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The Greek philosopher Aristotle, thought that the commence- 
ment of a people was "more than half of the whole." In all ages 
men have looked back with interest to the origin of the particular 
community in which they lived, and loved to compare the then 
with the now; the struggles of the past with present attainment. 
To meet a desire for a concise history of Minnesota the author has 
prepared the present volume. For some time, the fifth edition of a 
large, and to some extent documentary History of Minnesota, con- 
taining nearly a thousand pages has been exhausted. It was pre- 
pared as a work of reference suitable for large libraries, and will 
always be of some service. The present history, it is thought, may 
be adapted to the frontiersman's cabin, the farmer's fireside, and 
to the large number of intelligent youth, natives of Minnesota, who 
can appreciate the remark of the Roman orator "that to be ignorant 
of what has happened before you were born, will always keep you 
a child." 

For valuable assistance rendered, acknowledgments are due to 
N. H. Winched, State Geologist of Minnesota: H. D. Har rower: 
IvLson, Blakeman, Taylor £ Company, Xew York City; and Gen. 
H. H. Sibley, the commander of the expedition, which released the 
white captives among the Sioux. 

St. Paul, February, 1887. 




Stephen Brule, (Broolay) employed by Champlain to 
collect peltries for the fur company of whichhe was the 
head, after a three years' absence, among the Indian 
tribes, bordering on the shores of Lake Huron, in the year 
161S, returned to Quebec with a lump of copper, and 
mentioned that he ha 1 heard, from the Indians, of an 
upper lake connected with, but superior to Lake Huron, 
which was so long that it required nine days for an 
Indian to pass, in a canoe, from one end to the other. 

On the 4th of July, 1634, Jean Nicolet, the son of 
poor parents at Cherbourg, France, who had been in the 
service of the same fur company as Brule, left Three 
Rivers, a trading post on the Saint Lawrence River 
ninety miles from Quebec, for the distant West, and 
was the first white man to reach the Green Bay of Lake 

It was not however, until the winter of 1659-60, that 
white men entered the region, within the present bound- 
aries of the State of Minnesota. Medard Chouart, born 
near Means, France, known in history as Sieur des 
Grose ill h-r.-s ( Grozayyay) and his brother-in-law. 
Pierre d'Esprit, the Sieur Radisson, a native 
of St. Mulo. were the first Europeans to describe 
the Mississippi as a "deep, wide and beautiful 


river comparable in its grandeur to the Saint 
Lawrence," explore the shores of Lake Superior, 
and visit the Dakotahs of Minnesota, known among the 
Algonquin tribes, because of their hostility, as the 
Nadouessiouk, and for brevity, called by the traders, 
Siou, or Sioux. 

After passing Sault St. Marie at the entrance of Lake 
Superior, they paddled their canoes towards a small 
stream called Pawabick Konesibis, 1 the Ojibway word 
for Iron River, on modern maps called Little Iron 
River, and from thence pushed on to the Picture Rocks, 
called by the Algonquin Indians, Xamitouck Sinagoit, 
and were the first white men to enter the Grand Portal, 
an arched cave, which Radisson described in these 
words: " It is like a great portal, by reason of the beat- 
ing of the waves. The lower part of the opeuing is as a 
tower, and grows bigger, in the going up, 

1 gave it the name of the portal of Saint Peter, because 
my name is so called, and that I was the first Christian 
who ever saw it." 

After an encampment of three days, at the mouth of 
the Huron Paver, they journeyed to Portage Piiver on 
the west shore of Keweenaw Bay, where they heard of 
rich copper deposits. Carrying the canoes across the 
peninsula they were launched, and at length they came 
to Montreal Paver, and in a half day from this stream 
saw a long point jutting into Lake Superior for two 
leagues, but only sixty paces in width. Crossing this 
narrow neck of land they found themselves in a beauti- 
ful bay, and going to the bottom of it near a brook, in 
the vicinity of the modern town of Ashland, erected a 
rude trading post made of logs, triangular in shape, with 

1 Baraga, in his Ojibway Dictionary, gives "Biwabikosibi" as tb<? name for 
Irou Liiver. 



tbe door facing the bay. The Indians who had accom- 
panied them to this point were Hurons, some of which 
tribe fleeing from the Iroquois, lived for a time upon an 
island in the Mississippi River above Lake Pepin, about 
three leagues below the town of Hastings, but owing to 
a quarrel with the Sioux had retired to one of the lakes 
toward the sources of the Chippewa, and Black River, in 

After they had been about two weeks at Chagouamigon 
Bay, the Hurons, who had been informed of their arrival, 
sent a deputation to invite them to visit them on the 
banks of an inland lake, eight leagues in circumference 
and four days' journey from the Bay. Here the winter 
of 1659-GO was passed in hunting. 

Early in 1660, before the snow had melted, eight dele- 
gates from the Sioux visited the Frenchmen among 
the Hurons in Wisconsin. Each of the deputation had 
two wives. They approached the white men with great 
deference, and first greased their feet and legs and then 
stripped them of their clothes, and covered them with 
hides of buffalo ami white beaver skins. After this they 
wept over their heads and then offered them the calu- 
met or pipe of peace, made of the red pipestone, the 
stem of which, about five feet in length, was adorned 
with eagle's tail, painted with several colors. For eight 
days, feasts and councils were held, at which the Sioux 
expressed their friendship and desire to have thunder, 
as they called a gun. 

Afterwards the Frenchmen visited a large hunting 
village of the Tatanga Sioux, whose wigwams were of 
skins and mats, and remained with them six weeks. 
This baud were called Tatanga, the Sioux word Eur 
buffalo, because they came from their winter cabins, in 


the northern forests, to hunt this animal on the praries. 
It is noteworthy that Tatanga is one of the first Sioux 
words mentioned by any Frenchman. 

Radisson, in his Journal, describes the Mississippi 
as having two forks, one running toward the south and 
the other westward. The tributary known as the Min- 
nesota River runs southward as far as Mankato. Upon 
one of the earliest maps of the upper Mississippi River 
the Minnesota is called the River of Maskoutens 
(Prairie) Xadouessioux, and, perhaps, in the valley of 
this stream, the Frenchmen first visited the Sioux. 

Returning to Chagouamigon Bay, they coasted from 
island to island on the north shore, and learned of rivers 
that flowed into Hudson's Bay. For a long period Pigeon 
River, part of the boundary between the United States 
and British Possessions, was called Groseilliers. 

xVfter the middle of August, 1GG0, after a voyage of 
twenty-six days, Groseilliers and Radisson arrived at 
Montreal, from Lake Superior, with three hundred 
Indians, and a flotilla of sixty canoes laden with "a 
wealth of skins," valued at 200,000 livres, French cur- 

Before the month had closed, the Frenchmen were on 
their return, with six others, also the Jesuit Father, 
Menard, and his servant Jean Guerin, a lay brother. 
On the 15th of October, Saint Theresa"s day, of the cal- 
endar of the Church of Rome, the party reached Ke- 
weenaw Bay, and here, Menard stopped, began a mission, 
and passed the winter. On the loth of June, 1661, he 
and Guerin left Keweenaw to visit the Hurons, toward 
the sources of Black River, accompanied by a few Indian 
guides who soon deserted. The route was circuitous, 
by way of streams tributary to Lake Michigan, and 


down the "Wisconsin to the Mississippi river. Ascend- 
ing this, to one of the mouths of the Black river they 
slowly moved up this, until they came to rapids, 
seven weeks from the time they left Lake Superior. 
While Guerin was making a portage with the canoe, 
Menard disappeared, and it was supposed that he had 
been killed by some skulking savage. South of the 
Montreal river, of Lake Superior, upon an old map, 1 one 
of the earliest to show the valley of the upper Missis- 
sippi, a point near one of the branches o£ a river flowing 
into the Mississippi, is marked as the place where 
Menard died. 

After the explorations, Groseilliers again visited 
Canada and in May, 1662, left Quebec to go by way of 
Lake Superior to Hudson's Bay, and on the 25th of July, 
1663, he and all the Frenchmen who had been with him, 
with thirty-five canoes, and one hundred and fifty Indians 
arrived at Montreal. 

The Canadian authorities displeased because the 
Indian guides had forsaken the missionary Menard, 
imprisoned and ironed one of the chiefs. The Indians, 
by large presents, secured his release, and immediately 
returned to their own country. 

The information relative to the region west, and north 
of Lake Superior, given by Groseilliers and Badisson, 
was valued by the fur merchants at Quebec and Mon- 
treal, and excited the attention of the French Governor. 
Pierre Boucher, an intelligent citizen of Canada, while on 
a visit, published in 1664, a little treatise, in Paris, in 
which he writes: "In Lake Superior, there is a great 
island, fifty or one hundred leagues in circumference, in 
which there is a very beautiful mine of copper. There 

1. Vol. IV., i». 206, Nar. and Crit. Hist, of America. 


are other places, in those quarters, where there are sim- 
ilar mines, so I learned from four or five Frenchmen 
lately returned. * * * They told me that they had 
seen an ingot of copper all refined, which was on the 
shore, and weighed more than eight hundred pounds 
according to their estimate, and said that the savages on 
passing it, made a fire on it, after which they cut off 
pieces with their axes." 

Maps of the region of the Great Lakes were now 
enlarged. Sanson, the Geographer, had published a 
map, in 165G, on which Green Bay was for the first time 
properly placed as an arm of Lake Michigan, and called 
Lac des Puans. In 16G0, in the map of Creuxius, this 
Bay is the extremity of geographical knowledge. 

Soon after fhe explorations of Groseilliers and Piadis- 
son, maps began to be drawn, showing the Mississippi, 
above the Wisconsin river. Upon one of Joliet's maps, 
drawn about 1674, the "Siou" are represented at Mille 
Lacs, and on the Mississippi are marked beginning south- 
ward, the Ihanctoua, now known as the Yankton Sioux; 
the Pintoua; the Napapatou; the Ouapikouti; the Cha- 
iena, now Cheyenties who formerly lived in the Tied 
River Valley; the Agalomitou; the Ousittoau; and 

In the year 1678, several prominent merchants of 
Quebec, and Montreal, formed a company to open trade 
with the Sioux of Minnesota. Oneof these, was named 
Patron, and his nephew Daniel Gresolon l)u Luth was 
made the leader of the expedition. He was born near 
Paris, and was a gendarme in the king's guard at the 
battle of Seneffe. His name is variously spelled in the 
documents of his day, Da Lhu, Du Lhut, D\i Lut, and 

DU ltjth's explorations. 11 

Du Lucl, but the pronunciation was not essentially dif- 

With a party of three Frenchmen and three Indians, 
he left Montreal on the 1st of September, 1678, and on 
the 5th of April, 1679, when he was on the shore of Lake 
Superior, three leagues beyond Sault Ste Marie he wrote 
to Frontenac, Governor of Canada, that he would ' not 
stir from the Nadoussioux, until further orders," and 
that he would set up the King's arms, "lest the English, 
and other Europeans, settled towards California, should 
take possession of the country." During that summer he 
explored that part of Minnesota west of Lake Superior, 
and east of the Mississippi and on the second of July, 1679 
set up the arms of France among the Isanti or Knife Sioux 
who dwelt around Mille Lacs, and then visited the Songas- 
kitons, probably the Sissetons, and the Houetpatons,\vho 
were one hundred and twenty leagues beyond, perhaps at 
Sandy Lake. He came back to Lake Superior, and on 
the 15th of September, and at Kamanistigouia 1 or Three 
Rivers, where, Fort AVilliam was built, at the beginning 
of this century, he held a conference with the Assine- 
boines, and other northern tribes, and persuaded them 
to make peace with the "Xadoueciuux," and inter-marry. 
During the next winter he encouraged them to hunt 
together, and hold feasts. 

In June, 1680, with two canoes, an Indian and four 
Frenchman, he entered the Brule ( Broolay ) Paver, which 
flows into Lake Superior, and slowly ascended, owing to 
numerous beaver dams, and toward its source, by a short 
portage, reached a lake, the outlet of which, was the Saint 
Croix River, which he descended to the Mississippi, and 
there learned from some Sioux, that there were French- 

1. Bak.etigueia is the Ojibway for a forked rivor. 


inen on the Mississippi, with some of their tribe. Leav- 
ing two of his men and his goods behind, he proceeded 
witli the other two, and two Indians, in a canoe, and 
descending the river eighty leagues, occupying two days 
and two nights, found early on the third day, the traders 
sent up the Mississippi, by La Salle, who were accompa- 
nied by the Dutch Franciscan priest, Louis Hennepin. 
Accault and his companions had been taken to the Mi lie 
Lacs region, by a trail, which began at the large marsh 
just below, where is now the city of Saint Paul. In 
July, 1680, by way of the Falls of Saint Anthony, they 
descended the Mississippi with a hunting party of Sioux, 
to the point where Du Luth found them. They went back 
with Du Luth to the Sioux villages, and in a few weeks, 
all the Frenchmen again passed the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, on their way to Canada. 

La Salle's account of this expedition, written at Fort 
Frontenac, on August 22d, 1682, contains many interest- 
ing facts. He writes: "The river Colbert, named Gas- 
tacha by the Iroquois, and Mississippi by the Outaouacs, 
comes from the Northwest. I have caused it to be ex- 
plored by two of my men, one named Michel Accault, 
and the other a Picard [Anthony Augelle], with whom 
the K. P. Louis Hennepin was associated. * * * 

* * They had about a thousand pounds of goods, 
such as are most valued in those regions, which with 
the peace calumet are never disregarded by those tribes, 
since they are nearly destitute of everything. * * 

* * Following the course of the Mississippi, one 
finds the river Ouisconsing. Misconsing, or Meschetz 
Odeba, [a Sioux name perhaps intended for Meshdeke 
Wakpa, River of the Foxes.] About twenty-three or 
twenty-four leagues to the north or northwest, from the 


mouth of the Ouisconsing, which has a rocky shore on 
the south side and a beautiful prairie on the north, near 
to three beautiful basins or bays of still water is the 
river Noire [Black], called Chabadeba [Chapa Wakpa, 
Beaver River], by the Nadoue-Sioux. Ascending about 
thirty leagues we have the river Boeufs [Chippewa], 
about as large at its mouth as the Islinois. It is so 
called because of the number of these animals [buffalo] 
which are there found. There are several islands at its 

" Thirty-eight or forty leagues higher is found the river 
[Saint Croix] by which Du Lath descended to the Mis- 
sissippi. * * * Ascending still the Mississip- 
pi are found the falls which those whom I sent, 
passed there first of all, named from St. Anthony. 
They have the height of thirty or forty feet, and there 
the river is also narrow. There is an island in the midst 
of the fall. * * * Here the canoes are car- 
ried about three or four hundred steps, and eight leagues 
above, is the river of Nadoesioux. It is narrow at its 
entrance, and drains a poor country covered with shrubs 
through about fifty leagues, when it terminates in a lake 
called Lake of the Issati [Mille Lacs] which spreads 
over a great marsh, where grows the wild rice, at the 
point of its outlet in this river. 

"The Mississippi comes from the west, but it was not 
followed because of the adventure which befell R. P. 
Louis, Michel Accault, and their comrade [Augelle]. 
This affair thus happened. After having pursued the 
course of the Mississippi till the 11th of April about 
three o'clock in the afternoon, rowing along the shore, 
a band of a hundred Xadouessioux warriors, who were 
going to kill some of the Tchatchakigoua, were descend- 



ing in thirty-thive birch bark canoes. There were with 
them three women, and one of those base fellows who 
serve the women, though they are men, which the Islinois 
term Ikoueta. They passed on the other side of some 
islands, and thus some of their canoes descended below 
the French; perceiving this, they all collected together, 
and those who were below, ascending easily, closed the 
passage. There was one party on the land who invested 
them on that side. 

"Michel Accault, who was the leader, presented the 
calumet. They received it and smoked, after having 
made a circle upon the ground, covered with straw, 
where they made the Frenchmen to seat themselves. 
Then two old men commenced to weep for the death of 
relatives, whom they designed to avenge; and after hav- 
ing taken some tobacco, they caused our men to embark 
and cross over first to the other shore of the river. They 
followed after, having made their cries, and rowing 
rapidly. Upon leaving their canoes Michel Accault 
gave them twenty knives and a fathom and a half of 
tobacco, which they accepted. They had already stolen 
a short pike and some other small trinkets. They then 
traveled ten days together, without any evidence of dis- 
content or ill will ; but on the twenty-second of April, hav- 
ing arrived at the isles, where they had killed some Mas- 
koutens, they held up to view the two dead whom they 
were going to avenge, and whose bones they carried with 
them, between P. Louis, and Michel Accault. This is a 
ceremony which they perform, before their friends to 
incite them to compassion, and induce them to give 
presents to cover their dead. 

"Michel Accault, unfortunately, did not understand 
this people, and there was not a slave of the other nations 


whom he understood, which hardly ever happens, all 
the tribes in America having a number of those to whom 
they have given life to take the place of their dead, after 
having sacrificed a large number to satiate their veng- 
ance. This makes them aide to understand all those 
nations, since they became familiar with three or four 
languages of those who go the farthest to war, as the 
Iroquois, the Isliuois, the Akansa, the Xadouesioux and 
Sauteurs. Accault understood these, with the exception 
of the Nadouesioux; yet there are among them a num- 
ber of tribes who have been slaves to the others, but not 
one was found willing to interpret. As a mark of 
friendship he gave a full case of goods, and the next 
day, twenty-four hatchets. 

"Eight leagues below the Falls of St. Anthony [just 
below the present capital of Minnesota] they resolved 
to go, by land, to their village, sixty leagues from where 
they left their canoes, not wishing to carry the baggage 
of our men, nor to conduct them by water. They made 
them give the rest of their hatchets, which they dis- 
tributed among themselves, promising to pay well for 
them at their village, but two days after, they divided 
among themselves two cases of goods and had a cpiarrel 
concerning the merchandise and the tobacco, each chief 
asserting that he was master, when they separatf-d on 
account of their jealousy, and led the Frenchmen to the 
village, where they promised to render satisfaction with 
beaver skins, of which they said they had a large num- 

"There they were well received and made a feast for 
Accault, who was in a different village from R. P. Louis 
and the Picard, who were, also, well received, except 
that some frolicsome young fellows told the Picard to 


sing. The fear he experienced made him show coward- 
ice, because slaves only sing on arriving at a village. 
Accault, who was not there, could not prevent it, but 
they experienced no other treatment, like that of slaves. 
They were never bound, and after that, they promised to 
pay for what the young men had seized, since Accault 
had found some to whom he could convey his ideas, and 
comprehend the importance of it. Then they danced 
two calumets, and gave some beaver skins as the begin- 
ning of payments, but as they were too little, Accault 
was not satisfied. 

"Six weeks after, all having returned toward the 
Ouisconsing with the Xadouesioux, on a hunt, the li. P. 
Louis Hennepin, and the Picard determined to go to the 
mouth of the river, where I had promised to send mes- 
sages, as I had done, by six men whom the Jesuits had 
enticed away, telling them that the H. P. Louis Henne- 
pin and his companions had been killed. They suffered 
them to go alone, to show that they were not treated as 
slaves. * * Jealousy was the sole cause 

of the pillage, because as they were of different villages, 
and but few from that where the Frenchmen were to go, 
they did it to secure their portion of the goods. But 
the old men strongly censured the young, and offered 
and began to render the proper satisfaction to Accault. 
• "All that Du Luth can say is, that having arrived 
where the Father and the two Frenchmen had gone in a 
hunt from the village, where he for the first time went 
along with them when they returned. Pie made it easier 
for them to return sooner than they would have done, 
because messengers whom I had sent had been dis- 
suaded from going on." 

With Du Luth, Accault, Augelle, called the Picard, 


and Hennepin, the Franciscan, returned by way of the 
Wisconsin River, to Mackinaw. Hennepin, in 1GS2, went 
to France and published a book the next year, which did 
not add to his reputation for veracity. La Salle, in ref- 
erence to him, wrote in the communication from which 
the above extracts have been taken: "I have thought it 
proper to give this narrative of the adventures of this 
canoe, because I do not doubt it is talked of, and if you 
desire to confer with Father Louis Hennepin, Piecol- 
lect, who has returned to France, it is well to know some- 
thing about it, for lie will not fail to exaggerate every- 
thing; it is his character, and he has written, even to 
me, as if he had been almost burnt up, although not at 
all in danger; but he considers it honorable to act in 
tins way, and he speaks more according to what he 
writes than as to that which he knows." 

Father Gravier, a Jesuit Missionary in Louisiana in 
1701, alluded to the "false stories" of Hennepin, and 
some years later, Charlevoix, another priest, used this 
language: "All his works are written in a declamatory 
style, offensive by its inflation, by the liberties which 
the author takes, and by his indecent invectives." 

DuLuth was in Paris in the winter of 1683, but in the 
spring returned to America, and during the summer 
reached Mackinaw, with a license to trade. On the 
eighth of August he left with thirty men, to trade with 
the Sioux, and proceeded by the way of Green Bay. It 
is probable that he established the post at the sources 
of the St. Croix River, which, as early as 1088, is marked 
Fort St. Croix, upon one of Franquelin's Maps. In 
1GSG, I)u Luth was withdrawn from the far West, and 
ordered to erect a fort near the entrance of Lake Huron, 
about thirty miles above Detroit. 


Nicholas Perrot. forty years of age, and long identi- 
fied with the Indian trade, in the spring of 1685, was 
commissioned by Governor De la Bane, as commander 
for the West. During the autumn, he reached the Miss- 
issippi, and sent some Winnebago Indians to notify the 
Aiouez (Ioway ) tribe who lived in the valley of the river 
which still bears their name, that he would be glad to 
see them. Discovering a point on the east shoie of the 
Mississippi where there was an abundance of wood, at 
the foot of a high hill, behind which was an extensive 
prairie, he directed his voyageurs to erect a stockade; 
.and there he passed the winter of lGSo-6, and on Fran- 
quelin's Map, just above the Black River, is marked the 
place. He afterwards, built the post on the east side of 
Lake Pepin, just above its entrance. 

Recalled by the Canadian authorities, to aid in the 
war against the Seneeas, it was not until the autumn of 
1688 that he again reached the post he had erected. As 
soon as the ice melted in the spring of 1GS9, the Sioux 
came down and escorted Perrot to one of their villages, 
where he was received with much enthusiasm, and car- 
ried around on a beaver lobe, followed by warriors sine- 

On the 8th of May, 16S9, at Post St. Antoine, on the 
Wisconsin side of Lake Pepin, in the presence of a 
Jesuit missionary, Joseph J. Marest; a trader at the 
mouth of the Wisconsin named Boisguillot, Pierre Le 
Sueur, and several other Frenchmen, the country of the 
St. Pierre or Minnesota River, and St. Croix River, 
named after a Frenchman drowned in its waters, was 
taken possession of by Perrot, in the name of the King 
of France. In his report, the Minnesota River is, for 
the first time, called the Saint Pierre, in compliment 

franquelin's map. 19 

probably to the baptismal name of his associate, who 
was its discoverer, Pierre Le Sueur. It is quite remark- 
able that both La Salle and Hennepin, in their account 
of the trailing expedition under Accault, should have 
omitted to mention this important tributary of the Miss- 
issippi. The river which now forms the boundary be- 
tween the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota, -was also 
first designated St.- Croix, in memory of a voyage ur who 
lost his life in its waters. In 1GS9, the " Menchokatonx" 
(M'daywahkawntwons) and '•Songesquitons" (Sisse- 
tons) were living in the Mille Lacs region, and the 
" Mantanton" Sioux as near the mouth of the St. Pierre, 
or Minnesota River. 

A map drawn in 1GSS, by the engineer Franque- 
lin, was an advance in geographical accuracy. On 
the west side of the Mississippi is represented 
River " Raisins", perhaps the Embarrass; the "Jamie" 
(Yellow) River, now Vermillion, and the " Mascoutens 
Nadouescioux", now the Minnesota River. Upon the 
east side, just above the mouth of the Wisconsin, 
appears Fort St. Nicolas, then the '"Noire" now Black 
River, above which is the "butte" where Perrot wintered, 
now Trempeleau. At the entrance of Lake Pepin is 
marked "R. des Sauteurs" now Chippewa River, and a 
short distance above is Fort St. Antoine. The river 
called by Perrot, St. Croix, is named " Magdelaine;" 
Rum River is ''Riviere des Francois, ou des Sioux," 
Mille Lacs is " Lac de Buade", around which are the 
" Issatis" (Isanti) Sioux, and west of these the Tintons 
(Teton ) Sioux; while eist of them are marked the San- 
gatskitons (Sissetons) and " Houetpatons." The upper 
St. Croix Lake is "Lacde la Providence," and at the 
portage to the Bois Brule River is "Fort St. Croix." 



The western extremity of Lake Superior is well delin- 
eated, showing "Isle St. Michel," or " Detour", at the 
head of " Chagaoumegon" Bay, " Peouabic" now Iron 
River, "R. du Fond clu Lac", the present St. Louis 
Paver, " R, des Groiselliers," the Pigeon River, then the 
"Kanianistigouian 1 on les Trois Rivieres." 

In the autumn of 1689, Frontenac returned to Quebec 
from France, having, for the second time, been appointed 
Governor, and the next spring, Perrot being in Canada, 
was ordered to guide Sieur de Louvigny La Porte, a 
half-pay captain, to Mackinaw, as commandant of the 
post. After performing this duty he went to Green 
Bay, and a party of Miamis met him there, and begged 
him to visit the lead mine region of the Mississippi 
River, below the mouth of the Wisconsin. After ascend- 
ing to his old post on Lake Pepin, he went to the lead 
mines, and found the ore abundant. La Potherie men- 
tions that "the lead was hard to work because it was 
between rocks, which required blowing up, but that it 
had very little dross and was easily melted." Penicaut, 
who ascended the Mississippi in 1700, wrote that twenty 
leagues below the Wisconsin, on both sides of the Miss- 
issippi, were mines of lead called " Nicholas Perrot's", 
and Del'Isle's Map of 1703 indicates them, in the vicinity 
of the modern towns of Galena and Dubuque. 

Pierre Le Sueur was the son of a Frenchman from 
Artois, and in 1659, was born in Canada. After leaving 
Fort Saint Antoine, on Lake Pepin, he went to Montreal, 
and, on the 20th of March, 1600, married Marguerite 
Messier, whose mother, Anna Lemoyne, was the aunt of 
Pierre Lemoyne, the Sieur D'Iberville, the hrst Gov- 

1 The i>lace wlii're a river divides into several branches modern Ojibways cal 


ernor of Louisiana. After his marriage lie was sent to 
La Pointe of Lake Superior. In a dispatch to the 
French government, of the events in Canada, in 1693, 
occurs the following: "Le Sueur, another voyageur is to 
remain at Chagouamigon [La Pointe] to endeavour to 
maintain the peace lately concluded between the Sault- 
eurs [Ojibways] and Sioux. This is of the greatest 
consequence, as it is now, the sole pass by which access 
can be had to the latter nation, whose trade is very profit- 
able; the country to the south, being occupied by the 
Foxes and Maskoutens who several times hindered the 
French on the ground, that they were carrying ammuni- 
tion to the Sioux, their ancient enemies.'' About the 
year 1694:, he had descended the Saint Croix river, and 
on a prairie island, nearly nine miles below its mouth, 
in the Mississippi, erected a trading post. Penicaut, 
who passed the place, in 1700, wrote in his journal: "At 
the extremity of the lake [Pepin] you come to the Isle 
Pelee, so called because there are no trees on it. It is 
on this island, that the French, from Canada, established 
their fort, and storehouse, and they also winter here, 
because game is very abundant. In the month of Sep- 
tember, they bring their store of meat, obtained by 
hunting, and after having skinned, and cleaned it, hang 
it upon a crib of raised scaffolding in order that the 
extreme cold, which lasts from September to March, 
may preserve it from spoiling. During the whole win- 
ter they do not go out, except for water, when they have 
to break the ice, every day, and the cabin is generally 
built upon the bank, so as not to have far to go. When 
spring arrives, the savages come to the island, bringing 
their merchandise." 

On the loth of July, 1005, Le Sueur arrived at Mon- 



treal, with some Ojibways from Point Chagouamigon, 

and a Sioux Chief, with a woman, the first of that nation 
who had been so far toward the east. Teeoskahtay, this 
chief of the Sioux, was forty years of age, and remained 
for several months. Daring the winter he was sick, and 
baptized. After an illness of thirty-three days, on the 
third of February, 1G96, he died, at Le Sueur's home, in 
Montreal. Le Sueur did not immediately return to 
Minnesota, but went to France, to induce certain per- 
sons in Paris to assist in working some mines, which 
he alleged, he had discovered. His wife's first cousin, 
D 1 Iberville was made Governor of Louisiana while he 
was there, and by order of the King, on August -20th, 
1699, he was permitted to go in the same ship with the 
Governor, with some laborers and an ecpiipment for two 
canoes to work the mines of green earth in the valley 
of the Minnesota River. 

On the 19th of February, 1700, by a portage from 
Lake Pontchartrain, he came to the Mississippi river, and 
began to prepare for his ascent to the Minnesota river. 
On the first of September with about twenty-eight men, 
he came to the Wisconsin river, l where, in 16S5, he had 
been with Perrot.'- Ascending beyond this stream, above 
Black River, a beautiful prairie was reached, surrounded 
by lofty hills, which was named "Prairie aux Ailes," 
and just beyond on tiie opposite shore they were im- 
pressed by another prairie called ''Prairie des Paqui- 
lanets." On the 11th of September, they came to the 

1. D'Iberville mentions that at this time, there were one hundred Miami, 
Indians left at "Ouiseonsin mi the Mississippi," Fort St. Nicholas, the rest hav- 
ing gone to Chicago, on account of tin- heaver. 

'1. Count Pontchartrain, during the summer of the year 1702, when Le Suear 
was at;ain in Paris, wrote to the Intendant of Canada: "Due need not bestir- 
pnsedif .M. D'Iberville proposes the appointment of Le Sueur to go among 
the tribes, he having married his first cousin, and one of the most active, from 
CanaiJa, in the trade of the woods, having been engaged therein, fourteen 


"Hiambouxecate" river, now Cannon, which the Sioux 
called Inyanbosndata, because the rocks, at the mouth 
of the stream, stand perpendicular. The next day, the 
river St. Croix was passed. 

By the 19th, the Minnesota river was entered, ascend- 
ing which, about the first of October, the expedition came 
to the "Riviere Verte," called Mahkahto, 1 by the Sioux, 
now the Blue Earth. Going up this stream a league, 
Le Sueur resolved to build a fort upon a wooded point, 
which displeased the bands of the Sioux, east of the 
Mississippi, who wished a post at the junction of the Min- 
nesota and Mississippi river. The fort was finished ou the 
fourteenth, and called Fort L'Huillier, after a friend of 
Le Sueur, in Paris, who in 100(5 had analyzed some of 
the green earth. Some Canadians, one of whom was a 
former acquaintance of Le Sueur, named D'Eraque, 
came to the Fort, who had been robbed by some of the 
eastern Sioux, of the Mdaywahkawntwan band, and no 
further intercourse was had with the Sioux until they 
rendered satisfaction for robbing the Frenchman, from 
Canada. On the 25th of October digging was begun at 
the mine of green earth, three-fourths of a league from 
the post and accessible by canoes. 

On the 20th of November, some Mantantons, and 
Oujalespoitons of the eastern Sioux came to the fort, 
and one of their chief men, Oaacantapai, begged Le 
Sueur to come to his lodg<v as they were relatives of 
Tioscate (Teeoskaktay) the chief, who in 1696, had died 
at Le Sueur's house, in Montreal. The next clay lie 
assembled the principal Indians of each band, at the 
fort, and gave reasons why he hail there built the post. 

I. Mah-ka to yaznpi wakpa, of the Dakota or Sioux language, means rivt-r 
where llie green, or blue earth is obtained. 



On the 1st of December, the Mantanton Sioux invited 
him to a great feast, and Wahkantapay in a speech 
expressed the desire of his people to live on friendly 
terms with the French. 

On the 12th of December, a large number of Mende- 
ouacantons from east of the Mississippi, with their 
chiefs arrived with four hundred pounds of beaver 
skins, as a satisfaction for the robbing of D'Eraque and 
his companions. In the beginning of May, 1701, Le 
Sueur, leaving the post in charge of D'Eraque and twelve 
Frenchmen, with his felucca or shallop rilled with green 
earth and three canoes of peltries, began his voyage to 
the Gulf of Mexico. D'Eraque, in the spring of 1703, 
was attacked by the Foxes and Mascoutens, and three of 
his men were killed, which rendered it necessary for 
him also to return to the Gulf of Mexico. About the 
same time Boudor, a Montreal merchant, with twenty 
or thirty thousand pounds of goods, on his way to join 
Le Sueur, was robbed by the Sacs and Foxes. 

D'Iberville andLe Sueur were in France, in 1702, and 
the great cartographer De Lisle, from information given 
by them, in 1703, issued a map of Canada and the Mis- 
sissippi river, but from year to year the copper plate was 
corrected. All impressions bearing his title as •'Premier 
Geographe du Roy," First Geographer of the King, 
although retaining the date 1703, were issued, after the 
25th of August, 1718, when he received the appointment 
of Fioyal Geographer. An inspection of a section of 
this map shows, that Lake Pepin has been erroneously 
drawn, and Le Sueur's fort placed below, instead of 
above the lake. 




kart! QU CAN A pa 1 

;j\- an Jell Jjj 


jfPdr Guillaume DE LISLE,! 

|l> uf / A.V7 lt 'f/rue fffytf.V Jt\r JctrftC£J \ 


1703. " 


A ; 


6 £) f Mj»ik»i*g» 



SUPER( £y/? 

'26 - ; si '.:: of Minnesota. 

Some year- after L- Sueur left Minnesota. De 
vllle. a relat: e :' 3 rernor Bienville of L ds 
with tw C ... - td ■ Indians, in ale •: 

canoe visit I the Falls : St Anthony, which, he !e- 
scribed is c sed by the river cng _ :-: :' I 
making a fall of eight or ten teet 

By the treaty of Hi I I & Fren .. reE - - 1 all 

their posts a Hudson's! ad to] revent I 

carrying their peltries - the English, th 
to establish a line £ posts a the chain of 1st - 
forni the northern boundary ol Minnesota. 

L:. E -. la Xoue, in 1717, with - r. " 

procee Le . : K n : list i jj \ the sstremit : L •:- 
Super;:. : [uire the n -- / information 

levoix. afterward the hist rian >f Xew France, in 17"21. 
was sent by the French government : report :. the 
condition of the ts, and upon his return] - _-- 

gestedtl : :. ittempt should be n let find tet 

the Pacific Ocean, through the country of t_. 
an«l the next ye i i: _ - i le I : build a :.-" ; st a 
Lake Pepin, which w - i t accomplished for seve I 
years, because in 1723 seven Frenchmen, >ntheii 
Louisi in by - me r sing Sioux 

In June. 1727 I □ -':' e lit a left M 

for that purf --. : which Rene I I i Si ir de 

la Perriere - the commander _ the 17th :' Sej 
tember he st I a ~ rt the middle : 

the sh re :' I. •:- 1 - in snd in f . - I - 
coninienceil three log boil lings in a plat 
Eeet squai °ra ledl pickets I teet i ith, 

with t bastions I -" - II 

Awnno -'_ - anied him were his br 

Jean, the Sietir . in, his nephew Jemer 


two Jesuit missionaries, Dn Gonor and Louis Ignatius 
Guignas. During the winter no Indians visited the post, 
except some of the Prairie Sioux, about the last of Feb- 
ruary. Owing to very high water, about the middle of 
April, the French were obliged to leave the fort, and for 
two weeks camped on higher ground. In the spring 
Du Gonor left for Canada, and early in the next October, 
the fort having been left in charge of Sieur de la Jemer- 
aye, the Sieur de Boucherville, Montbrun, the Jesuit 
Guignas, and eight other Frenchmen departed for Mon- 
treal, by way of the Illinois river, and on the 12th of the 
month, twenty-two leagues above that stream, were cap- 
tured by a party of Kickapoos and Maskouteus. It was 
the intention of the Indians to surrender the prisoners 
to the Fox tribe, but the night before the delivery, the 
Sieur de Montbrun, his brother, and another Canadian 
escaped. Montbrun left his brother sick and hastened 
to Montreal. The Sieur de la Jemeraye did not stay 
long at Fort Beauharnois. The Sieur de Boucherville 
and Guignas remained prisoners for more than six 
months, but at length purchased their release, 1 and in 
June, 1720, reached Detroit. 

Pierre Gualtier Yarennes, the Sieur Yerandrie,'' when 
forty-three years of age, in 1727, was placed in charge 
of the post north of Lake Superior at Lake Xepigon, 
and happened to be at Mackinaw in the spring of 172S, 
when the Jesuit Du Gonor was on his way to Montreal, 
and learned from him that Father Guignas continued 
firm in the belief that a route could be found to the 
Western Ocean. By request of Yerandrie, Du Gonor 
carried a letter to Governor Beauharnois, in which it 

1. A list of the ^ooils ^iven is printed on pn^es 852^854, 5th edition, 1*83, of 
Ncill's large History of Minnesota. 

2. The name is spelled variously. Tue mode the most easily pronounced by 
the English reader chosen. 


was mentioned that Pacco, a chief at Lake Nepigon, had, 
while on a war party, found a great lake with three out- 
lets, one flowing to the English, at Hudson's Bay, the 
second southward toward the Mississippi, and thn third, 
in the direction of the setting sun. In another letter he 
wrote that Ochaka, an Indian of Lake Nepigon, had 
drawn a rude map and was ready to guide an expedition 
west of Lake Superior, either by the Kamanistigoya or 
the Saint Louis river. As the result of this informa- 
tion, in 1731, fifty persons left Montreal, under three 
sons of Yerandrie, and his nephew Sieurde la Jemerave, 
not long returned from Fort Beauharnois, on the shores 
of Lake Pepin. Arriving at Grand Portage, the western 
extremity of Lake Superior, and guided by the experi- 
enced Jemeraye, the party shortly ascended the Groseill- 
iers, now Pigeon River, and during the autumn reached 
Piainy Lake, and near Kainy Lake Paver erected a post 
called Fort St. Pierre, the baptismal name of Yerandrie. 
The next year an advance was made to the Lake of the 
Woods, and on its western shore was erected a fort, in 
compliment to Charles Beauharnois, the Governor of 
Canada, named Fort St. Charles. In the year 1734, near 
the entrance of Lake Winnipeg, was established Fort 
Maurepas, and here for a time exploration ceased, owing 
to the exhaustion of supplies. During the month of 
June, 1730, twenty-one members of the expedition were 
encamped upon an island in the Lake of the Woods, 
and surprised by a band of hostile Sioux, and all killed. 
Among the slain were one of Yerandrie's sons, also a 
priest named Ouneau 1 who was the spiritual adviser of 
the party. 

1. Perhaps intended for Guymoneaa, a priest who as early as 17'-.! was in thp 
country of the Ottawas. 

First Map of Country west jof Lake Superior, suggested by Iniian Ochagach. 

Lfc4*£& tutu. UJ&a. , 

*» s* st r° r* 

Carte trcute ft*r- a, isStsraae Oc4<*pa(yA &£ autre* . & au£&' <z dtmrtS 'Uew «H40C&eeurer&* 


Subsequently a post was erected at the mouth of the 
Assineboine, and Red River of the North, which was 
abandoned, because of the establishment in 1738, of 
Fort La Reine on the banks of the Assineboine River. 

The eldest son of Verandrie, and one of his brothers, on 
the twenty-ninth of April. 1 742, left the Lake of theTVoods, 
and by way of the Assineboine, and Mouse, reached the 
Missouri River, which they ascended as far as the great 
Falls. Pursuing their journey they found, thirty leagues 
distant, the '"gorges" or gates of the Rocky Mountains. 
On the first of January, 174o, they saw the mountains at a 
distance, and on the twelfth day. the Chevalier Verandrie 
ascended them. On the nineteenth of March the brothers 
returned to the upper Missouri River.and in the country of 
the Petite Cerise Indians they placed, upon a hill, a leaden 
plate with the arms of France, and raised a monument of 
stones, which they called Beauharnois. Upon the second 
of July they returned to the Lake of the Woods. 

During the year lToG, Jacques Legardeur St. Pierre, 1 
a descendant of Nicolet. who. as early as 1634, had ex- 
plored the Green Bay region, was in command of the 
post upon the sandy point jutting into Like Pepin, but 
in consequence of the massacre of the French upon the 
island in the Lake of the Woods, this post for a time 
was abandoned. In the summer of 1743. a deputation 
of Sioux came to Quebec to ask that trade might be re- 
sumed with them. During the winter of 1745-6, De 
Lusignan visited the Sioux, and their chiefs brought to 
him niueteen young men who had killed three French- 
men, and four chiefs returned with him to Canada to 
solicit pardon for the hostility shown their tribe. 

c» 1 *t J rapt- S J' Pierre - born ia l7 " 1 - was the ?on of PiiaI Le_-ardeur. the Sienr 
M. Pierre, who in 171^ re-established the post at Chajjouamiijon. and in 17:53 


In 1749, Captain St. Pierre was in command at Mack- 
inaw, and his brother, Louis Legardeur, the Chevalier 
de Repentigny, was the next olhcer in rank. In 1752 he 
was at Fort La Heine, on the Assineboine River, and 
then was recalled and sent to the forests of north-west- 
ern Pennsylvania, and had been at his post, on French 
Creek, bnt a short time, when he received a visit from 
George Washington, bearing a letter of complaint from 
Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia. In a battle with the 
English, in 1755, near the head of Lake George, he was 




The French garrison at Niagara, early in the morning 
of July 25th, 1759, surrendered to the British troops 
under Sir William Johnson, and by the 9th of Septem- 
ber the flag of England was flying from the heights of 
Quebec, and the next year Governor Vaudreuil yielded, 
by articles of capitulation, the whole of Canada to Gen- 
eral Amherst, the British commander. 

Immediate steps were taken to secure the trade and 
friendship of the Indian tribes west of Lake Michigan. 
On the 12th of October, 17(31. Ensign, afterwards 
Lt. James Gorrell, of the Sixteenth Royal American 
regiment, a native of Maryland, arrived at Green Bay 
with a few soldiers, and established Fort Edward Au- 
gustus, in place of the old French post, which had been 
in ruins for several years. 

Sir William Johnson in his journal wrote: 'T counted 
out and delivered to Mr. Croghan some silver works, 
viz: One hundred and fifty ear bobs, two hundred 
brooches or breast buckles, and ninety large crosses, 1 
all of silver, to send to Ensign Grorell, posted at La Bay 

1. Silver crosses were articles of trade with all of the Indian tribes. Iti 
Matthew Clarkson'e diary in 4th volume of Schoolcraft's "Hist, and Stat, i 'on- 
dition of Indian Tribes," is the following entry: "Account of silver truck (apt. 
Long left with mean thr> 2*th of February. 17ti7. the day when he went from the 
Kaskaskias: lTlsmall crosses, S4 nose crosses Xi long drop nose and ear bobs, 
12(3 small brooches, :',s lartre brooches, 10 rin^s, "J wide wristbands, tj narrow scal- 
loped wristbands, ;i narrow plain, four half moon gorgets, :i large, 6 full moon, 
9 hair plates, 17 hair bobs." 


on Lake Michigan, in order to purchase therewith some 
curious skins an.l furs for General Amherst and my- 

Gorrell was an efficient officer, and in the autumn of 
1762 permitted Pennesha, or Penneshon, a French 
trader, to visit the valley of the Minnesota River, 
although it was then beyond British jurisdiction, being 
in the Louisiana Territory, which in 17(33, the French 
ceded to Spain. 

Jonathan Carver, born in 1732, a uative of Connecti- 
cut, when fifteen years of age lost his father, and when 
only eighteen was an Ensign in a company of provincial 
troops. In the year 1757, he was a captain under Colonel 
Williams, at Lake George, against the French, and re- 
mained in the army until 1763, when peace was declared. 
In June, 1766, he left Boston, and on the eighteenth of 
September arrived at Green Bay, Wisconsin, and found 
the English post abandoned. On the first of November he 
reached Lake Pepin, and on a sandy point, on the west 
shore, observed the remains of the French post which 
had been in command of Captain Legardeur St. Pierre. 
Near the St. Croix river he met some of the eastern 
Sioux, whose bands he mentions, as the Nehogatawonahs, 
Mawtawbauntowahs and Shashweentowahs. Peaching the 
hills now included within the city of St. Paul, he visited 
the cave below Trout Brook, where the Sioux often as- 
sembled and over which they placed their dead on scaf- 
folds, and subsequently buried their bones. On the 
seventeenth of November he was at the Falls of St. 
Anthony, of which he wrote: 

" In the middle of the Falls stands a small island, 
about forty feet broad, and somewhat longer, on which 
grow a few eragged hemlock and spruce trees, and 


about half way between this island and the eastern shore 
is a rock lying at the very edge of the falls, in an 
oblique position, that appeared to be about five or six 
feet broad aud thirty or forty long. At a little distance 
below the falls stands a small island of about an acre 
and a half, on which grow a great number of oaks." 

Returning from the Falls of Saint Anthony, he 
ascended the Minnesota River, and many have been 
as far as the Blue Earth Eiver. He mentioned that 
the sources of the Minnesota are only a mile distant 
from the sources of a river whose waters flow into Hud- 
son's Bay. After remaining during the winter among 
the Sioux, he returned to the cave, 1 which was in the 
eastern suburbs of Saint Paul, where a party of Sioux 
had brought their dead for burial, and gives the follow- 
ing as the address delivered over the remains of a 
deceased warrior, and although Carver is largely indebted 
to his imagination, it is a happy imitation. 

''You still sit among us. brother: your person retains its usual 
resemblance, and continues similar to ours, without any visible 
deficiency, except it Las lost the power of action! But whither is 
that breath rlown. which a few hours ago sent up smoke to the 
Great Spirit? Why are those lips silent that lately delivered to us 
expressions and pleasing language? Why are those feet motionless 
that a short time ago were rleeter than the deer on yonder nioun- 

1 This cave has almost disappeared, owin;r to excavations of th • ~ sand- 

rock to give space for railway tracks. In W7. Major Long. 0. S. Army, 
it, bat the month was so covered up that he was oblisad. to lseacol 
"to cre-p on all four-" to enter. In 1 •«".?'. it was passed by Schoolcraft, v. 
took another cave, about two miles at* ve. known as Fonm 
described by Carver. T! - _■••■ '..-■.- therstoi e thesan a . .-' ike. 

In 1^:7. Nicollet the astn ..• uaer, 1 .nts. after r^x •..:._- 

from the mouth, entered the cave. More than thirty ye - - " 

German cartographer. Dr. John G Kohl, the writer visit* Lthe ~- . ndatt * 

time some Indian hieroglyphics wi re vi.-ibie. andon the roof of the 

the smoke of a torch or charci rei e initials. J. N. N. and J. C F. 

period John < . Frt mont ' is ■■--■ i iated with J. N. Nicollet. On I 

are numerou- mounds. Ln-;- r supervision of rriter. . feet 

high and two hundred and sixty feet in cir imferei it the base, was opened 

to the depth of three nr f.>ur :'-et. Fraan - I 

exposure, and perfect shells of human teeth, tiie interior entirely decaj ed, were 




tains? Why useless hang those arms that could climb the tallest 
tree, or draw the toughest bow? Alas! every part of that frame 
which we lately behold with admiration and wonder, is now become 
as inanimate as it was three hundred years ago! We will not, 
however, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever lost to us, or that thy 
name would be buried in oblivion: -thy soul yet lives in the great 
country of spirits, with those of thy nation that have gone before 
thee, aud, though we are left behind, to perpetuate thy fame, we 
shall one day join thee. 

" Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst living, we now 
come to tender thee the last act of kindness in our power; that thy 
body might not lie neglected on the plain, and become a prey to 
the beasts of the field or the fowls of the air, we will take care to 
lay it with those of thy predecessors who have goue before thee; 
hoping at the same time that thy spirit will feed with their spirits, 
and be ready to feed ours, when we shall also arrive at the great 
country of souls." 

After Carver's book was published, Schiller read this 
speech, and wrote a poem called "Song of a Nadowessee 
Chief" which Goethe considered one of his best. Trans- 
lations of Schiller have been made byBulwer andHers- 


See on his mat— as if of yore. 

All life-like sit? he here! 
With that tame aspect which he wore 

When life to him was dear. 

Bat where the right hand's strength? 
and where 

The breath that loved to breath, 
To the Great Spirit aloft in air, 

The peace-pipe's lusty wreath? 

And where the hawk-like eye, alas! 

That wont the deerpursue, 
Along the waves of rippling grass. 

Or fields that s. one with dew? 

Are these tin 1 limber, bounding feet 
That swept the winter's snows? 

What stateliest stag so fast and fleet? 
Their speed outstripped the roe's! 


See, whereupon the mat, he sits 

Erect, before his door, 
With just the same majestic air 

That once in life he wore. 

But where is fled his strength of limb. 
The whirlwind of his bn ath. 

To the (treat Spirit, when lie sent 

The peace-pipe's mounting wreath? 

Where are those falcon eyes, which 

Along the plain could trace. 
Along the grass's dewy wave. 

The reindeer's printed pace? 

Those legs, which once with match- 
less speed, 
Elew through the drifted snow, 




These arms that then the steady bow 
Could supple from its pride, 

How stark and helpless hang they 
Adown the stiffened side! 

"Yet weal to him— at peace he stays 
where never fall the snows; 

Where o'er the meadows springs the 
That mortal never sows. 

"Where Lirds are blithe on every brake 
Where forests teem with deer, 

Where glides the tish through every 
One chase from year to year! 

With spirits now lie feasts above; 

All left us— to revere 
The deeds we honour with our love, 

The dust we bury here. 

Here bring the last gift! loud and 
Wail, death dirge for the brave! 
What pleased him most in life may 
Give pleasure in the grave. 

We lay the axe beneath his head 

He swung when strength was 

The bear on which his banquets fed, 
The way from earth is long! 

And here, new sharped, place the 
That severed from the clay, 
From which the ax has spoiled the 
The conqnred scalp away! 

The paints that deck the dead bestow. 
Yes, place them in las hand, 

That red the kingly shade may glow 
Amid the Spirit-land. 

Surpassed the stag's unwearied course 
Outran the mountain roe? 

Those arms, once used with might and 

The slubborn bow to twang? 
See, see, their nerves are slack at last. 

All motionless they hang. 

'Tis well with him, for he is gone 
Where snow no more is found. 

Where the gay thorn's perpetual 
Decks all the field around. 

Where wild birds sing from every 

Where deer come sweeping by. 
Where fish from every brook, afford 

A plentiful supply. 

With spirits now he feasts above, 
And leaves us here alone, 

To celebrate his valiant deeds, 
And round his grave to moan. 

Sound the death-song, bring forth the 

The last gifts of the dead,— 
Let all which yet may yield him joy 

Within his grave be laid. 

The hatchet place beneath his head. 
Still red with hostile blood: 

And add, because the way is long, 
The bear's fat limbs for food. 

The scalping-kmfe beside him lay, 
With paints of gorgeous dye. 

That in the land of souls his form 
Hay shine triumphantly. 

Carver's Book of: Travels was published in 177S, and 
contains the first engraving of the Falls of St. Anthony. 
By authority of the King of England an order had been 


issued in October, 1703, positively forbidding private 
persons purchasing land from the Indians, yet Carver 
had the audacity to claim, by virtue of an alleged pur- 
chase made of the Sioux at the cave, in the blutfs of 
Saint Paul, a tract of land from the Falls of Saint An- 
thony to the Chippewa River, and in width one hundred 
miles, which alleged grant, without any law in its favor, 
was sold by his heirs. 

Another daring and adventurous trader named Peter 
Pond, a native of Xew Milford, Connecticut, in 1774 
established a post at Traverse des Sioux, in the valley of 
the Minnesota River, upon the upper bank,' near the 
present town of St. Peter. In 1778 he traded north of 
the Saskatchewan, and then at Athabasca Lake, and in 
17S5 made a rough sketch of the country north and west 
of Lake Superior, which is still in possession of the 
Hudson Bay Company at London, and a copy of the 
original in the State Department at Washington. Upon 
this map the post on the Minnesota River is called Fort 
Pond. Through information given by him, to the com- 
missioners to negotiate a treaty, it is said, the United 
States obtained, in 1792, the present boundary line 
through the Lakes, to the northwest corner of the Lake 
of the Woods. 

During the war for Independence, Wapashah, the 
leading Sioux chief, adhered to the British, and annu- 
ally visited Mackinaw, where De Peyster was in com- 
mand. On the 6th of -luly, 1770, a number of Choctaws, 
Chickasaws and Ojibways were on a visit to the post 
then on the main shore, and not on the island of that 
name, when Wapashah arrived, and was received with 
a salute from the cannons of the fort. De Peyster wrote 
a sons suggested bv the scene: 

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"Hail to the chief! who his buffalo's back straddles, 
When in his own country, far, far from this fort; 
Whose brave young cauoe-men, here hold up their paddles. 
In hopes that the whizzing balls may give them sport. 
Hail to great Wapashaw! 
He comes, beat drums, the Scioux chief comes. 

'•They now strain their nerves till the canoe runs bounding. 
As swift as the Soleu goose skims o'er the wave. 
While on the Lake's border, a guard is surrounding 
A space, where to laud the Scioux so brave. 
Hail! to great Wapashaw! 
Soldiers! your triggers draw! 
Guard! wave the colors, and give him the drum. 
Choctaw and Chicakasaw, 
Whoop for great Wapashaw; 
Raise the portcullis, the King's friend is come." 

At a feast given by the Fox Indians, in 1780. \Yapashah 
said : "It is true, my children, our great Father has sent me 
thisway to take the skins and furs that are in the Dog's 
Field [Prairie du ChienJ, under Captain Langlade's 
charge, lest the Great Knives [Americans] should plun- 
der them. I am come with the white men to give you 
wherewithal to cover you, and ammunition to hunt." At 
this period the Sioux of the "Mille Lacs" region had 
come down to reside around Penneshon's post, on the 
banks of the Minnesota, a few miles above its mouth. 

During the winter of 1783-4, there was a partnership 
formed by a number of traders, which was called the 
North-west Company. There were at first but sixteen 
shares, and the management of the whole was entrusted 
to the brothers Frobisher, and MeTavish, at Montreal. 

A few that were dissatisfied formed an opposition 
company, one of the members of which was the explorer 
and author Alexander Mackenzie. After a keen rivalry 


this company was merged with the North-west, in 1787, 
and the number of shares was increased to twenty. 

From that time the fur trade of the northwest u-as 
systematized. The agents at Montreal received the 
goods from England, and two of them went every year 
to the Grand Portage of Lake Superior, to receive packs 
and ship the furs for Europe. In 1798 the company 
was re-organized, new partners admitted, and the shares 
increased to forty -six. 

The subordinate traders fn m the interior annually 
went to Grand Portage, near the mouth of Pigeon Paver, 
Minnesota, to deliver their furs to the company and re- 
ceive fresh supplies of goods. The trader at a lonely 
outpost during the winter was buoyed up, by the thought 
of the happy days of spring, when he would meet, and 
dance, and frolic with his fellow traders, on the shores of 
Lake Superior. 

The love of adventure has often led educated voun^ 
men "into the woods," as well as ''before the mast.*' 
Sailor life, and Indian trade, in a majority of instances, 
render individuals "earthly, sensual and devilish." There 
have been scenes enacted in Minnesota which will never 
be known to its citizens, for which ignorance, there is 
reason for gratitude. The history of one trader at an 
outpost is generally the history of all his associates. 

On the first day of November, in the year 1784, Alex- 
ander Kay, arrived at La Poiute. with an outfit, fortiacl- 
ing in the Mille Lacs region. His clerk was J. B. Per- 
rault, a Canadian. Entering the St. Louis Liver of 
Minnesota, at a little lake not far from its mouth, they 
found a trader named Default, who had come down from 
the Grand Portage. At the portage of the Saint Louis, 
he also met a partner in the trade, Harris, a native of 


Albany, N. Y., who had no food but salt meat. The 
voyageurs remonstrated about proceeding without proper 
provisions for the winter, but Kay, intoxicated and obsti- 
nate, drew his pistol and threatened to shoot those that 
did not follow. Taking Mr. Harris, an Indian named 
Big Marten, and seven men, he pushed on in advance, 
and the next day sent back word that he had gone on to 
Pine River, and desiring his clerk to winter at the Sa- 
vanne portage if possible. 

After eleven days' hard toil amid ice and snow, sub- 
sisting on the pods of the wild rose, and the sap of trees, 
Perrault and the men reached the point designated. For 
a time they lived there on a few roots, and fish, but about 
Christmas, hunger compelled them to seek their employ- 
er at Pine River. Weak in body, they passed through 
Sandy Lake, descended the river, and at last arrived at 
Kay's post at Pine Paver. After he was recruited, Per- 
rault was dispatched to the Savanne portage, where, with 
his men, he built a log hut. 

Toward the close of February, Brochet, Big Martin, 
and other Ojibway Indians, brought in meat. Kay 
shortly after visited his clerk, and told the troubles he 
had with the Indians, who exceedingly hated him. In 
April, Kay and Perrault visited Sandy Lake where Bras 
Casse, or Broken Arm, or Bo-koon-ik, was the Ojibway 
chief. On the second of May, Kay went out to meet his 
partner Harris coming from Pine River. 

During his absence, Katawabada, who in 1S2S died at 
Sandy Lake, Mongozid, and other Indians, came and 
demanded rum. After much entreaty, Perrault gave 
them a little. Soon Harris, Kay, and Pinot arrived, all 
intoxicated. The Indians were ripe for mischief. An 
Indian named Le Cousin by the French, came to Kay's 


tent, and asked for ram, Kay told him "Xo," and pushed 
him out; the Indian then drew a concealed knife, and 
stabbed him in the neck. Kay, picking up a carving 
knife, chased him, but before he could reach his lodge, 
the passage was blocked up by Indians. The assailant's 
mother, approaching Kay, said, "Englishman! do you 
come to kill me?" and while imploring for her son, with 
savage cruelty, stabbed him in the side. 

Le Petit Mort, a friend of the wounded trader, took 
up his quarrel, and sallying forth, seized Cul Blanc, an 
Ojibway, by the scalp lock, and drawing his head back, 
he plunged a knife into his breast, exclaiming "Die; 
thou dog!'' The Indian women, becoming alarmed at 
this bacchanal, went into the lodges and emptied out all 
the rum they could find. 

Oil the fifth of May, Kay's wound was better, and 
sending for Harris and Perrault to come to his tent, he 
said: "Gentlemen, you see my situation: I have deter- 
mined to leave you at all hazards, to set out for Macki- 
naw, with seven men, accompanied by the Bras Casse 
and wife. Assort the remainder of the goods, ascend to 
Leech Lake and wait there for the return of the Pilla- 
gers, who are out on the prairies. Complete the inland 

Kay, then taking hold of Perrault's hand, Harris hav- 
ing retired, said: "My dear friend! you understand 
the language of the Ojibways. Mr. Harris would go out 
with me, but he must accompany you. He is a good 
trader, but he has like myself, and others, a strong pas- 
sion for drinking, which takes away his judgment." In 
the afternoon, Kay, on a litter, left for Mackinaw, and 
Harris proceeded to Leech Lake, where they had a suc- 
cessful trade with the Pillagers. Returning to the Sa- 


vanne River, they found Eeaume from Turtle Portage, 
and Picquet or Paquett. The former had wintered at 
the outlet of Eed Lake. By way of Fond du Lae, they 
also went to Mackinaw, and found Kay there in much 
pain, who soon left for Montreal, but on the twenty- 
eighth of August, 1785, died on his way, at the lake of 
the two Mountains. Another trader of prominence in 
the valley of the Minnesota River, when Anderson was 
there, was a shrewd and daring Scotchman, Murdoch 
Cameron. He died in that country, and for years, the 
voyageurs on the Minnesota, pointed out the spot known 
as Cameron's grave. 




British traders, daring the latter part of the last 
century, roamed over the Spanish and United States ter- 
ritory, and the valley of the upper Mississippi, without any 
remonstrance from the authorities. The North \Vest 
Company, of Montreal, even sent their geographer and 
astronomer, David Thompson, to survey the country, and 
the sources of the Mississippi. On the fourteenth 
of March, 1798, he reached the Company's post, near 
the junction of the Pembina, and Red River of the 
North, then in charge of Charles Chabouillier, and dis- 
covered that it was just below the 49th degree of North 
latitude, and within the territory of the United States. 
From there, he proceeded southward, ascending the Red 
River of the North, and in four days, came to the post 
of J. Baptiste Cadotte, which he ascertained to be in 
latitude 47 degrees, 54 minutes, 21 seconds. On the 
ninth of April he proceeded toward the northernmost 
source of the Mississippi. Afraid of finding ice he did 
not, at first, ascend Red Lake River, but went up the 
Clear Water, and then after a four mile portage, entered 
the Red Lake River and ascended it for thirty- two miles 
to Red Lake. On the twenty-third of April, he reached 
Turtle Lake, the most northern source of the Missis- 
sippi river. He then proceeded southward to Red 
Cedar Lake, where there was a trading house of the 

david Thompson's survey. 43 

North "West Company, in charge of John Saver, who, 
with his men, had been obliged to live all the winter 
before, on wild rice and maple sugar . He came to Sandy 
Lake, on the.sixth of May, where Charles Brooskey was 
in charge of the company's post. From this point, he 
followed the usual eastward-route, to the St. Louis river, 
and descended to near its entrance into Lake Superior, 
where he found the post of which M. Lemoine was at 
the head. Count Andreani of Milan, Italy, who, in 1791, 
was at the Grand Portage, severely criticised the North 
West Company. He wrote: "All the men employed in 
this trade, are paid in merchandise, which the company 
sells at an enormous profit. They purchase of the com- 
pany every article they need. These menial servants 
are generally extravagant, given to drinking to excess, 
and those are exactly the people the company wants. 
The speculation in the excesses of these people is car- 
ried so far, that if one of them happens to lead a sober, 
regular life, he is burdened with the most laborious work 
until, by continued ill-treatment, he is driven to drunk- 
enness, and debauchery, which causes the rum, blankets 
and trinkets to be sold to greater advantage." 

Alexander Henry, a nephew of the trader of the same 
name, who was at La Pointe, of Lake Superior, a quarter 
of a century before, was one of the partners of the North 
"West Company, and in 1800, was at the junction of the 
Assineboiue and Pied River of the North, where the 
ruins of the old French post was visible. The habits of 
the traders can be learned from an inspection of his 
journal, in the Parliament library, Ottawa, Canada. 
Under date of the twenty-second of August, he wrote: 
"This afternoon, the Indians brought me a horse, which 
I purchased for liquor, and about sunset, the Indians all 


arrived, and camped with us. Old Buffalo, still half 
drunk, brought me his eldest daughter, a girl about nine 
years of age, and would insist on my taking her for a 
wife, in hopes I would give him a keg of liquor, but I 
declined the offer." 

He visited, on September the fifth, Pembina River, 
and saw on the east side of the Red River the ruins of 
the first post, established by Peter Grant several years 
before. Two days later, while ascending the Red River, 
he saw a large herd of buffalo crossing the stream from 
the east side. On the eighth of September he came to 
Park River, and selected a place for a post, on a beauti- 
ful level near a small stream. Here he remained during 
the winter of 1800-1, and made some salt from the water 
of the Little Saline stream. On the second of January, 
1801, there arrived one Beardash, the eccentric son of 
Le Sucre, or Old Sweet, an Ojibway chief of Red Lake. 
Although swift-footed and well formed, he had adopted 
the peculiar walk and occupations of a woman. A few 
years before, his courage and rleetness had been tested 
on the banks of the Cheyenne River, where a party of 
Sioux and Ojibways had a conflict. One of the latter, 
had captured a bow. but had few arrows, and perceiving 
that the Sioux were gaining on them, Beardash took the 
bows and arrows of his comrades and told tliem to run and 
not be anxious f< >r him. Facing the foe he shot his arrows, 
and checked their pursuit. The Sioux then attempted 
to surround him, but at intervals be would stop, dis- 
charge some of his arrows, and keep them at bay. 
At length he reached the woodland, when the Sioux 
gave up the chase. 

