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A Concise 


of the 



The Concise Etymological Dictionary 
ranks among the most useful of readers' 
companions, for it can be relied on to 
throw light on the origins and relation- 
ships of most English words in ordinary 
use, and of many rarer words whose 
history is especially curious or instructive. 
Professor Skeat gave a lifetime of study to 
the subject, and his results are presented 
so clearly and conveniently that the book 
can be used without difficulty by those 
who have no special training in philology. 

By the same author 







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^ USE CLiLY a:..;... Av- voT BE 


6th ATe. & 42nd St., N.Y., N.Y. lOOlS 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 





Oxford University Press, Ely House, London W. i 












LiTT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Ph.D., F.B.A, 



'Ware man to live co-eval with the sun, 
The patriarch-pupil would be learning still.' 

Young, Nighi Thoughts, vil Z6 











Key to the General Plan of the Dictionary . . . xi 

List of Abbreviations xii 




I. List of Prefixes 624 

II. Suffixes 630 

III. Select List of Latin Words 632 

Select List of Greek Words 644 

IV. Homonyms 647 

V. List of Doublets 648 

VI. Distribution of Words according to the Languages 

from which they are derived 652 




* A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language ' was 
first published in 1882, and, after passing through several editions, 
appeared in 190 1 in a new form, so largely re-arranged and re-written 
as to become, practically, a new book. 

The edition of 1901 has now been again revised, and numerous 
corrections have been made, chiefly due to the new light which has 
been thrown upon some words by the advance of the publication of 
the New English Dictionary, and by the appearance of new works 
upon etymology. Among the latter I may especially instance the 
Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterhuch by Dr. Alois Walde, published 
at Heidelberg in 1906. 

Cambridge, Dec.^ 19 10. 


The first edition of my ' Concise Etymological Dictionary of the 
English Language' was published in 1882, and it has since passed 
through several editions. 

Each successive edition contained several corrections and additions, 
in order that the work might be, to some extent, brought up to 

Meanwhile, numerous and important contributions have been 
made, by many writers, to the study of Indo-germanic philology; 
more exact methods of analysing phonetic changes have been 
adopted, and important advances have been made at many points. 
Such works as Kluge's Etymological Dictionary of German, Franck's 
Etymological Dictionary of Dutch, Godefroy's Dictionary of Old 
French, the Modern French Dictionary by Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, 
in addition to other highly important books such as the Comparative 
Grammar of the Indo-germanic languages by Brugmann, have all 
contributed to a much clearer and more exact view of the science of 
comparative philology. Hence the time has come when partial 
emendations of my Concise Dictionary, however diligently made, 
have (as I fear) failed to keep pace with the requirements of 
the present day; and I have accordingly rewritten the book from 
beginning to end, making improvements in nearly every article, 
whilst at the same time introducing into the body of the work 
words which have hitherto necessarily been relegated to a con- 
tinually increasing Supplement. The result is less a new edition 
than a new book. 

Since the year 1882 above-mentioned, a great advance has been 
made in English lexicography. An entirely new edition of Webster 
appeared in 1890, and The Century Dictionary, of which the publication 


was begun in 1889, was completed in 189 1. In both of these works my 
name appears in the ' List of Authorities cited ' ; though it is seldom 
expressly mentioned except in cases of considerable difficulty, where 
the writer preferred not to risk an opinion of his own. But the chief 
event during this period has been the publication of The New 
English Dictionary on Historical Principles, the unique value of 
which is even now too little understood and respected by the 
general public. The first part of this great national work appeared 
in 1884. 

The chief difference between the second and later editions of my 
Concise Etymological Dictionary and the present one can now be 
readily explained. The former editions were mainly reproduced from 
the first edition, at a time when, from the nature of the case, little 
help could be had from the works above-mentioned, owing to the 
fact that they either did not exist or could not be much utilised. 
But in the present work, I have endeavoured to glean from them all 
their most important results. The work has been collated with the 
Century Dictionary throughout, and with the New English Dictionary 
from A to H (excepting a small portion of G). I have endeavoured 
to make good use of Kluge, Franck, Brugmann, and other autho- 
rities; and have gladly adopted a large number of corrections. In 
particular, I have now marked the quantities of all the vowels 
in Latin words, as this often throws much light upon Romance 
phonology. And in many cases where the result is tolerably certain 
I have given the primitive types of Teutonic and even of Indo-germanic 

In all former editions, I endeavoured, by help of cross-references, 
to arrange derivative words under a more primitive form. Thus 
ex-cite, in-cite, re-cite and resus-cit-ate were all given under Cite. 
But experience has shewn that this endeavour was more ambitious 
than practical, often causing needless delay and trouble. Hence the 
only truly practical order, viz. an alphabetical one, has been here 
adopted, so that the required word can now be found at once. But 
in order to retain the chief advantages of the old plan, I have pre- 
pared two lists, one of Latin and one of Greek words, which account 
for a large number of derivatives. These will be found in the 
Appendix, § III, at pp. 632 and 644. 

I have much pleasure in mentioning two more circumstances by 
which I have been greatly assisted and encouraged. Some few years 


ago, my friend the Rev. A. L. Ma} hew was so good as to go patiently 
through every word of the Concise Etymological Dictionary, making 
hundreds of suggestions for improvement; and finally sent me the 
copy in which all these suggestions were entered. They have all 
been carefully considered, and in a very large number of instances 
have been fully adopted. Again, while the revises were passing 
through the press, they were read over by ]\Ir. H. M. Chadwick, M.A., 
Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, author of ' Studies in Old 
English' published by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1899; 
and his exact knowledge of Indo-germanic phonology has been 
suggestive of many improvements. I have only to add, in justice to 
these scholars, that they are not responsible for all the results here 
given. In some few cases I have held to my own preconceived 
opinion ; perhaps not always wisely. Still it was best that the final 
form of each article should be left to the author's decision ; for the 
reader is then sure as to where he must lay any blame. 

Many articles which, in former editions, appeared only in the 
Supplement have now been incorporated with the rest, so that the 
number of words now explained (in alphabetical order) amounts to 
more than 12,750. 

Considerable pains have been taken to ensure accuracy in the 
printing of the forms cited ; and I have received much help from the 
care exercised by the press-reader. At the same time, I shall be 
thankful to any reader who will kindly send me a note of any error 
which he may detect I have myself discovered, for example, that 
under the word Cemeiery the * Skt. gi' is an error for the ' Skt. fi! 
A few belated corrections appear at pp. 662-3. 

As I frequently allude to the ordinary vowel-changes in the course 
of the work, I may note here those which are the most elementary 
and common. They deserve to be learnt by heart at once. 

ANGLO-SAXON. The most usual vowel-change is that produced 
by the occurrence of an i ox j (which often disappears by a subsequent 
contraction of the word) in the following syllable. Owing to this, we 


frequently find that the vowels, as arranged in row (i) below, are 
changed into the corresponding vowels in row (2). 

(i) a, u {0), ea, eo, a, 5, u, ea, eo. 

(2) e, y, ie{y), ie[y), ^, e, y, le{y, O. Merc, e), le{y). 

Example :—;/5^//«//, to fill, for ^fulljan; kom/ull, full. 

Moreover, substantives and secondary verbs are often formed from 
bases seen in the past tense singular, past tense plural, or past participle 
of a strong verb, rather than from the infinitive mood. Thus band and 
be7id are from the base seen in the A. S. band, pt. t. of bindan, to bind ; 
whilst bundle is derived from that which appears in the pp. bund-en. 
By way of distinction, I refer to bind- as the ' prime grade,' to band- 
as the '■ second grade,' and to bund- as the ' weak grade.' 

Lastly, our modern words of native origin belong rather to the 
Midland (or Old Mercian) dialect than to the ' Anglo-Saxon ' or 
Wessex ; and Old Mercian employs a (mutated to e) where the A. S. 
has ea, and sometimes e for A. S. eo. 

ICELANDIC. This language abounds in somewhat similar vowel- 
changes, but very few of these appear i7i English. But we must not 
pass over the frequent formation of derivatives from the past tenses 
(singular or plural) and the past participles of strong verbs. Thus 
bait, Icel. beita, lit. ' to cause to bite/ is the causal of bita, to bite ; its 
form may be explained by the fact that the pt. t. of bita is beii. 

Again, as regards the Romance languages, especially French, it 
must be borne in mind that they are also subject to phonetic laws. 
These laws are sufficiently illustrated in Mr. Paget Toynbee's trans- 
lation of Brachet's Historical French Grammar. In particular, I may 
note that most French substantives are derived from Latin accusatives ; 
and that to derive bounty from bonitds (nom.), or honour from Lat. 
honor (nom.), is simply impossible. 

For fuller information, the reader is referred to my Principles of 
English Etymology, First and Second Series ; the former deals chiefly 
with the native, and the latter with the foreign elements of the 
language. My Primer of English Etymology contains some of the 
more important facts, 

I subjoin a key to the plan of the work, and a list of abbreviations. 



§ I. Order of Words. Words are given in their alphabetical 
order; but a few secondary derivatives are explained under some 
more important form. Thus campaign is given under Camp, and 
ca7ino7i under Caiie. 

§ 2. The Words selected. The word-list contains nearly all 
primary words of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that are 
remarkably prominent in literature, such as imaneled. Homonymous 
forms, such as bay (used in five senses), are numbered. 

§ 3. Definitions. Definitions are omitted in the case of common 
words ; but explanations of original forms are added wherever they 
seemed to me to be necessary. 

§ 4. Language. The language to which each word belongs is 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of letters within marks of 
parenthesis. Here the symbol — or - is to be read as 'derived 
from.' Thus Abbey is (F. — L. — Gk. — Syriac); i.e. a French word 
derived from Latin; the Latin word being, in its turn, from Greek, 
whilst the Greek word is of Syriac origin. 

The order of derivation is always upward or backward, from late 
to early, and from early to earlier forms. 

The symbol + is employed to distinguish forms which are merely 
cognate, and are adduced merely by way of illustrating and confirming 
the etymology. Thus, bi'ie is a purely English word, derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon bitan. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. bijten, 
Icel. blta, Swed. bita, Dan. bide, G. beissen, and the other Indo- 
germanic forms, viz. 1^21. findere { fid-) and Skt. bh'd, to cleave, 
are merely cognate and illustrative. On this point, there commonly 
exists the most singular confusion of ideas; and there are many 
Englishmen who are accustomed to derive English, of all things, from 
Modern High Get-man ! I therefore introduce this symbol + by way 
of warning. It has its usual algebraical value of plus or additional; 
and indicates ' additional information to be obtained from the com- 
parison of cognate forms.' 



The symbol > means ' older than,' or ' more primitive than ' ; the 
symbol < means ' younger than/ or ' derived from/ 

§ 5. Symbols of Languages. The symbols, such as F.=French, 
are not used in their usual vague sense, so as to baffle the enquirer 
who wishes to find the words referred to. Every symbol has a special 
sense, and has reference to certain books, in one at least of which the 
word cited may be found, as I have ascertained for myself by looking 
them all out. I have purposely used, as far as was practicable, the 
most easily accessible authorities. The exact sense of each symbol is 
given in the list below. 

§ 6. Roots. In some cases, a word is traced back to its original 
Indo-germanic root. The root is denoted by the symbol V^, to be 
read as 'root.' Thus hear, to carry, is from \/BHER. Some of 
these roots are illustrated by the lists in § III of the Appendix. 

§ 7. Derivatives. The symbol Der., i. e. Derivatives, is used to 
introduce forms related to the primary word. Thus, under Act, I 
note such derivatives as act-ion, act-ive, &c., which cause no difficulty. 


Arab. — Arabic ; as in Richardson's Per- 
sian and Arabic Diet., ed. F, John- 
son ; 1829. See also Devic's Sup- 
plement to Littre's F. Diet. 

A. S. — Anglo-Saxon ; as in the diction- 
aries by Bosworth and Toller, Ett- 
miiller, and Grein ; in the Vocabu- 
laries edited by T. Wright and Prof. 
WUlker ; and in Sweet's Oldest 
English Texts. 

Bavar. — Bavarian ; as in Schmeller's 
Bayerisehes Worterbuch ; 1827- 

Bret. — Breton ; as in Legonidec's Bret. 
Diet., ed. 1821. 

Brugm. — Brugmann, Grundriss der ver- 
gleichenden Grammatik, &c. ; vol. i. 
(2nd ed.), 1897 ; vol. ii. 1889-90. 

C. — Celtic ; used as a general term for 
Irish,Gaelic, Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 

Corn. — Cornish ; as in Williams' Diet.; 

Dan. — Danish ; as in Ferrall and Repp ; 
Dan. dial. — Danish dialects ; as in 
Molbech, 1841. 

Du. — Dutch; as in Calisch and in the 
Tauchnitz Dutch Diet. Middle 
Dutch words are from Oudemans, 
Hexham (1658), or Sewel (1754). 

E. — Modern English ; as in N. E. D. 
(New English Dictionary) ; and in 
the Century Dictionary. 
M.E. — Middle English (English from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth cen- 
turies inclusive); as in Stratmann's 
Old English Diet., new edition, 

F. — French. Most of the forms cited 
are not precisely modern French, but 
from Cot. = Cotgrave's Dictionary, 



ed. 1660. This accounts for citation 
of forms, such as F. 7-ecreaiion, 
without accents ; the F. accents 
being mostly modern. Such words 
are usually marked M. F. (Middle 
French). See also the dictionaries 
by Hatzfeld and Littre. 
O. F. — Old French ; as in the dic- 
tionaries by Godefroy, Burguy, or 

Fries, — Friesic ; as in Richthofen, 1840. 

Gael. — Gaelic; as in Macleod and 
Dewar, 1839; or Macbain, 1896. 

G. — German ; as in Fliigel, 1883. 
Low G. — Low German; as in the 

Bremen Worterbuch, 1767. 
M. H. G. — Middle High German ; as 
in Schade, Altdeutsches Worter- 
buch, 1882. 
O. H. G.— Old High German ; as in 
the same volume. 

Gk. — Greek ; as in Liddell and Scott's 

Goth. — Moeso - Gothic ; as in Balg's 
Glossary, 18S7-9. 

Heb. — Hebrew ; as in Gesenius' Diet,, 

Hind. — Hindustani ; as in Forbes, Bate, 
or Wilson's Glossary of Indian 

Icel.— Icelandic ; as in Cleasby and Vig- 
fusson, 1874. 

Idg. — Indo-germanic ; the family of 
languages which includes Sanskrit, 
Greek, Latin, English, &c. 

Irish. — Irish ; as in O'Reilly, 1864. 

Ital. — Italian; as in Meadows, 1857; 
Torriano, 1688 ; and Florio, 1598. 

L. — Latin ; as in Lewis and Short, 1880. 

Late L. — Late Latin ; as in the latest 

edition of Ducange ; by L. Favre, 

1884-7. (Low L. = Late L. words 

of non-Latin origin.) 

Lith.— Lithuanian ; as in Nesselmann's 
Diet., 1 851. 

Low G. — Low German ; see under G. 

Malay. — As in Marsden's Diet., 1S12; 

cf. Notes by C. P. G. Scott. 
Mex. — Mexican ; as in the Diet, by 

Simeon, Paris, 18:^5. 
M. E.— Middle English; see under E. 

M. II. G.— Middle High German; sec 

under G. above. 
Norw. — Norwegian ; as in Aasen's Norsk 

Ordbog, 1873. 
O. F. — Old French ; see under F. above. 
O. II. G. — Old High German; see under 

G. above. 
O. Sax. — Old Saxon ; as in the Hcliand, 

&c., ed. Heyne. 
O. Slav. — Old Slavonic; as in Mik- 

losich, Etym. Diet., Vienna, 1S86. 
Pers. — Persian ; as in Richardson's Arab. 

and Pers. Diet. ; or in Palmer's Pers. 

Diet., 1876 ; cf. Horn, Neupersische 

Etymologic, 1893. 
Peruv. — Peruvian ; as in the Diet, by 

Gon9ales, Lima, 1608. 
Port. — Portuguese; as in Vieyra, 1857. 
Prov. — Proven9al ; as in Raynouard's 

Lexique Roman, and Bartsch's 

Chrestomathie Proven9ale. 
Russ. — Russian; as in Reiff's Diet., 

Scand. — Scandinavian ; used as a general 

term for Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, 

and Norwegian. 
Skt.— Sanskrit ; as in Benfey's Diet., 

Span.— Spanish; as in Neumann, ed. 

Seaone, 1862; Pineda, 1740; or 

Minsheu, 1623. 
Swed. — Swedish ; as in the Tauchnitz 

Diet., or in Widegren, or in Oman. 
Swed. dial. — Swedish dialects; as in 

Rietz (1867). 
Teut. — Teutonic ; a general term for 

English, Dutch, German, Gothic, 

and Scandinavian. 
Turk. — Turkish ; as in Zenker's Diet., 

W.— Welsh; as in Spurrell, 1S61. 




ace. — accusative case. 

adj. — adjective. 

adv. — adverb. 

A.V. — Authorised Version of the 

Bible, 1611. 
cf. — confer, i. e. compare. 
Ch. — Chaucer, 
comp. — comparative, 
conj. — conjunction, 
dat. — dative case, 
decl. — declensional. 
Der. — Derivative, 
dimin, — diminutive. 
f. or fem. — feminine, 
frequent. — frequentative, 
gen. — genitive case. 
i. e. — id est, that is. 
inf. — infinitive mood, 
interj. — interjection, 
lit. — literally. 
m. t7r masc— masculine. 
n. or neut. — neuter. 

nom, — nominative case. 

obs. — obsolete. 

orig. — original or originally. 

pi. — plural. 

pp. — past participle. 

prep. — preposition. 

pres. part. — present participle. 

pres. t. — present tense. 

prob.— probably. 

pron. — pronoun. 

prov. — provincial. 

pt. t. — past tense. 

q. V. — quod vide = which see. 

s. V. — sub verbo = under the word. 

sb. — substantive. 

Shak. — Shakespeare. 

sing. — singular. 

str. vb. — strong verb. 

superl. — superlative. 

tr. — translated, or translation. 

trans. — transitive. 

vb. — verb. 

Some of the longer articles are marked off into sections by the use 
of the Greek letters p, y. This is merely intended to make matters 
clearer, by separating the various statements from each other. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by beginning with 
the symbol 10". XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introduced 
in the 14th, 15th, or i6lh century, respectively. Hyphens are freely 
introduced to shew the etymological division of a word. Thus the 
word concede is derived from Lat. con-cedere ; meaning that concedere 
can be resolved into con- and cedere. This etymological division is 
often very different from that usually adopted in printed books when 
words have to be divided ; thus capacious can only be divided, etymo- 
logically, as cap-ac-i-ous, because cap- is the root-syllable ; whereas, 
when divided according to the pronunciation, it becomes ca-pa-ci-ous. 

Theoretical forms are marked by an asterisk preceding them. Thus, 
under Barrow (i), the Teutonic type "^bergoz, a hill, is the primitive 
Teutonic form whence the A. S. beorg and the G. berg are alike de- 
scended ; and wYidti: Beetle (2), the A. S. form bytel must have been 
"^betel in Old Mercian. 


The symbols 'S and Ip are both written for ///. In Icelandic, p has 
the sound of //i in /h'n, and tS that oUk in /ha/; but the M.E. and A.S. 
symbols are confused. The M.E. syml^ol ^ commonly represents j/ at 
the beginning of a word, and gk in the middle. A. S. short and long 
vowels, such as a and a, are as distinct from each other aj e and t], 
or o and co in Greek. 

The distinction between the two values of A. S. long ce (as 
made by Dr. Sweet in his A. S. Diet.) has been carefully observed. 
Thus the A. S. ^ invariably represents the mutation of A. S. a (as 
usual), and corresponds to Goth, at; but A. S. d represents the 
Wessex sound corresponding to the Anglian and Kentish e, and to 
Goth. e. For example, /leal is from A. S. hflan, cognate with Goth. 
hai'Ijan, G. heileii', but deed is from O. INIerc. aid (Wessex dad), 
cognate with Goth, deds^ G. that. 


In the course of revision, the following Errata have been observed. 
is added for the sake of completeness, as the errors are not serious. 

This list 

Adieu, 1. I. For (F.) rm^(F.-L.) 

Adulation. Read adaldtidnem, adu- 
Idiio, adiilatus, adilldri. 

Allegory. Read (F. - L. - Gk. ) X I V 

Audience, 1. 5. Read afiaOioQai. 

Chicken, 1. 5. Read kjuklivgr. 

Choose, 1. 3- Read Da. kiezen, G. 

Cost, vb. Prob. (Du.~F. -L.) In. 
koslen ; from O. F. coster. 

Curl, 1. 4. For krtdla read knille. 

Cypress (2), 1. 2. For (F. — L.) read 

Diphthong, 1. 4. For G. read Gk. 

Engage. For (^F.— L.) read (F,-L. 
and 'lent.) 

Orotic, 1. 2. For crude form read deck 

Sxponent, 1. i. Read exponent-. 

Falcon. Some take falco to be o' 
Teutonic origin. 

Fern, last line. The Gk. -nrfpis, vTQpuv, 
are merely given by way of illustration. 
They are not allied words. 

Fusil (i). The l..foclle is not found ; 
but Ital. has this very form. 

Gunny, 11. 2, 3. Read gd:j, goni. 

Hare, 11. 4, 5. Read sasjtis, *^asnis. 
N.B. The Skt. fasa is not from faf, to 
jump; but perhaps meant' gray'; cf. A. S. 
^asu, gray. 

History, 1. 5. For base read weak 

Holly, 11. 5, 6. For G. /i/i/st read 
low G. hzilse. 

Hone, 1. 4. For stem 7-ead type. 

Hyson, 1. 6. For Chin, read Amoy. 

Indigent, 1. 6. Not allied to ax^iv. 

Mist, k 9. Read VMEIGHw, to 
darken ; distinct from, &c. 

Nasturtium, 1. .^. Read — also spelt 
nasturcinm ; both forms are for '^nas- 
torctioin (Walde). 

Notorious, 1. 3- R^^^d — voucher, 
witness ; cf. L. pp. nottis, &c. 

Pier, 1. 2. Read — M. E. pere ; A. F. 
pere^i the Norman equivalent of O. Y.piet'e. 

Plait, 1. 3. Read ""plictum. 

Scraggy, 1. 5. For skragga rend 
skragger. (Ross gives Norw. skragg, a poor 
weak creaUire, skraggen, scraggy.) 

Shaddock, 1. 4. Read late in the 

Shah, 1. 2. Read khsdyathiya. 

Smith, 1. 8. Read pp. ^smidanoz. 

Throstle, 1. 5. Read lct\. prdstr. 

Vernal, last line. For air Tea.d/dir. 

Wheel, 1. 8. For QEL read QwEL. 

P. 652. The lists given in this Section VI 
are somewhat uncertain, and are only given 
tentatively. Several will hereafter require 
slight readjustment. 




A, indef. art. (E.) See An. 

A- (i), as in a-do7c>n--^ A.S. of d fine. 
(E.) Here a- = A. S. of; see Of, Off. 

A- '2\ as in afoot. (E.) For on 
foot; see On. ^ This is the commonest 
value of the prefix a-. 

A- (3), as in a-long. (E.) Here a- = 
A. S. and- ; see Along. 

A- (4), as in a-risc. (E.) Here a- ■= 
A. S. a- ; see Arise. 

A- (5), as in achieve, a-stringcnt. (F, 
— L. ; or L.) Here a=Y. prefix a = L. 
ad. to ; see Ad-. 

A- (6), as in a-vert. (L.) Here a- = 
L. d\ see Ab- (1). 

A- {i^j, 2,'i,m a-mend. (L.) Here a-mend 
is for e-mend ; and ^- = L. <? or <?x ; see Ex-. 

A- (8), as in a-las. (F.) See Alas. 

A- 9), as in abyss. (Gk.) Here «- = 
Gk, d- or av- ; see ITn-, Abyss. 

A- (10), as in a-do. (E.) For at do; 
see At, Ado. 

A- (ii\ as in a-ware. (E.) Here «- is 
for M. E. jj/-, ?■-, A. S. ge- ; see Aware. 

A- (12), as in a-vast. (Du.) For Du. 
houd vast ; see Avast. 

Ab- (i), prefix. (L.) L. ah, from ; 
cognate with E. of\ see Of. In F., it 
becomes a- or av- ; see Advantage. 

Ab- (2), prefix. (L.) For L. ad, to, 
by assimilation ; see Abbreviate. 

Aback. (E.) For on back. A. S. 
onbcFC ; see A- (2) and Back. 

Abaft. (E.) From the prefix a- (2), 
and b-aft, short for bi-aft, by aft. Thus 
a-b-aft ^oxi by aft, i.e. at the part which 


lies to the aft. Cf. M.E. biaften. Gen. 
and Exod. 3377; A. S. beceftan. See A- 
(2), By, and Aft. 

Abandon. (F.-Low L.-O. H. G.) 

M.E. abandounen, vb.— F. abandonner.— 
F. a bandon, at liberty ; orig. in the power 
(of). — L. ad, at ; Low L. bandnm, bannum, 
an order, decree ; from O. H. G. ban, 
summons, ban ; see Ban. 

Abase. (F. — L.) M.E. ahasen,i\om. 
A- (5) and Base ; imitating O.F. abaissier, 
to lower. 

Abash. (F.) M. E. ahaschen, abais- 
chen, abasen. — O. F. esba'iss-, stem of pres. 
part, of esbdir (F. ^bahir), to astonish.— 
O. F. es- ( = L. ex, out, very much) ; and 
ba'ir, bahir, to cause astonishment, a 
word of imitative origin from the interj. 
bah ! of astonishment, iff Sometimes con- 
fusrd with abase in M. E. See Bashful. 

Abate. (F. — L.) M. E. abaten.— 
O.F. a bat re. — Late L. *abbattere, to beat 
down (as in Ital.). — L. ad, to; and batere, 
for batuere, to beat. See Batter. ^ Hence 
bate, for a-hate. Cf. Ab- (2). 

Abbot. iL.-Gk.-Syriac.) M. E. 
abbot, abbod, A.S. abbod.^— L. abbdt- (nom. 
abbas), an abbot, lit. a father —Gk. d/3/Sas. 
— Syriac abba, a. father; Rom. viii. 15. 

abbess. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 
M. E. abbesse.~-0. V. abesse, abaesse. — 
Late L. abbdt-issa. — L. abbdt- (as above) ; 
and -z'j-ja = Gk. -laaa, fern suffix. 

abbey. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 
M. E. abbeye. - O. F. abeie. - Late L. 
abbift-m. — L. abbdt- (above). 



Abbreviate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ahbreuidre, to shorten. — L. ab-, for ad, 
to, by assimilation ; and breiiis, short. 
See Ab- (2) and Brief. 

Abdicate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- 
dicdre, to renounce. — L. ab, from; died re, 
to proclaim. Allied to Dictiou. 

Abdoxuexi. (L-) L. abdomen (stem 
abdoinin-), lower part of the belly. 

Abduction. (L-) L- abdnctioncvi, 
ace. of abdiictio, a leading away. — L. ab- 
ducere, to lead away. — L. ab, from ; dficere, 
to lead. Cf. Duke. 

Abed. (E.) For on bed; see A- (2) 
and Bed. 

Aberration. (L.) From ace. of L. 
aberrdtio, a wandering from ; from pp. of 
L. ab-errdre. — L. ab, 
wander, err. See Err. 

Abet, to incite. (F.-Scand.) O. F. 
abeter, to excite, set on (Godefroy). — F. 
a- (Lat. ad-) ; and O. F. beter, to bait (a 
bear), to set on, from Icel. beita, to make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite. See Bait, 
Bite. Der. bet, short for abet, sb. 

Abeyance, expectation, suspension. 
(F. — L.) A. F. abeiance, suspension, 
waiting (Roq.)- — F. a ; and beaut, pres. pt. 
of O. F. beer (F. baye?-), to gape, expect 
anxiously. — L. ad, at ; and baddre, to gape. 

Abhor. (L.) L. ab'horrere, to shrink 
from in terror. — L. ab, from ; horrere, to 
dread. Cf. Horrid. 

Abide (0, to wait for. (E.) A.S. 
d-bJda)i ; from d-, prefix, and bidan, to 
bide. See A- (4) and Bide. 

Abide (2), to suffer for, pay for. (E.) 
In Sh. ; corrupted from M. E. abyen, to 
]iay for, lit. to buy up, redeem. —A.S. 
dbycgan, to pay for. See A- (4) and Buy. 

Abject, mean, lit. cast away. (L.) 
L. ab-iectiis, cnst away, pp. of ab-icere, to 
cast away. — L. ab, away ; iacere, to cast. 
Cf. Jet (1). 

Abjure. (L.) L. ab-iurdre, to deny; 
lit. to swear away from. — L. ab, from ; 
iiirdre, to swear. — L. iur-, from nom. ins, 
law, right. Cf. Jury. 

Ablative. (L.) L. abldtnms, lit. 
taking away. — L. ab, from ; and Idtiun 
( = tldtiwi), to bear, take ; allied to tolleix, 
to take. See Tolerate. 

Ablaze. (E. ) For on blaze; see A- 
(2) and Blaze. 

Able, powerful, skilful. (F. — L.) 
M. E. able, liable. ^O. F. habile, able, able. 

— L. habilis, easy to handle, active. — L. 

habere, to have. Cf. Habit. Der. ability 
from L. ace. habilitdtevi. 

Ablution. (F.-L.) F. ; from L. 
ace. ab-hUionem, a washing away. — L. 
abliltus, pp. of ab-luere, to wash away. — 
L. ab, from ; Inere, to wash. 

Abnegate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- 
negdre, to deny. — L. ab, from ; negdre, to 
say no. Cf. Negation. 

Aboard. (E.) For o^i board ; see A- 
(2) and Board. 

Abode, sb. (E.) M. E. abood, delay, 
abiding. P^ormed as if from A. S. dbdd, 
2nd stem of dbJdan, to abide. See Abide. 

Abolish. (F.-L.) F. aboliss-, stem 
of pres. pt. of abolir. — L. abolere, to 

Abominate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ab-ouiindri, to turn away from that which 
is of ill omen. — L. ab, away; ouiin-, for 
omen, an omen. 

Aborigines, original inhabitants. 
(L.) L. aborigines, the nations which, 
previous to historical record, drove out 
the Siculi (Lewis and Short). Formed 
from L. ab origijie, from the beginning ; 
where origine is the abl. of origo (Vergil, 
iEn. i. 642). 

Abortion. (L.) From ace. of L. 
abortio, an untimely birth. — L. aboi'tus, 
pp. of ab'Oriri, to fail. — L. ab, away; 
orirT, to arise, begin. Cf. Orient. 

Abound. (F. — L.) A. F. abnnder, 
O. F. abonder.^1^. ab-tinddre, to overflow. 
— L. ab, away; nnda, a wave. 

About. (E.) M. E. abuten, abouten. 
A. S. dbutan, onbfttan ; short for onbe- 
iitan ; where be answers to E. by, and ntan, 
outward, is related to ill, out. See A- (2 ), 
By and Out. 

Above. (E.) M. E. ahoven, abnfen. 
A. S. dbufan, for on-be-iifan ; where be 
answers to E. by, and iifan, upward, is 
extended from Goth, uf, up. See A- (2', 
By, Up. (A.S. nfan = G. oben. A.S. 
be-ufan = Du. boven.) 

Abrade, to scrape off. (L.) L. ab- 
radere, to scrape off. — L. ab, off ; radere, 
to scrape. Der. abrasion (from L. pp. 

Abreast. (E.) Put for on In-cast; 
see A- (2) and Breast. 

Abridge. (F.-L.) M. E. abreggen. 
A. F. abngger, O. F. abreger, abregicr, to 
shorten. — L. abbrcnidre, to shorten. — L. 
ab-, put for ad-, to ; and breiiis, short. 
Cf. Brief. Doublet, abbreviate. 



Abroach, to set. (E. and F.) Put 

for to set on broach ; see A- (2) and 

Abroad. (E.) M. \\. ahrood \ put for on. 
brood; lit. on broad ; see A- (2) and Broad. 

Abrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- 
rogdre, to repeal a law. - E. ab^ away ; 
rogdre, to ask, propose a law. 

Abrupt. (L.) L. abruptus, pp. of 
ab-ruiiipere, to break off. — E. ab, off; 
ruinperc, to break. 

Abscess. (E.) A gathering of humours 
into one place; lit. a going away. — E. 
abscessiis, a going away; abscess (Celsus). 
— E. abscessus, pp. of abs-cedere, to go 
away. — E. abs^ away ; cedere, to go, cede. 

Abscind. (E.) From E. ab-scindere, 
to cut off. — E. ab, off; scittdere, to cut. 
Der. abscissa, from fem. of L. abscissiis, 
pp. of abscindere. 

Abscond, to go into hiding. (E.) E. 
absconders, to hide. — E. abs, away; condere, 
to hide. Condere is from con- [cuni), to- 
gether, and -dere, to put, allied to Skt. 
^//^^, to put. i-y^DHE, to place ; Brugm. 
i. § 589.) See Do. 

Absent, adj. (F.-E.) XIV cent. 
O. F. absent, adj. — E. absent-, stem of ab- 
sens, being away. — E. ab-, away; -se7is, 
being, occurring also in prce-sens. Cf. Skt. 
sant, pres. pt. of as, to be ; from VES, to 
be. Cf. Present, Sooth. Der. absence, 
F. absence, E. absentia. 

Absolute, unrestrained, complete. 
(E.) E. absolutns, pp. of ab-soluere, to 
set free. — E. ab, from ; solncre, to loosen. 
absolve. (E.) E. ab-soluere, to set 
free (above). Der. absohit-ion , from the 
pp. above. 

Absorb. (L.) E. absorbere, to swal- 
low. —E. ab, away; sorbere, to sup up.+ 
Gk. pocpidv, to sup up. (Brugm. ii. 
§ 801.) Der. absorpt-ion, from pp. ab- 

Abstain. (F. — E.) ¥. abstenir {O.Y. 
as/emr). — \^. abs-tinere,to refrain from.— 
E. abs, from ; tenere, to hold. Der. abs- 
tinence, F. abstijience, from E. abstijzentia, 
sb. : abstent-ion, from the pp. 

Abstemious. (E.) E. abstemius, 
refraining from strong drink. — E. abs, from ; 
tenietnm, strong drink, whence te?7iH-/entus, 

Abstract. (E. E. abslractus, pp. 
of abs-traliere, to draw away. — E. abs, 
away ; trahere, to draw. 

Abstruse. (E.) E. abstrusus, diffi- j 

cult, concealed ; pp. of abs-truderc, to 
thrust away. — E. abs, away; trndere, to 
thrust. See Intrude. 

Absurd. (E.) E. absnrdus, inhar- 
monious, foolish. — E. ab, from; siirdus, 
deaf, inaudible, harslu Cf. Surd. 

Abundance. (F,-E.) F. abondance. 

— E. abundant ia. See Abound. 
Abuse, vb. (F.-E.) F. abuser, to 

use amiss. — J,, abfisus, pp. of ab-ilti, to 
use amiss. — E. ab, away (amiss); iitl, 
to use. 

Abut, to ]:)roject towards. (F. — E. and 
G.) O. F. aboiitcr, to thrust towards.— 
E. ad, to ; O. F. bonier, botcr, to thrust. 
See A- (5) and Butt (i). 

Abyss, a bottomless gulf. (E. -Gk.) 
Milton. E. abyssns. — Gk. d^vaaos, bottom- 
less.— Gk. a-, short for av-, neg. prefix; 
and (Bvaaos, depth. See A- (9^ ITn- (i). 

Acacia, a tree. (E. — Gk.) E. acacia. 

— Gk. vLKaKia, the thorny Egyptian acacia. 

— Gk. cLKis, a point, thorn. (-y^AK.) See 
Brugm. ii. § 52 (4). 

Academy. {¥. - L. - Gk.) F. 
acad^nne. — h. academTa.^ Gk. aKabrjueia, 
a grove where Plato taught, named from 
the hero Akadevms. 

Accede. (E.) E. ac-cedere, to come 
towards, assent to. — E. ac- (for ad), to ; 
cedere, to come, cede. 

Accelerate. (E.) From pp. of E. 

accelcrdre, to quicken. — E. ac- (for ad), 
to ; celer, quick. Cf. Celerity. 

Accent. (F.— E.) F. fi'<r(rr;//, sb. — E. 
ace. accenttan, a tone. — E. ac- (for ad); 
canius., a singing, from cancre, to sing. 

Accept. (F. — E.) F. accepter. — h. 
acceptdre. frequentative of ac-cipere, to re- 
ceive. — E. aC' (for ad\ to ; capere, to take. 

Access. (L.) E. accessus, a coming 
unto. — E. accessus, pp. of ac-cedere, to 
accede. — E. ac- (tor ad), to; cedere, to 
come, cede. 

Accident. (F.-E.) F. accident, a 
chance event (Cot.). — E. accident-, base of 
pres. pt. oi ac-cidere, to haj)pen. — E. ac- 
(for ad), to ; cadere. to fall. Der. ac- 
cidence, F. accidence, E. accidentia. 

Acclaim. (E.) Formed from E. ac- 
clctuidre, to cry out at. — E. ac- (for adi, 
at ; c/ih/idre, to cry out. Vox the spelling, 
cf. Claim. 

Acclivity. (E.) XVII cent. From 
E. acclJiiitatcni, aco. of accliuitas — E. ac- 
(for ad , ; and clTu-tis, sloping, a slope ; see 
Lean (1). (y'KEEI; Brugm. i. § 463.) 



Accolade, the dubbing of a knight. 
(F. — Ital. - L.) F. accollade, in Cotgrave, 
ed. 1660; lit. an embrace round the neck, 
then a salutation, light tap with a sword 
in dubbing a knight. — Ital. accollata, fem. 
of pp. of accollare, to embrace about the 
neck (Florio). — L. ac- (for ad), to, about ; 
colliim, the neck. 

Accommodate. (L.^ From pp. of 

L. accommodare, to fit, adapt. — L. ac- (for 
ad^, to; and cotn>nodus, fit. — L. cojn- ( — 
cu?)i), with ; and modus, measure, mode. 

Accompany. (F. — L.) F. accom- 
pagner, to accompany. — F. « (L. ad), to ; 
and O. F. coinpaing, companion ; see 

Accomplice. _(F.-L.) Put for^ ^z 
complice ; a is the indef. art. — F. complice, 
'a complice, confederate;' Cot. — L. ace 
complicem, from complex, confederate, lit. 
* interwoven.' — L. com- [cum)^ together; 
and %\.tTCi plic', allied to plicdre, to weave. 
Cf. Ply. 

Accomplish. (F. — L.) M. E. acom- 
pliscn.'~0.¥. acomplis-, stem of pres. 
part, of acomplir, to complete. — L. ad, to ; 
complh'e, to fulfil. — L. com- {cum), to- 
gether ; plere, to fill. 

Accord. (F. — L.) A. F. acorder,io 
agree. — Late L. accorddre. — L. ac- (for ad), 
to ; and cord-^ stem of cor, heart. Cf. 

Accordion, a musical instrument. 
(Ital. — L.) From Ital. accord-are, to 
accord, to tune an instrument ; with suffix 
-ion (as in clar-ion). — Late L. accordare, 
to agree. See above. 

Accost, to address. (F.-L.) F. 
accoster, lit. ' to go to the side of.' — Late 
L. accostdre (same). — L. ac- (for ad), to; 
costa, rib, side. See Coast. 

Account, vb. (F. — L.) A. F. acounter, 
acunter. — O. F. a, to ; confer, compter, to 
count. — L. ad ; and com-putare, to com- 
pute, from com- {cum), and putdre, to 

Accoutre. (F.-L.?) F. accoutrer, 
formerly also accoustrer, to dress, array. 
Etym. quite uncertain ; perhaps from O. F. 
cotistre, coutre, a sacristan who had charge 
of sacred vestments, from Late L. czistor 
= L. custos, a. custodian, keeper. 

Accretion, increase. (L.) From ace. 
of L. accretio, increase. — L. accretus, pp. 
of ac-crescere, to increase. — L. ac- [iov ad ; 
crescere, to grow, inchoative form from 
cre-dre, to make. Cf. Create. 

Accrue, to come to by way of increase, 
(F. — L.) From k. F. acru, O. F. acreu, 
pp. oi acrois/re (F. accroitrc), to increase. 
— L. accrescere ; see above. 

Accumulate. (L.) From pp. ofL. 
ac-cunmldre, to amass. — L. ac- {ad), to ; 
cnmnldre, to heap up, from ciimulas, a 

Accurate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
acciirdre, to take pains with. — L. ac- {ad), 
to ; cfndre, to care for, from cilia, care. 
See Cure. 

Accursed, cursed. (E.) Pp. ofM.E. 
acursien. A. S. a-, prefix ; and cursian, 
to curse ; see A- (4) and Curse. 

Accuse. (F. — L.) K.¥. acuser.^l.. 
acc/lsdrc, to lay to one's charge. — L. ac- 
{ad), to ; and causa, caussa, a suit at law, 
a cause. 

Accustom. (F.-L.) K.Y.acustumer 
(F. accotitumcj'), to make usual. — F. a 
[ixovn. L. ad, to) ; and A. F. custume, 
custom. See Custom. 

Ace, the * one ' on dice. (F.-L. - Gk. ?) 
M. E. as. - O. F. as. - L. as. [Said to be the 
Tarentine d'?, lor Gk. er?, one.] 

Acephalous, headless. (Gk.) Gk. 
dKe(pak-os, headless; with sufiix -ous.'~Gk. 
a-, un- ; and K((pa\i], head. See A- {g). 

Acerbity. (F.-L.) XVI cent. 'f. 

acerdile. — h. ace. acerdildlem (nom. ace r- 
dilas), bitterness. — L. acer-b-tis, bitter; 
cf. dc-er, sharp, lit. piercing. — L. acere, to 
be sour. 

Ache, verb. (E.) M. E. aken, vb. ; 
pt. t. ook. A. S. acan. (y'AG, to drive.) 
% Spelt ache by confusion with M. E. 
ache, sb., from A. S. cece, a pain. The verb 
survives, spelt as the obs. sb. 

Achieve. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. acheven.-- 
A. F. achever, to achieve ; lit. to come to 
a head . — O. F. a chef, to a head. — L. ad, 
to ; caput, a head. Cf. Chief. 

Achromatic, colourless. (Gk.) See 
A- (9^ and Chromatic. 

Acid, sour, sharp. (F.-L.; or L.) 
F. acide. — L. ac-idus, lit. piercing. y'AK, 
to pierce.) iJer. acid-i-ty; acid-id-at-cd 
(from L. acid-ul-us, dimin. oi acid-us). 

Acknowledge. (E.) XVI cent. 

M. E. knoivlechen ; from the sb. knowleche, 
mod. E. kno7vledge; see Knowledge. The 
prefix is due to M. E. aiinoiven ( — A. S. 
07icndwan), with the same sense ; hence 
the prefix is A- '^2). 

Acme, top. (Gk.) Gk. d/f-/x77, top, 
sharp edge. (y'AK, to pierce.) 



Acolyte, ^ servitor. (F. — Low L. — 
Gk.) b. acolyte^ Cot. — Late 'L.acolythus. 

— Gk, aicuKovOo';^ a follower. — Gk. u-, 
Avith (akin to Skt. sa-, with) ; k€\(v9os, a 
])ath ; so that ukoXovOcs ^ a travelling-com- 

Aconite, monk's-hood. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) F. aconii. ^'L. aconiiiim. •^Gk. 
aKoviTov^ a plant ; perhaps so called from 
growing kv aKovais, on steep sharp rocks. 

— Gk. u/r-0/77, a whetstone, sharp stone. 
Acorn. (E.) y[Ai.acor}i. K.'^.cccern, 

fruit; properly 'fruit of the field/ from 
A. S. (Ecer, a field ; see Acre.+Icel. a/cam, 
Dan. agern Goth, akran, fruit ; from Icel. 
akr, Dan. ager, Goth. ak}-s,a. field. % Not 
from oak. 

Acoustic. (Ok.) Gk. OLKovaTiKos, 
relating to hearing (or sound}. — Gk. 
dici vf^iy, to hear. 

Acquaint. (F.-L.) ALE. acqueyn- 
ten, tarlier acoiiiteji. — 0.¥ . acoi7iter, 
acointier, to acquaint with. —Late L. 
adcognitdre, to make known (Brachet).— 
L. ad, to ; and *cognitdre, formed from 
cognitus, pp. of cogtioscere, to know. See 

Acquiesce. (L.) L. acquiesccre, to 
rest in. — L. ac- (ior ad\ to; qtdescere, to 
rest. See Quiet. 

Acquire. (L.^i L. ocquircre, to get, 
obtain. — L. ac- (for ad), to; qiiarere, to 
seek. Der. acqitisit-io7i ; from pp. ac- 

Acquit. (F. — L.) ALE. aquitcn.— 
O. F. aqiiiter, to settle a claim ; Late L. 
acqnictdre.'-Y-.. ac- (for ad), to; qiiieldre, 
vb., formed from quietus, discharged, free, 
orig. at rest. See Quiet. 

Acre. (E.) M. E. aker. A. S. c?cer.-\- 
Du. akker, Icel. akr, Svved. aker, Dan. ager, 
Goth, akrs, G. acker; L. ager., Gk. ar^po'i, 
Skt. ajra. Teut. type *akroz ; Idg. type, 
*agros. The 01 ig. sense was ' pasture.' 
(-y^AG.' Der. acor-n, q.v. 

Acrid, tart. (L.l Coined by adding 
-d to L. dcri-, stem of ^Fr^r, sharp ; on 
the analogy of ac id. 

Acrimony. (F. — L.) F. acrimoine. 

— L. dcri-iiidn-ia. — L. dcri-, stem of ^?tvr 

Acrobat, a tumbler. (F.-Gk.) F. 
acrobate. — Gk. aKpo^aros, lit. walking on 
tiptoe. — Gk. cLKpo-v, a point, neut. of 
oLK-pos, pointed ; and /Soros, verbal adj. of 
I3aiv(iv, to walk ; see Come. 

Acropolis, a citadel. (Gk.) Lit. 

' upper city.' — Gk. aKpo-s, pointed, upper; 
and n-oAt?, a city. 

Across. (E. aJidScant}.) For OJi cross ; 
see A- (2 I and Cross. 

Acrostic, a short poem in vhich the 
initial letters s]-cll a word. ((Jk.) Gk. 
uKpoaTix'i-'i-''Gk. anpo-s, pointed, aho 
first ; and arixos, a row, line, from weak 
grade of crT€ix«t»', to go. {^ STEIGH.) 

Act, sb. (F. — L.) F". acie. — L. actus, 
m., and acttiin, n. — L. actus done ; pp. of 
f7o^r^,to do, drive. See Agent. D^v. act- 
ion ; act-ive (F. act If) ; act-or\ act-u-al (,L. 
actudlis) ; act-uary (L. actttdrius ; act-u- 
ate (from pp. of Late L. acttuhe, to pei- 
form, put in action). 

Acumen. (L.) L. ac-a-men, sharp- 
ness, acuteness. Cf. actccre, to sharpen. 

Acute. (L.) L. acutus, sharp ; pp. of 
ac-ti-ere, to sharpen. (y'AK, to pierce.) 

Ad-, prefix. (L.) L. ad, to, cognate 
with E. At. % L. ad becomes ac- before 
c ; af- bef.y"; ag- bef. g ; al- bef. / ; an- 
lef. n ; ap- bef / ; ar- bef. r; as- bef. s ; 
at- bef. A 

Adage, a saying. (F.-L.) Y . adage. 

— 1>. adagiiiui. — L. a^/ ; and o^z'-, as in 
'^a^io. orig. form of dio, 1 say. 

Adamant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
adamaunt, a diamond, a magnet. — O.F. 
adamant. — L. adamanta, ace. of adamas. 

— Gk, d6d/ias, a very hard metal or stone ; 
lit. ' unconquerable.' — Gk. d- ( = E. un-)\ 
and Ea/xdaj, I conquer, tame. See Tame. 

Adapt. (F.-L.) Early XVII cent.- 
F. adapter. ~-L. adaptare, to fit to. — L. 
ad, to ; aptdre, to fit, from aptus, fit, apt. 

Add. (L.) M. E. adden. — "L. addere, 
lit. to put to. — L. ad; and -dere, to put. 
See Abscond. 

Adder, a viper. (E.) M. E. addere; 
also naddere, neddere. \An adder resulted 
from a nadder, by mistake.] A. S. nuidre, 
n($ddre, a snake. -j-G. natter, a snake; also 
cf. Icel. 7ia(jr, Goth, nadrs (with short a). 

Addict. (L.) From L. addict-us, pp. 
o{ ad-dicere, to adjudge, assign.— L. ad, 
to ; dicere^ to say, appoint. Cf. Diction. 

Addled, corrupt, unproductive. (E.) 
Due to an attributive use of the M. E. sb. 
adel, filth, used in the compound adel-ey, 
lit. ' filth- egg' =^ Late L. ovum ni-ince, 
urine-egg; mistaken form of L. outun 
iirmzim, wind-egg, due to Gk. ovpiov aiov, 
wind-egg. Orig. 'mud,' from A.S. ade/a, 
mud (Grein). Cf. Low G. ade/, a puddle. 

Address, vb. (F.-L.) ¥. adresser. 



— F. a, to; dresser^ to direct, dress; see 

Adduce. (L-) I- aJ-dr/caw to lead 
to, bring forward. — L. ad, to; dncere, to 
lead, bring. 

Adept, a proficient. (L.) L. adept us, 
one who has obtained proficiency ; pp. of 
adipisci, to obtain. — L. ad, to; apisci, to 
obtain, perhaps related to aptiis, fit. 
Cf. Apt. 

Adequate. (L.) L. adivqiidtus, pp. 

of adceqiidre, to make equal to. — L. ad, 
to ; aqiidre, to make equal, from aquiis, 

Adhere. (L.) L. ad-hcerere, to stick 
to. — L. a*:/, to; /uerere, to stick. 

Adieu, farewell. (F.) M. E. a dieii. 

— F. a dieii, (I commit you) to God. — L. 
ad Deitm, to God. See Deity. 

Adipose, fatty. (L.) Late L. adi- 
posns, I'atty. — L. adip-, stem of adeps, sb., 
fat. Connection with Gk. dXeupa, fat, is 

Adit, access to a mine. (L.) L. adit-iis, 
approach, entrance. — L. adit-iim, supine of 
ad- ire, to go to. — L. ad, to ; Jre, to go. 

Adjacent, near to. (L.) From base 
of pres. pt. of L. ad-iacere, to lie near. — 
L. ad, near ; iacere, to lie. 

Adjective. (F. -L.) Y. adjcctif {{tm.. 
-ive). — h. ad-iectnius, lit. put near to. — 
L. ad'iectns, pp. of ad-icere, to put near. — 
L. ad, to ; iacere, to cast, throw. 

Adjoin, to lie next to. (F.-L.) O. F. 
adjoindre. — L. ad-mngere (pp. adiuiictus), 
to join to. — L. ad, to ; iungei'e, to join. 

Adjourn, to put off till another day. 
(F. — L.) O. F. ajorner, properly to draw 
near to day, to dawn ; also, to appoint a 
day for one. — Late L. adjnnidre, ' diem 
dicere alicui ; ' Ducange. — L. ad, to; and 
Late h.Jiirnus {liaX. giorno), a day, from 
L. adj. dinrmis, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Adj udge. ( F. - L.) M . E. adiuge^i ; 
also aiugcn {=^ajugen\^0. F. ajiigcr, to 
decide. — !^, adiudicdre, to award. — L. ad, 
to ; itldkdre, to judge, from iiidic-^ base 
q{ index, a judge. See Judge. 

Adjudicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
adifidicdre (above). 

Adjure. (L.) L. adiurare, to swear 
to ; in late L., to put to an oath. — L. ad, 
to ; in rare, to swear. See Jury. 

Adjust, to fit exactly. (F.-L.) From 
F. adjuster, " to adjust, place justly ; ' Cot. 
L. ad, to ; iiistus, just, exact ; see Just. 
^ A new F. formation, due to misunder- 

standing the sense of O. F. ajoster, to 

put side by side, arrange. — L. ad^ to ; and 

iiixtd, near ; see Joust. 

Adjutant, lit. assistant. (L.) P'rom 

L. adintant-em, ace. of pres. part, of 
adiiitdre, to assist, frequent, of ad-itmare, 
to aid. — L. ad, to ; iimdre, to help. Cf. 

Administer. (F.-L.) M.Y.amin- 
istren.'-O.Y . aniinistj-er.-'l.. ad-minis- 
trdre, to minister (^to). — L. ad, to; minis- 
trdre, to serve, from minister, a servant. 
See Minister. 

Admiral. (F.-Arab.) M. E. ad- 
miral, more often amiral.^0. F. amiral, 
amirail, also ainire ; cf. Low L. aduii- 
raldus, a prince, chief. — Arab, amir, a 
prince ; see Emir. The suffix is due to 
Arab, almamir-al-bahr, prince of the sea. 

Admire. (,F.-L.) F. admirer (O. Y. 
amirer). — !^. admirdri, to wonder at.— 
L. ad, at ; mirdri, to wonder. 

Admit. (L.) L. ad-7nittere, to let 
to, send to. — L. ad, to ; mittere, to send. 
Der. admiss-ion ; from pp. admiss-us. 

Admonish. (F. — L.) M.E. amon- 
esten ; so that admonish has taken the 
place of amonest, with changed suffix due 
to verbs in -ish. ' I a7)ioneste or warne ' ; 
Wyclif, I Cor. iv. 14. — O.F. amonester.'^ 
Late L. admonestdre, new formation from 
L. adf?ionere, to advise. — L. ad, to; monere, 
to advise. Cf. Monition. 

A-do, to-do, trouble. (E.) M. E. at 
do, to do ; a Northern idiom, whereby at 
was used as the sign of the infin. mood, as 
in Icel., Swedish, &c. See Do (1). 

Adolescent, growing up. (L.) L. 
adolescent-em, 2iCc. of pres. pt. oi ad-olescere, 
to grow up. See Adult. 

Adopt. (L.) L. ad-optdre, to adopt, 
choose. — L. ad, to ; optdre, to wish. 

Adore. (L.) L. ad-orare, to pray to. 

— L. ad, to ; or are, to pray, from os (gen. 
dr-is\ the mouth. Cf. Oral. 

Adorn. (L.) L. ad-omdre, to deck. 

— L. ad, to ; orndre, to adorn. 
Adown, downwards. (E.) M. E. 

adune. A.S. of-dune, lit. from a down or 
hill. — A. S. of, off, from; and fi'/?;/,?, dat. 
of dUn. a hdl ; see A- (i) and Down (2). 

Adrift. (E.) For on drift ; see A- 
,2) and Drift. 

Adroit. (F.-L.) F. ar/;-^//, dexterous. 

— F. ^ djvit, rightfully. - F. a (L. ad), to ; 
Late L. directum, right, justice, neut. of 
L. dtrectus, pp. of dl-rigere, to direct. 



from L. di- (for </w-), apart, and legere^ to 

Adulation, flattery. (F.-L.) F. 
adulation. — L. ace. adnlationeni, from 
aduldtio, flattery. — L. aduld/iis, pp. of 
adiddri^ to flatter. 

Adult. (L.) L. ad lilt us ^ grown up; 
pp. of ad-olescere, to grow up. — L. ad, to ; 
"^olescere, inceptive form related to alere, to 
nourish ; see Aliment. 

Adulterate, to corrupt. (I..^ XVI 

cent. — L. adiilterdtus, pp. of adiilterare, to 
corrupt. — L. adulter, an adulterer, a de- 
baser of money. 

Adultery. (F. — L.) Vi.Y.. avoutrie; 
but a later form was adulterie, in imita- 
tion of Latin. Cf. O.F. avoutrie, avoitterie, 
adultery ; from avoiitre, an adulterer, 
which represented L. adulter (,see above) ; 
so that avoutrie was equivalent in sense to 
L. adiilterzHfn, adultery. 

Adumbrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ad-umbrdre, to shadow forth. — L. ad, to ; 
umbra, a shadow. 

Advance, to go forward. (F. — L.) 
XVI cent. A mistaken form ; for M. E. 
auancen, avancen. — F. avancer, to go for- 
ward or before. — F. avaiit, before. — L. ab^ 
from ; ante, before. See Ante-, Van. 

Advantage, profit. (F.-L.) Amis- 
taken form for M. Y..avantage.'-Y . avant- 
age ; formed with suffix -age from avaiit, 
before ; see above. 

Advent, approach. (L.) L. aduejitus, 
approach. — L. aduentus, pp. of ad-zienire, 
to approach. — L. ad, to; tiaiire, to come. 
Cf. Venture. 

Adventure. (F.-L.) yi.Y..aventure\ 
with F. a- replaced by L. ad-. — F. 
aventure, a chance, occurrence. — L. ad- 
tieutura, fem. of aduentftrus, about to 
happen, fut. part. o1 aduenire, to approach; 
see above. 

Adverb. (F.-L.) Used to qualify a 
verb. F. adverbe. — L. aduerbiuiu. — L. ad, 
to ; nerbuvi, a word, a verb. 

Adverse. (F.-L.) \l.Y.advers{<d.Y. 
avers). — h. aduersus, turned towards, also 
opposed to; pp. of L. aduertere, to turn 
to (see below). Der. advers-aiy, adversity. 

Advert. (L.) L. ad-tiertere, to turn 
to, regard, heed. — L. ad, to; uertere, to 
turn ; see Verse. Der. in-advert-ent, not 

Advertise. (F. - L.) M. E. avertisen, 
later advertise. From the base of aver- 
tiss-ant, pres. pt. of avertir, to inform, 

warn. — Late L. aduertere, put for L. aduer- 
tere. to turn to, heed ; see above. 

Advice. (F.-L.) M. E. auis (avis), 
without </. — O.F. avis, an opinion ; orig. 
a compound word, put for a vis, i.e. ac- 
cording to my opinion. — L. ad, according 
to ; uisuni, that which has seemed good 
to one, orig. neut. of uTsus, pp. of tiidere, 
to see. 

Advise. F.-L.") M. E. rtr/?«>«, also 
auisen {avisen), without ^. — O. F. aviser, 
to be of opinion. — O. F. avis (above). 

Advocate, ^b. (F.— L.) M. F. advocate 
' an advocate ; ' Cot. — L. aduocdtus, an 
advocate, one 'called upon' to plead.— 
L. aduocdtus, pp. of ad-tiocdre, to call to, 
call upon. — L. ad, to ; uocdre, to call. 

AdvOVTSOn. (F.-L.) A. F. avoeson, 
also advouson, patronage ; hence the right 
of presentation to a benefice (Roquefort).— 
Late L. aduocdtionem, ace. of aduocdtio, 
patronage. — Late L. aduocdtus, a patron; 
the same as L. aduocdtus, an advocate. 

Adze, a cooper's axe. (E.) M. E. adse, 
adese. A. S. adesa, an adze. 

Aerial. (L. — (ik.) Formed with suffix 
-a/ from L. aeri-tis, dwelling in the air. — 
L. aer, air. — Gk. d.r\p, air ; see Air. 

Aerolite, a meteoric stone. (Gk.) 
Also aerolith, which is a better form. — 
Gk. a^po-, from arip, air ; Ki6-os, a stone. 

Aeronaut, a balloonist. (F. — Gk.) 
F. aeronaute. — Gk. d(po-, from d-qp, air; 
i'avT-i]s, a sailor, from vavs, a ship. 

Aery, an eagle's nest, brood of eagles or 
hawks. (F. — Late L.) — F. aire, * an airie 
or nest of hawkes ; ' Cot. — Late L. drea, a 
nest of a bird of prey ; of uncertain origin. 
^ Sometimes misspelt eyry, by confusion 
with M. E. ey, an egg ; see IJgg. 

JEsthetic, refined. (Gk.) Gk. aloOrj- 
TiKus, perceptive. — Gk. aladiaOai, to per- 
ceive. (VAW ; see Brugm. ii. § 841.) 

anaesthetic, relieving pain, dulling 
sensation. — Gk. dv-, not ; and aladrjTiKos. 

Afar. (E.) Y ox on far. 

Affable. (F.-L.) Y. affable. -l..affd- 
bilis, easy to be spoken to. — L. af-=^ad, 
to ; fdri, to speak. 

Affair. (F.-L.) W.Y. affere.-O.Y. 
afeire, afaire, a business ; orig. a faire, 
i. e. (something) to do. -L. ad, to ; facere, 
to do. 

Affect. (L.) L. affectdre, to apply 
oneself to ;henee, to act upon) ; frequent, of 
afficere, to aim at, treat. — L. af- = ad, to; 
facere, to do, act. Der. dis-affect. 



Affeer, to assess, contirm. (F. -L.) 
O.K. iifcu'fr, to fix the price of a thins; 
^officially). — Late I., afforarc^ to lix a 
price. — L, <z/- J"or<7./i; and /^r*;////, matket, 

Affiaiice. v^' • — ^ • ^ O- ^ • iifi^ift^^, trust; 
ct'. affi-cr, aricr. to trust ^^whence E. rf^j' , — 
O. F. a i^L. aii)^ to; anLl/7ja;//-, stem of 
pres. \)t. oi Late L. fidure, to trust, from 
L./FJtr£. to trust. Cf. Late h./fjin/ia, 
a pledi^e. 

Affidavit, an oath. (L ) Late L. o/f}"- 
dchdt, 3 p. s. pt. t. oi iijffdd'c, to plcdi^e. - 
L. .if- =.:.;. to ; Late h.flddrc, for L.fidere, 
to trust. 

Affiliation. ^,F, — L.) F. affiUation, 
an adoption as a son. — Late 1.,. ace. affilid- 
tiomm. — L. af-=ad, to ; filins, a son. 

Affinity. ' (F. - L ) F. ajiniii'. - L. 
cijfy?ntdtcm, ace. of affitiilas, nearness. — L. 
aff:nis, near, borderini^ on. — L. of- (for ad , 
to. near: /Friis, boundary, end. 

Affirm, vl"- — L.") M. E. offcnnett.'- 
O. F. afcrmcr, to fix. — L. af/irfudr^. — L. 
af- ^for <;Ji, to ; Jirmdre, to make lirm, 
from nr-mus, strong ; see Firm. 

Affix. (L.) LateL. <7/;^a/•^(^)ucange^, 
frequent, of L. affigcre ;,pp. affijc-us), to 
fasten to.- [^ior axi), \o\fFgere, to fix. 

Afflict, to harass. (L.) XVI cent. -L. 
ajiiitus. pp. of ajilgcre, to strike to the 
ground. — L. af- Jor ad ; . to ; andy//>tV£', to 
dash. So also conflict, from pp. conflutus ; 
inflict: and d. J>ro-Jii_ga/e. 

Afflnence. ^F.-L.) F. affluence. ~ 
L., abundance. — L. affluent-on 
vacc.\ riowing towards, pres. part, of 
afflucrc. to flow to, abound. — L. af- (for 
a</\ to ; flitej-Cy to flow. 

Afford. (E.) Altered from aforth, 
yi.V^. aforthen, to provide, P. PL B. vi. 
20 1. — A. S. gcfonian, fjrdian, to further, 
promote, provide. — A. S. ^£r-, prefix; and 
for^, forth, forward ; see Forth.. 

Affray, to frighten. (F.-L. and Teut.^ 
XI\" cent. M. E. affrayen.-'O. F. effraier, 
€sfreci\ to frighten. — Low L exfnddre, to 
break the king's peace, cause an aftray or 
fray; hence, to disturb, frighten. — L. ^j«r ; 
and O. H. G./ridii {G./riede), peace. (See 
Romania, iS7S.vii. 121.) Der. affray, sb., 
also spelt /rav ; and afraid, q. v. 

Affreightment, the hiring of a vessel 
to convey cargo. ^F. — L. and G.) An 
E spelling of V . affrctcment. now written 
affr^temcnt. the hiring of a ship. — F. 
affreier now affrdler), to hire a ship. — F. 

af-, for L. a.i-, prefix ; and F. fret, the 
freight o{ a ship. See Fraught, Freight. 

Affright, to frighten. (E.^ The 
double/ is late. From ^L E. af right, used 
as a pp., .nffrighted. - A. S. ifvr)it,afyrhfcd, 
pp. artrightcd ; from infin. dfyrhian (not 
usedV- .\. S. </-, intensive; xa\<\ fyrhtan, 
to terrify. \xo\\\fyrhto, fright ; see Fright. 

Affront. (F. - L.) M. E. afrontcn. - 
O. F\ afronter, to confront, oppose face to 
face.— Late L. affront arc. — L. af {{ox ad), 
to ; front -cm, ace. of from, forehead, 

Afloat. E.^ For en float. 

Afoot. \\l>i For on foot. 

Afore. vl^O For on fore, A. S. on- 
foran. alore. 

Afraid. ^F.-L. and Teut.) Grig. 
affrayed, i. e. 'frightened.' Pp. of Affray, 

Afresh. (,E.) For on fresh or of fresh ; 
see Anew. 

Aft, After. lE.) A. S. .cftan. be- 
hind; after, after, both prep, and adv.+ 
Icel. aptan, behind, aptr, <7//r, backwards; 
Dan. and Swed. efter, Du. achter, O. H. G. 
aftar, prep, and adv. behind, p. Aft an 
is extended from Goth, af, off; see Of. 
After is a comp. form, likeGk. a-noo-rkp a:. 
further off; it means more off, fuither off, 
hence behind. Der. ab-aft, q v. ; after- 
7i'ard y^sce Toward . 

Aftermath, a second crop of mown 
grass. '^E. Herea//tr isan adj. ; and math 
means ' a mowing,' unaccented form of 
A. S. mcc/i. Allied to Mead, Mow. Cf. 
G. mahd. a mowing ; nachmahd, aftermath. 

Aftermost, hindmost. (E.) A. S. 
izftemesi. Goth, aftumists; but affected 
by after and 7nost. The Goth, aflu-jn- 
ists is a treble superl. form. vSee .^t. 

Aga, Agha, a chief officer. ^^Turk.) 
Turk. ai;hd, master. 

Again. North E.> Cf. ^L E. ayein, 
A. S. ongcgn {ongean^ . -•^ A.S. on\ and 
gegn, of w hich the primary meaning seems 
to have been ' direct,' or ' straight.' 
(X. E. D.^i4-L)an. igien, Swed. igen, again. 
against. ^North E.) The / is added. 
Qi. ^L E. uveincs, against; extended from 
M. E. ayein, against, with adv. suffix -es. 
— A. S. ongean, against ; the same as A. S. 
ongean, ongegn, again; see above. + Icel. 
T gegn, G. ef.'ti;'egen, against. 

Agate. '^h\- It. - L. - Gk.^, O.F. agate, 
agathe. — Ilal. agata, agatha, an agate 
(^Florio). — L. aehdte/Hf ace oi achates." 




Gk. dx^TJ^j, an agate ; so named from being 
found near the river Achates (Sicily). 

Age. ( F. — L.) O. F. aage, edage. — Late 
L. cBtdticiwi. — L. (rtdti-,%\tva of ceids (from 
*aui-ids), age. — L. cemim, life, period. + 
Gk. alwv ; Goth, aixcs ; Skt. dyus, life. 
Brugm. ii. § 112. 

Agent. (L.) XVI cent. L. agent-, 
stem of pres. pt. oi agere (pp. actus^, to do, 
drive, conduct.+Gk. a7etj/; Icel.^/6(3;; Skt. 
a;', to drive. {^/ AG.) 

Agglomerate, to mass together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. agglomerdre, to form into 
a mass. — L. a^- ( = ad) ; and glonier-, stem 
of glomus, a mass, ball, clue of thread, 
allied to globus, a globe; see Globe. 

Agglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
agglutindre, to glue together. — L. ag- 
( = ad), to ; glutin-, for glfiteti, glue. 

Aggrandise. (F.-L.) M.V. a^^ra;/- 

fl'zV-, stem of pres. pt. of aggrandir, to 
enlarge. Also agrandir (with one ^). — F. 
a (for L. ad) ; and grandir, to increase, 
from L. grandlre, to enlarge, which is 
from L. grandis, great. 

Aggravate. (L.) From pp. ofL. ^^^- 
graudre, to add to a load. — L. ag- {-ad), 
to; graudre, to load, {rom grants, heavy. 

Aggregate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
gregdre, to collect into a flock. — L. ag- (for 
ad), to ; greg-, stem ofgrex, a flock. 

Aggress, to attack. (F.-L.) 
gresser. — L. aggressus, pp. of aggredi, to 
assail. — L. a^- {for ad), to; gradi, to ad- 

Aggrieve. (F. — L.) M. E. fl^;rz/^;z. — 
O. F. agrever, to overwhelm. — O. F. a, to ; 
grever, to burden. — L. a<^, to ; graudre, to 
weigh down, from grauis, heavy, grave. 
See Grave (2). 

Aghast, horror-struck. {¥..) Misspelt 
for agast, which is short for agasted, pp. of 
M. E. agasten, to terrify ; Ch. C. T. 2341 ; 
Leg. of Good Women, Dido, 248. — A. S. 
a-, prefix ; and giestan, to terrify, torment. 
p. A. S. giestan is from the base gas- — 
Goth, gais- in tts-gais-jan, to terrify, (y' 
GHwAIS.) Brugm. ii. § 802. 

Agile. I F.-L.) XVI cent. Y. agile. 
— L. agilis, nimble; lit. easily driven 
about. — L. agere, to drive. 

Agistment, the pasturage of cattle 
by agreement. (F. — L.) From the F. vb. 
agister, to assign a resting-place. — P\ a 
( = \^.ad),\o ; and O.Y.giste, a couch, lodg- 
ing, verbal sb. from O. F. gesir (F. gesir), 
to lie, from L. iacere, to lie. 

Agitate. (L.) L. agitdtus, pp. of 
agitdre, to keep driving about, frequent, of 
agere, to drive ; see Agent. (..y^AG.") 

Aglet, a tag of a lace. (F.-L ) Also 
aygulet, Spenser, F. Q. ii. 3. 26. — F. aiguil- 
lette, dimin. oi aiguille, a needle. — Late L. 
acucula, dimin. of ac tis, a needle, pointed 
thing. Cf. Acme. (v^AK.) 

Agnail, (1) a com on the foot, ('2) a 
sore beside the nail. (E.) The sense has 
been confused or perverted. From A. S. 
angncrgl, a corn on the foot (see A. S. 
Leechdoms, ii. 81, § 34); with which cf. 
O. Friesic ogneil, ongneil, apparently used 
in a similar sense. From a prefix ang-, 
signifying afflicting, paining, and A. S. 
ncvgl, a nail (as of iron), hence a hard 
round-headed excrescence or wart fixed in 
tiie flesh ; see Anger and Nail. P Soon 
misunderstood as referring to the nails of 
the toes or fingers, and so made to mean 
* a sore beside the nail ' ; prob. by com- 
paring (wrongly) the Gk. ■napovvx'^a, a 
whitlow (lit. beside the nail', or by con- 
fusion with F. angonaille, a sore (Cot.). 
See N. E. D. 

Agnate, allied. (L.) L. agndtus, 
allied ; pp. of agnascT= ad-gnasd. — L. ad, 
to ; nasct, earlier form gnasef, to be born. 

Ago, Agone, gone away, past. (E.) 
M. E. ago, agon, agoon, pp. of the verb 
agon, to pass by, pass away. A. S. dgdn, 
pp. of dgdn, to pass away. See A- (4) 
and Go. 

Agog, in eagerness. (F.) For a-gog, 
in activity, in eagerness, where a- is 
the prefix A- (2). Adapted from O. F. 
en gogues (Littre), or a gogue (Godefroy), 
in mirth. Cot. has estre en ses gogues, ' to 
be frolicke, ... in a veine of mirth.' The 
origin of O. F. gogue, fun, diversion, is 

Agony. (F. — L, — Gk.) M.E. agonie. 

— F. agonie. — L. agdnia. ^Gk, dycvvia, orig. 
a contest. — Gk. dytuv, contest. — Gk. dyav, 
to drive. (^ AG.) 

Agouti, a rodent animal, of the guinea- 
pig family. (F. — Sp. — Brazil.) F. agouti. 

— Sp. ^^«//. — Brazil, aguti, acuti. 
Agraffe, a kind of clasp. (F.-O.H.G.) 

F. agrafe ; also agraphe (in Cotgrave), 
a hook, clasp; agrafer, to clasp. The 
verb is from F. a ( = L. ad), to; and 
M. H. G. krapfe, O. H. G. crapo, chrapfo, 
a hook, which is allied to E. cratnp. 

Agree, to accord. (F.-L.) O. F. 
agreer, to receive favourably. — O. F. agre^ 




fhvourably. — O. F. a ( = T^. aJ), according 
to ; pf, ST*"^' pleasure, from I ,. i^nftft/n, 
ncut. ofi::'rr7/uj:, dear, pleasing. Cl. Grace. 
Der. iiis-(7ipy^. 

Agpricultnre. (L-) L- ^^n cuUum, 
culture 01 .n field. — L. agrl, gen. of cgcr^ 
a field ; and cultut-a. See Acre and Cxil- 

Alimony, a plant. (F.-I,.-Gk.> 
M. v.. apit'vohu. ('p-ftti(>itif.'''^\. V. aipi- 
f'.w';;.'-. — 1.. (j'-grmdnia, <7r^;vw<v//. — Gk. 
dp^iii^y^l. (Lewis and Short. L. Diet.") 

Ag^round. ,K.^ ¥ or on gr-ound. 

Ague, a fever-fit. (F. — L.) Lit. 
' acute' .ittack. — O. F. agiu, fern, of agu 
i^F. aii:u^. acute. — L. arz/Ar {ffbris), acute 
i^fever^ : fern, oi a: fit us ; see Acute. 

Ah!\F.-L.^ M.E. a:-O.F. fl!- 
L. <7V! 

Ahead. ^F.> For on hcaJ, i.e. in a 
forward direction. See A- {2'^. 

Ai, a sloth. (Brazil. "^ From Brazil, ai. 

Aid. (F.-L.^ M. E. aidcn. - O. F. 
^7;'..v''. — L. adiutare.. frequent, oi aJitiiidre. 
to assist. — L. ad\ and iuuihf, to help, pp. 
/.-T/;/,*-. Cf. Brugm. ii. § ^S^. 

Ail, V- (E.^ M.E. ^;>«. A.S.eglan, 
to pain ; cognate with Goth, agljan. — 
A.S. eg!e, troublesome (allied to Goth. 
aglus, hard\ Cf. A.S. ege, terror, orig. 
pain ; see A"we. 

Aim, to endeavour after. (^F, — L.) ^L E. 
ci^na:. From confusion of (i) A. F. 
csnh-r, from L. izst{rfii.lrc. to estimate, aim 
at, intend ; and (2 ' O. F. arsrner, from L. 
ad-usfir?!arf, comp. with prefix ad-, to. 
See Esteem. 

Air i\ F.-L.-Gk.^ M. E. ah\ dr. 
— F. air. — L. (ier. — Gk. a-^p. air. 

air v2\ mien, affected manner ; tune. 
(F. -It. -L. -Gk.) F. air, look. tune. - 
Ital. aria^ ' a looke, . . a tune : ' Florio. — 
Folk-L. neut. pi. acra, treated as a fem. 
sing. (Diez\ — L. dcr.^G\^. drjp (^above). 

Airt, a point of the compass. (Gael.) 
Gael, aird, a quarter or point of the 
compass. Cf. O Irish ai'd. a point, limit. 

Aisle, the wing of a church. (F. — L.' 
Better spelt a//V. — F. a/VV. — L J/,?, a wing. 
Prob. for *.7.v.'(7. dimin. of Axis. 

Ait. K. See Eyot. 

Aitch-bone, the rump-bone. (Hyb. ; 
F. - L. jfid E.) Orig. spelt noi/if hone. — 
C>. F. nache. sing, of iiachcs. the buttocks ; 
and E. hone. Apaches - Late L. naticds, ace. 
of fuifi^iT, dimin. of L. tiatcs, the but- 

Aja>r. (E.> From a char, on char, on 
the turn (G. Douglas, tr. of Virgil, b. vii. 
prol.^. — A.S. on <i<rrc, on the uun ; cf. A.S. 
cyran, ricrran. to turn. See Char {2). 

Akimbo, in a bent position. (Scand.) 
M. K. ;;.• kcnchou-f, Berjni, 1S3S. Perhaps 
from Icel. /" Xvw^% into a crook; with 
E. ho7v, i. e. bend, superfluously added. 
Here kcng is the ace. of kcng-r, a crook, 
twist, kink. Cf. also Icel. Arnii'ho^fin, 
bent into a crook, from kcngr, a crook, 
twist, kink, and hog'inn, bowed, pp. of 
lost verb hjf/ga, to bow. See Kink and 
Bow ^i"*. ^Very doubtful ; a guess.) 

Akin, of kin. (E.) ¥ or of kin. 

Alabaster. ^F. -L. - Gk.^ ^LE. ala- 

ha.-tre.'^O. ¥. alahastre {¥ . aIhdt!-e).'—'L. 
alabaster, alahasfriim.^G'k. dXat^aarpov, 
oXd^aaTos. Said to be derived from .4/a- 
hastron. a town in Eg}-pt. (Pliny.) 

Alack. {¥..') Prob. a corruption of M.E. 
a! .'acL'! nlas ! a shame! lit. 'lack.' (It 
cannot be the same as alas.') 

Alacrity. (L.^ Formed by analogy 
wirh cc.'city. from L. alacritdtem. ace. of 
a/acri/ds. briskness. — L. alacer, brisk. 

Alarm, a call to arms. ^F. — Ital. — L."! 
^L E. alartnc. — F.rt/rtrw<r. — Ital. alfarvie, 
to arms I for alle anne. — Late L. ad 
illas armas, for L. ad ilia arma, to 
those arms ! to your arms ! 

alarum. (F.-Ital.-L.) The same 
word. Mith an old pronunciation, in which 
the ;- was stronglv trilled. 

Alas ! (F. - L.') I\L E. alas. - O. F. alas 
(cf. F. helas^. — O. F. a, ah ! and las, 
wretched that I am ! — L. ah ! and lassiis, 
tired, wretched. (Allied to Late.) 

Alb, a white vestment. (F. — L.^i M. E. 
a^bc — O. F. a/7'^, — Late L. alba, sb.; orig. 
fem. oi L. alhus, white. 

Albacore, a kind of tunny. (^Port. — 
Arab.' Port, albacor, albacora. Said to 
be of Arab, origin. 

Albatross, a large sea-bird. Port. — 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) Formerly also alga- 
//vj-r. — Port, alcatraz, a cormorant, alba- 
tross; Span, akatraz, a pelican. — Port. 
alcatruz. a bucket. Span, ar-.adttz, M. Span. 
ahaduz (^Minsheu>. a bucket on a water- 
wheel. —Arab al-qddus, the same (Dozy). 
Similarly Arab, saijqd, a water-carrier, a 
pelican, because it carries water in its 
pouch. (Devic : supp. to Littre.") 

Album, lit. that which is white. (L.) 
L albiim, a tablet, orig. neut. of albtis, 


albumen, white of egg. (L.) "L.allm- 
uun dui (also album out), white of egg.— 
L. albiis, white. 

Alcayde, a judge ; see Cadi. 

Alchemy. (F.-Arab.-Gk.^ O. F. 
a.cheinie. — XzdL^j. al, the; and kimld. 
alchemy.— Late Gk. x'?M*''*> chemistry; 
probably confused with xypuia, a ming- 
ling, from Gk. x^f^iv, to pour out, mix. 

Alcohol. Med. L.- Arab.) Med.L. 
alcohol, applied to pure spirit, though the 
orig. sense was a fine impalpable powder. 
— Arab, al, the ; and kchl or kiihl, a 
collyrium, very fine powder of antimony,. 
used to paint the eyelids with. 

Alcoran ; see Koran. 

Alcove, a vaulted recess. ^F. — Span.— 
Arab.) F. ^/^(tz;^. — Span, alcoba, a recess 
in a room. — Arab, al, the; and qobbah. a 
vault, dome, cupola ; hence a vaulted space. 

Alder, a tree. (E.) ^L E. alder, alhr 
[d being excrescent). — A. S. alor (aler, 
a/r).+ Du. els; Icel. blr Hot plr) ; Swed. 
al; Dan. elle, el; G. erle; O. H. G. erila, 
earlier elira; Span, aliso (from Gothic,. 
Teut. stems *aluz-, *aliz-, *alis-. Allied 
to Lith. alksnis, L. alniis (for *ahnos) ; 
Russ. olekJia ; and perhaps to Elm. 

Alder-, prefix, of all. In alder-lufest 
(Sh.; ; here alder is for aller, O. Merc. 
alra, A. S. ealra^ gen. pi. of al, eal, all. 
See All. 

Alderman. fE., Merc, aldorman^ 
A. S. ealdorman.'''SitTC. aldor (ealdor), a 
chief; and matt, man. Allied to O. Fries. 
alder, a parent; G. eltern, pi. parents; 
and to L. al-tor, a bringer up, from alere, 
to nourish. Cf. Old. 

Ale. 'E.) ^L E. (2/,f. — A. S- ealu, gen. 
alop (stem *a/«/y.-|- Icel., Swed., and Dan. 
bl; Lithuan. a/z^.; ; Rubs, oloz't'na. 

Alembic, a vessel for distilling. ^F. — 
Span. - Arab. - Gk.) M. E. alembyk. - F. 
alambique Cot.,. — Span, alambique. — 
Arab, al, the ; and anb'iq (pronounced ani- 
biq , a still. — Gk. ay^tii^, a cup, goblet ; 
cap of a still. Cf. Limbeck. 

Alert. fF.-Ital.-L.) F. o/^r/^ : for- 
merly allerte, and (in Rabelais) a Cherte, 
i.e. on the watch. — Ital, allerta, on the 
watch ; from the phr. stare alVerta, to 
stand erect, be on one's guard. — Ital. alia 

for a la), at the. on the ; erta, fem. oi 
erio, erect. — L. ad, to, at ; illam, fera. ace. 
of ille, he ; erectam, fem. ace. of erect us, 
erect ; see Erect, 

Algebra. Late L. — Arab.) Late L. 


I algebra, compntation. — Arab, al, the : and 
\jabr, setting, repairir.g ; also, the reduction 
of fractions to i.^.tegers in arithmetic; hence. 
algebra. — Arab, root jabara, to set, con- 
sol :ca:e 

Algn^sril, a police-officer. fSpan.— 
Arab.) Span, alguazil.^ \T^h. al, the; 
uazTr, a vizier, officer ; see Vizier. 
I AlgTim, sandal-wood. (Heb. — Skt.) 
' In 2 Chron. ii. 8, ix. lo ; spelt almug, 
! I Kings X. 1 1. — Heb. alpimmim, or trans- 
' posed almugim : a borrowed word. Sup- 
posed by Max Miiiler Sci. Lang. i. 232) to 
be from Skt. valgii-ka. sandal- wood; where 
-ka is a suffix- 
Alias. L.) L, alias, otherwise. — I.. 
alius, another ; see Alien. 

alibi. (L.) L. alibi, in another place. 

— L. ali-, as in aliits ; and suffix -bi as in 
i-bi. there, u-bi, where. See below, 

i alien. F.-L. M.E. a/zV«^.-0. F. 
alien. — L. alienus, strange ; a stranger. — L. 
I cdius, another, -f Gk. oAAos, another: O. 
I Irish aile, W. ailL all; Goth, aljis (stem 
' aljo-\ , other ; see Else. 

Allgllt ( I ', to descend from. (E. ^L E. 
alihten, to alight from horseback ; A. S. 
dlihtan, the prefix a- being=A. S. a-. 
The simple form lihtan also occurs in A. S., 
meaning to make light, relieve of weight, 
alight ' from a horse) ; from liht, light, 
adj. See Light (3). 

alight 2 , to light upon. (E.) M.E. 
alihten, with reference to the completion of 
the action of alighting. See above. 
Align ; see Aline. 
Alike, similar. (E.) M. E. alike, alike. 
A.S. onlJc, like; from /r^, like, with prefix 
on- = on, prep. 
Aliment, food. (F. — L. Y. aliment. 

— L. alimentum, food ; formed with 
suffix -vientum from alere, to nourish. 


alimony, money allowed for a wife s 
support upon her separation from her 
husband, (L.) L, alimonia. nourishment, 

— L. alere, to nourish ; see above. 
Aline, Align, to range in a line. (F. 

— L. ) Adapted from mcd. F. aligner, to 
range in a line. From the phr. d ligne, 
into line, — L. ad, to ; linea, a line. See 
Line. (Aliue is the better spelling for 
the E. word.) 

Aliquot. X.' L. aliquot, some, several 
i^hence, proportionate). — L. ali-us, other; 
and qtwt, how many. 

Alive, in life. ',E.) From A.S. on life. 



in life; where life is dat. of ///, life; see 

Alkali, a salt. (Arab.) Arab. <?/, the ; 
and ^a//", ashes of salt-wort, which abounds 
in soda. 

All. (E.) M. E. a/, sing.; alh, pl.- 
O. Merc, al, all; A. S. eal, pi. ^<z//<?. + Icel. 
allr\ Swed.a//; Dan. al ; Du. al\ O. H. G. 
al ; Goth, alls, pi. allai. Teut. type *a/- 
w^2 ; allied to Irish uile, all, from Idg. 
type *oljos. 

all, adv., utterly. In the phr. all-io 
brake (correctly all to-hrake) , ]vidges ix. 53. 
Here the incorrect all- to, for ' utterly,' came 
up about A.D. 1500, in place of the old 
idiom which linked to to the verb ; cf. ^Al 
is tobrosten thilke regioun,' Chaucer, C. T. 
2757. See ^o-, prefix. 

almost. (E.) A. S. eal-mcest, i.e. quite 
the greatest part, nearly all ; affected by 
mod. E. most. See Most. 

alway, always. (E.) {i) k.S,.ealne 

weg, every way, an accus. case. (2) M. E. 
alles weis, in every way, a gen. case. 

Allay. (E.) M. E. aleyen, alaien^ the 
stem of which is due to A. S. dleg-es, aleg- 
ed, 2 and 3 pres. t. sing, of A.S. dlecgan, to 
lay down, put down, which produced also 
M. E. aleggen, to lay or set aside. — A.S. 
a-, prefix ; and lecgan, to lay, place ; see 
A- (4) and Lay (,1). p. But much con- 
fused with other forms, especially with M. E. 
aleggen, to alleviate, from O. F. aleger, 
alegier, L. alleuidre ; and with old forms 
of alloy. See N. E. D. 

Allege. (F. — L. ) M. E. alegen, aleggen. 
In form, the word answers to A. F. alegier, 
aligier^O.Y. esligier (see Godefroy) ; 
from A. F. a- = 0. F. es-, and ligier. — \j. 
ex- ; and lltigdre, to contend (Ducange), 
from L. lis (gen. llt-is), strife. Latinised 
as adlegidre (Ducange), and treated as if 
allied to L. allegdre (F. alleguer) ; hence 
the sense usually answers to that of L. 
allegdre, to adduce, — L. al- (for ad), to ; 
legdre, to dispatch, to tell, from leg-, base 
of lex, law. 

Allegiance, the duty of a subject to 
his lord. ( F. - O. H. G.) M. E. alegeaunce. 
Formed from F. a (==L. ad), to; O. F. 
ligance, ligeance, homage, from O. F. lige, 
liege, liege. See Liege. % The form 
ligance (^ Godefroy) was due to a supposed 
connexion with L. ligdre, to bind. 

Allegory. (L.-Gk.) XVI cent. L. 
allegoria. — Gk. d\\r)yopia, a description 
of one thing under the image of another. — 

Gk. d\\r]yop(iv, to speak so as to imply 
something else ; Galat. iv. 24. — Gk. dWo-, 
stem of dWos, other ; and dyopevetv, to 
speak, from dyopd, a place of assembly ; cf. 
dydpfiv, to assemble. Gk. dWos = L. alius; 
see Alien. 

Allegro, lively. (Ital.-L.) It3.\. alle- 
g70.—L,. alacrem, ace. oi alacer, brisk. 

Alleluia. (Heb.) See Hallelujah. 

Alleviate. (L.) From pp. of Late L. 
alletiiare, used for L. alleudre, to lighten. 
L. al- (for ad), to ; leiidre, to lift, lighten, 
from leuis, light. 

Alley, a walk. (F.-L.?) M. E. aley. 

— O. F. alee, a gallery ; a participial sb. — 
O. F. aler, to go ; F. aller. |3. The ety- 
mology of aller, much and long discussed, 
is not yet settled ; the Prov. equivalent is 
anar, allied to Ital. andare, to go. 

Alliance ; see Ally. 
Alligator. (Span. — L.) Lit. ' the 
lizard.' — Span, el lagarto, the lizard, i.e. 
the great lizard. — L. ille, he, that; lacerta, 
a lizard. See Lizard. 

Alliteration, repetition of initial 
letters. (L.) Coined from L. al- (for ad), 
to ; and Ittera, a letter ; see Letter. 
Allocate, to set aside. (L.) From 
pp. of Late L. allocdre, to allot. — L. al- 
{=^ad), to; locdre, to place, from loctis, a 
place. Cf Allow (i). 
Allocution, an address. (L.) From 
L. allociitio, an address. — L. al- (for ad), 
to ; lociitio, a speaking, from locutus, pp. 
of loqul, to speak. 

Allodial. (LateL. — O.Frankish.) Late 
L. allodidlis, from allodium, alodium, a 
derivative of alodis, a free inheritance 
(Lex Salica). It means ' entirely (one's) 
property,' from O. Frank, alod ; where al- 
ls related to E. all, and od signifies * pro- 
perty ' or ' wealth.' This O. Frank, od is 
cognate with O. H. G. ot, A. S. ead, Icel. 
auhr, wealth. Cf. Goth, audags, blessed. 
Allopathy, a treatment by medicines 
which produce an opposite effect to that of 
disease. (Gk.) Opposed to homceopathy, 
q. v. — Gk. d\Xo-, for d'AAos, other ; and 
Trad-eiu, to suffer ; see Alien and Pathos. 
Allot, to assign a portion to. (F.-L. 
and E.) A. F. aloter. — A. F. a, from L. 
ad, to ; and M. E. lot, A. S. /ilot; see Lot. 
Allow (i), to assign, grant. (F.-L.) 
F. allouer, to let out for hire, assign for 
an expense. — Late L. allocdre, to allot. — 
L. al- (for ad), to ; and locdre, to place, 
from locus, a place. 



Allow 2), to approve of. (F. — L.) 
M. E. alouen.<^0. F. aloxier, later allotier, 
to approve of. — L. allaiiddre.^Y^, al- (for 
ad\ to ; latiddre, to praise, from laud-, 
stem of laiis, praise. 

Alloy, a due proportion in mixing 
metals. (F. — I^.) Formerly aZ/o;/ ; M. E. 
alay. — O. F. alay, aley, alloy. — O. F. aleier, 
aleyer, to combine. — L. alligdre, to bind 
together ; see Ally. The O. F. alei, sb., 
became aloi, which was misunderstood as 
being ci loi = L. ad legem, according to rule 
or law (Littre). 

Allude. (L.) L. allildere, to laugh at, 
allude to i^pp. allusus).^\.. al- {-^ad), 
at ; Ifidere, to sport. Der. allus-ion. 

Allure, to tempt by a bait. (F. — L. 
and G.) A.¥. alurer; from V. a leurre 
= to the bait or lure. — L, a^, to ; M. H. G. 
luoder ( G. luder), a bait. See Lure. 

Alluvial, washed down, applied to 
soil. (^L.) L. alluui-us, alluvial. — L. al- 
(^ = ad), to, in addition ; lucre, to wash. 

Ally, to bind together. .F.-L.) M. E. 
alien. ^O. F. alier, to bind up. — L. ad, 
to ; ligdre, to bind. Der, alli-ance, M. E. 

Almanac, Almanack. (Late L.) 
Late L. abnanach. ^ Origin unknown ; 
not of Arab, origin (Dozy). 

Almighty. (,E.) O. Merc, almcehtig, 
A. S. almihtig. The prefix is O. Merc. 
al-, O. Sax. ado-, O. H.G. ala-, related to 
All. And see Might. 

Almond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. al- 
viaund.'—O. F. abnandi-e, more correctly, 
amandre ; the al being due to Span, and 
Arab, influence; mod. F. aniande." 
L. amygdala, atnygdalum, an almond ; 
whence the forms amygiVla, amy d' la, 
amynd'la, aniyndra (see Brachet). — Gk. 
aixv^Za.\T], dfj.vydaXov, an almond. 

Almoner ; see Alms. 

Almost. (E.) A. S. ealmasl ; see All. 

Alms. (L. — Gk.) M. E. a////<?5-^^, later 
almes. A. S. almcesse. — Folk-L. *ali- 
mosina (whence O. F. almosne, F. au- 
mone, Ital. limosina) ; Late L. eleemosyna. 

— Gk. k\er][xocrvvT], pity; hence alms.— 
Gk. kXerjfjLOjv, pitiful. — Gk. (\eeiy, to pity. 

— Gk. e\€os, pity. ^ Thus alms is a 
singular form. 

almoner. (F. — L. — Gk.) O.F.almos- 
nier, a distributor of alms. — O. F. almosne, 
alms ; F. aumone. — Folk-L. *alimosina 
Almug, the same as Algum, q. v. 

Aloe, a plant. (L. - Gk.) L. aloe 
(Pliny !. — Gk. ako-q ; John xix. 39. 

Aloffc. (Scand.) Icel. a lopt (pron. 
loft), aloft, in the air. -Icel. a (-^A. S. 
on), in ; lopt, air. See Loft. 

Alone. (E.) M. E. al one, al oon, 
written apart; here al, adv., means 'en- 
tirely,' and 0071 is the M. E. form of one. 
Cf. Du. alleen, G. allein. See All and 

Along (i), lengthwise of. (E.) M. E. 
along. A. S. andlang, along, prep, with 
gen.; orig. (like O. Sax. antlang) an adj., 
meaning complete (from end to end).— 
A. S. and-, prefix (allied to Gk. avri, 
Skt. anti, over against) ; lang, long. The 
sense is ' over against in length,' or * long 
from end to end.' + G. entlang, along. See 
A- (3) and Long (i) ; and see Anti-. 

Along (2) ; in phr. all along of you, 
^c. (E.) Equivalent to M. E. Hong, 
Layamon, 15502.- A. S. ^^/««^, 'depend- 
ing on,' as in on tSdm gelang, along of 
that. — A.S. ^^-, prefix; lang, long. 

Aloof, away, (E, a«a?Du.) Yox on loof; 
answering to Du. te loef to windward. 
Cf, Du. loef hoiiden, to keep the luff or 
weather-gage, Dan. holde luven, to keep to 
the windward ; which suggested our phrase 
' to hold aloof,' i. e. to keep away (from 
the leeward shore or rock). See Luff. 

Aloud, loudly. (E.) From a-, prefix, 
due to A. S. on, prep. ; and A, S. hlud, 
loud. See A- (2) and Loud, 

Alp. (L.) L. Alpes, the Alps; of 
Celtic origin. Connected with L, albus, 
white (Stokes). Der. trans-alp-ine, i, e. 
beyond the Alps. 

Alpaca. (Span. — Peruvian.) Span, al- 
paca; from paco, the Peruvian name, with 
the Arab, def. art. al prefixed, 

A.lpliabet. (Late L. - Gk. - Phoe- 
nician. "! Late L. alphabetum. — Gk, aA^a, 
/S^ra, the names of a and /3, the first two 
letters of the alphabet ; Heb. dleph, an ox, 
the name of the first letter ; and beth, a 
house, the name of the second letter. 

Already. (E.) M, E, al redy, quite 
ready ; from al, quite, representing the 
neut, of O. Merc, al, all, used adverbially, 
and Heady, 

Also. (E.) M, E, al so, quite so; A. S* 
ealswd ; see above. 

Altar. (L.) A, S, altdre, Matt. v. 24. 
— L. altdre, an altar, high place. — L. 
alius, high. 

Alter. (L.) Late L. alterdre, to alter. 




— L. alter, other. — L. al- (as in al-iiis); 
with comparative suffix -tero-. 

altercation, a dispute. (F. — L.) 

M. E. altercation. — O.Y. altercation. — l,. 
altercdtioneui, ace. oi altcrcatid.-'l^. altcr- 
catus, pp. of altercdri, to dispute, speak in 
turns. — Iv. alter, other, another. 

alternate. (L) L. alterndtns, pp. 
of alterndre, to do by turns. — L. alter- 
nus, reciprocal. — L. alter (with suffix 

Although. (E.) lsi.¥..anhogh; ste 
Already and Though. 

Altitude. (E.-L.) XIV cent-F. 
alt it tide. — L. altitftdo, height. — L. alius, 

alto, high voice. (Ital. — L.) liz\. alto. 

— L. alius, high. 

Altogether. (E.) U.Y.. al together, 
quite together. See Already. 

Altruism, regard for others. (Ital. - 
L. ; ivith Gk. sitffix.') Coined from Ital. 
altriii, another, others, a form of altro, 
another, when preceded by a preposition. 
Grig, a dat. case. — L. alteri huic^ to this 
other ; datives of alter, other, and hic, 

Alum. (F. - L.) M. E. alu7n. - O. F. 
alum ; F. alun. — L. alumen^ alum. 

Alway, Always. (E.) See All. 

Am. ;E.) See Are. 

Amain. (E. i For on main, in strength^ 
with strength ; see A- (2) and Main, sb. 

Amalgam. (F. or Late L. - Gk. ?) F. 
amalgame. Late L. amalgama, a mixture, 
esp. of quicksilver with other metals. 
Origin unknown ; said by some to be a 
corruption or an alchemist's anagram of 
malagma, a mollifying application ; per- 
haps with Arab, a/ ( = the) prefixed. —Gk. 
fxaXayfia, an emollient. — Gk. fiaKaaauv 
{iov*^a\aK-yiiv), to soften. — Gk. jxaKaKos, 

Amanuensis, one who writes to dic- 
tation. (L.) L,. dmanuensis.—L. a ?uanu, 
by hand ; with suffix -ensis. 

Amaranth, an unfading flower. ( L. - 
Gk.) Properly amarant, as in Milton ; 
but -anth is due to confusion with Greek 
aj/0oj, a flower. — L. afnarantus. — Gk. 
afxapavTos, unfading, or as sb. unfading 
flower. — Gk. a-, not ; and fxapaiutiv, to 
fade. (VMEK.) 

Amass, to heap up. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. amasser, to heap up. — F. a fuasse, mto 
amass. — L. ad, to; massa, a mass. — Gk. 
^d^a, a barley-cake. See Mass (1). 

Amatory. (L.) L. amatorizis, loving. 

— L. amdfor, a lover. — L. amdj-e, to love ; 
with suffix -tor-, -tor, of agent. 

Amaze, to astound. (E.) M. E. a/nasen. 
A. S. d/iiasian, pp. dmasod; Wulfstan's 
Horn. p. 137, 1. 23. From A.S. d- 
(prefix); and ^masian, to perplex. See 

Amazon, a female warrior. (Gk.) Gk. 
apia^iov, one of a warlike nation of women 
in Scythia. <ff To account for the name, 
the Greeks said that these women cut off 
the right breast to shoot better ; from Gk. 
a-, not ; and jxa^os, the breast. Obviously 
an invention. 

Ambassador, Embassador. (F. 

— Late L. — C.) F. ambassadeur. — Y. 
ambassade, an embassy ; prob. borrowed 
from Ital. ambasciata. — Late L. ambascia 
(Lex Salica) ; more correctly '^ambactia ; 
a mission, service. — L. ambactus, a servant, 
emissary; Caesar, de Bell. Gall. vi. 15. 
The L. word is borrowed from an O. 
Gaulish (Celtic) word {ambactos ?) a slave, 
lit. one driven about, a pp. form from 
afiibi-, prefix, about, and the verb ag-, 
cognate with L. agere; cf. O. Irish tjum- 
agi?n, I drive about, send about. (Fick, 
1894,11. 34; Brugm. ii. § 79.) Cf. W. 
amaeth, a husbandman. 

Amber. (F. - Span. - Arab.) M. E. 
aumbre. — F. ambre. — Span, ambar. — 
Arab, 'anbar (pronounced 'ambar), am- 
bergris, a rich perfume. % The resinous 
amber was so called from a resemblance to 
ambergris, which is really quite a different 

ambergris, i- e. gray amber. Called 
gris amber in Milton, P. R. ii. 344. The 
F. gris, gray, is from O. H. G. gris, gray ; 
cf. G. greis, hoary. 

Ambi-, Amb-, prefix. (L.) L. ambi-, 
about ; cf. Gk. ayjcpl, on both sides, whence 
E. prefix aitiphi'. Related to L. ambo, 
Gk. ajxtpoj, both. Cf. A.S. ymb, Irish im, 

Ambient, going about. (L.) L. amb- 
ient-, stem of pres. part, oi amb- ire, to go 
about, from ire, to go. 

Ambiguous, doubtful. (L.) L. amb- 
iguus, doubtful, lit. driving about (with 
-ozis ( = L. -osus) in place of L. -us). — L. 
amb-, about ; and age7'e, to drive. 

Ambition. ( F. — L. 1 F. ambition . — L. 
ambitidnem, ace. oi ambitid, a going round, 
esp. used of going round to solicit votes ; 
hence, a seeking for preferment. — L. amb- 



itum, supine oi ajnb-Jre, to go about (but 
note that ambitio retains the short i of 
ilutn, the sujiine of" ire , the siin]ile vcrb\ 
Amble. (F. - 1..) M. E. am/'/cu. - O.F. 
ambler, to go at an easy pace. — L. ambu- 
Idre, to walk. 

aiXtlbulance, a moveable hospital. : Y . 
— L.) Y . aDibtilance. — Y.. ambulant-, stem 
of pres. part, of ambtddre, to walk. 

ambulation, a walking about. (L.) 
From L. a^nbtildiio, a walking about. — L. 
ambuldtus, pp. of af?ibiilare. 
Ambrosia, food of the gods. (Gk.) 

Gk. aix^pooia ; fem. of ajx^puaios, length- 
ened form oi dfx^poTos, immortal. — Gk. d-, 
not (E. un-) ; and *fj.l3poTus, for ^pcpoTos 
(Gk. ^poros;), mortal; see Mortal. Cf. 
Skt. a-mrta, immortal. See Amaranth. 
Ambry, Aumbry, a cupboard. (F. - 
L.) M. E. awmebry, awmery, Prompt. 
Parv. ; the b is excrescent. — O. F. awiiaire, 
almaire, armaj'ie, a repository ; properly, 
for arms ; but also a cupboard. — Late L. 
armdria, a cupboard ; armdrui9/i, a re- 
pository for arms. — L. arma, arms. 

Ambulance, -ation ; see Amble. 

Ambuscade. (Span. -Late L.) From 
Span, emboscada, an ambush. Orig. 
pp. oi emboscar,\.o set in ambush. — Late 
Lat. imboscdre, lit. to set in a bush or 
thicket. — L. z}?i- (for in)^ in ; and Late L. 
boscuDiy a bush. See Bush. 

ambush. (F. — Late L.) Formerly 
embush.'^O.Y. embuscher, e?nbuissier, to 
set in ambush. — Late L. imboscdre; as 

Ameer, the same as Emir, q. v. 

Ameliorate. (F. — L.; tvith L. stiffix.) 

F'ormed with suffix -ate ( = L. -dtus) from 
F. amiliorer^ to better, improve. — F. a 
( = L. ad), in addition ; -meliorer ( = Late 
L. meliordre), to make better. — L. ?nelidr-, 
from melior, better. 

Amen. (L. — Gk. — Heb.) \.. amen.— 
Gk. d/xTyi', verily. — Heb. amen, verily, so be 
it. — Heb. «;/z,fW, firm, true. — Heb. d77ian, 
to confirm ; orig. ' to be firm.' 

Amenable, easy to lead. (F. — L.) 
From F. amener, to lead to, bring to.— 
F. d., to ; mener, to conduct, drive. — L. ad, 
to ; Late L. 7nindre, to conduct, lead about, 
al?o to drive out, chase away ; L. mindri, 
to threaten. — L. mince ^ threats. 

Amend. (F. — L.) M..Y. ajnendeft.— 
F. amender. — L. emendd^-e, to free from 
fapp'lt. — L. e, from ; mendum, a fault. 
amends. (F. — L.) M. E. arnendes. 

sb. pi. — O. F. amende, reparation. — O.F. 
amender (above). 

Amenity, pleasantness. (F.-L.^ M F. 
and F. ame^iitc. —Y^. amcciiitdlem, ace. of 
anucnitds. — L. a/ULcnus, pleasant. Cf. L. 
aiiidre, to love. 

Amerce, to fine. (F. - L.) A. Y. (not 
(J. F.) amercier, to fine. — O, F. a ( = L. ad)^ 
to ; mercier, to pay, acquit, but usually to 
thank ; cf. Late L. mercidre, to fix a fine. 
Cf. O. Y . mercit (F. inerci), thanks, pardon. 

— L. mercedem, ace. oijnerces, reward, 
wages, also pity, indulgence, thanks 
(passing into the sense of 'fine' . — L. 
mere-, stem of inerx, merchandise, traflic. 

Amethyst, a gem. (L. - Gk.) 1 .. cune- 
thystus. — X^\i. dfxfdvoTos, an ameth}st; so 
called because supposed to prevent drunk- 
enness. — Gk.dfi6'ei;aTos,not drunken. — Gk. 
d-, not; and fitOvav, to be drunken, from 
pL(6v, strong drink; see Mead. 

Amiable. (E.-L.) O.F. amiable, 
friendly ; also loveable, by confusion with 
aiviable (from L. amdbilis). — \..ajfiicdbilis, 
friendly. — L. amicus, a friend.- L. amdre, 
to love. 

amicable. (L.) L. amlcdbilis, friendly ; 
as above. 

Amice (i), an oblong piece of linen, 
variously worn by priests. (F. — L.) M. E. 
amyse, and (earlier) amit. — O. F. amis^ 
a^fiit {huTguy ). — !.. a?nict-us, a covering. 

— L. amictus, pp. of aniicire, to throw 
round. — L. am- ^amb-), around ; iacere, to 

Amice (2), a pilgrim's hood. (O. F.— 
Span. ? — Teut. ?) ' In aw?V^gray ;' Milton, 
P.R. iv. 427. — O. F. aumiice (Y . ait7inisse)\ 
Late L. al77iucia. — Span, ah/iucio (Pineda - ; 
where al seems to be the Arab. def. art. 
(cf. Port, mur^a). — G. miitze, a cap (cf. 
Lowl. Sc. mutch). But G. miitze may be 
from Late L. 

Amid, Amidst, in the middle of. (E.) 
A77iids-t is lengthened from M. E. a77iiddes. 
Again, a7nidde-s was due to adding the 
adv. suffix -s to a77ndde = A.S. 07i 77iiddan, 
in the middle ; where 77iidda)i is the dat. of 
77iidde, sb., the middle. — A. S. 77iid, 77iidd, 
adj., middle. A77iid— K. S. 07t 77iiddati i^as 
before). See Mid. 

Amiss, adv. wrongly. (E. or Scaud.) 
M. E. 07t 77iisse, i. e. in error. — Icel. a mis, 
amiss. — Icel. a ( = A. S. on \ in ; 77iis, adv., 
wrongly (due to an older lost pp.). See 
Miss (i). 

Amity. (F. — L.) O. F. a7niste, a77iisted, 




amistet. — Late L. *a?nicitatem, ace. oi^amT- 
ciids, friendship. — i., amicus, friendly. — 
L. anidre, to love. 

Ammonia, an alkali. (L.-Gk.- 
Egyptian.) Suggested by L. sal am- 
nioniacuHi, rock-salt. — Gk. dfXfxcuviaKov , 
sal ammoniac, rock-salt. — Gk. dfi/xcvvids, 
Libyan. — Gk. a^najv, the Libyan Zeus- 
Ammon ; a word of Egyptian origin ; 
Herod, ii. 43. ^ It is said that sal am- 
moniac was first obtained near the temple 
of Ammon. 

amm.01lite, a fossil shell. (Gk.) Coined 
with suffix -ite (Gk. -ittjs) from the name 
Ammon ; because the shell resembles the 
twisted ram's horn on the head of the 
image of Jupiter Ammon. 

Amm.UUition, store for defence. (F. — 
L.) From Mid. F. amunzlt'on, a soldier's 
corruption oi munition , due to substituting 
ramunition for la munition (Littre). — L. 
ace. mfmitionem, a defending. — L. mflni- 
tus, pp. of munh'e, to defend. 

Amnesty, lit. a forgetting of offences. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) F. a?nn£stie.''h. amnes- 
//a. — Gk. dfivrjaTia, forgetfulness, esp. of 
wrong. — Gk. dfivqaros, forgotten. — Gk. d-, 
not ; and fivdoixai, I remember. (-y^MEN.) 

Among, Amongst. (E.) The earliest 
M. E. form is amonge, whence amonges 
with added s (a common adverbial suffix) ; 
and hence amongs-t with excrescent /. — 
A. S. onmang, prep., among. — A. S. on, in ; 
mang, a mixture, crowd. Cf. Mingle. 

Amorous. (F. — L.) O.Y. amoros\¥. 
amoureux. — L. amorosus. — L. amor, love. 

Amorphous, formless. (Gk.) From 
Gk. d-, not ; and fiopcp-rj, shape, form. 

Amount, to mount up to. (F.-L.) 
O. F. amonter, to amount to. — O.F. a 
mont, towards a mountain or large heap. 

— L. ad, to; montem, ace. of mons, a 

Amour. (F. — L.) F. amour. — L. 
amorem, ace. oi amor, love. 

Amphi-, /r^Jf. (Gk.) Gk.dfi(pi,on 
both sides, around; see Ambi-. 

Amphibious. (Gk.) Gk. dnipi^ios, 

living a double life, on land and water. 

— Gk. dn<pi, on both sides ; /Stos, life. 
Amphibrach, a foot in prosody. 

(Gk.) The foot composed of a short 
syllable on each side of a long one {■^-J). 
Gk. dfKplPpaxvs. — Gk. d/xcpi, on both sides ; 
and 0paxvs, short ; see Amphi- and 

Amphitheatre. (Gk.) Gk. dixcpieid- \ 


rpov, a theatre with seats all round the 
arena. — Gk. dfx(pi, around; Oidrpov, a 

Ample, full. (F. - L.) F. ample. - L. 
amplus, spacious. 

Amputate. (L.) From pp. of L 
aniptitnre, to cut off round about. — L. am-, 
short for amb- , ambi-, round about; 
putdre, to cleanse, also to lop or prune trees. 
— L. putus, clean. 

Amulet. (F. — L.) F. afuulette.-l.. 
amzdetum, a talisman hung round the neck. 
[Once thought to be of Arabic origin ; but 
now given up.] 

Amuse, to divert. (F. — L.) F. amuser, 
' to amuse, make to muse or think of, to 
gaze at;' Cot.-F. a ( = L. ad), to, at; 
O. F. jmiser, to gaze at, stare at, muse ; see 
Muse (i). 

An, A, indefinite article. (E.) A is 
short ioran ; and an is an unaccented form 
of A. S. an, one ; see One. 

An-, A-, neg. prefix. (Gk.) QV.dv-, 
d-, cognate with L. in-, and E. un- ; see 
Un-, In-, A- (9). 

An, if. See And. 

Ana-, An-,/r^.r. (Gk.) G\i.dva-,dv-\ 
from Gk. dvd, upon, on, up, back, again; 
cognate with E. on ; see On. 

Ana, Anna, a sixteenth of a rupee. 
(Flind.) Hind, dna, a sixteenth part, esp. 
of a rupee. (H. H. Wilson.) 

Anabaptist. (Gk.) One who baptizes 
again. Coined from Gk. dvd, again ; and 
baptist. See Baptize. 

Anachronism, error in chronology. 
(Gk.) Gk. dvay^poviapLO'i.'^QV. dvaxpovi- 
^fiv, to refer to a wrong time. — Gk. di/d, 
up, back (wrong) ; xpo»'os, time. 

Anaconda, a large serpent. (Ceylon.) 
Now a S. American boa ; at first applied 
to a large snake in Ceylon. But wrongly ; 
it was really a swift whipsnake ; Cingh. 
henakandayd. lit. * lightning stem.' 

Anaemia, bloodlessness. (L. — Gk.) A 
Latmised form of Gk. dvaifxia, want of 
blood. — Gk. dv-, not ; ai/Jia, blood. 

Anaesthetic, rendering insensible to 
pain. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. dv-, not ; 
and aloOrjTiKus, full of perception ; see An- 
and JEsthetic. 

Anagram, a change in a word due to 
transposition of letters. (F. — L. — Gk. ) F. 
anagram?ne. — l^. anag7-ami7ia.-^QV. dvd- 
'^pap.p.a. — Gk. dvd, up, here used distribu- 
tively ; '■^pd^ixa, a letter of the alphabet. — 
Gk. ypd(p€iv, to write. 



Analogy, proportion. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
¥. analogic. — L. analogia. — Gk. ulvoKo'^'m^ 
equality of ratios. — Gk. dm, upon, 
throufjhout ; -Koyia, from A07-0S, a word, 
statement, from Xtyfiv, to speak. 

Analysis. (Gk.), a resolv- 
ing into parts, loosening. — Gk. ilfaXvetv, to 
undo, resolve. — Gk. dvd, back ; and Kv<ii', 
to loosen. (y'LEU.) Der. analyse, verb, a 
coined word. 

Ananas, the pine-apple plant. (Span. 

— Braz.) Span, ananas i^Pineda) ; mod. 
Span, anana. — Brazil, nanas or nana. 
% The Peruv. name is achiipalla. 

Anapaest, Anapest, a foot in pros- 
ody, v^k. ) L. anapccsliis.—GVi. dvd- 
iraiOTos, struck back, rebounding ; because 
it is the reverse of a dactyl. — Gk. dva-naUiv, 
to strike back. - Gk. dm, back ; and iraietv, 
to strike. 

Anarchy. (F.-L.-Gk.) XVI cent. 
¥. anan/it'e. — L,. anarc/ii'a. — Gk. dvapx'io, 
lack of government. — Gk. duapxos, without 
a ruler. — Gk. di/-, neg. prefix; dpxos, a 
ruler, from apx^^v, to rule, to be first. 

Anathema, a curse. (L.-Gk.) L. 

anal/ienia. — Gk. avdOefxa, a thing devoted 
or accursed. — Gk. dvariOrjfxi, I devote.— 
Gk. dvd, up ; TidTjfu, I place, set. Cf. 

Anatomy. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. ana 
tomie. — 'L,. anatonn'a.^Gk. dvaropLia, the 
same as dvaTo^-q, dissection. — Gk. dpaT^fj- 
fdv, to cut up. — Gk. um, up ; rijxv^iv, to 
cut. Cf. Tome. 

Ancestor. (F. — L.) M.E. (i ) ancestre, 
O. ¥. ancestre, from L. antecessor, nom., 
a predecessor, foregoer ; and M. E. (2 an- 
cessour, O. F. ancessonr, from L. aiite- 
cessorevi, ace. — L. ante, before ; cess-ns, 
pp. of cedere, to go. 

Anchor. iL. — Gk.) The current spell- 
ing imitates the false L. form, anchora. 
A. S. ancor. — L. ancora (wrongly anchora) . 

— Gk. dfKvpa, an anchor, lit. a bent liook ; 
cf. Gk. d-yKUJv, a bend. (^ANQ.) 

Anchoret, Anchorite, a recluse. 

(F. — Late L. — Gk ) F. auachorete (Cot ; . 

— Late L. anachoreta.-'GV.. dvaxooprjTTjs, 
one who retires from the world. — Gk dva- 
Xojpfiv, to retire. — Gk. dvd, back ; and 
XOJpeiv, to withdraw, from x^P^^^ space, 
room. (VCiHE, GHO.) 

Anchovy, a fish. (Span. - Basque ?; 
Span, anchova ; cf. Basque anchoa.anchtia. 
an anchovy. Perhaps ' dried fish ' ; bom 
Basque antztia, dry. 

Ancient (0, old. (F.-L.) With 

excrescent /. M. E. auncien. — Y. ancien. 

— Late L. antidnns, old, belonging to 
former time. Formed with suffix -dims 
from ante, before. 

Ancient '2), a banner, standard-hearer. 
' F. - J^ ) Confused with ancient i 1 j ; but 
from O. F. enseigne, m. 'ensigne, auncient, 
standard-bearer ; ' Cot.; also for O. F. en- 
seigjie, f., ' a banner;' Cot. See Ensign. 

And. < E.) A. S. and, end. + O. Fries. 
anda, ende; (). II. G. anti, unta. G. tind. 
Prob. related to L. ante, before, Gk. dvr'i, 
over against. 

an, if. (E.) Formerly also and; 
Havelok, 2861, &c; the same word as the 
above. An if= if if, a reduplication. But 
andif=h\\\. if if; Matt. xxiv. 48. 

Andante, slowly, (Ital.) \\.2X. andante, 
moving slowly, pres. pt. of andare, to 

Andiron, a fire-dog. (F. — L.) Not 
connected with iron, but corrupted from. 
M. E, anderne, aunderne, aundi7'e. — O. F. 
andier ; mod. F. landier, put for Vandier , 
where t is the def. art. Cf. Late L. ande- 
rius, andena, a fire-dog. 

Anecdote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ^;w- 

dote. — \jdXt. L. anecdota, orig. a neut. pi.— 
Gk. dvettSoTa, neut, pi, of dv€«5oTos, 
unpublished ; hence an unpublished story, 
story in private life. — Gk. dv-, not; (k, 
out ; and Soros, given, allied to SiEcufxi, I 

Anemone, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. dv€- 
IJOJVT], lit. winri-flower. — Gk. due/xos, wind. 

Anent, regarding, with reference to. 

E.) M.E, anent. anentis ; older form 
onefent, where the t is excrescent. A. S. 
anefoi, onefcn, near ; later form onemn. 

— A. S on, on ; efen, ev en, Mence onefn = 
even with, on an equality with. Cf. G. 
nehen, near ( for in eben See Even. 

Aneroid, dry, applied to a barometer 
having no liquid mercury in it. ^Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. d-, not; vrjpd-s, wet; 
(I5-0S, form, kind. 

Aneurysm, a tumour due to dilata- 
tion. (Gk.J Gk. dvfvpvafjLa, a widening. 

— Gk. dv-, for dvd, up; and ivpivnv, to 
widen, from (vpvs, wide. Also aneurism. 

Anew. (E.) yS..¥.of-neive. A.'^.of- 
nioiue. John iii. 7 (Rushworth). From Of 
and New. 

AngeL (F.-L.-Gk.) 0.¥. angele. 

— L. angelia. — Gk. dyyeXo^, a messenger. 
Cf. Gk. dyyapos, a mounted courier, from 



O. Persian. Der. arch-angel, q. v., ev- 
angel-ist, q. v. % The A. S. form was 
engel, directly from L. angelus. 

Anger. (.Scand.) M. E. anger, often 
with the sense of vexation, trouble. — Icel. 
angr, grief; Dan. anger, Swed. anger, re- 
gret. + L. angor, a strangling, anguish. 
(VANGH.) See below. 

Angina, acute pain. (L.) L. angifta, 
quinsy, lit. choking. — L. a;z^^;r, to choke. 

Angle (i), a corner. ',F. — L.) M.E. 
angle. — ¥. angle. — \.. angjclus, an angle. 
Cf. Gk. d7«uAos, bent. 

Angle (2), a hook, fish-hook. (E.) A. S. 
angel, a fish-hook ; dimin, of anga, onga, 
a sting, prickle ; cf. Icel. aJigi, a prickle, 
Gk. dyKvpa, a bent hook, Skt. ahka{s), 
a hook.+Dan. angel \ G. angel, dimin. of 
O. H. G. ango, a prickle, fish-hook. Allied 
to Anchor. Der. angle, verb, to fish. 

Anguish. (F. — L.) M.E. anguisc, 
angoise. — O. F. anguisse ; F. angoisse. — L. 
angustia, narrowness, poverty, perplexity. 

— L. angiistus, narrow. — L. angere, to 
choke. (VANGH.) 

Aniline, a substance which furnishes 
a number of dyes. (F. — Span. — Arab. — 
Pers. — Skt.) Formed, with suffix -ine, from 
anil, a dye-stuff. — F. a«z7. — Span, afiil. 
azure. — Arab. an-Jiil\ for al-nil, where al 
is the def. art., and nil is borrowed from 
Pers. nil, blue, or the indigo-plant. — Skt. 
mla, blue ; JiTli, the indigo-plant. 

Animal. (L.) L. animal, a living crea- 
ture. —L. anima, breath, life. (-^AN.) 

animadvert, to censure. (L.) L. 

anijuadtiertere, to turn the mind to, hence, 
to criticise. — L. anini-, for animus, the 
mind (allied to anima, breath) ; ad, to : 
and ticrtere, to turn (see Vei-se). 

animate. (L.) L. animdtus, pp. of 
animdre, io endue with life. — L. aniina, 
life. Der. iji-animate, re-animate. 

animosity. , F. — L.) F. animosite. 

— L. animositdtem. ace. of animosiids, 
vehemence. — L. animosus, vehement, full 
of mind or courage. — L. animus, mind, 
courage, passion. 

Anise, a herb. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
anese, anys. — Y. anis Cot.). — L. anisiim ; 
also anetlnim. — Gk. duicxov, avqaov, orig. 
dvrjOov, anise. 

Anker, a liquid measure. (Du. — LateL.) 
Du. anker, tlie same. — Late L. anceria, 
the same. + Swed. ankare ; G. anker; from 
the same. 

Ankle. (E.) M.E. ancle; also an- 

cloive. — O. Fries, ankel; also A.S. ancleo7v, 
with a longer suffix (cf. O. Fiies. onklef).-\- 
Dan. and Swed. ankel; Icel. okkla (for 
onkla-^ankiila ; Du. and G. enkel. Per- 
haps allied to Skt. aiiguli, a finger, aiiga, 
a limb. 

Anna, a small coin ; see Ana. 

Annals. (F.— L.) F. annales, pi. sb. 

— L. attndles, pi. adj., for libri annales, 
yearly books, chronicles ; from anndlis, 
yearly. — L. anims, a year. 

Anneal, to temper by heat. ( (i) E.; 
(2j F. — L.) Two distinct words have been 
confused. 1. M. E. anelen, to inflame, 
kindle, heat, melt, burn. A. S. on^lan, to 
burn, kindle; from on, prefix, and tllan, to 
burn. Cf. A. S. ieled, fire. 2. M.E. anelen, 
to enamel glass. — Prefix a- (perhaps -= F". h, 
L. ad) ; and O. F. neeler, nieler, to enamel, 
orig. to paint in black on gold or silver.— 
Late L. nigellare, to blacken. — L. nigelhis, 
blackish ; from niger, black. 

Annex. (F. — L.) F. annexer. — L. an- 
nexus, pp. of atinectere, to knit or bind to. 

— L. an- 'for ad), to ; and nectere, to bind. 
Annihilate. (L.) L. annihildli(S,\)^. 

of annihildre, to reduce to nothing. — L. 
j an- (for ad), to ; and nihil, nothing. 

Anniversary. (L.) For 'anniver- 
sary memorial.' — L. anniuersdriiis, re- 
turning yearly. — L. an^ti- ffrom anno-), 
from annus, a year : and ucrsus, pp. of 
uertere, to turn (^ee Verse). 

Annotate, to make notes on. (L.) 
From pp. of L. annotdre, to make notes 
on. — L. an- (for ad), to, on; notdre, to 
mark, from nota, a mark. See Note. 

Announce. (F. — L. ) F. annoncer. — 
L. annuntidre, to announce. — L. an- ( = 
ad), to; mmtidre, to bring tidings, from 
nuniius, a messenger. See Nuncio. 

Annoy, to vex. (F\ — L.) M. E. anoien, 
anuien. — O. F. anoier, anuier, to annoy. — 
O. F. anoi, anui (F. ennui), vexation. Cf. 
Span, enojo. O. Venetian inodio, vexation. 

— L. in odio, lit. in hatred, common in the 
Late L. phr. in odio hahui, lit. I had in 
hatred, I was annoyed with ; cf. L. in odio 
esse, to be hated by (Cicero). — L. in, in; 
odio, abl. oi odium, hatred. 

Annual, yearly. (F. — L.") M. E. an- 
nuel. — F. a7tmiel. — L. anjiudlis, yearly. — 
L. anmis, a year. 

annuity. (A. F. — L.) KY.annuite; 
A. D. 1304. — Late L. annuitdfem, ace. of 
annuitds. — \.. annus, a year. 

Annul. (L.) L. annulldre, to bring to 



nothing. — L. an- (for ad), to ,• mtlhis, no 
one ; see Null. 

Annular, like a ring. (L.) L, annu- 
laris, adj. ; irom annulus, a ring, earlier 
spelling dniilus ; dimin. of L. dm(s, a 
rounding, a circular form (Lewis). 

Anodyne, a drug to allay pain. (L. — 
Gk.) XVI cent. Late L. anodynus, a 
drug relieving pain. — Gk. ovu)hvvo%^ free 
from pain. — Gk. dv-, not ; and uduvr], 

Anoint. (F. — L.) M.E. anoint, used 
as a pp. = anointed. — O. F. enoint, pp. of 
enoindre, to anoint. — O. F. en, upon; 
oindre, to smear. — L. m, upon; ungere, 
to anoint. See Unguent. 

Anomaly. (Gk.) Gk. avciJixa^.ia, de- 
viation from rule. — Gk. dvw/.iaKos, uneven. 

— Gk. dv-, not ; and ofxaXus, even, related 
to ufios, one and the same. 

Anon, immediately. (E.) M. E. anon, 
anoon ; also onan. A. S. on an, lit. ' in 
one moment.' — A. S. on, on, in ; an, one. 

Anonymous, nameless. (Gk.) Gk. 
dvwvvyL-o'i, nameless; with -ous added.— 
Gk. dv-, neg. prefix ; and ovo/xa, name. 

Another. (E.) For an otlier, one 

Answer, to reply. (E.) A. S. and 
swerian, andszvarian, to answer, speak in 
reply; a weak verb. —A. S. andswaru, a 
reply. — A. S. and-, against, in reply ; 
swerian, to speak, to swear. The A. S. 
and' = G. ant- (in ant-worten) — Gk. dv-ri ; 
see Anti- and Swear. 

Ant. (E.) M. E. amte, short for ameie. 
A. S. mnette, an emmet, ant. Doublet, 
eiJimct, q. v. 

Antagonist, an opponent. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. antagdnista.'-'QV. dvTayojviaTT]S, 
an opponent. — Gk. dvr-, for avri, against ; 
and dyoov'K^oiuai, I struggle, from dyuiu, a 
eontest. (VAG.^ 

Antarctic. (L. — Gk,^ 'L. antardicus. 

— Gk. dvTapKTiKos, southern, opposite to 
arctic- Gk. dr/r-, for avri, opposite to; 
and dpKTLKos. arctic. See Arctic. 

Ante-, prefix, before. (L.) L. ajite, 
before. Allied to Anti-, q. v. 

Antecedent. (L.) L. antecedent-, 
stem of ]5res. pait. of antecedere, to go 
before, — L ante, before; cedere, to go. 

Antediluvian, before the flood. (L.) 
L. ante, before ; dihnnum. deluge, a 
washing away. — L. dilnere, to wash 
away. — L. dl-, apart ; luere, to wash. 

Antelope. (F.-L. — Gk.) In Spenser, 

F. Q. i. 6. 26.-0. F. antelop.-.\.^\.Q L. 
ajttalopus.-''La\.Q Gk. dvQoKoir-, the stem 
of dvBuKoxl/, used by Eustathius of Antioch 
to signify some uncertain quadruped. Of 
unknown origin. 

Antennae, feelers of insects. I L.) L. 
a^itennce, pi. ot antenna, properly the yard 
of a sail. 

Antepenultima, the Last syllable but 
two in a word. (L.) L. ante, before; 
panultivia, fem. adj., last but one, from 
pcen-e, almost, ultima, last. 

Anterior. (L. ) L. anterior, former, 
more in front, compar. adj. from ante, 

Anthem. (L. — Gk.) Formerly antem. 
A. S. antefn.'^'La.X.e L. antiphona, an an- 
them. — Gk. dvTicpoji'a, considered as fem. 
sing., but really neut. pi. of dvTi(f>avos, 
sounding in response to ; from the alternate 
singing of the half-choirs. — Gk. dvri, over 
against ; (pcuv-q, voice, sound. 

Anther, the summit of the stamen of 
a flower. (Gk.) From Gk. dvO-qpus, bloom- 
ing. — Gk. dvOeiv, to bloom ; dvOos, a young 
bud or sprout. 

anthology, a collection of choice 
poims. (Gk.j Lit. a collection of flowers. 

— Gk. dv6o\oyia, a gathering of flowers.— 
Gk. apdoXoyo?, flower-gathering. — Gk. 
dvOo-, for dvOos, a flower ; and Xeyfiv, to 

Anthracite, a kind of hard coal. 
(Gk.) Gk. dvOpaKiT-q^, resembling coals. 

— Gk. dvOpaK-, stem of dvOpa^, coal. 
Anthropophagi, caimil als. (Gk.' 

Lit. ' men-eaters.' — Gk. dv9pwno(pdyos, 
man-eating. — Gk. dvOpajwos, a man; and 
(pay^iv, to eat. (>y^BHAGw ; Brugm. i. 
§ 641.^ 

Anti-, Ant-, prejix, against. (Gk.) 
Gk. dvTi, against ; allied to L. ante, 
before. Cf. Skt. a}iti, over against, allied 
to ajita, end ; see End. % In anti-cipate, 
the prefix is for L. ante. 

Antic, fanciful, odd ; as sb. a trick. 
(Ital. -L.) Orig. an adj. Adopted in 
the XVI cent, from Ital. antico, with the 
sense of ' grotesque ' ; lit. antique, old. — 
L. antlquus, old. See Antique. 

Antichrist. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

Antecrist. — 'L. Antichnstus (Vulgate). 

— Gk. dvTixpi(TTOs (i John ii. 18). — Gk. 
dvTJ, against ; xp'^^'^^^j Christ. 

Anticipate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
anticipdre, to take beforehand.- L. anti-, 
before ; and capere, to take. 



A-nticlimax. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antidote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. anti- 
dote. — L. antidottim, a remedy. — Gk. uvri- 
doTov, a remedy ; a thing given as a 
remedy. — Gk. uvti, against; doruv, neut. 
of doTus, gi^en, from di5cjfj.i, I give. 

Antimony, a metal. (Late L.) Late 
L. antimonitan. (XI cent.) Origin un- 

Antipathy. (Gk.) From Gk. avn-na- 
e^ia, antipathy, lit. ' a suffering (feeling 
strongly) against.' — Gk. avri, against ; 
vaOfTv, to suffer. See Pathos. 

Antiphon. (L. — Gk.) Late L. ««//- 
phona, an anthem ; see Anthem. 

Antiphrasis. (Gk.) See Antl- and 

Antipodes. (Gk.) Gk. d?/r/7roSes,pl., 
men with feet opposite to ours, from nom. 
sing. avTiTTovs. — Gk. avri^ opposite to ; and 
TToC?. foot, cognate with Foot. 

Antique, old. (F.-L.) ¥. antique." 
L. antiqiius, also antuiis, formed with 
suffix -Tens from atite, before ; as posticus is 
from post, behind. Doublet, antic. 

Antiseptic, counteracting putrefac- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. avTi, against ; and 
(TrjiTTiKos, putrefying, otjitt-os, rotten, from 
<jr]TTeiv, to rot. 

Antistrophe. (Gk.) From Anti- 
and Strophe. 

Antithesis. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antitype. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antler. (F.) M. E. auntekre, for 
auntolier (?). - O. F. antoillier, said to 
have been once in use (Littre;. In this 
case the O. F. word is supposed to be 
equivalent to a Late L. "^antoculdrefii, ace, 
i. e. the branch (of the horn) in front of 
I he eyes; cf. G. aztgen-sprosse, a brow- 
antler {lit. eye-sprout). See Romania, iv. 
349. From ante, before, and ocztlus, the 

Anus, the lower orifice of the bowels. 
(L.) L. anus. 

Anvil. (E.^ 'W.Y.. anvelt.anfeld,an' 
felt. A. S. anjilte, onjilti. — K.'S. an, on, 
on, upon: and a verb '^ficltan (see below), 
causal of *fealtan, to infix, redupl. verb 
cognate with O. H. G. *fahan, M. H. G. 
vahen, whence G.falz, a groove. ^ Some 
derive it from on and fealdan, to fold ; 
however, the O. H. G. anafalz, an anvil, 
is not derived from ana^ on, z.i\A faldan. 


to fold up, but from M.H.G. vahen, as 
above. Cf. L. incils, an anvil, from /«, 
on, and cfidere, to strike ; and note the 
A. S. gloss: ' Cudo, percutio, anfilte ;' 
Voc. 217. 5. 

Anxious. (L.) L. anxi-us, distressed ; 
with suffix -ous. — L. angere, to choke, 

Any. (E.) A. S. cenig, any; from an, 
one, with suffix -ig (E. -y). + Du. eenig, 
from een, one; G. eijtiger, from eiu, one. 
See One. 

Aorta. (L.-Gk.) Late L. aorta.— 
Gk. dopTT}, the great artery 'rising' from 
the heart— Gk. ddpeoOai, to rise up; 
ddpeiv, to raise. 

Apace. (E. ajtd F.) For a pace, i. e. 
at a (good) pace ; where a is put for 
ott (cf. a-foot) ; see A- (2). Pace, M. E. 
pas, is from F. pas (L. passus). See 

Apart, aside. (F.-L.) F. d part, 
apart, alone, singly; Cot. — L. ad partem ^ 
lit. to the one part or side, apart. — L. ad, 
to ; partem, ace. oi pars, a part. 

apartment, a separate room. (F.— 
Ital. — L.) V (ippariement. — Ital. appar- 
tamento,2Si apartment, a partition, lit. sepa- 
ration. — Ital. appartare, to separate. — 
Ital. a parte, apart. — L. ad partem; see 

Apathy. (Gk.) From Gk. dTra^em, 
want of teeling. — Gk. d-, not ; -naQdlv, to 
suffer. See Pathos. 

Ape. (E.) M. E. ape ; A. S. a/a.+Du. 
aap ; Icel. api ; Swed. apa ; G. affe \ 
Irish apa (from E.) ; O. Bohem. op. 

Aperient. (L.) XVII cent. Lit. 

' opening,'— L. aperient-, stem of pres. pt. 
of aperire, to open. Perhaps from ap-, old 
form of ab, from, away, and -uer- = L,\ih. 
zver- in zverti, to move (to and fro), 
whence Lith. at-ivcrti, to open. Brugm. 
i. § 36 T. 

Apex. (L ) L. apex, summit. 

Aph-, prefix. (Gk.; See Apo-. 

Aphseresis, the taking away of a 
letter or syllable from the beginning of 
a word. (L.-Gk.) 'L.^X^'L,. aphciresis.— 
Gk. dipaipeais, a taking away. — Gk d(/)-, for 
dnu, away; a'lpeai^, a taking, from aipeiv, 
to take. See Heresy. 

Aphelion, the point in a planet's orbit 
farthest from the sun. (Gk.) Coined from 
Gk. d(p-, for dm'i, from ; ijXios, the sun. 

Aphorism, a definition. (Gk.) Gk. 
dcpopia pos , a definition. — Gk. dfopi^eiv, to 


define, limit. — Gk. dtp-, for dno, off; 
vpi(fn', to limit, from upos. a boundary. 

Apiary, a place for hee>. (L.) L. a/t- 
nriu))i, neut. of apidrhis, belonging to 
bees. — L. api-, stem of apis, a bee. 

Apiece. (E. and F.) Orig. (at so 
much) a piece, where a is the indef. article. 

Ii.VO-^ pf^Jix, o{i. (Gk.) Gk. (ZTTo, off, 
from ; cognate with E. of, off; see Of. It 
becomes aph- before an aspirate. 

Apocalypse. (L.-Gk.) M.'E. apo- 
calips i^Wyclif). — L. apocalypiis. — Gk. 
diroKd\v\pis, a revelation. — Gk. diTOKa\vn- 
T€iv, to uncover, reveal. — Gk. dno, off; 
and KaXvTTTeiv, to cover. Cf. KaXid, a cot. 

Apocope. (L. — Gk.) L. apocope. — Gk. 
aTTOKOTTT;, a cutting off (of a letter). — 
Gk. d-no, off ; and Kuirrdv, to hew, cut. 

Apocrypha. (Gk.) Lit. ' hidden 
things ; ' hence, uncanonical books of the 
Old Testament. — Gk. diroKpvcpa, neut. pi. 
of dn6Kpv(pos, hidden. — Gk. dnoKpvnTfiv, 
to hide away. — Gk. dno, from, away; 
KpvTTTeiv, to hide. 

Apogee, the point of the moon's orbit 
furthest from the earth. (F. — L. — Gk ' F. 
apogie (Cot.). — L. apogceuni. — Gk. di^o- 
yaiov, neut. of duoyaios, away from earth. 
— Gk. dno, away from ; 7^, earth. 

Apologue, a fable, story. (F.- L.- 
Gk.) F. apologue. — L. apologus. - Gk. 
d7roAo7oy, a fable. — Gk. (xtto, off; A670S, 
speech, from Xk-^uv, to say. 

apology, a defence. (L. — Gk.) L. 
apologia. — Gk. d-noXoy'ia^ a speech made in 
defence. — Gk. aTro, off; A070S, a speech 

Apophthegm, Apothegm. (Gk.) 

Gk. dnotpOeypa, a thing uttered, a terse 
saying. — Gk. dwo, off, out ; and (pOeyyop-ai, 
I cry aloud, utter. 

Apoplexy. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
apoplejcie. — Late L. apoplexia. — QV. duo- 
irXrj^ia, stupor, apoplexy. — Gk. dnonXricr- 
c(iv, to cripple by a stroke. — Gk. aTro, off; 
■nX-qaoiLV, to strike. 

Apostasy. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) ¥. 
aposlasie. — Late L. apostasia.^GY. d-no- 
oraaia, late form for dnuOTaai^, revolt, lit. 
* a standing away from.' — Gk. dnv, off, 
away ; ordais. a standing, from ara-, 
base allied to idrrjpn, I place. Cf. Statics. 
apostate, (l ate L. — Gk.) M. E. 
apostata. — Late L. apostata.^QV. d-no- 
ordriji, a deserter, apostate. — Gk. diro, off ; 
CTaTTji, standing, from ara- (see above). 

Apostle. (L. — Gk.) A. S. aposlol." 


h. apostolus. — Gk. aTTocTToXo?, one who is 
sent off. — Gk. dno, off; atiXXnv, to send. 
Apostrophe. (L. — Gk.) ^ L. apo- 
strophe. — Cik. dnoarpoipT], a turning away ; 
in rhetoric, a turning away to address 
some one else. — Gk. dnu, away ; arpecpfiv, 
to turn. ^ In the sense of a mark used to 
denote an omission, it should be apostroph 
(L. apostrophtis, Gk. dnoaTpufpos). 

Apothecary. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) 
M. E. apotecary, potecary. — O. F. apote- L. apothecdrius, lit. a store- 
keeper. —Late L. apotheca, a store-house 
(esp. for drugs). — Gk. dnoO-qKi], a store- 
house. —Gk. dno, away ; ri-d-q-pi, I put. 

Apotheosis, deification. (L. — Gk.^ 
L. apotheosis. — Gk. dnodiwcns, deification. 

— Gk. diToOtooj, I deify, set aside as a god. 

— Gk. dno, away, fully ; Qeos, a god. 
Appal, to terrify. (F. -L.) The present 

sense is late ; the M. E. apalled meant 
* rendered pale ' ; cf. Chaucer, C T., 10679 
(F 365^.-0. F. apallir, apalir, appalir, 
to wax pale, also to make pale (Cot.).— 
O. F. a-, prefix; O. F. pale, pallc, pale. — 
L. ad, to ; pallidtcs, pale. Cf. Pale. 

Appanage, Apanage, provision for 

a dependent, &c. (F. — L.) 0.¥. apanage 
ialso appanage), properly, a provision for 
maintenance. —6. F. apaner, lit. to supply 
with bread (Late L. appdfidre).'~'L. ap- 
(for ad , to, for ; pdn-is, biead. 

Apparatus, gear. (L.; L. apparatus. 
preparation. — L. apparatus, pp. of appa- 
rdre, to prepare for. — L. ad, for ; pardre, 
to get ready. 

Apparel, to clothe. (F.-L.) M.E. 
aparailen. — O. F. apareiller, to dress, 
apparel. — O. F. a, to ; pareillcr. parailler, 
to assort, put like things with like, to 
arrange, from pareil, like, similar. — L. 
ad, to ; Med. L. pariculus (Ducange 
has paricla, paricula\ similar, fiom L. 
pari-, stem oipar, equal. Cf. Par. Der. 
apparel, s. 

Apparition. ^F.-L.) Y . apparition. 

— L. ace. appdritionem. — h. appdrere, to 
appear. See Appear. 

apparitor, an officer who attends 
magistrates to execute their orders ; an 
officer who serves the process of a spiritual 
court. (L.) L. apparitor, an attendant, 
lictor. — L. appdrere, to appear as attend- 
ant, wait on. See Appear. 
Appeal, V. (F.-L.) M. E. apelen. - 
O. F. apeler, to call.-L. appelldre, to 
address, call upon, speak to ; Irom L. ap- 


(for acT)^ to ; and *pelld)-e, to speak, allied 

to A. S. spell, a tale. 

Appear, to become visible. (F. — L. 

M. E. aperen. — O. F. aper-, tonic stem (as 
in pres. subj. apere) of O. F. apareir, 
aparoir, to appear. — L. appdrere. — L. ap- 
(for ad), to, forth ; pdrere, to come in 
sight, aho spdt pa7'rere. Cf. Apparition. 

Appease. (F. — L.) M. E. apesen, 
apaisen. — A. F. apeser, apeiser, O. F. 
apescr Y. apaiser), to bring to a peace.— 
O.F. a pels, a pais, to a peace. —L. ad 
pdcem, to a peace. See Peace. 

Appellant. (F. -L.) F. appellant, 
pres. pt. of appeller, O. F. apeler, to 
appeal ; see Appeal. 

Append, to attach. (F. — L.) Formerly 
also iVI. E. apenden, to pertain to. — O. F. 
apendre, to depend on. — L. appendere, for 
L. appendere, to hang to or upon. — L. ap- 
(for ad), to ; pendere, to hang. 

appendix, an addition. (L.) L. 
appendix. "Y., appendere, to suspend upon. 
— L. ap- (for ad), to ; pendere, to weigh. 

Appertain. (F. -L.) M. E. aper- 
tenen.—O F. apartenir (F. appartenir), 
to belong to. — L. <z/- (for ct/), to ; per- 
tinere, to belong. See Pertain. 

Appetite. :F.-L.) 0.¥. appetit.- 
L. appetitus, an appetite ; lit. ' assault 
upon.' — L. appetere, to attack. — L. a/- ^for 
ad), to ; petcre, to seek, attack. 

Applaud. (L.) L. applandere, to 
applaud. — L. «/- (for ad), at ; plaiidere, to 
applaud, clap (hands). Der, applause, 
from pp. applaiisiis. 

Apple. (F.) 'Si.Y.. appel. K.'^.ceppel, 
(Bpl.'\-Y)\x. appel; Icel. epli\ Swed. dple \ 
Dan. alfle ; G.ap/el; Insh a /dial; Gael. 
ubhal; W. ^z/a:/ ; Russ. iabloko; Lithuan. 
obolys. Origin unknown. Some connect 
it with Abella in Campania ; cf. Verg. 
/En. vii. 740. 

Apply. (F.-L.) yi.^.aplyen.^O.Y. 
aplier.'-l^. applicdre, to join to, turn or 
apply to. — L. ap- ; for ad), to ; plicdre, to 
fold, twine. Der. appli-ance ; also appli- 
cation (F. application^. 

Appoggiatura, a grace-note or passing 
tone prefixed, as a support, to an essential 
note of a melody. (^Ital. — L. and GV.^^ 
Ital. appoggiatura, lit. a support. — Ital. 
appoggiare, to lean upon, — Ital. ap- (for 
ad), to, upon ; poggio, a place to stand or 
lean on, &c. — L. ad, to; podium, an ele- 
vated place, a balcony, from Gk. -nubiov. 
See Pe"w. 


Appoint. (F.-L.) I.I.Y.. apoijiten." 
O. F. apointer, to prepare, arrange, settle. 

— Late L. appunctdre, to repair, appoint, 
settle a dispute ; Ducange. — \..ap- (for ad)\ 
Late L. punctdre, to mark by a point, from 
Late L. puncta, a prick, fem. of ptmctus^ 
pp. ; see Point. Der. disappoint. 

Apportion. (F.-L.) F. apporlioner, 
to portion out to. — F. ap- (put for a before 
/, in imitation of L. ap- = ad , to ; portion, 
a portion ; see Portion. 

Appose. (F. - L.) F. apposer ; formed 
to represent L. apporiere, on the analogy of 
composer, exposer, and other presumed re- 
presentatives of compounds of L. ponere ; 
but really formed on F. poser (Irom L. 
pausdre). See Pose. 

Apposite. (L.) L. appositus, suitable ; 
pp. of apponere, to put near. — L. ap- (for 
ad), to; poftere, to put. See Position. 

Appraise. (F.-L.) M.E. apraisen, 
to value. — O. Y. ^apreiser (cf. O. F. apre- 
tier in Roquefort). — O. F. a-, prefix ; 
Preiser, to value, ixom. p7'eis, value, price. 

— L. ad, at ; pretitim, a price. 
appreciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

appretidre, to value at a price. — L. ap- 
(for ad , TiX; pretium, a price. 

Apprehend. (F. — L.) Y . apprehendre 
(Cot.). — L. apprehendere, orig. to lay hold 
of. — L. ap- (for ad), to. 2X\ prehendere, 
to grasp. See Prahensile. 

apprentice. F.-L.) O.Y.aprentiSy 
nf)m. of aprentif (see Godefroy, s. v. 
aprentic). The O. F. aprentis, aprentif, 
represent Late L. ^ app7-enditTvus , nom., 
and *apprenditwum, ace, from a Late L. 
'^apprenditiis, used as a pp. of L. 
apprendcre, to learn, short for L. appre- 
hendere, to lay hold of (above \ 

apprise, to inform. (F.-L.) From 
the M. E. sb. aprise, information, teach- 
ing. — O. F. aprise, instruction. — O. F. 
appris, apris, pp. oi aprendre, to learn.— 
L. apprendere (above). 

Approach. (F. — L.) yi.Y.,approchen, 
aprochen. — O. F. api'ochier, to approach. — 
L. appropidre, to draw near to (^Exod. iii. 
5). — L. ap- (for ad), to ; prope, rear. 

Approbation. (F.-L.) Y. approba- 
tion. — L. ace. appi'obationem, approval. — 
L. approbdtus, pp. oiapprobdre, to approve. 
See Approve. 

Appropriate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
appropridre, to make one's own. — L. «/- 
'for ad), to; propj'ius, one's own. See 



Approve. ( F. - L.) O. F. approver. - 
L. approhdi-e, to api-rove. — L. ap- Sox ad . 
to; probare, to test, try, esteem as good. 
Der. approval ; dis-approve. 

Approximate. ^L) From pp. of L. 

approxifudre, to draw near to. — L. ap- 
I for ad), to ; proximiis, very near, superl. 
adj. from prope, nenr. 

Appurtenance. (F.-L.) A.Y.apur- 
ieiiamice (O F apartcnance), that which 
belongs to. — O. Y. apartcnir, to belong to. 
See Appertain. 

Apricot. (F.-Port. — Arab. — Gk. — 
L.) Formerly also apricock, from Port. 
albricoqtie directly. Also abricot. — F. 
abricot, ' the abricot, or apricock plum ; ' 
Cot. — Port, albricoqtie. — Arab, al barqiiq, 
where ol is the def. art. — Mid. Gk. irpaiKu- 
Kiov (Dioscorides) ; pi. vpamoKia. The 
pi. vpaiKOKia was borrowed from L. /n?- 
coqua, apricots, neut. pi. of prcecoqutis, 
another form of pra^cox^ precocious, early 
ripe (Pliny; Martial, 13. 46). — L. pne, 
beforehand ; and coqtiere, to cook, ripen. 
See Precocious and Cook. ^ Thus the 
word reached us in a very indirect manner. 

April. (L.) L. Aprilis ; said to be so 
named because the earth then opens to 
produce new fruit. — L. aperire, to open ; 
see Aperient. 

Apron. (F. — L.") Formerly napron.'^ 
O. h . naperon, a large cloth ; augmentative 
form of O. F. nape, a cloth (F. nappe). •- 
L. niappa, a napkin, cloth (with change of 
in to n, as in F. naite, a mat). See 

Apse. (L. — Gk.) Now used of a recess 
at the end of a church ; formerly apse, 
apsis, a turning-point of a planet's orbit. — 
L. apsis, pi. apsides, a bow, turn. — Gk. 
axpis, a tying, fastening, felloe of a wheel, 
curve, bow, arch. — Gk. aTrrefi/, to tie, bind. 

Apt, fit. (L.) XIV cent. L. aptus, 
used as pp. of apisci, to reach, get, but 
really pp. of O. Lat. apere, to fit or join 

Aq.1iatic. (L.) L. aqudticus, pertain- 
ing to water. — L. aqua, water. 

aq_ua-fortiS. — L. aqua fortis, strong 

aquarium. — L. aquarium, a water- 
vessel. — L. aqua, water. 

aquarius. — L. aqudrius, a water- 
bearer. — L. aqua, water. 

ac(_ueduct. — L. aqiKzductus, a con- 
duit ; from aqua, gen. of w^im, water, and 
ductus, a duct ; see Duct. 

aqueous. As if from L. *aqiieus, adj., 
a form not used. — L. aqtia, water. 

Aquiline, like an engle. (F.— L.) F. 
aquilin ; hence nez aquilin, ' a nose like 
an eagle;' Qo\..^Y. aquiliJius, adj. from 
aquila, an eagle. Cf JEagle. 

Arabesque. F.-Ital.-Arab.) XVII 

cent. F. .irabesquc, Arabian like ; also 
full of flourishes, Pke fine Arabian work. 

— Ital. Arabesco \ where -esco ^Y. -ish." 
Arab. ' arab, Arabia. 

Arable. (F. - L.) F. arable. - L. 
ardbilis, that can be ploughed. — L. arare, 
to plough. (-y/AR.) See Ear (3"). 

Arbiter. (L.) In Milton. — L. arbiter, 
a witness, judge, umpire. 

arbitrary. (L.) In Milton. - L. 
arbitrdrius, orig. like the decision of an 
umpire. — L. arbitrdre, to act as umpire. 

— L. arbiter (above). 

arbitrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

arbitrdre, to act as umpire (above). 

Arboreous, belonging to trees. (L.) 
L. arbore-us, adj. from arbor, a tree ; with 
suffix -ons. 

Arbour, a bower. (F. — L.) The word 
seems to be really due to M. E. herbere, 
also erbere, from O. F. herbier, L. her- 
bdrium, a herb-garrien, also an orchard.— 
L. herba, grass, herb. The special sense 
was due to confusion with L. arbor, a 

Arc. (F. - L.) XIV cent. F. arc. - 
L. arcuvi, ace. oiarcus, a bow, arch, arc. 
arcade. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. arcade. 

— Ital. areata, an arched place; fem. of 
pp. oi arc are, to arch. — Ital. arco, a bow, 

— L. ace. aixuni (above). 

Arcana. (L.) L. arcana, things kept 
secret, secrets. — L. arcere, to keep. 

Arch (i), a vault, &c. (F. -L.) O. F. 
arche, a chest, box (L. area, see Ark) ; 
also, by confusion, an arch, owing to the 
use of Med. Lat. area with the sense of 
L. arcus, a bow, arch. See Arc. 

Arch (2), roguish, waggish. (L. — Gk.) 
^ ^Q arch a leer;' Tatler, no. 193. The 
examples in the New E. Dictionary prove 
that it is nothing but the prefix Arch-, 
chief (for which see below , used separately 
and peculiarly. Cf. ' The most arch act ' 
in Shak. Rich. III. iv. 3. 2 ; 'An heretic, 
an arch one;' Hen. \TII. iii. 2. 102. 
Also ' Byends ... a very arch fellow, a 
downright hypocrite' ; Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress. A. S. arce-, O. F. arche-, L. 
archi-, Gk. apx*" (prefix). See below. 




Arch-, prefix, chief. (L.-Gk.) The 
form arch- is due to A. S. arce-, as in arce- 
bisceop, an archbishop, and to O. F. arche-, 
as in arche-diacre, an archdeacon. This 
form was borrowed from L. archi- = Gk. 
apx<--i as in dpx'-^''''''<''''07ro?, an archbishop. 

— Gk. apx^t-v, to be first, to rule ; cf. Gk. 
apxn, beginning. Der. arch-bishop, arch- 
deacon, &c. ; but, in arch-angel, the ch 
remained hard (as k in the Romance 
languages, on account of the following a. 
Cf. Ital. arcangelo, Span, arcangel. 

archaeology. .Gk.) Gk. apx^-ioXo-ila. 

— Gk. apxo^^os, ancient, which is from 
a-pxh^ the beginning ; and the suffix -logy, 
Gk. -Xoyla, due to \6yos, discourse, from 
\(y€iv, to speak. 

archaic. (Gk.) Gk. dpxai k us, a.ntiqne, 
primitive. — Gk. dpxaios, old. — Gk. dpxr], 
a beginning. 

archaism. (Gk.) Gk. dpxacapos, an 
antiquated phrase. — Gk. dpxaiC^iv, to 
speak antiquatedly. — Gk. dpxai^os, old 

Archer. (F.-L.) M. E. archer. ~ 
A.P\ archer; O. F. archier, a bow-man. 

— Late L. arcdrius, a bow-man ; from 
arctis, a bow. 

Archetype, the original type. (F. - 
L. — Gk.) F. archetype, *a principall 
type ; ' Cot. — L. archetypuvi, the original 
pattern. — Gk. dpxf^Tvirov, a model; neut. 
of upxirviTos, stamped as a model. — Gk. 
apxi- =^ dpxi-- , prefix (see Archi-) ; rvvos, 
a type. 

Archi-, prefix, chief. (L. — Gk.) L. 
archi-. for Gk. apx'' 5 see Arch-. 

archimandrite. (L.-Gk.) l^.archi- 

viandrTta, a chief or principal of monks, 
an abbot. — Late Gk. dpxH^avSpiTr^s, the 
same. — Gk. dpxi-; chief; fmvSpa, an en- 
closure, fold, afterwards a monastery. See 

archipelago, chief sea, i. e. Aegean 
sea. (Ital. — Gk.) Ital. arcipelago, Tnodifi(:^d 
to archipelago. — Gk. dpxi-, chief; and 
TT€\ayos, sea. 

architect. (F.-L. — Gk. ) F. archi- 
/ecle. — L,. architecttis, the same as archi- 
tecf on. — Gk. dpxirinTwv, a chief builder 
or artificer. — Gk. "px^-, chief (see Archi-) ; 
reKTdJV, a carpenter, builder. 

architrave. (F.-ital- L. and Gk.) 

In Milton. — F. ajrhil/ ave. — Ital. archi- 
trave, the part of an entablature resting 
immediately on the column. A barbarous 
compound ; from Gk. dpxi-% prefix, chief, 

principal, and Lat. trabem, ace. of trabs, 
a beam. See Trave. 

Archives, s. pi., public records ; but 
properly an archive is a place where re- 
cords are kept. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. ar- 
chif, pi. archives; Cot. — L. archmiuu, 
archnun. — Gk. apx^iov, a public building, 
residence of magistrates. — Gk. dpxh, a 
beginning, a magistracy. 

Arctic. (F.- L.-Gk.) M.E.dtr/z'y^.- 
O. F. artique; F. antique. ■^\.. arcticus. 

— Gk. dpKTiKus, near the constellation of 
the Bear, northern. — Gk. dpKTos, a bear. 
Cognate with L. urstis ; see Ursine. 
Der. ant-arctic. 

Ardent. (F.-L.) XIV cent. M.E. 
ardaunt. — O. F. ardant , pres. part, of 
ardre, to burn. — L. ardent-em, ace. of 
pres. pt. oiardere, to burn. 

ardour. ( F. — L.) O.F. ardour, ardor, 
heat. — L. ardorem. ace. of ardor, a burn- 
ing, fervour. — L. ardere, to burn. 

Arduous. (L.) L. ardu-tis, steep, 
difficult, high; with suffix -^wi-.-|- Irish aj'd, 
high ; Gk. 6p96s, upright. 

Are, pres. pi. of the verb substantive. 
(E.) O. Northumbrian atvn, O. Merc. 
earun, as distinguished from A. S.(Wessex) 
sint, sind,sindon. Cf. Icel. er-u, they are. 
From the Idg. V^S, to be ; from whence 
also are Skt. s-anti, Gk. ^Xo-'iv, L. s-unt, 
G. s-ind, Icel. e7'-u (for *<?5-z<), they are. 

am. O. Northumb. am, O. Merc, eam, 
A. S. eoJH.-J^^kt. as-mi, Gk. ^l-p^i, Goth. 
i-m, Icel. e-j7i ; &c. 

art. O. Northumb. arQ , O. Merc. <?ar5 ; 
A.S. eart (with / due to -/ in sceal-t, shalt, 
&c.). Icel. est, ert. 

is. A. S. is -J-Icel. es, later er. Cf. also 
Goth, and G. is-t, Skt. as-ti, Gk. ka-r'i., L. 
es-t. See also Be, "Was. 

Area. (L.) XVI cent. L. area, an 
open space. 

Areca, a genus of palms. (Port.— 
Canarese.) Port, a/rra. — Canarese rt;d?^z, 
adike, areca-nut ; r being substituted for 
the cerebral d {W. H. Wilson). Accented 
on the first syllable. 

Arefaction ; see Arid (below). 

Arena. (L.) L. arena, sand ; the 
sanded space in which gladiators fought. 
Orig. harena ; cf. '^2Lhvi\Q fasena, sand. 

Argent. (F. — L.) White; in heraldry. 

— F. argent. "1-.. argentutn, silver; from 
its brightness Cf. Gk. dpyvpos, silver, 
Skt. arjuna{s), white. (y'ARG, to shine.) 
Brugm. i. §§ 529, 604. See below. 




Argillaceous, clayey. (L.) L. ar- 
gilldceus, adj from argilia, clay, esp. 
white clay. Cf. Gk. ap-yus, white. 

Argonaut. (L. — Gk.) 'L.. argonaut a. 

— Gk. ap^QvavTT]';^ one who sailed in the 
ship Argo. — Gk. dp7w, the name of Jason's 
ship (lit. swift, from 0^70?, swift) ; and 
vavT-qs, a sailor ; see NauticaL 

Argosy, a merchant-vessel. (Dalma- 
tian.) Formerly spelt arguze and ragusy 
(see N. and Q. 6 S. iv. 490 ; Arber's Eng. 
Garner, ii. 67). The orig. sense was ' a 
ship of Ragusa,' which is the name of a 
port in Dahnatia. Ragusa appears in 
XVI cent. E. as Aragouse. 

