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WAR BETWEEN JAPAN AND CHINA: 




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GIFT OF 

PROFESSOR C.A. KOFOId 




A CONCISE HISTORY 



OF THE 



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BETWEEN 



JAPAN AND CHIxVA. 



COMPILED BY 

JUKICHI INOUYE. 



Osaka; Z. Mayekawa. 
Tokyo: Y. Okuka. 



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Printers. 



PREFACE. 



The object of this little book is to give a succinct account 
of the progress of the war between Japan and China up to the 
time of its compilation. No one can be more sensible than the 
compiler, of the defects of a work of this kind. In writing of a war 
still in progress, we cannot grasp the true proportion of its events, 
as we are liable to be dazzled by brilliant achievements and to 
attach to them a greater importance than to those which, though 
no less vital to the accomplishment of the object of the war, fail 
to attract public attention through absence " of stirring victories. 
Such, for instance, are the operations in North Manchuria, for 
though the retention of positions like Haiching and Funghwang- 
ching will afterwards be found to have been as indispensable 
towards a successful termination of the war as the capture of 
Port Arthur or Wei-hai-wei, we are inore fascinated by the 
brillancy of the Japanese victories at those fortresses than by the 
stubborn resistance offered unflinchingly to inclement climate and 
harassing armies. While the size of this work frees it from the 
perplexity which would arise in a more complete history from the 
very multitude of newspaper reports, this same compactness 
exposes it to the sin of omission as regards those events, the 
important consequences of which we do not at present suspect. 
While recognising this fatal want of historical perspective, the 
compiler was led to produce the present work with the sole object 
of briefly recounting the principal events of the war, a survey of 
which is complicated by the operations of the Japanese armies in 
divers directions. The present work, therefore, makes no claim 
beyond facilitating this survey. 

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HAPiER IV. -SqSi trfioi HoibM 



Battle of Phyongyang... 

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•^ AFTER VII. 

aptut^ of Kinchow and Port Arthur <4 

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Manchuria ^^^ 



* -^'4 



II PREFACE. 



The compiler has also studiously avoided entering into 
argument or treading on disputed ground, and believes that his 
compilation is at least free from rhetorical flourishes and from 
padding. He has with an effort confined himself to a plain, 
unvarnished relation, where it is so easy to let enthusiasm run 
riot ; and whether this be a merit or otherwise, only the general 
interest taken in the war will probably induce the perusal of 
this work. 

In conclusion, the compiler desires to acknowledge his in- 
debtedness to the Tokyo and Yokohama newspapers, upon whose 
accounts he has freely drawn in the compilation of this little 
history. 

March loth, 1895. 



The publication of the present work having been unavoidably 
delayed, the history has been brought down in the appendix to 
April the loth. 



doKi'^Nl'^- 



Chapter I. 




Causes of the War 


... I 


Chafier II. 




Diplomatic Negotiations 


... 9 


Chapter III. 




Phungdo ; Asan ; and Proclamations of war 


... l8 


Chapter IV. 




Battle of Phyongyang 


... 2J 


Chapter V. 




Battle of Haiyang 


-. 37 


Chapter VI. 




Invasion of Chinese Territory 


••• 44 


Chafier VII. 




Capture of Kinchow and Port Arthur ... 


... 54 


Chapter VIII. 




Operations in Manchuria 


... 64 


Chapter IX. 




Capture of Wei-hai-wei 


... 74 


Appendix 


... 84 



LIST OF MAPS. 



The Seat of War (Double page) between pp. 8 and 9 

Phungdo and Its Neighbourhood 

Battle of Songhwan ,. , 

Phyongyang and Its Environs 

Kewlienching and Its Environs 

The Regent's Sword Peninsula... 

Funghwangching and Its Surroundings 

Haiching and Kaiping Districts 

Weihaiwei and Its Neighbourhood 

^ 



faces 


p. 


18 




p. 


22 




p. 


32 




p. 


48 




P- 


56 




p. 


64 




p. 


68 




P- 


76 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Japanese Mounted Scouts at Kangwasai, Manchuria 

(Double page) between pp. IV and i 

Corean Troops Dispersed at the Palace Gate faces p. 16 

Attack on the Hyonmu Gate at Phyongyang „ p. 34 

Naval Battle of Haiyang „ p. 40 

Fall of Port Arthur ... (Double page) between pp. 60 and 61 
Storming of the Pohchihyaisu P'orts 

(Double page) between pp. 74 and 75 

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CAUSES OF THE WAR. 

The Peninsula of Corea has always served as a buffer state 
between Japan and China. Leaving out of consideration the 
invasion of Corea by the Japanese Empress Jingo more than fifteen 
centuries ago as the peninsula consisted then of three independent 
states, we know that the Taiko Hideyoshi's conquest of the 
Land of Morning Calm in the last decade of the sixteenth century 
was only preliminary to the subjugation of the Middle Kingdom 
itself, a daring scheme which was abandoned only through the 
death of the Taiko. The su«-ceeding dynasty of Tokugawa took 
a diametrically opposite course, and Japan passed from the policy 
of expansion which had been inaugurated by Hideyoshi, Date 
Masamune, Lord of Sendai, and others, to that of complete 
isolation, the Tokugawa Shoguns devoting all their energy to 
the perfection of that feudal system which only fell in 1868. 
Though, however, the Tokugawa family closed the country to 
foreign intercourse, they maintained friendly relations with the 
kingdom of Corea, which was consolidated by the founder of 
the present Li dynasty in the last decade of the fourteenth century. 
There were frequent interchanges of courtesies, and whenever a 
Shogun succeeded to his high office, an embassy was sent from 
Corea to congratulate him on his accession. The Corean Kings 
apparently thought that the Shogun was the true and only 
sovereign, and were unaware that in Kyoto there was the right- 
ful Emperor whom the Shogun himself acknowledged as his 
liege lord. 

When in 1868 the Shogunate came to an end and the govern- 
ment of the country was restored to the lawful Emperor, envoys 



( 2 ) 

were despatched to Corea to announce that fact ; but the Corean 
Government refused to receive the embassy. Further communi- 
cations on the subject from the newly-constituted Imperial 
Government of Japan proved equally futile. Great indignation 
was aroused in Japan at Corea's contumelious attitude towards 
her. The military class, chafing under the quiet which reigned 
throughout the country after the stirring war of the Restoration, 
were ready to seize upon any pretext for turning their idle 
arms abroad ; and already the invasion of the Corean peninsula 
for its insult to Japan was mooted. But the peace party prevailed 
and the whole energy of the government was wisely devoted 
to the reorganisation of national affairs. The war spirit was, 
however, again aroused when, in the summer of 1873, that 
country offered gratuitous insult to Japan by an open declaration 
of its contempt for a nation which was casting off its national 
institutions for those of the Occident. In both official and private 
circles there was a universal cry for a military expedition to 
Corea. Soyejima (since created Count) was despatched to China 
to ascertain the relations subsisting between that Empire and 
the peninsula. The Chinese Government, fearing troublesome 
complications if it asserted its suzerainty over Corea, denied 
that the peninsula was its tributary state. Soyejima, on returning 
to Japan, became one of the leading spirits of the war party ; 
and Saigo, taking up the cry, gave the weight of his great 
influence to the bellicose faction. The Japanese Government 
was split into two opponent camps ; and the war party were 
about to carry the day when the Japanese Embassy which had 
been despatched to Europe and America to propose the revision 
of the treaties, returned to Japan, and cast in their lot with 
the peace party, whose calmer counsels finally prevailed. The 
leaders of the war party seceded from the Government. But the 
Government persevered in its peaceful work of administrative 
reorganisation. 

Though the Japanese Government thus overlooked the 
insults offered by Corea on two occasions, it was not long before 



( 3 ) 

a third was inflicted. In August 1875, a Japanese man-of-war 
Unyo which had been surveying in Corean waters, anchored off the 
Island of Kanghwa, at the mouth of the river flowing through 
Seoul, before proceeding to Newchwang, when it was fired upon 
from the forts on that island. The vessel replied to the attack 
and succeeded in burning down the castle of Yongchong on the 
same island. The matter was reported at once to the Government ; 
and an embassy was sent to demand satisfaction. After much 
delay, the Corean Government apologised and, for the first time, 
concluded a treaty on the footing of an independent power, in 
February 1876. By this treaty, Corea opened in 1881 the ports 
of Inchon (or Chemulpo) and Wonsan to foreign trade, the port 
of Fusan having been long opened. Thus Japan was the first 
to introduce Corea to the world as an independent state. 

Meanwhile, Prince Heungson, the father of the reigning 
King of Corea, better known as the Tai-Wonkun, who had been 
acting as regent during the King's minority from i860 was 
driven out of power in 1875 by the Mins, the queen's family, who 
thenceforth filled the highest offices of state. The Tai-Wonkun, 
tyrannical as he had been, had always done much to maintain 
the efficiency of the army and been indulgent to the soldiery, 
among whom he was consequently very popular. When the 
Mins came into power, these soldiers refused to obey them, and 
that family raised a new army drilled by a Japanese officer, to 
supplant the old refractory army. The latter were naturally 
indignant when they were given the cold shoulder ; and they 
conspired for the restoration of the Tai-Wonkun to power. In 
July, 1882, they revolted and rushed into the palace where they 
surrounded the King and succeeded in effecting the Tai-W6nkun*s 
restoration. The queen whom they sought to murder as being 
the most important member of the Min family, had escaped 
from the palace and fled to Chhungju, in Chhung-chhong-do. 
The Japanese Minister at Seoul was compelled to fly for his life 
to Chemulpo, whence he was conveyed by a British man-of-war 
to Nagasaki. He soon returned to Corea to demand satisfaction 



( 4 ) 

for the attack on the Japanese Legation ; but the Tai-Wonkun 
hesitated to apologise for the outrage. The Minister left Seoul, 
and war was imminent between Japan and Corea. The Queen of 
Corea had in the ^meantime appealed to Li-Hung-chang for 
help, and before the Tai-Wonkun had been a month in power, 
an army was sent from China, the result of which was that the 
Tai-Wonkun was inveigled into a Chinese man-of-war and carried 
off to China, the Mins were restored to power, and a treaty was 
concluded with Japan, undertaking among other things, to pay 
an indemnity of 500,000 yen and consenting to Japan's stationing 
troops at Seoul. 

All went well for two years; but in 1884, the reprisals 
China suffered at the hands of the French caused many Coreans 
to waver in their belief in China's ability to protect their country. 
Though the Mins remained firm in their reliance on the Middle 
Kingdom, there arose two other parties in the Corean Govern- 
ment, one advocating an appeal to Russia for protection and the 
other turning to Japan for the same purpose. The last resolved 
to enforce their views by violent means. On the 4th December, 
when Hong-Yongsik, their leader, held a banquet to celebrate 
the opening of the Post Office at Seoul, of which he had been 
appointed chief, his accomplices waited outside to put an end to 
such of their enemies as had been invited to it. Failing in their 
object, Pak Yonghyo and Kim Okkiun, two of Hong's principal 
accomplices, went at once to the palace and took possession of 
the King's person ; and early next morning, their chief enemies 
were summoned to the palace; but when they entered the 
palace gate they were assassinated. Having thus got rid of the 
chiefs of the pro-Chinese party, they appealed to the Japanese 
Minister to guard the King. The Minister went at once to 
the palace with two hundred Japanese soldiers. Meanwhile, 
the Chinese troops, numbering three thousand in all, also 
hurried to the palace under the command of Yuan Siekai, their 
chief. The King then placed himself under Chinese protection ; 
and the Japanese Minister had to make the best of his way to 



( 5 ) 

Chemulpo. Many Japanese residents of Seoul were killed by 
the Chinese soldiery ; and the Japanese Legation was burnt 
down. Pak Yonghyo and Kim Okkiun fled to Japan. 

On the Japanese Minister's return to Japan, Count Inouye, 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, was despatched to Corea, where he 
extorted from the Corean Government a promise to rebuild the 
Japanese Legation at its own charge and to send an embassy to 
apologise for the attack on the Minister. But the outrages on 
the Japanese residents in Seoul had been mostly committed by 
the Chinese troops; and accordingly, Count Ito, Minister of the 
Household Department, was despatched with Lieut.-General 
Count Saigo, Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, to demand 
satisfaction from China. Negotiations were opened at Tientsin 
with Li-Hung-chang, and on the i8th April, 1885, the Treaty of 
Tientsin was concluded, by which both the Contracting Powers 
undertook to withdraw their troops from Corea, and not to send 
military instructors to that country. The third clause of the 
treaty provided that " if in future there should be in Corea a 
disturbance or important affair, and it should be necessary for 
both Japan and China, or either one of them, to despatch troops, 
they should first mutually communicate on the matter, and on 
the subsidence of the affair, the troops should be at once with- 
drawn and not be permanently stationed." This clause is of 
great importance as the difference between the two powers in the 
construction put upon it was the first link in the chain of events 
which led to the great war. By this treaty, both the powers 
clearly recognise Corea as an independent buffer state, over 
which China has no more rights of suzerainty than Japan. 
China, in other words, plainly surrenders the pretensions she 
had thitherto, and indeed since, implicitly put forth by her 
conduct, with regard to the peninsula. This fact is admitted 
even by her friends who deplore this treaty as a weak concession 
on her part. 

After Corea had formally apologised to Japan in 1885, the 
relations between the two countries were unruffled except by the 



( 6 ) 

prohibition in 1889, ^Y ^^^^ Governor of Hamgyondo, of the 
export of rice from that province. The pretext for that'prohibi- 
tion was the alleged failure of harvest in that province, though 
in reality the crops were above the average. The Japanese 
merchants who were put to great losses by the annulment of 
contracts for export through this prohibition brought claims for 
compensation against the Corean Government. The prohibition 
was repealed in April 1890, but the claims were only settled in 
1892 by the Corean Government's agreement to pay 1 10,000 ^^«. 
In spite of the Treaty of Tientsin, Chinese influence was para- 
mount at the Corean Court through its Resident Yuan Siekai, 
who had commanded the Chinese troops during the attacks upon 
the Japanese in 1884. 

Early in 1894, an event took place, which, though not of 
direct political importance, served to refan the ill feeling in Japan 
against China. For nearly ten years Kim Okkiun and Pak 
Yonghyo, two of the leaders in the emeute oi 1884, had found 
refuge in Japan, which had in 1885 refused the demand 
of the Corean Government for their extradition. The people 
of Japan were startled by the intelligence that Kim Okkiun 
had been murdered at Shanghai on the 28th March by his 
countryman Hong Chong-u. The Chinese Government assisted 
in the conveyance of Kim's body to Corea, where it was 
beheaded and exposed in public places. It was moreover dis- 
covered soon after that another Corean had also plotted against 
Pak Yonghyo's life. The man was apprehended, but was 
eventually released through insufficiency of evidence. He was 
however, deported to Corea ; but by the time he arrived at Seoul, 
his patrons, the Mins, had lost their power. 

Not long after the murder of Kim Okkiun, there arose in 
various parts of Corea disturbances caused by the Tong-haks or 
the Eastern Learning party, incoherent groups of men without 
any definite object or principle notwithstanding the high-sounding 
name. They were little more than peasants' riots, as the men ap- 
pear to have taken arms only against the oppressive measures of 



( 7 ) 

their rulers. As local governors were mostly creatures of the Min 
family, the Tong-haks so far revolted against constituted authority 
in. that the ultimate result of their rebellion, if successful, would 
be the overthrow of the Mins. In April the first rising took 
place at Kopho in Chollado, followed by another at Kimhai in 
Kyong-sang-do, where the rebels threw the governor and his 
officers into prison. There was a third atChhung-ju, in Chhung- 
chhong-do. In every engagement, the Tong-haks defeated the 
local troops, until the Government appointed a general, Hong 
Kehun by name, to suppress them. He surprised and routed 
a company at Keumsan ; but the Tong-haks were roused to 
further action by this reverse and they were at the same time 
strengthened by large reinforcements. The general was unable 
to disperse them. He defeated them again at Yosan, a hill on 
the boundary between Chollad6 and Chhung-chhong-do ; but at 
Paiksan, a mountain between Chonju and Kopho, he fell into a 
trap and was repulsed with a heavy loss. After this, the Tong- 
haks were successful in every engagement until on the ist June, 
Chonju, the chief town of Chollado, fell into their hands. General 
Hong, finding that the insurgents were too strong for him, me- 
morialised the Government to appeal to foreign aid. 

On the 26th May, Yuan Siekai, the Chinese Resident, seeing 
that the Corean troops were unable to cope with the rebellion, 
called upon Min Yongchun, the Chief Minister of State, and 
advised him to appeal to China for help, undertaking at the same 
time to suppress the rebellion in ten days with Chinese troops. 
Min agreed to this proposal as there appeared to him to be no 
other way of restoring place. This, however, was a private 
understanding between the two men. The Corean Government 
itself was averse to an appeal to foreign help as it knew that the 
arrival of Chinese troops would be sure to be immediately 
followed by that of Japanese soldiers ; and in spite of Hong's 
memorial, a false report was posted outside the gates of Seoul to 
the effect that the Tong-haks had been completely suppressed. 
But no one believed this report, and as the Tong-haks threatened 



( 8 ) 

to march upon the capital, the inhabitants of the city were already 
preparing to hurry away with their household effects. There 
was, therefore, no real opposition to the proposed appeal to China ; 
and on Yuan Siekai's wiring to Li-Hung-chang Min Yongchun's 
appeal, preparations were at once made for the despatch of three 
companies (i,5oo men in all) from Wei-hai-wei. On the 6th 
June, Chinese nien-of-war with these troops on board arrived off 
Asan where the debarkation commenced on the 8th. On the 
same day, Li-Hung-chang informed the Japanese Government 
through the Japanese Consul at Tientsin that " three companies 
of troops were at the request of the Corean Government being 
sent to Corea as reinforcements for the suppression of the civil 
war and with no other object ; the troops would, on landing at 
Asan, proceed at once to Chonju ; and on the suppression of the 
Tong-haks, they would be immediately withdrawn in accordance 
with the Treaty of Tientsin, and would neither enter Seoul nor 
remain at Chonju." 

We may here add, though anticipating the events, that the 
Tong-haks, on hearing of the arrival of Chinese and Japanese 
troops in their country, all fled home as if frightened at the 
serious consequences of their petty risings ; and General Hong 
returned to Seoul in triumph on the 29th June, apparently im- 
plying that it was through his own generalship that the Tong-haks 
had vanished. 




THE 




\T OF WAR 



DIPLOMATIC NEGOTIATIONS. 

While China was thus sending her troops to Asan, in Corea, 
the Japanese Government did not remain idle. It watched with 
growing anxiety the triumphs of the Tong-haks as their threat- 
ened march upon the capital was a direct menace to the safety 
of the Japanese Legation and residents there. That anxiety was, 
however, intensified when it was found that China was bent upon 
taking advantage of the impotence of the Corean Government to 
reassert her claims upon the peninsula. Intelligence came of the 
Chinese preparations at Wei-hai-wei, and the Japanese Govern- 
ment resolved to despatch at once Mr. Otori, the Japanese 
Minister at Peking and Seoul, who was at the time in Japan on 
furlough, to the latter city. He was recalled on the 4th June 
from Oiso, a watering place in Sagami, to Tokyo, where he 
presented himself at the Foreign Office on the following morning. 
He was ordered to proceed at once to Corea. He went the same 
day to the naval port of Yokosuka where the despatch-boat 
Yayeyama had been got ready to carry him, and left the port in 
that war-vessel that evening. After stopping a few hours at 
Kobe on the following evening, the vessel went direct to 
Chemulpo where it arrived at 3 p.m. on the 9th. The same 
afternoon Mr. Otori landed, and next morning, in spite of a 
heavy rain, he left for Seoul escorted by a corps of 400 marines. 
On hearing of Mr. Otori's arrival at Chemulpo, Yuan Siekai, the 
Chinese Resident, had intended to go at once to Chemulpo to 
dissuade him from entering Seoul, but he delayed for a day, 
thinking that Mr. Otori would not come to the capital in the 
rain. The Coreaft Government, too, sent an official to intercept 



( IP ) 

him at Chemulpo, but he came too late. Mf. Otori entered 
Seoul, while a detachment of the corps of marines was 
stationed outside the city. They were relieved on the 1 3th by 
the Infantry. ^^, 

As the Chinese were sending troops to Corea, the Japanese 
Government also resolved to despatch troops for the protection 
of the Legation and the Japanese residents in Corea, who 
numbered altogether nearly 10,000. On the 5th June, therefore, 
orders were given to Lieut.-General Viscount Nozu, Commander 
of the Fifth Provincial Division, with the headquarters at Hiro- 
shima, to prepare for the despatch of troops to Corea, while 
similar orders for preparations were given to the admiralty port 
of Kure, near Hiroshima. The Divisional reserve was called 
out, and by the loth, a Combined Brigade under Major-General 
Oshima, was awaiting final orders to leave the garrison. 