During the month of January, Henry daily saw herds 
of buffalo grazing on the plains, while piercing 


winds were blowing. By the first of April, the Red 
River was free from ice, and for two days and two nights 
dead buffalo floated down the stream. In May, the an- 
nual visit was made to the Grand Portage, but on the 
fifteenth of September he was again at Pembina, where 
the Indians were very anxious to taste his "new miik*' 
as rum was called. Here was constructed, at this time, 
the first Red River cart, without any iron fastenings, to 
take the place of horses in transportation. Carts of 
this style were used in carrying furs over the prairies 
to the city of Saint Paul. About this time one of his 
young men offered to work for the company for life, if 
he could be allowed dressed leather for clothing, some 
tobacco, and the privilege of having an Indian woman, 
with whom he had fallen in love. 

Henry had taken the daughter of an Indian for a wife, 
but the father was anxious to give him a second daugh- 
ter, saying that all great men should have more than 
one wife, ami that he had throe, who were sisters. On 
the twenty-fourth of December, 1803, with a horse and 
carriole, he set out to visit a sub-trader, named Cotton, 
on Red Lake River, and made arrangements with two 
men to build a post and pass the summer at Red Lake, 
and by the last day of the year had returned to Riviere 
aux Marais, where Cadotte was left in charge of a post, 
and on the second of January, 1804, arrived at his fort 
at Park River. On the tenth, there arrived at the fort 
the body of trader Cameron, of Red Lake River, who 
had suddenly died a week before. It was brought by a 
dog train, wrapped in a tent and skins. In February 
Hesse, a sub-trader, and his wife, were sent to Red Lake 
to bring down maple sugar. Early in August. 1S05, 
Henry returned to Pembina from his annual visit to 


Grand Portage, and learned that on the third of July 
there had been a tight between a party of Sioux and 
Ojibways at Tongue River, not far from the post. 

Among the first of the Ojibways killed, was the father 
of the Indian woman, who lived as a wife, with Henry. 
About eight o'clock in the morning he had climbed a tree, 
to see if buffaloes were near, and as soon as he reached 
the top, two lurking Sioux shot him, and before he died, 
he had only time to call out to his family, in a tent near 
the tree, to save themselves. 

The discharge of the guns brought the Ojibways from 
their tents, who ran over the prairie, and reached a 
wooded island in Tongue River. An Ojibway who 
stayed behind to protect the women and children, acted 
bravely. As he saw the Sioux rushing toward him, he 
calmly stood and knocked one from his horse. Three 
young girls and a boy were taken prisoners, and the rest 
were killed and horribly mutilated. A mother with two 
children took one upon her back, and prevailed upon a 
young woman to carry the other, but the yelling Sioux 
drawing near, the young Avonian was so frightened that 
she threw down the child and ran to its mother, who, 
hearing the screams of the abandoned child, kissed the 
daughter she had been carrying, and said, "Run fast; take 
courage; I will return for your younger sister, or die in 
the attempt.'' She succeeded in reaching the child, but 
just as she was about to carry it off, a Sioux struck her 
with a war club, but as she fell to the ground she drew 
a knife and plunged it into the neck of her murderer. 
The scene after the fight was revolting. He who 
remained to protect the women and children had his 
skull partly removed and the muscles of his breast rip- 
ped up and thrown over his face. The mother of Henry's 


concubine was cut up in a shocking manner; and the 
bodies were pierced with arrows, which remained in the 

In January, 1S0G, Henry was visited by an Ojibway, 
who told him that a party of American soldiers had 
reached Leech Lake, and on the thirteenth of March, 
messengers arrived from the chief trader, Hugh McGil- 
lis, informing him that Lt. Pike of the United States 
Army had been to the post, and that hereafter they 
would be obliged to pay duties to the United States. 

While British traders were gathering peltries toward 
the sources of the Mississippi, others, with the same 
sympathies, were trading in the valley of the Minnesota 
River. In the autumn of 1806, a Canadian, Thomas G. 
Anderson, one of the most respectable of his class, had 
a post on its banks, about fifty miles above its junction 
with the Mississippi, and during the winter found abun- 
dance of game; while the Indians, when spring arrived, 
bi ought in plenty of furs. The next year, however, was 
a mild one. and during the winter of 1S0G-7, there was 
a scarcity of deer, and he and his voyageurs were obliged 
to live on muskrats and even wolves. The Indians were 
in a famishing condition, and lived upon roots. 

Iri the autumn of 180S, he established himself at Lac 
qui Parle, and went with a party of Sioux, to Big Stone 
Lake, to hunt for buffalo. There, for the first time, he 
heard the distant rumble, then, the terrible bellowing of 
thousands of buffaloes. A large number were killed, 
and when the Indians returned to the camp fire, the 
bones were roasted, and then, the marrow taken out, and 
eaten, and Anderson thought it very delicious. The 
next year he was in the same region, and the Yankton, 
old Wack-liaw-a-du-tah or Red Thunder was the head 


chief, highly esteemed by the traders, and the Sioux. 
He gained his reputation for bravery some years before, 
while hunting, near the Omaha Indians, on the Mis- 
souri. AVith lied Thunders' party, there happened to be 
an Ottawa of Michigan, whose people were hostile to 
the Omahas, and the latter determined to capture him. 
As they approached seeing he could not save his guest, 
he raised his gun and shot him, and the ball which 
passed through the Ottawa, then killed one of the Oma- 
has. The next morning, Red Thunder mounted his 
horse and rode alone to the Omaha camp, singing his 
death dirge, and with his knife cutting rlesh from his 
thighs, and said: "My friends ! I fed my dogs with your 
flesh, yesterday, and now am come to feast your dogs, on 
my poor flesh that we may continue as brethren." The 
foe was astonished and impressed by his course, and 
taking him from his horse, dressed his thighs, gave him 
presents, and sent him home, as a brave man, and from 
that time he was recognized as a leader among the Sioux. 

Ked Thunder passed the winter of 1809-10, at the tra- 
ding post, but he and the traders were obliged to live on 
bitter-sweet, and other roots, and at one time upon the 
flesh of an old horse. In March. 1810, the Indian hunt- 
ers arrived, and Anderson had a good trade. In his 
narrative, he writes: "I made a splendid trade, gave 
them two kegs, each, containing three gallons of high 
wines and six of water. True, they might have gotten 
the water at their camp, but carrying it on their backs 
twenty rive miles would mix it better."' It was perhaps 
w-ell for Anderson that soon after this sharp practice he 
left the Lac qui Parle region. 

In the autumn of 1810, under the guidance of Robert 
Dickson, several traders, among others, Anderson, James, 


and George Aird, Allen Wilniot, and Joseph Eolette, 
under the cover of a dark night, sneaked around the 
American fort, at Mackinaw, and smuggled into the 
Indian country, goods valued at 'about ten thousand 
pounds. Dickson, and the brothers Aird went above 
the Falls of St. Anthony, to trade; and Wilmot, Rolette 
and Anderson chose the island at the mouth of the Min- 
nesota river, as a wintering place. Wilmot and Eolette 
had never before been in the Sioux country. About 
three hundred lodges of Sioux came from their hunts 
in the spring, to the island, and after trading was fin- 
ished, high wines were issued. That day, Anderson 
was left at the post with only a negro and two white 
men, and in a few hours the Indians had become drunk, 
and began singing, dancing,, hair pulling, and stabbing 
each other. By midnight all the liquor was exhausted 
and one thirsty fellow leaped over the pickets of the 
post, then fired his gun, sending a bullet through the 
door. Eolette Avas greatly frightened, and broke his 
ram -rod in loading his gun. 

During the summer of 1811, Anderson visited the 
upper Mississippi, above Crow Wing river, in a Mack- 
inaw boat, with a one-pound swivel, which was dragged 
around the Falls of Saint Anthony. About the year 
1810, he took a young Sioux half-breed woman, for a 
wife, and had by her a son and a daughter, but when 
he left Minnesota in March, 1814, he sent them to 
their band, in accordance with the custom of the tra- 
ders. The girl grew up to be a decent woman, and in 
1850, was the wife of a Scotchman, who was farmer, at 
the village of Kaposia, just below the city of Saint Paul 




EVENTS FEOM A. D. 1800 TO A. D. 1819. 

■ On the seventh of May, 1800, the Northwest territory, 
which included all of the country north of the Ohio and 
east of the Mississippi River, was divided. The portion, 
not designated as Ohio, was organized as the Territory 
of Indiana. 

On the twentieth of December, 1803, the province of 
Louisiana, of which that portion of Minnesota west of 
the Mississippi was a part, was officially delivered up 
by the French, who had just obtained it from the 
Spaniards, according to treaty stipulations. 

To the transfer of Louisiana by France, after twenty 
days' possession, Spain at first objected, but in 1804 
withdrew all opposition. 

President Jefferson now deemed it an object of para- 
mount importance for the United States to explore the 
country so recently acquired, and make the acquaint- 
ance of the tribes residing therein; and steps were 
taken for an expedition to the upper Mississippi. 

Early in March, 1804, Captain Stoddard, of the 
United States army, arrived at St. Louis, the agent of 
the French Republic, to receive from the Spanish 
authorities the possession of the country; which he 
immediately transferred to the United States. 

On the twentieth of the same month the territory of 
upper Louisiana was constituted, comprising the pres- 


ent States of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and a large 
portion of Minnesota, and on the eleventh of January, 
1805, the territory of Michigan was organized. 

The first American officer who visited Minnesota, on 
business of a public nature, was one who was an orna- 
ment to his profession, and in energy and endurance a 
true representative of the citizens of the United 
States, the gallant Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who 
afterwards fell in battle at York, Upper Canada, and 
whose loss was justly mourned by the whole nation. 

When a young lieutenant, he was ordered by General 
Wilkinson to visit the region now known as Minnesota, 
and expel the British traders who were found violating 
the laws of the United States, and form alliances with 
the Indians. With only a few common soldiers, he was 
obliged to do the work of several men. At times he 
would precede his party for miles, to reconnoitre, and 
then would do the duty of hunter. During the day he 
would perform the part of surveyor, geologist, and as- 
tronomer, and at night, though hungry and fatigued, his 
lofty euthusiasm kept him awake until he copied his 
notes and plotted the courses. 

He reached on the twenty-first of September, 1S05, at 
breakfast time, the village of the Kaposia band of Sioux, 
which was then on the east bank of the Mississippi, just 
below Saint Paul, at the marsh known by frontiersmen, 
as Pig's Eye. The same day he passed the encampment 
of J. 13. Faribault, then a subordinate trader, three miles 
below Mendota. Arriving at the island at the contin- 
ence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, he set up 
his tents, and on Monday, the twenty-second, held a 
council with the Sioux, under a covering made by sus- 
pending sails, in the presence of traders Fraser and 


Murdoch Cameron, assisted by interpreters Pierre 
Roseau and Joseph Iteuville. At the conference, an 
agreement was made, by which the Sioux agreed to cede 
land from below the confluence of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi, up the latter stream, to include the Falls of 
Saint Anthony, and extending nine miles on each side 
of the river. 

The morning after the council, Lt. Pike was indignant 
at finding that his flag which had been flying, was not to 
be found, and supposing that it was negligence, had the 
soldier that had been on duty, arrested and flogged. 
The trader, Anderson, mentions in his "Narrative,"' that 
while the soldier was under disgrace, the Chief of the 
Kaposia band came up from his village and said that 
during the storm in the night, the flag had been blown 
into the river, and that some of his young men had found 
it, and they would return it, and then spoke as follows: 

"Young man! my name is Onk-e-tah-en-du-tah. It 
was your fault, and not the soldier's, that your flag 
floated down the river. Now, I warn you. if you hurt 
this man during the winter, I will make a hole in your 
coat when you come back in the spring. Go, now; you 
may tell all the Sioux you meet that I desire them to be 
kind to you and your soldiers, but, as I have warned 
you, beware of hurting that man's back." The story is 
probably exaggerated, but Pike records in his journal 
that he did whip a soldier for the loss of the flag, and 
on the twenty-seventh of the month makes an entry that 
"two young Indians brought my flag across by land, 
just as we came in sight" of the Falls of Saint Anthony. 
On the last of the month, he was encamped upon Hen- 
nepin Island, above the Falls. By the tenth of October. 
he had ascended the Mississippi, as far as an island 




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where, in 1797, the traders Porlier and Joseph Renville 
had wintered, and by the last of the month, had erected 
winter quarters, enclosed with pickets, in the vicinity of 
Swan River, and here was visited by the noted British 
trader, Robert Dickson, who was then trading at a point 
about sixty miles below. With sleds, on the third of 
January, 1806, he reached the trading post of the North- 
west Company, at Bed Cedar, now Cass Lake, and was 
disturbed by seeing the British flag flying. From thence 
he went to Sandy Lake, and found a trader by the name 
of Grant in charge. Afterwards he proceeded to 
Leech Lake, where he arrived on the first of February, 
and was hospitably received by Hugh McGillis, the 
head of the Northwest Company in this district, and 
hoisting the United States Hag, allowed the Indians 
and soldiers to shoot at the British flag until it fell. 
McGillis made fair promises to obey the laws of the 
United States, and by the eleventh of April, Pike had 
returned to the mouth of the Minnesota River, and the 
next day began his voyage to Saint Louis. 

Notwithstanding the professions of friendship made 
to Pike, in the second war with Great Britain, Dickson 
and others were found bearing arms against the Republic. 

A year after Pike left Prairie du Chien it was evident 
that, under some secret influence, the Indian tribes were 
combining against the United States. In the year 1809, 
Nicholas Jarrot declared that the British traders were 
furnishing the savages with guns for hostile purposes. 
On the first of May, 1812, two Indians were appre- 
hended at Chicago, who were on their way to meet Dick- 
sou at Green Bay. They had taken the precaution to 
hide letters in their moccasins, and bury them in the 
ground, and were allowed to proceed after a brief deten- 


tion. Fraser, of Prairie du Chien, who had been with 
Pike at the council at the mouth of the Minnesota River, 
was at the portage of the Wisconsin when the Indians 
delivered these letters, which stated that the British 
flag would soon be flying again at Mackinaw. At Green 
Bay, the celebrated warrior, Black Hawk, was placed in 
charge of the Indians who were to aid the British. The 
American troops at Mackinaw were obliged, on the sev- 
enteenth of July, 1S12, to capitulate without tiring a 
single gun. One who was made prisoner writes from 
Detroit to the Secretary of War: 

" The persons who commanded the Indians are Rob- 
ert Dickson, Indian trader, and John Askin, Jr., Indian 
agent, and his sou. The latter two were painted and 
dressed after the manner of the Indians. Those who 
commanded the Canadians are John Johnson, Crawford, 
Pothier, Armitinger, La Croix, Rolette, Franks, Living- 
ston, and other traders, some of whom were lately con- 
cerned in smuggling British goods into the Indian 
country, and in conjunction with others, have been using 
their utmost efforts, several months before the declara- 
tion of war, to excite the Indians to take up arms. The 
least resistance from the fort would have been attended 
with the destruction of all the persons who fell into the 
hands of the British, as I have been assured by some of 
the British traders." 

On the first day of May, 1814, Governor Clark, with 
two hundred men, left St. Louis, to build a fort at the 
junction of the Wisconsin and Mississippi. Twenty 
days before he arrived at Prairie du Chien, Dickson had 
started for Mackinaw with a band of Dakotahs and 
Wiunebagoes. The place was left in command of Cap- 
tain Deace and the Mackinaw Fencibles. The Dako- 


talis refusing to co-operate, when the Americans made 
their appearance, they lied. The Americans took pos- 
session of the old Mackinaw house, in which they found 
nine or ten trunks of papers belonging to Dickson; in 
one of the papers was the following: "Arrived, from 
below, a few Winnebagoes with scalps. Gave them 
tobacco, six pounds powder and six pounds ball.*' 

A fort was immediately commenced on the site of the 
old residence of the late H. L. Dousman, which was 
composed of two block-houses in the angles, and another 
on the bank of the river, with a subterranean communi- 
cation. In honor of the Governor of Kentucky it was 
named "Shelby." 

The fort was in charge of Lieutenant Perkins and sixty 
rank and file; and two gunboats, each of which carried a 
six-pounder and several howitzers, were commanded by 
Captains Yeiser, Sullivan and Aid-de-camp Kennedy. 

Anderson, the former Minnesota trader, was at Mack- 
inaw, when the news came of the American occupation 
of Prairie du Chien. He was active in raising a com- 
pany of volunteers 1 to attack them, in which Joseph 
Renville, Pike's interpreter, was a lieutenaut. About 
the twentieth of July, they reached the mouth of the 
Wisconsin river, and sending a flag of truce to the 
American fort, demanded its surrender, which was 
refused. The next day, the British attacked, and were 
successful, taking sixty-five prisoners, which, on parole, 
were sent to St. Louis, in a boat, under the escort of 
Lt. Brisbois. 

A few of the Sioux remained true to the American 
flag, among others Red Wing, whose band generally 

1. Among the volunteers, were Joseph Rolette, Louis and P. Provencule, J 
R. Faribault, J. B. r;ir;inl, John and Colin Campbell, ami J. J. Porlier. 


went with the British. On the twenty-fourth of August, 
1814, Anderson, then in command of Fort McKay, 
ordered Joseph Renville to visit the band of Sioux 
friendly to Great Britain, and to ask Little Crow, and 
other chiefs, to hold themselves in readiness at Prairie 
La Crosse. Three days later fifty Sioux of the Feuille 
(Fuhyay) baud, joined the British at Prairie du 
Chien. Duncan Graham, Feuille (Fuhyay ) and a 
number of Sioux participated in an attack, on the 
seventh of September, upon the Americans at Rock Isl- 
and. On the twenty-eighth Feuille (Fuhyay) and Little 
Crow, with one hundred warriors and their families came 
to Fort McKay, and remained, in the vicinity, for several 

Among those who came to St. Louis, after the surren- 
der of Fort Shelby, was a one-eyed Sioux, called by the 
French, Orignal Leve, ( Fusing Moose i and by his own 
people Tah-ma-hah. In the fall of 1814, with another 
Sioux, he ascended the Missouri river as far as the Au 
Jacques or James Piiver, and from thence struck across 
the country, enlisting the Sioux in favour of the United 
States, and at length arrived at Prairie du Chien. On 
his arrival, Dickson accosted him, and inquired from 
whence he came, and what was his business; at the same 
time rudely snatching his bundle from his shoulder, and 
searching for letters. The "one-eyed warrior" told him 
that he was from St. Louis, and that he had promised 
the white chiefs there, that he would go to Prairie du 
Chien, and that he had kept his promise. 

Dickson then placed him in confinement in Fort Mc 
Kay, as the garrison was called by the British, and 
ordered him to divulge what information he possessed. 
or he would put him to death. But the faithful fellow 


said be would impart nothing, and that he was ready 
for death if he wished to kill him. Finding that con- 
finement had no effect, Dickson at last liberated him. 
He then left, and visited the bands of Sioux on the Up- 
per Mississippi, with which he passed the winter. When 
he returned in the spring, Dickson had gone to Macki- 
naw, and Capt. A. Bulger, of the Royal New Foundland 
Begiment, was in command of the fort. 

On the twenty-third of May, 1815, Capt. Bulger, wrote 
from Fort McKay to Gov. Clark at St. Louis: ''Official 
intelligence of peace reached me yesterday. I propose 
evacuating the fort, taking with me the guns captured 
in the fort. * * * * I have not the smallest hesi- 
tation in declaring my decided opinion, that the pres- 
ence of a detachment of British and United States 
troops at the same time, would be the means of embroil- 
ing one party or the other in a fresh rupture with the 
Indians, which I presume it is the wish of both govern- 
ments to avoid." 

The next month the "One-Eyed Sioux," with three 
other Indians and a squaw, visited St. Louis, and he in- 
formed Gov. Clark that the British commander left the 
cannons in the fort when he evacuated, but iu a day or 
two came back, took the cannons, and tired the fort with 
the American tlag dying, but that he had rushed in and 
saved it from being burned. As Superintendent of In- 
dian affairs of Missouri Territory, Governor Clark gave 
him the following certificate: "In consideration of the 
fidelity, zeal and attachment testified by Tar-mah-hah, 
of the lied Wing's band of Sioux, to the government of 
the United States, and by virtue of the power and author- 
ity in me vested, do hereby confirm the said Tar-mah- 
hah as chief in the said band of Sioux aforesaid, having 


bestowed on him the small sized medal, wishing all and 
singular, the Indians, inhabitants thereof, to obey him 
as a chief, and the officers and others in the service of 
the United States to treat him accordingly." Tah-ma-hah 
did not die until 1SG3, and was more than eighty years 
of age. 

In the year 1811, Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, 
a kind but visionary Scotch nobleman, conceived the 
project of establishing fin agricultural colony near Lake 
Winnipeg, and obtained a grant of land from the Hud- 
son Bay Company, which he called Ossiniboia. 1 In the 
autumn of 181*2 a few Scotchmen sent out by Selkirk 
arrived at Pembina within United States territory, and 
there passed the winter, and called the post Fort Daer. 
In the fall of 1815 Selkirk arrived in New York city on 
his way to visit the dispirited settlers in the lied River 
valley. Proceeding to Montreal he found a messenger 
who had traveled on foot, in mid-winter, from the Bed 
River, by way of Red Lake, and Fond du Lac, of Lake 
Superior. He sent back by this man kind messages to 
the colonists, but he was way-laid near Fond du Lac and 
robbed of his canoe and dispatches. An Ojibway chief 
at Sandy Lake afterwards testified that a trader named 
Grant offered him rum and tobacco to send persons to 
intercept a bearer of dispatches to Red River, and soon 
this messenger was brought in by a negro and some In- 

Failing to obtain military aid from the British author- 
ities in Canada, Selkirk made an engagement with four 
officers and eighty privates of the discharged Meuron 

1. Lt. Edward Chappell. of th« British Navy, in "Narrative of a Voyage to 
Hudson'* Bay," published in 1H17 in London, asserts Ossiniboia i> a Gaelic 
compound word, Osna-Boiti (O&sian'w Town), and chosen to please the immi- 
grants, aad also because of its resemblance to the name of the Assineboine 
Indians, pronounced by the half-breeds, Osnaboyne. 


regiment, twenty of the De Watteville, and a few of the 
Glengary Fencibles, which had served in the late war 
with the United States, to accompanj him to Red River. 
They were to receive monthly wages for navigating the 
boats to Bed River, to have lauds assigned them, and a 
free passage if they wished to return. 

When he reached Sault St. Marie he received the in- 
telligence that the colony had agaiu been destroyed, by 
the influence of traders upon suspicious half-breeds, 
and that Semple, a mild, amiable, but not altogether ju- 
dicious man, the chief governor of the factories and 
territories of the Hudson Bay Company, residing at 
Red River, had been killed. 

Before he heard of the death of Semple, the Earl of 
Selkirk had made arrangements to visit his colony by 
way of Fond du Lac, the St. Louis River, and Red 
Lake of Minnesota, but he now changed his mind and 
proceeded with his force to Fort William, the chief 
trading post of the Northwest Company on Lake Supe- 
rior; and apprehending the principal partners, warrants 
of commitment were issued, and they were forwarded to 
the Attorney-General of Upper Canada. 

While Selkirk was engaged at Fort William, a party 
of immigrants in charge of Miles McDonnel, Governor, 
and Captain D'Orsomen, went forward to reinforce the 
coloin*. At Rainy Lake they obtained the guidance of a 
man who had all the characteristics of an Indian, and 
yet had a bearing which suggested a different origin. 
By his efficiency, and temperate habits, he had secured 
the respect of his employers, and on the Earl of Sel- 
kirk's arrival at Pied River, his attention was called to 
him, and in his welfare he became deeply interested. 
By repeated conversations with him, memories of a dif- 


ferent kind of existence were aroused, and the light of 
other days began to brighten. Though he had forgotten 
his fathers name, he furnished sufficient data for Sel- 
kirk to proceed with a search for his relatives. Visiting 
the United States, in 1817, he published a circular in the 
papers of the Western States, which led to the identifi- 
cation of the man. 

It appeared from his own statement, and those of his 
friends, that his name was John Tanner, the sou of a 
minister of the gospel, who, about the year 1700, lived 
on the Ohio River, near the Miami. Shortly after his 
location there, a band of roving Indians passed near the 
bouse and found John Tanner, then a little boy, filling 
his hat with walnuts from under a tree. They seized 
him and fled. The party was led by an Ottawa whose 
wife had lost a son, and to compensate for his death, the 
mother begged that a boy of the same age might be 

Adopted by the band, Tanner grew up an Indian in 
his tastes and habits, and was noted for bravery. Sel- 
kirk was successful in finding his relatives. After twen- 
ty-eight years of separation, John Tanner, in 1818, met 
his brother Edward, near Detroit, and went with him to 
his home in Missouri. He soon left his brother and 
went back to the Indians. For a time he was interpreter 
for Henry R. Schoolcraft, but became lazy and ill-nat- 
ured, and in 1836, skulking behind some bushes, shot 
and killed Schoolcraft's brother, ami tied to the wilder- 
ness, where, in 1847, he died. His son, James, was 
kindly treated by the missionaries to the Ojibways of 
Minnesota; but he walked in the footsteps of his father. 
In the year 18.51, he attempted to impose upon the Pres- 
byterian minister in Saint Paul, and when detected. 

Selkirk's treaty at grand forks. 61 

called upon the Baptist minister, who, believing him a 
penitent, cut a hole in the ice, and received him into the 
church by immersion. In time, the Baptists found him 
out, when he became an Unitarian missionary, and, at 
last, it is said, met death, by violence. 

Lord Selkirk was in the Red River Valley during the 
summer of 1S17, and on the eighteenth of July con- 
cluded a treaty at the Grand Forks of Bed River, 
in the territory of the United States, with the 
Crees and Saulteaux, for a tract of land beginning 
at the mouth of the Bed River, and extending along the 
same as far as the Great Forks (now Grand Forks) at 
the mouth of Red Lake River, and along the Assinni- 
boine River as far as Musk Bat River, and extending to 
the distance of six miles from Fort Douglas on every 
side, and likewise from Fort Daer (Pembina) and also 
from the Great Forks, and in other parts extending to 
the distance of two miles from the banks of the said 

Having restored order and confidence, attended by 
three or four persons, he crossed the plains to the Min- 
nesota River, and from thence proceeded to St. Louis. 
The Indian agent at Prairie du Chien was not pleased 
with Selkirk's trip through Minnesota; and on the sixth 
of February, ISIS, wrote the Governor of Illinois under 
excitement, some groundless suspicions: 

"What do you suppose, sir, has been the result of the 
passage through my agency of this British nobleman? 
Two entire bands, and part of a third, all Sioux, have 
deserted us and joined Dickson, who has distributed to 
them large quantities of Indian presents, together with 
flags, medals, etc. Knowing this, what must have been 
my feelings on hearing that his lordship had met with a 


favourable reception at St. Louis. The newspapers an- 
nouncing his arrival, and general Scottish appearance, 
all tend to discompose me; believing as I do, that he is 
plotting with his friend Dickson our destruction — sharp- 
ening the savage scalping knife, and colonizing a tract 
of country so remote as that of the Red River, for the 
purpose, no doubt, of monopolizing the fur and peltry 
trade of this river, the Missouri and their waters; a trade 
of the first importance to our Western States and Terri- 
tories. A courier who had arrived a few days since, 
confirms the belief that Dickson is endeavouring to un- 
do what I have done, and secure to the British govern- 
ment the affections of the Sioux, and subject the North- 
west Company to his lordship. * * * Dickson, as I 
have betore observed, is situated near the head of the 
St. Peter's, to which place he transports his goods from 
Selkirk's Red River establishment, in carts made for the 
purpose. The trip is performed in five days, sometimes 
less. He is directed to build a fort on the highest land 
between Lac du Traverse and Red River, which he sup- 
poses will be the established lines. This fort will be 
defended by twenty men, with two small pieces of artil- 

In the year 1820, at Berne, Switzerland, a circular was 
issued, signed R. May D'Uzistorf, Captain, in his Brit- 
anic Majesty's service, and agent plenipotentiary to 
Lord Selkirk. Like many documents to induce immi- 
gration, it was so highly colored as to prove a delusion 
and a snare. 

Under the influence of these statements, a number 
were induced to embark. In the spring of 1821, about 
two hundred persons assembled on the banks of the 
Rhine to proceed to the region west of Lake Superior. 


Having descended the Rhine to the vicinity of Rotter- 
dam, they went aboard the ship "Lord Wellington," and 
after a voyage across the Atlantic, and amid the ice-floes 
of Hudson Bay, they reached York Fort. Here they 
debarked, and entering batteaux, ascended Nelson Riv- 
er for twenty days, when they came to Lake Winnipeg, 
and coasting along the left shore they reached the Red 
River of the North, to feel that they had been deluded, 
and to long for a milder clime. If they did not sing the 
Switzers "Song of Home,'' they appreciated its senti- 
ments, and gradually many of these immigrants removed 
to the banks of the Mississippi River. Some settled in 
Minnesota, and were the first to raise cattle and till the 
soil in this State. 

Major Stephen H. Long of the Engineer Corps of the 
United States Army, in 1817, ascended in a six-oared 
skiff to the Falls of Saint Anthony. His party con- 
sisted of a Mr. Hempstead, a native of New London, 
Connecticut, who had been living at Prairie du Chien, 
several soldiers, and a half-breed interpreter named 
Rocque. A bark canoe accompanied him. containing 
two grandsons of Captain Jonathan Carver. On the 
twelfth of July, Long arrived at Trenipe a Team or Kettle 
Hill. Crossing the river, he visited the Sioux village of 
which Wapashah, called by the French, La Feuille 
(Fuhyay),was chief, but who was then absent. On the six- 
teenth he approached the vicinity of where is now the 
city of Saint Paul, and in his journal wrote: ""Passed 
a Sioux village on our right containing fourteen cabins. 
The name of the chief is the Petit Corbeau, or Little 
Raven. The Indians were all absent, on a hunting party, 
up the River St. Croix, which is but a little distance 
across the country, from the village. Of this we were 


very glad, as this band are said to be the most notorious 
beggars of all the Sioux on the Mississippi. One of their 
cabins is furnished with loop holes, and is situated so 
near the water that the opposite side of the river is 
within musket-shot range from the building. By this 
means, the Petit Corbeau is enabled to exercise a com- 
mand over the passage of the river, and has in some 
instances compelled traders to land with their goods, 
and induced them, probably through fear of offending 
him, to bestow presents to a considerable amount, before 
he would suffer them to pass. The cabins are a kind of 
stockade buildings, and of a better appearance than any 
Indian dwellings I have before met with. 

" Two miles above the village, on the same side of the 
river, is Carver's Cave, at which we stopped to break- 
fast. However interesting it may have been, it does 
not possess that character in a very high degree at pres- 
ent. We descended with lighted candles to its lower 
extremity. The entrance is very low and about eight- 
feet broad, so that a man in order to enter it must be 
completely prostrate. The angle of descent witliin the 
cave is about twenty-five degrees. The flooring is an 
inclined plane of quicksand, formed of the rock in which 
the cavern is formed. The distance from its entrance to 
its inner extremity is twenty-four paces, and the -width 
in the broadest part about nine, and its greatest height 
about seven feet. In shape it resembles a baker's oven. 
The cavern was once probably much more extensive. My 
interpreter informed me, that, since his remembrance, 
the entrance was not less than ten feet high and its length 
far greater than at present. The rock in which it is 
formed is a very white sandstone, so friable that the 
fragments of it will almost crumble to sand when taken 


into the hand. A few yards below the mouth of the 
cavern is a very copious spring of fine water issuing 
from the bottom of the cliff. 

"Five miles above this, is the Fountain Cave, on the 
same side of the river, formed in the same kind of sand- 
stone but of a more pure and fine quality. It is far 
more curious and interesting than the former. The en- 
trance of the cave is a large winding hall about one 
hundred and fifty feet in length, fifteen feet in width, 
and from eight to sixteen feet in height, finely arched 
overhead, and nearly perpendicular. Next succeeds a 
narrow passage and difficult of entrance, which opens 
into a most beautiful circular room, finely arched above, 
and about forty feet in diameter. The cavern then con- 
tinues a meandering course, expanding occasionally into 
small rooms of a circular form. We penetrated about 
one hundred and fifty yards, till our candles began to 
fail us, when we returned. To beautify and embellish 
the scene, a fine crystal stream flows through the cavern 
and cheers the lonesome, dark retreat with its enliven- 
ing murmurs. The temperature of the water in the cave 
was 46 deg., and that of the air 60 deg. Entering this 
cold retreat from an atmosphere of SO deg. I thought it 
not prudent to remain in it lung enough, to take its sev- 
eral dimensions, and meander its courses, particularly as 
we had to wade in water to our knees, in many places, 
in order to penetrate as far as Ave went. The fountain 
supplies an abundance of water as fine as I ever drank. 
This cavern, I was informed by my interpreter, has been 
discovered but a few years, and that theludians former- 
ly living in its neighborhood knew nothing of it till 
within six years past. That it is not the same as that 
discovered by Carver is evident, not only from this cir- 


cunistance, but also from the circumstance that instead 
of a stagnant pool, and only one accessible room of a 
very different form, this cavern has a brook running 
through it, and at least four rooms in succession, one 
after the other. Carver's Cave is fast filling up with 
Sand, so that no water is now found in it, whereas this, 
from the very nature of the place, must be enlarging, as 
the fountain will carry along with its current all the 
sand that falls into it from the roof and sides of the 

On the night of the sixteenth, he arrived at the Falls 
of Saint Anthony aud encamped on the east shore just 
below the cataract. He writes: 

"The place where we encamped last night needed no 
embellishment to render it romantic in the highest de- 
gree. The banks on both sides of the river are about 
one hundred feet high, decorated with trees and shrub- 
bery of various kinds. A few yards below us was a 
beautiful cascade of fine spring water, pouring down 
from a projecting precipice about one hundred feet 
high. On our left was the Mississippi hurrying through 
its channel with great velocity, and about three-quarters 
of a mile above us, in plain view, was the majestic cata- 
ract of the falls of St. Anthony. The murmuring of the 
cascade, the roaring of the river, and the thunder of the 
cataract, all contributed to render the scene the most 
interesting and magnificent of any I ever before wit- 

"The perpendicular fall of the water at the cataract, 
was stated by Pike in his journal, as sixteen aud a half 
feet, which I found to be true, by actual measurement. 
To this height, however, four or five feet may be added 
for the rapid descent which immediately succeeds to the 


perpendicular fall within a few yards below. Imme- 
diately at the cataract, the river is divided into two 
parts, by an island which extends considerably above 
and below the cataract, and is about five hundred yards 
long. The channel on the right side of the Island is 
about three times the width of that on the left. The 
quantity of water passing through them is not, however, 
in the same proportion, as about one-third part of the 
whole passes through the left channel. In the broadest 
channel, just below the cataract, is a small island also, 
about fifty yards in length ami thirty in breadth. Both 
of these islands contaiu the same kind of rocky forma- 
tion as the banks of the river, and are nearly as high. 
Besides these, there are immediately at the foot of the 
cataract, two islands of very inconsiderable size, situa- 
ted in the right channel also. The rapids commence 
several hundred yards above the cataract, and continue 
about eight miles below. The fall of the water, 
beginning at the head of the rapids, and extend- 
ing two hundred and sixty rods down the river to where 
the portage road commences, below the cataract is, 
according to Pike, fifty-eight feet. If this estimate be 
correct the whole fall from the head to the foot of the 
rapids, is not probably much less than one hundred feet. 
But as I had no instrument sufficiently accurate to level, 
where the view must necessarily be pretty extensive, I 
took no pains to ascertain the extent of the fall. The 
mode I adopted to ascertain the height of a cataract, was 
to suspend a line and plummet from the table rock on 
the south side of the river, which at the same time had 
very little water passing over it as the river was unusu- 
ally low." 



Occurrences During the Military Occupation. 

On tlie tenth of February, 1S19, General Jacob Brown, 

the General-in-Chief of the United States Army, issued 
an order, that a portion of the Fifth Regiment should 
proceed to the mouth of the Minnesota River, and estab- 
lish the first military post, in the valley of the Missis- 
sippi, above the Wisconsin River. 

On Wednesday, the last day of June, Colonel Leaven- 
worth, and a portion of his regiment, arrived at Prairie 
du Chien. At this point Charlotte Seymour, a native of 
Hartford, Conn., the wife of Lieutenant, afterwards 
Captain Nathan Clark, gave birth to a daughter, whose 
first baptismal name became Charlotte, and middle 
name Ouisconsin, the French form of spelling, given by 
her father's fellow officers, because she was born at the 
junction of the Wisconsin River with the Mississippi 1 

In June, under instructions from the War Depart- 
ment, Major Thomas Forsyth, connected with the office 
of Indian Affairs, left St. Louis with two thousand dol- 
lars worth of goods, to be distributed among the Sioux 

ui^ in*' 11 ..■» »n_n»i\ »u -tun oi'uu^, iY» u'WL"t\ v *. iif- \><i> iuit.n>anj' i > [ i_ L 4 .' ii"r 

General. Both were livinsi in January, 1887, in Minneapolis, honored mul lie- 
loved by the citizens of Minnesota. 


Indians, in accordance with the agreement of 1S05, 
already referred to, by the late General Pike. 

About nine o'clock o£ the morning of the fifth of July, 
he joined Leavenworth and his command at Prairie du 
Chien. Some time was occupied by Leavenworth await- 
ing the arrival of ordnance, provisions, and recruits, but 
on Sunday morning, the eighth of August, about eight 
o'clock, the expedition set out for the point now known 
as Mendota. The Hotilla was cpiite imposing; there 
were the Colonel's barge, fourteen batteaux with ninty- 
eight soldiers and officers, two large canal or Mackinaw 
boats, filled with various stores, and Forsyth's keel boat, 
containing goods and presents for the Indians. On the 
twenty-third of August, Forsyth reached the mouth of 
the Minnesota with his boat, and the next morning Col. 
Leavenworth arrived, and selecting a place at Mendota, 
near the present railroad bridge, he ordered the soldiers 
to cut down trees and make a clearing. On the next 
Saturday, Col. Leavenworth, Major Tose, Surgeon Pur- 
cell, Lieutenant Clark, and the wife of Captain Gooding, 
visited the Falls of Saint Anthony, with Forsyth, in his 
keel boat. Early in September, two more boats and a 
bateau, with officers, and one hundred and twenty 
recruits arrived. 

The officers with their wives lived in the boats until 
rude huts and pickets were erected. Before the cpiar- 
ters were completed the rigor of winter was felt, and the 
removal from the open boats to the log cabins, plastered 
with clay, was considered a privilege. Though the first 
winter was extremely cold, the garrison remained cheer- 
ful, and the officers maintained pleasant social inter- 

During the winter of IS'20, Laidlow and others, in 



behalf of Lord Selkirk's Scotch settlers at Pembina, 
whose crops had been destroyed by grasshoppers, passed 
the cantonment on their way to Prairie du Chien to pur- 
chase wheat. Upon the fifteenth of April they began 
their return, with their Mackinaw boats, each" loaded 
with two hundred bushels of wheat, one hundred of oats 
and thirty of peas, and reached the mouth of the Minne- 
sota early in May. Ascending this stream to Big Stone 
Lake, the boats were drawn on rollers a mile and a half 
to Lake Traverse, and on the third of June arrived at 
Pembina, and cheered the desponding and needy set- 
tlers of the Selkirk colony. 

The first sutler of the post was a Mr. Devotion. He 
brought with him a young man named Philander Pres- 
cott, who was born in 1801, at Phelpstown, Ontario 
county, New York. At first they stopped at Mud Hen 
Island, in the Mississippi, below the mouth of St. Croix 
River. Coming up late in the year 1819, at the site of 
the present town of Hastings, they found a keel-boat 
loaded with supplies for the cantonment, in charge of 
Lieut. Oliver, detained by the ice. 

Amid all the changes of the troops, Mr. Prescott 
remained nearly all his life in the vicinity of the post, 
to which he came when a mere lad, and was at length 
killed in the Sioux massacre. 

In the spring of 1820, Jean Baptiste Faribault 
brought up Leavenworth's horses from Prairie du Chien. 
The first Indian Agent at the post was a former army 
officer, Lawrence Taliaferro, pronounced Toliver. As 
he had the confidence of the Government for twentv-one 
successive years, he is deserving of notice. 

His family was of Italian origin, and among the early 
settlers of Virginia. He was born in 1794, in Kin" 


William county in that State, and when, in 1812, war was 
declared against Great Britain, with four brothers, he 
entered the army, and was commissioned as Lieutenant 
of the Thirty-fifth Infantry. He behaved gallantly at 
Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor, and after peace was de- 
clared, was retained as a First Lieutenant of the 
Third Infantry. In 181G, he was stationed at Fort Dear- 
born, now the site of Chicago. "While on a furlough, he 
called one day upon President Monroe, who told him 
that a fort would be built near the Falls of Saint An- 
thony, and an Indian Agency established, to which he of- 
fered to appoint him. His commission was dated March 
27th, 1819, and he proceeded in due time to his post. 

On the 5th day of May, 1S20, Leavenworth left his win- 
ter quarters at Mendota, crossed the stream, and made a 
summer camp near the present military graveyard, which 
in consequence of a fine spring had been called Camp 
Cold Water. The first distinguished visitors at the new- 
encampment were Gov. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, and 
Henry II. Schoolcraft, who arrived in July, having by 
way of the St. Louis River visited Pied Cedar Lake, after 
this period, known as Cass Lake. 

The Indian Agent, on the third of August, wrote to 
Colonel Leavenworth: "His Excellency, Governor Cass, 
during his visit to this post, remarked to me that the 
Indians were spoiled, and said they should not be per- 
mitted to enter the camp. An unpleasant affair has 
lately taken place; I mean the stabbing of the old chief 
Mahgossan, by his comrade. This was caused, doubt- 
less, by an anxiety to obtain the chief's whiskey. I beg, 
therefore, that no whiskey whatever be given to any In- 
dians, unless it be through their proper agent. While 
an overplus of whiskey thwarts the beneficent and hu- 


mane policy of the government, it entails misery upon 
the Indians, and endangers their lives." 

A few days 'later, Col. Josiah Snelling recently pro- 
moted, came, with his family, relieved Leavenworth, in- 
fused energy, and on the tenth of September laid the 
corner stone of the Fort in the presence of the troops. 
About the same time the daughter of Captain Gooding 
was married to Lieutenant P. R Green, the Adjutant of 
the regiment, the first marriage of white persons in 
Minnesota. The wife of the Colonel, during the sum- 
mer, gave birth to a daughter, the first child of white 
parents, born in Minnesota. The infant lived thirteen 
months, was buried in the military grave yard, and a 
stone placed over the remains. 

Soon after Col. Snelling assumed command, a party 
of the Sisseton Sioux killed, on the Missouri, Isadore 
Poupon, a half breed, and Joseph Andrews, a Canadian, 
engaged in the fur trade. The Indian Agent, through 
his interpreter, Colin Campbell, notified the band that 
trade would cease, until the murderers were delivered. 
At a council held at Big Stone Lake, one of the murder- 
ers, and the aged father of another, agreed to surrender 
themselves. On the twelfth of November, 1820, accom- 
panied by their friends, they approached the encamp- 
ment, and solemnly marched to the center of the parade. 
A Sisseton, bearing a flag, was at the head; then the 
murderer, and the father who had offered himself as a 
substitute for his son, their arms pinioned, and large 
wooden splinters thrust the flesh above the elbows indi- 
cating their contempt for pain and death; in the rear 
followed friends and relatives with them, chanting the 
death dirge. Having arrived in front of the guard, fire 
was kindled, and the British flag burned; then the mux- 


derer delivered up his medal, and both prisoners were 
surrounded. Col. Snelling detained the old chief, while 
the murderer was sent to St. Louis for trial. 

The fort was lozenge shaped, in view of the tongue of 
land, between the two rivers, on which, it was built. The 
first row of barracks was of hewn logs, obtained from the 
pine forests of Hum River, but the other buildings 
were of stone. Mrs. Van Cleve, writes: "In 1821 the 
fort, although not complete, was fit for Occupancy. My 
father had assigned to him, the quarters next beyond the 
steps, leading to the Commissary's stores, and during 
the year, my little sister Juliet was born there. At a 
later period, my father and Major Garland obtained per- 
misison to build more commodious quarters outside the 
walls, and the result was the two stone houses, after- 
wards occupied by the Indian Agent, and interpreter, 
lately destroyed. " 

Early in August, a young and intelligent mixed blood, 
Alexis Bailly, in after years a member of the legislature 
of Minnesota, left the cantonment, with the first drove 
of cattle for the Selkirk Settlement, and the next winter, 
returned witli Col. Robert Dickson, and Messrs. Laidlow 
and Mackenzie. 

The next month a party of Sissetons visited the Indian 
Agent, and told him that they had started with another 
of the murderers, to which reference has been made, 
but that on the way, he had, through fear of being hung, 
killed himself. 

This fall, a mill was constructed for the use of the 
garrison, on the west side of St. Anthony Falls, under 
the supervision of Lieutenant MeCabe. During the 
fall, George Gooding, Captain by brevet, resigned, and 
became sutler at Prairie du Chien. He was a native of 


Massachusetts, and in 1808 entered the army as ensign. 
In 1810, he became a Second Lieutenant, and the next 
year, was wounded at Tippecanoe. 

Early in January, 1822, there came to the Fort, from 
the Red River of the North, Col. Robert Dickson, Laid- 
low, a Scotch farmer, the superintendent of Lord Sel- 
kirk's experimental farm, and one Mackenzie, on their 
way to Prairie du Chien. Dickson returned with a 
drove of cattle, but owing to the hostility of the Sioux, 
his cattle were scattered, and never reached Pembina. 

During the winter of 1823, Agent Taliaferro was in 
"Washington. "While returning, in March, he was at a 
hotel in Pittsburgh, when he received a note signed G. 
C. Beltrami, who was an Italian exile, asking permiss- 
ion to accompany him to the Indian territory. He 
was tall, and commanding in appearance, and gentle- 
manly in bearing, and Taliaferro was so forcibly im- 
pressed as to accede to the request. After reaching St. 
Louis, they embarked on the first steamboat, for the 
Upper Mississippi. 

It was named the Virginia, and was built in Pitts- 
burg, twenty-two feet in width, and one hundred and 
eighteen feet in leugth, in charge of a Captain Craw- 
ford. It reached the Fort, on the tenth of May, and was 
saluted by the discharge of cannon. Among the pass- 
engers, beside the Agent, and Italian, were Major Bid- 
die. Lieut. Russell, and others. 

The arrival of the Virginia is an era in the history of 
the Dakotah nation, and will probably be transmitted 
to their posterity as long as they exist as people. They 
say their sacred men, the night before, dreamed of seeing 
some monster of the waters, which frightened them very 
much. As the boat neared the shore, men, women, and 


children beheld with silent astonishment, supposing that 
it was some enormous water-spirit, coughing, puffing out 
hot breath, and splashing water in every direction. 
When it touched the landing, their fears prevailed, and 
they retreated some distance; but when the blowing off 
of steam commenced they were completely unnerved; 
mothers forgetting their children, with streaming hair, 
sought hiding places; chiefs, renouncing their stoicism 
ran away, like affrighted sheep. 

On the third of July, 1823, Major Long, of the U. S. 
Engineers, arrived at the Fort, in charge of an expedi- 
tion to explore the Minnesota River, ami the region 
along the northern boundary line of the United States. 
Beltrami, at the request of Colonel Snelling, was per- 
mitted to join the party, but his relations with Long 
were not pleasant, and at Pembina he retired, and with 
a half-breed and two Ojibway Indians proceeded to the 
northern source of the Mississippi, which Thompson, 
the geographer, had visited and surveyed twenty-live 
years before. 

He reached Cass (Red Cedar) Lake on the fourth of 
September, and in his book written in French, publish- 
ed in 1824, at New Orleans, he refers to a lake which he 
did not visit, called "La Biche,*' Elk Lake, and uses 
these words: " It is here, in my opinion, that we shall 
fix the western sources of the Mississippi." At a later 
period his opinion was confirmed by Schoolcraft, and 



In 1828, at London, an edition of his travels, in En«- 
lish, was published, and with it a map of the Mississ- 
ippi. From the fae-simile of a portion of it it will be 
seen that Doe (Elk) Lake is designated as the western 
source of the Mississippi. The trappers of the North- 
west Company were well acquainted with the region. 

Tlie mill constructed in 1821, for sawing lumber, at 
the Falls of Saint Anthony, was upon the site of 
the Holmes and Sidle flour mill in Minneapolis, 
and in 1823 was fitted up for grinding flour. Under 
date of August 5th, 1823, General Gibson writes to Lt. 
Clark, Commisary at Fort Snelling: "From a letter ad- 
dressed to the Quartermaster General, dated the "2d of 
April, I learn that a large quantity of wheat would be 


raised this summer. The Assistant Commisary'at St. 
Louis has been instructed to forward sickles and a pair 
of mill stones. If any flour is manufactured, from the 
wheat raised, be pleased to let me know as early as prac- 
ticable, that I may deduct the quantity manufactured at 
the post from the quantity advertised to be contracted 
for." In another letter General Gibson writes: "Below 
you will find the amount charged on the books against 
the garrison at Fort St. Anthony for certain articles.and 
forwarded for the use of the troops at that post, which 
you will deduct from the payments to be made for flour 
raised and turned over to you for issue: 

One pair buhr millstones 8250.11 

337 pounds plaster of Paris 20.22 

Two dozen sickles 18.00 

Total £288.33 

Upon the nineteenth of January, 1821, the General 
writes: "The mode suggested by Col. Snelling, of fix- 
ing the price to be paid to the troops for the flour fur- 
nished by them is deemed equitable and just. You will 
accordingly pay for the flour 83.33 per barrel." 

Charlotte Oaisconsin Van Cleve, in 1887, the oldest 
person living who was connected with the cantonment in 
1819, in a paper read before the Department of Ameri- 
can History of the Minnesota Historical Society, in Jan- 
uary, 1S80, wrote: 

"In 1S23 Mrs. Snelling and my mother established the 
first Sunday School in the Northwest. It was held in 
the basement of the commanding officer's quarters, and 
was productive of much good. Many of the soldiers, 
with their families, attended. Joe. Brown, since so well 
known in this country, then a drummer boy, was one of 


the pupils. A bible class, for the officers and their wives, 
was formed, and all became so interested in the history 
of the patriarchs, that it furnished topics of conversation 
for the week. One day after the Sunday School lesson 
on the death of Moses, a member of the class, meeting 
my mother on the parade, after exchanging the usual 
greetings, said, in saddened tones, 'But don't you feel 
sorry that Moses is dead'?' 

"Early in the spring of 1821, the Tally boys were res- 
cued from the Sioux and brought to the Fort. They 
were children of one of the settlers of Lord Selkirk's 
colony, and with their parents, and others, were on their 
way from Red River Valley to settle near Fort Snelling. 

"The party was attacked by Indians, and the parents 
of these children murdered and the boys captured. 
Through the inllunce of Col. Snelling the children were 
ransomed and brought to the fort. Col. Snelling took 
John, and my father, Andrew, the younger. Every- 
one became interested in the orphans, and we loved 
Andrew as if he had been our own little brother. 
John died some two years after his arrival at the fort, 
and Mrs. Snelling asked me, when I last saw her, if a 
tomb stone had been placed at his grave, as she re- 
quested, during a visit some years ago. She said 
she received a promise .that it should be done, 
and seemed quite disappointed when I told her it had 
not been attended to." Andrew Tully. after being edu- 
cated at an Orphan Asylum in New York City, became a 
carriage maker, and died a few years ago in that vicinity. 

In the year 1824, the Fort was visited by Gen. Scott, 
on a tour of inspection, and at his suggestion, its name 
was changed from Fort St. Anthony, to Fort Snelling. 

spelling's name given to the fort. 70 

The following is an extract from his report to the War 

"This work, of which the War Department is in pos- 
session of a plan, reflects the highest credit on Col. 
Snelling, his officers and men. The defenses, and for 
the most part, the public storehouses, shops and quart- 
ers being constructed of stone, the whole is likely to en- 
dure as long as the post shall remain a frontier one. 
The cost of erection to the government has been the 
amount paid for tools and iron, and the per diem, paid to 
soldiers employed as mechanics. I wish to suggest to 
the General-in-Chief, and through him to the War De- 
partment, the propriety of calling this work Fort Snell- 
ing, as a just compliment to the meritorious officer un- 
der whom it has been erected. The present name, (Fort 
St. Anthony), is foreign to all our associations, and is, 
besides, geographically incorrect, as the work stands at 
the junction of the Mississippi and St. Peter's [Minne- 
sota] Rivers, eight miles below the great falls of the 
Mississippi, called after St. Anthony." 

•Minnehaha, to distinguish it from the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, was first known as Little Falls, then called 
Brown's Falls in compliment to Major General Brown, 
General-in-Chief of the army. Lake Calhoun was des- 
ignated in honor of the Secretary of War, Lakes Har- 
riet, Eliza, Lucy, and Abigail, were designated after the 
wives of officers at the Fort. 

In 1S24, Major Taliaferro proceeded to Washington 
with a delegation of Chippeways and Dakotahs, headed 
by Little Crow, the grandfather of the chief of the same 
name who was engaged in the late horrible massacre of 
defenceless women and children. The object of the 
visit, was to secure a convocation of all the tribes of the 


Upper Mississippi, at Prairie du Chien, to define their 
boundary lines and establish friendly relations. When 
they reached Prairie du Chien, Wahnatah, a Yankton 
chief, and also Wapashah, by the whisperings of mean 
traders, became disaffected, and wished to turn back. 
Little Crow perceiving this, stopped all hesitancy by 
the following speech: "My friends! you can do as "you 
please. I am no coward, nor can my ears be pulled 
about, by evil counsels. You are here, and should go on, 
and do some good for our nation. I have taken our Fath- 
er ["Taliaferro] by the coat tail, and will follow him until 
I take, by the hand, our great American Father." 

Marcpee or Cloud, one of the party, subsequently, in 
consequence of a bad dream, jumped from the steam 
boat and was supposed to be drowned, but swam ashore, 
and managed to reach St. Charles, Mo , there to be killed 
by some of the Sauk tribe. The remainder safely 
arrived in Washington, and accomplished the object of 
their visit. The Dakotas returned, by way of New York 
City, and then were anxious to pay a visit with William 
Dickson, the half-breed son of Robert Dickson, the trad- 
er, to certain parties interested in the alleged Carver 

After the visit. Little Crow carried a new gun, and 
said that a medicine man named Peters had given it to 
him, for signing a certain paper, and that he also prom- 
ised to send to his band, a bi>at full of goods. The 
medicine man referred to, was the Rev. Samuel Peters, 
a Protestant Episcopal clergyman, wiio had marie him- 
self obnoxious, during the War for Independence, by 
his tory sentiments, and was subsequently nominated 
as Bishop, for Vermont. Peters alleged, that he had 
purchased of the heirs of Jonathan Carver, the right to a 


tract of land, embracing the site to the city of St. Paul. 
The next year, there arrived in one of the keel-boats 
from Prairie du Chien, at Fort Snelling, a box marked 
Col. Robert Dickson, which was found to contain a few 
presents from Peters, to Dickson's Indian wife, a long 
letter, and a copy of Carver's pretended grant, written on 

The first army officer who died at the Fort was Sur- 
geon Edward Purcell, of Virginia, who on the eleventh 
of January, 1S25, passed away. This year was noted 
for the great Indian convention at Prairie du Chien. 
After the conference was over, Agent Taliaferro, and 
the Sioux delegation, left in keel-boats, guided by eight- 
een voyageurs. Great sickness prevailed, and before 
Lake Pepin was reached, a chief of the Sisseton band 
died. At Little Crow's village, then on the east side of 
the river, the sickness had become so great, that it was 
necessary to leave one of the boats, and on the thirtieth 
cf August, the rest arrived at Fort Snelling. Under the 
direction of Laidlow, of the Selkirk settlement, the In- 
dians of the upper Minnesota were, from thence, con- 
ducted to their homes, but on the way, twelve died. 

Sixty years ago, the means of communication between 
Fort Snelling, and the civilized world, were very limited. 
Soldiers, in winter, carried the mail down to Prairie du 
Chien. There was rejoicing at the fort, on the twenty- 
sixth of January, 18*26, caused by the return from fur- 
lough of Lieut. Baxley, and Lieut. Russell, who brought 
the first mail which had been received in five months. 
About this period there was also another excitement, 
caused by the seizure of liquors in the trading house of 
AlexisB.ully, at Xew Hope, now Mendota. 

During the months of February and March, in this 


' year, snow fell to the depth of two or three feet, and 
there was a great suffering among the Indians. On one 
occasion, thirty lodges of Sisseton and other Sioux were 
overtaken by a snow storm, on a large prairie. The 
storm continued for three days, and provisions grew 
scarce, for the party were seventy in number. At last, 
the stronger men, with the few pairs of snow-shoes in 
their possession, started for the trading post one hun- 
dred miles distant. They reached their destination 
half alive, and the traders sympathizing sent four Can- 
adians with supplies for those left behind. After great 
toil they reached the scene of distress, and found many 
dead, and, what was more horrible, the living feeding on 
the corpses of their relatives. A mother had eaten her 
dead child and a portion of her own father's arms. The 
shock to her nervous system was so great that she lost 
her reason. Her name was Pash-uno-ta, and she was 
both young and good looking. Some time afterward, 
while at Fort Snelling, she asked Captain Jouett if he 
knew which was the best portion of a man to eat, at the 
same time taking him by the collar of his coat. He re- 
plied with great astonishment, "No!" and she then said, 
"The arms." She then asked for a piece of his servant 
to eat, as she was nice and fat. A few days after this 
she dashed herself from the bluffs near Fort Snelling, 
into the river. Her body was found just above the 
mouth of the Minnesota, and decently interred by the 

The spring of 1826 was very backward. On the 
twentieth of March snow fell to the depth of one or one 
and a half feet on a level, and drifted in heaps from six 
to fifteen feet in height. On the fifth of April, early in 
the day, there was a violent storm, and the ice was still 


thick iu the river. During the storm flashes of light- 
ning were seen and thunder heard. On the tenth the 
thermometer was four degrees above zero. On the four- 
teenth there was rain, and on the next day the St. Peter 
River broke up, but the ice on the Mississippi remained 
firm. On the twenty-first, at noon, the ice began to 
move, and carried away Mr. Faribault's houses on the 
east side of the river. For several days the river was 
twenty feet above low-water mark, and all the houses on 
the low lands were swept off. On the second of May 
the steamboat Lawrence, Captain Reeder, arrived, and 
invited the officers and their families to an excursion 
toward the Falls of Saint Anthony. The boat proceeded 
as far as the rapids would permit, and then returned. 

Major Taliaferro had inherited several slaves, which 
he used to hire to officers of the garrison. On the last 
of March his negro boy William was employed by Col. 
Snelling, the latter agreeing to clothe him. About this 
time William attempted to shoot a hawk, but, instead, 
shot a small boy named Henry Cullum, and nearly 
killed him. The Sioux, at first, had no prejudices 
against negroes. They called them "black Frenchmen," 
and placing their hands on their woolly heads would 
laugh heartily. 

The following is a list of the steamboats that had 
arrived at Fort Snelling, up to May 20, 1826: 1, Virginia, 
May 10, 1823; 2, Neville; 3, Putnam; April 2, 1825; 1, 
Mandan; 5, Indiana; G, Lawrence, May 2, 1826; 7, Sciota; 
8, Eclipse; 9, Josephine; 10, Fulton; 11, Red Rover; 12, 
Black Rover; 13, Warrior; 11, Enterprise; 15, Volga. 

Life within the walls of a fort is sometimes the exact 
contrast of a paradise. In the year 1826 a Pandora box 
was opened, among the officers, and dissensions began to 


prevail ; one young officer, a graduate of West Point, whose 
father had been a professor in Princeton College, fought 
a duel with and slightly wounded, William Joseph, 1 
the talented son of Colonel Snelling, who was then 
twenty-two years of age, and had been three years at 
"West Point. At a court-martial convened to try the 
officer for violating the xVrtieles of War, the accused 
objected to the testimony of Lieut. William Alexander, 
a Tennesseean, not a. graduate of the military academy, 
on the ground that he was an infidel. Alexander, hurt 
by this allusion, challenged the objector, and another 
duel was fought, resulting only in slight injuries to the 
clothing of the combatants. General E. T. Gaines, 
after this visited the fort, and in his report of the inspec- 
tion wrote: " A defect in the discipline of: this regiment 
has appeared in the character of certain personal contro- 
versies, between the Colonel and several of his young 

1 The Colonel's .son, William Joseph, after this pr.ssed several years among 
traders and Indians, and became distinguished as a poet and brilliant writer. 
His "Tales of the Northwest," prtblished in Boston l*Ju, by Hilliard, Gray, 
Little and YYilkms, is a work of great literary ability, and Catliu thought the 
book was the most faithful picture of Indian life he had read. Some of his 
poems were also of a high order. One of his pieces, deficient in dignity was z. 
caustic satire upon modern American poets, and was published under the title 
of " Truth, a Gift for Scribblers." N.P. Willis had lampooned him in some 
verses beginning— 

" Oh Smi-lling Joseph! thou art like a cur: 
I'm told thou once did live by selling fur." 

To which Snelling replied— 

" I live by hunting fur. thou sayest; so let it be, 
But tell me. Natty, had I hunted thee. 
Had not my time been thrown away, young sir, 
And eke my powder/ Puppies have no fur. 

Our tails? Thou ownest thee to a tail! 
I've Scanned thee o'er and o'er. 
But, though I guessed the species right, 
I was not sure before. 

Our savages, authentic travelers say. 

To natural fools religious homage pay. 

Hadst thou been born in wigwam's smoke, and died in, 

Nat! thine apotheosis had been certain." 

Snelling died at Chelsea, Mass., December sixteenth, 1S4S, a victim to the 
appetite that enslaved Hubert Burns. 


officers, the particulars of which I forbear to enter into, 
assured as I am that they will be developed in the pro- 
ceedings of a general court-martial, ordered for the trial 
of Lieutenant Hunter and other officers at Jefferson 

" From a conversation with the Colonel I can have no 
doubt that he has erred in the course pursued by" him in 
reference to some of the controversies, inasmuch as he 
has intimated to his officers his willingness to sanction, 
in certain cases, and even to participate in personal con- 
flicts, contrary to the twenty-fifth Article of War." 

In the year 182G, a small party of Ojibways ( Chippe- 
ways) came to see the Indian Agent, and three of them 
ventured to visit the Columbia Fur Company's trading 
house, two miles from the Fort. While there, they be- 
came aware of their danger, and desired two of the 
white men attached to the establishment to accompany 
them back, thinking that their presence might be some 
protection. They were in error. As they passed a little 
copse, three Dakotahs sprang from behind a log, 
filed their pieces into the face of the foremost, 
and then fled. The guns must have been dou- 
ble loaded, for the man's head was literally blown from 
his shoulders, and his white companions were spattered 
with brains and blood. The survivors gained the F< >rt 
without further molestation. Their comrade was bur- 
ied on the spot where he fell. A staff was set up on 
his grave, which became a landmark, and received the 
name of The Murder Pole. The murderers boasted of 
their achievement and with impunity. They and their 
tribe thought that they had struck a fair blow on their 
ancient enemies, in a becoming manner. It was only 
said, that Toopunkah Zeze, of the village of the Baiture 


aux Fievres, and two others, had each acquired a right 
towear skunk skins on their heels and war-eagles' feath- 
ers on their heads. 

On the twenty-eighth of May, 1S27, the Ojibway chief 
at Sandy Lake, Kee-wee-zais-hish, called by the English 
Flat Mouth, with seven warriors and some women and 
children, in all amounting to twenty-four, arrived about 
sunrise at Fort Snelling. AValking to the gates of the 
garrison, they asked the protection of Colonel Snelling 
and Taliaferro, the Indian agent. They were told, that 
as long as they remained under the United States tiag, 
they were secure, and were ordered to encamp within 
musket shot of the high stone walls of the fort 

During the afternoon, a Dakotah, Toopunkah Zeze, and 
others from a village near the first rapids of the Minnesota, 
visited the Ojibway camp. They were cordially received, 
and a feast of meat and corn and sugar, was soon made 
ready. The wooden plates emptied of their contents, 
they engaged in conversation, and whiffed the peace 

That night, some officers and their friends were spend- 
ing a pleasant evening at the head-quarters of Captain 
Clark, which was in one of the stone houses which used 
to stand outside of the walls of the fort. As Captain 
Cruger was walking on the porch, a bullet whizzed by, 
and rapid firing was heard. 