Argue. (F- — L.) M. E. arguen. ~ 
O. E, argue?'. ^'Laie L. arguiare (L. ar- 
gutari), Irequent. of argiiere, to prove by 
argument, lit. to make clear; cf. argilius, 

Arid, dry. (L.) XVII cent, l^.dridtts, 
dry. — L. drere, to be dry. 

arefaction. (L.) XVI cent. Coined 
from L. drefaccre,\.o make dry. — L. ^r^-;r, 
to be dry ; aw(S.facere, to make. 

Aright. (E.) For on right, in the right 

Aj^ise. (E.) M. E. arisen. A. S. 
drJsan. — A. S. a-, prefix; risan, to rise. 
See Rise. 

Aristocracy. (Gk.) Modified from 
Gk. dpioTOKparia, government by the 
nobles or 'best' men. — Gk. dpioro-, for 
dpiaTos, best ; and Kpaniv, to be strong, 
govern, from Kparvs, strong. The form 
dp-LGTos is a superlative from the base 
dp- seen in dp-er^y. excellence. Der. aristo- 
cratic ; whence aristocrat, for ' aristocratic 

Arithmetic. (F.-L.-Gk.) In Sh 

— F. arithmetique ; Cot. — L. arithmetica. 

— Gk. dpiOixrjTiKr], the science of numbers; 
fem. of dpLOfxrjTLKus, adj., from dpi9ij.i-fiv, 
to number. — Gk. dpiOpivs, number, reckon- 

Ark, a chest, box ; hence a large float- 
ing vessel. (L.) A. S. arc.-^L. area, a 
chest, box ; cf. L. arcere, to keep. 

Arm (i), part of the body. (E.) M.E. 
arm. A S. ear77i.-{-T)\\. arm ; Icel. ai'f/ir; 
Dan., Swcd., and G. arm\ Goth, arms; 
L. armus, the shoulder ; Russ. ravio, 
shoulder. See Brugm. i. § 524. 

Arm. (2), to furnish with weapons. (F. 

— L.) F. ariner. — L. ar7?idre, to fur- 
nish with arms. — L arma, arms. 

armada, a fleet. (Span.-L.) Span. 

armada, an armed fleet ; fem. of armado, 
pp. of armar, to aim. — L. anndre, to arm 
(above). Doublet, army. 

armadillo, an animal. (Span. — L.'; 
Span, armadillo , lit 'the little armed one,' 
because of its haul shell. Dimin. of ar- 
mado, pp. of armar, to arm ; as above. 

arm.ameilt. (L) L. aiindmcnttimy 
an equipment. — L. aruidre, to arm, equip. 
— L. arma, arms. 

arm.ature, doublet of armour. 

armistice. (F. — L.) Y armistice.'^ 
Mod. L. *ar;nistitiujti, coined on the 
analogy oi sol-stitium, i.e. solstice. — L. 
armi-, for arma, arms; and -stitium, for 
-statium (through atonic position), from 
statnm, supine of stdre, to stand. (Cf. 

arm.OUr. (F. — L.) M. E. armour, ar- 
mtire.'-O. F. arniure, armetire.^'L. ar- 
mdti'ira, armour. — L. anndtus, pp. of 
a/'W^7;r,toarm. —;/a,arms. Doublet, 

arms, s. pi. weapons. (F. — L) M. E. 
armes. — O. F. armcs, pi. — L. arma, neut. 
pi, arms, lit. ' fittings.' .-v^AR, to fit.) 

arm.y. iF. — L.) O.Y. ari7iee,i&cci.oi 
pp. of armer, to arm. — L armdta, fem. 
of pp. of armdre, to arm. — L. arma, 

Aroint thee ! begone ! Origin un- 
known. The usual reference to ryntye in 
Ray does not help us. 
Arom.a, a sweet smell. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. aroma. — GV. npwpa. a spice, 
sweet herb. Der. aro7)iat-ic, from the 
Gk. stem dpcufxar-. 

Around, prep, and adv. ;E. andF.— 
L.) M. E. a7-ou7id; for on round; see 
A- (2) and Round. 

Arouse. (E. ^'W^Scand ) From A- (4) 
and Rouse 

Arquebus, a kind of gim. (F.-Du. 
F. arquebnse, ' an harquebuse, or hand- 
gun,' Cot. ; Walloon Jia/kibuse, dialectal 
variation of Mid. Du. haeckbusse, Du. 
haakbus, lit. ' a gun with a hook.' This 
refers to the hook whereby it wa.-; attached 
to a point of support. — Mid. Du. haeck, 
Du. haak, a hook ; and Mid. Dii. Imsse, 
Du. bus, a hand- barrel, a gv.n. See 
Arrack, an ardent spirit. (Arab.) 
Arab, 'ai-aq, sweat, juice, essence, distilled 
spirit. — Arab, root 'araqa, to sweat. 
% Sometimes shortened to Rack ; cf. Span. 
raque, arrack. 




Arraign. (F. — L.) M.'E.arainen.-^ 
O. F. arezsm'er, to speak to, discourse 
with, cite, arraign. — O F. a (L. ad), to; 
reisner, reisoner, to reason, from O. F. 
res on, raison, reason, advice, from L. ace. 
rationem ; see Reason. 

Arrange. (F - L. and O. H. G.) 
M. E. arayngen, arengen. — O. F. arengier, 
to put into a rank. — O. F. a (L. ad), to ; 
rangier, rengier. to range, from O. F. 
rang, ren^, a rank. See Rank. 

Arrant, knavish, notoriously bad. (F. 
— L.) This word is now ascertained to 
be a mere variant of en-ant (cf. parson for 
person). Chaucer has theef erraunt , arrant 
thief, C T. 1 71 73; and see Piers Plow- 
man, C. vii. 307. See Errant. 

Arras, tapestry, (F.) So named from 
Arras, in Artois, north of France. 

Array, verb. (F. — L. and O. Low G.) 
O. F. arraier, to array. — O. F. arrai 
arroi, preparation. — L. ad (becoming ar- 
before r), to, for ; O. Low G. and O. Fries. 
rede (cf. Goth, garaid-s), ready, A. S. 
nede, ready ; so that to array is ' to get 
ready.' See Ready. 

Arrears, sb. pi. vF. — L.) From M. E. 
arere, adv., in the rear. — O. F. arere (F. 
arriere), behind. — Late L. ad retro, back- 
v»'ard. — L. ad, to; r<?/r<?, behind. ^ What 
we now call arrears answers to M. E. 
arerages, s. pi. formed from M. E. arere 
with F. suffix -age. 

Arrest, to stop. (F. — L.) O. F. ares- 
ter (F. arreter), to stay. — O. F. « ( - L. 
ad), to ; L. restdre, to stay, remain, from 
;r-, back, and stare, to stand ; see Rest 


Arrive. (F. — L.) F. rtrrzz'^r. — Late 
L. arrJpdre, adrlpdre, to come to shore, 
land. — L. ad, to ; I'tpa, shore, bank. Der. 

Arrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. arro- 
gdre, to ask, adopt, attribute to, add to. — 
L. ar- (for ad), to ; rogdre, to ask. Der. 
arrogant, from the pres. pt. 

Arrow. (E.) M..\L. areweTurwe. A.S. 
arwe, and earh (rare).+ Icel. or, an arrow 
^gen. orvar ; allied to Goth, arhwazna, 
an arrow. From Teut. base ar/nv- ; cog- 
nate with L. arc-US, a bow. 

arrow-root. (E.") So called, it is said, 
because the tubers of the Marania were 
used as an antidote against poisoned 

Arse. (E.") ^\.Y^. ars.ers. A. S <?r^. 
+Gk. oppos, the rump. Idg. type ^orsos. 

Arsenal. (Span. — Arab.) Span, ar- 
senal, a magazine, dockyard, arsenal; 
lojiger forms, atarazanal, atarazana, where 
the a- answers to Arab, al, def. article. 
Cf. Ital. darsena, a wet dock. — Arab, ddr 
ac-cind^ah, a house of construction, place 
for making things, dock-yard. — Arab, ddr, 
a house ; al, the ; and pnd'ah, art, trade, 

Arsenic. (L. — Gk. — Arab. — Pers.) 
Late Y^-arseniaim.—- Gk.dpo'fi/i/foi', arsenic; 
seeming to mean a male principle(the alche- 
mists had a strange fancy that metals were of 
different sexes \ F>ut really borrowed from 
Arab. az-zernJkh ; where az is for al, the, 
def. art., and zernlkh, orpiment, is from 
Pers. zernT, orpiment, yellow arsenic (from 
zar, gold). See Devic, p. 4, 

Arson, incendiarism, (F. — L.) O. F. 
arson, incendiarism. — Late L. ace. ar- 
siottem, a burning. — L. ars-tis, pp. of 
ardere, to burn. See Ardent, 

Art (i), 2 p. s. pres. of verb, (E.) See 

Art (2), skin. (F.-L.) M.E. art.~ 
O. F. <3:;'/. — L. artem, ace. oi ars, skill. 

Artery. (L, — Gk.) L.a;-/i^r/a, properly 
the wind-pipe; also, an artery. — Gk. dpr?;- 
p'la, wind-pipe, artery. 

Artesian, adj. :F.) Artesian zvells^jo. 
named from F. Artisien, adj. formed from 
A7-tois, a province in the north of France, 
where these wells were early in use. 

Artichoke. (Ital, - Arab.) Ital. arti- 
ciocco, a corrupt form ; Florio also gives 
the spellings archiciocco, archicioffo\ also 
(without the ar, which answers to the 
Arab. def. art. al, the) the forms carciocco, 
carcioffo. Cf. Span, alcachofa, an arti- 
choke. — Arab, al kharshuf, or harshaf, an 
artichoke, ^ Not Arab, ar'dl shatikl 
(Diez), which is a modern corrupt form 
borrowed from Italian, 

Article, a small item, part of speech. 
(F, — L.) F. article. — L. articnhis, a joint, 
knuckle, article in grammar ; lit. ' a small 
joint.' Dimin. oi arttis, a joint, limb. 

articulate. (L.) L. artictddttis, dis- 
tinct ; pp. of artictddre, to supj^ly with 
joints, divide by joints. — L. artictilus, a 
joint (above). 

Artifice. (F.-L.) In Milton. -F. 
artifice. — !^, artificitun, a trade, handi- 
craft; hence skill, —L, «r/z-, stem oi ars, 
art; and -Jic-, iox facer e, to make, Der. 
artific-cr, a skilled workman. 

artillery. (F.-L.) O.Y.artillerie, 




equipment of war, machines of war, in- 
cludinij; cross-bows, &c., in early times.— 
O. F. ariiller, to equip. — Late L. *artil- 
Idre, to make machines; a verb inferred 
from tlie sb. ariilidior, a maker of machines 
Extended from arti-, stem oiars,wct. We 
also find artillidtor, answering to an older 
*ariiculdior\ also Late L. ariiculum, arti- 
fice ; artinila, art. 

artisan, a workman. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
F. artisan. — \i2i\. artigiano,2i workman.— 
Late L. ^artitiamis, not found, but formed 
from L. artittis, cunning, artful. — L. arti-, 
stem of ars, art. 

As, coiij. (E.) M. E, as, ah. alse, also, 
al so. As is a contraction of also. (Proved 
by Sir F. Madden.) See Also. 

Asafoetida, Assafoetida, a gum. 

(Med. L. — Pers. and L.) From Pers. dzd, 
mastic ; the L. foetida, fetid, refers to its 
offensive smell. See Fetid. 

Asbestos, a mineral. (Gk.) Gk. a- 
a^icros, unquenchable ; because it is in- 
combustible. —Gk. d-, neg. prefix; and 
-c/SeaTos, quenchable, from o^ivvvm, I 
quench, extinguish. See Brugm. i. § 6^^,. 

Ascend. ^L.) L. ascende^-e, to climb 
up. — L. ad, to; scandere, to climb. See 
Scan. Der. ascens-ion, from pp. ascensus. 

Ascertain. F. — L.) From O. F. 
acertainer, aceitener, to make certain 
(with s inserted). — F. ^ ; = L. ad, to) ; and 
certain, certain. See Certain. 

Ascetic. (Gk.) Gk. daKTjTiKos, given 

Ashes. (E.) The ])1. of ask, which is 
little used. M. E. asc/ie, axe, sing. ; the 
pi. is commonly aschen. axen, but in North- 
ern E. It is asches, askes. A. S. cesce, pi. 
ascan, cexan, ascan. -^Yyw.. asch ; leel. and 
Swed. aska; Dan. aske; Goth, azgo^ pi. 
azgon ; G. asche. Teut. stems *askdn-, 

Ashlar, Ashler, a facing made of 
scjuared stones, (i'. — L.) It consists of 
thin slabs of stone for facing a building 
formerly applied to a square hewn stone 
and, probably, so called because it took 
the place of the wooden beams used for 
the same purpose. — O. F. aiseler (Livre 
des Rois), extended from (J. F. aiselle, 
aisiele, a little board, dimin. of ais, a 
plank. — L. axilla, dimin. of L, axis an 
axis, also, a board, a plank. 

Ashore. (F.) '^ ox onshore. 

Aside. (E.) Y ox on side. 

Ask. (E.) M. E. asken, axien. A. S. 
dscian, dhsian. dcsian ; the last answers to 
prov. E. ax. + Du. eischen ; Swed. dska ; 
Dan. cBske ; G. heischen, O. H. G. eiscon. 
Teut. types *aiskdn, ^aiskojan. Cf. Russ. 
iskate, l^iXh. jeskijfi, to seek ; Skt. ichchhd, 
a wish, desire, esh, to search. 

Askance, obliquely. (Friesic). Spelt 
a-scance by Sir T. Wyat ; ascanche by Pals- 
grave, who gives de trailers, en lorgnant, 
as the F. equivalent. Hardly from Ital. 
scansa7'e, ' to go a-slope or a-sconce, or 
a-skew, to go sidelin;' Florio. Rather from 

to exercise, industrious; applied to hermits, ! Friesic aa Skands, obliquely, to one side 

who strictly exercised themselves in reli 
gious devotion. — Gk. daKTjTrfs, one who 
practises an art, an athlete. — Gk. aatcdv, 
to work, exercise ; also, to mortify the 
body, as an ascetic. 

Ascititious, incidental. (L.) Coined, 
as if from L. *ascTtTcitis, from asciius, pp. 
oi asciscere, ox adsciscere , to receive, learn. 
— L. ad, to; sciscere, to learn, inceptive 
form of scire, to know. 

Ascribe. (L.) L. ascrlbere, to write 
down to one's account. — L. a- (for ad'), to ; 
scrthere, to write. 

Ash, a tree. (E.) M. E. asch. A. S. cesc. 
4-Du. esch; Icel. askr ; Dan. and Swed. 
ask ; G. esche. Teut. type *askiz. Cf. 
Russ. iasene, Lith. usis, ash. 

Ashamed. (E.) A. S. dscamod, pp. of 
dscainian, to put to shame. — A. S. d-, ex- 
tremely ; scamian, to shame, from scamii, 
shame, p. Or for A. S. ofscafjwd, with the 
same sense (with prefix of-, off, very). 

(Outzen); from skd7i, obhque. Cf. E. >'ries. 
sch 71, oblique, scJuins, obliquely; Low G. 
schi'ins ; Du. schiiin, oblique (whence Dan. 
paa skons). O. Fries, a = Teut. au. 

AskeVT, awry. ,0. Low G.) For 07t 
skew ; Hexham gives M . Du. scheef, ' askew, 
awry ; ' see Skew. 

Aslant. cScand.) For on slant. 

Asleep. (E.) For on sleep ; Acts xiii. 

Aslope. (E.) For on slope. 

Asp, Aspic, a serpent. {Y . - L. - Gk.) 
F. aspe, aspic. '^'L. aspidem, ace. of aspis. 
— Gk. da-nii (gen. dGtiihos, an asp. 

Asparagns, a vegetable. (L. - Gk. - 
P>rs. ?) L. asparagus. "Gk. dairdpayos. 
Supposed to be of Pers. origin ; cf. Zend 
cparegha, a shoot, a prong ; Lithuan. 
spurgas, a shoot (Fick, I'rellwitz). 

Aspect. (L.) L. aspect us, look. — L. 
aspectus, pp. of aspicere, to look. — L. a- 
Jor ad), to, at ; specere, to look. 


Aspen, Asp, a tree. (E.) M. E. asp, 
Chaucer, C. T. 2923 ; aspen is an adj. (like 
golden), and is used for aspen-tree ; cf. Ch. 
C. T. 7249. A. S. cBspe, ceps . -i^ V>Vi. esp \ 
Icel. osp, Dan. and Swed. asp ; G. espe, dspe. 
Cf. Lithuan. apuszis ; Russ. osina. 

Asperity. (F. — L.) F. asperite. - L. 
aspcritdtevL, ace. oiasperitds, roughness. — 
L. asper, rough. 

Asperse, to cast calumny upon. (L.) 
Prom L. aspersHS, pp. of aspergere, to 
besprinkle. — L. as- (for ad) ; spargere, to 

Asphalt. (Gk.) Gk. da<pa\Tos, aa(}mX- 
Tov, asphalt, bitumen. A foreign word. 

Asphodel. '.Gk.) Gk. da(p6d€Xos. a 
plant of the lily kind. Der. daffodil, 
q. V. 

Asphyxia, suffocation. (Gk.) Gk. a- 
aipv^ia, a stopping of the pulse ; cf. a- 
cr</)iwTo?, without pulsation. — Gk. d-, not ; 
and acpv^is, the pulse, from a(pv^fLV, to pul- 
sate ; cf. acpvy/xos, pulsation. 

Aspire. (F. — L.) F. ^j/zm-, to breathe, 
covet, aspire to. — L. aspirdre, lit. to breathe 
towards. — L. a- (for ad), to; spirdre, to 
breathe. Der. aspir-ate, v. to pronounce 
with a full breathing. 

Ass. (C — L.) \\.Y.. asse. h..'$). assa. 

— Irish assan. — L. asinus ; whence also 
W. asyn, Swed. asna, Icel. asni. Hence 
also (or from L. dimin. aselhis) came Irish 
asal, Du. ezel, Dan. and G. esel, Goih. 
asilus. Prob. of Semitic origin ; cf. Arab. 
at an, Heb. dthon, a she-ass. 

Assail. (F. — L.) M. E. asailen. — O. F. 
asaillir, to attack. — Late L. assalire ; L. 
assillre. — L. ad, to ; salTre, to leap, rush 
forth. See Salient. 

Assart, the offence of grubbing up trees 
and destroying the coverts of a forest. (F. 

— L.) From A. F. assarte)-. F. essarter, to 
grub up, clear ground of shrubs. — L. ex, 
out, thoroughly ; Late L. sartdre, frequent, 
of L. sarrire, sarJre, to grub up weeds. 

Assassin, a secret murderer. (F. - 
Arab.) V. assassin. Y^com hxoXi.hashdshin, 
pi., eaters of * hashish,' the name of a 
sect in the 13th century ; the ' Old Man of 
the Mountain ' roused his followers' spirits 
by help of this preparation, and sent them 
to stab his enemies, esp. the leading cru- 
saders. — Arab, hashish, an intoxicating 
preparation from the dried leaves of Can- 
nabis indica, a kind of hemp. Cf. Arab. 
hashiy, dry. 
" Assault. I F. - L.) O. F. assalt. - L. 


ad, to ; sa/tus, a leap, attack, from saltus, 
pp. of salire, to leap. See Assail. 

Assay, s. ; the same as Essay, q. v. 

Assemble. (F. — L.) O.Y. assembler. 
— Late L. assimuldre, to collect (different 
from L. assimuldre, to feign). — L. as- (for 
ad), to ; siiinil, together. 

Assent. (F. — L.) O.Y. assentir.-~\.. 
assentire, to assent, agree to. — L. as- (for 
ad), to ; senttre, to feel, perceive. 

Assert. (L.) From L. assertus, pp. 
of asserere, to add to, claim, assert. — L. 
as- (for ad), to ; serere, to join, connect. 

Assess, to fix a tax. (F.-L.) O. F. 
assesser. — Late L. assessdre, to sit as as- 
sessor, to assess ; cf. L. sb. assessor, one 
who adjusted ta.xes ; orig. a judge's assis- 
tant, one who sit by him. — L. assesstis, 
pp. of assidere, to sit near. See Assize ( i). 

Assets, sufficient effects of a deceased 
debtor. (F. — L.) O.Y .assez{'^xoVi.. assets), 
sufficient (to pay with) ; properly an adv., 
but, in E., mistaken to be a pi. sb. — L. ad 
satis, up to what is enough. 

Asseverate. (L.) L, asseuerdtns, pp. 
oi asseiierdie, to speak in earnest. — L. a^-- 
(for ad), to ; seiie?ns, earnest. 

Assiduous. (L.) L. assidu-us, sitting 
down to, applying closely to ; with suffix 
-ous. — L,. assidere, to sit near. — L. as- (for 
ad), at, near ; sedere, to sit. See Sit. 

Assign. (F.-L.) O.Y. assigner. — l.. 
assigndre, to assign, mark out to. — L. as- 
(for ad^, to ; signdre, to mark, from signum, 
a mark, sign. 

Assimilate. (L.) Frompp. ofL. atj- 

simildre, to make like to. — L. as- (for ad), 
to ; similis, like. See Similai'. 

Assist. (F. — L.) F. assister. — L. as- 
sistere, to step to, approach, assist. — L. as- 
[ioT ad\ lo; sistere, to place, stand, from 
stdre, to stand. 

Assize ( I ), a session of a court of justice. 
(F. — L.) M. E. assise. ^O.Y. assise, an 
assembly of judges ; also a tax, an impost. 
Probably fem. pp. of O. F. asseoir, to sit 
near, assist a judge. — L. assidere, to sit 
near ; see Assiduous, Assess. 

assize (2\ a fixed quantity or dimen- 
sion. ( F. — L.) O. F. assise, a tax, impost; 
the Late L. asslsa was also used in the 
sense of a fixed allowance of provisions. 
The same word as the above. Another 
form is Size, q. v. 

Associate. (L.) From pp. of L. ^.r- 
socidre, to join to. — L as- (for ad-'), to ; 
socidre, to join, associate. — L. socius, a 




companion, lit. follower. — L. sequT, to 
follow. See Sequence. 

Assoil, to absolve, acquit. (F. — L.) 
M. E. assoilen. — O. F. as[s)oille, pres. subj. 
of assoiidre, asohire, to absolve. — L. ah- 
sohiere. to absolve. — L. ab, from; soltiere. 
to loosen. See Solve. Doublet, absolve. 

Assonant. iL.) 1^. assonant-, ?,iQmo{ 
assona7is, sounding like; pres. y>^. oi asso)i- 
dre, to respond to. — L. as- (for ad-), to; 
sonar e, to sound, from somis, sound. 

Assort. ( F. — L.") O. F. assoriir, to 
sort, assort, match (15th century '. — O. F. 
as- ( = L. as-, for L. ad),\o ; sort-^ stem of 
L. sors, lot. See Sort. 

Assuage. (F.-L.j O.Y. asoitagier, 
asoagier, to soften, appease ; (Prov. asua- 
viar).'^ F. a ( = L. ad}, to ; and L. suditis, 
sweet. See Sua^-e. 

Assume. (L-) L- assumere (pp. as- 
snt?iptus), to take to oneself. — L. as- (for 
flflT), to; suniei'e, to take, which is from 
emere, to take, with a prefix of doubtful 
origin. Der. asstunpt-ion (from the pp. . 

Assure. (F. — L.) M.E. assuren.— 
O. F. aseiirer, to make secure. — O.F. a 
( = L. od^\, to ; seiir. sure, from L. securits, 
secure, sure. See Sure. 

Aster, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. aar-qp, a 
star. See Star. 

asterisk. (Gk.) Gk. dareplaKos, a 
little star, also an asterisk *, used for dis- 
tinguishing fine passages in MSS. — Gk. 
darep-, stem of daT-qp, a star. 

asteroid, a minor planet. (Gk.) Pro- 
perly an adj., signifying ' star-like.' — Gk. 
darepo-iLhTjs, star-like. — Gk. danpo-, for 
dcTTTjp, a star; and (T5-os, form, figure. 

Asthma, difficulty in breathing. (Gk.^, 
Gk. aaOfxa, panting. — Gk. ud(€iv, to breathe 
hard. Cf. Gk. d^fii, I blow. See Air. 

Astir. (E.) For on stir ; Barbour's 
Bruce, xix. 577. 

Astonish, Astound. (F.-L.) The 

addition of -ish, as in extingn-ish, is due 
to analogy with other verbs in -ish. M.E. 
astonien, astunien, astonen ; whence later 
astony, afterwards leni^thened to astonish ; 
also astoiiftd, by the addition of excrescent 
drafter n, as in sound, from F. son. All 
from O. F. estoner (mod. F. etonner , to 
amaze. — Late L. *extondre, to thunder 
out, from ex, out, and tondre, to thunder. 
Cf L. at tondre, to thunder at, astound ^with 
prefix at- for L. ad, at). 

Astray. Y ox on stray, Barbour's Bruce, 
xiii. 195. See Stray. 

Astriction. (L.) From L. ace. as- 
trictionem, a drawing together. — L. astric- 
tiis, pp Q>{ astringere ; see Astringent. 

Astride. (E.) For on [the) stride. 

Astringent. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of astringere, to bind or draw closely 
together. — L. a- (for ad), to ; stringere, to 
draw tight. 

Astrology. (F.-L.-Gk.) V.astro- 
/ogie. — L,. astrologia, (i) astronomy; (2) 
astrology, or science of the stars.- Gk. 
darpoXoyia, astronomy. — Gk. darpo-, for 
darpov, a star ; and -kojia, allied to \6yo^, 
a discourse, from Xeyfiv, to speak. 

Astronomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

tronoinie. — L. astronomia. — Gk, 
voiiia. — Gk. doTpo-v, a star ; and 

F. as- 

allied to vujxos, law, from I'fyueu', to dis- 

Astute. (L.) L. astilttis, crafty, cun- 
ning.— L. asttis. craft. 

Asunder. ^E.) For on sunder. A. S. 
on-sundran, apait. See Sunder. 

Asylum. (L.-Gk.) Y.asyhwi.^QV. 
dovKov, an asylum ; neut. of d'cruAo?, adj. 
unharmed, safe from violence. — Gk. d-, 
not ; and ovKt), a right of seizure ; cf 
ovXdti), I despoil an enemy. 

Asymptote, a line which, indefinitely 
produced, does not meet the curve which it 
continually approaches. (Gk.) Gk. davp.- 
TTTcuTos, not falling together, not coincident. 

— Gk. d-, not ; ovp., for aui/, together ; and 
TTTWToj, falling, from TrlnTeiv (pt. t. nt- 
TTTooKci), to fall. (VPET.) 

At. (E.) M. E. at, A. S. crt. + Icel. at ; 
Goth, at; Dan. ad; Swed. at ; L. ad. 

Atabal, a kettle-drum. (Span. — Arab.) 
Span, atabal. — Arab, at (for al, def. article) ; 
tab I, a drum. 

Ataghan ; see Yataghan. 

Atheism. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
d{)^-o'5, denying the gods, without a god ; 
with suffix -z'j-//^. — Gk. d-, negative prefix ; 
060?, a god. 

Athirst. (E.) AL E. oftJnirst, athurst, 
very thirsty ; orig. pp. of a verb. A. S. 
ofPyrsted, very thirsty ; pp. oiofPyrstan, to 
be very thirsty. —A. S. of, very (prefi.x) ; 
awd Pyrstan, to thirst ; see Thirst. 

Athlete. (L.-Gk.) L. athleta.-'G^. 
d9\T]TT}s, a combatant, contender in games. 

— Gk.dd\€-(ii',to contend for a prize. —-Gk. 
d9\os (for dffdXos), a contest ; dOXov (for 
dfidXov), a prize. See "Wed. 

Athwart, across. For on thwart, on 
the transverse, across ; sec Thwart. 




Atlas. (Gk.) Named after Atlas, the 
demi-god who was said to bear the world 
on his shoulders ; his figure used often to 
appear on the title-page of atlases. — Gk. 
"ArXas (gen. 'ArXauros), prob. 'the sus- 
tainer ' or bearer, from y'TEL, to bear, 

atlantic, an ocean, named after Mt. 
Atlas, in the N.W. of Africa. (Gk.) From 
'ArAarTi-, stem of "ArXas ; with suffix 


Atmosphere. (Gk.) Lit. 'a sphere 
of air round the earth.' Coined from 
dTjxo-, stem of ar^os, vapour, air ; and 

Atoll, a group of coral islands forming 
a ring. (Maldive Islands.) ' We derive the 
expression from the Maldive islands . . . 
where the form of the word is atohi. It is 
prob. connected with the Singhalese prep. 
dtul, inside.' (Yule.) 

Atom. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.atof?te (Cot). 
— L. a(omus.'-Gk. drofios, sb., an indivisi- 
ble particle; allied to drofxos, adj., indivisi- 
ble. — Gk. a-, not ; to/j.-, ^-grade ofrefx-, as 
seen in Tf/x-uen', to cut, divide. 

Atone, to set at one, to reconcile. (E.) 
Made up from the words ai and one, and 
due to the frequent use of the phrase «/ 
oon, at one (i. e. reconciled) in Middle 
English. Al at on^a,\l agreed; Rob. of 
Glouc. p. 113. Tyndall has afonemaker, 
i.e. reconciler, Works, p. 158. Der. atone- 
ment, i. e. at-one-ment ; we actually find 
the word onement, reconciliation, in old 
authors; see Hall, Satires, iii, 7. 69. 

Atrocity. (F. — L.) F. atrocite^ Cot. '- 
L. atrocitdtem. oi atrocitds, cruelty.— 
L. at rod-, from atrox, cruel. 

Atrophy. (.Gk.) Gk. dTpo(pia, want of 
nourishment or food, hunger, wasting away 
of the body, atrophy. — Gk. d-, not; and 
Tpe<peiv (pt. t. T€-Tpo(p-a), to nourish. 

Attach. (F.-Teut.?) O.F. attacker, 
to attach, fasten. — O F. a, for L. ad, to ; 
and (perhaps) a Low G. word with the 
sense of E. tack, a nail. See Tack. Cf. 
Picard attaker, to attach ; Bret, tac/ia, to 
fasten, from tack, a tack, nail ; and see 
Detach, Attack. Der. attach-ment. 

attack. (F. -Ital.-Teut. ?) F.atta- 
qiier. — Ital. attaccai-e, to fasten, attach : 
attaccare battaglia. ' to ioyne battell,' 
Florio. Cognate with F. attacker ; so that 
attack is a doublet of attack. 

Attain. (F. — L.) M. E. ateinen.-' 
O. F. ateign-, pres. stem of ateindre, 
ataindre, to reach to. — L. attins:ere, to 

attain. — L. at- (for ad), to; tangere, to 

attainder. (F.— L.) From the O.F. 
ateindre, verb, to convict; used substan- 
tively ; see above. 

attaint, to convict. (F. -L.) From 
M. E. atteynt, ateynt, convicted, whence 
the verb has been evolved ; orig. pp. of 
O. F. ateindre (above). ^ Confused with 
L. attinctiis ; wiience E. taitzt. 

Attar of BoseS. (Arab.) Also, less 
correctly, ^//^ 0/ roses, i.e. perfume. — Arab. 
'itr, perfume. — Arab, root 'atara, to smell 

Attemper. (F. — L.) O.Y. atemprer 
to modify. — O.F. (2 ( — L. ad), to ; temprer, 
te^nperer, to temper. — L. temperdre, to 
apportion, regulate, qualify. See Temper. 

Attempt. (F. — L.) O.F. atempter, 
to undertake, — L. attentdre, to attempt.— 
L. at- (for ad), to; tentdre, to try; see 

Attend. (F. — L.) O.F, atendre, to 
wait. — L. attendere (pp. attentus), to 
stretch towards, give heed to. — L. at- (for 
ad), to; tendere, to stretch. Der. attent- 
ion (from the pp.) ; attent, adj., 2 Chron. 
vi. 40, vii. 15. 

Attenuate. (L. i From pp. of L. at- 
tenudre, to make thin. — L. «/- (for<z^),to; 
temc-is, thin. See Thin. 

Attest. (L.) L. a.'testdrl, to be witness 
to. — L. at- {=ad), to; testdri, to be 
witness, from L. testis, a witness. 

Attic, a small upper room. (L. — Gk.) 
It orig. meant the whole of a parapet wall, 
terminating the upper facade of an edifice. 
Named from the Attic order of architecture; 
see Phillips, ed, 1 706. — L. y4//z«^.r. — Gk, 
' Kttiko^, Attic, Athenian. Cf. F. attiqtie, 
an attic; Attiqiie, Attic. 

Attire. iF, -Teut.?) U.F.atir,atyr, 
sb. ; atiren, a'yren, verb. — O.F. atirier, 
to adorn (Roquefort), -O. Y. a ( = L. ad, 
prefix); and O. F. tire, iiere, a row, file; 
so that atirier is properly ' to arrange.' Cf. 
O. Prov. iiera, a row ' Bartsch. See Tier. 

Attitude. (Ital. — L.) Orig. a painter's 
term, from Italy. — Ital. attitudine, aptness, 
skill, attitude. — L. aplitudinein, ace, of 
aptitado, aptitude. — L. aptus, apt. 

Attorney. (F. - L) M. E. attoume. 

— O. F. atorne [i, e, atorni\, lit. ' one ap- 
pointed or constituted ; ' pp. oi atorner, to 
direct, prepare, constitute. — F. a ( = L. ad), 
to ; O. F. torner, to turn, from L. tor- 
ndre. See Turn. 




Attract. ( L) From L. attractiis, pp. 
of ultra here, to nttract. — L. at- \=^ad , 
to ; trahere, to draw. 

Attribute. (L.) Yxovs\attribiltns:.\,Y' 
of L. attribitere, to assign. — L. at- (^ -ad), 
to ; tribuere, to assign ; see Tribute. 

Attrition. (L.) From L. ace. attrl- 
iionem, a rubbing or wearing away. — L. 
attrltus, pp. oi attercre, to rub away, — L. 
at- ( =^rtr/), at ; terere, to rub. See Trite. 

Attune, to bring to a like tune. (L. j 
and L. — Gk.) From L. at- i = ad), to; 
and E. Tune, q. v. 

Auburn. F.-L.) 'M.Y.. abome, au- 
burne, on<^. citron-coloured or light yellow. 

— O. F. a/borne, auborne, blond (Godelroy). 

— Late L. alburnns, whitish, light- 
coloured. Torriano explains Ital. albiirno 
by ' that whitish colour of women's hair 
called an aburn colour.' Cf. L. alburnum, 
the sap-wood or inner bark of trees 
(Pliny).- L. albus, white. 

Auction. (L.) L. auctidnem, ace. of 
auctio, a sale by auction, lit. 'an increase,' 
because the sale is to the highest bidder. — 
L. aiictus, pp. of aiige!-e, to increase. See 

Audacious. (F. — L.) F. audadeux, 
bold, audacious. — L. ^auddciosiis. not 
found ; extended from L. auddci-, from 
audax, bold. — L. audere, to dare. 

Audience. (F. — L. » F. audience, 'an 
audience or iiearing ; ' Cot — L. audientia 
a hearing. — L. audient-, stem of pres. ])t. 
oiaudire, to hear. For ^aiiisdire ; cf. Cik. 
alaOfdOai, to perceive, for dfia$eo9ai. 
Brugm. i. § 240. 

audible. (L.") Late L. aiidlbilis, that \ 
can be heard.- L. audire, to hear. 

audit. (L.) From L. auditus, a 
hearing. — L. audire, to hear ; whence also 

Auger. (E.) Yox na^tger. ME. izatie- 
gar i^^navegar), nattger, a tool for boring 
holes^ — A. S. iiafogdr, an auger, lit. nave- 
piercer, tor boring holes in the nave of a 
wheel. — A. S. nafu, a nave ; gar, a piercer, 
that which gores; see Nave (i) and 
Gore (3). -f- I^u. avegaar (for navegaar) ; 
\c€i. nafarr ; Dan. 7iaver; Swtd. na/vare . 
O. H. G. nabager. 

Aught. I E ) M. E. aht, aght, aught. 
A. S. d/zt, earlier dwiht ; from a, ever, and 
wiht, a creature, wight, whit ; lit. 'e'er a 
whit.' S( e Whit. 

Augment. (F.-L.) Y. augment cr.-- 
L,. augfnentJre , to enlarge. — L. augmentum, 

an increase. — L. a//^fV-<?, to increase. See 

Augur. (L.^l M.E. augur. f^L,. augur, 
a sooch-sayer ; said to mean a diviner by 
the flight and cries of birds. Hence a sup- 
posed etymology (not certain) from auis, a 
bird, and -gur, telling, allied to garrfre, to 
shout. Cf. L. au-ceps, a bird-catcher. 

August. (L.) L. augustus, venerable; 
whence E. august, venerable, and August, 
the month named after Augustus Caesar. 
Cf. Skt. djas, strength. Brugm. i. § 213. 

Auk, a sea-bird. (Scand.) Swed. ^//^a; 
Dan. alke ; I eel. alka, dlka, an auk. 

Aunt. (F.-L.) M. E aunte. - A. F. 
aunie; 0. F. ante (mod. F. t-ante).'^'L. 
ainita, a father's sister. Cf. G. avime, nurse. 

Aureate. (L.) Late L. auredtzis, gilt, 
iVom aureus, golden ; in place ot L. au- 
rdtus, gilded, pp. of aurdre, to gild. — L. 
aurutn, gold ; O. L. atisum. Der. aur- 
elia, a gold-coloured chrysalis ; aur-e- 
ol a, aur-e-ole, the halo of golden glory 
in paintings ; auriferous, gold-producing, 
fromy^rr^, to bear. 

Auricula, a plant, (L.) L. auricula, 
the lobe of the ear ; used to mean the 
' bear's ear,' a kind of primrose ; see below. 
auricular, told in the ear, secret. (L.) 
Late L. auriculdris, in the phr. auriculdz-is 
confessio, auricular confession. — L. aui'i- 
cula, the lobe of the ear ; double dimin. 
from auri-s, the ear. See Ear. 

Aurora, the dawn. (L.) L. aurora, 
the dawn ; from prehistoric ^ausdsa.'\-QiV. 
/Eolic aucDj, Ion, r\ws, dawn, from pre- 
historic ^avcQis. See East. 

Auscultation, a listening. (L.) L. 
aiiscultdtionevi, ace. of auscultatio, a 
listening; from the pp. of auscultdre, to 
listen. — L. %z/j--, base of auris, the ear. 
See Ear. 

Auspice, favour, patronage. (F. — L.) 
V . auspice, a token of things by the flight 
of birds, an omen, good fortune. — L. au- 
spicium, a watching of birds for the pur- 
pose of augury. Short for *atiispicium. — 
L. aui-, for auis, a biid ; and spicere, 
specere. to spy, look into. 

Austere. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
austere. — O. F. austere. — L. austerus, 
harsh, severe. — Gk. avcrrripos, making the 
tongue dry, harsh. — Gk. avuv, to dry. 
See Sere. 

Austral. (F.-L,; orL.) We find F. 
australe, 'southerly;' Cot. -L. Austrdhs, 
southerly. — L. Auster, the South wind. 




Authentic. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
tentike^ auteiitik. — O. F. auteiiticpie, later 
auihentique (Cot,). — L. azifhentiais, 
original, written with the authors own 
hand. — Gk. avOevriKos, vouched for, war- 
ranted. —Gk. avdivTTis, a.ho avTo-evTTjs, one 
who does things with his own hand, a 
'self-worker'; see Auto-, p. Gk. evrijs 
(for *(T€VTT]s) is prob. allied to L. so7is 
(gen. soTitis), guilty, responsible. 
Author. ; F. - I. ) M. J*:, atttottr, 
alitor ; later author (with th once sounded 
as /, but now as th in thin), — O. F. aufor 
i^Bartsch). — L. atictoreiii^ ace. oi auctor,&n 
originator, lit. ' increaser, grower.' — L. 
augere, to increase. Cf. Aiiction. 

AutO-y prefix. (Gk.) Gk. avro-, stem 
of avTi)S, self. Der. aiiio-biography, a 
biography written by oneself (see Bio- 
graphy) ; autograph, something in one's 
own handwriting, from Gk. -ypdcpeii', to 
write (see Graphic). 

autocracy. (Gk.) Adapted (with 
suffix -cy for Gk. -rtia) from Gk. avro- 
KpaTfia, absolute power. — Gk. avro-, self; 
-KpcLTua (in compounds), power, from 
KparUiv, to rule. — Gk. icparvs, strong ; 
cognate with E. Hard. 

automaton, a self-moving machine. 
(G.) Gk. avTopuxTov, neut. of avr6p.aTos, 
self-moviiig. — Gk. avro-, for avros, self; 
and -/xaTos, cognate with Skt. Diatns, 
thought, considered, known, pp. oi vian, 
to think. (VMEN.) 

autonomy, self-government. (Gk.) 
Gk. avTovopia, independence. — Gk. avro- 
voixos, free, living by one's own laws. — Gk. 
avTu-, self; and pu/xos, law, from vefiofiai, 
I sway, I'ffxeiv, to distribute. 

autopsy, personal inspection. (Gk.) 
Gk. avToxpia, a seeing with one's own eyes. 

— Gk. avTo-, self; oif/is, sight (see Optic). 
Auto-da-fe. U'ort. -L.^ Lit. ' decree 

of faith ; ' a judgment of the Inquisition, 
also, the execution of such judgment, when 
the decree or sentence is read to the 
victims —Port, auto, action, decree; da, 
short for de a, of the ;/e, faith. [The Span, 
form is auto de fe, without the article 
/a — Port. «.] — L. actum, ncc. of actus, 
act, deed ; dc, prep. ; ilia, fem. of ille, he ; 
fidein, ace. oi fides, faith. 
Autumn. (F.— L.) M.E. atitumpne. 

— O.F. autoinptie. — L. autunmus, auctum- 
nus, autumn. Perhaps allied to azigere, 
to increase.) 

Auxiliary. (1-0 L. aztxilidrhis, 

helping, assisting. — L. auxilhcm, help.,— 
L. augere, to increase. 

Avadavat, a finch-like E. Indian bird. 
(Arab, and Pers.) Formerly amadavat 
(^N. E. D.); or amtidavad, N. and Q. 6 
S. ii. 198. Named from the city oi Ahined- 
rtM(^, whence they were imported. — Arab. 
Ahmed, a proper name ; Pers. dhdd, a city. 

Avail. (F.-L.) M.E. auaileii ( = 
availen). Compounded of O.F. a, to; 
and z^i2?7-, tonic stem of O. F. valoir (valer), 
to be of use. —L. ad, to; nalere, to be 

Avalanche. (F.-L.) Y. avalanche, 
the descent of snow into a valley. — F. 
avaler, to swallow ; but the old sense was 
'to let fall down.' — F. aval, downward, 
lit. 'to the valley.'— F. a ( = L. ad), to; 
val, vale, from L. uallem, ace. of uallis, a 

Avarice. (F. — L.) M. E. auarice 
(with u for z/).- F. avarice. ^Y,. audi'itia, 
greediness. — L. audrus, greedy ; cf. L. 
auidus, greedy. — L. auere, to wish, desire. 

Avast, stop, hold fast. (,Du.) Du. hou 
vast, houd vast, hold fast. — Uu. //ci«, short 
form of houd, imper. of hoziden, to hold 
!^see Hold) ; and vast, fast (see Fast). 

Avatar. (Skt.) Skt. avatdra, descent ; 
hence, the descent of a Hindu deity in 
incarnate form. — Skt. ava, down; and tri, 
to pass over, pass. 

Avaunt, begone! (F.-L.) A. F. 
avaunt ; O.F. avant, forward ! See Ad- 

Ave, hail. (L.) Short for Aue Alaria, 
hail, Mary i^Luke i. 28). — L. aite, hail! 
imper. sing, oi auere, to fare well. 

Avenge. ( F . — L. ) O. F . avengier, t o 
avenge. — F. a (L. ad), to ; vengier, to 
avenge, from L. ziindicdre, to lay claim 
to, also, to avenge. See "Vindicata. 

Aventail, the moulh-piece of a visor. 
(K. — L.) A. F. avcntaille ; O.F. esventail, 
air-hole. — O.F. esventer, to expose to air. — 
L. ex, out ; tientus, wind. See Ventail. 

Avenue. (F. — L.) Y.avemu,advenue, 
access ; hence an approach to a house (esp. 
one shaded by trees) ; fem. oiavenu, pp. of 
F. avenir, to come to. — L. ad, to ; uenire^ 
to come. 

Aver. (F. - L.) A. F. and O. F. averer. 
— Late L. auerdre, aditerdre, to affirm to 
be true. — L. ad, to; uerus, true. 

Average, an equalised estimate. (F.) 
Formerly a duty, tax, impost ; then, an 
extra charge on goods, the incidence of 




such a charge, the general estimate or 
apportionment of loss of goods. &c. 
Formed, with suffix -age, from F. avar-ic, 
now usually 'damage' (cf. Span, averia, 
haberia, ' the custom paid for goods that 
are exported' (Pineda), Port, and Ital. 
avaria, Late L. avaria, averia). A 
Mediterranean maritime term, orig. signify- 
ing ' duty charged on goods ' (G. P. Marsh, 
inN. E. D.). Origin unknown; perhaps 
from Ital. avere, havere, goods, chattels 
i¥. avoir), a sb. use oi havere, haver {!.. 
habere), to possess. ^ Or from Arab. 
'avdr, damage, the relationship of which is 
Avert. (L.) L. a-tiertere, to turn away. 

— L. J i^ = ab), oft, away; nertere, to turn. 
Der. averse, from L. pp. diierstis. 

Aviary. (L.) L. atiidruwt, a place 
for birds; neut. of adj. auidrius, belonging 
to birds. — L. aui-, stem oi auis, a bird. 

Avidity. ( F. - L.) F. aviditi, greedi- 
ness, eagerness. — L. auiditdte/ii, ace. of 
aiiiditds, eagerness. — L. anidiis, greedy, 
desirous. — L. auere, to crave. 

Avocation. (L.) From L. duocd- 
tidnem, ace. oi diiocdtio, a calling away of 
the attention, hence a diversion, amuse- 
ment ; afterwards used in the sense of 
employment. — L. diiocdlus, pp. oid-uocdre, 
to call away. — L. d {~ab), from, away; 
uocdre. to call. See Vocation. 

Avoid, to shun. (F.-L.) M. E. 
atioiden { = avoiden), to empty, empty out, 
get rid of; later, to keep away from, shun. 

— O. F. esvuidier, to empty out, get quit 
of. — O.F. es-, prefix (L. ex, out); and 
O. F. vuit, vuide (F. vide), empty, void. 
See Void. 

Avoirdupois. (F. — L.) Formerly 
avoir de pois (Anglo- F. aveir de peis), 
goods of weight, i.e. heavy articles. — F. 
avoir, goods, orig. ' to have ; ' de, of : 
O. Y. pois, A. F. peis, weight. — L. habere. 
to have; de, of; peiistim. that which is 
weighed out, neut. of pensus, pp. of pen- 
dere, to weigh. ^ The F. pois is now 
misspelt /^n/^. See Poise. 

Avouch. (F.-L.' M.E. avouchen. 

— O. F. avochier, to call upon as guarantor 
(Godefroy). — L. aduocdre, to call to or 
summon (a witness) — L. ad, to; twcdre, | 
to call. Cf. Vouch. j 

avow, to confess, to declare openly. 
(F. — L.) M.E. avozven. — O.Y. avouer,\ 
avoer. — L. aduocdre, to call upon ; Med. L. 
to call on as patron or client, to acknow- i 

ledge, recognise. — L. ad, to ; uocdre, to 
call. ^Another M.E. avowen, to bind 
with a vow, to vow, is obsolete ; see Vow. 
Doublet, avouch (above\ 
Await. (F. - L. a7idO. H. G.) O. F. 
awaitier, agaiiicr, to wait for. — O.F. a 
( = L. ad)f for; waitier, to wait, from 
O. H. G. wahten, to watch, from the sb. 
wahia ^G. ivachf), a watching. See "Wait. 

Awake, Awaken. fE.) M.E. 

awakien, awaken ; and azvaknen, owake- 
nen ; both orig. intransitive. Two A. S. 
verbs are conlused ; dwacian. wk. vb.; 
and ojiwacnaji, ^^ith wk. pres. t., but 
strong pt. t. onwoc, pp. onwacen. The 
prefix is either A- (2) or A- (4). See 
"Wake, "Waken. 

Award, vb. (F. — L. and O. Low G.) 
M. K. awarden.^ K. F. awarder; O. F. 
eswarder, esgarder, to examine, adjudge. — 
O. F. es- ( = L. ex), out ; O. F. warder, to 
ward, guard, from O. Low G., as in O. Sax. 
zvardon (cf. G. warten), to watch, guard. 
See Ward, Guard. 

Aware. (E.) A corruption of M. E. 
iwar. y7var, aware (common) ; from A. S. 
gewcer, aware. — A.S. ge-, a common 
prefix, not altering the sense ; wcer, ware^ 
wary; see "Wary. 

Away. (E.) For on way, i. e. on 
one's way, so as to depart. A.S. onweg, 
away. See "Way. 

Awe. (Scand.) M. E. aie, aghe, axve. 
[Also eie, eghe, eye; all orig. dissyllabic. 
The latter set are from A. S. ege, awe.j — 
Icel. agi, awe, fear; Dan. ave.'\-K. S. ege\ 
Goth, agis, fear, anguish ; Irish eagaly 
fear, terror; Gk. o-xos, anguish, affliction. 
(VAGH.) Dev. azu-ftd. 

Awkward, clumsy. (Scand. a«^ E. ) 
Orig. an adv., signifying ' transversely,' or 
'in a backhanded manner.' M.E. a7vk- 
ward, ajvkwart ; ' ankwart he couth him 
ta'^he gave him a hackhanded stroke, 
Wallace, iii. 175. p. The suffix -xvai-d xs 
E. , as in for-ivard. on-ward, &c The 
prefix is M. E. auk, awk, contrary, perverse, 
wrong; this is a contraction of Icel. qfttg- 
[Swed. afvug, in Widegren], like hazok 
from A. S. hafoc. — Icel. ofngr, often con- 
tracted to bfgu, adj., turning the wrong 
way, back foremost, contrary, y. Here 
of- is for a/-, off, from, away; and -tig- is 
a suffix. Cf. O. H. G. ap-uh, M. H. G. eb- 
ich, turned away, perverse; from apa = 
G. ab, off, away, and the suffix -h. S. 
Thus the sense of aivk is ' turned away ' ; 


from Icel. af-^ cognate with E. of, off, 
Gk. dVo. 

Awl. (K.) Auk in Shak. ; M. E. alle, al, 
Wyclif, Exod. xxi. 6. A. S. (zl,al\ Exod. 
xxi. 6 ; Levit. xxv. lo.-J-Icel. air; O, H. G. 
ala, G. ahle ; Du. aal. Teut. types "^aloz, 
*ald. % IJistinct from M. E. aule, flesh- 
hook, A. S. awel, grappling-hook. (Phil. 
Soc. Trair;. 1906; p. 261.) 

Awn. (Scand.) M.E.«^«(f( 13th cent.), 
awene, awne. A. S. pi. cegnan, Corp. Gl. 

— Icel. ogn, chaff, a husk ; Dan. avne, 
chaff; Swed. agn, only in pi. agnar, 
husks.+ Goth, ahana ; O. H. G. agana, 
chaff. Cf. Gk. pi. axvai, chaff; O. L. 
agna, a straw. 

Awning. (O. F. ?) In Sir T. Herbert's 
Travels, ed. 1665, p. 8; the proper sense 
seems to be ' a sail or tarpauling spread 
above a ship's deck, to keep off the sun's 
heat.' Perhaps from O. F. auvatt, auvant, 
mod. F. auvent, ' a pent-house of cloth 
before a shop-window;' Cot. Cf. Prov. 
anvan, Late L. antcvanna, auvanna, 
avanna. Perhaps from L. ante^ before ; 
tianniis, a fan (fern. sb. ). 

ii:7rv^, (E.) For on %v>y, on the twist ; 
Barbour, Bruce, iv. 705. See Wry. 

Axe, Ax. (E.) M. E. ax, ex. A. S. cbx. 
older forms acus, (BCUs.-\-V>m. aaks; Icel. 
ox, oxi; Swed. jfxa; Dan. oxe ; Goth. 
akwizi ; O. H. G. acchtis\ G. axt ; L. ascia 
(if for *acsid); Gk. a^Lvrj. 

Axiom. (Gk.) XM cent. — Gk. d^lcuna 
(gen. d£ta;/iaTos), worth, quality ; in science, 
an assumption. — Gk. d^iuoj, I deem worthy. 

— Gk. d^ios, worthy, worth, lit. ' weighing 
as much as.' — Gk. dyeiv, to drive ; also, to 
weigh. (VAG.) 

Axis, axle. (L.) L. axzs, an axis, axle- 
tree. + Gk. d^Mv; Skt. aks/ia, an axle, 
wheel, cart. Cf also A. S. eax, an axle ; 
Du. as ; G. ac/ise ; Russ. os' ; Lith. aszzs. 
(VAG, to drive.) See below. 

axle. (Scand.) M.E.axe/. [A. S. has 
eax/, but only with the sense of shoulder.] 

— Icei. bxull, axis ; whence bxiil-tre, an 
axle-tree ; Swed. and Dan. axel, axle. 
p. It is a dimin. of the form appearing 
in L, axis: see Axis. Cf W. echel, axle. 
Der. axle-tree, where tj-ee is a block of 

Ay! interj. (E.) M. E. ey ! A natural 
interjection. ^ The phr. ay me is French ; 
O. F. aymi, alas for me ! Cf Ital. ahime, 
Span, ay di me, Gk. oi]xoi. See Ah. 

Ay, Aye, yea, yes. (E. ?) Spelt / in 


old edd. of Shak., &c. Origin uncertam; 
perhaps a variant of Yea. 

Ayah, a native waiting-maid, in India. 
(Port. — L.) Port, aia, a nurse, governess 
(fem. of aio, a tutor). Prob. from L. aula, 
a grandmother. — L. anus, a grandfather. 

Aye, adv., ever. (^Scand.) M.E. ary. — 
Icel. ei, ever. 4- A. S. a, ever, also dwa ; 
Goth, aiw, ever, case- forms from Teut. 
^aiwoz (Goth, aiws), an age, which is 
allied to L. cetmm, Gk. alwv, an age. Cf. 
Gk. aWi, dd, ever. 

Aye-Aye, a kind of lemur. (F. - Mada- 
gascar.) F. aye-aye, supp. to Littre. 
l^>om the native name ai-ay in Madagas- 
car ; said to be named from its cry. 

Azimuth. (Arab.) Azimuthal qSxq^q.% 
are great circles on the sphere that pass 
through the zenith. Properly, azimuth is 
a pi. form, answering to Arab, as-samut, 
ways, or points (or quarters) of the horizon ; 
from al samt, sing., the way, or point (or 
quarter) of the horizon. — Arab, ah the; 
and samt, a way, quarter, direction ; whence 
also E. zenith. See Zenith. 

Azote, nitrogen. (F. — Gk.) So called 
because destructive to animal life. — F. 
azote. '-'G^. d-, negative prefix; ^wtikvs, 
preserving life, from ('cu-77, life, idnv, to 

Azure, blue. (F. — Arab. — Pers.) M. E. 
asur, azure. ^0.¥. azur, azure; a cor- 
rupted form, standing for lazur, which was 
mistaken for tazur, as if the initial / 
indicated the def. article ; Low L. lazur, 
an azure-coloured stone, also called lapis 
lazuli. — Arab. Idzivard (see Devic). — Pers. 
Idjuward, lapis lazuli, a blue colour. So 
called from the mines of Lajwurd, where 
the lapis lazuli was found (Marco Polo, 
ed. Yule). 

Baa, to bleat. (E.) In Shak. ; an imita- 
tive word. 

Babble. (E.) M. E. babelen, to prate, 
mumble, chatter. The suffix 'le is fre- 
quentative ; the word means ' to keep on 
saying ba, ba,^ syllables imitative of a child's 
attempts to speak. -|-Du. bahbelen; Dan. 
bable : Icel. babbla ; G. bappeln ; and cf F. 

Babe. CE.) M. E. bab, earliest form 
baban. Probably due to infantile utterance; 
cf Babble. 

Babirnsa, Babiroussa, a kind of 

wild hog. (Malay.) Malay bdbl riisa. 
lit. ' deer-hog/ or ' hog like a deer ' ; from 
rusa, deer, and bdbl, hog. 

Baboon. (F. or Low L.) O. F. babiiin, 
F. babouin ; we also find M. E. babion, 
babian, babewiiie ; Low L. babewymis, a 
baboon (a.D. 1295). Origin uncertain. 
Cf. O. F. babou, a grimace (Godefroy\ 
Prob. from the motion of the lips. Cf. 

Bacchanal. (L. — Gk.) L. Bacchdndlis, 
a worshipper of Bacchus, god of wine.— 
Gk. Bd/fxo?, god of wine. 

Bachelor. (F, — L.) '\s'{.Y..bachele}'.— 
O. F. bachelcr. — Y.^X^ L. *bacca/dris, but 
only found as baccaldrius, a holder of a 
small farm or estate, called in Late L. 
haccaldria. Remoter origin unknown, and 
much disputed. Hardly from Late L. 
bacca, for L. uacca. a cow. 

Back. (E.) M. E. bak. A.S. bcec-if 
Icel. bak; O. Sax. bak\ O. Fries, bek. 
Der. a-back, q. v. ; back-bite, 'M. E. bak- 
biten (P. PI. B. ii. 80) ; back-ward, M. E. 
bacwa-rd {Cmsor Mundi, 2042). 

backgammon, a game. (E.) Li 
Butler's Hudibras, pt. iii. c. 2. The sense 
is ' back-game,' because the pieces, when 
taken, are put back. See gammon (2). 

Bacon. (F. — Teut.) M. E. bacon. — O. F. 
bacon; Low L. baco-^O. H. G. bacho, 
M. H. G. bache, buttock, ham, a flitch of 
bacon, Cf. G. bache, a wild sow ; M. Du. 
bak, a pig; M. Dan. bakke, a pig. 

Bad. (E.) M.¥.. badde. Formed from 
A. S. bceddel, s,, a hermaphrodite ; and 
allied to A. S. bcedling, an effeminate 

Badge. (Unknown.) M. E. bage; Prompt. 
Parv. Low L. bagia, bagea, * signum, in- 
signe quoddam ; ' Ducange ; apparently, 
a Latin version of the E. word. Origin 

badger. (Unknown.) Spelt bageard 
in Sir T. More ; a nickname for the bj-ock. 
Dr. Murray shews that badger = animal with 
a badge or stripe. See above. 

Badinage, jesting talk. (F. — Prov, — 
L,) Y . badinage. — Y . badiner, to jest.— 
F. badin, adj., jesting. — Prov. bader ( = F. 
bayer'),\\\..\.o gape; hence, to be silly.— 
Late L. baddre, to gape; prob, of imitative 
origin, from ba, expressive of opening the 
mouth. Cf. Babble. 

Bafae, to foil, disgrace. (F. ?-G.?) A 
Scotch word, as explained in Hall's Chron. 


Hen. Vni, an. 5. To baffull is < a great 
reproach among the Scottes ' ; it means to 
disgrace, vilify. Cf. Lowland Sc. bauchle 
(XV cent, bachle), to vilify. Origin doubt- 
ful ; but cf. F. beffler, to deceive, mock 
(Cot.), bafotier (Cot. baffoiier, to baffle, 
revile, disgrace) ; allied to Ital. beffare, to 
llout, scoffe (Florio), from bcffa, a scoff; 
Norman F. baffcr, to slap in the face ; 
Prov. bafa, a scoff. Prob. from M. H. G. 
heffen, to scold ; cf. G. bdffeit, Du. baffen, 
to bark, yelp ; of imitative origin, like 
Du. paf^ a pop, a box on the ear. 

Bag. (Scand.) M . E. bagge. — Icel. baggi, 
O. Svved. bagge. a bag, pack, bundle. Not 
found elsewhere in Teutonic. (^Gael. bagis 
from E.) 

bagatelle, a trifle, a game. (F, - Ital. 

— Teut.) F. bagatelle, a trifle. — Ital. bagat- 
lella, a trifle, dimin. of Parmesan bagaia, 
a little property ; from Lombard baga, 
a wine-skin, of Teut. origin ; see Bag, 
baggage (i). 

baggage (i\ luggage. (F.- Scand.) 
M . E. baggage, bagage. — O. Y .bagage, a col- 
lection of bundles. — O. Y. bague, a bundle. 

baggage (2), a w^orthless woman. (F. 

— Scand.) The same as Baggage i^i), in a 
depraved sense. Perhaps influenced by F. 
bagasse, 'a. baggage, quean,' Cot.; Ital. 
bagascia, ' a baggage- wench ; ' Florio. 

Bail (i), security ; as verb, to secure. 
(F. — L.) O. F. bail, s, custody; from 
bailler, a law term, to secure, to keep in 
custody. — L. bdiuldie. to carry a child 
about, to take charge of a child. — L. 
bditdns, a porter, carrier. 

bailiff. (F.-L.) M. E-ZiazYz/.-O. F. 
baillif. Cot. — Late L. bdjulTvum, ace. of 
bdjnlivus, a custodian, &c. — L. bdiuldre 

bailiwick. (F. - L. ; and E.) From 
M. E. baili, short for bailif (above) ; and 
M. E. ruuik, A. S. luic, a district ; hence, 
' district of a bailiff; ' later, ' office ' of the 

Bail (2), a bucket. See Bale (3). 

Bail (3), at cricket. (F.-L.?) O.Y.bail, 
an iron-pointed stake ; Godefroy adds that 
' in the arrondissements of Vervins and 
Avesnes, bail is the name of a horizontal 
piece of wood fixed upon two stakes.* 
Perhaps from L. baculiun, a stick. 

Bairn, a child. (E.) M. E. bam. A.S. 
beam. + Icel,, Swed., Dan., and Goth. 
barn. Lit. * that which is born ; ' Teut- 



type *harnom, neut. sb., from bar, 2nd 
grade of ber-an, to bear ; with suffix -no-. 
See Bear (i). 

Bait, to feed. (Scand.) Lit. ' to make 
to bite ; ' a bait is ' an enticement to bite.' 
M. E. batten, beiten. — Icel. bezta, to make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite ; Swed. beta, 
to pasture ; Swed. bete, Dan. bed, a bait. 
Sea Bite. 

Baize, coarse woollen stuff. (F. — L.) 
An error for baj/es, pi. of F. baj'e, ' the 
cloth called bayes ; ' Cot. — O. F. bat, bay- 
coloured. — L. badins, bay. From the orig. 
colour. Cf. Span, bayo, bay, bay eta, 
baize; &c. See Bay (i)- 

Bake. (E.) M. E. baken. A. S. bacan, 
pt. t. boc, pp. bacen. + Icel. and Swed. 
baka ; Dan. bage ; Du. bakken ; G. backen ; 
cf. Gk. ./'wyeiT/, to roast. (V BHOG.) 

Bakshish, Backsheesh, a present, 

small gratuity. (Pars.) Pers. bakhshish, 
a gratuity ; from bakhshjdan, to give ; 
baksh, a share, portion. Cf. Zend, baksh, 
to distribute; Skt. bhaj, to divide. 

Balance. (F. — L.) M. E. balance — 
F. balance, ' a ballance. pair of weighis or 
ballances ; ' Cot. Cf. Ital. bilancia. — L. 
bilancem, ace. of bilanx, having two scales. 

— L. bi-, for bis, double, twice ; and lanx, 
a dish, platter, scale of a balance. 

BalaS-ruby, a variety of ruby, of a 
pale rose-red or orange colour. (F. — 
Low L. — Arab. — Pers.) Formerly balais. 

— F. balais ; Med. L. balascus, balascius. — 
Arab, balakhsh, a ruby (Devic). — Pers. 
badakhshi, a ruby; named from Badakh- 
shan, N. of the river Amoo (Oxus). 

Balcony. (Ital. — Teut.) Ital. balcone, 
palcom, orig. a stage. — O. H. G. balcho, a 
beam. + 0. Sax. ^(z//^^, a beam. See Balk(i). 

Bald. (C.) M. E. balled', the orig. 
sense was ' shining, white,' as in ' <^aA/- 
/iz^^^ stag,' a stag with a white streak on 
its face ; cf. prov. E. ball, a white-faced 
horse. — Gael, and Irish bal, ball, a spot, 
mark, speckle (properly a white spot or 
streak) ; Bret, bal, a white streak on an 
animal's face; W. bali, whiteness in a 
horse's forehead. Cf. Gk. (pdXios, white. 
ipa\nKp6i, bald-headed ; Lith. baltas,'whi\.e. 

Baldachin {pronounced b;i old akin or 
bseldakin), a canopy over an altar, throne, 
&c. (F. or Ital. — Arab.) F. baldaquin; 
Ital. haldacchino, a canopy, tester, orig 
hangings or tapestry made at Bagdad. — 
Ital, Baldacco, Bagdad. — Arab. Baghdad, 


Balderdash, poor stuff. (Scand. ?) It 
formerly meant a jumbled mixture of 
liquors. Cf. Dan. balder, noise, clatter ; 
and daske, to slap, flap. Hence it appears 
(like slap-dash) to have meant a confused 
noise ; secondarily a hodge-podge (Halli- 
well) ; and generally, any mixture. (Un- 

Baldric, a girdle. (F.-M. H. G.- 
L.) O. F. '^baldric (not recorded), older 
form of O. F. baldret, baldrei ; Low L. 
baldringus. — }\\. H. G. baldci-ich, a girdle; 
extended from O. H. G. balz, a belt. — L. 
balteus, a belt. See Belt. 

Bale (i), a package; see Ball (2). 

Bale(2^, evih ^E.) W.Y^.bale. A.S. 
beahc, balu, evil. + O. Fries, and O. S. 
bahi; Icel. bbl, misfortune; O. H. G. 
balo, destruction. Teut. *bahuom, neut. of 
'^balwoz, adj. evil ; cf. Goth, balwazuesei, 
wickedness. Der. bale-ftil. 

Bale (3), to empty water out of a ship. 
(F.-Teut.) XVII cent. It means to 
empty a ship by means of bails, i. e. 
buckets. — F. bailie, a bucket. Cf. Du. 
balie, a tub ; Swed. balja, Dan. bailie. G. 
balje, a tub. — Late Lat. '^bacida (Diez), 
dimin. from Du. bak, INI. Du. back, a trough. 

Balk (I), a beam, ridge of land. (E.) 
i\L E. balke. A. S. bah a, a ridge, heap ; 
which explains balked = laid in heaps, 
1 Hen. IV, i. i. 69. -f- O. Sax. balko, a 
beam ; Du. balk, a beam, bar ; Swed. balk, 
a beam, partition ; G. balken. Teut. stem 
'^balkon-, a bar. Cf. Phalanx. 

balk (2\ baulk, to hinder. (E.) 
M. E. balken. To put a balk or bar in a 
man's way. 

Ball (i), a spheiical body. (F. — 
O. H. G.) M. E. bal, balle. - F. balle. - 
M. H. G. balle, O. H. G. ballo (G. ball\ 
a ball, sphere. + Icel. btdlr. 

bale (O, a package. (F. — O. H.G.) 
M. E. bale. — Y. bale, a ball, also a pack, 
as of merchandise ; Cot. The same as F. 
balle, a ball ; hence, a round package. 

Ball (2), a dance. (F.-Late L.) F. 
bal. — F. bailer, to dance. — Late L. ballare, 
to dance. + Gk. fiaWi^dv, to dance. 

ballad. (F. - Prov.- Late L.) M. E. 
balade.-O.Y. balade; F. ballade. -Viov. 
balada, a song for dancing to. — Late L. 
ballare, to dance. 

Ballast, aload to steadya ship. (Scand. 
or O. Low G.) Three forms are found : 

(i) O. Dan. barlast, i.e. bare load, mere 
weight, Swed. barlast ; (2) O. Low G. 



ballast, i.e. * bale last,' useless load, Du., 
Dan., E. Fries, ballast ; (3) Dan. bag-last, 
i.e. back load. Of these, (3) seems due to 
popular etymology; and (2) arose out of 
(i). See Last (4); also Bare, Bale (2), 
Back. Cf. M. Du. bal-daedt, evil deed 

Ballet. (F.-LateL.) F.^a//<f/, dimin. 
oi hal, a dance. See Ball (2). 

Balloon, a large ball. (F.^O. H. G.) 
Formerly balooji, a ball used in a game like 
football; (also ballone, irom liaX. bal/one, 
in Florio). — O. F. balon, *a little ball, or 
pack ; a football or baloon ; ' Cot. Mod. 
F. ballon ; Span, balon ; Ital. pallone ; 
augmentative form of F, balk, Sec, a ball. 
See Ball (i). 

ballot. (Ital.-O.H.G.) lta\. ballot- 
tare, ' to cast lots with bullets, as they 
vse in Venice;' Florio. — Ital. ballotta, a 
little ball used for voting ; dimin. of Ital. 
/^a//a, a ball. SeeBalKi). 

Balm. (F. — L. — Gk.) A modified 
spelling ; M. E. basme, ba?ne, batime. — 
U. F. basme. — 'L.. balsatmiiii.^QV. (id\aa- 
fiov, fragrant resin of the (iaXaa^xos, cr 
balsam-tree. Prob. Semitic ; cf. Heb. 
bdsdm, balsam. 

balsam. (L. — Gk.) L. balsajtmvi ; 
as above. 

Baluster, a rail of a staircase, small 
column. (F. - Ital.— L. — Gk.) Y.bahts- 
tre\ bahistres, * ballisters, little, round, 
and short pillars, ranked on the outsides of 
cloisters, terraces,' &c. ; Cot. — Ital. balans 
tro, a baluster; so called from a fancied 
resemblance to the flower of the wild 
pomegranate. — Ital. balausto, balausira, 
the flower of the pomegranate. — L. balaiis- 
tiuj?i.~'Gk. PaXavariov, the flower of the 
wild pomegranate. Der. balustr-ade, ¥. 
balustrade, from lizl.balaustrata, furnished 
with balusters. 

Bamboo. (Port. — Malay.) Spelt ?;/rtw- 
bii (1662). — O. Port, mambii (Garcia).— 
Malay simdfnbil, a rattan like bamboo. 

Bamboozle, to hoax. (Unknown.) 

Ban, a proclamation. (E.) Chiefly in 
the pi. banns (of marriage). M. E. ban. 
A. S. gebnnn, a proclamation (the prefix 
ge- making no difference). Cf. A. S. dban- 
nan, to summon, order out. Influenced 
by O. ¥. ban, of G. origin (as below). + 
Du. bajt, excommunication; Icel. and 
Swed. bann, Dan. band, O. H. G. ba7t, a 
ban. All from Teut. strong vb. *bannan-, 
to proclaim; as in O. H. G. bannan. Cf. 

'L./dVia, a rumour. (y'BHA.) Brugm. 
i- § .S59- 

Banana, the plantain-tree. (Span.) 
Span, banana, fruit of the banano ; said to 
be of African origin (from Guinea). 

Band (1), Bond. iScand.) M.E. 
band; variant, bond. — \zt\. band; Swed. 
bajid; Dan. baand \ cf. iJu. and G. band. 
Teut. ^bandoni, n. ; from band-, 2nd grade 
of bind-an, to bind ; see Bind. Allied to 
A. S. bend, Goth, bandi, a band. Cf. Skt. 
bandha, a binding. Der. bandage (F. 
bandage) ; band-box ; bandog, q. v. 

band (2% a company of men. (F.— 
Teut.) F. bande ; Cot. ; whence G. battde, 
a gang, set. — Low Lat. banda, a gang ; 
allied to Low L. bandu7n. a banner. See 
Banner and Bind. 

Bandanna, a silk handkerchief with 
white spots. (,Hind.) VimA. bdndhim,'- Vi 
mode of dyeing in which the cloth is tied 
in different places, to prevent the parts tied 
from receiving the dye ... a kind of silk 
cloth ; ' Shakespear's Hind. Diet. 

Bandicoot, a large Indian rat.(Telugu.' 
Telugu pandi-kokkii, lit. pig-rat (Yulej — 
Tft\. panai, a \\<j, kckku. a rat. 

Bandit, (ital.- O. H. G.) In Sh.- 
Ital. batidito, outlawed, pp. of bandire, to 
proscribe. — Low L. bannire, to pioclaim. 

— O. H.G. bannan to summon; whence 
O. H. Ct. ban, ccgnate ^^ith E. ban. 

Bandog, a large dog. (,E.) Orig. 
banddog, a dog that is tied up. See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 43. See Band (i . 

Bandy, to beat to and fro, contend. 
(F. — Teut.) Orig. to band (Turbervile).— 
F. bander, ' to bind ; also, to bandie, at 
tennis;' Cot. .5"^ (^aw^Vr, to It ague against. 

— F. bande, a band ; see Band ^2). 

bandy-legged, bowdeggtd. (F. - 

Teut. a7id Scand.) Prob. fiom bandy, for- 
merly the name of a bent stick for playing 
a game called bandy, in which a ball was 
bandied ahoui. See above. 

Bane, harm. (E.) A. S. bana, a mur- 
derer, bane.-f-O. Sax. and O. H. G. banc, 
Icel. bani, Dan. and Swed. bane, death, 
murder. Teut. stem *banon-, m. Cf. Goth. 
banja, a wound. Der. bane-ful. 

Bang CO, to beat. (^Scand.' In Sh. 

— Icel. banga, Dan. banke, to beat ; O. 
Swed. bang, Icel. baiig, a hammering. Cf. 
G. bengel, a cudgel. 

Bang (2), a narcotic drug. (Pers.— 
Skt.) Pers. bang. — Skt. bhangd, hemp ; the 
drug being made from the wild hemp. 




Bangle, a kind of bracelet, (Hind.) 
Hind, hangri, a bracelet, bangle. (,H. H. 

Banian ; see Banyan. 

Banish. (F. -O. H. G.) M. E. hanis- 
shen. — O. F. banis-, stem of pies. part, of 
banir, banni?', to proscribe. — Low L. bajt- 
nire, to proclaim ; see Bandit. 

Banisters; a corruption of Balusters 

Banjo, a six-stringed musical instru- 
ment. Ital. — Gk.) A negro corruption 
of bandore, bandora, or pando7-e. — \i2\. 
pandora, a musical instrument, usually 
with three strings. — Gk. -navZovpa, the 
same. Perhaps of Fgypt. orig. 

Bank (0^ a mound of earth. (Scand.) 
M. E. banke. — O, Scand. "^banke, orig. 
form of Icel. bakki, ridge, eminence, bank 
of a river ; cf. Dan. bakke, Swed. backe, 
bank ; whence also Norman F. banque, a 
bank. Teut. stem *bankon-. Cf. O. Sax. 
and Du. bank, O H. G. banch, A. S. bene, 
a bench (see Bench). 

"bank (,2), for money. (F. — Teut.) F. 
banque, a money-changer's table or bench. 

— M. Du. banck, M. H. G. banc, a bench, 
table. See above. 

bankrupt. 'F. — Ital. — Teut. and 
L.) Modified from F. banqueroute, bank- 
ruptcy, by a knowledge of the relation of 
the word to L. rnptus, broken. — Ital. banca 
rotta, a broken bank, due to the money- 
changer's failure. — M. H. G. banc, a bench 
(see above) ; and L. rupta, fem. of rtiptus, 
pp. of rimipere, to break. 
Banner. (F. — Teut.) M. E. banei-e. 

— O. F. banere (supp. to Godefroy, s. v. 
bamere), also bajiiere. — l^ov^' Y^.'^banddj'ia 
(Ducange gives banderia), a banner. — Low 
L. bandum, bannum, a standard. From 
a Teut. (Langobardic) source ; cf. Goth. 
ba7tdwa, a sign, token. ' Uexillum, quod 
ba^idum appellant;' Paulus, de Geslis 
Langob. i. 20. Prob. allied to Ban ; see 
Skt. bhanati in Uhlenbeck. 

banneret, orig- a knight who had 
men under his own banner. (F. — Teut.) 
W..Y..baneret. — O. F. baneret [ F. banneret) ; 
lit. ' bannered.' — O. F. banere (above) ; with 
suffix -et =L. pp. -dtns. 

Bannock, a cake. (C.— L. ?) Gael. 
bannach, a cake. Perhaps from l.. pdfti- 
citim, a thing baked ; ixom pdjii-s, bread. 

Banns, pk of Ban, q.v. 

Banquet. (F.- Ital. -Teut.) Y.ban- 
q7ief. — licA. banchetto (Torriano), a feast: 
also a bench ; dimin. oi banco, a bench.— 

M. H. G. batic, a bench, table; see bank 

Banshee, a female spirit supposed to 
warn families of a death. (C.) Gael. 
beans h it h, a banshee, from Gael. bea7i, a 
woman ; sith, a fairy ; O. Irish ban-side, 
fairies (Windisch, s. v. side), from O. Ir. 
ben ( = E. qtiean), a woman, side, fairies. 

Bantam. (Java.) A fowl from Bantam^ 
in Java. 

Banter, raillery. (Unknown.) 

Bantling, an infant. (G. ?) Prob. 
considered as band-ling, one wrapped in 
swaddling bands ; with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing; but really an adaptation of 
G. bdnkling (vfith. the same sense as bank- 
art), an illegitimate child; from bank, a 
bench ; i. e. ' a child begotten on a bench,' 
not in the marriage-bed (Mahn). Cf. 
bank (2). 

Banyan, a tree. (Port. — Skt.) An 
English, not a native name for the tree. So 
called because used as a market-place for 
merchants or ' bannyans,' as we termed 
them ; see Sir T. Herbert, Travels, ed. 
1665, pp. 51, 123. — Port. ^(2;//a;/, an Indian 
merchant. — Skt. bawij, a merchant. 

Baobab, a tree. (African.) The native 
name in Senegal (Adanson). 

Baptise, Baptize. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
Formerly baptise \ i\I. E. baptisen.^O.F. 
baptiser. — l^. baptizdre. — iJik. fiairTi^eiv; 
from liaTTTtLv, to dip. Der. baptist, Gk. 
^aTTTicTTjs, a dipper; baptism, Gk. Pdirna- 
fxa, jSaTTTicrfios, a dipping. 

Bar, a rail. (F. — Late L.) M. E. barre. 

— O. F. barf-e. — Late L. barra, a bar. 
Barb (i), hook on an arrow. (F. — L.) 

F. barbe. — L. barba, a beard. Hence O. F. 
Jlesche barbelee, ' a bearded or barbed 
arrow ;' Cot. See Beard. 

barbel, a fish. (F.-L.) M.E. bar- 
belle. — O. F. barbel. — F. barbeau. — L. ba)-- 
bellus, dimin. of barbzis, a barbel. — L. 
barba, a beard. % Named from four 
beard-like appendages near the mouth. 

barber. (F.-L.) M.E. barbour.'" 
A. F. barbonr, with suffix -our=-V.vX. ace. 
-dtorem ; cf. O. F. barbier, a barber. 

— F. barbe, a beard ; from L. barba, 

Barb ^2), a horse. (F. - Barbary.) F. 
barbe, a Barbary horse ; named from the 

Barbarous. (L.-Gk.) L. barbar-us \ 
with suffix -CMJ-. — Gk. PapSapns, foreign, 
lit. stammering ; a name given by Greeks 




to express the strange sound of foreign 
languages. Cf. L. ballms, stammering. 

Sarbed, accoutred, aimed ; said of 
horses. (K.— Scand. ?) Also (more cor- 
rectly), barded. — F, bardd, ' barbed as a 
horse,' Cot. — F. barde, horse-armour.— 
Icel. barii, a brim, edge ; also, a beak 
or armed prow of a warship (cf. hartii, a 
shield) ; whence it may have been ajjplied 
to horses (Diez). 

Barbel, Barber; see Barb (i). 
Barberry, Bertierry, a shrub. 

(Med. L.) From Med. L. barbaris^ a bar- 
berry-tree ; of unknown origin. Flence 
also M. F. berbcris, Sp. berberis, and even 
mod. Arab. barbdrJs. <f[ The spelling 
should be bet-bery or barbary ; r,o con- 
nexion with berry. 

Barbican. iF.) ls\.^. barbican. '^^. 
barbacane, a barbican or outwork of a 
castle ; also, a loop-hole ; also, an outlet 
for water. Prob. from Eastern bab-khanah, 
gate-bouse ^Yule). 

Bard. (C.) W. bardd, Irish and 
Gael, bard, a poet. Cf. Gk. ({>pa((iv, to 

Bare. (E.) M.E. bar. A.S. bar. -^ 
Icel. berr ; G. bar, baar. Teut. type 
*bazoz ; cf. Lith. basas, O. Slav, bosii, 
barefooted . 

Bargain. (F. - Late L.) M. E. bar- 
gay n, sb. — O. F. bargaignier ^ bargenir, to 
chafier. — Late L. barcdnidre, to change 
about. Remoter origin unknown. 

Barge. (F.-LateL.-C?) }A.Y..barge. 
— F. /;ar^^. — Late L. barga, variant of 
barca ; see Bark (i). 

bark (i), barque. (F.-Late L. - 

C. ?) Bark is an E. spelling of F. barque, 
a little ship. — Late L. barca, a sort of ship 
or large boat, a lighter. Perhaps of Celtic 
origin (Thurneysen). — O. Irish bare (fem. 
c-stem), a bark. 

Bark K-'^, the rind of a tree. (vScand.) 
M.E. ^ar>&. — Swed. bark; Dan. bark; 
Icel. borkr. Teut. type ^barkuz. 

Bark (3), to yelp as a dog. (E.) M. E. 
berken. — A.S. beorcan, to bark. Cf. Icel. 
berkja, A. S. borciati, to bark. Perhaps 
of imitative origin. 

Barley. (E.i M.E.^^ar/Z.-A.S.^^r/zV. 
Cf. A. S. bere, barley Lowl. Sc. bear^ ; and 
-lie, for lie, like. Cf. also Goth, barizeins, 
made of barley ; l^.far, corn. 

bam. (E.' ^\.¥.. berne. A.S.bern. 
contr. form of bcr-ern (Luke iii. 17).— 
A. S. bere, barley ; and em, am, a place 

j for storing. .\.S. am is for *ran{n)j 

I cognate with Icel. rann ; see Kansack. 

, Barm (i), yeast. ;E.) M. E. bemie. 

i A. .S. beorma. •^•l.ow G. bann\ Swed. 

I bdrma ; G. bdrvie. Teut stem "^berinon- ; 

1 perhaps allied to Ferment. 

i Barm (2), the lap. (F.^ M. E. barm. 
A. S. bcarin, lap, bosom. +0. Sax.,Swed., 
l)an. bar)?i ; Iccl. barvir; Goth, barms. 

j Teut. type *bari/ioz ; from bar-, 2nd grade 

j of ber-an, to bear : see Bear (^i). 
Barn. (E.^ See Barley. 
Barnacle (1), a kind of goose. (F.— 
Med. L, Diniin. from F. bernaque vCot.) ; 
Med. L. bernaca. ' Bemacce, aues aucis 
palustnbus similes ; ' Ducange. Used by 
Giraldus Cambrensis. Cf Port, bernaca, 
berttacha; Span. /;^r;//<r/a vNeuman). ^See 
Max Miiller, Lectures, 2nd Series.) 

barnacle (2), a sort ot ?hell-fish. (F. 

I — Med. L.) The same as Barnacle (1). 

I See N. E. D. ; and Max Miiller, Lect.'on 

j Science of Language, ed. 7, ii. 583. 

Barnacles, spectacles, orig. irons put 

: on the noses of horses to keep them quiet. 

j (F.) The sense of 'spectacles' is late, 

I and due to a humorous allusion. M. E. ber- 

' nak, dimin. bernakill. " Bcrnak for hors, 
beniakill, Chamus' (i.e. L. camtts): Prompt. 

, Parv. \Ve find bernac in A. F. (in an 
Eng. MS.) ; Wright's Vocab. i. 100, 1. 3. 
Origin unknown. 

Barometer, an instrument for measur- 
ing the weight of the air. (Gk.) Gk. ^apo-, 
for iSapos, weight ; and pLtrpov, a measure ; 
see Metre. 

Baron, a title. (F.-Late L.) M.E. 
baron. '—Y. baron; older lorm ber, nom. 
(Prov. bar^, the sufhx -on marking the ace. 
case (Diez . Cf. Ital. barone, Sp varon. 
Port. z'flTi^fi?. — Late L. bare, ace. -oneni, a 
man, a male. Origin unknown. 

Barouche, a carriage. : G. — Ital. — L.'. 
G. barutsche.'-WA. baroccio, biroccio, a 
chariot, orig. a two-wheeled car. — L. bi- 
rotus, two- wheeled ; with suthx -occio 
assimilated to that of carr-occio, a chariot 
Diez'. — L. bi-, double ; and roia. a wheel. 
Barracks. (F. — Ital.) F. baraque. 

— Ital. baracca, a tent for soldiers ; cf. Sp. 
barraca. Prob. connected with Late L. 
barra, a bar, pale. 

Barrator, one who incites to quarrels 
and lawsuits. (F.) Formerly barratour, 
baratour ; from M. E. barat. deceit, strife. 

— F. barat, ' cheating, deceit, guile, al.^o 
a barter,' Cotgrave. Allied to Barter. 




^ Influenced by Icel. bardlta, a fight, a 

Barrel. (F.) M. E. barel. - O. F. (and 
F.) baril. Perhaps from Late L. barra, a 
bar, pale ; from the staves of it. 

Barren. (F.) M. E. barain.^K.Y. 
barain^ -e ; O. F. brehaing^ fern, bre- 
haiiigne, baraigne ; F. brehaigne, sterile. 
Of unknown origin. 

Barricade. (F. — Span.) F. (^ar;-/- 

<:-^7t/^. — Span, barricada, a barricade, lit. 
one made witli barrels full of earth. — Span. 
barrica, a barrel. Perhaps from Span. 
barra, a bar ; see Barrel. 

Barrier. (F.) M.E. baj-rere.-'O.Y. 
barrere [Godeiroy, s. v. basseiii\\ F. bar- 
rier e.^Y , barrcr, to bar up. — F. barre, a 
bar. See Bar. 

barrister. (Low L.) A barbarous 
word ; formed with suffix -isfcr ( = Low L. 
-istdruis) from the sb. bar. Spelman gives 
the Low L. form as barrasterms. 

Barrow (i), a burial-mound. (E.) For 
berro'cu (like parsott for person, &c.\ 
M. E. bergh, berw, a hill, mound. O. 
Merc. berg\ A. S. beorg, beorh, a mountain, 
hill, mound. 4- O. Sax., Du., G. berg, 
Teut. type "^bergoz, a hill. Cf. O. Irish b7'i, 
a mountain ; Skt. brhant, large. 

Barrow (2 ) , a wheel-barrow. (E.~) M.E. 
barewe.^K.S. bar-, 2nd grade o{ ber-an^ 
to bear, carry. Cf. M. H. G. rade-ber, 
wheel-barrow, from rad, wheel. 

Barter, to traffic. (F.) yi.Y..bartryn. 
— O. Y .bareter. barater, ' to cheat, beguile, 
also to barter ; ' Col. O. F. bai-at, ' cheat- 
ing, also a barter;' Cot. p. Of doubtful 
origin ; perhaps Celtic (Littre). Cf. Bret. 
barad, treachery, Irish brath, W. brad, 
treachery, Gael. <5'rrt'//^, advantage by unfair 
means ; Irish bradach, Gael, bradach, 
thievish, roguish ; W. bradti, to plot. 

Barton, a court-yard, manor. (E.) O. 
Northumb. bei-e-tiln (Matt. iii. 12). — A. S. 
bere, barley ; n.nd tiin, an enclosure ; see 
Barley and Town. 

Barytes, in chemistry. TGk.) Named 
from its weight. — Gk. /SapurT/j, weight. — 
Gk. (3apvs, heavy. See Gr ive (2). 

barytone. (Ital.— Gk.) Better bari- 
tone ; a musical term for a deep voice. — 
Ital. baritono, a baritone. — Gk. ^apv-s. 
heavy, deep ; and ruuos, a tone ; see Tone. 

Basalt. (L.) Also basalt es. L. ba- 
salies, a hard kind of marble in ./Ethiopia. 
An African word (Pliny). 

Base l,i), low. (F. — L.) M. E. bass. 

base. — F. bas, m., basse, fern. — Late L. bas- 
sus, low ; the same word as L. Bassus, 
proper name, which seems to have meant 
' stout, fat,' rather than merely ' low.' 

Base (2), a foundation. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
-M. E. bas. — F. base. — L. basis. — Gk. ^aais, 
a step, a pedestal, base. — Gk. base ;Sa-, 
to go (as in liaivuv, to go) ; with suffix 
•at- (for -Tt-); cf.Skt.^a-/'/(.r), a going, from 
gam, to go. See Come. 

Basement, lowest floor of a building. 
(F. -Ital.— L.) Appears in F. as sotibasse- 
j?ieni, the basement of a building ; formed 
from sons, under, a-nd-bassejuent, hoxxowed 
from Ital. bassaviento, lit. an abasement.— 
Ital. bassare, to lower. — Ital. basso^Xov^.'^ 
Late L. bassus; see Base (i). 

Basenet, Basnet; see Basinet. 

Bashaw ; the old form of Pasha. 

Bashful. {Y. ajid E.) For abash-ful; 
see Abash. Prob. by confusion with abase 
and base. 

Basil(i),aplant. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
basile (Supp. to Godefroy) ; short for 
basilic ; cf. F. basilic, ' lierb basiil ; ' Cot. 

— L. basilicum, neut. of basilicus, royal. — 
Gr. iSaoiKiKot'. basil ; neut. of PaaiKiKos, 
royal. — Gk. (3aai\(vs, a king. 

basilica, a large hall. (L.- Gk.) L. 
basilica, fern, of basilicus, royal. 

basilisk, a fabled serpent. (L.-Gk.) 
L,. basiliscus.^Gk. (iaaiXiaKus, lit. royal; 
also a lizard or serpent, named from a spot 
on the head like a crown (Pliny, viii. 21). 

— Gk. l3aaiX(vs, a king. 

Basil (2), the hide of a sheep tanned. 
{ F. — Span. — Arab.) A. F. baseyne (Liber 
Albus, 225). — F. basane, M. F. bassane.-' 
Span. bada7ia,3. dressed sheep-skin. — Arab. 
bitdnah, the [inner] lining of a garment, 
for which basil-leather was used. Cf. Arab. 
hatn, the inside. 

Basin. (F. — Late L.' M.E. bacin, 
basin. — O.Y. bacin, bacJiin; Y . bassin.-- 
Late L. bachinns, bacchinus, a basin 
(Due). Supposed to be from Late L. 
bacca, water-vessel (Isidore). Cf. \)w..bak, 
a bowl, trough. 

basinet, basenet, basnet, a light 

helmet. (F. — LateL.) In Spenser ; F. Q. 
vi. I. 31. — O.F. bacinet, dimin. of bacin, 
a basin ; from its shape. 

Basis. ^L. — Gk.) 1.. basis. "QV.^aais; 
see Base (2). 

Bask. (Scand.) M. E. baske, to bathe 
oneself, Palsgrave ; and cf. bathe hire, to 
bask herself, Ch. C. T. Nonnes Prestes 




Tale, 447. — Icel. *batiask (later haQast), 
for baSa sik, to bathe oneself. Cf. also 
Svved. dial. a( basa sig i solen, to bask in 
the sun, badjisk, fishes basking in the sun 
(Wedgwood). See Bathe. % Formed 
like Busk. 

Basket. (F. ?) M. E. basket. Mod. 
Norman F. basquette (Moisy). Origin 

Basnet ; see Basinet. 

Bass (0, the lowest part, in music. 
(F. — L.) The same word as Base (1) ; 
but so spelt in imitation of Ital. basso, 

Bass (2), Barse, a fish, (E.^ M. E. 

barse; also base, bace (with loss of r). 
A.S. beers, a perch. -fDu. baars \ G. bars, 
barsch, a perch. Named from its prickles. 
From *bars-, 2nd grade of Teut. root 
*^<?;-j-, whence also Bristle, q. v. Cf. Skt. 
bhrshtt, pointed. 

Bassoon, a base instrument. (F. — L.) 
F. basson, augmentative from F. basse, 
base (in music), fem. of bas, base. See 
Base ,0. 

Bast. (E.") M. E. bast ; bast-tre, a lime- 
tree. A. S. bcEst, inner bark of a lime- 
tree ; whence bast is made.+I^el-> Swed., 
Dan., G. bast. Often spelt bass. 

Bastard, an illegitimate child. (F.) 
M.E. bastard, applied to Will. I.-O. F. 
bastard, the same as Jils de bast, lit. ' the 
son of a pack-saddle,' not of a bed. [The 
expression a bast ibore, illegitimate, occurs 
in Rob. of Gloiic. p. 516.] — O.F. bast, a 
pack-saddle (F. bat) ; with suffix -ard, from 
O. H. G. hart, hard, first used as a suffix 
in proper names and then generally. 

Baste (i), to beat. (Scand.?) The 
form bas-it occurs as a pp. in 1553. Cf. 
Swed. basa, to strike, beat, whip. 

Baste (2), to pour fat over meat. (Un- 
known.) InSh. ' 71? /'ai-/^, linire ; ' Levins, 
cd. 1570. 

Baste (3), to sew slightly. (F. — M. 
H.G.) M.E. basten.-id.Y. bastir, F. 
batir,X.o sew slightly; a tailor's term.— 
M. H. G. besten (for *bastjan), to bind ; 
orig. to tie with bast. — G. bast, bast. See 

Bastile, a fortress. (F.) O.F. bastille, 
a building. — O. F. bastir (F. bdti)-), to 
build. Origin uncertain ; perhaps allied to 

Bastinado. (Span.) Fiom Span, bas- 
tonada, a beating. — Span, baston, a stick.— 
Late L. bastonem, ace. ; see Baton. 

Bastion. (F. — Ital.) F, bastion. ■•~\\.?^\.. 
bastione, part cf a fortif:c;.tion. — Ital. bas- 
tire, to build ; allied to O. F. bastir, to 
build. See Bastile. 

Bat (I ), a cudgel. E.) Vl.Y.. batle.- 
A.S. batt (Eng. Suidien, xi. 65). Cf. Irish 
bata, bat, a staff. Der. bat-let, with double 
dimin. suffix -l-et. 

Bat (2), a winged mammal. (Scand.) 
Bat has taken the place of M. E. bakke.'— 
Dan. bakke, now only in covc\\).aflai-bakke, 
evenmg-bat. Cf. O. Swed. natl-backa, 
'night-l)at' (Hire); for which we find 
Swed. dial, natt-batta (Rietz\ 

Batch. (K) A batch is r.s much as is 
leaked at once; hence, a quantity. M.E. 
bacche, a baking ; from A. S. bacafi, to 
bake. See Bake. 

Bate (i), to beat down, diminish. 
(F. — L.) Short for Abate, by loss of a. 

Bate (2), strife. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^/^; 
a dipt form of Debate, in the sense of 
strife. % So sXsofejue for de-fence. 

Bath. (E.) M.I-.. baj>. A.S. ^<f(J.+ 
Icel. bad; O. H.G. bad; Swed., Dan., 
Du.,G./'a^/. Teut. */>«-/£» w. neuter. The 
orig. sense was a place of warmth ; cf. 
O. H. G. bdjan (G. bdhen", to foment. 

bathe. (E.) A.S./'a9ea«, to bathe.- 
A. S. bced, a bath. And see Bask. 

Bathos. (Gk.) Lit. depth, sinking. — 
Gk. ^dOos, depth ; cf. PaOvs, deep. 

Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. (F.) F. 
baton, O.F, baston. "1. ate L. bastonem, 
ace. of basto, a cudgel. Origin doubtful ; 
connecled by Diez with Gk, idaard^eiv, to 

Battalion. ( F. — Ital. — L.) F. bataillon. 

— Ital. battaglione, a battalion. — Ital. bat- 
taglia, a battle ; see Battle below. 

Batten (i)> to giow fat; to fatten, 
(Scand.) Orig. intransitive. — Icel. /^a/;/^, 
to grow better, improve, recover. Cf. 
Goth, ga-batnan, to be bettered ; Icel. 
bat-i, s., improvement, E. Better, q. v., 
and Boot \2^. Cf. also Du. baten, to 
yield profit ; baat, profit. 

Batten (2), a wooden rod. (F.) To 
batten down is to fasten with battens. JSatten 
is merely another spelling of Bi^ton. 

Batter (i , to beat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
bat-er-en ; with frequentative suffix -er-. 

— F. battre. — L. batter e, popular form of 
battiiere, to beat. 

batter (2 . a compound of eggs, flour, 
and milk. (F. - L.) M. E. batour, bature. 

— O.F. bature, a beating. — F, battre, 10 


beat (above). So called because beaten 

battery. (F. — L.) Y.batene, batfene, 
'beating, battery ; ' Cot. — F. baitre, to beat. 

battle. (F.-L.) 'is\.Y..bataille bataile. 

— O. F. bataille, (i ; a fight, (2 ; a battalion. 

— Folk-L. /;a//<7/?<3;, neut. pi. (turned into 
a fem. sing.), fights; Late L. battudlia, 
neut ph of acij. battualis, fighting. — Late 
L. battuere, to beat. 

battledoor. (,Prov,-L.) M. Y..batyl- 
doiire. Prompt. Parv. — Prov. batedor. Span. 
batidor, a washing-beetle, which was also 
at first the sense of the E. word. [The 
corruption to battledoor was due to con- 
fusion with battle, vb. to fight.] -Prov. 
bat7'e, Span, batir, the same as F. batt7'e, to 
beat ; with sufhx -dor, which in Prov. and 
Span. = L. suffix -torem, ace. form from 
iiom. -tor^ expressing the agent. 

Battlement. (F.) M. E, batelment, 
batilment ^'bateilUinent, from O.F. bateil- 
/e<?r, to fortify ; formed from 6a/«?7/<?, battle, 
fight, but confused with O. F. bastiller, to 
fortify, derivative of O. F. bastir, to build. 
See Battle and Bastile. 

Bauble (i), a fool's mace ; (2) a play- 
thing. (F.) (I) M. E. baby II, bable, babel, 
Gower, C. A. i. 224; (2) M. E. babeL 
Tudor E. bauble. From O. F. battheL 
babel, a. child's plaything (Godefroy. 
Perhaps connected with M. Ttal. babbola, 
a toy (Florio) ; and with L. babulus, a fool. 
Cf. E. Babble. 

Bavin, a faggot. (F.) Prov. E. (Wilts.) 
bavin, a faggot ; hence, as adj., soon kin- 
dled and burnt out, i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 61. — 
O. F. baffe, a faggot, bundle (Godefroy, 
Roquefort). Remoter origin unknown. 

Ba'wd, a procurer or procuress, go- 
between. (F. - O. H. G.) The full M. E 
form is bawdstrot, P. Plowm. A. iii. 40 
(another MS, has bawde).'^0. F. *balde- 
strot (found only in the later form baiide- 
trot), equivalent to Lat. proniiba, a bride- 
woman. —O. H. G. bald, bold, gay, lively 
(cognate with E. bold)', and M. H. G. 
strotzen, vb. (E. strut). 

Bawl. (Scand.) Icel. baula, to low as 
a cow ; Swed. bola, to bellow : see Bull, 

Bay (i), reddish broAvn. (F. — L.) 
M. E. bay. — O. F. ^az. — L. badius, bay- 

bayard. (F. — L.) A bay horse; 
from the colour ; also, any horse. The 
suffix -ard is Teutonic ; see Bastard. 


Bay (2), a kind of laurel ; properly, a 
berr)-tree. (F. -L.) M. E. bay, a berry 
— F. bale, a berry. — L. bdca, a berry. 

Bay (3), inlet of the sea. (F.-L.) F. 
bale, an inlet. — Late L. baia, a harbour 
(Isidore), p. Confused with bay, a recess 
in a wall. — O.F. baee, a gap. — Late L, 
baddta, fem. of pp. oibaddre, to gape. 

Bay (4), to bark as a dog. (F. — L.) 
M. E. bayen. — O. F. baier, to yelp (Gode- 
froy). Cf. Ital. baiare, 'to barke,' Florio. 
From the sound. 

Bay (,5S in phr. a/'/^^j. (F. — L.) Yoxat 
abay. — F. abois, abbots ; etre atix ahois, to 
be at bay, lit, * to be at the baying ot the 
dogs.' PI, of F, aboi, the bark of a dog ; 
verbal sb, from F, aboyer, O. F. abater, to 
yelp, bay, -O. F. a (forL, ad) ; and baier 

Bay-window; from Bay (3, sect, |3) 
and Window. 

Bayonet. (F.) XVII cent. F. bdion- 
nette ; bayonette, a knife ; Cot, Probably 
named from Bayojine (France), where 
first made or used. 

Bazaar. (Pers.) Pers. bazar, a mar- 

Bdellium. (L,-Gk.-Heb.\ A pre- 
cious substance, — L. bdellium. — Gk. )S5e\- 
Kiov. — Heh. bedolakh (Gen. ii. 12). 

Be-, prefix, (E.) A.S. be-, prefix; 
ofien causative, as in be-mimb, to make 
numb. Note also be-head, to deprive of 
the head ; be-set, to set upon, set round ; 
be-mire, to cover with mire ; &c. 

Be, to exist. (E.) yi.Y.been. A.S. 
bean, to be.-f-W. bod, to be ; Russ. buite ; 
L. fore (pt. t. fid) ; Gk. ^v^w ; Skt. bhU. 

Beach. (E.?) XVI cent. Orig. 
' shingle,' Prob, E,, and the same as 
prov, E. bache, a valley ; also, a sandbank 
near a river. A. S. bcpx, a valley ; Kemble, 
Cod, Dipl, iii. 386. 

Beacon. (E.) W. E. beken. A. S. 
heacn, been. •\- O, Sax. bokan ; O. H. G. 
bouhhan. Teut. type *bauknom, neut. 

Bead. (E.) Orig. ' a prayer ; ' hence 
a perforated ball, for counting prayers. 
M E. bede, a prayer, a lead, A.S. bed, 
gebed, a prayer. — A. S. biddan ( - '^bidjan, 
to pray. 4" Du. bede ; G. bitte ; Goth. 
hida. a prayer. See Bid (i). 

Beadle. (F.-Tcut.) yi.Y. bedel.- 

I O. F, bedel, F. bedeau, a beadle ; lit. 'pro- 

' olaimer,' or ' messenger.' — M, H. G. biitel, 

O. H, G. butil. - b, H. G. but; weak 


^ade of biotan, G. bieten ; coj^nate with 
A. S. beodan, to bid. Cf. A. S. bydel, a 
beadle, irom beodan. See Bid (2). 

Beagle, a dog. (Unknown.) M. E. 
begle, Squire of Low Degree, L 771. 

Beak. (F.-C.) ^l.E. bec.^F. bee- 
Late L. beccns, of Gaulish origin. Cf. 
Irish bacc, \V. bach, a crook, a hook. 

Beaker. (.Scand. — L. — Gk.) M.E. 
biker, byker.'^lccl. bikarr, a cup. + O. 
Sax. bikeri\ Du. beker; G. becher ; Ital. 
bicchiere. (3. I'erhaps from Late L. bicd- 
rium, a wine-cup. — Gk. ^ikos, an earthen 
wine-vessel ; a word of Eastern origin. 

Beam .1), a piece of timber. (E.) 
M.E. beem, A. S. beam, a tree. + Du. 
boo?n ; G. baiim. Cf. also Icel. badtnr, a 
tree ; Goth, bagms. 

Beam (2), a ray. (E.) [Usually iden- 
tified with Beam (i\ specially used to 
signify a column of light; cf. A. S. byr- 
nende beam, * the pillar of fire.'] But A. S. 
beam, a beam as in sunne-beani, a sun- 
beam) answers to a Teut. type *bazi-?noz. 
prob. cognate with Gk. (pav-ois, light, (pdos 
(for (pafos), also t/jcD?, light. See Phos- 

Bean. (E.) M. E. bejte. A. S. bean. 
+ Du. boon; Icel. baun; O. H. Q.pona, 
bona (G. bohne). Teut. type '^baund, f. 

Bear (1), to carry. (E.) M.E. beren. 
A. S. beran.'iflc^. hera ; O. H. G. bera7i ; 
CiO'Cq.. bairan \ also 'L. ferre\ Gk. (pepav ; 
Skt. b/ir ; O. Ir. berim, \ bear ; Russ. brate, 
to take, carry ; Pers. burdan, to bear. 
(VBHER.) Der. upbear. 

Bear (2), an animal. ;E.) M. E. bere. 
A. S. bera.-\-\cft\. bera '\bjdrii)\ O. H. G. 
bero, pero, G. bar; Du. beer. Cf. I>ith. 
beras, brown (Kluge"). TQxxt.iypt^beron-. 

feeard. E.) U.'E.berd. A.^'. beard. 
•^Dw.baard ; G. bart. Teut. type '^bardoz. 
Allied to Russ. boroda ; Lith. barzda ; L. 
barba, beard; from Idg. type *-bhardhd. 

Beast. (F.-L.) M.E. beste.~O.Y. 
beste (F. bete' . — 1^. bestia, a beast. 

Beat. lE.) M. E. beten. A. S. beatan. 
+ Icel. bauta ; O. H. G. pozan, M. H. G. 
bozen. Teut. type *bautan-. 

Beatify. (F.-L.) F. beatifer.-^l.. 
bedtificdre, to make happy. — L. bedti-, for 
bedtus. pp. of bedre, to bless, make happy ; 
and -fie-, for facere, to make. 

beatitude. (F.-L.) F. beatitude. 
— L. bedtitiidinem, ace. from nom. bedti- 
iudo, blessedness. — L. bedti-, for beaius, 
blessed ; with suffix -tudo. 


Beau, a dressy man. (F. — L.) F. beau ; 
O. F. beL — Y.. belhis, fair. For *ben-lus ; 
from ben- (as in ben-e), variant of bon-, as 
in bon-us. good. Brugm. ii. § 67. 

beauty. (F.-L.) M. E. beute. - A. F. 
betite, O.V. beatiie, beltet. — 'L. bellitdteju, 
ace. of bellitds, fnirness. — L. bellus, fair 
(above). Der. beauti-ftil, beatde-ous. 

Beaver 1), an animal. (E.) M. E. 
bever. A. S. befer, beofor. 4- Du. bever ; 
Icel. bjdrr; Dan. bcever ; Swed. bdfver \ 
G. biber; Russ. bobr' ; Lilh. bebriis ; L. 
fiber. Skt. babhrus (1) bro\\n ; (2) a large 
ichneumon. Teut. type '^bebruz ; Idg. type 
*bhcbhrtis, reduplicated deriv. of bhru-, 
brown, tawny. Brugm. i. § 566. See 

Beaver (2), Bever, lower part of a 

helmet. (F.) Altered by confusion with 
beaver-hat. — M. E. baviere. — O. F. bavi^re, 
a child's bib ; also, the bever (beaver) of 
a helmet. — F. baver, to slaver. — F. /;az/(?, 
foam, slaver. Perhaps from the move- 
ment of the lips ; cf. Bret, baboitz, t.laver. 

Beaver (3 , Bever, a short imme- 
diate repast. iF. — L.) M.E. beuer { = 
bever).'— A. F. beivre, a drink ; substantival 
use of O. F. bev7-e, bcivre, to drink.— L. 
bibere, to drink. 

Becalm, to make calm. See Be- and 

Because. (E. a«</F. — L.) See Cause. 

Bechance. (E. and F. — L.) See 

Beck (i), to nod, give a sign. (E.) 
M. E. bek-yn, the same as bek-nyn, to 
beckon (Prompt. Parv.). See Beckon. 

Beck \2), a stream. (Scand.) M.E. 
bek. — lceX. bekkr; Swed. back; Dan. bcek; 
a stream. Teut. type "^bakkiz. Also 
Teut. type '^bakiz ; whence Du. beek, a 
beck ; G. bach. 

Beckon. (E.) M. E. beknen. A. S. 
becnan, beacnian (also biectian), to make 
signs. — A. S. beacn, a sign. See Beacon. 

Become. (E.) A. S. becuman, to 
arrive, happen, turn out, befall. + Goth. 
bi-kwiman ; cf. G. be-qnem, suitable, be- 
coming. From Be- and Come. 

Bed. (E.) M. E. bed. A. S. bed, bedd. 
+ Du. bed; Goth, badi ; G. bett. Teut. 
type ^badjom, n. 

bedrid, bedridden. (E.) M.E. 

bedrede (Ch. C. T. 73; i); bedreden (P. 
PL B. viii. 85 ). A. S. bedrida, bedreda, lit. 
' a bedrider ; ' one who can only ride on a 
bed, not on a horse. — A. S. bed, a bed ; and 




*rid-a, one who rides, from the weak 
grade of rldan, to ride. 

bedstead. (E.) M. E. bedstede.^ 
A. S. bed, a bed ; and stede, a stand, 
station ; see Stead. 

Bedabble, Bedaub, Bedazzle, 
Bedew, Bedim, Bedizen. See 

Dabble, Daub, &c. 

Bedell. (Low L. - Teut.) From the 
Latinised form {bedelhis), of O. F. and 
M. E. bedel ; see Beadle. 

Bedlam. (Palestine.) M. E. bedlevi, 
corruption of Bethlehem, in Palestine. 
Now applied to the hospital of St. Mary 
of Bethlehem, for lunatics. 

Bedouin. (F. — Arab.) 0.¥. bedouin, 
a wandering Arab ; orig. pi, — Arab, bada- 
win, pi. of Arab, badauny., wandering in 
the desert. — Arab, badw, a desert. 

Bedridden, Bedstead ; see Bed. 

Bee. (E.) M.K. bee. A. S. ^<?<7, earlier 
bio.-^Dx\. bij\ O. H. G. hia. Cf. G. 
; Ir. bea-ch. Perhaps 
bhi, to fear ; O. H. G. 

bie-ne ; Lith. bi-tle 
' flutterer ' ; cf Skt. 
bi-ben, to tremble. 

Beech. (E.) A 

becen, adj., beechen 

S. boece, bece, a beech ; 
; both derivatives (by 
mutation) from the older form boc. See 

Beef. (F.-L.) M.E. beef.^K.Y. be/; 
O. F. boef (F. bceiif\. — \a. bouem, ace. of 
bos, an ox.-j-Gk. ii'>m, ox; Ir. bo, Gael, bo, 
W. binv, Skt. go, A. S. en, a cow ; see Cow. 
beef-eater, a yeoman of the guard. 
(Hyb.) Lit. ' an eater of beef; ' hence, an 
attendant. Cf. A. S. hldf-ceta, a loaf-eater, 
a servant. *(| The usual derivation (from 
Mr. Steevens' imaginary beaufetier, later 
spelt buffetier) is historically baseless. 

Beer. (E.^ M. E. bere. A. S. beor. + 
Du. and G. b/er ; Icel. bjorr. 

Beestings ; see Biestings. 

Beet. (L.) M.E. ^^/^. K.Si.bete.^ 
L. beta, beet (Pliny). 

Beetle (i\ an insect. (E.) Prov. E. 
bittle. A. S. bitela, lit. ' biting one.' - A. S. 
bit-, weak grade of bltan, to bite ; with adj. 
suffix -ol ; cf. wac-ol, wakeful. See Bite. 

Beetle (2), a large mallet. (E.) M. E. 
betel. A. S. bytel { = O. Wes. ""bietel, 
O. Merc. H'etel) ; cf. Low G. botel. Teut. 
ty^t* baut-iloz, ' a beater ; ' ivom*baut-an-, 
to beat ; see Beat. 

Beetle (3\ to overhang. (E.) From 
the M. E. adj. bitel-brouwed, * beetle- 
browed ; ' P. Plowm. A. v. 109. Grig, 
sense doubtful ; either from M. E. bitel, 

sharp, or from M. E. bitil, a beetle. In 
either case from bit-, weak grade of bitan, 
to bite. 

Befall, Befool, Before ; see Fall, 


Beg. (F.) M. E. beggen. A. F. begger, 
Langtoft, i, 248 ; used as equiv. to be- 
gtcigne}', Britton, I. 22. § 15. Formed, 
from the sb. beggar ; see below. 

Beget, Begin; see Get, Gin (i). 

Beggar. (F.) M. E. beggare \ cf. 
Begger^2i Beguin or Beghard, Rom. Rose, 
7256 (F. text, Begiiin).'-0.¥. begard, be- 
gart, Flemish beggaert, Late L. Beghardus. 
Formed, with suffix -ard (G. -hart), from 
Begue, a man's name. See Beguine. 

Begone, Beguile ; see Go, Guile. 

Beguine, one of a class of religious de- 
votees. (F.) Chiefly used in the fern. ; F. 
bdguine, Low L. beghJna, one of a religious 
order, first established at Liege, about A. D. 
1207. Named after Lambert Le Begue, 
priest of Liege (12th c.) ; whence also 
Beguin, Beghard, masc. Le Begue means 
' stammerer,' from the verb begui, to stam- 
mer, in the dialect of Namur ; allied to 
Picard bigiier, F. begayer. 

Begum, in the E. Indies, a lady of the 
highest rank. (Pers. — Turk.) Pers. be- 
gum, a queen, lady of rank. — Turk, beg, 
bey, a bey, governor. See Bey. 

Behalf, interest. (E.) Formerly in the 
M. E. phrase on my behalue = on my 
behalf, on my side ; substituted for the 
A. S. phr. on {mJji) healfe, on the side of 
(me^i, by confusion with be healfe {me), 
used in the same sense. From A. S. be, 
by ; and healf, sb., side. See Half. 

Behave. (E.) I.e. to ^,?-//^w oneself, 
or control oneself ; from have with prefix 
be-, the same as prep. by. 

behaviour. (E. ; with F. suffix^ 
Formed abnormally from the verb to 
behave ; confused with ¥. sb. avoir, (i) 
wealth, (2) ability. Cf. Lowl. Sc. havings, 
(I' wealth, (2) behaviour. 

Behead. (E.) From Be- and Head. 

Behemoth. (Heb.- Egypt.) Heb. 
behefjwth, said to be pi. of behemah, a 
beast ; but probably of Egypt, origin. 

Behest, Behind, Behold. (E.) See 

Hest, Hind, Hold (i). 

Behoof, advantage. (E.) M.Y^.to bi- 
houe, for the advantage of. A. S. behof, 
advantage. + 0. Fries, bihof, Du. behoef, 
advantage ; G. behuf', Swed. behof; Dan. 
behov, need. {3. The prefix be is A. S. be^ 




E. by. The simple sb. appears in Icel. 
hof, moderation, measure; cf. Goth, ga- 
hohains, temperance, self-restraint. From 
A. S. hdf, 2nd stem of the vb. Heave. 

behove, to befit. (E.) A. S. bchdjian, 
verb formed from the sb. behof above. + 
Du. behoeven, from sb. behoef \ Swed. be- 
hof va ; Dan. behove. 

Belabour, Belay; see Labour, 

Belch. (E.) M. E. belken. A. S. 
bealcian, bcekan, to utter; translatintj^ L. 
eructd re, used figuratively. Cf. bce/c, sh.-f- 
Du. ba/ken, to bray. See Bellow and Bell. 

Beldam. (F. — L.) Ironically for be/- 
dame, i.e. fine lady. — F. belle daf/ie. — h. 
bella, fem. of bellus, fair ; and domiiia, 
lady, fem. oi Joniinus, lord. See Beau. 

Beleaguer. (Du.) See Leaguer. 

Belemnite, a fossil. (Gk.) Gk. 
PeXfjxv'iTTjs, a stone shaped like the head 
of a dart. — Gk. PiXe/uvov, a dart. — Gk. 
0d\\€iv, to cast. (v'GwEL.) 

Belfry. (F. — G.) Orig. 'a watch- 
tower.' Corrupted (partly by inlluence of 
bell) from M. E. ber/rajy, berfrey, a watch- 
tower.— O.F. berfrei, berfroi, belfroi (F. 
beffroi). — M. II. G. bercfrit^ a watch-tower. 
— M. H. G. be}-c-, for bci^g-, base of bergen, 
to protect; and M.H.G. frit, f ride, a 
place of security, a tower, the same word 
as G. fricde, peace ; hence the lit. sense 
is ' a protecting shelter,' watch-tower. 
Allied to Borough and Free. 

Belie. (E.) A. S. beleogan, to tell lies 
about. From be-, by, prefix ; and leogaii, 
to lie. See Lie (2). 

Believe. (E.) Vl.Y.. behiien {belevett^). 
The prefix be- was substituted for older 
^(?-. — O. Merc, gelefaji, A.S. geliefan, ge- 
lyfan, to believe; lit. to hold dear.-f-Du. 
gelooven ; O. II. (j. gilotiban, G. g-lauben ; 
Goth, ga-huibjan. Teut. type *latibian, 
with A.S. ge-, prefix; from iaiib, 2nd 
stem of Teut. root */^«(^ = Idg. -y^LEUBH, 
to like. See Lief. 

Bell. (E.) M. E. belle. A. S. belle, 
a bell.+Du. bel. Perhaps named from its 
loud sound; cf. A.S. bellan, to roar, 
bellow. See Bellow. 

Belle, a fair lady. (F.-L.) F. belle, 
fem. of F. beau, O. F. bel, fair. — L. belhis, 
fair, fine. See Beau. 

belladonna. (Ital.-L.^ \\.^\.bella 

donna, fair lady. — L. bella domina; see 
Beldam. A name given to the nightshade, 
from the use of it by ladies to give ex- 

pression to the eyes, the pupils of which 
it expands. 

Belligerent. (L.) More correctly, 
bclligerant. — \.. belligerant-, stem of pres. 
pt. of belligerdre, to carry on war. — L. 
belli-, for bello-, stem of belltun, war ; 
s;ercre, to cany on (war\ Bcllum is for 
O. Lat. diielliim ; s.e Duel. 

BellO'W. (E.) M, E. belwcn (c. 1300). 
Not fully explained. It may have resulted 
from confusion of A.S. bellan, to roar, 
bellow, with the str. verb belgan^ to be 
angry, or with the rare verb bylgian, to 
bellow (which would have given billow). 
See Bell. Cf. Bull. 

Bellows. (Scand.) M. E. beli, bely, 
belozv, a bag, but also used in the special 
sense of * bellows.' Bellows is the pi. of 
M. E. below, a bag, from Icel. belgr \ and 
M. E. beli (from A. S.) also means belly. 
Cf. G. blase-balg, a * blow-bag,' a pair 
of bellows ; A. S. bldst-belg, bellows, lit. 
' blast-! jag.' See below. 

belly. (E.) M. E. bely. A. S. bcrlg, 
belg, a bag, skin (for holding things) ; 
hence (later), belly. +Icel. belgr, bag; 
Du. balg, skin, belly; Swed. bdlg, belly, 
bellows ; Dan. bcelg, husk, belly ; (i. 
balg; Goth, balgs, bag. Teut. type '-^balgiz. 
F'rom halg-, 2nd stem of Teut. root belg 
( = Idg. VBHELGH), to swell. Cf. Irish 
bolg, bag, belly ; bolgaim, I swell ; W. bol, 
belly. Der. belloivs^ q. v. 

Belong, Beloved, Below; see 

Long, Love, Low. 

Belt, a girdle. (L.^ M. E. belt. A. S. 
belt. -^-Ictl. belli ', Irish and Gael, ball, a 
belt, border; O. H. G. balz; Swetl. bdlte; 
Dan. bcBlte. All boi rowed from L. balteus, 
a belt. 

Beltane, Old May-day. (C.) O.Irish 
<5i^/-/^;z.?(\Vindisch); lit. 'fire-kindling,' from 
an old custom. Celtic type '^belo-te{p)nid\ 
where belo- is cognate with A. S. bccl, a 
blaze, and tepnid is from *tepnos, type of 
O. liish ten, fire ; cf. L. tip-ere, to be warm 
(Fick. ii. 125, 164). 

Bemoan. (E.) From Be- and 

Bench. (E.^ M. E. bemhe. - A. S. 
benc.-if-YiVi. bank, a bench, table, bank for 
money ; Swed. bdnk ; Dan. bcenk ; Icel. 
bekkr; G. bank. Teut. type *bankiz. 
Doublet, bank. 

Bend (i), to bow, curve. (E.) M. E. 
bcnden. A. S. bendan, orig. to string a 
bow, fasten a band or string to it ; cf. A. S. 




bend, a band ( == Teut. ^bandiz) ; from band, 
2nd stem oihind-an, to bind. See Bind. 
So also Icel. benda, to bend a bow ; allied 
to band, a cord. 

bend 1,2), an oblique band, in heraldry. 
(F. — G.) O. F. bende, also bande, a 
band ; see Cotgrave. Tlie same word as 
F. bande, a band of men ; see Band (2). 

Beneath. (E.) M. E. bemthe. A.'S. 
beneodan, prep, below. — A. S. be-, by; 
jieoSan, adv. below, from the base neo5- 
in neod-era, nether ; with adv. suffix -an. 
Cf. G. nied-en, nied-er ; see Nether. 

Benediction. _(F.-L.) F. benedic- 
tion. — L. benedictioneni, ace. of benedictio, 
a blessing. — L. benedictus, pp. of benc- 
dJcere, to speak well, bless. — L. bene, well ; 
and dicere, to speak (see Diction). 

benison. (F. — L.) M^Y.. beneysun. 

— O. F. beneison. — L. ace. benedictiotiem. 
Benefactor. (L.) L. benefactor, a 

doer of good. — L. be7ie, well ; and factor, 
a doer, from facere, to do. 

benefice. (F. — L.) M. E. benefice. 

— F. benefice (Cot.).— Late L. bc7ieficium, 
a grant of an estate ; L. beneficiuin, a 
well-doing, a kindness. — L. bene, well ; 
andy^^r^r^, to do. 

benefit. (F.-L.) Modified (badly^ 
from M. E. benfet. - O. F. bienfet (F. 
bienfait).-'!^. benefactum, a kindness con- 
ferred ; neut. of pp. of bcnefacere, to do 
well, be kind. 

Benevolence. (F. — L.) Y. benevo- 
lence (Cot.). — L. beneiiolentia, kindness.- 
L. ace. bene uolentem, kind, lit. well- 
wishing. —L. bene, well; and uolentem, 
ace. of uolens, wishing, from uolo, I wish 
(see Voluntary). 

Benighted. , E.) See Night. 

Benign. (F. - L.) O. F. benigne (F. 
benin). — L,. benignus, kind ; short for "^be- 
nigeJius. — 'L. beni-, for ^benns, variant of 
bonus, good ; and -genus, born (as in 
indigenus)^ from genere, old form of 
gignere, to beget. 

Benison, blessing ; see Benedic- 

Bent-grass. (E.) M. E. bent. A. S. 
beonet, for earlier *bin2it, bent-grass (in 
place-names .-{-O. H. G. binnz, G. binse, 

Benumb. From Be- and Numb. 

Benzoin, a resinous substance. (F, — 
Ital. — Arab.) F. benjoin. ' gum benzoin 
or gum benjamin ; ' Cot. — Ital. ben- 
zoino, bengivi (Torriano). The Ital. lo 

hengivi seems to have been substituted for 
the Arab, name, lubdn jdwi, lit. frankin- 
cense of Java. (Further corrupted to gziin 

Bequeath. (E.) A.S. bccwedan to 
assert, bequeath. — A. S. be-, prefix ; and 
cwedan, to say, assert. See Quoth. 

bequest. (E.) M. E. biqueste, bi- 
quiste. Formed, with added -te (cf. M. E. 
reqzieste), from A. S. *biczviss, *becwiss 
(not found), sb. due to beczuedan, to be- 
queath, assert, say. The components of 
this form occur ; viz. be-, bi-, prefix, and 
cwlss (in ge-czvis), a saying. Czviss is 
from Teut. *kzuessiz, Idg. *g{w)ettis, formed 
(with suffix -//-) from Idg. base *g(7v)et-, 
whence cwedan, to say (Sievers, A. S. 
Gr. § 232) ; and becwiss is thus a regular 
deriv. of becweban, to bequeath. 

Bereave. (E.) A.S. bereafian, to 
dispossess ; see Beave. 

Bergamot (i), an essence. (Ital.) Ital. 
bergai7iotta, the essence called bergamot. — 
Ital. Beigamo, a town in Lombardy. 

Bergamot (2), a kind of pear. (F.— 
Ital. —Turk.) F. bergamotte (Cot.).— 
Ital. bej'gamott-a (pi. -^), ' a kind of excel- 
lent pears, come out of Turky ; ' Torriano. 

— Turk, beg arniudi, 'prince's pear.' — 
Turk, beg, prince ; armud, pear. 

Berry. (E.) '^l.Y.berie. K.S.berie, 
-|-Du. bes, bezie ', Icel. ber; Swed. bar -^ 
Dan. bcsr; G. bee re; Goth. basi. All 
from a base bas-. Lit. * edible fruit ; ' cf. 
Skt. bhas, to eat. Dor. goose-bey-ry ^ 

Berth. (E.) Formerly ' convenient 
sea-room.' A 'suitable position.' From 
A.S. byr- (as in ge-byr-ian, to suit) with 
suffix -th. Cf. Du. beurt, a turn ; Low G. 
bort, good position. 

Beryl. (L.-Gk.-Skt.) ls\.Y..beril. 

— O. F. benl.-~.l^. beryllus.'^Gk. firjpvK- 
Aos ; cf. Arab, billaur, crystal, beryl.— 
Skt. vai^iirya (Prakrit veliiriyd), orig. 
beryl, brought from Vidura in S. India 
(Yule ; Bohtlingk). 

Besant, Bezant, a gold circle, in 

heraldry. (F.-L.-Gk.) Intended to 
represent a gold coin of Byzantium.— 
O. F. besant, ' an ancient gold coin ; ' 
Cot. — L. Byzantiu7n. •~G\i. Bv^avnov, the 
name of Constantinople. 

Beseech. (E.) M. E. besechen. From 
be-, prefix; and sechen. Southern form 
corresponding to Northern seken, to seek. 
See Seek. 




Beseem, Beset, Beshrew, Be- 
side, Besiege; see Seem, Sit, Sbrew, 


Besom, a broom. [E.^. M.E. desum, 
besme. A. S. besvia.'\^V>\\. hezcni\ G. besen. 
Tent, type *bes7non-, m. 

Besot, Bespeak ; see Sot, Speak. 

Best; see Better. 

Bestead ; from Be- and stead. 

Bestial. (F.-L.) F. bestial. -^ I., 
besttdlis, beast-like. — L. bestia, a beast. 
See Beast. 

Bestow, Bestrew, Bestride ; see 

stow, Ike. 

Bet, to wager. (F. — Scand.) Short for 
abet, in the sense to maintain, or ' back,' 
as abet is explained in Phillips, ed. 1706. 
See Abet. Der. bet, sb. 

Betake. kE. and 'Sca.nd.) See TaJse. 

Betel, a species of pepper. (Port.— 
Malayalim.) Port, betel, bete/e.'-'Malaya- 
lim veiXila, i. e. vent ila, mere leaf (Yule). 

Bethink, Betide, Betimes, Be- 
token ; see Think, &c. 

Betray. (F. — L. ; 7vith E. prefix.^ 
From be-, prefix ; and O. F. t) air [V . 
trahir), to deliver up, from L. tradere. 
^ The prefix be- was due to confusion 
with bewray. See Tradition. 

Betroth.. (E.) See Troth. 

Better, Best. (E.) 1. From the 
Tcut. base '^bat, good, was formed the 
Tent. comp. stem '^batizon-, as in Goth. 
batiza, better, A. S. betera (with mutation 
from a to e), M. E. better. The A. S. bet, 
M. E. bet, is adverbial and comparative. 
2. From the same base was formed Goth. 
batista, best, A.S. betst for bet-ist), M. K. 
best. Similarly Du. beter, best; Icel. betri, 
beztr ; Dan bedre, bedst ; Swed. battre, 
bast ; G. besser, best. Der. (from the 
snme base") batten, boot (2\ 

Between. fE.) K.*^. betweonan,ht- 
tween ; earlier betzueonuf?i. — A. S. be, by ; 
tweonnm, dat. pi. of tweone, double, allied 
to twd, two ; see Two. Here tweomwi 
(also twtnuni) answers to Goth, fweihnaim, 
dat. pi. of tiveihnai, 'two each.' Cf. L. 

betwixt. (E.> (M. E. betwix; to 
which t was afterwards added — A. S. 
betwix, betwux, betweox, bet'veohs, appa- 
rently extended from A. ?^.beiwth, between. 
From A. S. be by ; and ^twih, answering 
to tweih- in Goth, tweiknai, two each. 
See above. 

Bevel, sloping; to slope, slant. {Y^ 

In Sh. Sonn. 121. — O.F. *bivel, *btwely 
only found in mod. F. biveau, and in F. 
buveau, ' a kind of scjuire 'carpenter's rule], 
having moveable and compasse branches, 
or the one branch compasse and the other 
straight; some callit a (5<?^'<j// ; ' Cot. Cf. 
Span. ha/Vid. Origin unknown. 
Bever, a potation ; see Beaver (3). 
beverage. (F.-L.) O.F. bevrage 
(Supp. to Godefroy), drink. —O. F. bevre, 
boivre, to drink. — L. bibere, to drink. 

bevy. (F. — L.) It answers to O. F. 
bevee, a drink ; from O. P\ bevre, to drink 
(above). Cf. Ital. beva, a bevy (Florio) ; 
also, a drink (Toiriano). 
Bewail, Beware, Bewilder, 
Bewitch; see "Wail, Ware, Wild, 

Bewray, to disclose. (E.) Properly 
to accuse. M. E. beivraien, biwj-eyen, to 
disclose. A. S. be-, prefix (see Be-) ; and 
■w> egan, to accuse (for older *zurogian^ 
with mutation from to e). Cf. Icel. 
rcEgja (for Tjrcegja), to slander, Swed. rdja, 
to discover ; O. Fries, biwrogia, to accuse ; 
Goth, wrohjan. to accuse ; G. riigen, to 
censure, p. These are causal verbs, from 
the base wroh- seen in Goth, ivrdhs, 
accusation, Icel. rog, a slander. 
Bey, a governor. (Turk.) Turk, beg 
(pron. nearly as bay), a lord, prince. 
Beyond. (E.i W.E.beyonde. A.S. 
begeondan, beyond. — A. S. be-, for be or bi, 
by ; and geond, prep, across, beyond, from 
geon, yon. Cf. Goth, jaindre, thither, 
Jaind, there ; from Jains, that, yon. See 

Bezel, the part of a ring in which the 

stone is set. (F.) Also spelt basil; it 

also means a sloping edge. — O. F^. bisel 

(Roquefort) ; mod. F. biseau,^ bezel, basil, 

slant, sloped edge. Cf. Span, bisel, the 

slanting edge of a looking-glass. Per- 

i haps from L. bis, double. 

I Bezique, a game at cards. (F. — Pers.) 

I F. besigue (with g) ; also besy (Littre). 

^, The first form = Pers. bdzichah, sport, a 

, game : the second = Pers. bdzi, play. — 

j Pers. bdzidan, to play. [A guess.] 

Bezoar, a stone. (F. — Span.- Arab. 
— Pers.) O. F. bezoar, F. <?'/3£'an/. — Span. 
bezoar. — Arab, bddizahr. — Pers. pdd-zahr, 
bezoar ; lit. * counter-poison,' from its 
supposed virtue. — Pers. pad, expelling ; 
and zahr, poison. 

Bezoniau, a beggarly fellow. (F.) 
In 2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 118. Formerly 



bisonian ; made i)y adding E. -ian to 
F. disogm, spelt bisonpie, in Cotgiave, 
*a filihe knave . . . bisonian.' Or from 
Ital. bisogno, need, want ; whence bisogni, 
pi. ' new-levied soiildiers, such as come 
. . . needy to the wars*; Torriano (not in 
Florio). Oiigin unknown. 

Bi-, prefix. ( L.) L. bi-, for *dtn-, twice. 
— L. duo, two. So also Gk. ti-, Skt. dvi. 
See Two. 

Bias. (F. — L.) F. biais, a slant, 
slope; hence, inclination to one side. Cf. 
Ital. s-biesco, s-biescio, oblique. Origin 

Bib. (L.) A cloth under a child's 
chin; from M. E. bibben, to drink. — L. 
bibere, to drink. Hence 7vine-bibber 
(Luke vii. 34) ; L. bibens tivmin vVulg.). 

Bible. (F.-L.-Gk.) y^.V^-bible." 
F. bible. - Fate L. biblia, fem. sing. ; for 
L. biblia, neut. pl.-Gk. (ii0\ia, collection 
of writings, pi. of l3ifi\iov, little book, 
dimin. of ^i/3Ao?, a book. — Gk. /3i;y3Aos, 
Egyptian papyrus ; hence, a book. 

bibliography. Gk.) Gk. Pi0\io-, 

for ^i(i\iov ; and ypdipnv, to write. 

bibliomania. (Gk.) Gk. pifi\io-, 
for ^iliXiov ; and Mania. 

Bice. (F.) Properly ' grayish ' ; hence 
bleiv byce, grayish blue.— F. bis, dusky. 
Cf. Ital. bigio, gray. Origin unknown. 

Bicker, to skirmish. (Uncertain.) 
M.E. biker, a fight ; bikeren, to skirmish. 
Cf. M. E. beken, to peck ; biken, to thrust 
with a pointed weapon. Apparently from 
O. F. bequer, to strike with the beak (see 
Beak' ; or from A. S. becca, a pick-axe. 
Cf. Du. bikken. to notch a miil-stone ; also 
E. Fries, bikkcni to hack, gnaw, from 
bikken, to hack, bikke, a picka.xe (G. 
bicke) . 

Bicycle. (Hybrid.) In use since 186S. 
Coined from Bi- and Cycle. 

Bid (i)j to pray. (E.) Nearly obso- 
lete ; preserved in bidding-prayer, and in 
to bid beads (pray prayers). M. E. bidden. 
A. S. biddan '\-V>w.Unddcn\ G. bitten; 
Icsl. bi(ija\ Goth, bidjan. Teut. type 
*bidjan-, allied to L. fldo, I trust ; Gk. 
ireidoj, I prevail upon ; fromy'BHEIDH. 
See Hrugm. i. § 589 ; ii. § 890. 

Bid v2), to command. (E.) M. E. beden. 
— A. S beodan, to command. + Du. bieden, 
to offer ; Icel. bjoda ; G. bieten ; Goth. 
ana-biudan ; Gk. ncvOofxai, I enquire ; Skt. 
b/ed/i, to understand. Teut. type *be!idan-. 
^VBHEUDH.) Confused with Bid(i), 

the forms of which have taken the place of 
those of Bid (2). 

Bide, to await, wait. (E.) M. E. biden. 
A. S. bidan. 4- Du. beiden ; Icel. bi^a ; 
Swed. bida ; Dan. bie ; Goth, beidan ; 
O. H. G. bitajt. Teut. type ^bidan-. 

Biennial, lasting two years. (L.) 
Formed as if from bienni-nm, a space of 
two years ; the true J,., word is bienndlis. 
— L. bi- two ; and anndlis, lasting a year, 
yearly. — L. annus. So also tri-ettnial, 
from tri- (for ires), three; quadi'-ennial , 
more correctly qiiadri-ennial, from qnadri- 
(for qnadrus), belonging to iour ; quinqui- 
ennial, from quinqui- (for quinqne), live ; 
dec-ennial, from dec-em, ten ; cent-ennial, 
from centum, a hundred ; mill-ennial, 
from viille, a thousand, &c. 

Bier, a frame on which a corpse is 
borne. (E.) M.E. beo'e, bcere. A. S. 
b^r, ber. — A. S. b(^r-, 3rd stem oiberan, to 
carry. + Du. baar ; O. H. G. bdra (G. 
bahj-e) ; allied to Icel. barar, fem. pi. ; 
l^.feretrum ; Gk. (pipirpov. 

Biestings, Beestings, the first 

milk given by a cow after calving. (E.) 
A. S. by sting, byst (for * blest), thick milk. 
From A. S. beost, first milk after calving. 
-|-Du, biesi; G. biest-milch. 

Bifurcated, two-pronged. (L.) Late 
L. bifurcatus. pp. of bifiircdri, to part in 
two directions. — L. bi -furciis, two- 
pronged ; from bi-{s\ double; /urea, a 

Big. (Scand. ?) M. E. big ; also bigg, 
rich (Hampole). Not A. S. Cf. prov. E. 
bug. big, bog, boastful. Prob. of Scand. 
origin. Cf. Norw. btigge, a strong man. 

Bigamy, a double marriage. (F. — L. 
and Gk.) F. biga/nie.'~'L^^Q L. bigamia ; 
a clumsy compound from L. /'/-, double 
(see Bi-), and Gk. -yafxia. from ydfios, 
marriage. It should rather have been 
digamy (Gk. Siyafxia). 

Biggen, a night-cap. (F.) M. F. 
beguin, • a biggin for a child ; ' Cot. 
Named from the caps worn by beguines ; 
see Beguine. 

Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (E.) 
M. E. big/it. A. S. by/it, as in wc^teres 
byht, a bight (bay") of water see Grein).— 
A.S. bug-, weak grade of bugan, to bow, 
bend ; with mutation of u to^.-{-G. bucht. 
Teut. type *bichtiz. See Bow 1). 

Bigot, an obstinate devotee to a creed. 
(F.) F. bigot, ' an hypocrite, supersti- 
tious fellow;' Cot. Applied by the 



French to the Normans as a term of 
reproach i^Wace). Of unknown origin. 
It is an older word than beguine, with 
which it seems to have been somewhat 
confused at a later period. 

Bijou, a trinket. (F. — C?) Y. bijou. 
Perhaps from Bret, bizoii, a ring with a 
stone, a finger-ring, from biz, a finger. 
Cf. Corn, bisoti i^the same), from bis, 
bes, a finger; W. byson, ring, from bys, 

Bilberry, a whortle-berry. (Scand.) 
Dan. bollebar, a bilberry ; where beer is E. 
berry. In M. Dan., b'olle had the sense of 
Dan. btigle, i. e. boss (Kalkar). Cf. Norw. 
bola, a swelling, tumour. % North Enir. 
blea-berry - blue-berry ; see Blaeberry. 
In both cases, -berry takes the E. form ; 
see Berry. 

Bilbo, a sword ; BilboeS, fetters. 
(Span.) Both named from Bilboa or 
Jiilbao in Spain, famous for iron and 

Bile vi), secretion from the liver. (F. 
— L.'i F. bile. — l.. bilis. L. bJlis is for 
*bislis, Ijrugm. i. § 877 ; cf. W. btisil. 
Bret, besti, bile (Fick, ed. 4. ii. i 75 ;. Der. 

Bile ,2), a boil. (E.) See Boil (2). 

Bilge. (F.— C.) A variant of biilge, 
which orig. meant the bottom of a ship's 
hull ; whence bilge-water (N. E. D.)- See 

Bill (i), a chopper, sword. (E.) M. E. 
bil, sword, axe. A.S. bill., sword, axe. 
+ O. Sax. bil, O. H. G. bilL n. ; (cf. G. 
bille, axe, f.). Teut. type '^biljom, n. 

bill (0, a bird's beak. ^E.) M. E. 
bile. A S. bile (Teut. type ""biliz ?). Allied 
to Bill ;I). 

Bill (.3), a writing, account. (F. — L.) 
A. F. bille. — Late L. billa, a writing ; the 
dimin. is billeta, biillela, shewing that billa 
is a corruption of L. bulla, a papal bull, 
&c. ; see Bull (2). 

billet (0, a note. (F.-L.) A. F. bil- 
/(?//^. — Late L. billetta, billeta, dimin. of 
billa, a writing ; see Bill (3 above. 

Billet (2^, a log of wood. (F.) F. 
billetle, billot, a billet of wood. Dimin. 
of bille, a log, stump. Origin unknown. 

billiards . ( L . ) F . billard, ' a bil lard , 
or the stick wherewitli we touch the ball 
at billyards ; ' Cot. Formed with suffi.K 
-ard (G. -hai't) from bille, a log, stick, as 

Billion ; see Million. 

Billow, a wave. (Scand.) Icel. bylgja, 
a billuw ; Swcd. bblja; Dan. bblge.-\-Vi. 
H. G. bulge, a billow, a bag. Lit. ' a 
swell' or surge ; cf. Icel. belgja, to inflate, 
puff out. The Icel. bylgja has mutation 
of u \o y, and, like M. 11. G. bulg-e, is frou) 
^^^Ig-, 3rd stem of bclgan, to swell with 

Bin. (E.) M. E. biune. A. S. binn, 
a manger; Lu. ii. 7 +Du. ben, G. bennef 
a sort of basket. Perhaps of Cebic origin r 
cf. Gaulish Lat. betma, body of a cart ; W. 
hen, a cart. 

Binary, twofold. (L.) L bindj-ius, 
consisting of two things. — L. binus, two- 
fold.— L. bi-, double ; see Bi-. 

Bind. (E.) M. E. binden. A. S. bin- 
dan. 4- Du. and G. binden ; Icel. and 
Swed. binda ; Dan. binde ; Goth, bindan ; 
Skt. bandh, to bind. (^BHENDH.) 

Eing, a heap of corn ; obs. (Scand.) In 
Surrey's Poems. — Icel. bingr, Swed. binge, 
a heap. + M. H. G. bige, a heap ot corn ; 
whence Ital. bica. 9\ l)istinct from bin, 
though perhaps confused wiih it. 

Binnacle, a box for a ship's compass. 
I (Port. — L.) A singular corruption ot the 
older word bittacle, by confusion with bin, 
a chest. — Port, bitacola, a bitlacle (i.e. 
binnacle) ; Vieyra. Cf. Span, bitacora, 
F. habitacle, the same. The Port, bitacola 
stands for '^habitacola, the first syllable 
being lost. — L. habitdculuin, a little dwell- 
ing, i. e. the ' frame of timber in the steer- 
age of a ship where the compass stands ' 
(Bailey). — L. habitdre, to dwell; frequent, 
of habere, to have. 

Binocular, having two eyes. (L.) 
From Lat. bin-i, two each ; ocul-us, eye ; 
with suffix -dris. 

Binomial, having two terms. (L.) 
From Late L. binomi-2is, equiv. to L. 
binoviinis, adj. having two names ; with 
suffix -dlis. From L. bi-, two ; noinin-, 
for nonien, a name. 

Biography. (Gk.) A written ac- 
count of a lite ; from ^/o-, for /3/os, life ; 
and ypdipfiu, to write. The sb. /3to? is 
allied to Quick. 

biology. (Gk.) Science of life ; from 
Gk. jSto-, lor (3ios, life ; and -Koyia, a dis- 
coursing, from A070J, a discourse. 

Biped. (L.) L. biped-, stem of bipes, 
two-looted ; from bi-, two ; pes, foot. 

Birch, a tree. tE.) M. E. birche. 
A.S. birce, f.+G. birke, f.<Teut. *birk. 
jon-. p. Also A.S. berc, beorc. '\- Dv.. 
49 c 



berk ; Icel. hjork, Swed. hjork, Dan. birk 
(cf. North E. birk).<\&\\V. ""berkd, f. Cf. 
also O. Slav, hreza, Russ. bereza ; Lith. 
berias. Also Skt. bhilrja, a kind of birch. 

Bird. (E.) M. E. brid (the r being 
shifted) ; A. S. bridd, a. bird, esp. the 
young of birds. 

Biretta, a clerical cap. (Ital. — L. — 
Gk.) Ital. beretta (Torriano) ; cf. Late 
L. birretiijH, orig. a scarlet cap. — Late L. 
birrus, burrus, reddish. See Bureau. 

Birth. (Scand.) M..Y.. burthe, birthe. 
Cf. Icel. burdr, m, ; Swed. bord, Dan. 
byrd, f. ( = O. Icel. byrd, £). + A. S. 
gebyrd, f. ; O. H. G. giburt ( G. gebiirt) ; 
Goth, gabanrths^ f.<Teut. *bHrdiz-^Idg. 
^bhrtis (Skt. bhrtis, f. nourishment). All 
from the weak grade of V'BHER, to 
bear. See Bear (i). 

Biscuit, a kind of cake. (F. — L.) F. 
biscuit, lit. twice cooked. — F. bis {L. bis), 
twice ; and ctcii, cooked, from L. coctum, 
ace. of coctus, pp. of coqiiere, to cook. 

Bisect. (L.) From L. bi-, short for 
bis, twice; and sect-iini, supine of secdre, 
to cut. 

Bishop. (L. - Gk.) A. S. biscop. - L. 
episcopus. — Gk. kviaKoTro^, a bishop ; lit. 
' overseer.' — Gk. €vi, upon; OKoitus, one 
that watches, from okott-, ^-grade of OKtrr-, 
as in oKfiT-TOfjiai, I spy, overlook. See 

Bisimith, a metal. (G.) G. bismuth; 
also spelt tvismut, -wissmut, -wissi/iiiih. 
Origin unknown. 

Bison, a quadruped. (L. — Teut.) L. 
bison (Pliny i ; Late Gk. ^lacuv. Not a L. 
word, but borrowed from Teutonic ; 
O. H. G. wisunt, G. wisent, a bison ; 
A. S. weosend, a wild ox ; Icel. ziTstindr. 
See O. H. G. -tvisunt in Schade. 

Bissextile, a name for leap-year. 
(L.) Late L. bissextllis annus, bissextile 
year. — L. bissextus, an intercalary day; so 
called because the intercalated day (for- 
merly Feb. 24) was called the sixth of 
the calends of March; there being thus 
two days with the same name. — L. bis, 
twice ; sextus, sixth, from sex, six. 

Bissou, purblind. (E.) In Sh. M. E. 
bisen. O. Northumb. bisen, blind (Matt, 
ix. 28). Origin unknown. 

Bistre, a dark brown. (F.-G.?) F. 
bistre, a dark brown. Perhaps from prov. 

G. bicster, dark, gloomy, also bistre (Flii- 

Bit (i), a mouthful, i-mall piece. (E.) 

M. E. bite (2 syll.). A. S. bita, a morsel. 
From A. S. bit-, weak grade of bitan, to 
bite.+Du. beef; Icel. hiti; Swed. bit; 
Dan. <^z^.<Teut. type '^biton-, m. 

"bit (2), a curb for a horse. (E.) M. E. 
bitt. A. S. bite, m. a bite, a biting. < Teut. 
type *bitiz, a bite; cf. bitol, a curb.-f-Du. 
gebit; Icel. bitill (dimin.) ; Swed. bett ; 
Dan. ^/^; G.gebiss. 

Bitch. (E.) yi.Y..biche,bicche. A. S. 
^/a".?.-|-Icel. bikkja ; ^%o gt-ey-baka. 

Bite. (E.) yi.Y..biten. K.^. bltan. 
+ Du. bijten ; Icel. bita ; Swed, bita ; 
Dan. bide ; G. beissen. Teut. type *bitan-. 
Allied to h.jfindere (pt. X.ftdi's, to cleave ; 
Skt. bhid, to cleave. (yBHEID.) 

bitter. (E.) W.Y.. biter. K.^. biter, 
bitor, lit. ' biting.' — A. S. bit-, weak grade 
of bitan, to bite.-f-Du. bitter; Icel. bitr ; 
Swed., Dan., G. bitter. 

Bittern, a bird. (F. -Late L.) The 
n is added. M. E. botor, bitoure. — F. 
butor, 'a bittor [bittern];' Cot. Prob. 
named from its cry; cf. L. butire, btibere, 
to cry like a bittern ; whence also L. butio, 
said to mean ' bittern,' though the same 
word as biiteo, i.e. buzzard. 

Bitts, naval term. (Scand.?) The 
bitts are two strong posts on deck to 
which cables are fastened. Prob. from 
Icel. biti, a bit, mouthful (see Bit (i)); 
also, a cross-beam in a house ; a thwart 
(L. transtruin) in a ship. [F. bites, bitts 
(see Cot.), Span, bitas, may have been 
borrowed from E.] Cf. also A. S. kiting, 
a cable for holding a ship, from biltan, 
to restrain, curb, equivalent (in form) to 
Icel. be it a ; see Bait. Also Swed, beting, 
a bitt, whence betingbult, a bitt-bolt, bitt- 
pin ; Dan. beding : used also on land for 
tethering horses, as in .Swed. betingbult^ a 
peg for tethering, from beta, to pasture, bait. 

Bitumen. (L.) L. bitumen, mineral 
pitch. Cf. Brugm. i. § 663. 

Bivalve. (P\ — L.) From Bi- and 

Bivouac. (F. — G.) F. bivouac, orig. 
bivac — Swis?, G. beiivacht, an additional 
watch at night (Stalder) ; cf. bei-geben, 
to add. — G. bei, in addition ; ivacht, a 
watch, from wachen, to wake. See "Wake 
(I'l. Cf. G. be iw ache. 

Bizarre, odd. (F. — Span.) Y. bi- 
zarre, strange, capricious ; orig. ' valiant.' 

— Span. <5'/3«7-r£», valiant, gallant. Perhaps 
of Basque origin ; cf. Basque bizarra, a 
beard. Cf. Span, hombre de bigote, a man 




of spirit ; where bigot e means * mous- 

Blab, to tell tales. (E.) M. E. blahhe, 
a tell-tale ; blaberen, to babble. Cf. Dan. 
blabbre, to babble ; Dan. dial, blaffre, G. j 
plappern, to babble, prate. Of imitative , 
origin ; cf. Gael. />/ab, a soft noise ; plabair, I 
a babbler ; blabara/i, a stammerer, blabli- j 
dach, babbling, garrulous. 

Black. (E.) Vi.¥..blak. K.^.blac, 
bl(2c [which editors have often confused 
with blceCy bright, shining]. Cf. Icel. 
blakkr. dark ; also A. S. bIcBC, Low G. blak, \ 
O.H. G. blach, Icel. blek, Swed. bleck, Dan. ! 
blczk, all meaning ' ink.' Connexion with ' 
Du. blaken, to scorch, is doubtful. 

blackguard, a term of reproach. (E. 
afid F.) Jh'rom black and gitard. A name 
given to scullions, turnspits, and kitchen 
menials, from the dirty work done by 
them. See Trench, Select Glossary. 

Bladder. (E.) M. E. bladdre. A. S. 
bladdre^ blMre^ a blister, bladder (lit. 
blowing out).+Du. blaaj- [Icel. bla6raX\ ; 
O. H. G. bldiara (G. blatter). Teut. type 
*bl^drdn-, wk. fern. From Teut. stem 
*bla-, to blow (see Blow (i) ); with suffix 
-d}-dn similar to Gk. -Tpd ^cf. x^'^P^> ^ pot). 

Blade, a leaf, flat of a sword. (E.) 
M.E. blade. A. S. bleed, a leaf.+Icel. 
blad, Swed., Dan., Du. blad, a leaf, blade; 
G. blatt. Teut. type *bla-doni, neut., with 
sense of 'blown,' i.e. 'flourishing;' pp. 
form (with suffix -do- =-■ Idg. -to-) from 
V-BHLO. See Blow (2). 

Blaeberry, Bleaberry, a bilberry. 

(Scand. and E.) From North E. blae, 
livid, dark ; and berry. The form blae is 
from Icel. bld-r, livid ; see under Blue. 

Blain, a pustule. (E.) M. E. blein. 
A. S. blegcn, a boil. + Du. blein ; Dan. 

Blame, vb. (F.-L. -Gk.) M.E. 
blamen. — O. F. blasmer, to blame. — L. 
blasphevidre, to speak ill, also to blame. 
— Gk. ^\ao(pi]fi€iv ; see Blaspheme. 

Blanch i). to whiten. (F.-O. H.G.) 
From F. blanchir, to whiten. — F. blanc, 
white ; see Blank below. 

Blanch (2), the same as Blencli. 

Bland. vL.^ L. blandus, mild. 
blandish, to flatter. (F.-L.) M. E. 
blandisen. — O. F. blafidis-, stem of pres. 
part of blandir, to flatter. — L. blandlri, to 
caress. — L. blafidtis, bland. 

Blank, white. (F. - O. H. G.) In 
Milton, P. L. X. 656. -F. blanc.~0. H. G. 

blanch, white. Nasalised form from 
O. H. G. blah, shining; cf. Gk. (pXoy-eos, 
flaming, shining, from <p\(y-(iv, to shine. 

blanket. \f.-O.H.G.) Orig. ofa 
white colour. M. E. blanket. — A. F. blan- 
ket (F. blanchet), dimin. from blanc, white; 
see above. 

Blare, to make a loud noise. (E.) 
M. E. blarett. Cf. Du. blaren, Low G. 
blarren, to bleat; M. H.G. bleren, bler- 
7-en {(^. pldrren^, to bleat, blubber. Prob. 
imitative, like bleat; but cf Blaze (2). 

Blason ; see Blazon. 

Blaspheme, to speak injuriously. (L. 

— Gk.) L. blasphemdre. — Gk. P\a<T(pT]- 
fxeiv, to speak ill of — Gk. /BKdacpijfxos, adj., 
speaking evil. — Gk. /3AaCT-, for *l3\afi€s-, 
i.e. hurtful (cf ^\d/3-i]. hurt) ; and (prjfxi, I 
say : see Fame. Bnigm. i. § 744. 

Blast, a blowing. (E.) M.E. blast. 
A.S. bli^st, a. blowing; cf. Icel. bldstr, a 
breath, blast of a trumpet ; O. H. G. blast. 
Formed with Idg. suffix to- from the old 
base of Blaze (2). 

Blatant, noisy, roaring. (E.) Spenser 
has '•blatant beast'; F. Q. vi. 12 (head- 
ing) ; also blattant, id. vi. i. 7. Prob. 
imitative. Cf Lowl. Sc. blad, to abuse ; 
blatter, a rattling noise ; G. platz, a crash. 

Blay, a bleak (fish '. (E.) A.S. blage. 
+ I)u. blei; G. hleihe. 

Blaze (i), a flame. (E.) M. E, blase. 
A. S. blcEse, a flame, in comp. bdl blcese, 
a bright light; blcese, f. a torch ;< Teut. 
type * blason. Cf M. H. G. bias, a torch ; 
also G. bldsse, Icel. blest, a ' blaze ' or 
white mark on a horse, Swed. bids, the 

Blaze (2), to proclaim, noise abroad. 
(Scand.) Mark i. 45. M. E. blasen. — 
Icel. bldsa, to blow, blow a trumpet, sound 
an alarm ; Swed. blasa, to sound ; Dan. 
blcBse, Du. blazett, to blow a trumpet ; G. 
blasen. Also Goth, nf-blesan, to puff up. 
■<Teut. type *bl&s-an-, to blow; whence 
A.S. bl&st, E. blast. Much confused with 

Blazon (i), Blason, a proclamation. 
Hamlet, i. 5. 21 ; Shak. Son. 106. A cor- 
ruption from Blaze (2), M.E. blasen, to 
proclaim ; due to confusion w ith Blazon 
(2) below. 

Blazon (2), to j^ourtray armorial bear- 
ings. (F.) M. E. blason, blasoun, a shield; 
whence blazon, verb, to describe a shield. 

— F. blason, a. coat of arms, orig. a shield 
(Brachet). Cf. Span, blason, heraldry, 




blazonry, glory, hacer blason, to blazon, 
blasonar, to blazon, brag, boast; suggest- 
ing a (very doubtful) connexion with G. 
blasen, to blow the trumpet, as done by 
heralds, to proclaim a victor's fame ; see 
Blaze (2) above. (See Scheler.) Or if the 
orig. sense was a bright mark on a shield, 
it is allied to Blaze (i). 

Bleaberry ; see Blaeberry. 

Bleach. (E. ) Orig. ' to whiten ; ' M. E. 
blechen, Ancren Riwle, p. 324, 1. i. A. S. 
bWecan. — A. S, bide, shinmg, bright, pale. 
See bleak below. + Icel. bleikja ; Du. 
bleeken ; G. hleicheti ; <Teut. *blaikjan-. 

bleak (1)5 o^ig. pale. (Scand.) M. E. 
bleik. — Icel. bleikr, pale ; Swed. blek ; 
Dan. bleg.-^K. S. bide ; Du. bleek ; (i. 
bleieh. Teut. type ^blaikoz. From *blaik-, 
strong grade of Teut. *bleikati- (A. S. 
blican), to shine. 

bleak (2), a fish. (Scand.) From its 
pale colour. 

Blear-eyed, having watery, inflamed, 
or dim eyes. (E.) M. E. bleer-eyed. 
Cognate with Low G. blarr-oged, blear- 
eyed ; cf. blarr-oge, an eye wet with tears, 
from blarren, to howl, weep ; which seems 
to be allied to E. blare. 

Bleat. (E.) M. E. blete7t. A. S. bh%- 
tan, bletan, to bleat as a sheep. + Du. 
blaten ; O. H. G. pldzan. Cf. Russ. ble- 
jate, to bleat ; 'L.Jlere, to weep. 

Bleb, Blob, a small bubble or blister. 
(E.) Cf. M. E. blober, a bubble on water ; 
blubber, a bubble. By comparing blabber, 
blubber, with bubble^ having much the same 
meaning, we see the probability that they 
are imitative, from the action of forming 
a bubble with the lips. 

Bleed. (E.) U.Y.. bkden. A.S.b/e- 
dan, formed (by mutation of o to e) from 
A. S. bldd, blood. < Teut. type '^blodjan-, to 
lose blood >Icel. blc2)a. 

Blemish, to stain. (F.) M. E. ble- 
misshen. — O. F. bleinis-, stem of pres. part. 
of blemir, blesmir, to wound, stain, make 
pale. — O. F. bleme, blesme, wan, pale. Of 
unknown origin. 

Blench, to shrink from. (E.) M. E. 
blenchen, to avoid, elude. A.S. blencan, 
to deceive ; as if from a Teut. type *blank- 
jan-, causal of '^blinkan-, to blink. But 
proof is wanting. 

Blend, to mix together. (Scand.) 
M. E. blenden. Due to blend-, base of the 
pres. indie, of Icel. blanda ^Swed. blanda, 
Dan. blande), to blend ; cognate with 

A. S. and Goth, blandan, str. redupl. vb., 
O. H. G. blantan, to mix. 

Bless, to consecrate, &c. (E.) The 
orig. sense may have been * to consecrate 
by blood,' i. e. either by sacrifice or by the 
sprinkling of blood, as the word can be 
clearly traced back to blood. M. E. blessen, 
A. S. bletsian, O. Northumb. bledsia, bloed- 
sia (Matt. xxv. 34, xxvi. 26), which can 
be explained from blod, b]ood,with the usual 
vowel-change from to oe or e. Teut. type 
*blddisdn. Cf. bleed. (Suggested by Sweet ; 
Anglia, iii. 156.) 

Blight. (E.) XVII cent. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps from A. S. ^blihf, O. Merc. 
^bleht, exactly answering to Icel. blettr, a 
spot, stain. 

Blind. (E.) A. S. blind.-\-V>\\. blind; 
Icel. bluidr ; Svv., Dan., G. blind \<,TtXii. 
type '^blindoz 'Jdg. base *bhlendh-). Cf. 
Lith. blesii-s (3 pr. s. blendzia-s), to become 
dim ( of the sun). 

blindfold, vb. (E.) M. E. blind- 
folden, verb (Tyndale) ; corruption of 
blindfelden (Palsgrave), where the d is 
excrescent. The true word is blindfellen^ 
to ' fell ' or strike blind, Ancren Riwle, p. 
106. — A.S. blind, blind; 3.n6. fellan, to 
stvike ; see Fell. 