Meanwhile, ten of the best passenger ships of the great 
Japanese Steamship Company, Nippon Yusen Kaisha, were 
chartered by the Government and ordered to proceed at once to 
Kure, and by the loth, they had arrived at that port, though 
they were when the orders were received, at different parts of 
the Japanese coast. The Wakanoura-maru^ which reached Kure 
on the 8th, was on that night laden with stores and provisions 
and on the following morning, took troops on board, and left 
for Corea immediately after. She arrived at Chemulpo on the 
1 2th, and the same day, a detachment left for Seoul where it 
relieved the marines, who returned to the Vayeyama. The 
remaining nine transports left Ujina, the port of Hiroshima, in 
quick succession, the last of them steaming out of port on the 
evening of the list. 

As soon as the Combined Brigade had left in these trans- 
ports, the Japanese Government officially announced that " as, the 
internal disturbances in Corea having arisen and daily increasing 
in violence, the Corean Government was unable to suppress them, 
the Japanese Government had despatched troops for the protec- 
tion of the Japanese Legation, Consulates, and people in that 



( II ) 

country ; the Chinese Government having lately informed the 
Japanese Government of the despatch of troops to Corea, the 
Japanese Government also immediately informed the Chinese 
Government of the above-mentioned despatch of its troops." 

There was a further despatch of troops on the 15th. Coolies 
were also sent. The Japanese army, on arriving in Corea, took 
immediate possession of Kuhyonsan, a hill of high strategic 
importance between Seoul and Chemulpo, and set guns on the 
summit. About 4,000 men were stationed at Chemulpo. Ten 
Japanese men-of-war, including the flagship Matstishimay the 
Yoshino, and the Chiyoduj were anchored in the harbour of 
Chumlpo. 

The negotiations of the Japanese Government in connection 
with the despatch of troops were carried on separately with the 
Chinese and Corean Governments. 

The progress of the former may be gathered from the 
official despatches which the Japanese Government com- 
municated to the House of Peers at the extraordinary session of 
the Diet at Hiroshima in October last. 

On the 7th June, Wang Fungtsao, the Chinese Minister at 
Tokyo, informed the Japanese Foreign Office that he had 
received from Li Hung-chang a telegram stating that the Corean 
Government, being unable to suppress the Tonghak rebellion, 
had appealed to the suzerain state to aid in its suppression 
according to the precedents set by China in the disturbances of 
1882 and 1884, and as it was the usage of China to protect its 
tributary states by despatching reinforcements, Li Hung-chang 
had, by the order of the Emperor of China, despatched General 
Yeh to Corea to restore order in the tributary state and to enable 
the merchants of other nationalities to trade in peace ; and it was 
also added that the troops would be immediately withdrawn on 
the restoration of peace, in accordance with the clause 3 of the 
Tientsin Treaty. 

The Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, in acknowledging 
the receipt of this communication, took exception to the words 



( 12 ) 

protection and tributary state in the despatch, as the Japanese 
Government had never recognised Corea as China's tributary 
state, and on the same day, the Japanese Charge cT Affaires, Mr. 
Komura,informed the Chinese Tsungli-yamen of his Government's 
intention to despatch troops to Corea as the necessity therefor 
had risen on account of the disturbances in the peninsula. Two 
days later, the Tsungli-yamen replied that China had sent troops 
to Corea at the request of the Corean Government as it was her 
usage to protect tributary states, and thought as a matter of 
course that as Japan wished to protect her Legation, Consulates, 
and residents, there would be no necessity for the despatch of a 
large force. It hoped that the Japanese troops, being despatched 
without any request to that effect on the part of the Corean 
Government, would not cause suspicion by being sent into the 
interior, and also expressed its anxiety on the possibility of a 
collision between the troops of the two countries through 
ignorance of each other's language and the difference in their 
military usages. To this, the Japanese Charge d' Affaires replied 
on the 1 2th to the effect that his Government again took 
exception to the term " tributary state " applied to Corea; Japan 
had sent troops to Corea in accordance with the treaty of 
Chemulpo in 1882, while the communication on the matter had 
been made to the Chinese Government in consequence of the 
Tientsin Treaty ; as to the strength of the force sent to Corea, 
the Japanese Government would be its own judge ; they would 
not be sent where their presence would not be required ; and 
finally, there would be no fear of any hostile demonstration on 
the part of the Japanese troops who were under strict discipline, 
on meeting with the Chinese. 

On the day Mr. Komura made this communication to the 
Tsungli-yamen, the first Japanese detachment arrived at Chemulpo, 
and thus all discussion on the despatch of Japanese troops was 
now too late. 

Next, on the 17th of the same month, the Japanese Minister 
for Foreign Affairs proposed to the Chinese Government through 



( 13 ) 

Its Minister in Tokyo that Japan and China should act in concert 
and suppress the rebellion in Corea, and both appoint officials for 
jointly advising on the Corean finances, dismissal of officials 
from the central and local governments, and the maintenance 
by Corea of a sufficient army to preserve peace in the country. 
But the Tsungli-yamen replied five days later that as the Corean 
rebellion was already suppressed, there was no need to discuss 
the joint action of the two countries with regard to its suppres- 
sion ; as Corea should carry out her own reforms, China would 
not interfere in her internal affairs and still less should Japan, 
which had recognised the Corean independence from the very 
outset ; and that the withdrawal of troops after the suppression 
of the rebellion required no deliberation as it had been stipulated 
by the Tientsin Treaty. As the Chinese Government thus 
showed its unwillingness to cooperate with the Japanese Govern- 
ment, the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs informed the 
Chinese Government on the same day that, much as the Japanese 
Government regretted the refusal of the Chinese Government to 
cooperate with it, not only its friendship for Corea, but its own 
interests in that peninsula forbade it to leave her in her present 
troubled state, and knowing the frequency with which these 
internal disturbances took place in that country, it refused to 
withdraw its troops until means were taken for ensuring the 
permanent peace of the country. The Japanese Government's 
refusal at the present juncture to withdraw its troops was not 
only in direct observance of the Tientsin Treaty but also for the 
purpose of preventing similar troubles in future. 

The last document published by the Japanese Government 
is dated the 14th July. In this the Japanese Charge d' Affaires 
at Peking comments upon the Chinese Government's rejection of 
all attempts at rapprochement, its sole demand being the with- 
drawal of Japanese troops from Corea; and added that as China 
merely continued the same cry and turned a deaf ear to all 
proposals of mutual understanding when the British Minister at 
Peking offered to mediate, it was clear that she was determined 



( H ) 

upon falling out with Japan, and therefore, the Japanese Govern- 
ment disclaimed all responsibility for whatever might ensue'from 
the Chinese Government's attitude. 

Though we are not told of the course of events from the 
22nd June up to the I2th July, it is evident from the last despatch 
that the Bi itish Minister at Peking had attempted to mediate; 
indeed, Sir Edward Grey, the British Parliamentary Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs stated in reply to a question in the House of 
Commons that the British Government had in the interests of 
peace advised both Japan and China to come to a peaceful 
settlement. The Russian Minister at Tokyo also offered a 
similar advice to the Japanese Government. But all such 
attempts had failed, as the despatch of the 14th July shows. 

Meanwhile, in Corea itself, the indecision of her Government 
was intensifying the strained diplomatic relations between the 
three eastern governments. As the Chinese Government refused 
on the 22nd June to cooperate with the Japanese in Corean 
reforms, the latter resolved to carry them out single-handed. 
But before making any attempt of the kind, it was necessary to 
obtain from the Corean Government an assurance of its own 
independence. Accordingly, on the 28th of the same month, 
Mr. Otori, the Japanese Minister at Seoul, asked the Corean 
Government whether Corea was an independent state. Though 
Japan had recognised Corea as independent state in the 
Treaty of Amity of 1876, China had lately referred to her 
in official despatches as a tributary state and it was to 
rebut this pretension of China that a declaration to the contrary 
was required of the Corean Government. The Corean Court 
was at once divided into three parties, the first asserting 
that Corea, having been introduced by Japan to the world as 
an independent state, certainly was and had always been such, 
and the second stating that it was plain from her past and 
present relations that Corea was China's tributary state, while 
the third, feeling that either of the above assertions must 
offend one of the two nations, was anxious to reply vaguely 



( IS ) 

that Corea was what Japan had recognised her to be in their 
treaty, without committing the Government by any positive 
assertion. But as they could not come to a decision, a 
telegram was sent to Tientsin to ask Li-Hung-chang's advice 
in the matter. The telegraph communication, however, having 
been interrupted, it was not after the Government, on being 
pressed, replied that Corea was an independent state that 
Li-Hung-chang instructed the Government to avoid complica- 
tions and gave it permission to act independently in diplomatic 
matters. 

Having been thus assured of the independence of Corea, 
Mr. Otori proposed to the Corean Government a scheme of 
national reform ; and after much hesitation, the King of Corea 
appointed a commission to discuss the matter with Mr. Otori. 
The Commission held consultations with him on the loth 
July, and the days following. He had proposed changes in the 
personnel of the central and local governments, opening of- 
fices to talent ; and the reorganisation of the national finances, 
of law and courts of justice, of the army and police, and of 
the educational system of the country. On the i6th, the 
Corean Government informed Mr. Otori that it accepted the 
main principles of these reforms ; but when he requested a 
written official announcement to that effect, the Government 
again hesitated, and changing its mind once more, notified the 
Japanese Minister that though it was willing to carry out the 
proposed reforms, it could not do so until the Japanese troops 
were withdrawn from Corea, where their presence threatened, 
by the fear inspired in the natives, to create disturbances and 
might give other Powers an excuse for also landing their 
troops. 

This sudden change of attitude was due to the Chinese 
Resident Yuan Siekai's threat to bring a large Chinese army 
into Corea and to Li-Hung-chang's instructions to the Corean 
Court to reject any proposals brought by Mr. Otori as China 
would certainly make Japan withdraw her troops who, he 



( i6 ) 

added, were in great straits. The decisive moment had come. 
It was no longer possible for the armies of both her neighbours 
to remain at the same time in Corea. As long as the Chinese 
forces were stationed at Asan, any attempt at reform by the 
Japanese Government would be futile ; and as a final resource, 
Mr. Otori demanded on the 19th that the Corean Government, 
in order to prove its assertion of the independence of Corea, 
should compel China to withdraw her troops whose pretext for 
coming to Corea was the protection of a tributary state and that 
it should abrogate the existing treaty between Corea and China. 
He gave the Government three days to reply in ; but those days 
passed without any communication from that Government. Mr. 
Otori resolved to proceed early on the morning of the 23rd to 
the palace and ask the king for a definite answer as it was useless 
to negotiate any longer with the Government. 

Early on that morning, Mr. Otori left the Japanese Legation 
under a strong Japanese guard. As the party approached the 
front gate of the palace, they were fired upon by the Corean 
troops stationed behind the palace walls. The Japanese replied 
and soon took possession of the barracks of the royal bodyguard 
on both sides of the gate. The north and east gates also fell 
into their hands. There were altogether two skirmishes, as the 
result of which 17 Corean troops were killed and 70 wounded, 
while a Japanese horseman was killed and two foot soldiers were 
wounded. 

Mr. Otori entered the palace and had an audience with the 
king who assured the minister of his anxiety to carry out 
reforms, the refusal of his Government having been forced upon 
it by the Mins and Yuan Siekai. 

Soon after Mr. Otori, came the Tai-Wonkun, the king's 
father, who had been summoned thither. He advised the king 
to act according to the Japanese proposals. The Mins, on 
hearing of the defeat of the Corean troops at the palace, fled from 
the capital ; and the king was deserted by them in his sorest 
need. On the 24th, he entrusted the Tai-wonkun with the 




Corean Troops Dispersed at the Palace {3M^; ^ 



( 17 ) 

conduct ot the Government and gave orders for the punishment 
of the Mins. And on the following day, he abrogated the treaty 
with China and requested Mr. Otori to take measures for the 
expulsion of the Chinese troops at Asan. On the same day 
Major-General Oshima, Commander of the Combined Brigade, 
left the Japanese encampment at Yongsan, near Seoul, at the 
head of his troops, for Asan. 



PHUNG-DO ; ASAN ; AND PROCLAMATIONS OF WAR. 

Before the Japanese troops left their encampment at Yong- 
san to march upon Asan, the men-of-war of Japan and China had 
an encounter in Corean waters, which practically opened the 
-long-expected war though the proclamation of war was not made 
till a week later. 

About the 21st July, China began to send more troops to 
Corea. Her intention was to despatch an army to Wiju, on the 
Corean frontier, and to reinforce those already at Asan ; and the 
two armies were, by marching towards each other, to get the 
Japanese army near Seoul tactically between them. When the 
despatch of Chinese troops from Taku, Weihaiwei and Port 
Arthur was rumoured in Japan, the Japanese men-of-war YosMno^ 
Naniwa^ and Akitsushima were sent from Sasebo on the 23rd to 
assertain the fact by cruising in the Corean waters. As they 
were on the 25th at about 7 a.m. between the islands of Phungdo 
and Shopaioul on their way to Chemulpo, they met two Chinese 
men-of-war, Kwang-yi and Tsi-yuen, which had left Asan to meet 
a Chinese transport. Though the Japanese regarded these vessels 
with anything but friendly feelings, still as active hostilities had 
not yet broken out, they saluted them, but the Chinese did not 
return the courtesy. As the sea was narrow, the Japanese men- 
of-war turned their course to the south-west to get into a more 
open sea, when they came very close to the Chinese. The latter 
fired upon them ; and the Japanese were not slow to reply. 
After a sharp encounter of an hour and twenty minutes duration, 
the Tsi-yuen fled towards the gulf of Pechili, while the Kwang-yi^ 
in making for land, ran aground. Soon after, another Chinese 



Mmmmm^m 




CO 

<0 



^%e«7«/fcO®_^ J^^*«««i?f 



^-^-) Taipudo 








( 19 ) 

warship was seen coming towards Asan with a transport flying 
the British flag under convoy. On the approach of the Akitsii- 
shima^ the warship which turned out to be the Tsao-kiang, hoisted 
the white flag and surrendered. She was captured. Meanwhile, 
the Naniwa stopped the transport. On examination, she was 
found to be a British steamer, Kowshingy which had been 
chartered by the Chinese Government and was carrying over 
i,ioo Chinese troops and stores from Taku to Asan. The 
Naniwa ordered her to follow her to the Main Squadron, but 
Captain Galsworthy, commanding the vessel, replied that the 
Chinese on board prevented him and were for returning to Taku. 
The captain and the crew were threatened with death by the 
Chinese if they left the vessel. All attempts to take the ship 
were therefore useless as the Chinese refused to surrender ; and 
the Naniwa therefore signalled to the captain that his crew 
should jump into the sea as soon as a red flag was hoisted on the 
warship. On seeing the red flag, therefore, the crew jumped 
into the sea, and were fired upon by the Chinese. They were 
all killed exeept the captain, the first oflficer, and the quarter- 
master who were picked up by the Naniwa s, boats. The Naniwa 
then sank the Kowshing with a shot which struck her engine- 
room. Only a few Chinese escaped by swimming to an island. 
Major von Hanneken, who was also on board, having been 
ordered by the Chinese Government to fortify Asan, also swam 
ashore. 

The Kwang-yi was found stranded by Japanese men-of-war 
on the 27th in a little bay to the south of Caroline Bay. Her 
crew had escaped in boats after exploding her powder-magazine. 

On the Kowshing were two Chinese Generals, fourteen field 
officers, and 1,100 men. The Tsao-Kiang s crew, numbering 82 
ill all, were brought over to Japan and are at present prisoners at 
Matsuyama. Captain Galsworthy and his first officer Tamplin 
were brought to Sasebo, but were soon released after their 
depositions had been taken, as also Muhlenstedt, a Danish 
telegraph engineer, who was on board the Tsao-Kiang. It may 



( 20 ) 

be here added that the Japanese Government has offered to make 
ample reparation for the loss of the Kowshing, which was flying 
the British flag, if on careful enquiry, the Japanese man-of-war 
should be found to have committed a breach of international law. 

On the 25th July, as we have said, the Japanese army left 
Yongsan. It consisted of the Twelfth and Twenty- first Regi- 
ments of Infantry, with the usual complement of other arms, that 
is, the Ninth Brigade, whose headquarters are at Hiroshima. As 
a corps was left to guard Yongsan and Seoul, the total strength 
of the army now on the march did not probably exceed 4,000. 
The progress of the army and the engagement at Songhwan has 
been described by the war correspondent of the Asahi in the 
following manner : — 

After the newspaper correspondents had received permission 
to accompany the army, they made instan't preparations and were 
ready to start, when at 10 a.m. on the 25th, they met Lieut.- 
Colonel Fukushima and Major Uyehara, who told them of the 
naval victory at Phung-do. The correspondents followed these 
officers to Yongsan. But when they arrived there, the army 
had already started though Major-General Oshima and his 
adjutant Major Nagaoka were still at the headquarters. The 
correspondents started at once, and after crossing the River 
Hangan at Tongjak they overtook the army. General Oshima 
and his staff came up soon after. At 6 p.m., the army arrived at 
Kwochhon, which is 73^ miles from Seoul. Here the army was 
quartered for the night in open air. Next day, it arrived at 
Suwon, which is only about 10 miles from Kwochhon. On the 
27th, it left Suwon at 4 a.m., and arrived at Chinwi at noon, a 
distance of 15 miles. At Suwon, though the Corean Govern- 
ment authorised the Japanese army to employ coolies and beasts 
of burden free of charge, the commander paid them all for their 
work, to the great joy of the Coreans. For the remainder of the 
day the troops were allowed to rest themselves on the grass, as 
there were no houses to accommodate them. The outposts were 
strictly guarded ; and at 4 o'clock next morning (28th), the army 



( 21 ) 

began to move and soon arrived at Chhilwon, which is less than 
five miles distant. Here a small detachment was sent direct to 
Asan, while the main body marched about three miles more to 
Sosachang. Chinese tents were now seen in the distance, and 
among them their red and green flags could be descried by 
telescope, fluttering in the breeze. Their horsemen were also 
to be detected riding to and fro. The Chinese camp was situated 
on a hill at Songhwan, an important position on the Asan road, 
about 17 miles from Asan. In front of the hill are rice-paddies 
and marshes, crossed in the middle by a little stream which runs 
into Asan Bay, and a narrow path leads up to the hill. It was a 
position easy to defend and hard to attack. Corea is far hotter 
than Japan. The temperature since the 24th had been 96 or 97 
degrees. The troops, having to carry a heavy load, besides their 
rifles, through a wretched road, were extremely fatigued ; and 
from their arrival at 10 a.m., they were allowed to rest them- 
selves, though the enemy's camp was only 6,000 metres off. 
But as they had no tents, they had to sit under the burning sun 
on the grass, while General Oshima himself could only find two 
mattings to shade himself. There was no pure water and the 
troops had to slake their thirst with the muddy water of the 
paddies, which they found in their distress more refreshing than 
the iced water they would get in Tokyo. At 4 p.m. it rained and 
the temperature fell, which greatly exhilarated the troops. At 
7 p.m., outposts were set. Before this, the adjutant. Major 
Nagaoka called the Asa/ii correspondent and asked the war 
correspondents through him to assist the ambulance corps, which 
was insufficient, in searching for the dead and wounded after the 
battle which would take place at dawn. The correspondents all 
swore to do everything in their power. At midnight, the army 
left, the two wings forming separate companies. As it has 
already been said, there was only one path to the hill, and there 
was a bridge over the stream, at Ansongdo which had to be 
crossed. The main body crossed the bridge at 2 ; but when the 
last detachment was on the point of crossing at about 3, over 500 



( 22 ) 

Chinese troops in ambush near the bank cut off the bridge and 
opened fire on the detachment at about 30 or 40 metres distance. 
As the attack was so sudden, and behind the detachment there 
was only the ambulance, the Japanese troops were at first 
confused, but Captain ;Matsuzaki at once ordered them to 
march forward, and the troops, encouraged by the order, 
rushed upon the Chinese with a shout and bore them down. 
In this skirmish, on the Japanese side, six men were killed 
by the enemy, 17 or 18 were drowned, and 15 or 16 wounded, 
though the fight had only lasted fifteen minutes. Captain 
Matsuzaki himself was killed by a shot as he rushed at the 
head of his troops. 