As the Dakotahs, or Sioux, left the Ojibway camp, 
notwithstanding' their friendly talk, they turned and dis- 
charged their guns with deadly aim upon their enter- 
tainers, and ran off with a shout of satisfaction. The 
report was heard by the sentinel of the fort, and he 
cried, repeatedly, "Corporal of the guard!" and soon at 
the gates were the Ojibways, with their women and the 


wounded, telling their tale of woe in wild and incoherent 
language. Two had been killed and six wounded. 
Among others, was a little girl about seven years old, 
who was pierced through both thighs with a bullet. 
Surgeon McMahon made every effort to save her life, 
but without avail. 

Flat Mouth, the chief, reminded Colonel Snelling that 
he had been attacked while under the protection of the 
United States flag, and early the next morning. Captain 
Clark, with one hundred soldiers, proceeded towards 
Land's End, a trading-post of the Columbia Fur Com- 
pany, on the Minnesota, a mile above the former resi- 
dence of the late Franklin Steele, where the Dakotahs 
were supposed to be. The soldiers had just left the 
large gate of the fort, when a party of Dakotahs, in 
battle array, appeared on one of the praire hills. After 
some parleying they turned their backs, and being pur- 
sued, thirty-two were captured near the trading-post. 

Colonel Snelling ordered the prisoners to be brought 
before the Ojibways, and two being pointed out as parti- 
cipants in the slaughter of the preceding night, they 
were delivered to the aggrieved party to deal with in ac- 
cordance with clieir customs. They were led out to the 
plain in front of the gate of the fort, and when placed 
nearly without the range of the Ojibway guns, they were 
told to run for their lives. With the rapidity of deer 
they bounded away, but the Ojibway bullet riew faster, 
and after a few steps, they fell gasping on the ground, 
and were soon lifeless. Then the savage nature dis- 
played itself in all its hideousness. Women and child- 
ren danced for joy, and placing their lingers in the bul- 
let holes, from which the blood oozed, they licked tliem 
with delight. The men tore the scalps from the dead, 


and seemed to luxuriate in the privilege of plunging 
their knives through the corpses. After the execution, 
the Ojibways returned to the fort, and were met by the 
Colonel. He had prevented all over whom his authority 
extended from witnessing the scene, and had done his 
best to confine the excitement to the Indians. The same 
day a deputation of Dahkotah warriors received audi- 
ence, regretting the violence that had been done by 
their young men, and agreeing to deliver up the ring- 

At the time appointed, a son of Flat Mouth, with 
those of the Ojibway party that were not wounded, escort- 
ed by United States troops, marched forth to meet the 
Dakotah deputation, on the prairie just beyond the old 
residence of the Indian agent. With much solemnity 
two more of the guilty were handed over to the assault- 
ed. One was fearless, and with firmness stripped him- 
self of his clothing and ornaments and distributed them. 
The other could not face death with composure. He 
was noted for a hideous hare-lip, and had a bad reputa- 
tion among his fellows. In the spirit of a coward he 
prayed for life, to the mortification of his tribe. The 
same opportunity was presented to them as to the first. 
of running for their lives. At the first fire the coward 
fell a corpse; but his brave companion, though wound- 
ed, ran on, and had nearly reached the goal of safety, 
Avhen a second bullet killed him. The body of the cow- 
ard now became a common object of loathing for both 
Dakotahs and Ojibways. 

Colonel Snelling told the Ojibways that the bodies 
must be removed, and then they took the scalped Da- 
kotahs, and dragging them by the heels, threw them off 
the bluff into the river, a hundred and fifty feet beneath. 


The dreadful scene was now over; and a detachment 
of troops was sent with the old chief Flat Mouth to 
escort him out of the reach of Dakotah vengeance. 

An eye witness wrote: "After this catastrophe, all the 
Dakotahs quitted the vicinity of Fort Snelling, and did 
not return to it for some months. It was said they 
formed a conspiracy to demand a council, and kill the 
Indian agent and the commanding officer. If this was a 
fact, they had no opportunity, or wanted the spirit, to 
execute their purpose. 

"The Flat Month's band lingered in the foi t till their 
wounded comrade died. He was sensible of his condi- 
tion, and bore his pains with great fortitude. When 
he felt his end approach, he desired that his horse might 
be gaily caparisoned, and brought to the hospital win- 
dow, so that he might touch the animal. He then took 
from his medicine bag a large cake of maple sugar, and 
held it forth. It may seem strange, but it is true, that 
the beast ate it from his hand. His features were radi- 
ant with delight as he fell back on the pillow exhausted. 
His horse had eaten the sugar, he said, and he was sure 
of a favorable reception and comfortable quarters in the 
other world. Half an hour after, he breathed his last. 
We tried to discover the details of his superstition, but 
could not succeed. It is a subject on which Indians un- 
willingly discourse. 

On the twelfth of June, 1827, the keel-boats "General 
Ashley/' and "O. H. Perry" left Prairie du Chien, with 
supplies for Fort Snelling. Allen F. Lindsey was in 
charge of the former, and W. Joseph Snelling ^vas a 
passenger, and Benjamin F. Ward was in command of 
the latter. While near Prairie du Chien, a party of 
Winnebagoes, in canoes, approached the "General Ash- 


ley," and were kindly treated, but when the boat came to 
Wapashah's village, where the city of Winona now is, 
the Indians demanded that those on board should come 
ashore. "When the ''Perry" arrived, about fifty with 
their faces painted black, and streaks on their blankets, 
jumped on deck, and refused to shake hands. It was 
reported that an old Indian, named the Pine-Shooter, 
had gone from lodge to lodge and urged the young war- 
riors to attack. The boats, however, were at length suf- 
fered to pass. "When they started on their return from 
Fort Snelling, the men on board, amounting to thirty- 
two, were all provided with muskets and a barrel of ball 

"When the descending keel-boats passed "Wapashaw, 
•the Dakotahs were engaged in the war dance, and men- 
aced them, but iuade no attack. Below this point the 
"Perry" moved in advance of the other, and when near 
the mouth of the Bad Axe, on the afternoon of the thir- 
teenth of June, the half-breeds on board descried hostile. 
Indians on the banks. As the channel neared the shore, 
the sixteen men on the "Perry" were greeted with the 
war whoop and a volley of rifle balls from the excited 
"Winnebagoes, killing two of the crew. Rushing into 
their canoes, the Indians made the attempt to board the 
boat, and two were successful. One of these stationed 
himself at the bow of the boat, and tired with killing 
effect on the men below deck. An old soldier of the last 
war with Great Britain, called Saucy Jack, at last des- 
patched him, and began to rally the fainting spirits on 
board. During the fight the b.-at had stuck on a sand- 
bar. "With four companions, amid a shower of balls 
from the savages, he plunged into the water and pushed 
off the boat, and thus moved out of the reach of the 


galling shots of the Winnebagoes. As they floated 
down the river, during the night, they heard a wail in a 
canoe behind them, the voice of a father mourning the 
death of the sou, who had scaled the deck, and was now 
a corpse in the possession of the white men. The rear 
boat passed the Bad Axe River late in the night and 
escaped an attack. 

The first keel-boat arrived at Prairie du Chien, with 
two of their crew dead, four wounded, and the Indian 
that had been killed on the boat. The two dead men 
had been residents of the Prairie and now the panic 
was increased. Soon the second keel-boat appeared and 
among her passengers was W. Joseph Snelling, the tal- 
ented son of the colonel, who wrote a story of deep in- 
terest, based on the facts narrated. 

At a meeting of the citizens it was resolved to repair 
old Fort Crawford, and Thomas McNair was appointed 
captain. Dirt was thrown around the bottom logs of 
the fortification to prevent its being fired, and young 
Snelling was put in charge of one of the block-houses. 
On the next day a voyageur named Loyer, and a well- 
known trader, Duncan Graham, started through the in- 
terior, west of the Mississippi, witli intelligence of the 
murders, to Fort Snelling, which was received 
at the Fort on the evening of the ninth of 
July, and Col. Snelling started in keel boats with four 
companies to Fort Crawford, and on the seventeenth 
four more companies left under Major Fowle. After an 
absence of six weeks, the soldiers, without firing a gun 
at the enemy, returned. 

A few weeks after the attacks upon the keel boats 
General Gaines inspected the Fort, and, subsequently in 


a communication to the War Department wrote as fol- 
lows : 

"The work may be made very strong and adapted to 
a garrison of two hundred men by removing one-half 
the buildings, and with the materials of which they are 
constructed building a tower suihciently high to com- 
mand the hill between the Mississippi and St. Peter's 
[Minnesota], and by a block house on the extreme point, 
or brow of the cliff, near the commander's quarters, to 
securemost effectually the banks of the river, and the 
boats at the landing. 

"Much credit is due to Colonel Snelling, his officers 
and men, for their immense labors and excellent work- 
manship exhibited in the construction of these barracks 
and store houses, but this has been effected too much at 
the expense of the discipline of the regiment.'' 

In accordance with the suggestion, a stone tower was 
erected near the commandant's quarter, but within a 
few years it has been removed. 

During the fall of LS27 the Fifth Eegiment was reliev- 
ed by a part of the First, and the next year Colonel 
Snelling proceeded to Washington on business, where 
he died with inflammation of the brain. Major General 
Macomb announcing his death in an order, wrote: 

"Colonel Snelling joined the army in early youth. 
In the battle of Tippecanoe he was distinguished fin- 
gallantry and good conduct. Subsequently and during 
the whole great war with Great Britain, from the battle 
of Brownstown to the termination of the contest, he was 
actively employed in the field, with credit to himself, 
and honor to his country." 



A. D. 18-10. 

During the month of June, 1828, Samuel Gibson, a 
drover from Missouri, lost his way, in bringing cattle 
to. Fort Snelling, and abandoned them, near Lac qui 
Parle. Joseph Renville, the trader, then collected them 
and sixty-four were sold and the money obtained there- 
for, forwarded to the drover. 

An old Sioux, this month visited the Fort, and pro- 
duced a Spanish commission issued in 1781, and signed 
by Colonel Francis Cruzat, military governor of Louisi- 
ana, under whose jurisdiction was the valley of the Min- 
nesota river. 

The winter, spring and summer of 1829 were very dry, 
and for ten months, the average monthly fall of rain 
and snow was one inch. 

In May, forty Sioux of Red Wing's band called upon 
the Indian agent, and said that since the death of their 
old chief, Red Wing, they had not been able to choose 
another, but after the conference they selected \Yakou- 
ta, a step-son of the deceased chief. On the twentieth 
of May, there was a peace dance, by about one hundred 
relatives of the four Sioux, who, in 1827. had been deliv- 
ered up, and shot by the Ojibways. The dance was to 
throw off their mourning, and each dancer walking up 
to an uncooked dog, hung to a stake, bit off a portion. 


A week later a party of Ojibways arrived, with B. F. 
Baker, who had been trading at Gull Lake, and on Sun- 
day, the last day of May, the Indians of both tribes 
drew together, before the Indian agent's house, and 
agreed that they would hunt in peace upon the prairies 
above Sauk River. 

Early in September, 1829, Surgeon B. C. Wood left 
the Fort, on a visit to Prairie du Chien, and by the last 
of the month, returned in an open boat, with a bride, 
the daughter of General Zachary Taylor, then in com- 
mand at Fort Crawford and subsequently President of 
the United States. Another daughter married Lt. Jef- 
ferson Davis, who became the President of the so-called 
Confederate States, while John, the son of Surgeon 
Wood, obtained notoriety, as commander of the Talla- 
hassee, a rebel privateer. 

In 18o2, under instructions from the Secretary of 
War, Henry B. Schoolcraft visited the Ojibways toward 
the sources of the Mississippi. At two o'clock of the 
afternoon of the twelfth of July his party reached Elk 
Lake. Lieutenant Allen, the commander of the military 
detachment, who made the first map of this lake, thus 
wrote in his Report: 

"From these hills, which were seldom more than two 
or three hundred feet high, we came suddenly down to 
the lake, and passed nearly through it to an island near 
its west end, where we remained one or two hours. We 
were sure that we had reached the true source of the 
great river, and a feeling of great satisfaction was mani- 
fested by all the party. Mr. Schoolcraft hoisted a flag 
on a high start' on the island and left it flying. The lake 
is about seven miles long, and from one to three broad, 
but is of an irregular shape, conforming to the bases of 


pine hills which, for a great part of its circumference, 
rise abruptly from its shore. It is deep, cold, and very 
clear, and seemed to be well stocked with fish. Its 
shores show some boulders of primitive rock, but no 
rock in place. The island, the only one of the lake, 
and which I have called Schoolcraft Island, is one 
hundred and fifty yards long, fifty yards broad in the 
highest part, elevated twenty or thirty feet, overgrown 
with elm, pine, spruce, and wild cherry." 

The chaplain of the expedition was the Rev. W. T. 
Boutwell, still living, in January, 1887, near Stillwater, 
Washington County. Mr. Schoolcraft, who was not a 
Latin scholar, asked the chaplain for a Latin word which 
signified truth, and was told Veritas, and the word for 
source, and caput was mentioned. Schoolcraft was 
fond of coining words, and by striking out the first syl- 
lable of Veritas, and the last of caput, he made the 
word Itasca. In a reprint of his Narrative, published 
in 1855, appears the following: "I inquired of Ozari- 
dib, the Indian name of this lake; he replied Oniush- 
kos, which is the Chippewa name of the elk. Having 
previously got an inkling of some of their mythological 
and necromantic notions of the origin and mutations of 
the country, which permitted the use of a female name 
for it, I denominated it Itasca." Schoolcraft remained 
one day at Itasca, and the next morning descended the 
Mississippi, and on the twenty-first of July, reached 
Fort Snelling. Featherstonhaugh, in company with 
Prof. W. W. Mather, under direction of the U. S. gov- 
ernment, stopped at Fort Snelling, while on his way 
to explore the Minnesota valley. After returning to 
England, his native country, he published a work en- 
titled "Canoe voyage up the Minnaysotor," which is 


chiefly remarkable for its ill-natured remarks, about 
gentlemen, who did not show him the attention, which 
he craved. 

On the second of July, 1830, the steamboat Saint Peter 
landed supplies, and among its passengers was the dis- 
tinguished French astronomer, Jean N. Nicollet (Nico- 
lay). Major Taliaferro on the twelfth of July, wrote: 
' "Mr. Nicollet, on a visit to the post for scientific re- 
search, and at present in my family, has shown me the 
late work of Henry R. Schoolcraft on the discovery of 
the source of the Mississippi; which claim is ridiculous 
in the extreme."' On the twenty-seventh, Nicollet left 
the fort with a French trader, named Fronchet, to ex- 
plore the sources of the Mississippi. While at the Falls 
of St. Anthony, the Dahkotahs pilfered some of his pro- 
visions, but writing back to the fort for another supply, 
he ascended the Mississippi, telescope in hand, and with 
a trustful, child-like spirit, hoped with Sir Isaac New- 
ton, to gather a few pebbles from the great ocean of 
truth. After reaching Crow Wing River, he entered 
its mouth, and by way of Gull River and lake, he reach- 
ed Leech Lake, the abode of the Pillagers When the 
savages found that he was nothing but a poor scholar, 
with neither .medals nor beef, nor flags to present, and 
constantly peeping through a tube into the heavens, they 
became very unruly. 

The Rev. Mr. Boutwell, whose mission house was on 
the opposite side of the lake, hearing the shouts and 
drumming of the Indians, came over as soon as the wind 
which had been blowing for several days, would allow 
the passage of his canoe. His arrival was very grateful 
to Nicollet, who says: "On the fourth day, however, he 
arrived, and although totally unknown to each other pre- 

nicollet's explorations. 97 

viously, a sympathy of feeling arose, growing out of the 
precarious circumstances under which we were both 
placed, and to which he had been much longer exposed 
than myself. This feeling, from the kind attentions he 
paid me, soon ripened into affectionate gratitude." 

Leaving Leech Lake with an Indian, Fronchet and 
Francis Brunet, a Canadian trader of that post, "a man 
six feet three inches in height, a giant of great strength, 
and at the same time full of the milk of human kind- 
ness," he proceeded towards Itasca Lake. With the 
sextant on his back, thrown over like a knapsack, a ba- 
rometer and cloak on his left shoulder, a portfolio under 
his arm, and a basket in hand holding thermometer, 
chronometer, and compass, he followed his guides over 
the necessary portage. After the usual trials of an inex- 
perienced traveller, he pitched his tent on Schoolcraft's 
Island, in Lake Itasca, and proceeded to use his telescope 
and instruments. 

Continuing his explorations beyond those of Lieut. 
Allen and Schoolcraft, he entered on the twenty-ninth 
of xlugust, a tributary of the west bay of the lake, two or 
three feet in depth, and from fifteen to twenty feet in 
width. While the previous explorers had passed but 
one or tiro hours at Itasca Lake, he stayed three days 
with complete scientific apparatus, and sought the sources 
of the rivulets and lakelets that feed the lake. In his 
report lie wrote: "Of the five creeks that empty into 
Itasca Lake, one empties into the east bay of the Lake, 
the four others into the west bay. I visited the whole 
of them ; and among the latter there is one remarkable 
above the others, inasmuch as its course is longer, and 
waters more abundant; so in obedience to the geograph- 
ical rule that the sources of a river are those that are 



most distant from its mouth, this creek is truly the in- 
fant Mississippi; all others below, its feeders and tribu- 
taries. The day on which I explored this principal 
creek [August 29, 1S3G] I judged that at its entrance 
into Itasoa Lake, its bed was from fifteen to twenty feet 
wide, and the depth of water from two to three feet. With 
great appropriateness has his claim been recognized by 
the State of Minnesota, as the individual who completed 
the exploration of the Mississippi, by giving his name to 
a county. 

! -' T \)V±nibiQ06hL-i7i 

M flttJ^ I poo.' 

*. ill 9 *t / 

i \ltinibt£ 


Fbom Ni<'"Li.Ft'i Map, slow deposit* 
Gbmsbai Land Offus, W isniNGTOX, D. C 

Scale: 20 miles to an inch. 




Engraved from a facsimile tracing of Nicollet's 
Map (lSofJ-37) now deposited in the Office of the 
Chief of Engineers, V. S. A., "Washington, D. C. 

Scale: same as original map. 

Chipcway Lake, 


kidu-Kanijo /.. ■--. . . -> \,.,..Vi.,!i y.,- / ^ — ? ( 

htytarre " J? > V_ 1 f>>~"*NJ ^</ 95° V-J 


The first engraving is a section of Nicollet's Map, 
now deposited in the office of the Commissioner of the 
United States General Land Office, at Washington. 
The other engraving is a section of Nicollet's Map of 
Lake Itasca, drawn in 1S36-7, and now deposited in the 
office of Chief of Engineers United States Army in 
"Washington. An inspection of these maps show how 
carefully the Lake Itasca region was examined a half 
century ago. 

Within the last thirty years, the vicinity of Itasca has 
been repeatedly visited by trappers, immigrants, tourists, 
scientific explorers, and government surveyors, and yet, 
a person named Willard Glazier has imposed upon the 
London Geographical Society, and other respectable 
bodies, and led them to believe that he had discovered 
in July, 1881, some new lake in that vicinity. 1 

Nicollet in September returned from his trip, and on 
the twenty-seventh wrote the following to Major Taliafer- 
ro the Indian Agent at the fort, which is supposed to be 
one of the earliest letters written from the site of Minne- 
apolis. As a large hotel and one of the finest avenues of 
that city bears his name it is worthy of preservation. 
He spelled his name sometimes Nicoley, the same as if 
written Nicollet in French. The letter shows that he 
had not mastered the English language; it was dated 
the twenty-ninth of September, 1836, at St. Anthony's 

"Dear Friend: — I arrived last evening about dark; all 

1. In June, 1372. Julius Chambers of the New York Herald visited the small 
lake near Itasca, called Elk Lake ou the .Map of the U. S. Surveyors in 1-7".. and 
iii ISHLthe Rev. J. B. ffilfillan, a 1'rot 'stant Episcopal missionary, at the White 
Earth Reservation, visited Klk Lake, and found there wawon tracks and eviden- 
ces of an encampment. .Mr. II. A. Harrower deserves the thanks of every lover 
of truth for hi- pamphlet, exposing the plagiarisms and persistent assumptions 
of Glazier, published by Ivison Blakeman, Taylor it Co., of New York city. 
To the courtesy of these publishers, lam indebted for the engraving of a sec- 
tion of Nicollet's Map. 


well, nothing lost nothing broken, happy and a very suc- 
cessful journey. Cut I clone exhausted, and nothing 
can relieve me, but the pleasure of meeting you again 
under your hospitable roof, and to see all the friends of 
the garrison who have been so kind to me. 

"This letter is more particularly to give you a very ex- 
traordinary tide. Flat Mouth, the chief of Leech Lake 
and suite, ten in number are with me. The day before 
yesterday I met them again at Swan river where they 
detained me one day. I had to bear a new harangue 
and gave answer. All terminated by their own resolu- 
tion that they ought to give you the hand, as well as to 
theGuinas of the Fort (Colonel Davenport.) I thought 
it my duty to acquaint you with it beforehand. Peace 
or war are at stake of the visit they pay you. Please 
give them a good welcome until I have reported to you 
and Colonel Davenport all that has taken place during 
my stay among the Pillagers. Hut be assured 1 have 
not trespassed and that I have behaved as would have 
done a good citizen of the U. S. As to Schoolcraft's 
statement alluding to you, you will have full and com- 
plete satisfaction from Flat Mouth himself. In haste, 
your friend, J. N. Nicoley." 

In April, 1838, a party of Sioux with their families, 
accompanied by the Presbyterian missionary, G. H. 
Pond, left Lac-qui-Parle to hunt on the Chippewa Pviver 
near the site of the present village of Benson, in Swift 
County. The number of lodges was six, but three were 
separated by a short distance. One day at the advanced 
lodges, arrived the noted Ojibway Chief, the elder Hole- 
in-the-Day, his son, and nine of his band. They said 
that they had come to smoke the pipe of peace, and were 
cordially received. Two dogs were killed, and they were 


feasted. At length night came and all lay down, but not 
to sleep; about midnight Hole-in-the-Day and his 
friends arose, killed thirteen Sioux, captured a girl, but 
a wounded woman and a boy escaped to the other lodges. 
The next day the missionary Pond went out aud buried 
the mutilated and scalped Sioux. 

In June the Indian Agent at Fort Snelling sent a 
deputy and interpreter, and held a council with Hole- 
in-the-Day, and other Ojibways, and demanded that the 
Sioux woman should be surrendered. After much ex- 
cited discussion the woman was given over to the Indian 
Agent. On the second of August Hole-in-the-Day and 
a number of his band came down to Fort Snelling, Ma- 
jor Plympton then in command. They stopped first at 
the cabin of a Peter Quinn, whose wife was a half-breed 
Ojibway. The next day the Presbyterian missionary, 
Samuel W. Pond, met the Indian Agent at Lake Harri- 
ett, and told him that a number of armed Sioux, from 
Mud Lake had gone to Baker's trading house, between 
the Fort and Minnehaha, to attack their ancient foes. 
The agent hastened in that direction, and reached the 
spot just as the first gun was fired, which killed an Ojib- 
way. An Ojibway of Red Lake in turn shot the Sioux 
just as he was scalping his victim. The Ojibway was 
removed to Fort Snelling and at nine o'clock at night a 
Sioux was confined as a hostage. The next day,the fourth 
of August, the commanding officer, Plympton. and the 
Indian Agent, Taliaferro, held a council with the Sioux 
Major Plympton said: "It is not necessary to talk much. 
I have demanded the guilty. They must be brought." 
After five o'clock in the afternoon the Sioux brought to 
the Indian Agent two sons of Tokali. Their mother in 
surrendering them said: "Of seven sons, three only 


survive, one had been wounded and soon would die, and 
if the two now delivered were shot, all were gone. Sing- 
ing their death song I have delivered them at the gate 
of the fort. Have mercy upon them for their youth 
and folly." Notwithstanding the murdered Ojibway had 
been buried in the grave yard of the fort, an attempt 
was made by the Sioux on the night of the council day 
to dig him up. On the morning of the sixth of August 
Major Plympton sent the Ojibways to the east side of 
the Mississippi and ordered them to return home, and 
told the Sioux that the insult to the tlag must be notic- 
ed, and that if they would punish the prisoners, he would 
release them. On the eighth the Sioux council reas- 
sembled and the chief of the Lake Pepin band said: "'If 
you will bring out the prisoners I will carry your views 
fully into effect." 

Lieutenant Whitehorn, the officer of the day, brought 
the prisoners, when the chief continued: "We will not 
disgrace the house of my Father; let the prisoners be 
taken into the enclosure." 

As soon as this was done, the braves were called, and 
amid the crying of women the prisoners were disgraced 
by cutting into small pieces their blankets, leggings and 
breech cloths; then their hair was cut off. and finally 
they were humiliated by being flogged with long sticks. 

In about a year, on the twenty-ninth of June. 1839, 
the old chief Hole-in-the-day again visited the fort with 
hundreds of Ojibways, and on the first of July they 
met the Dakotahs at the Falls of St. Anthony, and 
after smoking the pipe of peace, the majority of the 
Ojibways proceeded homeward; but some of the Pillager 
band passing over to Lake Harriet, secreted themselves 
uutil after sunrise on the second of July, when they 


surprised Meekah, a Dakotali, on his way to hunt, and 
scalped him. 

Rev. J. D. Stevens, a Sioux missionary, hurried to the 
Fort with the intelligence. Immediately one hundred 
and fifty Dakotahs were on the war path, panting 
for vengeance and hurrying after the Ojibways, who 
had ascended the Mississippi, and the next day there 
was a fight at Ruin River, and ninety of the latter were 
killed. Another party also went across the country to 
St. Croix River, and overtook a band of Ojibways in the 
ravine where the Penitentiary at Stillwater now stands, 
and killed twenty-one and wounded twenty-nine. After 
this the Dakotahs were afraid to live at Lake Harriet, 
and soon abandoned the place and encamped on the 
Minnesota River near Fort Snelliug. The missionaries 
also removed to Baker's trading post, between the Fort 
and Minnehaha. 

Whisky, during the year 1839, was freely introduced 
in the face of the law prohibiting it. The first boat of 
the season, the Ariel, came to the Fort on the fourteenth 
of April, and brought twenty barrels of whisky for Jo- 
seph R. Brown, and on the twenty-first of May, the 
Glaucus brought six bairels of licpior for David Fari- 
bault. On the thirtieth of June, some soldiers went to 
Joseph R. Brown's groggery, on the opposite side of the 
Mississippi, and that night forty-seven were in the 
guard-house for drunkenness. The demoralization then 
existing, led to a letter by Surgeon Emerson, on duty at 
the Fort, to the Surgeon General of the United States 
army, in which he writes: 

"The whisky is brought here by citizens who are 
pouring in upon us, and settling themselves on the 
opposite shore of the Mississippi River, in defiance of 


our worthy commanding officer, Major J. Plympton, 
whose authority they set at naught. At this moment 
there is a citizen named Brown, once a soldier in the 
Fifth Infantry, who was discharged at this post, while 
Colonel Snelling commanded, and who has since been 
employed by the American Fur Company, actually 
building on the land marked out by the land officers as 
the reserve, and within gunshot distance of the Fort, a 
very expensive whisky shop." 




Shea, a devoted member of the Roman Catholic 
Church, in his History of American Catholic Missions, 
writes: "In 16S0, Father Engalran was apparently alone 
at Green Bay and Pierson at Mackinaw. Of the other 
missions neither Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect 
writers of the West at this time, make any mention, or 
in any way allude to their existence." He also says 
that "Father Menard had projected a Sioux mission; 
Marquette, Allouez, Druilletes, all entertained hopes of 
realizing it, and had some intercourse with that nation, 
but none of them ever succeeded in establishing a 

Father Hennepin wrote: "Can it be possible that that 
pretended prodigious amount of savage converts could 
escape the sight of a multitude of French Canadians 
who travel every year? * * * How comes it to pass 
that these churches, so devout and so numerous, should 
be invisible' when I passed through so many countries 
and nations?" 

After the American Fur Company was formed, the 
island of Mackinaw became the residence of the prin- 
cipal agent for the Northwest, Robert Stuart, a Scutch- 
man, and devoted Presbyterian. 


In the month of June, 1820, the Rev. Dr. Morse, 
father of the distinguished inventor of the telegraph,' 
visited and preached at Mackinaw, and in consequence 
of statements published by him upon his return, a Pres- 
byterian Missionary Society in the State of New York 
sent a graduate of Union College, the Rev. W. M. Ferry, 
father of the late United States Senator from Michigan, 
to explore the field. In 1823, he had established a large 
boarding school, composed of children of various tribes, 
and here some were educated who became wives of men 
of intelligence and influence at the capital of Minnesota. 
After a few years, it was determined by the Mission 
Board to modify its plans, and in the place of a great 
central station, to send missionaries among the several 
tribes, to teach and to preach. 

In pursuance of this policy, the Rev. Alvan Coe, and 
J. 1). Stevens, a licentiate, who had been engaged in the 
Mackinaw Mission, made a tour of exploration, and 
arrived on September first, 1829, at Fort Snelling. In 
the journal of Major Lawrence Taliaferro, which is in 
possession of the Minnesota Historical Society, is the 
following entry: "The Rev. Mr. Coe and Stevens, 
reported to be on their way to this post, members of the 
Presbyterian Church, looking out for suitable places to 
make missionary establishments for the Sioux and Chip- 
peways, found schools, and instruct in the arts and agri- 

The agent, although not at that time a communicant 
of the Church, welcomed these visitors, and afforded 
them every facility in visiting the Indians. On Sunday 
the sixth of September, the Rev. Mr. Coe preached twice 
in the Fort, and the next night held a prayer-meeting at 
the quarters of the commanding officer. On the next 


Sunday he preached again, and on the fourteenth, with 
Mr. Stevens and a hired guide, returned to Mackinaw 
by way of the St. Croix Paver. During this visit the 
agent offered for a Presbyterian mission the mill which 
then stood on the site of Minneapolis, and had been 
erected by the government, as well as the farm at Lake 
Calhoun, which was begun to teach the Sioux agri- 

In 1S30, Frederick Ayer, one of the teachers at Mack- 
inaw, made an exploration as far as La Pointe, and re- 
turned. Upon the thirtieth dayof August, 1831, a Mack- 
inaw boat about forty feet long arrived at LaPointe, bring- 
ing from Mackinaw the principal trader, Mr. Warren, 
Piev. Sherman Hall and wife, and Mr. Frederick Ayer, a 
catechist and teacher. Mr. Hall wrote in his journal: 
"After sailing thirty leagues, in a day and a half, we ar- 
rived at La Pointe, the place of our destination, about 
noon to-day, all heartily glad to find a resting-place. 
We were agreeably disappointed on finding the place so 
much more pleasant than we anticipated. As we ap- 
proached, it appeared like a small village. There are 
several houses, stores, barns, and out-buildings about 
the establishment, and forty or fifty acres of land under 

Mrs. Hall attracted great attention, as she was the 
first white woman who had come to reside in that region. 
Sherman Hall was born on April o<>, 1801, at Wethers- 
field, Vermont, and in 182S graduated at Dartmouth 
College, and completed his theological studies at Ando- 
ver, Massachusetts, a few weeks before he journeyed to 
the Indian country. His classmate at Dartmouth and 
Andover, the Rev. W. T. Boutwell, still living ( January, 
1SS7,) near Stillwater, became his yoke-fellow, but re- 


mained for a time at Sault Ste. Marie. In June, 1832, 
Henry R. Schoolcraft, the head of an exploring expedi- 
tion, invited Mr. Boutwell to accompany him to the 
sources of the Mississippi. Upon Mr. Boutwell's return 
from this expedition he was at first associated with Mr. 
Hall in the mission at La Pointe. 

In 1833 the mission band which had centered at La 
Pointe diffused their influence. In October Piev. Mr. 
Boutwell went to Leech Lake, and established the first 
mission in Minnesota west of Lake Superior, Mr. Ayer 
opened a school at Yellow Lake, Wisconsin, and Mr. E. 
P. Ely became a teacher at Aitkin's trading post at 
Sandy Lake. A letter from Leech Lake, written by Mr. 
Boutwell, soon after his arrival, contains the following 
■wise suggestions: 

"If the Indians can be induced by example and other 
help (such as seed and preparing the ground ), to culti- 
vate more largely, they would, I have no doubt, furnish 
provisions for their children in part. If a mission here 
should furnish the means of feeding, clothing, and in- 
structing the children, as at Mackinaw, I venture to say 
there would be no lack of children. But such an esta- 
blishment is not only impracticable here; it is such as 
would ill meet the exigencies of this people. "While a 
mission proffers them aid, they should be made to feel 
that they must try at least to help themselves. It 
should be placed on a footing that will instruct them in 
the principles <>f political economy. At present there is 
among them nothing like personal rights, or individual 
property, any further than traps, guns, and kettles are 
concerned. They possess all things in common. If an 
Indian has anything to eat, his neighbours are all allowed 
to share it with him. While, therefore, a mission c.r- 


tends the hand of charity in the means of instruction, 
and occasionally an article of clothing, and perhaps 
some aid in procuring the means of subsistence, it 
should he only to such individuals as will themselves 
use the means so far as they possess them. This 
might operate as a stimulus with them to cultivate and 
fix a value upon corn, rice, etc., at least with such as 
care to have their children instructed, rather than 
squander it in feasts and feeding such as are too indo- 
lent to make a garden themselves. It will require much 
patience, if not a long time, to break up and eradicate 
habits so inveterate. An Indian cannot eat alone. If 
he kills a pheasant, his neighbours must come in for a 
portion, small indeed, but so it is." 

In the year 1834, Mr. Boutwell was married at Fond 
du Lac, of St. Louis River, to an interesting person, the 
daughter of a director of the fur trade, and au Indian 
mother. He has written the following account of the 
first days of married life at Leech Lake: "The clerk 
very kindly invited me to occupy a part of his quarters, 
until 1 could prepare a place to put myself. I thought 
best to decline his offer; and on the thirteenth instant, 
removed my effects, and commenced housekeeping in a 
bark lodge. Then, here I was, without a quart of corn 
or Indian rice to eat myself, or give my man, as I was 
too late to purchase any of the mere pittance which was 
to be bought or sold. My nets, under God, were my 
sole dependence to feed myself ami hired man. Iliad a 
barrel and a half of flour, and ninety pounds of pork 
only before me for the winter. But on the seventeenth 
of the same month, I sent my fisherman ten miles dis- 
tant to gather our winter's stock of provisions out of the 
deep. In the mean time, I must build a house, or win- 


ter in an Indian lodge. Rather than do worse, I shoul- 
dered my axe and led the way, having procured a man 
of the trader to help me; and in about ten days had 
my timbers cut and on the ground ready to put up. 

"On the second of December, I quit my bark lodge 
for a mud-walled house, the timbers of which, I not only 
assisted in cutting, but also carrying on my back, until 
the rheumatism, to say the least, threatened to double 
and twist me, and I was obliged to desist. My house, 
when I began to occupy it, had a door, three windows, 
and a mud chimney; but neither chair, stool, nor bed- 
stead. A box served for the former, and an Indian mat 
for the two latter. A rude figure, indeed, my house 
would make in a New England city, with its deer-skin 
windows, a floor that had never seen a plane, or a saw, 
and a mud-chimney, but it is nevertheless, comfortable." 

Mr. Boutwell, on the Gth of May, 1834, was on a visit 
at Fort Snelling, when a steamboat arrived bringing 
two young men, brothers, natives of Washington, Con- 
necticut, Samuel W. and Gideon H. Pond, who had come 
constrained by the love of Christ, and without conferring 
with flesh and blood, to try to improve the Sioux, or 
Dakotahs. Samuel, the older brother, the year before, 
had talked with a liquor seller in Galena, Illinois, who 
had come from the Red River country, and the desire 
was created to help the Sioux, and he wrote to his brother 
to go with him. He still lives( January,lS87 ) at Shakopee, 
in the old mission house, the first building of sawed 
lumber erected in the valley of the Minnesota, above 
Fort Snelling, 

About this period a native of South Carolina, a grad- 
uate of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, the Rev. T. S. 
Williamson, M. D., who previous to his ordination had 


been a respectable physician in Ohio, was appointed by 
the American Board of Foreign Missions to visit the 
Dakotahs with the view of ascertaining what could be 
done to introduce Christian instruction. Having made 
inquiries at Prairie du Chien and Fort Snelling, he 
reported the field was favorable. 

The Presbyterian and Congregational Churches 
through their joint Missionary Society, appointed the 
following persons to labor in Minnesota: Rev. Thomas 
S. Williamson, M. D., missionary and physician; Rev. 
J. D. Stevens, missionary; Alexander Huggins, farmer; 
and their wives; Miss Sarah Poage, and Luc}- Stevens, 
teachers; who were prevented during the year 1S3-4, by 
the state of navigation, from entering upon their work. 

During the winter of 1834-35, a religious officer of 
the army exercised a good intiuence on his fellow officers 
and soldiers under his command. In the absence of a 
chaplain, 1 like Gen. Havelock, of the British army in 
India, he was accustomed not only to drill the soldiers, 
but to meet them in his own quarters, and reason with 
them "of righteousness, temperance and judgment to 

In the month of May, 1835, Dr. Williamson and mis- 
sion band arrived at Fort Snelling, and were hospitably 
received by the officers of the garrison, the Indian agent, 
and Mr. Sibley, Agent of the Company at Mendota, who 
came to the country a few months after the brothers 

On the twenty-seventh of this month the Piev. Dr. 
Williamson united in marriage, at the Fort, Lieutenant 
Edward A. Ogden to Eliza Edna, the (laughter of Capt. 

1. It was not until 1838, that Rev. E. G. (rear was appointed chaplain. 


G. A. Looinis, the first marriage service in which a cler- 
gyman officiated in the present State of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of June a meeting was held at the 
Fort to organize a Presbyterian Church, sixteen persons 
who had been communicants, and six who made a pro- 
fession of faith, one of whom was Lieutenant Ogden, 
were enrolled as members. Four elders were elected, 
among whom were Capt. GustavusLoomis, of the army, 
and Samuel W. Pond. The next day a lecture prepara- 
tory to administering the communion, was delivered, 
and on Sunday, the fourteenth, the first organized church 
in the Valley of the Upper Mississippi assembled for the 
first time in one of the Company rooms of the Fort. 
The services in the morning were conducted by Dr. 
Williamson. The afternoon service commenced at 2 
o'clock. The sermon of Mr. Stevens was upon a most 
appropriate text, 1st Peter, ii:25; "For ye were as sheep 
going astray, but are now returned unto the Shepherd 
and Bishop of your souls." After the discourse, the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper was administered. 

At a meeting of the Session on the thirty-first of July, 
Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, was invited to preach to 
the church, "so long as the duties of his mission will 
permit, and also to preside at all the meetings of the 
Session." Captain Gustavus Loomis was elected Stated 
Clerk of the Session, and they resolued to observe the 
monthly concert of prayer on the first Monday of each 
month, for the conversion of the world. 

Two points were selected by the missionaries as proper 
spheres of labor. Mr. Stevens and family proceeded to 
Lake Harriet, ami Dr. Williamson ami family, in June, 
proceeded to Lac qui Parle. As there had never been a 
chaplain at Fort Snelling, the Pu?v. J. D. Stevens, the 


missionary at Lake Harriet, preached on Sundays to the 
Presbyterian church, there, recently organized. Writ- 
ing on January twenty-seventh, 183(3, lie says, in relation 
to his field of labor: 

"Yesterday a portion of this band of Indians, who had 
been sometime absent from this village, returned. One 
of the number (a woman) was informed that a brother 
of hers had died during her absence. He was not at 
this village, but with another band, and the information 
had just reached here. In the evening they set up a 
most piteous crying, or rather wailing, which continued 
with some little cessations, during the night. The sister 
of the deceased brother would repeat, times without 
number, words which may be thus translated into Eng- 
lish: 'Come, my brother, I shall see you no more for 
ever.' The night was extremely cold, the thermometer 
standing from ten to twenty degrees below zero. About 
sunrise, next morning, preparation was made for per- 
forming the ceremony of cutting their flesh, in order to 
give relief to their grief of mind. The snow was 
removed from the frozen ground over about as large a 
space as would be required to place a small Indian lodge 
or wigwam. In the centre a very small fire was kindled 
up, not to give warmth, apparently, but to cause a smoke. 
The sister of the deceased, who was the chief mourner, 
came out of her lodge followed by three other women, 
who repaired to the place prepared. They were all 
barefooted and nearly naked. Here they set up a most 
bitter lamentation and crying, mingling their wailing 
with the words before mentioned. The principal 
mourner commenced gashing or cutting her ankles and 
legs up to her knees with a sharp stone, until her legs 
were covered with gore and flowing blood; then in like 


manner her arms, shoulders, and breast. The others 
cut themselves in the same way, but not so severely. On 
this poor infatuated woman I presume there were more 
than a hundred long deep gashes in the iiesh. I saw 
the operation, and the blood instantly followed the 
instrument, and flowed down upon the flesh. She ap- 
peared frantic with grief. Through the pain of her 
wounds, the loss of blood, exhaustion of strength by 
lasting, loud and long-continued and bitter groans, or 
the extreme cold upon her almost naked and lacerated 
body, she soon sunk upon the frozen ground, shaking as 
with a violent tit of the ague, and writhing in apparent 
agony. 'Surely,' I exclaimed, as I beheld the bloody 
scene, 'the tender mercies of the heathen are cruelty!' 

"The little church at the fort begins to manifest some- 
thing of a missionary spirit. Their contributions are 
considerable for so small a number. I hope they will 
not only be willing to contribute liberally of their sub- 
stance, but will give themselves, at least some of them, 
to the missionary work. 

"The surgeon of the military post, Dr. Jarvis, has 
been very assiduous in his attentions to us in our sick- 
ness, and has very generously made a donation to our 
board of twenty-live dollars, being the amount of his 
medical services in our family. 

"On the nineteenth instant we commenced a school 
with six full Indian children, at least so in all their hab- 
its, dress, etc. ; not one could speak a word of any lan- 
guage but Sioux. The school has since increased to the 
number of twenty-five. 1 am now collecting and arrang- 
ing words for a dictionary. Mr. Pond is assiduously 
employed in preparing a spelling-book which we may 
forward next mail for printing," 


On the fifteenth of September, 1836, a Presbyterian 
church was organized at Lac-qui-Parle, a branch of that 
in and near Fort Snelling, and Joseph Renville, a mixed 
blood of great influence, became a communicant Mr. 
Renville's wife was the first pure Dakotah of whom we 
have any record that ever joined the Church of Christ. 
This church has never become extinct, although its 
members have been necessarily nomadic. After the 
treaty of Traverse des Sioux, it was removed to Hazle- 
wood. Driven from thence by the outbreak of 1862. it 
has become the parent of other churches, in the valley 
of the upper Missouri, over one of which John Renville, 
a descendant of the elder at Lac-qui-Parle, is the pastor. 
Father Ravoux, recently from France, a sincere and 
earnest priest of the Church of Rome, came to Mendota 
in the autumn of 1S41, and after a brief sojourn with 
the Rev. L. Galtier, who had erected St. Paul's chapel 
which has given the name of St. Paul to the capital of 
Minnesota, he ascended the Minnesota River and visited 

Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, wrote the next year of his 
visit as follows: "'Our young missionary, M. Ravoux, 
passed the winter on the banks of Lac-qui-Parle, with- 
out any other support than Providence, without any 
other means of conversion than a burning zeal, he has 
wrought in the space of six months, a happy revolution 
among the Sioux. From the time of his arrival he has 
been occupied night and day in the study of their lan- 
guage. * * * "When he instructs the sav- 
ages, he speaks to them with so much tire whilst show- 
ing them a large copper crucifix which he carries on his 
breast, that he makes the strongest impression upon 


The impression, however, was evanescent, and he soon 
retired from the field and preached to the half-breeds at 
Mendota and Saint Paul. The young Mr. Ravoux is 
now the venerable vicar of the Roman Catholic diocese 
of Minnesota, and justly esteemed for his simplicity 
and unobtrusiveness. 

During the summer of 1835, Mr. E. F. Ely, the teach- 
er, removed from Sandy Lake and established a school 
at Fond du Lac of the St. Louis River. The Indians 
haviDg left the vicinity he and his wife were sent to 
Pokeguma mission station, as assistants. 

Pokeguma is one of the "Mille Lacs," or thousand 
beautiful lakes for which Minnesota is remarkable. It 
is about four or five miles in extent, and a mile or more 
in width, and is situated on Snake River about twenty 
miles above the junction of that stream with the St. 

In the year 1836 Presbyterian and Congregational 
missionaries came to reside among the O jib ways at 
Pokeguma, to promote their temporal and spiritual wel- 
fare. Their mission house was built on the east side of 
the lake, but the Indian village was on an island not far 
from the shore. In a letter written in 1837, we find the 
following: "The young women and girls now make, mend 
wash and iron after our manner. The men have learned 
to build log houses, drive team, plough, hoe, and handle 
an American axe with some skill in cutting large trees, 
the size of. which, two years ago, would have afforded 
them a sufficient reason why they should not meddle 
with them." 

In May, 1811, Jeremiah Russell, who was an Indian 
farmer, sent two Chippeways, accompanied by Elam 
Greeley, of Stillwater, to the Falls of Saint Croix for 


supplies. On Saturday, the fifteenth of the month, they 
arrived there, and the next day a steamboat came up 
with the goods. The captain said a war party of Sioux, 
headed by Little Crow, were advancing, and the two 
Chippeways prepared to go back. 

They had hardly left the Falls, on their return, before 
they saw a party of Dakotahs. The sentinel of the ene- 
my had not noticed the approach of the young men. In 
the twinkling of an eye, these two young Ojibways rais- 
ed their guns, fired, and killed two of Little Crow's 
sons. The discharge of the guns revealed to a sentinel 
that an enemy was near, and as the Ojibways were re- 
treating, he fired, and mortally wounded one of the two. 

According to custom, the corpses of the chief's sons 
were dressed, and then set up with their faces towards 
the country of their ancient enemies. The wounded 
Ojibway was horribly mangled by the infuriated party, 
and his limbs strewn in every direction. His scalped 
head was placed in a kettle, and suspended in front of 
the two Dakotah corpses. Little Crow, disheartened by 
the loss of his two boys, returned with his party to 
Kaposia. But other parties were in the field. It was 
not till Friday, the twenty-first of May, that the death 
of one of the young Ojibways sent by Mr. Russell, to 
the Falls of Saint Croix, was known at Pokeguma. 

Mr. Russell on the next Sunday, accompanied by Cap- 
tain William Holcomb and a half-breed, went to the 
mission station to attend a religious service, and while 
crossing the lake in returning, the half-breed said that it 
was rumored that the Sioux were approaching. On 
Monday, the twenty-fourth, three young men left in a 
canoe to go to the west shore of the lake, and from 
thence to Mille Lacs, to give intelligence to the Ojib- 


ways there, of the skirmish that had already occurred. 
They took with them with two Indian girls, about 
twelve years of age, who were pupils of the mission 
school, for the purpose of bringing the canoe back to 
the island. Just as the three were landing, twenty or 
thirty Dakotah warriors, with a war-whoop emerged 
from their concealment behind the trees, and fired into 
the canoe. The young men instantly sprang into the 
water, which was shallow, returned the fire, and ran into 
the woods, escaping without material injury. 

The little girls in their fright, waded into the ]ake; 
but were pursued. Their parents upon the island, heard 
the death cries of their children. Some of the Indians 
around the mission-house jumped into their canoes and 
gained the island. Others went into some fortified log 
huts. The attack upon the canoe, it was afterwards 
learnecl, was premature. The party upon that side of 
the lake were ordered not to fire, until the party sta- 
tioned in the woods near the mission began. 

There were in all one hundred and eleven Dakotah 
warriors, and all the fight was in the vicinity of the mis- 
sion-house, and the Ojibways mostly engaged in it were 
those who had been under religious instruction. The 
rest were upon the island. 

The fathers of the murdered girls, burning for revenge, 
left the island in a canoe, and drawing it up on the 
shore, hid behind it, and fired upon the Dakotahs and 
killed one. The Dakotahs advancing upon them, they 
were obliged to escape. The canoe was now launched. 
One lay on his back in the bottom; the other plunged 
into the water, and, holding the canoe with one hand, 
and swimming with the other, he towed his friend out 
of danger. The Dakotahs infuriated at their escape, 


fired volley after volley at the swimmer, but he escaped 
the balls by putting his head under water whenever he 
saw them take aim, and waiting till he heard the dis- 
charge, he would then look up and breathe. 

After a fight of two hours, the Dakotahs retreated, 
with a loss of two men. At the request of the parents, 
Mr. E. F. Ely, from whose notes the writer has obtained 
these facts, being at that time a teacher at the mission, 
went across the lake, with two of his friends, to gather 
the remains of his murdered pupils. He found the 
corpses on the shore. The heads cut off and scalped, 
with a tomahawk buried in the brains of each, were set 
up in the sand near the bodies. The bodies were pierced 
in the breast, and the right arm of one was taken away. 
Removing the tomahawks, the bodies were brought back 
to the island, and in the afternoon were buried in accord- 
ance with the simple but solemn rites of the Church of 
Christ, by members of the mission. 

The secpiel to this story is soon told. The Indians of 
Pokeguma, after the fight, deserted their village, and 
went to reside with their countrymen near Lake Supe- 

In July of the following yea] 1 , 18-42, a war party was 
formed at Fond du Lac, about forty in number, and pro- 
ceeded towards the Dakotah country. Sneaking, as 
none but Indians can, they arrived unnoticed at the 
little settlement below Saint Paul, commonly called 
" Pig's Eye," which is opposite to what was Kaposia, or 
Little Crow's village. Finding an Indian woman at 
work in the garden of her husband, a Canadian, by the 
name of Gamelle, they killed her, also another woman 
with her infant, whose head was cut off. The Dako- 
tahs on the opposite side were mostly intoxicated, and, 


flying across in their canoes, bat half prepared, they 
were worsted in the encounter. They lost thirteen war- 
riors, and one of their number, known as the Dancer, the 
Ojibways are said to have skinned. 

Soon after this the Chippeway missions of the St. 
Croix Valley were abandoned. In a little while Rev. 
Mr. Boutwell, who in 1838 had come down to Pokeguma, 
removed to the vicinity of Stillwater, and the mission- 
aries Ayer and Spencer, went to Red Lake and other 
points in Minnesota. 

In 1837, the Rev. A. Brutison commenced a Methodist 
mission at Kaposia, about four miles below and oppo- 
site Saint Paul. It was afterwards moved across the 
river to Red Rock; he was assisted by the Rev. Thomas 
TV. Pope, and the latter was succeeded by the Rev. J. 
Holton. The Rev. Mr. Spates and others also labored 
for a brief period among the Ojibways at Elk River, 
Sandy Lake, and Fond du Lac. 

At the Presbyterian stations the Dakotah language 
was diligently studied. Rev. S. TV. Pond had prepared a 
dictionary of three thousand words, and also a small 
grammar. The Rev. S. R. Riggs, who joined the mis- 
sion in 1837, in a letter dated February 21, 1841, writes: 
" Last summer, after returning from Fort Snelling, I 
spent five weeks in copying again the Sioux vocabulary 
which we had collected and arranged at this station. It 
contained then about fifty-rive hundred words, not includ- 
ding the various forms of the verbs. Since that time the 
words collected by Dr. Williamson and myself, have, I 
presume, increased the number to six thousand. * * * 
In this connection I may mention that during the winter 
of 1839-lo, Mrs. Riggs. with some assistance, wrote an 
English and Sioux vocabulary containing about three 


• thousand words. One of Mr. Renville's sons and three 
of his daughters are engaged in copying. In commit- 
ting the grammatical principles of the language to writ- 
ing, we have done something at this station, but more 
has been done by Mr. S. W. Pond." 

Among other books prepared by the Ponds, William- 
son and Eiggs, was a " Grammar and Dictionary of the 
Dakota Language, collected by members of the Dakota 
Mission; by Piev. S. R. Eiggs, A. M. Under the patron- 
age of the Historical Society of Minnesota"; a quarto 
volume of about three hundred and fifty pages, and pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution; also the Bible 
translated into Dakota, and published by the American 
Bible Society. 

Steadily the number of Sioux missionaries increased* 
and in 1851, before the lands of the Dakotahs west of 
the Mississippi were ceded to the whites, they were dis- 
posed as follows by the Dakotah Presbytery. 

Lac-qui-parle, Rev. S. E. Eiggs, Rev. M. X. Adams, 
Missionaries, Jonas Pettijohn, Mrs. Fanny Pettijohn, 
Mrs. Mary Ann Eiggs, Mrs. Mary A. 31. Adams, Miss 
Sarah Eankin, Assistants. 

Traverse des Sioux, Eev. Eobert Hopkins, Mission- 
ary; Mrs. Agnes Hopkins, Alexander G. Huggins, Mrs- 
Lydia P. Huggins, Assistants. 

Shalqmy or ShoJqmy, Eev. Samuel W. Pond, Mis- 
sionary; Mrs. Sarah P. Pond, Assistant. 

Oak Grove. Eev. Gideon H. Pond and wife. 

Kaposia, Eev. Thomas Williamson, M. D., Mission, 
any and Physician; Mrs. Margaret P. Williamson, Miss 
Jane S. Williamson, Assistants. 

lied Winy, Eev. John F. Aiton, Eev. Joseph W. Han- 


cock, Missionaries; Mrs. Nancy H. Alton, Mrs. Hancock, 

The Rev. Daniel Gavin, the Swiss Presbyterian Mis- 
sionary, spent the winter of 1839 in Lac-qni-Parle and 
was afterward married to a niece of the Piev. J. D. Ste- 
vens, of the Lake Harriet Mission. Mr. Stevens became 
the farmer and teacher of the Wapashah band, and the 
first white man who lived where the city of Winona has 
been built. Another missionary from Switzerland, the 
Rev. Mr. Denton, married a Miss Skinner, formerly of 
the Mackinaw mission. During a poition of the year 
1839 these Swiss missionaries lived with the American 
missionaries at camp Cold Water near Fort Snelling, 
but their chief field of labor was at Red Wing. 

The zeal of Frederick Ayer for the mental and moral 
improvement of the Ojibways did not abate after the 
Pokeguma mission was abandoned, and during the winter 
of 1812-3 he visited Red Lake, and established a mis- 
sion. The next spring Mr. Spencer and E. F. Ely came 
and assisted the Indians in ploughing. In 18-15, Mr. 
Rardwell arrived, and labored at Leech Lake, where for 
a time he acted as Indian Agent, and died there. 

The first missionary to labor among the Ojibways and 
half-breeds, near Pembina, was the Rev. G. A. Belcourt 
of the Roman Catholic Church. He was a man of ener- 
gy, erected a saw-mill and established a school', but 
about the year 1859, he was withdrawn from the field. 

In 1S52, Elijah Terry an estimable member of the 
Baptist church in Saint Paul, devoted himself to mis- 
sionary work at Pembina, and while in the woods cut- 
ting logs for a school house, was killed by some roving 

The Rev. Mr. Spencer, of the Red Lake mission, was 


at this time living at Pembina. After lie and his wife 
had retired for the night, a bullet was sent through the 
window, which resulted in the death of his wife. In a 
letter to a friend Mr. Spencer wrote: "What a scene for 
a husband and a father! Oh, the agony of that hour! I 
hardly know how I lived through the remainder of that 
night. Mrs. Spencer lived for nearly three hours, after 
she was shot, half the time in a state of anxious suffer- 
ing. She frequently called for water which I gave her 
from a sponge, and it was very gratifying. At times 
she. would remark, 'I feel so strangely.' At length 
comprehending that she had not long to live, she 
engaged in ejaculatory prayer to her Savior. At one 
time she said, speaking of her child, 'Tell Anna to love 
her Savior'. Toward the close, she said T cannot die.' 
At first I did not know but it was unwillingness, but my 
mind was relieved by the prayer, 'O Jesus! if it is thy 
will, let me die, but grant me patience'. Towards her 
murderers I have had no feelings but those of pity and 

In the year 1849, the Government opened a farm for 
the Ojibways at Gull Lake, and in 1852, the Rev. J. 
Lloyd Breck of the Protestant Episcopal branch of the 
church, established a mission there, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. E. S. Peake, but in a few years was it aban- 
doned. At White Earth Reservation the Protestant 
Episcopalians and Pioman Catholics have missions. 

TREATY OF 1837. 125 



The year 1837 is an important one in the history of 
Minnesota, as steps were then taken for the permanent 
occupation by white men. Before this period there was 
no land except the military reservation, that was not 
claimed by the Indians. A few immigrants from Selkirk's 
settlement, and some discharged soldiers had ventured 
to build cabins and till the soil, near Fort Snelling, with- 
out authority. 

Governor Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, as United 
States commissioner, on the twenty-ninth of July, con- 
cluded a treaty with the O jib ways, by which they agreed 
to cede all the lands north of a line running from the 
junction of the Crow Wing and Mississippi rivers, to 
the north point of Lake St. Croix. The same year a dep- 
utation of Dakotahs proceeded to Washington, and in 
the month of September ceded all their lands east of the 
Mississippi. Before the treaties were duly ratified, the 
wilderness was visited by white men seeking for fertile 
lands or valuable pine forests. Early in August Frank- 
lin Steele, Dr. Fitch, Jeremiah Puissell and a Mr. Ma- 
ginnis reached the Falls of St. Croix in a birch bark 
canoe, and began to erect a claim cabin. 

Steele and Maginnis remained here, while the others 
divided into two parties, one under Fitch and the other 
under Russell, searched for pine land. The first 


stopped at Sun Rise, while Hussell went on to Snake 
River. About the same time Robbinet and Jesse B.- 
Taylor came to the Falls in the interest of B. F. Baker, 
who had a stone trading house near Fort Snelling, since 
destroyed by tire. On the fifteenth of. July, 1S3S, the 
Palmyra, Captain Holland, arrived at the Fort, with the 
official notice of the ratification of the treaties ceding 
the lands between the Saint Croix and Mississippi. 

She had on board C. A. Tuttle, L. W. Stratton and 
others, with the machinery for the projected mills of 
the Northwest Lumber Company at the Falls of Saint 
Croix, and reached that point on the seventeenth, the 
first steamboat to disturb the waters above Lake Saint 
Croix. The steamer Gypsy came to the Fort on the 
twenty-first of October, with goods for the Chippeways, 
and was chartered for four hundred and fifty dollars, to 
carry them up to the Falls of Saint Croix. In passing 
through the lake, the boat grounded near a projected 
town called Stambaughville, after S. C. Stambaugh, the 
sutler of the Fort. On the afternoon of the twenty- 
sixth the goods were landed, as stipulated. 

The agent of the Inprovement Company at the Falls 
was Washington Libby, who left in the fall of 1838, and 
was succeeded by Jeremiah Russell, Stratton acting as 
millwright in place of Calvin Tuttle. On the twelfth of 
December, Russell and Stratton walked down the river, 
cut the first tree, and built a cabin at Marine, and sold 
their claim. 

The first women at the Falls of Saint Croix were a 
Mrs. Orr, Mrs. Sackett, and the daughter of a Mr. 
Young. During the winter of ]So8-9, Jeremiah Rus- 
sel married a daughter of a respectable and gentlemanly 
trader, Charles H. Oakes. 


Among the first preachers were the Rev. W. T. Bout- 
well and Mr. Seymour, of the Chippeway Mission at 
Pokeguma. The Rev. A. Brunson, of Prairie du Cliien, 
who visited this region in 1338, wrote that at the mouth 
of Snake River he found Franklin Steele, with twenty- 
five or thirty men, cutting timber for a mill, and when 
he offered to preach, Mr. Steele gave a cordial assent. 
On the sixteenth of August, Mr. Steele, Livingston, and 
others, left the Falls of St. Croix in a barge, and went 
around to Fort Snelling. 

The steamboat Fayette about the middle of May, 1S39, 
landed sutlers' stores at Fort Snelling and then proceed- 
ed with several persons of intelligence to the Saint 
Croix River, who settled at Marine. The place was 
called after Marine in Madison County, Illinois, where 
the company, consisting of Burkleo, Walker, Judd, 
Hone and others, was formed to build a saw-mill in the 
St. Croix Yalley. The mill at Marine commenced to 
saw lumber, on August 21, 1S39, the first in Minnesota, 
beyond the military reservation. 

Joseph R. Brown, who since 1838, had lived at Chan 
Wakan, on the west side of Grey Cloud Island, this year 
made a claim near the upper end of the city of Still- 
water, which he called Dakotah, and was the first to 
raft lumber down the Saint Croix, as well as the first to 
represent the citizens of the valley in the legislature of 

In 1839, Joseph Haskell and James S. Norris, who 
had assisted in the construction of a saw-mill at the Falls 
of St. Croix, not far from the site of the town of Afton, 
made claims, opened the first farms, and became useful 
and intelligent citizens. 

Intruders upon the military reservation, after the 


treaty, increased. An officer wrote in April: "Since the 
middle of winter we have been completely inundated 
with ardent spirits, and consequently the most beastly 
scenes of intoxication among the soldiers of this garrison 
and the Indians in its vicinity. The whisky is brought 
here by citizens who are pouring in upon us, and settling 
themselves on the opposite shore of the Mississippi" 

In October, the Secretary of War required all persons 
living on the reservation, without authority, to be re- 
moved, and the next year the order was enforced. 

Until the year 1811, the jurisdiction of Crawford 
county, "Wisconsin, extended over the delta of country 
between the St. Croix and Mississippi. Joseph E. 
Brown having been elected as representative of the 
county in the territorial legislature of Wisconsin, suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the passage of an act on November 
twentieth, 1841, organizing the county of Saint Croix, 
with Dakotah designated as the county seat. 

At the time prescribed for holding a court in the new 
county, it is said that the judge of the district arrived, 
and, to his surprise, found a claim cabin occupied by a 
Frenchman. Speedily retreating, he never came again, 
and judicial proceedings for St. Croix county ended for 
several years. Phineas Lawrence was the first sheriff 
of this county. 

On the tenth of October, 1843, was commenced a set- 
tlement which has become the town of Stillwater. The 
names of the proprietors were John McKusick from 
Maine, Calvin Leach from Vermont, Elam Greeley from 
Maine, and Elias McKean from Pennsylvania. They 
immediately commenced the erection of a saw-mill. 

The year that the Dakotalis ceded their lands east of 
the Mississippi, a Canadian Frenchman by the name of 


Parrant, the ideal of an Indian whisky seller, erected a 
shanty in what is now the city of Saint Paul. Ignorant 
and overbearing, he loved money more than his own 
soul. Destitute of one eye, and the other resembling 
that of a pig, he was a good representative of Caliban, 
Some one writing from his groggery, designated it as 
" Pig's Eye." The reply to the letter was directed in 
good faith to " Pig's Eye." 

In 1812, the late Henry Jackson, of Mahkato (now 
written Mankato, and mispronounced Mankayto), settled 
the same spot, and erected the first store on the height 
just above the lower landing. Roberts and Simpson 
followed, and opened small Indian trading shops. In 
1S16, the site of Saint Paul was chiefly occupied by a 
few shanties owned by "certain lewd fellows of the baser 
sort," who sold rum to the soldier and Indian. It was 
despised by all decent white men. and known to the 
Dakotahs by an expression in their tongue which means 
the place where they sell minne-wakan (supernatural 

Franklin Steele, Norman W. Kittson and others, 
claimed lands at the Falls of Saint Anthony, and in the 
fall of 18-17, a saw-mill was commenced. 




