f. L as appeal 1 , see -ative] 



appe'nd, v.t. Hang on, annex; add in 
writing, [f. L APpendere] 

appendage, n. Thing attached ; addition ; 
accompaniment, [prec + -age] 

appendant, a. & n. (Possession, thing, 
person) attached in subordinate capacity (to 
another). [F, part, of appendre f. L appendere 
(for -ere) hang to (intr.)] 

appe-ndix, n. (pi. -ices, -ixes). Subsidiary 
addition (to book or document) ; small process 
developed from surface of any organ, esp. 
vermiform a. (of the intestine), whence ap- 
pendicitis n. [L appendix -icis (APpendere 
hang to, trans.)] 

apperce-ption, n. Mind's perception of it- 
self ; mental perception, [f. F aperception (LL 
APpercipere -cept- perceive, see -ion)] 

appertain, v.i. Belong as possession or 
right to ; be appropriate to ; relate to. [f. OF 
apartenir f. LL AP(pertinere pertain)] 

a'ppetenee, -ey, n. Longing after, desire, 
(of, for, after); affinity (for), [f. F appetence 
f. L appetentia (APpetere seek after, see -ence, 
-encv] 

a'ppetent, a. Eagerly desirous (after, of). 
[f. L appetere, see prec. and -ent] 

a'ppetite, n. Desire, inclination, (for) ; de- 
sire to satisfy natural necessities, esp. hunger ; 
relish. So appe'titiVE a. [f. OF apetit f. L 
appetitus (as prec, see -ite 2 )] 

a'ppetize, v.t. (Of things) give appetite 
(only in part, -izing). Hence a'ppetizER 1 n. 
[f. F appitissant part, as if f. L appetitiare (as 
prec), assim. to vbs in -ize] 

applau'd, v.t. & i. (Intr.) express approval 
loudly, as by clapping hands ; (trans.) express 
approval of, praise, [f. L APplaudere -plaus- 
clap hands] 

applau'se (-z), n. Approbation loudly ex- 
pressed ; marked approval. Hence applau's- 
ive (-s-) a., applau'siveLY 2 adv. [f. L applau- 
sus -us (as prec)] 

a'pple, n. Round firm fleshy fruit of a rosa- 
ceous tree; (Bot.) any inferior fleshy many-celled 
fruit; A. of discord, golden a. contended for by 
Juno, Minerva, and Venus ; A. of Sodom, Dead 
sea a., fruit dissolving into ashes ; a. of the eye, 
the pupil, any cherished object ; a.-brandy, 
spirit distilled from cider ; a.-butter, sauce of 
apples stewed in cider; a.-cheese, compressed 
a.-pomice ; a.-pow«ce,pulpremainingafter juice 
is expressed ;a.-jack, Amer. name fora. -brandy ; 
a.-john, kind of a. said to keep two years and 
to be best when withered ; a.-pie bed, one with 
sheets so folded that one's legs cannot get 
down ; a. -pie order, perfect order. [com.-Teut. : 
OE xppel, OHG aphul, mod. G apfel] 

appli'ance, n. Applying ; thing applied as 
means to an end. [f. apply + -ance] 

a'pplicable, a. Capable of being applied ; 
having reference, appropriate, (to). Hence 
applieaBi'LiTY n. [f. L as apply, see -able] 

a'pplicant, n. One who applies (for), [as 
prec, see -ant] 

application, n. Putting of one thing to 
another ; employmentof means ; (application of ) 
plaster, liniment, &c ; bringing (of a general 
rule &c.) to bear upon particular case; rele- 
vancy ; diligence ; making of a request ; re- 
quest made. [F, f. L applicationem (as foil., see 

-ATION)] 

apply, v.t, & i. Put close (to) ; administer 
(remedy &c to; lit. and fig.); devote (to) ; 
make use of ; use as relative or suitable (to) ; 
set oneself closely (to task, to do) ; have refer- 
ence (to) ; attend closely (to) ; address oneself 
(for help &c to), [f. OF aplier f. L APplicare 
fold, fasten to] 



APPOGGIATURA 

appoggiatu'ra (-ojatoo-), n. (mus.). Grace- 
note prefixed to an essential note. [It] 
appoi'nt, v.t. Fix (time, place, for purpose) ; 
prescribe (thing, that) ; (Law) declare the desti- 
nation of (property, also abs.) ; nominate, as 
a. him governor, to govern, to be governor, a. 
him. Hence appointEE" n. [f. OF apointer 
(a point to the point)] 

appointment, n. Appointing ; engagement, 
assignation ; decree, Ordinance ; office assigned ; 
(usu. pi.) outfit; keep, break, an a., appear, 
fail to appear, at fixed place and time. [f. OF 
apointement (as prec, see -ment)] 
apportion, v.t. Assign as due share (to) ; 
portion out. Hence appor'tion.MENT n. [f. OF 
apportionner (d to +portionner f. portion)] 
a'pposite (-z-), a. Well put ; appropriate (to). 
Hence a'ppositeLV 2 adv., a'ppositexEss n. 
[f. L AP(ponere posit- put)] 
apposi'tion, n. Application (of seal) ; plac- 
ing side by side ; (Gram.) placing of word in 
syntactic parallelism with another, esp. addi- 
tion of one noun to another. Hence apposi*- 
tionAL a. [f. L appositio (as prec, see -ion)] 
apprai'se (-z), v.t. (Esp. of official valuer) 
fix price for estimate. Hence apprai'SAL, 
appnai'seMENT, nn., apprai'SABLE a. [f. 
praise v. (formerly used in the same sense), 
perh. on anal, of apprize] 
appreciable (-sha-), a. Capable of being 
estimated ; perceptible, sensible. Hence ap- 
pre'eiabLY 2 adv. [as foil., see -ble] 
appreciate (-shi-), v.t. & i. Estimate 
worth, quality, amount, of ; estimate aright ; 
be sensitive to ; esteem highly ; raise in value ; 
rise in value. Hence appre'eiativE, ap- 
ppe'eiatORY (sha), aa., appreciative ly 2 
adv. [f. L APpretiare appraise (pretium price), 
see -ate 3 ] 
appreciation (-si-), n. Estimation, judg- 
ment ; perception ; adequate recognition ; rise 
in value ; critique, [f. F appreciation f. appre- 
cier (as prec, see -ation)] 
apprehe'nd, v.t. Seize, arrest; perceiv r e 
(by senses or intellect) ; understand ; fear (thing, 
that), [f. F apprihender f. L ap( prehendere 
-hens- lay hold of), whence also F apprendre 
learn] 

apprehensible, a. Capable of being 
grasped (by senses or intellect). Hence ap- 
prehensiBi'LiTV n. [f. L apprehensibilis (as 
prec, see -ble] 
apprehension, n. Seizure, arrest ; grasp- 
ing (of ideas), conception ; understanding ; 
dread, [f. L apprehensio (as prec, see -ion)] 
apprehe'nsive, a. Pertaining to sensuous 
or mental perception ; perceptive (of) ; intelli- 
gent; uneasy, fearful, (of thing, that it may 
happen, for person, for his safety). Hence 
apprehensiveLY 2 adv., apprehe'nsive- 
ness n. [f. med. L apprehensivus (as prec, 
see -ive)] 

apprentice *, n. Learner of a craft, bound 
to serve, and entitled to instruction from, his 
employer for specified term ; tiro. Hence ap- 
pre'ntieesHiP n. [f. OF apprentis f. ap- 
prendre (see apprehend), suggested by words 
in -tis, -tif, f. L -tivus (see -ive)] 
apprentice 2 , v.t. Bind as apprentice, [f. 
prec] 

appri'se (-z), v.t. Inform; (pass.) be aware 
of. [f. F appris -ise p.p. of apprendre learn, 
teach, (see apprehend)] 

appri'ze, v.t. (archaic). Appraise ; appreci- 
ate, [f. OF aprisier (d to + prisier praise)] 
approach 1 , v.t. & i. Come near(er) ; 
approximate in character &c to ; come near 
to ; approximate to ; (Mil.) make approaches to. 



40 APSE 

Hence approachaBi'LiTF n., approach - 
able a. [f. OF aprochier f. LL ADpropiarc 
draw near [propius compar. of prope near)] 

approach 2 , n. Act of approaching; ap- 
proximation; access, passage, (lit. and fig.); 
(Mil.) entrenchments enabling besiegers to 
approach. If. prec] 

a'pprobate, v.t. (U.S.). Approve formally, 
sanction, [f. L AP(probare test l.probus good) 
see -ate 3 ] 

approbation, n. Sanction ; approval. So 
a'pprobatORY a. [F, f. L approbationem (as 
prec, see -ation)] 

appropriate x (-at), a. Belonging, peculiar, 
(to) ; suitable, proper, (to, for). Hence appro*- 
priateLY 2 adv., appro'priateNESS n. [f. L 
APpropriare (_prop?'ius own), see -ate 2 ] 

appropriate 2 , v.t. Take possession of; 
take to oneself; devote to special purposes. 
Hence or cogn. appropriATiON, appro*- 
priatOR 2 , nn., appro'priativE a. [f. prec, 
see -ate 3 ] 

appro'val (-00-), n. Approbation ; sanction, 
[f. foil. + -al (2) ; rare before 1800, -a?ice being 
used instead] 

appro've (-oov), v.t. & i. Give evidence of 
(quality); (refl.) show oneself to be; confirm, 
sanction ; commend ; a. of, pronounce, con- 
sider, good. [f. OF aprover f. L as approbate] 

appro'ver, n. One who approves ; one who 
turns King's evidence, [f. prec. + -er l ] 

approximate l (-at), a. Very near ; closely 
resembling ; fairly correct. Hence appro'xi- 
mateLY 2 adv. [f. L APproximare (p?*oximus 
very near), see -ate 2 ] 

approximate 2 , v.t. & L Bring, come, 
near (to thing, esp. in quality, number, &c). 
Hence approximA'TiON n., appro'xima- 
tiVEa., appro*ximativeLY 2 adv. [f. prec, 
see -ate 3 ] 

appui* (-we), n. (Mil.) defensive support; 
point of a. (F point d'a.), fixed object on which 
troops commence formation into line. [F, f. 
appuyer f. LL APpodiare (podium support f. 
Gk podion base f. pous podos foot)] 

appur'tenance, n. Belonging; appen- 
dage ; accessory, [f. AF apurtenance (OF aper-, 
apar-) f. LL appertinentia (as appertain, see 

-ANCE)] 

appur'tenant, a. & n. (Thing) belonging, 
appertaining, pertinent, (to), [f. OF apartenant 
part, as appertain] 

a'pricot, n. Orange - coloured stone-fruit 
allied to plum, [(also earlier apricock) f. Sp. 
albar(i)coque f. Arab, al the + biirqug f. Gk 
praikokion prob. f. L praecoquum variant 
of praecox early-ripe ; -cot by assim. to F 
abricot] 

A'pril (a-), n. Fourth month of year ; A.-fool, 
one sportively imposed upon on A.-fool-day 
(April 1). [f. OF avrill f. L aprills] 

a prior*!, adv. & a. (Reasoning) from cause 
to effect ; deductively ; (loosely) presumptively, 
as far as one knows. Hence a-pri6*riTY n. 
[L,=from what is before] 

a*pron, n. Garment worn in front of body 
to protect clothes; official dress, as bishop's, 
dean's, freemason's, a. ; leather covering for 
legs in open carriage ; skin covering stuffing of 
roast goose or duck ; tied to a.-strings of (wife, 
mother, &c), unduly controlled by. Hence 
a'pronED 2 a., a'pronFUL n. [f. OF naperon 
dim. of nape table-cloth f. L mappa napkin ; 
for loss of n- (an apron = a napron) cf. adder] 

apropos* (-po), adv., a., n. To the purpose ; 
in respect of; appropriate(ness). [F, d to + 
propos purpose] 

apse, n. Semi-circular or polygonal recess, 



APSIDAL 

arched or dome-roofed, esp. in church, [f. 
apsis] 

a'psidal, a. Of the form of an apse ; of the 
apsides, [f. foil. + -al] 

a'psis, n. (pi. a'psides, apsl'des). Aphelion, 
perihelion, of planet ; apogee, perigee, of moon ; 
line of act., straight line joining these. [L, f. 
Gk (h)apsis -idos fastening, felloe of wheel, 
vault, (hapto join)] 

apt, a. Suitable, appropriate ; having a ten- 
dency to (do) ; quick-witted (at). Hence a'pt- 
ly 2 adv., a'ptxESS n. [f. L aptus fitted p.p. 
of *apere fasten] 

a'pterous, a. Wingless; (Bot.) having no 
membranous expansions, [f. Gk apteros (a- 
not + pteron wing) + -ous] 

a'pteryx, n. New-Zealand bird, size of 
goose, with rudimentary wings and no tail, 
[f. Gk a- not + pterux wing] 

a'ptitude, n. Fitness; natural propensity 
(for) ; ability. [F, f. L aptitudinem (as apt, 
see -tude)] 

a'qua, n. (chem.). Liquid, solution, as a. 
fortis, nitric acid, a. regia, mixture of nitric 
and hydrochloric acids, able to dissolve gold and 
platinum. [L, = water] 

aquamari'ne (-en), n. Bluish-green beryl ; 
bluish green (also as adj.). [f. L aqua marina 
sea-water] 

aquarelle, (-rel), n. Kind of painting with 
Chinese ink and thin water colours. [F, f. It. 
acquerella water-colour dim. of acqua f. L 
aqua water] 

aquar'ium, n. (pi. -turns, -ia) Artificial pond 
or tank for the keeping of live aquatic plants 
and animals ; place of public entertainment 
containing such tanks. [L (aqua water, see 

-ARIUMj] 

Aquarius, n. Zodiacal constellation ; 
eleventh sign of Zodiac, which sun enters on 
Jan. 21. [L, = water-carrier (as prec, see -ary j ] 

aqua'tie, a. & n. (Plant, animal) growing, 
living, in or near water ; (of sports) conducted 
in or upon water, [f. F aquatique f. L aquati- 
cus (aqua water, see -atic)] 

a'quatint, n. Method of engraving on 
copper by use of a resinous solution and nitric- 
acid, [f. F aqua-tinte, It. acqua tinta, f. L 
aqua tincta dyed water (tingere dye)] 

aqua-vl'tae, n. Ardent spirits, esp. of the 
first distillation. [L,= water of life] 

a'queduct, n. Artificial channel, esp. ele- 
vated structure of masonry, for conveyance of 
water; conduit; (Physiol.) small canal, esp. in 
head of mammals, [f. L aquae ductus convey- 
ance of water (ducere duct- lead)] 

a'queous, a. Of water, watery ; (Geol.) pro- 
duced by water, as a. rocks, [as f . a L aqueus 
(aqua water) + -ous] 

a'quiline, a. Of an eagle ; eagle-like, as a. 
nose (hooked), [f. L aquilinus (aquila eagle, 
see -ixe 1 )] 

aquo'sity, n. "Wateriness. [f. med. L aquo- 
sitas f. aquosus (aqua water), see ose and -tv] 

ar-, pref . = ad- before r. 

-ar 1 , suf. (1) f. L -aris (varying with -alis 
-al), adj. suf. taken direct or thr. F, or imitated 
with L nouns. OF had -er, new F wds have 
-aire ; E corrects -er (scholar), but sometimes 
uses -ary 2 instead of -ar for -aire (military). 
<2) noun suf., f. L -are, -ar, neut. of above 
(altar, exemplar). 

-ar 2 , suf. Occas. (for regular -er 2 , -ary 1 ) f. 
L -arius, -arium, in nouns thr. OF -ier (bursar) 
or F -aire (vicar). 

-ar 3 , suf. Variant for regular -er J , -or 2 , in 
nouns (beggar, liar), perh. on anal, of scholar 
<-ar*). 



41 ARBOREAL 

A'rab, n. & a. Native of Arabia ; Arab 
horse ; street a., homeless child ; (adj.) Arabian, 
[f. FArabe f. L Arabem (nom. -bs) f. Gk Araps 
-abos] 

arabe'sque, a. & n. Arabian ; fantastic ; 
decoration in colour or low relief, with fanciful 
intertwining of leaves, scroll-work, &c [F, = 
Arabian, see -esque] 

Ara'bian, a. & n. Of Arabia; A. nights, 
collection of fabulous stories ; A. bird, phoenix, 
[f. Arabia + -ax] 

A'rabie, a. & n. Arabian ; gum A. (exuded 
by some kinds of acacia) ; A. numerals, 1, 2, 3, 
&c. ; (n.) language of the Arabs, [f. OF Arabic 
f. L Arabicus (Arabs arab, see -ic)] 

A*rabist,n. Student of Arabic. [arab + -ist] 

a'rable, a. & n. (Land) fit for tillage, [f. L 
arabilis (arare plough, see -ble)] 

ara'chnid (-k-), n. (zool.). Member of the 
Arachnida, class comprising spiders, scorpions, 
and mites, [f. Gk arakhne spider + -id 3 ] 

ara'chnoid, a. & n. (Bot.) covered with 
long cobweb-like hairs; (n.) serous membrane 
lining the dura mater, and enveloping brain 
and spinal cord. [f. Gk arakhnoeides (arakhne 
cobweb, see -oid)] 

Arama'ic (a-), a. & n. (Language) of Aram 
or Syria; northern branch of Semitic family 
of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee. 
[f. L f. Gk Aramaios of Aram + -ic] 

Arane'idan, a. & n. (Member) of the 
Araneida or spiders, [f. L aranea spider, see 

-ID 3 ] 

Araucar'ia, n. Genus of trees including 
monkey-puzzle. [Arauco, name of province] 

ar'balest, ar'blast, n. Crossbow, [f. OF 
arbalestei. Larcuballista (arcus bow+ballista 
military engine)] 

ar'biter, n. Judge ; one appointed by two 
parties to settle dispute, umpire ; one who has 
entire control (of). [L, perh. f. ar- = ad to + 
bitere go, one who goes to see] 

ar'bitrag-e (-ij ), n. Traffic in bills of exchange 
or stocks to take advantage of different prices 
in other markets. [F, f. arbitrer as arbitrate, 
see -age] 

ar'bitral, a. Pertaining to arbitration. [F, 
f. LL arbitralis, see arbiter and -al] 

arbitrament, -ement, n. Deciding of 
dispute by arbiter ; authoritative decision, [f. 
OF arbitrement (arbitrer, see arbitrage and 

-MEXT)] 

ar'bitrary, a. Derived from mere opinion ; 
capricious; tinrestrained ; despotic ; (Law) dis- 
cretionary. Hence ar'bitrariLY 2 adv., ar*- 
bitrarixESS n. [f. L arbitrarius, see arbiter 
and -ary j ] 

arbitrate, v.t. & i. Decide by arbitration, 
[f. L arbitrari judge, see arbiter and -ate 3 ] 

arbitration, n. Settlement of a dispute 
by an arbiter ; a. of exchange, determination 
of rate of indirect exchange between two 
currencies. [OF, f. L arbitrationem (as prec, 
see -atiox)] 

arbitrator, n. (Now the legal term for) 
arbiter. Hence ar'bitratorsHip n. [f. OF 
arbitratour by-form of arbitrour f. L arbitra- 
torem (as arbitrate, see -or 2 )] 

ar'bitress, n. Female arbiter, mediatress ; 
absolute mistress, [f. OF arbitresse few., of 
arbitre f. L arbiter, see -ess 1 ] 

ar'bor, n. Main support of machine ; axle 
or spindle on which wheel revolves, [f. F 
arbre tree, axis, f. L arbor ; refash. on L] 

arbora'ceous, a. Tree-like ; wooded, [f. 
L arbor tree, see -aceous] 

arbor'eal, a. Of, living in, connected with, 
trees, [f. L arboreus (as prec, see -al] 

2" 



ARBOREOUS 

arbop'eous, a. Wooded ; arboreal ; arbor- 
escent, [as prec, see -ous] 

apbore'seent, a. Tree-like in growth or 
general appearance ; (Arch.) branching out. 
Hence arbore'seENCE n., arbore'seentLY- 
adv. [f. L arborescere grow into a tree (arbor), 
see -ent] 

ar'borieulture, n. Cultivation of trees 
and shrubs. Hence arborievrlturAL a., 
arborieirltuPisT n. [f. L arbor -oris tree 
+ culture] 

arbopiza'tion, n. Tree-like appearance 
(Min., Chem.) in aggregation of crystals, (Anat.) 
from distension or injection of capillary vessels. 
[as prec. + -ize + -ation] 

ap'bop vl'tae, n. Popular name of several 
evergreens. [L, = tree of life] 

ap'boup, n. Bower, shady retreat with sides 
and roof formed by trees or lattice- work covered 
with climbing plants. Hence ap'bouPED 2 a. 
[orig. (h)erber f. OF (h)erbier grass lawn f. L 
herbarium (herba grass, herb, see -arium), 
phonetic change to ar- being assisted by assoc. 
with L arbor tree] 

ar'butus, n. Genus of evergreens including 
strawberry tree. [L] 

arc, n. Part of circumference of circle or 
other curve; diurnal, nocturnal, a., part of 
circle that a heavenly body appears to pass 
through above, below, horizon ; belt contained 
between parallel curves. [OF,f. L arcus bow, 
curve] 

apca'de, n. Passage arched over ; any 
covered walk, esp. with shops along one or 
both sides; (Arch.) series of arches on same 
plane. Hence arca'dED 2 a. [F, f. It. areata 
arch f. med. L areata (L arcus bow), see -ade] 

Area'dian, a. & n. Ideal(ly) rustic, [f. L 
Arcadius (Gk Arkadia mountain district in 
Peloponnese) + -an] 

apca'num, n. (Usu. in pi. -na) mystery, 
secret. [L, neut. of arcanus (area chest, see 

-AN)] 

arch \ n. Curved structure, bearing weight 
or ornamental ; curve ; vault ; archway, vault- 
ed passage, arched entrance. Hence ap'ch- 
wise adv. [f. OF arche (f. L area chest, but 
confused with arc f. L arcus bow)] 

arch 2 , v.t. & i. Furnish with an arch ; form 
into an arch ; overarch, span ; (intr.) form an 
arch, [f . OF archer (as prec. )] 

arch 3 , a. (sup. -est). Chief, pre-eminent, as 
a. rogue, knave, impostor, (but now usu. a.-) ; 
cunning, clever, innocently roguish, whence 
aP'chLY 2 adv., ap'chNESs n. [= foil.] 

apch- (-tsh, exc. in archangel), pref. = Gk 
arkhi-, arkh-, arkhe-, comb, form of arkhos 
chief cogn. w. arkho begin (OE erce-, arce-, OF 
arce-, later arche ; whence G erz-, Du. aarts) ; in 
mod. literary wds f. Gk archi- is used, as arch- 
deacon but arehidiaconal. Meaning: (1) in 
titles of office &c. ' chief, superior ', as arch- 
bishop, -duke, esp. in titles of Holy Roman or 
German empire, as -butler, -chamberlain ; (2) 
* pre-eminent, leading ', as -antiquary, -builder, 
-prophet, -wag ; esp. ' extreme, worst ', as -buf- 
foon, -knave, -liar ; (3) rarely = 'first, original', 
as -founder, -messenger ; (4) of things, ' chief ', 
as -diocese. 

arehae'an (-k-), a. Of the earliest geological 
period, [f. Gk arkhaios ancient (arkhe be- 
ginning) + -AN] 

apchaeo'logry, n. Study of antiquities, esp. 
of the prehistoric period. So apehaeolo'g 1 - 
ic(al) aa., apehaeolo*glealLY 2 adv., apen- 
aeo'logriST n. [f. Gk arkhaiologia (as prec, 
6ee -logy)] 

areha'ie (-k-), a. Primitive, antiquated ; (of 



42 ARCHITECTONIC 

language) no longer in common use, though re- 
tained for special purposes. Hence areha'ic- 
ally adv. [f. Gk arkhaikos (as prec, sec -ic)] 

ar'chaism, n. Retention, imitation, of 
what is old or obsolete (esp. in language and 
art) ; archaic word or expression. Hence 
ap'chaisx n., apchai'stic a. [f. Gk arkh- 
aismos (arkhaizo, see foil, and -ism)] 

ap'chaize, v.t. & i. Imitate, affect, the 
archaic; (trans.) render archaistic [f. Gk 
arkhaizo copy the ancients (arkhaios ancient, 
see -ize)] 

ap'changel (-k-), n. Angel of highest rank ; 
kind of dead-nettle ; kind of pigeon. Hence 
arehange'lic a. [OF, f. L f. Gk arkhaggelos 
(see arch- and angel)] 

ap*chbi*shop,n. Chief bishop; metropolitan. 
Hence apehBUSHOPRic. [f. L archiepiscopus 
(see arch- and bishop)] 

ar'chdea'eon, n. Ecclesiastical dignitary 
next below bishop, superintending rural deans 
and holding lowest ecclesiastical court, with 
power of spiritual censure. Hence arch- 
dea'consHiP n. [OE. arce-diacon f. L f. Gk 
arkhidiakonos (see ARCH- and deacon)] 

apchdea'conpy, n. Jurisdiction, rank, 
residence, of archdeacon, [prec. + -ry] 

arehdi'ocese, n. See of an archbishop. - 

[ARCH- (4)] 

ap'chduchess, n. Wife of an archduke ; 
daughter of Emperor of Austria, [f. F archi- 
duchesse (see arch- and duchess)] 

ar'chduke, n. Son of Emperor of Austria. 
So ap*chDU'CAL a., ap'chDUCHY n. [f. OF 
archeduc (see arch- and duke)] 

ap'ch-e'nemy, n. Chief enemy ; Satan. 
[arch- (2)J 

ap'cher, n. One that shoots with bow and* 
arrows ; Sagittarius, ninth Zodiacal constella- 
tion. So ap*chERY(2) n. [AF, f. OF archier 
f. L arcarius (arcus bow, see -ary 2 )] 

ap'chetype (-k-), n. Original model, proto- 
type. Hence ap'chetypAL a., ap'ehetyp- 
alLY 2 adv. [f. L f. Gk arkhetupon (arkhe- 
arch- + tupos stamp)] 

apch-fie'nd, n. Satan, [arch- (2)] 

apchidia'conal (-k-), a. Pertaining to an 
archdeacon, [f. L as archdeacon + -al] 

apchiepi'scopal (k-), a. Pertaining to an 
archbishop, [f. L as archbishop + -al] 

ap'chil (-tsh-, -k-), n. (Violet dye from) 
various kinds of lichen, [corrupt, of orchil f. 
OF orchel f. It. orcello, etym. dub.] 

archimandrite (-k-), n. Superior of mon- 
astery or convent in Greek church, [f. med. 
L archimandrita f. late Gk arkhima)\drites 
(arkhi- arch- + mandra monastery)] 

Archimedean (-k-), a. Of Archimedes 
(Greek mathematician) ; A. screw, instrument 
raising water by tube in form of screw wound 
round cylinder, [f. L Archimedeus + -an] 

archipe'lag-o (-k-), n. Aegean sea ; sea 
with many islands ; group of islands, [f. It. 
arcipelago (arci- arch- (4) +pelago gulf, pool, 
f. L f. Gk pelagos sea)] 

ap'chitect (-k-), n. Professor of building, 
who prepares plans and superintends work ; 
designer of complex structure, esp. the Creator ; 
(fig. ) achiever, as a. of his ownfortunes. Hence 
ap'ehiteetiVE a. [f. L architectus f. Gk 
arkhitekton (arkhi- arch- + tekton builder) ; 
some derivatives formed as if L -tectus were 
p.p. of tegere cover] 

architecto'nie, a. Of architecture or 
architects ; constructive ; controlling ; pertain- 
ing to systematization of knowledge, whence 
apehiteeto'nics n., apehiteeto'nieAL a. 
[f. L f. Gk arkhitektonikos (as prec, see -ic)] 



ARCHITECTURE 43 

architecture (-tsher), n. Science of build- 
ing ; thing built, structure ; style of building ; 
construction. Hence arehite'etur al a. , ar- 
ehite'eturalLY 2 adv. [F, f. L architectura 
(architect us architect, see -ure)] 

ar'ehitrave (-k-), n. Epistyle, main beam 
resting immediately on the abacus on capital 
of column ; the various parts surrounding 
doorway or window ; moulding round exterior 
of arch. [f. archi- arch- + L trabs -abis 
beam] 

ar'ehive (-kiv), n. (usu. pi.). Place in which 
public records are kept ; records so kept. [F 
(-if, -ire), f. hharchi(v)um f. Gk arkheion public 
office (arkhe government)] 

ar'ehivist (-ki-), n. Keeper of archives, [f. 
prec. + -ist] 

ap'ehivolt (-k-), n. Under curve of arch 
from impost to impost; mouldings decorat- 
ing this. [f. It. archivolto, arcovolta (arco f. 
L arcus arch + volta vault, volto arched)] 

ar'chon (-k-), n. One of nine chief magistrates 
at Athens ; ruler, president. Hence ap'chon- 
ship n. [Gk, = ruler (part, of arkho)] 

ar'etie, a. Of the north pole, northern; A. 
circle (of earth), parallel of 66° 32' N. [f. OF 
artique f. L f. Gk arktikos (arktos bear, Ursa 
Major, see -ic)] 

Aretur'us, n. Brightest star in constella- 
tion Bootes. [L, f. Gk arktouros (arktos bear 
+ ouros guardian)] 

ar'euate(d), a. Bent like a bow ; arched, 
[f. L arcuatus (arcuare f. arcus bow, see 
-ate 2)] 

-ard, suf. forming nouns, usu. of censure 
(sluggard, drunkard), but cf. standard (orig. 
stander), placard ; also spelt -art (braggart). 
[ME & OF, f. G -hart, -hard, hardy, in proper 
names] 

ar'dent, n. Burning, red-hot ; parching ; a. 
spirits (prop. = inflammable, but now under- 
stood of their taste), alcoholic spirits ; eager, 
zealous; fervent (of persons and feelings). 
Hence ap'dEXCY n., ar'dentLY 2 adv. [f. OF 
ardant f. L ardentem (ardere burn), see -ant] 

ar'doup (-er), n. Fierce heat ; warm emo- 
tion ; fervour, zeal, (for). [OF, f. L ardorem 
(ardere burn, see -OR 3 )] 

ap'duous, a. Steep, hard to climb ; hard to 
achieve, laborious ; strenuous, energetic. Hence 
ap*duousLY 2 adv., ap'duousNESS n. [f. L 
arduus steep, difficult + -ous] 

are 1 (ar), n. French metric unit of square 
measure, square whose side is 10 metres 
(119-6 sq. yds). [F, f. L area] 

ape 2 . See be. 

ap'ea, n. Vacant ground ; level space ; sunk 
court railed off from pavement and giving 
access to basement of house, as a.-bell ; super- 
ficial extent ; region, tract ; scope, range. [L, 
= vacant piece of ground in town] 

a'peea, n. Genus of palms ; a. -nut, astringent 
seed of a species of a. [Port., f. Tamil adaikay 
(adai close-clustering + kay nut)] 

are'na, n. (pi. -as). Central part of amphi- 
theatre, in which combats take place; (fig.) 
scene of conflict, sphere of action. [L (h)arena 
sand, sand-strewn place of combat] 

apena'ceous, a. Sand-like ; sandy. So 
apeno , SE 1 a. [f. L arenaceus (as prec, see 

-ACEOUS)] 

ape'ola, n. (pi. -ae). Very small area, as 
that between veins of a leaf ; interstice in 
tissue ; circular spot, as that surrounding the 
human nipple; (Biol.) cell-nucleus of plant. 
Hence ape'olAR 1 , ape'olATE 2 , aa., apeoLv- 
tion n. [L, dim. of area] 

Areo'pagite (-g-), n. Member of the court of 



ARIAN 

Areopagus, [f. L f. Gk arciopagites (see foil, 
and -ite)] 

Ape6*pag-us, n. Hill at Athens where 
highest judicial court sat. [L, f. Gk Areios 
pagos Mars' hill] 

are'te (-at), n. Sharp ascending ridge of 
mountain. [F, f. L arista ear of corn] 

ap'gala, n. Adjutant-bird, gigantic Indian 
stork. [Hind, hargila] 

ar'gaii, n. Asiatic wild sheep. [Mongol] 

ap'gand, n. Lamp with cylindrical wick ; 
gas burner on same principle, [inventor] 

ap'grent, n. & a. Silver (colour, esp. in 
armorial bearings). [F, f. L argentum] 

apg-enti'ferous, a. Yielding silver, [f. L 
argentum + -ferous] 

ap'g-entine, a. & n. Of silver ; silvery ; imi- 
tation silver ; silvery lamellae on scales of fish ; 
(Zool.) genus of small fishes ; (Min.) slate-spar, 
[f. F argentin f. L argentinus of silver (argen- 
tum, see -ixe 1 )] 

ap'gil (-J-), n. Clay (esp. potter's). So apgil- 
1a 'ceo US a. [f. F argille f. L argilla f. Gk 
argillos (arges white)] 

ap*g"ol, n. Tartar deposited from fermented 
wines, which when purified becomes cream of 
tartar. [?] 

ar'gon, n. A gas, an inert constituent of 
the atmosphere. [Gk, neut. of argos idle (a- 
not + ergon work)] 

Ar'gonaut, n. (PI.) legendary heroes who 
sailed with Jason in the Argo for the golden 
fleece ; genus of cephalopod molluscs including 
paper nautilus. Hence Argonautic a. 
[f. L (-ta) f. Gk Argonautes sailor in the Argo] 

ap'g-osy, n. (hist., poet.). Large merchant- 
vessel, esp. of Ragusa and Venice, [earlier 
ragusye, prob. f. It. Ragusea (nave) Ragusa n 
(vessel)] 

ap'g-ot (.go), n. Jargon, slang, of a class, esp. 
of thieves. [F, etym. dub.] 

ap'gue (-u), v.t. & i. Prove, indicate, as it 
argues him (to be) a rogue, that he is a 
rogue, roguery in him ; maintain by reasons 
(that), whence ap'g-UABLE a. ; treat (matter) 
by reasoning; a. it away, get rid of it by 
argument ; a. (persuade) a person into, out of ; 
reason (icith, against, person, for, against, 
about, thing), [f. OF arguer f. L argutare 
frequent, of arguere make clear, prove, accuse] 

ar'gument, n. Reason advanced (for, 
against, proposition or course) ; (Logic) middle 
term in syllogism ; reasoning process ; debate ; 
summary of subject-matter of book; a. (usu. 
argumentum) ad hominem, one that takes ad- 
vantage of character or situation of particular 
opponent, ad crumenam, of his avarice, ad 
ignorantiam, of his ignorance of the facts. 
[F, f. L argumentum (argncre, see prec. and 

-MENT)] 

argumenta'tion, n. Methodical reason- 
ing ; debate. [F, f. hargunientationcm f. argu- 
mentari (as prec), see -ation] 

apg-ume'ntative, a. Logical ; fond of 
arguing. Hence apg"ume # ntativeLY 2 adv., 
apg-ume'ntativeNESS n. [F (-if, -ive), as 
prec, see -ative] 

Ar*gus, n. Fabulous person with a hundred 
eyes ; watchful guardian ; a.-eyed, vigilant ; 
a.-shell, oculated porcelain-shell. [L.f.Gk^l rgos] 

apgru'te, a. Sharp, shrewd; (of sounds) 
shrill, [f. L argutus p.p. of arguere, see argue] 

apg-yp-, argypo-, (ji-), in comb.=Gk ar- 
guros silver, as argy'ria silver-poisoning, 
argyra'nthous, with silvery flowers, argyro- 
phyllous, silvery-leaved. 

ar*ia (aH n. (mus.). Air. [It.] 

Ap'ian (ar-), a. & n. (Holder) of the doctrine 



-ARIAN 44 

of Arius of Alexandria (4th c), who denied 
consubstantiality of Christ. Hence Ap'ian- 
ism n., An'ianrzE v.t. & i. [f. L Arianu-s 
(Arius f. Gk Arios, Areios, see -ax)] 

-apian, suf. forming adjj. and nn. chiefly 
denoting (member) of a sect &c. (veget-, trinit-, 
humanit-), or (person) of an age given by L 
numerals (oclogen-). [L -anus + -ax ; first 
sense perh. w. ref. to ariax] 

a'Pid, a. Dry, parched, (lit. & fig.) ; (of ground) 
barren, bare. 'Hence api'diTY, a'pidxESS, nn. 
[f. L aridus (arere be dry)] 

ap'iel, n. Species of gazelle in Western Asia 
and Africa, [f. Arab, aryil var. of ayyil stag] 

Ap'ies (ar-), n. The Ram, first zodiacal con- 
stellation. [L, = ra m] 

apigh't, adv. Rightly, [a prep. + right n.] 

-anous, compd adj. suf. =L -arius (-ary 1 ) 
4- -ous. 

ari'se (-z), v.i. (arose, arisen). (Archaic) rise, 
get up ; (poet.) rise from the dead ; (archaic) be 
heard (of sounds) ; originate ; be born ; come 
into notice ; result (from) ; present itself, [a- (1) 
+ rise v.] 

ari'sta, n. Awn, beard, of grain and grasses. 
[L] 

api'state, a. Awned, bearded, [f. L arista- 

tllS (ARISTA, see -ATE 2 )] 

apisto'epaey, n. Government by the best 
citizens ; supremacy of privileged order, oli- 
garchy ; state so governed ; ruling body of 
nobles ; class from which ruling body is drawn, 
nobles ; the best representatives of (intellect 
&c). [f. L f. Gk aristokratia (aristos best + 
-kratia rule)] 

a'Pistocpat, n. One of a ruling oligarchy ; 
one of the class of nobles. Hence apisto*- 
CPatis.M n. [f. F aristocrate (as foil.)] 

apistocpa*tic, a. Pertaining to, attached 
to, aristocracy ; grand, stylish. Hence apisto- 
cpa'tieAL a., apistocpa'ticalLV 2 adv. [f. 
F aristocratique f. Gkaristokratikos (as aristo- 
cracy, see -ic)] 

api*thmetie, n. Science of numbers ; arith- 
metical knowledge, computation ; treatise on 
computation. Hence apithmetrciAX n. [f. 
OF arismetique f. LL arismetiea for L arith- 
metica f. Gk arithmetike (tekhne) (art) of count- 
ing f. arithmeo count (arithmos number), see 
-ic; corrupted in ME to arsmetrUce, as if f. L 
ars metrica art of measure] 
I arithme'tieal, a. Of arithmetic ; a. pro- 
gression, (series of numbers showing) increase, 
decrease, by a constant quantity (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
&c, 9, 7, 5, 3, &c). Hence apithme'tiealiA" - 
adv. [prec. + -al] 

apitnmo'metep, n. Calculating machine. 
|f. F arithmometre (Gk arithmos number + 
-meter] 

-apium, noun suf. f. L neut. of adjj. in -arius 
(-ary 1 ), chiefly in antiquarian words as sacra- 
rium, occas. popularized, as aquarium. 

apk, n. Chest, box ; A. of the Covenant, A. of 
Testimony, wooden coffer containing tables of 
Jewish law ; covered floating vessel in which 
Noah was saved at the Deluge ; Noah's a., toy 
ark with animals. [com.-Teut. : OE arc f. 
OTeut. arka prob. f. L area chest] 

apm 1 , n. Upper limb of human body from 
shoulder to hand \fore-a. (from elbow to'hand) ; 
fore limb of an animal ; sleeve ; thing re- 
sembling a., as a. of the sea, a. -chair (with 
side supports), a. of lever, balaivce, (part from 
fulcrum to point of application of power or 
weight) ; a. -hole in garment, hole through 
which a. is put ; a. -pit, hollow under a. at 
shoulder ; a.-in-a. (of two persons with aa. in- 
terlinked) ; infant in aa. (too young to walk) ; 



ARMOUR 

with open aa., cordially; keep at a.'s length, 
avoid familiarity with; secular a., authority 
of secular tribunal. Hence ar'niFUL n., 
ap'mless 1 [-less] a. [com.-Teut. (OE, Du., 
G) cogn. w. L armus shoulder; cf. Gk harmos 
joint f. Aryan root ar- join] 

arm 2 , n. (usu. pi. ). Weapons ; fire-aa. (re- 
quiring gunpowder) ; small-aa. (not requiring 
carriages) ; stand of aa., set for one soldier ; 
(sing.) particular kind of weapon ; take up aa., 
arm oneself (often fig. ) ; bearaa. .serve as soldier ; 
lay down aa., cease hostilities ; in aa., armed ; 
up> in aa., actively engaged in rebellion &c. (also 
fig.) ; under aa., in battle array ; military pro- 
fession ; (sing. & pi.) each kind of troops, in- 
fantry, cavalry, &c. ; heraldic devices, as coat 
of aa. ; King-of-Aa., Chief Herald. Hence 
ap'mless 2 [-less] a. [f. F amies i. L arma 
arms, fittings, f. root ar- join] 

arm 3 , v.t. & i. Furnish with arms; armed 
neutrality (of nations prepared for war) ; fur- 
nish with tools or other requisites ; plate (with 
anything) ; furnish (magnet) with an armature ; 
(intr.) arm oneself, take up arms. [f. F armer 
f. L armare (arma)] 

apma'da, n. Fleet of ships of war, esp. the 
(Invincible) A. sent by Philip II of Spain 
against England in 1588. [Sp., f. L artnata 
(armare arm v., see -ade)] 

apmadi'llo, n. Burrowing animal of S. 
America, with body encased in bony armour, 
and habit of rolling itself into ball when cap- 
tured ; genus of small terrestrial Crustacea with 
same habit, allied to wood-louse. [Sp., dim. of 
armado one armed f. L as arm 3 , see -ado] 

ap'mament, n. Force (usu. naval) equipped 
for war ; military equipments, esp. great guns 
on man-of-war ; process of equipping for war. 
[f. L armamentum (as prec, see -mext)] 

ap'matupe, n. Arms, armour ; defensive 
covering of animals or plants ; piece of soft 
iron placed in contact with poles of magnet, 
increasing its power, [f. L armatura (as prec, 
see -ure)] 

arme blanche (F), n. Cavalry sword or 
lance. 

Apme'nian, a. & n. Of Armenia; A. bole, 
red Armenian earth, used medicinally ; A. 
stone, blue carbonate of copper ; native of 
Armenia ; adherent of Armenian church. 

[-AX] 

ap'migep (-J-), n. Esquire, one entitled to 
bear heraldic arms. [L, = bearing arms (arma 
arms -f- gerere bear)] 

apmi'llapy, a. Pertaining to bracelets ; a. 
sphere, skeleton celestial globe of metal rings 
representing equator, tropics, &c [f. L armilla 
bracelet, see -ary ] ] 

Armi'nian, a. & n. (Adherent) of the doc- 
trine of Arminius, Dutch protestant theologian, 
who opposed the views of Calvin, esp. on pre- 
destination. Hence Apmi'nianiSM n. [f. 
Arminius, Latiniz. of Harmensen + -ax] 

ap'mistice (-is), n. Cessation from arms (lit. 
& fig. ) ; short truce, [f. L arma arms + -stitium 
(sistere -stit- stop)] 

ap'mlet, n. Band worn round arm ; small 
inlet of sea or branch of river, [arm l + -let] 

armor'ial, a. & n. (Book) pertaining to 
heraldic arms, [armory -f -a l 1 ] 

ap'mopy, n. Heraldry. Hence ap'moriST 
n. [f. OF armoirie f. armoier blazoner f. 
armoier v. =It. armeggiare f. L arma arms] 

ap'moup 1 (-er), n. Defensive covering worn in 
fighting; a.-bearer, one who carries another's 
a. ; metal sheathing of ship of war, composed 
of a.-plates ; a.-clad, furnished with this ; 
diver's suit ; protective covering of animals or 



ARMOUR 

plants ; heraldic insignia, [f. OF amneiire f. L 
armatura armature] 

ap'moup' 2 , v.t. Furnish with protective 
covering ; armoured cruiser, [f. prec] 

ap'moupep, n. Manufacturer of arms ; 
official in charge of ship's, regiment's, arms, 
[f. AF armurer, OF -urier, f. armeiire, see 
prec. and -er 2 ] 

ap*moupy, n. Place where arms are kept, 
arsenal; (U.S.) armourer's workshop, [perh. 
as armory, hut treated as f. armour -f -y l ] 

ap'my, n. Organized body of men armed 
for war; standing a., one of professional 
soldiers permanently on foot; the a., the 
military service ; vast host ; organized body of 
men, as Salvation A., Blue Jtibbon A. ; a.- 
broker, -contractor, (carrying on business in 
connexion with the a.); a.-corps, main divi- 
sion of a. in the field ; a.-list, official list of 
commissioned officers ; a.-worm, larva of cot- 
ton-moth, [f. F armee (cf. -ade) f. L armata 
fern. p.p. of armare arm] 

ar'niea, n. Genus of plants including moun- 
tain tobacco ; medicine, esp. tincture, prepared 
from this. [?] 

aroi'nt, -oynt, v. or int. (archaic). A. thee, 
begone. [?] 

apo'ma, n. (pi. -as). Fragrance, sweet smell ; 
subtle pervasive quality, [earlier (and OF) 
aromat f. L aromata (pi.) f. Gk aroma -matos] 

aroma'tie, a. Fragrant; spicy. [f. F 
aromatique f. L f. Gk aromatikos (aroma, see 
-IC)] 

arose. See arise. 

arou'nd, adv. & prep. On every side, in 
every direction ; (U.S.) about, here and there, 
at random, as fool a. ; on, along, the circuit of ; 
about, enveloping, [f. A- (2) + round] 

arovrse (-z), v.t. Awaken ; stir up into 
activity, [a- + rouse, on anal, of rise, arise] 

arpeggio (-ejo), n. (mus.). Striking of notes 
of chord in rapid (usu. upward) succession ; 
chord so struck. [It.] 

arquebus. See harquebus. 

a'ppaek, n. Eastern name for any native 
spirituous liquor, esp. that distilled from the 
coco-palm, or from rice and sugar, [f. Arab. 
'araq juice] 

a'prah, int., an Anglo-Irish expletive. 

appaigrn, v.t. Indict before a tribunal ; 
accuse ; find fault with, call in question, (action, 
statement). So appaig"nMENT n. [f. AF 
arainer f. OF araisnier f. L xorationare 
reason, talk reasonably (ratio -onis reason, 
discourse)] 

appa'nge, v.t. & i. Put into order, adjust; 
draw up (army); (Mus.) adapt (composition) 
for new circumstances; settle (dispute, &c); 
settle beforehand the order, manner, of ; (intr.) 
come to agreement {with person, about thing, 
to do, that, or abs.). So appa'ngeMENT n. 
[f. OF arangier (a to + rangier f. rang rank)] 

a'ppant, a. Notorious, downright, thorough- 
paced, as a. knave, dunce, hypocrite, nonsense. 
Hence a'PPantLY 2 adv. [variant of errant, 
orig. in phrr. like a. ( — outlawed, roving) thief] 

a'ppas, n. Rich tapestry ; hanging screen of 
this formerly hung round walls of rooms (often 
not too closely to admit person). Hence 
a'ppasED 2 a. [Am*as, town in Artois famous 
for the fabric] 

array* 1 , v.t. Marshal, dispose, (forces) ; (Law) 
impanel a jury ; dress, esp. with display ; (refl.) 
dress oneself up ; adorn ; (fig.) clothe (in quali- 
ties &c). [f. AF arayer— OF areyer (Pro v. 
aredar, early Rom. arredare) f. ad to + *redo 
(OFrei, rai) order, preparation, f. LG rede, Goth. 
garaids ready] 



45 ARROW 

array 2 , n. Order, as battle a. ; (Hist.) arm- 
ing of militia, as Commission of A. ; military 
force ; imposing series (of persons or things) ; 
order of impanelling jury ; (poet.) outfit, dress, 
[f. AF arai = OF arei f. areyer, see prec] 

appear*, n. (Archaic) hinder part, esp. of 
procession ; (pi.) outstanding debts ; in aa. or 
a., behindhand, esp. in payment; in a. of, 
behind, [orig. adv. f. OF arere (mod. F arriere) 
f. LL ad retro {ad to + retro backwards) ; first 
used in phr. in arrear] 

appeap'age, n. Backwardness ; unpaid 
balance ; thing in reserve ; (pi.) debts, [f. OF 
arerage f. arere, see prec. and -age] 

appe'et, a. (Of the ears) pricked up ; (fig.) on 
the alert, [f. L arrectus p.p. of Anrigere raise 
up (regere straighten)] 

appe'st 1 , v.t. Stop (person, cannon-ball, de- 
cay) ; (Law) a. judgment, stay proceedings 
after verdict, on ground of error ; seize (per- 
son), esp. by legal authority ; catch (attention) ; 
catch attention of. Hence appe'stiVE a., 
appe'stMENT n. [f. OF arester (Pro v. arestar) 
f. LL ADrestare remain, stop (intr.)] 

appe'st 2 , n. Stoppage, check; a. of judg- 
ment (see prec.) ; seizure ; legal apprehension ; 
imprisonment ; under a. (legal restraint), [f. 
OF arest f. arester, see prec] 

appi'de, v.t. (archaic). Please, gratify, [f. L 
Auridere smile upon, be pleasing to] 

arriere-ban (aTler-), n. Summoning of 
vassals to military service by Frankish king ; 
body thus summoned or liable to be summoned ; 
noblesse ; (improp.) summoning of inferior 
(arriere-) vassals. [F, f. OF ariere-ban for 
(h)ari-ban f. OHG hari army + ban edict, 
altered in form and sense by pop. etym., whence 
ban et arriere-ban summoning of superior and 
inferior vassals] 

arriere-pensee (F), n. Ulterior motive; 
mental reservation. 

a'PPis, n. Sharp edge formed by angular 
contact of two plane or curved surfaces, as 
a.-gutter (V-shaped), a.-wise, ridge-wise. [f. F 
areste (mod. arete) f. L arista ear of corn] 

appi'val, n. Act of coming to end of journey 
or destination (lit. & fig.) ; appearance upon 
scene ; person, thing, that has arrived ; (colloq.) 
new-born child ; cargo to be delivered when 
ship arrives, [f. AF arrivaille (arriver, see 
foil, and -al (2))] 

appi've, v.i. Come to destination (lit. & fig.) 
or end of journey (at Bath, in Paris, upon scene-, 
at conclusion) ; (of things) be brought ; (of 
time) come ; (of events) come about, [f. OF 
ariver f. LL arribare f. L A&ripare come to 
shore (ripa)] 

a'ppogant, a. Overbearing ; presumptuous ; 
haughty. Hence or cogn. a'PPOgTANCE, -ancy, 
nn., a'PPOgrantLY 2 adv. [F (as foil., see 
-ant)] 

a'progate, v.t. Claim unduly (thing, to one- 
self a thing) ; claim unduly that one possesses 
(a quality) ; claim unduly for (to) someone else, 
[f. L AK(rogare ask), see -ate 3 ] 

appoga'tion, n. Unjust claim (of or abs.) ; 
unwarrantable assumption. [f. L arrogatio 
(as prec, see -ation)] 

arronciissement (F), n. Administrative 
subdivision of French department. 

a'ppow, n. Pointed missile shot from bow ; 
index, pin, ornament, of similar shape ; a. or 
broad a. -head, mark used by British Board of 
Ordnance ; a.-stitch, triangular set of stitches 
securing whalebone in stays ; a.-headed charac- 
ters, cuneiform ; arroxcroot, plant from which a 
nutritious starch is prepared. Hence a'PPOWY 2 
a. [OE earh, arwe, f. OTeut., Goth, arhwazna 



ARSE ___ 

thing belonging to the bow (arhw cogn. w. L 
aretes bow)] 

arse, n. Buttocks, rump. [com. - Tent,, 
cogn. w. Gk orrhos] 

ap*senal,n. Public establishment for storage 
or manufacture of weapons and ammunition 
(also fig.), [f. It. arsenate, earlier arzend f. 
Arab, dar accina'ah (dar house + al the + 
cina'ah art f/canaa fabricate; d- dropped 
perh. by confus/w. de prep. ; -ale added in It.] 

ap'sehic 1 , n. (Chem.) brittle steel-green 
semi-metallic substance, crystallizing in rhom- 
bohedrons, and volatilizing without fusion 
with odour of garlic; (pop.) trioxide of a., 
white mineral substance, a violent poison ; 
flowers of a., same sublimed. Hence apse'n- 
iCAL a, [OF, f. L f. Gk arsenikon yellow orpi- 
ment (identified with arsenikos male, from 
belief that metals were of different sexes, but 
in fact) f. Arab, az-zernikh the orpiment f. 
Pers. zerni (zar gold)] 

apse'nie 2 , a. Of, belonging to, arsenic ; esp. 
(Chem.) applied to compounds in which arsenic 
combines as a pentad, [f . prec. , -ic being identi- 
fied with -ic (1)] 

apse'nious, a. Containing arsenic ; esp. 
applied to compounds in which arsenic com- 
bines as a triad, [f. arsenic n. + -ious ; see also 
-ous] 

ap'sis, n. Accented syllable in English 
scansion (cf. thesis). [L f. Gk, = lifting f. airo 
lift ; in what sense, and whether orig. of voice 
or foot (in beating time), is disputed] 

ap'son, n. Wilful setting on fire of another's 
house or similar property or one's own when 
insured. [OF, f. ~L~Larsionem (a rdere urs- burn, 
intr., see -ion)] 

apt \ v. See be. 

art 2 , n. Skill, esp. human skill as opposed 
to nature ; skilful execution as an object in 
itself ; skill applied to imitation and design, as 
in painting &c ; thing in which skill may be 
exercised ; esp. (pi.) certain branches of learning 
serving as intellectual instruments for more 

advanced studies, as Bachelor, Master, of Aa., 
one who has obtained standard of proficiency 

in these ; black a., magic ; practical application 

of any science ; industrial pursuit, craft ; guild, 

company of craftsmen ; fine aa., those in which 

mind and imagination are chiefly concerned ; 

knack ; cunning ; stratagem ; a. and (or) part, 

design and (or) execution, as be a. and part in 

(accessary in both respects). [OF, f. L artem, 

nom. ars, prob. f. ar- fit] 
aptep'ial, a. Belonging to, of the nature of, 

an artery ; a. drainage (ramifying like artery). 

[F (artere artery, see -al)] 
aptep'ialize, v.t. Convert venous into 

arterial (blood) by exposure to oxygen in lungs ; 

furnish with arterial system. Hence ar- 

teP'ializATiox n. [prec. +-ize] 
aptepio'tomy, n. Opening of artery for 

blood-letting ; dissection of arteries, [f. Gk 

arteriotomia (as foil., see -tomy)] 
ap'tepy, n. Tube forming part of system by 

which blood is conveyed from heart (cf. vein) 

to all parts of body (also fig.). Hence aptep- 

itis n. [f. L f. Gk arteria prob. f. airo raise] 
Arte'sian (-zhn), a. A. well, perpendicular 

boring into strata, producing constant supply of 

water rising spontaneously to surface, [f. F 

artesien (Artois, old French province)] 
ap'tful, a. Cunning, crafty, deceitful, (of 

persons and actions). Hence aP'tfulLY 2 adv., 

ap'tfulNESS n. [art + -ful] 
apthpi'tis, n. Inflammation of joint; gout. 

So apthpi'tic a. [L f. Gk (arthron joint, see 

-ITIS)] 



46 -ARY 

arthpo-, comb, form of Gk arthron joint, as 
in arthropathy, painful affection of joints, 
arthrosis, articulation. 

aptichoke, n. Plant (of which bottom of 
flower and bases of its scales are edible) allied 
to thistles, native of Barbary; Jerusalem 
(corrupt, of girasole, sunflower) A., species of 
sunflower with edible tuberous roots, [f. It. 
articiocco corrupt, of *alcarcioffo (mod. It. 
carciofo, OSp. alcarchofa) f. Arab. alkharshuf\ 

ap'ticle ] , n. Separate portion of anything 
written ; separate clause (of agreement &c.) 
as Thirty-nine Aa., Aa. of war, Apprenticeship, 
Association ; literary composition forming part 
of magazine &c. but independent ; leading a. 
in newspaper, large-type a. expressing editorial 
opinion; particular; particular thing, as the 
next a. ; (Gram.) definite a., 'the', indefinite 
a., 4 a, an"; in the a. (moment) of death (usu. in 
articulo mortis). [F, f. L articulus, dim. of 
artus limb] 

ap'ticle 2 , v.t. Set forth in articles; indict; 
bind by articles of apprenticeship, [f. prec] 

apti'eulap, a. Pertaining to the joints, [f . L 
articularis (as article 1 , see -ar 1 )] 

apti'eulate 1 (-at), a. & n. Jointed; dis- 
tinctly jointed, distinguishable, as a. speech ; 
(n. ) articulate animal. Hence apti'eulateL v 2 
adv., apti'eulateNESS n. [f. L articulatus 
(as prec, see -ate 2 )] 

apti'eulate 2 , v.t. & i. Connect by joints, 
mark with apparent joints (usu. pass.) ; divide 
into words, pronounce distinctly ; (intr.) speak 
distinctly. Hence apti'eulatORY a, [f. prec, 
see -ate 3 ] 

articulation, n. Act, mode, of jointing ; 
joint ; articulate utterance, speech; consonant. 
[F, f. L articidationem (artiexdare joint as 

ARTICLE 1 , See -ATIOX)] 

ap'tifiee, n. Device, contrivance ; address, 
skill. [F, f. L artificium (ars artis axt+-ficivm 
making f. facere make)] 

apti'neep, n. Craftsman ; inventor (of), [f. 
prec. + -er l ) 

aptifi'eial (-shl), a. Made by art ; not natural ; 
not real, as a. flowers ; real, but produced by 
art, as a. ice. Hence aptifieia'liTY (-shi-), 
aptifi'eialNESS, nn. , artifi'eializE v.t. , arti- 
fi'eialLY 2 adv. [F, f. L artificialis (as 
artifice, see -al)] 

apti'llepy, n. Engines for discharging mis- 
siles, esp. cannon, ordnance ; branch of army 
that manages cannon ; a.-train, ordnance 
mounted on carriages and ready for marching. 
Hence apti'llepisT, apti'llepyman, nn. [f. 
F artillerie f. artiller maker of artillery f. LL 
*articidarius (articula dim. as art, see -ary j )] 

aptisa'n (-z-)„ n. Mechanic, handicraftsman. 
[F, perh. f. It. artigiano f. LL *artitianus 
(artitus p.p. of artire instruct in arts, see -an)] 

aP'tist, n. One who practises one of the 
fine arts, esp. painting; one who makes his 
craft a fine art. Hence aPti*stic(AL) aa., 
apti'stiealLY 2 adv., ap'tistRY n. [f. F 
artiste f. It. f. LL artista (ars artis art, see -1ST)] 

arti'ste, (-est), n. Professional singer, 
dancer, &c [F, see prec] 

ap'tless, a. Unskilful, uncultured ; clumsy ; 
natural ; guileless, ingenuous. Hence ap*t- 
lessLY 2 adv., ap'tlessxEss n. [art + -less] 

ap'um, n. Genus of endogenous plants, 
including Wake-Robin ; a. lily, cultivated 
white lily. [L, f. Gk aron] 

-apy 1 , suf. forming adjj. & nn. f. L -arius 
taken directly or thr. mod. F -aire, or imitated 
w. L nn. (rarely in E words &sbloomary) ; adjj. 
as arbitrary ; nouns = -arius, as actuary, = 
•arium, as dictionary, = -aria, as fritillary ; 



-ARY 4 7 

words taken thr. OF have sometimes -er 2 
instead, as primer. 

-ary 2 , suf. Sometimes in adjj. f. L -aris 
instead of regular -ar \ owing to passage thr. 
F -aire, as exemplary. 

Aryan (ar-), a. & n. Applied by some to 
family of languages (also called Indo-European, 
Jndo-Germanic) that includes Sanskrit, Zend, 
Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Sla- 
vonic, with their modern representatives, by 
others only to the Asiatic portion of these ; 
member of A. family, [f. Sk. arya noble (in 
earlier use a national name comprising wor- 
shippers of the gods of the Brahmans) ; earlier 
Avian is f. L Arianus of Aria (f. Gk Areia 
eastern Persia, prob. f. OPers. ariya, a national 
name)] 

as 1 (az, az), adv., conj., rel. pron. 1. adv. 
(in main sentence, foil, by as in subord. clause 
expressed or understood) in the same degree, as 
I came as soon as I coxdd, I know that as well 
as you, you might as well help me, as far l as. 
2. rel. adv. or conj. in subord. clause, with or 
without antecedent as, so, expressing manner, 
degree, &c, of the principal sentence ; (degree) 
you are as good as he, it is not so (or as) easy 
as you think, quick as thought he jumped out, 
fair as (= though) she is; (manner) do as you 
like, according as ive decide, he looks as if he 
had seen a ghost, treat him as a stranger, you 
are, as it were ( = as if it were actually so), com- 
promised, they rose as one man, late as usual, 
he smiled, as who should say (= as a man 
would smile who) ; (time) it struck me as I was 
speaking ; (reason) as you are not ready, we 
must go on ; (result) he so arranged matters 
as to suit everyone, be so good as to come. 3. 
rel. pron. That, who, which, as I had the same 
trouble as you, such countries as Spain ; (with 
antecedent inferred from main sentence) he 
was a foreigner, as (which fact) they perceived 
from his accent, i. special phrr. : as regards, 
so far as it concerns ; as yet, up to this time ; 
i" thought as much, I thought so ; as well {as), 
in addition (to) ; as good as dead, practically 
dead. [OE allswd (later alsa, als) adv. = 
wholly so, quite so] 

as 2 , n. Roman copper coin, orig. weighing 
12 oz., but finally reduced to 4 oz. [L] 

as-, pref. = ad- before s. 

asafoe'tida (-fe-), n. Concreted resinous 
gum with strong smell of garlic used in medi- 
cine and cookery, [med. L (asa f. Pers. aza 
mastic +foetida stinking)] 

asbestine, a. Of, like, asbestos, incom- 
bustible (lit. & fig.) [f. L f. Gk asbestinos f. 
foil., see -ine 2 ] 

asbe'stos, n. Fibrous mineral that can 
be woven into an incombustible fabric (also 
fig.). Hence asbe'strc, asbe'stoiD, aa. [L f. 
Gk,=unquenchable (a- not+soes£osf. sbennum* 
quench)] 

asce'nd, v.t. & i. Go, come, up ; (of things) 
rise, be raised ; slope upwards, lie along as- 
cending slope ; rise in thought, rank, degree of 
quality ; (of sounds) rise in pitch ; go back in 
point of time ; (trans.) go up, climb ; a. a river, 
go along it towards its source ; mount upon, 
as a. the throne, [f. L ascendere, AD(scendere 
scens- = scandere climb)] 

ascendancy, -eney, n. Dominant control, 
sway, (over), [f. foil., see -ancv] 

ascendant, -ent, a. & n. Rising; (Astr.) 
rising towards zenith; (Astrol.) just above 
eastern horizon ; predominant ; horoscope ; point 
of ecliptic or degree of zodiac that (esp. at birth 
of child) is just rising above eastern horizon ; 
house of the a. (from 5 degrees of zodiac above 



ASHLARING 



this point to 25 below it) ; lord of the a., any 
planet within this; in the a., supreme, domi- 
nating, (improp.) rising; supremacy; ancestor, 
[f. OF (-ant) f. L as prec, see -ent] 

asce'nsion, n. Act of ascending ; ascent of 
Christ on fortieth day after resurrection ; A.- 
day, Holy Thursday, on which this is com- 
memorated ; rising of a celestial body, as 
right a. (celestial longitude). Hence asee'n- 
sionAL a. [f. L ascensio (as ascend, see -ion)] 

aseensive, a. Rising, progressive ; (Gram.) 
intensive, [as prec, see -ive] 

ascent, n. Act of ascending ; upward 
movement, rise, (lit. & fig.) ; way by which one 
may ascend, slope, flight of steps, [f. ascend 
on anal, of descent] 

ascertain, v.t. Find out. Hence ascer- 
tain able a., aseertai'nMENT n. [f. OF 
acertener, st. acertaine- (d to + certain)] 

asee'tie, a. & n. Severely abstinent, austere ; 
(n. ) one who practises severe self-discipline, esp. 
(Eccl. Hist.) one who retired into solitude for 
this purpose. Hence aseetieAL a., asee- 
tiealL Y 2 ad v. , aseetieiSM n. [f . Gk asketikos 
f. asketes monk (asked exercise), see -ete and 
-ic] 

ascrdium, n. Genus of molluscs with 
leathery enveloping tunic, regarded as link in 
development of Vertebrata. [f. Gk askidion 
dim. of askos wine-skin] 

Aselepiad, n. (Gk and Lat. Prosody) verse 
consisting of a spondee, two or three choriambi, 
and an iambus. Hence Aselepiade'AN a. 
[f. L f. Gk Asklepiadeios (Asklepiades, Greek 
poet, the inventor)] 

ascri'be, v.t. Attribute, impute, (to) ; con- 
sider as belonging (to person or thing). Hence 
or cogn. aseri'bABLE a., aseri'ptiON n. 
[earlier ascrive f. OF ascriv- st. of ascrire f. L 
AD(sc7Hbere script- write)] 

aseptic, a. & n. Free from putrefaction 
or blood-poisoning; (n.) nqn-putrescent sub- 
stance, [f. Gk a- not + septikos putrefying 
(sepo rot, see -ic)] 

asexual, a. (Biol.) without sex. Hence 
asexua'liTY n. [f. Gk a not + sexual] 

ash 1 , n. Forest-tree with silver-grey bark, 
pinnate foliage, and close-grained wood ; wood 
of this ; a.-fly, a.-grub, (found on a. and used 
by anglers) ; a.-key, winged seed of the a. ; a.- 
leaf, an early potato ; mountain a., rowan-tree. 
[com.-Teut. : OE assc, G esche] 

ash 2 , n. (usu. pi.). Powdery residue left 
after combustion of any substance ; (pi.) re- 
mains of human body after cremation (lit. & 
fig.) ; lay in aa., burn to the ground ; sackcloth 
and aa. (symbol of repentance) ; a.-fire, low 
fire used in chemical operations; a.-fumace 
(used in glass-making); A.- Wednesday, first 
day of Lent (from Rom. Cath. custom of 
sprinkling aa. on penitents' heads), [com.- 
i Teut. : OE asce, axe, Da. aske] 

asha'med (-md), pred. a. Abashed, discon- 
certed, by consciousness of guilt ; a. of (con- 
duct) ; a. for (on account of) you ; a. to do 
(implying reluctance, but not always! absten- 
tion), [p.p. of obs. vb ashame (a- (1) + OE 
scamian shame)] 

a'shen \ a. Pertaining to an ash-tree ; made 
of ash. [ash l + -en 5 ] 

a'shen 2 , a. Of ashes; ash-coloured, pale. 
[ash 2 + -en 5 ] 

a'shlar, n. Square hewn stone(s) ; masonry 
constructed of this ; similar masonry as facing 
to rubble or brick wall. [f. OF aiseler f. L 
axillaris (axilla dim. of axis, assis, axle, 
board, see -ar 1 )] 

a'shlaring-, n. Short upright quartering in 



A SHORE 

garrets, cutting off acute angle formed by 
rafters ; ashlar masonry, [prec. + -ing j ] 

ashore', adv. To, on to, on, shore, [a prep.] 

a'shy, a. Of ashes ; covered -with ashes ; 
ash-coloured, pale, [ash 2 + -Y 2 ] 

Asia'tie (ashi-), a. & n. (Native) of Asia, 
[f. L f. Gk Asiatikos (Asiates f. Asia, see -ic)] 

asi'de, adv. & n. To, on, one side, away; 
set a., quash (verdict); speak a. (apart, in 

Erivacy); (n.) words spoken aside, esp. spoken 
y an actor & supposed not to be heard by 
other performers; indirect effort, [orig. on 
side, see A prep.] 

a'sinine, a. Pertaining to asses ; stupid. 
Hence asini'niTY n. [f. L asininus (asinus 
ass, see -ine l )] 

-asis, suf. forming names of diseases. [L 
-dsis f. Gk -asis in nouns of state f. vbs in -ad] 
ask 1 , v.t & i. Call for an answer to, as a. 
(him) a question, a. {him) this, a. {him) who it 
is, a. him the time, a. a question of a person, 
a. him about a thing ; make a request (for), as 
a. a favour of him, a. {him) a favour, a. {him) 
for it, ask (abs.), a. him to do it, a. that it may 
be done, a. to have time given one ; invite 
(person to dinner &c); (of things) demand, 
require, as it asks {for) attention', a. (publish) 
the banns; (pop.) be asked in church, have 
one's banns called. [com.-Teut ; OE dscian, 
ME ox ax ex ask esk ash ass, &c. ; ax was 
usu. literary form to 1600] 
aska'nce, -ant, adv. Sideways, asquint; 
with indirect meaning; look a. at, view sus- 
piciously. [?] 

askew", adv. & pred. a. Obliquely ; look a. 
(not straight in the face) ; (adj.) oblique, [etym. 
dub., cf. skew] 

asla'nt, adv. & prep. Obliquely; (prep.) 
slantingly across, athwart, [a prep. + slant] 
aslee'p, adv. & pred. a. In, into, a state of 
sleep (lit. & fig.) ; (of limbs) benumbed, [a prep. 
+ sleep] 

aslo'pe, adv. & pred. a. Sloping, crosswise. 

[prob. f. OE aslopen p.p. of aslupan slip away] 

asp *- n. (also aspen). Kind of poplar with 

specially tremulous leaves. [com.-Teut. : OE 

xspae, seps, G espe] 

asp 2 , n. Small venomous hooded sei'pent of 
Egypt and Libya ; (poet.) any venomous serpent. 
[f. L f. Gk aspis] 

aspa'pagfus, n. Plant, whose vernal shoots 
are a table delicacy. [L, f. Gk asparagos, etym. 
dub. ; earlier sperage, sparagus, sparroic- 
grass] 

a'speet, n. Way of looking ; a looking, front- 
ing, in a given direction ; side so fronting ; 
phase ; look, expression ; appearance (esp. to 
the mind), [f. L aspectus -us (xospicere -spect- 
look at)] 

a'spen, a. & n. Of, like, the asp (tree) ; 
quivering; (n.) = ASP 1 . [asp 1 + -en; wrongly 
taken as noun used attrib. in aspen leaf &c] 
aspepgi'llum, n. Brush for sprinkling holy 
water. [L, f. aspergere {ad to + spargere 
sprinkle) + -ilium dim. suf.] 
aspe'Pity, n. Roughness ; rough excre- 
scence ; severity (of weather) ; harshness, sharp- 
ness, (of temper), [f. OF asprete f. L asperitatem 
(asper rough, see -ty)] 

asper'se, v.t. Besprinkle (with) ; bespatter 
(person, character, with damaging reports) ; 
calumniate. So aspep'siON n. [f. L asper- 
gere -ers-, see aspergillum] 
asper-sor'ium, n. Vessel for holy water, 
[med. L (as prec, see -ory)] 
a'sphalt 1 , n. A smooth hard bituminous 
substance ; mixture of bitumen, pitch, and sand, 
for pavements &c. ; similar mixture of coal- 



48 ASSAY 

tar with sand &c. Hence aspha'ltic a. [f. 
Gk asphaltos, of foreign orig. ) 
a'sphalt-, v.t. Lay (road) with asphalt, [f. 
prec] 

a'sphodel, n. Genus of liliaceous plants ; 
(poet.) immortal flower in Elysium, [f. L f. Gk 
asphodelos, etym. dub. ; earlier affodil, whence 
daffodil] 

asphyxia, -xy, n. Suspended animation 
due to lack of oxygen in blood, suffocation. 
Hence asphy'xivL a., asphy'xiATE 3 v.t. 
[f. Gk asphuxia (a- not + sphitxis pulse)] 
a'spie*, n. (poet.). =asp 2 . [F, f. L aspidem, 
nom. -is, w. unexpl. -ic] 

a'spie 2 , n. Savoury meat jelly. [F, etym. 
dub.] 

a'spirant (or aspir'-), a. & n. (One) who 
aspires {to, after, for). [F, as foil., see -ant] 
a'spipate 1 (-at), a. & n. (Consonant) pro- 
nounced with a breathing, blended with sound 
of h ; the sound of h. [f. L aspirare, see aspire 
and -ate 2 ] 

a'spipate 2 , v.t. Pronounce with a breath- 
ing ; draw out (gas) from vessel, [as prec, see 
-ate 3 ] 

aspira'tion, n. Drawing of breath ; desire 
{for, after) ; action of aspirating, [f. L aspira- 
tio (as prec, see -atjon)] 

a'spirator, n. Apparatus for drawing air, 
gas, through tube ; instrument for drawing pus 
from abscesses ; winnowing-machine. [f. L 
aspirare, see foil, and -or 2 ] 
aspire*, v.i. Desire earnestly (to, after, at, 
to do, or abs.) ; mount up (usu. fig.), [f. L ad- 
(spirare breathe)] 

asqui'nt, adv. & pred. a. (With look or 
sim. vb) obliquely, out at the corner of the 
eyes (esp. through defect in the eyes), [prob. 
f. or corr.to Du. schuinte slant + A prep.] 
ass, n. Quadruped of horse family with long 
ears and tuft at end of tail (used esp. as type 
of ignorance, stupidity, &c); make ana. of, 
stultify (oneself, or another) ; Asses' bridge 
(Pons Asinorum), Euclid 1, 5. [OE has isolated 
form assa, as well as esol for com.-Teut. esil 
I. L asinus] 

a'ssagai, -seg*ai (-gi), n. Slender spear of 
hard wood, esp. a missile of S. African tribes, 
[f. F azagaye f. Arab, azzaghayah (al the + 
Berber word zaghayah)] 
assct'i (-ah-e), adv. (mus.). Very. [It] 
assai'l, v.t. Make hostile attack upon (lit. 
& fig.) ; approach resolutely (task) ; overwhelm 
(with questions &c). Hence assai*lABLE a., 
assai'l a nt n. [f. OF asalir, asailar, f. LL 
ADsalire -salt- leap at] 

assa'ssin, n. One who undertakes to kill 
treacherously ; (Hist.) Moslem fanatic in time of 
Crusades, sent by the Old Man of the Mountains 
to murder Christians. [F, f. med. L assassinus 
f. Arab, hashshash, hashishiyy hashish eater] 
assa'ssinate, v.t. Kill by treacherous vio- 
lence. Hence assassin a 'tion, assa'ssina- 
tOR 2 , nn. [f. med. L assassinare (assassinus), 
see prec. and -ate 3 ] 

assau'lt 1 , n. Hostile attack (lit. & fig.): 
a. of, at, arms, attack in fencing, display of 
military exercises ; rush against walls of fort- 
ress &c, as carry by a. ; (Law) unlawful per- 
sonal attack (including menacing words), as 
a. and battery, [f. OF asaut f. LL adsaltus 

(as ASSAIL)] 

assau'lt 2 , v.t. Make violent attack upon 
(lit. & fig.) ; assail ; attack (fortress) by sudden 
rush. Hence assau'lt able a. [f. OF asauter 
f. Rom. assaltare spring at, for L xn(sxdtare = 
saltare frequent, of sahre salt- leap)] 

assay* *, n. Trial of metals, esp. of fineness 



ASSAY 



of coin or bullion • metal to be so tried ; 
(archaic) attempt. [OF, f. L exagium weighing 
(exigere, -agere, weigh, try)] 

assay* 2 , v.t. & i. Try the purity of (precious 
metals, also fig.) ; attempt (anything difficult, 
to do). Hence assay'ABLE a. [f. OF asayer, 
essayer, f. LL *exagiare (exagium, see prec)] 

asse'mblage, n. Bringing, coming, to- 
gether ; concourse of persons ; collection. [F 
(assembler, see foil, and -age)] 

asse-mble, v.t. & i. Gather together, col- 
lect, [f. OF asembler f. L ASsinudare in the 
(late) sense of bring together (simul)] 

assembly, n. Gathering together, con- 
course, esp. deliberative body, legislative coun- 
cil ; military call by drum or bugle ; a.-room. 
room in which balls &c. are given, [f. OF 
asemblee fern. p.p. of asembler, see prec] 

assent 1 , v.i. Agree (to proposal), defer (to 
a desire) ; express agreement (to statement, 
opinion, or abs.). Hence assentOR 2 n. [f. OF 
asenter f. L assentare, -ari, irreg. frequent, of 
ASsentiri agree to (sentire think)] 

asse'nt 2 , n. (Official) concurrence, sanction, 
as royal a. (of sovereign to bill passed by 
Parliament) ; mental acceptance, [f. OF asente 
(asenter, see prec.)] 

assentation, n. Obsequious concurrence. 
[F, f. L assentationem (as assent, see -ation)] 

assentient (-shi-), a. & n. (Person) that 
assents, [f. L as assent, see -ent] 

assert, v.t. Vindicate a claim to (rights); 
a. oneself, insist upon one's rights ; declare. 
Hence assert able, asseptivE, aa., as- 
ser'tiveLY 2 adv., asser'tivexEss n. [f . L 
AS(serere sert- join) put one's hand on slave's 
head to free him (whence obs. sense ' free ' in 
E) or claim him, claim, affirm] 

assertion, n. Insistence upon a right ; self- 
a., insistence on recognition of one's claims; 
affirmation, positive statement, [f. L assertio 
(as prec, see -ion)] 

assertop, n. One who asserts ; champion, 
advocate, (of). [L (as prec, see -or 2 )] 

assess, v.t. Fix amount of (taxes, fine); 
fix amount of and impose (upon person or com- 
munity) ; fine, tax, (person, community, pro- 
perty, in, at, so much) ; estimate value of (pro- 
perty) for taxation. Hence asse'ssABLE a.', 
asse'ssabLY 2 adv., assess.MENT n. [f. OF 
assesser f. LL assessare frequent, of AS(sidere 
sess- = sedere sit)] 

assessor, n. One who sits as assistant, 
adviser, to judge or magistrate ; one who 
assesses taxes or estimates value of property for 
taxation, [f. OF assessour f. L assessorem 
assistant-judge (as prec, see -or 2 )] 

a'ssets, n. pi. (sing. -et). (Law) enough goods 
to enable heir to discharge debts and legacies 
of testator ; property liable to be so applied ; 
effects of insolvent debtor ; property of person 
or company that may be made liable for debts ; 
(sing.) item of this in balance-sheet, (loosely) 
any possession, [f. AF asetz f. OF asez enough 
f. LL ad satis to sufficiency] 

asseverate, v.t. Solemnly declare. So 
assevePA'Tiox n. [f. L ASseverare (severus 
serious), see -ate 3 ] 

assi* Dilate, v.t. Give a hissing sound to. 
Hence assibilA'Tiox n. [f. L ASsibilare hiss, 
see -ate 3 ] 

assidu'ity, n. Close attention ; (pi.) con- 
stant attentions, [f. L assiduitas (assiduus, 
see foil, and -ty)] 

assi'duous, a. Persevering, diligent. 
Hence assi'duousLY 2 adv., assiduous- 
ness n. [f. L assiduus (as assess) + -ous] 

assig-n 1 , v.t. Allot as a share (to); make 



49 ASSONANCE 

over (esp. personal property, to) ; appoint (place 
&c to) ; fix, specify ; ascribe, refer, (event to 
date) ; ascribe (reason to, for, thing). Hence 
assigrnABLE a., assig-noR' 2 (-in-), n. [f. OF 
assigner f. L ASsigna7'e mark out to (signum 
sign)] 

asslg~n 2 , n. One to whom property, right, 
is legally transferred. [ME assigne (three 
syllables) f. F assigne p.p. of assigner (see 
prec.) gives both assign and assignee] 

a'ssigrnat (-ig-), n. Paper money issued by 
revolutionary government of France. [F, f. L 
assignatum, neut. p.p. of assignare assign] 

assignation (-ig-), n. Apportionment ; for- 
mal transference ; appointment (of time and 
place) ; attribution of origin, [f. OF assignacion 
f. L assignationem (as assign 1 , see -ation)] 

assignee* (-ine), n. One appointed to act for 
another ; assign ; aa. in bankruptcy, persons 
charged with management of bankrupt's estate, 
[f. OF a(s)signe, see assign n.] 

assignment, n. Allotment; legal trans- 
ference ; document effecting this ; attribution ; 
allegement (of reasons), [f. OF assignement f. 
med. L assignamentum (as assign 1 , see -ment)] 

assi'milate, v.t. & i. Make like (to, with) ; 
compare (to, with) ; absorb into the system (lit. 
&c fig.) ; (intr.) be so absorbed. Hence or cogn. 
assimilaBixiTY, assimilATiox, assi'mi- 
late k-, nn., assi'milABLE, assi'milativE, 
assi'milatORY, aa. [f. L Assimilare (similis 
like), see -ate 3 ] 

assi'st, v.t. & i. Help (person, process, per- 
son in doing), whence assi'st ant a. & n., 
assi'stANCE, n. ; (intr.) take part (in) ; be pre- 
sent (at). [I. F assister f. L Assistei*e take one's 
stand by] 

assi'ze, n. Statutory price (of bread and 
ale) ; trial in which sworn assessors decide 
questions of fact, esp. periodical sessions in 
each county of England for administration of 
civil and criminal justice ; great a., last judg- 
ment, [f. OF asise, fern. sing. p.p. (as n.) of 
asseoir sit at f. L assidere, cf. assess] 

asso'ciable (-sha-), a. That can be con- 
nected in thought (with). Hence associ- 
auixiTY n. [F, f. associer (as foil., see -able)] 

asso'ciate 1 (-shiat), a. & n. Joined in com- 
panionship, function, or dignity ; allied ; part- 
ner ; companion ; colleague ; subordinate mem- 
ber of an association ; thing connected with 
another. Hence asso'ciatesmp n. [f. L as- 
sociare (socitis sharing, allied), see -ate 2 ] 

asso'ciate 2 (-shi-), v.t. & i. Join (persons, 
things, or one with another) ; connect in idea ; 
make oneself a partner in (a matter) ; (intr.) 
combine for common purpose ; have intercourse 
(with). Hence asso'eiativE, asso'eiatORY, 
aa., asso'eiatOR 2 n. [as prec, see -ate 3 ] 

association (-si-), n. Act of associating (in 
all senses) ; organized body of persons ; deed 
of a., document giving particulars of limited 
liability company ; fellowship, intimacy ; a. of 
ideas, mental connexion between an object 
and ideas related to it. [f. L associatio (as 
prec, see -ation)] 

assoi'l, v.t. (archaic). Absolve from sin, 
pardon ; acquit ; release ; atone for. [f. OF as- 
sort, assoille, pres. ind. and subj. of assoudre 
f. L AB(solvere loose) ; Sc has assoilzie (pron. 
-yi) still used in sense 'acquit '] 

a'ssonance, n. Resemblance of sound be- 
tween two syllables ; rhyming of one word with 
another in the accented vowel and those that 
follow, but not in the consonants (e.g. sonnet, 
porridge) ; partial correspondence. So a'sson- 
ant a. [F, f. L xssonare respond to (sonus 
sound), see -ance] 



ASSORT 



50 



ASUN 



assop't, v.t. & i. Classify, arrange in sorts ; 
group with others : furnish (store, shop) with 
an assortment ; (intr.) associate with; fall into 
a class ; suit well or ill with. [f. OF assorter 
(a to + sorte sort)] 

assortment, n. Assorting ;* assorted set 
of^goods of one or several classes, [-.mext] 
assua'ge (-sw-), v.t. Calm, soothe, (person, 
feelings, pain); appease (appetite, desire). 
Hence assua'ge.MENT n. [f. OF asouager f. 
L *ASSuaviare (suavis sweet)] 
assu'me, v.t. Take upon oneself (aspect, 
air) ; assuming, taking much upon oneself, 
arrogant; undertake (office, duty); usurp; 
simulate; take for granted (thing, thing to be, 
that). Hence assirmABLE a., assu'mabLV a 
adv. [f. L AS(sumere sumpt- take)] 
assumption, n. Act of assuming (in all 
senses) ; reception of Virgin Mary into heaven ; 
feast in honour of this ; thing assumed ; arro- 
gance, [f. L assumptio (as assume, see -ion)] 
assu'mptive, a. Taken for granted ; arro- 
gant, [f. L assumptivus (as prec, see -ive)] 
assup'anee (ashoor-), n. Formal guarantee ; 
positive declaration ; (Law) securing of a title ; 
compact securing value of property in the 
event of its being lost, or payment of specified 
sum on person's death (usu. life-a., fire-, mar- 
ine-, insurance) ; certainty ; self-confidence ; 
impudence, [f. OF aseiirance (aseiirer, see 
foil. & -ANCE)] 

assure (ashoor 1 ), v.t. Make safe; or. life 
(see prec.) ; make certain, ensure, (of future 
events &c.) ; make (person) sure (of fact) ; tell 
(person) confidently (o/a thing, of its being so, 
that it is so). Hence assup'edLY 2 adv., as- 
supe'dxESS n. [f. OF aseiirer i. LL ad- 
securare (securus safe)] 
assup'gent, a. Rising; (Bot.) rising ob- 
liquely ; aggressive, [f. L xssiwgere rise, see 
-ext] 

Assypio'logy, n. Study of language, history, 
antiquities, of Assyria. Hence Assyrio'LO- 
GIST n. [f. L f. Gk A spuria + -logv] 
asta'tie, a. Not tending to keep one position ; 
a. needle (unaffected by earth's magnetism), 
[f. Gk astatos unstable (a- not + sta- stand) + 
-ic] 

a'step, n. Genus of plants with showy 
radiated flowers; China a., flower allied to 
this. [Lf. Gk, = star] 

-aster, suf. expressing contempt, added to 
L and Rom. nn., as oleaster, poetaster, mean- 
ing 'petty, sham, would-be'. [L, as in philo- 
sophaster] 

a'sterisk, n., & v.t. Star (*) used to mark 
words for reference or distinction ; (v.t.) mark 
with a. [f. L f. Gk asteriskos dim. as aster] 
a'stepism, n. Cluster of stars ; three as- 
terisks ("V), calling attention, [f. Gk asterismos 
(aster, see -ism)] 

astep'n, adv. (naut). In, at, the stern ; 
away behind ; backwards, [a prep.-;- stern] 
a'stepoid, a. & n. Star-shaped ; (n.) name of 
small planets revolving round sun between 
orbits of Mars and Jupiter ; kind of firework. 
Hence astepoi'dAL, a. [f. Gk asteroeides 
(aster, see -OID)] 

a'sthma, n. A disease of respiration, char- 
acterized by difficult breathing, cough, &c. 
fGk asthma -matos (azo breathe hard, see -m)] 
asthma'tic, a. & n. Pertaining to, suffer- 
ing from, good against, asthma; (n.) person 
suffering from asthma. Hence asthma*- 
tieAL a., asthma'tiealLY 2 adv. [f. Gk 
asthmatikos (as prec, see -ic-)] 
astigmatism, n. Structural defect in the 
eye, preventing rays of light from being brought 



ma*tic 



to common focus on retina. So astigma'tic 
a. If. Gk a- not + stigma -matos point + -ic] 
astip*, adv. & pred. a. In motion ; out of 
bed ; in excitement, [a prep. + stir n.] 
astd'nish, v.t. Amaze, surprise. Hence 
asto'nishMEXT n. [altered f. obs. astony 
unexpl. form of obs. astone apparently f. OF 
estoner, estuner (mod. etonner), stupefy, shock, 
f. L *KXtonare (cf. L attonare strike with 
thunderbolt, stun) ; relation to stun and G 
stavnen is uncertain] 

astou'nd (-ow-), v. t. Shock with alarm or sur- 
prise; amaze, [f. obs. astound a. = astoned 
p.p. of obs. astone, see prec] 
astpa'ddle, adv. & pred. a. In a straddling 
position, [a prep.+STRADDLE v.] 
a'stpagal, n. (Arch.) small moulding round 
top or bottom of columns ; (Gunn.) ring round 
cannon near mouth, [f. foil.] 
astrcfgalus, n. Ball of ankle-joint ; genus 
of leguminous plants including milk-vetch. 
[L, f. Gk astragalos huckle-bone, moulding, 
plant] 

astpakha'n (-kan), n. Skin of young lambs 
from Astrakhan in Russia, with wool like 
fur. 

a'stpal, a. Connected with, consisting of, 
stars ; a. spirits (supposed to live in stars) ; a. 
body, spiritual appearance of the human form; 
a. lamp (throwing no shadow on table below), 
[f. L astralis (astrum star, see -al)] 
astray, adv. or pred. a. Out of the right 
way (lit. & fig.), [perh. orig. f. OF estraie p.p. 
of estraier f. L *extravagare wander out of 
bounds ; but confused w. forms like a-Jloat, 
a-sleep^ ; no early noun stray] 
astpi'et, v.t. (rare) Bind tightly ; make cos- 
tive ; bind morally, legally ; restrict (to). So 
astPi*etiox T n. [f. L astringere -ict- (ad to + 
stringere bind)] 

astpi'etive, a. Tending to contract organic 
tissue ; astringent, styptic, [as prec, see -ive] 
astpi'de, adv., pred. a., prep. In a striding 
position; with legs on each side (of) ; (prep.) 
astride of. [a prep. + stride n.] 
astpi'nge, v.t. Bind together; compress; 
constipate, [as astrict] 
astpi'ng'ent, a. & n. Binding, styptic; 
Severe ; austere ; (n.) astringent medicine. 
Hence astPi'ngrentLY 2 adv., astpi'ngTEXCY 
n. [as prec, see -ext] 

astpo-, in comb. = Greek astron star ; in 
wds f. Gk, as astronomy, and mod. formations 
as -gony, stellar cosmogony, -lithology, study 
of meteoric stones. 

a'stPOite, n. Gem known to the ancients ; 
kind of madrepore, [f. L astro'ites (see prec 
and -ite)] 

a'strolabe, n. Instrument formerly used 
for taking altitudes &c [f. OF astrelabe f. 
med. L astrolabium f. Gk astro- (lab- take)] 
astpo'logy, n. (Formerly) practical as- 
tronomy (also called natural a.) ; art of judg- 
ing of reputed occult influence of stars upon 
human affairs (judicial a.). So astPO'LOGER 
n., astPolo*g"ic(Ai.) aa., astPolo'giealLY - 
adv. [f. F astrologie f. L f. Gk ASTRO(Zooia 
-logy)] 

astPO'nomy, n. Science of the heavenly 
bodies. SoastPO'nomER 1 (3) n., astpono'm- 
ic(al) aa., astPono'miealLY 2 adv. [f. OF 
astronomiei. Lf. Gkast?'ono?niaf. ASTROnomos 
a. star-arranging (nemo arrange)] 
astu'te, a. Shrewd, sagacious ; crafty. 
Hence astu'tei.Y 2 adv., astu'texESS n. [f. 
L astutus length, form of astus crafty] 
asu'nder, adv. (Of two or more things) 
apart (in motion or position) ; tear a., tear to 



ieces 



LUM 



pieces. [OE on sundran, see A prep, and 
sunder] 

asylum, n. Sanctuary, place of refuge, esp. 
for criminals or debtors; shelter, refuge; in- 
stitution for shelter and support of afflicted or 
destitute persons, esp. lunatics. [L, f. Gk 
asulon neut. of adj. asulos inviolable (a- not + 
side right of seizure)] 

asymmetry, n. Want of symmetry, [a- 
(7) + symmetry] 

a'symptote (-6t), n. Line that approaches 
nearer and nearer to given curve but does not 
meet it within a finite distance. If. Gk asum- 
ptotos not falling together (a- not + sum- to- 
gether -hptotos falling f. pipto)] 

asyndeton, n. A rhetorical figure that 
omits the conjunction, [f. Gk asundeton un- 
connected (a- not + sundetos f. sundeo bind 
together)] 

at, prep, expressing exact, approximate, or 
vague, position, lit. & fig., as meet a. a point, 
wait a. the corner, a. the top, a. Bath (or any 
town except London and that in which the 
speaker is), a. school, a. sea, a. a distance, a. 
arm's length, out a. elbows, a. xoork, a. dinner, 
play a. fighting, good a. repartee, a. daggers 
drawn, a. a disadvantage, a. his mercy, a. a 
low price, a. midday, a. first, a. least, a. all 
events, annoyed a. finding, impatient a. delay ; 
expr. motion towards, lit. & fig., as arrive a. a 
place, get, rush, shoot, laugh, grumble, hint, 
snatch, aim, a. [com.-Teut., but lost in G and 
Du. ; OE set, governing dat., rarely ace] 

at-, pref. = ad- before t. 

atapa'xia, -xy, n. Stoical indifference. 
[Gk ataraxia (a- not + tarasso disturb)] 

a'tavism, n. Resemblance to remote an- 
cestors rather than to parents ; recurrence of 
disease after intermission of some generations. 
Hence atavi'stie [-ist, -ic] a. [f. F atavisme 
f. L atavus great-grandfather's grandfather, 
see -ism] 

ata'xic, a. Characterized by ataxy ; a. fever, 
malignant typhus fever, [f. foil. + -ic] 

ata'xy, n. Irregularity of animal functions ; 
locomotor a., constitutional unsteadiness in use 
of legs, arms, &c. [f. Gk ataxia (a- not + taxis 
order f. tasso arrange)] 

ate. See eat. 

-ate 1 , suf. forming nn. orig. f. L -atus (gen. 
-us) in nouns of state from p.p. stems or nouns, 
or f. L -atus, -ata, -atum (see -ate 2 ), which in 
OF became -e (-ee), but in learned words, and 
later in many re-formed words, -at, as prelat, 
primat, magistrat. E having adopted -at 
af terwards added -e to mark quantity of a, and 
later words took -ate at once. E also formed 
wds either directly on L as curate or by anal, 
as aldermanate. Most nn. in -ate are (1) nn. of 
office, as marquisate, syndicate, (2) participial 
nn. as legate one deputed, precipitate what is 
thrown down, (3) chem. terms denoting salts 
formed by action of an acid on a base, as nitrate, 
sxdphate. 

-ate 2 , suf. forming adjj. (1) chiefly (thr. F) 
f. L p.p. in -atus (1st conjug.), which (cf. prec.) 
became successively -at, -ate, as desolate. 
Many such adjj. formed causative vbs (see 
foil.) and served as p.p. to them, till later the 
native -ed was added ; -ated also appears with- 
out intervention of vb, as annulated, and as 
alternative form to -ate ; (2) L participial adjj. 
were also formed on nn., as caudatus tailed, 
and on adjj. as candidatus white-robed ; these 
were largely adopted in E, and others formed 
on anal. Many nouns in -ate * were orig. adjj. 
In cordate, ovate, &c, the sense is 'shaped like'. 

-ate 3 , suf. forming vbs to correspond to adjj. 



5 1 -ATI VE 

in -ate 2 , and subsequently to repr. the corr. 
L vb in -are (p.p. -atus), as separate, aggravate. 
As these vbs usu. have F equivalents in -er, 
-ate was further used to form vbs on model of 
F vbs in -er, as isolate (F isoler). -ate was also 
used to form vbs that L might have formed, 
but did not, on nouns, as felicitate (L felicitas 
-atis), and even vbs on nouns not of L orig., as 
camphorate. 

atelier (atl-ya"), n. Workshop, studio. [F] 

atelo- in comb. = Gk ateles imperfect (a- not 
+ telos end), as -glossia, -gnathia, -stomia, im- 
perfect development of tongue, jaws, mouth. 

Athana'sian, a. Of Athanasius (arch- 
bishop of Alexandria in reign of Constantine), 
as A. creed (that beginning whosoever will). 
[f. Athanasius + -an] 

a'theism, n. Disbelief in the existence of 
a God; godlessness. Soa*thersTn.,athei*st- 
ic a., athei'stiCALLY adv. [f. F athUsme f. 
Gk atheos without God (a- not+theos God), see 
-ism] 

athenaeum, n. Literary or scientific club ; 
reading-room, library. [L, f. Gk Athenaion 
temple of Athene, goddess of wisdom] 

athir'st, pred. a. Thirsty ; eager {for). [OE 
ofthyrst for ofthyrsted p.p. of ofthyrstan be 
thirsty] 

a'thlete, n. Competitor in physical exer- 
cises ; robust, vigorous, man. [f. L athleta f. 
Gk athletes f. athleo contend for prize (athlon), 
see -et 2 ] 

athle'tic, a. & n. Pertaining to athletes; 
physically powerful ; (n. pi.) practice of physical 
exercises. Hence athle'tiCALLY adv., ath- 
le'tieiSM n. [f. L f. Gk athletikos (as prec.)] 

at-ho'me, n. Reception of visitors within 
certain hours during which host or hostess or 
both have announced that they will be at home. 

athwar't, (-awt), adv. & prep. Across from 
side to side (usu. obliquely) ; crosswise, per- 
versely ; in opposition to; (of ship) athwart- 
hawse, across stem of another ship at anchor. 
[a prep. + thwart] 

-atie, adj. suf. ( = F -atique) f. L -aticus 
(orig. -at- of p.p. stems + -ic, but extended to 
nouns as fanaticus f. fanum), which gives also 
-age ; in many modern formations, as lunatic, 
lymphatic ; but in many apparent exx. (drama- 
tic, piratic) the suf. is -ic, and -at- part of the 
stem. 

-atile, adj. suf. like -atic in orig. and use = 
-at- + -ile, as volatile, fluviatile. 

a-ti'lt, adv. Tilted ; run, ride, a. (in en- 
counter on horseback with thrust of lance, 
usu. fig.), [a prep. + tilt] 

-ation, suf. (= -at- of L 1st conj. p.p. stems-f- 
-ion) forming abstract nouns on L 1st conj. 
vbs as agitation, Gk vbs in -izo (L -izare -ize) 
as organization, F vbs in -er as filtration, and 
rarely E vbs as starvation, the last on false 
anal. f. vexation &c, formed on L vexare, not 
on E vex. The great preponderance of -ation 
over -ition &c. is due to F adoption of the -er 
vb ( = L 1st conj, ) as the type for all new vbs. 
Wds taken f. OF have often -ison, -son, (orison, 
reason) instead of -ation. Most wds have vb 
in -ate corr. (creation), many a shortened vb 
f. L 1st conj. (plantation, plant, not plantate ; 
modify, not modificate), a few no vb (duration). 
Meanings: (1) vbl action; (2) instance of this; 
(3) resulting state ; (i) concrete result (planta- 
tion). 

-ative, adj. suf. = -at- + -ive (cf. -atic) ; most 
exx. are f. vbs in -ate as demonstrative, or L 
1st conj. as affirmative, some f. nouns in -ty 
(L st. -tat-) as authoritative, and some on E vbs 
as talkative. 



ATLANTIC 

Atla'ntic, a. & n. Pertaining to mount 
Atlas in Libya; hence applied to sea near 
western shore of Africa, and later to whole 
ocean between Europe and Africa on east and 
America on west; (n.) Atlantic ocean, [f. L f. 
Gk Atlantikos f. foil.] 

a'tlas, n. Volume of maps ; large size of 
drawing paper; (Physiol.) uppermost cervical 
vertebra, supporting skull. [Atlas -antos (1) 
Greek god of the older family, who held up 
pillars of universe ; (2) the mountain in Libya, 
regarded as supporting the heavens] 
atmo- in comp. = Gk atmos vapour, as -logy, 
science of aqueous vapour, -lysis, separation of 
vapours, -meter (for measuring evaporation). 
a'tmosphere, n. Spheroidal gaseous en- 
velope surrounding heavenly body ; that sur- 
rounding earth ; one surrounding any sub- 
stance ; mental or moral environment ; air (in 
any place) ; (w. pi.) pressure of 151b. on square 
inch (that exerted by atmosphere on earth's 
surface). Hence atmosphe'Pic(AL) aa., at- 
mosphe'riealLY a adv. [f. atmo - + Gk 
sphaira ball] 

ato'll (or a*t-), n. Ring-shaped coral reef 

enclosing lagoon. [Maldive atollon, atoll, 

prob. = Malayalam adal closing] 

a'tom, n. Body too small to be divided ; 

physical a., supposed ultimate particle of 

* matter; chemical aa., smallest particles in 

1 which elements combine with themselves or 

each other ; minute portion ; small thing, [f. 