Blindman's buff; see Buff. 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (E.) M. E. 
blenken, to shine, to glance ; whence mod. 
E. blink, by change of en to in, as in 
many words. Allied to A. S. blane, white 
(as in blanc-a, a white horse"), cognate with 
O. H. G. blaneh, M. H. G. blanc ; see 
Blank. Cf. Du., G. blinken, Swed. 
blinka. Dan. blinke, all late forms; and 
A. S. blican, to shine. 

Bliss. (E.) See Blithe. 

Blister. (F.-Teut.) "^l.Y.. blester, 
blister. (Not found before 1300.) — O. F. 
blestre, '■ tumeur,' Godefroy. Of Teut. 
origin ; cf. Icel. bldstr (dat. bliestri), a 
blast, also a swelling, allied to E. Blast. 
F'rom the notion of blowing out. 

Blithe. (E.) M. E. blithe. A. S. 
blide, sweet, happy. + O. Sax. blidi, bright, 
glad; Du. blij'de, blij ; lce\. blTdr; Swed., 
Dan. blid; O. H. G. blTdi, glad; Goth. 
bleit/is, merciful, kind. 

bliss. (E.) M. E. blis. A. S. blis, 
bliss ; contr. from A. S. blFds, happiness, 
lit. blitheness. — A. S. blide (above). + 
O. Sax. blJzza, blidsea, happiness. Teut. 
stem '^blTdsid, with 5-</, the suffix being 
-tidf as in L. laeti-tia. 



Bloat, to swell. (Scand.) We now 
generally use bloated to mean * puffed 
out ' or ' swollen/ as if allied to bloiv. 
But the M. E. form was blout, soft ; con- 
nected with Icel. blatitr, soft, effeminate, 
imbecile, blotna, to become soft, lose 
courage. Cf. Swed. blot, Dan. blod, soft, 
pulpy, mellow. Allied to Icel. blaudr. 
soft ; A. S bleaj), G. blijde, weak. 

bloater, a prepared herring. (Scand.) 
A bloater is a cured fish, cured by smoke ; 
but formerly a * soaked ' fish. — Icel. blautr, 
soft. Cf. Swed. blotjisk, soaked fish ; from 
biota, to soak, steep ; from blct, soft 

Blob, a bubble. (E.) See Bleb. 

Block, a large piece of wood. (F. — 
M. H. G.) M. E. blok. - O. F. bloc- 
M. H. G. block, a block ; cf. Du. blok, Dan. 
blok, Swed. block. Der. block-ade. 

Blond. (F.) XV cent. F. blojid, m. 
Z'/^«d'^, fem. 'light yellow;' Cot. Referred 
by Diez to Icel. blanditin, mixed ; cf. A. S. 
blonden-feax, having hair of mingled 
colour, gray-haired. See Blend. ^ But 
the Low L. form is bhaidus, pointing to 
a Teut. type *blundo-, answering to Skt. 
bradhna-s, reddish, pale yellow (Kluge). 
Cf. O. Slav. bron\ white ; Brugm. i. 

Blood. (E.) M. E. blod, blood. A. S. 
blod.-^X^w. bloed, Icel. blo<i, Swed. blod, 
Goth, bloth ; G. bhit ; <Teut. type *blddom, 
n. Hence bleed. 

Bloom, a flower. (Scand.) M. E. 
bloine; not in A. S. — Icel. bWin, blomi, a 
flower; Swed. bloninia; Dan. blonwie.-\- 
Du. bloem ; Goth, bloma ; allied to O. Ir. 
bldth, Y,.Jlds ; see Flower. And see below. 
blossom. (E.) M. E. blos?ne, also 
blostme. A. S. blostma, a blossom ; from 
base bio- of A. S. blo-ivan, with suffixes 
-st and -via (Teut. -mon).-\-T)\x. bloescju ; 
M. H. G. bluost (with suffix -st). See 

Blot (i)' a spot. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 
blot; from blotten, vb. -M. F. blotter., *to 
blot;' Cot.-O. F. blotte, bloste, a clot of 
earth. (Prob. Teutonic.) 

Blot (2), at backgammon. (Scand.) 
A blot is an 'exposed' piece. — Dan. blot, 
bare, naked ; whence give sig blot, to lay 
oneself open, expose oneself; Swed. blott, 
naked ; blott a, to lay oneself open.-f-Du. 
bloot, naked, blootstellejt, to expose ; G. 
bloss, naked. Allied to Icel. blautr, soft ; 
see Bloat. 


\ Blotch, a large blot. (F.) From O. F. 
bloche, ' tumeur ' ; (Godefroy, s. v. bloste). 

Blouse, a loose outer frock. (F.) 
From F. blouse, a frock much used by 
workmen (XVIII cent.\ Origin unknown. 

Blo-W iO, to puff. (P:.) M. E. blowe7i. 
I A. S. bldwan. + G. bldhen, O. 11. G. bld- 
, han ; allied to h.Jldre. 

Blow (2), to bloom, flourish as a flower. 
I (E.) M.E. bloweti. A. S. b/owan.+'Du. 
bloeijen ; G. bliihen, O. H. G. bluojan. 
■' Allied to L. Jld7'ere ; see Flourish. 

Blow (.^), a stroke, hit. (E.) M.E. 
blozue. Not in A. S. ; but we find M. Du. 
strong verb blouwen (pt. t. blau^, to strike, 
dress flax by beating ; O. H. G. bliuwan, 
whence G. blduen,\.o beat; Goth, bliggwan, 
to strike ; all from Teut. *bli'wwan-, to 
strike. (History obscure.) 

Blubber. (E.) M.E, blober, a bubble ; 
bloberen, to bubble up, to weep copiously. 
Of imitative origin ; cf. Blob. The 
blubber of the whale consists of bladder- 
like cells filled with oil. Blubber-lipped. 
with swollen lips. Cf. E. Frie... blubber, 
a bubble, a blob of fat; bhibbern, to 

Bludgeon. (F. -Teut.^ A. F. boho7i, a 
cross-bow bolt. — O. H. G. boh ; see Bolt. 

Blue, a colour. (F.-O.H.G.) M.E. 
blew, bieu.-'K.Y . blu, blew, O. Y. bleu, 
blue. — O.K. G. bldo, blue, livid, G. blati. 
-J-Icel. bldr, livid ; Swed. bla, Dan. blaa ; 
A.S. blcna (O. E. Texts, p. 588) ; < Teut. 
type *blkwoz. Cognate with 'L?i\..Jldtius, 

Bluff, downright, rude. (Du. ?) A 
bluff is a steep headland. It appears to be 
Dutch. M. Du. blaf, flat, broad ; blaffaert, 
one having a broad flat face, also, a 
boaster (Oudemans) ; blaf van het voor- 
hooft, 'the flat of a forehead' (Hexham); 
blaffen, bleffen, to mock (id.). Cf. E. 
Fries, bluffeji, to make a noise, bluster, 
impose on. 

Blunder, to flounder about, err. 
(Scand.) M. E. blondren, to confuse, to 
move blindly or stupidly. Formed (as a 
frequentative) from Icel. blunda, to doze, 
slumber ; Swed. bhmda, to shut the eyes ; 
Dan. blutide, to nap. Cf. Icel. blundr, 
Dan. and Swed. blund, a doze, a nap. 
From the sense of ' confusion.' Allied to 
Blend and Blind. 

Blunderbuss, a short gun. (Hyb.) 
In Pope. Formerly spelt blanterbusse, 
plafttierbusse (Palmer, Folk-Etymology) ; 




i. e. 'a gun on a rest.' Apparently from 
L. plantdre, to plant (see Plant) ; and 
Du. bus, a gun, orig. a box, barrel; see 
Box (i}. But the corresponding Du. word 
is donderhtts, i. e. thunder-gun. 

Blunt, dull. (Scand.?) ^l.Y.. blunt, 
blont, dull, dulled. Origin unknown; 
perhaps allied to Icel. hhinda, Dan. 
blimde, to sleep, doze ; see Blunder. 

Slur, to stain : a stain. (Scand. ?) 
Properly * to dim ' ; metaphorically, * to 
deceive.' We find: 'A (^/zrr^, deceptio ; 
to blh-7'e, fallere ; ' Levins (1570). Of 
uncertain origin. Cf Swed. dial, blura, 
to blink, partially close the eyes ; Swed. 
plira, Swed. dial, blira, to blink ; blirra 
fojr augtt, to quiver (be dim) before the 
eyes, said of a haze caused by heat ; 
Bavarian plerr, a mist before the eyes. 

Blurt, to utter impulsively. (E.) 
Lowl. Sc. blirt, to make a noise in weep- 
ing; cf. M. E. bleren, to make a loud 
noise, to blare. Of imitative origin. 

Blush. (E.) W.IL bhischen, blusshen, 
to glow. A. S. blyscau, used to translate 
L. rtifildre, to shine (Mone, Quellen, 355) ; 
cf. dblysiaii, dblisian, to blush ; from A. S. 
blys in bcel-blys, lit. 'a fire-blaze.'-J- Du. 
blozen, to blush, from bios, a blush ; Dan. 
blusse, to flame, glow, from bins, a torch ; 
Swed. blossa, to blaze, from bloss, a torch. 
From Teut. root *bleus, to glow. 

Bluster, to be boisterous. (E.) Doubt- 
less associated in idea with blast (Icel. 
bldstr, Swed. blast). Cf. E. Fries, blils- 
iern, to be tempestuous (esp. of wind) ; 
bluster, bliiser, a breeze; bliisen^ to blow 
strongly ; bliise, wind. 

Boa, a large snake. (L.) L. boa 
(Pliny) ; perhaps allied to bos, an ox ; from 
its size. 

Boar, an animal. (E.) Isl.lL. boi'e, boor. 
A. S. bdr.-\-Dn. beer; M. H. G. ber. 
Teut. tvpe *bairoz, m. 

Board (I ). (E.) m.-E. bord. A.S. 
bord, board, side of a ship, shield. 4- Du. 
boord ; Icel. bo?-d, plank, side of a ship ; G. 
bord; Goth, -baurd \n fotubaurd, a foot- 
stool. Cf. Irish, Gael., W., and Corn. 
bord, a board (from E.). Teut. type 
*bordom, n. % The sense ' side of a ship ' 
explains star-board, lai'-board, on board, 
over-boa7'd. Der. board, to have meals as 
a lodger ; from board, a table. 

Iboard (2), to go on board a ship, to 
accost. (F. — Teut.) The sb. board x?, E., 
but the verb, formerly spelt borde, bord, is 

short for aborde, used by Palsgrave. — F. 
aborder, ' to approach, accost, abboord, 
or lay aboord ; ' Cot. - F. a, to (L. ad) ; 
bord^ edge, brim, side of a ship, from 
Icel. borQ, Du. boord, side of a ship. See 
Board (i). 

Boast. (F.) M. E. bost. [W. bost, 
Corn, bost, Irish and Gael, bosd, are all 
borrowed from E.] From A. F. bost^ a 
boast, Prob. from Norw. bausta, to act 
with violence, baust, boastfully (Ross). Cf. 
E. Fries, busen, to be boisterous. 

Boat. (E.) M, E, boot. A, S, bat. 
Cf. Icel. i^^/r ; Swed. ^a/; Du. boot; Russ. 
bot' ; W. bad; Gael, bdta, a boat. p. The 
Icel. word is borrowed from A. S. ; and 
the other forms either from E. or Icel. 
Teut. type *baztoz, m, 

boat-swain. (E.) Lit. 'boat-lad;' 
Icel. sveinn, a lad ( = A. S. szvdn). 

Bob, to jerk. (E.) Perhaps imitative. 

Bobbin, a wooden pin on which thread 
is wound ; round tape. (F,) Formerly 
bobin. — Y. bobine, *a quil for a spinning 
wheele, a skane ; ' Cot. Orig. unknown. 

Bode, to foreshew. (E.) M, E. boden, 
bodian. — A. S. bodian, to announce. — A. S. 
boda, a messenger ; bod, a message. From 
bod-, weak grade of beodan, to command, 
announce. See Bid ( 2 '1. 

Bodice, stays. (E.) A corruption of 
bodies (pi. of body), which was the old 
spelling. (Cf. F. corset, from corps ^ 

Bodkin, orig. a small dagger. (?) 
M. E. boydekin, Ch. Origin unknown. 

Body, the frame of an animal. (E.) 
M. E, bodi; A. S. bodtg.-{-0. H, G. potach. 

Boer ; the same as Boor, 

Bogf. (C.) Irish bogach, a bog, from 
bog, soft; cf. Irish bogai?n, I shake; a bog 
being a soft quagmire. So also Gael. 
bogan, a quagmire; bog, soft, moist; bog^ 
to soften, also to agitate. Cf. O. Irish 
bocc, soft. 

Boggard, Boggart, a spectre, (C, ; 
with ¥. stiffix.) l*'rom bog, variant of 
Bug (i); with suffix -ard, -art {¥. -ard 
as in bast-ard). See below. 

Boggle, to start aside, swerve for fear. 
(C?) I'rob. coined from prov. E. boggle, 
bogle, a spectre. Cf. \V. bwg, a goblin ; 
^yg^l-, a scarecrow ; bwgwl, a threat, 
bygylu, to threaten; bwgwth, to scare. 
See Bug (0. 

Bohea, a kind of tea. (Chinese,) So 
named from the Bohea hills; the moun- 
tain called Boti-y (or Wti-i) is situated in 




the province of Fokien or Fukiati, on the 
S. E. coast of China. 

Boil (i), to bubble up. (F. -L.) O. F. 
boillir, to boil (F. bouillir). '^'L. btilltre, to 
bubble up, boil. — L. bulla, a bubble; see 
Bull (2). Cf. Norman F. boillir, to 

Boil (2), a small tumour. (E.) Prov. 
E. bile ; proh. nffected by boil{i). M. E. 
byle. A. S. byl, a boil, swelling. -|-Dn. 
bull', G. beule Cf. Goth, ufhauljan, to 
puff up ; Icel. beyla, a hump (with muta- 
tion). See Bowl (2). 

Boisterous. (F.") Lengthened from 
M. K. boistoiis, Ch. ; lit. 'noisy.' Boistous 
is formed, with O. F. suffix -ous^ from 
Norw. baicst-a, to act with violence ; like 
cloister from L. claiistrum. Cf. Norw. 
bmtst, boastfully ; baiiSj blustering. See 

Bold. (E.) M.E. bold, bald; AS. 
beald, bald, balJ>.-\-\ct\. ballr; Du. boud ; 
O. H.G. bald', cf. Goth, balthaba, adv., 
boldly. Teut. type *balJ)oz. 

Bole, stem of a tree. (Scand.) M.E. 
bole. "Icel. bolr. bulr, the trunk of a tree, 
stem; Swed. bal \ Dan. bul. Cf. Gk. 
ipd\-ay^, a log, trunk. Cf. Balk (i\ 

Boiled, swollen. (Scand.) Earlier 
forms are M. E. bolleu, pp., and bolned, 
pp. The latter is the pp. of M.E. bolnen, 
to swell. — Dan. bulne, Swed. bulna, Icel. 
bclgna, to swell, inchoative forms from 
wk. grade of belg- (cf. Icel. belgja, to in- 
flate). Cf. A. S. bclgan (pp. bolgeti), to 
swell with anger. See Bellows, Billow. 

Bolster. (E.) A. S. bolster, with suffix 
•ster as in holster. From its round shape. 
-^Tiw. bolster, bulstcr \ Icel. bolstr \ O. 
H. G. bolstar (G. polster). Teut. type 
*bul-stroz; from Teut. *lml, weak grade 
of *beul, to puff up. See Boil (2). (See 

Bolt (1)5^ stout pin of iron, an arrow. 
(E.) A. S. bolt.-^Dxx. bout, formerly boll ; 
E)an. bolt; G. bolz, bolzen. Root unknown. 

Bolt ' 2), Bonlt, to sift meal. (F. - 
L. — Gk.) Spelt boiilte \\\ Palsgrave.— 
O. F. btilier; mod. F. blnter; oldest form 
buleter, a corruption of ^biireter. to sift 
through coarse cloth; cf M. Ital. btirat- 
tare, to boult (Florio). — O. F. and F. 
bare, coarse woollen cloth. — Late Lat. 
bura, burra, coarse red cloth. — Lat. 
burrus, reddish. — Gk. irvppos, reddish.— 
Gk. TTvp, fire. See Bureau and Fire. 

Bolus, a large pill. (L.-Gk.) Late 

L. boltts (not L. bohis), a Latinised form 
of Gk. /SoiAoj, a clod, lump. 

Bomb, a shell for cannon. (F. or Span. 
— L. — Gk.) F. bombe ; Span. boi?iba. — L. 
bombus, a humming noise. — Gk. PofifioSf 
the same. See Boom (1). 

bombard. (F. - L. - Gk .) Th e verb 
is from E. bovibaid, a great gun ; Sh. — F. 
botubarde, a cannon ; extended from F. 
bombe ; see Bomb. Der. bonibard-ier, F. 
bombardier (Cot.). 

Bombast, orig. cotton wadding; hence 
padding, aflectcd language. (F. — L.- 
Gk.) From O. F. bombace (with added t), 
cotton wadding. — Late L. bonibdcem, ace. 
of bombax, cotton ; for L. bombyx. — Gk. 
Bofifiv^, silk, cotton ; orig. a silkworm. 
Cf ' to talk fzistian.* 

bombazine, bombasine, a fabric 
of silk and worsted. (P\ — L. — Gk.) F. 
boffibasin. — l.^ie L. boiiibdcimim. — 'L,. bom- 
byciniis, adj. silken; from bombyx ^ silk; 
see above. 

Bond. (E.) See Band (i). 

Bondage, servitude. {V . — Scand.) 
M. E. and A. F. bondage, servitude ; the 
sense being due to confusion with the verb 
to bind. But it orig. meant the condition 
of a bondman, called in A. S. bonda, a 
word borrowed from Icel. bondi, a hus- 
bandman. And bondi^bilandi, a tiller; 
from Icel. biia, to till, prepare, cognate 
with A. S. bfian, to dwell, and G. bauen. 
Thus A. S. bonda is allied in sense and 
origin to E. boor, q. v. 

Bone. (E.) M.E. boon; A.S. ban. 
+ Du. been ; Icel, bein ; Swed. ben; Dan. 
been ; O. PI. G. bein. T(ut, type ^bainom, 
bonfire. (E.) Orig. a bone-fire. 
' Bane-Jire, ignis ossium ; ' Catholicon 
Anglicanum, A. d. 1483; where bane is 
the Northern form oi bone. Cf Picard/w 
d'os, a bonfire. 

Bonito, a kind of tunny. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, bonito. — Arab. baytiJth, 
a bonito. 

Bonnet. (F.) Y. bonnet; O. F. bonet 
(a. D. 1047), the name of a stuff of which 
bonnets or caps were made. Origin 

Bonny, fair. (F. — L.) From F. bonne^ 
fair, fem. of bon, good. — L. bonus, good; 
O. L. duonus. 

Bonze, a priest. (Fort. — Japanese.) 
Port, bonzo. — lzip. bonzo, a religic)us man. 

Booby. (Span. — L.) Span, bobo^ a 
blockhead, booby (related to F. baube^ 




stammering). — L. balbiis, stammering ; 
hence, stupid. 

Book. (E.) M. E. book; A. .S. boc, a 
book ; also, a beech-tree. The orig. 
' books ' were pieces of writing scratched 
on a beechen board. -f-Du. boek ; Icel. bok; 
Swed. bok; Dan. bog; G. buck ; all in the 
sense of * book ' ; Goth, boka, a letter, pi. 
bokos, writings, p. With A.S. boc, beech, cf. 
L. fdgns, a beech, Gk. (prjyos, a tree with 
edible fruit. 

Boom, (i), to hum, (E.) M. E. bom- 
vieii; not found in A. S.-f-Du. bo??ime}t, 
to boom, to give out a hollow sound like 
an empty barrel. An imitative word ; 
like L. bojnbiis, Gk. Pu/xPos, a humming. 

Boom (2 \ a pole. (,Du.) Du. boom ; 
the Du. form of Beam. (i\ 

Boom.erail^, a wooden missile weapon. 
(Australian.) l^rom the native Australian 

Boon (i), a petition. (Scand.) M. E. 
bone, Ch. — Icel. bou ; Dan. and Svved./w;, 
a petition. + A. S. boen, ben (whence bene 
in Wordsworth). The sense of 'favour' 
arose from coniusion with Boon (2;. 

Boon (2), good. (F. — L.) In the phr. 
* boon companion.' — F. bon, good. — L. 
bomts. See Bonny. 

Boor, a peasant. (Du.) Du. boei; a 
peasant, lit. 'tiller of the soil.' — Du. 
botrcuen, to till. + A. S. bfian, to dwell in, 
whence gebfir, s., a peasant (only preserved 
in neigh-bour). So also G. bauen, to till, 
whence bauer, a peasant; Icel. biia, Goth. 
bauan, to dwell. Teut. stem '^bii-, related 
to Be. (Streitberg, § 90.) 

Boot (i), advantage, profit. (E.) M. E. 
bote, boot. A.S. bot, profit. -f-Du. boetc ; 
Icel. bot (cf. bati), advantage, cure; Dan. 
bod, Swed. bot, remedy ; G. busse, atone- 
ment ; Goth. bota. Teut. type *bdta, f. 
From bot-, strong grade of bat-; see 
Better. Der. boot-less, profitless. 

Boot (2), a covering for the foot. (F.) 
M. E. bote. - O. F. bote{Y. botte) : cf. Span., 
Port., Late L. bota. Origin unknown. 

Booth. (Scand.) M. E. bothe. - M. 
Dan. both (Kalkar), Dan. bod \ Swed. bod 
{cL Icel. bHd,2i dwelling, booth). — Dan. 
boe, Swed. bo, Icel. bua, to dwell ; see 
Boor. -|- G. bude, a stall. Teut. type 
*buj)d, f. Cf. also Irish both, a hut, 
W. bdd, a residence ; Lith. btita, bnttas. 
a house. See Build. 

Booty. (F. — LowG.) Formerly spelt 
butin. — Y. butm, 'a booty, prey;' Cot. 

- M. Du. bate, Du. buit; cf. Icel. byti, 
Dan. bytte, Swed. byte, exchange, barter, 
also booty, spoil ; G. bente, spoil. 

Borage. (F^- Span. -Arab.) For- 
merly bourage. — F. bourrache. — Span. 
borraja. — Kxzh. abu rashh, lit. 'father of 
sweat ; ' because it is a sudorific. 

Borax. (Low L. — Arab. — Pers.) Low 
L. borax ; also boracutn. — Arab, burdq. — 
Pers. bilrah, borax (Vullers). 

Border, an edge. (F. -Low L. — 
Teut.) M. E. bordure, bordetire. — O.Y. 
bordeure (Span, bordadiird), an edging. — 
Low L. borddtura, edging. — Low L. bor- 
dd?'e (Ital. bordare, Span, bordar, F". 
border), to edge. — Low L. bordus (F. 
/'^rc/j. — Teut. (O. Low G.) bord, side; see 

Bore (i), to perforate. (E.) M. E. 
borien, A.S. borian.'\-T)w.. boren; Icel. 
bora; Swed. (^^rr^: ; Dan. ^^r^; G. bohren. 
Also l^./ordre, to bore ; Gk. <f)apd€iv, to 
plough. Brugm. i. § 510. (y'BHER, 
to cut.) 

bore (2), to worry. (E.) Possibly a 
metaph. use of the verb above ; Hen. VIII, 
i. I. 128. 

Bore (3), a tidal surge in a river. 
(Scand. ?) Perhaps from Icel. bdra, a 
billow caused by wind ; Norw. baara, a 
billow, swell in the sea. 

Boreas, the north wind. (L. — Gk.) 
L. Boreas. ■^Gk. Bopias, Boppds, the N. 

Borough. (E.) M. E. burgh, borgh .; 
also boriue. A. S. burh, burg (gen. and 
dat. byrig), a fort. Perhaps from Teut. 
burg-, weak grade of '^bergan-, to pro- 
tect ; whence Goth, bah'gan, to hide, keep ; 
see Barrow. + l^u. bu7'g; Icel. borg; 
Swed. and Dan. borg; G. burg; Goth. 
baurgs. See below. Brugm. i. § 566 ; ii. 
§ 160. 

borrow. (E.) M. E. borwen ; A. S. 
borgian, lit. to give a pledge. — A. S. borg, 
bo7'h, a pledge. — A.S. /^^;'^-, weak grade 
of beorgan, to keep, protect ; see Bar- 
row and Borough. 

Bosom. (E.) M. E. bosom. A. S. 
bdst>i.'^\X\. boezem; G. biisen. 

Boss, a knob. (F.-O.H.G.) M. E. 
boce, bos. — O. F. boce (F. bosse) ; cf. Ital. 
bozza, a swelling ; M. Ital. bozzare, to 
rough-hew, to bungle. Prob. from O. H. 
G bozan, to beat ; a bump being the 
effect of a blow. Cf. botch, beat. 

Botany. (F. — Gk.) F. botam'que, 




orig. an adj. — Gk. PoraviKos, belonging 6o/i ; of which the orig. sense was 'an 
to plants. — Gk. /Sotclvt], grass. — Gk. , . ^ . ,- r, , , ^ 

l36aK€Lv, to pasture ; cf. /Soto;/, a grazing 

SotargO, a cake made of the roe of the 
sea-mullet. (Ital. — Arab. ' M.Ital. botargo, 
pi. botarghe ; see Florio and Torriano. — 
Arab, butarkha, botargo ; given by Devic. 
Supposed to be composed of bzi, Coptic 
def. article, and Gk. rapixos, dried fish 
(Journ. des Savants, Jan. 1848, p. 45). 

Botch (i), to patch. (E.) Origin 
unknown. Similar is M. Du. butsen, to 
strike, beat, also to patch up ; cf. Du. 
botsen, to beat. 

Botch (2), a swelling. (F. — G.) 
M. \i. boche. — O. North F. boche ; Picard 
boche ; O. F. boce (Y .bosse), a swelling; see 

Both. (Scand.) M.E. bdpe, Scot. 
/'azM. — Icel. bddir, both, dual adj. ; Dan. 
baade\ Swed. bada.'\-G. beide. And cf. 

arm.' + Icel. bogr, Swed. bog, Dan. bov, 
the shoulder of an animal, hence the bow 
(shoulder) of a ship; G. bttg; Gk. Tr^x^'^r 
the fore-arm ; Skt. bdhns, the arm. Teut. 
type *bdgi<z; Idg. type *bhdghus. See 
Bow (4). Bnigm. i. § 184. 

Bought, a bend, turn, fold. (Low G.) 
In Spenser. F. Q. i. I. 15. Low G. bj4gt, 
a bend; Du. ^^^/, bocht', Dan. btfg/. Cf. 
G. btic/i/. The E. form is Bight. And 
see Bout. 

Boulder, a large stone. (E. ?) Etym. 
obscure; cf. Swed. dial. bul/ersUen, a 
large rolling stone; so calltd from its 
rolling down stream with a crash. — Swed. 
bu//ra, to thunder, roar ; and s^een, a 
stone. Danish has bnldre, to roar, bulder, 
a crash. 

Boult, to sift meal ; see Bolt (2). 

Bounce, to jump up quickly. (E ) 
M. E. bunsen, to beat. Cf. Low G. btin- 

A. S. bd, boih ; Lat. -bo in affibo; Gk. -(/w \ sen, to beat, knock at a door; Du. bonzeti, 
in dfx-(pa; ; Skt. -b/ia in u-b/ia, both. Iccl. to bounce, throw, from Du. bons, a bounce, 
-Ozr is for Set'r, they, the; so that bo- f/i thump; G. bumps, bounce; Icel. bops. 

was orig. two words ; cf. Goth, ba^o skipa, ' 
both the ships (Luke v. 7). 

Bother, vb. and sb. (E.) In Swift. Cf. 
pother; prov. E./z^^^/^r, confusion ; M.E. 
piitheren, to bestir oneself. Origin un- 

BotS, small worms. (E.) Lowl. Sc. 
bats. Of unknown origin. 

Bottle (0. ^ hollow vessel. (F.— 
Late L. - Gk.) M. E. botel. - F. bouteille. 
Late Lat. biiticula, double dimin. of 

bump ! Prob. imitative. 

Bound (i), to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. bondir,\.Q bound; but orig. to resound. 
— L. bombitdre, to resound. —L. bombns, 
a humming sound. — Gk. {So/jPos, the same. 
Der. re-bound (F. rebondir). 

Bound (2), a boundary. (F. — C?) 
M. E. botmde, Ch. ; with excrescent d, as 
in soun-d. A. F. bounde, bunde; O. F. 
bonne, a boundary ; also spelt bodne (Bur- 
guy) ; Late Lat. bodina , cuntr. form 

Late L. btitis, biittis, a cask, a butt; see | bon^id), a bound, limit. Perhaps of Celtic 

Butt (2). 

Bottle (2), a bundle of hav. (F.— 
O. H. G. ) M. E. botel. - O. Y. ^ botel, bot- 
elle, a small bundle, dimin. of botte, a 
bundle, as of hay. — O. H. G. bozo, a bundle 
of straw or flax ; allied to O. H. G. bozan, 
to beat (see Beat) ; perhaps from the 
beating of flax. 

Bottom. (E.) M. E. botiiDi, bothovi. 
A. S. botvi.-^-ijxx. bodem ; Icel. botn ; Swed. 
botten; Dan. bund; G.boden; 'Lal.ftaidtis; 
Gk. Trv6fj,T)v ; Vedic Skt. Inidhna, depth, 
ground. Allied to Irish bonn, sole of the 
foot; Gael, bonn, sole, bottom; \^ . bon, 
base, stock. See Fundament. Brugm. 
i. §§ 103, 704. 

Boudoir. (F.) F. botidoir, a private 
room for a lady ; lit. a place to sulk in. — 
F. bonder., to sulk. Cf. E. pout. 

Bough. (E.) M. E. botigh. A. S. bog, 

origin ; Thurneysen, 91. Der. bonnd-ary. 

Bound (3), ready to go. (Scand.) In 
' the ship is bound for Spain,' &c. 
Formed, with excrescent d, from M. E. 
boun, ready, Ch. C. T. 11807. ~ ^'^^\. 
buinn, prepared ; pp. of bila, to till, pre- 
pare. -f- A. S. buan ; ?ee Boor. 

Bounden, th^^ old pp. of Bind. (E.) 
As in ' bounden duty.' 

Bounty, orig. goodness. (F. — L."^ 
M. E. bountee. — O. F. bontet. — L. ace. 
bonitdtem, from bonitds, goodness. — L. 
bonus, good. See Bonny. 

Bouquet. (F. — LateL.) Y. bouquet; 
O. F. bosquet, orig. ' a little wood,' dimin. 
of O. F. bos (F. bois , a wood. — Late L. 
boscum, busciun, ace. of boscus, buscus, a 
wood ; of unknown origin. Cf. Bush. 

Eourd, a jest ; to jest. (F.) M. E. 
bourdc, sb. ; bourden, v. — F. bourde, a 




game ; boiirder, to play. Of unknown 
origin. (Not as in Diez.) 
Bourn (0? ^ boundary. (F.) In Sh. 

— F. borne, a bound ; for O. F. bodne, 
variant of O. F. bonne, a boundary ; see 
Bound (2). 

Bourn (2), Burn, a stream. (E.) 

M. L. bourne. A.S. burna, a fountain, 
stream, well.+Icel. brunnr; Swed. brunn ; 
Dan. brand; G. brunnen ; Goth, brunna, 
a spring, well. 

Bouse, Bouze, Boose, to drink 

deeply. (Du.) h,i.Y.. bousen {lih. I'^oo). 

— M. Du. ^bfisen, later buyzett, to drink 
deeply. — M. Du. biise (Latinised as biisa 
by Erasmus), buyse, a large cup, also a 
tap, a conduit (Kilian) ; Du. bids, a con- 
duit, pipe. Cf O. F. buse, a conduit ; 
G. bausen, to bouse. 

Bout, a turn, a round, occasion. (Low 
G.) The same as Bought (above) ; prob. 
influenced by about. 

Bow (i), to bend. (E.) M. E. bowen, 
bogen, biigen. A. S. 3/7^a«. + Du. buigen ; 
O. H. G. biogan ; Goth, bitigan ; Teut. 
type *beugajt- or *biigan-. Cf. Skt. bhuj, 
to bend ; Lat. fiigere, to take to flight, 
give way ; Gk. ipiv-^div , to flee. Brugm. i. 
§§ 658, 701. 

bow (2), a bend. (E.) From the 

bow (3), a weapon to shoot with. (E.) 
M. E. bowe. A, S. boga, a bow ; because 
it is bent or bowed. JlfXyxx. boog; Icel. hogi; 
Swed. bage ; Dan. bite ; O. H. G. bogo ; 
G. bogen. From A. S. bog- ; cf. bog-en, pp. 
of biigan to bend. 

bow-window. (E.^ A window of 
semi-circular form ; not the same as bay- 

Bow (4), the 'shoulder' of a ship. 
(Scand.) From Icel. bogr, shoulder; see 
Bough. +Du. boeg, bow of a ship. 

Bowel. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^«^/.-0. F. 
boel; (mod. F. boyau). — Lat. ace. botellum, 
a sausage ; in Late L., an intestine ; 
dimin. of botnlus, a sausage. 

Bower, an abode, chamber, arbour. 
(E.) M. E. bour. A. S. bur, a chamber. 

— A.S. bfian, to dwell. + Icel. biir, a 
chamber: Dan. buur, Swed. bur; O. Sax. 
bilr; O. H. G. bilr. Teut. types *burom, 
n., *buroz, m. ; see Boor. Cf. Booth. 

Bowl (i^ a round wooden ball. (F. — 
L.) iM. E. boule.^F. boiile. — l^. bulla, a 
bubble ; hence, a round thing, a ball. 

Bowl (2), a drinking-vessel. (E.) 

M. E. boHe. A.S. bolla; from its round 
form. + Du. bol, ball ; Icel. bolli, O. H. G. 
bolla, bowl (G. belle). From Teut. *bul-, 
weak grade of * be ill-, to swell ; cf. Goth. 
uf-baulj'an, to puff up. See Boil (2). 

Bow-line. (Scand.) N'ot so called 
because it keeps a sail bowed (for it rather 
keeps it straight), but because fastened to 
the ship's bow. — Norw. and Swed. bog- 
Una, bow-line, from bog, bow of a ship; 
Du. boeglijn, from boeg, bow. For the 
pronunciation, cf. bow-sprit. See Bow (4) 
and Line. 

Bow-window; see Bow (i). 

Box (i), the name of a tree. (L. — Gk.) 
M. E. box; A.S. box. — \.2X. btixus, the 
box-tree. — Gk. ttv^os, the box-tree. 

box (2), a chest or case to put things 
in. (L. - Gk.) M. E. box ; A. S. box. - L. 
buxum, anything made of box-wood; 
hence, a box. — Lat. buxus, the box-tree. 
(Hence a box at a theatre ; a shooting-Zicx; 
a Christmas box or present ; &c.) Cf. 

Box (3), to fight with fists ; a blow. 
(E.) The verb is from M. E. box, sb., 
a blow. Cf. N. Fries, bakke, Silt bokke, 
a blow (Outsen) ; M. H. G. biic, a blow; 
Du. beuketi, G, pochen, to beat. 

Box (4), in phr. * to box the compass.' 
Apparently one of the numerous uses of 
the vb. formed from box 1^2). See 
N. E. D. 

Boy. (E.) M. E. boi, boy. Preserved 
in E. Friesic boi, boy, a boy (Koolman) ; 
allied to M. Du. boeve, a boy, Du. boef, 
a knave, -f- Icel. boH, a knave ; G. bube. 
Bavarian bueb, biia, but, a boy. Cf. A. S. 
Bofa, personal name. 

Boycott, to combine with others in re- 
fusing to have dealings with any one. (E.) 
From the treatment accorded to Capt. Boy- 
eott, of Lough Mask House, co. Mayo, Ire- 
land, in Dec. 1880. 

Brabble, to quarrel. (E.) Cf. Du. 
brabbelen, to stammer, confound ; whence 
brabbeltaal, foolish talk. See Blab, 

Brace, orig. a firm hold. (F. — L.) 
From the notion of embracing. — O. F. 
brace, the two arms (Bartsch) ; hence a 
measure of 5 feet, formed with extended 
arms (Cot.^ ; and hence, a grasp. — Lat. 
brdchia, pi. of brdchiiim, the arm. + Irish 
brae, W. braich, the arm ; Gk. Ppaxiojv. 

bracelet. (F. — L.) F. bracelet; 
dimin. of O. F. bracel, an armlet (Bartsch). 




— L. brdchidle, an armlet. — L. brdchiuin, 
an arm, 

Brach, a kind of hunting-dog. (F.— 
G.) M. E. brache, pi. braches. - K.Y . 
brachez, pi. of bracket, dimin. of O. K. 
brae (F. braque). — bracco (G. 
brack), a dog that hunts by the scent. 

Bracken, fern. (E.) M. E. braken. 
A. S. braccan, pi. ; Kemble, C. I), v. 277. 
Cf. Swed. braken, Dan. bregne^ fern ; cf. 
Icel. biirkni, fern. 

Bracket, a corbel, &c. (F. — C?) 
Formerly spelt bragget, as in Minsheu, ed. 
1627. So named from the resemblance to 
the front part of a pair of breeches, as 
formerly made. — F. braguette, ' a cod- 
piece,' Cot. (the front part of a pair of 
breeches) ; the allied Span, bragueta also 
meant a projecting mould in architecture, 
a bracket or corbel. Dimin. of O. F. 
bragtce, *a kind of mortaise,' Cot. ; from 
bragiies, breeches; so also Span, bragueta 
is the dimin. of Span bragas, breeches.— 
L. brdc(2, breeches; said to be of Celtic 
(or Teutonic V) origin. See Breeches. 

Brackish. (Du.) Du. brak, briny, 
nauseous ; older form wrack, brackish 
(Hexham) ; allied to M. Du. ivracke, a 
wreck, Du. ivraken, to reject, blame, dis- 
approve. —Du. wrak^ orig. 2nd grade of 
7vrekeit, to wreak ; orig. to drive. See 
Wreck. [So also wrong, sour, is allied 
to wringen, to wring. See Franck.] 

Bract. (L.) Lat. bractea, a thin plate 
or leaf of metal. 

Brad. (Scand.) M. E. brod. — Icel. 
broddr, a spike ; Swed. brodd, Dan. brodde, 
a frost-nail. +A. vS. brord, a spike. Teut. 
type *brozdoz. Cf. O. Irish b'Ot, Ir. bjvd, 
W, braih, a sting. 

Brae, brow of a hill, steep bank, slope. 
(Scand.) M. E. bra, ^r<? (North). -Icel. 
brd, brow ; hence, brow of a hill ; see 

Brag*, to boast. (Scand.) M. E. brag- 
geUy to sound loudly, to vaunt. Prob. 
from M. Dan. brage, to crack, to brag. 
Cf. A. S. gebrcec, a breaking, crash, 
noise ; Icel. brak, a creaking, braka, to 
creak ; cognate with L. fragor, noise. 
Also (late) M. F. bragner, ' to flaunt, 
brag,' Cot. ; M. F. bragard, ' gay, gallant, 
braggard,' whence E. braggart. We find 
also W. bragal, to vociferate (from E.) ; 
Bret, braga, to brag (from F.). Cf. Bray. 

Bragget. (W.) Vi.Y..bragot.-'\<. 
bragot, a kind of mead ; allied to Irish 

bracat, malt liquor. — W. brag, malt ; Irish 
and Gael, braich, malt, fermented grain. 
Cf. Gael, brach. to ferment. 

Brahman, Brahmin. (Skt.) Skt. 

brdh77ia\\a, a brahman, holy man. — Skt. 
brahmayi, prayer; also devotion, lit. 'a 
greatness ' of the soul ; cf. brhant, great. 
rVBHERGH, to be great.) " 

Braid ( i ) , to weave. (E.) M.E. breiden. 
A. S. bj-egdan, bredan, to brandish, weave, 
braid. + Icel. bregiia, to brandish, turn 
about, change, start, braid, &c. ; whence 
bragd. a sudden movement. 

braid (2\ full of deceit. (E.) In 
All's Well, iv. 2. 73, braid is short for 
braided, i. e. full of braids or tricks. M.E. 
braid, trick, deceit. — A. S. brcegd, deceit; 
from A. S. brcpgd, 2nd grade oibregdan, to 
draw out, weave, knit, braid. 

Brail, a kind of ligature or fastening. 
(F. — C. ?) O. F. braid, a cincture ; orig. for 
fastening up breeches. — F. braie, breeches. 

— L. brdccE, breeches. 

Brain. (E.) Vi.'E.brayve. K.^.h'CEgn, 
brcegen, the brain. + Du. brei^i. C£ Gk. 
iipiXP^^s, the top of the head. 

Brake (i), a machine for breaking 
hemp ; a name for various mechanical 
contrivances. (O. Low G.) yi.lL. brake. 

— Low G. brake., a flax-brake; M. Du. 
braecke, ' a brake to beat flax ; ' Hexham ; 
Du. braak. — Du. brak, 2nd grade oi bj-eken, 
to break ; see Break. 

Brake (2), bush. (E.) M.E. bi-ake. 
+ Low G. brake, willow-bush (Bremen) ; 
also stumps of broken trees, rough growth. 
From A. S. brecan, (pt. t. brcec), to break. 
% In the sense of ' fein,' modified from 

Bramble. lE.) U.^E^.h-embiL A.S. 
bremel, brenibel. Allied to Du. braatn, a 
blackberry ; Swed. brom-bdr, Dan. brom- 
bcer, G. broinbeere, a blackberry. Here Du. 
braam, G. broni i^O. H.G. brdina answer 
to A. S. brom see Broom) ; of which A.S. 
bre7Ji-el [iox Ttw.t*br^jmloZj is the diminu- 

Bran. (F.) M.E. bran. -^O.Y. bran, 
bren. Cf. W. bran, Irish bran,^ husks, 
chaff(from E.) ; Bret, brenn, bran. 

Branch. (F. — L.) F. branche. — Late 
L. branca, the paw of an animal. 

Brand, a burning piece of wood, scar 
of fire, a sword. (E.) ]\L E. brand, A. S. 
brand, a burning, a sword : from brann, 
2nd stem of Teui. *brennan-, to burn ; see 
Burn. + Icel. brandr, a fire-brand, sword- 




blade (from its flashing) ; Swed. and Dan. 
brand, fire-brand, fire; M. H. G. brant, 
a brand, sword. 

brandish. (F. — Scand.) M.'E.braun- 
dzsen. — F. brandtss-anf, pres. pt. oidrandir, 
to brandish a sword. — A. F. bra fid, a 
sword. — Icel. brandr ; see Brand, above. 

brandy. (Du.) Formerly brajid- 
luine, brafidy-tvine ; whence brandy. — Du. 
brande-wijn, M. Du. brandivijn, brandy ; 
lit. 'burnt' (i.e. distilled) wine (or, ace. 
to Kilian, because it easily burns). — Du. 
branden, to burn ; and wijn, wine ; see 

Sranks, a punishment for scolds. (F.'j 
See Jamieson. Hence were borrowed 
Gael, brangas (O. Gael, bj-ancas), a sort 
of pillory ; Gael, brang, Irish brancas, a 
halter. — North F. branques, pi. of bran- 
que, Norman form of F. branche, branch, 
' also, the cheeke of a bit,' Cot. See 

Bran-new. (E.) Short for brand-new . 
i. e. new from the fire. See Brand. 

Brant-fox, Brant-goose orbrent- 

gOOSe. The prefix is Scand., as in Swed. 
brandriif, a brant-fox, hrandgas, a brent- 
goose. The orig. sense is ' burnt,' with 
the notion of redness or blackness. 
Brasier , Brazier, a pan to hold coals. 

(F. — Scand.) F. brasier. — ¥. braise, live 
coals. — Swed. brasa, fire (below). 

Brass. (E.) M.E. bras. A. S. brces. 
Perhaps allied to the verb seen in Icel. 
brasa, to harden by fire ; Dan. brase, to 
fry ; cf. Swed. brasa, fire. Der. braz-en, 
A. S. brcescn. 

braze (i\ to harden. (E.) K. Lear, 
i. I. II. It means to harden like brass; 
see below. 

braze (2), to ornament with brass. 
(E.) In Chapman, tr. of Homer, Od. xv. 
113; from brass, sb. ' Aero, ic brasige ; ' 
.(^Ifric, Gram. p. 215. 

Brassart, the piece of armour -which 
protected the upper part of the arm. (F. — 
L.) F. brassart (Cot.), brassa^'d (^\\Xx€)\ 
also brassal. Formed with suffix -ard 
from F. bras, arm. — L. brachitwi, arm. 

Brat (1), a cloak, rough mantle. (C.) 
It also meant a rag, clout, or pinafore.— 
Gael, and Irish brai, a cloak, rag ; O. Irish 
brat, a rough cloak ; W. brethyn, woollen 
cloth. (W. brat is from E.) 

Brat (2), a child ; esp. ' a beggar's brat.' 
Perhaps ' a rag,' the same as Brat (i). 

Brattice, a fence of boards in a mine. 

(F.-Teut.?) M.E. bretasche, bretasce, 
brictaske, a parapet, battlement. — O. F. 
bretesche, a small wooden outwork, battle- 
ment; cf. Prov. bertresca. Ital. bertesca, 
the same. A difficult word ; prob. formed 
from G. brett, a plank. 

Bravado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Brave. (F. — Ital.) F. ^mz^^, ' brave, 
gay, fine, proud, braggard, valiant;' Cot. 

— Ital. b) avo ; the same as Span, and 
Vox\..bra7)o\ Vrov.brau. Etym. unknown; 
none of the explanations are satisfactory ; 
the Bret, brav, O. Swed. bj-af, appear to 
be borrowed from F. 

bravado. (Span.) Altered from Span. 
bravada, ' a bravado ; ' Minsheu's Span. 
Diet. — Span, bravo, brave. 

bravo, a daring villain. (Ital.) Ital. 
bravo, brave ; as a sb., a cut-throat, villain. 
bravo! well done! (Ital.) liA. bravo, 
brave ; used in the voc. case masc. 

Brawl (i), to quarrel. (E.?) M.E. 
brawlen. Perhaps E. Cf. Du. brallen, 
to brag, boast; Dan. bralle, to prate, 
chatter; G. prahlen, to brag. 

Brawl (2), a sort of dance. (F. — Scand. 
or O. H. G.) ' A French hraivl,' L. L.L. iii. 
9. — F. bi'ansle, ' a totter, swing, . . . braiul 
or dance ; ' Cot. — F. bransler, to reel ; mod. 
F. bj-anler. Allied to O. F. brandeler 
(Littre), brandiller, to shake (Cot.), 
frequent, forms of F. braridir, to brandish. 
See Brandish. 

Brawn, muscle. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
braun, muscle, boars flesh. — O. F. braon, 
a slice of flesh ; cf. Prov. bradon, the same. 

— O. H. G. brdton, ace. of brato, a slice 
of flesh for roasting. — O. H. G. brdtau 
'^G. braten), to roast. -f- A. S. br&dan. 

Bray (,1), to bruise, pound. (F. — G.) 
M. E. brayen. — O. F. bi-eier (F. broyer).— 
O. Sax. brekan (G. brechcn), to break; 
see Break. 

Bray (2), to make a roaring noise. 
(F. — C.) A. F. braier; F. braif-e (Med. 
Lat. bragtre). Of Celtic origin; cf. Gael. 
bragh, a burst, explosion, bi'aigh, to crackle 
(Thurneysen) ; and cf. \^. frag- or, noise. 

Braze ; see Brass. 

Brazier ; see Brasier. 

Breach. (E.) M. E. breche, a fracture 

— A. S. brcce, as in hlaf-gebrece, a piece of 
bread (more commonly brice, a breaking); 
O. Fries, breke.'— K.S. brecan, to break. 
^ M. E. breche is also partly from O. F. 
breche (F. bj'cche^^, a fiacture. — G. brechen. 
to break. 




Bread. (E.) M. E. breed. A. S. bread. 
-|-Du. brood; Icel. brauQ; Swed. and Dan. 
brod\ G. brot. Teut. type *braudofn, n. ; 
or *braudoz, neut. form in -oz. It some- 
times means 'bit' or 'piece'; cf. A. S. 
' breadrti, frusta pdnis,^ Blickling Glosses ; 
O. Nortliumb. bread., a bit, morsel ; John 
xiii. 27. 

Breadth. (E.> The final -th is late; 
from M.E. brede^ breadth; Ch. — A. S, 
br^du.-\-\z'&\. breidd ; O. H. G. breitt {G. 
breife); Goth, braidei, f. From Teut. 
*braidoz. broad ; see Broad. 

Break. (E.^i W.Y.. breken; •^\..\.. brak; 
pp. broken. A. S. brecan, pt. t. brcec, pp. 
broeen. -\-Du. brcken\ Gotti. bn'kan; G. 
brechen. Cf. Icel. braka, to creak; Swed. 
braka, to crack ; Dan. brakke; ha.t./ra}i- 
gere, to break ; Gael, bragh, an explosion. 
(-V^BHREG.) The orig. sense is to break 
with a noise, to crack. 

Bream, afish. (F. — Teut.) M.E.3r^<?w. 
— O. F. brestne (F. brhfie'). — M. H. G. 
brahsem (G. brassen) ; O. H. G. brahsina 
(Kluge). Cf. Du. bras em. 

Breast. (E.) M.)L.brest,b7'eest. A. S. 
breosi. -f- Icel. brjost (Swed. brost, Dan. 
bryst) : Teut. type *breustoj?i, n. Also G. 
brust, Du. borst, Goth, brusts : Teut. stem 
*bnist- (with weak grade). 

Breath. (E.) M.Y..breeth,breih. A.S. 
<^;'t?5 . + O . tl . G. brddani , G . brodeni , broden, 
brodcl, steam, vnpour, exhalation. 

Breech. (E.) See Breeches. 

Breeches. (E.) Really a double 
plural, the lorm breech being, in itself, a pi. 
form. A. S. b7'ec, breeches; pi. oibroc, with 
the same sense. -J- Du. broek., a pair of 
breeches; \ct\. brok (^\. brcekr) \ M.H. G. 
bruoch. Cf. L. brdcce, said to be a \^oid 
of Celtic (but rather of Teutonic) origin. 
See Brogues. 

breech. (E.) M.E. breech; A.S. 
brec, the breech; A.S. Leechdoms, ii. 
146. Cf. A. S. brec, breeches, pi. of brdc\ 
see above. 

Breed. (E.) A. S. bredan, to produce 
or cherish a brood. — A.S. brod, o. brood 
(with mutation from <? to ^).4-G. briiten; 
from briit. See Brood. 

Breeks, breeches. iScand."^ Northern 
E. From Icel. brcckr^ pi. of brok ; see 

Breeze (i), a gadfly. (E.) M.E. brese. 
A. S. briosa. 

Breeze (2), a strong wind. (F.) Formerly 
brize. — O. F. brise, used by Rabelais in the 

same sense as F. bise, the N. wind ; cf. 
Span, brisa, Port, briza, the N.E. wind; 
Ital. brezza, a cold wind. Orig. unknown. 

Breeze (.^), cinders. (F, — Scand.) 
O. F. brese {breze in Cot.), F. braise, live 
coals. See Brasier. 

Breve. (Ital. — L.) Grig, a short note ; 
now the longest in use. — Ital. breve, brief. 
— L. breuis, short. Der. semi-breve. 

brevet. ; F. — L.) F. brevet, * a brief, 
breviate, little writing;' Cot. Dimin. from 
F. bref, brief. — L. breuis, short. 

breviary. (F. — L.) F. briviaire.— 
L. breiiidrium. a summary. — L. breuis. 

brevity. ( F. — L.) F. bricvete. — L. 
ace. bretiitdtem, shortness. — L. breuis , 

Brew. (E.) M. E. brcwen. A. S. 
breoiuan, pt. t. breaiv, Y^'p. geb}-oiven.-\-T)\x. 
brouwen; G.brauen; leal, brugga; Swed. 
brygga ; Dan. brygge. Cf. L. de-frti-tiim, 
new wine boiled down; Thracian ^S/jCtoi/, 
beer. (^ BHREU, to decoct.) 

Brewis, Erowis, pottage. (F.- 
O. H.G.) M.E. brewes, broives.^O.Y. 
brouez, broez, nom. of brouet, broet, soup 
made with broth of meat; dimin. of breu, 
pottage (Roquefort).- O. H. G. brod. brot, 
broth; see Broth. Also spelt Zr^.yi?. 

Briar, Brier. (E_.) M.E. brere. 

A. S. bner, O. Merc. brer. 

Bribe. (F.) M. E. bnbe. - O. F. bribe, 
a piece of bread given to a beggar. 
Cf. briber, to beg; Span, briba, idleness, 
bribar, to loiter about; Ital. birba, fraud; 
birbante, an idle beggar. Origin un- 
known : not Celtic. 

Brick. (F. — M. Du.' F. brique, a 
brick; also a fragment, bit. — M.Du. bricke, 
a brick ; cf. Walloon briquet, a large slice 
of bread. — Du. breken, to break. Der. 
brick-bat (see Bat). 

Bride. (E.) M. E. bride ; also birde, 
brude, burdc. A. S. bryd, a bride. + Du. 
bruid\ lce\. briidr; Swed. and Dan. <^;-«r/; 
O. H.G. bri^t; G. braut; Goth, bruths. 
Teut. type ^brildiz, f. 

bridal. (E.) Formerly bride-ale, a 
bride-feast. A. S. bryd-calo, a bride-ale, 
bride-feast. — A. S. bryd, I ride; and ealo, 
ale, also a feast ; see Ale. 

bridegroom. (E.) For bHdegoom ; 
the second r is intrusive ; by conhision 
with groom. A.S. bryd-gu?na, lit. bride- 
man ; where gtima is cognate with L. 
ho7no,2t. man ; see Homage. +Du. bruide- 
gom; Icel. brfidgumi', Swed. brudgum; 



Dan. brudgom ; G. braufiga?n, O. H. G. 

Bridge. (E.) M. E. brigge, briigge. 
A. S. bry eg. -^-Iceh bryggja ; Swed. brygga ; 
Dan. biygge, a pier ; Du. brzcg ; G. bj-Ucke. 
Teut. type '^brugjd, f. Allied to Icel. brii, 
Dan. bro, a bridge, pavement; O. Swed. 
b7'o, a paved way. 
Bridle. (E.) M. E. bridel. A. S. 
brldel. + Du. breidel\ O. H. G. bridel, 
brittil (v^^hence F. bride". A. S. bridel 
represents an earlier *brigdel (cf. brigdils, 
a bridle, O. E. Texts, p. 44, 1. 127).- A. S. 
bregd-an, to pull, twitch (with change of 
e to i). See Braid. 
Brief ( i ) , short. (F. - L.) M. E. bref. 
— F. bref.'—\^. breuis, short. +Gk. )3/)axv?, 

brief (2% a writ, &c. (F.-L.) F.^ 
brief, a brief; Cot. The same as F. bref 
above ; from its being in a short form. 
Brig, Brigade ; see Brigand. 
Brigand. (F.-ltal.) ¥. brigand, 0. 
robber. — Ital. briganle, an intriguer, rob- 
ber ; orig. pres. part, of brigare, to strive 
after. — Ital. briga, strife, quarrel, trouble. 
Orig. uncertain. 

brig ; short for brigantine. 
brigade. (F.-I_tal.) Y.bngade,3. 
crew, troop. — Ital. brigata, a troop ; orig. 
fem. of pp. of brigai'e, to strive, fight, as 

brigandine, a kind of armour. (F. 

— Ital.) F. brigandine, a kind of armour, 
worn by brigands. — F. brigand, a robber ; 
see above. 

brigantine, brig, a ship. (F.- 

Ital.) Brig is merely short for brigantine. 

— F. hriganfin, a kind of ship. — Ital. 
bj'igantino, a pirate-ship. — Ital. brigante, 
a robber. See Brigand. 

Bright. (E.) M. E. bright. A. S. 
beorht, berht. + Icel. bjartr ; M. H. G. 
berht ; Goth, bairhts, shining. Teut. type 
'^berhtoz, shining. Cf. Gk. (popKos, white. 

Brill, a fish. (E.) Origin unknown. 

Brilliant, shining. (F.-L.-Gk.- 
Skt.) F. brillant, pres. part, of briller, 
to glitter; cf. Ital. brillare, to sparkle. 
The orig. sense was to sparkle as a beryl. 
— L. beryllus, a beryl ; see Beryl. 

Brim. (E.) M. E. brim. (Not in 
A. S.) Cf. Icel. barmr, brim ; Swed. 
brain, border, edge; Dan. bramme\ M. 
Du. breme\ G. gebrdme, border. 

Brimstone, sulphur. (E.) M. E. 
briiiiston, bremstoon, also brenstoon (Wy- 

clif). — M. E. brenn-en, to burn, and stoon, 
stone. So also Icel. brennisteinn, brim- 
stone. vSee Burn. 

Brindled, Brinded, streaked. 
(Scand.) Icel. brvnd-, as in bi'ondottr, 
brinded, said of a cow. — Icel. brandr, a 
brand, flame, sword. Thus brijtded = 
Brine. (E.) M. E. brine. A. S. bryne 
(for brine), brine, salt liquor.-^M. Du. 
brijne ; Du. brij'n, pickle. 

Bring. (E.) A. S. bringan, also 
brengan, pt. t. b7'dhte.-\-V)-\x. brengen; G. 
bringen ; Goth, briggan (written for 
bringan), pt. t. brdhta. 

Brink. (Scand. :> M.E. (^rz«^. — Dan. 
brink, verge ; Swed. brink, descent or 
slope of a hill ; Icel. brekka (for bj'inka), a 
slope, crest of a hill ; allied to Icel. bringa, 
a grassy slope, orig. the breast. 

Brisk. (F.-Ital.) ^Y^tM bruisk in 
Lowl. Sc. (1560). — F. brusque, 'brisk, 
lively, quicke, rash, harsh;' Cot. — Ital. 
brusco, tart, harsh ; see Brusque. 

Brisket. (F.) O. F. brischet (Brachet), 
s. V. brechet), also bruschet (Ducange) ; 
brichet, ' the brisket, or breast-piece,' 
brnchet, ' the craw-bone of a bird ; ' Cot. 
Guernsey briequet (for '^brHskct).'—T)zn. 
b?iisk, Icel. hrjosk, gristle ; cf. Norw. 
bijoskutt, gristly. 

Bristle. (E.) M. E. bristle, berstle, 
birstle ; dimin. of A. S. byrst, a bristle.+ 
Du. borstel: Icel. burst; Swed. borst; 
G. borste. From Teut. *burs-, weak grade 
of *bers ^ld.g. '^bhers, to bristle; cf. Skt. 
sahasra-bhrshti, having a thousand points. 
See Burr. 

Brittle. (E.) M. E. h-itel, brotel, 
brutel. For A. S. *b7ytel= Teut. *brutiloz, 
from brut-, weak grade of A. S. breotan, 
to break. It means ' fragile.' Cf. Icel. 
brjota, Swed. bryta, Dan. bryde, to break. 
Broach. (F. — L.) M.E. setten on 
broche^Xo set a-broach, tap liquor. — F. 
niettre en broche, to tap, by piercing a 
iiarrel. — F. bi'ocher, to pierce; broche, 
' a broach, spit,' Cot. ; see Brooch. 
Broad. (E.) M. E, brood. A. S. brad. 
-I- Du. breed; Icel. breidr; Swed. and 
Dan. bred ; Goth, braids ; G. breit. 

Brocade. (Span. — L.) Spa.n. broeado, 
brocade; orig. embroidered, the pp. of a 
verb *brocar (not used) answering to F. 
brocher, 'to broach, also, to stitch . . . with 
great stitches ; ' Cot. — F. broche. — Late L. 
brocca, L. broccus; see Broocb. 



broccoli. (Ital. — L.) Ital. broccoli, 
sprouts; pi. of /5r<?f^<?/(7, a sprout. Dimiii. 
of brocco, a skewer, a shoot, stalk. — L. 
brocctis, projecting, like teeth. 

brocliure, a pamphlet. (F. — L.) F. 
brochure, a few leaves stitched together. — 
F. hrocher, to stitch ; see Brocade. 

Brock, a badger. (C.) A. S broc — 
W., Corn., and Bret, broch; Irish, Gael., 
and Manx broc, a badger. Named from 
his white-streaked face; cf. Gael, brocach, 
speckled, grayish, as a badger; Gk. <^op«os, 
white, gray. (Cf. E. gray, a badger.) 

Brocket, a red deer two years old. 
(F. — L.) F. brocart, the same ; so called 
because he has but ore tine to his horn.— 
F. broche, a spit, also, a tine of a stag's 
horn ; see Brooch. 

Brogues, coarse shoes, leggings. (C. 
— E.) Gael, and Irish ZtJj-, shoe ; M.Irish 

Named from its ill odour. Formed, with 
suffix -ine, from Gk. l3p(Vfj.-os, a stink. 

Bronchial. (Gk.) Gk. hphx^^y i^^ut. 
pi., the ramifications of the windpipe.— 
Gk. ^pofx'^^^ the windpipe; cf. ^poYxos, a 
gill. Der. bronch-itis ; from ;3po7xo9. 

Bronze. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y. bronze. 
— llal. bronzo ; bj'onzino, made of bronze 
(z — ds).^ L. (£S BriindusTnufn. — L. Brun- 
(iusiiivi, Brindisi (in Italy) ; where bronze 
mirrors were made (I liny, xxxiii. 9). 

Brooch. (F. — L.) Named from the 
pin which fastens it. M. E. broche, a pin, 
]ieg, brooch. — F. broche, a spit, point.— 
Late L. brocca, a. pointed stick ; broca, a 
spike ; L, broccus, projecting, like teeth. 

Brood. (E.) M. E. brod. A. S. brod 
(rare) ; 'hi bredaS heora brod' = they 
nourish their brood ; Allfric's Hom. ii. 10. 
+ Du. broed; (Jx.bruL Teut. stem *brd-d-. 

/^r^rr, shoe. — A. S. broc, breeches; or Iccl. 1 from a verbal base '^bro-, preserved in G, 

brok. See Breeches. 

Broided, braided. (E.) The wk. pp. 
broided took the place of the str. pp. 
broide7i, woven, itself due to confusion of 
browden with broider (below). Brozvden 
represents A. S. brogden, pp. of bregdan, 
to braid. See Braid. 

Broider, to adorn with needlework. 
(F.) [In I Tim. ii. 9, broidered (as in yrz^z, to enjoy. See Fruit 
some edd.") is an error for broided; see Hrugm. i. § iii. 

of ~ ' 

brii-hen, to scald (orig. to heat), Du. 
broe-ien, to brood, hatch ; from the idea of 
' heat ' or ' warmth.' Der. breed. 
Brook (i), to endure, put up with. 
(E.) M. E. broken, brouken. A. S. bru- 
can, to use, enjoy ; which was the orig. 
sense. + L)u. gebruiken, Icel. brfika, G. 
brauchen, Goth, brtikjan, to use; cf. L. 

above.] Used as the equivalent of F. 
broder, * to imbroyder,' Cot. Tiie oi is 
due to confusion with broided. — O. > . 
brouder, also brosder (Supp. to Godefroy) : 
cf. Late L. brusdus, brosdtis, embroidered 
work (Ducange). Of unknown origin; 
perhaps from Teut. *brozd-, whence A. S. 
brord, Icel. broddr, a spike ; see Brad. 

Broil (I), to fry, grill. (F.) M. E. 
broilen. — A. F. broiller (Bozon), O. F. 
bruiller, to boil, roast (T-loquefort). Origin 
unknown; cf. O.F. briiir, to roast; per- 
haps from M. H.G. briiejen, to scald ; see 

Broil (2), a tumult. (F.) F. brouiller, 
to jumble, confuse, confound. Cf. Ital. 
brogliare, to disturb, broglio, confusion 
(whence E. ir/i-broglio). Origin un- 

Broker. (F. — L.) M. E. brocour, 
an agent, witness of a transaction. — A. F. 
brocour, an agent ; orig. a ' broacher ' or 
seller of wine. — Late L. broccdtor, one 
who broaches. — Late L. brocca, i. e. spike ; 
see Brooch. 

Broxninei a chemical element. (Gk.) 

Brook (2), a small stream. (E.) M. E. 
brook. A.S. Z-zw. + Du. broek, G. bruch, 
a marsh. 

brook-lime, a plant. (E.) M. E. 
brok-lemke, brok-leviok. From A. S. broc, 
a brook, and hleomoc, brook-lime. 

Broom. (E.) M. E. brome, broom. 
A. S. brom, the plant broom ; hence, a 
liesom made from twigs of it.-f-Du. bretn ; 
Low G. braam, broom. Teut. type *bi'a:- 
moz. Allied to Bramble, q. v. 

BrOSe, a later form oi bf'owis oxbrewis; 
see Brewis. 

Broth. (E.) A.S /^r^/.+Icel. broQ; 
O. H. G. brod. Teut. type *broJ)om, n. ; 
from b)-o-, bru-, weak grade of breu-, as in 
A. S. breoivan, to brew. Lit. ' brewed.' 

Brothel. (E. ; confused with F.— 
Teut.) 1. M. E. brothel, a lewd person, 
base wretch. — A. S. bro^-en, pp. of 
breoQan, to perish, become vile ; whence 
also dhroQen, degenerate, base. Hence 
was made brothel house, a house for vile 
people (Much Ado, i. i. 256), afterwards 
contracted to brothel. 2. Orig. distinct 
from M. E. bordel, which was used, how- 




ever, in much the same sense. — O.F. bor- j twigs 
del, a Imt, o:ig. of boards. —Du. bord^ a I also, 

— O. F. b7-oce, Y . brosse, brushwood ; 
later, a brush. — Low L. brttscm, 3. 

}>lank, board; see Board. 

Brother. (E.) M, E. brother. A. S. 
bra )or. -if \^\x. breeder ; \c^\. brdbir\ Goth. 
hroihar; Swed. and Dan. broder; G. 
bruder\ Gael, and Ir. bratJiair \ W. 
braivd; Russ. bj-at' \ Lat. fraler; Gk. 
(l>pdri]p; Hkt. b/irdtr. Teut. stem ''/'/(^M^r-; 
Idg. stem '^blirdter-. 

Brougham, a kind of carriage. (Per- 
sonal name.) Dale 1839. Named after 
the first Lord Brougham. 

Brow. (E.) M..Y.. b7'oive. K.S. bnl. 
+ lcel. bri'in, eyebrow; Lith. bruwis \ 
Russ. brove; Gk. bcppvs \ Ters.abnJ; Skt. 
b/inl. Brugm. i. § 554. 

Brown. (E.) 'M. E. brozm. A. S. 
/w?;z. + Du. bruin; Icel, bnlnn; Swed. 
hrun\ Yioxi.brumi; G.bratin; hith.brunas. 
Cf. Gk. (ppvvos, a toad; Skt. ba-bhrii{s), 

Browse. (F. -M. H. G.) For broiist\ 
lit. 'to feed on young shoots.' — M. F. 
broiister (F. brotiler), to nibble off young 
shoots. — M. F. brotist (F. bjviit), a sprig, 
shoot, bud. — M. fL G. broz, a bud ; Bavar. 
brossf, brass, a bud. From the weak grade 
of O. H. G. briozan, to break, also, to 
break into bud ; which is cognate with 
A. S. breotan. See Brittle. 

Bruin. (Du.) In Reynard the Fox, 
the bear is called bruin, i. e. brown. — Du. 
bruin, brown. See Brown. 

Bruise. (E. ; partly F.) A. S. {to)- 
brysan, to bruise. Influenced by O. F. 
bruiser, briser, to break, perhaps of Celtic 
origin; cf. Gael, bris, to break, Irish bris- 
ivi, I break. (The spelling ui, from A. S. 
y, occurs in S. Eng. Legendary, 295. 58.) 

Bruit, a rumour. {V — L. ?) V. bruit, 
a noise. — F. bruire, to make a noise. 
Scheler derives F. bruire from L. rugire, 
to roar, with prefixed b. F. bniit - Late 
L. brugitus, a clamour (Ducange) ; cf. L. 
rugitus, a roaring. Partly imitative ; cf. 
G. briillen, to roar. 

Brunette. (F. - G.) F. brunette, fem. 
of bi-unet, brownish. — M. IL G. brun, 
brown ; see Brown. 

Brunt. (E ) Prob. imitative; zi. dint 

{dunt), a blow; influenced by North E. 
bi~unt, i. e. ' burnt,' as if the ' hot ' part of 
the fight. 

Brush. (F. -Teut. ?) W.Y.brusche, 
a brush ; also brush-wood, which is the 

older sense, the orig. brush being made of 

thicket. Derived by Diez from O. H. G. 
bursta, G. borste, a bristle ; but perhaps 
Celtic (Thurneysen). 

Brusque, rough in manner. (F. — Ital.) 
F. brtisque. — \\.a\. brusco, sharp, tart, sour, 
applied to fruits and wine. Origin un- 

Brute. (F. -L.) Y. brut,itm. brjite. 
— L. brietus, stupid. 

Bryony. (L. -Gk.) L. brydnia.— 
Gk. tipvojvia, PpvcjVTj, bryony. — Gk. (iphdv, 
to teem, grow luxuriantly. 

Bubble. (E.) Cf. Swed. bubbla, Dan. 
boble, a bubble ; also Du. bobbel, a bubble, 
bobbelen, to bubble. Of imitative origin. 

Buccanier. (F. — West Indian.) F. 
boucanier, a pirate. — F. boucaner, to broil 
on a sort of wooden frame. — F. bouca?t, 
a wooden frame, used by hunters for 
smoking and drying flesh. The word 
boucan is said to be a F. spelling of a 
Tupi (Brazilian) word, and to mean ' a 
frame on which meat is smoke-dried.' 

Buck (0> ^ r\^2^Q deer, goat. (E.) 
M. E. btikke. A. S. buc, male deer, biicca, 
a he-goat. +Du. bok, Icel. bukkr, Swed. 
bock, a he-goat ; Dan. buk, a he-goat, ram, 
buck ; G. bock ; also W. bwch, Gael, boc, 
Irish boc. Brugm. i. § 800. 

Buck (2), to steep clothes in lye. (E.) 
M. E. bouken. As if from A. S. *bucian, 
not found. Prob. from A. S. bile, a pitcher 
(prov. E. bouk, a pail, tub) ; but M. E. 
bouken has the specific sense of ' steep in 
lye,' like M. H. G. buchen, Swed. byka, 
Dan. byge. Low G. biiken, biiken (whence 
Ital. bticare, F. buer). 

bucket. (E.) A. F. boket (Bozon). 
Formed v^-ith A. F. dimin. suffix -et from 
A. S. biic, a pitcher. Cf. Gael, bucaid, 
Irish buicead, a bucket (from E. ^ 

Buckle. (F. - L.) M. E. bokel. - O. F. 
bucle (F. boiicle), the boss of a shield, a 
ring, a buckle. — Late L. bucula, the boss 
of a shield ; buccula, beaver of a helm, boss 
of a shield, buckle. — Lat. buccula, the 
cheek, dimin. o'i bucca, the cheek. 

buckler. (l^'.-L.) M.E. bokeler.- 
O.F. bucler (F. bouclier), a shield; so 
named from the boss on it; see above. 

Buckram, a coarse cloth. (F.— 

Ital.) M.E. boke7-am.^0. Y. boquerant 

{Y. bougran^, a coarse kind of cloth ; Low 

L. boquerannus or (in Italy) bfichij'dnus 

(for Ital. buchirano), late Ital. bucherame. 




Origin uncertain ; perhaps from Bokhara 

Buckwheat. (E.) Lit. beech-wheat; 
from the resemblance of its seeds to the 
mast of the beech-tree. The form buck is 
from A. S. hoc, as in buck-mast^ beech- 
mast. So also Du. boekweit, buckwheat ; 
G. buchweizen. See Beech. 

Bucolic, pastoral. (L. — Gk.) L. bf/co- 
/zcus. — Gk. ^cvKoKiKos. pastoral. — Gk. 
IBovKoKos, a cowherd. — Gk. /SoC-s, an ox; 
and KfWeiv, to drive. 

Bud. (E. ?) M.E.boc/de,budde,a.hud; 
budden, to bud. Not found in A. S. Cf. 
Du. bot, a bud ; boiten^ to bud, sprout. 

Budge (0? to stir. (F. — L.) V . bouger, 
to stir ; answering to Ital. biilicare, to 
bubble up (DiezV — L. bullTre; see Boil 
(i) above. Cf. Span, bullb', (i) to boil, 
(2) to stir. 

Budge (2), a kind of fur. (F.?) 
Perhaps related to O. F. bochet, bouchet, a 
young kid. 

Budget, a leathern bag. (F. — C.) 
1'. boiigette, dimin. of bouge, a bag. — L. 
biilga, a leathern bag (Gaulish). — ©. Irish 
bolg, bole, a sack. 

Buff (i), the colour of dressed buffalo- 
skin. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. buffle, a buflalo. 
— L. biifahis ; see Buffalo, 

Buff (2), in Blindman's buff. (F.) 
Formerly blindinaii-buff, a game ; in which 
game boys used to buffet one (who was 
blinded) on the back, without being 
caught, if possible. From O. F. biife, F. 
buffe, a buffet, blow ; cf. Low G. buff, 
puf, a blow (Liibben. See Buffet (i). 

Buffalo. (Port, or Ital. - L. -Gk.) 
Port, bufalo, Ital. buffalo, orig. a kind of 
wild ox. — L. bilfalus, a.ho bilbalus. — Gk. 
fiov^aKos, a buffalo ; a kind of deer or 
antelope. (Not a true Gk. word.) 

Buffer (i), and (2) ; see Buffet (i). 

Buffet (i), a blow; to strike. (F.) 
M. E. boffet, buffet, a blow, esp. on the 
cheek. — O. F. bufet, a blow, dimin. of btife, 
a blow, esp. on the cheek ; cf. bufer, buffer, 
to puff out the cheeks, also to buffet; mod. 
F. bouffer. Prob. of imitative origin, allied 
io fouffer, to puff; see Buff (2), Puff. 

buffer (i), a foolish fellow. (F.) Orig, 
a stammerer; hence, a foolish fellow. M.E. 
buffen, to stammer. — O. F. bufer, to puff 
out the cheeks (hence, to puff or blow in 

buffer (2), a cushion, to deaden con- 
cussion. (F,) Lit. 'a striker;' from M.E. 

buffen, to strike, orig. to buffet on the 
cheek; see Buffet (1). 

buffoon. (F.) F. bouffon, a buffoon, 
jester, one whomakesgrimaces. — \' .bouffer, 
to puff. 

Buffet (2). a side-board. (F.) F. buffet, 
a side-board. Origin unknown. 

Bug (0, a spectre. (C.) In Sh.-W. 
b7ig, a hobgoblin, spectre ; Gael, and Ir. 
bocan, a spectre. +Lithuan. batigti s^tcrri^c, 
from bugtt, to terrify, allied to Skt. bhuj, 
to turn aside; see Bow (i). Brugm. i. 

§ 701- 

Bug (2), an insect. (C?) Said to be so 
named because an object of terror, exciting 
disgust; see Bug (1). But cf. A. S. 
scearn-budda, dung-beetle (Voc), prov. E. 
s horn-bug (Kent). 

Bug-bear. (C. aud E.) A supposed 
s]i(ctre in the shape of a bear; see 
Bug (i). 

Bugle (0> a wild ox; a horn. (F. — L.) 
Bugle, a horn, is short for bugle-horn: 
a bugle is a wild ox. — O. F. bugle ^ a wild 
ox. — L. ace. buculuni, a young ox ; double 
dimin. oi bos, an ox. 

Bugle (2), a kind of ornament. 
^F. — L.) Little black pipes, likened to 
horns. ^ Bugle, a little black home;' 
Cockeram. See above. 

Bugle (3)> a plant. (F.) F. bugle; 
Cot. ; cf. Span, and Late L. bugula. Cf. L. 
bugillo, (perhaps) bugle. 

Bugloss, aplant. (F, — L.-Gk.) Lit. 
' ox-tongue.' — F. bu'^losse.^-L,. hfiglossa; 
also btlglossus. — Gk. (iov-yhojaaa, ox- 
tongue ; from the shape of the leaves.— 
Gk. jiov-s, ox ; 'yXcuaa-a, tongue. 

Build. (E.) M.E. buldeft. Late 
A. S. byldan, to build. — A. S. bold, a house, 
variant of botl, a dwelling, n,==']'eut. 
*-btc-J)lom, from bu-, related to bu-an, to 
dwell ; see Bower. Cf. A, S. bytlian, to 
build, from botl (above). [Cf. O. Swed. 
bylja, to build (Ihre). — O. Swed. bol, 
a house, dwelling; Icel. bol, a house, 
Dan. bol, a small larm.l 

Bulb. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. bulbe.~\.. 
btilbus, a bulb. — Gk. ^oAjSoy, a bulbous 
root, onion. 

Bulbul, a nightingale. (Pers.) Pers. 
bulbul, a bird with a melodious voice, 
resembling the nightingale. Of imitative 

Bulge, to swell out. (F. - C.) Formed 
from M.E. bulge, a wallet, pouch.— 
O, F. boulge [botige , a bag. — L. bulga. 




a bag (Gaulish). See Budget. Doublet, 

Bulk (i), size. (Scand.) M. E. bolke, 
a heap. — Icel. bfdki, a heap; O. Swed. 
bolk ; Dan. bulk, a lump. Cf. Swed. 
bulna, to swell. 

Bulk (2), the trunk of the body. (Du.) 
In Sh. — M. Du. bidcke, thorax (Kilian). 
(Prob. confused with Du. buik. Icel. bukr, 
the trunk ; Swed. biik, Dan. btig, G. bauch, 
the belly.) 

Bulk (3), a stall of a shop. (Scand.) 
Perhaps related to Balk. Cf. Dan. dial. 
bulk, a half-wall ; Icel. bdlkr, a beam, also, 
a partition ; Line, bulker, a beam, a wooden 
hutch in a workshop. Der. bulk-head, a 

Bull (i), male of the cow. (E.) M. E. 
bole, bule. Not found in A. S., but the 
dimin. bulliu, a bullock, occurs. Prob. 
' the bcllower;' cf. M. H. G. bullen, to 
roar ; and see Bellow, -f- D"- bul; Icel. 
boli', G. bulk; Lithuan. bullus. Der. 
bull-ock, A. S. bulluc, as above. 

Bull (2), a papal edict. (L.) M. E. 
bulk. — Lat. bulla, a bubble, boss, knob, 
leaden seal on an edict ; a bull (in late 

bullet. (F. - L.) M. F. boulet, dimin. 
of F. no2ile, a ball. — L. btUla, a boss, 
knob, &c. 

bulletin. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y. bulle- 
tin, a ticket. — Ital. bullettino, a safe- 
conduct, pas^. ticket. Dimin. of bulletta, 
a passport, lottery ticket, dimin. of bulla, 
a seal, bull. — L. bulla, a boss, &c. 

Bullace, wild plum. (F.-L.) M. E. 
bolas. — O.F. beloce, a bullace ; '^'i.Y .pelosse. 
Cot. — L. type *piloftea, pellet-like. — Late 
L. piloia, a pellet. — L. pila, a baU. 

Bullet, Bulletin; see Bull (2). 

Bullion. (F.-L.) The A. K. Imllion 
meant a mint, and Late L. bulliona, bullio 
meant a mass of metal, apparently, from 
its being melted ; cf. F. bouillou, a boiling. 
— Late L. bitllionem, ace. of Imllio, a boil- 
ing.— L. bulllre, to bubble up, boil. — L. 
bulla, a bubble. 

Bully, a noisy rough fellow. (O. Low 
G.) in Sh. The oldest sense, in E., is 
'dear one, lover.' — M. Du. boel, a lover 
(of either sex) ; borrowed from M. H. G. 
buole (G. bnhle), lover. 

Bulrush. (E.) M.E./^w/r^/j-r//^, Prompt. 
Parv., p. 244, col. 2. Perhaps 'stem- rush '; 
from its stout stem ; cf. Shetl. bulwand, 
a bulrush. — Dan. bul, stem, trunk; see 

Bole. Or bidl may mean ' large,' witti 
ref. to a bull. Cf. bull-daisy, &c. (Britten). 

Bulwark. (Scand.) Dan. bulvcBvk, 
Swed. bolverk (Ihre) ; cf. Du. bolwerk, G. 
boll-werk (whence F. boulevard). Com- 
pounded of Dan. bul, Swed. bol, trunk of 
a tree, log, Icel. bulr, bolr, the stem of a 
tree; and Dan. vcerk, Swed. verk, a work. 
Lit. 'log -work,' or 'bole-work'; see 

Bum-bailiff, under-bailiff. (E. and 
F.) A slang term. Todd quotes passages 
to shew that it arose from the pursuer 
catching at a man by the hinder part of 
his garment. 

Bumble-bee, a bee that booms or 
hums. See Boora (i). 

Bumboat. (E.) From btim and boat. 
Orig. a scavenger's boat on the Thames 
(a. D. 16S5); afterwards used to supply 
vei^etables to ships. 

Bump (i), to thump; a blow. (E.) 
Of imitative origin ; cf. M. Dan. bumpe, 
to strike with the fist ; W. pwrnpio, to 
thump ; pwmp, a lump ; Corn. bo7n, bu/n, 
a blow. The senses are : (i) to strike, 
(2) a blow, (3) its effect. See Bunch.. 

Bump (2), to boom. (E.) Imitative; 
of. Boom (i), and Bumble-bee. 

Bumper, a full glass. (E.) From 
bump ; with the notion of a butnping or 
full glass ; cf. thumping, i. e. great. 

Bumpkin, a thick-headed fellow. (Du.) 
M. Du. boo??iken, a little tree (Hexham); 
dimin. of boom, a tree, a beam, bar ; see 
Beam (i). The E. bumkin also meant 
a luff- block, a thick piece of wood (Cot- 
grave, s. v. Chicambault, and see bumkin 
in the E. index) ; hence, readily applied 
to a block-head, thick-skulled fellow. 

Bun. (F.) Cf. prov. F. bugne, a kind 
of fritters ; perhaps the same as O. F. 
bugne, a swelling or bump due to a blow 
(Burguy), also spelt bigne, 'a bump, 
knob;' Cot. O. F. bugnete, a fritter (Gode- 
froy) ; also bugnet (id., Supp. p. 393). 
'■ Bignets,\\\\.\Q. round loaves, buns,' &c.; 
Cot. Minsheu has Span, bunuelos, ' pan- 
cakes, cobloaves, buns.' See Bunion. 

Bunch. (E.?) M. E. bunche. Cf. 
M. E. bunchen, to beat. Prob. imitative, 
like bump, bounce. And see Bunk. 

Bundle. (E.) M.V.. bundel. Dimin. 
of O. Northumb. bund, a bundle (Matt. 
xiii. 30). — A. S. bund-, weak grade of 
bindan, to bind.-f-Du. hondel; G. biindel. 




Bung, a stopple. (Du. — L.) M. Du. 
honge (Du. bom), a bung; dialectal form 
of *bo)ide, as preserved in F. bonde, a bung. 
Cognate with Swiss ///«/ (Weigand, s. v. 
Spund). — L. puncta, an orifice ; orig. fern, 
pp. of pungere, to prick. Cf. W. bwng, 
an orifice, also, a bung. 

Bungalow, ^ l^engal thatched house. 
(Hind.) Hind, bangalah, of or belonging 
to Bengal, a bungalow ; Rich. Diet. p. 
293. From the name Bengal. 

Bungle. (Scand. ?) Of imitative 
origin. Cf. Swed. dial, bangla, to work 
ineffectually; O. Swed. bzinga, to strike 
(Rietz, Ihre.) And cf. Bang. 

Bunion. (F. -G.) O.Y .buignon,o'n\Y 
in the sense of a fritter (Godcfroy) ; but 
really an augmentative of O. F. hiiigne 
(F. bigne, 'a bump, swelling/ Cot.).— 
O, H. G. bungo, a lump (Graff, in 
Schmeller) ; cf. Icel. bunga, convexity. 
So also Ital. bugnone, augment, of btigno, 
a boil, a swelling. See Bun. 

Bunk, a wooden case or box, berth. 
(Scand.) Cf. O. Swed. buJike, the plank- 
ing of a ship forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise, &c. (Ihre) ; the usual sense of 
Swed. bunke is a heap, pile, something 
prominent; M. Dan. bunke, room for 

Bunt, the belly of a sail. (Scand.) It 
answers in form to Dan. bundt, Swed. 
bicnt, a bundle, a bunch ; from the weak 
stem of the verb to Bind. ^ But the right 
words for ' bunt ' are Dan. bug, Swed. 
buk, Du. btiik, G. bauch ; see Bulk (2). 

Bunting (i), a bird. (E.?) M. E. 
hunting', also buntyle (^=^bunlel), Lowl. 
Sc. binitlin. Origin unknown. 

Bunting (2), a thin woollen stuff for 
flags. (E.) Perhaps ' sifting-cloth ' ; from 
M. E. boniefi, prov. E. bunt, to sift. Cf. 
F. etanmie, in the same senses. 

Buoy. (Du. — F. — L.) Du. <^^^z', a buoy ; 
also a shackle, a fetter. — O. ¥. buie, a 
fetter, F. boit^e, a buoy. — Late L. boia, a 
fetter, clog. — L. boia, pi. a collar for the 
neck, orio'. of leather. 

Bur, Burdock ; see Burr. 

Burbot, a fish. (F.) F. botirbotte 
(also barbote).'—Y . bottrbetter, 'to wallow 
in mud,' Cot. — F. bourbe, mud. — Late L. 
borba, mud. — Gk. ^vp^opos, mud. 

Blirden i ) , Burthen, a load carried . 
(E.) A. S. byrden, a load. From Teut. 
*bur-, weak grade of *beran-, to bear ; see 
Bear (i). + Icel. byrdr, byrdi; Swed. 


bordw, Dan. byrdc, Goth. baurthei\ G. 
biirde ; from the same root, with varying 
suffixes. For the form burden, see below. 

Burden (2), the refrain of a song. 
(F. — LateL.) F. bourdon, a drone-bee, 
humming of bees, drone of a bagpij)e ; 
see Cot. — Late L. burddne77i, ace 01 burdo, 
a drone. Prob. of imitative origin ; cf. 
Lowland Sc. birr, to make a whizzing 
noise, E. buzz. 9\ Confused with Bur- 
den (i). 

Bureau. (F. — L.) F. bureau, a desk, 
writing-table; so called because covered 
with brown baize. — F. bureau, O. F. buret, 
coarse woollen stuff, russet-coloured. — 
O. F. btiire, M.F\ bure, dark brown; F. 
bure, coarse cloth. — L. burrus, reddish. — 
Gk. TTvppus, reddish. — Gk. Trip, fire. 

Burgeon, a bud. (F.-Teut.) F. 
bourgeon, a young bud. Lengthened from 
Languedoc boure, a bud, eye of a shoot 
(Diez).-M. H. G. buren, O. H. G. pur- 
jan, to raise, push up, push out. — M. H. G. 
bor, por, an elevation ; whence G. empor 
( = in por), upwards. 

Burgess. (F.-M. H. G.) M. E. bur- 
geys. — O. F. burgeis. — Low Lat. burgensis, 
belonging to a fort or city. — Low Lat. 
burgiis, a fort. — M. H. G. bure (G. burg) ; 
cognate with A. S. burg; see Borough. 

burgher. (Du.) Formerly burger. — 
Du. btirger, a citizen. — Du. burg, a city ; 
cognate with E. Borough 

burglar. (A. F. - E.) A. F. bmgler, 
bnrglour; Law L. buigtihUor. — 'LdiV/ L. 
burguldre, to break into a house. — A. S. 
burh, bii?-g ; see Borough. 

burgomaster. (Du. and F.) Du. 
burge-nieester, a town-master. — Du. burg, 
co;^nate with E. Borough ; and j?ieester, a 
master, from O. F. 7neistre; see Master. 

Burgonet, a helmet. (F.) F. bour- 
guignote. 'a burganet,' Cot. So called 
because first used by the Burgundians. — 
F. Bourgogne, Burgimdy. 

Burial. (E.) yi..\L. buriel, biriel,2i 
tomb; also spelt beriels, biriels." h..^. 
by7'gels, a tomb. — A. S. byrga7i, to bury; 
see Bury. The spelling with -al is due to 
association with fu7ie7--a I, Sec 

Burin, an engraver's tool. (F. — G.) 
F. buri7i ; Ital. bori7io. Prob. from 
M. H. G. bore7i (G. bohren), to bore; see 
Bore (i). 

Burke, to murder by suffocation; to 
murder, stifle. (Personal name.) From 
the name of Burke, an Irishman who com- 



mitted murders by suffocation; executed 
at Edinburgh, Jan. 28, 1829. 

Surl, t J pick knots and loose threads 
from cloth. (F. — L.) To burl is to pick 
off hurls. M. E. Inirle, a knot in cloth. — 
O. F. bojirle ; dimin. of F. bourre, a flock 
or lock of wool or hair. — Late L. burra, 
a woollen pad ; allied to L, burrce, trifles, 
trash, Late L. reburrus, rough. 
burlesque, comic. (F.-Ital. -L.) 

F. burlesque.'— ii'dX. burlesco, ludicrous.— 
Ital. burla. waggery, a trick. A dimin. 
from L. burra, trifles, nonsense (Ausonius). 
See BurL 

Burly. (E.) M. E. bnrli, hurliche, 
borli\ prov, 'E.. bonferly ; Shetland boorly. 
Formed by adding the suffix -ly (A. S. 
-lie) to A. S. bur, a bower, a lady's 
chamber ; hence, the old senses of ' fit for 
a bower,' stately, excellent, large, great; 
and, finally, stout, big. E. g. 'a burly bed.' 

Burn ( I ) , verb. (E.) M.E. bernen ; also 
hrennen. There are two forms, a. intrans. 
A.S. bcornan, byrnan, strong verb, pt. t. 
beam, brau, pp. bornen.'\-0. Icel. bj'inna ; 
Goth, brinnan ; Teut. type *brennan- ; cf. 
A. S. bryiie, flame. |3. trans. A. S. bceriian, 
wk. vb.-{-Icel. brenna, Dan. brcende, Swed. 
brdnna ; G. brennen ; Goth, brannjan ; 
Teut. type *brannjan-, causal to the former. 

Burn (2), a brook ; see Bourn (2). 

Burnet, a plant. (F. -O. H. G.) 
Low L. burneta. — O. F. brunete, the name 
of a flower : burnette, brunette, a kind of 
dark brown cloth, also a brunette. See 
Brunette. Named from the dark brown 
colour of the flowers. 

burnish, to polish. (F. - O. H. G.) 

M. E. burnishen ; also burnen. — O. F. 
burnir, brunir (pres. part, burnis-ant), to 
embrown, to polish. — O. H. G, brimeu 
{<i*brunjan). •^O.H.G. brun, brown; see 

Burnouse, Burnoose, an upper 

cloak worn by the Arabs. (F. — Arab.) 
F. burnous, bournous. — Arab, buj'nus, a 
kind of high-crowned cap, worn formerly 
in Barbary and Spain ; whence Span, al- 
bornoz, a kind of cloak with a hood. 

Burr, Bur. (E ) M. E. btirre, knob 
on a burdock ; bor^-e, roughness in the 
throat. Not in A.S. N. Fries, burre, 
borf'e, a burr, burdock. + Swed. /;^rr<?, a ?ea- 
urchin; ^ar^'/^^?/';'*?, a burdock; T>Ti.x\. borre, 
burdock. From Teut. base *bnrz-<:i*burs-, 
weak grade of Teut. root *bers, to bristle. 
See Bi'istle. Der, bur-dock. 

Burrow, a shelter for rabbits. (E.) 
M.E. borwgh, a cave, shelter; merely a 
varied spelling of borough. Der. burrow, 

Bursar. (Med. L.-Gk.) Med. L. 
bursdrius, a purse-bearer. — Med. L. bursa, 
a purse. — Gk. jSypcra, a hide, wine-skin. 

Burst. (E.) M. E. bersten, bresten, pt. 
t. brast. A. S. berstan, to burst asunder, 
break; str. vb.+Du. bersten; G. bersten; 
Icel. bresta; Swed. brista; Dan. briste ; 
also O. Irish briss-im (for *brest-v)i), I 

Bury (i), vb. (E.) M. E. burien. 
A. S. byrigan, byrgan, to hide in the 
ground, bury. From burg-, weak grade 
of beoi'g-ati, to hide ; see Borough. 

Bury (2), a town. (E.) As in Canter- 
bury. — A. S. by rig, dat. oiburh, a borough. 
See Borough. 

Bus, a shortened form oi omnibus. (L.) 
See Omnibus. 

Bush (I), a thicket. (Scand.-L.) 
M. E. busch, busk. — Dan. busk, Swed. 
biiske,7[. bush, shrub. + Du. bosch; O. H. G. 
buse ; G. busch. All from Late L. boscus, 
a bush ; a word of unknown origin. 

Bush (2), the metal box in which an 
axle works. (Du. — L. — Gk.) M. E. busse. 
— Du. bus, a box, barrel (of a gun) ; G. 
biichse. — Late L. buxis^ a box. — Gk. ttv^js, 
a box. — Gk. TTu^os, box-wood, box-tree. 
See Pyx. 

bushel, a measure. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. bushel. — A.F. bousselle, O. F. boissel; 
Late L. bustellus, a small box ; for 
*boistel, dimin. of O. F. boiste, a box.— 
Late L. buxida, ace. of huxis, a box 

Busk (i\ to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
Icel. bfiask, to get oneself ready. — Icel. 
bfia, to prepare ; and -sk, for sik, oneself. 
See Bound (3) ; and cf. Bask. 

Busk (2), a support for a woman's 
stays. (F.) M. F. biisque, 'a buske, or 
buste ; ' Cot. Mod. F. buse. Of uncertain 
origin. Cf. M. F. buc, ' a busque ;' Cot. 

Buskin. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) O. F. 

bousequiii (1483) ; also brouseqtnn.— 
M. Ital. borzachino, buskin, fine boot. — 
L. borsa. — Gk. ^vpaa, a hide. The M. Du. 
broseken was borrowed from F. 

Buss, to kiss. (E.) [The old word was 
bass.— V. baiser, to kiss. — Lat. basitim,z. 
kiss.] The modern buss, of imitative 
origin, may have been partly suggested 
by it. Cf. prov. G. (Bavarian) bussen, 




to kiss; Lkh. duczo^i, to kiss; also Gael. \ /nii^e. Cognate with Icel. l>ui/r, short; 

and W. dus, mouth, lip. 

Bust. (F. - Ital.) F. duste. - Ital. 
fiiis/o, the bust, trunk of human body, 
stays; Late L. bushim, the trunk of the 
body. Etym. uncertain. 

Bustard, a bird. (F, — L.) Formerly 
also bistard (Sherwood). — O. F. bistarde, 
*a bustard; ' Cot. (Mod. F. outarde) — !.. 
auis tarda, a slow bird (Pliny, N. li. x. 
22). Cf. Port, abetarda, also betarda, a 
bustard. % Both O. F. bistarde and F. 
outarde are from aiiis taf'da ; in the former 
case, initial a is (hopped ; in the latter, 
outarde stands for an older ousiarde, where 
oics = L. aids. See Diez. Aids tarda., 
lit. ' slow bird,' is far from being truly 
descriptive ; so that it is prob. a substitu- 
tion for some form foreign to Latin. 

Bustle. (Scand.) A frequentative of 
Norw. busta, to be violent ; Swed. bosta, 
to bustle, work. Cf. Icel. bzistla. to splash 
about as a fish ; E. Fries, biisen, to be 
violent. See Boast and Boisterous. 

Busy. (E.j M. E. bisy. A. S. bisig 
(bysig;, active ; whence bisgu, exertion. -J- 
Du. bezig.1 busy. 

But (0, prep, and conj., except. (E.) 
A. S. beutajt, bfitan, buta, lit. ' without.' — 
A. S. be, by ; titan, adv. without, from ilt, 
out. + Du. buiten. 

But f 2) ; see Butt (i), Butt (2). 

Butcher. (F.- G.) M. E. <^^c//^r. - 

O. F. bochier, orig. one who kills goats.— 
O. F. hoc (F. bouc), a goat. — G. bock, a 
goat. See Buck. 

Butler. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) M. E. 
botelcr, one who attends to bottles ; from 
M. E botel, a bottle; see Bottle. 

Butt , I ), a push, thrust ; to thrust. (F. 
— O. Low G.) [The senses of the sb. may 
be referred to the verb; just as F. botte, 
a thrust, depends on bonier, to strike.] 
M. E. butten, to push, strike. — O. F. botcr^ 
to push, butt, strike. — O. Frank. *(5^/a;z, 
corresponding to M. Du. booten, to beat, 
M. H. G. bozen, O. H. G. bdzan, to beat. 
Der. butt (mound to shoot at), from M. F, 
butte, the same, allied to F. but, a mark, 
from bnfer, O. F. boter, to hit. Der. 
a-but. See Beat. 

Butt (2), a large barrel. (F. - L.) We 
find A. S. bytt; but our mod. word is 
really F. — O. F. boute, F. botte, ' the vessel 
which we call a butt ; ' Cot. — Late Lat. 
butta, buttis, a cask. 

Butt (3), a thick end. (E.) M. E. but. 

see Buttock. Der. butt-end. 

Butt (4), a kind of flat fish. (E.) 
.Allied to Swed. butta, a turbot, M. Dan, 
butte. Low G. but, Du. bot, a butt. Prob. 
from but, stumpy ; see Buttock. 

Butter. (L. - Gk.) M. E. botere ; 
A wS. butere."!^. bfityriun.'-QV. ^ovrv- 
pou, butter. Probably of Scythian origin. 
butterfly. (E.) A. S. buttor-Jleoge, 
lit. butter-fly. So called from its excre- 
ment resembling butter, as shewn by the 
M. Du. boter-schijte, a butter-fly, lit. 
butter-voider (Kilian). -f" T)u. botervlieg; 
G. biittei'-jlicge. 

Buttery, a place for provisions, esp. 
liquids. (F. — LateL.) A corruption of 
M. E. botelerie, a butlery, proj^erly a place 
for a butler ; from M. E. boteler, a butler; 
see Butler. (Thus buttery = bottlery.) 
Confused with the word butter. 

Buttock. (E.) 'Si.E.buttok. Formed, 
with diniin. suffix -ok (A. S. -uc), from 
butt, a thick end, a stump. Cf. Icel. 
buttr, short, bfttr, a log ; Dan. but, Swed. 
/'////, stumpy, surly ; Du. bot, blunt, dull. 
See Butt (3). 

Button. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. 
boton, also, a bud. — O. F. boton (F. 
bouton) , a bud, a button ; properly, a round 
knob pushed out. — O. F. boter, to push, 
push out; see Butt (1). 

buttress, a support, in architecture. 
(F. — O. Low G.) M. E. boteras; Palsgrave 
has bottras, butter as. Orig. a plural form, 
as if for *butterets. — O. F. bouterez, pi, of 
bouteret, a prop. — F. bouter, to thrust, 
prop. Cotgrave also has boutant, a but- 
tress, from the same verb ; see Butt (1). 

Butty, a companion or partner in a 
work. (F. — Low G.) Shortened from 
boty-felowe or booty-fel'ow, one who shares 
booty with others. From boty, old spell- 
ing of booty = F. butin, booty. Of Low G. 
origin ; see Booty. 

Buxom. (E.) yi.E. boxom,buhsum; 
the old sense was obedient, obliging, good- 
humoured. Lit. 'bow-some.' — A. S. bilg- 
an, to bow, bend, obey ; and -sian, suffix, 
as in win-so77ie.'\''D\\. buigzaam ; G. bieg- 
sam. See Bow (i\ 

Buy. (E.) From A. S. byg-, as in 
byg-est, byg-ed, 2 and 3 p. sing. pres. of 
A. S. bycgan, to purchase, whence M. E. 
buggen, biggen. -f- Goth, bugj'an. Der. 
abide (2), q. v. See Sweet, N. E. G. § 1293. 

Buzz. (E.) An imitative word ; cf. 




Lowl. Sc. bizz, to hiss ; Ital. btizzicare, to 
hum, whisper. 

Blizzard. (F. — L.) M. E. bosard, 
busard, an inferior kind of falcon. — F. 
busard. — Y. biise, a buzzard; with suffix 
■a)'d (from O.H.G. /iar/).— Late L. biisio 
^ L. buteo, a sparrow-hawk. 

By, prep. (F.) M. E. bi. A. S. bl, 
big.-\-lK\. bij ', G.bei; Goih. bi. Cf.Skt. 
a-bhz, Gk. dfi-(pi. 

By-law, a law affectinij; a townshi}). 
(Scand.) Formerly also birlaw. — Icel. 
3<?-;-, by-r^ a village (gen. bcejar, whence 
bir-^'y log, a law. So also Dan. by-lov, a 
town-law. Icel. beer is allied to bua, to 
dwell. See Boor. 

Byre, a cow-house. (E.) A Northern 
E. deriv. of boTver. A. S. lyre, a shed, 
hut. — A. S. bn7% a bower; cf. Icel. bftr, a 
pantry. See Bower. 

Cab (i) ; see Cabriolet. 

Cab (2), a Heb. measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
qab, the i8th part of an ephah. The literal 
sense is ' hollow ' ; cf. Heb qdbab, to form 
in the shape of a vault ; see Alcove. 

Cabal. (F.- Heb.) Orig. ' a secret.' F. 
cabale, * the JewesCaball, a hidden science ; ' 
Cot. — Heb. (7(7^M/(7//, reception, mysterious 
doctrine. — Heb. gdbal, to receive ; qibbel, 
to adopt a doctrine. 

Cabbage (0^ a vegetable. (F.-L.) 
M. E. cabache, cabocJie. — F. (Picard) ca- 
boche, lit. ' great head ; ' cf. Picard cabtis, 
F. choux cabiis, large-headed cabbage. — L. 
cap-ui, head ; with augmentative suffix ; 
cf. Ital. capocchia, head of a nail. 

Cabbage (2), to steal. (F.) From 
Y . cobasser, to put into a basket ; Norman 
cabasser, to cabbage (and see Supp. to 
Godefroy). — F. cabas, a basket; Norman 
cabas, tailor's cabbage; of unknown origin. 

Caber, a pole. (C— L.) Gael, cabar, 
a rafter. — L. type *caprio, a rafter; see 

Cabin. (F.) M.E cabam.—Y. cabane. 
— Prov. cabana. — Late L. capanna, a 
hut (Isidore). 

cabinet. (F.) F. cabinet, dimin. of 
F. cabane, a cabin (above). 

Cable. (F. - L.) M. E. cable. - O. F. 
c<7/V<?. — Late L. captiluni. caplum, a strong 
(holding) rope. — L. capere, to hold. 

Caboose, the cook's cabin on board ship. 
(Du.) Formerly camboose.'^Xyw. ko?Hbuts, 

a cook's cabin ; also * the chimney in 9 
ship,' Sewel. (Hence also Dan. kabys, 
Swed. kabysa, caboose.) 

Cabriolet. (F.-Jtal.-L.) Cab is 
short for cabriolet. — Y . cabriolet, a cab; 
from its supposed lightness. — F. ra/rw/^, 
a caper, leap of a goat ; formerly capriole. 
— Ital. capriola, a caper, a kid. — ItaL 
caprio, wild goat ; cap7'a, a she-goat. — 
L. caper, goat ; fem. capra. 

Cacao, atree. (Span. — Mexican.) Span. 
cacao ; from the Mexican name {cacatiatt) 
of the tree whence chocolate is made. 
% Not the same as cocoa. 

Cachinnation. (L ) L. ace. cachin- 
ndtionem, loud laughter. — L. cachinndre, 
to laugh. Cf. Cackle. 

Cachucha, a dance. (Span.) Span. 
c acinic ha. 

Cacique, a W. Indian chief. (Span.— 
W. Indian.) Span, cacique, an Indian 
prince. From the old language of Hayti. 

Cack, to go to stool. (L.) M. E. 
cakken.'—'L. cacdre. 

Cackle. (E.) M.E. kakeleii, a fre- 
quentative form. Not in A. S. + Du. 
kakelen ; Swed. kackla ; Dan. kagle ; G. 
gackeln. The sense is ' to keep on saying 
kak ; ' cf. gabb-le, gobb-le, gagg-le. 

Cacophony, a harsh sound. (Gk.) 
Gk. KaKoipoji'ia, a harsh sound. — Gk. kuko- 
(pojvos, harsh. — Gk. kuko-s, bad ; and 
0a;i/ -77, sound. Der. cacophonous (Gk. /coko- 

Cad, a low fellow. (F.-L.) Short 
for Lowl. Sc. cadie, an errand-boy; see 
Jamieson. — F. fixr/g/ ; see Cadet. 

Cadaverous, corpse-like. (L.) L. 
c ad alter osus. — Y.. cadauer, a corpse. — Lat. 
cad-e?'e, to fall, fall dead. 

Caddis, a kind of worsted lace or tape. 
(F.) In Wint. Tale, iv. 4. 208. M. E. 
cadas, explained by bombiciniiun in 
Prompt. Parv. ; (hence Irish cadas, cad- 
dis). Though also used to denote 'wor- 
sted,' it was orig. coarse silk. — F. cadarce, 
'the courstst part of silke, whereof sleave 
is made ; ' Cot. Cf. Span, cadarzo, coarse, 
entangled silk, that cannot be spun on a 
reel ; Port, cadarco, a coarse silk. Origin 
unknow n ; probably Eastern. Der. caddis - 
7vorm, from the caddis-like shape of the 
case of the larva. 

Caddy, a small box for tea. (Malay.) 
Better spi It catty. A small package of 
tea, less than a half-chest, is called in the 
tea-trade a caddy or catty. — Malay kati, a 




weight equal to i| lb. avoirdupois. This 
weight is also used in China and Japan, 
and tea is often made np in packages con- 
taining one catty. 
Cade, a barrel, cask, (F,-L. — Gk.— 
Heb,) F. cade."!., ccuius, a barrel, cask. 

— Gk. /m5o?, a cask, jar. — Heb, kad, a pail. 
Cadence, a fall of the voice. (F.— 

Ital. — L.) M. E. cadence. — F. cadence, ' a 
cadence, just falling of words;' Cot. — 
Ital. cadenza. "l^^Xjt h. cadentia, a falling. 

— L. cadent-., stem of pres. pt. of cadere, to 
fall. + Skt. (ad, to fall. 

Cadet, orig. a 5'ounger son. (F. — L.) 
F, cadet, a younger brother ; Prov. capdel. 
Capdet is a Gascon form = Late L. capit- 
elltim (the substitution of / for // being 
regular in Gascon ; P. Meyer) ; lit. a little 
(younger) head, dimin. from L. caput, a 

Cadi, a judge. (Arab.) Arab. qddJ, 
qdzl, a cadi orcazi, a judge. Hence Span. 
alcalde, the judge (E. alcayde) ; where al 
is the Arab. def. article. 

Caducous, falling. (L.) L. cadnc-tis, 
falling; with suffix -otts. — l^. cadere, to 
fall. See Cadence. 

Caesura. (L.) L. ccisura, a cutting ; 
a pause in a verse. — L. cces-us, pp. of 
ccedere, to cut. 

Caftan, a Turkish garment. (Turk.) 
Turk, qaftan, a dress. 

Cage. (F. — L.) F. cage. — Late L. 
cavea, L. caiiea, a cave, den, cage. — L. 
caujis, hollow. See Cave. 

Caique, a boat. (F. — Turk.) Y. caique. 

— Turk, kaik, a boat. 

Cairn, a pile of stones. (C.) Gael., 
Irish, \\'., Bret. car7i, a crag, rock ; also a 
pile of stones. 

Caitiff. (F. -L.) M. E. caitif.- 
A.F. caitif. a captive, a wretch (F. chetif). 

— L. captmum, ace. of captiuus; see 

Cajole. (F,) F. cajoler, to cajole; 
formerly, to chatter like a jay. Perhaps 
of imitative origin ; cf. cackle. 

Cajuput, Cajeput (with J as jj/), a 
tree yielding an oil, (Malay.) Malay 
kayu patih, lit. 'white wood.' — Malay 
kdyti, wood ; pfctih, white. 

Cake. (E. or Scand.) M. E. cake. 
N. Fries, kdk, kdg, late Icel. and Swed, | 
kaka ; Dan. kage. Tent, stem *kakdn-, I 
fem. ; from Teut. root *kak-, of which the ! 
strong grade is *-kdk- (whence prov. E. I 
cookie^ Du. koek, G. kuchen, a cake). i 


Calabash, the shell of a gourd. (F. 

- Span. —Arab. — I'ers.) F, calebasse.— 
Span, calahaza (Port, calaba^a). — Arab. — 
Pers. kharhuz, a melon . lit. ' ass-gourd,' 
i.e. large gourd. — Pers. khar, ass (hence, 
coarse); /^Msa//, odoriferous fruit. Cf. Skt. 
kkara, an ass. 

I Calamint, a herb, (V. - L. - Gk,) 

I M. F. calamcnl, Cot. — Late L. calaniintha. 
I — Gk. KaXafx'ivQv, 

I Calamity. (F,-L.) Y. calainitL^ 

L. ace. calaniiidteni, a misfortune. 

Calash, a sort of carriage. (F. — G.— 
Slavonic) F, caleche. — G. kalesche. — Vo\. 
kolaska, a small carriage, dimin. of kolasa, 
a carriage; Russ, koliaska. a carriage,— 
Pol . koto, a wheel ; O. Slav. koto. (VQEL.) 

Calcareous. (L.) Should be cal- 
carious. — L. cakdrius, pertaining to lime. 

— L. calc-, stem oicalx, lime, 
calcine. (F. — L.) Y. calcmer. - 

Mod. L. calcindre, to reduce to a calx.— 
L. calc-, stem of calx, lime. 

calculate. (L.) L. calculdt-us, pp. 
of calculdre, to reckon by help of small 
pebbles. — L. calculus, pebble* dimin. of 
calx, a stone. 

Caldron, Cauldron. (F.-L,) M.E. 
caiideron, A. F. caudrun.'-O. North F". 
(Picard) catideron, for O. F, chauderon, 
mod. F. chaudron (Ital. calderone. Span. 
calderon), a vessel for hot water. Extended 
from L. calddr-ia, a hot bath. — L. caldus, 
contr, form of calidzis, hot. — L. calere, to 
be hot. 

Calendar. (L.) L. calcnddrium, an 
account-book kept by money-changers; so 
called because interest was due on the 
calends (lit day) of each month; also, a 
calendar. — L. calenda, calends. 

Calender (0> ^ machine for pressing 
cloth. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. ealandre.— 
Med. 'L.^calendra, celendra, a calender; an 
adaptation of L. cylindrus. a cylinder ; see 
Cylinder. Der. calender, a smoother of 
linen, a mistaken form for calendrer. 

Calender (2), a kind of wandering 
monk. (F. — Pers.) F. ca lender. ^Vers. 
qalandar, a kind of wandering Miiham- 
madan monk, who abandons everything 
and retires from the world. 

Calends. (L.) L. calender, s. pi., 
the first day of the (Roman) month. Orig. 
obscure ; but certainly from the base cal-, 
as in O. Lat. calare, to proclaim, -f- Gk. 
KaK(iv, to summon. Allied to Hale (2). 

Calenture, a feverous madness. (F. 



— Span. — L.) F. cale n/u re.— Spa.n. calen- 
tm-a. — V,. calent-, stem of pres. pt. ot 
calere, to be hot. 

Calf^i). (E.) y^.Y..kalf. O.Merc. 
calf; A.S. cealf.JfViVi. kalf\ Icel. kdlfr; 
Swed. kalf\ Dan. kalv; Goth, kalbd ; 
G. kalb. Dar. calve, vb., A. S. cealjian. 
Perhaps allied to Skt. garbha, womb, a 
foetus. Brugm. i. § 656. 

Calf (2), the thick hind part of the 
shank. (E. ) Perhaps the same as the above; 
cf. Gaulish L. galba, great-ballied ; Icel. 
kdlji, calf of the leg. See Cave in. 

Caliber, Calibre, bore of a gun. 
(F.) F. calibre, size of a bore ; Span. 
calibre (1623). Etym. unknown. Perhaps 
from Arab, qdlib, a form, mould, model, 
Rich. Diet. p. II 1 1 (Diez). Mahn sug- 
gests L. qua libra, with what measure. 

Calico, cotton -cloth. (E. Indian.) 
Nanidd from Calicut, on the Malabar 
coast, whence it was first imported. 

Calif, Caliph. (F.-Arab.) Y.calife, 
a successor ot the prophet. — Arab, kha- 
lifah, successor. — Aral), khalafa, to suc- 
ceed. Doublet, khalifa. 

Caligraphy, Calligraphy, good 

writing. (Gk. ) Gk. /<:aAAi7/)a./>ia. — Gk. 
KaWt; prefix (for k<xK\os, beaut}', from 
Ka\6s, good, fair) ; and jpaipeiv, to write. 

calisthenics, callisthenics, 

graceful exercises. (GIc.) From Gk. 
Ka\ki(T9€v-r]^, adorned with strength. — 
Gk. KaXKi- (for /fdAXo?, beauty, from 
KaXos, fair) ; and aOiv-os, strength. 

Calipers, compasses. (F.) Vox caliber- 
compasses, i. e. compasses for measuring 
diameters; see Caliber. 

Calisthenics ; see Caligraphy. 

Caliver, a sort of musket. (F.) Named 
from its caliber or bore ; see Kersey's Diet. 
See Caliber. 

Calk ; usually Caulk, q. v. 

Call. (Scand.) Late A.S. ceaUian; 
cf. hildecalla, a herald. E. Fries, kallen. — 
Icel. and Swed. kalla\ Dan. ka/de.-^Dn. 
kallen ; O. H. G. challon. Teut, type 
"^-kallon- or '^kallojan-, weak verb ; cf. W. 
gahv. to call, Russ. golos\ voice, sound. 

Callet, Callat, a worthless woman. 
(F. — Low L. — Low G.) In Oth. iv. 2. 
121.— F. caillette, a gossip, chatterer; 
lit. a little quail ; dimin. of caille, a quail, 
also a woman. Littre gives caille coiffee, 
femme galante. See Quail. (Doubt- 

Callous, hard. (F. — L.) Y . calleux.— 

L. callosus, thick-skinned. — L. callus, cal- 
liun. hard skin. 

Callow, unfledged, bald. (L.) M. E. 
calu, calewe. A. S. calu, bald +Du. kaal, 
bald; Swed. ^^/ ; G.kahl. Teut *kakuoz, 
early borrowed from L. cahms, bald. 

Calm. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. caUiie, adj. 
Allied to Prov. chaiime, the time when the 
flocks rest ; F. chd??ier (Jormeily c/iaumer), 
to rest from work ; Ital. calma, rest. — Late 
L. cauma, the heat of the sun (whence, 
time for rest) ; Job xxx. 30. [It is sug- 
gested that the change from au to al was 
due to association with L. cal-ere, to be 
hot.] — Gk. KavfJ-a, heat. — Gk. naUiv, to 
burn. Der. be-calm. 

Calomel, a preparation of mercury. 
(Gk.) Coined to express a white product 
from a black substance. — Gk. Ka\6-s, fair ; 
and /LieA-as, black. 

Caloric. (F. — L.) F. calorique. — L. 
calor, heat. — L. calere, to be hot. 

calorific, making hot. (L.) l^.calori- 
fcus, makinghot. — L. calori-, stem oi calor, 
heat; and -fie-, ior facere,io make. 

Calthrop, Caltrap, a star-thistle, a 
ball with spikes for annoying cavalry. 
(L. and Teut.) M. E. kalketrappe, A.S. 
calcetreppe, a star-thistle. Coined from 
L. calci-, stem of calx, the heel ; and the 
Teutonic word /ra/. Lit. 'heel-trap'; see 
Trap. So also F. chatissetrappe, the same. 

Calumet, a kind of pipe for tobacco. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) Norman F, calu?net, a 
pipe ; parallel form to O. F. chalejuel, F. 
chalujneau, a pipe. — L. calamus, ■x reed. — 
Gk. fcaXapios, a reed. See Shawm. 

Calumny. (F. — L.) Y .calonmie. — l^. 
calumnia, false accusation. — L. calul, 
caluere, to deceive. 

Calve ; see Calf. 

Calx. (L.) L. calx, stone, lime (stem 
calc- ) ; in Late L., a calx. 

Calyx. (L. — Gk.) L. calyx. — Gk. 
KoXv^, a covering, calyx (or cup) of a 
flower. Allied to Helm (2). 

Cam, a projection on a wheel. (Du.) 
Du. kamfn, a comb (see Kilian"! ; Low G. 
kamvi ; cf. Dan. kam, comb, also a ridge 
on a wheel, cam, or cog. See Comb. 

Cambric. (Flanders.) Named from 
Kamerijk, also called Cambray, a town 
in Flanders, where it was first made. 

Camel. (F.-L.-Gk.-Heb.) M. E. 
camel, camail, chamel. — O. North F. camel, 
O. F. chatfiel. — L. cajnelus. — Gk. icajxTjXos. 
— Heb. gdmdl. Cf. Arab, jamal. 




Camelopard, a giraffe. (L. — Heb. 
and Gk.) t- ormerly canielopardalis. — L. ca- 
meloparddlis. — Gk. KanT]\oTrdp8a\is, girr.fle; 
j^aitly like a camel, partly like a paid.— 
Gk. KafiTjXo-s, a camel (Heb. gdmdl) ; and 
ndpSaXis, a i)ard ; see Pard. 

Caxnelliai. (Personal name.) A plant 
named (by Linneeus) after Geo. Jos. Kamel, 
a Moravian Jesuit (17th cent.), who de- 
scribed the plants in the island of Luzon. 

Camelopard ; see Camel. 

Cameo. (Ital.) Ital. cammeo, a camieo, 
precious stone carved in relief. Origin 

Cam.era. (L.) L. camera, a chamber ; 
hence camera obscura, a dark chamber, 
box for photography ; see Chamber. 

Camlet, a stuff. (F. — Arab.) Formerly 
camelot. — ^\.¥. canielot, Cot.; supposed 
to be named from containing cavieVs hair. 
Really fiom Arab. khaj?ilat, kha??ialat, 
camlet ; Rich. Diet. p. 628. 

Camomile ; see Chamomile. 

Camp. (F.-Ital.-L.){Qoi.). 

— Iial. cafnpo, a field, caiiip. — L. raw/?/;;/, 
ace. of campus, a field, ground held by an 
army. Brugm. i. § 563. 

campaign, orig. a large field. (F. - 
Ital. — L.) F. campaigne, campagne, an 
open field. — Ital. campagtia, a held ; also 
a campaign. — L. campdnia, open field.— 
L. campus, a field. (Also spelt champaign, 
and even champion in old authors.) 

campestral, growing in fields. (L.) 
F'rom L. campestr-is, growing in fields; 
with suffix -a/. — L. campus, a field. 

Cam.panula. (L. ) Lit. *a little bell ; ' 
dimin. of L. ca?npdna, a bell. Hence also 
ca mpan i-forj?i . 

Camiphor. (F. — Arab. — Malay.) For- 
merly spelt camphire .with an inserted i). 

— F. camphre, 'camphire;' Cot. — Low 
L. camphora (whence the form camphor). 

— Arab, kdfur, camphor ; cf. Skt. karpiira, 
camphor. — Malay kdpilr^ lit. chalk ; kdpur 
Bdriis, chalk of Barous, a name for cam- 
phor. Barous is in Sumatra. 

Can (0, I am able. (E. ) A. S. can, 
cann, 1st and 3rd persons sing. pres. of 
cmtnan^ to know. The pres. t. can is 
really an old perf. t. ; the same peculiarity 
occurs in Du. kunnen, Icel. and Swed. 
kunna, Dan. kunde, to know, to be able ; 
G. konnen, to know. p. The pt. t. is 
could, with intmsive /; M. E. coude, A. S. 
cii^e ; cf. Goth, kuntha, Du. konde, G. 
konnte ; shewing that A. S. ciiQe (for 

''^cunde) has lost an n. y. The pp. couth, 
A.S. cu6, known, only survives in un- 
couth, which see. Allied to Ken and 
Know. (-v^GEN) 

Can (2), a drinking-vessel. TE.) A.S. 
canne, a can. -4- Du. kan\ Ictl. kanna; 
Swed. katina ; Dan. kande ; G. kanjie, a 
tankard, mug. (Apparently a true Teut. 

Canal. (F. — L.) F. canal Cwhence also 
Dw.kanaal). '-'L,.candlis,Si channel, trench. 

Canary, a bird, a winu. a dance. 
(Canary Islands.) All named from the 
Canary Islands. 

Cancel. (F. — L.) Y. canceller. '-l.z.w 
L. cancelldre, to cancel a deed by drawing 
lines across it. — L. cancellus, a grating, pi. 
cayicellT, lattice-work, crossed lines; dimin. 
of pi. cancri, lattice- work. 

Cancer. (L.) L. cancer, a crab ; also 
an ' eating' tumour. Cf. G\<.. KnpKivos, Skt. 
karkaia, a crab ; cf. Skt. kaikara, hard. 
Named from its hard shell. Brugm. i. § 464. 

Candelabrum. (L.^ \..caudeldbritm, 
a candle-holder; from candela. a candle. 

Candid. (F.-L.) Y. candide,\f}i\it, 
fair, sincere. — L. candidus, white, shining. 

— L. candere, to shine. — L. *candere, to 
set on fire (in comp. in-cende?-e).-\-9>Vt.. 
chand{iox ^chand) , to shine. ; y'SC^END.) 
Brugm. i. §§ 456, 818 (2). 

candidate. (L.) L. candiddtus, 
white- robed ; because candidates for office 
wore white. — L. ca?ididus, white. 

candle. (L.) A.S. candel.-'L. can- 
dela, a candle. — L. candere, to glow. 

candour. (F.-L.) Y. candeur.'^l.. 
ace. candorern, brightness (hence, sincerity). 
Candy, crystallised sugar. (F.- Ital.— 
Skt.) Y . sticre candi, sugar-candy; whence 
F. se candir, 'to candie;' Cot —Ital. 
candire, to candy ; cajidi, candy ; zucchero 
candi, sugar-candy. — Arab, qand, sugar; 
whence Arab, qandt, made of sugar. 
The word is Ar}an; cf. Skt. khdr.^ava, 
sweetmeats, khawdia, a broken piece, from 
khavuS., to break. Der. sugar- candy, Ital. 
zticchero candi. 
Candytuft, a plant. (Hyb.) From 
Candy, i. e. Candia (Crete) ; and tuft. 
Cane. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. cam, 
canjie. — F. canne. — L. canna. — Gk. Kawa, 
a reed. Cf. Heb. qdneh, reed ; Arab. 
qandh, cane. 

canister. (L. — Gk.) L. canistrnm, 
a liLjht basket. — Gk. Kdvaarpov, the same. 

— Gk. KavT] = Kawa, a reed. 




cannon. (F. — Ital. — L. — Gk.) F. 
canon. — Ital. cannone, a cannon, orig. a 
great tube, a gun- barrel. — L. canna, a reed : 
see Cane. % The Span, canon, a tube, a 
deep gorge, is cognate. 

canon (0, a rule. (L. — Gk.) A. S. 
canon. — \^ canon, a. rule. — Gk./fat'a;»',arod, 
rule. — Gk. Kavrj = Kdvva, a (straight) cane. 
canon (2), a dignitary of the church. 
(F. — L. -Gk.) M. E canun, canoun.— 
O. F. canogne,no\vchanoine. — 'L?iX..canom' 
cum, ace. of canonicus, adj., one on the 
church-roll or list. — L. canofi, the church- 
roll ; also, a rule. See canon (i). 

Canine. (L-) L. canlnus, belonging 
to a dog. — L. cams, a dog ; see Hound. 

Canister ; see Cane. 

Canker. (F. — L.) North F. cancre. 
(F. chancre). — L.. cancriun, ace. oi cancer, 
a crab, a canker. See Cancer. ^ i he G. 
kanker may be Teutonic (Kluge) ; so 
perhaps E, canker in the sense of ' disease 
of trees'; cf. Gk. 7077^0?, an excrescence 
on trees. 

Cannel-coal. (L. and E.) Lit. a 

* candle-coal,' because it burns brightly. 
Prov. E. cannel, a candle. See Candle. 

Cannibal. (Span. — W. Indian.) for- 
merly canibal. — Span, canibal ; for Caribal, 
a Carib, native of the Caribbean Islands. 
The W. Indian (Hayti) word carib means 
' brave.' Hence also Caliban. 

Cannon (1) ; see Cane. 

Cannon (2), at billiards. (F. — Span.) 
A corruption of carrom, shortened form of 
F. caramboler, v., to make a cannon at 
billiards, to touch two other balls with 
one's own ; see Hoyle's Games. Orig. 
sense, to touch the red ball ; whence 
caramboler, to cannon (as above) and 
carambolage, sb., a cannon. — Span, caram- 
bola, a manner of playing at billiards, a 
device, trick, cheat. Origin unknown. 

Canoe. (Span. — W. Ind.) Span, canoa ; 
orig. a Haytian word for ' boat.' 

Canon (i) and (2) ; see Cane. 

Canopy. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) Should 
be conopy; but we find F. canopi, borrowed 
from Ital. canope. (Also F. conopce.) — !^. 
conopeum, ]\x(\\ih. yiui. 9. — Gk. Koji'ojiTeiov, 
an Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains 
(hence, any sort of hangings). — Gk. kqjpwtt-, 
stem of Kwvojip, a mosquito, gnat ; lit. 

* cone-faced ' or ' cone-headed,' from the 
shape of its head. — Gk. Kujvo-t, a cone; 
and a)\fi, face, appearance, from Gk. base 
on, to see (see Optics). 

Canorous, tuneful. (L.) L. canor-us ; 
with suffix-*?/^. — L. fa«:<?r<?, tosing. Brugm. 
i. § 181. 

cant (i), to sing in a whining way, 
whine. (L.) L. cantdre (whence Picard 
a .d Walloon canter, to sing) ; frequent, 
of canere, to sing. Cant was at first a 
beggar's whine ; hence, hypocrisy ; see 

canticle. (L.) L. canticulum, a little 
song ; dimin. of canticnm, a song ; dimin. 
of cantus, a song ; cf. catttus, pp. of 
canere, to sing. 

canto. (Ital. — L.) Ital. r(2«/£7, a sing- 
ing, section of a poem. — L. ace. cantujn, 
a singing, song (abovel. 

canzonet. (Ital.— L.) Ital. canzo- 

netta, dimin. of canzone, a hymn, song. — 

L. cantionem, ace. of cantio, a song. — L. 

cantus, pp. of canere, to sing. 

Cant (2), an edge ; as verb, to tilt. (Du. 

— L.) Du. kant, an edge, corner.+Dan. 
and Swed. kant, edge ; G. kante, a corner. 
|3. All from Late L. cantus, a corner; which 
is prob. from L. canthus - Gk. KavQo-i, the 
corner of the eye, felloe of a wheel. 

Canteen. (F. - Ital.) F. cantine. — 
Ital. cantina, a cellar, cool cave (hence 
the sense of vessel for liquids). Origin 
doubtful. Perhaps from Late L. cantus, a 

Canter, an easy gallop. (Proper name.) 
Short for Canterbury gallop, the pace at 
which pilgrims rode thither. 

Canticle, Canto; see Cant (i), 

Cantle, a small piece. (F. - L. ?) O.F. 
cantel, a small piece (F. chanteau), dimin. 
of Picard cant (F. chant), a corner ; Late 
L. cantus. Prob. from L. canthus, corner 
of the eye ; see Cant (2). 

Canton, aregion. (F. — Ital.) ¥. canton. 

— Ital. cantone, a nook, angle: also, a 
corporation, township (Torriano) ; Late L. 
cantd7tum, canto, a region, province. 
Origin doubtful, ff Canton (in heraldry), 
a corner of a shield, is from F. canton, 
a corner, Ital. cantone, from Ital. canto, an 
edge; see Cant (2), 

Canvas. (F. — L. — Gk.) yi.Y.,canevas. 
North F. canevas. — Late L, canabdcius, 
hempen cloth. — L. cannabis, hemp. — Gk. 
Kavva^is, hemp. Cf. Skt. fana, hemp ; 
see Hemp. 

canvass. (F.-L.-Gk.) Orig. to 
toss in a canvas sheet, to criticize or 
discuss thoroughly. From canvas, sb. 

Canzonet; see Cant (i). 




Caontchonc. (F. — Carib.) Y.caotit- 
choitc; orig. a Caribbean word, cahnchii. 

Cap, a head-covering. (Late L.) A. S. 
cceppe-'-'l^^ie L. cappa, a cap (Isidore). 

Capable. (F. — L.) F. ra/a*^/^. — Late 
L. capdbilis, comprehensible; afterwards, 
able to hold. — L. capere, to hold below). 
capacious, able to contain. (L.) 
Coined from L. capdci-, stem of capax, 
able to hold. — L. capere, to hold, contain ; 
see Heave. Brugm. i. § 635. (y'QAP.) 

Caparison, trappings of a horse. (F. 

— Span. — Late L.) O. F. caparasson.— 
Span, caparazon, cover for a saddle ; aui:;- 
mentative from Med. L. caparo, a cowl ; 
from Span, capa, a cloak, cover. — Late L. 
capa, a cape ; as below. 

Cape (i), a covering for the shoulders. 
(F. - Late L.) O. North F. cape. - Late L. 
cdpa, a cape (Isidore of Seville!; whence 
also Prov., Span., Port, capa, Icel. kdpa, 
&c. Allied to cap. Doublet, cope. 

Cape (2), a headland. (F. — Ital.— L.) 
F. m/. — Ital. capo, head, headland. — L. 
caput, head. 

Caper (i), to dance about. (Ital. — L.) 
Abbreviated from capreole (Sir P. Sidney). 

— Ital. capriolare, to skip as a goat. — Ital. 
capriola, ' a caper in dancing,' Florio ; 
also, a kid ; dimin. of cafra, a she-goat. 

— L, capra, a she-goat ; cf. caper, he-goat. 
4-Gk. Kairpos, a boar; A. S. hcefer, Icel. 

Caper (2), the flower-bud of a certain 
plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. capre {¥. 
cdpre). — L. capparis. — Gk. Ka-n-napis, caper- 
plant ; its fruit ; cf. Pers. kabar, capers. 

Capercailzie. (Gael.) Here z repre- 
sents M. E. y, pron. as j)/. — Gael, capull- 
coille, great cock of the wood ; lit. horse 
of the wood. — Gael, capull, a horse (see 
Cavalier) ; coille, gen. of coill, a wood, 
cognate with PI Holt. 

Capillary, like hair. (L.) L. capil- 
Idris, adj. ; from capillns, hair. Perhaps 
allied to cap-ut, the head. 

Capital ( I ), chief. (F. -L.) Y. capital. 

— L. capitdlis, belonging to the head. — L. 
capit', stem oicap7it, the head.-|-Skt. kapd- 
la{fn), skull ; A. S. hafela, head. Brugm. 
i. § 64 K 

capital (2), stock of money. (F.— 
L.) F. capital . "I.z.Xg L. capitdle, wealth ; 
neut. oi capitdlis, chief; see Capital (i). 

capital (3), head of a pillar. (L. ; or 
F. — L.) L. capitellum, head of a pillar ; 
dimin. from L, caput, head. Or from O. 

North F. capitcl (F. chapiteau) ; from L. 
capitellum (above). 

capitation, poll-tax. (F.-L.) F. 
capitation. — L-vlXc L. ace. capitdtionem, 
poll-tax. — L. capit-, stem of caput, poll, 

Capitol. (L.) The temple of Jupiter, 
at Rome, called Capitolium.'^'L. capit-, 
stem of caput, a head ; but the reason for 
the name is obscure ; see Smith, Class. 

capitular, relating to a chapter. (L.) 
Med. L. capituldris, adj. of capitulum, 
a chapter of a cathedral, or a chapter of 
a book ; see Chapter. 

capitulate. (L.) \.2X^\^.capituldtus, 

pp. of capituldre, to divide into chapters, 
also to propose terms (for surrender). — 
Late L. capitulum, z. chapter ; see Chapter. 
Der. re- capitulate. 

Capon. (L. — Gk.) A, S. capun.-^l^. 
ace. cdpone77i, from nom. capo. — Gk. navo^v, 
a capon. 

Caprice. (F. — Ital.— L.?) Y. caprice. 

— Ital. capriccio, a whim. Perhaps from 
Ital. capro, a he-goat; so that capj'iccio 
might mean a frisk like a goat's ; see 
Caper (i). 

Capricorn. (L.) L. capricomus, 
horned like a goat. — L. cap7'i-, for capro-, 
stem of caper, goat ; and corn-u, horn, 

capriole, a peculiar frisk of a horse. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Y. capriole {ste Cot.). ^ 
Ital. capriola, the leap of a kid ; see 
Caper (i). 

Capsize, to upset. (Span. ? — L.) Per- 
haps from Span, capuzar, to sink (a ship) 
by the head ; apparently a derivative of L. 
caput, the head. (A guess.) 

Capstan. (F. — Span. — L. ?) F. cabe- 
stan ; Prov. cabestaii. — Span, cabestrajite, 
cabrestante, a capstan. Of these forms, 
cabestrante is the better, and is allied to 
Span, cabestrage, a halter, or a haltering, 
and to cabestrar, to halter. — L. capistrant-, 
stem of pres. pt. of capistrdre, to halter. 

— L. capistrum (Span, cabestro), a halter. 

— L. cap-ere, to hold; with double suffix 

Capsule, seed-vessel. (F. — L.) F. 
capsule, a small case. — L. capsula, dimin. 
oi capsa, a case ; see Case (2). 

Captain. (F.-L.) y^.Y. capitain.'^ 
O. F. capitain.—Y.zte L. capitdneus, capit- 
dtnis, a leader of soldiers. — L. capit-, stem 
of cap7(t, head. 

Captious. (F. - L.) F. captieux, cavil- 




ling. — L. captiostis. — 'L. capita, a taking, 
a sophistical argument. — L. captus, pp. of 
capere, to hold. See Capacious. 

captive. (F.-L.) F. captif (fern. 
captive). •^'L. captiuus, a captive. — L. 
captus, pp. of capere, to take. + W. caeth, 
a captive; O. Irish cacht^ a female captive. 
captor. (L.) L. r^//£»r, a taker. — L. 
cap-, as in capere, to take; with sufhx -tor. 
capture. (F. — L.) F. capture. — !., 
captilra, a taking. — L. cap-, as in capere, to 
take ; with fem. suffix -tura. 

Capuchin, hooded friar, hood. (F. - 
Ital. — Late L.) M. F. capuchin; V. 
capucin. —Ital. cappucino, a small hood, 
hence a hooded friar ; dimin. of cappuccio, 
a cowl. — Ital. cappa, a cape ; see Cap and 
Cape (i). 

Car. (F. - C.) M. E. carre. - O. North F. 
carre,di car (Ducange, s. v. Marcellum). 
— Late L. carra, f. ; allied to L. carrus, 
a car; of Gaulish origin. — Bret, karr, 
a chaiiot ; W. car, O. Gael, car, Irish 
carr. Allied to L. cur r us, a chariot ; 
Brugm. i. § 516. 

Caracole. (F. — Span.) F. cat-acol, 
caracole, a snail ; wfYitnce /aire le caracole, 
applied to a manoeuvre by soldiers, and to 
turns made by a horse. — Span, caracol, 
a snail, winding staircase, turning about 
(from the snail-shell's spiral form). Per- 
haps of Celtic origin ; cf. Gael, carach, 
circling, winding ; car, a turn, twist. 

Carafe, a glass water-bottle. (F. — 
Span. — Arab.) F, carafe. — Span, garrafa., 
a cooler, vessel to cool wines in. — Arab. 
ghirdf, draughts of water ; Arab, root 
gharafa, to draw water. (Dozy, Devic.) 
^ Or from Pers. qardbah, a large flagon ; 
but see Carboy. 

Carat. (F. - Ital. -Arab. - Gk.) F. 
carat, a very light weight. — Ital. carato.— 
Arab, qirrdt, a pod, husk, carat, 24th 
part of an ounce. — Gk. Kepdriou, fruit of 
the locust-tree ; also, a carat ; lit. ' a small 
horn.' — Gk. Kepar-, stem of Kipas, a horn ; 
see Horn. 

Caravan. (F. — Pers.) F. caravane. — 
Pers. kdjivdn, a caravan, convoy. 

caravansary. (Pers.) Pers. kdr- 
wdnsaray, an inn for caravans. — Pers. 
kdrwdn, caravan ; sardy, public building, 

Caraway, Carraway. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, al-carahueya, a caraway ; 
where al is merely the Arab. def. art. ; 
also written carvi. — hxdh. karwiyd-a. 

karawTyd-a, caraway- seeds or plant. Cf. 
Gk. Kapos, Kapov, cumin. 

Carbine. (F. — Gk.) Formerly cara- 
bine, a musket, the weapon of a carabin, 
or musketeer. — F. carabin, 'an arque- 
buzier;' Cot. Perhaps from O.F. calabrin, 
a light-armed soldier ; of uncertain origin. 

Carbon. (F.-L.) F. carbone. — l.. 
ace. carbonem, a coal. 

carbonado, broiled meat. (Span.— 
L.) Span, carbonada, meat broiled over 
coals. — Span, carbon, coal; see above. 

carbuncle. L. carbunculus, (1) a 
small coal, (2) a carbuncle, gem, from its 
glowing, (3) a red tumour. Double 
dimin. of L. carbo, coal. 

Carboy, a large glass bottle, protected 
by wicker-work. (Pers.) Pers. qardbah, 
a large flagon ; which is prob. of Arab, 
origin. Cf. Arab, qirbah, a. water-skin, 

Carcanet. (F. — Teut.) Dimin. of F. 
car can, a collar of jewels, or of gold.— 
O. H. G. querca, the throat ; cf. Icel. 
kverkr, pi. the throat ; Yk'C^. gerkle , throat, 
gei'ti, to drink. Brugm. i. § 653. 

Carcase, Carcass. (F.- Ital.) From 

M. F. carquasse, a dead body. — Ital. 
carcassa, a kind of bomb-shell, a shell ; 
also, a skeleton, frame ; cf. Port, carcassa, 
a carcase, a very old woman. Of unknown 

Card (Oj piece of pasteboard. (F.— 
Ital. — Gk.) Corruption of F. carte, *a 
card,' Cot. — Ital. carta', L. charta. — Q\^. 
■yapTT], xapT-qs, a leaf of papyrus. Der. 
cardboard. Doublet, chart. 

Card (2), an instrument for combing 
wool. (F. — L.) Y .carde.'~^'it^.L,.cardus, 
L. cardials, a thistle ; for wool-combing. 

Cardinal. (L.) L. cardi?tdlis, prin- 
cipal, chief ; orig. relating to the hinge of 
a door. — L. cardin-, stem of cardo, a 

Cardoon, a plant. (F.-Prov.-L.) 
F. cardon, Cot. — Prov. cardon; with aug- 
ment, suffix from Med. L. card-us, a 
thistle. See Card (2). 

Care. (L.) M. E. care. A. S. caru, 
ceartc, anxiety. + 0. Sax. kara, sorrow; 
O. H. G. chara, a lament; Goth, kara; 
Teut. type *kard, f. Hence, care, vb. ; A. S. 
carian. 9\ Not allied to L. cilra. 

Careen. (F.-L.) Lit. 'to clean the 
keel ; ' hence to lay a ship on its side. — F. 
carine, carhie, keel. — L. carina, keel. 

Career. (F. — C.) F. carriere, a race- 




course. — Late L. car) aria uia), a road 
for cars. — Late L. carra, L. carnis, a car ; 
of Celtic origin ; see Car. 

Caress. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. caresse, 
a fondling. — Ital. ^ar^2S<7, a caress, fondling. 

— Late L. cdritia, dearness. — L. cants, 
dear. Brugm. i. § 637. 

Carfax. (F. — L.) M. E. carfoiikes, 
a place where four roads meet. — O. F. pi. 
carrefourgs, the same : from sing, carre- 
fourg. — Late L. quadrifurcus , four- forked. 

— L. qtiadri' (from quatiior), four; and 
fiirca, a fork. See Fork. 

Cargo. (Span. — C.) Span. <:^roy, freight, 
load; cf. cargar, to load. — Late L. carri- 
care, to load a car ; see Charge. 

caricature. (Ital.-C.) Ital. cari- 
catiira, a satirical picture; so called because 
exaggerated or ' overloaded.' — Ital. cari- 
care, to load, burden.- Late L. carricdre, 
to load a car: see Charge. 

Caries. (L.) L. caries, rottenness. 

Cark, burden, anxiety. (F. — C.) A. F. 
karke. North. F. form of F. charge, i. e. 
load; see Charge. Cf. M.E. karke, a 
load ; as in 'a karke of pepper! 

Carkanet; see Carcanet. 

Carminative, expelling wind from 
the body. (F. — L.) F. carmitiatif, 'wind- 
voiding; ' Cot. — L. carijtitidt-tis, pp. of 
carmindre, to card wool (hence, in old 
medicine, to cleanse from gross humours) ; 
with suffix -hais. — 'L. carniin-, from car- 
men, a card for wool. — L. cdrere, to 

Carmine. (Span. — Arab. — Skt.) Span. 
carmin, short form oicar^nesin, adj. ; from 
car?7iesi, crimson. — Arab. qirwizT, crimson ; 
from ^/rwzs, cochineal. — Skt. krnii, a worm, 
the cochineal insect. 

Carnage ; see below. 

Carnal. (L.) L. carndUs, fleshly.— 
L. cam-, stem of caro, flesh. Brugm. i. 

§ 5L^- 

carnage. (F. — L.) F. rar«a,^<?, flesh- 
time, slaughter of animals. — Late L. car- 
ndticu??i, a tribute of flesh- meat ; cf. 
carndttim, time for eating flesh. — L. cam-, 
stem oicaro, flesh. 

carnation. (F. — L.) F. carnation, 
flesh colour (Littre). — L. ace. carndtionefn, 
fleshiness. — L. cam-, stem of caro, llcsh. 

carnival. ( F. — Ital. — L.) F. cama- 
val, Shrovetide. — Ital. carnevale, carnovale, 
the last three days before Lent. — Med. L. 
carnelevdle,carnelevdfnen,xitmovtAoi tlesh. 
Shrovetide. — L. came-m, of caro, flesh ; 

and leiidre, to lift, remove, take away, 
from leuis, light, 

carnivorous. (L.) L. camiuorzis, 
llesh-taiing. — L. crt;v/z-, decl. stem ofcaro, 
tlesh ; and iior-dre, to devour. 
Carob-tree, the locust-tree. (F. — 
Arab.) M. F. carobe, caronhe. — Arab. 
kharrilb, bean-jods. 

Caroche, Carroche, a kind of coach. 

(F. — Ital.- C.) Nearly obsolete; but 
the present sense oi carj'iage is due to it. — 

F. carroche, variant ot carrosse, ' a carosse 
or caroach ; ' Cot. — Ital. carroccia, car- 
rozza, a chariot. Extended from Ital. 
carro, a car. See Car. 

Carol, a song. (F. -L.-Gk.?) For- 
merly, a kind of dance. — O.F. caroIe, 
a (singing) dance. Godefroy (s. v. carole) 
cites Swiss Rom. corattla, a round-dance, 
also a dance-song. Prob. from L. 
choratdes, a flute-player to a chorus. — Gk. 
XopavKrjs, the same. — Gk. xop-os, a chorus, 
round-dance ; and av\6s, a flute. 

Carotid, adj. (Gk.) Gk.«apa;W5€s,, 
the two great arteries of the neck ; it was 
thought that an alteration in the flow of 
blood through them caused stupor.— 
Gk. Kapooo, I stupefy ; Kapos, stupor. 

Carousal, (i; a drinking-bout; (2), a 
pageant, (i. F.-G. ; 2. F.-Ital) 1. 
Sometimes used as if from the verb carouse 
below. 2. But, in old authors, carousel 
(also carousal) means a sort of pageant, 
of which some kind of chariot-race formed 
a principal part ; Dryden, Virgil, .^n. v. 
777. — F. carrousel, a tilting-match. — Ital. 
carosello, also spelt garosello, a tourna- 
ment ; of uncertain origin. 

Carouse. (P\ — G.) F. carous, ' a ca- 
rousse of drinke,' Cot. — G. garaus, right 
out ; used of emptying a bumper. — G. gar^ 
quite ; and aus, cut. (Raleigh even writes 
garouse; directly from G. ^^;a«x.) Der. 
carous-al, but only in one sense of that 
word ; see above. 

Carp (i), a fish. (F.) M.E. carpe. 
XV cent. — O. F. carpe (Span. Tort, carpa, 
Ital. carpa, Florio) ; also Du. karper ; 
Icel. karji ; Dan. karpe ; Swed. karp ; 

G. karpfen ; O. H. G. charpho ; Russ. 
karf ; Lith. karpa. 

Carp (2), to cavil at. (Scand.) M. E. 
carpen, which often merely means to talk, 
say. — Icel. karpa, to boast; Swed. dial. 
karpa, to boast, talk much. ^ The pre- 
sent sinister seu'^e is due to confusion with 
L. carpere, to pluck. 




Carpenter. (F. — C.) K.Y. carpenter; 
O. North F. carpcnticr{¥. charpe7itier).— 
Late L. carpentarius , sb. ; carpentdre, to 
work in timber. — L. ca^'pentum, a carriage ; 
a word of Celtic origin. — O. Irish carpat^ 
Gael, and Irish carhad, W. cerbyd, a car- 
riage, chariot, litter. 

Carpet. (F. — L.) O. F. mr/zV^. — Late 
L. carpi ta, carpeta, a kind of thick cloth ; 
also carpia (F. charpie), lint. — L, car- 
pere, to pluck, pull to pieces (lint being 
made of rags pulled to pieces, and carpet, 
probably, from shreds). 

Carrack. (F.) O. F. carraque, a ship 
of burden ; Late Lat. carraca, the same. 
Of unknown origin. 

Carriage. (F. — C.) M.E.caria^e,tha.t 
which is carried about (as in Bible, A. V.). 

— O. F. cariage ; from carter, to carry ; see 
Carry. ^ Its modern use is due to con- 
fusion with caroch, a vehicle (Massinger, 
Renegado, i. 2); see Caroche. 

Carrion. (F. — L.) M. E. caroigne, a 
carcase. — O. North F. caroigne ; Late L. 
caronia, a carcase. — L. caro, flesh. 

Carronade, a sort of cannon. (Scot- 
land.) So named because made at Canvn, 
in Stirlingshire. 

Carrot. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. carote, ca- 
rotte. — L. carota.—Gk. KapcoTov, a carrot. 

Carry. (F. — C.) O. F . carier. — Lzte 
L. carricdre. — L. carrus, a car ; see Car. 

Cart. (E.) A.S. cr(s(, crat; cf. Du. 
krat. Or from Icel. kartr, a cart ; whence, 
probably, Picard carti, a cart. 

Carte, a bill of fare. (F.-Gk.) Chiefly 
in the F. phr. carte blanche, lit. white 
paper. — Late L. carta; see Card (i). 

cartel. (F. - Ital. - Gk.) F. cartel. - 
Ital. cartello, lit. a small paper ; dimin. of 
carta, paper, bill; see Card (i). 

Cartilage. (_F--L) F. cartilage, 
gristle. — L. cartlldginem, ace. oi cartildgo. 
Der. cartilagin-ous. 

Cartoon. i,F. — Ital. — Gk.) F. carton. — 
Itafl. cartone, lit. a large paper ; from carta, 
a card ; see Card (i). 

cartouche, cartridge. (F. - Ital. 

— Gk. ] Cartridge (with intrusive r) is for 
cartidge, corrupt form of cartouche. — F. 
cartouche, a roll of paper. — Ital. cartoccio, 
a roll of paper, cartridge. — Ital. carta, 
paper; Late L. carta ; see Card ( i). % The 
cartridge took its name from the paper in 
which it was rolled up. 

cartulary, a register. (Late L. — Gk.) 
Late L. carttildritim, chartuldriuju, a 

register. — Late L. chart nla, a document ; 
dimin. ol chart a, a paper ; see Card (i). 

Carve. (F.) M. E. keruen. A.S. ceorfan; 
pt. t. cearf, pi. curfon, pp. corfen. [The 
A. S. ceorfan would have given *cka?-ve ; 
c was retained from the pt. pi. and pp.] 
-|- Du. kerven ; G. kerben, to notch, cut ; 
also Dan, ka^-ve, Swed. karfva, to notch, 
from the 2nd stem. Gk. ypdcpdv. Brugm. 
i. ^ 791- 

Cascade. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. cascade.— 
Ital. cascata, a waterfall ; orig. fem. pp. of 
cascare, to fall. For '^casica7-e. — 'L. cdsdre, 
to totter. — L. cdsum, sup. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (i), an event. (F. — L.) M. E. 
cas. — F. cas. — L. ace. cdsum, a fall, a 
case. — L. casus, pp. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (2). a receptacle. (F.-L.) O. F. 
casse. — F.. capsa, a box, cover. — L. capere, 
to hold. 

Casemate. (F. — Ital.) F. casemate, 
a loop-hole in a fortified wall. — Ital. casa- 
matta, a chamber built under a wall or 
bulwark, to hinder those who enter the 
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. It seems 
to mean 'dark chamber.'- Ital. and L. 
casa, house, cottage, room; and lizX.matta, 
fem. of maito, orig. mad, but the Sicilian 
7nattii means ' dim.' 

Casement, frame of a window. (F.— 
L.) Coined with the sense of encasement, 
that which encases or encloses. From 
case, verb ; with suffix -ment. 

Cash, coin. (F. — L.) Orig. a till or box 
to keep money in. — F. casse, a case ; see 
Case (2) above. Der. cash-ier, sb., one 
who keeps a money-box or cash. 

Cashew-nut, the nut of a W. and E. 
Indian tree. (F. — Brazilian.) Cashew is 
a corruption of F. acajou. — ^xdizW. acaiu, 
the fruit of the tree named acajaba or 
cuajaiba. (Mahn, Littr6.) 

Cashier, to dismiss from service. 
(Du. — F. — L.) Du. casseren, to cashier; 
merely borrowed from F. casser, * to 
breake, burst, . . also to casseere, dis- 
charge ; ' Cot. [Du. words, borrowed 
from F., end in -eren?\ — \.. qiiassdre, to 
shatter, frequent, of quatere, to shake ; 
which annexed the senses of L. cassdre, to 
annul, discharge, from L. cassus, void, null. 

Cashmere, a soft wool. (India.) So 
called from the vale of Cashmere, in India. 
Also spelt cassimere, kerseymet-e. 

Casino, a room for dancing. (Ital. — L.) 
Ital. casino, dimin. of casa, a cottage, 
house. — L, casa, a cottage. 




Cask. (Span.— L.) Span, casco, a. skxiW, 
sherd, coat of an onion ; also a cask of 
wine, a casque or helmet. The orig. sense 
is ' husk ' ; cf. Span, cascara, peel, rind, 
shell, Port, casca, nnd. — Span, cascar, to 
burst open ; formed (as if from Lat. *qiias- 
sicdre) from an extension of L. quassdre, 
to break, burst ; see Quash. 

casque, a helmet. (K. -Span. -L.) 
F. casque. '•Span, casco, a helmet, head- 
piece ; see above. 

Casket, a small box. (Span. — L.) Ap- 
parently confused with Y. cassette., ' a small 
casket ; ' Cot. Formally, it is a dimin. of 

Casque ; see Cask. 

Cassava, a plant. (Span. — Hayti.') 
Span, cazahe ; also cazavi, ' the bread made 
in the W. Indies of the fruit called the 
yuca ; ' Pineda. It properly means the 
plant, which is also called manioc ; said to 
be from the Hayti casahbi, with the same 
sense. See R. Eden's works, ed. Arber, 
p. 175. See Tapioca. 

Cassia, a species of laurel. (L. — Gk. — 
Heb.) L. casia, cassia. — Gk. Kaoia, a spice 
like cinnamon. — Heb. qetst'dt/i, in Ps. xlv. 
8, a pi. form from qetsi 'dh, cassia-bark. — 
Heb. root qdtsa', to cut away ; because the 
bark is cut off. 

Cassimere ; see Cashmere. 

Cassock, a vestment. (F. — Ital.) F. 
casaque. — Ital. casacca, an outer coat. Of 
uncertain origin. 

Cassowary, a bird. (Malay.) First 
brought from Java. Malay kasuwari. 

Cast. (Scand.) Icel. kasta., to throw ; 
Swed. /^tzi'/'a ; Yian. kaste. Tiev. re-cast. 

Castanets, instruments used for 
making a snapping noise. (F. — Span. — 
L. — Gk.) F. castagnettes, 'finger-knack- 
ers, wherewith players make a pretty 
noise in some dances;' Cot. — Span, cas- 
tanetas, castanets ; pi. of castaneta, a 
snapping noise resembling the cracking of 
roasted chestnuts. — Span, castana, a chest- 
nut.— Lat. castanea. the chestnut-tree.— 
Gk. Kaaravov ; see Chestnut. 

Caste, a breed, race. (Port. — L.) Port. 
casta, a race, orig. a ' pure' breed ; a name 
given by the Port, to classes of men in I 

India. — Port, casta, fern, of casta., pure.— j 

L. castus, pure, chaste. | 

castigate. (L.) L. castlgdtus, pp. of j 

castigdre. to chasten ; lit. ' to keep pure.' — t 

L. casttis, chaste. Doublet, chastise. \ 

Castle. (L.) A. S. castel. — l.. cas-\ 

tellum, dimin. of castrtim, a fortified 
[)lace. Der. casteil-an, O. North F. caste- 
lain, O. F. chastelain, the keeper of a 
chastel, or castle ; also chdielaine (fem. of 
F. chdtelain = O. F. chastelain) , now applied 
to a lady's chain or ' keeper ' of keys, 

Castor. (L. — Gk.) L. castor. ^G^. 
KaoTcop, a beaver. But of Eastern origin ; 
cf. Malay kasttlri, Skt. kastiiri, musk ; 
Pers. khaz, bepiVer. 

castor-oil. Named from some con- 
fusion with castoreuni, ' a medicine made 
of the liquor contained in the little bags 
that are next the beaver's groin ; ' Kersey. 
P)Ut it is really a vegetable production. 

Castrate. fL.) L. casttdtus, pp. of 
castrdre, to cut. 

Casual. (F. — L.") Y. casuel. — l.. cdsu- 
dlis, happening by chance. — L. cdsu-, 
stem oi casus, chance. See Case (i). 

Cat. (E.) A.S. cat. -^Du., Dan. kat, 
Icel. hottr, Sw. halt, G. kater, katze ; L. 
cdtus. W. cath, Ir. Gael. cat. Russ. kot\ 
koshka, Arab, qitt., Turk. kcdt. (Prob. 

Cata-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. Kara, down, 

Cataclysm, deluge. (Gk.) Gk. /cara- 
Kkva/jios, a dashing over, flood, — Gk. Kara, 
down ; nXv^eiv, to dash, wash, as waves. 

Catacomb. (Ital. — L.) Ital. cata- 
coviba, a sepulchral vault. — Late L. cata- 
cu7nbas ; of which the sense and origin are 

Catafalque, a stage or platform, 
chiefly used at funerals. (F. — Ital.) F. 
catafalque. — Ital. catafalco ; of unknown 
origin. See Scaffold. 

Catalepsy, a sudden seizure. (Gk.) 
Formerly cataiepsis. — Gk. KaraKT]\pi^, a 
grasping, seizing. — Gk. Kara, down; Xayi,' 
^a.v€Lv, to seize. 

Catalogue. (F.-Gk.) F. catalogue. •- 
Late Lat. ace. catalogum. — Gk. KaraXoyos, 
a counting up, enrolment. — Gk. Kara, fully ; 
Xey€iv, to say, tell ; see Logic. 

Catamaran, a sort of raft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbes, Hindustani Diet., ed. 1859, 
p. 289, we have ' katmaran. a raft . . ; the 
word is orig. Tamil, and means tied logs' " 
Tamil kalUi, binding ; maram, wood 

Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.-L.- 
Gk.^i F. cataplas»ie. — \^. cataplasma.— 
Gk. Karai^haa ixa, a plaster, poultice. -Gk. 
KaravXaaanv, to spread over. — Gk. Kaia, 




fully ; and nkdacrdv, to mould ; see 

Catapult. (Late L. — Gk.) Late L. 
catapult a, an engine for throwing stones. — 
Gk. Kara-ireKTTjs, the same. — Gk. Kara, 
down ; 77-aA\6tf, to swing, hurl. 

Cataract. (L. — Gk.) L. cataracta, 
Gen. vii. ii. — Gk. KaTappaKT-qs, as sb., a 
waterfall ; as adj., broken, rushing down. 
Prob. allied to Karapp-qywixi, i break 
down ; the 2 aor. KaT^ppa-y-qv was used 
of the rushing down of waterfalls and 
storms. — Gk. Kara, down ; prjjuvfii, I 

Catarrh. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) F. 
catarrhe. — Late L. caiarj-hus. — Gk. 
Karappoos, a flowing down (of rheum), 
a cold in the head. — Gk. Kara., down ; and 
p€(iv, to flow. 

Catastrophe. (Gk.) Gk. KaraaTpofr], 
an overturning, sudden turn. — Gk. Kara, 
down ; (TTpitpen/, to turn. 

Catch. (F. — L.^ O. Picard cachier, 
variant of O. F. chacier, to hunt, cliase ; 
hence, to catch. It answers to Ital. cac- 
ciare, Late L. *captidre, extended form of 
L. captdre, to catch. — L. captus, pp. of 
capere, to seize. ^ We even find M. Du. 
kaetsen, to catch, borrowed from Picard 
cachier. The M. E. pt. t. cau^te imitated 
lau^te, pt. t. of M. E. lacchen, to catch. 
Doublet, chase (i\ 

Catechise. (L.-Gk.) Late L. ^^^^- 
chizdre. — Gk. Karrixiif^iv, to catechise, 
instruct ; lengthened form of KaT-qx^^i-v, to 
din into one's ears, lit. 'to din down.' — 
Gk. /car-a, down ; "qx^^v, to sound ; cf. 
rixos, a ringing in the ears ; see Echo. 

Category, a class. (Gk.) Gk. Karq- 
yopia, an accusation ; but in logic, a pre- 
dicament or class. — Gk. KarqyopHv, to 
accuse. — Gk. Kar-a, down, against; *d7u- 
/>€«/, with the sense oia'yopeveiv, to declaim, 
address an assembly, from a-yopd, an 

Catenary, belonging to a chain ; used 
of the curve in which a chain hangs. (.L.) 
From L. catena, a chain ; see Chain. 