The first movement for an organized government in 
the valley of the upper Mississippi was in 1828, when a 
number of citizens in the vicinity of the lead mines of 
Illinois, memorialized Congress to form Huron Terri- 
tory, with Galena as its capital. The limits indicated 
were the British possessions for a northern boundary; 
the Eed River of the North, Lac Traverse, Big Stone 
Lake, and a line to the Mississippi river, for a western 
boundary; a line from the Missouri easterly to the Mis- 
sissippi and from thence to the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan, for the southern boundary: and a line 
through the center of Lake Michigan, across Michigan 
Territory, to Lake Superior. After due consideration it 
was deemed inexpedient to grant the request. 

On the sixth of August, 1816, an act was passed by 
Congress authorizing the citizens of Wisconsin Terri- 
tory to frame a constitution and form a state government. 
The act fixed the Saint Louis river to the rapids, from 
thence down that river to its junction with the Missis- 
sippi, as the western boundary. 

On the twenty-third of December, 18-10, the delegate 
from Wisconsin, Morgan L. Martin, introduced a bill in 
Congress for the organization of a territory of Minne- 
sota. This bill made its western boundary the Sioux 
and Red River of the North. On the third of March, 


1847, permission was granted to Wisconsin to change 
her boundary, so that the western limit would proceed 
due south from the first rapids of the Saint Louis river, 
and fifteen miles east of the most easterly point of Lake 
Saint Croix, thence to the Mississippi. 

A number in the constitutional convention of Wiscon- 
sin, were anxious that Bum River should be a part of 
her western boundary, while citizens of the valley of the 
Saint Croix were desirous that the Chippeway river 
should be the limit of Wisconsin. The citizens of AVis- 
consin Territory, in the valley of the Saint Croix, and 
about Fort Snelling, wished to be included in the pro- 
jected new territory, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 

1848, a memorial signed by H. H. Sibley, Henry M. 
Rice, Franklin Steele, William R. Marshall, and others, 
was presented to Congress, remonstrating against the 
proposition before the convention to make Rum River 
a part of the boundary line of the contemplated state of 

On the twenty-ninth of May, 184S, the act to admit 
Wisconsin, changed the boundary line to the present, 
and as first defined in the enabling act of 1846. After 
the bill of Mr. Martin was introduced into the House of 
Representatives in 1846 it was referred to the Commit- 
tee on Territories, of which Mr. Douglas was chairman. 
On the twentieth of January, 1847, he reported in favor 
of the proposed territory with the name of Itasca. On 
the seventeenth of February, before the bill passed 
the house, a discussion arose in relation to the proposed 
name. Mr. Winthrop of Massachusetts proposed Chip- 
pewa as a substitute, alleging that this tribe was the 
principal in the proposed territory. Mr. J. Thompson 
of Mississippi disliked all Indian names, and hoped the 


territory would be called Jackson. Mr. Houston of 
Delaware thought that there ought to be one territory 
named after the "Father of his country," and proposed 
Washington. All of the names proposed were rejected, 
and the name in the original bill inserted. On the last 
clay of the session, March third, the bill was called up 
in the Senate and laid on the table. 

When Wisconsin became a state the query arose 
whether the old territorial government did not continue 
in force west of the St. Croix river. The first meeting 
on the subject of claiming territorial privileges was 
held in the building at Saint Paul, known as Jackson's 
store, near the corner of Bench and Jackson streets on 
the bluff. This meeting was held in July, and a con- 
vention was proposed to consider their position. The 
first public meeting was held at Stillwater on the fourth of 
August, and Messrs. Steele and Sibley were the only per- 
sons present from the west side of the Mississippi. 
This meeting issued a call for a general convention to 
take steps to secure an early territorial organization, to 
assemble on the twenty-sixth of the month at the same 
place. Sixty-two delegates answered the call, and among 
those present, were J. W. Bass, A. Larpenteur, and oth- 
ers from Saint Paul. To the convention a letter was 
presented from Mr. Catlin, who claimed to be acting 
governor, giving his opinion that the Wisconsin territo- 
rial organization was still in force. The meeting also 
appointed Mr. Sibley to visit Washington and represent 
their views; but the Hon. JohnH. Tweedy having resign- 
ed his office of delegate to Congress on the eighteenth of 
September, 1848, Mr. Catlin, who had made Stillwater a 
temporary residence, on the ninth of October issued a pro- 
clamation ordering a special election at Stillwater on 


the thirtieth, to fill vacancy occasioned by the resignation. 
At this election Henry H. Sibley was elected as dele- 
gate of the citizens of the remaining portion of Wiscon- 
sin Territory. His credentials were presented to the 
House of Representatives, and the committee to whom 
the matter was referred presented a majority and minor- 
ity report; but the resolution introduced by the major- 
ity passed and Mr. Sibley took his seat as a delegate 
from Wisconsin Territory on the fifteenth of January, 

Mr. H. M. Rice, and other gentlemen, visited Wash- 
ington during the winter, and, uniting with Mr. Sibley, 
used all their energies to obtain the organization of a 
new territory. 

Mr. Sibley, in an interesting communication to the 
Minnesota Historical Society, writes: ; 'When my cre- 
dentials as delegate were presented by Hon. James 
Wilson, of New Hampshire, to the House of Represen- 
tatives, there was some curiosity manifested among the 
members, to see what kind of a person had been elected 
to represent the distant and wild territory claiming rep- 
resentation in Congress. I was told by a New England 
member with whom I became subsequently quite inti- 
mate, that there was some disappointment when I made 
my appearance, for it was expected that the delegate 
from this remote region would make his debut, if not in 
full Indian costume, at least, with some peculiarities of 
dress and manners, characteristic of the rude and semi- 
civilized people who had sent him to the Capitol." 

The territory of Minnesota was named after the larg- 
est tributary of the Mississippi within its limits. The 
Sioux call the Missouri, Minneshoshay, muddy water. 
but the stream after which this region is named, Minne- 



sota. Some say that Sota means clear; others, turbid; 
Schoolcraft, bluish green. Nicollet wrote, " The adject- 
ive Sotah is of difficult translation. The Canadians 
translated it by a pretty equivalent word, brouille, per- 
haps more properly rendered into English by blear. 
1 have entered upon this explanation because the word 
really means neither clear nor turbid, as some authors 
have asserted, its true meaning being found in the Sioux 
expression Ishtah-sotah, blear-eyed." From the fact 
that the word signifies neither blue nor white, but the 
peculiar appearance of the sky at certain times, by 
some, Minnesota has been defined to mean the sky-tinted 
water, which is certainly poetic, and the late Eev. Gid- 
eon H. Pond thought quite correct. 




On the third of March, 1819, the bill was passed by 
Congress for organizing the Territory of Minnesota, 
whose boundary on the west extended to the Missouri 
River. At this time the region was little moie than a 
wilderness. The west bank of the Mississippi, from the 
Iowa line to Lake Itasca, was unceded by the Indians. 

At Wapashah was a trading post in charge of Alexis 
Bailly, and here also resided the ancient yoyageur, of 
fourscore years, A. Rocque. 

At the foot of Lake Pepin was a store house kept by 
Mr. E. S. Richards. On the west shore of the lake lived 
the eccentric Wells, whose wife was a bois brule, a 
daughter of the deceased trader, Duncan Graham. 

The two unfinished buildings of stone, on the beauti- 
ful bank opposite the renowned Maiden's Rock, and the 
surrounding skin lodges of his wife's relatives and 
friends, presented a rude but picturesque scene. Above 
the lake was a cluster of bark wigwams, the Dakotah 
village of Raymneecha, now Red Wing, at which was a 
Presbyterian mission house. 

The next settlement was Kaposia, also an Indian 
village, and the residence of a Presbyterian missionary, 
the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D. On the east side of 
the Mississippi, the first settlement at the mouth of the 
St. Croix, was Point Douglas, then, as now, a small 


At Red Pock, the site of a former Methodist mission 
station, there were a few farmers. Saint Paul was just 
emerging from a collection of Indian whisky shops' and 
birch-roofed cabins of half-breed voyageurs. Here and 
there a frame tenement was erected, and under the aus- 
pices of Hon. H. M. Pvice, who had obtained an interest 
in the town, some warehouses were constructed, and the 
foundations of the American House, a frame hotel which 
stood at Third and Exchange street, were laid. In 1819, 
the population had increased to two hundred and fifty or 
three hundred inhabitants, for rumors had gone abroad 
that it might be mentioned, in the act creating the ter- 
ritory, as the capital of Minnesota. More than a month 
after the adjournment of Congress, just at eve, on the 
ninth of April, amid terrific peals of thunder and tor- 
rents of rain, the weekly steam packet, the first to force 
its way through the icy barrier of Lake Pepin, rounded 
the rocky point whistling loud and long, as if the bearer 
of glad tidings. Before she was safely moored to the 
landing the shouts of the excited villagers were heard 
announcing that there was a Territory of Minnesota, and 
that Saint Paul was the seat of government. 

Every successive steamboat arrival poured out, on the 
landing, men big with hope, and anxious to do something 
to mould the future of the new state. 

Nine days after the news of the existence of the ter- 
ritory of Minnesota was received, there arrived James 
M. Goodhue with press, type, and printing apparatus. 
A graduate of Amherst College, ami a lawyer by pro- 
fession, he wielded a sharp pen, and wrote editorials, 
which, more than anything else, perhaps, induced immi- 
gration. One of the counties properly bears his name. 


On the twenty-eighth of April, he issued from his press 
the first number of the Pioneer. , 

On the twenty-seventh of May, Alexander Ramsey, 
the Governor, and family, arrived at Saint Paul, but 
owing to the crowded state of public houses, immediately 
proceeded in the steamer to the establishment of the 
Pur Company, known as Mendota, at the junction of the 
Minnesota and Mississippi, and became the guest of the 
Hon. H. H. Sibley. 

On the first of June, Governor Ramsey, by proclama- 
tion, declared the territory duly organized with the fol- 
lowing officers: Alexander Piamsey, of Pennsylvania, 
Governor; C. K. Smith, of Ohio, Secretary; A. Good- 
rich, of Tennessee, Chief Justice; D. Cooper, of Penn- 
sylvania, and B. B. Meeker, of Kentuckey, Associate 
Judges; Joshua L. Taylor, Marshal; H. L. Moss, attor- 
ney of the United States. 

On the eleventh of June, a second proclamation was 
issued, dividing the territory into three temporary judic- 
ial districts. The first comprised the county of St. 
Croix; the county of La Pointe and the region north and 
west of the Mississippi, and north of the Minnesota and 
of a line running due west from the head waters of the 
Minnesota to the Missouri river, constituted the second; 
and the country west of the Mississippi and south of the 
Minnesota, formed the third district. Judge Goodrich 
was assigned to the first, Meeker to the second, and 
Cooper to the third. A court was ordered to be held at 
Stillwater on the second Monday, at the Falls of St. An- 
thony on the third, and at Mendota on the fourth Mon- 
day of August. 

Until the twenty-sixth of June, Governor Piamsey and 
family had been guests of Hon. H. H. Sibley, at Men- 


dota. On the afternoon of that day they arrived at St. 
Paul, in a birch-bark canoe, and became permanent resi- 
dents at the capital. The house first occupied as a guber- 
natorial mansion, was a small frame building that 
stood on Third, between Robert and Jackson streets, for- 
merly known as the New England House. 

A few days after, the Hon. H. M. Piice and family 
moved from Mendota to St. Paul, and occupied the 
house he had erected on St. Anthony street, near the 
corner of Market. 

On the first of July, a land office was established at 
Stillwater, and A. Van Yorhes, after a few wee s, be- 
came the register. 

The anniversary of our National Independence was 
celebrated in a becoming manner at the capital. The 
place selected for the address, was a grove that stood on 
the sites of the City Hall and the Baldwin School build- 
ing, and the late Franklin Steele was the marshal of 
the day. 

On the seventh of July, a proclamation was issued, 
dividing the territory into seven council districts, and 
ordering an election to be held on the first day of Au- 
gust,for one delegate to represent the people in the House 
of Representatives of the United States, for nine coun- 
cillors and eighteen representatives, to constitute the 
Legislative Assembly of Minnesota. 

In this month, the Hon. H. M. Pace dispatched a boat 
laden with Indian goods from the Falls of St. Anthony 
to Crow Wing, which was towed by horses after the 
manner of a canal boat. 

Daring this summer, the first Presbyterian clergyman 
of Saint Paul erected a two story edifice of brick, for 
his residence, the first of that material in Minnesota. 


It stood on Fourth street, opposite the Metropolitan, 
and in 18S6, was pulled down to make room for other 

The election on the first of August, passed off with 
little excitement, Hon. H. H. Sibley being elected dele- 
gate to Congress without opposition. David Lambert, 
a candidate for the Legislature, on what might be termed 
the old settler's ticket, was defeated in St. Paul, by- 
James M. Boal. The latter, on the night of the elec- 
tion, was honored with a ride through town on an axle 
and fore-wheels of an old wagon, which was drawn by 
his admiring but somewhat undisciplined friends. 

J. L. Taylor having declined the office of United 
States marshal, A. M. Mitchell, of Ohio, a graduate of 
"West Point, and Colonel of a regiment of Ohio volun- 
teers in the Mexican war, was appointed and arrived at 
the capital early in August. 

There were three papers published in the territory 
soon after its organization. The first was the Pioneer, 
issued on April twenty-eighth, 1849, under most dis- 
couraging circumstances. It was at first the intention 
of the witty and talented editor to have called his paper 
"The Epistle of St. Paul." About the same time there 
was issued in Cincinnati, under the auspices of the late 
Dr. A. Randall, of California, the first number of the 
Register. The second number of the paper was printed 
at St. Paul, in July, and the office was on St. Anthony, 
between Washington and Market Streets. About the 
first of June, James Hughes, afterward of Hudson, 
Wisconsin, arrived with a press and materials, and es- 
tablished the Minnesota Chronicle. After an existence 
of a few weeks two papers were discontinued, and, in 


their place was issued the "Chronicle and Register," 
edited by Nathaiel McLean and John P. Owens. 

The first courts, pursuant to proclamation of the Gov- 
ernor, were held in the month of August. At Stillwater, 
the court was organized on the thirteenth of the month, 
Judge Goodrich presiding and Judge Cooper, by court- 
esy, sitting on the bench. On the twentieth, the second 
judicial district held a court. The room used was the 
old government mill at Minneapolis. The presiding 
judge was B. B. Meeker; the foreman of the grand jury, 
Franklin Steele. On the last Monday of the month, the 
court for the third judicial district was organized in the 
large stone warehouse of the fur company at Mendota. 
The presiding judge was David Cooper. Governor 
Ramsey sat on the right and Judge Goodrich on the left. 
Hon. H. H. Sibley was the foreman of the grand jury. 
As some of the jurors could not speak the English lan- 
guage, ^Y. H. Forbes acted as interpreter. The charge 
of Judge Cooper was lucid, scholarly and dignified. At 
the request of the grand jury it was afterwards published. 
On Monday, the third of September, the first Legisla- 
tive Assembly convened in the " Central House," in 
Saint Paul, a building at the corner of Minnesota and 
Bench streets, facing the Mississippi river, which an- 
swered the double purpose of capitol and hotel. On 
the first floor of the main building was the Secretary's 
office and Representative chamber, and in the second 
story was the library and Council chamber. As the fla<» 
was run up the staff in front of the house, a number of 
Indians sat on a rocky bluff in the vicinity, and gazed 
at what to them was a novel and perhaps saddening 
scene. The Legislature elected the following per- 
manent officers: David Olmsted, President of Coun- 


cil; Joseph R. Brown, Secretary; H. A. Lambert, 
Assistant. In the House of Representatives, Joseph AY. 
Furber was elected Speaker, W. D. Phillips, Clerk; L. 
B. Wait, Assistant. 

On Tuesday afternoon, both houses assembled in the 
dining hall of the hotel, and after prayer was offered by 
Rev. E. D. Neill, Governor Ramsey delivered his mess- 
age. The message was ably written, and its perusal 
afforded satisfaction at home and abroad. 

The first session of the Legislature adjourned on the 
first of November. Among other proceedings of inter- 
est was the creation of the following counties: Itasca, 
AYapashaw, Dahkotah, AVahnahtah, Mahkahto. Pembina, 
Washington, Ramsey and Benton. The three latter 
counties comprised the country that up to that time had 
been ceded by the Indians on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi. Stillwater was declared the county seat of 
Washington, Saint Paul of Ramsey, and "the seat of 
justice of the county of Benton was to be within one- 
quarter of a mile of a point on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, directly opposite the mouth of Sauk River." 

By the active exertions of the Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, C. K. Smith, Esq., the Historical Society of Min- 
nesota was incorporated at the first session of the Legis- 
lature. The opening annual address was delivered on 
the first of January, 1850, in the then Methodist Church, 
by the Rev. Edward D. Neill. 

At this early period the Minnesota Pioneer issued a 
Carrier's New Years Address, which was an amusing dog- 
gerel. The reference to the future greatness and igno- 
ble origin of the capital of Minnesota was as follows: 


The cities on this river must be three, 

Two that are built and one that is to be. 

One is the mart of all the tropics yield, 

The cane, the orange, and the cotton-field, 

And sends her ships abroad and boasts 

Her trade extended to a thousand coasts; 

The other, central for the temperate zone, 

Garners the stores that on the plains are grown, 

A placo where steamboats from all quarters range, 

To meet and speculate, as 'twere on change. 

The third will be, where rivers confluent flow, 

From the wide spreading north through plains of snow; 

The mart of all that boundless forests give, 

To make mankind more comfortably live, 

The land of manufacturing industry, 

The worship of the nation it shall be. 

Propelled by this wide stream, you'll see 

A thousand factories at Saint Anthony: 

And the Saint Croix a hundred mills shall drive, 

And all its smiling villages shall thrive; 

But then my town — remember that high bench, 

With cabins scattered over it, of French? 

A man named Henry Jackson's living there, 

Also a man — why every one knows L. Robair, 

Below Fort Snelling, seven miles or so, 

And three above the village of Old Crow? 

Pig's Eye? Yes, Pig's Eye! That's the spot! 

A very funny name, is't not? 

Pig's Eye's the spot to plant my city on, 

To be remembered by when I am gone. 

Pig's Eye, converted thou shalt be, like Saul: 

Thy name henceforth shall be Saint Paul. 

Governor Ramsey, and Hon. H. H. Sibley, the delegate 
to Congress, devised at Washington this winter, the ter- 
ritorial seal. The design was Falls of St. Anthony in the 
distance. An immigrant ploughing the land on the bor- 
ders of the Indian country, full of hope, and looking 
forward to the possession of the hunting grounds be- 


yond. An Indian, amazed at the sight of the white man 
ploughing and fleeing on horseback toward the setting 

The motto of the Earl of Dunraven, "Quae sursum 
volo videre," (I wish to see what is above ) was most ap- 
propriately selected by Mr. Sibley, but by the blunder 
of an engraver it appeared on the territorial seal, "Quo 
sursum velo videre," which no scholar could translate. 
At length was substituted, "L' Etoile du Nord," "Star of 
the North," while the device of the setting sun remain- 
ed, and this is objectionable, as the State of Maine had 
already placed the North Star on her escutcheon, with 
the motto "Dirigo," "I guide." Perhaps some future 
legislature may direct the first motto to be restored and 
correctly engraved. 

In the month of April there was a renewal of hostili- 
ties between the Dakotahs and Ojibways, on lands that 
had been ceded to the United States. A war prophet at 
Red Wing dreamed that he ought to raise a war party. 
Announcing the fact, a number expressed their willing- 
ness to go on such an expedition. Several from the Ka- 
posia village also joined the party, under the leadership 
of a worthless Indian, who had been confined in the 
guard-house at Fort Snelling tiie year previous, for 
scalping his wife. 

Passing up the valley of the St. Croix, a few miles 
above Stillwater the party discovered on the snow the 
marks of a keg and footprints. These told them that a 
man and woman of the Ojibways had been to some whis- 
ky dealer's, and were returning. Following their trail, 
they found on Apple river, about twenty miles from 
Stillwater, a band of Ojibways encamped in one lodge. 
Waiting until daybreak of Wednesday, April the second, 


the Dakotalis commenced firing on the unsuspecting in- 
mates, some of whom were drinking from the contents 
of the keg. The camp was composed of fifteen, and all 
were murdered and scalped, with the exception of a lad, 
who was made a captive. 

On Thursday, the victors came to Stillwater, and 
danced the scalp dance around the captive boy, in the 
heat of excitement, striking him in the face with the 
scarcely cold and bloody scalps of his relatives. The 
child was then taken to Kaposia, and adopted by the 
chief. Governor Ramsey immediately took measures to 
send the boy to his friends. At a conference held at 
the Governor's mansion, the boy was delivered up, and, 
on being led out to the kitchen by a little son of the 
Governor, since deceased, to receive refreshments, he 
cried bitterly, seemingly more alarmed at being left 
with the whites than he had been while a captive at 

From the first of April, the waters of the Mississippi 
began to rise, and on the thirteenth, the lower floor of 
the warehouse, then occupied by William Constans, at 
the foot of Jackson street, St. Paul, was submerged. 
Taking advantage of the freshet, the steamboat Anthony 
Wayne, for a purse of two hundred dollars, ventured 
through the swift current above Fort Snelling, and 
reached the Falls of St. Anthony. The boat left the 
fort after dinner, with Governor Ramsey and other 
guests, also the band of the Sixth Regiment on board, 
and reached the falls between three and four o'clock in 
the afternoon. The whole town, men, women and chil- 
dren lined the shore as the boat approached, and wel- 
comed this first arrival, with shouts and waving hand- 


On the afternoon of May fifteenth, there might have 
been seen, hurrying through the streets of Saint Paul, a 
number of naked and painted braves of the Kaposia 
band of Dakotahs, ornamented with all the attire of war, 
and panting for the scalps of their enemies. A few 
hours before, the warlike head chief of the Ojibways, 
young Hole-in-the-Day, having secreted his canoe in 
the retired gorge which leads to the cave in the upper 
suburbs, with two or three associates had crossed the 
river, and, almost in sight of the citizens of the town, 
had attacked a small party of Dakotahs, and murdered 
and scalped one man. On receipt of the news, Governor 
Ramsey granted a parole to the thirteen Dakotahs con- 
fined in Fort Snelling, for the Apple River massacre. 

On the morning of the sixteenth of May, the first 
Protestant church edifice completed in the white settle- 
ments, a small frame building, built for the Presbyterian 
church at Saint Paul, was destroyed by fire, it being the 
first conflagration that had occurred since the organiza- 
tion of the territory. 

The summer of 1850 was the commencement of the 
navigation of the Minnesota river by steamboats. With 
the exception of a steamer that made a pleasure excur- 
sion as far as Shokpay, in 1841, no large vessels had 
ever disturbed the waters of this stream. In June, the 
"Anthony "Wayne," which a few weeks before had as- 
cended to the Falls of St. Anthony, made a trip. On 
the eighteenth of July she made a second trip, going 
almost to Mahkahto. The "Nominee" also navigated the 
stream for some distance. 

On the twenty-second of July the officers of the 
"Yankee," taking advantage of the high water, deter- 



mined to navigate the stream as far as possible. The 
boat ascended to near the Cottonwood river. 

As the time for the general election in September ap- 
proached, considerable excitement was manifested. As 
there were no political issues before the people, parties 
were formed based on personal preferences. Among 
those nominated for delegate to Congress, by various 
meetings, were H. H. Sibley, the former delegate to 
Congress, David Olmsted, at that time engaged in the 
Indian trade, and A. M. Mitchell, the United States 
marshal. Mr. Olmsted withdrew his name before elec- 
tion day, and the contest was between those interested 
in Sibley and Mitchell. The friends of each betrayed 
the greatest zeal, and neither pains nor money were 
spared to insure success. Mr. Sibley was elected by a 
small majority. For the first time in the territory, sol- 
diers at the garrison voted at this election, and there 
was considerable discussion as to the propriety of such 
a course. 

Miss Fredrika Bremer, the well known Swedish novel- 
ist, visited Minnesota in the month of October, and was 
the guest of Governor Ptamsey. Her description of 
Saint Paul, as it was in 1850, in her published letters, is 
in these words: 

"Scarcely had we touched the shore when the gover- 
nor of Minnesota and his pretty young wife came on 
board and invited me to take up my quarters at their 
house. And there I am now, happy with these kind 
people, ami with them I make excursions into the neigh- 
borhood. The town is one of the youngest infants of the 
great West, scarcely eighteen months old; and yet it has 
in a short time increased to a population of two thous- 
and persons, and in a very few years it will certainly be 


possessed of twenty-two thousand, for its situation is as 
remarkable for its beauty and healthiness, as it is ad- 
vantageous for trade. 

"As yet, however, the town is but in its infancy, and 
people manage with such dwellings as they can get The 
drawing-room at Governor Ramsey's house is also his 
office, and Indians and workpeople, and ladies and gen- 
tlemen, are all alike admitted. In the mean time, & Mr. 
Ramsey is building a handsome, spacious house upon 
a hill, a little out of the city [Exchange and Walnut 
streets] with beautiful trees around it. If I were to live 
on the Mississippi, I would live here. It is a hilly re- 
gion, and on all sides extend beautiful and varying land- 

"The city is thronged with Indians. The men, for the 
most part, go about grandly ornamented, with naked 
hatchets, the shafts of which serve them as pipes. They 
paint themselves so utterly without any taste that itis 
incredible. Here comes an Indian who has painted a 
great red spot in the middle of his nose; here another 
who has painted the whole of his forehead in lines of 
black and yellow; there a third with coal black rings 
round his eyes. * * * The women are less painted, 
with better taste than the men, generally with merely 
one deep red little spot in the middle of the cheek, and 
the parting of the hair on the forehead is dyed purple. 
There goes an Indian with his proud step, bearing aloft 
his plumed head. He carries only his pipe, and when 
he is on a journey, perhaps_ a long staff in his hand. 
After him, with bowed head and stooping shoulders, fol- 
lows his wife, bending under the burden which she 
bears. Above the burden peeps forth a little round- 
faced child, with beautiful dark eyes." 


During November, theDakotah Tawaxitku Kin, or the 
Dakotah Friend, a monthly paper, was commenced, one- 
half in the Dakotah and one-half in the English lan- 
guage. Its editor was the Rev. Gideon H. Pond, a 
Presbyterian missionary, audits place of publication at 
St. Paul. It was published for nearly two years, and, 
though it failed to attract the attention of the Indian 
mind, it conveyed to the English reader much correct 
information in relation to the habits, the belief, and su- 
perstitions, of the Dakotahs 

On the tenth of December, a new paper, owned and 
edited by Daniel A. Robertson, late United States mar- 
shal, of Ohio, and called the Minnesota Democrat, made 
its appearance. — 

During the summer there had been changes in the 
editorial supervision of the "Chronicle and Register." 
For a brief period it was edited by L. A. Babcock, Esq., 
who was succeeded by W. G. Le Due. 

About the time of the issuing of the Democrat, C. J. 
Henniss, formerly reporter for the United States Ga- 
zette, Philadelphia, became the editor of the Chronicle. 

The first proclamation for a thanksgiving day was 
issued in 1850 by the governor, and the twenty-sixth of 
December was the time appointed which was generally 

On "Wednesday, January first, 1851, the second Legis- 
lative Assembly assembled in a three-story brick build- 
ing, since destroyed by fire, that stood on Third 
street, between Washington and Franklin. 1). 13. 
Loomis was chosen Speaker of the Council, and M. E. 
Ames, Speaker of the Bouse. This assembly was char- 
acterized by more bitterness of feeling than any that 
has since convened. The preceding delegate election 

TREATIES OF 1851. 110 

had been based ou personal preferences, and cliques and 
factions manifested themselves at an early period of the 

The locating of the- penitentiary at Stillwater, and the 
capitol building at St. Paul gave some dissatisfaction. 
By the efforts of J. W. North, Esq., a bill creating the 
University of Minnesota at or near the Falls of St. An- 
thony, was passed and signed by the Governor. This 
institution, by the State Constitution, is now the State 

During the session of this Legislature, the publication 
of the "Chronicle and Register" ceased. 

The first paper published in Minnesota, beyond the 
capital, was the St. Anthony Express, which made 
its appearance during the last week of April or May. 

The most important event of the year 1S51 was the 
treaty with the Dakotahs, by which the west side of the 
Mississippi and the valley of the Minnesota River were 
opened to the hardy immigrant. The commissioners on 
the part of the United States were Luke Lea, Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, and Governor Ramsey. The 
place of meeting for the upper bands was Traverse des 
Sioux. The commission arrived there on the last of 
June, but were obliged to wait many days for the assem- 
bling of the various bands of Dakotahs. 

On the eighteenth of July, all those expected having 
arrived, the Sissetoans and "VYakpaytoan Dakotahs assem- 
bled in grand council with the United States commis- 
sioners. After the usual feastings and speeches, a treaty 
was concluded on Wednesday, July twenty-third. The 
pipe having been smoked by the commissioners Lea 
and Ramsey, it was passed to the chiefs. The paper 
containing the treaty was then read in English and trans- 


lated into the Dakotali by the Rev. S. E. Iiiggs, Presby- 
terian Missionary among this people. This finished, the 
chiefs came up to the secretary's table and touched the 
pen; the white men present then witnessed the docu- 
ment, and nothing remained but the ratification of the 
United States Senate to open that vast country for the 
residence of the hardy immigrant. 

During the first week in August, a treaty was also 
concluded beneath an oak bower, on Pilot Knob, ATen- 
dota, with the M'dewakantonwan and Wahpaykootay 
bands of Dakotahs. About sixty of the chiefs and prin- 
cipal men touched the pen, and Little Crow, who had 
been in the mission school at Lac qui Parle, signed his 
own name. Before they separated, Col. Lea and Gover- 
nor Ramsey gave them a few words of advice on the 
various subjects connected with their future well-being, 
but particularly on the subject of education and temper- 
ance. The treaty was interpreted to them by Rev. G. 
H. Pond, a gentleman who was conceded to be a most 
correct speaker of the Dakotali tongue. 

The day after the treaty these lower bands received 
thirty thousand dollars, which, by the treaty of 1837, 
was set apart for education; but, by the misrepresen- 
tation of interested half-breeds, the Indians were made 
to believe that it ought to be given to them to be em- 
ployed as they pleased. 

The next week, with their sacks filled with monev, 
they thronged the streets of St. Paul, purchasing what- 
ever pleased their fancy. 

On the seventeenth of September, a new paper was 
commenced in St. Paul, under the auspices of the 
"W higs," and John P. Owens became editor, which re- 
lation-he sustained until the fall of 1857. 


The election for members of the legislature and coun- 
ty officers occured on the fourteenth of October; and, for 
the first time, a regular Democratic ticket was placed 
before the people. The parties called themselves Dem- 
ocratic and Anti-organization, or Coalition. 

In the month of November Jerome Fuller arrived, 
and took the place of Judge Goodrich as Chief Justice 
of Minnesota, who was removed; and about the same time 
Alexander Wilkin was appointed secretary of the terri- 
tory in place of C. K. Smith. 

The eighteenth of December, pursuant to proclama- 
tion, was observed as a day of Thanksgiving. 

The third Legislative Assembly commenced its ses- 
sions in one of the edifices on Third below Jackson 
street, which became a portion of the Merchants' Hotel, 
on the seventh of January, 1852. 

This session, compared with the previous, formed a 
contrast as great as that between a boisterous day in 
March and a calm June morning. The minds of the 
population were more deeply interested in the ratifica- 
tion of the treaties made with the Dakotahs, than in 
political discussions. Among other legislation of inter- 
est was the creation of Hennepin county. 

On Saturday, the fourteenth of February, a dog-train 
arrived at St. Paul from the north, with the distingui.-h- 
ed Arctic explorer, Dr. Rae. He had been in search of 
the long-missing Sir John Franklin, byway of the [Mac- 
kenzie river, and was now on his way to Europe. 

On the fourteenth of May, an interesting lusus natu- 
rae occurred at Stillwater. On the prairies, beyond the 
elevated bluffs which encircle the business portion of 
the town, there is a lake which discharges its waters 
through a ravine, and supplied McKusick's mill. Owing 


to heavy rains, the hills became saturated with water, 
and the lake very full. Before daylight the citizens 
heard the "voice of many waters," and looking out, saw- 
rushing down through the ravine, trees, gravel and dilu- 
vium. Nothing impeded its course, and as it issued 
from the ravine it spread over the town site, covering up 
barns and small tenements, and, continuing to the lake 
shore, it materially improved the landing, by a deposit 
of many tons of earth. One of the editors of the day, 
alluding to the fact, quaintly remarked, that "it was a 
very extraordinary movement of real estate." 

About the last of August, the pioneer editor of Min- 
nesota, James M. Goodhue, died. 

At the November Term of the United States District 
Court, of Ramsey county, a Dakotah, named Yu-ha-zee. 
was tried for the murder of a German woman. With 
others she was traveling above Shokpay, when a party ol 
Indians, of whom the prisoner was one, met them; and, 
gathering about the wagon, were much excited. The 
prisoner punched the woman first with his gun, and, 
being threatened by one of the party, loaded and fired, 
killing the woman and wounding one of the men. 

On the day of his trial he was escorted from Fort 
Snelling by a company of mounted dragoons in full 
dress." It was an impressive scene to witness the poor 
Indian half hid in his blanket, in a buggy with the civil 
officer, surrounded with all Hie pomp and circumstance 
of war. The jury found him guilty. On being asked 
if he had anything to say why sentence of death should 
not be passed, he replied through the interpreter, that 
the band to which he belonged would remit their annu- 
ities if he could be released. To this Judge Hayner, the 
successor of Judge Fuller, replied that he had no author- 


ity to release him; and, ordering him to rise, after some 
appropriate and impressive remarks, he pronounced the 
first sentence of death ever pronounced by a judicial 
officer in Minnesota. The prisoner trembled while the 
judge spoke, and was a piteous spectacle. By the stat- 
ute of Minnesota, then, one convicted of murder could 
not be executed until twelve months had elapsed, and he 
was confined until the governor of the territory should 
by warrant order his execution. 

The fourth Legislative Assembly convened on the 
fifth of January, 1853, in the two story brick edifice at 
the corner of Third and Minnesota streets. The Council 
chose Martin McLeod as presiding officer, and the House 
Dr. David Day, Speaker. Governor Ramsey's message 
was an interesting document. 

The Baldwin school, now known as Macalester College, 
was incorporated at this session of the legislature, and 
was opened the following June. 

On the' ninth of April, a party of Ojibways killed a 
Dakotah, at the village of Shokpay. A war party, from 
Kaposia, then proceeded up the valley of the St. Croix, 
and killed an Ojibway. On the morning of the twenty- 
seventh, a band of Ojibway warriors, naked, decked, and 
fiercely gesticulating, might have been seen in the busi- 
est street of the capital, in search of their enemies. Just 
at that time a small party of women, and one man, who 
had lost a leg in the battle of Stillwater, arrived in a 
canoe from Kaposia, at the Jackson street landing. Per- 
ceiving the Ojibways, they retreated to the building then 
known as the "Pioneer"' office, and the Ojibways dis- 
charging a volley through the windows, wounded a Da- 
kotah woman who soon died. For a short time, the 
infant capital piesented a sight similar to that witnessed 


in ancient days in Hadley or Deerfield, the then frontier 
towns of Massachusetts. Messengers were despatched 
to Fort Snelling for the dragoons, and a party of citizens 
mounted on horseback, were quickly in pursuit of those 
who with so much boldness had sought the streets of St. 
Paul, as a place to avenge their wrongs. The dragoons 
soon followed, with Indian guides scenting the track of 
the Ojibways like bloodhounds. The next day they dis- 
covered the transgressors, near the Falls of St. Croix. 
The Ojibways manifesting what was supposed to be an 
insolent spirit, the order was given by the lieutenant in 
command, to fire, and he whose scalp was afterwards 
daguerreotyped, and which was engraved for Graham's 
Magazine, wallowed in gore. 

During the summer, the passenger, as he stood on the 
hurricane deck of any of the steamboats, might have 
seen, on a scaffold on the bluffs in the rear of Ivaposia, 
a square box covered with a coarsely fringed red cloth. 
Above it was suspended a piece of the Ojibway's scalp, 
whose death had caused the affray in the streets of St. 
Paul. Within, was the body of the woman who had 
been shot in the "Pioneer" building, while seeking 
refuge. A scalp suspended over the corpse is supposed 
to be a consolation to the soul, and a great protection in 
the journey to the spirit land. 

On the accession of Pierce to the Presidency of the 
United States, the officers appointed under the Taylor 
and Fillmore administrations were removed, and the 
following gentlemen substituted. Governor, W. A. Gor- 
man of Indiana; Secretary, J. T. Ilosser, of Virginia; 
Chief Justice, W. II. Welch, of Minnesota: Associates, 
Moses Sherburne, of Maine, and A. G. Chatfield, of 
Wisconsin. One of the first official acts of the second 


Governor, was the making of a treaty with theAVinnebago 
Indians at Watab, Benton county, for an exchange of 

On the twenty-ninth of June, D. A. Robertson, who 
by his enthusiasm and earnest advocacy of its princi- 
ples had done much to organize the Democratic party of 
Minnesota, retired from the editorial chair and was suc- 
ceeded by David Olmsted. 

At the election held in October, Henry M. Rice and 
Alexander Wilkin were candidates for delegate to Con- 
gress. The former was elected by a decisive majority. 

The fifth session of the legislature was commenced 
in the building just completed as the Capitol, on Janua- 
ry fourth, 1854. The President of the Council was S. 
B. Olmstead, and the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives was N. C. D. Taylor. 

Governor Gorman delivered his first annual message 
on the tenth, and as his predecessor, urged the import- 
ance of railway communications, and dwelt upon the 
necessity of fostering the interests of education, and of 
the lumbermen. 

The exciting bill of the session was the act incorpora- 
ting the Minnesota and Northwestern Railroad. Compa- 
ny, introduced by Joseph R. Brown. It was passed 
after the hour of midnight on the last day of the session. 
Contrary to the expectation of his friends, the Governor 
signed the bill. 

On the afternoon of December twenty-seventh, the 
first public execution in Minnesota, in accordance with 
the forms of law, took place. Yu-ha-zee, the Dakotah 
who had been convicted in November, 1S52, for the 
murder of a German woman, above Shokpay, was the 
individual. The scaffold 'was erected on the prairie, 


near the corner of Western and Dayton Avenues, St. 
Paul. About two o'clock, the prisoner, dressed in a 
white shroud, left the old log prison, near the court 
house, and entered a carriage with the officers of the 
law. Being assisted up the steps that led to the scaf- 
fold, he made a lew remarks in his own language, and 
was then executed. Numerous ladies sent in a petition 
to the governor, asking the pardon of the Indian, to 
which that officer in declining made an appropriate 

The sixth session of the legislature convened on the 
third of January, 1855. W. P. Murray was elected 
President of the Council, and James S. Norris Speaker 
of the House. 

About the last of January, the two houses adjourned 
one day, to attend the exercises occasioned by the open- 
ing of the first bridge of any kind, over the mighty 
Mississippi, from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. 
It was at the Palls of Saint Anthony, and made of wire, 
and at the time of its opening, the patent for the land 
on which the west piers were built, had not been issued 
from the Land Office, a striking evidence of the rapidity 
with which the city of Minneapolis, which now sur- 
rounds the Falls, has developed. 

On the twenty-ninth of March, a convention was held 
at Saint Anthony, which led to the formation of the Re- 
publican party of Minnesota. This body took measures 
for the holding of a territorial convention at St. Paul, 
which convened on the twenty-fifth of July, and William 
Pi. Marshall was nominated as delegate to Congress. 
Shortly after the friends of Mr. Sibley nominated Da- 
vid Olmsted and Henry M. Pice, the former delegate 


was also a candidate. The contest was animated, and 
resulted in the election of Mr. Rice. 

About noon of December twelfth, 1855, a four-horse 
vehicle was seen rapidly driving through St. Paul, and 
deep was the interest when it was announced that one 
of the Arctic exploring party, Mr. James Stewart, was 
on his way to Canada with relics of the world-renowned 
and world-mourned Sir John Franklin. Gathering to- 
gether the precious fragments found on Montreal Is- 
land and vicinity, the party had left the region of ice- 
bergs on the ninth of August, and after a continued 
land journey from that time, had reached the city. 

The seventh sesion of the Legislative Assembly was 
begun on the second of January, 185(3, and John B. 
Brisbin was elected President of the Council, and Charles 
Gardner, Speaker of the House. 

This year was comparatively devoid of interest. The 
citizens of the territory were busily engaged in making 
claims in newly organized counties, and in enlarging 
the area of civilization. 

On the twelfth of June, several Ojibways entered the 
farm house of Mr. Whallon, who resided in Hennepin 
county, on the banks of the Minnesota, a mile below 
the Bloomington ferry. The wife of the farmer, a 
friend, and three children, besides a little Dakota girl, 
who had been brought up in the mission-house at Kapo- 
sia, and so changed in maimers that her origin was 
scarcely perceptible, were sitting in the room when the 
Indians came in. Instantly seizing the little Indian 
maiden, they threw her out of the door, killed and scalped 
her, and fled before the men who were near by, in the 
field, could reach the house. 

During the spring and early summer of 1857, the pub- 



lie mind was indignant at an atrocity perpetrated in the 
extreme south-western frontier of Minnesota, the recital 
of which caused the blood to curdle, and the mind to 
revert to the border scenes of the past century. In the 
north-western corner of Iowa, a few miles from the Min- 
nesota boundary, there is a lake known as Spirit Lake. 
In the spring of 1856, persons from lied Wing had vis- 
ited this place and determined to lay off a town. In the 
winter of 1857, there were six or seven log cabins on the 
border of the lake. About fifteen or twenty miles north, 
in Minnesota, there was also a small place called Spring- 

For several years, Inkpadootah, a Wahpaykootay 
Dakotah, had been roving witli a few outlaws, being 
driven away from their own people by internal difncul- 
ties. These Indians were hunting in north-western Iowa, 
when one was bitten by a white man's dog, which he 
killed. The whites then proceeded to the Indian camp 
and disarmed them, but they soon supplied themselves 
again. After this, they arrived on Sunday, the eighth 
of March, at Spirit Lake. They proceeded to a cabin, 
where only men dwelt, and asked for beef. Understand- 
ing, as they assert, that they had permission to kill one 
of the cattle, they did so, and commenced cutting it up, 
when one of the white men came out and knocked down 
the Dakotah. For this act the settler was shot, and 
another one coming out of the cabin, he was also killed. 
Surrounding the house, the Indians now tired the 
thatched roof, and as the men ran out all were killed, 
making the whole number eleven. 

About the same time, the Indians went to the house 
of a frontiersman, by the name of Gardner, and demand- 
ed food, and all the food in the house was given to them. 


The son-in-law and another man left to go and see if all 
was right at the neighboring cabin, but they never came 
back. Toward night, excited by the blood they had 
been spilling through the day, they came back again to 
Mr Gardner's house, and soon killed him, and despatch- 
ing his wife, and two daughters, and grandchildren, car- 
ried off Abby, the surviving daughter. The next day 
they continued their fiendish work, and brought into 
camj) Mrs. Thatcher and Mrs. Xoble. That day a man 
by the name of Markham visited the house of Gardner 
and saw the dead bodies. Secreting himself till night, 
he came to the Springfield settlement in Minnesota, 
and reported what he had seen. Three miles above the 
Thatcher family on the lake, there lived a Mr. Marble. 

On Thursday, the twelfth of March, an Indian, who 
had been on friendly terms with Marble's family, called 
at his house, and (as near as Mrs. Marble, with her im- 
perfect knowledge of the language, could make out) 
told them that the white people below them on the Lake 
had been nippoed (killed) a day or two previously. This 
aroused the suspicion of the Marbles, and none the less 
that the great depth of the snow made it almost impos- 
sible to get out and ascertain the truth of the story. 
The next day ( the thirteenth h quite early in the fore- 
noon, four Indians came to Marble's house and were ad- 
mitted. Their demeanor was so friendly as to disarm 
all suspicion. They proposed to swap rifies with Mar- 
ble and the terms were soon agreed upon. 

After the swap, the chief suggested that they should 
go out on the lake and shoot at a mark. Marble assent- 
ed. After a few discharges fcliey turned to come in the 
direction of the house, when the savages allowed Mar- 
ble to go a few paces ahead, and immediately shot him 


down. Mrs. Marble, who was looking out of the cabin, 
saw her husband fall, and immediately ran to him. The 
Indians seized her and told her that they would not kill 
her, but would take her with them. 

They carried her in triumph to the camp, whither 
they had previously taken three other white women, Mrs. 
Noble, Mrs. Thatcher, and Miss Gardner. 

Inkpadootah and party now proceeded to Springfield, 
where they slaughtered the whole settlement, about the 
twenty-seventh of March. When the United States 
troops, arrived from Fort Ridgely, they buried two 
bodies, and the volunteers from Iowa buried twenty- 
nine others. Besides these, others were missing. The 
outlaws, perceiving that the soldiers were in pursuit, 
made their escape. The four captive women were forced 
by day to carry heavy burdens through deep snow, and 
at night-fall they were made to cut wood and set up the 
tent, and, after dark, to be subject to the indignities that 
suggested themselves to the savages. When food 
began to fail, the white women subsisted on bones and 

Mrs. Thatcher was in poor health in consecpuence of 
the recent birth of a child, ami she became burdensome. 
Arriving at the Big Sioux river, the Indians made a 
bridge by felling a tree on each side of the river bank. 
Mrs. Thatcher attempted to cross, but failed, and, in 
despair, refused to try again. One of the men took her 
by the hand, as if to help her, and, when about midway, 
pushed her into the stream. She swam to the shore, 
and they pushed her off, and then fired at her as if she 
was a target, until life was extinct. Dr. Williamson wrote: 

"In the early spring, it was next to impossible to 
make any considerable efforts for their rescue; and it 


was not known what direction the captors had taken. 
Time passed on. Two military expeditions reached the 
place where the massacre took place, but did nothing 
except bury the slain. Early in the month of May, two 
young men from Lac qui Parle, who had been taught by 
the mission to read and write, whose mother is a mem- 
ber of our church, 1 while on their spring hunt, found 
themselves in the neighborhood of Inkpadootah and his 
party. Having heard that they held some American 
women in captivity, the two brothers visited the camp 
— though this was at some risk of their lives, since 
Inkpdaootah's hand was now against every man, — and 
found the outlaws, and succeeded in bargaining for Mrs. 
Marble, whom they first took to their mother's tent/' and 
then brought her to a trading-house at Lac qui Parle, 
when she was visited by those connected with the mis- 
sion at Hazelwood, and clothed once more in civilized 
costume. On her arrival at the hotel at St. Paul, the 
citizens welcomed her, and presented her with a thous- 
and dollars. The desire to rescue the two surviving, 
white women now became intense. 

One night a good Indian, named Paul by the whites, 
an elder of the mission church, came into the mission- 
house and said: — 

"If the white chief tells me to go, I will go." "I tell 
you to go," replied Mr. Flandrau, then Dakotah Agent. 
With two companies he started next day, with a wagon 
and two horses, and valuable presents. After a diligent 
search the outlaws were found on the James river with 
a band of Yauktons." 

A few days before Mrs. Noble had been murdered, a 
Yankton, who had lost his legs by disease, had purchased 

1 Letter of Dr. Williamson. 


the two women. One night Mrs. Noble was ordered to 
go out, and be subject to the wishes of the party. She 
refusing to go, a son of Inkpaclootah dragged her out by 
the hair and killed her. The next morning a Dakotah 
woman took Miss Gardner, the sole surviving captive 
to see the corpse, which had been horribly treated after 

Paul, by his perseverance and large presents, at length 
redeemed the captive, and she was brought to the mis- 
sion-house, and from thence she visited St. Paul, and 
was restored to her sister in Iowa. 

For some days previous to the first of July it had been 
reported that one of Inkpadootah's sons was in a camp 
on the Yellow Medicine river. A message was sent to 
the agent, Flandrau, who, with a detachment of soldiers 
from Port Ridgely, and some Indian guides, soon ar- 
rived and surrounded the lodges. The alarm being giv- 
en, Inkpadoo tali's son, said to have been the murderer 
of Mrs. Noble, ran from his lodge followed by his wife- 
He concealed himself for a short period in the brush by 
the water, but was soon ferreted out and shot by United 
States soldiers. 

The eighth Legislative Assembly convened at the cap- 
itol on the seventh of January, 1857, and J. B. Brisbin 
was elected President of the Council, and J. \Y. Furber, 
Speaker of the house. 

On the twenty-third of February, 1857, and act passed 
the United States Senate, to authorize the people of 
Minnesota to form a constitution, preparatory to their 
admission into the Union on an equal footing with the 
original states. 

Governor Gorman called a special session of the leg- 
islature, to take into consideration measures that would 


give efficiency to the act. The extra session convened 
on the twenty-seventh, and a message was transmitted 
by Samuel Medary, who had been appointed governor 
in place of W. A. Gorman, whose term of office had ex- 
pired. The extra session adjourned on the twenty-third 
of May; and in accordance with the provisions of the 
enabling act of Congress, an election was held on the 
first Monday of June, for delegates to a convention which 
was to assemble at the capitol on the second Monday in 
July. The election resulted, as was thought, in giving 
a majority of delegates to the Republican party. 

At midnight previous to the day fixed for the meeting 
of the convention, the Republicans proceeded to the 
capitol, because the enabling act had not fixed at what 
hour on the second Monday the convention should as- 
semble, and fearing that the Democratic delegates might 
anticipate them, and elect the officers of the body. A 
little before 12 a. m., on Monday, the secretary of the 
territory entered the speaker's rostrum, and began to 
call the body to order, and at the same time a delegate, 
J. W. North, who had in his possession a written request 
from the majority of the delegates present, proceeded to 
do the same thing. The secretary of the territory put a 
motion to adjourn, and the Democratic members present 
voting in the affirmative, they left the hall. The Repub- 
licans, feeling that they were in the majority, remained, 
and in due time organized, ami proceeded with the busi- 
ness specified in the enabling act, to form a constitution 
and take all necessary steps for the establishment of a 
state government, in conformity with the Federal Con- 
stitution, subject to the approval and ratification of the 
people of the proposed state. 

After several days the Democratic wing also organized 


in the Senate chamber at the capital, and, claiming to 
be the true body, also proceeded to form a constitution. 
Both parties were remarkably orderly and intelligent, 
and everything was marked by perfect decorum. After 
they had been in session some weeks, moderate counsels 
prevailed, and a committee of conference was appointed 
from each body, which resulted in both adopting the 
constitution framed by the Democratic wing, on the 
twenty-ninth of August. According to the provision of 
the constitution an election was held for state officers 
and the adoption of the constitution, on the second 
Tuesday, the thirteenth of October. The constitution 
was adopted by almost a unanimous vote. It provided 
that the territorial officers should retain their offices 
until the state was admitted into the Union, not antici- 
pating the long delay which was experienced. 

The first session of the state legislature commenced 
on the first Wednesday of December, at the capitol, in 
the city of Saint Paul; and during the month elected 
Henry M. Rice and James Shields as their Representa- 
tives in the United States Senate. 

On the twenty-ninth of January, 185S, Mr. Douglas 
submitted a bill to the United States Senate, for the ad- 
mission of Minnesota into the Union. On the first of 
February, a discussion arose on the bill, in which Sena- 
tors Douglas, Wilson, Gwin, Hale, Mason, Green, Brown, 
and Crittenden participated. Brown, of Mississippi, 
was opposed to the admission of Minnesota, until the 
Kansas question was settled. Mr. Crittenden, as a 
Southern man, could not endorse all that was said by 
the Senator from Mississippi; anil his words of wisdom 
and moderation during this day's discussion, were wor- 
thy of remembrance. On April the seventh, the bill 


passed the Senate with only three dissenting votes; and 
in a short time the House of Representatives concurred, 
and on May the eleventh, the President approved, and 
Minnesota was fully recognized as one of the United 
States of America. 




The transition of Minnesota, from Territorial depend- 
ency, to the position of an organized and self-support- 
ing Commonwealth, equal in dignity and privilege with 
the then thirty-one United States of America, occurred 
under adverse circumstances. 

The great commercial cities of the Atlantic coast were 
suffering from financial embarrassment, and the strin- 
gency of the money market seriously cramped those 
who had hoped to develop the resources of a fertile and 
healthful State, by the aid of borrowed capital. 

The exigencies of the pioneer settlers were such, that 
they were ready to lend a willing ear to any one who 
would present plans, ostensibly for the relief of a com- 
munity that was literally without money. 

By an act of Congress approved March fifth, 1857, 
lands had been granted to the territory amounting to 
4,500,000 acres, for the construction of a system of rail- 

Immediately a number of shrewd and energetic men 
combined to procure the control of the land grant, and 
during an extra session of the Legislature an act was 
passed on May twenty-second, 1857, giving the entire 
Congressional grant to certain chartered railroad com- 


A few months only elapsed, before the citizens dis- 
covered that those who obtained the lands had neither 
the money nor the credit to carry on these great internal 
improvements. In the winter of 1858 the Legislature 
again listened to the siren voices of the railway corpora- 
tions, until their words to some members seemed like 
"apples of gold in pictures of silver," and another act 
was passed, submitting to the people an amendment to 
the Constitution, which provided for the loan of the 
public credit to the land-grant railroad companies to the 
amount of 85,000,000, upon condition that a certain 
amount of labor on the projected roads was performed. 
The time specified in the act for the voting of the peo- 
ple upon the amendment was April fifteenth. 

Some of the more prudent of the citizens saw in this 
measure a "a cloud no larger than a man's hand'" which 
would lead to a terrific storm, and a large public meet- 
ing was convened at the Capitol and addressed by Ex- 
Governor Gorman, D. A. Robertson, William R. Mar- 
shall, and others, deprecating the engrafting of such a 
peculiar amendment upon the Constitution; but the 
people would not listen, their hopes and happiness 
seemed to be bound up in railway corporations, and on 
the appointed day of election 25,023 votes were cast in 
favor of, while only 6,733 were deposited against, the 

The good sense of the people soon led them to amend 
this article, and on November sixth, I860, the section 
was made to read as follows: 

"The credit of the State shall never be given or loaned 
in aid of any individual, association or corporation: nor 
shall there be any further issue of bonds denominated 
Minnesota State Railroad Bonds, under what purport to 


bo an amendment to section ten (10) of article nine (9) 
of the Constitution, adopted April fifteenth, eighteen 
hundred and fifty-eight, which is hereby expunged from 
the Constitution, saving, excepting and reserving to the 
State, nevertheless, all rights, remedies, and forfeitures 
accruing under said amendment." 

The first State Legislature had assembled on Decem- 
ber second, 1S57, before the formal admission of Minne- 
sota into the Union, and on March twenty-fifth, 1858, 
adjourned until June second, when it again met. 

Hon. H. H. Sibley, who had been declared Governor 
after the election of the previous October, on the next 
day delivered his inaugural address. 

His term of office was arduous, growing out of the 
peculiar position of the State in consequence of her loan 
of credit to the railway corporations. On August fourth 
185S, he expressed his determination not to deliver any 
State bonds to the railway companies, unless they would 
give first mortgage bonds with priority of lien upon 
their lands, roads, and franchise in favor of the State. 
One of the companies applied for a mandamus 
from the Supreme Court of the State, to compel 
the issue of the bonds without the restriction of the 

In November the court, Judge Flandrau dissenting, 
ordered the Governor to issue State bonds as soon as the 
company delivered their first mortgage bonds, as pro- 
vided by the Constitution. 

But as was to be expected, bonds pat forth under 
such peculiar circumstances were not sought after by 
capitalists. After over S'2,000,000 of bonds had been is- 
sued, not an iroD rail had been laid, and only about 250 
miles of grading were completed. In his annual mes- 


sage to the second Legislature in December, 1859, Gov- 
ernor Sibley said of the loan of State credit: 

"I regret to be obliged to state that the measure has 
proved a failure, and has by no means accomplished 
what was hoped from it, either in providing means for 
the issue of a safe currency, or aiding the companies in 
the completion of the work upon the roads." 

Notwithstanding the pecuniary complications of the 
State during Governor Sibley's administration, the Leg- 
islature did not entirely forget that there were some 
interests of more importance than railway construction, 
and on August second, 1858, largely through the influ- 
ence of the late John D. Ford, M. 1)., a public-spirited 
citizen of \Vinona, an act was passed for the establish- 
ment of three normal schools for the training of public 
school teachers. 

In the month of June, 1859, an important route of 
travel was opened between the Mississippi and Red 
River of the north. 

The enterprising firm of J. C. Burbank & Co. having 
secured from Sir George Simpson, the Governor of the 
Hudson Bay Company, the transportation of their sup- 
plies by way of St. Paul, which had hitherto been car- 
ried by tedious and tortuous routes from York River or 
Lake Superior, purchased a little steamer that had been 
built by Anson North up ami was on the Red River of 
the North, and commenced the carrying of goods and 
passengers by land to Breckinridge, and from thence by 
water to Pembina. 

At an election held in 1859, Alexander Ramsey was 
elected Governor, and in his inaugural message to the 
second Legislature, on January second, I860, he devotes 
a large space to the complications arising from the loan 


of the State credit to railroad companies. He urged 
that something should be done, relative to the outstand- 
ing 82,300,000 of State railroad bonds, and suggested 
several methods which might be adopted for withdraw- 
ing them. In the course of his argument he remarked: 
"It is extremely desirable to remove as speedily as pos- 
sible so vexing a question from our State politics, and 
not allow it to remain for years to disturb our elections, 
perhaps to divide our people into bond and anti-bond 
parties, and introduce annually into our legislative 
halls an element of discord and possibly of corruption, 
all to end just as similar complications in other States 
have ended; the men who will have gradually engrossed 
the possession of all the bonds, at the cost of a few cents 
on the dollar, will knock year after year at the door of 
the Legislature for their payment in full; the press will 
be subsidized; the cry of repudiation will be raised; all 
the ordinary and extraordinary means of procuring leg- 
islation in doubtful cases will be freely resorted to; until 
finally the bondholders will pile up almost fabulous for- 
tunes. * * * It is assuredly true that the present 
time is, of all others, alike for the present bondholders 
and the people of the state, the very time to arrange, 
adjust, and settle these unfortunate and deplorable rail- 
road and loan complications." 

On March twenty-third, 1SG0, the first white person 1 
executed under the laws of the State was hung,and, from 
the fact that the one who suffered the penalty was a 
woman, excited considerable attention. 

Michael Bilansky died on March eleventh, 1859, and 
upon examination was found to have been poisoned. 
Anna, his fourth wife, was tried for the offence, found 

1. An Indian was hung in December. 1851. 


gailh', and on December third, 1859, sentenced to be 
hung. The opponents of capital punishment secured 
the passage of an act by the Legislature to meet her case, 
which was vetoed by the Governor as unconstitutional. 
Two days before the execution the unhappy woman re- 
quested her spiritual adviser to write to her father and 
mother in North Carolina, but not to state the cause of 
her death. The scaffold was erected in St. Paul near 
the count}- jail. 

The third State Legislature assembled on January 
eighth, and adjourned on March eighth, 1861. As Min- 
nesota was the first state which received twelve hundred 
and eighty acres of land in each township for school 
purposes, the Governor in his annual message, occupied 
several pages in an able and elaborate argument as to 
the best methods of guarding and selling the school lands 
and protecting the school fund. The comprehensive 
views set forth made a deep impression, and were em- 
bodied in appropriate legislation, and the school land 
policy of the state has called forth the highest com- 
mendation from educators in other states. 




The chief of the Kaposia band in 1S46, was shot by 
his own brother in a drunken revel, but surviving the 
wound, and apparently alarmed at the deterioration 
under the influence of the modern harpies at St. Paul, 
went to Mr. Bruce, Indian agent, at Fort Snelling, and 
requested a missionary. The Indian agent in his report 
to government, wrote: "The chief of the Little Crow's 
band, who reside below this place (Fort Snelling) about 
nine miles, in the immediate neighborhood of the whisky 
dealers, has requested to have a school established at his 
village. He says they are determined to reform, and 
for the future will try to do better. I wrote to Doctor 
Williamson soon after the request was made, desiring 
him to take charge of the school. He has had charge 
of the mission school at Lac qui Parle for some years, 
is well qualified, and is an excellent physician." 

In November, 1846, Dr. Williamson came from Lac 
qui Parle, as requested, and became a resident of Ka- 
posia. While disapproving of their practices, he felt a 
kindly interest in the whites of Tig's Eye, which place 
was now beginning to be called, after a little log chapel 
which had been erected by the voyageurs, St. Paul.* 
Though a missionary among the Dakotahs, he was the 
first to take steps to promote the education of the whites 


and half-breeds of Minnesota. In the year 1847 he 
wrote to Ex-Governor Slade, President of the National 
Popular Education Society, in relation to the condition 
of what lias subsequently become the capital of the 
state, in these words: "My present residence is on the 
utmost verge of civilization, in the north-west part of 
the United States, within a few miles of the principal 
village of white men in the territory that we suppose 
will bear the name of Minnesota, which some would ren- 
der 'clear water', though strictly it signifies slightly tur- 
bid or whitish water. 

"The village referred to has grown up within a few 
years in a romantic situation on a high bluff of the Mis- 
sissippi, and has been baptized by the Roman Catholics, 
by the name of St. Paul. They have erected in it a small 
chapel, and constitute much the larger portion of the 
inhabitants. The Dakotahs call it Im-ni-ja-ska ( White 
Rock), from the color of the sandstone which forms the 
bluff on which the village stands. This village has five 
stores, as they call them, at all of which intoxicating 
drinks form a part, and I suppose the principal part, of 
what they sell. I would suppose the village contains a 
dozen or twenty families living near enough to send to 
school. Since I came to this neighborhood I have had 
frequent occasion to visit the village, and have been 
grieved to see so many children growing up entirely ig- 
norant of God. and unable to read His word, with no one 
to teach them. Unless your society can send them a 
teacher, there seems to be little prospect of their having 
one for several years. A few days since, I went to the 
place for the purpose of making inquiries in reference 
to the prospect of a school. I visited seven families in 
which there were twenty-three children of proper age to 


attend school, and was told of five more in which were 
thirteen more that it is supposed might attend, making 
thirty-six in twelve families. I suppose more than half 
of the parents of these children are unable to read them- 
selves, and care but little about having their children 

"I suppose a good female teacher can do more to pro- 
mote the cause of education and true religion than a 
man. The natural politeness of the French ( who con- 
stitute more than half the population) would cause them 
to be kind and courteous to a female. I suppose she 
might have twelve or fifteen scholars to begin with, and 
if she should have a good talent of winning the affec- 
tions of children (and one who has not should not come), 
after a few months she would have as many as she could 
attend to. 

"One woman told me she had four children she wished 
to send to school, and that she would give boarding and 
a room in her house to a good female teacher, for the 
tuition of her children. 

''A teacher for this place should love the Savior, and 
for his sake should be willing to forgo, not only many of 
the religious privileges and elegancies of Xew England 
towns, but some of the neatness also. She should be 
entirely free from prejudice on account of color, for 
among her scholars she might find not only English, 
French and Swiss, but Sioux and Chippewas, with some 
claiming kindred with the African stock. 

"A teacher coming should bring books with her suffi- 
cient to begin a school, as there is no book-store within 
three hundred miles." 

In answer to his wish, Miss Harriet E. Bishop was 
sent, and after a visit to the mission house at Kaposia, 


was introduced by him to the citizens of St. Paul as 
their first school teacher. The wife of the late John R. 
Irvine, still living (January, 1887) received her into her 
family, and was a friend until her death. 

The teacher thus described her school-room: "'The 
school was commenced in a little log hovel, covered with 
bark, and chinked with mud, previously used as a black- 
smith shop. It was a room about ten by twelve feet. 
On the sides of the interior of this humble log cabin, 
pegs were driven into the logs, upon which boards were 
laid for seats. Another seat was made by placing one 
end of a plank between the cracks of the logs, and the 
other upon a chair. This was for visitors. A rickety, 
cross-legged table in the centre completed the furniture." 

Iu Stillwater there had been schools for a brief period, 
in private houses, until 1848, when Amanda M. Hosford 
arrived under the auspices of the same Educational 
Society as the teacher in Saint Paul, and in 1849, a Miss 
Backus, also under this Society, opened a school at the 
Falls of St. Anthony. In 1849, Miss Bishop, of Saint 
Paul, was assisted by Miss Scofield of the National 
Educational Society. 