F atome f. L f. Gk atomos indivisible {a- not+ 

-tomos cut f. temno)] 

ato'mic, a. Of, pertaining to, atoms ; a. 
philosophy, doctrine of formation of all things 
from indivisible particles endued with gravity 
and motion ; (Chem.) a. theory (that elemental 
bodies consist of indivisible atoms of definite 
relative weight, and that atoms of different 
elements unite with each other in fixed pro- 
portions, which determine the proportions in 
which elements and compounds enter into 
chemical combination) ; unit of a. tceight, 
weight of an atom of hydrogen. Hence ato'm- 
iCAL a., ato'miealLY 2 adv. [prec. -f -ic] 
atomi'eity, n. Combining capacity of an 
element, number of atoms of hydrogen with 
which one of its atoms normally combines, [f. 
prec, see -ty] 

a'tomism, n. Atomic philosophy ; doctrine 
of action of individual atoms, [atom + -ism] 
a'tomist, n. Holder of atomic theory or 
philosophy. Hence atomi'stic a. [atom + -ist] 
a'tomize, v.t. Reduce to atoms. Hence 
atomizA'TioN n. [atom + -ize] 
a'tomizep, n. (nied.). Instrument for re- 
ducing liquids to fine spray, [prec. + -er 1 ] 
a'tomy *, n. Skeleton ; emaciated body. [f. 
anatomy, an- being taken as article] 
a'tomy 2 , n. Atom, tiny being, [f. atomi pi. 
of L atomus atom] 

ato'ne, v.t. & i. Make reconcilement, satis- 
faction, (for offender, for offence) ; (archaic) 
expiate (offence); (t. & i.) harmonize. Hence 
ato'ne.MENT n. [at + ONE,=set atone, unite] 
atd'nie, a. & n. Unaccented, unstressed ; 
(Path.) wanting tone ; (n.) unaccented word 
(esp. in Gk Gram.), [f. med. L atonicus f. Gk 
atonos toneless (a- not + tonos) tone, see -ic] 
atc-'p, adv. On the top (of), [a prep.] 
atrabrlious, a. Affected by black bile; 
melancholy ; acrimonious. Hence atrabi*- 
Housness n. [f. L atra bilis black bile + 
-ous, after L biliosus bilious] 
atri'p, adv. (Of anchor) just lifted from 
ground in weighing, [a prep. + trip] 
a'trium, n. (pi. -a, -urns). Central court of 



52 ATTENDANCE 

Roman house; covered portico, esp. before 
church door. [L] 

atpd'cious (-shws), a. Heinously wicked : 
very bad, as a. pun. Hence atPO'eiousLY 2 
adv., atro'ciousNESS n. [f. L atrox -ocis 
(ater black) + -ous] 

atPO'eity, n. Heinous wickedness ; atrocious 
deed ; bad blunder, [f. L atrocitas (as prec, 
see -ty)] 

a'tpophy, n. Wasting away through im- 
perfect nourishment; emaciation (lit. & fig.). 
Hence a'tpophy v.t. & i. [f. F atrophie f. L 
f. Gk atrophia f. atrophos ill-fed (a- not + 
trophe food)] 

a'tpopine, n. Poisonous alkaloid found in 
deadly nightshade. [f. atropa deadly night- 
shade f. Gk Atropos inflexible, name of one of 
the Fates, see -ine 5 ] 

atta'ch, v.t. & i. Fasten (thing to another) ; 
join oneself (to person, company, expedition) ; 
affix (immaterial things, name, liability, &c, 
to) ; attribute (importance &c to) ; (Law) seize 
(person, property) by legal authority ; adhere, 
be incident, as no blame attaches to. Hence 
atta'ch able a. [f. OF atachier (mod. at- 
tacher, It. attaccare) f. a, to + root found in 
Genevese tache, Sp. and Port, tacha, nail, tack] 

atta'ehe 1 (-sha), n. One attached to am- 
bassador's suite. [F, p.p. of attacher (as prec)] 

atta'chment, n. Act of attaching; thing 
attached ; means of attaching ; affection ; legal 
seizure, esp. foreign a. (of foreigner's goods, to 
satisfy his creditors), [f. F attachement (at- 
tacher ATTACH, See -MENT)] 

atta'ek 1 , v.t. Fall upon, assault, (lit. & fig.) ; 
(of physical agents or diseases) act destructively 
upon. Hence atta'ckABLE a. [f. F attaquer 
f. It. attaccare, see attach] 

atta'ek 2 , n. Act of attacking (lit. & fig.); 
offensive operation, [f. prec] 

attai'n, v.t. & i. Arrive at, reach ; gain, 
accomplish ; (intr.) a. to, arrive at. Hence 
attainaBiLiTY, attai'nableNESs, nn., at- 
tai'nABLE a. [f. OF ataign- st. of ataindre f. 
L ATtingere (tangere touch)] 

attainder, n. Consequences of sentence of 
death or outlawry (forfeiture of estate, cor- 
ruption of blood, extinction of civil rights). 
[OF ataindre attain used as n. ; meaning in- 
fluenced by confus. w. OF taindre taint] 

attainment, n. Act of attaining ; thing 
attained, esp. personal accomplishment, [at- 
tain + -MENT] 

attai'nt, v.t. Subject to attainder ; (of dis- 
eases &c) strike, affect ; infect ; sully, [f. obs. 
attaint a. f. OF ataint p.p. as attain ; con- 
fused in meaning with taint] 

a'ttap, n. Fragrant essential oil from rose- 
petals, [f. Pers. ' atar(-gal) essence (of roses) f. 
Arab, 'utur aroma f. 'atara breathe per- 
fume] 

atte'mpep, v.t. Qualify by admixture ; 
modify temperature of ; soothe, mollify ; ac- 
commodate to ; attune to ; temper (metal). 
Hence atte'mpePMENT n. [f. OF atemprer f. 
L ATtemperare] 

atte'mpt 1 , v.t. Try (thing, action, to do); 
try to master (enemy, fortress) ; a. the life of, 
try to kill. Hence atte'mptABLE a. [f. OF 
attempter, f. L A'ttemptare strive after] 

attempt 2 , n. Attempting ; endeavour, [f. 
prec] 

atte'nd, v.t. & i. Turn the mind to ; apply 
oneself (to or abs.) ; be present (at) ; wait upon ; 
(trans.) wait upon ; escort, accompany ; be pre- 
sent at (lecture &c). [f. OF atendre i. L at- 
tendere -tent- stretch] 

attendance, n. Act of attending {upon 



ATTENDANT 



5H 



AUDITION 



person, at lecture) ; dance a. on, attend the 
convenience of ; body of persons present, [f. 
OF atendance (as prec, see -ance)] 
attendant, a. & n. Waiting (upon) ; ac- 
companying, as a. circumstances ; present, as 
a. croicd ; (n.) servant, satellite. [OF, part, as 

ATTEND] 

attention, n. Act of attending, as pay, 
give, a. ; faculty of attending, as attract, call, 
a. ; consideration, care ; (pi.) ceremonious 
politeness ; come to, stand at, a. (military atti- 
tude of readiness), [f. L attentio (as attend, 
see -ion)] 

attentive, a. Heedful, observant ; polite, 
assiduous. Hence attentively a adv., at- 
te'ntiveNESS n. [F (-if, -ive), f. L as attend, 
see -ive)] 

attenuate 1 , v.t. Make slender; make 
thin in consistency ; reduce in force or value. 
So attenuA'TiON n. [f. L ATtenuare (tenuis 
thin), see -ate 3 ] 

attenuate 2 (-at), a. Slender ; rarefied, [as 
prec, see -ate 2 ] 

attest, v.t. & i. Testify, certify; put (per- 
son) on oath or solemn declaration ; (intr.) bear 
witness to. Hence atte'stOR 2 n. [f. F attester 
f. L ATtestari (testis witness)] 

attestation, n. Act of testifying ; testi- 
mony ; evidence ; formal confirmation by signa- 
ture, oath, &c. ; administration of an oath. [F, 
f. L attestationem (as prec, see -ation)] 

A'ttie \ a. & n. Of Athens or Attica ; A. 
(dialect), Greek spoken by the Athenians; A. 
salt, wit, refined wit ; A. order, square column 
of any of the five orders, [f. L f. Gk Attikos] 

a'ttie 2 , n. Structure consisting of small 
order placed above another of greater height 
(us a. Attic) ; highest story of house ; room in 
this. [f. F attique, as prec] 

a'ttieism, n. Style, idiom, of Athens; re- 
fined amenity of speech ; attachment to Athens. 
So a*ttieiZE (2) v.i. [f. Gk attikismos] 

attire*, v.t., & n. Dress, array, [(n. f. vb) f. 
OF atirer (a to + tire, see tier)] 

attitude, n. Disposition of figure (in paint- 
ing &c ) ; posture of body, as strike an a. (assume 
it theatrically); settled behaviour, as indicating 
opinion ; a. of mind, settled mode of thinking. 
[F, f. It. attitudine fitness, posture, f. med. L 
aptitudinem (aptus fit, see -tude)] 

attitu'dinize, v.i. Practise attitudes ; speak, 
write, behave, affectedly, [f. prec. + -ize] 

attor'n (-ern), v.t. &i. (law). Transfer ; make 
legal acknowledgment of new landlord. Hence 
attop'nMENT n. [f. OF atorner (a to + tourner 

TURN)] 

attop'ney 1 (-er-), n. ' One appointed to act 
for another in business or legal matters ; A.- 
General, legal officer empowered to act in all 
cases in which the state is a party. Hence 
attop'neysHip n. [f. OF atome p.p. as 
attorn] 

attop'ney 2 (-er-), n. Letter, warrant, of A.- 
(by which person appoints another to act for 
him) ; Power of A., authority thus conferred, 
[f. OF atornee fern, p.p., see prec] 

attpa'et, v.t. Draw to oneself (esp. of physi- 
cal forces) ; excite the pleasurable emotions of 
(person) ; draw forth and fix upon oneself 
(attention &c). Hence attpaetaBixiTY n., 
attPa'etABLE a. [f. L ATttrahere tract- draw)] 

attraction, n. Act, faculty, of drawing to 
oneself (lit. & fig.); drawing force; thing that 
attracts (fig.) ; a. of gravity (existing between 
all bodies, and varying directly as their masses, 
inversely as the square of their distance apart) ; 
magnetic a., action of magnet in drawing iron ; 
molecular a. (between molecules of bodies, act- 



ing only at infinitesimal distances) ; capillary 
a. (by which liquid is drawn up through hair- 
like tube). [F, f. L attractionem (as prec, see 

-ION)] 

attra'ctive, a. Attracting, capable of at- 
tracting (esp. fig.). Hence attpa'etiveLY 2 
adv., attpa'etiveNESs n. [F (-if, -ive), as prec, 
see -ive] 

attribute 1 , n. Quality ascribed to any- 
thing; material object recognized as appro- 
priate to person or office ; characteristic 
quality; (Gram.) attributive word. [f. L at- 
(tribuere -ut- assign)] 

attri'bute 2 , v.t. Ascribe as belonging or 
appropriate to ; refer (effect to its cause) ; assign 
(to time or place). Hence attpi'butABLE a. 
[as prec] 

attribution, n. Act of attributing; 
authority granted (to a ruler &c). [F, f. L 
attributionem (as prec, see -ion)] 

attpi'butive, a. & n. (Logic) assigning an 
attribute to a subject; (Gram.) expressing an 
attribute (e. g. old in the old dog but not in the 
dog is old); (n.) word denoting an attribute (usu. 
an adjective or its equivalent). Hence at- 
tpi'butiveLY 2 adv. [F (-if, -ive), as attri- 
bute \ see -ive] 

attprted, a. Worn by friction, [f. L at- 
(terere trit- rub)] 

attrition, n. Friction; abrasion; (Theol.) 
sorrow for sin (short of contrition), [f. L 
attritio (as prec, see -ion)] 

attu'ne, v.t. Bring into musical accord (to, 
lit. & fig.) ; tune (instrument), [at- + tune v.] 

aubade (obah'd), n. Musical announcement 
of dawn. [F] 

auberge (obar'zh), n. Inn. [F] 

au'bupn, a. Golden-brown (usu. of hair), 
[f. OF auborne f. L albui-nus whitish] 

au'etion, n. Public sale in which articles 
are sold to the highest of successive bidders*, 
Dutch a., sale in which price is reduced by 
auctioneer till a purchaser is found, [f. L 
audio increase, auction (augere auct-, see -ion)] 

auctioneer*, n., & v.i. (One whose business 
is to) conduct auctions, [-eer] 

auda'cious, a. Daring, bold ; impudent. 
Hence auda'ciousLY 2 adv., auda'cious- 
ness, audi "city, nn. [f. L audax (audere 
dare, see -acious)] 

au'dible, a. Perceptible to the ear. Hence 
au'dibLY 2 adv., audiBiLiTY, au'dible- 
ness, nn. [f. med. L audibilis (audire hear, see 
-ble)] 

au'dience, n. Hearing; give a., listen; 
formal interview; persons within hearing; 
assembly of listeners ; (of a book) readers. [F 
(refash. on L), f. OF oiance f. L audientia 
(audire hear, see -ence)] 

audio'metep, n. Kind of telephone for 
testing hearing-power, [f. L audire hear + -o- 
+ -meter] 

au'diphone, n. Instrument that, pressed 
against upper teeth, assists hearing, [improp. 
f. L audire hear + Gk phone sound, on tele- 
phone] 

au'dit \ n. Official examination of accounts ; 
searching examination, esp. Day of Judgment ; 
periodical settlement of accounts between 
landlord and tenants ; a. ale (of special quality, 
brewed in English Universities, orig. for use 
on day of a.) ; a.-house, -room, (attached to 
Cathedral for transaction of business), [f. L 
auditus -us hearing (audire -it-)] 

au'dit 2 , v.t. Examine (accounts) officially, 
[f. prec] 

audi'tion, n. Power of hearing ; listening, 
[f. L auditio (audire -it-, see -ion)] 



AUDITIVE 



au'ditive, a. Concerned with hearing. [F 
{-if, -ive), as prec., see -ive] 

au'ditop, n. Listener ; one who audits 
accounts. Hence airditopsmp, au'ditPESs l , 

nn. [f. AF auditour f. L auditor (as prec, 
see -or 2 )] 

auditorial, a. Connected with an audit, 
[f. L auditorius (as prec, see -ory) + -al] 

au'ditopy, a. & n. Connected with hearing ; 
received hy the ear ; assembly of hearers, 
audience ; (also -orium) part of building occu- 
pied by audience. If. L auditorius, -um, (as 
prec, see -ory)] 

ou fait (6 fa"), pred. a. Conversant, in- 
structed ;puta person aufait of, instruct him 

Augean, a. Filthy, like the stables of 
Augeas, which Hercules cleansed by turning 
river Alpheus through them. [f. L Augeas f. 
Gk Augeias + -an] 

au'gep (-g-), n. Tool for boring holes in 
wood, having long shank with cutting edge 
and screw point, and handle at right angles ; 
instrument for boring in soil or strata, with 
stem that can be lengthened. [OE nafugar 
(nafu nave + gar piercer), cf. G naber, Du. 
avegaar ; for loss of n- cf. adder] 

aug-ht (awt), n. & adv. Anything; (adv., 
archaic) in any degree or respect. [OE dwiht 
{a ever + wiht wight, whit) ; later OE dht, 
gives mod. ought, now less usu. form] 

au'gment 1 , n. Vowel (in Sanskrit a, in 
Greek e) prefixed to past tenses in the older 
Aryan languages. [F, f. L augmentum in- 
crease (augere, see -ment)] 

augme'nt 2 , v.t. & i. Make greater, in- 
crease ; prefix the augment to ; (intr.) increase, 
[f. F augmenter f. L augmentare increase 
(augmentum, see prec)] 

augmenta'tion, n. Enlargement ; growth, 
increase ; addition ; (Mus.) repetition of a sub- 
ject in notes double or quadruple those of the 
original. [OF, f. LL augmentationem (aug- 
mentare, see prec. and -ation)] 

augrne'ntative, a. & n. Having the pro- 
perty of increasing; (Gram., of affixes or de- 
rived words) increasing in force the idea of the 
original word ; (n.) augmentative word. [F (-if, 
-ive), f. L as augment, see -ative] 

au'gup 1 , n. Roman religious official who 
foretold future events by omens derived from 
the actions of birds, appearance of victims' en- 
trails, celestial phenomena, &c ; soothsayer. 
Hence au'gUPSHiP n. [L, perh. f. avis bird + 
-gar, conn. w. gar r ire talk, Skr. gar shout, 
make known] 

au'gur 2 , v.t. & i. Forebode, anticipate ; 
a. well, ill, have good or bad expectations of, 
for ; it augurs (promises) ill. [f. prec] 

au'gural, a. Pertaining to augurs ; signifi- 
cant of the future, [f. L auguralis (augur \ 
see -al)] 

au'gupy, n. Divination by flight of birds 

&c ; augural ceremony ; omen ; presentiment ; 
promise, [f. OF augurie f. L augurium (augur 1 )j 

augu'st 1 , a. Majestic, venerable. Hence 

augu'stLY 2 adv., augu'stNESS n. [f. L 

augustus consecrated, venerable, prob. f. 

augur] 

Au'gust 2 , n. Eighth month of year, named 

after Augustus Caesar, [earlier Aust f. OF 

aoust f. L augustus (see prec), re fash, on 

L] 
Augu'stan, a. & n. Connected with reign 

of Augustus Caesar, best period of Latin 

literature ; (of any national literature) classical ; 

A. confession (drawn up by Luther and 

Melanchthon at Augusta Vindelicorum or 



54 AUROCHS 

Augsburg) ; (n.) writer of the Augustan age of 
any literature, [f. L Augustanus, see -an] 
auk, n. Northern sea-bird, with short wings 
used only as paddles, [cogn. with Swed. alka, 
Da. alfce, f. ON alka] 

au'lic, a. Pertaining to a court ; A. Council. 
(in old German empire) personal council of 
emperor, (now) council managing Austrian 
war-department. [f. F aulique f. L f . Gk 
aulikos (aide court, see -ic)] 
au nature'/ (F), adv. or pred. a. (Cooked) 
in the simplest way. 

aunt (ahnt), n. Father's, mother's, sister; 
uncle's wife ; A. Sally, game at fairs, in which 
players throw sticks at pipe in mouth of 
wooden woman's head. [f. OF aunte (Prov. 
amda) f. L amita ; E up to 17th c had also 
naunt (my naunt = mine aunt), still used in 
dial. ; F tante perh. - ta ante] 
au pied de la iettre (6 pya de lah letr), 
adv. Literally. [F] 

au'pa, n. Subtle emanation (from flowers 
&c); (Electr.) current of air caused by dis- 
charge of electricity from a sharp point ; (Path.) 
sensation as of current of cold air rising from 
some part of body to head, premonitory symp- 
tom in epilepsy and hysterics. Hence au'pal l 
[-al] a. [L f. Gk,=breeze, breath] 

au'pal 2 , a. Pertaining to organ of hearing ; 
received by the ear. Hence au'palLY 2 adv. 
[f. L auris ear + -al] 

aupe'lia, n. (Formerly) chrysalis, esp. of 
butterfly ; (Zool.) genus of phosphorescent 
marine animals. [It., = silkworm, fern, of 
aurelio golden f. L aurum gold] 

aupe'lian, a. & n. Of an aurelia ; golden ; 
(n.) collector, breeder, of insects, [prec. + -an] 

aure'ola, n. Celestial crown won by martyr, 
virgin, doctor, by victory over world, flesh, or 
devil ; = foil. [L (a. corona) golden (crown) 
fern, of aureolus f. aureus (aurum gold)] 

au'peole, n. Aureola; (prop.) gold disk 
surrounding head in early pictures ; circle of 
light depicted round head ; oblong glory sur- 
rounding divine figures ; actual halo, esp. that 
seen in eclipses, [f. prec] 

au revoir (6 revwar"), adv. (Good-bye) till 
we meet again. [F] 

au'Pic, a. Pertaining to gold; (Chem.) in 
which gold combines as a triad, [f. L aurum 
gold, see -ic] 

au'piele, n. External ear of animals ; pro- 
cess shaped like lower lobe of ear ; either 
of the two upper cavities of the heart. Hence 
au*pielED 2 a. [f. foil.] 

aupi'cula, n. Species of primula, bear's- 
ear ; genus of molluscs. [L, = external ear, 
dim. of auris ear] 

aupi'culap, a. Pertaining to the ear; told 
privately in the ear, as a. confession ; a. wit- 
ness, one who tells what he has heard ; per- 
taining to auricle of heart; shaped like an 
auricle. Hence aupi'culaPLY 2 adv. [f. L 
auricularis (auricula, see -ar 1 )] 

aupi'culate, a. With ear-shaped projections, 
[as prec, see -ate 2 ] 

aupi'ferous, a. Yielding gold. [f. L aurifer 
(aurum gold + -fer producing) + -ous] 

au'pifopm, a. Ear-shaped, [f. L auris 
ear + -form] 

Aupl'ga, n. Northern constellation, the 
Waggoner. [L, = charioteer] 

au'Pilave, n. Instrument for cleaning ears, 
[f. L auris ear 4- lavare wash] 

au'pist, n. Ear specialist, [as prec + -ist] 

au'pochs (ow-, aw-; -ks), n. Extinct wild 
ox ; (improp.) European bison. [G ; OTeut. 
*urus, etym. dub., + ochs ox J 



AURORA 



AUTOMATON 



aurop'a, n. Luminous atmospheric (prob. 
electrical) phenomenon radiating from earth's 
northern (a. borealis) or southern (australis) 
magnetic pole ; dawn ; colour of sky at sun- 
rise; A., Roman goddess of dawn. Hence 
auror'AL a, [L = dawn, goddess of dawn] 

au'rous, a. (chem.). In which gold combines 
as a monad, [f. L aurum + -ous] 

au'rum, n. Gold ; a. fulminans, fulminate 
of gold ; a. mo.saicum, bisulphide of tin, bronze- 
powder ; a. potabile, drinkable gold (once in 
repute as a cordial). [LJ 

ausculta'tion, n. Act of listening, esp. 
(Med.) to movement of heart, lungs, &c. So 
au'seultatoR 2 n., auseu'ltatORY a. [f. L 
auscultare listen to (etym. dub.), see -ation] 

>Iusjj/e#c/i(ow*sglJch), n. Political agreement 
between Austria and Hungary, renewable 
every tenth year. [G] 

au'spicate, v.t. & i. Inaugurate, initiate ; 
(intr.) augur, [f. L auspicari (ausjpex -ids 
observer of birds for avispex f. avis bird + 
-.spec- observe), see -ate 3 ] 

au'spice (-Is), n. Observation of birds for 
purposes of taking omens ; prognostic ; pros- 

f>erous lead, patronage, as under the aa. of. 
f. L auspicium (auspex, see prec.)] 

auspi'cious, a. Of good omen, favourable ; 
prosperous. Hence auspi'ciousLV 2 adv., 
auspi'ciousNESS n. [as prec. + -ous] 

austere*, a. Harsh, stern ; stringently 
moral, strict ; severely simple ; harsh in flavour. 
Hence austere'LY 2 adv., austere'NESS, 
auste'riTV, nn. [OF, f. L f. Gk austeros 
drying, harsh (auo v. dry)] 

atrstral, a. Southern, [f. L australis 
(Auster south wind, see -al)] 

Australa'sian, a. & n. (Xative) of Aus- 
tralasia (Australia and adjoining islands), [f. 
Australasia f. F Australasie (L australis, 
see prec+^Lsia) -f -an] 

Australian, n. & a. Native of, colonist or 
resident in, Australia; (adj.) of Australia, [f. 
F Australien f. L as austral] 

authentic, a. Reliable, trustworthy; of 
undisputed origin, genuine; (Mus., of ecclesi- 
astical mode*) having their sounds comprised 
within an octave from the final. Hence 
authe'ntiCALLv adv.. authenti'eiTY n. [f. 
OF autentique f. L f. Gk authentikos f. auth- 
entes one who does a thing himself (auto- + 
-hentes, cf. sunentes fellow-worker), see -ic] 

authenticate, v.t. Establish the truth of ; 
establish the authorship of ; make valid. 
Hence authentic a tion, authe'ntieatOR 2 , 
nn. [f. med. L authenticate (authenticus), see 
prec. and -ate 3 ] 

au'thor, n. Originator (of a condition of 
things, event, &c); writer of book, treatise, &c. ; 
(loosely) author's writings. Hence au'thor- 
ess 1 n., authoriAL a. [f. AF autour f. OF 
autor f. L auctor (augere auct- increase, origin- 
ate, promote, see -or 2 ) ; auth- at first a scribal 
var. of aut-] 

autho'ritative, a. Commanding, impera- 
tive;possessingauthority; proceeding from com- 
petent authority. Hence autho'ritativeLY 2 
adv., autho'ritativexESS n. [f. foll.+-ATivE] 

autho'rity, n. Power, right, to enforce 
obedience ; delegated" power (to do, /or an act, 
"orabsD^ person having authority ; personal 
influence, esp. over opinion ; weight of testi- 
mony ; book, quotation, considered to settle 
a question ; person whose opinion is accepted, 
esp. expert in (on) a subject, [f. F autorite f. 
L auctoritatem (auctor, see author and -ty)] 



au'thorize, v.t. Sanction; give ground for, 
justify, (thing) ; give authority to, commission, 
(person to do). Hence au'thorizABLE a., 
authorizA'Tiox n. [f. F autoriser f. med. L 
auctorizarc (auctor, see author and -ize)] 

au'thorship, n. Occupation, career, as a 
writer; origin (of book), [-ship] 

auto- in comp. - Gk auto- (autos self), in 
sense 'self, one's own, by oneself, indepen- 
dent(ly)', in wds f. Gk and new formations, as 
-car'pous, consisting of pericarp alone, -gamy, 
self-fertilization, -genous, self -producing, -geny, 
-#o?i#,spontaneousgeneration, -mor'phic, -mor'- 
phism, ascribing (of) one's own characteristics 
to another, -phagous, -phagy, feeding on 
oneself (by absorption of tissues, during starva- 
tion), -plasty, repair of wounds with tissue 
from same body. 

autobio'grapher, n. One who writes his 
own history, [auto-] 

autobiog-ra'phic, a. Pertaining to, en- 
gaged in, autobiography. Hence autobio- 
gra'phic al a. .autobiogra'phical l y 2 ad v. 
[auto-1 

autobio'graphy, n. Writing the story of 
one's own life ; story so written, [auto-] 

au'toear, n. Road vehicle driven by 
mechanical power, [auto-] 

autoce'phalous, a. Having its own head ; 
(of bishop, church) independent, [f. Gk auto- 
kephalos (auto- + kephale head) + -ous] 

auto'chthon (-k-), n. (usu. pi. ; -ones, -ons). 
Original, earliest known, inhabitants ; abori- 
gines. Hence auto'chthon at., autoeh- 
tho'nic, autochthonous, aa., auto'ch- 
thonis.M, auto'chthon y 1 , nn. [Gk, = sprung 
from that land itself (auto--t khthon -onos 
land)] 

auto'craey, n. Absolute government ; con- 
trolling influence, [f. Gk autokrateia (as 

AUTOCRAT)] 

au'tocrat, n. Absolute ruler ; A. of all the 
Mussias (title of the Czar). So autocra'tic(AL) 
aa., autoera'ticalLY 2 adv. [f. F autocrate 
f. Gk autokrates (auto- +kratos might)] 

auto'cratrix, n. Female autocrat, title of 
empresses of Russia ruling in their own right. 
[Latinized fern, of Gk autokrator (auto- + 
kratos might)J 

auto-da-fe' (-dahfa), p. (pi. autos-da-fe). 
Sentence of the Inquisition ; execution of this, 
esp. burning of heretic. [Port., = act of the 
faith ; also Sp. -de-fe] 

au'tograph *, n. Author's own manuscript ; 
person's own handwriting, esp. signature ; copy 
produced by autography. Hence auto- 
g , ra*phic(AL) aa., autog-ra'phicalLY 2 adv. 
[f. L f. Gk autographon neut. of autographos 
(auto- + -graphos written)] 

au'tograph ? , v.t. Write with one's own 
hand ; copy by autography ; sign. [f. prec] 

auto'graphy, n. Writing with one's own 
hand ; author's own handwriting ; lithographic 
reproduction of writing or drawing, [as prec, 
see -Y ] ] 

automa'tie, a. Self-acting ; working of 
itself (as machinery) ; mechanical, unconscious ; 
unintelligent, merely mechanical. Hence 
automa'ticAL a., automa'ticalLY 2 adv., 
automati'eiTY n. [f. automaton + -ic] 

auto'matism, n. Involuntary action ; doc- 
trine attributing this to animals ; unthinking 
routine ; faculty of originating action or motion, 
[f. foil. + -ISM] 

autd'maton, n. (pi. -a, -ons). Thing endued 
with spontaneous motion ; living being viewed 



For other words in auto- see auto-. 



AUTOMOBILE 



56 



AVOID 



materially ; piece of mechanism with concealed 
motive power ; living being whose actions are 
involuntary or without active intelligence. 
Hence auto'matous a. [f. Gk Automaton, 
neut. adj., acting of itself] 
automobile (-el), n. Autocar. [F] 
auto'nomous, a. Of, possessed of, auto- 
nomy, [f. Gk AUTO(nomos law) + -ous] 
auto'nomy, n. Right of self-government; 
personal freedom; freedom of the will (in 
Kantian doctrine); a self-governing community. 
So autono'mic a. auto'nomisT n. [f. Gk 
autonomia, as prec] 

auto'psy (or aw't-), n- Personal inspection ; 
post-mortem examination; (fig.) critical dis- 
section. So auto'ptic(AL) aa. [f. Gkautopsia 
f. autoptos (auto-) 4- op- see] 
au'totype, n. Facsimile ; permanent photo- 
graphic printing process for reproducing in 
monochrome. Hence au'totype v.t. [auto-] 
au'tumn (-in), n. Third season of the year, 
August, September, October (Astr., Sep. 21 to 
Dec. 21); (fig.) season of incipient decay, [f. 
OF autompne f. L autumnus, etym. dub.) 
autu'mnal, a. Of autumn ; a. equinox, 
time when sun crosses equator as it proceeds 
southward (Sep. 23); maturing, blooming, in 
autumn ; past prime of life. [f. L autumnalis 
(as prec, see -al)] 

auxi'liapy, a. & n. (One who is) helpful to ; 
(Mil.) a. troops, aa., foreign or allied troops in 
a riation's service; (Gram.) a. (verb), one used 
to form tenses, moods, voices, of other verbs, 
[f. L auxiliarius (auxilium help, see -ary *)] 
avai'l 1 , v.t. & i. Afford help ; be of value or 
profit; (trans.) help, benefit; a. oneself of, 
profit by, take advantage of. [prob. f. vail f. F 
valoir be worth f. L valere] 
avai'l 2 , n. Use, profit, only in phrr. of a., of 
no a., without a., to little a. [f. prec] 
available, a. Capable of being used, at 
one's disposal, within one's reach. Hence 
availaBiLiTY, avai'lablexESS, nn., avai'l- 
abLY 2 adv. [avail v. + -able] 
a'valanche (-sh), n. Mass of snow, earth, 
and ice, descending swiftly from mountain 
(also fig.). [F, dialect, form of avalance f. 
avaler descend (a val to the valley), see -ance] 
avani'a (-nea), n. (Extortionate) tax levied 
by Turks, [etym. dub. ; common in Levant] 
avant-eourier tavo'ng-kdbTier), n. One 
who runs, rides, before; esp. (pi.) scouts, ad- 
vance-guard, [f. F avant-coureur (avant be- 
fore + coureur runner f. courir)] 
a'vapice, n. Greed of gain, cupidity; (fig.) 
eager desire togetor keep. Hence avari'eio us 
a., avari'eiousLY 2 adv. [OF, f. L avaritia 
(avarus greedy, see -ice)] 
ava*st, int. (naut.). Stop ; cease, [prob. f. 
Da. houd vast hold fast] 

avatar', n. (Hind. Myth.) descent of deity 
to earth in incarnate form ; incarnation ; mani- 
festation, display ; phase, [f. Skr. avatara 
descent (ava down + tar- pass over)] 
avau'nt, int. Begone, [f. F avant forward 
f. LL ab-ante before (L ab from + ante before)] 
a*ve (-1), int. & n. Welcome ; farewell ; 
shout of welcome or farewell ; A. Maria (Hail, 
Mary), devotional recitation (Luke i. 28, 42) and 
prayer to the Virgin ; a.-bell, rung when this is 
to be said. [L, 2nd sing, imper. of avere fare 
well] 

ave'nge, v.t. Inflict retribution, exact 
satisfaction, on behalf of (person, violated 
right, &c.) ; be avenged, a. oneself; take ven- 
geance for (injury), [f. OF avengier (a, to + 
vengier f. L vindicare)] 
a'vens, n. Wood a., herb bennet; water 



a., plant of same genus, [f. OF avence etym. 
dub.] 

ave'nturine, -in, n. Brownish glass with 
gold spangles, manufactured first at Murano 
near Venice ; variety of quartz resembling 
this. [F, f. It. avventurino (avventura chance, 
from its accidental discovery)] 

avenue, n. Way of approach (usu. fig.) ; 
approach to country house bordered by trees ; 
roadway marked by trees or other objects at 
regular intervals; (esp. in U.S) wide street. 
[F, fern. p.p. (used as n.) of avenir f. L ad- 
venire come to] 

aver', v.t. (-rr-). Assert, affirm ; (Law) prove 
a plea. Hence aver'FABLE a. [f. F averer f. 
LL *AX>verare verify (verus true)] 

a'veragre 1 (-Ij), n. Generally prevailing rate, 
degree, amount; ordinary standard; medial 
estimate, as on an a. ; apportionment of loss of 
ship, cargo, or freight, through unavoidable 
accident (particular a.) or through inten- 
tional damage to ship or sacrifice of cargo 
(general a.), among the owners or insurers, 
[etym. dub. ; F avarie, Sp. aveHa, Du. avarij, 
haverij, G hafarei; pern, conn. w. OF aveir 
goods, see avoirdupois] 

a'vepag"© 2 * a. Estimated by average; of 
the usual standard. Hence a'verageL y 2 adv. 
[f. prec] 

a'verage 3 , v.t. Estimate the average of 
(by dividing the aggregate of several quan- 
tities by the number of quantities) ; estimate 
the general standard of; amount on an average 
to ; a. (work on an average) six hours a day. 
[as prec] 

aver 'men t, n. Positive statement, affirma- 
tion ; (Law) offer to prove, proof of, a plea. [f. 
F avereinent (as aver)] 

averrunca'tor, n. Instrument for cutting 
off branches of trees high above head. [f. obs. 
vb averruncate, f. L averruncare (a off 4- 
verruncare turn), but wrongly explained as 
f. eruncare weed out] 

aver'se, a. Opposed, disinclined, (to, from) ; 
unwilling (to do). Hence aver'seNESS n. [f. 
L as avert] 

aver'sion, n. Dislike, antipathy, (to, from, 
for) ; unwillingness (to do) ; object of dislike, 
as pet a. [f. L aversio (as avert, see -ion)] 

avert, v.t. Turn away (eyes, thoughts, 
from) ; ward off. Hence avep'tiBLE, -able, 
aa. [f. F avertir f. LL avertere, L -ere (a away 

+ vertere vers- turn) ; cf. advert] 

a*vian, a. Pertaining to birds, [f. L avis 
bird + -an) 

a'viapy, n. Place for keeping birds, [f. L 

aviarium (as prec, see -arium)] 

a'viate, v.i. Manage or travel in dirigible 

balloon, airship, flying-machine, &c. So avi- 

a'tion, a'viatOR 2 , nn. [f. L avis bird, -ate 3 ] 
a'vid, a. Eager, greedy (of, for). Hence 

a'vidLY 2 adv. [f. L avidxis (avere crave)] 
avi'dity, n. Ardent desire, greed, [f. F 

aviditt f. L aviditatem (as prec, see -ty)] 
a'vifauna, n. Birds (of district, country) 

collectively, [f. L avis bird + fauna] 
avi'so (-ezo), n. Advice-boat. [Sp., f. L 

advisum, see advice] 
avizandum, n. (Sc Law). Private con- 
sideration, [med. L, gerund otavizare consider] 
avoca'tion, n. Distraction ; minor occu- 
pation ; vocation, calling, [f. L avocatio 

(avocare call away, see -ation)] 
a'voeet, -set, n. Wading bird allied to 

snipe, [f. F avocette t. It. avosetta] 
avoi'd, v.t. Shun, refrain from (thing, doing) ; 

escape, evade ; (Law) defeat (pleading), quash 

(sentence). Hence avoi'dABLE a. [f. AF 



AVOIDANCE 

avoider f. OF evuider clear out, get quit of (es 
out + vuidier f. vuit, vuide, void)] 

avoi'dance, n. Act of avoiding; vacancy 
(of office, benefice), [prec. + -ance] 

avoirdupois (a'verdiipoi'z), a. & n. A. 
{weight), system of weights used in Great 
Britain for all goods except precious metals 
& stones, & medicines ; A. pound contains 
7,000 grains ; (U.S.) weight, heaviness, [recent 
corrupt, of avoir-de-pois f. AF, OF, aveir de 
peis (aveir, avoir, goods, property, f. L habere 
have + de of + pois, peis, weight f. 1, pension)] 

avou'ch (-ow-), v.t. & i. Guarantee ; affirm ; 
confess. Hence avou'chMENT n. [f. OF 
avochier f. L AUvocare (in legal use) call upon as 
defender] 

avow, v.t. Admit, confess; (refl. & pass.) 
admit oneself to be, as a. himself the author, 
the avou-ed author. Hence avow'ABLE a., 
avow'AL n., avowedLY 2 adv. [f. F avouer 
(a to + vouer f. LL votare frequent, of vovere 
vow)] 

avu'lsion, n. Tearing away ; (Law) sudden 
removal of land by flood &c. to another per- 
son's estate, [f. L avulsio (avellere -vuls- 
pluck away)] 

avu'nculap, a. Of, resembling, an uncle. 
[f. L avunculus maternal uncle (dim. of avus 
grandfather) + -ar l ] 

awai't, v.t. Wait for ; (of things) be in store 
for. [f. OXF awaitier (a to + xcaitier, OF 
guaitier, see wait v.)] 

awa'ke 1 , v.t. & i. (past awoke, p.p. awoke, 
awaked). Cease to sleep ; (fig.) become active ; 
a. to, become conscious of ; rouse from sleep 
(lit. & fig.). [(1) OE awxcnan, awoc, awacen, 

(a- prob. = on) ; of which present tense was 
early treated as weak vb, with past awaecnede, 

whence awaken, awakened ; (2) OE awacian, 
awacode, in form a compd of wacian watch, 

but in sense = awxcnan; (3) in OE these were 
intr. , the trans, sense being given by a wecc(e)an, 

ME awecche, G erwecken, ousted by awake, 

trans., before 1300] 
awa'ke 2 , pred. a. Roused from sleep ; not 

asleep ; vigilant ; a. to, aware of. [short for 

awaken, orig. p.p. of prec] 
awa-ken, v.t. & i. = awake 1 (lit. & fig.) 

esp. (fig.) arouse (to a sense of), [see awake *] 
award 1 (-awd), v.t. Adjudge; grant, as- 
sign, [f. AF awarder f. OF esguarder f. Rom. 

*EX(ivardare, -guardare, f. OLG *warden, 

OHG warten, watch ; cf. ward)] 
awar'd 2 , n. Judicial decision; payment. 

penalty, assigned by this. [AF, f. OF eswart, 

esguart, f. esguarder, see prec] 
aware*, pred. a. Conscious, knowing, (of, 

that). [OE gewxr (OHG gawar, MHG gewar, 

G gewahr) f. ge- quite + wzer wary] 
away, adv. To, at, a distance from the 

place, person, thing, in question (lit. & fig.), as 

go a., throw a., give a., he is a., waste a., fool 

a., explain a. ; out & a., beyond comparison ; 

constantly, continuously, as work a., peg a. ; 

without delay, as fire a. ; = go away (imper.) ; 

a. with (imper.), go a. witb, take a. ; (cannot) a. 

with, get on with, tolerate ; make a. with, 

destroy. [OE onweg (phr. on weg on one's way, 

onward, along), in early E used as separable 

vbl prefix] 
awe \ n. Reverential fear or wonder, as 

stand in a. of, hold, keep, in a. ; awestruck, 

struck with a. Hence awe'LESS, awe'SOME, 

aa. [f. ON agi ; OE has ege ; both f. agan v. 

fear] 

awe 2 , v.t. Inspire with awe. [f. prec] 
awe 3 , n. One of the float-boards of an 

undershot water wheel. [?] 



57 AY 

awful, a. Inspiring awe; worthy of pro- 
found respect ; solemnly impressive ; (archaic) 
reverential ; (slang) notable in its kind, as a. 
scrawl, bore, relief, something a. Hence aw- 
fulLY 2 adv., awfulNESS n. [awe l -f -ful] 
awhi'le, adv. For a short time. [OE dnc 
hwile a while] 

awkward, a. Ill-adapted for use ; clumsy 
(person, thing) ; bungling; embarrassing; diffi- 
cult, dangerous, to deal with. Hence aw'k- 
wardiSH l (2) a. , awkwardLY 2 ad v. , aw'k- 
wardxESS n. [f. obs. adj. awk back-handed, 
untoward (prob. f. ON afug turned the wrong 
way) + -ward] 

awl, n. Small tool for pricking, pricker, esp. 
that used by shoemakers. [OE ael, cf. OHG ala, 
G ahle] 

awn, n. Spinous process, beard, terminat- 
ing grain-sheath of barley, oats, &c. Hence 
awned l [-ed 2 ], awnLESS, aa. [prob. f. ON 
ogn pi. agnar ; cf. OHG aga.no, G ahne] 
awning 1 , n. Canvas roof, esp. above deck 
of vessel ; (Naut.) poop-deck beyond bulkhead 
of cabin; shelter. Hence awned 2 [-ed 2 ] a. 
[pern. f. F auvent, etym. dub.] 
awry (aW), adv. & a. Crookedly, askew ; 
look a., look askance (lit. & fig.); amiss, im- 
properly; go, run, tread, a., do wrong; (adj., 
usu. pred.) crooked (lit. & fig.), [a prep. + wry] 
ax(e), n. Chopping-tool, usually iron with 
steel edge & wooden handle ; put the a. in the 
helve, solve a puzzle ; (U.S. politics) an a. to 
grind, private ends to serve. [com.-Teut. ; OE 
sex, OHG acchus, G ax, axt ; akin to Gk axine 
& perh. L ascia] 

a'xial, a. Forming, belonging to, an axis ; 
round an axis. Hence axia'liTY n., a'xialLY 2 
adv. [f. axis + -al] 

a'xil, n. Upper angle between leaf & stem it 
springs from, or between branch & trunk, [f. 
L axilla armpit] 

a'xile, a. (hot., physiol.) Belonging to the 
axis. [f. axis, see -il] 

auxiliary, a. Pertaining to the armpit ; 
(Bot. ) in, growing from, the axil, [f . F axillaire 
f. L *axillaris (as axil)] 

a'xiom, n. Established principle ; maxim ; 
self-evident truth, [f. F axiome f. L f. Gk 
axioma (axioo hold worthy f. axios, see -m)] 
axioma'tie, -ieal, aa. Self-evident ; charac- 
terized by axioms ; full of maxims, aphoristic. 
Hence axioma'tiealLY 2 adv. [f. Gk axio- 
matikos (axioma -matos), see prec. & -ic, -al] 
a'xis, n. (pi. axes). Imaginary line about 
which a body rotates, or by revolution about 
which a plane is conceived as generating a solid 
(sphere, cone, cylinder) ; line dividing regular 
figure symmetrically ; (Optics) ray passing 
through centre of eye or lens, or falling per- 
pendicularly on it; (Physiol.) central core of 
organ or organism; (Bot.) central column of 
inflorescence or other whorl of growth ; straight 
line from end to end of a body, as a. of equator 
(polar diameter of earth). [L, = axle, pivot] 
a'xle, n. Spindle upon or with which wheel 
revolves; (in carriages, prop.) slender ends of 
a.-tree (whole bar connecting wheels), (loosely) 
a. -tree; wheel & a., a mechanical power; 
a.-box (in which ends of aa. revolve) ; a.- 
journal, polished end of a. revolving under 
bearing in a. -box. Hence a*xlED 2 a. [first 
found in axle-tree, ON bxxd-tree ( ON oxxdl = 
Goth, ahsulsf. OTeut. ahsd, cogn. w. Skr. aksha, 
Gk axon, L axis)] 

a*xolotl, n. Salamander-like reptile found 
in Mexican lakes. [Aztec, = servant (xolotl) of 
water (atl)\ 
ay (i), int. & n. Yes ; (n.) affirmative answer ; 



AYAH 



58 



BACHELOR 



the ayes have it, affirmative voters are in 
majority, [t] 

ayah (i*a), n. Native Hindoo nurse or lady s 
maid. [Ind. vernacular aya f. Port, aia nurse, 
fem. of aio tutor] 

aye (a), adv. Ever, always ; on all occa- 
sions ; for a., for ever. [ME agg, ai, ei, f. ON 
ei, ey, cogn. w. Goth, aiw f. OTeut. aiwoz, cogn. 
w. L aevum age ; cf. Gk aei always] 

aye-aye (i'i), n. Squirrel-like animal of the 
size of a cat, found only in Madagascar. [F, f. 
Malagasy aiay] 

, Aza'lea, n. Genus of flowering shrubby 
plants, natives of northern hemisphere, [f. Gk 
azalea fem. of azaleos dry (from its dry wood 
or the dry soil in which it flourishes)] 

a'zarole, n. Fruit of the Neapolitan medlar, 
[f. F azerole (Sp. azarolla) f. Arab, az-zu rur 
(al the + name of the fruit)] 

a'zimuth, n. Arc of the heavens extending 
from the zenith to the horizon, which it cuts 
at right angles ; a.-circle, one of which this is 
a quadrant, passing through zenith & nadir; 
true a. of a heavenly body, arc of horizon 
intercepted between north (in Southern hemi- 
sphere, south) point of horizon & the point where 
the great circle passing through the body cuts 
the horizon ; magnetic a., arc intercepted be- 
tween this circle & magnetic meridian. Hence 
azimu'thAL a., azimuthalLY 2 adv. [f. F 
azimut f. Arab, assumut (al the + sumut pi. of 
samt way, direction)] 

azo'ic, a. Having no trace of life; (Geol.) 
containing no organic remains, [f. Gk azoos 
(a- not + zoe life) + -ic] 

azo'te, n. Former name of nitrogen. Hence 
azd'tica., a*zotiZE(3)v.t. [F, f. Gk «- not+2-66 
(for zao) live, from its inability to support life] 

azure (a*zher, a'zhye?-), n. & a., & v.t. Sky 
blue ; unclouded vault of heaven ; bright blue 
pigment; lapis lazuli; (adj.) sky-blue, (fig.) 
cloudless, serene ; (v.t.) make a. [f. OF azur f. 
med. L azura f. Arab, al the+lazivard f. Pers. 
lazhward lapis lazuli] 

a'zygous, a. & n. (physiol.). (An organic 
part) not existing in pairs, [f. Gk azugos un- 
yoked (a- not + zugon yoke) + -ous] 

B 

B (be), letter (pi. Bs, B's, Bees). (Mus.) 
seventh note in scale of C major (B flat, 
jocular euphem. for bug). (In argument) 
second hypothetical person or thing. (Alg.) 
second known quantity. 

Abbreviations (1) : bachelor, as B.A. (of Arts), 
B.D. (of Divinity), B.Sc. (of Science), LL.B. 
(of Laws) ; brandy, B & S (& soda) ; beata, 
B.V.M. (Virgo Maria = the Blessed Virgin 
Mary) ; before, B.C. (Christ) ; born, as b. 1851 ; 
British, as B.C. (Columbia). 

Abbreviations (2) : Bart, baronet ; Beds., 
Bedfordshire ; Berks., Berkshire ; Bp, 
bishop ; Bros, Brothers ; Bucks., Bucking- 
hamshire. 

baa (bah), n., & v.i. (baaing, baaed or 
baa'd). = bleat. Baa-lamb, nursery name 
for lamb, [imit.] 

Ba'al, n. (pi. Ba'alim). Phoenician god ; 
(transf.) a false god. Hence Ba*aliSM(3), 
Ba*aliST(2), Ba'aliTE(l), nn. [Heb. ba'al lord] 

ba'bacoote (bah-), n. Species of lemur 
(Madagascar). [Malagasy babakoto] 

Ba'bbit-metal, n. Soft alloy of tin, 
antimony, & copper, [inventor's name] 

ba'bble 1 , v.i. & t. Talk half articulately, 
incoherently, or excessively ; murmur (of 
streams, &c.) ; repeat foolishly ; let out 



(secrets). Hence ba'bbleMENT n. [imit. of 
infant's ba, ba, + -LE (3); cf. F babiller, LG 
babbelen, G pappelen] 

ba'bble 2 , n. Imperfect speech ; idle talk ; 
murmur of water &c. [prec.J 

ba'bbler, n. Chatterer; teller of secrets; 
Long-legged Thrush, [-er x ] 

babe, n. (poet.). Young child, baby; inex- 
perienced or guileless person, [imit. of child's 
speech, cf. babble] 

ba'bel, n. The tower in Shinar (Gen. xi) ; a 
high structure ; visionary plan ; scene of con- 
fusion, noisy assembly, meaningless noise, 
[perh. f. Ass. bab-ilu gate of God] 

babirou'ssa, -ru'ssa (-roo-), n. E.-Asiatic 
wild hog with upturned horn-like tusks. 
[Malay babi hog+rw.sa. deer] 

baboo (bah-), n. (As Hindoo title) Mr ; Hin- 
doo gentleman ; Indian English-writing clerk ; 
(contemptuous) half anglicized Hindoo. [Hind. 
babu] 

baboo'n, n. Large African & S. -Asiatic 
monkey, [f. 13th-c. F babuin etym. dub. ] 

babou'che (-oosh), n. Oriental slipper. [F, 
f. Arab, babush f. Pers. paposh (pa loot+posh 
covering) ; iov p=b cf. pasha & bashaw] 

ba'by, n. Very young child ; childish 

Eerson, whence ba'byisH * a., ba'byishNESS, 
ia*byiSM(2), nn. ; thing small of its kind ; 
b.-farmer, one who contracts to keep bb. Hence 
ba'byHOOD n. [babe, -y 3 ] 

Ba'bylon, n. Capital of Chaldean empire ; 
any great empire or vicious city ; Rome, the 
papacy (ref. to Rev. xvii &c), London, &c. 
Hence Babylo'niAN a. & n. [L, f. Gk Babulon 
f. Heb. Babel babel] 

baccalau'reate (-rlat), n. University 
degree of bachelor, [f. med. L baccalaureatus 
(baccalaureus corrupted after bacca lauri 
laurelberry ) f . baccalarius bachelor ; see ate *] 

ba'ccara, -at (-rah), n. Gambling card game. 
[F] 

ba'ecate, a. (hot.) Bearing berries, berry- 
shaped. Hence baeea'to- comb. form. [f. L 
baccatus berried (bacca berry, -ate 2 )] 

ba'cchanal (-k-), a. & n. Of, like, Bacchus 
or his rites ; riotous, roystering. Priest, 
priestess, votary, of Bacchus ; drunken revel- 
ler ; dance or song in honour of Bacchus, [f. L 
bacchanalis (L f. Gk Bakkhos god of wine, -al)] 

Bacehana'lia, n. pi. Festival of Bacchus ; 
drunken revelry. [L neut. pi. of bacchanalis 
= prec] 

Bacchana'lian, a. & n. Of Bacchanals ; 
riotous, drunken. A bacchanal, tippler, [f. L 
bacchanalis bacchanal+ -an] 

Ba'cchant, n. masc. or fem., & a. ; Bac- 
chante (baka'nt, ba'kant, baka'nti), n. fem. 
Priest, priestess, votary, of Bacchus ; Bac- 
chus-worshipping, wine-loving. Hence Bac- 
cha'ntic a. [(-nte F) f. L bacchari (-ant) f. 
Gk bakkheuo celebrate Bacchic rites] 

Ba'cchic, a. = bacchanal (adj. meanings), 
[f. L f. Gk bakkhikos of Bacchus] 

Ba'cchus, n. Greek god of wine. [L, f. Gk 
Bakkhos] 

bacci'ferous, ba'ceiform, bacci'vor- 
ous, (baks-), aa. Berry -bearing, -shaped, -eat- 
ing. [L baccifer (-ferous) ; L bacca berry + 

-FORM, -VOROUS] 

Ba'charach (bah'charahch). A Rhine wine, 
[town] 

ba'chelop, n. Young knight serving under 
another's banner (hist.) ; hence now, knight b., 
simple knight not belonging to a special order ; 
man or woman who has taken the university 
degree below Master; unmarried man. B.'s 
buttons, various button-shaped flowers esp. 



BACILLARY 



59 



BAD 



double buttercup, also sniaU ratafia biscuits. 
Hence ba'cheloPHOOD, ba'ehelorsHip, 
ba*eheloriSM(4), nn. [f. OF bacheler i. L 
*baccalaris; cf. baccalaria piece of land, 
baccalarius farm-labourer, perh. f. bacca LL 
for L vacca cow] 

baci'llary, a. Of little rods (tissue, mem- 
brane) ; connected with bacilli (disease, 
research), [bacillus + -ary J] 

baei'lliform, a. Rod-shaped, [foil. + -form] 

baci'llus, n. (pi. -Mi). Genus of schizomy- 
cetae, microscopic rodlike vegetable organisms 
some of which are found in diseased tissues in 
anthrax, phthisis, &c. [LL dim. of L baculus 
stick] 

back 1 , n. & a. Hinder surface of human 
body (at the b. of, behind in support, pursuit, 
or concealment ; behind one's b. ; give, make, 
a b„ bend down at leapfrog ; turn one's b. 
upon, run away from, abandon ; on one's b., 
laid up ; with one's b. to wall, hard pressed) ; 
body as needing clothes (b. <t belly, clothing 
& food) or as weight-carrier (6. equal to burden ; 
have on one's b., be burdened with ; break 
one's b., overburden him, & see break 1 b. 
of) ; surface of things corresponding to human 
b. (less visible, active, or important ; 6. of hand, 
leg, door, book, knife), side away from spec- 
tator ; upper surface of animal's body, surface 
corresponding to this (ridge-shaped, &c. ; b. of 
hill, ship esp. in broke her b. ; on the b. of, in 
addition to) ; football player stationed behind 
(full, three-quafter, half, b.)\ backhand, over 
cart-saddle to keep shafts up ; backboard, at 
b. of cart, also strapped across child's b. to 
straighten it ; backbone, spine (whence ba'ck- 
bonED 2 a. ; to the backbone, thoroughly), main 
support, axis, watershed, chief strength, firm- 
ness of character (whence ba'ckboneLESS a.) ; 
backfall, throw on b. in wrestling ; backsword, 
with only one edge, also singlestick. (Adj. ; 
no comp., superl. backmost) : situated behind, 
remote, inferior, (take b. seat, humble oneself) ; 
overdue (b. rent) ; reversed, counter, (b. cur- 
rent); backdoor, lit., & fig. secret means or 
rpproach, (adj.) clandestine, underhand ; 
b.-end, late autumn ; background, part of 
scene, picture, or description, that serves as 
setting to chief figures or objects and fore- 
ground, obscurity, retirement ; backhand(ed), 
delivered with b. of hand or in direction 
counter to the usual, indirect, unexpected, 
(backhander, such blow, indirect attack, extra 
glass got by bottle's travelling wrong way) ; 
backset, counter current, check, reverse ; back- 
side, posterior, rump ; b.-sight, that nearer 
stock of rifle &c, (Surv.) sight taken back- 
wards ; backstairs n. & a., backstair a., as 
backdoor above ; backstays, ropes slanting 
abaft from masthead to sides of ship ; back- 
stroke, return or backhand stroke ; backwash, 
motion of receding wave (lit. & fig. ) ; back- 
water, water dammed back, currentless water 
beside stream & fed by its backflow, stagnant 
condition of things, creek communicating with 
sea by barred outlets, water cast from ship's 
paddles, loss of power caused by this ; backway, 
bypath (lit. & fig.); backxcoods n. & a., back- 
wood a., (connected with) remote uncleared 
forest land (so baekicoodsmari). [a. f. n., OE 
bsec ; Teut., now almost confined to E] 

back 2 , v.t. & i. Put, or be, a back, lining, 
support, or background, to ; assist with coun- 
tenance, money, or argument, bet upon, 
whence ba'ckER l n. ; (of sporting dogs) follow 
suit to one that points ; b. up, help by subor- 
dinate action, esp. in cricket ; ride upon, break 
w* to the saddle ; countersign, endorse ; cause 



to move back (horse, boat, engine, &c. ; b. a 
sail, yard, lay it aback, i. e. to face wind ; b. 
water, reverse boat's motion with oars) ; go 
backwards; (of wind) change countersunwise 
(cf. veer) ; 0. out (of), withdraw (from under- 
taking &c. ) ; 6. down, abandon claim, [f. prec] 

back 3 , adv. To the rear (often with omission 
of vb, esp. in imperative), away from what is 
considered the front (push the bolt b.) ; away 
from a promise (go b.from or upon one's word) ; 
into the past, into or in an earlier position or 
condition, home ; in return (answer b. = retort : 
pay b.) ; at a distance (b.from the road) ; in a 
checked condition (keep b.); =ago; reckoning 
backwards (for years b.); behindhand; b. & 
forth = to & fro ; b. of (U.S.) = behind ; backbite, 
slander, speak ill of, whence ba'ckbitER 1 n. ; 
ba'cklash(ing), irregular recoil of wheels in 
machinery due to defects or sudden pressure ; 
backslide v.i., relapse into sin, whence back- 
sli'dER 1 , backsli'diNG 1 , nn. ; backstitch 
n. & v.t. &i., sewung) with overlapping stitches, 
[for aback] 

back 4 , n. Shallow vat used in brewing, 
dyeing, &c. [f. Du. bak tub f. F bac punt cf. 
med. L baccus ferryboat] 

baekga'mmon, n. Game played on special 
double board with draughts & dice ; most com- 
plete form of win in this, [back 3 (because 
pieces go back or re-enter), game x ] 

ba'cking*, n. In vbl senses ; esp. : body of 
supporters ; material used to form thing's 
back or support, [back 2 , -ing j ] 

backsheesh. See baksheesh. 

ba*ekward(s),adv., ba'ekward, a. Away 
from one's front (look, lean, &c); back fore- 
most (walk &c.) ; back to starting-point (floxv, 
roll, &c. ; not of living things exc. in b. & for- 
wards); into a worse state (go &c); into the 
past (reckon &c.) ; the reverse way (spell &c. ; 
ring the bells b., from bass upwards). (Adj.) 
directed to rear or starting-point ; reversed ; 
reluctant, shy, behindhand, dull, whence 
ba'ekwardNESS n. [orig. for abaekicard, 
later referred to back 1 ; see -ward, -wards] 

backwardation, n. (St. Exch.). Per- 
centage paid by seller of stock for right of 
delaying delivery (cf. contango), [f. prec. 
used as vb + -ation on anal, of retardation] 

ba'con, n. Cured back & sides of pig (save 
one's b., escape death or injury). [OF, f. OHG 
bacho MHG backe buttock cf. back 1 ] 

Baco'nian, a. & n. Of Francis Bacon or his 
philosophy, experimental, inductive; a fol- 
lower of Bacon. [Bacon + -IAN] 

ba'cony, a. Like bacon (esp. b. liver, a 
disease, fatty degeneration), [bacon -f -y x ] 

bacterium, n. (pi. -rid). Genus of schi- 
zomycetae, microscopic rod-shaped unicellular 
organisms in decomposing liquids. Hence 
baeter'iAL a., baeterid'LOGY, -6'logist, nn. 
[mod. L, f. Gk bakterion dim. of baktron stick] 

ba'culine, a. Of the stick or flogging (esp. 
6. argument), [f. L bacidum stick + -ine x ] 

bad, a. (worse, worst), & n. (Negatively) 
worthless, inferior, deficient, of poor quality, 
incorrect, not valid, (b. air, corrupt ; b. coin, 
debased; b. debt, not recoverable ; b.food, not 
nourishing; go b., decay; with b. grace, re- 
luctantly; b. shot, wrong guess; 6. law, not 
sustainable ; b. form, want of breeding ; 6. pre- 
eminence, disrepute ; in a b. sense, unfavour- 
able ; 6. success). (Positively) noxious, de- 
praved, vicious, offensive, painful, (b. blood, ill 
feeling; b. for, injurious to) ; in ill health, in- 
jured, in pain, (she is b., worse, to-day ; a b. leg). 
(N.) ill fortune (take the b. with the good), wrong 
side of account (£500 to the b.), ruin (go to the 



BADE 



60 



BAILIFF 



&.). Hence ba'ddiSH * (2) a. [ME badde, pern, 
f. OE bxddel hermaphrodite-, womanish man ; 
for loss of I cf. my eel much] 

bade. See bid K 

badge, n. Distinctive mark, formerly of 
knight, now worn as sign of office or licensed 
employment or membership of a society ; 
symbol, something that betrays a quality or 
condition. [ME ; etym. dub.] 

ba'dger 1 , n. (dial.) Hawker, esp. of pro- 
visions. [?] 

ba'dger 2 , n. Grey-coated strong-jawed 
nocturnal hibernating plantigrade quadruped 
between weasels & bears ; fishing-fly, & paint- 
ing-brush, made of its hair ; b.-baiting, -draw- 
ing, setting dogs to draw it from its burrow 
or a cask; b.-legged, with legs of unequal 
length (popular error), [mod. E (older brock or 
bauson) perh. f. badge + -ard (earlier bageard, 
badgerd) with ref. to its white forehead mark] 

ba'dgep 3 , v.t. Bait like a badger, worry, 
tease, [f. prec] 

badinage (-ahzh), n. Light raillery. [F (ba- 
diner banter f. badin silly f. LL badare gape)] 

ba'dly, adv. (worse, worst). Defectively, 
unsuccessfully, faultily, wickedly, cruelly, dan- 
gerously, by much (beaten), very much (icant 
a thing b\ [-LY 2 ] 

ba'dminton, n. A summer drink (claret, 
soda, sugar) ; game with net, rackets, & shut- 
tlecocks. [Duke of Beaufort's seat] 

ba'dness, n. Poor quality or condition ; 
faultiness, invalidity ; wickedness, noxious- 
ness, adverseness. [-ness] 

ba'ffle, v.t. Foil, reduce to perplexity, bar 
progress of, (person, curiosity, faculties, efforts, 
ship) ; baffling winds, variable, preventing a 
straight course, [perh. f. F beffler mock & 
bafouer hoodwink, both perh. f. Pr. bafar 
mock perh. f. 6a/interj. of contempt] 

ba'ffy, ba/ffing-spoon, nn. Wooden golf 
club for lofting. Icf. Sc. baffa. blow] 

baft, n. Coarse cheap cotton fabric exported 
to Africa. [Pers., = woven] 

bag 1 , n. Receptacle of flexible material 
with opening at top (green or blue b., barrister's 
for briefs; hyphened with nouns showing 
contents or purpose, as mail-b., travelling-b. ; 
also alone for such compp., e.g. for money-b., 
so bags = wealth, or for game-b., also for g.-b.'s 
contents or all a sportsman has shot or caught ; 
6. of bones, lean creature ; whole b. of tricks, 
every device, everything, all the lot ; in bottom 
of b., as last resource ; let cat out of b., reveal 
secret, esp. involuntarily ; b. & baggage, with 
all belongings, esp. of utter expulsion), whence 
ba'ggiNG * (3) n. ; cow's udder ; sac in body 
containing honey, poison, &c. ; baggy place 
under eyes &c. ; (slang) bb., trousers; b. fox, 
one brought, not found ; bagman, commercial 
traveller, also = b. fox ; bagpipe(s), musical 
instrument (air-b., three drones, & chanter) 
now used chiefly in Scotland ; b.-sleeve, loose 
except at wrist; b.-wig, 18th-c. wig with back 
hair enclosed in b. Hence ba*gFUL(2) n. 
[perh. f. ON baggi etym. dub. ; no evidence for 
connexion with belly, bellows (OHG balg)] 

bag* 2 , v.i. & t. Swell, bulge; (Naut.) drop 
away from course ; hang loosely ; put in a bag, 
secure (game, whether lit. bagged or not), take 
possession of, (euphem.) steal, [prec] 

bag 3 , v.t. Cut (wheat &c.) with a hook, [also 

badge; etym. dub.] 

baga'sse (-as), n. Refuse products in sugar- 
making. [F ; perh. = bagage lumber] 

bagate'lle, n. Trifle, negligible amount; light 

Fiiece of music ; minor game of billiard kind. 
F, f. It. bagatella dim. perh. f. baga baggage] 



ba'ggage (-ij), n. Belongings with which 
one travels (now ousted exc. in U.S. by lug- 
gage) ; portable equipment of army ; good- 
for-nothing woman (now only used playfully), 
saucy girl. [f. OF bagage f. baguer tie up or 
bagues bundles pi. of bague = lt. & LL baga 
chest] 

ba'ggy, a. Puffed out, hanging in loose 
folds. Hence ba'ggiNESS n. [bag 1 + -v 2 ] 

bagnio (ba'nyo), n. Bathing-house (not now 
in England) ; oriental prison ; brothel, [f. It. 
bagno f. L balneum bath] 

bah, int. of contempt. [F] 

Baha'dup (-ahd-), n. Complimentary title 
appended in India to names of European 
officers. [Hind., = gallant] 

baignoire (banwah'r), n. Box at theatre on 
level of stalls. [F] 

bail !, n. Security for prisoner's appearance, 
on giving which he is released pending trial 
(forfeit one's b., fail to appear; save one's b., 
appear); (joe.) give leg &., run away; person(s) 
who become(s) surety for prisoner's appearance 
(be, become, go, b. ; go b. for, guarantee truth 
of anything ; magistrate accepts, admits to, 
allows, holds to, takes, b. ; prisoner gives, offers, 
surrenders to his, b. ; his b. sumxnder, render, 
bring in, produce, him). [OF bail custody f. 
baillier take charge of f. L bajulare bear a 
burden (bajulus porter)] 

bail 2 , v.t. 1. Deliver (goods) in trust. 2. Ad- 
mit to bail, release on security given for appear- 
ance, (of magistrate ; archaic) ; secure libera- 
tion of, by becoming bail or security for (b. out 
if already in prison), [sense 1 f . F battler de- 
liver ; sense 2 f. bail ] ] 

bail 3 , n. (Hist.) outer line of fortification 
formed of stakes ; wall of castle court, or court 
itself. (Mod.) bar separating horses in open 
stable; swinging &., slung from manger to 
ceiling ; (cricket) one of the cross pieces (orig. 
one, not two) over stumps. [OF 6a il perh. f. 
baillier enclose, or f. L baculum stick] 

bail 4 , n. Half-hoop for supporting wagon- 
tilt &c. ; hoop-handle of kettle &c. ; (Australia) 
frame holding cow's head at milking. [ME 
beyl f. ON beygla swordguard &c. (beygya = 
OE began to bend)] 

bail 5 , v.t. Confine (archaic); (Australia) 6. 
up, secure (cow; see prec); (of bushrangers) 
make hold up the arms to rob, (intr. of victim) 
throw up the arms. [f. OF baillier enclose 
perh. same as in prec. & bail 2 ] 

bail 6 , bale, v.t. Throw water out of boat 
with pails &c. (b. water out, b. out boat, or abs.). 
Hence bai'lep 1 [-er 1 (2)] n. [f. obs. n. bail 
bucket f. F bailie f. LL bacula dim. of baca, 
bacca, water vessel] 

bai'lable, a. Admitting of bail (offence). 
[bail ] , 2 + -able] 

bailee*, n. One to whom goods are entrusted 
for a purpose. [bail 2 + -ee] 

bai'ler 2 , n. Ball that hits bails at cricket. 

[BAILS + 'ER 1 ] 

bai'ley, n. Outer wall of castle ; also any of 
its inner defensive circuits, or any of the courts 
enclosed between these; Old B., London Cen- 
tral Criminal Court, standing in ancient b. of 
city wall: [ME variant of bail 3 perh. f. med. 
L form ballium] 

bai*lie,n. Scotch municipal magistrate =Eng. 
alderman. [ME bailli f. OF baillfe bailiff] 

bai'liff, n. (Orig.) King's representative in 
a district (including mayor, sheriff, &c), esp. 
chief officer of a hundred (still in High-B. of 
Westminster, B. of Dover Castle, &c. ; used as 
Eng. equivalent of F bailli, G landvogt, Chan- 
nel-I. bailly or first civil officer) ; officer under 






BAILIWICK 61 

sheriff for writs, processes, arrests ; agent of 
lord of manor ; landholder's steward. [ME & 
OF baillif obj. case of baillis f. LL. bajulivus 
(L bajulus porter)j 

bai'liwlek, n. District, jurisdiction, of 
bailie or bailiff, [bailie + wick 2 ] 

bai'lment, in. Delivery of goods in trust ; 
bailing of prisoner. [OF bailie mrnt see bail 2 
& -ment] 

bai'lor, n. One who delivers goods to another 
for a stated purpose, [bail 2 + -or 2 J 

bai'lsman, n. One who gives bail for 
another, [f. bail's (bail 1 ) + man] 

bain-marie (F), n. Vessel of hot water in 
which stewpans are stood to warm. [F, f. L 
balneum Mariae bath of the Virgin perh. 
from gentleness of process] 

Bairam (birah'rn), n. Mohammedan festival 
(twice a year, Lesser & Greater). [Turk. & 

Pers.]' 

bairn, n. Child (Sc. form now borrowed in 
literary Eng., the E berne having perished, & 
barne become dialectal). [OE beam, coni.- 
Teut. f. beran bear 3 ] 

bait 1 , v.t. & i. (Orig. ) cause to bite. (1) Worry 
(chained animal) by setting dogs at it (with 
dogs, or abs. ; also of the dogs), whence (bear, 
bull, &c.) -baitiNG 1 n. ; torment (helpless 
person) with jeers &c. (2) Give food to, take 
food, (of horses on journey) ; stop at inn (orig. 
to feed horses, then also for rest or refresh- 
ment). (3) Put food (real or sham) on or in 
(hook, trap, fishing-place), [sense 3 prob. f. 
foil. ; ME beyten f. ON beita cause to bite (bita 
bite v.) cf. OF beter] 

bait 2 , n. Food to entice prey (live &., small 
fish so used) ; (fig.) an allurement, temptation ; 
halt in journey for refreshment or rest, [partly 
f. OX beita food, partly f. prec] 

baize, n. Coarse woollen stuff with long 
nap used for coverings, [f. F baies pi. fern, of 
bai f . L badius chestnut - coloured, bay 6 , 
treated by mistake as sing. cf. bodice] 

bake, v.t. & i. Cook by dry heat in closed place 
or on hot surface (not by direct exposure to fire), 
whence ba'kiXG x (5) n. ; harden by heat ; (half- 
baked, immature, half-witted); (of sun) ripen 
(fruit), tan (skin) ; (intr.) undergo the process, 
be cooked, hardened, tanned, by heat ; bake- 
house, house or room for baking bread, or for 
making loaf-sugar ; bakestone, flat stone, slate, 
or iron plate, on which cakes are baked in 
oven ; baking-powder, substitute for yeast. 
[OE bacan; com.-Teut., & cf. Gkphogo roast] 

ba'kep, n. Professional breadmaker (pull 
devil, pull b., encouragement to both sides; 
b.'s dozen, thirteen, 13th loaf being huckster's 
profit; b.-legged, knock-kneed) ; (Fishing) kind 
of artificial fly. Hence ba'kePESS 1 , ba'k- 
ery(3), nn. [OE bxcere (bacan bake + -er 1 )] 

backsheesh, ba'khshish (e-), n. Gratuity, 
tip, (article not used). [Pers., f. bakhshidangive] 

Ba'laam (-lam), n. Disappointing prophet 
or ally ; (Journalism) matter kept in stock to 
fill up gaps in newspaper (Numb. xxii. 28 or 38 ; 
b.-box, receptacle for this). 

balance 1 , n. Weighing - apparatus with 
central pivot, beam, & two scales; spring or 
lever substitute for this ; regulating gear of 
clock or watch ; zodiac constellation (usu. 
Libra or The Scales), & (not now corresponding) 
seventh sign of zodiac. The weighing of 
actions or opinions, the wavering of fortune or 
chance, power to decide (hold the b.) ; counter- 
poise, set-off; equilibrium \d. of power, no 
State greatly preponderant) ; (Art) harmony of 
design & proportion ; steady position (lose one's 
b„ fall physically or be upset mentally; &.- 



BALK 

wheel, in watch, regulating the beat); pre- 
ponderating weight or amount (the b. of ad- 
vantage lies with him). (Accounts) difference 
between Cr & Dr, statement of this (strike a 
b., determine it; b.-sheet, written statement of 
it with details) ; b. of trade, difference between 
exports & imports; b. in hand, amount over 
after realizing assets & meeting liabilities ; b 
due, deficiency ; (slang) the remainder of any- 
thing. [F, = It. bilancia f. L (libra) m(lanx- 
lancis plate) two-scaled (balance)] 

balance-, v.t. & i. Weigh (a question, two 
arguments &c. against each other); match 
(thing) with, by, against, another; bring (thing, 
oneself) into, or keep in, equilibrium ; equal 
or neutralize weight of, make up for ; oscillate, 
waver; (dancing) move conversely with one's 
partner. (Accounts) compare Dr & Cr, make 
the entry necessary to equalize them ; account 
balances, two sides are equal ; settle account by 
paying deficit, [f. F balancer (bala nee = prec.)] 

ba'las, n. Species of ruby. [f. OF balais 
ult. f. Pers. Badakhshan district of origin] 

ba'leony, n. Outside balustraded platform 
with access from upper-floor window ; (Theatre) 
tier of seats generally between dress-circle & 
gallery. Hence ba*leoniED 2 a. [f. It. balcone 
(balco f. OHG balcho = balk 1 + -one -oon)] 

bald (bawld), a. With scalp wholly or partly 
hairless (go b.-headed slang, stake everything, 
disregard consequences) ; (of animals &c.) hair- 
less, featherless, treeless, leafless, napless; (of 
horses) marked with white, esp. on face ; (of 
style) meagre, dull, jejune, monotonous, (of bad 
qualities) undisguised, whence ba'ldL Y 2 adv. ; 
baldhead, baldpate, (person) with bald head, 
kinds of duck (pate only) & pigeon. Hence 
ba'ldXESS n. [earlier balled perh. f. obs. ball 
white spot cf. W (ceffyl) bdl (horse) with white 
forehead, Ir. & Gael, bal spot, +-ed 2 ] 

ba'ldachin (-k-), -quin, n. (Orig.) rich 
brocade ; (now) canopy projecting, suspended, 
or on pillars, over altar, throne, &c. [F & Sp. 
baldaquin f. It. baldacchino (Baldacco It. form 
of Bagdad, place of origin)] 

ba'ld-eoot, ba'ldicoot, n. The coot, from 
its bare white forehead ; bald person. 
■ ba'lderdash (bawl-), n. (Formerly) frothy 
liquid, mixture of liquors. (Now) jumble of 
words, nonsense ; foul language. [?] 

ba'ldmoney (bawl-), n. 'Yellow-flowered 
umbelliferous plant. [?] 

ba'ldrie (bawl-), n. Belt for sword, bugle, 
&c, hung from shoulder to opposite hip. Hence 
ba*ldrie-wiSE adv. [earlier baudry f. OF 
baudrei cf. MHG balderich perh. f. L balteus 
belt] 

bale 1 , n. Evil, destruction, woe, pain, 
misery, (poet. & archaic). Hence ba'leFUL a., 
ba-lefulLY 2 adv. [OE, OSax., & OFris. balu 
f. OTeut. *balwom neut. adj. evil] 

bale 2 , n. Package of merchandise usu. done 
up in canvas & corded or metal-hooped. [ME 
(perh. through Flem.) f. OF bale, balle, f. It. 
balla, palla, either from OHG balla, palla, 
ball 1, or f. Gk palla ball] 

bale 3 . See bail 6 . 

balee'n, n. & a. Whalebone. [ME baleyne 
f. OF baleine f. L balaena whale] 

ba'lefipe, n. Great fire in the open ; funeral 
pyre ; beaconfire ( fire added only in 19th c.) ; 
bonfire, [f. OE bid & ON bdl great fire f. 
OTeut. balom (cf. Skr. bhalas lustre, Gk phalos 
shining) + fire] 

balk 1 , baulk, (bawk), n. Ridge left un- 
ploughed ; stumbling-block, hindrance ; sanc- 
tuary area on billiard table (make a b., utilize 
this) ; roughly squared timber beam ; tie- 



BALK 

beam of a house ; headline of fishing-net. [OE 
balca ridge & perh. ON bdlkr beam] 

balk 2 , baulk, (bawk), v.t. & i. Shirk, miss, 
(topic, turn, duty, chance) ; jib, shy, pull up ; 
hinder, thwart, disappoint, discourage, startle. 
If. prec] 

ball i (bawl), n. Solid or hollow sphere ; (with 
distinctive adj. ) any of the heavenly bodies; hard 
or soft, inflated or solid, large or small, sphere 
used in games; (Cricket) single delivery of it 
by bowler (no b., delivery breaking rules) ; 
solid missile (not always spherical) for cannon, 
rifle, pistol, &c (load with b., opposed to blank 
cartridge) ; = ballot n., & see black 1 ; b. of 
eye, eye within lids ; material gathered or 
Wound in round mass, as snow, medicine 
(veterinary), wool, or string; b. of foot, rounded 
part at base of great toe, so b. of thumb. 
(Phrr.) have the b. at one's feet, see one's way to 
success ; keep tip the b., keep the b. rolling, do 
one's part in talk &c. ; the b. is with you, it is 
your turn ; b. & socket, joint with greatest pos- 
sible freedom ; three bb., pawnbroker's sign; b.- 
flring, withb. cartridge; b. -proof ; b.-bearings, 
axle fittings avoiding friction by use of small 
bb. ; b.-cock, -tap, automatic cistern-tap with 
floating b. ; b.-floiver, archit. ornament. [ME 
bal f. ON bollr f. OTeut. balluz] 

ball 2 (bawl), n. Social assembly for dancing 
(so b.-room; give a b., of the entertainer; open 
the b., lead first dance, fig. commence opera- 
tions), [f. F bal f. baler, bailer, = Pr. balar, It. 
& LL ball are to dance perh. f. Gk ballizo dance] 

ball 3 , v.t. & i. Squeeze or wind into a ball ; 
grow into a lump or lumps, [ball 1 ] 

ballad, n. Simple song, esp. sentimental 
composition of several verses, each sung to 
same melody, with accompaniment merely 
subordinate ; poem in short stanzas narrating 
popular story. Hence ba'llad- monger, bal- 
ladRY(o), nn. [ME & OF balade (F ball-) f. Pr. 
balada dancing-song f. balar (ball 2 ),-ade(1)] 

balla'de (balahd), n. Poem of one or more 
triplets of seven-lined or eight-lined stanzas, 
each ending with same refrain line, & envoy; 

goem of equal (usu. seven or eight line) stanzas ; 
. royal, stanzas of seven or eight ten-syllable 
lines (also rhyme royal), [earl ier spelling &pron. 
of prec, now used technically] 

ballast *, n. Heavy material placed in ship's 
hold to secure stability ; in b., in the hold, (of 
ship) laden with b. only, (of material) as b. ; 
experience, principles, &c, that give stability 
to character ; slag &c. used to form bed of rail- 
road or substratum of road, [so in most Eur. 
langg. ; perh. OSw. & ODa. barlast (now bal-) 
show origin, bar bare, mere, ; + last load] 

ba'llast 2 , v.t. Furnish with, render steady 
by means of, b. (lit. & fig.) ; fill in (railroad bed) 
with b. Hence ballastiNG x (3) n. [f. prec] 

ballerina (-enah), n. Dancing-woman, 
ballet-girl, lit.] 

ballet (-la), n. Combined performance of 
professional dancers on the stage. [F, dim. of 

bal BALL. 2 ] 

balfi'sta (ha-), n. Ancient military engine for 
hurling great stones &c. [L, f. Gk ballo throw] 

balli'stic, a. Of projectiles, of hurling power. 
Hence balli'stics n. [prec. + -ic] 

ballon d'essai (F), n. Experiment to see 
whether the public, or foreign States, will 
tolerate a new departure in policy &c. 

balloo'n 1 , n. (Archit.) large ball crowning 
pillar, spire, &c. ; (Chem.) large hollow glass 
globe used in distillations ; round or pear- 
shaped airtight envelope inflated with gas 
lighter than air & rising sky-wards, whence 
balloo*niST(3) n.; any thing hollow & inflated ; 



62 BAM 

shape into which, or frame on which, trees & 
plants are trained, [f. It. ballone large ball 
(balla see bale 2 + -one see -oon)] 

balloo'n 2 , v.i. Ascend in balloon, whence 
balloo'nER 1 n. ; swell out like b. (gowns &c). 
[f. prec] 

ballot 1 , n. (Small ball, ticket, or paper — 
also &. -paper-*^used in) secret voting; votes so 
recorded ; lot-drawing (whether by balls or 
not) ; b.-box, used in voting or lot-drawing, [f. 
It. ballotta dim. of balla ball see bale 2 ] 

ba'llot 2 , v.L Give secret vote ; 6. for, select 
(officials &c) by secret vote; draw lots (for 
precedence, esp. in H. of Commons for right of 
moving resolutions &c). [f. It. ballottare (bal- 
lotta BALLOT !)] 

ba'llot 3 , n. Small bale of 70 to 1201b. [Fdim. 
of balle bale 2 } 

ballotage (-ij), n. French second ballot, 
between two highest candidates with less than 
legal majority. [F, f. ballotter = ballot 2 ; see 
-ageI 

ballyrag", v.t. & i. (slang) (-gg-). Maltreat 
by hustling, jeering, or playing practical jokes 
on ; indulge in horseplay. Hence b'allypag*- 
g-iNG l n. [etyni. dub. ; also bullyrag, prob. by 
pop. etym.] 

balm (bahrn), n. Fragrant & medicinal exuda- 
tion from certain trees ; ointment for anointing, 
soothing pain, or healing ; perfume, fragrance ; 
healing or soothing influence, consolation ; tree 
yielding b. (Asia & N. Africa) ; B. Gentle or B.- 
mint, Bastard B., Field B., fragrant herbs; 
B. ofGilead or of Mecca, golden oleo-resin once 
much used as antiseptic, artificial imitation of 
this. [ME & OF basme f. L balsamum balsam ; 
the ME has been variously corrected on the L 
(e. g. balsme), whence the mod. -1-] 

bal'm-erieket (babm-), n. Cicada, [earlier 
baum- ; mistransl. of G baumgrille tree-cricket] 

balmo'pal, n. Kinds of laced boot, petti- 
coat, Scotch cap. [Queen Victoria's Scotch 
residence] 

bal'my, a. Yielding balm ; fragrant, soft, 
mild, soothing, healing. Hence bal'miLv- 
adv., bal'miNESs n. [balm + -y j ] 

balsam (bawl-), n. Resinous product = 
balm ; True B. or B. of Mecca = balm of 
Gilead ; other medicinal oleo-resins ; Canada 
B., used in mounting for microscope ; artificial 
oily or resinous ointment, esp. various sub- 
stances dissolved in oil or turpentine, e.g. B. of 
Aniseed', (fig.) healing or soothing agency; 
(Chem.) compounds of resins & volatile oils, 
insoluble in water ; tree yielding b. ; flowering 
plant of genus Impatiens ; B. Apple, gourdlike 
plant with highly coloured fruit. Hence bal- 
samic (bawl- or bal-) a., balsa'miCALLY adv., 
balsami'FEROUS a., balsam y 2 (bawl-) a. 
[f. L balsamum ; from c 1000 to 1600 either vari- 
ants of basme were used, or the full L ; balsam 
before & after those dates] 

baltimore (bawl-), n. N.-Amer. orange & 
black starling, [colours of Lord Baltimore 
proprietor of Maryland's coat of arms] 

baluster, n. Short pillar, slender above, 
pearshaped below ; post helping to support 
rail; (pi.) set of these supporting handrail of 
staircase (now usu. banisters), [f. F balustre 
f. It. balausta f. L f. Gk balaustion wild- 
pomegranate flower (from shape of its calyx- 
tube)] 

balustpa'de, n. Row of balusters with rail 
or coping as ornamental parapet to terrace, 
balcony, &c Hence balustpa'dED 2 a. [prec, 
•ade] 

bam, v.t., & n. (slang, archaic). Hoax, [from 
18th c ; etym. dub.] 



BAMBINO 



63 



BANIAN 



bambi'no (-e-), n. Image of infant Jesus in 
swaddling-clothes shown in Italian churches 
at Christmas. [It.,=baby] 

bamboo*, n. Genus of tropical giant grasses ; 
the stem, used as stick or material, [bambu 
now in Java & Sumatra, but perh. not native] 

bamboo'zle, v.t. (slang). Hoax, mystify, 
cheat into doing something or out of property 
&c. Hence bamboo'zleMENT n. [from c. 
1700 ; etym. dub. ; cf. bam, also F bambocher 
play the fool, bamboche puppet f. It. bamboccio 
simpleton (bambo fool + -occio)] 

ban 1 , v.t. & i. Curse (t. & i., archaic) ; pro- 
hibit, interdict. [OE bannan summon & ON 
banna curse f. OTeut. bannan proclaim f. root 
ba- (cf. Lfa-, Gk pha-) speak] 

ban 2 , n. Ecclesiastical anathema, interdict ; 
curse supposed to have supernatural power ; 
angry execration (archaic) ; formal prohibition ; 
sentence of outlawry, esp. B. of the (Holy 
Roman) Empire ; tacit prohibition by public 
opinion (tinder a &.). [OF, f. LL bannum f. 
Teut. bann proclamation with penalties {ban- 
nan ban J)] 

ban 3 , n. Viceroy of districts in Hungary, 
Croatia, &c, commanding in war. [Pers., = lord] 

ba'nal, a. Commonplace, trite. [F (ban 2 , 
-al) ; orig. a feudal word ; the use of the lord's 
mill was compulsory for all tenants (bannal 
mill), whence the sense common to all] 

bana'lity, n. Triteness ; a commonplace. 
[f. F banalite f. prec. see -ality] 

bana'na (-nan-), n. Tropical & subtropical 
fruit tree ; its fruit, finger-shaped with yellow 
rind, in clusters. [.Port, or Sp. f. the native 
name in Guinea] 

banavrsic, a. Suitable for a mere mechanic, 
illiberal, [f. Gk banausikos (banausos work- 
ing by fire f. baunos forge, -ic)] 

Banbury cake, n. Spiced cake made at 
Banbury. 

banc, ba'nco, n. Used in phrases in banc, in 
banco, =on the bench, applied to sittings of a 
Superior Court of Common Law as a full 
court (not Nisi Prius or circuit). \Jbanco L abl. 
of ba?icus bench ; see bank 5 ] 

band 1 , n. (1) Thing that restrains, binds to- 
gether, connects, or unites (chiefly archaic, now 
ousted by the orig. identical bond) ; (book- 
binding) straps at back holding sheets together ; 
b.-stone, one passing through dry-stone wall 
&' binding it. (2) Flat strip of thin material; 
hoop round anything (of iron, elastic, &c); 
strap forming part of a garment (shirt, dress, 
hat, &c), (pi.) development of neckband or 
collar into two pendent strips (clerical, legal) ; 
reef-band, strip sewn on sail at eyelet holes 
for strength ; (Mech.) belt connecting wheels ; 
stripe of colour or distinguishable material on 
object; bandbox; of paper-covered chip or 
cardboard for millinery (orig. for clerical bb. ; 
look as if one came out of bandbox, of ex- 
treme neatness) ; b.-saw, endless saw running 
over wheels ; b.-wheel, worked by strap from 
another. (3) Organized company of armed men, 
robbers, persons with common object (B. of 
Hope, total abstinence association), musicians 
(esp. regimental b. ; German b., any itinerant 
open-air musicians ; bandmaster, conductor ; 
bandstand, platform ; bandsman, 'member of 
b.). [all meanings ult. f. OTeut. bindan bind 1 . 
but 1, 2, 3, with different hist. (1) (tie), ME band 
f. ON band f. OTeut. (hence also bond); (2) (strip), 
late M E bande f . F bande, bende, = Pr. & It. benda 
f. OHG bindd f. OTeut. ; (3) (company), loth-c. 
bande f. F bande = Pr., Sp., It., banda ribbon 
or LL bandum banner both f. Teut.] 

band 2 , v.t. Put a band on; mark with 



stripes ; form into a league (usu. refl. or pass.), 
[f. F bander f. bande, see prec] 

ba'ndage (-ij), n., & v.t. Strip of material 
for binding up limb, wound, &c, or anything 
used for blindfolding; (vb) tie up with b., 
whence ba'ndagiNG *(3) n. [F, f. bande 
band 1 ; see -age] 

banda'nna, -a'na, n. Richly coloured 
yellow or white spotted (orig. always silk) 
handkerchief. [Hind. &a/«Z/i?rainethod*of spot- 
dyeing] 

bandeau* (-do), n. Fillet for binding woman's 
hair. [F] 

ba'nderol(e), n. Long narrow flag with 
cleft end flown at masthead ; ornamental 
streamer on knight's lance ; ribbon-like scroll 
(Arch., stone band) with inscription; some- 
times=BANNEROL. [F banderole dim. of ban- 
diere banner] 

ba'ndicoot, n. (India) rat as large as cat ; 
(Australia) insectivorous marsupial, [f. Telugu 
pandi-kokku pig rat] 

ba'ndit, n. (pi. -i'tti, -its). Outlaw ; lawless 
robber, brigand, (usu. in organized gangs) ; 
a banditti, set of brigands, [f. It. bandito pi. 
-iti p.p. of bandire =*med. L bannire proclaim 
see ban 2 > 2 ] 

ba'ndog, n. Chained dog ; mastiff, blood- 
hound, [earlier band-dog f. band l ] 

bandoleer*, -ier', n. Shoulder-belt with 
cartridge-loops, [f. 17th-c. F bandouillere f. It. 
bandoliera (bandola dim. of banda band j ] 

ba'ndoline, n. Gummy preparation for fix- 
ing the hair or moustache, [perh. f. bandeau] 

ba'ndy l , v.t. Throw, strike, pass, to & fro 
(ball, or fig. stories &c, or persons) ; often 6. 
about ; discuss (names &c.) ; give & take (blows 
&c), exchange (something ivithsome one), [cf. 
F bander *bandie at Tennis' perh. f. bande 
side ; -y unexplained] 

ba'ndy 2 , n. (Orig.) special form of tennis; 
(now also b.-ball) hockey ; the stick, curved at 
end, used in the game. [perh. f. prec] 

ba'ndy 3 , n. Indian cart or buggy, [f. 
Telugu baiidi] 

ba'ndy 4 ', a. Wide apart at the knees (of 
legs) ; b.-legged, (of persons or animals) having 
b. legs. [perh. f. bandy 2 curved stick] 

bane, n. Poison (lit. now only in comb., as 
rafs-b.); cause of ruin, esp. the b. of; ruin, 
woe, (poet.). Hence ba'neFUL a., ba'neful- 
ly 2 adv., ba'nefulNESS n. [OE bana death, 
murder, cf. OHG bano; also Gk phonos 
slaughter] 

bang 1 \ v.t. & i. Strike (t. & i.) noisily ; shut 
(t. & i. of door) with noise ; make sound of 
blow or explosion ; thrash ; (slang) surpass, 
[from 16th c ; cf. ON banga to hammer, LG 
bangen strike] 

bang 2 , n. Sounding blow, sound of a blow, 
report of gun. [f. prec] 

bang* 3 , adv. & int. With sudden impact, 
abruptly, completely, explosively ; go b., ex- 
plode ; conventional imitation of gun-fire. [f. 

BANG 1 ] 

bang- 4 , v.t., & n. Cut (front hair) straight 
across forehead ; fringe resulting ; b.-tail, 
horse with tail cut straight across, [f. prec] 

ba'ngle, n. Ring bracelet or anklet. Hence 
ba'nglED 2 a. [f. Hind, bangri, glass wrist- 
ring] 

ba'nian, ba'nyan, n. Hindoo trader; 
(Bengal) native broker to European house ; 
Indian flannel jacket ; (Naut.) b.-day, on which 
no meat is served out ; b.-hospital, for animals ; 
b.-tree (or b.), Indian Fig, branches of which 
root themselves over great extent. [Port. 
banian f. Arab, banyan f. Gujarati vaniyo 



BANISH 

man of trading caste. B. day, hospital, from 
caste reverence for animal life ; b. tree, E name 
used first of a specimen under which Banians 
had built pagoda] 

ba'nish, v.t. Condemn to exile (person 
from place, or double obj. as banished him 
the court, or obj. of person only) ; dismiss from 
one's presence or mind. Hence ba'nishMENT 
n [f. OF banir (-ISH 2 ) f. LL bannire ban *] 

ba'nistep, n. (usu. pi.). Upright(s) support- 
ing stair handrail (also in pi. for uprights & rail 
together), [corruption of baluster] 

ba'njo, n. (pi. -os, -oes). Stringed musical 
instrument with guitar neck & head, tam- 
bourine body, played with fingers. Hence 
ba'nj6isr(3) n. [negro corruption of earlier 
bandore ult. f. Gk pandoura] 

bank 1 , n. Raised shelf of ground, slope, 
elevation in sea or river bed ; flat-topped mass 
of cloud, snow, &c. Sloping margin of river, 
ground near river {right, left, b., to one look- 
ing down stream) ; edge of hollow place (e. g. 
top of shaft in mining). [ME bajike cf. Olcel. 
bakki in same senses f. OTeut. bankon cf. 

BANK 5 ] 

bank-, v.t. & i. Contain as a b., confine 
with bank(s) ; confine watch-escapement (of 
banking-pins), strike against the banking-pins 
(or abs. ; of escapement) ; b. up, heap or rise 
into bb. (snow, clouds), pack tightly (fire, for 
slow burning), [f. prec] 

bank 3 , n. Establishment for custody of 
money, which it pays out on customer's order ; 
The B., B. of England, managing the public 
debt, receiving the revenue, issuing legal-ten- 
der notes, & having the Government for 
chief customer ; (Gaming) amount of money 
before keeper of table ; b.-bill, drawn by one 
b. on another ; b.-book, containing customer's 
private copy of his account with b. ; b.-credit, 
arrangement by which customer may over- 
draw on security given ; b. holiday, day on 
which bb. are legally closed, usu. kept as 
general holiday also ; b.-note, banker's pro- 
missory note payable to bearer on demand & 
serving as money ; b.-rate, announced percent- 
age at which B. of England is prepared to dis- 
count bills, [f. F banque f. It. banca f. Teut. 
bank bench, see bank 5 ] 

bank 4 , v.t. & i. Keep b., trade in money 
(banking-house, commercial firm that does 
some banking) ; keep money at b. ; deposit 
(mon ey &c. ) at b. ; con vert in to money ; (Gaming) 
hold table fund. [f. prec] 

bank 5 , n. Galley-rower's bench ; tier of 
oars in galley ; row of organ keys ; working- 
table in some trades. [ME baunck f. OF banc 
f. Teut. bank f. OTeut. bankiz bench f. 
bankon] 

ba'nkable, a. That will be received at a 
bank (securities &c. ). [bank 3 -f -able] 

ba'nkep *, n. Proprietor or partner of private 
bank, governor, director, &c, of joint-stock 
bank ; (Gaming) keeper of the bank ; dealer in 
some games of chance, [bank 3 + -er l ] 

ba'nkep 2 , n. Labourer (Eastern counties) ; 
(Hunting) horse that jumps on & off* banks too 
large to clear, [bank l + -er j ] 

ba'nkep 3 , n. Wooden or stone bench for 
trimming bricks or stone on. . [perh. = It. banco 
statuary's bench] 

ba'nking', n. In vbl senses of bank 2 ' 4 ; 
also, fishing on a" sea bank (esp. Newfoundland). 
[bank 2 ] 

ba'nkrupt 1 , n. (Law) insolvent person 
whose effects, on creditors' or his own petition 
to Bankruptcy Court, are administered & 
distributed for benefit of all creditors ; (pop.) 



64 BAOBAB 

insolvent debtor, [earlier bankrout &c. f. It. 
banca rotta broken bank (bank 3 , L rupt- p.p. 
of rumpere break) corrected to -rupt on L] 

ba'nkpupt 2 , v.t. Reduce to bankruptcy, 
[f. prec] 

ba'nkpupt 3 , a. Under legal process be- 
cause of insolvency ; insolvent ; bereft (of some 
quality &c). [perh. the short p.p. of prec] 

ba'nkpuptey, n. Being declared bank- 
rupt, being insolvent ; utter loss (of something, 
e. g. reputation), [prec. + -c y, irreg. for -rupcy] 

ba'nksia, n. Australian flowering shrub 
now grown in Europe. [Sir J. Banks, -ia 1 ] 

ba'nksman, n. Coal-mine overlooker above 
ground, [bank *] 

ba'nnep, n. Cloth flag on pole used as 
standard of emperor, king, lord, knight, for 
war ; flag of a country &c (join, follow, the b. 
of; now chiefly tig.) ; ensign (esp. in frame, or 
with two poles) borne in religious or political 
demonstrations ; anything used as symbol of 
principles ; b.-screen, fire-screen hung from 
standing pole or mantelpiece. Hence ba'n- 
nePED 2 a. [f. OF baniere f. LL "bandaria f. 
LL bandum L Goth, bandwa perh. f. root of 
band, bind] 

ba'nnepet, n. Knight having vassals under 
his banner ; one knighted on the field for 
valour. [ME & OF baneret (baniere see prec. 
-f- -et = -ate 2 ) lit. bannered] 

ba'nnepol, n. Banner borne at great men's 
funerals & placed over tomb ; = banderole. 
[var. of banderole] 

ba'nnock, n. Scotch' & N.-Eng. homemade 
loaf, usu. unleavened, flat, & round or oval. [f. 
Gael, bannach perh. f. ~Lpanicium(panis bread)] 

banns, n. pi. Notice in church of intended 
marriage, thrice read to give opportunity of 
objection (ask, publish, piit up, forbid, the &.). 
[var. of ban 2 ] 

ba'nquet 1 , n. Sumptuous feast ; dinner with 
speeches in celebration of something or to 
further a cause. [F, dim. of banc bench bank 5 ] 

ba'nquet 2 , v.t. & i. Regale (person) ; feast, 
carouse, whence ba'nquetER * n. [f. F ban- 
queter (banquet = prec)] 

banque'tte (-ket), n. Raised way behind 
rampart &c. for firing from ; bench behind 
driver in French diligence. [F, f. It. banchetta 
dim. of banca bench see bank 3 ] 

ba'nshee, n. Spirit whose wail portends 
death in a house (Irish & Scotch). [Ir. bean 
sidhe f. Olr. ben side woman of the fairies] 

ba'ntam, n. Small kind of domestic fowl, 
of which the cock is very pugnacious ; small 
but spirited person ; b.-weight, lightest class in 
boxing - competitions, [f. Bantam in Java 
whence they were perh. brought, though perh. 
orig. Japanese] 

ba'nter, n., & v.t. & i. Humorous ridicule, 
good-humoured personalities. (Vb) make fun 
of, rally ; talk jestingly, [f. 17th c ; etym. dub.] 

ba'nting*, n. Treatment of obesity by ab- 
stinence from sugar, starch, & fat ; bant, adopt 
this, [for Banting's method] 

ba'ntling*, n. Young child, brat. [perh. 
corrupted f. G bdnkling bastard f. bank (bench- 
begotten, cf. bastard); or f. band 2 swathe + 

-LING 1 (2)] 

bantu (bahntoo*), n. & a. Used to include 
many related S.-Afr. languages & races, [native, 
= people] 

ba'nxpingr, n. Javanese squirrel-like in- 
sectivorous animal. [Javanese bangsring] 

ba'nyan. See banian (used esp. for the tree). 

ba'obab, n. African tree called also Monkey- 
Bread with enormously thick stem, [mentioned 
1592] 



BAPTISM 



ba'ptism, n. Religious rite of immersing 
(person) in, or sprinkling with, water in sign 
of purification & (with Christians) of admis- 
sion to- the Church, generally accompanied by 
name-giving; (fig.) b. of blood, martyrdom, 
b. of fire, soldier's first battle ; naming of 
church bells & ships. Hence bapti'smAL a., 
baptrsmalr.v 2 adv. [ME bapteme f. OF 
baptesme f. Lf. Gk baptismos (baptizo baptize)] 

ba'ptist, n. One who baptizes, esp. John 
the B. ; one of a sect (formerly called ana- 
baptists by opponents) objecting to infant 
baptism, & practising immersion. [f. OF 
baptiste f. L baptista f. Gk baptistes (baptizo 
baptize)] 

ba , ptist<e)py, n. Part of church (or form- 
erly separate building) used for baptism ; (in 
Baptist chapel) immersion receptacle, [f. OF 
baptisterie f. L f. Gk baptisterion bathing- 
place (baptizo baptize)] . 

bapti'ze, v.t. Immerse in or sprinkle with 
•water, as sign of purification or initiation, esp. 
into the Christian Church; christen; (abs.) 
administer baptism; (fig.) purify, elevate; 
name or nickname, [f. F baptiscr f. L bap- 
tizare f. Gk baptizo bathe (bapto dip)] 

bar *, n. Long-shaped piece of rigid material 
(metal, wood, soap, &c. ; b.-bell, iron b. with 
ball at each end used in gymnastics, cf. dumb- 
bell ; bancood. red wood from Gaboon imported 
in bb. for dyeing &c.) ; (medals) slip of silver 
below clasp as additional distinction ; band 
of colour &c. on surface, (Herald.) two hori- 
zontal parallel lines across shield (b. sinister, by 
mistake for bend or baton, supposed sign of 
illegitimacy) ; rod or pole used to confine or ob- 
struct (windoiv, door, grate, gate, -b.) ; barrier of 
any shape (Tcmple-b., tollb. ; harbour-b., of sand 
across mouth) ; (Mus.) vertical line across 
stave dividing piece into equal time-parts ; 
immaterial barrier ; (Law) plea arresting action 
or claim ; moral obstacle. Barrier with some 
technical significance, as, in lawcourt, place at 
which prisoner stands ; hence b. of conscience, 
opinion, &c. ; trial at &., in King's-Bench 
division ; a particular court ( practise at par- 
liamentary, Chancery, &c. &.) ; be called to the 
b. (i. e. that in Inns of Court separating 
benchers), be admitted a barrister ; be called 
within the b. (i. e. that in courts within which 
K.C.splead), beappointed King's Counsel ;theb., 
barristers, profession of barrister; (Pari.) rail 
dividing off space to which non-members may 
be admitted on business; (inn &c.) counter 
across which refreshments are handed, space 
behind or room containing it ; barman, bar- 
maid, attendants at such counter. [ME & OF 
barre f. LL barra etym. dub.] 

bar 2 , v.t. Fasten (door &c.) with bar(s) ; 
keep (person) in or out (barring-out, schoolboy 
rebellion) ; obstruct (path &c.) ; stay (process 
or party) by legal objection ; exclude from 
consideration (esp. in imperative used as prep., 
e. g. bar one in betting) ; (slang) object to, dis- 
like, (person, habit, &c); mark with stripe(s). 
tME barren f. OF barrer (barre bar 1 )] 

bar 3 , n. Large European sea-fish. [Fl 

barali'pton. See Barbara. 

ba'rathrum, n. Pit at Athens into which 
criminals were thrown ; abyss. [L, f. Gk 
barathron] 

barb J , n., & v.t. Beardlike feelers of barbel 
&c. ; chin-piece of nun's headdress ; lateral 
filament branching from shaft of feather; sub- 
ordinate recurved point of arrow, fishhook, 
&c, (fig.) sting. (Vb) furnish (arrow &c.) with 
b. ; barbed icire, for fences, with wire prickles 
at intervals, [f. F. barbe f. L barba beard] 

F.D. 



65 BARD 

barb 2 , n. Breeds of horse & pigeon im- 
ported from Barbary. [f. F barbe (Barbarie)] 

bar'bara, first word of the scholastic 
mnemonic lines for figures & moods of the 
syllogism (some of these, esp. barbara, barbara 
ceharent, baralipton, are used allusively for 
logic or k>gical training). 

barbarian, n. & a. (Foreigner) differing 
from speaker in language & customs, esp. in 
hist., (a) non-Greek, (one) outside the Roman 
Empire, (a) non-Christian ; rude, wild, or un- 
cultured (person), [f. F barbarien (barbarous, 



ian)] 
barba'rie, a. 

barians & their 
ba'riCALLY adv. 



Rude, rough, like or of bar- 
art or taste. Hence bar- 
[f. OF barbarique f. L f. Gk 
barbarikos (barbaros barbarous & see -ic)] 

bar'barism, n. Mixing of foreign or vulgar 
expressions in talk or writing ; such an ex- 
pression ; absence of culture, ignorance & 
rudeness ; instance of this. [f. F barbarisme f. 
L f. Gk barbarismos (barbarizo speak like a 
foreigner f. barbaros barbarous, -ize)] 

barba'rity, n. Savage cruelty, instance of 
it ; barbaric style or taste, instance of it, (usu. 
barbarism), [f. L barbarus barbarous + -ty] 

bar'barize, v.t. & i. Make or become bar- 
barous; corrupt (language). Hence bar*- 
bariZA'TiON n. [f. L barbarus barbarous + 
-ize] 

bar'barous, a. (Lang.) not Greek, not 
Greek or Latin, not pure, illiterate ; (people) 
non-Greek, beyond Roman Empire, non-Chris- 
tian, outlandish ; uncivilized ; cruel ; coarse. 
Hence bar'barousLY 2 adv., bar'barous- 
ness n. [f. L f. Gk barbaros foreign (perh. 
imit. of gibberish) + -ous] 

bar'bate, a. (bot., zool.). Having hairy tufts, 
[f. L barbatus bearded (barba beard, -ate 2 )] . 

bar'becue, n. Large wooden or iron frame- 
work for smoking or broiling; hog. ox, &c, 
roasted whole, whence bar'becue v.t. ; (U.S.) 
large entertainment with whole-roasting ; floor 
for drying coffee-beans- [f. Sp. barbacoa f. 
Haitian barbacoa crate on posts] 

bar'bel (-bl), n. .Large European freshwater 
fish with fleshy filaments hanging from mouth; 
such filament in any fish, whence bar*bel(l>- 
ED 2 a. [f. OF barbel f. LL barbellus dim. of 
barbus barbel (barba beard)] 

bar'ber, n. One who shaves & trims 
customers' beards & hair (now usu. hair- 
dresser) ; b.'s-block, for making & displaying 
wigs ; b.'s-pole, spirally painted & used assign. 
[ME & AF barbour f. OF barbeor f. L *barba- 
torem (barba beard), see -or 2 ] 

bar'berry, ber'berry, n. Shrub with 
spiny shoots, yellow flowers, & oblong red 
berries ; its berry, [f. med. L barbaris, ber- 
beris,^etym. dub.] 

bar'bet, n. Bird with bristle-tufts at base 
of bill. [perh. OF barbet adj. = barbu bearded] 

barbe*tte (-et), n. Platform within fort or 
in ship from which guns fire over parapet &c. 
without embrasure. [F dim. of barbe beard 
(F barbette = also linen up to throat showing 
above dress)] 

bar'biean, n. Outer defence to city or castle, 
esp. double tower over gate or bridge, [f. F 
barbacane etym. dub. ; Arab.-Pers. bab-khanah 
gate-house is suggested] 

bar'bule, n. Filament branching from barb 
(of feather) as barb from shaft, [f. L barbulu 
dim. of barba beard] 

bar'earole, -olle, n. Song of gondolier; 
imitation of it. [f. F barcarolle f. It. bar- 
caruola boat-song (barca boat)] 

bard 1 , n. Celtic minstrel, (Wales) poet- 



BARD 



66 



BARON 



recognized at Eisteddfod, whence bap'dic a. ; 
early poet ; lyric poet ; poet, whence bar'd- 
LING 1 n. [f. Gael. & Ir. bard] 
bapd 2 , n. Armour for breast & flanks of 
warhorse. Hence baP'dED 2 a. [f. F barde 
horse-armour perh. = Sp. & Port, albarda (f. 
Arab. ?) packsaddle] 

bare 1 , a. Unclothed, undisguised, uncov- 
ered, bald, unfurnished, unprotected, thread- 
bare, unsheathed, ill-provided, empty, un- 
adorned, scanty, mere ; bareback a. & adv., -ed 
a., with b. back, on unsaddled horse; bare- 
faced, without beard &c, without mask, also 
undisguised, shameless, or impudent, whence 
barefa'eedLY 2 adv., bapefa'eedNESs n. ; 
barefoot a. & adv., barefooted a., without shoes 
or stockings ; b.-headed, without hat or cap. 
Hence baP'iSH ] (2) a. [OE&ser; com.-Teut., 
cf. G & Du. baar] 

bare 2 , v.t. Uncover, unsheathe, reveal, 
strip, [f. prec] 

barege (-azh), n. & a. (Of) silky gauze, 
[orig. made at Bareges] 

bare'ly, adv. Openly, explicitly; merely; 
only just ; scarcely, [bare * + -ly '-] 
bape'ness, n. Lack of covering-, un- 
adorned state, [bare i + -NESS] 
bape'sark, n. & adv. Wild Norse warrior ; 
without armour, [lit. bare shirt (sark) ; mod. 
form embodying supposed etym. of berserker] 
bap'gain 1 (-gin), n. Agreement on terms of 
give and take, compact, thing acquired by 
bargaining (good, bad, b., result cheaply or 
dearly bought ; a b., thing acquired or offered 
cheap ; Didch, wet, b., closed with drink ; into 
the b., beyond the strict terms, moreover; 
strike a b., come to terms ; make best of bad b., 
take misfortune &c. cheerfully), [f. OF bar- 
gains, -caigne, f. LL *barcaneam (barca see 
foil.)] 

bap'gain 2 , v.i. & t. Haggle (with some one, 
or abs.) over terms of give & take ; stipulate 
xoith person for thing or to receive, give, &c. ; 
b. for, be prepared for, expect, (usu. with neg. 
or more than); (trans.) 6. away, part with for 
a consideration. Hence bap'gainER * n. [f . 
OF bargaigner f. LL barcaniare perh. f. barca 
'barge which carries goods to & fro', giving 
sense either of ' off & on ' or of trading] 
barge, n., & v.L Flat-bottomed freight-boat 
for canals & rivers, with or without sails ; second 
boat of man-of-war, for use of chief officers ; 
large ornamental oared vessel for state occa- 
sions, house-boat (e.g. College &.); (vb, slang) 
lurch or rush heavily into, against, about. 
[OF, prob. = bark 3 ] 
barge-, comb, form in architecture = gable. 
JB. -couple, two gable beams ; b. -course, roof 
projecting beyond them ; b.-board, orna^mental 
screen to thens. ; b.-stones, forming sloping or 
stepped line of gable, [f. med. L bargus 
gallows] 

bargee', n. Man in charge of barge, [-ee] 
baple, a. Of or containing barium, [barium 
+ -ic] 

bapi'lla, n. Plant (Salsola Soda) in Spain, 

Sicily, Canaries ; impure alkali made by burn- 

ing_either this or kelp. [Sp.] 

bap*ium,n. (chem.). White metallic element, 

basis of alkaline earth baryta. [baryta+-ium] 

bapk 1 , n. Outer sheath of tree trunks & 

branches ; tan ; quinine (also Peruvian or 

'Jesitits' b.) ; (slang) skin ; b.-bed, hot-bed of 

tan ; b.-bound, hindered in growth by tight b. ; 

b.-pit, of b. & water for tanning ; b.-tree, E 

name of cinchona, [f. Scand. bark- f. OTeut. 

barkuz] 

bark 2 , v.t. Strip bark from (tree), kill (tree) 



by ring-cutting bark (also ring-b.) ; abrade 
(one's knuckles &c.) ; encrust, [f. prec] 
bapk 3 , barque (-ark), n. Three-masted 
vessel with fore & main masts square-rigged, 
mizen fore-&-aft rigged (usu. barque), whence 
baP'k-piggED 2 a. (Poet.) any ship or boat 
(usu. bark), [f. F loth-c. barque f. Pr., Sp., or 
It., barca f. L barca ship's boat perh. f. Celt.] 
bapk 4 , n. Usual cry of dogs, foxes, squirrels; 
(fig.) sound of gun fire, of cough ; b. worse than 
bite, of testy harmless person, [f. foil.] 
bapk 5 , v.i. & t. Utter sharp explosive cry 
(of dogs & some other animals) ; speak (& b. out, 
say) petulantly, imperiously ; b. at, abuse ; 
(slang) cough. [OE beorcan cf. ON berkja ; 
perh. variant of break] 

bap'kep, n. Noisy assailant ; shop or auc- 
tion tout ; (slang) pistol, cannon, [f. prec] 
bap'ley, n. Hardy awned cereal used as 
food & in making malt liquors & spirits ; its 
grain; pearl b., the grain ground small; &.- 
broth, strong ale ; barleycorn, grain of b. 
(John Barleycorn, malt liquor personified), its 
length as measure, 3 inch, top of fore-sight on 
rifle ; b.-mow, stack ; b.-sugar, twisted sweet- 
meat ; b. -water, soothing decoction of pearl b. 
for invalids. [OEbaerlic; for bxr- cf. obs. bear 
barley f. OTeut. bariz ; -lie — -ly l (as if orig. 
an adj.)] 

barm, n. Froth on fermenting malt liquor, 
yeast, leaven. [OE beorma ; prob. com.-Teut., 
cf. G bdjvne] 
Bap'mecide, n. & a. (Giver of benefits that 
are) illusory, imaginary, disappointing, [name 
of Arabian-Nights prince whose feast to beg- 
gar was rich dish-covers with nothing below] 
barn, n. Covered building for storing grain 
&c ; (contempt.) unadorned building ; b.-door, 
lit, & fig. target too large to be missed, also 
adi. of fowls - reared at the b.-d. ; B.-owl,- 
White, Church, Screech, Owl ; b.-stormer, 
strolling player ; b.-yard, farmyard. [OE bere- 
ern (bere barley + xrn place)] 
bap'naele 1 , n. (Usu. pi.) pincers placed on 
horse's nose to coerce him into quiet for shoe- 
ing &c. ; (slang ; pi.) spectacles. [ME bemak f. 
OF bernac snub with dim. ending see -le] 
bap'naele 2 , n. (1) Arctic goose visiting 
Britain in winter (also bemacle for distinction 
from 2). (2) Stalked cirriped clinging by fleshy 
foot-stalk to ship's bottom ; follower who 
cannot be shaken off. [ME bernekke, bernake, 
= OF bernaque etym. dub. ; (Hi)bernicula 
(Irish goose), perna (a shellfish), bare + neck, 
are suggested; pop. mythol. represented the 
goose as developed out of the shellfish] 
ba'pogvaph, n. Self-recording aneroid, [f. 
Gk baros weight + -graph(2)] 
bapo'logy, n. Science of weight, [as prec. 
+ -logy] 

bapd'metep, n. Instrument measuring at- 
mospheric pressure used for forecasting weather 
& ascertaining height above sea-level; com- 
mon, siphon, wheel, aneroid, b., various sys- 
tems; (fig.) b. of opinion &c Hence baro- 
metric* al) aa., bapome'tPiealLY 2 adv., 
bapo'METRY n. [as prec + -meter] 
ba'pon, n. (Hist.) one who held by military 
or other honourable service from the king or 
other superior (restricted later to king's bb.» 
& again to those, Great Bb., attending Great 
Council or summoned to Parliament; hence, 
peer). (Mod. ) one of the lowest order of nobility ; 

holder of foreign title (called Baron , not, 

like English b., Lord ) ; b. of beef r double 

sirloin undivided. [ME & OF barun f. LL 
baronem nom. baro man (as in king's man), free- 
man, husband, male, perh. WLbaro-onis dunce) 



BARONAGE 

ba'ponage (-Ij), n. Barons or great vassals 
of Crown collectively ; the nobility ; book with 
list of peers & comments. [ME & OF barnage 
f. LL *baronaticum f. baro (prec, -age)] 

ba'roness, n. Baron's wife ; lady holding 
baronial title in her own right, [f. OF barnesse 

see BARON, -ESS 1 ] 

ba'ponet ] , n. Member of lowest hereditary 
titled order, commoner with precedence of all 
knights exc. K.G.s ; abbr. bart, added to name, 
as Sir John Jones, Bart. [dim. of baron ; see 
-et] 

ba'ponet' 2 , v.t. Raise to rank of baronet, 
[f. prec. on anal, of knight] 

ba'ponetag-e (-ij), n. Baronets collectively ; 
book with list of them & comments, [-age ; cf. 
baronage] 

ba'ponetey, n. Baronet's patent or rank. 

