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of tbe 

Tllnfvereiti^ of Mfscondin 



A Practical Treatise 

Explaining a Simple System of Molding Ornamen- 
tal and Plain Concrete or ** Cast Stone" with 
Molds of Wet Sand. This process here- 
tofore held as a Trade Secret will 
successfully Mold every class 
of Ornamental Concrete 
work desired. 


Author of^^ Ornamental Concrete Without Molds ^ " ** Clay 

Models and Plaster Molds for Ornamental Concrete^ 

* * Practical Use of Concrete, ' * Etc. 


New York 
The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

132 Nassau Street 

Cop3rrighted 1910 


Thb Norman W. Henlby Publishing Co. 

NOTE— The text of this book being entirely original and the illustra- 
tions contained therein having been specially made by the publishers 
for this book, it will be considered an infringement if either is made 
use of without permission. 


OCT 1 5 1910 




It is not the purpose of the writer to make 
this a book filled with technical explanations, 
that cannot be grasped by the average reader, 
but to give in the plainest language a complete 
and comprehensive explanation of the process 
of molding every class of concrete work or 
"cast stone" with the use of molds made from 
wet sand. Every care has been used to make 
the exact meaning clear, as the writer must 
assume that the reader is entirely unacquainted 
with the principia of this process, and wants 
information that will enable him to apply it 
to his e very-day work. 

The work that can be accomplished with 
sand molds is unlimited in scope, the undeniable 
fact that the combination of a clay pattern with 
an easily separable material for the mold places 
at the command of anyone, a means for the repro- 
duction in concrete of any work, without limit 
to the size, shape, or the degree of ornamentation 
upon its surface. The sand of mold permits 
it to be broken up and removed from the center 
of a vase or jug, the inside of a ball or any work 



even where the opening is but an inch and a 
half in diameter; it permits the removal of 
cores from a design that has under-cutting ex- 
tending horizontally with the face of the work; 
these features alone which are possible in no 
other class of material available for concrete 
molds, make the wet sand mold process ideal 
for every class of ornamental concrete work. 

The low cost of molds, using simply the 
cheapest and most common of materials; the 
ease and rapidity with which work may be 
produced; the increased density and strength 
of the concrete; perfect details to the lines of 
ornamental designs, together with the perfect 
curing of the work without the least attention, 
as it remains enclosed by the wet sand until 
the final set or hardening of the cement has 
taken place; these facts alone are convincing 
that this process is not only the one probably 
first employed in this work, to produce orna- 
mental effects in concrete, but will be the first 
in efficiency at the present day to enable the 
concrete worker to mold any design he may 
desire, without restrictions as to releasing the 
mold from the finished work. 


May, 1910. 




The Origin of the Wet Sand Mold Process of Mold- 
ing Concrete. The Practical Use and Value 
OF THE System 9 


The Principle of the Process. A General Explana- 
tion OF THE Manner of Making Molds. Mixing 
and Preparing the Sand Mixture for Plain 
Molds. The Various Ways of Preparing the Sand, i 6 


Mixing and Preparing the Sand for Hardened Sand 
Molds. Methods of Hardening the Molds . 26 


How TO Make the Sand Molds from Wood and Metal 
Patterns. Treating Simple and Intricate De- 
signs 32 


Constructing Sand Molds from Clay, Plaster, Con- 
crete, or Other Patterns. Protecting Pat- 
terns AGAINST Moisture. Dividing the Molds 
TO Make the Release of the Pattern and Finished 
Concrete Simple and Easy . . .42 


Use of Cardboard or Metal Plates between Sec- 
tions of Mold to Make Them Easily Separable. 
The Manner of Making Plates . • 5 1 


The Method of Making Cores for Various Work. 
Plain Sand and Hardened Cores. How to Make 
AND Remove the Core from a Vase or Jug with 
A Small Opening ....... 69 


Table of Contents 


Combining Molds to Mold Large Monolithic Work. 
The Proper Way to Erect and Release Such 
Molds. Practical Illustration on Molding 
A Large Concrete Monument . . .69 


The Possibilities in Combining Sand Molds. Mold- 
ing A Large Concrete Lawn Vase. Molding 
Concrete Column with Several Methods of 
Handling 76 


Molding Rock Effects with Sand Molds. Making 
Rock-faced Block op Which No Two are Alike . 85 


Making Ornamental Work in Sand Molds, Using 
Simple Objects as Patterns. Use of Collapsible 
Pattern. Pulp and Strawboard as a Material 
FOR Patterns for Bas-Relief Work . . -92 


A Simple Lathe for Turning Sand Molds, Patterns, 
AND Cores. Rapid Making of Molds in Sand 
Fully Explained 102 


A New Block and Hollow Concrete Wall. Four 
Styles of Building Blocks Molded in "Cast 
Stone" BY the Sand Process . . . .110 


Molding Concrete Brick with Sand Molds. Three 
Styles of Concrete Brick Easily Molded with This 
Process. How to Mold Concrete Brick Rapidly 
AND WITH Economy 122 


Facing Molds with Crushed Granite, Marble 
Flour, or any Other Material. The Proper 
Ways to Mix and Place Concrete in Sand Molds 
FOR Ornamental Work, Etc. Reinforcing Work 
and How it May Be Held Accurately in Position 
WHILE Placing THE Concrete . . . .129 





The Origin of the Sand Mold Process 
OF Molding Concrete and the Value 
OF Same 

There is a wide difference of opinion among 
concrete men as to the exact origin of this 
method of producing ^^cast stone" or concrete. 
To all those who have made it a subject of study 
everything points to the apparent fact that it is 
but a modern adaptation of one of the arts of the 
first Roman architects; this is well within rea- 
son, for it is an established fact that the Romans 
employed wood forms in molding concrete 
work, and, as the many examples of intricate 
ornamentation appearing upon these works 
show positively that they could not have been 
produced with wood molds, and in many exam- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

pies where there is deep under-cutting, the use 
of plaster molds would have been impracticable ; 
looking at the matter from this view-point the 
fact is obvious that our ancient workers turned 
to the easiest solution of this problem, which 
would be that the pattern or model of the orna- 
ment was modeled in clay ; a form of plaster or 
some easily worked material that was within 
the possibility of being worked by their crude 
tools, then an impression or mold of this model 
formed in sand, or some easily separable mate- 
rial, so that the completed work and mold 
could be separated without injury to the orna- 
mentation, was made. 

Looking at the subject from the point of 
practicability this is to the thinking student the 
only logical way in which many of the elabo- 
rate ornaments of the Roman architects could 
be formed, when we consider the tools with 
which they must work at that period. 

This system or art, as it may be termed, has 
not been revived until within the last* few years 
as a method of producing "cast stone" or con- 
crete, while the knowledge is known to but few 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

concrete workers to-day, and by them has been 
held a secret, yet it has been employed in a 
desultory manner by such as knew how to em- 
ploy it, for a number of years. In this the first 
complete explanation of this valuable process 
I shall present the various ways of employing 
the system to produce a wide range of work; 
such as is needed by the every-day worker 
in his daily employment ; giving the most 
practical and easiest ways of securing the 
desired results. 