The Chinese fled leaving behind 18 or 19 killed, among 
whom was an officer, and two prisoners. All was then quiet 
for two hours. At 6 o'clock, the Japanese left wing opened 
fire ; but the Chinese did not respond until the Japanese had 
fired fourteen or fifteen rounds. Then began the fight in 
earnest. The two wings attacked the Chinese at the same 
time. The Japanese charged with a shout upon the enemy, 
and each charge effected a new lodgement. The Chinese 
began to retreat towards Asan. At 7.30, that is, after an 
hour and a half, the battle was over ; and quiet was re- 
stored. It appears that the Chinese General Nieh had at 
.first come to defend this outpost at Songhwan with 1,000 
troops ; but hearing that the Japanese army had left Yongsan, 
over 1,500 more troops had been brought from Asan under 
General Yeh on the 27th and 28th. They had intended, in 
case of defeat, to retreat to Chonan, a garrisoned town, about 
25 miles south-east of Songhwan ; but the Japanese left wing 
attacked them from the east to drive them back to Asan. 
Though the Chinese ambuscade at the bridge was to be 
praised, their setting up their guns immediately round their 
tents showed their ignorance of tactics, for if their tents were 
set on fire by cannon, they would not only be unable to ex- 
tinguish it, but they could have not remained within the line 



mmmm 




( 23 ) ■_ 

of their guns. At first the Chinese fought outside the earth- 
works, with the intention evidently of taking refuge there if 
they were beaten back. But the sudden charges of the Japan- 
ese gave them no time to run within the parapets. They 
fled, leaving their flags behind. On a high hill to the left of 
the main camp was a thick wood, within which the Chinese 
had their guns. As it commanded the Japanese army, which 
approached it without suspecting any camp within, a sudden 
volley of cannon and small- arms took the latter by surprise. 
This camp held out longest. Here too, however, several flags 
were found. Round the camp of the Chinese artillery, against 
which the Japanese right wing advanced, guns were set, 
with palisades round the earthworks. They were broken down 
by the Japanese ; and four or five artillery officers and over 
ten men were killed. The Japanese officers speak in high 
terms of the skill of the Chinese artillery at this fight. General 
Oshima and Lieut. -Colonel Fukushima had a narrow escape. 
The Chinese loss may be computed at over lOO killed and 
400 wounded, making a total of over 500. The Japanese loss 
in the second fight was a little over 20 wounded. Several 
Chinese were taken prisoners ; the Chinese wounded begged 
for their lives with clasped hands. The Chinese General Nieh 
is a noted officer under Li-Hung-chang, and is well-known 
among Europeans for his successful suppression of the mount- 
ed brigands of Manchuria. The general cannot escape res- 
ponsibility for the defeat at Son gh wan. His behaviour on this 
occasion utterly belied his reputation and showed him to be 
a man of no great military attainments, for when the Japanese 
troops attacked his camp, he deserted it, threw away his 
uniform as it was an encumbrance to flight, and left behind the 
papers which, as a general, he should never have allowed to 
leave his side On the road the Chinese had taken in their flight 
were found uniforms, hats, and boots. They had all entered 
farm houses and obtained there by force Corean dresses to 
disguise themselves in. Several uniforms, apparently officers', 



(24 ) 

were also found on the road, on which were also seen continu- 
ous drops of blood. The Japanese army pursued the Chinese. 
It was expected that the Chinese would make a desperate stand 
at Asan and there was a general boding that the storming 
of Asan would be attended with a heavy loss ; but on arrival 
there, the army found to its astonishment that the trenches 
were deserted, with many hundreds of thousands of rounds of 
powder and 600 or 700 large bags of rice. The Chinese 
fled in confusion to Kongju, whence they took' a circuitous 
route northward, and a majority of them under Generals Yeh 
and Nieh arrived at Phyongyang in the middle of August. 
Their total strength before the battle of Songhwan was about 

3, OCX). 

The total Japanese loss at the battle was two officers and 
32 sub-officers and men killed or drowned, and four officers 
and 50 sub-officers and men wounded, of whom five sub- 
sequently succumbed to their wounds. The Japanese army 
returned in triumph to Seoul on the 5th. 

As these engagements at Phungdo and Songhwan placed 
it beyond a doubt that hostilities had commenced, the 
declaration of war was hourly expected. And on the 1st 
August, proclamations of war were published both in Tokyo 
and Peking. 

The Japanese Proclamation ran as follows : — 

" We, by the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated 
on a Throne occupied by the same dynasty from time im- 
memorial, do hereby make proclamation to all Our loyal and 
brave subjects as follows : — 

" We hereby declare war against China, and we command 
each and all of Our competent authorities, in obedience to Our 
wish, and with a view to the attainment of the national aim, to 
carry on hostilities by sea and land against China, with all the 
means at their disposal, consistently with the Law of Nations. 

" During the past three decades of Our reign. Our constant 
aim has been to further the peaceful progress of the country in 



( 25 ) 

civilization ; and being sensible of the evils inseparable from 
complications with foreign States, it has always been Our 
pleasure to instruct Our Ministers of State to labour for the 
promotion of friendly relations with Our Treaty Powers. We 
are gratified to know that the relations of Our Empire with those 
Powers have yearly increased in good-will and in friendship. 
Under the circumstances, We were unprepared for such a con- 
spicuous want of amity and of good faith as has been manifested 
by China in her conduct towards this country in connection with 
the Corean affair. 

" Corea is an independent Slate. She was first introduced 
into the family of nations by the advice and under the guidance 
of Japan. It has, however, been China's habit to designate Corea 
as her dependency, and both openly and secretly to interfere with 
her domestic affairs. At the time of the recent civil insurrection 
in Corea, China despatched troops thither, alleging that her 
purpose was to afford succour to her dependent State. We, in 
virtue of the Treaty concluded with Corea in 1882, and looking 
to possible emergencies, caused a military force to be sent to that 
country. 

" Wishing to procure for Corea freedom from tlie calamity of 
perpetual disturbance, and thereby to maintain the peace of the 
East in general, Japan invited China's cooperation for the ac- 
complishment of that object. But China, advancing various 
pretexts, declined Japan's proposal. Thereupon, Japan advised 
Corea to reform her administration so that order and tranquillity 
might be preserved at home, and so that the country might be 
able to discharge the responsibilities and duties of an independent 
State abroad. Corea has already consented to undertake the 
task. But China has secretly and insidiously endeavoured to 
circumvent and to thwart Japan's purpose. She has further 
procrastinated, and endeavoured to make warlike preparations on 
land and at sea. When those preparations were completed. She 
not only sent large reinforcements to Corea, with a view to the 
forcible attainment of her ambitious designs, but even carried her 



( 26 ) 

arbitrariness and insolence to the extent of opening fire upon Our 
ships in Corean waters. China's plain object is to make it 
uncertain where the responsibility resides of preserving peace and 
order in Corea, and not to weaken the position of that State in 
the family of nations, — a position obtained for Corea through 
Japan's efforts, — but also to obscure the significance of the treaties 
recognising and confirming that position. Such conduct on the 
part of China is not only a direct injury to the rights and interests 
of this Empire, but also a menace to the permanent peace and 
tranquillity of the Orient. Judging from her actions, it must be 
concluded that China, from the beginning, has been bent upon 
sacrificing peace to the attainment of her sinister object. In this 
situation, ardent as Our wish is to promote the prestige of the 
country abroad by strictly peaceful methods. We find it im- 
possible to avoid a formal declaration of war against China. It 
is Our earnest wish that, by the loyalty and valour of Our faithful 
subjects, peace may soon be permanently restored and the Glory 
of the Empire be augmented and completed. 

Given this 1st day of the eighth month of the 27th year 
of Meiji. 

Imperial Sign-Manual 
Imperial Seal 

Counter-signed by all the Ministers of State.* " 



The Chinese Proclamation was couched in the following 
terms : — 

" Corea has been our tributary for the past two hundred odd 
years. She has given us tribute all this time, which is a matter 
known to the world. For the past dozen or so years Corea has 
been troubled by repeated insurrections, and we in sympathy with 
our small tributary have as repeatedly sent succour to her aid, 
eventually placing a Resident in her capital to protect Corea's 
interests. In the 4th moon (May) of this year another rebellion 

* Official translation in the Japan Mail. 



( 27 ) 

was begun in Corea, and the King repeatedly asked again for aid 
from us to put down the rebellion. We then ordered Li Hung- 
chang to send troops to Corea, and they having barely reached 
Asan the rebels immediately scattered. But the Wo/en* without 
any cause whatever, sent their troops to Corea, and entered Seoul, 
the capital of Corea, re-inforcing them constantly until they have 
exceeded ten thousand men. In the meantime the Japanese 
forced the Corean King to change his system of government, 
showing a disposition every way of bullying the Coreans. It 
was found a difficult matter to reason with the Wojen. Although 
we have been in the habit of assisting our tributaries we have 
never interfered with their internal government. Japan's treaty 
with Corea was as one country with another ; there is no law for 
sending large armies to bully a country in this way, and compel 
it to change its system of government. The various Powers are 
united in condemning the conduct of the Japanese, and can give 
no reasonable name to the army she now has in Corea. Nor has 
Japan been amenable to reason, nor would she listen to the 
exhortation to withdraw her troops and confer amicably upon 
what should be done in Corea. On the contrary, Japan has 
shown herself bellicose without regard to appearances, and has 
been increasing her forces there. Her conduct alarmed the 
people of Corea as well as our merchants there, and so we sent 
more troops over to protect them. Judge of our surprise then 
when, half-way to Corea, a number of the Wojen ships suddenly 
appeared and taking advantage of our unpreparedness opened fire 
upon our transports at a spot on the sea-coast near Asan, and 
damaged them, thus causing us to suffer from their treacherous 
conduct which could not be foretold by us. As Japan has violat- 
ed the treaties and not observed international laws, and is now 
running rampant with her false and treacherous actions, com- 
mencing hostilities herself, and laying herself open to con- 
demnation by the various Powers at large, we therefore desire 
to make it known to the world that we have always -followed 

*'^A' ^° ancient and familiar Chinese term for Japanese. 



( 28 ) 



the paths of philanthropy, and perfect justice throughout the 
whole complications, while the Wojen on the other hand have 
broken all the laws of nations and treaties which it passes our 
patience to bear with. Hence we command Li Hung-chang 
to give strict orders to our various armies to hasten with all 
speed to root the Wojen out of their lairs. He is to send 
successive armies of valiant men to Corea in order to save 
the Coreans from the dust of bondage. We also command 
the Manchu Generals, Viceroys and Governors of the Maritime 
Provinces, as well as the Commanders-in-Chief of the various 
armies, to prepare for war and to make every effort to fire on 
the Wojen ships if they come into our ports, and utterly des- 
troy them. We exhort our Generals to refrain from the least 
laxity in obeying our commands in order to avoid severe 
punishment at our hands. Let all know this Edict as if ad- 
dressed to themselves individually. Respect this !*" 



* Translation in the North-China Daily-News* 



BATTLE OF PHYONGYANG. 

Major-General Oshima's forces having routed the Chinese 
from Asan, it was next necessary to expel the Chinese who 
were advancing southward from Wiju, on the Corean frontier. 
These were making Phyongyang their stronghold. On the 
loth August, a party of nine Japanese scouts had an encounter 
with the Chinese at Suchonchong, on the River Taidong, and 
they were all killed except one. 

On the 19th August, Lieut.-General Nozu, Commander of 
the Fifth Provincial Division, who went overland from Fusan, 
arrived at Seoul. On the same day, he heard that a battalion 
of the Twelfth Regiment, Infantry, and an Artillery company, 
which had landed at Wonsan had already arrived at Phochhong 
on their way to Seoul. They were ordered to change their 
direction to Sangnyong, where they joined a Infantry battalion 
of the Combined Brigade, and formed the Sangnyong Column. 
Major-General Oshima's Combined Brigade which had left 
Seoul on the 8th and reached Soheung on the 19th, was on 
account of the incomplete line of communications compelled to 
return to Kaisong. The Brigade was ordered to march for- 
ward again on the 25th. Lieut.-General Nozu next received 
information that a Combined Brigade of the Third Provincial 
Division which would land at Wonsan by the 26th would be 
placed under his command. These troops he ordered to 
march upon Phyongyang via Yangdok and Songchhong. 

All the arrangements were completed for closing upon 
Phyong-yang where the entire Chinese forces in Corea were 
concentrated. The Japanese forces in Corea were disponed in 
the following manner: — 



( 30 ) 

1. Oshima Combined Brigade under Major-General Oshima. 

Infantry, XI and XXI Regiments (less a battalion of the latter). 

Cavalry, I Company. ' 

Artillery, III Battalion. 

Engineers, I Company. 

Ambulance Corps and Field Hospital. 

2. Sangnyong Column under Major-General Tatsumi. 

Infantry, XII Regiment I Battalion (less a company). 

,, XXI Regiment, II Battalion (less a company). 
Cavalry, III Company i^ sub-company. 

Artillery, I Company. 

3. Wonsan Column under Colonel Sato. 

Infantry, XVIII Regiment. 
Cavalry, III Battalion (less a company). 

Artillery, III Regiment (less a battalion). 

Engineers III Battalion (less a company). 
Ambulance Corps. 

4. Seoul Guard Corps under Lieut.-Colonel Yasumitsu. 

Infantry, XXII Regiment II Battalion (less a company). 

5. Oseko Combined Brigade under Major-General Oseko. 
(To hold Wonsan). 

Infantry, VI Regiment. 

Cavalry, III Battalion i company. 

6. Main Division. 

a. First Marching Column under I.ieut.-Colonel Shibata. 

Infantry. XXII Regiment (less a battalion). 
Artillery, II Battalion. 

b. Second Marching Column under Lieut.-Colonel Tomoyasu. 

Infantry, XII Regiment (less a battalion). 

Cavalry, V Battalion, Staff and II Company (less a sub- 

company). 
Engineers, V Battalion (less a company). 
Ambulance Corps. 

There were a company of the XXI Regiment, Infantry, at 
Nakdong to guard the telegraphs, a company of the XXII 
Regiment at Chemulpo, a company of the XII Regiment and 
a small detachment of the XII Cavalry Company at Yongsan 
to guard the depots of supplies. 



( 31 ) 

The Oshima Brigade was to advance on the main road 
toward Phyongyang, and divert the enemy's attention from 
the other columns which were closing upon the city. The 
Sangnyong Column was to make a sudden attack from Samdung 
upon the city ; and part of the Wonsan Column was to cooperate 
with it, while the remainder was to cut off the enemy's retreat at 
Sun- an. The Main Division was to attack Phyongyang from the 
south and west roads. The general attack was to be made on 
the 15th September. 

On the 25th August, the advance-guard of the Oshima 
Brigade left Kaisong, followed by the main column under Major- 
General Oshima on the 28th. On the following day, the latter 
arrived at Phyongsan, where it stayed until the 2nd, when 
Major- General Tachimi, Commander of the Tenth Brigade, and 
now in Command of the Sangnyong Column, arrived. They 
both went on that day to Namcheon, whence on the following 
day, the former advanced to Chongsu while the latter turned off 
to Singe. On the 4th, the Oshima Brigade reached Soheung, 
and on the same day the advance-guard reached Pongsan. A 
small Chinese detachment which had come as far as Pongsan 
immediately retreated to Hwangju. On the 5th, a regiment under 
Lieut.- Colonel Nishijima arrived at Pongsan, while the advance- 
guard, which was a battalion under Major Ichinohe, took posses- 
sion of a pass half-way between Pongsan and Hwangju. On the 
6th, the Ichinohe Battalion attacked Hwangju ; and with the 
assistance of the Nishijima Regiment, soon succeeded in captur- 
ing the town. On the 7th, Major-General Oshima entered 
Hwangju. On the lOth. the Brigade reached Chunghwa, and on 
the 1 2th, advanced upon Phyongyang. The Brigade was divided 
into two wings, the right und^r Lieut.-Colonel Nishijima, and the 
left under Tieut.-Colonel Takeda, which took up their positions 
on the bank of the River Taidong. The Chinese frequently fired 
upon them, but without much result. There were a few 
skirmishes, but the Brigade remained quiet until the 15th. On 
the 14th, reports of guns were heard in various directions, from 



( 32 ) 

which it was ascertained that all the Columns had taken up their 
positions for the great battle. 

The Sangnyong Column left Singe on the 6th and arrived at 
Samdeung on the 9th, though it experienced great difficulty in 
crossing a river near the latter town from want of boats. On the 
1 2th, the Column left Samdeung, but when it had proceeded 
eight miles, a report came that an advance-guard under Major 
Yamaguchi, which had been sent on the previous day, was being 
attacked by over 1,000 Chinese on the Taidong ; but before the 
Main Column could come up, the enemy had already taken flight 
towards Phyongyang. The skirmish had taken place at Maik- 
chonchom where the Taidong crosses the Sangnyong-Phyong- 
yang road, and is about 10 miles higher up than the latter city. 
On the 13th, the Brigade reached Kukjuhyon, close to that 
stronghold. 

The Main Division arrived on the loth, the First Column at 
Hwangju and the Second at Pongsan. On the list, the Main 
Division began to cross the Taidong at Sipiho, where it is over 
1,000 yards wide and it was not until the 14th that the entire 
body reached the other side of the river. On that day, the Main 
Division reached Sachon about ten miles from Phyongyang while 
the advance-guard was only 2^ miles off at Sindong. At night 
the former advanced at Sanchon, about four miles from the enemy's 
stronghold. 

The Wonsan Column reached Yangdok, 45 miles from 
Wonsan, on the 2nd September, Songchhon on the 8th, and 
Yudong, about 20 miles from Phyongyang, on the list. On the 
1 3th, it arrived at Sun-an, about 1 2 miles on the Chinese rear, 
whence, on the 14th, it advanced to Kampuk, which is only 
2^ miles from Phyongyang. Communications were opened with 
the Main Division. And all was now ready for the general 
attack on the morrow at 7.30 a.m. 

Meanwhile the Chinese were preparing for the defence of 
their stronghold. They had thrown up numerous earthworks, of 
which there were altogether 27 in and about the city. On the 



5 Japa.nes& A.rttU.^4^y 



3 J'aparvtuse^ Colzcnvrvs 



AND ITS 

NVmONS 




:: Cf tines e^ Camps ( unprot*!.ct'e<l ) 



C3 Chineae. Eortrvuntrks 



( 33 ) 

right bank of the river they had built a great wall, over 2,000 
metres long and four metres high, with a trench outside. They 
were composed of four separate armies, namely, 



GENERAL. 


STRENGTH. 


Shengtse Troops under Wei Jookvvei. 
Etse „ „ Ma Yukwan. 
Fung „ „ Tso Paokwei. 
Moukden Shengtse „ „ Nieh Kweilin. 


6,000 

2,000 

3>5oo 
1,500 



These made up altogether 13,000, and if we add the Asan 
fugitives under General Yeh Chihchao, the total strength of the 
Chinese was probably about 15,000. 

It may be here added the strength of the Japanese army 
which surrounded Phyongyang was slightly in excess of the 
above, as may be seen from the following figures. 

Oshima Brigade between 3,600 and 3,700 

Sangnyong Column „ 2,400 „ 2,500 

Wonsan Column „ 4,700 „ 4,800 

Main Division „ 5,400 ,, 5,500 



16,100 „ 16,500 
Or taking the mean, about 16,300. 

On the 15th, Major-General Oshima's Brigade was the first 
to open fire as its object was to draw out the enemy. On the 
15th, the Wonsan and Sangnyong Columns and the Provincial 
Division were to attack suddenly from the rear, and leave the 
enemy a road to escape to the west coast, as that was preferable 
to starving them out in Phyongyang. Major Okuyama's Column 
left the river below Pankak Island, and came to the south of 
Phyongyang to keep open the communication between the 
Division and the Brigade, By attacking the enemy on three 
sides, the Japanese gave them the alternatives of surrender or 
flight to the coast. 

On the morning of the 15th, the Combined Brigade com- 
menced fire on the bank of the river, and the Wonsan Column 
began also to fire upon the enemy from Mt. Kampak. Being 



( 34 ) 

thus attacked on both sides, the enemy did not know of the 
approach of the Sangnyong Column on the rear until it was within 
500 metres. General Tatsumi, its commander, attacked the 
enemy's third fort before Peony Hill ; but the column was so 
hailed on its flank with volleys from thirteen-chambered 
magazine-rifles on the 1st and 2nd forts that it was obliged to 
desist. The column was divided into two, one of which attacked 
the enemy's right and the other the centre. Three companies 
were also led against the first fort, over which they climbed and 
bayoneted some fifty of the enemy. In this attack, the captains 
of the three companies were severely wounded ; but the fort was 
captured at 7.30. One of the two sub-divisions of the column 
next carried the third fort at 8.0. The Wonsan Column, mean- 
while, attacked the enemy's left, and a battalion, suddenly 
descending upon the Wiju road, took by storm the left fort. Soon 
after, the second, fourth, and fifth forts before Peony Hill feli. The 
Wonsan and Sangnyong Columns next attacked Peony Hill from 
three sides with such effect that the enemy were utterly swept 
out of it. After the capture of this important position, Colonel 
Sato of the Wonsan Column attacked the Hyon-mu Gate of the 
city which fell after three assaults. The enemy's cannon sounded 
less and less ; and the Japanese columns, also being fatigued, 
rested at 2 p.m. 