[-CY] 

bapo'nial, a. Of, belonging to, befitting, 
baron(s). [foil. + -al] 

ba'pony, n. Baron's domain, rank, tenure ; 
(Ireland) division of county ; (Scotland) large 
manor, [f. OF baronie f. LL baronia ; see 
baron & -y ] ] 

bapo'que (-ok), a. & n. Irregularly shaped, 

f grotesque ; whimsical style or ornamentation. 
F, f. Port, barroco, Sp. barrueco rough pearl, 
etym. dub.] 

bapou'che (-oosh), n. Four-wheeled carriage 
with collapsible half-head, for four occupants 
& driver, [f. G (dial.) barutsche f. It. baroccio 
f. L birotus (bi- 1 a + rota wheel) perh. after 
carroccio chariot] 

barque, n. See bark 3 . 

bapquentine, bark-, (barkenten), n. 
Vessel with foremast square-rigged, main & 
mizen fore-&-aft rigged, [f. bark 3 after 
brigantine] 

ba'ppaek, n., & v.t. Permanent building(s) 
in which soldiers are lodged (usu. pi.) ; (transf.) 
building in which others (e. g. children) are 
similarly herded together ; (vb) place in bb. 
[f. F baraque f. It. baracca or Sp. barraca 
' souldier's tent ' (1617) etym. dub.] 

bappaeoo'n, n. Set of sheds or enclosure 
for slaves, convicts, &c. [f. Sp. barracon 
(as prec. ; see -oon)] 

bappacu'da, -eoo'ta, -eou'ta, (-00), n. 
Large W.-Ind. sea-fish. [?Sp.] 

bap'pag"© (-ij), n. Damming; dam (esp. of 
those in Nile). [F, f. barre bar j ; see -age] 

ba'ppatop, -er, n. (legal). Vexatious liti- 
gant ; malicious raiser of discord, [f. OF 
barateor trickster (barat fraud perh. f. Celtic, 
cf . Olr. mrath, W brad ; meaning influenced by 
ON bardtta, strife] 

ba'ppatpy, n. (Marine law) fraud or gross 
negligence of master or crew to prejudice of 
ship's owners ; (Law) vexatious litigation or 
incitement to it. Hence ba'ppatpous a. [f. 
OF baraterie {barat see prec, -ery)] 

bapped, a. In vbl senses; also [bar 1 ] 
marked with bars, (of harbour) obstructed with 
sandbar. 

ba'ppel 1 , n. Flat-ended cylindrical wooden 
vessel of hooped staves, cask ; varying measure 
of capacity (b.-bulk, 5 cub. ft) ; revolving 
cylinder in capstan, watch, & other machines ; 
cylindrical body or trunk of an object, belly 
& loins of horse, &c. ; metal tube of gun ; 
barrel-, cylindrical or semi-cylindrical, as 
6. -drain, -vault ; b.-organ, with pin-studded 
revolving cylinder acting mechanically on 
keys. [f. F baril perh. f. LL barra bar 2 ] 

ba'ppel 2 , v.t. (-11-). Put in barrel(s); bar- 
relled, also, = b.-shaped. [f. prec] 

ba'ppen, a. (-est), & n. Not bearing, or 



67 BARYTONE 



incapable of bearing, children, young, fruit, 
vegetation, or produce ; meagre, unprofitable, 
dull ; (noun) barren tract of land ; barrenwort, 
purple-&-yellow-flowered wood plant. Hence 
ba'ppenLY 2 adv., ba'ppenNESs n. [f. OF 
baraine (fern.), brahain, brehaing, &c, etym. 
dub.] 

ba'ppet, n. Flat cap, esp. the biretta. [f. F 
barrette biretta] 

bappiea'de 1 , (now rarely) -a'do, n. Hastily 
erected rampart across street &c. of barrels, 
carts, stones, furniture ; any barrier, lit. or fig. 
[f. F ban'icade or Sp. barricada (-ado) f. F 
barrique or Sp. barrica cask] 

bappiea'de 2 , (now rarely) -a'do, v. t. Block 
(street &c.) with b. ; defend (place or person) 
with b. [f. prec] 

ba'ppiep 1 , n. Fence barring advance or 
preventing access ; (ancient chariot-races) 
barred starting-cells ; (foreign towns) gate at 
which customs are collected ; (tilting) the lists 
or enclosing palisade, also railing parallel to 
which, but on opposite sides, tilters charged 
reaching their lances across ; any obstacle, 
boundary, or agency that keeps apart. [ME 
& AF barrere f. OF barriere f. LL barraria 
(barra bar 1 ) later assim. to F spelling] 

ba'ppiep 2 , v.t. Close or shut in with b. 
(usu. with off, in), [f. prec] 

bap'ping*, prep. Except, not including, 
[part, of bar 2 ] 1 

ba'ppistep, n. Law student called to bar 
& having right of practising as advocate in 
superior courts (in full, b.-at-law) ; rexising-b., 
one appointed to revise lists of voters at 
parliamentary elections, [f. bar 1 (orig. the 
bar in Inn of Court, later connected with that 
in lawcourts) ; -ister (formerly -ester, -aster) 
unexplained ; perh. f. form barre + -ster] 

ba'ppow 1 , n. (In local names) hill; 
(Archaeol.) grave-mound, tumulus. [OE 
beorg; com.-Teut., cf. G berg mountain f. 
OTeut. bergoz f. Aryan bhergh height] 

ba'ppow 2 , n. (Also hand-b.) rectangular 
frame with short shafts used by two or more 
men for carrying loads on, stretcher, bier ; 
(also wheel-b.) shallow box with shafts & 
one wheel for similar use by one man ; (also 
coster' s-b.) two wheeled handcart ; a barrowful. 
[ME bareice f. OTeut. barwd f. beran bear 3 ] 

bap'tep 1 , v.t. & i. Exchange (goods or 
immaterial things) for other goods (sometimes 
away) ; part with for a (usu. unworthy) con- 
sideration (usu. aivay), whence bap'tePER 1 
n. ; trade by exchange, [prob. f. obs. barat 
defraud see barrator+ -er 5 ] 

bap'tep 2 , n. Traffic by exchange, truck, 
(also fig., e. g. of talk) ; (Arith.) reckoning of 
quantity of one commodity to be given for 
another, values being known, [f. prec] 

baptiza'n, n. Battlemented parapet, or 
overhanging battlemented corner turret, at 
top of church tower or castle, [mod. form 
(Scott) prob. f. bertisene illit. spelling of brat- 
hieing see brattice] 

bap*ton, n. Farmyard ; farm not let with 
rest of manor, but retained by owner. [OE 
bere-tun (bere barley +tun enclosure see to wn)] 

bapy'ta, n. Protoxide of barium, alkaline 
earth of great weight. Hence bapy*tic a., 
bapyto- comb. form. [f. foil.] 

bapy'tes, n. Native sulphate of barium, 
called.also heavy spar, used as white paint, 
[f. Gk 'barus heavy, or perh. mere translit. of 
barutes weight, with pronunc. assim. to mineral 
names in -ites] 

ba'pytone (-tn), n. & a. (Voice, singer with 
voice, music suited to voice) between tenor 



BASAL 

& bass ; smaller bass saxhorn in B flat or C ; 
(Gk gr.) (word) without acute accent on last 
syllable. [f. F baryton or It. baritone f. 
(gram, meaning direct f.) Gk barutonos (barus 
heavy +tonos tone)] 
ba'sal, a. Of, at, or forming, the base ; funda- 
mental . [f. BASE 1 + -AL] 

basalt (ba'sawlt, basawlt), n. Dark green 
or brown igneous rock often in columnar 
strata, whence basa'ltic, basa'ltiFORM, 
aa. ; black porcelain invented by Wedgwood, 
[f. L basaltes f. an African word] 
ba'san, ba'zan, n. Sheepskin tanned in 
oak or larch bark (also basil), [f. F basane f. 
Pr. bazana f. Sp. badana f. Arab, bitanah 
lining] 
bas bleu (F), n. Bluestocking. 
ba'scule, n. Lever apparatus used in &.- 
bridge, kind of drawbridge raised & lowered 
with counterpoise. [F, formerly bacule see-saw 
(battre bump or bas down + cid buttocks)] 
base 1 , n. That on which anything stands 
or depends, support, bottom, foundation, 
principle, groundwork, starting-point (b.-ball, 
U.S. national game, more elaborate rounders, 
also ball used in it); (Arch.) part of column 
between shaft & pedestal or pavement ; 
(Bot. & Zool.) end at which an organ is 
attached to trunk ; (Geom.) line or surface on 
which plane or solid figure is held to stand ; 
(Cljem.) correlative of acid, electro-positive 
compound body that combines with acid to 
form salt (including, but wider than, alkali) ; 
(Mil.) line or place used as stronghold or 
magazine (also b. of operations); (Surv.) 
known line used as geometrical b. for tri- 
gonometry ; (Math.) starting-number for 
system of numeration or logarithms (as 10 in 
decimal counting). [F, f. L f. Gk basis (baino 
step, stand)] 

base 2 , v.t. Found (something) on ; establish 
(with adv., as firmly) ; b. oneself on, rely upon 
(in argument &c). [f. prec] 
base 3 , a. (Orig.) of small height (now only 
in plant names as b.-rocket). Morally low, 
cowardly, selfish, mean, despicable, whence 
ba'seLY 2 adv. ; menial; (Law) b. tenure, 
estate, fee, not absolute, but determinable on 
fulfilment of contingent qualification; (Lang.) 
not classical (b. Latinity) ; b.-born, of low 
birth, illegitimate ; b.-court, outer court of 
castle or court behind farmhouse ; b. metals, 
opposed to precious ; b. coin, spurious, alloyed. 
Hence ba'sexESS n. [f. F bas f. LL bassus 
short (in L as cognomen) etym. dub] 
ba'seless, a. Groundless, unfounded. Hence 
ba'selessxESS n. [base *, -less] 
ba'sement, n. Lowest or fundamental 
part of structure ; inhabited storey sunk below 
ground level, [base n. or v. + -ment] 
bash, v.t. Strike heavily so as to smash in 
(often in), [perh. imit., cf. "bang, smash; or = 
Sw. basa flog, Da. baske cudgel] 
bashaw, n. Earlier form of pasha. 
ba'shful, a. Shy ; shamefaced, sheepish. 
Hence taa'shfulLY 2 adv., ba'shfulxESS n. 
[f. obs. bash vb for abash -f -ful] 
bashi-bazou'k, (-ook), n. Mercenary of 
Turkish irregulars, notorious for pillage & 
brutality. Hence bashibazou*kERY(4, 5) n. 
[mod. Turk., lit. brain-turned] 
basi-, stem of many adjj. in Physiol. Of, at, 
forming, the base of. [base 1 , basis] 

ba'sic, a. Of, at, forming, base ; funda- 
mental ; (Chem.) having base atomically more 
than acid (salts) ; (Min.) slightly silicated 
(igneous rock) ; prepared by non-siliceous 
process (steel), [base l + -icj 



68 BASS 

basi'city, n. An acid's relative power of 
combining with bases, [prec. + -ty] 
ba'sil l (-z-), n. Kinds of aromatic herb, esp. 
Common or Sweet B. & Bush or Lesser B., 
both culinary. [f. OF basile f. L basilisca 
(basiliscus basilisk), the Gk name basilicon 
royal being misinterpreted as antidote for 
basilisk's venom] 

ba'sil 2 , n. Corruption of basan. 
ba'silic, a. (Of vein) starting from elbow & 
discharging into axillary vein. [f. F. basilique 
f. L f. Gk. basilikos royal (as formerly thought 
of special importance)] 

basi'lica, n. (Orig.) royal palace ; hence, 
oblong hall with double colonnade & apse 
used for lawcourt & assemblies ; such a 
building used as Christian church ; (in Rome) 
one of the seven churches founded by Con- 
stantine. [L, f. Gk basilike (oikia, stoa) royal 
(house, portico) f. basileus king, -ic] 
basi'licon, -um, n. Kinds of ointment. 
[-on Gk, -um L, f. Gk basilikos as .in prec. ; so 
called as a 'sovereign ' remedy] 
ba'silisk (-z-), n. Fabulous reptile (also cocka- 
trice) hatched by serpent from cock's egg, 
blasting by its breath or look; (fig.) b.-glance 
&c. , evil eye, person or thing that blasts (reputa- 
tion &c); (Zool.) small American lizard with 
hollow crest inflated at will. [f. L f. Gk basilis- 
kos kinglet, _serpent, golden-crested wren] 

basin (ba/sn), n. Hollow round metal or 
pottery vessel, less deep than wide, & con- 
tracting downwards, for holding water &c, 
bowl ; hollow depression ; dock with flood- 
gates ; land-locked harbour ; tract of country 
drained by river & tributaries; circular or 
oval valley ; (Geol.) formation with strata 
dipping towards centre, the deposit (e. g. coal) 
contained in this. Hence ba*sinFUL(2) n. 
[ME & OF bacin (F bassi?i) f. LL bachinus perh. 
for baccinus (bacca water-vessel)] 

ba'sinet, ba'snet, n. Light steel headpiece, 
[f. OF bacinet dim. of bacin basin] 

ba'sis, n. (pi. bases). — base l (chiefly in fig. 
senses) ; main ingredient, foundation, begin- 
ning, determining principle ; common ground 
for negotiation &c. ; military base. [L = base *] 

bask, v.i. Revel in warmth & light (usu. 
in the sun, firelight, &c.) ; basking-shark, 
largest species of shark (also Sunfi-sh & 
Sailfish). [prob. f. ON *bathask (cf. or = other) 
refl. of batha bathe x ] 

ba'sket J , n. Wicker vessel of osiers, cane, 
rushes, &c. ; the quantity contained in it (also 
basketful) ; wicker singlestick handguard ; 
pick of the b., best of the lot; basket-, of b. 
shape as b.-hilt, of b. material or fashion as 
b. -carriage, -work. Hence ba'sketRY(o) n. 
[etym. dub.-; bascauda is mentioned by Martial 
as a British utensil] 

ba'sket 2 , v.t. Put in a b, waste-paper or 
other, [f. prec] 

ba'son \ n. = basin. 

ba'son 2 , n., & v.t. Bench for felting hat 
material ; (vb) felt. [perh. = basin] 

basque (-sk),n. & a. (1) Biscayan, (native or 
language) of Western Pyrenees. (2) Short con- 
tinuation of bodice below waist ; bodice having 
this. [F, f. LL Vasco -onis ; whether 2 is from 
1 is not known] 

bas-relief, bass-, n. (Piece of) shallow 
carving or sculpture on background (less than 
half the true depth), [f. F bas-relief L It. 
basso-Hlievo low relief ; see base 3 ] 

bass \ n. Common Perch ; Black B., Perch 
of Lake Huron ; European sea-fish (also Sea- 
wolf and Sea-dace), [earlier barse f. OE bxrs ; 
com.-Teut. f. root bars- bristle] 



BASS 69 

bass 2 , n. Inner bark of lime, used for mats, 
hassocks, baskets, & for tying plants, flowers, 
&c. ; b.-wood, Amer. lime, its wood, [corrup- 
tion of bast] 

bass 3 , a. & n. Deep-sounding ; (of, suited to) 
lowest part in harmonized music ; (man with) 
b. voice ; thorough-b., b. part with shorthand 
indications below of the proper harmony, hence 
theory of harmony ; b.-viol, violoncello. [ME 
bas base see base 3 ; now bass after It. basso] 

ba'sset 1 , n. Short-legged badger-dog. [F, 
dim. of bas basse low ; see base 3 ] 

ba'sset 2 , n. Obsolete card -game. [f. It. 
bassetta f. bassetto dim. of basso base 3 ] 

ba'sset 3 , n., & v.i., (geol.). Edge of stratum 
cropping out; (vb) crop out. [?] 

ba'sset-horn, n. Tenor clarinet, [transl. 
of F cor de bassette f. It. bassetto see basset 2 ] 

bassine't, n. Hooded wicker cradle or 
perambulator. [F, dim. of bassin basin] 

bassoo'n, n. Wooden double-reed instru- 
ment used as bass to oboe ; organ stop & 
harmonium reeds of similar quality. Hence 
bassoo'niST(3) n. [f. F basson (bas base 3 + 
-on see -oon, or bas son deep sound)] 

basso- ritievo (It.), n. (pl.-o.s). = bas-relief. 

bast, n. Inner bark of lime (see bass 2 ); 
other flexible fibrous barks. [OE bxst ; com.- 
Teut., etym. dub.] 

ba'stard, n. & a. (Child) born out of wed- 
lock or of adultery, illegitimate; (of things) 
unauthorized, hybrid, counterfeit ; b. slip, 
sucker of tree (also tig., = bastard n.); (Bot.) 
nearly resembling another species (b. balm); 
(Zool.) b. wing, rudimentary extra digit with 
, ' quill-feathers. [OF, f. bast (bat-) packsaddle 
(used as bed by muleteer) + -ard ; cf. bantling] 

ba'stardize, v.t. Declare illegitimate. 
Hence ba'stardiZA'TiON n. [prec. 4- -ize] 

ba'stardy, n. Illegitimacy, [f. AF & OF 
bastardie ; see bastard, -y x ] 

baste 1 , v.t. Stitch together, tack, (as prelim, 
to regular sewing), [f. OF bastir (now bdtir) 
perh. f. LL bastire construct, build ; but cf. 
also bast] 

baste 2 , v.t. Moisten (roasting meat) with 
fat to prevent burning ; pour melted wax &c. 
on (wicks in candlemaking). [?] 

baste 3 , v.t. Thrash, cudgel, [perh. = Sw. 
basa flog (basit, baste, baist, as past or p.p. in 
early exx. ; cf. hoist 1 * 2 ); or flg. use of prec. 
(cf . ' dry basting ' Shaksp. )] 

basti'lle (-el), n. Fortress ; Paris prison- 
fortress destroyed 1789 ; prison. [F, f. LL 
bastilia pi. of bastile f. bastire build] 

bastina'do, n., & v.t. (Punish with) caning 
on soles of feet. [f. Sp. bastonada (baston 
stick) see -ado(2)] 

ba'stion, n. Projecting part of fortification, 
irregular pentagon with its base in the line (or 
at an angle) of the main works. Hence 
ba'stionED 2 a. [F, f. It. bastione f. LL ba- 
stire build perh. f. same root as baston baton] 

ba'syl(e), n. (chem.). Body that unites with 
oxygen to form a base, [f . Gk basis base i + -yl] 

bat 1 , n. Nocturnal mouse-like quadruped 
with fingers extended as frame of membranous 
wings ; bat-, often = purblind, [f. 1575, dis- 
placing ME bakke f. Scand.] 

bat 2 , n., & v.i. Cricket implement (ozone's 
own b. cricket or fig., unaided ; carry one's b., 
be not out at end of innings; (also batsman) 

f)erformer with it; (vb) use b., have innings), 
f. OF batte club (battre strike see abate)] 
bat 3 , n. (slang). Pace of stroke or step (went 
off at a rare b.). [?] 

bat-, bat- (bah, baht), comb. form. For 
officers' baggage on campaign ; b.-horse, b.-pay 



BATTALION 

or -allowance, b.-man (in charge of horse), 
[f. F bat packsaddle f. OF bast f. LL basttim 
perh. f. Gk bastazo lift] 

bata'ta (-ahta), n. W. -Indian plant, Sweet 
or Spanish Potato. [Sp. & Port. f. native 
American] 

Bata'vian, a. & n. (Inhabitant) of ancient 
Batavia (between Rhine & Waal) or of modern 
Holland, Dutch(man). [f. L Batavia (Batavi 
Pi-)] 

batch, n. Loaves produced at one baking ; 
quantity or number of anything coming at 
once or treated as a set. [ME bache (bacan 
bake) cf. wake watch] 

bate 1 , v.t. & i. Let down (b. hope &c), re- 
strain (bated breath); deduct (part of; usu. 
with neg., esp. not b. a jot of) ; fall off in force, 
[for abate] 

bate 2 , n., & v.t. Alkaline lye for suppling 
hides ; (vb) steep in this. [=S\v. beta to tan, G 
beissc maceration f. beissen cause to bite 

BAIT x ] 

bath* (-th, pi -dhz), Bath, n. (1) Washing; 
immersion in liquid, air, &c, (b. of blood, 
carnage) ; water &c. for bathing, wash, lotion, 
surrounding medium; vessel, room (also b.- 
room), or building, for bathing in (see Turk- 
ish) ; town resorted to for medical bathing. 
(2) Order of knighthood (B. ; for C.B., K.C.B., 
G.C.B., see C, K, G) named from the b. pre- 
ceding installation. (3) Town in Somerset 
named from hot springs (B.-bnn; B.-brick, 
preparation for cleaning metal ; B. chair, 
wheeled for invalid ; B. stone, oolite building- 
stone). [OE bxth; com.-Teut., cf. G bad f. 
OTeut. bathom perh. f. bajo- foment cf. L 
fovere keep warm] 

bath 2 (-ah- or -a- in all parts), v.t. Subject to 
washing in b. (child or invalid, of nurse &c). 
[f. prec.J 

bathe 1 (-dh), v.t. & i. Immerse (in liquid, 
air, light, &c.) ; (of person or river, liquid, &c.) 
moisten all over; (of sunlight, &c.) envelop; 
take a bath or bathe, so bathing-machine, 
wheeled dressing-box drawn into sea for bath- 
ing from. [OE bathian (-dh-) ; com.-Teut, cf. 
G baden ; for bathe (-dh), bath, cf. graze, 
grass] 

bathe 2 , ba'ther, nn. Taking, taker, of a 
bath, esp. in sea, river, swimming-bath. [f. 
prec. in intr. sense] 

bathe'tic, a. Marked by bathos, [irreg. f. 
Gk bathos on false anal, of pathetic (f. pathe- 
tos, not pathos)] 

batho'meter, n. Spring balance used in 
ascertaining depth of water, [f. Gk bathos 
depth + -meter] 

ba'thos, n. Fall from sublime to ridiculous ; 
anticlimax ; performance absurdly below occa- 
sion. [Gk, = depth] 

bathymetr-, stem of scientific words. Of 
depth-measurement, [f. Gk bathus (translit. 
-2/.s-[deep + -meter] 

ba'ting-, prep. Except, [part, of bate *] 

bati'ste (-est), n. & a. (Of) fine light fabric 
like cambric in texture. [F, f. Baptiste of 
Cambrai, first maker] 

baton (batn), n. Staff of office, esp. Marshal's 
b. ; constable's truncheon ; (Herald.) truncheon 
in shield (b. sinister, badge of bastardy) ; (Mus.) 
conductor's wand for beating time. [f. F baton 
f. OF baston etym. dub.] 

batra'ehian (-k-), a. & n. Of frogs ; (one) 
of the Batrachia, or animals that discard gills 
& tail. [f. Gk batrakheios (batrakhos frog) 4- -an] 

batta'lion, n. Large body of men in battle 
array (God is for the big bb., force prevails) ; 
body of infantry composed of several com- 



BATTELS 

panies & forming part of regiment, body of 
engineers, [f. F battaillon (now bata-) f. It. 
battaglione f. battaglia battle *] 

ba'ttels, n. pi. College account at Oxford 
for board & provisions supplied, or for all col- 
lege expenses, [perh. f. obs. vb battle fatten f. 
obs. adj. battle nutritious cf. batten 4 ] 

batten 1 , n. Board (6ft or more long, 
7in. x 2k or less broad & thick) used for floor- 
ing ; bar of wood used for clamping boards of 
door &c. ; (Naut.) strip of wood nailed on spar 
to save rubbing, or securing hatchway tar- 
paulin. Hence batteniNGM6) n. [var. of 

RATO\l 

ba'tten 2 , v.t. Strengthen with bb. ; (Xaut.) 
b. down, close the hatches (see batten l ). [f. 
prec] 

ba'tten 3 , n. Bar in silk-loom striking in the 
weft. [f. F battant (battre strike, -ant)J 

ba'tten 4 , v.i. Feed gluttonously on, revel 
in, (often implying morbid taste) ; grow fat. 
[perh. f. ON batan get better (bati advantage 
cf. BOOT 2 )] 

ba'tter K v.t. & i. Strike repeatedly so as to 
bruise or break (person, thing, or abs. ; also 
with advv. about, down, in; & intr., b. at 
the door) ; operate against (walls &c.) with 
artillery; (tig.) handle severely (theories, per- 
sons); beat out of shape, indent; (Printing) 
deface (type) by use ; battering-charge, full 
charge of powder for cannon ; battering-ram, 
swinging beam anciently used for breaching 
walls, sometimes with ram's-head end ; batter- 
ing-train, set of siege guns. [f. obs. vb bat, cf. 
OF batre, + -er (5)] 

battep 2 , n. Mixture of ingredients beaten 
up with liquid for cooking ; defect in printing- 
type or stereotype plate, [f. prec] 

battep 3 , v.i. & n. (Have) receding slope 
from ground upwards (of walls narrower at 
top). Iperh. F abattre depress] 

ba'ttepy, n. (Law) infliction of blows, or of 
the least menacing touch to clothes or person 
(esp. in phr. assault & &.); (Mil.) set of guns 
for combined action with their men & horses, 
platform or fortification made to contain guns, 
(fig.) turn a man's b. against himself (in argu- 
ment) ; (in various sciences & arts) set of 
similar or connected cells, instruments, or 
utensils (electric, galvanic, optical, cooking) ; 
hammered brass or copper vessels, [f. F bat- 
terie (battre strike, & see -ery)] 

batting?, n. In vbl senses ; also, cotton 
fibre prepared in sheets for quilts &c. [bat 2 

+ -ING 1 ] 

battle ! , n. Combat, esp. between large 
organized forces (general's b., decided by 
strategy or tactics, soldier's b., by courage; 
pitched b., one fought by common consent; 
b. royal, in which several combatants or all 
available forces engage, free fight) ; victory 
(the b. is to the strong, youth is half the 
b.) ; join, give, refuse, accept, offer, do, b. ; 
b.-axe, medieval weapon ; b.-piece, picture or 
literary description of a battle-scene ; line ofb., 
troops or ships drawn up to fight ; l.-of-b. ship 
(obs.), of 74 or more guns; b.-ship (mod.), 
adapted by armour for regular engagement 
(opp. cruiser as l.-of-b. ship to frigate). [ME 
batayle f. OF bataille f. LL battualia neut. pi. 
of adj. battualis f. battuere beat] 

battle 2 , v.i. Struggle with or against (diffi- 
culties, the waves, &c). [f. F batailler 
(bataille = prec.)] 

battledore, n. Wooden instrument like 
canoe paddle used in washing, baking, &c. ; 
wooden, stringed, or parchmented bat used 
with shuttlecock in the game b. & shuttle- 



70 BAZAAR 

cock, [from 1440 ; perh. f. Pr. batedor beater 
(batre beat + -dor = -tor)] 
battlement, n. (usu. in pi.). Indented 
parapet (raised parts, cops or merlons ; gaps, 
embrasures or crenelles) ; parapet & enclosed 
roof. Hence battlementED 2 a. [f. OF 
batailles temporary wooden turrets, batailler 
provide with these ; etym. dub. ; the F vb was 
later identified with bastillier cf. bastille] 
battue (batoo', or as F), n. Driving of game 
by beaters to the sportsmen's station ; shooting- 
party on this plan ; wholesale slaughter. [F] 
bau'ble, n. Showy trinket ; court fool's 
emblem, a stick with ass-eared head carved on 
it ; trifle, toy, thing of no worth, [f. OF babel 
child's toy, & perh. also partly f. ME babyll 
Sc vb bablyn flicker perh. f. bob 3 ] 
baulk. See balk. 
bawbee, n. (Sc.) Halfpenny. [?] 
bawd, n. Procuress ; obscene talk. [?] 
bawdy, a. & n. Obscene (talk); b. -house, 
brothel. Hence bawdiNESS n. [f. prec] 
bawl, v.t. & i. Say, speak, in a noisy way 
(often with out, also with at, against, &c). [f. 
med. L baidare bark] 
bawn, n. Court of a castle ; cattlefold. [f. 
Ir. bdbhun etym. dub.] 

bay K n. Kind of tree or shrub ; (pi.) wreath 
of its leaves worn by conquerors or poets, 
heroic or poetic fame ; b.-rum, perfume made 
from the leaves, [f. OF baie f. L baca berry] 
bay 2 , n. Part of sea filling wide-mouthed 
opening of land ; recess in mountain range ; 
Bay-state, Massachusetts, [f. F baie f. LL 
baia perh. associated with, but not from, 
badata in foil.] 

bay 3 , n. Division of wall between columns 
or buttresses; recess (horse-b., stall; sickb., 
part of main deck used as hospital) ; space 
added to room by advancing window from 
wall line (b.-window, filling such space), [f. F 
baie OF baie ( = L badata) f. bayer OF baer, 
beer, gape] 

bay 4 , n. Bark of large dog, of hounds in 
pursuit, esp. the chorus raised as they draw 
close ; (in phrr. lit. of hounds & quarry, fig. 
of persecutors & victim, applied to the hunted 
animal) stand or be at, turn to, hold hounds 
&c. at, b., show fight; (applied to hounds) 
hold or have at, bring or drive to, b., come to 
close quarters (with quarry), [mixture of (1) 
OF tenir a bay = It. tenere a bada hold agape 
or in suspense (see badata in prec.) & (2) F 
etre aux abois be at (close quarters with) the 
barking (OF abai)] 

bay 5 , v.i. & t. (Of large dogs) bark ; bark at, 
esp. b. the moon. [OF bayer (mod. aboyer) 
bark perh. f. LL badare gape] 

bay 6, a. & n. Reddish-brown, (horse), [f. F 
bait. L badius] 

Bay'apd, n. Chivalrous person. [French 
hero, 'chevalier sans peur et sans reproche', 
1475-1524] 

bayonet 1 , n. Stabbing blade attachable to 
rifle-muzzle ; the b., or bb., military force ; (with 
prefixed number) so many infantry (cf. sabre) ; 
Spanish b., a plant, species of Yucca, [perh. f. 
Bayonne as made or first used there] 

bayonet 2 , v.t. Stab with b. ; b. into, 
coerce by military force (or fig. by pressure) 
into. [f. prec] 

bayou (bi'u), n. Marshy offshoot of river in 
southern N. America, [f. F boyau gut f. L 
botulus sausage] 

bay-salt, n. Salt in large crystals obtained 
by evaporation, [perh. = sea salt f. bay 2 ] 

bazaar' (-zar), n. Oriental market ; fancy 
fair in imitation of this, esp. sale of goods for 



BDELLIUM 



charities, [f. Pers. bazar prob. through Turk. 
& It.] 

bdellium, n. Balsam-bearing tree ; its resin. 
[L, f. Gk bdellion transl. of Heb. b'dolakh of 
uncertain meaning (carbuncle or crystal or 
pearl)] 

be, v. substantive, copulative, & auxiliary 
(pres. ind., am, art, is, pi. are ; past ind., was 
pr. woz, wast or xcert, xcas, pi. were pr. war & 
wer ; pres. subj., be; past subj., were, exc. 
2 sing, xcert; imperat., be; part., being; p.p., 
been pr. ben. Isn't, xcasnt, aren't pi., xceren't, 
are legitimate in actual or printed talk; 
ain't, an't, for am not is sometimes held 
vulgar ; ain't for is not, are not, is wrong). 

(1) Vb sabst.: Exist, occur, live, (often with 
there ; God is, there is a God ; for the time 
being, temporarily) ; remain, continue, {let 
it be, do not be long) ; (with advv. or adv. 
phrr.) occupy such a position, experience such 
a condition, have gone to such a place, 
busy oneself so, hold such a view, be bound 
for such a place, (is in the garden, has been to 
Rome, be off, hoxo w he ?, xohat are you at?, 
I am for tariff reform, for London) ; (with 
dat.) befall {woe is me). (2) Vb cop. ; (with 
nouns, adjj., or adj. phrr.) belong under such 
a description {I am a man, sick, of good coxir- 
age) ; coincide in identity with, amount to, 
cost, signify, (thou art the man, txcice txco is 
four, it is nothing to me, xchat are these pears ?). 
(3) Vb ausc. : With p.p. of trans, vbs forming 
passives (this xcas done) ; with p.p. of some intr. 
vbs, as fall, come, groxc, forming perfects (the 
sun is set, Babylon is fallen) ; with pres. part, 
act. forming continuous tenses act. & pass, (he 
is building a house, the house xcas building); 
with pres. part. pass, forming continuous tenses 
pass, (the house was being built) ; with infln. 
expressing duty, intention, possibility, (I am to 
inform you, he is to be there, the house is to let, 
he is to be hanged, xt xcas not to be founa]) ; were 
with infin. in hypotheses (if I xcere, or were 
I, to tell you). (4) Parts used as adjj., advv., 
nouns : may-be, perhaps, a possibility ; the to-be, 
the future ; might-have-beens, past possibilities ; 
xcould-be, that yearns, or fancies himself, to be ; 
be-all, whole being, essence, [f. three vbs (1) 
Aryan es-, Gk, L, & OTeut. es-, Skr. as-, to be ; 

(2) OTeut. xces-, Skr. vas-, remain ; (3) Skr. bhu-, 
Gkphu-, lifu-, OTeut. beo-, become. From (1) 
come am (cf. Gk esmi), art (cf. ON est, later 
ert), is, are (cf. OX erxim, L sumxis, Gk esmes) ; 
from (2) come xcas, xcast, xcert, xcere ; from (3) 
come be, being, been] 

be-, pref. f. OE be-, weak form of prep. &adv. 
bi by, accented form of which appears in 
by -law, by-icord, bygone, &c. The orig. mean- 
ing is about, which is variously developed as 
in before (about the front), bespatter (spatter 
all about), bespeak (speak about, making vbs 
trans.), bedevil (say devil about), benight (bring 
night about), behead (take the head from about), 
bejexcel (put jewels about). As new vbs are 
constantly formed, & only the well-estab- 
lished or peculiar ones can be given, the chief 
varieties are here numbered for reference : 
(1) Adding notion of all over, all round, to trans, 
vb, as beset, besmear; (2) adding notion of 
thoroughness, excess, to trans, vb, as bedrug, 
bescorch ; (3) making intr. vbs trans., as bemoan, 
bestraddle ; (1) forming trans, vbs = to make 
from adjj. & nouns as befoul, bedim, be- 
bishop ; (5) making trans, vbs = to call so & so 
from nouns, as bedevil, bemadam ; (6) making 
trans, vbs = to surround with, to affect with, 



7 1 BEAN 

to treat in the manner of, from nouns as be- 
cloud, beguile, befriend; (7) making adjj. in 
-ed 2, from nouns, as bexvigged, befiagged, (usu. 
with some contempt). 

beach 1 , n. Water- worn pebbles; sea-shore 
covered with these ; shore between high &low 
watermark; b.-comber, long wave rolling in. 
Pacific-island settler; b.-master, officer superin- 
tending disembarkation of troops; b.-rest, 
chair-back for sitting against on b. [?] 

beach 2 , v.t. Run (ship, boat) ashore, haul 
up. If. prec] 

bea'con l (-e-), n. Signal, signal-fire on pole 
or hill ; signal station ; conspicuous hill (in 
names) ; lighthouse ; guide or warning. [OE 
biacn f. OTeut. bauknom cf. beckon] 

bea'con 2 , v.t. Give light to, guide ; supply 
(district) with beacons, [f. prec. J 

bead. 1 , n. (Orig.) prayer. Small perforated 
ball for threading with others on string, used 
in counting one's prayers (tell one's bb. ) ; the 
same used for ornament ; drop of liquid, bubble ; 
small knob in fore-sight of gun (draxo a b. on. 
take aim at) ; (Arch.) moulding like a bead 
series, or small one of semicircular section ; 
b.-roll, list of names, long series, (orig. of per- 
sons to be prayed for) ; beadsman, pensioner 
bound to pray for benefactor, almsman. [ME 
bede f. OE gebed (or *bedxi) prayer, see bid x ] 

bead 2 , v.t. & i. Furnish with bb. ; string 
together ; form or grow into bb. [f. prec] 

bea'ding*, n. In vbl senses; also, a bead 
moulding, [bead 1 ; see -ing x ] 

bea'dle, n. Apparitor of trades guild or 
company; parish officer appointed by vestry. 
Hence bea'dlesHiP n. [OE bydel f. OTeut. 
bxidiloz f. biudan announce] 

bea'dledom, n. Stupid officiousness. 

[-DOM] 

bea'dy, a. (Of eyes) small & bright ; covered 
with beads or drops, [bead l ] 

bea'gle, n. Small dog tracking by scent 
formerly used in hare-hunting ; spy, bailiff, &c. 
[perh. f. F M-guexde open throat (beer gape)] 

beak 1 , n. Bird's bill (esp. in birds of prey, 
& when strong & hooked) ; similar mandible- 
end of other animals, as turtle ; hooked nose ; 
projection at prow of ancient war-ship ; spout. 
Hence beakED 2 a. [f. F bee f. LL beccus of 
Gaulish origin] 

beak 2 , n. (slang). Magistrate. [?] 

bea'ker, n. Large drinking-cup ; lipped 
glass vessel for scientific experiments. [ME 
biker cf. G becher perh. f. med. L bicarixim 
perh. f. Gk bikos] 

beam 2 , n. Long piece of squared timber in 
house or ship building; cylinders in loom on 
which warp & cloth are wound ; chief timber 
of plough ; bar of balance (kick the b., prove 
the lighter, be defeated) ; shank of anchor ; 
lever in engine connecting piston rod & 
crank ; (pi.) horizontal cross-timbers of ship 
supporting deck & joining sides (starboard, 
larboard, b., right & left sides, as land on 
I. b. &c.) ; = ship's breadth {on her b.-ends, on 
her side, almost capsizing, fig. in danger, »<"• 
a loss) ; ray or pencil of light ; radiance, bright 
look, smile. [OE Mam tree ; com.-Teut., cf. G 
baum, Du. boom, tree, & perh. Gk phu-, Skr. 
bhxi-, grow] 

beam 2 , v.t. & i. Emit (light, affection, &c); 
shine. Hence bea'miNG 2 a. [f. prec] 

bea'my, a. Radiant (rare) ; (poet., of spears 
&c) huge ; broad (of ships), [beam *, -Y 2 ] 

bean, n. (Kinds of leguminous plants bearing 1 ) 
smooth kidney -shaped seed in long pods; 



For compounds of be- not given consult BE-, 



BEAN-FEAST 



72 



BEAUTIFUL 



similar seed of other plants, as coffee ; full of\ 
bb., b.-fed, in high spirits. [OE Man; com.- 
Teut., cf. G. bohne, & perh. If aba] 
bea'n-feast, n. Employer's annual dinner 
to workpeople. [?] 

bear 1 (har), n. Heavy partly carnivorous 
thick-furred plantigrade quadruped ; rough 
unmannerly person, whence beap'iSH 1 a., 
bear'ishNESS n. ; Great, Little, B., northern 
constellations ; (St. Exch.) speculator for a fall, 
one who sells stock for future delivery hoping 
to buy it cheap meanwhile, & therefore tries 
to bring prices down (cf. bull, & see foil.). 
B.'s-breech, acanthus ; B.'s-foot, kinds of helle- 
bore ; b.-garden, scene of tumult; b.'s-grease, 
pomade; bearskin, (wrap &c.) of b.'s skin, 
Guards' tall furry cap; b.-leader, travelling 
tutor. [OE Mr a ; com.-Teut., cf. G bar, & perh. 
liferus wild] 

bear 2 , v.i. & t. (St. Exch.). Speculate for 
a fall ; produce fall in price of (stocks &c). [f. 
prec, perh. w. ref. to selling the b.'s skin before 
killing the b.] 

beap 3 (bar), v.t. & i. (bore, borne or born, see 
below*). (1) Carry (poet, or formal, exc. in the 
senses or contexts following) : b. or 6. away, 
win (the palm, bell, prize) ; carry visibly, show, 
be known by, (banner, device, arms, the marks 
of, name, relation or ratio to ; b. oneself Well &c., 
behave) ; bring at need (b. xoitness, company ; 
b. a hand, help) ; wield (office, rule) ; carry 
internally (b. a grudge ; b. in mind, remember) ; 
wear (b. arms, the sword) ; b. out, confirm ; M 
borne away (by external force or influence, or 
internal impulse) ; is borne in upon one, be- 
comes one's conviction. (2) Sustain (weight, 
responsibility, cost ; b. a part in, share) ; stand 
(test &c), endure (grin & b. it), tolerate, put 
up with (cannot b. him), whence beap'ABLE 
a. ; be capable of upholding weight (ice bears); 
b. with, treat forbearingly ; b. up, (trans.) up- 
hold, (intr.) not despair ; borne on the books of, 
paid by. (3) Thrust, strive, apply weight, tend, 
(b. doum, overthrow ; b. hard on, oppress ; b. 
upon, be relevant to ; bring to b., apply ; b. to 
the right, away, off, incline ; b. down, swoop ; 
b. up, bring ship into direction of wind ; b. up 
for, change ship's course so as to sail towards. 
(4) Produce, yield, give birth to. *The p.p. is 
borne, exc. that born is used in pass, parts re- 
ferring to human & other mammal birth ; even 
then borne is used before by with the mother 
(has borne a child ; born 1901 ; born of, borne by, 
Eve). [Aryan ; OE, OHG, beran, cf. Gk pher-, 
lifer-] 

beard 1 , n. Hair of lower face (exclud- 
ing usu. the moustache, & sometimes the 
whiskers) ; chin tuft of animals ; gills of oyster ; 
attachment threads of some shellfish ; beak- 
bristles of birds ; awn of grasses ; Old-Man's 
B., = Traveller's Joy. Hence beap'dED 2 , 
beap'dLESS, aa., beap'dlessNESS n. [com.- 
Teut., cf. G bart] 

beard 2 , v.t. Oppose openly, defy. [f. prec] 
beap'ep, n. Person or thing that carries ; 
part-carrier of coffin ; (India) palanqiiin-carrier, 
domestic servant ; bringer of letters or message, 
presenter of cheque ; (with adj. good &c.) 
plant &c. that produces well &c. [bear 3 +-er ] ] 
beap'ing", n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
behaviour ; heraldic charge or device ; relation, 
aspect, (consider it in all its bb. ; what is the 
b. of this on the argument?); (pi.) parts of 
machine that bear the friction ; direction in 
which a place &c. lies, (pi.) relative positions 
(have lost my &&., do not know where I am) ; 
b.-rein, fixed rein from bit to saddle, forcing 
horse to arch its neck, [bear 3 , -ing x ] 



beast, n. Animal ; quadruped ; (Farming) 
bovine animal, esp. fatting-cattle (collect, pi. 
beast) ; animal for riding or driving ; brutal 
man ; person that one dislikes ; The B., Anti- 
christ ; the b., the animal nature in man. [f. OF 
beste f. L bestia] 

bea'stliness, n. Gluttony, drunkenness, 
obscenity ; disgusting food or drink, [f. foil.] 

foea'stly \ a. Like a beast or its ways ; 
unfit for human use, dirty; (colloq.) undesir- 
able. [-LY M 

bea'stly 2 , adv. (slang). (Intensifying adjj. 
& advv. used in bad sense ; cf. jolly) very, 
regrettably, (b. drunk, wet, raining b. hard). 

[-LY2] 

beat 1 , v.t. & i. (past beat; p.p. beaten, but 
beat in dead-beat, often in sense surpassed, & 
sometimes in other senses). Strike repeatedly 
(t. & i. ; b. the breast, in mourning ; b. black & 
blue, bruise ; b. the air, strive in vain ; b. at door, 
knock loudly ; b. path, make it by trampling), 
inflict blows on, (of sun, rain, wind) strike (upon 
something, or abs.) ; overcome, surpass (b. hol- 
loiv, easily), be too hard for, perplex ; move up 
& down (t. & i. of wings) ; move rhythmically 
(heart &c. beats, b. time, seconds, &c.) ; shift, 
drive, alter, deform, by blows (b. down, back, 
away, off; b. in, crush ; b. down price or seller, 
cheapen or bargain with ; 6. up eggs &c, reduce 
to froth, powder, paste ; b. or b. out metal, 
forge) ; (Naut.) b. tip, aboid, strive, tack, against 
wind ; strike (bushes, water) to rouse game (b. 
about the bush, approach subject slowly, shilly- 
shally ; b. up recruits &c, collect; 6. up the 
quarters of, visit ; b. one's brains, search for 
ideas ; b. the bounds, mark parish boundaries 
by striking certain points with rods) ; play the 
drum (b. a parley, a retreat, propose terms, re- 
tire). [OE Matan ; com.-Teut., cf. ON bauta 
f. OTeut. baidan] 

beat 2 , n. Stroke on drum, signal so given ; 
movement of conductor's baton ; measured 
sequence of strokes or sounds ; throbbing ; 
sentinel's or constable's appointed course ; 
one's habitual round ; sportsman's range, [f. 
prec] 

bea'ten, a. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
worn hard, trite ; shaped by the hammer ; ex- 
hausted, dejected, [p.p. of beat 1 ] 

bea'tep, n. In vbl senses ; esp. : man em- 
ployed to rouse game ; implement for beating 

flat. [BEATi-f-ER 1 ] 

beati'fie. a. Making blessed, [f. L beati- 
ficus (beatus p.p. of be- re bless, & see -fic)] 
* bea'tifiea'tion, n. Making or being blessed; 
(R.-C.Ch.) first step to canonization, announce- 
ment that dead person is in bliss. [F, f. L 
beatificare (prec), -ation] 

bea'tify, v.t. Make happy ; (R.-C.Ch.) an- 
nounce as in prec. [f. L (prec, -FY)] 

bea'ting", n. In vbl senses ; esp. : a chastise- 
ment ; a defeat, [f. beat l ] 

bea'titude, n. Blessedness; (pi.) the bless- 
ings in Matt. v. 3-11. [F, f. L beatitudo (beatus 
see beatific, -tude)] 

beau (bo), n. (pi. beaux, pr. boz). Fop ; 
lady's-man, lover. [OF, f. L bellus pretty perh. 
— *benlus dim. cf. bene, bonus good] 

beau ide'al (bo), n. One's highest type of 
excellence or beauty. [F (-£al), = the ideal Beau- 
tiful (often misconceived in E as a beautiful 
ideal) ; see prec & ideal a.] 

beau monde (bo mawnd), n. Fashionable 
society. [F| 

Beaune (bon), n. A red Burgundy wine. 

beau'teous (bu-), a. Beautiful (poet). [ME 

Mute BEAUTY + -OUS] 

beau'tiful, a. Delighting the eye or ear, 






BEAUTIFY 7 

gratifying any taste, (b. face, voice, soup, bat- 
ting) ; morally or intellectually impressive, 
charming, or satisfactory (b. patience, organiza- 
tion, specimen). Hence beairtifulLY 2 adv. 

[BEAUTY + _-FUL] 

beairtify (bu-), v.t. Make beautiful ; adorn. 
Hence beau'tifiER 1 (1, 2) n. [beauty + -fy] 

beau'ty (bu-), n. Combination of qualities, 
as shape, proportion, colour, in human face or 
form, or in other objects, that delights the 
sight ; combined qualities delighting the other 
senses, the moral sense, or the intellect ; a b., 
beautiful person or thing (often ironical) ; 
beautiful women ; a beautiful trait or feature, 
ornament, {that's the b. of it, the particular 
point that gives satisfaction) ; b.-sleep, before 
midnight ; b.-spot, small patch placed on lady's 
face as foil to complexion, beautiful scene. 
[ME bealte, beute, f. OF bealte, beaute, f. L 
bellus pretty ; see beau, -ty] 

beaux yeux (F), n. Beauty ; charms. 

bea*vep l , n. Amphibious broad-tailed soft- 
furred rodent, building huts and dams ; its fur ; 
hat of this. [OE beofor = LG bever, G biber, L 
fiber ; reduplicated f. Aryan bhru- brown] 

bea'ver 2 , n. Lower face-guard of helmet. 
[ME & OF baviere bib (bare saliva)] 

bea'verteen, n. Cotton twilled cloth with 
pile of loops, [f. beaver l after velveteen] 

becal'm (-ahm), v.t. (1) Make calm (sea &c). 
(2) Deprive (ship) of wind. [(1) be-(2)+calm v., 
(2) be-(6) 4- calm n.] 

becau'se (-6z, -awz), adv. and conj. For the 
reason {that & clause, archaic) ; by reason, on 
account, {of & noun) ; for the reason that, 
inasmuch as, since, [by prep. + cause n. ; the 
conj. use arises by omission of that] 

beeeafi'eo (-fe-), n. Small migrant bird 
eaten in Italy. [It. {beccare peck +Jico fig)] 

be'chamel (besh-j, n. Kind of white sauce, 
[inventor's name] 

beche-de-mer (F), n. Sea-slug, a Chinese 
dainty. 

beck \ n. Brook, mountain stream, (north- 
ern word), [f. ON bekkr cf. G bach] 

beck 2 , n. Significant gesture, nod, &c. ; the 
order implied {have at one's b., be at person's 
6. & call, Sf entire dominion & obedience), 
[f. foil.] 

beck 3 , v.t. & i. Make mute signal, signal 
mutely to, (poet.), [shortened f. beckon] 

be'eket, n. (naut.). Contrivance for securing 
loose ropes, tackle, or spars, (rope-loop, hook, 
bracket, &c). [?] 

be'ekon, v.t. & i. Summon, call attention 
of, by gesture ; make mute signal. [OE biecnan 
f. OTeut. baukno- beacon] 

beclou'd, v.t. Cover with clouds; obscure. 
[be-(6) + cloud n.] 

beco'me (-um), v.i. & t. (-came, -come). Come 
into being ; what has b. of (happened to) him ? 
(copulative) begin to be (followed by n., adj., 
or adj. phr.) ; suit, befit, adorn, look well on, 
whence beco'miNG 2 a., beeo*ming , LY 2 adv., 
beeo'ming'NESS n. [OE becuman {BE-+cuman 
come) arFive, attain, happen; com.-Teut., cf. G 
bekommen] 

bed \ n. 1. Thing to sleep on, mattress (feather 
b. &c), frame- work with mattress & cover- 
ings ; animal's resting place, litter ; (elliptical 
for) use of b., being in b. ; 6. and board, enter- 
tainment, connubial relations; narrow b., the 
grave ; b. ofdown,fioivers, roses, easy position ; 
b. of sickness, invalid state ; brought to b., in 
child-birth, of child or abs. ; die in one's b., of 
natural causes ; go to b., retire for the night ; 



I BEDOUIN 

take to, keep, one's b., become, be, ill ; make 
the b., arrange the coverings ; lie in the b. one 
has made, take consequences of one's acts ; 
bedchamber (archaic exc. of royal, as Groom, 
Lady, &c, of the b.-c), bedroom; b.-clothcs, 
sheets, pillows, &c, of b. ; bedfellow, sharer of 
b., associate; bedgoion, woman's nightdress, 
northern woman's short jacket ; b.-key, wrench 
for (un)fastening bedstead ; bedmaker, (wo)man 
tending college rooms at Oxf. & Camb. ; b.-pan, 
invalid's chamber utensil for use in b. ; bed- 
post, upright support of b. (in twinkling of bed- 
post, prob. transf. f. bedstajf, loose cross-piece 
of old bedsteads often used as handy weapon ; 
between you & me & the bedpost, in confidence) ; 
be'drid(den), confined to b. by infirmity, de- 
crepit, [OE bedreda (rida rider), -en by confu- 
sion w. p.p.] ; bedroom, for sleeping in ; b.-side, 
side of esp. invalid's b. (good b.-s. manner, of 
tactful doctors) ; bedsore, developed in invalid 
by lying in b. ; b.-spread, coverlet ; bedstead, 
framework of b. ; bedstraw, kinds of plant, 
esp. (Our) Lady's b.-s. ; bedtick, quadrangular 
bag holding feathers &c. for b. ; bedtime, hour 
for going to b. 2. Flat base on which anything 
rests ; garden plot filled with plants, swamp 
with osiers ; bottom of sea, river, &c. (b.-rock, 
solid rock underlying alluvial deposits &c, 
fig. ultimate facts or principles of a theory, 
character, &c.) ; foundation of road or railway ; 
slates &c. of billiard table ; central part of 
gun-carriage ; stratum ; layer of oysters &c. 
[com.-Teut., cf. G bett perh. f. Aryan bhodh- 
whence Lifodere dig] 

bed 2 , v.t. & i. Put or go to bed (poet, or 
archaic exc. of horses &c.) ; plant (esp. b. out) ; 
cover up or fix firmly in something; arrange 
as, be or form, a layer, [f. prec] 

beda'bble, v.t. Stain, splash, with dirty 
liquid, blood, &c. [be-(1) + dabble] 

beda'd, int. (Irish &c. for) by gad 1 . 

bedau'b, v.t. Smear with paint &c. ; be- 
dizen. [be-(1) + daub v.] 

be'dder, n. In vbl senses ; also, plant suited 
for flower-bed. [-er *] 

be'dding, n. In vbl senses ; also : mattress, 
bedclothes, &c. ; litter for cattle ; bottom 
layer; (Geol.) stratification, [-ing 1 ] 

bede'ck, v.t. Adorn. [be-(1) + deck v.] 

be'deg'uap (-gar), n. Mosslike excrescence 
on rose-bush produced by insect's puncture, 
[f. F bedeguar f. Pers. badawar wind-brought] 

be'del(l), n. Official at Oxf.- & Camb. with 
duties chiefly processional. [= beadle] 

bede'vil, v.t. (-11-, -1-). Treat with diabolical 
violence or abuse ; possess, bewitch ; spoil, con- 
found ; call devil. [be-(5, 6) + devil n.] 

foede'vilment, n. Possession by devil ; 
maddening trouble, confusion, [prec. + -ment] 

bedew*, v.t. Cover with drops, sprinkle. 
[be-(6) + dew] 

bedig'h't, v.t. (past and p.p. bedight). Array, 
adorn, (archaic ; usu. in p.p.). [be-(1) + dight] 

bedi'm, v.t. (-mm-). Make (eyes, mind) dim. 
[be-(4)_+dim a.] 

bedf'zen, v.t. Dress out gaudily. [be-(2) 
+ dizen] 

be'dlam, n. Hospital of St Mary of Beth- 
lehem used as lunatic asylum ; any madhouse ; 
scene of uproar, [f. Bethlehem ; hospital founded 
as priory 1247, converted to asylum 15471 

be'dlamite, n. & a. Lunatic, [-ite 1 (1)] 

bedouin (beddbe'n), n. & a. (Arab) of the 
desert, wandering ; gipsy. [F, f. Arab, badawin 
pi. of badawiy dweller in the desert (badw 
desert) ; -n is prop, the pi. sign] 



For compounds of be- not given consult be-. 



BEDRABBLED ] 

bedpa'bbled, a. Dirty with rain and mud. 
[be-(D, & see drabble] 
b ed pa *ggl e, v. t. "Wet (dress &c. ) by trailing 
it, or so that it trails or hangs limp. [be-(1) + 
draggle] 

bee, n. Four-winged stinging social insect 
(queen, drones, & workers) producing wax 
& honey; allied insects (Humble, Mason, 
Carpenter, B., &c); poet; busy worker; 
meeting for combined work or amusement 
(chiefly U.S., exc. spelling-b.) ; have a b. in 
one's bonnet, be mad on some point ; b.-bread, 
(honey &) pollen used as food by bb. ; b.-eater, 
kinds of foreign bird ; fteemvE ; b.-line, straight 
between two places; b.-master, -mistress, keep- 
ers of bb. ; B. orchis, with b. -shaped flowers; 
b.-skep, straw hive ; bees-wax, secreted by bb. 
as comb material, (v.t.) polish with this. [OE 
beo ; com.-Teut., cf. G biene pern. f. Aryan bhi- 
f ear, quiver] 

beech, n. Smooth-barked glossy-leaved 
mast-bearing forest tree; its wood; b.-fern, 
kind of polypody ; beechmast, fruit of b. Hence 
bee'ehEN 5 a. [OE boece, bece, cf. G buche ; 
com.-Teut. & cf. Gkphagos, phegos, Lifagus] 
beef, n. (pi. -res). Flesh of ox, bull, or cow ; 
(in men) size, muscle ; (usu. pi.) ox(en), esp. 
fattened, or their carcases ; beefeater, yeoman 
of guard, warder of Tower of London, (f. obs. 
sense dependant) ; b.-tea, stewed b. juice for 
invalids; 6ee/STEAK; b.-ioood, red timber of 
various trees, [f. OF boef f. L bovem nom. 60s 
ox= Gk bous, Skr. go-, & E cow] 
bee'fy, a. Like beef; solid, muscular; 
stolid. Hence bee'fixESS n. [-Y 2 ] 

Beelzebub (bielzi-), n. The Devil ; a devil. 
[L, f. Gk beelzeboub f. Heb. ba'alz'bub fly-lord] 
been. See be. 

beer \ n. Alcoholic liquor from fermented 
malt &c. flavoured with hops &c, including 
ale (pale) and porter (dark) ; other fermented 
drinks, as nettle-b. ; ginger-6. ; small b. (lit.) 
weak b., (fig.) trifling matters (think no small 
b. of, have high opinion of) ; b.-engine, for draw- 
ing b. at a distance ; beerhouse, licensed for b., 
not spirits ; b.-money, servant's allowance in 
lieu of b. ; b.-pull, handle of b.-engine. [OE 
beor; com.-WG, cf. G bier ; etym. dub.] 
beep 2 , n. One of the ends (so many threads) 
into which a warp is divided. [= bier, cf. 
porter in same sense in Scotland] 
beep'y, a. Of, like, beer; esp., betraying 
influence of beer. [-Y 2 ] 

bee'stings, n. pi. First milk after parturi- 
tion, [f. obs. beest OE beost, com.-WG, cf. G 
biest; etym. dub.] 

bee'swing (-z-), n. Second crust in long- 
kept port ; old wine, [bee + wing, from its 
filmy look] 

beet, n. Two plants with succulent root, 
Red B. used for salad, White B. for sugar- 
making; beetroot, root of b. [OE Mte f. L 
beta] 

bee'tle 1 , n., & v.t. Tool with heavy head 
& handle for ramming, crushing, smoothing, 
&c. (vb, beat with this) ; three-man b., requir- 
ing three to lift it; b.-brain &c, blockhead. 
[OE bietel f. OTeut. bautiloz f. bautan beat 1 ; 
see -le(1)] 

bee*tle 2 , n. Insect having upper wings 
converted to hard wing-cases (pop. only of the 
black and large varieties, also wrongly of 
insects like them, as the black-b. or cockroach ); 
short-sighted person (cf. b.-eyed, blind as a &.). 
[OE bitula biter f. bitan bite ] ] 
bee'tle 3 , a. Projecting, shaggy, scowling, 
(b. brows, b.-broxved). [prob. f. prec w. ref. to 
tufted antennae of some beetles] 



I BEGIN 

bee'tle 4 , v.i. Overhang (of brows, cliffs), 
hang threateningly (of fate &c). [f. prec] 

beeves. See beef. 

befa'll (-awl), v.t. &L (-fell, -fallen). Happen ; 
happen to (person &c). [OE befallan f. be-(2)+ 
fallan fall ; cf. G befallen] 

befrt, v.t. (-tt-). Suit, be fitted for ; be in- 
cumbent on ; be right. Hence befi'ttiNG 2 a,, 
befi'ttingLY 2 adv. [be-(2) + fit v.] 

befo'g, v.t. (-gg-). Envelop in fog; obscure. 
[be-(6) + fog n.] 

befoo'l, v.t. Dupe. [be-(5) + fool n.] 

before*, adv., prep., & conj. (1) Adv. : ahead 
(go b.) ; on the front (b. & behind); previous 
to time in question, already, in the past, (longb.). 
(2) Prep. : in front of (b. the mast, of common 
sailors berthed forward), ahead of ; under the 
impulse of (b. the wind, recoil b., carry all b. 
you) ; in presence of (appear b. judge, bow b. 
authority ; b. God = as God sees me ; the ques- 
tion b. 11s) ; awaiting (world all b. them) ; earlier 
than (b. Christ, usu. abbr. b.c., appended to dates 
reckoned backwards from birth of Christ) ; this 
side the coming of (future event) ; farther on 
than ; rather than (would die b. lying). (3) Conj. ; 
previous to the time when ; rather than (would 
die b. I lied). [OE beforan (be- +foran adv. 
f . OTeut. fora for)] 

befope'hand, adv. In anticipation, in 
readiness ; be b. with, anticipate, forestall ; 
b. with the world, having money in hand, 
[orig. two wds ; sense-development doubtful] 

befou'l, v.t. Make foul (lit. or fig.) ; b. one's 
oxen nest 1 . [be-(4) + foul] 

befpie'nd, v.t. Help, favour. [be-(6) + 
friend n.] 

beg, v.t. & i. Ask for (food, money, &c); 
(abs.) ask alms; ask (for alms &c.) ; live by 
alms ; ask earnestly or humbly (thing, for 
thing, of person, person to do, of person to do, 
that something maybe done); (in formal and 
courteous phrr.) b. pardon, leave; b. off, get 
person excused penalty &c. ; b. the qxiestion, 
assume the truth of matter in dispute ; go 
(a-)begging (of situations, opportunities, &c), 
find no accepter, [perh. shortened f. F beguiner 
be a beghard or btgxrin, lay brother of men- 
dicant order named f. Lambert Begue] 

bega'd, int. - by God (in fam. speech). 

bege't, v.t. (-tt-, -got, -gotten). Procreate 
(usu. of father, sometimes of father and 
mother, cf. bear-*); give rise to, occasion. 
Hence bege'ttER l n. [OE & Goth, begitan ; 
see be-(2) & get] 

be'ggap 1 , n. One who begs ; one who lives 
by begging ; poor man or woman ; (depreciat- 
ingly) fellow; (playfully) little b., youngster 
&c. ; a good b. ( = begger), good at collecting 
for charities &c. [perh. = beghard see beg 
& -ard] 

be'ggap 2 , v.t. Reduce to poverty ; outshine, 
reduce to silence (b. descrijition) ; b.-my- 
neighbour, card game. [f. prec] 

be'ggaply, a. Indigent ; intellectually poor ; 
mean, sordid. Hence be'ggapliNESS n. 
[beggar 1 + -ly a ] 

be'ggapy, n. Extreme poverty. [-Y l ] 

begl'n, v.t. & i. (-nn-, began, begun). Com- 
mence (to do, doing, work &c, or abs. ; in pass, 
sense either it has begun to be done, or it has 
beenbegun) ; be the first to do something ; take 
the first step ; start speaking ; 6. at, start from ; 
b. with, take first ; to b. with, in the first place ; 
b. upon, set to work at; come into being, 
arise ; have its commencement, nearest 
boundary, &c, (at some point in space or time) ; 
b. the xvorld, start in life. [com.-WG ; OE 
beginnan cf. G & Du. beginnen (be- + ginnan 



BEGINNER | 

perh. = 0E ginan gape f. Aryan ghi- open cf. L 
hiare)] 

begi*nnep,n. In vbl senses ; also, tiro, [-ER 1 ] 

begi'nning", n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
time at which anything begins ; source, origin ; 
first part ; the b. of the end, first clear sign of 
final result, [-ing* 1 (1)] 

begir'd, v.t. (-irt). Gird round or encircle. 
[be-(1) + gird] 

bego'ne (-a\vn, -on), vb imperat. = be gone 
(more peremptory than go). 

beg'O'nia, n. Kinds of plant with coloured 
perianths but no petals. [Alichel Begon c. 1680] 

beg*ot(ten). See beget. 

begri'me, v.t. Soil deeply. [be-(6)+grime] 

begru'dgre, v.t. Feel or show dissatisfac- 
tion at (thing), envy (one) the possession of. 

[BE-(2) + GRUDGE V.] 

begui'le (-gil), v.t. Delude ; cheat (person of, 
out of, or into doing) ; charm, amuse; divert 
attention from (toil, passage of time). Hence 
begui'lER l , begut'leMENT, nn. [be-(2) + obs. 
vb guile, see guile] 

beguinage (be'ginahzh), n. House of 
beguines. [f oil. + -age] 

be guine (-gen), n. Member of Netherlands 
lay sisterhood not bound by vows. [Lambert 
Begue, founder 1180] 

be'gum, n. Hindoo queen or lady of high 
rank. [Hind, begam f. East Turk, bigim fern, 
of big prince (Osmanli bey)] 

behal'f (-ahf), n. (Only in phrr. ' on or in 

my &c. b.\ 'on or in 's b.', 'on or in b. 

of ') on the part of, on account of, (a per- 
son) ; in the interest of (person or principle &c. ). 
[mixture of earlier phrr. on his halve & bihalve 
him, either = on his side ; see half] 

beha've, v.i. & refl. (Intr., usu. with adv.) 
conduct oneself , act, (rarely abs., esp. to or of 
children) conduct oneself with propriety, b. 
towards, treat (icell &c); (refl., usu. of or to 
children, & usu. without adv.) show good 
manners ; (of machines &c, intr. or refl.) work 
{well, badly, &c.) ; behaved p.p. (with well-, 
ill-), having good, bad, manners or conduct. 
[be-(2) -f have] 

beha'vioup, n. Deportment, manners; 
moral conduct, treatment shown to or towards 
others ; be on one's good b., do one's best under 
probation ; way in which ship, machine, 
substance, &c, acts or works, [f. prec, the 
ending due to confusion w. obs. aver, havour, 
havyoure, possession, = F avoir] 

behea'd, v.t. Cut the head from ; kill in 
that way. [OE behea^dian f. be- (from) about 
+ heafod head n.] 

behemoth (bihe'- or bei-), n. Enormous 
creature, [perh. Egyptian p-ehc-mau water-ox 
(hippopotamus) assimilated to Heb. pi. (of 
dignity) of b'hemah beast, see Job xl. 15] 

behe'st, n. Command (poet.). [OE behxs 
cf. behatan later behight to command, & G 
h e isse n] 

behi'nd, adv., prep., & n. In or to the 
rear (of), on the further side (of), hidden (by), 
at one's back, towards what was one's rear, 
further back in place or time (than), past in 
relation to, too late, in concealment, in reserve, 
in support of, in an inferior position (to), under 
the defence of, in the tracks of, outdone (by), 
in arrear (with) ; (n.) the posterior. Phrr. : 
stay, leave, b., after others', one's own, de- 
parture or death; fall b., not keep up; b. 
the scenes, in private ; put b. one, refuse 
to consider; go b. one's icorde &c, look for 
secret motives on his part ; b, one's back, 



I BELIE 

without his knowledge ; b. time, unpunctual ; 
b. the times, antiquated. [OE behindan (be- -f 
h indan = G hinten f. hind- hinds + -ana from)] 

behindhand, adv. & pred. a, In arrear 
( with payments &c.) ; out of date, behind time ; 
ill-provided (with), [prec. -f hand, cf. before- 
hand] 

beho'ld, v.t. (beheld). See, become aware of 
by sight ; (abs. in imperat.) take notice, attend. 
Hence beho'ldER 1 n. [OE bihaldan f. be-(2) 
+ haldan hold v. keep (in view)] 

beho'lden, pred. a. Under obligation (to). 
[p.p. (obs. exc. in this use) of prec. = bound] 

behoo'f, n. (In phrr. to, for, on b., or the b., 
of) use, advantage. [OE bihof in bihof-lic 
useful cf. G behuft. OTeut. bihafjan (be- + haf- 
jan heave cf. L caper e take)] 

beho've, -hoo've, v.t. impers. Be incum- 
bent on (person) to (do something). [OE 
bihojianf. bihof see prec] 

beige (bazh), n. Kinds of dress-material 
made of undyed and unbleached wool. [F, = 
natural-coloured, grey or brown, cf. It. bigio] 

be'ing 1 , n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
existence [in b., existing) ; constitution, nature, 
essence; anything that exists (the Supreme 
B., God) ; a person, [be, -ing 1 , 2 ] 

bela'boup, v.t. Thrash (lit. & fig.). [be-(3) 
+ labour v. (exert one's strength upon)] 

bela'ted, a. Overtaken by darkness ; com- 
ing too late. [p.p. of obs. belate f. be-(4) + 
lateI 

belau'd, v.t. Load with praise. [be-(2)+ 

LAUD V.] 

belay, v.t. Coil (running rope) round cleat 
&c. to secure it ; (sailor's slang in imperat. ) 
stop !, enough ! ; belay ing-pin, fixed wooden or 
iron pin for belaying on. [OE belecgan cf. G 
belegen f. be-(1) + lecgan lay 3 = lay round] 

belch i (-tsh), v.i. & t. Emit wind noisily 
from throat ; utter noisily or drunkenly 
(abusive, blasphemous, or foul talk) ; (of gun or 
volcano) send out or up. [OE bealcian cf. Du. 
balken bray] 

belch 2 , n. Eructation; sound of gun, 
volcano ; burst of flame, [f. prec] 

be'lehep (-tsh-), n. Parti-coloured necker- 
chief. [Jim B., pugilist] 

be'ldam, -dame, n. Old woman, hag ; 
virago, [earlier = grandmother f. bel- (cf. obs. 
belsire, & see beau) expressing relationship + 
dam mother] 

belea'g-uep (-eger), v.t. Besiege (lit. & fig.), 
[f. Du. belegeren camp round f. be-(6) + leger a 
camp] 

be'lemnite, n. Tapering sharp-pointed 
fossil bone of extinct cuttlefish, [f. Gk belem- 
non dart + -ite i (2)] 

bet esprit' (-re), n. (pi. beaux esprits pr. boz 
espre). A wit. [F] 

be'lfpy, n. Bell tower, attached or separate ; 
bell space in church tower. Hence be'lfpiED 2 
a. [by dissim. f. OF berfrei f. LL *berefridus 
f. Teut. (MHG bercvrit prob. f. bergen shelter 
& OHG fridu peace); orig. sense, shed or 
tower for cover in besieging] 

Belgian, a, & n. (Native) of Belgium, [-an] 

Be'lg-ic, a. Of the Netherlands ; of the an- 
cient Belgae. [f. L Belgicus (Belgae, -ic)] 

Belgra'vian, a. Of, suited to, Belgravia, 
fashionable London district, [f. Belgrave Square 
f. ground landlord's Belgrave, Leics.] 

Be'lial, n. The devil ; the spirit of evil ; 
man of B., reprobate, [f. Heb. b'li-yaal (b'li 
not + yaal use) worthlessness] 

belie*, v.t, (-lying). Give false notion of ; fail 



For compounds of be- not given consult be-. 



BELIEF 

to act up to (promise &c.) ; fail to justify (hope 
&c.) [OE beUogan f. be-(3) + Uogan lie] 
belief, n. Trust or confidence (in) ; accept- 
ance of the Christian theology ; acceptance as 
true or existing (of any fact, statement, &c. ; 
in. or of, with nn., that with clause); thing 
believed, religion, opinion, intuition ; The B., 
Apostles' Creed. [ME bileafe (be- + OE Uafa 
shortened f. ge-leafa cf. G glaube I. OTeut. 
galaub- dear)] 

believe, v.t. & i. Have faith xn, trust 
word of, (person) ; put trust in truth of a 
statement, efficacy of a principle, system, 
machine, &c, existence of anything ; give 
credence to (person, statement, &c, or that- 
clause) ; be of opinion that ; make b., pretend. 
Hence belie'VABLE a., belie'VER 1 n., 
belie'viNG 2 a. [ME bileven f. be- + OE ge- 
Ufan cf. G glauben f. OTeut. as prec] 
beli'ke, adv. Probably, perhaps, (often 
iron.). [6e- = BY prep. + like a. (by what is 
likely)] 

beli'ttle, v.t. Make small, dwarf ; depre- 
ciate. [be-(4) + little] 

bell 1 , n. Hollow body of cast metal in deep 
cup shape widening at lip made to emit musical 
sound when struck; (Naut.) one to eight bb., 
half hours of watch ; b. -shaped object, as flower 
corolla (blue 1 , canterbury, B.). Bear, 
carry away, the b., be first, win; b., book, & 
candle, in allusion to eccles. cursing formula ; 
sound, clear, as a b., quite sound or clear (in 
other senses besides the acoustic) ; b.-bird, 
Brazilian and Austral, kinds with b.-like note ; 
b.-buoy, with warning b. rung by waves' 
motion; b.-Jlower, any plant of genus Cam- 
panula; b.-fouiider, -founding, -foundry, 
caster, casting, & manufactory, of bb. ; b.- 
glass, b. -shaped as cover for plants ; b.-hanger, 
artisan who puts up bb. & wires ; b.-metal, 
alloy of copper & tin (more tin than in bronze) 
for bb. ; b.-pull, cord or handle attached to b.- 
wire ; b.-wether, leading sheep of flock with b. 
on neck, ringleader. [OE belle, com.-LG cf. 
Du. bel] 

bell 2 , v.t. Furnish with bell(s); 6. the cat, 
take the danger of a common enterprise on 
oneself (fable of mice & cats), [f. prec] 
bell 3 , n., & v.i. (Make the) cry of stag or buck 
at rutting-time. [OE bellan cf. G bellen bark] 
bellado'nna, n. (Bot.) Deadly Nightshade ; 
(Med.) drug prepared from this. [mod. L f. It., 
= fair lady, pern, because a cosmetic is made 
from it] 

belle, n. Handsome woman ; reigning beauty 
{the b. of any place). [F, f. L bella fern, of bellus 
pretty see beau] 

belles-lettres (bel-letr), n. Studies, writ- 
ings, of the purely literary kind. Hence 
belle'trisT (3) n., belletri'stic a. [F] 
be'llicose, a. Inclined to fighting. Hence 
bellie6*sity n. [f. L bellicosus (bellum war, 
-ic, -ose M] 

bellrgepeney, n. Status of a belligerent, 
[f. foil., see -excy] 

belli*g"epent, a, & n. (Nation, party, or per- 
son) waging regular war as recognized by the 
law of nations ; of such nation &c. ; (loosely) 
any opponent engaged in conflict, [wrong cor- 
rection of earlier belligerant f. F belligerant 
f. L belligerare wage war (bellum + gerere), 
-ant] 

Beflo'na, n. War personified ; woman of 
commanding presence. [L, - goddess of war f. 
bellum war] 

be'llow (-6), v.i. & t, & n. Roar as a bull ; 
shout, roar with pain ; utter loudly and angrily 
(often out, forth) ; (of thunder, cannon, &c.) re- 



76 BENCH 

verberate, roar ; (n.) bellowing sound, [etym. 
dub. ; cf. BELL 3 ] 

be'llows (-6z), n. pi. Portable or fixed con- 
trivance for driving air into a fire or through 
apertures of wind instrument ; pair of b., two- 
handled for fire ; means used to fan passion &c. ; 
the lungs (b. to mend, of broken- winded horse), 
[earlier belg bag - belly ; the present wd f. 
northern form belu, belw] 
be'lly 1 , n. Cavity of human body below 
diaphragm with stomach & bowels & other 
contents, abdomen ; (externally) lower front of 
body ; corresponding parts of animals ; stomach ; 
the body as food consumer (cf. back x ), appetite, 
gluttony ; the womb ; cavity of anything ; 
bulging part (concave or convex) ; front, inner, 
or lower surface ; b.-xcorship, gluttony ; b.- 
timber, food ; b.-pinched, starving ; b.-ache, 
colic. Hence -be*lliED 2 a. [ME ball, bely, f. 
OE bxlg f. OTeut. balgiz bag f. belgan swell ; 
same wd as bellows] 

be'lly 2 , v.t. & i. Swell out (usu. of sails, & 
with out), [f. prec] 

be'llyful, n. As much as one wants of any- 
thing, esp. of fighting. [-ful(2)] 
beloTig", v.i. Pertain, be proper, to (as duty, 
right, possession, natural or right accompani- 
ment, example in classification, characteristic, 
part, member, inhabitant, appendage); b. under 
or in, be rightly classified among. [be-(2) + 
obs. vb long pertain f. OE gelang adj. depen- 
dent on (cf. the now dialectal ' along of ') = OHG 
gilang akin (perh. f. notion corresponding in 
length)] 

belo'nging'S, n. pi. A person's property, re- 
latives, or luggage ; everything connected with 
a subject, [f. prec] 

belo'ved (as ad\ or n. usu. -uvid ; as vb -iivd), 
p.p., a., & n. (Forming pass, parts of vb obs. 
in act.) dearly loved (followed by of or by, or 
abs.); (n.) darling (common in voc , & with my, 
his, &c). [be-(2) -f love v.] 
below" (-6), adv. & prep. Adv. : at or to lower 
level ; on earth ; in hell ; downstairs ; down 
stream; in lower rank (the court b.); at foot 
of page. Prep. : lower than ; too low to be 
affected by (b. flattery) ; down stream from ; 
on inferior side of dividing line (b. par, b. the 
gangway) ; at or to greater depth than ; covered 
by ; lower in amount, degree, &c, than (b. one's 
breath, less audibly than) ; of lower rank &c 
than; unworthy of. Cf. beneath, under. 
[be- = by + low a.] 

belt !, n. Encircling strip of leather &c worn 
round waist or baldric-wise to confine or sup- 
port clothes or weapons &c (hit beloxo the b., 
fight unfairly) ; cincture of earl or knight ; 
strip of colour, special surface, trees, &c, round 
or on anything; endless strap connecting 
wheels ; row of armour plates under water- 
line ; Great & Little B., channels into Baltic. 
[com.-Teut., cf. OHG balz perh. f. L baltexis] 
belt 2 , v.t. Putb. round (belted cruiser, with 
b. & metal-covered deck) ; fasten on with b. ; 
mark with b. of colour &c. ; thrash with b. [f. 
prec] 

be'lvedere (-er), n. Raised turret to view 
scenery from. [It. (bel beautiful, see beau, + 
vedere see)] 

belying-. See belie. 

be'ma, n. Platform in ancient Athenian 
public assembly. [Gk] 

bemire*, v.t. Cover or stain with mud ; 
(pass.) be stuck in the mud. [be-(6) + mire n.] 
bemoa'n, v.t. Weep or express sorrow for or 
over. [OE bemxnan f. be-(3) + mxnan moan] 
bemirse(-z),v.t. Stupefy. [be-(2) + musev.] 
bench (-tsh), n. Long seat of wood or stone ; 



BENCHER 77 

boat-thwart ; judge's seat, office of judge, law- 
court (King's, Queen's, B.) ; (collect.) judges, 
magistrates; (Pari.) seats appropriated to 
certain groups &c. (Treasury, front *, cross 3 , 
bishops', bb.) ; be raised to, be on, the b., be 
(made) a judge or bishop ; working-table of 
carpenter &c. ; ledge in masonry or earthwork ; 
b.-table, stone seat in cloister &c. ; b.-mark, cut 
by surveyors to mark point in line of levels. 
[com.-Teut. ; OE bene, cf. Sw. bank, G bank, 
f. OTeut. bankiz ; same wd as bank 1 , 5 , which 
came through Rom.] 

be'nehep, n. Senior member, sharing man- 
agement, of Inn of Court, [-er x ] 

bend J , n. (Naut.) knot of various kinds 
(fisherman's, weaver's, &c.) ; (Herald.) parallel 
lines from dexter chief to sinister base (b. 
sinister in opposite direction, sign of bastardy) ; 
shape (half butt) in which hides are tanned 
(b.-leather, the thickest, used for soles), [earlier 
meaning band, bond, which wds have taken 
its place in most senses ; OE bend f. OTeut. 
band- st. of bindan bind 1 ; identified with OF 
bende, bande, band 1 (2)] 

bend 2 , n. Bending, curve ; bent part of any- 
thing, [f. foil.] 

bend 3 , v.t. & i. (past bent, p.p. bent exc. in 
bended knees). Force out of straightness, impart 
to (rigid object) or receive a curved or angular 
shape ; arch (brows) ; tighten up, bring to bear, 
(energies &c.) ; (pass.) be determined (on with 
gerund or noun) ; attach with b. or knot (cable, 
sail); turn (t. & i.) in new direction (steps, 
eyes); incline (t. &i.) from the perpendicular 
(head), bow, stoop, submit, (to or before), force 
to submit (will &c). [OE bendan prob. = ON 
benda join, strain, f. OTeut. bandjd- string, 
band ; the orig. sense is stringing the bow] 

benea'ped, a. Left aground by neap-tide, 
[p.p. f. unused beneap see be-(6) & neap] 

benea'th, adv. & prep. Below, under, under- 
neath, (poetic, archaic, & literary, but usual 
in) b. contempt &c, not worth despising &c, 
b. one, unworthy of him. [OE beneothan - be- 
-\-neothancf. Gniedenf. OTeut. nithar nether 
+ -ana from] 

benedi'cite (-ti), n. Blessing invoked; grace 
at table ; the B., one of the canticles. [L, = 
bless ye, imperat. of benedicere -diet- bless (bene 
well + dicere speak)] 

be'nedick, n. Newly married man, esp. con- 
firmed bachelor who marries. [Shaksp., Much 
Ado] 

benedi'etine, a. & n. (Monk) of the order 
founded 529 by St Benedict, black monk; a 
liqueur, [f. F Mnidictin f. L benedictus p.p. 
see benedicite] 

benedi'etion, n. Utterance of a blessing, 
generally at table, at end of church service, or 
as special R.-C. service ; a blessing, blessedness, 
[f. L benedictio (benedicite, -ion)] 

benedi'etopy, a. Of, expressing, benedic- 
tion, [f. med. L benedictonus see prec. and 

-ORY(l)] 

Benedi-ctus, n. One of the canticles, 
[first word in L version ; see Benedictine] 

benefa'etion, n. Doing good ; gift for 
charitable purpose, [f . L bene/actio (benefit 1 , 
-ion)] 

be'nefaetop, n. Person who has given one 
friendly aid ; patron of or donor to a cause or 
charitable institution. Hence be'nefaetPESS 1 
n. _[f. L benefactor (benefit 1 , -or 2 )] 

be'nefiee (-is), n. Church living. Hence be'- 
nefleED-a. [f, ltbeneficium(beneweU+-ficium 
a doing)] 



BENTHAMISM 



bene'ficence, n., bene'fieent, a. Doing 
good, (showing) active kindness. Hence bene*- 
fleentLY 2 adv. [f. L beneficentia n. and bene- 
ficus a., comparat. beneficentior, (bene well, 
and see -fic, -ence)] 

benefi'cial (-shl), a. Advantageous ; (Law) 
of, having, the usufruct of property. Hence 
benefi'eialLY 2 adv. [F beneficial f. L benc- 
ficialis (benefice, -al)] 

benefreiary (-sha-), a. & n. (Law) holder, 
holding or held, by feudal tenure ; holder of a 
living ; receiver of benefits, [f .L bencficiarius, 

See BENEFICE, -ARY l ] 

be'nefit 1 , n. Advantage (for the b. of, on 
behalf of) ; exemption from ordinary courts by 
the privilege of one's order (b. of clergy, 
peerage); performance at theatre, game &c. 
of which proceeds go to particular players 

( 's b., b.-night, b.-viatch) ; b.-club, -society, for 

mutual insurance against illness or age. [ME 
& AF benfet f. L benej actum neut. p.p. of 
benefacere do well] 

be'nefit 2 , v.t. & i. Do good to; receive b. 
(by thing), [f. prec] 

bene'volenee, n. Desire to do good, chari- 
table feeling ; (Eng. Hist.) forced loan, [f. OF 
benivolence f. L bcnevolentia f. benevolens 
-entis = foil.] 

bene'volent, a. Desirous of doing good, 
charitable. Hence bene'volentLY 2 adv. [f. 
OF benivolent f. L bene volenicm nom. -ens 
well wishing (velle wish)] 

Beng-a*l (-awl), a. B. light, firework used 
for signals ; B. stripes, striped gingham, orig. 
from B. • B. tiger, the tiger proper. [Indian 
province] 

Beng-a'li, -a'lee, (-aw-), n. & a. (Native, 
language) of Bengal, [f. native Bangali] 

benign'ted, p.p. & a. (Forming pass, of 
yb obs. in act.) overtaken by night ; involved 
in intellectual or moral darkness, ignorant. 
[be-(6) + night] 

benig-n, a. Gracious, gentle ; fortunate, 
salutary ; (of diseases) mild, not malignant. 
Hence benig-nLY 2 adv. [f. OF benigne f. L 
benignus prob. - benigenus (bene well + -genus 
born;] 

benl'g-nant, a. Kind, kindly, to inferiors ; 
gracious; salutary. Hence beni'g-nANCY n., 
bteni'g-nantLY 2 adv. [recent formation f. 
prec. on anal, of malignant] 

beni'g-nity, n. Kindliness, kindness, (usu. 
in the old), [f. OF benigniU f. L benignitataii 
(benign, -ty)] 

be'nison, n. A blessing (archaic), ^bene- 
diction, see -son] 

Be'njamin 1 , n. Youngest child, darling. 
[Gen. xlii. 4] 

be'njamin 2 , n. = benzoin ; B. tree, (a) that 
yielding benzoin, (b) a N.-Amer. shrub with 
aromatic bark, [corruption of benzoin] 

be'nnet, n. See herb b., and foil. 
bent 1 , n. Reedy rushlike stiff-stemmed 
grass of various kinds (with pi., or collect.); 
(also bennet) stiff flower-stalk, old stalk of 
grasses ; couch-grass ; Way B., Stool B., Sec, 
kinds of plant ; heath, unenclosed pasture. 
[OE beonet perh. = G bi7ise rush] 
bent 2 , n. Twist, inclination, bias, tendency : 
to the top of one's 6., to heart's content, [f. 
bend 3 on F anal, of descent, extent] 
bent 3 . See bend 3 . 

Benthamism, n. Greatest happiness of 
the greatest number as guiding principle of 
ethics. So Be'nthamiTE 1 (1) n. [Jeremy 
Bentham, 1718-1832 ; see -ism (3)] 



For compounds of be- not given consult B5-*. 



BEN TROVATO 



78 



BESPATTER 



ben trova'to (-ah-), a. Well invented, charac- 
teristic if not true. [It.] 

benirmb (-urn), v.t. Make torpid, insensible, 
powerless, (usu. of cold) ; paralyse (mind, action), 
[earlier benum (cf. dumb, limb) f. OE benumen 
p.p. of beniman deprive (be- + niman cf. G 
nehmen take)] 

benzene, -ine (-en), n. Aromatic hydro- 
carbon used for removing grease stains, [ben- 
zoic + -ene] ' »„* 

benzo-, benz-, forming names of substances 
connected with benzene. 

benzo'ic, a. Of benzoin, [foil. +-ic] 

be'tizoin (-6m or -oin), n. (Also gum b., ben- 
jamin) fragrant aromatic resin of Javanese 
tree, [earlier benjoin through F, Sp., It., f. Arab. 
luban jaivi frankincense of Java (lo- being 
dropped in Rom. as if the article)] 

be'nzoline (-en, -in), n. Impure benzene, 
used for removing grease, [-ine 4 ] 

bequea-th (-dh), v.t. Leave (to person) by 
will (personalty ; cf. devise) ; transmit to 
posterity (example &c). [OE becicethan f. 
be-(3) + cwethan say, see quoth] 

beque'st, n. Bequeathing; thing be- 
queathed. [ME biquyste prob. for bicwis (be- 
+ cwis saying cf. prec. ; for -t cf. behest)] 

Ber'ber, n. & a, (Member) of the N. -African 
stock including the aboriginal races of Barbary, 
speaking allied languages, [f. Arab, barbar 
(barbara talk confusedly) or perh. f. Gk bar- 
baros barbarous] 

ber'beppy, n. See barberry. 

bepea've, v.t. (bereaved or bereft). Rob, 
dispossess, of (usu. of immaterial things, as life, 
hope) ; leave desolate (esp. in p.p., usu. bereaved 
in this sense) ; (of death &c.) deprive of a rela- 
tion, wife, &c, whence berea've.MENT n. 
[com.-Teut. ; OE beHafian cf. G berauben; see 

BB-(2), REAVE V.] 

bepg-, n. = iceberg. 

ber'gamot 1 , n. Tree of orange & lemon 
kind ; perfume extracted from its fruit, [f. Ber- 
gamo town in Italy] 

ber'gamot 2 , n. Kind of pear. [f. F ber- 
gamotte f. It. bergamotta f. Turk, beg-armudi 
prince's pear] 

bep'gfsehpund (bargshroo-), n. (mountain- 
eering). Crevasse or gap at junction of steep 
upper slope with glacier or neve [G] 

berhyme, v.t. Write verses about, [be- (6) 
+ rhyme n. ; berime would be more correct] 

be'piberi, n. Disease like dropsy prevalent 
in India. [Cingalese, f. beri weakness] 

Bepkeleian (barkle'an), n. & a. (Follower) 
of Berkeley or his philosophy, which denied 
the objective existence of the material world. 
[Bishop Berkeley, d. 1753 ; see -ean] 

Berli'n, n. & a. Four-wheeled covered 
carriage with hooded seat behind (also berline) ; 
B. black, iron- varnish ; B. iron, for casts ; B. 
tcarehouse, shop for B. wool, fine dyed knitting 
wool ; B. gloves, knitted. [B. in Germany] 

bepm, n. Ledge in fortification between 
ditch & base of parapet, [f. F berme cf. OX 
barmr brim]^ 

Bep'napdine, a. & n. = Cistercian. 

be'ppy \ n. (Pop.) any small roundish juicy 
fruit without stone ; (Bot.) many-seeded in- 
ferior pulpy fruit (inferior, i. e. below calyx, 
admits e. g. the cucumber & excludes the straw- 
berry) ; egg in fish-roe (in b., of hen-lobster 
carrying eggs). Hence (-)be'PPiED 2 a. [com.- 
Teut., cf. G beere, Goth, basi] 

be'ppy 2 , v.i. Come into b., fill out; go 
gathering bb. [f. prec] 

bersaglieri (It. ), n. pi. Italian sharpshooters. 

bep'sepk(ep), n. Wild Norse warrior 



fighting with mad frenzy, [f. Ieel. berserkr 
prob. = bear-sark, bear-coat] 
berth *, n. Convenient searroom (give wide 
b. to, avoid) ; room for ship to swing at anchor ; 
ship's place at wharf; proper place for any- 
thing ; sleeping-place ; situation, appointment, 
[prob. f. bear v. (make room by bearing off) + 
-th 1 ; of same formation, but prob. later & inde- 
pendent, as birth (early spellings coincide)] 
berth 2 , v.t. Moor (ship) in suitable place; 
provide sleeping-place for. [f. prec] 
bep'tha, bepthe (-th), n. Deep falling 
(usu. lace) collar to low-necked dress. [F 
(-e), the woman's name] 

Bertillon system, n. Method of identi- 
fying criminals by measurements. [French 
anthropologist b. 1853] 

be'pyl, n. Precious stone, pale-green passing 
into light blue, yellow, & white ; mineral species 
including also the emerald. [OF, f. L f. Gk 
berullos] 

beryllium, n. A metal, = glucinum. [prec 
+ -ium] 

besee'eh (-tsh), v.t. (sought pr. -sawt). Ask 
earnestly for (esp. leave &c); entreat (person, 
person that or to do or for thing). [be-(2)+ME 
secen, sechen, seken, seek] 
besee'ehingr, a. Suppliant (of look, tone, 
&c). Hence besee'ehing'LY 2 ad v. [-ing 2 ] 
besee'm, v.t. Suit, be fitting or creditable 
to, (abs., or with well, ill, &c). Hence be- 
see'ming-LY 2 adv. [be-(2) + seem] 
bese't, v.t. (-tting, past & p.p. -set). Hem in, 
set upon, (person) ; occupy & make impassable 
(road &c); (of difficulties, temptations, &c.) 
assail, encompass, (besetting sin, that most 
frequently tempts one). [OE besettan (be-(1), 
& see set v.)] 

bese'tment, n. Besetting sin ; being hemmed 
in. [prec + -ment] 

beshpew, tv.t. (Now only as mock-heroic 
imprecation) plague take (me, person, or thing). 
[be-(2) + ME schrewen to curse f. shrew] 
besi'de, prep, (formerly also adv. = foil.). 
Close to, by, near ; on a level with, compared 
with ; wide of (mark, question, &c) ; b. oneself, 
out of one's wits. [OE be sidan (by, side n.)] 
besi'des, adv. & prep. In addition (to), 
moreover ; 'otherwise, else, (than) ; (neg. & 
interrog.) except. [prec+-Es] 
besie'g-e, v.t. Invest, lay siege to; crowd 
round ; assail with requests. Hence be- 
sie'g-ER ! n. [ME besegen f. be-(1) + segen f . 
OF asegier f. LL assediare (ad- + sedium f. L 
sedere sit)] 

besla'vep, v.t Cover with slaver; flatter 
fulsomely. [be-(1) + slaver v.] 
beslo'bbep, v.t. = prec ; also, kiss effusively. 

[BE-(l) + SLOBBER V.] 

beslirbbep, v.t. Besmear. [be-(1) + slub- 
ber v.] 

besmear*, v.t. Smear with greasy or sticky 
stuff (also of the stuff as subj.). [OE bi- 
smierwan see be-(1) & smear v.] 

besmip'eh (-tsh), v.t. Soil, discolour; dim 
brightness of. [be-(1) + smirch v.] 

be'som (or -z-), n., & v.t. (Sweep with) 
bundle of twigs tied round stick for sweeping, 
kind of broom. [OE besema, com.-WG cf. G 
besen Du. bezem] 

beso*t, v. t. (-U-). Stupefy mentally or morally. 

[BE-(4) + SOT] 

besough't. See beseech. 

bespa'ngie, v.t. Set about with spangles. 
[be-(6) + spangle] 

bespa*ttep, v.t. Spatter (object) all over; 
spatter (liquid Sec.) about ; cover with abuse or 
flattery. [be-(1) + spatter] 



BESPEAK 

bespea'k, v.t, (past -spoke, p.p. -spoke, 
spoken). Engage beforehand ; order (goods) ; 
stipulate for; speak to (poet.); suggest, be 
evidence of; bespoke bootmaker &c. (prop. 
bespoke-boot maker), opposed to ready-made 
dealer. [OE besprecan; conx-WG cf. G be- 
sprechen ; see be-(3) & speak] 

besprent, p.p. (poet.). Sprinkled (with) ; 
scattered about, [f. OE besprengan f. be-(1) + 
OTeut. sprangjanca,usa,lof spring an spring v.] 

besppi'nkle, v.t. Sprinkle or strew over 
(with ; lit. & fig. ; also with the liquid &c. as 
subj. or obj.). [ME besprengil frequent, of OE 
besprengan, see prec. & -le] 

Be'ssemer, a. & n. B. process, for decar- 
bonizing & desiliconizing pig-iron by passing 
currents of air through it when molten & so 
making B. iron, B. steel, or B. [Sir H. B., 
inventor 1856] 

best 1 , a. & adv. (superl. of good, well). Of, 
in, the most excellent kind, way (often, like 
good, well, used for specific adjj. & advv. as 
kindest, most skilfully). Phrr. : the b. part, 
most ; had b., would find it wisest to ; b. man, 
bridegroom's supporter; put b. leg or foot 
foremost, go at full pace ; bad is the b., no good 
event possible ; with the b., as well as anyone ; 
do ones b., all one can ; be at one's &., in the b. 
state; one's 6. or Sunday b., b. clothes; have 
the b. of it, win in argument &c. : make the b. 
of things, be contented ; make the b. of one's 
way, go as fast as possible ; atb., on the most 
hopeful view ; did it for the b., with good in- 
tentions ; to the b. of one's power Sec, as far as 
one's power &c. allows ; the b. is the enemy of 
the good, too high standard bars progress. [OE 
betst; com.-Teut. f. OTeut. batist cf. better] 

best 2 , v.t (colloq.). Get the better of, cir- 
cumvent, worst, [f. prec] 

bestea'd (-ed), v.t. & i. Avail, help, [be- (2) 

+ STEAD] 

beste'd, p.p. (With ill, hard, sore, &c.) 
situated, circumstanced, pressed. [ME bistad 
f. be-(2) + stad L OX staddr p.p. of stethja stop] 
be'stial, a. Of, like, a beast or beasts esp. 
quadrupeds; brutish, barbarous; depraved, 
lustful, obscene. Hence or cogn. bestia'l- 
ity n., be*stializE(3) v.t., be'stialLY 2 adv. 
[OF, f. L bestialis (bestia beast + -al)] 
bestir*, v. refl. (-rr-). Exert, rouse, (oneself). 
[OE bestyrian t BE-(2) + styrian stir v.] 
bestow* (-6), v.t. Deposit ; provide with lodg- 
ing; confer (thing) upon (person) as gift. Hence 
bestow*AL(2) n. [ME bistowen, see be-(2), 
stow v.] 

bestrew, v.t. (p.p. -ewed or -eu-n). Strew 
(surface) with ; scatter (things) about ; lie scat- 
tered over. [OE bestriowian see be-(1) & 
strew ; p.p. -ewn is recent, but now common] 
bestri'de, v.t. (past -ode; p.p. -idden, -id, 
-ode). Get or sit upon (horse, chair) with legs 
astride ; stand astride over (place or fallen 
friend or enemy; also fig. of rainbow &c). 
[OE bestridan, see be-(3), stride v.] 
bet, n., & v.i. & t. (bet). (Engagement to) 
risk one's money &c, risk (an amount &c.) 
against another's on the result of a doubtful 
event (on or against result or competitor, that 
so-&-so will happen) ; (slang) you b., you may 
take it as certain ; betting-book, for entering bb. 
in. [perh. f. abet v. (or obs. n.) ; whether vb 
or n. is prior is doubtful] 

be*ta, n. Second letter of Greek alphabet, 
used as name of second star in a constellation, 
& in other numberings. [Gk] 
beta'ke, v. refl. (-took, -taken). Commit 



79 BETWEEN 

oneself to (i. e. try) some course or means ; 
convey oneself to (i. e. go to) a place or person. 
[ME ; be-, take] 

be'tel, n. Leaf of Piper betle, which Indians 
chew with areca-nut parings ; (hence by mis- 
take) b.-nut, the areca nut. [part. f. Malayalam 
vettila] 

bete noire (bat nwahr), n. (One's) abomina- 
tion. [F] 

be'thel, n. Hallowed spot (Gen. xxviii. 19) ; 
nonconformist chapel. [Heb. beth-el house of 
God] 

bethe'sda (-z-), n. Nonconformist chapeL, 
[John v. 2 ; Heb., = house of mercy] 

bethi'nk, v. refl. (-thought) (alw. with self or 
archaic refl. me, him. Sec). Reflect, stop to 
think; remind oneself of , how, or that; take 
into one's head to. [OE bethencan, com.-Teut. 
cf. G bedenken; see be-(3), think] 

beti'de, v.i. & t. (only in 3 sing. pres. subj.). 
Happen (whate'er b.) ; happen to (woe b. him 
&c). [ME bitiden see be-(2), tide v.] 

beti'mes, adv. Early in day, year, life, &c. ; 
in good time, [by time (ME) + -es] 

betise (bate"z), n. Foolish, ill-timed, remark 
or action. [F] 

beto'ken,, v.t. Augur, indicate, suggest. 
[ME bitacnien cf. G bezeichnen, see be-, token] 

be'tony, n. Purple-flowered plant, [f. F 
bitoine I. LL betonia f. L vettonica f. name of 
Gaulish tribe] 

betook. See betake. 

betray, v.t. Give up treacherously (person 
or thing to enemy) ; be disloyal to ; lead astray ; 
reveal treacherously ; reveal involuntarily ; be 
evidence or symptom of. Hence betpay*AL(2), 
betray'ER 1 , nn. [ME betraien f. be-(2) + obs. 
tray f. OF tra'ir f L tradere (trans over + dare 
give)] 

betPO*th (-odh), v.t. Bind with a promise to 
marry (usu. in p.p.). Hence betPO*thAL(2)n., 
betPO'thED 1 a. & n. [ME bitreuthien f. 
be-(6) + treuthe truth, later assimilated to 

T.ROTH] 

be'tter 1 , a., adv., & n. (comp. of good, well). 
Of, in, a more excellent kind, way (often, like 
good, well, for specific wd as more virtuous, 
more plentifully). Phrr. : no b. than, prac- 
tically; no b. than one shoidd be, improper; 
one's b. feelings, higher self ; b. part, most ; 
one's b. half, wife ; : b. than (with number &c), 
above ; had b., would find it wiser to ; be, get, 
b., less unwell; b. than one's word, more 
liberal than one promised to be ; one's b., more 
skilful person ; one's bb. , people of higher rank ; 
get the b. of, defeat, outwit ; know b., refuse to 
accept statement, not be so foolish (as to do 
something) ; think b. of it, change one's mind ; 
change for the b. ; b. off, richer, more com- 
fortable. [OE betera ; com.-Teut. cf. G besser 
f. OTeut. batizon- f. bat- see boot 3 + -er 3 ] 

be'ttep 2 , v.t. & i. Amend, improve; sur- 
pass (a feat, &c); b. oneself, get b. situation, 
wages, &c. Hence be*ttep>iENT n. [ME 
beteren cf. G bessem & see prec] 

better 3 , -op, n. One who bets, [bet 4- -er 1 ] 

betwee'n, prep. & adv. (the orig. restriction 
to relations involving only two limits &c still 
tends to be observed wherever among is ade- 
quate for higher numbers). In, into, along, or 
across, a space, line, or route, bounded by (two 
or more points, lines, &c); in, into, along, or 
across, an interval ; separating ; connecting ; 
intermediately in place, time, or order, (to) ; 
owing partly to, partaking of, shared by, 
(each); to & fro (go-b.) ; to & from (plies b. 



For compounds of be- not given consult be-. 



BETWIXT 



80 



BIBLIOPHIL(E) 



London & Brighton) ; reciprocally on the part 
of ; confined to (6. ourselves, b. you & me) ; by 
combination of; taking one & rejecting the 
other of (choose b.). Far b., at wide intervals ; 
6. cup & lip, of dashed hopes ; b. wind & water, 
at a vulnerable point ; b. devil & deep sea, 
with no escape ; betwixt & b., half-&-half ; stand 
b., mediate, be protector; b. whiles, in the in- 
tervals. [OE betweonum, betweon, (be- + dat. 
& ace. pi. of distrib. num., = L bini, of two); 
orig. constr., bi (ssem &c.) tweonum =■ by (seas 
&c.) twain] 

betwi'xt, prep. & adv. (Poet., archaic, or 
dial., for) between, [earlier betwixen (be- + 
OSax. twisc f. OTeut. tiviskjo- twofold cf. G 
swischen between)] 

Beu'lah, n. Nonconformist chapel. [Is. 
lxii. 4] 

be'vel *• (-vl), n. Joiner's & mason's tool for 
setting off angles ; a slope from the horizontal 
or vertical, surface so sloping ; b. edge, as in a 
chisel; b.-gear, working one shaft from another 
at angle to it by b.-wheels, cogged wheels with 
working face oblique to axis. [f. OF *bevel 
(now beveau) etyni. dub.] 

be'vel 2 , v.t. & i. (-11-). Reduce (square edge) 
to, take, a slope, [f. prec] 

be'vepage (-Ij), n. Drinking-liquor. [f. OF 
barrage (beivre, now boire, f. L bibere drink + 
-age)] 

be*vy, n. Company (prop, of ladies, roes, 
quails, larks), [etyni. dub. ; perh. = drinking 
company (cf. prec.)] 

bewai'l, v.t. & i. "Wail (over), mourn (for). 
[be-(3) + wail v.] 

beware*, v.i. & t. (not inflected, and used 
only where be is the vbl part required, as I will 
b., but not lb.). Be cautious, take heed ; take 
heed of, lest, how, that not. [as now used, f. 
be v. + OE waer cautious, but with traces of OE 
vbs warian, bavarian, take care of, defend, 
(surviving in ' Ware holes ! ')] 

taewi'ldep, v. t. Lead astray,perplex, confuse, 
Hence bewi'lderingxY 2 adv., bewrlder- 
ment n. [be-(6) + obs. wilder(n) wilderness] 

bewi'teh, v.t. Affect by magic, put a spell 
on ; delight exceedingly, whence bewi*teh- 
ing 2 a., bewi'tching'LY 2 adv., bewi'teh- 
ment n. [ME biivicchen f. be-(2)+OE iviccian 
enchant f. wicca witch n.] 

bewray (bira - ), v.t. Reveal, esp. involun- 
tarily. [be-(2) +OE ivregan accuse cf. G riigen)] 

bey, beylie, (ba-), nn. (Bey) Turkish gov- 
ernor ; (beylie) his district, [formerly beg f. 
Osmanli bey] 

beyo'nd, adv., prep. & n. At, to, the farther 
side (of), past, outside, besides ; later than ; out 
of reach, comprehension, or range, of (b. ?nea- 
swre.exceedingly) ; surpassing ; more than (with 
objective case, as you have prospered b. 
me) ; (neg. & interrog.) except. (N.) the b., the 
future life, the unknown; the back of b., the 
remotest corner of the world. [OE begeondan 
(be- about + geond across + -ana from) ; cf. yon 
& Gjen- that] 

be'zant (also biza'nt), n. Gold coin (10/- to 
20/-) current in Europe from 9th c. ; also silver 
(1/- to 2/-). [f. OF besan f. L Byzantius (num- 
mus coin) of Byzantium] 

be'zel, n. Sloped edge of chisel &c. ; oblique 
faces of cut gem ; groove holding watch-glass 
or gem. [f. OF *bezel (now bizeau) etym. dub.] 

bezrque, (-ek), n. Card-game for two or 
four. [f. F besigue etym. dub.] 

bhang 1 (ba-), n. Indian hemp used as nar- 
cotic & intoxicant (smoked, chewed, eaten, & 



drunk), [earlier bangue, bang; f. Hind. &c. 
bhang] 
bi-, pref. f. L bi- (earlier dui-, cf. Gk di-, Skr. 

dvi) twice, doubly, having two , freely used 

in English, esp. with wds f. L, but also with E 

wds (bi-weekly). (1) Adjj., (a) having two , 

as bicentral, bicristate ; (b) doubly, in two 
ways, as biconcave; (c) in Bot. & Zool., twice 
over, i. e. divided into similarly divided parts, 

as bipinnate ; (d) lasting for two , appearing 

every two , as biennial ; (e) appearing 

twice in a , as biannual, bi-monthly ; many 

wds are ambiguous between this & the last, 
& semi-, half-, would be better here ; (f) joining 

two , as bi-parietal. (2) Nouns, double, as 

bi-millionaire. (3) Chem. nouns & adjj., having 
twice the amount of acid, base, &c, indicated 
by the simple wd, as bicarbonate. 

bras J , n. (In bowls) lopsided form of a bowl, 
its oblique course, the weight or influence 
deflecting it ; (metaph. from bowls) inclination, 
predisposition (towards), prejudice, influence ; 
(Dressmaking &c. ; as a., n., & adv.) cut on the 
b., cut b., cut obliquely across the texture, b. 
band &c, band so cut. [f. F biais oblique, 
obliquity, etym. dub. ; L bifacem nom. -fax 
two-faced is suggested] 

bras 2 , v.t. (-s- or -ss-). Give a bias to, in- 
fluence (usu. unfairly), inspire with prejudice, 
[f. prec] 

bia'xial, a. "With two (optic) axes. [bi-(1 a) 

+ AXIAL] 

bib ] , v.i. Drink much or often, [perh. f. L 
bibere drink] 

bib 2 , n. Child's chin-cloth to keep dress- 
front clean ; adult's apron-top (best b. & tucker, 
best clothes), [perh. f. prec] 

bib 3 , n. A fish, the whiting-pout, [from an 
inflatable membrane on head resembling prec] 

biba'sic, a. Having two (chem.) bases. 
[bi-(1 a) + base l + -ic] 

bi'bbep, n., bi'bbing-, n. & a. Tippler, 
tippling, (usu. in comb., as wine &c. -&.). [bib 

V., -ER T , -ING 1 ' 2 ] 

Brble, n. The Scriptures of the Old & New 
Testament, a copy of them, a particular edition 
of them; authoritative textbook; B.-oath, 
taken on the B. ; B.-reader, one employed to 
read the B. from house to house ; B.-Christian, 
a member of sect so called ; B.-clerk, student 
at some Oxford colleges who reads lessons in 
chapel. [F, f. LL f. Gk biblia books pi. of 
biblion dim. of biblos papyrus bark] 

bi'blical, a. Of, concerning, contained in, 
the Bible, [f. med. L biblicus (see -ic, -al] 

bi'blieo-, comb, form of biblical, as biblico- 
poetical. [-o-] 

biblio-, comb, form of biblion see bible. Of 
books or the Bible. 

bibliograph-. See foil., & -graph, -graph- 

ER, -GRAPHIC, -GRAPHY. 

biblio'graphy, n. History of books, their 
authorship, editions, &c ; book containing such 
details ; list of books of any author, printer, 
country, subject, [f. Gk bibliographia; see 
biblio-, -graphy] 

biblid'later, n., biblio'latrous, a., bib- 
lio'latpy, n. Worshipper of, worshipping, 
worship of, books, a book, or the Bible, [biblio-* 
-latry] 

biblioma'nia, biblioma'niac, nn. Rage 
for collecting, enthusiastic collector of, books, 
[see biblio-, -mania] 

bi'bliophil(e), n. Book-fancier, -lover. 
Hence bibli6*philiSM(3), biblio*pliiliST(3), 
nn. [F bibliophile (biblio-, -phil)] 



For words in bi-, bin-, not given consult bi-, bin-. 