All concrete men are agreed upon the fact 
that for many purposes the wet mixture of con- 
crete has advantages over a semi-moist mixture ; 
in this work the molds permit either a very wet 
mixture or one that is just wet enough so it 
does not have to be tamped, and in event the 
molds are baked or hardened the concrete 
placed in same may be lightly rammed or 
tamped and a semi-moist mixture employed. 
The best results are obtained when the mold is 
filled with liquid concrete or so that it may be 
poured into the mold; the sand absorbs the 
excess moisture in the concrete and this dries 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

out slowly, thus retarding the "set" or harden- 
ing of the concrete and removing all necessity 
of sprinkling the work or covering with wet 

blankets while "green," thus giving the maxi- 
mum of strength with the minimum of labor 
and cost. 

Where there is much under-cutting or an orna- 
ment which overhangs, giving a deep hollow 
beneath same, this process is of the greatest 
value when it is necessary to remove the work 
from the molds; the sand when unbaked and 
the moisture has evaporated from same, is 
easily separable into small pieces, so that the 
portion of the mold which is in the hollow, or 
the core, simply breaks into small grains again 
and is removed without the least danger of in- 
jury to the work molded. These cores can be 
made a part of the mold; made at the same 
time as the impression of pattern is taken or 
they may be made separately, as in the event of 
intricate and deep hollows in the work that re- 
quire a core that would not hold for the removal 
of the pattern; by forming these as a separate 
unit and adding to the mold, work may be pro- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

duced that cannot be accomplished in any other 
mold in use to-day. 

The surface finish of concrete to-day as 
molded in the ordinary wood and metal molds 
is far from perfect when considered from the 
standpoint of beauty; the coating of the out- 
side face or particles of aggregate with cement, 
gives to the work an appearance of dullness, or 
lifelessness, as compared with the sparkle and 
luster of the grains of natural stone ; when this 
is remedied by the use of acids, the restoration 
is not complete and the method is laborious and 
expensive. With the sand mold process the 
face of the mold may be composed of crushed 
granite, white sand, marble flour, or any extra 
facing you may wish; this simply retains its 
shape until the mortar is poured into the mold 
and is a separate part of the mold, thus per- 
mitting the facing material to become a part of 
the finished work free from any coating ot 
cement upon its face; thus producing work 
that has all the beauty of natural stone in every 

Another advantage is the great adaptability 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of the process to every style of work that it is 
desired to produce; the requisite of a pattern 
is supplied by the wood pattern, clay model, 
cut or cast stone, or even many other articles 
that give the desired shape; it is thus possible 
for the worker to secure a mold to suit his own 
ideas and desires as he has the use of many 
patterns and can build them up to perfect the 
design he may wish to mold in concrete, from 
various units — thus making the range of work 
within his power practically without limit. 

In addition to the foregoing arguments that 
make this process appeal to every concrete 
worker, the item of cost is one that cannot be 
overlooked. In the wood and metal molds that 
are offered the worker to-day, the first expense 
is very large ; it requires that a number of pieces 
be produced and sold to repay the initial out- 
lay, which in many cases is not practicable. In 
molding varying sizes of any piece a separate 
mold is required that often makes the cost pro- 
hibitive and the result is that something else is 
substituted with a loss in appearance. 

With this process a pattern and sand are the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

requirements of as many molds as you desire 
or your work demands; the cost in comparison 
to any other form of mold is so slight as to be 
hardly worth considering, thus permitting a 
free rein to the wishes of the worker as to size, 
style and variety of the molds he wishes to use, 
without the expense and bother of moving from 
place to place a vast number of cumbersome 



The Principle of the Process. Mixing 
AND Preparing the Sand for Plain Sand 
Molds. Various Ways of Mixing 

When making a mold from sand, that re- 
quires moving, as is the case with those for 
small work, the sand must be enclosed or re- 
tained in a box form; which is best made in 
the shape employed by the metal molder in 
constructing his "flask" or form for holding 
the sand of mold, with the exception of 
several points in which the two lines of work 

The "flask" is a box-like form in two sec- 
tions without top or bottom ; these are provided 
by building flat board forms just a trifle larger 
than the box-like form or flask, and which are 
placed upon the top of same to act as a cover, 
when it is desired to turn over or move the 

flask. These cover boards should be built 


Concrete From Sand Molda 

strongly so they will not warp, by placing cleats 
across same to brace rigidly. 

The two sections of flask are provided with a 
"lock'' or dowels, the same as those for metal 
molding, as it is necessary that the two sections 
may be taken apart and then be placed together 
in the identical manner as they were before being 
separated; to do this some guide must be ar- 
ranged and this is the most simple and positive 
that can be used. The lower section of the 
flask is termed in the metal molders' parlance 
a "drag," and the upper section a "cope," 
which may be a convenience to the student in 
classing the different parts of the flask for a 
sand mold. 

A departure from the metal workers' flask is 
the iron rods arranged upon two cleats on 
opposite sides of the flask; in both upper and 
lower sections of the flask or form. These 
rods should fit tightly so that they will aid in 
supporting the sand when the cope or upper 
section of flask is lifted ; the cleats are arranged 
in the manner shown at (c) in Fig. i, so they 
will not interfere with the model and yet place 


Concrete from Sand Molds 

the supporting strength for sand where the 
most needed. 

In Fig. I the drag or lower section is shown 
at (a); the cope or upper section at (b); the 
strips that lock the two sections together, at 
the proper point, are shown at (d) and (e), 
while the cover boards or bottom and tops to 
the flask are not shown; these are always 
separate and never fastened to the flask in any 
manner. At (/) is shown a beveled strip that is 
placed around the inside of both sections of 
flask, this must be at the point the two sections 
are to be divided when the mold is complete, 
and is for the purpose of supporting the sand 
as well as making the division or *' parting'' of 
the mold much easier and exact; this strip may 
be used at both top and bottom of each section 
if any trouble is experienced in lifting the mold 
and having the sand hold securely. 

This style of flask is employed where the 
pattern permits the mold to be in two sections; 
where it requires four sections a different style 
is used and in event of simple bas-relief or 
raised ornamentation, one section of flask is all 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. r. — Construction of Flask. 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

that is demanded; as will be explained in a 
later chapter. 

As the reader will understand the pattern is 
placed upon one of the cover boards, if in halves 
or for bas-relief work, and the sand tamped 
down upon same; the sand is rammed as 
tightly as possible with the hand tool used, and 
then a cover board placed over same when this 
section is filled to top; it is then a simple mat- 
ter to turn the mold or flask over and the 
pattern is then upon the top ready to be re- 
moved; this is all that is required in molding 
work where only a portion of the ornament 
projects from the block as with a bas-relief de- 
sign, for a box form may be erected around 
this design, as a mold for the body of the block, 
and the concrete poured into same, emplo)dng 
the sand mold simply as a face plate. 

Where the work must be ornamented upon 

all sides, as a baluster or pedestal, etc., the 

cope or upper section of the flask is used and a 

second section of mold made, which will be 

explained in detail in a later chapter. 

These general explanations will show that 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

the sand must be of a certain quality of ad- 
hesiveness so that it will pack together solidly 
and retain its shape under strain as well as be 
capable of taking a smooth face and to con- 
form to the most minute lines of the pattern. 