Cater, to buy provisions. (F. — L.) 
Formed as a verb from M. E. cat our, a 
buyer of provisions (whom we should now 
call a cater-er). Catour is short for 
acatoiir^i formed from acat, a buying, pur- 
chase, Ch. prol. 571. — O. F. acat (mod. 
F. achat), a buyinii; — Folk-L. acaptum, a 
purchase; for accapttim. — YoXk-'L. accap- 
tdre, to purchase (a. d. 1060), frequent, of 

accipere, to receive, also to buy ; see 
Accept and Gates. 

Cateran, a Highland robber. (Gael.) 
Low L. caterajius, answering to Gael. 
ceathairne, lit. ' common people ; ' cf. 
ceathainie-choille, s. pi., freebooters, out- 
laws. From Irish cethei-n, ceithem, a 
troop, band ; cf. L. cateriia, a band of 
men. See Kern. 

Catercousin. (F.-L.) Nares (ed. 
1S76) has : ' Cater-cotisms, friends so 
familiar that they eat together.' If so, 
the word is from cater, vb., and 

Caterpillar. (F.-L.) Adapted from 
O. F. chatepelose, a caterpillar (Godefroy); 
the latter half of the word was assimilated 
\.o piller, one who pi//s, or robs or spoils. 
O. F. chatepelose is lit. 'hairy she-cat.' — 
O. F. chate, fem. of chat, cat ; pelose, 
hairy. — L. cdtus, cat; pilosus, hairy, from 
pi his, a hair. 

Caterwaul. (E.) yi-Y.. caterzvawen; 
coined from cat, and waweu, to make a 
wailing noise. 

Cates, provisions. (F. — L.) So called 
becau>e provided by the catour, mod. E. 
cater-er ; see Cater. ' Cater, a steward, a 
provider of ra/^j- ; ' Baret (1580). 

Cathartic, purging. (Gk.) Gk.KaBap- 
TLKos, purgative. — Gk. Ka6aipc-iu,{o cleanse, 
purge. — Gk, Ka$apu9, pure. 

Cathedral. (L. - Gk.) L. cathe- 
drdlis ecclesia^'-?i cathedral church, or one 
which has a bishop's throne. — Late L. 
cathedra, a throne. — Gk. KaOeSpa, a seat. 

— Gk. Ka6-, for Kara, down ; and k'Spa, a 
seat, chair, from e( ( = c5-^o;xat\ I sit; 
see Sit. 

Catholic. (L. — Gk.) L. catholicus 
(Tertullian.) — Gk. KaOoKiKu^, universal. 

— Gk. KaOoK-ov, adv., on the whole, in 
general. —Gk. Ka9-, for Kard, according 
to ; and o\ov, gen. of oAoj, whole. 

Catkin. (Du.) A loose spike of 
flowers, named from its soft downy ap- 
pearance. —M, Du. kattekeii, 'a kitling,* 
Hexham. (It also meant 'catkin'; cf. 
F, chattons in Cot.) Dimin. of Du. kat, a 
cat (M. Du. kaite). 

Catoptric, relating to optical reflec- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. /faToiTT/>i/foj, reflexive. — 
Gk. KaroiTTpoy, a mirror. — Gk. Kar-a, 
down, inward ; oTT-To/xai, I see, with suffix 
-rpoi', of the instrument. 

Cattle. (F. — L,) M.E.r^/^/. property; 
hence, live stock, cattle, — O. North F. 




ra/^/. — Late L. capita le, capital, property ; 
see Capital (2) and Chattels. 

Caucus, a name applied to certain 
political meetings. (American Indian?) 
Said to be from an Algonkin word mean- 
ing to speak, to counsel, whence kaw-kaw- 
asti, a counsellor. ' Their elders, called 
cazvcazuwassotighes)^ Capt. Smith's Works, 
ed. Arber, p. 347. * Caucorouse, which is 
captaine ; ' id. p. 377. % 'i'his is more 
likely than the entirely unsupported story 
about caulkers' meetings. 

Caudal, belonging to the tail. (L.) L. 
(and a, the tail. 

Caudle, a warm drink. (F. — L.) O. 
North F. caiidcl, O. F. chaiidel, a sort of 
warm drink. — O. F. c/iaitd, chald, hot. — 
L. caldiis, for calidits, hot. 

Caul, a net, covering, esp. for the head. 
(F.) O. F. cale, 'a kind of little cap ; ' 
Cot. Origin unknown. 

Cauldron ; see Caldron. 

Cauliflower. (F. — L.) Formerly 
colyfory. From M. E. col (O. F. col), a 
cabbage ; and flory, from O. F. Jlori, 
Jicuri, pp. of Jleurir, to flourish. The 
O. F. col is from L. ace. caitlem, from 
laiilis, a cabbage ; z.ndjleicrir is from L. 
//t^riFrc?, to flourish. See Cole and Flourish. 

Caulk, Calk. (F. - L.) M. E. 
cauken, to ti ead ; hence, to squeeze in (as 
oakum into a ship's seams). — O. F. cati- 
qtier, to tread ; to tent a wound with lint. 

— L. calcdre, to tread, force down by 
l^ressure. — L. calc-, stem oi calx, the heel. 

Cause. (F. — L.) ¥. cause. — 1^. causa, 
cazissa, a cause. Der. cause, vb. 

Causeway, a paved way, raised way. 
(F. — L. ; and K.) Formerly caus-ey-way ; 
by adding way to M. E. causi, causic. 
causey. — O. North F. caucie (mod. F 
(hauss^e, Prov. causada. Span, calzadd).^ 
Late L. calcidta, for calcidta uia, a paved 
way. — Late L. calcidtus, pp. of calcidre, 
to make a roadway by treading it down ; 
from L. calcdre, to tread. — L. calc-, stem 
oi calx, heel ; see Caulk. 

Caustic. (L. -Gk.) lu. caustictis. ^ 
Gk. KavaTiKos, burning. — Gk. Kavaros. 
burnt. — Gk. Kaiuv (fut. Kavacu), to burn. 

cauterise. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
cautcriser. — Late L. cauterizdre, to sear. 

— Gk. KavTr]pia((iv, to sear. — Gk. KavTi)- 
piov, a branding-iron. — Gk. Kaieiv, tu 
burn (above). 

Caution. (F, — L.) F. caution.— !.. 
ace. cautionem, heed. — L. cautus, pp. oi 

cauere, to beware. Cf. Skt. kavi{s), wise. 
Brugm. i. § 635. Hex. pre-catitiott. 
Cavalier. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. cava- 
lier, a horseman. — Jtal. cavaliere, the 
same. — L. caballdi'iuvi, ace. of caballdrius, 
the same. — L. caballus, a horse. See 

cavalcade. (F, - Ital. - L.) F. 

cavalcade. — Ital. cavahata, a troop of 
horsemen; orig. fem. of pp. of cavalcare, 
to ride. — Ital. cavallo, a horse. — L. ca- 
balhim, ace. of caballus, a horse. 

cavalry. (F. - Ital. - L.^ O. F. 
cavallerie. — Ital. cavalteria, cavalry. — 
ital. cavaliere, a knight ; see Cavalier. 

Cave. (F.-L.) Vi.Y..caue.-O.Y. 
<ave, a cave. — Folk-L. raz/a, a cave. — L. 
cauus, hollow. (y'KEU.) Der. cav-ity; 
cav-ern {¥. caverne, L. cauerna). 

Cave in. (M. Du.) Properly to 
calve in, a phrase introduced by Du. 
liavvies. Cf. W. Flanders inkalven, to 
cave in ; E. Friesic kalfen, to calve as a 
cow, whence kalfen in, to cave in. The 
falling portion of earth is compared to a 
calf dropped by a cow. Confused with 
cave, a hollow. 

Caveat, a caution. (L.) L. caueat, 
lit. let him beware. — L. c'a?/^;-^, to beware. 

Caviare, roe of the sturgeon. (F.— 
Ital.) F. caviar. "XX-dX. caviaro; whence 
also Turk, khavydr, caviare. 

Cavil. (F.-L.) O. F. caviller. -1. 
cauilldri, to banter ; hence, to wrangle, 
object to. — L. cauilla, a jeering, cavil- 

Caw. (E.) An imitation of the cry of 
the crow or daw. Cf. Du. kaauw, Dan. 
kaa, a jackdaw : which are imitative. 

Cayman, an American alligator. (Ca- 
ribbean.) Also caij?ian. The spelling 
cay man is Spanish. — Caribbean acayilman 

Cease. (F. — L.) F. cesser. — L. cessdre, 
to loiter, go slowly, cease ; frequent, of 
cedere (pp. cesstis , to yield, go away, 

"Cedar, a tree. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. 
cedre. — L. cedrus. — Gk. Kedpos. 

Cede. (L.) A late word (A. D. 1633). 
— L. cedere, to go, to come, to yield. 

Ceil, Ciel, to line the inner roof or 
walls of a room. (F.— L.) Hence the 
sb. ceil-ing or ciel-ing. M. E. ceelen, to 
ceil ; from the sb. syle or cyll, a canopy. — 
F. ciel, a. canopy : the same word as ciel, 
heaven. [Cf. Ital. cielo, heaven, a canopy, 
I D 



a cieling.] — L. ccelmn, heaven. ^ Not to 
be confused with E. sill, nor with seal ; nor 
with seel (F, siller) ; nor with L. celdre, 
to hide. The L. cceldre, to emboss, seems 
to have had some influence on the word, 
but did not originate it ; cf. M. E. celure, 
a canopy Late L. ccelutiira. 

Celandine, a plant. (F.-Gk.) O. F. 

celidoine. — Late L. celidonia. — L. cheli- 
donia. '"Gk. x^^^^'^^'-'^^^ swallow-wort — 
Gk. xf^'Soi'-, stem of x^'^'So'i', a swallow. 
(The « is intrusive.) 
Celebrate. (L.) L. celebrdtus, pp. 
of celcbrdre, to frequent, to solemnise, 
honour. — L. celeber, frequented, populous. 

Celerity. ;>'--L0 F- i-///r///. — L. 

ace. celeritdtcm, speed. — L. celer, quick. 
Cf. Gk. ic(\r]s, a runner; Brugm, i. § 6^3- 
Celery. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ^//^r/, in- 
troduced from the Piedmontese Ital. sel- 
leri ; for Ital. selini, pi. of selino, parsley. 

— L. selinon, parsley. — Gk. criKivov, a kind 
of oarsley. 

Celestial. (F.-L.) O. F. cehstiel. 

— L. ccelesti-s, heavenly. — L. aelum, 

Celibate. (L.) The orig. sense was 
' a single life ' ; it was afterwards an adj., 
and again a sb., meaning ' one who is 
single.' — L. cielibdtus, sb. celibacy, single 
life. — L. ccelib-, stem oi ccelebs. single, un- 
married. Der. celibacy (for *ccelibdtia^. 

Cell. (L.) M. E. celle. - L. cella, 
small room, hut. Cf. celdre, to hide. 
See Helm (2). (yKEL.) 

cellar. (F.-L.) yV.Y.cekr. A.F. 
celer; O. F.t^//>r. — L. celldrium, a cellar. 

— L. cella (above). 

Celt (1), a name originally given to the 
Gauls. (C.) From'L. pi. CelUt, the 
Celts ; the word probably meant ' war- 
riors ' ; of. A. S. hild, Icel. hildr, war ; 
Lith. kalti, to strike ; L. per-cellere, to 
strike through, beat down (Rhys). 

Celt (2), a primitive chisel or axe. 
(Late L.) Late L. celtis, assumed nom. 
of the abl. celte ( = with a chisel), in the 
Vulgate Version of Job xix. 24. But this 
reading is due to some error, and there 
seems to be no such word in Latin. 

Cement. (F.-L.) O. F. ciment.- 
L. ccE77tentum, rubble, chippings of stone ; 
hence, cement. Perhaps for ^ccedmentuju, 
from ccedere, to cut (Brugm. i. § 587). 

Cemetery. (L. — Gk.) Y.zXo.l^.cceme- 

terium. — Gk. KoifxijTTjpiov, a sleeping-place, 
cemetery. — Gk. Koifxdcu, I lull to sleep ; in 

pass., to fall asleep. Allied to Keifiai, I 
lie down ; Skt. fi, to lie down. 

Cenobite. (L. — Gk.) L. ccenobtta, 
a member of a (social) fraternity (Jerome). 

— L. cocnobiu77i, a convent. — Gk. noivo^iov^ 
a convent. — Gk. kolvo^ios, living socially. 

— Gk. Koivo-s, common ; jiios, life. 

Cenotaph. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
cenotaphe. — L. ceiiotaphiu77i.-^Gk. k(vo- 
raipiov, an empty tomb. — Gk. Kevo-Sy 
empty ; rdcp-os, a tomb. 

Censer. (F. — L.) M. E. censer. — 
O. F. ce/isier, se?tser (Godefroy) ; short- 
ened from O. F. e;ice7isier. — L,a.te L. in- 
ce7tsdriu7H, also i7icensdriii77i (whence 
mod. F. ence7isoi)'). — L. incenszi77i, in- 
cense ; from pp. of i7ice7idcre, to kindle. 
See Incense. 

Censor. (L.) L. censor, a taxer, valuer, 
assessor, critic. — L. cetisere, to give an 
opinion, appraise. -j-Skt. ^ams, to praise. 

censure. (F.-L.) Y. censure. <^\.. 
censHra, orig. opinion. — L. censert 

census. (L.) L. ce7isus, a register- 
ing. —L. ce7isere (above). 

Cent, a hundred, as in per cent. (L.) 
Li America, the hundredth part of a 
dollar. — L. cejttttm, a hundred ; see 

centenary. (L.) L. cente7idrius, 
relating to a hundred. — L. ce?ite7ius, a 
hundred (usu. distributivel}'). — L. ce}itui7i. 
centennial. (L.) Coined to mean 
relating to a century. — L. cenl-u7n, hun- 
dred ; a7in-us, a year. 

centesimal. (L.) L. centesi77i-us, 
hundredth. — L. ce7it-ti//i, hundred, 
j centigrade. (L.) Divided into a 
I hundred degrees. — L. centi-, for centiun, 
j imndred ; grad-tis, a degree ; see Grade. 

I centipede, centiped. (F.-L.) F. 

centipede. — L. centipeda. a many-footed 
(lit. hundred-footed) insect. — L. <re«//-, for 
certiui7i, hundred; and ped-, stem o^ pes, 

centuple. (L.) L. centuplex (stem 
centuplic-), a hundredfold. — L. centu-m, 
hundred ; plic-dre, to fold. 

centurion. (L.) L. ace. centurio- 
Jie7/i, a captain of a hundred. — L. ce7ttiiria 

century. (F. — L.) Y. ce7iturie.— 

L. centuria, a body of a hundred men ; 

number of one hundred. — L. iefitn-771, 

I hundred. 

I Centaur. (L. — Gk.) L. Centaurus. 



— Gk. Kivravpos, a centaur, a creature half 
man and half horse; which some have com- 
pared with Skt. gandha7-vas, a demi-god. 
centaury, a plant. (L. — Gk.) L. 

centaurea.'^^j^. Kcvravpeiou, centaury; a 
plant named from the Ceiitaiir Chiron. 

Centenary, Centennial, Centn- 
ple, Centurion, &c. : see Cent. 

Centre, Center. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 

centre. — L. centrum. — Gk. Kcvrpov, a 
spike, goad, prick, centre. — Gk. k€vt(qj, 
I goad on. Of. W. cetAr, a spike. 

centrifugal, flying from a centre 
(L.) L. centri-, for centra-, stem of cen- 
trum ; 2Sidifug-ere, to fly. 

centripetal, tending towards a 
centre. (L. i L. centri- (above); pet-ere, 
to seek. 

Ceramic, relating to pottery. (Gk.) 
Gk. KipafXLK'OS, adj, — Gk. nepafx-os, potter's 
earth. Cf. Kcpawvpii (fut. K^paaoj), I mix. 

Cere, to coat M'ith wax. (L.) L. 
cerd7'e, to wax. — L. cera, wax. + Gk. KTjpos, 

cerecloth. (L. and E.) Lit. a waxed 

cerement. (L.) From cere; with 
suffix -ment (L. -metitum'). 

ceruse, white lead. (F.— L.) O. F. 
cert4se. — \^. cerussa, white lead. — L. r/ra, 

Cereal, relating to corn. (L.) L. 
cerealis. — l.. ceres, corn. 

Cerebral, relating to the brain. (L.) 
From L. cerebr-um. the brain. Cf. Gk. 
/fctpa, the head. Brugm. i. § 619. 

Cerecloth, Cerement ; see Cere. 

Ceremony. (F. - L.) M. E. cere- 
monie.-'Y . c&emonie. — l^. ccerimonia, a 
ceremony, rite. 

Certain. (F. — L.) O. F. certein, 
certain. " 'L. cert-us, sure; with suffix 
-anus. Allied to L. cernere, to discrimi- 
nate ; Gk. Kpivfii', to separate, decide. 

certify. (F. — L.) M. E. certifien.— 
F. certifier. — Late L. certificdre, to make 
sure. — L. r^r//-, for certo-, stem of certiis 
(above) ; and -fie-, iox fac-ere. to make. 

Cerulean, azure. (L.) L. ccerukus, 
ccErulus. blue; for ^cceluleus, *a?lHhis, from 
ccelum, sky. Brugm. i. § 483, 

Ceruse, white-lead ; see Cere. 

Cervical, belonging to the neck. (L.) 
From L. ceriilc-, stem of ceruix, neck. 

Cervine, relating to a hart. (L.) L. 
ceru;n-j4S.'-\.. certi-us, a hart ; see Hart. 

Cess, limit, measure. (F. — L.) In 

I Hen. IV. ii. i. 8. Orig. a tax, rate, 
rating, assessment ; see Spenser, State of 
Ireland, Globe ed., p. 643, col. 2. For 
sess; from sess, verb, to rate; which is 
short for Assess. 

Cessation. (F.-L.) F. cessation.— 
L. ace. cessdtionem, a ceasing. — L. cessd- 
tus, pp. of cessdre, to cease. — L. cessus 

cession. (F. — L.) F. cession. — L. 
ace. cessioneyn, a yielding. — L, cessus, pp. 
oi cedere, to yield, to cede. 

Cess-pool. (Hybrid.) Most probably 
equiv. to {se)cess-pool; see N. E. D. Cf. 
Ital. cesso, a privy (Torriano) ; which is 
a shortened form of secesso, a retreat.— 
L. secessus, 'the draught;' Matt. xv. 17 

Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L. — 
Gk.) L. (:<?/z/j-. — Gk. ktjtos, a sea-monster. 


Chablis, a white wine. (F.) From 
C/iad/is, 1 2 mi. E. of Auxerre, in the de- 
partment of Yonne, France. 

Chafe, to warm by friction, vex. (F. — 
L.) M. E. c/ian/e?i, to warm. — O. F. 
chaufer (F. chauffe?-). to warm ; cf. Prov. 
calfar, to warm. — Late L. ^cakfdre, to 
warm; for L. calefacere, to warm, make 
to glow. — L. cale-re, to glow ; facei'e, to 

Chafer, Cockchafer. (E.) A.S. 
cefer {slso ceafior) , a kind of beetle. +Du. 
kever ; G. kdfer. 

Chaff. (E.) A. S. ceaf, later chcef, husk 
of grain. +Du. kaf\ Low G. kaff. % The 
verb to chaff = to chafe, i.e. vex. So also 
chaff-wax., for chafe-wax. 

Chaf&nch, a bird. (E.) I.e. chaff- 
finch ; it frequents barn-doors. 

Chaffer. (E.) The verb is from the 
M. E. sb. chapfare, also chaffare, a bargain- 
ing. — A. S. ceap, a bargain, and faru, a 
journey, also business ; see Cheap and 

Chaf5.nch ; see Chaff. 

Chagrin. (F.) F. chagrin, melan- 
choly. [Diez identifies it with F. chagrin, 
shagreen ; but wrongly.] 

Chain. (F. — L.) O. F. chaine, chaene. 
— L. catena, a chain. 

Chair. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. chaire, 
chaere. — OF. chaiere, chaere. — L. cathe- 
dra, a throne, raised seat, chair. — Gk. 
KadiSpa, a seat. — Gk. Ka6-, for Kara, down; 



€dpa, a seat, from e^onai (= k8-yofiai), 
I sit ; see Cathedral, Sit. 

chaise, a light carriage. (F. — L. - 
Gk.) F. chaise, a chair, also, a chaise ; a 
Parisian modification of F. chaire, a pulpit, 
orii5[. a seat. 

Chalcedony, a kind of quartz. (L, — 
Gk.) L. chakedoniiis, Rev. xxi. 19. — Gk. 
Xo.Kurjbojv , Rev. xxi. 19. 

Chaldron, a coal-measure. (F. — L.) 
O. F. chaldron, orig. a caldron ; see 

Chalice, a cup. (F. -L.) A.Y.chalke; 
O. F. calice.'^\a. caliceni, ace. of callx, a 
cup. Allied to calyx, but not the same 

Chalk. (L.) M. E. chalk. - A. S. cealc 
(Southern). — L, calc-, stem oi calx, lime. 

Challenge, i^.- L.) M. E. chaknge, 
calenge, olten in the sense * a claim.' — 
A. F. chalenge, O. F. chalonge, calenge, a 
dispute, claim ; an accusation. — L. caliim- 
nia, false accusation ; see Calumny. 

Chalybeate. (L. - Gk.) Used of 

water containing iron. Coined from L. 
chalyb-s, steel. — Gk. xaXvp (stem xa-^v^S-), 
steel ; named from the Chalybes, a people 
of Poiitus, who made it. 

Chamber. (F.-L. -Gk.) Y.cham- 

bre\ Prov. camhra. — L,. car?iera, cafnara, 
a vault, vaulted room, room. — Gk. KUfxapa, 
a vaulted place. 

chamberlain. (F.-O.H.G.-L.- 

Gk.) F. chamberlain, O. F. chambrelenc. — 
O. H. G. chamerlinc , M. 11. G. kamerlinc, 
one who has the care of rooms; formed 
with suffix -l-inc (the same as E. -l-ing), 
from L. camera (above). 

Chameleon. (L.-Gk.) \.. chamce- 
leon. — Gk. x«/"«'-'^*<^^'. lit. a ground-lion, 
dwarf-lion ; a kind of lizard. — Gk. x«/^°'' 
on the ground (also dwarf, in comp.) ; and 
\eojv, lion. Cf. L. humi, on the ground. 

chamomile. (Late L.-Gk.) Late 
L. camotnilla {chamomilla). — Gk. xoA^a'- 
firjKov, lit. ground-apple, from the apple- 
like smell of the flower. — Gk. x«/^«'-5 on 
the ground (see above) ; fxrjAov, apple. 

Chamois. (F. - G.) F. chamois; 
borrowed from some Swiss dialectal form ; 
cf. Piedmontese camossa. — M. H. G. gamz 
(for *£amtiz), a chamois (G.gemse). 

Champ, to eat noisily. (E.) Formerly 
cham or chamm ; of imitative origin, like 
jam, to crush. Cf. Swed. dial, kdmsa^ to 
chew with difficulty. 

Champagne. (F- - L.) A wme 


named from Champagne in France, which 
means ' a plain ' ; see below. 

champaign, open country. (P\— L.) 
In Sh. F. champaigne, of which thePicard 
form was campaigne ; see Campaign. 

Champak, a tree. (Skt.) Skt. chaju- 
paka, the champak. 

Champion. (F.-L.) O.Y. cham- 
pion.— Y,. campionem, ace. of campio, a 
combatant (Isidore). — L. campus, a place 
for military exercise; a peculiar use of 
campns, a field. See Camp. 

Chance, hap. (F. — L.) M. E. cheaimce. 

— O. F. cheance, chaance. — 'LaiQ L. caden- 
iia, a falling, a chance. — L. cadere, to fall, 
happen ; see Cadence. 

Chancel. (F.-L.) So called because 
orig. fenced off by a latticed screen.— 
O. F. chancel, an enclosure fenced off with 
an open screen. — Late L. cancel I us, a 
chancel, screen ; L. cancelli, pi., a grating; 
see Cancel. 

chancellor. (F.-L.) O.Y.ckance- 
/zVr. — Late L. ace. cancelldrinm, a chan- 
cellor ; orig. an officer who stood near the 
screen before the judgment-seat. — L. can- 
celli, a grating ; see Chancel, Cancel. 

chancery. (F.-L.) Yovchancelry. 
M. E. chancelerie. — O. F. chancellerie. — 
Late L. cancelldria. the record-room of a 
cancelldrius ; see Chancellor. 

Chandelier. (F.-L.) 0.¥. chande- 
lier, a candle-holder. — Late L. cande- 
Idrius, m. ; cf. cajideldria, a candle-stick. 

— L. candela ; see Candle. 
chandler. (F. — L.) O.Y.cha^idelier, 

a chandler. — Late L. candeldrius , a 
candle-seller. — L. candela; see Candle. 
Der. corn-chandler, where chandler merely 
means seller, dealer. 

Change, vb. (F. — L. ) O. F. changer, 
changier. — l.^tQ L. cambidre, to change 
(Lex Salica). — L. cambTre, to exchange. 
Cf. Late L. cambium, exchange ; whence 
F. change, E. change, sb. 

Channel. (F. — L.) M. E. chattel, 
canel. — O.Y. chanel, canel, a canal. — L. 
ace. canalem ; see Canal. 

Chant. ( F. — L.) F. chanter, vb. — L. 
cantdre, to sing ; frequent, of canere, to 
sing. Der. chant- ry, M. E. chatinterie. 
Late L. cant aria ; chanti-cleer, ^L E. 
chaunte-cleer, clear-singing. 

Chaos. (Gk.) L. chaos, Lat. spelling 
of Gk. x«os. chaos, abyss, lit. a cleft. Cf. 
Gk. xaauf^iv, to gape. See Chasm. 

Chap (i), to cleave, crack. (E.) M. E. 




chappen, to cut ; hence, to gape open like 
a wound made by a cut. E. Fries, happen, 
to cut ; not found in A. S.+M. Uu. happen, 
to cut ; Swed. kappa, Dan. kappe, to cui ; 
G. happen, to cut, lop. See Chop (i). 

Chap (2) ; see Chapman. 

Chapel. (F.-L.) O. F. chapele.- 
Late L. cappella, orig. a shrine in which 
was preserved the cdpa or cope of St. 
Martin (Brachet). — Late L. cdpa, cappa, 
cape, hooded cloak; see Cape (i). 

chaperon. (F.-L.) Y. chaperon,^ 
protector ; orig. a kind of hood. — F. chape, 
a cope. — Late L. cdpa ; as above. 

Chapiter, the capital of a column. 
(F. — L.) O. F. chapitre, usually a chapter 
of a book, but representing L. capihihim, 
which meant ' chapiter ' as well as 
* chapter.' See Chapter. 

Chaplet. (F.-L.) yi.Y.. chapelet.^ 
O. F. chapelet, a head-dress, wreath. — 
O. F. chapel, head-dress. — O. F. chape, a 
cope ; see Chaperon. 

Chapman, a merchant. (E.) The 
familiar chap is merely short for chapman. 
— A. S. ceapman, a merchant. — A. S. ceap, 
price, barter (see Cheap) ; and man, man. 

Chaps, Chops, the jaws. (E.) A 
late word, of unknown origin ; possibly 
from Chap (i). % Perhaps suggested by 
North E. chafis or chaffs, jaws (Cleveland 
Gloss.). — Icel. kjaptr (^pi pron. as//), the 
jaw ; Svved. kdft, Dan. kicB/t, jaw. 

Chapter, a division of a book, synod 
of clergy. (F. — L.) IsLY.. chapiire, inhoih 
senses. — F. chapitre, variant of an older 
form chapitle. — L. capitidum, a chapter 
of a book (little head); also, in Late L., 
a synod; dimin. oi caput, a head. 

Char (i), a turn of work. (E.) Also 
chare, chore, chewre ; M. E. cher, char, 
orig. a turn, hence, a space of time, turn 
of work, &c. — A. S. cerr (below). Hence. 
char-woman, a woman who does a turn of 
work. See Ajar. 
char (2), usunliy chare, to do a 

turn of work. (E.) M. E. cherren, char- 
ren, to turn ; A. S. cerran, to turn, — A, S. 
cerr {cierr, cyrr), a turn. % The sense 
' burn ' is later than the appearance of the 
sb. char-coal. 

Char (3), a fish. (C. ?) Of unknown 
origin; perhaps named from its red belly 
[the W. name is torgoch, red-bellied, from 
tor, belly, and cock, red]. — O. Gael, ceara. 
red, from cear, blood; Irish cear, red, 
also blood. 

Character. (L. — Gk.) I., character. 

— Gk. x'^P°-'^''"nP^ 3.n engraved or stamped 
mark. — Gk. xapaaativ, to furrow, scratch, 

Charade. (F.-Prov.) Y. charade, 
introduced from Provencnl charrada, a 
long talk, from charrd, to chatter (Supp. 
to Littre) ; cf. Languedoc cliarrade, idle 
talk. Cf. also Span, chanada, speech or 
action of a clown, from Span, chaf-ro, a 
clown, peasant. 

Charcoal. (E.) From char and coal; 
but the sense of char remains unknown ; 
some refer it to M. E. cherren, to turn (as 
if to turn to coal), but there is no proof 
of this. See char (2). 

Charge. (F.-C.) F. charger, to 
load. — Late L. carricdre, to load a car. — 
L. carrtis, a car, a Gauli^h word ; see 
Cark, Car. Der. charg-er, a dish or horse, 
because carrying a burden. 

chariot. (F. — C.) F. chariot, aug- 
mentative of F. char, a car. — 1^. carrus, a 
car ; see Car. 

Charity. (F.-L.) O.Y. charitet.^ 
L. ace. cdritdtetn, love. — L. cdrus, dtax. 
Brugm. i. § 637. % Kot allied to Gk. 

Charlatan. (F. — Ital.) Y. charlatan. 

— Ital. ciarlatano, a mountebank, great 
talker, prattler. — Ital. ciarlare, to prattle ; 
ciarla, prattle ; prob. of imitative origin. 

Charlock, a kind of wild mustard. 
(E.) Prov. E. carlock. — A. S. cerlic; 
origin unknown. 

Charm. iF. — L.) M. E. char?ne, sb. 

— O. F. charme, an enchantment. — L. car- 
men, a song, enchantment. 

Chamel. (E. — L.) Properly an adj. ; 
containing carcases, as in charnel-house.— 
O. F. chamel, adj. carnal ; as sb. a ceme- 
tery. — Late L. carndle, glossed hyjlaschus 
(flesh-house); Wright-Wiilker, Voc. 184. 
37. — L. carndlis; see Carnal. 

Chart. (F. - L. - Gk.) q. F. charte. 

— L, charta, a paper. — Gk. x°/'t»7, a leaf 
of paper. Doublet, raro? ( I V 

charter. (F.-L. - Gk.) M. E. 

chartre. — O. Y. chartre. — 'L^tG L cartula, 
a small paper or document. —L. charta, a 
paper ; see above. 

Chary, careful, cautious. (E.) M. E. 
chari. A.vS. cearig. full of care, sad.— 
A. S. cearn, cam, care. + Du. karig, G. 
X'cr^, sparing. Chary meant (l) sorrowful, 
(2) heedful. See Care. 

Chase (0. to hunt after. (F.-L.) 



O. F. chacier, chacer, to pursue ; see 

Chase (2), to enchase; short for en- 
chase, wliich see. 

Chase (3), a printer's frame. (F. — L.) 
F. chdsse, a shrine. — L. capsa, a box ; see 
Case (2). 

Chasm. (L, — Gk.) L. chasma, a 
gulf. — Gk. xao'/'ta, a yawning cleft. Allied 
to x«<'''<^f'> to gape ; see Chaos. 

Chaste. (F.-L.) 0.¥. chaste. ~l.. 
castus, chaste ; see Caste. 

chasten. (F. - L.) Used in place of 
M. E. chasty or chastien ; see below. 

chastise. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. ckastisen; 
shorter form chastien. — O. F. chastier. — L. 
casiJgdre, lit. ' to make pure.' — L. casttis, 
chaste ; see Castigate. 

Chasuble, a vestment. (F.-L.) F. 
chasuble. — l^?itQ L. casubula, with the same 
sense as Late L. casula, a little house ; 
hence, a mantle. — L. casa, a cottage. 

Chat, Chatter. (E.) M. E. chateren, 
also chiteren, to chatter, twitter; frequent- 
ative form of chat. An imitative word ; 
cf. Du. kwetteren, to warble, chatter, Swed. 
kvittra, to cuirp. 

Chateau. (F.-L.) F. chateau, O. F. 
chastel — L. castellum, dimin. of castrtim, 
a fortified place. Der. castellan ; also 
chatelaine ; for which see Castle. 

Chattels. (F.-L.) PL of M. E. 

chatel, property, also cattle. — O. F. chatel, 

0. North F. catel, property; see Cattle. 
Chatter ; see Chat. 
Chaudron, entrails. (F.) Macb. iv. 

1. 33. The r is inserted by confusion with 
F. chatidron, a caldron. — O. F. chaudun, 
older forms caudun, caldtm, entrails 
(Godefroy). [Cf. G. kaldaunen, entrails ; 
from Mid. Low G. kaldune, the same] 
Thought to be from Late L. calduna, 
a dish containing entrails (Ducange). Per- 
haps from L. calidus, warm (F. chaud). 

Chaw ; see Chew. 

Chaws, by-form of Jaws ; see Jaw. 

Cheap, at a low price ; orig. a sb. (E.) 
M.E. chep., cheep, barter, price; always a 
sb. Hence, good cheap., in a good market 
(F. bon tnarche) ; whence E. cheap, used 
as an adj. A. S. ceap. price ; whence the 
verb ceapiati, to cheapen, buy. So also 
Du. koop, a bargain, koopen, to buy ; G. 
katif, purchase, kaufen, to buy; \z&\.kaup, 
Swed. k'op, Dan. kiob, a purchase ; Goth. 
kaupon (weak vb.), to traffic. ^ Some 
say that these words are borrowed from 

L. ; in particular, that O. H. G. choufo, a 
huckster, is from L. caupo, a huckster. 
But this is now held to be unlikely (Kluge, 

Cheat, to defraud. (F. -L.) Cheat is 
merely short for escheat ; cf. M. E. chete, 
an escheat (Prompt. Parv.). The eschea- 
ters were often cheaters ; hence the verb. 
See Escheat. 

Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. chek, a stop ; also check ! 
in playing chess. The word is due to the 
game, which is very old. The orig. sense 
of check was ' king ! ' i. e. mind the king, 
the king is in danger. — O. F. eschec, ' a 
check at chess-play,' Cot. — Pers. shah, 3. 
king, king at chess ; whence shdh-mdt, 
check-mate, lit. ' the king is dead,' from 
Arab, mat, he is dead. Similarly we have 
F. echec, a check, repulse, defeat, pi. tehees, 
chess ; Ital. scacco, a square of a chess- 
board, also a check, defeat. See chess 
below. ^ Devic shews that O. F. eschec 
represents Arab, esh-shdg; where esh is 
for al, the def. art., and shdg is the Arab, 
pron. of Pers. shah. 

checker, chequer, to mark with 

squares. (P". — Pers.) To mark with 
squares like those on a chess-board. M. E. 
chekker, chekere, a chess-board. (Hence 
The Checkers, s.n inn-sign.) — O. F. esche- 
quier, a chess-board, also, an exchequer. 
— Low L. scaccdrium, a chess-board. — 
Low L. scaccl, chess, pi. of scacciis, from 
the Arab, form of Pers. shdh, king. 

checkers, chequers, an old name 

for the game at draughts ; from the checker 
or chess-board ; see above. 

check-mate. (F. — Pers. and Arab.) 
From Arab, ^shdg-jndt, for shdh-mdt, the 
king is dead ; see Check. 

cheque. (F. — Pers.) A pedantic 
spelling of check, from confusion with 
exchequer ; it is really a name given to a 
draft for money, of which one keeps a 
memorandum or counter-check. 

chess, the game of the kings. (F.— 
Pers.) Equivalent to checks, i. e. kings ; 
see Check above. —O.F. esches, chess; 
really the pi. of eschec, check, orig. ' king.' 
% From Pers. shdh, a king, were formed 
O. F. eschec, F. ^chec., E. check, Ital. scacco, 
Span. xaque,jaque, Port, xaque, G. schach, 
Du. schaak, Dan. skak, Swed. schack, 
Low Lat. Indus scaccorum = game of 
checks, or of kings. 
Cheek. (E.) M. E. cheke, cheoke. O. 




Merc, cece, A. S. cedce, cheek. + Dn. 
kaak, jaw, cheek ; Swed. kdk, jaw. 

Cheer. (F. — L.) M. E. chere, orig. 
the mien ; hence, ' to be of good cheer.' 

— O. F. chere, the face. — Late L. cai-a, 
face. (Relationship to Cik. Kapa, the head, 
is doubtful.) Der. chter-ful. 

Cheese. (L.) M. E. chese. O. Merc. 
cese (A. S. cyse, for earlier *ciese<,*ceasi), 
with 7-mutation ; preliistoric A. S. "^ciesi 
< *cdsioz. — L. cdsetis, cheese ; whence 
other forms (G. kdsc, Du. kaas) are bor- 
rowed. Sievers, 2nd ed. § 75. 2. 

Cheeta, Cheetah, the hunting leo- 
pard, a leopard used for the chase. (Hind. 

— Skt.) Hind. chitd.-^'SkX. chitraka, a 
cheeta ; from chitra, spotted, also visi- 
ble, clear. — Skt. chit, to perceive. See 

Chemise. (F. — L.) F. chemise.^ 
Late L. cat?iisia, a shirt, thin dress ; 
whence O. Irish caimmse, shirt ; Stokes). 

Chemist, Chymist; short for al- 
chemist ; see Alchemy. 

Cheque, Chequer ; see Check. 

Cherish. (F. - L.) O. F. cheris-, 
stem of pres. pt. of cherir^ to hold dear. — 
F. cher, dear. — L. cdrus, dear. 

Cheroot, a cigar. (Tamil.) Tamil 
shuruttu, a roll ; hence, a roll of tobacco 

Cherry. (F. -L. - Gk.) M. E. chert, a 
mistake for cheris, the final s being mis- 
taken for the pi. inflexion. — O, North F. 
cherise, O. F. cerise', representing Folk- 
L. *ceresia, ''^ceresea. — L. cerastts, a cherry- 
tree. —Gk. Kepaaos, a cherry-tree; usually 
said to come from Cerasos, in Pontus ; 
a story which Curtius doubts. 

Chert, a kind of quartz. (?) Unknown. 
Cf. Irish ceart, a pebble. 

Cherub. (Heb.) Thetruepl. isr/^^n/3- 
«>«. — Heb. k'rilv i,pl. /^V?7z//>z), a mystic 

Chervil, a plant. (L. - Gk.) A.S. cer- 
yf//(?. — L. charephylla, pi. oichcerephyllum. 

— Gk. xaipkfpvKKov , chervil, lit. pleasant 
leaf. — Gk. x°'V""''> ^o rejoice; (pvWov, 

Chess ; see Check. 

Chest. (L. - Gk.) M. E. cheste, chiste. 
A.S. cist.-mLi. cista.^Gk. Kiayq, a chest, 
box (whence G. kiste, Sec). 

Chestnut, Chesnut. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

Chesnut is short for chestnut, which is 
short for chesten-ntct, nut of the chcsten, 
which is the old name of the tree, called 

in M. E. chestein.'^O.Y . chastaigne (F. 
chdtaigne). — L. castanea, chestnut-tree. — 
Gk. Kaaravov, a chestnut. Chestnuts are 
said to have been called /faarara, ox Kapva 
Kaaravaia, from Kaarava, Castana, the 
name of a city in Pontus where they 
abounded ; but more probably from Armen. 
kaskeni, a chestnut-tree, from kask, a chest- 
nvit (Kluge). 

Cheval-de-frise, an obstruction with 
spikes. (F.) Lit. * horse of Friesland,' a 
jitcular name; the pi. chevaux-de-Frise is 
commoner. See below. 

chevalier. (F. — L.) Y. chevalier, ?i 
horseman. — F. cheval, a horse. — L. ca- 
balhuji. ace. of caballus, a horse. 

Cheveril, kid leather. (F.-L.^ O. F. 
chevrele, fern., a little kid. Dimin. of 
O.F. chevre, F. chevre, a goat, kid. — L. 
capram, ace. oi capra, a she-goat. 

chevron, an ordinary, in heraldry, re- 
sembling two rafters of a house. (F. — L.) 
(Most likely meant to represent the saddle- 
peak.)— F. chevron, * a kid, a chevron in 
building, a rafter;' Cot. Augmentative 
form of chevre, a she-goat. — L. capra, a 
she-goat ; see Caper (i). Cf. L. capre- 
ohis, which likewise means a prop. 

Chew, Chaw. (E.) M.E. chewen. 
A. S. ceowan, to chew. eat.+Du. kaauwen; 
G. kaiien ; O. H. G.kiuiuan ; Russ. Jevate. 
Cf. also Icel. tyggja, tyggva, to chew 

Chibouk, a Turkish pipe. (Turk.) 
Turk, chibiik, chybiik, a stick, tube, pipe 
(Zenker, p. 349). 

Chicanery. (F.-Pers.1) F. chica- 
nerie, wrangling, pettifogging ; Cot. — F. 
chicaner, to wrangle ; orig. to dispute in 
the game of the mall or chicane (Brachet\ 
Perhaps from the medieval Gk. t^vkolviov, 
a word of Byzantine origin (id.) ; from 
Pers. chaugdn, a club, bat. 

Chicken. (E.) Sometimes shortened 
to chick ; but the M. E. word is chiken. 
A.S. clcen, earlier *ciucin. + D"- kieken, 
kuiken, a chicken, Low G. kuken; cf. G. 
kiichlein, a chicken, Icel. kjukling, Swed. 
kyckling ; related to Cock, which shews the 
weak grade *cuc- ; see Cock (i). Sievers, 
2nd ed. § 165. 

Chicory, a plant, succory. (F. — L, — 
Gk.) F. chicor^e. — Y.. cichorium. — Gk.. 
Kixopia, neut. pi. ; also Kixiipiov, Kix^pVy 
succory, p. Succory is a corrupter form 
of the word, apparently for siccory or 
cichory, from L. cichoriiim. 




Chide. (E.) M.IL. c/iiden. A.S. c/dajz, 
to chide, brawl ; pt. t. cidde. 

Chief. (F. - L.) M. E. chef, chief. - 
O. K. chef, chief, the head. — L. type 
*capunj (Ital. capo). — L. caput, head. 
Der. ker-chief q. v. 

Chieftain. (F. — L.) O.Y.chevetaine. 

— Late L. capitchteus, capitdnus, a captain. 

— L. capit-, from caput, a head. 
Chiffonier, a cupboard. (F.) Lit. a 

place to put rags in. — F. chiffotiier, a rag- 
picker, also a cupboard. — F. chiffon, aug- 
ment, oi chiffe, a rag. Orig. unknown. 

Chignon. (F. — L.) Hair twisted; 
anotlier spelling of F. chainon, a link.— 
F, chatne, 0.1^. chaine, a chain.— L. ca- 
tena, a chain. 

Chilblain. (E.) A Main caused by 
a chill. 

Child. (E.) M. E. child. A. S. cild. 
Teut. type */cilJ>om, neut. ; cf. Goth. ^'?7- 
//i^/, the womb. 

Chill, cold. (E.) Orig. a sb. A. S. 
cele, ciele, chilliness. Teut. type *kaliz, 
sb. ; from *kal-an, to be cold, as in A. S. 
calan. to be cold, Icel. kala, to freeze. + 
Du. kil, a chill ; cf. L. gelu, frost. 

Chime, sb. (F. -L. -Gk.) M. E. 
chinibe, of which the orig. sense was cym- 
bal ; hencj the chime or ringing of a cym- 
bal. Shortened from O. F. chimbale, dia- 
lectal form of O. F. cimbale, a cymbal.— 
L. cy7nbalum. — Gk. Kvix&aXov ; see Cym- 
bal. N. B. We find M. E. chy?ne-belle, 
which looks like a popular form for cyiyibal. 
Der. chime, verb. 

Chimera, Chimaera. (L.-Gk.) L. 

chimcera. — Gk. x'Va'pct, a she-goat ; also, 
a fabulous monster, with a goat's body. — 
Gk. x'V"/'"?) he-goat. 

Chimney. (F. — L. - Gk.) F. cheminee, 
'a chimney;' Cot. — Late L. camindta, 
provided with a chimney; hence, a chimney. 

— L. caminus, an oven, a fire-place. — Gk. 
KCLixivos, oven, furnace. 

Chimpanzee, an ape. (African.) I am 
informed that the name is tsitnpanzee in 
the neighbourhood of the gulf of Guinea. 

Chin. (E.) M. E. chin. A.S. ««.-f 
Du. kin, Icel. kinn, Dan. kind, Swed. 
kind ; Goth, kinmis, the cheek ; G. kimi, 
chin ; L. gena, cheek ; Gk. 7€i/us, chin ; 
cf. Skt. hanus, jaw. 

China. (China.) ^\ioti{ox chi7ia'Ware. 
or ware from China. The name of the 
people was formerly Chineses ; we have 
dropped the final s, and use Chinese as a 

pi. ; hence Chinee in the singular, by a 
second dropping of se. 

Chinchilla, a small rodent animal. 
(Span. — L.) Span, chinchilla, lit. 'a little 
bug,' as if from its smell ; but undeservedly 
so named. — Span, chinche, a bug. — L. ci- 
inicem, ace. oiciniex, a bug. 

Chinchona; the same as Cinchona. 

ChinCOUgh, whooping-cough. \ E.) 
For chink-cough; cf. Scotch kink-cough, 
kink-host \host means cough'. A kink is a 
catch in the breath, nasalised form of a 
base *kik, to gasp. -fDu. kinkhoest; M. 
V)\x.kieckhoest\ Swed. kikhosta, chincough, 
kikna, to gasp ; G. keichen, to gasp. 

Chine. (F. - O. H. G.) O. F. eschine (F. 
ichine), the back-bone. —O.H.G..r/^/«a, a 
needle, prickle (G. schiene, a splint). For 
the sense, cf. L. spina, a thorn, spine, 

Chink (1)5 a cleft. (E.) Formed with 
suffixed k, from the base of M. E. chine, a 
cleft, rift. — A. S. cinu, a chink. — A.S. cin-, 
weak grade oi clnan, to split (strong vb.). 
+ Du keen, a chink, also a germ, kenen, 
to bud ; cf. G. keimen, Goth, keinan, to 
bud. (Germinating seeds make a crack in 
the ground.) 

Chink (2), to jingle. (E.) An imitative 
word ; cf. clink, clank ; and see Chin- 
cough. E. Fries, kinken (a strong vb.) ; 
M. Dan. kinke. 

Chintz. (Hindustani — Skt.) Yoxchints, 
pi. of chint. Hind, chhint, spotted cotton 
cloth, named from the variegated patterns 
on it; chhit, chintz, also a spot —Skt. 
chitra, variegated, spotted. See Cheeta. 

Chip, vb. (E.) Related (with a lighter 
vowel) to chap (i) or chop ; as if to cut 
a little at a time, Cf. A. S. for-cyppod, 
gloss to praecisus (,Lye) ; E. Fries. kippe7i, 
to cut. 

Chirography, handwriting. (Gk.) 
From Gk. ■)(^iipo'^pa(pi1v , to write with the 
hand. — Gk. \(ipo-, from x**V> the hand; 
ypdcpeiv, to write. Cf. chiro-mancy, for- 
tune-telling by the hand ; chiro-pod-ist, 
one who handles (and cures) the feet. 

Chirp. (E.) A\%o chi7-rup. M.Echir- 
pen. Also M. E. chirken, chirmeft, to 
chirp. The forms chir-p, chir-k, chir-vi 
are from an imitative base ; cf. Du. kirren, 
to coo. 

Chirurgeon, the old spelling of sur- 
geon. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. chi7-urgien, 
'a surgeon;' Cot. — F. chirui-gie sur- 
gery. —L. chtru7gia.-^Gk. x^'pou/)7ta, a 




working with the hands, skill with the 
hands, art, surgery. — Gk. x^ipo-, from 
Xf//>, the hand ; and tpyuv, to work. 

Chisel. (F. -L.) M. E. chisel. - A. F. 
chisel, O. F. cisel{¥. ciseau). Cf. Late L. 
cisellus, scissors (a. d. 1352). O. F. cisel 
answers to Late L. *ctselhim, with the 
sense of L. cTsorium, a cutting instrument 
(Vegetius) ; see Soheler's note to Diez. — 
I>. *dsu?n, for cces-um, supine of cccdere. 
to cut ; wlience also Late L. incisor, a 
carver, cutter ; see Caesura. 

Chit (i). a pert child. (E.) M. E. chil, 
a whelp, cub, kitten. Allied to kit-ling 
(Icel. ketliftgr), and to kit-ten-, cf. G. kitze, 
a female cat. 

Chit (2), a shoot, sprout. (E.) In Hol- 
land's Pliny, xiii. 4. Perhaps allied to 
M.E. chi t he, 2i SY>xo\\t (N.E.D.).-A. S. 
clQ, a germ, sprout. Cf. Goth, keinan, to 
produce a shoot ; G. keivi, a germ. 

Chivalry. (F. — L.) M. E. chivalrie. — 
O.F.^-^^z^a/^r/i?, horsemanship, knighthood. 
— F. cheval, a horse. — Late 'L. cabal Iujh, 
ace of cabalhis, a horse. 

Chlorine, a pale green gas. ^ (Gk.) 
Named from its colour. — Gk. xKoip-o'i, pale 

chloroform. (Gk. and\..') The latter 
element relates to foj-myl and formic acid, 
an acid formerly obtained from red ants. — 
\^. formica, an ant. 

Chocolate, a paste made from cacao. 
(vSpan. — Mex.) Span, chocolate. — Mex. 
chocolatl, chocolate ; Clavigero, Hist. 
Mex. i. 433. ^ Not allied to cacao. 

Choice. (F. - Teut.) Not E. M. E. 
chois. — O. F. chois (F. choix). — O. F. 
choisir, O. North F. coisir, to choose. Of 
Teut. origin. — Goth, kansjayi, to try, 
test; causal of kiusa7t, to choose. See 

Choir. (F. - L. - Gk.) The choir of a 
church is the part where the choir sit. 
Also spelt quire; M.E. queir, quer.-- 
O. F. cuer, later choeiir, 'the quire of a 
church, a ti oop of singers ; ' Cot. — L. 
chorum, ace. of chorus, a choir. — Gk. 
Xopoj, a dance, a band of dancers or 
singers. See Chorus. 

Choke. (F.) M. E. choken, cheken, 
cheoken. A. S. ceocian ; only in the deri- 
vative dceocung, to translate L. ruminatio, 
which the glossator hardly seems to have 
understood, and in the pp. dceocod. ^Ifric, 
Horn. i. 216 : with change from eo to eo, 
shortening of J to in M. E., and subse- 

quent lengthening. Cf. Icel. koka, to 
gulp ; kok, the gullet. 

Choler, the bile, anger. (F. — L.-Gk.) 
Anger was supposed to be due to excess of 
bile. M.E. coler. — O.F. colere. — L. cholera, 
bile ; also cholera, bilious complaint. — Gk. 
Xo\(pa, cholera ; X''^^* ^i^^ ; x^^os, bile, 
wrath. See GalL 

cholera. (L. - Gk.) L. cholera, as 
above. And see Melancholy. 

Choose. (E.) M.E. chesen, chusen. 
A. S. ceosan (also ceosan), to choose 
(pt. t. c^as, ceds). •{■T)\\. and G. kiesen, 
Icel. kjosa, Goth, kiiisafi; Teul. type 
*ketisatt-. Allied to L. gus-tare, to taste, 
Gk. ycuofiai, I taste, Skt. jush, to relish. 
(VGEUS.) See Gust. Brugm. i. § 602. 

Chop (1), to cut; a later form of 
Chap (i). 

Chop (2), to barter. (E.) Probably a 
variant of chop, a verb which s^eems to 
have been evolved from the sb. chapman. 

Chopine, a high-heeled shoe. (F.— 
Span.) In Hamlet, ii. 2. 447 ; iox chapine. 

— O.F. chapin; later chappin (Cotgrave). 

— Span, chapiji, a clog with a cork sole, 
woman's shoe, high cork shoe. Perhaps 
from Span, chapa, a thin plate (of metal), 
used to strengthen the work it covers. 

Chops ; see Chaps. 

Chord. (L. - Gk.) L. chorda. - Gk. 
X0/J677, the string of a musical instrument, 
orig. a string of gut. Brugm. i. § 605. 
% The same word as Cord. 

Chorus. (L. — Gk.) 1.. chorus, a hand 
of singers. — Gk. x*^'P^'^^ ^ dance, a band of 
dancers or singers. See Choir. Der. 
chor-al, chor-i-ster. 

Chough, a bird. (E.) M. E. cho^e, 
chough. Not found in A S., which has 
(however) the forms ceo, cio, and the early 
forms ciae, chyae. Somewhat similar forms 
are seen in Du. kaauw, Dan. kaa, Swed. 
kaja, a jackdaw. 

Chouse, to cheat. (Turk. ? \ To act as a 
chouse or cheat. Ben Jonson has chiaus in 
the sense of ' a Turk,' with the implied 
sense of 'cheat'; Alchemist, i. i. The 
allusion is alleged to be to a Turkish 
chiaus or interpreter, who committed a 
notorious fiaud in 1609. —Turk, chd'ush, 
a sergeant, mace- bearer. Palmers Pers. 
Diet. ; chdivush, a sergeant, herald, mes- 
senger, Rich. Diet. p. 534. Or (medi- 
ately) from M. Ital. ciaus. 
Chrism ; see below. 

Christ, the anointed one. (L. — Gk.) 


A. S. Crist. '•1^. Chrtstus.'^GV. xP'<'"'"^s, 
anointed. — Gk. XP''"? I rub, anoint. Der. 
Christ-ian, Christ-en-dom, &c. ; Christ- 
mas (see Mass) ; anti-christ, opponent of 
Christ ,from Gk. avri, against; see 
I John ii. 1 8). 

chrism, holy unction. (L. — Gk.) 
Also s[)elt chrisome, whence chrisorne-child, 
a child W'-aring a chrisoine-cloth, or cloth 
which a child wore after holy unction ; cf. 
O. F. cresme, ' the crisome, or oyle ; ' Cot. 

— Late L. c/irisma, holy oil. — Gk. xp'O'Atci, 
an unguent. —Gk. x/"'^ (^s above). 

Chromatic, relating to colours. (Gk.) 
Gk. x/o<^A* ''''"^^y> 3-<^j- —Gk. x/"^ /•'«'''-> stem 
of xP'^/^ot, colour; allied to xP^^y skin. 

chrome, chromium. (Gk.) A 
metal ; its compounds exhibit beautiful 
colours. — Gk. xpcb^-a, colour. 
Chronicle. (F. -Late L. - Gk.) M. E. 
cronicle, with inserted /; also crojiike, 
cronique.^K. F. cronicle ; O. F. crontque, 
pi. croniques, chronicles, annals. — Late L. 
chronica, fern. sing. ; for neut. pi. — 
Gk. xpoviKa, pi., annals. —Gk. XP^'^''^-^^^ 
adj. from xP^^"^^i time. Der. chron-ic 
( = XP^'^^'^^'^^' 

chronology, science of dates. (Gk.) 
From xp^J^o-J, time ; -A.o7ia, from A07-0S, 
discourse ; see Logic. 

chronometer, time-measurer. (Gk.) 
From xpoi^o-?, time ; fxerpov, measure ; see 

Chrysalis, the form taken by some 
insects. (Gk.) Gk. XP"'''"^^'?, the gold- 
coloured sheath of butterflies, chrysalis. — 
Gk. xP"<^"0?, gold. 

chrysanthemum, a flower. (L. - 
Gk.) L. chrysanthemum. -'Gk. XP^'^^^' 
OepLov, a marigold. — Gk. xP^^'^'^i S^W ; 
avOijjiov, a bloom, from avO^iv, to bloom, 
related to av9o^, a flower, a bud. 

chrysolite, a yellow stone. (F. — L. 

— Gk.) O. F. crisoliie. —1^. chrysolithus, 
Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. XP^'^^^'-^^'^' — Gk. 
XpvfTo-s, gold ; X.i9os, stone. 

chrysoprase. (L. - Gk.) L. chryso- 

prasiis, Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. xP'^'^^'^P'^^^^i ^ 
yellow-green stone. — Gk. xp^'^^'^> gold ; 
TtpcKTov, a (green) leek. 

Chub, a fish. (F.) Etym. unknown. 
Cf. Dan. kobhe, a seal, prov. 'Swed. iM(5'<^2/^o-, 
chubby, fat ; Norw. kubbeii., stumpy ; 
Swed. kiihb, a block, log. This does not 
explain the ch ; but see Chump. 

chubby, fat. (E.) Lit. 'like a chub;' 
cf. prov. Swed. ktibbug (above). 



Chuck (0> to strike gently, toss. (F.— 
Teut.) Formerly written chock (Turber- 
ville). — F. choquer, to give a shock, jolt. — 
Du. schokken. to jolt, shake ; allied to E. 
shock and shake. 

Chuck (2), to chuck as a hen. (E.) 
An imitative word ; Ch. has chuk to ex- 
press the noise made by a cock ; C. T. 
15180(6.3464^ Qi. cluck. "Dqx. chuck' le, 
in the sense 'to cluck.' 

Chuck (3), a chicken. A variety of 
chick, for chicken. See above. 

Chuckle. (E.) To chuckle is to laugh 
in a suppressed way; cf. Chuck (2). 

Chump, a log. (E.) Cf. Swed. dial. 
kumpa, to chop into logs ; kumping, a 
log, round stick ; also Icel. kumbr, tre- 
kumbr, a log of wood, from Icel. kumbr, 
nasalised form of kubbr, a chopping ; 
Icel. kubba, to chop. Der. chump-end^ 
i. e. thick end. 

Church. (Gk.) lA.^.chirche^chireche. 
A. S. cirice, later circe ; (cf. Icel. kirkja ; 
G. kirche, Du. /^^r/^).- Gk. KvpLa/iou, a 
church, neut. of Hvpiafcos, belonging to 
the Lord ; or (possibly) from Gk. KvpiaKa, 
pi., treated as a fem. sing. — Gk. Kvpios, 
a lord, orig. mighty. — Gk. Kvpos, strength. 
Cf. Skt. filra, a hero. 

Churl. (E.) M. E. cherl, cheorl. A. S. 
ceorl, a man. + Du. kerel^ G. kerl \ Dan. 
Sw. Icel. karl. Teut. types, "^kerloz^ 

Churn, sb. (E.) A. S. cynn ; older 
form cirin (printed cirm), Corp. gloss. 
1866. + Icel. kirna, Swed. kdma, Dan. 
kierne, a churn; cf. O. Swed. kerna, 
Swed. kdma, Dan. kierne, to churn, Du. 
kernen, to churn. 

Chutney, Chutny, a kind of hot 
relish. (Hind.) Hind, chatnt (Yule). 

Chyle, milky fluid. (F.-^L.-Gk.) F. 
chyle. — L. chylus. — Gk. x^^^y, juice. — 
Gk. x^^ { = X^F'^)^ I pour. (-y^GHEU.) 
chyme, liquid pulp. (L.-Gk.) For- 
merly chytnus.'^'L. chymus.^'Gk. x^l^os, 
juice. — Gk. x^'*'*'; as above. 

Chymist ; see Alchemist. 

Ci— Cz. 

Cicatrice, scar. (F. — L.) V. cicatrice, 
— L. cicdtriccf)i, ace. oi cicatrix, a scar. 

Cicerone, i Ital. — L.) Ital. cicerone, a 
guide ; orig. a Cicero. — L. ace. Ciceronem, 
proper name. 

Cid, lit. a chief or commander. (Span. 



— Arab.) Usually a title of Riiy Diaz, 
the national hero of Spain. — Arab, sayyid, 
a lord ; Richardson's Diet. p. 864. 

Cider. (F. - L. - Gk. - Heb.) It 
merely means strong drink. M. E. sicer, 
cyder.'^Y. cidj-c, O. F. cisdre (for *cisre). 

— h. szcera. — Gk. (xUepa, strong drink.— 
Ileb. shekdr^ strong drink. — Heb. shdkar, 
to be intoxicated. 

Cieling ; see Ceil. 

Cigar, Segar. (Span.) Span, cigarro ; 
whence also I' . cigare. 

Cinchona, Peruvian bark. (Span." 
Named after the Countess of Chinchon, 
wife of the governor of Peru, cured by it 
A.D. 1638. Chinchon is S.E. of Madrid. 
(Shoidd be chinchona.) 

Cincture. (L.) L. cinctura, a girdle. 

— L. dficius, pp. oicingere, to gird. 
Cinder. (E.) Misspelt for sinder (by 

confusion with F, cetidre — L. cinerem : 
see Cinerary). A.S. sinder^ "scoria,' slag. 
+Icel. sindr ; Swed. suidej- \ G. sinter^ 
dross, whence Du. sintcls, cinders. % The 
A. S, sinder occurs in the 8th century. 

Cinerary, relating to the ashes of the 
dead. (^L.) L. cinerarius. — L. ciner-, 
stem of citiis, dust, ashes of the dead.-f- 
Gk. KovL%, dust. Der. cineraj'ia, a flower ; 
named from the ash-coloured down on the 
leaves. Brugm. i. § 84. 

Cinnabar, Cinoper. (L.-Gk.- 
Pers.) L. cinnabaris. — Gk. Kiuvdliapi, 
vermilion. From Pers. zinjifrah, zinjarf, 
red lead, vermilion, cinnabar. 

Cinnamon, a spice. (L. — Gk. — Heb.) 
L. ci)ina??idmum. — Gk. Kivva/xwfxov. — Heb. 
qiiindnwn; said to be of Malay origin 
vGesenius). Cf. W-A'^sy kdyu-7nd,nis, cinna- 
mon ; from kdyu, wood, manis, sweet. 

Cipher. (F. — Span. — Arab.) O. F. 
cifre (t . chiffreSy a cipher, zero. — Span. 
fZ/ra. — Arab, sifr^ a cipher; lit. 'empty 
thing ; ' from sifr, adj. empty ; Rich. Diet, 
p. 937. (A translation of Skt. cfinya. (i) 
empty; (2) a cipher.) Der. de-dpher, 
from L. de, in the verbal sense of un-, and 
cipher ; cf. M. F. dechiffrer, ' to decvpher ; ' 

Circle. (F.-L.) K.'^.circul-, butM.E. 

cercle. — Y.cercle.'''L. circnhis, dimin. of 

cirais, a ring, circle; see Ring (i). Der. 

encircle^ sevii-ci?'cle ; and see circiitn-. 

circus, a ring. (L.) L. circus (above). 

Circuit. (F. — L.') F. circjiit. — L. 
ace. circiiilum, a going round. — L. cir- 
cuittts, also circumitus, pp. of circumire 

(also circuire^, to go round. — L. circiivi, 
round ; Ire, lo go. 

Circum-, prefix, round. (L.) L. 
circmn, around, round; orig. ace of 
circus^ a circle ; see Circle. Der circtim- 
amdien/ (see Ambient ; cira/m-am/>u/aie 
i^see Amble) ; and see below. 

circumcise. (L.) L. circiuncls-us , 
pp. uf circtinicidere, to cut round. — L. 
circum, round ; and ccedere, to cut. 

circumference. (L.) L. circum^ 

Jereiitia, boundary of a circle. — L circum- 
ferent-, stem of pres. pt. oicircuni-ferre, to 
carry round ; {\o\i\ fcrre, to bear. 

circumflex. (L.) L. syllaha cir- 
cunijicxa, a syllable marked with a cir- 
cumflex (a) or 'bent' mark. — L. rzVrKW- 
flextis, pp. of circujfifiecteie, to bend 
round ; iiom flectere, to bend. 

circumjacent, lying near. (L.) 
From stem of pres. part, of circwn-iacere, 
to lie around : from iacere, to lie. 

circumlocution. (L.) L. circum- 

lociitio, a periphrasis. — L. circuinloctitus, 
pp. of circnni-loqul, to speak in a round- 
about way ; from loqui, to speak. 

circumscribe. (L.) L. circ2im- 

scribere^ to write or draw around, to limit: 
from sc7'ibere, to write, 

circumspect, prudent. (L.) L. cir- 
ciimspectus, prudent ; orig. pp. of circuvi- 
}picere. to look around ; from specere, to 

circumstance. (F. - L.) Adapted 

from OF. cir Constance. — L. circnmstatt/ia, 
lit. a standing around, also an attribute, 
circumstance (influenced by F. circon- 
stance). — !., circumstant-^ stem 
oicircuvi-stdre, to stand round ; from stare, 
to stand. 

Circus ; see Circle. 

Cirrus, a fleecy cloud, tendril. (L.) 
L. cirj'iis, a curl, curled hair. 

Cist, a sort of tomb. (L.-Gk.) L. 
cista, a chest. — Gk. kiott], a box, chest 

cistern. (F.-L. — Gk.) ¥. cisteme. 
— L. cisterna, a reservoir for water. — L. 
cista, as above. 

Cistvaen, a British monument. (L. 
and W.) W. cistfaen, a stone chest, 
monument made with four upright stones, 
and a fifth on the top. — W. r/j-/, a chest 
(from L. cista) ; and i7iaen, a stone. 

Cit, Citadel ; see civil (below). 

Cite, to summon, quote. (F. — L.) F. 
citer. — L. citdre, frequent, of cie7r, to 
rouse, excite, call. + Gk. «/cu, I go. 


(-^KI.) See Hie. Der. ex-cite, hi-cite, 

Cithern, Cittern, a kind of guitar. 
(L. — Gk.) [AlsoM. E. ^zV^rw^ ; from O. 
F, gtnterne. a guitar.] Tlie n is excres- 
cent, as in biiier-n, in imitation of M. E. 
giterne, — V,. cithara. — Gk. KiOapa, a kind 
of lyre or lute. 

Citizen; see Civil (below). 

Citron. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. citron. - 
Late L. ace. citrdnem. — 'L.. citrus, orange- 
tree; orig. a tree with fragrant wood.— 
Gk. Kedpos, a cedar. Brugin. i. § 764. 

City; see Civil (below;. 

Civet. (F. — Arab.) F. <r/z;^//^, civet ; 
also the civet-cat; Ital. zibetto\ borrowed 
from medieval Gk. ^airknov (Brachet).— 
Arab, zabdd, civet ; Rich. Diet. p. 767. 

Civil. (F. -L.) F. civil. '"l.. cnulis, 

belonging to citizens. — L. ciiiis, a citizen. 

Allied to A„ S. hnvan, members of a 

household. Dar. civil-ise, civil-i-an. 

cit ; short for citizen (below). 

citadel. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.citadelle. 

— Ital. cittadella, a small town, fort ; 
dimin. of cittade ^ cittate Uittd,), a city. — 
L. ciuitdtem, ace. of cluitas, a city. — L. 
ciuis, a citizen (above). 

citizen. (F. — L.) M. E. citesein, 
from A. F. citisein, in which s was an 
insertion. — O. F. citeain (F. citoyen) ; 
formed from O. F. cite {citi) city, by hel]j 
of the suffix -az« — L. -anus ; see below. 

city. (F. — L.) M. E. cite, citee. — 
O.F. cite (F. citi)." Late L. iyY>^*civtdtem. 
for ciuitdtem, ace. oi cluitds \ see citadel. 

Cla>cliail, a small village with a church. 
(Gael.) Gael. clachan,(i) a circle of stones, 
(2) a small rude church, (3) a small village 
with a church. — Gael, clack, a stone. So 
also Irish clachan, a hamlet ; clack, O. Ir. 
clock, a stone. 

Clack. (F:.) M..Y.. dacken. Imitative; 
allied to Crack. E. F>ies. klakken.-\- 
Icel. klaka, to chatter ; Du. klakken, to 
clack, crack ; Irish clag, the clapper of 
a mill. 

Claim, to demand, call out for. (F. — 
L.) OF. claimer, clafuer. — l^. cldjndre, 
to call out ; cf. O. L. caldre, to pro- 
claim ; Gk. Kak^LV, to summon. Der. 
ac-claim, de-claim, ex-claim, pro-claim, 
re-claifn ; also (from pp. clamdtus) ac- 
clamat-ion, de-clamat-ion, ex-clamat-ion, 
tro-clamat-ion, re- c la mat -ion. 

clamour. (F. — L.) M. E. clamour. 

— O. F\ clamour. — h. ace. cldmdrem. an 


outcry. — L. clam dre {above). "Der. clamor- 

Clamber, to climb by graspmg tightly. 
(E. ; perhaps Scand.) XV. cent. M. E. 
clameren, clafnbren. Cf. Icel. klambra., 
to pinch closely together ; Dan. klamre, 
to grip firmly ; see Clamp. Affected by 
Climb, of which the M. E. pt. t. was 
clamb, clam. 

Clammy, viscous. (E.) Earliest form 
clay my, perhaps- from A. S. clam, clay (see 
Clay) ; but confused with an adj. clam, 
sticky ; with which cf. E. F ries. and Du. 
kla7n, Dan. klam, clammy, moist. See 

Clamour ; see Claim. 

Clamp. (Du.) XV. cent. Dvi.klampe, 
a holdfast ; whence klainpcn, to clamp, 
grapple, also to board a ship. + Dan. 
klamtne, a cramp-iron ; Swed. klamp, the 
same ; Icel. kldmbr, a smith's vice ; Teut. 
base '^klamp, answering to the 2nd grade 
of M. H. G. kli?npfen, to press tightly 
together. Cf. Clump. 

Clan. ^Gael.) Gael, clann, offsprmg, 
children ; Irish eland, clann, descendants, 
a tribe ; \S. plant, pi. offspring, children. 
Cf. Skt. kula{vi), a herd, family. Krugm. 
i. § 669. 

Clandestine. (L.) L, dandestlnus, 
secret, close. Allied to cla^n, secretly. 

Clang, to resound. (L.) L. clangere, 
to resound ; whence clangor, a loud noise. 
+ Gk. KXay^-q, a clang; allied to K\d(€iv, 
to clash (fut. K\dy^aj). Der. clang-or. 
See below. 

Clank, a heavy rmging sound. (Du.) 
XVII cent. — Du. klank, * a ringing ; ' 
Hexham. Cf Du. klonk, pt. t. oiklinken, 
to clink. See Clink. Der. clank, vb. 

Clap. (E.) M. E. clappen. [We only 
find A. S. clcBppetan, to palpitate; Voc. 
473.] E. Furies, klappen, to clap hands. 
The orig. sense is to make a noise by 
striking. + I^^^l- klappa, Swed. klappa, 
Dan. klappe, Du. klappen, M. H. G. klciffen, 
to pat, clap, prate, make a noise. Allied 
to Clack, Clatter. 

Claret. (F. — L.) Orig.alight red wine. 
M. E. claret. - O. F. claret, clairet (F. 
clairet), adj.; dimin. of clair, clear. — L. 
cldrus, clear. See Clear 

clarify. (F.-L.) O.Y. darijier.- 

L. cldrijicdre, to make clear. — L. cldri-, 

from cldrus, clear ; and -Jic-, for facere, 

to make. 

clarion. (F. - L.) M. E. darioun. — 




O. F. *clarion^ claron (F. clairon), a clear- 
sounding horn.— Late L. ace. cldrionem.^ 
L. cldri- (as above). 

Clash. (E.) An imitative word ; sug- 
gested by clack and crash, dash, &c. Cf. 

E. Fries, klatsen, to crack a whip. 
Clasp. (E.) M. E. claspe, elapse, sb. ; 

claspen, clapsen, vb. The base seems to be 
klap-s-, extended from klap- (see Clap\ 
and influenced by M. E. clippen, to em- 
brace. Cf. G. klafler, a fathom ; Lilh. 
gldbys, an armful; and cf. Grasp. 

Class. (F. — L.) F. classe, a rank. — 
L. ace. classem, a class, assembly, fleet. 

Clatter. (E.) A frequentative oiclal, 
which is a by-form of Clack. A. S. clat- 
rung, a clattering ; E. Fries, klattern, to 
clatter. + Du. klateren, to clatter. Of 
imitative origin. 

Clause. (F. — L.) F. r/a/^j-^. — Late L. 
clausa, a passage from a book, a clause.— 
L. clausus, pp. of dander e, to shut.+ 
O. Fries, sliita, to shut. See Slot (i). 
(VSKLEU.) Brugm. i. § 795. 

Clavicle, the collar-bone. (F. — L.) 

F. clavicule, the collar-bone. — L. cldtiicula, 
lit. a small key ; dimin. of clduis, a key. 
Allied to claudere ; see Clause. 

Claw. (E.) M. E. clan, dee. A. S. 
clawu (also cled), a claw.+Du. -^/aawrf ; 

G. klaiie\ Icel. kid, Dan. Swed. klo. 
Allied to Clew ; from a Teut. base '^klau-, 
2nd grade of ''^klcu-, to draw together ; 
cf. O. H. G. kluwi, forceps. 

Clay. (E.) M. E. dai, dey. A. S. 
clceg.^V>\x. and Low G. klei, Dan. klag. 
Teut. type *klai-jd, fem. ; from '^klai-, 2nd 
grade of Teut. root "^klei- ; cf. A. S. dam 
[Jox *klai-moz), earthenware ; Gk. -^Xol-os, 
sticky matter. See Cleave (2) and Glue. 

Claymore, a Scottish broadsword. 
(Gael.) Gael, daidheamh nior, a great 
sword. Here daidheamh is cognate with 
W. cleddyf, O. Ir. claideb, sword ; and 
Gael, itior, great, is allied to W. tnawr, 
great. Cf. W. cledd, a sword. 

Clean. (E.) M. E. dene. A. S. dane, 
clear, pure. -|- O. Sax. deni, cleini ; O. 
Fries, klen ; Du. klein, small ; G. klein, 
O. H. G. chleini, pure, bright, fine, small. 
All from Teut. *kiaini-, orig. * clear, pure.' 
cleanse. (E.) A. S. chlnsian, to 
make clean. — A. S. cliene, clean. 

Clear. (F. - L.) M. E. deer, cler. - O. F. 
der, clair.~''L. darns, bright, clear, loud. 

Cleat, a piece of iron for strengthening 
the soles of shoes ; a piece of wood or 

iron to fasten ropes to. (E.) M. E. deie^ 
a wedge (as if from A. S. *cleal), also 
di^e, dote, a lump; cognate with Du. 
kloot, a ball, G. kloss, a clot, lump. Allied 
to Clot ; and see Clout. 

Cleave (i), to split. (E.) Strong verb. 
A. S. cleofan, pt. t. deaf, pp. clofen ( = 
E. clove7i).'^\)\\. klievett, Icel. kljilfa (pt. t. 
klatif), Swed. klyfva, Dan. klove, G. klie- 
ben. Teut. base "^klenb ; cf. Gk. 7AV- 
</)€<p', to hollow out. 

cleft, Clift. (Scand.) The old spelling 
is ^////.-Icel. khift, Swed. klyft, Dan. 
kldft, a cleft, chink, cave. — Icel. kite/-, 
weak grade of kljilfa (above) ; cf. Swed. 
klyfva, to cleave. 

Cleave (2), to stick. (E.) Weak verb. 
The correct pt. t. is cleaved, not clave, 
which belongs to the verb above. A. S. 
clifian, deofati, pt. t. clifode.-{-'Dvi. kleven, 
Swed. klibba sig, G. kleben, to adhere, 
cleave to. All from Teut, base *klib-, 
weak grade of Teut. root *kleib-, found in 
A. S. clifan (pt. t. cldf), Du. be-klijven, 
to cleave to. Allied to Clay, Climb. 

Clef, a key, in music. ^ F. — L.) F. clef. 
— L. datum, ace. of clduis, a key. 

Cleft ; see Cleave (i). 

Clematis, a plant. (Gk.) Gk. KXTj/xarls, 
a creeping plant. — Gk. KXrjfxar-, stem of 
K\rj^a, a shoot, twig. — Gk. leXdeiv, to 
break off, prune (Brugm. ii. § 661). 

Clement. (F. — L.) F. clement."!., 
dementem, ace. oi clemens, mild. 

Clench ; see Clinch. 

Clerestory, an upper story in a church, 
furnished with windows. (F. — L.) Old 
spelling of clear-story. The triforium 
below is sometimes called the blind- story. 
See Story (2). 

Clerk. (F. - L. - Gk.) A. S. and O. F. 
clerc. — L. clerictis. — Gk. KX-qpiKos, one of 
the clergy. — Gk. KXfjpos, a lot ; in late Gk., 
the clergy, whose portion is the Lord, 
Deut. xviii. 2, i Pet. v. 3 ; cf. Acts i. 17. 
^St. Jerome.) 

clergy. (F. — L.) M.E. clergie, often 
also (2) ' learning.' — (i) O. F. clergie, as if 
from L. *derieTa; (2) mod. F. derge, 
from Late L. clericdtus, clerkship. — Late 
L. clericus, a clerk (above). 

Clever. (E.) cleverly is in Butler's 
Hudibras, i. i. 398 (1663). For M. E. 
diver, adj., meaning ready to seize, allied 
to M. E. diver, a claw, and to Cleave (2). 
So also E. Furies, kliifer, clever, Dan. 
dial, klover, klever (Molbech). % It took 




the place of M. E. deliver, quick, nimble, 
Ch. pi-ol. 84. —O. F, delivre, free, prompt, 
alert ; compounded of L. de, prefix, and 
liber, free ; see Deliver. 

Clew, Clue, a ball of thread. (E.) 
M. E. clewe. A. S. cllwen, a clew ; also 
cleowe (Epinal gl. cleouuae^.-\-\yvi. kluiven. 
whence kluwenen, to wind on clews (E. 
clew up a sail) ; M. Low G. kluwen ; and 
of. G. kndiiel (for '^kldnel), a clew. Per- 
haps allied to L. gluere, to draw together. 
Cf. Claw. 

Click. (E.) An imitative word, ex- 
pressing a lighter and thinner sound than 
Clack. E. Fries, klikken. Cf. Du. klik- 
klakken, to clash. 

Client. (F.— L.) F. client, a suitor.— 
L. clientem, ace. of clietis = cliiens, orig. a 
hearer, one who listens to advice ; pres. pt. 
of cluere, to hear. (VKLEU.) 

Cliff, a steep rock, headland. (E.) 
A. S. clif, a rock, cliff.+Du. and Icel. 
klif; O. H. G. klep. Cf. G. and Dan. 
klippe. Swed. klippa, a crag ; and Icel. 
khif, a ridge of cliffs. 

Climate. (F.-L.-Gk.) yi.'^.climat. 

— F. cliniat.-^\-.2X^ L. climat-, stem of 
cliina. — Gk. /fAi/xar-, stem of KXi/xa, a 
slope, zone, region of the earth, climate. — 
Gk. K\ij/eiv, to lean, slope ; see Lean. 

clixuacter, a critical time of life. (F. 
-Gk.) M.F. climaclere, adj.; whence I'an 
climactere, 'the climatericall {sio year; 
every 7th, or Qlh, or the 63 yeare of a 
man's life, all very dangerous, but the last, 
most;' Cot. — Gk. KKLfxaKTrfp, a step of a 
ladder, a dangerous period of life. — Gk. 
K\ifiaK-, stem of Kkifia^, a ladder, climax, 
with suffix -TTjp of the agent; see below. 

climax, the highest degree. (Gk.) 
Gk. KAifxa^, a ladder, staircase, highest 
pitch of expression (in rhetoric). — Gk. 
Kkiveiv, to slope. Der. anti- climax. 

Clim.e. (L. -Gk.) L. <://wrz, a climate. 

— Gk. KXifxa ; see Climate. 

Climb. (E.) M. E. cllmben, pt. t. clo7nb. 
A. S. climban, pt. t. clamb, pi. clumbon.-\- 
Du. klimmen, M. H.G. klimnun. Teut. 
type *klimban-. The m was orig. in- 
serted in the present stem, and did not 
belong to the root : as is shewn by Icel. 
klifa, to climb. Hence it is allied to 
Cleave (2). 

Clim.e ; see climate. 

Clinch, Clench, to rivet. (E.) M.E. 
clenchen, klenken, to strike smartly, to 
make to clink ; causal of klinken, to clink. 

Cf. Du. klink, a latch, rivet ; also, a blow ; 
and O. H. G. klenkan, to knot or bind 

Cling. (E.) M. E, clingen, to become 
stiff, be matted together. A.S. clingan 
(pt. t. clang, pp. clungen), to dry up, 
shrivel up. -f- Dan. klynge, to cluster. Allied 
to Swed. kldnga, to climb; O. H. G. 
clunga, a clew. 

Clinical . (F. — L. — Gk.) F. clinique, 
' one that is bedrid ; ' Cot. — L. clinicus, 
the same. — Gk. kKivikos, belonging to a 
bed, a physician ; 77 kXiulkt), his art. — Gk. 
fcXivT], a bed. — Gk. KXiveiv, to lean; see 
Lean (i). 

Clink. (E.) E. Fries, klitiken. Nasa- 
lised form of Click. -j-Du. klinken, to 
sound, pt. t. klonk, pp. geklonken ; Swed. 
klinka, to jingle. Cf. Clank. 

clinker, a hard cinder. (Du.) Du. 
klinker, a clinker, named from the tinkling 
sound which they make when they strike 
each other. —Du. klinken , to clink ; cog- 
nate with E. clink. 

clinquant, glittering. (F.-Du.) In 
Shak. Lit. ' tinkling.' — F. clinquant, pres. 
pt. of O. F. clinquer, to clink. — Du. 
klinken (above). 

Clip, to cut. (Scand.) M. E. klippen. — 
Icel. klippa, Swed. klippa, Dan. klippe, to 
clip, shear hair. Cf. Snip. 

Clip 2), to embrace. (E.) A. S. ch'ppan. 

Clique, a gang. (F. — Du.) F. clique, a 
gang, noisy set. —O. F. cliquer, to click, 
make a noise. — Du. klikken, to click, 
clash ; also to inform, tell ; cf. Du. klikker, 
a tell-tale. See Click. 

Cloak, Cloke. (F.-C.) M.E.rM^.- 
O. North F. cloque, O. F. cloche. — 'L?ittl.. 
cloca, a bell ; also a horseman's cape, which 
resembled a bell in shape : see below. 

clock. (C.) The orig. sense was ' bell * ; 
bells preceded clocks for notifying times. 
Either from M. Du. clocke (Du. klok), a 
bell ; or from O. North F. cloque, a bell. — 
Late L. cloc{c)a, a bell ; of Celtic origin. — 
Irish clog, a bell, clock ; clogaim, I ring 
or sound as a bell ; O. Irish cloc, a bell. 
Cf. W. clock, 2L bell, &c. The G. glocke is 
a borrowed word ; so also Du. klok, &c. 

Clod. (E.) M.E. clod, clodde. A. S. 
clod (in compounds), a lump of earth. 
Teut. type *klu-dO', from the weak grade 
of Teut. root *kleu-, to stick together. See 
Clew, Cloud. Cf. Clot. 

Clog, a hindrance; a wooden sole of 
a shoe; wooden shoe. (E.) M.E. clog. 




a log, clump. Not found in A. S. A late 
word ; cf. Norvv. klugu, a hard log. 

Cloister. . F. — L.) M. E. cloister. — 
O.F. cloistre ( F. cloiire). — !^. claustrutn. 
lit. enclosure. —L. c/ausits, pp. oi clati- 
dere, to shut. See Clause. 

close (i\ to shut in. (F. — L.) M. E 
closen.'~O.Y . clos, i pr. s. of O. F. clore, 
to shut in. — L. claiidere (above). Der. 
close, a field ; dis-close, en-close, in-close. 

close (2), shut up. (F. — L.) M. E. 

clos, does. — O. F. clos, pp. of clore (above). 

closet. (F. -L.) O.F. closet, dimin. 

of cios, an enclosed space. —O.F. clos, 

pp. ; see close (2). 

Clot. (E.) M. E. clot, clotte, a ball, 
esp. of earth. A. S. dolt, clot, a lump.-J- 
G. klotz, a lump. Teut. type *klzit-to-, 
from the weak grade of Teut. base ^kleut ; 
see Cleat, Clout, Cluster. 

Cloth. (E.) M. E. cloth, clath. A. S. 
cldd.'\-T)\.\. kleed, G. kleid, a dress. Der. 
clothes, A. S. clddas, pi. of clJQ. 

clothe, to cover with a cloth. (E.) 
M. E. cloihen, clathen, pt. t. clothede (or 
cladde), pp. clothed (or clad). Formed 
from A. S. cldd.-\-Y>-a. kleeden, from klecd ; 
so also G. kleiden, from kleid. % But the 
pt. t. and pp. clad are of Scand. origin : 
cf. Icel. klcedd-r, pp. of klce&a, to clothe ; 
Swed klddd, pp. of kldda. 

Cloud. (E.) M. E. cloud, orig. a mass 
of vapours; the same word as M. E. clnd, 
a mass of rock. A. S. cliid. a round mass, 
mass of rock, hill. From Teut. root '^kleu, 
to stick together : see Clew, Clod. 

Clough, a hollow in a hill-side. (E.) 
M. E. dough, clo^e. Answering to A. S. 
*cldh, not found; connate with O. H. G. 
kldh. The A. S. *cldh (-O.H.G. klah, 
as in Klah-uelde, Forstemann) represents 
a Teut. type *klanxo-, from *klanx, 2nd 
grade of *klinx ; cf. G. klinge, O. H. G. 
chlinga, a clough (Acad., Aug. and Sept. 

Clout, a patch. (E.) Vi.Y.. clout. A.S. 
dut, a patch ; whence W. chvt, Corn, clut, 
a patch, clout ; Ir. and Gael, cltid, the 
same. Orig. sense ' mass, piece of stuff' ; 
orig. Teut. type *klut-oz, from Teut. root 
*kl2ci-, *kleut-, as seen in Clot. Closely 
allied to Cleat (which is from the 2nd 
grade of the same root). 

Clove i), a kind of spice. (F, — L.) 
M. E. clow ; the change to clove, in the 
XVIth cent., was due to the influence 
of Ital. chiovo. — F. clou, a nail ; cloti 

de girojle, ' a clove,' Cot. ; from the 
semblance to a nail. Cf Span, clavo, a 
nail, also a clove. — L. clduiim. ace. of 
clduiis, a nail.+O. Irish do, a nail. 

Clove (2), a bulb, or spherical shell of 
a bulb of garlic, &c. (E.) A.S. cluju, f. ; 
cf. cluf-tvyrt, a buttercup (lit clove-wort). 
Named from its cleavage into si ells. — 
A. S. chif-, weak grade ot cltofan, to split; 
see Cleave (i). Cf. Icel. klofi, a cleft. 

Clove (3), a weight. (F.-L.) A. F. 
clou ; the same word as Clove (1). — Late 
L. cldvus, a weight (for wool). 

Clover. (E.) M. Y.. claver. A. S. 
cldfre. cLlfre, trefoil. -4- Du. klaver, whence 
Swed. klofver, Dan. klbver; Low G. 
klever ; cf. G. klee. % The supposed 
connexion with cleave (1) is impossible. 
Clown. (Scand.) \ct\.khin?ii, a clumsy, 
boorish fellow : Swed. dial, klunn. a log, 
kluns, a clownish fellow ; Dan. klunt, a 
log ; cf. Dan. khmtet, clumsy. Allied to 
Clump. Orig. sense ' log ' or ' clod.' 

Cloy. (F. — L.) Orig. to stop up, hence, 
tosate. M.F.^Ay'<fr,'tocloy,stopup,' Cot.; 
a by- form of F. clouer (O. F. doer), to nail, 
fasten up. [A horse pricked with a nail, 
in shoeing, was said to be cloyed.] — O. F. 
do, F. clou, a nail; see Clove (i). % Cloy 
(in E.) is usually short for ac-cloy or a-doy, 
where the prefix a- represents F. en- ; see 
F. endouer, endoyer in Cotgrave, 

Club (i), a heavy stick. (Scand.) M.E. 
dubbe. — Icel. klubba, kluniba, a club ; 
Swed. klubb, a club, log, lump ; Dan. khib, 
club, klump, lump. A mere variant ot 
Clump below. See Golf. 

club (2), an association. (Scand.) 
XVII cent. Lit. 'a clump of people.' 
Cf. Swed. dial, klubb, a clump, lump, also 
a knot of people (Rietz). See above. 

Cluck. (E.) M. E. clokken, to cluck 
as a hen ; a mere variant of Clack. + 
Du. klokkeji, Dan. klukke, G. glucken ; 
L. gloctre. An imitative word. 
Clue ; see Clew. 

Clump, a mass, block. (E.) XVI 
cent. Not in A.S., except as in dymp-re, 
a clump. Cf. Dan. klump, Swed. klump; 
Du. klomp, Low G. klump. a clump, 
lump, log ; (Icel. klumba, a club, with b 
for /). From klump-, weak grade of 
Teut. *klemp-, as in M.ll. G. klimpfen, to 
press tightly together. Cf. Clamp. 
Clumsy. (Scand.) Cf. M. E. clumsed, 
domsed, benumbed ; benumbed fingers are 
clumsy. This is the pp. of clomsen, to 




benumb, or to feel benumbed. Cf. Swed. 
dial, khimnisen, benumbed (Rietz) ; Icel. 
klumsa, lock-jawed. Cf. Du. k!cini7ien, to 
pinch; klaimen, to be benumbed, kleiimsch, 
numb with cold; also A. S. clom, clam, a 
bond, clasp. See Clammy, 

Cluster, a bunch. (E.) A, S. cluster, 
clyster, a bunch. + Low G. khister. Suggests 
a Teut. type *klut-tro-, a cluster ; formed 
with suffix -tro from *klut-, weak grade of 
Teut. root '^kleut-, to mass together; for 
which see Clot, CI sat, Clout. 

Clutch, to seize. (E.) M. E. clucchen, 
clicchen. A. S. clycca?t (whence pp. ge- 
cliht, Somner), We find also M. E. cloke, 
a claw; which was superseded by the 
verbal form. 

Clutter, a clotted mass ; also clutter, 
vb., to clot. (E.) Clutter, vb., is a variant 
of clotter, to run into clots ; see Clot, and 
cf. E. Fries, klutern, to become clotted. 
Clutter also meant confusion, a confused 
heap, turmoil, din ; by association with 
Clatter. Cf. E. Fries, kl'dter, a rattle. 

Clyster. (L. — Gk.) L. clyster, an 
injection into the bowels. — Gk. icKvaT-qp, a 
clyster, syringe. — Gk. kXv^uv, to wash.-f- 
L. clnere, to wash. (VKLEU.) 

Co-, prefix. (L.) L. co-, together ; 
used for con- ( - cuvi), together, Ijefore a 
vowel. Hence, co-efficient, co-equal, co- 
operate, co-ordinate. See others below ; 
and see Con-. 

Coach. (F. — Hung.) F. coche, ' a 
coach ; ' Cot. Etym. disputed. Said, as 
early as A. D. 1553, to be a Hungarian 
word ; from Hung, kocsi, a coach, so called 
because first made at a Hung, village called 
A'ocsi or A'ocs, near Raab ; see Littre, and 
Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions. 

Coadjutor. (F.-L.) XV cent. A.F. 
coadjntour. — L co-, (or con- = rz^w, together; 
and adiutor, an assistant, from vb. adiu- 
udre, to assist. — L. ad-, to ; iuud7-e, to 

Coagulate, to curdle. (L.) L. coagu- 
Idtus, pp. of codguldre, to curdle. — L. 
codgulum, rennet, which causes milk to 
run together. — L. co- {cutn), together; 
ag-ere, to drive. 

Coal. (E.) M. E. r^/. A. S. f^/.+ 
Du. kool, Icel. Swed. kol, Dan. kul, G. 
kohle. Cf. Skt.y^a/, to blaze. 

Coalesce, to grow together. (L.) L. 
coalescere. — L. co-,iox con- — cu?n, together ; 
and alescere, to grow, inceptive oi alere, to 

Coarse, rough. (F. — L.) Formerly 
course, an adj. which arose from the phrase 
in course to denote anything of an ordinary 
character; cf. mod. E. of course. See 

Coast. (F. - L.) M. E. coste. - O. F. 
coste (F. cBte), a rib, slope of a hill, shore. 

— L. casta, a rib. 

Coat. ( F. - G.) M. E. cote. - O. F. 
cote kV . cotte) ; Low L. cot a, cotta, a coat. 

— M. H. G. kotte, kutte, a coarse mantle; 
O. Sax. cot, the same. 

Coax. (E. ?) Formerly r<?^^J, vb., from 
cokes, sb. , a simpleton, dupe. Perhaps 
allied to Cocker or to Cockney. 

Cob (i), a round lump, knob. (E.) As 
applied to a pony, it means short and 
stout. M. E. cob, a great person 
(Hoccleve). In some senses, it seems to 
be allied to A. S. copp, a top, summit. 

cobble (0) ^ small round lump. (E.) 
M. E. cobylstone, a cobble-stone. Dimin. 
of cob (above). 

Cob (2), to beat. (E.) Cf. W. cobio, to 
thump ; cob, a bunch ; prov. E. cop, to 
strike, esp. on the cop or head. See Cob 

Cobalt, a mineial. (G.) G. kobalt, 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the miners, 
becaus;i considered poisonous ; better 
spelt kobold, meaning (i) a demon, (2) 
cobalt. UfG. origin (Kluge). 

Cobble (i); see Cob (i). 

Cobble (2), to patch up. (E.) Origin 
unknown; cf. Cob (2), of which it seems 
to be the frequentative. 

Cobra, a hooded snake. (Port. — L.) 
Port, cobj-a, also cobra de capcllo, i. e. snake 
with a hood. — L. colubra, snake ; de, of; 
capelhirn, ace. of capellus, hat, hood, 
dimin. of capa, a cape. See Notes and 
Queries, 7 S. ii. 205. 

Cobweb. (E.') M. E. copiveb, coppe- 
web ; from M. E. coppe, a spider, and zueb. 
Cf. M. Du. kop, koppe, 'a spider, or a cob,* 
Hexham. From A. S coppa, as in attor- 
coppa, a spider ; lit. poison-bunch ; from 
A. S. dttor, dtor, poison, and cop, a head. 

Coca, a Peruvian plant. (Span. - Peruv.) 
Span. coca. — Peruv. cuca ; Garcilasso, Peru, 
bk. 8. c. 15. Distinct both from cocoa (or 
coco') and cacao. Der. cocaine. 

Cochineal. (F. - Span. - L. - Gk.) 

F. cochenille.'^S^a.w. cochinilla, cochineal 
vmade from insects which look like berries). 

— L. coccimis. of a scarlet colour ; see 
Isaiah i. 18 (Vulgate). — L. coccum, a berry; 




also kermes, supposed to be a berry. — Gk. 
KuKKos, a berry, cochineal. 

Cock (i), a male bird. (E.) "SLE. cok 
A. S. cocc ; from the bird's cry. * Crydc 
anon co/^ ! cok '.' Ch. C. T. Nvm's Priest's 
Tale, 457. Cf. Skt. kiikknia. a cock : 
Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks. And 
cf. Cuckoo. 

cock, the stop-cock of a barrel, is tlie 
same word. So also G. hahn, (i) a cock, 
(2) a stopcock. 

cock, part of the lock of a gun. From 
its original shape ; cf. G. den Hahn span- 
nett, to cock a s^un. 

cockade, a knot of ribbon on a liat. 
(F.) F. coquarde, fern, oi coquard, saucy; 
also coquarde, bonnet a la coquarde, ' any 
bonnetorcapworn proudly; ' Cot. Formed 
with suffix -ard from F. coq, a cock (from 
the bird's cry). 

cockerel, a young cock. (E.) Double 
dimin. of Cock (i). Qi. pik-erel. 

cockloft, upper loft. (E. and Scand.) 
From cock and loft. So also G. hahnbalken^ 
a roost, cockloft ; Dan. loftkatnvier, a loft- 
chamber, room up in the rafters. 

Cock (2), a pile of hay. (Scand.) Dan. 
kok. aheap; prov. Dan. kok, a hay-cock, 
at kokke hoet, to cock hay ; Icel. kiikkr, 
lump, ball ; Swed. koka, clod of earth. 

Cock (.^), to stick up abruptly. (E.) 
Apparently with reference to the posture 
of a cock's head when crowing ; or to that 
of his crest or tail. Cf. Gael, coc, to cock ; 
as in coc do bhomeid, cock your bonnet ; 
coc-shronach, cock-nosed. And see Cock- 

Cock (4, Cockboat, a small boat. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) O. F. coque, a kind of 
boat, orig. a shell. Cf. Span, coca, Ital. 
cocca, a small ship. Derived (by Diez) 
from L. concha, a shell ; from Gk. ko-^kt], 
a cockle : see Cockle (i). 

Cockade; see Cock (I). 

Cockatoo, a kind of parrot. (Malay.) 
Malay kakatua ; from the bird's cry. Cf. 
Malay ktckuk, crowing of cocks. Skt. 
kiikkuta, a cock. See Cock i^i). 

Cockatrice. (F. - Late L. - L.) By 
confusion with cock, it was said to be a 
monster hatched from a cock's egg. — O.F. 
cocatrice. — Late L. cocdtricem, ace. of 
cocdtrjx, caucdt7-ix, answering to a Latin 
type *caicdtrix, i. e. ' the treader or tracker,' 
used to render the Gk. Ixv^vixojv, and 
afterwards transferred to mean 'crocodile' 
(see account in N. E. D.). — L. cakd-re, to 

tread ; with fem. suffix -trix, of the 

Cocker, to pamper. (E. ?) M. E. 
cokcren (w:;ence \V. cocri, to fondle, in- 
dulge). Cf. AL Du. kokelen, ketikelen, 
• to cocker, to foster,' Hexham ; M. F. 
ioqtie liner, ' to dandle, cocker, pamper 
(a child) ;' Cot. Norw. kokra, to call as 
a cock ; also, to cocker. 

Cockerel; see Cock (i\ 

Cockle (1), a sort of bivalve. (F. — L. 

— Gk.) M E, cokel. [Cf. cock, a cockle 
(P. Plowman, C. x. 95) ; A. S. sie-cocca; 
(where sie -sea) ] — F. coqiiille, a cockle- 
shell ; cf. Ital. cochiglia. — Lat. type *cochy- 
liiitti, for conchy liuvi, a cockle, shell-fish. 

— Gk. /f07xv^ioi', a cockle, dimin. of «07- 
KvKi], from ku'^kt], a cockle or mussel. 

Cockle (2), a weed among corn. (E.) 
A. S. coccel, tares; whence Gael, cogall, 
tares, husks, cockle ; cogtill, corn-cockle ; 
Irish cogall, corn-cockle. 

Cockle (.'.)> to be uneven, pucker up. 
(Scand.) Of Scand. origin; cf. Norw. 
koklutt, lumpy, uneven, ' cockled up ; ' 
from Norw. kokle, a little lump, dimin. of 
kok, a lump; see Ccck (2). Cf. Swed. 
kokkeU dimin. of koka, a clod. 

Cockloft; see Cock (i). 

Cockney, orig. an effeminate person. 
(E.) Flono has: ' Caccherelli, cacklings 
of liens ; also egs, as we say cockanegs.' 
From M. E. cokenay, a foolish person, Ch, 
C. T. 4208. Lit. ' cocks' egg ; ' i.e. yolk- 
less egg. From M. E, cokett, gen. pi. of 
cok, a cock ; and ay, ey, A. S. ceg, egg. 
See C. S. Burne, Shropshire Folk-lore, 
p. 220. 

Cockroacll. (Span.) From Span. 
cncaracha, a wood-louse, cockroach ; from 
cuca (also cued), a kind of caterpillar. 
Origin uncertain. 

Cocoa (i), Coco, the cocoa-nut palm. 
(Port.) Port, and Span, coco, a bugbear, 
an ugb mask to frighten children ; hence 
applied to the cocoa-nut on account of 
the monkey-like face at the base of the 
nut. Cf. Span, cocar, to make grimaces. 

Cocoa (2), a corrupt form of Cacao. 

Cocoon, case of a chrysalis. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) F. cocon, a cocoon ; from coque, a 
shell. See Cock (4). 

Cod (i), a fish. (E. ?) Spelt codde in 
Palsgrave. Perhaps named from its round- 
ed shape; cf. M. Du. kodde. a club (Hex- 
ham) ; and see below. Der. cod-ling, a 
young cod ; M. E. codlyng. 


Cod (2), a husk, bag, bolster. (E.) 
Hence. peas-cod, husk of a pea. A. S. codd. 
a bag.+Icel. koddi, pillow, ^odri, scrotum ; 
Swed. kudde, a cushion. 

Coddle, to pamper, render effeminate. 
(F. - L. ?) Perhaps for caudle, vb. (in 
Shak.), to treat with caudle ; see Caudle. 
Cf. prov. E. coddle, to parboil, stew. 

Code, a digest of laws. (F. — L.) F. 
code. — 'L, codicem, ace. of codex, a tablet, 
book ; older form caudex, a trunk of a 

codicil. (L.) L. codicillus, a codicil 
to a will ; diinin. of codex (stem codic-). 

Codling (0, Codlin, a kind of apple. 
(C. ?) Earlier spellings querdling, quad- 
ling, qtiodliiig. Apparently formed, with 
E. suffix -ling, from Irish cueirt, an apple- 

Codling (2 ; see Cod (i). 

Coerce. (L.) L. coercere, to compel. 
— L. co-ictini), together; arcere, to en- 
close, confine, allied to area, a chest ; see j ive, from the pp. 
Ark. I Cohort, a band of soldiers. (F. — L.) 

Coffee. (Turk. —Arab.) Turk, qah- ; F. cohorte.-^l^. ^.cc.coho?'iefn, from cohors, 
veh. — Arab, qahwah, coffee. ' a court, also a band of soldiers. See 

Coifer. (F. — L. — Gk.) M. E. cofre. \ Court, of which it is a doublet. 


Cognisance, knowledge, a badge. (F. 

— L.) Formerly conisaiince.-'O. F. coji- 
noissance, knowledge ; M. F. cognoissance. 

— O. F. conoissant, pres, pt. of O. Y. 
conoistre, to know. — L. cognoscere, to 
know. — L. CO- {cuvi), together, fully; 
gnoscerc, to know ; see Know. 

cognition, perception. (L.) From 
ace. of L. cogfiiiio. — 'L, cogtiitns, pp. of 
cognoscere (above). 

cognomen, a surname. (L.) L. co- 
gnomen, a surname. — L. co- {ctini), with; 
nomen, a name, altered to gnomen liy con- 
fusion with gnoscere, noscere, to know. 
See Noun, Name. 

Cohabit. (L.) L. co-habitdre, to 
dwell together with. — L. co- {cum-), to- 
gether ; habitdrc, to dwell. See Habi- 

Cohere. (L.) L. co-harere, to stick 
together (pp. r<?//<^.f«i-). — L. r^?-, together ; 
hat-ere, to stick. Der. cohes-ion, cohes- 

— O. F. cofre, also cojin, a chest. — L. ace. 
cophinnm. — Gk. Kocpivos, a basket. 

coffin. (F. — L. — Gk.) Orig. a case, 
chest. — O. F, cojiji, as above. (Doublet 
of coffer.) 

Cog (i), a tooth on a wheel-rim. 
(Scand.) M. E. cogge [whence Gael, 
and Irish cog, a mill-cog ; W. cocos, cocs, 
cogs of a wheel]. Not in A. S. — M. Dan. 
kogge, a cog, kogge-hjul^ a cog-wheel 
(Kalkar) ; Swed. kugge, a cog ; M. Swed. 
kugg (Ihre). 

Cog (2), to trick. (Scand.) Prob. 
to catch as with a cog; to cog a die, to 
check it so as to make it fall as desired. 
Cf. Swed. dial, kugg, Norw. kogga, to 
dupe ; Swed. kiigga, ' to cheat, to cog ; ' 

Cogent. (L.) L. cogent-, stem of 
pres. part, of cdgere, to compel ; for 
co-agere { = con-agere) , lit. to drive to- 
gether. Brugm. i. § 968. 

Cogitate. (L.) L. cogitdtus, pp. of 
cogitdre, to think ; for co-agitdre, from 
CO-, con-, together, and agitdre, to agitate, 
frequent, of agere, to drive. 

Cognate. (L.) L. co-gndtus, allied 
by birth. — L. co- (for cum), together ; 
gndlus, born, old form of tidtus^ pp. of 
nasci, to be born; see Natal. 

Coif, Quoif, a cap. (F.-G.-L.) 
O, F. coi/e, coiffe; Low L. cofea, a cap. — 
M. H. G. kuffe, kupfe, a cap worn under 
the helmet ; O. H. G. chuppha ; stem 
*kupp-Jdn-.'-0. H. G. chuph (G. kopf), a 
cup ; also, the head. — L. cuppa ; see Cup. 

Coign ; see Coin. 

Coil (i), to gather together. (F.— L.) 
' Coiled up in a cable ; ' Beaumont and 
Fletcher. — O. F. coillir, to collect. — L. 
colligere ; see Collect. 

Coil (2), a noise, bustle. (F. - L.?) 
Grig, a colloquial or slang expression ; 
prob. from Coil(i). We find 'a coil of 
hay,' a heap ; nnd coil, to twist. 

Coin. (F.-L.) M. E. coin.~-0. F. 
coin, a wedge, stamp on a coin, a coin 
(stamped by means of a wedge"). — L. 
cuneum, ace. of cuneus, a wedge. ^ Not 
allied to Cone. 

coign. (F. — L.) F. coing, coin, a 
corner ; lit. a wedge (as above). 

Coincide, to agree with. (L.) L. co- 
(for con- =■ cum, with) ; and incidere, to 
fall upon, from in^ upon, and cadere, to 

Coistrel, a mean fellow. (F. — L.) 
For coustrel, the older form (Palsgrave). 
An E. adaptation of M. F. coustillier, 
an armour-bearer, lackey ; lit. ' one who 




carries a poinard.' — M. F. coiistille, a 
poniard ; variant of O. F. cojistel, better 
couielj a knife. — L. cultellum, ace oi cul- 
telius, a knife ; dimin. of culler. See 

Coit ; see Quoit. 

Coke, charred coal. (E. ?) ' Coke, 
pit-coal or sea -coal charred;' Ray, 1674. 
Etym. unknown; cf. M. E. colk, the core 
(of an apple). 

Colander, Cullender, a strainer. 

(Prov. — L.) M. E. cfllyrtdore.'-O. Pro v. 
"^colador, orig. form of Prov. couladou^ a 
strainer. — Late L. '^coldtdrem, ace. ; for L. 
cdldtorhijii, a strainer. — L. coldre, to strain. 

— L. coliiDi, a sieve. Cf. Span, colador, a 
strainer from L. coldre'). 

Cold. (E.) M. E. cold, kald, adj. ; 
O. Merc, cald, A. S. ceald, adj. + Icel. 
kaldr, Swed. kail, Dan. kold, Du. kot(d. 
Goth, kalds, G. kalt. Teut. "^kal-doz. 
cold ; from Teut. *kal, to be cold (as in 
Icel. kala, to freeze), with suffix -doz=-QfV. 
-Toy. Cf Lat. gel-idtis, cold ; see Con- 
geal, Chill, CooL 

Cole, Colewort, cabbage. (L.) For 
-ivort, see Wort. M. E, coi, caul. A, S. 
cdtil, cdwel (or Icel. kdl). — L. caulis, a 
stalk, cabbage. + Gk. KavXos, a stalk. 

Coleoptera, sheath - winged insects. 
(Gk. Gk. KoXeo-s, a sheath; -uTep-uv, a 

Colic. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for colic 
pain.^Y. colique, adj. — L. colicics.'-GV. 
kooXlkos, for koMkos, suffering in the colon. 

— Gk. KuKov. See Colon (2). 
Coliseum. (Med. L. — Gk.) The same 

as Colosseum, a large amphitheatre at Rome, 
so named from its magnitude (Gibbon). 
The Ital. word is coliseo. See Colossus. 

Collapse, to shrink together, fall in. 
(L.) First used in the pp. collapsed 
Englished from L. collapsus, pp. of colldln, 
to fall together. — L. col- (for con- .i.e. cum) , 
together ; Idbi, to slip. See Lapse. 

Collar. (F. - L.) M. E. and A. F. 
coler. — O. F. colter, a collar. — L. colldre, a 
band for the neck. — L. collum, the neck.-f- 
A. S. heals, G. hals, the neck. 

collet, the part of the ring in which 
the stone is set. (F. — L.) F. .collet, a 
collar. — F. col, neck. — L. collwn, neck. 

Collateral. (L.) Late L. collaterdUs, 
side by side. — L. col- (for com- — cuvi\ 
with; lateralis, lateral, from later-, for 
^lates-, stem oi la/us, side. 

Collation, a comparison: formerly, a 

conference. (F. — L.) O. F. collation, a 
conference. — L. ace. colldtionem, a bring- 
ing together, a conferring. — L. colldtum, 
supine in use with the verb conferi-e, to 
bring together (but from a different root). 

— L.c^/- {{ox con- =^ cum), together ; latum, 
supine of tollere, to take, bear. See 

Colleague (0. a partner. (F.-L.) 
M. F. collegue.^ L. collega, a partner in 
office. — F. col- (for con-, cutn), with; 
legere, to choose : see Legend. 

Colleague (2), to join in an alliance. 

F. — L.) O. F. colliguer, colleguer, to 
colleague with. — L. colligdre, to bind 
together. — L. col- (for con-, cum), to- 
gether ; ligdre, to bind. See League (i). 
^ Collect, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y.collecter, 
to collect money (Roquefort). — Late L. 
collect dre (the same), from collecta, a col- 
lection, orig. fern, of pp. of colligere, to 
collect. — L. col- ( for con-, cum) , with ; 
legere, to gather ; see Legend. 

collect, sb. (L.) Late L. collecta, a 
collection in money, an assembly for 
prayer, hence a short prayer; see above. 

Colleen, a girl. (Irish.) Irish cailin, 
a girl ; dimin. of caile, a country-woman. 
Gael, cailin, dimin. of caile. 

College, an assembly, seminary. (F.— 
L.) O. F. college. — L. collegitim, society of 
colleagues or companions. — L. collega, a 
colleague; see Colleague '\i). 

Collet ; see Collar. 

Collide. (L.) L. collider e, to dash to- 
gether. —L. col- (for con-, cum), together; 
Icedere, to strike, hurt. Der. collis-ion 
(from pp. CO II is -us). 

Collie, Colly, a kind of shepherd's 
dog. (E.) Formerly, coally, coley ; prob. 
the same as coal-y, coal-coloured, black. 
Cf. obs. colly, adj., coal-black; collied in 
Shak. M. N. D. i. i. 145. 

Collier. (E.) \\.Y..colier\ fromM.E. 
col, coal. Cf. bozv-yer, saw-yer. 

Collocate, to place together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. col-locdre, to place together. 

— L. col- (ioT con-, cztm) , together ; locdre, 
to place, from locus, a place. 

Collodion, a solution of gun-cotton. 
(Gk.) From Gk. ko\\wS-t]s, glue-like.— 
Gk. KoW-a, glue; -ildTjs, like, eJdos, 

Collop, a slice of meat. (E. ?) M. E. 
coloppe, col-hoppe ; pi. col-hoppes (P. Plow- 
man \ whence M. Swed. kollops, Swed. 
kalops. Here col- ^ coal (see Coal) ; ct. 



Swe.l. A\a\. gld{d)hoppa, a cake baked over 
gledes or hot coals. (E. Bjorkman). 

Colloquy. (L.) From L. colloquitun, 
conversation. — L. col-Ioqni, to converse 
with, lit. to speak together. — L. col- (for 
con-, cum), together; /oqut, to speak. 

Collude, to act with others in a fraud. 
(L.) L. collude re (pp. collnstcs), to play 
with, act in collusion with. — L. col- 
(for con-, cum), with; ludere, to play. 
Der. colhis-ion, from the pp. 

Colocynth, Coloquintida, pith of 
the fruit of a kind of cucumber. (Gk.) 
From the nom, and ace. cases of Gk. 
KoXoKvvOis (ace. KoXoKwOida), a kind of 
round gourd or pumpkin. 

Colon (i), a mark (:) in writing and 
printing. (Gk.) Gk. kojKov, a limb, 
clause ; hence, a stop marking off a clause. 

Colon (2), part of the intestines. (Gk.) 
Gk. Kokov, the same. 

Colonel. (F. - Ital. - L.) Sometimes 
coronel, which is the Span, spelling ; 
whence the pronunciation as kurnel.^Y. 
colonel, colonnel. — Ital. colonello,a. colonel; 
lit. a little column, as being ' the upholder 
of the regiment ; ' Torriano. The colonel 
was he who led the company at the head 
of the regiment. Dimin. of Ital. colonna, 
a column. — L. cohtmna, a column. See 
colonnade. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

colonnade. — Ital. colonnata, a range of 
columns. — Ital. colonna, a column (above). 

Colony. (F. - L.) F. colonie. - L. 
CO Ionia, a colony, band of husbandmen. 
— L. colonus, a husbandman. — L. colere, 
to till. Colere is for *qiielere ; cf. L. 
inquilmus, a sojourner. Brugm. i. § 121. 

Colophon, an inscription at the end of 
a book, with title, and (sometimes) name 
and date. (Gk.) Late L. colophon. — Gk. 
KoXofpbjv, a summit ; hence, a finishing- 
stroke. Allied to Column. 

Coloquintida ; see Colo cy nth. 

Colossus. (L. - Gk.) L. colossus. — 
Gk. Ko\oa a OS, a large statue. Der. coloss- 
al, i. e. large ; coliseum, q. v. 

Coloxir. (F.-L.) U.E. colour. ^0.¥. 
colour (F. couleur).-~'L. ace. colorem, from 
color, a tint. 

Colporteur, a hawker of wares. (F. — 
L.) Lit * one who carries wares on his 
neck ; ' F. colporteur. — F. colporter, to 
carry on the neck. — F. col, neck; porter, 
to carry. — L. collwn, neck; portdre, to 


Colt. (E.) A. S. colt, a young camel, 
young ass, &c.-fSwed. dial, kullt, a boy ; 
Swed. kull, Dan. kuld, a brood ; cf. Dan. 
dial, koltring-j a lad. 

Columbine, a plant. (F.-L.) M. F. 
colombin. — \u3.te L. columlnna, a colum- 
bine ; L. columlnnus, dove-like ; from a 
supposed resemblance. — L. coluf?il>a, a 
dove. See Culver. 

Column, a pillar, body of troops. 
(F. — L.) L. cohunna, a pillar; cf. 
columen, culmen, a summit, collis, a hill, 
Gk. «oAcui/o?, a hill. See Hill. (V'QEL.) 

Colure, one of two great circles on the 
celestial sphere, at right angles to the 
equator. (L. — Gk.) So called because 
a part of them is always beneath the 
horizon. The word means docked, clip- 
ped.— L. colunis, curtailed; a colure. 

— Gk. KuXovpos, dock-tailed, truncated ; a 
colure. — Gk. /C0A.-0J, docked, clipped; and 
ovpa, a tail. 

Colza oil, a lamp-oil made from the 
seeds of a variety of cabbage. (F. — L. and 
Du.) F. colza, better colzat. — Du. koohaad, 
rape-seed, cabbage-seed. —Du. kool (bor- 
rowed from L. caulis), cole, cabbage ; and 
Du. zaad=Y.. seed. 

Com-, prefix. (L.) For L. cum, with, 
together ; when followed by b, f, m, 
p. See Con-. 

Coma. (Gk.) Gk. /ccD/za, a deep sleep. 

Comb. (E.) A. S. camb.^ a comb, crest, 
ridge. +Du. kam, 1cg\. kambr, Dan. vSwed. 
kam ; G. kamm. Teut. type *kamboz ; 
Idg. type *gomb/ios ; cf. Gk. yofjupos, a 
pin, peg; Skt. jamb/ia-s, a tooth. 

Comb, Coomb, a dry measure. (E.) 
A. S. cumb, a cup.-f-Du. kom, a bowl ; G. 
kumpf, kumme, a bowl. 

Combat. (F.-L.) Grig, a verb. - F. 
combattre, O. F. combatre, to fight with. — 
F. com- (for L. cum), with ; and F. battre, 
O. F. batre, to fight, from *battere, for 
L. battuere, to beat. Der. combat-ant, 
from the F. ptes. pt. 

Combe, a hollow in a hill-side. (C.) 
W. cwm. Corn, ctim, a hollow, dale ; 
Celtic type *kumbd, a valley ; cf. Irish 
ciimar, a valley. 

Combine. (L.' L. comblndre, to unite, 
join two things together. — L. com- {ctifn), 
together ; and binus, twofold. See Binary. 

Combustion. (F.-L.) F. combus- 
tion. — L. ace. combustionem, a burning up. 

— L. combust-us, pp. oicom-burere, to bum 
up. — L. com- (for cum), together; and 



(perhaps) iirere, to burn, with b inserted 
by association with amb-iirere. 

Come, (i-) A.S cuf?ia}i,\)tA. c{u>)dm, 
pp. atfuen. -{-Du. komen., Icel. konia, Dan. 
komjiie, S\v. koninia, Goth, k'wiman, G. 
kommen ; L. tien-ire, {*(^z/en-ire), Gk. 
fiaivdv, Skt. ^fl^w, to go. (v'GwKM.) 

Comedy. (,F,-L.— Gk.) O.¥.coniedie, 
*a play;' Cut. — L. cdma'dia.^G\^. koji^o}- 
Sia, a comedy. — Gk. koj/joiSus, a comic 
actor. — Gk. Kwfxo-s, a banquet, revel, 
festal procession ; doi56s, a singer, from 
dddfiv, to sing. A comedy was a festive 
spectacle, with singing, &c. See Ode. 

comic. (!-• — Gk. ) L. comictis. — Gk. 
KOJfUKos, belonging to a kCj^us, as above. 

Comely, (ii) M. E. coffiU, kumli. 
A. S. cymlic, earlier form cymlic, beautiful, 
fair. The A. S. cyme, exquisite, is closely 
allied to O. H. G. cfnnig, weak, tender, 
and to O. H. G. ktim, with difficulty (G. 
kaum). The A. S. y was shortened before 
////, and the M. E. comli was associated 
with M.E. comen, to come, and so gained 
the sense of ' becoming,' pleasing, decorous. 
Cf. M. E. kime, a weak person. 

Com,et. (L. — Gk.) Late A. S. <r^w<f/^?. 
— L. cometa.^QV. Kop.-hr'qs, long-haired; 
a tailed star, comet. — Gk. Kofxr}, hair. + L. 
coma, hair. ^ Also O. E. comete. 

Com.flt, sb., a sweatmeat. (F. — L.) 
Formerly conjit, conJUe.-'O.Y. conft, lit. 
confected, prepared ; pp. of confire. — L. 
confedicm, pp. of conjicere, to prepare, put 
together. — L. coti- {cum), together ; facer e, 
to make. See Confect. 

Com.fort, vb. (F. — L.) M. E. co7i- 
forten, later comforten.'^O. F. conforter, 
to comfort. — Late L. con-fortd?-e, to 
strengthen. — L. con- {cum), together ; 
znd fort-is, strong; see Force (i). 

Comfrey, a plant. (F. - L.) O. F. 
confire, cutnjirie ; Late L. ciimfiria ; pro- 
bably for Lat. conferua (Pliny), comfrey, 
a name given to the plant from its sup- 
posed healing powers. — L. conferiiere, to 
grow together, heal up (Celsus). — L. con- 
{cnm), together; fcruere, (orig.) to boil. 
^ It was also called confirma (from L. 
fir mare, to make firm), and consolida 
(from L. soliddre, to make solid). 

Comic ; see Comedy. 

Comity, urbanity. (L.) L, comitdtem, 
ace. of comitds, urbanity. — L. comis, 
friendly, courteous. 

Comm.a. (L. — Gk.) L. comma. ^Gk. 
KOfjifM, that which is struck, a stamp, a 

clause of a sentence, a comma (that marks 
the clause). — Gk. k6tt-t(iv, to hew, strike. 
Command. (F. — L.) O. F. com- 
mander, coinander. — L. corntnenddre, to 
entrust to; confused with Late L. com- 
manddre, as if an intensive form of man- 
dare, to command. Both forms are from 
L. com- {ctitn), together; and manddre, to 
put into the hands of, entrust to, command. 
See Mandate. 

Commemorate. (L.) From the pp. 

of L. comf?iemordre, to call to mind. — L. 
com- (for cutn), together ; viemordre, to 
mention, from memor, mindful. 

Commence. (F. — L.) ¥.commencer\ 
C). F. comcncer (^with one ;// ; cf. Ital. 
cominciare). — L. com- {cicfii), together; 
initidre, lo begin : see Initiate. 

Commend. (L.) L. comtnendare, to 
entrust or commit to ; see Command. 

Commensurate. (L.) From L. 
commensilrdius, as if from *commensiirare, 
to measure in comparison with ; a coined 
word. — L. com- [cum), with; mensilra, a 
measure ; see Measure. 

Comment, vb. (F. — L.) Y .commenter. 

— Late L. co))imentdre, for L. commenti.rt, 
to consider, make a note on. — L. ccm- 
menius, pp. oi comminisci, to devise. — L. 
com- {cum), witli ; -viin- for *;//<?«, to 
think, as in me-min-t {--- *me-men-l), I 
remember, and mens, mind. See Mental. 

Commerce, traffic. (F. — L.) F. co?n- 
merce.^h. commerciuvi, trade. — L. com- 
{=^cum), with; ?nerc-, stem of merx, 
merchandise, with suffix -i-um. 

Commination, a threatening, de- 
nouncing. (F. — L.) F. commination.'^ 
L. ace. cominindiionem, a threatening.— 
L. commindius, pp. of com-mindrl, to 
threaten. — L. com- {cufu), intensive prefix; 
and mindrJ, to threaten. See Menace. 

Commingle. (L. and E.) From 
Com- and Mingle. 

Comminution, a reduction to small 
fragments. (L.) Formed from L. com- 
minut-us, pp. of com-miniiere, to break 
into small pieces; see Minute. 

Commiseration. (F. -L.) ^I- F- 
commiseration. — L. ace. covimiserdtionemj 
part of an oration intended to excite pity. 

— L. commiserdri, to excite pity (pp. -dt- 
us). — L. com- {cum), with ; miserdri, 
to pity, from L. miser, wretched, pitiable. 

Commissary, an officer to whom 
something is entrusted. (L.) Med. L. 
comviissdiius, a commissary. — L. com- 



missus, pp. of comniiitere, to commit ; see 

commit, to entrust to. (L.) L. cof/i- 
viittere, to send out, begin, entrust, 
consign; pp. r<?w?//zVj-zw. — L. coin- {ciini), 
with; 7nitiere, to send, put forth. Der. 
commiss-ion, ¥. commission, from L. ace. 
com m issiouem , perpet rat ion. 

Com.m.odioiis. (F. — L.) 
modieux \ Med. L. commodiostis, useful.— 
L. commodtis, fit, suitable. — L. com- 
\cuj}i), with; modus, measure. 

Commodore, the commander of a 
squadron. i^Du. — F. — L.) Formerly 
spelt coinmandore (1695) ; also comman- 
deur, as in Dutch ; Hexham has : ' den 
Commandenr van een Stadt, The Com- 
mandeur of a Towne.'— F. commandenr, 
a commander. — L. ace. ty[)e '^comman- 
ddtorem, from Late L. commanddre ; 
see Command. 

Gomm.on. (F. — L.) M. E. commun. 
comoun. — O. F. comun. — L. commfniis, 
common, general. — L. C(?/;z- (rz/w), together 
with ; and munis, ready to serve (Plautus) ; 
cf. munus, service. (As if ' helping each 
other.') Cf. Lith. mainas, Russ. mic7ia, 
barter. Brugm. i. § 20S. Der. comt?iun- 
ion, commu7i-ity . 

com,mune, verb. (F. — L.) M. E. 
comutien. — O. F. communer, to commune 
with ; Late L. commiindre. — L. communis, 
common (above). 

C0m.miiuicate. (L.) L. commUni- 
cdUis, pp. of co7nf?iunicdre. — L. communis, 
common. Der. excominunicate. 

Com.m.otion. (F.— L.) Y. commotion. 

— L. commotiojiem, ace. of commotio. — 1^. 
cotnmot-us, pp. of commouere, to disturb. 

— L. com- {cMfn), intensive; and mouere, 
to move. See Move. 

Com.m.1lte, to exchange. (L.) L. com- 
fmltdre, to exchange with. — L. co?)i- (cum), 
with ; mntdre, to change. 

Com.pact (i), adj., fastened together, 
fitted, close, firm. (F. — L.) M. F. co?n- 
pacte. — 'L. compactus, fitted together, pp. 
of co!?!pingere. — l^. com- (cum), together; 
pange7-e, to fasten. See Pact. 

Compact (2), sb., a bargain, agree- 
ment. (L.) L. co7npactutn, slS. — L. co?n- 
pactus, pp. of cojnpaciscT, to agree with. — 
L. C0771- {cu7)i), with ; pacisci, to make a 
bargain, inceptive form of O. Lat. pacere, 
to agree. See Pact. 

Com.pany. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. C077ipa7iye. 

— O. F. compa7iie. [Cf, also O. F. conipai7t, 

a companion, O. F. co77ipa7tio/t (F. C07n- 
pagnon), a companion.] — Med. L. cot7i- 
pd7iiem, ace. of co7!ipd7iies, a taking of 
meals together. — L. co7n- {cu77i), together; 
and pd7iis, bread ; see Pantry. Der. 
co7npanion, from O. F. compa77ion. Also 
accompany , O. F. acco77ipaig7tie7', from F. a 
(for L. ad) and O. F. cot7ipaig7iier, to asso- 
ciate with, from compaig)iie, company. 

Compare, to set together, so as to 
examine likeness or difference. (F. — L.) 
F. co7nparer. — l^. co77ipa7-d}-e, to adjust, set 
together. — L. C077ipa7; co-equal. — L. com- 
{ctc/7i), together ; par, equal. 

Compartment. (F.-Iial.-L.) F. 

C077iparti77ie7it, 'a partition;' Cot. — Ital. 
co77ipa7'timento. — Ital. co7npartire ; Late L. 
compartire, to share. — L. com- {cu77i)f 
together ; pa7'tii'e, to share, to part, from 
parti-, decl. stem oi pars, a part. 

Compass. (F. — L.) F. co7npas, a 
circuit, circle, limit ; also, a pair of com- 
passes. — Late L. compassus, a circuit. — L. 
com- (cum), with; passus, a pace, step, 
passage, track ; so that co7?ipassus = a track 
that joins together, circuit. See Pace. 
Der. co77ipass, verb ; compasses, s. pi., an 
instrument for drawing circles. 

Compassion. (F^ - L.) F. cofn- 
passio7i. — L. compassione7n, ace. of com- 
passio, sympathy. — L. c^w- {cuT7t), with ; 
passio, suffering, from patt, to endure. 

compatible. (F.-L.) F. compati- 
ble, ' compatible, coneurrable ; ' Cot. — 
Late L. co7npatibilis, adj., used of a bene- 
fice which could be held together with 
another. — L. co7npati, to endure together 
with. — L. coin- {cu77i), with; paii, to 

Compeer, an associate. (F. — L.) 
M. E. comper. — F. co7}i-, together ; O. F. 
per, a peer, equal. — L. C077i- (ctmi), to- 
gether; pare7n, ace. oi par, equal; see 

Compel. ( L.) L. co77i-pellere, to com- 
pel, lit. to drive together. — L. cotfi- {c7im^^ 
together; pellere,io drive. Der. compuls- 
ion, from pp. compuls-us. 

Compendious, brief. (F. — L.) F. 
compendieux. — L. cofupe/idiosus, adj., from 
compe7idiu7H , an abridgment, lit. a saving, 
sparing of expense. — L. C077ipendere, to 
weigh together. — L. co77i- {cu7n), with ; 
pendere, to weigh. 
compensate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

compe7isdre, to weigh one thing against 
another. — L. com- (cum), together; pen- 



sdre, to weigh, frequent, of pendere, to 
weigh {\)Y. penstis). 

Compete. (L-) L- competere. — L. 
com- {cum\ together; petere, to strive 

competent. (F. — L.^i M. F. com- 

fetent ; orig. pres. part, of competer, to be 
sufficient for. — L. competere. to be sufficient 
for. — L. com- (cum), with ; petere, to seek. 

COm.petitor. (L.) L. competitor, a 
rival candidate. — L. com- {cum), with ; 
petJtofj a seeker, from petittis, pp. oi petere ^ 
to seek. 

Com.pile. (F^ - 1..) O. F. compiler. — 
L. comptldre, lit. to press together. — L. 
com- (for cu??i^, together; and /i"/<ir^, to 
press down, from piluni, a pestle. Cf. L. 
pinsere, to pound. See Pile (3). 

Com.placeut. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of co?uplacere, to please. — L. 
com- ycum^, intensive ; placere, to please. 

complaisant. (F. - L.) F. com- 
plaisant, obsequious, pres. part, of co??i- 
plaire, to please. — L. complacere, to please 

Complain. (F. - L.) O. F. com- 
plaint-, a stem of complaindre.'—\.2i\& L. 
coviplangere, to bewail. — L. com- i^ctcm), 
with ; plangere, to bewail, lit. to strike, 
beat the breast. 

Complement. (L.) 'L. complementum. 
that which completes. — L. complere 
(below). Doublet, complimejtt. 

complete, perfect. (L.) \j.completus, 
pp. of complere, to fulfil. — L. com- {czi»i), 
together ; plere, to fill. Allied to ple-mis, 
full. See Plenary. 

Complex, (L.) L. complexus, en- 
twined round ; hence, intricate ; pp. of 
cojfiplectt, to embrace. — L. com- (cum), 
together ; and plectere, to plait, allied to 
plic-dre, to twine. See Pleach. 

complexion. (F. — L.) F. com- 
plexion, appearance. — L. complexionem, 
ace. of complexio, a comprehending, com- 
pass, habit of body, complexion. — L. com- 
plexus, pp. of complecti, to surround, 
entwine. — L. com- (^cum), together; plec- 
tere, to plait. 

complicate. (L-) From pp. of L. 
complicdre, to fold together. — L. com- 
{cum), together ; plicdre, to fold. 

complicity. (F. — L.) F. compUdte, 
' a bafl confederacy ; ' Cot. — F. complice, a 
confederate. — L. complicem, ace. o{ coin- 
plex, interwoven, confederate with ; see 

Compliance, Compliant; formed 

with F. suffixes -ance, -ant, from the verb 
to comply^ which, however, is not of Y . 
origin ; see Comply. 

Compliment. (F. - Ital. — L.) F. 
compliment. — Ital. complimento, compli- 
ment, civility. — Ital. cofnplire, to fill up, 
to suit. — L. complere, to fill up ; see Com- 
plete. Doublet, complement. 

compline. (F. — L. M. E. complin., 
the last church-service of the day ; it was 
orig. an adj. {y\}^t. gold-en from gold), and 
stands for complin song; the sh. is compile 
fAncren Riwle). — O. F. compile (mod. F. 
complies, which is pi.), com] Jine. — Late 
L. completa (sc. hord), fern, of completus, 
complete; because it completed the 'hours' 
of the day's service ; see Complete. 

comply, to yield, accord with, (Ital. 
— L.) It has no doubt been supposed to 
be allied to ply (whence compliant, by 
analogy yf'ith. pliant), but is quite distinct, 
and of Ital. origin. — Ital. complire, to fill 
up, fulfil, to suit, 'also to use compli- 
ments, ceremonies, or kind offices and 
offers;' Torriano. Cf. Span, complir, to 
fulfil, satisfy. — L. complere, to fill up; see 
Complete. Cf. supply. 

Complot, a conspiracy; see Plot (i). 

Component, composing. (L.) L. 
componcjit-, stem of pres. \A.o{ componere, 
to compose. — L. com- [cum], together; 
ponere, to put. See Compound. 

Comport, to behave, suit. (F. — L.) F. 
se comport er, to behave. — L. comportdre, 
to carry together. — L. com- {cuTti}, to- 
gether ; portdre, to carry. 

Compose. (F. - L. and Gk.) F. 
composer, to compound, make; Cot. — 
F. com- (L. cum), together; and ¥. poser, 
to put, of Gk. origin, as shewn under 
Pose, q.v. iff Distinct from compound. 

Composition. (F.-L.) Y. composi- 
tion. "Ij. ace. compositioncm, ace. of com- 
positio, a putting together. — L. compositus, 
pp. of L. componere ; see compound. 

compost, a mixture. (F. — L.) O. F. 
compost, a mixture. — L. compositum, neut. 
of compositus, pp. of componere (below). 

compound. (F.-L.) The d is ex- 
crescent ; M. E. compounen. — O. F. com- 
ponre (Bartsch). — L. componere, to com- 
pound, put together. — L. com- (cum), 
together ; ponere, to put. See Component. 

Comprehend. (L.) L. co7)i-prehendere, 
to grasp. — L. coj)i- {cum), together, and 
prehendere, to seize ; see Prehensile. 




Compress. (L.) L. compressdre, to 
oppress. — L. com- (cujti), together ; /;rj'- 
sdre, frequent, oi pre mere, to press. 

Comprise. (F. — L.) From O. F. 
cotnpris, comprised, comprehended ; pp. 
oi comprendre, to comprehend. — L. com- 
prehendere ; see Compreliend, 

Comprom.ise, a settlement by con- 
cessions. (F. — L.) F. compromis, ' a 
compromise, mutual promise;' Cot. Grig, 
pp. of F. comprotnettre, ' to put unto com- 
promise ; ' Cot. — L. compromittere^ to 
make a mutual promise. — L. <:cw- {cum), 
mutually ; promitlere, to promise ; see 

Comptroller, another spelling of con- 
troller ; see Control. 

Compulsion. (F.-L.) See Compel. 

Compunction, remorse. (F. — L.) 
O. F. compunction. — Late L. ace. cojji- 
punctionem. — L. compuitcttis, pp. of com- 
pungT, to feel remorse, pass, oi compungere , 
to prick. — L. com- {cum); pimgere, to 

Compute. (L.) L. cojnputdie, to 
reckon. — L. cotii- {cum), together; put are, 
to clear up, reckon. Doublet, count (2). 

Comrade. (F. — Span. — L.) F. camar- 
ade. — Span, camarada, a company ; also 
an associate, comrade. — Span, camara, a 
chamber, cabin. —L. camera, a chamber. 

Con (i), to study, peruse, scan. (E.) 
M. E. cunnen ; A. S. cunniaji, to test. 
Allied to A. S. cminan, to know ; see 
Can (1). Der. ale-conner, i. e. ale-tester. 

Con (2), short for contra, against. (L.) 
In the phrase ' pro and con^ 

Con-, prefix. (L.) For com- {cum), 
with, when the following letter is c, d, g. 
J, n, q, s, t, or v. Before b, m, p, it is 
com- ; before /, col- ; before r, cor- ; before 
f, com- or con-. 

Concatenate. (L.) L. comatendtus, 
pp. of concatendre, to link together. — L. 
con- (cum), together; catena, a chain. 

Concave. (F. — L.) F. concave. — Y.. 
coticauus, hollow. — L. con- {cum), with, 
together ; cauus, hollow. 

Conceal. (F. — L.) O. F. concekr. 
— L. conceldre, to hide. — L. con- {cum), 
completely; rif/^ri?, to hide. See Helm (2). 

Concede. (L.) L. concedere, to retire, 
yield. — L. con- {cum), together ; cede7-e, 
to yield. Der. concess-ion (from pp. con- 

Conceit. CF. — L.) Isl.Y.. conceit, con- 
ceite. Formed as if from the pp. of O. F. 

concevoir, to conceive, though the real 
pp. was conceu (F. confu) ; by analogy 
with deceit, q.v. See below. 

conceive. (F.-L.) yi.Y.. conceven, 
conceiven. — A. F. conceiv-, a stem of O, F. 
concever, concevoir, to conceive. — L. con- 
cipcre, to conceive. — L. co7i- {cum), alto- 
gether ; capere, to take. 

conception. (F. — L.) Y . conception. 

— L. conceptioneni.—'Y.. concept-us, pp. of 
concipere, to conceive (above). 

Concentre, to draw to a centre. (F.— 
L. aJidGk.) F. concen/rer. — L. con- {cum), 
together ; and ce}it?-ii?n,Si centre, from Gk. 
K^vrpov ; see Centre. Der. concetitr-ic , 
co?ice7itr-ate (modein). 

Concern, vb. (F. — L.) Y.comemer. 

— L. C07icer7iere, to mix; in Late Lat., to 
refer to, regard. — L. coti- {cum), with; 
and cernere, to separate, decree, observe. 
-|- Gk. Kpivdv, to separate, decide ; Lith. 
skir-ti, to separate, distinguish. Brugm. 
li. §612. (VSKER.) 

concert. (F. -Ital.-L.) Often con- 
fused with consort in old writers. — F. con- 
certer, ' to consort, or agree together ; ' 
Cot. — Ital. co7icertare, 'to agree or tune 
together, sing in consort,' Florio ; cf. con- 
certo, sb., agreement. The Ital. forms 
shew that it was derived from L. concertdre, 
to contend, struggle together ; indeed, we 
find also Span, concertar, to settle or adjust, 
covenant, bargain ; which also points to 
the same origin. [It would seem that the 
L. vb. took up the sense of to settle by 
debate, and so, to agree.] — L. con- {cum), 
together ; certdre, to contend, vie with ; 
orig. ' to decide by contest ; ' frequent, of 
cerjiere, to decide. See Concern, Der. 
concert, sb. , concert-ina. 
Concession. (F. — L.) F. concession. 

— L. ace. concessionem. — L. concessus, pp. 
oi cojtcedere, to concede ; see Concede. 

Conch, a marine shell. (L. — Gk.) L. 
concha. — Gk. nu^xv (also «o7Xos), a cockle- 
shell. +Skt. faiikha, a conch. Der. con- 
chology (from /f<i7Xo-s). 

Conciliate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
concilidre, to bring together, conciliate.— 
L. concilium, a council ; see Council. 

Concise. (F.-L. ; or L.) F. concis. 

— L. concisus, brief, cut short ; pp. of co7i' 
cidere. — L,. con- [cum), intensive; ccedere, 
to cut. Der. concis-ion. 

Conclave. (F.-L.) F. conclave, a 
small room (to meet in). — L. concldue, 
a room ; later, a place of assembly of 




cardinals, assembly. Orig. a locked up 
place. — L. con- {cum), together; cldttis, 
a key. 

Conclude. (L-) L- cojiclildere, to 
shut up, close, end. — L. co7i- {ciini), 
together; and -chlde7-e = claudcre, to shut. 
Der. conclus-ion. Similarly ex-chide, iti- 
clude, pre -chide, se-ch{de\ whence in-chis- 
ive, pre-clus-ion, se-clus-ion (from pp. 
-clusus = clatisus) . 

Concoct. (L.) From L. concoctus, pp. 
of concoqtiere, to cook together, digest. — 
L. con- {cuni) ; coqtiere, to cook. 

Concomitant, accompanying. (L.) 
From L. co7i- {cum), together; and 
comitajit-em, ace. of pres. pt. of comitdri, 
to accompany, from coviit-, stem of comes, 
a companion; see Count (i). 

Concord. (F. — L.) Y. concorde. — \^. 
Concordia, agreement. — L. concord-, stem 
of con-cors, agreeing. — L. con- {cuni) ; cor 
(stem cord-), the heart. 

concordant. (F. — L.) F. concord- 
ant, pres. pt. of concorder, to agree. — L. 
concorddre, to agree. — L. concord- (above). 
concordat. (F. — L.) F. concordat, 
an agreement. — Late L. concorddtum, a 
convention, thing agreed on, esp. between 
the pope and F. kings ; pp. of concorddre, 
to agree (above). 

Concourse. (F. — L.) Y.concours." 
L. ace conciij'sum, a running together.- 
L. concursus, pp. of con-currere, to run 
together, — L. con- {cum), together; and 
currere, to run. See Concur. 

Concrete, formed into one mass. (L.) 
L. concrct-us, pp. of concrescere, to grow 
together. — L. con- {cu?n), together; cres- 
cere, to grow. 

Concubine. (F. — L.) O.Y .concubine. 

— L. coficublna.^'L. con- {cum), together ; 
r.ubdre, to lie. 

Concupiscence. (F-L.) Y. concu- 
piscence. — L. concupiscentia, desire. — L. 
concupiscere, to desire ; inceptive form of 
concupey-e. — lu. coji' (r«w), intensive ; and 
cupere, to long for. 

Concur. (L.) L. concurrere, to run 
together, agree. — L. con- {cum), together; 
currere, to run. Der. concourse. 

Concussion. (F.— L.) F. concussion. 

— L. concussiotiem, ace. of concussio, a 
violent shaking. — L. concussus, pp. of 
concutere, to shake together. — L. co7i- 
{cum), together; quatere, to shake. 

Condemn. (F. — L.) O.Y .condemner. 

— L. condemndre, to condemn wholly, pro- 

nounce to be guilty. — L. con- \ciim), 
wholly ; damndre, to condemn. 

Condense. (F.-L.) F. condenser.^ 
L. condensure."!^. condensus, very ttiick. 

— L. con- {cum), \ery ; densus, thick, dense. 

Condescend. (F. — L.) F. conde- 

scendre. — hale L. condcscendere, to grai.t 
(lit. to descend with). — L. co7i-{cum),\i\\.\\\ 
descendere , to descend ; see Descend, 
Der. condescens-iou, from the pp. 

Condign, well merited. (F.-L.) O. F. 
condigne. — L. condignus, very worthy. — 
L. con- {cum), very ; dignus, wortliy. 

Condiment. (L.) L. condlmentum, 
seasoning, sauce. —L, condh-e, to season, 
spice, preserve (as fruit). 

Condition. (F. — L.) Y. condition. ~. 
L. co7iditidnem, ace. of conditio, a late 
spelling of condicio, a covenant, condition. 

— L. condicere, to talk over together, agree 
upon. — L. con- {cum), together; dice^-e, to 

Condole. (L.) L. cojtdolere, to grieve 
with. — L. coji- {cum), with ; dolere, to 

Condone. (L.) L. condotidre, to remit, 
pardon. — L. con- {cum), wholly; dondre, 
to give ; see Donation. 

Condor, a large bird. (Span. —Peru- 
vian.) Span, condor. — Peruv. citntur, a 

Conduce. (L.) L. coudficere, to draw 
together towards, lead to. — L. con- {cum), 
together; diicere, to lead. 

conduct, sb. (L.) Late L. conductus, 
defence, protection, guard, escort.- L. ri7«- 
ducttis, pp. of con-ducere (above). 

conduit. (F.-L.) M..Y. conduit.— 
O. F. conduit, a conduit. — Late L, con- 
ductus, a defence, escort ; also, a canal, 
tube ; see above. 

Cone. (F.-L.-Gk.) Ul.Y.cone.-h. 
cojtus. — Gk. kSjvos, a cone, peak, peg. + 
Skt. cdna-s, a whetstone ; cf. L. cos, the 
same. See Hone. Brugm. i. § 401. 

Coney; see Cony. 

Confabulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
confdbtddri, to talk together. — L. con- 
{cum), w'wh.; fdbtihh-i, to converse, from 
fdbjila, a discourse ; see Fable. 

Confect, to make up into sweetmeats. 
(L.) L. confectus, pp. of conficere, to put 
together, make up. — L. con- {cum), to- 
gether ; facere, to put. Der confect-ion, 
confectio7i-er. See Comfit. 

Confederate. (L.) L. confaderdtus. 
united by a covenant, pp. of confcederdre. 




— L. con- {cum)^ together ; fader-, for 
*fcedes-, stem of faedus, a treaty. See 

Confer. (L.) From L. conferre, to 
bring logt-ther, collect, bestow. — L. con- 
(cum , together; fcji'e, to bring, bear. 
% Not from F. 

Confess. (F.-L.) O.Y. confesser.^ 
Late L. cortfessdre.^Y.. coufcssus, pp. of 
conjiteri, to confess. — L. r{?«- (cum), fully; 
fateri, to acknowledge, allied to fdri, to 
speak. Cf. Gk, (^aris, a speech. Brugm. 
i- § I9.S- 

Confide. (L.) L. confidere, to trust 
fully. — L. con- {cum), iwWy \ ft dere, to 
trust, allied iofdcs, faith ; see Faith. 

Configuration. (F. — L.) F. con- 
figuration — L. configuratianem, a con- 
formation.— L. configiirdtus , pp. of con- 
fgiirdre, to put togelher. — L. r^;^?- (f«^«) ; 
figurdre, to fashion, ixovafigura, a figure. 
See Figure. 

Confine, to limit. (F. — L.) F. con- 
finer, to keep within limits. — M. F. 
confiti, near; Cot. — L. confinis, bordering 
on. — L. con- {cum), with ; finis, boundary. 
See Final. % Mod. F. has only confins, 
sb. pi., confines; representing O. F. con- 
fines, L. conftnia, pi. ; whence E. confines, 

Confirm. (F. — L.) M. E. confermen. 

— O. F. confermer. — L. confirmdre, to 
make firm, strengthen. — L. con- {cum), 
{•a\\y,firmdre, to strengthen, iiomfirmus, 

Confiscate, to adjudge to be forfeit. 
(L.) L. confiscdtus, pp. of confiscdre, to 
lay by in a coffer, to confiscate, transfer to 
the treasury. — L. con- {cum) ; fiscus, a 

Conflagration. (F.-L.) F. con- 
fiagration. — L. ace. conflagrdtionem, a 
great burning. — L, <r(7«- {cum), together; 
fldgrdre, to burn. See Flagrant. 

Conflict, an encounter. (L.) L. con- 
flictus, a striking together ; from the pp. 
of confitgere, to strike together. — L. con- 
[ctim'^., together ; fllgere, to strike. 

Confluent. (L.) From stem, of pres. 
pt. of confiuere, to flow together ; see 
Fluent. So also confiux, sb., from the 
pp. confluxus. 

Conform. (F. — L.) F. conformer.— 
L. conformdre, to fashion like. — L. con-, 
together ; formdre, to form, from forma, 

Confound. (F. — L.) Y.confondre.^ 

L. confundere, to pour together, confound. 

— L. con- {cum), together ; fundere, to 
|)our. See Fuse (i). 

Confraternity. (F.-L.) FromL. 
con- {cufn), with; and Fraternity, q v. 

Confront. (F.-L.) Y.confronter,Xo 
bring face to face. — Med. L. confrontdri, 
to be near to. — L. con- {cufn), together; 
front-, stem oifrons, forehead, front. 

Confuse. (L.) M. E. confus, used as 
a pp. in Chaucer. — L. confusus, pp. of 
confundere, to confound ; see Confound. 

Confute. (F.-L.) F. confuter. - L. 
confiitdre, to repress, also to confute. 

— L. con- {cu7n\ together; *fiitdre, to 
repress, beat back ; probably from the 
same root as A. S. beatan, to beat 
(Walde). If so, it is not allied to L. 


Congeal. (F.-L.) F. congeler.^l.. 
congeldre, to cause to freeze together. — L. 
con-, together ; geldre, to freeze, from gelu, 
frost. See Gelid. 

Congee, Cong^, leave to depart. (F. 

— L.) F. conge, ' leave, dismission ; ' Cot. 
O. F. congie, cunge, congiet ( Burguy) ; the 
same as Prov. comjat. — Late L. comidtus, 
leave, permission (VIII cent.) ; the same 
as L. commedtus, a travelling together, 
also leave of absence. — L. com- {ctim), 
together; medtus, a course^ from pp. of 
medre, to go. 

Congenial, kindred. (L.) Coined 
from L. con- {cum), with; and genial, 
adj . from L. genius ; see G-enial. 

Congenital. (L.) Coined by adding 
-al to the obs. word congenite (XVII 
cent.). — L. congenitus , bom with. — L. con- 
[cum), with ; genitus, born, pp. oi gignere, 
to produce. See Genital. 

Conger, a sea-eel. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. congre. — O. F. congre. — L. congrum, 
ace. of congrtcs, by-form of conger, a sea- 
eel.— Gk. 7^^77/505, the same. 

Congeries, a mass of particles. (L.) 
L. congeries, a heap. — L. congerere, to 
bring together. — L. r^;z- (^«/;z), together; 
gerere, to carry. 

congestion, accumulation. (L.) From 
L. ace. conges tionem."!^. congestus, pp. of 
congerere (above). 

Conglobe, to form into a globe. (L.) 
L. con-globdre.^'L. con- {cum), together; 
globus, a globe. 

Conglomerate. (L.) From pp. of 

conglomerdre, to wind into a ball, heap 
together. — L. con^ {cum), together; and 




glomer-^ for ^glomes-, stem of glomus, 
a ball, clew of yarn. 

Conglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
L. coriglulindre, to glue together. — L. 
con- {cum), together; glutindre, to glue, 
from gh'iiin-, stem oi gluten, glue. 

Congou, a kind of tea. (Chinese.) In 
the Anioy dialect, called kang-hu te, where 
kang-hu is lit. ' work, labour ; ' i. e. tea on 
which labour has been expended (Douglas). 
The true Chinese is kung-fu ch'a, with 
the same sense. 

Congratulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

congraiulari, to wish much joy. — L. f<3«- 
ictwi), fully ; grdttildrty to wish joy, from 
adj. ^rd^///5', pleasing. See Grace. 

Congregate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

congregare, to collect into a flock. — L. 
con- {cum), together; gregdre, to assem- 
ble a flock, from greg-, stem of grex, a 

Congress, a meeting together. (L.) 
L. congressus. — L. congressus, pp. of cojt- 
gredl, to meet together. — L. con-^ together; 
gradi, to advance, walk. 

Congrue, to agree, suit. (L.) L. con- 
gruere, to suit. (Root uncertain.) Der. 
congru-ous, from L. congruus, suitable ; 

Conjecture. (F. — L.) F. conjecture. 
— L. coniectura, a casting together, a 
guess. — L. coniectus, pp. of conicere, to 
throw or put together. — L. con- {cum"', to- 
gether; iacere, to throw. 

Conjoin. (F. — L.) O.Y. conjoindre. 
L. conhingere (pp. conhinctus), to join \ 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; tun- 
gere, to join. See Join. Der. conjunct- 
ion, conjunct-ive, from the pp. 

conjugal, relating to marriage. (F.— 
L.) F. conjugal. — L. coniugdlis, adj. — 
l^. coniugem, ace. of coniux, a spouse.— 
L. con-, together ; iug-, allied to iungere, 
to join, iugum, a yoke ; see Join. 

conjugation. (L.) From L. coniu- 
gdtio, a conjugation (Priscian) ; lit. a 
yoking together. — L. coniugdtus, pp. of 
coniugdre, to yoke together. — L. con- 
(cum), together ; iug-um, a yoke. 

Conjure. (F. — L.) M.E. conhtren.m. 
F. conjurer. ^L,. coniurdre, to swear to- 
getlier, combine by oath. — L. con-, to- 
gether ; iurdre, to swear ; see Jury. 

Connect. (L.) L. connectere, to tie 
together. — L. con- (cum), together; and 
nectere, to bind (pp. nexus). Der. con- 
nex-ion [not connectio7i\, from the pp. 

Connive. (F. — L.) Y. conniver.'-\.. 
conniuere, to close the eyes at, overlook. 

— L. con- {cum), together; and *niguere, 
to wink ; cf. nic-tdre, to wink. + Goth. 
hneiwan, to bow ; Brugm. i. § 664. 

Connoisseur, a critical judge. (F.— 
L.) F. connaisseur , formerly connoisseur, 
a knowing one. — O. F. connoiss-ant, pres. 
pt. of O. F. conoistre ; see Cognisance. 

Connubial. (L.) L. connubidlls, re- 
lating to marriage. —L. co{n)nubium., mar- 
riage. —L. con- \cuni), with; nUbere, to 
marry. See Nuptial. 

Conquer. (F.— L.) yi.¥..conqu<:ren. 

— O. ¥. conquerre.~'\j. conquJrere, to seek 
after, go in quest of; in Late L., to con- 
quer. —L. con- {cum), with; qucererg, to 
seek. Der. conquest, M. E. conqtieste, 
from Late L. conquesta, L. conquisita, 
fem. of conquTsttus, pp. of conquirere. 

Consanguineous. (L.) From L. 
cons anguine -us , related by blood, with 
suffix -ous. — J . con- {cum), together ; 
sanguin-, stem of sanguis, blood. 

Conscience. (F. — L.) Y . conscience. 
L.c<?;?5"«Vw//a, consciousness. — l^.cojtscient-, 
stem of pres. pt. of conscire, to know along 
with. — L. con- {cum), with; scire, to 
know. See Science. Der. conscionable, 
an ill-contrived word, used as a contrac- 
tion oi conscien{ce)-able. 

conscious. (L.) From l^.consci-us, 
aware, with suffix -ous.^h. conscire, to be 
aware of (above). 

Conscript. (L.) L. conscriptus, en- 
rolled, pp. of conscrtbere, to write down 
together. — L. con- {cum), together ; scri- 
bere, to write. 

Consecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

consecrdre, to render sacred. — L. con- 
{cum), with, wholly; sacrdre, to conse- 
crate ; see Sacred. 

Consecutive. (F. — L.) yi.Y.consecu- 
tif, Cot. Formed with suffix -?/(L. -tuus) 
from L. consecut-us, pp. of consequi, to 
follow together. — L. con- {cum), together ; 
sequi, to follow. See Sequence. 

consequent. (L.) L. consequent-, 
stem of pres. pt. oi consequi (above;. 

Consent, vb. (F. — L.) F. consent ir. 

— L. consent ire, to agree to. — L. con- 
{cum), with ; sentjre, to feel. See Sense. 

Conserve, vb. (F. — L.) F. conserver. 

— L. conserudre, to preserve. — L. con- 
\cu7n), fully ; serudre, to keep. Der. con- 
serve, vb. : conserv-atory. See Serve. 

Consider. (F. — L.) O.Y . considerer. 




— L. constderdre , to consider, orig. to con- 
template the stars (Festus). — L. con- {cum), 
together; sider-, for * sides-, stem oistdtis, 
a star. 

Consign. (F. — L.) F. consigner." 
L. consigndre, to attest, register, record. 

— L. con- (cum) , together ; signdre, to 
mark ; see Sign, 

Consist. (F. — L.) F. consisfer, to 
consist, rest, abide, &c. — L. consistere, to 
stand together^ consist. — L. cott- {cum), 
together ; sistere, causal form from stare, 
to stand ; see State. Der. consistory. 

Console. (F. — L.) F. consoler. — 'L. 
consoldrt, to comfort. — L. cofi- [cum), with ; 
soldri, to comfort ; see Solace. 

Consolidate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
consoliddre, to render solid. — L. con- 
(cum), together; soliddre, to make solid, 
from solidus, solid. Der. consols, a 
familiar abbreviation for consolidated an- 

Consonant, agreeing with. (F.-L.) 
F. consonant, accordant; Cot. — L. conso- 
nant-, stem of pres. pt. of consondre, to 
sound together. — L. <:£»«- (<:«;«), together ; 
sondre, to sound; see Sound (3). 

Consort, sb. (F. — L.) F. consort.'-' 
L. consort-, stem of consors, one who shares 
property with another, a partner. — L. con- 
\cum), together; sort-, stem oi sors, a lot, 
share. See Sort. 

Conspicuous. (L.) L. conspicu-us, 
visible, with suffix -ous. — Y,. conspicere, to 
see thoroughly. — L. con-, fully ; specere, to 
see. See Species. 

Conspire. (F. — L.) F. conspirer.— 
L. conspirdre, to breathe together, com- 
bine, plot. — L. con- {cum), together; 
spJrdre, to breathe. 

Constable, a peace-officer. (F. - L.) 
O. F. conestable (F. conn^table). — L. comes 
stabuli, lit.* count of the stable,' the title of 
a dignitary of the Roman empire and after- 
wards in use among the Franks. See 
Covmt (i) and Stable. 

Constant, firm. (F. — L.) F. con- 
stant. — L. constant-, stem of constans, 
firm ; orig. pres. pt. of constdre, to stand 
together. — L. con- {cum), together ; stdre, 
to stand ; see State. 

Constellation. (F.-L.) Y. constel- 
lation. — L. ace. const elldtionem, cluster of 
stars. — L. con- (cww), together; stelldt-us, 
pp. of stelldre, to set with stars, from 
Stella, a star. See Star. 

Consternation. (F.-L.) F. con- 

ste; nation. — L. ace. consterndticnefn, 
friglit. — L. consferndtus, pp. of const er- 
ndre, to frighten. — L. con- (for cujn), to- 
gether; and *sterndre, proh. ailied to 
Gk. TTTvpeiv, to frighten (Walde). See 
Brugmann, i. § 499. 

Constipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
constipdre, to join closely, press together. 

— L. con- (cum), together; stipdre, to 
press, cram. 

Constitute. (L.) I>. constitntus, pp. 

of constituere, to cause to stand together, 
establish. — L. con- {cum), together; sta- 
tuere, to set up, denom. vb. from status, 
a position ; see Statute. 

Constrain, to compel. (F.-L.) O. F. 
constraign- , a stem of constraindre, later 
contraindre. — L. constringere, to bind 
together, fetter. — L. con- {cum), together; 
stringere. to draw tight. 

Construct. (L.) From L. construc- 
tus, pp. oi construere (below). 

construe. (L.) L. construere, to 
heap together, build, construct ; in Late L., 
to construe a passage. — L. con- {cum), to- 
gether; struere, to pile, build. Der. 

Consul. (L.) L. constil, a consul. 
Etym. doubtful ; but allied to constilere, 
to consult ; see below. 

consult. (F. — L.) F. consulter.'—'L. 
constiltdre, to consult ; frequent, form of 
con-sulere, to consult. Root uncertain ; 
prob. allied to sedere, to sit ; of. solium, 
a seat. 

Consume. (L.) L. consumere, lit. to 
take up wholly. — L. con- {cum), together, 
wholly ; sumere, to take up, from *sups-, 
allied to sub, under, up, and emere, to take, 
buy. Brugm. i. § 240. Der. consumption, 
from the pp. 

Consummate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

consum7ndre, to bring into one sum, to 
perfect. —L. con- {cum), together; sum- 
mdre, to sum, from summa, a sum ; see 

Consumption ; see Consume. 

Contact, sb. (L.) L. contactus, a 
touching. — L. contactus, -pp. oi contingere, 
to touch closely ; see Contingent. 

contagion. (F. — L.) F. contagion. 

— L. contdgionem, ace. of contdgio, a 
touching, hence contagion. — L. con- {cum), 
with; tag-, 2nd grade oi tag-, as in *tag- 
tus {y-tac-tus), pp, oitangere, to touch. 

Contain. (F. — L.) From a tonic stem 
of O. F. contenir. — L. continere, to hold 




together, contain; pp. conienlus.'^'L. con- 
{cum), together; tenere, to hold. 

Contaminate. (L-) From pp. of L. 
contdmindre, to defile. — L. contdmin-, 
stem oi conti men, contagion ; which stands 
for *contagmen. — L. con- {ciini) ; tag-, 
as in tacius, for *iag-tus, pp. of tangere, to 
touch. Brugm. i. § 768. 

Contemn. (F.-L.) Vl.Y .contemner. 

— L. contemnere, to despise. — L. con- 
(cum), with, wholly; temnere, to de- 

contempt . (F.-L.) M . F . contempt : 
Cot. — L. contemptus, scorn. — L. con- 
temptus, pp of contemnere (above). 