BIBLIOPOLE 

bi'bliopole, biblio'poly, nn. Seller, sell- 
ing, of (esp. rare) books, [f. L (-la) f. Gk biblio- 
poles (BiBLio-, -poles -seller)] 

bi'bulous, a. Absorbent ; addicted to drink. 
Hence bi'bulousLY 2 adv. [f. L bibulus 
freely drinking (bibere drink) + -ous] 

biea'meral, a. With two (legislative) 
chambers. [bi-(1 a) 4- ~Lcamera chamber + -al] 

bieap'bonate. See bi-(3) 

bice, n. Pigment prepared from smalt, yield- 
ing dull light blue and (by mixture) green, [f. 
Fqis dark-coloured f. It. bigio etyni. dub.] 

biee'ntenapy (also -ente"n-), a. & n. (Festi- 
val) of the two-hundredth anniversary, [bi- 
(la) + L centenarius centenary ; used of years 
by confusion with centennial] 

bicente'nnial, a. & n. Lasting, occurring 
every, two hundred years ; (n.) = prec. [Bi- 
ll d) -f centennial] 

bice'phalous, a. Two-headed. [Bi-(la) + 
-cephalous] 

bi'ceps, n. Muscle with double head or 
attachment, esp. the upper-arm flexor ; muscu- 
larity. [L, = two-headed f. bi-(1 a) + caput head] 

bichlor'ide, n. Compound in which double 
amount of chlorine combines with metal &c. 
[Bl-(3)] 

biehro'mate, n. Salt with double amount 
of chromic acid. [bi-(3)] 

bi'ekep, v.i. Quarrel ; (of stream, rain. &c.) 
brawl, patter ; (of flame, light, &c.) flash, 
glitter. [ME bikeren perh. frequent, of obs. 
bike to thrust, pierce] 

bicu'spid, a. & n. (Tooth) with two cusps. 
Ibi-(1 a) + L cuspis -idis point] 

bi'cycle, n., & v.i. (Ride on) two-wheeled 
velocipede. Hence bi'eyeliST(l) n. [F, f. bi- 
(1 a) + Gk kuklos wheel] 

bid 1 , v.t. & i. (past bad, bade, bid, p.p. 
bidden, bid). Command to (usu. without to ; 
now literary, archaic, or poet., for tell with to ; 
also abs., as do as you are &.); invite (esp. 
in bidden guest) ; salute (person) with xoel- 
come, farewell, &c. ; offer price, offer (a certain 
price) for (past & p.p. bid), whence bi'ddER 1 
n. ; proclaim (defiance f the banns) ; b.fair to do, 
show promise of doing j bidding-prayer, in- 
viting congregation to join, [mixture of (1) 
OE beodan offer, proclaim, cf. G oieten f. OTeut. 
beudan cf. Skr. budh- present & perh. Gkputh- 
ascertain, (2) OE biddan press, beg, cf. G bitten 
f. OTeut. bidjan cf. Skr. bddhate press ; the 
variety of forms is due to this confusion] 

bid 2 , n. Offer of price, esp. at auction, [f. 
prec] 

bi'ddable, a. Obedient, [-able] 

bi'dding, n. In vbl senses; esp., the offers 
at auction ; a command, [-ing l (1)] 

bide, v.t. & i. (Archaic and poet, for abide, 
but the regular wd in) 6. one's time, await best 
opportunity. [com.-Teut. ; OE bidan cf. OSax. 
bidan, OHG bitan] 

bie'nnial, a. & n. Lasting, recurring every, 
two years; (n., bot.) plant that springs one 
year, & flowers, fructifies, & perishes, the 
next. Hence bie'nnialLY 2 adv. [f. L biennis 
f. Bi-(ld) + annus year + -al] 

bienseance (F), n. Decorum. 

biep (ber), n. Movable stand on which coffin 
(or corpse) is taken to grave. [com.-Teut. ; OE 
baer cf. G bahre & see barrow ; mod. spelling 
affected by F Mere] 

bi'ffin, n. Deep-red cooking-apple. [ = beef- 
ing f. beep + -ing(3) with ref. to the colour] 

bi*fid, a. Divided by a deep cleft into two 
parts. Jf. L Bi(Jidus f. st. otfindere cut)] 

bifo'liate (-at), a. Of two leaves. [Bi-(la) 
+ L folium leaf + -ate 2 (2)J 



J 51 BILIOUS 

bi-fupeate 1 , v.t. & i. Divide into two 
branches, fork. [f. foil., first in p.p. -ated] 

brfupeate 2 (-at), a. Forked (esp. in Bot.). 
[f. med. L Bi(furcatus f. furca fork, -ate 2 )] 

bifurcation, n. Division into two branches ■ 
the point of division ; the branches or one of 
them. [f. BIFURCATE 1 ] 

big, a. & adv. Large ; grown up ; pregnant 
(b. with young, also b.-bellied, & esp. fig. as 
b. with fate, news) ; important (a b. man) ; 
boastful(ly) (b. words, looks- look or talk &.) ; 
(as distinctive epithet) 6. drum, toe, game; 
b.-hom, Rocky-Mountain sheep ; bigwig, per- 
son of importance. Hence bi'gNESS n. [?] 

brgamist, n. Man (woman) with two wives 
(husbands), [see bigamy, -ist] 

bi'gamous, a. Guilty of, involving, 
bigamy, if. med. L bigamus see foil. + -ous] 

bi'gamy, n. Having two wives or husbands 
at once. [f. F bigamie (-yi) f. OF bigame 
bigamous f. med. L Bi(gamus f. Gk -gamos 
-married)] 

bigapoo'n, n. Large white-heart cherry, 
[f. F bigarreau f. bigarre variegated] 

bige'minal, a. Arranged in two pairs. Ibi- 
(1 c) + L geminus twin -f -al] 

bigg, big, n. Four-rowed barley, [f. ON 
bygg = OE beow grain, cf. Gk phu-, Skr. bhu-, 
grow] 

bight (bit), n. Loop of a rope ; curve, recess, 
of coast, river, &c, bay. [OE byht cf. G bucht 
f. OTeut. bugan to bow] 

bi'got, n. One who holds irrespective of 
reason, & attaches disproportionate weight to, 
some creed, or view. Hence bi'gotED 2 a. 
[F, etym. dub. ; Visigoth, & Sp. bigote mous- 
tache, have been suggested] 

bi'gotpy, n. Conduct, mental state, act, of 
a bigot, [f. F bigoterie ; see bigot, -ry] 

bi'jou (be'zhoo), n. (pi. -oux, pr. -6b) & a. 
Jewel, trinket ; small & elegant. [F, prob. f. 
Breton bizou ring with stone f. biz - Corn, bis, 
W bys, finger] 

b/jowterie (-zhoo-, or as F), n. Jewelry, 
trinkets, &c. [F, see prec. & -ry] 

bike, n., & v.i. (Abbrev. for) bicycle. 

bila'tepal, a. Of, on, with, two sides ; 
affecting, between, two parties. Hence bila*- 
tepalLY 2 adv. [bi-(1 a) + L latus -eris side -f 
-al] 

bi'lbeppy, n. Fruit of dwarf hardy N.- 
European shrub growing on heaths & in moun- 
tain woods (also whortle, blae, -b.). [cf. Da. 
bbllebaer] 

bi'lbo, n. Sword, [f. Bilbao in Spain] 

bi'lboes, n. pi. Iron bar with sliding 
shackles for prisoner. [?] 

bile, n. Brownish-yellow bitter fluid secreted 
by the liver to aid digestion ; derangement of 
the b. ; peevishness ; b.-stone, calculus in gall- 
bladder. [F, f. L bilis] 

bilge 1 , n. Nearly horizontal part of ship's 
bottom, inside or out ; the foulness that col- 
lects inside the b. ; belly of barrel ; b.-keel, 
timber fastened under b. to prevent rolling ; 
b.-water, stinking water collected in b. [cor- 
ruption of bulge f. OF boulge now bouge] 

bilge 2 , v.t. & i. Stave in, spring a leak in, 
the b. ; bulge, swell out. [f. prec] 

bi'liapy, a. Of the bile. [f. F biliaire, see 
bile, -ary 2 ] 

bili'ngual (-inggwal), a. Having, speaking, 
spoken or written in, two languages, [f. L 
bilinguis f. Bi-(1 a) + lingua tongue -f -al] 

bi'lious, a. Liable to, affected by, arising 
from, derangement of the bile ; peevish. Hence 
bi'liousLY 2 adv., bi'liousNESs n. [f. F 
bilieux f. L biliosus ; see bile, -ose 1 , -ous] 



-BILITY 



-bility, suf. See -ble. 

bilk, v.t. Evade payment of (creditor, bill) ; 
cheat, give the slip to. [etym. dub. ; perh. = 
balk ; earliest use in cribbage, = spoil oppo- 
it p tit's score! 

bill J , n. Obsolete weapon, halberd ; (also 
billhook) concave-edged lopping implement for 
pruning &c. [com.- WG cf. G bille] 
bill 2 , n. Bird's beak (esp. when slender, 
flattened, or weak, & in pigeons & web-footed 
birds) ; muzzle of platypus ; narrow promon- 
tory (Selsea B. &c.) ; point of anchor-fluke. 
Hence -billED 2 a. [OE bile etym. dub.] 
bill 3 , v.i. Stroke b. with b. (of doves); ex- 
change caresses (esp. b. & coo), [f. prec] 
bill 4 , n. Draft of proposed Act of Parlia- 
ment ; (Law) written statement of (esp. plain- 
tiffs) case ( find a true b., ignore the &., forms 
by which Grand Jury sends, does not send, 
case for trial); note of charges for goods 
delivered or services rendered ; poster, placard, 
programme of entertainment; (also b. of ex- 
change) written order by drawer to drawee to 
pay sum on given date to drawer or to named 
payee (if drawn not against value received, but 
to raise money on credit, the b. is known as an 
accommodation b. ) ; b. of fare, list of dishes to 
Deserved, menu, (fig.) programme ; b. of health, 
certificate regarding infectious disease on ship 
or in port at time of sailing (clean b. ofh., no 
disease); b. of lading, ship-master's detailed 
receipt to consignor; b. of sale, transferring 
personal property, or authorizing its seizure 
by lender of money if payment is delayed ; &.- 
poster, -sticker, man who pastes up placards ; 
b.-broker, -discounter, dealer in, discounter of, 
bb. of exchange. [ME bille f. L bidla amulet 
in medieval sense of seal, papal bull, docu- 
ment] 

bill 5 , v.t. Announce, put in the programme ; 
plaster with placards, [f. prec] 
bi'llet a , n. Order requiring person to board 
& lodge the soldier bearing it (every bullet 
has its b., hits only by providential order) ; 
destination; appointment, situation. [ME 
billette dim. of bille bill 4 ] 
bi'llet 2 , v.t. Quarter (soldiers) on (town, 
householder, &c), in, at. [I. prec] 
bi'llet 3 , n. Thick piece of firewood; small 
bar of metal; short roll inserted at intervals 
in hollow moulding (Norman archit.). [f. F 
billette & billot dim. of bille tree-trunk etym. 
dub.] 

billet-doux (briidoo*), n. Love-letter (jocu- 
lar). [F] 

bi'lliards, n. pi. Game played with cues 
& ivory balls on cloth-covered table ; billiard- 
marker, attendant keeping the score, [f. F 
billard cue dim. of bille see billet 3 ] 
bi'llingsg-ate, n. Abuse, violent invective, 
[from the scolding of fish women in Billingsgate 
market] 

bi'llion, n. A million millions; (in U.S.) a 
thousand millions. [F, coined in 16th c. out of 
Bl- & million to denote the second power of a 
million ; meaning afterwards changed in France 
(so U.S.) but not in England] 
bi'llow 1 , n. Great wave; (poet.) the sea; 
(fig.) anything that sweeps along, as sound, 
troops. Hence bi'llowY 2 a. [f. ON bylgja I. 
com.-Teut. belgan swell] 
bi'llow 2 , v.i. Rise, move, in bb. [f. prec] 
bi'lly, n. (Austral. ). Tin can used as kettle &c 
in camping out. [prob. the male name] 
bi'llyboy, n. One-masted flat-bottomed 
trading ship or barge. [?] 



_82 BINE 

I bi'lly cock, n. Round-crowned hard felt hat. 
[bully-cocked hat 1721 = cocked after the fashion 
of the bullies] 

bi'lly-goat, n. Male goat. [Billy male 
name] 

bilo'bate (-at), a. With two lobes. [bi-(1 a), 
& see lobe, -ate 2 (2)] 

bi'ltong'.n. Strips of sun-dried meat. [S.-Afr. 
Du. f. Ml buttock (from which it is cut) + tong 
tongue (which it looks like)] 
bi'manal, bi'manous, aa., bi'mane, n. 
(Individual) of the Bimana or two-handed 
order of mammalia, two-handed, [bimane F f. 
bi-(1 a) + L manus hand, & see -al, -ous] 
bi'mbo, n. Kind of punch (drink). [~ bumbo] 
blmeta'llie, a., bimetallism, n., bime'- 
tallist, n. & a. Of, system of, advocate of, 
iising both gold & silver as legal tender to 
any amount at fixed ratio to each other, [f. F 
bime'tallique 1869; see bi-(1 a), metallic, -ism(3), 
-ist(2)J 

bin, n. Receptacle (orig. of wicker, now usu. 
fixed, of wood) for corn, coal, dust, bottled 
wine, &c ; wine from a special b. ; canvas re- 
ceptacle used in hop-picking. [OE binn perh. 
f . LL benna hamper cf. It. benna wicker sleigh] 
bin-, sometimes used for bi- before vowels, 
perh. on anal, of F binocle (f. L bini, not bi-, 
oculi) and of a an, co- con- ; for meanings see bi-. 
bi'napy, a. Dual, of or involving pairs ; 
(Mus.) b. measure, of two beats to bar; 
b. form, of movement with two themes ; 
(Astron.) b. system, two stars revolving round 
common centre or each other ; (Chem.) 6. com- 
pound, of two elements, b. theory, making all 
acids compounds of hydrogen, all salts similar 
compounds with metal ; (Math.) 6. scale, with 
2 (not 10) as base of notation, [f. L binarius f. 
bini two together] 

bi'nate, a. In pairs, [f. L bini two together 
+ -ate 2 (2)] 

bind ', v.t. fie i. (bound, pr. bow- ; also archaic 
p.p. in bounden duty). Tie; fasten, attach, to, 
on ; put in bonds, restrain ; fasten or hold to- 
gether ; be obligatory, exercise authority, im- 
pose constraint or duty, on, (pass.) be required 
by duty to (do something) ; subject to legal 
obligation (esp. b. over to appear, to good be- 
haviour, to keep the peace; fig., I'll be bound, 
go bail for statement), indenture as apprentice ; 
ratify (b. the bargain) ; make costive ; bandage 
(usu. b. up) ; wreathe (head &c) with, (material) 
round, about, on ; edge with braid, iron, &c ; 
cohere (of snow, &c); (Bookbind.) fasten (sheets) 
into stiff, esp. leather, cover (half-bound, with 
leather at back & corners only), b. up, together 
in one vol. [com.-Teut. ; OE bindan cf. G bin- 
den f. Aryan bhendh] 

bind 2 , n. Indurated clay between coal 
strata; (Mus.) curved line between two notes 
to be sounded continuously ; = bine. [f. prec] 
bi'ndep, n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : book- 
b. ; obstetric apparatus ; long fencing- withe ; 
tie-beam ; through-stone in wall ; wisp of 
straw, part of reaping-machine, for sheaf- 
binding ; loose cover for unbound newspapers 

&c [-ERl] 

bi'nding 1 , a. Obligatory (on), [-ing 2 ] 
binding 2 , n. In vbl senses; also, book- 
cover; braid &c. for protecting raw edges. 

[-INGl] 

brndweed, n. Kinds of convolvulus & 
other climbing plants, [bind l + weed] 

bine, n. Flexible shoot ; stem of climbing 
plant, esp. the hop. [orig. dial, form of bind s 
now adopted in its place] 



For words in bi-, bin-, not given consult bi-, bin-. 



binnacle: 



bi'nnacle, n. Box on deck holding compass, 
[earlier bittacle f. Sp. bitdculai. hhabitactdum 
lodge (habit are dwell f. habere hold) ; confusion 
with bin] 

blnd'culap, a. & n. (Field or opera glass) 
adapted for two eyes. [f. L bini two together 
+ ocidus eye + -ar 1 ] 

bino'mial, a. & n. Consisting of two terms ; 
B. theorem, formula for finding any power of 
a b. without multiplying at length ; (n.) alge- 
braic expression of t>wo terms joined by + or - . 
[f. LL binomius ( — L binominis) having two 
names, f. bi-(1 a) + nomen name] 

bino'minal, a. Of two names (esp. b. 
system, of scientific nomenclature by genus 
& species), [f. L binominis see prec. + -al] 

bio-, comb, form of Gk bios (course of) life, ■ 
which meaning it has in actual borrowings f. 
Gk, as biography ; in mod. formations it is ex- 
tended to include organic life (Gk zoe). 

biog-e*nesis, n. Hypothesis that living 
matter arises always from living matter, 
[prec. + Gk genesis] * 

brograph, n. Photographic reproduction 
of continuous action, [bio- + -graph] 

bio'g'Paphee*, n. Person whose life is 
written, [formed as correl. to biographer ; see 
foil. & -EE] 

bio'graphy, n. "Written life of a person : 
branch of literature dealing with persons' 
lives; life-course of a living being. So bio*- 
grapher n., bioGRATHic(AL) aa., biog , pa , ~ 
phiealLY 2 adv. [f. late Gkbiographia see bio-, 

-GRAPH Y] 

bio'logry, n. Science of physical life, dealing 
with the morphology, physiology, origin, & dis- 
tribution, of animals & plants. So biolo*- 
gic(AL) aa., biolo'gricalLY 2 adv., bio'logiST 
n. [bio-, -logy, -logist] 

bi'oplasm, broplast, nn. The germinal 
matter, a small separate portion of it, from 
which all living things spring, [bio- + Gk 
plasma, thing moulded, plastos moulded 
(plasso to mould)] 

bi'oseope, n. = biograph. [bio-, scope] 

bi'ped, a. & n., bi'pedal, a. Two-footed 
(animal), [f. L bipes -edis i. Bi-(la) +pes pedis 
foot] 

bipi'nnate, a. Having lobes that them- 
selves have lobes. [bi-(1 c)+pixnate] 

bi'plane, n. Two-planed aeroplane, [bi-] 

bipo'lap, a. With two poles or extremities. 
[Bi-(la)] 

Bipo'ntine, a. Printed at Zweibriicken 
(editions of classics), [bi- two- + L pons pontis 
bridge (transl. of the name) + -INE J ] 

biquadratic, a. & n. (Number) of the 
fourth power, square of a square; b. (equa- 
tion), in which the unknown quantity is b. 
[Bi-(lb)] 

birch l (-tsh), n. Kinds of«smooth-barked slen- 
der-branched northern forest tree ; (also b.-rod) 
bundle of its twigs used for flogging schoolboys 
&c. Hence bip'chEN 5 a. [OE berc = OX bjork 
(wbence northern birk), & OE bierce = OHG 
biricha, both f. Aryan bhergo- cf. Skr. bhurja] 

bipeh 2 , v.t. Flog with a b. [f. prec] 

bird, n. Feathered vertebrate ; game b., 
esp. the partridge; little 6., unnamed inform- 
ant; 66. of a feather, people of like character; 
6. in hand, in bush, certainty, contingency; 
6. is flown, prisoner &c. escaped ; kill two 66. 
vrith one stone, gain two ends at once ; 6. of 
Jove, eagle, of Juno, peacock, of paradise, 
New Guinea family with beautiful plumage, 
of passage, migratory (also fig. of sojourner), 
of prey, member of orders Raptor es & A c- 
cipitres, as hawk, eagle, owl ; b.-cage, for b. or 



J53 BISQUE 

bb. ; b.-fancier, one who knows about, collects, 
breeds, or deals in, bb. ; b.-lime, sticky stuff" 
spread on twigs to catch bb. ; b.-seed, special 
seeds given to caged birds; b.'s-eye, kinds of 
plant with small bright round flowers as 
Mealy Primrose or Germander speedwell, (to- 
bacco) in which ribs are cut as well as fibre, 
b.'s-eye view, conspectus of town, district, &c, 
as seen from above, or resume" of subject, (of 
pattern &c.) marked with spots ; b.'s-foot, kinds 
of vetch, fern, trefoil, & starfish; b.'s-nest, 
b.-nest, nest of b., kinds of plant as Wild Carrot, 
b.-n. orchid, (v.i., esp. in gerund) hunt for nests. 
[OEbrid; excl. E, etym. dub.] 

biP'eme, n. Ancient galley with two banks 
of oars. [f. L biremis f. bi-(1 a) + remits oar] 

bii?etta, n. Square cap worn by R.-C. and 
some Anglican clerics, [f. It. berretta f. LL 
birretum ifrirrus silk or wool cape ^rob. f. Gk 
purrhos flame-coloured)] 

birth, n. Bringing forth of offspring (so many 
at a 6.); coming into the world (give 6. to) ; 
origin, beginning ; parentage, descent, inherited 
position ; noble lineage, high-born people ; new 
6., regeneration ; birthday, (anniversary of) 
day of one's b. (b.-d. present, given on this ; 
b.-d. book, for entering friends' b.-dd. ; b.-d. 
ho7iou7's, knighthoods &c. givenon King's b.-d.); 
b.-mark, ortone's body at or from b. (sob.-blind- 
ness &c); b.-plaee, at which one was born; 
b.-rate, percentage of births to population; 

bir'thright, rights belonging to one as eldest 
son, as born in a certain station or country. 

or as a human being. [ME byrthe prob. f. ON 

byrthr f. OTeut. (ga)btirthiz f. beran bear 3 + 

-TH 1 ] 

bis, adv. (Mus.) over again, repeat. Twice 
(calling attention to a double occurrence in 
references &c). [F & It. f. L, = twice] 

bi'scuit (-kit), n. & a. Piece of unleavened 
bread of various materials, usu. crisp, dry, 
hard, & in small flat thin cakes ; porcelain 
&c. after baking but before glazing & paint- 
ing ; (of) light-brown colour ; b.-throw (naut.), 
short distance, [earlier bislcet (now assim. to 
mod. F) f. OF bescoit (L bis, coctus p.p. of 
cogue re cook)] 

bise (bez), n. Keen dry N. wind in Switzer- 
land, S. France, &c. [F] 

bise'et, v.t. Cut or divide into two (usu. 
equal) parts. Hence bise'CTiON n. [bi-, L 
secare sect- cut] 

bisector, n. Bisecting line, [-or 2 ] 

bisexual, a. Of two sexes; having both 
sexes in one individual. [bi-(1 a) + sexual] 

bi'shop, n. Clergyman consecrated as eccl. 
governor of a diocese ; 6. in partibtis (infi- 
delium), having the title, & competent to con- 
firm &c, but with no diocese (the nominal 
one being in heathen possession) ; mitre-shaped 
piece in chess ; mulled & spiced wine ; Bishops' 
Bible, version of 1568; b/s-cap, -hat, -leaves, 
-weed, various plants. [OE biscop f. L f. Gk 
episkopos overseer (epi on + -skopos -looking] 

bi'shoppic, n. Office of bishop. [OE bis- 
ceoprice (prec. + rice realm cf. G reich)] 

bisk, n. Rich soup made by boiling down 
birds &c. [f. F bisque craj-fish soup] 

bi'smuth (-z-), n. A reddish-white metal. 
[GJnow vxismut), etym. dub.] 

bi'son, n. Wild ox of two species, (also 
aurochs) formerly over Europe, and still in 
Lithuania, (also buffalo) about Rocky Moun- 
tains, [f. L bison -ontis f. OTeut. wdsand cf. 
OE wesend, OHG xcisunt\ 

bisque 1 (-k), n. (Tennis) right of scoring 
one point without winning it at any time in 
the set. [F, etym. dub.] 



bisque: 



84 



BLACK 



bisque 2 (-k), n. Unglazed white porcelain 
used in statuettes, [f. biscuit] 

bisse'xtile, a. & n. Leap(-year). [f. L bi(s)- 
sextilis (annus), year containing the bis sextus 
dies or doubled 24th Feb. (vi Kal. Mart.)] 

bi'stopt, n. Herb with cylindrical spike of 
flesh-coloured flowers, [f. L bistorta (bis twice 
+ tort a fern. p.p. of torquere twist) w. ref. to 
twisted form of root] 

bi'stoupy (-tori), n. Surgeon's scalpel, [f. 
F bistouri etym. dub.] 

bi'stre (-ter), n. & a. Brown pigment pre- 
pared from soot; colour(ed) like this. [F, 
perh. f. OF behistre = besistre = bissextile, 
the meaning gloomy from notion of unlucky 
day] 

bit l , n. Something to eat (a b. & a sup) ; 
boring-piece of drill, cutting-iron of plane, 
nipping-part of pincers &c, part of. key that 
grips lock-lever; mouthpiece of bridle, (fig.) 
control, (draw b., slacken pace ; take b. between 
teeth, reject control). [OE bite, com.-Teut. f. 
OTeut. bitiz cf. G biss f. bitan to bite] 

bit 2 , «. Morsel of food (dainty, tit-, b.) ; 
small piece of anything (b. by b.., gradually ; 
give a b. of one's mind, speak candidly) ; piece 
of scenery actual or painted ; short passage in 
book &c. ; bb. of, poor little (children, furni- 
ture) ; a b. of a, rather a (coward &c.) ; a b., 
rather, not a b., not at all, every b. as, quite 
as ; a short time (wait a b.) ; small coin (U.S., 
of fractions of Spanish dollar ; in Engl., three- 
penny b., &c). [OE bita com.-Teut. f. OTeut. 
biton cf. G bisse f. bitan to bite] 

bit 3 , v.t. Put b. into mouth of (horse) ; ac- 
custom to the b. ; restrain, [f. bit ] ] 

bitch, n. Female of dog, fox, wolf, (usu. 
b. fox, & b. wolf) ; harlot. [OE bicce etym. dub.] 

bite 1 , v.t. & i. (past bit; p.p. bitten some- 
times bit). Cut into or nip with the teeth ; 
(with off &c.) detach with the teeth ; snap at; 
(of serpents, fleas, &c.) sting, suck ; accept bait 
(lit. & fig.); (of sword &c.) penetrate; cause 
glowing, smarting, &c, pain to (frost-bitten) ; 
corrode; (of wheels, anchor, &c.) grip; b. the 
dust or ground, fall & die ; b. one's lijjs, to 
control anger &c. ; bitten with, infected with (a 
mania, enthusiasm, &c). [OE bitan; com.- 
Teut, cf. G beissen f. OTeut. bitan cf. Skr. 
bhid-, L fid- (findere cut)] 

bite 2 , n. Act of, wound made by, piece 
detached by, biting ; food to eat (b. & sup) ; 
taking of bait by fish; grip, hold, (lit. & fig.), 
[f. prec] 

bi'ter, n. In vbl senses ; also, swindler (only 
now in the b. bit), [-er l ] 

bi'ting 1 , a. In vbl senses ; esp., pungent, 
stinging, sarcastic. Hence bi'tingLY 2 adv. 
[part, of bite j ] 

bi'tter, a., adv., & n. Tasting like worm- 
wood or quinine, opposite to sweet (b.-cup, 
cup of quassia wood giving b. tonic property 
to liquid drunk from it); unpalatable to the 
mind, full of affliction; virulent, relentless; 
biting, harsh; piercingly cold (also as adv., it 
teas b. cold) ; to the b. end, last extremity ; 
hence bi'ttepiSH 1 (2) a., bi'tten.v 2 adv., 
bi'ttePNESS n. (N.) bitterness (the b. with the 
sweet, the bb. of life); (pi.) liquors impregnated 
with wormwood &c. taken as stomachics ; 

= bitter beer ; b.-sweet, sweet(ness) with bitter 
after-taste or element (lit. & fig.), Woody 
Nightshade. [OE biter; com.-Teut. prob. f. 
bitan to bite ; the b. etui may be f. Naut, 
where the wds mean the last part of a cable 
left round the bitts when the rest is over- 



board, bitter being the turn at any moment on 
the bitts] 

bi'ttern, n. Kinds of marsh bird allied to 
herons, esp. one known for its booming note. 
[ME botor f. OF butor etym. dub.] 

bi'ttoek, n. Little bit. [bit 2 + -ock] 

bitts, n. pi. Pair of posts on deck for fasten- 
ing cables &c. [etym. dub. ; in most European 
langg. ; perh. f. bitan bite] 

bitirmen, n. Mineral pitch, asphalt; (Sci.) 
kinds of native oxygenated hydrocarbon, as 
naphtha, petroleum. Hence bitirmini'FER- 
ous, bitirminous. aa. r L, genit. -minis, cf. 
Skr. gatu gum] 

bitvrminize, v.t. Convert into, impregnate 
or varnish with, bitumen. Hence bitu'- 
minizATiON n. [prec. + -ize (3, 5)] 

bi'valent, a. = divalent. 

bi'valve, a. & n., bi'valved, biva'lvulap, 
aa. With two valves; (mollusc) with hinged 
double shell ; oyster. [bi-(1 a) + valve, valvED 2 , 

& see -ULE, -AR 1 ] 

bi'vouae (-ob-), v.i., & n. (-acking, -acked). 
(Remain, esp. for the night, in) temporary en- 
campment without tents; bivouacked, in b., 
see -ed 1 (2). [F, prob. f. G beiwacht (by, watch) 
additional guard at night (in Argau & Zurich)] 

bizappe* (-ar), a. Eccentric, fantastic, gro- 
tesque, mixed in style, half barbaric. So 
bizarrerie" (-re) [-ery] n. [F ; cf. Sp. bizarro 
handsome, brave, It. bizzarro choleric perh. f. 
Basque bizarra beard] 

blab, v.t. & i., & n. Talk or tell foolishly 
or indiscreetly, reveal, let out, (secrets &c, or 
abs.); hence bla'bbER 1 n. (N.) person who 
blabs, [etym., & relation of vb to n. & to older 
obs. vb blabber, doubtful] 

black 1 , a. Opposite \x) white, colourless 
from the absence or complete absorption of all 
light ; so near this as to have no distinguishable 
colour ; very dark-coloured (b. in the face, 
purple with strangulation or passion) ; dark- 
skinned ; dark-clothed ; (of sky, deep water, 
&c.) dusky, gloomy; (of hands, linen) dirty; 
(as specific epithet) b. bear, currant, snake, 
heart-cherry ; deadly, sinister, wicked, hateful, 
(b.-hearted ; 6. ingratitude ; crimes of blackest 
dye) ; dismal (6. despair) ; angry, sulky, threat- 
ening, (b.-broived ; b. looks; look b.) ; implying 
disgrace or condemnation (6. mark, of dis- 
credit against one's name ; b. book, list, of 
persons suspect, tabooed, &c. ; deep in one's 
b. books, quite out of his favour). B. & blue, 
discoloured with bruise ; b. & tan, (dog) so 
coloured ; b. & white, ink drawing (doivn in 
b. & w., recorded in writing cr print) ; b. art, 
magic [b. partly in sense wicked, partly by 
assoc. w. med. L nigromantia corrupt, of 
necromancy] ; b. ball, used to reject candidate 
in club ballot, whence blackball v.t. ; &.- 
beetle, cockroach ; blackberry, bramble or its 
fruit (plentiful as blackberries, as can be ; 
blackberry ing, gathering them) ; blackbird, 
European song-bird, kidnapped negro on slave- 
ship (blackbirding, trade in these) ; b.-board, in 
lecture -room for demonstrations in chalk; 
b. cap, put on by judge in sentencing to death ; 
blackcap, kinds of bird, esp. the B. Warbler ; 
b. cattle ; b. cock, male (opp. grey hen) of B. 
Grouse ; B. Country, smoky district in Staffs. 
&c. ; 6. dog, sulks ; b. draught, an aperient-; 
b. eye, discoloured with bruise, also with dark 
iris whence blaek-eyED 2 a. ; b.-face, dark- 
faced sheep; b. fellow, Australian native; b.- 
fish, a species, also salmon just after spawning; 
b. flag, used by pirates, also signal of execution 



For words in bi-, bin-, not given consult bi-, bin-. 



BLACK 



completed ; 6. friar, Dominican ; b. game, B. 
Grouse (& see b. cock) ; black'guard, scoun- 
drel(ly), foul-mouthed (person), whence blaek'- 
g-uardLY 1 a., blaek'guardiSM (2) n., (v.t.) 
call blackguard, abuse scurrilously [orig. col- 
lect, n., applied at various times to menials of 
royal household, camp-followers, bodyguard, 
criminal class, & vagrants] ; b.-head, kinds 
of bird, esp. kind of gull; b. hole, military 
lock-up (so B. H. of Calcutta) ; b.-jack, tarred- 
leather wine - bottle ; b.-lead, (polish with) 
plumbago [named from marking like lead]; 
blackleg, swindler esp. on turf, workman who 
works for master whose men are on strike 
[orig. of senses unknown]; b. letter, old type 
like the German ; blackmail, (Hist.) tribute 
exacted by freebooters for protection & im- 
munity, (mod., v.t. & n.) (force to make) pay- 
ment for not revealing discreditable secrets 
&c, whence blaekmai'lER l n. [obs. mail 
rent, OE mal f. OX mal agreement perh. = OHG 
mahal assembly] ; b. Maria, vehicle for taking 
prisoners from & to gaol ; b. monk, Bene- 
dictine ; b. pudding, sausage-shaped of blood, 
suet, &c ; B. Rod, gentleman usher of Lord 
Chamberlain's department, House of Lords, & 
Garter ; b. sheep, scoundrel ; blacksmith, smith 
working in iron (cf. WHiTEs?tiith) ; black- 
thorn, thorny shrub bearing white flowers 
before leaves & small plums or sloes (black- 
thorn winter, time of its flowering, cold with 
NE winds), cudgel or walkingstick of this ; 
B. Watch, 42nd Highlanders [f. orig. uniform]. 
Hence bla'ekiSH 1 (2) a., bla'ckNESS n. [OE 
blxc, blac, = OHG blah-, blach-, perh. cogn. w. 
Gk phlego burn] 

black 2 , n. B. colour ; b. paint, dye, varnish ; 
b. speck ; fungus, smut, in wheat &c. ; particle 
of soot ; b. cloth(es) ; negro or negrito, whence 
bla*ekY 3 n. [f. prec] 

black 3 , v.t. Make b. ; polish with black- 
ing; b. out, obliterate, [f. black ] ] 

bla'ckamoop, n. Negro; dark-skinned per- 
son. [BLACK 1 + moor] 

bla'cken, v.t. & i. Make, grow, black or 
dark ; speak evil of (person's character). [ME 
blaknen (black 1 , -en 6 )] 

bla'cklng*, n. In vbl senses ; also, paste or 
liquid for blacking boots, [-ing ] ] 

bla'dder, n. Membranous bag in human 
& other animal bodies (esp. the urinary b., 
also gall, air, swimming, -b.) ; the same or part 
of it prepared for various uses, inflated &c. ; 
(fig.) anything inflated & hollow, wordy man, 
windbag ; inflated pericarp or vesicle in plants 
& seaweeds (b.-wrack, common sea-weed with 
these in its fronds). Hence bla'dderv 2 a. 
[OE blxdre, com.-Teut. cf. G blatter f. OTeut. 
blxdron- f. vb st. blx- blow 1 + -dron instr. suf. 
cf. Gk -tron] 

blade, n. (Vague & poet.) leaf; flat lanceo- 
late leaf esp. of grass & cereals; whole of 
such plants before ear comes {in the b.) ; 
(Bot.) expanded part of leaf apart from foot 
stalk; flattened part of instrument, as oar, 
bat, spade, paddle-wheel ; cutting-piece of 
edged tool, as sword, chisel, knife ; sword ; 
(also b.-bone) flat bone, esp. shoulder-b. as joint 
of meat or otherwise ; jovial, hectoring, gay, 
&c, fellow (usu. with epithet). Hence (-)blad- 
ed 2 a, [OE blxd ; com.-Teut., cf. G blatt, perh. 
partic. form with -do-, Aryan -to-, f. OTeut. vb 
st. bio- BLOW 3 cf. L flos ; OE not using blxd, 
but teaf, in the vegetable sense, it is likely 
that the mod. use is a retransfer f. sword-b., 
helped by med. L bladum, OF bled (now ble), 
corn] 

blaeberry (a-), n. = bilberry, [blae livid, 



85 BLASPHEME 

dark-blue, the direct descendant of the OTeut, 
blxwoz cf. G blau f. which blue comes in- 
directly through F bleu] 

blague (ahg), n. Pretentiousness. [F] 

blaln, n. Inflamed sore on skin, pustule. 
[OE blegen cf. Ou. blein] 

blame 1 , v.t. Find fault with ; fix the re- 
sponsibility on ; be to b., deserve censure. 
Hence bla'mABLE a., bla'mabLY 2 adv. [f. 
OF bldmer, blasmer, f. L as blaspheme] 

blame 2 , n. Censure ; responsibility for bad 
result (lay the b. on, bear the b.). [f. OF bldme 
cf. prec] 

bla'meful, a. (Rare) conveying, (usu.) 
deserving, censure, [-ful] 

bla'meless, a. Innocent. Hence bla'me- 
lessLv 2 adv., bla'melessxESs n. [less] 

bla*meworthy,a. Deserving blame. Hence 
bla'meworthiNESS n. 

blanch, v.t, & i. Make white by with- 
drawing colour, peeling (almonds), or depriving 
of light (plants) ; make or grow pale with fear, 
cold, &c. ; b. over, palliate by misrepresentation, 
[f. F blanchir (blanc blank)] 

blancmange (blamalrnzh), n. Opaque 
white jelly of isinglass, gelatine, or cornflour, 
and milk. [f. OF blancmanger white food 
(blanc blank + manger eat f. L manducare 
manducate)] 

bland, a. Gentle, polite, in manner* ironi- 
cal; balmy, mild. Hence bla'ndLY 2 adv., 
bla'ndNESS n. [f. L blandus\ 

bla'ndish, v.t. Flatter, coax. Hence 
bla'ndishMENT n. (usu. in pi.), [f. F blandir 
(-1SH 2 ) f. L blandiri (blandus)] 

blank 1 , a. Not written or printed on (of 
paper); (of document) with spaces left for 
signature or details (in b., draxen in &., so pre- 
pared ; b. cheque, with amount left for payee to 
fill in, hence = carte blanche) ; empty, not 
filled, (b. space &c. ; b. cartridge, without ball) ; 
void of interest, incident, result, expression ; 
look b., nonplussed; unrelieved, sheer; un- 
rhymed (b. verse, esp. the five-foot iambic). 
Hence bla'nkNESS n. [f. F blanc white, com.- 
Rom. cf. It. bianco f. OHG blanch f. OTeut. 
blankoz shining cf. blink] 

blank 2 , n. Lottery ticket that gains no 
prize ; space left to be filled up in document, 
empty surface (one's mind, memory, &c, is a 
b., has no sensations &c); words printed in 
italics in Pari, bills ; time without incident, 
thing without meaning; coin-disk before 
stamping ; dash written instead of word or 
letter, whence blank, blanky, blanked, as sub- 
stitutes for abusive nouns and adjj. [uses of 
prec] 

bla'nket 1 , n. Large woollen sheet used for 
bed covering, for horse-cloth, & by savages 
for clothes ; wet b., person who extinguishes 
conversation ; born on wrong side of b., illegiti- 
mate, [f. OF blanquette (blanc blank -f- -ette)] 

bla'nket 2 , v.t. Cover with a b. ; toss in a 
b. as punishment ; take wind from sails of 
(another yacht) by passing to windward, [f. 
prec] 

bla'nkly, adv. Without expression, vacu- 
ously, (look b. &c); flatly (deny b. &c). [blank 1 

+ -LV 2 ] 

blare, v.i. & t. Make sound of trumpet ; 
utter loudly, [perh. imit, ; cf. MDu. blaren, G 
pldrren] 

blar'ney, n., & v.t. & i. (Use, assail with) 
cajoling talk. [Blarney, Irish castle with 
stone conferring a cajoling tongue on whoever 
kisses it] 

bfa'se (-ahza), a. Cloyed, tired of pleasure, f F] 

blaspheme, v.i. & t. Talk impiously; 



BLAST 

utter profanity about, revile. So blas- 
phe*mER 2 (4), bla'sphemY 1 , nn„ bla*s- 
phemous a., bla'sphemousLY 2 adv. [ME 
blasfemen f. OF blasfemer f. L blasphemare 
f. Gk blasphemed f. blasphemos (bias- etym. 
dub., perh. blab- hurt + -phemos -speaking)] 

blast \ n. Strong gust of wind ; sound of 
wind-instrument; current of air in smelting 
&c [in, out of, b., of furnace working or not) ; 
quantity of explosive used in blasting opera- 
tion ; b.-furnace, smelting furnace into which 
compressed hot air is driven by engine. [OE 
blxst; com.-Teut. f. OTeut. blxstuz, f. blxsan 
blow see blaze 5 ] 

blast 2 , v.t. Blowup (rocks &c.) with ex- 
plosives; wither, shrivel, blight, (plant, ani- 
mal, limb, prosperity, character; esp., with 
subj. God understood, in curses, whence 
blasted, damnable), [f. prec] 

blasto-, first element in many biological 
terms, meaning germ, bud. [f. Gk blastos 
sprout] 

bla'stoderm, n. Germinal membrane 
round yolk in impregnated ovum, dividing 
later into three layers iepiblast, mesoblast, 
hypoblast) from which all parts of the animal 
are developed, [prec. + Gk derma skin (dero 
flay, -m)] 

bla'tant, a. Noisy, vulgarly clamorous. 
Hence bla'tantLY 2 adv., bla'tAXCY n. [prob. 
invented by Spenser, (F. Q., "V. xii. 37, b. beast) 
perh. in sense bleating] 

blaze 1 , n. Bright flame or fire (in a b., on 
fire) ; (slang) bb. = hell (go to bb., what the bb.), 
like bb., impetuously ; violent outburst (b. of 
passion &c.) ; glow of colour, bright display ; 
full light (b. of publicity). [OE blase, blxse, 
torch, cf. G bldss pale, & blaze 3 ] 

blaze 2 , v.i. Burn with flame (b. up, burst 
into b.); be brilliantly . lighted ; burn with 
excitement &c. (b. up, burst out in anger) ; 
show bi"ight colours ; emit light ; b. away, fire 
continuously with rifles &c, work enthusiasti- 
cally at anything ; blazing indiscretion, rash 
& conspicuous piece of candour ; (Hunting) 
blazing scent, very strong (opp. to cold scent). 
[f. prec] # 

blaze 3 , n. White mark on horse's or ox's 
face, or made on tree by chipping bark to mark 
route, [from 17th c. ; = OX blesi star on horse's 
forehead, cf. G bldsse in same sense & G Mass 
pale] 

blaze 4 , v.t. Mark (tree, and so path) by 
chipping bark. [f. prec] 

blaze 5 , v.t. Proclaim as with trumpet, 
esp. b. abroad, spread (news) about, [prob. f. 
ON blasa blow f. OTeut. blxsan f. root blx- cf. 
L flare blow 1 ] 

bla'zer, n. Coloured jacket for boating, 
golf, &c ; (slang) outrageous lie. [blaze 2 + 

-ER 1 ] 

bla'zon 1 , n. Heraldic shield, coat of arms, 
bearings, or banner; correct description of 
these ; record, description, esp. of virtues &c 
[f. F Mason etym. dub. ; orig. meaning shield 
in lit. sense] 

bla'zon 2 , v.t. Describe or paint (arms) 
heraldically ; inscribe (object) with arms, 
names, &c, in colours or ornamentally; give 
lustre to ; set forth in fitting words ; proclaim. 
Hence bla'zonMENT n. [f. prec. partly con- 
fused in sense with blaze 5 ] 

bla'zonpy, n. (Art of describing or painting) 
heraldic devices, armorial bearings ; brightly 
coloured display, [prec. + -ry] 

-ble, suf. OF f. L -bilis forming vbl adjj. 
active or passive (penetrabilis penetrating or 
penetrable) f. vb or p.p. stems. L has -ab., 



86 BLENNY 

-eb., -ib., or -ib., ace to conjug. (-ib. also f. p.p. 
stems as flexibilis). F in making new wds 
uses only -able ; E vacillates between this 
& using -ible w. L 3rd-conj. or p.p. stems, -able 
elsewhere ; to this confusion, incurable at 
present, is added that between -able 8c -eable ; 
-cable is necessary after soft -c, -g, (cf. navi- 
gable, manageable) ; it is also used arbitrarily 
in some wds to affect the vowel of the previous 
syllable (tameable). See also -able, -ible. 
The E meaning in new wds is always passive, 
in old ones (capable) often active. From adjj. 
in -ble are formed nouns in -bility (L -bilitas, 
see -ty) as well as in -bleness. 

bleach (-tsh), v.t. &i. Whiten by exposure 
to sunlight or by chemical process ; bleaching- 
poicder, (so-called) chloride of lime. [OE 
blxcan ; com.-Teut. f. OTeut. Maikjan cf. OE 
Mac pale] 

bleak *, n. Small river fish, & allied seafish, 
of various species, [prob. f. ON Meikjai. OTeut. 
blaikjon white cf. prec] 

bleak 2 , a. Wanting colour; bare, exposed, 
windswept ; chilly ; dreary, [perh. northern 
form of obs. bleach, bleche, OE Mxc variant of 
Mac see bleach] 

blear (-er), a., & v.t. (Make) dim-sighted, 
dull, filmy, (eyes or mind) ; (make) indistinct in 
outline ; b.-eyed, having blear eyes ; without 
foresight or penetration. [ME Mere adj., etym. 
dub.] 

bleat, v.i. &t.,&n. (Make) sheep's, goat's, 
or calf's, cry ; speak (& b. oid, say) feebly or 
foolishly. [OE blxtan, com.-WG cf. Du. blaten, 
G bloken] 

bleb, n. Small blister or bubble on skin, in 
water or glass, [imit. of making bubble with 
lips, cf. blob, blubber] 

bleed, v.i. & t. (bled). Emit blood (heart 
bleeds, is in acute distress) ; suffer wounds or 
violent death (often for cause &c) ; (of plants) 
emit sap ; part with money, pay lavishly, 
suffer extortion ; draw blood surgically from ; 
extort money from ; bleeding-heart, pop. name 
of various plants, as Wallflower. [OE MMan 
f. OTeut. blodjan (cf. G bluten) f. blodom 
blood] 

ble'mish 1 , v.t. Mar, spoil the beauty or 
perfection of, sully, [f. OF blemir (-ish 2 ) f. 
Maisme, blcsme, blcme, pale, etym. dub.] 

ble'mish 2 , n. Physical or moral defect, 
stain, flaw. [f. prec] 

blench (-tsh), v.i. & t. Start aside, flinch, 
quail ; close the eyes to, disguise from oneself. 
Ithere is OE Mencan cheat, & prob. connexion 
& confusion with blink] 

blend 1 , v.t. & i. (blended or blent). Mix 
(things) together (esp. sorts of tea, spirit, to get 
certain quality) ; mingle (t. & i. of element) 
intimately with ; mix (components) so as to be 
inseparable & indistinguishable ; become one, 
form harmonious compound ; pass imper- 
ceptibly into each other (esp. of colours), 
[there is OE blandan mix ; but ME blenden 
is prob. f. ON blanda] 

blend 2 , n. Mixture made of various sorts 
of tea, spirits, &c. [f. prec] 

blende, n. Native sulphide of zinc. [G 
blendendes Erz deceiving ore 'because while 
often resembling galena it yielded no lead '] 

Blenheim (-enlm), n. & a. Kind of spaniel : 
B. Orange, golden-coloured apple. [Duke of 
Marlborough's seat at Woodstock] 

blenno- , blenn-, stem of many wds in 
pathology. Of mucus. [Gk blennos mucus] 

ble'nny, n. Small spiny-finned sea-fish, [as 
prec (through L blennius) from mucous coat- 
ing of its scales] 



BLENT 87 

blent. See blend K 

ble'pharo-, stem of pathological words. 
Of the eyelids, [f. Gk blepharon eyelid] 

bless, v.t. (past & p.p. blessed, sometimes 
blest, & see under blessed). Consecrate (esp. 
food ; not a penny to b. oneself with, w. ref. to 
cross on silver penny) ; call holy, adore, (God) ; 
attribute good fortune to (esp. one's stars) ; 
pronounce words that bring supernatural 
favour upon (of father, priest, &c); invoke 
God's favour on ; make happy or successful 
(abs. or icith something) ; Ood b. me, b. me. God 
b. you, b. you, b. the boy, b. my soul, I'm blest, 
exclamations of surprise or indignation ; 
(euphem.) = damn, curse, &c. [OE bloedsian, 
bUdsian, bUtsian; excl. E, but formed on 
OTeut. blodisojan f. blodom blood (consecrate 
by sacrifice) ; meaning influenced (1) by the 
word's being used at the Eng. conversion to 
translate L benedicere, (2) by confusion with 
the independent bliss] 

blessed, blest, (for pronunc. see under 
etym.), a. Consecrated; revered; fortunate; 
b. with, fortunate in the possession of (esp. 
iron.); in paradise (esp. asn., the &.); blissful, 
bringing bappiness (b. ignorance &c); 
(euphem.) cursed, [p.p. of prec. ; as p.p. & 
past tense blessed is usu. monosyl., as adj. 
disyl. ; of the adj. forms blessed is the ordinary, 
blest the poet., also used in some phrr. as Isles 
of the Blest] 

blessedness, n. Happiness ; enjoyment of 
divine favour ; single b., jocular phr. for being 
unmarried (perversion of Shaksp. M. N. D., i. 
i. 78). [prec. + -ness] 

blessing", n. Declaration, invocation, or 
bestowal, of divine favour ; grace before or 
after food (ask ab.); gift of God, nature, Sec., 
thing one is glad of. [bless + -ing *] 

ble'ther, bla'ther, v.i., & n. (Talk) loqua- 
cious nonsense. [ME blather f. ON blathra talk 
nonsense (blathr nonsense) ; blether is the 
Scotch form adopted from Burns &c] 

blew, past of blow 1 ' 3 . 

blight 1 (-It), n. Disease of unknown or 
atmospheric origin affecting plants ; plant dis- 
ease caused by fungoid parasites, mildew, rust, 
smut ; species of aphis ; hazy close state of 
atmosphere ; any obscure malignant influence, 
[from 17th c, etym. dub.] 

blight 2 , v.t. Exert baleful influence on, nip 
in the bud, wither, mar. [f. prec] 

blind *, a. Without sight ; without foresight, 
discernment, or moral or intellectual light ib.to, 
incapable of appreciating ; one's b. side, direc- 
tion in which one is unguarded) ; reckless ; 
mechanical, not ruled by purpose, (b. forces) ; 
hard to trace (b. track) ; (Post Office) b. letter, 
man, reader, of ill-addressed letters and the 
officials dealing with them ; concealed (b. ditch ; 
b.-stitch, sewing visible only on one side, also 
as v.t. & i. sew thus) ; b. door &c, walled up ; 
closed at one end (b. alley) ; b. hazard, hookey, 
card-games; b.-man's-buff, game in which blind- 
fold player tries to catch others, who push him 
about [f. obs. buff = buffet] ; b.-story, triforium 
below clerestory admitting no light ; b. man's 
holiday, time before candles are lighted ; b. 
coal, burning without flame, anthracite ; &.- 
ivorm, = SLOW-tcor?>i (f. small size of eyes). 
[com.-Teut.] 

blind 2 , v.t. Deprive of sight permanently 
or temporarily ; rob of judgment, deceive, 
[f. prec] 

blind 3 , n. Obstruction to sight or light; 
screen for window, esp. on roller ( Venetian 6., 
of laths running on webbing) ; (Fortif.) = foil. ; 
pretext, stalking-horse, [f. prec] 



BLOCK 

bli'ndag-e (-Ij), n. Screen for troops in 
fortification, sieges, &c. [-age] 

bli'ndfold 1 , v.t. Deprive (eyes, person) of 
sight with bandage (also fig.). [corruption 
(through notion of folding) of ME blindfellen 
(fell v.) strike blind, chiefly used in p.p., 
whence the -d, which helped the confusion] 

bli'ndfold 2 , a. & adv. With eyes bandaged ; 
without circumspection, [p.p., earlier blind- 
felled see prec] 

bli'ndly, adv. Without seeing, gropingly ; 
recklessly, [-ly 2 ] 

bli'ndness, n. Want of sight ; want of in- 
tellectual or moral sense, folly, recklessness. 

[-NESS] 

blink, v.i. & t. Move the eyelids ; look with 
eyes opening and shutting ; shut the eyes for 
a moment; shine with unsteady light, cast 
momentary gleam ; ignore, shirk consideration 
of, (esp. the fact). [ME blinken, more usu. 
Menken ; cf. Du. & G blinken perh. f. stem blik- 
shine] 

blink, n. Momentary gleam or glimpse ; 
(also ice-b.) whiteness about horizon, reflection 
of distant ice-fields, [f. prec] 

bli'nkep, n. In vbl senses ; also, (usu. pi.) 
screen(s) preventing horse from seeing side- 
ways. [-ER 1 ] 

bliss, n. Gladness, enjoyment; perfect joy, 
blessedness ; being in heaven. Hence bli'ss- 
ful a., bli-ssfulLY 2 adv., bli'ssfulNESS n. 
[OE bliths (blithe blithe + OTeut. suf. -sjd-) ; 
the sense has shifted from earthly to heavenly 
joy by confusion with bless] 

bli'ster, n., & v.t. & i. Vesicle on skin filled 
with serum, caused by friction, burning, &c ; 
similar swelling on surface of plant, metal, 
painted wood ; (Med.) anything applied to 
raise a b. (Vb) raise b. on ; become covered 
with bb. : (slang) bore, waste time of. [ME 
blester perh. f. OF blestre f. ON bldstr swelling 
(blasa to blow)] 

blithe (-dh), a. Gay, joyous, (chiefly poet). 
Hence bli'theLY 2 adv., bli'thesoME adi. 
[OE blithe, com.-Teut., cf. OHG Midi perh. r. 
vb st. Mi- shine] 

bli'zzard, n. Blinding snow-storm, [first 
common in U.S. newspapers in severe winter 
1880-1 ; imit., cf. Mow, blast, blind, & see -ard] 

bloat 1 , v.t., bloa'ter, n. Cure (herring) by 
salting & smoking slightly into Moated her- 
ring or bloater, [f. obs. adj. bloat ME Mote 
perh. = ON Mautr soaked] 

bloat 2 , v.t. & i., bloa'ted, a. Inflate, swell 
(t. & i.) ; (chiefly in p.p. as adj.) puffed up, esp. 
with gluttony, overgrown, too big, pampered, 
[f. obs. adj. bloat ME.bloict, Moid, perh. variant 
of ME Mote see prec] 

blob, n. Drop of liquid ; small roundish 
mass; spot of colour; (Cricket) = duck's egg. 
[imit., cf. bleb] 

blo'bber-lipped, a. With thick protruding 
lips, [imit., cf. bleb; blabber, blubber, are 
found in same sense] 

block 1 , n. Log of wood, tree-stump, (chip 
of old b., child like his father esp. in character; 
cut bb. with razor, waste ingenuity &c); large 
piece of wood for chopping or hammering on 
(the b., death by beheading) or mounting horse 
from ; mould for shaping hats on, shape ; 
barber's b., wooden head for wigs ; pulley, 
system of pulleys mounted in case ; piece 6f 
wood engraved for printing; bulky piece of 
anything ; unhewn lump of rock ; prepared 
piece of building-stone ; collection of buildings 
bounded by (usu. four) streets ; stolid or hard- 
hearted person, whence blo'ekiSH 1 a. ; ob- 
struction, (Pari.) notice that a bill will be 



BLOCK 



opposed, which prevents its being taken at 
certain times & so often kills it ; (traffic) 
jammed vehicles unable to proceed ; B. system 
on railways, by which no train may enter a 
section till it is clear ; (Cricket) spot on which 
batsman blocks ball & rests bat before 
playing; b. -chain, kind of endless chain used 
in bicycle &c. ; blockhead, dolt; blockhouse, 
detached fort (orig. one blocking passage), some- 
times one of connected chain of posts, also one- 
storeyed timber building with loopholes, also 
house of squared logs. [prob. f. F bloc, which 
is perh. f. OHG bloh (G block)] 

block 2 , v.t. Obstruct (passage &c.) ; put 
obstacles in way of (progress &c.) ; b. tip, in, 
confine; (Pari.) announce opposition to (bill; 
see prec.) ; (Cricket) stop (ball) with bat ; shape 
(hats) ; emboss (book cover) ; b. out, in, sketch 
roughly, plan, (work), [f. F bloquer t bloc see 
prec] 

blocka'de l , n. Shutting-up, total or on land 
or sea side, of a place by hostile forces in order 
to starve it into surrender or prevent egress 
& ingress (paper b., one declared but not 
made effective ; raise b., cease blockading, 
compel blockaders to cease ; run b., evade 
blockading force ; b.-runner, ship, captain, 
&c, doing this); imprisonment by snow &c. 
[f. prec. on anal, of F wds in -ade] 

blocka'de 2 , v.t. Subject to b. (see prec): 
obstruct (door, vie w, &c). Hencebloeka'dER 1 
n. [f. prec] 

bloke, n. (colloq.). Man, fellow, chap; dull 
or rustic person. [?] 

blond, blonde (see etym.), a. & n. (Of hair) 
light-auburn-coloured ; (of complexion) fair (n., 
person with such hair & skin) ; (also b. lace) 
silk lace of two threads in hexagonal meshes 
(orig. of raw-silk colour, now white or black), 
[f. F blond fern, blonde cf. It. biondo ; OK 
blanden-feax grizzled (blandan blend), and the 
ancient-German custom of dyeing hair yellow, 
suggest a deriv. ; blonde is used of the lace, 
& of the adj. & n. as applied to a woman, blond 
elsewhere] 

blood 1 (-ud), n. Red liquid circulating in 
veins of higher animals, corresponding liquid 
in lower animals, (flesh & b., the animal 
nature; letb., surgically); (fig.) sap, grape-juice, 
&c. ; taking of life, murder, sacrifice, guilt of 
bloodshed ; passion, temperament, mettle, (bad 
b., ill feeling ; in cold b., deliberately) ; race 
(blue ft., high birth ; fresh &., new members 
admitted to family, society, &c. ; b. royal, royal 
family ; runs in the b., is a family trait) ; 
relationship, relations, (own flesh & b.\ b. Is 
thicker than water, the tie of kindred is real) ; 
descent, good parentage, (of men, horses, &c. ; 
bit of b., b.-horse, thorough-bred) ; dandy, man 
of fashion, (young b., either in this sense, or as 
personal form of fresh b. above, = younger 
member of party) ; b. feud, between families of 
which one has spilt the other's b. ; b.-guilty, re- 
sponsible for murder or death, whence bloo'd- 
guiltixNESS n. ; b.-heat, ordinary heat of b. in 
health, 98*4° F. ; bloodhound, large keen-scented 
dog with which cattle, slaves, &c, used to be 
tracked, detective, spy ; b.-letting, surgical 
removal of some of patient's b., (facet.) blood- 
shed ; b.-money, reward to witness for securing 
capital sentence, fine paid to next of kin for 
slaughter of relative ; b. orange, with red juice ; 
b.-poisoning, state resulting from introduction 
of septic matter into b. esp. through wound ; 
b.-red, red as b. ; b.-relaiion, one related by b., 
not marriage ; bloodshed, spilling of b., slaugh- 
ter [f. phr. to shed &.]; bloo'dshot, (of eye) suf- 
fused, tinged, with b. (see things bloodshot, 



_88 BLOTCH 

find incitements to slaughter or traces of b. in 
them); b.-stained, stained with b., disgraced 
by bloodshed ; bloodstone, kinds of precious 
stone spotted or streaked with red, esp. Helio- 
trope; b.-sucker, leech, extortioner; b.-thirsty, 
eager for bloodshed, whence bloo'dthlrsti- 
ness n. ; b.-vessel, flexible tube (vein or artery) 
conveying b. ; bloodworm, bright-red kind used 
in fishing; b.-wort, kinds of plant with red 
roots or leaves, esp. Bloody Dock. [OE blod, 
com.-Teut., cf. G blut f. OTeut. blodom] 

blood 2 , v.t. (Surg.) remove a little of the b. 
of (usu. bleed) ; allow first taste of b. to (hound ; 
also fig. of inciting persons), [f. prec] 

bloo'dless, a. Without blood ; unfeeling ; 
pale ; without bloodshed, whence bloo'd- 
lessLY 2 adv. [-less] 

bloo'dy 1 , a. & adv. Of, like, running or 
smeared with, blood (b. nose, bleeding; b.Jiux, 
dysentery) ; red (b. hand, armorial device of 
baronet) ; involving, loving, resulting from, 
bloodshed ; (also b.-minded) sanguinary, cruel ; 
(in foul language) = damned &c, or as mere 
intensive (not a b. one); (similarly as adv.) 
= confoundedly, very ; (in pop. plant names) 
B. Finger, Foxglove. Hence bloo'diLY 2 adv. , 
bloo'diNESS n. [OE blodig, com.-Teut. cf. G 
blutig ; see blood, -y 2 ] 

bloo'dy 2 , v.t. Make b., stain with blood, 
[f. prec J 

bloom 1 , n. Flower, esn. of plants grown or 
admired chiefly for the flower, florescence (in 
b.)\ prime, perfection; flush, glow; powdery 
deposit on grapes, plums, &c, freshness, (take 
the b. off, stale) ; kind of raisin. [ME blom f. 
ON blom cf. G blunie f. OTeut. blomon- f. vb st. 
bio- blow 3 + suf. -mon-\ 

bloom 2 , v.i. Bear flowers, be in flower; 
come into, be in, full beauty; culminate, 
flourish, [f. prec] 

bloom 3 , n. Mass of puddled iron hammered 
or squeezed into thick bar. [OE bloma in same 
sense] 

bloom 4 , v.t. Make (puddled iron) into a 
bloom 3 . Hence bloo'mERV (3) (also -ary) n. 
[f. prec] 

bloo'mep, n. & a. (Female costume) of short 
skirt & trousers (as n., usu. pi.). [Mrs B. 
American inventor] 

bloo'ming", a. In vbl senses (bloom 2 ); 
also slang, euphemistic substitute for vulgar 

BLOOD V. [-ING 2 ] 

blo'ssom 1 , n. Flower, esp. as promising 
fruit ; mass of flowers on fruit tree &c (in b.) ; 
early stage of growth, promise ; b. -faced, -nosed, 
bloated. Hence blo'ssom v 2 , blo'ssomLESS, 
aa. [OE blostm prob. f. same root as bloom » 
(bio- extended to st. bios-, cf. L flos, or with 
double suf. -st + -m)] 

blo'ssom 2 , v.i. Open into flower (lit. & fig.). 
[OE blostmian cf. prec] 

blot 1 , n. Spot of ink &c, dark patch; dis- 
figurement, blemish, defect ; disgraceful act 
or quality in good character, [f. 14th c, etym. 
dub. ; cf. ON blettr, Da. plet ; there was 16th-c 
F blotte clod, blotter to stain] 

blot 2 , v.t. & i. Spot with ink ; smudge ; (of 
pen, ink) make bb. ; cover with worthless 
writing ; sully, detract from, (fair fame) ; b. out, 
obliterate (writing), exterminate, destroy ; dry 
with blotting-paper, absorbent paper for drying 
wet ink-marks (blotting-book, -case, -pad, ar- 
rangements of this), whence blo'ttERM2) n. 
[f. prec] 

blot 3 , n. Exposed piece in backgammon; 
weak point in strategy &c [etym. dub. ; cf. 
Da. blot naked, G bloss] 

blotch, n. Inflamed patch, boil, &c, on 



BLOTTESQUE 



89 



BLUNDER 



skin ; dab of ink or colour ; (school slang) 
blotting-paper. Hence blotch kd 2 , blo'tch y 2 . 
aa. [f. 1600 ; excl. E, perh. compounded f. blot 
& botch or patch] 

blottesque, a. & n. (Piece of painting or 
description) done with heavy blotted touches. 

[-ESQUE] 

blou'se (-owz), n. Workman's loose linen 
or cotton upper garment usu. belted at waist 
(chiefly French) ; woman's loose light bodice 
visible only to waist, and there belted. [F, 
etym. dub. J 

blow 1 (-6), v.i. & t. {blew; blown &, in sense 
'cursed', blowed). (Of wind, air, 'it') move 
along, act as air-current, (b. great guns, violent 
gale) ; send strong air-current from mouth (b. 
hot & cold, vacillate), puff, pant ; (of whales) 
eject air & water; cause air-current by 
means of (b. bellows) ; exhaust of breath (esp. 
in pass.); send out by breathing (b. air into ; 
6. off steam, get rid of superfluous energy) ; 
(with advv. & prepp.) drive, be driven, by 
blowing (b. over, pass ofl) ; sound (wind-instru- 
ment, note or signal on or with it, or with it as 
subject to blow t. or i. ; b. one's own trumpet, 
praise oneself) ; direct air-current at (b. fingers, 
fire ; b. oat, extinguish) ; clear by air-current 
(nose, egg) ; b. up, inflate, shatter or be shat- 
tered by explosion, reprove ; (slang) betray ; 
(of flies) deposit eggs in ; (slang) curse, con- 
found, (ril be blowed if &c); b. upon, stale, 
discredit, tell tales of ; 'blowball, seed-head of 
dandelion &c. ; blowfly, the Meatfly ; blowhole, 
nostril of whale &c, vent for air, smoke, &c, 
in tunnel &c. ; blowpipe, tube for heating flame 
by blowing air or other gas into it, tube used 
in glass-blowing, Amer.-Ind. dart tube. [OE 
bldwan cf. OHG bldhan f. OTeut. blsejan cf. L 
flare] 

blow 2 , n. Blowing, taste of fresh air ; blow- 
ing or" flute, one's nose, &c. ; = fly ] -blow ; &.- 
out slang, abundant meal or feed. [f. prec] 

blow 3 (-6), v.i. (blew, blown). Burst into, be 
in, flower. [OE bldwan cf. OHG bluojan, G 
bliihen, f. OTeut. blqjan cf. hflos] 

blow 4 , n. Blossoming (in full b. &c.) [f. 
prec] 

blow 5 (-6), n. Hard stroke with fist, instru- 
ment, &c. ; disaster, shock ; come to, exchange, 
bb., fight ; strike a b. for, against, help, oppose ; 
at one b., in one operation, [f. loth c, etym. 
dub.] 

blower, n. In vbl senses of blow *« 3 ; also : 
apparatus for increasing a fire's draught, esp. 
sheet of iron before grate-front ; escape of gas, 
or fissure allowing it, in coal mine, [blow 1 , 
-er 1 ] 

blowy* a. Windy, wind-swept, [blow *, -y 2 ] 

blowzed, blowzy, (-ow-), aa. Red-faced, 
coarse-looking, dishevelled, [f. obs. n. blowze 
beggar's wench, etym. dub., but suggesting 
blush & blow] 

blub, v.i. (schoolboy slang). Shed tears, 
[short for blubber 3 ] 

blu'bber 1 , n. Whale fat; jelly-fish (sailor's 
name) ; weeping. [ME blober ; prob. imit. (obs. 
meanings foaming, bubble), cf. bleb, bubble] 

blu'bber 2 , a. Swollen, protruding, (of lips). 
[as prec] 

blu'bber 3 , v.t. & i. Utter with sobs, weep 
noisily ; wet, disfigure, swell, (face) with weep- 
ing, fas prec] 

blu'ehers (-k-), n. pi. Old-fashioned low 
boots or high shoes, [named after the Prussian 
Field Marshal Blucher] 

blu'dgreon (-ujn), n., & v.t. (Strike re- 
peatedly with) heavy-headed stick, [etym. 
dub. ; from 18th c. only] 



blue \ a. Coloured like the sky or deep sea 
(also of things much paler, darker, &c, as 
smoke, distant hills, moonlight, bruise; & 
qualified by or qualifying other colours &c, 
as b.-black, deep b., navy &., Prussian b.); 
■look b., nervous, depressed; b. funk, uncon- 
trollable ; true b., faithful ; dressed in b. (Foot- 
Guards B.); the B. (squadron), one of three 
divisions (Red, White, B.) of Navy ; belonging 
to a particular political party, usu. Tory ; (of 
women) learned (see bluestocking) ; drink 
till all's &., to drunkenness. Bluebell, (Scotland 
& N. Eng.) light -blue -flowered Campanula 
growing in dry places & flowering in summer 
& autumn, harebell, (S. Eng.) wild hyacinth 
with blue or white flower growing in moist 
places & flowering in spring; 6. blood, high 
birth ; b.-book, Parliamentary or Privy-Council 
report ; bluebottle, B. Cornflower, Meat fly or 
Blowfly ; b.-coat boy, scholar in charity school, 
esp. Christ's Hospital ; b. devils, depression ; 
b. gum, kind of eucalyptus tree ; bluejacket, 
seaman in Navy; b. light, firework used for 
signals ; B. Mantle, one of four pursuivants 
of College of Arms ; once in a b. moon, very 
rarely; b. mould, in certain cheeses when 
mature ; B. Peter, b. flag with white square, 
hoisted before sailing; b. pill, mercurial & 
antibilious ; b. ribbon, ribbon of the Garter, 
greatest honour in any sphere, sign of teeto- 
talism ; b.-rock, kind of pigeon ; 6. ruin, bad 
gin ; bluestocking, woman having or affect- 
ing literary tastes & learning [Blue Stocking 
Society (in sense 'not in full evening dress') 
name given to meetings about 1750 at houses 
of Mrs. Montague &c. to talk on literature &c. 
instead of playing cards; blue-worsted, i.e. 
ordinary, stockings were worn by some of the 
men attending instead of black silk] ; b. water, 
open sea ; b. -water school, strategists regarding 
the fleet as sufficient defence for Gt Britain. 
Hence blu'iSH ] (2) a., blue'NESS n. [ME blew 
f. OF bleu f. OHG bldw- f. OTeut. blxiuoz, cf. L 
flavus] 

blue 2 , n. B. colour ; b. pigment; b. powder 
used by laundresses ; b. cloth &c. ; the sky 
(bolt 1 from the b.); the sea; (pi.) the Royal 
Horseguards ; colour, member, of a political 
party ; (badge given to) one who has repre- 
sented his university in athletics &c. ; =blue ? 
stocking ; (pi.) the dumps, [f. prec] 

blue 3 , v.t. Make b. ; treat with laundress's 
b. [f. blue !] 

bluff 1 , a. With perpendicular broad front 
(of ship's bows, cliffs) ; (of person, manner) 
abrupt, blunt, frank, hearty. Hence blu'ffLY 2 
adv., blu'ffNESS n. [naut. wd, etym. dub., but 
cf. MDu. blaf, flat, broad] 

bluff 2 , n. Headland with perpendicular 
broad face. [f. prec] 

bluff 3 , v.t. & i. (Game of poker) impose 
upon (opponent) as to value of one's hand & 
induce him to throw up his cards ; treat 
(political opponents or rival States) so ; prac- 
tise this policy, [earlier meaning, hoodwink 
(lit.); the prec. n. also meant earlier horse's 
blinker; etym. dub.] 

bluff 4 , n. Overbearing demeanour, threats 
designed to operate without action, [f. prec] 

blu'nder \ v. i. & t. Move blindly, stumble, 
(often on, along) ; b. upon, find by fluke ; make- 
gross mistake; mismanage (a business &c); 
b. out, utter thoughtlessly ; b. away, waste by 
mismanagement. Hence blu'nderER 1 n., 
blu'nderingTY 2 adv. [ME blondren, perh. f. 
obs. blond, bland, mix, cf. blend, + -er 5 ] 

blu'nder 2 , n. Stupid or careless mistake, 
[prob. f. prec, but found earlier] 



BLUNDERBUSS 

blu'nderbuss, n. Ancient short gun with 
large core firing many balls, [perverted f. Du. 
donderbus thunder gun (orig. box cf. G. biichse)] 
blu'ndephead, n. =DUNDERHEAD(cf.prec). 
blung-e (-j), v.t. (Pottery) mix (clay, flint- 
powder, &c.) up with water by revolving 
machinery, [after plunge, blend] 
blunt *, a. & n. Dull, not sensitive ; without 
edge or point; plain-spoken; hence blu'nt- 
ish 1 (2) a. (N.) short thick needle; (slang) 
ready money. [?] 
blunt 2 , v.t. Make less sharp or sensitive. 
[f. prec] 

blu'ntly, adv. Obtusely (shaped &c.) ; 
rudely, curtly, [-lv 2 ] 

blu'ntness, n. Dullness of point or edge ; 
outspokenness, [-ness] 

blur 1 , n. Smear of ink &c. ; dimness, con- 
fused effect, [etym. dub., perh. formed on 
blear & blot] 

blup 2 , v.t. & i. Smear (clear writing &c.) 
with ink &c. ; sully, disfigure ; make indistinct ; 
efface ; dim (perception &c.) [as prec] 
blurt, v.t. Burst out with, utter abruptly, 
[imit. after blow, spurt, &c] 
blush 1 I v.i. Become red (in the face ; also 
with face &c. as subj.) with shame or other 
emotion ; be ashamed (b. to own &c.) ; be red, 
pink. Hence blu'shingLV 2 adv. [MEblusehe, 
blosche, blysche, OE ablisian ; cf. wds in ON & 
LG pointing to a st. blusi- f. vb root blus- glow 
(Du. blozen blush)] 

blush 2 , n. Glance, glimpse, (at the first 6., 
prima facie) ; reddening of face in shame &c. 
(put to the b.) ; rosy glow, flush of light ; blush-, 
pink, rosy, (b.-rose, b.-tint, &c). [f. prec] 
blu'ster 1 , v.i. & t. Storm boisterously (of 
wind, waves, persons) ; (trans, with out, forth) 
utter overbearingly ; (refl.) storm (oneself) into 
(anger &c). Hence blu'stePER 1 n., blu*s- 
tering-LY 2 adv. [perh. imit. on blow, blast, 
&c. ; ME blostre stray is prob. separate] 
blu'ster 2 , n. Boisterous blowing, noisy 
self-asserting talk, threats. Hence blu*s- 
terous, blu'stePY 2 , aa. [f. prec] ' 
bo, boh, int. used to startle (can't say bo to 
a goose, of shy or timid person). 
bo*a, n. S.-Amer. genus of large non- 
poisonous snakes killing by compression (pop. 
extended to Old- World, pythons; so also 6. 
constrictor, prop, a Brazilian species of b.) ; 
lady's long fur throat-wrap. [?] 
Bo'aner'gpes, n. Loud-voiced preacher or 
orator. [Gk, f. Heb. b'ney regesh sons of 
thunder (Mark iii. 17)] 

boap, n. Male uncastrated pig ; its flesh. 
[OE bar cf. G bar etym dub.] 
board 1 , n. 1. Long thin usu. narrow piece 
of sawn timber (strictly, over 4in. broad, under 
2| thick); w^ooden slab (of one or more breadths 
of b. bare or covered with leather &c) used 
for various purposes, as in games, for posting 
notices, &c ; (pi.) the stage (on the bb., employed 
as actor) ; thick stiff paper used in bookbinding 
(covered with paper, 'in bb.', or cloth, 'cloth 
bb.'), & for other purposes. 2. Table (only in 
spec, senses or contexts); above b., open(ly) ; 
sweep the b., take all the cards or stakes ; table 
spread for meals (bed & b., conjugal relations ; 
groaning b., plentiful meal) ; food served, daily 
meals provided at contract price or in return 
for services (b.-money, -wages, servant's pay in 
lieu of food ; esp. b. & lodging) ; council-table, 
councillors, committee ; b.-school, managed by 
b. according to Elementary Education Act of 
1870. 3. Ship's side (only in spec phrases, 
cf. overboard), go by the b., (or masts &c) 
fall o verb., on b.= aboard (in various senses), 



90 BOB 

usu. now on or into ship (orig. meaning within 
the sides, not on the deck), train, coach, &c 
[OE bord mixture of two com.-Teut. words 
meaning (1) board (2) border, respectively f. 
OTeut. bordom & bordoz ; the second was 
further adopted in F & returned with spec 
developments] 

boapd 2 , v.t. & i. 1. (f. prec. = wood) cover 
with boards (b. up, close with bb.). 2. (f. prec 
= table) provide (lodger or daily guest) with, 
receive, stated meals at fixed rate ; b. with, be 
entertained for pay in the house of. 3. (f. prec. 
= ship's side) come alongside (usu. to attack) ; 
force one's way on b. (ship or abs.) ; embark on. 
[f. prec, with influence of F aborder] 

boar'der, n. One who boards with someone 
(prec. 2), esp. schoolboy at boarding-school, 
[prec -f -er !] 

boar'ding", n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
erection of boards ; b.-house, -school, in which 
persons, boys, board (board 2 , 2) ; b.out, (intr.) 
feeding elsewhere than at home, (trans.) placing 
(destitute children) in families, [board 1 > 2 + 

-ING 1 ] 

boast 1 , n. "Vain-glorious statement; self- 
exaltation in words; fact one is proud of; 
make b. of, announce proudly. Hence boast- 
ful a., boa'stfulLv 2 adv., boa'stfulNESS 
n. [ME bost etym. dub.] 

boast 2 , v.i. & t. Extol oneself (also refl.), 
brag of or about ; vaunt, brag of, brag that ; 

Eossess as thing to be proud of. Hence 
loa'stER 1 n. [ME bosten as prec] 

boat 1 , n. Small open oared or sailing vessel, 
fishing-vessel, mail packet, or small steamer 
(take b., embark; have oar in everyone's b., of 
busybodies; in the same b., w r ith like risks 
&c) ; b. -shaped utensil for sauce &c ; boat- 
hook, long pole with hook & spike ; b.-house, 
shed at water's edge for keeping b. ; ship's b., 
carried on board ship ; 6. train, timed to catch 
or meet steam packet ; b.-fly, w r ater-bug swim- 
ming on w r ater on its back ; boatman, hirer- 
out or rower or sailer of b. for hire ; b.-bill, S.- 
Amer. heron ; boatrace, between rowing boats ; 
boatsivain (bo'sn), ship's officer in charge of 
sails, rigging, &c, & summoning men to 
duty with whistle [late OE bdtswegen, cf. Icel. 
sveinn & see swain]. Hence boa*tAGE(4), 
boa*tFUL(2), nn. [OE bat cf. ON beit and (f. 
the OE) bdtr ; borrowed in other Teut. langg. 
f. these, & possibly in Rom. also (F bateau &c )] 

boat 2 , v.i. & t. Go in a b., amuse oneself so 
(boating man) ; place, carry, in a b. [f. prec] 

bob x , n. Weight on pendulum, plumb-line, 
or kite-tail ; knot of hair, tassel-shaped curl (6.- 
ivig, also &., with short curls, opp. to full- 
bottomed ; cf. cherrv-6o6) ; horse's docked 
tail ; (Metre) short line at end of stanza, [etym. 
dub. ; f. 14th c] 

bob 2 , v.i. Fish (for eels) with bunch (cf. 
prec.) of lobworms. 

bob 3 , v.i. Move up & down, dance, re- 
bound ; catch with the mouth (for cherries 
&c floating or hanging) ; curtsy, [etym. dub. ; 

Cf. BOB 1 ' 7 ] 

bob 4 , n. Jerk, bounding movement ; curtsy ; 
(Bellringing) kinds of change in long peals 
(treble b. in which treble bell has a dodging 
course, b. minor on 6 bells, triple on 7, major 
on 8, royal on 10, maximus on 12). [f. prec] 

bob 5 , n. Dry, wet, -b., cricketing, boating, 
Etonian ; light.-b., soldier of light infantry, 
[prob. = Robert] 

bob 6 , n. (slang). Shilling, [etym. dub. ; 
quoted f. 1812] 

bob 7 , v.t. Rap, jerk. [ME boben etym, 
dub.] 



BOBADIL 

Bo'badil, n. Braggart. [Jonson, Evei-y Man 
in his Humour] 

bo'bbery, n. Disturbance, row, fuss. [Hind. 
bap re O father ! int. of dismay] 

bo'bbin, n. Cylinder for holding thread, 
yarn, wire, &c, & giving it off as wanted, 
reel, spool ; small bar & string for raising door- 
latch, [f. F bobine] 

bo'bbinet, n. Machine-made cotton net 
imitating lace made with bobbins on pillow, 
[prec, net] 

bo'bbish, a. (slang). Brisk, well, (esp. 
pretty b.). [bob 3 + -ish 1 (2) irregularly append- 
ed to vb] 

bo'bby, n. (slang). Policeman, [as bob 5 + 
-Y s (Sir Robert Peel, Home Sec. 1828)] 

bd'bolink, n. N.-Amer. songbird, [imit., 
cf. cuckoo] 

bo'b-sled, -sleigh, n. Two short sleighs 
coupled, used for drawing logs, & in tobog- 
ganing. [U.S. & Canadian wd, now also 
Anglo-Swiss] 

bo*bstay,n. Ropeholdingbowspritdown. [?] 

bo'btail, n. & a. Docked tail ; with this ; 
horse or dog with this ; tag-rag & b., the 
rabble, [bob l ] 

boeap'do, n. Logical formula, see Barbara. 

bode, v.t. & i. Foresee, foretell, (evil) ; por- 
tend, foreshow ; promise well or ill. Hence 
bo'dingLY 2 adv., bo'deMEXT n. [OE bodian 
f. bod a messenger, cf. ON botha] 

bo'deful, a. Ominous, [mod. formation f. 
prec. or obs. n. bode omen-f- -ful(1)] 

bode'ga, n. Cellar or shop selling wine 
only. [Sp., f. L f. Gk apotheke see apothe- 
carv] 

bo'dice, n. Close-fitting upper part of 
woman's dress, down to waist ; also, inner vest 
over stays, [orig. pair of bodies (cf. pair of 
stays), being a whalebone corset; now spelt 
& understood as sing. ; cf. baize & (perh.) 
accidence] 

bo'died, a. Possessed of body or a body, 
embodied ; esp. in comb., as full-b., able-b. 
[bodv 1 + -ed 2 ] 

bo'diless, a. Incorporeal; separated from 
the body, [-less] 

bo'dily^a. Of, affecting, the human body 
or physical nature ; b. fear, of physical harm. 

[BODY i+'LY 1 ] 

bo'dily 2 , adv. In the body, in person ; with 
the whole bulk, as a whole, [body \ -ly 2 ] 

bo'dkin, n. Pointless thick needle with 
large eye for drawing tape &c. through hem ; 
long pin for fastening hair; person squeezed 
between two others (ride, sit, &.). [?] 

bd'dy 1 , n. Man or animal as material 
organism (keep b. & soxd together, remain 
alive) ; corpse (b.-snatcher, exhumer of corpses 
for dissection) ; b. of Christ, sacramental 
bread; b.-servant, valet; b.-guard, (rarely, 
member of) dignitary's retinue, escort, personal 
guard. Trunk, main portion (stem, hull, nave, 
&c, ace. to context) ; upper garment (minus 
sleeves & collar, or=bodice) ; document minus 
preamble &c. ; majority. Human being, per- 
son, (heir of one's 6., good sort of b., anyb., &c). 
Aggregate of persons or things {in a b., all 
together ; b. politic, State) ; society, league, 
military force ; collection of precepts, informa- 
tion, &c. Piece of matter (heavenly b., sun, 
star, &c), quantity; comparative solidity or 
substantial character (b.-colour, opaque ; wine 
of good b.), thing perceptible to senses. [OE 
bodig ; now excl. E, unless = G bottich cask, 
referred to med. L butica f. Gk apotheke see 
apothecary] 

bo'dy 2 , v.t. Provide with b. (rare). (Usu. 



91 BOISTEROUS 

with forth) give mental shape to ; exhibit in 
outward shape ; typify, [f. prec] 

Boeotian (beo'shn), a. & n. Crass, dull, 
(person), [of Gk nation derided by Athenians] 

B6*er, n. & a. (Of) Dutch or Dutch-descended 
S.-African(s). [Du., = peasant, farmer, cf. G 
bauer & see boor] 

bog J , n. (Piece of) wet spongy ground, morass 
(in many plant names as b. violet, BUTTERwort, 
b.-ben-y, cranberry) ; 6. butter, fatty hydrocar- 
bon found in Irish peat-b. ; b. oak, ancient 
preserved in black state in peat ; b.-tr otter, 
Irishman. Hence bo'ggY 2 a., bo'ggiNESS 
n. [f. Ir. or Gael, bogach (bog soft)] 

bog 2 , v.t. Submerge in b. (usu. in pass.). 

bog 3 , n. A privy (vulgar). 

bo-gey, Colonel Bogey, (gj, n. Score 
that good golf player should do hole or course 
in. [f. bogy as imaginary person ?] 

bo'ggle, v.i. Start with fright, shy ; hesi- 
tate, demur, at or about ; equivocate; fumble, 
[var. of bogle used as vb] 

bo'gie (-gi), n. Under-carriage with two or 
more wheel-pairs, pivoted below end of loco- 
motive or railway-car ; b.-car, &c. fitted on 
these, [northern dial, wd, etym. dub.] 

bo'gie, n. Phantom, goblin; bugbear; 
scarecrow, [introduced f. Scotch writers; 
etym. dub. ; earlier bog in same sense, & bug 
(now only in bugbear), may be f. W bivg ghost] 

bo'gus, a. Sham, fictitious. [U.S. wd, 
etym. dub.] 

bo'gy, -gey, (-g-), n. (pi. -ies, -eys). The 
devil ; goblin ; bugbear, [quoted f. 1840 only ; 
etym. dub., see bogle] 

bohea* (-he), n. Black tea of lowest quality 
(last crop of season), [f. Chin. Wu-i name of 
district] 

Boh e'mian, a. & n. Socially unconventional 
(person) ; of free-&-easy habits, manners, & 
sometimes morals (esp. of artists &c). Hence 
bohe*mianiSM(2) n., bohe*mianiZE(4) v.i. 
[f. F bohimien gipsy] 

boil l . n. Hard inflamed suppurating tumour. 
[OE byl, ME bile; com.-Teut., cf. G bexde f. 
root bid- blow] 

boil 2 , v.t. & i. Bubble up, undulate, (of 
liquid at the heat that converts it to gas ; also 
of containing vessel) ; b. over (of liquid or ves- 
sel), overflow or be overflowed thus; seethe, 
be agitated, like boiling water or its vessel (of 
sea &c, feelings, feeling person) ; bring (liquid, 
vessel) to heat at which it boils ; subject to 
heat of boiling water, cook thus ; undergo 
cookery by boiling; b. down, away, reduce, 
convert to vapour, by boiling; keep the pot 
boiling, get a living ; blood boils, with indigna- 
tion, [f. OF boillir (now bouillir) f. L bullire 
(bulla bubble)] 

boil 3 , n. = boiling, boiling-point, (esp. on, 
at, to, the b.). 

boi'lep, n. One who boils ; vessel for boiling, 
esp. large vessel of riveted wrought-iron plates 
for making steam in engine ; tank attached to 
kitchen range; laundry vessel ; vegetable &c. 
suited to boiling ; b.-iron, -plate, rolled iron k 
to h in. thick ; b.-tube, interpal air-pipe carry- 
ing heat through b. [-er l ] 

boi'ling, n. In vbl senses ; esp.: the whole b. 
(slang), all the lot; b.-point, temperature at 
whichanything boils(water at sea-level, 212°F., 
100° C), high excitement, [-ing j ] 

boi'stepous, a. Violent, rough, (wind, sea, 
behaviour, speech, persons) ; noisily cheerful. 
Hence boi'SterousLY 2 ad v. [earlier boistous 
(also -eous, -uotts) etym. dub. ; AF boistous 
(OF boisteus now boiteux lame) does not suit 
sense] 



BOLD 

bold, a. Courageous, enterprising, confident ; 
make (so) 6. {at.), presume, venture ; forward, 
immodest ; vigorous, free, well-marked, clear, 
(imagination, drawing, description, features, 
headland, &c). Hence bo'ldLY 2 adv., bo'ld- 
ness n. [OE bald ; com.-Teut. cf. G bald quickly] 

bole, n. Stem, trunk, [f. ON boh- cf. G 
bohle plank] 

bole'etion, a. & n. (Moulding) raised above 
panel &c. [j] 

Ao/er'o (-aro), n. Spanish dance. [Sp.] 

bo'lide, n. Large meteor, fire-ball. [F, f. L 
f. Gk bolis -idos (ballo throw)] 

boll, n. Rounded seedvessel, as in flax or 
cotton. Hence bollED 2 a. Obowl 1 ] 

bd'llapd, n. Post on ship or quay for secur- 
ing ropes to. [perh..f. bole+-ard] 

bold'meteP, n. Radiation-measurer. [Gk 
bole ray-f -o- + -meter] 

bo'lstep 1 , n. Long stuffed (esp. under-) 
pillow of bed or couch ; pad or support in 
many machines and instruments. [OE ; com.- 
Teut. cf. G. polster f. root bid- swell] 

bo'lsteP 2 , v.t. (Usu. with up) support with 
b., prop, aid and abet, countenance, preserve 
from (merited) destruction ; pad; (with school- 
boys) belabour with b., (intr.) have b.-fight. 
[f. prec] 

bolt 1 , n. Short heavy arrow of crossbow, 
quarrel, [fool's b. soon shot, soon speaks and is 
soon silenced); discharge of lightning (6. from 
the blue, complete surprise) ; door-fastening of 
sliding bar & staple, sliding piece of lock ; 
headed metal pin for holding things together, 
usu. riveted or with nut ; (as measure) roll of 
canvas &c, bundle of osiers ; b.-rope, round 
sail-edge to prevent tearing, [cf. G bolz, Du. 
bout ; etym. dub.] 

bolt 2 , v.i. & t. Dart off or away, (horse) 
break from control ; gulp down unchewed ; 
fasten (door &c.) with b., b. in or out, shut in, 
exclude, by bolting door ; fasten together with 
bolts, [f. prec] 

bolt 3 , n. Sudden start; running away, 
[f. prec] 

bolt 4 , adv. (With upright) = as a bolt, quite. 

bolt 5 , boult (bolt), v.t. Sift; investigate. 
[f. OF bidte?=lt. burottare (buratto sieve perh. 
f. bura kind of cloth see bureau)] 

bd'lter, n. In vbl senses of bolt 2 - 5 ; esp.: 
horse given to bolting ; (also boulter) sieve, 
sifting machine, [-er 1 ] 

bo'lus, n. Large jrill. [mod. L,fGk66Zos clod] 

bomb (om or -um, the latter in army), n. 
Hollow iron sphere filled with explosive fired 
from gun or (now usu.) thrown by hand & 
exploded by fuse or by striking an object, 
shell; b.-proof, (shelter) strong enough to resist 
shells ; b.-shell, artillery b. (now usu. shell 
except in similes, fell like a b.-s. &c). [f. F 
bombe f. Sp. bomba f. L f. Gk bombos hum] 

bdmbap'd, v.t. Batter with shot & shell 
(esp. of warships attacking town) ; (fig.) assail 
persistently with abuse, argument, &c Hence 
bombap'd.MENTn. [f. Fbombarder discharge 
bombarde f. med. L bombarda stone-throwing 
engine prob. f. L boinbus hum] 

bombardier (bumbardeT - ),' n. Artillery 
non-commissioned officer. [F, see prec. & -ier] 

bo'mbapdon, -6*ne, n. Low-toned brass 
instrument ; bass reed-stop on organ. [It. 
(■one), f. bombardo + -one, see bombard, -oon] 

bo'mbasine (-6m- or -um-, -zen), n. Twilled 
dress-material of worsted with silk, with 
cotton, or alone, much used for mourning, [f. 
F bombasin f. L bombycinus silken (bombyx 
-ycis silk or silk- worm f. Gk bombux)] 

bd'tnbast, n. Turgid language, tall talk. 



9 2 BONE 

Hence bomba'stic a., bomba'stiCALLv 

adv. [earlier & OF bombace (-t phonetic, cf. 
behest) f. LL bombacem nom. -ax cotton (& so 
padding) corruption of bombyx see prec] 

bon, bonne, (F), a. French for good, com- 
mon in some senses & phrases, [f. L bonus) 

bo'na f#*efe, a. &adv. GenuineUy).sincere(ly). 
[L abl. s. of foil. ; as adj. it may be hyphened, 
not^as adv.] 

bo'na fi'des, n. (legal). Honest intention, 
sincerity. [L, - good faith ; not hyphened] 

bona'nza, n. & a. (Prop.) prosperity, good 
luck ; (pop.) greatly prospering, a large output, 
(esp. of mines), worked with all best appliances 
(a 0. farm), a run of luck (in 6.). [U.S. f. Sp.,= 
fair weather f. L bonus good] 

bon-bon (F), n. Sweetmeat, [bon] 

bonce, n. Large playing-marble. [?] 

bond l , n. Thing restraining bodily freedom, 
imprisonment, (rare, only in pi., esp. in 66.); 
fagot- withe ; restraining or uniting force ; bind- 
ing engagement, agreement ; deed by which A 
binds himself & his heirs &c to pay a sum to B 
& his ; government's or public company's docu- 
mentary promise to pay borrowed money, de- 
benture, (bondholder, person holding such 
document); (Customs, of goods) in 6., stored 
under charge of Customs in 'bonded ware- 
house ' till importer pays duty (take oat ofb.) ; 
(Bricklaying) various methods (English 6., 
Flemish b., &c.) of holding wall together by 
making bricks overlap ; b. -stone, stone or brick 
running through wall. [ME var. of band 1 ] 

bond 2 , v.t. Bind together (bricks &c, see 
prec. ) ; put customable goods into b. (see prec ) ; 
encumber with bonded debt (see bonded), [f. 
prec] 

bond 3 , n. League, confederation, (see Afri- 
cander). [Du., cf. G band f. binden bind] 

bond 4 , a. In slavery, not free, (archaic). 
Hence bo'ndman, bo'ndmaid, bo'nd- 
sepvant, bo'ndsepviee, bo'ndslave, nn. 
[influenced in sense by, but orig. separate f., 
bond 1 ; f. OE n. bonda, banda, husbandman f. 
ON bonde = boande part. n. f. bua, boa, dwell; 
after the conquest, the bonde sank into a serf, 
& the wd changed in sense] 

bo'ndage (-ij), n. Serfdom, slavery: con- 
finement, subjection to constraint, influence, 
obligation, &c [ME f. AF ; see prec & -age] 

bounded, a. (Of goods) placed in bond, (of 
warehouse) for such goods, (bond 1 ) ; (of debt) 
secured by bonds (bond l ). [bond l , -ed 2 ] 

bo'ndsman, n. Villein, serf ; slave (lit. & 
fig.) [var. of bondman (bond 4 ) as though f. 
bond's genit. of bond 1 ] 

bone *, n. One of the parts making up verte- 
brate animal's skeleton ; (pi.) the body (my old 
66. &c), its remains (his 66. were laid), its 
hard solid, or essential part (flesh <ۥ 6. ; skin 
& 6., thin person ; bred in the 0., ineradicable; 
to the b., penetrating, of cold, wound, &c); 
material of which bb. consist; similar sub- 
stance, as ivory, dentine, whalebone ; thing 
made of bone, as (pi.) dice, castanets, stay-ribs ; 
a small or nearly finished joint of meat 
(knuckle-b., broiled bb.) ; subject of dispute (6. 
of contention, 6. to pick with someone); make 
no bb. of, aboat, or to, not hesitate ; b.-setter, 
one who sets broken or dislocated bones, esp. 
without being qualified surgeon : b.-shaker, 
bicycle without rubber tires ; b.-spavin, callous 
growth in horse's leg becoming as hard as b. 
[OE ban ; com.-Teut., cf. G bein ; in most langg. 
the meaning is leg as well as bone] 

bone 2 , v.t. 1. Take out the bones from 
(meat, fish). 2. (slang) steal. [1 f. prec, & perh. 
2 (as dog makes off with b.)] 



BONFIRE 

bo'nfire, n. Large open-air fire in celebra- 
tion of some event ; fire for consuming rubbish 
(make a b. of, destroy), [earlier bonefire f. 
bone n., bones being the chief material for- 
merly used] 

bonhomie (bo'nome - ), n. Geniality. [F 
(bon, homme f. L homo man, -Y l )] 

Bd'niface, n. Innkeeper. [Farquhar, Beaux' 
Stratagem] 

bon mot (F), n. (pi. bonsmots). Witty saying. 
[F (bon -f mot saying f. L muttum a grunt)] 

bonne, n. (French^nursemaid, maid, [bon] 

bonne bouche (-oosh), n. Tit-bit, esp. to 
end up with. [F (bon, bouche mouth f. L 
bucca cheek perh. =pouch) ; phr. not used in 
this sense in F] 

bonnes fortunes (F), n. Ladies' favours, 
as a thing to boast of or pride oneself on. 

bo'nnet *, n. (Man's) Scotch capi woman's 
out-door head-dress without brim, with strings, 
& covering_no part of forehead ; b. rouge (F, 
pr. bona roozh), red cap as revolutionary sym- 
bol ; (Naut.) additional canvas laced to sail- 
foot; cowl of chimney &c, protective cap in 
various machines ; (Gaming, Auctions, &c.) ac- 
complice, decoy ; bee Clone's 6., an eccentricity. 
Hence bo'nnetED 2 a. [ME bonet f. OF bonet 
short for chapel de b. cap of (med. L) bon(n)etus 
an unknown material] 

bo'nnet 2 , v.t. Put b. on (person); crush 
down hat over the eyes of (person), [f. prec] 

foo'nny, a. (chiefly Sc). Comely, healthy- 
looking ; satisfactory. Hence bo'nniLY 2 adv. 
[etym. dub., perh. f. bon] 

bon ton (F), n. Good breeding, the fashion- 
able world, (archaic). 

bo'nus, n. Something to the good, into the 
bargain; esp., extra dividend to shareholders 
of company, distribution of profits to insurance- 
policy-holders, gratuity to workmen beyond 
their wages. [Jocular or ignorant use of L 
bonus good (man)] 

bon vivant (F), n. Gourmand. 

bo'ny, a. Of, like, bone(s) ; big-boned ; with 
little flesh. [bone 1 + -y*] 

bonze, n. Japanese or Chinese Buddhist 
priest. [F, f. Port, bonzo perh. f. Jap. bonzo 
f. Chin, fan seng religious person] 

boo, int., n., & v.t. & i. (Make) sound of dis- 
approval or contempt; hoot (speaker, an- 
nouncement, &c). [imit. of cow's lowing] 

boo'by, n. Silly dull-witted fool, lout ; 6.- 
trap, things placed on top of door ajar to fall 
on first opener ; kinds of Gannet. Hence 
boo'byiSH 1 a. [prob. f. Sp. 6060 (both fool & 
bird) perh. f. L balbus stammering] 

boo'dle, n. Crowd, pack, lot, (the whole b. 
or caboodle) ; money for political bribery &c. ; 
a card -game, [now U.S., cf. obs. buddle] 

boohoo*, n., & v.i. (Make) sound of noisy 
weeping, [imit.] 

book 1, n. Portable written or printed 
treatise filling a number of sheets fastened 
together (forming roll, or usu. with sheets 
sewn or pasted hingewise & enclosed in cover) ; 
literary composition that would fill such a set 
of sheets (or several) if printed ; (fig.) anything 
from which one may learn, also imaginary re- 
cord, list, &c, (b. of fate ; b. of life, list of 
those who shall be saved); the Bible (esp. 
swear on the b.) ; main division of treatise or 
poem (Bk I &c), or of Bible (B. of Genesis) ; 
= libretto ; back-hinged set of blank sheets 
for writing accounts, notes, exercises, &c, in 
(pi., merchant's accounts) ; (Turf) one's bets on 
a race or at a meeting ; set of tickets, stamps, 
cheques, tricks at whist, &c, bound up or col- 
lected. B. of reference, not read continuously 



93 BOOT 

but used intermittently for information ; speak 
by the, like a, b., in formal phrases, or with 

correct information ; take a leaf out of \s- 6., 

imitate him; without b., without authority, 
from memory ; on the bb., entered in list of 
members &c. (so take one's name off the bb.) ; 

in 's bad or black, good, bb,, in disfavour or 

favour with him ; bring to b., call to account. 
Bookbinder, -ding, binder, binding, of bb. ; 
bookcase (-k-k-), case containing bookshelves ; 
b.-keeper, -ping, one who keeps, art of keeping, 
the accounts of a merchant, public office, &c. ; 
b.-learning or -lore, -learned, mere theory, 
knowing bb. but not life, so boo'kiSH 1 a., 
boo'kishLY 2 adv., boo'kishNESs n. ; 6.- 
maker, -king, compiler, compiling, of bb. (esp. 
for mercenary motives), also professional bet- 
ting man or boo'kie [-ysj n ., his profession ; 
bookman, literary man ; b.-mark(er), thing to 
keep place in b. ; b.-muslin, fine kind folded in 
booklike way when sold ; b.-plate, label with 
owner's name, crest, &c, for pasting into bb. ; 
b.-rest, adjustable support for b. on table ; 
bookseller ; b.-slide, expanding stand for a few 
bb. ; b.-icork, study of rules or text-bb. (opp. to 
working sums, chemical analysis, &c) ; book- 
worm, maggot eating its way through bb., per- 
son devoted to reading. Hence boo'kLET n. 
[OE 60c ; com.-Teut. cf. G buch ; the supposed 
connexion with beech (as providing bark or 
tablets) is doubtful] 

bdbk 2 , v.t. Enter in book or list; engage 
(seat &c.) by previous payment, (guest, sup- 
porter, &c.) for some occasion ; enter name of 
(person engaging seat &c), issue railway ticket 
to ; take railway ticket ; give, take down, ad- 
dress of (goods to be transmitted) ; Tm booked, 
caught, cannot escape ; booking-clerk, -office, 
person, place, for buying tickets from. [OE 
bocian f. prec] 

boom 1 , n. Long spar with one end attached 
stretching sail-foot ; floating barrier of timber 
across river or harbour mouth. [Du., = beam] 

boom 2 , v.i., & n. (Make) deep resonant 
sound ; hum, buzz ; (make) bittern's cry. [imit] 

boom 3 , v.t. & i., & n. (Show) sudden acti- 
vity, development, (esp. of commercial ven- 
tures, prices, &c.) ; (win) sudden popularity for 
(an invention, cause, &c.) by advertising &c, 
launch with Cclat. [U.S. wd perh. f. prec. (cf. 
make things hum)] 

boo'mepang", n. Australian curved hard- 
wood missile with convex edge returning to 
its thrower, [native name, perh. modified] 

boon !, n. Request, thing asked for ; favour, 
gift ; blessing, advantage, [f. ON bon = OE bin 
prayer; the change f. prayer to gift prob. 
helped by confusion with foil.] 

boon 2 , a. Bounteous, benign, (poet.; of 
nature, air, life, &c.) ; congenial, jolly, (b. com- 
panion), [f. bon ; from 14th c] 

boop, n. Peasant ; clumsy or ill-bred fellow. 
Hence boop'iSH 1 a., boop'ishLY 2 adv., 
boop'ishNESS n. [either f. OE gebur dweller 
f. bur bower 1 & cf. neighbour, or f. the 
cognate LG Mir, Du. boer] 

boost, v.t. (slang). Shove, hoist. [U.S.] 

boot 1 , n. Outer foot-covering, usu. all or 
partly of leather, coming above ankle ; (Hist.) 
instrument of torture, luggage-receptacle in 
coach under guard's & coachman's seat ; b. is 
on the other leg, truth or responsibility just 
the other way round; over shoes over bb., as 
well risk much as little ; heart in one's 66., in 
terror ; 6. & saddle [perversion of F boute- 
selle, place saddle], cavalry signal to mount; 
bootjack, for pulling bb. off; bootlace, string or 
leather strip for lacing bb. ; bootmaker; 6.- 



BOOT 



9* 



BOSK 



trees, moulds for keeping bb. in shape ; (slang) 
get, give, the b., be dismissed, dismiss, from 
employment. Hence boo'tED 2 a. [ME bote 
f. OF bote (now botte), etym. dub.] 

boot 2 , n. Good, advantage, (now only in to 
boot, as well, to the good, additionally). [OE 
bot ; com.-Teut. cf. G biisse making good, ex- 
piation ; prob. f. root bat-, Aryan bhad-, whence 
better] 

boot 3 , v.t. (archaic ; usu. impers. &abs.). Do 
good (to), avail, as, ichat boots (it) to, (it) little 
boots, (it) boots (me) not. |ME boten f. bot 
boot 2 ] 

bootee*, n. Kind of lady's boot; infants 
wool boot. [cf. coatee, see -ee] 

booth (-dh), n. Temporary shelter of can- 
vas &c. ; covered stall in market, tent at fair, 
&c ; polling-b., for voting at elections. [ME 
bothe cf. Da., Sw., bod, f. East Norse boa 
dwell] 

boo'tless, a. Unavailing. [OE botleas, see 
boot 2 , -less] 

boots, n. Hotel-servant who cleans boots, 
conveys luggage, &c. 

boo'ty, n. Plunder or profit acquired in 
common & to be divided ; gain, a prize ; play b., 
act as decoy for confederates, practise collusion, 
[perh. f. F butin f. OX byti barter, influenced in 
form by &o£boot 2 ] 

booze, v.i., & n. Drink deeply, go on drink- 
ing ; (n.) drink, a drinking-bout. [earlier 
bouse, bowse, ME bousen perh. f. MDu. biisen 
(buise drinking-cup)] 

boo'zy, a. Addicted to drink; fuddled, 
[prec. +-Y 2 ] 

bo-pee*p, n. Game of hiding & suddenly 
appearing to child; play b., of elusive politi- 
cians, arguers, &c. [bo -f peep v.] 

bora/eie, a. Of borax, [-ic] 

borage (bu'rlj), n. Blue-flowered hairy- 
leaved plant used to flavour claret-cup &c. 
If. med. L borrago or F bourrache ; cf. perh. 
LL_6 urra shaggy garment] 

bop'ax, n. A native salt, in white powder 
or crystal when pure. [ME & OF boras f. 
med. L borax f. Arab, bauraq prob. f. Pers. 
burah] 

Bordeaux* (-do), n. Southern French wine, 
claret. 

bop'dep 1 , n. & a. Side, edge, boundary or 
part near it ; frontier of country, (pi. after 
urithin, out of, &c.) territory ; the B., boundary 
& adjoining districts between England & 
Scotland, (U.S.) frontier of civilization, (also 
Border adj. in these senses) ; continuous bed 
round garden or part of it, distinct edging for 
strength or ornament or definition round any- 
thing. [ME & OF bordure = LL bordatura f. 
*boraare f. bordus f. Teut. bord board *] 

bop'dep 2 , v.t. & i. Put or be a b. to, whence 
bop'deriNG l (3) n. ; adjoin (trans., or intr. 
with on, upon) ; b. upon, resemble, [f. prec] 

bop'derep, n. Dweller on or near frontier, 
esp. that of England & Scotland, [border n. 

+ -ERM4)] 

bore 1 , v.t. & i. Make hole in usu. with re- 
volving tool, hollow out evenly (tube &c), 
whence dop'ing j (2) n. ; make (a hole, one's 
way) by boring, persistent pushing, or excava- 
tion ; (of horse) thrust the head out ; (Racing) 
push (another) out of the course. [OE borian ; 
com.- Teut. cf. OE & ON bor augur, & L for are 
bore, Gk pharos plough] 

bore 2 , n. Hollow of gun-barrel ; diameter 
of this, calibre ; small deep hole made in earth 
to find water &c. [f. prec] 

bore 3 , n. Nuisance (usu. as pred.) ; tiresome 
person, twaddler, [f. 1750, etym. dub. ; early 



quotations imply F deriv. ; boiirrer stuff, 
satiate ?] 

bore 4 , v.t. Weary by tedious talk or dull- 
ness, [etym., & relation to prec. & to bore 1 , 
doubtful ; of same date as bore 3 ; bore (bore l ) 
one's ears = gain a hearing by emphasis or re- 
petition occurs over a hundred years earlier] 

bore 5 , n. Great tide- wave with precipitous 
front moving up some estuaries, [perh. f. ON 
bar a wave] 

bore 6 . See bear 3 . 

DOP'eal, a. Of the North or north wind. [f. 
L borealis (foil., -al)] 

Bop'eas, n. (God of) the north wind. [L f. 
Gk] 

bope'eole, n. = kail. [f. Du. boerenkool 
peasant's cabbage] 

bore'dom, n. Being bored, ennui, [bore 4 
+ -dom] 

bop'ep, n. Person, tool, or machine, that 
bores holes ; horse that bores ; kinds of boring 
insect, [bore 1 + -er x ] 

bop'ic, a. Of boron, [-ic] 

bopn, p.p. & a. Be b., come into the world 
by birth ; b. of, owing origin to ; b. again, 
regenerate; (with compl.) destined to be (b. 
rich, tired, to be hanged, a poet ; cf. also b. 
orator, an orator b., &c.) ; b. with silver spoon 
in mouth, under lucky star, destined to wealth, 
good luck ; often in comb, with adjj. & advv., 
as base, first, -b. [p.p. of bear 3 ] 

borne. See bear 3 . 

borne (F), a. Having limitations, of limited 
ideas, narrow-minded. 

bopo-, comb, form of foil. 

bop'on, n. Non-metallic solid element (a 
dark-brown powder), [f. borax with ending 
of carbon, which it resembles in some respects] 

bopough (bu'rit), n. (Munic.) town with 
corporation & privileges conferred by royal 
charter; (Pari.) town sending members to par- 
liament ; the B., of Southwark ; (Hist.) own, 
buy, b., power of controlling election of mem- 
ber, close, pocket, b., so controlled, rotten b., no 
longer (before 1832) having real constituency. 
[OE burg, btirh; com.-Teut., cf. G burg castle, 
prob. f. OTeut. bergan to shelter ; Sc. form, 
burgh] 

borougph-English (burw), n. Tenure in 
some parts of England, by which all lands & 
tenements fall to youngest son. [f. AF tenure 
en Burgh Engleys (i. e. not French, but existing 
in some English boroughs)] 

bo'ppow, v.t. Get temporary use of (money 
&c. to be retxirned) ; adopt, use without being 
the true or original owner or inventor, derive 
from another, import from an alien source ; 
(Golf) play ball up-hill to roll back. Hence 
bo'PPOWER 1 , do'ppowing x (2), nn. [OE bor- 
gian f. borg, borh, pledge, f. OTeut. bergan 
protect, cf. G borgen borrow; orig. meaning, 
take on pledge] 

bopt, n. Diamond fragments made in cut- 
ting, [perh. f. OF bort bastard] 

bos, n., & v.t. & L, (slang). (Also b.-shot) bad 
shot or guess, miss ; bungle, mess ; (vb) miss, 
bungle. [?] 

bo'scagre, -kage, (-Ij), n. Masses of trees or 
shrubs. [ME boskage f. OF boscage (LL boscum 
wood & see -age)] 

bosh 1 , n. & int. (slang). Nonsense, foolish 
talk, folly. [Turk., = empty ; introduced by 
Morier's novel Ayesha] 

bosh 2 , v.t. (school slang). Make a fool of, 
tease, [f. prec] 

bosk, bo'sket, -quet (-k-), nn. Thicket, 
plantation, [bosk prob. mod. back-formation 
f. bosky (but cf. ME bosk var. of busk bush 1 ) ; 



BOSKY 95 

bosket f. F bosquet f. It. boschetto dim. of bosco 
wood ; cf. bouquet] 

bo'sky, a. Wooded, bushy, [f. bosk not 
recorded betw. 14th & 19th cc. + -Y 2 ] 

bosom (bob'zm), n. Person's breast ; enclo- 
sure formed by breast & arms {wife of one's b.) ; 
breast of dress, space between dress & breast, 
old equivalent of pocket (put in one's b.) ; sur- 
face of lake, ground, &c. ; the midst (b. of one's 
family, of the ch urch) ; the heart, thoughts, 
desires, &c. (comes home to one's b., b.-fricnd). 
[OE bosm cf.. G busen, etym. dub.] 

boss i, n. Protuberance ; round metal knob 
or stud on centre of shield or ornamental 
work ; (Arch.) projection at intersecting-point 
of vault-ribs; (Mech.) enlarged part of shaft. 
Hence dossed 2 , bo'ssY 2 , aa. [ME & OF 
boce (now bosse) — It. bozza ulcer] 

boss 2 , n. (slang). Master, person in authority ; 

(U.S.) manager of political organization ; per- 

. son or thing that is best at any thing, champion. 