To secure this result there are several ways 
of preparing the sand that may be employed; 
the easiest is to use any very fine sand, lake or 
beach sand is the best; this may be mixed with 
about twenty-five per cent its volume of clay. 
This should be the ordinary red or yellow clay 
that has been cleaned from all particles of loam 
or any gravel, then dried and pulverized; this 
is mixed thoroughly with the sand, which should 
be screened to free it from any pebbles or stone, 
and the whole mass wet with water until it is 
thoroughly damp; it should be so that when a 
handful is picked up and pressed in the palm 
of the hand that it will retain all the marks of 
the fingers without crumbling, when the fingers 
are removed. It is not difficult to secure this 
consistency, as the lake or beach sand has, 
when thoroughly wet with water, nearly this 
much consistency in itself; but without the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

strength or adhesive power to be lifted without 
injury with the cope or upper section of flask; 
hence the addition of enough clay to the mix- 
ture to enable it to be rammed or tamped 
tightly enough to permit this lifting without 
the sand falling out of the cope. 

in such molds that do not have to be sub- 
jected to being lifted or moved, from the time 
of removing pattern to the time of pouring in 
the concrete, the addition of clay is not so nec- 
essary as the sand will retain its form if not 
subjected to any shock or sudden jar; this may 
be employed where the mold is simply as a face 
plate and is employed while laying flat upon 
the molding table. 

Where the flask is large and the shape of 
pattern is such as to make the use of rods 
through the sand impossible, as when using a 
number of flasks set one upon the other to 
mold large work, the sand may be mixed or 
wet with water into which one pound of ground 
glue is dissolved to each two gallons of water; 
this binds the sand together into a solid mass, 
^nd while it can be broken into small pieces, 



Concrete From Sand Molds 

yet for deep cores is not as available, as the 
work is apt to be injured in removing the sand. 
The sand and glue-water mixture is prevented 
from adhering to the pattern by sprinkling it 
with fine dry sand, which is usually employed 
for any of the mold mixtures. 

Where a strengthening liquid is desired or 
one to bond the sand together, the use of flour 
and water can be employed in place of the glue- 
water; this is far more satisfactory in all ordi- 
nary work that requires a very hard mold, but 
is best not to be used if it can be dispensed 
with, for any of these is positive to make the 
mold much harder to remove from the com- 
pleted work where any portion of same projects 
in the form of a core. In the ordinary molding 
sand of sand and clay the mold, when it has 
dried with the work, may be broken up into 
fine particles with the fingers or a small strip 
of wood, thus freeing any portion of the com- 
pleted work no matter how much under-cutting 
it may contain; when any adhesive material 
is added to the mixture, other than clay, this 
is not so easily accomplished, and a greater 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

risk is run in freeing the work of the sand that 
composes the mold. 

The use of powdered talc or soapstone is 
often used as a material to aid in bonding the 
sand together, in making the mold; this is 
valuable for fine work, but as the cost is greater 
than the use of ordinary clay, the average 
worker does not usually employ same. The 
quantity is about the same as for the sand and 
clay mixture and is best deteirmined by tests 
for it should be varied with the difference in 
sand; this can be very easily done by mixing 
a small quantity with a known amount of sand 
and adding more until the desired consistency 
is obtained, which may easily be known when 
the material will retain the imprint of the 
fingers perfectly without crumbling, when 
squeezed in the hand. 

The object desired in preparing a mixture 
for molds of this kind is to secure a material 
that has enough adhesiveness, or the quality 
to hang together, to make a mold that may 
stand a moderate amount of handling while 
pouring in the concrete ; this mixture must also 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

be porous enough to admit of the addition of 
considerable moisture without the mixture be- 
coming muddy; in many classes of sand the 
latter must be guarded against, as in the use of 
sand that contains dirt or similar foreign mat- 
ter. Where this is the case the addition of from 
one-sixteenth to one-fourth the volume of clean 
dry sawdust, before wetting with water, will be 
found satisfactory in results. 

Many and varied methods may be employed 
for this purpose as using fine sifted fireclay or 
the use of whiting in a small quantity, where 
nothing better offers, has accomplished the de- 
sired results. The worker can, by experiment- 
ing with the sand that he must work with, 
obtain the correct proportions and materials 
necessary to mix with same, to produce a mix- 
ture of the proper adhesiveness and porosity 
for his purpose. 



Preparing the Material for and Hard- 
ening Molds 

The worker often demands a mold that will 
make a number of casts ; this where there is no 
very marked under-cutting is easily possible to 
accomplish by baking or hardening the mold, 
so that it is durable and will make a number 
of casts or pieces of work before it outlives its 
usefulness. Where the design is very intricate 
and with deep under-cutting this method is im- 
possible, as it will be found impracticable to re- 
move the cores from the deep hollows; but in 
the majority of designs it works very well, and 
with all the success of a sectional plaster mold. 

The chief requisite for a baked mold is a 
material that, when subjected to moderate 
heat, will harden or "bake" until it is not 
easily penetrated by an)1;hing it comes in con- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

tact with, as well as being strong enough to 
stand a moderate amount of handling without 
danger of breaking. 

This can be obtained by the use of common 
molasses mixed with your molding sand; the 
molasses makes a very strong adhesive, and 
when subjected to a moderate heat hardens 
nicely, and makes a core or mold that will se- 
cure a number of casts in concrete without in- 
jury to the mold. The quantity to use must be 
determined by the sand* you are working with; 
the best guide is to mix it slowly with the sand, 
adding until the sand is of a putty-like con- 
sistency or so it can be modeled with the fingers 
and will retain its shape. It can then be packed 
into the flask, over the pattern, first covering 
the pattern with dry sand sprinkled over same 
so the molasses and sand mixture will not stick 
to the pattern, when you wish to remove same. 

Another excellent mixture is the use of sand 
and a thin paste made of flour and water; this 
bakes quite hard and is excellent for a hardened 
mold, as well as having the advantage of being 
cheap in cost, It is used in the same nu^nn^r 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

as the molasses, mixing with the sand until the 
necessary quality of adhesiveness is secured, 
then pack into mold over pattern. 

There are many other similar compounds 
that may be used, as sand and sour beer or 
sand and thin glue- water; anything that will 
harden under heat until it is not easily pene- 
trated, or broken. 

The flask for a hardened or baked mold must 
be such that it can be removed before putting 
in the oven, as the wood would take fire from 
even the moderate heat required to bake or 
harden the mold. This is secured by making 
the flask or mold form in a box form, but hinged 
at three of the corners with the fourth comer 
to fasten with a hook and eyelet; this enables 
the hook to be unfastened and the wood flask 
folded back from the sand mixture, inside same, 
thus removing it before placing in the oven. 

To prevent the sand mixture from falling 
down or breaking, as well as cracking or check- 
ing from the heat, there must be some uninflam- 
mable material to enclose the mold; this need 
not be strong and can be made of a strip of tin, 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

sheet iron or any metal riveted together so it 
will just sit or go inside the flask; the sand 
mixture is packed inside this and when the 
wood part of flask is removed the metal casing 
remains, to hold the mold in shape while it is 
being hardened by the heat of oven. 