Contemplate. (L.) From pp. oi 

contempldri, to observe, consider ; used at 
first of augurs. — L. con- (cum) ; templum, 
an open space for observation (by augurs) ; 
see Temple. 

Contemporaneous. (L.) L. cofi- 

tempordne-tis, adj., at the same time ; with 
suffix -otis. — \^. con- {cum), with ; tempor-, 
for * tempos-., stem of tempus, time. 

contemporary. (L.) L. con-, with ; 

and L. tempordrms, temporary, adj., from 
tempor- (above). 

Contend. (F. — L.) O. F. contendre. — 
L. contendere, to stretch out, exert, fight. — 
L. con- {cum), fully; tendere, to strive. 
Der. content-ion (from the pp. contentus). 

Content, adj. (F.-L.) Y. content, 
satisfied. — L. contenttcs, content; pp. of 
continere ; see Contain. Der. dis-con- 

Contest, vb. (F. — L.) F, contester. — 
L. contestdrT, to call to witness, to bring 
an action. — L. con- {cum), together; tes- 
tdri, to witness, from testis, a witness. 
Der. contest, sb. 

Context. (L.) L. contextus, a joining 
together, order (hence, conte t of a book). 

— L. contextus, pp. oi contexere, to weave 
together. — L. con- {cum), together ; 
texere, to weave. 

Contiguous. (L.) L. contigu-us, that 
may be touched, near ; with suffix -ous.'- 
L. con- {cum), with ; and tag-, as in 
tac-tus (for *tag-tzis), pp. of tangere, to 
touch ; see Contingent. 

Continent. (F. — L.) F. continent, 
adj., moderate. — L. continent-, stem ot 
pres. pt. of continere ; see Contain. 

Contingent, dependent on. (L.) 
From stem of pres. pt. of contingere, to 
touch, relate to. — L. con- {cum) ; tangere, 
to touch. See Tangent. 

Continue. (F.-L.) Y. cotitimier.-- 
L. continudre, to continue. — L. continuus 
(l)elo\v) Der. dis-continue. 

continuous. (L.) L. conlinu-ns, 
lit. holding together; with suffix -ous.— 
L. continere, to hold together, contain. See 

Contort. (L.) L. contortus, pp. of 
contorquere, to twist together. — L. con- 
i^cum), together; torqucre, to twist. 

Contour, an outlme. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
F. contour, esp. in an artistic sense. — Ital. 
contorno, a circuit; ccntortiare, 'to en- 
circle; ' Florio. — L. co}i- {cum), together ; 
torndre, to round off, to turn ; see Turn. 

Contra-, prefix. (L.) L. contra, 
against ; orig. the abl. fem. of an obs. adj. 
*con-t{e)r-us, a comparative form from con-, 
prep, together; cf. extrd from exterus. 

Contraband. (Span. — Ital. — L.a;?^ 
Teut.) Span, contrabando, prohibited goods. 

— Ital. co7itrabbando, prohibited goods. — 
Ital. contra ( = L. contrd , against; bando, 
a ban, from Late L. bannum, a word of 
Teut. origin, viz. from O. H. G. ban, a 
command. See Ban. 

Contract (i), to draw together. (L.) 
L. cofttractus, pp. of contrahere, to diaw 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; tra- 
here, to draw. 

contract (2), a bargain. (F.-L.) 
M. F. contract ; Cot. — L. contractuf?i, 
ace. oi contractus, sb.,a drawing together, 
a bargain. — L. contractus, pp. (above). 

Contradict. (L.) L. contrddjctus, 
pp. of contrddtcere, to speak against. — L. 
contrd, against; d.cere, to speak. 

Contralto. (Ital. — L.) Ital. contr- 
alto, counter-tenor. — Ital. contra, oppo- 
site to, and alto, high. — L. contrd, against; 
alttts, high. 

Contrary. (F. — L.) K.Y. contrarie; 
F. contraire. — L. contrdrius, contrary ; 
from contrd, against : see Contra-. 

Contrast, vb. (F. — L.) Y. cont raster, 
to strive, contend against (hence to be in 
opposition to, &c.). — Late L. contrdstdre, 
to stand against. — L. contrd, against ; 
stdre, to stand. 

Contravene, to hinder. (F.-L.) F. 
contrevenir, ' to thwart ; ' Cot. — Late L. 
contrducnire, to oppose ; to break a law. 

— L. contrd, against ; uenire, to come. 
Contribute. (L.) From pp. of L. 

contribucre, to contribute, lit. pay to- 
gether. — L. con- {cum), together; tri- 
buere, to bestow; see Tribute. 



Contrite. (F. - L.) F. contrit. - L. 
iontritus, thoroughly bruised, hence, peni- 
tent ; pp. of L. conterere, to rub together, 
bruise. — L. con- (cujn), together; terej-e, 
to rub. See Trite. 

Contrive. (F. — L. and Gk.) An 
altered spelling ; M. E. controuen, coti- 
treuen (= controven, contrcveti). — O. F. 
controver, to find, find out (Bartsch).— 
O. F. coil- (L. con-^ for cum) ; O. F. irover, 
to find ; see Trover. ^[ Conti'ive (of. 
retrieves is from M. E. cotiireve, answering 
to O. F. conireuv-, stressed stem of con- 

Control, sb. (F. — L.) Controli?, s\\oxi 
for contre-roll, old form of counter-roll. — 
O.F.<r^«/r^-r<?/(/)^, a duplicate register, used 
to verify the official or first-made roll. — 
O. F. centre, over against ; rol\l)e, a roll. — 
L. contra, against ; roiulum, ace. of ro- 
tuhis, a roll ; see Roll. 

Controversy. (F. -L.) K.Y. con- 
troversie [^\-^o']).~'L. cont7'duersia, a quar- 
rel. — L. contrduersus, opposed. — L. 
contro-, masc. or neut. form corresponding 
to fem. contra, against ; tierstis, pp. of 
uertere, to turn. See Contra-. 

Contumacy. (F. — L.) A. F. contu- 
macie ( 1 303 ). — L. contumdcia, obstinacy. — 
L. contut?idci- , stem of contiiniax, stub- 
born. — L. con- {cum), very ; and *tui?i-ax, 
prob. from tum-ere, to swell with pride ; 
see Tumid. 

Contumely. (F. — L.) W.Y.contu- 

vielie. — L. conttimelia, insult, reproach ; 
prob. allied to contu?fidcia ; see Con- 

Contuse, to bruise severely. (L.) L. 
contusus, pp. of cotitundere, to bruise 
severely. — L. con- (cum), with, much ; and 
tundere, to strike. 4-Skt. tud, to strike ; 
Goth, stautan^ to strike. (ySTEUD.) 
Brugm. i. § 8i8. 

Conundrum. (Unknown.) Formerly 
used in the sense of whim, crotchet, or 
hoax. Also quojtundrum ; orig. in univ. 
slang ; prob. uf L. origin. 

Convalesce. (L-) L. conualescere, to 
begin to grow well ; an inceptive form. 
— L. con- (^cum), fully; ttalere, to be 

Convene, to assemble. (F. — L.) F. 
convcnir, to assemble. — L. conuenire, to 
come together. — L. con- (rz^w), together; 
uenJre, to come. 

convenient, suitable. ( F. - L. ) 
From stem of L. conuenietis, suitable; 


orig. pres. pt. of conuenire, to come to- 
gether, suit (above). 

convent. (L.) L. conuentus, an as- 
sembly. —L. conuentus, pp. oi con-tienire. 
convention. (F. - L.) F. conven- 
tion, 'a compact;' Cot. — L, ace. con- 
tcentionem, a meeting, compact. — L. con- 
uentus, pp. of con-uenJre , to meet. 

Converge. (L.) Late L. conuergere, 
to incline together (Isidore). — L. con- 
demn), together ; uergere, to bend, in- 

Converse, vb. (F.-L.) Y.converser, 
10 associate with ; Cot. — L. conuersdrT, to 
live with. — L. con- {cum), with ; uersdrt, 
to dwell (lit. turn oneself about), orig. 
pass, of the frequent, oinertere, to turn. 

convert, vb. (F. — L.) O.F. con- 
vertir. — Folk-L. *converttre, for L. con- 
ueriere, to turn wholly, change. — L. con- 
{cuffi), wholly ; uertere, to turn. 

Convex. (L.) L. conuexus, arched, 
vaulted, — L. con- {cutn), together; and 
*naxus = *tiac-sus, bent, from ^tiac- {*uaq-), 
to bend, as in uac-iiIdre,io reel, go crook- 
edly. See Vacillate. Cf. A. S.w*?,^, crooked. 

Convey, Convoy, vb. (F. - L.) 
M. E. conueien, conuoien {conveien, con- 
voien), to convey, also to convoy. — A. F. 
cojiveier, O. F. convoier, to convey, convoy, 
accompany on the way. — Late L. conuidre, 
to accompany. — L. con- {cum), with; uia, 
way. % Cofivey is the A. F. or Norman 
form ; convoy is Parisian. 

Convince. (L.) L. conuincere, to 
overcome by proof. — L. con- {cum), 
wholly ; uincere, to conquer. Der. con- 
vict, verb and sb., from A. F. convict <X.. 
conuictus, pp. of conuincere. 

Convivial. (L.) Coined as adj. from 
L. conutui-um, a feast. — L. con- {cuni), 
together ; tiiuere, to live (hence, eat). 

Convoke. (F. — L.) F. convoquer.^^ 
L. conuocdre, to call together. — L. con-, 
together; uocdrc, to call. 

Convolve. (L.) L. conuoluere, to roll 
together, writhe about. — L. con- {cum^y 
together; zioluere, to roll. Der. convolut- 
ion, from pp. comwldtus ; convolv-ul-us, 
L. comioluulus, a twining plant. 

Convoy ; see Convey. 

Convulse, to agitate violently. (L.) 
L. commlsus, pp. of conuellere, to pluck 
up, convulse. — L. co7i- (cum), with, 
severely ; uellere, to pluck. 

Cony, Coney, a rabbit. (F. - L.) 
yi.¥..coni', 3.\so conyji^. An^o-¥. conil, 


conin ; 0. F. cotinil. — L. cuntctihis, a 
rabbit ; a word of uncertain origin. 

Coo. (E.) A purely imitative word ; 
also spelt croo. Cf. cuckoo, cock. 

Cook. (L.) M. E. coken, to cook ; 
A.S. coc, a cook. — L. coqutis, a cook ; co- 
quere, to cook. + Gk. TrfCfreti/ ; Skt. pacJi^ 
to cook ; Russ. pech{e), to bake. (V^^EQ ; 
whence Lat. *pequere, becoming *queqticte 
by assimilation, and then coquere; Gk. 
*iTiq-ULv, whence iricadiv^ Erugm. i. § 
66 1 . A..^. coc^ Late L. a7(;«j, for coqtiiis. 

Cookie, a cake ; see Ca,ke. 

Cool. (E.~> A.S. c^/, cool. + Du. kocl: 
Teut. type *kdl-uz; also, with mutaiion, 
Dan. /^t)/, G. ktihl ; from ^cJ/-, 2nd grade 
of kal-, as in A. S. calan, Icel. kaia, to 
freeze (pt. t. kol) ; see Cold. 

Coolie, Cooly, an East Indian porter. 
(Hind, or Tamil.) Hind. kfllT, a labourer, 
porter, cooley (Forbes) ; prob. from Koll 
a tribal name (Yule;. Or from Tamil -^/7/?, 
daily hire or wages; hence, a day- 
labourer (Wilson). 

Cooxnb ; see Comb. 

Coop. (L.) M. E. cupe^ a basket : 
answering to A.S. '^alpe, not found, though 
cype (with z-mutation) occurs as a gloss 
to dolium. — 'L. cilpa, a tub, whence also 
Du. ktiip, Icel. kupa, a bowl ; also Late L. 
copa, whence G. kufe, tub, vat, coop ; 
O. Sax. copa, a tub, Cf. Skt. kf/pa, a pit, 
hollow. Der. coop-er, tub-maker. 

Co-operate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
co-operdri, to work with; from co- (cum), 
with; and operdrT, to work; see Operate. 

Co-ordinate. (L.) From L. co- {cwn), 
with ; and the pp. of ordindre, to order. 
See Ordinate. 

Coot. (E.) M. E. cote, coote, a water- 
fowl. 4-Du. koet, a coot. Origin unknown. 

Copal. (Span. - Mexican.) Span, copal. 

— Mex. copalli., resin. 
Co-parcener, a co-partner. (F. — L.) 

Parcener is the true old spelling oi partner ; 
see Partner. 

Cope (i), orig. a cape. (Late L.) M. E. 
cope., earlier cape ; A. S. *cdpa, not foimd ; 
but Icel. kdpa occurs. —Late L. cdpa, a 
cape; see Cape (i). [Cf. pope, from 
A. S. pdpa.~\ Der. coping-stone. 

Cope (2), to vie with. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
Isl. E. copen, coiipen, to light. — O. F\ coper, 
couper, colper, to strike (F. coiiper, to cut). 

— O. F. cop, coup, colp, a blow. — Late L. 
colpus, L. colaphus^ a blow. — Gk. K6\a(pos, 
a blow on the ear. See Coupon. 


Copeck, a small Russian coin, worth 
less than^(^/. ; a hundredth part of a rouble. 
(Russ.) Russ. y^(9//V//('a, a copeck ; dimin. 
of Russ. kopee, a lance. wSo called from the 
figure of Ivan IV, holding a lance (1535). 
See Rouble. 

Copious, ample. (F. — L.) O. F. co- 
pieux.'—l^. copiosns, plentiful. — L. copia, 
plenty; for *co-opia.'-'L. co- (for cum), 
together ; op-y base of op-es, wealth. Cf. 
in-opia, want. 

Copper, a metal. (Cyprus.) yi.Y.. coper. 
A. S. <:"t>/^r. — Late L. cuper, L. cuprum, a 
contraction for Ciipriuvi cbs, Gyprian brass. 

— Gk. Ki;7rpio?, Cyprian ; Kr;7rpo?, Cyprus, 
whence the Romans got copper. 

copperas, sulphate of iron. (F. — L.) 
M. E. coperose.'- O.Y . cope rose {couperose) ; 
cf. Ital. copparosa. According to Diez, 
from L. ciipri rosa, rose of copper, a trans- 
lation of Gk. xaKK-av6os, brass - flower, 
copperas. But this is prob. only a popular 
etymology ; and the Late L. cuprosa seems 
to be merely an adj. form from cuprum. 
See N.E.D. 
Coppice, Coppy, Copse, a small 

wood. 1^1'. — L. — Gk.) C^//_y is short for 
coppice, and copse is contracted, —O. F. 
copeiz [Low L. copecid], underwood fre- 
quently cut, brushwood, — 0-F\ coper (F. 
couper'), to cut. — O. F\ cop (F, coup), a 
stroke. — LowL. colpus, L. colaphus, stroke, 
blow. — Gk. KoKaipos, a blow. ^ O. F. 
copeiz answers to a Late L. type *colpdti- 
citim, from colpdre, to strike. Coppy arose 
from coppice being taken as coppics, pi. ; 
and copse {cops) from reduciiig a supposed 
pi. *coppis to cops. 

Coprolite. (Gk.) Lit. ' dung-stone.' 
Made from Gk. fcoirpo-s, dung ; a.nd\i6-os, 
a stone. For -lite, cf. Aerolite. 

Copulate. (L.) F>om pp. of L. copu- 
Idre, to join. — L. copula, a band; see 

Copy. (F. — L.) M. E. copy, abun- 
dance ; the mod. sense is due to the mul- 
tiplication of an original by means of copies. 

— O. F. copie, abundance; also a copy. — 
L. cdpia, plenty ; see Copious. 

Coquette. (F.) F. r^^?/^//,?, 'apratling 
or proud gossip,' Cot.; fem. of coquet, 2i 
little cock, dimin. oicoq, a cock. Cf. prov- 
E. cocky, i. e. strutting as a cock. 

Coracle, alight wicker boat. (W.) W, 
corwgl, cwrwgl, coracle ; dimin. of coi'wg, 
a carcase, civrwg, a boat, frame. So Gael. 
ctirachan, coracle, from curach, boat of 


wicker-work ; cf. Ir. corrach, O. Ir. cia-ach, 
a boat. 

Coral. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. coral. - 
L. coralhvn, cordluim.'—OV. Kopa.KXi.ov, 
coral. See Schade, p. 1374. 

Corban, a gift. (Helx) Heb. qorbdn, 
an offering to God, in fulfilment of a vow ; 
from qdrah, to draw near. Cf. Arab, qur- 
bdn, a sacrifice. 

Corbel. (F. — L.) O. F. r^r^t-/, a raven, 
a corbel (in architecture), from the notion 
of a projecting beak. — Folk-L. corbellum, 
for corvcllwn, ace. of co-ve/his, dimin. 
of L. coruiis, a raven. ^ Distinct from 
corbeil, a basket full of earth (F. corbeille, 
L. corbicula, dimin. oi corbis^ a basket). 

Cord. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. corde.- 
F. r^r^^. — Late L. cot'da, a thin rope ; the 
same as L. chorda. — Gk. x^P^f the string 
of a musical instrument. Der. cord-age 
(F. cordage) ; cord-on (F. cordon) ; cord- 
-elier (F. cordelier, a twist of rope, also 
a Gray Friar, who used such a twist ; from 
cordeler, to twist ropes). See Chord. 

Cordial. (F. — L.) Y. cordial, YiQ^wty. 
— L. cordi-, deck stem of cor, heart; with 
suffix -dlis ; see Heart. 

Corduroy, a thick-ribbed or corded 
stuff. (F. — L.) Y. corde du 7-oi, a trade- 
name, invented in England ; lit. * king's 
cord.' See Cord and Royal. 

Cordwainer, shoemaker. (F. — Span.) 
M. E, cordewaner, a worker in cordcwane, 
i.e. leather oi CordiON2i.^O.Y. cordottan, 
Cordovan leather. —Late L. Cordoa, Cor- 
dova in Spain (L. Cordubd). 

Core, hard centre in fruit, &c. (F. — L. ?) 
Etym. doubtful. Perhaps from F. cor, a 
horn, also, a corn on the foot, callosity. — 
L. cormi, a horn, a horny excrescence. 

Coriander. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cori- 
atidre. — L. coriandj-nm (whence A. S. cel- 
lendre).-^Gk. Kopiawof, Kopiov, coriander. 

Cork. (Span. — L.) Apparently from 
O. Span, alcoj'qne, a cork shoe, which 
seems to be an Arab, form allied to Span. 
al-cornoque, the cork-tree, where al is the 

Arab. def. art., and co7-n-oqne is formed 
from L. qnern-us yioi *qiiercmis), oaken, 
adj. from L. quercns, an oak. ^ But the 
bark of the tree was called, in Span., corche, 
core ho. "l^. corticem, ace. of cortex, bark. 

Hence cork is often derived from Span. 

corcho, though k for ch seems improb- 
Cormorant, a bird. (F. — L.) The t 

is excrescent. — F. cormoran\ O. F. conna- 


}-ant, cormaratt (Littre). — O. F. corp, a 
crow ; and O. F. *7?tarenc, belonging to 
the sea, deriv. of L. inaj-e, sea, with G. M 
suffix -m^; cf. Y.Jlamant^ flamingo. — L. ■ 
cortium, ace. of coruus, a crow ; &c. 
Cf. Port, corvoniarinho, a cormorant ; lit. 
' marine crow ; ' from L. coruus moriniis. 
But probably -moran was due to, or con- 
fur^ed with, Bret, morvran, a cormorant 
Jrom 7nor, sea, and bran, a crow). 
Corn (0, grain. (E.) A. S. r^r«.+Du. 
koren, Icel. Dan. Svved. G. kom, Goth. 
kaurn. Teut. type *ktir7io>?i, Idg. type 
*g9r7iom, corn ; whence O. Slav, zriino, zerno, corn. Cf. Lat. grdtitan, 
grain ; Skt.y/>«a-, worn down, pp. oijrl. 
T) oyxhlet, grain. See Grain. Brugm. i. 

§ 628. (Vgp:r.) 

Corn (2), a hard excrescence on the 
foot. (F. — L.) O. F. corn (F. cor), a horn, 
horny swelling. — L. cornu, a horn; see 

cornea, homy membrane in the eye. 
(L.) L. cornea, fem. oi cornens, horny.— 
L. CO' nfi, a horn. 

cornel, a shrub. (Du.— L.) M. Da. 
kornelle, ' the fruit of the cornel I e-tree,' 
Hexham ; cf. AL H. G. comelbatim, cornel- 
tree ; Weigand. [Cf. M. F.rtJm/V/^, a cor- 
nel-berry ; cornillier, cornel-tree.] — Late L. 
cornolium, cornel-iree. — L. co>nus, a cor- 
nel-tree ; from the hard, horny nature of 
the wood. — L. cornu, a horn. 

cornelian, a kind of chalcedony. 
(F. — L.) Formerly cortialine. — F. coi^na- 
line, 'the cornix or cornaline, a flesh- 
coloured stone ; ' Cot. Cf. Port, corne- 
lina; also Ital. corniola, (i) a cornel-tree, 
(2) a cornelian, prob. so named because 
its colour resembles that of the fruit of the 
cornel-tree (SchadeV — Late L. corniola, 
cornel-berry; cornolium, cornel.- L. cor- 
jieus, adj. of cornus, a cornel. ^ Altered 
to carneolus in Late L. (Schade. p. 1379), 
carnelian in E., and carneol in G., from 
a popular etymology which connected it 
with L. earn-, stem of caro, flesh. Cf. 
OJiyx ^ Gk. 6Vi;£, finger-nail. 

corner. ( F. — L.) A. Y.comere ; O. F. 
cortiiere. — Med. L. corneria, corner, angle. 
— Med. L. coma, angle. — L. cornua, pi. of 
cornii, horn, projection ; taken as a fem. 

cornet. (F. — L.) M, E. co7-net, a horn ; 

later, a troop of horse (who carried a cor- 

nette or standard) ; also an officer of such 

a troop. — F. cornet, cornette, dimin. of F. 




come, a horn. — Med. L. coma, a horn 

Cornice. (F. — Ital.) M. F. and Picard 
cornice ; F. corniche. — Ital. cornice, a 
ledge for hanging tapestry (Florio) ; 
usually, a crow (from L. ace. cor7iTce?n, a 
crow). Origin uncertain ; by some idenli- 
iied with coronix, a square frame. — Gk. 
Kopojvis, curved ; as sb., a wreath. 

CoroUa. (L.) L. corolla, dimin. of co- 
'lona, a crown. See Crown. 

corollary. (L.) 'L.corolldriu7fi,iiY>Tt- 
sent of a garland, a gratuity ; also, an 
additional inference. — L. corolla (above). 

coronal, a crown. (F. — L.) Properly 
an adj. — F. coronal, adj. — L. corondlis, 
belonging to a crown. ^'L. coj'd7ia, a crown. 

coronation. (L.) LateL. ace. cordnd- 
tionetn, from pp. of corondre, to crown.— 
L. corona, a crown. 

coroner. (F. — L.) Also croivner; 
both forms represent A. F. coruner, coroner, 
Latinised as cordfidrius, a crown- officer, a 
coroner (afterwards Latinised as coro- 
ndtor . — O. F. corone, a crown. — L. corona, 
a crown. 

coronet. (F. — L.) Dimin. of O. F. 
corone, a crown. — L. corona, a crown. 

Coronach, a dirge. (Gael.) Gael. <:^r- 
ranach, a dirge, lit. ' a howling together.' — 
Gael, comh- ( = L. cum) , together ; riinaich, 
a howling, from the verb I'an, to howl 
cry, roar, which is from I'an, sb., an outcry. 
So also Irish coranach, a dirge. 

Corporal (0, a subordinate officer. 
(F. — L.) O. F. corporal. '-'\jaXQ. L. cor- 
pordlis, a captain ; a leader of a body of 
troops. — L. corpor-, for *corpos-, stem 
of corpus, body. ^ F. has now the form 
caporai, from Ital. caporale, a chief of a 
bnnd ; as if from Ital. capo, head (L. 
caput) ; but this does not explain the -or-. 

corporal (2), belonging to the body. 
(F. — L.) O. F. corporal, corporel.-^t^. 
corpordlis, bodily. — L. corpor-, for *r<?r 
pos-, stem of corpus, the body. Der. 
(from L. corpor-) corpor-ate, corpor-e-al 
(L. corpore-us), &c. Brugm. i. § 555. 

corps, corpse, corse, a body 

(F. — L. ) [Here corps is F. ; corse is from 
the O. F. corsP\ M. E. cors, corps. "-O. F. 
cors, M. ¥ .corps, the body. — L. corpus, body. 

corpulent. (F. - L.) F. corptdent. - 
L. corpulentus, fat. — L. corpus, body. 

corpuscle. (L.) L. corpus-cu-han, 
double dimin. of corpus, body. 
Corral, an enclosure for animals, pen. 

(Span.— L.) Span, coi'ral, a court, yard, 
enclosure. — Span, corro, a circle, a ring of 
people met to see a show. From the 
phrase correr toros, to hold a bull-fight, 
lit. to run bulls. — L. currere, to run (Diez). 
See Kraal. 

Correct, adj. (L.) L. corrcctus, pp. 
of corrigere, to correct. — L. cor- (for 
con- = ctivi), together ; regere, to rule. 

COrregidor, a Spanish magistrate. 
(Span. — L.) Span. co7-regidor, lit. ' cor- 
rector.' —Span, corregir, to correct. — L. 
corrigere (above . 

Correlate, to relate or refer mutually. 
(L.) Coined from L. cor- (^^cuf/i), to- 
gether ; and Relate, q. v. 

Correspond. (F. — L.) Y.correspon- 
dre. — L. cor- (for con-, cum), together ; 
and Respond, q. v. 

Corridor. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. corridor. 

— Ital. corridore, a swift horse; also, a 
long (running along) gallery. —Ital. cor- 
rere, to run. — L. currere, to run. 

Corrie. (Gael.) Gael, coire, a circular 
hollow surrounded with hills, a mountain 
dell ; also, a cauldron. [Cf. G. kessel, a 
kettle, a ravine.] + O. Irish coire, core, a 
kettle ; W. pair, A. S. hwer, a cauldron. 
Brugm. i. § 123. 

Corroborate. (L.) From pp. ofL. 

corrohordre, to strengthen. — L. cor- (for 
con- — cu/?i), wholly ; robor-, stem oii'obur, 

Corrode. (F. — L.) F. corroder. — L. 
corrodere, to gnaw to pieces. — L. cor- (for 
con- = ctivi), wholly ; rddere, to gnaw. 
Der. corrosive, from pp. corros-us. 

Corrody, Corody, allowance, pen- 
sion. (Low Lat. — Teut.) A.Y . coi-odie.-- 
Low L. corrodium, earlier corredium, L. 
form of A. F. cotirei, preparation, pro- 
vision, allowance. See Curry (1). 

Corrugate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
corrugdre, to wrinkle. — L. cor- (cum), 
wholly ; and rilgdre, to wrinkle, from 
nlga, a wrinkle. 

Corrupt, adj. (F.-L.) K.Y.corupt. 

— L. corruptus, pp. oicorrtimpere, to break 
wholly, corrupt. — L. cor- (for con- =^ cictn) , 
wholly ; rumpere, to break. 

Corsair. (F. - Ital. — L.) F. coi-saire 
(Prov. corsari, one who makes the course, 
corsa). — Ital. corsare, earlier corsaro, a 
pirate. — Med. L. ciirsdrius, a pirate. — 
L. ciirsus, a course. See Course. 

Corse, a body. (F. — L.) M.E.cWJ. — 
O. F. cors.'^X^. corpus, a body. 
3 E 



corset. (F. — L.) F. corset, a pair of 
stays; dimia. of O. F. cors^ body. 

corslet. (F. -L.) F. corselet, ' a little 
body,' Cot.; hence, body-armour. Double 
dimin. of O. F. cars, body (above). 

Cortege. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. cortege, a 
train, retinue. — Ital. corteggio, a retinue. 
— Ital. corte, a court, — L. cortem, co- 
hortern, ace. of cohors, a court ; see Court 

COrtes, the Span, national assembly. 
(Span.— L.) Span, cartes^ pi. of corte, a 
court. — L. cortem (above;. 

Cortex, bark. ;L.' L. cortex (gen. 
corticis), bark. Dsr. cortical. 

Coruscate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cornscdre, to glitter. 

Corvette, a small frigate. (F. — Port. — 
L.) F. corvette. — Vort. corveta ; Span. 
corbeia, a corvette.- L. corblta, a slow- 
sailing ship of burden. — L. cordis, a basket. 

Cosmic, relating to the world. (Gk.") 
Gk. Koaui/coi, adj., from koctixos, order, also 
the world, universe. Dsr. cosmo-gony, 
cosmo ' graphy , cos mo - logy, cosjno- polite 
(citizen of the world, Gk. -nokiTrjs, a 

cosmetic, that which beautifies. (Gk.) 
Gk. Koayir]TiK6s, skilled in adorning ; 
whence also F. cosmitique. — Gk. Koayiko^, 
I adorn.- Gk. kogixos, order, ornament. 

Cossack, a light-armed S. Russian 
soldier. (Russ. — Tatar.) Russ. kozak\ 
kazak' ; of Tatar (Tartar) origin. — Turk! 
quzzdq. a vagabond ; a predatory horse- 
man (Vule). 

Cosset, to pet. (E.) From i6th cent. 
cosset, a pet-lamb, a pet. Prob. the same as 
A. F. coscet, cozet, a cottar ; A. S. cot-s&ta, 
a dweller in a cot, * cot-sitter.' P>om 
A. S. cot, cot ; s&ta, dweller, from sittan, 
to sit. Cf. prov. G. kossat^ a cottager. 
[So Ital. casiccio, pet lamb (Florio) ; from 
casa, a cottage.] 

Cost, vb. (F. -L.) M. E. costen. - O. F. 
coster (F. coilter), to cost. — L. const are, to 
stand together, last ; also to cost. — L. con- 
{cum), together; and stare, to stand. 

Costal, relating to the ribs. (L.) From 
L. costa, a rib. See Coast. 

Costerm.Onger. (F. and E.) For- 
merly costerd-monger, or costard-monger, 
a seller oi costards or apples. [The suffix 

-monger is E. ; see Monger.] M. E. 

costard, an apple, where the suffix -ard is 

F. ; prob. from O. F. coste, F. cote, a rib ; 

cf. Y. fruit cdteli, ribbed fruit (Hamilton). 

Costive. (F. — L.) Yroxa.O.Y.costeve. 
— L. constipdttis, constipated. See con- 
stiper in Littre ; and Constipate. 
Costume. (F.-Ital.-L.) O. F. ^^^- 
tufne, a costume. — Ital. costume ; Low L. 
costiima ; see Custom. Doublet of cus- 

Cosy, Cozy, comfortable, snugly shel- 
tered. (Scand.) Lowl. Scotch cosie, cozie 
(Bums). Etym. unknown ; perhaps cf. 
Norw. kosa, to refresh ; kosa seg, to enjoy 
oneself ; koseleg, snug, cosy ; kosingy re- 

Cot, a small dwelling; Cote, an en- 
closure. (E.) M.E. cote. A. S. cot, cote, a 
cot,den ; Northumbrian cot.-\-l}i\.^ot, Icel. 
kot, cot, hut ; prov. G. /:ot/i, cot. Der. 
cott-age (with F. suffix) ; cott-ar or cott-er ; 

coterie, a set of people. (F. — Teut.) 
F. coterie, a set of people, company ; 
allied to O. F. coterie, servile tenure 
(Littre) ; Low L. coteria, a tenure by 
cottars who clubbed together. — Low L. 
cota, a cot. — Du. kot (above) . 

Cotillon, Cotillion, a dance for 4 or 
8 persons. (F. - I^I. H. G.) F. cotillon, lit. 
a petticoat; see Cotgrave. Formed, with 
suffix -ill-on, from O. F. cote, a coat, 
frock ; see Coat. 

'■ Cotton (i), a downy substance. (F.— 
Span. —Arab.) M. E. and A. F. cotoun.— 
F. colon. — S\)Z.n. colon, algodon, cotton 
(where al is the Arab. art.). - Arab, qittn, 
qutun, cotton. 

cotton (2), to agree. From a technical 
use of cotton, to form a down upon ; from 
Cotton (i); see Nares. 

Cotyledon, seed-lobe. (Gk.) Gk. 
icoTvXrjdujv, a cup-shaped hollow. — Gk. 
kotvKt], a hollow vessel, cup. 

Couch, to lay down, place, set. (F.-- 
L.) M. E. couchen, to set, arrange. — O.F. 
coucher, colcher, to place. — L. collocdre, to 
put together. — L. col- {cimi), together; 
and locdre, to place, from locus, a place. 
Der. couch, sb., a place on which one is 
coziched or laid. 

Couch-grass, a grass which is trouble- 
some as a weed. (E.) Here couch is a 
variant of quitch, palatalised form of 
quick, i.e. tenacious of life ; see Quick. 
Cough. (E.) M. E. coughen, cowhen. 
A. S. ^cohhian, only found in the deriv. 
cohhetan, to make a noise. [The usual 
A. S. word is h7udstan.'] Cf. Du. kuchen, 
to cough ; M. H. G. kitchen, G. keuchen^ 




:o gasp. From an imitative base *ketili, 
'^kuh^ to gasp ; see Chincough. 

Could ; see Can (i). 

Coulter, part of a plough. (L.) M. E. 
■alter . A. S. cutter. •^'L. culter, a coulter, 
cnife. Ct per-cellere,io stn^Q. 

Council. (F. — L.) Y .concile.-^Y.. con- 
:iliu7n, an assembly called together. — L. 
■on- [cum), together; and caldre, to 
jummon. ^ Often confused with counsel. 

Counsel. (F.— L.) M.E. conseil." 
'y.¥, conseil. — l-,. consilium, deliberation. 
— L. consulere, to consult; see Consult. 
If Often confused with council. 

Count (i), a title of rank. (F. — L.' 
Ihe orig. sense was ' companion.' A. F. 
■Qiinte (not in M. E.). — O. F. conte -, also 
■omte. — L. comitem, ace. of comes, a com- 
Danion (stem corn-it- ). — L,.com- (for cum-), 
.ogether; and it-um, supine of ire, to go. 
Der. count-ess ; also couni-y (below). 

Count (2), to reckon. (F. — L.) F. 
-onter, formerly also compter. -^Y^. compu- 
'dre, to compute ; see Compute. 

Countenance. F.-L) O. F. con- 

'enance, gesture, demeanour ; also look, 
.'isage. — L. continentia, continence, which 
n Late L. meant ' gesture, demeanour.' — 
L. continent-, stem of pres. pt. oicontin'ere; 
;ee Continent, Hev. dis-coutttenance, vb. 

Counter, a piece to count with, a 
Dureau. (F. — L.) M-E. countour. — 0.¥. 
:0Hteour, countour. From O. F. confer ; 
;ee Count (2). 

Counter-, /r^:/^.^. (F.-L.) ¥. centre, 
igainst. — L. contf-d, against. 

Counteract. F . — L. ) See Counter-, 
prefix, and Act. 

Counterfeit, imitated. (F. - L.) 
M.E. couftter/eit.'-O.Y. contrefait, pp. 
oi contrefaire, to imitate. — F. contre, over 
against, like ; /aire, to make. — L. contra, 
against ; facere, to make. 

Countermand, to revoke an order. 
(F. — L.) F. contremander, to recall a 
command. — F. contre (l^.contrd), against ; 
mander (L. vianddre), to command. 

Counterpane i ), a coverlet for a bed. 
(F. — L.) An altered form, in place of 
counterpoint, as in Shak. — M.F. contre- 
poinct, the back-stitch or quilting-stitch, 
also a quilt ; Cot. p. Thus named, by a 
popular etymology, from a fancied connec- 
tion with M. F. contrepoincter, to work the 
back-stitch (from contre = \u. contra). But 
really connected with M. F. coutrepointer, 
to quilt (also in Cotgrave). In fact, contre- 


poind is a corruption of O. F. coutepointe, 
a counterpane (see courtepointe in Littre). 

— L. culcita pimcta, a counterpane, a 
stitched quilt (see Ducange). — L. culcita, 
a quilt ; puncta, fern, of punctits, pp. of 
ptiugere, lo prick. See Quilt. 

Counterpane (2% counterpart of a 
deed. (F. — L.) M..Y . contrepan, contre- 
pant \ Cot. — F. contre (L. contra), over 
against; pan, a piece, part ; see Pane. 

Counterpoint, the composing of 
music in parts. (F. — L.) M.F. contre- 
poitict, ' a ground or plain song, in music ; ' 
Cot. The lit. sense vi, point against point, 
from the points or dots which represented 
musical notes, and were placed on staves 
over or against each other in compositions 
in two or more parts. — F. contre (L. con- 
tra), against ; point, a point ; see Point. 

Counterpoise. (F.—L.) Yxovacouti- 

ter and poise ; see Poise. 

Counterscarp, exterior slope of a 
ditch. (F. — Ital. — L. aW Teut.j Y.con- 
trescarpe ; Cot. — Ital. contrasca7pa. — 
Ital. contra, over against ; scarpa, a scarp. 
See Counter- and Scarp. 

Countersign, to attest by signing in 
addition. .F.-L.) F. contresigner, 'to 
subsigne ; ' Cot.— F. contre, over against ; 
signer, to sign ; see Counter- and Sign. 

Countertenor. (F.-ItaL-L.) M.F. 

contreteneur; Cot. — Ital. contratenore, a 
countertenor, the highest adult male voice. 
^\\.2X. contra, against, over against; tenure, 
a tenor ; see Tenor. 

Countervail. (F.-L.) M. E., r^«- 
trevailcn. — O. F. contrevail-, a stem of 
contrevaloir, to avail against. — 0..F. con- 
tre, against ; valoir, to avail. — L. contra, 
against ; ualere, to be strong. 

C OUntry. (F. — L.) M.E. contree. — 
O. F. contree { = Ital. contrada). — Late L. 
contrdda, contrdta, a region, lit. that which 
lies opposite ; cf. G. gegend, country,, lit. 
opposite, from^^^^w, opposite. — L. f^«MF, 
opposite ; see Contra-. 

Country-dance. (F.) Yxoxa country 

and dance. (The F. contredanse was bor- 
rowed from this E. form.) 

County, orig. a provincegoverned by a 
count. (F. — L.) M,E, cottntee.-'O.Y. 
cotmte (i.e. coun-te), Y. comte, a province. 

— Late L, comitdtum, ace, of comitdttis, a 
county (though the old meaning was a com- 
pany or suite). — L. comit-, stem of comes, 
a count ; see Count (i). 

Couple. (F.-L.) O.F. cople, later 




couple. ^Y.. copula, a bond, band, that 
which joins ; short ior *co-ap-tila. — L. co- 
{cuin), together; and O. L. apere, to join., 
preserved in the pp. apius ; see Apt. 

Coupon, one of a series of conjoined 
tickets or certificates. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. 
coupon, a piece cut oft", a coupon. — Y.couper, 
to cut, slash. — F. co7(p, a blow. — Late L, 
colpus, short for colaphus, a blow. — Gk. 
KoKacpos, a blow on the ear. 

Courage. (F.-L.) ¥. courage, O.Y. 
corage ; formed with suffix -age (L.-dticttni) 
from O. F. cor, heart. — L. cor, heart. 
Der. encouj'age. 

Courier. (,F. — Ital, — L.) yi.Y .courier, 
a runner ; F. courrier.'^\\z\.. coi'7-iere, lit. 
* runner.' — Ital. correre, to run. — L. cur- 
rere, to run. 

course. (F. — L.) F. course. — L. cur- 
SU771, ace. of cursus, a course ; from pp. of 
currere. Der. cours-er, a swift horse. 

Court (i), a yard; royal retinue, judicial 
assembly. (F. — L.) M. E. cort, ciirt. -^ 
O.F. cort, C2irt (F. court), b. court, a yard, 
also a tribunal. — L. ace. cdrteni, cohorton 
(nom. cohors), a pen, enclosure, cattle- 
yard, court, also a cohort, or band of sol- 
diers.— L.r^- (r«w), together; and hort-, 
as in hort-us, a garden, yard, cognate with 
yard. (VGHER.) 

court (2), to seek favour. (F. — L.) 
From the sb. court ; hence, to practise arts 
in vogue at court. 

courteous, of courtly manners. (F. 

— L.) M. E. cartels, later corteous.— 
O. F. corteis, courteous. — O. F. cort, a 
court ; with suffix -els (L. -ensis). 

courtesan. (F. — Ital. — L.) Fem. 
of F. courtisan, a courtier. — Ital. corti- 
giano (in Florio cortegiano), a courtier. For 
*cortesiano, an extension of cortese, cour- 
teous ; from Ital. corte, court. — L. ace. 
iortem; see Court (i). 

courtesy. (F.-L.) M.E. cortesie. 

— O. F. cortesie, courtesy. — O. F. corteis, 
courteous ; see courteous. 

courtier. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. cotirteour. 
From A. F. *cortei-er (O. F. cortoi-er), to 
live at court ; with suffix -our (L. -atorem). 

— O. F. cort, a court. 

Court cards ; a corruption of coat 
cards, pictured cards, the old name. 

Courteous, &c. ; see Court. 

Cousin. (F. - L.) M. E. cosin. - O. F. 
cosin (F. cousin ; Late L. coshius, Ital. 
cugino, Romaunsch cusrin, cusdrin^.— lu. 
consobrinus, the child of a mother's sister, 


a cousin. — L. con- {cuni), together; sohrT- 
nus, for *swesr-inus, belonging to a sister ; 
from L. soror (for '^szvesdr), a sister; cf. 
Skt. svasr, a sister. See Sister. (Cf. 
Brugm. i. § 319.) 

Cove, a nook. (E.) A. S. cofa, a cham- 
ber, a cave. + Icel. kofi, a hut ; Swed. 
kofva ; G. koben, a cabin. ^ Distinct 
from cave, coop, alcove. Brugm. i. § 658. 

Covenant, agreement. (P\— L.) 6.F. 
covenant, also convetiatit, agreement. — 
O. F. co{7i)venant, pres. pt. of co{n)venir, 
to assemble, agree. — L. conuenire, to as- 
semble, come together ; see Ccnvene. 

Cover, to hide. (F, — L.) O. F. covrir 
icouvrir). — !^. cooper ire, to cover. — L. co- 
^(r?^w), wholly ; operjre,io shut, hide. For 
*op-uerij-e ; cf. Lith. az-weriu, I shut, 
waj-tai, doors, Oscan ace. verzi, a door. 
Brugm. i. § 350. 

coverlet. (F. — L.) M. E. coverlite. 
— A. F. coverlet, coverlit (not in O. F.), 
a bed-cover. — O. F. covrir, to cover ; ///, 
a bed, from L. lecttim, ace. of lectus, a 

covert. (F. — L.) O.Y . covert, ^'^. 
oi covrir, to cover (above). 

Covet. (F. — L.) yi.Y. coueiten {co- 
veiten). — A. F. coveiter (F. convoiter). 
Cf. Ital. cubitare (for cupitare), to covet. 
Formed, as if from L. *cupiditdre, from 
cupiditd-tem, ace, eager desire, which 
is from ciipidus, desirous of. — L. cupere, 
to desire. See Cupid. 

Covey. (F. — L.) O. F. covee (F. cou~ 
vee), a brood of partridges; fem. of pp. of 
cover (¥. ccuver), to hatch, sit. — L. ciibdre, 
to lie down, sit. Cf. Gk. kv^Iws, bent. 

Covin, secret agreement, fraud ; a law- 
term. (F. — L.) M. E. covine. — O. F. 
covine, agreement. — O. F. covcnir, to as- 
semble, agree. — L. conuenire, to come 
together. See Convene, Covenant. (The 
O. F. covifie answers to Late L. convenia, 
pi. oi convenium, an agreement.) 

Cow (i), female of the bull. (E.) A. S. 
cu ; pi. cy, whence M. E. ky, and the 
pi. kine; see below. Teut. stem *kii-, 
whence also Icel. kyr. + Du. koe, Swed. 
Dan. ko. G. kuh : Teut. stem '^ko-. Also 
Irish and Gael, bo, W. buw, L. bos (gen. 
boti-is), Gk. /3oCs, VQxs.gdw, Skt.^.^?- (nom. 
gdus) ; cf. Russ. goviado, oxen. Idg. 
stems *g{w)du-, *g{w)ow-. See Beef. 

kine, cows. (E.) A new pi. ; due to 
A. S. cyna, gen. pi., * of cows.' Cf. 
M. E. ky, A. S. cy, cows. The A. S. cy^ 


pi. of cCi, a cow, is formed by vowel- 
change from tl to y. 

Cow (2), to dishearten. (Scand.) Icel. 
kjlga, to tyrannise over ; Dan. ktie, to 
coerce, subdue ; Swed. ktifva, to sup- 

Coward. (F. — L.) A. F. cotiard, a hare, 
a coward, F. coiia7'd, a coward ; cf. Ital. 
codardo, a coward. Probably named from 
the 'bob-tailed' hare.-O. F. coe (Ital. 
coda), a tail ; with F. suffix -ard, from 
Teut. -hart, orig. hard. — L. cauda, a 

Cower. (Scand.) M.E. r^z^r^w. — Icel. 
kura^ Dan. kure, to doze, lie quiet; Swed. 
kura, to cower, lie quiet ; Swed. dial, kura, 
to sit hunched up. Cf. G. katiern, to 

Cowl (i), a monk's hood. (L.) M. E. 
cfde, cozile. A. S. ctigele, ctigle.^'L,. cu- 
ciilla, a cowl ; cf. also ciicidhis. 

Cowl (■^), a vessel carried on a pole. 
(F. — L.) M.E. coiiel.'^O.Y . cuvel {cuveau) , 
a little tub; dimin. of ciive, a vat, tub. — 
L. cupa, 3. tub. Der. cowl-staff. 

Cowry, a small shell used for money. 
(Hind. — Skt.) Hind, kauri, a small shell 
{Cypra:a inoneta) used as coin in the 
lower provinces of India. — Skt. kaparda. 

Cowslip, a flower. (E.) M. E. coii- 
sloppe. A. S. cii-sloppe, cu-slyppe, lit. cow- 
slop, i. e. a piece of dung. (Other A. S. 
names of plants are of a very homely 
character.) Cf. oxlip, q. v, ; and prov. E. 
bull-slop, a large kind of oxlip (Britten). 

Coxcomb. (E.) A fool, named from 
his cock's comb, or fool's cap, cap with a 
cock's crest. 

Coxswain. (F. and Scand.) For 
cock-swain; from cock (4), a boat, and 

Coy. (F. — L.) O. F. coi, older form 
quel, quiet, still ; spelt coy, quoy, in Cot- 
grave. — Folk-L. *qtietut7i, ace. oi*quetus, 
for L. quietus, still. See Quiet, 

Coyote, a prairie-wolf. (Mexican.) 
From coyote, Span. pron. of Mex. coyotl. 

Cozen. (F. — L.) To cozen is to act 
as cousin or kinsman, to sponge upon, 
beguile. — F. cousiner, to call cousin, to 
sponge, live on other people ; see Hamil- 
ton and Cotgrave. — F. cousin, a cousin; 
see Cousin. 

Crab (i), a shell-fish. (E.) A. S. 
crabl>a.-\-\ce\. krabbi, Swed. krabba, Dan. 
krabbe, Du. krab, G. krabbc. Allied to 
E. Fries, and Du. krabbcn, to scratch. 


claw ; G. krebs (O. H. G. crebiz), a crab, 
Du. kreeft^ a crab. See Crayfish. 

crabbed, peevish, cramped. (E.) 
From oab, sb. ; i. e. crab-like, snappish 
or awkward. Cf. Du. krabben, to scratch, 
kribben, to be peevish. 

Crab (2), a kind of apple. (E.) Cf. 
Swed. krabbdple, crab-apple. Perhaps 
allied to crabbed (above). 

Crabbed; see Crab (i). 

Crack. (E.) A. S. cracian, to crack. 
+ Du. kraken, to crack, cieak ; G. kra- 
chen. Cf. Gael, crac, a fissure, cnac, a 
crack, to crack (from E.). Imitative, like 
crake, creak, croak, crash, gnash, knock. 

cracknel. (F. — Du.) ¥ oimtily crake- 
ncl, corruption of F. craquelin, a cracknel. 
— Du. krakeling, a cracknel. Named from 
its crispness. — Du. krakeii, to crack. 

crake, corncrake, a bird. (E.) 

From its cry ; M.E. craken, to cry out. 
Allied to crack, croak. 

Cradle. (E.) K.^.cradol. Cf. O.H.G. 
cratto, a basket; also O.H.G. creizo, 
prov. G. krdtze, a basket. 

Craft, skill. (E.) A. S. craft.-\-U\x. 
kracht, Icel. kraptr,kraftr, Swed. Dan. G. 
kraft, force. Cf. AS. crafian, to crave, 
demand. Der. handi-cra/t. 

Crag. (C.) \V. craig, Gael, crcag, 
crag, rock ; Irish creag, a rock ; cf. W. 
careg, Gael, carraig, rock, cliff, Bret. 
karrek, O. Irish carric, a rock. 

Crake ; see Crack. 

Cram. (E.) A. S. cravi?jna7t, to stuff. 
•\- Icel. kra/ija, Swed. kiauia, Dan. 
kramme, to squeeze. From craffun-, 2i;d 
grade of the sir. vb. crimm-an,\.o cxx\mh\G. 
And cf. Cramp. 

Cramp. (F. — Teut.) Y. crampe,'ihQ 
crampe,' Cot. ; cf. crafftpon, ' a cramp- 
iron.' — Du. kramp, a cramp, spasm. From 
the 2nd grade of Teut. *krempa7t-, *krif7i' 
pan-, to draw together, as in O. H. G. kii/n- 
phan, to draw together, str. vb. Cf. E. 
crimp, cra77ip, cru7nple ; Icel. krappr, 
cramped ; kreppa, to pinch. And com- 
pare Crank. 

Crane, a bird. (E.) A. S. rraw.+Du. 
kraan, Icel. trani (for kf-ani), Swed. 
trana, Dan. t7'a7ie, G. kran-ich; V\'. and 
Bret, garan, Gk. ftpavos, a crane, also a 
crane for raising weights. Cf. L. grus, a 
crane, Lith. gar}iys, a stork. From 
y^GER, to cry out; cf. Gk. "yfjpvs, voice 
cranberry. (Low G.) Modem; from 




Low G. kraanbere (Berghaus), G. kran- 
beere, lit. craneberry ; cf. Dan. tranebcer 
(from trane^krane, as above); Swed. 

Cranium. (L. — Gk.) Med. L. cra- 
nm?fi. — G]^. Kpdvlov, skull; allied to «d/)a, 

Crank (i), a bend. (E.) M. E. cranke. 
Allied to E. Fries, krunken, pp., bent. 
Cf. Du. kroiikel, a wrinkle, kronkelen, 
to wrinkle, turn, wind, Teut. base *k7'ejik-, 
variant of *kreng-. Cf. Cringe, Crinkle. 
crank (2), easily upset, as a boat. 
(E.) I. e. easily bent or twisted aside. 
Cf. Du. krank, ill, poor ; also krengen, to 
careen a boat ; Swed. krdnga, Dan. 
krange, to heel over ; see Cringe. 

crank (3), lively. (E.) The same 
word, from the idea of turning quickly. 
Cf. Norw. kring, active, brisk ; Dan. dial. 
krceng, dexterous. 

Cranny. (F. — L. ?) M. E. crany. 
— F. cran, a notch ; with E. suffix -y. 
Allied to Ital. ar/?«, anotch (Florio). Cf. 
Late L. crena, a notch (a word of doubt- 
ful authority). See Crenellate. 

CrantS, a garland. (M. Du. — G.j M. 
Du. krants, Du. krans, a garland, wreath 
(whence Dan. krands, Sw. krans). All 
from G. kratiz, a wreath. 

Crape. (F.— L.) F. crepe, formerly 
crespe, 'frizzled, crisped, crisp;' Cot. 
From its wrinkled surface. — L. crispus, 
curled. See Crisp. 

Crare, a small ship. (F.) In Cymb. 
iv. 2. 205. M.E. crayer. — O.Y. crater, 
creer, a war-vessel. Of unknown origin. 

Crash, vb. (E.) Of imitative origin ; 
closely allied to crack. Cf. clash, dash ; 
and see Craze. 

Crasis. (Gk.) Gk. Kpaacs, a mixing ; 
hence, contraction. — Gk. Kepavvvfxi, I 

Crass. (L.) L. crassus, thick, dense. 

Cratch, a crib, manger. (F. — O.H. G.) 
M. E. crecche. — O. F. creche (creche) ; 
Prov. crep>cha. — 0. H. G. crippea (whence 
G krippe), a crib. See Crib. 

Crate. (L.) L. crates, a hurdle ; hence, 
a wicker- case, &c. 

Crater. (L. — Gk.) L. crater, a bowl, 
a crater. — Gk. Kpar-qp, a large bowl in 
which things were mixed. — Gk. Kipnvvvixi, 
I mix. 

Cravat. (F. — Slavonic.) F. cravate, 
(i) a Croatian, (2) a cravat. Cravats 
were introduced into France in 1636, as 


worn by the Croatians, who were calle<i 
in F. Creates or Crovates or Cravates. 

Croat is a name of Slavonic origin ; cf. 
Russ. Kroaf , a Croatian. 

Crave. (E.) A. S. crafian, to crave, 
ask. Cf. Icel. krefja, Swed. krdfva, Dan. 
krcBve, to demand ; Icel. krafa, a de- 

Craven. (F.-L.?) The oldest form 
is M. E. cravant, with the sense of beaten, 
foiled, or overcome, i. Mr. Nicol sug- 
gested that it is a clipped form of O. F. 
cravanti, pp. explained by Cotgrave by 
' oppressed, foiled ' ; this is the pp. of 
O. F. cravanter, to break, oppress = Late 
L. '^crepantdre, formed from crepant-, stem 
of pres. pt. of crepdre, to crack, break. 
Cf. Span, quebrantar, to crack, break. 
2. But it seems rather to be due simply 
to the O. F. cravant, pres. participle 
of the O. F. craver, crever, to burst, 
break ; hence, to fail, to be overcome, 
to yield. — L. crepant em, ace. of the pres. 
part, of crepdre, to burst. Cf. O. F. 
creve, dead ; Span, qiiebrar, to fail ; 
quebrants, want of strength, great loss. 
See Phil. Soc. Trans. 1902 ; p. 659. 
See Decrepit. 

Craw, crop of fowls. (E.?) M.E. 
crawe. As if from A. S. ^craga, the neck ; 
not found; N. Fries, krage, neck, craw. 
Allied to Du. kraag, G. kragen, neck, 
collar (whence Late Icel. kragi, Swed. 
krage, Dan. krave, a collar). Note also 
Dan. kro, the craw of a bird ; Swed. krdfva. 

Crawfish, the same as Crayfish. 

Crawl. (Scand.) Prov. E. craffie, 
croffie, to crawl. — Icel. krajia, to paw, 
crawl ; Swed. krajia, to grope ; Dan. 
kravle, to crawl. Cf. N. Fries, krabli^ 
krawli, to crawl ; Low G. kratie/n. Fre- 
quentative from Teut. base *ki-ab-, to 
scratch, claw ; see Crab. 

Crayfish. iF. - O. H. G.) Altered 
from M. E. crevise. — O. F. crevisse, es- 
crevisse {^crevisse). — O. H. G. crebiz, G. 
krebs, a crab ; allied to G. krabbe, a crab ; 
see Crab (i). 

Crayon, (F. — L.) F. rray^w; extended 
from F. craie, chalk. — L. creta, chalk. 

Craze. (Scand.) M.E. erased, i. e. 
cracked. — Swed. krasa, Dan. krase, to 
crackle ; whence also F. ^eraser, to break 
in pieces. Cf. Swed. sia in kras, Dan, 
slaae i kras, to break in shivers. 

Creak. (E.) ^i.Y.. kreken. Allied to 
trake, crack. Cf, Du. kriek, a cricket. 



M. F. criqtier, to creak, allied to craquer, 
to crack. Of imitative origin. 

Cream. (F.— L. — Gk.) O.Y. cresvie 
(F. crhjic) ; really the same word as O. F. 
cresme (F. chreme), chrism (though con- 
fused with L. cremor, thick juice). — Late 
L. chrisma, consecrated oil. — Gk. xp'<7/^«, 
an unguent; see Chrism. 

Crease (i), a wrinkle, as in folding 
paper, &c. (F,— L.) Earliest spelling 
c?-cast, a ridge (later, a furrow). Variant 
of crest, ridge (as of a roof). Cf. Walloon 
cress, a crest, ridge of a roof, kretle, 
wrinkled (Remade) ; Prov. crest^ creis, a 
ridge; and prov, E. crease, a ridge-tile of 
a roof. {Atken. Sept. 18, 1897. J 

Crease (2), Creese, a dagger. (Ma- 
lay.^ Malay kris, 'a dagger, kris, or 
creese ; ' Marsden. 

Create. (L.) From pp. of L. credre, 
to make.-f-Skt. kr, to make. Der. creat- 
ttre, O.Y. creature, L. credtura. And see 
Crescent. Brugm. i. § 641. 

Creed. (L.) IM. E. crede ; A. S. creda. 
— L. credo, I believe : the first word of 
the creed. + O. Irish cretim, I believe ; 
Skt. pad-dadhdmi, I believe. Der. cred- 
ence (O. F. credence, L. credentid) ; cred- 
ible ; credit (L. pp. creditus) ; cred-ulous 
(L. credttlus), &c. Brugm. i. § 539. 

Creek. (E. ?) M. E. creke, a creek. + 
Du. kreek, M. Du. kreke; cf. Icel. kriki, a 
crack, nook (whence F. crique^. The 
orig. sense is *a bend,' as in Swtd. dial. 
armkrik, bend of the arm ; krik, an angle, 

Creel, an angler's osier basket. (F.— 
L.) O. F. creil, wicker-work (Ducange, 
s.v. cleid). — \^. type *crdticii him , for 
crdtictila, wicker-work, double dimin. of 
crates, a hurdle. See Crate and Grill. 

Creep. (E.) M. E. crepen; A. S. 
creopan.-^-ViVi. kruipen, Icel. krjupa, Swed. 
krypa, Dan. kr)'be, to crawl. Teut. type 
^kreJipan-, str. vb. 

Creese ; see Crease (2\ 

Cremation, burning. (L.) L. cremd- 
iionetn, ace. oi crematio; from pp. of cre- 
?ndre, to bum. 

Crenate, notched. (L.) From Late 
L. crena, AL Ital. crena, a notch. 

crenellate. (LateL.-F.-L.) From 
pp. of Late L. crenelldre, to furnish with 
battlements. — O. F. rrd^«(?/, a battlement; 
dimin. of O. F. cren, F. C7'an, a notch, 
from Late L. crena (above^. 

Creole, one bom in the W. Indies, but 

of European blood. (F. — Span. — L.) F. 
Creole. •~^\)z.n. criollo, a negro corruption 
of *criadillo, dimin. of criado, one edu- 
cated, instructed, or brought up ; hence, a 
child of European blood. Criado is pp. 
of criare, to create, also, to educate. — L. 
creare, to create, make. ^ Cf. Span. 
criadilla, dimin. of criada, a servant-maid. 

Creosote, a liquid distilled from tar. 
(Gk.) Lit. ' flesh- preserver.' — Gk. Kp^o-^ 
for Kpkas, flesh ; and acur-, short for owT-ijp, 
preserver, from ow^dv, to preserve, (in- 

Crescent. (L.) The 'increasing' 
moon. — L. crescent-, stem of pres. pt. of 
crescere^ to grow, increase (pp. cre-tus), 
inchoative form allied to cre-dre, to 
make ; see Create. 

Cress. (E.) M. E. cres, also ket'se (by 
shiftUig of r). A. S. carse, cerse, cressce. 
+ l)u. kers, M. Du. and Low G. kerse, G. 
kresse, O. H. G. cressa. 

Cresset. ^F. — L.) M.E. cresset, 
a light in a cup at the top of a pole. — 
O. F. cresset, craisset, a cresset (with 
grease in an iron cup . — O. F. craisse (F. 
graisse), grease; Littre. — Folk-L. '^crassia, 
grease, from L. ciassus, thick, dense. So 
also Walloon cracks, a cresset, from 
I crache, grease. 

Crest. (F.-L.) O. F. creste (F. 
Crete. ^ — L. crista, a comb or tuft on a 
bird's head, crest. 

Cretaceous, chalky. (L.) L. cre- 
tdce-us, adj. from creta, chalk ; with suffix 

Crevice, Crevasse. iF.-L.) M.E. 

crevice, crevase, crevasse. — O. Y . crevasse, 
a rift (Late L. crepdtia). — 0. Y . crever, to 
burst asunder. — L. crepdre, to crackle, 

Crew. (F. — L.) Formerly <:rM^, short 
for accrue, a re-inforcement. — O. F. ac- 
crene, increase ; orig. fem. of pp. of ac- 
croistre, to increase. — L. accrescere, to 
grow to. — L. ac- (for ad , to; oescere, to 

Crewel, a thin worsted yarn. Origin 

Crib, a manger. (E.^ A. S. crib.-\- 
O. Sax. kribbia, Du. kHb, G. krippe ; 
allied to Icel. Swed. kriibba, Dan. krybbe. 
Allied perhaps to M. H. G. krebe, a basket; 
but not to Du. korf, G. koi-b, if these are 
from L. corbis. Der. crib, verb, to put by 
in a crib, purloin ; cribb-age, where crib is 
the secret store of cards 



Crick, a spasm or twist in the neck, 
(E.) M. E. crykke ; also used in the sense 
of wrench. Prob. allied to Crinkle. 

Cricket (i), an insect. (F. — Tent) 
M. E. criket. — O. Y . crequet, criquet, 
cricket. — O. F. criquer, to creak, rattle, 
chirp. — Du. kriek, a cricket ; krikkrakkeii, 
to rattle. From the imitative base krik ; 
cf. prov. E. cracket, creaker, a cricket. 
Hexham has M. Du. kricken, ' to creake.' 

Cricket (2), a game. (F. — Du.) The 
game was once played with a hooked 
stick (Cot., s. V. crosse).-^ O. F. criquet, 
' baton servant de but au jeu de boule ; ' 
Godefroy. — M. Du. krick, ki-icke, a crutch ; 
Hexham. Cf. A. S. cricc, crycc, a crutch, 

Crime. (F. — L.) Y. crime. — 1^. crl- 
??ien, an accusation, fault (stem crij?iin-) ; 
allied to cernere, to decide. + Gk. Kpifxa, 
Kpifia, a decision ; Kpiveiv, to judge. Der. 
crimin-al, crimin-ate ; hence, recriminate 

Crimp, to wrinkle. (E.) In late use : 
answering to an A.S. '^crempan, E. Fries. 
krempen, causal deriv, of Cramp. 'i"he 
orig. str. vb. occurs as E. Fries, and Du. 
kriffipen, O. H.G. krimfan; Teut. type 
'^krempan- {krimpan-), to draw oneself 
together, shrink up ; pt. t. ^ki-amp, pp. 
*-krumpano-. See Cramp and Crumple. 

Crimson. (F.-Arab.-Skt.) M.E. 
cremosin. — O. F. cramoisin^ cramoisyiie 
(see cramoisi in Littre) ; Low L. crauie- 
sinus, also carmesTmis, crimson (Span. 
carmesi, Ital. cherf?iisi).-' Avah. qirmizi, 
crimson ; from qir7?tiz, the cochineal in- 
sect.— Skt. kr/;u\s), a worm. Brugm. i. 
§ 418. 

Cringe. (E.) M. E. ci-engen ; causal 
derivative of A. S. cringan, crincan, to 
sink in battle, fall beneath the foe. 
Crincan is a strong verb ; see Crank, 

Cringle, an iron ring. (Low G.) 
Low G. kringel, a ring (Lubben"); E. Fries. 
kringel ; allied to Icel. kringla, a circle 
(ci.kringar, pi., the pullies of a drag-net). 
Dimin. of E. Fries, kring, a ring. Du. 
kring, a circle ; allied to Crinkle, Crank 
(i), and Cringe. 

Crinkle. (E.) y\.Y.crittkled trended, 
twisted. A frequent, form of the causal 
deriv. oi crink, which occurs in the A.S. 
str. vb. crijtcan, to sink in a heap ; see 

Crinoline, a lady's stiff skirt. (F.— 
L.) Y. crinoline, (i) hair-cloth, (2) crino- 


line. — F. C7'in (L. ace. crinem), hair; 
and lin, flax, hence thread, from L. llmim, 
flax, also, a thread. 

Cripple. (E.) M, E. crepel, crupel ; 
O. Northumb. crypel, Luke v. 24. Lit. 
'a creeper.' — A. S. crtip-, weak grade of 
creopan (pt.t. creap), to creep; with suffix 
-el (for -ilo-) of the agent. -f-Du. kreupel, 
Icel. kryppill, G. kriippel. Cf. Dan. krob- 
ling (from krybe, to creep). See Creep. 

Crisis ; sve Critic. 

Crisp, wrinkled, curled. (L.) A.S. 
crisp. — L, crispus, curled. Brugm. i. § 565. 

Critic. (L. — Gk.) L. criticus. — Gk. 
KpiTLKis, able to discern ; cf. Kpir-qs, a 
judge. — Gk. Kpi-vdv, to judge. Der. crit- 
erion, Gk, Kpir-qpiov, a test ; dia- critic, 
from Gk. diaKpcTiKus, fit for distinguishing 

crisis. (Gk.) Gk. Kplais, a discerning, 
a crisis. — Gk. Kpi-veiv, to judge. 

Croak. (E.) Cf, A. S. cr&cetung, a 
croaking. Of imitative origin. Allied to 
crake, creak. 

Crochet. (F. — LateL.) Y.c7-ochet,ix 
little hook ; dimin. of croc, a. crook. — Late 
L. crocciwi, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Crock, a pitcher. (C.) A.S. crocca. 
Of Celtic origin. Cf. E. Irish crocan, Gael. 
crog, Irish crogan, W. crochan, a pitcher, 
pot.-j-Gk. Kpajaaos (for KpwKyos), a pitcher. 
So also Du. kriiik, Icel. krukka, Swed. 
kruka, Dan. kriikke, G. h'tig. 

Crocodile. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. croco- 
dile.— L. crocodilus.— Gk. KpoKoddKos, a 
lizard, a crocodile. 

Crocus. (L. — Gk.) L. crocus. — Gk. 
KpoKos, crocus, saffron. Perhaps Semitic ; 
cf. Arab, kaj'kam, W^h.karkom, saffron. 

Croft. (E.) A. S. croft, a fleld.+Du. 
krocht, kroft, a field on the downs. 

Cromlech. (W.) W. cromlech, a flag- 
stone laid across others. — W. cro7n, fem. 
oi crwm, crooked, bent; llech, flat stone. 

Crone, an old woman. (F. — L.) Tusser 
has crone, an old ewe. Prob. from Picard 
caj'one, carrion ; whence M. Du. karonie, 
kronie, an old sheep. See Carrion. 

Crony, an old chum. (Gk. ?) Pepys 
has chrony (N. E. D."). Perhaps for Gk. 
XpovLos, a 'long-lasting' friend ; as it arose 
in college slang (Skinner). Butler rimes 
cronies with monies. 

Crook, a hook, bend. (Scand.) M. E. 
ci'ok (Ancren Riwle). — Icel. >^r^/&r, ^wed. 
krok, Dan. krog, hook, bend, angle. 

Crop. (E.) A. S. cropp, the top of a 



plant, the craw of a bird ; orig. a bunch. 
[Hence the verb to crop, to cut off the 
tops ; and hence crop, a harvest. ]4-T^"- 
krop, G. kropf, bird's crop ; Icel. kroppr, 
a hunch ; Swed. kropp, Dan. krop, trunk 
of the body. Cf. W. cropa, Gael, and Ir. 
sgroban, bird's crop. [To crop otit is to 
bunch out.] 

croup (2), hinder part of a horse. (F. 
— Teut. ■) Y . croupe, crupper; orig. pro- 
tuberance. —Icel. kroppr, a hunch (above). 
crupper. (F. — Teut.) F. cronpiere 
(O. F. cropiere). — Y . croupe (O. F. crope, 

Croq,uet, a game. (F.— LateL.) From 
N. French croquet, a little hook, bent 
stick ; the same as Y. crocket. See 

Crosier. (F. — LateL.) M.Y. croce7', 
croscr, &c. Formed, with suffix -er, from 
M. E. croce, in the same sense of ' bishop's 
staff.' — O. F. croce, 'a crosier,' Cot. ; mod. 
F. crosse ; Late L. crocia. — O.Y. c?-oc, a 
hook ; see Crochet. ^ Not from cross, 
though early confused with ]\L E. croisier, 
a coinage from O. F. crois, a cross. 

Cross. (L.) M. E. cros\ from Icel. 
kross, adopted from O. Irish cros.-^ L. 
cruc-eifi, ace. of crux, a cross. Der. 

cross, adj. (L.) Orig. transverse, 
from the shape of a cross; hence, peevish. 

Crotchet, in music. (F. — Late L.) 
F. crochet, ' a small hook, a quaver in 
music ; ' Cot. (The hooked mark now 
called a quaver was called crochet in 
French.) See Crochet. 

Croton, plant. (Gk.) Gk. KpWojv, a 
tick, which the castor-berry reseml)les. 

Crouch. (F. — LateL.) yi.Y. crou- 
cken, to stoop, bend. — O. F. crochir, 
to grow crooked (Godefroy). — O. F. 
crocke, a crook ; also croc. — Late L. croc- 
cu)u, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Croup ( I ), a disease. {Y.^ From Low- 
land Sc. croupe, crape, to croak, make a 
harsh noise. Of imitative origin ; asso- 
ciated with crow, croak, and with North 
E. roup, rope, to call, shout hoarsely, from 
Icel. hropa, weak vb., to cry out. Cf. A. S. 
hropan ^pt. t. hreop), to cry out ; G. rufen 
(pt. t. rief). 

Croup (2), of a horse; see Crop. 

Crow (i), vb. (E.) A. S. crdwan (pt. t. 
creozv), to crow.+Du. kraaijen, G. krdhen, 
weak verbs ; and cf. O. Slav, grajati, Lith. 
groti, to crow. Of imitative origin, 


crow (2), a bird. (E.) A. S. crdwf 
(see above). +0. S. krdia, Du. kraai, G. 
ki'dhe. Der. croiv-bar, bar with a crow- 
like beak. 

Crowd (i), to push, throng. (E.) A. S. 
*ctildan tpr. s. crydej), pt. t. cread), to 
push ; whence croda, gecrod, a crowd, 
throng. + M. Du. krxiydcn, kruyeji, Du. 
kruien, to push a Ion;: ; E. Fries, kroden^ 
kriidett. Teut. type *kr2/dan-, str. vb. 

Crowd (2), a fiddle. (W.) M. E. 
croude.^\N . crwth, a trunk, belly, crowd, 
violin, fiddle ; Gael, crtiit, harp ; O. Irish 
crot, harp. 

Crown. (F. — L. — (}k.) M. E. corone, 
coroune (whence croui7e).'^O.Y. coroue 
(F. conronnc)." L. corona, a wreath. — Gk. 
Kopwvrj, end, tip ; Kopu/vts, a wreath, gar- 
land.— Gk. Kopwvus, bent, curved. Cf. 
Gk. Kvpros, L. curutis, bent. 

Crucial. (F. — L. ) F. crucial, ' cross- 
like ;' Cot — L. cruci-, decl. stem oi crziXy 
a cross ; with suffix -dlis. 

crucify. (F.— L.) O.Y.crucifier.'-' 
Late L. *crucificdre, for L. ci-ucifigere 
(pp. crticijixus), to fix on a cross. — L. 
criici, dative of crux; figere, to fix; see 
Fix. Der. crucifix, -ion. 

Crucible. (L.) From Late L. cruci- 
bolu77i, (i) a night-lamp, (2) a vessel for 
melting metals. The lamp may have 
been so named from having four nozzles 
with wicks, forming a cross (still a com- 
mon Ital. pattern) ; as if from cruci-, decl. 
stem of crux, a. cross ; with suflix -boln77t 
= -btdtwi, as in turibuhuii, a censer. 

Crude. (L.) L. C7'2idus, raw. Allied 
to Raw. 

cruel. (F. — L.) O. F. crziel. — L. 
crudelis, cruel ; allied to criidus, raw 
(above \ 

Cruet. (F.-Teut.) A. F. cruet, a 
small vessel (Godefroy) ; dimin. of O. F. 
cruie, crue, pot. — Low L. cruga, a pitcher. 

— O. H. G. k7^uog, G. krug, a pitcher; 
allied to Crock. 

Cruise. (Du. — L.) Du. kruiseti, to, cross the sea. — Du. kruis, a cross. 

— L. ace. cr7"{C-eni, from crux, a cross ; 
with lengthening of z?. 

Crumb. (E.) Prov. E. croor7i. A. S. 
crii77ia. (The final b is excrescent.) + Du. 
kruim, Dan. kru77i7/ie, G. kru7?ie, a 
crumb. Cf. Ital. g7-u7tio, a clot. Der. 
crumb-le, verb ; cf. Du. kruif/ielen, G. 
k7-iii7iel7t, to crumble. 

Crumpet, a kind of cake. (E.) Wyclif 



has crofupid cake to render Lat. laga- 

nuin (Ex. xxix. 23) ; cf. prov. E. crumpy 
cake, crisp cake. For crimip-ed, pp. of 

M. E. crtcmpen, to curl up (whence E. 
crumple). Cf. G. kriimpen, knimpen, to 
crumple, curl up ; krumm, curved ; i)u. 

krommen, to crook, curve. See below. 

Crumple, vb. (E.) Frequentative of 
obs. crump, to curl up. From crump-, 
weak grade of A. S. ^crimpan, str. vb. ; 
see Cramp and Crimp. 

Crunch. (E.) An imitative word. 
Cf. prov. E. crinch, crunch, to crunch. 

Crupper ; see Crop. 

Crural. (,L.) L. crurdlis, belonging 
to the leg. — L. crilr-, stem of crils, the 

Crusade. (F. ^w^Span.— L.) The 
form is due to confusion of F. croisade 
with Span, crnzada. — Late L. crttcidta, 
sb. fem., a marking with the cross, pp. f. 
of crucidre, to cross.— L. cruci-, decl. 
stem of crux, a cross. 

Cruse, a small pot. (E.) M. E. cruse. 
W. Fries, kr'dss, E. Fries, kros. + Icel. 
krus, a pot ; Swed. krus, Dan. kruiis, a 
mug ; Du. kroes, cup, pot, crucible ; 
M. H. G. kruse, G. krause, mug. 

Criish. (F.-Teut.) O. F. crush; 
cruisir, croissir, to crack, break ; (Span. 
cj'uxir, Ital. crosciare). From a Teut. 
type ^kraustjan- (see Diez), causal form 
from Goth, kriustan, to gnash with the 

Crust. (F. - L.) O. F. crouste (F. 
croilte].'-\.. crusia, crust of bread. Cf. 
Gk. Kpvos, frost ; see Crystal. Der. 
C7'ust-y, hard like a crust, stubborn, 
harshly curt (of people). 

Crutch. (E.) M. E. crucche ; from 
A. S. crycc, a crutch, staff. + Du. kruk, 
Swed. krycka, Dan. krykke, G. krucke. 

Cry. (F. — L.) M. E. crzen. — F. crier. 
(Fuller forms occur in Ital. gridare. Span. 
gritar. Port, gritar.)—!^. quiritdre, to 
shriek, cry, lament (Brachet) ; lit. 'to 
implore the aid of the Quirites ' or Roman 
citizens (Varro). 

Crypt. (L.-Gk.) \.. crypta.'-GV. 
KpvTTir], a vault, hidden cave ; orig, fem. 
of KpvTTTus, hidden. — Gk. Hpvmiiv, to hide. 

Crystal. (F. — L. — Gk. ) Formerly 
cristal. — O. F. cristal. — L. crystallum, 
crystal. — Gk. KpvoTaXXos, ice, crystal.— 
Gk. KpvoTaivHv, to freeze. — Gk. Kpvos, 

Cub. (E.?) Etym. unknown. Cf. 


Shetl. coob, to bring forth young, applied 
only to a seal ; Icel. kobbi, kopr, a young 

Cube. (F.- L.-Gk.) Y. cube.^Y.. 
ace. cubum. — Gk. kv^os, a cube, die. 

Cubeb, a spicy berry. (F.— Span.— 
Arab.) F. cubebe, in Cotgrave. — Span. 
cubeba. — Arab. kabdba{f), pi. kabdbah, 
cubeb, an aromatic. 

Cubit. (L.) L. cubitus, an elbow, 
bend ; the length from the elbow to the 
middle finger's end. Allied to L. cubdre, 
to lie down, recline ; see Covey. 

Cuckold. {¥.', with G. suffix.) M.E. 
kokewold, kokeweld, cokold. — O. F. cucu- 
ault, coucual (Godefroy), a cuckold. — 
O. F. cucu (F. coucou^, a cuckoo ; with 
depreciatory suffix -atilt, -al, from G. 
-wald (Diez, Gram. ii. 346). Cf. O. F. 
cucu (F. coucou^, a cuckoo ; secondly, a 
man whose wife is unfaithfuL (There are 
endless allusions to the comparison be- 
tween a cuckoo and a cuckold ; see Shak. 
L. L. L. v. 2. 920, &c.) 

Cuckoo. (F.) Y.coucow, from the 
bird's cry. Cf. L. cuculus, a cuckoo ; Gk. 
KQKKv^, a cuckoo ; kokkv, its cry ; Skt. 
kokila-, a cuckoo ; Irish cuach, W. cog. 
Cf. cock, cockatoo. And see Coo. 

Cucumber. iL.^ The /^ is excrescent ; 
M.E. cucumer. — h. cucutnerem, ace. of 
cuctimis, a cucumber. 

Cud. (E.) M. E. cude, code, quide. 
A. S. cwidu, cweodu.. cudu. Teut. type 
*k2vedwom, neut. Cf. Skt. jatu-, resin ; 
also Icel. kwdtsa, resin. Orig. sense, 
'glutinous substance.' 

Cuddle. (E ) Perhaps for '^cottthle, to 
be familiar, to fondle; from couth, adj. 
familiar, well known; A. S. cU^, known, 
pp. oi ctinn an, to know. See Can(i). Cf. 
prov. E. couth, loving ; cootie, to fondle. 

Cudgel. (E.) ^M. E. kuggel. A.S. 
cycgel ', in Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. 
Sweet, p. 297. Cf. Cog. 

Cudweed. (E.) From r^^/ and zc.?.?^; 
' the plant being administered to cattle 
that had lost their cud.' So also cud- 

Cue, for an actor. (L.?) Sometimes 
written q or qu in the i6th cent., and 
supposed to be for L. quando, when. 

Cuff (i), to strike. (Scand. ?) Cf. 
Swed. kuffa, to thrust, push, M. Swed. 
kuffa, to strike, to cuff (Ihre). 

Cuff (2), part of the sleeve. (L. ?) 
M. E. cuffe, coffe. Cf. Late A. S. ctiffie^ a 


kind of cap (Leo) ; M. H. G. kupfe, 
kuppe, ktiffe, a coif; see Coif. [Very 

Cuirass. (F. — Ital. — L.) Formerly 
curace. — O. F. cuirace ( F. ctiirasse). — Ital. 
corazza, a cuirass. Formed from L. 
coridceus, leathern.— L. coriu??i, leather 
(whence F. cuir, leather). 

Cuisses, pi. (F. — L.) O.Y.acissaux, 
armour for the thi^^hs. — F. ctnsse, thigh. — 
L. coxa, hip. Brugm. i. § 609. 

Culdee. (C.) Irish<:^z7^r/^, a Culdee, a 
servant of God. — Ir. ceile (O. Irish cele^, 
servant; and de, gen. of dfa, God. 

Culinary. (L.) L. cnlmdrms, be- 
longing to the kitchen. — L. cu/wa, 

Cull, to collect, select. (F.-L.) M. E. 
cnlUn.^0. F. coillir, cuillir, to collect.— 
L. colligere, to collect. See Coil (i) and 

Cullender; see Colander. 

Cullion, a wretch. (F. — L.) A coarse 
word. F. conillon (Ital. cogltone).<^'L. 

CuUis, a strong broth, boiled and 
strained. (F. — L.) YoxTatxXy colys. coleys. 
— O. F. cole'is, couleis, later cotilis, ' a 
cullis,' Cot. ; substantival use of cole'is, 
later coulis, 'gliding,' Cot. — L. type ^cold- 
ttcius ; from colare, to strain. Cf. Port- 

Culm, a stem. (L.) L. culmus, a 
stalk ; allied to calamus, a stalk. See 

Culminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
culmindre, to come to a top. — L. ctdniin-, 
stem of culmen ( = columen), a top. See 

Culpable. (F.-L.) M. E. coupahle. 
O. F. culpable^ colpable, coupahle (F". coup- 
able). — L. culpdbilis, blameworthy. — L. 
culpdre, to blame. — L. culpa, a fault. 

culprit. (F. — L.) In Dryden. Not 
orig. a single word, but due to a fusion of 
A. F. cul- (for culpable, i. e. guilty) and 
prist or prest (i. e. ready to prove it) ; 
signifying that the clerk of the crown was 
ready to prove the indictment (N. E. D.). 

Culter ; see Coulter. 

Cultivate. (L.) Late L. cult'ivdtus, 
pp. of cultivd7'e. to till. — Late L. culttvus, 
fit for tilling. — L. cultus, pp. of cole7-e, to 
till. Brugm. i. § 121, 

culture. (F. - L.) F. culture. — L. 
culttlra; allied to cult-us, pp. of colere, 
to till. 


Culver. (E.) A. S. culfre, a dove. 

Culverin. (F, — L.) Corrupt form, 
for *culev)-ifi. — F. coulevrine, a culverin ; 
a piece of ordnance named from its long 
shape, like a snake. — O.F. couleuvrin, 
adder-like; from couleuvre, an adder. — L. 
colubra, coluber, an adder. 

Culvert, an arched drain. (F. — L.) 
Of doubtful origin ; perhaps formed, with 
added t, from O. F. coulouere, ' a channel, 
gutter,' Cot. — F. couler, to trickle. — L. 
coldre, to strain, drain. Compare Port- 
cullis and Cullis. 

Cumber. (F. — LateL.) M.'E. com- 
bren.^O.Y. cofubrer, to hinder (rare); 
usual form en-cc/7ibrer. ^Yatt L, cuwbrus, 
a heap, a barrier ; of doubtful origin. 
[Cf. L. cuinuhis, a heap; but also G. 
kumvier, gritf, oppression, prov. G. ku7?i- 
mer, rubbish. Thus cumber =^\-0 put a 
heap in the way.] Der. en-cumber^ from 
C>. F. encombrer, to encumber, load. 

Cumin, Cummin, a plant. (L.— 
Gk. — Heb.) V^.Y. comin. A.^. cu77tin, 
cy77teit.^'L. cu77Hnu77i, Matt, xxiii. 23.— 
Gk. Kv^ivov. — Weh. ka77imd7i, cumin. 

Cumulate. vL.) P^rom pp. of L. 
cu7tiuldre, to heap up. — L. cumulus, a 

Cuneate, wedge-shaped. (L.) Formed, 
with suftix 'ate, from L. cu7ie-us, a wedge. 
Allied to Coin. Der. cimei-for77i ; i. e. 

Cunning, adj. (E.) Orig. pres. pt. of 
M. E. cu7i7ien, to know; hence, 'knowing.' 
From A. S. cujman, to know ; see Can (i). 
cunning, sb. (E.) M. E. cu7mi7ige. 
From A. S. cu7inan, to know. Perhaps 
suggested by Icel. ku7i7ia7idi, knowledge ; 
from Icel. ku7t7ia, to know\ 

Cup. (L. ) A. S. cuppe, a cup. — Late L. 
cuppa, variant of L. cupa, a tub, in Late 
L., a drinking-vessel ; whence also Du. 
Dan. kop, F. coupe, &c. See Coop. 

cupboard. {Y. a7id E.) M. E. ciip- 
bo7-de, orig. a side-board for holding cups ; 
Allit. Poems, B. 1440; Morte Arth. 

Cupid, god of love. (L.) L. cupido, 
desire. — L. cupere, to desire. + Skt. ki4p, 
to become excited. Der. cupid-i-ty, F. 
cupidite, from L. ace. cupiditdte7)i. 

Cupola. (Ital. — L. ^ Ital. cupola, a 
dome; from its shape. — L. cupula, a small 
cask, a little vault ; dimin. of L. cupa, a 

Cupreous, coppery. (L.) L. cupre-us, 




of copper; with suffix -ous. — L,. ciiprwii, 

Cur. (E.) M. E. kur-dogge (ab. 1225% 
-f-M. Du, korre, a house-dog; cf. Swed. 
dial, kurre, a dog. Named from growling. 
Cf. prov. E, curr, to purr ; Low G. 
kiu'fen, to snarl (Lubben) ; Icel. kurra, 
to murmur, grumble ; Swed. kurra, to 

Curate ; see Cure. 

Curb. (F. - L.) M. E. conrben, to 
bend. — F. courber, to bend, l)OW. — L 
curiidre, to bend ; from curuus, bent. 

Curd. (E. ) M. E. curd, crtid. Prob. 
from A. S. crtid-, related to crudan, 
to crowd, press together. Cf. Ir. gruth, 
Gael. ^^rz/M, curds. (Fick, ii. 119.) 

Cure. (F. — L.) 0.¥. cure.—l.. alra, 
attention Tprim. Ttal. *koizd). Brugm. i. 
§ 874. ^ Xot allied to care. 

curate. (L.) Med. L. curat us, a 
priest, curate ; cf. curdtum beiiefichim, 
a benefice with cure of souls, —L. alra^ 

curious. (F. - L.) O. F. curios. — L. 
cnriosus, attentive. — L. cura, attention. 

Curfew. (F. — L) A. F. coeverfu, 
covrefeu,curfeu; O.F. covrefeu (F. couvre- 
feti), a fire-cover, covering of fires, time 
for putting out fires. — O.F. covrir, to 
coy^x ; feu, fire {<,Vj. focum, ace. oifociis, 
hearth, fire) ; see Cover and Focus. 

Curious ; see Cure. 

Curl, sb. (E.) M. E. end (with shift- 
ing of 7-); from M. E. crul, adj., cuily 
(a. D. i.^oo\ Not in A. S. E. Fries. 
kruUa, krull, krul, a curl. + Du. krul, a 
curl, krullen, to curl ; Dan. krolle, a curl, 
Swed. krullig, curly ; G. krolle, a curl, 
M. 1 1. G. kriille. Cf. Norw. krull, a curl, 
something rolled together ; krtilla, to curl, 
bend or bow together. Allied to E. Fries. 
krilkn, to bend, turn, wind ; Low G. 
krellen, to turn; N. Fries, krall, c'ose- 
twisted ; suggesting Teut. base *krellan-, 
to wind, str. vb. (Franck, Koolman). 

Curlew, a bird. (F.) M. F. cor lieu, 
'a. curluej' Cot. Cf. Ital. chiurlo, a cur- 
lew, chiurlare, to howl, Swed. kurla, to 
coo ; so that it is named from its cry. 

Curmudgeon. (E.?) Ongin unknown. 
In one instance spelt corn-niudgin (Phil. 
Holland), as if a hoarder of corn, hence, 
a stingy fellow ; where mudgin is for 
mudging, pres. pt. of miidge, to hoard, 
also spelt jnooch (M. E. f?iucheti), to skulk ; 
from O. F. viucer, to hide. But this is a 

forced spelling, giving a wrong clue. In 
1596, we find cormullion, with the same 
sense. The first syllable seems to be cur, 
a whelp ; and we find Lowl. Sc. murgeon, 
to mock, to grumble ; miidgeon, a grimace. 
Currant. (F.-L.-Gk.) formerly 
raysyns of cor aunt. — Y .raisitis de Corinthe, 
' currants ;" Cot. Flence, currant is a cor- 
ruption of Corinth \L. Co7'inthus, Gk. 

Current, running, flowing. (F, — L.) 
M. E. currant, O. P\ curant, pres. pt. of 
curre, corre (F. courir), to run. — L. cur- 
rere, to run. Prob. for *curse7-e. Brugm. 
1. §§ 499, 516. Perhaps allied to Horse. 
curricle. (L.) L. curriculum, a 
runnn:ig; also, a light car. — L. currere, 
to run. 

Curry {\), to dress leather. (F.-L. 
and Teut.) O. F. correier (Godefroy), 
earlier forms conreder, conreer, later con- 
royer, courroier, to curry, dress leather, 
orig. to prepare. — O.F. conrei, older form 
ttmreid, gear, preparation. A hybrid 
word; made by prefixing con- { = L,. con, 
cuvi) to O. F. rei, order (Ital. -redo in 
arredo, array). (3. This O. F. rei is of 
Scand. origin ; from Dan. j-ede, order (also 
to set in order), Icel. reUji, tackle. Pre- 
cisely the same O. Y . rei helps to form E. 
ar-ray ; see Array. ^ To curry favour 
is a corruption of M. E. to curry favel, to 
rub down a horse ; Favel was a common 
old name for a horse. 

Curry (2), a seasoned dish. (^ Tamil.) 
YxQVQ. 'i'amil kari, sauce, relish for rice 

Curse. (E.) K.'i. cursian,vtx\i; czirs, 
sb., an imprecation. Cf. O. Ir. ciirsaigim, 
'I reprehend ' (\\ indisch). Der. ac- cursed, 
from M. E. acorsien, to curse extremely, 
where the prefix a- ^ A. S. d-, very ; see 
A- (4). 

Cursive. (L.^ Med. L. cwsivus, flow- 
ing ; said of handwriting. — L. curs-us, pp. 
of currere, to run. See Current. 

cursory. (L.) Late L. cttrsorius, 
hasty. — L. cursori-, decl. stem of cursor, 
a runner. — L ctcrs-us {a.ho\e). 

Curt. (L.) Y. curtus, short, cut short. 
curtail. (F. — L.) It has nothing to 
do with tail, but is an alteration of the 
older form curtal, verb, to dock ; from the 
adj. curtal, having a docked tail (All's 
Well, ii. 3. 65). — O.F. courtault, later 
courtaut, ' curtail, being curtailed ; ' Cot. 
The same as Ital. cortaldo, ' a curtail, a 



horse without a taile,' Florio. Formed, 
with suffix -atilt ( = Ital. -aldo, Low L. 
-ahiiis, < G. zvald, power), from O. F. 
court, short. — L. cicrtus, short. 

Curtain. (F.-L.) M.E. cortin.- 
O. F. ^cr//;/.?. — Late L. cortina, a cuitain 
i,Exod. xxvi. I, Vulgate), a screen, plain 
wall of a fort, orig. a small yard. — L. 
cort-efH, ace. of cors^ a court. See Court. 

Curtleaxe. (F. — L.) A perversion 
of cutlkax, which was a perversion of 
cuttelas, an old Sj.elling of cutlass. See 

Curtsey. F. — L.) The same word as 
courtesy, i. e. a courtly act. 

Curve, a beut line. (L.) Late L. 
curvus^ L. curuns, bent. -J- Gk, Kvpros, 
bent. Der. curv-ature, L. curudt/ira, 
from pp. of curudre, to bend ; from 

curvet. (Ital. — L.) Ital. corvetta. a 
curvet, leap, bound ; dimin. from M. Ital. 
co)V-o (Ital. curvd), bent. — L. curuus 

Cushat, the ring-dove. (E.) A. S. cu- 
sceote, a wild pigeon ; also cuscote. Here 
sceote probably means 'shooter, darter,' 
from sceotan, to shoot (cf. A. S. sceota, a 
kind of trout); and perhaps cfc refers to 
the • coo ' of the bird. Cf. Lowl. Sc. cow- 
shot, a cushat. 

Cushion. (F. — L.) M.E. quisshin, 
cusshin. — O.Y. coissin, coussin, a cushion. 
[It is supposed that O. F. coissin was the 
true form, altered to coussin (perhaps) by 
the influence of O. F. coute, a quilt. J — L. 
type *coxinum, a support for the hip, 
from coxa, hip, thigh (like L. cubital, 
elbow-cushion, from cubitus, elbow). Cf. 
Ital. cuscino, cushion, coscia, hip; Span. 
cojin, cushion, cuja, hip. {^Romania, 1S92, 
p. 87.) 

Cusp. (L.) L. cicspis, a point. 

Custard. (F. - Ital. - L.) For M. E. 
crustade, by shifting of r. Formerly ctis- 
tade, crustade, and orig. used with the 
sense of 'pasty.' — F. croustade, a pasty. 
— Ital. crostata, ' a kinde of daintie pye ; ' 
Florio. — L. crtistdta, fem. pp. of crustdre, 
to encrust. — L. crusta, a crust. 

Custody. (L.) L. custodia, a keeping 
guard. — L. custodj.)-, stem of ciistos, 
a guardian ; lit. ' hider.' Cf. Gk. k€v6(iv, 
to hide. See Hide. (VKEUDH.) Brugm. 
i. § 699. 

Custom. (F.-L.) M.E. custimie.-' 
O. F. cusiume, costume (F. coutume). 

From a L. type '^costwnne, for *cos- 
tudne, shortened form of consitetudinoii, 
ace. of consueludo, custom. — L. consuctiis, 
pp. oi consuescere, to accustom, inchoative 
lorm of ^consuere, to be accustomed. — L. 
con- {cuffi), together, very ; suescere (pp. 
suetus , to be accustomed ; possibly from 
suus, own; sc that suescere =^\.o have it 
one's own way. 

Cut. (Scand.) M. E. cutten, a weak 
verb. Of Scand. origin, but the traces of 
it are not many. Cf. Mid. Swed. kotta^ 
to cut (Ihre) ; Swed. dial, kuta, kdta, 
to cut small with a knife, also spelt 
kvota, k'ota, kdta ; ktita, or kytti, a knife 
(Rietz); ice\. kuti, a little knife; Norw. 
kyttel kytel, kjutul, a knife for barking 

Cuticle. (L.) L. cutlcula, double 
dimin. of cutis, hide, skin. See Hide. 
Der. cut-an-e-ous, from cut-is. 

Cutlass. ( F. — L.) F. coutelas, ' a cut- 
telas, or courtelas, or short sword ; ' Cot. 
(Cf. Ital. coltellaccio, ' a curtleax,' Florio ; 
which is the same word.) — O. F. coutel, 
cultel (F. couteati), a knife; cf. Ital. col- 
tello, knife ; with ace. suffix -dceum. — L. 
ace. cultellum, a knife; dimin. of culler, a 
coulter. ^ The F. as, Ital. ■accio = 'L. 
■dceicni ; but F. coutelas was actually 
turned into E. curtleaxe. Yet a curtle- 
axe was a sort of sword ! 

cutler. i,F.— L.) M.E. coteler.— 
O. F. cotelier. — Late L. cultelldrius, knife- 
maker. — L. cultellus, a knife above\ 

Cutlet. (F. - L.) F. cotelette, a cutlet ; 
formerly costelette, a little rib ; dimin. of 
O. F. coste, rib. — L. costa, a rib; see 

Cuttle, a fish. (E.) Formerly cudele. 
A. S. cudele, a cuttle-fish. Cf. G. kuttel- 
fisch (perhaps from E.). 

Cvcle. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cycle.^^L. 
cyclum, ace. oi cyclus. — Gk. kvk\os, a circle, 
cycle. + Skt. chakra-, a wheel, circle. 
Allied to Wheel. Der. cyclone = Gk. 
kvkXSjv, whirling round, pres. pt. oi kvkKooj, 
I whirl round ; epi- cycle ; bi-cycle. 

Cygnet, a young swan. (F. — L.- Gk.) 
Dimin. of O. Y . eigne, a swan. Strangely 
enough, this O. F. word is not immedi- 
ately from L. cycnus, a swan ; but the 
oldest O. F. spelling was cisne (as in 
Spanish), from Late L. cicimis, a swan, 
variant of cycnus.'— Qi\i. kvkvos, a swan. 
Cf. L. ciconia, a stork. See Diez ; 4th ed. 
p. 714. 




Cylinder. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. «7- 

indre, later cyiindre. — 'L. cylindi'us.^QV. 
/cuAti/tS^oy, a roller, cylinder. — Gk./c^uAtVSeti/, 
to roll ; from /fuAtetj', to roll. Cf. O.Slav. 
kolo, a wheel. (-/QEL.) 

Cymbal. (F. — L. — Gk.) W^.ciinhale. 
— O. F. cimbale. — L. cymbahcfu. — Gk. 
Kv/xl3akov, a cymbal ; named from its cup- 
like shape. — Gk. kvuPtj, a cup. •{■ Skt. 
kumbha-, a jar. Allied to Cup ; and see 
Comb (2 \ (VKEUBH.) 

Cynic, lit. dog-like. (L. — Gk.) L. cyjti- 
cus." Gk. KvuLKos, dog-like, a Cynic. — Gk. 
KVV-, as in Kvv-6sy gen. of kvojv, a dog (E. 

cynosure. (L. — Gk.) L. cynosura, 
the stars in the tail of the constellation of 
the Lesser Bear ; one of these is the Pole- 
star (hence, a centre of attraction). — Gk. 
Kvvoaovpa, the Cynosure, tail of the Lesser 
Bear ; lit. ' dog's tail.' — Gk. kvvos, gen. of 
Kvcvu, a dog ; ovpa, a tail. 

Cypress (i >, a tree. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. E. cipres. — O, F. cypres, later cypres. — 
L. cttpressus, cyparissiis. — Gk. Kvirdpiacros, 
cypress-tree. Cf. Heb. gopher. 

Cypress (2"), a cloth of gold, a kind 
of satin, a kind of crape. (F. — L.) Pals- 
grave explains F. crespe by ' a cypres for 
a womans neck ' ; Cotgrave has ' crespe, 
cipres, cobweb lawn ' ; which suggests 
some confusion of cypress with ci-ape. 
The origin of cypress is doubtful ; but 
it occurs as cipres, cypirs in Piers Plow- 
man, and as cypi-us in Sir Degrevant. It 
seems to have been imported from the isle 
of Cyprus. 

Cyst, a pouch (in animals) containing 
morbid matter. (L. — Gk.) Formerly 
written cystis. — Late L. cystis. — Gk. «i'o-Tis, 
a bag, pouch. 

Czar, the emperor of Russia. (Russ. — 
Teut. — L.) Russ. tsare (with e mute , a 
king. O. Slav, cesari. — Goth, kaisar. — 
L. Ccesar. ^ This has been disputed ; 
but see Matt, xiii. 24 in Schleicher, 
Indogermanische Chrestomathie, p. 275, 
where O.Slav, cesarstvo occurs for Russ. 
tsarstvo, kingdom ; &c. Der. czarowitz, 
from Russ. tsarevich\ czar's son ; czaritsa, 
from Russ. tsaritsa, empress; czar-ina, 
with Ital. sufhx -ina, from G. fem. sufhx 

Dab (i), to strike gently. (E.) M. E. 
dabben ; also dabbe, a blow. Not in A. S. 

Cf, M. Du. dabben, to pinch, fumble, 
dabble ; G. tappen, to grope, prov. G. 
tappe, fist, blow. See Dub, Tap. 

dabble. (E.) To keep on dabbing; 
frequent, of dab. + M. Du. dabbelen, to 
fumble, dabble ; frequent, of M, Du. dabben 

Dab (2), expert. (E.?) Prob. from 
dab (i) ; perhaps influenced by dapper ox 
by adept. 

Dab (3), a fish. (E.) M. E. dabbe. 
Prob. allied to dab, a light blow, a soft 
mass dabbed down. See Dab (1), dabble. 

Dabble; see Dab (i). 

Dab-chick. E.) Formerly dap-chick, 
dop -ch ick . C i . A . S . dop - ^;z /(^, a m o o r hen , 
lit. ' dipping duck ;' c/^//^//^«, to dip often, 
immerse ; Du. dobber^ a float. See Dip. 

Dace. (F. — O. Low G.) Formerly 
da7'ce. — 0. F. dars, nom. case of the word 
also spelt dart, meaning (i) a dart, (2) a 
dace. The fish is also called a dart or 
a dare, from its swift motion. See Dare (2), 

Dacoit, a robber. (Hind.) Hind, 
ddkdit, a robber belonging to an armed 
gang ; from ddkd, robbery by a gang 
(, Wilson"). Der, dacoit-y, robbery. 

Dactyl. (L, — Gk.) L. dactylus, the 
metrical foot marked -««. — Gk. ha.Krv\o%, 
a finger, a dactyl. 

Dad. (E.) A child's word for ' father.' 
So also W. tad, Irish daid, Bret, tat, tad, 
father ; Gk. rara, Skt. tata, dad. 

Dado. (Ital. — L.) Formerly used of 
the die, or square part in the middle of the 
pedestal of a column ; afterwards applied 
to the part of an apartment between the 
plinth and the impost moulding. — Ital. 
dado, a die, cube, pedestal. (Cf. Prov. 
dat-z, a die.) — Folk-L. datum, assumed to 
mean ' a die ' ; lit. ' a thing given, a lot,' — 
L. datum, neut. of pp. of dare, to give. 
See Die (2), 

Daffodil. (F,-L.-Gk.) The ^ is a 
later addition ; perhaps from M. F. Jieur 
d'affrodille, translated 'daffodil-flower.' 
M. E. affodille ; Prompt. Parv.-M. F. as- 
phodile, also affrodille, ' th'affodill, or 
asphodill flower;' Cot. — L. asphodelus.— 
Gk. d(T</)65€Aos, a kind of lily. See As- 

Daft, foolish ; the same as Deft. 

Dagger. ( F.) M. E. daggere ; allied to 
daggen, to pierce. — F. dague, a dagger; 

of unknown origin (not Celtic). Cf. Ital. 

Span, daga, Port, adaga, dagger. The 



Port, form suggests an Eastern origin ; 
cf. Heb. ddkhdh, to strike. 

Daggle, to moisten, wet with dew or 
spray. i^Scand.) Frequentative verb from 
Swed. dag!^, Icel. dogg (gen. daggar), dew. 
Cf. Icel. doggva, to bedew. See Dew. 

Daguerreotype. (F. and Gk.) 

Formed by adding -^-///^ to F. Dagnerre, 
a personal name, the inventor (A. D. 1838). 

Dahlia. (Swed.) Named after Dahl, 
a Swedish botanist (A. D, 1791). 

Dainty, a delicacy. (F. — L.) M. E. 
deintee, orig. a sb., a pleasant thing ; cf. 
A. F. dcyntee^ greediness (Bozon). — 
O. F. daiiiiie \\.. e. daintU), agreeableness. 

— L. ace. digiiiidtcm ; see Dignity. 
% The O. F. daintie is the true popular 
O. F. form ; digniteit is a pedantic form ; 
cf. O. F. dain, old spelling of digue, 

Dairy. (Scand.) M. E. deyerye, a 
room for a deye, i. e. a mi Ik- woman, farm- 
servant. — O. Norw. deigja, Swed. deja, a 
maid, dairy-maid, who was also the bread- 
maker; the orig. sense is ' kneader of dough.' 

— Teut. type "^daig-Jon-, sb. f., as if from 
(Goth.) deigan (pt. t. daig), to mould ; 
whence also Goth, daigs, Icel. deig, Swed. 
deg, dough ; see Dough. % The cognate 
or borrowed A. S. ddge occurs once only ; 
see Thorpe, D?pl. p. 64T. 

Dais, a raised floor in a hall. (F. — L. 

— Gk.) Now used of the raised platform 
on which the high table in a hall stands. 
Properly, it was the table itself \ but was 
also used of a canopy over a seat of state, 
or of the seat of state. M. E. deis, deys. — 
A. F. deis, O. F. dois, a high table (Supp. 
to Godefroy). — L. discum, ace. of discus, 
a quoit, platter; in Late L. a table. — Gk. 
SiaKos, a quoit, disc. See Disc. 

Daisy. (E.) M. E. dayesye (4 sylla- 
bles). A. S. dceges eage, eye of day, i.e. 
the sun, which it resembles. 

Dale, a valley. (E.) M. E. dale.- 
A. S. dcel (pi. dal-ti). -f- Icel. dalr, Dan. 
Swed. dal, a dale: Du. dal\ Goth, dal \ 
G. thal\ also O. Slav, dolic (Russ. doV) ; 
cf. Gk. QoKos, a vault. Der. dell. 

Dally, to trifle. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 
dalien, to play, trifle. — A. F. and O. F. 
dalier, to converse, chat, pass the time in 
light converse (Bozon). Of Teut. origin ; 
cf Bavarian dalen, to spenk and act as 
children 1 Schmeller) ; mod. G. (vulgar) 
dahlen, to trifle. 

Dalmatic, a vestment. (F. — Dal- 

matia.) F. dal mat i que. — L. dalmalica 
{iiestis) ; fern, of Dalmaticus, belonging to 

Dam (i), a mound, bank against water. 
(E.) A. S. datum, only in the derived 
verb for-demman, to dam up ; O. Fries. 
dam ; North. Fries, dam. -f- D". dam, 
Icel. dafnmr, Dan. dam, Swed. da?nm, 
M. H. G. tarn, G. damtn, a dam, dike. 
Cf. G oih. faiirda?nmjan, to dam up. 

Dam. {2), a mother, applied to animals. 
(F — L.) The same word as Dame. 

Damage. (F.— L.) ls\.Y,. damage.-^ 
A. F. damage (F. dommagc') ; cf. Prov. 
da?nnatje, answering to Late L. '^'damndti- 
cum, harm ; we find Late L. damndticus, 
condemned to the mines. — L. damndtus, 
pp. of damndre ; see Damn. 

Dam.ask. ^Ital. — Syria.) M.E. </^?- 
maske, cloth of Damascus. — Ital. damasco. 
— Heb. dmeseq, damask, Dammeseq, Da- 
mascus (Gen. xiv. 15), Der. dainask- 
rose ; damask-ine, to inlay with gold {¥. 
damasquiner, from damasqu-in, adj.). 

Dame. fF.-L.) "^l.Y.. dame.-O.Y . 
damey a lady. — L. domina; fem. of dofui- 
nus, a lord. See Don (2). 

Damn, to condemn. (F. — L.) M. E. 
damnen, dampnen. — F. damner.-^l^. dam- 
nd}'e, to condemn, fine. — L. damnum, loss, 
fine, penalty. Brug. i. § 762. 

Damp. (E.) Cf. M. E. da?npen, to 
suffocate; E. Fries, damp, vapour.-|-Du. 
damp, vapour, steam ; Dan. damp, G. 
dampf, vapour ; Swed. damb, dust. From 
the 2nd grade of Teut. '^dempan-, pt. t. 
'^damp, pp. '^dumpano-y as in M. H. G. 
ditnpfen, timpfen, str. vb., to reek ; of. 
Swed. dial, dimba, str. vb., to reek. See 

Dam.sel. (F. — L ) M. E. damosel. — 

O.F". dameisele, a girl, fem. oi dameisel, a 

I young man, squire, page. — Late L. domi- 

' cdlus, a page, short for *dominicellus, 

double dimin. of dominus, a lord. (Pages 

were often of high birth.) 

Dam.SOn. i,L. — Syria.) yi.Y.. da?7ia' 
scene. — 1.. Damascenum {prdnum), plum 
of Damascus. See Damask. 

Dance. (F.-O. H. G.) V..E. daun- 
cen. — O. F. danser. — O. H. G. danson, to 
drag along (as in a round dance).— 
O. H. G. dans, 2nd grade of dinsen, to 
pull, draw ; allied to L. Thin. Cf. Goth. 
at-thinsan, to draw towards one. 

Dandelion, a flower. (F.-L.) F. 
dent de lion, tooth of a lion ; named from 




the jagged leaves. — L. dent-em, ace. of 
deits, tooth; de, prep.; leonem, ace. of 
leo, lion. 

Dandle. (E.) Prob. of imitative origin ; 
of. M. F. dodiner, dodeiine?', 'to rock, 
dandle, lull,' Cot. ; M. Ital. da7idola7-e, 
dondolare, ' to dandle or play the baby,' 
Florio; dandola, dondola, a toy. Gode- 
froy gives M. F. dandiner, to balance or 
sway the body. Cf. E. Fries, dindannen, 
to walk unsteadily, sway from side to side. 

Dandrilf, scurf on the head. (E.) 
Formerly also dandruffe. Of unknown 
origin ; but cf. prov. K.dait, scurf, dander, 
a slight scurf on the skin ; and prov. E. 
hurf, tijf, scurf, from Icel. hriifa, a scab. 
% The W. niarzu-dojt, dandnff, is from 
niaj'W, dead, and ton, skin. 

Dandy, a beau (E. ?). Origin unknown. 
Prov. E. dandy, gay, fine. Note M. Uan. 
dajtde, brave, excellent. Dandy is also a 
form of Andrew. [F. dajidin, ' a mea- 
cock, noddy, ninny,' Cot., is unsuitable.] 

Danger. (F.— L.) M. E. daungere, 
power, esp. power to harm. — O. F. dan- 
gler (F. dajiger), also dongier (XIII cent.), 
absolute power, irresponsible authoiity. 
This answers to a Late L. type *domnid- 
rium, ^dominidrinm, not found, but regu- 
larly formed from Late L. dom{i)niiijn, 
power, authority. — Late L. domnus, L. 
do minus, a lord. 

Dangle, to swing about. (Scand.) 
Dan. dangle, Swed. dial, dangla, to swing 
about ; cf. Swed. and Icel. dmgla, Dan. 
dingle, to swing about ; frequentative 
forms from ding (pt. t. dang), to throw 
about. Sei Ding. 

Dank, moist. (Scand.) M. E. dank, 
wet (esp. with ref. to dew). — Swed. dial. 
dank, marshy ground ; Icel. dijkk (stem 
*dajikwd-), a pool. Cf. Swed. dial, ddnka, 
to moisten, Dan. dii^X.ddnke, dynke^ Norw. 
dynka, to wet ; also Dan. dial, dtinkel, 
moist, Swed. dial, dunkelhet, moisture ; 
North. PI danker, a dark cloud ; Swed. 
dial, and M. Dan. dunken, musty; G. 
diinkel, dark. 

Dapper. (Dn ) Orig. good, valiant ; 
hence brave, fine, spruce. XV cent. — Du. 

dapper, brave.-J-O. H.G. taphar, weighty, 

valiant, G. tapper, brave ; Russ. dobrui, 

good. Brugm. i. § 563. 
Dapple, a spot on an animal. (Scand.) 

Icel. depill, a spot, dot ; a dog with spots 

over the eyes is also called depill. The 

orig. sense is ' a little pool,' from Norweg. 

dape, a pool, a wet splotch ; whence the 
idea of ' splash ' or ' blot.' 

Dare ( I), to venture, (E.) W.Y.. dar, 
I dare ; pt. t. dorste, durste. A. S. ic dearr, 
I dare ; he dearr, he dare ; pt. t. dorste ; 
infin. *dnrra)i. + Goth, ga-dars, I dare, 
-daursta, I durst, infin. -daursan ; O. H. G. 
tar, I dare, infin. turran. Also Gk. Qap- 
aeiv, to be bold, Opaavs, bold ; Skt. drsk, 
to dare. (yDHERS.) Brugm. i. § 502. 

Dare (2), a dace. (F. — O. Low G.) 
A new form, made by taking da7'ce (old 
form of dace) as a pi. form ( = dars), and 
thence making a singular dar, now dare. 
See Dace. 

Dark. (E.) M.E. derk. A.S.deorc, 
with a broken vowel ; for older *derc. 
The O. H. G. tarc/ianjaft, to hide (answer- 
ing toW. Germ. *darkn-jan) is from the 
2nd grade *dark of the same base. Cf. 
also O. Sax. der-ni, A. S. derne, O. H. G. 
tar-ni, secret, dark ; see Tarnish. 

darkling, in the dark. (E.) Formed 
with adv. suffix -ling, as \njlat-ling, M. E. 
hedling (headlong), A. S. b<zc-ling, back- 

Darling. (E.) M. E. derling. A. S. 
deorling, a favourite. — A. S. deor-e (in 
comp. deor-), dear; with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing. See Dear. 

Darn. (E.) XVII cent. Prob. from 
M. E. dernett, to conceal, from derne, adj., 
secret, hidden; cf. prov. E. dern, darn, 
to hide, to stop up a hole. — A. S. derne, 
dyrne, secret, hidden. + O. Sax. derni, 
O. li. G. tarni, secret. See Dark. 

Darnel. (E.) M. E. darnel, dernel. 
From an O. F. word, now only preserved 
in Walloon (Rouchi). darnelle, darnel 
(Hecart\ Hitherto unexplained; but cf. 
Swed. dar-, ns in dar-repe. or repe., darnel 
(Lowl. Sc. dornel) ; and O F. nielle, nelle 
(Late L. nigella^, darnel (Godefroy). The 
Swed. dara means to stupefy (as with 
lolinm temulentti77i\ ; cf. Dan. daare, a 
fool ; Walloon da7'nise, dau7-nise, drunken 

Dart. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. dart. - 
O. F. dart (F. dard). Of Teut. origin ; cf. 
A. S. darc^. a dart, Swed. dai't, a dagger, 
Icel. da7ra6r, a dart, O. H. G. tai't, a 

Dash. (E.) M. E. ddsche7i. Cf. Low G. 
daschen, to thrash (Kerghaus) ; Dan. 
daske, to slap, Swed. daska, to beat ; we 
speak of water dasliing against rocks. 

Dastard. ^Scand. ; with F. siiffix.) 




M. E. dastard \ where -ard is a F. suffix, 

as in duli-ard, sltigg-ard. Vast appears 

to be for dazed; cf. Icel. dastr, exhausted, jack-daiv 

dimin. tdhele (now G. dohle), a. daw ; 
whence Ital. tacco/a, a daw (Florio). Der. 

pp. of dcrsa, to be out of breath ; da sad r. 
exhausted, weary, pp. of dasask^ to be 
weary; see Daze. Cf. Icel. dasi^ a lazy 
fellow, M. Du. dasaert, a fool (whence 
M.E. das-art (i.e. daz^e)ard), a dullard, 
in N. E. D.) ; Low G. ddskopp, a block- 
head (Berghaus) . The orig. sense is ' slug- 

Date (i\ a given point of time. (F.— 
T.) ^\ — Y . date, date. — Late L. 
data, a date ; L. data, neut. pi. of datiis, 
given, dated. — L. dai'e, to give.+Gk. St- 
8co/it, I give ; 3otoj, given ; Skt. daddmi, 
I give ; Russ. date, to give. (-y^DO.) 
Brugm. i. §§ 167, 168. 

Date (2). fruit of the palm. (F. — L.— 
Gk. M.E. date. - O. F. date (F. datte) , 
also datete, a date. — L. dactylum, ace. of 
dactylus.-'G^. bo.KTvXos, a linger; also a 
date (somewhat like a finger). But it is 
probable that baKTv\os, a date, was a word 
of Semitic origin, assimilated to the word 
for ' finger.' Cf. Aramaic diqld. a palm- 
tree (^see Gen. x. 27) ; Arab, daqal. 

Daub. (F. - L.) M. E. dauben. - O. F. 
danher. to plaster ; answering to an older 
form "^dalber. — L. dealbdre, to whiten, 
plaster. — L. de, down, very ; albdi-e, to 
whiten, from albus, white; see Alb. Cf. 
^\)a.v\. Jaibegar {^*dealbicdre), to plaster. 
Der. be-daub. 

Daughter. (E.^ M. E. doghter, doh- 
ter. A. S. dohtor.-^Yiw. dochter, Dan. dat- 
ter, dotter, Svved. dotter, Icel. dottir, Goth. 
daiihtar, G. tochier ; Russ. doche, Lith. 
dukte, Gk. Ov-yaTr^p, Pers. dukhtar, Skt. 
dtihitr. Orig. sense doubtful. 

Daunt. (F. — L.) M.E. daunten." 
O. F. danter; also donter.^'L. doJ7iitdre, 
to tame, subdue ; frequent, of donidre, to 
tame ; see Tame. 

Dauphin. (F. - L. — Gk.) F. dauphin, 
a dolphin ; see Dolphin. A title of the 
eldest son of the king of France, who took 
it from the province of Daiiphiny (a.d. 
1349', '■ ^^^ the province had formerly had 
several lords named Dauphin. 

Davit, a support for ship's boats. 
(Heb. V) Formerly spelt David, as if from 
a proper name (a.d. 1626). Also called 
daviot in A. F., a dimin. of O. F. Davi, 

Daw. (E.^ From the noise made by 

Dawk, transport by relays of men and 

horses. (Hindi.) Hindi ddk, post, trans- 
port, &c. (Yule). 
Dawn ; see Day. 
Day. (E.) M.M. day, dai, dcei. A. S. 

dceg, pi. dagas.'^Y)\x. Dan. Swed. dag. Icel. 

dagr, G. tag, Goth. dags. Allied to Lith. 

dagaSj hot time, autumn ; degti^ to burn. 

Teut. type *dagoz ; Idg. type *dhoghos ; 

from -^'DHEGH, to bum; Skt. dah, to 

burn, ni-ddgha-, not season. Day is the 

hot, bright time ; as opposed to night. 

% In no way allied to L. dies. 

dawn, vb. (Scand.) M..Y.. dawnen; 

from the older sb. daw7iing. — ^wed. Dan. 

dagning, a dawning, dawn ; as if from a 

verb *dag-?ia, to become day, from Swed. 

Dan. dag, day. 2. We also find M. E. 
daiven, to dawn ; from A. S. dagian, to 

become day, dawn. — A. S. dag-, base of 
dceg, day. (Ci.fawn, vb.) 

Daywoman, dairy-woman. (Scand. 
and £.) In Shak. L. L. L. i. 2. 137. 

The addition of W07}ian is needless. Day 

= M. E. deye. = O. Norw. deigja, a maid ; 

esp. a dairymaid ; see Dairy. 
Daze. (Scand.) M. E. ^aj-^;?, to stupefy. 

— Swed. dasa, to lie idle ; Icel. dasask, to 

be wearied, lit. to daze oneself, where -sk 
is the reflexive suffix ; dasi, a lazy man ; 
dasinn, lazy; Dan. dial, dase, to be idle ; 
Low G. ddsen, dosen, to be listless ; in ''n 
das' sein, to be in a ' daze' (Berghaus). 

dazzle, to confuse. (Scand.) From 
daze; with frequent, suffix -le. Der. be- 

De- {,1'), prefix. (L. ; orY. — 'L^) L. de^ 
down, away, trom, verv; hence sometimes 
F. de-, de-, O. F. de-. 

He- {2), prefix. (F.-L.) F. ^^-, O. F. 
des- ; fiom L. dis- ; see Dis-. 

Deacon. 'L. - Gk.) M. E. deken. 
A. S. diacon. — l^. didco/ius. ^Gk. diaKovos^ 
a servant, a deacon. Cf. ey-Kovioj, I am 
quick, (j-Kouis. a maid-servant. 

Dead. (E.) ' M. E. deed A. S. dead, 
dead.+ Du. dood, Dan. dbd, Swed. do'd, 
Icel. daudr, Goth, dauths. Teut. type 
"^dau-boz, orig. a pp. with Idg. suffix -to- 
(Teut. -do- from the vb. ^dau-jan- (Icel. 
deyjd), to die. See Die (i). 

Deaf. vE.) "M.Y.deef. A.S. dea/.-^ 
Du. dooj, Dan. dov, Swed. do/, Icel. datifr, 

the bird ; cf. ca-M.-if-O. H. G. tdha, a daw ; | Goth, daubs ^ G. taiib. Orig. ' obfuscated ; ' 




allied to Gk. tik^j, smoke, darkness, 
sunx>r. rtv»-.\.>s. blind. Vl^HEUBH.> 

Deal ,i\ a share. ,li. M. E. flSrri. 
A. S. j'?/. a share. ■4" Du. cmJ, Dan. duS. 
Sw^. dfJ, Goth, liaus. G. f/sa'I. Cf. 
O. Slav. Ji-Ju, a part. Brugm.i. § 379 (^2^. 
deal ^i^, to divide, distribute. (E. 
M. E. j>/^w, A.S. df/jK.-A.S. dJL a 
share t^above\ + Du. diden^ dM, 
Swe^i. i^/j, Icel. dcita, Goth, dailjan, G. 
ih^iJm ; cf. the resj>ective sbs. above'. 

Deal 3\ a thiu board. (Du.N Du.^-<7. 
a dUlt\ see Thill. 

Dean. ^F.-L.) M. E. ^»a-0. F. 

ificn ;F. tiyrw^. — L. deianum, ace. of 
,.v.-J«:/.c, one set over ten soldiers or over 
ten monks, a dean. — L. d^-em. ten. 

Dear. (E.> M. E. dire. A. S. d?ore. 
dyre, dear, precious. +Dan. and Swed. dyr, 
dear, costly, Icel. i/Prr, dear, precious; 
O. Sax . i/Z-i r; ; G. tht-tur. 

dearth., scarcity. ^E.) M. E. dfrthf^ 
deamess ; hence, dearth. Not in A. S. : 
but formed as h^aJ-th, toarm-tk, &c-+ 
Icel. jT'r5. value, from dy'rr (above'^. ; O. 
Sax. diunxha value, from dsuri, dear, 
precious : O. H. G. fiurida, from iiuri 

Death. E.> lsi.^.d<eth. A.S.deaS. 
+Du. d.\>d, Dan. Swed.ii i/. Goth, dauihus, 
G. tod; cf. Icel. dau^i. Teui. type *daii- 
9u:^ formed \vith Idg. suffix -f»-. Tent. 
-du-, from ihe base *dau- : see Dead. 

Debar ,F.^ F. debarrcr: O. F. ^r- 
barre^. From De- ^2' and Bar, 

Debase. ,L.. and F. — L.' Formed 
from b:ise bv pretixing L. d^. down. 

Debate.' ,F.-L. M.E. d^bafen.-. 
O. F. d-cbjJTf, to debare. ar^ue. — L. tf^, 
down ; bjxrc-n\ to beat. See Batr-er (i \ 

Debancb. ^F.-L. ^w^Teut.) O. F. 

dcsbauchar, ^F. dJbaucher), ' to debosh, 
mar, seduce, mislead ; ' Cot. Diez sup- 
poses that the orig. sense was ' to entice 
away from a workshop' ; it is certainly 
derived from the O. F. prefix d^s- ' L. dis-^ , 
away, and O. F. batuhi. explained by 
Roquefon as " a little house.' and by Cot- 
grave as *' a course of stones or bricks 
m building.' Cf. M. F. embaucktr, to use 
in business, employ, esbaucher, to rough- 
hew, frame. Godefroy gives desbaucfur 
only in the sense of ' rough-hew.' but his 
Supp. adds — • detach from one's service, 
turn aside, distract.' The orig. se^se of 
bauchi was prob. 'balk.' i. e. beam, hence 
frame of a building, course in buiidine. 

small building, c^c ; of Teut. origm ; see 

Debenture, acknowledgment of a 
debt. i^L.^ Formerly dehcftinr (Eacon\ 
— L. dl'bf»iur, lit. ' they are due.' because 
such receipts began with the w ords d^bcn- 
iur fnjhi ^Webster'': pr. pi. pass, of 
d?be^, I owe ; see Debt. 

Debilitate, v'^.) From pp. of L. 

dtbih'tjff. to we.iken. — L. debiirs, weak. — 

' L. uv, -iw ay, not ; -bi.'/s, prob. allied to 

Skt. baJa~, strength ; cf. dur-buSa- (Jot 

LiMS-baJa-^, feeble. Brugm. i. § 55,^ 

Debonair. vF." M.E. d^bomre, de- 
bof:.:!'^ : A. F. dt'bonaire for dc bon 
aire. lit. of a good stock. — L. ^i", of; don-us, 
I good; and O. F. tM/r. place, stock, race, 
a word of uncennin origin. Diez 
suggests that it represents LaL aco- 
a^rum. field. 

i Debonch. (F.— L.^ F. dcboucJur, to 

uncork, to emerge from; hence, to march 
; out of a narrow pass, — F. d^ \ = O.Y . dts- 
1 <L. dis-^, away ; and bciuht, mouth, 
; opening, from L. btucj. mouth. 
i Debris, broken pieces. ^F. — L. a»d 
I Teut.^ F. di-brL\ fragments. — O. F. di- 
' briJiVr, to break to pieces. — O. F. de-, 
' from L. dF, down ; and brisur \^. brisar)^ 
to break ; see Bruise. 

Debt. ,F. -L.) A bad spelling of 

d£/f, M. E. dette. - O. F. dettg ^but in M. F. 

misspelt o^-^'/^V — L. d^bt'ta, a sum due; 

fern, of d^bitus. owed, pp. of d^bc~re, to 

owe. D^bh-c^de-hibere Plautus), i.e. to 

I have away, have on loan. — L. dc-. do\Mi, 

j away ; habere, to have. Der. debi-or, 

\ M. E. det-tur, from O. F. ddeiir, L. ace. 

dibit ore m. 

Debut . ^F.-L. a«^fO.H.G.> A first 
appearance in a play. — F. dSut. a first 
stroke, first cast or throw at dice, first play 
in the game of bowls : verbal sb. oidi-buter, 
M. F. d<sbuter, ' to put from the mark he 
aimed at ' (at bowls), Cot. ; hence, to come 
in first, be entitled to lead. From L, 
dis-, from . and F. but, mark. See Butt (i \ 
Decade. cF. — L. — Gk.^i F. decade, -a 
decade.' Cot. ; i. e. an aggregate of ten. — 
L. de'sad-em, ace of de^\is. — Gk. beaada, 
ace. of SfKos, a company of ten. — Gk. 
Sexa, ten ; see Ten. 

decagon. Gk.'' Named from its ten 
angles. — Gk. Se/ra. ten; -)aT-ta, a comer, 
ar.gie. allied to 7^11'. knee ; see Knee. 
Der. h^nJ^ca-gcn (ivb^Ka, eleven) ; dodeca- 
£vn \h(uh€Ko^ twelve). 




decahedron. Gk.; Xanaed from its 
ten ii'i^i vr osjies — Gi-r. 3<«a. ten : !?-;«, 
a bas^, lit. ' .=€at,' from <C'''Amu for l^^ofuu , 
I si' ; ;-ee Sit. Der, do-deca-hedron ^Gk. 

decalogue. 'F. — L. — Gk-> Y. deca- 
logue, "l.. diialcgum, zee. oi d^calogu:.^ 
Gk. OiKaXoy(/i, the ten commandment*.— 
Gk, 5«iea, ten ; A^oi, a speech, saying ; 
see Logic. 

decasyllabic, ha\Tng ten syllables. 
^Gk. fjK. ce.-ci. frn ; <TvkXa07i, a syllable. 
Der. hke'iUJUca.yllabic (Gk. cro€«a, ele^'en .. 

Decadence, "^^ecay. F. — L.y Y.ddca- 
deny.e. — Me'^:. L. decadentia. — L, ^, down; 
ccukntia, a failing ; see Cadence. 

Decamp, to depart. iF — L.; L, </if- 
campir: O. F. dtzcamper, orig. to remove 
a carr;p — L. </z';-, away: and campus, a 
field, iater, a camp. See De- ,2^ and 

Decanal. ^L,^ Belonging to a dean. 

— L. dicdn-u:. a dean ; with siiffix -<z/ L. 
-a/z-' : -Vr'; Dean. 

Decant. F. — L. a^»^ Gk.; Y. decan- 
ter Span. c^/z«/ar;. — Med. L. decanthaT-e 
(a word of the alchemists . to pour ouc — 
L. de, from : canthu:, the • lip of a cap, 
a peculiar u=e of Gk. kcu^Oos, comer of the 
eye 'Hatzfe'd . Der. decant-er. a \^Tne- 

Decapitate. L. From pp. of Ls.:e 

L. dicapitdre. to behead. — L. ^. off; and 
capit-, stem o:' caput, head. 

Decay, to fall into rain. (F. — L., 
O. Nor-fi F. dey:cur Span, decaer) ; vari- 
ant of O. F. (Uckair^ decheoir. — O. F, i/^- ; 
and cheoir F. r/^<7fr , to fall. — L. <^. down : 
and Foik-L. ci-iire. cadere, to fall, variants 
o: L. cad<re. to fialL F.— L.) ^^. E. di:-.:. — 

OF. ^^^(?j fF. dices., death. — L. :., 
deces:um. departnre. death. — L. cLi:-. 
pp. oi decedere. to deparu — L. -' 
cedere. to go a.vra.Y. 

Deceive. ^F,' — L.) A-F. : .:, : 

O. F. decevdr, decevair, pres. stid;. deietve. 

— L. decipere, to take away, deceive. — L. 
^, away ; and cap)ere. to take, Der. tz'^- 
ceit. from O. F. deceit, pp. of decevHr. 

December. L, ;^F.-L.) O. F, 

Deccm-Wi — L. December. 'm\_,. decern, ten : 
as it -. . 3.S :Jir tenth minth of the Roman 

Decemvir, one of ten magistrates. 
(L.) L, decem-uir. one of the d.i^:emuiri . 
or ten men joined in a com mi ssJcai. — L. 

decem. ten see Ten^ ; ar.d uir, a man 

::ee Virile . 

Decennial, h-e'.'.nihn::; to ten year*. 
X ro- L d-i-iiKK-'-i:. fji *en years ; 
cf. ii-enntzi . — L- aic-crn, t.n; annuz, a 
1 ^2.r. 

Decent. F.-L. O. F. <fe^w/. — L. 
decentem. ace of pres. pt. of decere, to 
oecome, befit ; cf. decus. honour. 

Deception. F. — L. O. f deception. 

— L a., d<upturnem.^\.. deceptus, pp. 
of decipere, to deceive ; see Deceive. 

Decide. Y. — L., ¥. decider. — L. de- 
cidere. pp. decisus, to cut ofr'^ cecide. — L. 
<^, down; and ccBdere. to cut, Der. d^- 
cis-ion from pp. dectzus,. 

Decidnons, falling off. fL.; L. /«3f- 
ciiu-u:. t.'.a.: fails down: with siffix -<?«x. 

— L. deciden. to fall down.- L. d(I?, down; 
ana cadere, to fill. .See Decay. 

DecimaL F — L. O. t. decimal.'— 
Late L. cUcimdli:, belong ng to tithes.— 
L. decima. a titne ; fern, of duimus. te::th- 
Cf. L. aV-^/>:. ten. 

decimate. L, rrom pp. of L. d!?- 
cimare, to select ever^ terith man. for 
pcniihment. — L. decern, ten. 

Decipher. F. a«^/ Arab. Formed 
after F. dechinrer, to decipher. — F. <^-, 
O F. de:-. L. i/zh-, apait ; Cipher, q. v. 

Deck, to cover. Du. Lm. dekketi, to 
cover ; aV.^. a carer, a ship's deJc. Cog- 
na:e .vitn F Thatch, q.v. 

Declaim. L., Formerly diclame.— 
L. dicidmdre, to cry alcnd, — L. <if , down. 
fully : cturndre, to cry ; see Claim. 

Declare. Y. — ll. O. F . declarer. — 
L. decldrdre. to make clear, deciare-— L. 
-r>. ful y : cldrus, clear. 

Declension. F.— L.', O.F. eUclinai- 
::k. u-e- :,r :ae ' declension* of a nocn- 

— ■ - deciindtidnem,, zee o: decittvitic, de- 
:.2.rion, deciension. — L. diclindius, pp. 
dl'.y.n-dri heiow . 

decline. T.— L.) O.F. dediner.— 
L. ii:iinare. to lean or bend aside from,— 
L. ii^-, from ; -ctinare (only in comp. , to 
lean : see Incline, Iteaii \\j. 

Declivity. Y.—'L. F. ddclivite.— 
L. d^:l:ui:licmy ace of dicituitdSy a 
do";vnwaTd slope. — L. dectiuis, sloping 
downward. — L. ^, down; cuutis, a sk^ie, 
hilL See Xjean (i). 

Decoct. L. L. decoctus, pp. of ^- 
c.cuert. -.0 ">oil down. — L. di^ down, 
away: .■'-r. to cook. 

Decollation, a beheading. ^F.— L.) 




O. F. decollation. — Y.^io. L. ace. dec oil d- 
tidnem. From pp. of decolldre, to behead. 
— L. de, off ; colluni, the neck. 

Decompose. ^F.-L. a«^ Gk.) F. 

decomposer (XVI c.) ; from de-, prefix, and 
composer, to compose. See Compose. 

Decorate. (L-) From pp. oidecorare, 
to adorn. — L. decor- (for *decos-), stem of 
decus, honour, ornament ; cf. L. decere, to 
be fit. 

decorum. (L.) L. decorum, scemli- 
ness; neut. of decorus, seemly. — L. decor-, 
stem of decor, seemliness, allied to decus 
(above). Der. in-decorum. 

Decoy, a contrivance for catching wild- 
ducks. (F. andViw.) Coined from prov. E. 
coy, a decoy, by prefixing the E. de- (F. 
de-, L. de). E. coy is from Du. kooi, a 
cage, decoy, M. Du. koye, older form 
kouwe (Hexham) ; from L. catiea, whence 
also F. and E. cage ; see Cags. ^ The 
prefixing of de- was probably due to con- 
fusion with M. E. coy en, to quiet ; so that 
de-coy seemed to mean a 'quieting down.' 

Decrease. (F. — L.) A. F. descrees, 
descreis, O. K. descrois, sb., a decrease ; 
from descroistre, vb., to decrease. — Late L. 
discrescere, used for L. decrescere, to 
diminish (pp decrettis).'~'L. de, down, 
away ; crescere, to grow. 

decrement. (L.) L. decrementum, 
a decrease. — L. decre-ttis, pp. of decres- 

Decree. (F. -L.) M. E. decree. - 
O. F, decret.-'Y^. decretu7n. — \^. decretus, 
pp. of decernere, to decree, lit. to separate. 

— L. de, away ; cernere, to distinguish. 
decretal. (F.-L.) O. F. decretal. 

— Late L. decretdle, a decree. — L decrettis. 
Decrepit. (L.) L. decrepitus, noise- 
less, creeping about like an old man, aged. 

— L. de, away ; crepitus, noise, allied to 
crepitus, pp. of crepdre, to crackle, make 
a noise. 

Decry, to condemn. fF. — L.) O. F. 
descrier, to cry down, disparage. — O. P\ 
des- (L. dis-), implying the reversal of an 
act, and here opposed to ' cry up ' ; crier, 
to cry. See Cry. 

Decussate, to cross at an acute angle. 
(L.) From pp. of L. decussdre, to cross, 
to put into the form of an y^. — l^. decus sis, 
a coin worth ten asses (as-es), and there- 
fore marked with X, i.e. ten. — L. decem, 
ten ; assi-, stem o^ as, an ace ; see Ace. 

Dedicate, to devote. (L.) L. dedicd- 
ius, pp. of dedicdre, to devote. — L. de, 

down ; dicdre, to proclaim ; from dic-^ 
weak grade of die-, as in dicere, to say. 

Deduce. (L.) L. deducere, to biing 
down (hence, to infer). — L. de, down; 
dficere, to bring. See Duke. 

deduct. (L.) Grig, to derive from. 
— L. deduct-tts, pp. of deducere, to bring 
down (above). 

Deed. (E.) M. E. deed. O. Merc, did, 
A.S. d,£d.-\'D\x. daad, Icel. dad, Swed. 
dad, Dan. daad, Goth, deds, G. that, 
O. H. G. tdt. Teut. type *dcediz ; Idg. 
type *dketis ; from -y'DtiE, to place, put, 
do. See Do. 

Deem. (E.) M. E, demen. A. S. de- 
man, to judge, give a doom. — A. S. dom, 
a doom ; see Doom. Cf. Du. doejfien, 
Icel. dcsma (for dcemd), Swed. doma, Dan. 
domme, Goth, domjan, O. H. G. tuo??iian, 
Teut. type "^domjan-, from *ddmoz, doom. 
Deep, profound. (E.) M. E. deep. 
A. S. deop. -|. Du. diep, Dan. dyb, Swed. 
djup, Icel. djupr, G. tief, Goth, diups. 
Teut. type *deupoz ; see Dip. 

depth, deepness. (E.) From deep ; 
cf. Icel. dypd, depth, from dj'tipr, deep.+ 
Du. diepte ; Goth, diupitha. 

Deer. (E.) M. E. deer, an animal. 
A. S. deor, a wild animal. +Du. dier, Dan. 
dyr, Swed. djnr, Icel. dyr, Goth, dius, 
G. thier. Teut. type *deuzom ; Idg. type 
*dheusom, pxoh. ^ a.n\TCi2iV; from *dheus-, 
to breathe (Kluge). Brugm. i. § 539 (2). 
Der. wilder-ness, q. v. 

Deface. (F.-L.) M. E. defacen.- 
O. F. desfacier, to deface, disfigure. — 
O. F. des- (<L. dis-), apart; face, face; 
see Face. 

Defalcate, to abate, deduct. (L.) 
From pp. of Late L. diffalcdre or defal- 
cdre, to abate, deduct, take away. — L. dif- 
( =dis-), apart, or else de, away; Late L. 
falcdre, to cut with a sickle, from L. falx 
{stem jalc-), a sickle. 

Defam.e. (F. — L.) M.E. defamen, 
diffa?7ien. — O. F. diffamer, to take away a 
man's character. — L. diffdmdre, to spread 
a bad report. — L. dif- (for dis-), apart; 
fdma, a report. See Fame. 

Default. (F.-L.) M. E, defaute.- 
O. F. defaute, a default, from defaillir, to 
fail ; imitating faute from faillir. See 
De-(i) and Fault. 

Defeasance, a rendering null. (F.- 
L.) A.F. law-term defesance, a rendering 
void. — O. F. defesant, defeisant, pres. part, 
of defaire, desfaire, to render void. — O. F. 




des- (L. dis-'), apart ; faire (L. facere), to 


defeat. (F.-L.) M. E. defaiten, to 

defeat. — A. F. defeter^ioxm&iS. from O. F. 

defait^ desfait, pp. of defaire, desfaire^ to 

render void (above). 
Defecate. (L.) From pp. of defae- 

cdre, to free from dregs. — L. de, out ; 
faec-, stem oifaex, yA. faeces, dregs. 
Defect. (L.) L. defectus, a want. — L. 

defecttis, pp. of dejicere, to fciil, orig. to 

undo. — L. de, away ; facere, to make. 

Der. defect-ion, -ive. 
Defend. (F. — L.) M.E. defenden. — 

O. F. defendre.'^'L,. defe?idere, to defend, 

lit. strike down or away. — L. de, down; 

*fendere, to strike, only in comp. defendei-e, 

of-fendere. Cf. G. 6(iv(iv, to strike ; Skt. 

/lan. (y'GHwEN.) Brugm. i. § 654. 
defence. (F. — L.) M.E. defence.— 

O. F. defense. — L. defensa, a defending 

(Tertullian). — L. defens-us, pp. of de- 
fendere (above). Also M. E. defens, O. F. 
defens, from L. defensiim, neut. 

Defer (i), to delay. (F.-L.) M.E. 
diffet-ren.'—O. F. differer, to delay. — L. 
differre, to bear different ways, delay. — L. 
dif- (for dis-^ , apart ; ferre, to bear. 

defer (2), to lay before, submit one- 
self. (F. — L.) O. F. deferer, to admit or 
give way to an appeal. — L. defefre, to 
bring down, bring before one. — L, de, 
down ; ferre, to bear, carry. 

Deficient. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of defice?'e, to fail ; see Defect. 

deficit, lack. (L.) L. deficit, it fails; 
3 p. s. pres. oideficere (above). 

Defile (i), to pollute. (F.-L.; con- 
fused with L. and E.) M. E. defonlen, to 
trample under foot ; later spelling defoyle; 
see Foil (i). This word is obsolete, but 
it suggested a hybrid compound made by 
prefixing L. de, down, to the old word 
fie, to defile (Macb. iii. i. 65) = A. S. 
fylan (for ^ffdjaii), to defile, make foul, 
formed (by vowel-change of u to y) from 
A. S.fill, foul ; see Foul. 

Defile (2), to march in a file. (F.-L.) 
F. d^filer, to defile. - F. d^. = O. F. des- (L. 
dis-), apart ; _^ier, to spin threads, from L. 
filum, thread. Der. defile, sb., F. ddfile, 
a narrow passage ; orig. pp. oiddfiler. 

Define. (F.— L.) O. F. definer, to 
define, conclude. — L. deflnire, to limit. 
— L. de down ; finlt-e, to end, from finis, 

Deflect. (L.) L. dejlectere, to bend 

down or aside. — L. ^(?, down ;y7^(;/'^r(;, to 
bend. Der. deflex-ion^ from deflex-us, 
Defiour, Defiower. (F. - L.) M. E. 

defiouren.'—O. F. dcfieiirer, Cotg. — Late 
L. deflordre, to gather flowers. — L. de, 
away ; fior-, for fids, a flower. 

Defluxion. (L.) From ace. of L. de- 
fluxio, a flowing down. — L. de, ^ov^n; 
flux -lis, pp. oi finer e, to flow. 

Deforce, to dispossess. (F. — L.) 
Legal. — A. F. deforcer, to dispossess (Med. 
L. difforcidre).-'0. F. de-^des- (L. dis-)^ 
away; and Y. force. See Force. 

Deform. (F.-L.) ^L E. deformen, 
chiefly in pp. deformed. — O. F. difformer, 
to deform ; Godefroy. — O. F. diffornie, 
adj., deformed, ugly; Cot. — L. defortnis^ 
ugly. — L. de, SiWd^y; forma, shape, beauty. 

Defraud. (F.-L.) O. F. defrauder. 
— L. defraiidd7'e, to deprive by fraud. — L. 
de, away ; fraud-, stem oifraus, fraud. 

Defray. (F.-L. and O. H. G.) O. F. 
desfrayer, to pay expenses ; Littre. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-) ; fraier, to spend. Fraier 
is from O. F. '^frai, *fre, X^X&x frait, mostly 
used in the pi. frais, fres (F. frais), ex- 
penses ; cf. Low L. fredtwi, a fine, com- 
position. — O. FL G. fridit (G. friede)y 
peace ; also, a fine for a breach of the 
peace. See Affray. 

Deft, neat, dexterous. (E.) M. E. deft, 
daft. A. S. dafte, as seen in ge-dcefte, mild, 
gentle, meek ; ge-dcBftlTce, fitly, season- 
ably ; d(£ftan, to prepare. Cf. A. S. ge- 
daf-en, fit, pp. of a lost strong vb. *dafau; 
Goth, gadaban, to befit, gadobs, fitting. 

Defunct, dead. (L.) L. defiinctns, 
i. e. having fully performed the course of 
life, pp. of defiingi, to perform fully. — L. 
de, fully ; and fungi, to perform ; see 

Defy. (F.-L.) M.E. defyen.-O.Y. 
defier, defjfier, desfier, orig. to renounce 
one's faith. — Late L. difflddre, to renounce 
faith. — L. dif- (for dis-), apart ; -fJddre 
(from fidus, faithful \ to trust ; cf. L. 
fidei-e, to trust. See Faith. 

Degenerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

degenerdre, to become base. — L. degener, 
adj., base. — L. de, down ; gener- (for 
^ge7tes-), stem oigenns, race. See Genus. 

Deglutition, swallowing. (F. — L.) 
F. deglutition. — L. de, down ; glutitiis, 
pp. of glut ire, to swallow. 

Degrade. iF. — L.) O. F. degrader, 
to deprive of rank or office. — Late L. de- 




graddrc, the same. — L. de^ from ; gradus^ 
rank. See Grade. 

degree . (F • — L.) O . F . degi-e, degret, 
a step, rank ; orig. a step dozvn (used of 
stairs). — L. de, down ; gradiis, a step. 

Dehiscent, gaping. (L.) L. dehi- 
scent-, stem of pres. pt. of dehiscere, to 
gape open. — L. de, down ; kisce?'e, to 
gape, inceptive of hidre, to yawn ; see 

Deify, Deist ; see Deity. 

Deign. (F. — L.) M. E. deigjzen.^ 
A. F. deign-, a stem of O. F. dig}t{i)ei', to 
deign. — L. digndre, by-form oi digndri, to 
deem worthy. — L. dignus, worthy. Erugm. 
ii. § 66. 

Deity. (F.-L.) M.E. deite.~O.Y. 
deite.'-L. deitdton, ace. of deitds, deity, 
Godhead. — L. dei-, for deits^ God ; cf. 
diuiis, godlike. Cf. W. duw, Gael, and 
Ir. dia, Skt. deva-, a god ; Gk. hios, Skt. 
dai7ja-, divine. See Tuesday. 

deify. (F, — L.) M. E. deifyen. — 
O. F. deifier, ' to deifie ; ' Cot. - Late L. 
deificdre. — L. deijicus, accounting as gods. 

— L. dei-, for deiis, a god; and -Jic-, for 
facere, to make. Der. deificat-ion, due to 

pp. of deijicdre. 

deist. i,F.— L.) F, deiste. From L. 
de-US ; with suffix -ist. 

Deject, to cast down. (L.) From L. 
deiectiis. pp. of deicere {deiicere), to cast 
down. — L. de, down ; iacere, to throw. 

Delay, vb. (F.-L.) O. F. delayer, 
dilaier] also^^/^^r (Godefroy). It answers 
in sense to L. dildtdre, to defer, delay, 
put off"; which would properly give O. F. 
dileer. JDtldtdre is from dildttis, deferred, 
put off; from L. dl- (dis-), apart ; /dtus, 
borne, pp. of tollere, to lift, sustain, bear. 
^ The O.F. spelling with ai causes a 
difficulty. Der. delay, sb. ; O. F. delai. 

Delectable. (F.-L.) Late M. E. 

delectable. -'Y. delectable. •^Y,. delect dbilis , 
delightful. — L. delectdre, to delight; fre- 
quent, of delicej-e, to allure. See De- 

Delegate, a chosen deputy. (L.) L. 
delegatus, pp. of delegdre, to depute, ap- 
point. —L. de, away; legdre, to depute. 
See Legate. 

Delete, to erase. (L.) L. deletus, pp. 
of del ere, to destroy. See below. 

Deleterious. '(Gk.) Late L. dele- 
teri-ns, with suffix -oits. For Gk. S77A.77- 
TTjpios, noxious. — Gk. brjXrjTrjp, a destroyer. 

— Gk. drjKeof^ai, I harm, injure. 

Delf. (Du.) Earthenware first made at 
Delft, formerly Delf, a town in S. Holland, 
about A. D. 1 310 (Haydn). The town was 
named from its delf ox canal ; cf. Delve. 

Deliberate, carefully weighed and 
considered. (L.) L. dellberdtiis , pp. oide- 
libei'dre, to consult. — L. de, thoroughly; 
llb?-dre, to weigh, from libra, a balance. 

Delicate, dainty, refined. (L.) L. 
delicdtzis, luxurious ; probably allied to 
delicia (or delicice, pi.), pleasure, delight, 
and to L. dc'licere, to amuse (below). 

delicious. (F. — L.) M..Y. delicious. 
— O. F. delicious. — Late L. deliciosus, 
pleasant. — L. delicia, pleasure. — L. de- 
licere, to amuse, allure. — L. de, away ; 
Iacere, to entice. 

delight. (F. - L.) Misspelt for delite. 
M. E. deliten, verb. — O. F. deliter, delei- 
ter. — L. delectdre ; see Delectable. 

Delineate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

delinedre, to sketch in outline. — L. de, 
down ; llnedre, to mark out, from linea, 
a line See Line. 

Delinquent, failing in duty.JL.) L. 
delinquent-, stem of pres. pt. oidelinquere, 
to fail, to omit one's duty. — L. de, away, 
from ; linquere, to leave. 

Deliq.liesce, to become liquid. (L.) 
L. deltquesce?-e,io become liquid. — L. oi'^, 
away ; liquescere, inceptive form of liquere, 
to be wet. See Liquid. 

Delirious. (L.) A coined word (with 
suffix -ous), from L. dellri-um, madness, 
which is also adopted into English. — L. 
delirus, mad ; lit. ' going out of the 
furrow.' — L. de, from ; and lira, a furrow. 
Cf. O. H. G. leisa, G. g-leise, a track. 

Deliver. (F.-L.) O.F. delivrer, to 
set free. — Late L. deliberdre, to set free.— 
L. de, from ; llberd?-e, to free, from liber, 

Dell, a dale. (E.) M. E. delle. A. S. 
dell, neut. ; Cart. Sax. i. 547; ii. 71. 
Teut. type *daljof}i ; see Dale. 

Delta. (Gk.) Gk. UXra, the letter A ; 
answering to Heb. daleth, the name of the 
4th letter of the alphabet ; orig. ' a door of 
a tent.' ^ Orig. Phoenician.) Der. deltoid. 

Delude. (L.) l^.deladere {\)T^.delusus), 
to mock at, cajole. — L. de, down; ludere, 
to play. Der. delus-ion, from the pp. 

Deluge. \F.-L.) O.F. deluge. --1.. 
diluuizini, a washing away. — L. diliiere, 
to wash away. — L. dl- [dis-) , apart ; 
Itiere, to wash, allied to Lave. 

Delve, to dig. (E.) M.E. deluen. 



A. S. delfan^ pt. t. dealf, pp. do/fen. -^Du. 
delven ; M. H, G. telben. Cf. Russ. dol- 
biie, to hollow out. Biugm. i. § 521 (2). 
Demagogue. (F.-Gk.) F. d^jna- 
gogue. — (jk. 8t] fj-ayaryus , a popular leader. 

— Gk. 5^fx-os, people; d7a;7os, leading, 
from d-y-€iv, to lead. 

Demand. (F. — L.) F. demander^ to 
demand, require. — L. deniandare, to en- 
trust ; in late L., to demand. — L. de, 
away ; majiddre, to commission, order. 

Demarcation. (Span. — L. ajid 
M.H.G.) brom Span, dcmarcacion {'i^^ 
N.E. D.); whence also F. dimarcation. 

— L. de, down ; and Span, tnarcar, to 
mark, a word of German origin ; see 

Demean (i), to conduct ; reflex., to 
behave. \Y . — L.) M. E. demenen. — O. F. 
demener, to conduct, guide, manage. — 
O. Y .de { = L. de), down, fully ; mener, to 
conduct, from Late L. mindre, to drive 
cattle, conduct, from L.tniudri, io threaten. 
See Menace. 
demeanour. (F.—L.) M.E.demen- 

ure {XV cent.) ; a coined word, from 
M. E. demeneii^ to demean, behave ; see 
Demean (i . 

Demean (2), to debase, lower. (Hy- 
brid ; L. and E.) Made, like debase, 
from the prefix De- (i), and the adj. 
7nean. See Mean (2. 

Demented, mad. (L.) Pp. of the old 
verb to demenL-^1-.. denientdre, to drive 
out of one's mind. — L. de^ from; 77ient-, 
stem of mens, mind. 

Demerit, ill desert. (F. — L.) Also 
merit, in a good sense; Cor. i. i. 276.— 
O. F. demerite, desert; also a fault, de- 
merit.— Late L. demeritum, a fault ; from 
pp. of L. demerere, deniereri, to deserve 
(in 2i good sense). — L. de. fully; nierere, 
mereri, to deserve. See Merit. 

Demesne. (F. — L.) K.Y.demeine, 
deniene, also demesne (with silent s) ; other 
spellings of Domain, q. v. 

Demi-, half. (F. - L.) O. F. demi, 
half. — L. ace. dimidiu7n, half. — L. <//"- = 
dis~, apart ; medius, middle ; see Medium. 

Demijohn, a kmd of large bottle. 
(F.) From F. dame-Jeanne ; cf. Span. 
damajuana. Much disputed, but not of 
Eastern origin. The F. form is right as 
it stands, though often much perverted. 
From F. da/ne i Sp. dama), lady; and 
Jeanne (Sp. Jiiana), Jane, Joan. See 
N. E. D. 


Demise, transference, decease. (F. — L.) 
O. F. demise, des?nise, fem. of pp. of 
destnettre, to displace, dismiss. — L. dltnit- 
tei'e ; see Dismiss. 

Democracy. K F. — Gk.) Formerly de- 
mocraty (Milton). — M. P\ democratie ; Cot. 

— Gk. drffioKparia, popular government, 
rule by the people. — Gk. S-rjfxo-, for Stj/xos, 
a country-district, also the people ; and 
Kponiv, to rule. Cf. O.Ir. ddtn, a retinue. 

Demolish. (F.— L.) 0.¥. demoHss-, 
inchoative stem of afew(?/?>, to demolish.— 
L. detnoliri, dlmolire, to pull down. — L. 
de, from ; moles, heap, mass. 

Demon. (L. — Gk.) Y o^vc^e.x\^j dcemon. 

— L. ^(^w (?/;. — Gk. daifioDv, a god, genius, 
spirit. CI. Saiofiai, I impart. 

Demonstrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dcmonstrd7-e, to show fully. — L. de, down, 
fully ; 77io7istrd7'e, to show, iioxxxi/wnsti'um, 
a portent. See Monster. 

Demoralise, to corrupt in morals. 
(F. — L.) Mod. F. d^77io7'aIise7'.'-Y. de-, 
O. F. des {L. dis-), apart; ?7ioral, moral; 
with suffix -ise ( = F. -iser, for Gk. -i^uv). 
See Moral. 

Demur, vb. (F. — L.) O. F. de7nourer, 
demeu7'er, to tarry ; hence, to hesitate.— 
L. de7Hord7-T, to delay fully — L. de, fully; 
77iordri, to delay, from 77i07-a, delay. 

Demure. (F.-L.) XIV cent. Coined 
by prefixing de- (see De- (i)), to M. E. 
t7iure, mature, calm, demure. — O. F. w<f«?' 
(F. niur), mature. — L. indturtis ; see 

Demy ; a spelling oide77ii-. 

Den. ^E.) M. E. den; A. S. denn, a 
cave, allied to deft^i, a valley. -f- M. Du. 
denne, a cave (Kilian). 

Denary, relating to tens. (L.) L. 
denarius, containing ten. — L. dmi ( = *dec- 
7zi), pi. ten by ten. — L. dec-e77i, ten. Hence 
denier, L. denarius, piece of ten (as-es). 

Dendroid. (Gk.) Gk. Uvlpo-v, a tree ; 
-dibrj's, like, from ejSoy, form, shape. 

Denizen, a naturalised citizen, inha- 
bitant. P. — L.) Formerly flfejwj-^zw.— 
A. F. and O. F. deinzein also de7izeiii), 
used in the Liber Albus to denote a trader 
zvithin the privilege of the city franchise, 
as opposed ioforeift. Formed by adding 
the suffix -ei/t ( — L. -d7iens) to O. F. dei^iz, 
now spelt da7ts, within. — L. de i7itus. from 
within. — L. de, from ; inttis, within, allied 
to Interior. 

Denominate. vL.) From pp. of L. 
dmomindre, to name. — L. de, down, fully ; 



nojnindre, to name, from nomin'^ stem of 
nonien^ a name ; see Noun. 

Denote. (F.-L.) Y.ddnoter.-\ 
noiare, to mark out. — L. ^c", down ; 
notdre, to mark, from iiota, a mark. See 

Benouement, the undoing: of a 

knot. (F. — L.) ¥.d^no2itment, ?,h.,ixom 
dt!nouer, to undo a knot. — L. dis-, apart ; 
iiddare, to knot, from nodus, a knot. See 

Denounce. (F. — L.) O.Y .deno77cer 
— L. demmtidj-e, to declare. — L. de, down, 
fully ; nuntidre, to tell, from nunthis, a 
messenger. See Nuncio. Der. denunciat- 
ion, from L. pp. denuncidttts. 

Dense. (L.) L. densus, thick. +Cjk. 
SacriSs, thick. Brugm. i. § 85 1. Der. co7i- 

Dent ; see Dint. 

Dental. CL.) Formed with suffix -al 
(F. -al, L. -dlis) from L. dent-, stem of 
dens, a tooth, cognate with E. Tooth.. 

dentated, furnished with teeth. (L ) 
L. dentdtus, toothed. — L, dent-, stem of 
dens, a tooth. 

denticle, a little tooth. (L.) L. den- 
ticulus. double dimin. oi dens, a tooth. 

dentifrice, tooth-powder. (P\ — L.) 
F. dentifrice. — L.. dentifricinm (Pliny).— 
L. denti-, deck stem of dens, a tooth ; 
fric-dre. to rub, 

dentist. (F. — L.) Y.dentiste. Coined 
from L. dent-, stem of dens, a tooth. 

dentition. (L.) L. dentTtionem, ace. 
of dentitio, cutting of teeth. — L. dentitus, 
pp. oi dentire, to cut teeth.- L. denti-, 
decl. stem of dens, a tooth. 

Denude, to lay bare. (L.) L. denii- 
ddre, to make fully bare. — L. de, fully; 
nfiddre, to lay bare, from nudus, bare. 
See Nude. 

Denunciation ; see Denounce. 

Deny. (F. - L.) M. E. denien. - M. F. 
denier, earlier form deneier. — Y,. denegdre, 
to deny fully. — L. de, fully; negdre, to 
deny. See Negation. 

Deodand, lit. a thing to be given to 
God. (L.) From L. deo,^2L\.. oideus, God ; 
datidum, neut. of dandus, to be given, 
from dare, to give. 

Depart. (F. — L.) O. F. departir, des- 
partir, to divide, to part from. — L. dis-, 
away from ; partire, to part ; see Part. 
Cf. L. dis per tire. 

Depend. (F.-L.) O. F. ^^/^«^r^, to 

depend, hang on ; Cot. — L. dependere, to 


hang down or from. — L. de, down, from ; 
pendere, to hang. See Pendant. 

Depict. (L.) Formerly used as a pp. — 
L. depicttts, pp. of depingere, to depict, 
lit. paint fully. — L. de, fully; pingere, to 
paint. Cf. Picture. 

Depilatory, removing hair. (L.) 
Formed, in imitation of M. F. depilatoire 
(Cot.), from a L. adj. '^depildtdrius, not 
found. — L. depild-re, to pluck out hair. — 
L, de, away; pildre, to pluck away hair, 
ixovcipilus, hair. 

Depletion. (L.) ' Depletion, ?i.ntxa^iY- 
ing;' Blount. Formed, in imitation of 
repletiofz, from L. depletus, pp. of deplere, 
to empty. — L. de, away; plere, to fill. 
See Plenary. 

Deplore. (F.-L.;^rL.) O.F. de- 
plorer. — 'L, deplordre, to lament over. — 
L. de, fully ; plordre, to cry out, wail, 
weep. Brugm. i. § 154. 

Deploy, to open out, extend. (F.—L.) 
F. ddployer, to unroll, unfold ; O. F. des- 
ploier, to unfold. — L. dis-, apart; plicdre, 
to fold. A doublet of Display. 

Deponent, one who testifies. (L.) L. 
deponent-, stem of the pres. pt. oi deponere, 
to lay down, also (in late L.) to testify.— 
L. de, down ; ponere, to lay. See Position. 

Depopulate. (E.) From pp. of L. de- 
populih-e, to lay waste ; in Late L. to de- 
prive of people or inhabitants. Orig. to 
ravage by means of multitudes. — L. de, 
fully ; populdre, to populate, fill with 
people, ixova. popuhis , people ; see People. 