[U.S. wd f. Du. baas uncle, master, cf. G base 

female cousin] 

boss 3 , v.t. (slang). Be master or manager of 
(b. the shoiv, make all arrangements), [f. prec] 

Bo'swell (-z-), n. Biographer like James B., 
writer of Johnson's life. Hence Boswe'lliAN 
a., Bo'swellis.M(3) n., Bo'swelliZE(i) v.i. 

bot, bott, n. Parasitic worm; the botts, 
horse disease caused by it. 

bd'tanist, n. Student of botany, [f. F 
botaniste, see botany, -ist (3)] 

bo'tanize, v.i. Study plants, esp. by seeking 
them as they grow. [f. Gk botanizo gather 
plants, see botany, -ize] 

bd'tany, n. Science of plants. Hence 
bota'niCAL a. (also bota'nic in names of old 
societies), bota'niCALLY adv. [historically 
botanic is the parent word, f. med. L f. Gk 
botanikos (botane plant f. bosko feed) ; botany 
on anal, of astronomy -ic &c. ; see -Y J ] 

botap'^o, n. Relish of mullet or tunny roe. 
[It., f. Arab, butarkhah f. Copt, outarakhon 
(Copt, ow-indef. art. +Gk tarikhion pickle)] 

botch, n., & v.t. & i. (Make a) clumsy 

Satch ; bungle(d) work ; repair badly. Hence 
io*tchER 1 n. [etym. dub. ; cf. patch & G 
batzen] 

both, a., pron., & adv. (Adj.) the two ( s) 

& not only one, as b. (the) brothers are dead. 
(Pron.) the two & not only one (a) with no 
n., as 6. are dead ; (b) with of & n. or pron., as 
b. of them (or of the brothers) are dead ; 
(c) with n. or pron. as subj., & o. in the pred. 
in apposition, as they (or the brothers) are b. 
dead, they were gentlemen b. ( Ad v^with._eq ual 
truth in two cases (a) where o. might struHbe 
held pronominal, as b. brother & sister are 
dead; (b) clearly adv., as she is b. dead & 
buried ; (c) of more than two nouns &c, as b. 
God & man <£• beast, [earlier bo, OE bd ; ME 
bathe f. OX bdthar cf. G beide ; bdthar perh. 
resulted f. the addition of the def. art. (both 
the)] 

bo'thep i (-dh-), v.t. & i. Pester, worry; be 
troublesome ; worry oneself, take trouble ; (sub- 
junct. as mild imprecation) confound, [etym. 
dub. ; first in Irish writers, Swift, Sterne, &c] 

bo'thep 2 , n. Worry, fuss. [f. prec] 

bothepa'tion, n. & int. = prec. ; (int.) con- 
found it ! [bother v. + -ation] 

bo'ttle 1 , n. Narrow-necked vessel, usu. of 
glass, for storing liquid ; the amount of liquid 
in it ; the b., drinking, over a b., while drinking ; 
bring up on the b., of child not fed from the 
breast ; b.-brush, cylindrical brush for cleaning 
bb., kinds of plant as Horsetail ; b.-glass, coarse 
dark -green glass ; b.-green, dark green ; &.- 



BOULTER 



holder, pugilist's attendant at prizefight, 
second, supporter, understrapper; b.-nose\ 
swollen nose, B.-nosed whale ; b.-washer fac- 
totum, underling, [f. OF bouteille f. LL buticula 
dim. of butis butt *] 

bo'ttle 2 , v.t. Store in bb. ; b. up, conceal, 
restrain for a time, (resentment &c). [f. prec] 

bo'ttle 3 , n. Bundle of hay or straw (lookfo\ 
needle in b. of hay, of hopeless search), [f. OF 
botel dim. of *bot (botte bundle)] 

bo'ttle 4 , n. Blue, White, Yellow, B.,B. of 
all sorts, kinds of plant, [partly corruption 
of buddle, bothel, etym. dub., partly from shape 
of ovary or calyx] 

bo'ttom 1 , n. & a. Lowest part, part on 
which thing rests (stand on own b., be inde- 
pendent ; b. up, upside-down) ; the posterior ; 
seat (of chair) ; ground under water of lake 
&c (go, send, to the b., sink; touch b., be at 
the lowest point or on firm facts ; to, from, b. 
of heart, genuinely, profoundly) ; river-basin 
&c, low-lying land ; less honourable end of 
table, class, &c ; farthest or inmost point (b. of 
bay) ; keel, horizontal part near keel, hull, 
ship ; foundation, basis, origin, (be^at the b. of, 
cause) ; essential character, reality, (search to 
the b., get to the b. of; at b.) ; stamina. (Adj.) 
lowest, last (bet your b. dollar, stake all) ; fun- 
damental ; hence bo'ttom.MOST a. [OE botm 
f. WG *bothm (G boden), cf. Gk puthmen, Skr. 
budhnd, L fundus (for fudnus)] 

bo'ttom 2 , v.t. & i. Put b. to (saucepan, 
chair); base (argument &c) ujjon; touch b. 
of sea &c. ; touch b. of, sound, find the extent 
or real nature of. [f. prec] 

bo'ttomless, a. Without bottom (chair 
&c) ; unfathomable, [-less] 

bo'ttompy 1 , n. System of lending money 
to shipowner for purposes of voyage on security 
of ship, lender losing the money if ship is lost. 
[bottom n. = ship + -ry after Du. bodmerij] 

bo'ttompy 2 , v.t. Pledge (ship ; see prec). 

boudoir (boo'dwahr), n. Lady's small pri- 
vate room. [F, = sulking-place f. bouder sulk, 
etym. dub. ; termin. as in parlour (F -oir)] 

Bou'gainvillae'a, -vi'lia, (bdb-),'n. Tropi- 
cal plant with large bracts. [Bougainville, 
French navigator, c 1750] 

bough (-ow), n. Tree-branch (if on tree, one 
of the chief branches). [OE bog, boh ; com.- 
Teut. (in etym., but not in sense) cf. G bug, Du. 
boeg, shoulder, bow of ship ; also Skr. bahus, 
Gk pdkhus arm; bow b G f ship is same wd 
adopted separately f. Scand. or LG] 

bought. See buy. 

bougie (boo - zhe), n. Wax candle ; thin 
flexible surgical instrument for exploring, 
dilating, &c, the passages of the body. [F, f. 
Arab. Bijiyah Algerian town with wax trade] 

bouillabaisse (boolyaba's), n. French (esp. 
Marseilles) dish, rich fish-stew. [F] 

Jbou/7//(boolye'), n. Stew r ed or boiled meat. [F] 

bouillon (F), n. Broth, soup ; (Dress) puffed 
fold. [F, f. bouillir boil] 

bou'ldep (bol-), n. Water-worn rounded 
stone, cobble ; large erratic block of weather- 
worn stone (in mining, of detached ore) ; &.- 
clay, -drift, -formation, -period, geol. terms w. 
ref. to the Ice Age. [short for boulderstone, 
ME bulderston, cf. Sw. dial, bullersten large 
stone in stream (puller noise)] 

boulevard (boo'lvahr), n. Broad street with 
rows of trees. [F, f. G bolhverk bulwark orig. 
promenade on demolished fortification] 

bouteversement (F), n. Turning upside- 
down. 

bou'ltep (bol-), n. Long fishing-line with 
many hooks. L?] 



BOUNCE 

bounce J (bow-), v. i. & t. Rebound ; throw 
oneself about ; burst noisily, angrily, &c., into 
or out of (room), in or out ; talk big ; hustle 
{person) by bluff or assumptions into doing or 
out of (something) ; bouncing girl &c., big, 
hearty, bustling, noisy. [ME bunsen thump 
(a now archaic sense of bounce) ; perh. imit. of 
sound cf. G dial, bums for gunfire &c] 

bounce 2 ,!). Rebound; boast, exaggeration, 
swagger, [f. prec] 

bounce 3 , adv. Suddenly, noisily, (come b. 
against &c. cf. bang), [as prec] 

bou'neer, n. In vbl senses ; also : unblushing 
lie ; thing big of its kind. [-ER J ] 

bound 1 (bow-), n. Limit of territory or 
estate ; (usu. pi.) limitation, restriction, (out of 
bb., beyond limits set by school rules ; go beyond 
the bb. of reason, put bb. to), [f. OF bodnc = 
med. L bodena earlier bidina\ 

bound 2 , v.t. Set bounds to, limit, (esp. in 
pass, with by) ; be the boundary of. [f. prec] 

bound 3 (bow-), v.i. (Of ball &c) recoil from 
wall or ground, bounce ; (of living thing, wave, 
&c) spring, leap, advance lightly, [f. F bondir 
<only of sound till loth c) perh. f. L bombitare 
{bombus hum)] 

bound 4 , n. Springy movement upward or 
forward ; (advance by leaps & bb., with start- 
ling speed) ; (of ball &c) recoil (on the first b., 
between first two touchings of ground), [f.prec] 

bound 5 (bow-), a. Ready to start, having 
started, for (or with preceding adv. as home- 
ward b.). [ME boun, f. ON buinn, Xorw. buen, 
p.p. of bua get ready ; -d is due to the ME 
form's not looking like a p.p.] 

bound 6 , p.p. of bind. In vbl senses ; esp. b. 
up with, having the same interests as, closely 
connected with ; b. to win &c, certain. 

bou'ndary, n. Limit-line ; thing that limits. 
[bound 1 + -ART 1 ] 

bou'nden. See bind 1 . 

bou'ndep, n. In vbl senses of bound 2 » 3 ; 
esp., (slang) cheerfully or noisily ill-bred person. 

[-ER 1 ] 

bou'ndless, a. Unlimited. Hence bou'nd- 
lessLY 2 adv., bou'ndlessNESs n. [bound 1 + 
-less] 

bou'nteous (bow-), a. Beneficent, liberal ; 
freelybestowed. Hence bou'nteousLY 2 adv., 
bou'nteousNESS n. [ME bontyvous f. OF 
bontif (bontt bounty) + -ous, altered later as 
though f. bounte" bounty + -ous] 

bou'ntiful, a. = prec. ; also, ample. Hence 
bou'ntif uIly 2 adv. [foil. + -ful] 

bou'nty (bow-), n. Munificence, liberality 
in giving; gift (Queen Anne's B., fund for 
augmenting poor benefices); gratuity to sol- 
diers & sailors on joining &c ; sum paid to 
merchants &c to encourage trade enterprise 
(b.-fed products), [f. OF bontet f. L bonitatem 
f. bonus good (bon. -ty)] 

bou'quet (bob'ka). n. Bunch of flowers ; per- 
fume of wine. lF, = It. boschetto bosket] 

boup'don (boor-), n. Bass (usu. 16ft) stop in 
organ ; similar stop in harmonium. [F, - bag- 
pipe-drone, perh. imit.] 

bourgeois 1 (boor"zhwah), n. & a. (Member) 
of shop-keeping middle class, (person) of hum- 
drum middle-class ideas. [F, f. LL burgensis 
(bwgus town f. WG burg borough] 

bourgeois 2 (berjoi's), n. & a. (Printing 
type) between long primer & brevier, [perh. 
a French printer's name] 

bourgeoisie (boorzhwahze*), n. The middle 
class. [F] 

bourgeon. See burgeon. 

bourn x (boom), n. Small stream, [southern 

var. of burn l ] 



96 BOWER 

boupn(e) 2 (boom), n. Limit, goal. [f. F 
borne f. OF bodne bound '] 
bourse (boors), n. Foreign money-market, 
esp. that of Paris. [F] 
boustrophe'don (bow-), a. &adv. (Written) 
from right to left & from left to right in 
alternate lines. [Gk, adv. = as ox turns in 
ploughing (f. bous ox, -strophos turning, -don 
adv. suf.)] 

bout (bowt), n. Spell of or turn at work or 
exercise ; fit of drinking or illness ; trial of 
strength; this &., on this occasion, [perh. = 
obs. bought, which was perh. (being only from 
loth c) assim. of bight to bow 3 ] 
bo'vine, a. Of, like, an ox ; inert, dull. [f. 
L bovinus (bos bovis ox, see cow)] 
bow J (bo), n. Curve ; rainbow ; weapon for 
shooting arrows (bend, draw, the b.; two strings 
to one's b., more resources than one ; draw the 
long b., exaggerate); = saddle-6. ; rod with 
stretched horse-hair for playing violin &c, 
single passage of this across strings ; = bail 4 ; 
- bow-window ; slipknot with single or double 
loop, ribbon &c so tied; bb., b.-compass(es), 
compass with jointed legs ; b.-head, Greenland 
whale ; b.-legged, bandy ; b.-saw, narrow saw 
stretched like bow-string on wooden frame; 
bowshot, distance to which b. can send arrow; 
b.-string, (strangle with) string of b. (Turkish 
method of execution). [OE boga; com.-Teut. 
cf. G bogen f. bug- st. of OTeut. beugan 
bend] 

bow 2 , v.t. L'se the bow on (violin &c.) [f. 
prec] 

bow 3 (-ow), v.i. & t. Submit to, bend or 
kneel in sign of submission or reverence to or 
before (often with down) ; incline head in salu- 
tation, assent, &c (boioing acquaintance, that 
stops at this, slight); express (thanks &c), 
usher in or out, by bowing ; cause to bend (lit. 
& fig., knee, back Sec. for burden, will) ; 6. down, 
crush, make stoop, (esp. bowed down by care 
&c.) [OE bugan f. OTeut. beugan f. st. bug- 
cf. Skr. bhiij- bend, L fugere, Gk pheugo flee ; 
bow has also taken the senses of obs. bey its 
causal form f. OTeut. baugjan] 
bow 4 , n. Bending of head or body in saluta- 
tion, respect, consent, &c ; make one's b., 
retire, [f. prec] 

bow 5 (-ow), n. Fore-end of boat or ship from 
where it begins to arch inwards (often pi.) ; on 
the b., of objects within 45° of the point right 
ahead ; rower nearest the b. (b.-oar, his oar or 
himself); b.-chaser, see chase 1 , [only from 
1600 ; = LG bua, Du. boeg. Da. boug, shoulder, 
ship's bow ; OE had bog, boh, shoulder, bough, 
but without the naut. sense ; see bough] 
bowdlerize (bow-), v.t. Expurgate (book, 
author). Hence bowdleriSM<3), bowd- 
leriZA'Tiox, nn. [T. Boivdler 1818, expurgator 
of Shakspere, + -ize (4)] 

bowel, n. Division of alimentary canal 
below stomach, intestine, gut, (sing, only in 
med. use); (pi.) entrails, inside of body; pity, 
tender feelings, (bb. of mercy Sec.) ; interior of 
anything. [ME buel f. OF boel = It. budello f. 
LL botellus dim. of botulus sausage] 
bower l (bow-), n. Dwelling, abode, (poet.) ; 
inner room, boudoir, (poet.); place closed in with 
foliage, arbour, summerhouse, whence bow- 
er Y 2 a. ; b.-bird, Australian starling construct- 
ing elaborate runs adorned with feathers, shells, 
&c [OE bur dwelling (cf. G bauer birdcage) f. 
OTeut. biirom f.« Aryan bhurom f. bhu (Teut. 
bu-) dwell] 

bower- (bow-), n. (Also b.-anchor, -cable) 
either of two anchors (best & small) carried at 
ship's bow or of their cables, [bow 5 + -er l ] 



BOWER 



97 



BRACER 



bower 3 (bow-), n. One of two cards (right b., 
knave of trumps, left b., knave of same colour) 
at euchre, [f. G batter peasant, knave at 
cards, see boer] 

bowie-knife (bo->, n. Long knife with 10- 
loin. blade double-edged at point used as 
weapon in wild parts of U.S. [Col. J. Bowie] 

bowl 1 (bol), n. Basin (hist., deep-shaped 
basin ; now differing only as more dignified or 
poetic wd) ; drinking-vessel {the b., convivi- 
ality) ; contents of a b. ; b. -shaped part of 
tobacco-pipe, spoon, balance,&c. Hence bowi- 
ful(2) n. [var. of boll OE bolla; com.-Teut. 
f. bul- swell] 

bowl 2 (bol), n. 1. Wooden ball made 
slightly out of spherical shape to make it run 
curved course (bias). 2. Flattened or spheri- 
cal wooden ball at skittles. 3. (PI.) game 
played with bb. (sense 1) on grass, or with 
round balls in room. 4. (Dial.; pi.) skittles. 
[ME & F boule f. L bulla bubble ; bowl* has 
taken its pronunc. f. bowl 1 , & boivl 1 its spell- 
ing f. bowl*] 

bowl 3 (bol), v.t. & i. Play bb. ; trundle (ball, 
hoop, &c.) along ground ; go along by revolving 
or by means of wheels, esp. b. along, go fast & 
smoothly ; (Cricket) deliver (ball, over, orabs.), 
knock o/T( bails) or down( wicket), dismiss (bats- 
man ; out or abs.), whence bowler 1 [-er 1 ] n. ; 
b. over, knock down, (fig.) disconcert, render 
helpless, [f. prec] 

bowler 2 (bo-), n. = billycock, [f. bowl 1 

+ -ER 1 ] 

bowline (bo'lin), n. Rope from weather 
side of square sail to bow ; (also b.-knot) a 
simple but very secure knot, [in all Teut. 
langg. connected with bow 5 , but found in E 
centuries before that, & now with different 
pronunc] 

bowling 1 , n. In vbl senses; esp.: b.-crease, 
line from behind which bowler delivers ball ; 
b.-alley, long enclosure for playing skittles; 
b.-grecn, lawn for playing bowls, [-ing x ] 

bowman 1 (bo-), n. (pi. -men). Archer. 
[bow 1 ] 

bowman 2 (bow-), n. (pi. -men). Oarsman 
nearest the bow. [bow 5 ] 

bowsprit (bo-), n. Spar running out from 
ship's stem, to which forestays are fastened, 
[earlier recorded than bow 5 , & with its first part 
very various (bore, boar, bolt-, bole-, bow-); 
therefore prob. not an E compel, but borrowed 
entire ; cf. Du. boegspriet see bow 5 , sprit] 

Bow-street (bo-), n. & a. Street near 
Covent Garden with chief metropolitan police- 
court ; B.-runner, -officer, old names for police 
officer. 

bow-window (bo-), n. Curved (not angular) 
bay-window ; (slang) large belly. Hence bow- 
v/i'ndowED 2 a. [bow i ] 

bow-wow, int. & n. Dog's bark ; imitation 
of it ; (nursery talk &c.) dog. 

bowyer (bo-), n. Maker, seller, of bows. 
[bowH-yer] 

box 1, n. Kinds of small evergreen shrub, esp. 
one with small dark leathery leaves, much used 
in garden borders ; .(also box-wood) its wood, 
used by turners & engravers ; (with qualifica- 
tion) similar plant (Bastard B. &c). If. L 
buxus, cf. Gk puxos] 

box 2 , n. Receptacle (usu. lidded, rectangular 
or cylindrical, & for solids) of wood, cardboard, 
metal, &c. ; driver's seat (from the box under 
it); —boxful as quantity; money-box (put in 
the &.); separate compartment at theatre, in 
tavern, &c, in stable or railway truck for 
horse (loose f\, in which it can move about) ; 
-JURY-6., witness-6. ; hut for sentry or signal- 

F.D. 



man ; fishing, shooting, &c, -&., small country 
house for such temporary uses ; protective case 
in various machines : in the wrong &., awkward 
position. B.-bed, with wooden roof & sides 
opening with sliding panels, also bed rwK.de to 
fold up & look like b. ; b.-clotn, close-woven 
cloth like buff; b.-coat, heavy overcoat (for 
driving); b.-office, in theatre for booking seats; 
b.-pleat, double fold in cloth ; b.-drain, of quad- 
rangular section ; b.-iron, for ironing, hollow 
for reception of heater. Hence bo*XFUL(2) n. 
[either = prec, or f. L buxum boxwood, or f. L 
f. Gk puxis pvx] 

box 3 , v.t. Provide with, put into, a b. ; 6. up, 
confine uncomfortably, squeeze together ; lodge 
(document) in Law Court ; divide off from other 
compartments ; (old slang) b. the watch, over- 
turn watchman in his b.; b. the compass, (N aut.) 
rehearse the points in correct order, (fig.) make 
complete revolution & end where one began 
(in politics, argument, &c). [f. prec] 

box 4 , n. Slap with hand on the ear(s). [?] 

box 5 , v.t. & i. Slap person's ears ; fight 
(someone, or intr.) with fists (usu. in padded 
gloves & merely for exercise), [f. prec] 

bo'xer, n. Pugilist; (B) member of Chinese 
anti-foreign secret society, [prec, -er 1 ] 

box-haul, v.i. Veer ship round on her keel 
(for want of room), [box 3 ] 

Bo'xingr-day, n. First week-day after 
Christmas, [on which Christmas-boxes are 
given, f. obs. sense of box 3 f. 'money)BOX 2 ] 

boy, n. Male child (strictly till puberty, 
loosely till 19 or 20, 'the bb. ' also of grown-up 
sons of a family) ; person who retains tastes 
or simplicity of boyhood ^, servant, slave, 
native labourer, male native, in various 
countries with subject races (cf. post-boy 
&c); (familiar voc.) old, my, b.; the b. slang, 
champagne ; 6or/-,often = male (b. -child), young 
(b. -husband); boy's-love, Southern -wood. [cf. 
EFris. boi young gentleman perh. = Du. boef 
knave f. MfiG buole (G buheY] 

boycott, v.t., & n. Punish, coerce, (person, 
class) by systematic refusal of social or com- 
mercial relations ; combine in abstaining from 
(goods &c) with this aim ; (n.) such treatment. 
[Capt. B., Irish landlord so treated ; f. 1880] 

boyhood, n. Boyish age ; boys, [-hood] 

boyish, a. Proper to boys ; as of a boy, 
spirited, puerile. Hence boyishLY 2 adv., 
boyishNEss n. [-ism l (l)] 

bra'bble, v.i., & n., (archaic). (Engage in) 
paltry noisy quarrel. [etym. dub., but cf, 
Dutch brabbelen jabber, stammer] 

brace 1 , n. Thing that clasps, tightens, 
unites, secures; (pi.) suspenders for trousers; 
thong for tuning drum ; strap suspending 
carriage-body from springs ; connecting mark 
in printing ({); pair, couple, (dogs, game, 
contemptuously of persons) ; strengthening 
piece of iron or timber in building; b. & bit, 
revolving tool for boring, screw-driving, &c. ; 
(Naut.) rope attached to yard for trimming 
sail (splice the main 6., drink), [f. OF brace, 
brase, the two arms, f. L brachia (pi.) arms ; 
the naut. meaning is perh. f. F bras arm] 

brace 2 , v.t. Fasten tightly, stretch, string 
up, give firmness to, (b. oneself up, b. one's 
energies, &c ; bracing air) ; support ; couple 
together; (Naut.) move (sail) by bb. [partly f. 
OF bracier embrace, partly f. prec. ; the naut. 
perh. f. F brasser] 

bra'celet, n. Ornamental band, chain, &c, 
for wrist or arm ; wrist-fetter. Hence bra'ce- 
letED 2 a. [OF, dim. of braccl f. L brachiale 
(brachium arm) see -al (2)J 

bra'cer, n. Wrist-guard in archery & fenc- 

4 



BRACH 



98 



BRANCH 



ing. [f. OF brasseiire as f. L *brachiatura 
(brachium arm), see -ure & cf. border 1 ] 

braeh (-atsh), n. Bitch hound, [f. OF 
bracket dim. of brae f. OHG bracco hound 
hunting by scent] 

brachial (-ak-), a. Of the, like an, arm. 
[f. L brachialis [brachium arm) see -al] 

bra'ehiate (-ak-,-at), a. (hot. ). With branches 
in pairs at right angles to stem, each pair at 
right angles to the last. [f. L brachiatus 
armed see prec. & -ate 2 (1)] 

braehy- (-k-), comb, form of Gk brakhus 
short, in many scientific terms. 

brachyeepha'lie (-kisi-), a. Short-headed 
(of skulls with breadth at least four-fifths of 
length ; or of person or race with such skull), 
[prec. + -cephalic] 

braehylog-yi-kl-hn. Conciseness of speech, 
condensed expression, incorrectness of speech 
due to excessive condensation, [f. Gk brakhu- 
logia, see brachy-, -logy] 

bra'cken, n. A fern abundant on heaths 
&c. ; any large fern ; (collect.) mass of ferns. 
[ME (northern) bi^aken cf. Sw. brdken] 

bra'eket 1 , n. Flat-topped projection from 
wall serving as support to statue, arch, &c. ; 
shelf with slanting under-prop for hanging 
against wall ; wooden or metal angular sup- 
port ; side-piece of gun-carriage supporting 
trunnion ; support projecting from wall of gas 
or other lamp ; pairs of marks, (),[], { }, (cf. 
brace), used for enclosing words, figures, &c. 
{b.-turn in skating, like one of the third pair), 
[earlier bragget f. Sp. bragueta dim. of braga f. 
L braccae breeches, meaning affected by con- 
fusion with L brachium arm] 

bra'cket 2 , v.t. Enclose in bb. as paren- 
thetic, spurious, (Math.) having spec, relations 
to what precedes or follows, &c. ; couple (names 
&c.) with a brace, imply connexion or equality 
between [bracketed, equal), [f. prec] 

fora'ekish, a. Between salt & fresh (of 
water), [f. obs. adj. brack f. Du. brak, -ish 1 ] 

bract, n. Small leaf or scale below calyx. 
Sobra*cteAL,bra*eteATE 2 (2), aa. [f. L brac- 
tea thin plate, gold leaf] 

brad, n. Thin flat slightly-headed nail, 
[earlier brod prob. f. ON broddr- OE brord 
spike] 

bra'dawl, n. Small non-spiral boring-tool, 
[perh. f. prec. + awl] 

brady-, comb, form of Gk bradus slow, as 

-pepsy slow digestion. 

brae (-a), n. Steep bank, hill-side. [Sc. wd 

used by E writers, f. ON ora=OE brxw brow] 

brag 1 , n., & v.i. & t. (Indulge in) boastful 
talk ; boast of, boast that ; card-game like 

poker, [etym. dub. ; F braguer &c. later] 

braggado'cio (-shio), n. Empty vaunting. 

[formed by Spenser (meaning boaster) on prec. 

& It. augmentative -occhio] 
bra'g'g'art, n. & a. (Person) given to brag- 
ging, [f. F bragard f. braguer brag + -ard] 
brahmapoo'tra, brah'ma, n. Kind of 

domestic fowl, [river Brahmaputra, whence 

brought] 
brah'min, -man, n. Member of Hindu 

priestly caste. Hence branmrnic(AL), 

-ma*nic(AL), aa., brah*minisM(3), -man- 

ism(3), n. [f. Skr. brahmana I. brahman 

worship] 
brahminee* \ n. Female brahmin, [f. Skr. 

brahmani fern, see prec] 
brah'minee 2 , a. Belonging to brahmin 

caste &c. [f. brahmin on anal, of Bengalee 

&c] 
braid l , n. Entwined hair, plait ; band &c 

entwined with the hair; silk, thread, &c, 



woven into a band. Hence brai'diNG 1 (3, 6) n. 
[see foil.] 

braid 2 , v.t. Plait, interweave, (hair, flowers, 
thread) ; arrange (hair) in bb. ; confine (hair, 
&c) with ribbon &c ; trim, edge, with b. [OE 
bregdan com.-Teut. move to & fro, move 
suddenly sideways] 

Brai'dism, n. -hypnotism, [first scientific- 
ally applied & explained by Dr J. Braid, 1842 ; 
-ism (3)] 

brail, n., & v.t. (Haul up with) small rope(s) 
on sail-edges for trussing sails before furling. 
[OF, f. L bracale waist-belt (bracae breeches) 
see -al(2)] 

braille (-al), n. System of writing & printing 
for the blind. [M. Braille, French inventor, 
1831] 

brain, n., & v.t. Convoluted nervous sub- 
stance in skull of vertebrates (sing, of the 
whole as an organ, pi. of the substance ; blow 
out one's bb., shoot him in the head); centre 
of sensation, thought, &c. (usu. pi., sing, with 
dignified or exalted effect ; cudgel Sec. one's bb., 
think hard ; have something on the b., be crazy 
about it ; turn one's 6., make him vain & silly) ; 
intellectual power (suck, pick, one's b., extract 
& use his ideas) ; b.-fag, nervous exhaustion ; 
b.-fever, inflammation of the b. ; b.-pan, skull ; 
b.-sick, mad ; hence brai'nLESS a. (Vb) dash 
out bb. of. [OE braegen - Du. brein, cf. perh. 
Gk brekhmos forehead] 
brai'ny, a. Clever (chiefly U.S.). [-Y 2 ] 
braird, n., & v.i. (Come up in) fresh shoots. 
[L OE brerd brim cf. brord see brad] 
braise (-z), v.t. Stew tender with bacon, 
herbs, &c. [f. F braiser (braise hot char- 
coal)] 

brake 1 , n. = bracken, [perh. borrowed 
f. northern bracken with loss of -en as though 
pi. ending] 

brake 2 , n. Thicket, brushwood, [cf. MLG 
brake tree-stumps (breken break v.)] 
brake 3 , n. Toothed instrument for braking 
flax & hemp ; (also b.-harroiv) heavy harrow ; 
instrument for peeling off willow-bark. [=MLG 
brake or ODu. braeke flax-brake f. Du. breken 
break 1 ] 

brake 4 , v.t. Crush (flax, hemp) by beating, 
[f. prec] 

brake 5 , n. Apparatus for checking wheel's 
motion ; (also b.-van) railway-carriage contain- 
ing this, guard 's compartment. Hencebra'ke- 
less a. [etym. dub. ; perh. f. obs. or techn. 
brake— lever f. OF brae oblique of bras arm] 
brake 6 , v.t. Apply b. to (wheel, car, train), 
[f. prec] 

bra'kesman, n. Man in charge of brake 5 . 
Bra'mah-. (Lock, press, pen, &c) invented 
by J. B. c 1790. 

bra'mble, n. Rough prickly shrub ; black- 
berry-bush. Hence bra*mblY 2 a. [OE brem- 
bel earlier bremel (for-6-cf. humble, number) 
dim. of OTeut. wd = OE brom broom cf. G 
brom-beere blackberry] 
bra'mbling", n. The Mountain Finch, [prec. 

+ -LINGM1)] 

bran, n. Husks of grain separated from flour 
after grinding, [f. OF brcn etym. dub.] 

bra'neard, n. A horse-litter. [F, = litter 
(foil., -ARD)] 

branch 1 (-tsh), n. Limb springing from tree 
or bough (bough, b., twig, is the order, but b. 
sometimes for either of the others) ; lateral 
extension or subdivision of mountain-range, 
river, road, family, genus, subject of know- 
ledge, argument, legislature, bank or other 
business, &c ; root-&-b. adj., root & b. adv., 
thorough(ly),radical(ly). Hence(-)branehED 2 , 



BRANCH 



99 



BREACH 



bra'nehLESS, aa., bra'nehLET n. If. F 

branche branch f. LL branca paw J 

branch 2 , v.i. Put branches out, forth; 
spring out, spread forth, tend away or off, 
diverge into. [f. prec.J 

bra'nchia(e) (-kla, -kie), n. pi. Gills. Hence 
bra'nehiAL, bra'nchiATE'-(2), bra'nehi- 
ferous, bra'nehiFORM aa., bra'nehio- 
comb. form. [L branchia, pi. -ae, i. Gk 
bragkhia pi.] 

bra'nehy, a. With many branches. [-Y 2 ] 

brand K n. Burning or charred log or stick 
(b.from the burning, rescued person, convert), 
torch (poet.) ; mark made by hot iron ; stigma ; 
trade-mark, particular kind of goods ; iron 
stamp for burning a mark in ; kind of blight 
(leaves &c. with burnt look) ; sword (poet. ; 
perh. as flashing). [com. -Teut., f. OTeut. bran- 
doz (bran- pret. st. oibrinnan burn -+ suf. -do 
as in word)] 

brand.-, v.t. Burn with hot iron (surgically, 
penally, or showing ownership or quality) ; 
impress on memory ; stigmatize, [f. prec] 

bra'ndish, v.t. "Wave about, flourish, 
(weapon, threat) as preliminary to action or 
in display, [f. F brandir (-ish 2 ) f. Teut. 
brand 1 sword] 

bra'ndling", n. Red worm with brighter 
rings used as bait, [brand 1 -f -ling id)] 

bra*nd-nevv, bran-, a. Conspicuously 
new. [f. brand 1 , as if freshly stamped] 

bra'ndreth, n. Wooden stand for cask, 
hay-rick, &c. [f. ON brandrcith grate {brandr 
BRASD 1 +reith carriage)] 

bra'ndy, n. Strong spirit distilled from 
wine ; b.-ball, kind of sweet ; b.-pOAvnee [Hind. 
pani water], b.-&-water; b.-snajy, gingerbread 
wafer, [earlier brandwine, brandexcine, f. Du. 
brandewij tt-burnt (distilled) wine] 

bra'nk-ur'sine, n. Bear's breech, Acan- 
thus, [f. med. L branca ursina bear's claw cf. 
branch] 

bran-new. See brand-new. 

branti-goosei. See brent. 

brass, n. & a. (Hist.) alloy of copper with 
tin, zinc, or other base metal; (mod.) yellow 
alloy of is copper with i zinc (cf. bronze) ; 
inscribed sepulchral table of b. ; the b., the b. 
instruments of a band ; (slang) money ; ef- 
frontery, shamelessness ; (adj.) made of b. ; 
b. band, set of musicians with b. instruments ; 
b. farthing, least possible amount, esp. don't 
care a b.f. ; b. plate, on door, gate, or window- 
ledge, with name, trade, &c. [OE &?*ses etym. 
dub.] 

bra'ssage (-ij), n. Mint-charge for coining 
money. [F, f. brasser stir melted metals 
together ; see -age] 

brassar'd, n. Badge worn on arm. [F 
(bras arm &.see -ard)] 

bra'ssy, a. & n. Like brass in colour, 
sound, taste ; impudent ; pretentious ; hence 
bra*ssiLY 2 adv., brassiNESs n. (X.) b. -soled 
golf-club. [-v 2 ] 

brat, n. Child (usu. contempt.), [etym. 
dub., but cf. obs. or dial, brat cloth, applied in 
OW (brith pi.) to swaddling-clothes] 

bra'ttiee, bra'ttieing", nn. (Coal-min- 
ing) wooden partition or shaft-lining, [formerly 
wooden parapet on fortress ; ME brutaske f. 
OXF breteske perh. f. G brett board-}- Rom. 
suf. -esca -esque] 

brava'do (-van-, -va-), n. (pi. -oes, -os). Show 
of courage, bold front, [f. Sp. bravada, F 
bravade ; see foil., -ado (2), -ade(1)] 

brave *, a. & n. Courageous (the b., b. men) ; 
(archaic-literary) finely dressed, showy, worthy, 
honest, admirable; hence bra'veLY 2 adv. 



(N.) Red-Indian warrior. [F, f. It. bravo etym. 
dub. ; L rabidus mad, & barbarus, have been 
suggested] 

brave 2 , v. t. Defy, encounter with courage ; 
b. it out, carry oneself defiantly under sus- 
picion or blame, [f. F braver see prec] 

bra'very, n. Daring; splendour, ostenta- 
tion, finery, [prob. f. F braverie f. braver see 
prec. (orig. E sense bravado); -erv] 

bra'vo 1 (-ah-), n. (pi. -oes, -os). Hired 
assassin, desperado. [It., see brave j ] 

bra'vo 2 (-ah-), n. & int. Cry of approval, 
esp. to actors &c. (sometimes bi^ava, bravi, to 
actress, company; also bravissimo superl.). 
[It. = brave 1 ] 

bravura (-oora), n. Brilliant or ambitious 
execution, forced display; passage of music 
requiring exceptional powers. [It.] 

brawl, v.i., & n. Squabble, (engage in) 
noisy quarrel; (of streams) murmur. Hence 
braw'lER i n. [quoted from 1375, etym. dub. ; 
cf. mod. Du. & G brallen brag, shout] 

brawn, n. Muscle ; pickled or potted boar's 
flesh, [f. OF braon flesh f. WG brddo (brddan 
roast cf. OE brxdan & G braten i. Aryan bhre- 
burn) ; sense boar's flesh is excl. E] 

brawny, a. Strong, muscular. Hence 
brawniNESs n. [-v 2 ] 

bray 1 , n., & v.i. & t. (Make) the cry, or a 
sound like the cry, of ass or trumpet; b. out, 
utter harshly, [f. F braire cf. l^fragor crack- 
ling noise] 

bray 2 , v.t. Pound, beat small, esp. with 
pestle & mortar. If. OF breier (now broyer) 
etym. dub.] 

braze 1 , v.t. Colour like brass. [perh. = OE 
brasian (braes brass) make of brass (not found 
betvv. 1000 and 1550), but prob. mod. form on 
glass, glaze] 

braze 2 , v.t. Solder with alloy of brass & 
zinc. [perh. f. F braser solder f. OX brasa 
expose to flrel 

bra'zen \ a. Made of brass ; strong, yellow, 
or harsh-sounding, as brass ; (also b.-faced) 
shameless, whence bra'zenLV 2 adv. ; b. age, 
third stage in human deterioration (golden, 
silver, b., iron). [OE brzesen (braes brass+ -en 5 )] 

bra'zen 2 , v.t. B. out, carry off impudently 
('it ', matter, deed) ; make shameless, [f. prec] 

bra'zier 2 (-zhe?'), n. Worker in brass. Hence 
bra # ziERY(l) n. [braze j + -ier, cf. glazier, 
grazier] 

bra'zier 2 , (-zhe?*), n. Pan for holding lighted 
charcoal, [f. F brasier {braise hot coal)] 

Brazi'l, n. & a. (Also B.-xcood) kinds of 
hard red S.-Amer. wood yielding dyes ; B.-nut, 
large three-cornered nut. [etym. dub. ; orig. 
Sp., Port., & F name of E.-Ind. wood, trans- 
ferred to S.-Amer. similar species & thence 
to the country] 

breach. 1 (-e-), n. (Xaut.) breaking of waves 
(clear b., rolling over without breaking ; clean 
b., carrying away of masts & everything on 
deck) ; breaking or neglect (of rule, duty, con- 
tract, someone's privileged rights, or promise, 
esp. to marry) ; 6. of close, trespass, of the 
peace, riot or affray ; breaking of relations, 
separation, alienation, quarrel ; broken state ; 
gap, esp. in fortifications made by artillery 
(stand in the b., bear brunt of attack, lit. or 
fig.); whale's leap clear out of water. [OE 
bryce '(t OTeut. st. brek- see break) gave ME 
bruche ; ME breche (f. F breche f. same Teut.) 
combined with and has displaced bruche, 
helped by such analogies as speak speech] 

breach 2 , v.t. & i. Break through, make 
gap in; (of whale) leap clear out of water. 
if. prec.J 



BREAD 



100 



BREATHE 



bread (-ed), n. Flour moistened, kneaded, 
& baked, usu. with leaven (break b., take food, 
join in Lord's supper; b. & butter, b. slices 
spread with butter, necessary food, a liveli- 
hood ; b.-&-butter miss, school-girl ; b. & 
cheese, simple food, a livelihood ; b. & milk, 
broken b. in boiling m. ; b. & wine, Lord's 
supper; know which side one's 6. is buttered, 
where one's interest lies ; b. buttered on both 
sides, easy prosperity ; take the b. out of one's 
mouth, take away his living by competition 
&c. ; eat the b. of idleness, affliction, be idle, 
afflicted ; daily b., livelihood ; make one's b., 
earn a living) ; b.-basket, (slang) stomach ; &.- 
crumb, inner part of loaf, b. crumbled for use 
in cooking ; b.-fruit, -tree, South-Sea tree with 
farinaceous fruit; b.-stuffs, grain, flouv ; o.- 
vtinner, person (also art, trade, tool) that sup- 
ports a family. Hence brea'dLESS a. [OE 
bread (cf. G 'brod, brot) f. OTeut. braudoz ; 
orig. sense prob. fragment or piece, loaf being 
the Teut. wd for bread] 

breadth (-e), n. Broadness, measure from 
side to side, (to a hair's b., exactly) ; piece (of 
cloth &c.) of full b. ; extent, distance, room; 
largeness (of mind, view, &c), liberality, 
catholicity, toleration ; bold effect. Hence 
brea*dth\VAYS, -wise, advv. [formed on obs. 
brede, OE br&du, in same sense^-TH 1 on 
anal, of length &c] 

break 1 i-ak), v.t. & i. (broke & in Bible 
brake; broken sometimes broke see broke 2 ). 
1. (Of a whole) make or become discontinuous 
otherwise than by cutting, divide into two or 
more parts, (b. bulk 1 ; b. a set, sell parts 
separately ; b. up, dismiss, depart, b. small ; 
6. a lance with, argue against; b. bread with, 
be entertained by; b. Priscian's head, use 
bad grammar ; b. person on wheel, of medieval 
execution ; b. butterfly on wheel, waste 
power; b. ground, plough, begin siege, or fig. 
any, operations ; b. the ice, get over initial 
shyness or reserve ; b. the ranks, disorder by 
leaving them ; troops b., disperse in confusion ; 
clouds b., show gap) ; crack, graze, (b. ahead) ; 
shatter ; dislocate (neck ; 6. the neck or : >ack of. 
kill, dispose of) ; make by separating obstacles 
(a way &c.) ; penetrate by breaking (b. op°n) ; 
interrupt ; change, (gloom, spell, journey, 
silence, one's fast; voice breaks, with emotion 
or at manhood ; b. off, bring to an end, cease) ; 
disrupt (broken bonds &c). 2. (Of a part) 
disconnect or depart from something otherwise 
than by cutting, (b. bough from tree, person 
of habit ; 6. with, quarrel or part with ; 6. an 
officer, dismiss; 6. piece off; ball breaks, 
changes from its course, back from off, in from 
leg, side). 3. Make a way, come, produce, with 
effort, suddenness, violence, &c. (b. into house, 
out o/prison, through obstacles ; b. in, intrude, 
interpose ; disease, war, b. out : b. out, ex- 
claim ; b. news, a jest, reveal it; day breaks ; 
abscess breaks) ; escape, emerge from, (prison, 
bounds, covert ; 6. free or loose ; b. away from). 
4. Make or become weak, disable, discourage, 
ruin, destroy, cease, exhaust, (b. the heart, 
heart breaks ; frost, iveather, breaks ; b. bank, 
exhaust its resources ; merchant breaks, is 
bankrupt; b. blow, fall, weaken its effect; b. 
down, demolish, collapse, fail); tame, discipline, 
overpower, (with in, to, or abs. ; 6. a horse, 
b. a horse to the rein ; b. in child ; b. one's 
will, spirit ; b. resistance, a rebellion) ; make 
of no effect, transgress, violate, neglect, (law, 
■Sabbath, contract, promise, one's word). Hence 
Wea'kABLE a., brea*kAGE(3) n. [OE brecan 
cf. G brechen f. OTeut. st. brek- = L/ragr-] 
break 2 , n. Breaking ; 6. of day, dawn ; 



(Cricket) deviation of ball on pitching (b.-back, 
f. offside); (Billiards) points scored continu- 
ously ; gap, broken place, interruption of con- 
tinuity; (Mus.) point of separation between 
different registers of voice ; irregularity, [f. 
prec] 

break 3 , n. Carriage-frame with no body 
for breaking in young horses ; large wagonette, 
[f. break 1 ( = 'b. -horse '), or f. obs. n. brake- 
curb, bridle, which may be special use of 

BRAKE 3 ] 

break-down, n. Collapse, stoppage ; failure 
of health or power ; negro dance (bra'kdown). 

brea'ker l , n. In vbl senses (esp. in comb, 
as horse-b.) ; also, heavy ocean- wave breaking 
on coast or over reefs, [-er l ] 

brea'ker 2 (-a-), n. (naut.). Small keg. [f. 
Sp. barrica cask] 

bnea'kfast (brek-), n., & v.i. & t. (Take, 
entertain at) first meal of day. Hence brea'k- 
fasti>ESS a. [break 1 interrupt+FAST n.J 

brea'kneek, a. Dangerous (b. pace, road, 
climb). 

break-up, n. Disintegration, decay, col- 
lapse, dispersal, [f. phr. to break up] 

brea'kwater, n. Object breaking, mole 
&c. built to break, force of waves. 

bream l , n. Yellowish arch-backed fresh- 
water fish. [ME breme f. F breme OF bresme 
f. Teut. (VVG brahsm-, brehsm-, perh. f. st. of 
brehwan glitter)] 

bream 2 , v.t. Clear (ship's bottom) by singe- 
ing with burning furze &c. [perh. f. Du. brem 
broom, furze] 

breast 1 (-e), n. Either milk-secreting organ 
in woman, corresponding rudiment in man, 
(sometimes of beast's dug); (fig.) source of 
nourishment ; upper front of human body or of 
coat, dress, &c. ; corresponding part of animals ; 
heart, emotions, thoughts, (make clean b. of, 
confess) ; breastbone, thin flat vertical bone in 
chest connecting ribs ; b.-drill, -hoe, &c, pushed 
with b. ; b.-harness, with b.-band instead of 
collar ; b.-high, high as the b., (submerged) to 
the b., (of scent) so strong that hounds race 
with heads up ; b.-pin, jewelled &c. worn in 
tie ; breastplate, piece of armour covering b., 
lower shell of turtle, tortoise, &c, inscription- 
plate on coffin ; b.-wall, confining a bank of 
earth ; b.-wheel, water-wheel with water 
admitted near axle ; breastwork, temporary 
defence or parapet a few feet high. Hence 
-brea'stED 2 a. [OE briost f. OTeut. breustom 
cf. G brust ; perh. related to OSax. brustian 
to bud] 

breast 2 , v.t. Oppose the b. to, face, contend 
with, (waves, hill), [f. prec] 

brea'stsummer, bre'ssummer, n. 
Beam across broad opening, sustaining super- 
structure, [breast • + s?<mmer beam f. F 
sommier f. L sagmarius (sagma packsaddle)] 

breath (-eth), n. Exhalation as perceptible 

to sight or smell ; slight movement of air ; 

whiff of perfume &c. ; air taken into and 

expelled from lungs (draw b., breathe, live ; a 

b. of fresh air; spend, waste, b., talk vainly ; 

keep b. to cool porridge, abstain from talk ; b. 

of life, nostrils, a necessity) ; respiration (catch, 

hold, one's 6., in fear or absorbing emotion) ; 

one respiration (say inconsistent things in one 

or the same b.) ; power of breathing (out of b., not 

able to breathe quick enough ; take b., pause, 

rest) ; whisper, murmur, (not a b. heard ; also 

below one's b., in a whisper). [OE brxth smell 

of burning f. OTeut. brxthoz f. Aryan bhreto- 

(bhre- burn)] 
breathe (-edh), v.i. & t. Use the lungs; live ; 

^eem alive ; take breath, pause, (b. again, 



BREATHER 



101 



BRICK 



freely, recover from fear &c., be at ease) :, 
sound, speak, (of wind) blow, softly (6. upon, 
tarnish, taint) ; send out (neic life into ; frag- 
rance ; 6. one's last breath or last, die) ; take 
in [b. foul, wholesome, air) ; utter softly, also 
passionately (b. strife), exhibit (b. simplicity) ; 
allow to b., give rest to ; force to b., exercise, 
tire. IME brethen f. prec] 

brea'ther(-edh-), n. In vbl senses; esp., short 
spell of exercise, [-er 1 \ 

brea'thingr 1 (-edh-), n. In vbl senses ; esp. : 
(Gk Gram.) rough, smooth, b., signs ('), ('), indi- 
cating that initial vowel is or is not aspirated ; 
b.-space, time to breathe, pause, [-ing 1 ] 

bpea'thing 1 ' 2 (-edh-), a. In vbl senses ; esp., 
life-like (statue &c.) [-ing 2 ] 

brea'thless (-eth-), a. Lifeless ; panting ; 
holding the breath ; unstirred by wind, [-less] 

brea'thlessly (-eth-), adv. Pantingly ; in 
suspense. [-LY 2 | 

brea'thy (-eth-), a. (Of singing-voice) not 
clear-cut at beginning of sound, using breath 
before vocal chords are tense. Hence brea'thi- 
ness n. [-Y 2 ] 

bre'eeia (-tsha), n. Rock of angular stones 
&c. cemented by lime &c. [It., = gravel or 
rubbish of broken walls cf. F breche f. Teut. = 
break] 

bred. See breed v. 

breech, n. (PI.) breeches (-itshiz) or pair of 
bb., short trousers fastened below knee (Bb. 
Bible, Geneva Bible of 1560 with 66. for aprons 
in Gen. iii. 7) and (now) used only for riding or 
in court costume &c. (cf. knickerbockers); 
(loosely) trousers or knickerbockers ; xoear the 
bb., of wife ruling her husband. (Gunnery) 
part of cannon behind bore, back part of rifle 
or gun barrel ; b.-block, closing b. aperture in 
guns; breech-loader, -loading, (gun) loaded at 
breech, not through muzzle. [OE 6r<*c pi., f. 
OTeut. broks loin and thigh garment ; breeches 
a double pi., breech being a pi. like/eei] 

bree'ehing (-itsh-), n. Leather strap round 
shaft-horse's hind-quai*ters for pushing back ; 
(Naut.) rope securing gun to ship's side. [f. 
prec. + -ing 1 ] 

bree'ehless (-itsh-), a. Without breeches. 
[-less] 

breed 1 , v.t. & i. (bred). Bear, generate, 
(offspring) ; cherish in womb or egg ; propagate ; 
be pregnant ; yield, produce, result in ; make 
propagate, raise, (cattle) ; train up ; fit for being, 
adapt to, (6. him a lawyer, to the law), bring 
up ; arise, spread ; 6. in & in, always marry 
near relations. Hence bree'dER 1 n. [OE 
bredan cf. G bruten f. OTeut. brodjan (brodd- 
warmth see brood)] 

breed 2 , n. Race, stock, strain ; family with 
hereditary qualities, [f. prec] 

bree'ding", n. In vbl senses ; esp., result of 
training, behaviour, good manners, [-ing 1 ] 

breeze 1 , n. Gad-fly. [OE briosa etym. 
dub.l 

breeze 2 , n. Gentle wind ; wind off land, or 
sea, at certain hours; (slang) quarrel, display 
of temper. Hence bree'zeLESS a. [earlier 
brize f. OSp. briza NE wind perh. = F bize, 6i.se, 
N wind ; F bHse is later] 

breeze 3 , n. Small cinders, coke, coke-dust, 
&c, used by brickmakers. [perh. f. F braise, 
cf. brazier 2 ] 

bree'zy, a. Wind-swept ; pleasantly windy ; 
fresh, lively, jovial. Hence bree'ziLY 2 adv., 
bree'ziNESS n. [-y 2 ] 

Bre'hon, n. & a. Ancient Irish judge ; B. 
law, Irish code abolished under James I. [f . Olr. 
brithem judge] 

brent(-g-oose), brant-, n. Smallest species 



of wild goose, visiting Britain in winter, [etym. 
dub..; c'f. G'traivdijcitis] . . 

bysfv n. , (U.S. negro dial contraction for) 
brother (esp. in beast-fable personifications, as 
B. Fox, Rabbit). 

bre'ssummer. See breastsummer. 

bre'thren. See brother. 

Bre'ton, a. & n. (Native) of Brittany in 
France. [F, = briton] 

Bretwa'lda (-61-), n. Lord of the Britons, 
title given to Egbert & Old Eng. Kings of 
various states who held nominal or real 
supremacy over the rest. 

breve, n. (Hist.) authoritative letter from 
sovereign orpope; (Mus.) note = two semibreves 
now rarely used ; short prosody mark H in 
printing, [var. of brief 1 ] 

bre'vet, n., & v.t. Document conferring a 
privilege from sovereign or government, esp. 
rank without corresponding pay in army (6. 
rank, 6. officer) ; honorary, nominal, position ; 
(vb) confer b. rank on. [F, = note, dim. of bref 
brief i] 

brevi-, comb, form in scientific terms of L 
brevis short, as brevirostrate short-beaked. 

bre'viary, n. (R.-C. Ch.) book containing 
the Divine Office for each day, to be recited by 
those in orders, [f. L breviariuvi summary 
(brevis short, -ary 1 )] 

brevier' (-ver), n. Printing-type size betw r een 
bourgeois & minion, [used in breviaries] 

bre'vity, n. Shortness of expression, con- 
ciseness ; short span (of life), [f. AF brevete 
f. L brevitatem (brevis short, -tv)] 

brew 1 , v.t. & i. Make (beer &c.) by in- 
fusion, boiling, & fermentation (di^iiik as you 
have brewed, take consequences) ; make (tea, 
punch) by mixture or infusion ; undergo these 
processes ; concoct, bring about, set in train, 
grow to ripeness, fester, gather force, (usu. of 
evil results ; mischief is brewing, 6. rebellion) ; 
brexohouse, = brewery (but now less used). 
Hence brew'ER 1 , brew*ERY(3), nn. [OE 
brtowan; com. -Teut., cf. G brauen; perh. also 
L defrutum new wine boiled down] 

brew 2 , n. Process of brewing; amount 
brewed at once ; quality of stuff brewed, [f. 
prec] 

brewage (-Ij), n. Concocted drink ; process 
or result of concoction (lit. & fig.), [-age] 

brewis, n. Broth (archaic & dial.). [ME 
browes f. OF brouetz nom. of brouet dim. of 
6ro f. OHG brod broth] 

Brewster Se'ssions, n. Sessions for 
issue of licences to trade in alcoholic liquors, 
[f. obs. breivster (orig. female) brewer, see -ster] 

bri'ar. See brier. 

Brrareus (-roos), n. Many-handed person. 
[Gkmythol.] 

bribe 1 , n. Money &c offered to procure 
(often illegal or dishonest) action in favour of 
the giver, [perh. f. OF bribe piece of bread 
given to beggar, etym. dub.] 

bribe 2 , v.t. Pervert by gifts or other in- 
ducements the action or judgment of ; (abs.) 
practise bribery. Hence bri'bER 1 , bribEE", 
bribaBi'LiTY, bri*bERY(4), nn., bri'bABLE 
a. [f. prec] 

brie-a-brae (brl'kabrak), n. Curiosities, 
old furniture, china, fans, &c. [F, perh. = de 
brie et de broc by hook or by crook] 

brick l , n. & a. Clay kneaded, moulded, & 
baked by fire or sun; block (usu. rectangular 
& about 9 in. x 4f x 21) of this ; b. -shaped loaf, 
block of tea, &c ; child's wooden toy building- 
block ; (slang) generous or kind person ; b.-bat, 
piece of b., esp. as missile [bat 2 ]; b.-dust, 
powdered b., colour like it ; b.-field, -kiln, in 



BRICK 



102 



BRIMSTONE 



■which hb. are made, baked ; bricklayer, work-, 
man building in ~>. , bHekfpork, building m b.; 
hence (rare) bra'ckf;?* 5 a.' (Adj.) built of b. 
[prob. f. F brique broken piece f. Teat, brlk-' 
break] . , „ . . , 

brick 2 , v.t. B. up, block (window &c.) with 
b.-work (& used with other advv.). [f. prec] 
bri'cky, a. Littered with, coloured or look- 
ing like, bricks. [-Y 2 ] 

fopi'eole (-Ikl), n. .Indirect stroke in tennis 
& billiards. [F, etym. dub.] 
bri'dal, n. & a. Wedding-feast, wedding. 
(Adj.) of bride or wedding (b. cheer, veil) ; hence 
bri'dalLY 2 adv. [= bride ale or festivity; 
OE bryd-ealo ; the prevailing adj. use results f. 
confusion with -al] 

bride 1 , n. Woman on her wedding-day & 
for some days or weeks before & after it; 
bH'decake, rich cake eaten at wedding, sent 
round to friends, &c. [OE bryd ; com.-Teut. 
cf. G brant, f. OTeut. briidiz bride, daughter- 
in-law, perh. f. bru- to cook] 
bride 2 , n. Delicate network connecting the 
uatterns in lace ; bonnet-string. [F, = bridle \ 
f. Teut.] 

bpi'degpoom, n. Alan at or soon before or 
after his marriage. [OE had brydguma (guma 
man cf. L homo) com.-Teut. ; guma becoming 
obs. in ME, perh. groom was substituted by 
mistake ; but as there is more than a century's 
gap between instances of the old & new form, 
the latter may be independent = bride lad 
(bride in 15th & 16th cc. being of either sex)] 
bPi'desmaid, n. Unmarried woman (usu. 
one of several) attending bride at wedding. 
\earlier briclemaid, altered when the attrib. 
sense of bride was missed] 
bri'desman, n. Bridegroom's attendant, 
best man. [earlier brideman, cf. prec] 
bri'dewell, n. House of correction, gaol. 
[St. Bride's Well, near the London b.] 
bridge 1 , n. (northern form, in writers for 
local colour, brig). Structure carrying road 
or path across stream, ravine, road, &c. (6. of 
boats, over boats moored abreast ; b. of gold, 
golden b., easy retreat provided for beaten 
enemy) ; (Naut.) platform amidships for officer 
in command ; upper bony part of nose ; mov- 
able piece over which violin strings are 
stretched ; (Billiards) support for cue formed 
with left hand; b.-head, fortification protecting 
end. of b. towards enemy ; b.-train, Mil. En- 
gineers with material for building floating 
bridges. Hence bPi'dgeLESS a. [OE brycg ; 
com.-Teut. cf. G briicke] 

bridge 2 , v.t. Span as, with, or as with, a b. 
[OE brycgian see prec] 

bridge 3 , n. Card-game of Russian origin re- 
sembling whist, in which each player in turn 
looks on while his exposed hand is played by 
his partner. [?] 

bPi'dle l , n. Head -gear of harness, including 
head-stall, bit, & rein (give horse the b., lay 
b. on his neck, abandon control ; horse going 
well up to b., willing goer) ; restraint, curb ; 
(Naut.) mooring - cable *, (Physiol.) ligament 
checking motion of a part ; b.-bridge, -path, 
-road, &c, fit for riders but not for vehicles. 
[OE briclel f. bregdan twitch see braid 2 + 
-le(D] 

bpi'dle 2 , v.t. & i. Put bridle on (horse &c.) ; 
curb, hold in, bring under control ; express 
offence, vanity, &c, by throwing up. head & 
drawing in chin (often b. up). [OE bridlian 
see prec] 

bpidoo'n, n. Snaffle & rein of military 
bridle, [f. F bridon (bride 2 , -oon)] 
brief 1 , n. Pope's letter on matter of discip- 



line to person or community (less formal than 
bull) ; (Law) summary of facts & law-points of 
a case drawn up for counsel (hold b. for, be 
retained as counsel for, argue in favour of) ; 
a b., piece of employment for barrister, whence 
brie'f less a. [ME & OF bref f. L breve dis- 
patch, note, neut. of brevis short] 
brief 2 , v.t. (Law) reduce (facts &c) to a b. ; 
instruct (barrister) by b., employ, [f. prec] 
brief 3 , a. & n. Of short duration ; concise ; 
be b., speak shortly; in b., in short. Hence 
brie'fLv 2 adv., brie'f ness n. [ME & OF 
bref f. L brevis short] 

bpi'ep 1 , bri'ap, n. (also brere archaic). 
Prickly bush, esp. of wild rose ; Sweet B., wild 
rose with fragrant leaves & flowers ; B.-rose, 
Dog-rose. Hence bpi'epv 2 , -apv 2 , a. [OE 
brxr, brer, etym. dub. ; cf. frere, friar] 
bri'ep 2 , bri'ap, n. The White Heath, of 
which the root is used for tobacco pipes, [at 
first (the material was introduced only c 1859) 
bruyer f. F bruyere heath] 
bpig, n. Two-masted square-rigged vessel, 
but with additional lower fore-&-aft sail on 
gaff & boom to mainmast, [abbr. of brigan- 
tine, f. which the type of ship was developed] 

briga'de l , n. Subdivision of army, varying 
in different countries & times; organized or 
uniformed band of workers (Boys', Church, 
&c, B., organizations on military model for 
disciplining & occupying boys &c). [F, f. It. 
brigata company (brigare brawl f. LL briga 
strife) ; see -ade] 

briga'de 2 , v.t. Form into b. or bb. ; join 
(regiment &c) with others into a b. [f. prec] 

bpigadiep', n. (fully B.-General). Officer 
commanding brigade (local or temporary rank 
between major-general & colonel), [-ier] 

bpi'gand, n. Bandit, robber. Hence or 
cogn. bpi'gand age(3), bPi'gandis.M(2), nn., 
bpi'gandisn i a. [ME f. OF, prob. f. It. bri- 
gante (brigare see brigade 1 )] 

bpi'gantine (-en), n. Two-masted vessel 
with square-sailed fore-mast & fore-&-af t main- 
mast, [f. F brigandin (now -tin) i. It. brigan- 
tino perh. = skirmisher cf. prec] 

bright 1 (-it), a. Emitting or reflecting much 
light, shining ; lit up with joy, hope, &c. ; vivid 
(b. red &c); illustrious; vivacious, quick- 
witted, (often iron.). Hence bpigh'tEN« v.t. 
& i., bPigh'tiSH i (2) a., bpigh'tLY 2 adv., 
bPigh'tNESS n. [OE beorht ; com.-Teut., but 
now lost exc in E, f. OTeut. berhtoz f. Aryan 
bhrag- cf. Lfiagrare] 

bright 2 , adv. = brightly (shine b., b.-beam- 
ing, &c). [OE beorhte with adv. -e now lost; 
see prec] 

Bpight's disease, n. Granular degenera- 
tion of the kidneys. [Dr R. Bright, 1827] 

brill, n. Flat-fish resembling turbot. [?] 

bpi'lliarrt^a. Bright, sparkling; illustrious, 
striking; talented, showy. Hence fopi'lli- 
ance, bPi'lliANCV, nn., bpi'lliantLY 2 adv. 
[f. F brillant part, of briller shine referred to 
LL *berillare (beryl)] 

bPi'lliant 2 , n. Diamond of finest cut and 
brilliance (b. shape has two horizontal tables, 
joined by facets), [f. F as prec. used as n.] 

bri'lliantine (-en), n. Cosmetic for hair, 
[f. F brillantine see brilliant 1 + -ine 4 ] 

brim \ n. Edge or lip of cup, bowl, or hol- 
low; projecting edge of hat; b.-full, to the b. 
Hence bPi'itiLESS, brimmED 2 , aa. [ME 
brimme etym. dub. ; cf. G brd?ne] 

brim 2 , v.t. & i. Fill, be full, to the b. (lit. & 
fig.) ; b. over, overflow, [f. prec] 

bpi'mmep, n. Full cup. [brim 2 + -er 1 ] 

bPi'mstone (-on), n. (Old name for) sulphur 



BRINDLED 



103 



BROAD 



(b. & treacle, nursery medicine) ; fuel of hell- 
fire ; b. butterfly, moth, sulphur -coloured 
species. Hencebri*mstonY 2 a. [ME(bernen, 

brinnen, burn 2 4- stone)] 

bri'ndled, bri'ndle, a. Brownish or tawny 
with streaks of other colour, [earlier brinded 
(pern, p.p. of a possible vb brenden f. brand 1 
burning) has been ousted by brindled (perh. 
with dim. sense) ; f. which brindle is perh. 
a mistaken back-formation] 

brine ', n. Salt water ; the sea ; tears (poet. ) ; 
b.-pan, iron vessel or shallow pit for getting 
salt by evaporation. Hence bri'ny 2 a. [OE 
bryne etym. dub. ; cf. Du. brijn] 

brine % v.t. Steep or pickle in, or wet with, 
b. [f. prec] 

bring", v.t. & i. (brought, pr. -awt). Cause 
to come, come with or conveying whether by 
carrying, leading, impelling, or attracting, 
(take expresses the corresponding notions with 
go for come) ; cause, result in ; prefer (charge), 
adduce (argument) ; b. home to, convict or con- 
vince of ; b. into xcorld, give birth to ; cause to 
become (b. low) ; b. to pass, cause to happen ; 
persuade (cannot b. myself to believe). B. 
about, cause to happen, reverse (ship) ; 6. back, 
call to mind ; b. clown, kill or wound, cause 
penalty to alight on, abase, lower (price), con- 
. tinue (record) to a point, (Theatr.) b. d. the 
house, elicit tumultuous applause ; b. forth, 
give birth to, cause ; b. forward, carry sum of 
page's figures to next page ; b. in, introduce 
(custom), realize as profit, adduce, pronounce 
(guilty, not g.) ; b. off, rescue from wreck &c, 
conduct (enterprise) to success; b. on, lead to, 
cause discussion of ; b. oxit, express, exhibit 
clearly, introduce (girl) to society, publish ; b. 
over, convert ; b. round, restore to conscious- 
ness; b. through, save (sick person); 6. to, 
check motion of, come to a stop, restore to 
consciousness ; b. under, subdue ; 6. up, 
educate, rear, sue in court, anchor (ship), come 
to a stop, call attention again to, continue 
(accounts &c.) to a further point; b. up the 
rear, come last. [com.-Teut. cf. G bringen] 

brink, n. Edge of steep place or abyss (on 
6. of grave, soon to die) ; border of water, esp. 
when steep (shiver on the b., hesitate to plunge); 
verge (of discovery, ruin, eternity, Sec). [ME, 
prob. f. Scand., cf. Da. brink precipice] 

bri'o (-eo), n. Vivacity. [It.] 

brique'tte, brrquet, (k), n. Block of 
compressed coal-dust. [F (-ette), dim. of brique 
brick] 

brisk 1 , a. Active, lively, (usu. of move- 
ment; b. pace, trade, unnd, &c.) ; enlivening, 
keen, (champagne, air, &c. ). Hence bri'skLv 2 
adv., bri'skNESS n. [f. 16th c, perh. f. W. 
brisg quick - footed cf. Olr. brisc brittle, or 
perh.= F brusque] 

brisk 2 , v.t. & i. Make or become b. (usu. 
with up), [f. prec] 

bri'sket, n. Breast of animals (esp. as 
joint of meat), [etym. dub. ; there is F brechet 
in same sense] 

bri'stle 1 (-isl), n. One of stiff hairs on hog's 
back & sides ; short stiff hair of other ani- 
mals, man's short-cropped beard, or plants ; 
set tip one's, another's, bb., show or rouse tem- 
per. Hence bri'stlv 2 (-isli), bri'stlED 2 , aa. 
[ME brustel f. OE byrst & see -le(1) ; f. 
OTeut. bors-] 

bri'stle 2 , v.i. & t. (Cause to) stand upright 
(hair &c), raise or rise like bb. or into rough- 
ness, (often with up) ; show temper, prepare for 
fight; be thickly set with hair, difficulties &c. 
[f. prec] 

Bri'tain (-Itn), n. (Also Great B.) England, 



Wales, & Scotland, the British Empire ; North 
B., Scotland ; Greater B. (descriptive or 
rhetorical, not official), Gt B. & the colonies. 
[ME Bretayne f. OF Bretaigne f. L Brittannia 
or Brittania (L Britannia would have pro- 
duced F bri- breaigne)] 

Brita'nnia, n. Personification of Britain ; 
B.-metal, alloy of tin & regulus of antimony 
resembling silver. [L Britannia, Brittannia, 
Brittania, = Gk Brettania f. Brittanni or 
Brittani = Gk Brettanoi] 

Brita'nnic, a. Of Britain (chiefly in phr. 
His B. Majesty), [prob. f. F britannique f. L 
Britannicus] 

brrtieism, n. = Britishism. [U.S. wd, 
non-existent Britic + -ism (4)] 

Bri'tish, a. Of the ancient Britons: of 
Great Britain or its inhabitants (esp. in politi- 
cal or imperial connexion, & in botany &c) ; 
the B.,B. soldiers, people, &c. [OE Brettisc f. 
Bret Briton ; see -ish ] ] 

Bri'tisher, n. Native of Great Britain (as 
opposed to American), [prob. a U.S. wd ; cf. 
foreigner, -er 1 ] 

bri'tishism, n. Idiom used in Gt Britain 
& not in U.S. &c [-ism (1)] 

Bri'ton, n. One of the race found by Romans-, 
in S. England ; native of Great Britain or the 
British Empire (poet., melodramatic, &c.) ; 
North B., Scotsman. [ME & F breton f. L. 
Brittonem nom. Britto, f. the native name, 
which displaced Brittanni after the Roman 
conquest] 

bri'ttle, a. Apt to break, fragile. Hence 
bri'ttleNESS n. [ME britul cf. OE breotan. 
break] 

bri'tzka, -tzska, (-Itska), n. Open car- 
riage with calash top & space for declining, 
[f. Pol. bryczka dim. of bryka wagon] 

brize (-ez). = breeze K 

broach 1 (-otsh), n. Roasting-spit ; church 
spire risi ng from tower without parapet; boring- 
bit. [ME & F broche = It. brocca cf. L brocci 
dentes projecting teeth ; var. of brooch] 

broach 2 , v.t. Pierce (cask) to draw liquor, 
begin drawing (liquor) ; begin discussion of, 
moot, (subject), [f. prec] 

broach 3, v.t. & i. (Usu. b. to) veer or cause 
(ship) to veer & present side to wind & waves. 
> perh. f. obs. use of prec = turn on the spit] 

broad (-awd), a., n., & adv. Large across, 
wide, not narrow; = in breadth (6ft b.) ; ex- 
tensive (6. lands); full, clear, main, explicit, 
(b. daylight, facts, distinction,- hint) ; coarse 
(b. story) ; downright in sound, not mincing, 
(b. Yorkshire, Scotch); generalized (b. rule); 
tolerant (B. Church, churchmen favouring 
comprehension & not pressing doctrines); 
bold in effect or style ; as b. as it is long, in- 
different ; b. arrow ; broadcloth, fine plain- 
wove double-width dressed black cloth [phr. in 
Act of Pari. 1182 kept as name for quality 
rather than width] ; 6. gauge ; b.-glass, win- 
dow-glass ; broadsheet, large sheet of paper 
printed on one side only ; broadside, ship's 
side above water between bow & quarter 
(broadside on, to, with this presented), (dis- 
charge of) all guns on one side of ship, also 
= broadsheet ; b.-silk, -weaver, (of) silk in piece 
not in ribbons ; broadsword, b.-bladed cutting- 
sword. (Noun) the b. part (6. of the back) ; (E. 
Anglia) large piece of fresh water formed by 
widening of river. (Adv.) = broadly (speak b., 
b. aicake) ; b.-blown, in full bloom ; broa'dcast, 
a., adv., & v.t., (of seed) scattered over surface 
(not in drills or rows), (sow) in this manner, 
(also fig. of pamphlets, spies, &c). Hence 
broa'dEN 6 v.t. & i., broa'dLY 2 , broa'd- 



BROADNESS 



104 



BROTHER 



ways, broa'dwiSE, advv. [OE brad, com.- 
Teut. cf. G breit] 

broa'dness, n. (Superseded by breadth, 
exc. in sense) indelicacy (of speech), [-ness] 
Bpo'bding-nag-, n. Land of giants. Hence 
brobding'na'g'iAN (-ag-) a. [Swift, Gulliver's 
Travels] 

broea'de 1 , n. Fabric woven with raised 
patterns ; Indian cloth of gold & silver, [f. 
Sp. & Port, brocado- It. broccato cf. broach 1 
& see -ade] 

broea'de 2 , v.t. Work with raised pattern. 
{f. prec] 
bro*e(e)oli, n. Cultivated cabbage with 
edible flower head, hardy variety of cauli- 
flower. [It., pi. of broccolo cabbage-top dim. of 
broeco see broach l ] 

brochure (-o'shoor, or as F), n. Stitched 
booklet, pamphlet. [F] 

brock, n. Badger ; stinking fellow. [OE 
broc f. Celt. cf. Gk jihorkos grey] 
bro'eket, n. Second-year stag with straight 
horns, [f. F brocart (broche broach 1 + -ard)] 
brogue 1 (-6g), n. Rude Irish & Scotch- 
Highland shoe of untanned leather; fishing- 
bb., waterproof leggings with feet; nailed & 
goloshed shoe for golf &c. [f. Gael. & Ir. brog 
f. Olr. broce shoe perh. f. OCelt. bracca whence 
L braccae see breech] 

brogue 2 (-6g), n. Dialectal, esp. Irish, 
accent. [etym. dub.; perh. ^speech of those 
who wear the brogue 1 ] 
broi'der, v.t.,broi*dery,n. (Poet. & archaic 
for) embroider(y). 

bpoil *, n. Quarrel, tumult, [f. obs. vb broil 
mix, quarrel, f. F brouiller cf. It. broglio n. 
hurly-burly, & brogliare v., etym. dub.] 
broil 2 ," v.t. &i. Cook (meat) or be cooked 
on fire or gridiron ; make, be, very hot (of per- 
son in sun &c). [etym. dub. ; the form brule, 
common before loOO, may be assim. to F bruler 
burn] 

broil 3 , n. Broiled meat. [f. prec] 
broke !, n. Short-stapled wool on certain 
parts of fleece. [OE broc f. brecan break] 
broke 2 , p.p. of break, still often used in 
some spec, senses, as = ruined (esp., slang, 
stony-b. ), & dismissed the service. 
bro'ken, a. In vbl senses of break x ; also 
or esp., b. meat Sec, remains; &. tea, siftings; 
b. water, choppy ; b. ground, uneven ; b. sleep, 
intermittent ; b. weather, uncertain ; b. English, 
imperfect ; 6. numbers, fractions ; b. money, 
small change; b. -hearted, crushed by grief; 
b.-winded, (of horse) incapacitated for hard 
work by ruptured air-cells, [p.p. of break] 
bro'kenly, adv. Spasmodically, by jerks, 
with breaks, [prec. + -ly 2 ] 
bro'ker, n. Dealer in second-hand furniture 
&c. ; middleman in bargains ; agent, commis- 
sioner ; person licensed to sell or appraise 
distrained goods. Hence bro'kerAGE(4) n. 
[ME & AF brocour f. L *broccatorem nom. -or 
(see -or 2 ) broacher (broach 1 ) of cask, retailer 
of w r ine] 

bpo'klng, n. Brokers trade, acting as 
broker, [f. obs. vb broke cf. prec] 
bro'mal, n. Compound produced by action 
of bromine on alcohol, [brom(ine) + at- of 
alcohol] 

bro'mie, a. Containing bromine in chem. 
combination. Hence bro'ixiATE T (3) n. [bro- 
mine, -ic] 

brd'mide, n. Compound (see -ide) of brom- 
ine, esp.^b. of potassium, [foil. + -ide] 
brd'mme, n. Non-metallic element re- 
sembling chlorine (poisonous dark liquid with 
rank smell) used in various preparations as 



sedative. Hence bro*miZE(5) v.t.,bro*miSM(5) 
n. If. F brome f. Gk bromos stink + -ine 5 ] 

brdmo-, brom-, comb, forms of bromine as 
in bi*omobenzoic, bromacetic. [-o-] 

bro'nchi, bro'nchia (-k-), nn. pi. (Form -i, 
with sing, -us) two main divisions of windpipe ; 
(-ia) ramifications of these in lungs. Hence 
bPO'nehiAL a., bro'nehio-, bro'neho-, 
comb, forms, broneho'TOMiST, -tomv, nn. 
[L, f. Gk brogkhos, brogkhia] 

bponehrtis (-k-), n. Inflammation of bron- 
chial mucous membrane. Hence bronehi'tic 
a. [prec. + -itis] 

bro'nehoeele (-sel), n. Swelling of thyroid 
gland, goitre, [f. Gk brogkhokele (broncho-, 
-cele)] 

bro'nco, n. Wild or half-tamed horse of 
California &c [Sp., = rough] 

bronze 1 , n. & a. Brown alloy chiefly of 
copper and tin (about 8:1); work of art made 
of this; colour of b.; hence bro'nzv 2 a. (Adj.) 
made of, coloured like, b. [F, f. It. bronzo, 
bronzino, f. L (aes) Brundusinum (brass) of 
Brundusium] 

bronze 2 , v.t. & i. Give b.-like surface to; 
make or become brown, tan. [f. prec] 

brooch (-otsh), n. Ornamental, jewelled, &c, 
safety pin for fastening some part of female 
dress^ esp. the neck. [ME broche = broach l ] 

brood J , n. Hatch of young birds or other 
egg-produced animals ; (usu. contempt.) human 
family, children ; swarm, crew, of men, 
animals, or things ; brood-, for breeding (b.- 
mare, -hen). [OE brod cf. G brut f. Teut. vb 
root bro- warm] 

bpood 2 , v.i. Sit as hen on eggs; hang close 
over or on (of night &c) ; meditate on or over 
(esp. insults, ill designs, &c); meditate (often 
sullenly), [f. prec ] 

broo'dy, a. Wishing to sit or incubate (of 
hen). Hence broo'dixESS n. [brood 1 +-y 2 ] 

brook ', n. Small stream ; broo'klime, kind 
of Speedwell common in ditches [OE hleomoc 
name of the plant]. Hence broo'kLET n. [OE 
broc cf. G bruch moor, marsh ; etym. dub.] 

brook 2 , v.t. Put up with, tolerate, (in neg. 
context). [OE briican ; com.-Teut., cf. G brau- 
chejiuse, f. OTeut. bruk- use cf. Lfrui/7^uct-] 

broom, n., & v.t. Yellow-flowered shrub 
growing on sandy banks &c ; genus to which 
it belongs; sweeping-implement usu. on long 
handle (vb, sweep with this); new b., newly 
appointed official eager to sweep away abuses ; 
broo'mrajie, genus of parasitic herbs on roots 
of broom &c (brown, leafless, fleshy-stemmed, 
bracteate) [med. L rapum root-knob] ; b.-stick, 
handle of b. [OE brom f . OTeut. brxmoz thorny 
shrub whence bramble] 

brose (-6z), n. Dish of oatcake with boiling 
water or milk poured on it. [- brewis] 

broth (-aw-, -6-), n. Water in which some- 
thing, esp. meat, has been boiled, thin soup ; 
(Irish) b. of a boy, good fellow. [com.-Teut. f. 
vb root bru- boil, brew,+-th ] ] 

bro'thel, n. House of ill fame, bawdy-house, 
[orig. = ruined man f. OE brothen p.p. of 
brbothan go to ruin, but confused with bordel 
cabin, hut, f. OF f. It. bordello (med. L borda 
f. Teut. bord board)] 

bro'ther (-u-), n. (pi. brothers & in some 
senses bre'thren, see below). Son of same 
parents or (strictly half-b.) parent as another 
person (the latter usu. specified by my Sec. or a 
possessive case ; pi. abbr. Bros, in title of firm, 
as Smith Bros & Co.); close friend; fellow 
citizen, countryman, or man, equal, (a man & 
a b., esp. of negro slaves) ; fellow-member of 
religious society (pi. brethren) ; fellow-member 



BROTHERHOOD 



105 



BRYONY 



of guild, order, profession, &c. (pi. brethren) ; 

official of certain companies &c. (Elder B., 
Brethren, of Trinity House) ; companion, asso- 
ciate, (pi. brothers) often with specification as 
6. in arms, of the angle ; member of religious 
order (as title ; either pi.) ; vocative of sove- 
reigns to each other ; b. german, on both sides, 
b. uterine, of same mother only ; b.-in-laiv, b. 
of one's husband or wife, husband of one's 
sister. Hence bro'therLESS a., bro'ther- 
like a. & adv., bro'thePLY 1 , 2 a. & adv., 
bro'therliNESS n. [Aryan ; OE brothor cf. G 
bruder, Skr. bhratr, Gk phrater, L frater, 
W brawd] 

bro'therhood, n. Fraternal tie ; com- 
panionship ; (members of) association for 
mutual help &c. ; community of feeling. [OP] 
brotherred ME brotherhede -hode ; see -head] 

brougham (-oom, -oo'am), n. One-horse 
closed carriage. [Lord B.J 

brought. See bring. 

brow », n. Arch of hair over eye (usu. in pi. ; 
knit, bend, one's 66., frown) ; forehead ; edge, 
projection, of cliff &c, top of hill in road. 
Hence -browED 2 a. [OE bru f. OTeut. brits 
cf. Skr. bhrus, Gk ophrus] 

brow 2 , n. (naut.). Gangway, inclined plane 
of planks, [perh. f. Da. bru bridge] 

browbeat, v.t. Bully, bear down, with 
looks & words, [brow 1 ] 

brown 1 , a. Of the colour given by mixing 
orange & black or by toasting bread ; as dis- 
tinctive epithet of species &c. (6. bear, ivilloiv; 
b. coal, lignite ; 6. bread, of unbolted flour ; 6. 
paper, coarse unbleached kind used for parcels 
&c. ; 6. sugar, half refined ; 6. ware, common 
sort of pottery) ; dark-skinned, tanned ; (slang) 
do 6., take in, cheat; B. Bess, old army flint- 
lock musket ; 6. study, reverie. Hence 
browniSH 1 (2) a., brownNESS n. [OE brun ; 
com.-Teut. cf. G braun f. OTeut. brunoz, Aryan 
bhrunos, root bhru- cf. beaver; Rom. wds, as 
F brun, It. bruno, adopted f. the Teut.] 

brown 2 , n. B. colour ; b. pigment ; (ellipt. 
for) b. butterfly, fishing-fly, clothes; (slang) 
copper coin. [f. prec] 

brown 3 , v.t. & i. Make or become b. by 
roasting, sunburn, or (gun-barrel &c.) chemical 
process, [f. brown 2 ] 

brownie, n. Benevolent shaggy goblin 
haunting house and doing household work 
secretly, [brown l + -y 3 ] 

browse 1 (-z), n. Twigs, young shoots, &c, 
as fodder for cattle ; act of browsing, [foil.] 

browse 2 (-z), v.i. & t. Feed on, crop, (leaves, 
twigs, scanty vegetation) ; (abs.) feed thus. [f. 
16th-c. F brouster vb, broust n. (now brout), f. 
Teut., cf. OSax. brxistian see breast] 

Bru'in, n. (Personifying name for) bear. 
[MDu., = brown \ name in Reynard the Fox] 

bruise * (-ooz), n. Injury by blow to body 
(also to fruit^cc.) discolouring skin. [f. foil.] 

bruise 2 (-ooz), v.t, &i. Injure by blow that 
discolours skin without breakingitor any bone, 
contuse, (human or animal body, also fruit, 
plant, &c); dint, batter, (wood, metal); (fig.) 
disable ; pound, bray, grind small ; (Hunting) 
ride recklessly ; (with easily &c.) show effects 
of blow. [OE brysan crush combined w. AF 
bruser (now bnser) break perh. f. Teut.] 

brui'ser, n. In vbl senses ; esp., prize- 
fighter. [-ER 1 ] 

bruit 1 (-oot), n. (archaic). Report, rumour. 
[F,= noise (bruire roar perh. f. L rugire)] 

bruit 2 (-oot), v.t. (archaic). Spread (report) 
a6road,a6ou£,niakefamous,celebrate. [f. prec] 

Bpu'mmagem, n. & a. (Dial. & contempt, 
form of) Birmingham; (article) made at B., 



counterfeit, cheap & showy, [allusion to coun- 
terfeit groats made there in 17th c, & to its 
plated goods] 

bru'mous (-oo-), a. Wintry, foggy, [f L 
bruma ( = brevima shortest day f. brevis) + -ous] 

brune'tte (-oo), n. & a. Dark-skinned & 
brown-haired (woman). [F, fern, of brunet dim. 
of brun brown i see -etteJ 

Bru'nswiek, a. From B. in Germany ; esp., 
B. line, of Eng. sovereigns from George I. ; B. 
black, a varnish, [f. G Braunschweig] 

brunt, n. Chief stress (usu. of the attack 
&c, & in phr. bear the 6. of), [etym. dub. ; 
there is ON bruna to advance like fire] 

brush \ n. (Archaic & U.S., Austral., &c.| 
brushwood or underwood, thicket, small trees 
& shrubs growing or (in U.S.) cut in fagots; 
implement of bristles, hair, wire, &c, set in 
wood &c. for scrubbing or sweeping ; bunch of 
hairs &c. in straight handle, quill, &c, for 
painting &c. ; the 6., art of painting, 6., 
painter's style, painter (from the same 6.); tail, 
esp. of fox; b.-like tuft; (Electr.) b.-like dis- 
charge of sparks, piece of metal ending in 
wires or strips securing good metallic con- 
nexion ; (Optics) bright or dark figure with 
vague edge ; application of b., brushing, esp. 
6. up, [f. foil.] ; short smart encounter, skir- 
mish, graze, abrasion, [f. foil.] ; b.-pencil, 
artist's colour-b. ; brushwood, undergrowth, 
thicket; b.-xoork, painter's (style of) manipu- 
lation. Hence bru*shv 2 n. [(sense b.-wood) 
ME brusche f. OF brosse, broce, (other senses) 
ME brusshe f. OF brosse, broisse ; whether 
6roce & broisse are identical in etym., and f. 
Teut, (cf. G borste bristle, bilrste brush), is 
uncertain] 

brush 2 , v.t. & i. Move briskly, esp. by, 
through, against ; sweep or scrub clean, put in 
order, with b. ; 6. tip, furbish, (fig.) renew one's 
memory of ; 6. over, paint lightly ; graze or 
touch in passing ; remove (dust &c.) with b. ; 
6. away (fig.), ignore, pass over; injure by 
grazing, [partly f. prec, perh. partly f. F 
brosser dash through underwood (brosse 
brushwood)] 

brusque ( -dbsk, -usk), a. Blunt, off-hand, 
(of or in manner, speech). Hence bru'squeLY- 
adv., bru*squeNESS,brusquerie* (obskere) 
[-ery], nn. [F, f. It. brusco sour, etym. dub.] 

Bru'ssels, a. Made or grown at, or adopted 
from, B., as B. carpet, lace, sproxds (edible 
buds of kind of cabbage). 

bru'tal, a. Sensual, rude, coarse, savagely 
cruel. Hence bru'taliSM(2), bruta'liTY, nn., 
bru'talLY 2 adv. [f L brxdus brute+ -al] 

bru'talize, v.t.&i. Make (rarely grow) brut- 
al. Hence bru*talizA*TiON n. [prec+-rzE(3)J 

brute, a. & n. (Beast) not gifted with 
reason; stupid, sensual, unspiritual, beastlike, 
cruel, or passionate (person ; .Sc in same adj. 
senses of acts, motives, &c) ; unconscious, 
merely material, (6. force, matter) ; lower 
animal ; lower nature in man. Hence bru'te- 
hood n., brufiSH^l) a., bru'tishLY 2 adv., 
bru'tishNESs n., bru'tiFY v.t., bru'tiFicA*- 
tion n. [f. F brut f. L brutus dull] 

bru'tum fu'lmen, n. Empty threat, blank 
cartridge (fig.). [L] 

Bru'tus, n. Style of wig (19th cent.). [F 
name jn honour of Roman hero] 

bryo'logist, -logy, nn. Person learned in, 
the lore of, mosses. [Gk bruon kind of seaweed 
4- -logist, -logy] 

bry'ony, n. Genus of climbing plants; Red 
or White B., common species ; Black B., Bas- 
tard B., plants resembling but not belonging 
to the genus, [f. L f. Gk bruonia (bruo swell)] 



BUBBLE 



106 



BUFFER 



bu'bble 1 , n. Spherical or hemispherical en- 
velope of liquid enclosing air &c. ; air-filled 
cavity in solidified liquid, as glass, amber ; 
unsubstantial or visionary project, enterprise, 
&c (also adj. in this sense); sound or appear- 
ance of boiling ; b.-&-squeak, cold meat fried 
with chopped vegetables. Hence bu'bblY 2 a. 
[f. foil.] 

bu'bble 2 , v.i. & t. Send up, rise in, make 
the sound of, bb. (lit., & fig. as b. over, or b., xoith 
laughter, wrath); delude (archaic), [prob. 
imit. of sound of bursting bubbles, or of the 
action of lips in making one ; cf. bleb, 
blubber] 

bu'bbly-joek, n. Turkey-cock, [bubbly 
(bubble 1 )+ Jock = Jack] 

bu'bo, n. (pi. -oes). Inflamed swelling in 
glandular part, esp. groin or armpit. Hence 
bubd'nic a. [LL, f. Gk bonbon groin], 

bub.o'noeele, n. Hernia of groin, [prec, 
-cele] 

buccaneer*, n., & v.i. (Be a) sea-rover, 
pirate, esp. of the Spanish-American coasts ; 
adventurer. Hence bueeaneer'iSH ] a. [f. F 
boucanier hunter of oxen (boucan barbecue- 
frame Brazilian wd)] 

bu'eeinator (buks-), n. Flat thin cheek- 
muscle. [L (buccinare blow the trumpet f. 
buccina, -tor)] 

Buee'phalus, n. Riding-horse (facet.), 
{charger of Alexander of Macedon] 

buck 1 , n. Male of fallow-deer, reindeer, 
chamois, antelope, hare, rabbit ; dandy (also 
oldb., vocative = old fellow), whence bu'ekiSH 1 
a., bu'ekishLV 2 adv. ; b.-horn, as material 
for knife handles &c. (also buck-, as buck- 
handled) ; b.-hound, small variety of stag- 
hound (not now used for hunting) ; b.-shot, 
•coarse shot (b.-shot rule, in Ireland, by armed 
•constabulary) ; buckskin, (leather made of) b.'s 
skin, (pi.) breeches of it ; b.-tooth, one that pro- 
jects. [OE buc & bucca, cf. G bock he-goat; 
F bouc, W bwch, are f. the Teut.] 

buck 2 , v.i. & t. (Of horse) jump vertically 
with back arched & feet drawn together (also 
b.-jump, whence bu'ckjumpER 1 n.); b. off, 
throw (rider) thus. Hence bu'ckER'n. [f. prec] 

buck 3 , v.i. & t. (slang). (With itp) make 
haste, become or make vigorous or cheerful, 
(esp. intr. in imperat.). [perh. f. buck 1 in sense 
dandy] 

buck 4 , n. Basket for trapping eels. [?] 

buck 5 , n. Body of cart (chiefly in comb, as 
b.-board, b.-cart, in various local senses), 
[perh. f. obs. bouk belly cf. bulk n.] 

bu'ek-bean, n. Water plant with pinkish 
racemes, [transl. (1578) of Flern. bocks boonen 
goat's beans] 

bu'eket 1 , n. Wooden or other vessel for 
drawing or carrying water ; piston of pump ; 
compartment of water-wheel, scoop of dredg- 
ing-machine or grain-elevator ; socket for whip, 
carbine, wooden leg, &c. ; kick the b., die (but 
perh. f. obs. bucket beam, yoke) ; 6. -shop, (chiefly 
U.S.) office for gambling in stocks, speculating 
on markets, &c. [accidental; story connected 
with elevator of office first so called]. Hence 
bu'cketFUL(2) n. [perh. f. OE bite pitcher, or 
f. OF buket tub] 

bu'eket 2 , v.i. & t. Ride hard (horse, or abs.) ; 
(Rowing) hurry the forward swing, row hurried 
stroke, [f. prec., cf. pump = exhaust] 

bu'ekle l , n. Metal rim with hinged spiked 
tongue for securing strap, ribbon, &c. [f. F 

boucle f. L bxLCCula cheek-strap (bucca cheek, 
see -ule)] 

bu'ekle 2 , v.t, & i. Fasten with b. (often up, 

on, Sec); b. to (with to prep.) prepare for, set 



about, (with to adv.) get to work, start vigor- 
ously ; (cause to) give way, crumple up, under 
longitudinal pressure (t. & i. of wheel, saw, &c). 
[f. prec. ; the last sense perh. f. F boucler bulge] 

bu'ekler, n., & v.t. Small round shield usu. 
held by handle ; protection, protector, (vb, pro- 
tect) ; also technically in various naut., zool., 
& anat. senses, [f. OF boucler (now bouclicr) 
f. L *buccularius f. buccula buckle *, -er 2 (2)] 

bu'ekram, n. & a. Coarse linen or cloth 
stiffened with gum or paste ; stiffness, stiff, (of 
manner) ; strong, strength, in appearance only ; 
men in b., b. men, non-existent (1 Hen. IV, n. 
iv. 210-50). [f. OF boquerant or It. bucherame 
etym. dub.] 

bu'ekwheat, n. A cereal plant with seed 
used for horse and poultry food, & in U.S. for 
breakfast cakes. [ - beech loheat, from its 
three-cornered seeds like beechmast; either 
transl. of Du. bockweit or made on obs. buck- 
mast = beechmast] 

bueo'lie, a. & n. Of shepherds, pastoral, 
rustic ; (usu. pi.) pastoral poems (the Bb., those 
of Virgil). Hence bueo'liCALLV adv. [f. L f. 
Gk boukolikos f. boukolos herdsman (bous 
cow, kol- cf. L colere tend)] 

bud 1 , n. Rudiment of branch, leaf-cluster, 
or flower; flower not fully open ; (Zool.) animal 
forming by gemmation, anything still un- 
developed; in b., putting forth buds; nip in 
the b., destroy at early stage (fig.). Hence 
bu'dLESS a., bu'dLET n. [ME budde, boddc, 
etym. dub.] 

bud 2 , v.i. & t. Put forth bb. t spring forth ; 
begin to grow; (Zool.) produce, be produced, 
by gemmation ; (Gardening) ingraft (trans, or 
abs.) into alien stock, [f. prec] 

bu'dded, p.p. In vbl senses; esp., that has 
budded, is in bud. [-ed j (2)] 

Buddha (bdb - da), n. The Enlightened, 
title of successive teachers past & future of 
the Asiatic religion bu*ddhiSM(3) (bob'di-) n., 
but applied esp. to Sakyamuni. Gautama, or 
Siddartha (5th c. B.C., in N. India). Hence 
bu'ddhisr(2) n. & a., buddhrstic(AL) aa. 
[Skr., p.p. of budh awake] 

budge, v.i. & t. Make the slightest move- 
ment, force to do this, (in neg. sentences), [f. 
F bouger stir perh. (cf. Pr. bolegar) -It. buli- 
care f. LL bullicare frequent, of bullire boil] 

bu'dget, n. Contents of a bag or bundle 
(mostly fig., esp. of news, & as title of news- 
papers) ; annual estimate of revenue & ex- 
penditure by Chancellor of Exchequer in 
House of Commons ; private person's similar 
estimate. Hence bu'dg-etARY l a. [f. F 
bougette dim. of bouge leather bag f. L bulga 
(f. Gallic) knapsack] 

buff 1 , n. & a. (Of) stout velvety dull-yellow 
leather of buffalo or ox-hide ; the human skin 
(in b., naked) ; (of) dull-yellow colour (the Buffs, 
East Kent Regt, f. former colour of facings) ; 
(Path.) coagulated coating on blood drawn 
from fever patients, whence bu'ffy 2 a. ; b.-coat, 
-jerkin, formerly worn by soldiers as proof 
against sword-cut ; b. -stick, -icheel, polishing 
tools covered Avith b. ; b.-tip, kind of moth. [f. 
F buffle buffalo] 

buff 2 , v.t. Polish (metal) with b. ; make 
(leather) velvety like b. [f. prec] 

bu'ffalo, n. Kinds of ox (Bos bubalus, 
India, Asia, Europe, N. Africa ; Bos caffer, 
S. Africa ; incorrectly, American bison), [prob. 
f. Port, biifalo, f. L f. Gk boubalos antelope] 

bu'ffer 1 , n. Apparatus for deadening by 
springs or padding, or sustaining by strength 
of beams &c, a concussion, esp. of railway 
vans ; b. State, small State between two large 



BUFFER 



107 



BULL 



ones diminishing chance of hostilities, [f. obs. 
vb buff (prob. imit. of sound made by soft body 
struck, cf. puff & F bouffer) + -ER l ] 

bu'ffeP 2 , n. (slang). (Usu. old b.) old- 
fashioned or incompetent fellow, [etym. dub. ; 
Wyclif's Bible has it = stammerer—' the tunge 
of bufferes swiftli shal speke '] • 

bu'ffet 1 , n., & v.t, & i. (Strike with) blow 
of the hand ; (of fate &c.) knock, hurt, plague ; 
contend Avith (waves) ; contend with. IOF, dim. 
of buffe blow (also in obs. E buff cf. blind *- 
man's-b.)] 

bu'ffet 2 , n. 1. Sideboard, recessed cup- 
board, for china, plate, &c. 2. (pr. boo'fa, or 
as F) refreshment bar. [F, etym. dub. ; sense 2 
of later introduction than 1 ; there is also 
biiff'et stool, hassock, (obs. exc in dial. & in 
Little Miss Muffet sat on a &.)] 

buffo (bob to), n. & a. Burlesque, comic, 
(actor). [It.] 

buffoo'n, n., & v.i. (Play the) wag, jester, 
mocker. Hence buffoo'nERV(i) n. [f. F buffon 
f. It. buffone (buffa, jest, buffare to puff), -oon] 

bug*, n. Flat ill-smelling blood-sucking insect 
infesting beds ; (loosely).small insect (often with 
denning word as harvest, May, -b. ; b.-hunter 
&c, entomologist). Hence bu'ggv 2 a. [?] 

bu'gaboo, bu'gbear, nn. Fancied object 
of fear ; false belief used to intimidate or dis- 
suade, [etym. & mutual relation doubtful ; 
cf. bogy, bogle, & obs. bug Ih same sense] 

bu'gg'er, n. (Law) sodomite, man having 
unnatural intei'course with beast or man, 
whence bu'ggERY^) n ; (in foul or low talk, 
abusively orTiumorously) fellow, beggar, chap, 
beast, [f. F bougre f. L Bulgarus llth-c. heretic 
from Bulgaria, supposed capable of any crime] 

bu'ggy, n. Light vehicle for one or two 
persons (esp. in U.S., India, colonies). [?] 

bu'gle 1 , n., & v.i. & t. Brass instrument 
like small trumpet used for military signals ; 
(vb) sound b., sound (call) on b. Hence bu'gl- 
ER 1 n. [orig. hunting-horn, short for b.-horn f. 
obs.".& dial. & OF bugle young bull f. L buculus 
dim. of bos bovis ox see cow] 

bu'g-le 2 , n. Kinds of plant. [F, f . LL bugula] 

bu'gle 3 , n. Tube-shaped glass bead sewn on 
dress &c. for ornament, [etym. dub. ; there is 
Du. beugel ring] 

bu'glet, n. Small (bicyclist's) bugle, [-et l ] 

bu'gloss, n. Kinds of plant allied with 
borage. [f. F buglosse f. L buglossa f. Gk 
bouglossos ox-tongued (bous, glossa), from 
shape & roughness of leaves] 

buhl (bool), n. & a. (Inlaid with) brass, tor- 
toise-shell, &c, cut in ornamental patterns for 
inlaying. [Germanized f. Boule name of carver 
temp. Louis XIV] 

build ! (bi-), v.t. (built). Construct by putting 
parts or material rightly together (house, ship, 
carriage, organ, engine, nest, or other structure 
large relatively to the builder) ; (abs.) be busy 
making one's house or nest ; b. up, round, in, 
surround (person, place, &c.) with houses &c, 
block up ; (with material as obj.) lay in(to wall 
&c.) in building; establish, make gradually, 
(often with up ; system, empire, reputation) ; 
base (hopes &c.) upon, rely upon ; built (with 

f receding adv.). of such & such a bujld 2 . 
ME bidden f. OE bold dwelling f. OTeut. bu- 
dwell, cf. booth] 

build 2 , n. Style of construction, make ; pro- 
portions of human body {sturdy b. &c). [prec] 

bui'lder, n. In vbl senses; esp., master- 
builder, contractor for building houses. 1-er j ] 

bui'lding", n. In vbl senses ; esp. : house, 
edifice ; b.-Tease, permitting lessee to build on 
the land ; b.-society, of contributors to fund 



for loan to members when needing house. 

[-ING 1 ] 

bulb 1 , n. Nearly spherical underground 
stem of lily, onion, &c, sending roots down- 
wards & leaves &c. upwards ; leaf-bud detach- 
ing itself from stem & becoming separate 
plant; (Anat.) roundish swelling of any cylin- 
drical organ, as of hair-root or spinal cord ; 
dilated part of glass tube (b.-tubc, ending in 
a b.). Hence bulbED 2 , bulbi'FEROus, bu*l- 
biFORM, aa., bulbo- comb. form. [f. L bulbus 
f. Gk bolbos onion] 

bulb 2 , v.i. Swell into bulb(s). [f. prec] 

bu'lbous, a. Of, having, like, springing 
from, a bulb, [bulb 2 + -ous] 

bulbul (bob'lbdbl), n. Eastern song-thrush ; 
singer, poet. [Pers. f. Arab.] 

bulge ] , n. Convex part, irregular swelling, 
tendency to swell out, on flat or flatter surface ; 
= bilge. Hence bulgv 2 a., bu'lgiNESs n. 
[ME, f. OF boulge, bouge, (or direct) f. L bulga 
see budget] 

bulge 2 , v.i. & t. Swell outwards irregularly 
& usu. faultily ; extend (bag &c.) by stuffing it. 
[f. prec] 

bu'lger, n. (golf). Convex-faced brassy or 
driver, [prec, -er 1 ] 

bu'limy, bulrmia, n. (Med.) morbid hun- 
ger ; (fig.) voracity (for books, &c). [f. Gk 
boulimia ox- (i. c. vast) hunger (bous ox + limos 
hunger); latinized bulimia now preferred in 
medical use] 

bulk \ n. Cargo {break b., begin unloading ; 
b. not equal to samjjle ; in b., loose, not in 
package; load in b., put grain &c in loose; 
sell in &., in large quantities, as it is in the 
hold) ; large shape, person, body ; size, magni- 
tude ; great size ; mass, large mass ; the greater 
part or number of. [perh. f. ON *bnlki cargo, 
but with the meanings also of obs. bouk OE 
bxic belly cf. G bauch] 

bulk 2 , v.i. & t. Seem in respect of size or 
importance (b. large, larger) ; b. up, form con- 
siderable sum &c, amount to ; pile in heaps 
(fish) ; (Customs) ascertain weight of (tea &c) 
by emptying out of chest, [f. prec] 

bu'lkhead, n. Upright partition dividing 
ship's cabins or water-tight compartments; 
compartment, stall, [f. obs. bulk framework 
before shop, stall, perh. f. ON balkr balk x ] 

bu'lky, a. Large ; too large. Hence bu'lki- 
ness n. [bulk l -f- -y 2 J 

bull ! (bobl), n. & a. Uncastrated male of ox 
or any bovine animal (b. in china shop, reck- 
less or clumsy destroyer ; take b. by horns, 
meet not evade difficulty) ; male of whale, ele- 
phant, & other large animals (usu. b. whale or 
whale-b. &c); constellation & sign Taurus; 
(St. Exch.) person trying to raise prices (see 
bear 1 ) ; (adj.) like that of a b. (b. head, neck, 
voice; also b. operations on St. Exch.); bull- 
calf, male calf, simpleton ; bulldog, powerful 
& courageous large-headed smooth-haired 
breed of dog, tenacious & courageous (person), 
University proctor's attendant, gun or pistol 
(esp. of a certain pattern), [f. use in b.-baiting, 
or f. its b. head] ; bullfight, Spanish sport of 
baiting b. with horsemen &c ; bullfinch, 
strong-beaked handsome-plumaged songbird, 
also [perh. =6. fence, cf. minch dial, fovniince] 
quickset hedge with ditch ; bullfrog, large 
Amer. species ; bullhead, small big-headed fish 
^Miller's thumb; beheaded, obstinate, im- 
petuous, blundering ; b.-of-the-bog, bittern ; 
b.-puncher (Austral.), bullock-driver; b.-pup, 
•bitch, young, female, bulldog ; bullring, 
arena for bullfight ; b.'s-eye, boss of glass 
formed at centre of blown glass sheet, hemi- 



BULL. 



108 



BUNG 



spherical piece or thick disk of glass as light in 
ship's side, hemispherical lens, (lantern) with 
such lens, small circular window, centre of 
target, kind of sweetmeat; b.-terrier, cross be- 
tween bulldog & terrier ; bulltrout, fish of 
salmon tribe. [OE bule- (in comb, only), cf. 
MLG bulle, prob. connected with bellow] 

bull 2 , v.i. & t. (St. Exch.) speculate for the 
rise ; try to raise price of (stocks), [f. prec. ; 
bull 1 , 2 perh. merely correl. to the more ex- 
plicable bear 1 , 2 ] 

bulls (bobl), n. Papal edict, [t hbidla bill^] 

bull 4 (bdbl), n. (Often Irish b.) expression 
containing contradiction in terms or implying 
ludicrous inconsistency (often an intelligible 
statement made absurd by compression), [etym. 
dub. ; f. 1630 (connexion with Irish is more re- 
cent ; there is OF boid, bole, trickery] 

bull 5 (bobl),n. Drink made of water flavoured 
in empty spirit cask. [?] 

Bulfe. =john Bull. 

bullace (bob "lis), n. Wild plum tree or fruit. 
[f. OF beloce f. LL pilota pellet] 

bu'llate, a. (bot. , physiol. ). Puffy, blistered- 
looking. [f. L bullatus (bulla bubble, -ate 2 )] 

bu'llet (bob-), n. Missile of lead &c, spheri- 
cal or conical, used in muskets & rifles ; &.- 
drawer, instrument for extracting b. from 
wound ; b.-head, -headed, (with) round & pre- 
sumably thick head ; b. -proof, [f. F boulette 
dim. of boule ball f. L bulla knob] 

bu'lletin (bob-), n. Short official statement 
of public event or of invalid's condition. [F, f. 
It. bulletino dim. of bulletta lottery ticket dim. 
of bulla seal, bull 3 ] 

bu'llion l (bob-), n. & a. Gold or silver be- 
fore (or as valued apart from) coining or manu- 
facture ; (made of) solid or real gold or silver. 
[ AF, prob. = F bouillon soup f. med. L bullionem 
nom. -io (L bidlire boil + -ion) ; but the mean- 
ings are E only] 

bu'llion 2 (bob-), n. Fringe of gold & silver 
thread twists, [f. F bouillon, see prec, in 
sense bubble (independent adoption)] 

bu'llionist, n. Advocate of metallic cur- 
rency. [BULLION 1 + -1ST (2)] 

bu'llock. (bob-), n. Castrated bull, ox. [OE 

bulluc (-OCK)] 

bu'lly 1 (bob-), n. Blusterer, tyrant (esp. 
among boys), coward & tyrant; hired ruffian, 
[obs. senses lover, sweetheart, gallant, fine 
fellow, perh. f. Du. boel lover cf. G buhle] 

bu'lly 2 , v.t. Persecute, oppress, tease, physi- 
cally or morally ; frighten into or out of ; (abs.) 

play the b. [f. prec] 

bu'lly 3 i a. & int. (esp. U.S. & colonial). 

Capital, first-rate ; b. for you, him, &c., = bravo. 