The first resident ordained clergyman in Saint Paul, 
after Piev. Mr. Ravoux of the Roman Catholic branch 
of the Church, was a Presbyterian, who in April, 1849, 
preached his first sermon in a small school room, near 
Third and St. Peter street, which had been erected for 
the use of Miss Bishop's school. Before the close of 
the summer, the Rev. J. P. Parsons, a Baptist, and the 
Rev. Chauncy Hobart, of the Methodist Episcopal 
branch of the Church, arrived. At Stillwater, the first 
resident minister came in the autumn of 1849, the Piev. 
J. C. Whitney, a Presbyterian, and a few weeks later, 


arrived the Rev. AY. C. Brown, a Baptist. Until the 
summer of 1850, there were occasional services in the 
school house at Saint Anthony conducted by the Pres- 
byterian and Baptist Ministers of St. Paul, and the Pro- 
testant Episcopal chaplain of Fort Snelling. 

The first church organizations in St. Paul after the 
Roman Catholic were the Methodist Episcopal in 1848, 
the Presbyterian, on the twenty-sixth of November, 1819 
with nine members, the Baptist on the twenty-sixth of 
December of the same year with twelve members. 

In December, a Presbyterian church was organized at 
Stillwater. At Saint Anthony, a Baptist church was 
organized in July, 1S50, by the Rev. AY. C. Brown, and 
the same season a Presbyterian church by the Rev. W. 
"Wheeler, who had been a missionarv in Africa. Durine 
this season, the Rev. J. Lloyd Breck, T. \Vilcoxson, and 
J. Merrick came to St. Paul as representatives of the 
Protestant Episcopal branch of the church, and preached 
at several settlements in the Territory. In the autumn 
of 1850, there arrived two Congregational ministers, the 
Rev. Richard Hall, and Rev. Charles Seeombe. The- 
former organized the first Congregational church in 
Minnesota at Point Douglas, and the latter succeeded 
Mr. Wheeler, as preacher to the Presbyterian church 
at Saint Anthony, and afterwards organized a Congrega- 
tional church. 

The legislature of 1S19, passed laws in relation to 
common schools. The first meetings for the establish- 
ment of schools under this law, were held in December, 
1819, at Saint Paul. Three district schools were estab- 
lished, one at the Methodist church on Market street 
to be taught by the Rev. Chauncy Hobart, one in the 
school building on Thiid street near St. Peter, in care of 

burt's educational history. 177 

Miss Bishop, and Miss Scofield to teach in a building to 
be erected on Jackson street north of Fourth. Soon 
the other settlements adopted the common school sys- 

D. Burt, State Superintendent of Instruction, in a re- 
port transmitted to the Legislation of 1881, gave the 
following educational history: 

"Facts gathered by protracted and perplexing study, 
are in possession of the superintendent, which no suc- 
cessor in the office may have time or patience to gather 
from the meagre original sources. It may, therefore, be 
proper to chronicle the following facts from these ma- 
terials respecting the Superintendency of the State Edu- 
cational Department. 

"In the second message of Gov. Ramsey to the legisla- 
tive assembly, in 1851, he said: 'To insure method 
and uniformity, I would suggest the creation of the of- 
fice of superintendent of schools.' 

"At the same session a bill was passed creating the office 
and requiring the Governor to appoint a superintendent, 
with the advice and consent of the council, for a term of 
two years, the salary being fixed at £100. The first ter- 
ritorial superintendent was E. D. Xeill. 

"The first annual report was made by him on the 19th 
of January, 1852, of which only a few copies are now in 
existence. Only Ramsey, Washington and Benton 
counties reported. There were eight schools and five 
school houses. Mr. Xeill was appointed in March, 1851, 
and resigned in the summer of 1853. 

"E. \Y. Merrill was appointed by Governor Gorman, 
August 13th. 1853, to fill the unexpired part of Mr. 
NeilFs second term, which was to end March 11th, 1854. 
Mr. Merrill made the third territorial report, January 


21st, 1854. He was succeeded by M. C. Baker, who was 
appointed March 11th, 1854, and made the fourth an- 
nual report, January 1st, 1855. 

"In the annual message of the Governor, for 1S57, he 
says: "The superintendent of common schools has taken 
great pains to infuse new life and excite a new interest 
in every branch of education, as far as it came under his 
jurisdiction and control. His able and interesting re- 
report will be laid before you.' 

"Xo educational reports can be found from 1856 to 1859 
inclusive. It is possible however that such reports were 
printed. The person to whom Governor Gorman re- 
ferred in the message of 1857, was W. S. Hall. This 
gentleman was appointed territorial superintendent of 
schools, perhaps in the summer of 1855; possibly not 
until March. 1850. Of this appointment there is no 
record in the Executive Department. He collected 
and printed in pamphlet form the school laws of 1857. 

"It appears that the salary in 1856 was made 8500, but 
the records of the Auditor's office show that no salary 
was paid in 1858-59. It is possible that Mr. Hall held 
the office nominally and without pay until the expiration 
of the territorial government. 

"The educational reports of those times contain almost 
no statistical or definite data of any kind, while they are 
big with hope and abundant in prophecy. It is to be 
regretted that the superintendents, especially of the last 
three or four years of the territorial period, did not 
issue blanks for teachers' and clerks' reports. Facts of 
great future interest might have been thus secured and 
a habit of reporting established. 13ut nothing of the 
kind was done, and we really know almost nothing 


of the schools and teachers of Minnesota from 1856 to 


"The territorial law of 1851 requiring the Governor to 
appoint a 'superintendent of schools, remained in the 
statutes until 1860. In that year it was enacted 
that the chancellor of the university, an officer then re- 
required to be appointed by the regents, should be ex- 
oflicio superintendent. This act made E. D. Xeill the 
first state superintendent of public instruction. His 
term of office commenced on the first of April, 1S60, 
and in justice to Mr. Xeill it should be said, he was not 
the author of the bungling legislation of that year re- 
specting a township superintendency. In the first 
state report he recommended the genuine township sys- 
tem and the appointment of county superintendents; 
and also that the apportionment of school funds should 
be made, 'upon the number of scholars attending the 
district schools.' Two of these early recommendations 
have been realized and the third is yet to come. 

"The first annual state report could contain but few sta- 
tistics, since territorial superintendents had adopted no 
plan for gathering such data. Mr. Xeill was the auth- 
or of the first teachers'' register ever issued in the State, 
and of the first forms used for reports on the condition 
of the schools. The Executive Documents of 1860 con- 
tain his first report. 

"On the 8th of March, 1861, a law was passed requiring 
a joint convention of the senate and house to elect a 
superintendent of public instruction for a term of two 
years. Whatever may have been the motives dictating 
this legislation, it could not have resulted from any gen- 
eral hostility to Mr. Neill; for on the same day in which 


the act became a law, he was elected in joint convention 
by an almost unanimous vote as superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction for two years. But on the 29th of April, 
1861, he was appointed chaplain of the First Minnesota, 
causing a vacancy in the superintendency, which the 
Governor filled by requirement of the school law. 

"13. F. Crary was appointed Mr. Neill's successor and 
made the second annual report in December, 1861, not 
forseeing that .a radical change was coming with the 
next legislature. 

"In March, 1862, a revised school code was passed, 
which provided that the secretary of state should be ex 
officio superintendent of public instruction. The duties 
assigned to the office were intended only to keep its 
machinery in motion. School registers were to be pre- 
pared and distributed, with blank forms for reports of 
clerks and county auditors. The current school fund 
was to be apportioned and an annual report submitted 
to the legislature, containing statistics of the schools 
and a statement of their condition. This plan seems to 
have been adopted to meet a demand for economy, and 
perhaps as a reaction from legislation that dropped the 
office into a political arena; for it could not have been 
supposed that the office of secretary of state is especial- 
ly germane to that of superintendent of public instruc- 
tion. This legislation made D. Blakely, then secretary 
of state, the successor of Mr. Crary. In his report for 
1863 Mr. Blakely said: 'While it was evidently not the 
intention of the legislature in merging the office of 
public instruction in that of secretary of state, to confer 
any large power upon the new officer, or to expect of 
him an active supervision of the working machinery of 
the common school system of the state, I have, never- 


theless, been at no small pains to observe its practical 
operation, to trace its results with regard to the great 
end sought, the thorough education of the youth of the 
state in the common school branches, to note wherein 
it conduces to that end, and wherein it fails.' 

"It was fortunate for our schools that their first ex 
officio superintendent was willing to assume work of this 
kind, although not required by law, but more fortunate 
still that he had the ability to render such voluntary 
service in a manner creditable to any professional super- 

"The school fund first became productive under his 
administration, and his prudent suggestions and care 
concerning its apportionment, furnished a precedent 
which future superintendents could safely follow. 

"H. C. Rogers became the successor of Mr. Blakely as 
secretary of state, and made his first, and the last edu- 
cational report under this ex officio arrangement, Dec. 
31st, 1866. This report is mainly statistical, and the 
facts that there were 1,998 school districts and 100,000 
persons of school age, were urged as reasons for making 
the office of superintendent of public instruction dis- 
tinct from that of secretary of state. This measure, 
previously urged by Mr. Blakely, was adopted by the 
legislature of 1S67, and on the ninth of March an act 
was passed requiring the Governor, by and with the 
advice of the Senate, to appoint a superintendent of 
public instruction; the first term of office to commence 
on the first Tuesday of April, 1867, and to continue two 
years. This act enlarged the duties and powers of the 
office and exalted education into a distinct department 
of State, requiring annual reports to the legislature 
through the Governor. 



"M. H. Dunnell was the first superintendent under 

this law, eutering upon duty the second day of April, 
1867. The first work undertaken by him was a revision 
of the school registers and the preparation of suitable 
blanks for the reports of teachers, clerks, and county 
superintendents. He also secured a new series of blanks 
and blank books for the transaction of business in school 
districts. Holding meetings for conference with county 
superintendents, he was successful in gaining their 
co-operation and in creating a new interest in popular 
education. A result of this was more full and accurate 
reports to the educational department than ever before, 
and the securing of systematized data, which was impos- 
sible while the office was merely a subordinate attach- 
ment of another department of State. New statistical 
tables were devised, and features of popular interest 
were introduced into the annual reports, of which Mr. 
Dunnell made three. 

"The schooL legislation of 18(37-9 was of great advan- 
tage to our educational system. Provision was made for 
teachers' institutes, and there was a gratifying progress 
in all branches of our school work. 

"On the first of August, 1S70, Mr. Dunnell resigned 
and became a candidate for congress and was successful. 
This probably seemed going up higher, and perhaps the 
seeming was real. 13e this as it may, there was a sub- 
stantial value in the educational measures carried 
through the legislature by that gentleman, and if his 
official position in the educational department helped 
him to his seat in congress, it was an incident not neces- 
sarily to his discredit or to that of the office which he 

"H. B. AVilson was appointed August 1st, 1870, to serve 

teachers' institutes established. 183 

the remainder of Mr. Bunnell's second term, which was 
to expire April 1st, 1871. Making no radical changes 
in the arrangements of his predecessor, it was his aim 
to complete the system of reports found in the office, 
and especially to render the statistical tables more full 
and accurate. The legislation of several years preceding 
1870, had enlarged the powers and duties of the office, 
and established some new features in our school system, 
among which were teachers' institutes, under the direc- 
tion of the superintendent of public instruction. But 
the methods of conducting these had not been fully 
determined, and time alone could reveal the best plans, 
and the good judgment of a practical educator was 
needed to suggest improvements and secure har- 
mony and efficiency. This work was undertaken by 
the administration. Through lectures and person- 
al efforts, the office steadily rose in the public esti- 
mation, and much was wisely done to exalt its char- 
acter, extend its influence, and insure its stability. Mr. 
Wilson made five annual reports, covering as many 
years. In these reports are able discussions-on school 
management and the principles of educational progress. 
He was twice re-appointed to the office, and closed his 
last term on the fifth of April, 1875." 

The constitution of Minnesota, adopted by the people 
in October, 1857, provides "that the location of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, as established by existing laws, is 
hereby confirmed, and said institution is hereby declar- 
ed to be the University of the State of Minnesota." The 
university referred to as already established, was created 
in 1851 by a law of the Territorial legislature. The same 
year Franklin Steele gave a site for the preparatory 
school at St. Anthony, and five hundred dollars, which 


with other property contributed by citizens, was used to 
erect a frame building. The edifice stood between the 
Exposition building, in the East division of Minneapo- 
lis, and the Winthrop public school. The school was 
opened in October, 1851, by Prof. E. W. Merrill, a com- 
petent instructor, and for several years was well patron- 
ized. The regents of the university, in territorial days, 
were all energetic men, cumbered with many cares, and 
while they had not a dollar in their treasury, or a clear 
title to an acre of land, purchased the site where 
the university is, and erected a costly building. 
When the financial crisis in 1857 came the institution 
groaned with debt. 

The new regents, after the state was organized, at the 
suggestion of Hon. H. M. Rice, in 1S58 elected a chan- 
cellor, in the hope that by corresponding with experi- 
enced educators, some way might be devised to rescue the 
institution from death. The person elected believing that 
by strict watchfulness the debt might be liquidated, and 
the university at the proper time serve its purpose, ac- 
cepted the office without any stipulated salary. The 
chancellor, after correspondence with Chancellor Tappan, 
of the University of Michigan, at the second session of 
the State Legislature, secured the passage of an act for 
the regulation of the State University, in which all pre- 
paratory work was discarded, of which the joint com- 
mittee of the Senate and House on the University said 
in the report: 

"From a provision in the enactment of the present 
session in relation to donations to the State University, 
the committee are very hopeful of results. 

"The universities of our "Western States have gener- 
ally excited but little interest among the friends of edu- 


cation The Legislature has been the only 'alma mater' 
to which they could look for nutrition, and too often 
they have been made to feel, in the literal signifi- 
cation of the word, that they were 'alumni'. Good men, 
fearing constant and hasty changes in policy by suc- 
ceeding Legislatures, have preferred to endow institu- 
tions of learning under the supervision of some branch 
of the church. Already in our commonwealth, Baldwin, 
the distinguished manufacturer of locomotives, and pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of Philadelphia, have given thous- 
ands of dollars to an institution of learning at St. Paul 
and Hamline, an honored bishop of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, has given a large sum to the college at 
Red Wing. 

"Such security is given to the philanthropist, in the 
fifth section of the act providing for the government 
and regulation of the University of Minnesota, that it 
is believed that in the course of three or four years, the 
State may expect similar endowments from individuals 
who love to build up establishments for sound learning, 
the greatest ornaments a republic can possess. 

"Indeed, we do not see, with the guards thrown around 
donations by the provisions of tlie sections alluded to, 
why men of every school of philosophy, and shade of 
religious belief, should not become zealous supporters of 
one great university, which shall be known far and wide 
as the University of the State. 

"Time, toil, and great patience will be needed to per- 
fect a university system. The oaks of California, ma- 
jestic in appearance now, required centuries for develop- 
ment after the acorn was buried in the soil. For five 
years nothing may be done by the Piegents, which is vis- 


ible or tangible, and yet these silent and invisible pro- 
cesses are necessary to permanent growth. 

'"The general government for years employed skillful 
engineers in throwing vast rocks into the ocean, at the 
entrance of Delaware Bay. To the class of men who 
looked for results in a day, it seemed a foolish and ex- 
pensive work, but little better than 'building castles in 
the air'; but now that these piles of rock have reached 
the surface of the waters, and are surmounted by mas- 
sive walls behind which ships nestle in the fiercest 
storm, with the security of the brood under the shadow 
of the mother's wing, the humblest mariner appreciates 
the work, and as he sails along, prays 'God save the 
Commonwealth.' Let us lay the foundation stones of 
the University, and the generation which follows us, 
wdien they behold the superstructure, will be sure to 
bless the foresight and the persevering labor which has 
secured to them the priceless boon of a complete edu- 
cation; a breakwater against the waves of anarchy, sup- 
erstition, and 'science falsely so called." ' 

For the sake of economy, as well as procuring unity 
of development during the State's infancy, an act was 
also passed by the second Legislature making the Chan- 
cellor of the University also Superintendent of Public 

At the first meeting of the Regents after the passage 
of the Act, on the fifth of April. 1SG0, the Chancellor 
presented a memorial, which was adopted by the Board, 
asking the Governor to take steps to procure two addi- 
tional townships of land. The memorial concluded as 

"Heretofore Congress has made grants to Territories 
not having organized any Universities, and the lands be- 


iog free from all prospective incumbrances, the Enab- 
ling Acts of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa have used 
the following similar phraseology: 

"'Seventy-two sections of land, set apart and reserved 
for the use and support of a University by an Act of 

Congress approved on -— — day of also hereby 

granted, and conveyed to the State to be appropriated 
solely to the use and support of said University in such 
manner as the Legislature may prescribe. 

"The condition of Minnesota being different, so far as a 
Territorial University was concerned, we expect and 
find different language in the Enabling Act. There is 
no reference as in the Acts alluded to, to previous re- 
sources, but it is prospective. It declares that if certain 
provisions are accepted that seventy-two sections of 
land shall be set apart and reserved for the use and 
support of a Stoic University to be selected by the Gov- 
ernor of said State subject to the approval of the Com- 
missioner of the General Land office. 

"Although a Territorial University had been in exis- 
tence for years, aud the Regents had selected lands, 
there is no reference thereto, but the language pre- 
scribes selections for a future State University. Cer- 
tainly it was not the intention of Congress to turn over 
the debts and prospectively encumbered lands of an old 
and badly managed Territorial institution, but, to give 
the State that was to be, a grant for a State University, 
free from all connections with territorial organizations." 

The Regents after several years of earnest effort ob- 
tained the additional two townships of land. While 
some of the best friends of the University were absent 
from the State, the Legislature modified the Act which 
had been approved by the then Chancellor of the 


University of Michigan, and added a preparatory 
school, and abolished the office of Chancellor. 

At present there remains but one preparatory class, 
and under an efficient President the institution in its 
general features now resembles the University of Mich- 
igan. _ 

Two institutions of learning, supported by private 
munificence were chartered, before the commencement 
of the war with the late slave states. 

In February, 1853 the legislature chartered the Baldwin 
school, which was opened the following June at St.Paul, 
and in December of the same year, its trustees dedicated 
a two-story brick edifice, still standing at the head of 
Rice Park, and now owned by the city, at that time, the 
largest brick building for educational purposes in Minne- 
sota. In their second catalogue the trustees mention that 
the design of the projectors of the Baldwin school was 
the establishment of a series of schools, for the educa- 
tion of both sexes. The preparatory department for fe- 
males was first commenced because there were more of 
that sex prepared to avail themselves of the advantages 
afforded. The impression was thus gained that the 
Baldwin School was intended for the education of female 
youth. It has therefore been deemed expedient to dis- 
tinguish the male department by the "College of Saint 

The College of Saint Paul was duly incorporated, and 
a large stone edifice erected for its use, on Wilkin street 
near the bluffs, and enrolled as one of the colleges under 
the patronage of the "Society for promoting collegiate 
education in the West." 

The second printed catalogue of the Baldwin School 
and College of St. Paul, in 1851, gives the names of 


seventy-four pupils in the Baldwin School, and thirty- 
four in the academic department of the College of Saint 
Paul, a total of one hundred and eight students. During 
the year 18(34 these institutions were again brought 
under one college charter, and in 1874, that charter was 
amended so that the college would be known as Macal- 
ester College, and providing that the preparatory de- 
partment of the college shall be called the Baldwin 

In 1854, by the efforts of Hev. David Brooks and oth- 
ers, Hamline University was chartered, and established 
at Red Wing, and for several years did a good work 
under the presidency of Dr. Jabez Brooks. For a time 
it was suspended, but a few years ago it was removed to 
St. Paul, and under its present management has a hope- 
ful future. 



Minnesota's part in suppressing slaveholders' 
rebellion: occurrences of 18G1. 

The people of Minnesota had not been as excited as 
those of the Atlantic States relative to the questions 
that were discussed previous to the presidential election 
of November, 1860. A majority had calmly declared 
their preference for Abraham Lincoln as President of 
the republic. 

The sources of the Mississippi River being in the 
State, its waters, after rolling by the capital, also wash 
the borders of the former slave States of Missouri, Ten- 
nessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisana, and pass- 
ing the city of New Orleans, are lost in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Living upon the banks of the same river, in the 
summer-time, the slaveholder would leave his plantation 
and breathe the bracing atmosphere of the valley of the 
Upper Mississippi, and while he discovered that the 
citizens of Minnesota, with but few exceptions, consid- 
ered the holding of persons of African descent in slave- 
ry as a foul blot upon the reputation of States that be- 
longed to a so-called free republic, yet he was treated 
with kindness, and was convinced that there was no dis- 
position upon the part of the inhabitants to use unlawful 
measures for the abolition of slavery. 

But the blood of her quiet and intelligent population 
was stirred on the morning of April fourteenth, 1801, 


by the intelligence communicated in the daily papers of 
the capital, that the insurgents of South Carolina had 
bombarded Fort Sumter, and that after a gallant 
resistance of thirty-four hours, General Anderson and 
the few soldiers of his command had been obliged to 
haul down their country's Hag and evacuate the fort. 

The sad, thoughtful countenances of the congrega- 
tions worshipping in the churches, the groups of earnest 
men talking at the corners of the streets on that event- 
ful Sunday, indicated their conviction that the existence 
of the nation was imperilled, and that the honor of 
the flag must be sustained by the expenditure of life 
and much treasure. 

Governor Ramsey was in Washington at this period, 
and on Sunday called upon the President of the repub- 
lic with two other citizens from Minnesota, and was the 
first of the State governors to tender the services of the 
people he represented in defence of the republic. 

The offer of a regiment was accepted, and the Gov- 
ernor sent a dispatch to Lieutenant-governor Donnelly, 
which caused the issuing on Tuesday, the sixteenth, of a 
proclamation calling for a regiment of volunteers to 
serve three month unless sooner discharged. 

Business during the week was almost suspended. The 
national flag displayed over the stores and the roofs of 
private residences evinced that there was a determina- 
tion to preserve what, with all of its blemishes, was still 
the best of earthly governments. 

All political party ties were obliterated, and the pub- 
lic meetings at the capital and at St. Anthony, Minne- 
apolis, Ked Wing, Winona, and all the principal towns, 
indicated a surprising unanimity and resolve to use 
every effort to conquer the slaveholders' rebellion. 


Under the call issued by the lieutenant-governor, act- 
ing in the absence of the Governor, recruiting -was begun 
with alacrity. On Monday morning, the sixteenth, com- 
panies of the artillery of the regular army arrived at 
St. Paul from Fort Ridgley in charge of Major Pem- 
berton, hastening to Washington to aid in protection of 
the capital; but this officer, before he reached the desti- 
nation, resigned his command, and, although a native of 
one of the free States, offered his sword in defence of 
the confederacy of slave States. 

The first company raised under the call of the State 
was composed of the most energetic of the young men 
of St. Paul, and its captain was the esteemed William 
H. Acker, who had been the adjutant-general of the 
State militia. Other companies quickly followed in 
tendering their services. 

On the last Monday of April a camp for the 1st Reg- 
nient was opened at Fort Snelling, and Captain Ander- 
son D. Nelson, U. S. A., in two or three days mustered 
in the companies, and on the twenty-seventh of the 
month Adjutant-General John 13. Sanborn in behalf of 
Governor Ramsey, ex-officio commander-in-chief of State 
troops issued the following order: 

'•The commander-in-chief expresses his gratification 
at the prompt response to the call of the President of 
the United States upon the militia of Minnesota, and 
his regret that under the present requisition for only 
ten companies it is not possible to accept the services of 
all the companies offered. 

"The following companies, under the operation of 
General Order No. 1, have been accepted: Company B, 
2d Regiment, Capt. Lester; Company A, 6th Regiment, 
Capt. Pell; Company A, 7th Regiment, Capt. Colville; 


Company A, Sth Regiment, Capt. Dike; Company A, 
13th Regiment, Capt. Adams; Company. A, 16th Regi- 
ment, Capt. Putnam; Company A, 17th Regiment, Capt. 
Morgan; Company A, *23d Regiment, Capt. "Wilkin; 
Company 13, 23d Regiment, Capt. Acker; Company A, 
25th Regiment, Captain Bromley. Each officer and 
private is recommended to provide himself with a blank- 
et. Captains of the above companies will report their 
respective commands to the adjutant-general at Fort 

"The commander-in-chief recommends the companies 
not enumerated above to maintain their organization 
and perfect their drill, and that patriotic citizens 
throughout the State continue to enroll themselves and 
be ready for any emergency." 

More companies having offered than were necessary 
to fill the quota of the 1st Regiment, on May third the 
Governor sent a telegram to the President offering a 
second regiment. 

The authorities at Washington were soon convinced 
of the magnitude of the rebellion, and on May seventh 
Mr. Cameron, Secretary of War, sent the following tele- 
gram to Governor Ramsey: 

"It is decidedly preferable that all the regiments 
mustered into the service of the government from your 
State, not already actually sent forward, should be mus- 
tered into service for three years or during the war. 
If any persons belonging to the regiments already mus- 
tered for three months, but not yet actually sent for- 
ward, should be unwilling to serve for three years or 
during the war, could not their places be filled by others 
willing to serve?" 

On May eleventh, Lieutenant-governor Donnelly 


telegraphed to Governor Eamsey, then in Washington 
on official business: "The entire 1st Regiment, by its 
commissioned officers, is this day tendered to the Presi- 
dent for three years or during the Avar. The men will 
be mustered in to-day by Capt. Nelson. In case of 
deficiency in the ranks, what course would you recom- 
mend? Answer." The same day the Governor replied: 
"Adjutant General Thomas authorizes me to say that 
Captain Nelson may muster in Colonel Gorman's regi- 
ment at once for three years or during the war. Do 
this at once under dispatch of May seventh." 

The ladies of St. Paul having purchased a handsome 
silk flag for the regiment, on May twenty-fifth they 
came to receive the present. After a six miles' march 
from Fort Snelling, the regiment arrived in the suburbs 
of the city about ten o'clock in the morning. Before 
they reached the capitol the grounds surrounding and 
adjoining streets were crowded with spectators. The 
troops having been formed in hollow square in front of 
the building, the wife of the Governor appeared on the 
steps with the llag in her hand, and Captain Stansbury, 
of U. S. A. Topograhical Engineers, made the presenta- 
tion speech in behalf of the ladies, after which Colonel 
Gormon replied most appropriately. 

On June fourteenth, the Governor received a dispatch 
from the secretary of war ordering the regiment to 
Washington. Messengers were immediately sent by 
Colonel Gorman to the companies temporarily garrison- 
ing Forts Eipley and Ridgley to report at Fort Snell- 

On the twenty-first, at an early hour they embarked 


in the steamers Northern Belle and War Eagle. l Be- 
fore marching out of the fort to the boats, their chap- 
lain delivered the following address: 

"Soldiers of Minnesota ! This is not the hour for 
many words. The moment your faces are turned toward 
the South you assume a new attitude. Gray-haired 
sires, venerable matrons, young men and fair maidens 
will look upon you with pride as you glide by their 
peaceful homes. From week to week they will eagerly 
search the newspapers to learn your position and condi- 

"To-day the whole State view you as representative 
men, and you no doubt realize that the honor of our 
Commonwealth is largely entrusted to your keeping. 

"Your errand is not to overturn, but to uphold the 
most tolerant and forbearing government on earth. You 
go to war with misguided brethren, not with wrathful, 
but with mourning hearts. Your demeanor from the 
day of enlistment shows that you are fit for some thing 
else than 'treason, stratagem and spoils. 

"To fight for a great principle is a noble work. "We 
are all erring and fallible men; but the civilized world 
feel that you are engaged in a just cause, which God will 

"In introducing myself to you, I would say, I come 


Willi- 1 A. Gorman, Colonel. Promoted to Briuadier-General by advice of Gen- 
eral Winfield Scott. Oct. 7. 1861. 

Stephen Miller. Lieutenant-Colonel. Made Colonel of 7th Regiment, Aug. l^J'2. 

William H. Dike. Major. Resigned Oct. 22, lsnil. 

William B. I each. Adjutant. Made Captain and A. A. G. Feb. 23, 1862. 

Mark W. Downie, Quartermaster. Promoted Captain Company B, Jul v 16, 

Jacob H. Stewart, Surgeon. Prisoner of war at Bull Run, July, 1861. Paroled 
at Richmond. 

Charles W. Le Boutillier. Assistant-Burgeon. Prisoner of war at Bull Ron. 
Surgeon y h Regiment. Died April i>tw. 

Edward I). Neill, Chaplain. Resigned July 13, 1862, and commissioned by 
President Lincoln as Hospital Chaplain U.S.A. In 1864 resigned, and com- 
missioned as one of the secretaries to President. 


~ not to com maud, but to be a friend, and point to you 
the 'Friend of friends,' who sticketh closer than a broth- 
er, who pities when no earthly eye cau pity, aud who can 
save when no earthly arm can save. 

"As far as in me lies, I am ready to make known the 
glad tidings of the gospel, the simple but sublime truth 
as it is in Christ Jesus. The religion I shall inculcate 
will make you self-denying, courageous, cheerful here, 
and happy hereafter. 

"Soldiers ! if you would be obedient to God, you 
must honor him who has been ordained to lead you 
forth. The colonel's will must be your will. If, like 
the Roman centurion, he says, 'go,' go you must. If he 
says 'come,' come you must. God grant you all the He- 
brew's enduring faith, and you will be sure to have the 
Hebrew's valor. Now with the Hebrew benediction I 

"The Lord bless you and keep you. The Lord make 
his face shine upon you and be gracious unto you. The 
Lord lift up his countenance upon you and give you 
peace. Amen !" 

At 7:30 a. M. the troops arrived at the upper landing 
of St. Paul, and amid the tears aud cheers of its citizens, 
marched through the city to the lower landing, and again 
embarked for the seat of war. 

While this regiment did not contain any braver or 
better men than those which were subsequently raised, 
yet because it was the First, and also the only one, from 
Minnesota, in the Army of the Potomac engaged in the 
defence of the national capital, its course during the 
war was watched with deep interest. Their journey to 
Washington so soon after the call for troops, and their 


fine, healthful appearance, were commended by the pub- 
lic press. 

The Chicago Tribune, June twenty-third, said: "Gal- 
lant Minnesota deserves high credit for her noble sons 
and their appearance yesterday. They have enjoyed in 
their make-up that rare and excellent process of selec- 
tion and culling from the older States which has thrown 
into the van of civilization the hardy lumbermen and 
first settlers of the wilds. There are few regiments we 
ever saw that can compete in brawn and muscle with 
these Minnesotians, used to the axe, the rifle, the oar, 
the setting pole, and thus every way splendid material 
for soldiers." 

Another paper of the same city, in an editorial with 
the caption "Northern Hive" thus descants : "The ad- 
vent of the Minnesota regiment on Sunday on their way 
to the seat of war was suggestive of many curious 
reflections. It carried the mind back to the twilight of 
modern civilization, to the days when not hireling mer- 
cenaries, but companions in arms, free men of northern 
Europe, burst from their icy homes and overwhelmed 
their effeminate southern neighbors. The old story of 
the world's history seemed to be repeated; and chron- 
icle and tradition alike teach us what the result must 
be. As we beheld the men march by, their stalwart 
forms, wild dress, martial bearing, and healthy complex- 
ions gave reality to the reflection, that this, after all was 
repetition of the scene — that these were forms as 
brawny, faces as intelligent, expressions as resolute, as 
in the days of old issued from the Northern Hive to 
plant the foundations of all that we now know of free- 
dom and civilization. 

After remaining a few days encamped at Washington, 


the regiment was ordered to cross the Potomac. On 
the morning of the third of July it left its camping 
ground in the rear of the Capitol, and, marching down 
to the Washington Navy Yard, was received by Commo- 
dore Dahlgreen, who had two staunch steamers all ready 
to convey it to Alexandria. Arriving at Alexandria in 
less than an hour, it marched to General McDowell's 
head-quarters, and received directions to retire to a 
camping-ground, in the suburbs. On the sixteenth it 
began to move toward, and on the nineteenth reached, 
Centreville, and from this place, early on the morning 
of the twenty-first, proceeded to the battle field. 

As it is impossible for any person to see the entire 
battle-field, it is always better to present the statement 
of several eye-witnesses, made from different stand- 

Using the reports of the division, brigade, and regi- 
mental commander on the conduct of the 1st Minnesota 
Regiment in battle on Sunday, July twenty-first, at Bull 
Hun, we have added thereto in footnotes 1 - the accounts 
of others. 

Javan B. Irvine, of St. Paul, arrived a few days before the battle, on a visit 
to hib brother-in-law, Mr. Halsted, of Company A. In civilian's dress, h^ took 
a musket and went into action, and captured the officer of the highest rank 
among all the prisoners taken by the various brigades For his bravery he was 
made First Lieutenant 13th United States Infantry on October twenty-sixth. 
1861. He is still a captain in the regular army. Mr. Irvine's letters to his wife! 
publish, d in one of the St. Paul papers, were among the best written after the 
fight, and are worthy of preservation. He st-ys: 

'We took a circuitous route through t>e wood?, and arrived in vicinitv of 
the enemy at about ten o'clock in the morning.* YYhileon the march, the battle 
was commenced by the artillery who were in the advance, and the roar of which 
we could distinctly hear some three or four miles off, and the smoke rising at 
every discharge of the same. 

_ "You can form some idea, perhaps, of our forces, when I tell you that our 
lines were some rive or six miles in length, and the Minnesota Resiment was as 
ditlicidt to find as it would be to find a single person in a very large crowd of 

"At about eleven o'clock we halted in a ravine, to give the men an opt ortu- 
nity to till their canteens with water. At this time tht- ririnsj had become pretty 
general, and the roar of artillery and the rattle nf musketry was heard only 
about a mile distant. You have, no doubt, read of the agitation and fear which 
come over individuals on the approach of battle, but 1 must say, and I say it 
not in the spirit of braggadocio either, that 1 experienced no such f^ars or agi- 

heintzelman's repokt. 199 

Colonel S. P. Heintzelman, of 17th United States In- 
fantry, was the commander of the division to which the 
Minnesota regiment was attached. 

He says in his report of the battle: "At Sndley's 
Springs, while waiting the passage of the troops of the 
division in our front, I ordered forward the 1st brigade 
to fill their canteens. Before this was accomplished the 
leading regiments of Colonel Hunter's division became 
engaged. General McDowell, who. accompanied by his 
staff, had passed us a short time before, sent back Cap- 
tain Wright of the engineers, and Major McDowell, one 
of his aids, to send forward two regiments. 
Captain Wright led forward the Minnesota Regiment to 

tation during the conflict. I was surprised at this myself, for I certainly thought 
that I should feel as writers have so often described. . 

"While halting here, I, together with others of the hoys, coolly went to picK- 
ing blackberries, with which the whole country abounds. We soon took up 
our line of march, anil drew near to the battle-field (at double-quick time), and 
were stationed in a field, sheltered by a strip of woods, about one-half mile 
from where oqi forces were fighting. Here we divested ourselves of our blank- 
ets and haversacks of provision, and whatever might impede us in fighting, re- 
taining, however, of course, our arms and ammunition. . . 

"You have no idea how desperate men will act while approaching or retiring 
from a battle-field. They appeared to have no care or anxiety for anything ex- 
cept their arms; all else was thrown off and strewn along the road. 

"We did not remain long in the field where we were stationed before the or- 
der came to advance, which we did through the woods at double-<|iuck. and 
soon came op to the field where the conflict was raging. Here we halted in the 
edge of the woods in the presence of the dead and wounded, who were lying ail 
aronud us, until about 5000 troops filed past us to take their position. 

"As they passed the general officers and staff they cheered in the wildest ana 
most enthusiastic manner. After they had passed we took our positional the 
open fi.-ld in sight of the enemv's batteries. We were soon ordered to advance 
from this position and tile around to the left, for the purpose of outflanking 
and taking them. While doing this the cannon-balls and bomb-shells new 
around u> thick and fast. Fortunately they were most of them aimed too Jugn 
and we passed unharmed, but not without frequent dodirin^ by some of the no;.s 
as the balls and shells whistled by. Our battery had engaged them by tin- time 
in front while we were passing to the left. \\ e ran down a hill and crossed a 
email stream. I being a little in advance stopped to pick a few blackberries to 
quench my thirst while the regiment came up. We soon came to a road where 
we were met by an aid of the commanding officer, who desired us to follow him 
and take up a position where he could get no other troops to stand. We told 
him we would follow him, and he gave us a position to the left of the batten 
and directly opposite to it. Here we formed in line of battle with a strip or. 
woods between us ami about four thousand secessionists. We had just formed 
when we were ordered to kneel and fire upon the rebels, who were advancing 
under cover of the woods. We fired two volleys through the woods, when we 
were ordered to rally in the woods in OUT rear, which all did except, the tir^C 
platoon of our own company, who did not hear the order and stood their grouna. 
The rebels soon came out from their shelter between us and their battery. I ol- 
onel Gorman mistook them for friends and told the men to cease tiring upon 


the left of the road which crosecl the run at this point. 
* * * I accompanied this regiment. At a lit- 
tle more than a mile from the ford we came upon the 
battle-field. Ricketts' Battery was posted on a hill to 
the right of Hunter's Division, and to the right of the 
road. After firing some twenty minutes at a battery of 
the enemy placed just beyond the crest of a hill, the 
distance being too great, it was moved forward to within 
about one thousand feet of the enemy's battery. Here 
the battery was exposed to a heavy fire of musketry, 
which soon disabled it. Franklin's Brigade was placed 
on the right of the woods near the center of our line, 
and on ground rising toward the enemy's position." 

them, although they had three secession flags flying directly in front of their 
advancing columns. This threw our men into confusion, some declaring they 
were friends, otheis that they were enemies. I called to our hoys to give it to 
them, and tired away myself as rapidly as possible. The rebels themselves mis- 
took us for Georgia troops, and waved their hands to us to cease tiring. I had 
just loaded to give them another charge when a lieutenant-colonel of a Miss- 
issippi regiment rode out between ns, waving his hand for us to stop nrina. I 
rashed up to him and asked if he was a secessionist. He said 'he was a Miss- 
issippian'. I presented my bayonet to his breast and commanded him to sur- 
render, which he did after some hesitation. I ordered him to dismount and led 
him and his horse from the field, in the meantime disarming him of his sword 
and pistols. I led him oft' about two miles and placed him in charge of a lieu- 
tenant, with an escort of cavalry, to be taken to General McDowell. Here- 
quested the otlicer to allow me to accompany him. as lie desired my protection. 
The officers assured him that he would be safe in their hands, and he rode off. 
I retained his pistol, but sent his sword with nim." 

In another letter, on July twenty-fifth, Mr. Irvine writes: 

"I have just returned from a visit to Lieutenant-Colonel Brooks, who is con- 
fined in the old capital. I found him in a pleasant room on the third story sur 
rounded by several southern gentlemen, among whom was Senator Brecken- 
ridge. He was glad to see me, and appeared quite well after the fatigue of the 
battle of Sunday. . . , „ , .„ . T . 

'There were with me Chaplain Neill, Captains Wilkin andColville. and Lieu- 
tenant Coats, who were introduced to the colonel. We had a very pleasant in- 
terview, and invited the colonel to call on us at our camp when he obtained his 
parole. He is a fine appearing and pleasant man. I also saw the two other 
prisoners. They are tine Looking fellows, and one. Mr. Lewis, of the Palmetto 
Kities of South Carolina, very much of a gentleman. The other man s name is 
Walker, of Mississippi. * * * * As to the fighting : qualities of the 
1st Minnes ita, Company A took its position as you will see on the plan, and the 
1st platoon never moved from it until ordered to retreat. Captain \\ ilkin 
fought like a hero. He seized a rifle and shot down four or five of the rebels, 
and took one prisoner. The drummer boy Hines [Company A J took an officer's 
horse, with sword, pistol, and trappings. -.,—,. „ ,, 

"Much praise is awarded to Lieutenant Welch of Red Wing, for the gallantry 
and intrepidity hedisplayed in rallying and cheering his men. Lieutenant Har- 
ris, of the same company, also behaved nobly. 

"Captain McKutie, of the Faribault Company, while leading his men, was 
t hot dead. 

franklin's report. 201 

Colonel W. B. Franklin, of the regular army, brigade 
commander, in his report, after stating that Ricketts' 
Battery in its second position was soon disabled, says he 
ordered the 5th and 11th Massachusetts Regiments to 
save the battery, but that it was impossible to get the 
men to draw off the guns." He then continues: "The 
Minnesota Regiment moved from its position on the right 
of the field to the support of Ricketts' Battery, and gal- 
lantly engaged the enemy at that point. It was so near 
the enemy's lines that friends and foes were for a long 
time confounded. The regiment behaved exceedingly 

Colonel Gorman, in his report to General Franklin, 

'The regimental flag presented by the ladies of Winona was pierced by thir- 
teen balls, one a cannon-ball through the blue field, muking a hole about a foot 


"I have not been mustered in yet, anil think I shall not be. I shall fight on 
my own hook, always, however, going into the field with Company A, and stick- 
ing to them." 


"Saturday,. Jul;/ twentieth.— In company with Chaplain Da Costa and Assis- 
tant-Surgeon Keen of the Massachusetts 5th. walked to the scene of Thursday's 
engagement. When we came in sight of the enemy's hospital, our advance 
pickets stopped us, as it was dangerous to proceed nearer. 

"Captain Adams, of Company H. afterwards obtained permission to pass the 
picket, and was fired upon by tiie enemy. 

'This afternoon a flag taken at Fairfax was paraded under an escort of Fire 
Zonaves ami Michigan 1st. It is of silk, and bears the inscription, Tensas 
Rifle-:,'— a Louisiana corps. On the central stripes is a representation of a cot- 

^"General McDowell has issued orders directing us to be ready to march at six 
o'clock p. M. After all things were ready, an aid came with an order postpon- 
ing the march until two o'clock to-morrow. 
m 'Sunday, July twenty-first.— Sergeant Young came and told me that it was 
time to rise. The night was cold, and after I rose I hastened to one of the few 
camp-fires that h*d been lighted, to warm myself. The moon shone brightly, 
and men moved about without much speaking, feeling that this might be their 
la>t Sunday on earth. 

"About three o'clock A. M. we left camp and wound up the hill to Centreville. 
At the end of the village we halted until daylight, being delayed by the passage 
of Colonel Hunter's column, which had preceeded us by another road to this 

"Following the column of Hunter, we passed a bridge near Centreville, I be- 
lieve on the Warrenton road. While Tyler's division kept on this road, those 
of Hunter and Heintzelman soon turned. Forseve al miles we passed through 
woodlands of Oak and hickory, where no springs could be found that were 
serviceable, and the m>'n suffered much for watt-rand were quite fatigued, as it 
was warm; many of them had neither had breakfast nor 6upp"er the night be- 

"Emerging into an open country and looking to our left, we could see the 


remarks: "Immediately upon Ricketts' Battery coming 
into position and we in line of battle, Colonel Heintzel- 
rnan rode up between our lines and that of the enemy, 
within pistol-shot of each, which circumstance stagger- 
ed my judgment whether those in front were friends or 
enemies, it being equally manifest that the enemy were 
in the same dilemma as to our identity; but a few sec- 
onds, however, undeceived both, they displayed the rebel 
and Ave the Union flag. Instantly a blaze of fire was 
poured into the forces of the combatants, each produc- 
ing terrible destruction, owing to the close proximity of 
the forces, which was followed by volley after volley, in 
regular and irregular order as to time, until Pdcketts' 

smoke of artillery rising from the woods about a mile or two distant, indicating 
that the action with the enemy had fairly commenced. About eleven o'clock 
we crossed a small branch which I suppose was Bull Run. As Company A was 
crossing. Colonel Gorman, who was on theotherside, in a loud voice urged the 
regiment to close up and hurry on. With alacrity the men obeyed, and with 
donble-quick step they ran up the hill-side, which was through woodland. Just 
before we reached the summit, we met ambulances and soldiers carrying down 
wounded and dying men to a church called Sudley Church, which was on the 
roadside between the scene of action and the ford. As we turned into the wood 
near the battle-rield an officer in uniform, and wounded badly in the neck, 
passed in a vehicle. With a smile of enthusiasm he threw up his arms and 
urged us on; he was sai I to be General Hunter. After passing through the 
woods several rods, we came to a clearing, and our regiment formed in column 
and stood alone, the other regiment of the brigade having pa-sed at a later pe- 
riod directly up the road from the ford. As the regiment waited for a few mo- 
ments, Colonel Heintzelman, the commander of our division, and another offi- 
cer, went to an eminence near by, anil with a telescope took a view, As the 
wounded men of the regiments began to appear on the edge of the woods. 
Surgeon Le Bouti) her requested me to go and a.-k Dr. Stewart to come up with 
the hospital attendants and the litters. [ went back as requested and saw the 
doctor; he told me that the medical director had requested him to stay at and 
near Sudley Church. With privates Dengleand Williams, attached to the assis- 
tant surgeon, I hurried back with the litters, and found the regiment had left 
the clearing. Passing through a narrow strip of woods, I came to open and 
cultivated land, and found the regiment. They occupied ground lately occu- 
pied by the enemy, who had been driven back by the Khode Island Brigade. 
The enemy's batteries were planted on the heights on the opposite side of the 
open valley- Captain liickett'a (J. S. Battery, belonging to our brigade, was 
ordered to engage the enemy, and the Minnesota Kegiment to support it. As 
they hurried through the gate-way to take position opposite the enemy's rifled 
cannon, it was difficult for t tie soldiers to push through, and I busied 
myself in pulling down fence rails, so they could move faster and not break 

"After Rickett'sD. S. Artillery began to fire I did not follow our regiment, 
but remained on the field at the point when- the artillery unlimbered. 

"As I stood, General Burnside, of Khode island, whose acquaintance I had 
made in the winter of '.V.»-'tio, at the hou>e of General McClellan. in Chicago. 
rode up on horseback, and I learned from him the history of the engagement of 
the lthode Island Artillery with the enemy. He supposed that the enemy's 


Battery was disabled and cut to pieces, and a large por- 
tion of its officers and men had fallen, and until Compa- 
nies H, J, K, C, G, and those immediately surrounding 
my regimental ilag, were so desperately cut to pieces as 
to make it more of a slaughter-house than an equal com- 
bat. * * - * I feel it due to my regiment to 
say that, before leaving the extreme right of our line, 
vthe enemy attempted to make a charge with a body of 
cavalry, who were met by my command and a part of 
the Fire Zouaves and repulsed with considerable loss to 
the enemy, but without any to us. * * * I 
regard it as an event of rare occurrence in the annals of 
history that a regiment of volunteers, not over three 

battery was on the opposite side of the road from where he found it, and when 
he came insight, he was obliged to reply, and at half-wheel engage them. After 
a hot contest he dislodged them from their position. 

" While talking with General Burn side, General .McDowell rode on to the ele- 
vated held on the left hand side of the road, and with several members of the 
staff sat in their saddles and viewed the action. Rickett's Battery now ceased 
firing, and attaching their caissons came out of the field where they first posted 
and wheeling into the road, descended to a position nearer the regiment and 
the enemy, where they suffered severely. One of his lieutenants, Douglas Ram- 
sey, a nephew of one with whom I was acquainted, had his head shot off. 

"As L stood. 1 could see the locality where the Minnesota 1st and the Fire 
Zouaves were fighting. With a piece of wood on their right, they had readied 
the ascent of the slope, on the crest of which was the principal battery of the 
Confederates; but the woods, as the clouds of dust indicated, were fast beina: 
filled with fresh troops of the enemy. As the cannon-balls flew past me I 
changed my position from time to time, and once came to a small one-story 
house on our left filled with wounded of other regiments. Even here the shots 
from the rifled cannon came. Just before the retreat from the field, I went in- 
to the woods that skirted over near where stood the ambulances. One of these 
attached to our brigade was foremost, and a horse with a saddle on that was 
next the ambulance , was shot while I was talking to the driver. I had been 
re-re but a few minutes, when a young man named Workman, a member of the 
Regimental Hand came up and told me that there were several of our regiment 
wounded and on the field not far distant, and that he feared unless we could 
reach them soon they would be captured. In the absence of the surgeons. I 
told tlie driver of the ambulance to take Workman and myself to the spot indi- 
cated. Drove up to a fence of a small farm-house, and into the yard 
where lay numbers of wounded men: all were eager to be placed in the ambu- 
lance, but I was obliged to tell them it was reservedfor the wounded of the 
Minnesota Regiment. Keceiviug four of our men, I drove off the field to Sad- 
ley Church, which was used as a hospital. 

"Here was a scene bathing description. The benches from 
this rude country church had all been removed, and its floor 
was strewn with wounded and d.wng. The gallery also was full. Ascend- 
ing, I found Dr. Stewart. Stretched on his hack was an elderly man of Com- 
pany B, begging for water: his look was irresistible, and picking up a cup be- 
smeared with blood. I went to a brook some distance off and brought him 
what was mud and water: but this impure potion was eagerly quaffed. Finding 
John T. llalsted, of St. Paul, 1 led him up stairs to the doctor, as the fillers of 


months in the service, marched up without flinching to 
the mouth of batteries supported by thousands of infan- 
try, and opened and maintained a fire until one-fifth of 
the whole regiment was killed, wounded, or made pris- 
oners, before retiring, except for purposes of advantage 
of position. 

"My heart is full of gratitude to my officers and men 
for their gallant bearing throughout the whole of this 
desperate engagement, and to distinguish the merits of 
one from another would be invidious, and injustice 
might be done. A portion of the right wing, owing to 
the configuration of the ground, became detached, under 
Lieut. Col. Miller whose gallantry was conspicuous and 
who contested every inch of the ground. 

his left Land were shattered by a ball. While his risht arm was round my neck, 
he showed some feeling, and when I told him his wound was not serious he 
eaid, 'O/i, / am not thinking of that, but of how many of our brave men have 
been cut down by the enemy. 1 '' 

"Captain Acker, of St. Paul, slightly wounded in the eye, was lying on the 
church floor near the pulpit. As the groans of those mortally wounded were 
dreadful he walked out to the open air leaning on my arm. As I sat with him 
near a tree, I noticed my trunk containing my entire wardrobe not far distant, 
also those of Doctors Stewart and Le Boutiilier, all of which became spoil of 
the enemy. While under the tree a private of ( lonipany K called my attention 
to a prisoner he had taken, a soldier of a Mississippi regiment. The prisoner 
tirst addressing me as captain, I told him I was a chaplain: he grasped my hand 
and <aid he hoped "he was a Christian, and had enlisted from conseienth us mo- 
tives, as he thi night Southern rights had been infrinded upon.' He then begged 
me to protect him from ill-usage, and not force him to tight against his hrethren. 
I assured him there was neither danger of ill-treatment from our troops, nor 
compulsion by the United States government to make him bear arms on our 

"Captain Acker, fearing capture, told me he would like to find our regiment. 
Taking my arm we walked down to the ford, not far from the church, und there 
learned that Colonel Gorman, with such officers and soldiers as he could find, 
had returned toward Centreville. Meeting Gates (iibbs, a son of Justice (iibbs 
of St. Paul, and one of my Sunday-school scholars when I preached in the First 
Presbyterian Church, driving an empty ambulance 1 placed therein Captain 
Acker. Had not proceeded very far before I found soldiers carrying Lieutenant, 
Harley, of Captain Pell's company, on a litter. He was taken up. and in a few 
minutes had our ambulance full of our wounded, and among others. Robert 
Stephens, who. in 1849, when a lad, assisted in plastering my house, the tirst 
brick edifice built in Minnesota. 

"While on the Warrenton Turnpike, in the woods, about two miles south of 
the bridge over Cub Knn, the soldiers in foot of the ambulance appeared to be 
in gn at confusion: we weie told that the enemy had flanked us. Fearing that a 
charge might be made, 1 asked the driver for somnthing red to hang out of the 
ambulance, as a hospital flag. A youth of the Faribault Conn any, by the name 
of Kerrof , hearing my question, although lying in the bottom <-f the ambulance. 
wounded in the leg, and very weak, sat up and tore off his red flannel shirt and 
gave it to me. Placing it on a sabre bayonet, I held it for a time over the ambu- 

col. w. a. gorman's report. 205 

"Major Dike and my adjutant bore themselves with 
coolness throughout. My chaplain, Rev. E. D. Xeill, 
■was on the field the whole time, and, in the midst of 
danger, giving aid and comfort to the wounded. Dr. 
Stewart while on the field was ordered to the hospital by 
a medical officer of the army. Dr. Le Boutillier contin- 
ued with the regiment." 

After the battle, the regiment returned to Washington 
to recruit. On the second of August they marched to 
the Upper 'Potomac, and on the seventh went into camp 
near Seneca Mills, where they remained until the fif- 
teenth, and then moved to a point between Poolesville 
and Edward's Ferry, which proved to be their winter 
quarters. They were attached to Gormans' Brigade, 

lance. As we neared Cub Run bridge, there was evidence of a panic. Baggage 
wagons were overturned, muskets and blankets strewn on the road, and cavalry 
and infantry mingled together without any officers to restore confidence. Just 
at the bridge were broken artillery wagons, and a horse lying on the road with a 
wound in the breast. When we crossed at dusk by the ford adjoining the 
bridge, which was done with difficulty, we saw in an open field a regiment 
drawn up in line, and the stars and stripes indicated they were a reserve of 

"J nst after dark reached old camping-ground at Centreville. Met Adjutant 
Leach, and was told that the field-officers and a portion of the regiment was in 
the field near the old quarters of General McDowell. Prepared to go to sleep 
on some blankets 1 had borrowed, when an order was given us to retire to Wash- 
ington. By the kindness of the wagon-master the well-known old settler. 
Anson Northrop, 1 obtained a tin cup of coffee, with some pilot bread, and I 
think it was the most refreshing meal I ever had. About half-past nine o'clock 
the regiment formed and began its march to Washington, beyond Fairfax Court 
House; a portion by mistake, took the Vienna Road. This was the front with 
the field officers. Reached Vienna about half-past three Monday morning. 

Monday morning, July twenty-second.— As the men hail been on their feet 
twentv-four hours, halted at Vienna until five o'clock. Major Dike and 1 lay on 
the grass, with his saddle for a pillow, but as it rained I did not sleep half an 
hour. Began to march to Georgetown, fifteen miles distant: when ten or eleven 
miles off hired a blacksmith, with a rickety one-horse wairon, for sis dollars, 
to take Captain Putnam, Lieutenant Coates. and Zeiurenberg to Georgetown. 
He drove so slow it was some time before we reached Captain Putnam: by the 
time the wagon reached Falls Church a wounded Zouave and a soldier of the 
New York Highland Regiment begged a place, and it was impossible to refuse 
them. Finding Captain Putnam, 1 relinquished my seat to the driver, and was 
glad to he on my feet again. . 

"About eleven o'clock, in the rain, called at Fort Corcoran, with Colonel 
Gorman and Major Dike. The commanding officer, W. T. Sherman was not 
very obliging. With some difficulty the guard allowed me to pass, under an 
order from General Uorman, to Georgetown Ferry. Taking an omnibus at 
Georgetown went to Washington, called and informed Mrs. Dike ami Mrs. 
Leach that their husbands were wife, and in the afternoon went to Philadelphia 
to replenish my own wardrobe, and procure supplies for our wounded." 


in Stone's Division, and commanded by Colonel X. J. T. 
Dana, who, on October second, was mastered in as colonel. 
Xo event of importance occurred during the remain- 
der of the year except in connection with the movement 
on October twenty-first, toward Leesburg, which result- 
ed in the death of Colonel E. B. Baker, late U. S. Sena- 
tor from Oregon. 

About one p. m. on Sunday, October nineteenth, the 
regiment was ordered to Edward's Ferry, and Colonel 
Dana was directed to send two companies to the Virginia 
side in three flat boats. The companies of Captain 
Morgan and Captain Lester crossed, protected by the 
fire of our artillery, but in fifteen minutes were recalled 
and the regiment was sent back to camp. A little after 
midnight Colonel Dana received orders to move again to 
the Ferry at daybreak. By half-past eight a. at. the 
whole regiment had crossed the Potomac, and was form- 
ed in line of battle, its left resting on Goose Creek. For 
three days, exposed to cold rains, this position was held. 
On Monday night other troops that had followed were 
ordered back to their camps, and, while they were re- 
crossing, the 1st Minnesota were kept in line and pro- 
tected them. On Tuesday afternoon Company I, com- 
manded by Second Lieutenant Halsey, was attacked by 
the enemy, and one killed and one wounded. On Wed- 
nesday night at half-past nine o'clock. General Stone ap- 
pointed Colonel Dana 1 to superintend the withdrawal of 
our troops from Goose Creek, to the east side of the Po- 
tomac. Colonel Dana in his report says: 

1. Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana, son of an army officer, was born in 
-Maine. Ladet 1838; second lieutenant. 7th infantry, Julv, 1842; first lieutenant 
February, 1X17. April IS, 1*47, severely wounded at Cerro Gordo, in Mexico. 
< aptam and assistant quartermaster, March. 1848. Resigned commission in 
Kegalararmy, 18"j.">. Brigadier-general of volunteers, 18B2. Major-general of 
volunteers, November 2 l J, l-:ij. 


"As the first streak of dawn made its appearance, 
Minnesota again alone, with General Stone stood upon 
the Virginia shore, and everything else having been 
placed on board, the men were ordered to follow. I 
coveted the honor to be the last man upon the bank, but 
the gallant general would not yield his place, and I obey- 
ed his order to go on board and leave him alone." 1 

Other troops from Minnesota began to enter the field 
about this time. The 2d Regiment, which had been or- 
ganized in July, left Fort Snelling on the thirteenth of 
October, and, proceeding to Louisville, were incorporat- 
ed with the Army of the Ohio. - 

A company of sharp-shooters, under Captain F. Petel- 
er, proceeded to "Washington, and on the eleventh of 
October was assigned as Company A, 2d Regiment U. S. 

On the sixteenth of November, the 3d Regiment left 
the state and proceeded to Tennessee. 3 

1. A writer in the Faribault Republican speaks of a Sunday in camp after 
Ball's Bluff disaster: 

"To-day the chaplain preached to us ont in the woods. The cold winds 
brought the dead leaves down in showers and swept them in heaps. The chap- 
lain could scarcely raise his voice above the rustling of the leave:-, but we heard 
him say: "That death was essential f\j life and prosperity. It was so in the nat- 
ural world. We could see around us that these trees, late densely covered with 
verdure, were now sapless and naked. But after the storms of the coming win- 
ter life would clothe with brighter verdure these same trees. So would it be 
with our nation. Dangers and difficulties must be met. A loni? period of stormy 
adversity must be passed through to prepare the nation for greater excellency. 
Nations "must be baptized in blood, and subjected to defeat, before sufficient 
strength of purpose and character is obtained to ensure permanent prosperity." 
2. Staff officers Second Regiment. 

Horatio P. Van Cleve, Colonel. Promoted Brigadier-General, March '21. 1SB2. 

James Georsre, Lieutenant Colonel. Promoted Colonel; resigned June 29, 'tjt. 

Simeon Smith. Major. Appointed Paymaster U. S. A.. September, lstjl. 

Alexander Wilkin, Major. Colonel 9th Minnesota, 1S62, 

Reginald Bingham, Surgeon. Dismissed May 27, isti'2. 

M. ('. Tollman Assistant-Surgeon. Promoted Surgeon. 

Timothy Cressey. chaplain. Resigned October lo. W.:i. 

Daniel O. ileauey. Adjutant, Promoted Captain Company C. 

William S. Grow. Quartermaster Resigned January, 1S03. 
3. Staff Officers Thibd Regiment. 

Henry C. Lester, Colonel. Dismissed December 1. lSrt'2. 

Benjamin F. Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel. Resigned May 9. lst;2. 

John A. Hadley, Major. Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, May 29, l s,- >2. 

R. C. Olin, Adjutant. 

C. H. Blakeley, appointed .January 9, 1S1V2. 

Levi Butler, Surgeon Resigned September :'.<>. 1863. 

Francis R MUligan, Assistant-Surgeon. Resigned April S, 1882. 


In December, the 1st Battery Light Artillery left and 
reported for duty at St. Louis, Mo. 

In October and November, three companies of cavalry 
were organized and proceeded to Benton Barracks, Mis- 
souri, and were ultimately incorporated with, the 5th 
Iowa Cavalry. 

Before the month of January, 1862, expired, the 2d 
Minnesota Regiment won a distinguished reputation. 
On Sunday, the nineteenth, not far from Somerset, about 
forty miles from Danville, Kentucky, they were engaged 
in the battle of Mill Spring. Colonel Robert L. Mc- 
Cook, the brigade commander, says: 

"The position of the Minnesota regiment covered the 
ground formerly occupied by the 4th Kentucky and 10th 
Indiana, which brought their flank within about ten feet 
of the enemy, when he had advanced upon the 4th Ken- 
tucky. * * * On the right of the Minnesota 
regiment the contest was almost hand to hand, and the 
enemy and 2d Minnesota were poking their guns at each 
other through the fence. 

Colonel Van Cleve 1 made the following report: 

"I have the honor to report the part taken by the 2d 
Minnesota Regiment in the action of the Cumberland, 
on the nineteenth instant. About seven o'clock in the 
morning of that day, and before breakfast, I was inform- 
ed by Colonel Manson, of the 10th Indiana, command- 
ing the Second Brigade of our division, that the enemy 
were advancing in force, and that he was holding them 
in check, and that it was the order of General Thomas 
that f should form my regiment and march immediately 
to the scene of action. - 

1. Brigadier General March 21, 1>»62. 

2. A. correspondent of Cincinnati Commercial write*: "General Zollicoffer's 
body lay upon the ground in front of one of tlie Minnesota tents surrounded by 
some twenty soldiers. Two soldiers were busy washing off the mud with which 


"Within ten minutes we bad left our camp. Arriving 
at Logan's Field, by your order we halted inline of bat- 
tle, supporting Standart's Battery, which was returning 
the fire of the enemy's guns, whose balls and shells were 
falling near us. 

"As soon as the 9th Ohio came up, and had taken its 
position on our right, we continued the march, and 
after proceeding about a half mile came upon the enemy, 
who were posted behind a fence along the road, beyond 

it had been covered. It was almost as white and transparent as wax. The fatal 
wound was in the breast, and was evidently made by a pistol-ball. This was 
Zollicoffer! He whose name had so long been a terror to men who loved their 
country on the banks of the Cumberland.'* 

Geo. D. Strong, of Company D, writes: "We were jnst in the edge of the 
woods, close to the fence, the other side of which were the rebel forces resting 
their guns on the fence. My position was nest to the regimental colors, and 
only fifteen to twenty feet from the foe. We all dro ped on our knees and be- 
hind rotten logs, loading and tiring as rapidly as possible, pouring in a fearful 
fire, which told upon them. A momentary silence caused me to look round, 
when I saw one of our company, W. H. II. Morrow, wounded. I assisted in 
carrying him to a safe place. He was shot in the right shoulder, the ball turn- 
ing towards the breast. He diet two hours after I left him." 

\V. S. Welles, of Company I, writes: Lieutenant Bailey Peyton was shot by 
Adam Wichet, a German in Company I. Peyton stood exactly in front of the 
flag, while Company D was on the right, and Company I on the left of it. 

''Pejton stood about two rods from our line, tiring right oblique into Com- 
pany I. A bullet from his revolver had just severely wounded Lieutenant Stout. 
At this moment Lieutenant Uline caught a glimpse of him through the smoke, 
and as his revolver was useless, he ordered Wichet, who stood by, to shoot him. 
Wichet tired, and Peyton breathed his last. The whole charge, a bullet and 
three buckshot, ente ed the left side of his face, taking out the eye, and coming 
out just below the left ear. 

A correspondent of the St. Paul Press says: "Win, H. Blake, the little drum- 
mer-boy of Company H, dropped his gun and seizing the gun of a wounded 
man, fought it out with us stoutly." 