Deport. (F. - L.) M. F. deporter, to 
bear, endure ; se deporter, to forbear, quiet 
oneself. — L. deportdre, to carry down, re- 
move ; with extended senses in Late Latin. 
Der. deportment, O. F. deportement, be- 
haviour. % For the varying senses, see 
F. deporter. 

Depose. (F.-L. rtwoT Gk.) O. F. ^^- 
poser, to displace. — O. F. de- (L. de), from ,• 
and F. poser, to place, of Gk. origin, as 
shown under Pose, ^f Much confused 
with derivatives from 'L. pdne7'e, lo place. 
See below. 

Deposit, vb. (F.-L.) Obs. F. de- 
positer, to entrust. — Med. L. depositdre, to 
lay down. — L. deposituvi, a thing laid 
down, neut. of pp. of depdnei-e ; see De- 

deposition. (F. - L.) O. F. deposi- 
tio}i.-''L. ace. depositioneni, a depositing. 
— L. depositus, pp. of depdnere, to lay 
down (above). 




depot, a store. (F.-L.) F. depot \ 
O. F. depost. ^V-.. depositum, a thing laid 
clown (hence, stored) ; neut. of depositus, 
pp. of deponere ; see Deponent. 

Deprave. (F. — L.) M. E. deprauen. — 
O. F. depraver. "Y.. deprdudre, to make 
crooked, distort, vitiate. — L. de, fully; 
p?'dutis, crooked, depraved. 

Deprecate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

deprecdri, to pray against, pray to remove. 

— L. de, away ; precdri^ to pray. See 

Depreciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

depretidre, to lower the price of. — L. de, 
down ; pretium, price. See Precious. 
Depredate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

deprceddri, to plunder. — L. de, fully ; prie- 
ddri, to rob, from prceda, prey ; see Prey. 

Depress. (F. — L.) O. F. depresser 
(Godefroy).— L. type "^depressdre ; from 
L. depressus, pp. of deprimere, to press 
down. — L. de, down ; premere, to press. 

Deprive. (F. — L.) O. F. depriver 
(Godefroy). — Late L. deprivdre, to de- 
prive of office, degrade. — L. de, fully; 
priudre, to deprive. See Private. 

Depth ; see Deep. 

Depute. (F. -L.) M. F. deptiter; Cot. 

— L. depiitdre, to cut off, also to impute, 
destine. — L, de, down ; ptitdre, to cut off, 
orig. to cleanse. Der. depnt-y, M. F. 
depute, one deputed, pp. of deputer. 

Derange. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) F. 
deranger, to disarrange ; formerly des- 
rangier, "lu. dis-, apart; O. F. rangier, 
rengier, to range ; see Kange. 

Dereliction, complete abandonment. 
(L.) L. ace. derelictionem, complete neg- 
lect. — L. derelictus, pp. of derelinqiiere, to 
forsake. — L. de, from ; relinquere, to leave 
behind, from re-, back, and linqtcere, to 
leave. See Relinquish. 

Deride. (L.) L. derldere, to laugh 
down, laugh at; from de, down, and 
ridere, to laugh. Der. derisive, from 
pp. derJsus. 

Derive. (F.— L.) O. F. deriver, to 
derive, also to drain. — L. deriudre, to 
drain off water. — L. de, from ; rums, a 
stream. See Rivulet. 

Derm, skin. (Gk.) Gk. 8€p^a,skin.— 
Qik.hkpdiv, to flay; cognate with £. Tear, 
vb., to rend. 

Derogate. (L.) Frompp. ofL. (^^r^- 
gdre, to repeal a law, detract from. — L. 
de, away ; rogch-e, to ask, propose a law. 
See Rogation. 

Derrick, a kind of crane. (Du.) Orig. 
the gallows ; and named from a Dutch 
hangman ; see T. Dekker, Seven Deadly 
Sins of London, ed. Arber, p. 17. — Du. 
Dierryk, Dirk, Diederik ; answering to G. 
Dietrich, A. S. peodric, ' ruler of the 

Dervis, Dervish, a Persian monk, 
ascetic. (Pers.) Pers. darvish, poor ; a 
dervish, who professed poverty. Cf. Zend 
driyu-, poor (Horn). 

Descant. (F. — L.) Orig. a variation 
in a song. — O. North F. descant [O. F. des- 
chant\ a kind of song. -Late L. discantus, 
a refrain, kind of singing. — L. dis-, apart; 
and canius, a song. See Cant (i). 

Descend. (F. - L.) M. F. descendre ; 
Cot. — L. descendere, lit. to climb down.— 
L. de, down ; scandere, to climb ; see 

Describe. (L.) \..describere,ioviT\it 
down, describe fully ; pp. descriptiis 
(whence description). — L. de, down; 
scrlbere. to write. See Scribe. 

descry. (F.-L.) M..Y.. descry en, X.o 
discern. — O. F. descrire, short form of 
O. F. descrivre, to describe. — L. describere. 
% Sense affected by O. F. descrier, to pro- 
claim, publish ; from O. F. des- (L. dis-\ 
and crier, to cry. 

Desecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
secrdre or desacrdre, to consecrate ; (with 
change of sense due to O.F. dessacrer, to 
profane, from L. dis-, apart). — L. de, fully ; 
sacrdre, to account as sacred ; see Sacred. 

Desert (I ), a waste. (F.-L.) O.F. 
desert, a wilderness. — L. desej-tum, neut. 
of desertus, waste ; pp. of deserere, to 
desert, abandon. — L. de, away (negative); 
serere, to join. 

Desert (2), merit. (F.-L.) O.F. 
desert, fern, deserte, lit. a thing deserved, 
pp. of desei-vir, to deserve ; see below. 

deserve. (F.-L.) O.Y.desej-vir.-. 
L. desertiire, to serve fully; in Late L., to 
deserve. — L. de, fully; sertnre, to serve. 
See Serve. 

Deshabille, careless dress. (F.-L.) 
Y . deshabille., undress.— F. d^shabiller, to 
undress. — Y.des (L dis-), apart, away, un- ; 
habiller, to dress ; see Habiliment. 

Desiccate, to dry up. (Lj From pp. 
of L. desiccdre, to drain dry. — L. de, away ; 
siccdre, to dry, from siccus, dry. 

Desiderate ; see Desire. 

Design, vb. , F. - L.) O. F. designer, 
to denote, to design. — L. designdre, to 




denote, mark down. — L. de, down; sig- 
ndre, to mark, from sig'num, sign. Der. 

Desire, to long for. (F. — L.) O. F. de- 
sirer, desirrer. — L. desiderdre, to long for, 
regret, miss. Perhaps (like considerdre) 
allied to sidus, a star, as if to turn the eyes 
from the stars, to regret, miss. 

desiderate. (L.) l^.desjderdtus,^^. 

oi desiderdre (above). 

Desist. (F. — L.) O. F. desister, to 
cease. — L. desistere, to put away, also to 
desist. — L. de, away; sistere, to put, also 
to stand still, from stare, to stand. 

Desk, a sloping table. (L.-Gk.) 
M. E. deske, desk; in Chaucer, C. T., F. 
1 128. — Med. L. desca, a desk; cf. Ital. 
desco, 'a desk;' Florio. — L. discum, 
ace. of discus, a disc, table. See Disc, 

Desolate, solitary. (L.) L. desoldtiis, 
forsaken ; pp. of desoldre, to forsake. — L. 
de, fully ; soldre, to make lonely, from 
solus, alone. 

Despair ; see Desperate. 

Despatch ; see Dispatch. 

Desperate, hopeless. (L.) L. dispe- 
rdtus, pp. of desperdre, to lose all hope. — 
L. de, from ; sperdre, to hope ; from sper-, 
as in sper-es, O. Lat. pi. of spes, hope. 

despair, vb. (F.-L.) M.E. des- 
peiren, desperen. — O. F. despeir-, tonic 
stem oi desperer, to despair. — L. desperdre 
(above) . 

desperado, a desperate man. (Span. 
— L. ) M . Span, desperado. — L. desperdtus, 
pp. oi desperdre (above). 

Despise, to contemn. (F. — L.) M.E. 
despisen.'-'O. F. despis-, stem of the pres. 
part., &c., of despire, to despise. — L. de- 
spicere, to look down, look down on 
(below). Der. despic-able, from L. de- 
spicdrT, to look down on, allied to de- 

despite, spite, hatred. (F. — L.) M.E. 
despit. — O.V. despit, ' despight, spight ;' 
Cot. — L. despectu7n, ace. of despectus, 
contempt. — L. despectus, pp. of despicere, 
to despise. — L. i^i?, down ; specere, to look ; 
see Species. 

Despoil. (F.-L.) O.¥.despoiner{¥. 
d^pouiller), to despoil. — L. despoliare, to 
plunder. — L. de, fully ; spoliare, to strip 
of clothing, from spolium, spoil ; see 

Despond. (L.) L. desponda-e, (i) to 
promise fully, (2) to give up, yield (hence, 

to despair). -L. dS, (i) fully, (2) away; 
spondere, to promise. 

Despot, a tyrant. (F.- L.-Gk.) O.F. 
despot. — Med. L. despotus. — Gk. SecrTroTT/y, 
a master ; lit. ' master of the house.' The 
syllable Sec-^Idg. *dems, ' of a house ; ' 
cf. Skt. dani'pati-, master of the house. 
The syllable ttot- is allied to Gk. 1:601%, 
husband, Skt. pati-, lord, and to Potent. 
Brugm. i. § 408. 

Desquamation, a scaling off. (L.) 
From pp. of L. desqiid77idre, to remove 
scales. — L. de, off; squdma, a scale. 

Dessert. (F.-L.) O.Y. dessert, \}^q 
last course at dinner. — O. F. desservir, to 
do ill service to ; also, to take away the 
courses at dinner. — O. F. des-, from L. dis-, 
away ; servir, from sertiire, to serve. 

Destine. (F.-L.) 0.¥. destiner, to 
ordain. — L. destindre, to destine, ordain ; 
allied to L. destina, a prop, support. — L. 
de, down ; and ^standre, to cause to stand, 
derivative of stdre, to stand. Cf. Cretic 
aravvoj, I set. Brugm. ii. § 603. 

Destitute. (L.) L. destitutus, left 
alone ; pp. of destituere, to place alone. — 
L. de, away ; statuere, to place, causal of 
stdre, to stand. 

Destroy. (F.—L.) U.. E. destroien, 
destruien.'mO.Y . destruire (^ . dctruire \ 
Ital. distruggere). mm'h. type ^desti'ugere, 
for L. destruere, to pull down, unbuild, 
overthrow (pp. destructus).'-'L. de, down; 
struere, to pile up. 

destruction. (F.-L.) O.F. de- 
struction. — L. ace. dest7'uctidnem ; from 
destruct-tis, pp. oi destruere (above). 

Desuetude, disuse. (L.) "L. desuetado, 
disuse. — L. distietus, pp. of desuescere, to 
grow out of use, opposed to con-suescere ; 
see Custom. 

Desultory, jumping from one thing 
to another. (L.) L. desultorius, orig. be- 
longing to a desultor ; hence, inconstant. — 
L. desultor, one who leaps down, or from 
horse to horse. — L. destiltus, pp. oidesilire, 
to leap down. — L. de, down ; salire, to 

Detach. (F.-L.^woTG.) Y. detacher, 
to unfasten. — F. di-=^0. F. des- (L. dis-'), 
apart ; F. tache, a nail, tack ; see Tack. 
Der. detachment. Cf. Attach. 

Detail, a small part. (F.-L.) O, F. 
detail, ' a peece-mealing, also retaJle, or a 
selling by parcels ; ' Cot. — O. F. detailler, 
to cut into pieces. — O. F. de- (L. de-^, 
down fully ; tailler, to cut ; see Tailor. 




Der. detail, verb (which is from the sb. 
in E., though in F. it is the other way). 

Detain. (F. — L.) From a tonic stem 
of O. F. detenir. — L. detinere, to hold 
back ; pp. detentus. — L. de, down ; tenn-e, 
to hold. Der. deiejttion (from the pp."). 

Detect. (L.) From L. delectus, pp. 
of detegere, to uncover, expose. — L. de, 
away ; teget-e, to cover. See Tegument. 

Detention ; see Detain. 

Deter. (L.) L. deterj-ere, to frighten 
from. — L. de, from; terre7-e, to frighten. 
See Terror. 

Deterge, to wipe off. (L.) L. deter- 
gere, to wipe off. — L. a-?, off ; tergere, to 
wipe. Der. deterg-ent, from the pres. pt. 

Deteriorate. (L.) L. deterioratus, 
pp. oi deteriordre, to make worse. — L. 
deterior, worse. Formed from de, away, 
from ; with comp. suffixes -ter-io7\ (So 
also in-ter-ior from m.) 

Determine. (F.-L.) O. F. deter- 
miner. '•'L,. determinare, to bound, end.— 
\, down, fully; termindre, to bound, 
from ter7?iinus, a boundary ; see Term. 
Der. pre- determine. 

Detest. (F.-L.) M.F. detester, to 
loathe. — L. detestd^'i, to execrate, impre- 
cate evil by calling down the gods to wit- 
ness. — L. de, down ; testdrJ, to witness, 
from testis, a witness. 

Dethrone. (F.-L. a«^Gk.) M.F. 

desthroner, *to unthrone;' Cot. — O. F. 
des~ (L. dis-')^ apart; L. thronus, from 
Gk. Opovos, a throne. See Throne. 

Detonate, to explode. (L.) L. deto- 
ndtus, pp. of detondre, to explode. — L. de, 
fully ; tondre, to thunder. 

Detour, a winding way. (F. — L.) F. 
detour, a circuit ; verbal sb. from F. 
ditourner, to turn aside. — F. di- (L. dis-), 
aside, apart ; tourner, to \.ViXn. See Turn. 

Detraction. (F.-L.) O. F. detrac- 
tion. ^-Y^. detractiotiem, ace. oi detractio, 
a withdrawal ; hence a taking away of 
one's credit. — L. detractiis, pp. of detra- 
here, to take away, also to disparage. — 
L. de, away ; trahere, to draw. See 
Trace (i). 

Detriment. (F. — L.) O. F. detriment. 
— L. detrunenttim, loss ; lit. ' a rubbing 
away.' — L. detri-tus, pp. of deterere, to 
rub down; with suffix -mentum.'^l^. de, 
down ; tei'ere, to rub. See Trite. 

Detrnde. (L.) L. detrudere, to thrust 
down. — L. de, down; t?'udere, to thrust. 

Deuce (i), a two, at cards. (F. — L.) 

O. F. deus (F. deux), also dous, two. — L. 
duds, ace. of duo, two. 

deuce (2), the devil. (LowG. — F.- 
L.) Low G. de dims ! the deuce ! (Bre- 
men Worterbuch) ; G. der daus ! Orig. 
an exclamation on throwing the deuce or 
two at dice, as it was a losing throw.— 
O. F. dous, two (above). 

Deuteronomy. (L.-Gk.) Late L. 
deuteroftomiujH. — Gk. SevTfpovufiiov, a 
second giving of the law. — Gk. devTepo-s, 
second ; vufi-os, law. 

Devastate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
uastd?'e, to lay waste. — L. de, down ; 
uastdre, to lay waste, from adj. ziastus, 

Develop, to unfold, open out. (F.— 
L. and Teut.) F, d^velopper, O. F. des- 
V eloper, desvohiper. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), 
apart ; and the base velop- or volup-, which 
appears also in envelope. This base repre- 
sents Teut. zvlap-, as in M. E, wlappen, to 
wrap up ; see Lap (3), "Wrap. 

Devest, to unclothe, (F. — L,) From 
M.F, desvestir, to devest, —L, dis-, off; 
and uestire, to clothe. Doublet, divest. 

Deviate. (L.) From pp. of L. ^1?- 
tiidre, to go out of the way. — L. de, from ; 
tiia, way. 

devious. (L.) L. deui-us, going out 
of the way ; with suffix -ous. — L. de, 
from ; iiia, way. 

Device, a plan. (F. — L.) M. E. 
deiiys, deuise {devys, devise). ^O, F. devis. 
devise, a device, also a division, — Late L. 
dmisum, diutsa, a division; also a judg- 
ment, device ; orig. neut. and fem. of 
pp oi diuidere, to divide ; see Divide, 

devise, to plan. (F, — L,) M.E. ^<g- 
uisen {devisen). — O. F. deviser. — O.F. 
devis or devise, sb. (above). 

Devil. (,L.-Gk.) K.'6. deoful, deofol. 

— L. diabohis. — GV.. Sid^okos, the slan- 
derer, the devil. — Gk. SmjSdAAeiv, to throw 
across, traduce, slander. — Gk. Std, through, 
across; iSdWai', to throw; see Belemnite. 

Devious ; see Deviate. 

Devise ; see Device. 

Devoid, quite void. (F. — L.) M. E. 
deuoid ; due to deuoided, pp. of deuoiden 
{devoiden), to empty. — O.F. desvuidier, 
desvoidier, to empty out. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis-) ; voidier, to empty, from voide, 
vuide, adj. empty; see Void. 

Devoir, duty. (F.-L.) M.E. deuoir. 

— M.F. devoir, O. F. deveir, to owe ; 
used as a sb. — L. debere, to owe ; see Debt. 




Devolve. (L-) L. dnwluere, to roll 

down, bring or transfer to. — L. de, down ; 
uoluere, to roll. % A frequent old sense 

of devolve was ' to transfer.' Der. devolut- 
ion, from the pp. devolutus. 

Devote, vb. (L.) L. deuotus, pp. of 
deuoue7'e, to devote, vow fully. —L. de, 
fully ; uouere, to vow. See Vote. 

Devour. (F. — L.) O.F. devorer (i p. 
s. pr. devoure). — \-.. deuordre, to consume, 
eat up. — L. de, fully ; uordre, to gulp 
down. See Voracity. 

Devout. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. deuot {devof) , 
also spelt devoute. — O.F. devot, devoted. — 
L. deuotus, pp. of denouere ; see Devote. 

Dew. (E.) M. E. deu, dew. A. S. 
deaxv, dew.-f-Du. dauw, Icel. d'6^ (i^en. 
doggvar), Dan. dug, Swed. dagg, G. thau. 
Teut. type *dauwo-. Perhaps allied to Skt. 
dkdv, to run, flow ; Gk. OUlv, to run. 

Dexter. (L.) L. dexter, on the right 
hand side, right. + Gk. 5f £toy, right, Skt. 
dakshina-, on the right or south, Goth. 
taihswa, right hand, W. dehen, right, 
southern, Gael, and Irish deas (the same). 
The Skt. dakshina- is orig. ' clever ' ; cf. 
Skt. daksha-, able, daksh, to be strong. 

Dey , a governor of Algiers. (F. — Turk .) 
F. ^^y. — Turk, ddi, a maternal uncle; 
afterwards, in Algiers, an officer, chieftain. 

Dhow, a slave ship (?). Mod. Arab. 
ddo, but not an Arab, word (Yule). Orig. 
language unknown. 

Di- (i), prefix; apart. (L.) L. dJ-, 
shorter form of dis- ; see Dis-. 

Di- (2), prefix; twice, double. (Gk.) 
Gk. hi- (for 5is), twice. + L. bis, bi- ; Skt. 
dvis, dvi-. Allied to Two. 

Dia-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. 5m, through, 
between, apart ; allied to Di- (2, and to 
Two. % In nearly all words beginning 
with dia-, except dial, diamond, diary. 

Diaibetes, a disease accompanied with 
excessive discharge of urine. (Gk.) Gk. 
Sia^TjTTjs, a pair of compasses, a siphon, 
diabetes. — Gk. dia^aiveiv, to stand with 
the legs apart (like compasses or a siphon). 
— Gk. Slo,, apart; liaivav, to go; see 

Diabolical. (L. — Gk.) \^. diabolic -us, 
devilish. — Gk. dia^oXiicus, devilish. — Gk. 
5ja/3oAo?, the devil ; see Devil. 

Diaconal, belonging to a deacon. 
(F.-L.-Gk.) F. diaconal. ^ Late L. 
didcondlis , from L. didconiis, a deacon ; 
see Deacon. 

Diacritic. (Gk.) Gk. SiaKpiTiKos, dis- 

tinctive.— Gk. SiaKpivdv, to separate."- 
Gk. 5ia, apart; Kpiveiv, to judge. 

Diadem, a fillet, crown. (F. - L. — Gk.) 
M. E. and O. F, diademe. — L. diadema. — 
Gk. diddrjfxa, a fillet. — Gk. Sm, apart, 
across; Se-w, I bind, allied to Skt. da, io 
bind (whence ^(7wa«, a garland). (y'DE.) 
Brugm. ii. § 707. 

Diaeresis, a mark (' ) of separation. 
(L. — Gk.) L. dicer e si s.'^QV. dtaipeais, a 
dividing. — Gk. 5i-d, apart ; dlpeais, a taking, 
from alpeiv, to take. 

Diagnosis, scientific determination of 
a disease. (Gk.) Gk. didyvojais, a dis- 
tinguishing. —Gk. Sid, between; yvivais, 
enquiry, from yvuuai, to know. 

Diagonal. (F.-L.-Gk.) F, diagonal. 

— L. diagondlis, running from corner to 
corner. — Gk. Sia'^ojvios (the same). — Gk. 
5ta, through, between ; yojvia, an angle, 
bend, allied to yovv, knee; see Knee. 

Diagram. (L. — Gk.) L. diagramma, 
a scale, gamut (hence, sketch, plan). — Gk. 
hid'ypap.p.a, a figure, plan, gamut. — Gk. 
5iaypd(p(iv, to mark out by lines, describe. 

— Gk, did, through ; ypAipnv, to write. 
Dial. (L.) M . E. dial. - Med . L. didlis, 

relating to a day ; hence a plate for shew- 
ing the time of day. — L. dies, day. Brugm. 

i. §_223. 

Dialect, a variety of a language. (F.- 
L.-Gk.) F. dialecte. — L. dialectus, f. — 
Gk. did\(KTOs, {., discourse, language, 
dialect. — Gk. diaXeyoixai, I discourse. — 
Gk. did, between ; \iyeiv, to speak. 

dialogue, a discourse. (F. — L. — Gk.) 

F. dialogue. — L. dialogum, ace. oidialogus. 

— Gk. SiaA.070?, a conversation. — Gk. bia- 
Xiyofxai^ I discourse (above). 

Diameter, the line measuring the 
breadth across or thickness through. [ F. 

— L. — Gk.) Mid, F. dia?netre, 'a dia- 
meter ; ' Cot. — L. diatnetros. — Gk. hid- 
^€Tpos, f. — Gk. Sid, through ; fxirpov, a 
measure ; cf. f^erpuu^ to measure. 

Diamond. (F,-L,-Gk.) M.Y^.dia- 
viant.—0.¥. diaiiiant, altered form of 
adamant ; so also Ital. Span, diamante, 

G. diamant, demant. See Adamant. 
Diapason, a whole octave, harmony. 

(L. — Gk.) L. diapason, an octave, con- 
cord of a note with its octave. — Gk. hia- 
Tidawv, concord of first and last notes of an 
octave, lit. 'through all ' the notes. — Gk. 
bid, through ; Ttdawv, gen. pi. fem. of Tray, 
all (xopdcvv being understood) ; see Pan-, 




Diaper, figured linen cloth. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) Cf. O. F. diapr^, diapered ; from 
the verb diapre}-, to diaper, or ' diversifie 
with flourishings ; ' Cot. The verb is 
formed from O. F. diaspre^ later diapre, a 
fine cloth, often described as blanc Ky^\i\\Q). 
— Late L. diasprus, adj., also used as a sb. 
(tunica de diaspra a/da). ^Late Byzantine 
Gk. biaairpos, adj., pure white ; from St-d, 
wholly, datrpos, white (see N. E. D.). 
^ Not the same as Ital. diaspro, a jasper ; 
but cf. Prov. diaspes, diaspres, diaper, 
costly cloth (Bartsch) ; also Late L. asperi^ 
white money (Ducange). 

Diaphanous, transparent. (Gk.) Gk. 
Sia(pai'-T)s, transparent ; with suffix -ous. — 
Gk. Sid, through ; cpav-, allied to cpaivdv^ 
to shew. Brugm. i. § 195. 

Diaphoretic, causing perspiration. 
(L. — Gk.) L. diaphorl'tiais, sudorific — 
Gk. diacpopTjTiKos (the same). — Gk. dia- 
(pSprjais, perspiration. — Gk. diafpopeiv, to 
carry off (by perspiration^. — Gk. Sid, 
through ; (jyopuv, to carry, allied to (pepnv, 
to bear ; see Bear. 

Diaphragm, a dividing membrane. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) F. diaphragme.'^'L. dia- 
phragma.^Qik. 5ia<f>paypa, partition, mid- 
riff. — Gk. did, between ; (ppdaaoj (fut. 
(ppd^Qj), I fence in, enclose. 

Diarrhoea. (L. — Gk.) L. diarr/icea." 
Gk. didppoia, lit. 'a flowing through.' — 
Gk. diappeeiv, to flow through. — Gk. Sid, 
through ; p^fiv, to flow. 

Diary. (L.) L. didrium, a daily 
allowance, also a diary. — L. dies, a day. 
See Dial. 

Diastole, dilatation of the heart. (Gk.) 
Gk. SiacTTokr), a drawing asunder, dilata- 
tion.— Gk. Sia(XT€\\fiv, to put aside or 
apart. — Gk. did, apart; areWeiv, to put. 

Diatonic, proceeding by tones. (Gk.) 
Gk. SiaTovtKos, from Sidrovos (lit. stretched 
out), diatonic. — Gk. Siareivuv, to stretch 
out. — Gk. Sid, fully ; rdufiv, to stretch. 
Diatribe. fF. — L. — Gk.) Y. diatribe. 
— L. diatriba, a learned disputation.— 
Gk. Siarpi^T], a wearing away of time, 
waste of time, discussion. — Gk. Siarpi- 
0(iv,to waste time, to discuss. — Gk. Sid, 
thoroughly ; rpi^^iv, to rub, waste away 
(with long t). 

Dib, to dab lightly. (E.) A lighter 
form of dab. Hence dibber, a dibble ; see 

dibble, an instrument for setting plants, 
by making holes. (E.) M. E. debil, de- 


bylle ; apparently formed from Dab ; see 

Dice, ph of Die (2), q. V. 

Dicker, half a score. (L.) "M.Y^.diker 
(cf. Icel. dekr^. — L. deairia, a set often. — 
L. dec-e/ii, ten. 

Dicotyledon, a plant with two seed- 
lobes. (Gk.) From Gk. Si-, double; 
KOTvXrjSwv, a cup-shaped hollow, from 
kotvXt], a cup. 

Dictate. (L.) L. dictdtus, pp. of dic- 
tdre^ to dictate, frequentative of dtcere, to 
say (below). Der. dictat-or. 

diction, talk. (F.-L.) Y. diction.^ 
Y.. dididnem, ace. of o'zV/'z'^, a saying. — L. 
dictus, pp. oidlcere, to say, appoint ; allied 
to dicdre,io tell, publish. -f-Gk. SuKvvpii, I 
shew; Skt. aJ'/f, to shew ; Goth, gateihan, 
to announce, G. zeigen, to accuse, point 
out. Brugm. i. § 207. (VDEIK.) 

dictionary. (L.) Late L. dictiond- 
ritun, formed from diction-, stem oidictio, 
a saying, word (above). 

Didactic, instructive. (Gk.) Gk. Si- 
SaKTiKvs, instructive. — Gk. SiSdoKeiv, to 
teach ( = *SiSaK-(TK€iv) ; allied to SoKfiu, to 
think, SeKopiai, Ionic for Se\, I accept ; 
cf. L. discere, to learn, docere, to teach. 
Brugm. i. § 707. (^DEK.) 

Didapper, Divedapper, a bird; 

see Dive. 

Die (0, to lose life. (Scand.) M. E. 
dyen, deyen ; Late A. S. de^an. — Icel. 
deyja', Swed. do, Dan. doe, to die.+ 
M. H.G. totnven; cf. Russ. davit{e), to 
strangle. The Teut. base is *dati, whence 
*dau'jan (Icel. dey-j'a). Cf. Dead, Death. 

Die (2), a small cube for gaming. (F.— 
L.) Used as sing, of M. E. dys, more 
usually dees, dice. — O. F. dez, dice, pi. of 
det, a die (F. d^). Cf. Prov. dat, Ital. 
Span, dado, a die. —Late L. datum, lit. a 
thing given or decreed ; hence applied to 
a die for casting lots.- L. datiis, pp. of 
dare, to give. See Date (i). 

Diet ( I \ regimen. (F. - L. - Gk.^ M. E. 
diete.'-'O.Y . diete, daily fare. — Late L. 
dieta, diceta, a ration of food. — Gk. Siaira, 
mode of life, diet. Brugm. i. § 650. 

Diet (2), an assembly. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M.F. diete, ' a diete, parliament;' Cot.— 
Med.L. diceta, a public assembly; also a 
ration of food, diet. — Gk. Siaira, a mode of 
life, diet; see Diet (i). ^ The peculiar 
use of the word was due to a popular 
etymology which connected diata (often 
spelt dieta) with dies, a day ; we even 



find di(zta used to mean ' a day's journey ' ; 
and dieta for ' a day's work ' and ' a daily 
office or duty ' ; Ducange. 

Differ. CF. - L.) M. F. differer. - L. 
differre, to carry apart, to differ — L. dif- 
(for dis-), apart ; ferre, to bear. Cf. Defei\ 

Difficulty. (F.-L.) W.^. difficult ee. 

— O. F. dlfflcnIte.'-'L. difficultdtem, ace. 
of difficultas (.for '^difficiliias, VikQ /aai/tas 
for_/a«7?Va/, difficulty. — L. difficilis, hard. 

— L. dif- (for dis-) , apart ; facilis, easy ; 
see Facile. 

Diffident. (L.) L. diffident'^ stem of 
diffidenSy pres. pt. of difftdere, to distrust. 
^ L. dif\ = t//^-), apart ; fldere, to trust, 
allied tojides, faith. See Faith. 

Diffuse. ^L-) L- diffusus, pp. oidif- 
fuiidere, to shed abroad. — L. ^z/"- {=dis-)^ 
apart ; fundere, to pour ; see Fuse (i). 

Dig. (F. — Du.) F. digtier, to make a 
dike. — F. digue, a dike. — Flem. and Du. 
flfz/'^, a dike; see Dike. 

Digest, to assimilate food. (L.) M. E. 
digest, used as a pp. = digested. — L. dtges- 
tiis, pp. of digerere, to carry apart, sepa- 
rate, dissolve, digest. — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; gerere, to carry. 

Dight, adorned. (L.) Dight as a pp. is 
short for dighted, from the obs. xQxhdight, 
to arrange, prepare, M. E. dikten, to pre- 
pare. A.S. dihtan, to set in order, arrange ; 
borrowed from L. dictdre, to dictate, pre- 
scribe ; see Dictate. 

Digit, a finger, figure. (L.) L., digitus^ 
a finger ; hence a figure, from counting on 
the fingers. 

Dignity. (F. — L.) M. E. dignitee. — 
O. F. digizetc. — L. dignitatem, ace. of 
dignitds, worthiness. — L. ^/^wwj, worthy. 
Brugm. i. ^ 762 (3). 

dignify. (F.-L.) O.Y.digniJier.^ 
Med. L. digniJicare,\.o make worthy. — L. 
digni; for digmis, worthy ; -Jicdre, for 
facere, to make. 

Digress, lit. to step aside. ^L.) L. 
dig}'essus, pp. of digredl, to go aside. — L. 
di- (for dis-), apart ; gradi, to go. See 

Dike, a trench, trench and embankment, 
bank. (E.) M. E. dik. A. S. die, masc. 
-f-Du. dijk, Icel. diki, Dan. dige, Swed. 
dike, G. teich, pond, tank. Der. dig, q. v. 
See Ditch. 

Dilacerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dilacerdre, to tear apart. — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; lacerdre, to tear. See Lacerate. 

Dilapidate, to pull down stoae build- 

ings, to ruin. (L.) From pp. of L. dtla- 
piddre, to scatter like stones. — L. di- (for 
dis-^, apart ; lapid-, stem oi lapis, a stone. 

Dilate. (F.-L.) O. F. dilater, to 
widen. — L. dildtare, to widen. — L. di- 
(for dis-), apart; ldtns,\)xo2,^. See Lati- 
tude. Der. dilat-ory, A. F. dilatorie. 

Dilemma, a perplexity. (L. — Gk.) L, 
dilemma.'^ G\i. dikTjfifia. a double proposi- 
tion, or argument in which one is caught 
between two difficulties. — Gk. 5i-, twice, 
double ; \Tj/j.fxa, an assumption, premiss. 
See Lemma. 

Dilettante, a lover of the fine arts, 
(Ital.— L.) Ital. dilettante, lit. 'delight- 
ing in.' — Ital, dilettare, to delight. — L, 
deleddre, to delight ; see Delectable. 

Diligent, industrious. (F.-L.) O.F. 
diligent. — L. diligent-, stem of dJligens, 
careful, diligent, lit. loving (fond); pres. 
pt. of dlligere, to love, select, lit. choose 
between. — L. di- ( = dis-), apart ; legere, to 
choose. See Legend. 

Dill, a plant. (E.) M. E. dille. A. S. 
dile.^ Du. dille, Dan. dild, Swed. dill, G. 
dill,^ dille, O. H. G. tilli. 

Dilute. (L.) 'L.diliitns.-pp.oidTluere, 
to wash away, also to mix with water. — L. 
di- ffor dis-), apart ; luere, to wash. 

Dim. (E.) M. E. dim. A. S. dim, dark. 
•4- Icel. dimmr, dim ; M. Dan. dim. Cf. 
M. H. G. timmer, dim ; Swed. dimma, a 
fog, haze ; O. Irish deim, dark. 

Dime, the tenth part of a dollar. (F.^ 
L.) F. dime, O. F. disme^ tenth. — L. 
decinia, a tithe ; fern, of L. decimus, tenth, 
allied to decem, ten. See Ten. 

Dimension. (F. — L.) O.Y. dimen- 
sion.— \^. ace. dimensionem, a measuring. 
— L. dimensus, pp. of dimetirl, to measure 
off. — L. di' (for dis-^, apart; metiri, to 
measure. See Measure. 

Diminish, to lessen. (F.-L.") Coined 
from L. dl- { — dis-), apart, and E. minish', 
in imitation of L. dlminnere, to diminish 
(below). See Minish. 

diminution. fF. — L.) F. diminu- 
tion.— \^. ace. diminutidne7n, diminution. 

■p- L. diminUtus, pp. of diminuere, to 
lessen. — L. di- ( = c/2,y-), apart; minnere, 
to lessen. See Minute. 

Dimissory, giving leave to depart. 
(L.) L. dimissorius, giving leave to go 
before another judge. — L. dimisstiSy pp. of 
dimittere. to send away. — L. di- (for dis-)^ 
away; miftere, to send. 

Dimity, a white stuff. (Ital — L.— Gk.) 



Ital. dimito i^X.dimiti), ' a kind of course 
cotton or flanell ; ' Florio. — Late L. di7ni- 
tum (pL dimitd), silk woven witli two 
threads. — Gk. difxiro^, made with a double 
thread, — Gk. Si-, double ; jjlltos, a thread 
of the woof. 

Dimple, a small hollow. (E. ?) M. E. 
dympidl. Perhaps from a base *diimp-, 
allied to dip. Cf. Dan. dial, diifup, a 
hollow in a field ; dybbel, a pool, a hollow 
in the upper lip (Moll)ech) ; Du. doinpelen, 
to dive; G. diimpfel, M. H. G. tiimpfcl. 
O. H. Cr. tiunphilo, a deep pool. Also 
Lith. dubus, hollow ; dubti, to be holl jvv 
(pres. t. dumb-u). 

Din, clamour. (E.) M. E. dine, dune. 
A. S. dyne, dyn\ dynnan, to resound. -4- 
Icel. dynr, Swed. dan, Dan. don^ noise ; 
Skt. dhzmi-, Toaiing, d Ava fii- , a. din, dhvan, 
to resound. 

Bine. (F.-L.) M. E. dinen.^O, F. 
disner, F. diner, to dine. — Late L. *dis- 
iundre, short for *disieifinare, to break 
one's fast. — L. dis- ; ieiilndre, to fast, from 
ieivnus, fasting. (Romania, viii. 95.) 

dinner. (F. — L.) ^\.¥.. diner; from 
O. F. disner, to dine ; the infinitive mood 
being used as a sb. 

Ding*, to throw violently, beat. (E.?) 
M. E, dingen, pt. t. dang, jjp. dungen ; as 
a strong verb ; though not found in A. S. 
Cf. Icel. dengia, Dan. dcenge,'&^&A.ddnga, 
to bang; all weak verbs. Cf. M. Dan. 
dinge, to blunt an edge by beating on it ; 
O. H. G. tangol, a hammer. From a Teut. 
type *denga7t-. 

Bingle, a deep dell. (E. or Scand.) 
JvL E. dingle. Cf. diinble, in a similar 
sense. Of uncertain origin. Cf. Dimple. 

Dingo, the native dog of Australia. 
(New S. Wales.) Ne-v S. Wales dij2go, 
written teingo in 1798 (Morris). 

Dingy, dirty. (E.) Orig. soiled with 
dung. Cf. A. S. dingiung (for *dyng'i'zing, 
with g as/), a dunging ; from dung, dung ; 
so also Swed. dyngig, dungy, from dyng, 
dung ; see Dung. For the pronunciation, 
cf. stingy (allied to sting). 

Dingy (with hard^), Dingey, a small 
boat. (Bengali.) Beng. dingy, a small 
boat ; ' it has become legitimately incor- 
porated in the vocabulary of the British 
Navy, as the name of the smallest ship's 
boat ' (Yule\ 

Dinner ; see Dine. 

Dint, a blow, force. (E.) M. E. dint, 
dunt ; also dent. A.S. dynt, a blow.-f 


Icel. dyntr, a dint, dynta, to dint ; Swed. 
dial, dunt, a stroke, dunta, to strike. 

Diocese. (F'. — L. — Gk.) M. E. dio- 
cise.'-O.V . diocise (F. dioche).^!^. dioe- 
cesis. — Gk. hiOLK-qcns, administration, a 
province, diocese. — Gk. dioixfou, I keep 
house, govern. — Gk. di- (for Sid , through- 
out ; oiK€Q}, I dwell, occupy, from oikos, a 
house ; see Wick, a town. 

Dioptrics, the science of the refraction 
of light. (Gk.) Gk. ra SiOTTTpi/rci, dioptrics. 

— Gk. SiOTiTpiK6s, relating to the Siovrpa, 
an optical instrument for taking heights, 
&c. — Gk. Si-d, through; base *on- (fut. 
oipofxai), to see; -rpa, fern, instrumental 
suffix. See Optics. 

Diorama, a scene seen through a small 
opening. (Gk.) Gk. Si- (for Sid), through ; 
opafj-a, a sight, from updoj. I see. 

Dip, to plunge, immerge. (E.) M. E. 
dippen. A. S. dyppan, later dippan ; for 
*diip-jan, causal form from the base dup-, 
weak grade of deup-, as seen in A. S. deop, 
deep ; see Deep. Cf. Dan. dyppe, to dip. 

Diphtheria. (Gk.) From Gk. 5t<J)- 
Bi:po., leather ; from the leathery nature of 
the false membrane formed in the disease. 
Cf. Gk, Se^pfiv, to make supple. 

Diphthong, a union of two vowel- 
sounds in one syllable. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
Formerly dipthong (Ben Jonson). — ]\L F. 
diptJwngue. — L. ace. diphthongjim, i. — G. 
SiipOoyyos, wiih two sounds. — Gk. 8t- (for 
5(5), double; (pOuj-yos, sound, from (pOeyyo-, I cry out. 

Diploma. (L. — Gk.) L. diploma, a 
document conferring a privilege. — Gk. 
S'nrXojpia, a thing folded double ; also, a 
licence, diploma (prob. orig. folded 
double). — Gk, SnrKuos, double. — Gk. Si- 
[Sis), double ; -ttXvos, folded. Der. di- 
plomat- ic, from Snr\ojfj.aT-, stem of SinXajfia. 

Diptera, two-winged insects. (Gk,) 
From Gk. 81- {Sis), double ; itripov, a wing, 
from the weak grade of niTOfxai, 1 fly. 

Diptych, a double-folding tablet. (L. 

— Gk.) Late L. pi, diptycha. — Gk. Si- 
trrvxa, a pair of tablets ; nent. pi. of Si- 
■UTvxos, folded in two. — Gk. Si- (Sis), 
double ; tttvxv, a fold, -mvacriiv, to fold. 

Dire. (L.) L. dims, fearful. 

Direct, adj. (L.) L. dlrcdus, pp. of 
dlrigere, to direct. — L. di- (for dis-), apart ; 
regere, to rule. 

dirge. (L.) Formerly dJrige ; frona 
the first word of the anthem ' dirige. Do- 
minus mens,' in the office for the dead. — L. 




diHge, direct thou (cf. Ps. v. 8) ; 2 p. imper, 
sing, oi dirigere (above). 

Dirk, a dagger. (,Du. ?) Spelt dork 
(a, d. 1602) ; also diirk. Perhaps from Du. 
dolk^ a dagger; a word of Slavonic origin. 
Cf. Polish tiilich, a dagger. % Irish i/z//;r, 
a poniard, is borrowed from E. 

Dirt. (Scand.) From M. E. drit (with 
sliifted r). — Icel. di-it. dirt, excrement of 
birds. Cf. Icel. (^//'v/a, to void excrement. + 
M. Du. drete, Du. dreet, sb., drijten, vb. 

TAb-,^ prefix. (^L.) L. dis-, apart: of. 
Gk. Si-, apart ; see Di-. Hence O. F. 
des-, which sometimes becomes dis- in E., 
and sometimes de-, as in de-feat. The 
prefix dis- commonly expresses the re- 
versal of an act, somewhat like the E. 
verbal prefix tin-. For most words be- 
ginning with this prefix, see the simpler 
forms. For example, for dis-abuse, see 
abuse ; and so on. 

Disaster. (F. — L.) M. F. desastre, 
' a disaster, misfortune ; ' Cot. Lit. ' ill- 
fortune.'— O. F. des-, for L. dis-, with a 
sinister or bad sense ; and M. F. asfre, 
a star, planet, also destiny, fortune, from 
L. astrtwi, a star. 

Disburse. (F.-L. and Gk.) O. F. 
desbouj-ser, to take out of a purse. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-), away: F. bourse, a purse, 
from Late L. bursa, Gk. ^vpaa, a skin 
(hence, a hag). See Bursar. 

Disc, Disk, a round plate. (L. — Gk.) 
L. discus, a quoit, a plate. — Gk. Sictkos, a 
quoit. — Gk. 5i/f€n', to cast, throw. Brugm. 
i. § 744. See Dish, Desk, Dais. 

Discern. (F. — L.) F. discemer.^'L. 
discernere, to separate, determine. — L. dis-. 
apart ; cernere, to separate. Cf. Con- 

Disciple. (F.-L.^i F. disciple. ^l.. 
discipulum, ace. of discipidus, a learner. 

— L. discere, to learn ; allied to docere, to 
teach ; see Docile. Der. discipl-ine, 
O. F. discipline, L. disciplina, learning. 

Disclose. (F.-L.) M. E. disclosen. 

— O. F. desclos-, pres. stem of desclorre, to 
unclose, open. — L. disclaudere, to unclose. 

— L. a??,y-, apart ; claudere, to close. See 

Discomfit. (F. — L.^ M. E. discomfit 
(Bruce). — O. F. disconfit, discomfited, pp. 
of desconfire, ' to discomfit, vanquish,' Cot. 

— O. F. des-; and confire, to preserve, make 
ready. — L. dis-, apart; and conficere, to 
preserve, complete, from L. con- [ciini), 
together, facere, to put, make. See Pact. 

Disconsolate. (L.) Late L. discon- 
j-JAf/wi", comfortless. — L. dis-, apart; con- 
soldtiis, pp. of conscldrT, to console ; from 
con- {cum), with, soldrl, to comfort. See 

Discord, sb. (F.-L.) O.Y.descord, 
discord, variance ; formed from O. F. des- 
corder, vb., to be at variance. — L..discorddre 
(the same'). — L. discord-, stem of discors, 
adj. discordant. — L. dis-, apart ; cord-, 
stem of cor, heart. 

Discount, verb. (F. — L.) Formerly 
discompt. — U. F. descompter, to reckon 
back or off. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), away; 
compter, to count ; see Count (2). 

Discourse. F.-L.) O. F. di scours, 
sb. — L. discttrsum. ace. of discursus, a 
running about ; also, conversation..- L. 
discursus, pp. of discurrere. to run about. 

— L dis-, apart ; ctirrere, to run. 
Discover. (F. — L.) M.\L. discoueren 

' discovcren\. — O. F. descotwrir, to un- 
cover, disclose. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), 
apart ; couvrir, to cover. See Cover. 

Discreet, prudent. (F. — L.) O. F. 
disc?-et. — L,. discretns, pp. of dis-cernere, 
to discern ; see Discern. Der. discret- 

Discrepant, differing, (F.-L.) M.F. 
discrepant, "h. discrepant-, stem of pres. 
part, of discrepare, to differ (in sound).— 
L. dis-, apart ; crepare. to crackle, sound. 

Discriminate. (,L.) L. discrlmind- 
ties, pp. of discrimindre, to separate. — L. 
discrimin-, stem of discrimen, a separa- 
tion. — L. discernere (pt. t. discre-ui), to 
distinguish. — L. dis-, apart ; cernere, to 

Discursive. (L.) From L. discurs- 
us, pp. of discwrere, to run about; with 
suffix -ive. See Discourse. 

Discuss. (L.) M. E. discussed, pp. 
driven away. — L. discussus, pp. of dis- 
cutere, to shake asunder ; in Late L., to 
discuss. — L. dis-, apart ; quatere, to shake. 

Disdain, sb. (F. — L.) M. E. disdeyn. 

— O. F. desdein, sb. — O. F. desdegnier, to 
disdain. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), apart ; degn- 
ier (L. digndri), to think worthy, from 
digntcs, worthy. ^ O. F. desdegnier seems 
to have been substituted for L. dedigndri, 
to disdain (with prefix de-, down). 

Disease. (F.) O. F. desaise, want of 
ease. — O. F. des- (L. dis-) ; aise, ease. 

Disembark. (F.) M. F. desembar- 
quer. — O. F. des- (L. dis-), away ; embar- 
quer, to embark ; see Embark. 



Disembogue, to flow into the sea, as 
a river. (Span. — L.) Span. dese??ibocar, 
to disembogue. — Span, des- (L. dis-), 
apart; embocar^ to enter the mouth, from 
em- (L. m), into, and boca (L. bticca), 

Disgorge. (F.-L.) O.F. desgorger. 
— O.K. des- (L. dis-)^ away; gorge, the 
throat ; see Gorge. 

Disgrace. ^F. — Ital. — L.) M.F. <^zV- 

grace.—\\sX. disgrazia.^'L.. dis-y apart; 
gratia, grace. See Grace. 

Disguise, vb. (F.-L. ajid O. H. G.^ 
O. F. desguiser, to disguise. — O. F. des- 
(L. dh-)^ apart; and gttise, guise; see 
Guise. Lit. ' to change the guise of.' 

Disgust, vb. (F. — L.) M. F, des- 
gotister, 'to distaste, loath;' Cot. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-'), apart ; gousler, to taste, from 
L. gustare, to taste ; see Gust (2). 

Dish, a platter. (L. - Gk.) M. E. 
disch. A. S. disc^ a dish. — L. discus, a 
quoit, platter : see Disc. 

Dishabille ; see Deshabille. 

Dishevil. (F. — L.) M. F. discheveler 
(Cot.), ' to dischevell,' i. e. to disorder the 
hair. — O F. des- (L. dis-), apart; chevel 
(F. cheveu), a hair, from L. capilliu7i, ace. 
of capillus, hair 

Disinterested. (F. - L.) From 
Dis- (2) and interested; see Interest (2). 

Disk; see Disc. 

Dislocate, to put out of joint. (L.) 
From pp. of Late L. dislocnre, to put out 
of place. — L. dis-. apart ; locdre, to place, 
fiom loctis, place. 

Dismal. (F. - L.) Orig. A. F. dis 
mal, unlucky days (a. D. 1256). [The 
])hrase was misunderstood, and dismal was 
treated as an adj., with the addition of 
days ; and later, of other sbs.] — L. dies 
mail, evil day<. Cf. F. Lnn-di— Mon-day. 

Dismantle. (F. — L.) ^\.Y. desman- 
teller^ 'to take a mans cloake off his backe; 
also, to raze walls ; ' Cot. - O. F. des- (L 
dis->), apart ; manteler, to cloak, from 
mantel, sb. ; see Mantis. 

Dismay, to discourage. (F. — L. a7id 
O. H. G. ) O F. *desmayer, not found 
(except dis7naye, pp., in Palsgrave, p. 519). 
but exactly the same as Span, desmayar 
(Port, desmaier. Ital. s??iagare), to dismay, 
terrify. The O. F. *desmayer was early 
supplanted by esmayer in the same sense, 
which only differed in substituting the 
prefix es- (L. ex-) for des- {L.dis-). The 
latter part {-mayer) of these words is from 



O. H. G. magan (G. mogen), to have 
power, be able. Hence *desmayer and 
esmayer, at first used in the intrans. sense, 
to lack power, faint, be discouraged, but 
afterwards, actively, to discourage. Cf. 
Ital. smagai-e (for *dis-magare^, orig. to 
lose courage, also to dismay (Florio). 
See May (i). 

Dismiss, to send away. (F.-L.) A 
coined word ; suggested by F. desmettre, 
pp. desmis, ' to displace, dismiss ; ' Cot. 
The true L. form is dimittere, to send 
away. — L. di- (for dis-), apart, away; 
mitt ere, to send. 

Disparage, to offer indignity, to lower 
ill rank or esteem. (F.-L.) M. E. des- 
parage?i.^O. F. despaj-ager. — O. F. des-, 
apart ; parage, rank. — L. dis-, apart ; 
Late L. pardtictim , society, rank, equality 
of rank, from L. par, equal (Diez). See 

disparity. (F. - L.) F. disparite 
(Montaignej. From L. dis-, apart ; and 
F./arzV/, equality; see Parity. Suggested 
by L. dispar, unequal. 

Dispatch, Despatch. (Span. — L) 

Formerly spelt dis-, not ^/^j--. — Span, des- 
pachar, to dispatch, expedite. — L. dis-, 
away; and L. type *pactdre, to fasten, fix, 
from pactus, pp. of pangere, to fasten. 
(See N. E. D.) Cf. Ital. spaccia7'e, to dis- 
patch (Florio), answering to a L. type 

Dispel. (L.) L. dispellere, to drive 
asunder, — L. dis-, apart ; pellere, to drive. 

Dispense. (F.-L.) O.F. dispenser, 
to dispense with. — L. dispensdre,\.o weigh 
out, frequent, form of dispendere, to weigh 
out. — L. dis-, apart ; pendere, to weigh. 

Disperse, to scatter abroad. (F. — L.) 
M. F disperser. From L. pp. dispersus, 
])p. of dispergere, to scatter abroad. — L. 
di- for dis-), apart ; spargere, to scatter. 

Display. (F.-L.) A. F. desplayer, 
O. F. desploier, to unfold, shew. — L. dis-, 
apart ; plicdre, to fold. Doublet, deploy. 

Disport. (F.-L.) W.Y.. disporten, 
to amuse. —O.F. se desporter, to amuse 
oneself, orig. to cease from labour : later 
deporter, and confused with Deport. — L. 
dis-, away, portd7-e, to carry (hence, to 
remove oneself from or cease from labour). 
Hence sport, q. v. 

Dispose. (F. — L. and Gk.) O. F. dis- 
poser, to arrange. — O.F. dis- (L dis-), 
apart ; F. poser, to place ; see Pose. 

Disposition. (F.-L.) F. disposi- 

45 F 



tion.^J-,. ace. dispositionem, a setting in 
order. — L. dispositiis, pp. of disponere, to 
set in various i>laces, to arrange. — L. dis-, 
apart ; ponere, to place, put. 

Dispute. (F.-L.) F, disputer.-l.. 
disputdre, to argue, — L. dis-, apart ; 
putdre, to think. See Putative. 

Disquisition, an investigation. (L.) 
From L. disquTsitid, a search into. — L. 
disquisiftis, pp. of disquTrere, to examine. 
L. dis-, apart ; qitm-ere, to seek. 

Disruption. (L.) From L. disruptio, 
diritptio, a breaking asunder. — L. disriip- 
tus, di}-uptiis, pp. of disrunipere, diruni- 
pere, to break apart. — L. dis-^ dl-, apart; 
rufupere, to burst. 

Dissect. (L.) From L. dissect -us, pp. 
oi dissecd}-e, to cut apart. — L. dis-, apart ; 
secdre, to cut. 

Dissemble. (F. - L.) O. F. dis- 

(L. dis-), apart; sernbler, to seem, appear; 
cf. O. F. dissi/uule>\ to dissemble. — L. dis-, 
apart, away; sitmdare, to pretend; cf. L. 
dissimiildre , to pretend that a thing is not. 
See Simulate. 

Disseminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dissemindre, to scatter seed. — L. dis-, 
apart ; semindre, to sow, from semin-, for 
semen, seed. 

Dissent, vb. (L.) L. dissentJre (pp. 
dissensiis), to differ in opinion. — L. ^/i--, 
apart ; senttre, to feel, think. Der. dis- 
sens-io}i, from the pp. dissensus. 

Dissertation, a treatise. (L.) From 
L. dissertdtio, a debate. — L. dissertdtiis, 
pp. of dissertdre, to debate ; frequent, of 
disserere, to disjoin, discuss. — L. dis-, 
apart ; serere, to join. 

Dis S ever. ( F . — L. . ) O . F . dessevrer. 
— Late L. dissepardre. — L. dis^, apart ; 
separdre. to separate. 

Dissident. (L.) L. dissident-, stem 
of pres. pt. of dissidere, to sit apart, to 
disagree. — L. dis-, apart ; sedere, to sit. 

Dissimilar, unlike. (F.-L.) M. F. 
dissimilaii-e.'^O.Y . dis- (L. dis-), apart; 
and similaire, like ; see Similar. 

dissimilitude, dissimulation ; 
from L. dis-, apart, and similitude, simu- 

Dissipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dissipd7'e, to disperse. — L. dis-, apart ; 
and O. L. siipdre, to throw ; we find also 
insipdi-e, to throw into. Cf. Skt. kship, to 
throw. Brugm. i. § 761. 

Dissociate. (L-) From the pp. of L, 
dissocidre, to separate from. — L. dis- , 

apart ; socidre, to associate, from socius^ a 
companion. See Sociable. 

Dissolute. (L.) L. dissohltus, licen- 
tious ; pp. of L. dissohiere (below). 

dissolve. (L.) L. dissohiere, to dis- 
solve, loosen, relax. — L. dis-, apart; sol- 
ziere, to loosen. See Solve. Der. dis- 
sohit-ion (from pp. dissolutus). 

Dissonant. (F. - L.) M. F. disso- 
nant ; Cot. — L. dissonant-, stem of pres. 
pt. o{ dissond7-e, to be unlike in sound.— 
L. dis-, apart; sondre, to sound, from 
sontis, sound. 

Dissuade. (F. — L.) F. dissuader; 
Cot. — L. dissiiddere, to persuade from.— 
L. dis-, apart; suddere,\.o persuade; see 

DistaiF. (E.) A distaff is a staff 
bedizened with J^ax, ready to be spun off. 
' I dysyn a dystaffe, I put the flaxe upon 
it to spynne ; ' Palsgrave. M. E. distaf, 
dysestaf. A. S. distcef. The A. S. distce) 
stands for '^dise-stcef, where staf—'E.. staff, 
and '^dise^'Low G. diesse, the bunch of 
flax on a distaff (Bremen) ; also spelt dise, 
disene (Liibben) ; E. Fries, dissen. See 

Distain. (F. — L.) yi.Y.. disteinen.'^ 
O. F. desteign-, a. stem of desteindre, to 
distain, take away colour. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis-), away; and teindre, from L. 
tinga-e, to dye. 

Distant. (F.-L.) O.Y . distant. ^\.. 
distantem, ace. of distans, pres. pt. of 
distdre, to stand apart. — L. dl-, apart; 
stJre, to stand. 

Distemper (i), to derange the tem- 
perament of body or mind. (F. — L.) M.E. 
distcmpei-en. — O. F. destemprer, to mix ; 
whence pp. destempr^, immoderate, exces- 
sive. —O.F. ^^i-- (L. dis-), apart; temprer 
(^mod. F. tremper), from L. tempe^-dre, to 
regulate. See Temper. 

distemper (2), a kind of painting. 
(F. — L.) O. F. destemprer, later destrem- 
per, ' to soake, steepe, moisten, make fluid, 
liquid, or thin,' Cot. ; the same verb as 

Distend. (L.) L. distendere, to stretch 
apart. — L. dis-, apart ; tendere, to stretch; 
see Tend. Der. distent-ion (from the 
pp. distent-tis). 

Distich, a couplet. (L. — Gk.) L. 
dzstichiis, distichon. — Gk. hLanxov, a coup- 
let (in verse) ; neut. of SjcrTtxos, having two 
rows. — Gk. Si- (5i'?), double; aT[x<^s, a row, 
allied to GTiiyiiv, to go. (y'STEIGH.) 




Distil. (F. - L.) O . F. distiller. - L. 
distilldre, destilldre, to drop or trickle 
down. — L. de, down; stilldre, to drop, 
from stilla.^ a drop. See Still (2). 

Distingtlish, to mark off. (F.-L.) 
O. F. distifiguer, to distinguish ; the suffix 
-ish has been added by analogy, and cannot 
be accounted for in the usual way. — L. 
distinguere, to mark with a prick, dis- 
tinguish {\)\). distinchis).^lj. di- (for dis-), 
apart; *stingtiere (not in use), to prick, 
allied to Gk. orl^fiy, to prick, and E. 
slic^, vb. See Instigate. Brugm. i. § 666. 
distinct. (F. — L.) O.F. distinct. •• 
L. distinctus, distinguished ; pp. of dis- 

Distort. (L.) L. distoiiuSf pp. of 
distoj-quere, to twist aside. — L. dis-, apart ; 
iorqjia-e, to twist ; see Torture. 

Distract, vb. (L.) Yxom'L.distracttis, 
pp. oi distrahere, to draw apart. — L. dis-, 
apart ; trahere, to draw; see Trace (i). 

Distrain. (F.-L.) O. F. destreign-, 
a stem of destraindre, to strain, press, vex 
extremely, constrain (hence to seize goods 
for debt).— L. distrijigere, to pull asunder 
(see below) . — L. dt- {dis-) , apart ; stringers, 
to draw tight ; see Stringent. 

distress, calamity. (F.-L.) O.F. 
destresse, oldest form desirece ; from a 
Folk-L. *districtia (not used), regularly 
formed from L. districtus, pp. oi distrin- 
gere, to pull asunder (in Late L. to punish, 
afflict) ; see Distrain. 

Distraught. (L.) A modification of 
distract ( = distracted) ; from L. disti'act-tis ; 
see Distract. 

Distribute, to allot, deal out. (L.) 
From distribut-tis , pp. of L. distribuere, 
to deal out, allot separately. — L. dis-, 
apart ; tribuere, to assign ; see Tribute. 

District, a region. (F.-L.) M. F. 
district. — Late L. districtus, territory 
wherein a lord has power to enforce justice. 
— L. disiricttis, pp. of distringere ; see 

Disturb. (F.-L.) M.E. destorhen, 
distotirben. — O. F. destorber, to vex. — L. 
disturbdre, to disturb. — L. dis-, apart ; 
tnrbdre, to disorder, from turba, a tumult, 
crowd. See Turbid. 

Ditch. (E.) M.E. diche; cf. A. S. 
dice, dat. of die, fem. [also masc], a dike ; 
see Dike. 

Dithyramb, a kind of hymn. (L. — Gk.) 
L. dithy rambles. ^G\i. didvpafi^os, a hymn 
in honour of Bacchus. 

Dittany, a plant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M.E. 
dytane. — O. F. ditan, die tarn. — L. dic- 
tammivi, ace. of dictamnus. — Gk. b'lK- 
TOfiuoi, diKTafxvov, dittany ; named from 
Mount Dicte in Crete, where it grew. 

Ditto. (Ital.-L.) Ital. ditto, detto, 
that which has been said. — L. dictum, 
neut, of pp. of dicere, to say. 

Ditty. (F.-L.) M. E. ditee.^O. F. 
dit^, a kind of poem. — L. dictdtttm,a. thing 
dictated ; neut. of dictdtus, pp. of dictdre, 
frequent, of dicere ; see Dictate. 

Diuretic, provoking discharge of urine. 
i F. — L. — Gk.) M.F. diuretique ; Cot. — L. 
diureticiis.-'QtV. SiuvprjTiKos. — Gk. diov- 
pUiv, to pass urine. — Gk. hi-a, through; 
ovpov, urine ; see Urine. 

Diurnal. (L.) 'L.dinmdUs, daily.— 
L. diurmis, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Divan, a council-chamber, sofa. (Pers.) 
Pers. divdn, a tribunal ; Arab, daywdn, a 
royal court, tribunal, council of state. 

Divaricate, to fork, diverge. (L.) 
From pp. of L. dmdricdre, to spread apart. 

— L. dl- (for dis-), apart ; z/rfrzVz^j-, stradd- 
ling, from udrus, crooked. 

Dive. (E.) M.E. ditien, dunen (u = v). 
A. S. dyfan, to immerse, weak verb ; con- 
fused with dufan, strong verb (pt, t. deaf, 
pp. dofen), to dive. + Icel. dyfa, to dip. 
Allied to Dove, Deep, Dip. 

didapper, a bird. (E.) Short for flfiV^J- 
dapper. Cf. A. S. diifedoppa, a pelican. 
Here dapper (— A.S. doppd) means a 
dipper or diver; and div e - dapper ^diwe- 
dipper, a reduplicated word. 

Diverge. (L.) Coined from L. di- (for 
dis-), apart; and verge, vb. See Verge 

Divers, Diverse, various. (F.-L.) 

O. F. divers, masc, diverse, fern., 'divers, 
differing; ' Cot. — L. dinersus, various ; 
orig. pp. of diuertere, to turn asunder, 
separate, divert (below). 

divert. (F. — L.) yi..Y. divertir, 'to 
divert, alter ; ' Cot. — L. dine}-tere, to 
turn aside. — L. dl- (dis-) , apart ; uertere, 
to turn. Der. divers-ion, from pp. 

Divest. (L.) Late L. dmestire, in 
place of L. dmestire, to strip off clothes. 

— L. dl- (for dis-), apart, substituted for 
L. de-, down, away ; uestii-e, to clothe, 
from uestis, clothing. See Vest. 

Divide. (L.) L. dluidere, to divide, 
separate (pp. diuTsus).-'!^. di- {dis-), 
apart ; and '^tiide7-e, a lost verb, prob. 




meaning ' to separate ' ; see "Widow. 
(VWIDH.) Brugm. i. § 5S9, ii. 528. 
Der. divis-ion (from the pp.)- 

Bivine. (F.-L.) M.E. ^^z;/;z.-O.F. 
devin. — L. diiiTmis^ divine, god-like ; 
allied to dtuns, godlike, detis, god; see 

Divorce, sb. (F, - L.) O.F. divorce. - 
L. duwrtiicm, a separation. — L. diiiortere, 
the same as diuertere^ to turn aside, sepa- 
rate ; see Divert. 

Divulge. (F. — L.) F. divulgiier, ' to 
divulge, reveal ; ' Cot. — L. dhndgdre, to 
publish abroad. — L. di-^ for dis-, apart; 
uulgdre., to publish, from tiulgus, the 
people, a crowd ; see Vulgar. 

Dizen, to deck out. (E.) To dizeti was 
dig. to furnish a distaff with flax, hence 
to deck out. See Distafif. Der. be-dizen. 

Dizzy. (E.) M.E. dysy, diisi. A. S. 
dysig, toolish, stupid, -f- E. Fries, dusig, 
dizzy, foolish ; O. H. G. ttisic. From 
Teut. *dics-, as in Low G. diisen, to loiter 
(Lubben) ; allied to Teut. *dils-, as in Du. 
duizelen, to be dizzy. Perhaps further 
allied to A. S. dzatss, Du. drvaas, foolish 
(Franck), from Teut. stem '^dw/es-. 

Do, to perform. (E.) M. E. doo7t. A. S. 
don, pt. t. dyde, pp. gedon ; the orig. sense 
is 'put' or ' place.'+Du. doen, O. H. G. 
tuon, G. thun. Teut. stem *do-. Allied 
to Gk. Ti-Orj-fxi, I put, Skt. d/id, to place. 
(VDHE.) Brugm. i. § 129. 

Docile. (F. — L.) F. doci/e. — L. docilis, 
teachable. — L. docere, to teach. Allied to 
Disciple and Didactic. 

doctor. (F. — L.) M.E. dodoiir.^ 
O.F. doctotir. '^'L. dodo rem, ace. oi doctor, 
a teacher. — L. docere, to teach. 

doctrine. (F.— L.) F. doctrine. — 1.. 
doc/rina, lore, learning. — L. doctor, a 
teacher. — L. docere, to teach. 

document. (F.-L.) ¥. document. 
^1-,. dociiuienc'tun, a proof. —L. docere, to 
teach, shew. 

Dock (1), to curtail. (E.?) From 
dock, sb., the stump of a tail, stump, cut 
end. Cf. E. Fries, dokke, dok, a bundle, 
bunch (as of straw) ; Du. dok, a little 
bunch (of straw) ; Dan. dukke, a skein, 
short column, baluster ; G. docke, a skein, 
rail, plug, peg; Low G. dokke, a bunch, 
stump, peg (Berghaus). 

Dock (2), a plant. (E.) A. S. docce.-^- 
M. Du. docke (as in docken hladeren, dock- 
leaves, Hexham) ; M. Dan. a-dokka. water- 
dock (Kalkar). So also Gael, dogha, a 

burdock ; Irish meacan-dogha, a great bur- 
dock, where ineacan means a tap-rooted 
plant, as a carrot. Der. bur-dock. 

Dock (3), a basin for ships. (Du.?) 
M, Du. docke, a harbour (whence Dan. 
dokke, Swed. docka, G. docke) \ Du. dok. 
^ History obscure. 

Docket, a label, ticket. (E. ?) Orig. an 
abstract ; apparently allied to Dock (1). 
^ History obscure. 

Doctor, Doctrine, Document; 

see Docile. 

Dodecagon. (Gk.) Named from its 
12 angles. Formed like decagon, with 
Gk. SdSf/ca, twelve, instead of Se'tfo, ten. 
See Decagon. 

Dodecahedron. (Gk.) Forrnedwith 
Gk. 5(ju5€Ka, twelve, in place oi dena, ten ; 
see Decahedron. 

Dodge, to go hither and thither, to 
quibble. (E.) XVI cent. Orig. to walk 
unsteadily, hence to go from side to side 
as if to escape ; perhaps allied to prov. E. 
dade, to walk unsteadily, Scotch daddle, 
doddle, to waddle, dod, to jog, dodge, to 
jog along, dodgel, to hobble, North E. 
dodder, to shake, totter, dadge, dodge, to 
walk clumsily. (Very doubtful.) 

Dodo, an extinct bird. (Port.) Port. 
dondo, silly, foolish ; the bird being of a 
clumsy make. Said to be borrowed from 
Devonsh. dold, stupid, the same as E. doli 
(Diez). See Dolt. 

Doe. (E.) '^l.F.doo. A.S. o'a.+Dan. 
daa. Swed. do/-, in dofhjort, a buck, may 
be allied to G. da^nhirsch, a buck, wherein 
the syllable dam- is thoi^ght to be borrowed 
from L. ddma, a deer ; or Celtic ; cf. Corn. 
da, a deer, Gael, damh, ox, stag. 

Doff, to put off clothes. (E.) Short for 
do off, i. e. put off. Cf. don, dup. 

Dog. (E.) M. E. dogge. A. S. docga. 
(Du. dog, Swed. dogg, a mastiff ; Dan. 
dogge, a bull-dog ; Low G. dogge, F. dogne ; 
all borrowed from E.) Der. dog, verb, to 
track, follow as a dog ; dogg-ed, sullen ; 
dog-cheap, very cheap (see N. E. D.) ; 

Doge, a duke of Venice. (Ilal. — L.) 
Ital. doge, prov. form of '^doce, a duke. — L. 
diic-evi, ace. of dt{x, a leader. See Duke. 

Doggerel, wretched poetry. (E. ?) 
M. E. dogerel, Ch. C. T. 13853. Origin 
uncertain ; but prob. formed from dog. 
Cf. dog-rime, poor verses (N. E. D.). 

Dogma, a definite tenet. (Gk.) Gk, 
5o7/ia, an opinion (stem So7/^aT-). — Gk. 



SoKfccj I am of opinion. Allied to Do- 
cile. Der. dogmat-ic, dogmat-ise. 

Doily, a small napkin. (Personal name.) 
Formerly we read of ' doily stuff,' and 
* doily petticoats.' Said to be named after 
'the famous Doily'' ; Spectator, no. 283, 
Jan. 24, 1 71 2. Mentioned in Dryden's 
Kind Keeper, iv. i (1679). 

Doit, a small coin. (Du. — Scand.) Du. 
dnit, a doit. — \cQ\.J)veii, a piece, bit, small 
coin, doit. — Icel. *J>vJta (pt. t. *J)veit), to 
cut, a lost verb, but the same as A. S. 
Pwitan ; see Thwite. 

Dole, a portion. (E.) M. E. dol, dale. 
A. S. ddl^ a division (Exod. viii. 23). A 
variant of Deal (i), q.v. 

Doleful, sad. (Hybrid ; F. -L. andY..) 
The suffix -ftcl is E. M. E. doel, duel, dol 
(Scotch doot) , sorrow, grief. — O. F. doel, 
dol (F. deuil), grief; verbal sb. of O. F. 
doloir, to grieve. — l^.dolium,\x\ cor-dolimn, 
grief of heart. — L. dole7-e^ to grieve. 

dolour. (F. — L.) M. E. dolour. — 
O. F. dolour. — 'L.. dolorem, ace. oi dolor, 
grief. — L. dolere, to grieve. 

Doll. (Gk.) From Doll, for Dorothy ; 
a familiar name, of Gk. origin (see 
N. E. D.). Cf. Lowl. Sc. doroty, a doll. 

Dollar. (Low G. — G.) Low G. daler; 
Du. daalder, a dollar. Adapted and 
borrowed from G. thaler, a dollar. The 
G. thaler is short for Joachimsthaler , a 
coin made from silver found va. Joachijiis- 
thal Qoachim's dale) in Bohemia, ab. 
A.D. 1519. 

Dolman, a kind of loose jacket. (F. — 
G. — Hung. — Turk.) F. dolman. — G. dol- 
man, dollman. — Hung, dolmany. — Turk. 
ddldmdn, dohmiah, a kind of long robe. 

Dolmen, a monument of two upright 
stones, with a third across them. (F. — C.) 
F. dolmen. — Bret, dolmen, lit. * stone- 
table ; ' Legonidec. — Bret, tol, taol, a 
table (from L. tabula) ; and j?ien, a stone ; 
according to Legonidec. But (see N. E. D.) 
this is due to some mistake ; the F. 
dolmen seems to represent the Cornish 
tolmen, stone with a hole beneath ; from 
Corn, toll, a hole (W. twll), and juen 
(W. fnaen), a stone. 

Dolomite, a kind of rock. (F.) 
Named in 1794 from M. Dolomieu, a 
French geologist (i 750-1801). 

Dolour ; see Doleful. 

Dolphin, a fish. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
dolphine.^O. F. datdphin (now dauphin). 
— Folk-L. dalfinum, for L. delphinum, \ 

ace. of delphinus, a dolphin. — Gk. S(X<plv-, 
stem of deKipis, a dolphin. 

Dolt. (E.) Cf. Devonsh. dold, a dolt. 
M.E. dult ( = dulled); from M.E. dul, 
dull ; see Dull. 

Domain. (F. — L.) F. domaitze, sb. ; 
from O. F. demaine, adj., belonging to as 
one's own. — L. dominicus, adj., belonging 
to a lord (the neut. dominiaun was used 
for L. dominium, lordship). — L. dominus, 
a lord ; allied to L. domdi-e, to tame, 
subdue ; see Tame. Doublet, demesne. 

Dome. 'F. — Ital. — L.) F. dome.'-' 
Ital. diiomo, domo, a cathedral church 
(house of God). — L. do7num, ace. of 
domus, a house, a building. (-^DEM.) 
See Timber. Brugm. i. § 138. 

domestic. (F. — L.) F. domestique. 

— L. dojuesiicus, belonging to a household. 

— L. doin-us, a house (above). 
domicile. (F. — L.) O.Y. domicile, 

a mansion. — L. domicilium, a habitation. 

— L. domi-, for domus, a house ; and 
-cilitim, possibly allied to Cell. 

Domesday ; see Doom. 

Dominate. (L.) From pp. of domi- 
ndri, to be lord over. — L. do?nimcs, a 

domineer. (Du.-F.-L.) M. Du. 

dominei-en, to feast luxuriously (Oude- 
mans) ; borrowed from O. F. do77iiner, to 
govern, rule. — L. do>nind7'i, to be lord 
over (above). 

dominical. (F. — L.) O.Y. do7)iini- 
iTiz/. — Late L. do77iinicdlis, belonging to the 
Lord's day, or to the Lord. — L. do7iii7iic- 
us, belonging to a lord. — L. do7}ii7iics, a 

dominion. (F. - Late_ L.) O. F. 

do77ii}iio7t.''V.2X& L. do77ti7jio7ie77i, ace. of 
dor7ii7tio, lordship ; allied to L. do?7ii7i- 
iutfi, lordship. — L. dominus (above"). 

domino. (F. — L.) F. dof7ii7io, a 
masquerade-dress ; orig. a master's hood. 

— L, do7}iinus, a roaster (above). Der. 
do77ii7ioes. sb. pi., a game. 

Don (1)5 to put on clothes. (E.) Short 
for do on, i. e. put on. Cf. doff, dout, 

Don (2), a Spanish title. (Span. — L.) 
Span, don, sir. — L. do77iinu7n, ace. of 
do77ii7tus, a lord. 

Donation. (F. — L.) F. do7iatio7i.-' 
L. ace. ddndtid7ie77i, a gift, from the stem 
of the pp. of dondj-e, to give. — L. dd7iu7n, 
a gift. Cf. Gk. 5upov, a gift. 

Donjon ; see Dungeon. 


Donkey. (C. a^id E.) Double dimin. 
with suffix -k-ey ( = Lowl. Sc. -ick-ie, as 
in koi-s~ickie, a little-little horse, Banffsh.), 
from dtin, familiar name for a horse, from 
its colour (Romeo, i. 4. 41); see Dun (i). 
•ff So also M. E. don-ek, piov. E. dumzock, 
a hedge-sparrow, from its colour. Donkey 
(first found in 1785) was a prov. E. word, 
which seems to have rimed with monkey 
(whence the spelling). Cf. Somersets. 
diiimg-kee, pron. oi donkey. 

Donna, (Ital.-L.) Ital. dv7ina. — l.. 
doj?nna, mistress, fem. of domimis^ a 
master. Doublet, dnenna. 

Doom, a judgment, decision. (E.) 
M. E. dom. A. S. doni, lit. a thing set or 
decided on; from don, to set, do; see Do. 
4- Swed. Dan. do?n, Icel. domr, Goth. 
doms, O. H. G. tMom. Teut. type *ddmoz, 
a statute. Cf. Gk. Oi^is, law (from TiOijfu, 
I set). Der. deein. 

doomsday, domesday. (E.) A.S. 

domes dceg, day of doom or judgment. 

Door, a gate. (E.) M. E. dore^ dure. 
A. S. dor, n. ; duru, f. -f- O. Sax. dor, Goth. 
datir, G. thor, n. ; and Joel. dy7-r, f. pi, ; 
Dan. dor, Swed. dorr, Du. deur, G. thiir, 
f. sing. Teut. types *dnroni, n. ; "^dnres, f. 
pi. Cf 'L. fores, Lith. durys, f. pi.; O. 
Xxx'^doriis, n., W. drws, m.; Russ. dver{e), 
Gk. Bvpa, Skt. dvdr, f. Brugm. 1. § 462. 

Dormant, sleeping. (F.-L.) Y. dor- 
mant, pres. pt. of dorniir, to sleep. — L. 
dormire, to sleep. •+> Skt. drd, to sleep ; 
Gk. hapQav^iv. 

dormer-window. (F. and Scand.) 

A dormer was a sleeping-room. — O. F. 
dormeor.-'l^. dorjnitorinm (below). 

dormitory. (L.) L. dormUormm, a 
sleeping-chamber ; neut. of dormitorius, 
adj., belonging to sleeping. —L. ^(3r7;iz7(?;-, 
a sleeper. — L. dormire, to sleep. 

Dormouse. (F. and E.) M. E. dor- 
moHS. The prefix is perhaps short for 
North E. dorm, to doze (whence dorm- 
nioiise). Cf. Icel., Norw., and Swed. dial. 
dorma, to doze ; all apparently from F. 
dormir, to sleep ; see Dormant. We find 
also prov. E. dorrer, a sleeper, as if from 
dor, to sleep. 

Dornick, a kind of cloth ; obsolete. 
(Flemish.) Named from Flem. Do7'nick, 
better known by the F. name of Tournay 
(Lat. Tornaais). 

Dorsal. (F. — L.) F. dorsal, belonging 
to the back. — Late L. do7'sdlis.'-'\.. dor- 
sum, the back. 


Dory, a fish ; see John Dory. 
Dose. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. dose, a 
quantity of medicine given at once. — 
Med. L. £/i7«^. — Gk. hoois, a giving. — Gk. 
dH^ojUi (stems So}', do-), I give. Brugm. i. 
§ 167. 

Dot. (E.) A. S. dott, only in the sense 
' head of a boil.' Cf. Du. dot, a little bundle 
of spoilt wool,&c.,goodfornothing(Sewel),' 
Swed. dial. doU, a little heap, small lump; 
M. Dan. dot, a bunch ; E. Fries, dot, dotte, 
a heap, bunch, lump. Cf. Norw. dotten, 
pp. of detta, to fall, to fall to pieces. 

Dote. (E.) M.E. dotien, doten, to be 
foolish (Layamon).-I- M. Du. doten, to 
dote, mope; Du. dutteji, to doze; Icel. 
dotta, to nod with sleep, M. H. Q.getotzen, 
to doze, tuzeii, to mope. 

dotage. (E. ; with F. suffix.) M. E. 
dotage ; from M. E. dot-en ; with F. suffix 
-age (L. -dticum). Cf. F. radotage, from 
radoter, to dote. 

dotard. (E. with F. suffix.) From 
dote, with F. suffix -ard (O. H. G. hay-t). 

dotterel, a kind of plover. (E.) A 
bird easily caught ; from dote, vb., with 
suffix as in cock-erel. 

Double. (F.-L.) O. F. doble, later 
dotible. - L. diiplus, lit. two-fold. — L. du-o, 
two; -plus, i.e. 'folded.' 

doublet. (F.-L.) M.E. dobbelet.^ 
O. F. doublet, an inner (double) garment. 
— F. double, double; with suffix -et. 

doubloon. (F.-Span.-L.) F. dou- 
blo/i. — Span, doblon, a coin, the double of 
a pistole. — Span, doblo, double. — L. dti- 
pius (above). 

doubt. (F. - L.) M. E. douien. - 
O. F. douter. — L. dubitdre, to be of two 
minds ; allied to dubius, doubtful ; see 

Douceur. (F. — L.) F. doticeur, lit. 
sweetness (hence, pleasant gift). — L. dul- 
corem, ace. oidulcor, sweetness. — L. dulcis, 
sweet. See Dulcet. 

Douche, a shower-bath. (F.— Ital.— 
L.) F. douche, a shower-bath. — Ital. 
doccia, a conduit, water-pipe. — Ital. docci- 
are, to pour ; equivalent to Late Lat. 
*ductidre, derivative of L. ductus, a duct ; 
see Duct. 

Dough. (E.) M. E. dah, dogh. A. S. 
ddh (stem dag-). -|- Du. deeg, Dan. deig, 
Swed. deg, Icel. deig, Goih.daigs, a kneaded 
lump, G. teig. The Goth, daigs is from 
daig, and stem of deigan, to knead; see 
Dike. (VDHEIGH.) Brugm. i. § 604. 



Doughty. (E.) M. E. dohti, duhti, 
valiant. A. S. dohtig, earlier form dyhtig, 
valiant. — A. S. dugan, to ■ be worth, be 
strong. + Dan. dygtig, Swed. dugiig, Icel. 
dygdtcgr,G. tuchtig; variously formed from 
the Taut, verb *dugan-. 

Douse, to immerse. (E. ?) Allied to 
M. Du. doesen, 'to smite with violence' 
(Hexham). See Dowse (i). 

Dout, to extinguish. (E.) Short for do 
out, i. e. put out. 

Dove, a bird. (E.) A. S. dufe, only 
in comp. diife-doppa, lit. a diver. — A. S. 
dilfan, to plunge into, -f- O. Sax. diiva, 
Goth, diibo, G. taube, a dove, lit. diver. 
[So also L. columba, a dove, is allied to 
Gk. AToAu/i/Sij, a diver, sea-bird. First 
applied to sea-gulls, &c.] 

dovetail, to fasten boards together. 
(E.) From dove and tail; from the shape 
of the fitted ends of the board (c3)> 

DO'Wager, a widow with a jointure. 
(F. — L.) O. F. doiiagere \ from dotiage, 
an endowment. Again douage is coined 
(with suffix -age) from F. dou-er, to endow. 
^\^. dot are, to endow. — L. dot-, stem of 
dos, a gift, dowry. Allied to do-mun, a 
gift, dare, to give. Der. en-doru, from 
F. en and doner. Brugm. i. § 167. 

dower, an endowment. (F. — L.) 
M. E. doTvere.'^O. F. doaire, later douaire. 
— Late L. dotdrium.^^'L.. dotdre,Xo endow 
(above) . Der. dowr-y, short for dower-y. 

Dowdy ; see Duds. 

Dowlas, a coarse linen. (Bret.) From 
Daoulas, S. E. of Brest, in Brittany. 

Down (i), soft plumage. (Scand.) 
M. E. down, -m Icel. dunn, Swed. dun, 
Dan. dunn, down ; whence Du. dons. 

Down (2), a hill. (C.^ A. S. dim, a 
hill. — Irish dun, a fortified hill, fort; 
Gael, dun, W. din, a hill-fort. + A. S. 
tiin ; see Town. 

down (3), prep, and adv. (E. and C.) 
A corruption of adown = A. S. ofdnne^^o'S. 
the hill, downwards. — A. S. of, off ; dune, 
dat. of dun, a hill ; see Down (2). 

dune, a low sand-hill. (C.) XVIII 
cent. — F. du7te. — M. Du. dtine (Du. 
duin) ; of Celt, origin. See Down (2). 

Dowse (')• to strike in the face. 
(E. ?) Apparently the same as Douse 
(above). Cf. Norw. dtls, a push, blow; 
M. Du. doesen, to strike, E. Fries, ddssen, 
to strike. 

Dowse (2), to immerse ; see Douse. 
Prob. the same as Dowse (i). 


Dowse (3), to extinguish. The same 
as Dowse (i) ; sense perhaps suggested 
by dout, q. v. 

Doxology. (L. — Gk.) L. doxologia. 

— Gk. So^oKoyia, an ascription of praise. 

— Gk. 5o^o-, for bo^a, glory, orig. a 
notion ; -\oyia, from \(y€iv, to speak. 

Doxy. (M. Du.) A cant term. Cf. 
E. Fries, doktje, dimin. of dokke, a doll. 
Prob. introduced from the Netherlands.— 
M. Du. docke, a doll. Cf. O. H. G, iocchd, 
a doll, also a term of endearment (G. 

Doze. (Scand.) Swed. dial, o'wi-a, Dan. 
dose, to doze, mope ; Icel. diisa, to doze ; 
M. Dan. dase, to be torpid. Allied to 

Dozen, twelve. (F.-L.) O. F. do- 
saine i^ .douzaine),z.^oztn. — O.Y .doze (F. 
douze), twelve; with suffix -aine (L. -ena, 
as in cent-end). -m\^. duodeci7n,X.vie\\Q.'^\^. 
dno, two ; decern, ten. See Two and Ten. 

Drab (i), a slut. (E.) Cf. Irish o'ra.^^^, 
Gael, drabag, a slut; Gael, drabach, dirty ; 
Irish drab, a spot, stain (all from E.). E. 
Fries, drabbe, puddle-water. Also Du. 
drabbe, f. dregs, draff; allied to Draff. 

Drab (2), dull light brown. (F.-L.) 
The colour of undyed cloth. — F. drap, 
cloth. See Drape. 

Drachm ; see Dram. 

Draff, dregs. (E.) M. E. draf (Laya- 
mon).+Du. draf, hogswash, drabbe, draff; 
Icel. draf, Swed. draf, Dan. drav, dregs; 
G. trdber, pi. [Cf. Gael, and Irish drabh, 
draff, from E.] 

Draft ; see Draught. 

Drag, vb. (Scand.) M.E.draggen; a 
Northern form allied to Icel. draga, to 
draw. Cf. Swed. dragg, a drag, grapnel ; 
dragga, to drag. See Draw. 

Dragoman, an interpreter. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, dragoman ; [Late Gk. hpa- 
yoviiavo'i], an interpreter. — Arab, tar- 
jumdft, an interpreter, translator; see 

Dragon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon. 
— L. ace. draconetn, from nom. draco. ^ 
Gk. hpaK(uv, a dragon, lit. ' seeing ; ' from 
his supposed sharp sight. — Gk. hpaK-, 
weak grade of SepKOfiai, I see. ^ Such is 
the usual account. 

dragoon. ; F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon^ 
a dragoon ; so called because the dragoons 
orig. had a dragon on their standard ; or 
rather, because they were armed with a 
short carbine called (in F.) dragon. 




Drain. (E.) A. S. drehnigean, dreh- 
nian, to drain away, strain off, Matt, 
xxiii. 24, also spelt dreahnian ; orig. ' to 
become dry.' — A. S. *dreag- = Taut. 
*draug-, second grade of Teut. *di'et(g-an', 
to be dry, Cf. Icel. draugr, a dry log. 
See Dry. 

Drake, male of the duck. (L.-Gk.?) 
M. E. drake. Not found in A. S. ; cf. 
d}-ake, a drake, in Low G. (Bremen) ; 
M. Swed. drake, (i ) a dragon, (2) a drake, 
(3) a boy's kite. Supposed to correspond 
to the latter part of Swed. and-drake, a 
drake (a form thought to be borrowed from 
Low G.). Cf. Swed. afid, duck, anddrake, 
drake ; Low G. anderik, drake (Liibben) ; 
G. ente, duck; etiterich, drake; O. H. G. 
antrakho, a drake, p. The Swed. and, A. S. 
ened, a duck, is cognate with L. anas 
(stem anat-), a duck. The M. E. drake 
was suggested by A. S. draca, a dragon, 
borrowed from L. draco ; see Dragon. 

Dram, Drachm. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. F. drame, dj-achme, ' a dram, eighth 
part of an ounce;' Cot.— L. drach?7ia.-' 
Gk. hpax\ii], a handful, a drachma, used 
both as weight and coin ; cf. ^pd'yua, as 
much as one can grasp. — Gk. dpcKTcrofxai, I 
grasp. Brugm. i. § 509. 

Drama. (L. — Gk.) L. drama. — QV. 
dpdfia (stem Spafxar-), an act, a drama.— 
Gk. dpdoj, I perform ; cf. Lith. darau, I 
make. (-y^DAR.) Der. draviat-ic (from 
Spafxar-) ; &c. 

drastic, effective. (Gk.) Gk. dpaa- 
TiKos, effective ; allied to dpacrreos, verbal 
adj. of Spdw, I perform. 

Drape, to cover with cloth. (F. — L.) 
F. draper, to make cloth. — F. drap, cloth ; 
Late L. drappus. Of unknown origin. 
Der. drap-er, drap-er-y ; and see drab (2). 

Drastic ; see Drama. 

Draw. (K.) M. E. draiven. A. S. 
dragan (A. S. -aga- becoming M.E. -azve-). 
+ Du. dragen, Icel. Swed. draga, Dan. 
drage, Goth, dragan, G. tragen, to pull 
along, carry. Teut. type '^dragan-, pt. t. 

draught, draft. (E.) Draft is a 

phonetic spelling. M. E. draught, draht. 
From A. S. drag-a7i ; with suffixed /.+ 
Du. dragt, a load, from dragen, to carry ; 
Dan. drc^t; Icel. drattr, a draught of 
fishes ; G. tracht, a load, from t?-agen. 

drawl. (Du.) Frequentative of (^raw; 
parallel to draggle from drag. Introduced 
from Du. drdleft, to be slow ; from dragen, 

to draw. + E. Fries, draulen ; Low G. 

dray. (E.) A.S. drcege, that which is 
drawn ; as in drcege, drceg-net, a draw-net. 
-fSwed. d7-dg, a sledge, dray. 

Dread, vb. (E.) A. S. *di'^dan, in 
comp. on-drdda7i, to dread, fear.+O. Sax. 
ant-di-ddnn ; O. H. G. ht-trdtan. Teut. 
type *drtzda7i-. 

Dream, a vision. (E.) M. E. dreem. 
A. S. *dream, a dream; not found. [Quite 
distinct from A.S.^r/<2w,asweet sound, har- 
mony, also joy, glee, happiness.] 4"0. Sax. 
dj'dm, dream ; Du. drooni, Icel. draumr, 
Dan. Swed. </r(?>/z, G.traum. Kluge suggests 
comparison with G. trug-bild, a phantom ; 
if correct, the Teut. sb. was ^draiigmoz, 
m. ; from Teut. *drang, strong grade of 
Teut. *dretigan- (O. H. G. triogan, G. 
t7-iigeti), to deceive. From the Idg. root 
*dhrengh, whence also Skt. dj'ogha{s), a 
crafty wounding; O. Pers. draiiga (Pers. 
durugh), a deceit, lie ; Icel. draugr, a 
ghost. Brugm. i. §§ 681, 689. 

Dreary, Drear. (E.) z>?rar is short 

iox dreamy. M.E. drery. A. S. dreorig, sad; 
orig. ' gory ; ' formed with suffix -tg from 
A.S. dreor, gore. —A. S. dreosan, to drip. 
-|-Icel. dreyrigr, gory, from dreyi'i, gore ; 
G. traurig, sad, orig. gory, from O. H. G. 
tror, gore. From Teut. *dreusan-, vb. 

Dredge (i), a drag-net. (E.) North E. 
df-eg. Answering to A. S. *drecg, *drecge 
(not found), for *d7'ag-jo- ; from A. S. 
d7-aga7i ; see Draw. And see Dregs. 

Dredge (2), to sprinkle flour on meat. 
(F. — Late L. — Gk.) To dredge is to 
sprinkle, as in sowing dredge (M. E. drage) 
or mixed corn. — O. F. d7-agee, mixed 
corn ; also a sweetmeat, sugar-plum. 
[Prov. d7-agea\ Ital. t7-eggea, a sugar-plum.] 

— Late L. dragdta, drageia, a sugar-plum ; 
altered form of tragc/Jiata, pi. of t7-age7na. 

— Gk. Tpdyrjixa, something nice to eat. — 
Gk. rpd/yfiv (2 aor. irpayov'), to gnaw. 

Dregs, lees. (Scand.) PI. of M. E. 
d7-eg, mire ; we also find M. E. dregges, 
dregs. — Icel. d7-egg, pi. dreggjar, dregs; 
Swed. d7-dgg, pi. dregs, lees. Cf. Gk. 
Qpdaauv, to disturb. Distinct from L. 
f7aces, dregs of oil; Brugm. i. § 417. 

Drench, vb. (E.) M. E. dre7ichen. 
A. S. d7-e7ica7i, causal of d7-inca7i ; hence 
' to make drink. ' + Du. ^r^«/^^«, Icel. d7-ek- 
kja, Swed. drd7ika, Goth. d7-agkja7i, G. 
trd7ike7i. See Drink. 

Dress. (F.-L.) O.F. d7-esser, d7-escer^ 




to erect, set up, dress ; answering to a Late 
L. form *dtrectidre. — 'L. dtrectus, pp. of 
dtrigere, to direct ; see Direct. 

Dribble. (E.) Frequentative of obs. 
E. drib, to drip slightly ; which is a 
weakened form of drip. Cf. drib-let. See 
Drip. So also Dan. dial, drible. 

Drift ; see Drive. 

Drill (i), to pierce, to train soldiers. 
(Du.) Borrowed from Du. drillen, to drill, 
to bore, to turn round, shake, brandish, 
drill soldiers, form to arms. Allied to 
M. H. G. drellen, to turn round (pp. ge- 
drollejt), Low G. drall, twisted tight. 
Teut. type *threllan- (pt. t. ^thrall), to 
twist; cf. A. ^. pearl, strict. ^Perhaps 
allied to Thrill. 

Drill (2), to sow corn in rows. (E.) 
The same as drill, to trickle, which seems 
to be a variant of t7-ill, to trickle. 

Drilling, a coarse cloth used for 
trousers. (G. — L.) Corrupted from G. 
d)-illick, ticking, huckaback. — L. trilJc-^ 
stem of irilix, having three threads. — L. 
iri-, from t7-es, three ; Itcium, a thread. 
See Three. 

Drink. (E.) A.S. drincan, pt. t. dranc, 
pp. drzmcen.-^X^Vi. drinken, Icel. drekka, 
Swed. dricka, Dan. dHkke, Goth, drigkan 
( = drinkan) , G. trinken. Teut. ^dreiikaii-. 

Drip. (Scand.) M. E. <^;7//.?w. — Dan. 
dryppe, to drip ( = Teut. *drttp-jan-). 
From Teut. '^driip-, weak grade of *dreii- 
pan-, as seen in Ice), drjnpa, to drip, A. S 
dreopan (obs. E. dreep), G. trie/en. Cf. 
O. Ir. trticht, a dew-drop. See Drop. 

Drive. (E.) M. E. driuen. A.S. dri/aji 
(pt. t. drdf, pp d7'ifen).-\-'D\\. drijven . 
Icel. drifa, Swed. di-ifva, Dan. drive, Goth. 
dreiban, G. treiben. Teut. *d7-eiban-. 

drift. (E.) M. E. d7-ift. Formed from 
d?-if-, weak grade of d7-Jfait ; with suffix -/. 
+ Du. drift, Icel. d7-ift, Swed. Dan. d7-ift, 
G. t7'ift. Der. a-d7-ift = on the drift ; see 
A- (2). 

drove. (E.) M. E. d7-of. A. S. d7-d/, 
a drove. From d7-a/, 2nd grade of (/r//a«. 

Drivel, vb. (E.) M. E. d7'evelen. A. S. 
d7-ejlia)i, to dribble or nm at the nose. 
Cf. M. E. d7'avele7t, to drivel. From the 
base draf-, as in M. E. draf, draff. See 

Drizzle, to rain slightly. (E.) For- 
merly drisel or d7-isle, to keep on dripping. 
Frequent, form of M. E. di-esen, A. S. 
d7-eosa7i, to drip ; see Dreary. Cf. Dan. 
d7ysse, to fall in drops ; Swed. dial. d7-bsla. 

Droll. (F.-Du.) M. F. d7-ole, 'a plea- 
sant wag; ' Cot. — Du. d7-ollig, odd, strange ; 
M. Du. drol, *a juglar ; ' Hexham. Per- 
haps from Du. d7-oll-, pp. stem of d7'ille72, 
to turn, wheel, whirl about ; see Drill (i). 

Dromedary. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. 

dro}neda7'ie. —0. F. d7-077iedai7-e (older form 
*d7-07neda7'ie) . — Late L. d7-omadd7ius. — L. 
d7'ot7iad-, stem of d7-077ias, a dromedary. — 
Gk. Spofxad-, stem of dpo/j-os, fast running. 
— Gk. dpafjifiv, to run.+Skt. dra77i,\.o run. 

Drone (i), to hum. (E.) M..Y.. dronen 
(also d7-otmen). Not in A. S. Cf. Icel. 
d7y7ija, Swed. d7V7ia, Dan. d7V72e, to drone, 
roar, rumble, &c. Cf. Goth. d7-unjus, a 
sound, Gk. Oprjvos, a dirge ; Skt. dh7-a7i, 
to sound. 

Drone (2), a non-working bee. (Low 
G.) M. E. d7-a7i. A. S. d7-dn ; which (like 
E. Fries, drdiie) was prob. borrowed from 
O. Sax. drmi. Cf. M. H. G. t7e7io (G. 
d7'o}ine being borrowed from Low G.). 
Teut. stems *d7-an-, *d7-eit- ; cf Gk. av- 
dpijvq, a wild-bee, Opwva^ (Hesychius). 
% With the parallel stems Vr^;z-, *dren-, 
cf. the stems of Queen and Quean. 

Droop ; see below. 

Drop, sb. (E.) M. E. drope, sb. ; hence 
dropie7i, d7-oppe7i, vb. — A. S. dropa, sb. ; 
d7'opia7t, vb. These are from the weak 
grade *d7'tip' (A.S. d7-op-) of the Teut. 
vb. *d7-eiipan- (A. S. d7-eopa7i), to drop, 
drip. + Du. d7'op, sb., Icel. d7-opi, Swed. 
d7'oppe, Dan. draabe, G. t7'opfe7i. See also 

droop, to sink, fail. (Scand.) M. E. 
d7'otipe7i. — Icel. drupa, to droop ; weak 
vb., allied to d7-jilpa, strong vb., to drip = 
Teut. '^d7'eupa7i- (whence also G. t7'iefeti) ; 
see above. Cf. * I am ready to d7-op^ i. e. 
I dj-oop. 

Dropsy ; see Hydropsy. 

Droshky, Drosky, a kind of carriage. 
(Russ.) Russ. d7-ozhki, drojki, a low four- 
wheeled carriage (the j sounded as in 
French). Dimin. of d/-ogi, a waggon ; 
which was orig. pi. of d7-oga, a perch (of 
a carriage). 

Dross. (E.) M.E. dros. A.S. d7-ds, 
dross, dregs ; cf. also obs. E. drosen, A. S. 
drosna, pi., lees, dregs. + ^1- E>u. droeSy 
lees (Kilian) ; Du. di'oese7?i, dregs, lees, 
G. d7-use7i, pi. dregs; O. H. G. trusatia, 
t7-tiosa7ia, husks of pressed grapes. 

Drought, Drouth ; see Dry. 

Drove; see Drive. 

Drown. (Scand.) AL E. droujieii, d7-u- 




nen.^M. Dan. drukne, drougne, drovne, 
drone, to sink, be drowned (Kalkar) ; Icel. 
drukna. The -nkn- was preserved in Swed. 
drunkna, A. S. druncnian, to be drunk, 
also to sink, to be drowned. See Drun- 
ken. (E. Bjorkman.) 

Drowse, Dro-wze, to be sluggish. 

(E.) Formerly ^r^z^j-^. A. S. driistan, to 
be sluggish ; allied to A. S, dreosan, to 
fail ; also to drip, to fall. See Dreary. 
Der. drowz-y. 

Drub, to beat. (Arab.?) 'Drub, to 
beat the soles of the feet with a stick, a 
punishment used in Turkey;' (Phillips). 
Apparently a travellers' word. Perhaps 
from Arab, darb {zarb), a beating with a 
stick ; from Arab, root daraba {zarabd) , 
he beat ; Rich. Diet. p. 952. (N. E. D.) 

Drudge, vb. (E.) M. E. druggen. 
A. S. *drycgean, not found ; but regularly 
formed from drug--, weak grade of dreogan, 
to work, perform, endure ( = Teut. "^drett- 
gan-, Goth, driugan, Lowl. Sc. dree). Cf 
Icel. drjug-virkr, one who works slowly 
but surely. The Gael, drtcgair, a drudge, 
is from E. 

Drug. (F.) M. E. drogge, drugge. — 
O. ¥. drogue, a drug. Also Ital. and Span. 
droga. Origin unknown ; perhaps Ori- 
ental. Der. drugg-ist. 

Drugget. (F.) Vi.Y . dj-oguet/^Vmdi 
of stuft that's half silk, half wool ; ' Cot. 
Dimin. of drogue, used in the sense of 
rubbish, poor stuff ; from the coarseness 
of the material ; cf. E. ' a drug in the 
market.' % Probably not the same word 
as F. drogue, a drug. 

Druid, a priest of the ancient Britons. 
(F. - L. - C.) F. Druide. - L. (Gauhsh) 
pi. Druides, Druidae (Lewis and Short). 
Cf O. Irish druid. dat. and ace. of driii, 
a magician, sorcerer ; Ir. draoi, druidh, 
Gael, druidh (whence also A. S. dry^ a 
magicia 1). 

Drum. (Du.") XVI cent. Imperfectly 
adapted from M. Du. tromme, trommel, a 
drum; Low G. irujume \ Du. trom.-^ 
O. H. G. trumbd, trnmpd, M. H. G. 
trumme, a pipe, trumpet ; Icel. trumba, 
a pipe, trumpet. [So also Ital. tromba, 
Span, iroinpa.^ Of imitative origin. 

Drunkard. (E. ; with F. suffix.) 
From A. S. drunc-, base of pp. oi drincan, 
to drink ; with F. suffix -a7'd [Q. hart). 

drunken, drunk. (E.) A. S dmn 
cen, pp. of drincan, to drink. 

Drupe, a fleshy fruit containing a stone. 

(F. — L. — Gk.) F. drupe. ^1^. drupa, tan 
over-ripe olive. — Gk. dpvTrnd, the same. 

Dry. ( E.) M. E. druje. A. S. dryge, 
Cf Du. droog, dry ; G. trochen, dry ; 
Icel. draugr, a dry log. 

drought. (E.) M E. dro)te, di'ou^te ; 
also drouthe (P. Plowman). A. S. drugaQ, 
drought. —A. S. dritgian, to be dry ; dryge, 
dry.-l-Du. droogte, drought; ixoxrx droog, 
dry. Doublet, drouth (Milton). 

Dryad, a nymph of the woods. (L. — 
Gk.) L. Z'^ja^-, stem oi Dryas, a wood- 
nymph. —Gk. hpvah-, stem of ^pvas, the 
same. — Gk. Zpv-s, a tree ; see Tree. 

Dual, consisting of two. (L.) L. dudlis, 
dual. — L. duo, two ; see Tvtro. 

Dub, to confer knighthood by a stroke. 
(F.) M. E. dubben. A. S. dubban ; A. S. 
Chron. an. 1086. [So also Swed. dubba.'] 
Usually derived from O F. aduber, adou- 
ber, adober, to dub a knight ; a Romanic 
word of unknown origin (Ital. addobbare, 
O.Span. and Vxov.adobar, O. Port, adubar), 
^ Diez derives adouber, conversely, from 
dubban ; rather, from the cognate E. Fries. 
(Low G.) dubben. 
Dubious. (L.) From L. dubiosus, 
doubtful. — L. dubiiwi, doubt; neuter of 
L. dubiiis, doubtful, moving in two direc- 
tions. —L, du-o, two. See Two. 

Ducal. (F. -L.) F. ^2^<ra/, adj. ; from 
due, a duke ; see Duke 

ducat, a coin. (F. - Ital. - L.) O. F. 
ducat. — Ital. ducato, a ducat, also a duchy ; 
named from L. ducdttis (duchy of Apulia) 
alluded to in the legend upon it ; see 
duchy below. 

duchess. (F. — L.) O. F. duchesse 
(Late L. dticissa), fem. of due, duke ; see 

duchy. (F.— L.) F. <///r/z/. — Late L. 
ducdtuni, ace. oi duedtus, a dukedom.— 
L. due-, stem of dux, a duke, ^ff Also 
O. F. duch4e, fem., as if from Late L. 

Duck (i), to dive, bob the head. (E.) 
'^l.¥..duken, douken. Not in A. S.-fDu. 
duiken, to stoop, dive ; G. tauchen, to 
plunge, dive. Teut. type ^deukan-, pt. t. 
"^'dauk (whence G. tauch-en) , pp. *dtik-aJio-, 
From the weak grade duk- we have Dan. 
dukke, Swed. dyka\ to which the shorten- 
ing of the vowel in mod. E. duck may have 
been partly due. 

duck (2), bird. (E.) M. E. doke^ 
duke. Lit. ' diver ; ' the suffix -e repre- 
sents the A. S. f. suffix of the agent. A. S. 




duce^ a duck. From the verb above. 
Cf. Dan dukand, lit. * diving duck ; ' 
Swed. dykfagel, ' diving fowl.' Der. 
duck-l-ing, with double dimin. suffix. 

Duck (3), a pet, darling. (E.) Appa- 
rently the same as Duck (2). 

Duck (4), light canvas. (Du.) A nauti- 
cal word. — Du. doek, linen cloth, canvas. 
+Dan. dug, Swed. dtik, Icel. dukr, G. 
tttch, O. H.G. iuoh. 

Ducty a conduit-pipe. (L.) L. ductus, 
a leading (hence, a duct). — L, ductus, pp. 
of dficere, to lead. See Duke. 

ductile. (F. — L.) F. ductile, malle- 
able. —I., ductilis. easily led. — L. duct-us, 
pp. oi ducere (above). 

Dude, an exquisite, a dandy. (G.) 
From G. dude ; see Supplement. 

Dudgeon (i), resentment. Of unknown 

Dudgeon (2), haft of a dagger. (Un- 
known.; INI. E. dogeon, a kind of wood 
used for the handles of daggers. Etym. 

Duds, clothes. (Scand.) Jamieson has 
dudis as well as duds; the 11 was prob. 
once long. — Icel. dfidi, swaddling clothes ; 
duda, to wrap up. Cf. E. dowd, a woman's 
cap, a slut ; dozvd-y, ill-dressed. 

Due. (F.-L.) M. E. dezv, dewe.- 
O. F. deu, ma.>=c., deice, fern. ; pp. of de- 
voir, to owe. — L, dcbere. See Devoir. 

Duel. (Ital.-L.) Ital. duello, a duel. 

— L. duelluni. a fight between two men 
(archaic form of L. ^^//2<w, war). — L. du-o. 

duet. (Ital.-L.) Ital. duetto, music 
for two. — Ital. due, two. — L. duo, two 

Dueuua. (Span. — L.) Span. dueJia, 
a married lady, duenna. — L. domina, lem. 
oi dominus, TiXox^. See Donna. 

Duet ; see Duel. 

Duffel, coarse woollen cloth. (Du.) 
Du. duffel; so called from Duffel, a place 
near Antv\ erp. 

DufEer, a stupid person. (Scand.) 
Lowl Sc. dozvfart, formed with sufh.x -art 
from the adj. dowf, stupid, dull ; lit. 'dea .' 

— Icel. dauf-r, deaf; see Deaf, 

Dug, a teat. (^Scand.) Perhaps allied 
to Swed. ddgga. Pan dagge, to suckle 
Cf. Gotli. daddjan, O. H. G. tdan, to 
suckle ^ But Lt. Skt. duh, to milk. 

DugOUg, a sea-cow. (Malay.) Malay 
dfcyoizg, diiyong, a sea-cow. 

Duke, a leader. (F.— L.) M.E. duk.— 
O. F. due, ace. formed from O. F. nom. 

dux.^\j. dux, a leader. — L. ducere, to 
lead. (VDEUK.) f The L. ace. ducem 
would have given O F. dots, F. doix; 
like F. noix from nucem, croix from 
crucem. (N. E. D.) Brugm. i. § 592. 

Dulcet, sweet. (F.-L.) M. F^ doticet 
(Cot.), refashioned after L. dulcis (cf. 
Ital. dolcetto).-- O.Y. dols (F. doux), 
sweet. — L. dulcis, sweet. 

dulcimer. (F. -Span. — L.) Roque- 
fort has F. dotilcemer (undated) ; cf. 
O. F. dotdcemele (Godefroy). — Span, dulce- 
tfiele, a dulcimer ; named from its sweet 
>o\\nd. "1^. dulce melos, sweet sound; see 

Dull, stupid. (E.^ M. E. dul ; cognate 
with Low G. dull; answering to Teut. 
^dul-Joz. Closely allied to AS. dol, 
foolish, cognate with Du. dol. mad, G. toll, 
mad, answering to Teut. *dul-oz. Both 
are from Teut. "dul- {<.^divul). weak 
grade of '^dwel-an, as seen in A. S. divelan, 
to err, to be stupid ; see Dwell. Cf. A.S. 
gedzvol-god, a false god, idol ; Irish and W. 
dall, blind. Brugm. i. § 375 (6). 

!Lulse, an edible seaweed. (C.) Irish 
duileasg, Gael, duileasg, dulse. According 
to Macleod, it means ' water- leaf,' from 
Ir. and Gael, duille, leaf, and uisg{e), 

Dumb. (E.) M.E. dovib. A.S. dimib, 
mule. + Du. dom, Icel. duinbr, vSwed. 
dtimb, Dan. dum, Goth, dumbs, G. duvim, 
O. H. G. tumb, tump, stupid. The orig, 
sense seems to have been ' stupid,' and 
perhaps Goth, dumbs is allied to Goth. 
daubs, deaf; see Deaf. Der. dumm-y 

£um.p (i), an ill-shapen piece. (E. ?) 
Frov. E. dtitnp, a clumsy lump, a bit ; 
dufjipy, short and thick. Probably ' a thing 
thrown down in a mass' ; see Dump (2). 
dumpling, a kind of pudding. (E. ?) 
A small solid ball of pudding ; diimp-l-itig 
IS a double dimin. oi dump ;i). 

Dump (2), to strike, fling down. 
vScand. ?) Cf. Lowl. Sc. dump, to beat. 
Dan. du7npe, to plump, plunge; Norw. 
dumf>a; Swed. dial, domfa. — ^wtd. dial. 
dump-, as in dump-id, supine of str. vb. 
dimpa, to fall down plump. 

i^umps, melancholy. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, dumpin, melancholy, orig. pp. of 
di?nba, to steam, reek ; I3an. du7np, dull, 
low.-f-Du. do77ip, damp, hazy, G. dump/, 
lamp, dull. Allied to Damp; cf. 'to 
damp one's spirits.' 




Dnn (i), brown. (C.) A. S. </«;/?/, dark. 

— Irish and Gael. ^<7««, brown; W.dwn, 

dun, dusky. Celtic type '^donnos. 
Dun (2), to urge for payment. (Scand.) 

Said (in 1 708) to be derived from the 
name of Joe Dun, a famous bailiff in the 
time of Henry VII. But perhaps from 
the notion of noisiness. Cf. M. E. dunning, 
a loud noise. — Icel. duna, to thunder ; 
koma einuin dytifyrir dyr7\ to make a din 
before one's door ; Swed. dana, to make a 
noise. Allied to Din. 

Dunce, a stupid person. (Scotland.) 
From the phr. ' a Duns man,' i.e. a native 
of Dicnse, m Berwickshire. In ridicule of 
the disciples of John Z)^^;^J■ Scotus, school- 
man, died A.D. 1308. ^Not to be confused 
with John Scotus Erigena, died A. D. 875. 

Dune, a low sand-hill. ( F. - Du. - C.) 
F. dune. — 'M.. Du. dune (Du. dtmi) ; cog- 
nate with A. S. dtln, a down ; see 
Down (2). Brugm. i. § 112. 

Dung. (E.) A. S. <//^;z^.+Swed. dynga, 
dung ; Dan. dynge, a heap, mass ; G. 
dung. Root uncertain; it answers, in 
form, to the pp. of Ding ; as if it were 
' what is thrown down or away.' Cf 
Swed. dial. dong. (i) heap, (2) dung. 

Dungeon, Donjon. (F.-L.) M. E. 
dongeon. — O.Y. donjon, the chief tower 
of a castle —Late L. doninionem, ace of 
domnio, a dungeon-tower, chief-tower ; 
shortened from dominio, properly domi- 
nion, feudal power; see Dominion. 

Duniwassal, a Highland gentleman, 
yeoman. (C.) In Sir W. Scott's Bonny 
Dundee. — Gael, duine nasal, gentleman. — 
Gael, duine, a man (W. dyri) ; nasal, 
noble, gently born (W. tichel), orig. 
* exalted ; ' see Brugm. i. § 219 (4). 

Duodecimo. (L.) Induodeci/no^wiih. 
12 leaves to the sheet. — L. duodecimo, abl. 
of duodecimos, twelfth; cf L. duodecim, 
twelve ; see Dozen. 

Duodenum, the first of the small 
intestines. (L.) Late L. duodenum, so 
called because about T2 finger- breadths 
long. — L. diiodenl, twelve apiece, distribu- 
tive form of duodecim, twelve ; see Dozen. 

Dup. (E.) Short for do up, i.e. lift up 
(a latch) ; to open a door. 

Dupe, a person easily deceived. (F.) 
F. dupe, a dupe. The M. F. dupe meant 
a hoopoe ; whence dupe, a dupe, because 
the bird was easily caught. (So also Bret. 
houperik, a hoopoe, a dupe.) Perhaps of 
imitative origin. 

Duplicate, two-fold. (L.) L. dupH- 

catus, pp. of duplicare, to double. — L. 

duplic-, stem of duplex, two-fold (below). 

duplicity. (F.-L.) Lit. doubleness. 

— F. dupliciti. — L. ace. duplicitdtem. — L. 
dtcplici-, decl. stem oi duplex, two-fold.— 
L. dtc-o, two ; plic-are, to fold. 

Durance, Duration ; see Dure. 

Durbar, a hall of audience, levee. 
(Pers.) Pers. daJ-bdr, a prince's court, 
levee; lit. 'door of admittance.' — Pers. 
dar, door ( = E. door) ; and bar, admit- 
tance, court. 

Dure, to last. (F.-L.) Y. durer.- 
L. diirare, to last. — L. dilrtis, hard, lasting. 
+Irish and Gael, dur, firm ; W. dur, 
steel. Cf Gk. hvvayns, force. Der. dtir- 
ing, orig. pres. pt. o{ dure; dur-able, &c. 
durance, captivity. (F.-L.) The 
orig. sense was long endurance of hardship. 
O. F. durance, duration. — F. durer, to 
last ; with suffix -ance ; see above. 

duration. (F.-L.) 0.¥. duration. 

— LateL. durdtionem, ace. oidfirdtio. A 
coined word ; from the pp. of L. durdre, 
to last. 

duress, hardship. (F.-L.) M. E. 
duresse. — O. F. duresce. — l^.dilrtlia, harsh- 
ness. —L. durus, hard, severe. 

Durian, a fruit. (Malay.) Malay du- 
rian, a fruit with a prickly rind. — Malay 
diiri, a thorn, prickle. 

Dusk, dim. (Scand.) Properly an adj. 
M. E. dosk, dark, dim ; deosc, the same. 
Prob. a Northern form (as the sk did not 
become sh). Cf. A. S. dox (for *dosc), 
translating Y.. flduus ', Vocab. 239. 36.— 
Swed. dial, duska, to drizzle ; duskug, 
misty, dim ; Norw. dusk, mist, duskregn, 
fine rain. Der. dusk, sb. ; whence dusk-y, 

Dust. (E.) A. S. dust. + Du. dtiist, 
Icel. dust, dust, Dan. dyst, meal ; G. 
dunst, vapour, fine dust. All from a 
Teut. base *dunst- (for "^dwuns-t-), the n 
being lost except in G. Cf Skt. dhvams, 
to fall to pieces (pp. dhvas-ta-). 

Dutch, belonging to Holland. (G.) 
Formerly applied to the Germans. — G. 
Deutsch, German ; lit. belonging to the 
people; M. H. G. diut-isk, where the 
suffix -isk=^Y^. -ish, and diut is cognate 
with A.S. J)eod, Goth, thiuda, a people, 
nation; Ir. tttath, a people; cf. Oscan 
touto, a city. Brugm. i. § 218. 

Duty. (A. F. -L.) M. E. duete[e). - 
A. F. diiet^, duty (O. F. has only devoir). 



A coined word ; from A. F. deu^ du, due, 

and the suffix -/</ (L. -tateiii). See Due. 

Dwale ; see Dwell. 

D-warf. (E.) M..'E.dwer^,dwergh\i\\Q 
/represents the guttural. O. Merc, diverg, 
A. S. dzueorg, a Avi^xL-\-Y)w. dxverg, Icel. 
dvergr, Swed. Dan. dverg^ G. zwerg. Teut. 
type *dwerg-oz. 

Dwell. (E.) M. E. dwellen, to linger. 
A. S. dwellan, in the active sense to retard, 
also to seduce ; also divelian, to go astray, 
err, tarry, dwell. Causal of A. S. *drvelan 
(pt. t. *dwal, pp. dtuolen), to be torpid or 
dull, to err. 4- Icel. dvelja, to dwell, delay, 
orig. to hinder; Swed. dvdljas, to dwell 
(reflexive) ; Dan. </z^<^/^, to linger; M.H.G. 
twellen^ to hinder, delay. Teut. type 
*dzvaljan, causal of the str. vb. *dwelan- 
(pt. t. *d'wal^ pp. *d'wula}w-), to be torpid, 
to cease, to err (A. S. ^dwelan, O. H. G. 
gi-tzvelan). Cf. Skt. dhvr, to bend aside, 
dhilr-ta-, fraudulent. (V'DHWEL.) And 
see Dull. 

dwale, deadly nightshade. (Scand.) 
Named from its soporific effects. Dan. 
dvale, stupor, dvaledrik, a soporific, 
* dwale-drink ; ' Swed. dvala, a trance. 
Cf. A.S. dwala, an error, stupefaction, 
from the 2nd grade of A. S. *dzuelan 
^above) . 

Dwindle. (E.) The frequent, form of 
M. E. divinen, to dwindle, A. S. dwinan 
(pt. t. dzvdn), to dwindle, languish. + 
Icel. dvTna ; Swed. tvina, to dwindle, 
pine away ; Du. ver-dwijnen, to vanish. 

Dye, to colour ; a colour. (E.) M. E. 
deyen^ vb. ; deh^ sb. A.S. deagian, vb., 
to dye ; from deah, sb., dye, colour. A. S. 
deak (gen. deag-e), sb. f., answers to Teut. 
type *datig-a. 9\ Not allied to l^.filcns, 
which is from Gk. (pvKos. 

Dyke ; see Dike. 

Dsrnamic, relating to force. (Gk.' 
Gk. dwafiiKos, powerful. — Gk. Swa/^t?, 
power. — Gk. Suva/uai, I am strong; see 
Dure. (VDEU.) 

dynasty, lordship. (F.-L. — Gk.) 
F. dj^nastte. — LRte L,. dynas^Ta. — Gk. dv- 
vaariia^ lordship. — Gk. dvudcrrij^, a lord, 
— Gk. Svuafxai, I am strong. 

Dysentery, disease of the entrails. 
(L. — Gk.") L. dyse7tteria. — Gk. Ivaiv- 
Tfpm. — Gk. Zva-, prefix, with a bad sense; 
(VTfpa^ pi., the inwards, bowels, from 
(VTos, within, Iv, in ; see Interior. 

Dyspepsy, indigestion. (L.-Gk.) L. 
dyspepsia. — Gk. Svcnrcifia. — Gk. bvamiTTos^ 


hard to digest. — Gk. Svcr-, prefix, with a 
bad sense ; TTfWTfiv, to cook, digest ; see 
Cook. Der. dyspeptic (from Suo-TrcTrT-os). 

E-, prefix; see Ex-. 

Uach, every one. (E.) M. E. eche^ elch. 
A.S. xlc, each, short for d-gi-lTc, i.e. 
aye-like (ever -like or ever alike). -fDu. 
elk^ each ; O. H. G. eogalih, M.H.G. 
iegeltch, G.jeglicher. See Aye. 

Eager. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^r^.-A. F. 
egre [F. aigre).^L,. acj-em, ace. of dc-er^ 
sharp. See Acid. Der. vin-egar. 

Eagle, f F. - L.) M. E. egle. - A. F. 
egle^ O. F. aigle (F. aigle).'-' L. aqiiila. See 

Eagre, tidal wave in a river. (F. — L.) 
O. F. aigiicre, a flood (Godefroy). — Late 
L. aquaria, a conduit ; cf. aqiidre, to 
irrigate. — L. aqua, water. See Ewer. 

Eanling, a lamb. (E.) Eanling is 
from the verb ean, which '\% y-ean without 
the prefix J- ( = A. S.^^-). See Yean. 

Ear (i\ organ of hearing. (E.) M. E. 
ere. A. S. ^^atr^.+Du. oor, Icel. eyra, Swed. 
bra, Dan. ore, G. ohr, Goth. ansa. Teut. 
type ^auzon-. Cf. also Russ. t4cho, L. 
auris, Lith. atisis, Gk. ovs, O. Irish d. 

earwig, an insect. (E.) A. S. ear- 
ivicga, from its being supposed to creep 
into the ear. Cf. A. S. wicga, a kind of 
insect ; prov. E. wiggle, to wriggle. 

Ear (2), spike of corn. (E.) M. E. (?;-. 
A. S. ear (pi.) ; Northumb. eher.'\-Y)\x. aar, 
Icel. Dan. Swed, ax (for alts'), Goth, ahs^ 
G. dhre. Teut. type *ahoz, '^ahiz-, cognate 
with L. acus (gen. aceris). Brugm. i. 
§182. Allied to Awn. (V^K.) 

Ear (3), to plough. (E.) M. E. eren. 
A.S. erian, to plough. -j- Icel. erja, Goth. 
arjaii^ L. ardre, Lith. arii, Russ. orat(e) ; 
also Irish araim, I plough, Gk. apoai, I 
plough. (VAR.) 

Earl. (E.) M. E. 67-1. A. S. eorl + 
Icel. y^r/, O. Sax. ^r/, a man. O. Norse 
(runic) type erilaR. 

Early, soon. (E.) M.F.erly. A.S. 
(IrlTce^ adv. ; from *-ierlTc, adj., not used. — 
A. S. Hr, soon ; lie, like. See Ere. 

Earn. (E.) '^l.F. emien. A.^.earnian. 
-|-0. H. G. arnon (cf. also G. e?-nten, co 
reap, from ernte, harvest). Teut. type 
*az{a)nojan, to get the profit of labour ; 
from the sb. *az{a)7id ,Icel. <?;z«), labour; 




cf. O. H. G. arati^ Goth, asaits, a harvest. 
(VAS.) % Others connect it with Gk. 
dpvvfxaiy I earn. 

Earnest (i), seriousness. (E.) Properly 
a sb., as in * in earnest.' M.E. entes^, sb. 
A. S. eornosf, sb.+Du, enist^ sb. ; G. ernst, 
O. H. G. ermist. Teut. type *ermistiz. 

Earnest (2), a pledge. (F.-L.-Gk. 
— Heb.) The t is added. M.E. ernes; 
also spelt erles^ arles. Dimin. of O. F. 
e)'7-es, arres (F. arrhes), f. pi. — L. a)'rha, 
arrhabo. — G\i. appa^duu, a pledge. — Heb. 
^drdbon, security ; from 'drab, to give 

Earth. (E.) M.E. ^r//^^. K.^.eoriie. 
4-Du. aarde, lce\.Jd7'S, Dan. ^Vf^d.jord, 
Goth, airtha, G. erde. Teut. types *erthd, 
'^erthon-, f. Cf. Gk. epa, earth. 

Earwig; see Ear (i). 

Ease. i,i*'.) M. E. ese. — O. F. aise^ ease. 
Cf. Ital. agio, ease, Port, azo, occasion. 
Orig. unknown. Der. dis-ease. 

Easel. (Du. — L.) Du. ezel, an ass; 
also a support, a painter's easel. [G. esel; 
Goth, asihis.'l'^i^. asellus, dimin. of L. 
asinus, ass. 

East, the quarter of sun-rise. (E.) M.E. 
est. A. S. east, adv., in the east ; eastan, 
from the east. + Du. oost, G. ost, Dan.c^j-/; 
Svved. ostan, G. osten ; Du. ooster-, G. 
oster-, Dan. Svved. t'ls-/^;-, Icel. austr (gen. 
austr-s). Teut. types ^aiis-lo-, '^aiis-to-no- ; 
also *^z/i'/-7'i7-, for ldg.*a7/J"-;'t?- (see easter). 
Cf. L. aur-ora^ dawn, Gk. tjo;?, ea;s, aucoj, 
dawn, Skt. tishas, dawn. Brugm. i. § 218 


easter. (E.) yi.¥.. ester. K.^.eastor-^ 
in comp. ; eastre, Lu. xxii. i, Easter.— 
A. S. eastre, a goddess whose festivities 
were at the vernal equinox ; see Beda, De 
Temporum Ratione, c. 15. Cf Lith. 
ansz7-a, f. dawn ; Skt. usra-, m. a ray. 

Eat. (E.) M. E. eten. A.S. etan.-^ 
Du. eten, Icel. eta, Swed. dta, Dan. cede, 
Goth, itan, G. essen. Teut. type '^etan-. 
Cf. L. edere, Gk. eSeti/, Skt. ad, to eat. 

Eaves, the clipped edge of a thatched 
roof. (E.) Also E. dial. (Essex) oavis. 
M. E. euese \ pi. eueses i^— eaveses) ; 
also ouese, A. S. ^j-, a (clipped) edge 
of thatch, whence efesian, to shear, also 
*oe/es, whence oefsung, Corp. gl. 474.+ 
Icel. ups, Svved. dial, tiffs \ Goth, tibizwa, 
a porch, from the projection of the eaves ; 
O. H. G, opasa, Teut. type *obeswd. 
Prob. allied to Over. Der. eavesdropper, 

one who stands under droppings from the 
eaves, a secret listener. 

Ebb. (E.) M. E. ebbe. A. S. ebba, ebb 
of the tide. + Du. eb, ebbe, sb. [whence 
Dan. ebbe, sb. and vb., Swed. ebb, sb.]. 
Perhaps the Teut. type is ^afjon-, with the 
sense of going off ; see Off, 
Ebony, a hard wood. (F. — L. — Gk.— 
Heb.) Formerly ^(5^;z^. — M.F. ebene, ebony. 
~L. hebeniis, ebcnus. — Gk. '4P(vos, k^ivrj. 
— Heb. hovnini, pi. ebony wood; prob. a 
non-Semitic word. 

Ebriety, drunkenness. (F. — L.) F. 
ebri^t^. — 'L. ace. ebrietdtetH.'—Y,. ebrius, 
drunken. IDev .inebriate, to makedrunken. 
Ebullition, a boiling over. (F.-L.) 
O. F. ebullition. — L.. ebzil I itionem-, a 
rare word, from ebullTtus, pp. of ebulltre, 
to bubble up. — L. e, out; bullire, to 
bujDble ; see Boil (i). 

£Carte, a game at cards. (F. — L. and 
Gk.) In this game, cards may be discarded 
and exchanged ; hence the name. — '? .icai'ti, 
discarded, pp. of ecarter, to discard. — L. 
ex, out, away ; F. carte, from Late L. carta, 
from Gk. x^P'''n, ^ leaf of paper, hence a 

Eccentric, departing from a centre, 
odd. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. excentriqzte.— 
Late L. eccefitricus. — Gk. eKKevrp-os, out 
of the centre; with suffix -icus. — Gk. Ik, 
out ; K€VTpov^ centre. See Centre. 

Ecclesiastic. (L. — Gk.) LateL. <?f<r/^- 
siasticzis. — Gk. (fiKKrjcriaaTifcos, belonging 
to the kKKKrjaia, i, e. assembly, church. — 
Gk. (.KKX-qros, summoned. — Gk. kKfcaXioj, I 
call forth. — Gk, Itf, out ; KaXkoj, I call. 

Echelon. (F.-L.) F. dchelon, an 
arrangement of troops in parallel divi- 
sions ; orig. a round of a ladder. — F. 
ichelle, a ladder (O. F. eschiele).'-\.. 
scdla, a ladder; see Scale (3). 
Echo. (L. - Gk.) M. E. ecco.- L. echo. 
— Gk. iix^i ^ sound, echo; cf. r^xos, ijxVt 
a ringing noise. Der. cat-ech-ise, q. v. 

Eclat. (F.-Teut.) F. Mat, splen- 
dour ; lit. ' a bursting forth.' — F. klater, 
to burst forth ; O. F. s'esclater., to burst. 
Origin doubtful ; perhaps from L. type 
*exclappita)-e, formed from Low G. klap- 
pen, to clap, make a noise ; see Clap. 

Eclectic, choosing out ; hence, a 
philosopher who selected doctrines from 
various sects. [Gk.) Gk. (kX€ktik6s, 
selecting; as sb. an Eclectic— Gk. !«- 
\4yeiv, to select. — Gk. Itf, out ; Xiyeiv, to 




Eclipse. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.Y..ecl{p, 
clips. — O. F. eclipse. — L. eclipsis.^ Gk. 
(K.Keiipi?, a failure, esp. of light of the sun. 

— Gk. iKKdmiv, to leave out, fail, suffer 
eclipse. — Gk. e/c, out; Xeineiv, to leave. 

Eclogue, a pastoral poem. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ee/oga (the F. word was eg'/o^ue).— Gk. 
fKAoyq, a selection, esp. of poems. — Gk. 
(k\€j(lv, to choose out ; see Eclectic. 

Economy. (F. — L. — Gk.) Formerly 
aconouiy. — M. F. ccconomie. — L. occoiiomia. 

— Gk. oiKouofJ-ia, management of a house- 
hold.— Gk. oiKovofios, a steward. — Gk. 
otwo-, for of/cos, a house ; and ve/xnv, to 
deal out. 

Ecstasy. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. r.v- 
/asie (H.I. — Late L. ecsiasis, a trance.— 
Gk. €Karaais, displacement; also, a trance. 

— Gk. Ik, out ; aracis, a standing, allied 
to iCTafiat, I stand. 

Ecumenical, general. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. artimenicus; with suffix -a/. — Gk. 
ciKovixeviKos, imivcTsal. — Gk. olKovfievrj 
(sc. 7^), the inhabited world, fern, of 
oiKovfxevos, pres. pt. pass. oioiKioo, I inhabit. 

— Gk. oTkos, a house. Brugm. i. § 6ii. 
Eczema, a breaking-out of pustules on 

the skin. (Gk.) Gk. e/cCf/^o- a pustule.— 
Gk. Ik^Ulv, to boil over. — Gk. e«, out; 
iiiiv, to boil. See Yeast. 

Eddy. (Scand.) M. E. ydy {=idy). 
Icel. ida, an eddy, whirlpool ; cf. ida, to 
whirl about ; Swed. dial, ida, ida, Dan. 
dial, ide, an eddy. Perhaps formed from 
Icel. id-, A. S. ed-, Goth, id- (prefix), 
backwards. Cf. Brugm. i. § 574. 

Edge. (E.) M. E. egge. A. S. ecg, an 
edge, border. + Du. egge, Icel. Swed. egg^ 
Dan. eg, G. ecke. Teut. type *agjd. Cf. 
L. ar/^j, Gk. d«is, a point, Skt. ap'i-, edge, 
corner. (^AK.) 

Edible, eatable. (L.) Late L. edibilis. 

— L. edere, to eat ; see Eat. 
Edict. (L.) L. ediduin, neut. of pp. 

of edicere, to proclaim. — L. <?, out ; dicere, 
to speak. 

Edify. (F.-L.) O.Y. edifier. ^\.. 
(Bdificdre, to build ;hence, instruct). — L, 
adi-, stem of cedes, a building, orig. a 
hearth ; -fie-, for facere, to make. Der. 
edifice, F. edifice, L. cedificium, a building; 
^<fz7^, L. cedflis, a magistrate who had the 
care of public buildings. Brugm. i. ^ 202. 

Edition. ^F. -L.) O. F. edicion (H.). - 
L. ediiionem, ace. of editio, a publishing. — 
l^.edittis, pp. of edere, to give out, publish. 

— L. <?, out; ^ar^, to give. Der. edit^ a 

coined word, from the sb. editor (L. 
editor^ . 

Educate. (L.) From L. educdtus, 
pp. of educdre^ to educate; allied to L. 
edilcere, to bring out. — L. t", out ; dilcere, 
to bring. 

educe. (L.) L. edUcere, to bring out. 
Der. eduction (from pp. ediict-us). 

Eel. (E.) M.E. <?-/. A.S. .2/. + Du. 
^«/, Icel. all, Dan. fi:^/, Swed. a/, G. ^a/. 
Teut. type "^lidoz. 

Eery, timid, affected by fears, melan- 
choly, strange. (E.) Seejamieson. M.E. 
ar), ark, are^^ ar^e, er^e^ timid ; spelt eri 
in Cursor Mundi, 1 7685. — A. S. earg^ earh, 
timid, cowardly. Cf. Icel. argr, ragr; 
G. arg\ Du. erg, bad. 

Efface. (F.-L.) F. effacer.-Y. ef- 
(L. ef-^ for ex^ out) ; TLudface, from Folk- 
L. *facia (for 'L. faciem, ace. oi fades) ^ 
face. See Pace. 

Effect. (F.-L.) A. F. effect (F. effet). 

— L. effect ipn^ ace. of effectus, an effect.— 
L. effectus^ pp. of efficerc, to work out. — 
L. <?/"-, for ex^ thoroughly ; facere, to do. 

Effeminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
effemindre, to make womanish. — L. ef, 
lor ex, thoroughly; femina, a woman. 
See Feminine. 

Effendi, sir, master. (Turkish — Gk.) 
Turk, efendi, sir. — Mod. Gk. dcpevriji^ for 
G'k.avO(VTT]s,a. despotic master, ruler; see 

Effervesce. (L.) 'L.efferz/esce^r.'^'L. 
ef-, for ex. out ; fernescere, to begin to 
boil, inceptive oiferiiere, to boil. 

Effete, exhausted. (L.) L. effet us, 
weakened by having brought forth young. 

— L. ef-, for ex, out ; fetus, that has 
brought forth ; allied to L. ftii, I was 
(Brugm. i. § 361 ; ii. § 587). 

Efficacy, force, virtue. (L.) L. effi- 
cdcia, effective power. — L. efficdc-, stem of 
effjcax, efficacious. — L. efficere, to effect 

efficient. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of effcere, to effect ; see Effect. 

Effigy. l.F.-L.) F_. effgie.-h. effi- 
gicjii, ace. of effigies, an image. — L. effig-, 
base of effingere, to form. — L. ef, for ex, 
out : fingere, to form. See Figure. 

Effiorescence. (F.-L.^ F. efi^ore- 

scence, lit. ' a flowering.' From L. effio- 
rescere, inceptive form of effiorere, to 
blossom out. — L. ef-^ ex, out ; fiorere, to 
blossom. See Floral. 
Effiuence, a flowing. (L.) From the 




pres, pt. of effluere, to flow out. — L. <?/-, 

for ex, out ; fluere, to flow. See Fluent. 

Effort. (F.-L.) F. effort, an effort; 

verbal sb. from F. sefforcer, to endeavour. 

— Med. L. exfortidre, to use force. — L. 
ex, out ; fort is, strong. See Force. 

Effrontery. (F.-L.) XVIII cent. 

— F. effronterie, ' impudency ; ' Cot. — 

0. F. effrontd, shameless. — O. F. ef- (L. 
ef-^ for ex')^ out ; front, face, forehead (as 
if putting forward the forehead). Cf. F. 
affronter, to oppose face to face. See 

Effulgent, bright. (L.) From stem 
of pres. pt. of L. effulgere, to shine forth. 

— L. ef, for ex, out ; fnlgej'e, to shine. 
Effuse. (L.) L. effiisus, pp. of effun- 

dere, to pour out. — L. ef, for ex, out ; 
fundere, to pour. 

Egg (i), the oval body whence chickens, 
&c. are hatched. (Scand.) M. E. eg, pi. 
egges. "!(:.€[. egg, Dan. ceg, Swed, dgg.-^ 
A.S. ag (^ ME. ey) ; Du. ez, G. ei. 
Prob. allied to Irish ugk, Gael, ndk, W. 
7vy, L. ouuni, Gk. wov^ egg. Brugm. i. 
§ .^09 (2). 

Egg (2), to instigate. (Scand.) M. E. 
eggen. — \cG\. eggja, to goad on. — Icel. egg, 
an edge (point). See Edge. 

Eglantine. (F.-L.) F. eglantine, 
M.E. aiglantine, aiglantier, sweet-briar. 

— O. F. aiglajit, the same. — L. type 
'^aculent-us, prickly (not found). - L. acii-s, 
a needle; -lentiis (as in tiiru-lenttis"). Cf. 
L. aculeus, a prickle, dimin. of acns. See 
Aglet. (VAK.) 

Egotist, Egoist, a self-opinionated 
person. (L.) Coined from L. ego, I ; see 

1. Cf. F. igdiste (a. d. 1755). 
Egregious, excellent. (L.) L. egre- 

gi-iis, chosen out of a flock, excellent ; 
with suffix -oiis.^V., /, out; greg-^ stem of 
g?'ex, a flock. 
Egress, a going out. (L.) L. egj-essus. 

— L. egressus, pp. of egredi, to go out. — 
L. e, out ; gradi, to go. 

Egret, the lesser white heron. (F.— 
O. H. G.) M. F. egrette, aigf-ette, dimin. 
of a form *aigre (whence also Prov. aig?-- 
on, O. F. hair-on, E. /z^r-^«). — O. H. G. 
heigir, heiger. a heron. See Heron. 

Eh ! interj.' (E.) M. E. ey. Ct. A. S. 
ea ; Du. he ! G. ei ! F. eh ! 

Eider-duck. (Swed. ««</ E.) TheE. 
dttck is here added to the Swed. spelling 
of Icel. ceSr, an eider-duck (^ pronounced 
like i in time) ; whence Dan. ederfugl 

(eider-fowl), Swed. ejder; and cf. Swed. 
dial. ad. Der. eider-down, Icel. cedardUn. 

Eight. (E.) M. I-:, eighte. A. S. 
eahta. + Du. acht, Icel. atta, Dan. otte, 
Swed. atta, Goth, ahtau, G. acht; Irish 
ocht, Gael. <?(:/^^, W. wyth, L. <?r/(?, Gk. 
o/fTw, Pers. hasht, Zend ashta, Skt. ashtau. 
Idg. type *okto[2i). Der. eigh-teen, A. S. 
eahtatene, eahtatyne; eigh-ty, A. S. (Jiund)- 
eahtatig; eigh-th, A. S. eahtoda. 

Eisel, vinegar. (F. — L.) In Shak. 
M. E. (fzW, ^zVz7, aisil.'—O. F. <a;/jz7, ^m7, 
also az«, vinegar (Godefroy). Aisil ap- 
pears to be a dimin. form of am. — Late L. 
acitus, bitter; closely related to L. acetuvi, 
vinegar. The Goth, akeit, vinegar, A.S. 
ecid, G. essig, is due to Late L. acJtum or 
L. acetiun. 

Eisteddfod, a congress of (Welsh) 
bards. (W.) W. m/^^6^<3?, a sitting, con- 
gress.— W. eistedd, to sit. 

Either. (E.) M. E. either, aither. 
A. S. cegPer^ contracted form of ^ghwceper. 
Comp. of d-gi-hwceper ; where a = aye, gi 
{\'or ge-) is a prefix, and hwczj)er = yfhe\ 
+Du. teder, G.jeder, O. H. G. eohwedar. 

Ejaculate, to jerk out an utterance. 
(L.) From pp. of L. eiaculdri, to cast 
out. — L. ^, out; iaculum, a missile, from 
iacere, to cast. 

eject. (L.) L. eiedare, frequentative 
of L. eicere, to cast out. — L. e, out ; iacere ^ 
to cast. 

Eke (i), to augment. (E.) M.Y.. ekett. 
O. Merc, ecan, A. S. tecan, weak vb. 
Teut. type ^aukj'an-, weak vb. ; allied to 
Icel. auka, Goth, atikan (neuter), str. vb. ; 
zi.\..augere. (-y^AUGw.) Brugm. i. §635. 
eke (2), also. (E.) M. E. eek, eke. 
A. S. mr.-f-Du. ook, Icel. auk, Swed. och 
(and), Dan. og (and), G. auch. All from 
the Teut. base attk- above. 

Elaborate. (L.) L. elaboratus, pp. 
oi elabordre, to labour greatly. — L. e, out, 
greatly ; labordre, to work, from labor-, 
stem of labor, labour. 

Eland, a S. African antelope. (Du. — G. 

— Lith.) Du. eland, an elk. -G. elend.-' 
Lithuan. ^Inis, an elk. Cf. W. elain, a 
hind, Russ. olene, a stag. See Elk. 

Elapse, to glide away. (L.) From L. 
elapsi'is, pp. of eldbi, to glide away. — L. e, 
away ; Idbi, to glide. 

Elastic. (Gk.) Formerly elastick. 
Gk. *eAa(TTi/foy, propulsive, coined from 
Gk. \\aoi — \\avv(xi, I drive (fut. eXdcr-a;). 
Cf. Gk. lXa(JTT]s, also kkarr^p, a driver. 




Elate, Hfted up, proud. (L.) 'L.eldtiis, 
lifted up.— L. e, out ; idtus, used as pp. of 
ferre, but allied to tollere, to lift. 

Elbo-W, the bend of the arm. (E.) 
M.E. elbotue. A. S. elboga, also eht-boga. 
— A. S. eln, signifying ' ell,' orig. * arm ; ' 
and boga, a bow, a bending (see Bow). 
A. S. eln is allied to Goth, aleina, a cubit, 
W. elin, Irish tale, L. tibia, Gk. uXivrj, 
Skt. aratni-, the elbow. See Ell. + Du. 
elle-boog, Icel. ohi-bogi, Dan. al-biie^ G. 

Eld, old age. (E.) M.E. ^/^^, old 
age ; O. Merc, aldo, old age ; from aid, 
old. Cf. A. S. ieldu, yldu ; from (?a/a', old. 
+Icel. elli ; Dan. celde. See Old. 

elder (i), older. (E.) Both as adj. 
and sb. O. Merc, ccldra (A. wS. yldra), 
elder, adj.; comparative of aid (A. S. 
eald\. old. 

eldest. (E.) O. Merc. (Bldesta (A. S. 
yldesta), superl. of aid (A. S. eald), old. 

Elder (2), a tree. (E.) The d is excre- 
scent. M, E. eller. A. S. ellen, ellcern.'if 
Low G. elloorn. ^ Distinct from alder. 

Elecampane, a plant. (L.) A. S. 

eolone, elene, perverted from L, itiula ; and 
'M..Y .enule-campane (Cot.) . — L. inula cam- 
pdna, elecampane. Here cainpdna prob. 
means wild, growing in the fields; from 
L. campus, a field. 

Elect, chosen. (L.) L. eledus^ pp. of 
eligere, to choose out. — L. ^, out ; legere, 
to choose. 

Electric. (L. — Gk.) Coined from L. 
electruDi, amber, which has electric pro- 
perties.— Gk. TjXiKTpov, amber, also shin- 
ing metal; allied to ■QXeKTcop^ gleaming. 

Electuary, a kind of confection. (F. 
-L.-Gk.) M E. letuarie. - O. F. lec- 
tiiaire, M.F. electuaire.'^ Late L. electud- 
7-ium, electdrium, a medicine that dissolves 
in the mouth. Perhaps for *e{c)lid-dri2im, 
from Gk. IkX^iktov, an electuary, from 
l/f\€tXejj/, to lick out.— Gk. tK, out; 
Aei'xff", to lick. 

Eleemosynary, relating to alms. 
(Late L. — Gk.) Late L. eleeinosyndriiis , 
an almoner; from eleemosyna, alms. — Gk. 
kXerjfioavi'Tj^ pity, alms. See Alms. 

Elegant, choice, neat. (P\ — L.) M.F. 
elegant. — L. elegant-, stem of elegans, 
tasteful, neat. — L. e, out; leg-, base of 
legere, to choose. 

Elegy, a funeral ode. (F.- L.-Gk.) 
M. F. elegie. — L. elegia. — Gk. kXeyeta. 
fem. sing., an elegy ; orig. neut. pi. of 

eKeyfiov, a distich (of lament). — Gk 
(Aeyos, a lament. Der. elegi-ac. 

Element. (F. — L.) O. F. ele7nent.~. 
L. elenienturn, a first principle. 

Elephant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
elyphaiDit, olifaiint. — O. F. olifant, ele- 
fant. — L. elephantem, ace. of ehphas. — 
Gk. €\i(pas, an elephant. Origin unknown; 
some compare Heb. eleph, an ox. 

Elevate. (L.) P>om pp. of L. (f/^//(7;r, 
to lilt up. — L. c, out; leudre, to lighten, 
lift, from leuis, light. See Levity. 

Eleven. (E.) M. E. enlezun. A. S. 
en[d)leofan, endhifow, O. Northumb. 
(sllefne.-\-T)Vi. elf, Icel. ellifti, Dan. elleve, 
Swed. elfva, Goth, ainllf, G. elf, O. H. G. 
einlif. p. A compound of Teut. *ain-, 
one; and -/z/"- = Lithuan. -lika (in veno- 
lika, eleven). Lith. -lika perhaps means 
* remaining ' ; cf. L. linqtiere, to leave. 
Brugm. ii. § 175. 

Eif. (E.) M. E. elf. O. Merc. alJ.-\- 
Icel. dlfr, Dan. alf; also G. alp, a night- 
mare. Der. elf-in, adj., for *elf-en', but 
prob. suggested by the M. E. gen. pi. 
elvene, of elves (in the Southern dialect). 

Elicit, to coax out. (L.) From pp. 
of L. elicere, to draw out by coaxing.— 
L. e, out ; lacere, to entice. And see 

Elide. (L.) L. elldere, to strike out. — 
L. e, out ; Icedere, to dash. Der. elis-ion 
(from pp. elis-tis). 

Eligible. (F.-L.) Y. Eligible. ^lA^A. 
L. eligibilis, fit to be chosen. — L. elige7-e, 
to choose out ; see Elect. 

Eliminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

eltmind?-e, to thrust out of. — L. e, forth; 
limiji-, stem of Ivnen, a threshold. See 

Elision ; see Elide. 

Elixir. (Ar.-Gk.) Med. L. elixir-, 
for Arab, el iksir, the philosopher's stone, 
esp. a sort of powder (Devic) ; where el is 
the definite article. — Gk. ^rjpiov, dry pow 
der, or ^rjpou, dry (residuum). 

Elk, a kind of deer. (G.) Prob. adapted 
from M. H. G. elc/i, an elk ; O.H. G. ela/io. 
Cf. Icel. elgr, Swed. elg, an elk ; Russ. 
olene, a stag; L. alces, Gk. olKkt]. (His- 
tory obscure.) F'ound in A. S. as elch, elh. 

Ell. (E.) yi.Y.elle,ehie. A.S.el{i)n, 
a cubit. +Du. elle, el; Icel. alin, the arm 
from the elbow to the tip of the middle 
finger ; Swed. ahi, D^LU.olen, Goth, aleina, 
G. elle^ ell ; L. iibia, ell:ow, cubit ; Gk. 
uj\(VT], elbow. Ell =^ el- in el-how. 




miipse. (L. — Gk.) FovmQTly el/zj^szs. 

— L. ellipsis. — Gk. eWdipis, a defect, an 
ellipse of a word ; also, an oval figure, 
because its plane forms with the base of 
the cone a less angle than that of a para- 
bola. — Gk. lAAeirreiv, to leave in, leave 
behind. — Gk. eA-, for ev, in; Xeiirtiv, to 
leave, cognate with L. linquere. Der. 
elliptic.^ adj., Gk. kW^iimKos. 

Elm, a tree. (E.) A. S. elm.-^O. H. G. 
e/m ; cf. Icel. dlmr, Dan. ahn^ Swed. aim ; 
also L. ulmtis (whence G. 2ilme^ Du. obn). 

Zilocution. (L.^) From L. elociitio- 
nef?i^ ace. of elocuiio, clear utterance. — L. 
elocutus, pp. of eloqtu, to speak out. — L. 
e, out ; loqtii^ to speak. Cf. Eloquent. 

Iiloign, Eloin, to remove and keep 
at a distance, to withdraw. (F. — L.) 
O. F. esioigner, to remove, keep away 
(Law L. exlongdre). — O. F. es^ away; 
loing (F. loin), far off. — L. ex, away; 
bnge, adv. far off. See Long. 

Elope. (A.F. — Scand.) A. F. aloper, 
*o run away (from a husband ; see N. E. D.). 

— A. F. a- prefix (perhaps for O. F. es-, 
away, as in E. a-bash) ; and M. E. lopen, 
to run (Cath, Anglicum) , from Icel. hlaiipa, 
cognate with E. Leap. p. Or from 
M. E. alop-en, pp. of alcpen, to escape; 
from A. S. a-, away, and hlcapan, to ruu, 
to leap. 

Eloq,uent. (F.— L.) M. E. eloquent. 

— O. F. eloquent. •^'L,. eloquent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of eloquJ, to speak out or clearly. 

— L. e, out ; loqui, to speak. 

Else, otherwise, (E.) A. S. elles, adv. ; 
stem *^^'^-, signifying ' other,' as in Goth. 
aljis, other.-f-Svved. eljest ; allied to L. 
alias, and to Alien. The suffix -es marks 
the gen. case, neuter. 

Elucidate. (L.) From pp. of Late L. 
elicciddre , to make clear. — L. <?, out, very ; 
lucid-iis, lucid, clear. See Lucid. 

Elude, to avoid slily. (L.) L. elUdere 
(pp. elilstis), to mock, deceive. — L. <?, out ; 
lUdere, to play. Der. ehis-ory, from the 

Elysium, a heaven. (L. — Gk.) L. 
elysiu77i. - Gk. rjXvaiov, short for rjXvaiov 
■nedlov, the Elysian field (Od. 4. 563). 

"Em-fpre/ix. (F. — L.) F.em-<' 
(for in), in, before 3 and p. Hence em- 
dalm, to anoint with balm ; em-bank, to 
enclose with a bank, cast up a bank ; em- 
body, to invest with a body, &c. 

Emaciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
emacidre, to make thin. — L. e, very; 


maci-, base of macies, leanness ; cf. macer^ 

Em.anate. (L.) From L. emdnatusy 
pp. of emdndre, to flow out. — L.^, out; 
mdndre, to flow. 

Em.a2icipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
emancipdre, to set free. — L. e, out; man- 
cipdre, to transfer property. — L. mancip-, 
stem of man-ceps, lit. one who takes pro- 
perty in hand or receives it.— L. man-tis, 
Land ; capcre, to take. 

Em.asculate, to deprive of virility. 
(L.) From pp. of L. e/?iasculdre.-''L. e, 
away from ; viasciilus, male. See Mas- 

Embargo. (Span.) Span, ejnbargo, 
an arrest, a stoppage of ships ; lit. a put- 
ting a bar in the way. — Late L. type 
"^imbarj-icdre, to bar in. Formed with 
prefix em- ( = Lat. in) from Span, barra^ 
a bar. See Bar, Barricade. 

Embark. (F. — Late L.) F. embar- 
que?'. — Late L. irnbarcdre, to put in a 
bark. — L. im- (for in), in ; barca,z. bark ; 
see Bark (i). 

Embarrass. (F. — Span.) F. embar- 
7'asser, to perplex ; lit. to hinder, put a 
bar in one's way. — Span, embarazar, the 
same. — Span, em- (L. im-, for z>z\ in; 
barra, a bar. Cf. Embargo ; and Bar. 

Em.bassy, a mission. (F. — Late L.— 
C.) A modification of O. F. ambassee; 
cf. M. F. embassade, Ital. imbasciata, weak- 
ened form of ambasciata. All from Late 
L. ambascidta, sb., orig. fem. of pp. of 
ambascidre, to send on a mission, from 
ambascia.1 a mission. See Ambassador. 

Embattle, to furnish with battle- 
ments. (F.) M. E. embattelen. - O. F. 
em- (L. im-, for in-, prefix); and O. F. 
bastiller, to fortify. See Battlement. 

Embellish. (F.-L.) M. E. embe- 
lissett.'-0.¥. embeliss-, stem of pres. pt. 
oi embellir, to beautify. — O. F. etn- (L. 
iri) ; and bel, fair. See Belle. 

Ember-days. (E.) M. E. ymber, 
as in ymber-weke. A. S. ymbren-, prob. 
from ymbryne, a circuit, or period ; the 
ember- days are days that reczir at each of 
the four seasons of the year. The A. S. 
ymb-ryne is lit. 'a running round.' — A. S. 
ymb, round ( = G. imi, Gk. d/i^t) ; and 
ryne, a run, course; see Bun. Prob. 
confused with L. qnattior tempora, four 
seasons ; whence G. quate^nber. 

Em.bers, ashes. (E.) M. E. emeres. 
A. S. cemyrgean, embers ; A. S. Leech- 



doms, iii. 30 (rare). + Icel. eimyrja, 
Dan. emmer, Swed. mojy'a, O. H. G. 
eimwja^ sb. ember. Cf. Icel. eim-r^ vapour ; 
prov. E. ome ( A. S. *'at?i), vapour. 

Embezzle, to filch. (F.) A. F. ejt- 

besiler, to make away with (a. d. 1404).— 
O. F. en- (for L. ?«-, prefix) ; and O.F. 
hesillier^ to maltreat, destroy, apparently 
from O. F. bes- (Late L. bis-, used as a 
pejorative prefix). Cf. O. F\ besil, ill- 
treatment, torture ; and see Bezzle in the 
N. E. D. ^ Certainly influenced, in the 
1 6th cent., by a supposed etymology from 
inib^cill^ to weaken, an obsolete verb 
formed from the adj. imbecile, q.v. 

Emblem. (F.-L.-Gk.) ^M. F. ^;//- 
bleme.— L. emblenia. — Gk. ffi^Krjixa, a 
thing put on, an ornament. — Gk. (fi-, for 
€v^ in, on ; pdWav^ to throw, to put. See 

Em.blemeilts, the produce of sown 
lands, crops which a tenant may cut after 
the determination of his tenancy. (F. — L.) 
O. F. cjuhlaeinent, harvest. — O. F. em- 
blae'r, emblader (F. emblavcr), to sow 
with corn. — Late Lat. imbldddre, to sow. 

— L. im- (for z;z), in; Late L. bladuin 
= L. abldtum, a crop, corn, lit. 'what is 
carried away' (F. bU). 

Embolism. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
enibolismc'- \^. embolismns.'^ Gk. kfxjSo- 
Xifffios, an intercalation or insertion of 
days, to complete a period. — Gk. e^, for €v, 
in ; ySdAAetF, to cast ; cf. iixfioXr]^ an inser- 

Embonpoint, plumpness of person. 
(F. — L.) F. ei/ibojipoint, plumpness. 
For en bon point, in good case. — L. m, 
in ; bonum, neut. of bomis, good ; punc- 
tum, point. 

Emboss (i), to adorn with bosses or 
raised work. (F. — L. and G.) From 
Em-, prefix ; and Boss. 

Emboss (2), to take shelter, or drive 
to shelter in a wood, &c. (F. — LateL) 
O F. einbosquer^ to shroud in a wood.— 
O. Y . cm- fL. ?■«), in ; O. F. bosc, a wood ; 
see Bouquet. 

Embouchure. (F. — L.) F. embou- 
chure, the mouth or opening (of a river). 

— F. emboucher, to put in or to the mouth. 

— L. iti, in , F. bouche, from bitcca, the 

Embrace. (F. — L.) O.F. embi-acer, 
to grasp in the arms. — O.F. em-,{ox en 
(L. in) ; and brace, the grasp of the 
arms; see Brace. 

Embrasure. (F.) F. embraiuT~e, an 
aperture witli slant sides. — ^i . F. embraser, 
to slope the sides of a window. —O.F. ^;;i- 
iL. /;z),in; M. F. braser, 'to skue, or 
chamfret;' Cot. '.Of unknown origin.) 

Embrocation, a fomenting. (F.— 
Late L. — Gk.) O. F. embrocation, — Med. 
L. embrocdtus, pp. of embrocdre, to foment. 

— Gk. (fi^poxv, a fomentation. — Gk. fft- 
PpiX^i^yio soak in. — Gk. €^-=zlv, in; 
lipiX^i-v, to wet, soak. 

Embroider. (F.) From Em- and 
Broider. Cf. O. F. embroder, to em- 

Embroil. (F.) From F. embrouiller^ 
to confuse. — F. em- (L. im-, for m) ; 
brouiller, to confuse. See Broil (2) ; 
and cf. Imbroglio. 

Embryo. (F. — Gk.) Formerly em- 
bryon, — M. F. embryon. — Gk. ip^pvov, 
the embryo, foetus. — Gk. cp- = Iv, within ; 
Ppvov, neut. of pres. pt. of fipveiv, to be 
full of, swell out. 

Emendation. (L.) Coined from the 
pp. of L. emenddre, to free from fault.— 
L. e, free from ; viejidum menda, a fault. 

Emerald, a green gem. (F. — L. - Gk.) 
M. E. efueraude.-^O. F. esmeraude (Span. 
esmej-alda) ; also esmeragde. — L. st7ia- 
ragdum, ace. of smaragdns. — Gk. <ypa~ 
pa-^hus, an emerald. Ct. Skt. marakata-, 
an emerald. 

Emerge, to rise from the sea, appear. 
(L.) L. emejgere, to rise out of water. — 

— L. e, out ; mergere, to dip ; see Merge. 
Emerods ; see Hemorrhoids. 
Emery, a hard niineraL (F. — Ital.— 

Gk.) Formerly emeril \ XVII cent.— 
F ^meri; M. F. emeril, esmeriL — Ital. 
smeriglio. — Gk. apfjpis, afxvpiSy emery. 

Emetic. (L. — Gk.) L. emelicus.'^ 
Gk. kpiTiKos, causing sickness. — Gk. kpioi, 
I vomit ; see Vomit. 

Emigrate. (L.) From pp. of L. e- 
migrdre, to wander forth. — L. e, out ; 
migrdre^ to wander ; see Migrate. 

Eminent, excellent. (L.) L. eminent-^ 
stem of pres. pt. of eminere, to project, 
excel. — L..f, out ; ^minere, to project ; for 
which cf. im-minent, pro-mineni. 

Emir, a commander. (Arab.) Arab. 
am r, a nobleman, prince. — Arab, root 
amara, he commanded. Der. admir-al. 

Emit, to send forth. (L.) L. emitlere, 
to send forth; pp. efuissus. — l^. e, out; 
mittere, to send. Der. emiss-ion, e/niss- 
ary^ from the pp. 




Smmet, an ant. (E.) M. E. emete, 
amote. A. S. iemetle^ or cemette, an ant.-f- 
G. ajneise, O. H. G. dmeiza, or ameiza, an 
ant. Doublet, ant. 

Emuiew; seeEnew. 

Emollient, softening. (F. — L.) M.F. 
emollient. •'L,. emollient-, stem of pres. pt. 
of emollire, to soften. — L. <f, out, very ; 
piollire, to soften, from mollis, soft. 

Emolument, gain. (F.-L.) O. F. 
emolument. "l^. emolumentiim, what is 
gained by labo'ir. — L.t'w^//>'/',to work out, 
accomplish. — L. e, out, greatly ; molTri, to 
work, from moles, heap, also effort. ^ So 
usually explained ; but the short vowels 
in -mdia- suggest a derivation from emo- 
lere, to grind thoroughly. 