[f. BULLY !] 

bu'lly 4 (bob-), n. Scrummage in (prop. Eton) 
football. 

bu'lly 5 (bob), n. (Also b. beef) tinned beef, 
[perh. = bouilli, or f. bull 1 ] 

bully rag. See ballyrag. 

bu'lrush (bob-), n. Kinds of tall rush (pop. 
the Cat's Tail ; in Bible, papyrus), [bole 
(strong-stemmed)?, or bull 1 (big cf. bullfrog, 
bulltrout, & Gk use of bou- see bulimy)?] 

bu'lwark. (bob-), n. Rampart, earthwork, 
&c. ; mole, breakwater; person, principle, &c, 
that acts as a defence ; ship's side above deck. 
[cf. Du. bolwerk, G bollwerk; perh. = bole + 
work (log-rampart)] 

bum, n. Backside, buttocks ; b. -bailiff (also 
&.), employed for arrests (from touching debtor 
on the back) ; b.-boat, plying with fresh pro- 
visions for ships (orig. scavenger boat), [cf. 
bump ; earlier than, not contracted f., bottom 
in this sense] 



bu'mble, n. Beadle ; consequential jack-in- 
office. Hence bu'mbleDOM n. [name of 
beadle in Oliver Twist] 

bu'mble-bee, n. Large kind of bee. [f. 
obs. vb bumble (boom+ -le)] 
bu'mble-puppy, n. Whist played un- 
scientifically, [prop, an obs. out-of-door baga- 
telle ; etym. dub. ; there is obs. vb bumble 
bungle] 

bu'mbo, n. Cold rum-punch, [cf. It, bombo 
child's wd for drink] 

bu'mmalo, n. Small fish of S. -Asiatic 
coasts, [f. Mahratti bombil] 
bummaree*, n. Middleman at Billingsgate 
fish-market. [?] 

bu'mmep, n. (U.S.). Idler, loafer, [cf. G 
bummler] 

bump *, v.t. & i., & adv. Push, throw down, 
(box &c) against or on (wall, person, floor, 
&c); hurt (one's head &c) by striking it 
(against, on, or abs.) ; seize by arms & legs & 
strike the posterior of (person) against floor, 
wall, &c ; come with a b. against ; go along 
with repeated bumps; (Boat-racing, see foil.) 
overtake ; (adv.) with a b., suddenly, violently, 
(come, go, &c, &., cf. bang, bounce), [express- 
ing the sound, or shape of swelling] 
bump 2 , n. Dull-sounding blow, knock, colli- 
sion ; swelling caused by it; (Phrenol.) pro- 
minence on skull, facultyindicated by it ; (Boat- 
racing) touching of boat by next, a win for 
latter (6. -supper, in celebration of this), [f. prec] 
bump 3 , n., & v.t. (Make) bittern's cry. [imit,] 
bu'mpep, n. In vbl senses ; also, brim-full 
glass of wine ; (slang) anything unusu. large or 
abundant (harvest, full theatre) ; (Whist) score 
of two games against nil. [-er 1 ] 
bum'pkin, n. Country or awkward or bash- 
ful fellow, [perh. f. Du. boomken little tree or 
MDu. bommekijn little barrel] 
bu'mptious(-shws),a. Self-assertive. Hence 
bu'mptiousLY 2 adv., bu'mptiousNESS n. 
[jocular form, on bump 2 & e. g. fractious] 
bu'mpy, a. Full of bumps, causing jolts, 
(esp. of road or cricket pitch). Hence bu'mpi- 
ness n. [-Y 2 ] 

bun \ n. Small soft round sweet cake with 
a few currants (the usu. Eng. sense, but with 
local variations) ; hot cross b., marked with 
cross & eaten on Good Friday, [perh. f. OF 
bugne bump, swelling, (at Lyons = fritter, 
whence mod. F beignet)] 

bun 2 , n. (Personifying name Of) squirrel, 
rabbit, [etym. dub.; there is Sc bun, hare's tail] 
bunch 1 , n. Cluster of things growing or 
fastened together (flowers, grapes, keys), lot 
(best of the b.). Hence bu'nehv 2 a. [?] 
bunch 2 , v.t. & i. Make into bunch(es), 
gather (dress) into folds ; come or cling to- 
gether, [f. prec] 
bu'neombe. See bunkum. 
bundesrat(h) (boo'ndesraht), n. Federal 
council of German Empire (58 members from 
26 states). [G] 

bu'ndle 1 , n. Collection of things fastened 
together (esp. clothes & odds & ends in hand- 
kerchief) ; set of sticks, iron rods, Sec, bound 
up ; set of parallel fibres, nerves, &c ; 20 hanks 
of linen yarn. [perh. f. MDu. bondel cf. G 
biindel (OTeut. bindan bind) ; see -le(D] 
bu'ndle 2 , v.t. & i. Tie in, make up into, a b. ; 
throw confusedly in to any receptacle ; go, put 
or send (esp. a person), in a hurry or uncere- 
moniously oid, off, away, See [f. prec] 
bung i, n. Stopper, esp. large cork stopping 
hole in cask ; b.-hote, for filling cask. [cf. MDu. 
bonghe = *bonde f. L puncta orifice (pungere 
puncU prick)] 



BUNG 

bung: 2 , v.t. Stop (cask) with b. ; eyes bunged 
up, closed with swelling from blow, or sealed 
with rheum ; (slang) throw (stones), [f. prec] 

bungalow (bu'nggalo), n. Lightly built 
one-storeyed or temporary house, [f. Hind. 
bangla belonging to Bengal] 

bu'ngle, v.i. & t., & n. (Make) clumsy work, 
confusion ; blunder over, fail to accomplish, 
(task). Hence bu'nglER 1 n. [iniit., cf. bum- 
ble, boggle] 

bu'nion, n. Inflamed swelling on foot, 
[perh. f. It. bug none (bugno boil, lump, cf. F 
bugne bun 1 ,+ -one -oon)J 

bunk l , n. Sleeping-berth. [?] 

bunk 2 , v.i. (slang). Make off, vanish. [?] 

bu'nken, n. Ship's coal-bin ; (Golf) sandy 
hollow on links. [?] 

bu'nkum, -combe (-km), n. Humbug, clap- 
trap, sophistry, [anecdotic ; member for Bun- 
combe in N. Carolina speaking needlessly in 
Congress to impress his constituents] 

bu'nny, n. Pet name for rabbit. Tbun 2 + 

•Y 3 ] 

Bu'nsen('s) (boon-, biin-), a. Invented by 
Prof. B. of Heidelberg (B. burner, lamp, burn- 
ing air with gas for heating & blow-pipe work ; 
B. battery, cell, voltaic of spec. kind). 

bunt \ n. Cavity, baggy part, of fishing-net, 
sail, &c. [?] 

bunt 2 , n. (Also Smut-ball) disease of wheat. [?] 

bu'nting x , n. Sub-family of birds including 
Common or Corn B., Yellow B. (or Yelloxo 
Hammer), Black-headed, Reed, Snow, Sec, B.; 
grey shrimp. [?] 

bu'nting* 2 , n. (Open-made worsted stuff 
used for) flags, [perh. = bolting-cloth (bolt 5 ) 
f. obs. bunt silt, or perh. = G bunt parti-coloured 

+ -ING 1 ] 

buoy 1 (boi), n. Anchored float showing 
navigable course or reefs &c. ; (also life-b.) 
something to keep person afloat ; also fig. in 
both senses, [f. OF bote or MDu. boei f. L boia 
chain] 

buoy 2 (boi), v.t. (Usu. with up) keep afloat ; 
bring to surface of water ; sustain (person, 
courage, &c. ), uplift. (Without up, sometimes 
with oid) mark with buoy(s). [see prec, but 
the vb is perh. directly f. a foreign source] 

buoyage (ij),n. Providing of buoys. T-age] 

buoyancy, n. Floating power (of solid to 
stay, of liquid to keep object, afloat) ; (Hydrost.) 
loss of weight by immersion in liquid ; elasti- 
city, recuperative power, (of spirits, also of 
prices, &c). [f. foil. ; see -ancy] 

buoyant (boi-), a. Apt to float, rise, keep 
up, or recover, springy ; able to keep things up ; 
light-hearted. Hence buoyantLY 2 adv. [ = , 
& perh. f., Sp. boy ante \ earlier than buoy 2 ; 
see buoy : ] 

bur, bupp, n. (Any plant with) clinging seed- 
vessel or flower ; female hop-catkin ; person 
hard to shake off. [-Da. borre] 

bup'ble, v.i. Simmer (with rage, mirth), [on 
burst, bubble ; but cf. obs. burble bubble] 

bup'bot, n. Eel-like flat-headed bearded 
fresh-water fish. [f. F bourbotte cf. bourboter 
Avallow f. LL borba f. Gk borboros mud] 

bup'den 1 , bup'then (-dh-), n. (usu. -den 
exc. = tonnage). Load (lit., or of labour, duty, 
sorrow, &c. ; b. of proof, obligation to prove 
falling on maker of statement) ; obligatory ex- 
pense ; ship's carrying-capacity, tonnage : bear- 
ing of loads {ship, beast, ofb.); (bibl.) oracle, 
heavy fate ; ( = obs. senses of bourdon) refrain, 
chorus, of song, chief theme or gist of poem, 
book, speech, &c. [OE byrthen =OSax. bur- 
thinnia (st. of bear 3 + suf. -innja) ; for -d- cf . 
murther, murder] 



109 BURLESQUE 

bup'den 2 , bup'then, v.t. Load (lit. & fig.), 
encumber, oppress, tax. [f. prec] 

bup'densome, a. Oppressive, wearying. 
Hence bup'densomeNESS n. [-some] 

bup'doek, n. Coarse plant with prickly 
flower-heads (bur) & dock-like leaves, [bur + 
dock J ] 

bureau (buro - ), n. (pi. -eaux, pr. -6z). Writ- 
ing-desk with drawers, escritoire; office, 
government department. [F,= office, desk, 
orig. baize f. OF btirel dim. of bure coarse 
cloth cf. buire brown f. L burrus red perh. f. 
Gk puri'hos red] 

bureau'eracy (-okra-), n. Government by 
bureaux, centralization : officialism ; officials. 
Allied wds : bureau'cRAT n., bureauera't- 
ro a., bupeauepa'tiCALLY adv., bureau*- 
cpatiSM(2), bupeau*epatiST(2), nn. [f. prec 
+ -cracy] 

bupe'tte, n. Graduated glass tube for mea- 
suring small quantities of liquid. [F, dim. of 
buii^e vase] 

burgage, n. An ancient tenure {hold in &.). 
[f. med. L burgagium {burgus see borough)] 

burgee', n. Small tapered pennant used by 
yachts &c [?] 

bup'geon, boup'geon, (berjn), n., & v.i. 
(Put forth, spring forth as) young shoot(s), bud, 
begin to grow, (poet., & also in Zool. of gemma- 
tion). [ME borioun f. OF burjon etym. dub.] 

bup'gess, n. Inhabitant of borough with 
full municipal rights, citizen ; (Hist.) member 
of parliament for borough, corporate town, or 
university. [ME & OF burgeis = bourgeois j ] 

bupgh (buTu), n. (Sc). Scotch chartered 
town (used in E in writing of Scotch borough), 
[see borough] 

burgher (bei-ge?-), n. (archaic). Citizen 
(chiefly of foreign towns), [f. G or Du. burger 
(burg fortified town), later assim. to E burgh] 

bup'glap, n. One who breaks into house by 
night with intent to commit felony. Hence 
bup'glapY 1 n., bupglap*iousa.,bupglap'- 
iousLY 2 adv. [f. Anglo-L burglator, burgator, 
perh. made on burgh-breche the native term 
for burglary] 

bup'gle, v.i. & t. Commit burglary; enter 
or rob (house) burglariously, [recent back- 
formation f. prec, but cf. burgulare 1354] 

bup'gomastep, n. Mayor of Dutch or Flem- 
ish town. [f. Du. burgemeester (borough)] 

bup'gonet, n. (hist). Visored helmet ; steel 
cap. [f. OF bourguignotte f. Bourgogne Bur- 
gundy] 

burgundy, n. Kinds of (usu. red) wine of 
Burgundy. 

bu'pial (be-), n. Depositing under earth, 
burying, esp. of dead body, funeral ; b.-ground, 
cemetery ; b.-service, religious form (esp. that 
in Ch.-of-Engl. prayer-book) at funeral, [f. OE 
byrgels cf. OSax. burgisli (burg- st. of bergan 
cover), -s dropped as though pi., cf. pea] 

bup'in, n. Tool for engraving on copper. 
Hence bup'iniST(l) n. [F, perh. f. OHG bora 
boring-tool (bore 1 )] 

burke, v.t. Avoid, smother, (publicity, in- 
quiry) ; hush up, suppress, (rumour, book). 
[Burke executed 1829 for smothering people to 
sell bodies for dissection] 

burl, n., & v.t. Knot in wool or cloth ; (vb) 
clear of bb. [f. OF bourle] 

bup'lap, n. Coarse canvas, [cf. Du. boenlap 
etym. dub.] 

burle-sque (-esk), a. & n., & v.t. Imitative, 
imitation, imitate, for purpose of deriding or 
amusing ; bombast(ic), mock-serious(ness) ; cari- 
cature.parody ,esp. (of) literary &dramaticwork. 
[F, f. It. burlesco (burla mockery, -esque)] 



BURLY 



110 



BUSINESS 



bup'ly, a. Sturdy, corpulent. Hence bup'- 
Hness n. [ME borlich prob. f. an OE burlic 
(handsome, flt for the) bovver 1 , + -ly *] 

burn 1 , n. (Sc, north., poet.). Small stream. 
[com.-Teut. cf. Du. born, & S.-Engl. bourn l ] 

burn 2 , v.t. & i. (burnt sometimes burned). 
Consume, waste, by fire (t. & i., the heat, heat- 
ing person, or heated thing, being subject ; 
b. away, out, to nothing, to extinction ; b. up, 
get rid of by fire ; b. out, consume contents of ; 
b. one's boats, commit oneself irrevocably to a 
course) ; blaze, glow, with fire (b. up, flash into 
blaze; b. down, low, less vigorously as fuel 
fails) ; give, make to give, light (lamp, candles, 
gas, oil, &c. ; b. blue Sec, give blue &c. light ; 
b. candle at both ends, not husband energy ; 
b. daylight, use artificial light by day) ; put, be 
put, to death by fire ; harden, produce, (bricks, 
lime, charcoal) by heat; make (hole &c.) by 
heat (money burns hole in pocket, clamours to 
be spent); injure, be injured, by fire or great 
heat (b. one's fingers, suffer for meddling or 
rashness); char, scorch, in cooking (t. & i.), 
adhere to saucepan &c. ; cauterize, brand, 
(b. in, into, impress indelibly) ; eat, make acid 
&c. eat, its way (into material, material, or 
abs.) ; parch, freckle, tan, colour, (t. & i. ; abs. 
or with brown, dry, &c.) ; give, feel, sensation 
or pain (as) of heat (burnt child dreads fire ; 
ears b., when one is talked of ; b., get near dis- 
covery or truth, as in child's game) ; make, be, 
hot or passionate, glow, blaze, rage, yearn ; b. 
person out, expel him by fire; b. the water, 
spear salmon by torchlight; burning-glass, 
convex lens or concave mirror concentrating 
sun's rays enough to ignite object at focus ; 
burnt offering, sacrifice made by burning. [OE 
brinnan intr., bsernan trans. ; com.-Teut. cf. G 
brennen] 

burn 3 , n. Sore, mark, on body made by 
burning, [f. prec] 

bup'nep, n. In vbl senses, esp. in comb, as 
brick-b. ; also, part of lamp &c. that shapes 
the flame, [-er 1 ] 

bup'net, n. Kinds of brown-flowered plant, 
[f. obs. adj. burnet f. OF burnete see brun- 
ette] 

bup'ningr, a. In vbl senses ; also : flagrant 
(b. shame, disgrace) ; hotly discussed, exciting, 
(b. question) ; b. scent (in hunting), strong. 
[-ING 2 ] 

bur'nish, v.t. & i. Polish by friction ; (with 
xvell &c.) take a polish. Hence bup'nishER l (2) 
n. [f. OF burnir—brunir (brun brown), see 
-ish 2 ] 

bupnou's(e) (-oos, -ooz), n. Arab, Moorish. 
& lady's, hooded cloak. [F (-s), f. Arab, burnus] 

bupp 1 , n. Nebulous disk round moon or 
star ; rough ridge left on cut or punched metal 
or paper (b.-drill, dentist's) ; siliceous rock used 
for mill-stones ; whetstone; kinds of limestone ; 
rough sounding of letter r as in Northumber- 
land ; whirring sound ; = bur. [etym. dub. ; 
perh. four different wds ; & cf. bur] 

bupp 2 , v.t. & i. Pronounce with sound of 
Northumbrian r, also of French r ; speak with- 
out clear articulation, [cf. prec] 

birppow, n., & v.i. & t. (Make, live in) hole 
excavated in earth, as of foxes, rabbits, &c. ; 
make by excavating (hole, one's way) ; retire 
out of sight; (fig.) investigate mysteries &c. 
Hence bu'ppowER 1 n. [perh. = borough] 

bup'sap, n. Treasurer, esp. of a college ; 
exhibitioner in Scotch University or school, 
whence bup'saPY 1 n. [f. med. L bursarius 
(bursa bag f. Gk = hide)] 

bupsap'ial, a. Of bursar(y). [-al] 

bursts ^.t. & i. (past & p.p. burst). Fly by 



expansion of contents, send (containing case), 
violently asunder, split, (powder, shell, &c. ; 
exaggeratively, b. with food or emotion, heart 
bursts) ; get away from or through, make way 
out or in, express one's feelings, by force or 
suddenly (river bu?*sts banks ; b. in, come into 
room, interrupt ; b. out, exclaim ; b. into tears, 
out laughing, break into tears, laughter ; b. 
upon enemy's country, overrun it) ; open, come 
open, be opened, forcibly (boil, bud, cloud, b. ; 
b. door, door bursts, in or open) ; fill, be full, to 
overflowing (grain bursts granary, granary 
bursting ; b. with joy, envy, pride, a secret) ; 
appear suddenly (b. into fiame, upon the view ; 
sun, war, disease, b. out) ; suffer bursting of 
(some part ; b. a blood-vessel, one's heart, sides 
xcith laughing, buttons with food). [OE berstan 
f. OTeut. brestan perh. f. brek- break; there 
has been double metathesis, OTeut. brest-, OE 
berst-, ME brest-, mod. bwst] 

burst 2 , n. Bursting, split ; b.-up (often bust- 
colloq.), collapse ; sudden issuing forth (b. of 
flame), explosion, outbreak, (lit. &fig.) ; spurt; 
continuous gallop ; bout of drunkenness &c. 
[f. prec] 

bup'then. See burden. 

bupy (be'ri), v.t. Deposit in, commit to, earth, 
tomb, or sea (corpse) ; (of relatives) to have 
buried, lost; (of clergy) perform burial rites; 
put under ground (b. alive ; b. the hatchet, re- 
nounce quarrel); put away, forget; (chiefly 
refl. & pass.) consign to obscurity ; hide in 
earth (treasure &c), cover up, submerge ; 
withdraw from view (face in hands, hands in 
pockets) ; (p.p.) immersed (buried in sloth) ; 
burying-ground, -place, graveyard, cemetery. 
[OE byrgan cf. burial] 

bus, 'b-, n. (pi. -es), & v.i. (Go by) omnibus. 

bu'sby (-z-), n. Tall fur cap of Hussars, 
Artillery, & Engineers. [?J 

bush * (bdbsh), n. Shrub, clump of shrubs ; 
bunch of ivy as ancient vintner's sign (good 
wine needs no b.) ; luxuriant growth of hair, 
whisker, &c. ; woodland, unfilled district, (esp. 
in colonies ; take to the b., become bushranger) ; 
beat 1 about b. ; bush- in many bird, beast, & 
plant names ; b. -fighter, -ing, (person used to) 
fighting in the b., guerilla Warfare ; b.-harrow, 
heavy frame with bars between which branches 
are inserted for harrowing grass land or cover- 
ing seed, (vb) harrow with this ; bushman, 
aboriginal of a S.-Afr. tribe, dweller, farmer, 
or traveller in the Australian b., whence 
bu'shmansHiP (3) n. [after Du. boschjesman 
(bosch bush)] ; b.-ranger, Australian brigand 
(at first escaped convict) living in the bush ; 
b.-rope, tropical wild vine netting trees to- 
gether. [ME busk f. ON buskr, cf. G busch, 
Du. bosch (whence prob. the sense woodland 
above), f. Rom. bosco see bosk] 

bush * 2 , v.t. Set (ground) with bb. to frustrate 
net-poaching ; b.-harrow (ground), [prec] 

bush 3 (boosh), n., & v.t. Metal lining of axle- 
hole 01 other circular orifice, perforated plug ; 
(vb) furnish with b. [prob. f. MDu. busse box 2 
.cf. blunderbuss] 

bu'shel (bobshl), n. Measure of capacity 
(8 gal.) for corn, fruit, &c (not hide light or 
candle under b., set example ; measure others' 
corn by one's own b., judge others by oneself). 
Hence bu'shelFUL (2) n. [ME boyschel f. OF 
boissiel f. LL buscellus f. buxis box 2 ] 

bu'shy, a. Abounding in bushes ; growing 
thickly. Hence bu'shiNESS n. [-Y 2 ] 

business (bi'znis), n. Being busy (orig. 
sense, now obs., see busyness) ; task, duty, 
province, (make it one's b. to, undertake) ; 
cause of coming (what is your b. ?) ; habitual 



BUSINESS-LIKE 



111 



BUTTER 



occupation, profession, trade ; serious work 
(means b., is in earnest ; on b., with definite 
purpose ; b. end of tin tack, point ; b. hours, 
hours of b., of regular work, open shop or 
office, &c.) ; thing needing attention, agenda, 
{the b. of the day, meeting, &c.) ; dealings with 
men & matters (b. man, one used to these, & 
see helow ; man of b., agent, attorney) ; diffi- 
cult matter (what a b. it is !, make a great b. of 
it) ; thing that concerns one, that one may 
meddle with, (mind your own, go about your, 
send, about his, b., reproof or dismissal ; has no 
b. to, no right) ; (contempt.) device, machine, 
process, concern, course of events, (sick of the 
whole b.; a lath-it-plaster b.); (Theatr.) action, 
dumb - show ; buying & selling, bargaining, 
(doing a great b. ; good stroke of b. ; b. man, 
engaged in commerce, also see above) ; com- 
mercial house, firm; do one's b., kill him; 
good b.!, well done! [OE bisignis (busy J + 

-NESS)] 

business-like, a. Systematic, practical, 
prompt, well-ordered, [-like] 
busk, n. Rigid strip stiffening corset-front, 
[f. F busc etym. dub.] 

bu'skin, n. Boot reaching to calf or knee ; 
thick-soled boot lending height to Athenian 
tragic actor; the tragic vein, tragedy, (see 
sock ; put on the b., write or act tragedy). 
Hence bu'skinED 2 a. [in many Europ. langg. ; 
the E perh. f. OSp. boszegui, F brousequin, 
Du. brozeken, &c, having br- ; etym. dub. ; MIt. 
borzachino suggests borza purse] 
buss, n., & v.t., (archaic). Kiss, [earlier 
bass n. & v. ; cf. F baiser, L basiare, basium] 
bust, n. Sculpture of person's head, shoul- 
ders, & chest ; upper front of body, bosom, esp. 
of woman, [f. F buste f. It. busto etym. dub.] 
bu'stard, n. Genus of large swift-running 
birds, [perh. mixture of OF bistarde, oustarde, 
both f. L avis tarda slow bird (the inappro- 
priate adj. unexplained)] 
bu'stle ! (busl), v.i. & t. Bestir oneself ; 
make show of activity, hurry aboxd ; make 
(others) hurry or work hard. [perh. var. of obs. 
buskle f. obs. busk prepare (ON buask refl. of 
biia prepare cf. bound 5 )] 
bu'stle 2 , n. Excited activity, fuss. [f. prec] 
bustle 3 (bu'sl), n. Pad or frame puffing out 
top of woman's skirt behind, [perh. = prec] 
busy 1 (bi'zi), a. Occupied, working, en- 
gaged, with attention concentrated, (b. in, 
with, at ; also, prep, being dropped, with vbl 
n. now looking like part., as he icas b. packing) ; 
unresting, ever employed, stirring; fussy, med- 
dlesome, prying, mischievous ; b. idle(ness), 
spending energy on trifles; b.-body, meddle- 
some person, mischief-maker. Hence bu'siLY 2 
adv. IOE bisig ; only E & LG cf. Du. bezig ; 
the -u- unexplained] 

bu'sy 2 , v.t. Occupy (esp. one.s-e7/, one's 
hands, eyes, &c), keep b., (with, in, at, about, 
or with -ing, or abs.). [OE bisgian see prec] 
bu'syness, n. State or quality of being 
busy. [mod. form differentiated in spelling & 
pronunc f. business] 

but 1 (orig. adv. & prep. = outside, without ; 
developed into conj., under which most mod. 
uses belong ; but it is now adv., prep., negative 
rel. pron., subord. & coord, conj. ; clear distinc- 
tion of these is not here possible). Only (she is 
b. a child, I can b. do it) ; except, if not, short 
of, except that, ir it were not that, short of the 
condition that, (they are all wrong b. he, him ; 
no one b. me, I; never b. once ; he all b. did it ; 
what can he do b. die ; nothing woidd content 
him b. I must come) ; otherwise than (cannot 
choose b., cannot &., do it) ; who or that not 



(no one b. knows that); without the result &c. 
that (never rains b. it pours ; justice was never 
done b. some one complained) ; rather than so- 
&-so shall prove untrue (it shall go hard b. I 
xcill get there ; ten to one b. it was you) ; that 
not (not such a fool b.— also b. that, b. what— 
he can see that ; it is impossible b. that offences 
will come) ; to say (that) not (not b. that— also 
what— he believed it himself) ; (after neg.) that 
(/ don't deny, doubt, b. that) ; on the contrary, 
nevertheless, however, on the other hand, 
moreover, yet. [OE be-utan, butan, buta, (be-,, 
out) outside, without] 

but 2 , n., & v.t. An objection; (vb) utter, 
use, (bb. ; but me no buts). [uses of prec] 
bu'tehepi (bob-), n. Slaughterer of animals 
for food ; dealer in meat ; judge, general, &c, 
who has men killed needlessly or brutally ; a 
salmon-fly; b.'s bill, list of killed in war; 
b.-bird, kind of shrike ; b.'s-broom, low spiny- 
leaved evergreen = Knee Holly; b.'s meat r 
excluding poultry, game, & bacon &c [f. OF 
bochier (boc buck 1 ) lit. dealer in goat's flesh] 
bu'teher 2 , v.t. Slaughter (people) wantonly 
or cruelly; ruin by bad reading or editing, 
damage by harsh criticism, [f. prec] 
bu'teherly, a. Fit for, like, a butcher, coarse, 
brutal, bloody, [-ly j ] 

bu'tehery, n. Shambles (in barracks, camp, 
ship, &c) ; (attrib.) butcher's trade (b. trade, 
business, &c.) ; needless or cruel slaughter of 
people, [f. F boucherie (butcher, -y l )] 
bu'tlep, n. Servant in charge of wine-cellar 
& plate &c, head servant, [f. AF butuiller f. 
OF boxdeillier, oee bottle 1 , -er 2 (2)] 
butt 1 , n. Wine or ale cask (108-140 gal. ) ; 
any barrel, [f. Rom. (F & It, botte) f. LL buttis] 
butt 2 , n. Thicker end, esp. of tool or weapon 
(give fish the b., turn b. of rod towards him for 
firmer hold) ; trunk of tree just above ground ; 
b. or b.-end, remnant (b.-end also=thicker end) ; 
base of leaf-stalk ; kinds of flat-fish, as sole, 
plaice, turbot ; hide of back & flanks trimmed 
to rectangle, thickest leather (cf. bend l ) ; 
square end of plank meeting a similar end 
(also b.-end). [cf. Da. but. Du. bot, stumpy, Sw. 
bid stump ; whether senses belong together, 
& relation to other wds butt, doubtful] 
butt 3 ,n. Mound behind target ; (pi.) shooting- 
range ; target ; end, aim, object ; object of 
(ridicule &c); object of teasing & ridicule, 
[f. F bid goal cf. foil.] 

butt 4 , v.i. & t., & n. Push (v. & n.) with the 
head (come b. or full b. against, run into) ; meet 
end to end (b. against, upon) ; come, place 
(timber &c), with end flat against wall &c. 
[f. OF boter, buter, (now bouter) thrust, project, 
influenced by abut] 

bu'ttep i, n. Fatty substance made from 
cream by churning (look as if b. would not 
melt in mouth, demure ; melted b., sauce of b., 
flour, &c); kinds of substance of similar con- 
sistency or look, as b. of almonds; fulsome 
flattery ; b.-&-eggs, kinds of plant with two 
yellows in flower, as toad-flax ; b.-boat, sauce- 
boat ; b.-knife, blunt, of silver &c, for cutting 
b. ; b.-scotch, kind of toffee; butterbur, plants 
with large soft leaves ; buttercup, kinds of 
yellow-flowered Ranunculus ; b.-fingers, -fin- 
gered, (person) unable to hold things, esp. 
a catch at cricket ; buttermilk, liquid left after 
churning b. ; b.-nut, N.-Amer. oily nut(-tree) ; 
b.-print, wooden stamp for marking b. ; butter- 
wort, fleshy-leaved Violet -flowered bog-plant. 
Hence bu'tterv 2 a., butteriNESS n. [OE 
butere, f. L f. Gk bouturon (bous cow, turon 
cheese, or perh. barbarian wd so accounted for)] 
1 bu'tter 2 , v.t. Spread, cook, sauce, with b. 



BUTTERBUMP 



112 



BY- 



{fine xods b. no parsnips, mere professions are 
valueless) ; for other phrr. see bread) ; (also b. 
up) flatter, [f. prec] 

bu'ttepbump, n. = bittern. [see bump 3 ] 

tau*ttei»fly, n. & a. Diurnal erect-winged 
insect with knobbed antennae ; showy or fickle 
(person), trifler; b.-nut, -screw, (Mech.), with 
\ .ings to be turned by thumb & finger ; break j 
b. on wheel. [OE buttor-fleoge cf. Du. boter- 
vlieg, connexion with butter unexplained] 

bvrttepine (-en), n. Imitation butter of 
oleo-margarine & milk, [-ine 1 ] 

bu'ttepis, n. Farrier's tool for paring hoof, 
[cf. F boutoir & obs. E butter]. 

bu'ttepy, n. Place in colleges &c. where 
bread & ale, butter, &c, are kept ; b.-hatch, 
half-door over which provisions are issued, [f. 
OF boterie = bouteillerie (bottle 1 , -ery)] 

bu'ttoek. 1 , n. Half of rump (usu. in pi.); man- 
oeuvre in wrestling (usu. cross-b., running-b., 
&c); b.-steak, = rumpsteak. [butt 2 + -ock] 

bu'ttoek 2 , v.t. Throw by using b. [f. prec] 

button \ n. Knob or disk sewn to garment 
to fasten it by passing through buttonhole, or 
for ornament (boy in bb., page ; take by the b., 
detain, see buttonhole below) ; bud ; unopened 
mushroom ; in plant names, as bachelor's b. ; 
knob, handle, catch, as in electric bell (touchthe 
b. , produce complicated result by simple action ) ; 
small bar revolving on pivot as door-fastening ; 
small rounded body; terminal knob (on foil, 
making it harmless ; also as ornament) ; &.- 
boot, fastened with bb. ; buttonhole, slit made 
to receive fastening b., (fig.) small mouth, 
flower(s) worn in buttonhole, (vb) make button- 
holes (in), hold by a coat or waistcoat b., 
detain, (reluctant listener), whence button- 
holER 1 n. [last sense by confusion with earlier 
b.-hold] ; buttonhook, for pulling b. into place. 
Hence (-)buttonED 2 , buttonLESS, aa., 
birttonlessxESS n. [f. OF boton bud f. LL 
*bottonem nom.' -to f. oottare push, cf. butt 4 ] 

birtton 2 , v.t. & i. Furnish with button(s) ; 
fasten (t. & i.) with bb. (often up) ; enclose 
within buttoned garment (person, or object 
carried with one ; usu. up), [f. prec] 

buttons, n. Liveried page. [pi. of button 1 ] 

buttony, a. With many buttons. [-Y 2 ] 

buttress, n., & v.t. Support built against 
wall &c ; prop (lit. & fig.) ; b.-like projection 
of hill ; (vb) support (lit. & fig., often with up) 
with b., by argument, &c [perh. f. OF bouterez, 
-e£,_flying buttress (bouter push cf. abut)] 

butyp-, butyro-, st. & comb, form of tech- 
nical wds as butyrA'CEOXJS, buty'ric, butyro- 
ace'tic ; of butter, esp. in its chem. aspect. 

bu*xom, a. Plump, comely. Hence 
bu'xomNESS n. learlier sense pliant ; ME 
buhsum f. st. of bugan bow 3 + -some] 

buy (bi), v.t. (bought, pr. bawt). Obtain by 
paying a (usu. money) price ; serve to procure 
(money cannot b. ) ; get by some sacrifice (dearly 
bought) ; gain over (person) by bribery &c ; b. 
in, b. a stock of, withdraw at auction by naming 
higher price than highest offered ; b. into, b. 
stock or shares in (the Funds or a company) ; 
b. off, get rid by payment of (claim, claimant, 
blackmailer), get (soldier) discharged so ; b. 
out, pay person to give up post, property, &c ; 
b. over, bribe ; b. up, b. as much as possible of ; 
b. pig in poke, commit oneself inconsiderately. 
Hence buy 'able a., buy'ER i n. [OE byegan 
cf. Goth, bugjan etym. dub.] 

buz(z) i, int. = Stale news ! 

buzz 2 , v.i. & t. Make humming sound ; 
move, hover, about (person or abs.) annoyingly 
like bluebottle ; (of a company or place) sound 
.confusedly; circulate (t. & i. of rumour &c.) ; 



utter by speaking together (b. applause) ; 
throw hard (6. stones), limit.] 
buzz 3 , n. Hum of bee &c ; sound of people 
talking, stir, general movement, [f. prec] 
buzz 4 , n. Downy beetle, fishing-fly like it. 
[perh. as expressive, cf. fuzzy &'obs. buzz wig] 
buzz 5 , v.t. Finish (bottle of wine). [?] 
bu'zzapd, n. Kinds of falcon (B., Bald B. or 
osprey, Honey B., Moor B., &c). [f. OF busart 
f. L buteo falcon + -ard] 

bu'zzep, n. In vbl senses ; esp. steam- 
whistle. [BUZZ 2 , -ER 1 ] 

by 1 , prep. & adv. Prep, (bi, sometimes bi) ; 
Near, at or to side of, in postal district of, 
about person or in possession of, in company 
of, in region of, slightly inclining to, (Bromley- 
by-Bow, Coniston-by- Ambleside; come hereby 
me ; stand by, be faithful to, help ; abide by, 
accept, observe ; have not got it by me ; come 
by, obtain ; by oneself, alone ; North by East, 
between N & XNE : by the head, stern, deeper 
in water there ; by land & sea, adventures by 
flood & field) ; along, in passing along, through, 
via, avoiding, passing, out-stripping, (by nearest 
road ; by the way, as one goes, parenthetically; 
so by the by, esp. as. formula introducing di- 
gression ; travel by Bale, Paris ; pass him by, 
go by him) ; during, in the circumstances of, 
(by day, night, daylight ; by the space of, 
biblical for during) ; through the agency, 
means, instrumentality, or causation, of, 
owing to, in such a manner, with, (by oneself, 
without help or prompting ; know, say, by 
heart ; multiply, divide, by ; 3ft by 2ft ; lead 
by the hand ; set by the ears, egg on to quarrel ; 

go, be known, by the name of ; what do you 

mean by that ? ; travel by rail ; by all, no, 
means ; live by bread ; do it by one's deputy ; 
have children by such a father, mother', 
authorized, hanged, made, by ; no gas to read 
by ; case goes by default ; begin, end, by 
— ing ; by way of a joke ; be by way of know- 
ing everybody, profess or be supposed to ; 
cautious by nature ; by cheque, £6. 5. h, in Cr 
entries; by chance', by dint of; by reason of); 
as soon as, not later than, (by now, next week,' 
tomorrow, the time — with or oftener without 
—that) ; according to, after, from, (by rote ; by 
right ; by rights, if right were done ; take 
warning, example, by ; by your leave ; judge 
by appearances ; sell, buy, by retail, measure, 
the yard, packet) ; with succession of, suc- 
ceeding, (by degrees, by hundreds, man by 
man, little by little) ; to the extent of (missed, 
by a foot, too moral by half, better by far, 
much) ; concerning, in respect of, (do one's 
didy by; French by blood, Jones by name; 
pull up by the roots) ; as surely as I believe in 
(by God ; swear by all one holds sacred ; swear 
by vegetarianism, declare complete belief in 
it). Adv. (bi): Near (stand by, be inactive, 
also be ready for action, esp. Naut.) ; aside, in 
reserve, (put, lay, set, by, abandon or store 
up) ; past (they marched by ; all that is gone 
by). [OE bi, bi, be ; cf. OHG bi, bi, (G bet, be-) ; 
in OE the prep, was sometimes be ; in mod.E 
the adv. is always by, the prep. usu. by some- 
times by, & the pref. either by- or be-] 
by 2 , bye, a. Subordinate, incidental, secon- 
dary, side, sly, out-of-the-way, secret, as by(e) 
road, the by(e) effects, a by(e) consideration ; 
b. election, [by adv. used attrib. ; often 
hyphened with noun ; usul by when this is 
done, & bye as sep. wd] 
by 3 , n. = bye (-e usu. exc in by the by). 
by-, pref. (1) usu. with one of the meanings 
of by a. ; it may be written as separate wd (by 
path or bye path), hyphened (by-path), or, if 



BY AND BY 



113 



CABINET 



the combination is often used, as one wd with 
the other (bypath) ; (2) sometimes with mean- 
ings of by adv. as in bystander, bygone. 

by and by, adv. & n. Before long, pre- 
sently ; (n.) the future, fperh. f. by prep, denot- 
ing succession (one by one &c.)] 

by-blow, n. Side blow at someone else 
than the main opponent ; bastard child, [by a.] 

bye, n. Something subordinate (by the by er 
bye, incidentally, parenthetically) ; (Cricket) 
run scored for ball that passes batsman and 
wicket-keep, leg-b., for one that touches bats- 
man ; (Golf) hole(s) remaining after decision of 
match and played as a new game ; (in games 
where competitors are paired off) odd man, 
being odd man. [by 1 as n.] 

bye'-bye \ n. (Nursery word for) sleep, bed. 
[sound used in lullaby es cf. hushaby, lullaby, 
bye baby bunting] 

bye-bye* 2 ,int. = Good-bye. [colloq. & child- 
ish clipping of good-bye] 

by-end, n. Side or secret purpose, [by a.] 

bygone, a. & n. Past, departed ; anti- 
quated ; (pi. n.) the past, past offences (let bb. be 
bb., forgive & forget), [by adv.] 

by-lane, n. See by-. 

by-law, bye'-law, n. Regulation made 
by local authority or corporation, as town or 
railway company, [prob. f. obs. byrlaio local 
custom (ON byjar genit. pi. of byr OE by to'wn, 
cf. Derby &c), but associated with by a.] 

by-name, n. Secondary name, sobriquet ; 
nickname, [by a.] 

bypast, a. Gone by, elapsed, [by adv.] 

bypath, n. Retired path (lit., & fig. as bb. 
of history), [by a.] 

by-play, n. Action apart from the main 
course of events; esp., dumb-show of minor 
characters on stage, [by a.] 

by-product, n. Thing produced incident- 
ally in manufacturing something else, [by a.] 

byre (-ir), n. Cow-house. [OE byre peril, 
cogn. w. bur bower] 

by-road, n. Little-frequented road, [by a.] 

byssus, n. Fine ancient textile fibre & 
fabric of flax ; tuft of silky filaments by which 
some molluscs adhere to rock. Hence byss- 
a'ceous, by ssal, byssi'FEROus, byssiNE 2 , 
byssoiD, aa. [L, f. Gk bussos] 

bystander, n. Spectator, [by adv.] 

bystreet, n. Out-of-the-way street, [by a.] 

by -'way, n. Secluded road or track (often 
highway and 6.); short cut; less known de- 
partment of any subject, [by a.] 

byword, n. Proverb ; person, place, &c. 
taken as type of some (usu. bad) quality (esp. 
a b. for iniquity &c. ) [by a.] 

by-work, n. Work done by the way, at 
leisure moments, [by a.] 

byza'ntine (y or y), a. & n. (Inhabitant) of 
Byzantium or Constantinople (B. historians, 
of Eastern Empire from 6th to loth c.) ; of the 
style in architecture &c. developed in the 
Eastern Empire (round arch, cross, dome, 
circle, mosaic). Hence ByzantinESQUE a., 
Byza'ntiniSM n., Byza'ntiniZE (4) v.t. [f. 
L Byzantinus f. L f. Gk Buzantion] 



O 



C (se), letter (pi. C's, C's, Cees). C springs, see 
cee. (Mus.) first note of natural major scale. 
(In argument) third hypothetical person or 
thing. (Alg.) third known quantity. 

Abbreviations (1) : C, centum, 100, as CI 101, 
CV 105, CCL 250, CM 900, DC 600, XC 90. C, 
Centigrade, as 15° C. ; Chartered, C. A. (Ac- 
countant) ; Companion, as C.B. (Bath), C.M.G. 



(St Michael & St George), C.I.K. (Indian Em- 
pire) ; confined, C.B. (to barracks) ; County, 
C.C. (Councillor) ; Ceylon, CCS. (Civil Ser- 
vice) ; contagious, CD. (diseases) ; Civil, C.E. 
(Engineer) ; Church, as C.E.T.S. (of England 
Temperance Society), C.M.S. (Missionary 
Society) ; Channel, CI. (Islands) ; Crown, CI. 
(of India) ; Commander, as C.V.O. (Victorian 
Order); Chief, C.J. (Justice); Commanding, 
CO. (Officer); cash, C.O.D. (on delivery); 
Charity, C.O.S. (Organization Society), e., 
chapter, as e. XII, ee. I-V; cent, as $1.75 e.; 
colt ; circiter, as e. 1750 ; cum, e. div. (divi- 
dend) ; carte, e.d.v. (de visite) ; care, e/o (of). 

Abbreviations (2) : Cal.(ifornia) ; Cambs., 
Cambridgeshire ; Can.(ada) ; Cant.(icles) ; 
Cantuar., Abp of Canterbury; cap., chap- 
ter; Capt.(ain); Cels.(ius) ; Cestr., Bp of 
Chester ; cf., confer (L - compare) ; eg., centi- 
gram ; eh.(apter) ; Ch^s.(hire) ; Chron.(icles); 
Cieestr., Bp of ChiBteter ; eire.(iter) ; el., 
centilitre ; cm., cenffflretre ; Co.(unty in Ire- 
land) ; Co.(mpany) ; Col.(onel) ; Col.(ossians); 
Colo.(rado) ; Conn.(ecticut) ; Cor.(inthians) ; 
Corn.(wall) ; Corp.(oral) ; ep., compare ; Cr, 
Creditor ; erim. con., criminal conversation ; 
Cumb.(erland) ; ewt, hundredweight. 

Caaba (kah'aba), n. Sacred building at 
Mecca, Mohammedan Holy of Holies con- 
taining the black stone. [Arab, ka'bah] 

cab 1 , n., & v.i. (Go in a) one-horsed hackney 
carriage with two or four wheels, esp. the 
hansom ; driver's shelter on locomotive ; cab- 
man, driver of c. ; c.-rank, row of cc. on cab- 
stand, where cc. are authorized to wait ; 
c.-runner, -toid, men earning pay by fetching, 
or unloading luggage from, cc. Hence ea*b- 
less a. [short for cabriolet] 

cab 2 , n., & v.i. (slang). (Use secretly in pre- 
paring lessons) a translation, crib, [short for 
archaic cabbage v. .& n. pilfer(ing) perh. f. F 
cabas basket f. L capacem nom. -ax capacious] 

caba'l, n., & v.i. (-11-). (Join in a) secret in- 
trigue; clique, faction; (Hist.) the C, 'Com- 
mittee for Foreign Affairs ' under Charles II, 
esp. Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, 
& Lauderdale (1672), precursor of modern 
Cabinet. Hence caba'llER * n. [f. F cabale(r) 
f. med.L cabala cabbala; not f. initials of 
Clifford &c, being quoted from 1616] 

caba'na (-bah-), n. Brand of cigar, [maker] 

cd'baret (-a), n. French pot-house. [F] 

ea'bbage (-Ij), n. Kinds of cultivated vege- 
table with round heart or head; Sea C, sea 
kale ; c. btdterfiy, Large White or Small 
White ; c.-net, for boiling c. in ; c.-rose, double 
red rose with large compact round flower ; c- 
tree, various trees, esp. certain palms with 
terminal bud eaten like c. [earlier cabbage- 
cole head-vegetable f. ME & F caboche head = 
It. capocchia f. capo f. L capxd] 

ca*b(b)ala, n. Jewish oral tradition ; mystic 
interpretation, esoteric doctrine, occult lore. 
Hence ea'b(b)aliSM(3), ca*b(b)aliST(2), nn., 
eab(b)ali*stic a., eab(b)ali*stiCALLY adv. 
[med. L, f. Heb. qabbalah tradition] 

ca'bby, n. (colloq.). Cab-driver. [-Y 3 ] 

ca'ber, n._ Roughly trimmed pine-trunk 
used in Sc. Highland sport of tossing the c. [L 
Gael, cabar pole] 

ea'bin, n., & v.t. Small rude dwelling ; 
room or compartment in ship for sleeping or 
eating in, officer's or passenger's room ; c.-boy, 
waiting on officers or passengers ; (vb, chiefly 
in p.p.) confine in small space, cramp. [ME & 
F cabane f. LL capanna] 

ca'binet, n. & a. Small private room, closet ; 
case with drawers &c. for keeping valuables or 



CABLE 



114 



CADET 



displaying curiosities. (Pol.) council-room of 
about twelve or twenty chief ministers of 
state ; those ministers collectively ; c. council, 
one of their meetings ; C. Minister, one of 
them ; c. crisis, difficulties involving change 
of government or resignation of some mem- 
ber(s) of c. C. edition, between library & 
popular in cost &c. ; c. photograph, size larger 
than carte-de-visite ; c.-maker, -king, skilled 
joiner, joinery, (also facet, of prime minister 
forming new government), [cabin + -et 1 , in- 
fluenced also by F cabinet] 

ea'ble 1 , n. Strong thick rope (Naut., 10 in. 
or more in circumf., cf. cablet, hawser) of 
hemp or wire strands; (Naut.) rope or chain 
of anchor, (as measure) 100 fathoms; (Teleg.) 
submarine or underground line containing 
insulated wires, also = cablegram ; (Arch. & 
goldsmith's work) rope-shaped ornament; c- 
laid rope, of three tripl^trands. [cf. Du. kabel 
f. Rom. cf. F cable, It&kppio, f. LL capulum 
halter cf. L capulus hilt (capere take); but the 
F may be f. L *catabola kind of ballista] 

ea'ble 2 , v.t. & i. Furnish, fasten, with c. ; 
(Arch.) fill lower part of flutings of (column) 
with convex mouldings ; transmit (message), 
communicate, inform (person), by c. [f. prec] 

ea'blegrpamjn. Message by submarine cable. 
[cable 1 + -gram (hybrid on telegram >] 

ea'blet, n. Cable-laid rope under 10 in. in 
circumference, [-et 1 ] 

cabo'bs, n. pi. Meat cooked in small pieces 
with ginger, garlic, &c. [Arab, kabab] 

caboo'dle, n. (slang). The whole c, all the 
lot (persons or things). [U.S. wd etym. dub.] 

caboo'se, n. Cooking-room on ship's deck. 
[cf.Du. kabuis perh. = *kaban-huys cabin-house) 

ca'botag-e (-Ij), n. Coasting-trade. [F, f. 
caboter to coast, etym. dub.] 

cabriolet* (-a), n. Light two- wheeled hooded 
one-horse chaise. [F, f. cabriole goat's leap f. It. 
capribla (caprio f. L cuprum nom. -per goat)] 

caca'o, n. & a. Seed of tropical Amer. tree, 
giving cocoa & chocolate ; the tree (also c.-tree). 
[Sp., f. Mex. caca(-uatl -tree)] 

ca'chalot (-shalot, -shalo), n. Kinds of 
whale with teeth in lower jaw, esp. Common 
C, Sperm whale. [F, = toothed f. Gascon 
cachau large tooth] 

cache (kash), n., & v.t. Hiding-place for trea- 
sure, provisions, ammunition, &c, esp. as used 
by explorers ; the hiding (make a c.) or stores 
hidden ; (vb) place in c. [F, f. cacher to hide f. 
L CO(actare collect frequent, of agere bring)] 

cache'ctie (-k-), a. Of, suffering from, 
cachexy, [f. Gk kakhektikos of cachexy] 

ca'chei (-sha), n. Stamp (fig.), distinguishing 
mark, internal evidence of authenticity, [obs. 
sense seal, cf. F lettre de c. letter under king's 
private seal (cacher see cache)] 

cachexy (-k-), n. Ill-conditioned state of 
body or mind. [f. Gk kakhexia (caco- + hexis 
habit f. ekho hold, be)] 

ca'chinnate (-k-), v.i. Laugh loudly. So 
cachinxATioN n., ca'ehinnatORY a. [f. L 
cachinnare, -ate 3 ] 

ca-cholong- (-tsh-), n. Kind of opal. [f. 
Kalmuck kaschtschilon beautiful stone] 

ca'ehou (-shoo), n. = catechu ; pill used by 
smokers to sweeten_breath. [F, = cashew] 

cachwcha (-tshootsha), n. A dance. [Sp.] 

caci'que (-sek), n. W. -Indian & Amer.-In- 
dian native chief. [Sp., f. Haytian] 

ca'ckle, v.i. & t., & n. (Make) clucking of 
hen after laying ; (indulge in) glib noisy incon- 
sequent talk ; boast ; chuckle ; c. out &c, say 
cacklingly. Hence ea'eklER 1 n. [ME cake- 
len ; imit., cf. Du. kakelen, G gackeln\ 



caco-, pref. = Gk kako- (kakos bad), found 
in some wds taken direct or through L (& F) f. 
Gk ; & prefixed in med. terms (= disease of, as 
cacophthalmia eye-disease, or mal-, as caco- 
morphia malformation) usu. to Gk compo- 
nents, rarely to L as cacodorous ill-smelling. 

eacode'mon, -ae'mon, n. Evil spirit; 
malignant person, [f. Gk kakodaimon (prec. =+- 
dainwn spirit)] 

ea'eodyl, n. Stinking poisonous compound 
of arsenic & methyl. Hence eacody'lic a. 
[Gk kakodes stinking (caco- + od- root of ozo 
to smell) + -yl] 

caco'epy, n. Bad pronunciation (cf. or- 
thoepy), [f. Gk CACO(epei'a f. epos word, 
see -y 1 )] 

cacoe'thes (-ez), n. Ill habit, itch for doing 
something unadvisable, usu. in scribendi c, 
scribbling-mania. [f. Gk kakoethes neut. adj. 
(caco- + ethos disposition] 

eaeo'gpaphy, n. Bad handwriting or spell- 
ing. Hence caco'GRAPHER n., caeoGRA'PHi- 
c(al) aa. [caco-, -graphy] 

eaeo'logy, n. Bad choice of words or pronun- 
ciation, [f. 6k kakologia vituperation (caco-, 
-logos -speaking f. lego speak)] 

cacoo'n, n. Large flat polished bean of 
tropical shrub with 6-8 ft pods. [African ?] 

eaco'phonous, a. Ill-sounding. [Gk caco- 
(phonos -sounding f. phone sound) -f -ous] 

caco'phony, n. Ill sound (cf. euphony) ; 
discord (lit. & fig.), [f. F cacophonie f. Gk 
kakophonia as prec. & see -Y J ] 

ca'ctus, n. Kinds of succulent plant with 
thick fleshy stem, usu. no leaves, & clusters of 
spines. Hence cactA'CEOUS, ea'ctAL, ca'ct- 
oid, aa. [L, f. Gk kaktos cardoon] 

cad, n. Omnibus conductor ; hanger-on em- 
ployed about (esp. school & college) games ; 
member of lower classes ; person of low 
manners ; person guilty or capable of un- 
gentlemanly conduct, blackguard, whence 
ca'ddiSH 1 a. [quoted f. 1831; prob. short for 
cadet (cf. caddie) & started at Eton & Oxford 
as name for townsmen] 

cada'stpal, a. Of, showing, the extent, 
value, & ownership, of land for taxation (esp. 
c. survey). (F, f. cadastre f. L capitastriim 
register of capita (caput head) units made for 
Roman capitatio terrena land-tax] 

cadave'pie, a. (med. & physiol.). Character- 
istic of a corpse. [L cadaver corpse (perh. f. 
cadere fall) + -ic] 

eada'verous, a. Corpse-like ; deadly pale, 
[f. F cadavereux f. L cadaverosus (prec, -OSE 1 )] 

ca'ddie, n. Golf-player's attendant. [Sc. 
(also cadie), f. F cadet 2 ] 

ca'ddis, -ice, n. Larva of May-fly &c, liv- 
ing in water & making cylindrical case of 
hollow stems &c, used as bait; also c.-bait, 
-worm, [also cad, cod, etym. dub.] 

ca'ddy, n. Small box for holding tea. [f. 
Malay kati weight = 14 lb.] 

ca'dence, n. Rhythm ; measured move- 
ment, esp. of sound ; fall of voice, esp. at end 
of period ; intonation ; 'close of musical phrase. 
Hence (-)ca'dencED 2 a. [F, f. It. cadenza 
(L cadere fall, -ence)] 

ea'deney, n. Descent of younger branch, 
cadetship. [as prec, -ency] 

cade'nza (-tsa), n. (mus.). Flourish of voice 
or instrument at close of movement. [It.] 

cade't 1 , n. Younger son ; student in naval 
or military college, whence cade'tSHiP n. ; 
member of Russian Constitutional-Democratic 
party, [f. foil. f. loth-c capdet f. Rom. * capit- 
etto dim. of L caput head = little chief] 

cadet- (F), n. (Appended to surname of 



CADGE 



115 



CALCEOLARIA 



younger brother for distinction, cf. a!ne) the 
younger (as Coquelin c). 

cadge, v.i. & t. Go about peddling or beg- 
ging ; get by begging, [pern. var. of catch] 

ea'dger, n. Carrier ; itinerant dealer in 
eggs, butter, &c., between remote farms and 
towns; street hawker ; beggar, loafer, [-er 1 ] 

ca'cfi (kah-, ka-), n. Civil judge, usu. of town 
&c., among Turks, Arabs, Persians. [Arab.] 

Cadmean. See victory. 

ca'dmium, n. Bluish-white metal resemb- 
ling tin ; c.-yellow, intense yellow pigment. 
Hence eadmi'FEROUS, ca'dmic, aa. [f. obs. 
cadmia calamine f. L f. Gk kadmia (ge) Cad- 
mean (earth), -ium] 

cadre (kah'dr), n. Framework, scheme ; 
(Mil.) permanent establishment of regiment 
forming nucleus for expansion at need. [F, f. 
It. quadro f. L quadrum square] 

cadu'ceus, n. (pi. -el). Ancient herald's 
\vand,esp. as carried by messenger-god Hermes. 
[L, f. Gk karukion (kerux herald)] 

eadireity, n., cadu'cous, a. Fleeting 

(nature) ; perishable(ness) ; (Zool. & Bot., of 

organs and parts) falling off (n. & a.) when 

work is done. [n. thr. F caducite (-TY), a. f. L 

.caducus falling (cadere fall) + -ous] 

eae'eum (se-), n. (pi. -a). The blind gut, first 
part of large intestine in mammals &c. ; any 
tube with closed end. Hence eae'CAL, eae'ei- 
form, aa., cae'calLY 2 adv., eaeerxis n. [L, 
for intestinum caecum f. caecus blind] 

Caesar, n. Roman Emperor from Augustus 
to Hadrian ; heir presumptive of later Roman 
Emperor; (loosely) any Roman Emperor; an 
autocrat ; the civil power (Matt. xxii. 21). [L, 
family name of C. Julius] 

Caesa'rean, -ian, a. & n. Of Caesar or the 
Caesars, imperial; C. birth, operation, delivery 
of child by cutting walls of abdomen (as with 
Julius); (n.) adherent of Caesar or an auto- 
cratic system, [f. L Caesarianus see -ean] 

Cae'sarism, -ist, nn. (Believer in) auto- 
cracy. [-IS.M(3), -IST(2)] 

cae'sious (se-), a. (bot.). Bluish or greyish 
green, [f. L caesius + -ous] 

eae'sium (se-), n. (chem.). An alkali-metal, 
[as prec^f. its spectrum lines] 

caesura (-z-), n. (Clas. prosody) break 
between words within a metrical foot ; (Eng. 
prosody) pause about middle of line. Hence 
caesupAL a. [L (caedere caes- cut, -ure)] 

ea'fe^ 1 (-a), n. Coffee-house, restaurant (esp. 
foreign ; c. chantant, with music and entertain- 
ments, often in open air). [F,=coffee(-house)] 

cafe 2 (kafa # ), n. Coffee; c. au lait (6 la), 
with milk ; c. noir (nwahr), without milk. [F] 

eaffe'ie, a. (chem.). Of coffee (esp. c. acid). 
[f. F cafeique, see prec, -ic] 

ca'ffeine, n. Vegetable alkaloid found in 
coffee & tea plants, [f.Fcafeine(CAFi:' l > 2 ,-ine 5 )] 

Caffpe. See kafir. 

ca'ftan (also kaftah'n), n. Eastern long 
under-tunic with waist girdle. Hence ea*f- 
tanED 2 a. [f. Turk, qaftan] 

cage, n., & v.t. Fixed or portable prison, of 
wire or barred, for birds or beasts ; prison (lit. 
or fig.) ; (Mining) frame for hoisting & lowering 
cars ; open framework of various kinds ; (vb) 
place or keep in c. [F, f. L cavea (cavus 
hollow) cf. rage f. rabies] 

caiman. See cayman. 

Cain, n. Fratricide, murderer. [Gen. iv] 

cainozo'ic (ki-), a. (geol.). Of the third geo- 
logical period (^tertiary, cf. palaeozoic, nxeso- 
zoic). [f. Gk kainos new + zoon animal + -ic] 

caique (ka-e *k), n. Light Bosporan row-boat ; 
Levantine sailing-ship. [F, f. Turk, kaik] 



cairn, n. Pyramid of rough stones as memo- 
rial, sepulchre, landmark, &c. [f. Gael, earn] 

eairng-op'm, n. (Also c. stone) yellow or 
wine-coloured precious stone, [found on C, 
Scotch mountain (Gael, cam gorvi blue cairn)] 

cai'sson, n- Ammunition chest or wagon ; 
large water-tight case used in laying founda- 
tions under water ; boat-shaped vessel used as 
dock gate. [F (cais.se f. L capsa case 2 , -oon)] 

eai'tiff, n. & a. (poet. & archaic). Base, des- 
picable, (person) ; coward(ly). [f. ONF caitif 
f. L captivus captive] 

eajo'le, v.t. Persuade or soothe by flattery, 
deceit, &c. (also c. person into doi?ig, out of, 
something; or c. something out of person). 
Hence cajo'leMENT, eajo'lER i, eajo , lERY(l), 
nn., eajo'ling-LY 2 adv. [f. F cajoler etym. 
dub. ; Cotgrave has also cageoler 'jangle like 
a jay ', whence it has been referred to cage] 

cake, n., & v.i. & t. Small flattish loaf of 
bread (archaic, as in King Alfred & the cc.) ; 
thin oaten bread (Sc. & north. ; also oatc. ; land 
of cc, Scotland) ; (usu. Eng. sense) bread with 
other ingredients besides flour, as currants, 
spice, eggs, sugar— the substance (c.) or (a c.) a 
portion of it baked in a thick disk or ornamental 
shape— ; flattish compact mass of other food 
(fish-c. , pan i -c. ) or of any compressed substance 
(c. of soap, xcax, tobacco ; cc. and ale, merry- 
making; take the c, carry off the honours; 
cannot eat your c. and have it, do the impossi- 
ble ; hence ca'kv 2 a. (Vb) form into compact 
flattish mass. [prob. f. ON kaka cf. G kuche 
etym. dub. (not cogn. with L coquere cook)] 

ca'labash, n. Kinds of gourd whose shell 
serves for holding liquid ; fruit of American 
C.-tree, so used ; pipe &c. made from these or 
of like shape, [f. F calebasse f. Sp. calabaga, 
Sicil. caravazza, perh. f. Pers. kh arbuz melon] 

ca'laber, -ar, n. Fur of grey squirrel, 
[prob. f. F Calabre Calabria] 

calama'nco, n. Glossy Flemish woollen 
stuff much used in 18th c. [etym. dub. ; cf. Du. 
kalamink, F calmande] 

calama'nder, n. Hard cabinet wood of Cey- 
lon & India, [etym. dub. ; perh. f. Coromandel] 

ca'lamary, n. Kinds of cuttlefish with 
pen-shaped internal shell, [f. L calamarius 
(calamus pen, -ary 1 )] 

calamine, n. A zinc ore found in England. 
[F, f. med. L calamina (L cadmia cadmium)] 

ca'lamint, n. Kinds of aromatic herb. [ult. 
f. Gk kalaminthe] 

ca'lamite, n. Fossil plant allied to Mare's 
Tail. [f. L. calamus reed + -ite(2)J 

eala'mitous, a. Marked by, causing, cala- 
mity. Hence eala'mitousLY 2 adv. [f. F 
calamiteux f. L calamitosus see foil., & -itous] 

eala'mity, n. Adversity, deep distress-, 
grievous disaster, [f. F catamite f. L cala- 
mitatem (-tv) cf. incolumis safe] 

ca/a'ndo, mus. direction. Diminish tone & 
pace gradually. [It.] 

cala'sh, n. Light low hooded carriage ; 
(Canada) two- wheeled one-seated vehicle with 
driver's seat on splash-board ; woman's hooped 
silk hood. [f. F caleche f. Slav. (Boh. kolesa 
&c.)] 

calc- comb, form = lime-; c.-sinter, crystal- 
line deposit from lime-springs ; c.-spar, crys- 
tallized carbonate of lime ; c.-tujf, porous 
calcareous deposit, [f. G kalk f. L calx -cis 
corrected to L spelling] 

calcar'eous, -ious, a. Of, containing, 
carbonate of lime or limestone. Hence eal- 
car'eo-, comb. form. [f. L calcarius (calc-, 
-ary ') + -ous ; first spelling wrong but usu.] 

calceolaria, n. Kinds of plant with flower 



CALCEOLATE 



116 



CALL 



like ancient slipper, [f. L calceolus dim. of 
calceus shoe + fern, of -arius -ary j ] 

ca'lceolate, a. (bot.). Slipper-shaped, [as 
prec., -ate 2 ] 

ca'lcic, a. Of calcium, [-ic] 

ealerferous, a. Yielding carbonate of lime. 

[CALC-, -I-, -FEROUS] 

ca'lcify, v.t. & i. Convert, be converted, 
into lime ; replace by lime ; harden by deposit 
of salts of lime ; petrify. Hence ealei'Fic a., 
calciFiCA'TioN n. [calo, -i-, -fv] 

ea'leine, v.t. & i. Reduce to quick-lime or 
friable substance by roasting or burning ; desic- 
cate ; refine by consuming grosser part ; burn 
to ashes ; (intr.) suffer these processes. Hence 
ealeinATiON, ca'leinER 1 (2), nn. [f. med. L 
calcinare reduce to calx] 

ca'leite, n. Native carbonate of lime. [f. L 
calx -cis lime + -ite l ] 

ea'leium, n. Chem. element, yellow metal, 
the basis' of lime (in many compd terms, as c. 
chloride). Hence calcio- comb. form, [as 
prec. + -ium] 

calculable, a. That may be reckoned, 
measured, computed, or relied upon. Hence 
ca'lculaBi'LiTY n. [f . L calculare (foil.), -able] 

calculate, v.t. & i. Compute (w. noun or 
clause, or abs. ) by figures ; ascertain beforehand 
(event, date, &c.) by exact reckoning ; plan de- 
liberately (t. & i., esp. in intr. part. & p.p. = 
cold-blooded, selfish); (usu. pass.) arrange, 
adapt, (conduct, apparatus, &c.) for (purpose), 
to (do) ; (in p.p.) fit, suitable, to do ; rely upon ; 
(U.S.) suppose, believe. Hence ca'lculATiVE a. 
[f. L calculare (calculus), -ate 3 ] 

calcula'tion, n. (Result got by) reckoning ; 
forecast. [F, f. L calculationem (prec, -ation)] 

ea'leulatop, n. In vbl senses ; also : set of 
tables for use in calculation ; calculating- 
machine. [L (calculate, -or 2 )] 

calculous, a. Of. suffering from, stone or 
calculus, [f. L calculosus (foil., -ose 1 )] 

ca'lculus, n. (pi. -I). (Med.) stone, concretion 
in some part of body (renal &c. c. f. the particu- 
lar part ; uric acid &c. c. f. its composition) ; 
(Math.) particular method of calculation, as 
differential, integral, c. [L, = small stone (calx 
-cis stone, -ule) used in reckoning on abacus] 

caldar'ium, n. (archaeol.). Roman hot bath 
room. [f. L calidus hot, see -ary 1 ] 

caldpon. See cauldron. 

Caledo'nian, a. & n. (Xative) of ancient 
Scotland (also used in mod. titles of clubs &c, 
& facetious! y= Scotch or Scot), [f. L Caledonia 
northern Britain, -ax] 

calefa'cient, a. & n. (Medical agent) pro- 
ducing warmth. So ealefa'CTiox n., ca*le- 
factiVE a. [f. L calefacere (calere be warm, 
facere make), -Ext, -ant] 

ealefa'etopy, a. & n. Producing warmth ; 
(Archaeol.) warm room in monastery, [f. L 
calefactorius see prec, -tory] 

catembour (F), n. Pun. 

calendar *, n. System by which beginning, 
length, & subdivision, of civil year is fixed, 
esp. the Gregorian c, used in Engl, from 1752 ; 
table(s) with months, weeks, & festivals &c, of 
a given year, or with dates important for cer- 
tain classes, as Gardener's c. ; register, list, esp. 
of canonized saints, prisoners for trial, or docu- 
ments chronologically arranged with sum- 
maries ; c.-month. [f. OF calendier f. L calen- 
darium account-book (calends, -ary j )] 

ea'lendap 2 , v.t. Register, enter in list; 
arrange, analyse, & index (documents), whence 
ca*lendaPER x n. [f. prec] 

ea'lendep 1 , v.t.. & n. Press (cloth, paper, 
&c.) in a c. or roller-machine to smooth it. 



Hence ca'lendn v n. [f. F calandre(r) f. med. 
L calendra t. L f. Gk kidindros roller] 

cd'/ender 2 , n. Mendicant dervish in Turkey 
or Persia, [f. Pers. qalander] 

calends, k-, n. pi. First of month in 
Roman calendar ; onthe Greek C, never, [f. L 
kalendae (cal- cf. calare, Gk kaleo, proclaim)] 

ca'lentupe, n. Tropical fever or delirium in 
which sailors &c leap into sea. [F, f. Sp. calen- 
tura fever f. part. st. of L calere be hot, -ure] 

calf 1 (kahf), n. (pi. -ves). Young of bovine 
animal, esp. domestic cow, for first year (coiu 
in, xoith, c, pregnant ; slip her c, suffer abor- 
tion) ; golden c, wealth as object of worship 
(Ex. xxxii) ; stupid fellow ; moon-c. ; child (so 
c.-love, childish love affair) ; (also calfskin) = c- 
leather, esp. in bookbinding (c.-bound) & shoe- 
making ; young of elephant, whale, deer, &c ; 
sea-c, seal; (Naut.) floating piece of ice; c- 
knee, knock-knee; calfs teeth, milk teeth; 
calves-foot jelly. Hence eal'fHOOD n., eal'f- 
ishMI) a. [com.-Teut., cf. G kalb] 

calf 2 (kahf), n. (pi. -ves). Fleshy hinder part 
of leg-shank ; c. part of stocking. Hence eal'f- 
less, -ealvED-, aa. [f. OX kdlfi etym. dub.] 

Ca'liban, n. Man of degraded bestial nature. 
[Shaksp., Tempest, & see cannibal] 

ea'libpate, v.t. Find calibre of; calculate 
irregularities of (tube, gauge) before graduat- 
ing. Hence ealibPA'TiON n. [foil. + -ate 3 ] 

ea'libpe (-er), ea'libep, n. Internal diameter 
of gun or any tube ; weight of character, stand- 
ing, importance. Hence -ea'libPED 2 a. [F 
(-br-e), f. It. calibro perh. f. Arab, qalib mould] 

ea'liele, n. (biol.). Small cup-like body. So 
cali*culAR 1 a. [f. L caliculus dim. of calix cup] 

ea'lico, n. & a. (Of) cotton cloth, esp. plain 
white unprinted, bleached or unbleached (c- 
ball, dance at which only cotton dresses are 
worn) ; c.-printer, -ting, producer, production, 
of coloured patterns on c [orig. Calicut-cloth 
f. town on Malabar coast] 

ca'lipash, ca'lipee, nn. Gelatinous sub- 
stances in turtle regarded as dainties (-ash, 
dull green next upper shell ; -ee, light yellow 
next lower shell). [perh.W.-Ind.; perh. -ash = 
carapace, & -ee formed for distinction f. it] 

ca'liph, -if, n. Successor of Mohammed, 
Mohammedan chief civil & religious ruler. 
Hence ea'liphATE 1 n. [f. F caliphe f. med. L 
calipha f. Arab, khalifah successor] 

ca'lix, n. (physiol. ; pi. -ices). Cup-like cavity 
or organ. [L, = cup, often confused w. L calyx] 

calk 1 (kawk), v.t., & n. (Provide with) 
sharp iron to prevent horse-shoe or boot from 
slipping, [f. L calx calcis heel, cf. calkin] 

calk^(cawk), v.t. Trace by colouring back 
of design & pressing along outlines, [f. F cal- 
quer f . It. & L calcare tread] 

cal'kin (kaw-, also kal-), n. Turned-down 
heels of horse-shoe, also turned edge in front, 
esp. when sharpened in frost ; iron guards on 
boots or shoes, [perh. f. OF calcain heel f. L 
calcaneum (calx calcis heel)] 

call 1 (kawl), v.t. & i. 1. Cry, shout, speak 
loudly, (lit. & fig. &c, as) : (bird, trumpet, &c) 
utter characteristic note ; cry out ; cry to (per- 
son) ; signal (for trumps) ; pay brief visit (at 
house, on person) ; read over (names to ascer- 
tain presence) ; c. for, order, demand, need, go 
& fetch ; c. on, invoke, appeal to. 2. Summon 
(lit. & fig. &c, as) : demand presence of (cab, 
witness, actor after curtain ; c. into being, 
create ; c. to account 2 ; c. into play, give scope 
for ; c. in question, dispute ; c. to mind Sec, 
also c. up, recollect ; c. away, off, divert, dis- 
tract ; c. in money lent, doctor &c. for advice ; 
c. forth, elicit : c. out, elicit, challenge to duel ; 



CALL 



117 



CAM 



c. over the coals ; c. up, imagine) ; rouse from 
sleep ; fix the moment for (c. case in law court ; 
c. a halt ; c. a meeting) ; urge, invite, nominate, 
(duty, pleasure, calls; many are called ; c. to 
the bar 1 , ministry ; c. attention to ; c. to wit- 
ness). 3. (with n. or adj. as compl.) name, de- 
scribe as, (c. a spade a spade ; c. him John, 
c. him by the name of John ; c. person names, 
abuse him ; c. cousins with) ; consider, regard 
as, (c. that mean) ; c. (thing) one's own, possess. 
[f. ON kalla, com.-Teut. cf. Du. kallen] 

call 2 , n. Shout, cry;' (also c. -over) = roll-c. ; 
special cry of bird &c, imitation of this, instru- 
ment imitating it; signal on bugle &c, sig- 
nalling-whistle ; looking-in on business (so 
house of c.) ; short formal visit {pay c, make 
one) ; invitation, summons, (to actor for ap- 
plause ; to the bar x ; from God, conscience, or 
congregation, to be pastor) ; duty, need, occa- 
sion, (no c. to blush) ; demand for money, esp. 
for unpaid capital from company shareholders ; 
(St. Exch.) option of claiming stock at given 
date ; c.-loan, -money, lent subject to recall 
without notice ; at, xoithin, c, ready for orders ; 
c.-boy, prompter's attendant summoning actors; 
c.-day, -night, at Inns of Court, for calling stu- 
dents to bar. [f. prec] 

cal'leP 1 , n. In vbl senses ; esp., person who 
pays call or visit, [-er x ] 

ea'llep 2 , a. (Sc). Fresh, not decaying, (of 
herring &c.) ; cool (of air). [?] 

calligraphy (ka-), n. Beautiful hand- 
writing; handwriting. So ea*lliGRAPH(l, 2, 3) 
n. & v.t., ealli'GRAPHER, ealli'g-paphiSTU), 
nn., ealliGRA'PHic a. [ult. f. Gk kalligraphia 
(kallos beauty, -graph)] 

cal'lingv n. In vbl senses ; also or esp. : 
divine summons to salvation or self-devotion ; 
impulse to do something as right ; occupation, 
profession, trade ; persons following a particu- 
lar business, [-ing 2 ] 

ca*l(l)ipep, n. & a., & v.t. C. compasses or 
cc, compasses with bowed legs for measuring 
diameter of convex bodies, or with out-turned 
points for measuring calibre ; c.-sguare, rule 
with movable cross-heads for taking internal 
or external diameters ; (vb) measure with cc. 
[prob. =calibre] 

eallisthe'nie, a. Suitable for producing 
strength with beauty (esp. of girls' gymnastics). 
Hence eallisthe'nics n. [f. Gk kallos beauty 
+ sthenos strength + -ic] 

ealld'sity, n. Abnormal hardness & thick- 
ness of skin ; hardened insensible part, lump, 
(from friction, or natural as on horses' legs). 
[f. F callosity f. L callositatem (see foil, -tv)] 

ca'llous, a. (Physiol., Zool.) hardened, hard, 
(of parts of skin) ; (of person, heart, &c. ) unfeel- 
ing, insensible, whence ea'llousxESS n. [f. L 
callosus (callum or callus, -ose 1 )] 

ea'llaw, a. Unfledged ; downy like young 
birds; raw, inexperienced ; (Irish, a. & n.) low- 
lying, often flooded, (meadow). [OE calu f. 
WG kalwo- (cf. G kahl) perh. f. L calvus bald] 

ca'llus, n. (physiol., path., hot.). Thickened 
part of skin or soft tissue ; bony material 
formed while bone-fracture heals. [L] 

calm 1 (kahm), n. Stillness, serenity, (of 
weather, air, sea, the mind, social or political 
conditions) ; a c, windless period, [f. F calme 
f. It., Sp., or Port., calma perh. (with infl. of 
L calor heat) f. Gk kauma heat (kaio burn)] 

ealm 2 , a., & v.t. & i. Tranquil, quiet, wind- 
less, (lit. & fig.) ; hence eal'mLY 2 adv., eal'm- 
ness n. (Vb) make c, pacify ; (intr. ; alw. w. 
down) become c. [f. F calme n. & a., see prec] 

ea'lmative ialso kahm-), a. & n. (med.). 
Calming (agent), sedative, [prec. + -ative] 



ca'lomel, n. (med.). Mercurous chloride 
used as purgative. [F, f. Gk kalos fair, melas 
black (explained anecdoticallyin various ways)] 

ealope'scenee, n. (physics). Change of 
heat-rays to light-rays. [for calescence (L 
calescere grow hot) by confusion w. foil.] 

calopi-, comb, form of L calor heat in Phy- 
sics & Physiol. Hence ealo'piFACiENT, ealo- 
pi'Fic, ealo*piME-TRic(AL), aa., calopi'fic- 

ALLY adv., CalO*PiFICA"TION, CalOPi'METER, 

-metry, nn., ealo'piFY v.t. 

calo'pic, n. Heat; c.-engine, driven by hot 
air. [f. F calorique (L calor heat, -ic)] 

ea'lopie, n. (physics). Unit of heat. [F, f. L 
calor heat + -ie (-Y i) irregularly used] 

cald'Pimotop, n. Voltaic battery with 
large plates generatingheat. [calori- +motor] 

calo'tte, n. Skull-cap of priests &c. [F, 
dim. of cale caul] 

C£tlp, n. Irish dark-grey limestone. [?] 

ea'ltpop, n. Four-spiked iron ball thrown 
on ground to maim cavalry horses : kinds of 
plant, as Star-thistle, [found earliest as plant 
name ; but prob. transf. f. the iron ; f. L calx 
-cis heel + LL trappa f. OHG trapo trap] 

ea'lumet, n. Amer.-Ind. clay-oowled reed- 
stemmed tobacco - pipe ; symbol of peace ; 
smoke the c. together, make peace. [F, esp. 
Fr.-Canadian form of chalumet tube f. L cala- 
melius dim. of calamus reed] 

ealu'mniate, v.t. Slander. Hence or cogn. 
ealumniATioN, ealirmniatOR 2 , nn., ca- 
lirmniaroRY a. [f. L calumniari, see -ate 3 ] 

calu-mnious, a. Given to, marked by, 
calumny. Hence ealirmniousLY 2 adv. [if. 
L ealunmiosus (see foil., -ous)] 

calumny, n. Malicious misrepresentation ; 
false charge ; slanderous report, [f. L calumnia 
(& F calomnie) f. calvi deceive] 

Ca'lvapy, n. Place, (R.-C. Ch.) representa- 
tion, of Crucifixion, [f. L calvaria skull (cal- 
vus bald) transl. of Golgotha, Matt, xxvii. 33] 

calve (kahv), v.i. & t. Give birth to a calf ; 
(esp. in pass, of calf) give birth to ; (of iceberg 
&c.) throw off mass of ice. [OE cealfian (calf x )J 

-calved. See calf 2 . 

Ca'lvinism, n. Calvin's theology (esp. the 
doctrines of Particular election & redemption, 
Moral inability in a fallen state, Irresistible 
grace, Final perseverance) ; adherence to this. 
So Ca*lviniST(2) n. & a., Calvini'stic(AL) 
aa., Calvini'sticalLY 2 adv., ea'lvinizE (4) 
v.i. & t. [John Calvin, 1509-1564] 

calx, n. (pi. calces). Powder or friable sub- 
stance left when a metal or mineral has been 
burnt, residuum. [L, genit. calcis, lime] 

ealye-, ealyei-, st. of calyx. Calyei- 
flop'AL, -flop* ate 2 , -flop'ous, aa., with 
stamens & petals inserted in calyx ; ea'lyei- 
form a. ; caly'einAL, ca'lyeiNE 2 , aa., having 
a, on the, calyx; caly'cinAR 1 a., = -al, also 
(of flower) double by increase of calyx-lobes ; 
ea'lycoiD, ealyeoi'dEous, aa. 

ea'lyele, n. (hot.). Row of bracts surrounding 
calyx-base ; adherent crown of seed. Hence 
or cogn. ea'lyelED 2 , ealyeulAR 1 , ealyeu- 
Iate 2 , aa. [f. L caly cuius dim. of calyx (-ule)] 

ealyptP-, st. of bot. terms = having, like, 
a hood. [f. Gk kaluptra veil (kalupto to cover)] 

ea'lyx, n. (Bot.) whorl of leaves (sepal) 
forming outer case of bud (for derivatives see 
calyc-); (Physiol. & Biol.) = calix. [L, f. Gk 
kalux (cf. kalupto to cover) case of bud, husk] 

earn, n. Projecting part of wheel &c. in 
machinery, grooved, toothed, or otherwise 
adapted to convert circular into reciprocal or 
variable motion, [var. of comb, cf. Du., Da., 
Sw., kam, G kamm] 



CAMARADERIE 



118 



CAN 



camara'derie' (-ahdere), n. The intimacy, 
mutual trust, & sociability, of comrades. [F] 

camari'lla, n. Cabal, clique, junto. [Sp.] 

ea'mber, n., & v.i. & t. Slight convexity 
above, arched form, (of beam, deck, &c.) ; (also 
c.-bcam) slightly arched beam ; (vb) have, im- 
part to (beam &c), such convexity, [f. F cam- 
bre(r) f. L camerare to vault (camera)] 

Cambepwell Beauty, n. A butterfly. 

ea'mbist, n. Expert in, manual of, ex- 
changes; dealer in bills of exchange. If. F 
cambiste f. L cambium exchange, -ist] 

ea'mbium, n. Cellular tissue, below bark 
of exogens, in which annual growth of wood 
& bark occurs. [L, = exchange] 

ea'mbrel, n. Butcher's bent wood or iron 
for slinging carcases by ankles, [perh. f. W 
cambren (cam crooked + pren wood)] 

Ca'mbrian, a. & n. Welsh(man) ; (Geol.) 
(of) palaeozoic rocks lying below the Silurian in 
Wales & Cumberland, [f. L Cambria var. of 
Cumbria f. Celt. Cymry Welshman or Cymru 
Wales (OCelt. Combrogcs compatriots)] 

ea'mbpie, a, & n. (Of) fine white linen ; hand- 
kerchiefs. [Cambray orig. place of making] 

came 1 , n. Grooved slip of lead as used in 
lattice windows, [cf. Sc. calm casting-mould] 

came 2 . See come. 

ca'mel, n. Large hornless ruminant long- 
necked cushion -footed quadruped with 
(Arabian) one hump or (Bactrian) two humps ; 
thing hard to believe or put up with (Matt. 
xxiii. 24) ; machine for floating ship over shoals 
&c. ; c.-brown, fishing-fly; c.'s-hair, made of 
c.'s hair or (paint-brushes) of squirrel's tail 
hairs. [OE, f. L f. Gk kamelos f. Semit, (cf. 
Heb. gamal camel, Arab, jamala carry)] 

cameleer*, n. Camel-driver, [-eer] 

came'llia, n. Flowering evergreen from 
China & Japan. [Kamel, Jesuit & botanist, -ia 1 ] 

eame'lopapd (or ka - -), n. =the now usu. 
giraffe, [f. L camelopardus f. Gk camelopar- 

dallS (CAMEL, PARD)] 

ea'melpy, n. Troops on camels, [-ry] 
Ca'membept (-ar, or as F), n. Small soft 
rich Norman cheese, [name of village] 
ca'meo, n. Piece of relief -carving in stone 
(sardonyx, agate, &c.) with colour-layers uti- 
lized to give background (cf. intaglio), ff. It. 
cameo cf. med. L cainmaeus etym. dub.] 
ca'raera, n. In camera (Lat.), in the judge's 
private room, not in open court ; (for c. obscura) 
photographing-apparatus; c. obscura, lucida 
(L, = dark, light, chamber), two kinds of appa- 
ratus projecting on paper, for tracing, image 
of distant object. [L, = vault, cf. Gk kamara 
anything with arched cover] 
Camero'nian, a. & n. (Follower) of Richard 
Cameron or his doctrines ; Scottish reformed 
Presbyterian ; (pi.) first battalion Scottish 
Rifles (formed orig. of Cc). [-ian] 
ea*misole,n. Woman's loose neglige - jacket. 
[F, f. Sp^camisola (camisa, chemise)] 
ea'mlet, n. Light cloth of various materials 
for cloaks &c. [orig. a costly Eastern stuff of 
silk & camel's hair ; f. F camelot perh. f. camel, 
perh. f. Arab, khaml hap] 
ca'mmoek, n. Rest-harrow ; kinds of yel- 
low-flowered plant. [OE cammoc etym. dub.] 
ca'mamile, eh-, n. Aromatic creeping 
composite plant with daisy-like flowers used 
as tonic ; allied kinds of plant, Dog's, Stinking. 
Purple, C. ; c.-tea, infusion of the flowers, [f. 
F camomille f. L chamomilla f. Gk khamai- 
melon earth-apple] 
Camo'rra, n. Secret society in Naples &c. 
camp : , n. Place where troops are lodged in 
tents &c. ; army on campaign ; military life 



(courts & cc.) ; temporary quarters of nomads, 
gypsies, travellers ; camping - out ; persons 
camping out ; adherents of a doctrine ; c.-bed, 
-chair, -stool, folding and portable; c.-colour, 
flag used in marking out c. ; c.-fever, esp. 
typhus ; c.-follower, non-military hanger-on of 
camp, male or female; c.-meeting, American 
religious open-air or tent meeting lasting 
several days. [F, f. It. or Sp. campo (cf. F 
champ direct) f. L campus level ground, esp. 
the Campus Martius, exercising-ground] 
camp 2, v.i. & t. Encamp, lodge in c. ; (also 
c.-out) lodge in tent or the open, take up quar- 
ters ; station (troops) in c. [f. F caviper (prec.)] 
Campagna (-ah'nya), n. The C, Italian 
plain S.E. of Tiber, [f. L Campania (camp 1 )] 
campaign, n., & v.i. Continuous series of 
military operations ; organized course of action, 
esp. (Pol.) attempt to rouse public opinion for 
or against a policy; Plan of C, in Ireland 
1886-7 for forcing landlords to reduce rents. 
(Vb) serve on a c. ; hence eampaigpriER 1 n. 
[f. F campagne open country, campaign, f. It. 
campagna (cf. F champagne champaign)] 
campani'le (-ell), n. Bell-tower, usu. de- 
tached. [It., f. campana bell] 
eampano'lo-jEfy, n. The subject of bells 
(founding, ringing, &c). Hence campano'- 
loger, eampano'LOGiST, nn., ea'mpano- 
lo'gieAL a. [f. LL campana bell + -logy] 
campanula, n. Kinds of plant with bell- 
shaped flowers, usu. blue or white, as Canter- 
bury Bell. Hence campa'nuLvcEOUS a. 
[mod. L, dim. of campana bell] 
campanulate, a. (zool. & bot.). Bell- 
shaped, [as prec. + -ate 2 ] 
ca'mphop, n. Whitish translucent crystal- 
line volatile substance with aromatic smell 
and bitter taste. Hence camphoTic a. [f. F 
camfre, med. L camphora, f. Arab, kafur f. 
Malay kapur chalk] 

ca'mphopate, v.t. Impregnate or treat 
with camphor, [-ate 3 ] 

ca'mpion, n. Kinds of flowering plant, esp. 
the Red and the White C. [?] 
ca'mpshed, v.t. Face with campshot. 
ca'mpshot, ca'mpshedding', ca'mp- 
sheetingr, nn. Facing of piles & boarding to 
resist water-action on, or out-thrust of, a bank, 
[etym. dub. ; cf. wainscot] 
ea'mpylo- , comb, form in bot. terms = bent-, 
[f. Gk kampulos\ 

ca'mwood, n. Hard red W.- African wood 
yielding dye. [native name kambil] 
can 1 , n., & v.t. Vessel for liquids, usu. of 
metal, esp. tin, and with handle over top, 
whence ea*nFUL(2) n. ; c.-buoy, large conical 
buoy over sands &c. ; c.-dock, water lily; 
(U.S.) (put in a) tin-plate box for hermetijc 
sealing (meat, fish, fruit, &c), whence 
(-)ea'nnER 1 n. [com.-Teut. ; OE ca?»ie f. WG 
kanna cf. G kanne] 
can 2 , v.aux. (2 s., canst; 
cannot, can't ; past & condit., 
couldest ; infin., part., & p.p., 
tive parts supplied f. be able to). Be able to ; 
have the right to ; be permitted to (you can go ; 
also as mild imperat.); could, feel inclined to 
(could laugh for joy ; really coiddn't think of 
it) ; cannot away with ; (with ellipse) will do 
what I can. [OE cunnan, com.-Teut., cf. G 
kbnnen, OTeut. sense know, cogn. w. ken, 
know, & w. L (g)nosco, Gk gignosko, learn ; as 
in dare, may, must, the tense used as pres. is 
an old past, could being a later development ; 
could (earlier cuthe, couthe, coud) has -I- merely 
on anal, of woidd, shoidd; infin. can is now 
obs. or a conscious archaism or jocular exc. in 



3 s., can; neg., 
could, couldst or 
wanting ; defec- 



CANAAN 



119 



CANKER 



Sc; part, cunning now only as adj., preserving 
orig. sense know] 

Ca'naan (-nyan, -nan), n. Land of promise, 
paradise. [O.-T. name of Palestine] 

Ca'nada, a. Of, from, C. (in names of plants, 
animals, products, as C. balsam). 

Cana*dian,a. &n. (Native) of Canada, [-ian] 

canaille (F), n. The rabble. 

cana'l, n., & v.t. (-11-). Duct in plant or 
animal body for food, liquid, air, &c. ; artificial 
watercourse for inland navigation (ec. of Mars, 
markings of doubtful nature on planet Mars) ; 
(Zool.) groove in shell for protrusion of breath- 
ing-tube. (Vb) make c. through ; provide with 
cc. [F, f. L canalis] 

canali'culate(d), a. (nat. hist, ). With longi- 
tudinal groove(s) ; striated, [f. L. canaliculus 

dim. Of CANALIS + -ATE 2 > 3 ] 

canalize, v.t. = canal vb ; convert (river) 
into canal by embanking, straightening course, 
locks, &c. Hence canalizA'TiON n. [prob. f. 
F canaliser (canal + -ize)] 

ca'nape (-a), n. Piece of fried bread with 
anchovies &c. [F] 

canard (ka'nar, kanar'd, or as F), n. False 
reportjjioax. [F, = duck, false report] 

canar'y, a. & n. From the C. Islands ; (also 
c.-bird) yellow-feathered song-bird (green in 
wild state) ; (also C.-xcinc) a favourite wine in 
16th-18th cc. ; yellow fishing-fly; c. -coloured, 
bright yelloAv ; C. creeper, yellow-flowered used 
csp. in window-boxes ; c.-seed, used as food for 
the bird. [f. F Canarie f. Sp. & L Canaria 
(canis dog), one of the islands being noted in 
Roman times for large dogs] 

cana'step, n. Tobacco prepared by coarsely 
breaking the dried leaves, [orig. the rush 
basket used for packing it ; f. Sp. canastra f. 
*L f. Gk kanastron basket see canister] 

cancan (F), n. Indecent dance. 

cancel 1 , v.t. (-11-). Obliterate, cross out, 
annul, make void, abolish, countermand, neu- 
tralize, balance, make up for; (Arith.) strike 
out (same factor) f r.pm numerator & denomina- 
tor, from two sides of equation, &c. Hence 
eancellA'TioN n. [f. F canceller f. L cancel- 
lare (cancelli cross-bars, lattice)] 

cancel 2 , n. Countermand; suppression & 
reprinting of sheet set up, the suppressed or 
the substituted sheet ; {pair of) cc, pincers for 
punching tickets, [f. prec] 

eaneellate(d), a. (bot, &zool.). Marked with 
crossing lines, reticulated ; (of bone) formed of 
interlacing fibres & plates with cavities, porous. 
[f. L cancellatus (cancel 1 , -ate 2 » 3 )] 

cancellous, a. (Of bone) = prec. [-ous] 

ea'neer, C-, n. Zodiacal constellation the 
Crab (C-) ; fourth sign of zodiac (C-) ; tropic 
of C. ; malignant tumour eating the part it is 
in, spreading indefinitely, & recurring when 
removed, (fig.) evil (sloth, bribery, &c.) acting 
similarly, whence eaneePED 2 , cancerous, 
aa. [OE (later canker, corrected to -cer for dis- 
ease c. 1600) f . L cancer -cri crab, cancer ; tumour 
named from swollen veins, like crab's limbs] 

cancroid, a. & n. Crab-like ; like cancer. 
(N.) crustacean of crab family ; disease like 
cancer, [as prec. + -oid] 

eandela'bpum, n. (pi. -bra ; also sing, -bra, 
pi. -bras). Large, usu. branched, candlestick or 
lampstand. [L (-urn), f. candela candle] 

eande'seent, a. Glowing (as) with white 
heat. Hence cande'seENCE n. [f. L cande- 
scere (candere be white, -escent)] 

ca'ndid, a. Unbiased ; not censorious : 
frank ; c. friend, nominal friend glad to tell 
home-truths. Hence eandidLY 2 adv., ea'n- 
didNESS n. [f. L candidus white, see prec] 



candidate, n. One who puts himself or is 
put forward for appointment to an office or 
honour; person thought likely to gain any 
position, [f. L candidates, as prec, -ate 2 (2), 
orig. white-robed (Roman cc. wearing white)] 
candidature (-tsher), n. Standing for 
election, being candidate. [F, as prec. + -ure] 

candied. See candy. 

candle, n. Cylinder of wax, tallow, sper- 
maceti, &c, enclosing wick, for giving light ; 
(also c.-power) unit of light - measurement ; 
Roman c, firework, tube discharging coloured 
balls ; can't, is not fit to, hold a c. to, is not to 
be compared with ; sell by inch ofc, by auction, 
last bid before small candle expires winning ; 
bell book & c. ; game not xvorth the c, result not 
justifying the cost or trouble ; burn 2 c. at both 
ends ; hide c. tinder bushel ; candleberry- 
myrtle (N.-Amer.), candleberry-tree (Moluccas), 
yielding wax & nut-kernels used for cc. ; c- 
ends, remnants of c, odds-&-ends hoarded by 
the stingy; candlelight, light of cc, any arti- 
ficial light, evening ; candlestick, support for 
(usu. single) c ; c.-tree, Amer., with c.-like 
fruit some feet long. [OE candel f. L candela 
{candere shine)] 

Candlemas (-as), n. Feast of purification 
of Virgin Mary; (as date) 2nd Feb. [OE 
Candelmxsse (candle, mass ] )] 

candour, n. Open-mindedness, imparti- 
ality ; freedom from malice ; frankness, [f. L 
candor whiteness {candere shine, -or 1 )] 

eandy, n., & v.t. & i. Crystallized sugar 
made by repeated boiling and slow evaporation 
(also sugar-c). (Vb) preserve by coating w r ith 
c ; form (t, & i.) into crystals ; (p.p.) glistening, 
(archaic) honeyed, flattering, [f. F (sxicre) 
candi f. Arab.-Pers. qand crystallized sugar- 
cane juice cf. Skr. khanda piece] 

candytuft, n. Plant with white, pink, or 
purple flowers in flat tufts, [f. obs. Candy 
(Candia Crete) + tuft] 

cane *, n. Hollow jointed stem of giant reeds 
& grasses (bamboo, sugar c) or solid stem of 
slenderpalms (rattan, Malacca, &c) collectively 
& as material (c), or with pi. (a c, cc.) of the 
stem or a length of it used for walking-stick or 
instrument of punishment ; any slender walk- 
ing-stick ; stick of sealing-wax, sulphur, glass ; 
c.-apple, Strawberry-tree ; c.-brake, genus of 
grasses; c.-chair, with seat of woven c strips. 
Hence canv 2 a. [OF (now cannc), f. L f. Gk 
kanna reed perh. f. Semit. cf. Heb. qctneh] 

cane 2 , v.t. Beat withe, whence eaniNGMl) 
n. ; drive (lesson) into (person) with c ; insert c. 
into (chair- frame &c). [f. prec] 

cane' phorus, n. (pi. -i). Sculptured Greek 
youth or maid bearing basket on head at feast 
of Demeter. [L, f. Gk kanephoros (kaneon 
basket, phero carry)] 

cang-ue (kangg), cang, n. Heavy wooden 
board worn round neck by Chinese criminals. 
[F (-gue), f. Port, cango cf. canga yoke] 

canine (also kani'n), a. & n. Of, as of, a dog 
or dogs; c. tooth or c, one of the four strong 
pointed teeth between incisors & molars, [f. L 
caninus (canis dog, -ine 1 )] 

eanistep, n. Small box usu. of metal for 
tea, shot, &c. ; (R.-C.Ch.) vessel holding wafers 
before consecration ; c.-shot or c., = CASE, 2 -shot. 
[f. L canistrum f. Gk. kanastron wicker basket 
(kanna cane 1 )] 

eankep, n., & v.t. Ulcerous disease of 
human mouth ; disease of horse's foot ; disease 
of fruit-trees ; (fig.) corrupting influence, rotten 
tendency; c.-xvorm or c, caterpillar or larva 
destroying leaves or buds ; c.-rash, variety of 
l scarlet fever with ulcerated throat ; hence 



CANNA 



120 



CANTILEVER 



ea'nkerous a. ( Vb) consume with c. ; infect, 
corrupt ; (p.p.) soured, malignant, crabbed, [f. 
ONF canere f. L cancrum nom. cancer] 
ca'nna, n. Plant with bright yellow, red, 
or orange flowers & ornamental leaves. [L 

(CANE 1 )] 

ea'nnel, n. (Also c.-co«7) bituminous coal 
burning with bright flame & used in making 
coal oik & gas. [perh. f. candle] 
ea'nnibal, n. & a. Man who eats human 
flesh ; animal feeding on its own species ; hence 
ca-nnibalis.M(2) n., cannibalistic a. (Adj.) 
of, having, these habits. [16th-c. E & Sp. Cani- 
bales pi., var. of Caribnameof W.-Ind. nation ; 
Caliban is prob. another variant] 
ea'nnikln, n. Small can. [-kin] 
ea'nnon 1 , n. 1. (Now being ousted by gun) 
piece of ordnance, gun of the kind that needs 
mounting, (collect, sing. usu. instead of pi.); 
c.-ball, projectile ; c.-bone, tube-shaped bone 
between hough & fetlock; c.-clock, fired at 
noon by burning-glass. 2. (Mech. ) hollow cylin- 
der moving independently on shaft ; watchkey 
barrel. 3. (Also c.-bit) smooth round bit for 
horse. 4. (Billiards) hitting of two balls suc- 
cessively by player's ball. 5. (Also c.-curl) 
sausage-shaped, prop, horizontal, curl, [in 16th 
c. also canon f. F canon cf. It. cannone great 
tube (canna cane 1 , -oon) ; sense i is corrup- 
tion of obs. carom short for carambole (F, f. Sp. 
carambola etym. dub.) ; sense 5=obs. canion f. 
Sp. cahon ornamental roll on breeches-legs 
(canna as above)] 

ea'nnon 2 , v.i. Make a c. at billiards (of 
player or ball) ; come into collision, strike 
obliquely, against, with. [f. prec] 
cannona'de, n., & v.t. & i. Continuous gun- 
fire. (Vb) fire continuously ; bombard, fire fast 
at. [cannon l + -ade] 
cannot. See can 2 . 

ca'nny, a. Shrewd, worldly-wise ; natural, 
safe to meddle with, (esp. w. neg.); thrifty; 
gentle, quiet, circumspect, (ca' c, Sc. for drive 
or go gently, as name for trade-union policy of 
limiting output) ; sly, pawky. Hence ea'nni- 
ly 2 adv., ca'nniNESS n. [Sc. wd (w. senses 
differing f. above) f. can 2 know + -Y 2 ] 
canoe* (-oo), n., & v.i. (Go in, paddle) boat 
propelled with paddle(s). Hence eanoe'iST(3) 
n. [f. Sp. & Haytian canoa] 
ca'non, n. Church decree ; c. law, eccl. law ; 
general law governing treatment of a subject ; 
criterion ; list of Bible books accepted by 
Church ; part of Mass containing words of con- 
secration ; (Mus.) piece with different parts 
taking up same subject successively in strict 
imitation; (Typ.) largest size of type with 
specific name ; metal loop on bell for hanging 
it ; member of cathedral chapter, whence 
ea*nonRY(2) n. ; minor c. [OE, f. L f. Gk 
kanon rule [kanna cane) ; in last sense short 
for canonic, meaning (person) living (with 
others) according to rule] 
canon. See canyon. 

eano'nieal, a. & n., cano'nic, a. (archaic). 
Appointed by canon law (c. hoars, for prayer, 
or for celebration of marriage, 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. ; 
c. dress, of clergy, also cc. as n. pi. ) ; included 
in canon of Scripture ; C. Epistles, the seven 
of Peter, James, John, Jude ; authoritative, 
standard, accepted; (Mus.) in canon form; of 
a cathedral chapter or a member of it. Hence 
cano'niealLY 2 adv. [f. med. L canonicalis 
f. canonicus (canon, -ic) +-al] 
cano'nicate, n. =canon?*j/. [f. med. L 
canonicatus (as prec, -ate 1 )] 
eanonl'eity, n. Status as canonical book, 
[f. canonicus canonical, -ty] 



ca'nonist, n. Canon-lawyer. Hence can- 
oni'stic(AL) aa. [f. F canonists (canon, -ist)] 
ea'nonize, v.t. Admit formally to calendar 
of saints ; regard as a saint ; recognize (book) 
as canonical ; sanction by church authority. 
So ea'nonizA'TiON n. [f. med, L canonizare 
(canon, -ize)] 

ca'nopy, n., & v.t. Covering suspended or 
held over throne, bed, person, &c. (also fig. of 
any overhanging shelter, sky, &c); (Arch.) 
roof-like projection over niche &c. ; ( vb) supply, 
be, such a covering to. [f. F canape (now) 
couch f. med. Lcanopeianf. Gk konopeion mos- 
quito net (konops gnat)] 

canop'ous, a. Melodious, resonant, [f. L 
canorus (canor song f. canere sing) + -ous] 

cant 1 , n. Bevel, oblique face, of crystal, 
bank, &c. ; push, toss, movement, that partly 
or quite upsets ; tilted or sideways position ; 
c. -board, sloping board, [cf. Du. kant, OF cant, 
It. canto, corner, edge, &c, perh. f. L f. Gk 
kanthos corner of eye] 

cant 2 , v.t. & i. (Trans.) bevel off; tilt ; turn 
over, turn upside down ; push, pitch, sideways. 
(Intr. ) take inclined position ; lie aslant ; (Naut. ) 
swing round, [f. prec] 

cant 3 , n. & a., & v.i. Peculiar language of 
class, profession, sect, &c, jargon ; temporary 
catchwords (esp. as adj., c. phrase Sec.) ; words 
used for fashion without being meant, unreal 
use of words implying piety ; hypocrisy. ( Vb) 
use talk of these kinds ; (Herald.) canting arms, 
heraldry, coat, containing allusion to name of 
bearer ; hence ea'ntER l n. [earlier of musi- 
cal sound, of intonation, & of beggars' whining, 
perh. f. singing of religious mendicants ; prob. f. 
hcantus song, cantare frequent, of canere sing] 

can't. See can 2 . 

Ca'ntab, n. , Cantabpi'gian, n. & a. (Mem- 
ber) of Cambridge University, [f. L Cantabri- 
gia Cambridge +_-an] 

ca'ntaloup (-oop), n. Kind of melon. [F, f. 
It. Cantalupo in Italy] 

canta'nkepous, a. Cross-grained, quarrel- 
some. Hence eanta'nkerousLY 2 adv., 
canta'nkerousxESS n. [perh. f. ME contak 
contention on anal, of traitorous, rancorous] 

eanta'ta (-tab.-), n. (mus.). Choral work, kind 
of short oratorio, or lyric drama set to music 
but not acted. [It. {cantare sing, -ata -ade)] 

cantatri'ce (-etsha, -es), n. Professional 
woman singer. [It. & F] 

canteen, n. Provision & liquor shop in 
camp or barracks ; box of cooking-utensils for 
use in camp ; soldier's water- vessel of tin, wood, 
&c [f. F cantine f. Tt. cantina cellar etym. dub.] 

ea'nter, n., & v.i. & t. Easy gallop [win in 
a c, easily). (Vb) go at this pace (of horse 
or rider) ; make (horse) go thus, [short for 
Canterbury pace, gallop, trot, &c, f. easy pace 
of Canterbury pilgrims] 

Canterbury, n. Stand with partitions for 
music &c 

Canterbury Bell, n. Kind of Campanula, 
[f. bells of Canterbury pilgrims' horses] 

eantha'Pides, n. pi. (med.). Dried Spanish 
Fly. [L, pi. of L f. Gk kantharis blister-fly] 

ea'ntiele, n. Little song, hymn ; one of the 
Prayer-Book hymns, as the Benedicite, Nunc 
Dimittis, Te Deum ; Canticles, Song of Solo- 
mon, [f. L canticulum dim. of canticum song 
(cantus song f. canere sing)] 

ea'ntilever, n. Bracket (of length many 
times breadth & more than twice depth) pro- 
jecting from wall to support balcony Sec. ; c. 
bridge, with piers each of which has two cc, 
with long girders connecting cc of adjacent 
piers, [prob. f . cant j & lever] 



CANTLE — 



121 



CAPITALIST 



ca'ntle, n. Piece, slice, cut off; hind-bow of 
saddle. |f. OXF cantel dim. of cant j J 

ea'nto, n. (pi. -os). Division of long poem. 
[It.,= song, as cant 3 ] 

eanto'n 1 (also ka'-), n. Subdivision of 
country ; State of Swiss confederation ; 
(Herald.) square division less than a quarter in 
upper corner of shield. Hence ea'ntonAL a. 
[OF, = corner (cant 1 ^ -oon)J 

eantd'n 2 (also -too'n), v.t. Divide into cc. 
(-ton); (-toon) quarter (soldiers), [f. prec] 

eanto'nment (-oon-), n. Lodging assigned 
to troops (in India also permanent military 
station), [prec. + -ment] 

cantop'ial, a. Of the precentor, of X. side 
of choir (cf. decanal), [f. L as foil. + -al] 

cantor'is, mus. direction. To be sung by 
cantorial side in antiphonal singing. [L, genit. 
of cantor precentor (canere cant- sing, -or 2 )] 

ea'nvas, n. Strong unbleached cloth of 
hemp or flax, for sails, tents, painting on ; 
under c, in tent(s), with sails spread ; racing- 
boat's covered end ; picture ; C.-back, X.-Amer. 
duck (f. colour of back feathers). [ME & OXF 
canevas f. LL cannabaceus (L f. Gk kannabis 
hemp, -aceous)] 

ea'nvass, v.t. & i., & n. Discuss thoroughly ; 
solicit votes, solicit votes from (constituency), 
ascertain sentiments of, ask custom of, whence 
ea'nvassER 1 n. ; (n.) canvassing for votes, 
[f. prec, orig. sense being toss in a sheet, & so 
shake up, agitate, &c] 

ea'nyon, n. Deep gorge with stream, [f. Sp. 
canon tube (caha f. L canna cane *)] 

canzone't, n. Short light song. [f. It. can- 
zonetta (canzone f. L cantionem F. canere sing)] 

eaoutehouc (kowtshook), n. & a. (Of) 
India-rubber. [F, f. Carib. cahuchu] 

cap \ n. Head-dress (woman's, esp. of muslin 
&c. worn indoors, but also now, like man's or 
boy's, for out-door use, brimless & of cloth or 
soft material; c. in hand, humbly; c. fits, 
person feels that general remark is true of 
him ; set one's c. at, try to attract as suitor) ; 
special head-dress (college or square c. ; steel 
c. , helmet ; Scotch c. , part of Highland costume ; 
football c, of velvet &c, sign of inclusion in 
team; c. o/maintenance; c. of liberty, conical, 
given to Roman slave on emancipation, now 
Republican symbol ; c. <& bells, jester's in- 
signia ; fool's c.) ; caplike covering, natural 
(mushroom top, knee-c, &c), or added for 
various purposes (windmill top, toe-c, inner 
watch-case; percussion c, for igniting explo- 
sive in cartridges &c.) ; (Xaut.) doubly pierced 
block for lengthening mast by extra spar ; 
conical paper bag, cornet; c.-paper, whity- 
brown for packing, also a size of writing-paper ; 
c. -stone, top stone, coping. [OE cseppe f. LL 
cappa, the Rom. forms of which meant cloak, 
cape, cope ; cape, cope, are separate E adop- 
tions of the same wd through Rom. or in its 
med. L form capa] 

cap 2 , v.t. & i. Put c. upon ; (Sc, Univv.) con- 
fer degree on ; put percussion c. on nipple of 
(gun); protect (end of beam &c.) with metal 
&c, whence ea'ppiNGMS) n. ; lie on top of, 
crown ; outdo (c. anecdote, quotation, Sec, 
produce a better or another apposite one ; c. 
verses, reply with one beginning with the 
last's last letter) ; touch or take off one's hat 
to (also intr. with to) ; injure at point (horse 
caps its hocks), [f. prec] 

capability, n. Power of (action &c , acting 
Sec), for (being done something to), to (do 
something) ; undeveloped faculty (has cc). 
[foil., -bility] 

ca'pable, a. Susceptible (of, or abs.); 



having the power or fitness for (of); wicked 
enough for (of) ; gifted, able. Hence ca'pa- 
bLY 2 adv. [F, f. LL capabilis irreg. for capi- 
bilis (L capere hold, -ble) ; earlier sense having 
room (for)] 

eapa'cious, a. Roomy. Hence eapa*- 
eiousNESS n. [L capax (capere hold), -acious] 

capa'citate, v.t. Render capable (for, to 
do); make legally competent, [foil., -acitate] 

eapa'eity, n. Holding - poAver, receiving- 
power, (for happiness, heat, moisture) ; cubic 
content {measure of c, for vessels & liquids, 
grain, &c) ; mental power, faculty ; capability, 
opportunity, to do, of doing, &c (rare) ; posi- 
tion, relative character, {in a civil c. ; in my c. 
as critic) ; legal competency, [f. F capacite f. 
L capacitatem (capacious, -ty)] 

cap-a-pie (ka'papi"), adv. From head to 
foot, (armed, ready, &c). [f. OF cap a pie] 

eapa'pison (-zn), n. (often pi.), & v.t. Horse's 
trappings ; equipment, outfit; (vb) putc. upon, 
[f. F caparasson (now -aeon) f. Sp. caparazon 
f. med. L caparo (capa cape a )] 

cape 1 , n. Short sleeveless cloak, either as 
separate garment or as fixed or detachable 
part of longer cloak or coat. Hence eapED 2 a. 
[F, f. Sp. capa or It. cappa ; see cap 1 ] 

cape 2 , C-, n. & a. Headland, promontory; 
the C, of Good Hope, also = C. Colony (C. boy, 
S. -African of mixed black & white descent), & 
as adj. of its products (C. wine &c). [f. F cap 
f. Rom. capo f. L caput head] 

ea'pep 1 , n. Bramble-like S.-European shrub; 
(pi.) its flower-buds pickled (esp. c.-sauce); 
English cc, seed vessels of Xasturtium pickled. 
[ME caperis, caperes, (sing.) f. L f. Gk kap- 
paris ; -s lost as though pi. sign cf. pea, wage] 

ea*pep 2 ,n., & v.i. (Give a) frisky movement, 
leap; fantastic proceeding; cut a c, cc, —c 
vb. [short for capriole] 

capepeai'lye, -cai'lzie, n. Wood-grouse, 
largest European gallinaceous bird (Scotland 
&c). [f. Gael, capull coille horse of the wood] 

ea'pepep, n. In vbl senses ; esp., caddis-fly 
(from its flight), [caper 2 , -er 1 ] 

ea'pful, n. Enough to fill a cap ; esp., c. of 
wind, passing gust, [-ful (2)] 

ca'pias, n. Writ of arrest. [L, = take thou] 

capilla'pity, n. (Power of exerting) capil- 
lary attraction or repulsion, [f. F capillarite 
see foil., -ty] 

capi'llapy (also ka"-), a. & n. Of hair ; hair- 
like, thin as a hair ; (tube, blood-vessel) of 
minute or hair -like diameter (e.g. one of 
ramified blood-vessels intervening between 
arteries & veins) ; so c. attraction, repul- 
sion, [f. L capillaris (-ary 2 ) f. capillus hair] 

ca'pital 1 , n. Head or cornice of pillar. 
[ = L capitellum (cf. F chapiteau) dim. of 
capitxdum dim. of caput head] 

ea'pital 2 , a. & n. Involving loss of life, 
punishable by death, (c. sentence, offence) ; 
vitally injurious, fatal, (c error) ; standing at 
the head (c. letter, also c. as noun) ; chief (c 
manor, held in capite or direct from king ; c. 
messuage, occupied by owner of estate with 
several messuages ; c toicn or city, or c. as 
noun, head town of country, county, &c.) ; im- 
portant, leading, first-class ; excellent, first- 
rate, (often as interj. of approval) ; original, 
principal, (c. fund or c, stock with which com- 
pany or person enters into business, accumu- 
lated wealth used in producing more ; fixed c, 
machinery &c ; circulating or floating c, 
goods, money, &c ; so fig., make c out of, turn 
to account). Hence ca'pitalLY 2 adv. [F, f. 
L capitalis (caput -itis head, -al)] 

ca'pitalism, capitalist, nn. Possession 



CAPITALIZE 



122 



CARABINEER 



or influence or system, possessor, of capital or 
fund used in production. Hence ea'pita- 
li'stic a. [prec, -ism(3), -ist(3)] 

ca'pitalize, v.t. Convert into, use as, 
capital ; compute or realize present value of 
(income). Hence ea'pitalizATiox n. [-ize(3)J 

ca*pitate(d), a. (nat. hist. ). Having distinct 
head ; with clustered flowers &c. [f. L capita- 
tus headed {caput -itis, -ate 2 )] 

capita'tion, n. (Levying of) tax or fee of so 
much a head ; c. grant, of so much for every 
person fulfilling conditions, [f. L cdpitatio 
poll-tax {caput -itis head, -atiox)] 

Ca'pitol (-tl), n. Roman temple of Jupiter 
on Tarpeian hill (later Capitoline hill or Capi- 
toline) ; (U.S.) Congress house, [f. Lcapitolium 
{caput head)] 

eapi'tulap, a. Of a cathedral chapter ; (Phys- 
iol. ) of a terminal protuberance of bone, [f . med. 
L capitularis (L capitulum chapter, -ar 1 )] 

eapi*tulapy, n. Collection of ordinances, 
esp. of Frankish Kings, [f. med. L capitularius 
(as prec, -art 1 )] 

eapi*tulate, v.i. Surrender on terms, [f. 
med. L capitulare draw up under heads (see 

CAPITULAR), -ATE 3 ] 

capi'tula'tion, n. Stating heads of subject ; 
agreement, conditions, (esp. the Cc, by which 
foreign residents in Turkey have exterritori- 
ality) ; surrender on terms, instrument con- 
taining these. [F, f. med. L capitulationem 
(prec, -atiox)] 

ca'pon, n. Castrated cock. Hence ca*pon- 

ize(3) v.t. [OE capun f. L caponem nom. capo] 

caponier*, n. Covered passage across ditch 

of fort. [f. F caponniere f. Sp. caponera orig. 

a capon-cote (see prec)] 

ca'porat (-ahl), n. A French tobacco. [F] 
eapo*t, n., & v.t. (-tt-). (In piquet) winning 
of all tricks by one player ; (vb) do this against 
(opponent). [F] 

capo'te, n. Soldier's, traveller's, &c, long 
cloak with hood. [F, dim. of cape cape ] ] 
ca'ppic, a. (chem.). C. acid, obtained from 
butter, coco-nut oil, &c [f. L caper -pri goat 
+ -ic (from its goatlike smell)] 
eappi'ee (-es), n. Unaccountable change of 
mind or conduct, fancy, freak ; inclination to 
these ; work of sportive fancy in art &c [F, 
f. It. capriccio sudden start {capro goat f. L 
caper -pri)] 

eappi'eious (-shits), a. Guided by whim, 
inconstant, irregular, incalculable. Hence 
cappi'eiousLY 2 adv., eappi'eiousxESs n. 
[f. F capricieux f. It. capriccioso (prec, -ous)] 

Ca'ppieopn, n. Zodiacal constellation Goat ; 
tenth sign of zodiac ; tropic of C. [f. L capri- 
cornus (caper -pri goat, cornu horn)] 

eappifiea'tion, n. Hastening of ripeness in 
figs by subjecting them to puncture by wild- 
fig gall-insects, [f. L caprificatio f. caprificus 
wild fig_ {caper goat,ficus fig), -atiox] 

ca'ppine, a. Of, like, a goat. [f. L caprinus 
(caper -pri, -ixe 1 )] 

ca'ppiole, n., & v.i. (Give a) leap, caper, 
esp. (in manege) horse's high leap & kick with- 
out advancing. [F (now cab-), or f. It. capriola 
dim. of L capra she-goat] 

cappo'ie, a. (chem.). C. acid, found with 
capric & butyric acids in butter &c [var. of 
capric for differentiation] 

ca'psicum, n. Kinds of plant with hot cap- 
sules & seeds, Guinea Pepper &c ; the pre- 
pared fruit, [irreg. prob. f. L capsa case 2 ] 

capsi'ze, n., & v.t. & i. Upset, overturn, 
(of ship, boat). Hence eapsi*ZAL(2) n. [perh. 
f. Sp. cabezar pitch or capuzar sink by the 
head (cabo f. L caput head)! 



ca'pstan, n. Revolving barrel, worked by 
men walking round & pushing horizontal 
levers, for winding cable in, hoisting heavy 
sails, &c [f. F or Pr. cabestan f. L capistrare 
(capistrian halter f. capere hold), -axt] 

ca'psule, n. (Physiol.) membranous enve- 
lope ; (Bot.) dry seed -case opening when ripe 
by parting of valves ; (Chem.) shallow saucer 
for evaporating &c. ; (Med.) gelatine envelope 
enclosing pill ; metallic top for bottle. Hence 
ca'psulAR 1 , ca'psuliFORM, aa., capsuli- 
comb. form. [F, f. L capsula (case 2 , -ule)] 

ea'ptain 1 (-in), n. Chief, leader; great 
soldier, strategist, experienced commander; 
(Army) chief company or troop officer. (Navy) 
officer commanding man-of-war (also used, by 
courtesy, of commander) ; C. of the Fleet, 
adjutant-general of a force, with rear-admiral's 
uniform ; chief sailor of special gang (c. of fore- 
castle «&c ). Master of merchant ship ; manager 
of Cornish mine ; foreman ; head boy ; leader 
of side in games ; = Grey Gurnard. Hence 
ca'ptaincv, ca'ptainsHip, nn., ea'ptain- 
less a. [ME & OF capitain f. LL capitaneus 
(a. & n.) chief (L caput bead)] 

ea'ptain 2 , v.t. Be c of, lead. [f. prec] 

eapta'tion, n. Use of ad captandum argu- 
ments or appeals, [f. L captatio (captare 
catch at, frequent, of capere take, -atiox)] 

ca'ption, n. Legal arrest ; (Law) certificate 
attached to or written on document; (U.S.) 
heading of chapter, article, &c [f. L captio 
(capere take, -tiox) ; last meaning f. second] 

ea'ptious, a. Fallacious, sophistical ; fond 
of taking exception, trying to catch people in 
their words. Hence ea'ptiousLY 2 adv., 
ea'ptiousxESS n. [f.L captiosus (prec, -ose ] )j 
Fascinate, charm. Hence 
[f. L captivare take cap- 



ca'ptivate, v.t 
eaptiVA'Tiox n. 