"Dear Parents:— I am weary and lonesome, and hardly know what to write 
to you. We have had a great battle with Zollicoffer' s forces, one mile and a half 
from this camp, but 1 am safe and well. Ten of our poor boys are killed, and 
some ten or fifteen wounded. Dear father and mother, how can I tell you,— hut 
you will hear of it before this gets to you, — Samuel has gone to his God He 
now sleeps the sleep that knows no waking on this earth, beneath the cold soil 
of Kentucky. He died charging boldly on the enemy from a bayonet wound in 
the left groin, winch passed through the kidneys. He died in about fifteen min- 
utes after receiving the thrust He died calmly and easily, without much pain. 
One of the drummer-boys offered to call the surgeon, but he said, "If you call 
him he will leave some poor fellow that will die. and it may as well be me as any 
one.' When he was laid in his grave he looked as if asleep. I cannot write you 
the particulars of the battle, for I am so lonesome and sa 1 that I have no mind 
to do anything. I have a board at the head of his >rrave. with his name, regi- 
ment, and company cut upon it. Oh, dear father and mother, may God help us 
to bear up under this our affliction! Good-bye my dear parents. 

"From your sorrowing son. 


"Camp Looan, January 20, 1862." 


which was an open field broken by ravines. The enemy 
opening upon us a galling fire, fought desperately and a 
hand. to hand fight ensued, which lasted about thirty 
minutes. The enemy, met with so warm a reception in 
front, — and afterwards being flanked on their left by the 
9th Ohio, and on their right by a portion of our left, 
who had, by their well-directed fire, driven them from 
behind their hiding-places — that they gave way, leaving 
a large number of their dead and wounded on the field. 
We joined in the pursuit, which continued till near sun- 
set, when we arrived within a mile of their intrench- 
ments, where we rested upon our arms during the night. 
The next morning we marched into their works, which 
we found deserted. Six hundred of our regiment were 
in the engagement, twelve of whom were ki'led and 
thirty-three wounded." 

The 1st Minnesota Battery was present at the great 
battle of Pittsburgh Landing, which occurred on Sun- 
day, the 6th of April. Lieutenant W- Pfaender, com- 
manding the battery, in a communication to Governor 
Ramsey, says: 

"The people of our state are probably anxious to learn 
the fate of the Minnesota volunteers who fought at the 
late battle of Pittsburg, Tennessee; and as the 1st Min- 
nesota Battery was the only representative of our state 
in the terrible fight, I deem it my duty to send you a 
short account. 

"At our arrival here, on the eighteenth of March, we 
were attached to the Fourth Brigade of General Sher- 
man's Division, but afterwards we were attached to Gen- 
eral Prentiss' Division; and on Saturday, the fifth, re- 
moved to our new camp, immediately on the right of 
General Prentiss' headquarters. * * 


"At our arrival at the scene of action, our infantry 
were already retreating. * * * One of our 
men and two horses were already killed before we com- 
menced firing; another, and third one, all belonging to 
my section, were killed in quick succession. 

"Now Captain Munch' s horse was shot in the head, 
and immediately afterward the captain was severely 
wounded in the leg. My horse was wounded in both 
fore-legs. Several other horses had received injuries, 
and our position became critical. * * * Our 
division now fell back behind the line coming to our 
support under General Hurlbut, and after a short rest 
General Prentiss formed the remainder of our division 
again on the left center of our line. * * * 
Lieutenant Peebles maintained his position on our left 
nobly, and at a charge of a Louisiana regiment com- 
pletely mowed them down with canister. The enemy, 
however, also took good aim ; two of our cannoniers 
were here killed, Lieutenant Peebles severely wounded 
in the jaw, Sergeants Clayton and Conner severely 
wounded, and a number of horses killed. * * 

"Arriving at the bluifs of Pittsburgh Landing, I tried 
to get the whole battery in the best possible condition 
again, and succeeded, by dismounting and changing 
pieces, to get five pieces in good shape, at least able to 
open fire again. * * * We located our five pieces, 
together with Margreff's Ohio Battery, on a hill com- 
manding a long ravine. •* * * The rebels knew that 
this last attack would decide the day, and about six 
o'clock in the evening, opened on us again. * * * * 
The 1st Minnesota Battery poured in a cannonade. It 
was really majestic, and no army would be able to take 
that position. * * * A heavy rain-storm had drenched 


us thoroughly during Sunday night, yet the Minnesota 
Battery was ready for another trial; and being without 
an immediate commander, as General Prentiss had been 
taken prisoner, I reported to General Grant, who ordered 
me to keep position until further orders; and as Mon- 
day's righting was mostly done by General Buell's forces, 
which had been crossing all night, and steadily poured 
in, we remained there until we were removed to our old 
camp again." x 

The 1st Minnesota Regiment, after remaining in camp 
near Edward's Ferry during the winter, moved, with 
Gorman's Brigade, to Harper's Ferry, and crossing the 
Potomac on a pontoon, were attached to SedgwicVs 

1 Lieutenant Cook writes to a friend: 

"Our battery took breakfast earlier than nsual. and had just finished when 
we heard occasional tiring in front. What does this mean? was asked by hun- 
dreds of anxious voices. Who could answer: * * But hark! the long roll 
beats. The bugle sounds 'to arms,' 'to horse.' A mounted orderly then rode to 
oar head-quarters, and the battery received orders to repair to the front and 
commence fireing immediately. In less time than! give you the details we 
were flying to the scene of action, which Was not five hundred yards distant. 
* * * We poured a galling tire into them, until they were nearly close enough 
to make a charge and capture our pieces. 

" 'Limber to the front,' and away we went into auother position. By the way, 
onr captain and one corporal were wounded as we were executing the above 
command. We hail one man killed before we had tired a gun Brave buy! one 
of the men picked him up, and he remarked, 'Don't stop with me -stand to 
your posts like men.' He expired soon after. He was from Minneapolis. s * 
Just about noon I was struck on the thigh by a six-pound spent ball. It hit 
the ground about twenty or thirty feet from me. then rising, came near taking 
me off the saddle. It struck me right on the joint, making me sick and causing 
me to vomit. I sat by a tree, and was called by Lieutenant Peebles to get 
some ammunition. I could not use my limb. Two of the boys helped me. 1 
hobbled to the caisson, and sitting down on the trail, issued ammunition. * * 
So >n after, Johnson was wounded s >verely by a musket-ball. A moment or two 
afterwards Tilson was killed, shot through the head. Then Sergeant Clayton 
was wounded; then Saxdale was killed; tuen Sergeant Conner was wounded, 
and immediately after Lieutenant Peebles." 

The St Anthony News publishes letter of J. F.. to his mother: 

"Sunday morning, just after otlicer rode up to our captain's 
tent and told him to prep ire for action. * * * We wheeled into battery and 
opened upon them. * * * The first time we wheeled one of our drivers was 
killed; his name was Colby Stinsou. Hey wood's horse was shot at almo-t the 
same time. The second time we came into battery the captain was wounded in 
the leg and his horse shot under him. Chey charged on our guns, and on the 
sixth platoon howitzer, but they got hold of tli>- wrong end of the gun. We 
th<>n limb 'red up and r>>tr.-it»d within the line of battle. While we were 
retreating they shot one of our horses, when we lwd to stop anil take him out, 
which let tlie rebels come up rather close. When within about six rods, they 
fired and wounded Corporal Davis, of the gun detachment, breaking his leg 
above the ankle." 


Division, and on the thirteenth of March, marched to the 
suburbs of Winchester, 1 when soon an order came to 
return, and by the last of the month they had -joined 
the army of the Potomac, near Fortress Monroe, and by 
the middle of April, were taking part in the siege of 
Yorktown, and stationed on a road that led from War- 
wick Court-House to Yorktown. 

The chaplain of the regiment, in one of the St. Paul 
papers, gave the following account of the gradual ad- 
vance from Yorktown to within sight of the spires of 

"The army of the Potomac advanced toward Yorktown 
during the first week in April. Our line extended in 
front of the enemy's works, which were a continued chain 
from the Warwick to York River. 

"Until the middle of April the soldiers were busily 
employed in cutting new roads through the woods, so 
as to enable our wagons and artillery to move without 
being exposed to the enemy's lire. By the last of April 
the preparations for a siege was fast being completed, 
gabions had been platted, trenches dug, and batteries 
erected. Sedgwick's Division occupied a position mid- 
way between Warwick Court-House and Y r orktown, on 
the old Warwick Road. 

"Smith's Division was on our immediate left, and 
watched the enemy at Lee's Mills, while we annoyed 
them with our artillery and sharp-shooters at Wynne's 

"Battery Xo. 8 was erected by our engineers to com- 
mand the enemy's fortifications at Wynne's Mills, and 
would have opened tire in a day or two had they not 

1 While on the march, Col. Alfred Sully took command in place of Dana, 


fled. While for two weeks there were frequent dis- 
charges of artillery during the night, on the evening of 
Saturday the third of May there was an incessant boom 
ing of cannon, which suddenly ceased just before the day- 
break of Sunday. The pickets of General Dana's Brig- 
ade, noticing the stillness and perceiving no movement, 
cautiously approached, and were astonished to find that 
an evacuation had taken place. By sunrise the whole 
of the brigade was within the works of the enemy or 
in bivouac on the fields in the rear. After breakfast 
they were relieved by Gorman's Brigade, who passed the 
day in searching for some memento of the place to send 
home to friends. The correspondence left by the troops 
excited much attention, and was of every description, 
'from grave to gay, from lively to severe,' and very much 
of it was not fit to be read in the presence of ears polite. 

"It was distressing to see a spirit of vandalism mani- 
fested on thfi part of the troops in searching the houses 
of rebels; officers in some cases showed neither the dig- 
nity nor discretion of ordinary boys. One major of a 
New York regiment rode into camp on Sunday night 
with a large looking-glass, which could be of no manner 
of use; and another from the same State, and of similar 
rank, brought in ( a mahogany rocking-chair, trimmed 
with red velvet, to be lolled in for the night and aban- 
doned or destroyed in the morning. 

"On Monday in a soaking rain the whole division pro- 
ceeded to Yorktown, and halted on the field where, 
in 1781, the troops of Cornwallis surrendered to the 
allied American and French forces. 

"The fortifications near and about Yorktown impress 
you with their magnitude. For months hundreds 


of negroes had toiled under task-masters as hard as 
the Egyptians, in throwing up these walls of earth. 

"All day Monday we could hear the discharge of ar- 
tillery, indicating that our advance was in proximity to 
the rebel rear. Just before dusk, an order came for the 
division to march towards Williamsburg, but the troops 
had not proceeded a half-mile before a halt was ordered. 
The wagon train had blockaded the road for miles, and 
the increasing rain and Egyptian darkness of the night 
made it impossible to move. Hour after hour, drenched 
to the skin, the soldiers stood in the mud, but no ad- 
vance, and towards midnight the order came to return to 

"The next afternoon the division began to embark in 
transports for the bond of York River, for the purpose 
of intercepting the retreat of the enemy, if possible. 

"Dana's Brigade first moved off, and then Gorman's, 
and last that of Burns. About eleven o'clock on "Wed- 
nesday, Gorman's brigade came in sight of West Point. 
The sound of musketry, and smoke arising above the 
woods on the south side of the Pamunky, indicated that 
a portion of Franklins Division, which had preceded 
Sedgwick's, was engaged with the enemy. The first 
Minnesota was ordered to leave their transports and 
land in bateaux as soon as possible. The wide plain on 
the lower side of the Pamunky was soon filled with 
regiments drawn up in the line of battle, ready to sup- 
port Franklin's troops if necessary.' About one o'clock 
P. M., the enemy, with three cannon, began to fire from 
the wooded heights on the transports, but three United 
States gunboats quickly took position, and their heavy 
guns in thunder notes soon silenced the battery on the 


"On Friday, the twenty-third, the regiment encamped 
at Goodly Hole Creek, in Hanover County, a short dis- 
tance from the Chickahominy. The next week Gorman's 
Brigade moved up to Cold Harbor, but on Thursday 
they returned to Goodly Hole Creek. 

"About noon on Saturday, the thirty-first of May, 
rapid musketry riling was heard, and at three o'clock a 
message came for Sedgwick to move, as Casey's and 
Couch's Divisions were being driven by the enemy. By 
a road that had just been cut through a swamp, the reg- 
iment hastened to the rescue, and, crossing a rude bridge 
of logs, now known as the grape vine bridge, both ends 
submerged by the waters of the swollen Chickahominy, 
reached the battle-field just in time to save defeat. As 
at Bull Bun it was placed on the right, and before it was 
fairly in line of battle the enemy were seen advancing. 
A crash of musketry, like the snapping of limbs in a 
hurricane came, and leaves from the trees fell upon the 
officers' hats. 

"In a few minutes the whole of Gorman's brigade was 
drawn up in a field within a few hundred feet of the 
rebels, who were concealed in the woods. For two or 
three hours, until it became perfectly dark, the brigade 
stood solid as a stone wall, and with a roar of musketry 
really terrific, kept the foe from advancing. 

"On Thursday, the twenty-sixth of June, the soldiers 
of Sumner's corps were made anxious by the continual 
firing at Mechanicsville, and on Friday occurred the 
disastrous conflict at Gaines's Mill. At daylight on 
Saturday morning, the serious face of General Sedg- 
wick told the soldiers of the division that a crisis had 
been reached. All that day the sick of Sumner's corps 
were hurried to the rear, and in the afternoon soldiers 


were employed in emptying all surplus ammunition into 
the vats of a tannery near the Fair Oaks battle-field, 
showing that a rapid change of base was contemplated. 

"Just before daylight, on Sunday, June twenty-ninth, 
Sedgwick's Division left the position that it had held 
since the battle of Fair Oaks, and proceeding less than 
two miles, the enemy made their appearance, and after 
a brief and sharp fight, in a peach orchard, retired. 

"About five r. M., at Savage Station, 1 on the York rail- 
road, the enemy again gave battle. Until dark the con- 
flict raged, but by the valour and coolness of our men 
the foe were held in check, with a loss of about eighty 
killed and wounded. 

"On Monday, between White Oak Swamp and Willis's 
Church, the enemy again appeared, and in the skirmish 
Captain Colville was slightly wounded. The next day, 
July first, the 1st Eegiment was drawn up at the divi- 
ding line of Charles City and Henrico counties, in sight 
of James Paver, and although much exposed to the ene- 
my's batteries was not actually engaged. At midnight 
the order was given to move to James River, and early 
on the second of July they encamped on the Berkeley 
plantation, where President Harrison was born." 

1. Sergeant Harmon, Company D, writes: 

"About 5 p. M the rebels came upon as and commenced shelling ns: several 
of the boys in our regiment were wounded by them. We laid down on the 
ground. McCaslin had his knapsack torn from his back by a piece of a shell. 
We moved forward to the left into the woods, out of range of the battery in that 
direction, to support another regiment that was fighting on the left. The fight 
lasted here until after lark, the whole division being engaged, besides the Ver- 
mont Brigade in Smith's Division. The rebels got driven back. We lost out 
of our regiment in this light about thirty killed and wounded. 

"Sergeant Burgess, the color-bearer, was shot dead; lie was the man that 
brought the colore off from the battle-field at Bull Hun: he was a tine fellow as 
well as brave. Every man in the regiment was his frie"d. He was shot by a 
minnieball through the Jungs, and killed instantly, and the colors fell to the 
ground. They were raised by one of the guard. Our company was very fortu- 
nate not to lose any one. Joseph McDonald, a sou of McDonald that lives op- 
posite Elk River, was wounded, but not seriously. Judson Jordon, a brother 
of C. B. Jordon, was killed; tie was a member of the first Michigan. This was 
Sunday's right at Savage's Station. About 10 P.M. we started on the march, 
leaving the wounded, that could not walk, in old build ngs; surgeons and hos- 
pital stewards stopped with them." 


After Pope's repulse, General McClellan resumed 
command of the army, and Sumner's corps, with others, 
were advanced north of Washington to meet Lee, who 
had crossed the Potomac with the insurgent army. By 
forced marches Sedgwick's Division arrived near Sharps- 
burg, Maryland, and took part in the great battle of the 
seventeenth of September. After an active contest the 
1st Regiment was flanked by the enemy, and they were 
obliged to fall back. Captain Russell's company of 
sharp-shooters was attached to the regiment during this 

The 4th Regiment and 2d Minnesota Battery, on April 
twenty-first left St. Paul for Benton Barracks, Missouri. 
They were both assigned to the Army of the Mississippi. 
The 5th Piegiment also departed on the thirteenth of 
May, and on the twenty-third took position with their 
comrades of the 2d and 4th Regiments near Corinth, 
Mississippi. In less than a week they were brought 
into action, and Second Lieutenant David Oakes was 
killed. A correspondent writes: 

"On Wednesday, the twenty-eighth, there was heavy 
cannonading during the entire day. At ten o'clock in 
the morning a force of Federal infantry was thrown out 
to plant a twenty-four pound Parrot gun upon an eminence 
commanding a piece of timber on our left, which sheltered 
the rebel regiment who so continually annoyed us. The 
enemy discovering our intentions advanced a body of 
troops to take the gun. Our forces were immediately 
drawn up in line of battle. Not a man stirred from the 
ranks until the enemy approached within fifty yards of 
our line, when Colonel Purcell, of 10th Iowa, acting 
brigadier, ordered the 5th Minnesota to charge bayonets. 

* * * * Terribly did they revenge their fallen 


comrades. The casualties to the 5th Minnesota did not 
exceed forty killed and wounded. This is a new regi- 
ment, and this is the first occasion they have been able 
to show the material of which they have been made." 1 

On the eighteenth of September, Colonel Sanborn, 
acting as brigade commander in the Third Division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, moved his troops, includ- 
ing the 4th Minnesota Regiment, to a point on the Tus- 
cumbia road, and the next day advanced towards Iuka, 
driving pickets to enemy's position. Under the fire of 
the enemy's battery he placed his troops in line of battle, 
and the 4th Minnesota was stationed on the crest of a 
ridge. Captain Legro, in command of the regiment, 
reported as follows: 

' 'At 5 p. M. I moved my command at double-quick to 
a position on the left of the 4Stli Indiana, which regi- 
ment was in support of the 11th Ohio Battery, com- 
manded by Lieutenant Sears. Shortly after, the battle 
was opened by the battery, and raged fiercely along the 
line for half an hour, when the 48th-Indiana, being com- 
pelled to give way, fell back to the edge of the woods, 


John B. Sanborn, Colonel, Made Brigadier-General in 1863, B't Major Gen. 
U. S. Vols. 1864. 

Minor T. Thomas, Lieutenant-Colonel. Made Colonel 3th Regiment, August 
24, 1862. 

A. Edward Welch, Major. Died at Nashville. Feb. 1. 1864. 

John M.Thompson, Adjutant. Promoted Captain Company E, November 
20, 1862. 

Thomas B. Hunt, Quartermaster. Made Captain and Assistant-Quartermas- 
ter April 9, 1863. 

John II. Murphy, Surgeon. Resigned July 9, 1*63. 

Eliaha W Cross, Assistant-Surgeon. Promoted July 9, 1863. 

Asa S. Fiske, Chaplain. Resigned Oct. 3, 1864. 

Rudolph Borgensrode, Colonel. Resigned Aug. 31, 1862. 
Lucius F. Hubbard, Lieutenant-Colonel. Promoted Colonel Aug. 31, 1862. 
William B. Gere, Major. Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Alpheus It. French. Adjutant. Unsigned March 19, 1363. 
Wm. P>. McGrorty, Quartermaster. Resigned Sept. 15, 1>64. 
Francis B. Frheridge, Sun/eon. Kesigned Sept. 3, 1862. 
Vincent P. Kennedy, Assistant-Surgeon Promoted Surgeon Sept. 3, 1862. 
James F. Chaffee, Chaplain. Resigned June 23, 1862. 
John Ireland, Chaplain, Appointed June, 1862. Resigned April, 1863. 


leaving my regiment exposed to an oblique fire in the 
rear from the advancing enemy. 

"I then ordered the right wing to fall back ten rods 
to the timber, which was accomplished in good order, 
notwithstanding the galling and incessant fire of the 
enemy. * * * 

"I was then ordered to move by the right Hank about 
forty rods up the road, at nearly a right angle to my for- 
mer position, then by the left flank to a point near the 
battery, which I did immediately. * * * 

"Throughout the whole both officers and men behaved 
with coolness and courage, conducting themselves in a 
manner highly commendable. 

"Too much praise cannot be awarded to Surgeon J. 
H. Murphy and his assistants for their unceasing at- 
tention to the wounded through the action and during 
the night. I enclose a list of the killed, wounded, and 

The battle of Iuka was but the beginning of the move- 
ment that in a few days culminated at Corinth in which 
conflict the 1st Minnesota Battery and the 4th and 5th 
Eegiments participated. At Corinth the Union army 
faced northward. On the left center the ground was 
quite hilly, and here the Chevally road entered the town. 
Fort Eobinett with Fort Williams enfiladed the Chevally 
and Bolivar roads, and another fort on the extreme left 
near the seminary, protected the left and strengthened 
the center. 

Hamilton's Division, to which the -ith Regiment was 
attached, was on the extreme right, and Stanley's Divis- 
ion, to which the 5th belonged, was on the left. 

Captain Munch, in a communication to Governor 
Ramsey, says: 


"On the first [of October] the battery, then stationed 
in town, was ordered out to take up camp at Fort No. F, 
one of the forts on our western line of defence, about 
two miles from town. Not yet fairly in camp there, we 
received orders to send two of the pieces (two 12-pound 
howitzers) to Chevally to support a brigade of infantry 
then at that place. * * * As I was not le- 
gally reinstated in my command yet, and almost too 
lame for any hard work, Lieutenant Clayton was sent 
with that section, I retaining the other in the fort. They 
went as far as Chevally that evening, when they found 
the enemy entering the town from the opposite side. 
Not strong enough to offer much resistance, our forces 
fell back about a mile, and took up camp for the night. 
On the second day there was skirmishing all day along 
the road, no artillery engaged on the same. 

"Early on Thursday morning, the third, our boys 
opened the ball with the two howitzers, and to judge 
from the rapid succession of reports, they must have 
been well to work, and by their cool and unflinching at- 
tention to their duty earned the praise of the command- 
ing general. Lieutenant Clayton has shown good judg- 
ment in taking positions, and by the general manage- 
ment of affairs gave evidence that he well earned the 
confidence you kindly reposed in him. 

"In the meantime I was placed in command of the re- 
maining sections of our battery, together with a section 
of the 3d Ohio Battery. I planted them all in the fort. 
At 8 o'clock p. M., a report was sent in that one of the 
howitzers was disabled, not by the tire of the enemy, 
but by the weakness of the carriage, which broke by the 
recoil of the piece. As they could not drag it along 
fast enough, the enemy being in hot pursuit with great- 


ly superior numbers, they spiked the piece, throwing it 
into a deep creek, rendering it useless to the enemy. 

"Another piece was immediately sent to replace it. 
This after a few rounds was disabled and brought to the 
rear, when the last piece of the battery was sent for- 
ward. The battery then had an excellent position across 
the railroad, and did great execution. By and by the 
little command became so exhausted by heat, thirst, and 
hard work, that it became necessary to order them to the 
rear, and replace them by new troops. But the enemy 
soon became so numerous that it made any further re- 
sistance at that place useless, and a general retreat was 
ordered, which was carried out in good shape. The 
musketry became general along the line, and we could 
discover heavy columns moving forward. The enemy 
planted a battery in range for our fort, and commeuced 
throwing shells, which were well directed, but could not 
injure us much behind the breastworks; we, of course, 
were not lazy to answer, and our second shot silenced 
their battery. 

"At four o'clock p. m. all the forces were drawn into 
the inner line of defences, and both armies rested for the 
night. Our battery took a good position near the semi- 
nary, and during the second day of the fight assisted the 
big guns of the forts to clear the woods across the 
abattis. After the enemy were so deadly repulsed in 
their effort to take the town, they commenced retreating 
in their common way, by sending in a flag of truce pur- 
porting to bury their dead." 

Colonel J. B. Sanborn, in his report to his superior 
oflicer, says: 

"At about a quarter before five o'clock I advanced my 
line by your order across the field in my front, toward a 


heavy growth of timber, where our skirmishers had en- 
countered the enemy in some force. Company K was 
again deployed forward as skirmishers, and had ad- 
vanced but a short distance in a westwardly direction, 
before they drew a very heavy musketry fire from the 
enemy concealed in the timber. In the meantime I had 
wheeled my battalion to his left, so that I was fronting 
the southwest. At that time, the fire of the enemy was 
brisk and enfiladed nearly my whole line. At this mo- 
ment Captain Mowers beckoned to me with his sword, 
as if he desired to communicate important information, 
and I started toward him upon a gallop, but had rode 
but a few steps when I saw him fall dead— shot through 
the head. From the course of the ball and the position 
the enemy seemed to occupy, I interpreted the informa- 
tion that Captain Mowers desired to give, to be that the 
enemy were passing to my rear by my right, my com- 
mand at this time holding the right of the infantry in 
the whole army. These impressions were immediately 
communicated to the general commanding the brigade, 
and I received orders to dislodge the enemy from the 
woods on my right. I at once changed the front of my 
battalion to the rear on the tenth (10th) company; this 
was done under a heavy fire of musketry, in 'double- 
quick' time, but with as much coolness and precision as 
if on ordinary battalion drill. 

"This movement completed, I ordered the regiment 
forward at 'quick time' until within about one hundred 
and fifty paces of the enemy's line of battle at this 
point, when I gave the further command, 'forward one 
hundred and fifty paces, double quick.' This was exe- 
cuted in the most gallant and splendid manner. The 
regiment, in perfect line and with triumphant shouts, 



rushed forward against a most murderous fire, and when 
within fifty yards of the enemy's line, he fled to the rear 
with the greatest precipitancy, receiving two or three 
volleys from my regiment as he retired. Immediatly 
after this was accomplished, I received your order to 
fall back and join Colonel Alexander (5th Indiana) on 
his right, which order was at once obeyed, and skirm- 
ishers thrown forward one hundred paces to my front, 
and around my right flank. 

''It was now night. "We were exhausted, and obe- 
dient to orders, I moved to the first position held in the 
morning and bivouaced there at 11 p. M. During the 
day my loss was one commissioned officer and one pri- 
vate killed, and four wounded. The heat during the 
engagement of my command was most intense, said to be 
108° in the shade, and more men were carried off the 
field on litters from the effect of sunstroke than from 

"Ammunition was distributed to the men, so that each 
had seventy five rounds, between eleven and one o'clock 
at night, and at half-past one I received your order to 
move my command to. the right, accross the Pittsburg 
and Hamburg road, and about one hundred yards to the 
rear, which was done at once, and the regiment stood to 
arms, fronting the north, for the remaining part of the 

"My command remained in this position until half 
past ten o'clock on the following morning, when I re- 
ceived your order to move by the left Hank into position 
on the ridge of my left, in support of the 11th Ohio Bat- 
tery. This order was at once executed and my front 
changed to the west. I formed my regiment about fifty 
feet in rear of this battery, which masked the six centre 


companies. These six companies were ordered by me 
to fix bayonets, and charge the enemy whenever he 
should charge upon the battery. Two companies on the 
right and two on the left were moved forward on the 
line of the guns of the battery, with instructions to en- 
gage the enemy with musketry whenever he might 
appear, and meet him with the bayonet in case of a 

"The enemy retired from the ground covered by the 
valley, and from the front of my regiment, in about forty 
minutes after the firing commenced. I maintained the 
same relative position to the battery in its movements 
upon the field, to get in rear of the enemy, until your 
orders came to occupy again the ground left, when I 
went into action. I at once reoccupied that position, 
where I remained until the morning of the 5th inst,, at 
four o'clock, when the pursuit commenced. 

"In the engagement on the fourth I lost one commis- 
sioned officer, and five privates wounded. 

"Of the pursuit it is enough to report that it was 
commenced on Sunday morning, the fifth inst., and con- 
tinued without cessation or delay, except such as was 
absolutely necessary to rest the men temporarily, until 
the following Saturday night, the troops having marched 
during the time about one hundred and tweuty miles. 

"I cannot speak too highly of the patient endurance 
and valor of my command. During a period of nine 
days of the most heated and uncomfortable weather, my 
regiment marched one hundred and thirty miles, and for 
two days and nights of that time were engaged in one of 
the most extensive and desperate battles of the war. The 
conduct of all officers was satisfactory. Captain Tour- 


• tellotte and Edson conducted themselves with most ex- 
traordinary coolness and determination. 

"My commissioned staff, First Lieutenant Thomas B. 
Hunt, Regimental Quartermaster, and First Lieutenant 
John M. Thompson, Adjutant, behaved with coolness 
and judgment, and in the absence of other field officers 
rendered me efficient service, repeating commands and 
communicating orders. 

"Quartermaster-Sergeant Frank E. Collins, for dis- 
tinguished valor and services on the field in aiding me 
in every movement, and in arresting and bringing pris- 
oners from the field near the close of the engagement, 
deserves special mention. Commissary-Sergeant T. P. 
Wilson remained under fire all the time directing litter 
carriers to the wounded, and furnishing water to the 
famishing soldiers, as well as repeating my commands 
when near the" lines. 

"Sergeant-Major Kittredge was among the coolest men 
on the field, and most efficient until he was overcome by 

"Surgeon Dr. J. H. Murphy, and second Assistant 
Surgeon Dr. H. R. Wedel, conducted their department 
with perfect order and method. Every wound was 
dressed in a few moments after it was received, and the 
wounded cared for at once in the most tender manner." 

Colonel L. F.Hubbard, of the 5th Regiment, reported ' 
as follows: 

"We were aroused before dawn on the morning of 
the fourth hist, by the discharges of the enemy's guns, 
and the bursting of his shells in the immediate vicinity 
of where we lay. One man of my regiment was quite 
severely wounded here by a fragment of a shell. At 
about nine a. m., I was ordered by General Stanley to 

col. hubbard's report. 227 

deploy one company, as skirmishers, into the edge of 
the timber towards the front and right; in obedience to 
which Company A was sent forward under command of 
Captain J. E. Dart. A few moments later the advance 
of the enemy along our entire line was made. I soon 
observed that the part of our line running from near 
my right towards the rear was giving way, and that the 
enemy was rapidly gaining ground toward the town. I 
immediately changed front, moving by the right flank 
by file right, and took a position at right angles to my 
former one. The movement was just completed, when 
I was ordered by General Stanley, through Major 
Coleman, to support a battery which had been in posi- 
tion about four hundred yards towards the front and 
right, but which was being driven from the field. I 
moved by the right flank at double-quick, a distance of 
perhaps two hundred yards. By this time the battery 
mentioned had retired from the field entirely. Captain 
Dee's Michigan Battery, occupying the crest of a ridge 
near the Mobile and Ohio railroad towards the left, had 
been abandoned and fallen into the hands of the enemy. 
Our line for the distance of several hundred yards had 
been repulsed, became scattered, and was rapidly retreat- 
ing. The enemy, in considerable numbers, had already 
entered the streets of the town from the north, and was 
pushing vigorously forward. His flank was presented 
to the line 1 had formed, which exposed him to a most 
destructive fire, and which the 5th Minnesota delivered 
with deadly effect. After receiving and returning # a 
number of volleys, the enemy began to fall back. I 
then moved forward in line, at a run, pressing hard upon 
the enemy, who was flying in great confusion. I moved 
on outside the town, and halted on the crest of a ridge 



to the left of, and on a line with, the former position of 
the battery I was ordered to support, regaining, mean- 
time, possession of the abandoned guns of the Michigan 
Battery. The enemy continued his retreat under a 
galling fire from our guns, and the artillery of the forts 
on the left, until lost sight of in the woods in our front, 
when he re-formed, and again advanced in considerable 
force. I at once opened upon him a hot fire, which, 
with the fire from along the line upon my right, which 
had now rallied and was re-forming, arrested his pro- 
gress, and soon drove him back under cover of the 

"About forty prisoners fell into our hands, and large 
numbers of killed and wounded marked the line of the 
enemy's retreat. The regiment expended near fifty 
rounds of ammunition. I feel authorized in referring 
especially to the coolness and courage of the officers 
and men of my command, and their general good con- 
duct during the action." 

A few days after the battle of Corinth, Buell's army 
attacked Bragg at Perryville, Kentucky, and here the 
2d Minnesota Battery, Captain \Y. A. Hotchkiss, did 
good service. A correspondent of the Cincinnati Ga- 
zette, describing the conflict says: 

"The 2d Minnesota Battery, Captain Hotchkiss, came 
up nearly at the same time with the 2d Missouri Infan- 
try, and by delivering a well-directed fire upon the rlank 
of the rebels, assisted materially in driving them from 
the woods." 

In the battle of Fredericksburg, on the thirteenth of 
December, the 1st Regiment supported Kirby's Battery, 
and retired to camp near Falmouth, Virginia, without 
serious loss. 


The position of the 3d Regiment during this year 
was most unfprtuuate. On the morning of the 
thirteenth of July, near Murfreesboro, Kentucky, 
the rebels attacked a Michigan regiment, and after 
their commanding officer was wounded, and they 
lost nearly half their number, they surrender- 
ed. The 3d Minnesota, which was a little more than a 
mile off, and a battery of four guns, as soon as they 
heard of the attack, marched up the turnpike and took 
position in an open field, and in a little while fell back 
a half mile. The colonel called a council of officers to 
decide whether they should fight, and the first vote was 
to fight; a subsequent vote being taken, by ballot, was 
in favor of surrender; Lieutenant-Colonel C. W. Griggs, 
Captains Andrews 1 and Hoyt, voted on both occasions to 
fight. In September the regiment returned to the State 
humiliated by the lack of judgment upon the part of 
their colonel, and was assigned to duty in the Indian 

1. Lt. Col. Dec. 1, is»".2. Colonel Aug. 9, 1^63. Brie* General U. S. Volunteers 
January 5, 1S*U. lit. Major Gen. U. S. Volunteers, March 9, 1605. 




Two hundred and forty years after the first great mas- 
sacre in the valley of the James Eiver, in Virginia, 
another occurred in the valley of the Minnesota just as 
unexpected, accompanied by barbarities as revolting, and 
which would have been more extensive had it not been 
for the influence of a converted Indian, Paul Mazakuta- 
mani, a member of the Presbyterian Mission Church. 

There have been many theories advanced to account 
for the Sioux outbreak of 1S62, but they are for the 
most part superficial and erroneous. Little Crow, in his 
written communications to Colonel Sibley, explaining 
the cause which had provoked hostilities on the part of 
the Indians, makes no allusion to the treaties, but stated 
that his people had been driven to acts of violence by 
the suffering brought upon them by the delay in the 
payment of their annuities, and by the bad treatment 
they had received from their traders. In fact, nothing 
has transpired to justify the conclusion that when the 
bands first assembled at the agency, there was nothing 
more than the usual chronic discontent among them, 
superinduced by the failure of the government, or its 
agents faithfully to carry out the stipulations of the dif- 
ferent treaties. During the trial of the prisoners before 
the military commission hereinafter mentioned, every ef- 
fort was made to elicit evidence bearing upon the out- 


break and the motives which actuated the leaders in in- 
augurating the bloody work. The only inference that 
can be drawn from all of these sources of information 
is, that the movement was not deliberate and predeter- 
mined, but was the result of various concurrent causes, 
to wit: long delay in the payment of the annuities after 
the Indians were assembled, and an insufficient supply 
of food in the interim; dissatisfaction with the traders; 
alleged encroachment of settlers upon the Indian reser- 
vation; ill-feeling of the Pagan Indians against the 
missionaries and their converts; and predictions of the 
medicine-men that the Sioux would defeat the Ameri- 
cans in battle, and then reoccupy the whole country after 
clearing it of the whites. Add to these the facts, well 
known to the Indians, that thousands of young and able- 
bodied men had been despatched to aid in suppressing 
the rebellion, and that but a meagre force remained to 
garrison Forts Ridgely and Abercrombie, the only mili- 
tary posts in proximity to their country, and it will be 
perceived that, to savages who held fast to their tradi- 
tional attachment to the British crown, and were there- 
fore not friendly to the Americans, the temptation to 
regain their lost possessions must have been strong. It 
was fresh in their minds, also, and a frequent subject of 
comment on their part that the government had taken 
no steps to punish Ink-pah-du-tah and his small band, 
who had committed so many murders and other outrages 
upon citizens of the United States, at Spirit Lake. 

It is, however, by no means certain that all of these 
considerations combined would have resulted in open 
hostilities but for an occurrence which proved to be the 
application of the torch to the magazine. Five or six 
young warriors, wearied of the inaction of a stationary 


camp life, made an excursion along the outer line of the 
Big Woods in a northern direction, with the avowed in- 
tention of securing the scalp of a Chippewa, if practic- 
able. Being unsuccessful in their search, they retraced 
their steps to Acton, a small settlement in Meeker Coun- 
ty, on the seventeenth of August, 1862, and through 
some means they obtained whisky, and drank freely. 
They made a demand for more liquor from a man named 
Jones, and were refused, whereupon the infuriated sav- 
ages fired upon and killed not only him but two other 
men, Webster and Baker by name, and an elderly lady 
and a young girl. Terrified at their own violence, and 
fearful of the punishment due to their own crimes, these 
wretches made their way back to the camp at the Lower 
Agency, confessed their guilt to their friends, and im- 
plored protection from the vengeance of the outraged 
laws. They all belonged to influential and powerful 
families, and when the whole affair had been discussed 
in solemn conclave in the "Soldiers' Lodge," it was de- 
termined that the bands should make common cause 
with the criminals, and the following morning was fixed 
upon for the extermination of the unsuspecting whites 
at the agencies, and of all the white settlers within 
reach. How secretly and how faithfully the orders 
of the "soldiers'' were executed, remains briefly to be 

About six o'clock a. m. on the eighteenth of August, 
1862, a large number of Sioux warriors, armed and in 
their war paint, assembled about the buildings at the 
Lower Agency. It had been rumored purposely in ad- 
vance that a war-party was to take the field against the 
Chippewas, but no sooner had the Indians assumed their 
several positions, according to the programme, than an 


onslaught was made indiscriminately upon the whites, 
and with the exception of two or three men who con- 
cealed themselves, and a few of the women and children 
who were kept as captives, no whites escaped destruc- 
tion but George H. Spencer, a respectable and intelli- 
gent young man, who, although twice seriously wound- 
ed, was saved from instant death by the heroic interven- 
tion of his Indian comrade, named " \Yak-ke-an-da-tah," 
or the "Red Lightning." A number of persons were 
also slaughtered at the Cpper Agency, but through the 
agency of "Other Day," a Christian Indian, the mission- 
aries, and others, including Rev. Messrs. Riggs and 
Williamson and their families,— in all about sixty per- 
sons, — were saved, being conducted safely through the 
Indian country to the white settlements. Their escape 
was truly providential. The massacre of the people, 
the pillage of stores and dwellings, and the destruction 
of the buildings having been consummated, parties were 
despatched to fall upon settlers on farms and in villages 
along the entire frontier, extending nearly two hundred 
miles. The scenes of horror consequent upon the gen- 
eral onslaught can better be imagined than described. 
Fortunate, comparatively speaking, was the lot of those 
who were doomed to instant death, and thus spared the 
agonies of lingering tortures, and the superadded an- 
guish of witnessing outrages upon the persons of those 
nearest and dearest to them. The tiends of hell could 
not invent more fearful atrocities than were perpetrated 
by the savages upon their victims. The bullet, the 
tomahawk, and the sealping-knife spared neither age 
nor sex, the only prisoners taken being the young ami 
comely women, to minister to the brutal lusts of their 
captors, and a few children. In the short space of thirty- 


six hours, as nearly as could be computed, eight hun- 
dred whites were cruelly slain. Almost every dwelling 
along the extreme frontier was a charnel-house, contain- 
ing the dying and the dead. In many cases the torch 
■was applied, and maimed and crippled sufferers, unable 
to escape, were consumed with their habitations. The 
alarm was communicated by refugees to the adjacent 
settlements, and soon the roads leading to St. Paul were 
crowded by thousands of men, women, and children, in 
the wild confusion of a sudden flight. Domestic ani- 
mals, including hundreds and even thousands of cattle, 
were abandoned, and only those taken which could expe- 
dite the movements of the terror-stricken settlers. 

The savages, after accomplishing their mission of 
death, assembled in force and attempted to take Fort 
Ridgely by a coup de main. In this they were foiled by 
the vigilance and determination of the garrison, aided 
by volunteers who had escaped from the surrounding 
settlements. The attack was continued at intervals for 
several days, but without success. The town of New 
Ulm was also assailed by a strong force of the savages, 
but was gallantly defended by volunteers from the 
neighboring counties under the command of Colonel C. 
H. Flandrau. Captain Dodd, an old and respectable 
citizen of St. Peter, was among the killed at this point. 
Fort Abercrombie, on the lied raver, also suffered a long 
and tedious siege from the hands of Sioux from Lacqui- 
Parle, until relieved by a force despatched by Governor 
Ramsey, from St. Paul. 

The first advices of the outbreak reached St. Paul on 
the day succeeding the massacre at the Lower Agency. 
Instant preparations were made by Governor Piamsey to 
arrest the progress of the savages. At his personal solici- 


tation, H. Henry Sibley, a resident of Mondota, whose 
long and intimate acquaintance with Indian character 
and habits was supposed to render him peculiarly fitted 
for the position, consented to take charge of military 
operations. He was accordingly commissioned by the 
Governor, colonel commanding, and upon him developed 
the conduct of the campaign in person. 

Unfortunately, the State of Minnesota was lament- 
ably deficient in the means and appliances requisite to 
carry on successfully a war of the formidable character 
which this threatened to assume. The Sioux allied bands 
could bring into the field from eight hundred to a thous- 
and warriors, and they might be indefinitely reinforced 
by the powerful divisions of the prairie Sioux. Those 
actually engaged in hostilities were good marksmen, 
splendidly armed, and abundantly supplied with ammu- 
nition. They had been victorious in several encounters 
with detachments of troops, and had overwhelming con- 
fidence in their own skill. On the other hand, the 
State had already dispatched five thousand, more or less 
of her choicest young men to the South, her arsenal 
had been stripped of all the arms that were effective, 
and there was little ammunition on hand, and no rations 
.There was no government transportation to be had, and 
the prospect was by no means favorable. Governor 
Ramsey, notwithstanding, acted with promptness and 
vigor. He telegraphed for arms and ammunition to 
the War Department, and to the governors of the adjoin- 
ing States. He authorized also the appropriation for 
public use of the teams belonging to individual citizens, 
and adopted such other measures as the emergency 

There were at Fort Snelling, happily, the nucleus of 


regiments that had been called into service. Colonel 
Sibley left Fort Snelling with four hundred of the 6th 

Regiment Minnesota Volunteers, early on the morning 
of August twentieth. Upon an inspection of the arms 
and cartridges furnished, it was found that the former 
comprised worthless Austrian rifles, and the ammunition 
was for guns of a different and larger calibre. The 
command was detained several days at St. Peter, en- 
gaged in swedging the balls so as to fit the arms, and 
in prepariug canister-shot for the six-pounders. Mean- 
time arms of a better quality were received, reinforce- 
ments of troops arrived, and the column took up the 
line of march for Fort Rnlgely, which was reached 
without interruption, and the troops went into camp a 
short distance from the post, to await the reception of 
rations and to make the final preparations for an ad- 
vance upon the hostile Indians, who had drawn in their 
detached parties, and were concentrating for a decisive 

Scouts were dispatched to ascertain the location of 
the main Indian camp, and upon their return they report- 
ed no Indians below Yellow Medicine River. A burial 
party of twenty men under the escort of one com- 
pany of infantry and the available mounted force, in 
all about two hundred men, under the command of 
Major J. R. Brown, was detailed to proceed and inter 
the remaius of the murdered at the Lower Agency and 
at other points in the vicinity. This duty was per- 
formed, fifty-four bodies buried, and the detachment 
was en route to the settlements on Beaver River, and 
had encamped for the night near Birch Coolie, a long 
and wooded ravine debouching into the Minnesota River, 
when about dawn the following morning, the camp was 


attacked by a large force of Indians, twenty -five men 
were killed or mortally wounded, and nearly all the 
horses, ninety in number, shot down. Providentially, 
the volleys of musketry were heard at the main camp, 
although eighteen miles distant, and Colonel Sibley 
marched to the relief of the beleagured detachment, 
drove off* the Indians, buried the dead, and the weary 
column then retraced its steps to the camp. 

The period spent in awaiting necessary supplies of 
provisions was made useful in drilling the men and 
bringing them under discipline. So soon as ten days' 
rations had been accumulated, Colonel Sibley marched 
in search of the savages, and on the twenty-third of Sep- 
tember, 1862, was fought the severe and decisive battle 
of Wood Lake. The action was commenced by the In- 
dians, and was bravely contested by them for more than 
two hours, when they gave way at all points, and sent in 
a flag of truce, asking permission to bury their dead and 
wounded, which was refused. A message was sent back 
to Little Crow, the leader of the hostile Indians, to the 
effect that if any of the white prisoners held by him re- 
ceived injury at the hands of the savages, no mercy would 
be shown to the latter, but they would be pursued and 
destroyed without regard to age or sex. 

The success at Wood Lake was not achieved without 
serious loss. Major Welch, of the 3d Minnesota Volun- 
teers, commanding, was severely wounded in the leg; 
Captain Wilson, of the 6th Regiment, badly contused in 
the breast by a spent ball; and nearly forty non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates were killed or wounded. 
The loss of the enemy was much greater, a half-breed 
prisoner stating it at thirty killed and a large number 
wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Marshall and Major 


Bradley, of the 7th Regiment, distinguished themselves, 
the former leading a charge of five companies of his 
own and two companies of the 6th Regiment, which, 
cleared a ravine of the enemy, where they had obtained 
shelter. Lieutenant-Colonel Averill and Major McLar- 
en, of the 6th Regiment, also performed signal service, 
as did all the officers and men of both regiments. The 
3rd Regiment, composed of fractions of sis companies, 
fought gallantly, having for a time, in conjunction with 
the Renville Rangers, borne the brunt of the fight, and 
their loss was great in proportion. 

One of the main objects of the campaign, the deliver- 
ance of the white captives, was yet to be accomplished, 
and required the exercise of much judgment and cau- 
tion. There was good reason to fear that, in the exas- 
peration of defeat, they might fall victims to the sav- 
ages. Colonel Sibley, therefore delayed his march tow- 
ards the great Indian camp until the second day after 
the battle, to allow time to the friendly element to 
strengthen itself, and to avoid driving the hostile In- 
dians into desperate measures against their prisoners. 
On the twenty-fifth of September, the column, with 
drums beating, and colors flying, filed past the Indian 
encampment, and formed the camp within a few hun- 
dred yards of it . Colonel Sibley, with his staff and field 
officers, then proceeded to the lodges of the Indians, and 
directed that all the captives be delivered up to him, 
which was forthwith done. A sight was then presented 
which sufficed to suffuse the eyes of strong men with 
tears. Young and beautiful women, who had for weeks 
endured the extremity of outrage from their brutal cap- 
tors, followed by a crowd of children of all ages, came 
forth from the lodges, hardly realizing that the day of 


their deliverance had arrived. Convulsive sobbings was 
heard on every side, and the poor creatures clung 
to the men who had come to their relief, as if they feared 
some savage would drag them away. They were all es- 
corted tenderly to the tents prepared for their reception 
and made as comfortable as circumstances would admit. 
The number of pure whites thus released amounted to 
about one hundred and fifty, including one man only, 
Mr. Spencer. The latter expressed his gratitude to Col- 
onel Sibley that he had not made a forced march upon 
the camp after the battle, stating emphatically that if 
such a course had been pursued, it was the determina- 
tion of the hostile Indians to cut the throats of the cap- 
tives, and then disperse in the prairies. There were 
delivered also, nearly two hundred and fifty half-breeds, 
who had been held as prisoners. 

Two of the principal objects of the campaign, the 
defeat of the savage and the release of the captives, 
having now been consummated, there remained but to 
punish the guilty. Many of these, with Little Crow, 
had made their escape and could not be overtaken, but 
some of the small camps of refugees were surrounded 
and the inmates brought back. The locality where 
these events transpired was appropriately called Camp 
Release, and the name should be perpetuated. 

At the proper time, the Indian camp was surrounded 
by a cordon of troops, and four hundred of the warriors 
were arrested, chained together in pairs, and placed in 
an enclosure of logs made by the troops, under strong 
guard. Others who were known to be innocent were 
not interfered with. Colonel Sibley constituted a mili- 
tary commission, with Colonel Crooks, commanding Oth 
Regiment, as president, for the trial of the prisoners. 


A fair and impartial hearing was accorded to each, and 
the result was, the finding of three hundred and three 
guilty of participation in the murder of the whites, and 
the sentence of death by hanging was passed upon 
them. Others were convicted of robbery and pillage 
and were condemned to various terms of imprisonment, 
and a few were acquitted. The witnesses were composed 
of the released captives, including mixed bloods, and 
of Christian Indians who had refused to join Little 
Crow in the war. A full record was kept of each case 
that was tried. 

The preparations for the execution of the guilty In- 
dians were brought to a summary close, by an order 
from President Lincoln prohibiting the hanging of any 
of the convicted men without his previous sanction. 
The people of the State were highly indignant at this 
suspension, and an energetic protest was made by their 
Senators and representatives in Washington. Finally, 
after much delay, Colonel Sibley was directed to carry 
out the sentence of the commission in certain cases 
specified, and on December twenty-sixth, 1862, thirty- 
eight of the criminals were executed accordingly at 
Mankato, on the same scaffold, under the direction of 
Colonel Miller, commanding that post. The remainder 
of the condemned were sent to Davenport, Iowa, early 
in the spring, where they were kept in confinement for 
more than a year, a large number dying of disease in 
the meantime. Those that remained were eventually 
despatched to a reservation on the Upper Missouri, 
where the large number of prisoners taken by Colonel 
Sibley, principally women and children had already 
been placed. 

The President testified his approbation of the conduct 


of Colonel Sibley by conferring upon him, unasked, the 
commission of brigadier-general of volunteers, and the 
appointment was subsequently confirmed by the Senate. 

Thus happily terminated the Indian campaign of 
1862, entered upon without due preparation, against an 
enemy formidable in numbers, completely armed and 
equipped, and withal confident of their own powers and 
strength. It was a critical period in the history of the 
State, for it was then suspected, and has since been con- 
firmed, that if the column of troops under Colonel Sib- 
ley had met with a reverse, there would have been a 
rising of the Chippewas and AVinnebagoes against the 
whites, and many of the counties west of the Missis- 
sippi would have been entirely depopulated. Indeed, 
in a speech to his warriors the night previous to the 
battle of "Wood Lake, Little Crow stated the programme 
to be, first the defeat and destruction of the old men 
and boys composing, as he said, the command under 
Colonel Sibley, and second the immediate descent there- 
after of himself and his people to St. Paul, there to dis- 
pose summarily of the whites, and then establish them- 
selves comfortably in winter quarters. That the people of 
Minnesota succeeded, without extraneous "aid, in speed- 
ily ending an Indian war of such threatening and form- 
idable proportions, while they continued to bear their 
full share of the burdens imposed oil the Northern 
States in tJie suppression of the g^a^ rebellion, consti- 
tutes an epoch in -their history of which .they may be 
justly proud. •' , « 

It was deemed requisite by the military authorities 
at "Washington, and by Major-General Pope, command- 
ing the Department of the Northwest, that a second 
campaign should be entered upon against th^refugees 



who had been concerned in the massacres, and had fled 
to the upper prairies, where they had beeu hospitably 
received and harbored by the powerful bands of Sioux 
in that remote region. Accordingly, General Sully, 
commanding the District of the Upper Missouri, and 
General Sibley, commanding the District of Minnesota, 
were summoned to the head-quarters of the department 
at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to confer with General Pope. 
It was finally decided that a large force under the dis- 
trict commanders mentioned should march as early in 
the summer of 18(33 as practicable, from Sioux City on 
the Missouri, and from a designated point on the Min- 
nesota River respectively, the objective-point of the 
two columns being Devil's Lake, where it was supposed 
the main body of Indians would be encountered. The 
force under General Sully was to be composed entirely 
of cavalry, and that under General Sibley of three reg- 
iments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and two 
sections of light artillery. The Minnesota column 
reached the point of rendezvous after a most weary and 
indeed distressing march, the summer being exceedingly 
warm, and the prairies parched with the excessive 
drouth. Learning from the Red River half-breeds that 
the large Indian camps were to be found on the Mis- 
souri coteau, in the direction from which General Sully 
was to be expected, General Sibley left the sore-footed 
and weary of his men and animals in an entrenched 
camp on the Upper Sheyenne River, and marched rap- 
idly towards the Missouri River. He succeeded in fall- 
ing in with the camp in which many of the refugees 
were to be found, and which contained several hundred 
warriors, attacked and defeated them with considerable 
loss, and followed them as they retreated upon other and 


stronger camps, the tenants of which were driven back 
in confusion successively, until the Missouri River was 
interposed as a barrier to the advance of the pursuing 
column. The command of General Sully, delayed by 
unexpected obstacles, was not fallen in with, and the 
Minnesota troops having accomplished more than was 
allotted to them in the co-operative movement, and se- 
cured their own frontier from apprehensions of further 
serious raids on the part of hostile Sioux, returned to 
their quarters in their own State. The year 1863 was 
also signalized by the death of Little Crow, who, with a 
small party of seventeen men, made a descent upon the 
frontier with the object of stealing horses, and after 
committing a few murders and depredations, he was 
fatally shot by a man named Lamson, in the Big Woods, 
and his son who was with him, was subsequently taken 
prisoner near Devil's Lake, by a. detachment from Gen- 
eral Sibley's column, condemned to death by military 
commission, but subsequently pardoned on account of 
his extreme youth. 




On the first of March the fourth Regiment embarked 
at Memphis and entered the Yazoo Pass, and on the 
fifteenth of April returned to Milliken's Bend. A few 
days after, Colonel Sanborn was temporarily placed in 
command of Quinby's Division. On the thirtieth of 
April the regiment was opposite Grand Gulf, and in a 
few days they entered Port Gibsou, and here Colonel 
Sanborn resumed the command of a brigade; and on 
the tenth of May the regiment, which was a part of his 
brigade, was present at the battle of Raymond, and on 
the fourteenth took part in the battle of Jackson. 

A newspaper correspondent says: "Captain L. 13. 
Martin, of the -4th Minnesota, A. A. G. to Colonel San- 
born, seized the Hag of the 59th Indiana Infantry, rode 
rapidly beyond the skirmishers (Company H of 4th 
Minnesota, Lieutenant George A. Clark), and raised it 
over the dome of the capitol. Lieutenant Donaldson 
of the 4th, also riding in advance, captured a rlag made 
of silk; on one side was inscribed 'Claiborne Rangers,' 
and on the other 'Our Rights' 

On the sixteenth the regiment was in the battle of 
Champion Hill, and took one hundred and eighteen 
prisoners. Four days later it was in the rear of Yicks- 
burg. Lieutenant-Colonel Tourtellotte reports as fol- 
lows : 


" On the morning of the twenty-second, by order of 
General Grant, an assault was made on Yicksburg. 
My regiment, with the forty-eighth Iowa for reserve 
and support, was ordered to charge upon one of the 
enemy's forts just in front, as soon as I should see a 
charge made upon the fort next on my right." This 
order being modified, the report continues: "No sooner 
had we taken position than General Burba ge withdrew 
his brigade from the action. Under the direct fire from 
the fort in front, under a heavy cross-fire from a fort on 
our right, the regiment pressed forward up to and even 
on the enemy's works. In this position, contending for 
the possession of the rebel earthwork, the regiment 
remained for two hours, when it became dark, and I was 
ordered by Colonel Sanborn to withdraw the regiment. 
Noticing a field-piece which had been lifted up the hill 
by main strength, and which had apparently been used 
by General Burbage in attempting to batter down the 
walls of the fort, I sent Company C to withdraw the 
piece from the ground and down the hill. * * * In 
this action the regiment suffered severely, losing some 
of its best officers and men." 

The Fifth Regiment, attached to the Third Division 
of Fifteenth Army Corps, reached Grand Gulf on the 
seventh of May. On the thirteenth they were at Ray- 
mond, and the next day in action near Jackson. On the 
twenty-second it was before Yicksburg, and exposed to a 
galling fire, but lost only two men. 

The First Regiment left Falmouth, Virginia, and by 
hurried marches reached Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on 
the first of July. The next morning Hancock's Corps, 
to which it was attached, moved to a ridge, the right 
resting on Cemetery Hill, the left near Sugar Loaf 


Mountain. The line of battle was a semi-ellipse, and 
Gibbons' Division, to which the regiment was attached, 
occupied the centre of the curve nearest the enemy. 1 

Captain H. C. Coates, commanding the regiment after 
the battle, writes: 

"At three o'clock on the morning of the second instant, 
we were ordered into position in the front and about the 
center of our line just to the left of the town. The 
battle commenced at daylight and raged with fury the 
entire day. AVe were under a severe artillery fire, but 

1 As the battle of Gettysburg was one of the decisive battles of the Rebellion 
we give the following extracts from a most graphic account, written by one 
signing himself "Sergeant," which appeared in the St. Paul Pioneer, August 

He says: " General Hancock rode up to Colonel Colville, and, pointing to the 
6moke-coverednia*sesof the advancing foe, said, 'Colonel, advance and take 
their colors.' ' Forward!* shouted our Colonel, and as one man we commenced 
to move down the slope towards a little run at its foot, which the enemy evi- 
dently wished to gain. Now their cannon were pointed to us. and round shot 
grape and shrapnel tore fearfully through our ranks, and the more deadly 
itnbeld rifles were directed to us alone. Great heavens, how fast our men fell' 
Marching as tile-closer, it seemed as if every step was over some fallen comrade 
Yet no man wavers, every gap is closed up, and, bringing down their bavi.nets, 
the boys press shoulder to shoulder; and disdaining the fictitious courage pro- 
ceeding from noise and excitement, without a word or cheer, but with silent 
desperate determination, step tirmly forwardm unbroken line within a hundred 
—within fafty steps of the foe. Three times their colors are shot down, and three 
times arising go forward as before. One-fourth of the nieD have fallen and 
yet no shot has been bred at the enemy, who paused a moment to look upon 
that line of leveled bayonets, and then, panic-stricken, turned and ran- 
but another line took their place, and poured murderous volleys into us not 
thirty yards distant, 'Charge!' cried Colonel Colville, and with a wild cheer 
we ran at them. We fired away, three, four, five irregular volleys, and but 
little ammunition is waited, when the muzzles of opposing guns almost meet 
The enemy seemed to sink into the ground. They are checked and -tam- 
pered; one division came up at this instant, and before we recovered from the 
bewdderment of the shock, we scarcely know how, but the rebels are swept 
back over the plain. Put. good God! where was the First .Minnesota- Our 
nag was carried back to the battery, and seventy men, scarce one of them 
unmarked by scratches and bullet holes through their clothing, are all that 
formed around it. The other two hundred, alas! lay bleeding under it. Our 
held officers, rendered conspicuous by their great personal stature and cool 
and dashing gallantry, had all fallen, each p'erced by several balls and the 
command devolved upon Captain Messick. Tired and weary, we might not 
sleep, or even build fires to make coffee, but rested on our arms all the long 
damp, drizzling night, in wakeful anticipation of an attack. Red and fiery 
through the tnorniug mists at length arose the sun on the third of July. Trie 
forenoon passed as did the previous one. About noon two trims were tired ;l s a 
sort of signal, and immediately after one hundred and eighty pieces of cannon 
opened on our line. When you remember our formation and that of the enemy 
conformed to it. you will see that their cannon were on three sides of u-, and 
that their converging lines of fire crossed each other in all directions over us 
Many of their shot fired from batteries to the west of us, passed clear over our 
horseshoe,' and fell among their own men facing us from the east. Imagine 
our position in the centre! Our artillery opened ay vigorously in return, and 


not actively engaged until about five o'clock P. 3L, when 
we were moved to support Battery I, 4th United States 
Artillery. Compauy F had beeu detached from the 
regiment as skirmishers, and Company L as sharpshoot- 
ers. Our infantry, who had advanced upon the enemy 
in our front, and pushed him for a while, were in turn 
driven back in some confusion, the enemy following 
them in heavy force. To check them, we were ordered 
to advance, which w r e did, moving at double-quick down 
the slope of the hill, right upon the rebel line. The 

now the scene became sublime. Two long, weary hours, and then came the 
lull. We kne .v their infantry was advancing, and we rose for the death strug- 
gle with a feeling of relief, for it was at worst but man to man. and we could 
give as well as take. And now they emerged from the woods, Long-treet's 
whole corps, near thirty thousand strong. General Pickett's division, of about 
twelve thousand, fre^h from the rear, was in front of, and advanced upon our 
shattered division of less than four thousand. We had reserves behind, though, 
to go to our assistance if needed. Over the plain, still covered with the dead 
and wounded of yesterday, in three beautiful lines of battle, preceded by skir- 
mishers, with their arms at right shoulder shift and with double-quick step, 
right gallantly they came on. What was lefc of our artillery opened, but they 
never seemed to give it any attention. Calmly we awaited the onset, and when 
within two hundred yards we opened fire. Their front line went down like 
grass before the scythe: again and again we gave it to them, when they changed 
direction, and followed a small ravine up towards our right. To the right we 
went also, marching parallel with them anil tiring continually; and no man 
seemed to shrink from his duty. Three or four brigades of the enemy clo-ed 
together near a cave, when, changing again, they rushed forward and planted 
their colors on one of our batteries. < 'ur brigade rushed at them. The tattered 
colors of the First, in advance, were now shot down, the ball passing through 
John Dehn's 'the color-bearer > right arm, and cutting the staff in two where he 
grasped it. Corporal O'Brien raised the tiag and bore it on. Generals Hancock 
and Gibbon were both weunded here while cheering us on. Orders were unnec- 
essary. Tlie tight had become a perfect melee, and every man fonght for him- 
self, or under the direction of his company officers. Here that noble soldier 
Captain .Me--siek, was killed, and Captain Barrel, who had gallantly brought np 
the provost guard, Company C. to reinforce his shattered regiment, mortally 
wounded. The enemy had halted, and were tiring on us from behind some 
bjU-he*. We pushed on. They tired till we reached the muzzles of their 
guns, but they could not stand the bayonet, and broke before the cold steel in 
disorder and dismay. Our division took more colors than it had regiments. 
Marshall Sherman, of Company C, of this regiment, took those of the Twenty- 
eighth Virginia Not daring to run, their officers and men surrendered in 
scores and hundreds. At this moment of victory. Corporal O'Brien was shot 
down, and the colors fell. Corporal Irvine immediately raised that tattered 
bat sacred flag of Minnesota, and again it waved in glorious triumph over her 
gallant dead, while the ringing shout.-, of victory along the front of our whole 
corps proclaimed that the magnificent army which Lee had launched like a 
thunderbolt to break our c >ntre, was shattered, broken and defeated by the old 
Second, scarcely eight thou-and strong. The reserves were not called upon, 
and did not tire a gnu; and twenty-eight battle-flags were added to the trophies 
gathered on the Peninsula and Antietam by that corps, which, in the words of 
Sumner, 'never yet lo-.ta gun or a color, and never turned back in battle before 
the enemy.' " 


fire we encountered here was terrible, and, although we 
inflicted severe punishment upon the enemy, and cheek- 
ed his advance, it was with the loss in killed and wound- 
ed of more than two-thirds of our men who were en- 
gaged. Here Captain Muller, of Company E, and Lieu- 
tenant Farrer, of Company I, 'were killed, and Captain 
Periam, of Company Iv, mortally wounded. Colonel 
Colville, Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, Major Downie, Ad- 
jutant Peller, and Lieutenants Sinclair, Company B, 
Demerest, Company E, De Gray and Boyd, Company I, 
were severely wounded. Colonel Colville is shot through 
the shoulder and foot; Lieutenant-Colonel Adams is 
shot through the chest and twice through the leg, and 
his recovery is doubtful. Fully two-thirds of the en- 
listed men engaged were either killed or wounded. 
Companies F, C and L, not being engaged here, did not 
suffer severely on this day's fight. The command of the 
regiment now devolved upon Captain Nathan S. Messick. 
At daybreak the next morning the enemy renewed the 
battle with vigor on the right and left of our line, with 
infantry, and about ten o'clock a. m. opened upon the 
center, where we were posted, a most terrible fire of ar- 
tillery, which continued without intermission until three 
o'clock I-, m.j when heavy columns of the enemy's infan- 
try were thrown suddenly forward against our position. 
They marched resolutely in the face of a withering fire 
up to our line, and succeeded in planting their colors on 
one of our batteries. They held it but a moment as our 
regiment, with others of the division, rushed upon them, 
the colors of our regiment in advance, and retook the 
battery, capturing nearly the entire rebel force who re- 
mained alive. Our regiment took about five hundred 
prisoners. Several stands of rebel colors were here 


taken. Private Marshall Sherman, of Company C, cap- 
tured the colors of the 28th Virginia Regiment. 