At midnight of the 14th, the Main Division arrived at San- 
chondong, and at daybreak saw the enemy waiting for its advance 
at their earthworks. The Japanese Artillery occupied a hill 
opposite to the earthworks at Oison and fired upon them, and 
the enemy replied with equal energy. An Infantry company 
then descended the hill and marched through a sesame field. 
About 100 horsemen of the enemy approached the company 
without its knowledge ; but the Artillery, seeing the danger, fired 
upon them. The company then became aware of the horsemen's 
approach, and fired upon them. A majority were killed, and 
seven or eight were taken prisoners, who confessed on examina- 
tion that the men on the north side of the city were disheartened 




Attack on the Hydnmu Gate at PhyprJ^yang. 



( 35 ) 

at the death of their General Tso-Paokwei, whose bodyguard 
and cavalry had already taken to flight. A little after, about 40 
of the enemy's cavalry were seen to flee by a stream behind 
Oison ; these too were attacked, and only one escaped. Major 
Okuyama had by their time set fire to the enemy's camp and 
entered the city. Tlie Oison earthworks were also stormed at 
almost the same time, taken, and burnt down. 

The Combined Brigade was so successful in drawing out the 
enemy that the latter were taken by surprise when they were 
attacked in other quarters. The enemy's forts, each 16 feet high, 
at Songkyori, were attacked ; but they defended themselves with 
such energy under Generals Yeh and Ma that loss was heavy on 
both sides. The Japanese lost over 20 officers killed. The 
earthworks were taken after a severe fight. The forts were next 
attacked, but the enemy's Mausers, with their thirteen chambers, 
were irresistible, the Japanese rifles being single. Two companies 
in the centre having exhausted their ammunition and lost their 
officers, showed a disposition to retreat, when the adjutant 
Major Nagaoka, rushed at their head and encouraged them. 
They soon regained their ground. General Oshima, who was 
standing about 70 metres behind the van also rushed forward 
some 40 metres and commanded the nth Reginent. The 
officers tried to persuade him to retire to a place of safety ; but 
he refused, saying he would die under the standard. The 
troops were encouraged by their leaders* example. And at last 
at 2.30, they gained possession of the forts, after fighting for 
nearly ten hours. The severity of this fight was due to the 
difficulty of getting a good position for the artillery, which was 
at the time 1,400 metres from the forts and was therefore 
comparatively ineffectual. 

At 4.30, the Chinese hoisted the white fla^-. General 
Tatsumi sent an aide-de-camp, and the enemy said that as it was 
raining heavily and night was coming on it would be difficult to 
examine their troops, and asked the Japanese to allow them 
time until the following morning to make preparations for 



( 36 ) 



capitulation. The request was granted ; but that evening, the 
Chinese made preparations for flight. At 8.0, they left the city, 
some through the gates in companies, others jumping over the 
wall, and made for the coast and Wiju roads. They were 
attacked ; but they made themselves into squares and defended 
themselves in their flight. Over 3CX) were founded dead next 
morning on the coast road and 200 on the Wiju. The Chinese 
attacked the Red Cross Society's Field Hospital and committed 
outrages on the defenceless sick. 

The South-west Gate, facing the river, was captured at 7 
p.m., the few Chinese guards being dispersed. The second gate 
was taken soon after, though the Chinese threw stones to prevent 
the advance of the Japanese. Early next morning, the whole 
army entered the city. 

The Chinese left behind about 2,000 dead, and their wound- 
ed are believed to have been at least double that number. 
Many bodies were found dead on the road. About 700 prisoners 
were taken, of whom 17 were Coreans. Of the Chinese, 25 died 
of their wounds and 47 were killed for attempting to escape. 
Altogether 37 guns and 1,160 rifles were captured with large 
quantities of ammunition and provisions. 

The Japanese losses were as follow<: : — 





KILLED. 


WOUNDED. 


MISSING. 


iOfficers 

1 


Sub-officers 
and men. 


Total . 


Officers. 


Sub-officers 
and men. 


Total. 




Combined Brigade, i 6 
Sangnyong Column ; 
Wonsan Column... ; 2 
Main Body | 


50 

9 
31 

4 


56 

9 
33 

4 


18 
3 

5 
2 


257 

45 
87 
21 


275 
48 
92 

23 


13 

I 

19 



Total 1 8 


94 


102 


27 


410 


433 


33 



It may be here mentioned that on the 15th September, the 
Military Headquarters were removed from Tokyo to Hiroshima 
to be nearer the seat of war, the Emperor himself presiding over 
their councils as the Commander-in-chief of all the Japanese forces. 



BATTLE OF HAIYANG. 

The Japanese Navy had done little more than reconnoitre 
Chinese coasts, convoy Japanese transports to Corea, and jealous- 
ly watch for the appearance of the Chinese fleet in Corean waters, 
ever since the engagement off Phungdo on the 25th July. For 
nearly two months little or nothing was heard of its whereabouts 
or movements. The very silence gave rise at one time to all sorts 
of sinister rumours and surmises. Only once, on the loth August, 
was it seen off Wei-hai-wei, when that naval port was fired at, and 
that too was a mere ruse on its part. The comparative strength, 
therefore, of the two navies was yet unknown, though in the matter 
of mere numerical strength the Chinese Squadron had a decided 
superiority. But the Japanese had the advantage with regard 
to its equipment. The mastery of the Corean sea was still 
disputed ; and until the two navies could come to a decisive 
issue, the belligerent powers could only send their transports 
to Corea under a strict convoy and always keeping well to the 
shore. And this decisive issue it was that was brought to a 
head on the 17th September. 

The Japanese forces were slowly but surely closing upon 
the Chinese garrison at Phyongyang. The Chinese generals at 
Phyongyang, though jealous of one another, appear all to have 
relied upon numerical superiority for victory. None of them sent 
scouts to ascertain the movements of their enemy, whom, had 
they been alert, they could have seriously harassed by a well- 
concerted plan of successive attacks upon their interior lines. 
But the Chinese did nothing of the sort ; and when they were not 
rejoicing at victories over Japanese reconnoitring parties, they 



( 38 ) 

called for the despatch of more troops, although, being a thousand 
or so inferior in strength to the attacking army, they could 
have easily held out against them in their well-fortified position. 
About the 14th September, therefore, Li-Hung-chang sent at their 
urgent request reinforcements of 4,000 men together with stores 
and provisions in five transports from Taku. These vessels 
which were met by six cruisers and four torpedo-boats in Pechili 
Gulf, made under their convoy for Tatungkow. At Talienwan, 
they were joined by eight other men-of-war including the 
battleships Tmg-yue7i and Qun-ytten, On the i6th, they reached 
Tatungkow, where the men and stores were landed. These 
troops, it may be added, were, on the fall of Phyongyang be- 
coming known, sent to Kewlienching, whence they fled on the 
24th October when that stronghold was attacked by the Japanese. 
The Chinese warships remained at anchor until the 17th, when a 
cloud of black smoke was seen in the south, and seeing the ap- 
proach of the Japanese Squadron, Admiral Ting ordered his ships 
to prepare for battle. The Chinese weighed anchor and advanced 
towards the Japanese in a wedge formation, the two ironclads in 
the centre leading the fleet, the vessels of which were ranged on 
either side in the order of their size. The transports went up 
the Yalu River for safety. 

On the 14th September, the Japanese Squadrons convoyed 
thirty transports to Caroline Bay, where the Third Flying 
Squadron, consisting of six smaller vessels of the navy, was left 
to cover the landing of the troops. The rest of the fleet made 
for the Taidong River, which they reached on the following day, 
and here too four minor vessels were sent up the river to cover 
the army, if necessary, in crossing the river in the attack that 
had already commenced upon Phyongyang. On the i6th, the 
remaining warships, that is, the Main Squadron, the First Flying 
Squadron, the Gun-boat Akagi, and the Merchant-cruiser Saikyo, 
turned their course towards Haiyang Island, where they expected 
to meet the enemy's fleet. The torpedo-flotilla which had 
accompanied them to the Taidong had gone up the river, and 



( 39 ) 

they did not wait for their return before starting for the opposite 
shore of the Yellow Sea. 

On the morning of the 17th, the two squadrons arrived at 
Haiyang; and as no Chinese warship was to be seen about the 
island, the squadrons made for Talu Island, off Takushan. At 
11.40 a.m., the Chinese fleet came into sight and was advaning 
towards them. The Akagi and the Saikyo, not being fighting 
ships, were ordered to get under cover of the squadrons. At 
noon, just before the battle was commenced, the Japanese fleet 
was 12 miles to the N.E. by N. of Talu Island. 

The Flying Squadron, consisting of the Yoshino, Takachiho^ 
Nmiiway and Akitsushima, first advanced to attack the Chinese 
right, followed by the Main Squadron, which comprised the 
Maisushimay Itsukushimay Hashidate, Chiyoda^ Fiiso, and Hiyeu 
The Chinese fleet consisted of the Ting-ytien and Chen-yuen in 
the centre, followed on either side and a little to the rear by the 
King-yuen and Chih-yimi, outside them the Lai-yuen and Ching- 
yuen, then the Yang-wei^cad. Tsi-yuen flanking them, and outermost 
of all the Chao-yung and Kwang-chia. The Kwang-ping and 
Ping-ytien remained outside the line. At 12.45, the Chinese 
opened fire at 6,000 metres, but the Flying Squadron did not reply 
until it was within 3,000 metres. The two vessels on the extreme 
right of the Chinese Squadron, which were the Chao-yimg and 
Yang-wei were attacked by the squadron, being the nearest to it, 
and they were separated from the fleet. The Flying Squadron 
continued to attack them until it was 1,600 metres from them. 
The Chao-yung caught fire and sank. 

As the Main Squadron advanced at the rate of ten knots an 
hour, the Hiyei^ which could not keep up that speed, was soon 
left behind, followed closely by the Fuso ; and when the Chinese 
saw the Hiyei lagging behind, the Itng-yuen and Ping-yue7i poured 
broadsides into her ; but these two assailants were too close 
together and had to desist from firing for fear of hitting each 
other. The Hiyei, finding herself at such close quarters, boldly 
advanced between the Ting-yuen and King-yucn and passing 



( 40 ) 

through the Chinese line, rejoined the Main Squadron. Two 
torpedoes were discharged at her, but missed their mark ; a shell, 
however, from the Tmg-yuen's great gun struck her ward-room 
and worked a great havoc. At 1.55 she caught fire and was hors 
de combaty though the fire was subsequently extinguished. 

The gun-boat Akagi had also been left behind. The vessels 
of the Chinese left wing pressed upon her and though her 
starboard guns cleared the Lai-yuens bridge of men, her own 
bridge suffered no less. Her captain, Commander Sakamoto, 
was killed as well as several of her gunners. Her mainmast was 
also struck down, and she was hotly pursued by the Lai-yiien and 
others, and she only escaped by causing a fire on the Lai-yuetis 
quarter-deck, whereupon the Lai-ytten and the rest slowed down 
to extinguish it. The Akagi' s steam-pipe was damaged, but was 
afterwards repaired. 

The SaikyOy on seeing the Ckih-yuen and Kzvang-ping 
approach her, had got under cover of the Flying Squadron ; but 
when the latter went to the rescue of the Hiyei and Akagi, she 
was once more exposed ; and four shells from the Ting-yuens 
great gun struck the upper deck saloon, shattered the wood- 
work, and damaged the steering-gear. The Matsushima and the 
Ping-yuen next exchanged shots. The former's wardroom was 
damaged and four men were killed, while the latter's 26 cm. 
gun was disabled. The Pifig-yiien, Kwang-ping, and a torpedo- 
boat next assailed the Saikyo ; two torpedoes were discharged at 
her, but she managed to steer clear of them. She was after this 
out of action, as she had suffered severe though not vital injuries. 
A duel between the two hostile flagships resulted in the Chinese 
catching fire and the Japanese losing the use of three 12 cm. 
guns, and the death or disablement of over 60 men, on the latter 
through a heap of ammunition catching fire. The latter's 32 cm. 
gun was temporarily damaged. Her hull also listed slightly. 
The Chinese flagship was ably covered during the fire by her sister 
ship Chen-yuen. By this time the Yang-wei and the Chih-yuen 
had been sunk. The Tsi-yum had fled, followed by the 




Naval Battle of Haiyang. 



( 41 ) 

Kwang-chia^ which struck the Tsi-yuen and was stranded near 
Talienwan. The flying Squadron pursued the remaining ships. 
The Lai-yuen again caught fire but managed to return to Port 
Arthur, almost a wreck, while her sister-ship King-yiien was 
sunk by the Yoshino. 

As it was now close on sunset, the Flying Squadron was 
recalled. The Saikyo and Hiyei had returned to the base of 
operations. The Matsushima was sent back to Japan for repairs, 
while the Admiral's flag was transferred to her sister-ship 
Hashidate. The remainder of the Japanese fleet followed the 
retreating Chinese at a distance as they feared a night attack by 
the torpedo-boats. As, however, they failed to find the Chinese 
next morning, though they had gone as far as the mouth of the 
Gulf of Pechili, they returned to the previous day's scene of 
battle. The Yang-wei which was seen stranded was destroyed 
with a torpedo. The fleet then returned to its base of operations. 
On the Naniwa and Akitsushimd reconnoitring the east coast of 
the Kinchow Peninsula on the 23rd, they saw the Kwang-chia 
near Talienwan, but as soon as they came into sight, the vessel's 
crew fled after destroying her by explosion. 

Thus the Chinese lost five men-of-war, namely, the Chao- 
yangj Yang-weiy Chih-yueUy King-yuen^ and Kwang-chia, while the 
Japanese lost none at all, the greatest damages having been 
suffered by the Matsushima, Akagi, Hiyei, and Saikyo, all of which 
were soon refitted for service. The Matsushima' s torpedo-room 
was pierced and her Hotchkiss gun was damaged. The Hiyets 
upper deck was also injured. The Akagi's top-mast was struck 
down and her commander was killed. The Naniiva had a shell 
explode near the water-line and another in her coal-bunker. The 
Matsushima was struck by a shell each in her torpedo-room, 
on the mast, and the engine-room. The Chiyoda's hull was 
penetrated just above the water-line, while a shell exploded 
against the Hashidate' s 32 cm. gun barbette. The Saikyo had 
four 30J cm. and one 21 cm. shells on her mainmast 
and piano-room, 2 15.0 cm. shells on her quarterdeck, 4 



( 42 ) 

shells of 12 cm. and over lo of 6 cm. and less in varian ports 
of the ship. 

On the Chinese side, the Ting-yuen had a fire on board 
which lasted two hours, her mainmast was struck down, and 
the 15 cm. gun on her stern was the only one serviceable when 
the battle was half over. The Ching-yuen, Ping-yuen, Kwang- 
pingj and Tsi-yuen fled with little damages. The Oiao-yung 
caught fire and sank. The Yang-wei also caught fire and 
stranded ; she was afterwards destroyed by the Japanese. The 
Chih-yucn heeled on the starboard and also sank. The King- 
yuen was also on fire and afterwards, her boiler exploding, 
she also v/ent down. The Lai-yuen was severely injured, 
but managed to reach Port Arthur. The Kzvang-chia stranded 
on a reef near Talienwan, and was a week later destroyed 
by explosion. Two gunboats, the Chen-nan and Chen-chungy 
were with the Chinese fleet, but did not take part in the 
engagement. There were eight foreigners on the Chinese 
ships, two of whom were killed, and four wounded, including 
Major von Hanneken. 

The Chinese lost about 600 men, according to a Shanghai 
account, though probably a greater number went down with the 
ships, and 252 wounded returned to Port Arthur. The Japanese 
lost 80 killed and 188 wounded ; of the latter 29 afterwards 
succumbed to their wounds, making the total number of deaths 
from the fight 109. Of these, 13 ofificers were killed and 
26 wounded. Two months after the battle, 61 of the wounded 
were in hospital, 34 having recovered and 63 did not enter 
hospital as their wounds were too slight. The greatest losses 
were suffered by the Matsushima with 35 killed and ^6 wounded 
22 of whom died later, followed by the Hiyei with 19 killed 
and 37 wounded, the Itsukushima with 13 killed and 18 
wounded, and the Akagi with 11 killed and 17 wounded. 
The Chiyoda was the only vessel on which no casualities what- 
ever occurred. 



( 43 ) 



VESSELS ENGAGED IN THE BATTLE OF 
HAIYANG. ' 
JAPANESE. 

FLYING SQUADRON. 



DESCRIPTION. 


TONNAGE. 


SPEED. 


Yoshino Cruiser 


4,150 
3,650 
3.150 
3.650 


knots. 
23 

1 81 

19 

I8| 


TahcicJiiho ,, 


Akitsushimci ... „ 


Naniwa ....!.... „ 




MAIN SQUADRON. 


Maisuslmna Coast defence ship 

Chiyoda Armoured cruiser 


4,277 
2,450 
4.277 

2,200 

3.718 

615 


19 

i7i 

13 
13 
12 
i6| 


Itsukushima Coast defence ship 

Hashidate „ 


Hiyei Armoured cruiser 


Fiiso Central battery ship 

Akagi Gun-vessel 

Saikyo Merchant cruiser 




CHINESE. 


Ting-yuen Barbette ship 

Chen-vuen ,, 


7.430 

2,850 

2,300 

2.850 
1.350 

2.355 
1,296 
1,100 


14J 

161 

18 

10^ 

i6| 

16 

15 

I4f 


Scii-yusn ,i 


KifiP'-viien ,, 


Ching-yuen Cruiser 


Chih-yuen ,, 


Ping-yuen Coast defence ship 

Chao-yung Cruiser 


Yang-wet ,, 


Tsi-ytien „ 


Kwan^-chici ,, 


Kwang-ping. Torpedo-cruiser 





INVASION OF CHINESE TERRITORY. 

xA.fter the utter rout of the Chinese army at Phyongyang, 
the Japanese army took up temporary quarters at that city, as 
its intention was next to drive the Chinese out of Corea. On 
the 17th September, a flying column was sent after the fugitive 
Chinese. Marshal Yamagata, who had been appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief of this army, which is called the First Army 
Corps to distinguish from the others, arrived at Phyongyang 
on the 25 th September followed soon after by Lieut.-General 
Katsura, Commander of the Third Provincial division. The First 
Army Corps was now fully organised m the following manner. ^ 

FIRST ARMY CORPS. 



(Commander-in-Chief Marshal Count Yamagata). 

Fifth Provincial Division, i 

Hiroshima 
(Lieut-Gen. Viscount Nozu). 

,' ^ 

Ninth Brigade Tenth Brigade 

(Major-Gen. Y. Oshima) (Major-Gen. Tatsumi) 



XI Regiment XXI Regiment XII Regiment XXII Regiment 
Hiroshima Hiroshima Matsuyama Marugame 

Third Provincial Division, 
Nagoya 



(Lieut-Gen. Katsura) 
I 



Fifth Brigade Sixth Brigade 

(Major-Gen. Oseko) (Major-Gen. H. Oshima) 



I 
r 



VI Regiment XVIII Regiment VII Regiment XIX Regiment 
Nagoya Toyohashi Kanazawa Nagoya 



( 45 ) 



With their complements of the Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers, 
and Commissariat. 

Commander of the Field Artillery Major- General Kuroda. 

Chief of the Staff of the Corps Major-General Ogawa. 

On the 24th, a column of the Tenth Brigade under General 
Tatsumi left Phyongyang for Wiju, on the Corean frontier. On 
that day Sun-an was reached. The distances on the main road 
to Wiju are as follows : — 





Miles, 


Total distance 
from Phyongyang. 


From PhyonEryang to Sun-an 


I2l 

I4f 

14I 

12\ 

i7\ 
i9i 

19I 


i2\ Miles. 