TIVE, -ATE 3 ] 

ea'ptive, a. & 



n. (Person, animal) taken 
prisoner, kept in confinement, under restraint, 
unable to escape ; of, like, prisoner (c. state) ; 
lead, take, hold, c. ; c. balloon, held by rope 
from ground. So capti'viTY n. [f. F captif 
f. L captivus (capere capt- take, -ive)] 

ca'ptop, n., ea'ptpess, n. fern. One who 
takes a captive or prize, [-or L (as prec, -OR 2 ) ; 
& see -ess J ] 

ca'ptupe (-tsh<??-), n., and v.t. Seizing, taking 
possession of ; thing or person seized. ( Vb) take 
prisoner, seize as prize ; hence ea'ptuPER 1 
n. [F, f. L captura as prec, -ure] 

Ca'puchin (-tsh-), n. & a. Franciscan (friar) 
of new rule of 1528 ; woman's cloak and hood ; 
C. monkey, pigeon, kinds with head hair or 
feathers like cowl. [F (now -cin), f. It. capuc- 
cino (capuccio cowl f. cappa cap ] )] 

ca'put mortuum, n. Worthless residue. 
[L, =dead head ; alch. term for residuum of any 
substance after distillation or sublimation] 

eapy'bapa, n. Large S.-Amer. rodent allied 
to guinea-pig. [Brazilian] 

eap, n. Wheeled vehicle (chiefly poet. = 
chariot; c. of the sun, triumphal c, c of 
Juggernaut, &c ; or with specification as 
jauxt Hng-c, motor-c, tramway-c, dining-c. ; 
in U.S. of any railway carriage or van ; in 
Engl, also of low two- wheeled truck for hogs- 
heads &c & of other low heavy carts) ; pendant 
of balloon holding passengers ; carman, driver 
of van or jaunting-c, carter, carrier. Hence 
eap*FUL(2) n. [ME & ONF carre f. LL carra 
cf. L carrus four-wheeled vehicle f. Bret, karr 
cf. OW. carr] ■ 

eapabineep*, eapb-, n. Soldier with car- 
bine ; The Carabineers, 6th Dragoon Guards, 
[f. F carabinier (carbixe, -ier)] 



CARACAL 



123 



CARDINAL 



ea'paeal, n. Kind of lynx. [F, f. Turk. 
qarah-qulaq black-ear] 

ea'pacol(e), n.,& v.i. (Execute) half-turn(s) to 
right or left (of horse or rider), [f. F caracole(r) 
f. It. caracollo f. Sp. caracol snail, spiral shell] 

eara'fe (-ahf), n. Glass water-bottle for 
table. [F, cf. It. caraffa, Sp. garrafa perh. f. 
Arab, gharafa draw water] 

ca'ramel, n. Burnt sugar used for colouring 
spirits &c. ; a sweetmeat. [F, f. Sp. caramelo] 

ca'rapace, n. Upper shell of crustaceans. 
[F, f. Sp. carapacho etym. dub.] 

ca'pat, n. Measure of weight for precious 
stones, about 3j? grains ; measure of purity of 
gold, pure gold being 24 c. [F, f. It. carat o 
f. Arab, qirat perh. f. Gk keration, fruit of 
carob tree (dim. of keras horn)] 

capava'n, n. Eastern or N. -African com- 
pany of merchants, pilgrims, &c, travelling 
together for safety, esp. through desert; 
covered cart or carriage, house on wheels (esp. 
of menagerie &c). [16th. -c carouan f. Pers. 
kanvan, perh. assim. to F caravane\ 

eapava'nserai, -sera, -sary, n. Eastern 
quadrangular inn with great inner court where 
caravans put up. [f. Pers. karwan-sarai 
(prec, sara mansion)] 

ea'ravel, eap'vel, n. (hist.). Small light 
fast ship, chiefly Spanish & Portuguese of 15th- 
17th cc. [f. F caravelle f. It. caravella ; cf. LL 
f. Gk karabos] 

ea'raway, n. Umbelliferous plant with 
fruit (c. -seeds) used in cakes, [f. med. L carui 
cf. Arab, al-karawiya & Gk karon cummin] 

earb-, carbo-, comb, forms of carbon. 
Hence ear'biDE n. 

eap'blne, ea'pa-, n. Short fire-arm for 
cavalry use. [F {cara-) weapon of carabin 
soldier perh. f. Calabria perh. f. med. L chada- 
bula kind of ballista (Gk katabole overthrow)] 

ear'bOThy'dpate, n. (chem. ). Organic com- 
pound of carbon with oxygen & hydrogen in 
the proportion to form water (starch, sugar, 
glucose). 



eapbd'lie, a. (chem.). 
septic & disinfectant. 

V.t. [CARB-, -OL, -IC] 

cap'bon, n. (chem.). 



C. acid, powerful anti- 
Hence eap*boliZE(5) 

Non-metallic element 
occurring as diamond, graphite, & charcoal, in 
carbonic acid gas, the carbonates, & most 
organic compounds; (Electr.) charcoal pencil 
used in one form of electric lighting ; c. print- 
ing, process, producing permanent prints in 
black and white ; c.-paper, for taking copies of 
letters &c. Hence cap'bonATE l (3) n. [f. F 
carbone f. L carbonem nom. -o charcoal] 

capbona'ceous, a. Of, like, coal or char- 
coal ; consisting of or containing carbon, [as 
prec, -aceous] 

carbonari (-e), n. Neapolitan secret society 
of republican revolutionists, [perh. f. dis- 
guising themselves as charcoal-burners] 

eap'bonate, v.t. (chem.). Form into a c. ; 
impregnate with carbonic acid gas, aerate, 
[f. carbonate n. see carbon, -ate 3 ] 

capbo'nie, a. (chem.). Of carbon ; c acid 
(gas), the gas formed in combustion of carbon, 
given out in breathing, & constituting choke- 
damp, [-ic] 

capboni'fepous, a. Producing coal ; (Geol.) 
c strata, system, formation, palaeozoic next 
above Old Red Sandstone ; c. age, era, period, 
in which these strata were deposited, [carbon, 
-I-, -ferous] 

cap'bonize, v.t. Convert into carbon ; re- 
duce to charcoal or coke ; cover (paper) with 
carbon for taking copies. Hence capboniz- 
a'tion n. [-ize(3, 5)] 



eap'boy, n. Large coloured-glass bottle pro- 
tected with basket-work. [f. Pers. qarabah] 

carbuncle, n. Red precious stone (formerly 
of many kinds, e.g. ruby; now garnet cut in 
boss shape) ; malignant tumour, anthrax, 
pimple on nose or face, whence cap'bunelED 2 , 
capbu'nculAR i, aa. [ME & OF chartoicle f. 
L carbunculus small coal (carbon, -uncle)] 

capbupe't, v.t. (-tt-). Combine (any element) 
chemically with carbon ; charge with carbon. 
Hence capbupe'ttOR 2 (2) or eapbupe'ttER * 

(2) n. [CARBON, -URET] 

cap'cass, -ase, n. Dead bodv (of human 
body now only with contempt) : (with butchers) 
beast's trunk without head, limbs, or offal ; 
mere body, dead or alive (to save one's a), 
worthless remains (of) ; skeleton, framework, 
(of house, ship, &c); (Mil.) kind of fire-ball 
from gun for igniting buildings, [partly f. OF 
Charcots f. med. L carcosium, partly f. 16th-c. 
F carcasse f. It. carcassa ; etym. and mutual 
relations of carcosium, carcassa, doubtful] 

eapd 1 , n., & v.t. (Cleanse, comb, get into 
order, also scratch or torture, with) toothed 
instrument, wire-brush, or wire-set rubber or 
vulcanite strip, for raising nap on cloth or pre- 
paring wool, hemp, &c. ; c.-thistlc, teasel ; card- 
ing-machine, with card-strips fixed on rollers, 
[f. F carde teasel-head ult. f. L carduus thistle] 

card. 2 , n. (Also playing-c) one of pack of 52 
oblong pieces of pasteboard used in games 
(court 1 -c. ; make a c, take trick with it ; house 
of cc, insecure scheme &c. ; cc, card -playing ; 
sure, safe, doubtful, &c, c, such a plan, ex- 
pedient ; knowing, queer, c, such a person ; 
throw up, show, one's cc, give up, let out, one's 
plan ; c. up one's sleeve, plan in reserve ; on the 
cc, likely, possible) ; flat piece of thick paper or 
pasteboard for various purposes (speak by the 
c, with precision, f. obs. use=mariner's com- 
pass ;post-c. ; correspondence-c, for short notes ; 
= ticket of admission ; = invitation ; c. or visit- 
ing-c, with name &c.,sentorleftin lieu of formal 
visit, so leave a c on; wedding, Christmas, &c, 
c. , sent in notification or compliment to friends ; 
collecting-c, for entering subscribers to chari- 
ties ; programme of events at race-meetings &c, 
or of cricket scores, esp. correct c ; the c, the 
correct thing, what is expected ; printed or 
written notice, rules, &c, for hanging in win- 
dow or on wall) ; c-case, for carrying visiting- 
cc. ; c-basket, -rack, for keeping visitors' cc. ; 
cardboard, pasteboard for cutting cc. from or 
making boxes &c. ; c-sharper, swindler at c- 
games. [f. F carte f. It. carta (cf. charte direct) 
f. L charta f . Gk khartes papyrus-leaf ; -d for -te 
unexplained] 

cap'damom, n. Spice from seed-capsules of 
E.-Ind. plants, [f. L f. Gk kardamomon (kar- 
damon cress, amomon a spice plant)] 

cap'diae, a. & n. Of the heart (esp. path., as 
c. symptoms, of heart-disease) ; of upper orifice 
of stomach ; (n.) heart-stimulant, cordial, [f. F 
(-aque) f. L f. Gk kardiakos (kardia heart, -AC)] 

cap'digran, n. Knitted woollen over-waist- 
coat with or without sleeves, [named after 
Earl of C. c. 1855] 

cap'dinal, C-, a. & n. On which something 
hinges, fundamental, important, (c. virtues, the 
four natural & three theological, see virtue ; 
c numbers, the simple ones, as one, six, cf. 
ordinal; c. points, winds, North, S., E., W. ; 
c. church hist., one of principal churches in 
Rome, to which others were subordinate, 
whence Cardinal, noun, orig. person in charge 
of one of these, now one of seventy princes 
of R.-C. Ch., members of Pope's council of 6 c. 
bishops, 50 c. priests, & 14 c. deacons, & electors 



CARDIO- 



121 



CARNY 



of new Pope, whence eap'dinalATE *, cap'- 
dinalsHiP, nn. ; also prefixed to other titles, 
as C.-Legate), whence eap'dinalLY 2 adv. ; of 
deep scarlet ; woman's short hooded (orig. scar- 
let) cloak; small scarlet bird; (Zool.) of the 
hinge of a bivalve ; c.-floxoer. Scarlet Lobelia. 
[F, f. L cardinal is (cardo -inis hinge, -al) ; 
sense scarlet f. Cardinal's robes] 

eapdio-, comb, form of Gk kardia heart. 

cardoo'n, n. Composite kitchen-garden 
plant allied to artichoke, [f. F cardon f. It. 
cardone {cardo f. L cardus, carduus thistle, 

-OON)] 

care l 3 n. Solicitude, anxiety : occasion for 
these ; serious attention, heed, caution, pains, 
(take, have a, c, be cautious) ; charge, protec- 
tion, {A, c/o or c. of B, in addresses ; have the, 
take, c. of; in, under, one's c.) ; thing to be 
done or seen to (cc. of State &c. ; that shall be 
my c.) ; c.-laden, -worn, with anxieties ;c.-taker, 
person hired to take charge, esp. of house in 
owner's absence. [OE car u, com.-Teut. f. OTeut. 
kard- ; not related to L curd] 

cape 2 , v.i. Feel concern or interest for or 
about ; provide food, attendance, &c, for 
(children, invalids, &c.) ; (w. neg. expressed or 
implied) feel regard, deference, affection, for, 
be concerned whether 8cc, (often with expletive 
a pin, a damn, a farthing ; / don't c. if J do, 
am willing). [OE carian f. prec] 

capee'n, v.t. & i. Turn (ship) on one side for 
cleaning, caulking, &c. ; (cause to) heel over, 
[ult. f. L carina keel] 

caree'nage, n. Careening a ship ; expense 
of it ; place for it. [-age] 

^eapeep*, n., & v.i. Swift course, impetus, 
(in full, mid, &c, a); course or progress 
through life ; development & success of party, 
principle, nation, &c. ; way of making a liveli- 
hood ; (vb) go swiftly or wildly (often about). 
[f. F carriere race-course f. LL carraria (via) 
carriage-(road) f. L carrus car 1 ] 

eape'ful, a. Concerned for, taking care of; 
painstaking, watchful, cautious, (to do, that, 
what, whether, &c); done with or showing 
care. Hence eape'fulLY 2 adv., cape'ful- 
ness n. [-FUL] 

careless, a. Unconcerned, light-hearted ; 
inattentive, negligent {of), thoughtless ; in- 
accurate. Hence eape'lessLY 2 adv., cape*- 
lessxESS n. [-less] 

cape'ss, n., & v.t. Fondling touch, kiss; 
blandishment. (Vb) bestow these on ; pet, 
make much of ; hence cape'ssingLY 2 adv. 
[f. F caresse(r) f. It. carezza(re) f. LL *caritia 
(L earns dear)] 

ea'pet, n. Mark ( A ) placed below line to show 
place of omission. [L, = it needs (carere)] 

eap'gfo, n. Freight of ship. [Sp.,= loading 
f. med. L carricum I. LL carricare to load (L 
carrus car 1 )] 

Ca*pib, n. & a. (One) of aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of Southern W-Ind. islands. [f. Sp. 
Caribe cf. cannibal] 

caribou* (-00), -boo*, n. N.-Amer. reindeer. 
[-011 Canad. F, prob. f. native wd] 

eapieatupe*, n., & v.t. Grotesque represen- 
tation of person or thing by over-emphasis on 
characteristic traits (pictorial, literary, or 
mimetic) ; hence eapicatup*iST(l)_n. (Vb) 
make, give, a c. of ; hence eapieatup'ABLE a. 
[F, f. It. caricatura (caricare to load see 

CARGO, -URE)] 

car'i&s, n. Decay (of bones or teeth). [L] 

cd'ri/lon (-lyon, or as F), n. Set of bells that 

can be rung either by hand or mechanically ; 

air played on bells ; instrument (or part of 

organ) imitating peal of bells. [F, f. med. L 



quadrilionem nom. -0 quaternary (formerly 
four bells)] 

carrna, n. (zool. & hot). Ridge-shaped 
structure. Hence capi'nAL, ca'pinATE 2 , aa., 
eapino- comb. form. [L, = keel] 

carious, a. Decayed (esp. of bones, teeth), 
[f. L cariosus (caries, -ose 1 )] 

cap'king 1 * a. Burdensome (alw. with care). 
[f. obs. vb cark f. ONF carkier f. LL carricare 

(CARGO)l 

eapl(e), n. (Sc). Man, fellow. [OE in comb, 
as hits-carl f. ON karl cogn. w. churl] 

cap'llne \ n. (Sc). Old woman. [ME & OX 
kerling fern, of prec] 

eap'line 2 , n. Genus of composite plants 
allied to thistle. [F, f. med. L carlina for Caro- 
lina named f. Carolus Charlemagne] 

Cap'lism, Cap'list, nn. Spanish legitimism, 
legitimist, support(er) of Don Carlos second son 
of Charles IV. [-ism(3), -ist(2)] 

Carlo vi'ngian, Capoli'ngian, (j), a. & n. 
(One) of second French dynasty founded by 
Charlemagne, [f. F carlovingien after mero- 
vingien Merovingian] 

Caply'lism, n. Principles, literary manner, 
a mannerism, of Carlyle. So CaplylE'AN, 
CaplyliAN, aa., CaplylE'SE a. & n. [Thomas 
Carlyle 1795-1881; -ISM(3, 4)] 

Carmagno'Ie (-anyol), n. Song & dance 
among French revolutionists of 1793. [F] 

Cap'melite, n. & a. (Member) of mendicant 
order of friars (also White Friars f. their white 
cloak) ; fine woollen stuff, usu. grey. [Mt Car- 
mel, place of foundation (12th c), -item2)] 

eap'minative, a, & n. (Drug) curing flatu- 
lence, [f. L canninare card, -ive, gross hu- 
mours being combed out like tangled wool] 

car'mine, n. & a. (Coloured like, colour of) 
crimson pigment made from cochineal, [f. F 
or Sp. carmin f. med. L carminus for carmesi- 
nus crimson] 

car'nage (-ij), n. Great slaughter, esp. of 
men. [F, f. It. carnaggio f. LL carnaticum (L 
caro carnis flesh, -age)] 

cap'nal, a. Sensual, fleshly ; sexual ; un- 
sanctified, worldly. Hence cap*naliSM(2), 
eapna'liTY, nn., eap*nalizE(3) v.t.cap'nal- 
ly 2 adv. [f. L carnalis (caro see prec, -al)] 

eapna'tion 1 , n. & a. (Of) rosy pink colour, 
[orig. flesh-colour f. L carnatio (caro see car- 
nage) fleshiness] 

eapna'tion 2 , n. Cultivated kinds of Clove- 
pink, [formerly edsoinearnacyon, coronation, 
cornation ; pern. orig. coronation as indented 
like coronet, later confused w. the colour ; for 
corn-, car 7i-, cf. foil.] 

earne'lian, =cornelian. [ca- by confusion 
w. L (carnation 1 ) as flesh-coloured] 

eap'nify, v.t. & i. (path.). Change (t. & i. of 
bone, lungs, &c.) to structure of flesh or muscle. 
Hence eap'niFiCATiON n. [L caro carnis 
flesh, -fy] 

eap'nival, n. Half-week or week before 
Lent; festivities usual during this in R.-C. 
countries ; riotous revelry ; reckless indul- 
gence in something (of; c. of bloodshed &c). 
[f. It. carnevale orig. name for Shrove Tuesday 
only, f. L phr. carnem levare put away meat] 

carni'vora, n. Large order of flesh-eating 
mammalia, including cats, dogs, bears, &c 
[L neut. pi. see carnivorous] 

eap'nivope, n. Carnivorous animal or 
plant. [F, as foil.] 

earnrvopous, a. Feeding on flesh (esp. of 
the carnivora, & of plants digesting animal 
substance), [f. L carnivorus (caro carnis 
flesh, -VOROUS)] 

eap'ny, -ey, v.t. (colloq.). Coax, wheedle. [?] 



CAROB 



125 



CART 



ea'pob, n. Horn-like pod of Levantine c.- 
tree. [f. F carobe f. Arab, kharrubah bean-pod] 

ca'pol, n., & v.t. & i. (-11-). Joyous song, 
human or of birds, esp. Christmas hymn. (Vb) 
utter, celebrate with, these ; hence ea'POllER 1 
n. [obs. senses dance, ring ; f. OF carole(r) 
perh. f. L choraula f. Gk khoraules flute-player 
for chorus-dancing (khoros chorus, aulos flute), 
or f. L corolla ring] 

Ca'poline, a. Of Charlemagne ; of the time 
of Charles I & II of England, [f. L Carolus 
Charles + -ine *] 

Caroling-ian. See carlovingian. 

ea'pom. See cannon. 

eaPO'tid, a. & n. Of, near, the two great ar- 
teries carrying blood to head ; (n.) one of these, 
[f. Gk karotides pi. (karoo stupefy, compression 
of these arteries being thought to do this)J 

capou'se (-owz), v.i., & n. (Have, engage 
in) a drinking-bout; drink deep. Hence 
eapOU*SAL(2) n. [orig. as adv. = right out, in 
phr. drink c. f. G gar a us trinken] 

carp 1 , n. A fresh-water fish usu. bred in 
ponds, [f. OF carpe f. LL carpa cf. OHG 
charpho, G karpfen] 

carp 2 , v.i. Talk querulously, find fault, 
(usu. at) ; esp. carping tongue, criticism, cap- 
tious, [obs. senses talk, say, sing, prob. f. ON 
karpa to brag, but mod. sense influenced by L 
carpere pluck at, slander] 

eap'pal, a. Of the carpus, [carpus, -al] 

cap'pel, n. (bot.). Pistil-cell, whether pistil 
is one cell or several. Hence eap'pellARY x a. 
[mod. dim. f. Gk karpos fruit, see -le(2)] 

cap'penter, n., & v.i. & t. Artificer in 
wood-work (esp. of rough solid kinds as in ship 
or house building, cf. joiner, CABiNET-maker); 
c.-ant, -bee, kinds boring into trees; c.-scene, 
played before a painted scene (also c.-scene) to 
give c. time for preparing elaborate scene be- 
hind ; so cap'pentRY (2, 5) n. ( Vb) do, make by, 
c.'s work. [f. ONF carpentier (now ch-) f. LL 
carpentarius {carpentum wagon f. Celt.)] 

cap'pet 1 , n., & v.t. Thick fabric, usu. 
woollen & patterned, for covering floor & stairs 
(at first of table-covering, whence on the c, 
under discussion ; & as floor-covering long a 
boudoir luxury, whence c. -knight, stay-at- 
home soldier, lady's man) ; smooth, soft, or 
bright expanse of grass, flowers, &c. ; c.-bed, 
garden bed with dwarf plants arranged in 
pattern ; c.-dance, informal ; c.-rods, keeping 
stair-c. in place ; c.-snake, variegated Austra- 
lian kind ; c.-bag, travelling-bag, orig. made of 
c. ; c.-bagger, candidate for election or political 
agitator unconnected with district; hence 
eap'petLESS a. (Vb) cover (as) with a c, 
whence eap'petiNG l (3) n. ; summon (servant 
&c.) into the room for reprimand, reprove, [f. 
OF carpite or It. carpita p.p. of carpire f. L 
carpere pluck, tyie fabric being perh. a patch- 
work ; cf. F charpie lint] 

eappho*log"y, n. Delirious fumbling with 
bed-clothes &c. [f. Gk karphologia (karphos 
twig, lego pick, -Y 1 )] 

cappo- !, comb, form of carpus. 

earpo- 2 , comb, form of Gk karpos fruit. 
Hence eappo'LOGY n. 

carpus, n. (anat.). Part of skeleton that 
unites hand &c. to fore-arm, eight small bones 
in higher vertebrates (in man, wrist ; in horse, 
knee), [f. Gk karpos wrist] 

ea'PPiage (-rij), n. Conveying, transport; 
cost of conveying (c.-free ; c.-forward, not 
prepaid); management (of enterprise &c); 
passing (o/Parl. motion &c); manner of carry- 
ing (c. of head, body, &c), bearing, deportment; 
wheeled vehicle for persons (hackney, railway, 



-c), esp. four-wheeled private vehicle with two 
(c. & pair) or more horses (c.-company, -folk, 
who keep these), whence ea*ppiag , eFUL(2) n. ; 
wheeled support of gun (usu. gun-c.) ; wheeled 
framework of vehicle apart from body ; (Mech.) 
sliding &c. part of machinery for shifting posi- 
tion of other parts ; c.-dog, spotted Dalmatian ; 
c.-drive, road in parks &c. Hence ea'ppiage- 
less a. [f. ONF cariage f. carter (carry, -age)] 

ca*ppiag*eable, a. Available for carriages 
(of road), [-able] 

ea'PPiek bend, n. (naut.). Kind of knot or 
splice, [bend 1 ; carrick perh. f . obs. carrack 
armed merchant ship] 

ca'ppiep, n. In vbl senses ; esp. : person 
plying for hire with cart for conveyance of 
parcels (common c, legal term including also 
railway and steamship companies &c.) ; part of 
bicycle &c. for carrying luggage; c. -pigeon; 
c. -nation &c, conducting oversea trade for 
others, [carry + -er l ] 

ea'ppiole, n. Small open carriage for one ; 
covered light cart ; Canadian sledge, [f. F 
carr^iole, med. L carriola dim. of carva car 1 ] 

ea'ppion, n. & a. Dead putrefying flesh; 
anything vile, garbage, filth ; c.-crow, between 
raven & rook, feeding on c, small animals, &c. ; 
(adj.) rotten, loathsome. [ME & ONF caroine 
perh. f. Rom. *caronia f. L caro caiviis flesh] 

earpona'de, n. Short large-calibred ship's 
gun. [Carron orig. place of making + -ade] 

ca'ppot, n. (Plant with) tapering orange- 
coloured edible root; (pi.) red hair, red-haired 
person, whence ea'PPOtY 2 a. [f. F carotte 
f. L carota f. Gk karoton perh. f. kara head] 

ca'ppy, v.t. & i. Convey in vehicle, ship, 
hand, or head (as news), or on person (also of 
vehicle &c, or water, wind, &c, as subject ; c. 
corn, from field to stack ; fetch & c, be under- 
ling ; c. all before one, succeed ; c. weight, be 
handicapped in horse-racing or fig.) ; conduct 
(pipes c. water, xcires c. sound ; c. into effect; 
c. one back, in fancy to earlier times ; c. off to 
prison) ; transfer (figures to column of higher 
notation ; c. conviction, implant one's own in 
other minds ; c. over, forward, entries to new 
page or account) ; propel to specified distance 
(of gun &c, with obj. usu. omitted ; also intr. 
= go of missile) ; cause or enable to go to (of 
motive, journey-money, &c.) ; bring to (of day's 
journey &c.) ; prolong, continue, to (c. tower to 
500ft, modesty to excess) ; win (prize ; c. it, the 
day, succeed ; c. fortress &c. , capture ; c. 
hearers with one, persuade) ; win victory for 
(candidate ; c. one's point, a motion, bill) ; 
wear, have with one, possess, involve, (arms, a 
watch, &c. ; cone's bat 2 ; c. weight, authority, 
be influential ; c. with one, remember ; loans c 
interest, principles c. consequences) ; hold in a 
certain way (c. one's head, body, oneself; c. 
sword &c, in saluting-position) ; endure weight 
of, support, (ships c. sail, piers c. dome) ; c. 
away, inspire, transport, deprive of self-control, 
(Naut.) lose (mast &c.) by breakage ; c. off, re- 
move from life, win, render passable, c. it off 
well, make brave show ; c. on, advance (pro- 
cess) a stage, continue, manage (business), 
(colloq.) behave strangely ; c. out, put in prac- 
tice ; c. over (St. Exch.), keep over to next 
selling-day ; c. through, bring safely out of 
difficulties, complete, [f. ONF carier f. LL 
carricare (L carrus car l )] 

cart, n., & v.t. & i. Strong two- wheeled 
vehicle (cf. wagon) used in farming & for 
heavy goods, (also spring, mail, dog, -c.) light 
two- wheeled one-horse vehicle for driving in, 
(put c. before horse, reverse order, take effect 
for cause; c.-horse, thickset & fit for heavj^ 



CARTE 



126 



CASH 



work; c.-ladder, rack at sides or ends for in- 
creasing capacity ; c. - load, = cartful, also 
large quantity of anything ; c.-road, -way, too 
rough for carriages ; c.-wheel, wheel of a, large 
coin as crown &c., lateral summersault of 
street urchins {turn c.-w.); c.-whip, long & 
heavy; c.-wright, maker of cc. ; hence ear't- 
age(4), car'tER l , eaP*tFUL(2), nn. ( Vb) carry 
in a c. ; work with a c. ; (slang) defeat easily 
(in match, game, &c). [prob. f. ON kartr cart 
cf. OE crxt of doubtful meaning] 

carte, quapte (kart), n. Fencing position (c. 
& tierce, sword-play). [F (q-), f. It. quarta fourth] 

carte blanche (F), n. Blank paper given 
to person to write his own terms on ; full dis- 
cretionary power. [F (card 2 , blank)] 

capte-de-visi'te (de, -zet), n. Photograph 
3Jin. x2?. [F,= visiting card, its orig. purpose] 

cap'tel, n. Written challenge to duel ; (agree- 
ment for) exchange of prisoners ; (also kartell) 
manufacturers' union to keep up prices. [F, f. 
It. cartello dim. of carta card 2 ] 

Carte'sian (-zhn), a. & n. (Follower) of 
Descartes or his philosophy or mathematical 
methods. Hence Capte*sianiSM(3) n. [Carte- 
siios mod. L name of Rene Descartes, 1596-1650, 

-AN] 

Capthu'sian (-z-), a. & n. (Member) of order 
of monks founded by St Bruno 1086 ; (member) 
of Charterhouse school founded on site of C. 
monastery, [f. L Cartusianus f. Chatrousse, 
place of their first monastery] 

cap'tilage (-ij), n. (Structure, part, in verte- 
brates, of) firm elastic tissue, gristle, (temporary 
c, in the young, changing later to bone). So 
captila'g-inoiD a. [F, f. L cartilago -inis] 

captlla'ginous, a. Of, like, cartilage (c. fish, 
with c. skeleton), [f. L (-osus, see prec, -ous)] 

capto'gpaphy, n. Map - drawing. So 
capto'GRAPjiER n., captoGRA"PHic(AL) aa. 
[f. F carte chart (card 2 ) + -graphy ; the cor- 
rect form f. Gk would have ch-] 

eap'tomaney, n. Fortune-telling by play- 
ing-cards, [f. It. carta card 2 , -mangy] 

cap'ton, n. "White disk within bull's-eye of 
target, [f. F as foil.] 

captoo'n, n., & v.i. & t. Drawing on stout 
paper as design for painting, tapestry, mosaic, 
&c. ; full-page (or large) illustration, esp. on poli- 
tics in comic paper ; hence eaptoo*niST(3) n. 
(Vb) draw c, represent (person &c.) in a c. [f. 
F carton or It. cartone (carta card 2 , -oon)] 

eartou'che (-oosh), n. (Arch.) scroll orna- 
ment, e. g. volute of Ionic capital ; tablet 
imitating, or drawing of, scroll with rolled-up 
ends, used ornamentally or bearing inscription ; 
(Archaeol.) oval ring containing hieroglyphic 
names & titles of Egyptian kings &c. [F, f. It. 
cartoccio augmentative of carta card 2 ] 

cap*tpidg , e, n. Charge of explosive for fire- 
arms or blasting made up in case of paper, 
flannel, metal, &c. (small-arm ball-c. or c. 
contains bullet also, blank-c. the explosive 
only) ; c.-belt, with sockets for cc. ; c.-paper, 
thick and rough, used also for drawing & for 
strong envelopes, [corrupt, of prec] 

eap'tulapy, n. Collection of records ; regis- 
ter, [f. rued. L c(h)artularium i. L cartula 
dim. of c(h)arta card 2 , -ary 1 ] 

ca'puncle (also karu"-), n. Fleshy excres- 
cence, as turkeycock's wattles, [f. 16th-c. F ca- 
runcule f. L caruncula (caro camis flesh, -un- 
cle)] 

carve, v.t. & i. (p.p. -ed, sometimes -en). Cut 
(in gen. sense now only fig., as c. one's way) ; 
produce by cutting (statue, portrait, represen- 
tation in relief or intaglio, inscription, design, 
out of, in, or on, material), change by cutting 



(material into something), cover or adorn 
(material) with figures cut in it, cut designs 
&c, whence cap , viNG 1 (2) n. ; cut up meat, 
cut up (meat &c), at or for table (carving-kni^e, 
long for this purpose); subdivide (usu. up)<; 
c. out, take from larger whole, acquire esp. by 
the sword. [OE ceorfan, com.-Teut. cf. Du. 
kerven, prob. cogn. w. Gk grapho write] 
eap'vel, = caravel ; c.-built, with planks 

flush (Cf. CLINKER-BUILT). 

cap'vep, n. In vbl senses ; also, carving- 
knife, (pi.) carving knife & fork, [-er 1 ] 

eapya'tid, n. Female figure used as pillar, 
[f. L f. Gk karuatis -idos priestess at Caryae] 

casca'de, n., & v.i. (Fall like a) waterfall, or 
one section of large broken waterfall ; wavy 
fall of lace &c. [F, f. It. cascata (cascare to 
fall for casicare f. L cas- see foil.)] 

case \ n. Instance of thing's occurring ; 
actual state of affairs (is, is not, the c, is true, 
false) ; position, circumstances, in which one 
is, plight, [in good, evil, c, weh, badly, off) ; 
(Med.) person's diseased condition ; instance 
of any disease. (Law) cause, suit, for trial ; 
statement of facts in cause sub judice, drawn 
up for higher court's consideration (judge 
states a c); cause that has been decided 
& may be cited (leading c, one often cited & 
governing subsequent decisions) ; sum of argu- 
ments on one side (that is our c. ; make out 
one's c, prove it) ; (fig.) c. of conscience, matter 
in which conscience has to decide between 
conflicting principles. (Gram.) form of noun, 
adj., or pronoun, in inflected languages express- 
ing relation to some other word in sentence (in 
uninflected languages, this relation itself apart 
from form). In c. , if, in the event that, lest ; in c. 
of, in the event of ; put (the) c. that, suppose ; in 
any c, whatever the fact is, whatever may hap- 
pen ; in that c, if that is true, should happen ; 
c.-laic, law as settled by precedent. [ME & 
OF cas f. L casus -us fall (cadere cas- fall)] 

case 2 , n., & v.t. Enclosure of something, 
box, bag, sheath, &c. ; frame* for plant-growing; 
glass box for showing specimens, curiosities, 
&c. ; outer protective covering (of watch, 
sausage, seed-vessel, book, &c); box with 
propercontents (dressing-c.) ; (Print.)receptacle 
with compartments (iqjperc, capitals, lower c, 
small letters) ; c.-bottle, square for fitting into 
c. with others; ca'se-harden v.t., harden sur- 
face of, esp. give steel surface to (iron) by chem. 
process, (fig.) render callous; c.-knife, worn in 
sheath ; c.-shot, or c, bullets in tin box fired from 
cannon without fuse, also = shrapnel ; c.-worm 
= caddis. (Vb) enclose in c, surround with, (also 
with up, over) ; hence ea'siNG *(3) n. [f. ONF 
casse (now chdsse) f. L capsa (capere hold)] 

ca'sein, n. A proteid or albuminoid, the basis 
of cheese. [L caseus cheese + -in] 

ca'semate, n. Vaulted chamber in thickness 
of wall of fortress, with embrasures. Hence 
ca'sematED 2 a. [F, f. It. casamatta (casa 
house, perh. matto mad, also pseudo-)] 

case'ment (-s- or -z-), n. Metal -or wooden 
hinged frame with glass forming (part of) 
window (often c.-window) ; (poet. &c.) window, 
[f. med. L. casamentum, or f. case 2 + -ment] 

ca'seous, a. Of, like, cheese, [f. L caseus 
cheese 4- -ous] 

easep*n(e) (-z-), n. (Usu. pi.) small building(s) 
for troops between ramparts & houses of for- 
tress. [F (-e), f. Sp. caserna (casa house)] 

cash 1 , n. (no pi.), & v.t. Ready money (in, 
out of, c, having, not having, money ; c. down, 
paid on the spot); (Banking &c.) specie, or 
specie and bank: notes; (Book-keeping) c- 
account, to which only c. is carried, & from 



CASH 



127 



CASTOR 



which all payments are rnade, c.-book, for 
record of c. received and paid ; c.-pay merit, in 
ready money ; c. price, lowest, for ready money ; 
hence ea'shLESS a. (Vb) give or obtain c. for 
(note, cheque, &c.). [f. F casse (now caisse) 
box f. L capsa case 2 ] 

cash 2 , n. (pi. cash). Kinds of E.-Ind. and 
Chinese small coin, esp. a Chinese coin perfor- 
ated for stringing = i&o of tael. [ult. f . Tamil 
kasu a small coin by confusion with cash l ] 

ea'shew, n. W.-Ind. &c. tree with kidney- 
shaped fruit (c.-nut). [f. F acajou f. Braz. 
acajoba] 

cashier* *, n. Person in charge of bank's or 
merchant's cash. [f. F caissier (cash *, -ier)] 

cashier* 2 , v. t. Dismiss from service, depose ; 
discard, [f. Flem. or Du. casseren cf. F casser 
f.L quassare (quatere quass- shake), with senses 
also of L cassare annul (cassus vain)] 

ca'shmere, n. (Also c.-shawl) shawl of fine 
soft wool of Cashmere goat; the material; 
imitation of it. Hence eashmerE'TTE(2) n. 

casi'no (-se-), n. Public music or dancing 
room. [It., dim. of casa house f. L casa cottage] 

cask, n. Wooden vessel (^barrel 1 ); this 
and its contents ; varying measure of capacity, 
[perh. f. F casque helmet J 

ca'sket, n. Small box, often of precious 
material & workmanship, for jewels, letters, 
&c. [perh. dim. of prec. (-et 1 ), but quoted from 
a century earlier] 

casque (kask), n. (hist., poet.). Helmet. [F, 
f. Sp. cased] 

Cassa'ndra, n. Prophet of ill ; unregarded 
prophet. [Trojan prophetess fated to prophesy 
truly & be unbelieved] 

cassa'tion, n. Annulment, [f. LL cassatio 
(L cassare cashier 2 , -ation)] 

eassa'va (-sah-), n. W.-Ind. &c. plant with 
tuberous roots ; its starch or flour, bread made 
from these, [f. Haytian casdvi &c] 

ca'sserole, n. A heat-proof earthenware 
vessel in which meat &c. is cooked & served 
(en c, so served). [F] 

ca'ssia (also -sha), n. Inferior kind of 
cinnamon ; genus of plants yielding senna- 
leaves, [f. L f. Gk kasia f. Heb. q'tsi'ah 
(qatsa 1 cut off bark)] 

ca'ssock, n. Long close tunic worn by some 
Anglican clergymen under gown or short 
surplice, or as ordinary attire. Hence ca's- 
soekED 2 n. [f. F casaque etym. dub., perh. 
f. It. casacca habitation, also long coat, (casa 
see casino) ; cf. chasuble] 

cassole'tte, n. Vessel for burning per- 
fumes ; perfume-box with perforated top. [F, 
dim. of cassole dim. of casse pan] 

ca'ssowapy, n. Kinds of large cursorial 
bird related to ostrich, [f. Malay casuari] 

cast !, v.t. & i. (cast). Throw (poet, or archaic 
exc. in spec, uses, as : c. dice ; c. a vote, give or 
deposit it ; c. lots ; c. ashore ; c. net, hook, fly ; 
casting-net, one thrown & at once drawn in ; 
c. the lead l , in sounding ; c. anchor ; c. in one's 
teeth, reproach him with, that ; c. an eye, 
glance, look ; c. a spell on, bewitch ; c. light, a 
shadow, on; c. blame, one's cares, upon ; c. into 
2>rison) ; overthrow in a lawsuit ; throw off, 
get rid of, lose, (c. not a clout till May be out ; 
c. aside, give up using, abandon ; horse casts 
shoe ; snake, deer, c. slough, horns ; cow, tree, 
c. calf, fruit, drop prematurely; c. soldier, 
policeman, horse, dismiss, reject ; c. loose, de- 
tach, detach oneself) ; reckon, calculate, (c. 
accounts, do sums ; c. a column of figures &c, 
add up ; c. a horoscope or nativity) ; arrange 
(c. facts into such a shape ; c. actors for parts, 
parts to actors) ; form, found, (molten metal) 



into some shape, (figure &c.) of metal, whence 
ca'stiNG i(2) n. ; c. about, go this way & that 
in search, devise means, (for, to do, how); c. 
away, reject, (pass., of ship) be wrecked ; c. back, 
revert ; c. down, depress ; c. in one's lot with, 
share fortunes of; c. off, abandon, (Knitting) 
close loops & make selvedge ; c. up, calculate, 
[f. ON kasta perh. cogn. w. L gerere gest- ; it 
displaced OE weorpan, & has been displaced 
in ordinary literal use by throw] 

cast 2 , n. Throw of missile &c, distance so 
attained, (archaic) ; throw, number thrown, at 
dice, whence chance or try; throw of net, 
sounding-lead, or fishing-line (also in fishing 
the fly with hook & gut; & good, bad, &c. 
place for casting) ; casual lift in cart &c. ; un- 
digested food thrown up by hawk, owl, &c. ; 
calculation, adding of columns in account; 
set of actors taking the parts in play, or the 
distribution among them ; form into which 
any work is thrown ; model made by running 
molten metal or pressing soft material into 
mould (also the negative mould itself) ; twist, 
inclination, (c. in eye, slight squint) ; tinge- 
shade, of colour; type, quality, (esp. c. Oj 
features, c. of mind), [f. prec] 

Casta'lian, a. Poetic, [f. L f. Gk Kastalia 
fountain of the Muses + -an] 

ca'stanet (or -et), n. (Usu. pi.) hard-wood 
or ivory instrument(s) used in pairs to rattle in 
time with dancing, [f. Sp. castaneta dim. of 
castana f. L castanea chestnut] 

ea'staway, n. & a. Reprobate ; shipwrecked 
(person), [p.p. of cast 1 , away] 

caste, n. Indian hereditary class, with 
members socially equal, united in religion, & 
usu. following same trade, having no social 
intercourse with persons of other cc. ; heredi- 
tary more or less exclusive class elsewhere ; 
this system, the position it confers (lose, re- 
nounce, c, descend in social scale). Hence 
ca'steLESS a. [f. Sp. & Port, casta lineage 
perh. orig. fern, of casto chaste] 

ca'stellan, n. Governor of castle. [ME & 
ONF castelam f. L castellanus (castle, -an)] 

ca'stellated, a. Castle-like ; battlemented ; 
(of district &c.) having castles, [f. med. L cas- 

tellatus (CASTLE, -ATE 2 )] 

ea'stigate, v.t. Chastise, punish with blows 
or words ; correct & emend (book &c). Hence 
castigATiON, ea'stigatOR 2 , nn., ca'stig-a- 
torv a. [f. L castigare (see -ate 3 ) perh. = 
castum agere make chaste] 

ea*sting--vote, n. Vote that decides be- 
tween two equal parties, [part, of cast 1 in 
obs. sense, cf. castor 2 ] 

cast iron, n., cast-iron, a. Iron shaped 
by being run into mould. (Adj.) made of c.i. ; 
hard, untiring, rigid, unadaptable. 

castle 1 (kalrsl, ka'sl), n. Large fortified 
building or set of buildings, stronghold ; man- 
sion that was once such; (Ireland) The C., 
government system (f. Dublin C, seat of vice- 
regal court & government); Englishman's 
house his c, none may force entrance ; (Chess) 
piece made with battlemented top, also Rook ; 
c. in the air, or as Gallicism c. in Spain, vision- 
ary project, day-dream, (so c.-builder). Hence 
ea'stlED 2 a., ea'stlewiSE adv. [f. ONF castel 
f. L castellum dim. of castrum fort] 

ea'stle 2 , v.t. & i. (chess). Move c. next king, 
& king round c. (c. the king, or abs.). [f. prec] 

ea'stop l , n. Substance obtained from beaver 
used in medicine & perfumery; (slang) hat. 
[obs. wd for beaver, F, f. L f. Gk kastor] 

ea'stor 2 , -er, n. 1. Condiment-bottle for 
table, (pi.) cruet-stand; c.-sugar, white, pow- 
dered. 2. Small swivelled wheel on leg of chair, 



CASTOR 



128 



CATARACT 



of 



table, &c. [cast 1 + -or 2 , -er l ; sense 1 ori; 
perforated-top bottle for casting pepper fitc. ; 
sense 2 f. obs. sense of cast l = veer, turn] 

ea'stOP 3 , n. Horny external knob inside 
horse's leg (also chestnut), [perh. =cbs. castane 
chestnut (ONF castanie f. L castanea)] 

ea'stOP oil, n. Nauseous vegetable oil used 
as purgative (cold-drawn c.o., expressed from 
seeds without heat), [etym. dub. ; perh. so 
called as having succeeded castor 1 in med. use] 

eastpameta'tion, n. (archaeol.). Laying 
out of camps, [f. F castramitation f. L castra 
camp, metari measure, -ation] 

eastpa'te, v.t. Remove testicles of, geld; 
deprive of vigour ; expurgate (book). Hence 
castPA'Tiox n. [f. L castrare, -ate 3 ] 

ea'sual (-zhob-, -zu-), a. & n. Accidental ; 
irregular ; undesigned ; unmethodical, care- 
less ; c. labourer, who works when the chance 
comes ; c. poor, who sometimes need poor- 
relief (also c. as noun) ; c.-ward, for their re- 
lief in work-house. Hence ea*sua,iLY 2 adv., 
ca'sualNESS n. [f. F casuel f. L casualis 

(casus CASE 1 , -AL)] 

ea'sualty, n. Accident, mishap, disaster, 
esp. (pi.) list or number of killed, wounded, & 
invalided, in a battle, march, war, &c. [f. L 
casualitas (prec, -ty) on anal, of royalty &c] 
ca'suist (-zhdb-, -zu-), n. Person, esp. theo- 
logian, who lays down application of ethical 
rules to special cases, weighs conflicting obliga- 
tions, classifies e»3eptions, & draws distinc- 
tions ; sophist, quibbler. Hence easui'stic(AL) 
aa., casui'stiealLY 2 adv., ca'suistRV n. [f. 
F casuiste f. L casus case 1 , -ist(3)] 
ca'sus be' Hi, n. Act justifying war. [L] 
eat 1 , n. Small domesticated carnivorous 
quadruped (male, Tom-c.) ; Wild C, larger 
native British kind ; spiteful woman, scratching 
child ; (Zool.) any member of genus Felis, as 
lion, tiger, panther, leopard (esp. the Cc, the 
great Cc.) ; c.-like animal of other species (civet, 
musk, -c.) ; (Hist.) pent-house in sieges; (also 
cathead) horizontal beam from each side of 
ship's bow for raising & carrying anchor ; (also 
c.-o'-nine-tails) rope whip with nine knotted 
lashes formerly used for flogging sailors & 
soldiers ; six-legged tripod always standing on 
three of its legs ; tapered short stick in game 
tip-c. ; turn c. in pan, change sides, be turn- 
coat ; c. may look at king, rebuke to the exclu- 
sive ; care killed the c. (for all its nine lives ; 
therefore be cheerful) ; wait for the c. to jump, 
see which way the c. jumps, cult of the jumping 
c, &c, of politician refusing to advise until 
public opinion has declared itself ; fight like 
Kilkenny cc, to mutual destruction ; bell 2 
the c. ; not room to swing a c, confined space ; 
c.-&-dog life &c, full of quarrels, esp. that of 
husband & wife ; rain cc. & dogs, very hard ; 
catbird, Amer. thrush ; catcall, shrill whistle 
(sound or instrument) expressing disapproval 
at theatre &c. (also as v.i. & t., use, reprove 
with, this) ; c.-eyed, able to see in dark ; catfish, 
of various kinds, esp. large Amer. river-fish ; 
c.-ice, milky-looking, bubbly, not solid, irregu- 
lar by receding of water ; c.-lap, slops, tea, &c; 
c. -mint, blue-flowered aromatic plant ; c.-nap, 
-sleep, brief, in chair &c. ; c's-cradle, child's 
game with transfers of string between fingers 
of two players; c.'s-eye, precious stone of 
Ceylon & Malabar; cSs-foot, ground-ivy; c.'s- 
meat, horse-flesh prepared & hawked as food 
for cc. ; c.'s-paiv, person used as tool by another, 
slight breeze rippling water in places ; c.'s-tail, 
various plants, as Reed-mace. Hence ea*t- 
HOOD n., ea'tLiKE a. [com.-Europ. f. L catta] 
cat 2 , v.i. & t. (colloq.). Vomit, [f. prec] 



cata-, eat-, cath-, pref. in wds taken from 
Greek, and in others formed with Gk materials 
or on Gk analogy ; meanings : down, away, 
wrongly, mis-, entirely, down upon, according 
to, alongside of, thoroughly, [f . Gk kata prep. J 

cataciipe'sis, n. Perversion, improper use, 
of words. So eataehpe*stic(AL) aa., cata- 
ehpe'stiealLY 2 adv. [L, f. Gk CATA(khresis 
i. khraomai use)] 

ca'taclasm, n. Violent break, disruption, 
[f. Gk CATA(fc/asma f. klao to break)] 

ea'taelysm, n. Deluge (esp. in Geol. as 
required by theory of school that believed in 
repeated destructions of all life followed by 
new creations) ; political or social upheaval. 
Hence eataely'sixiAL, cataclysmic, aa., 
cataely*smiST(3) n. [f. F cataclysme f. Gk 
cata (klusmos flood f. kluo wash)] 

ca'tacomb (-kom), n. Subterranean ceme- 
tery (orig. that under basilica of St Sebastian 
near Rome, supposed burying-place of Peter & 
Paul) ; (usu. pi.) the many Roman subterranean 
galleries with recesses excavated in sides for 
tombs ; similar works elsewhere (in Paris, 
worked-out stone-quarries with bones from 
emptied churchyards) ; wine-cellar, [etym. 
dub. ; the cc. generally, while in use, were not 
so called ; that of St Sebastian was, catacumbas 
(Gk cata- kumbas at the boats?) being possibly 
name of district or an inn] 

eata'dpomous, a. (zool.). Descending to 
lower river or sea to spawn. , [f. Gk CATA(rfro- 
mos -running) + -ous] 

ea'tafalque (-k), n. Decorated stage for 
coffin or effigy of distinguished person during 
funeral service ; open hearse. [F, f. It. cata- 
falco etym. dub.; but cf. F echafaud scaffold] 

Ca'talan, a. & n. (Native, language) of 
Catalonia. 

catale'etie, a. Wanting a syllable in last 
foot (of verse), [f. LL f. Gk CATA(lektikos ceas- 
ing f. lego cease)] 

ea'talepsy, n. Disease in which trances 
occur; (Philos.) apprehension, grasping by 
mind. [f. med. L catalepsia f. Gk CATA(Zepsw> 
seizure) see foil.] 

cataleptic, a. & n. Of, subject to, the dis- 
ease catalepsy (n., ac. person) ; (Philos.) mental 
apprehension, [f. LL catalepticus f. Gk cata- 
(leptikos seizing f. lambano seize)] 

ea'talogfue (-6g), n., & v.t. (Enumerate, 
enter, in a) complete list, usu. alphabetical or 
under headings, & often with particulars added 
to items. Hence ea'talog'UER 1 n. [F.f.LLf, 
Gk katalogos f. CATA(Ze<70 choose) enroll] 

cata'lpa, n. Kinds of tree with heart-shaped 
leaves & trumpet-shaped flowers. [W.-Ind.] 

eata'lysis, n. (chem.). Effect produced by 
a substance that without undergoing change 
itself aids a chemical change in other bodies. 
So catalytic a. [f. Gk cata(Zm.si'.s loosing f. 
luo to loose) dissolution] 

eatamapa'n, n. Raft or float of logs tied 
side by side, longest in middle, used for com- 
munication with shore or short voyage ; raft 
of two boats fastened side by side ; quarrel- 
some woman, [f. Tamil katta-maram tied tree] 

ea'tamite, n. Sodomite's minion, [f . L cata- 
mitus f. Gk Ganumedes cup-bearer of Zeus] 

eatamoirntain, eatro'-m-, n. Leopard ; 
wild quarrelsome person. 

ca'tapult, n., & v.t. & i. Ancient engine 
worked by lever & ropes for discharging darts, 
stones, &c. ; boy's shooting contrivance of fork- 
ed stick & elastic ; (vb) shoot or pepper (bird, 
&c, or abs.) with this. [f. L catapulta f. Gk 
katapeltes perh. f. cata- + pallo hurl] 

ca'tapact, n. Waterfall (prop, large & sheer, 



CATARRH 



129 



CATGUT 



cf. cascade) ; downpour of rain, rush of water ; 
(Path.) eye-complaint producing partial blind- 
ness ; (Mech.) steam-engine governor acting by 
flow of water, [f. F cataracte f. L cataracta f. 
Gk katarrhaktes f. c\T(arasso dash) or cata- 
(rrhegnumi break) ; the path, sense prob. f. obs. 
sense portcullis] 

catarrh', n. Inflammation of mucous mem- 
brane, a cold. Hence eatap'phAL a. [f. F 
catarrhe f. L catarrhus f. Gk katarrhous f. 
katarrhed (cata-, rhed to flow)] 

ea*ta(p)phine, a. & n. (zool.). (Monkey) 
having nostrils close together, oblique, & 
directed downwards, & opposable thumbs on 
all limbs, [f. Gk cata-, rhis rhinos nostril] 

cata'stpophe, n. Denouement of drama; 
disastrous end, ruin ; event subverting system 
of things, esp. in Geol. (cf. cataclysm, uni- 
formitarian), whence eatastpo'phic(AL) 
aa., cata*stPophiSiM(3), cata*stPophiST(2), 
nn. ; sudden, widespread, or signal disaster, 
[f. Gk cat A(strophe turning f. strepho to turn)] 

Catawba, n. U.S. grape & wine, [river C.J 

catch \ v.t. & i. (caught pr. kawt). Capture, 
ensnare (c. crab 1 ), overtake (alsoc. up ; caught 
in storm), lay hold of (also c. hold of; c. a 
tartar ; c. up habit &c, adopt), be in time for 
(train &c.) ; surprise, detect, (at or in, or doing ; 
c. me !, him !, you may be sure we shall not) ; 
hit (usu. with part specified ; caught him on the 
nose ; also caught him a blow or one) ; (of fire 
or combustible) ignite, be ignited, (c. fire or c.) ; 
be entangled, take hold, (usu. c. in a thing ; 
bolt catches ; c. on, become popular) ; snatch 
(esp. c. up, away, c. at, often flg. =be glad to 
get) ; intercept motion of (nail catches dress ; 
at cricket, c. ball, prevent its touching ground 
off bat, also c. or c. out batsman, dismiss by 
doing this) ; check suddenly (c. one's breath ; c. 
up speaker, interrupt) ; receive, incur, be in- 
fected with, (cold, a cold, a fever ; a scolding, 
thrashing, or ' it ' ; enthusiasm, a habit, an ac- 
cent ; c. one's death ; pond &c. catches, is 
coated with ice) ; grasp with senses or mind 
(meaning, sound, tune ; c. a likeness, see & re- 
produce it ; c. glimpse of, see for a moment ; 
don't c. on, fail to see meaning) ; arrest, capti- 
vate, (attention, eye, fancy ; c. Speaker's eye, 
succeed in being called on to speak in H. of 
Commons) ; c.-drain, along hillside to prevent 
water's running off; c.-'em-alive-o, sticky fly- 
paper ; c.-fly, a sticky-stemmed plant ; catch- 
penny (adj.), claptrap, intended merely to sell ; 
catchweed, Goosegrass; catchword, word so 
placed as to draw attention, e. g. first of diction- 
ary article, rhyming word in verse, last word 
(cue) of actor's speech, also influential tempor 
ary phrase in politics, religion, &c. Hence 
ca'tchABLE a., (-)catchER HI, 2) n. [catch & 
chase are respectively f. OXF cachier & OF 
chacier (now chasser) both f. LL *captiare (L 
captus captive f. capere take) ; the gen. sense 
of catch (take, not pursue) is excl. E, the orig. 
meanings (still in Rom.) having been taken by 
the later adoption chase 2 ] 

catch 2 , n. Act of catching ; amount of fish 
caught ; chance of, success in, catching at 
cricket (also a good, safe, c, one skilful at it) ; 
cunning question, deception, surprise ; contriv- 
ance for checking motion of door &c. ; thing or 
person caught or worth catching (no c, bad 
bargain, unwelcome acquisition) ; (Mus.) com- 
position for several voices, second &c. beginning 
same melody when first &c. is a line further on, 
usu. with arrangement for ludicrous verbal 
combinations, [f. prec] 

cartelling', a. In vbl senses; esp.: infectious; 
attracti ve. 1-ing 2 J 

f.d. 



ca'tchment, n. C.-basin, -area, from which 
rainfall flows into river &c. [catch i, -me»nt] 

ca'tchpole, -poll, n. Sheriff's officer/burn- 
bailiff, [f. med. L cacepollus cf. OF chacepol 
chase-fowl (chase, L pidlus fowl)] 

ea'tchy, a. Attractive ; easily caught up 
(of tune &c.) [catch i + -y 2 ] 

cate,n. (Usu. pi.) choice food, [for obs. acatet 
OFacat purchase f. acaternow acheter buy f. LL 
AC(captare frequent, of L capere take) catch at] 

catechetical) (-ke-), aa. Of, by, oral teach- 
ing ; according to a, or the Church, catechism ; 
consisting of, proceeding by, question & answer. 
Hence cateehe'tiealLY 2 adv. [f. L f. Gk 
katekhetikos f. katekhetes oral teacher (kate- 
kheo catechize), -ic] 

ca'techism (-k-), n. Instruction by question 
& answer ; published example of this, esp. on 
religious doctrine (Chxirch C, the Anglican ; 
Longer & Shorter C, of Presbyterians) ; series 
of questions put to any one. Hence eate- 
chi'sniAL a. [f. L catechismus (foil., -ism)] 

ca'techize (-k-), v.t. Instruct by question & 
answer, or by use of Church Catechism ; put 
questions to, examine. Hence or cogn. ca'te- 
chiST(l), ea'techizER 1 , nn. [f. Lcatechizare 
f. Gk katekhizo t_CAT(ekheo sound) make hear] 

ca'teehu (-tshoo), n. Astringent substances 
with much tannin from bark, wood, or fruits,, 
of Eastern plants, [f. Malay kachu] 

catechu'men (ku-), n. A convert under in- 
struction before baptism, [f. F catichumene f, 
pass. part, of Gk katekheo catechize] 

categ'O'pical, a. (Logic: of proposition) un- 
conditional, absolute; explicit, direct, plain- 
speaking; (Ethics) c. imperative, bidding of 
conscience as ultimate moral law. Hence 
categ-o'picalLY 2 adv. [f. L f. Gkkategorikos 
f. CAT(egoros -speaking) + -al] 

ca'tegopy, n. (Orig. Gk meaning, statement) 
one of a possibly exhaustive set of classes 
among which all things might be distributed 
(the cc. of Aristotle are : substance, quantity, 
quality, relation, place, time, posture, posses- 
sion, action, passion) ; one of the a priori con- 
ceptions applied by the mind as frames to- 
material supplied by sense ; class, division, [f. 
L f. Gk kategoria statement as prec] 

catena, n. Connected series. [L,= chain] 

cate'napy, catenap'ian, aa. & nn. (Like) 
curve formed by uniform chain hanging freely 
from two points not in one vertical line (c. 
bridge, suspension, hung from such chains), 
[f. L catenarius (prec, -ary 1 , -an)] 

ea'tenate, v.t. Connect like links. So 
eaten a *tion n. [f . L catenare as prec , -ate 3 ] 

ea'tep *« n. The four of cards or dice. [f. F 
quatre f. L guatuor four] 

ea'tep 2 , v.i. Purvey food (usu. for) ; provide 
amusement &c for. Hence ea'tePER i n. [f. 
obs. noun cater (now caterer) =ot>s. acater f. OF 
acateor buyer (cate, -or 2 )] 

ca-teran, n. (Sc). Highland fighting-man, 
marauder, cattle-lifter, [f. Gael, ceathairne 
peasantry] 

ea*tep-eousin, n. Intimate ; be cc, on good 
or familiar terms, [perh. f. cater 2 as feeding 
together] 

cateppillap, n. Larva of butterfly or moth ; 
rapacious person, [perh. f. OF chatepelose lit. 
hairy-cat, with -s dropped as pi. sign, & spell- 
ing influenced by \bpill rob, strip] 

ea'tep waul, v.i., & n. (Make) cat's scream- 
ing ; quarrel like cats, [cat, waul] 

ea'tg-ut, n. Material used for strings of fiddle 
&c made of twisted intestines of sheep, horse, 
or ass (not cat) ; stringed instruments, [expl. of 
cat doubtfulj 



CATH- 



130 



CAUSELESS 



cath-. See cata-. 

cathap'sis, n. (Med.) purgation ; outlet 
to emotion afforded by drama (ref. to Arist., 
Poet. 6). [f. Gk katharsis (hatha iro cleanse 
f. katharos clean)] 

eathap'tie, a. & n. (med.). Purgative (medi- 
cine). Jf. L f. Gk kathartikos as prec] 
cathe'dral, a. & n. (Also C. church) prin- 
cipal church of diocese, with bishop's throne ; 
c. utterance &c, delivered ex cathedra, [f. 
med. L, cathedralis f. L f. Gk CAT(hedra chair 
f. heel- sit), -al] 
Catherine- wheel, n. Circular spoked win- 
dow or window-compartment ; rotating fire- 
work ; lateral summersault (turn cc). [spiked 
wheel in St Catherine's martyrdom] 
ea'thetep, n. (med.). Tubular instrument 
for passing into bladder. [L, f. Gk katheter f. 
CAT(hiemi send)] 

ca'thode, n. (electr.). Negative pole of cur- 
rent, [f. Gk c\T(hodos way) descent] 
ea'tholie, a. & n. 1. Universal ; of interest 
or use to all men ; all-embracing, of wide sym- 
pathies, broad-minded, tolerant; C. Epistles, 
encyclical (those of James, Peter, Jude, & 
John— 2 & 3 John being irregularly included— ; 
ef. canonical). 2. (Eccl.) C. Church, whole 
body of Christians ; c, belonging (a) to this, 
(b) to the church before separation into Greek 
or Eastern & Latin or Western, (c) to the Latin 
church after that separation (cf. orthodox), 
(d) to the part of the Latin church that re- 
mained under the Roman obedience after the 
reformation, (e) to any church (as the Anglican) 
claiming continuity with (b) ; orthodox, in ac- 
cord with the church in any of above senses, 
esp. = roman catholic as (c) in contrast with 
Protestant, Reformed, Lutheran, &c. ; C. King, 
his C. Majesty, of Spain ; hence eatho'liCALLY, 
ea'tholicLV 2 , advv., eatho*lieiSM(2, 3) n., 
<?atho*lieiZE(3) v.t., eatho'lieo- comb, form. 
(N.) member of the church in above senses; 
a Roman Catholic (cf. C. emancipation &c, i.e. 
of Roman Cc.) ; Old C, member of party that 
seceded from Rome 1870-1 in Germany, [f. F 
catholique f. L f. Gk katholikos f. cath- holou 
on the whole, universally] 
catholi'city, n. Comprehensiveness, free- 
dom from prejudice; wide prevalence; agree- 
ment with Catholic or R.-C. Church doctrine, 
•Catholicism, [prec, -itv] 
cathd'licdn, n. Panacea. [F, f. Gk katho- 
likon neut. catholic] 
Ca'tiline, n. Profligate conspirator. [Cati- 
lina Roman noble d. 63 B.C.] 
ca'tkin, n. Downy hanging inflorescence of 
willow, birch, &c. [f. Du. katteken (cat 1 , -kin)] 
ca'tling*, n. Small cat ; fine cat-gut ; ampu- 
tating knife. [-LING-M2); surg. sense unexpl.] 
eato'ptpie, a. Of mirror, reflector, or re- 
flexion. Hence eato'ptpics n. [f. Gk katop- 
trilcos f. CAT(optron f. op- see, -tron instr. suf.)] 
ca'ttle, n. Live stock ; oxen (as c. & sheep) ; 
(slang) horses; black c, oxen of Scotch & Welsh 
highland breeds, orig. black ; contemptible per- 
sons; c.-feeder, machine regulating amount of 
food for c. ; c.-leader, nose-ring; c.-lifter, c- 
stealer; c.-pen 1 ; c.-picce, picture with c. ; c- 
pZa^ue, contagious disease of c, rinderpest. [ME 
& OXF catel f. LL cavtale f. L capitate neut. 
capital in sense chief property; cf. chattel, 
to which the orig. meaning of c. now belongs] 
Cauca'sian (-shn), a. & n. (Member) of the 
white race, Indo-European, [the Caucasus, 
supposed starting-place, + -ian] 
cau'eus !, n., & v.t. & i. Local political usu. 
elective party committee for fighting elections, 
defining policy, &c. (gen. used only of oppon- 



ents' organization) ; thee, c. system as a politi- 
cal power ; hence cau'cusDOM n. (Vb) use the 
c. system ; organize, dictate to, by its means ; 
hence cau'cusER 1 n. [U.S. wd (in sense meet- 
ing) perh. f. Algonkin = elder] 

cau'dal, a. Of, at, like, tail. Hence orcogn. 
eau*dalLV 2 adv., eau*dATE 2 a. [f. L cauda 
tail + -al] 

cau'dle, n. Warm gruel with spice, sugar, 
& wine, for invalids, esp. women in child-bed. 
[f. ONF caudel f. med. L caldellum dim. of L 
cal(i)dum hot drink (calidus warm)] 

caught. See catch K 

caul, n. Plain part at back of woman's cap ; 
membrane enclosing foetus; portion of this 
sometimes found on child's head (good omen, 
& charm against drowning), [f. F cale small 
cap etym. dub.] 

cau'ldpon, cal-, n. Large boiling-vessel 
(usu. of deep basin shape with hoop handle & 
removable lid), [f. ONF caudron f. L caldarium 
hot bath (L calidus warm, -ary 1 ), -oon] 

caulescent, a. (bot.). With visible stem, 
[f. L caulis stalk after arborescent &c] 

eau'liflowep (ko-), n. Cabbage with large 
fleshy flower-head. [f. F chouflori (now -fleur) 
f. L caidis stem + F p.p. of hfiorere to flower, 
w. assim. in E to L caulis & Efloiver] 

cau'line, a. (bot.). Of, on, stem. [f. L caulis 
stem, -ine 1 ] 

caulk (kawk), v.t. Stop up seams of (ship), 
stop up (seams), with oakum & melted pitch. 
Hence eaul'kER 1 n. [f. OF cauquer squeeze 
f. L calcare tread (calx heel)] 

eaulo-, comb, form of Gk kaxdos or L caulis 
stem, [-o-] 

cau'sal (-z-), a. Of, acting as, expressing, due 
to, a cause or causes; of the nature of cause 
and effect. Hence eau'salLY 2 adv. [f. L 
causalis (causa, -al)] 

causa'lity, n. The being, having, or actingv 
as, a cause ; relation of cause and effect, doc- 
trine that everything has cause(s). [prec, -itv] 

causa'tion (-z-), n. Causing, producing an* 
effect ; relation of cause and effect ; doctrine 
that all things have causes, whence causa'- 
tioniSM(3), causa*tioniST(2), nn. [f. hcausa- 
tio pretext, but w. sense f. med. L causare to 
cause (L causa), -ation] 

cau'sative (-z-), a. Acting as cause, pro- 
ductive of; (Gram.) expressing cause. Hence 
cau'sative l v 2 adv. [f . F causatif f . L ca usa- 
tivus (causari give as pretext, -ive)] 

cause 1 (-z), n. What produces an effect; 
anteeedent(s) invariably and unconditionally 
followed by a certain phenomenon ; person 
who, agent that, occasions something ; ground, 
reason, motive, for action ; adequate motive or 
justification (esp. show c.) ; efficient c, produc- 
ing force, material c, the requisite matter, 
formal c, the idea or definition, final c, pur- 
pose ; First C. . the Creator. (Law, and from 
law) matter about which person goes to law ; 
his case (plead a c.) ; law-suit ; side of any dis- 
pute espoused by person or party, militant 
movement, propaganda, (make common c. with); 
c.-list, of cases awaiting trial. [F, f. L causa] 

cause 2 (-z), v.t. Effect, bring about, pro- 
duce ; induce, make, (person or thing to do, 
to be done something to). Hence cau'SER l n. 
[f. med. L causare (cf. L causari plead causes, 
give as pretext)] 

cause ce/eibre (koz sele'br), n. (pi. causes 
c&lebres, pr. as sing.). Law-suit that excites 
much attention. [F] 

cau'seless, a. Fortuitous ; without natural 
cause ; unjustifiable, groundless, whence 
cau'selessLY 2 adv. [-less] 



CAUSERIE 



131 



CELEBRITY 



causerie (kozere*), n. (pi, -s, pr. as sing.). 
Newspaper article of an informal or conversa- 
tional kind, esp. on literary subjects. [F] 

causeuse (kozer'z), n. (pi. -s, pr. as sing.). 
Small sofa for two. [F] 

cau'seway, cau'sey, (-z-), n., & v.t, Kaised 
road across low or wet place or piece of water ; 
raised footway by road ; (vb) provide with c. 
[causeway = causey (ONF caucxe f. LL calciata 
trodden f. L calcare f. calx -cis heel) + way] 

cau'stie, a. & n. (Substance) that burns or 
corrodes organic tissue (Common or Lunar c, 
nitrate of silver for surg. use ) ; sarcastic, biting, 
whence eau'stiCALLY adv. ; (Math.) (surface, 
curve) formed by intersection of rays reflected 
or refracted from curved surface. Hence 
causti'ciTY n. [f. L f. Gk kaustikos (kaustos 
burnt f. kaio burn, -ic)] 

eau'terize, v. t. Sear with hot iron or caustic ; 
(fig.) make callous. Hence eauteriZA'TiON n. 
[f. F cauteriser f. LL ca uterizare f. Gk ka uterion 
branding-iron (kaio burn)] 

eau'tery, n. Metal instrument for searing 
tissue ; cauterizing, [f. L f. Gk kauterion see 
prec. ; second sense on anal, of nouns in -ery] 

cau'tion (-shn), n., & v.t. Prudence, taking 
care, avoidance of rashness, attention to safety, 
<c. money, deposited as security for good con- 
duct, esp. at Universities & Inns of Court), 
whence eau'tious a., eau'tiousLY 2 adv.; 
warning (in drill, preliminary word of com- 
mand), fact that acts as warning, warning with 
reprimand (dismissed with a a), whence cau*- 
tionARY i a. ; (slang) extraordinary thing, 
hideous or strange person. (Vb) warn (person, 
often against, to or not to do) ; warn & re- 
prove. [F. f. L cautionem (cavere caut- take 
heed, -ion)] 

cavalca'de, n. Company of riders. [F, f. 
Pr. cavalcada f. cavalcar ride f. LL caballicare 
f. L caballus horse ; see -ade] 

cavalier*, n. &a. Horseman ; courtly gentle- 
man, gallant, esp. as escorting a lady, whence 
cavalier* v.t ; I7th-c. royalist ; (adj.) off-hand, 
curt, supercilious, whence cavaliep'LY 2 adv. 
[earlier -Hero, -Hero, f. Sp. ; present form F, f. 
It. cavaliere (cavallo see cavalry, -ier)] 

cava'lly, n. Kinds of tropical fish, horse- 
mackerel, [f. Sp. cavalla mackerel] 

ea'valry, n. Horse-soldiers (usu. w. pi. vb). 
[f. F cavallerie f. It. cavalleria (cavallo f. L 
caballus horse, -ery)] 

cavati'na (-te-), n. Short simple song; 
smooth melodious air. [It.] 

cave 1 , n. Underground hollow usu. with 
horizontal opening, den ; idols of the c. ; (Pol.) 
secession of part of party on some question 
(adullamite), the seceders ; c.-dweller, esp. cf 
prehistoric men living in cc. ; c.-fish, -man, -rat, 
-spider, -sxcalloiv, kinds living in caves (alsoc- 
bear &c. of extinct kinds whose remains are 
found in cc. ). Hence ca'veLET n. [F, f . L cava 
neut. pi. of cavus adj. hollow] 

cave 2 , v.t. & i. Hollow out, make into a c. ; 
form political cave *. C. in : subside, recede, 
<of earth &c. over hollow ; of wall yielding in- 
wards cf. bulge) ; yield to pressure, submit, 
withdraw opposition ; smash in (esp. person's 
hat or head), spoil shape of. [f. prec. ; but c. in 
may be f. obs. calve fall in cf. Flem. in-kalven, 
Du. af-kalven, in similar sense] 

ea*ve 3 , int. (schoolboy slang). Look out ! 
(warning of master's approach). [L, - beware] 

ca*veat, n. (Law) process to suspend pro- 
ceedings (enter, put in, a c). Warning ; pro- 
viso. [L, = let him beware] 

ca*vendish,n. Tobacco softened, sweetened, 
& pressed into cake, negro-head. [?] 



ca'vera, n. Lnderground hollow (rhet.). [f. 
F caverne f. L caverna (cavus hollow)] 

ca'verned.a. Like, in, with, cavern(s). [-ed 2 ] 

cavernous, a. Full of caverns ; as of, huge 
or deep as, a cavern (c. darkness, mouth, eyes) • 
porous, [f. L cavemosus (cavern, -ose 1 )] 

caviar*, caviare* (-ar), n. Sturgeon-roe 
pickled, eaten as relish ; c. to the general, good 
thing unappreciated by the ignorant. [?] 

ca*vil, v.i. (-11-), & n. (Raise) captious objec- 
tion (at, about). Hence ca*villER i n. [f. OF 
caviller f. L cavillari (cavilla mockery)] 

ea*vity, n. Empty space within solid body, 
[f. F caviU (L cavus hollow, -ty)] 

cavor't, v.i. (U.S. slang). Prance. [?] 

ca*vy, n. Amer. rodent, [f. cabiai native 
name in French Guiana] 

caw, n. & int., & v.i. & t. (Make) rook's, 
crow s, raven's, cry ; c. out, utter in cawing 
tone, [imit.] 

Ca*xton, n. Book printed by W. C. (first 
Engl, printer, d. 1492) ; printing-type in imita- 
tion of C.'s. 

cay, n. Insular bank or reef of coral, sand, 
&c. [ = quay] 

cayenne, n. (Also C. pepper) pungent red 
pepper of capsicum, [f. Braz. kyynha assim. 
to Cayenne capital of French Guiana] 

cayman, cai'man, n. Kinds of large 
saurian of crocodile family (prop, an American 
genus with round short muzzle), [prob. f. Carib 
acayouman] 

ce. — CEE. 

cease \ v.i. & t. Desist from ; stop doing, be- 
ing, &c. ; (of feelings, actions) come to an end ; 
bring to an end (strife, endeavours, &c.) ; (Mil.) 
c. fire, discontinue firing. [ME cessen f. F ces- 
ser f. L cessare frequent, of cedere cess- yield] 

cease 2 , n. Ceasing (obs. exc. in without c, 
incessantly). Hence cea'seLESS a., cea'se- 
lessLY 2 adv., cea'selessNESS n. [f. OF ces 
(cesser see prec.)] 

ee*city, n. Blindness (usu. fig.), [f. L caecitas 
(caecus biind, -ty)] 

ee'dar, n. Kinds of cone-bearing tree in- 
cluding C. of Lebanon, Atlas C, & Deodar ; 
various trees resembling c. ; =c.-wood. Hence 
(poet. ) ee'dar n [-en 5 ] a. [ME & OF cedre f . L 
f. Gk kedros] 

cede, v.t. Give up, grant, admit, surrender 
(territory), [f. L cedere retreat] 

cedi'lla, n. Mark (*) written under c to 
show that it is sibilant. [Sp., f. It. zediglia 
dim. of zeta Gk name of Z] 

cee, n. The letter C ; cee spring, C-spring, 
spring so shaped supporting carriage body. 

ceil (sel), v.t. Line roof of (room), whence 
cei*liNG 1 (2) n. [prob. f. F del heaven, ceiling, 
f. L caelum heaven, w. inrt. of hcaelare emboss] 

ce'ladon, n. & a. Willow green. [F, perh. 
f. name of character in D'Urfe's A stree] 

ce'landine, n. Two yellow-flowered plants, 
Greater C, & Lesser C. (Pile-wort, Fig-wort), 
[f. OFeelidoinef. hchelidoniaf. Gkkhelido-nion, 
(khelidon swallow) ; for -n- cf. passenger] 

-cele (sel), in medical compound words, = 
tumour of the . [f. Gk kele tumour] 

ce'lebrant, n. Officiating priest, esp. at 
Eucharist, [f. L celebrare (foil.), -ant] 

ce'lebrate, v.t. & i. Perform publicly & 
duly (religious ceremony &c); officiate at 
Eucharist ; observe, honour, with rites, festivi- 
ties, &c. (festival, event) ; publish abroad, 
praise, extol, (p.p.) famous. Hence celebrA'- 
tion n. [f. obs. celebrate adj. f. L celebrare 
(celeber -bris frequented), -ate 2 > 3 ] 

cele'brity, n. Being famous ; well-known 
person, [f. L celebritas (celeber see prec, -ty)] 



CELERIAC 



132 



CENTESIMAL. 



eele'riae, n. Turnip-rooted celery, [f. cel- 
ery, -ac unexplained] 

eele'rity, n. Swiftness, dispatch (of living 
movement or agency), [f. F cilerite f. L celeri- 
tatem (celer swift, -ty)] 

celery, n. Plant of which blanched stem 
is used as salad & vegetable, [f. F celeri ult. f. 
Gk selinon parsley] 

celeste, n. & a. Sky blue ; (also voix c.) 
organ & harmonium stop; (adj.) sky-blue. [f. 
F celeste f. L caelestis (caelum heaven)] 

cele'stial, a. & n. Of the sky (c. globe, map) ; 
heavenly, divine, divinely good, beautiful, &c, 
whence eele'stialL y 2 adv. ; C. Empire, China 
(transl. of native title ; so C. = Chinese, a. & n.). 
[OF (L caelestis see prec, -al)] 

ee'libate (-at), a. & n. (Person) not married, 
bound or resolved not to marry : unmarried (of 
life, habits). So ee'libACY n., eelibatARTAN 
a. & n. [f. L caelebs -ibis unmarried + -ate 2 (2)] 

cell, n. 1. Dependent nunnery or monastery 
(hist ) ; anchoret's one-roomed dwelling ; cottage 
(poet.); grave (poet.); single person's small 
room in monastery or prison (condemned c, for 
one condemned to death) ; compartment in bees' 
comb ; (Electr.) voltaic apparatus with only one 
pair of metallic elements, unit of battery. 2. 
Enclosed cavity in organism or mineral (cc. of 
brain, imaginary compartments assigned to 
various faculties) ; (Biol.) portion of protoplasm 
usu. enclosed in membrane, ultimate element 
of organic structures ; (Zoophytes) cup-like 
cavity of individual polype in compound poly- 
pidom. Hence (-)cellED-, ee'lliFORM, aa. [f. 
OF celle f. L cella small room] 

cellar, n., & v.t. (Put, store, in an) under- 
ground room ; (also xoine-c.) place in which wine 
is kept, one's stock of wine (keeps a good c.) ; c- 
flap, trapdoor into c. ; c.-plate, in pavement over 
hole into coal-c. Hence cellar age n. [f. OF 
celier f. L cellarium (prec, -ar 2 , -ary 1 )] 

cellarer, n. Monastic keeper of wine & pro- 
visions, [f. OF celerier (celier see prec, -ier)] 

cellaret, n. Case or sideboard for keeping 
winebottles in dining-room, [-et 1 ] 

'ce'llo (tsh-), n. (Short for) violoncello. 

cellular, a. Of, having, small single rooms 
or compartments or cavities; (Physiol.) con- 
sisting of cells (as c. tissue) ; c. plant, without 
distinct stem, leaves, &c Hence cellula'ri- 
ty n. [as foil., -AR 1 ] 

cellule, n. (physiol.). Cell or cavity (see 
cell, 2 ; the derivatives are formed from 
cellule, not cell). Hence or cogn. ce'llulATE 2 , 
-ated, celluliFEROUS, eellulous, aa., 
eellulATiON n., cellulo- comb. form. [f. L 
cellula (celld cell, -ule)] 

ce'lluloid, a. & n. Like cells ; (n.) substance 
like ivory, made chiefly of cellulose, [irreg. 
f. cellulose 2 + -oid] 

cellulose 1 , a. Consisting of cells. Hence 
cellulo'siTY n. [cellule, -ose 1 ] 

cellulose 2 , n. (chem.). Substance forming 
solid framework of plants. [F, f. L cellula 

CELLULE + -OSE 2 ] 

Cel'sius. See centigrade. 

Celt 1 , Kelt, n. (Member) of one of the 
peoples akin to the ancient Galli (Bretons, 
Cornish. Welsh, Irish, Manx, Gaels), [f. F 
Celle f. L Celta ; cf. Gk Keltoi, Keltai, pi.] 

celt 2 , n. (archaeol.). Bronze or stone (or iron) 
chisel - edged prehistoric implement. [wd 
founded on a perh. false reading in Vulgate of 
Job xix. 24 — stylo ferreo, et plumbi lamina, vel 
celte (v. 1. certe) sculpantur ; cf. fylfot] 

Celtic, K-, a. & n. (Language) of the Celts. 
Hence eeltiCALLY adv., ee*lticisM(2, 4) n., 
ce'lticizE(2, 3) v.i. & t. [f. L celticus (celt \ -ic)j 



ce'lto- , comb, form of celt 1 . Hence cel- 

tO'LOGIST, CeltOMA'NIAC, Ce'ltOPHIL, nn. [-0-] 

cement, n., & v.t. Substance applied as 
paste & hardening into stony consistency for 
binding together stones or bricks & for forming 
floors, walls, &c, strong mortar of calcinated 
lime & clay (hydraulic c, hardening under 
water) ; any substance applied soft for sticking 
things together ; (fig.) principle of union ; sub- 
stance for stopping teeth ; bony crust of tooth- 
fang. (Vb) unite (as) with c ; apply c. to, line 
or cover with c [ME cyment f. OF ciment f. L 
caementum for caedimentum (caedere cut, 
-ment) chippings of stone] 

cemetery, n. Place for burials, not being 
a churchyard, [f. L f. Gk koimeterion dormi- 
tory (koimao put to sleep)] 

cenobite. See coenobite. 

cenotaph, n. Sepulchral monument to 
person whose body is elsewhere ; tomb from 
which one has risen, [f. F cenotaphe f. L f. Gk 
kenotaphion (kenos empty, taphos tomb)] 

cense, v.t. Perfume, worship, with burning 
incense, [f. obs. cense noun short for incense 2 ] 

censer, n. Vessel in which incense is burnt. 
[f.OF(en)censierf.'LincensumiiiCENSE. 1 ,-KR 2 (2)] 

ee'nsor, n., & v.t. Ancient-Roman magis- 
trate drawing up register or census of citizens 
& supervising public morals ; person expressing 
opinions on others' morals & conduct ; official 
licensing, or suppressing as immoral, seditious, 
or inopportune, books, plays, news, or military 
intelligence (vb, exercise such control over, 
make excisions or changes in) ; various Uni- 
versity officials. Hence or cogn. censor'iAL 
a., ce'nsorsHip n. [L, f. censere tax, -or 2 ] 

censorious, a. Fault-finding, over-critical. 
Hence censor'iousLY 2 adv., censor'ious- 
ness n. [f. L censorius (censor, -ory) + -ous] 

censure (-sher), n., & v.t. Adverse judg- 
ment, expression of disapproval, reprimand. 
(Vb) blame, criticize unfavourably, reprove ; 
hence censurABLE a. [f. F censure(r) f. L 
censura (censere tax, -ure)] 

census, n. Official numbering of population 
with various statistics (in Gt Britain taken 
every ten years) ; c.-paper, form left at every 
house to be filled up with names, ages, &c, of 
inmates. [L, f. censere to rate] 

cent, n. Per c, for, to, in, every hundred (in 
stating proportion, esp. of interest) ; three &c 
per cents, public securities at 3 °/o &c. ; c.perc, 
interest equal to principal; (U.S. &c) hun- 
dredth of a dollar ; typical small coin (don't 
care a c). [f. F cent or L centum hundred] 

cental, n. Weight of 1001b. used for corn, 
[f. L centum hundred, perh. after quintal] 

centaur, n. Horse with human body, arms, 
and head, taking the place of its neck and 
head ; hybrid creation, person or thing of 
double nature ; name of a constellation ; per- 
fect horseman. Hence ee'ntaurESS 2 n. [f. L 
f. Gk kentauros etym. dub.] 

centaury, n. Name of various plants, [ult. 
f. Gk kentaurion (kentauros see prec) said to 
have beenused medicinally by centaur Chiron] 

centenar'ian, a. & n. (Person) a hundred 
years old. [as foil. + -an] 

centenary (also se # -), a. & n. Of a hundred 
years. (X.) space of a hundred years reckoned 
from any point in a century; centennial anni- 
versary, celebration of it. [f. L centenarius 
(centeni a hundred each, -ary 1 )] 

centennial, a. & n. Of, having lived or 
lasted, completing, a hundred years ; (of) the 
hundredth anniversary, [f. L centum hun- 
dred, & as biennial] 

centesimal,a. Reckoning,reckoned,by nun- 



CENTT- 



133 



CEREMONY 



dredths. Hence eente'simalLY 2 adv. [f. L 
centesimus hundredth (centum hundred) + -al] 
eenti-, comb, form of L centum hundred, 
= 1/100 of the denomination in the metric 
system. Hence ee'ntiGRAMME, ee'ntiLiTRE 
(-let«r), ce'ntiMETRE, nn. 
ee'ntigrade, a. Having a hundred degrees 
(of Celsius's thermometer, with freezing-point 
0° & boiling-point 100°). [F, f. L centum a hun- 
dred + grad us step] 

eenti'llion, n. Hundredth power of a million 
(1 with 600 ciphers), [centum (prec), billion] 
centime (sahnte*m, or as F), n. French coin 
= 1/100 of a franc. [F] 

centipede, n. Many-footed wingless crawl- 
ing animal. If. L centipeda (centum hundred, 
pes pedis foot)] 

ee'ntner, n. German weight, about 1 cwt. 
[G. f. L centenarius centenary] 
cento, n. Composition made up of scraps 
from other authors. [L, = patchwork garment] 
ee'ntral, a. Of, in, at, from, containing, the 
centre ; leading, principal, dominant. Hence 
eentra'liTY n., ee'ntral ly 2 adv., ee'ntral - 
ness n. [f. L centralis (centrum centre, -al)] 
centralism, centralist, nn. (Upholder 
of) a centralizing system, [prec. + -ism (3), -ist(2)] 
centralize, v.i. & t. Come, bring, to a 
centre ; concentrate (administration) at sin- 
gle centre; subject (State &c.) to this system. 
Hence ee'ntralizATiON n. [central, -ize(3)] 
ee'ntre 1 , ee'nter, n. & a. Middle point 
(strictly, equidistant from ends of line measur- 
ing along it, or from extremities of regular 
surface or body, or from all points in circum- 
ference of circle or sphere, & at mean distance 
from all points in periphery of irregular surface 
or body) ; point, pivot, axis, of revolution (in 
lathe, conical adjustable bearing to hold re- 
volving object) ; point of concentration or 
dispersion, nucleus, source; (Fenians &c.) 
organizer, leader, (esp. head-c); (hit on) part 
of target between bull's-eye and outer ; (Arch.) 
wooden mould for arch or dome while building ; 
(Mil.) main body of troops between wings ; 
(Pol. ; orig. f. French) the C., men of moderate 
opinions (left-c, left, radical grades ; right-c, 
right, reactionary) ; c. of attraction, (Physics) 
to which bodies tend by gravity, (fig.) drawing 
general attention ; c. of gravity, that point in 
body, which being supported, body remains at 
rest in any position ; c. of mass, point (in rela- 
tion to body) any plane passing through which 
divides body into two parts of equal weight ; 
dead c. ; c.-piece, ornament for middle of table ; 
c.-rail, third rail on mountain railways for 
cogged wheel &c. ; c.-second(s), seconds hand 
mounted on centre arbor of clock or watch ; 
c.-bit, boring-tool with c. point & side cutters ; 
c.-board, (flat-bottomed boat with) board for 
lowering through keel to prevent lee- way ; 
hence ee'ntreLESS, ee'ntric(AL), aa., ee'n- 
triealLY 2 adv., eentri'eiTY n. (Adj.) at, of, 
the c. ; hence ee'ntreMOST a. [F (-re), f. L f. 
Gk kentron spike (kenteo to prick)] 
ee'ntpe 2 , center, v.i. & t. Be concentrated 
in, on, at, round,, about ; place in c. ; mark with 
a c. ; concentrate in &c. ; find c. of. [f. prec] 
centrifugal, a. Flying, tending to fly, 
from centre ; c. force, with which body revolv- 
ing round centre tends to fly off, inertia ; c. 
machine &c, in which c. force is utilized ; 
(Bot.) c. inflorescence, in which end flower 
opens first & side ones in downward order. 
Hence eentri'fugalLY 2 adv. [f. L centrum 
centre 1 + -fugus -flying (fugere flee) + -al] 
centri'petal, a. Tending towards centre ; 
c. force, machine &c, inflorescence, opposite of 



centrifugal. Hence centri'petalLY 2 adv. 

[f. L -petus -seeking (petere seek) and as prec] 

ee'ntro-, comb, form of L centrum centre l , 
= centre-, central, centrally. 

centuple, a., n., & v.t. Hundredfold ; (vb) 
multiply by a hundred, [f. LL centuplus for L 
centuplex (centum hundred, -plic- fold)] 

centu- plicate, a. & n. (-at), & v.t. (-at). 
= prec, esp. in c, of things of which a hundred 
copies are produced, [f. L centuplicare as 
prec, -ate 2 ' 3 ] 

centurion, n. Commander of century in 
Roman army. [f. L centurio -onis (foil.)] 

ee'ntury, n. (Rom. hist.) company in army, 
orig. of 100 men ; political division for voting. 
A hundred of something (esp., 100 runs at 
cricket) ; one of the hundred - year periods 
counting from a received epoch, esp. from 
birth of Christ (first c, 1-100, nineteenth c, 
1801-1900, Sec.)', any hundred successive years, 
centenary, [f. L ccnturia (centum hundred)] 

cepha'lic, a. Of, in, the head. [f. F cbpha- 
lique f. L f. Gk kephalikos (kephale head, -ic)] 

-cepha'lic. = -cephalous. 

ee'phalo-, comb, form = head-, head-& — . 
[see cephalic, -o-] 

eephalopod, n. Mollusc with distinct 
tentacled head, [prec + Gk pous podos foot] 

cephalothor'ax, n. Coalesced head & 
thorax of spider, crab, &c [cbphalo-, thorax] 

-cephalous, last element esp. of anthropo- 
logical terms = -headed, as brachyc, with short 
head. [f. Gk kephale head + -ous] 

eera'mie, k-, a. Of the art of pottery. 
Hence eera'mics, ee'ramiST(2), nn. [f. Gk 
keramikos (keramos pottery, -ic)] 

ee'rato-, comb, form of Gk keras -atos horn, 
= horn-& — , horny-, & esp. of the cornea. 

Cer'berus, n. Three-headed dog guarding 
entrance to Hades (sop to C, something to pro- 
pitiate an official, guard, &c). [L, f. Gk Ker- 
beros] 

cere, n. Naked wax-like membrane at base 
of some birds' beaks, [f. F cire f. L cera wax] 

cer'eal, a. & n. Of corn or edible grain ; (n., 
usu. pi.) kinds of grain used for human food, 
[f. L Cerealis (Ceres goddess of corn, -al)] 

cerebellum, n. Little or hinder brain. [L, 
dim. of cerebrum] 

cerebral, a. Of the brain; c. letter, con- 
sonant sounded by turning tongue-tip to top of 
palate, [f. F ceribral (cerebrum, -al)] 

eerebra'tion, n. Working of the brain, 
esp. xinconscious c, of results reached without 
conscious thought, [cerebrum ■+- -ation] 

ee'rebrum, n. The brain proper, in front 
of and above the cerebellum. Hence ee're- 
bro- comb. form. [L] 

eere'ment (ser-), n. (usu. pi.). Grave-clothes, 
[f. F cirement (cirer to wax, wrap in waxed 
cloth, see cere)] 

ceremd'nial, a. & n. With or of ritual or 
ceremony, formal ; hence eeremo*nialiSM(3), 
eeremo*nialisT(2), nn., eeremo'nialLY 2 
adv. (N.) system of rites ; formalities proper 
to any occasion ; observance of conventions ; 
(R.-C. Ch.) book of ritual, [f. L caerimonialis 
(ceremony, -al)] 

ceremo'nious, a. Addicted or showing 
addiction to ceremony, punctilious. Hence 
eeremo'niousLY 2 adv., ceremo'nious- 
ness n. [f. L caerimoniosus (foil., -ous)] 

ee'remony, n. Outward religious rite or 
polite observance ; empty form ; stately usage ; 
formalities ; punctilious behaviour (without c, 
ofF-hand ; stand uponc, insist on conventions, 
keep one's distance) ; Master of the Cc, super- 
intending forms observed on state or public 



CERIPH 



134 



CHAIN 



occasions, [prob. f. OF cerymonie f. L caeri- 
mouia cf. Skr. karman work, rite, (kri do)] 

ce'riph, se'rif, n. Fine line in letter, esp. 
at top or bottom of capitals, [perh. f. Du. & 
Flem. schreef line] 

ceri'se (-ez), a. & n. (Of) a light clear red. 
[F,j^cherry] 

cerium, n. A metal. Hence cep'ic(l), 
eer'ous, aa. [f. planet Ceres, discovered (1801) 
just_before, + -ium] 

cepo-, comb, form of L cera or Gk keros wax. 

ceropla'stie, a. Modelled, of modelling, in 
wax. Hence eepopla'stics n. [f. Gk kero- 
=cero( plastikos adj. f. plasso to mould)] 

eep'tain (-tn,-tin), a. Settled, unfailing; 
unerring, reliable ; sure to happen ; indisput- 
able ; convinced (of, that) ; destined, un- 
doubtedly going, to do ; that might but need 
not or should not be specified (a c. person, 
lady of a c. age), some though perhaps not 
much {felt a c. reluctance), existing but prob- 
ably unknown to hearer (a c. John Smith) ; for 
c, assuredly. [OF (L certus orig. p.p. of cernere 
decide, -an)] 

eep'tainly (-tn-), adv. Indubitably; in- 
fallibly; confidently; admittedly; (in answers) 
I admit it, no doubt, yes. [prec. + -ly 2 ] 

ceptainty (-tn-), n. Undoubted fact (bet on 
a c, usu. dishonestly with secret knowledge of 
result), indubitable prospect; thing in actual 
possession ; absolute conviction (of, that) ; to, 
for, a c, beyond possibility of doubt, [f. OF 
certaincti (certain*, -tv)] 

cep'tes (-z), adv. (archaic). Assuredly, I 
assure you. [OF, also a certes perh. f. L a 
certis from sure (grounds)] 

cepti'ficate (-at), n., & v.t. Document 
formally attesting a fact, esp. the bearer's 
status, acquirements, fulfilment of conditions, 
right to company shares, &c. ; bankrupt's c, 
stating that he has satisfied legal requirements 
& may recommence business. (Vb) furnish 
with, license by, c. ; hence eepti'ficATiON n. 
[f. med. L certification neut. p.p. (foil.)] 

eep'tify, v.t. Attest formally, declare by 
certificate, whence eep'tifiABLE a. ; inform 
certainly, assure. Hence cep'tifiER 1 n. [f. 
F certifier f. med. L certificare (certain', -fv)] 

certiorafif n. Writ from higher court for 
records of case tried in lower. [L wd in writ] 

eep*titude, n. Feeling certain, conviction. 
[F, f. LL certitudinem (certain, -tude)] 

cepu'lean (-00-), a. Deep-blue. [f. L caeru- 
leus prob. for caelul- (caelum sky) + -an] 

eepirmen (-00-), n. Ear-wax. So eepir- 
minous a. [f. L cera wax on anal, of albumen] 

eep'use (-00s), n. (Also white lead) a white 
paint from carbonate & hydrate of lead, esp. 
as cosmetic, [f. L cerussa prob. f. a Gk 
keroussa fem. of keroeis waxy (cero-)] 

eepvi-eal (also servi-), a. (physiol.). Of the 
neck. So eepvreo- comb. form. [f. L cervix 
-icis neck + -al] 

cep'vlne, a. Of, like, deer. [f. L cervinus 
(cervus deer + -ine l )] 

Cesape-vitch, -witch, (ra), n. Tsar's 
eldest son. [Russ.] 

cess, n. Tax, rate (now displaced by rate in 
Engl., but used in various senses in Ireland, 
Scotland, and India), [prop, sess for obs. 
assess n. see assess] 

cessa'tion, n. Ceasing ; pause, [f. L cessatio 
(ccssare cease 1 , -ation)] 

ce'ssep, n. (legal). Coming to an end, cessa- 
tion, (o/term, liability, &c). [F (cease 1 , -er 4 )] 

cession (-shn), n. Ceding, giving up, (of 
rights, property, or esp. of territory by State). 
[F, f. L cessionem (cedere cess- go away, -ion)] 



cessionary, n. = assign 2 . [f . med. L cessio- 
narius as prec. + -ary 1 ] 

cesspit, n. Midden, [see foil.] 

cesspool, n. Well sunk for soil from water- 
closet &c, retaining solids & letting liquid 
escape (also fig., as c. of iniquity). Iprob. f. It. 
cesso privy f. L secessus secession] 

cestoid, a. & n. (zool.). Ribbon-like (in- 
testinal worm, as tape-worm), [f. L f. Gk 
kestos girdle + -oid] 

eet-, comb, form = of spermaceti, in chem. 
names, [f. L cetus -i f. Gk ketos -eos whale] 

ceta'cean, a. & n. (Member) of the mam- 
malian order containing whales. So cetA'- 
ceous a. [as prec, -ace an] 

eeteosaup, -saup-us, n. Fossil saurian, 
[f. Gk ketos -eos whale & sauros lizard] 

cetepaeh (-k), n. Kinds of fern with frond- 
backs covered with scales, [med. L, etym. dub.] 

ce'teris pa'ribus, adv. Other things being 
equal. [L] 

Chablis (sha'ble), n. A French white wine, 
[place name] 

chafe 1 (tsh-), v.t. & i., & n. Rub (skin, to 
restore warmth) ; make, become, sore by rub- 
bing ; (of beast, river) rub itself against (bars, 
rocks) ; irritate ; show irritation, fume, fret. 
(N.) : (sore made by) friction ; state of irritation, 
pet, (in a c). [f. OF chaufer f. L calefacere 
(calere be hot, facere make)] 

cha'fep (tsh-), n. Kinds of beetle, usu. the 
cockchafer. [OE cefer cf. G kdftr perh. f. 
kaf- gnaw cf. jowl] 

chaff (tsh-), n., & v.t. 1. Separated grain- 
husks ; chopped hay and straw ; bracts of 
grass-flower ; spurious substitute (caught with 
c, easily deceived or trapped) ; worthless stuff; 
c.-cutter, machine chopping fodder; hence 
cha*ffY 2 a. ; (vb) chop (straw &c). 2. Banter 
(n. & v.t.) [OE ceafct OHG cheva perh. f. kef- 
gnaw cf. jowl; sense 2 may be fig. use of 1 
(starting with noun), or (starting with vb) be = 
chafe (anger playfully)] 

eh a'ffep (tsh-), v.i. & t., & n. Haggle, bargain 
(caway, = bargain away); hence eha'ffePER 1 
n. (N.) = chaffering. [ME ch(e)apfare f. OE 
ceap see chapman +faru fare] 

cha'ffinch (tsh-), n. Common British small 
bird, [chaff (f. haunting barndoor) + finch] 

cha-nng-dish, n. Vessel with burning 
charcoal &c. inside for keeping warm things 
placed on it. [f. obs. sense of chafe = warm] 

chagrin (shagre'n), n., & v.t. (Affect with) 
acute disappointment or mortification, [f. F 
chagrin(er) f. Turk, saghri rump of horse, 
prepared hide, shagreen ; sense by metaphor 
f. use of shagreen for friction] 

chain (tsh-), n., & v.t. Connected series of 
metal or other links (endless c.) ; fetters, con- 
finement, restraining force ; necklace, watch- 
guard, &c. ; sequence, series, set, (of proof, 
events, posts, mountains ; ladies' c, movement 
in quadrille) ; jointed metal-rod measuring- 
line, its length (66 ft) ; (also c.-shot) two balls 
or half balls joined by c. for cutting masts &c. ; 
(Xaut.) fastening for shrouds below channel 2 
(also c.-plate), the cc. (also the fore, mizen, 
main,-cc), whole contrivance (channel, c. -plate, 
& DEAD-eyes) for widening basis of shrouds ; 
c.-armour, -mail, made of interlaced rings ; 
c.-bridge, = suspension ; c.-coupling, extra coup- 
ling of railway vans in case of accident to 
screw-coupling; c.-moidding, archit. ornament 
with link carving ; c.-stitch, ornamental sewing 
like chain, (sewing machine) simple sewing (cf. 
lock 3-stitch) ; c.-wale, = channel 2 ; c.-xcheel, 
transferring power by c. fitted to its edere ; 
hence chai'nLESS a., chai'nLET n. (Vb) 



CHAIR 



13b 



chance: 



secure, confine, with c. (lit. & fig.), [f. OF 
chaeine f. L catena] 

chair (tsh-), n. , & v. t. Separate seat for one, of 
various forms (arm i or elbow, bath l , curule, 
deck 1 , easy 1 ; take a c, sit down); seat of 
authority ; professorship ; mayoralty (pant or 
above the C., below the C, of alderman who has, 
has not, been mayor) ; seat, ofiice, of person 
presiding at meeting, public dinner, &c. [take, 
leave, the c, begin, end, the proceedings) ; chair- 
man (address, appealto, the c. ; 'chair! chair. f \ 
protest against disorder) ; (Railway) iron or 
steel socket holding rail in place; (Hist.) = 
sedan ; c.-bed, that can be unfolded into c. 
(Vb) install in c. of authority ; place in c. and 
carry aloft (winner of contest, election, &c). 
[f. OF chaere f. L f. Gk kathedra (cathedral)] 

chair'man, n. (pi. -men ; fern, chairwoman). 
Person chosen to preside over meeting, per- 
manent president of committee, board, &c. 
(C. of Committees, in Houses of Pari., presiding 
instead of Lord Chancellor & Speaker when 
House is in Committee), whence chaip'man- 
ship n. ; keeper of Bath-chair; (Hist.) one of 
two sedan-bearers. 

chaise (shaz), n. Pleasure or travelling car- 
riage of various shapes, usu. now low, four- 
wheeled, & open, with one or two ponies ; 
POST-c. [F, var. of chaire f. OF chaere chair] 

ehalee'dony (k-), cal-, n. Precious stone 
of quartz kind with many varieties as agate, 
cornelian, chrysoprase. [f. L c(h)alcedonius f. 
Gk khalkedon etym. dub.] 

chalco- (k-), comb, form esp. in minera- 
logical terms = copper-, brass-, [f. Gk khalkos] 

ehaleo'graphy, n. Art of engraving on 
copper, [prec, -graph y] 

chalcopyp'ite (-ir-), n. A copper ore, yellow 
or copper pyrites, [chalco-, pyrite] 

Chalde-an (k-), a. & n. (Native) of Chaldea 
or Babylon ; soothsayer, astrologer, [f. Lf. Gk 
khaldaios + -an] 

cha'ldron (tshawl-), n. Coal measure, 36 
bushels, [f. OF chauderon as cauldron] 

chalet (sha'la), n. Swiss mountain dairy- 
hut ; Swiss peasant's wooden cottage ; villa in 
this style ; street lavatory. [F, Swiss wd perh. 
dim. of casella dim, of It. casa house] 

cha'lice (tsh-), n. Goblet ; eucharistic wine- 
cup ; (poet.) flower-cup, whence eha'licED 2 a. 
[OF (now calice), f. L calix] 

chalk 1 (tshawk), n. White soft earthy lime- 
stone used for burning into lime & for writing 
& drawing ; coloured preparation of like tex- 
ture used in crayons for drawing ; as like as c. 
& cheese, unlike in essentials ; by (a) long 
chalk(s), by far (f. use of c. to score points in 
games) ; c.-bed, stratum of c. ; c.-pit, quarry ; 
c.-stone, gouty concretion like c. in tissues & 
joints esp. of hands & feet. [OE cealc, com.- 
WG, cf. G kalk, f. L calx -cis lime] 

chalk 2 , v.t. Rub, mark, draw, write, write 
up, with c. ; c. out, sketch, plan as thing to be 
accomplished (often for oneself), [f. prec] 

chal'ky, a. Abounding in, white as, chalk ; 
like or containing chalk-stones. Hence 
chal'kiNESS n. [-Y 2 ] 

cha'lleng-e 1 (tsh-), n. Calling to account 
(sentry's c, 'Who goes there? ); exception 
taken (e. g. to juryman) ; summons to trial or 
contest, esp. to duel, defiance, [f. OF chalenge 
f. L calumnia calumnyI 

challenge 2 , v.t. Call to account (of sentry, 
& fig.) ; take exception to (evidence, juryman), 
dispute, deny ; claim (attention, admiration, 
&c.) : invite to contest, game, or duel, defy. 
Hence eha'llengeABLE a., eha'llengER 1 n. 
[f. OF chalenger f. LL calumniare (calumny)] 



cha'llis (tsh-), n. Lady's-dress fabric. [?] 

chalybeate (k-), a. Impregnated with iron 
(of mineral water or spring), [irreg. for chaly- 
bate f. L f. Gk khalups -iibos steel + -ate 2 ] 

cham (k-), n. Great c, autocrat (esp. of domi- 
nant author or critic), [obs. form of khan] 

chamade (sh«mah*d), n. Signal for retreat 
on drum or trumpet. [F, f. Port, chamada 
(chamar f. L clamare call, -ade)] 

cha'mbep (tsha-), n. Room, esp. bedroom 
(poet, or archaic ; but c.-music, for performance 
in room, not at theatre, church, &c. ; c. -concert, 
of c.-music) ; (pi.) set of rooms in larger building, 
esp. in Inns of Court, let separately, judge's 
room for hearing cases not needing to betaken 
in court ; (hall used by) deliberative or judicial 
body, one of the houses of a parliament ; C. of 
Commerce, Agriculture, board organized to 
forward these in a district; (also c.-pot) vessel 
for urine ; c.-counsel, lawyer giving opinions 
in private, not practising in court ; chamber- 
maid, housemaid at inn ; enclosed space in 
body of animal or plant, or in machinery &c. 
(esp. part of gun-bore, of larger diameter in 
some cannon, separate in revolver, that con- 
tains charge). Hence (-)ehamberED 2 a. [f. 
F chambre f. L camera f. Aryan kam- cover 
over cf. Gk kamara vault] 

chamberlain (tsha'mberlin), n. Officer 
managing household of sovereign or great 
noble; Lord Qreat C. of England, hereditary 
holder of ceremonial office ; Lord C. of the 
Household, with part management of Royal 
Household, & licenser of plays. Hence cha'm- 
berlainSHiPn. [OF, f. Teut. *kamarling (OHG 
chamarling) f. kamara f. L camera see prec] 

chameleon (k-), n. Small prehensile-tailed 
long-tongued lizard with power of changing 
colour & of living long without food ; incon- 
stant person. Hence chameleonic a., 
ehame'leon-LiKE, a. & adv. [f. L f. Gk 
khamaileon (khamai on ground, Icon lion)] 

cha'mfer (tsh-), v.t., & n. Bevel symmetri- 
cally (right-angled edge or corner) ; (n.) surface 
so given (hollow or concave c, made as with 
gouge instead of chisel) ; channel, flute, (v.t. ,& 
n.). [f. OF chanfraindre (cant 1 , L frangere) 
lit. break-corner] 

chamois (sha/mwah, in sense 2 sha'mi), n. 
1. European wild antelope of goat size. 2. (Also 
c.-leather, shammy, shammy-leather) soft 
pliable leather from sheep, goats, deer, &c. 
[F, prob. f. Swiss Rom. ; cf. It. camozza, also G 
gemse (OHG gamz)] 

cha'momile. = camomile. 

champ (tsh-), v.t. & i., & n. Munch (fodder) 
noisily ; work (bit) noisily in teeth ; (make) 
chewing action or noise, [prob. imit.] 

champag'ne (sh-), n. Kinds of wine from 
E. France (usu. white & sparkling), [name of 
province, = foil.] 

champaign (tsha/mpan), n. (Expanse ofV 
open country, [f. OF champaigne = campagnaJ 

cha'mpion (tsh-), n. & a., & v.t. Person who 
fights, argues, &c, for another or for a cause- 
(King's, Queen's, C, or C. of England, heredi- 
tary official at coronations); athlete &c, 
animal, plant, &c, that has defeated all com- 
petitors (often as adj., c. boxer, c. turnip). 
Hence cha'mpionLESs a., eha'mpionsHiF* 
n. (Vb) maintain the cause of. [OF, f. LL 
campionem norn. -io fighter (Licampus camp 1 )] 

chance 1 (tsh-), n. & a. Way things faH out, 
fortune ; undesigned occurrence ; opportunity ; 
possibility ; probability (esp. in pi., as the cc. 
are against it) ; absence of design or discover- 
able cause ; course of events regarded as a 
power, fate ; by c, as it falls or fell out, without 



CHANCE 



136 



CHAPE 



design ; on the c, in view of the possibility (of, 
that); take one's c, let things go as they may, 
oonsent to take what comes ; the main c, that 
of getting rich ; stand a (good, fair) c, have a 
prospect ; chance-, =by c, as c.-sown tree ; (adj.) 
fortuitous (a c. companion, meeting), [f. OF 
cheance f. LL cadentia n. (L ca-dere tall, -ence)] 
chance 2 , v.i. & t. Happen (archaic in abs. 
use, getting rare in constrr. it chanced that, he 
chanced to do) ; c. upon, happen to find, meet, 
or come upon ; (colloq. ) risk (esp. c. it), [f. prec] 
cha'neel (tsh-), n. Eastern part of church 
reserved for clergy, choir, &c, & usu. railed off. 
[OF, f. LL cancellus f. L cancelli lattice-bars] 
chancellery (tsh-), -ory, n. Position, 
staff, department, official residence, of a chan- 
cellor ; office attached to embassy or consulate. 
[•f. OF chancelerie (chancelier see foil., -rv)] 
chancellor (tsh-), n. State or law official 
of various kinds ; Lord C. (also C. of England, 
Lord High C), highest judge, presiding in H. 
of Lords & in Chancery Div. of Supreme Court ; 
C. of exchequer ; C. of Duchy of Lancaster, 
member of government (legally representative 
of King as Duke of Lancaster), often Cabinet 
minister who does not desire departmental 
work; C. of bishop or diocese, bishop's law 
officer ; C. of Garter or other order, who seals 
commissions &c. ; titular head of university 
( Vice-C. performing duties) ; (Germany, Austro- 
Hungary) chief minister of State. Hence 
cha'neelloPSHiP n. [ME c(h)anceler f. OF 
c(h)ancelier (-or 2 ) f. L cancellarius law-court 
usher (cancelli grating)] 

chance-me'dley, n. (Law) action, esp. 
homicide, mainly but not entirely uninten- 
tional ; inadvertency. [AF chance medlee (see 
meddle) mixed chance] 

cha'ncery (tsh-), n. Lord Chancellor's court, 
a division of High Court of Justice (formerly a 
separate court of equity for cases with no re- 
medy in common-law Courts, whence the mean- 
ing, still in U.S. & in literature, of court of 
equity) ; office for public records ; (Boxing) in c, 
with head held under opponent's arm being 
pommelled (from difficulty of getting clear of 
old Court of C). [shortened f. chancellery] 

chancre (sha'nker), n. Venereal ulcer. [F, 
= cancer] 

eha'ncy, a. Uncertain, risky, [chance 1 , -y 2 ] 

chandelier* (sh-), n. Branched hanging sup- 
port for several lights. [F, see foil.] 

cha'ndler (tsh-), n. Dealer in candles, oil, 
soap, paint, & groceries (corn-c, in corn ; ship-c, 
in cordage, canvas, &c). Hence eha'ndlERY(l) 
n. [f. OF chandelier (L candela candle,. -arv 1 )] 

change 1 (tshanj), n. Alteration; substitu- 
tion of one for another, variety (for a c); 
whence eha'ngeFULd), eha'njgreLESS, aa. ; 
Change (now usu. but wrongly 'Change), place 
where merchants meet (oil C., engaged there) ; 
arrival of moon at fresh phase (prop, at new 
moon only) ; c. of clothes, second outfit in re- 
serve ; lower coins given for higher one or for 
foreign money ; money returned as balance of 
that tendered for article (take one's, the, c. out 
of, avenge oneself on); (bell-ringing, usu. pi.) 
-different orders in which peal can be rung (ring 
the cc. fig., exhaust ways of putting or doing 
•thing). [OF, f. LL cambium (cambire change 2 )] 

change 2 , v.t. & i. Take another instead of 
(c. one's coat) ; resign, get rid of, for; give or 
get smaller or foreign coin for (money) ; put on 
different clothes ; go from one to another of 
(thing changes hands, passes to different owner ; 
c. houses, carriages ; also abs. = c. trains, boats, 
&c.) ; give & receive, exchange, (c. places xoith, 
we changed places) ; make or become different 



(often to, into, from), (moon) arrive at fresh 
phase, esp. become new moon ; c. colour, turn 
pale or blush ; c. front, take new position in 
argument &c. ; c. one's condition, marry ; c. one's 
mind, adopt new plan or opinion ; c. one's note 
or tune, become more humble, sad, &c. ; c. step, 
foot, feet, time other foot to drum in marching, 
[f. OF changer f. LL cambiare (cambium f. L 
cambire barter cf. Gk kamp- turn back)] 
changeable, a. Irregular, inconstant; 
alterable. Hence or cogn. eha'ngeaBiLiTY, 
cha'ngeableNESS, nn. [F, see prec, -able] 
eha'n geling, n. Thing or child substituted 
for another by stealth, esp. elf -child thus left 
by fairies, [change 2 + -ling j ] 
cha'nnel 1 (tsh-), n., & v.t. (-11-). Natural or 
artificial bed of running water ; (Geog.) piece of 
water, wider than strait, joining two larger 
pieces, usu. seas (ITie C, English C.) ; tubular 
passage for liquid ; course in which anything 
moves, direction, line ; medium, agency ;groove, 
flute. (Vb) form cc. in, groove ; cut out (way 
&c). [f. OF chanel var. of canal] 
cha'nnel 2 (tsh-), n. Broad thick plank pro- 
jecting horizontally from ship's side abreast of 
mast to broaden base for shrouds, [for chain- 
wale (wale) cf. gunnel for gunivale] 
chant (tsh-), n., & v.i. & t. Song; (Mus.) 
short melody with long reciting-note for psalms 
& canticles (single, double, quadruple, as one, 
two, four, verses are sung to it) ; measured 
monotonous song ; singsong intonation in talk. 
(Vb) sing ; utter musically ; intone, sing to a c; 
c. the praises of, constantly praise ; c. horses, sell 
fraudulently, [f. Fchant(er) song, sing, f. Lcan- 
tus -us, cantarc, (canere cant- sing)] 
chantage (F) n. Blackmailing. 
cha'ntep, n. In vbl senses ; also : melody- 
pipe, with finger-holes, of bagpipe ; (also horse- 
c.) swindling horse-dealer. [-ER 1 ] 
chantere'lle (tsh-), n. Yellow edible fungus. 
[F, dim. f. L f. Gk kantharos drinking-cup] 
chanticleer (tsh-), n. (Personal name for) 
domestic cock. [f. OF chantecler (chant, clear), 
name in Reynard the Fox] 
cha'ntress (tsh-), n. Female singer (archaic 
or poet.), [f. OF chanteresse, see chanter, -ess 1 ] 
eha'ntry (tsh-), n. Endowment forpriest(s) 
to sing masses for founder's soul ; priests, 
chapel, altar, so endowed, [f. OF chanterie 
(chanter chant, -ery)] 

cha'nty, n. Sailors' song while heaving. [-Y 3 ] 
cha'os (k-), n. Formless void or great deep 
of primordial matter (C, this personified as 
eldest of the gods) ; utter confusion. Hence 
(irreg.) ehad'tic a., ehao'tiCALLY adv. [L, 
f. Gk khaos ; -otic on false anal, of erotic &c] 
chap ] (tsh-), v.t. & i., & n. Crack (t. & i.) in 
fissures (usu. of skin, by wind &c, also of dried- 
up earth &c). (N., usu. pi.) crack(s), open 
seam(s), esp. in skin ; hence eha*ppY 2 a. [ME 
chappen, cf. MDu. cappen, & chip, chop] 
chap 2 , chop, n. (PI.) jaws, esp. of beasts 
(lick one's cc, w. relish or anticipation), cheeks 
(fat-chops, fat-faced person) ; (sing.) lower jaw 
or half of cheek, esp. of pig as food (Bath chap ; 
c.-f alien, with jaw hanging down, dispirited, 
dejected) ; chops of the Channel, entrance from 
Atlantic to Channel, [f. prec] 
chap 3 (tsh-), n. (colloq.). Man, boy, fellow, 
[short for chapman cf. customer] 
eha'p-book (tsh-), n. (bibliog.). Specimen 
of popular literature (usu. small pamphlet of 
tales, ballads, tracts) formerly hawked by chap- 
men, [mod. wd, see chapman] 
chape (tsh-), n. Metal cap of scabbard-point ; 
back-piece of buckle attaching it to strap &c. ; 
sliding loop on belt or strap. [F, f . LL capa cap l \ 



CHAPEAU-BRAS 



137 



CHARITY 



chapeau-bras (shapo-brah - ), n. (hist.). 