The same as the wood flask, a substitute for 
the cover board, or board on which the mold 
rests, must be secured; otherwise the heat of 
oven would bum that also. This may be se- 
cured in any heavy metal sheet or a flat grate 
from the oven of a stove or any similar flat 
sheet of metal which can be supplied by the 
scrap heap at your local foundry. 

The oven can be anything to generate the 
heat to harden or bake the material, of which 
the mold is composed; as these are not usually 
large an old cook- stove for small work will be 
ideal; the mold is placed on the flat sheet of 
metal and then the wood flask unfastened and 
removed, by folding back carefully from the 
work; it is then ready for the oven as the pat- 
tern has been removed before the wood flask, 
it is then a simple matter to place in the oven 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

and generate heat for from four to six hours, 
even less is often ample, as the only require- 
ment is to harden the material, and when that 
is accomplished the mold is ready for removal. 
It is often advisable where a mold is valuable 
to again encase it with the wood flask, after 
baking, so that any rough usage to which it 
might be subjected would not be so apt to in- 
jure it. 

This material is valuable in the event of 
cores that are to be a separate part of mold, 
these can be baked hard and so stand rough 
handling without danger of breakage. 

Where the worker has at his command the 
regular iron flasks, as used for this work in the 
metal foundry, he can work more rapidly, as 
they will not require removal before placing in 
the oven, which does not generate heat enough 
to have any effect upon the metal, as that is 
not required. 

It is not general in practice, but I have found 
it to be of value to protect the molding surface 
of such molds before using, as when a number 
of casts were required from the same mold the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

life of that mold can be increased by a protect- 
ive coating. This is given in the ordinary shel- 
lac, several coats of same are painted over the 
molding surface of the mold, after baking, al- 
lowing each one to dry before applying the next^ 
this -if properly applied makes a very smooth 
finish and also increases the life of the mold. 

As is often demanded, the work should have 
a rough cast finish or the effect of tool dressed 
stone and in such event the smooth surface of 
the shellac must be roughened; this is accom- 
plished by applying three coats, having the 
first one heavy and over same while yet fresh 
or sticky, sprinkle sand using care to have it 
evenly distributed and just to cover the sur- 
face ; with the second coat you can remedy any 
places where the sand in first coat is not per- 
fect, or to your liking, and with the third coat 
of shellac make a coating over all that is im- 
pervious to water and so capable of making a 
large number of casts, each with the true effect 
of tool dressed stone. Thin glue may be em- 
ployed instead of the shellac with success, if it 
is more convenient. 



Making Sand Molds from Wood and 

Metal Patterns 

The method of making the mold must de- 
pend on the shape and condition of the pattern ; 
if from a wood baluster, as shown in Fig. 2, 
the pattern may be divided in the center and 
the mold made to part along this division line. 
Where the pattern is to be simply a face plate 
as with a bas-relief design, but one section of 
the flask is required, and it is a simple matter 
to make the mold ; in event the pattern cannot 
be divided there are several ways of securing 
the desired results, as will be explained in the 
following chapters. 

The manner of making a sand mold from a 
pattern in two sections is illustrated in Fig. 2, 
which also applies to the making of bas-relief 
designs as well. The flask is built in two sec- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

tions so that it will be several inches larger each 
way than the pattern, and a cover or board 
slightly larger than the flask is laid upon the 
molding table; upon this the pattern is laid in 
the center, or in event of a sectional pattern 
one-half of same is placed on this board as 
shown at (c) in Fig. 2. The pattern is covered 
with fine dry sand, lightly sifted over same; this 
is in addition to the coating placed on pattern 
to prevent sticking; the molding sand or mix- 
ture of clay and sand is now placed in the box 
or flask in the same manner as filling a mold 
with concrete, using care not to disturb the 
position in which the pattern lays; the sand 
mixture is now rammed down tightly all over 
the surface and more sand added and tamped 
until it is solid, and the tamper will not make 
any decided impression on the surface of the 
sand ; the top is then leveled off with a straight- 
edged piece of board, and it is then ready to be 
reversed or turned over. 

It is difficult to direct exactly how much the 
mold must be tamped, to enable it to lift with- 
out the sand falling out; the worker can easily 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

leam this with a few attempts, as the mold that 
is too loosely tamped will not lift without in- 
jury; there is little danger from over-tamping 
for this work, which is a decided difference 
from the sand molds of the metal worker, who 
must guard against tamping too tightly as much 
as against not tamping the mold enough. 

The rods of %'^ iron laid into the sand, across 
from one side of the flask to the other, as shown 
in illustration, are placed at the same time the 
sand is placed and the material packed tightly 
around same; these are a great aid in holding 
the sand into the flask when being lifted, and 
for the beginner or less experienced worker are 
invaluable, for they save many molds from 
breaking in the necessary handling. The rods 
must not touch the pattern and there should be 
at least iK'^ of sand between the pattern and 
the nearest rod; by having the flask large 
enough this can be arranged and the rods 
placed so that they will be even, between the 
top of pattern and the top edge of flask; where 
they will do the most service. 

The tamper shown at (b) is easily made from 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. 2.— How the Sand Mold is Made. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

any block of hard wood; this should be about 
15" long and 3x3'' in size or 3'' in diameter, the 
center is cut out and worked down to make a 
good handle, so it can be grasped by one or 
both hands as may be desired. The one end 
is left in a broad mallet form, which is most 
useful in leveling the top of mold just before 
using the straight-edge on same; the opposite 
end is worked down into a wedge-shaped form 
that is about H'' to i" on the point; this is the 
entire width of the tamper, and is used in pack- 
ing the sand mixture down solidly. In using 
this tamper do not strike straight down all the 
time, but vary by packing the sand with a slant- 
ing stroke, as is shown by the position of tamper 
in (c); by covering the surface of mold in all 
directions in this manner as well as with straight 
downward strokes, the sand mixture is packed 
evenly and solidly over the entire sufrace. 

This tamper is best for small work, but of 
course any style of tamping machinery that will 
pack the sand mixture solidly is as well; in 
large work where it is practical, the large side- 
walk tampers may be employed to pack the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

sand, except around the pattern, where it must 
be tamped with a surface small enough to press 
the sand mixture into all the lines of pattern, 
to make an exact impression of same. 

The straight-edge shown at (a) is easily 
made of any straight piece of board and is used 
so that the top edge of flask is made level, with- 
out any chance of the sand slipping away from 
the pattern when the mold is turned over. 

After the mold or flask is filled and leveled, a 
cover board is placed upon the top of same, and 
by grasping both top and bottom boards the 
flask may be turned over so that the pattern is 
on top of the flask or simply reversed in posi- 
tion; the cover board that was formerly under 
the flask is now on top, and is removed, thus 
exposing to view the pattern and dividing part 
of the mold. As will be noted, the beveled 
strips on the inside edge of flask are at this 
point, or the "parting" of the two sections of 
mold and aid in making this dividing easier. 

The second half of pattern is now laid upon 
the other; this can be arranged by having two 
pins that fit loosely into holes bored in both 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

ends of the pattern; these pins hold the two 
sections of pattern together at the proper point, 
but do not interfere with the breaking apart or 
*' parting" of the mold when it is finished. 