"Our entire regiment, except Company L, was in the 
fight, and our loss again was very severe. Captain Mes- 
sick, while gallantly leading the regiment, was killed 
early. Captain W. B. Farrel, Company 0, was mortally 
wounded, and died last night. Lieutenant Mason, Com- 
pany D, received three wounds, and Lieutenants Har- 
mon, Company C, Heffelfinger, Company D, and May, 
Company B, were also wounded. The enemy suffered 
terribly here, and is now retreating. Our loss of so 
many brave men is heartrending, and will carry mourn- 
ing into all parts of the state; but they have fallen in a 
holy cause, and their memory will not soon perish. Our 
loss is four commissioned officers and forty-seven men 
killed, thirteen officers and one hundred sixty-two men 
wounded, and six men missing. Total two hundred and 
thirty-two, out of less than three hundred and thirty 
men and officers engaged. 

"Several acts of heroic daring occurred in this battle. 
I cannot now attempt to enumerate them. The bearing 
of Colonel Colville and Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, in 
the fight of Tuesday, was conspicuously gallant. Hero- 
ically urging them on to the attack, they fell very nearly 
at the same moment, their wounds comparatively dis- 
abling them, so far in the advance that some time elaps- 
ed before they were got off the field. Major Dowirie 
received two bullets through the arm before he turned 
over the command to Captain Messick. Colonel-Ser- 
geant E. P. Perkins, and two of the color-guard succes- 
cessively bearing the flag, were wounded in Thursday s 
fight. On Friday, Corporal Dehn, of Company A, the 
last of the color-guard, when close upon the enemy, was 


shot through the hand and the flag-staff cut in two; 
Corporal Heury D. O'Brien, of Company 1), instantly 
seized the flag by the remnant of the staff, and, waving 
it over his head, rushed right up to the muzzles of the 
enemy's muskets; nearly at the moment of victory he 
too was wounded in the hand, but the flag was instantly 
grasped by Corporal W. N. Irvine, of Company D, 
who still carries its tattered remnants. Company L, 
Captain Berger, supported Kirby's Battery throughout 
the battle, and did very effective service. Every man in 
the whole regiment did his whole duty." 

On the nineteenth of September, the 2d Regiment, 
now under Colonel George for the first time since the 
fight at Mill Spring, was engaged at Chickamauga. It 
was in the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, loth Army Corps, 
and at ten o'clock in the morning was placed next to 
Battery I, 4th United States Artillery, commanded by 
Lieutenant Frank G. Smith. 1 The enemy charged 
desperately, and after a sharp contest was repulsed. 
The regiment lost eight killed and forty-one wounded. 
The next day the fight was resumed and lasted until 
dark. 2 

On the afternoon of the twenty-third of November 
the 2d Regiment marched from its encampment at 

1. Son of Franklin Smith, M. D. of St. Paul. 

,v 2 * ?VT York Herald correspondent wrote: "In Braman's Division there are 
the old famous regiments of which the lure General Robert McCuok and (Gen- 
eral \ an Llevewere formerly (.'olonels This was the first fight since "Mill 
?.S )nn ?- -i *,• *i * * * Tho big-hearted Minnesotians. whom Van 
Uevenad enlisted two years before, sprung from their position in reserve, and 
with loud yells, as if the sight had infuriated them, rushed forward with fixed 
bayonets drove the enemy from their guns, before they could be turned on us "' 
A friend writing to Lieutenant U. VV. Prescott, says: "Gen. R. W. John-on 
fought splendidly. * * * * I heard on Sunday /hat he was wounded 
and a prisoner, but afterwards learned that he was safe. I called on him yester- 
", aj '- *('',-* not Wf ' 11, a " (1 cllink * of taking a trip to Minnesota. * * * " * 
General Van Cleve lost ten out of eighteen pieces of artillery. * * * * 
Murdoch:, of his staff, son of the actor and a brilliant fellow, was mortallv 
wounded. Lieutenant. Woodbury, commanding I'd Battery, had his left arm 
badly shattered on Saturday." 


Chattanooga, and was drawn up in line of battle in front 
of Fort Negley, and on the twenty-fifth it took a posi- 
tion to the east forcing the enemy at the foot and on 
the crest of Mission Bidge. With the whole brigade 
about three o'clock in the afternoon it advanced and 
came in full view of the enemy's works. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Bishop, 1 commanding the regi- 
ment, says: "After remaining in front of this part of 
the enemy's lines for some twenty minutes, I received 
an order from Colonel Van Derveer commanding the 
brigade to advance. * * * * With bayonets fixed, 
the whole line commenced the advance. The enemy 
opened fire with musketry from the breastworks and 
artillery from the main ridge as soon as our line emerged 
from the woods, but in the face of both the men moved 
silently and steadily forward across the creek and up 
the slope, until about one hundred paces of the breast- 
works, when,. as the pace was quickened, the enemy 
broke from behind the works and ran in some confusion. 
* * * About twenty minutes after the capture of the 
first work, my regiment moved forward with the others 
of the brigade, assembling on the colors as fast as it was 
possible, until ascending the steepest part of the slope, 
where every man had to find or clear his own way 
through the entanglement and in the face of a terrible 
fire of musketry and artillery. * * * * Hardly 
had a lodgment in the enemy's works been gained, when 
the enemy's reserves made a furious counter-attack 
upon our men, yet in confusion. The attack was prompt- 
ly met. * * * * Of seven non-commissioned otii- 

1. Entered service as Captain, June '2t>, 1861; Major, March 21, l s 'i'2: Lieuten- 
ant Colonel, August lit), lstj'J; Colonel, July 14, 1SC4; B't Brij,'. (ien. U. S. Volun- 
teers, Jane 7. lSXi. 


cers in the color-guard, all but one were killed or 

The 4th Regiment was also at Chattanooga, assigned 
to the loth Army Corps, but suffered no losses. 

The 1st Regiment, at Bristow Station, Virginia, on 
the fourteenth of October was the head of the column 
of the 2d Division of the 2d Corps, and as skirmishers 
in the woods, held the enemy in check until our troops 
could form behind the railroad. After the enemy was 
repulsed, the regiment again advanced and captured 
three hundred and twenty prisoners and six rebel can- 

As the term of the regiments first organized ap- 
proached expiration, the men were allowed to re-enlist 
and return to the State on furlough. On the eighth of 
January, 1864, the 2d left Chattanooga for Fort Snell- 
ing, and on the twenty-fourth arrived at St. Paul, with 
the exception of the companies that belonged to Fill- 
more and Olmsted Counties, which stopped at Winona. 
The 1st left their camp near Culpepper on the fifth of 
February, and after partaking of a banquet at the Na- 
tional Hotel in Washington, given by members of Con- 
gress and other citizens of Minnesota in the city, pro- 
ceeded westward, and were finally welcomed at St. Paul 
on the fifteenth of February. 

The 1st Battery, that had been attached to the 17th 
Army Corps, now commanded by William T. Clayton 
arrived early in March, and on the twentieth the 4th 
returned on furlough. 

The 3rd Regiment, which, after the Indian exposition 
had been ordered to Little Pock, Arkansas, on the thir- 
tieth had an engagement with McPae's forces, near Au- 
gusta, at Fitzhugh's Woods. Seven men were killed 


ami sixteen wounded. General C. C. Andrews, in com- 
mand of the force, had his horse killed by a bullet. 

The 2d Battery, Captain W. A. Hotchkiss, having re- 
enlisted, left Chattanooga on the twelfth of April and 
returned on a furlough. 

By order of the "War Department, the 1st Regiment 
was mustered out at the expiration of its three years 
term of service. On the twenty-eighth of April it held 
its last evening parade, at Fort Snelling, in the presence 
of Governor Miller, who had once commanded them, and 
a large number of spectators. 

A portion of its members were organized in a battal- 
ion, and in May proceeded to Washington, and from 
thence went to Virginia and joined the Army of the Po- 
tomac, and participated in engagements near Peters- 
burg, Jamestown, Plank Boad, Deep Bottom, and Beams 
Station. The 6th Regiment, which had been actively 
engaged in the Indian expedition of 1S62, was ordered 
to the South in October, 1863, and in June, 1861, was 
assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The 7th at the same 
time was assigned to this corps, and also the 9th and 
10th Begiments. The 5th Begiment, which had been 
attached to the corps since January, was in the expedi- 
tion up the Bed River of Louisiana during the spring, 
and on the sixth, of June was under Major Becht. in 
Hubbard's Brigade, engaged in battle with General 
Marmaduke's forces at Lake Chicot, Arkansas. 

On the thirteenth of July the insurgents, under For- 
rest, opened lire upon General A. J. Smith's Division, 
near Tupelo, Mississippi, in which were portions of the 
5th, the 9th, the 7th, and 10th Begiments. 

During the first day's fight, Surgeon Smith of the 7th 
was shot through the neck and killed. On the morning 


of the fourteenth the battle began in earnest, and the 
7th, under Colonel Marshall, 1 made a successful charge. 
Colonel Alexander Wilkin, 2 of the 9th, while gal- 
lantly leading a brigade, was shot and fell dead from 
his horse. 

On the fifteenth of October the 4th Regiment, with 
other troops under General Corse, were attacked near 
Altoona, Georgia, by a superior force of insurgents 
under General French, and after six hours' fight the 
latter retired. 

On the seventh of December, the Sth Regiment, with 
other troops under General Milroy, met the insurgents 
near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and drove them from 
their position. In rushing up to the enemy's batteries 
fourteen of the regiment were killed and seventy-six 

In the great battle before Nashville in the same month 
the 5th, 7th, 9th and 10th Regiments were engaged. 
The 1st Brigade, 1st Division, of General A. J. Smith's 
force, was commanded by Colonel Hubbard of the 5th, 
and the 2d Brigade by Colonel W. R. Marshall of the 
7th. All the Minnesota regiments distinguished them- 
selves. Colonel Hubbard, after he had been knocked 

1 Colonel November 6, 1863; Bt. Brig. Gen. U. S. Volunteers. March 13, 1865. 

2 Alexander Wilkin will always be remembered as among the bravest of the- 
officers who gave their lives fur their country. 

He vvas the son of Hon. Samuel J. Wilkin, formerly a member of Congress 
from New York, and was born in Orange Chanty. After studying law he be- 
came a captain of volunteers in the Mexican war. In 1SW he came to Minne- 
sota and succeeded (.:. K. Smith as Secretary of the Territory. As soon as Fort 
Sumter was tired upon he began to raise a company, and when the 1st Regi- 
ment was organized he was captain of Company A. " For gallantry at Bull Knn 
he was made captain in the regular army, and then appointed major of the 2d, 
and subsequently colonel Of the £>th Minnesota. The manner of his death is 
thus described by Captain J. K. Arnold, of the 7th Uegiment, who was his ad- 

"The bullets and shells were flying thick ami fast. Colonel Wilkin sat on his 
horse, and when he was struck was invimr his orders as coolly as he ever did on 
dress parade. He was instantly killed, He was shot under the left arm, the 
ball passing through tic body and coming out und.-r the right arm. I hail left 
him but a moment before with an order. He never spoke after being hit, but 
fell from his horseand was dead before reaching the ground " 


off his horse by a ball, rose and on foot led his command 
over the enemy's works Colonel Marshall also made a 
gallant charge, and Lieutenant-Colonel Jennison, 1 of 
the 10th, was one of the first on the enemy's parapet, 
and received a severe wound. 

In the spring of 1865, the 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th and 10th 
Minnesota Regiments, attached to the lGth Army Corps, 
took part in besieging the rebel works at Spanish Fort, 
opposite Mobile, and at Blakely, near the terminus of 
the Mobile and Motgomery Railroad. The final and 
victorious assault was begun about six o'clock on Sunday 
afternoon, the ninth of April, by two brigades of the 13th 
Army Corps, commanded by General C. C. Andrews, 
formerly Colonel of the 3d Minnesota Regiment. 

On this day General Lee had also surrendered his 
army to General Grant, and the rebellion ended. The 
2d and 4th Regiments and 1st Battery had accompanied 
General Sherman in his wonderful march through Geor- 
gia, South and North Carolina, and the 8th Regiment in 
March had moved to North Carolina from Tennessee by 
the way of Washington. 

The battalion that was the outgrowth of the 1st Regi- 
ment was active in the last campaign of the Army of the 
Potomac, commencing in March and resulting in the 
surrender of Lee's Army. 

Arrangements were soon perfected for the disbanding 
of the Union army, and before the close of the summer 
all the regiments that had been in the South had return- 
ed, and were discharged. 

1. Bt. Rrig. Gen. U. S. Vols., March 13, 1665. 



Organized. Discharged. 


First April 1861. May 5, 186-1 

Second July, 1861. July 11, 1865 

Third October, 1861. September, 1865 

Fourth December. 1861. August, 1S65 

Fifth May, 1861. September, 1865 

Sixth . . August, 1862. August, 1865 

Seventh " 

Eighth " 

Ninth " 


Eleventh August 1861. 

Infantry Batallion.. May, 1861. July, 1865 


First Regiment Heavy 

Artillery .... April, 1865. September, 1865 


First October, 1861. June, 1865 

Second ... December, 1861. July, 1865 

Third February, 1863. February, 1S66 


Rangers March, 1863. Oct. to Dec. 1863 

Brackett's Oct. Nov., 1861. May to June, 1866 

Second Regiment. . .January, 186-1. Nov. to June, 1866 

Hatch's July, 1863. Ap'l. to June, 1866 


Company A 1861 

Company B . .1S62. On duty with First Regi- 
ment in the Armv of the Potomac. 




In consequence of the Indian outbreak in the Yalley 
of the Minnesota, Governor Ramsey called an extra ses- 
sion of the Legislature, which convened on September 
9, 1862, and in his message urged prompt and severe 
measures to subdue the savage cut-throats. 

As long as Indian hostilities continued, the flow of im- 
migration was checked and the agricultural interests 
suffered; but notwithstanding the disturbed condition 
of affairs, within the borders of the State, the St. Paul 
and Pacific Railroad Company completed ten miles of 
of the first railway from the capital. Governor Ram- 
sey having been elected for a second term, delivered his 
annual message before the fifth State Legislature on Jan- 
uary seventh, 18C3, and during the session was elected 
to supply the vacancy about to take place in the United 
States Senate by the expiration of the term of office of 
the Hon. Henry M. Rice, ! who had been a member of 
that body from tlie time that Minnesota was admitted in- 
to the Union. 

1 Mr. Rice has been for years identified with the public interests of Minne- 
sota. He was one of the commissioners in 1*47 who met the Pillagers at Leech 
I^ake and negotiated for the cession of country between the Mississippi, I- 00 ? 
i'rairie and Watab Kivers. In 1833 he was a delegate to ( ongress, re-elected in 
1855. Took his seat ia United Strifes Senate W,s. In 1860 was on the special 
committee on the Condition of the Country. During his term he was also a 
member of the committees on Military affairs. Finance, Public Lands, and 
Post Office. . . 

While in Washington he united with Senators Douglas and Breckennuge in 
building three elegant mansions on H Street still called Minnesota Row: and in 
one of these he lived, and need an elegant hospitality to the citizens of Minne- 
sota without regard to their political opinions. 


He continued to act as Governor until he took his 
seat in the U. S. Senate, when the Lieutenant-Governor, 
Henry A. Swift, 1 became Governor by constitutional 
provision, and held the office until the inauguration, on 
January eleventh, 1864, of Stephen Miller,- who had 
been duly elected by the people at the regular election 
of the previous fall. During Miller's administration, 
Shakopee, or Little Six, and Tahta-e-chash-na-manne, 
or Medicine Bottle, were tried by a military commission 
at Fort Snelling, for participation in the massacre of 
white citizens during the year 1862, and found guilty, 
and sentenced to be hung. The execution took place on 
the tenth of November, 1865, in the presence of the 
soldiers at the fort and a number of civilians. 3 

William 11. Marshall 4 succeeded Governor Miller on 
the eighth of January, 1866, and after serving two terms 

1 Henry A. Swift was born in 1828, at Ravenna, Ohio; graduated at Western 
Reser\e College; studied law at Ravenna, and in 1845 was admitted to practice. 

In 1846-7 he was assistant clerk of House of Representatives of Ohio, and 
during the nest two sessions was chief clerk. In ls:>:>, he came to Minnesota and 
settled at St. Paul, In 1856 he removed to St. Pet t- From 1861 to 1865 he was 
a State Senator, and in 1865 was appointed by the President. Register of United 
States Land OHice at St. Peter. He died on February 26, 18d ( J, respected and 
beloved by all. 

2 Stephen Miller was born in 1*P5 in Perry county, Pennsylvania. In 1*40 was 
Prothouotary of Dauphin county, and in IS") flour inspector of Philadelphia. 
He came in 18)8 to Minnesota. Was Lieutenant-Colonel of First and Colonel of 

Seventh Regiment, and on October twenty-sixth, lstj:',, was made Brigadier- 

3 Shakopee, or Shakpedan. was born about 1811, and was the son of the blus- 
tering, thieving chief of the same name, whodied at the village of Shakopee in 
1860. He was a mean Indian, of but little mental capacity. It is said that when 
the tir-t locomotive passed on the railway just completed beneath the walls of 
Fort SneUing, he pointed to it from las prison window, and said, with a touch 
of sentiment: " There! fViuris what has driven us away.'' 

His body was fot warded to Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, and 
after being placed upon an anatomical table. Prof. Pancoast cave a brief sketch, 
of his career, and then proceeded to expose his body, for the benefit of science, 
to the gaze of the students. 

Medicine Bottle was born about 1831, at Mendota, and was head soldierof his 
brother, the chief Grey Ragle. 

4 W. K. .Marshall was born October seventeenth, 1825, in Boone county, Mis- 
souri. Came to Minnesotain July, 1847, and was in 1S4U member of the first 
Legislature of the Territory. In 1855 was nominated by the first convention of 
the Republican party, as delegate to Congress. For several years was engaged 
in banking and mercantile pursuits. During the war was Lieutenant-Colonel, 
then Colonel of Seventh Regiment. In 1865, Bt. Brig. Gen. U. S. Vols. 


was followed by Horace Austin on the seventh of Jan- 
uary, 1S70. 

Horace Austin 1 in January, 1S72, entered upon a sec- 
ond term as Governor of Minnesota, having been elected 
to the ofhce by a large majority. The important event 
of his administration was the veto of an act passed by 
the Legislature of 1S71, dividing the Internal Im- 
provement Lands of the State among several railway 

"Wisconsin, admitted as a State in 1S-18, in her Consti- 
tution provided that the grant of 500,000 acres under the 
act of Congress approved Sept. 4, 1SI1, and also the rive 
per cent, of net proceeds of the public lands should be 
used for the support of schools. Iowa and California 
made similar provisions, but the framers of the Consti- 
tution of Minnesota paid no attention to these prece- 
dents, which have since been followed by Kansas, Oregon 
and other states. 

As soon as the legislature acquired control over these 
lands under the act of 1S-41, they were sought for by 
railroad corporations, and a bill was passed in 1S71 giv- 
ing to them that which other states had appropriated to 
the support of schools. It failed, however, to receive 
the approval and signature of the Governor, and this 
led to the adoption, in November, 1873, by a vote of the 
people, of an amendment to the Constitution, which for- 
bids all moneys belonging to the Internal Improvement 
Land fund to be appropriated "for any purpose what- 

1. Horace Austin was, in 1<?3 1, born in Connecticut. He received a common 
school education, and f<>ra time worked at the trade of his father. Atfer spend- 
ing some time in thelaw office <>£ Bradbury & Merrill, Augusta, Maine, in K"> I 
he came West, and in 1855 removed to Minnesota, and the next year became a 
res i<l,- m of the town of S dnt Peter. During Gen. Sibley's expedition of 1*»>3, 
against the Indians, he served as a captain of cavalry. In IStii he was elected 
Judge of the Sixth Judicial District, and in 1S69 was nominated as Governor l>y 
the Kepublican party, and elected, lie has bwn an Auditor of the U. S. Treas- 
ury at Washington. In 1*77 was one of the Railroad Commissioners of Min- 


ever, until the enactment for that purpose shall have 
been approved by a majority of the electors of the State 
voting at the annual general election following the pas- 
sage of the act." 

Cushman K. Davis, 1 on the ninth of January, 1S74, 
delivered his inaugural address as Governor. He called 
the attention of the Legislature to the importance of the 
State checking a tendency upon the part of railroad 
corporations to make an abatement of freight rates in 
favor of their friends at the expense of farmers and 
other customers. His language upon the subject was 

"The expense of moving products has become the 
great expense of life, and it is the only disbursement 
over which he who pays can exercise no control what- 
ever. He has a voice in determining how much his taxes 
shall be. In the ordinary transactions of life he can 
buy and sell where he chooses, and competition makes 
the bargain a just one; but in regard to his crops he is 
under duress as to their carriage, and under dictation as 
to their price. In the very nature of things, the occa- 
sion must be rare which will justify any advance in the 
rates for moving grain from Minnesota. In September, 
1873, however, when a wheat crop of unexpected abund- 
ance was overcrowding the means of transportation, and 
when there was every reason why there should be a re- 
duction instead of an advance of rates, the Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railway Company, and the Chicago & North- 

1. Coshman K. Davis was born in the State of New York in 1838, and in boy- 
hood removed with his parents to Waukesha, Wisconsin. For several years 
he was a student at Carroll College, but graduated in l s ">7 at the University of 
Michigan. After studying law with Ex-Gov. Alex Randall, of Wisconsin, in 
1839. he was admitted to the bar. In 1862 he enlisted in the 28th Wisconsin 
Volunteers, and was afterwards appointed as Ass't Adj't (i<'neral. and .-erved 
upon the staff of <ien. Willis A. Gorman. In lsiu he settled in St.Paul.and 
in 1866 was a member of the Legislature. In 1868 he was appointed U. S. 
District Attorney. In January, 1887, he was elected U. S. Senator. 


western Railway Company simultaneously imposed upon 
our wheat crop a tax of three cents per bushel, by an 
advance of that amount in charges. If any administra- 
tion should commit such an act as this in performing 
the functions of taxation, it would be deposed by an in- 
dignant constituency. No less deserving of condemna- 
tion is the policy of the companies in regard to freights 
which are moved wholly within the state." 

During the administration of Governor Davis, the 
people, at the election of November, 1875, sanctioned 
amendments to the Constitution relative to judicial dis- 
tricts, and terms of office, the investment of funds from 
the sale of school lands, and permission of women to 
vote for school officers. The last amendment is in this 
language: " The Legislature may, notwithstanding any 
thing in this article [Article 7, Section 8] provide by 
law, that any woman at the age of twenty-one years and 
upward, may vote at any election held for the purpose 
of choosing any officers of schools, or upon any measure 
relating to schools, and may also provide that any such 
women shall be eligible to hold any office solely per- 
taining to the management of schools." 

John S. Pillsbury, 1 on the seventh of January, 1876, 
delivered his inaugural message as Governor. 

At the outset of his administration he called the atten- 
tion of the Legislature to the importance of making 
some equitable settlement with the holders of the State 
Railroad Bonds, in language which called forth a hearty 

Uohn S. Pillsbury was born on July 29, 1S2S» at Sutton, New Hampshire. 
After a common school education, at the age of sixteen he entered a store, and 
at the a«e of twenty-one formed a partnership with Walter Harrimon, who 
became G-overnor of New Hampshire. In June, 1853, he came to Minnesota, 
and established a hardware store at St. Anthony, and after a few years became 
one of the most respected merchants of Minneapolis. Since 1863, he has been a 
faithful resent of the State University, and for nine sessions represented Hen- 
nepin county as Senator in tho Legislature of Minnesota. 



response from every intelligent citizen who had carefully 
investigated the subject. 

On the sixth of September, 1870, the quiet inhabitants 
of Minnesota were excited by a telegraphic announce- 
ment, that at midday, a band of outlaws from another 
State, had ridden into the town of Northfield, recklessly 
discharging firearms, while a portion, proceeding to the 
bank, killed the acting cashier in an attempt to take out 
the funds. Two of the desperadoes were shot in the 
streets, by firm citizens, and in a brief period, parties 
from the neighboring towns were in pursuit of those 
who made their escape. After a long and weary search, 
four were surrounded in a swamp, and one was killed 
and the others captured. At the November term of the 
Fifth District Court at Faribault, the culprits were 
arraigned, and under an objectionable statute, by plead- 
ing guilty, secured an imprisonment for life, in place of 
the death they had so fully deserved. 

In 1874, in some of the counties of Minnesota, the 
Piocky Mountain locust, of the same genus but a dif- 
ferent species from the European and Asiatic locust, 
driven eastward by a failure of the succulent grasses 
on the high plains of the Upper Missouri and Sas- 
katchewan valleys, appeared as a short, stout-legged, 
devouring army, and in 1S75, the myriads of eggs 
deposited were hatched out, and these insects born 
within the State, taking unto themselves wings, flew 
to new camping grounds to deposit their ova. In 
consequence of their devastations, many farmers were 
deprived of successive crops. As other States between 
the Mississippi and Rocky Mountains were suffering 
from these pests, at the suggestion of Governor Pills- 
bury, a conference of Governors was convened on the 

gov. pillsbuey's administration. 2G3 

twenty-fifth of October, at Omaha, Nebraska, to devise 
measures by which there might be a diminution of 
their vast numbers. A circular was also prepared and 
distributed by the Governor, through the infested and 
other counties, giving directions as to the best methods 
of extermination. By visiting the suffering, pledging 
his personal credit before the assembling of the Legis- 
lature, and inciting the charitable to send clothing 
and provisions, he did much to sustain the desponding. 
In his annual message to the Legislature of 1877, 
Governor Pillsbury again urged upon the legislators to 
take steps which would relieve Minnesota from being 
any longer classed in the money markets of the world 
with those States which repudiated obligations to which 
were affixed the seals of their commonwealths. In 
November of this year he was elected for another term 
of two years. At the same time the people voted to 
accept the following amendments to the State Con- 

Amendment to Section 1, Article 4 — "The Legislature 
of the State shall consist of a Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, who shall meet biennially, at the seat of 
government of the State, at such time as shall be pre- 
scribed bylaw; but no session shall exceed the term of 
sixty days. 

Amendment to Section 3, Article S — " But in no case 
shall the moneys derived as aforesaid, or any portion 
thereof, or any public moneys or property, be appropri- 
ated or used for the support of schools wherein the dis- 
tinctive doctrines, creeds, or tenets of any particular 
Christian or other religions sect, are promulgated or 

For several years scientific Germans had been puzzled 


to account for sudden explosions in flour mills, and a 
prize was offered for the best essay upon the subject. 
A professor in Berlin was the successful essayist, and 
contended that there was always a liability to explode 
when particles of dust of any kind were thickly distri- 
buted in the atmosphere of narrow ducts or poorly ven- 
tilated rooms. An explosion which occurred in Minne- 
apolis, between seven and eight o'clock of the evening 
of the second of May, renewed investigation, which 
has already led to an improvement in mill machinery 
and architecture. One of the largest mills in the world 
known as the Washburn "A," suddenly exploded, which 
was followed in the twinkling of an eye by the explo- 
sion of two mills in the immediate vicinity, and by the 
conflagration of three other mills, the loss of eighteen 
lives, and the destruction of much valuable property. 
The concussion was so great in the first mill that all the 
walls fell, and hardly one stone was left upon another. 

In the fall of 1879 the Republican party nominated 
John S. Pillsbury for a third term, and he was elected 
by a majority of more than fifteen thousand votes. 

On the night of the fifteenth of November, 1880, the 
north wing of the State Insane Asylum at St. Peter was 
entirely destroyed by fire. The shrieks of the patients, 
and their wanderings over the snow-covered praries, can 
never be forgotten by those who were present. Twenty- 
seven lost their lives. It is thought that the building 
was set on fire, in the cellar, by a patient who had been 
employed in the kitchen. 

The tsventy-second session, the first biennial, of the 
legislature convened on the fourth of January, 1881, and 
Governor Pillsbury re-iterated his sentiments upon the 
honorable settlement of outstanding railroad bonds. On 


the nineteenth, S. J. Pi. McMillan was re-elected United 
States Senator for the term expiring in 1887, on the 
third day of March. 

. On the second of March, the legislature passed an act 
for the settlement of the railroad bonds, providing a tri- 
bunal composed of judges to take action in the matter. 
The State Supreme Court decided that the act was void, 
because it delegated legislative power to the tribunal, 
and a writ of prohibition was issued. Governor Pills- 
bury then called an extra session of the legislature,which 
convened in October, and a legal provision was made 
for canceling bonds, the ignoring of which for more than 
twenty years had been prejudicial to the otherwise fair 
name of the commonwealth of Minuesota. 

William Windom, who had been elected United States 
Senator for the term expiring in 1SS3, having been ap- 
pointed by President Garfield in March, 1881, the Sec- 
retary of U. S. Treasury, Governor Pillsbury appointed 
A. J. Edgerton to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Win- 
dom's resignation. Mr. Edgerton after a brief period 
resigned, and Mr. Windom was re-elected. On the night 
of the first of March, 1881, the capitol at St. Paul was 
destroyed by fire, and immediate steps were taken by 
Governor Pillsbury to erect the present edifice. 

At the election of November, 1S82. Milo White, J. B. 
Wakefield, H. B. Strait and W. D. Washburn, were elected 
to the U. S. House of Bepresentatives for two years, 
and by the legislature of 1SS3, Dwight M. Sabin was 
elected U. S. Senator. 

Lucius F. Hubbard, who had been colonel of the Fifth 
Minnesota Begiment, in January, 1882, became Gover- 
nor, and for five years discharged the duties of the oniee 
to the general satisfaction of the people. In January, 


1SS7, A. R. McGill delivered his inaugural address as 

The "prosperity of the State during the last thirty 
years, has surpassed the expectations of the most san- 
guine. In 18b2 there were not twenty miles of railway 
in operation, while at the close of 1S8G there are several 
thousand. The increase in population and agricultural 
productions has been correspondingly great, and there 
is every reason to suppose that Minnesota will always 
continue to be one of the most important States in the 
Valley of the Mississippi. 



Minnesota's representatives in congress of united 
states of america. 

From March, 1S19, to May, 1858, Minnesota was a 
Territory, and entitled to send to the Congress of the 
United States one delegate with the privilege of repre- 
senting the interests of his constituents, but not allowed 
to vote. 


Before the recognition of Minnesota as a separate Ter- 
ritory, Henry H. Sibley sat in Congress, from January, 
184:9, as a delegate of the portion of Wisconsin Territory 
which was beyond the boundaries of the State of Wis- 
consin, in 1848, admitted to the Union. In September, 
1849, he was elected delegate to Congress, by the citi- 
zens of Minnesota Territory. 

Henry M. Rice succeeded Mr. Sibley as delegate, and 
took his seat in the thirty-third Congress, which con- 
vened on December 5, 1853, at Washington. He was 
re-elected to the thirty-fourth Congress, which assem- 
bled on the 3d of December, 1855, and expired on the 
3d of March, 1857. During his term of office Congress 
passed an act extending the pre-emption laws over the 
unsurveyed lands of Minnesota, and Mr. Rice obtained 
valuable land grants for the construction of railroads. 

William W. Kingsbury was the last Territorial dele- 


gate. He took his seat in the thirty-fifth Congress, 
which convened on the 7th of December, 1857, and the 
next May his seat was vacated by the admission of Min- 
nesota as a State. 


William W. Phelps was one of the first members of 
U. S. House of Representatives from Minnesota. Born 
in Michigan in 182G, he graduated in 1846 at its State 
University. In 1854 he came to Minnesota as Register 
of the Land Office at Eed Wing, and in 1857 was elected 
a Representative to Congress. 

James M. Cavanaugh was of Irish parentage, and 
came from Massachusetts. He was elected to the same 
Congress as Mr. Phelps and subsequently removed to 

; William Windom was elected in the fall of 1859 to 
the thirty-sixth Congress and was continuously re-elected 
and occupied a seat in the House of Representatives 
until 1870, when he entered the U. S. Senate and served 
until March, 1883. 

Mr. Windom was bom on May 10, 1827, in Belmont 
Co., Ohio. He was admitted to the bar in 1850, and 
was in 1853 elected Prosecuting Attorney for Knox Co., 
Ohio. The next year he came to Minnesota, and has 
represented the State in Congress longer than any other 
person. He has occupied responsible positions and 
acquitted himself with honor. 

Cyrus Aldrich, of Minneapolis, Hennepin county, was 
elected a member of the thirty-sixth Congress, which 
convened Dec. 5th, 1859, and was re-elected to the thir- 
ty-seventh Congress. During his last term he was chair- 
man of the Committee on Indian Affairs. He was born in 


1808 at Smithfield, Pi. I. In boyhood he worked on a farm 
and went to sea. At the age of twenty-nine he came to 
Alton, 111., and in 1842 came to Galena, and became a 
proprietor of stage coaches. In 1815 and 1846 he was a 
member of the Illinois Legislature. In 1817 he was 
elected Register of Deeds for Jo Daviess Co., 111. and in 
1819 became Receiver of U. S . Land Office at Dixon, 
111., which he held four years. In 1855 he removed to 
Minnesota, and in 1S57 was a member -of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. In 1S65 he was a member of the 
Minnesota Legislature, and in 1807 became Postmaster 
at Minneapolis, and held the office for four years. He 
died Oct. 5, 1871. 

Ignatius Donnelly was born in Philadelphia in 1831; 
graduated at the high school of that city, and in 1853 
was admitted to the bar. In 1857 he came to Miune- 
sote, and in 1859 was elected Lt. Governor, and re- 
elected in L861. He became a representative in the U. 
S. Congress which convened on Dec. 7th. 1863, and was 
re-elected to the thirty-ninth Congress, which convened 
on Dec. 1th, 1865. He was also elected to the fortieth 
Congress, which convened in Dec, 1867. He has been 
an active State Senator from Dakota County, in which 
he has been a resident, and in 1887 represented his 
district in that body. He is well known as an author. 

Eugene M. Wilson of Minneapolis, was elected to the 
first Congres which assembled in December, 1S69. He 
was born Dec. 25, 1833, at Morgantown, Virginia, and 
graduated at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania. From 
1857 to 1861, he was U. S. District Attorney for Minne- 
sota. During the civil war he was Captain in First 
Minnesota Cavalry. While in Congress he was a mem- 
ber of the Pacific Railroad Committee, and introduced a 


bill by which the State University obtained the lands 
which had long been claimed. Mr. Wilson's father, 
grandfather, and maternal great grandfather were 
members of Congress. 

M. S. Wilkinson, of whom mention will be made as U. 
S. Senator, was elected in 1868 a representative to the 
Congress which convened in Dec, 1S69. 

Mark H. Dunnell, of Owatonna, in the fall of 1870, 
was elected from the First District to fill the seat in the 
House of Representatives so long occupied by Mr. Win- 
dom. Mr. Dunnell, in July, 1823, was born at Buxton, Me.> 
He graduated at the college established at Waterville, in 
that State, in 1849. From 1855 to 1859 he was the State 
Superintendent of Schools, and in 1SG0 commenced the 
practice of law. For a short period he was Colonel of 
the 5th Maine regiment, but resigned in 18(32, and was 
appointed U. S. Consul at Yera Cruz, Mexico. In 18G5 
he came to Minnesota, and was State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, from April, 1867, to August, 1S70. 
Mr. Dunnell, until 1SS3, represented his district. 
John T. Averill was elected in November, 1870, from 
the Second District, to succeed Eugene M. Wilson. 

Mr. Averill was born at Alma, Maine, and completed 
his studies at the Maine Wesleyan University. He was 
a member of the Minnesota Senate in 1858 and 1859, and 
during the rebellion was Colonel of the 6th Min- 
nesota regiment. He is a member of an enterprising 
firm of paper manufacturers. In the fall of 1871 he 
was re-elected as a member of the forty-second Con- 
gress, which convened in December, 1873. 

Horace B. Strait was elected to the forty-third and 
forty-fourth Congress, and in 1SS0 was elected again, 
and served until 1887. He was born on the twenty-sixth 


of January, 1835, and in 1S1G removed to Indiana. In 
1S55 he came to Minnesota. In 18(52 he was made 
Captain of the ninth Minnesota regiment, and became 

William S. King of Minneapolis, was born December 
sixteenth, 1828, at Malone, New York. He has been one 
of the most active citizens of Minnesota, in developing 
its commercial and agricultural interests. For several 
years he was Postmaster of the U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives; and was elected to the forty-fourth Congress, 
which convened in 1S75. 

Jacob H. Stewart, M. D., was elected to the forty-fifth 
Congress, which convened in December, 1S77. He was 
born January fifteenth, 1829, in Columbia county, Xew 
York, and in 1851, graduated at the University of Xew 
York. For several years he practiced medicine at Peeks- 
kill, N. Y., and in 1S55 removed to St. Paul. In 1859 
he was elected to the State Senate, and was chairman of 
the Bailroad Committee. In 18 34 he was Mayor of 
St. Paul. He was surgeon of First Minnesota, and taken 
prisoner at first battle of Bull Pun. From 1S69 to 1873 
he was again Mayor of St. Paul. 

Henry Poehler was born at Lippe Detwold, Germany, 
in 1833, and in 183S came to the United States. For a 
period he resided in Iowa, and then settled at Hender- 
son, Minnesota. Twice he was elected to the Minnesota 
House of Representatives, and twice to the State Senate. 
From 1879 to 1881 he was a member of the U. S. House 
of Representatives. 

William Drew Washburn was born on the fourteenth 
of January, 1831, at Livermore, Maine. In 1851 he 
graduated at Bowdoin College, and in 1857 was admitted 
to the bar. In 1801 he was commissioned U. S. Sur- 


veyor General for Minnesota. In November, 187S, he 
was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, and 
until March, 1885, held the office. 

Milo White was born in Fletcher, Vermont, on the 
seventeenth of August, 1830, and received a common 
school education. He served four terms in the Minne- 
sota State Senate, and was elected to the Forty-eighth 
and also to the Forty-ninth Congress, and in March, 
1887, his term will expire. 

James B. Wakefield of Blue Earth City, was born in 
March, 1828, at Winsted, Ct., and in 1S16, graduated at 
Trinity College, Hartford, Ct. He began the practice of 
law in Indiana, and in 1851 removed to Minnesota. For 
four sessions a member of the lower house of the legis- 
lature, and Speaker of that body in 1866, and was twice 
elected to the State Senate. In 1875 was elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor of Minnesota, and has been a member 
of the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Congress, which, in 
March, 1887, expires. 

Knute Nelson of Alexandria, was born in Norway, in 
1813, and during the war served for three years in a 
Wisconsin regiment. He served several times as a 
State Senator. Has been a member of the Forty-eighth, 
and Forty-ninth, and is elected to the Fiftieth Congress. 
He is a Regent of the State University. 

John B. Gilfillan of Minneapolis, was born in Barnet, 
Vermont, in 1835, and in 1855 obtained his acade- 
mic education at Caledonia Academy. Admitted to the 
bar at Minneapolis, in July, 1S60, and has held many 
local appointments. He was a State Senator for ten 
years, and is a Regent of the State University. 

Henry M. Ilice, who had been four years delegate to 
the U. S. House of Representatives, was on the nine- 


teenth of December, 1S57, elected United States Senator. 
During his term the civil war began, and he rendered 
efficient service to the Union and the State he repre- 
sented. For notices of Mr. Rice see Index. 

James Shields, elected at the same time as Mr. Rice 
drew the short term of two years. He came from Ire- 
land in 182(5, a lad of sixteen years of age. In lb32 he 
opened a lawyer's office at Ivaskaskia, Illinois. In 1S43 
he was appointed Judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, 
and in 1S45 was made Commissioner of the U. S. Land 
Office, Washington. During the Mexican war he was a 
Brigadier General, and distinguished himself by gallant 
services. In 1849 he was elected United States Senator 
from Illinois, and served six years. In 1S56 he came to 
Minnesota. After his brief term as its representative, 
General Shields removed from Minnesota. He was for 
a time a General in the Army of the Union during the 
rebellion of the Slave States, and died in Missouri. 

Morton S. Wilkinson was chosen by a joint conven- 
tion of the Legislature on December fifteenth, 1859, to 
succeed General Shields. During the rebellion of the 
Slave States he was a firm supporter of the Union. He 
served as chairman of the Committee on Revolutionary 
Claims, and was one of the Committee on Indian Affairs. 
On January twenty-second, 1819, was born at Skaneat- 
eles, X. Y. After studying law, he settled at Eaton 
Rapids, Michigan. He was a member, in 1849, of the 
first Territorial Legislature. In 1S6S he was elected to 
the U. S. House of Representatives, and has represented 
IJlue Earth county in the State Senate. 

Alexander Ramsey, the first territorial Governor, and 
also the efficient Governor of the State at the breaking 
out of the rebellion of the slave-holding States, was 


elected by the Legislature, on tlie fourteenth of Jan- 
uary, 1S63, as the successor of Henry M. Pace. He 
served on Naval, Post Office, Pacific Railroad, and other 
important committees. The Legislature of 1869 re- 
elected Mr. Ramsey for a second term of six years, end- 
ing March, 1S75. 

Daniel S. Norton, on January tenth, 1865, was 
elected to the United States Senate, as the successor of 
Mr. Wilkinson. Mr. Norton, having offended the party 
by whom he was elected, its members manifested their 
displeasure, in the Legislature of 1867, by the passage 
of resolutions requesting him to resign, which were 
unnoticed by the Senator, who felt that he did not go to 
Washington to be a blind instrument. Mr. Norton, who 
had been in feeble health for years, died in June, 1870. 
On April twelfth, 1S29, he was born in Mt. Vernon, Knox 
county, Ohio, and was educated at Kenyon College. He 
served with the second Ohio regiment in the Mexican 
war. In ISIS he became a law student, and in 1850 
went to California, and from thence to Nicaragua. Re- 
turning to Ohio, he was admitted to the bar in 1852, and 
in 1855 removed to Minnesota. In 1857, 1860, 1863 and 
1864, he was a member of the Minnesota Senate, and of 
the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1S62. 

O. P. Stearns was elected on January 17, 1S71, for 
the few weeks of the unexpired term of Mr. Norton. On 
January 15, 1832, he was born at De Kalb, St Lawrence 
Co., New York. In 1858 he graduated in literature at 
University of Michigan, and in 1860 finished his studies 
in the Law School of that institution. The same year 
he settled at Rochester, Minnesota. He entered as a 
private soldier of the 9th Minnesota regiment, and was 
appointed in April, 1S64, Colonel of the 39th Regt., U. 


S. Colored Troops, and was present at the attacks on Fort 
Fisher, and Petersburg. 

William "Windom, so long a member of the U. S 
House of Representatives, was elected U. S. Senator 
for a term of six years, ending March 4, 1877, and was 
re-elected for a second term ending March, 1883. 

S. J. E. McMillan, of St. Paul, on the 19th of Febru- 
ary, 1875, was elected U. S. Senator for the term expir- 
ing March, 1881, and re-elected for the term ending 
March, 1887. He was born at Brownsville, Pa., and 
in 1S4G completed his academic education at Duquesne 
College, Pittsburg. He studied law in the office of Ed- 
win M. Stanton, late Secretary of War, and in 18-10 was 
admitted to the bar. In 1852 he settled at Stillwater, 
and in 1S57 was elected Judge of the 1st Judicial Dis- 
trict. From 1S64 to 1871 he was an Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court, and at the time of his election to 
the U. S. Senate, was Chief Justice. 

Dwight May Sabin was born April 25, 1843, at Man- 
lius, N. Y., was for a time a department clerk at Wash- 
ington, then engaged in the lumber business. He served 
three sessions in the Minnesota House of Kepresenta- 
tives and two terms in the Senate of the State. He took 
his seat as United States Senator in March, 1883, as 
the successor of William Windom. 





Alexander Ramsey, appointed Secretary of War by 
President Hayes, to fill a vacancy, and until March, 1881, 
remained in office, and for a time was also acting Secre- 
tary of the Navy. 

William Windom appointed Secretary of the Treas- 
ury by President Garfield. In the fall of 18S1 resigned, 
having been again elected United States Senator. 



Henry Sibley 1849 to December, 1853. 

Henry M. Rice 1853 to December, 1857. 

W. W. Kingsbury 1857 to May, 1858. 


W. W. Phelps 1858 to 1S59. 

J.M. Cavanaugk 1858 to 1859. 

William Win doni 1859 to 1870. 

Cyrus Aldrich 1859 to 1S63. 

Ignatius Donnelly 18G3 to 1869. 

Morton S. Wilkinson. 1869 to 1871. 

Eugene M. Wilson 1869 to 1871. 

M. H. Dunnell 1871 to 18S3. 

J. T. Averill 1871 to 1875. 

H. B. Strait 1875 to 1879. 

Wm. S. King 1875 to 1*77. 

Jacob H. Stewart 1877 to 1S79. 

Henry Poehler 1879 to 1881. 

W. D. Washburn 1879 to 1885. 

Milo White 1883 to 1887. 

J B. Wakefield 1883 to 1887. 

Knute Nelson 1883 in office. 

J. B. Gilfillan 18S5 to 1887. 



Henry M. Rice 1857 to 1863. six years. 

James Shields 1857 to 1859, two "years. 

Morton S. Wilkinson 1859 to 1865, six years. 

Alexander Ramsey 1863 to 1875. twelve "years. 

Daniel S. Norton 1865 to 1870. died in June. 

O. P. Steams 1871 to Mar. height weeks. 

William Windom 1871 to 1883, twelve years. 

S. J. R. McMillan 1875 to 1887, twelve "years. 

A. J. Edgerton 1881, a few months. 

Dwight H. Sabin 1883, in office. 



Alexander Ramsey March, 1849 to May, 1853, 

Willis A. Gorman May, 1853. to April, 1857. 

Samuel Medary April, 1857, to May, 1858. 


Henry Sibley May, 1858 to January, 1860. 

Alexander Ramsey January, 1860 to July, 1863. 

Henry A. Swift . . " July, 1863 to January, 1864. 

Stephen Miller January, 1864 to January, 1866. 

William R. Marshall January, 1856 to January, 1870. 

Horace Austin January, 1870 to January, 18.4. 

Cushman K. Davis January, 1874 to January, 1876. 

John S. Pillsbury January, 1876 to January. 1882. 

Lucius F. Hubbard January, 1882 to January. 1887. 

A. R. McGill January, 1887 in office. 




The following brief notices, based upon the reports 
of the Adjutant General of Minnesota, are appended for 
convenience of reference. 


Colonel. Willis A. Gorman, St. Paul; promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral, Oct. 1, 1861. 

Napoleon J. T. Dana, St. Paul; promoted Brigadier 
General, Feb. 3, 1S62. 

Alfred Sullv, promoted Brigadier General, Sept. 26, 

George X. Morgan, Minneapolis; resigned Mayo, 1863. 

William Colville, Jr., Bed Wing; discharged with reg- 
iment May 4, 1864. 
Lieut. Col. Stephen Miller, St. Cloud; promoted Colonel 7th 
Minnesota Infantry, August, 1862. 

George N. Morgan, Minneapolis; promoted Colonel, 
Sept. 26. 1862. 

William Colville, Jr., Bed Wing; promoted Colonel 
May 6. 1863. 

Charles P. Adams, Hastings; discharged with regiment 
May 4. 1864 
Major. William H. Dike. Faribault; resigned Oct. 2, 1861. 

George X. Morgan, Minneapolis; promoted Lieut. 
Col.. August 28, 1S62. 

William Colville. Jr., Bed Wing; promoted Lieut. Col., 
Sept. 26, 1862. 

Charles P. Adams, Hastings; promoted Lieut. Col- 
May 6, 1863. 

Mark W. Downie, Stillwater; discharged with regi- 
ment, May 4, 1S64. 


Adjutant. William B. Leach. Hastings; promoted Captain ami 

A. A. G.. Feb. 23, 1862. 

John N. Chase St. Anthony; promoted Captain Co. 

G, Sept. '25, 1862. 
Josias R. King, St. Paul; promoted Captain Co. E, 

July 2. 1863. 
John Peller, Hastings; discharged with regiment, May 

4, 1864. 
Q. Master. Mark W. Downie, Stillwater; promoted Captain Co. 

B, July 16, 1861. 

George H. Woods, promoted Captain and A. Q. M., 

August 13. 1861. 
Mark A. Hoyt, Pied Wing; resigned. 1862. 
Francis Baasen, New Ulm; discharged with regiment. 

May 4, 1S04. 
Surgeon. Jacob H. Stewart, St. Paul; transferred to skeleton 

William H. Morton, St. Paul; resigned June 23. 1S63. 
John B. LeBlond, discharged with regiment. May 4, 

Asst.Scrg. Charles W. LeBoutillier, St. Anthony; transferred to 

Minnesota skeleton regiment. 
D. W. Hand. St. Paul; breveted Lieutenant Colonel. 
John B. LeBlond, promoted Surgeon, Augus_t 7. 1S63. 
Edmund J. Pugsley, cashiered, August 15, 1874. 
Peter Gabrielson, St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 

May 4, 1864. 
Chaplain. Edw." D. Neill, St. Paul. June, 1861; appointed July 
13, 1862, Hospital Chaplain, U. S. A. Resigned Janu- 
ary, 1864. 
F. A. Con well, Minneapolis. 

Ordered to Washington. D. C. June 14. 1861. First Bull Run. 
Julv 21, 1861; Edward's Ferrv, Oct., 1861; Yorktown. May 7, 1862; 
Fair Oaks. June 1,1862: Peach Orchard. June 2'.». 1^62: Savage 
Station, June 29, 1*62: Glendale. June 30,1862: Nelson's I arm. 
June 30, 1862; Malvern Hill. Julv 1. 1862; Antietam. Sent. 17, 18(52; 
first Fredericksburg, Dec. 11,12 and 13: second Fredericksburg, May 
3, 1863; Gettysburg, July 2 and 3, 1863, and Bristow Station. Dis- 
charged at Fort Suelling, Minn., May 4. 1864. 


Colonel. Horatio P. YanCleve, St. Anthony; promoted to Brig- 

adier General March 21, 1862. 
Jame^ George. Mantorville; resigned June 29, 1864. 
Judsou W. Bishop. Chatfield; discharged with regi- 
ment July 13,1865. 
Lieut. Col. James George. Mantorville; promoted Colonel. 

Alexander Wilkin. St. Paul: promoted Colonel *.»th 

Regiment Minnesota Vols. August26, 1862. 
JudsonW. Bishop, Chatfield; promoted Colonel. 


Lieut. Col. Calvin S. Uline, St. Paul; discharged -with regiment 

July 11. 1865. 
Major. Simeon Smith, appointed Paymaster TJ. S. A., Sept. 

17, 1861. 

Alexander Wilkin, St. Paul, promoted Lieut. Colonel. 

Judson W. Bishop. Chatfield; promoted Lieut. Colonel. 

John B. Davis, St. Paul: resigned April 15, 1864. 

Calvin S. Uline, St. Paul; promoted Lieut. Colonel. 

John Moulton, St. Paul; discharged with regiment 
July 12. 1865. 
Surgeon. Eeginal Bingham, Winona; dismissed May 27, 1864. 

Moody C. Tollman. Anoka. 

William Brown. 
Asst. Surg. Moody C. Tollman. Anoka, promoted to Surgeon. 

Wiiliam L. Arm ngton. St. Paul: resigned Feb. 23. 1863. 

William Brown. Red Wing; promoted Surgeon. 

Otis Aver, Le Sueur; resigned Dec. 23, 1863. 
Adjutant. Daniel P. Heaney, Rochester; promoted Captain Co. C. 

Samuel P. JennisoD, St. Paul; promoted Lieutenant 
Colonel 10th Minn. Infantry, August, 1862. 

Charles F. Meyer, St Paul; promoted Captain Co. G. 

James W. Wood, St. Paul; promoted Captain Co. B. 

George W. Shuman, St. Paul; promoted Captain Co. D. 

Frank Y. Hotfstott, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
ment Julv 11, 1805. 
Q. Master. William S. Grow, Red Wing; resigned Jan.28, 18G3. 

S. De Witt Parsons, resigned July 30, 1864. 

John L. Kinney, Chatfield; discharged with regiment 
July 11. 1865. 
Chaplain. Timothy Cressey, resigned Oct. 10, 1863. 

Levi Gleason, discharged with regiment July 11, 1865. 
Organized July, 1861. Ordered to Louisville. Ivy., October, 1861, 
and assigned to the Army of the Ohio. Engaged in the following 
marches, battles, skirmishes and sieges: Mill Spring, January 19, 
1862; Siege of Corinth. April. 1862: transferred to the Army of the 
Tennessee; Bragg' s raid: Perryville. October 8, 1862; skirmishes of 
Tullahoma campaign; Chh'kamauga. September 19 and 20, 1863; 
Mission Ridge, November 25. 1863. Veteranized January, 1864. 
Battles and skirmishes of the Atlanta campaign, viz.: Resaea. June 
14, 15 and 16, 1864; Jonesboro; Sherman's march through Georgia 
and the Carolinas; Bentonville, March 29, 1865. Discharged at 
Fort Snelliug, Minnesota, July 11, 1865. 


Colonel. Henry C- Lester. Winona; dismissed Dec. 1, 1862. 

Chauncey W. Griggs, Chaska: resigned July 15. 1863. 

Christopher C. Andrews; St. Cloud: promoted Briga- 
dier General April 27, 1864. 

Hans Mattson, Red Wing; discharged with regiment 
Sept. 2, 1805. 


Lieut. Col. Benjamin P. Smith, Mankato; resigned May 9, 18G2. 

Chauncey W. Griggs, Chaska; promoted Colonel De- 
cember 1, 1802. 

Christopher C. Andrews, St. Cloud; promoted Colonel 
July 15, 18(33. 

Haiis Mattson, Red Wing; promoted Colonel April 
15, 1861, 

Everett W. Foster, Wabashaw. 

James B. Hoit, discharged with regiment Sept. 2, 1865. 
Major. John A. Hadley, resigned May 1, 1862. 

Chauncey W. Griggs, Chaska; promoted Lieutenant 
Colonel May 29, 1862. 

Hans Mattson. Red Whig; promoted Lieutenant Col- 
onel July 15,1863. 

Everett W. Foster, Wabasha; promoted Lieutenant 
Colonel April 15, 1864 

Benjamin F. Rice, resigned before being mustered. 

William W. Webster, resigned November 12, 1864. 

James B. Hoit, promoted Lieut. Colunel May 25, 1865. 
Adjutant. Cvrene H. Blakelv, promoted Captain of Subsistence 
June 13, 1864, 

Ephraim Pierce, St. Paul; promoted Captain of Co. F, 
April 17, 1863. 

Jed. F. Fuller, appointed 1st Lieutenant of Co. A. 

William F. Morse, promoted Captain of Co. F, July 
19, 1865. 

Philander E. Folsom, discharged with regiment Sep- 
tember 2, 1865. 
Q. Master. Samuel H. Ingman, dismissed December 1, 1862. 

James P. Howlett, resigned Marcli 2, 1864. 

William G. J. Akers, promoted Captain Co. I, Jan., 

George L. Jameson, promoted Captian Co. H. May 3, 

Bonde Olesou, Red Wing, discharged with regiment, 
Sept. 2,1865. 
Surgeon. Levi Butler, resigned September 20. 1863. 

Albert G. Wedge, discharged with regiment, Septem- 
ber 2, 1865. 
Asst. Surg. Francis H. Milligan, resigned April 8, 1862. 

Albert G. Wedge, promoted Surgeon September 22, 

Moses R. Greeley, discharged with regiment. Septem- 
ber 2, 1865. 

Nahana Bixby, discharged with regiment September 
2, 1865. 
Chaplain. Chauncey Hobart, resigned April 13, 1863. 

B. F. Crary, resigned June 2, 1863. 


Chaplain. Simeon Putnam, died September 11, 1864, at Afton, 
Anthonv Wilford, discharged with regiment, Septem- 
ber 2,* 1865. 

Organized October 1861. Ordered to Nashville, Tenn., March, 
1SG2. Captured and paroled at Murfreesboro, July. 1862. Ordered 
to St. Louis, Mo. Thence to Minnesota. Engaged in the Indian 
expedition of 1862. Participated in the battle of Wood Lake. Sep- 
tember, 1802. Ordered to Little Rock, Ark., Nov. 1863. Veteran- 
ized January, 1864. Engaged in the battle of Fitzhugh's Woods, 
March 30, 1864. Ordered to Pine Bluff, Ark., April, 1864, Thence to 
DuVall's Bluff, October, 1864 Mustered out at DuVall's Bluff, 
September 2, 1SG5. Discharged at Fort Snelling. 


Colonel. John B. Sanborn, St. Paul, resigned August 5, 1863. 

John E. Tourtellotte, Mankato; discharged by order, 
June 21. 1865. 
Lieut. Col. Minor T. Thomas. Stillwater; promoted Col. 8th Minn. 
Inf., Aug. 24, 1862. 
John E. Tourtellotte, Mankota: promoted Col. Sept. 

16. 1864. 

James C. Edson, Glencoe; discharged with regiment, 

Julv 19, 1865. 
Major. A. Edward Welch, Red Wing; died Feb. 1, 1862, at 

Nashville. Tenn. 
Luther L. Baxter, Shakopee: resigned October 11. 1862. 
James C. Edson, Glencoe; promoted Lieut. Colonel 

Sept. 16, 1864. 
Leveret t R. Wellman, discharged with regiment, July 

19. 1865. 

Adjutant. John M. Thompson, promoted Captain Co. E, Nov. 20, 

William F. Kittridge, promoted Captain and A. A. G., 

August 21, 1SG4. 
Watson W. Rich, promoted Captain Co. D, June 21. 

Frank S. DeMers, discharged with regiment. Julv 19. 

Q. Master. Thomas B. Hunt, Shakopee. promoted Captain and A. 

Q. M M April 19, 1863. 
D. M. G. Murphy, St. Paul; promoted Captain Co. B, 

May 3. 1864. 
Samuel W. Russell, discharged with regiment. July 19. 

Surgeon. John H. Murphy. St. Paul; resigned July 6. 1S63. 

Elisha, W. Cross. Rochester; resigned December 22, 

Henry R. Wedel, Winona; resigned June 15, 1865. 



Aost Surg. Elisha "W. Cross, Eochester; promoted Surgeon July 
9, 1SG3. 
Henry E. Wedel, Winona; promoted Surgeon January 

9, 1865; 
George M. B. Lambert, St. Paul; discharged with reg- 
iment. July 19, 1865. 
Chcqrfain. Asa S. Fisk, resigned October 3, 1865. 

Organized December 23. 1861. Ordered to Benton Barracks, Mo., 
April 19, 1862. Assigned to the Army of the Mississippi, May 4, 
1862. Siege of Corinth. April. 1862: Iuka, Sept. 19, 1802: Corinth, 
Oct. 3 and 4, 1S62; Yicksburg, July, 1803. Transferred from 17th 
to loth Corps. Mission Ridge. Nov. 25. 1863. Veteranized Janu- 
ary, 1864. Altoona, July. 1864, With General Sherman, in march 
throucrh Georgia and Carolinas, March. 1865. Mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1S65. Discharged at Fort Snelling. 


Colonel Rudolph Borgesrode, Shakopee; resigned August 31, 
Lucius F. Hubbard, discharged by order, 1865. 
Lieut Col. Lucius F. Hubbard, promoted Colonel, August 31, 
William B. Gere, discharged by order. August 30, I860. 
Major. William B. Gere, promoted Lieut. Colonel, August 31, 

Francis Hall, resigned April 30, 1864. 
John C. Brecht, St. Paul; discharged by order, March 

18, 1865. 
John P. Huston, Stillwater; discharged with regiment, 

Sept. 6, 1865. 
Adjutant. Adolpheus R. French, resigned March 19, 1863. 

Thomas P. Gere, discharged by order, April 15, I860. 
Alfred Rhodes, discharged with regiment. September 
6, 1865. 
Q. Master. William B. McGrorty. resigned September 15, 1864. 

Francis G. Brown, discharged with regiment, Septem- 
ber 6, 1865. 
Surgeon. Fraucis P.. Etheridge, resigned Sept. 3. 1862. 

Vincent P. Kennedv, discharged by order, May 1, I860. 
William H. Leonard, discharged with regiment. Sep- 
tember 6, 1865. 
Asst. Surg. Vincent P. Kennedy, promoted Sergeon, September 3, 
William H. Leonard, promoted Surq-eon, May 1, IS60. 
J. A. Vervais, St. Paul; resigned April 3, 1863. 
Chaplain. James H Chaffee. Minneapolis; resigned June 23, !>62. 

Organized May, 1862. Ordered to Pittsburg Landing, May 9, 
1862." Detachment of three companies remained in Minnesota, gar- 


risoning frontier posts. Participated in the following marches, bat- 
tles, sieges and skirmishes: sieges of Corinth, April and May. 1862. 
Detachment in Minnesota engaged with Indians at Redwood. Min- 
nesota, August 10, 1802. Siege of Fort Ridgelv. August 20. 21 and 
22. 1S02. Fort Abercrombie, D. T., August, 1862. Regiment as- 
signed to 10th Army Corps. Battle of Iuka, September IS. 1 V C2: 
Corinth, October 3 and 4. 1802; Jackson. May 14, 1863; Siege of 
Vieksburg; assault of Vicksburg. May 22, 1863; Mechaniesburg, 
June 3, 1863; Richmond, June 15, 1863; Fort De Russey, La- 
March 14, 1864. Red River Expedition, March, April and May, 
1804. Lake Chicot, June 6, 1864; Tupelo, June. 1804. Veteran- 
ized, July, 1804. Abbeyville. August 23, 1003. Marched in Sep- 
tember, 1804. from Brownsville. Ark., to Cape Girardeau. Mo., thence 
by boat to Jefferson City, thence to Kansas line, thence to St. 
Louis, Missouri. Ordered to Nashville, November. 1804. Battles 
of Nashville, Dec. 15 and 10, 1864. Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. 
April, 1865. Mustered out at Demopolis, Ala., Sept. 1, 1805. Dis- 
charged at Fort Snelling. Minnesota. 


Colonel. William Crooks. St. Paul; resigned October 28. 1864. 
John T. Avenll, Lake Citv; discharged by S. O. W.D. 
518, Sept. 30, 18(55. 
Lieut. Col John T. Averill, Lake City; promoted Colonel, Octo- 
ber 28, 1804. 
Hiram T. Grant. St. Paul; discharged with regiment, 
August 10, 1805. 
Major. Robert N. McLaren. Red Wintr; promoted Colonel 2d 

Minn. Cavalry, Jan. 12. 1804. 
Hiram P. Grant. St. Paul; promoted Lieut. Colonel, 

October 2S, 1804. 
Hiram S. Bailey, discharged with regiment, August 10, 
Adujant. Florian E. Snow, St. Paul: resigned, December 18. 1864. 
Alonzo P. Connelly. St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
ment, August 19. 1865. 
Q. Master. Henrv L. Carver, St. Paul; promoted Captain A. Q. 
M.," April, 1S04. 
Henrv H. Gilbert, discharged with regiment, August 
Surgeon Alfred Wharton. St. Paid; resigned July 29. 1803. 

Wallace P. Belden. discharged with regiment. August 
19, 1865. 
Asst. Surg. Jared W. Daniels, resigned December 2S, 1803. 

Augustus O. Potter, died at Helena, Ark., September 

13, 1864. 
James N. Mr-Masters. St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
ment. August 19, 1805. 
Henrv Wilson, discharged with regiment, August 19, 


Chaplain. Richard B. Bull, resigned 1864. 