27 

4II „ 

54 .. 
68^ „ 

85f „ 
125 


From Sun-an to Sukchhon 


From Sukchhonto Anju 

From Anju to Kasan 


From Kasan to Chonju 

From Chonju to Sonchhon 

From Sonchhon to Yangchhaik-kwan 

From Yangchhaik-kwan to Wiju 



The column reached Sukchhon on the 25th and Anju on the 
27th, at the latter of which it remained until the 5 th to complete 
the line of communications from Phyongyang. Outside Anju 
across the road to Wiju runs the River Chhong-chhon, where 
the Chinese had thrown up earthworks to oppose the advance of the 
Japanese army. But when the Engineers of the column constructed 
a pontoon across the river, the Chinese deserted these earthworks 
and made a hasty retreat. On crossing the river, the road divides 
into two, the main road to W^iju and the other to Kusong. The 
column reached Kasan on the same day. The Chinese had 
burnt the towns as they passed through them in their retreat ; 
and Kasan was in ruins. On this day, the main body of the 
Fifth Provincial Division arrived at Sukchhon, while the report was 
received on that day from the advance cavalry which had reached 
the Yalu. From them it was ascertained that the Chinese had re- 
treated across the river and had thrown up earthworks on its right 
bank from Antung to a point opposite to Wiju. On the column's 



( 46 ) 

arrival at Chonju on the 6th it was at first decided to make this town 
a depot of supplies as it is nearly half-way between Phyongyang and 
Wiju, but the project was abandoned as the entrance to Pogan, at 
the mouth of the River Chhong-chhon, was too shallow to admit 
of the approach of transports. Kwiyong, therefore, on the coast 
between Chholsan and Yongchhon, was made a depot instead. 
After reaching Sonchhon on the /th and leaving it on the 
9th, the column came to Chhonggan, where the road to the left 
passes through Chholsan to Kwiyong ; but fhe column marched 
on the main road, and arrived on the loth at Sokotkwan, which 
was made the headquarters of the Brigade, as it was within an 
easy reach of the castle of Paingmasan, which commanded Wiju 
and the country across the Yalu. On the 17th, the Tenth Brigade 
took possession of Wiju. The Chinese were seen to make great 
preparations for defending the frontier, but General Tatsumi was 
obliged to wait till the arrival of the rest of the First Army as 
Marshal Yamagata had strictly forbidden desultory fighting. 

A column of the Third Division, which had left Sukchhon 
on the 4th, after passing through Anju, took the road to Kusong 
from the River Chhong-chhon, and advancing from Kusong to 
Wiju, was joined on the road by a detachment of the Tenth 
Brigade, which had been sent to reconnoitre up the River Yalu 
for the most suitable place for crossing it. Another column of 
the Third Brigade, under Colonel Sato, also took the road to 
Kusong and advanced to Sakin, near Chhongsong. Marshal 
Yamagata and his Staff arrived at Wiju on the 23rd. 

The Chinese at Phyongyang had been defeated in a 
single day though they had boasted that they could hold 
out for three years. They began to throw up earthworks 
at Anju on the River Chhong-chhon ; but on the Japanese 
flying column coming up, they threw away their arms and pro- 
visions, and fled to Kasan. There too they failed to make a 
stand, and divesting themselves of their uniforms, they escaped 
to Wiju. But as Wiju is a small castle, they resolved to make 
their final stand at Kewlienching, on the Chinese bank of the 



( 47 ) 

Yalu. The Mingtse Troops from Talienvvan and the Lutai 
Trained Troops who had been brought to Tatungkow under the 
convoy of the Peiyang Squadron, refused to enter Corea when 
they heard of the Japanese victory at Phyongyang which they 
were to have reinforced, while their return to their garrisons was 
cut off by the defeat of the warships which had convoyed them. 
These, therefore, joined the Phyongyang fugitives at Kewlien- 
ching to prevent the Japanese invasion of China. The commander 
of the Chinese forces at KewHenching was Sungkiang, who, 
having studied the military science in Europe, was reckoned a 
great general by his countrymen. His troops were more or less 
trained. Their strength was about 21,000. 

During the forty days that Sung-kiang had been at KewHen- 
ching, he had strengthened the castle. He had fortified the 
bank from Sukuchin to Antung, while a strong wall was built in 
front of KewHenching, with independent forts. From KewHen- 
ching to Hooshan and Litseyuan, there were forty-three re- 
doubts, three or four metres high, of sufficient thickness to 
resist ordinary shot and with deep trenches. On eminences 
behind them were built forts commanding the approaches. 

KewHenching has ranges of mountains behind it while on 
the south-east flows the Yalu, and the Ngaeho on the north-east ; 
and facing it across the Ngaeho stands Hooshan, an eminence 
of strategic importance. The Chinese had taken possession of 
this hill ; and unless they were dislodged from this position, it 
would be disadvantageous to attempt to storm KewHenching. 
But as Hooshan was well-fortified on front. Marshal Yamagata 
decided to attack it on the flank and rear. Accordingly, Colonel 
Sato, of the i8th Regiment, who was in command of two 
battalions of that regiment with a small company of Cavalry and 
Artillery, was ordered on the 23rd to cross the Yalu at Sukuchin, 
about 7 J miles up-stream from Wiju. 

On the 24th, at 1 1 a.m., Colonel Sato's column forded the 
river at a point two miles up-stream from Sukuchin. Chinese 
troops were on the opposite bank at the mouth of the River 



( 48 ) 

Anping, where guns had been set, and began to fire upon the 
Japanese. But the latter still advanced, and when they were 
about 600 metres from the enemy, the Chinese fled from the 
guns. They consisted of 300 Chuntse Troops and 60 Amour 
horsemen. They left behind two guns, fourteen rifles, and over 
400 tents besides articles of clothing, which all fell into Japanese 
hands. Colonel Sato successfully crossed the river with only 
one man wounded, while the Chinese lost 20 killed or wounded. 

The Yalu is one of the five great rivers of Corea. It is 
divided into three streams. Though it is not very deep, the 
weather being cold, it was difficult to wade across it, nor were 
there boats enough to carry the troops. The Staff Headquarters, 
therefore, ordered the Engineers corps to construct a military 
bridge. Little boats were immediately made from pine and these 
together with iron boats brought by the Third Division, were 
used for throwing a pontoon across the river to Hooshan. The 
work was commenced on the night of the 24th and completed 
by dawn. 

The Japanese army was then disposed as follows : — 

(i). Lieut.-General Katsura was to cross the pontoon with a 
body of Infantry of the Third Division and attack the enemy 
in front at Hooshan. 

(2). Major-General Oseko, forming the right wing with a 
body of Infantry of the same Division, was to cross the river 
and occupy a hill to the east of Hooshan. 

To these two bodies, companies of Artillery were attached. 

(3). Major-General Tatsumi was to form the left wing with a 
body of infantry of the Fifth Division and a company of Artillery. 

(4). Major Okuyama, forming the left column, was to hold 
Yailho lower down stream. 

(5). Colonel Sato, forming the right column, had already 
crossed the river at Sukuchin and was stationed on the 
right bank. 

(6). Major-General Kuroda was to occupy a hill to the 
east of Wiju with field guns and mortars. 



( 49 ) 

The right wing was to command the enemy's earthworks 
from a high hill to the east of Hooshan and aid General Katsura's 
front attack. The left wing was to go round the flank of Hooshan 
and by cutting off communication between Litseyuan and 
Kewlienching, also aid General Katsura. The right column 
was to take a circuitous road to Litseyuan, after storming which 
it was to join General Katsura. The left column was to intercept 
the enemy from Antung. General Kuroda's Artillery was to 
cover the army on its advance upon Hooshan. 

These arrangements having been made, Major-General Oseko 
left Wiju at 4 a.m. on the 25th, and crossing the pontoon, took 
possession of the hill. Lieut.-General Katsura followed at 6 and 
advanced towards the enemy, who were astonished on seeing 
the Japanese on their side of the river, as they were ignorant of 
the construction of the bridge during the night ; but they had 
been prepared for the attack and fired upon the Japanese. Major- 
General Kuroda then poured his artillery-fire upon the enemy 
to cover Lieut.-General Katsura's advancing army ; but these 
Lutai troops fought stubbornly, being constantly reinforced 
from their camp behind Litseyuan. The battle raged furiously, 
the whole of the enemy's earthworks being enveloped in smoke. 
Presently, a fusillade was suddenly opened from a position half- 
way up the hill to the east of Hooshan. It gradually approached 
the enemy. This was Major-General Oseko's right wing, which 
now fired upon the enemy's flank. Thus attacked from two 
sides, the Chinese could no longer hold out, and began to retreat 
at 7 a.m. On hearing how hard-pressed were the troops at 
Hooshan, over 3,000 horse and foot left Kewlienching to reinforce 
Hooshan. Major-General Tatsumi's column, which had crossed 
the bridge at past seven, was advancing upon the left flank of 
Hooshan when it came upon these reinforcements. The enemy 
filed upon the Japanese, who soon extended their line. After a 
severe fight, the enemy retreated to Litseyuan. Their position 
was, however, taken by storm ; and as from that place, Major- 
General Tatsumi joined in the attack on three sides, the enemy 



( so ) 

were routed. As their retreat to Kewlienching was intercepted 
by Major-General Tatsumi, they fled along a path to Funghwang. 
Major-General Tatsumi immediately pursued them and came 
to their encampment a mile and a half up the Ngaeho from 
Litseyuan. Here he captured lo guns and over 400 tents ; and 
pitched his camp. On this day the Third Division v/as encamped 
near Litseyuan. The Staff Headquarters were stationed in Wiju ; 
but at past one, they crossed the river with the staff of the Fifth 
Division and removed to a hill near Hooshan, where plans 
were made for attacking Kewlienching. As Kewlienching 
was strongl}' fortified, it could not be stormed without a heavy 
loss. The Staff Headquarters, therefore, decided not to attack 
the castle in front. Lieut.-General Katsura was, therefore, 
to march with the Third Division from the Ngaeho higher 
up than Litseyuan, and taking the road to Tungtien-kow, 
attack the castle in rear. Lieut.-General Nozu was to lead 
the Fifth Division between the road from Litseyuan to Tungtien- 
kow, and the third stream, and attack the enemy's left wing. 
The two Divisions were to commence their attack at 3 p.m. 
next day. During the night of the 25th, the enemy continu- 
ally fired. On the morning, the Ninth Brigade approached 
Kewlienching and opened fire. There was no reply, and the 
whole castle was buried in silence. The Eleventh Regiment clim- 
bed up the walls and entered the castle. Not a Chinese was to be 
seen. The enemy, it was evident, had fled under cover of night. 
The Fifth Division sent its cavalry in pursuit, but without success. 
It was not the first time that the enemy had shown their skill in 
flight. At 10 a.m.. General Yamagata entered Kewlienching. 
The old Custom-house was converted into the Staff Headquarters. 
Soon after, the Rising Sun was to be seen fluttering on the 
castle-top. 

The Japanese losses at Hooshan and Kewlienching were an 
officer and 32 sub-officers and men killed, and three officers and 
and 108 sub-officers and men wounded. The Chinese losses were 
very great. The Japanese army buried 495 Chinese dead, and 



( 51 ) 

many bodies were also seen floating down the Ngaeho. The 
booty consisted of 34 cannon with ammunition, several hundred 
rifles, over 40c tents, capable of holding 8,000 men, and large 
quantities of provisions. 

Meanwhile, Major Oku37ama left Wiju on the afternoon of 
the 25th and arrived at 4 at Majonpo, which faces Antung across 
the river. His object was to attack Antung over the river 
so that no reinforcements could be sent thence to Kewlien- 
ching, when the general attack on the castle should take 
place on the following day. The Chinese, in reply, kept 
up during the night of the 25th a desultory fire ; but when he 
resumed the attack on the 26th, there was no more response 
from Antung. He crossed the river, and found it had been 
deserted by the Chinese during the night. This town was sub- 
sequently made the headquarters of the Civil Administrative 
Office of the Chinese territory occupied by the First Army. 
Mr. Komura, late Charge cV Affaires at Peking, was made 
Director of this office, but was later succeeded by Lieut. -Colonel 
Fukushima. 

The garrison at Kewlienching had fled in two directions, one 
section making for Takushan, and the other for Funghwang- 
ching. The latter castle is one of some importance, being at the 
time garrisoned by some 7,000 men under Liu Shenghew, a 
younger brother of Liu Mingchuen. It is about 37 miles from 
Kewlienching. It was intended to make a general attack on this 
castle on the 3rd November, the birthday of the Emperor of 
Japan. But when Major-General Tatsumi's Column had on the 
29th advanced 25 miles from Kewlienching to Tangshan, on the 
Funghwang road, it was reported to him that evening that the 
Chinese had already set fire to the castle and deserted it. The 
column entered the castle on the following day. About 200 
private houses had suffered from the fire. The Chinese officers 
had made for Moukden ; but the men fled towards the coast, 
because they feared that if they followed their officers, they 
would be compelled to continue to take part in the hopeless war. 



( 52 ) 

The following quantities of provisions and money were ob- 
tained at the three castles taken from the enemy : — 

Kewlienching: — 313 kohi of cleaned rice and 75.5 of uncleaned 
rice, and 127.2 of other cereals, besides 2,270 ;;?<?;2 of Chinese money. 

Antung : — 2,000 kokii of cleaned rice, 500 of uncleaned rice, 
1 ,000 kokit of other cereals, and 8,820 mon, of Chinese money. 

Funghwangching : — 100 koku of cleaned rice, 1,000 koku of 
wheat, 4,4^7 kohi of other cereals, and 10,000 kivan of 
Chinese money. 

Major-General Oseko, Commander of the Fifth Brigade* 
pursued the Chinese fugitives from Kewlienching along the 
Takushan road ; they had hoped to reach Port Arthur. He took 
possession first of Tatungkow and entered Takushan on the 5th 
November. Here he heard that the Chinese fugitives, on dis- 
covering that the Japanese Second Army Corps had landed at 
Petsewo on the Takushan-Port Arthur road, changed their 
course northward at Takushan and made for Siuyen. This town 
is of strategic importance, as there are four roads leading from 
it, northward to Liaoyang, southward to Takushan, westward to 
Haiching and Kaiping and eastward to Funghwangching. Its 
possession was therefore necessary for forming a junction between 
the two Army Corps and for facilitating operations in West 
Shingking. The strength o^ the Chinese garrison at Siuyen, 
reinforced as it was "by the Kewlienching fugitives, did not exceed 
3,000 ; but it was considered necessary to capture it for 
strategic purposes. Accordingly, Major-General Oseko was 
ordered to march upon it from Takushan with his column which 
consisted of three battalions of Infantry, a company of Cavalry, 
and two companies of Artillery, while Major Mihara was also to 
make a simultaneous rear attack on the town with a battalion of 
General Tatsumi's Column at Funghwangching. 

Major-General Oseko left Takushan on the 15th and on the 
morning of the 17th, as the Japanese approached Hunghea-putse, 
about 600 Chinese were seen on a mountain to the west of 
Pahea-putse. The Chinese began to fire upon the Japanese, but 



( 53 ) 

without any result. Reinforcements came from Siuyen until, at 
2 p.m., the Chinese exceeded 2,000. They extended, as they 
advanced, with the apparent intention of outflanking their enemy ; 
but they stopped short when they were from 600 to 1,000 metres 
off. The Japanese waited for them to come within a shorter 
range, but the Chinese, after remaining irresolute for some time, 
began to retreat ; and as the sun was sinking, the Japanese 
resolved not to pursue them, but quietly entered Hunghea-putse. 
Early next morning, they advanced upon the Chinese who, 
however, fled. From reports of guns behind Siuyen, it was 
plain that Major Mihara was close upon that town. When 
Major-General Oseko reached Pahea-putse, the Chinese left Siuyen 
by the road leading westward. At 8.30 p.m., the Oseko Column 
took possession of Siuyen. 

Major Mihara had left Funghwangching on the 14th and 
reached Lingkow on the i6th. On hearing of the approach of 
the major's battalion, the Chinese divided their forces into two 
bodies, the first to oppose Major-General Oseko, and the second 
to lie in wait for Major Mihara on a hill at Hwangtsintse, 
about 2i miles from Siuyen, where four companies of Infantry 
and one of Cavalry were stationed with two guns. As Major 
Mihara approached Hwangtsintse on the 17th, the Chinese began 
to fire upon the Japanese, with the object of intercepting their 
further advance. Lieut. Machida was sent to dislodge them with 
a sub-company of 42 picked troops. The sub-company clambered 
up the rocky side of the hill and reached the top unscathed by 
the enemy's fire. They charged upon them. The Chinese fled 
from hill to hill, still pursued by the Japanese, until they made 
good their escape to Hinglungkow. The main body at Siuyen 
now began to retreat towards Tomuh. On the i8th, the Chinese 
were driven from Hinglungkow ; and as Major-General Oseko was 
also close upon Siuyen, they fled in disorder. Four guns were cap- 
tured, and these were turned upon their former owners as they fled. 

The Japanese only lost one man wounded in Major 
Mihara's battalion. 



CAPTURE OF KINCHOW AND PORT ARTHUR. 

. The Chinese had been utterly defeated at Phyongyang on 
the 15th September and finally driven out of Corea by the battle 
of Kewlienching on the 24th October ; and the Japanese army 
next invaded Chinese territory. As the First Army Corps drove 
them from castle to castle in Manchuria, it was necessary to 
strike a decisive blow by the capture of the great Chinese fortress 
and naval station of Port Arthur. Such a victory would place 
the whole of Pechili Gulf in Japanese hands. And to this end, 
the Second Army Corps was organised and despatched to the 
Regent's Sword. 

This Second Army was to be composed of the First Pro- 
vincial Division and the Twelfth Brigade, which belongs to the 
Sixth Provincial Division. The First Division, whose head- 
quarters are at Tokyo, reached Hiroshima on the 27th September, 
Marshal Oyama having been appointed its Commander-in-chief 
on the preceding day. On the 1 5th October, the transports were 
ready to take the army over to the Regent's Sword. The 
Japanese Diet held at the time an extraordinary session at which 
a war budget of 150,000,000 ^^w was unanimously voted. The 
Sixth Brigade under Major-General Hasegawa had already left 
for Corea, whence it was afterwards re-transported to China. 

The army was constituted in the following manner ; — 



( 55 ) 

SECOND ARMY CORPS. 

(Commander-in-Chief... Marshal Count Oyama). 

( ■ ^ 

First Provincial Division Sixth Provincial Division 

Tokyo Kumamoto 

(Lieut. -General Baron Yamaji) I 



r ^ I 

First Brigade Second Brigade Twelfth Brigade 

(Major-General Nogi) (Major-General Nishi) (Major-General Hasegawa) 

I Regiment XV Regiment II Regiment III Regiment XIV Regiment XXIV Regiment 
Tokyo Takasaki Sakura Tokyo Kokura Fukuoka 

Chief of the Staff of the Corps Major-General Inouye. 

The first fleet of transports left Ujina, the port of Hiroshima, 
between the i6th and i8th, followed by two more fleets, and 
arrived at Oeundong, at the mouth of the Taidong, in Corea. 
On the 24th, a fleet of over 50 transports left that place under 
convoy of men-of-war. Hwayuankow, a little village at the 
mouth of the River Hwayuan, was chosen for landing as though 
Petsewo, a town of some importance further west, would 
have been preferable in many respects, the beach was muddy 
and extended too far out for landing. Petsewo is about 60 miles 
from Kinchow. Marines from the Chiyoda first landed and, 
after taking possession of the shore, were followed by the army. 
The troops which had left Ujina by the i8th were all landed at 
Hwayuankow by the 28th. The landing of horses, however, 
occupied twelve days. 

On the 25th, the advance guard which had landed early 
that morning left Hwayuankow. The First Battalion of the First 
Regiment, Infantry, under Major Saito, arrived the next day at 
Petsewo, which was occupied without any resistance. The First 
Division reached that town on the 29th and the Commander-in- 
chief on the 4th November. On the 2nd, Major Saito was sent 
with a^battalion each of Infantry and Engineers towards Kinchow 
to make a reconnaissance. The First Division left Petsewo on 



( 56 ) 

the 3rd and reached Hwangheateen, 25 miles from that town, on 
the 4th. Major Saito met on the same day a company of Chinese 
at Liuheateen, whence, after a sharp encounter, the Chinese fled» 
leaving behind provisions and ammunition. On the 5th, when 
the Division had gone some three miles from Hwangheateen, the 
Chinese began to fire upon the advance-guard from the batteries 
at Mt. Tahoshang, which was about 6,000 metres from the army. 
Lieut.-General Yamaji then made a forced march over 25 miles 
through hilly road to Kanheatun with two regiments with the 
object of attacking the Chinese rear as he had found that the 
Foochow road was quite unguarded. Major-General Nogi was 
left with an Infantry regiment and an Artillery corps to attack 
the batteries at Tahoshang, while Colonel Kono, with another 
regiment, the 15th, was to advance against the enemy's left from 
the Petsewo road. 