To prevent the sand mixture in the upper 
mold from adhering to that of the lower mold 
or flask, a parting must be secured by using 
some material that will make a division line at 
this point; the use of fine dry sand sprinkled 
over the surface of the lower flask will do if 
nothing better is possible ; the use of powdered 
plumbago or graphite is ideal for this purpose 
and requires but little for the desired results. 
Other materials useful for this are fine coal dust 
and the dust secured from pulverizing cinders 
and then sifting them to secure only the finest 
particles. These are sifted over the surface and 
any that rest upon the pattern are lightly blown 

The next section of flask is now placed upon 
the lower one, where it fits and is held by the 
strips at ends. The inlets or ^^ gates" for pour- 
ing in the concrete are now arranged, at highest 
point of pattern. Provision is made for three 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of these, one at end and two in the side of the 
mold; the ones that enter at the end or at any 
point through the flask, must have a hole bored 
in the wood of flask at that point, so the gate 
will be exact with the opening in the flask. 
The molding of these inlets is accomplished by 
placing a block of wood at the point they are to 
be and then packing the sand mixture around 
same, thus making an ample opening for pour- 
ing in the concrete ; the blocks used for molding 
inlet are easily removed with the pattern. 

The location of inlets or gates must be care- 
fully planned so they will not interfere with the 
lines of the design ; this is done by having them 
at the highest point of the pattern and if possi- 
ble upon a flat surface; then in filling mold a 
small projection will appear here, which can 
easily be broken off with chisel and the rough- 
ness removed with a carborundum brick or 
stone. The size of the gate should be large 
enough to permit the mortar to enter easily, 
and for average work i yi" or 2" in diameter is 
ample, as a funnel can be used in pouring the 
semi-liquid concrete. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fine dry sand is now sifted over the surface 
of pattern lightly, just enough to keep the sand 
mixture from adhering to same, and the sand 
mixture packed into this section of flask; it is 
tamped as solidly as for the first section and 
then leveled off and a cover board placed upon 
same; then this upper section is carefully lifted 
up and turned over so it rests upon the cover 
board that was placed upon the top, but which 
is now the bottom of this section of flask. This 
operation of lifting the cope or upper section of 
the flask is a test of the mold, as it is then that 
the faults of tamping will appear if at any time ; 
the iron rods across the flask are the more 
needed in the cope than in any other part of 
the mold, but with the practice of making a 
few sand molds the beginner can easily learn 
to tamp them correctly, and lift the upper sec- 
tion without the least danger of breakage. 

The two sections are now apart with one- 
half of the pattern in each one; the pattern is 
removed by having a sharp-pointed rod, which 
may be lightly driven into the pattern and thus 
lift same easily; or in event of large patterns a 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

medium-sized gimlet may be sunk into the pat- 
tern at each end and then by lifting upon the 
two at the same moment, the pattern can be 
*' drawn" or lifted without trouble, as every 
care has been taken to prevent the sand mixture 
from adhering to the pattern. With metal pat- 
terns a hole is drilled into the pattern and 
threaded, and a rod with threads to match is 
then screwed into same and thus it "draws" 
without injury to the mold. The blocks used 
to mold the inlets for mortar or gates are re- 
moved, and the two sections of mold are then 
ready to place together again and the concrete 
poured into same. 

In the case of simple bas-xelief designs the 
cope is not required, as the lower section of 
flask makes the entire face plate or sand mold; 
where a block or body is required to the stone 
to be cast, a box form is erected around the 
sand mold and the concrete poured into same; 
completing the cast or work. 



Making Molds from Clay, Plaster, or 

Concrete Patterns 

In securing a pattern for the mold it is not 
always possible to have it of such material, or 
in such condition that it can be divided where 
we wish; hence we must construct the flask so 
as to correct the deficiency of the pattern. 
Again, with a mold to be made from a clay 
model, that has cost a large amount of work to 
complete and has many lines and under-cut- 
tings, the worker should not risk making the 
mold in the usual manner, as failure may mean 
the loss of clay model as well as mold; but by 
having the flask so divided that it is an easy 
matter to remove the pattern from the sand, as 
well as to remove the work from the mold; 
when cast in concrete, the most intricate or 
unusual shaped pattern may be molded with 



Concrete From Sand Molds 

In making molds from clay, plaster, or con- 
crete patterns, as well as from wood patterns, the 
surface of pattern must be protected from the 
moisture in the sand mixture. With the wood 
pattern this moisture is apt to warp the lumber, 
when the pattern is used more than once or 
twice, but by coating with oil several times, so 
as to fill the pores of the wood with the oil, 
and then varnishing the pattern with any good 
varnish, the wood pattern is unaffected by the 

With the clay or plaster pattern the surface 
requires a coating that will give it a hard finish ; 
not only impervious to the moisture in the sand 
but to enable the clay or plaster to withstand 
the pressure exerted by the tamping of the 
sand in mold; if this is not done any material 
as plastic as modeling clay would be pressed 
entirely out of shape by this pressure. 

There are several ways of securing the de- 
sired result of which the most simple is to coat 
with shellac ; several coats are carefully applied 
to the surface, allowing each one to dry well 
before applying the next; this makes a hard 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

coating over the entire surface, conforming to 
every line and curve with exactness; thus se- 
curing a protective surface that will preserve 
the model while making the mold. 

Another method is to coat lightly with shel- 
lac and then over this coat with thin glue ; plac- 
ing one coat upon the other until a shell is se- 
cured of a thickness of tV to M''; this is val- 
uable where the pattern presents a very broad 
surface, as in the center it is apt to be depressed 
by the tamping of the sand, but with a hard 
protective coating to hold the material in pat- 
ten} exactly in place, the sand may be tampecj 
solidly without injury to the softest of pattern 
material, as well as being entirely unaffected 
by the moisture in the material for mold. 

In large and intricate patterns, that will re- 
quire separate cores, it is often valuable to color 
the shellac or varnish so that you can quickly 
locate on pattern the point where these cores 
will be placed; thus if the pattern is coated 
with the ordinary shellac, the core points may 
be painted with a red color mixed with the 
shellac. Or two parts of a pattern may be 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. 3. — Dividing the Sand Molds into Quarter Sections. 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

coated with different colors of shellac or var- 
nish so that the upper and lower one can be 
easily distinguished, without the possibility of 
getting them wrong and having the work to do 

In the illustration at (b) Fig. 3 is shown the 
method of dividing the flask into quarters, to 
make a mold for a face plate of a design difficult 
to remove from an ordinary mold. 

The sides of the flask are held together with 
strips of wood nailed so to make a "lock," as 
with the strips used to have the upper and 
lower sections of flask meet at the proper point 
each time. The inside surface of this flask is 
covered with 8-d. nails driven into the wood so 
that they project about one inch, and so engage 
with the sand mixture packed into the flask; 
this enables the mold to "hold" when it is 
moved sideways as well as when lifted up. 