Daniel Cobb, St. Paid, discharged with regiment. Au- 
gust 19, 1865. 

Organized August. 1862. Detachment of 200 in battle with Sioux 
Indians at Birch Coolie. Sept. 2. 1862; Wood Lake. Sept. 22. 1862. 
At frontier posts from Nov., 1862, to May, 1863. Indian Expedi- 
tion, engaged in skirmishes, July, 1863. Ordered to Helena, Ark., 
June, 1861: to New Orleans. January 18, 1865. Assigned to 16th 
Army Corps. In action at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near 
Mobile. Discharged at Fort Suelling, August 19, 1865. 


'Colonel. Stephen Miller, St. Paul; promoted Brigadier General, 
Nov. 6, 1863. 
William B. Marshall, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
Lieut. Col. William B. Marshall. St. Paul; promoted Colonel Nov. 
6, 1863. 
George Bradley, St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 
Major. George Bradley, St. Paul; promoted Lieut. Colonel, 

Nov. 6, 1868." 
William H. Burt, Taylor's Falls; discharged with regi- 
Adjutant. John K. Arnold, Wabasha; promoted Captain Co. A, 
June 17, 1863. 
Edward A. Trader, St. Louis: resigned February 8, 

A. J. Patch, Dubuque; discharged with regiment. 
Q. Master. Ammi Cutter. Anoka; promoted Captain and A. Q. M. 
May 6, 1804. 
Henry C. Bolcom, Winona; discharged with regiment. 
Surgeon. Jeremiah E. Finch. Hastings: resigned May 28, 1803. 

Lucius B Smith, killed July 13, 1864, at battle of Tu- 
Albert A. Ames, Minneapolis; discharged with regi- 
Asst. Surg. Lucius B. Smith, promoted Surgeon, May 20, 1803. 

Albert A. Ames, Minneapolis; promoted Surgeon, 

July 23, 1802. 
Brewer Mattocks, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
Percival O. Barton, Pine Bend: discharged with regi- 
Chaplain. Oliver P. Light, resigned June II. 1864 

E. E. Edwards, Taylors Falls, discharged with regi- 
Organized August, 1862. In battle with Sioux Indians at Wood 
Lake, Sept., 1862. Indian Expedition of 1863. Ordered to St. 
Louis, Oct. 7, 1863. Paducah, Ky., April, 1864. Assigned to 16th 


Army Corps. Battle of Tupelo, July, 1864; Tallahatchie. August, 
1864. In pursuit of General Price. Battle of Nashville. Decem- 
ber, 1864. Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. near Mobile, April, I860. 
Discharged at Fort Snelling, August 16, 18(35. 


Colonel Minor T. Thomas, Stillwater, discharged with regi- 

ment. Julv 11. 1865. 

Lieut. Col. Henry C. Rogers, Austin; discharged by reason of 
wounds. May 15, 'G5. 

Major. George A Camp, St. Anthony; resigned May 2, I860. _ 

Edwin A. Folsom. Stillwater; discharged with regi- 

Adjutant. George W. Butterfield promoted Capt. and A. A. (jr., 
March 15. 18(55. 
Lewis C. Paxon, discharged with regiment. 

Q. Master. Geo.L. Fisk, Mazeppa; discharged per order May 15, 

Surgeon. Francis Ileiger. St. Paul; resigned April 10 1864. 

John H. Murphy, St. Paul: resigned January 12. 1865. 

Irving H. Thurston, discharged with regiment. 
Ast. Snrg Irving H. Thurston, promoted Surgeon, May 29 I860. 

William H. Bouse, Eden Prairie: discharged July 11, 

1SG5. , . , 

Chaplain. Lauren Armsby, Farbault; discharged with regiment. 

Organized August 1. 1852. Stationed at frontier posts until May 
186irwhen ordered upon Indian Expedition. Engaged in the fol- 
lowing battles, sieges, skirmishes and marches: Tah-cha-o-ku-tu, 
Julv 28, 1864; battle of the Cedars. Overall's Creek. Ordered to 
Clifton Tenn., thence to Cincinnati, thence to W ashmgton, thence 
to Wilmington, thence to Newbern, N. C. Battles of Kmgs:on, 
March 8.9, 10, 18( '.5. Mustered out at Charlotte, N. C, July 11, 
1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling. Minnesota. 


Colonel. Alexander Wilkin. St. Paul; killed July 14, 1864, in bat- 
tle of Tupelo. Miss. 
Josiah F. Marsh, \ustin; discharged with regiment. 
Lieut Col. Josiah F. Marsh, Austin; promoted Colonel, July 27 
1864. , ... 

William Markham, Bochester; discharged with regi- 
ment, it' n 1 
Major William Markham, Bochester; promoted Lieut. Lot., 
July 27, 1864. 
Horace B. Strait, Shakopee; discharged with regi- 
Adjutant. Edward H. Cause, discharged with regiment. 
Q. Master. Johu P. Owens, discharged per order, May lo, 18bo. 


Surgeon. Chas. W. LeBoutillier. St. Anthony; died April 3, 1863, 
at St. Peter. Minn. 
Reginald H. Bingham, Winona: discharged •with regi- 
Asst. Surg. Refine W. Twitchell, Chatfield; promoted Surg. 72d 
Col'd. Inf. July 7, '64 
John Dewey. St. Paul; resigned September 11, 1863. 
John C. Dickson, discharged per order May 15, 1865. 
Edwin G. Pugsley, discharged with regiment. 
Chaplain. Aaron H. Kerr, St. Peter; discharged with regiment. 

Organized August, 1862. At frontier posts until September. 
1873. At Memphis, Teun., May, 186-1. Assigned to 16th Army 
Corps. Battle of Tupelo, July, 1864. Oxford Expedition, August 
Tallahatchie, August. Pursuit of General Price. Battles of Nash- 
ville, December. 1864 Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April, 1865. 
Discharged at Fort Snelling, August 24 1865. 


Colonel. James H. Baker, Mankato; discharged with regi- 
Lieut. Col. Samuel P. Jennison, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
Major. Michael Cook, Faribault; died Dec. 27, 1864, of wounds 

received at the battle of Nashville. 
Edwin C. Sanders, Le Sueur; discharged with regi- 
Adjutant. James C. Braden, Brownsville; discharged with regi- 
Q. Master. George W. Greene. Clinton Falls; resigned March 23, 
Eden N. Levens, Faribault; discharged with regi- 
Surgeon. Samuel B. Sheardown, Stockton; discharged with 

Asst. Surg. William W. Clark. Mankato; resigned September 20, 
Alfred H. Burnham, dismissed October 23, 1863. 
Francis H. Mi ligan, Wabasha; discharged with regi- 
Louis Proebsting, died October 31, 1864 at- Cairo, 

Cyrus A. Brooks, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 
Chaplain. Ezra R. Lathrop. resigned, October 27, 1S64. 

Organized August, 1864. Stationed at frontier posts until June, 
1863, when ordered upon Indian Expedition. Engaged with 
Indians July 24, 26, and 28. 1803. Ordered to St. Louis, Mo.. Octo- 
ber, 1N63; thence to Columbus, Ky., April, 1864; thence to Memphis 


Term., June, 1864, and assigned to 10th Army Corps. Participated 
in the following marches, battles, sieges arid skirmishes: Battle of 
Tupelo, July 13, 1865. Oxford Expedition. August. 1864. Marched 
in pursuit of Price from Brownsville, Ark , to Cape Girardeau: 
thence by boat to Jefferson City: thence to Kansas line: thence to 
St. Louis, Mo. Battles of Nashville, Tenn., December 15 and 16, 
1864. Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April, 1865. Discharged at 
Fort Snelling, Aug. 19. 1865. 


Colonel. James B. Gilfillan, St. Paul; discharged with regi- 

Lieut. Col. John Ball. Winona; discharged with regiment. 

Major. Martin Maginnis, discharged with regiment. 

Adjutant. Horatio D. Brown, discharged with regiment 

Q. Master. Martin Maginnis, promoted Major. September 13,1864. 
Nathaniel C. Gault. discharged with regiment. 

Surgeon. Henry McMahou, Fort Ripley; discharged with regi- 

Asst. Surg. Peter Gabrielson, St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 
Robert L. Morris, discharged with regiment. 

Chaplain. Charles G. Bowdish, Glencoe; discharged with regi- 
Organized August. 1864. Ordered to Nashville. Tennessee. 

Engaged in guarding railroad between Nashville and Louisville, 

until muster out of regiment, June 26. 1S65. 


Lieut. Col. Mark W. Dowuie, Stillwater; discharged with regi- 
ment, July 14.1865. 

Major. Frank Houston, St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 

Adjutant. James H. Place, St. Cloud; discharged with regiment. 

Q. Master. John W. Pride, St. Anthony; discharged with regi- 

Surgeon. John B. LeBlonde, discharged with regiment. 

Asst. Sarg. Charles H. Spear, Minneapolis; discharged with regi- 

Originally consisted of two companies, organized from the re- 
enlisted veterans, stay-over men and recruits of the First Regiment 
Minnesota Infantry Volunteers. Ordered to Washington. D. C, 
May, 1864: joined Army of the Potomac June 10th, 1864 Partici- 
pated in the following engagements: Petersburg, Va., June IS, 
1864; Jerusalem Plank Roads. Va., June 22 and 23, 186,4; Deep 
Bottom. Va.. August 11, 1804; Ream's Station, Va.. August 25, 
1864; Hatcher's Run, Va.. October 27, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1805. Company C joined March 27, 1865. Took active 
part in campaign commencing March 28, 1805, and resulting in the 
capture of Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865. Four new companies 


joined at Berksville, Ya., April, 1805. Marched from Berksville. 
Ya.. to Washington, D. C., May, 1865. Two new companies joined 
at Washington. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., June, 1803. Mustered 
out at Jett'ersonville, Ind., July 14, 180.3. Discharged at Fort 
Snelling, Minnesota, July 25, 1805. 


Colonel. William Colville, Eed Wing; discharged by order 

May, 1805. 
Lieut. Col. Luther L. Baxter, Shakopee; discharged with regi- 
ment, Sept., Ib05. 
Major Luther L. Baxter, Shakopee; promoted Lieut. Col.. 

Feb. 22, 1805. 
Orlando Eddy, discharged with regiment. 
Christopher C. Heffelfinger, discharged with regiment. 
David Misner, discharged with regiment. 
Surgeon. MiloM. Mead, Winona; discharged with regiment. 
Clinton G. Stees. St. Paul; resigned June 24, 1S05. 
Asst. Surg. Milo M. Mead, promoted, July 19, 1805. 

J. C. Rhodes, Stillwater: discharged. 
Chaplain. Charles Griswold, Winona; discharged with regiment. 
Organized April, 1865. Stationed at Chattanooga, until mustered 
out with regiment, in September, 1805. 


Francis Peteler, Captain, Anoka; promoted Lieut. Col. 2d Begt. 

U. S. S., Feb. 10, 1802. 
Benedict Hipler, 1st Lieutenant, promoted Captain, Feb. 10, 1802; 

resigned July 2 s , 1802. 
Dudley P. Chase. Minneapolis; promoted 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 10, 

1802; Captain, July 18, 1802; died of wounds in battle of 

Chancellorville, Ya. 


Wm. F. Russell, Captain; resigned Feb. 20, 1803. 

Emil A. Burger, Captain: resigned Nov. 20, 1803. 

Mahlon Black. Captain. 

Emil A. Burner, 1st Lieutenant, promoted Captain, Feb. 20, 1803. 

John W. Jones, 1st Lieutenant; resigned May 20, 1803. 

Mahlon Black, 1st Lieutenant; promoted Captain, Nov. 23, 1803. 

Louis Fitzinimons, 1st Lieutenant. 

John A. W. Jones, 2d Lieutenant: promoted 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 

Mahlon Black. 2d Lieutenant: promoted 1st Lieutenant. 
Daniel H. Priest. 2d Lieutenant. 

The company left St. Paul, Minn.. April 27,1862; reported by 
order of Maj. Gen. McClellan, to the 1st Regt. U. S. S. at Yorktown, 
Ya., May 0, 1802. May 22, 1802, by special Order No. 153, issued 


by Maj. Gen. McClellan, the company was assigned for duty with 
the 1st Minn. Vols., and on duty with that regiment from June 1, 
1S02, and participating in all the engagements and Dattles of said 
regiment until its muster out from the U. S. service. All the 
enlisted men of the company whose term of service had not then 
expired, were transferred to companies A and B of the 1st Minn, 
regiment Infantry, in pursuance of special Order No. 102. Head 
Quarters Army of the Potomac, dated April '22, 1S65. 


Colonel. Samuel MoPhail, Caledonia; discharged with regi- 

Lieut. Col. William Pfsender, New Ulm. discharged with regi- 

Major. John H. Parker. "Warsaw; discharged with regiment. 

Salmon A. Buell, St. Peter; discharged with regiment. 
Orrin T. Hayes. Hastings, discharged with regiment. 

Adjutant. William M. Pierce, Oronoco; discharged with regiment. 

Q. Master. Duncan R. Kennedy, St. Peter; discharged with regi- 

Com'issary. Edward D. Cobb. St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 

Surgeon. Josiah S. Weiser, Shakopee; killed July 21, 1863, bat- 
tle Big Mound. D. T. 

Asst. Surg. Reginald H. Bingham, Winona; resigned for promo- 
tion, May 7. 1803. 
James C. Rhodes, Stillwater; discharged with regi- 

Chaplain. Thomas E. Iuman. St. Paul; discharged with regiment. 
Organized March, 1863. Upon the frontier until May, 1803. 

Indian Expedition. Engaged with Indians, July 24, 20, 28, 1803. 

Mustered out bv companies between October 1 and December 30, 



Major. Alfred B. Brackett, St. Paul; discharged May 10, 1866. 

Originally 1st, 2d and 3d companies of this cavalry organized 
October and November, 1801. Ordered to Benton Barracks. Mo., 
December, 1801. Assigned to a regiment called Curtis' Horse. 
Ordered to Fort Henry. Tenn., February, 1802. Name of regiment 
changed to 5th Iowa Cavalry, April, 1862, as companies G, D and 
K. Engaged in sieire of Corinth. April, 1862. Ordered to Fort 
Hciman, Tenn., August, 1862. Veteranized February. 1861. Ordered 
to Department of Northwest. 1*64. Ordered upon Indian Expedi- 
tion. Engaged with Indians July 28 and August. 1864. Mustered 
out by companies, between May, 1800 and June, 1800. 


Colonel. Robert N. McLaren, Red Wing: discharged with reg- 
iment, Nov. 17, 1805. 


Lieut. Col. William Pfcender, New Ulm; discharged Dec. 7. 1865. 
Major. Ebenezer A. Rice, Wilton: discharged Dec. 5, 1865. 

John M. Thompson, Hokah; resigned May 1, 1865. 
Robert H. Hose. Belle Plaine; discharged April 2, 1SC0. 
John R. Jones, Ohatfield; discharged with regiment. 
Adjutant. John T. Morrison, Rose Mound; discharged with regi- 
Q. Master. Martin Williams, Saint Peter: discharged with regi- 
Reg. Com. Andrew J. Whitney, St. Paid; discharged with regi- 
Surgeon. Jared W. Daniels, St. Peter; discharged with regi- 
Asst. Surg. Joseph A. Vervais. St. Paul; dismissed Nov. 5. 1864. 
Johu A. McDonald, Chaska; discharged Dec. 4, 18(35, 
Charles J. Farley, St. Paul; discharged April 2, 1866. 
Chaplain. Samuel S. Paine, Champlin; discharged with regiment. 

Organized January, 1864. Indian Expedition. Engaged with 
Indians, July 28, 1864. Stationed at frontier posts and mustered 
out from Nov., 1865, to June, 1866. 


Lieut. Col. 0. Powell Adams, Hastings; discharged with battalion. 
Major. E. A. C. Hatch, St. Paul; resigned Jnne, 1864. 

C. Powell Adams, Hastings; promoted Lieut. Col., 

September 5, 1864. 
Henning Von Miudeu, St. Paul; discharged with bat- 
Assist. Surg. John L. Armington. Hastings; discharged March, 1804. 
Clinton G. Stees. Philadelphia; promoted Surgeon 1st 

Regiment Minn. Heavy Artillery. 
Hippolite J. Seigneuret, Henderson; discharged with 
Organized July 20, 1863. Ordered to Pembina. D. T.. October, 
1863. Ordered to Fort Abercrombie, D. T.. May, 1864. Stationed 
at Fort Abercrombie until mustered out. Mustered out by com- 
panies from April, 1866, to June, 1866. 


Emil Munch, Captain. Chengwatana; resigned December '25. 1862. 
William Pfander, Sen. 1st Lieut., New Ulm: resigned for commis- 
sion in Minnesota Mouuted Rangers, 
Ferd. E. Peebles, Juu. 1st Lieut.. Winona; resigned Aug. 18. 1862. 
Richard Fischer, Sen. 2 I Lieut.. New dm; resigned Aug. 18, 1862. 
G. Fred Cook, Jun. 2d Lieut., Winona; resigned October 18. 1862. 

Organized October. 1861. Ordered to St. Louis, December, 1861; 
thence to Pittsburg Landing, February, 1862. Engagedin the fol- 
lowing marches, battles, seiges and skirmishes: Shdoh. April 5th 


and 6th, 1862; siege of Corinth. April. 1862; Corinth. October 3d 
and 4th, 1862; marched from Corinth to Oxford. Miss.; thence to 
Memphis, Term. Assigned to 17th Army Corps, November, 18G2. 
Veteranized January. 1864. Ordered to "Cairo, Illinois; thence to 
Huntsville, Ala.; thence to Altoona, Ga ; thence to Ackworth, Ga.; 
battle of Kenesaw Mountain; Atlanta, July 22d and 28th; Sher- 
man's campaign through Georgia and the Carolinas. Discharged 
at Fort Sneiling, Minn., June 30, 1S65. 


W. A. Hotchkiss, Captain, Anoka; discharged with battery, Aug. 
16, 1865. 

Gustave Roseuk. Sen. 1st Lieut., St. Paul; discharged Sept. 11, 1962. 

Albert Woodbury. Jan. 1st Lieut., Anoka: died from wounds. 

Jackson Taylor. Sen. 2d Lieut,, Buffalo: resigned April 24, 1862. 

Eichard L. Dawley, Jun. 2d Lieut., St. Charles; promoted 1st Lieu- 

Organized December. 1861. Ordered to St. Louis, Mo., April, 
18G2; thence to Corinth. May, 1862. Participated in the following 
marches, battles, seiges and skirmishes. Siege of Corinth, April, 
1862; Bragg's raid. Assigned to Army of the Tennessee. Battle 
of Perryville, October Sth and 9th, 1862; Lancaster, October 12th, 
1862; Knob Gap, December 20th, 1862; Stone River, December, 
30, 1862; Tullahoma. Marched to Rome. Ga., via Stephenson, 
Ala., Caperton's Ferry and Lookout Mountain; Chickamauga, Sept. 
19 and 20, 1893; Mission Ridge; Ringgold, Georgia. Marched to 
Relief of Knoxville, Tenn.; Buzzards Roost Gap. Veteranized 
March, 1864. Nashville. Dee. 15 and 16. 186-1. Mustered out July 
13, 1865. Discharged at Fort Sneiling. 


John Jones, captain. St. Paul; discharged ■with battery. 

John C. Whipple, Sen. 1st Lieut. Faribault; discharged with bat- 

Horace H. "Western. Jun. 1st Lieut., St. Paul; discharged with 

Dr. A. Daniels Sen. 2d Lieut. Rochester; resigned L>ec. 29, 1865. 

Gad M. Duelle, Jun. 2d Lieut., Lake City: discharged with battery. 

Organized February, 1863. Ordered upon Indian Expedition 
of 1863; participated in engagement with Indians. July 24, 26 and 
28, 1863; stationed at frontier posts until May, 1864, when entered 
upon Indian Expedition of 1864. Engaged with Indians July 28, 
1864, and August, 1864; upon return of expedition, stationed at 
frontier posts until muster out of battery, Feb. 27, 1866, 





Air.l George, Indian trader 49 

Aird James, Indian trader 48 

Accau (Ako) Michel, explora- 
tion of 12, 17 

Sent by LaSalle 1'.' 

Hennepin accompanies him 12 

Stopped by Sioux 13 

Acker Capt. W. H 103, 204 

Adams Lieut, Col., wounded... 24-8 
Alexander Lt. W., at Ft. Spell- 
ing 84 

Aldrich Cyrus, Member of Con- 
gress 268, 269 

Allen Lieut. James, at Itasca 

Lake 94 

Ames A. E . early lawyer 148 

Anderson Thomas (1., early tra- 
der at Lac-qai-parle 47, 49 

his half-bred daughter 49 

in command of Fort McKay 56 
Andriani, Italian Count, stric- 
tures on North West Company 43 

Andrews Gen. C. C 229, 253, 255 

Andrews Joseph, killed by Sis- 

seton Sioux 72 

Arnold (apt. J. K 254 

Angelle Anthony, the Pieard. an 
associate of Accau and Hen- 
nepin ._ 12 

Austin Gov. Horace, administra- 
tion of 259 

notice of_ 259 

Ayer Frederick, Ojibway mis- 
sionary ice, 109, 123 


Babcock L. A 148 

BackusMiss, first teacher atFalls 

of St. Anthony 175 

Raillv Alexis, early trader 73, 135 

Baker Col K. D., killed 206 

Baldwin School, see Macalester 


Bank Robbery at Northfield 262 

Bardw.ll. Ojibway missionary.. 123 

Bass J. W'.. early settler 132 

Battle of Bidl Hun 198,205 

Ball's Bluff. 206 

Birch Coolie 237 

Chattanooga 251, 252 

Corinth 219, 221 

Fair Oaks 216 


Battle of Fredericksburg 223 

Gettysburg 246, 250 

luka 219 

Savage Station 217 

.Malvern Hill 218 

Mill Spring 208 

Nashville 254 

Perryville 228 

Pittsburg Landing 210 

Sharpsburg.. 218 

Tupelo 253 

West Point, Va 215 

Vicksbnrg 215 

Wood Lake 237 

Yorktown, Va., siege of 213 

Beardash, an eccentric Ojib- 
way 44 

Beauharnois, Governor of Cana- 
da 26 

Fort at Lake Pepin 20 

Beciit Major 253 

Belcourt G. A., Roman Catholic 

Missionary 123 

Beltrami G. B., at Fort Snelling 74 

accompanies Major Long... 74 
reaches Northern sources of 

Mississippi 75 

mentions Elk Lake as west- 
ern source "5 

his Map .. . . 76 

Bilanski Michael, poisoned 170 

wife of hung ._ 171 

Bishop Harriet E., first school 

teacher in St. Paul 174, 175 

Bishop Gen. Judson W., in com- 
mand of Second Regiment 251 

military record 251 

Black River of Wiscon-in, Hu- 

rons near 7, 8 

Blake, drummer boy 209 

BlakelyC. H., Adjutant 207 

Blukely David, acting Supt. of 

Public Instruction 181 

Blue Earth River explored 23 

supposed mines near 23 

Fort on 23 

D'Eraque visits 23 

Boal J. M., early St. Paul settler 139 
Boisguillot, early trader n.-ar 

mouth of Wi-consin river 18 
Borgesrode Rudolph, Col. of 5th 

Regiment 219 

Boucher Jean (Sieur Montbuml 

at Fort Beauharnois 23 



Boucher captured by Indians — 27 
Pierre describe-* Lake Supe- 
rior copper mines — . 9 
Rene (Sieur de la Perriere) 
builds Fort Beaoharnois at 

Lake Pepin 26 

Boncherv ille Sieur do '27 

Boudor, trader to the Sioux, at- 
tacked by Fox Indians 24 

Bontillier C.W.,Asst.Surgeon 1st 

Minnesota Regiment. 202, 204 

Boutwell Rev. W. T., first Ojib- 
way missionary in Minne- 
sota 10*, 109 

companion of II. R. School- 
craft at Itasca Lake 95, 109 

at Leech Lake 109 

visits Fort Snelling.. Ill 

commended by Nicollet 90. 97 

marriage of 110 

his cabin at Leech Lake Ill 

settles near Stillwater, 108 

Bradlev, Major Seventh Reg't. . . 238 

Breck Rev. J . Lloyd 177 

Bremer Fredrika, Swedish nov- 
elist, describes St, Paul.. 146. 147 
Bridge, first across the Mississ- 
ippi 156 

Brigade, Franklin's at Bull Run 201 
Brigham, Reginald, Surgeon 2d 

Regiment 207 

Brisbin, J. B., early lawyer. 157-62 

Brisbois, Lt. in British service.. 55 
British Fort at Prairie du Chien 56 
British influence in Northwest.. 53-54 

Brooks, Rev. David 189 

Brooks, Rev. .Jazeb 1*9 

Brooks, Lt. Col., of Mississippi 
captured at Bull Bun by J. B. 

Irvine of St. Paul 200 

Brother, letter about a dead 209 

Brown's Falls (Minnehaha) 69 

Brown, Jacob, Gen. U. S. Army 68 
Brown, Joseph R., drummer boy 

at Fort Suelling 77 

Keeps a grog shop for sold- 
iers 104,5 

Member of Wisconsin Leg- 
islature 127,2* 

Makes a town site near 

Stillwater 127 

Secretary of Council, 1^19 141 
Brown, W. C., Baptist minister 

at Stillwater ... 176 

Branson, Rev. A., Methodist 

Missionary 127 

Bruce, agent for Sioux 172 

Brule (Broolay) Stephen, early 

ex pi on t 5 

Brusky i Brooskey) Charles, trad- 
er at Sandy Lake 43 

Buffalo in Red River VaUey 45 

Bulger, Capt., surrenders Fort 

McKay, at Prairie du Chien .. 57 
Bulwer, Sir K. L., translator of 
Schiller's Poem 34 

Burgess, color bearer of First 
Minnesota Infantry, killed at 
Savage Station, Va 217 

Burkleo, early settler in Saint 
Croix Valley 127 

Burnside, Gen. Ambrose at Bull 
Run 202,3 

Burt, Dr., Supt. of Public Di- 
straction . .. 177 

Butler, Levi, Surgeon Third 
Regiment 207 


Cadotte, J. B., Red River trader 42 

Calhoun, Lake, origin of name. 7'.* 

Cameron, Red River trader 45 

Deathof 45 

Cameron, Murdoch, trader in 

Minnesota Valley - 52 

Deathof 41 

Cameron, Secretary of War 193 

Campbell, Colin, interpreter for 

Sioux 55,-72 

Campbell. John 55 

Camp Cold Water 71 

Capitol at St. Paul burned 265 

Carver, Capt. Jonathan, early 

life of 32 

Discovers cave in Saint Paul 33 
Describes Falls of St. Anth- 
ony 33 

Ascends Minnesota river 33 

Describes funeral rites ...... 33 

Reports speech of Sioux 

Chief 33 

Speech versified by Schiller. 34 
Translation by Bulwer and 

Herschell 34,35 

His alleged deed for . Sioux 

land 36 

Grandsons of, visit Minne- 
sota 63 

His picture of Falls of St. 

Ant hony 35 

Carver's Cave, description 33,61 

Carver's Cave. Maj. Long visits 33,64 

Kohl. J. {}.. visits 33 

Nicollet and Fremont visit.. 33 
Cass, Gov. Lewis at ('amp Lold 

Water, near Fort Snelling 71 

Cavanaugh, J. M., member of 

( 'ongre-s 268 

Chabouillier, Charles, trader.... 12 

Chaffee. Chaplain J- F 219 

Chagouamigon Bay, first visit of 

white man <> 

Trading post at *_> 

Champlain, Samuel •> 

Charleville describes Falls of St 

Anthony 2b 

Charlevoix, Cr.ticism of Hen- 
nepin 17 

Chippewa Indians, see Ojibways 
Chouart, Medard, see Groseill- 



Clark, Charlotte 68 

Clark, Capt. Nathan, D. S. A.... 68 
Clark, Lt. George A., U. S. vol- 
unteers : ... 244 

Clark, Governor of Missouri... 54, 57 
Crary, B. F., Supt. of Instruc- 
tion ISO 

Clayton. Lt. at Corinth 221 

Coares. Capt. H. A., his report 

on Gettysburg battle 246,50 

Cobb, Chaplain D 285 

Coe, Rev. Alvan, missionary, 

visits in l s 2y Fort Snelling. .. 107 
Collins, frank E.. Q. M Sergt.. 226 
Colville. Col. VV illiam, wound- 
ed at Gettysburg 246, 249 

Constitutional Convention 163. til 

Constitution, amendment- of... 167 
Cook, Lt. at Pittsburg Landing 212 
Cooper, David, territorial judge 137 
Copper mines of Lake Superior 

early mention of 9, 10 

Cotton, an early Red River 

trader 45 

Courts, first in Minnesota 137,3 s ! 

Cressey, Chaplain!'. R 270 

Creuxius, Map of 10 

Crooks, William, Col. of 6th 

Regiment 239 

Cross, A*st. Surgeon 4th Regi- 
ment 219 

Crosses of silver sold by traders 31 


DaCosta, Chaplain 5th Mass. 

Vols 201 

Dakotahs see Sioux. 

Dana, Col. N. J. T 206, 215 

Dart, Capt. J. R 227 

Davenport, Col. D. 8. A 101 

Davis, Gov. Cushman K., notice 

of 260 

His administration 260,61 

Day, Dr. David, Speaker of 4th 
territorial House of Repre- 
sentatives 153 

Deace, Capt. in command at 

Prairie du Chien 54 

DeCharleville see Charleville. 
DeGrey. Lt. wounded at Gettys- 
burg 248 

De la Jemeraye see Jemerm/e. 

DeLisle, maps of 24. 25 

De Lu:-ignan visits the Sioux. .. 29 

Dengle, of 1-t Minn. Vols 202 

Denton, a Sioux missionary 123 

D'Eraque, robbed by Sioux 23 

In < Large of blue Karth 

Fort 24 

D'F-prit Pierre see Radifton. 
D'lU'i-ville, Cov.of Louisiana. 20,22 
De Peyster, British i ommander 

at Mackinaw 36 

Devotion, the tirst sutler at Fort 
Snelling . 70 

Dickson, Col Robert, influential 

trader.. .53, 54, 55. 57, 61, 62, 74, SO, 81 
Dike, Major W. H., 1st Minn. 

Vols 205 

Dodge, (Governor, of Wisconsin, 
makes a treaty at Fort Stall- 

Donnelly, Lt. Governor 191.93 

Member of Congress '.tin 
Downie. Major 1st Minn. Vols.. 105 
JDu Conor, a Jesuit at Lake 

Pepin 27 

Du Lath, Daniel Greysolon, early 

lifeof 10 

Various spellings of his 

name 10 

Plants Kings Arms at Mille 

Lacs 11 

£.-tabiishes a fort at Knman- 

istigoya 11 

Descends the St. Croix river 11. 12 

At Falls of St. Anthony 12 

Meets Hennepin 12 

His tour from Lake Superior 

to Mississippi 12 

Visits Paris 17 

Trades with Sioux 17 

Builds a fort at entrance of 

Lake Huron 17 

Dunnell, Mark H., Supt. of Pub- 
lic Instruction 1^2 

Member of Congress 270 


Edgerton, A. J..U. S. Senator 
to till a vacancy _ 277 

Education in Minnesota 172-89 

Elk Lake, now Itasca. 75, 94, 05, 97, BS 


Ely, Edmund F., teacher at Ojib- 
way mission stations 109. 117,120 123 

Emerson, surgeon at Fort Snell- 
ing complains of whisky sell- 
ers 104 

Ethridge, Surgeon U. S. Vols.. . 219 

Falls of St. Anthony, first white 

men at '- 

First mill at 73,71,75 

Mentioned by La Salle 13 

Described by Charleville 26 

( 'apt. Carver at 33 

Visited by Lt. Z. M. Pike... 52 

Visited by Maj. Long ^'"'•L". 

Religions services at 176 

First schools at 175 

First newspaper 1*9 

Bridge, tirst on the Mississ- 
ippi R-* 5 

Steamboats near 83,144 

Falls of St. Croix, fight at 1W 

Faribault. J. t!.. Indian trader. . 51 
Farrell, Capt., killed at Gettys- 
burg 249 



Featherstonhaugh, geologist at 

Fort Snelling 95 

Fisk, Chaplain Asa 8 210 

Flandrau, Col. .defends New Ulm 236 
Flat Mouth Ojibway Chief at 

Leech Lake 101 

At Fort Snelling 86 

Attacked by Sioux 87 

Vengance of grat itied 88, 89 

Forsyth, Major Thomas, arrives 
at Minnesota River with the 

U. 8. Troops 68 

Fort Beauhaniois established A. 
• D.1727, at Lake Pepin by Sieur 

de la Perriere 26 

Commanded by St. Pierre. .. 29 
Fort La Heine, on River Assine- 

boine 29 

Fort Le Sueur, below Hastings. . 21 
Fort L'Huillier, on Blue Earth 

River 23 

Built by Le Sueur 23 

Left in charge of D'Eraque. 21 

Fort Maurepas 28 

Mc Kay, Frairie du Chien. .. 56, 57 

Perrot, at Lake Pepin.. IS 

Shelby at Prairie du Chien. . 55 
Fort Snelling, site secured by 

Lt. Pike 52 

Order to establish the post.. 68 
Troops for, at Prairie du 

Chien 68 

Birth of Charlotte Ouiscon- 

sin Clark 68 

Events of A. I>. 1819 69 

Major Forsyth pays Sioux 

for reservation 68 

Col. Leavenworth arrives at 

Mendota 69 

First officers at Cantonment 69 

Red River men arrive at 70 

Events of A. D. 1*20 70, 72 

Major Taliaferro, Indian 

Agent at 70 

Troops at Camp Cold Water 71 
Cass and Schoolcraft visits. 71 
Col. Snelling succeeds Leav- 
enworth 72 

Impressive scene at 72 

Advance in building 73 

Events of A. D. 1822, A. D. 

1823 71,75 

First steamboat at 71 

Beltrami, the Italian at 74 

MajorS. H. Long arrives at ^ 75 

Government mill near 76,77 

Sunday School at 77 

Events of A. D. 1824 71 

Tully boys rescued 7s 

General Scott suggests name 

forfort 79 

Events of A. D. 1825 and 

1826 81 

Death of Surgeon Purcell.. Ml 

Mail, arrival at 81 

Sioux woman kills herself.. »'l 

Fort Snelling, Great snow storm 

March. 1826 82 

High water at. April 21. 1826 S3 
Slaves belonging to officers, 

at S3 

Steamboat arrivals until 

close of 1826 83 

Duels at *4 

General Haines censures Col- 
onel SnelJing 84 

W. Joseph Snelling, son of 

Colonel, notice of St 

Events of A. D. 1-27 ^S 

Flat Mouth, Ojibway chief, 

visits in 1*27 *6 

Attacked by Sioux -6 

Soldiers arrest Sioux *7 

Col. Snelling delivers mur- 
derers for examination. .. . B7 
Keel boats from, attacked.. 89, 90 

Death of Col. Snelling 92 

Rev. Alvan Co e in 1*29 

preached at 107 

J. N. Nicollet arrives at 96 

Surgeon R. C. Wood marries 94 
Sioux end Ojibways fight 

near 102,104 

Annoyed by whisky sellers. . 104 

Presbyterian church at 113 

Steamer Palmyra at, in July, 
1838, with notiee of ratifi- 
cation of Indian treaties. . 126 
Fort St. Antoine. Lake P^pin ... is 20 
Fort St. Anthony, now Snelling 79 
Fort St. Charles, on Lake of the 

Woods ... 28 

Fort St. Joseph, on Lake Frie. 

established by Du Luth 17 

Fort St Pierre, on Rainy Lake. 28 
Franklin, Sir John, relics of, 

pass through St. Paul 157 

Franklin's Brigade at Bull Run _-"l 

Franquelin, maps of 17, 1'.' 

Eraser, British trader 51, 54 

Fremont, John C, at Carver's 

Cave 33 

French. Adjt. Alpheus R 219 

Fronchet, Nicollet's voyageur... 96 
Fuller, Judge Jerome, Territo- 
rial Chief Justice 1"1 

Furber, J. W. early settler 162 


Galena lead mines discorered by 

Perrot 20 

Galtier, Rev. L., erects first 
chapel in St. Paul 116 

Gamelle, wife of, killed by Ojib- 
ways 120 

Gardner, Charles, early settler.. l^i 
Family attacked by Inkpa- 
dootah's band 159 

Gavin, Daniel, missionary among 
Siou x 123 

Gear, Chaplain E. G 112 



Gibson, General, letters about 

St. Anthony null '6, 

George, Col. Jas. C, at Chieka- 


Giltillan, Rev. J. A., Protestant 
Episcopal Indian missionary, 

visits Elk Lake • 

GiliiUan, John B., member of^ 

Congress ,"T'- 

Glazier, Villard, a pretended 


Goodhue James M„ first editor 

in Minnesota 136, 

death of 

Goodrich Judge Aaron M..137, 140, 

Gooding, t'apt. U. S. Army, his 

wife first white woman at 

Falls of St. Anthony _ 

Gorman, Governor W. A 154, 

Col. of First Minnesota ...194, 

his report of Bull Hun 201, 

Gorman's brigade 212, 21 1. 215, 

Gorrell Lt. James, first English 

officer at Green Bay 

Graham Duncan, Indian trader. 

daughter of • 

Grand Forks of Bed River, Sel- 
kirk's treaty at 

Grant Peter, early Red River 


Grasshopper invasion 

♦Jravier, Jesuit missionary cen- 
sures Hennepin 

Greeley Elani, early settler 117. 

Griggs" Lieut. Col. C. W.. refuses 

to surrender 

Groseilliers i Gro-zay-yay lone of 
first white men in Minne- 

notice of : 

explores Lake Superior 

discovers UhegouamigonBay 

visits refugee Hurons 

enters Sioux country 

discovers tributary to Hud- 
son's Bay. 

Groseillier's River ... 

Guerin, companion of Jesuit 


Guignas, Jesuit Missionary at 

Lake Pepin 

captured by Indians 


Hadley Major J. A 

Hall Rev. Sherman.Ojibway mis- 

early education 

arrival at La Pointe Island.. 

his wife, first white woman 

at extremity of Lake Supe - 


Hamline University 

Hancock (Jen. \V. S., at Gettys- 

Hancocks' Corps 













, 128 








Harley Lieut., wounded at Bull 

Run - 

Harmon Lieut. SVm., account of 
battle at Savage Station. . . 

Harris, early trader ■• 

Harrower H. D., exposes the 
pretensions of WiHard 


Haskell Joseph, pioneer farmer 

Heaney Adjt. Daniel D 

Heffelfinger Lt., at Gettysburg 
Heintzelman (ien. S. P., report 

of Bull Run battle 199 

Hennepin Louis, a Dutch Fran- 
ciscan accompanies the 

trader Accauit 12 

enters Sioux country below 

St. Paul 12.15 

at Falls of St. Anthony I* 

metbyDuLuth 1- 

retumfl with Du Luth to 

Mackinaw ■• " 

his book criticised by rat ti- 
ers Gravier and Charlevoix 1/ 

Hennepin county created wl 

Hennis C. J., editor . . . . .... . . » s 

Henry Alexander,of North \\ est 

Company • *■ 

trader in Red River valley. .. 44 
establishes a post at Park 

River .-•■•■•. •• 

describes the first Red River 


visits Red Lake River. 

Herschell Sir John, translates 
Schiller's poem on Sioux 

Chief ;,--Vo----- 

Hesse, sub-trader in Red River 

valley • ••■ ' 

Historical Society, first public- 

Hobart Rev. C ■■ •■ lia 

Hole-in-the-Day. the elder, at- 

tacks Sioux JJJJ 

visits FortSnelling - J [- 

attack-d by Sioux 102, 103 

Hole-in-the-l»ay, the younger, 
son of the former, attacks 

Sioux near St, Paul I* 3 

Holcomb Capt. William, early 

settler in St. Croix valley . . 

Howe, early settler in St. Croix 

valley : .•■ 

Hopkins Rev. Robert, Sioux mis- 

sionary • - •• .- 

Hosford Amanda, early teacher ^ i; 
Hotchkiss Cai>t.W\ A........ •---■„.- 

Hoyt. Captain of Third regun t - 
Hubbard Lucius K. I olonel ot o . 

Fifth Regiment ■ -'J 

report cf ' •« 

Governor of State.... ..... ■• 

Hoggins Alexander G., mission 

fanner ;"i"v;"! 

Hunter Lieut. David,, fights a 

duel at Fort Snellmg °** Ba 








Hunter, General,and wounded at 

BullRun 202 

Huron territory proposed 13u 

Hnrons driven to Minnesota — 7 

flee to Central Wisconsin 7 

visited by white men 7 


Inkpadootah's massacre of white 

settlers 158, 1»52 

Ireland Chaplain John 219 

Irvine CaptainJavanB., letter on 

Bull Run battle 193,201 

John R., wife of 175 

Corporal W. N., grasps Reg- 
imental colors at Gettys- 
burg ... .. 250 

Isle Peleei Pelay ) below Hastings 

site of Le Sueur's fort.. .. . 21 
Isle Rojale of Lake Superior, 
discovered by Groseiiliers 

and Kadisson 9 

Itasca, a jargon of Latin 95 

Itasca (Elk i Lrfke, suggested by 
Beltrami as the western 

source of Mississippi. 75, 76 

visited by Schoolcraft 94, 95 

explored by Nicollet 97, 99 

visited by U. S. Surveyors... 100 

" in 1872 by Chambers 100 

bv Rev. J. A.Gilfillan 100 

Iaka, battle of 219 


Jackson Henry, early settler in 

Paul 129 

Jarrot N icholas 53 

Jarvis, Surgeon at Fort Snelling 117 
Jemeraye Sieur de la, at fori on 

Lake Pepin 26 

nephew of V'erandrie 28 

explores Groseiiliers or Pig- 
eon river 28 

Jensison Lt.Col. S. P., wounded 255 

Johnson Gen. R. W 250 

Sir William .. 31 

Judd, early settler in St. Croix 

valley 127 


Kaposia band of Sioux request 

a missionary 172 

Dr. Williamson at 122, 172 

Kay Alexander. British trader, 

reckless life of 38, 41 

Keel-boat- fromFortSnelling at- 
tacked fcfl. 91 

Kennedy Surgeon, V. P 219 

Kerrot, wounded at Bull Hun. .. 204 
Kin;,' W. S., Member of ( 'ongress -J71 
Kingsbury W. \V„ delegate to 

Congress 267 

Kittridge Serg't Major, com- 
mended 22ti 

Kittson Norman W, 129 

Laidlow. of Selkirk settlement, 

at Fort Snelling 70, 81 

carries wheat in boat from 
Prairie duChiento Selkirk 

settlement 70 

Lake Harriet mission describedlll, 115 

Pokeguma mission 117 

battle at. lis. ug i 120 
of the Woods first visited by 

white men. 28, 29 

Lamson kills Little Crow, the 

Sioux chief 

Land slide at Stillwater. ....... 

La Perriere Sieur de la, builds 
Fort Beauharnois at Lake 


LaSalle, first o describe Upper 

Mississippi valley 

employs Accault to trade 

with Indians 

his poor opinion of Henne- 

Lawrence Phineas, early settler 

Leach Adj't W. H 20 

Calvin, early settler 128 

Lead mines on Mississippi JO 

Described by Penicaut 

Leavenworth Colonel, establish- 
es Fort Snelling 

Arrival at Mendota 

changes his cantonment 

relieved by Snelling 

Le Due W. G.. editor .. 

legislature. First Territorial. 

meets Jan., 1849, officers of 

Second Territorial, meets 

Jan., 1851, officers of 148 

Third Territorial, meets Jan 

1852, officers of 151 

Fourtii Territorial, meets 

Jan., 1853, officers of 153 

Fifth Territorial, meets Jan 

1854, officers of 15u 

Sixth Ten itorial, me^ts Jan 

1855, officers of 156 

Seventh Territorial, meets 

Jan , 1856, officers of 

Eighth Territorial, meets 

Jan.. 1357, officers of 

Special Territorial, 1857 

First State 164, 168 

Second State. January, I860. 169 

Third State, Jan., 1861 171 

Fifth State. Jan., 1863 '-•>• 

I^egro Capt. at luka 219 

Le Sueur, associated with Perrot 
builds- a fort below Hastings 

a relative cf DTberville 20 

at Cake Pepin in 1685 and 1689 
at La Pointe of Lake Supe- 
rior, 1692 

builds a post below Hastings 

brings hist Sioux chief to 
















Le Saear visits France 22 

arrives in Gulf of Mexico..,. 22 

ascends the Mississippi. 22 

at the river St. Croix 23 

builds Fort L'Huillier 23 

holds a council with the 

Sioux 23,24 

returns to Gulf of Mexico... 24 
sails with DTberville to 

France 24 

Libbey Washington, pioneer at 

St. Croix Falls 126 

Little Crow, Sioux chief, leader 

in the massacre of 1862 

230, 239,241,243 
Long Major Stephen H„ tour to 
falls of St. Anthony, A. D. 

1817 63 

at Wapashah village 63 

Kaposia village 61 

Carver's cave, St. Paul 64 

Fountain cave. " " 65 

St. Anthony Falls 66, 67 

arrives at Fort Snelling, A. 

D.. 1823 75 

Looniis Capt. tiustavus A., U. S. 

Army 113 

Eliza marries Lieut. Ogden . 113 

D. B.. early settler 148 

Loras, Roman Catholic bishop 

of Dubuque 116 

Louisiana, transfer of 50 


Macalester College 188 

Mackinaw, mission at 107 

Kobert Stuart, ageDt of fur 

company at.. Rfi 

W. M. Ferry, missionary at.. 107 
Maginuis, makes a claim at Falls 

of St. Croix. 125 

Mahkahto county created 181 

Map of Belt rami 76 

De Lisle 29 

Nicollet 98, 99 

Ochagach. the Indian 28 

Marest. Jesuit missionary IK 

Marin.' Mills, esirlv -ettlers at 126, 127 

Marshall, Gov. William K. 131 

military service 237, 254, 255 

notice of . 258 

Mason Lt,, wounded at Gettys- 
burg 219 

Mayakutamani Paid, friendly 

Sioux 230 

Martin ("apt. L. B., of Fourth 
Minnesota raises tiag on 

Capitol at Jack-on. Miss... 241 

MeCaslin at Savage Station 217 

MeGlllis Hugh, trader at Leech 

Lake, visited by Pike 5! 

McKean Elias, early settler 12s 

McKune Capt., killed at Get- 
tysburg 200 

McKusiek John, early settler.... 471 

McLaren B't Prig. Gen. II. N.. . . 23s 

McLean Nathaniel, editor. 140 

McLeod Martin, speaker of 

council 153 

McMillan S. J. R., U. S. Senator 265 

notice of 275 

Medary Gov. Samuel 162 

Meeker B. B., Territorial Judge 137 

Menard, Jesuit missionary lost 8, 9 
Messick Capt., killed at Gettys- 

burg .... _ 248,249 

Methodist missionaries 121 

Mill. First in Minnesota 76,77 

Miller, Governor Stephen. notice 
of Lt. Col. of 1st Regiment at 

Bull Run 204 

Col. of 7th R-giment 240 

Brig. General Vols., notice 

of • 258 

Milligan, F. R., Asst. Surgeon.. 207 
Minnesota, meaning of word.. .133, 34 

Historical Society 141 

Territory proposed bounda- 
ries 131 

Convention at Stillwater 132 

Territory organized 133 

First courts 13 4 

First election 139 

First Indian hung 156 

First white person hung — 171 

Seal of 112 

Recognized as State 165 

Soldiers 1st Battery 

208, 210,211,220, 252 

2d Battery 218, 53 

3d Battery 229 

Officers of Battery 292 

Heavy artillery 289 

Cavalry I Rangers) _ 204 

Cavalry (Rrackett's) officers 

of 290 

Cavalry, 2d Regiment, offi- 
cers of 29 91 

Cavalry (Hatch's) 291 

Inf'y Battai ion 253 

1st Reg. Infv. must'd 194 

1st Reg. visits St. Paul 194 

1st Reg. presented with a 

Hag 191 

1st Chaplain's 'address 195 

1st list of start officers. 195, 278. 279 

1st at Washington Vf* 

1st near Alexandria ltN 

1st at Bull Run 198, 205 

1st at Edward's Ferry '205 

1st at Ball's Bluff 21*5 

1st near Winchester 213 

1st at siege of Yorktowu...213. 211 

1st at West Point 215 

1st at Fair Oaks 216 

1st at Peach Orchard 217 

1st at Savage Station 217 

lstat Malvern Hills 217 

1st at Antietam . . . . ; 21 -> 

lstat Fredericksburg 228 

1st at Gettysburg 245,250 



Minnesota, 1st at Bristow Station 252 
1st at banquet at Washing- 
ton 252 

1st last parade 2515 

2d Rest officers 207. 279, 280 

2d Regt. at Mill Springs 208 

2d Regt. at Chickamauga . . , . '.'50 

2d Refit, return '. '0 

3d Rest, officers 207, 280, 2 1 

3d Regt. unfortunate 229 

3d Regt. discharged 255 

4th Regt. officers 219, 2^2, 233 

4th Regt. at luka 219 

4th Regt. at Corinth 219 

4th Regt. report of 219 

4th Regt. at Port Gibson .... 244 

4th Regt. at Raymond 241 

4th Kegt. at Jac • son 244 

4th Regt. at Vicksburg 241 

4tti Regt. with (Jen. Sherman 254 

4th Regt. discharged 255 

5th Regt. officers 219, 283 

5th Regt. goes to seat of war 218 

5th Regt. near Corinth 219 

5th Regt. near Jackson 245 

5th Regt. before Vicksburg. 245 

5th Regt. at Tupelo 253 

5th Regt.. at Nashville 254 

5th Regt. discharged 255 

6th Rf>gt., officers of 234, 85 

6th Regt. near Mobile 255 

6th Regt. discharged 255 

7th Regt.. officers of 235 

" 7th Regt. at Nashville 251 

7th Regt. discharged 255 

8th Kegt,. officers of 286 

8th Regt. near Murfreesboro 254 

8th Regt. discharged 255 

9th Regt , officers of 2S7, 288 

9th Regt. at Nashville 254 

9th Regt. at Tupelo 253 

9th Regt. discharged 255 

10th Regt , officers of 287 

10th Regt. at Tupelo 253 

10th Regt. at Nashville 251 

10th Regt. near Mobile 255 

10th Regt. discharged 255 

11th Regt . , officers of 28* 

Sharpshooters, Co. A 207 

Sharpshooters, Co. B 289 

Mitchell. A. M., U. S. Marshal.. 139 

Mission Stations, Mackinaw 106 

LaPointe 108 

Leech Lake 109 

Yellow Lake...., 109 

Lake Harriet 113, U 

Lac-qni Parle 113, 10 

Pokeguma 109 

Kaposia Ill 

Traverse de Sioux Ill 

Shakpay Ill 

Oak drove Ill 

Red Wing Ill 

Missionaries. Kev.Alvan Coe vis- 
its Fort Snelling 107 

Adams, M.N 122 

Missionaries. Frederick Ayer 103 

Branson, A 121 

W. T. Bout well 109, 10, 11 

Breck,.). L 124 

E. F. Ely, (teacher) 109,117 

Mr. Denton Ill 

Sherman Hall 108 

Daniel Gavin 123 

John F, Aiton 122 

Holton 121 

Robert Hopkins 122 

Gideon II. Pom I Ill 

Samuel W. Pond 111,13 

Pope 121 

J. W. Hancock 122 

Spates 121 

Spencer, his wife murdered. 121 

J.D. Stevens 107 

S. R. Riggs 121 

T. S. Williamson, M.I) 112 

Montbrnn captured by Indians. 27 

Morgan, Capt . Geo 206, 273 

Morrow, \V. H., wounded 209 

Moss. II. L.. U. S. Attorney.... 137 

Munch. Capt., wounded 211, 221 

Mailer, Capt., killed at Gettys- 
burg 248 

Murphy, Surgeon J. H„ com- 
mended 226 


Nadouessionx, see Sioux 

NeillRev. Edward D 141, 175 

Nelson Knute, member of Con- 
gress 272 

Newspaper tirst in St. Paul, the 

Pioneer 139 

Minnesota Register 139 

Minnesota Chronicle 139 

Chronicle and Register 110 

Carrier's Address 142 

Dakotah Friend 143 

Minnesota Democrat 143 

St. Anthony Express 139 

Nicoiet, Jean, first white trader 

in Wisconsin 5 

Nicollet J. N., astronomer and 

geolist 96, 100, 102 

Letter from St. Anthony 

Falls 101, 102 

Noble Mrs. captured by Sioux. . . 150 

Norris J. S., early farmer 127 

North J. W 119 

Northup Anson 205 

Norton Daniel S.. U. S. Senator 274 
None Robertel de la, re-occupies 
Uu Luth's post at the head 

of Lake Superior 28 


Ochagach, draws a map for Ve- 

randrie 28 

O'Brien H. D., at Gettysburg.. . 247 



Ogden Lt. E., married at Fort 


Ojibways tUhippeways) with Le 

bueur at Montreal 

fight with Sioux at Tongue 


killed near Fort SneLling. A. 

D, 1S26 

visit fort A. I). I s '- 

conflict with Sioux near Fort 

Snelling .-6, 87, 

of Lake I'okeguma attackedllS, 

attack Kaposia Sioux 

Treaty of lsi7 

attack Sioux near St. Paul . . 
attack Sioux in St. Paul 


kill a Sioux girl in a farm 


Olin Adjt. H. «: 

Olmstead S. B 

Olmsted D. B., candidate for _ 

Congress 146, 

One-eyed Sioux see Tah-ma-hah 

Ossiniboia. origin of name 

Owens John P., editor 







Park River, post established by 

Alexander Henry ^ 

Parker Albert, of 2d regiment, 
letter to parents after his 

brother was killed 209 

Parrant, of Pig's eye (St. Paul) 129 
Parsons Kev. J. P.. early Baptist 

minister 1"3 

Peebles Lt 212 

Peller, Adj't of first regiment 

wounded 218 

Penicaut, accompanies Le Sueur 20, 21 
Perrot Nicholas winters on 
banks of Misss>sippi, be- 
low Lake Pepin 18 

establishes Fort St. Antoine 
on east shore of Lake Pe- 
pin 1S 

discovers lead mines 20 

Pennesha (Pinshom Indian tra- 
der.. 32 

Perkins E. P., wounded at Get- 
tysburg 249 

Perriam ('apt. at Gettysburg 

killed 218 

Peters Rev. Samuel 80 

Peyton Capt Bailie, Confederate 

officer killed 209 

Pfaender Capt., of 1st battery... 210 
Phelps \V. \\\, member of Con- 
gress 268 

Pieard, French trader see Augelle 

Pike, Lt. Z. JVL, U. S Army 51 

Council with Sioux at mouth 

of Minnesota 51 

Treaty for site for military 
post 52 

Pike, Description of Falls of St. _ 

Anthony 7 

Lost Hag brought back 

Hlock house at Swan river. . 

Visited by Dickson 

At (ass or Bed Cedar Lake . 

At Sandy Lake 

■ At Leech Lake 

,-* Orders the British flag to be 

hauled down 

Pillsbury, Gov. John S.,in office 

for three terms 161- 

Secures settlements of rail- 
road bonds 

Notice of 

Poehler, Henry, member of Con- 

Pond, Kev. G. H.. assists in bury- 
ing slaughtered Sioux 

Interpreter at treaty of 1851 

Pond, Peter, erects trading post 

in 1774 on banks of Minnesota 


His map 

Pond, Kev. Samuel W., notifies 

the agent of a Sioux war party 

Erects the first house of -aw 

e J lumber in the Minnesota 


Prepares a Sioux spelling- 

Grammar ■•-•• 

Porlier, trader near Sioux hap- 

Poupon, isadore, killed by Sisse- 

ton Sioux • 

Prairie du Chien during war of 


Fort Shelby at 

McKay at 

British officers at 

Prescott, Lt. G. W •• 

" Philander, Indian trad- 






1 -57 


Quinn, Peter 10 - 


Radisson, Sieur 

Explorer of Lake Superior. 

Visits pictured rocks 

" ChagouamigeoBay — 

" Huron refuges 

Enters Sioux country 
Eae, Doctor, Arctic explorer, in 

St. Paul.... 

Railroad agitation 

bonds 16i,.16f 

first ten miles of in 

Minnesota ••■ 

Ramsey, Alexander, first Gover- 

Organizes Territory . 


17' i 



Ramsey, Arrival in St. Paul 137 

First message 141 

Mention of " 144,145 

Fredrika Bremer, the novel- 
ist his guest 146 

Commissioner to make a 

treaty with Sioux 149, 50 

Governor of Slate. .. 169 

On guarding school lands.. . 171 
Offers a regiment to the 

President 191 

United States Senator 257, '273. 274 

Secretary of War. 2/6 

Acting Secy, of Navy 276 

Ramsey, Anna P., wife of Gover- 
nor, presents flag to soldiers . 194 

Ravoux. Rev. A 116,17 

Red River cart invented ... 45 

Red River Valley, first settlers of 

44. 58-61 
Renville, Joseph, early trader . 52. 93 

Republican party organized at 

St. Anthony . ... 156 

Rice, Henry M., notices of 133, 257 

One of the founders of St. 

Paul ... 136. 13S 

Delegate to Congress 155, 157, 267 

United States Senator 164. 273 

Riggs, S. R., Sioux missionary. 121, 122 

Robbinette, early settler 125 

Robertson 1'aniel A., editor 144, 155 

Rocque A., Indian trader 135 

Rocky mountains discovered by 

. Verandie brothers 29 

Rolette Joseph Senior, fights 

against the United States 55 

trader in Minnesota 49 

Rosser J, T., Secretary of Terri- 
tory 154 

Russell Jeremiah, pioneer in St. 

Croix valley 117, 125, 126 


Sabin. Dwight M., U.S. Senator 275 

Saint Anthony Express, first pa- 
per beyond St. Paul 

Falls, described by early 

travelers. 13, 26, 33, 66, 67 

first bridge at 156 

first .nill at 73, 74. 75 

Saint Croix county organized. .. 128 

river, origin of name 19 

fort on 17, 19 

early ?ettlers 125, 127 

Saint Paul, origin of name 172 

formerly Pig's eye 129 

early settlers of 136 

first school house 175 

appearance in 1^17 173 

early preachers 175 

Indian right in streets of 153 

described in l>5o 117 

Saint Pierre Jacques Legardeur 

notice of 29 

Saint Pierre Jacques Legardeur 

at Lake Pepiu 29 

visit from Washington 30 

killed in battle 30 

Sanborn Gen . John B 192. 219 

report of 223, 226, 244, 245 

military record 219 

Saxdale of Bat tery killed 212 

School System 172—1^9 

Schools, tarly 175 

Seal of Territory 142 

Selkirk Lord -. 5?, 60 

settlement 5S. 61 

Pari Thomas Douglas 58 

secures Ossiniboia 

forms an agricultural colony 
reaches Sault Ste Marie ... 
discovers John Tanner 
concludes a treaty with In- 
dians at Grand Forks ... 
passes through-Minnesota.. . 
Semple. Governor of Selkirk 

settlement killed .... 
Shea J.G., on failure to establish 

Sioux mission 
Sherman Marshall, of first regi- 
ment, captures a flag a 6 


Shields James, U. S. Senator .. . 
Shokpay or Shakopee, hung at 

Fort Snelling 

Sibley, Gen. II. II , signs memo- 
rial of 1848 

Delegate to Stillwater con- 

Territorial delegate to Con- 
gress 133, 139, 143, 146 

Governor of State ... 163 
In command of expedition 

against the Sioux 230, 235 

Rescues whit" captives 238 

Brig. Gen. U. S. Vols 241 

Sinclair, Lt., wounded at Gettys- 
burg _ 24^ 

Sioux i Dakotahsloriirin of name 6 
Visited by Groseilliers and 

Radisson 7 

Visited by Dn Luth . . . 10. 11 
Meet Accault and Hennepin 13. 15 
Word mentioned by Kadis- 

Trade with Nicholas Perrot. IS 
In council with Le Sueur . . 23 
First to visit Montreal .... 22 

Attack Verandrie 

Bands mentioned by Carver 
Attack Ojibways on Tongue 


Sisseton murderer at Fort 

Snelling 72 

Fight with Ojibways at Fort 

Snelling >6. ?9 

Attack Ojibways at Lake 

Pokeguma 118 120 

Attack Ojibways at Apple 

River 143 













Sioux Treaty of 1851 . . 149 

Smith, Surgeon, killed at Tnpelo 253 
Snelling, Col. Josiah, arrives at 

Fort Snelling ... . 72 

Censu'ed by CJen. Gaines — 81 
Delivers Sioux assassins to 

Ojihways 86,88 

Hastens with keel boats to 

Fort Crawford 

Death of 

W . Joseph, son of Colonel . 

Author and poet 

Pasquinade on N. P. Willis . 

Death of 

Steamboat arrivals at Fort Snell- 
ing to close of 1826 ... 
Virginia tirst at Fort Snelling 
First toward Falls of St. An- 

In Minnesota River 

Stearns, O. l\, U. S. Senator to 

fdl vacancy 

Steele, Franklin, pioneer in St. 

Croix valley 

At Stillwater convention 1843 
Claim at St. .Anthony- 
Stewart. Dr. J. H., member of 


Stevens, Rev. J. D 

Stillwater, founders of 

Convention at in 1848 

Scalp dance in 

Land slide in 1852 

Strait, Horace B., member of 


Stratton, pioneer in St. Croix 

valley 112.113 

Strone, Geo. D., of 2d Regt ... 209 

Stuart, Robert, of Mackinaw 106 

Sudley, Church 203 

Sally, Gen. Alfred 242,243 



88, 89 











. 144 


Tah-ma-hah, One-Eyed Sioux, 

true to United States 

Taliaferro, Major Lawrence, 
first agent for the Sioux, not- 
ice of .. . 

Tanner, John, stolen from his 


Became an Indian chief ... 
Discovered by Earl of Sel- 

Suspected of murder 

James, son of John 
Troublesome and deceitful.. 
Taylor, . J esse K., pioneer in St. 

Croix Valley 

Joshua I 

N.O. I).. Speaker House of 

Representatives 1*54 

Teeoskahtay, Sioux chief first in 


His , hath in Montreal 
Terry. Elijah, murdered by Sioux 
at Pembina 

Thatcher, Mrs., captured by 


Thomas, Lt. Col. M. T 282, 

Thompson, David, geographer, 


Visits northern source of 


Treaties of 1837 with Sioux and 


Tuttle, C. A., at Falls of St. 



University of Minnesota, his 
tory of 183 


VanCleve, Gen. H. P 

Charlotte Ouisconsin, wife 

of Gen 

Varennes, Pierre Gualtier, see 


Verandrie at Lak e N epigon — . 
Obtains an Indian map. . 
Expedition west of Lake Su- 

A son killed by Sioux 
Sons of, reach Rocky Moun- 

Return to Lake of the Woods 


J. B.. member of 

56, 57 












W. D., member of 


Congress .. 271 

Washington visits St. Pierre 30 

Wells, James, trader at Lake 

Pepin ,. 135 

White, Milo, member of Congress 272 
Wilkin, Alexander, Secretary of 

Territory 151 

Candidate for Congress 155 

Killed in battle 254 

Notice of 255 

Wilkinson, Morton S., U. S. 

Senator 273 

Williamson, Rev. T. S.. M. D., 

early life 112 

Arrival among the Sioux . 112 
Organizes church at Fort 

Snelling 113 

Missionary at Lac qui Parle. 116 

Kaposia 172 

Procures school teacher for 

St. Paul 173 

Willis. N. P., lampoons Joseph 

Snelling .. 84 

Wilson, Euirene M., member of 

forty-tirst Congress 269 

Windoin, Wm.,U. S Senator... 268, 275 
Wisconsin river, called Mes- 
chetz Odeba by La Salle 12 

Yeiser, Capt., at Fort Shelby — 55 
Yuhazee, executed at St. Paul. . . 155 


kS W