Next day, the 6th, having been fixed for the attack on 
Kinchow, the regiments left their encampments at 4 a.m. Major 
Saito, of the 15th Regiment, led his battalion around the right 
flank of the forts at Tahoshang to the rear. A company of that 
battalion clambering up a precipice, charged upon the first battery, 
of which, in spite of a stout resistance, it soon took possession. 
With the aid of a second company, the same company also oc- 
cupied the second battery. The fugitive Chinese were pursued to 
Kinchow. Lieut.-General Yamaji had, in the meanwhile, advanced 
along the Foochow road, while Major-General Nogi and Colonel 
Kono also closed upon Kinchow. Simultaneously with the latter, 
the Second Regiment, one of the Main Division, opened fire 
upon the castle. For fifty minutes the Chinese replied with their 
Krupp guns, but after that, showed a disposition to retreat. As 
the castle walls were 30 feet high, the Engineers destroyed with 
gun-cotton the North gate which was the strongest of all ; and 
through the breach the Japanese rushed in. The East gate was 
also broken open. The Chinese then opened the West gate and 
fled along the Port Arthur road, pursued by the Japanese as far 
as Sooheatun. The castle fell at 10 a.m. 




mom mmMmik. 



( 57 ) 

Major-General Nogi and Colonel Kono were then sent with 
their regiments against Talienwan. When they arrived at the 
forts early on the morning of the 7th, they found them deserted. 
All the forts, magazines, and the torpedo-station fell into 
their hands. 

The total strength of the garrison at Kinchow was about 
1,500 while there were at Talienwan over 5,000 who, however, 
took to their heels as soon as they heard of the capture of 
Kinchow by the Japanese on the 6th ; the Chinese lost a small 
number in killed, and 100 wounded, while among the Japanese a 
lieutenant and a few privates were wounded at Kinchow. 

On the 7th, the Japanese fleet came to the Bay of Talienwan 
to assist the army ; but when they arrived, the fortress had 
already beeen taken. 

Talienwan is a naval port next in importance to Port Arthur 
and Wei-hai-wei. There are three forts on Hoshang-tao, which 
juts out in the middle of the Bay. The central fort has 2 21-c.m. 
and 2 15-c.m. guns, while the east and west forts have 2 24-c.m. 
guns. The Laokewtow fort, lying to the west of Hoshang, has 
2 24 cm. and 2 21 cm. guns ; the Hwangshan, S. W. of Laokew- 
tow, possesses 2 24-c.m. and 2 12-cm. guns ; and the Seuheashan 
fort, N.E. of Hoshang, is furnished with 4 15-c.m. guns. 

The capture of Kinchow and Talienwan had been effected 
by the First Provincial Division alone. After these victories, the 
army took up its headquarters at Kinchow where a Civil Admini- 
strative Office was opened. On the 13th, Major-General Hase- 
gawa arrived at Kinchow at the head of the 12th or Combined 
Brigade. On the i6th, the Army encamped outside the city, and 
on the following day, commenced the march upon Port Arthur. 
The Army advanced in two columns. The right column 
consisted of the Independent Cavalry, the First Provincial 
Division Infantry (except two battalions of the 15th Regiment), 
the 1 2th (Combined) Brigade (except such as were included in the 
left column), and the Siege Artillery Train. The column marched 
from Kinchow via Sanshih-lipu and Shwangtai-kow. The left 



(^J8J 

column consisted of the 14th Infantry Regiment (except a 
battalion which remained at Liushootun), a sub-company each of 
Cavalry and Engineers, and half a Medical Corps. This column 
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Masumitsu passed through 
Tsintseling to the north-east of Port Arthur. A battalion of 
Cavalry went as an independent body to reconnoitre the enemy. 
On the 1 8th, at 10 a.m., when it arrived at Seuheatun, it fell in 
with thousands of the enemy's cavalry and infantry who came 
from the neighbourhood of the Shwytseying, and fought with 
them. The enemy increased in number. The Japanese cavalry, 
being surrounded by the enemy and seeing the hopelessness of 
fighting against such fearful odds, succeeded after a desperate 
struggle, in cutting their way through towards Shwangtai-kow. 
An Infantry company of the Japanese advance-guard was about 
a mile in rear, and on seeing |he Cavalry fighting desperately, 
charged upon the enemy though the company knew how greatly 
they were outnumbered, and assisted the Cavalry in making its 
retreat. The enemy, who were about 3,000 strong, now turned 
upon the Infantry and surrounded it. The Infantry fought 
desperately ; but when the Cavalry saw the Infantry hard-pressed 
by the enemy in the attempt to cover the Cavalry's retreat, 
Captain Asakawa, at the head of 24 horsemen, rushed upon the 
enemy's cavalry and freely used his sword. Seven of the 
enemy's cavalry were killed, while many others fled with their 
arms cut off or their heads split. Captain Asakawa was wounded 
in the arm and shoulder, and Lieut. Nakaman, Infantry, was 
killed. Several were killed or wounded. Being overwhelmed, 
the Japanese Infantry and Cavalry retreated to a high ground at 
Shwangtai-kow. A battalion of the advance-guard, hearing the 
reports of rifles, ran to their assistance and arrived on the souths 
sides of Shwangtai-kow, just as the Cavalry and Infantry were 
being hard beset by the enemy. The battalion immediately 
extended and charged the enemy. About 2,000 metres to the 
south of the Japanese, 3,000 Chinese appeared on a hill with 
four mountain guns ; but they were dislodged by the Japanese 



( 59 ) 

battalion. When the mountain guns of the main body of the 
advance-guard arrived on the spot, the enemy had begun to 
retreat. The Artillery, therefore, did not fire upon them ; and 
the cavalry was sent in their pursuit. But as it was already close 
on sunset, the Japanese also retired. The Chinese had cut off 
the heads of the Japanese dead, struck off their hands, and 
drawing their bowels, had extracted their livers, presenting a 
most horrible sight. The Japanese officers and men, on seeing 
this, were seized with uncontrollable fury and swore to wreak 
summary vegeance on the inhuman foe. 

On the 2oth, the army advanced to the vicinity of the object 
of its attack. As the attack was to be opened on the following 
morning, Marshal Oyama summoned the commanders and staff- 
officers to a hill lying to the north-west of Liheatun and gave 
orders with regard to the points of attack. As these and other 
officers were surveying the enemy's forts from a distance, 
thousands of Chinese were seen coming towards them from the 
forts and barracks. On careful inspection, their total strength 
was seen to be over 4,000. Lieut. -General Yamaji ordered the 
army to be ready for action and wait for the enemy's arrival. 
The Chinese, ignorant of the Japanese preparations, advanced 
from three sides upon a hill to the south of Shihtsuytse, occupied 
by the Second Regiment, with the object of surrounding it. The 
Japanese had made every preparation. The artillery had been 
sent to the hill, and poured a terrific fusillade upon the enemy, 
who were unable to approach and had finally to retreat. As it 
was already sunset, the Japanese did not pursue them. The 
Japanese had only two wounded, while the Chinese losses 
were great. 

On the 2 1st, the Japanese army got the artillery in readiness 
soon after midnight, every soldier having taken off his knapsack. 
As soon as the moon rose, the columns made each for its point 
of attack. They were to be disposed as follows : — The First 
Provincial Division was in the first place to attack the forts on 
Etse-shan (Chair Mount), the Combined Brigade was to assault 



( 60 ) 

the forts on Urlung-shan (Two-dragons Mount), and the inde- 
pendent cavalry was to cover the right fiank of the First Division. 
The Left Column was to intercept the enemy on the north of Port 
Arthur ; and the Siege Artillery was to take up its position to the 
north of Shwytseying. As the preparations for attack had been 
made, the advance-guard, taking advantage of the light of the 
half-moon, went noiselessly up to the enemy's forts. The field- 
guns of the First Division were ranged on a field to the 
north-west of Shwytseying. They waited till dawn when they 
commenced the attack. 

As the locality was without roads and full of steep and stony 
slopes, great difficulty was experienced in getting the field guns 
in position. A company of Engineers and the Second Infantry 
Regiment were drafted to assist in drawing up the guns. Major- 
General Nishi went westward with the Third Infantry Regiment, 
a battalion of the Second Regiment, half a Cavalry battalion, 
a Mountain Artillery battalion, and an Engineers company, 
and came upon the north-west of the Etse-shan forts. Lieut.- 
General Yamaji followed Major-General Nishi with the re- 
maining troops. As soon as the day dawned, the field 
and siege guns opened fire, and woke up the enemy. The van 
of the Third Regiment under Major-General Nishi appeared 
suddenly on the west side of the west fort of Etse-shan ; 
the mountain guns were also on the same side. There were over 
40 siege and field guns attacking the three forts of Etse-shan ; 
but the enemy defended them with desperation. The coast guns 
also aided them. The ordnance made terrific noises. The 
Japanese guns told with deadly effect, and before long the 
Etse-shan forts fell. The Third Regiment stormed them and took 
possession of them. This was at a little past 8 a.m. Major- 
General Nogi, at the head of the First Regiment, had a severe 
fight in preventing over 1,000 of the enemy's cavalry and infantry 
from escaping to Fongheatun. After 30 minutes' fight, the 
enemy were repulsed. At this time, the Japanese squadron 
which was off Port Arthur, went to the west coast and fired to 




Fall of Po 








Arthur. 



. ( 61 ) 

cut off the enemy's retreat. Thus being unable to fly northward, 
they concealed themselves in Laoteeshan, on the extreme end of 
the Port Arthur peninsula. The Japanese Field Artillery then 
advanced upon the Sungshoo-shan forts. The guns were ranged 
at a proper distance, and commenced to fire. But the enemy on 
these forts had already begun to prepare for flight when they saw 
the Etse-shan forts fall. When, therefore, the well-aimed shells 
of the Field Artillery fell upon them, they fled without waiting for 
the Infantry charge. At the same time, the Combined Brigade 
took possession of the Urlung and Keekwan forts. The Com- 
bined Bridge had no field guns, and could only use the mountain 
guns. At first the enemy showed no signs of retreat ; but the 
First Division, flushed with the capture of the Etseshan forts, 
attacked them on the rear. Pressed on both sides, the Chinese 
could no longer hold out ; and these forts fell at a little past noon. 
The landward defences having been completely captured by 
noon, the attack on the coast forts was commenced in the 
afternoon. Among these, the forts which had offered the greatest 
obstacles to the capture of Port Arthur were those on Hwangkin- 
shan (Golden Mount). These forts were the only ones on the 
coast whose range included not only the land forts, but even 
the positions where the Japanese field and mountain guns were 
placed. They contained guns of large calibre, free to move in any 
direction. It was, therefore, necessary to capture these forts 
before any others of the coast forts. To aid the Field Artillery^ 
the Second Regiment was sent against the forts. Its march 
through the town was opposed by hundreds of the enemy, who, 
however, were soon disposed of These forts were captured at 
about 5 p.m. As it was now after sunset, the attack on the forts 
to the west of Hwangkin-shan forts was suspended. In the 
night, however, the enemy fled. When on the morning of the 
22nd, the Japanese advanced upon them, not a soldier was to be 
seen. Thus over 20 forts of Port Arthur were entirely occupied 
by the Japanese after a day's attack. 



( 63 ) 

On the day of the attack on Port Arthur by the Japanese 
army, the Japanese men-of-war, Akagi, Chokaij Oshima, and Maya 
fired upon the forts at Laotsin-tsuy, on the eastern extremity of 
Port Arthur, which reph'ed. The Japanese were not damaged ; 
the firing continued for three hours. At i p.m. the Chiyoda, 
aided the army by firing upon the enemy from Kew-wan (Pigeon 
Bay). At 3, the forts on Mingtau-shan fired without effect upon 
the Japanese squadron. At 6, a little steamboat (30 or 40 h.p.) 
came out of the port ; and on the Japanese pursuing it, it ran 
aground. The torpedo-mmes in the harbour were removed on 
the 23rd, and the Japanese men-of-war entered Port Arthur on 
the night of the 24th. The Chinese men-of-war were all at 
Wei-hai-wei and did not show the least disposition to come out. 

When Kinchow was taken on the 6th, 2,000 Chinese troops 
who had already left Foochow to reinforce the castle, fell back 
on P'oochow again. But seeing the Japanese garrison at Kinchow 
greatly weakened by the departure of the army for Port Arthur 
on the 17th, they resolved to attack the castle. On the 19th, 
Japanese mounted scouts saw the enemy marching with flying 
flags and pennons through Poolanteen (27 miles from Kinchow) 
on the road from Foochow. They came near Liangchiateen on 
the Petsewo road, and cut the Japanese telegraph line ; but as 
the military supplies were sent from Petsewo to Talienwan by sea, 
and thence to Kinchow, no great inconvenience was felt. On the 
20th, the enemy came to Sanshih-lipu ; a portion of the Japanese 
garrison was sent to Shihsanli-taitse to intercept their approach ; 
but as they did not come any closer, the Japanese returned to 
Kinchow. On the 21st, at 11 a.m., the enemy advanced and 
attacked Kinchow. Their strength was a regiment of infantry 
and 200 horsemen. As the Japanese had not enough forces for 
defence, telegraph operatives and coolies were armed with the 
rifles and guns captured at Kinchow. The Japanese men-of-war 
at Talienwan also sent about 200 marines. A company remained 
outside the castle, and the second was within. They fought 
stoutly with the enemy from noon till 3.15, when the enemy 



( 63 ) 



retreated. The Japanese losses were 57 of whom 9 were killed, 
while the Chinese lost 300. In this battle, the operatives and 
coolies fought bravely and did great service. On the following 
day, the fugitives from Port Arthur, many thousands in number, 
attacked Kinchow on their way to Foochow ; but they were 
successfully repulsed, Major-General Nogi arrived with reinforce- 
ments at Kinchow on the 24th. On the ist December, Marshal 
Oyama left Port Arthur for Kinchow, which was then made the 
headquarters of the second army. Port Arthur was given in 
charge to the Combined Squadrons. The Japanese had captured 
at Port Arthur 57 large-calibre guns on the coast defence forts and 
163 small-calibre guns on the landard forts. 
The Japanese losses were as follows : — 





KILLED. 


WOUNDED. 




Officers. 


Sub- officers 
and men. 




Officers. 


Sub-officers 
and men. 




Near Shwangtaikow, i8th 
Mehotse, near Port Arthur, 20th 
Port Arthur, 21st 


I 
I 


13 

14 


14 
15 


2 

8 


30 

3 
190 


32 

3 
198 


Total 


2 


27 


29 


10 


223 


233 



Two of the officers wounded at Port Arthur died sub- 
quently, making the total number killed 31. The Chinese losses 
at Port Arthur and Kinchow have been put at 4,500. 

A few days after the capture of Port Arthur, Mr. Detring, 
Commissioner of the Chinese Customs at Tientsin, came over to 
Japan to make proposals of peace ; but as he was not ai med with 
full powers for the purpose, the Japanese Government refused to 
treat with him, and he returned to China soon after. 



OPERATIONS IN MANCHURIA. 

The First Army Corps' operations in Manchuria were 
carried on in two different directions, the former being the move- 
ments of Major-General Tatsumi's Column on the Moukden road, 
and the latter those of the Third Provincial Division in the 
Tomuh and Haiching district. These were supplemented by 
those of the Second Army Corps which advanced from Kinchow 
on the Kaiping road. 

Let us first follow the movements of the Tatsumi Column. 
There are two roads from Funghwangching to Moukden, one 
running northward to Tsaoho-kow whence it turns westward to 
Liaoyang, and the other running in a north-easterly direction to 
Ngaeyang-peenmun, whence it veers towards Liaoyang. Major- 
General Tatsumi, who had made Funghwangching his head- 
quarters on the 30th October, received a report that Chinese 
troops were to be seen about Lienshankwan in great strength. 
On the loth November, he sent mounted scouts thither, followed 
by an Infantry battalion under Major Imada. The scouts met a 
Chinese detachment near Lienshankwan, and routing it, took 
possession of Lienshankwan. Major Imada entered the place 
soon after. The Chinese retreated to Motienling. 

Major-General Tatsumi also sent on the 9th November 
mounted scouts on the Kirin road, followed by a battalion under 
Captain Adachi, who reached on the 13th Ngaeyang-peenmun, 
30 miles frorn Funghwangching. Before he could thence arrive 
at Saematsae he was beset by 1,800 Chinese, of whom 300 were 
horse. As he was outnumbered by nearly one to ten, he took 
his position on a hill and replied vigorously to their fire. After 



AND ITS 

mmQummm 




K 



( 65 ) 

three hours' fight, it became dark, and the captain began to 
retreat, as he had performed his proper duty of reconnoitring the 
enemy's position. He had also sent a horseman beforehand 
with a report to Major-General Tatsumi ; and the General im- 
mediately despatched Captain Hirai with a company, who suc- 
ceeded in covering his retreat. 

Learning that Major Imada's body might be too small to 
hold Lienshankwan, Major-General Tatsumi sent a battalion 
under Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka, Commander of the 22nd Regiment. 
From Lienshankwan, Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka sent a company 
under Captain Kato to reconnoitre Saematsae; but at Tsaohokow, 
the captain was confronted by 1,500 Chinese. He retreated to 
Tungyuenpu. On receiving the captain's report, Lieut.-Colonel 
Tomioka left Lienshankwan as he might at any time be attacked 
on both sides, and arrived at Tsaohokow on the 25th. The 
Chinese were reinforced, and they now numbered 4,000 infantry, 
and 1,000 cavalry, with six guns. They were Kirin and Amour 
troops under General E-kuei-tang-o, of Amour District. They 
communicated with the Chinese who had retreated to Motienling ; 
and 1,000 each, of infantry and cavalry, with two guns, advanced 
past Lienshankwan to Fungshwyling. Their total forces were 
three times the Japanese. A battalion was pitted against the 
Amour troops, while the Motienling troops were kept at bay by 
two companies. Two captains and a lieutenant were wounded ; 
but they fought desperately. The Japanese made a brave stand 
against odds, but they lost over forty in wounded or killed. The 
engagement was brought to a close by a heavy snowfall. At 
night, the rifles were frozen, so that the Japanese were compelled 
to light fires to warm them. On the following day, the enemy 
had retreated out of range. 

Major-General Tatsumi sent a battalion again towards 

-Ngacyang. He received a report soon after that Colonel Nishi- 

jima of the iith Regiment, had routed the enemy at Kwanteen 

on the 23rd and was marching upon Saematsae. On the 26th, 

therefore, the Major-General left Funghwangching to combine 



( 66 ) 

with the Colonel in the attack upon Saeniatsae. On the 29th, 
he was close upon that town, when a horseman came to report 
that Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka w^as again hard-pressed about two 
miles from Tsaoho Castle ; and as, soon after, Colonel Nishijima 
reported the capture of Saematsae, he turned eastward and reached 
Tsaoho Castle in the evening. A junction was formed with 
Lieut.-Colonel Tomioka. On the following day, a battalion was 
sent against the Chinese who had taken up a position near Tsuy- 
heafang. The Chinese, on being dislodged from one hill, im- 
mediately fled to the next and began firing as before. After 
three hours' fighting, evening fell and the Japanese troops lit fires 
at Tsuyheafang. In the night, the enemy took to flight. The 
Japanese lost six men wounded, while the total Chinese loss 
is estimated at 200 killed or wounded. As the Chinese troops 
could not be seen for more than eight miles from Tsuyheafang, 
Major- General Tatsumi resolved to return to Funghwangching, 
which he reached on the 5 th December. 

As soon as Major- General Tatsumi had returned to his 
headquarters, the Chinese again advanced. They marched in two 
columns, one along the Kirin road and the other along the Liao- 
yang, with the object of closing upon Funghwangching. Major- 
General Tatsumi, therefore, left the castle on the 9th December, 
and arrived that day at Seueliteen, 12J miles on the road to Mo- 
tienling. The General's intention in taking this road was to hold 
the Chinese troops about Motienling in check so as to facilitate 
the march of the Third Provincial Division upon Hatching. On 
the lOth, he came to Fanheatai, 10 miles from Seueliteen, where 
he met the Amour General E at the head of 3,000 men. Fan- 
heatai is in a valley from 1,200 to 2,000 metres wide, with 
mountains on both side, and a river flowing close by the village. 
The Chinese wings, consisting of about 600 men each, had 
taken up their positions on both mountains, while the centre 
was stationed between the river and village. They had two guns 
which they fired with smokeless powder. A Japanese battalion 
advanced along each mountain and fired upon the enemy's 



(^67_) 

wing on the other. After a few hours' desultory fighting, a 
battaHon under Major Imada extended into a double line, about 
1, 600 metres long, and bore down upon the enemy's centre, 
which was utterly routed. The Chinese wings, being thus 
divided, fought half-heartedly for a short while and then took to 
flight, pursued for five miles by the Japanese. They left behind 
no dead, 107 guns, 16 prisoners, 4 horses, and 6 flags, while 
the Japanese lost 10 men killed, and 3 officers and 47 sub-officers 
and men wounded. 