A parting or division line must be arranged, 
so the mold can be separated into quarters 
without disturbing the sand from the lines 
upon which you desire it to separate. This is 
accomplished by placing the pattern upon the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

cover board in the usual manner. Then cut from 
some thin tough cardboard, four short strips so 
that they will reach exactly to the center of the 
flask and also go between the joints of each 
quarter of the flask, as shown at (a) Fig. 4; 
where these strips of cardboard touch the pat- 
tern they should be cut out into an exact out- 
line of the surface of pattern upon which they 
rest ; this permits them to be placed so as to di- 
vide the center of the mold into four quarters; 
the center of the four strips may be fastened 
with strips of paper or cloth pasted upon them 
as shown in (a) Fig. 4. The sand is now care- 
fully placed into the flask; care must be used 
not to displace the strips of cardboard, which 
can be done by placing an equal amount of 
sand mixture upon each side of the strips, then 
tamping this down with care and adding more 
in the same manner until the flask is filled. 
Then the connecting strips in center of the 
flask, that hold the four pieces of cardboard to- 
gether at the point, which are placed close to 
top so as to be easily reached, can be cut apart 
and the flask is ready to be turned or reversed. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

A cover board is now made that is cut into 
four quarters, to conform to the size of the 
quarters of mold; this is placed upon the top 
of flask and covered with a second cover board 
that is entire or in one piece ; then by grasping 
both upper and lower boards the flask can be 
turned without danger of breakage. The cover 
board on top is now removed and a rod or gim- 
let placed in pattern to secure a hold upon same ; 
now by slightly lifting on the pattern and at the 
same time drawing out any one of the quarters 
of mold, carefully, you can release any of the 
most intricate patterns without injury to the 

The worker must bear in mind the shape of 
his pattern, so that he is able to release the 
comer that will draw the easiest ; then the other 
three can be easily removed. 

The cardboard strips can be removed, and the 
sections placed together and work molded in the 
same manner as with any other face plate mold ; 
what applies to releasing the pattern is as val- 
uable for the concrete work cast in mold; so 
that an ordinary mold of a "green" sand mix- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

ture can be made to produce a number of pieces 
of work. 

The drawing at (a) Fig 3, illustrates the flask 
used where the mold must be made of the entire 
surface of pattern; it is divided into the eight 
sections, in the manner illustrated, and held 
together while in use by the strips connecting 
the sides, while the upper and lower sections 
have at comers two strips to "lock" together, 
so the two upper and lower parts of flask will 
join and be held in exact position. 

The parting of the four quarters of each sec- 
tion, or the cope and drag of flask, is secured 
with the cardboard strips, as previously ex- 
plained, while the parting of the upper and 
lower sections is secured by the graphite or 
other material that you employ for this purpose. 

A method of strengthening the four quarters 
of each section is shown in the upper section 
illustrated at (a), short strips of lumber are cut 
to join and form a protective strip around the 
inside edge of each quarter section ; these strips 
are imbedded into the sand mixture in making 
mold and aid in holding the sand at the exact 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

place it is demanded, as well as making the 
mold strong enough to be lifted in quarter sec- 
tions, when done with care. These strips must 
be placed only on one side of each section of 
flask, and at the side farthest from the pattern, 
otherwise they would interfere with the placing 
of pattern in the flask. 

While all clay and plaster molds do not re- 
quire the flask to be quartered, yet it will be 
found needful to do so with large patterns of 
any material, where the shape of pattern and 
the lines upon the surface of same make this 
method necessary, so as to release it without 
injury to the mold. 

This method is valuable with molds made 
of a material to be baked or hardened; as the 
divided sections of the mold permit the easy 
removal of work thus securing a large number 
o^ casts from each mold before it outlives its 



Using Division Plates Between Sections 
OF Flask to Make the Parting 

As explained in a former chapter it is often 
necessary to make the flask and mold into 
quarter or eighth sections, and to make this 
possible division plates must be arranged to 
separate the sand mixture, without any possi- 
bility of its parting at a point it is not desired 
to have it do. 

These division plates may be made of any 
material that will serve the purpose ; thin metal 
is best, as a strip or sheet of tin, sheet iron, or 
any metal that can be easily cut into the shape 
desired; this is cut so that it fits around the 
pattern; making a complete outline of the pat- 
tern, hence it fits up very closely to same, thus 
making the mold perfect in parting at all points. 

A thin tough cardboard can also be used; 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

this is far better if treated with a waterproof 
coating; by dipping it in a pan of melted paraf- 
fine wax the cardboard is made impervious to 
the moisture in the sand and at the same time 
cannot adhere to the sand mixture in the least, 
thus insuring a smooth parting to the sections 
of mold. 

At (a) Fig. 4 is shown the method employed 
to divide either the upper or lower sections of 
flask into quarters; the division strips are cut 
so as to meet at a common point in the center of 
flask, and this center is held by small strips of 
paper or cloth pasted to the sides of the plates, 
in the manner illustrated, where cardboard is 
used for such plates. When tin or metal strips 
are used this center may be held with a small 
piece of wax, or by using a small block of wood 
and into same sawing two slots or saw kerfs at 
right angles to each other; these need not be 
over K" in depth, and this block of wood thus 
sets down over the strips of metal used as 
plates, thus holding them accurately to the 

Any fastenings of this kind must be placed 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

at the top, or close to the top of the flask, so 
that they can be very easily taken out before 
turning over the flask; thus with the block of 
wood it can be removed and the space filled 
with sand before reversing the flask; as the 
sand mixture will easily hold the strips in place 
when the flask is once filled. 

The division plates are set over the pattern 
in the manner illustrated at (a), when cut out; 
when the pattern can be divided as with a wood 
pattern, cut into quarters, the plates may set 
between the division lines of pattern, thus re- 
quiring simple straight strips as division plates, 
and the quarter sections of pattern acting as a 
block to hold the strips in place. The strips 
must be long enough so that they will go be- 
tween the joints of flask on the outside, which 
holds them securely in position at that point. 

The mold in flask is separated by removing 
the comer that has the most simple part of de- 
sign, first, the pattern is lifted slightly and the 
one quarter of mold is carefully drawn outward 
at the same time, so to release it from the pat- 
tern at the one movement, thus enabling the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

most intricate and deeply cut lines in pattern 
to be separated from the sand mold without 
injury to the molding surface. 

These metal or cardboard division plates 
may also be employed in making the parting 
between the cope and drag of flask, instead of 
using the graphite or other material. They are 
cut in outline of the pattern as shown in the 
drawing at (b) Fig. 4; the metal or cardboard 
division plate is made exactly one-half the size 
of the surface of flask; thus the two plates are 
cut in an outline of one-half of the pattern, 
from each edge of the plates, and when placed 
together permit the pattern to go between them 
in the manner shown at (c) Fig. 4; this allows 
the pattern to be in one piece and divides the 
mold so that the impression of but one-half of 
the surface of pattern is imprinted in each sec- 
tion of mold. 