Emotion. (L.) Coined from L. e?nolics, 
pp. of emoiiere, to move away or much. — 
L. e, out, much ; ffiouere, to move. 

Emperor, a ruler._ (F.-L.) O.F, 
empercor.^\-,. imperatorem, ace. of im- 
perdtor, a ruler. — L. impe7'are,Xo wAq.-^ 
L. im- i^for ?';;-), upon, over ; pa?'dre , to 
make ready, order. Der. empr-ess. 

Emphasis, stress of voice. (L. — Gk.) 
L. emphasis. — Gk. efx(paais, a declaration, 
emphasis ; orig. appearance. — Gk. (jxpai- 
vofiai^ I appear. — Gk. en- (li'), in ; 
(paivofiai, I appear, whence (pncri'i, an 
appearance ; see Phase. Der. emphatic, 
from Gk. kiJcpariKOi, significant. 

Empire. (F. — L.) F. empire. — L. im- 
perinm, command.— L. im- {in-), upon, 
over ; pardre, to make ready, order. 

Empiric, a quack doctor. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) M. F. etnpirique. — L. empiricus.— 
Gk. (iJ.rr(ipiK6s, experienced ; also one of 
a certain set of physicians. — Gk. k^i-^kv, 
in; Trefpa { = *TT€pia), a trial, experience, 
allied to Tropos, a way, and to E. Fare. 
Brugm. i, § 293. 

Employ. (F. — L.) "^[.Y. employer, io 
employ. — L. implicdre, to implicate (in 
Late L., to use for, employ). — L. vn- (for 
in-), in ; plicdre, to fold ; see Implicate, 

Emporium, a mart. (L.-Gk.) L. 
emp07'iu?n. — Gk. hixiropiov, a mart ; neut. of 
(IJLTTupios. commercial. —Gk. hpiropia, com- 
merce, epL-Topo^, a traveller, merchant.— 
Gk. €a-— ev, in ; Tropos, a way ; see Fare. 

Emprise, enterprise. (F. — L.) M. E. 
emprise. — O. F. emprise ; orig. fem. of 
empris, pp. of O. F. emprendre, to take in 
hand.— L im- {in-), in; prehendere, to 
take. See Comprehend. 

_Empty, void. (E.) M.E. ^w//2. A.S. 
cejntig,ilmetig, lit. full of leisure. — A. S. 
(emta, fcmetta, leisure, older form emota 
(Epin. Glos, 680). Perhaps ceinetta is for 
*i£vidtjon-, from ie-, prefix, privative, and 
7?idt, a meeting for business. 

Empyrean, Empyreal, pertaining 

to elemental fire. (L. — Gk.) Adjectives 
coined from L. empyroi-ns, Gk. ^kpLirvp- 
aios, extended from 'ip-vvpos, exposed to 
fire. — Gk. e;ii- = €v, in ; TrGp, fire ; see Fire. 

Emu, Emeu, a bird. (Port.) Port. 
e?na, an ostrich. 

Emulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cEmuldri, to try to equal.— L. csmulus, 
striving to equal. 

Emulsion, a milk-like mixture. (F. — 
L.) M. F. emulsion ; formed from L. 
emuls-us, pp. of emulgere, to milk out. — 
L. e, out ; mtilgere, to milk ; see Milk. 

'Bn-, prefix. (F.-L.) Y.en-.-l.. in-, 
in ; sometimes used with a causal force, as 
en-case, en-chain, &c. See Em-. 

Enact. (F.-L.) In Shak.-F. en, 
in (L. ifi ; and Act. Lit. ' to put in act.' 

Enamel, vb. (F.-O. H. G.) M. E. 
enamaile, sb., ettamelen, vb. — A. F. ena- 
meller, enamailler, vb. — F. en (L. iti), on ; 
amaile, for O. F. esmail, enamel ( = Ital. 
s7nalto), from O. Low G. sjualt (Liibben). 
See Smalt. 

Enamour. (F. — L.) O.Y.enamorer, 
to inflame with love. — F. en amotir, in 
love; where F, en is from L. in, in, and 
amour from L. ace. amorem, love. 

Encamp. (F.-L.) Coined from en- 
(F. en, L. iti) and camp ; hence ' to 
form into a camp.' See Camp. 

Encase. (F. — L.) Cf. F. encaisser, 
' to put into a case ; ' Cot. — F. en, in (L. 
in); and M.F. caisse, casse, a case; see 
Case (2). 

Encaustic, relating to designs burnt 
in. (F.-L. — Gk.) F. encaristique.^Y,. 
encausticus. — Gk. fjKavoTiKos, relating to 
burning in. — Gk. h, in ; Kaico, I burn,, 
See Calm. 

Enceinte, pregnant. (F.-L.) F. en- 
ceinte. — Late L. incincta, ungirt, said of a 
pregnant woman, fem. of pp. of cingere, 
to gird, with neg. prefix ifi-. ^ Isidore 
explains Late L. incincta as meaning 
' ungirt ' ; so also Ital. incinta (Florio). 

Enchant. (F. — L.) Y . enchanter, \o 
charm. — L. incantdre, to repeat a chant. — 
L. in-, upon ; and cantdre, to sing ; soe 
Cant (I'. 



Encliase. (F.— L.) M..Y. enchasser^ 
* to enchace or set in gold ; ' Cot. Hence 
to emboss. — F. en, in (L. z'n) ; and chasse 
(F. chdsse^, the same as casse^ a case ; see 
Case (2). 

Encircle. (F. — L.) From En- and 

Uncline. (F.— L.) W.Y. endincn.-' 
O.F. encliner.^'L. inclinare\ see Incline. 

Enclitic. (Gk.) Gk. lyKXiriKos, en- 
clining, dependent ; used of a word which 
Means' its accent upon another. — Gk. 
eyKXivfiv, to lean upon, encline. — Gk. €v, 
on; KXiviiv, to lean; see Lean (i). 

Enclose. (F. — L.) Prom En- and 
Close (1). Cf. A.F. eticlos, pp. of en- 
cloj're, to shut in. 

Encomium, commendation. (L. — Gk.) 
Latinised from Gk. (yKcufxiov, neut. of 
eyKWfiios, laudatory, full of revelry. — Gk. 
fv, in ; Kwfxos, revelry. 

Encore, again. (F. — L.) F. encode 
(= Ital. ancord), still, again. — L. hanc 
horavit for iji haiic horani, to this hour ; 
see Hour. ^ Somewhat disputed. 

Encounter, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y.ett- 

contrer, to meet in combat. — F. 671, in ; 
centre, against. — L. m, in ; contra, against. 

Encourage. (F. — L.) Y.enconrager-, 
from F. en (^L. in) and courage ; see Cou- 

Encrinite, the ' stone lily * ; a fossil. 
(Gk.) Coined from Gk. kv, in ; Kpivov, a 
lily ; with suffix -lttjs. 

Encroach. (F.-L. a«^ Tent.) Lit. 
to hook away, catch in a hook. — O.F. 
encrochier, to seize upon. — F. en, in; c7-oc, 
a hook ; cf. F. accrocher, to hook up. — L. 
in, in; and M. T)\x.kroke, Icel. krokr, &c. ; 
see Crook. 

Encumber. (F.— L. ?) O. F. cjicom- 

brer, to block up (a way). — Late L. in- 
combrdre, to obstruct. — L. in-, in; and 
Late L. combrits, an obstacle. See Cum- 

Encyclical, circular, said of a letter 
sent round (ecclesiastical). From Gk. 
kyKVKXi-os, circular (said of a letter) ; with 
suffix -c-al. — Gk. hv, in ; kvkXo-s, a circle. 
encyclopaedia. (L.-Gk.) Latinised 
from (a coined) Gk. ^eyKVKXoiraiSda, for 
eyfcvKXtos natSfia, circular (or complete) 
instruction ; from kyKVKXios (above), and 
TraiSfia, instruction. 

End, sb. (E.) M.E. aide. A.S. efzde, 
sb.+Du. einde, Icel. endir, Sw. dnde, Dan. 
',nde^ Goth, andeis, G. ende. Teut. type 

*and-joz. Cf. O. Irish ind, Skt. ania-, 
end, limit. % Hence the prefixes ante-, 
anti-, an- in an-s-ver. 

Endeavour, to attempt. (F. - L.) 
Coined from the M. E. sb. dever, devoir, 
duty, with F. prefix en- (= L. in). 
Compare the old phrase ' to do his dever ' 
= to do his duty (Ch. C. T. 2598) ; see 

Endemic, peculiar to a district. (Gk.) 
Gk. (:vbr]p.-os, belonging to a people.— 
Gk. iv, in ; 877/ios, a people ; see Demo- 

Endive, a plant. (F. — L.) F. endive 
(Ital. rwrt'/z'/^).- Lat. type *intihea, adj.; 
from L. intilnts, intnbiis, endive. 

EndOgen, a plant that grows from 
within. (F. — Gk.) F. endogene (1813). 
From Gk. Ivho-v, within ; y^^v-, base of 
y'iyvo\xai, I am born, allied to ykvo'i, race. 

Endorse. (F. — L.) Formerly (?;/^/^5J-^. 
0. F. endosscr, to put on the back of — F, 
efi, on ; dcs, the back, from L. dorsuDi, the 
back (whence the spelling with rs). 

Endow. (F. — L.) A.F. endowcr. 
From F, en- and doner. — Yj. in-, in, and 
dotdre, to give a dowry, from dot-, stem 
of dos, a dowry; cf. dai'e, to give. 

Endue (1)5 to endow. (F. — L.) An- 
other spelling oiendozv; XV cent. — O. F. 
endoer (later endouer), to endow (Burguy). 

— L. in, in; and ddta>-e, to endow; see 
above. % Confused both with O. F. en- 
duire, to introduce (from L. iitdilcere), 
and with Endue (2) below. 

Endue (2\ to clothe. (L.) A corrup- 
tion of indue ; as in ' endue thy ministers 
with righteousness.' — L. induere, to 
clothe. See Indue (2) ; and see above. 

Endure. (F. — L.) M. E. enduren.—^ 
F. endtirer. — Y . en (L. in) ; and diirer 
(L. durdre), to last. See Dure. 

Enemy. ;,F. — L.) M. E. enemi.^^ 
O.F. enemi. "Y,. inimlciis, unfriendly.— 
L. in, not ; amicus, friendly, from L. 
amdre, to love. 

Energy. (F. — L. — Gk.) O.Y.energie. 

— Late L. energia.'^ Gk. kvipyna, vigour, 
action. — Gk. kuepyos, at work.— Gk. (v, 
in ; ipyov, work ; see "Work. 

Enervate. ^L.) From pp. of L. 

enertidre, to deprive of nerve or strength. 

— L. e, out of; nerutts, a nerve; see 

Enew. (F.— L.) Misspelt e?nfncw in 
Shak. ; read enew, to drive into the \vater. 

— F. en, in ; A. F. ezve (F. eau), water, 




from L. aqua. Cf. O. F. enetver, to soak- 
in water (GodefroyV 

Enfeoff, to endue with a fief. (F. — L. 
and O. H. G.) Thie spelling is Nornaan 
F. ; formed from F. e7t (L. in), in; and 
fief, a fief. See Fief. 

JGnfilade, a straight line or passage. 
(F.— L.) F. enfilade, a long string (of 
things). — F. eiifiler, to thread. — F. en- 
(L. in), in; fil, a thread, from 'L. filiim, 
a thread. See File (i). 

Engage. (F.-L.) O, F. engage^-, to 
bind by a pledge. — F. en (L. in), in; 
gage, a pledge ; see Gage. Der. dis- 

Engender, to breed. (F.-L.) M.E. 
engendren. '~O.Y . engendrer.^1^. ingen- 
enlre, to produce. — L. in, in ; generdi'e, 
to breed, from gener- (for ^genes-), stem 
oi genus, a race, See Genus. 

Engine. (F. — L.) O. F. engin, a 
tool. — L. ingenium, natural capacity, also, 
an invention. — L. in, in; geni-, as in 
genius ; see Genius. 

English, belonging to the Angles. (E.) 
A. S. Englisc, Ainglisc. — A. S. Engl-e, 
ALngl-e, pi., the Angles; with suffix -isc, 
-ish. Cf. A. S. Angel-cynn, Angle kin 
{gens Anglorum). 

Engrailed, indented with curved lines ; 
in heraldry. (F. - L. ««t^ Teut.) O. F. 
engresle, pp. of engresler, to engrail (indent 
as with hailstones). — O, F. en, in; gresle 
(F. grele), hail. — L. in, in ; and (perhaps) 
G.gries, grit. See Grail (3). 

Engrain, Ingrain, to dye of a fast 
colour. (F. — L.) M.E, engreynen, to 
dye in grain, i.e. of a fast colour. Coined 
from F. en (L. z;z) ; and O. F. graine, 
' the seed of herbs, also grain, wherewith 
cloth is died in grain, scarlet die, scarlet 
in graine ; ' Cot. From Late L. grdna, 
the cochineal ' berry ' or insect ; a fern. sb. 
formed from the pi. {grdna) oi grdnum, a 

Engrave. (F. and E.) From En- 
and Grave (i) ; imitating O. F. engraver 
(from L. in and O. H. G. graban, Low G. 
graven, cognate with 'Engrave). 

Engross, to write in large letters, to 
occupy wholly. (F. — L.) The former 
(legal) sense is the older. A. F. engrosser. 
From F. en grosse,\. e. in large characters. 
— L. in, in ; Late L. grossa, large writing, 
from L. grossus, thick. 

Enhance, to raise, exalt, increase. 
(F. — I ..,) A. F. enhanneer, a form of O. F. 


enhancer, enhaucier, to lift (Ital. imial- 
zare).^l.. in; and Late L. altiare, to 
lift, from alHis, high. 

Enigma. (L. — Gk.) L. anigma.-^ 
Gk. aiviyfu-a (stem aii'iyfiar-), a riddle, 
dark saying. — Gk., I speak in 
riddles. — Gk. divos, a tale, story. Der. 
enigmat-ic (from the stem). 

Enjoin, to bid. (F.-L.) O.F. en- 
joindre (i p. pres. enjoin-s). — L. iniun- 
gere, to bid, ordain, orig. to join into. — 
L. in, in ; itingere, to join. See Join. 

Enjoy, to joy in. (F. — L.) M. E. en- 
ioien { = enjoyen); A. F. enioier. — Y. en 
(L. iti); O. F. ioie, Y.joie; see Joy. 

Enlighten, vb. (E. ; ivith F. pre- 
fix.) Coined with F. prefix en- (L. in), 
from lighten, vb. ; see Lighten. 

Enlist, to enter on a list. (F.— G. ; 
with ¥. — h. prefix) Coined by prefixing 
F. en (L. in) to List (2). 

Enmity. (F. — L.) M.E. emnite.'" 
A. F. enemite ; O. F. e}za7?iistie{t). — 0. F. 
e?t- (L. in-), neg. prefix; and aiuistieit), 
amity ; see Amity. 

Ennui. (F. — L.) Mod. F. eitnni, an- 
noyance ; O. F. anoi. See Annoy. 

Enormous, great beyond measure. 
(F. — L.) Formed from enorni (obsolete) ; 
with suffix -ous. — M. F. enorme, huge. — L. 
enormis, out of rule, huge. — L. e^ out of; 
norma, rule. See Normal. 

Enough. (E.) M. E. inoh, ejwgh ; 
Yi\. inohe, enoghe. K.^. genoh, genog, pi. 
genoge, sufiicient ; allied to A.^. geneah, 
it suffices. -J- 1 eel. gnogr, Dan. ttok, Swed. 
nog, Du. genoeg, G. genug, Goth, ganohs. 
The ge- is a prefix. Cf. L. nancisct, to 
obtain (pp. nac-tus) ; Skt. 7ia^, to attain. 

Enquire. (F.-L.) M.E. enqueren; 
altered from enquere to enquire, and later to 
inquire, under the influence of the L. form. 

— O. F. enquerre ,enquerir. — L. inquirere^ 
to search into. — L. in, in ; qucerere, to 
seek. Der. enquir-y, often turned into 
inquiry; enquest (now inquest), from 
O. F. enquest e, L. inquisita {res), a thing 
enquired into. 

Ensample. (F. — L.) 'W.Y.. ensampk. 

— A. Y .ensample, corrupt form oiessample, 
exe7Jiple.^'L. exemplum, a sample, pattern. 

— L. eximere, to select a sample. —L, ex, 
out ; emere, to take. Der. sample. 

Ensign. (F. - L.) O. F. ensigne, 
more correctly enseigne, 'a sign, en- 
signe, standard;' Cot. —Late L. insignia, 
pi. of L. insigne,^ standard. —L. insignis^ 



remarkable. — L. in^ upon; sigtium, a 
mark ; i. e. ' with a mark on it.' See 

Xcnsilag'e, the storing of grain, &c., 
underground. (F. — Span. — L. and Gk.) 
F. ensilage. •''^Tp^n. ensilar, to store up 
underground. — Span. ej2, in; silo, a pit 
for storing grain. —L. z';/, in; siriis, bor- 
rowed from Gk. oipos, a pit for storing 

Ensue. (F.— L.) O. F. enstt-, a 
stem of ensivre, to follow after. — Late L. 
inseqiiere, for L. inseqiil, to follow upon. 
— L. in, on ; sequl, to follow. 

Ensure, to make sure, (F. — L.) A. F. 
enscurer.-'Y . en (L. z'«\ in; and O. F. 
seiir, sure ; see Sure. 

Entablature. (F. - L.) Obs. F. 
entablature, ' an intablature ; ' Cot. [Cf. 
Ital. intavolattira, 'a planking,' Torriano; 
from intavolare, ' to board,' Florio.] Pro- 
perly ' something laid flat,' and, though 
now applied to the part of a building sur- 
mounting the columns, orig. applied to a 
panel or flooring. —L. in, upon; *iabn- 
Idre, a verb formed from the sb. tabuld- 
ium, boardwork, a flooring, from tabula, 
a plank ; see Table. 

Entail, to bestow as a heritage. (F.— 
L.) Orig. to convert an estate intoj"^^^- 
tail (^feodum tallidtum, where tallidtmii 
means ' limited ' in a certain way). From 
F. en- (L. iji) and tailler {tallidre). In 
another sense we find AI. E. entailen, to cut, 
carve. — O. F. entailler, to carve, grave.— 
F. en- (L. itt), in ; and tailler, to cut ; see 
Tailor, Tail (2), Tally. 

Entangle; from En- and Tangle, 

Enter. (F.-L.) M.E.^«/rg;/. -O.F. 
entrer. — L. intrdre, to go into. — L. in, in ; 
and *trdre, to go through (cf. pene-trdre 
and trans) ; allied to Skt. tara-, a passage. 
See Brugm. ii. § 579. Der. entr-ance. 

Enterprise. (F. — L.) O. F\ entre- 
prise, enterprinse, an enterprise. — O. F, 
enterpris. pp. of enterprendre, to under- 
take. —Late L. interprendere. "L,. inter, 
among ; pi'CJidere, short for prehendere, to 
lay hold of. See Prehensile. 

Entertain. _(F. - L.) O. F. entre- 
tefiir. "Late L. intertenere, to entertain, 
lit. 'to hold or keep among.'— L. inter, 
among; tenere, to hold. 

Enthusiasm, inspiration. (L. — Gk.) 
Late L. enthusiasmns."^^, kv6ovcnaa/j.6s, 
inspiration. — Gk. kvOovaid^oj, I am inspired. 

— Gk. ev0€os, full of the god, having a god 
within, inspired. — Gk. kv, in; Otos, a 

Entice. (F.-L.) M. E. entieen.- 
O. F. enticicr, enticher, to excite. — Lat. 
type '^intitidre, to kindle, set on fire. — L. 
in; and *-titius, for titio, a firebrand. Cf. 
F. attiser, Ital. attizzare, to set on fire. 

Entire. (F.— L.) O.Y.entier,\\\io\t, 

— L. integrum, ace. of integer, whole. 
See Integer. 

Entity, being. (L.) A coined word, 
with suffix -ty, from L. enti-, decl. stem of 
'^ens, a thing, a being ; see Essence. 

Entomology. (F.— C;k.) V.entomo- 
logie (A, D. 1764). From Gk. ipro/xo-v, 
an insect ; neut. of evrofAo-s, cut into, so 
called from the very thin middle part (see 
Insect). — Gk. ku, in; Ti/xveiu, to cut; 
with suffix -Xoyia, discourse, from \eyuv, 
to speak. 

Entrails, the inward parts. (F.— L.) 
O. F. entraille, intestines. — Lnte L. intrd- 
lia, also (more correctly) intrdnea, en- 
trails. —L. interdnea, entrails, neut. pi. of 
interdneiis, inward, adj., from inter, 
within. ^ The O. F. entraille was a fem. 
sing, made from a neut. pi. 

Entreat. (F.-L.) Orig. to treat; 
then to treat with, beseech. O. F. entraiter^ 
to treat of. — F. en (<L. in), in, concern- 
ing ; F. trait er<J.. tract dre, to handle, 
treat ; see Treat. 

Enumerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

emunerdre, to reckon up. — L. e, out, fully; 
nnmerdre, vb., from numerus, number. 

Enunciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

emincidre, better spelt emintidre, to utter, 
declare fully, — L. e, fully ; nuntidre, to 
tell, from nuntiiis, a messenger. 

Envelop. (F. — Teut.) M. E. envolupen. 
O. P\ envoiuper, later enveloper, to wrap 
in, wrap round, enfold. — 1* . en (L. z;z), in ; 
and O. F. voluper, voloper,vloper, to wrap, 
from a base vlop-, to wrap. This base re- 
sembles M. E. wlappen, to wrap ; which, 
however, is not known outside English. 
See Lap (3). Note Walloon ervalpe', to 
envelop (Remade); M. lia\. goluppare, to 
wrap (Florio), Cf. Develop. 

Environ, to surround. (F. - L.) O.F. 
environner, to surround. — F. environ, 
round about, — F. en (L. in), in; O. F. 
viron, a circuit, from virer, to turn, veer ; 
see Veer. 

Envoy. (F.-L.) O. F. envoy, a send- 
ing. — O. F. envoier, to send. — F. en voie. 




on the way. — L. in uiam^ on the way. 
Cf. Ital. inviare, to send. 

Envy, sb. (F.— L.) M. E. eitide {eit- 
vie^. — O. F. envie.^'L. imiidia, envy; see 

Epact. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) O. F. 
(and F.) epacte, an addition, the epact 
(a term in astronomy).— Late L. epada.-' 
Gk. kiraKTri (for knaKTos rj^iepa)^ late fern, 
of fTTatfTo?, added. — Gk. h-nayuv^ to bring 
in, add. — Gk. Itt-, for Im, to; and dyav^ 
to lead, bring. (-y/AG.) 

Epaulet, a shoulder-knot. (F. — L.— 
Gk.! F. ipauktte\ dimin. from dpauh 
(O. F. espaule), a shoulder. — Late L. 
spatzila, shoulder-blade ; L. spatula, a 
broad blade ; see Spatula. 

Epergne, an ornamental stand for the 
centre of a table. (F.-O. H. G.) F. 
dpergne, commonly spelt ep^argne, lit. 
thriftiness, sparingness. So called from 
the method of ornamentation ; the F. iaille 
d'^pargne is applied to a sort of ornamen- 
tation in which certain parts are cut away 
and filled in with enamel, leaving the design 
in relief, i. e. spared or left uncut. See 
Littre, and Cotgrave (s. v. espargne). — Y . 
dpa7gner; O. F. espargner, espergner, to 
spare. — O. H. G. sparon, G. sparen^ to 
spare ; see Spare. 

Ephah, a Hebrew measure. (Heb. — 
Egypt-) Heb. ephah, a measure ; of 
Egyptian origin ; cf. Coptic dpi, measure. 

Ephemera, sing. ; orig. pi., flies that 
live for a day. (Gk.) XVHcent.-Gk. 
((])TjfjL(pa^ neut. pi. of ((prjfifpos, lasting for 
a day. — Gk. k(p- = km, for; fifxipa, a day. 
Der. ephemer-al , adj. ; ephemer-is (Gk. 
((pTjfXfpis, a diary). 

Ephod, part of the priest's habit. 
(Heb.) Heb. ephod, a vestment. — Heb. 
dphad^ to put on. 

Epi-,/r^x. (Gk.) Gk. em, upon, to, 
besides ; spelt eph- in eph-emeral, ep- in 
ep-isode, ep-och, ep-ode. 

Epic, narrative. (L. — Gk.) L. epictis. 

— Gk. k-aiKos, narrative. — Gk. fTros, word, 
narrative, song ; see Voice. 

Epicene, of common gender. (L. — 
Gk.) L. epicoeniis. — Gk. emKoivos, com- 
mon. —Gk. em, among; Koivos, common. 

Epicure, a follower of Epicurus. (L. 

— Gk.) L. £pi(~f?rus. —Gk. 'ETTiKovpos, a 
proper name ; lit. ' assistant.' 

Epicycle, a small circle, with its 
centre on the circumference of a larger one. 
(L. — Gk.) L. epicyclus. — GV. WikvkKos. 


— Gk. l-n'i, upon ; kvkKos, sl circle ; see 

Epidemic, affecting a people. (L.— 
Gk.) Formed from L. epidermis, epi- 
demic. —Gk. Imhr]pi0s, among the people, 
general. — Gk. km, among; 8rjfjios, people. 
See Endemic. 

Epidermis, cuticle. (L.-Gk.) L. 
epidermis. — Gk. kmd(pij,is, upper skin. — 
Gk. km, upon ; ZkpjJL-a, skin. See Derm. 

Epiglottis, the cartilage forming a 
lid over the glottis. (Gk.) Gk. kmyXcoTTis. 

— Gk. kni, upon; yKwrris, glottis; see 

Epigram, a short and pithy poem or 
saying. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. /pigrampie. 

— L. epigramma. — QiV. kmypa]xp.a, an 
inscription, epigram. — Gk. kmypdcpeiv, to 
inscribe. — Gk. kni, upon ; ypd(p(iv, to 
A\rite. See Grammar. 

Epilepsy. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F.epi- 
lepsie, *the tailing sickness;' Cot. — L. epi- 
lepsia. — Gk. km\T]ipia, kmKrjipis, a seizure. 

— Gk. kmXapL^dviiv, to seize upon. — Gk. 
k-ni, on ; Xafx^dveiy, to seize. Der. epi- 
leptic (Gk. kniXrjTTTiKos). 

Epilogue. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. epilogue. 

— L. epilogtis. — Gk. kmXoyo^, a concluding 
speech. — Gk. kni, upon; Xoyos, a speech. 

Epiphany, Twelfth Day. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) O. F. epiphanie.—'L. epiphania.— 
Gk. km<pdvia, manifestation ; orig. neut. 
pi. of km(pdvi.os, manifest, but used as 
equivalent to kmcpdveia, sb. — Gk. km<pai~ 
v€iv, to shew forth. — Gk. km, to, forth; 
<paii'€iv, to shew. See Phantora. 

Episcopal. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
episcopal. — L. episcopdlis, belonging to a 
bishop. — L. episcopiis, a bishop. — Gk. kiri- 
GKotros, an over-seer, bishop. — Gk. km, 
upon ; CKonos, one that watches. See 

Episode, a story introduced into an- 
other. (Gk.) Gk. kireiadhiov, orig. neut. 
oi knaaodios, coming in besides. — Gk. kir- 
{km), besides ; daobios, coming in, from 
(is. in, 6^6s, a way. 

Epistle, a letter. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
O. F. epistle, also epistre. — L. epistola. — 
Gk. kuLOToXr}, message, letter. — Gk. km- 
areXXeiv, to send to. — Gk. kni, to; arkX' 
Xdv, to equip, send. 

Epitaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.ipitaphe. 

— L. epitaphintn.—QV. kmrdipios, upon a 
tomb. — Gk. kni, on; rdipos, a tomb. 

Epithalamium, a marriage - song. 
(L. — (ik.) L. epilhalamizwi. — Gk. km- 




OaXdfuov, bridal song. — Gk. €:rt, upon, 
for ; OaXa^ios, bride-chamber. 

Epithet. (L.-Gk.) L. ^/zV//^/^«. - 
Gk. iTTi'^f Tov, an epithet; neut. oi k-niOiTos, 
attributed. — Gk. kiri, besides; Oi-ros, 
placed, from ^e-, weak grade of tiOtjui, I 

Hpitonie. (L. — Gk.) L. epitome.^ 
Gk. eniTOfiT], a surface-incision, also an 
abridgment. — Gk. kni, upon ; rffiudv, to 

Epoch. (L. — Gk.) Lsite L,. epoc/i a. " 
Gk. (TTOxn, a stop, pause, fixed date. — Gk. 
€Tr- ((-rri), upon; €X^"'j to hold, check. 
(VSEGH.) Brugm. i. § 602. 
Epode. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. epode. - 
L. epodos.^Gli. k-ncvZoSj an epode, some- 
thing sung after. —Gk. kir-i, upon, after; 
dftSeti/, to sing. 

Equal. (L.) L. csqudlis, equal. — L. 
a:qutis, just, exact. 

equanimity, evenness of mind. (L.) 
From L. cEquanimitas , the same. — L. 
cequanimis, of even temper, kind. — L. 
cBqzi-iis, equal ; animus, mind. 

equation, a statement of equality. 
(L.) L. ace. cequdtionem, an equalising ; 
from pp. of cequdre, to make equal. — L. 
aquus, equal. So also equatorKX-. cequd- 

equilibrium, even balancing. (L.) 
L. cBqtnlibritwi. — L. cequilibris, evenly 
balanced. — L, cequi-, for czqtms, even ; 
libra, a balance ; see Librate. 

equinox. (F. — L.) Y.iqtnnoxe.^Y^. 
cequinoctium, time of equal day and night. 
— L. cequi-, for cequtts ; nocti-, decl. stem 
of nox, a night ; see Night. 

eqtlipoUent, equally potent. (F. - L.) 
O. F. eqttipolent. — 'L. cequipollent-, stem of 
(eqiiipollens, of equal power. — L. cequi-, for 
cBqutis : pollens, pres. pt. of pollere, to be 

equity. (F.-L.) O.F. equite.-^l.. 
crqtiitdtem, ace. of cBqtiitas, equity. — L. 
ceqtius, equal. 

equivalent. (F,-L.) M.F. equi- 

valenl.-^'L. aqiiiualent-, stem of pres. pt. 
of ceqniualere, to be of equal force.— L. 
ieqni-, for cequus ; ualere, to be worth ; see 

equivocal. (L.) Formed from L. 
(zquiuoc-us, of doubtful sense. — L. cequi-, 
cequus ; uoc-, stem of uocd7-e, to call ; 
see Voice. Der. equivoc-ate, to speak 
doubtfully. % So also equi-angular, equi- 
multiple, &c. 

Equerxy, an officer who has charge of 
horses and stables. (F.-O. H, G.) Pro- 
perly equerry means a stable, and mod. E. 
equerry stands for sqtiire of the equerry. — 
F. dcurie, O. F. escurie, a stable ; Low L. 
scUria, a stable. — O. H. G. skura, skiura 
(G. scheuer), a shelter, stable ; allied to 
O. H. G. sknr, a shelter. Brugm. i. § 109. 
(VSQEU.) % Altered to equerry by 
confusion with equtis, a horse. 

Equestrian ; see Equine. 

Equilibrium ; see Equal. 

Equine. (L.) L. eqtnnus, relating to 

orscs. — L. eqiius, a horse. + Gk. 'i-n-nos, 
(i'««os) ; Skt. a(^a ; Pers. asp ; O. Irish ech ; 
A. S. eoh. Brugm. i. § 116. 

equestrian. (L.) Formed from L. 
equestri-, stem of equester, belonging 
to horsemen. —L. eques, a horseman. —L. 
equtis, a horse. 

Equinox ; see Equal. 

Equip, to furnish, fit out. (F.— Scand.) 
M. Y. equiper, O. North F. esquiper, to 
fit out ; A. F. eskipper. — Icel. skipa, to set 
in order, perhaps allied to skip, a ship. 
Der. equip-age, -ment. 

Equipollent, Equity ; see Equal. 

Equivalent, Equivocal ; see 


Era. (L.) L. cera, an era, fixed date. 
From a particular sense of cera, counters 
(for calculation), pi. of ces, brass, money. 

Eradicate. (L.^ From pp. of L. 

erddicdre, to root out. — L. e, out; rddi- 
cdre, to root, from rddic-, stem of radix, 
root. See Kadix. 

Erase. (L-) L- erdsus, pp. of erddere, 
to scratch out. — L. e, out; rddere, to 

Ere, before. (E.^ M. E. er. A. S. 
ier, soon, before ; adv. prep, and conj.+ 
Du. eer, O. H. G. er, G, eker ; Goth. 
airis, sooner, comp. of air, Icel. dr, adv., 
early, soon. % The two last are positive, 
not comparative, forms. Cf. Gk. "qpi, 

early, soon. (E.) M. E. erly. A. S. 
SrlTce, adv. ; from *xrlic, adj., not used. — 
A. S. cer, soon ; lie, like. 

erst, soonest. (E.) M. E. erst. A. S. 
cerest, superlative of ^r, soon. 

Erect, adj. (L.) L. eredus, upright; 
pp. of erigere, to set up straight. —L. e, 
out, up ; regei-e, to make straight, rule. 

Ermine, a beast. (F. — O. H, G.) 
M. E. ermine. — O. F. ermiite (F. her- 
mtne).^0. H. G. harmin, ermine-fur (G. 




hej-meliii). — O. H. G. harmo, an ermine. 
'^h^.'SJiearma ; lAX^ayx-asi. szarmUy a weasel. 
^But Hatzleld supports the derivation irom 
Armenius mus, an Armenian mouse ; cf. 
Pontictis mus, supposed to be an ermine. 

Erode. (F. — L.) F. ^roder. — \^. ero- 
dej-e, to eat away. — L. e, out ; roJere, to 
gnaw. Der. eros-ion (from pp. eros-us). 

Erotic. (Gk.) Gk. epojTiKos, relating 
to love. — Gk. kpojTi-, crude form of epcos^ 
love ; allied to epa/xat, I love. 

Err, to stray. (F. — L.) M..E. erren.-^ 
O. F. errer.'^h. errdre, to wander (for 
'^ers-dre).-^Qf. irren^ to stray, Goth, airz- 
jan, to make to stray. Brugm. i. § 878. 

erratum, an error. (L.) L. erra- 
tum, neut. of pp. of errdre, to make a 

erroneous, faulty. (L.) Put for L. 
e7'rdne-us, wandering ; with suffix -qus. — 
L. errdre (above). 

error. (F. — L.) M. E. erroiir. — 
O. F. ^rr<3;/r. — L. erroj-em, ace. of error, 
a mistake — L. errdre (above). 

Errand. (E.) M. E. erende. A. S. 
&rende, a. message, business. +0. Sax. 
drundi, O. H. G. drunti, a message ; cf. 
Icel. eyreruli, orendi, Swed. drende, Dan. 
(Erende. Usually connected with A. S. dr, 
Icel. drr, Goth, airus, a messenger; which 
is hardly possible. 

Errant, wandering. (F. — L.) F. er- 
7'ant, pres. pt. of O. F. etyer, eirer, to 
wander. — Late L, iterdre, to travel. — L. 
iter, a journey. % It sometimes repre- 
sents the pres. pt. of errdre, to wander. 
Doublet, arrant. 

Erratum, Erroneous, Error ; 

see Err. 

Erst ; see Ere. 

Erubescent. (L.) L. erubescent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of erubescere, to grow red. 
— L. e, out, much; rubcscere, to grow red, 
inceptive form of rubere, to be red. See 

Eructate. (L.) From pp. of L. eruc- 
tdre, to belch out. — L. e, out; ructdre, 
to belch ; allied to e-rugere, to belch ; cf. 
Gk. epevyeaOai. Brugm. i. § 221, 

Erudite, learned. (L.) L. erudttus, 
pp. of erudlre, to free from rudeness, to 
teach. — L. e, from ; rudis, rude. 

Eruption. (L.) From L. emptidnem, 
ace. of eruptio, a breaking out. — L. eruptus, 
pp. of erumpere, to break out. — L. i, out; 
rumpere, to break. See Rupture. 

Erysipelas, a redness on the skin. 

(L. — Gk.) L. ejysip&las. — Gk. epvaineXas^ 
redness on the skin. — Gk. kpvcri-^ allied to 
ipv9-p6s, red ; ttcAAo, skin. Cf. ipvai^ri, 
red blight on corn. 

Escalade, a scaling of walls. (F.— 
Span. — L.) F. escalade. — Span, escalado, 
escalada, a scaling ; from escalar, to scale. 

— Span, escala, a ladder. — L. scala, a 
ladder ; see Scale (3). Cf. Ital. scalata^ 
an escalade ; Florio also has * Scaladuy 
an escalado,' from Spanish. 

Escape. (F. — L.) M. E. escapen,^ 
O .'NonhY .escaper (F. ^^/ia//^;'),toescapej 
lit. to slip out of one's cape; ^\c2ad Reaper. 

— L. ex cappd, out of one's cape; see 
Cape (i). 

Escarpment. (F.-Ital.-Teut.) F. 
escarpement. Formed from F. escarpe, a 
scarp ; with suffix -ment (L, -mentum) ; 
see Scarp. 

Escheat. (F. — L.) M. E. eschete 
(also ckete), a forfeit to the lord of the fee. 

— O. F. eschete, rent, that which falls to 
one, orig. fem. pp. of escheoir (F. ^c/ioir). 

— Late L. excadere, to fall to one's share. 

— L. ex, out ; and cadere, to fall. Hence 

Eschew, to shun. (F. - O. H. G.) 
M. E. esckewen.''0. F. esckiver, eschever, 
to shun. — O. H. G. sciiihan, to frighten, 
also to fear.-O. H. G. ''scioh, M. H. G. 
schiech, shy, timid. See Shy. 

Escort, a guide, guard. (F. — Ital.— L.) 
M. F. ^i"r^^/^. — Ital. scoria, a guide; fem. 
of pp. of scorgere, to see, perceive, guide 
(orig. to set right). - L. eXy entirely ; 
corrigere, to correct ; see Correct. 

Escrow, a deed delivered on condition. 
(F. — Teut.) A. F. escrouwe, M. E. scroue^ 
sci-owe ; the orig. word of which scro-ll is 
the diminutive. — O. F. escroe, a slip of 
parchment. — M. Du. schroode, a shred, slip 
of paper (Kilian) ; cf O. H. G. scrot, a 
shred. See Shred and Scroll. 

Escuage, a pecuniary satisfaction in 
lieu of feudal service. (F. — L.) O. F. 
escuage < Late L. scutdgium. Formed 
with suffix -age from O. F. escu, a shield ; 
because escuage was first paid in lieu of 
service in the field. — L. scutum, a shield. 

Esculent, eatable. (L.) 'L. esculentus, 
fit for eating. — L. esca,iood. For *ed-sca. 

— L. edere, to eat. Brugm. i. § 753. 

Escutcheon, Scu-teheon, a painted 

shield. (F. — L.) Formerly escochon\ 
XV cent.; A. F. escuchon.''0. North F. 
escuchon, O. F. escusson, the same; answer- 




ing to a Late L. ace. *scutionei7i^ extended 
from L. scuttwi, a shield. 

Esophagus, K" II *;t- (L.-Gk.) Late 
"L.. (Esophagus. •^<j\.. olao(pdyoi, the gullet, 
lit. conveyer of iood — Gk. olcro- (of doubt- 
ful orifjin) ; <fay-, liase of (payuv, to eat. 

ZiSOteric. (Gk.) Gk. kacvTepiKus, 
inner; hence, secret. — Gk. knurepos, inner, 
comp. of eVcu, adv., within; from €j=€ts, 
into, prep. Opposed to exoteric. 

IiSpalier, Irame-work for training trees. 
(F. - Ital. - L. - Gk.) M.F. espallier ; 
Cot. — Ital. spalliera, back of a chair, sup- 
port, espalier. — Ital. spalla, shoulder. —L. 
spatula ; see Epaulet. 

Especial. (F.— L.) O. F. especial.^ 
L. specialis, belong to a special kind. — L. 
species, a kind. Doublet, special. 

Espionage ; see Espy. 

Esplanade, a level space. (F, — Ital. 

— L.) AL F esplanade, 'a planing, level- 
ling, evenning of ways ; ' Cot. Formed 
from O. F. esplaner, to level ; the suffix 
being due to an imitation of Ital. spianata, 
an esplanade, a levelled way ; from spia- 
nare, to level. —L. expldndre, to level.— 
L. ex, out; pldndre, to level, iiom planus, 
flat. See Plain. 

Espouse. (F. — L.) O. F. espouser, to 
espouse, wed. —L. sponsdre, to betroth.— 
L. sponsus, pp. of sponde9'e, to promise. 
See Spouse, Sponsor. 

Espy, to spy, see. (F. — O.H. G.) M. E. 
cspyen.'-O. F. espier.^0. H. G. spehon 
(G. spahen), to spy ; see Species. Der. 
espi-on-agc, F. espiomiage, from ISI, F. 
espion, a spy, borrowed from Ital. spione, 
a spy, from O. H. G. spehon, to spy. 

Esquire, a shield-bearer. (F. — L.) 
M. E. squycr. — O. F. escziyer, escuier, a 
squire. —Late 'L.sciitdrius, a shield -bearer. 

— L. scUt-um, a shield, cover (F. ^czi). 
(VSQEU.) Brugm. i. § 109. Doublet, 

Essay, Assay, an attempt, trial. 
(F. — L. ; O. F. essai, a trial. — L. exagiuni, 
a trial of weight ; cf. exdmen, a weighing, 
a swarm. — L. ex, out ; ag-ere, to drive, 
impel, move. (y'AG.) 

Essence, a quality, being. (F.-L.) 
F. essence — L. essentia, a being. — L. *es- 
sent~, fictitious stem, of pres. pt. of esse, 
to be. Der. esse7iti-al; and see entity. 

Essoin, an excuse for not appearing in 
court. (^F.-L. awt/ Teut.) 0.¥. essoifie, 
M. F. exoine, ' an essoine, or excuse ; ' Cot. 

— O. F. essonier, to excuse (Godefroy).— 


O. F es- (L. ex), away ; and Low L. 
sunnia, O. H G. sunne (for *sund/d, 
iiraune, xiv. 9), lawful excuse. Cf. Goth. 
sunjon sik^ to excuse oneself, ga-sunjon^ 
tu justify, from sunja, truth ; Skt. satja-, 
tuie. lirugm. i. § 285-. 

Establish. (F.-L.) M. E. establis- 
sen. — O. F. establiss-, base of pres. pt. of 
establir, to establish. — L. siabilire, to 
establish.— L. stabilis, firm; see Stable 

Estate. (F.-L.) O.F. estaL~-U 
statuvi, ace. of status, state ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.-L.) O.F. 
estif?ier.^'L. cestimare, O. L. cestumare, to 
value. Allied to Goth, aistan, to regard. 
Brugm. ii. § 692. 

estimate. (L.) Frompp. ofL. ^j/z'- 

mdre, to value (above). 

Estop, to bar. (F. — L.) The same as 

Estovers, supplies of various neces- 
saries. (F. — L.) A. F. estovers, M. E. 
stovers, \\. oi stover \ see Stover. 

Estrange, to make strange. (F. — L.) 
O. F. estra7iger, to make strange. — O. F. 
estrange, strange. —L. extrdneu7n, ace. of 
ext7'd7teus, foreign, on the outside. — L. 
extra, without; see Extra. 

Estreat, a true copy, in law. (F. — L.) 
Lit. ' extract.' A. F. est7-ete, fem, of pp. 
of est7-ai7-e, to extract. — L. ext7-acta, fem. 
of pp. oi extrahere; see Extract. 

Estuary, mouth of a tidal river. (L.) 
L. (Zstndriu7n,Xh.e same. — L. cestudre, to 
surge, toam as the tide. — L. cestzis, heat, 
surge, tide. Allied to Ether. 

Etch, to engrave with acids. (Du. — G.) 
Du. etse7i, to etch, — G. dtze7i, to corrode, 
etch ; orig. ' to make to eat ; ' causal of 
G. esse7t, to eat. See Eat. 

Eternal. (F.-L.) ME. eternel.^ 
O.F ete7'7ul.''\^. ceterndlis, eternal. — L. 
cete7-mis, lit. lasting for an age ; for aui- 
te7-nus. — L. csui-, for ceuui7i^ an age. See 

Ether, pure upper air. (L.-Gk.) 
L. cether. — Gk. aWrjp, upper air ; from 
its brightness. — Gk. aWeiv, to glow. 
(VAIDH.) Brugm. i. § 202. 

Ethic, relating to morals. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ethicus, moral. — Gk. rjOiKos, moral.— 
Gk. TfOos, custom, moral nature ; cf. I^os, 
manner, custom. -f- Skt. svadhd-, self-will, 
strength, from sva, self, dhd, to place ; cf. 
Goth, sidus, G. sitte, custom. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. — Gk.) 



L. ethnicus.'^Gk. kOviKos^ national. — Gk, 
llOvos, a nation. 
Etiolate, to blanch plants. (F. — L.) 

F. itioler ; with suffix -ate. From a 
dialectal form answering to s'iteuler, to 
grow into haulm or stalk, like etiolated 
plants. — F. iteule, O. F. esteule, a stalk. 

— Late L. stupula, for L. stipiila, straw. 
See Stubble. 

Etiquette, ceremony. (F.-G.) F. 
itiquette^ a label, ticket, also a form of 
introduction ; cf. M. F. etiqtiet (O. F, 
estiquef)^ ' a little note, such as is stuck 
up on the gate of a court,' &c.; Cot. — 

G. stecken, to stick, put, set, fix ; causal 
of G. stechen, to stick, pierce. See Stick 
(i). Doublet, ticket. 

Etymon, the true source of a word. 
(L. — Gk.) L. eiyjuon. — Gk. ervfiov ; neut. 
of cTVfios, real, true. 

etymology. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. ety- 

mo/ogie.-'L. etymologia.i-Gk. kTVfJio\o'yia^ 
etymology. — Gk. ervpio-s, true; -Ao7m, 
account, from \4y€iv^ to speak. 

Eu-, prefix, well. (Gk.) Gk. eu, well ; 
neut. of €1/?, good. Cf. Skt. vasu, wealth. 

EucailyptllS, a genus of trees, includ- 
ing the blue gum-tree. (Gk.) Latinised 
from Gk. ev, well ; KaXwros, covered, 
surrounded. The reference is to the hood 
protecting the stamens. 

Encliarist, the Lord's Supper, lit. 
thanksgiving. (L. — Gk.) L, eucharistia, 

— Gk. (vxaptfyrla, a giving of thanks. — 
Gk. ev, well ; x^/^'CoA'"', I show favour, 
from x<^P'^j favour. Cf. Yearn. 

Eulogy, praise. (L. — Gk.) From L. 
eulogitim. — Gk. €i»Ao7ta, praise, lit. good 
speaking ; with suffix suggested by L. 
ilogium, an inscription. — Gk. 6u, well ; 
Kk'^div^ to speak. 

Eunuch, one who is castrated. (L.— 
Gk.) L. eunuchus. — Gk. evi/oCxo?, a 
chamberlain ; one who had charge of 
sleeping apartments. — Gk. eu?/?;, a couch ; 
€X€ti', to keep, have in charge. 

Euphemism, a softened expression. 
(Gk.) Gk. ev(pT)ij.i(Tfi6s, the same as eu- 
^T]iJ.ia the use of words of good omen. — 
Gk. €u, well ; (prjui, I speak. (y'BHA.) 

Euphony. (Gk.) Gk. (ixpcovia, a 
pleasing sound. — Gk. cvcpcvvos, sweet- 
voiced. _— Gk. fu, well ; (pojvr}^ voice. 

Euphrasy, the plant eye-bright. (Gk.) 
Supposed to be beneficial to the eyes ; lit. 
* delight.' — Gk. (v(ppaaia^ delight. — Gk. 

€v<ppatv€iv, to delight, cheer ; cf. (vcppwv, 
cheerful. Allied to Gk. cS, well; <ppfv-, 
stem of (ppqv, midriff, heart, mind. 

Euphuism, affectation in speaking. 
(Gk.) So named from a book Etiphues, 
by J. Lyly (1579). — Gk. cu^vi??, well- 
grown, excellent. — Gk. tS, well ; <pvri^ 
growth, from (pvoixai^ I grow. (^BHEU.) 

EurOClydon, a tempestuous wind. 
(Gk.) Gk. fvpoKXvSwv^ supposed to mean 
' a storm from the east.' — Gk. evpo-s, S.E. 
wind; k\v8ojv, surge, from k\v^(iv, to 
surge, dash as waves. % Only in Acts 
xxvii. 14; where some read (vpatevXcov, 
i. e. Eur-aquilo ; from L. Eur-us, E. wind, 
and Aquilo, N. wind. 

Euthanasia, easy death. (Gk.) Gk. 
evOavaaia, easy death: cf. cvBai/aros, dying 
well. — Gk. tS, well ; 6av(iv, to die. 

Evacuate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
euacuare, to empty. — L. e, out ; ztacuus, 

Evade, to shun. (F. — L.) F. ivader. 

— L. euddere (pp. eudsus), to escape. —L. 
#, away ; uddere^ to go. Der. evas-ion 
(from the pp.). 

Evanescent. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L. etidnescere, to vanish away. 

— L. <f, away ; iidnescere^ to vanish, from 
liditus, empty, vain. 

Evangelist, writer of a gospel. (F. — 
L. — Gk.) O. F. evangeliste. — L. euangel- 
ista.^QV.. €ua77€A.£(rTi7S. — Gk. 6ua77€At- 
^o/xat, I bring good news. — Gk. eu, well ; 
d77€Ata, tidings, from a77cA.os, a mes- 
senger ; see Angel. 

Evaporate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
euapordre, to pass off in vapour. — L. <?, 
out ; tiapor^ vapour. 

Evasion ; see Evade. 

Eve, Even, the latter part of the day. 
(E.) Eve is short for even. (For evening^ 
see below.) M. Y.-cue^euen. A. S. ^fen, 
efen.'\-0. Sax. diand^ Du. avond, G. abend. 
Of doubtful origin. Der. even-tide, A. S. 
&fentid. Brugm. i. § 980. 

evening, even. (E.) M-.Y.. euening. 
A. S. &fnung\ formed from &fnian, to 
grow towards evening, with suffix -ting) 
from a/en, even (above). 

Even, level. (E.) M. E. euen {even). 
A. S. efen, e/n.-^Du. even,lce\.Ja/n, Dan. 
j'cevn, Swed.j'dmn, Goth, tdns, G. edefi. 

Event, result. (L.) L. euenttis, euen- 
tuvi, sb. — L. eiienttts, pp. of euenire, to 
come out, result. —L. e, out; uenire, to 
come, allied to Come. 



Sver. (E.) M. E. euer {ever). A. S. 
^fre^Qver. Related to A.S. «, Goth, ahv^ 
ever. Der. ever-lasting^ ever-more. 

every, each one. (E.) M. E. ejie7'i^ 
euerich. — A. S. cefre^ ever ; and celc^ each. 
Ever-y = ever-each ; see Each. 

everywhere. (E.) ]\I. E. eueri- 

hwar.'^K.'^. cefre, ever; gehw&r, where. 
The word really stands for ever-ywhere, 
i. e. ever-where ; j/- is a prefix (=ge-). 

Evict. (L.) From L. eiiict-tcs, pp. of 
euincere^ to evince ; also, to expel. See 

Evident. (F.-L.) O. F. evident.^ 
L. euideni', stem of euidens, visible, pres. 
pt. of etiidere^ to see clearly. — L. <?, out, 
clearly ; uidere, to see. 

Evil. (E.) U.^.etiel. A.S.j)//^/, adj. 
and sb.+Du. envel^ G. iibel, Goth, ubils. 
Teut. type *ubiloz. Prob. allied to over 
(G. iiber), as meaning 'excessive.' 

Evince. (L.) L. /«/«a'r^, to conquer, 
to prove beyond doubt — L. e^ out, ex- 
tremely ; iiincere. to conquer. 

Eviscerate, to gut. (L.) From pp. 
of L. euiscerdre^ to gut. — L. e, out ; 
uiscera, entrails. 

Evoke. (F. — L.) Y. dvoqicer.—l.. euo- 
care, to call forth. — L. ^, forth; uocare^ to 
call. See Vocal. 

Evolve. (L.) L. eiiohiere^ to unroll, 
disclose — L. e^ out ; zwluere, to roll. Der. 
evolut-ion, from pp. enoluhcs. 

Ewe. (E.) M. E. ewe. A. S. ewe, 
Laws of Ine, 55 ; eowti^ a female sheep. -f- 
Du. ooi, Icel. (2r, M. H. G. ouwe ; Lithuan. 
az;/j-, a sheep, Russ. ovtsa, L. ^wzj, Gk. oi'?, 
O. Irish ^z ; Skt. avi-^ a sheep. Cf. Goth. 
azvi-str, a sheep-fold. 

Ewer. (F. — L.) M. E. ewer.-" K.Y. 
ewer^ *eweire ; spelt ewer, Royal Wills, 
pp. 24, 27. —L. aqudriiun, a vessel for 
water; cf. A. F. ezve, water; mod. F. eaii. 
— L. aqua, water. 

Ex-, E-, prefix. (L.) L. ex, e, out. + 
Gk, €K, f^. out; Russ. zV, Lith. isz. 

Exacerbate, to embitter. (L.) From 
pp. of exacerbdre, to irritate. — L. ex, very; 
acerbiis, bitter ; see Acerbity, 

Exact (i), precise. (L.) From L. ex- 
actiis, pp. of exigere, to drive out, weigh 
out. — L. ex, out; and agere, to drive. 

exact (2), to demand. (F. — L.) From 
M. F. exacter; Cot. (obsolete). — Late L. 
txactdre. — L. ex, out ; and actus, pp. of 
agere (above). 

Exaggerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 


exaggerdre, to heap up, amplify. — L. ex^ 
very ; agger, a heap, from ag- = ad, to ; 
gerere, to bring. 

Exalt. (F.-L.) Y. exalter.^'L.exal- 
tdre, to lift out, exalt. — L. ex, out ; altus^ 

Examine, to test. (F.-L.) F. ^x- 

affiiner.-'L,. exdmindre, to weigh care- 
fully. — L. cxdmin-, stem of exdmeii, the 
tongue of a balance, for *exdgmen ; cf, 
exigere, to weigh out. — L. ex, out ; agere, 
to drive, move. Brugm. i. § 768. 

Example. (F.-L.) O.Y. example, 
F. exe7?iple.^'L. exemphim, a sample. — L. 
exim-ere, to take out ; with suffix -him ; 
for the inserted / cf. the pp. exem-p-tiis. — 
L. ex, out ; eiiiere, to take, procure. 

Exasperate, to provoke. (L.) From 
the pp. of cxasperdre, to roughen, provoke. 

— L. ex, very ; asper, rough. 
Excavation. (F. — L.) F. excava- 
tion. ^\^. ace. excaudtidnem, a hollowing 
out. — L. excaiidtus, pp. of excaudre, to 
hollow out. — L. ^x. out ; caudre, to hol- 
low, from cainis, hollow. 

Exceed. (F.-L.) O. F. ^x^^^^;^. — L. 
excedere, lit. to go out. — L. ex, out ; 
cedere, to go. 

Excel, to surpass. (F. — L.) O. F. ex- 
celler. — L. excellere, to rise up, surpass. 

— L. ex, out ; *cellere, to rise, only in 
comp. ante-, ex-,prce-cellere, and in cel-sus, 
high, orig. ' raised.' Cf. Lithuan. ki^lti, 
to raise ; see Hill. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Except, to exclude. (F. — L.) Y. ex- 
cepter, to except ; Cot. — L. exceptdre, 
frequent, of excipcre, to take out. — L. ex, 
out; capere, to take. Der. except, prep.; 

Excerpt, a selected passage. (L.) L. 
excerptnni, an extract ; neut. of pp. of 
excerpere, to select. — L. ex, out; caipere, 
to cull. See Harvest. 

Excess. (F. — L.) O. F. exces,--!.. 
ace. excessum, lit. a going out or beyond. 

— L. excess-, as in excesstis, pp. of exec- 
dere ; see Exceed. 

Exchange. (F.-L.) O.Y.esdmnge, 
sb. ; eschangier, yh., to exchange. — O. F. 
es- « L. .?a') ; and O. F. change, sb., 
changier, to change. See Change. 

Excheq.1ier, a court of revenue. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. eschekere.^'O. F. escheqtiier, 
a chess-board; hence, a checkered cloth 
on which accounts were reckoned by means 
of counters (Low L. scaccdrium).^O.Y. 
eschec, check ; see Check. 




Excise, a duty, tax. (Du.-F.-L.) 
A misspelling of M. Du. aksiis or aksys^ 
excise. [Qi. G. accise^ excise.) — O. K. 
acceis, a tax, given in the N. E. D. ; allied 
to Low L. accTsia (Ducange) ; also spelt 
exsisa (id.). — Late L. accensiis^ a payment, 
rent; cf. accensdre, to tax. — L. ac- (for 
ad,^ to; and census, a tax. ^ For the 
sound-change, cf. Du. spij's, food, from 
Late L. spensa (for dispensa), a larder, 
a spence. 

Excision. (F. — L.) F, excision, 'a 
destroying;' Cot. — L. ace. excisionefn, a. 
cutting out, a destroying. —L. excisus, pp. 
of excidere, to cut out. — L. ex, out ; and 
cadere, to cut. 

Exclaim. (F. — L.) V. exclamer,~.l^. 
exc/dmdrc, to call out. — L. ex, out; cld- 
mdre, to call. See Claim. 

Exclude. (L-) L' excliidere, to shut 
out. — L. ex, out ; claudere, to shut. See 

Excommunicate. (L.) From pp. 

of L. excojumfiiiicdre, to put out of the 
community. —L. ex, out of; comnnmis, 
common. See Communicate. 

Excoriate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
coridre, to strip off skin. — L. ex, off; 
coriiim, hide, skin. See Cuirass. 

Excrement (i). (L.) L. excremen- 
turn, refuse, ordure. —L. excre/us, pp. of 
excei-nere, to separate, sift out. — L. ex, 
out ; cernere, to sift. 

Excrement (2), out-growth. (L.) In 
Shak. From L. excrementtim.'-\j. excre 
tus, pp. oi excrescere, to grow out (below). 

excrescence. (F.— L.) O. F. ^x- 

crescence.-^'L. excrescentia, an outgrowth. 
— L. excrescent-, stem of pres. pt. of ex- 
crescere, to grow out. — L. ex, out ; crescere, 
to grow. See Crescent. 

Excretion. (F. — L.) M. F. excretion ; 
formed (.with suffix -ion^, from L. excretiis, 
pp. oi excerne7-e\ see Excrement (i). 

Excruciate, to torture. (L.) From 
pp. of L. excriicidre, to torment greatly.— 
L. ex, very ; crucidre, to torture on a 
gibbet, from cj-iici-, deal, stem of crux, 
a cross. 

Exculpate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. excuipdre, to clear of blame. — L. ex, 
out of culpa, blame. 

Excursion. (L.) L. excursionem , 
ace. of excursio, a running out. — L. ex- 
cursus, pp. of excii7'rere, to run out. — L. 
ex, out ; currere, to run. 

Excuse. (F. — L.) F. excuser.^'L. 

excusdre, to release from a charge. — L. ex, 
out; and causa, a charge, a cause. 

Execrate. (L.) From pp. of L. exe- 
crdri, for exsec7-drT, to curse greatly. 

— L. ex, greatly ; sacrdre, to consecrate, 
also to declare accursed. — L. sacr-wn, 
neut. of sacer, sacred ; also, accursed. 

Execute. (F. — L.) 0.¥. executer.-' 
L. execiitus, exsecutus, pp. of exsequt, to 
follow out, pursue, perform. — L. ex, out; 
sequi, to follow. 

Exegesis, exposition. (Gk.) Gk. 1^^- 
'y-qcns, interpretation. — Gk. i^rj-yeiadai, to 
explain. — Gk. «£, out; rj^iiaOai, to guide, 
perhaps allied to Seek. Brugm. i. § 187. 

Exemplar. (F.-L.) M.E. exe??i- 
plai7'e.—0.¥. exe77iplaire.^Y,. exeinpld- 
riu7n, late form of exe77iplar, a copy (to 
which the mod. E. word is now conformed). 

— L. exe77ipld7'is, adj., serving as a copy. 

— L. excmpliwi ; see Example. Der. ex- 
e/}iplar-y, from L. exe77ipldris. 

exemplify, to shew by example. (F. 

— L.) A coined word; as if from F. '^ex- 
e7nplifier. — Late L. exe77iplificdre, pro- 
perly 'to copy out.'— L. exc7)ipli-, for ex- 
e77iplu77i, a copy ; Jic-, ioi facei'e, to make. 

Exempt, freed. (F.-L.) 0,Y.ex- 
e/7ipt ; whence exe/7ipter, to exempt, free. 

— L. exe7nptus, pp. of exii7ie7'e, to take 
out, deliver, free. — L. ex, out; e7nere, to 
take. Cf. Lith. i77i-ti, to take. 

Exequies. (F.-L.) O.F. exeques, 
exequies, 'funerals;' Cot. — L. exsequids, 
ace. pi. of exseqtticE, funeral obsequies, lit. 
' followings.' — L. exsequl, to follow out 

— L. ex, out ; sequi, to follow. 
Exercise, sb. (F. — L.) M.E. exe7'' 

cise. — O. F. exe7'cice. — L. exe7'citiu77z, exer- 
cise. —L. exe7'citus, pp. of exercere, to 
drive out of an enclosure, drive on, set at 
work. — L. ex, out; arca'e, to enclose; 
see Ark. Der. exercise, vb. 

Exergue, the small space left beneath 
the base-line of a subject engraved on a 
coin. (F. — Gk.) The final -ue is not 
pronounced ; cLp7'ologue, &c. — F. exe7'gue, 
so called because lying ' out of the work.' 

— Gk. 1^, out of; epyov, work. 
Exert. (L.) Lit, to 'put forth.' L. 

exerttis, belter spelt exsertus, thrust forth ; 
pp. oi exse7-e7-e, to thrust out. — L. ex, out; 
se7'ere, to join, to put. 

Exfoliate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
folid7-e, to strip off leaves ; from ex, off, 
^\\i\ foIiu7n, a leaf. 

Exhale. (F.-L.) Y .exhaler.'^X^.ex- 




hdldre ^io breathe out. — L. ex^ out; hdldre, 
to breathe. 

Exhaust. (L.) From L. exhanstus, 
pp. of exhaurire, to draw out, drink up. — 
L. ex, out ; haiu'ire, to draw water. 

Exhibit, to show. (L.) From L. 
exhibit-US, pp. of exhibere, to hold forth. 
— L. ex, out; habere^ to have. 

Exhilarate, to cheer. (L. - Gk. ; with 
L. prefix.) From pp. of L. exhilardre, to 
gladden greatly. —1.. ex, very; hilaris, 
hilartis, glad, cheerful, from Gk. iXapus, 
cheerful. See Hilarity. 

Exhort. (F.-L.) O.F. ex{h)orte}'.^ 
L. exhortdrf, to encourage greatly. — L. 
ex, out, very ; horidri, to encourage ; see 

Exhume, to disinter. (F.-L.) F. 
exhiitner. — Late L. exhumdre. — L. ^.^, 
out of ; htimiis, the ground. 

Exigent, exacting. (L.) From the 
stem ot pres. pt. of exigere, to exact. —L. 
ex ; and agej-e, to drive. 

Exile, banishment. _(F. - L.) O. F. 
essil; later exit, 'an exile, banishment;' 
Cot. — L. exilium, better exsilium, banish- 
ment ; cf. exsiil, a banished man.— L. ex, 
out of; and (perhaps) sed-ire, to sit, abide. 
Cf. Consul. Der. exile, verb; hence, 
exile, sb. ( = one who is exiled). 

Exist, to continue to be. (L.) L. ex- 
istere, better exsistere, to stand forth, arise, 
be. — L. ex, out ; sistere, to set, stand, from 
stare, to stand. 

Exit. (L.) L. exit, i. e. ' he goes out,' 
used as a stage direction ; 3rd pers. s. pres. 
oi exTre, to go out. — L. ex, out; ire, to 
go. % Exit, departure, is from L. exit- 
us, sb. 

Exodus, departure. (L. - Gk.) L. 
exodus. — Gk. e^oSos, a going out. — Gk. 1^, 
out ; oSo?, a way, a march. (-y'SED.) 

Exogen, a plant that increases out- 
wardly. (F. — Gk.) F. exogene (iSis"). 
From Gk. e^-cu, outside, from l£, out; and 
7f v-, base of -yiyveaOai, to be born. 

Exonerate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
onerdre, to free from a burden. — L. ex, 
away ; onerdre, to burden, from otier- 
(for *ones-), stem oi onus, a burden. 

Exorbitant, extravagant. (F. — L.) 
F. exorbitant. -^l^. exorbitant-, stem of 
pres. pt. of exorbitdre, to fly out of a 
track. — L. ex, out; orbita, a track of a 
wheel, from orbi-, stem of orbis, a wheel, 
with suffix -ta. 

Exorcise. (L. — Gk.) J^ateL. exor- 

cfzdre. ^Gk. f^opKi^dv, to drive away by 
adjuration. — Gk. e^, away; opKi^nv, to 
adjure, from opito^, an oath. 

Exordium. (L.^ L. exordium, a be- 
ginning. —L. exordlrl, to begin, to weave. 

— L. ex; and ordiri, to begin, weave. 
Exoteric, external. (^Gk.) Gk. f^cure- 

piKu'i, external. — Gk. (^wTtpoj, more out- 
ward, comp. of adv. e^o;, outward, from 
e£, out. 

exotic, foreign. (L. — Gk.) L. exdti- 
ats.-^Gk. f^ojTiKus, outward, foreign.— 
Gk. e^cu, adv., outward, from e^, out. 

Expand. (L.) L. expanders (pp. ex- 
pansus), to spread out. — L. ex, out; pand- 
ere, to spread out ; causal from patere, to 
lie open. Cf. Gk. ttItvtjijii, I spread out. 
Der. expanse, from the pp. 

Expatiate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expatidrt, better exspatidrl, to wander.— 
L. ex, out ; spatidri, to roam, from 
spatium, space. 

Expatriate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. expatridre, to banish. — L. ex, out of; 
pairia, native country, from pater, father. 

Expect. (L.) L. expectdre, better ex- 
spectdre, to look for anxiously. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; spectdre, to look, frequenta- 
tive of specere, to see. 

Expectorate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expectordre, to expel from the breast. — L. 
ex, out of; pector- (for *pectos), stem of 
pectus, the breast. 

Expedite. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
pedlre, to extricate the foot, release, get 
ready. — L. ex, out ; ped-, stem oi pes, foot. 
Der. expedient, from the stem of the pres. 

Expel. (L.) L. expellere, to drive out. 

— L. ex, out; pellere, to drive. Der. ex- 
pulsion, O. F. expulsion, L. ace. expul- 
sionem, from pp. cxpuls-tis. 

Expend, to spend. (L.) L. expendere^ 
to weigh out, lay out. — L. ex, out ; pen- 
dere, to weigh. Der. expense^ from A.F. 
expense, L. expensa, money spent, fem. of 
pp. expensus ; expend it -twe, from Late L. 
expenditus, a mistaken form of the pp. ex- 

Experience, knowledge due to trial. 
(F. — L.) O.Y. experience. — L. experientia, 
a proof, trial. — L. experient-,?XQTCi of pres. 
pt. of expertri, to make a thorough trial 
of (below). Der. experi-ment, M. F. ex- 
periment, L. expe7-lmentum, a trial. 

expert, experienced. (F. — L.) O. F. 
expert. •'l-,. expertus, pp. of experu'i, to 



make full trial of. — L. ex, thoroughly; 
and *pertrT, an obs. vb. of which the pp. 
peritus is common. See Peril. 

Expiate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
pid7-e, to atone for fully. -■ L. ex, fully ; 
pidre, to propitiate, from pius, devout. 

Expire. (F. — L.) O.F. expirer. — \.. 
expTrdre, exspTrdfe, to l)reathe out, die.— 
L. ex, out ; spirdre, to breathe. 

IiXplain. (F. — L.) M. F. explaner, 
Cot. — L. expldndre, to make plain. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; pldndre, to make plain, lit. to 
flatten, from planus, flat. See Plain 

Expletive. (L.) L. expletluns, filling 
np. — L. expletus, pp. of explere, to fill 
up. — L. ex^ fully ; pie re, to fill. See 

Explicate, to explain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. explicdre, to unfold, explain.— 
L. ex, out; plicdre, to fold. 

explicit. (L') L- explicitus, old pp. 
of explicdre, to unfold, make plain (above) . 
Cf. F. explicite. 

Explode, to drive away noisily, burst. 
(F. — L.) M. F. exploder, 'to explode, 
publicly to disgrace or drive out ; ' Cot. — 
L. exploder e (pp. explosus), to drive off 
the stage by noise (the old sense in E.l. 
— L. ex, away; plodere, plandere, to 
clap hands. Der. explos-ive, -ion, from 
the pp. 

Exploit. (F.— L.) M. E. esploit, %ViZ- 
cess, Gower, C. A. ii. 258. — O. F. esploit, 
revenue, profit ; later, an exploit, act. — L. 
explicitum, a thing settled, ended, or dis- 
played; neut. ol explicitus; see explicit. 
Cf. Late L. explicta, revenue. 

Explore. (F. — L.) F. explorer.'—!., 
explordre, to search out, make to flow 
out. — L. ex, out ; plordre, to make to flow. 
Cf. de-plore, implore. Brugm. i. § 154. 

Exponent. (L.") L. exponent-, stem 
of pres. pt. of exponere, to expound, indi- 
cate. —L. ex, out; ponere, to put. 

Export. (L.) L. expoiidre, to carry 
away. — L. ex, away ; portdre, to carry. 

Expose. (F. — L. and Gk.) O. F. ex- 
poser, to lay out. — O. F. ex- (L. ex), out ; 

¥. poser, to place, lay. See Pose (i"). 
Exposition. (F.-L.) F. exposition. 

— L. ace. expositidnem. — 'L. expo situs, pp. 

of exponere, to set forth, expound. See 

Expostulate. (L.^i From pp. of L. 

expostuldre, to demand earnestly. — L. ex, 

fully ; postuldre, to ask. 
Expound. (L.) The d is excrescent, 

but was suggested by the form of the O. F. 
infinitive. M. E. expounen. — O. F. es- 
pondre, to explain. — L. exponere, to set 
forth, explain. — L. ex, out; ponere., to 
put. See Exposition. 

Express, adj., exactly stated. (F. — L.) 
O.F. expres.'^L,. expressus, distinct; pp. 
of cxprimere, to press out. — L. ex^ out; 
premere, to press ; see Press. 

Expulsion ; see Expel. 

Expunge. (L.) L. expungere, to 
prick out, blot out. [In MSS., expunction 
of a word is denoted by dots under zV.]- L. 
ex, out ; ptmgere, to prick. Der. ex- 
punct-ion, from the pp. expunctus. 

Expurgate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
expurgdj-e, to purify thoroughly. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; purgdre, to purge, purify ; see 

Exquisite, sought out, excellent. (L.) 
L. exqutsittis, pp. of exquirere, to seek 
out. — L. ex, out ; qticerere, to seek. 

ExsequieS ; see Exequies. 

Extant, existing. (L.) Late L. ex- 
tant-, stem of extans, for exstans, pres. pt. 
of exstdre, to stand forth, exist. — L. ex, 
out ; stdre, to stand, 

Extasy ; see Ecstasy. 

Extempore. (L.) From L. ex tem- 
pore, at the moment. — L. ex, from, out of; 
tempore, abl. oitempus, time. 

Extend. (L.) M. E. extenden. — 'L. 
extendere, to stretch out ; pp. extentus, 
extensus. — L. ex, out ; tendere, to stretch. 
Der, extens-ion, ~ive (from the pp.). 

extent. (F,-L.) O. F. extente, 
commonly estente, extent. — Late L. ex- 
tenta, fem. of extentus, pp. of extendere 

Extenuate. (L.^) From pp. of L. ex- 
tenudre, to thin, reduce, palliate. — L. ^x, 
out, very ; tenu-is, thin. See Thin. 

Exterior, outward. (F. — L.) For- 
merly exteriour. — M. F. exterieur. — L. ex- 
tcriorem, ace. of exterior, outward, com- 
parative of extents or exter, outward. — L. 
ex, out; with compar. suffix -tero-. 

Exterminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
exterinindre, to put or drive beyond 
bounds. —L. ex, out; /^rw/«// J, boundary. 

External, outward. .L.) From L, 
extern-Its, outward, extended form from 
extej'tis, outward. See Exterior. 

Extinguish. (L,) C( ined, with suffix 
-ish,ivova L. extinguere, hetier exstinguere 

(pp. extinctus, exstinctus), to quench.— 

L. ex, out ; '^stinguere, to prick, also to 




quench. Ti&r. extinct (from ^]).exti)!Clus). 
Cf. Distinguish. 

Extirpate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
lirpdre, to root out, better spelt exstirp- 
are, to pluck up by the stem. — L. ex, out; 
stirp-s, stirp-es, the stem of a tree. 

Uxtol. (L ) L- extollere, to lift or 
raise up. — L. ex, out, up ; iollere, to lift. 

lEiXtort. (L.) L. extort-us, pp. of ex- 
torquere, to twist out, wring out. — L. ex^ 
out ; torqtieie, to twist. 

Extra. (L.) L. extra, beyond, beyond 
what is necessary ; O. L. extrdd, allied to 
L. exter ; see Exterior. 

extraneous. (L.) L- extrCxne-tis, 
external, with suffix -ous ; extended from 
extra (above). Cf. Strange. 

Extract, vb. (L.) L. extract-tis, pp. 
of extrahere, to draw out. — L. ex^ out; 
trahere, to draw. 

Extraordinary. (L.) \.. extra- ordi- 

vdrius, beyond what is ordinary, rare. — L. 
extra, beyond ; ordindritis, ordinary. See 

Extravagant. (F. — L.) F. extra- 
vagant. —Y^t^X^ L. extravagant-, stem of 
extrdvagans , extravagant, lit. wandering 
beyond.— L. extra, beyond; ztagans, pies. 
pt. of uagdrf, to wander. 

Extravasate, to force (blood) out of 
its (proper) vessel. (L.) Coined from 
extrd, beyond ; Jicfs, a vessel ; with suffix 

Extreme. (F. — L.) O. F. extreme. — 
L. extremus, superl. of extents, outward ; 
see Exterior. 

Extricate. (L-) From pp. of L. ex- 
tricdre, to disentangle. — L. ex, out of ; 
triccE, impediments, perplexities. 

Extrinsic, external. (F. — L.) It should 
rather be extrinsec.'-O. F. extrinseque, 
outward. —Late L. ace. extrinsectim, adj.; 
allied toL. extrinsecus, adv., from without. 
— L. extrin { = '^exti'iiH), adverbial form 
from exter^ outward ; and sectis, beside; 
so that extrinsecus — on the outside; cf. 
interim. Secus is allied to secu7idum, 
according to, from sequT, to follow ; see 

Extrude. (L.) L. extrudere, to 
tiirust out. — L. ex, out ; trudere, to 
thrust. Cf. Intrude. 

Exuberant. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of L. exicberdre, to be fruitful or 
luxuriant. — L. ex, very ; and uberdre, to be 
fruitful, from uber, fertile, allied to uher, 
an udder, fertility ; see Udder. 

Exude. (L.) Yxova L. exuddre, better 
exsuddre, to sweat out, distil. — L. ex, out; 
suddre, to sweat. See Sweat. 

Exult, to leap for joy. (F.-L.) F. 
exulter. — L. exnltdre, better spelt exsul- 
tdre, to leap up, exult. — L. exsjiltns, pp. 
of exsilTre, to leap out. — L. ex, out; satire, 
to leap. See Salient. 

Exuvise, cast skins of animals. (L.) 
L. eximicE, things stripped off. — L. exuere, 
to strip off. Cf. induiiice, clothes. 

Eyas, a nestling. (F.-L.) Yoxnias; 
by substituting an eyas for a nias.^Y. 
niais, a nestling ; Cot. He also gives 
niard, whence /atilcon niard, ' a nias faul- 
con.' Cp. Ital. nidiace, or nidaso falcone, 
• an eyase-hawk, a young hawk taken out 
of her nest; ' Torriano. Formed as if from 
Late L. '^niddcem, ace. of *nidax, adj. 
from L. nidus, a nest. See Nest. 

Eye. (E.) M.E. eye, eighe; pi. eyes, 
eyen (whence tyiie). O. Merc, ege; A. S. 
cage, pi. eagan.-^-X^Vi. oog, Icel. auga, Dan. 
01 e, Swed. oga, Goth, augo, G. atige. 
Perhaps allied to Russ. oko, L. oculus 
(dimin. of *ocus) ; Gk. oWe (dual) ; Lith. 
akis, Skt. akshi. Brugm. i. § 68 1. Der. 
dais-y, q. v. ; window, q. v. 

Eyelet-hole. (F.-L.; and Y.,^ 

Eyelet is for M. E. oilet^ from M. F. 
oeillet, ' a little eye, an oilet hole,' Cot. ; 
dimin. of O. F. oeil, from L. oculum, ace. 
oi oculus, eye. 

Eyot, a little island. (E ) Also spelt 
ait, eyet, eyght. Late A. S. yget (Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. V. 17, 1. 30); for A. S. igotS, 
igeoQ, a dimin. from Tg, leg, an island ; see 

Eyre, a circuit. (F.-L.) M.E. <fzVr, 
circuit, esp. of a judge. — O. F. eire, 
journey, Avay. — O. F. eirer, to journey, 
wander about. — Late L. iterdre, to journey 
(for L. itincrdre) ; from L. iter, a journey. 
See Errant. 

Eyry, a nest ; see Aery. 

Pable, a story. (F.-L.) Y.fable.^ 
l^.fdbula, a narrative. — L./^-rz, to speak, 
tell. See Fate. 

Fabric. (F.-L.) F. fabrique.^l.. 
fabrica, workshop, fabric. — L. fabri-, for 
faber, a workman. From L. base fab-, 
to be skilful ; cf. Lith. dab-init, 1 adorn, 

77 G 


clean ; Goth, ga-dab-ith, it is fit ; Russ. 
dob-ruii, good. See Deft. Der. fabric- 
ate, from pp. oil^.fabricdrt, to construct; 
ixom fabrica (above). Brugm. i. § 563. 
Facade, face of a building. (F. — Ital. 
-L.) M. ¥. facade (Cot.). - It^X.facciata, 
face of a building. — Ital. _/^^t:/^, face. — 
YoYk-L,. facia, for L,. fades (below). 

face. (F. - L.) F. face. - Folk-L. 
facia, for Y,. fades, the face, appearance. 

Facetious. (F.-L.) F. facetieux 
(Cot.). — M. Y.facetie, ' witty mirth,' id. — 
L. facetia, wit ; common in pi. — L. face- 
tus, witty, courteous ; orig. ' fine.' 

Facile, easy to do. (F\ — L.) F. 
facile. — lu.facilis, i. e. do-able. — 'L.facere, 
to do. Der. facility ; faculty. 

fac-sixnile. (L-) ^ox fac simile, 
make thou like. — L./af, imp. s. oi facer e, 
to make ; simile, neut. of similis, like ; 
see Similar. ^ We also find factum 
simile, i. e. made like. 

fact, a deed, reality. (L.) L. factum, 
a deed ; orig. neut. oifactus, pp. oifacere, 
to make, do. 

faction. (F. — L.) Y. fact ion, a sect. 

— L. f actionem, ace. of f actio, a doing, 
taking part, faction. — L. factics, pp. of 
facere, to do. 

factitious. (L.) 'L.factlti-us, artifi- 
cial ; with suffix -ous.^Ij. f actus, pp. of 
facere, to make. 

factotum. (L.) A general agent.— 
'L.fac{ere) totum, to do everything. 

faculty, facility to act. (F.-L.) 
M. E. facultee.'-Y. faculte.'-'L. facultd- 
tern, ace. oi facultas {—facilitas), facility. 

— L. facilis, easy ; see Facile. 

Pad, a folly. (F.-Prov.-L.) Ap- 
parently shortened from Y .fadaise, fiddle- 
faddle; cf.'y^<3'^j'(?j', follies, toyes, fooleries ;' 
Cot.-Prov. fadeza, folly (Hatzfeld).- 
Frov.fat (Gasconyij:^), foolish. — L,.fatuus, 

Fade,vb. (F.-L.) O.Y. fader; from 
F. fade, adj., tasteless, weak, faint. — L. 
uapidum, ace. of iiapidus, vapid. See 
Vapid. % Vade, ioxfade, is from M. Du. 
vadden; irora. O. Y. fader. 

Fadge, to fit, suit, be content with, 
succeed. (E.) Formed, in some unex- 
plained way, from the Teut. fag-, to 
suit, whence also O. Sax. fogian, A. S. 
fegan, to join, suit, M. E. fe)en, to adapt, 
fit, G. fiigen, Du. voegcn (see Kluge and 
Franck). Cf. Goth, fulla-fahfan, to 
satisfy, O. H. G. gifag, content, Du. vage- 



fuur, cleansing fire, purgatory. See 

Faeces. (L.) L. fceces, dregs; pi. of 
fcBx, the same. Der. fec-ulent, L. fac-u- 
letittis, adj. iromfcEX. 

Fag, to drudge. (E. ?) 'To fag, defi- 
cere ; ' Levins (1570^ The orig. sense was 
'to droop.' Perhaps a corruption oiflag; 
see Flag (i) ; and see below. 

Fag-end, remnant. (E. ?) In Mas- 
singer, Virg. Mart. ii. 3. Perhaps for 
fag-end =\oose end; see above. Cf. 'the 
fagg or the faggfeder is ' (feathers) ; Book 
of St. Albans, fol. B i a. 
Faggot, Fagot. (F.-Ital.-L.?) 

F. fagot, ' a fagot, a bundle of sticks ; ' 
Cot. Of doubtful origin ; perhaps bor- 
rowed from Ita.\. fagotto, 'a faggot,' Florio; 
or (\\ke fagotto) from 'Norw. fagg, a bundle 

Fail. (F. -L.) F. faillir ; cf. Ital. 
/a///r^. - Folk-L. fallire, ioxL.fallere, to 
beguile, also, to be defective ; falli, to err. 
Brugm. i. § 757. 

Fain. (E.) M.E.fayn. A.S.fcsgen, 
glad.+O. Sax. fagan, Icel. feginn, glad. 
Cf. A. S. gefeon (pt. t. gefeah), to rejoice. 
Teut. root *feh-., as in A. S. ge-feon (for 
*-feh-an); cf. Goih. fah-eths, ]0y. 

Faint. (F.-L.) M. E. >?«/.- O. F. 

feint, weak, pretended ; orig. pp. of 
feindre, to iti^.^-l.. fingere, to form, 
feign. See Figure. 

Fair (i), pleasing, beautiful. (E.) 
M. E. fayr, A. S. fceger, fair. + 1 eel. fagr', 
Dan. "SweCL. fager,Goi\\. fagrs, fit,O.H.G. 
fagar. Teut. type *fagroz. Cf. Gk. 7r^7- 
vvpn.1 I fasten. Brugm. i. §§ 200, 701. 

Fair (2), a holiday. (F.-L.) M. E. 
feh-e. — A. F. feire (F. foire). — l^.feria, a 
holiday, later, a fair; commoner as pi. 
ferice, for *fes-icB, feast-days; allied to 
Feast. Brugm. ii. § 66. 

Fairy. (F. — L.) M-.Y. faerie, fay rye, 
enchantment. [The mod. use of the word 
is new ; fairy = enchantment, the old 
word for 'elf hdug fay.'] ^ O.Y. faerie j 
enchantment. -O. Y.fae, a fay; see Fay. 

Faith. (F.-L.) M. E. feith; also 
fey. Slightly altered from O. Y.feid,fei, 
faith. -L.7fr/<?w, ace. oi fides, ia.\\.h.; allied 
to fidere, to trust. Cf. Gk. mans, faith. 
(VBHEIDH.) Allied to Bide. Brugm. 
i. § 202. 

Falchion, a sword. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
M. E. fauchon. - O. F. fauchon. - Ital. 
falcione ici pron. as t/^). — Late Y.. falcio- 




ncni, ace. oi falcio, a bent sword. — L. 

falci-, decl. stem oifalx, a sickle. Allied 

io Jiectere, to Lend. 

falcon. (K.-L.) M.E. faucon.^ 

O. F./aucon./atdcou.'-'La.te L. falconem, 

ace. oi faico, a falcon, so named from its 

hooked claws.— L. /a/;:-, stem oi falx, a 

Faldstool, a foldino^-stool. (Low L. — 

O. H. G.) Low l^.faldistolium. - O. H. G. 
fald-an^ to fold ; stuol kG. sitihl), a stool. 

Cf. Y .fatiteuil. See Fold. 
Fall, to drop down. (E.) M. Y.. fallen. 

O. Merc, falian ; A. S. fea/lan.'^Dn. val- 

len, lce\.falla, T)ax\.falile (for/a//^),Swed. 
falla, G. faliejt. Teut. */a//an-. Cf. Lith. 
piilti^ to fall ; and perhaps L. fallere, to 

deceive, falll, to err. Brugm. i. § 757. 

Der. bc-fall, from A. S. be-fealian^ to fall 

out, happen ; fell (l). 
Fallacy, vl"- — LO Formed by adding 

-y to M. E. fallace, a fallacy, deceit. — F. 
fallace.—Yj. falldcia, deceit. —L. fallac-, 

stem oifallax^ deceitful. —L. fallere^ to 

deceive. See above. 

fallible. (L.) L. fallibilis, liable 

to err. — L. falli, to err; fallere, to de- 
Fallow (i), orig. ' harrowed ; ' of land, 

(E.) A. '^i. fcelging, fallow-land. —A. S. 
fealh, a harrow. Cf. E. Fries, falgen, to 

fallow land ; O. H. G.felgd, a harrow. 
Fallow (2\ used with reference to 

colour. (E.) O. Mere, fain ; A. S. feahi, 
fealo, pale red. yellowish. -f-Du. vaal, Icel. 
y^/r, pale, G. fahl, pnle, also falb ; Lith. 
palvas ; cf. also L. pallidns^ Gk. TroAtoy, 
gray, ^kt. pallia-, gray. See Pale. 

False. CF.-L.) M. E. fals. - O.F. 
fals {¥ . faux).^!^. falsus, false; j^p. of 
fallere, to deceive. 

Falter, to totter, stammer. (E. ?) 
M. E. faltren, to totter ; frequentative 
from a base fait-. Of obscure origin. 
Perhaps connected with Icel. refl. vb. 
faltra-sk, to be cumbered, to be puzzled. 

Fame, report. (F. - L.) F. fame. - L. 
fdma, report. — L. fari^ to speak ; see 

Family. (F.-L.) F. famille.^l.. 
familia, a household. — L. fanmlus^ a 
servant, Oscan famel ; cf. Oscan faamal, 
he dwells. Tiev.fainili-ari^.famiiidris'). 

Famine. (F. - L.) F. fa7nme. - Late 
L. famina, unrecorded, but plainly an 
extension from L. fames, hunger. Der. 
fam-ish^ formed (by analogy with lan- 

guish, &c.) from L. favi-es, hunger; cf. 
O. F. afai7ier, to die of hunger. 

Fan, an instrument for blowing. (L.) 
A. S. /aw;/. — Late L. vannus, L. tianmis, 
a fan (whence also F. van); see Van (2). 
Ih-ugm. i. § 357. 

Fanatic, religiously insane. (F. — L.) 
Y . fanatiqtie.'~\.. fdndticiis , (1) belonging 
to a temple, (2) inspired by a divinity, 
enthusiastic. — L. yiz;/?^;//, a temple; see 

Fancy. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for M.E. 
fantasie. — O. F. J'antasie. — Late L. phan- 
tasia. — GV. (pavraoia, a making visible 
(hence, imagination). — Gk. (\)avTa^(:iv, to 
display ; see Phantom. 

Fandango, a Spanish dance. (Span.) 
Span, fandaiigo, ' a dance used in the W. 
Indies ; ' Pineda (1740). 

Fane, a temple. (L.) L. fdmim, a 
temple ; shortened from an earlier form 
fasnom ; cf. Oscan fisnain, a temple ; 
allied to 'L.festus,feria. Brugm. ii. § 66. 
Fanfare, a tlourish of trumpets. (F.— 
Span. ?) F. fanfare. Prob. of imitative 
origin, or borrowed from ^pan. fa nfarrza, 
bluster, vaunting, which is of similar for- 
mation. JiQX.fanfarr-on-ade, bluster. 

Fang, a talon, claw. (E.) A. 'S.fajig; 
lit. a seizing. — A. S. ^fohan, to seize, only 
used in the contracted form fon, pt. t. 
feng, pp. gtfangen ; the pp. form having 
alone survived, evolving an infin. mood 
in dialects.+Du. vangen, to catch; Icel. 
fd (cf faiJgi sb., a catch of fish), Dan. 
faae, Swed. y'a, Go\h. fdhan, G, fan gen ^ 
to catch, fang, sb., a catch, also a fang. 
Allied to h. pangere ; Erugm. i. § 421. 

Fantastic. (Gk.) Gk. cpavTaariKos, 
able to represent or shew. — Gk. (pavrd^dP, 
to display. See Fancy. 
Fantasy, older form of Fancy, q. v. 
Faquir, Fakir, an Oriental religious 
mendicant. (F. — Arab.) Y .faquir fakir. 
^ Ar^h.faqtr, one of a religious order of 
mendicants; lit. 'poor, indigent;' Richard- 
son's Diet. p. 1096. 

Far. (E.) U.Y.fer. A.^.feor.-^-T^w, 
ver, \cQ\.fjarri, S>-wtd. fjerra^t, adv., Dan. 
fern, G. fern; G oih.. fairra. a.(l\. Allied 
to Gk. vipav, beyond ; Skt. paras, beyond, 
para-, far. (y'PER.") The conxp. farther 
[for M. E. ferrer (i. e. far-er)~\ is due to 
confusion V{\i\\fti7-ther, comp. of Forth. 

Farce. (F. — L.) The orig. sense is 
' stuffing ' ; hence, a jest inserted into a 
comedy. — F. farce, stuflBng, a farce. — F. 



farcif, to stuff. — L,. /arc D'e, to stuff.-|-Gk. 
(ppaoodv (for *(ppaK-yHv), to shut in. 

Fardel, a pack, bundle. (F. — Arab.) 
M. E. fardel. "O. F. fardel (F. fardeaii). 
Dimin. of O. F. farde, a burden. Prob. 
from Arab, fardah, a package (Devic). 
Perhaps borrowed through Spanish ; of. 
S)Y)zn. fardel, far do, a bundle. 

Fare, to travel, speed. (E.) A. S. 
faran, to go, travel. 4* D"' varen, Icel. 
Swed. fara, Dan. fare, G. fahrett, Goth. 
faran, to go; Teut. farait- (pt. t. *fdr). 
Cf. Gk. TTo^fuo/xat, I travel ; L. experior^ 
I pass through, Skt. pr, to bring over. 
( VPER.) Der. fare-well, i. e. may you 
speed well ; thoroughfare, a passage 
through ; tvelfare, successful practice or 

Farina, ground corn. (L.) 1.. farina, 
meal. — L. far, a kind of grain ; allied to 
Barley. Ttev. farinaceous, from l^.farmd- 
ceus. Brugm. i. § i8o. 

farrago. (L.) L. fan-ago, mixed 
food for cattle, a medley. — L. ^/izr (gen. 
farr-is), grain (above). 

Farm. (F. - L.) [A. S. feorm\ 
A. F. and O. F. fer?/ie, a farm. — Late 
1.. fir ma, a feast, farm, tribute; fem. of L. 
firmiis, durable. (From the fixed rent ; 
also food, from its support?) See Firm. 

Farrier. (F. — L.) Formerly /^rr/Vr. 
a worker in iron. — O. F.ferrier (the same) . 
"la.ferrarius, a blacksmith. — L./^rrz^w, 

Farrow, to litter pigs. (E.) From the 
sb. farrow, a litter of pigs. — A. S. fearh, 
a pig ; pi. fear as. + M. H. G. vajxh, a 
pig; G.ferk-el: 'L.porcus; see Pork. 

Farther ; see Far. 

Farthing, fourth part of a penny. 
(E.) M. \L.ferthing. A. ^.f erring, f cor- 
ding, older form feorpiing.-' A. S. feord-a, 
fourth; with dimin. suffix -ing or -l-ing. 
Allied to A. S. feoiver. four. 

Farthingale, Fardingale, a 

hooped petticoat. (F. — Span. — L.) M.F. 
verdugalle, 'a vardingall ; ' Cot. — Span. 
verdugado, a farthingale, lit. ' provided 
with hoops.' — Span, verdiigo, young shoot 
of a tree, rod, hoop. — Span, verde, green. 

— L. tiiridis, green. See Verdant. 
Fascinate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

fascindre, to enchant. — L. fascinu??i, a 

Fascine, a bundle of rods. (F. — L.) 
F. fascine. — h. fascina, a bundle of twigs. 

— h.fascis, a bundle. 


Fashion. (F. - L.) O. F. faceon, 
fachon, make, shape. — L. factionem, ace. 
of f actio, a making ; see Faction. 

Fast (I), firm. (E.) A.S. /^.y/. + Du. 
vast, Dan. Swed. /a j/, \c&\. fastr, G.fest; 
Armen. hast. i)er. fast (2), fast (3). 
Brugm. ii. § 79. 

fast (2), to abstain from food. (E.) 
A.S. fcsstan, orig. to make fast, observe, 
be strict ; from fcest (above). 4-Du. vasten, 
Dan. faste, Swed. and Icel. fasta, G. 
fasten ; Qo\h.. fastan, to observe, fast. 

fast (3), quick. (Scand.) A peculiar 
use of fast (i) above ; this use is Scand. 
Cf. Icel. drekka fast, to drink hard, sofa 
fast, to be fast asleep, fastr i verkum, 
hard at work, fylg/'a fast, to follow fast, &c. 
It means firm, close, urgent, quick. 

fasten. (E.) A.S.fcestjtian,\.om2ke 
fast or firm. — A. S.fsst, firm. 

fastness. (E.) ^LE. festnes, fast- 
ness, orig. ' strength.' — A. S. fastness, the 
firmament, a fastness; orig, that which is 
firm. — A. S.fcest, firm. 
Fastidious. (L.) L.fastrdiosus, dh- 
dainfuh — L./astrdittm, loathing; perhaps 
for *fastutidinm (Vanicek). — L. fastu-s, 
arrogance ; tcBdinm, disgust ; so fh^tfasti- 
diiim = arrogant disgust. 
Fastness ; see Fast. 
Fat ( I ), gross. (F.) M.E.fatt,fet,fat. 
A. S. fett, orig. a pp., contr. from *fated, 
fattened, enriched.+O. H. G. feizit (G. 
feist), pp. of a Teut. vb. *faitjan-, formed 
from Teut. adj. *faitoz, which is represented 
by Icel. feitr (Swed. fet, Dan. feet), fat. 
Cf. Gk. 77 tW, Skt. pivan, fat. 
Fat (2), a vat ; see Vat. 
Fate, destiny. (F. -L.) M. E. fate. - 
O. F. fat, fate (not common). — L. fdtum, 
what is spoken; neut. of pp. of far! , to 
speak. + Gk. cp-qi-d, I say. Perhaps allied_to 
Boon (i). Brugm. i. § 187. (yBHA.) 
Father. (E.) _ M. E. fader. A. S. 
fxder. The pron. with th is due to dialectal 
influences. + Icel. y^5zV, Du. vader, Dan. 
Swed. fader, Goth, fadar, G. vater, L. 
pater, Gk. var-qp, O. Irish athir, Pers. 
pidar, ^ki. pitr. Idg. type '^pater-. 

Fathom. "(E.) "^l.E. fadme. A. S. 
fcE6?Ji, the space reached by the extended 
arms, a grasp, embrace. +Du. vadein, Icel. 
faQmr, a fathom, Yi^n.favn, ^wed. fa?)in, 
an embrace, G. faden. Allied to Patent. 
Fatigue, sb. (F.-L.) O. Y. fatigue; 
from fotiguer, to vfeo.xy. — 'L. fatigdre, to 



Fatuous. (L.) L. fatu-tis, silly, 
feeble ; v\ ith suffix -ous. Der. in-fatuate, 
from pp. of L. infatiidre, to make a 
fool of. 

Fauces. (L.) L.yaz<r<?'j-, pi., the upper 
part of the throat. 

Faucet, a spigot, vent. (F. - L. ?) 
F. fausset, a faucet ; faulset, Cot. 
Origin unknown ; but of. M. F. faidser, 
to falsify, forge ; also faulser tin escu, to 
pierce a shield ; hence, to pierce. — L. 
falsdre, to falsify. — L.yi7/jz/.r, false. 

Fault. (F. — L. ) Pormerly fatit. 
M. Y.. fautc— 0.¥ . faute, a fault. (Span, 
and Ital./a/M, a defect.) - Folk-L. *fallita, 
a defect, fern, of *falliijis, new pp. of 
fallere, to deceive ; cf. F. faillir. See 
Fail, Fallible, False. Hence also O. F. 
fauter. Span, faltar, Ital. faltai'e, to be 

Faun, a rural (Roman) deity. (L.) L. 
faunus. — l^. faiia'e, to be propitious (?) 

Fauteuil, an arm-chair. (F. — Low L. 
-O. H. G.) F. faiiteuil, O. F. fatddc- 
Hteil (Cot.). — Low \-,.faldistdlhan, a fald- 
stool ; see Faldstool. 

Favour, sb. (F.-L.) O.Y. favow. 
— \-..faudrein^ ace. of yizz^^^r, favour. — L. 
faiiere, to befriend, orig. ' to venerate.' 

favourite. (F. - Ital. - L.) M. F. 

favorite cf. Y.favori, pp. of O. Y.favorir, 
to favour. But the final / is really due to 
borrowing from ItdiX.favorilo, pp. and sb. ; 
orig. pp. of favorire, to favour. — Ital. 
favore, {avouT. — 'L./azwrem (above). 

Fawn (i), to cringe to, re:joice servilely 
over. (E.) A. 'i. fahnian , fagnian, to re- 
joice ; variants oi fcegcnian, to fawn, from 
fcegen, fain, glad.-f-Icel. /a^wa, to rejoice, 
welcome one ; allied to feginn, fain. See 

Fawn (2), a young deer. (F.-L.) 
O. F. fan, faon, earlier feon, a fawn ; 
answering to a Late L. form *fetdnem 
fnot found), ace. of *felo, a young one. — 
Y.fetns, foetus, offspring. See Fetus. 

Fay, a fairy. (F.-L.) F. /^^, O. F. 
fae, a fay, Cf. Port, fada, Ital. fata, a 
fay. — Late L. fata, a fate, goddess of 
destiny, a fay. — L. fata, pi. of L. fdtitm, 
fate. See Fate. Dev. fai-ry. 

Fealty, true service. (F.-L.) O. F. 
fealt3,feelteit, fidelity. - l^.fideHtatem, ace. 
oi fidelitds, fidelity. — L. Jj'^^/zi-, faithful; 
irovsx fides, faith. 

Fear. (E.) M. E. feer. A. S. f<£r, a 
sudden peril, danger, fear. Orig. used of 

the peril of travelling.- A. S. far-, 3rd 
stem of faraji, to go, travel. + Icel. far, 
harm, G. gefahr, Du. gevaar, danger. Cf. 
L. perJailufii, danger. 
Feasible, easy to be done. (F.-L.) 
[Alio feisable.']~-'b,\..¥. faisihle, faisable, 
'feasible, doable;' Cot. — O. F, /«?>-, as 
\n fais-ant, pres. pt. oi faire, to do. — L. 
facere, to do. See Fact. 

Feast. (F. - L.) M. E. feste. - O. F. 
feste (F.y?/^). — Late Y.festa, fem. sb.— L. 
fcsta, lit. festivals, pi. of festum. See 

Feat, a deed well done. (F.-L.) M.E. 
feet, fete. - A. F. fet ; O. F. fait. - L. fac- 
tum, a deed; see Fact. 

Feather. (E.) "^.Y. f ether. A.S. 
felier. -f- Du. veder, Dan. feeder, Swed. 
fader, Icel. fjodr, G. feder\ L. penna 
(for ^pet'Sna), Skt. patra-, Gk. v7f puv, a 
wing. See Pen. (y'PET.) 

Feature, make, form. (F. - L.) M. E. 
fetiire. — A. Y. fettire-, O. F. faiture, 
fashion. — L. y«c/z?ra, work, formation.— 
h.f actus ^ pp. oi facere, to make. 

Febrile, relating to fever. (F.-L.) 
Y .febrile. — L. febrilis. — Y.febri-s, fever. 

February. (L.) L. februaritis, the 
month of expiation. — L. /^/^rz^a, neut. pi., 
a festival of expiation on Feb. 15. — L. 
febrztum, purification \febrndre, to expiate. 
Of Sabine origin. 

Feckless, ineffective. Also fectless ; 
short for effect-less ; see Effect. 
Feculent, foul. (F.-L.) Y. feculent. 

— L. fceculenttis, full of dregs. — L. fceces, 
dregs. See Faeces. 

Fecundity. F.-L.) M.Y . fecondite 
(Cot.). — L. 2LCC. fectmditdtem, fruitfulness. 

— L. feciindus, fruitful ; allied to fetus, 
offspring. See Fetus. 

Federal. (F. - L.) F. fidiral. 

P^ormed, with suffix -al, from L. fceder- 
(for '^f cedes-" , stem of fcedus, a treaty. 
Akin io fides, faith. 

Fee, a lordship, a payment. (F. — 
O. H. G. ?) A. Y.fee, O. Y.fiu 1 F. fef), 
a fee, fief. — Late L. fevuvi , a fief (Du- 
cange). Prob. from O. H. G. fehu, pro- 
perty.-!- Du. vee, Icel. fe, Dan. fee, Swed. 

fa, Goth, faihu, L. pecus ; Skt. pa^u-, 
cattle. (VPEK.) So also A.S. feoh, 
cattle, whence M. E. fee, cattle, property, 
now obsolete. % We also find Late L. 

feudum ; see Feudal. 
Feeble. (F.-L.) ls\.Y..feble.-A.Y. 

feble, M. Y. foible, O. Y.feble (Godefroy) : 


cf. Ital. fievole {<flevole)^ feeble [since 
Ital. fi<,Jl].~\.. Jiebilis, doleful; hence, 
weak. — L. flere, to weep. Brugm. ii. 


Feed, to take food, give food. (E.) 
M.E. feden. A. S. fedan ; for ^fodian ; 
with vowel-change from <? to ^. — A. S.foda, 
food. + Du. voeden, Icel./^^a, Swed./^V/a, 
Dan./>'^/<?, O. H. G.fuotan, Goth, fodjan ; 
Tent, type ^fodjan-. See Food. 

Feel. (E.) M. E./^/^«. K.S.felan.-^- 
Du. voelen, G. fiihlen. Teut. *foljan-; 
from Teut. base fal- (2nd grade, fol-), 
whence also Icel. fahna, to grope, A. S. 
folvi, palm of the hand (L. palma). Allied 
to Palm (i). 

Feeze, Feaze, Fheeze. (E.) Pro- 
perly ' to put to flight, drive away, chase 
away, harass, worry ' ; often misexplained 
by 'whip.' \!i.M. fesen; O.Merc, fesian, 
A. S. fysian, to drive away quickly, 
chase. Cf. '^oxvf. foysa ( = Icel. *feysa^, 
Swed. fosa, to drive. From Teut. base 
yatis- (sense unknown). ^ Distinct from 
A.S.fysan, to hurry, from//7i', prompt. 

Feign. (F.-L.) M. E./^m^«.-O.F. 

feign-, as va. feign- ant, pres. pt. oifeindre. 
^'L.fngere, to form, feign. See Figure. 
IDev. feint (from F. -p^)- feint). 

Feldspar, a kind of mineral. (G.) 
Corrupted from G. feldspath, lit. field- 

Felicity. (F.-L.) q.F./^//aV/.-L. 
ace. fellcitdtem. — L. felici-, decl. stem of 
felix, happy, fruitful ; allied to Feline. 

Feline. (L-) L. fellnus, belonging to 
cats. — L. feles, a cat ; perhaps allied to 
Gk. 0T]Kvs, female. 

Fell (i), to cause to fall. (E.) O.Merc. 
fcBllan, A. S. fjd/an, causal of O. Merc. 
fa//an, A. '^i.feallan, to fall. So also Du. 
vellen, D^iu.fcelde, Swed. fdt/a, Icel. felia, 
G. fallen ; all causal forms. Teut. type 
*fa//jan-, causal of fallan-, to fall. See 

Fell (2), a skin. (E.) M. E./^/. A. S. 
fel, /^//.+Dn. vel, Icel. fell, Goth, -fill, 
M. H. G. vel\ L. pellis, Gk, -nkXka, skin. 
D oublet, pell ; cf fil-m. 

Fell (3), cruel, dire. (F.-Late L.- 
L. ?) M. E./^/. - O. F./^/, cruel (cf. Ital. 
fello, cruel). — Late 1^. fello, felo, a male- 
factor, felon, traitor. Perhaps from L./^/, 
gall (N. E. D.) ; cf. Du. dial, fel, sharp, 
biting, acrid (Molema). See Felon. 

Fell (4), a hill. (Scand.) M. E./^/.- 
Icel. fjall, fell, a hill ; Dan. feld, Swed. 


fjdll, a fell. Allied to G. fels, a rock 
Fellah, a peasant. (Arab.) Vl.fellahm. 

— Arab, fellah, falldh, a farmer, peasant. 

— Arab, root falaha, to plough, till. 
Felloe ; see Felly. 

Fellow, a partner. (Scand.) M. E. 
felawe. "'IceX. felagi, a partner in a * felag.' 

— \ce\.felag, companionship ; lit. a laying 
together of property. — Icel. fe, property ; 
lag, a laying together, a law ; see Law. 
The Icel. fe is cognate with A. S. feoh, 
cattle, property, L. pcctis, cattle. 

Felly, Felloe, part of a wheel-rim. 
(E.) M. E. fekve. A. S. felg, felge^ a 
felly.+Du. velg, Jy^n.fczlge, G. felge. 
Felon, a wicked person. (F. — LateL. 
-L. ?) M.E. felun.^O.Y. felon, a 
traitor. — Late l^.felonem, ace. oifelo, fello, 
a traitor, rebel. See Fell (3). 

Felt. (E.) M. E. >//. A.^. felt.-\- 
Du. vilt, Low G., Swed., Dan. filt, G. 
filz. Teut. type '^feltoz, n. ; allied to G. 
falzen, to groove, join together. Der. 
filter, f enter. 

Felucca, a ship. i,Ital. — Arab.) Ital. 
feluca. — Ax7\b.fnlk, a ship. (See Devic.) 
Female. (F. — L.) For /^?«^//, by con- 
fusion with male. M.E. fefnelle.^O.Y. 
femelle. — L. femella, a young woman ; 
dimin. oifeinina, a woman (below). 
feminine. (F.-L.) O.Y. feminin. 

— L. feminimis, womanly. — L. femina, a 
woman. Ci.felare, to suckle ; Gk. OrjXvs, 
female, OtjXt], the breast; Skt. dhdtrl^ a 

Femoral, belonging to the thigh. (L.) 
L. femordlis ; adj. from fenior-, stem of 
femur, thigh. 

Fen, a bog. (E.) M. E. fen. A. S. 
fenn.'\-V>\x. veen, Icel. fen, Goih. fani, 
mud. Teut. type '^fanjon, n. 

Fence ; short for defence; see Defend. 

Fend ; short for Defend, q. v. 

Fender ; short for defender. 

Fennel, a plant. (L.) M. E. fenel. 
A. S.finol,flmigle. — Y.faeniculwn, fennel ; 
double dimin. oifaenum, hay. 

Fenugreek, a plant. (F.-L.) F. 
femcgrec. — L. faennm GrcBCum, lit. Greek 

Feoff; see Fief. 

Ferment. (L.) L. fermentum (shotc 
for ferui-ment7i??i^, leaven. — Y,.ferue7-e, to 
boil. See Fervent. 

Fern. (E.) A.^. fear7^.^\'T)^x. varen-, 
G. farn{kraut) ; Skt. parna-, a v^^ing, 



feather, leaf, plant, the orig. sense beinq; 
'feather.' Brugm. i. § 973. Cf. also 
Lith. papartis, Russ. paporot{e), Irish 
raith, W. rhedyji, fern; Gk. irrepis, fern, 
vrepov, a wing, feather, 

Perocity. (F.-L.) M.F. /eroa'U'.~ 
L. 2lZZ. ferocitdtem, fierceness. — L. /^r(?«'-, 
decl. stem of ferox, fierce. — L. ferus, 
fierce, wild. Brugm. i. § 319. 

Ferreons. (L.) L. ferreus, made of 
iron ; with suffix -oiis.~»l^.ferrtim, iron. 

ferruginous. (L.) L./erntgin-us, 
same as fcrrui^ineus, rusty ; with suffix 
-ous,"!^. ferrtlgiti-, stem oi ferriigo, rust 
of iron. — V^.ferriim, iron. 

Ferret (i\ an animal. (F. — LowL. — 
L. ?) O. ¥.fu7'et, a ferret. - Late 'L.fure- 
tus,fi7rectus, a ferret. A\?,ofurd\ said to 
be the same as Late L. fUrOy a thief, from 
Y,. fi'ir, a thief. Cf. Gk. <^a;/>, a thief; 
from the strong 5-grade of (pfpeiv, to bear, 
carry off. 

Ferret (2), a kind of silk tape. (Ital. 
— L.) From Ital. fioretti^ 'little flowers, 
flonrishings ; also foret or ferret silke,' 
Florio. PI. oi Jioretto, dimin. oi fiore, a. 
flower. — L. florem, ace. oi Jios, a flower ; 
see Flower. Cf. F. Jleiiret, ferret ; from 
Jleicr, flower. 

Ferruginous ; see Ferreous. 

Ferrule, a metal ring at the end of a 
stick. (^F. — L.) Corrupted spelling (due 
to confusion with fcmim, iron) of the 
older form virrol; XVI cent. — O.F. vifol 
(F. virole), a ferrule ; Late L. virola, the 
same. From L. uiriola, a little bracelet ; 
dimin. of *utria, an armlet, only found in 
pi. ui7-iiE. (Diez.) Doubtful. 

Ferry, vb. (E.) M.E.yi-rzVw. A. S. 
ferian, to convey across ; causal of A. S. 
faran, to go. + Icel. ferja^ to carry ; 
causal of fara, to go ; Goth, farjan, to 
travel by ship. See Fare. (N. E. D.l 

Fertile. (F.-L.) Y.fertile,~\..fer- 
tills, fertile. — L. ferre, to bear. See 
Bear (i"). 

Ferule, a rod or bat for punishing 
children. (L.) Formerly ferula. — L. 
ferula, a rod ; orig. the plant ' giant- 

Fervent, hot, zealous. (F.-L.) O.F. 
fervent. "L,. fenient-, stem of pres. pt. of 
feruere, to boil. Allied to O. Irish berb- 
aim, I boil. Der. fervour, from O. F. 
fervotir<X" 2icc. feruorem, heat; fetvid, 
from l^.feruidus. 

Fess, a horizontal band in heraldry. 

(F. — L.) O.Y. fesse (Roquefort); mod. 
Y.fasce, a fess. — L.yai-^m, a girth; allied 
to fascis^ a bundle ; see Fascine. 

Festal. -F.-L.) O.Y. festal. Formed 
(with F. suffix -a/<L. -alls from Y,. fest- 
twi, a feast, orig. neut. of festus, festive, 
joyful. Allied to Fair (2) and Fane. 

festival. (F.-Late L.-L.) Pro- 
perly an ?i(S].'-'O.Y . festival, festive.— 
Late Y,. festTvdlis.'^'L. festnius (below). 

festive. (L.) 'L.festluus, belonging 
to a feast. — L./^i-/^/;/, a feast. 

Fester, a sore. (F. — L.) O.Y.festre^ 
also spelt fistle, an ulcer ; whence festrir, 
to fester (Godefroy'. — L._/fj/«/tz, a running 
sore. See Fistiila. 

Festival, Festive ; see FestaL 

Festoon. ( F. — Ital. — L. ) Y.feston, a 
garland, festoon. — Ital. festone, a garland. 
Usually derived from 'L.festuni, a feast. 

Fetch. (E.) M. E. fecchen, pt. t. 
fehte, fcehte. A. S. feccan, to fetch, Gen. 
xviii. 4; Luke xii. 20. Yxoh. fecc'f)an is 
a later form oifetian, to fetch i^Anglia, vi. 
177). Allied to K.^. feet, a pace, step, 
journey ; Icel. fet, a step, foot-measure ; 
and to L. pes (gen. ped-is), a foot. ^ Cf 
A. S. gefeccan, O. E. T., p. 178. Der. 
fetch, sb., a stratagem. 

Fdte. (F.-L.) Mod. F./^/^, the same 
as O. F. feste ; see Feast. 

Fetich, Fetish, an object of super- 
stitious dread. (F. — Port. — L.) F. 
fetiche. — Port.7^?/?f^,sorcery, lit. artificial ; 
also, a name given by the Port, to the 
roughly made idols of Africa. — L._/^<r/z7/«i", 
artificial. — L. fact-tis, pp. of facere, to 

Fetid. (F.-L.) O.Y. fefide.-l.. 
fetidus, fcetidus, stinking. — L. fetere, to 

Fetlock. (Scand.^ As if the ' lock ' 
or tuft of hair behind a horse's pas- 
tern-joint. Cf. Low G. fitlock (Lubben) ; 
M. H. G. vizzeloch (Kluge). The syllable 
-l-ock is due to a double suffix, but was 
thought to refer to Icel. lokkr, A. S. locc^ 
a lock of hair. Fet- is prob. allied to 
\c€i. fet, a pace, step,/^/?', a pacer (used 
of horses); and to \ct\. fotr, a foot; cf. 
G. fessel, pastern ; and see Fetch., Foot, 
(Kluge, s. v. Fjiss.') 

Fetter, a shackle. (E.) M. E. feter. 
A, S. fetor, a shackle for the foot ; from 
*fet-, d'^grade oifot, foot.+Du. veter, Icel. 
fjbtiirr; cf. L. ped-ica and com-pes, Gk. 
iribri, a fetter. J^qx. fetter, vb. 




Tetus, offspring. (L.) L. fetus, a 
bringing forth, offspring. — L. *fiiere, an 
obsolete verb, to generate, produce ; 
allied to fu-i, I was ; see Future, Be. 
Brugm. i. § 361, ii. § 587. 

Feu, a fief; a variant of Fee. 

Feud (t), hatred, perpetual hostility. 
(F.-O.H. G.) M.E. fede, feid. M od i - 
fied in spelling in some unexplained way, 
perhaps by the influence of/i?^. — O. F. 
feide^ faide, fede, perpetual hostility. — 
O. H. G. fehida (G. fehde), enmity ; 
cognate with A S. fiehS, enmity, from 
A. S.fdh, hostile. See Foe. 

Feud (2), a fief. (Low L. - F. - 
O. H. G.) Low L. feudiim, a Latinised 
form allied to O. F. fin, also spelt fief . 
see Fee, Fief. (The intrusive d is un- 
explained.) "D&v.fcud-al, adj. 

Feuter, to lay spear in rest. (F. — 
Teut.) From M. E. feuter, a rest for a 
spear. — O. F. /(??^/;r, older y^//r<?, a piece 
of felt, also a rest fprob. at first felted) for 
the lance. Cp. \V2X.feltr0, felt. Of Teut. 
origin; from LovV G. filt, felt. See 

Feuterer, a dog-keeper. (F. — Low L. 
— C.) In Ben Jonson, Every Man out 
of his Humour, ii. i ; see Nares. Older 
spelling vewter, for vetitr-er. — O. F. 
ventre^ mod. F. vantre, a mongrel between 
a hound and a mastiff. — Low Lat. ace. 
vdtriim ; for L. vertagns, veriagra, ver- 
traga, a greyhound. Said to be Celtic. 
Perhaps from Celtic ver-, intensive prefix, 
and trag-, to run ; see Fick, ii. 136, 283. 

Fever, a kind of disease. (L.) M. E. 
feuer {fever). A. i^.fefer,fefor ; see Matt. 
viii. 15 ; A. Y-fevre. — L.. feh-is, fever. 

feverfew, a plant. (L.) K.'&.fefer- 
fuge ; A. F. fevcrpie. — Late L. febrifiiga, 
for L. febrifigia, ' fever-dispelling.' — L. 
febri-s, fever ; ftigdre, to put to flight. 

Few. (E.) Vi.M.fewe. A. S. i^X.feaive. 
-f-Icel. far, Dan. faa, Swed. fa ; Goth. 
fawai, pi. ; cf. L. patictis, Gk. iravpo's, 

Fey, doomed to die. (E.) K.S. fSge, 
doomed to dit.'^lc&\. feigr, Du. veeg; G. 
feige, cowardly; Swed. feg, Dan. feig, 

Fez, a red Turkish cap, without a brim. 
(F. — Morocco.) F. and Turk. 7^0,' a cap ; 
so called because made at Fez, in 

Fiasco, lit. 'a bottle.' (Ital.) Ital. 
far fiasco, to make a bottle, also, to fail, 

break down. See Flask. (Origin of 
phrase unknown.) 

Fiat, a decree. (L.) L. flat, let it be 
done. — L. fJo, I become ; used as pass, of 
facere, to do, but really allied to fiii, I 
was. Cf. A. S. beo, I am. Brugm. i. 
§ 282. 

Fib. (Low G.) Allied to fob, fnb off, 
to delude (Shak.) ; cf. G.foppeji, to banter 
(formerly, to lie) ; Westphal. fip-ken, a 
small lie, fib (WoesteV 

Fibre. (F.-L.) F. fibre. ^"L. fibra, 
a thread. 

Fickle. (E.) Isl.Y.. fikel. A.^.ficol; 
from *fician, to deceive, in comp. be-fician, 
to deceive ; ci.fic, sb., ixQ.\xA,facne, deceit- 
ful ; fdcen, fraud. 

Fiction. (F.-L.) Y. fiction. ^l..fic- 
tidnan, ace. oifictio, a feigning. — L.y?^/z/i^, 
pp. oifingere, to feign. See Figure. 

Fiddle, a violin. (L.) M. E.fithel; 
A. S.fidele ; cf. IcaX.fidla, D^n.fiddel, Du. 
vedel, G.fiedel. Apparently borrowed from 
Late L. uitula, uidula, a viol ; see Viol. 

Fidelity. (F. - L.) M. Y.fidelite - L. 
fdelitdteni, ace. oifidelitds, faithfulness. — 
\^. fideli-, stem oi fidelis, faithful. — L. 
fides, faith. See Faith. 

Fidget. (Scand.) A dimin. form of 
fidge, to be continually moving up and 
down, Y^^fike in North of England, M. E. 
fiken, to fidget, to hasten. Cf. Icel.yf/'a, to 
climb up nimbly, as a spider ; Swed.yf^a, 
to hunt after, '^orw.fika, to take trouble, 
fika etter, to hasten after, pursue. 

Fiducial, shewing trust. (L.) From 
Late Y.. fiducidlis, adj. ^L,. fidiicia, trust. 
— L. frdere, to trust. 

Fie. (F.-L.) 
Cf. lce\. ff, D^n. fy, Swed. fy, G. pfui, 
Lat. p/m, phy, Skt. phttt, expressions 
of disgust. 

Fief, land held of a superior. (F.— 
O. H. G.) O. F. fief formerly spelt fin 
(Roland). See Fee. TieT. feoff, vb., to 
put in legal possession ; from A. Y.feoffer, 
to endow with z.feof 01 fief. A\so feoffee, 
A. Y.feoffe, pp. oifeoffer. 

Field. (E.) 'b,YY. field. A. S. field. -^ 
Du. veld. G. field (whence Dan. fielt, 
Swed. fidlt). Allied to A.S. fiolde, earth, 
land. Teut. t}pe *felt/mz. Cf. Russ. pole, 
a field ; Skt. prthivi, earth. Brugm. i. 

§ .S<^2. 

fieldfare, a bird. (E.) K.S. felde- 
fare [miswritten feldeware'\, lit. ' field- 
traveller : ' see Fare. 




Piend. (E.) M.E./rm/. A.9>.fwtid, 
feond, lit. ' a hating one,' an enemy, the 
enemy ; orig, pres. pt. of feogie/an, to 
hate. + Du. vijand, Dan. Swed. fiende ; 
\ce\.fjdndt, pres. pt. oifjd, to hate ; Goth. 
f.jands,{xov(\Jijan.\.o\\-M^\ Q.feind. Cf. 
Skt. /fj/, to hate ^Fick). See Foe. 

Pierce. (F.-L.) M. E, fers.^O.Y. 
fers, Jiers, old nom. of O. F. fer, fier^ 
fierce {Y.fier, proud). — L.y^r«i-, wild. 

Pife. rF.-O. H.G.-L.) F. fifre.^ 
O. H. G.p/tfa, G. ffeife, a pipe. -OUT;. 
pft/e7i, to blow, whistle. — Late \.. pipdre, 
to pipe ; L. pipdre^ to chirp (as a bird;, 
iiee Pipe. 

Pig. fF.-Prov.-L.) Y.figite.^Vxow 
/??«. — Folk-L. 'yifra, used for Y..ftcus, a 
fig. (Cf. O. F. Jie, a fig ; immediately 
from jFica.) 

Pight. ^E.) U.Y..Jihien,fehte7t,\h. 
O. 'hltrc.fehiaii, to fight ; fehte, v fight.+ 
Du. vechteyi, G. fechten, to fight fwhence 
Dan./<^/^, Swed./rt-^/<7j. Teut. *fehtan-. 

Pigment. L.) 'L. ^gmenttun, an in- 
vention. —L.y?^-, base oi finger e. to feign 
{^Y>\^.fic-tus, for *fig-ttiS). 

figpire. (F. — L.) F. figtire. - L. 
figura, a thing made. — L. ^«^<?r^ Tbase 
yf§'-)j to make, fashion, feign. + Goth. 
deigan, to knead, Skt. dih, to smear. 
(yDHEIGH.) Brugm. i. § 589. Der. 
dis-figtire, prefigure, trans-figure. 

Pilament. (F. — L.) F. filament. - 
I-ate L. fildmentum, thin thread. — Late 
L. fildre, to wind thread. — L. /tlu??i, 
thread ; see File (i). 

Pilbert, fruit of hazel. (F.-O. H. G. 
Formerly philiberd 'Gower; ; short for 
Philiberd or Philibert nut, from the 
proper name Philibert; (,S. Philibert's 
day is Aug. 22) ; North F. noix de filbert 
(Moisy). - O. H. G.filu-berht, \er\ bright ; 
horn filu (G. viel), greatly, ber/it, bright. 
% Called in Germany Lambertsjtuss, i. e. 
nut from Lombardy (Weigand;. 

Pilch. (E.) Etym. unknown ; possibly 
related to M. Y../elen, to conceal. Cf. Icel. 
fela, to hide, bury; Goth. fil/ia?i, to hide. 

Pile (i), string, line, order. (F. — L.j 
Partly from O, Y.file, a file, {rom filer, to 
thread; from Late L. fildre (see Fila- 
ment) ; partly from F. fil, thread, from 
'L.ftlufii, a thread. 

Pile (2). a steel rasp. (E.) O.Merc. 
frl ; A. S./^W. + Du. vijl, O. H. G.fihala, 
G. feile ; as if from a base *fenh-. The 
Icel. form is///, as if from a base *thenh-. 


Pile (3), to defile. (E.) A. S. fylan, 
to make foul; for *fulian.^ k.^. ful, 
foul. See Defile ''i) and Foul. 

Pilial. ''L.) From 1.. fili-us, a son, 
/f/?fl, daughter ; orig. infant : cf \../eldre, 
to suck. Cf. Feminine. (^l)l{V..) 

Pilibnster, a freebooter. (Span. — Du.) 
Span, filibuster, a mere corruption of Du. 
vrijbuiter, a freebooter, — Du. vrijbuiten, 
to rob, plunder. — Du. vrij, free; buit, 
booty, plunder. See Booty. 

Piligree. (F. — Ital. — L.) Formerly 
fidigratie ; XVII cent. — Yfiligram. — Ital. 
\filigrana, filigree-work, fine wrought work. 
— Ital. filo, a thread or row, filare, to 
spin ; grano, grain or texture ; so called 
because the chief texture of it was wrought 
in silver wire. From L. filum, thread ; 
grdnum, grain. ^ The ^'pz.n. filigrana is 
merely borrowed from Italian Monlau;. 

Pill, vb. (E.; A. S. fyllan ; formed 
irom. ful, i. e. full, by vowel-change from u 
to y.-^-Dw. vullen, Icel. fylla, Dan. fylde, 
Swed.fylla, Goth, ful l/a7z, G. fallen. 

PiUet. (F.-L.) Vi.Y. filet. ~0.Y. 
filet, dimin. oi fil, a thread. — L. /f/z/w, a 
thread. See File ''i). 

Pillibeg, Philibeg, a kilt. ^Gaelic; 

Gael, feilcadh-beag, the modern kilt. — 
Gael, feileadh, feile, a kilt, prob. from L. 
ueluin, a veil (Macbain) ; and beag, little, 
small. Cf. W.^ bach, little. 

Pillip, to strike with the finger-nail, 
when jerked from the thumb. (E.) Another 
form oifiip ; see Flippant. 
Pills, used for thills. (E.) See Thill. 
Pilly, a female foal. (Scand.) Icel. 
fylja, a filly, allied to foli, a foal , cf. 
Dan. Swed. /6>/, G. fallen. See Foal. 

Pilm, a thin skin. (E.j A. S. filmen 
{fybnen), neut., membrane (O. Fries, yf/- 
mene, f., skin;. For W. Teut. *filmin-jo-, 
from *felinen, -mon-, as in A. S. agerfelma, 
skin of an egg. Extended from the base 
fel- in A. S./k/, skin, Goth, fill, skin. See 
Fell (2). 

Pilter, to strain. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
filti-er, orig. to strain through felt. — F. 
filtre, a strainer, orig. felt (Littre). — Low 
G.filt, felt; see Felt. 

Pilth, foul matter. (E.) A. S./F/J.- 
A. S. fill, foul (by vowel-change of u to 
y . So also O. Sax. fulithd, filth, from 
ffiL foul. See Foul. 

Pin. ^E.) K.^.finn, a fin.+Du. -uin, 
Swed. fena, Dan. finjze ; L. pinna. See 



Final. (F. - L.> O. F. p:;:aL - L. j vt'ur, O. H. G. /«/>. Tent, ty^^e *//7-»;-. 
fffiLis, tiiial. — L. /?>/;>, end. Cognate with Gk. in>p. Cf, Skt. /<ft'a^<;- 

FinaJlce, revenue. ;F. — L^ O, F. i^ from /•;/>, purifying, .ilso fire. (y^PC^ 
/fw.j.'.w. — Lv\te L. /:r:an/ia. payment.— Firk, to conduct, drive, beat. (E.) 
Late L. /ynJra, to pay a fine. —Late L. A. S. unicifi, to conduct, support. Prob. 
/This, a settled payment, a. finis ^: or end, | from A.S./i?r. a journey; allied to Fare, 
i. e. final arrangement ; L./Twif, end. j Pirkin, the fourth part oi a barrel. 

Pinch, a bird. (E.^ M. E. >;r/i. I ,M. Du.> M. E. /h-J^km. From Du. 
A.S. /?/r\+Da. vinJ^. Dan. /f;t^^, Swed. | Z'U'rdi', fourth : with suftix -Jtifi ,as in Xv7- 
and G. A";ic. Cf. \V. //«<", a chaffinch; \ M'r-kin^ answering to the M. Pu. double 
Gk. crriyyos, ffvi'^a, a finch ; prov. E. dimin. suffix -i-in ^G. -ch-en in f/::uichtn^. 
spini. Der. chitf-jituhj q. v., bull-finch^ Vicrdc is from Du. vier, four ; see Four, 
c^c, " Pirm CO, adj. *^F. — L.) M. E. /cvvav. 

Pind. 'E.^ A. S. /f//</a«.4-Du. T'lVwVw. —O. F. and F. /<rrwc\ — L. y?V/;/«,s-, stead- 
Dan, /fw-^*, Swed. and Icel. /r«;;<z , —finjki^^ fast. ' 

Croih.n»s':i:n,G.fifui£n. Teut. */c f it /:-a/i-: firm iv-;? ^ Partnership. (Span. — L.") 
Idg. base *jVnf-, whence O. Lish Ft-ai'm. The older sense was ' signature ' of the 
I find. Perhaps allied to L. pctere, to house or (as we call it> the firm. — Span, 
seek after ; see Petition. Brugm. 11. firma. a signature. — Span. /xrma?\ to 
j 634. confirm, sign. — L. firmare, to make firm. 

Pine (i^. exquisite, thin. ;F. — L.) — L. /frv.-.v.c. firm ,above^. 
O, F. ri«, witty, perfect. — Late E. finus, firmament, celestial sphere. (F. — L.) 
fine: used in place of L. ftnu^us, well O. F. Jirmanwnt.'m'E. firmamefitum^ a 
rounded or ended, said of a sentence support ; also, expanse of the sky ^Vul- 
vBrachet^, orig. pp. oi /Itiire, to end. — L. gate^. — L. finncire, to strengthen; from 
ftnis, end. ^ Finus is a back-formation /ir'Wis. firm. 

from /}■«;><;. ! Pirman, a mandate. (Pers.) Pers. 

fine (2% a tax. (Law L.) Law L. \fermdn, a mandate, order; O. Pers. /ra- 

frnis^ a fine, a final arrangement; L. i /;z.fw<j ;Horn) ; cf. Skt. pfamatja-, a 

ffnis. end. See Finance above\ 

Pinger. ;E.> A. S. yfw^irr.+Du. 
z'i)i^(Cr. Icel. fiff^. Dan. Swed. G. fifigtr, 
Goth, fig^'s {=/ini;rs^. Teut. tj'pe *jifi- 
^t>3 : orig. sense unknoAvn. 

Pinial. ^L. A coined word ; from L. 
/Tm's. end.! jJ. 

finical. iF. — L> A coined word ; 
exter-devi from Fine j") above. 

finish, vb. ;,F.-L.) 'Sl.E. fim'scA^f!. 

— O. F. fifiiss-. base of pres. pt. oifinir^ to 

finish. —L. ff/iTre, to end. — E./THiJ, end. 

finite, limited. (L.) L./fni/us, pp. 

oifimri (above . 

Fiord, a sea-loch, deep inlet of the sea. 

decision, from pra, before i^Gk. irpo) and 
rfia. to measure. 

First. (E.) A. S. fyrsi, the superl. of 
fo?-e, with vowel-change of u (A. S. o) to 
,y. +Icel./3''''-y''^: Dan./t?r.y/«? ; 'ii>yvt< 
Teut. type */unstos, superl. from the base 
*/"vr- ; see Fore. 
"Firth ; see Frith. 

Fiscal, pertaining to the revenue. 
,^F. — L.) O. F. fiscal. — Late L. fiscdlis. — 
h.fisius, a basket of rushes, also a purse. 

Pish. (E.) A. S./i.-.+Du. vtsc/i, Icel. 
fjsi'r. Dan. and Swed. fisk, G.fisch ; Goth. 
/isks. Tent, type "^fiskoz. Cognate with 
L. piscis, Irish and Gael, iasg, O. Ir. iasc 

(Scand.^ Norw. fjord. Dan. fi^rd. fjord; \ Avith loss oi initial />. 
Icel. /}»<?''. See Frith. Fissure. (F. — L.) O.F. _/f-<-.r«r<f. — L 

Fir, a tree. Scand. M. E.yfr; answer- fissurci. — L. jissus. pp. of fituicre, to 
ing to a mutated form due to A.S. fiurh, | cleave. +Skt. f)/:id. to cleave; A. S. /-/"/jw, 
which occurs in furhwuJu, a pine-tree : | to bite. .y^BHEID/i And see Vent 
but prob. of Scand. origin. Cf. Icel. } (i"^. Brugm. i. § 567. 
^rr'-.f,6t^, a fir-wood 'written ^/[rWj->t<^' ; , Fist. {E^ ^\.E. fist, f est, fust. A.S. 
from Icel./wra, a fir; cf. Dan./>r. Swed. j /J-f/.+Du. vidst, G. faust. O. H. G. fiist. 

fura.'\'G.f6hre. W.pyr. Cognate with L. 
quercus, an oak ; and O. Lombardic/irrcV/a, 
• aesculus.' 

Pire. (E.> A. S. ;5?r.+Du. r«7/r, Icel. 
fyri, Dan. and Swtd.'fyr, G. finer, M.H.G. 


Teut. *flsth. ^ If the orig. Teut. form 
was *fu)ihstiz, it may be identified with 
Russ. piaste, fist, O. Slav, p^ti; from an 
Idg. base *p?nksti-, which is allied to 



Fistula, a deep, narrow abscess. (L.^ 
. rri the shape ; 1.. fistula, a pipe. 

Fit I', to suit; as adj., apt. ''.Scand.) 
? '. ]-.. filten, to arrange. — IceL and Norw. 
ftja, to knit together ; Swed, dial, fittja, 
to bind toffether ; cf. (j./itzen, to bind into 
skeins, ixomfitze, a skein. From Icel.yf/, 

Fla^ Vj Plagstone, a pavin^-Htone. 

-Scand.y Icei. y^-'^-i'. a tiag^ cr slab of 
stone. This migrit gave E, dial. yfcw (see 
Flaw) , but cf. Icel. Jiagna. to flake off, 
Dan. dial, flag-torv, .S j. y?<z^, a cut turf. 
A weaker. ea form of Fiaxe. 

Flagellate. (L.^ From pp. of L. 
a hem, also * web ' of a bird's foot ; cf. \Jlagelldre, to scourge. — L. fiagellum, 

M. Dan.yf<f<5^, to knit ; Dan. fid, a skeLn 
Perhaps allied to Fit (2^. ^ Influenced 
as to sense by M. Y^.fete, well done ; from 
O. Y .fait, \j3X. foetus ; see Feat. 

Pit 2 5 a part of a poem, attack of ill- 
ness. (£.; A.S.fitt, i^ a song, 
(2; a struggle; which perhaps are ttue 
same word. Cf. Fit d]. 

Pitch, the same as Vetch, q. v. 

Fitchet, Pitckew, a pole-cat. ^F. - 
M. Du.; fitche-LU is from Yxzzxd ficheux , 
'Sl.F.fissau, a polecat; older form, /fi-j^Z. 
— M. Jju.fisse. a polecat ; from the smell. 
Cf. Icel. fisa, to make a smell. 

Pitz, son. 
(with 2 as ts), 
also,fi/s.-''L.fT/zus, a son. 

Pive. E.^ M. E. yf/"; sometimes yfz^^. 
as a plural. A. S. fif ''for */?////" . + Fju. 
Z7_)y", Dan. Swed. /^^, Icel. fimm, Goth. 
yf ;;//", G. ftinf; \V. pump, O. Ir. ^<7zV. L. 
quinqzie, Lith. ptiiki. Gk. Wvre (^ol. 
■jTffiirf), Skt. pancha. Idg. type *penqe. 
Tier, fifth, K.^.fifta; fifteen, X.6.frf 
thie ; fifty, A,S.ff tig. 

Pix. (F.-L., O. F. >:, fixed. - L. 
fixus, fi.xed ; pp. oifigere, to fix. 

Fizz. (Scand.") Imitative; cf. Icel. 
/frc, Dan.yfj-^, with the sense of h. pedere. 

Plabby ; weakened form oiflappy ; see 
Flap. Cf. Low G fiabbe, a. hanging lip; 
fiahbsio, flabby 1 Danneil). 

Placcid. '^F.-L.) Y. flaccide.~\. 
fiaccidus, limp. ^Y.. fiatcus . flabby. 

riimi.n. rA fiagrum. a scourge. .See Flail. 
Flageolet, a sort o; flute. F.— Prov.^ 
I ^L \: .fia^eolit, dimin. ol flageol, with the 
j same sens-r. — Viov .fiaj'ol: .fiaujols, a flage- 
olet ; which cannot repreient a Late L. 
I *fiautiolui. a little flute, as stiergested bv 
I Diez. 

I Flagitious. L. L. fidgitids-us, 

I shamelul ; with suffix -cms. — L. fidgitium, 

I a disgraceful act ; cf. 'L.fidgitdre. to act 

with violence. Perhaps allied to Flagrant- 

Plagon. ''F.-Late L. O.Y.fiacon, 

another form of fiasco n.^La-te h. fiasco- 

j fiem. ace of fiasco, a .tiask. — Late L. 

A. F. — L.) Formerly yfz fiasca, a flask. See Flask. 

A.Y. fiz (with z 3lS ts ; Flagrant, glaring, as a fault. fF. — L.) 

O. r . fiugrant, properly burning. — L. 

fiaqrant-, stem of pres. pt. oi fiagrdre, to 

bum.-f-Gk. <p\i'/€iv, to btim ; Sk. Mra/ 

VE!HLEG. Brugm. i. § ^39 (2,. 

FlaiL (L. ^L E. /zV. fiejl, fleil. 

l^Si^tT.fiayel (.from O. Y . fiael'>Y . fiiau , '_ 

From 'L. fiagellum, a whip, in Late L., 

" a flail ; dimin. oifiagrum, a scotirge. See 


Flake, a thin slice. (Scani) Norw. 

flak, a slice, an ice-floe : cf. Icel. fiakna, 

fiagna, to flake off. Swed- fiaga, a flake. 

, Perhaps allied to Flay. 

Plambeail. T.-L. Y. flambeau, 2. 
' torch; dimin. oiO.Y.fiambe below). 
I flame, sb. (F.-L., O.Y. fiame, 
\fiamme ; also fiamhe. — L. fiamma *fiag- 
! ma ? ., a flame : perhaps from the base 
Flag 'i), to droop, grow wear}'. TE. \ficLg-, to bum. See Flagrant. 
Weakened form oi fiack, to hang loosely ; j Plamen. L. 'L. fid men. a priest of 
M. E. fiakken, to flap about. From the I Rome. Prob. for *fiag-men, he who 
base^ff^- of A.^. fiac-or, flying, roving. ! bums the sacrifice: c:. fiagrare. to bum. 
4-IceL fiakka, to rove ; fiaka. to flap : Or ehe alliec to Goth, blotan. to sacrifice. 
fibkra. fiogra, Dan.fiagre, to flutter; G. Flamingo. 'Span.— Prov. —L.i Span. 
_/?a<r;^^r?z. to flutter. All from the imitative !y?^>w«M<:^, a flamingo: but said to be a 
base fiak-, allied to fiap, fiicker. And Provencal word ; the Prov. form is 
partly from O. Y.fiaquir, to be limp ; from flamenc, where the suffix -enc is supposed 
O. Y.fiaque, limp, l^.fiaccus. to be an adaptation of the Tent, suffix 

flag 2\ an ensign. 'Scand.?) IDan. . -ing. The F. form is ;?flzi^a«/, lit. 'flaming.' 
fiag, Swed. fiagg, a flag ; from base of but it seems to have been confused with F 

\z^\. fiogra, to flutter (above). 

flag 3 . a reed ; the same word zsfiag 
(2) ; irom its waving in the wind. 

Flamand, a Fleming, whence the peculiar 
form of the Prov. form may have arisen : 
Palsgrave has • Flemmvng, fiammant.' 



Still, the etymology is certainly from L. 
Jlamma, a flame ; from the flame-like 
colour of the bird. 

Flange, a projecting rim. (F. - Teut.) 
The same as prov. Y,.Jlanch, a projection ; 
cf. Jlanch in heraldry, an ordinary on each 
side {ox flank) of the shield. — O. Y. flanche 
(A. Y.Jianke^, fem. sb. allied to F.Jianc, 
side. See below. 

flank, the side. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 
flanc. — F. Jia7ic, side. — O. H. G. hlancha^ 
lanka, hip, bend, loin ; cf. Mid. Du. * de 
La?icke, the flancks ; ' Hexham. Allied 
to A. S. hlanc, slender ; see Lank. (Dis- 
puted ; but probable ; see Kluge, s. v. 

Flannel. (W.) Prov. Y. flannen, a 
better form. — W. gwlanett, flannel, from 
gwlan^ wool. Allied to 'Wool. 

Flap, to beat with the wings. (E.^ 
M. E. Jlappen, to beat ; not in A. S. 
Y. ¥ Tie's,. Jlappen. Imitative; like_/?a^/^, to 
beat ; see Flag {\^.-\-T)\!l. Jlappen, to flap. 
Hbx. flabby (flappy) ; flap^ sb. 

Flare ; see below. 

Flash, to blaze, f E.) M. E. flaschen, 
to dash ; cf. Swed. dial, flasa, to burn 
violently; Icel. flasa, to vnzh, flas, a swift 

flare. (Scand.) Norvveg. flara. to 
blaze ; apparently a variant of Swed. dial. 
flasa (above "1. 

Flask. (Late L.?) A. S. flasce, flaxe ; 
we also find \c€i. flaska, Da.n.flaske, Swed. 
flaska, Q.flasche ; but it is hardly a Teut. 
word. — Late L. flasca, a flask ; cf. also 
W.fllasg, Gael. flaso- (from E.). Remoter 
origin uncertain. See Flagon. 

Flat. (Scand.) M. E. flat.- Icel. flair, 
Swed. flat, Dan.flad. 

Flatter. (F.-Teut.; ^r E.) M. E. 
flatcren. a frequentative form. Either, 
with suffix -(?;'-, from O. ¥. flal-er, mod. F. 
flatter, to flatter ; or formed from an E. 
base flat-, of imitative origin ; cf. M. Du. 
flatt^ren, to flatter (Hexham) from O. F. 
flater, which is from \ze\..flat-r, flat ; from 
the notion of making smooth. Cf. the base 
flak-.^ seen in AL Swed.fleckra, to flatter, 
Swed. dial, fleka, to caress ; also M. E. 
flakken, to move to and fro, and G. flach, 
flat; see Flag (i). The sb. flattery is 
plainly adapted from O. F. flaterie, F. 

Flatulent, windy. (F.-L.) M. Y. fla- 
tulent. — Late L. fldtulentzis. — 1^. flatus, 
breath. — L. yP^z^df, to blow; see Blow (i). 

Flaunt, to display ostentatiously. 
(Scand.) It seems to have been particu- 
larly used of the display of fluttering 
plumes, &c. Norw. flanta, to gad 
about,; Dan. flane, to flirt. Somewhat 
similar is Swed. dial, flatikt, flutteringly, 
loosely, from flanka, to waver ; perhaps 
allied to flakka, to waver, answering to 
M. E.flakken ; see Flag (i). 

Flavour. (F.-L.) The form seems 
to have been influenced by that of the 
word savour. O. Lowl. Sc. fleivoure, 
flewer.-'O. F. fl'eur, fleitir, flatir, smell. 
Cf. Ital. flato7'e, a bad odour ; answering 
to Late L. ace. '^fldtorem. — L. flatus, pp. 
oi flare .^ to blow. (Korting, § 3316.) 

Flaw, a crack. (Scand.) M. E. flawe. 
— Swed. flaga, a crack, flaw, also a flake ; 
see Flake. Cf. prov. E. flaiv, a flake 
(as of snow) ; also, a gust of wind, like 
Du. vlaag. 

Flawn,akind of custard. (F.-O.H G.) 
M. E. flaun. — Y .flan, O. Y.flaon, a flawn ; 
(cf. Span, flaon, Ital. fladone).'-0. H. G. 
flado, a broad flat cake ; G. fladen. 
Allied to Gr. vKarvs, broad. 

Flax, a plant. (E.) A. S. fleax.-ifYiw. 
vlas, G. flachs. Perhaps allied to Goth. 
flah-ta, a plaiting, Gk. TrXiK-iiv, to weave. 

Flay, to strip off skin. (E.) M. E. 
flean. A. S. flean, to flay.+Icel. fld, pt. 
t. fld, pp. fleginn. Teut. type 'flahan- 
(p't. t. *fldh), to strike. Cognate with Lith. 
plaku, I strike ; cf. Lat. pldga, a stroke. 
See Plague. Brugm. i. § 569. 

Flea. (E.) M. Y.flee, ^X.fleen. A. S. 
fleah, a flea.+Du. vloo, Icel. fld, G. floh. 
Teut. base *flazih-, or perhaps *piauh-, 
allied to the verb to flee. See Flee. 

Fleam, a kind of lancet. (F. — L. — Gk ) 
O. Y. flierne, Y. flaninie, a fleam; Hamil- 
ton.— Late L. fletoina, a lancet (Vocab. 
400. 11); shortened from Late L,. flevo- 
toniuni, phlebotomiim, a lancet. — Gk. 
(pXe^oToiJiov^ a lancet. — Gk. (pXi^o-, decl. 
stem of <pX€ip, a vein ; rofx-, o-grade of 
Te/xveii', to cut. Hence also M. H. G. 
fliedeme, G.fliete, Du. vlijm^ a fleam. 

Fleck, a spot. (Scand.) M. E. flek.— 
\ce\.flekkr, a spot ; flekka^ to stain ; Swed. 
flack, a spot. + Du. vlek, G. fleck. 

Flection ; see Flexible. 

Fledge, to be furnished with feathers. 
(E.) The pp. fledged is now used in the 
place of M. E. flegge, adj., ready to fly. 
Flegge is a Kentish form of M. E. flygge, 
ready to fly. From A. S. '^flycge ; found 




in the compound tinjlycge, as in ' inplumes, 
unfligge,' Academy, 2 June, 1894 (Napier). 
E. Fries, flugge. -|- Du. vlug (M. Du. 
vhigge) ; O. H. G. flticchi. Teut. type 
*Jlugjoz, adj. ; from *Jlug-, weak grade of 
yieugaji-, to fly. See Fly. 

Flee, to escape. (E.) M. Y^.Jieen, pt. t. 
Jleh,Jleih. [The M. E. pt. t, also appears 
diS Jledcie, whence mod. Y.. fled, of Scand. 
origin.] K.'^.fleoii (pt, t.y^^fl/^).+0. Sax. 
fliohan, G. flieken; also Icel.y?^"^ (pt. t. 
flo, also flyGa) ; Swed. fly (pt. t. flydde] ; 
Goth, thlhihan. Teut. type *ihleu/ian- 
(pt. t. thlaith) ; so that _/? was orig. //^/, and 
there was no orig. connexion with the 
verb to fly. which has from an early date 
been confused with it. 

Fleece. (E.) ^\.Y.. flees. K.S.fleos, 
e3.x\\eT fllus \ ^hoflys.-\-Ti\\. vlies, M.H.G. 
vliiis ; cf G.fliess ; also O. flans, a woollen 
coat, M. H. G. vliis, a sheep-skin. Teut. 
stems fleusi-, *flet{S0', fluso- ; possibly 
allied to l^.ph'i-fna. See Plume. 

Fleer, to mock. (Scand.) M. E. 
fletien. — Norw. flira, to titter, giggle ; 
also spelt flisa ; Dan. dial, flire, to jeer ; 
Swed.y?m«, to titter. 

Fleet (1% a number of ships. (E.) 
M..¥.. flete, fleote. A S.fleot, a ship; or 
(collectively) a number of ships. — A. S. 
fleotatt, to float. -}- O. Sax. fliotan, Du. 
vlieten, to flow ; O. H. G. fliozzan, to 
float, flow, G. fliessen, to flow; Icel. 
fljoia, Swed. flyta, Dan. flyde. Teut. 
fleutan- (pt. t. flaiit, pp. fltdanoz) ; Idg. 
base *pleud, as in Lith. piildts, a float of 
a fishing-net. (VPLEU.) Cf. Gk. TrA^'fir/, 
to sail, Skt. plu, pfii, to swim, float, 

fleet (2), a creek. (E.) A.S.fleof, a 
creek, a place where water flows ; fleote, 
a stream. — A. S. fleotan, to float, swim; 
see Fleet (i). Cf. O. Fries, y?^/, stream. 
fleet (3), swift. (E.) Cf. A. ^.fleotig, 
swift ; IceX.fljdtr, swift. From the verb; 
see Fleet (i). 

fleet (4), vb., to move swiftly. (E.) 
From A. ^.fleotan ; see Fleet (i). 

Flesh. (E.) yi.'^.flesch. A.^.fl^sc, 
flesh. + Icel. flesk, bacon ; Dan. flesk.^ 
Swed. flask, bacon ; Du. vleesch ; G. 
fleisch. Teut. type *flaiskoz, n. 

Fleur-de-lis, flower of the lily. 
'F.-L.) O.Y.fleiiK de lis. Here lis = 
Late L. Iilius, corrupt form of L. liliiwi, 
a lily ; see Flower and Lily. 

Flexible. ( F. - L. ) M. Y. flexible. - L. 

flexibilis, easily bent. — L. flexus, pp. of 
flectere, to bend. Der. inflexible. 

flection, a bending. (L.) Better 
flexion ; from L. ace. flexionem, a bend- 
ing. —L. y^^jrwi', pp. oi flectere. So also 
flex-ot\ flex-ure. (Cf. Y. flexion.) 

Flick, a light blow, (E.) Imitative ; 
ci.flip. E. Yuts.flik, a flick ; flikflakken, 
to strike lightly. 

Flicker, to flutter. ( E.) M. Kflikeren. 
— A. ^.flicorian, to flutter. Imitative ; a 
weakened form o^ flacker, frequent, of M. E. 
flakke7i, to flap about. Cf. A. S. flacor, 
adj., flying; G. flacker 7i, to flutter. See 
Flag (I). 

Flight, act of flying. (E.) K.^.flyht, 
allied to flyge, flight. -|-S\ved. flykt, G. 
flucht, Du. vlucht. Teut. fluhti- ; from 
fltig-, weak grade of '^fletigan-, to fly. See 

Flimsy, weak, slight. (E.) Modern ; 
first recorded in 1702 fKersey). Prob, 
imitative, and suggested hy fllm ; note E, 
YriQs.fleni,flwi, a film; Dan, didil.flems, 
flims, a skim on milk, ' For the ending, 
cf, tipsy, binnpsy; also limpsy, given by 
Webster as a U. S. svnonym of flimsy ' ; 
N. E. D. 

Flinch. :F,-Teut. ?) XVI cent.- 
O. F, flenchir, flaivchir, flechir, to turn 
aside, bend. Of unknown origin ; perhaps 
from O. H, G. *hlencan, answering to G. 
lenken, to turn, bend. The G. lenken is 
from O. H. G. hlanca, the side (Kluge) ; 
see Flank, Flange. f| The initial fl 
would then be accounted for precisely as 
in the case oi flank, viz. from O. H. G. hi. 
Cf. Link (I). 

Fling. (Scand.) Cf. Swed, fldnga, to 
use violent action, romp, race aLout; i 
fldng, at full speed (taking one's fling) ; 
M, Swed, y^^w^Tz, to strike; \ct\.flengja, 
to whip; l}?a\. flenge, to slash; i fleng, 
indiscriminately. These forms presuppose 
a strong verb flinga, which the E, form 
perhaps represents, 

Flint. (E,) A.^.flint.-\-T>a.n. flint; 
Swed. flinta. Perhaps cognate with Gk, 
nXivOos, a brick. Brugm, i. §§ 575, 704. 

Flip (i), vb., to fillip, jerk lightly. (E.) 
Of imitative origin, like flick. Cf. Flap, 

Flip (2), a mixture of beer and spirit 
with sugar, heated. (E.) Prob. iromflip, 
to beat up. Moisy (Diet, of Norman 
patois) spells it phlippe, as if from F, 
Philippe ; but wrongly. 

Flippant. (Scand.) Flippant is for 




flippaud, the North. M. E. pres. pt. ; flif)- 
fand^ prattling, saucy. Or else, the suffix 
-ani imitates the French (heraldic) suffix 
in ramp-ant J &c. Cf. prov. Y-Jiip, nimble, 
flippant ; from the base flip-, as in Icel. 
fleipa, to prattle ; Swed. dial, flepa, to 
talk nonsense ; cf. Swed. dxaX.flip, the lip. 

Flirt. (E.) Often wxititnflurt , mean- 
ing to mock, gibe, scorn ; the oldest sense 
of flirt was to jerk lightly away. Of 
imitative origin; cL flip, flick. So also 
E. Yrifi.flirr, flirt, a light blow ; flirtje, 
a giddy girl. 

Flit, to remove from place to place. 
(Scand.) M. Y.. flitten.-\z(t\. flytja, to 
cause to flit ; Swed.y?^///^, to flit, remove; 
Dan. flytte ; causal of Icel. fljota, Swed. 
flyta, T>2j\.flyde, to float. See Fleet (i), 

Flitch, side of bacon. (E.) M. E. 
flicche. A. S.y?zV^^.+Icel. flikki, a flitch ; 
flik, a flap, tatter. Perhaps allied to G. 
flick-, a patch ; and to E. Fleck. 

Float, to swim on a liquid surface. 
(E.) M.'E. floien, flotien. K.S. flotian. 
-^Icel.flota, Du. viotten. Teut. '^flittojan-, 
wk. vb.; from '^fliit-, weak grade of *fleu- 
ian-, to float, wlience mod. E. fleet. See 
Fleet (i). % Confused with F. flatter 
(O. F. floter), to float, from the same 
Teut. base *////-. 

Flock (i\ a company of sheep, &c. 
(E.) M. 'E..flok. A. S.flocc.-i-Icel.flokkr, 
1)^X1. flok, Swed. flock. 

Flock (2), a lock of wool. (F.— L.) 
O. F.y?<7r. — L. floccus, a lock of wool. 

Floe, a flake of ice. (Dan.) Dan. 
flage ; as in iisflage, an ice-floe, lit. ' ice- 
flake.' Cf. Norw. isflak, isflok, the same. 
See Flake. 

Flog, to beat. (L. ?) A late word ; and 
(in 1676) a cant term. Ci. flack; or pro- 
bably suggested by flagellate, q. v. Cf. 
Low G.flogger, a flail, variant of G.flegcl, 
a flail, from Late \a. flagelhwi, a flail; see 

Flood. (E.) A. S. flod, a flood ; from 
flozuan, to flow. + Du. vlocd, Icel. flod, 
Swed. Jyaxi. flod, Goth, flodus, a river, G. 
fluth. Teut. '^flo-duz, act of flowing, also 
a flood ; from Teut. base yio- ; see Flow. 

Floor. (E.) A. S. yfJr.+Du. vloer, G. 
flur. Teut. ^floruz ; cognate with W. 
llawr, Bret, leur, Irish Idr. Idg. *pldrus, 
a floor ; from *pld-, to spread out, whence 
also L. pld-nns, plain. See Plain. 

Floral, pertaining to flowers. (L.) L. 

flordlis, belonging to Flora, goddess of 
dowers. — T^. flor-, as the stem oi flos, 
a flower ; cf. florere, to flourish, allied to 
Blow^ (2) and Bloom. 

florid. (L.) \j. floridus, lit. abound- 
ing with flowers; hence, rosy. — L._/fw7'-, 
decl. stem oiflos, a flower (above). 

florin, a coin. (F. — Ital. — L.) M. E. 
floreii (about A. D. I303\ — O. Y. florin, a 
florin. — Ital. _/z^r/Vz(7 {—florino), a coin of 
Florence, so called because it bore a lily, 
the symbol of that town. — Ital. flore, a 
flower. — L.y7(J;v;;z, ace. oiflos, a flov/er. 

floscule. (L.) \^. flosctihis, a little 
flower ; double dimin. oiflos. 

Floss, rough silk ; as in floss-silk. 
(F.-L.) From Isl.Y. flosche; Cot. has: 
' soye flosche, sleave silke.' [So also Ital. 
floscio, Venetian Hosso, soft, weak ; floscia 
seta, floss-silk.] An adj. formation from 
O. Y.flocher, to form into ' flocks ' or tufts. 
— Y.floc; see Flock (2). 
Flotilla. (Span.-TeiTt.^ Span. yZ^- 
tilla, a little fleet ; dimin. oiflota, a fleet, 
cognate with O. F. flote, a fleet of ships, 
a crowd of people. This O. Y. flote (fem.), 
Y.flotte (whence G.flotte) is from a Teut. 
source ; cf. Du. vloot, Icel. floti, a fleet, 
A. S.flota, a ship. From the base */?z//- ; 
see Float. Cf. M. Y. flote, a fleet. (Kdr- 
tini?. § 3349-) 

flotsam, goods lost in shipwreck, and 
floating on the waves. (Law F. — E.) An 
A. F. law-term, ioxm.Qr\y flotson (Blount). 
A. F. floteson ; O. F. flotaison, a flooding 
of fields (Godefroy\ — Low L. type ^flot- 
tdtionem, from ''^flottdre, to float, to flood 
{Y.flotter). From the Teut. base ""flut- (as 
above). Cf Jetsam. 

Flounce (i), to plunge about. (E.) 
Cf. Swed. dial, and M. Swed. flunsa, to 
plunge. Of imitative origin. 

Flonnce (2), a plaited border on a 
dress. (F. — L. ?) Changed from M. E. 
frounce, a plait. — O. Y .fronser .froncer, to 
gather, plait, wrinkle ; fronser le front, to 
knit or wrinkle the forehead. Prob. from 
Late L. '^frontidre, not found, but regu- 
larly formed from fronti , decl. stem of 
frons, forehead ; see Front. (Korting, 

§ 3477-) 

Flounder (i), to flounce about. (E. 
or Scand.) XVI cent. Imitative. Perhaps 
from Norw. Jiiindra^ to sprawl. Cf. 
Du. flodderen, to dangle, nap, splash 
through mire; Swedi.fladdj-a, to flutter. 

Flounder (2), a fish. (F.- Scand.) 




h.Y. fionndre.^O.Y . Jiondre (in Nor- 
mandy).— Swed. fliindra, Uan. Jlynder, 
IceX.Jiydra ; E. ^x\Q%.flunder. 

Flour, finer part of meal. (F. — L.) 
Short tor 'flower of wheat.' — F. Jleur, 
%h.orX. {or Jleur defaj'ijie, flour; see Flower 
below (which is a doublet). 

flourish, vb. (F". — L.) M.E.J^oris- 
shen.^O. ¥. Jloriss-, stem of pres. pt. of 
Jlorir, to flourish. — Folk-L. Jidrh'e, for 
L. Jlorere, to blossom ; cf. L. Jlorescere, 
inceptive form oijidrere. See Floral. 

Flout, to mock. (F.) Prob. from M. E. 
Jiouten^ to play the flute. Similarly, M. Du. 
fluyten (Du. fiiiiten), to play the flute, 
also had once the meaning ' to mock, jeer '; 
Oudemans. See Flute. 

Flow, to stream. (E.) M. E. Jlozven ; 
A. ^.Jiowan, pt. t.Jieow; cf. Du. vloeijen , 
to flow; \ct\. floa, to flood. Tent, base 
*Jio- ; cognate with Gk. TrAclifti/, to float. 
See Flood. 