On nth, it was reported af Funghwangching that 3,000 
Chinese under General E had advanced on the Saematsae road as 
far as Lungwan. Colonel Tomoyasu, who was in charge of the 
castle in the Major-General's absence, sent two companies in 
that direction. After some skirmishes with the scouts, the Chi- 
nese, about 2,000 strong, arrived at the 13th on the bank of the 
Ngaeho, opposite the castle. During the night, they were sur- 
rounded by three Japanese battalions on three sides, and surprised 
at dawn. After a desperate fight, they fled in confusion along 
the Moukden road, the only one open, and were pursued as far as 
Changlingtse. Twelve Japanese soldiers were killed, and two 
officers, 7 sub-officers, and 53 men were wounded, while 139 
Chinese bodies were found by the Japanese. 

A battalion was sent from Tangshan to Funghwangching 
and another battalion was sent to the former from Kewlienching 
on the 13th. 

On the 3rd December, the Third Provincial Division which 
had been stationed at Antung ever since the capture of that town, 
was ordered to march upon Haiching. On that day, the advance- 
guard left the town under Major- General H. Oshima, Commander 
of the Sixth Brigade, followed by the rest of the Division on the 
following day. On the 8th, the whole Division arrived at Siuyen. 
On the morning of the lOth, the army began to march upon 
Tomuh. The right column under Major-General Oseko took 
the road which runs from Funghwangching to Tomuh, and the 
left column under Colonel Sato the road to Kaiping to guard 



( 68 ) 

the left flank of the main body, which went direct to Tomuh. 
On the morning of the nth, the main body, after crossing 
SeaoLikushan, reached Urtao-hotse, when about 50 Chinese horse- 
men were seen 600 metres off, and on each of two hills not far 
off were 700 foot-soldiers. After a slight skirmish, in which 
Major Sakakiwara, a staff officer, was wounded by a random 
shot and afterwards died, the Chinese fled toward Yingshookow, 
a hill to the west of Urtao, and preparations were made for 
attacking that position on the morrow. But at dawn, it was 
found that they had retreated to Tomuh. The main body ad- 
vanced toward Tomuh along the main road, while a battalion 
took the road from Yingshookow. Meanwhile, the Oseko 
column, whose progress had been unimpeded except at Panhea- 
putse, near Newsinshan, where a body of 500 Chinese was routed 
on the I ith, also approached Tomuh, so that the Chinese were 
attacked from three roads, and were soon put to flight. Tomuh 
was taken at 10 a.m. About 2,000 Chinese were opposed at 
Tomuh against the Yingshookow battalion, 2,000 against the 
Oseko column, and nearly 5,000 against the main body. The 
Oseko column and the battalion were joined to the main body, 
and after leaving a corps in charge of the town, the army left 
Tomuh immediately for Haiching. That night, the Division 
encamped at Yangheateen, about seven miles from Haiching, after 
a forced march of ten hours. 

At 9.40 on the morning of the 13th, the advance-guard 
arrived at Lohea-putse, two miles south of Haiching, when about 
1,000 Chinese were seen on a hill called Keaumehshan, on the 
south-east of the castle, and nearly 600 on another hill to the 
west. There were also four guns on the former hill. As the 
Japanese approached, the Chinese descended from the hill and 
unHmbered their guns, while the Japanese fired upon them a 
battery of 12 mountain guns. A battalion under Colonel Awaii- 
bara also attacked them. Two companies made for the castle,, 
but hundreds of Chinese defended the castle-gate. They were, 
however, routed by the Japanese charging upon them. The main 



( 69 ) 

body then entered the castle by the south gate, and the Oseko 
column by the cast. The Chinese fled in confusion, about 5,000 
making for Liaoyang and 3,000 for Nevvchvvang. 

In the engagement at Tomuh, Major Sakakibara was the 
only officer wounded, and only six men of the Fifth Brigade were 
wounded, while at Haiching, four men of the Sixth Brigade were 
wounded. The Chinese losses are unknown, but are computed 
at 100 odd ; and 24 horses, 2 old-fashioned guns, 200 rifles, 2 
jingals, 14 flags, 18 spears, 21 bayonets, 6 swords, 7,200 cartridges, 
66 bags of powder, 3 trumpets, 108 uniforms, and 3 saddles were 
captured. 

On the 13th, Lieut.-General Katsura wrote to a French 
missionary at Newchwang and to the late Honorary Consul for 
Japan at Yingkow, to assure them of the Japanese protection of 
the foreigners and Christians at those towns. 

A few days after the occupation of Haiching, Lieut.-General 
Katsura received a report that Sungkiang had left Kaiping with 
20,000 men and was advancing upon Haiching. A reconnais- 
sance company met small bodies of Chinese near Kaiheatun 
on the 1 8th, and after a sharp engagement, returned to Kaiching. 
On the morning of the 19th, Major-Generals Oseko and Oshima 
were sent with columns to intercept Sungkiang's army. General 
Katsura expected that the Chinese would come to Liukungtun, 
but as it was found that they were not to be seen there, he 
believed they had retreated to Kaiheatun, and accordingly or- 
dered Generals Oseko and Oshima to attack them there in front 
and on the left flank. General Oshima found Kaiheatun deserted 
and returned to Palihotse, whither General Katsura had ad- 
vanced ; but a report came in the afternoon from General Oseko 
that a large body of the enemy had been found at Kangwasae. 
General Oshima went at once to his aid. 

When General Oseko reached Kaiheatun, the advance-guard 
had arrived at Heakeaho, whence it saw that there was a large 
Chinese column at Kangwasae, while there was another column 
at Makeuentse and a third at Hongshwy-paotse. A company of 



( 70 ) 

cavalry was also stationed between Kangwasae and Heakcaho. 
General Oseko came up, and preparations were made at Heakeaho. 
A battery of Mountain Artillery was called up and ranged on the 
west end of the village. Before attacking Kangwasae, it was first 
necessary to take possession of Makeuentse, 1,200 metres north 
east of Kangwasae, as the army would else be exposed to flank 
attack. Major Ishida, of the i8th Regiment, had therefore advanced 
with two companies, 200 metres towards Makeuentse, when his 
left wing was suddenly attacked from a wood close by. The 
companies then turned upon their assailants, and had put them to 
flight when the right flank was now attacked from Makeuentse. 
Major Imada then called a third company, and again turned upon 
Makeuentse, covered all the time by the artillery at Heakeaho. 
The companies advanced; but they were without shelter of any 
kind and knee-deep in snow, and were therefore exposed to the 
enemy's fire. When they were within 400 metres of the enemy, 
they came to a ditch, running slantwise to their course. The men 
jumped into it to cover themselves, but their formation was 
turned from a rank to a file, and exposed them to an enfilade 
fire. The officers did their best to restore the formation, during 
which the enemy's fire told with deadly effect. It was resolved 
that they should charge upon them rather than fall one by one 
under their fire ; and the charge was sounded. Before they 
reached them, the Chinese began to retreat and the Japanese 
carried the position by storm at 2 p.m. The artillery next turned 
its attention upon Kangwasae. At 4, General Oshima arrived at 
the battle field. The Chinese artillery was now ranged on the 
south end of the town, and told with great effect ; and a Chinese 
company of infantry appeared to the left of the artillery in an 
exposed position, which was remarkable for the Chinese. They 
attacked the Japanese left, which was also exposed to the fire of 
the artillery, and this cross fire worked a terrible havoc in that 
part. A Chinese ambush in a pinegrove was routed ; and in 
spite of their disadvantageous position, the Japanese, by making 
charge after charge, at last captured Kangwasae. 



( 71 ) 



This battle was so far the dearest victory obtained by the 
Japanese. A battalion exposed to the enemy's cross fire lost i6o 
killed or wounded out of the total 367, while in the 7th company, 
also in the same predicament, 13 out of 14 officers were disabled. 
The three companies which stormed Makeuentse lost 75, of whom 
only an officer was killed. The total Japanese loss was 





Officers. 


Sub-officers 
and men. 


Total. 


Killed 


2 
12 


52 

345 


54 
357 


Wounded 


Total 


14 


397 


411 



The total number engaged in the battle was 4,537, so that the 
killed and wounded amounted to one-eleventh of the whole. 

The Chinese army actually numbered about 10,000, of whom 
perhaps 5,000 took part in the battle. About 200 were killed, 
and the wounded were probably 300. The Chinese fled towards 
Newchwang. 

Leaving a corps at Kangwasae, General Katsura returned 
to Haiching on the following day. A few days later, he was 
reinforced by Colonel Sato, of the i8th Regiment, who had 
left a battalion at Tomuh. For a month, Haiching enjoyed 
peace ; but on the 17th January, 10,000 Chinese from the Liao- 
yang road, attacked Haiching from three roads, and were only 
routed after eight hours' fighting. The Japanese lost a man 
killed, and 39 officers and men wounded. A third attack on 
Haiching was made on the i6th February from the same direc- 
tions by 15,000 Chinese under General E and they were again 
repulsed, leaving over 100 dead behind. The Japanese lost 3 
men killed, and an officer and 9 sub-officers and men wounded. 

On the following day, Tomuh was also attacked by i,coo 
Chinese, the van of an army of 3,000, with 100 horsemen and 8 
guns. Thirty of them were killed, while not a Japanese was 
killed or wounded. 



( 72 ) 

On the 1st December, Major-General Nogi, Commander of 
the First Brigade, who had returned to Kinchow from Port 
Arthur, sent Lieut.- Colonel Iki, with .the First Regiment, 
Infantry, and a company each of Cavalry and Artillery, towards 
Foochow. At Poolanteen, it was discovered that there were at 
Foochow 6,000 or 7,000 Chinese consisting of the garrison 
proper, Port Arthur fugitives, and reinforcements from Heung-yo. 
But the Chinese retreated as the Japanese advanced, and P'oo- 
chow was deserted by the Chinese troops when the latter entered 
it on the 6th. A few days later, the regiment returned to San- 
kwanmeau, near Poolanteen. 

Meanwhile General Tatsumi was fighting in the neighbour- 
hood of Liaoyang, and General Katsura had captured Tomuh 
and Haiching, and it became necessary for the Second Army 
Corps to form a junction with the P'irst. As the first step towards 
that end, the occupation of Kaiping was indispensable. Accord- 
ingly, orders were given to General Nogi to make preparations. 

The Second Army Corps had at the close of December three 
companies at Kinchow, a regiment each at Seauentao, Petsewo, 
and Poolanteen, and a Combined Brigade at Port Arthur. 

Though the plan for the attack of Kaiping was matured on 
the 2 1st, it was not until the 30th that the necessary preparations 
were completed as, the distance from Liushootun, the Second 
Army's depot of supplies, to Kaiping being over 120 miles, great 
difficulties were experienced on account of the wretched road in 
opening a line of communication. On the 3rd January, the 
First Brigade started from Poolanteen. It consisted of an inde- 
pendent Cavalry nearly a battalion strong, the advance-guard of 
an Infantry battalion, the right column of two battalions, and the 
main body of three battalions, the three last also including 
smaller bodies of other arms. The right column under Colonel 
Iki took the direct road to Kaiping, while the main body under 
Major-General Nogi advanced along the Foochow road. On the 
7th, the right column reached Heung-yo, followed on the ensuing 
day by the main body. On the 9th, the Brigade left Heung-yo, 



( 73 ) 

the main body by the main road and the right column by a 
side path ; and in the evening, the former was at Yulinpu and 
the latter at Laoyanmeau, while their advance-guards were within 
2,000 metres of the enemy. 

There were at Kaiping 4,000 or 5,000 Chinese under Generals 
Chang and Sen. They were encamped behind the banks of the 
River Kaiping, which flowed between the town and the Japanese 
army. Orders were given to Colonel Kono to attack the enemy's 
right wing with two battalions and to Colonel Iki to bring his 
column against the Chinese left, while Major- General Nogi him- 
self was to assail their centre. At 5.30 a.m. on the loth, the 
Japanese got into position. About 1,400 metres to the east of 
Kaiping is a hill called Funghwang-shan, where the Chinese had 
ranged their guns and defended the position with 2,000 men. 
Colonel Iki sent against them a battalion, which charged upon 
them under the terrific volleys with v/hich it was greeted, and 
successfully carried the position. The Chinese fled in confusion, 
hotly pursued, leaving behind over 100 dead. The Chinese in 
the centre, however, maintained their position and kept up a 
continuous fire as the Japanese charged upon them over the 
frozen river, frequently stumbling on the ice. But the Japanese 
succeeded in capturing the town at 9.40 a.m. The Chinese fled 
in the direction of Newchwang. In this battle, they showed 
great skill in shooting, and consequently the Japanese losses 
Hvere great. In the ist Regiment, two battalions of which 
stormed Funghwangshan, 53 were killed and 229 wounded, while 
in the 15th, 16 were killed or wounded, making the total killed 
and wounded, 305. In the afternoon, a battalion from Tomuh 
arrived at Kaiping and thus succeeded In forming a junction 
between the two Army Corps. 



CAPTURE OF WEI-HAI-WEI. 

As China's great fortress at Port Arthur had fallen on the 
2 1st November, it was next decided to attack Wei-hai-wei and 
destroy the remnant of the Peiyang Squadron, which had con- 
cealed themselves in that port, so that Japan could be the 
absolute mistress of Pechili Gulf. 

On the loth January, 1895, 50 transports left Ujina with the 
Second Provincial Division under the command of Lieut.-General 
Baron Sakuma, and the Eleventh Brigade (Sixth Division) under 
Lieut.-General Kuroki, and arrived on the 14th at Talienwan. 
On the 19th, a fleet of 19 transports departed from Talienwan, 
followed by another of 15 on the 20th and a third of 16 on the 
2 1st; and arrived at Yungching, the first fleet on the 20th, the 
second on the 21st, and the third on the 22nd. Marshal Oyama 
also reached the Bay of Yungching with the second fleet. The 
town of Yungching was occupied without any difficulty. The 
entire army was composed of the 

Second Provincial Division and Sixth ProvinciHl Division 

Sendai Kumamoto 

(Lieut.-General Karon Sakunia) (Licut.-Gcncral Kuroki) 

Tl.lrd Brigade Fourth Brigade Klevcnth Brigade 

(Major-Gencral Yamaguchi) (M a jur- General Prince Fushimi) (.Major-Geueral Odcra) 
IV Regiment XVI Regiment V Regiment XVII Regiment XIII Regiment XXIII Regiment 

Sendai Shibala Aomori Sendai Kumamoto Kumamoto 



This corps was sent out as a portion of the Second Army 
Corps under Marshal Count Oyama. 

Preparations having been completed on the 25th, the army 
left Yungching, on the 26th^ in two columns, the right (the Sixth 



I. A ■/ 





■'•^^r^ 









^-) 



• ""^^t ---^^^IT" r^'^^ ^^mm' --^^^-^^1 






Storming of the Pol^ 




lihyaiso Forts. 



( 75 ) 

Division) and the left (the Second Division), the former of which 
arrived by a northerly road from Yungching at Paouhea on the 
29th, and the latter by a southerly road at a point to the south- 
east of Tseenting-tsesae, while the Staff Headquarters were at 
Menghea-chwangu. On the following day, an attack was to be 
made on the littoral forts, by the fleet and the Sixth Division, 
Avhile the Second Division was to keep the enemy in check near 
Funglintsae. 

There had been skirmishes between the advance-guards and 
the Chinese, but nothing of a serious nature. The object of the 
Sixth Division was to take possession of the hills lying to the north- 
east of Kushanheu and thence to capture the coast forts. This 
was absolutely necessary for maintaining communication with the 
navy. The Division was divided into two wings, the left under 
Major- General Odera, consisting mainly of three Infantry bat- 
talions, and the right, under Major Watanabc, of a battalion, 
while Lieut.-General Kuroki held as reserve two battalions, with 
other arms. The Division left its quartern at 2 a.m., and the 
first object of attack was Motienling, the highest peak of a range 
of hills, on which a fort had been built. After a severe conflict, 
it was taken by assault, the Japanese charging up the hill on 
three sides. The Japanese Artillery corps at once entered the fort 
and began to fire the guns against other forts. The coast forts 
then turned their guns upon the captured foit and attacked it, 
with the assistance of several Chinese men-of-war. The Motien- 
ling fort was severely handled especially as the coast defence 
guns were far superior to its own. 

Meanwhile, a battalion of the left wing pursued the Chinese 
from Motienling and cut off their retreat. Even those in the coast 
forts showed a disposition to retreat before the Japanese took 
possession of all the roads. Taking advantage of this, the Japan- 
ese attacked and captured in succession the coast forts at Lung- 
meaoutsuy and Lukeutsuy, and the landward at Yangfungling. 
Now the only forts that were not taken in Pohchihyaisu were at 
Chaopeitsuy and Seayheasu, but their fall was only a question of 



( 7 6 ) 

time as they were entirely cut off by the Japanese. The Japanese 
began to attack them from the captured forts. The Seayheasu 
fort soon caught fire, and was destroyed; but the other still 
remained obstinate. Presently. 300 Chinese marines landed, and 
the garrison of the Chaopeitsuy fort set fire to the fort and 
joining these marines, tried to cut their way through the Japanese 
lines. They were almost all killed or driven into the sea. Thus 
the whole of the eastern forts of VVei-hai-wei fell into Japanese 
hands. The total strength of garrisons at these forts has been 
estimated at 2,600, of whom over 800 were killed or wounded. 
The Japanese lost about 115 in killed and wounded. Among 
these was Major-General Odera, Commander of the Eleventh 
Brigade, who was so severely wounded by a shell while in the 
Motienling fort that he died soon after. A newspaper corres- 
pondent was also killed. 

The whole of the next day was spent in making preparations 
for the attack on Wei-hai-wei itself on the morrow. The Sixth 
Division remained that day at Pohchihyaisu, and the Staff 
Headquarters at Wantseuentang, while the Second Division, 
which was principally charged with the task of attacking the 
naval port, was stationed at or near Funglintsae. 

The right column, in the meanwhile, had met on the 29th 
about 500 Chinese at Wantseuentang, which, however, it occupied 
with the loss of one killed and two wounded, The right wing, 
consisting of the Third Brigade, was led by Major-General 
Yamaguchi, while the left, consisting of the Fourth Brigade, 
was under Prince Fushimi. Early on the 30th, the advance guard 
of the left wing was attacked by the Chinese near Lwankochv/ang, 
and were hard-pressed as the latter were on a higher ground ; 
but the mountain artillery aided them so effectually that the 
enemy were put to flight. As Chinese troops were next seen 
fleeing from Yangheatun westward, the advance-guard advanced 
to attack them ; but they were so exposed to the fire of the 
men-of-war in the harbour that they were compelled to retire to 
Fungheawo. The Japanese lost two men killed and four wounded. 



wmmmm m& its mmmmmm^ 



^ 




CAan^ft^^ 



( n ) 

The right wing took possession of the positions about 
Fungi intsae. The Sixteenth Regiment was attacked by the 
Chinese who were fleeing to Wei-hai-wei from Pohchihyaisu. 
They had a sharp fight in which the Chinese men-of-war and 
torpedo-boats took part. The Chinese were, however, repulsed. 
Out of 2,000 who were flying towards Wei-hai-wei, 700 had 
attacked the regiment, and of these about 130 were killed. The 
Japanese losses were an ofiicer wounded, and 38 sub-officers and 
men killed and 50 more wounded. 

After a day of preparation, the Second Division advanced on 
the 1st February to Lootaokow, about 12 miles south-west of 
Wei-hai-wei. On scouts reporting that there were 2,500 Chinese 
on the road to Wei-hai-wei, Prince Fushimi was sent with a 
regiment to attack them. In spite of a heavy snow-fall, the 
Chinese were completely routed, the Japanese losing 5 killed 
and 35 wounded. The Division slowly advanced, routing the 
Chinese concealed about the hills, and on the 2nd, the Fourth 
Brigade entered Wei-hai-wei without meeting with much 
resistance. 

Now only the island forts remained in the possession of the 
Chinese. Their capture as well as that of the Chinese men-of- 
war was the duty of the Japanese Navy, whose movements may 
be briefly summarised as follows : — 

After sending the first flying squadron to fire a few shots 
on the 19th at Tangchow to divert the attention of the Chinese 
at Wei-hai-wei, the Japanese fleet convoyed the transports to 
Yungching Bay, and though the troops had been entirely landed 
by the 24th, remained at the Bay until the 29th, when a report 
came that the army would attack Pohchihyaisu on the follow- 
ing day. 

30th. The main squadron (the Matsushirna^ Chiyoda^ Hashi- 
datey and Itsukushima)^ the first flying squadron (the Yoshino^ Taka- 
chihoy Akitsiishimay and Naniwd) and seven other vessels left the 
Bay for Wei-hai-wei at 2 a.m. The Ftisoy Takao and Kongo had 
also gone thither overnight. The fir^t flying squadron kept 



( 78 ) 

watch all day at the west entrance to Wei-hai-wei harbour, while 
the niahi squadron and the seven vessels were at the east 
entrance. Shots were exchanged with the forts at Liukung and 
Jill Islands,' but without any result. 