Where the pattern is in one piece, the mold 
is made in the following manner: a box form 
the size of flask is built ; this is in height exactly 
equal to one-half the height of the pattern, so 
that when this form is placed on a cover board 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. 4. — Division Plates to Make the Parting in Flask Easier. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

and the pattern laid in center of same, the top 
edge of the form is even with the center line of 
pattern if it were cut in halves. This box form 
is now filled with dry sand, all around the pat- 
tern and up to the edge; this is simply to sup- 
port the division plate at the proper point, and 
to make a solid support for same so the sand 
mixture.that is to make the mold may be tamped 
above it; the division plates are laid upon this 
form, that is filled with dry sand and the first 
section of flask placed upon that; the drag or 
first section of flask is now filled with the sand 
mixture in the ordinary manner, as described 
for making mold. The dry sand in lower box 
is simply to hold the pattern solid and exactly 
in center while this first section of mold is made. 
As soon as drag is filled with sand mixture, a 
coverboard is placed upon same and the whole 
thing reversed or turned over, bringing the box 
form with the dry sand uppermost; this is 
now removed, thus exposing the other half of 
pattern. The cope or upper section of flask is 
now placed over this and the second section of 
mold made with the sand mixture; in making 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

this section cover the pattern carefully with the 
sifted dry sand as when the cope is lifted it 
must part from the pattern. Either the pat- 
tern, which is in one piece, must draw from the 
cope or the drag section of flask, as you grasp 
the metal division plate with the cope or upper 
section of flask and lift both together, thus 
parting the two sections of mold and at the 
same time drawing the pattern from one sec- 
tion of the mold. 

This is a necessary part of the work where it 
is an impossibility to divide the pattern, and 
the pattern is in such shape that exactly one- 
half must be imprinted in each section of mold ; 
with concrete patterns or those made of metal 
this manner of dividing the mold will be found 

The same idea may be adapted to the use of 
wood patterns that are in halves ; the two halves 
of the pattern are nailed to opposite sides of a 
coverboard, so they will be exactly in line with 
each other, but on opposite sides of the board; 
in making the first section of mold, the cover- 
board rests upon an empty section of flask, 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

and by reversing same brings the other half of 
pattern uppermost, when it is desired to make 
the second section of mold. 

In preparing clay models for a two-piece 
pattern, it is of great advantage to make ex- 
actly one-half of the model on each of two 
modeling boards; these should be spaced so 
that the center of model is exactly in the center 
of modeling board and a line drawn around 
same, on the board, to designate where the 
section of flask is to be placed. This is impor- 
tant, so that each section of flask will be placed 
at the same distance from the model at all 
points, thus bringing the model in the exact 
center of each section of flask, and when the 
two sections of flask are placed together, for 
molding work, the impressions of model will 
meet perfectly, as if the pattern were in one 

This method permits easy work in using clay 
models, as one-half of a clay model is quite 
easily built up on the modeling board, when 
impossible to model the entire piece and have 
in shape for making a mold from same; again 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

the clay model does not require handling, the 
mold or impression is taken of same as it rests 
on the modeling board, hence the danger of 
injury to model is lessened and a more success- 
ful mold assured. 

1 59) 


Cores, How to Make and Use with Sand 


The proper making and use of cores is one 

of the most difficult operations connected with 

the molding of concrete with sand molds. The 

core must be carefully planned with a view to 

the fact that it must remain in position with 

exactness, while the concrete is being poured 

and must be so planned that it can be easily 

removed, if a hard baked core is employed. 

For all small cores that are of such shape as to 

permit' their removal from the work in one 

piece, it is advisable to make them of a sand 

mixture that permits hardening or baking; 

this is an advantage from the fact that a green 

sand core is very apt to be swept away, or a 

portion of same disintegrated by the action of 

the concrete poured into mold, which would 

not be the case with one of a hardened mate- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

rial; this is the more liable to happen where 
the core has not body enough to be able to re- 
sist the action of the wet concrete. 

The material for cores may be of many dif- 
ferent mixtures; where to be modeled by hand 
the sand mixture, either green or to be baked, 
is the best and most easily worked. Where the 
same core is to be used in a number of casts it 
can be made. of plaster of Paris, wall plaster, 
or even of concrete with success; the practice 
of using wood cores is not advisable as the ex- 
cessive moisture in the concrete used is very 
liable to swell the wood and injure same. 

The value of a separate core is shown most 
strongly in the illustration at (a) Fig. 5 ; the core 
is designated by the dotted lines and as illus- 
trated, shows it extending at an angle into the 
face of the pattern, which would be the case in 
many deep under-cuttings ; in the ordinary 
process of molding it would be an impossibility 
to mold this core with the pattern, as the lifting 
of the pattern would disturb the sand at the point 
of core in every case ; hence the necessity of mak- 
ing this a separate part of the mold. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

As shown by dotted lines the base of core 
sets into the sand of mold, so that the action of 
pouring in the concrete will not displace same. 
In making the sand mold, a small block of wood 
or anything of the exact size of the body of 
core is placed over the opening in pattern where 
the core is demanded; this molds in the sand 
the opening where the core is to be placed, and 
as well prevents the sand mixture from enter- 
ing the part of pattern that is to be molded with 
a separate core. 

After the sand mold is finished and pattern 
freed, a small box form is placed on the face 
of pattern, this box form should be the exact 
size or a trifle smaller, on the inside; than the 
block of wood used to mold the opening for 
core in sand mold; the mixture for core is now 
placed inside this box, using every care that it 
fills completely the opening in pattern. When 
a plaster mixture is used it is allowed to harden 
and can then be removed by turning to con- 
form to the curve of the opening in the pattern. 
With a sand mixture the pattern must be turned 

over so to be uppermost and then by turning 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

FiC. 5. — The Various Methods of Making Cores. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

the pattern to conform to the curve of opening 
in same, it can be removed from the core easily. 

In molding the work in concrete, this sepa- 
rate core is placed within the opening made by 
the block of wood and the cast made; when it 
is to be removed from the mold, if possible to 
remove without injuring mold, the core lifts or 
draws from the main body of mold, when made 
of a hardened material, and is then removed 
from the concrete cast in the same manner as 
the core is removed from the pattern. When 
made of green sand the core is of course broken 
into small particles, the same as mold, in re- 
moving the concrete cast from the mold; this 
allows the easy removal of the material for core 
from any design, such as a very deep and curved 
opening in the work, or from the inside of a 
hollow ball cast in concrete. 

The style of core employed to mold the open- 
ing inside a vase, jug, or any similar article is 
shown at (b) and (c) ; this must be of the green 
sand mixture for the reason that the neck of the 
article cast is smaller than the largest part of 
core, hence the core cannot be removed only in 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

small pieces ; the sand mixture when dry easily 
disintegrates and in many cases can be removed 
by breaking up with a small stick, then is easily 
poured out of the inside of the concrete work. 
This is the only method of molding concrete 
work that permits a concrete article to be molded 
in one piece, with an opening many times 
smaller than the body of core, as by this method 
the opening to jug may be even i K" in diame- 
ter and the diameter of the main body of core 
ten or fifteen inches and yet be easily removed ; 
in such work the core is held upright by a 
round piece of wood placed at the neck and to 
extend up into the core, so to support it; this 
piece of wood must not be larger than the neck 
to the jug or vase, and thus is easily withdrawn 
first and the main body of core removed by 
breaking into pieces and pouring out. For 
practical purposes the method of molding such 
articles in two sections and then joining with 
cement cannot be recommended, for while it is 
strong enough if not subjected to usage, yet for 
practical use it cannot compare with the strength 
of a monolithic piece of work. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

The method of making the rough form of 
core is shown at (b); this is simply a sheet of 
tin bent into a circular form and held in place 
by strings; the sand mixture is packed inside 
same and then the strings and tin removed, 
while the sand is wet. 