Flower, sb. (F. - L.^ M. E. flour. - 
O. F. flour (F. fleiir). — L. florem, ace. ol 
flos, a flower. See Floral. 

Fluctuate, to waver. (L.) From pp. 
oi fluctudre, to float about. — L.yfz/<:/«.y, a 
wave. — L. fluctus, old pp. oi fliiere, to 

Flue (i\ a chimney-pipe. (F. — L. ?) 
Of doubtful origin. \^Flue, in Phaer's 
Virgil, X. 209, is prob. a misprint for 
flute.~\ Prob. from M. E. fluen, to flow, 
as the pipe conducts the flow of the smoke; 
*To ^\xfi,fluere; Cath. Ar\g\.^¥. fluer, 
*to flow, glide;' Cot. — Y..fltiere, to flow. 
Flue (2), light, floating down. (E.?) 
Cf. prov. E. fli(ff, flue. Perhaps a deri- 
vative of the verb Fly (cf. A. S. pt. t. pi. 
flug-oti). We find Low G.flog, E. Fries. 
flu;^.,flog, flue ; cf. G.fltig, flight. 

Flue2lt. (L.) From stem of pres. pt. 
of L. fluere, to flow. 

fluid. (F. - L.) O. F. fluide. - L. 
fluidtis, iiowing. — L.flziere, to flow. 

Fluke (i\ a fish. (E.) M. E. floke, 
fluke. K.^. floe, a kind of plaice. -f-Icel. 
floki, a kind of halibut. Lit. ' flat ' fish. 
The base *floc- is the strong grade of Teut. 
*flac-, as seen in G. flack, flat. 

Fluke (2"), part of an anchor. (E. ?) 
Also spelty?^^?^. Perhaps ' the flat ' end ; 
and the same word o.s fluke {\). Appa- 
rently distinct from G.flu7ike,ikQ hook of 
an anchor. 
Flummery, a light food. (W.) W. 

meal boiled and jellied. Cf. W. llymus, 
sharp, tart. 
Flunkey, a footman. (F. — O. FLO.) 

Modern. Lowl. Sc fliinkie, a servant in 
livery. Apparently Irom 1* . flanqjteur, a 
scout (see Fiafiker in N. E. D.). — F. flan- 
quer, ' to flank, to be at one's elbow for 
a help at need ; ' Cot. — F. flaiic^ side ; 
see Flank. 

Fluor, Fluor-spar, a mineral. (L.) 
The \.. fluor (.lit. a tlowing) was foimerly 
in use as a term in alchemy and chemistry. 
^'L. fluere, to flow. 

Flurry, hurry. (E.) Swift hasyfwrrj/, 
a gust of wind. From flurr, to whirr 
(N. E. D.). Imitative ; cf. Swed. dial. 
flurig, disordered (as hair) ; flur, dis- 
ordered hair, whim ; Norweg. flurtiit, 
shaggy, disordered. And cf. ¥. flutter. 

Flush, (i), to inundate. (E.) Appa- 
rently of imitative origin ; ci. flush, to fly 
up quickly (N. E. D.). Perhaps influenced 
by ¥ .flux, 'a flowing, a flux ; also, ^fltish 
at cards; ' Cot. See Flux. Qi.flusck, a 
pool of water (G. Douglas) ; M. T>\x.fluy- 
sen, to gush or break out violently (Hex- 
ham) ; Dan. ^\:i\. fluse, to gush out. 

Flush (2), to blush, to redden. (E.) 
XVIIIcent. Perhaps thesameasFlush(i), 
but much influenced by Flash. Cf. Swed. 
d\a.\. flossa, to burn, flare ; Norweg. yf^j^, 
passion, vehemence. And see Fluster. 

Flush (3), level. (E.?) This is a 
derived sense ; it meant in full flow, 
abundantly full ; hence, level. From 
Flush (i). 

Fluster, to heat with drinking, con- 
fuse. (Scand.) Icel. flaustra, to be flus- 
tered ; flaustr, fluster, hurry ; cf. E. Fries. 

fldstern,flustern, to rustle (^as wind). Cf. 
Flush (2) and Flash. 
Flute, a musical pipe. (F.) M. E. 

flo-ivtc, floite. — O. Y.flaute.fleute,flahtite, 

flehute, a flute (mod. F'. fliiie). Prov. 

flauta. Of uncertain origin. They? may 
have been suggested by 1.. flare ^ to blow. 
Flutter, to flap the wings. (E.) M. E. 

floteren, to fluctuate. A. S. floiorian, to 
float about; cf. K.S. flat, the sea; flota, 
a ship. — A. S. flot-, stem o{flot-en, pp. of 

fleotan, to float. Cf. E. Fries. fli(tte7-/:. 

Flux. (F.-L.) O.F.flzix, a flux.- 
L. flilxum, ace. of fluxtis, a flowing ; 
from the pp. oi fluere, to flow. 
Fly (ij, to float in air. (E.^ M. E. 

fleien,fli^en. K. '^. fleogan ', \>i. X.. fleah 

llymru, llymruwd, flummery, sour oat- | pp.y?^^^«. + Du. z'/zV^'-^w, Icel.y^w^^, Dan. 




flyve, S-^Q^. fyga, Q. Jliegen. Teut. type 
yietigan-. Cf. L. plilma, a feather. 
(VPLEUGH.) Not allied to Flee. Der. 
Jly, an insect, A. S. fleoge^flyge ; Q.Jiiege. 

Fly (2), a vehicle. (E.) A name given 
to a kind of four-wheeled vehicle drawn 
by men at Brighton, in 18 16. Calledy?^- 
coach in 181 8 (Scott, Heart Midi. ch. i). 
Fiomy?>', vb. See above. 

Foal. (E.) M. E.>/^,A.S.>/a.+Du. 
veulen, Icel. foli, Dan. fole, Swed. fdle, 
Goth, fula, G. fohlen. Teut. *fulon-. 
Cognate with L. pulhts, young of an 
animal ; Gk. vuKos. 

Foam. (E.) M. E. fome. A. S. fdm. 
+Prov. G. faim ; O. H. G. feim. Teut. 
*faimo-. Cognate with Russ. plena, foam ; 
Skt, phena, foam ; and prob. with Lat. 
spfima (Jot *spo/m j^, foam, and Lat. //?- 
mex, pumice. Allied to Spume. 

Fob, watch-pocket. (O Low G.) An 
O. Low G. word, only preserved in the 
cognate H. G. (Prussian)/////^, a pocket; 
for which see Bremen Wort. i. 437. 

Focus, a point where light-rays meet. 
(L.) L. focus, a hearth ; hence, a centre 
of fire. 

Fodder, food for cattle. (E). M. E. 
fodder. A. S. fodor, foddor ; extended 
form oifoda, food.+Du. voeder, 1cq\. fodr, 
Dan. Swed. foder, G. f utter. Teut. type 
*fodro}n, neut. Allied to Food, q. v. 

Poe. (E.) M. E. foo. A. S. fdh, adj. 
hostile. Teut. type '^faihoz ; Idg. *poiqos 
f whence Irish oeck, a foe, with loss of 
p). From the weak grade "^piq- we have 
( ik. TTiKpos, bitter, Lith. piktas, unkind. 
Brugm. i. § 646. 

Foetus ; see Fetus. 

Pog. (E.) Tn several senses ; M. E. 
fogge is ' coarse grass ' ; hence foggy, 
mossy, boggy, murky (whence perhaps 
tne sb. fog, a mist). Cf. Norw. fogg, 
long-strawed, weak, scattered grass in a 
moist hollow (Ross). Perhaps allied to 
A. S.fuht, damp, moist. 

Poible, a weak point in character. 
(F.-L) 0.¥. foible, ¥. fubie, weak, 
feeble ; see Feeble. 

Poll (I), to defeat. (F.-L.) M. E. 
foylen, to trample under foot, — O. F. 
fouler^ to trample on, also to oppress, 
foil, over-charge extremely (Cot.). — Late 
L. fulldre, foldre, to full cloth ; see Full 
(3). JieT.foil, a blunt sword, for practice 
m foiling, i. e. parrying ; foil, a defeat. 

Foil (2), a set-off, as in setting a gem. 

(F.-L.) M. F. feiiille, a leaf, 'also the 
foyle of precious stones,' Cot. ; Norman 
foille, fem. ; cf. Ital. foglia, Span, hoja, 
a leaf. — L. folia, pi. oi folium, a leaf; 
afterwards used as a fem. sing. See 
Foliage. A.\%o O.Y.fieil, foil, m.; from 
Y.. folium. 

Foin, to thrust with a sword. (F. — L.) 
Obsolete. Lit. * to thrust with an eel- 
spear or Xxx^tTiX..^ ^O.Y. foine, foisite, an 
eel-spear. — L. fuscina, a trident, the 
weapon used by a retidritis, or gladiator 
with a net. 

Poison, plenty. (F. — L.) O.Y.foison^ 
abundance. — Folk-L. ficsidne7n, for L. 
fusionem, ace. of fusio, a pouring out, 
hence profusion. — \u.filsus, pp. oifundere, 
to pour. See Fuse. 

Foist, to palm or put off, to intrude 
surreptitiously. (Du.) XVI cent. — Du. 
vuisten, to take in the fist or hand; see 
N. E. D. (Low G. vusten, to take in the 
hand) ; hence, to ' palm ' a die, to cheat. 
— Du. vnist, fist ; see Fist. 

Fold (I), to double together. (E.) M. E. 
f olden, O. iAtvc.faldan, A. ?>.fealdan (pt. 
t.feold), to fold. + Dan. >/^^, Svftd. filla 
{=fdlda), 1cq\. fa Ida, GoWi. faltha}i, G. 
fallen. Teut. type '^falthan-. Allied to Gk. 
St-TrXdcTioj, doubled ; irXdaaeiv, to form, 
mould. See Plaster. Der. fold, sb., 
a plait ; -fold, suffix, as in twofold, &c. 

Fold (2), a pen for sheep. (E.) A. S. 
fald, also falod, falud. Not connected 
wWhfold (i), but with Ti^n. fold, a sheep- 
pen ; Du. vaalt, a dung-pit ; Low Q.faal. 

Foliage, a cluster of leaves. (F. — L.) 
Modified from M. V.fueillage, from M. F. 
fiieille, a leaf. — L. /(?/za, pi. o{ folium, a 
leaf; used as fem, sing. + Gk. (pvWov, 
leaf. Cf. Foil (2). 

folio. (L.) From the L. phr. in folio, 
where folio is the abl. oi folium, a leaf, 

Polk, a crowd of people. (E.) A. S. 
fole. +lce\. folk, Dan. Swed. folk ; Du. G. 
z'olk. Teut. type */^//6^z«, neut. ^Lithuan. 
pulkas, a crowd, Russ. polk\ an army, 
were probably borrowed (at an early date) 
from Teutonic. 

Follicle, seed-vessel. (F, — L,) F. 
follicule,\\i\\e h2Lg.'-''L. folliculiis, double 
dimin. oifollis, a bag. 

Follow. (E.) M. E. folwen. A. S. 
folgian, isX'sofylgan, weak verb, to follow. 
+0. Fries, folgia, ftilia, O. Sax. folgon, 
Du. volgen ; lce\. fylgja, T>z.n.fdlge, Swed. 




folja ; G. folgen. We also find A. S./«/- 
gaiigaji, (pt. t. ful-eode), with the same 
sense, but derived from A. S.ful, full, and 
gaiigan, to go; and, in like manner, 
O. H. G. follegdn. Hence the orig. sense 
was, perhaps, ' to go in full numbers,' to 
go in a crowd, to accompany ; and it is a 
derivative of Teut. *fulloz, full. See Full. 
Cf. A.S. Jjy/s^an, to assist, /zt/^nm, assis- 
tance ; also from A. S./z(//. 

Folly. (F.-L.) M.P:. folye. -O.F. 
folic, folly. - OY.fol, foolish. SeeFool (i ). 

Foment. (F. — L.) M.Y.fomcufer.— 
L. fomentdre.'^'L. fomentum, short for 
*fouimentum, a warm application, lotion. 
— 'L.foiiere, to warm. 

Fond, foolish. (E.) M. E. /^;/^, more 
commonly fonn-ed, pp. oi fonnen, to be 
weak, to act as a fool ; from the M. E. sb. 
fon, fonne, a fool. The sb. answers to 
O. Fries, famne, fo??iiie, Fries, /one (see 
Hettema), E. ¥v\Qs.fone,fon, a maid, girl, 
weakling, simpleton (see Koolman). All 
allied to K.^. fcei7ine, a virgin. Der. 
fo7id-le, vb. 

Font (i), basin of water. (L.) A. S. 
fo)it.'-''L. jfontemy ace. oi fons, a fount. 
See Fount. 

Font (2),Fount,an assortment oftypes. 
(F. — L.) Y.fonte, a casting of metals. — 
¥.fondre, to melt. See Found (2). 

Food. (E.) M.E. fode. A. S. foda, 
what one eats. The A. S. fdd- is the 
strong grade of the base *fad, corresponding 
to Gk. Trar- in -naT-UaOai, to feed. From 
the Idg. root pa-, to feed, whence L. pa- 
nts, bread, pd-buliim, food, and pd-sce7'e, 
to feed. See Pasture. Hev. fodder; feed. 

Fool (i), a jester. (F.-L.) M. E. fol, 
sb. and adj. O .Y . fol {Y . foti) , a fool. — L. 
folleni , ace. oifoUis, a wind-bag ; pi. folles, 
puffed cheeks, whence the term was easily 
transferred to a vain or foolish person ; as 
in Late l^.follis, a fool. Der. be-fool. 

fool (2), a dish of crushed fruit, &c. 
(F. — L.) From Fool (i) ; named like 
trifle. Florio has: ^ Mantiglia, a kind 
of clouted creame, called afoole or a trifle 
in English.' 

fools-cap, paper so called from the 
water-mark on it. 

Foot. (E.) M. E. fat, foot, y>\. fef , feet . 
A. S. fdt, pi. fet. + bu. voet, Icel. fotr, 
Dan. fod, Swed. fot, Goth, fottis, G.ftiss. 
Teut. type *fdt (consonant-stem), corre- 
sponding to Idg. type *pdd, with the 
variants */<?df, */<?</. Of. L. pes, foot (gen. 

ped-is) ; Gk. ttoi'j (/Eolic 7ra;?\ foot (gen. 
7ro5-os), TTf^o? { = TT(hyus\ on foot; Skt. 
pad, a foot (gen. pad-as). Cf. Fetter, 
Fetlock, Fetch. Brugm. i. § 578. 

Footy, paltry, mean. [¥..) A variant 
oifotighty, musty (N. E. D.). Orig. * damp ;' 
from A. ^.fiiht, damp, with suffix -j/.-f-Du. 
vochtig, damp; '^wtA. fHktig,\)QX\..fugtig. 
Cf. G.fcucht, O. H. G.fi4hti,flht. Yxova. 
a Teut. type *ffihtuz, damp; from Teut. 
base *feuk, as in Icel. fjiika, to drift as 
snow or dust, whence also Norw. fiik, 
vapour (Franck). 

Pop, a coxcomb. (E.) M.E. fop, a 
fool. Cf. Du. foppen, to prate, cheat ; 
fopper, a wag; fopperij, cheating ( — E. 
foppery). Cf.7^<^ ^ to delude (Johnson), 

For (i\ prep, and conj. (E.) Orig. 
a prep. A. S. for, fore, before, for ; see 
Fore.+Du. voor, Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, 
Swed. /£>>-, G.fiir. Cf. L. pro, for; Gk. 
irpo, before, napa, near. 

For- {2),p7'efix. (E.) For- has usually 
an intensive force, or preserves something 
of the sense oif'om, to which it is related. 
(Quite distinct from fore-, though ulti- 
mately allied to it.) A. S.for- ; Icel.^r-, 
Dau. for-, Swed. /or-, Du. ver-, G. ver-^ 
Goth, fra-, fair-, Skt. pard-. The Skt. 
para is an old instrumental sing, oi para-, 
far ; perhaps the orig. sense was ' away' 
or * forth.' Der. for-bcar, for bid, for- 
fend, for-go (mis5pelt_/^;'^-^(5» ' , for-get. for- 
give, for-lorn, forsake, forswear; see 
Bear, Bid, &c. 

For- (3),/r^a-. (F. — L.) Onlyin/?r- 
close (misspelt foreclose), for-feit, which 

Forage, fodder, chiefly obtained by pil- 
lage. (F. — Low L. — Teut.) M. Y. forage, 
foni-age. — O. F. fottrage. — O. F. fon-er, to 
forage. — O. Y.forre [Y .feurre), fodder.— 
Low L. fodrutn, fodder. — Teut. type 
*fddrom, fodder; see Fodder. 

Foraminated, perforated. (L.) From 
L. fordmin-, stem of foramen, a small 
hole. — \-..fordre. to bore ; see Bore. 

Foray, Forray, a raid for foraging. 
(F. — Low L. — Teut.) Foray, forray are 
old Lowl. Scotch spellings, with the sense 
of ' foraging expedition.' Apparently 
coined from the M. E. forrier, forreyer, 
a forager. — O. F. forrier, a forager ; 
from O. Y.fo7-rer,to forage ; see Forage. 

Forbear (t~), vb. (E.) From For- (2) 
and Bear. A. S.forberatt. 

Forbear (0, sb., an ancestor. (E.) 



M. E. forbear (Wallace). For fore-be-er, 
one who is before. See Fore and Be. 

Forbid. (E.) From For- (3) and 
Bid (2). A. '&.forbeodan.-\-Y)\x. verbieden, 
Goih.. faurbuida7i, G. verbieten. 

Force (O- strenc^th. (F. — L.) M. E. 
force y fors. — O. F. force. — Late L. fortia, 
strength. — L. y^r//-, decl. stem oi fortis, 
strong; O.'L.forctis. Allied to Borough. 
Brugm. i. §§ 566, 756. Cf. Fort. 

Force (21, to stuff fowls ; see Farce. 

Force (as FOSS, waterf-xll. (Scnnd.) 
Dan. fos, Swed. fors, Icel. fors, foss, a 

Forceps, pincers. (L.) L. forceps, 
orig. used for holding hot iron ; for *for- 
miceps (Vanicek). — L. fortmis, hot ; 
capere, to hold. 

Ford. (E.) M. E. ford; alio forth. 
A. ^.ford, a ford, passage. + G./z<r/. Teut. 
type '^furdtiz. From Idg */^;-, weak grade 
of -y^PER, to go ; see Fare. Allied to L. 
portus, a harbour, O. Welsh {p)rit, Welsh 
rhyd, a ford, and io frith ; see Frith, and 
Pore. Brugm. ii. § 108. 

Fore, in front, coming first. (E.) A. S. 
fore, for, before, prep. ; fore,foran, before, 
adv. -f-Du. voor, G. vor, Goth, faura ; cf. 
Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, Swed. for. Allied 
to Gk. wapos, before; Skt. puras, before, 
in front, Skt. purd, formerly. Also to 
For- (i), prefix, q. v. Der. fore-arm, 
-bode, -cast, -castle, -date, -father, -finger, 
-foot, -front, -go (in the sense * to go 
before ' only), -ground, -hand, -head, 
-judge, -knozv, -land, -lock, -man, -noon, 
-ordain, -part, -rank, -run, -see, -ship, 
-shorten, -show, -sight, -stall (A. S. fore- 
stealL sb. lit. ' a position in front '), -taste, 
-tell, -thought, -token, -tooth, -top, -xvarn ; 
all easily understood. 

Foreclose, to preclude, exclude. (F.— 
L.) Better spelt forclose. — O. F, forclos, 
pp. of forclorre, to exclude, shut out. — 
O. F. for-, from L. forts, outside ; and 
clorre. to shut, from L. claudere. See 
Forfeit and Close. 

Forego, to relinquish ; see Forgo. 

Foreign. (F. — L. ) The g is wrongly 
inserted. M. E. fo7'ai7ie, foreyne.'-O. F. 
fo7'ain, alien, strange. — Folk-L. *ford7itis ; 
for Late \^. ford7ieus, adj., from Y,.fo7'ds, 

out of doors, adv. with ace. pi. form, allied 
to h. fores, doors ; cf. l^.foriwi, a market- 
place, and E. door. 
Forejudge (1), to prejudge. From 

Fore and Judge. 


Forejudge (2) ; see Forjudge. 

Foremost, most in front. (E.) A 
double superl., the old superl. form being 
misunderstood. For M.¥^.fo7'77iest, through 
secondary influence o{ most. — « A.S.fo7y77est, 
by-form of the regular fyr77iest {<J^fur- 
?/iistoz), through the influence of A. S. 
for77ia, which is cognate with Goth. 
frtitna, first, Gk. 7rpd/xos, trpofxos, first. 
Further allied to Gk. vp6, before. Brugm. 
i. § 518. 

Forensic, belonging to law-courts. 
(L.) Coined from L. forejzs-is, belonging 
to the forum. — L. font 771, market-place, 
meeting-place ; orig. a vestibule or door- 
way. Allied to L. foi'es, doors, and E. 

forest. (F. - L.) O. Y,fo7-est. - Late 
\j.forestis, free space of hunting-ground ; 
foresta, a wood (medieval writers oppose 
the fo7'estis, open hunting-ground, to the 
parens, enclosed park). — L. /t^rfj-, out of 
doors ; adv. allied to L. fo7-es, doors. 
Der. fo7-est-er, zX'io forster , foster. 

Forfeit, a thing forfeited or lost by 
misdeed. (F. — L.) M. E.y^^^/i?; whence 
forfeten, vb. — A. F. forfeit, O. F. f off ait, 
a crime punishable by fine, a fine ; also a 
pp. of O. Y . forf aire, for sf aire, io trespass. 
— Late \j.forisfactu77i,ti. trespass, fine ; orig. 
pp. (neut.) oi forisfacere, to trespass, lit. 
' to do beyond.' — L. forls facere, to do or 
act beyond or abroad; from foris, out 
of doors ; and facere, to do. See Fore- 

Forfend, Forefend, to avert. (Hy- 
brid; E. a«^/ F.) ^.^. fo7fe7tden. An 
extraordinary compound of E.y^r-, prefix, 
vi'x'Cii. fend, a familiar abbreviation of de- 
fe7id. See For- (2) and Defend; also 
Fend, Fence. 

Forge. (F. — L.') O. F. forge, a work- 
shop. — Folk-L. '^faurga, for '^favrega 
(Schwan) ; for L. fabrica, a workshop. 
See Fabric. "Dbt. forge, vb. 

Forget. (E.) From For- (2) and 
Get. A. )^.forgeta7i (E. E. T.), forgitan. 
-f-Du. ve7gete7i, G. verges sen. 

Forgive. (E.") From For (2) and 
Give. A. S. fo7'gefan.'^'D\i. vergeven, G. 
vergebe/i ; Goth, f-agib a 7Z, to grant. 

Forgo, Forego, to give up. (E.) 
Better y^r^^?. A. S. fo7gdii, to pass over. 
From For- (2) and Go. 

Forjudge, to deprive of by a judge- 
ment. ( F . — L.) O. V .fo7-jugier. — Low L. 
fori sju die d7'e. —L./i7;7"j-, outside : and iildi- 




care, to judg 

Fork. (L.) A. S. f area. — \^.f urea, a 
fork. Der. bi-furcated. 

Forlorn, quite lost. (E.) M. E. for- 
lorn. A.'S. forloren, -pY*- oi for /eosan, io 
lose utterly ; from for-, prefix, and leosan, 
to lose ; see For- (2) and Lose. So also 
Dan. forlorcn, Du. and G. verloren, simi- 
larly derived. 

Form. (F.-L.) O. F. forme, - L. 
forma ,shaipe. Brugm.ii.§ 72. (^^DHER.) 
^ O. F. fo7-me also means ' a bench,' like 
'E.for/n. T)ev.form-2e/a. 

Former, more in front. (E.) Not 
early ; XII cent. ; a false formation, to 
suit M. E. formest, i. e. foremost ; see 
Foremost. Formed by adding -er to the 
base form- of A. S. form-a, first, really a 
superl. form, where -///- is an Idg. superl. 
suffix. Cf 1.. pri-mus, first. 

Form.ic, pertaining to ants. (L.) For 
formic-ic ; from V.. formica, an ant. 

Formidable, causing fear. (F. — L.) 
F. formidable. — L. fonniddbilis^ terrible. 
^'L.for/nTddre, to dread ; formido, fear. 

Formula, a prescribed form. (L.) L. 
fon?i2ila, dimin. of forma, a form. See 

Fornicate. (L.) From pp. of L./i?r- 
nicdrJ, to commit lewdness, seek a brothel. 
— E. fornic-, base oi fornix, a vault, arch, 
brothel. Hardly allied to Furnace ; cf 
rather L. for-tis, strong, and Skt. dhr, to 
bear, carry, support. 

Forsake. (E.) M.^. forsaken. A. S. 
forsacan, to neglect, orig. to contend 
against, or oppose ; iromfor-, prefix, and 
sacaii, to contend, whence the E. sb. sake. 
See For- (2) and Sake. So also Swed. 
fdisaka, V>:\.v\. for sage, Du. verzaken. 

Forsooth. (E.) M. E. for sothe, for 
a truth. A.S. y^r sdi)e \ where y^r^- for, 
and soQe is dat. of s56, truth ; see Sooth. 

Forswear. (E.) From For- (2) and 
Svp-ear. A. ^.forsiverian. 

Fort. (F.-L.) O. Y.fort, sb., a fort ; 
a peculiar use of F. fort, adj., strong. — L. 
ace. fort-em, from nom. fortis, strong. 
See Force. 

fortalice, small fort. (F.-L.) O. F. 
fortelesce ; Late L. fortalitia ; see For- 
tress (below). 

forte, loud. (Ital.-L.) Ital.>r/^.- 
L. 2izz. fort-em., strong (above). 

fortify. (F.-L.) O.Y. fortifier, io 
make strong. — L. fortificdre.^Yu. forti-. 

See Forfeit and { decl. stem oi fortis, strong; -ficare, for 
facere, to make. 

fortitude. (F.-L.) Y. fortitude.^ 
E.fortitiido, strength. — L. forti-s, strong ; 
with suffix -tudo. 

Forth, forward. (E.) M. E. forth. 
A. S. for), adv. ; related to fore, be- 
fore ; see Fore. + Du. voort, from voor ; 
G. fort, M. H. G. vort, from vor; cf, 
Golh. fatirthis, further, from faiir-a, be- 
fore. Teut. type fur-J}o- ; Idg. type */pr- 
to-. See Further. 

Fortify, Fortitude ; see Fort. 

Fortnight, two weeks. (E.) M. E. 
fotirtenight ', di\%o fotir ten «z^^/. — M. E. 
foiirten, i. e. fouiteen ; night, old pi., i. e. 
nights. A. S. fcowertyne niht. So also 
sennight = seven night. 

Fortress. (F.-L.) VL.Y.. fortresse. 
— O. Y .fortercsce, fortelesce. — Late L. for- 
talitia, a small fort. — Late L. fortis 
{domits), a fort; "L. fortis, strong. See 
Fort, Fortalice. 

Fortune. (F. - L.) O. F. fortune. - L. 
fortuna, chance. — E.fortu-, allied to forti-, 
decl. stem of fo7-s, chance ; orig. ' that 
which is brought,' or 'an event'; from 
fei're, to bring ; see Fertile, 

fortuitous. (L.) L. fortuit-iiSy 
casual ; with suffix -otis. — L. fortu- (as 

Forty; see Four. 

Forward. (E.) 'isl.Y.. forward. A. S. 
foreweard, adj. — A.S._/^r^, before; -weard, 
suffix ; see Toward. Der. foi-ward-s, 
M. E. forzva7des, where -es is the suffix of 
gen. case, used adverbially. And see 

Fosse. (F.-L.) Y .fosse.^\u.fossa,2. 
ditch. —L. fossa, fern, oi fossus, pp. of 
fodere, to dig. Brugm. i, § 166. 

fossil, petrified remains obtained by 
digging, i,F. — L.) M. Y . fossile, 'that 
may be digged;' Cot. — L. fossilis, dug 
up. — L./ipj-j-z/j, pp. oifodere (above). 

Fosset, a spigot ; see Faucet. 

Foster, to nourish, i E. ' A. S.fdst}-ian, 
\h.-' \.^.fostor, nourishment; Teut. type 
fdstrom, for *fdd-trom, neut. ; allied to 
fdda, food.-flcel. fdstr, nursing, whence 
fdstra, to nurse ; Swtd.fostra, Dz.n.fostre, 
to rear, bring up. 

Fother, a load, heav3''mass. (E.) A.S, 
foder.-^M. Du. voeder, Du. voer; O. H. G. 
fnodar, G.fuder. Teut. XyY>Q'^fdJf-7-om,n. 
From *fdj)-, strong grade of *f(iP- ; see 




Foul. (E.) Isl.YL.fotiL A.S./Z7/.+ 
Du. tniil, \cq\. fiill, Dun. f Hill, Swed./w/, 
Goth, fills, G. faul. Teut, type ^fu-loz ; 
cf. Icel. fii-inn, rotten. Akin to Putrid. 
(VPU.i Brugm. i. § 113. 

foumart, a polecat. (E.^i M-E./til- 
marl, fulmard; comp. of M.JL. ftil, foul 
(as above), and A. S. meard, a marten. 
See Marten. 

Found (i), to lay the foundation of. 
(F. - L.) M. E. founden. - O. F. fonder, 
^h. fiinddre, to io\\n<\. — 'L,. fundus, a 
bottom, foundation. See Fund. Der. 

Found (2), to cast metals. (F. — L.) 
O.Y. fojidre. — 'L. fiindere, to pour, cast 
metals. VGHEU.) See Fuse (i). 
D er. found- >y , F . fond-erie . 

Founder, to go to the bottom. (F.— 
L.) M. K.foundren, said of a horse fall- 
ing. — O. F. fondrer, chiefly in comp. 
afondrer (obsolete), effondrer, to fall in 
(still in use); orig. to sink vn.."'? . fond, 
bottom.- 'L.. fundus, bottom. See Found 


Foundling, a deserted child. (E.) 
M. E. fundling; formed with suffix -l-ing 
from A. S. fund-, weak grade of findan, 
to find. + Da. vondeling. See Find, 

Fount ( I \ a spring. (F. — L.) Formed, 
by analogy with mount, from F. font. — l^. 
fontem, ace. of fojis, a fountain. Der. 
fount-ain, O. F. fontaine, Late L. fon- 

Fount (2), Font, an assortment of 
types. (F. — L.) O. F. /^;«/^, a casting of 
metals. — O.F fondre, to cast. — L. fun- 
dere, to pour, cast metals. See Found (2\ 

Four. (E.) 'Sl.Y..feowur,fo7ver,four. 
A. S. feower. + Icel. fjorir, Dan. fire, 
Swed. fyra, Da. vier, Goth, fidwor, G. 
vicr; also W. pedwar, Gael, ceithir, O. 
Irish cethir, L. quatuor, Gk. Tirrapes, 
T€crcrap(s, iriavp€s, Russ. chetvero, Lith. 
keturi, Pers. chehar, Skt. chatvdras. Idg. 
type, *qelwer-. J)ev.four-ih, A.^.feorpa ; 
four-teen, A. S. feoivertene ; for-ty, A. S. 

Fowl (E.l M. E. foul, A. S. fugol, a 
bird.+Du. vogel, Icel. fugl, Dan. fngl, 
Swed. fogel, Goth, fugls, G. vo§-el. Teut. 
type *fugloz, masc. : prob. for *flug/oz, by 
dissimilation ; the form fiuglas, pi. occurs 
in Matt. xiii. 32 (Rush worth gloss\ and 
cf. the adj. Jlugol, flying. From *flug-, 
weak grade of Teut. *fieug-on-, to fly. 
See Fugleman and Fly. Brugm. i. § 491. 

Fox. (E.) A. S. fox. + Du. vos, G. 
fuchs. Teut. type '^fuh-s-, masc. We also 
find Icel. foa, Goth, fauho, fem. a vixen ; 
Teut. type *fuhd. A connexion with Skt. 
piichchha-y ' tail,' is doubtful. Der. vix-en. 
q. V. 

foxglove. ( E.) A. S. foxes glofa, i. e. 
fox's glove ; a fanciful name. Cf. Norw. 
revbjoUa, a foxglove ; lit. ' fox-bell.' 

Foy, a parting entertainment, by or to 
a wayfarer. (Du. — F.) From Du. fooi 
(in Hexham, y%/, 'a banquet given by one 
at parting from his friends').— F./t>/, lit. 
faith, from L. ace. fidetn ; cf. Late L. 
fides, in the sense of 'payment.' (So 
Franck.) But rather from F. voic, a way ; 
L. Mia. Cf. Voyage. 

Fracas. ( F. - Ital. - L.) F. fracas, a 
crash. — F. fracasser, to shatter. — Ital. 
fracassare, to break in pieces. — Ital. fra^ 
prep., among, and cassdre, to break: (imi- 
tated from L. interriunpere^ . Jtzl. fra is 
from L. infrd, below. Cassare = L. quas- 
sd'e, to sliatter; see Quash.. 

Fraction. ( F. - L. ) F. fraction. - L. 
ace. f?'actidneiH, a breaking. — L. fractus, 
pp. oi f ranger e, to break. Cognate with 
break ; see Break. 

fracture. (F.-L.) 0.¥. fracture. 
mm\j. fractHra, a breach. — L. yr^tr/z/j-, pp. 
oi f ranger e, to break. 

Fractious, peevish. (E. ; and¥. — l..) 
A prov. E. word, as if from North. JL.fratch, 
to squabble, chide ; the same as M. E. 
f race ken, to creak as a cart. But it also 
occurs I in 1705) in the sense oi refractory, 
being formed from f) action, in the sense 
of ' dissension,' a sense now obsolete ; see 
N. E. D. See Fraction. 

Fragile. (F. - L.) F. fragile. - L. 
fragilis, easily broken. — L. /roo-, base of 
frangere, to break. See Fraction. 
Doublet, /raz7. 

fragment. (F.-L.) Y.fragment — 
'L.fragmentum, a broken piece. — L.y^rt'^-, 
base oi franoere ; with suffix -juentum. 

Fragrant. (F.-L.) Y. fragrant.^ 
1^. frdgrajttcm, ace. oi fragrans, pres. pt. 
oifrd^rdre, to emit an odour. 

Frail. (F.-L.) ^l.Y. freel, frcyl- 
O. Y . fraile, brittle. — l.. fragilem, ace. of 
fragilis ; see Fragile, 

Frame, to construct, (E.) M. E. fra- 
mien ; also fre7nien. A. S. framian, to 
be profitable, avail ; cf. also freniien, 
frefuinan, to promote, effect, do, lit. to 
further.— A.S. fram, strong, good, lit. 




forward; cl.fmui, prep,, from, away; ste 
"Ftovo.. '^IctX. frama, fremja, to further, 
from frajnr, adj., forward, frani, adv., 
forward, allied iofrd, from. Cf. G.fro)fifn, 
good. TiQv.fravie, sb. 

Fraxnpold, quarrelsome. (Low G.) 
Obsolete. K\s>ofravipald,fronipalL Allied 
to prov. E. rantipole, a romping child. Cf. 
E. Fries, frante-pot, wrante-pot^ a peevish 
man ; M. Du. wranten^ to chide, Dan. 
vrante, to be peevish, vranten, peevish. 
Cf. also Dan. vrampet, warped; Low G. 
zurajiipachtigh, morose (Liibben); E. Fries. 
franieuy wranten, to be cross. Note also 
'^c. frample, to disoider, and 'E. frtifup. 
The second element is prob. from E. poll, 

Franc, a French coin. (F. — G.) M. E. 
fratik.^O.Y. franc; said to be short for 
FrancoritDi Kex [on a coin of 1360). See 

franchise. (F.-G.) ^.E. fran- 
chise. — O. F. franchise., privileged liberty. 
— O.F. franchis', stem of pres. pt. of 
frafichir, to ixee. — O.Y. f?-anc, free; see 
Frank. Der. disfranchise, enfi-anchise. 

Frangible. (L. ) Late L. frangibiUs, 
breakable; a coined woxd.-^E. frangere, 
to break. See Fraction. 

Franion, a dissolute person. (F. — L.) 
O. Y. fraigfiant, one who infringes (law) ; 
pres. pt. oi fraindre, to break, hence to 
infringe. — L. frangere, to break. See 

Frank, free. (F.-Low L.-0. H. G.) 
O. F. fratic. — Low L. franciis, free ; 
orig. a Frank. — O. H. G. franko, a Frank ; 
perhaps named from a weapon ; cf. A. S. 
franca, a javelin. The Franks were a 
Germanic people. 

frankalmoign, the name of the 
tenure by which most church-lands are 
held. (F.-O. H. G. fl«r/L.-Gk.) Lit. 
'free alms.' — P\ franc, free; Anglo-F. 
al})ioine = O. F. abnosjie, alms. See Frank 
and Almoner. 

frankincense. (F. — G. a^td L.) 
O. F. franc enccns, pure incense ; see 
Frank (above) and Incense. 

franklin, a freeholder. (F, — G.) 
^L E. frankelein. — A. F. frannkelayn, 
Langtoft, ii. 212; Eovf E. francaldnus, 
franchildnus. — Low L. francus, free ; see 
Frank (above). The suffix is possibly 
from O. H. G. -line ( = E. -l-ing as in 
dar-ling) ; precisely as in chamberlain. 
Frantic. (F. — L. -Gk.) ^EE.frene- 


iik, shorter ioim. frentik. — O.Y. frena- 
tiqne.'-E. phreneticus, phremticus, mad. 

— Gk. (ppfviTLKus, mad, suffering from 
(ppeviTis, frenzy. See Frenzy. 

Fraternal. (F.-L. O.Y.fratemel. 

— Late L. f dtcrndlis, the same as L. 
frdterniis, brotherly. — L. f rater, cognate 

with E. Brother. 

fraternity. fF.-L.) O.Y. frater- 
nitee.—E. 2icc. frdtemitd/efii, brotherhood. 

— L. frdterniis^ brotherly. — L. frdter, 
brother. Der. confraternity. 

fratricide ( 1 \ murderer of a brother. 
(F. — L.) O. Y. fratricide. — E.frdtricTda, 
a brother-slayer. — L. fi'dtri-, stem of 
frdter, brother; -cida, a slayer, from 
ccedere, to kill ; see Caesura. 

fratricide (2, murder of a brother. 
(F.-L.) O. F. fratrecide (Uiixi). - L. 
frdtricTdiinn, the killing of a brother. — L. 
frdtri-, stem of /"ra/^r, brother ; -cidiuni, 
a slaying, from ccedere, to kill. 

Fraud. (F.-L.) O.F. fraude.^E. 
frandem, ace. oifrans, deceit, guile. 

Fraught, to lade a ship. (Low G. or 
Friesic. ) We now use fraught only as a 
pp. ^l.E. frahten, fragten, only in the 
"1^1^. fraught. Cf. '&\yitA.frakta, to fraught or 
freight, from frakt, a cargo ; Dan. fragte, 
from fragt, a. cargo ; E. Fries, fracht, 
fragt, (i) a cargo, (2) charge for trans- 
port ; also Du. bevrachten, from vracht', 
G. fracht en, from fracht. See further 
under Freight. 

Fray (i\ an affray. (F. — L.) Short 
for affray, or effray. orig. * terror,' as 
shewn by the use oi fray in the sense of 
terror, Bruce, xv. 255. See Affray. 

fray :», to terrify. (F.-L.) Short 
for affray ; see Affray. 

Fray (3, to wear away by rubbing. 
(F. — L.) O. F. freier ;also froier), to 
rub (Godefroy). — L._/)7V(7;-^, to rub. 

Freak (0- ^ whim, caprice. (E.) A 
quick movement ; from M. E. frek, quick, 
vigorous. —A. S. free, bold, rash ; whence 
frician, to move briskly. + Icel. frekr, 
voracious ; Swed. frdck, impudent, Dan. 
frcek, audacious; G.frech, saucy, O. H. G. 
freh, greedy ; Goth, faihtcfriks, covetous. 

Freak (2), to streak. (E.) A coined 
word ; to streak capriciously (Milton) ; 
from Freak (i). 

Freckle, a small spot. (Scand.) We 
find hoWx frekell a.r\A freken ox frakin.- 
lctX.freknur, pi., freckles ; ^wed. frdkne, 
E)d,n.fregne, a freckle. Cf. Fleck. 




Free. (E.) M. E./r^. A. S./r^^.+ 
Du. vrij ; Goth, freis ; G. frei. Teut. 
type ^fnj'oz ; allied to '?ik.t. priya- , beloved, 
agreeable; also to E. Friend. Orig. sense 
' dear, beloved ' ; hence applied to those 
of the household who were children, not 
slaves ; cf. L. liberi, free, also ' children.' 
Der. f7'eedom, A.S. freodom ; free-stone, 
transl. of F. pierre fra7iche. 

Pree-booter, a rover, pirate. (Du.) 
Borrowed from Du. vHjbuiter, a free- 
booter, robber. — Du. vrijbuiten, to rob; 
vrijbuit, plunder, lit. ' free booty.' Du. 
vrij =^ And see Booty, p. 56. 

Freeze. (E.) M. E. fresen. ' A. S. 
freosan ; pp. /r<?r^;2.+Icel. frjosa, Swed. 
frysa, Dan. fryse, Du. vriezen, O.frieren. 
Teut. type "^freusan-. L. pnlrlre, to itch, 
originally to burn (cf. pruma, hoarfrost), 
^Vt.plosha-, a burning. Brugm. i. § 562 ; 
ii. § 657. (VPREU.) 

Freight, a cargo. (F.-O.H.G.) M.E. 
freyte ; later freyght ; an altered spelling 
of F. fret, the freight of a ship, the gh 
being inserted by (a true) connexion with 
fraught, q. v, — F. fret^ * the fraught or 
freight of a ship, also, the hire that's paid 
for a ship;* Cot. — O. H. G.frekt, 'earn- 
ings,' hire. This O. H. G.freht is thought 
to be the same as G.frackt^ a cargo; and 
freht has been supposed to represent a 
Teut. type yra-aihtiz; iromfra-, prefix 
(see Fret), and ^aihtizy-A.S. aht, ac- 
quisition (from dgan^ to own). See Own. 

Frenzy. (F. — L.— Gk.) yi.Y..frenesye. 

— O. F. fretzisie.'-la. phrenesis. — Late 
Gk.</)/)ei'77crt?,for Gk. (ppeviris, inflammation 
of the brain. — Gk. (ppev-, base of (pprjv, 
midriff, heart, senses. See Frantic. 

Frequent. (,F. — L.) yi.Y. frequent. 

— 'L.frequentem, ace. oifreqitcns, crowded, 
frequent; pres. part, of alostvei-b ^rcquere, 
to cram, allied to farclre, to cram ; see 
Farce, iirugm. ii. § 713. 

Fresco. (Ital.-O. H. G.) A painting 
oxi fresh plaster. — Ital. /;-<?.5-(r^, cool, fresh. 

— O. H. G. frisc {G.frisch). See below. 
fresh. "(E. ; ajidY.-Tewt.) M.E. 

fresh ; s.\'s>o fers?i, representing A. S.fersc. 
The form fresh is from O. F. fres, freis 
{itm. fresche) : cf. mod. F.f'azs, fresh.— 
O. H. G. fn'sc (G. frtsch), fresh. Teut. 
type friskoz. Allied to Lith. freskas, 
sweet, unsoured, i. e. unleavened (applied 
to bread) ; Russ. priesnuii, fresh. 

Fret (i), to eat away. (E.) A.S. 
fretan, for Teut. *fra-etan, to devour 

entirely. + Goth, fra-itan, to devour 
entirely, from/r^z-, entirely, and itan, to 
eat; Du. vreten, Qs.jressen { = ver-esseji). 
See For- (2) and Eat. 

Fret (2), to ornament, variegate. 
(F. — L.; atid E.) M. E. fretten, to adorn 
with interlaced work. — O. F. freter, to 
strengthen (as with iron), also to adorn; 
also spelt ferter.'-'O.Y . frete, a ferrule 
(Cot.), also Q.fret (in heraldry) ; see Fret 
(3)- % Not influenced by M. Y.fretien, 
A. S. frcBtwan, to adorn ; from frcetwe, 

Fret (3), a kind of grating. (F. — L.) 
Common in heraldry. — O. F. frete, a 
ferrule ; frettes, pi., an iron grating (Diez) ; 
fretter, to hoop ; frettd, fretty (in heraldry). 
[Cf. Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry) ; allied 
to ItaL ferriata, an iron grating.] — F.y^r, 
iron. '^'L. ferrtim, iron. 

fret (4), a stop on a musical instru- 
ment. (F. — L.) Frets are bars across the 
neck of the instrument ; probably the same 
word Oisfret (3). See N. E. D. 

Friable, easily crumbled. (F. — L.) 
M. ¥. friable. — L. fridbilis. — L. fridre^ to 
rub, crumble. 

Friar. (F.-L.) M.E. frere.-O.Y. 
frere, frsire^ lit. a brother. — L. frdtrem, 
ace. <Afrdter^ a brother. See Brother. 

Fribble, to trifle. (W. Flem.-Du.) 
From W. Yltm.fribbclen, wribbelen, to rub 
(as a thread) between finger and thumb. — 
Du. wrijven, to rub, rub away. 

Fricassee, a dish of fowls cut up. 
(F.) ¥. fricassee, a fricassee; fem. ofpp. 
oifricasser, to fricassee, also, to squander 
money. A fricassee is made of chickens, 
&c. cut up into small pieces. Of unknown 
origin. Some have suggested L. frtgere, 
to roast, or Y.. fricdre, to rub (Korting). 

Friction. (F. - L.) Y-friciioji.-- L. 
ace. frictionem, a rubbing. — L. frictus, 
contr. pp. of fricdre, to rub ; allied to 
fj'idre, to rub ; see Friable. 

Friday. (E.) A.S. frlge-dag, trans- 
lating L. dies Veneris ; where frige is gen. 
of Frig, the wife of Woden. Teut. type 
frij'd, fem. of frijoz, dear, beloved, also 
'free ' ; Skt. priyd, wife, loved one. See 
Free, Friend. 

Friend. (E.) M.E. frend. A.S. 
freond, orig. ' loving,' pres. pt. oifreogan, 
to love.+Icel./r^^/^z, Dan. /r^«r/(?, Swed. 
frdnde, only in the sense of ' kinsman ' ; 
also Du. vriend, Gfreund; Goth.fHJonds, 
a friend, pres. pt. of frijon, to love. Cf. 



Skt. pri, to love. Allied to Free. 
I Brugm. i. § 567. Der. friendships A S. 

Frieze (i), a coarse woollen cloth. (F. 
— Du.?) M. F. frize, frise, ' frise ; ' Cot. 
Perhaps due to drap de frise, i. e. cloth of 
Friesland ; with which Cotj^rave identifies 
it. — Du. Vrieslaiid, Friesland, Fries, a 
Frieslander, belonging to Friesland. So 
also cheval de Frise, a horse of Friesland ; 
whence chevaiix de Frise, spikes to resist 
cavalry, a jesting term. % Hence O. F. 
friser, to cover with a nap, to curl hair, 
to frizz. See Korting. 

Frieze (2), part of the entablature of a 
column. (F.) M.¥. frize, ' the broad and 
flat band that's next below the cornish 
[cornice^, or between it and the architrave ;' 
Cot. Span, friso, a frieze ; allied to Ital. 
fregio, a fringe, lace, border, ornament. 
The Ital. fregio represents L. Phrygium 
{opus), Phrygian work. 

Frigate. (F.-Ital.) M.Y. fregate, 
' a frigate ; ' Cot. '^Ital. fre^a/a, a frigate. 
Origin uncertain. 

Fright. (E.) M.E.fyg/t^. O. North- 
umb. fryhto, A. S. fyrhto, fyrhtu, fright, 
allied to/^r/^/, timid. +O.Sax./o;'/^/fl!, Dan. 
frygt, Swed. fruktan, G. ftircht, Goth. 
faurhtei, fright ; allied to O. Sax. forht, 
O. H. G.foracht, Goth, faiirhis, fearful. 

Frigid. (L.) L./r/:^zV/z^j-. cold, adj. - 
'L.frigere, to be cold. ■^\j frigus, cold, sb. 
4-Gk. pl'ios, cold. Brugm. i. § 875. 

Frill, a ruffle on a skirt. (Low G.) 
\_Frill, vb., was a term in hawking ; a hawk 
that shivered, from feeling chilly, was said 
to frill. "O.Y. friller, to shiver with 
cold. Hence some have deduced the 
sense of a hawk ruffling his feathers ; but 
for this there is no authority.] The sb. 
answers to W. Flem. frtd, frulle, a 
wrinkled plait ; De Bo cites frullen as 
being round the bottom of a dress. Cf. 
also Swed. dial. />(?'//, a wrinkled or curled 
strip, as on a woman's cap, whence fryllig, 
wrinkled. De Bo also gives W. Flem. 
frullen, vb., to hang in pleats; hullen eti 
frullen, ribbons and trimmings. Hence 
perhaps a verbal form *fryllan. 

Fringe, a border of loose threads. (F. 
- L.) M. E. fringe. - O. F. fretige (Pals- 
grave), oldest form of F. f range, fringe ; 
the Wallachian form is fritnbie, for *fim- 
brie (by metathesis).— H. frnbria, fringe ; 
allied to fbra, a fibre ; see Fibre. 

Frippery, worn-out clothes, trash. 


(F. - L.) Stuff sold by a fripier. - M. F. 
fripicr, 'a fripier, or broker, trimmer up 
of old garments, and a seller of them so 
mended ; ' Cot. — O. F. frepe (also ferpe, 
felpe), frayed out fringe, old clothes. 
Prob. from L,.fibra, fibre (Korting). 

Frisk, to skip about. (F.-Teut.) 
From the z.d]. frisk, brisk. — M. ¥.f risque, 
' friske, blithe, briske;' Cot. ; O. V.frique. 
"O.H. G. frise, G. frise h, fresh, brisk, 
lively ; see Fresh. Cf Norm. dial, fris- 
quet, frisky. 

Frith (1), an enclosure, forest, wood. 
(E.) Obsolescent ; M. ¥. frith, peace, also 
enclosure, park. Cf \N .ffridd, park, forest, 
which is borrowed from M. E. — A. S.frid, 
peace ; fridti, peace, security, asylum. 
Cf, Icel. fridr, Dan. Swed. fred, Du. 
vrede, G. friede^ peace. Teut. type 
*frithuz ; from *fri-, base of *jri-joz, free. 
See Free. % The M. E. frith is also 
' wooded country.' ^Ihis is prob. a different 
word ; A. S. gefyrhde (Birch, iii. 120). 

Frith (2), Firth, an estuary. (Scand.) 
M. E. frth.^lcQ\. fjorQr, a firth, bay; 
V)zx\. fiord, ^wQ^.fjara, the same. Allied 
to Ford. Brugm. ii. 108. 

Fritillary, a plant. (L.) So named 
because the chequered markings on the 
corolla were in some way associated with 
difritillus. — \a. fritillus , a dice-box. 

Fritter (i\ a kind of pancake. (F.— 
L.) M. E. frytowre, fritotire. [Cf. F. 
friteau, *a fritter,' Cot.^ — 0. Y.friture, 
a frying, dish of fried fish. — O. F. frit, 
(ned. —h.fricttts, pp. oifrlgere, to fry. 

Fritter (2), afragment; Shak. (F. — L.) 
0.¥. freture.'^\j. fractilra, a fracture. 
See Fracture. 

fritter away, to diminish, waste. 
(F. -L.) A derivative {rova. fritter {2), 
a fragment ; whence fritter, vb., to cut 
up into fragments. See above. 

Frivolous, trifling. (L.) From L. 
friuol-us, silly ; with suffix -ous. The orig. 
sense seems to have been ' rubbed away ' ; 
hence friuola meant broken potsherds, 
&:c. — L. fridre, fricd7-e, to rub ; see 

Friz, Frizz, to curl, render rough. 
(F. — Du. ?) M. F.frizer, ' to frizle, crispe, 
curie ; ' Cot. [Cf. Span, frisar, to frizzle, 
raise the nap on frieze, homfrisa, frieze.] 
Similarly the F. friser is {Tom frise, frize, 
frieze ; see Frieze (i\ Dev.frizz-le, fre- 
quent, form, in commoner use ; cf. O. Fries. 
frisk, fresle, a lock of hair. 




Fro. (Scand.) The Scand. form of 
fi-07u . — IcgX. fro, Dan, fj'a, from. See 

Frock. (F.-LovvL.) M. E. /r^/^.- 
O. Y.froc ; Low 'L./rocctis, a monk's frock, 
also spelt Jlocais (Ducange). Prob. so 
called because woollen ; see Flock (2). 
Cf. Port, froco, a snow-flake, from L. 
Jlocais. ^ So Diez ; but Brachet derives 
it from O. H. G. Ju-och (G. rocU), a coat, 
in which the initial h is unoriginal. 

Frog (i), an animal. (E.) Nl.'E.fro^ge. 
A. S. frogga, frocga. Also A. .S. fi'ox, 
a frog. 4" It;t;l- froskr, Du. vorscli, G. 

Frog (2), a substance in a horse's foot. 
(L. ?) It is shaped like a fork ; perhaps 
a corruption oi fork, q. v. ; the F. name is 
fourchette. In any case, it has been con- 
formed to Frog (i\ 

Frolic, adj , sportive. (Du.) XVI cent. 
Orig. an adj. — Du. vrolijk, frolic, merry. 
■^O.frdhlich, merry. Formed with suffix 
-lijk (= E. like, -ly) from the O. Sax. 
J7-o- (as in fro-liko, adv.), O. Fries, fro 
( = G. froh), merry. Der. frolic, sb. and 

From, away, forth. (E.) A. S. from, 
fravi. + Icel. f-d, from ; O. H. G. fram, 
forth ; Goth, fram, from. Cf. also Icel. 
fram, adv. forward (Swed. fram, Dan. 
fre/n) ; Goih.. framis , adv., further. Allied 
to Frame. 

Frond, a branch. (L.) 1.. frond-, stem 
o{ frons, a. leafy branch. 

Front. (F.-L.) M.E. fronf, fore- 
head.— O.F. front, forehead, brow. — L. 
front em, ace. oifrons, forehead, brow. 

frontal, a band worn on the forehead. 
(F. — L.) O. F. frojiteL — L. frontdle, an 
ornament for a horse's forehead. — \^. front-, 
stem oifrons, forehead, 

frontier. (F. — L.) O.Y . frontiere, 
fern. — Late Y,.fronteria,frontdria, border- 
land. — L front-, stem of frons, front 
(hence, border"). 

frontispiece. (F.-L.) Y or frontis- 
pice ; through the influence of piece. — F. 
frontispice, ' the frontispiece or fore-front 
of a house ; ' Cot. — Late Y.. frontispicitan, 
a front view. "l^. fro7iti-, decl. stem of 
frons ; specere, to see ; see Species. 

frontlet. (F. - L.) O. F. frontel-et, 
dimin. of O. F. frontel; see frontal 

Frore, frozen. (E.) A. S. froren, pp. 
oifreosan, to freeze. See Freeze. 

frost. (E.) M. E. frost, forst ; A. S. 
forst (for frost).-\'V)rx. vorst, Icel, Dan. 
Swed. Q. frost. Teut. types *frustoz, m. ; 
frzistom, n. From frus-, weak grade of 
*fracsa?t-, to freeze. See Freeze. 

Froth. (Scand.) lA.Y. frothe. — \ce\. 
f-oda, fraud , 'Da.n.fraade [Swed. fradga'], 
froth, foam on liquids. From the Teut. 
verb *freuthan-, to froth up ; as in A. S. 

Frounce, to wrinkle, curl, plait. 
(F. — L.) The older form oi flounce; see 
Flounce (2). 

Froward, perverse. (Scand. and E.) 
M. E. froward, commonly fraward 
(Northern). From Icel. frd, fro ; and 
ward. Cf. K.S. fromwea)'d, only in the 
sense ' about to depart ' ; but we still 
keep the orig. sense of from-ward, 1. e. 
averse, perverse. (Cf. wayward, i. e. 
away-ward.) And see Toward. 
Frown. (F. — Teut.) '^I.Y.froiinen.— 
O. F. frongnier, whence Y . refrogner, 
to frown, look sullen. Cf, Ital. in- 
frigno, frowning, Ital. dial. (Lombardic) 
frignai-e, to whimper, make a wry face. 
Of Teut. origin. From Teut. ^frtotjan-^ 
as in Swed. dial, fryna, Norw. froyna, to 
make a wry face. (Korting, § 3324.) 

Fructify. (F.-L.) Y.frnctifer.'-Y.. 
frUctificdre, to make fruitful. —L. /r/?^/?-, 
for friictus, fruit ; ficdre^ for facere, to 
make. See fruit. 

frugal, thrifty. (F.-L.) Y . frugal. 

— Y.. f ruga lis, economical; lit. belonging 
to fruits. — L. friig-i, frugal ; orig. dat. of 

frux (pi. fruges), fruit of the earth. 
Allied to fruit. 

fruit. (F. - L.) M.E. fruit. - O . F . 
fruit. — Y. frilctum, ace. oi friictus, fruit. 

— L. friictus, pp. of frui, to enjoy ; 
allied to Brook (i). (VBHREUG.) 
Brugm. i. § III ; ii. § 532. 

fruition. (F. - L.) O.F. fruition, 
enjoyment. — Late L. fruitiotiem, ace. of 
fruitio, enjoyvaent. — Y. fruit-US, the same 
sisfructus, pp. oifrui, to enjoy. 

frumenty, furmety, wheat boiled 

in milk. (F, — L.) O.Y. fromentee, f . ; 
'furmenty, sodden wheat;' Cot. Lit. 
made with wheat ; the suffix -ee = L. -dtUf 
made with. — O. Y . foment , wheat. — Late 
Y. friifjietitum ; Y.frHmentum, corn; allied 
to Y.frilges, fruit. 

Frump, an ill-tempered person, (E.) 
Of doubtful origin ; but cf. fra?npold. A 
frump formerly meant a 'sneer,' or 



expression of contempt. Cf. Low. Sc, 
frample, to disorder ; /rumple, to crease ; 
Jrjimp, an unseemly fold : Dan. vrampct, 

Frustrate, to render vain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. frustrdrt, to render vain.— 
L.fruslrd, in vain ; orig. abl. fem. of obso- 
lete ^i\]. frusiros [ = */rtld-^ros), deceittul. 
Allied to Fraud. 

Frustum, a piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L.) Y,. frustiun , a piece cut off. Cf, Gk. 
$pav(r/j.a, a fragment, from 6pav€iv, to break 
in pieces. Prellwitz ; Brugm. i. § 853. 

Pry (i^, to dress food. (F.-L.) M. E. 
frien. — O. F. frire. — L. frlgere, to roast. 
Cf Gk. (ppvyeiv, to parch; Skt. bhrajj, to 

Pry (2), spawn of fishes. (F. — L.) 
A. F. fry ; M. E. fri, also used in the 
sense of 'offspring.' — O. P\ *fri, variant 
oi froi (F. fray), spawn ; see Supp. to 
Godefroy ; cf. O. ¥. frier, froier, to spawn. 
^l^.fricdre, to rub. 

Fuchsia, a flower. (G.) Named after 
L. Fuchs, German botanist, ab. 1542. 

Pudge. (F.) Picard fttche ! feuche ! 
an interjection of contempt (Corblet). 

Fuel. (F.-L.) M.E.>a;^// (Barbour). 
A. ¥. fewaile, O. F. fotiaille (Low L. 
foallia), fuel. — Late L. focdlia, pi. of 
focdle, fuel. — L. focus, a hearth. See 

Fugitive. (F.-L.) O.Y.fugitf^ 
L. fugitiuus, fleeing away. — L. fugit-ufn, 
supine oi ftigere, to flee. + Gk. (pevyeiv, 
to flee; Skt. dAzij, to bend, turn aside. 
Allied to Bow (i). Der. centrifugal, 
q. v. ; febrifuge, feverfew. 

Fugleman, the leader of a file, (G.) 
YoT fugleman. — G.fugelmann, the leader 
of a wing or file of men. — G.fiiigel, a wing, 
iVom flug, flight, from fliegen, to fly ; 
inann, a man. See Fly. 

Fugue, a musical composition. (F. — 
Ital. — L.) Y .fugtie. — \\.2\.fuga, a fugue, 
lit. a flight. -L. fuga, flight. See Fugi- 

Fulcrum., a point of support. (L.) 
l^.fttlcriim, a support. — 'L.foilcTre, to prop. 

Fulfil. (E.) M. E. fu If lien. A. S. 
fulfyllan, to fill full, fulfil. - A. S. >/, 
full ; fyllan, to fill. See Full, Fill. 

Fulgent, shining. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L, fulgere, to shine. + Gk. 
<p\iyiiv, to burn ; Skt. bhrdj, to shine. 
Der. ef-fulgent {ef- = l^. ex) ; refulgent. 

Fuliginous, sooty. (L.) 'L.filligind- 

sus, sooty. '•L,. f 7 iFgin-, stem oi ffiligo, 
soot. Cf. Skt. dhii-li-, dust. Allied to 
Fume. Brugm. i. § 481. 

Full (I), complete. (E.) A. S. /«/.+ 
Du. vol, IctX.fullr, T)2ix\.fuld {iox full), 
Swed. full, Goth, ftdls, G. voll. Teut. 
type *fulloz ; Idg. type *p9bios. Cf. Lith. 
pilnas, full, filled ; Russ. polnuii, full ; 
O. Irish Idn (<*pldn), full; W, llawn ', 
Skt. puma- , Pers. ///r; cf. Gk. -nXrip-qs, L. 
plenus. Idg. root */?/, *ple,\.o fill. Brugm. 
i- §§ .^93> 461. TieT.Jill, fulfil, fulsojne. 

Pull (2), to full cloth, felt. (F.-L.) 
O. F. fuler, ¥. fouler, ' to full, or thicken 
cloath in a mill;' Cot. Also *to trample 
on.' — Late L. fulldre, (1) to cleanse 
clothes, (2) to iv\\. — \..fullo, a fuller. 

fuller, a bleacher of cloth. (L.) 
A. S. fullere, a bleacher. — L. fullo, a 
fuller, bleacher. (See above.) 

Fulminate, to thunder, hurl lightning. 
(L.) Fiom pp. of ¥,. fuli7iindre, to thun- 
der. — L. /^//wzVz-, iox fulmen, a thunder- 
bolt { = *fulg-men).'^'L.f2tlgere, to shine. 

Fulsome, cloying. (E.) M. Y.fulsum, 
from M. Y..ful, full ; with suffix -su7n ( = E. 
-some as in witisome). See Full (i). 

Fulvous, Fulvid, tawny. ( L.) From 
\u. ftiluus, tawny ; Late L,.fuluidus, some- 
what tawny. Cf. Yellow ; Brugm. i. 

§ 363- 

Fumble, to grope about. (Du.) XVI 
cent. — Du. fommelen, to fumble. 4- Swed. 
fumla (also fainla) ; Dan. famle. Ap- 
parently jnl is for Im ; cf, Icel. fdlma, to 
grope about, from the sb. appearing as 
A. S. fohn, the palm of the hand, allied 
to L, palma ; see Palm. 

Fume. (F, - L.) O. F. fum. - L. 
fiimiim, ace. of fUmus, smoke. -4- Skt. 
dhilma-, smoke; Gk. Ov^os, spirit, anger. 
(VDHEU.) Allied to Fuliginous. 

fumigate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
fumigdre, to fumigate. — L. film-, for 
fumus, vapour; -igdre, for agere, to drive 

fumitory, a plant. (F. — L.) Formerly 
fufniter. — F. fumeterre, fumitory (for 
fujue de terre). — Late L. fiimus terr(2, 
smoke of the earth ; so named from its 
abundance (and perhaps its curly appear- 
ance). Cf. G. erdrauch, fumitory, lit. 
' earth-smoke ' ; W. cwd y mwg, lit. ' bag 
of smoke.' 

Fun, merriment. (E.) XVIII cent. It 
orig. meant ' a trick ' ; from an obs, vb. 
fun, to cheat, hoax ; prob. from M. E. 



fon, fonne^ a foolish person. See Fond. 
Cf. Irish yip««, delight, pleasure, song; 
Q^^. fomi ; prob. borrowed from E. 
Funambulist, a rope-dancer. (Span. 

— L.) Formerly ftmambulo. — Span, ftm- 
ambido, a funambulist. — h. fun-is, a rope ; 
ambul-dre, to walk ; see Amble. 

Function, performance, office. (F.— 
L.) M. V . function (Y.fonciion). — L. ace. 
functionem, performance. — L./««c/z<i-, pp. 
oi fungi, to perform, orig. to use. + Skt. 
bhuhj, to enjoy. Brugm. ii. § 628. 

Fund, a store. (F.-L.) Vl.Y. fond, 
' a bottom, a merchant's stock ;' Cot. — 
L. fundus, bottom ; cognate with E. 

fundament, base. (F.-L.) M. E. 
fundement.'^O. ¥.fondement, foundation. 

— lu.funddmentum, foundation. — 'L. fund- 
are ; see Found (i). 

Funeral, relating to a burial. (F. - L.) 
O. F. funeral. — Late L. fUnerdlis, adj., 
from Y^.f liner- (for 'filnes-), stem oifUnus, 
2l burial. Dev-funere-al, {xoxaYu.funere'Us, 

Fungus, a spongy plant. (L.) L. 
fungus. + Gk. a-iToyyos, a sponge ; see 

Funnel. (Prov.-L.) M. E. fonel. 
Due to the Bourdeaux wine-trade. — Prov. 
founil, enfounilh. — Late L. fundibulum 
(Lewis and Short) ; L. infundibuhim , a 
funnel. — L. infuitdere, to pour in. — L. itt, 
in ; fundere, to pour. Hence also Span. 
fonilf Foii.funil, and even BtqI. founil. 

Fur. (F.-O. LowG.) M. E./?rr^.- 
O. F. forre,fuerre, a sheath, case, whence 
the vb. fo?'rer, to line with fur ; Chaucer 
translates forree by ' furred,' R. R. 408. 
[Cf. Span, forro, lining for clothes, Ital. 
fodero, lining, fur, scabbard.] — Goth. _/i7f/;', 
scabbard, orig. 'protection;' Icel. fodr, 
lining ; allied to G. fitter, a case, lining, 
fur.-f Skt. /<7/m(w), a receptacle; cf. Gk. 
TTtti/xa, a cover. Brugm. i. § 174. 

Furbelow, a flounce. (F.) Prov. F. 
farbala, a flounce, in the dialect of 
Hainault (Diez) ; the usual form is F. 
Span. Ital. Vovi. falbala, a flounce. Origin 

Furbish, to polish, trim. (F.-O.H.G.) 
O. F. forbiss-, inceptive stem of forbir, 
to furbish, polish. — O. H. G. ''^furhjan, 
M. H. G. fUrban, to purify, clean, rub 

Furl, to roll up a sail. (F. — Arab.) 
Formerly spelt furdle, farthel, to roll up 

in a bundle. From fardel, a bundle ; see 
FardeL Cf. F. fardeler, *to truss, to 
make into fardles;' Cot. \Y . ferler, to 
furl, is from E.] 

Furlong, ith of a mile. (E.) A. S. 
furlang, orig. a furrow-long, or the length 
of a furrow. — A. S. furh, a furrow ; lang, 

Furlough, leave of absence. (Du.— 
Scand.) Orig. vorloffe. — Du. verlof, 
leave, furlough ; the same as Dan. forlov, 
Swed. forlof leave. Cf. G. urlaub, fur- 
lough ; Dan. orlov. p. As to the prefix, 
Du. ver-, Dan. for-, Swed. fd7'-, are the 
same as Y..for- ; whilst Dan. or-, G. tir- — 
Goth, us, out. The syllable lof leave, is 
shortened from -Idf-, the equivalent of G. 
-laub', as seen in G. er-laub-en, to permit, 
and in A. S. leaf, permission. See Leave 
(2); also Believe, Lief. 

Furmety ; see Frumenty. 

Furnace, an oven. (F.— L.) M. E. 
forneis. — O. F. fornaise. — L. forndcem, 
ace. of fornax, an oven. — L. fornus, an 
oven ; allied to formus, warm. Cf. Skt. 
gkarma-, warmth, glow. See "Warm. 
Brugm. i. § 146. 

Furnish, to fit up, equip. (F. - O.H.G.) 
O. ¥ . fourniss-, inceptive stem oi fournir, 
to furnish, of which an older spelling is 
fornir, the same word as Prov. formir, 
fromir. — O. H. G. f'umfati, to provide, 
furnish; cf O. H. G.fruma, utility, profit, 
gain ; G.fromm, good. Allied to Former, 
Frame. And see Veneer. 

Furrow. (E.) M. E. fo^-we. A. S. 
furh, a furrow.+Du. voor, Icel. for, Dan. 
fu7-e, Swed. fare, G. furche, a furrow. 
Teut. type *furh-, f. Cf. W. rhych, a 
furrow ; L. porca, a ridge between two 
furrows. "Dev. fur-long. 

Further. (E.) Probably the comp. 
of fore, but also explained as comp. of 
forth. M. E. furder. A. S. furdra, adj. 
m. ; furdor, further, adv.+Du. vorders, 
adv., further ; O. Fries, fordera, adj. ; 
O. Sax. forthora, adj. ; O. H. G. fordar, 
G, vorder, adj. Teut. type *furthero- (i. e. 
*fur-ther-o-^ answering to Gk. irpo-rep-os, 
comp. of TT/jo. 9\ In this view the comp. 
suffix is -tker (Gk. -rep-). Der. further, 
vb., A. S. fyrdran, formed from fiirdor 
by vowel-change of u to y. 

furthest, a late form, made as the 
superl. of forth, and due to regarding 
further as the comp. of the same. The 
true superl. oi fore i% first. 



Furtive. (F.-L.) M. Y.furtif, fern. 
furtive. — !-, furtiuus, stolen, secret. — L. 
furtufti, theft. — L. filrdri, to steal. — L. 
filr, a thief. +Gk. ^wp, a thief, allied to 
<pkpii.v^ to bear, carry (away). (y'BHER.) 
Brngm. ii. § 160 (3). 

Pury. (F. — L.) Y. furie. — 'L. ftnia^''lj.furere, to rage. 

Furze. (E.) M.E./;-j^. k.S.fyrs; 
older iormfyt-es. 

Fuscous, brown. (L.) L. fusc-tis, 
brown ; with suffix -otts. 

Fuse (i); to melt by heat. (L.) A late 
word. Due to fus-ible (in Chaucer), 
fus-ion, in Sir T. Browne. — L. fnsiis, pp. 
oifundere, to pour, melt. Allied to Gk. 
Xeeti' (for *xf/^-^"')> Goth, giutan, to pour. 
(VGHEU.) Der. ftis-ibie (from O. F. 
fusible) ; fus-ion. See Gush. 

Fuse (2) ; see Fusee (i). 

Fusee (i) Fuse. (F.-L.; <?rital.- 

L.) ' Fuse, fusee, a pipe filled with wild- 
fire, and put into the touch-hole of a 
bomb;' Kersey (1715). i. T^r/J-^? is from 
Ital.y>/J^, a spindle, a shaft (of a column) ; 
also, a fuse. — l^.fiisus, a spindle. 2. Fusee 
is from F. fus^e, a fusee, i. e. a spindle- 
shaped pipe ; see below. 

^see (2), a spindle in a watch. (F.— 
L.) O. F. fusee, orig. a spindleful of 
thread. — Late L. flsdta, the same ; fem. 
of pp. of ftisdre, to use a spindle. — L. 
fiisus, a spindle. 

Fusil (i), a light musket. (F.-L.) 
Orig. not the musket itself, but the steel 
against which the flint struck. From F. 
fusil, * a fire-steele for a tinder-box; ' Cot. 
Also in mod. F., a fusil. [Cf. Span, fusil, 
a fusil.] — L.y^aV^, a steel for kindling fire. 
^L.. focus, a hearth; see Focus. Der. 
fusil-ee?', pisillade. 

Fusil ,2\ a spindle, in heraldry. (L.) 
A. F. fusel (see O. F. fuisel in Godefroy). 
Dimin. oil., fiisus, a spindle. 

Fusil (3), easily molten. (L.) 'L.filsilis, 
easily molten. — L. //7j«j-, pp. oi fundere, 
to pour. See Fuse (i). 

Fuss, haste, flurry. (E.) Probably of 
imitative origin, descriptive of spluttering 
and puffing. Cf. fuff, i. e. to puff, and 
hiss. ^ It cannot be connected with 
M. E. /wj, adj., eager; K.S. ftis, eager, 

Fust (i), to become mouldy. (F. — L.) 
In Hamlet, iv. 4. 39. Coined from fusty 
(a. D. 1398), answering to 0.¥. fusti. 
* fusty, tasting of the cask,' Cot. — O. F. 

fust, a cask; orig. a stock, trunk, log. — 
L.fustem, ace. oi fust is, a cudgel. 

fust (2), the shaft of a column. (F.— 
L.) In Kersey (i7i5).-0. F. fust, a 
Xrwnk. — lj. fustem. ace. oifustis, a cudgel, 
thick stick. 

Fustian, a kind of coarse cloth. (F. — 
llal. —Low L. —Egypt.) M. E. fustane ; 
also fustian ; A. F. fustiaiie, fustain ; 
O. F. fustaiiie. — Ital. fusiagno ; Low L. 
fustdneum. — Arab, fustdt, a suburb of 
Cairo, in Eg^'pt, whence the stuff first 
came. ^ Introduced through Genoese 

Fustigate, to cudgel. (L.) From 
pp. of L. fustigdre, to cudgel. — L. fust-, 
stem oifustis, a cudgel ; -igdre, for agere, 
to drive, wield. 

Fusty; see Fust (1). 

Futile, vain. (F.-L.) Y. futile. -I., 
fntilis, futtilis, that which easily pours 
forth, also vain, empty, futile. From L. 
y??-, allied Xo fundere, to pour; cf. Gk. 
Xe'fJi'. See Fuse (i). 

Futtocks, certain timbers in a ship. 
(E.) ' Futtocks, the compassing timbers 
in a ship, that make the breadth of it ; ' 
Kersey (1715). Called foot-stocks in 
Florio, s. V. staviine. The first syllable 
is for foot ; futtocks is thought to be for 
foot-hooks, and was so explained in 1644 ; 
hook referring to the bent shape of the 
timbers. Bailey gives the iorxn. foot-hooks. 

Future, about to be. (F.-L.) O. F. 
futur, i&nx. future. — \.. futurus, about to 
be ; fut. part, from fu-i, I was ; allied to 
Be. (VBHEU.) 

Fuzzball, a spongy fungus. (E.) Cf. 
prov. E. fuzzy, fozy, light and spongy ; 
Low G. fussig, loose, weak ; Du. voos, 

Fylfot, a peculiarly formed cross. (E.) 
Modern; and due to a mistake. MS.Lansd. 
874, leaf 190, hiSLS fylfot, meaning a space 
in a painted window at the bottom, that 
flls the foot. Erroneously connected with 
the * gammadioa.' 


Gabardine, Gaberdine. (Span.- 

Teut.) Span, gabardina, a coarse frock. 
We also find M. E. gawbardyne ; which is 
from O. F. galvardine, gualvardine, a 
loose frock. Perhaps a ' pilgrim's ' frock ; 
from M.H.G. waif art (G. wallfahrt), 




pilgrimage. — M. H. G. wa//en, to wander ; 
farf, travel, {lom/aran, to go (E./are). 

Gabble, to prattle. (E.) Frequent, of 
gad, to prattle. Of imitative origin ; cf. 
jabber. % The M. E.gabben, to mock, is 
from O. F. gabcr, to mock, which is also 
perhaps of imitative origin, or is allied to 

Gabion. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. gabion, 
a gabion, large basket iiUed with earth. — 
Ital. gabbioiie, a gabion; augment, of 
gabbia, a cage, also sY>^\t gaggia , and allied 
to Span, gavia, a cage (for madmen). 

— L. cauea, a hollow place, cage, den, 
coop ; see Cage. 

Gable, a peak of a house-top. (F. — 
Scand.) M. E. gable. -O. ¥. gable. ~lct\. 
gajl, Dan. gavl, Swed, gafvel, a gable. + 
A. S. geafel, a fork ; Du, gaffel, a fork ; 
G. gabel, a fork. Further allied to O. Irish 
gabul, a fork, gallows ; W. gajl, the fork 
of the thighs. With a different gradation, 
we find Goth, gibla, pinnacle, G. giebel, 
Du. gevel, gable ; O. H. G. gebal, head, 
Gk. «€^aAT7, head (root- form *ghebh-). See 

Gaby, a simpleton. (Scand.) M. Dan. 
gabe, a fool ; Dan, dial, gahenar, a sim- 
pleton, allied to Dan. gabe, to gape (Dan. 
nar means ' fool '). Cf. Icel. gapi, a 
heedless man ; gapamuQr (lit. gape- 
mouthed), the same ; Icel. gapa, to gape ; 
Norw. gapa, stupid. 

Gad (ij, a wedge of steel, goad. (Scand.) 
M. E. gad, a goad. — Icel. gaddr, a goad, 
spike, sting; cognate with Goth, gazds, 
a rod, Irish gath, L. hasta, a spear. 

gad (2), to ramble idly. (Scand.) In 
Levins. The orig. sense was to run about. 

— Icel. gadda, to goad. — Icel. gaddr 
(above). Cf. on the gad, on the move. 

Gaff, a light fishing-spear, a sort of 
boom. (F. — Teut.) A ship's ^«^is named 
from \^ forked end against the mast ; the 
fishing-spear is hooked. — O. F. gaffe, a 
gaff, iron hook. — Low G. gaffel, a two- 
pronged hay-fork ; E. Fries, gaffel, a fork, 
a ship's gaff; Du. gaffel, a pitchfork, 
ship's gaff. Allied to G. gabel, a fork. See 

Gaffer, an old man, grandfather. (F. — 
L. ; atid E.) From gj-anifer, West E. 
form oi grand-father. See Gammer. 

Gag. (E.) yi-E. gaggen, to suffocate. 
Apparently of imitative origin ; ci. gaggle, 
guggle. Also, W. cegio, to choke; ccg, 
the mouth. 

Gage ( I ) , a pledge. (F. - Teut.) M . E. 
gage. — F.gage, a pledge (Low L. uaditini). 
— Teut. *wadjom, n., a pledge; as in Goth. 
7vadi, A. S. wed, a pledge. See "Wed ; 
and see "Wage. From the same source 
are Ital. gaggio, Span, and Port, gage, 
a pledge. 

Gage (2), to gauge ; see Gauge. 

Gaggle, to cackle as geese. (E.) A 
frequent, form from the imitative base .^irz^. 
Cf. cackle, gabble; also Icel. gagl, a wild 
goose ; gagg, the cry of a fox ; Lith. 
gag'eti, to gaggle. 

Gaiety. (F.-Teut.) F. gaiete.^Y. 
gai, gay. See Gay. 

Gain (i), profit. (F.-Teut.) O.F. 
gain, ¥. gagne, from the verb below. [It 
partly displaced the M. E. gain, advantage, 
which was of Scand. origin ; from Icel. 
gngti, gain, advantage ; Swed.^a^w, profit, 
Dan. gavn.'\ 

gain (3), to win. (F. — Teut.) 'Yea, 
though he gaine and cram his purse with 
crunes ; ' and again, * To get a gauie by 
any trade or kinde ; ' Gascoigne, Fruits 
of War, St. 69 and st. 66. — O. F. gaigner, 
F. gagner, to gain. This F. gagfier, O. F. 
gaagnier (Ital. guadagnare), is from 
O. H. G. weidenon > weidenen, to pas- 
ture, which was the orig. sense of the F. 
word; from O. H. G. weida (G. weide), 
pasture-ground. Cognate with G. weide are 
A. S. ivaQ, Icel. veihr, hunting, the chase. 
Cf. L. ue-ndri, to hunt. Der. regain. 

Gainly ; see Ungainly. 

Gainsay, to speak against. (Scand. anti 
E.) The prefix is Icel. ^(?^«, against; cf. 
A. S. gegn, gean ; see Against. 

Gait, manner of walking. (Scand.) A 
particular use of M. E. gate, a way ; see 
Gate (2). See also Gantlet (2). 

Gaiter, a covering for the ankle. (F.- 
Teut.) F. giietre, {oxTnerly guestre (Cot.). 
The spelling gn shews the word to 
be Teutonic (^z/<G. 7a). Origin doubt- 
ful; possibly allied to M. H. G. %vester, 
a child's chrisom-cloth, lit. a covering ; 
Goth, wasti, clothing ; see Vest. 

Gala. (F.-Ital.-M.H. G.) F. gala, 
borrowed from Ital. gala, festive attire ; 
whence di gala, merrily ; cf. galante, gay, 
lively. See Gallant. 

Galaxy, the milky way. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
M. E. galaxie.'^O.Y. galaxie. — l.. ga- 
laxiaJH, ace. of galaxias. — Gk. yaXa^ias, 
milky way. — Gk. yaXaKS-, for yakuKT-, 
stem of fdXa, milk. See Lacteal. 



Gale (i)> a strong wind. (Scand.) 
XVI cent. Of doubtful origin ; but cf. 
Dan. gal, furious; Norweg, ein galen 
itorm, a furious storm, eit galet veer, 
stormy weather. Cf. Icel. galinn, furious, 
from gala, to cry out. See Yell. Note 
F. galerne, a north-west wind. 

Gale (2), the bog-myrtle. (E.) A. S. 

Galeated, helmeted. (L.) l^.gakatus. 
— L. galea, a helmet. 

Galingale, the pungent root of a 
plant. , b. — Span. —Arab. — Pers.) M. E. 
galingale. — O. F. galingal, ga7-ingal. — 
Span, galanga, galingale. — Arab, kha- 
lanjdn. galingale. — Pers. khiilanjan, galin- 
gale : said to be of Chinese origin. 

Galiot ; see Galliot. 

Gall II), bile. (E.) ^l.Y..galle. O.Merc. 
galla. + Du. gal, Icel. gall, Swed. galla, 
Dan. galde (for galle), G. gallc, \j. feL 
Gk. X0A77. Allied to Yellow. Cf. Russ. 
jelch{e), gall {j=zh) ; jelHiii, yellow. 

Gall (2\ to rub a sore place. (F. — L.) 
M. Y.galler ; M. F. galle, a galling, itching. 
Cf. Ital. galla, gala, ' a disease called a 
windgalle ; ' Florio. Also Late L. galla, 
a. soft tumour ; app. the same word as L. 
galla, a gall-nut ; see below. % But also 
partly E. ; cf. A. S. gealla, (i) gall, bile, 
(2) a gall on a horse. So also Du. gal. 
See above. 

Gall (3), a gall-nut. (F.-L.) O. F. 
galle. — Y.. galla, a gall-nut, oak-apple. 

Gallant, gay, splendid, brave. (F.— 
M. H. G.) O. F. gallant, better galant, 
with one /. Orig. pres. part, of O. F. 
galer, to rejoice. — O. F. gale, shows, mirth, 
festivity. (Cf. Ital. Span. Port, gala, 
festive attire.) Perhaps from M. H. G. 
wallen, O. H. G. wallon, to go on pilgrim- 

Galleon, a large galley. (^Span.) Span. 
galeon, a galleon. — Late L. galea, a galley. 
See Galley. 

Gallery. (F.) lsi.Y.gallerie,galerie, 
a gallery to walk in.— Late V.. galeria, a 
long portico, gallery. Of unknown origin ; 
possibly from Gk. koXov, wood, timber 
(Korting\ See below. 

Galley, a low-built ship. (F. — Late L. 

- Gk. ? ) M. E. galeie. - O. F. galie ; Late 

1.. galea, a galley ; Late Gk. '^aXka, -yaXaia. 
Orig. unknown. Korting suggests Gk. 
kolXov, wood, also sometimes a ship. 

Galliard, a lively dance. (Span. - C?) 

Span, gallarda (with // as lyi), ^ kind of 

lively Spanish dance ; perhaps through 
F. ; cf. galop gaillard, 'the galliard;' 
Cot. — Span, gal/ardo, gay, lively. M. F. 
gaillard meant valiant or bold ; perhaps 
of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret, galloud, power, 
W. gallad, able, gallu, to be able; O. 
Irish gal, boldness (Thurneysen). 

Gallias, a sort of galley. (F. - Ital. — 
Late L.) O. F. galeace.'^Vi^ii. galeazza, a 
heavy galley. — Ital. and Late L. galea ; 
see Galley. 

Galligaskins, large hose or trousers. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Corruption of F. gar- 
gtiesqiies, gregnesques, ' slops, gregs, gallo- 
gascoins, Venitians;' Cot. — Ital. Grechesco, 
Greekish. — Ital. Greco, a Greek. — L. 
Grcecus, Greek. The name was given 
to a particular kind of hose worn at 

Gallinaceous. (L.) L. galllnace-ns, 
belonging to poultry; with suftlx -ous.'^ 
L. gallina, a hen. — L. gallus, a cock. 

Galliot, small galley. (F. — Late L.) 
O. Y .galiote; 1-ate L galeota, small galley; 
dimin. oi galea; see Galley. 

Gallipot, a small glazed earthen pot. 
(F.) From galley and pot, as being 
brought over in galleys. So also galley- 
tile ; cf. galy-halfpeny, a galley-halfpenny, 
coin brought over by galley-??ien. who 
landed wines at a place called Galley-key 
(Thames Street). 

Gallon. (F.^ M, E. galon, galun. — 
O. Y. gallon, jalon, a gallon ; orig. 'a large 
bowl ; ' augmentative form of the word 
which appears as mod. F. Jale, a bowl. 
Orig. unknown. 

Galloon. ^ (F.-M. H. G.) F. galon, 
' galoon-lace,' Cot. ; cf. O. F. galoner, to 
adorn the head (with ribbons, &c.). [Also 
Span, galon, galloon.] — O. F. gale, Span. 
gala, festivity ; see Gallant. 

Gallop. (F.-Teut.) -\l.Y. galope7i\ 
also spelt walopen. — O. F. galoper, vb. ; 
galop, ivalop (Bartsch), sb. [Hence was 
borrowed O. H.G. walopieren, to gallop; 
so that it is not of O. H. G. origin.] 
The sb. seems to have been due to Low G. 
elements; and meant 'Celtic running.' — 
O. Sax. Walk, a Celt ; and hlopajt, to run, 
to leap. See further under "Walnut and 
Leap. ^ The Norw. vallhopp, a gallop, 
is only a modem adaptation ; as if ' field- 

Gallow, to terrify. (E.) King Lear, 
iii. 2. 44. M. E. galwen. A. S. gcelwan, 
to terrify ; in comp. dgcelwan. 



Galloway, a nag, pony. (Scotland.) 

Named iroin Galloioay. Scotland. 

Gallowglas, Galloglas, a heavy- 
armed fool-soldier. (^Irish.) Irish gallo- 
glach,^ servant, a galloglas. — Irish gall. 
a foreigner, an Englishman ; oglach, a 
youth, servant, soldier ^from og, yoiing, 
b. Ir. cac, cc, cognate with E. ■Foung). 
It meant ' an English servitor,' as explained 
by Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, 
Globe ed. p. 640. (See N. and Q. 6 S. x. 


Gallows. (E.) M.E.^^/tiVj, pi. A.S. 
galga, gealga, cross, gibbet ; whence mod. 
E. gallow, the s V>eing the pi. termina- 
tion. +Icel. galgi, Dan. Swed. galge, Du. 
galg, Goth, galga, a cross, G. galgen. 
Teut. type ^galgofi- ; cf Lith. ialga, a 
pole \i=^zh''~. 

Galoche, a kind of shoe. (F. — Late L. 
— Gk.) F. galoche, answering to a 
Romance type *galoJ>2a, *caloJ;ia ; formed 
from '^calopus, sing, of Late L. calopodes, 
wooden shoes ; we also find Late L. 
calopedia (see Brachet\ a clog, wooden 
shoe, and calopodiiini. — Gk. KaXoirohiov , 
dimin. oi koKutiovs, KaXanovs, a shoemaker's 
last. — Gk. kolXo-v, wood ; irovs, a foot. 

Galore, in plenty. (C.) Irish goleor, 
Gael, gu leor, gu Icoir, sufficiently. Formed 
from Irisli and Gael, kor, sufficient, by 
prefixing go or gu, lit. ' to,' but used to 
turn an adj. into an adverb. 

Gait U\ Gault, clay and marl. 
(Scand.) Norweg. gald, hard ground, 
a place where ground is trodden hard ; 
Icel. gald, hard-trodden snow. 

Gait V2\ a boar-pig. (Scand.) M. E. 
gait. — Icel. goJtr^ galti ; Swed. Dan. gait, 
a hog. Cf O. H. G. galza, a sow. 

Galvanism. (Ital.) Named from 
Galvani of Bologna, Italy ; about A. D. 

Gambado, an E. substitution for F. 
ga??ibade ; see Gambol. 

Gam.bit, an opening at chess. vF.— 
Ital. — L.) F. ga»ibit. — lloX. gambetto, a 
tripping up. — Ital. gamba, the leg ; see 

Gam.ble. (E.) A late word, put for 
ga?nm-lc or gam-le, a frequent, form which 
has taken the place of ^L E. game7ien, to 
play at games. — A, S. gatfienian, to play at 
games ; from gamen, a. game. See Game. 

Gam.boge. (, Asiatic.) A corruption of 
Cambodia, in the Annamese territory, 
whence it was brought after a. d. 1600. 

Gambol, a frisk, caper. (F. — Ital. - L.) 

Formerly gambo/d, gavibaidd, gavibaud. — 
M. F. gambade, *a gamboll ;' Cot. — Ital. 
gambata, a kick. — Ital. gamba, the leg ; 
the same as F. jainbe, O. F. gambe. Late 
L. gamba, a joint of the leg. Cf. Gael, 
and W, cam, crooked, answering to O. 
Celt. *kambcs (fern. *kambd), crooked ; 
Stokes-Fick, 78. 

Gam,e. (E.) M. E. game, also gamen. 
A. S. gamen, sport. + Icel. gaman. Dan. 
gaf?imen, M. Swed. gam man, O. H. G. 
gaman, joy, mirth. See Garnmon (2). 

Gam.mer, an old lady, grandmother. 
(F. — L. ; and E.) For grammer, \Ve3t. 
E. form oi grand-mother. 

Gam.mou \J , the preserved thigh of a 
hog. (F. — L.) M. E. gambon. A. F. 
gatnboji i^F. Jafnboti), a gammon; from 
O. F. gambe, leg. See Gambol. 

Gam.m,On (2), nonsense ; orig. a jest. 
^E.) M. E. gamen, a game ; see Game. 
And see Backgammon. 

Gam.ut. vF. — Gk,; and 1.) Comp. 
of O. F. game, gamme, and ut. Here 
gavime represents the Gk. 'ydfxij.a (7), 
because the musical scale was represented 
by a, b, c, d, e, f, g, the last being g=y. 
Ut is the old name for do, the 1st note in 
singing, because it began an old h}Tnn to 
St. John, ' L'i queant laxis,' &c., used in 
learning singing. Ga/Jiut is the scale, 
from 7 '{g) to ut (a). 

Gander. (E.) ;M. E. gandre. A. S. 
gandra, also spelt ganra i^the d being, in 
fact, excrescent). + Du. gander. Cf also 
Low G. gante, a gander (see ganta in 
Pliny). Teut. type *gajiron-, m. Allied 
to Gannet and Goose. 

Gang (i), a crew of persons. (E.) 
A. S. gang, a going, progression ; but the 
sense was affected by the related word 
genge, a gang. 

gang (2), to go. (Scand.) Icel. ganga, 
to go ; cf. A. S. ga72g, a going, path, 
course (^whence E. gang-way) ; see Go. 

Ganglion, a tumour on a tendon. (L. 
— Gk.) L. ganglion. '^Q\^. 'ya.'yyXiov . 

Gangrene, a mortification of the flesh. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) M. F. gangrene. — L. gan- 
grcena. ^Gk. ydyypaiva, an eating sore. 
Allied to yip-ccv, an old man, from 
y^7€/3, to grow old; cf Skt jaras, old 
age, jar ay a, to consume (see Prellwitz). 

Gannet, solan goose, a sea-fowl. (E.) 
A. S. ganot. Jf-l^Qw G. gante, Du. gent, a 
gander ; M. H. G. gauze, O. H. G. ganazo, 




a gander. From a base gan- ; see 
Gantlet (i) ; see Gauntlet. 

Gantlet (2), Gantlope, a military 
punishment. (Swed.) Formerly gant/o/>e ; 
corrupted by confusion \vith gauntlet. 
Again, gatitlope is a corruption of Swed. 
gatlopp, lit. ' a running down a lane ; ' to 
'run the gantlope' is to run between tuo 
files of soldiers, who strike the offender as 
he passes. — Swed. gaia, a lane, street see 
Gate (2)); and lopp, a running, from I'opa^ 
to run, cognate with E. Leap. 

Gaol, Jail, a cage, prison. (F.-L.) 
A. F. gaok, geiole (F. geoU), a prison, 
birdcage. — Late L. gabiola, caveola, a 
cage, dimin, of L. cauea, a den, cave, 
cage. — L. cauus, hollow; see Cage. 

Gap. (Scand.) M. E. ^<7//^. — Icel. and 
Swed. gap, a gap, abyss. — Icel. and Swed. 
gapa, to gape (below). 

gape. iScand.) yi. E. gapen. "Icel. 
and Swed. gapa, Dnn. gade.-^-E.. Fries, and 
Du. gapen, G. gaffen. Cf. Skt. jabh^ 
Jambh, to gape. 

Gar ( I ),' Garfish, a fish. (E.) A fish 
with slender body and pointed head. 
From A. S. gdr^ a spear ; cf. Garlic. So 
also pike, ged. 

Gar (2', to cause. (Scand.) Icel.^/r«a 
(Noreen), Swed. gbra, Dan. gjore, to 
make, cause; lit. to make ready. —Icel. 
g^rr^gbrr, readv ; see Yare. 

garb (i\ dress. (F. -O. H.G.) In 
Shak. — O. F. garbe, a garb, good fashion. 
— O. H. G. garawT, garwi, dress, prepara- 
tion ; cf. O. H. G. garawen, M. H. G. 
garwen, to get ready. — O. H. G. garo, 
ready ; cognate with E. yare ; see Gear. 

Garb (2), a wheatsheaf, in heraldn.'. 
(F. — O. H. G.) A. F. and Picard garbe. 
F. gerbe, a sheaf. — O. H. G. garba ( G. 
garbe, a sheaf. Lit. 'what is grabbed' 
or caught up into a bundle by grasping. 
Cf. Y.. grab, Swed. grabba, to grasp; Skt. 
grak, Vedic grabh, to seize. Brugra. i. 
§ 531- 

garbage, refuse. (F. - O. H. G. 
M. E. garbage, entrails of fowls. This 
agrees in form with O. F. garbage, gerbage, 
a tax paid in garbs or sheaves. Prob. 
similarly formed from O. F. garbe, in the 
sense of 'handful,' small bundle, a sense 
which occurs for Low L. garba. 

Garble, to select for a purpose ; hence, 
to corrupt an account. (F. — Span. — Arab. 
Orig. to pick out, sort, sift out. - O. Y .gar- 

beller (see N. E. D.), the same ^'S, grabelhr , 
to garble or sort out spices, orig. to sift. 
The same as Span, garbillar, Ital. garbe I- 
lare, to garble or sift wares. — Span, gar- 
billo, a coarse sieve. — Pers. _^/?ar3z7, Arab. 
ghirbdl, a sieve ; Arab, gharbalat, sifting, 
searching. Rich. Diet. p. 1046. 

Garboil, a commotion. (F.) M. F. 
garbouil, ' a garboil, hurliburly ; ' Cot. 
Cf. Span, garbullo, a crowd ; Ital. gar- 
hvglio, a garboil, disorder. Of unknown 
origin. Prob. imitative. Florio has Ital. 
garabiillare, to rave. 

Garden. F. - O. Frankish.) M.E. 
gardin. — A.Y., O. Noith F. and Picard 
gardui, F. jardi7i. — O. Frank, gardin 

O. H.G. gartin), gen. and dat. of gardo, 
a yard, cognate with E. Yard, q. v. Cf. 
O. H. G. gartin-dri, a gardener. 

Garfish; see Gar (i). 

Gargle. (F.-LateL.-Gk.) Modified 
from F. gargouiller, ' to gargle ; ' Cot. — 
F. gargotdlle, the weasand of the throat, 
also a gargoyle, or mouth of a spout. So 
also Span, gargola, a gargoyle ; Ital. gar- 
gozza, the gullet. From an imitative base 
garg-, as seen in 'L.garg-arizdre, to gargle, 
from Gk. yapy-api^av, to gargle ; cf. Gk. 
yapyapcojv, the uvula. Hence also Ital. 
gargag/iare, to murmur, gargatta, the 
throat. The parallel L. base is gu7'g- ; 
see Gorge, Gurgle. 

gargoyle, a spout. (F.-L.) F.gar- 
gouiiU (abovej. 

Garish, staring, showy. (E.) Also 
formerly spelt gau?-ish. Allied to M. E. 
gatiren, to stare i Chaucer). Cf. M. E. 
gaiven, to stare ; Icel. gd. to heed, mark. 

Garland. (F.-Teut.?) '^l.Y. gerlo7td. 
"O-Y . garlrnde. Cf. Span, guirnalda, 
Ital. ghirlanda (whence Mod. F. guir- 
la}ide), a garland. Prob. formed, with 
suffix -aude, from M. H. G. ^ivierehn, 
frequentative of wieren, to adorn, from 
O. H. G. iviara. M. H. G. tviere, refined 
gold, fine ornament, crown. Cf. Wire. 

Garlic, a plant. (E.) A. S. gdrleac, 
lit. • spear-leek.' — A. S. gar., a spear ; leac, 
a leek, plant. See Gore (3) and Leek. 

Garment. (F. - O. Low G.) M.E. 

garnement. — O. F. garnenient, garniment, 
a robe (defence). — O. F. garnir, to pro- 
tect : see Garnish. 
Garner. ,F.-L.) M.E. garner.'^ 
O. V gernier. variant oigrenier, a granary. 
— L. grdndriurn, a granary. — L. ^w/.v//;, 
corn ; see Grain. 



garnet. (F. — L.) M. E. ^^;v/«?/, also 
spelt granat. — O. F. gi-anate \ M. F. 
grenat, ' a precious stone called a granat 
or garnet,' Cot.; Late L, grdndttis. So 
called from its resemblance to the seeds of 
the pomegranate, or via In in granat uni. 
lit. seeded apple. — L. grdmtr?i, a grain, 
Garnish. (F. — O.LowG.) Alsow^r- 
nish. — O. F. garnis-, warnis-, stem of 
pres. pt. oi garni)', warnir, to defend one- 
self, fortify, garnish. — O. Frank. *want- 
Jan ; cf. 'O. 11. G. -umrnon, M. H. G. 
zvarnen, to guard against, provide one- 
self with ; cf. O. H. G. warna, foresight, 
care. See "Warn. 
garniture. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 

garniture, garnishment. — Low L. gai'nJ- 
tfira. — Low L. garnJtus, orig. pp. of 
garmre. to adorn, which is merely a 
Latinised form of O. F. garnir (above). 

Garret. (F. - G.) M.E. ^ar/V^.- 
O. F. gaHte (^F. gii^rite), place of refuge, 
watch-tower. — O. F. garir, warir, to 
preserve. — O. H. G. ivarjan, to defend. 
Allied to "Weir. 

Garrison. (F.— O.LowG.) Confused 
with M. F. garisonn, xvarisonn, a reward ; 
but the true form is ISL E. garnison, xuar- 
nison, defence, stores, supply. — O. F. 
garnisett, store, supply. — O. ¥.garnis-ani, 
pres. pt. of garnir, to supply, garnish ; 
see Garnish.. And see "Warison, 

Garrote, Garrotte. (Span. - C.) 

S^^n.gan-ote, a cudgel, tying a rope tight, 
strangling by means of an iron collar. 
Formed, with dimin. sufhx -ote, from Span. 
garra, a claw, talon, clutch, grasp. — 
Eret., W., and Corn, gar, the shank of 
the leg (Diezt. See Garter. 

Garrnlons. (L.) L. gamdus, idiWi- 
zX\\e. — 'L. garrire, to chatter. Brugm. i. 
§ 638. 

Garter. (F.-C.) A.¥. garter; O.F. 
gartier North of France, Hecart), spelt 
jartier in Cotgrave (Y.Ja7-7-etiere).-'0. F. 
and "^ orm. garet (F . /arret) , the ham of 
the leg; a dimin. form. — Bret, gar, W. 
gar, shank of the leg ; Celt, type *garris. 

Gas. (Du.) The Belgian chemist Van 
Helmont ,died a. d. 1644) invented two 
terms, gas and d/as; the latter did not 
come into use. He tells us that gas was 
suggested by the Gk. xaoj. See N. E. D. 

Gasconade, boasting. (Gascony.) F. 
gasconnade, boasting ; said to be a vice of 
Gascons ; at any rate named from them. 

Gash, to hack, cut deeply. (F. — Late L. 

— Gk.) Formerly garsh, garse. — O.Y. 
garser, to scarify, pierce with a lancet.— 
Late L. caraxdre, short for incaraxdre, 
incharaxdre, to pierce, incise. Cf. Late L. 
garsa, scarification, by making incisions 
in the skin, called in Gk. 67xapa^(s ; 
whence the Late L. vb. was formed. See 

Gasp. (E.) M. E. gaspen, gaispeti. 
The latter answers to Icel. geispa, Swed. 
gdspa, to yawn i^cf. Dan. gispe). The 
former represents the cognate A.S. *gds- 
pan (not found). Icel. geispa is for *geip- 
sa ; cf. Du. gijpen, to gasp ; A. S. gipung, 
a gaping. 

Gastric, belonging to the belly. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. yaarpo-, from yaarrjp, 
the belly. 

Gate (0, a door, hole, opening. (E.) 
\l.E. gate,yate. A.S. gtst, geat, a gate, 
opening (whence M. E. j'ate) ; pi. gatu 
(whence M. E. gate). + F)u- ^^^, a hole, 
opening, gap ; O. Fries., O. Sax., Icel. 
gat, an opening. 

Gate (2), a street. (Scand.) Common 
in the North; it also means 'a way.' — 
Icel. gata, Swed. gata, a way, path, street, 
lane ; Dan. gade ; cf. Goth, gatwo, G. 
gasse. Perhaps allied to Gate (i), and 
also to the vb. Go. p. Gate (i) answers 
to Teut. type *gatom, n., but gate (2) to 
Teut. type *gativdn', f. See Gait and 
Gantlet (2). 

Gather. (E.) M. E. gaderen. A.S. 
gaderian, gcrdrian, to collect, get together. 

— A.S. gader-, together; also gador-, 
geador. •\-T)\x. gaderen, to collect, from 
(Je^gader, together. Cf. A. S. g(sd, a com- 
pany, society (whence also A. S. gcede- 
ling, a comrade ; ge-gada, a companion) ; 
Du. gade, a spouse, G. gatte, a husband ; 
GoXh.gadiliggs, a cousin. Perhaps allied 
to Good. 

Gaud, a show, ornament. (L.) M. E. 
gaude. — L. ^awa'/;/;;/, gladness, joy ; hence, 
an ornament. — L. gaudere, to rejoice (base 
gdiiid-, as in gduTsns sum, used as pt. t.). 
■4-Gk. ^T]Qkuv, to rejoice ; allied to yaUiv 
(^= yaf-ieiu), to rejoice; yavpos, proud. 
Brugm. i. § 589 ; ii. § 694. Der. gaud-y, 

Gauge, Gage, to measure the content 
of a vessel. (P\ — Low L.) Spelt gage in 
Shak. — O. North F. ganger, F. jauger, ' to 
gage,' Cot. - O. North F. gauge, F. 
jauge, ' a gage, instrument wherewith a 




cask is measured,' Cot. ; Low L. gangia 
(a.d. 1446). Of unknown origin. 

GaiUnt, thin, lean. (Scand. ?j An East- 
Anglian word ; perhaps Scand. Also spelt 
gant (1691). Cf. Norweg. gand, a thin 
stick, a tall and thin man, an overgrown 
stripling (Aasen) ; Swed. dial.^(7«-^, a lean, 
half-starved horse (Rietz). Doubtful. 

Gauntlet. (F.— Scand.) O.Y . gante- 
let, a double dimin. of gatit, a glove. — O. 
Swed. wante, a glove; Dan. vante, a 

a magpie, dimin. of gazza, a magpie, 
whence it may have meant ' tittle-tattle ' ; 
or (2) a vejy small coin (perhaps paid for 
the privilege of reading the news), from 
Ital. gazzeita, a coin less than a farthing, 
probably from Gk. 7aC«j ^ treasury. 

Gear, dress, harness, tackle. (Scand.) 
M. E. ge7-e. — Icel. gervi, gorvi, gear, 
apjjarel. Cf. gd7-}-, geyrr, skilled, dressed, 
pp. of gora, to make. + A. S. gcarwe, fem. 
pi., preparation, dress, ornament; A. S. 

mitten, Icel. w//r stem z;a«/M-), a glove. ! ^^ar^, ready; see Yare. And see Gar 
Cf. Du. want, a mitten (prob. borrowed I (2), Garb (1 

from Scand ). Prob. from "Wind, verb 
(Noreen) ; cf. G.gewajid, a garment ; Low 
G. watif, cloth (Liibben). 

Gauntlet; see Gantlet (2). 

Gauze, a tliin silken fabric. (F.— 
Palestine.; '^l.Y. gaze ; Span. ^axa. Cf. 
Low L. gazzdtuni, gauze ; gazetwn, wine 
from Gaza. Said to be from Gaza, in 
Palestine, whence it was first brought. 

Gavelkind, a sort of tenure. (E.) 
}s\.'E. gaiiclkynde; answering to an A.S. 
form ^gafol-cynd. —A.S. gafol, tribute, 
payment ; and cynd, kind, sort, condition. 
The A. S. gaf-oi {whence. Low L. gabidurn) 
is from Teut. *gab, 2nd grade of Give, q. v, 

Gavial, the crocodile of the Ganges. 
(F. — Hind.) ¥.gavml(a. corrupt form). 
^ Kind, g/iariy a/, a crocodile. 

Gavotte, a dance. (F.) M. F. gavote, 
orig. a (lance of the Gavots. Gavot is a 
sobriquet, in Provence, of the moun- 
taineers of the Alps (see Hatzfeld). 

Gawk, Gawky, awkward. (F.- 
Scand.) From E. dial, gawk-handed, 
gaulick- handed, left-handed ; gawk, clumsy. 
Here gawk is short for gaul-ick, where 
-ick is a suffix. Of F. origin ; cf. Burgund. 
gole, numb with cold, said of the fingers. 
— Swed. Dan. valen, benumbed; whence 
Swed. dial, val-hiindt, Norw. val-hendt. 
having numbed hands. ^ Prob. not from 
Y. gauche (N. E. D.). 

Gay. (F. - O. H. G.) O. F. gai. - 
O. H. G. wdhi, fine, beautiful. 

Gaze. (Scand.) M. E. ^rt-j-^;;.- Swed. 
dial, giisa, to gaze, stare at. 

Gazelle, an animal. (F. — Span. — 
Arab.) Formerly gazel. — O. F. gazel, 
gaze//e. — Span, gacela.-' Arab, gliazdl, a 
wild goat, gazelle. 

Gazette. (F. - Ital.) O. F. gazette, an 
abstract of news, issued at Venice. — Ital. 
gazzetta, a gazette ; the orig. sense is 
either (i) a magpie, from Ital. gazzeita. 

Geek, a dupe. (Du.) In Tw. Nt. v. 
351. — iXi. gek, formerly geek, a fool, sot; 
cf. G. geek, the same ; Dan. gjek, fool ; 
Icel. gikkr, a pert, rude person. % Not 
to be confused with A. S. geac, cuckoo ; 
nor with gozvk ; nor with gatvky. 

Gecko, a nocturnal lizard. (Malay.) 
Also F. gecko. — Malay gekoq, a gecko; 
so named from an imitation of its cry. 

Ged, the fish called a pike. (Scand.) 
Icel. gedda, Swed. gddda, Dan. giedde, a 
ged ; allied iogaddr, a goad ; see Gad (i ). 
Named from the sharp, thin head ; hence 
al-o called pike. 

Gelatine. ( F. - Ital. - L.) Y. gelatine, 
kind of jelly. — \tdi\. gelatina. — L. geldtiis, 
pp. of geldre^i to freeze. — L. gelu, frost ; 
see Gelid. 

Geld, to emasculate. (Scand.) M.E. 
geidt-n. — Icel. gelda, Dan. gilde, Swed. 
gdlla (for gdlda) ; cf. Icel. geldr, Swed. 
gall, barren. Perhaps related to Goth. 
giltha, a sickle. Cf. Gait (2). Der. 
geld-ing, from lce\. gelding, the same. 

Gelid, cool. (L.) L. gelidus. — L. gehi, 
frost. Allied to Cool. Brugm. i. § 481. 

Gem. (F. — L.) M. E. gem me. — F. 
gemme. — L. gemjna, a bud ; also a gem, 
jewel. ^Brugm. i. § 413 (4). 

Gemini. (L.) L. geminl, twins ; pi. 
oi geminns, double. 

Gender (i\ kind. (F.-L.)^ M.E. 

gendre (with excrescent a'). — O. F, genre, 
kind. — h. gen ere, abl. case oi genus, kind, 
kin. ^ The unusual deriv. from the abl. 
case is due to the common phrases genere 
ndtns, hoc genere, omni genere ; so also 
Ital. genere, kind. 

gender (2), to produce. (F. — L.) 
M. E. ge7tdi-en. — O. F. gendrer (Gode- 
iio'^). — '[_.. generdrc, to beget. — L. ^^«<fr-, 
for *gcnes, stem of genus (above). And 
see Engender. 

Genealogy. F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 



genealogie. — O. F. genealogie. — L. gened- 
logza. — G\^. yeveakoyia, an account of a 
family, pedigree (i Tim. i. 4). — Gk. yevea, 
birth (allied to yevos, see genus) ; and 
Xoyia, an account, allied to \6yos (see 

General, relating to a genus, common. 
(F. — L.) O. F. general. -^ L,. generdlis, 
belonging to a genus (stem gener-, for 
'^genes') ; see genus. Hence general, sb., 
a leader ; general-issimo, from \\.2\. general' 
issimo, a supreme commander, with superl. 
suffix -issimo. 

generate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
generdre, to produce. — L. gener-, decl. 
stem oigemts. 

generic, pertaining to a genus. (L.) 
Coined from L. gener-, decl. stem of 

generous. (F.-L.) O.Y. generens, 
later g^nereux."!^. gejierostis, (properly) 
of noble birth. — L.^^;/^r-, as above. 

Genesis, creation. (L. — Gk.) L. 
genesis. — Gk. ykv^ais, origin, source; 
related to ykvos, race ; see genus. 

Genet, an animal. (F. - Span. — Arab.) 
F. gcnette, 'a kind of weesell ; ' Cot. — 
Span, gineta. — Krah.Jarneit (Dozy). 

Genial. (F.-L.) _ O. F. ge^zial.^l.. 
genidlis, pleasant ; adj. from genius ; see 

Geniculate, jointed. (L. ) In botany. 
From L. geniculiim, a little knee, joint in 
a plant; double dimin. oi genu, a knee. 
Allied to Knee. 

Genie, a demon ; see Jinn. 

Genital, l F. - L.) O. F. genital. - L. 
genitalis., generative. — L. genit-iwi, supine 
oi gignere, to beget. 

genitive. (F.-L.) O.Y. genitif.^ 
L. genetiuus, belonging to birth, applied 
in grammar to a certain case of nouns.— 
'L,. genitum (above). 

genius, inborn faculty. (L.) L. 
genius, the tutelar spirit of any one ; also 
wit, lit. ' inborn nature.' Allied to genus. 

Gennet ; see Jennet. 

Genteel. (F. - L.) XVI cent. ; F. 
gentil. — L. gentllis, belonging to the same 
clan, a gentile (afterwards applied to mean 
well-bred, &c.). — L. genti-, decl. stem of 
gens, a clan, tribe. Allied to genus. 

Gentian, a plant. (F, — L."l O. F. gen- 
tiane. — L. gentidna ; named after Gentius, 
an lUvrian king, abt. B.C. 180. 

Gentile. (F.-L.) O.Y. gentil. ^\.. 
gentllis, gentile ; see Genteel. 



gentle. (F.-L.) O.Y. gentil {^ov€). 

gentry. ( F. — L.) M. E. gentrie, high 
birth; shortened from M.E. gentrise, the 
same. — O. F. genterise, another form of 
gentilise, rank ( = Late L. *gentilitid).'-' 
L. gentllis ; see GenteeL 

Genuflection, Genuflexion, a 

bending of the knee. (F.-L.) M.F.^^«?^- 
jftexion.^'LdiiQ L. ace. genfiJlexidne?n.^'L. 
genu, knee ; Jlex-us, pp. of flectere, to 

Genuine. (L.) L. gemumis, of the 
true genus or stock ; allied to L. genus 

genus, kin. (L.) L. genus (gen. 
generis, for ^geneses), kin, race. + Gk. 
yevos, race ; A. S. cyn, kin. See Kin. 
rVGEN.) Brugm. i. § 604. 

Geography. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. 
geographie. — L. geographia. — Gk. 7€a;- 
ypa<pia, lit. earth-description. — Gk. y€aj- = 
7770-, a combining form of yrj, earth; 
-ypatpia, description, from ypa(peiv, to 

geometry. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

geometrie. — L. geometria. — Gk. yea/nerpia, 
land-measurement.— Gk. yccu- (as above) ; 
-fieTpia, measurement, from fxcTpea}, I 
measure, nirpov, a measure ; see Metre. 

georgic. (L.-Gk.) L. georgicus^ 
relating to husbandry. — Gk. y^oipyiKos, 
the same.— Gk. yeojpyia, tillage. — Gk. yecu- 
(as above) ; *€pyeiv'p-epd€iv, to work. See 
Geranium, a plant. (L.-Gk.) L. 

geranium, Latinised from Gk. yepdviov, a 
geranium or crane's bill (from the shape 
of the seed-pod). — Gk. yepavos, a crane; 
allied to Crane. 

Gerfalcon ; see Gyrfalcon. 

Germ, a seed. (F. — L.) Y.germe.^ 
L. germen (stem germin-), a sprout, germ. 
Der. germin-ate (from the stem). 

german, germane, akin. (F.— L.) 
CoHsins-german are cousins having the 
same grandfather. Formerly spelt germain. 
— M. F. germain. — L.. germdmwi, ace. of 
germdmis, closely akin. Allied to Germ. 

Germander. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.ger- 
mandree, germander; O. F. germandree, 
gemandree (Godefroy, Supp.) ; cf. G. ga- 
viander. — Late L. gamandria, a popular 
alteration of Late Gk. xaA'ci^Spi'a, ger- 
mander.- Gk. x'^l^^'^^P^^} germander; lit. 
'ground-tree,' i.e. low tree. — Gk. xcfA*"'. 
on the ground ; 8pvs, tree. 

Gerund, a part of a Latin verb. (L.) 



i L. gerundhtm, a gerund. — L. gerimdus, 
I that which is to be done or carried on ; 
1 a verbal adj. from gerere (pp. ges-itis), to 
I carry on, perform, bring. (y'GES.) 

gestation, the carrying of the young 
in the womb. (F. - L.) M. ¥. gestation.'- 
L. Z.ZQ.. gestdtionejfi, a carrying. — L. gestd- 
tiis, pp. oigestdre, to carry, frequent, form 
oi gerere {\)'p. gest-zis), to bring. 

gesticulate, to make gestures. (L.) 
From pp. of gesticiildi-J, to make mimic 
gestures. -L. gcstiadus, a gesture, double 
dimin. oi gesttis, a gtsimt. ^'L. gestus, pp. 
oi gere}'e. 

gesture. (L.) Late L. gcstilra, a 
mode of action. — L.^t'j-^«J, pp. oi gerere. 

Get. (Scand.) M. E. geten, pt. i.gat, 
pp. geten. ~-Icq\. geta, pt. i.gat, Y>Y>'getinn. 
+A. S. -getan, pt. t. -gcet, pp. -geten, to 
get, obtain ; Goth, -gitan ; cognate with 
L. -hendcre (base hed), in prehendcre, to 
seize; Gk. xai'Sdi'eti' (base X"^)> to seize; 
Russ. gadate, to conjecture. (y'GHwED.) 
Der. be-get,for-get. Brugm. i. § 632. 

Gewgavr, a plaything, specious trifle. 
(F.) Formerly ^i^^azy, (perhaps) answering 
to M.E. ginegoue, Ancren Riwle, p. 196. 
The pron. of M. Yj. ginegoue is uncertain. 
Origin unknown; prob. F. One sense of 
Y.. gewgaw is a Jew's harp ; cf. Burgundian 
gazve, a Jew's harp (Mignard). Cf. Swed. 
dial, giiva., to blow ; Norw. giiva, gyva 
(pt. t. ganv). 

Geysir. (IceL) \cQ\.ge}>sir,\\i.'- gn'^h.Qx.'' 
^lce\. geysa, to gush ; allied to gj'osa (pt. 
X.gatis), to gush. See Gush. 

Ghastly, terrible. (E.) 'M.'E. gastly. 
Formed from ISL E. gastcn, A. S. gUstan, 
to terrify; allied to Goth, usgaisjan, to 
terrify. See Aghast. Allied words are 
gasted, terrified, K. Lear, ii. i. 57; gast- 
ness, Oth. v. i. 106. See G-host. 

Ghaut, a landing-place, quay, way 
down to a river ; mountain-pass. (Hind.) 
Hind, ghat, Bengali ghat. See Wilson. 

Ghee, boiled or clarified butter. (Hind. 
- Skt.) Hind. ghl. - Skt. ghrta, clarified 
butler; orig. pp. oighr, to sprinkle. 

Gherkin, small cucumber. (Du. — 
Slav. — Low L. — Gk. — Pers.) Short for 
'^agherkiJi. — Du. agurkje, a gherkin (of 
which an older form was doubtless 
*agn}'ken ( = agurk-ken), because M. Du. 
used the dimin. suffix -ken where mod. 
Du. uses -j'e ; in fact, the form atigurken 
is preserved in E. Friesic). Without the 
final n, we have Du. agorke (Sewel).— 


Pol. ogiirek, ogorek, ogorka, a cucumber ; 
Bohem, okurka. — M. Ital. angiiria, a 
cucumber (Florio) ; Low L. angiirms, a 
water-melon. — Byzantine Gk. a-^'^ovpiov, 
a water-melon. — Pers. aiigdrah, a melon, 
a cucumber; Rich. Diet., p. 194. 

Ghost, a si)irit. (E.) yi.Y.. gost,goost. 
K.'S. gdst.-^-Yiw. geest, G. geist. Teut. 
\.^'^^&*gaisioz. Of uncertain origin; perhaps 
allied to Icel. geisa, to rage (.like fire), 
and to Goth, us-gais-jan, to terrify. 
Brugm. i. § 816 (2). 

Ghoul, a kind of demon. (Arab.) Pers. 
ghol, an imaginary sylvan demon ; Arab. 
ghiiwal, a demon of the woods; from Arab. 
ghawl, attacking suddenly. 

Giant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. giant y 
geant, geaunt.'^A.Y. and O. F. giant, 
geatit.-^'L. giga7itetn, ace. oi gigas.'-'Gk. 
yiyas (stem 'yiyavr-), a giant. Der. 
gigant-ic, from L. gigant-, stem oi gigas. 

Giaour, an infidel. (Pers.) Giaonr is 
an Ital. spelling usual among the Franks 
of the Levant (Byron). Pers. gawr, an 
infidel, a fire-worshipper ; variant of Pers. 
gabr, a Gueber ; see G-ueber. 

Gibberish, unmeaning talk. (E.) The 
hard g separates it from the verb gibber, 
to gabble, which is the frequentative of 
jibe, and allied to jabber. Fuller has 
Geberish, and Camden Gebrish', apparently 
in allusion to Gebir, an Arabian alchemist 
of the 8th century, and to the jargon of 
alchemy. But the word is imitative ; like 
gibble-gabble. See N. E. D. 

Gibbet. (F.) M.E. gibbet, gibet.^ 
O. F. gibbet (F. gibet), a gibbet. Prob. 
allied to O. F. gibet, a large stick, perhajDS 
a dimin. of O. F. gibe, gibbe, a sort of 
stick shod Mdth iron, an implement for 
stirring up earth. Or is gib-et a dimin. 
from RL Du. wippe, ' a gibbet,' in Hexham ? 

Gibbon, a kind of ape. (F.) F. gibbon^ 
in Buffon ; of unknown origin. 

Gibbous, humped, swelling. (L.) 
From L. gibbdsiis, humped (whence also 
gibbose). — l^.gibbns, gibba, a hump, hunch ; 
cf. gibbus, bent. 

Gibe, Jibe, to mock. (E.) Of imitative 
origin ; cf. E. Fries, gibeln, to mock, Du. 
gijbelen, to sneer. Note also Icel. geipa, 
to talk nonsense, Icel. geip, idle talk; 
Norw. geipa, to make grimaces. 

Giblets, the internal eatable parts of 
a fowl, removed before cooking. (F.) 
M.E. gibelet.'^O.Y. gibelet, which, ac- 
cording to Littre, answers to mod. F. 



gibelotte, stewed rabbit. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps related to F. gibier, game. 

Giddy. (E.)_ M. E. gidi, gedy, adj.; 
late A. S. gidig, insane, answering to earlier 
^gydig, which would mean ' possessed by 
a god ' ; cf. A. S. gydeii, a goddess. From 
A. S. god. 

Gier-eagle, a kind of eagle. (Du. and 
F.) The hrst syllable is from Du. gier, 
a vulture ; cf. G. geier, M. H. G. gir, a 
vulture. Allied to G. gier-ig, greedy, and 
to E. Yearn. 

Gift. (E.) U.Y..gifi,yifi...\.S>.gift, 
a gift (rare) ; common in the pi. gtfla, 
nuptials ; E. Fries, gift. — A. S. gifan, to 
give.+Icel.^z})/, Du. gift, G. -gift (in mit- 
gift, a do wry j. % The hard g is due to 
Scand. influence. See Give. "Dbt. gift-ed. 

Gig, a light carriage, light boat. (Scand.) 
In Shak., a gig is a boy's top. M. E. gigge, 
apparently a whirling thing, Ch. Ho. 
Fame, iii. 852 (whence E. zvhirligig). 
Prob. of Scand. origin ; cf. Icel. geiga, to 
take a wrong direction, to rove at random. 
Cf. Jig. Prob. of imitative origin. 

Gigantic ; see Giant. 

Giggle, to titter. (E.) Of imitative 
origin ; cf gaggle. Cf. E. Fries, gic/ieln, 
Low G. giggeln (Danneil), G. kichern, to 

Giglet, Giglot, a wanton woman. 
(E. ?) Dimin. of gigle, a flirt, used by 
Cotgrave (s. v. gadrotiillette) ; from M.E, 
gigge, the same, Plowm. Tale, 759. Per- 
haps allied to Gig or Giggle. 

Gild, to overlay with gold. (E.) M. E. 
gilden. A, S. gyldan, to gild ; cf. A. S. 
gylden, golden. P'ormed (with vowel- 
mutation from Teut. ti (>A. S. d) to j/) 
from gold, gold. See Gold. 

Gill (1)' organ of respiration in fishes. 
(Scand.) M . E. gille. — l^a.n. gi^slle, Swed. 
gal, a gill ; M. Dan. gtelle, M. Swed. gel. 

Gill (2), a ravine, chasm. (Scand.) Also 
§'hyll. — Icel. gil, ravine ; Norw. gil. 

Gill (3\ with g soft, a quarter of a pint. 
(F. - Late L.) M.E. gille. - O. F. gelle, a 
sort of wine-measure. Late h.gella ; cf. Late 
L. gillo, a wine-vessel. 

Gill (4), with ^ soft, a woman's name, 
a pitcher, ground-ivy. (L.) Short for 
Gillian, from L. lu liana, a fem. name 
due to L. Itiliiis ; see July. Der. flirt- 
gill or gill-flirt, jilt. 

Gillie, a boy, page. (C.) Gael, gille, 
giolla, Irish giolla, boy, lad ; O. Irish 
gilla. a servant. 

Gillyflower, a flower. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
Formerly ^z7(7/^r, gerafottr. Formed (by 
confusion vf\i\\.Jlowe}'\ from M. F. giroflee, 
' a gilloflower ; ' Cot. From F. clou de 
girofle, the same. — Late L. caryophylhim^ 
I^atinised from Gk. KapvocpvKXov, a clove 
tree, lit. ' nut-leaf.' — Gk. Kapvo-v, a nut; 
(pvKKov, leaf. 

Gimbals, a contrivance for suspending 
a ship's compass, to keep it horizontal. 
(F. — L.) YorvnexXy gifnmals ; also called 
getmnozu or genimoxv-ring, a double ring, 
with two or more links. The forms gem- 
mow and gimmal correspond to M. F. 
gemeati, and O. F. gemel, a twin. — L. gemel- 
lus, a twin, a dimin. form of L. gemimis^ 

Gimlet, Gimblet. (F.- Teut.) M.F. 
gimhelet, ' a gimlet or piercer ; ' Cot. ; 
guimbelet, Godefroy {Y.gibelet) ; Norman 
dial, giiinhlet. Of M. H. G. origin ; 
formed from a base wind-, to turn or 
wind ; cf. mod. G. wendel-bohrer^ a 
wimble. Note also Icel. vindla, to wind 
up, vindill, a wisp. See "Wimble, of 
which gimlet is the dimin. ; see Gimbals. 

Gim.p, a kind of trimming, made of 
twisted silk, cotton, or wool. (F. — O.H.G.) 
See Bailey's Diet. vol. ii., ed. 1731. Named 
from a resemblance to some kind of 
wimple. — M. F.^/«'w/^, a nun's wimple; 
also gui7?iple (see index to Cotgrave, s. v. 
wimple). "O. H. G. wi^npal, a light robe, 
a fillet for the head; G.wimpel,^ streamer ; 
see Wimple. ^ Prob. confused with F. 
guipure, a thread or silk lace. See Gui- 

Gin (i), to begin. (E.) Obsolete ; often 
needlessly written 'gin, as though be- were 
omitted. M. E. ginnen. A. S. ginnan, 
to begin, commonly on-ginnan (pt. t. 
ongann, pp. otigunnen). •^GoX]\. ginnan^ 
in the comp. du-ginnan, to begin. Brugm. 

i. § 376. 

Gin (2), a trap, snare. (F.-L.) M. E. 
gin, short for M. E. engin, a contrivance. 
See Engine. 

Gin (?,), a kind of spirit. (F.-L.) Short 
for geneva, corruption of M. F. genevre^ 
juniper. — L. ace. iiiniperum', see Juni- 

Ginger, the root of a certain plant. 
(F. - L. - Gk. - Skt.) M. E. ginger, gin- 
geuere {=gitigevere).^O.Y . gengibre (F. 
gingembre)." Late l^.gingiber\ L. zingiber. 
- Gk. ^t77t)86/)tj. — Skt. frfigavera, ginger ; 



lit. ' horn-shaped,' from the horns on it,— 
Skt. frnga, a horn ; vera, a body. 

Gingerly, with soft steps. (F. — L.) 
From the adj. ^ginger, soft, delicate (with 
soft g). Apparently adapted from O. F. 
genzor, gensor, more delicate, comp. of 
gent, fine, delicate, noble ; orig. ' well- 
born.' — Folk-L. *genti(tn, L. genittDU, 
ace. oi genittis, born .well-born), pp. of 
gignere, to beget. (N.E.D.) 

G-ingham, a kind of cotton cloth. 
(F. — Malay.) F. guingan. — Malay ging- 
gang, striped cloth, gingham. — Malay and 
Javanese ginggang, striped (C. P. G. Scott). 

Gingle ; the same as Jingle. 

Gipsy; the same as G-ypsy. 

Giraffe, a long-legged animal. (F.— 
Span. — Arab.) M. F. giraffe (F. 

girafe). — Span, gij-afa. — Arab, zardf, 

Gird (i), to enclose, bind round. (E.) 
M. E. gtirden, girden. A. S. gyrdan, to 
gird.+O. Sax. gurdian, Du. garden, Icel. 
gyrda, to gird, Dan. giorde, G. giirten. 
Teut. type *gtirdjan- ; from *gHrd-, weak 
grade of Teut. *gerdan- (pt. t. *gard), to 
enclose ; cf. Goth, bigairdan, to begird. 
Allied to Gaxth, Garden, and Yard. 

Gird(2),tojestat,jibe. (E.) A peculiar 
use oi M. E. girden, gurden, to strike, cut. 
To gird at^lo strike at, jest at; a gird 
is a cut, sarcasm ; Tam. Shrew, v. 2. 58. 

Girdle. (E.) A. S. gyrdel, that which 
girds. — A. "Si. gyrdan, to gird ; see Gird ( i ). 
+Du. gordel, Icel. gyr^ill, Swed. gordel, 
G. giirtel. 

Girl. (E.) M.E. girle, gerle, giirle, 
often used to mean ' a boy ' ; a child . 
Answering to an A.S. form *gyrel-, Teut. 
*guril-, a dimin. form from Teut. base 
*gur-. Allied to N. Fries, gor, a girl ; 
Low G. gor, gore, a child. Cf. Swiss 
gurre, giirrli, a depreciatory term for a 
girl (Sanders, Ger. Dict.l. 

Giron, Gsrron, in heraldry, the eighth 
part of a shield, made by drawing a dia- 
gonal line from the top comer to the centre, 
and from the centre horizontally towards 
the same side ; a right-angled triangle. 
(F. — O. H. G.) Y. giron, a giron (Littre). 
— O. H. G. ^(Frww, ace. oi gero, a lance, 
spear ; M. H. G. gere, a gore or gusset in 
a garment, a triangular piece. — O. H. G. 
ger, a spear, cognate with A. S. gar, a 
spear. See Gore (2), ^Diez, Schade.) 

Girth. (Scand.) M.E. gerth. — \zt\. 
gjord, a girdle, girth ; gerS, girth round 

the waist; Dan. giord. -^Goih.. gairda, a 
girdle. Teut. type *gerdd. See Gird (i). 

Gist, the pith of a matter. (F. — L.) 
The gist is the point wherein the matter 
lies. — O. F. gist (mod. F. git), it lies; 
whence the proverb ' c'est la que git le 
lievre,' that is where the difficulty is, lit. 
' that's where the hare lies.' From the F. 
verb ^^5/r {now ge sir), to lie. — L. iacere, 
to lie. \0.Y .gist='L.iacet.) See Jet (i). 

Gittern ; see Cithern. 

Give. iScand.) M. E. ^z]^ (Northern), 
getien. yeuen (Southern) ; pt. t. gaf (N.), 
ya/\^.), ])Y>.gifen (^.),yiiien, youeti iS.)- 
— Icel. gefa, Dan. give, Swed. gifva. + 
A. S. gifan, pt. t. geaf, pp. gifen ; Du. 
geven; G oVh.. giban, G.gebefi. Teut. type 
*geban-, pt. t. *gab. Cf. O. Irvih gab-i/n, 
I give, I take. 

Gizzard. (F. — L.) M.E. giser i^the 
d being added). — O. F. gezier, jugier, 
jtiisier (F. g^sier).'~'L. gigeriiun, only in 
pi. gigeria (Late L. gizeria), cooked 
entrails of poultry. 

Glabrous, smooth. (L.) From L. 
glaber, smooth. Idg. stem ^gladh-ro- ; 
see Glad. Brugm. i. § 589. 

Glacial, icy. (F.-L.) Y.glaciaL"!.. 
glacidlis, icy. — L. glacies, ice. 

glacier, a mountain ice-field. (F. — L.) 
F. glacier (a Savoy word). — Y .glace, ice. — 
YoW-\^.glacia, for Y.. glacies, ice. 

glacis, smooth slope. (F. — L.) F. 
glacis. ^Vl. F. glacer, to cover with ice. — 

F. glace (above). 

Glad. (E.) A. S. glced, shining, bright, 
cheerful, glad.+Du. glad, smooth, bright, 
Icel. glaQr, bright, glad, Dan. Swed. glad, 

G. glatt, smooth, polished. Cf. Russ. 
gladkii, even, smooth ; L. glaber, smooth ; 
see Glabrous. 

Gladden, Gladen, a plant ; Iris 

pseiidacortis. (L.) K.S. glcedene; altered 
from L. gladiolus, a sword-lily. Dimin. 
of L. gladitis, a sword ; see Gladiator. 

Glade, an open space in a wood. (E.) 
The orig. sense was prob. an opening for 
light, passage through a wood ; from A.S. 
glced, bright, shining. Cf. Swed. dial. 
glad-yppen, completely open, said of a 
lake whence the ice has all melted away. 

Gladiator, a swordsman. (L.) L. gla- 
diator. — L. gladius, a sword. 

Glair, the white of an tgg. (F, — L.) 
M. E. gleyre. — O. F. glaire. — L. cldra, 
fem. of cldrtis, bright ; Late L. cldj'a oui, 
the white of an ^gg. 



Glaive, a sword. (F. — L.) A.¥. glaive, 
a sword ; O. F. glaive, a sword, lance.— 
"L.gladium, ace. oi gladius, a sword. 

Glamour ; see Gramarye. 

Glance, a swift dart of light, quick 
look ; as a verb, to glide off or from, to 
graze, to flash. (F. — L.) The sb. is from 
the verb. A nasalised form (influenced 
by M. E. glenten, to glance) of O. F. 
glacer, glacier, to glide, slip, glance.— F. 
glace, ice; see Glacial. 2. M.Y^. glenten 
answers to the causal form of the strong 
verb glinta, to shine, still found in Swed. 
dialects (Rietz). See Glint. 

Gland, a fleshy organ in the body, 
secreting fluid. (F. — L.) M. F. and F. 
glande, a gland ; O. F. glandre.~-l^. glan- 
dula, a gland; dimin. of glans (stem 
gland-), an acorn. +Gk. PdKavos, an acorn. 
Brugm. i. § 665. 

glanders, glandular swellings. (F.— 
L.) M. F. glandres, pi. — Lat. pi. ace. 
glandulds, swollen glands ; from L. glans 
(above) . 

Glare, to shine brightly. (E.) M. E. 
glaren ; cf. A. S. gl&r, amber. + Low 
G. glaren, to glow. Perhaps allied to 
Glass. Cf. Dan. glar, Icel. gler, glass 

Glass. (E.) A. S. glees. + Du. glas, 
G. glas ; cf. Dan. glar, M. Swed. glczr, 
Icel. gler, glass. Orig. sense prob. ' shin- 
ing.' See above. 

Glaucous, grayish blue. (L. — Gk.) 
Y,. glaiic-ns ; with suffix -ous.'^GV.. y\av- 
Kos, gleaming, bluish. 

Glaze, to furnish with glass, (E.) 
M. E. glasen. — M. E. glas, glass \ see 

Gleam, a beam of light. (E.) A. S. 
glce7?i ; Teut. type '^glaiDiiz. + O. Sax. 
glimo, brightness ; O. H. G. glimo, gleiino, 
a glow-worm (from base '^gleitn-^. Allied 
to Gk. -^Ki-apos, w^arm. See Glimmer. 

Glean. (F.) M. E. glemn. - O. F. 
glener,glaner (F. glaner), to glean ; Low 
L. gletidre (a.d. 561) ; cf. Low L. glena, 
gelifta, geli7?ia, a handful. Of unknown 
origin. The A. S.gil?n, a handful, whence 
prov. E. yelm, to provide handfuls of straw 
ready for a thatcher, will not account for 
the O. F. form. ^ We also find the form 
to gleame (Levins) , also spelt gleme. 

Glebe, soil. (F. - L.) M. F. glebe, 
* glebe, land belonging to a parsonage ; ' 
Cot. — L. gleba, soil, a clod of earth. 

Glede {^), a kite, a bird so called. (E.) 

M. E. glede. A. S. glida, a kite, lit. 
'glider,' from its smooth flight. — A. S. 
glid-, weak grade of glidan, to glide ; see 
Glide. Cf. Icel. gleQa (the same). 

Glede (2), Gleed, a glowing coal. 

(E.) A. S. gled (where e is from 0, by 
vowel-change). — A. S. glowan, to glow; 
see Glow. Cf. Dan. Swed. gldd, the same. 

Glee, joy, singing. (E.) A. S. gleo, 
earlier gliu, joy, mirth, music. + Icel. gly, 
glee, gladness ; Swed. dial, gly, mockery. 
Cf. Gk. x^^^V, a jest. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Gleek (i), a scoff, jest. See Nares. 
Prob. a particular use of Gleek (2). 

Gleek (2), a game at cards ; in which 
a gleek meant three cards alike (as three 
kings). (F. - Du.) See Nares.- O.F. 
glic, a game at cards ; also spelt ghelicque 
(Godefroy). — M. Du. gelijck, alike.— M. 
Du. ge-, ghe-, Du. ge-, prefix ( = A. S. ge-, 
Goth.^a-) ; M. Du. -lijck, Du. -lijk, cognate 
with E. like ; see Like. ^ Hexham has 
gelijk ofte ongelijk spelen, to play at even 
or odds. 

Glen, a narrow valley. (C.) Gael, and 
Irish gleann, O. Irish glenn ; W. glyn, a 
valley, glen. Celtic type *glennos. 

Glib (i), smooth, voluble. (E.) Cf. 
E. Fries. gltbbe?'ig, slippery ; glippen, to 
'^v^.'\'T>\x. glibber ig^ slippery, glibberen, to 
slide ; Du. and Low G. glippen, to slip 

Glib (2), a lock of hair. (C.) Irish and 
Gael, glib, also Ir. clib, a lock of hair. 

Glib (3), to castrate. (E.) The same as 
lib, with prefixed ^- = A. S. ge-, a common 
prefix. Cognate with Du. hibben, to cas- 
trate, M. Du. lubben. See Left. 

Glide. (E.) M. E. gliden, pt. t. glood. 
A. S. glidan. + Du. glijden, Dan. glide, 
Swed. glida, G. gleiten. Teut. type '^glei- 
dan-, pt. t. '^glaid, pp. ^-glidanoz. 

Glimmer, verb. (E.) M. E. gli- 
meren. + Low G. glimmern, frequent, of 
gli7mnen, to shine ; Dan. glirm-e, vb., cf. 
glhnmer, sb., glitter ; Swed. dial, glimmer, 
vb., glimtner, sb., glitter. Frequent, of 
Dan. glimme, Swed. glimma, to shine. Cf. 
Swed. dial, glim, a glance, A. S. gleomu 
(for '^glifjiti), splendour ; from *glim-, 
weak grade of *gleim- ; see Gleam. 

g^limpse, a slight gleam. (E.) For- 
merly glims e ; M. E. glimsen, to glimpse ; 
formed with suffix -s- from *glim (above). 

Glint, to shine, glance. (Scand.) M. E. 
glenten. — Swed. dial, gldnta, glinta, to 
shine ; nasalised from Icel. glita, to shine. 




■{■yiM.G.glinzen, to glint, Swed. glmdra. 
See Glitter. 

Glisten, Glister, to glitter. (E.) 
Extended from base g/z's- of M. E, glisien, 
to shine. A. S. glisian ; whence also 
glisnian^ to shine. We also find M. E. 
glisteren^ glistren, to glitter. Cf. Du. 
glinsteren, to glitter ; Swed. dial, glisa. 

Glitter. l,E.) M. E. gUteren, to shine. 
A. S. glitinian, to shine ; extended from 
A.S. gliiian, to shine. +Icel. glil?a, to 
glitter, frequent, oi giita, to shine; Swed. 
glittra, to glitter ; glitter, sb., a sparkle. 
Cf. Goth, glit-munjan, to glitter. From 
*g/it-, weak grade of *g/eit-, as in O. Sax. 
glitan, G. gleissen, to shine. 

Gloaming, twilight. (E.) A Scot, 
word for even-glow, the time of becoming 
(]usk ; A. S. afcn-glonummg, glow of eve, 
Hymn. Surtees, i6. i6. See Glow. 

Gloat, to stare, gaze with admiration. 
(E.) Formerly glote (XVI cent.). + Icel. 
glotta, to grin, smile scornfully; Swed. 
dial, glotta, gliitta, to peep ; G. gtotzen, to 
stare. Cl. Russ. gliadiet{e), to look at. 

Globe. (F.-L.) O. F. globe. - L. 
globicj/i, acc. oi globus, a ball ; cf. glomus, 
a ball, clue. 

Glomerate. (L.) From pp. of glo- 
nierdre, to collect into a ball. — L. glomer-, 
for *glomes, stem of glomtis, a ball or 
clew of yarn. See Globe. 

Gloom. (E.) M. E. glotwieti, to lower, 
as if from A. S. *gluniian ; cf. room from 
A. S. rum; and prov. E. gluTfij overcast. 
+Norw. glyma, an overcast sky ; Low G. 
glufu, turbid. See Glum. 

Glory. (F. - L.) M. E. glorie. - A. F. 
and O. F. glorie (F. gloire). — L. gloria. 

Gloss (I), lustre. (Scand.) \c€i, glossi, 
a blaze, glys, finery ; Swed. dial, glossa, 
to glow ; ^ovw.glosa, to glow.+M. H. G. 
glosen, to glow, glos, lustre ; Du. gloren 
(Franck), E. Fries. glo7-en. 

Gloss (2), a commentary, explanation. 
(F. _ L. - Gk.) M. E. glose. - O. F. glose, 
*a glosse;' Cot. — L. glossa, a difficult 
word requiring explanation. — Gk. yXaicraa, 
the tongue, a language, word needing ex- 
planation. Der. gloss, vb., gloze. 

glossary. L.-Gk.) L.glossdf-izim, 
a glossary ; formed with suffix -drium 
from L. gloss-a (above). 

gloSSOgrapher. (Gk.) Coined from 
glosso-, from Gk. -yXuaaa, a hard word; 
ypd(pfiv, to write. 

glottis. (Gk.) Gk. yKuTTii, the 

mouth of the windpipe. — Gk. ^Acurra, 
Attic form of yKuaaa, the tongue. Der. 

Glove. (E.) A. S. ^/^, a glove ; cf. 
Icel. glofi, prob. borrowed from A. S. glof. 
Possibly from g- (for ge-), prefix; and 
Icel. loji., Goth. IdJ'a, the palm of the hand. 
Ji&x. fox-glove. 

Glow. (E.) M. E. glowen. A. S. 
gldwan, to be ardent, to shine brightly. + 
Icel. glda, Dan. gloe, to glow, stare, Swed. 
glo, to stare, Du. gloeijen, G. glUheti, 
Brugm. i. § 156. Hqx. glede (2). 

Glower, to look frowningly. (E.) E. 
Fries, gluren. Cf. Low G. gluren, M. Du. 
gloeien, ' to look awry, to leare,' Hex- 
ham ; Du. gluren. ^ M. E. gloren, to 
stare, is allied to glare. 

Gloze, to interpret, flatter. (F.- L.- 
Gk.) V^.Y.. glosen, to make glosses.— 
M. E. glose, a gloss ; see Gloss (2). 

Glue. (F. - L.) O. F. glu. - Late L. 
ghitem, acc. of gltcs ,gen. glutis), glue; 
allied to L. gluten, glue, glutus, tenacious. 
+ Gk. yKoios, mud, gum. Allied to Clay. 
Brugm. i. § 639. 

Glum, sullen. (E.) M. E. glommen, 
glotnben, glournen, to look gloomy. E. 
Fries, glumen, glfanen, to look sullen. + 
Low G. gluiun, a sullen look, glummen, 
to make turbid ; Norw. glyme, a sullen 
look, glynia, gloma, to look sullen. See 

Glume, a bracteal covering, in grasses. 
(L.) L. gluma, a husk, hull. — L. glubere, 
to peel, take off the husk. See Cleave (1). 

Glut, to swallow greedily. (F. — L.) 
M.E. glotien.^0. F. glotir, gloutir. — l^. 
glut ire, gluttire, to swallow; ci.gula, the 
throat. Der. glutton. 

Glutinous, gluey. (L.) I., glutinosus, 
stickv.'mL. glu tin-, (or gluten, glue. 

Glutton. (F.-L.^ M.E. gloton.^ 
O. F. gloton. — L. gluttotiem, gliltdnem^ 
acc, a glutton. — L, glutire, to devour. 

Glycerine, a viscid fluid, of sweet 
taste. (F. — Gk.) Y . glycerine \ from Gk. 
y\vK(p6s, sweet ; from Gk. yXvKvs, sweet. 

Gl3rptic, relating to carving in stone. 
(Gk.) Gk. yXvTTTiKos, carving, — Gk, 
yKvTTTos, carved. — Gk. y\v<p€Lv, to hollow 
out, engrave. See Cleave (i). 

Gnarl, to snarl, growl. (E.) Frequen- 
tative oi guar, to snarl, an imitative word. 
Cf. A. S. g7iyrran, to creak ; E. Fries. 
gnarren, to creak, snarl. -f-Du. knorren^ 
Dan. kmirre, to growl, Dan. knarre^ to 




creak ; Swed. knoTra, G. kma-reit, to 
growl, G, knarren, to creak. 

Gnarled, knotty, twisted. (E.) Gnarled 
is full of gnarls, where gnar-l is a dimin. 
of gnar or knar, M. E. knarre, a knot in 
wood. See Knurr. 

Gnash. (E.) M. E. gnasten, to gnash 
the teeth. E, Fries, gnastern, gndstern, 
to gnash. + Swed. knastra, to crash (be- 
tween the teeth) ; Dan. knaske, to gnash ; 
Icel. gnastan, sb., a gnashing, ^«^j/a (pt. t. 
gnast), to crack ; G. knastern, to crackle. 
Imitative ; so also Dan. kjtase, to crackle ; 
Icel. gntsta, to gnash, E. Fries. gnJsen. 

Gnat. (E.) A.S. gncsU. Said to be 
named from the whirring of the wings; 
cf. Icel. gnafa, to clash, gnat, clash of 

Gnaw. (E.) M. E. gnawen, pt. t. gneiv, 
gnoiv. A. S. gnagan, to gnaw, pt. t. gnoh, 
pp.^«a^^«. + Du. knagen, Low G. gnanen, 
O. Icel. knaga, mod. Icel. naga, Dan. 
gnave, Swed. gnaga. Without the g, we 
have G. nagen ; also Dan. nage, to gnaw, 
Swed. nagga, whence prov. E. nag, to 

Gneiss, a rock. ^G.) G. gneiss; from 
its sparkling. — O. H. G. gneistan, to 
sparkle ; gneista, a spark. + A. S. gndst, 
Icel. gneisii, a spark. 

Gnome, a kind of sprite. (F. — Gk.) 
F. gnome, a gnome ; a word due to Para- 
celsus ; from the notion that gnomes could 
reveal secret treasures. — Gk. 'yuujfjLTj, intelli- 
gence.— Gk. yvcvvai, to know. (-^GEN.) 
gnomon, index of a dial. (L. — Gk.) 
L. gnomd/t.-^Gk. yvuixajv, an interpreter 
(one who knows) ; the index of a dial. — 
Gk. -yvwi/ai, to know. 

gnostic, one of a certain sect. (Gk.) 
Gk. yi^caaTiKos, wise, good at knowing.— 
Gk. yvojaros, from yvooTos, known. — Gk. 
yvajvai, to know. 

Gnu, a kind of antelope. (Hottentot.) 
Found in S. Africa. wSaid to belong to the 
Hottentot language. See Supplement. 

Go, to move about, proceed, advance. 
(E.) M. E. gon, goon. A. S. gdn.-^-Dw. 
gaan, Dan. gaae, Swed. ga ; G. geheii ; 
O. H. G. gdn.gen. ^ ' The Teut. gai- ( = 
A. S. gd-, O. H. G. ge-) supplanted the 
Idg. y'l, to go, in Lat. tre, Gk. Uvai, 
Skt. i. Since Teut. gai- has no old primi- 
tive noun-derivatives in Teut., and takes 
the place of Idg. y'l (the Goth, aorist 
iddja = K. S. eode still remains), and as it 
is inflected after the -mi- conjugation, the 


I supposition arises that Teut. *gaiin, ^^gais, 

I '^gaith are contracted from the verbal 

j particle ga- and the inherited Ini, iz, ith = 

Skt. end, eshi, eti\ cf. Gk. cT/xi.' — Kluge. 

But this is mere conjecture. 

Goad. (E.) M. E. gode. A. S. gad. 
Teut. type *gaidd, f.+Lombardic gaida, 
a gore (Due.) ; from the base ^gai-, Idg. 
*ghai-, whence also A. S. gd-r, Icel. gei-rr, 
O. Irish ^a?, a spear; see Gore (2). 

Goal, the winning-post in a race. (E.) 
M, K.gol, Shoreham, p. 145. Answering 
to A. S. *gdl, prob. ' an impediment ; ' 
whence A. S. gielan, to impede. Goal 
may have meant ' stopping-place.' 

Goat. (E.) U.¥..goot. A. S.^^/.-f 
Du. geit, Dan. ged, Swed. get, Icel. geit, 
G. geiss, geisse; Go'&\. gaits. Teut. base 
*gait- ; allied to L. hcedus. 

Gobbet, a mouthful, a small piece. 
(F. — C.) M. E. gobet, a small piece.— 
O. F. gobet, a morsel of food (see Littrd) ; 
allied to M.F. gob, a gulp (in swallowing). 

— O. F. gober, to devour. — Gael, gob, beak, 
bill, mouth ; Irish gob, mouth, beak. 

gobble (0, to devour. (F.-C.) Fre- 
quentative, with suffix -le, from O. F. 
gob-er, to devour ; see Gobbet. 

Gobble (2), to make a gabbling noise. 
(E.) Imitative ; a variant oi gabble. 

Gobelin, a French tapestry. (F.) 
Named from Giles Gobelin, wool-dyer of 
Paris, in the i6th cent. 

Goblet. (F. - L.) F. gobelet, ' a 
goblet ; ' Cot. Dimin. of O. F. gobel, a 
cup. — Late L. alfellum, ace. of cupelhis, 
a cup ; dimin. of L. cupa, a vat ; see 
Coop. Cf. Picard gobe, a great cup. 

Goblin. (F.-L.-G.) O.F. gobelin. 

— Low L. gobellmis, a goblin ; properly 
' a household-god ' ; cf. A. S. cof-godas, 
' penates.' — M. H. G. kobel, a hut ; dimin. 
of M. H. G. kobe, a stall, cognate with 
Icel. koji, a hut, A. S. cofa, a chamber 
(Kluge). See Cove. 

Goby, a fish. (L. - Gk.) For l^.gobms, 
orig. applied to the gudgeon. — Gk. koj^ios, 
a kind of fish, gudgeon, tench. Der. 

God. (E.) A. S. god.-^-Bn. god, Icel. 
god, gud, Dan. giid, Swed. gad, Goth. 
gift A, G. gott. Teut. type *gut/iom ; Idg. 
type *g/mtom, perhaps ' the being wor- 
shipped,' a pp. form ; from Idg. root ^ghu, 
to worship, as in Skt. hu, to sacrifice 
(to), whence huta-, one to whom sacri- 
fice is offered. ^ ISfot allied to good, adj. 



goddess. (E. ; with Y . suffix.) M. E. 
goddesse {godesse). Made from god by 
adding the O. F. suffix -esse ( = L. -issa = 
Gk. -laaa). 

godfather. (E.) M. E. godfader, 
father in baptism ; from ^<?(^ and ^^/?r. 

godhead. (E.) M. E. godhed, also 
godhod \ the suffix answers to A. S. had, 
office, state, dignity; see -hood (suffix). 

Godwit, a bird. (E.) Origin un- 
known. Can it mean ' good creature ' ? 
A. S. god wiht, a good wight, good crea- 
ture {wiht being often applied to animals 
and birds). See ^*ight. 

Goffer, Gauffer, to plait or crimp 
lace, &c. (F. — O. Low G.) M. F, gattf- 
frer, to goffer ; orig. to mark like the 
edges oi^s2iiQ.x?,.'^M..Y . gauffre, goff7-e, a 
wafer ; see "Wafer. 

Goggle-eyed, having ^ rolling and 
staring eyes. (,E.) yi.Y..gogil-eyid. 'They 
gogle with their eyes hither and thither ; ' 
Holinshed, Descr. of Ireland, c. i. Cf. 
Irish and Gael, gogshitileach, goggle-eyed, 
having wandering eyes, from gog, to move 
slightly, and stiil, eye. But gog seems to 
be from E., and of imitative origin. Cf. 
prov. E, coggle, Bavar. gageln, to be un- 

Goitre. (F. — L.) F. ^^//r^, a swelled 
throat ; from O. F. goitron, the same, esp. 
in Savoy. — Late L. ace. type '^gtitt7-idnem, 
from L. gnttur, throat. 

Gold. (E.) A.S, gold.-^-TtVi. goiid {{or 
gold), Icel. gtcll, Swed. Dzxx.gtild, G. gold, 
Goth, gulth. Teut. type '^gtil-thom, n. ; 
Idg. type '^ghsl-tom ; cf. Russ. zoloto, Skt. 
hdtaka-, gold ; also Pers. zar, gold, Zend 
zaranya-, Skt. hiranya-. Named from its 
colour. Allied to Yellow. (VGHEL.) 
Der. mart-gold, gild. 

Golf, a game. (Du.) Mentioned A. D. 
1457 (Jam.). The name is from that of a 
Du. game played with club and ball. — Du. 
kolf, a club used to strike balls with.+ 
Low G. kulf, hockey-stick ; Icel. kolfr, 
clapper of a bell, kylfa, a club ; Dan. kolbe, 
butt-end of a weapon, kolv, bolt, shaft, 
arrow, Swed. kolf, butt-end, G. kolbe, club, 
mace, knob. 

Golosh ; the same as Galoche. 

Gondola. (Ital.-Gk.-Pers.?) Ital. 
gondola, dimin. of gonda, a boat. — Gk. 
Kovhv, a drinking-vessel ; from the shape 
(Diez). Said to be of Pers. origin; cf. 
Pers. kandu, an earthen vessel. 

Gonfanon, Gonfalon, a kind of 

banner. (F. — M. H. G.) '^l.Y.gonfanon. 
— O. F. gon fail oil. ^W. H. G. gundfano, 
lit. 'Lattle-tlag.' — M. H. G. gitiid, guiit, 
battle; fano [G. fahne), a banner, flag. 
Here gunt is cognate with A. S. gild (for 
*gunth), battle, war ; cf. Skt. haii, to kill, 
Fano is allied to Vane. 

Gong. (Malay.) Malay ogong or gong, 
the gong, a sonorous instrumtnt. 

Good. (E.) M.Y.good. A.S. god.-^ 
Du. goed, Icel. godr, Dan. Swed. god, 
Goth, gods, G. gul. Teut. tyj^e *godoz\ 
from "^god-, strong grade of *gad-, 'fit:' 
see Gather. Allied to Russ. godnuii, 
suitable, O. Slav. godH, fit season. Der. 
good-s, sb. pi., i. e. good things, property ; 
good'tvill, &c. Also ^^ci^-wcz;/, i. e. master 
of the house, good-wife, misuess of the 

Goodbye, farewell. (E.) A famdliar, 
but meaningless, contraction of God be 
with you, the old form of farewell ; 
very common; often written God b'w'y. 
^ Not ior God be by you: the form God 
buy you = God be-with-you you { you re- 

Goodman ; see Good. 

Goose, a bird. (E.) A. ^. gos, pi. ges 
(lengthened caused loss of n, and gds = 
'^gons <^'^gans).'\'T)'a.. gans, Dan. gaas, 
Swed. gas. Icel. gas, G. gans. Teut. type 
*gans ; Idg. type *ghans- ; cf. L. anser, 
Gk. ■)(j]v\ Skt. hainsa, a swan; O. Irish 
geis, a swan ; Lith. zqsis, a goose. 

Gooseberry. (E. ; cf. F.- M. H. G.) 

In Levins. From goose and berry, cf. 
goose-grass, &c. a. We also find North. 
E.grosers, gooseberries ; Burns ha-sgrozet, 
a gooseberiy. Apparently from O. F. 
*grose, *groise, a gooseberry, not recorded, 
but occurring not only in the O. F. dimin. 
form groisele, grosele,^. gooseberry, but also 
in Xrvi^igrois-aid, Ga.e\. grois-eid,\\' .grzuys , 
a gooseberry, all borrowed from M.K. The 
spelling groisele is as old as the 13th 
century (Bartsch) ; and answers to the 
form crosela in the dialect of Como 
(Monti). p. The orig. O. F. *groise or 
*grose was borrowed from M. H. G. krfis, 
curling, crisped, whence G. kransbeere, a 
cranberry, a rough gooseberry. Cf. Swed. 
krusbdr, a gooseberry, from krus, crisp, 
curled, frizzled. The name was first given 
to the rougher kinds of the fruit, from the 
curling hairs on it ; similarly, Levins 
gives the Lat. name as uua crispa ( frizzled 




Gopher, a kind of wood. (Heb.) Heb. 
gopher, a wood. 

Gorbellied, having a fat belly. (E.) 
Compounded of E. gore, lit. filth, dirt (also 
the intestines) ; and belly. So also Swed. 
dial, garbdlg, a fat paunch, from gar, dirt, 
contents of the intestines, and bdlg, belly. 
See Gore (i). 

gorcrow, carrion-crow. (E.) I.e. 
gore-o'ow ; see above. 
Gordian. (L.-Gk.) Only in the phr. 
' Gordian knot,' i. e. intricate knot. Named 
from the Phrygian king Gordius (rojoStos), 
who tied it. An oracle declared that who- 
ever undid it should reign over Asia. 
Alexander cut the knot, and applied the 
oracle to himself. 

Gore 1 1), clotted blood. (E.) It for- 
merly meant filth. A. S. gor, filth, dirt.+ 
Icel gor, gore ; Swed. gor, dirt ; M. Du. goor; 
O. H. G. gor, filth. Origin uncertain. 

Gore v2), a triangular piece let into a 
garment, a triangular slip of land. (E.) 
M. E, gore. A. S. gdra, a gore, project- 
ing piece of land ; from gar, a dart, a 
spear-point. Named from the shape. [So 
also Icel. geiri, a triangular slip of land, 
from geirr, a spear ; G, gehre, a wedge, 
gusset, gore ; Du. geer, a gusset, gore.] 
p. The A. S. gar (Icel. geirr, O. H. G. 
ger') is from Teut. type '^gaizoz, ni. ; 
allied to Gaulish L. gaesuvi, a javelin, 
O. Irish gai, a spear. 

Gore (3), to pierce. (E.) From A. S. 
gar, a spear-point (with the usual change 
from a to long 0). 
Gorge, the throat, a narrow pass. (F. 
— L.) O. F. gorge, throat. — Late L. gorga, 
variant of L. gurges, a whirlpool, hence 
(in Late L.) the gullet, from its voracity. 
Cf. L. gurgulio, gullet. +Skt. gargara-, a 

gorgeous, showy, splendid. (F. — L.) 
O. F. and M. F. gorgias, 'gorgeous;' Cot. 
The O. F. gorgias also meant a gorget ; 
the sense of ' gorgeous ' was orig. proud, 
from the swelling of the