Three-cornered flat silk hat of 18th c, carried 

underarm. [F, =arm-hat] 

eha/pel (tsh-), n. Place of Christian worship 
other than parish church or cathedral, esp. one 
attached to private house or institution (c. 
royal, of royal palace) ; oratory in larger build- 
ing, with altar, esp. compartment of cathedral 
&c. separately dedicated {Lady-c, dedicated 
to Virgin, usu. E. of high altar) ; subordinate 
Anglican church, esp. c. of ease, for convenience 
of remote parishioners; R.-C. or dissenters' 
place of worship in England ; c. service or 
attendance at c. (keep a c, be present, in col- 
leges) ; (Print.) printing-office, journeyman 
printers' association or meeting, [f . OF chapele 
f. LL cappella dim. of cappa cloak (cap ] ) ; 
first c. was sanctuary in which St Martin's 
sacred cloak was kept by cappellani] 

eha'pelpy, n. District served by chapel, [-ry] 

eha'peron (sh-), n., & v.t. Married or elderly 
woman in charge of girl on social occasions ; 
hence eha'peponAGE n. (Vb) act as c. to. 
[F, =hood, chaperon, dim. of chape cope (cap l )] 

cha*pitep (tsh-), n. (bibl.). Capital of column, 
[earlier form of chapter] 

cha'plain (-in), n. Clergyman officiating in 
private chapel of great person or institution ; 
nun reciting inferior services in nunnery. 
Hence eha'plaincY n. [f. OF chapelain f. LL 
cappellanus (chapel, -an)] 

eha'plet (tsh-), n. Wreath of flowers, leaves, 
gold, gems, &c, for head ; string of beads for 
counting prayers (one-third of rosary number), 
or as necklace ; string of eggs in toad &c. ; bead- 
moulding. Hence cha'pletED 2 a. [f. OF 
chapelet dim. of chape, see -let] 

cha'pman (tsh-), n. Pedlar. [OE ce"apmann 
(dap n. barter, mann man) cf. G kaufmann 
merchant, Du. koopman, & see cheap] 

cha'ppie, -y, (tsh-), n. (colloq.). Exquisite, 
man about town, [chap 3 + -y 3 j 

eha'ptep, n. Main division of a book (abbr. 
cap. ore), (fig.) limited subject, piece of narra- 
tive, &c. ; Act of Pari, numbered as part of 
session's statutes for reference (5 & 6 Will. IV. 
cap. 62 = Statutory Declarations Act 1835) ; 
general meeting, whole number, of canons of 
collegiate or cathedral church or monastic or 
knightly order (c.-house, used for such meet- 
ings) ; c. & verse, exact reference to passage, 
exact authority for statement; to end of c, 
for ever ; c. of accidents, [for chapiter f. OF 
chapitre f. L capitulum dim. of caput -itis 
head] 

chap i (tsh-), n. Hill trout of Wales &c. [?] 

chap 2 . See chare. 

chap 3 (tsh-), v.t. & i. Burn (t. & i.) to char- 
coal, scorch, blacken with fire. [prob. back- 
formation f. charcoal] 

ehap-a-bane (sha'rabang, or as F), n. Long 
vehicle, with many seats looking forward, for 
holiday excursions. [F,= benched carriage] 

cha'Paetep (k-), n., & v.t. Distinctive mark ; 
(pi.) inscribed letters or figures ; national writ- 
ing-symbols (in the German c.) ; person's hand- 
writing ; characteristic (esp. of species &c. in 
Nat. Hist. ) ; collective peculiarities, sort, style ; 
person's or race's idiosyncrasy, mental or moral 
nature ; moral strength, backbone ; reputation, 
good reputation ; description of person's quali- 
ties ; testimonial ; status ; known person (usu. 
public c.) ; imaginary person created by novelist 
or dramatist ; actor's or hypocrite's part (in, out 
of, c, appropriate to' these or not, also more 
widely of actions that are in accord or not with 
person's c.) ; eccentric person (c. actor, who de- 
votes himself to eccentricities). (Vb, poet. & 



archaic) inscribe ; describe, [f. F caractere f. L 
f. Gk kharakter stamp (kharatto engrave)] 

characteristic, a. & n. Typical, distinc- 
tive, (trait, mark, quality), whence charac- 
teristic ally adv. ; (Math.) index of loga- 
rithm, [f. Gk kharakteristikos (yrec, -ist, -ic)] 

characterize, v.t. Describe character of; 
describe as ; be characteristic of, impart 
character to. Hence cha'paetepizA'TioN n. 
[f. med. Lf. Gk kharakterizo (character, -ize)] 

characterless, a. Ordinary, undistin- 
guished ; without testimonial, [-less] 

charade (sharah'd), n. Game of guessing 
word from written or acted clue given for each 
syllable & for the whole. [F, f. Pr. charrada 
(charrd chatter)] 

char'coal (tsh-), n. Black porous residue 
of partly burnt wood, bones, &c, form of car- 
bon ; c.-burner, maker of this. [perh. f. chare 
+ coal in sense (wood) Uimed coal] 

chape (tshar), chap, n., (usu. pi.), & v.i. (-r-, 
-rr-). (Do) ocfd job(s) ; work by the day at house- 
cleaning. [OE cerr, cerran, turn ; U.S. chore] 

charge * (tsh-), n. Material load ; right 
quantity to put into thing, esp. of explosive for 
gun ; figurative load ; expense (at his own c.) ; 
price demanded for service or goods ; task, 
duty, commission ; care, custody (of; nurse in 
c. of child, child in c. of nurse ; curate in c, on 
duty ; give person in c, hand over to police) ; 
thing or person entrusted, minister's flock ; ex- 
hortation, directions, (parting c, bishop's c, 
judge's c. to jury) ; accusation (lay to one's c, 
accuse him of; c.-sheet, record of cases at police 
station); impetuous attack, rush, (return to the 
c, begin again, esp. in argument) ; (Mil.) signal 
sounded for attack. [F, f. Rom. carga f. LL 
carrica (L carricare see foil.)] 

charge 2 , v.t & i. Load, fill to the full or 
proper extent, (vessel, gun with explosive) ; 
saturate (air with vapour, water with chemicals, 
accumulator with electricity, memory with 
facts) ; entrust with (c. oneself with, undertake); 
command to do, exhort (esp. of bishop, judge) ; 
accuse, impute, (person with action, fault upon 
person) ; saddle with (liability), place (liability) 
on; demand (price)/or (alsoc. person price for); 
attack (t. & i.) impetuously, esp. on horseback; 
place (weapon) in position for use (c. bayonets, 
bring down to receive cavalry c). [f. OF 
charger, cf. prec, f. L carricare (carrus car 1 )] 

charge (d'affaires) (shar'rzha dafar"), n. 
(pi. -is d'-). Deputy ambassador ; ambassador at 
minor court. [F, = one charged with affairs] 

ehap'greable, a. 1. Expensive (archaic). 2. 
Liable to be charged tvith (accused of) ; subject 
to a money demand ; liable to be made an ex- 
pense (c. to the parish) ; imputable to (on) ; pro- 
per to be added to an account. Hence ehap'ire- 

aBI'LITY n. [1 f. CHARGE 1 , 2 f. CHARGE 2 , + -ABLE] 

chap'grep^n. (archaic). Large flat dish. [ME 
chargeour perh. f. charge 2 + -or 2 (loader), or 
f. OF *chargeoir (charge 2 & as parlour)] 

ehap'gfep 2 , n. In vbl senses; esp., (Mil. 
officer's horse, [-er 1 ] 

cha'piot (tsh-), n., & v.t. Stately vehicle, 
triumphal car, (poet. & esp. fig. of sun's c. &c.) ; 
18th-c. four-wheeled carriage with back seats 
only; (Hist.) car used in ancient fighting, whence 
chapiotEER* n. ; (vb) convey as or in c. [OF, 
augment, of char car] 

charitable (tsh-), a. Liberal in giving to 
the poor ; connected with such giving ; wont to 
judge favourably of persons, acts, & motives. 
Hence eha'PitableNESS n., eha'ritabLY 2 
adv. [OF (charite = foil. , -able)] 

cha'pity (tsh-), n. Christian love of fellow 
men (in, out of, c. with) ; kindness, natural 

5* 



CHARIVARI 



138 



CHATTEL 



affection, (c. begins at home, is due first to kith 
and kin) ; candour, freedom from censorious- 
ness, imputing of good motives when possible, 
leniency ; beneficence, liberality to the poor, 
alms-giving (cc, acts of this), alms ; institution 
for helping the helpless, help so given, {cold as 
c, in allusion to mechanical administration ; 
c.-boy, -girl, brought up in such place) ; Brother, 
Sister, of C, member of religious society de- 
voted to relieving poor; G. Commissioners), 
boarc" created 18.53 to control charitable trusts, 
[f. OF charite f. L caritatevi (cams dear, -ty)] 

charivari (sh-), n. Medley of sounds, hub- 
bub. [F, etym. dub. ; prop, a serenade of pans, 
trays, &c, to unpopular person] 

ehap'latan (sh-), n. & a. Impostor in medi- 
cine, quack ; of, as of, empty pretender to know- 
ledge or skill. Hence ehap'lataniSHMl) a., 
chap*lataniSM(2), char'latanRY, nn. [F, f. 
It. ciarlatano (ciarlare patter)] 

Charles's Wain, n. (Also PJough, Great 
Bear) constellation Ursa Major or its seven 
bright stars. [OE Carles waegn ; wain of 
Arcturus, neighbouring constellation, became 
wain of Arthur, who was confused with the 
other great hero Charlemagne] 

ehap'loek. (tsh-), n. Field mustard. [OE cerlic] 

C har'lotte (sh-), n. Pudding of cooked apple 
covered with bread-crumbs ; C. Russe, custard 
enclosed in sponge cake. [F] 

charm 1 (tsh-), n. Verse, sentence, word, 
act, or object having occult power, spell ; thing 
worn to avert evil &c, amulet; trinket on 
watch-chain &c. ; quality, feature, exciting 
love or admiration {cc, beauty) ; attractiveness, 
indefinable power of delighting (esp. as literary 
critics' word), [f. F charme f. L carmen song] 

ehapm 2 , v.t. Bewitch, influence (as) by 
magic, (abs. or with pred. as c. asleep, away) ; 
c. (secret, consent, &c.) out of; endow with 
magic power (bear a charmed life) ; captivate, 
delight ; give pleasure to (/ shall be charmed 
as polite formula); (part.) delightful, whence 
ehap'mingxY^adv. [f. F charmer (charm 1 )] 

ehap'mep, n. In vbl senses; esp., beautiful 
woman (now joe. or archaic). f-ER 1 ] 

chap'nel-house (tsh-), n. House or vault 
in which dead bodies or bones are piled. [OF 
chaniel burying-place f. LL carnale (carnal)] 

Chap'on (k-), n. Ferryman conveying souls 
across Styx to Hades in Gk mythol. (C'.'s boat, 
ferry, 8cc, phrr.for hour of death), [f. GkKhardn] 

chap'poy (tsh), n. (Anglo-Ind.). Light Indian 
bedstead, [f. Hind, charpai] 

chart (tsh-), n., & v.t. Navigator's sea map, 
with coast outlines, rocks, shoals, &c. ; outline 
map with conspectus of special conditions, as 
magnetic c. ; record by curves &c. of fluctua- 
tions in temperature, prices, &c. ; sheet of tabu- 
lated information ; hence ehap'tLESS a. (Vb) 
make c. of, map. [OF, f. L carta card 2 ] 

ehap'teP 1 (tsh-), n. Written grant of rights 
by sovereign or legislature, esp. creation of 
borough, company, &c. (Great C, magna 
charta) ; deed conveying land ; = charter- 
party ; privilege, admitted right, [f. OF chartre 
f. L cartula dim. of carta card 2 ] 

ehap'teP 2 , v.t. Grant c, give privilege, to 
(chartered accountant, member of Institute of 
Accountants with royal c. ; chartered libertine, 
one allowed to take liberties) ; hire (ship) by 
c. -party, (loosely) hire (vehicle &c). Hence 
ehap'tePER l n. [f. prec] 

ehap'teP- party (tsh-), n. Deed between 
ship-owner & merchant for hire of ship & de- 
livery of cargo, [f. F charte partie divided 
document, indenture] 

chap'tism, -ist, (tsh-), nn. (hist.). Principles, 



adherent, of reform movement of 1837-48. [f. L 
charta + -ism(3), -ist(2), name taken from the 
democratic manifesto ' People's Charter 'J 

ehapto'grpaphy (k-), &c. See cap-. 

ehaptpeuse(shartrer - z),n. A liqueur; pale ap 
pie-green colour, [made by Carthusian monks] 

ehap'tulapy (k-). See cap-. 

chap'woman (tsh-). n. Woman hired by the 
day for house- work, [chare] 

ehap'y (tsh-), a. Cautious ; shy of, sparing in, 
doing; stingy of(c. of praise). Hence ehap'iLY 2 
adv. , ehap'iNESS n. [OE cearig = OSax. karag 
f. OTeut. hard care] 

Chapy'bdis (k-), n. See scylla. 

chase 1 (tsh-), n. Pursuit (in c. of, pursuing; 
give c, go in pursuit), hunting (the c, hunting 
as sport) ; (also chace) unenclosed park-land ;. 
hunted animal or pursued ship ; (Hist.) c, 
c.-port, c.-gun, chaser, bow-c. ,stern-c. , bow, stem, 
-chaser, gun, port, in bow or stern for use while 
chasing or being chased ; (Tennis) a certain 
stroke. [ME & OF chace (LL *captiare catch x )] 

chase 2 (tsh-), v.t. Pursue; drive from, out 
of, to, &c. [see catch l ] 

chase 3 (tsh-), v.t. Emboss, engrave, (metal), 
[for poet. & archaic enchase = set (jewels), inlay, 
engrave, enshrine, f. F enchdsser (en in, case 2 )] 

chase 4 , n. Part of gun enclosing bore ; groove 
cut to receive pipe &c. [f. F chas f. LL capsum 
hollow of the chest (L capere hold)] 

chase 5 , n. Iron frame holding composed type 
for page or sheet, [f. F chdsse case 2 ] 

chasm (ka'zm), n. Deep fissure ; break of 
continuity, hiatus ; wide difference of feeling, 
interests, &c, between persons or parties ; void, 
blank. Hence (poet.) eha'smv 2 a. [f. Lf. Gk 
khasma (khasko gape, -m)] 

chasse (shahs), n. Liqueur after coffee &c. [F] 

chasse (sha*sa), n., fc v.i. (Make) gliding 
step in dancing. [F] 

chassepot (sha'spo), n. French army breech- 
loading rifle, [inventor's name] 

chassis (sha'se), n. (pi. the same). Base-frame 
of gun-carriage, motor-car, &c. ; company's 
stock of motor-cars, motor-buses, &c [f. F chas- 
sis (LL capsus wagon-body f. L capere take)] 

chaste (tsha-), a. Abstaining from unlawful 
or immoral (also from all) sexual intercourse, 
pure, virgin ; decent (of speech) ; restrained, 
severe, pure in taste or style, unadorned, simple. 
Hence eha'steLY 2 adv. [OF, f. L castus] 

chasten (tsha 'sn), v.t. Discipline, correct by 
suffering, (usu. of God, Providence, &c, or of 
trouble &c.) ; make chaste in style &c, refine ; 
temper, subdue, (esp. in p.p. ). Hence ehastcn- 
er x (sener) n. [prec. + -en 6 ] 

chasti'se (tsh-,-z), v.t. Punish ; beat. Hence 
eha'stiseMENT, ehasti'SER 1 , nn. [form un- 
explained ; ME has chastien, chasten, (later 
chasty, chaste) f. OF chastier f. L castigare] 

eha'stity, n. Continence; virginity, celi- 
bacy ; simplicity of style or taste, [f. OF chas- 
tete f. L castitatem (castus chaste, -ty)] 

cha'suble (tshazu-), n. Short back and breast 
vestment of celebrant at Mass or Eucharist. 
[F, f. med. L casubida dim. of casa cottage] 

chat 1 (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Indulge in) easy fami- 
liar talk. Hence eha'ttv 2 a., eha'ttiNESS n. 
[short for chatter] 

chat 2 , n. Kinds of bird, chiefly Warblers 
(usu in comb, as Stone, Whin, -c). [f. prec] 

chateau (shato), n. (pi. -x, pr. -z). Foreign 
country-house. [F] 

cha'telaine (sh-), n. Set of short chains 
attached to woman's belt for carrying keys ; 
watch, pencil, &c. [F (chd-), = mistress of prec] 

cha'ttel (tsh-), n. Movable possession (usu. 
pi., esp. goods & cc). [f. OF chatel see cattle] 



CHATTER 



139 



CHEMIST 



eha'ttep (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Of birds) utter 
quick series of short notes ; (of persons) talk 
quickly, incessantly, foolishly, or inopportunely; 
(of teeth) rattle together (also of ill-adjusted 
parts of machine). (N.) any of these sounds : 
chatterbox, child &c. given to c. [imit., see -er 5 ] 

chau'ffep (tsh-), n. Metal basket holding 
fire ; portable furnace with air-holes, [f. F 
chauffoir f. L calefactorius calefactory] 

c/iau#Teur(sh6fer'), n. Motor-car driver. [F] 

chaumontel (sho-), n. Large kind of pear, 
[name of French village] 

chaussure (F), n. Boots or shoes. 

ehau'vinism (sho-), n. Bellicose patriotism, 
foreign jingoism. So ehau , viniST(2) n. & a., 
chauvinistic a. [C'hauvin, Napoleonic veter- 
an, person in Cogniard's Cocarde Tricolore 1831] 

chaw (tsh-), v.t., & n. (now vulg.). Chew; 
(U.S.) c. up, utterly defeat ; c. -bacon, bumpkin ; 
(n.) quid of tobacco, [var. of chew] 

cheap (tsh-), a. Inexpensive (of thing, price, 
shop, dealer) ; worth more than its cost ; easily 
got ; worthless, of little account, staled, (holdc, 
despise); (as pred.) = cheaply (got it c. &c); 
dirt c, very c. ; on the c, in c. manner ; C. Jack, 
travelling hawker ; c. trip(per), excursion (ist) by 
rail &c. at reduced fares. Hence chea'pLV 2 
adv., chea'piSH *(2) a., ehea'pxESS n. [f. phr. 
good cheap f. obs. cheap n., OE c£ap barter, 
price, com.-Teut. cf. G kauf purchase] 

chea'pen, v.t & i. Haggle for (archaic) ; 
make or become cheap, depreciate, [-en 6 ] 

cheat (tsh-), n., & v.t. & i. Trick, fraud ; swin- 
dler, deceiver ; card -game in which undetected 
cheating is licensed. (Vb) deceive, trick ; deal 
fraudulently ; wile away (time, fatigue). [ME 
chete short for escheat] 

check 1 (tsh-), int. & n. (Announcement of) 
exposure of chess king to attack ; sudden arrest 
given to motion, rebuff, repulse ; slight military 
reverse; (Hunt.) loss of the scent; stoppage, 
pause; restraint on action (keep in c, under 
control) ; person or thing that restrains ; con- 
trol to secure accuracy ; token of identification 
for left luggage, seat-holder, &c. ; (U.S.) counter 
at cards (hence colloq., hand in one's cc, die) ; 
c.-action in piano, restraining hammer from 
striking string twice ; c.-nut, screwed on over 
nut to prevent its working loose ; c.-rein, attach- 
ing one horse's rein to other's bit, also rein pre- 
venting horse from lowering head; c.-string, 
in carriage for signalling to driver to stop ; c- 
taker, collector of pass tokens in theatre &c. ; 
c.-till, in shop, recording receipts, [f. OF eschec 
f. Arab. f. Pers. shah king] 

check 2 , v.t. & i. Threaten opponent's king at 
chess ; suddenly arrest motion of ; (of hounds) 
stop on losing scent, or to make sure of it ; re- 
strain, curb ; test (statement, account, figures, 
employes) by comparison &c. , examine accuracy 
of. [f. OF eschequier play chess, check, as prec] 

cheek 3 (tsh-), n. Cross-lined pattern ; fabric 
woven or printed with this. So checkED 2 a. 
[perh. short for chequer] 

cheek 4 , n. = cheque. 

checker. See chequer. 

checkmate, int. & n., & v.t. (also mate, now 
more usu. in chess but not in fig. sense). (An- 
nouncement to opponent of) inextricable check 
of king at chess, final defeat at chess or in any 
enterprise ; (vb) defeat, frustrate, [f. OF eschec 
mat (see check 1 ) l. ATSib.shahinata king is dead] 

Cheddar (tsh-), n. Kind of cheese, [place] 

cheek (tsh-), n., & v.t. Side-wall of mouth, 
side of face below eye, (c.-tooth, molar ; c.-bone, 
that below eye; c. by jowl, close together, in- 
timate ; to one's oivn c, not shared with others) ; 
saucy speech (vb, address saucily), whence 



chee'kY 2 a., chee'kiLY 2 adv., eheekixEss 
n.; cool confidence, effrontery, (have the c. to) ; 
side post of door &c. ; (pi.) jaws of vice, aide- 
nieces of various parts of machines arranged 
in lateral pairs. [OE cece cf. Du. kaak] 

cheep (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Utter) shrill feeble 
note as of young bird. Hence (of young par- 
tridge or grouse) chee'pER 1 n. [imit.] 

cheer 1 (tsh-), n. Frame of mind (what c. ?, 
how do you feel ? ; be of good c, stout-hearted, 
hopeful) ; food, fare, (make good c, feast ; the 
fewer the better c, more to eat); shout of en- 
couragement or applause (three cc, successive 
united hurrahs, often for person or thing ho- 
noured), [obs. sense/ace, ME & OF chere f. LL 
cara face perh. f. Gk kara head] 

cheep 2 , v.t. & i. Comfort, gladden ; incite, 
urge o;i, esp. by shouts ; applaud (t. & i.), shout 
for joy ; c. -up, comfort, take comfort, ff. prec] 

cheep'ful, a. Contented, in good spirits, 
hopeful ; animating, pleasant ; willing, not re- 
luctant. Henee cheep'fulLY 2 adv., cheep* - 
fulxESS n. [cheer 1 + -ful] 

eheep'less, a. Dull, gloomy, dreary, miser- 
able. Hence eheep'lessLY 2 adv., eheer*- 
lessNESS n. [cheer 1 + -less] 

cheep'ly, adv. (naut.). Heartily, with a will, 
[formerly adj. & adv. (see -ly 2 ) f. cheer 1 ] 

eheep'y, a. Lively, in spirits, genial. Hence 
cheep'iLY 2 adv., eheep'ixEss n. [-y 2 ] 

cheese 1 (tshezj, n. Food made of pressed 
curds ; a c, complete cake or ball of this with 
in rind; green c, immature, not yet dried; 
bread & c. ; chalk & c. ; make cc. (of school- 
girls), spin roimd and sink suddenly, inflating 
petticoats : fruit of mallow ; c. -cutter, with 
broad curved blade ; c.-cake, tartlet filled with 
sweetyellow compound of curds &c. ; c.-hopper, 
maggot of c.-fly; cheesemonger, dealer in c, 
butter, &c. ; c.-paring, stingy, stinginess, (pi.) 
worthless odds and ends ; c.-plate, 5 or 6 in. in 
diameter, also large coat-button ; c.-rennet, 
name for Lady's bedstraw ; c.-scoop, -taster, 
instimment for extracting small piece as sample. 
[OE cise, cf. G kdse f. L caseus] 

cheese 2 , n. Thee, the correct thing, [prob. 
Anglo-Ind. f. Pers. & Hind, chiz thing] 

cheese 3 (tshez), v.t. (slang). C. it, stop, cease, 
give over, (only as imperat.). [?] 

cheesy, a. Like, tasting of, cheese ; (slang) 
stylish. Hence ehee'siNESsn. [cheese 1 ' 2 , -y 2 ] 

ehee'tah (tsh-), n. Kind of leopard, tamed 
in India & trained to hunt deer. [f. Hind, chita 
f. Skr. chitraka speckled] 

c/ief (sh-), n. Head cook (male). [F] 

chef-d'oeuvre (sheder - vr), n. (pi. chefs-, same 
pronunc). A, one's, master-piece. [F] 

eheil(o)- (ki-). = chil(o)-. 

eheip(o)- (kn-). = chir(o)-. 

cheiro'pteran, n., cheiPO'ptePOUS, a., 
(kir-). (Member) of mammal order with mem- 
braned hands serving as wings, the Bats. [prec. 
+ Gk pteron wing + -ax, -ous] 

ehe'la (tsha-), n. Novice qualifying for initia- 
tion in esoteric Buddhism. [Hind., = pupil] 

ehe'mieal (ke-), a. & n. Of, made by, re- 
lating. to, chemistry; c. combixatiox ; (usu. pi.) 
substance obtained by or used in c. process. 
Hence or cogn. ehemiealLY 2 adv.. che*- 
mieo- comb. form. [obs. chemic (F chimique 
or mod. L chymicus, assim. of alchimicxis al- 
chemic to supposed Gk etym.) + -al] 

chemise (shmie"z), n. Woman's body under- 
garment. [OF, f. LL camisia shirt] 

chemisette (she-), n. Bodice with upper 
part like chemise ; lace, muslin, &c, filling up 
opening of dress below throat. [F. dim. of prec] 

che'mist (ke-), n. Person skilled in chem- 



CHEMISTRY 



140 



CHICKEN 



istry ; dealer in medical drugs, apothecary. 
[f. F chimiste f. mod. L chymista see alchemist] 
chemistry, n. Science of the elements & 
their laws of combination & behaviour under 
various conditions ; applied or practical c, art 
of utilizing this knowledge ; (fig.) mysterious 
change or process, [prec., -ry] 
ehemitype, n. (Process for getting) relief 
cast of engraving, [chemical &c. + type] 
chenille (shinel), n. Velvety cord used in 
trimming dresses and furniture. [F, = cater- 
pillar f. L canicula small dog] 
cheque (tshek), check, n. Written order 
to banker to pay named sum on drawer's ac- 
count to bearer or named person; blank 1 c. ; 
CRC-ssed c. ; c.-book, number of stamped & en- 
graved forms for drawing cc. bound & issued to 
customer, [var. of check 1 formerly used of 
counterfoils for checking forgery] 
chequer 1 (tshe'ker), checker, n. (PI.) 
chess-board as inn-sign; (often pi.) pattern 
made of squares or with alternating colours, 
whence ehe'quer-wisE adv. [f. OF eschekier 
t. LL scaccarium chess-board, exchequer] 
chequer 2 , ehe'eker, v.t. Mark with 
squares, esp. of alternate colours ; variegate, 
break uniformity of, (often fig., esp. in p.p. as 
chequered lot, fortunes), [prob. f. prec] 
cherish (tsh-), v.t. Foster, nurse, keep 
warm ; value, hold in one's heart, cling to, (esp. 
hopes, feelings, &c). [f. F cherir (see -ish 2 ) 
f. cher f. L cams dear] 

cheroo*t (sh-), n. Cigar with both ends open, 
[f. Tamil shuruttu roll] 

ehe'rry (tsh-), n. & a. Small stone-fruit ; tree 
bearing this (also c.-tree), its wood (also c.-wood); 
make two bites at a c, boggle, be unenterprising 
or formal ; c.-bob, two cc. with joined stems 
(bob ] ) ; c.-brandy, dark-red liqueur of brandy in 
which cc. have been steeped ; c.-pie, garden 
heliotrope; c.-ripe, fruit hawker's cry; (adj.) 
red (c. lips, ribbon; c.-breeches, 11th Hussars). 
IME chery f. OXF cherise (s lost as if pi. cf. pea) 
f. L f. Gk kerasos perh. f. town name ; OE ciris 
(cf. G kirsche) was prob. not source of ME] 
chersonese (k>, -es), n. Peninsula, [f. L f. 
Gk khersonesos (khersos dry, nesos island)] 
chert (tsh-), n. A flint-like quartz. [?] 
cherub (tsh-), n. (pi. -s, 4m). Angelic being ; 
one of the second degree of nine-fold celestial 
hierarchy, gifted with knowledge as the first 
(seraphim) with love; (Art) winged (head of) 
child ; beautiful or innocent child. Hence 
eheru'bic (-oo-) a. [earlier cherubin sing., -ins 
pi., cherubim sing., 4ms pi. ; f. F cherubin 
through L, Gk, f. Heb. k"rub pi. k'rubim] 
cher'vil (tsh-), n. Garden herb used in soup, 
salad, &c. [OE caerfille f. Lf. GkkhairephuUon 
perh. f. khairo rejoice + phullon leaf] 
Che'shire (tsh-), a. C. cat, person with fixed 
grin. [prov. grin like a C. cat unexpl.] 
chess (tsh-), n. Game for two players with 
thirty -two pieces or c.-men on c. -board 
chequered with sixty-four squares. [ME ches f. 
OF esches pi. of eschec check 1 (lit. sense kings)] 
ehessel (tsh-). n. Cheese-making mould, 
[prob. f. cheese 1 + well 1 ] 
chest (tsh-), n. Large strong box ; box for 
sailor's belongings ; carpenter's, medicine, &c, 
c, holding special requisites ; treasury, coffer, 
of institution (usu. fig. for the sums in it) ; case 
of some commodity, esp. tea (& so as variable 
measure) ; c. of drawers, frame with drawers 
for keeping clothes in bedroom ; part of human 
or lower animal's body enclosed in ribs, whence 
-ehestED 2 a. ; c.-note, -voice, of lowest speak- 
ing or singing register ; c.-protector, flannel &c. 
worn on c. [OE cest f. L f. Gk kiste] 



chesterfield (tsh-), n. Kind of overcoat, 
also of couch. [19th-c. Earl of C] 
chestnut (tsh-), n. & a. Tree (also c.-tree, 
Spatiish c, or Sweet c.) or its edible fruit ; =c- 
wood ; = horse l -c. ; = castor 3 ; stale anec- 
dote ; (of) c.-colour, deep reddish-brown ; horse 
of this colour, [f. obs. chesten (f. OF chastaigne 
f. L f. Gk kastanea prob. f. place-name + nut] 
eheva'l-glass (she-), n. Tall mirror swung 
on uprights, [f. F cheval horse, frame] 
chevalier* (sh-), n. Member of certain 
orders of knighthood, & of French Legion of 
Honour &c. ; (Hist.) The C. or C. de St George, 
Old Pretender, The Young C, Young Pre- 
tender ; soldier cadet of old French noblesse ; 
c. of industry (oftener in F form c. d'industrie), 
adventurer, swindler. [OF (L caballus horse, 
-ary 1 , orig. sense horseman), cf. cavalier] 

chevaux de frise (shevo'defre^z), n. pi. 
Iron spikes set in timber Sec. to repel cavalry 
&c. in war, or to guard palings in peace ; 
natural protective line of hair in plants, eye- 
lashes, &c. [F, lit. horses of Friesland, invented 
by 17th-c. Frisians who had no cavalry] 

chevelure' (F), n. (Arrangement of) the hair. 

cheviot (tsh-), n. & a. (Wool, cloth) got, 
made, from sheep of Cheviot hills. 

chevron (sh-), n. Bent bar of inverted V 
shape, in escutcheons, as archit. ornament (c- 
moulding, consisting of series of these), & on 
sleeve of army N.C.O. indicating rank (3 bars 
for sergeant, 2 for corporal, &c. ). [F, = rafter, 
chevron, circumflex, f. L *eaprione?n nom. -io 
(L caper goat) ; L capreolus chamois was used 
in pi. as pair of rafters] 

chevrotain, -tin (sh-), n. Small Musk 
Deer. [F, dim. of OF chevrot (chevre goat)] 

chevy, ehrvy, (tsh- ; usu. spelt -e- & pron. 
-1-), n., & v.t. & i. Chase (n. & v.), scamper (n. 
& v.) ; game of prisoners' base. [prob. f. ballad 
Chevy Chase (place-name)] 

chew 1 (tshoo), v.t. & i., & n. Work about 
between teeth, grind to pulp or indent with 
repeated biting; (abs.) c. tobacco, whence 
ehew'ER 1 n. ; turn over in mind; meditate 
ttpon or over ; c. the cud, bring back half- 
digested food into mouth for further chewing, 
(fig., usu. with of reflection, fancy, &c.) medi- 
tate. (N.) act of chewing; quid of tobacco. 
[OE ciowan cf. G kauen] 

Chia'nti (kiah-). n. Dry red Ital. wine. [It.] 

chiaroscuro (kyar'oskoor'6), n. & a. Treat- 
ment of light & shade in painting ; light & 
shade effects in nature ; variation, relief, hand- 
ling of transitions, use of contrast, in literature 
&c. (Adj.) of c. ; half -revealed. [It., = bright- 
dark (L claries, obseurus)] 

chia'smus (k-), n. Inversion in second 
phrase of order followed in first (T cannot dig, 
to beg lam ashamed). [mod.L, f. Gk khiasmos^ 
cross arrangement f. khiazb make letter khi 
(shaped as Eng. X)] 

chibouk, -que, (tshiboo'k), n. LongTurkish 
tobacco pipe. [f. Turk, chibuk tube] 

chic (sh-), n. & a. Skill, effectiveness, style, 
stamp of superiority; (adj.) stylish, in the fa- 
shion. |F, etym. dub. (adj. use Engl.)] 

ehica'ne (sh-), v.t. & L, & n. Use chicanery ; 
cheat (person) into, out of, &c. ; (n.) chicanery, 
[f. F ch irane(r) perh. f. med. Gk tzoukanizo play 
polo f. Pers. tchaugan polo-stick] 

chiea'nery, n. Legal trickery, pettifogging ; 
sophistry, [f. F chicanerie (prec, -ery)] 

chick, n. Young bird before or after hatch- 
ing ; the cc, children of a family (sochickabiddy, 
I term of endearment of or to child) ; c.-weed, 
! small plant, [short for foll.l 
I chi'eken (tsh-), n. (pi. -ens, -en). Young 



CHICKLING 



141 



CHIN 






bird, esp. cf domestic fowl, flesh of this ; youth- 
ful person (esp. in no c): Mother Cary's c, 
Stormy Petrel ; count one's cc. before they are 
hatched, be over-sanguine, precipitate ; c- 
breast(ed), (having) malformed projection of 
breast -bone; c. -hazard, game at dice; c- 
heart(ed), (with) no courage ; c.-pox, children's 
mild eruptive disease. [OE cicen cf. Du. kieken 
prob. cogn. w. cock *] 

ehrekling- (tsh-), n. Common cultivated 
Vetch, [earlier chicheling dim. of ME & OF 
chiche ult. f. L cicer] 

chi*ck-pea, n. Dwarf pea. [earlier chick- 
pease as prec. + pease] 

ehl'eory (tsh-), n. Blue-flowered plant cul- 
tivated for its root ; its root ground for use 
with or instead of coffee, [f. F cichoree (now 
(chico-) f. L cichorium f. Gk kikhora succory] 

chide (tsh-), v.t. & i. (chid, chidden or chid). 
Make complaints, speak scoldingly, (esp. fig. of 
hounds, wind, &c.) ; scold, rebuke. [OE cidan] 

chief 1 (tsh-), n. (Herald.) upper third of 
shield ; leader, ruler ; head man of tribe, clan, 
&c, whence ehie'fESS 1 n.; head of a depart- 
ment, highest official ; -in-c, supreme, as Com- 
mander, Colonel, -in-c. Hence ehie'fDOM, 
ehie'fsHip, nn., ehie'f less a. [f. OF chef f. 
L caput head] 

chief 2 , a. & adv. (-er, -est, now rare). First 
by title (C. Justice Sec); first in importance, 
influence, &c. ; prominent, leading ; (adv.) 
chiefly, especially, (but c. or chief est of all, for- 
get not), [orig. chief l used in apposition] 

ehie'fly^a. Proper for a chief, [chief 1 + -ly 1 ] 

ehie'fly 2 , adv. Above all; mainly but not 
exclusively, [chief 2 + -ly 2 ] 

chie'ftain (tsh-, -tin), n. Military leader 
(poet. ) ; captain of robbers ; chief of Highland 
clan or uncivilized tribe. Hence ehie'ftainc y, 
chie'ftainESs x , chie'ftainRY, ehie'ftain- 
SHIP, nn. [f. OF chevetaine captain] 

ehi'ff-ehaff (tsh-, -tsh-), n. Bird of Warbler 
family, [iniit.] 

chiffon (F), n. (Usu. pi.) adornments of fe- 
male dress ; (sing.) thin gauze. [F, f. chiffe rag] 

chiffonier* (sh-), n. Movable low cupboard 
with sideboard top. [F (prec, -ier)] 

chignon (F), n. Mass of hair on pad at back 
of head. [F, f. 13th-c. chaaignon nape of neck 
= chainon link (chaine chain)] 

ehi'g-oe (tsh-), n. W.-Ind. flea, burrowing 
intoskin. [W.-Ind.] 

chi'lblain, n. Itching sore on hand or foot 
from exposure to cold. [Hence chi'lblainED 2 , 
chi'lblain y 2 , aa. [chill + blain] 

child (tsh-), n. (pi. children). Unborn or new- 
born human being; boy or girl ; childish person ; 
(slang) this c, I, me ; son or daughter (at any 
age) of (or with my Sec), offspring ; descendant 
lit. or fig. or follower or adherent of (c. of God, 
of the devil ; cc. of Izaak Walton, anglers ; 
fancy's c. ; c. of nature) ; result of; with c, preg- 
nant ; c.'s-play, easy task ; burn£ c. dreads fire ; 
childbed, -birth, parturition ; c.-xvife, very young 
wife. Hence ehi'ldLESS a. , chi'ldlessNESS n. 
[OE did cf. Goth, kilthei womb] 

Chi'ldermas, n. Festival of Holy Inno- 
cents, 28th Dec. [OE cildra (prec.) of infants 
+ mxsse mass 1 ] 

chi'ldhood, n. Child's state ; time from 
birth to puberty ; second c, dotage, [-hood] 

chi'ldish, a. Of, proper to, a child ; puerile, 
improper for a grown person. Hence chi'ld- 
ishLY 2 adv., ehi'ldishNESS n. [-ish x ] 

chi'ldlike, a. Having good qualities of 
child, as innocence, frankness, &c. [-like] 

ehi'ldly, a. & adv. (poet.). Like a child, 
[mod. revival of obs. wd~; -ly 1 * 2 ] 



chi'liad (k-), n. A thousand ; a thousand 
years, [f. L f. Gk khilias -ados f. khilioi adj. a 
thousand, -AD(2)] 

chi'liasm, ehrliast, (k-), nn. Doctrine of 
or belief in, believer in, the millennium. Hence 
chilia'Stic a. [f. Gk khiliasmos, -astes (prec. 
+ endings used w. vbs in -azo cf. -ism, -ist)] 

chill 1 (tsh-), n. Cold sensation, lowered 
temperature of body, feverish shivering, (catch 
a c; also of special part as liver-c.) ; unpleasant 
coldness of air, water, &c. (take c. off water, 
warm slightly) ; depressing influence (cast a c. 
over) ; coldness of manner. [OE cele cogn. w. 
cold; but the noun, after giving chill 2 ' 3 , was 
dormant 1400-1600, & revived as deri v. of chill 3 ] 

chill 2 , a. Unpleasantly cold to feel ; feeling 
cold ; unfeeling, unemotional, abstract. Hence 
chi'llNESS n. [prob. f. prec. J 

chill 3 , v.t. & i. Make, become, cold ; deaden, 
blast, with cold ; depress, dispirit ; harden 
(molten iron) by contact of cold iron ; (colloq.) 
take the c. off (liquid), [prob. f. chill 1 ] 

chi'lli, -y, (tsh-), n. Dried pod of Capsicum 
(as relish, or made into cayenne). [Mex.] 

chi'lly 1 , a. Rather cold to feel; feeling 
rather cold ; sensitive to cold ; not genial, cold- 
mannered. Hence chi'lliNESS n. [chill 1 -)- -y 2 ] 

chi'lly 2 (-Mi), adv. (rare). In cold manner (lit. 
&flg.). [chill 2 + -ly 2 ] 

chil(o)-, cheil(o)-, (k-), comb, form of Gk 
kheilos lip, in zool. terms as chilopod (having 
feet serving as jaws). 

Chi'ltern Hvrndreds (tsh), n. pi. Apply 
for, accept, the C. H., resign seat in House of 
Commons, [a Crown manor, administration 
of which, being titular office under Crown, re- 
quires the otherwise illegal vacation of seat] 

chime l (tsh-), n. Set of attuned bells ; series 
of sounds given by this ; harmony, melody, 
rhythm, sing-song ; agreement, correspondence. 
[ME chymbe t. L f. Gk kumbalon cymbal] 

chime 2 , v.i. & t. Make (bell) sound ; ring cc. 
(of person or bells) ; ring cc. on (bells) ; show 
(hour) by chiming (also of hour, = sound) ; sum- 
mon by bells to ; repeat mechanically ; be in 
rhyme, make to rhyme ; be in agreement (to- 
gether, with, or abs.); join in, express eager 
agreement, [as prec] 

chime 3 , chimb, (tshim), n. Projecting rim 
at ends of cask. [ME chimbe cf. Du. kimedge] 

ehimep'a, -aep*a, (k), n. Monster with 
lion's head, goajt's body, and serpent's tail. 
Bogy ; thing of hybrid character ; fanciful con- 
ception ; whence ehime'ncAL a., ehime'ri- 
calLY 2 adv. [f. F chimere f. L f. Gk khimaira 
she-goat, chimera, (khimaros goat)] 

chimere* (tsh-), n. Bishop's robe. (=OF 
chamarre etym. dub.] 

chi'mney (tsh-), n. Flue carrying off smoke 
or steam of fire, furnace, engine, &c. ; (also c- 
stalk, -top) part of flue rising above house-roof ; 
glass tube protecting lamp flame ; natural vent, 
e.g. of volcano ; (Mountaineering) narrow cleft 
by which cliff may be climbed ; c.-corner, warm 
seat within old-fashioned large fire-place; c- 
jack, rotating cowl; c.-piece = mantel ; c.-pot, 
earthenware or metal pipe added to c.-top (c- 
pot hat, tall silk hat) ; c.-stack, united group of 
c -stalks ; c.-stalk, see above, also = tall factory 
c. ; c.-swallow, common swallow ; c.-sxveep, man 
who sweeps cc ; c.-sxeeeper, = c-sweep, also = 
jointed c-cleaning brush, [f. OF chemine'e f. 
LL caminata (perh. camera) fireplaced (cham- 
ber) j 5 . L caminxis oven, -ate 2 ] 

chi'mpanzee* (tsh-), n. African ape re- 
sembling man. [native name in Angola] 

chin (tsh-), n. Front of lower jaw ; up to the 
c, c.-deep, deeply immersed. Hence -chinn- 



CHINA 



142 



CHLOROSIS 



ed 2 a. [OE tin cf. G. kinn, & Gk geneion chin, 
genus cheek] 

Chi'na, a., chi'na, n. & a., (tsh-). From 
China (C. crape, C. aster, &c. ; Chinaman, 
native of C. ). (Made of) a fine semi-transparent 
earthenware, porcelain ; things made of this ; 
whence ehi'naMA'Ni.MO nn. ; c.-closet, for 
keeping or displaying one's c. ; c.-clay, kaolin. 
[not native name ; found in Skr. about 1st c] 

chinchi'lla (tsh-, -tsh-), n. Small S.-Amer. 
rodent ; its soft grey fur. [Sp., dim. of chinche 
bug f. L cimex -ids (from supposed smell)] 

chine 1 (tsh-), n. Deep narrow ravine (now 
only in Isle of Wight Sc Hampshire). [OE tinu 
cf. Du. keen chap in skin] 

chine 2 (tsh-), n. Backbone; animal's back- 
bone or part of it as joint ; ridge, arete, [f. OF 
eschine perh. f. OHG scina splinter] 

Chinee* (tsh-), n. (slang). Chinaman, Chinese, 
[due to taking Chinese for pi.] 

Chine'se*, a. & n. (pi. the same). (Native, 
language) of China ; C. lantern, collapsible of 
paper used esp. in illuminating ; C. white, a 
white paint. [China + -ese] 

chink 1 (tsh-), n. Crevice ; long narrow open- 
ing, slit, peep-hole. [f. 16th c. ; excl. E ; etym. 
dub., perh. f. chine 1 , which it has replaced] 

chink. 2 (tsh-), n., & v.i. & t. Sound as of 
glasses or coins striking together ; (slang) 
ready money. (Vb) make this sound ; cause 
(coin &c.) to make it. [imit.] 

Chi'no-, comb, form of China, [-o-] 

chintz (tsh-), n. & a. (Of) cotton cloth fast- 
printed with particoloured pattern & usu. 
glazed, [earlier chints pi. f. Hind, chint f. Skr. 
chitra ; for sing, use cf. baize] 

chip s n. Thin piece cut from wood or broken 
from stone &c. ; thin slice of potato, fruit, &c. ; 
wood split into strips for making hats (so c. 
bonnet &c. ) ; dry asac, flavourless, uninterest- 
ing ; c. (scion) of, esp. c. of old block, son re- 
sembling father ; place in china &c. from which 
a c. has oeen knocked off. [f. foil.] 

chip 2 (tsh-), v.t. & i. Cut (wood), break 
(stone, crockery), at surface or edge ; shape 
thus; cut or break (piece &c.) off, from; be 
susceptible to breakage at edge ; carve (in- 
scription) ; crack (egg-shell ; esp. of chickens) ; 
(slang) c. in, interrupt, [dim. of chop 1 , cf. 
drip^ drop, tip top ; cf. also EFris. kippen cut] 

chip 3 (tsh-), n., & v.t. Wrestling-trick ; (vb) 
trip up. [cf. Du. kippen ensnare] 

ehrpmuek, -unk, (tsh-), n. North- Ameri- 
can squirrel. [?] 

ehi'ppy, a. (slang). Dry, uninteresting ; 
parched & queasy after drunkenness &c. ; 
irritable. Hence ehi'ppiNESS n. [chip 1 +-Y 2 ] 

ehir(o)-, eheir(o)-, (kir-), comb, form of 
Gk kheir hand, as chiro "graphy handwriting, 
chir'oMAKCY palmistry. 

ehip'ogpaph, n. Document of various kinds 
formally written or signed, [f. F chirographe 
f. L f. Gk kheirographon (prec, -graph)] 

chipo'podist, ehipo'pody, nn. Treater, 
treatment, of hands, feet, nails, corns, bunions, 
&c. [prob. f. chiro-, Gk pous podos foot, 
-ist(3); but there is Gk kheiropodes with 
chapped feet (kheir as chap f. kheir hand)] 

ehipp (tsh-), v.i. & t, & n. (Make) short sharp 
note (as) of small bird ; utter (song), express 
(^joy &c), thus; talk merrily; speak feebly, 
[unit. ; from loth c, displacing earlier chark (OE 
cearcian creak), chirk, chirt] 

ehip'py, a. Lively, cheerful. Hence ehip*- 
piNESS n. [prec, -y 2 ] 

ehipp (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Make) prolonged trill- 
ing sound (as) of grasshopper, [imit.] 

cni'ppup, v.i., & n. (Make) series of chirps, 



twittering ; (make) imitative chirping to baby 
&c; (slang) act as paid applauder at theatre 
&c, whence ehi'PPUpER 1 n. [form of chirp] 

chisel (tshi'zl), n., & v.t. (-11-). (Cut, shape, 
with) steel-edged tool with square bevelled end 
for shaping wood, stone, or metal (coldc, all of 
steel or iron for trimming cold iron ; chiselled 
features &c, clear-cut); the c, sculptor's c, 
(art of) sculpture ; (slang) defraud, unfair treat- 
ment. [ONF, dim. of L -cisum neut. p.p. of 
-cidere {caedere cut)] 

chit 1 (tsh-), n. Young child ; young, small, or 
slender woman (depreciatingly, esp. c. of a girl). 
[earlier = whelp; var. of kit, kitten] 

chit 2 (tsh-), ehi'tty, n. ( Anglo-Ind. ). Note or 
written paper, esp. character given to servant, 
[f. Hind, chittfii f. Skr. chitra mark] 

chit-chat (tsh-, -tsh-), n. Light conversation; 
subjects of it, gossip, [redupl. of chat 1 ] 

chi'tin (k-), n. Substance forming horny 
cover of beetles & crustaceans. Hence ehi't- 
inous a. [should be chitonin ; f. F chitine f. 
Gk khiton -onos tunic + -in] 

chittepling 1 (tsh-), n. (usu. pi.). Smaller in- 
testines of beasts, esp. as cooked for food, 
[etym. dub. ; cf. G kutteln] 

chi'tty. See chit 2 . 

ehi'valpous, (poet. &c.) -pic, (see foil.), a. 
Of, as of, the Age of Chivalry ; of, as of, the 
ideal knight, gallant, honourable, courteous, 
disinterested ; quixotic. Hence chi'valpous- 
ly 2 adv. [f. OF chevalerous (chevalier, -ous) ; 
chivalric f. foil. + -ic] 

chi'valpy (formerly tsh- ; now usu. sh-, as 
though a recent F importation), n. Horsemen, 
cavalry, (archaic) ; gallant gentlemen ; knightly 
skill (archaic) ; medieval knightly system with 
its religious, moral, & social code ; ideal knight's 
characteristics ; devotion to service of women ; 
inclination to defend weaker party ; flower ofc. , 
pattern knight, elite of nation's soldiers, [f. OF 
chevalerie f. L caballarius cavalier, -ery] 

chive (tsh-), cive (s-), n. Small herb allied 
to onion & leek. [F (cive) f. L cepa onion] 

chi'vy. See chevy. 

ehlop- *» 2 . =chloro- l < 2 , used before vowel. 

chlop'al, n. C. hydrate or c, a hypnotic & 
anaesthetic. Hence chlop'aliSM(o) n., chlo- 
p*aliZE(5) v.t. [pop. misuse of chloral, strictly 
a chem. substance first got by action of chlorine 
on al(cohol), whence the name] 

chlop'ide, n. (Chem.) compound of chlorine 
(-ide); (pop.) kinds of bleaching agent not true 
cc, as c. of lime, soda, potash, [chlor- 2 , -ide] 

enlop'ine, n. (chem.). Non-metallic element, 
a yellowish-green heavy ill-smelling gas. [f. 
Gk khloros green + -ine 5 ] 

ehlopo- *, chlop-, comb, form in hot. & min- 
eral, terms of Gk khloros green. 

ehlopo— 2 , ehlop-, comb, form in chem. 
terms of chlorine. Hence ehlo-PATE l (3) n., 
ehlop*ic(2), chlop'ous (chem.), aa. 

chlop'odyne, n. Patent medicine, narcotic 
& anodyne, [foil. + Gk odune pain] 

ehlop'ofopm, n., & v.t. Anaesthetic, thin 
colourless liquid whose inhaled vapour pro- 
duces insensibility. (Vb) treat (person) with, 
render insensible by, c, whence chlop'o- 
fopnuST(l) n. ; soak (thing) in c. [f. F chloro- 
forme f. chloro- 2 + form(yl) see formic] 

ehlop'ophyll, n. Colouring-matter of gTeen 
parts of plants, [f. F chloro 1 (phylle f. Gk 
phullon leaf)] 

chlopo'sis, n. Green sickness, anaemic 
disease of young women, with greenish com- 
plexion ; (Bot.) blanching of green parts, or 
turning green of petals &c. Hence ehlopd'Tic 
a. [chlor- l , -osis] 



CHOCK 



113 



CHORE 



chock l (tsh-), n. Block of wood, esp. wedge 
for stopping motion of cask or wheel, also in 
various senses on ship esp. of wedges support- 
ing boat on deck ; (Turning ; earlier form of) 
chuck 4 , [perh. f. ONF choque logj 

chock. 2 , v.t., & adv. Make fast with cc. ; 
place (boat) on cc. ; c. up, wedge in tightly, 
encumber (room &c.) with furniture &c. ; (adv.) 
closely, tightly, close up; c.-futl, stuffed, [f. 
prec. ; the var. choke-full for c.-full is prob. an 
etym. guess, & misrepresents pronunc] 

cho'colate (tsh-), n. & a. (Cake) of cacao-seed 
paste ; drink of this in hot milk or water ; dark 
brown (n. & a.) ; c.-cream, sweetmeat of c. en- 
closing sweet paste, [f. F chocolat f. Mex. 
chocolatl etym. dub. (not f. cacao or cocoa)] 

eho'etaw (tsh-), n. (skating). Step from 
either edge to other edge on other foot in oppo- 
site direction, [fancy name, cf. mohawk] 

choice 1 (tsh-), n. Choosing, selection, {make 
c. of, select; take one's c, decide between 
possibilities ; for c, by preference, if one must 
select) ; power, right, faculty, of choosing (at 
ft, at pleasure ; have one's c. ; have no ft, don't 
eare which; Hobsorts ft, to take or leave the 
one offer) ; £lite, flower, of; variety to choose 
from ; thingor person chosen ; alternative (have 
no c. but), [f. OF chois f. choisir choose f. Rom. 
causire f. Teut. (Goth, kausjan test)] 

choice 2 , a. Of picked quality, exquisite ; care- 
fully chosen, appropriate. Hence choi'ceLV 2 
adv., choi'eeNESS n. [perh. mixture of prec. 
w. obs. chis (OE cis etym. dub. ) fastidious] 

choir (kwu), quire, n., & v.t. & i. Band of 
singers performing or leading in musical parts 
of church service ; chancel of cathedral, min- 
ster, or large church; choral society, company 
of singers (also of birds, angels, &c); band of 
dancers ; c.-organ (corruption of chair-), softest 
of three parts (great, swell, ft, organ) making 
up large compound organ, with lowest of three 
key-boards; (vb) sing in chorus (intr., or with 
strain, hymn, &c, as obj.). [ME quere f. OF 
cner f. L f. Gk khoros song and dance] 

choke 1 (tsh-), v.t. & i., & n. Stop breath of, 
suffocate, temporarily or finally, by squeezing 
throat from without, blocking it up within, or 
(of water, smoke, &c.) being unbreathable ; 
(fig., of emotion) paralyse (c.-pcar, fact, reproof, 
&c, hard to swallow) ; suffer temporary stop- 
page of breath, become speechless from anger 
&c. (n., this condition); smother, stifle, kill, 
(plant, fire, &c, by deprivation of light, air, 
&c. ; suppress (feelings) ; block up wholly or 
partly (tube by narrowing part of it ; as n., the 
narrowed part, whence c.-bore, of gun with 
bore narrowing towards muzzle ; also of chan- 
nel with sand, stones, &c, stones c. or c. up 
channel, channel chokes), fill chock-full ; c. off, 
make (person) relinquish an attempt ; c.-clamp, 
carbonic acid gas in mines, wells, &c. [OE 
ac£ocian etym. dub.] 

choke 2 , n. Centre part of artichoke, [prob. 
confusion of ending w. prec] 

eho'kep, n. In vbl senses; esp., white ft, 
white tie (slang), [-er 1 ] 

ehol(e)- (k-), comb, form in med. & chem. 
wds of Gk khole gall, bile. 

cho'lep (k-), n. (Hist.) one of the four hu- 
mours, bile ; (poet., archaic) anger, irascibility. 
[ME & OF colre f. L f. Gk kholera cholera 
perh. f. khole bile] 

cho'lera (k-), n. (Also English, bilious, 
summer, ft, or in L c. nostras = of our country) 
bilious summer & autumn disorder with diar- 
rhoea and vomiting; (also Asiatic, epidemic, 
malignant, c.) non-bilious often fatal disease 
endemic in India & epidemic in Europe ; 



chicken c, infectious disease of fowls. Hence 
eholepa'ic a. [L, in orig. Gk sense (prec.)] 

eho'lepie, a. Irascible ; angry, [f. F choli' 
rique f. L f. Gk kholerikos (choler, -ic)J 

cho'lepine (also -en), n. Summer cholera; 
diarrhoea often prevalent at same time as 
Asiatic cholera. [F (-e-), f. cholera cholera] 

cho'liamb (k-), n. =scazon. Hence cho- 
lia'mbic a. [f. L f. Gk kholiambos (kholos 
lame, iambos iambus)] 

ehondri-, -o-, (k-), comb, form of Gk khon- 
dros, in Med. & Physiol. = cartilage-. 

choose (tshooz), v.t. & i. (chose, chosen). 
Select out of greater number ; (Theol., esp. in 
p.p.) destine to be saved ; decide (to do one 
thing rather than another) ; think fit, be 
determined, to do ; make choice between ; 
cannot c. bid, must, have to, (archaic) ; pick*& 
ft, select carefully, be fastidious; nothing &c. 
to c. between them, of things nearly equal. 
Hence ehoo'SER 1 n. [OE ciosan cf. G kiesen] 

chop 1 (tsh-), v.t. & i. Cut by a blow, usu. 
with axe (c. up, c. into small pieces, mince ; 
often c. off, away, down) ; deliver such blow 
at ; make one's way by such blows through ; 
mince (esp. in p.p.) ; (fig.) cut (words &c.) short or 
into distinct parts ; c. in, intervene in talk ; c. 
back, reverse one's direction suddenly, double, 
(chopping sea, with jerky motion) ; (of strata) 
c. up, out, come to surface, [var. of chap 1 cf. 
Du. & G kappen] 

chop 2 , n. Cutting stroke with axe &c. ; 
thick slice of mes.t, esp. mutton or pork, usu. 
including rib (c.-house, eheap restaurant) ; 
broken motion of sea. [f. prec] 

chop 3 . See chap 2 . 

chop 4 , v.t. & i., & n. C. <£■ change (emphatic 
for change, usu. intr.), vacillate, be inconstant, 
(n., cc. & changes, variations) ; c. round, about, 
(esp. of wind) change direction suddenly; c. 
logic, bandy arguments. Hence eho'ppv' 2 a. 
[etym. dub., but cf. chop 1 in some senses] 

chop 5 , n. (India, China) seal, licence, pass- 
port, permit; (China) trade-mark, a brand' of 
goods ; (Anglo-Ind. & colloq.) first, second, -a, 
first, second, -class, [f. Hind, chhap stamp] 

eho'ppep, n. One who chops ; large-bladed 
short axe ; butcher's cleaver, [chop 1 + -er ] ] 

eho'pstiek, n. Small slip of ivory &c. of 
which two held in one hand are used by 
Chinese as fork, [transl. of Chin, k'wai-tsze 
nimble ones f. Chin, chop quick + stick] 

chop'al l (k-), a. Of, sung by, choir (c. service, 
with canticles, anthems, &c, so sung; full c. 
service, with versicles & responses also sung) ; 
of, witb, chorus. Hence cho'palLY 2 adv. [f. 
med. L choralis (chorus, -al)] 

chopal(e) 2 (koralrl), n. (Metrical hymn to) 
simple tune usu. sung in unison in German 
reformed church. [G (-1), e added merely to 
suggest foreign accent as in morale, locale] 

chop'alist, n. Chorus singer, [choral 1 , -ist] 

chopd J (k-), n. String of harp &c (poet. ; 
also fig., as touch the right a, appeal skilfully 
to emotion); (Physiol.) structure resembling 
string, as vocal ft, spinal ft, (also cord); (Math.) 
straight line joining ends of arc. [16th-c correc 
tion of cord 1 after L f. Gk khorde] 

chord 2 (k-), n. (Mus.) combination of three 
or more (rarely two) simultaneous notes accord- 
ing to rules of harmony (common ft, also ft, any 
note with its major or minor third, perfect 
fifth, & octave; break or spread c, play its 
notes successively) ; harmonious combination 
of colours, [earlier cord for accord 2 later 
confused w. prec] 

chop'dal (k-), a. Of, like, &c , chord h a. [-al] 

chore (tsh-), n., & v.i., (U.S.). = chare. 



CHOREA 



144 



CHROMATO- 



chore'a (k-), n. St Vitus's dance. [L] 

choree* (k-), n. = trochee, [f. L f. Gk kho- 
reios of dance] 

, ehope'ic, a. Of, having, chorea ; of, marked 
•by. chorees, [-ic] 

cho'peogpaph (k-), n. Designer of ballet. 
So ehoreo'GRAPHER, ehopeo'GRAPHY, nn., 
ehopeoGRA'PHic a. [f. Gk khoreia dancing 
(khoros dancing-company) + -graph] 

ehopi(s)- (k-), pref. f. Gk khori(s) apart, used 
in bot. terms, as choripetalous with separate 
petals. 

ehd'Piamb,. choria'mbus, n. Metrical 
foot ( — «j~). Hence ehopia'mbic a. [f. L f . 
Gk khoriambos (choree, iamb)] 

ehop'ie, a. Of, like, chorus in Greek play, 
[f. Gk khorikos (chorus, -ic)] 

chop'ion (k), n. Outer membrane of foetus, 
[f. Gk khorion] 

cho'pistep (k-), n. Member of choir, esp. 
choir-boy (also fig. of angels, birds), [f. med. L 
chorista (choir, -ist, & cf. barrister)] 

ehopo'graphy (k-.), n. Describing, descrip- 
tion, of districts (more limited than geography, 
less than topography). Hence or cogn. ehopo*- 
grapher n.,ehoPOGRA'PHic(AL) aa., ehopo- 

f'Pa'phiealLY 2 adv. [f. F chorographie f. Gk 
horographxa (khora land, -graphv)] 
ehop'oid, a. Like chorion in shape or vascu- 
larity, esp. c. coat (or c. as noun), membrane 
lining eye-ball. [f. Gk khoroeides wrong read- 
ing in Gk MSS for khorioeides (chorion, -oid)] 
ehopo'logy (k-), n. Local distribution of 
species &c. Hence ehopolo'giCAL a. [f. Gk 
khora land + -logy] 

chop'tle (tsh-), v.i. Chuckle loudly, [in- 
vented by Lewis Carroll, perh. f. chuckle, snoy't] 
chop'us (k-), n., & v.t. & L (Gk Ant.) band 
of dancers & singers in religious ceremonies & 
dramatic performances (also representing in- 
terested spectators in play ; so in some Eng. 
plays); (one of) their utterances; personage 
speaking prologue & commenting on action in 
Elizabethan plays ; band of singers, choir ; 
thing sung by many at once ; any simultaneous 
utterance of many (in c, all speaking &c. to- 
gether) ; (Mus.) composition in several (oftenest 
four) parts each sung by several voices ; refrain 
of song in which audience j oins ; ( vb) sing, speak, 
say, in c. [L, f. Gk khoros] 
chose jugee (F), n. Thing it is idle to dis- 
cuss, as already settled. 
choseCnX See choose. 
chou (shoo), n. Rosette or ornamental knot 
of ribbon, chiffon, &c, on woman's hat or dress. 
[F, f. L caulis cabbage] 
chough (tshuf ), n. Red-legged crow. [cf. Du. 
kauw, OF choue] 

chouse (tshows), v.t., & n. Swindle, trick, 
[f. 1610; f. Turk, chiaus official messenger, in 
allusion to one of these who defrauded Turkish 
merchants in England 1609] 
Chow (tsh-), a. & n. (Slang, Austral.) Chinese 
(a. & n.) ; dog of a Chinese breed, 
chow-chow (tsh-), n. Chinese preserve of 
orange-peel, ginger, &c. [Chin.] 
chowdep (tsh-), n. Newfoundland & New- 
England dish, stew of fresh fish or clams with 
bacon, onions, biscuit, &c. [f. F chaudiere pot 
f. L caldaria (calidus hot, -ary 1 )] 
ehpemati'stie, a. Of money-making, econo- 
mic. Hence ehpemati'stics n. [f. Gk khre- 
matistikos (khrematizo traffic f. khremata pi. 
money f. khraomai use), see -1ST. -ic] 
ehpesto'mathy, n. Collection of choice 
passages, [f. Gk khrestomatheia (khrestos good, 
math- st. of manthano learn)] 
ehrism, n. Consecrated oil, unguent, anoint- 



ing, esp. in sacred rites. [OE crisma f. L f. Gk 
khrisma (khrio anoint, -M) ; cf. cream] 

chri'som, n. (hist.). Child's white robe at 
baptism, used as shroud if it died within a 
month; c. -child, in its first month, [var. of 
prec., perh. orig. a head-cloth to keep chrism 
from being rubbed off] 

Christ, n. Messiah or Lord's anointed of 
Jewish prophecy ; (title, now treated as name, 
given to) Jesus as fulfilling this ; divine ruler, 
saviour, inspirer, (esp. the or a C). Hence 
Chpi'stHOOD n., Chpi'stLESs, Chpi'stLiKE, 
Chpi'stLY l , aa., Chpi'stlessNESs, Chpi'st- 
likeNESS, nn., Chpi'stwARD(s) adv. [OE 
crist f. L f. Gk khristos anointed one (khrio 
anoint) transl. of Heb. see Messiah] 

Chpist-cposs-pow, cpiss-, n. (archaic). 
The alphabet. [Ch7*ist's cross, a cross before 
alphabet in horn-books, + row (of letters)] 

chpi'sten (-isn), v.t. & i. Admit as Christian 
by baptism ; administer baptism ; give name to 
(person at baptism, or as nickname ; c. him, 
c. him John ; also ships, bells, &c, with analo- 
gous ceremony). [OE cristnian make Christian 
(cristen f. WG cristin f. L christianws)] 

Christendom (-Isn-), n. Christians ; Christ- 
ian countries, [f. cristen adj., see pr«c, + -dom] 

Christian (-istshn), a. & n. (Person) be- 
lieving in, professing, or belonging to, the re- 
ligion of Christ (also as adj. of communities) ; 
of Christ or his religion ; (person) showing 
character consistent with Christ's teaching, of 
genuine piety, Christ-like, (also as adj. of con- 
duct, feelings, communities, &c.) ; human (per- 
son) as opposed to bride, brutal ; (slang) civi- 
lized, decent, (person) ; C. name, given at bap- 
tism ; C. era, reckoned from supposed birth of 
Christ ; C. science, scientist, (adherent of) a sys- 
tem of combating disease &c. without medical 
treatment by mental effect of patient's C. faith. 
Hence or cogn. chpi*stianiZE(2, 3) v.i. & t., 
chri'stianiZA'TioN n., ehpi'stianLiKE a., 
chpi'stianLY 1 ' 2 a. & adv., ehpistia'no- 
comb. form. [f. L Christianus (Christ, -i-, -an)] 

Chpistia'nity (or -tshi-), n. The Christian 
faith, doctrines of Christ & his apostles ; a 
Christian religious system ; being a Christian, 
Christian quality or character, [f. L ChiHsti- 
anitas (as prec, -ty)] 

Christmas (-i'smas), n. (Also C.-day) festi- 
val of Christ's birth, 25th Dec. ; (also C.-tide) 
week or more beginning 24th Dec. (C. eve) ; 
(attrib.) appropriate to C, as Cf. book, card (of 
greeting by post), number (of magazine), pre- 
sent, pudding; C.-box (cf. boxing-day), money 
given at C. to postman &c. in general acknow- 
ledgment of indefinite or continuous services ; 
C.-tree, small tree set up in room & hung with 
candles, presents, &c. ; G. rose, white-flowered 
hellebore blooming Dec. -Feb. Hence Chpi'st- 
masY 2 a. [OE Cristes mxsse (mass 1 )] 

Chpi'sto-, comb, form of L Christus or Gk 
Khristos Christ, as -phany, manifestation of 
Christ. Hence Chpisto'LATRY, Chpisto- 
ma'niao (-ma-), Christo'LOGY, Chpisto'LO- 
gist, nn., ChpistOLO'GiCAL a. 

Christy minstrels, n. pi. Negro-song 
troupe with blacked faces, [inventor's name] 

ehpoma'tie, a. Of, produced by, full of 
bright, colour (c. printing, from blocks inked 
with various colours ; chromatics, science of 
colour). (Mus.) of, having, notes not included 
in diatonic scale, admitting notes marked with 
accidentals ; c. scale, proceeding by semitones ; 
c. semitone, interval between note & its flat or 
sharp. Hence chpoma'tiCALLY adv. [f. Gk 
khromatikos (chroma -atos colour, -ic)] 

chpo'mato-, chpo'mo-, comb, forms of Gk 



CHROMATROPE 



145 



CHURCH 



khroma -atos colour, as in chromatopsy abnor- 
mally coloured vision, chromophotograph(y), 
photograph(y) in the natural colours, chromo- 
sphere, red gaseous envelope of sun. 
ehpo'matpope, n. Lantern slide of two 
circular disks, one rotating in front of other, 

f giving kaleidoscopic movement of colours, 
irreg. f. prec. + Gk -tropos -turning (trepo)] 

chrome, n. (Also c.-yellow) yellow pigment 
& colour got from chromate of lead ; c. green, 
orange, red, pigments from other compounds 
of chromium. [F, orig. name of chromium, f. 
Gk khroma colour] 

ehpo'mie, a. Of chromium, [prec. + -ic] 

chro'mium, n. (chem,). Metallic element. 
Hence chPO'mATE H3) n. [chrome + -ium] 

chpomo- \ comb, form of prec. 

ehpomo- 2 . Se<j chromato-. 

ehpoTnogrpaph, n., & v.t. (Reproduce with) 
gelatine copying-apparatus in which aniline 
dye is used for ink. [chromo- 2 , -graph] 

ehpomoli'thogpaph, chpo'mo (pi. -os), n. 
Picture printed in colours from stone. So 
ehPomolitho'GRAPHER, ehpomolitho*- 
graphy, nn., ehPO'molithoGRA'PHic a. 

[CHROMO- 2 + LITHOGRAPH] 

chronic, a. Lingering, lasting, inveterate, 
(of disease, cf. acute ; c. invalid, with c. com- 
plaint ; also of other states as c. doubt, rebel- 
lion); (vulg.)bad,intense,severe. Hence ehpo*- 
niCALLY adv., ehPonreiTY n. [f. F chronique 
f. L f. Gk khronikos (khronos time, -ic)] 

ehpo'niele, n., & v.t. (Enter, relate, in a) 
continuous register of events in order of time ; 
Chronicles, two books of O.T. ; narrative, ac- 
count; C, newspaper name. Hence ehpo'ni- 
cIer l n. [f. OF cronique f. med. L cronica -ae 
f. ~L f. Gk khronika neut. pi. see prec] 

chronique scandateuse (F), ri. Body of 
scandalous gossip current at any time & place. 

chrd'nogpam, n. Phrase &c. of which the 
Roman-numeral letters added give a date, as 
LorD haVe MerCIe Vpon Vs= 50 +500 +5 +1000 
+100+1+5+5=1666. Hence chronogram- 
ma'tica. [f. Gk khronos time + -gram ',-matic 
after Gk grammatikos adj. f. gramma] 

chpo'nograph, n. Instrument recording 
time with extreme accuracy ; stop-watch. 
Hence ehponoGRA # phic a. [as prec. + -graph] 

ehpono'logy, n. Science of computing 
dates ; arrangement of events with dates, table 
or treatise displaying this. Hence or cogn. 
chpono'LOGER, ehPono'LOGiST, nn., ehro- 
noLOGiCAL a., ehponolo'g'iealL y 2 adv., 
ehpono*log , izE(3) v.t. [as prec. + -logy] 

chrono'metep, n. Time-measuring instru- 
ment, esp. one with complete provision against 
disturbance by temperature, used for fixing 
longitude at sea &c. [as prec. + -meter] 

chpono'metpy, n. Scientific time-measure- 
ment. So ehPonoME"TRic(AL) aa., ehpono- 
me'tpiealLY 2 adv. [as prec. + -metry] 

chpd'nophep, n. Apparatus for distribut- 
ing electric time-signals, [as prec, Gk -phoros 
-bearing (phero bear)] 

chpo'noscope, n. Apparatus measuring 
velocity of projectiles, [as prec + -scope] 

ehpys-, comb, form of Gk A;/*rM.so.s,,gold, = 
yellow in chem. & mineral, wds, of gold, golden, 
yellow, &c, in general wds. 

chrysalis, -id, n. (pi. -ises, -ids, chi'ysa'- 
lides). Form taken by insect in the torpid 
stage of passive development between larva 
(caterpillar &c) & imago (butterfly &c.) ; case 
then enclosing it; (fig.) preparatory or tran- 
sition state. [f. L f. Gk khrusallis -idos lit. 
golden thing, see prec] 

ehpysa'nthemum, n. (Bot.) genus includ- 



ing Corn Marigold; (Gardening) cultivated 
varieties of this brought from Japan & bloom- 
ing in Nov. & Dec. [f. L f. Gk khrusanthemon 
(chrys-, anthemon flower)] 

chpyselepha'ntine, a. Overlaid with gold 
& ivory as by ancient Greek sculptors, [f. Gk 
khruselephantinos (chrys-, elephant, -ine 2 ) 1 

ehpyso-. = chrys-. 

chpysobe'pyl, n. Yellowish-green gem. 
[f. L f. Gk khrusoberullos (chryso-, beryl)] 

chrysolite, n, (Formerly) green gem of 
various kinds ; (now) olivine, [f. OF crisolite 
f. L f. Gk khrusolithos (chryso-, lithos stone)] 

ch r y • so prase (-az), n. (N. T. ) prob. a golden- 
green variety of beryl; (now) apple-green variety 
of chalcedony, [f. OF crisopace f. L f. Gk khru- 
soprasos (chryso-, prason leek)] 

chub (tsh-), n. Thick coarse-fleshed river fish, 
dusky green above. [?] 

chubb (tsh-), n. Kind of lock, [inventor] 

ehu'bby, a. Round-faced, plump. Hence 
chu'bbiNESS n. [chub + -y 2 ] 

chuck 1 (tsh-), int., n., & v.i. (Make) call of 
fowl or person calling fowls or urging horse, 
[irnit.] 

chuck. 2 (tsh-), n. Term of endearment. Hence 
chu'ekY 3 n. [prob. var. of chick] 

chuck 3 (tsh-), v.t,, & n. Jerk under the 
chin (n. & v.) ; fling, throw, (n. & v.) with con- 
tempt, carelessness, ease ; c. away, waste, lose 
(chance &c) ; c. up the sponge, give up contest 
or attempt ; c. up, abandon in disgust ; c. out, 
expel (troublesome person) from meeting, music- 
hall, «Scc, whence chucki;R ] -out n. ; (slang) 
c. it, cease ; c.-farthing, kind of quoit game 
with coins, also pitch and toss, [in 16th c chock, 
perh. f. F choc, choquer] 

chuck 4 (tsh-), n., & v.t. Contrivance in lathe 
& the like for holding work to be operated on ; 
(vb) fix (wood &c.) to this. [var. of chock *] 

chu'ckle (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Indulge in) sup- 
pressed laughter, laugh with closed mouth, 
(show) signs of glee ; exult over ; (make) hen's 
call. [imit. & cf. chuck 1 , -le(3)1 

chu*ckle-head, n., chu'ckle-headed, 
a., (tsh-). Dolt(ish); stupid (fellow), [f. obs. 
chuckle adj. hulking cf. chuck 4 , chock 1 ] 

chum (tsh-), v.i., & n. Occupy rooms to- 
gether, whence ehu*mmERY(3) n. ; be inti- 
mate. (N.) familiar - friend (esp. now among 
boys) ; (Australia) new c, recent immigrant, 
greenhorn, [from 1684 ; etym. dub.] 

chump (tsh-), n. Short thick lump of wood ; 
thick end, esp. of loin of mutton (so c. chop) ; 
(colloq.) head, esp. ozone's c, mad with excite- 
ment &c [mod. wd perh. on chop & lump] 

chunk (tsh-), n. Thick lump cut off (wood, 
bread, cheese, &c). [prob. var. of chuck 4 ] 

church J (tsh-), n. Building for public Chris- 
tian worship, esp. according to established re- 
ligion of country ; all Christians (C. militant, 
Christians on earth warring against evil) ; an 
organized Christian society of any time (primi- 
tive C), place (C. of Scotland), or distinguishing 
principle (reformed C.) ; C. of England, English 
or Anglican C, English branch of Western 
or Latin Church rejecting Pope's supremacy 
since reformation ; Established C, recognized 
by State, as E.C. of England, Scotland ; organi- 
zation, clergy & other officers, of a religious 
society or corporation ; clerical profession (go 
into the C, take holy orders); high, low 1 , 
broad, c, parties with different views of doc- 
trine & discipline, whence -chup'chman, 
-ehup*ehiSM(3), nn. ; public worship (go to, 
after, c. ; c.-time ; c.-goer, -going) ; churchman, 
chxirchwoman, churchmanship, member, mem- 
bership, of c. ; poor as a c. mouse, of poor per- 



CHURCH 



146 



CINGULUM 



son ; e.-rate, levied by vestry for maintenance 
of parish c. & its services; c.-service, public 
worship, book with Common Prayer, proper 
lessons, &c. ; c.-text, black letter in monumen- 
tal inscriptions ; churchwarden, elected lay 
representative of parish (usu. one of two, elected 
one by incumbent, one by parishioners), also 
long clay pipe ; churchyard, enclosed ground 
in which c. stands, sometimes used for burial 
{churchyard cough, heralding death; fat 
churchyard, many deaths). Hence chur'ch- 
less a., chur'chwARD(s) adv. [OE circe f. 
WG kirika f. Gk kuriakon (perh. ddma) Lord's 
(house) f. kurios lord, -ac] 

church' 2 , v.t. Bring (woman) to c. to have 
thanks offered for delivery of child, [f. prec] 

chup'chy, a. Obtrusively or intolerantly 
devoted to church or opposed to dissent. Hence 
chup'ehipv v.t., ehup'chiNESS n. [-V 2 ] 

ehurl (tsh-), n. Person of low birth (gentle- 
man or c.) ; peasant, boor ; ill-bred fellow ; cross- 
grained or niggardly person, whence chur'l- 
ish 1 a., chup'lishLY 2 adv., ehup'lishNESS 
n. [OE ceorl f. WG kerl man] 

churn (tsh-), n., & v.t. & i. (Agitate milk or 
cream, produce butter, in). butter-making ma- 
chine ; work this machine ; stir (liquid) about, 
make it froth; (of sea &c.) wash to and fro, 
foam, seethe ; large milk-can of c. shape ; c- 
dash(er), -staff, appliance for agitating milk in 
c. ; a churning, amount of butter made at once. 
[OE cyrin com.-Teut. cf. Du. karn] 

chupp (tsh-), v.i., & n. (Make) deep trill as of 
night-jar. [imit., cf. chirr] 

chut (tsh-),_int. of impatience. 

chute (shoot), n. Smooth rapid descent of 
water over slope ; sloping channel, slide, with 
or without water, for conveying things to lower 
level (also shoot) ; slope for shooting rubbish 
down; toboggan-slide, [mixture of F chute = 
It. caduta (L cadere fall) & shoot] 

ehu'tney, -nee, (tsh), n. Hot Indian con- 
diment of fruits, chillies, &c. [f. Hind, chatni] 

chyle (k-), n. White milky fluid formed by 
action of pancreatic juice & bile on chyme. 
[F, f. L f. Gk khulos juice (khu- pour)] 

chylo- (k-), comb, form of Gk khulos chyle. 

chyme (k-), n. Food converted by gastric 
secretion into acid pulp. [f. L f. Gk khumos 
juice (khu- pour) ; khumos & khulos, synonyms, 
were differentiated by Galen] 

ehy'mist. See chemist. 

ehymo-(k-),comb.formof Gkfc/imrao.sCHYME. 

eibop'ium, n. (Arch.) canopy, canopied 
shrine ; receptacle for reservation of Eucharist, 
shaped like shrine, or cup with arched cover, 
[f. med. L f. Gk kiborion, seed-vessel of water- 
lily, cup so shaped] 

cica'da, cica'la (kah), cigra'la (gah), n. 
Transparent - winged shrill - chirping insect. 
l(-ca/a It. ; -gala f. F -gale) f. L (-da)] 

ci'eatpice, eiea'tpix, n. (-ix, pi. -Ices, L form 
in scientific use). Scar of healed wound ; scar 
on tree bark; (Bot.) mark left by fall of leaf &c, 
hilum of seed. Hence eicatpi'ciAL, eica*- 
tPieosE J , aa. [F (-ice), f. L cicatricem nom. -ix] 

cica*tpic(u)le, n. (Biol. ) germ of chick, round 
white spot on yolk, tread ; (Bot.) - prec. [f. L 
cicatricula (prec, -ule)] 

ci'catpize, v.t. & i. Heal, skin over, (t. & i.) ; 
mark with scars. Hence eicatPiZA'TioN n. 
[f. F cicatriser f. L cicatricare (cicatrice) w. 
assim. to -ize (prop, cicatricize)] 

ci'cely, n. Kinds of umbelliferous plant 
(Sweet, Wild, Rough, C). [f. L f. Gk seselis se- 
seli w. assim. to the woman's name ( = Cecilia)] 

cicepone (tshitshero'ni), n. (pi. -oni pr. -one), 
& v.t. (Conduct traveller Sec. as) guide who 



understands & explains antiquities &c. [It., 
f. L Ciceronem nom. -o the Roman orator] 

Cicero'nian, a. & n. Eloquent, classical, or 
rhythmical, as Cicero's style ; person learned in 
or admiring Cicero. Hence Cicepd'nian- 
ism(3, 4) n. [f. L Ciceronianus (prec, -ian)] 

cicisbeo (tshltshlzba/o), n. (pi. -bci pr. -bae). 
Recognized gallant of married woman. So 
cicisbe*iSM(3) n. [It.] 

Cid, n. The G. , title (lord) of Ruy Diaz, 11th -c 
Christian champion against Moors, & of epic 
relating his deeds. [Sp., f. Arab, sayyid] 

-cide, suf. forming nouns meaning (1) slayer 
of (F, f. L -cida) or (2) slaughter of (F, f. L 
-cidium) both f. L caedere kill ; taken f. L as 
parricide, or formed on L nn. as regicide or 
facetiously on E nn. as birdicide. 

ci'dep, n. Fermented drink from apple-juice; 
c.-cup ; c.-p?*ess,for squeezing juice from apples, 
[f. OF sidre f. LL f. Gk sikera f. Heb. shekar 
strong drink (shakar drink deeply)] 

ci-devant (F), a. or adv. Former(ly), that 
has been (with the earlier name or state). 

eififap*, n. Roll of tobacco-leaf for smoking ; 
c. -shaped, cylindrical with pointed end(s) ; c- 
holder, mouthpiece holding c. [f. Sp. cigarro 
perh. f. cigarra cicada (of similar shape)] 

eigfape'tte, n. Small cylinder of cut tobacco 
or of narcotic or medicated substance rolled in 
paper for smoking, [dim. of prec] 

ci'lia, n. pi. Eyelashes ; similar fringe on leaf, 
insect's wing, &c ; (Physiol.) hair-like vibrat- 
ing organs on animal & vegetable tissue, serv- 
ing many lower water animals for locomotion. 
Hence ci'liARY 1 , ei'liATE 2 , ci'liated, aa.,ci- 
Hation n. [pi. of L cilhim eyelash] 

ci'lice, n. (Garment of) hair-cloth. [F, also 
OE c*7£c, f. Gk kilikion (Kilikia Cilicia)] 

Cimme *pian, a. Thick, gloomy, (of dark- 
ness, night, &c). [f. L f. Gk kimmerios (of 
Cimmerii, people in perpetual night) + -an] 

cineho'na (-ko-), n. Kinds of evergreen tree 
yielding c bark or Peruvian bark & quinine ; 
the bark, drug made from it, tonic & febrifuge 
(also loosely for c & quinine). Hence cin- 
ehonACEOus a., ei'nehoniNE 5 , ci'nehon- 
ism(5), nn., ei*nehoniZE(5) v.t. [Countess of 
Chinchon, introducer of drug in Spain 1640] 

Cincinna'tus, n. Great man in retirement 
who can be called upon in a crisis. [Roman 
hero called from plough to dictatorship] 

ei'netupe, n., & v.t. (Surround with or as 
with a) girdle, belt, fillet, border, [f. L cinctura 
(cingere cinct- gird, -ure)] 

ei'ndep, n. Slag ; residue of coal, wood, &c, 
that has ceased to flame (whether cold or not) 
but has still combustible matter in it ; (loosely 
in pi.) ashes; c.-path, running-track laid with 
fine cc ; c.-sifter, for separating cc from ashes. 
Hence ei'ndepv 2 a. [OE s inder cf. G sinter, 
Sw. sinder, w. assim. to the unconnected F 
cendre & L cinis -eris] 

Cinderella, n. Person of unrecognized 
merit or beauty; C. dance or C, dance closing 
at twelve o'clock, [allusions to fairy-tale] 

cinematograph. See kinematograph. 

einerap'ia, n. Bright-flowered composite 
plant, grown chiefly under glass, [f. L cinera- 
rius of ashes f. cinis -eris ashes (ash-coloured 
down on leaves)] 

ei'nepapy, a. Of ashes (esp. c. urn, holding 
ashesjpf dead after cremation), [as prec. ] 

einep'eous, a. Ashen-grey (esp. of birds or 
plumage), [f. L cinereus (cinis -eris ashes) + -ous] 

Ci'ngale'se, a. & n. (Native, language) of 
Ceylon._ [f. Skr. sihhalas] 

ci'ngulum,\\. Belt (used technically in Surg., 
Anat., Zool., &c). [L] 



CINNABAR 



147 



CIRCUMFLEX 



ci'nnabar, n. & a. Red mercuric sulphide ; 

vermilion (n. & a.), [f. L cinnabaris f. Gk kin- 

nabari f. Oriental source] 

ci'nnamon, n. & a. (E.-Ind. tree yielding) 
aromatic inner bark used as spice ; c-colour(ed), 

(of) yellowish-brown ; c. -stone, brown or yellow 
garnet. Hence or cogn. ci'nnamATE H'S) n., 

cinnamo'mic, einnamo'nic, aa. If. F cin- 
namome f. L f. Gk kinnamomon f. Semit. (Heb. 
qinnamon)] 

cinque, cinq, (sink), n. The five at dice & 
cards, [f. OF cink f. L quinque five] 

cinquece'nto, cinquece'ntist, (tshink- 
witshe-), mi. Italian style of art, artist, of the 
16th c. (15-) with reversion to classieal forms. 
[It. (-o, -ista) with omission (in It.) of mil] 

ci'nq(ue)foil (sinkf-), n. Kinds of plant with 
compound leaf of five leaflets; (Arch.) five- 
cusped ornament in circle or arch. [thr. OF f. 
L quinque folium five-leaf] 

Cinque Ports (sink), n. pi. Certain ports 
(orig. five only) on SE coast with ancient privi- 
leges. | f. OF cink porz five ports] 

erphep *, cy-, n. Arithmetical symbol (O) of 
no value in itself but multiplying number it is 
placed after, and dividing decimal number it is 
placed before, by ten ; person or thing of no im- 
portance ; any Arabic figure ; secret writing, 
thing so written, key to it; interlaced initials 
of person, company, &c, monogram ; continued 
soundingof organ-note owing todefective valve, 
[f. OF cyfre f. Arab, cifr zero (orig. adj. — empty)] 

ei'pheP 2 , cy-, v.i. & t. Do arithmetic ; work 
(usu. out) by arithmetic, calculate ; put into 
secret writing (cf. decipher) ; (of organ-note) go 
on sounding when not pressed, [f. prec] 

ci'polin, n. Italian white-&-green marble. 
[F, f. It. cipollino (cipolla onion) from resem- 
blance of structure to coats of onion] 

c##-ca, c/r*c/ter, prepp. (abbr. c. or circ). 
About [with dates). [L] 

Cir'ce, n. Enchantress, temptress. Hence 
Circe'AN a, [proper name in Gk mythol.J 

cir'cinate, a. (bot.). (With leaves) rolled up 
from apex to base, as in most ferns, [f. L circx- 
nare make round (circinus compasses, -ate 2 )] 

cip'cle ] , n. (Line enclosing) perfectly round 
plane figure (square the c, find square of same 
area as given c, attempt impossibilities ; great, 
small, c., c. on surface of sphere whose plane 
passes, does not pass, through sphere's centre ; 
polar, arctic, antarctic, c); (loosely) roundish 
enclosure ; orbit of planet ; ring ; curved tier of 
seats at theatre &c. (dress c, tipper c, more & 
less expensive) ; (Archaeol.) ring of stones as at 
Stonehenge; period, cycle, round, (come full c, 
end at starting-point) ; complete series ; (Logic, 
often vicious c.) fallacy of proving proposition 
from another that rests on it for proof ; action 
& reaction that intensify each other (often vi- 
cious c.) ; persons grouped round centre of inter- 
est ; set, coterie, class, (first, upper, cc. ; cc. in 
which one moves) ; area of influence, action, &c, 
sphere. Hence cip'clewiSE adv. [OE circul 
(ME cercle f. F) f. hcirculus dim. of circus ring] 

cip'cle 2 , v.t. & i. Encompass (poet.) ; encom- 
pass round, about ; move in a c. round, about ; 
be passed round (of wine &c.) ; (Mil.) sweep 
round on moving flank (of cavalry, cf. wheel 2 ); 
(p.p.) rounded, marked with cc. ff. prec] 

eip'elet, n. Small circle ; circular band, esp. 
of gold, jewelled, &c.,worn on head or elsewhere, 
[f. F cerclet (circle l , -et)] 

cip'euit (-kit), n. Line enclosing an area, dis- 
tance round ; area enclosed ; roundabout jour- 
ney ; sequence of changes, acts, &c. ; journey 
of judge in particular district to hold courts, 
this district (eight in Eng. & Wales), the barris- 



ters (member of a c.) making the a; Methodist- 
Church district with series of itinerant preach- 
ers ; (Electr.) path of current (short c, faulty 
shortening of a c. by defective insulation). [F 
f. L circuitus f. CIRC uu(ire it- go)] 

cipcu'itous, a. Roundabout, indirect. Hence 
eipcu'itousLv 2 adv., ciPcu'itousNEss n. [f. 
LL ci7'cuitosus (circuit, -ose 1 )] 

eip*culap, a. & n. Round in superficies ; mov- 
ing in a circle (c. tour, ending where it began by 
different route, c. ticket, for this); (Logic) of, 
using, the vicious circle l ; addressed to a circle 
of persons, customers, &c. (c. note, banker's let- 
ter of credit in traveller's favour to several 
foreign bankers ; c. letter ore, notice, advertise- 
ment, &c, reproduced for sending round) ; of, 
like, the geometrical circle ; c. saw, toothed disk 
revolving by machinery for sawing. Hence 
eiPCula'piTY n., eip-eulaPLv 2 adv. [f. OF 
circidier f. L circidaris (circle, -ar 1 )] 

circularize, v.t. Send circulars to. [-ize(I)] 

eiP'eulate, v.i. & t. Go round (blood circu- 
lates through veins, water in pipes, wine on 
table, newspaper to circle of readers) ; (of deci- 
mals) = recur; send round, give currency to, 
(book, report, scandal, &c.) ; circulating library, 
with books taken by subscribers in succession ; 
circulating medium, notes, gold, &c, used in 
exchange, [f. L circulare (circle j ), -ate 3 ] 

circulation, n. Movement of blood from 
and to heart, similar movement of sap &c. ; 
movement to and fro (c. of water, atmosphere, 
&c); transmission, distribution, (of news, books, 
&c.) ; number of copies sold, esp. of newspapers ; 
currency, coin, &c. [F, f. L circulationem (cir- 
culare see prec, -ation)] 

cip'eulative, a. Inclined to, promoting, cir- 
cujation. [as prec, -ive] 

cip'culatop, n. One who circulates news, 
coin, &c [as prec, -or 2 ] 

cip'culatopy, a. Of circulation of blood or 
sap. [f. L circulatorius (as prec, -orv)] 

eipcum-, pref. = L adv. & prep, circum 
round, about, used (1) adverbially, as circumva- 
gant wandering round or about ; (2) preposition- 
ally, as circumocular surrounding the eye. E 
wds are some f. L (direct, as circumscribe, or 
thr. F as circumcise), some formed in E on L 
elements as circumambient, & some facetious 
hybrids as circumbendibus. ■ 

cipcuma'mbient, a. Surrounding (esp. of ' 
air or other fluid). Hence cipeuma'mbiENC y 
n. [circum-(I) + ambient] 

cipcuma'mbulate, v.t. & i. Walk round 
(place &c) ; walk about ; beat about the bush. 
Hence eipeumambuLvTioN n., eipeum- 
a'mbulatoRY a. [f. L circum (ambulare 
walk), -ate 3 ] 

eipeumbe'ndibus, n. (facet.). Roundabout 
method ; circumlocution. Icircum-(I), bend, 
ending of L abl. case] 

ciP'cumcise (-z), v.t. Cut off foreskin of (as 
Jewish or Mohammedan rite, or surgically) ; 
purify (c. the heart, passions, &c). [f. OF cir- 
conciser f. L circum (cidere -cis- ~ caedere cut)] 

eipeumei'sion (-izhn), n. Act or rite of, 
spiritual purification by, circumcising; (Bibl.) 
the c, the Jews ; (Eccl.) festival of C. of Christ, 
1st Jan. [f. OF circumcisiun f. L circumcisio- 
nem (as prec, -ion)] 

eipcu'mfepenee, n. Encompassing bound- 
ary, esp. of figure enclosed by curve, as circle ; 
distance round. So cipeumfepe'ntiAL a. [f. 
L circum (ferentia f. ferent- part. st. of ferre 
bear, & see -ence)] 

eip'eumflex, a. & n., & v.t. C. accent or c, 
mark C in Gk, a elsewhere) placed over vowel 
to indicate contraction, length, or special 



CIRCUMFLUENT 



148 



CITR- 



quality (vb, mark thus) ; (Anat.) curved, bend- 
ing round something else, (c. artery, muscle, 
&c). [f. L circu M(jtexus p.p. of Hectere bend) 
transl. of Gk peri spoinenos] 

eipcirmfluent, a. Flowing round, ambient. 
Hence eireirmfluENCEn. [f. LciRCU>i(.#uens 
f.fluere flow, -ent)] 

eipcu'mfluous, a. = prec. ; surrounded by 
water, [f. L circumJIuus flowing or flowed 
round (Jluere flow) + -ous] 

cipcumfirse (-z), v.t. Pour (fluid) about or 
round (object) ; surround, bathe, (object with, 
or of fluid as subj. ). So eipeumfu'siON (-zhn) 
n. [f. L circum( fundere f 'us- pour)] 

eip'eumgyra'te, v.i. Turn, wheel, travel, 
round. Hence eipeumg-yPATiON n., eip- 
cumgypa'tORY a. [circum-(I) + gyrate] 

eipeumja'cent, a. Situated around, [f. L 
circu m(j ace nt- part. st. otjacera lie)] 

eipeumli'ttopal, a. Bordering the shore. 
[circum-(2) + L littus -oris shore + -al] 

eipeumloeu'tion, n. Use of many words 
where few would do; evasive talk; a round- 
about expression; C. Office, dilatory Govern- 
ment office. Hence eipeumloeu'tionAL, 
cipeumloeirtionARY *, eipcumld'eutoRY, 
aa., eipeumloeirtioniST(l) n. [f. L circum- 

(lOCUtiO LOCUTION)] 

cipcum-mepi'dian, a. (astr.). Near the 
meridian (of observations taken of star &c. 
when so placed). [circum-(2)] 

cipcumna-'vigrate, v.t. Sail round (esp. the 
globe or world). Hence eipeumna'vig-atOR 2 
n. [f. L circu Mnavigare navigate)] 

eipeumnu'tate, v.i. (bot.). Bend towards 
all points of compass successively (of growing 
parts of plant). Hence cipeumnutATiON n. 
[circum-(I), nutate] 

eipeumop'al, a. (physiol.). Placed round 
mouth. [circum-(2), L os oris mouth, -al] 

cipeumpo'lap, a. (Astr.) c. star, motion, 
Sec, above horizon throughout diurnal course ; 
(Geog.) about, near, one of the earth's poles. 

[CIRCUM-<2), hpollCS POLE, -AR 1 ] 

eip'cumscpibe, v.t. Draw line round; 
(Geom.) describe (figure) round another touch- 
ing it at points, but not cutting it ; lay down 
limits of, confine, restrict ; define logically ; 
sign (round-robin), whence eipeumsepi'bER 1 
, n. [f. L ciRCUMCs-cri&ere script- write)] 

cipcumsepi'ption, n. Having, marking 
out, or imposing, of limits ; boundary ; limited 
district; definition; (Geom.) circumscribing 
(see prec); inscription round coin &c. [f. L 
circuniscriptio (prec, -ion] 

cireumso'lap, a. Revolving round, being 
near, the sun. [circu.m-(2), sol 1 , -ar 1 ] 

cip'cumspect, a. Cautious, wary, taking 
everything into account. Hence or cogn. eip- 
eumspe'ctiON, ciP'eumspeetNESs, nn., 
cip'eumspeetivE a., cip'eumspeetLY 2 
adv. [f. L circum (specks p.p. of -spicere look 
at) considered, of act, & transf. of persons] 

cip'cumstanee, n. (PI.) time, place, man- 
ner, cause, occasion, &c, surroundings, of an 
act ; external conditions affecting or that might 
affect an agent (in, under, the cc, owing to or 
making allowance for them) ; material welfare 
(in good, bad, easy, reduced, straitened, cc). 
(Sing.) full detail in narrative ; ceremony, fuss, 
(without c, unceremoniously; pomp&c); in- 
cident, occurrence, fact (esp. the c that). Hence 
ciP'cumstaneED 2 a. TOF, f. L ciRCUM(.sta?i- 
tia f. part, of stare stand) surrounding state] 

cipeumsta'ntial (-shl), a. Depending on 
subordinate details (c. evidence, establishing 
the doubtful main fact by inference from 
known facts otherwise hard to explain) ; ad- 



ventitious, incidental ; with many details (c. 
story). Hence eipeumstantia'liTY (-shl-) n., 
eiPCumsta'ntialLY 2 adv. [as prec + -al] 

cir'cum vallate, v.t., cipcumvalla'tion, 
n. (Surround with) rampart or entrenchment ; 
process of doing this. [f. L circu M(vallare f. 
vallum rampart), see -ate 3 , -ation] 

circumvent, v.t. Entrap ; overreach, out- 
wit. So eiPcumve'ntioN n. [f. L circum- 
(venire vent- come)] 

eipeumvolu'tion, n. Rolling round ; coil ; 
period ; sinuous movement, [f. L circum- 
(volvere volut- roll), -ion] 

cip'eus, n. Rounded or oval arena lined 
with tiers of seats for equestrian & other 
exhibitions ; amphitheatre of hills ; open circle 
with streets converging on it ; travelling show 
of horses, riders, &c [L, = ring] 

cipque (-k), n. Arena, natural amphitheatre, 
(chiefly poet. & rhet.). [F, f. L as prec] 

eippho'sis, n. Disease of liver, chiefly alco- 
holic. [Gk kin^hos tawny, -osis] 

cippi-, cippo-, comb, form of cirrus. Hence 
cippi'FEROUS, ci'ppiFORM, aa., & names of 
cloud-forms as cin°o-cumidus. [-I-, -o-] 

ci'ppiped(e), n. Marine animal in valved 
shell attached to other bodies, with legs like 
curl of hair. [f. F ciRRi(pede f. hpes pedis foot)] 

ci'ppus, n. (pi. -ri). (Bot.) tendril; (Zool.) 
slender appendage, as beard of fishes, feet of 
cirripeds ; (Meteor.) form of cloud with diverg- 
ing filaments like lock of hair or wool. Hence 
eippo'SE 1 , ci'ppous, aa. [L,=cuii] 

cis-, pref. = on this side of, opp. to trans- or 
ultra-, retaining in some orig. L wds the 
Roman sense (cispadane, cisalpine, S. or 
Rome-wards of Po, Alps), but usu. w. ref. to 
speaker's or majority's position (cismontane, 
N. of Alps or non-Italian ; cis-Leithan, W. of 
Leitha, Austrian, non-Hungarian ; cis-pontine, 
in London, on northern or better known side 
of bridges or Thames) ; prefixed to the adj. form 
of the second element ; often used in wds made 
for the nonce in opposition to wds in trans- 
or ultra- (transatlantic & cisatlantic) ; also of 
time as cis-Elizabethan. [L prep.] 

cist, n. (archaeol.). Prehistoric stone or hol- 
lowed-tree coffin ; box for sacred utensils in 
Gk mysteries, [f. L f. Gk kiste box] 

Cistep'cian (-shn), n. & a. (Monk) of order 
founded 1098 at Cistercium or Citeaux, stricter 
offshoot of Benedictines, also called Bernardine 
as patronized by St Bernard of Clairvaux. [-an] 

ei'stepn, n. Reservoir for storing water, usu. 
on upper storey with pipes supplying taps on 
lower levels (also fig., of pond), [f. OF cisterne 
f. L cisterna (cista see cist) cf. caverna] 

ci'stus, n. Kinds of shrub with large white 
or red short-lived flowers, [f. Gk kistos] 

ci'tadel, n. Fortress, esp. one guarding or 
dominating city ; last retreat of hard-pressed 
party, belief, &c [f. F citadelle f. It. cittadella 
dim. of cittade f. L civitatem city] 

cite, v.t. Summon to appear in law-court; 
quote (passage, book, author) in support of a 
position ; mention as example. Hence or cogn. 
ei'tABLE a., cftA'TiON n. [f. F citer f. L citare 
frequent, of ciere set moving] 

ci'thep(n), ei'ttepn, n. (archaic or poet.). 
Lute, guitar, [f. L f. Gk kithara harp with 
seven to eleven strings] 

ei*tizen, n. Burgess, freeman, of city ; towns- 
man ; civilian ; member,