31st. The squadrons still kept watch ; and at 8 a.m., began 
to fire upon the islands. At ii.o, the sk}' became overcast and 
in the afternoon there was a heavy snow-storm, the temperature 
falling to 1 1 deg. Fahr. All, except the fir^t flying squadron, 
returned to Yungching. 

1st Feb. The storm continued unabated. 

2nd. As the storm abated in the afternoon, the main 
squadron left for Wei-hai-wei. 

3rd. The first and second (the F^iso, Hiyei^ Kongo^ and 
Takao) flying squadrons joined the main squadron. The second 
squadron, aided by the captured coast defence forts, had in the 
morning a sharp engagement with the east fort of Liukung Island 
and several Chinese men-of-war. The west fort was silent while 
the central fort discharged only 5 or 6 shells. There were no 
casualties among the Japanese, the only damage done being the 
cutting of the Takao' s nggmg. The third flying squadron (the 
Yamaio, Musas/n, and Katstiragi) also fired a few shots ; but as 
the sky again became clouded, the squadron retired to Pohchih- 
yaisu. The firing was kept up however until night between the 
island forts and the captured littoral forts. 

4th. The main and the first flying squadrons again kept 
about Liukung Island. Instructions for a night attack were 
given to the torpedo-boats. That night, the torpedo-boats Nos. 
6 and 10 succeeded in cutting away 100 metres of the boom 
across the entrance to Wei-hai-wei, though they were fired at 
from the forts on the island. 

5th. At about 3 a.m., when the moon had gone down, the 
third torpedo flotilla, followed by the second, silently passed 
under the Pohchihyaisu forts and entered Wei-hai-wei harbour 
through the breach in the boom across the entrance. 

The torpedo- flotillas were composed as follows ;— 



( 79 ) 





FIRST FLOTILLA, 


COMMANDER 


MOCHIHARA. 


No. 23 


crew 




20 




length 


39 met 


Kotaka 


>i 




28 






50 


No. 13 


„ 




16 






35 


No. 12 


f» 




16 






35 


No. 7 


II 




16 






35 


No. II 


.. 




16 






35 




SECOND 


FLOTILLA, 


COMMANDER FUJITA. 


No. 21 


crew 




16 




length 


36 met 


No. 8 


» 




16 




ji 


35 


No. 9 


„ 




16 




„ 


35 


No. 14 


.»» 




16 




II 


35 


No. 19 


„ 




16 




II 


35 


No. 18 


•' 




16 




•• 


35 




THIRD 


FLOTILLA, LIEUT 


. IMAl. 


No. 22 


crew 




20 




length 


39 meti 


No. 5 


,, 




t6 




>i 


35 


No. 6 


>» 




16 




„ 


35 


No. 10 


i> 




16 




„ 


35 



The Chinese men-of-war lay before Liukung Island, while 
a gun-boat and a torpedo-boat kept guard. Their positions 
could just be seen. The torpedo-boat No. 22 was detected as 
she came close to the men-of-war, but she managed in the con- 
fusion caused by her presence to discharge two torpedoes. She 
was so severely attacked, however, that she made immediately 
for land ; but she ran aground. One of her crew was killed, 
while several others were drowned. After a canvas-boat which 
had carried part of the crew ashore, had overturned and there was 
no other help, the rest in the torpedo-boat, including Lieut. 
Fukushima and five others remained in the hold while the boat 
was exposed to the enemy's fire. They were rescued in the 
evening. The torpedo-boat No. 9, of the second flotilla, on 
taking her course to the north-west, came quite close to the 
Ting-ynen. She got among the Chinese torpedo-boats, which 
failed to recognise her until a light was thrown upon her from 
the men-of-war. She discharged a torpedo at 200 metres and 



( 8o ) 

another at about 50 metres, and as the latter took effect, she 
retreated at full speed ; but the Chinese poured a heavy fusillade 
upon her, by which four men were killed and all her men in the 
engine-room were wounded. She could move no longer ; but 
fortunately she met the torpedo-boat No. 19, which took over 
her crew, though the boat was abandoned. Nos 8 and 14 had 
stranded. The Ting-yiien had been hit and that day boats could 
be seen plying between Liukung and the man-of-war whose hull 
had foundered in shallow water. It was decided to make a 
second torpedo attack that night, though the Chinese were now 
on the alert. 

6th. The first flotilla went into the harbour at 4 a.m. 
Three Chinese vessels were hit with torpedoes ; and though the 
flotilla was fired at from the machine-guns, it returned absolutely 
undamaged. When day broke, the iMi-ymen, Wei-ymen^ and a 
transport were s^i^w to be half-sunk. The Japanese squadrons 
anchored at Yinshankow to prepare for the following day's 
general attack. 

7th. The main and the first flying squadrons com- 
menced an attack on Liukung Island at 7.20 and the second, 
third (the Yamato, Musashiy Tenryu, Kaimon, and Katsaragi) and 
fourth (the Tsuk?ts/ii, Atago, Maya, Oshima^ and Chokai) flying 
squadrons also attacked Jih Island at the same time. After 
a severe engagement, one of the disappearing guns on Jih 
Island was disabled, and the magazine caught fire and exploded, 
so that the fort could no longer be seriously defended. Ten 
Chinese torpedo-boats, and two steam-launches came out of the 
harbour and w^ere pursued by the first flying squadron. Eight of 
them ran aground as well as the launches, but the remaining two 
entered Chefoo, which, however, they left immediately after and 
also ran aground. They were brought by the Yoshino to 
Yinshankow, Most of the crews of these boats, on deserting 
them, were captured by the army. In the engagment of the 
morning, the Matsushima had three officers wounded, the Yoskifio, 
two marines killed and four wounded, the Akitsushinia^ two 



( 8t ) 

wounded, the Fuso, one killed and six wounded, and the Tsukushiy 
three killed and five wounded. 

8th. It was decided by the first flying squadron to destroy 
the boom at the entrance to Wei-hai-wei. Accordingly, at 1 1 
p.m., a tender and a boat were sent from each of the four 
men-of-war composing that squadron. The boom consisted of 
three steel hawsers, three inches diameter, to which logs, five 
inches square and 12 feet long, were tied at regular intervals and 
kept in place by anchors. At first, the Chinese fired at the men 
when they heard the noise made by sundering the hawsers ; but 
they desisted afterwards as they could not see the men. 

9th. At I a.m., the men succeeded in cutting away 400 
metres of the boom ; and returned to the squadron at 2 a.m. It 
was decided to resume the work on the following night. The 
third flying squadron attacked the east fort of Liukung, while the 
first and second kept watch on the Climese men-of-war. Two 
shells from the captured fort at Lukeutsuy struck the Ching- 
yueriy which sank thereupon. In the night, another portion of the 
boom was destroyed. 

loth. The Itsukushima kept watch all night, and was joined 
by the rest of the main squadron in the morning, while all the 
other vessels went to take in coal. 

nth. The third flying squadron again attacked the fort 
on the south-east extremity of Liukung. On the Katsuragi^ a 
gunner was killed and six others were wounded, while on the 
Tenryu, a lieutenant was killed, and an engineer and four marines 
were wounded. The Naniwa and Akitsushima then attacked the 
west fort to facilitate the destruction by a flotilla of the boom at 
the east entrance ; but the wind was too strong for the flotilla. 

1 2th. A small gun-boat (the Chen-pe) flying a white flag 
came out of the harbour ; and nine men were escorted in a boat 
to the Matsushima. The principal of them was Ching Peihkwang, 
Commander of the Kwang-ping. He told the officers who met 
him in the flagship that Admiral Ting being sick, he had been 
deputed to come in his stead and handed a letter from that 



( 82 ) 

Admiral, offering to surrender all the Chinese men-of-war at 
Wei-hai-wei, the Island of Liukung, and all the forts and stores 
there, if all the officers, men, and civilians on the island were 
allowed to leave it unmolested. The Admiral also proposed that 
the Commander of the British China squadron should guarantee 
the faithful performance of the conditions on his part. Admiral 
Ito, after consultation with his staff, accepted the offer of surrender 
and declined the guarantee as unnecessary, as he put perfect 
confidence in Admiral Ting's military honour. He also invited 
the Admiral to reside until the conclusion of the war in Japan 
where he promised him every consideration and protection. Ad- 
miral Ito also sent him a present. Commander Ching returned 
to Liukung Island in the evening. 

13th. At 8.25 a.m., Commander Ching came again, this 
time in the Qien-chung, with the Chinese flag at half-mast. 
Admiral Ting thanked Admiral Ito for his present, which, 
however, he was unable to accept, and requested him to wait till 
the i6th before taking possession of the island and ships as he 
feared that the troops would not be abl& before that time to make 
preparations for leaving the place. Commander Ching reported 
that after writing the above letter, Admiral Ting said he had now 
nothing more to desire as his request had been acceded to by 
Admiral Ito and calmly put an end to his own life. Liu Poochen, 
Commander of the Ting-yuen^2Si^ Chang Wanseuen, Commander 
of the forts on Liukung Island, also committed suicide. On 
Admiral Ito's consenting to wait till the i6th. Commander Ching 
returned to Liukung, but came a second time, with the Taotai of 
the island. 

14th. They came again to make further arrangements. 

15th. The Chinese troops began to leave Liukung in 
vessels, which were allowed to proceed after examination ; but 
as a high wind arose, all the Japanese men- of- war sought shelter, 
only the Takachiho remaining to keep watch. 

1 6th. The weather becoming clear, the Naniwa and two 
torpedo-boats joined the TakachiJio, and examined the vessels 



( 83 ) 

leaving I.iukiing Island as they parsed out of the west entrance. 
Altogether nine vessels left with men, women, and children. 

T7th. The Japanese squadrons left Pohchihyaisu at 8.30 
a.m., and entered the harbour of Wei-hai-wei from the west 
entrance. At 10.20, the Island of Liukung was taken possession 
of, and the Japanese flag was hoisted on the late Chinese war- 
ships, C/t€7i-yuen, Ping-yucn, Tsi-yuen, and Kwang-ping^ and 
gunboats Chen-nan, Chen-pc, Chen- si, Chen-timg, Chen-chung, and 
Chen-peefi. The Chinese warship, Kivang-tsi, was disarmed and 
given to convey the remains of the late Admiral Ting to Chefoo. 
All the foreigners, 10 in number, who were on Liukung Island, 
except Howie, who had been previously seized and released on 
parole, were allowed to leave for Chefoo. 

All the captured men-of-war, except Chen-yuen, have since 
arrived in Japan. 

Thus fell the island of Liukung, after a brave resistance for 
a fortnight. 

While the Japanese attack on Wei-hai-wei and on Liukung 
Island was going on, two Chinese Plenipotentiaries, Chang 
In-hoon and Shao Yulien arrived at Hiroshima on the 31st 
January to treat for peace. On the ist February, the Japanese 
Plenipotentiaries, Count Ito, Minister President of Slate and 
Viscount Mutsu, Minister for Foreign Affairs, exchanged cre- 
dentials with the Chinese Plenipotentiaries, and on the 2nd, they 
refused to treat with them as the latter were not, according to 
their credentials, armed with full powers to negotiate for peace. 
On the 4th, the Chinese Plenipotentiaries left Ujina, and after a 
short stay at Nagasaki, finally departed for Shanghai. 



APPENDIX. 



Lieut.'General Yamaji left Kinchow on the loth February 
with the Second Brigade and arrived at Kaiping on the 19th. 
On the following day, Major-General Nogi removed to Tashih- 
keau. On the 21st, report was received at Kaiping from Major- 
General Nogi that the Chinese were to be seen near Tapingshan. 
These, however, retired towards Yingkow. But it soon became 
known that there were still large forces lurking about Taping- 
shan, Tatsewo. East and West Shihlikow, and Laoyaimeaou, and 
it was decided to attack them on the 24th. The Japanese army, 
consisting of the First Brigade, advanced in divisions from various 
points upon Tapingshan. All the positions were taken without 
much difficulty, except West Shihlikow, where the Chinese offered 
desperate resistance from behind hastily-constructed earthworks. 
The Japanese, being in a disadvantageous position, were exposed 
to the enemy's fire, while, being all day in deep snow, they 
suffered severely from the cold and not a few were frost-bitten. It 
was not until past five that the Chinese were effectually dislodged. 
In this battle, 182 were wounded and 41 killed on the Japanese 
side, while the Chinese left behind more than 120 dead bodies. 

On the 17th February, the Headquarters of the Fifth 
Division, commanded by Lieut.-General Oku, since the late Com- 
mander General Nozu had succeeded Marshal Yamagata as Com- 
mander-in-chief of the First Army, left Kewlienching after nearly 
four months' cantonment there, for Funghwangching. On the 
23rd, the staff of the same Division arrived at Hwangheateen, 
where the road from Funghwangching divided into two, one 
running to Siuyen and the other to Haiching and the west, and 
met there the Ninth Brigade (less two battalions), two battalions 



( ^5 ) 

of the XXII Regiment, Infantry, and battalions of other arms. 
After meeting with but slight resistance on the way, the Division 
arrived at Heashih-keautse on the 1st March. 

Meanwhile, the Third Division had left its winter quarters at 
Haiching, on the 28th February, at 3.30 a.m. On that day the 
Chinese were driven from their positions near Haiching, on the 
road to Liaoyang, the Japanese loss in the successive engage- 
ments being 95 killed or wounded, while the Chinese left 150 
dead behind. The Division encamped that night at Tanghopu, 
one of the captured positions. On the following day it advanced 
to Kanszepu, the Chinese fleeing before it without once offering 
battle. On the 2nd, it took up its quarters at Nganshanchen, one 
of the principal towns between Haiching and Liaoyang, which 
had served as base of operations for the Chinese assailants upon 
Haiching, while on the same evening the Fifth Division reached 
Tangkangtse. On the 3rd, the Third Division advanced to 
Kangchwangtse, while the Fifth arrived at Tsuyheachwang, 
about 1 5 miles from Newchwang, which was to be attacked on 
the following day. 

On the 4th, the Fifth Division attacked the city in front and 
on the right flank, and the Third on the rear and in the left. 
Major-General Y. Oshima, of the Ninth Brigade, opened the attack 
on the city, while a battalion under Major Imada advanced on its 
right. The Chinese kept up a persistent fire from under cover, 
and the Japanese being exposed, the fight went on for more than 
two hours. Major Imada was killed. The first line of the 
Chinese improvised redoubts was carried by storm and the 
Chinese fled from house to house firing all the time. The Third 
Division also carried the earthworks on the left, and fought the 
enemy from house to house. Colonel Sato, Commander of the 
XVIII Regiment, was wounded. All night the Division kept 
strict watch ; and early next morning, they left for Yingkow, 
leaving behind a battalion to hold the city. The Japanese lost 
during the attack on Newchwang 41 killed and 173 wounded, 
while over 1,800 Chinese dead were found next morninq; and 



( 86 ) 

over 300 were taken prisoners. The Chinese garrison is said to 
have been 5,000 strong at the time of the attack. 

The Second Army had remained inactive since the battle of 
Tapingshan ; but on the 4th March, it was reported that about 
2,000 Chinese under Sungkiang had come to Laoyaymeaou. 
Preparations were at once made to attack them. On the following 
morning, however, the Chinese had left their positions, and the 
entire Chinese forces, it was further reported, had retired to 
Tienchwangtai, with only 2,000 at Yingkow. Major-General Nogi 
sent Colonel Iki to take possession of Laoyaymeaou. On this 
day, Lieut.- General Yamaji left Tashihkeau, and was on the 
following morning only five miles from Yingkow, while Major- 
General Nogi also advanced upon that port. It had been 
intended that the port should be attacked on the 7th by the two 
Army Corps. But a sub-company sent by Colonel Iki to re- 
connoitre the neighbourhood succeeded without any difficulty in 
entering the east gate of Yingkow. It was followed by Colonel 
Iki's regiment, which soon took possession of all the gates. 
Many Chinese troops were shot down as they fled over the ice 
on the River Liao to Tienchwangtai. On the morning of the 
7th, the Japanese took possession of the coast-forts which were 
found deserted. The Chinese had laid many subterraneous 
mines, a few of which exploded and killed or wounded their 
enemies, but most of them were destroyed by the Japanese 
Engineers. 

As the First Division (Second Army) under Lieut.-General 
Yamaji had succeeded in capturing Yingkow without the 
cooperation of the First Army, the two armies next turned their 
attention upon Tienchwangtai. The Third Division formed the 
central body with the First and Fifth Divisions as left and right 
wings respectively. The Japanese opened fire with over 100 
field guns across the River Liao at 8 a.m. on the 9th. The 
distance between them and the town was 3,000 metres. After 
two hours' cannonade, the Chinese retreated towards Shwang- 
taitsc, and the Japanese razed the castle of Ticnch\vany;tai to the 



___^ ( 8r .) 

giound to prevent the Chinese returning to it again. Over i,ooo 
houses and 300 boats were burnt down. The Chinese left i,2CX) 
dead behind, while the Japanese lost 96 in killed and wounded. 

On the 15th March, a column under Colonel Hishijima left 
Sasebo for the south, and arrived on the 20th at the Island of 
Tsangtao, off the south-western coast of Formosa. On the 
morning of the 23rd, the column landed at Koching Point, on 
the south-east of Pescadore Island, and after a slight skirmish 
took possession of the coast forts to the north-east of How Point, 
and also of Makung Castle. The Chinese then attacked Makung 
from the forts on Fisher Island ; but on the 25th, they fired their 
magazine and fled from the island. Thirteen officers and 560 
troops surrendered at Yuanting. The whole of the Pescadores 
Group fell into Japanese hands. The Japanese lost an officer 
and 18 sub-officers and men wounded, and two killed, while 
the Chinese loss was 70 killed or wounded, and over 80 prisoners. 

The Viceroy Li Hung-chang, the Chinese Plenipotentiary, 
arrived at Shimonoseki on the 19th March and landed on the 
following day. He took up his quarters at Inshoji. After the 
exchange of full powers with the Japanese Plenipotentiaries, 
Count Ito and Viscount ,Mutsu, he proposed at the second 
meeting an armistice, whereupon the Japanese conditions for the 
armistice were formulated. At the third meeting on the 24th, 
Li Hung'Chang withdrew his proposal as he considered the 
Japanese conditions too onerous. As he was returning from this 
meeting, he were shot at with a revolver by a fanatic named 
Koyama Rokunosuke, who wounded him on the left cheek. The 
man was immediately apprehended and afterwards sentenced to 
penal servitude for life. On the 30th, the Japanese Plenipoten- 
tiaries consented to an armistice for three weeks in North China. 
Li-Hung-chang recovered from his wound, and the negotiations 
were resumed on the lOth April, the Viceroy's son, Viscount 
Li Ching-fang having in the meantime been appointed Pleni- 
potentiary to act in conjunction with his father. 



NISSHIN SENTO GWAHO, 



Pictorial History of the War between Japan and China. 

The object of this work is to hand down to all 
times by pictorial representation the great fame Japan 
has obtained by her unprecedented succession of victories. 
It gives food for reflection and is not to be considered 
a mere catch-penny picture series. The artists are Mr. 
Beisen Kubota who visited the Columbian World's Fair, 
and Messrs Beisai and Kinsen Kubota, all of whom 
accompanied the Imperial army to Corea and shared in 
its privations and hardships. Their illustrations are all 
based on personal observation, or else on reports of those 
who were actually present at the battles represented. 
From the rise of the Tonghaks until the close of the 
war, every incident of importance is pictorially given more 
effectively than could possibly be described by pen. 

Complete in ten parts. 
Price : Yen 2.30. 



NOTICE III 



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logue of the pictorial books, which we have recently 
published, to our numerous customers. 

Z. MAEKAWA & Co., 

No. 19, MlNAMI-KYUHOJIMACHl-SHICHOME, OSAKA. 

M. OKURA & Co.. 

No. 19, NiHOMBASHI-TORI-ITCHOME, TOKYO. 
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Patterns of hundred birds, (painted); drawn by Kono Bairei ... 
Patterns of hundred varieties of the Chrysanthemums, (painted) ; 

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A pictoriiil book, (painted) ; drawn by Sensai Eitaku 

Kyosai's illustrations; drawn by Kawanabe Kyosai 

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» „ „ „ „ Nishiyama Kwan-ei 

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Sheet-pictures drawn by Kubota Beisen. 
Attack against the fort at Gunkyoto, by Maj. General Oshima's 

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Maj. General Oseko's detachment slaughtering the Manchoorian 

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Fall of the fort at Nirydzan in Port Arthur 

A body like an iron wrought hundred times, i.e. robust and 

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