The cylinder thus molded is then modeled 
by hand into the shape of core; using a sharp 
knife and a flat, smooth stick. With the knife 
cut away the sand mixture, as shown at (c) 
into a rough form of the core and then smooth 
off all the roughness with the stick, until it is in 
the form you desire it. This is the most sim- 
ple way, but requires care and some skill to 
make the core exactly symmetrical. To the un- 
skilled worker this will be far easier if the sand is 
mixed one-half or three-quarters clay, as it will 
then be more plastic and the easier modeled; 
where the opening to jug or vase is not too small 
this works very well, as the increase in percentage 
of clay makes the core harder to break up and 
remove from the finished work. 

The method of making a core for to mold 

the inside of a large lawn vase is shown at (d); 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

this is very simply done and requires that the 
sand mixture be piled up in the center of a 
modeling board, around an iron rod, that pro- 
jects up above the mass of sand and clay, as 
shown by the dotted lines in drawing. A tem- 
plate is now cut from wood in the exact outline 
of one-half of the core to be modeled, a hole is 
bored through this at one end so it will go over 
the rod and thus swing on same as on a pivot; 
your sand mixture is now formed with hands 
or trowel into a rough form of the core and the 
template swung around on same to form it into 
the exact shape desired, any parts that are not 
high enough can be added, and all surplus sand 
mixture is cut away by the action of swinging 
the template around the cdre. 

At (e) is shown the template in modeling the 
core for a vase or jug; this is far easier for the 
beginner to master than the modeling of core by 
hand and knife; the template is in exact out- 
line of the shape you wish; hence the core 
cannot but be modeled in the same shape; 
synmietrical and without the requisite of any 
skill upon the part of the operator. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

When the template is employed, it will be 
found to work much easier if the sand mixture 
is in the usual proportion of one-quarter clay 
to three-quarters of sand; with this the tem- 
plate will work easier and cut away the surplus 
without breaking out pieces of the material, as 
would happen with a larger percentage of clay 
in your core mixture. In many pieces of work 
where the neck of core is not too small, sand 
alone can be employed, when made very wet, 
as the material for core. 



Combining Molds to Mold Large Work 


With sand molds, as with any other method 
of using molds to cast concrete work, there are 
two ways possible to perfect large work; the 
most simple is to mold the different units sep- 
arately and then lay up with concrete mortar 
to make the completed design. Where it is de- 
sired to have the finished work in one solid 
mass or monolithic the manner of combining 
the sand molds, as shown in Fig. 6, will permit 
the concrete for the work to all be placed at the 
one operation, thus allowing any reinforcement 
you may wish, to be placed within the mold 
and imbedded into the concrete. 

This is of value in the case of any shaft or 
column, as the mortar joints between different 
sections or units is certain to detract from the 
neat and finished appearance of the work, as 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

well as to lessen the strength of the shaft, for 
under the average conditions and method of 
making these joints, with the different units 
fully cured, each particle of the aggregate is 
covered with a coating of cement, thus pre- 
venting a perfect bonding of the two sections; 
this can be remedied by the use of muriatic 
acid and water to eat away this coating of ce- 
ment and expose the surface of the aggregate, 
but as few masons employ it the monolithic 
method of molding such work is by far the best. 
The monument shown at Fig. 6 can be 
molded in sand molds, for which the patterns 
are simple articles and very easily prepared. 
The first section, at bottom, as shown by dotted 
line this may be made in two sections, is made 
from a clay model pattern; this can be modeled 
with a template to form the ball perfectly, and 
the sand mold made from this model; the 
pattern for each section must be placed so to 
center exactly in the center of each flask, so 
that the next section of mold will come exactly 
over the one beneath it; a point very essential 
to the molding of perfect work. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 


■.:■•'■■. ■■■ ■■■ :■■ ■.■.:■■.■■:■...() 


Fig. 6. — Combining Sand Molds to Mold a Monument. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

The support to ball can also be made from 
a clay model, which is easily formed with a 
template in the circular form demanded and 
forms the second section of mold, so to make 
the making and assembling of the whole mold 
the more simple. 

The next three sections, as shown in Fig. 6, 
compose the shaft to the monument; the pat- 
tern for these is simply a cylinder of wood or 
tin, that is of the size you wish and extends 
through the entire mold, as is the case with all 
but the first or bottom section of the mold. 

The sixth section of mold can be easily made 
from a clay model formed with template; this 
should at the upper part be the exact size of 
the unit above same, while the lower end is the 
size of the shaft, and this reduction in circum- 
ference can be arranged in the manner shown 
in Fig. 6 or by a series of ornamental moulding 
faces as you may desire. The explanations 
made are for the monument in the position 
shown in Fig. 6, or upside down; so to permit 
the concrete to be the easier placed and also to 
bring the smallest openings in the mold at the 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

bottom of the whole mold ; otherwise the weight 
of the sand would cause the mold to collapse, 
while In the position shown, the sand in lower 
sections is a support to that in the upper sec- 
tions, with no possible danger of the mold fall- 
ing down. 

The seventh section is simply a cylinder that 
is the same size as the top opening in the sixth 
section; this can be made of tin or wood bent 
around to the size desired and that employed 

y as a pattern. The sides of an old cheese box 

make an excellent pattern for large cylinder 
molds; the box is taken apart and the wood 
immersed in water until it can be bent into the 
shape desired, easily, then a small strip of wood 
is cut exactly the height of the cylinder, the 
same as the part of cheese box is cut the exact 

! height and also the circumference so that when 

the two ends come together, without lapping, it 
is the exact size desired. These two ends are 

then nailed to the wood strip, making a butt 


joint, which leaves the surface of the cylinder 
perfectly smooth and without the joint show- 
ing in the mold, when neatly joined. The 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

cylinder is braced by cutting boards the exact 
diameter of same and then placing these across, 
inside same, and truing up until it is perfectly 

The eighth or top section is made from a 
cylinder as a pattern, the same as the one be- 
neath it, with the exception of being larger so 
as to give this part of the work the projection 
over the other units you may desire. 

The concrete is thus easily placed arid when 
it is desired to remove the work from the mold ; 
this should not be done before it is thoroughly 
cured or the concrete has taken its permanent 
set and is strong enough to stand handling and 
the strain consequent to the reversing of the 
entire work, the three upper sections are re- 
moved and as the removal of these will release 
the sand mixture, it can be taken away from 
the work and braces set against the concrete to 
use in lowering it carefully to the ground ; if de- 
sired one or two more sections of mold can be 
removed as well, as the braces will hold the 
work from falling with the support of the sand 
in the lower sections of mold. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

The work, as well as the molds or lower sec- 
tions are now lowered or turned over, until the 
work rests on its side upon the ground, then 
the remaining sections of mold can be easily 
and quickly removed, and the work set upright 
in the position it is to occupy. 

If ordinary care is used there is no danger 
of breakage, for the sand from the molds makes 
a cushion or soft resting place for the work, so 
even if it should fall there is every chance that 
striking and imbedding into the sand would 
break the force of the fall without injury to the 



Methods of Combining Molds to Cast 
Large Monolithic Concrete Work 

The use of a number of sand molds com- 
bined to mold the concrete cast in one piece, is 
invaluable with many classes of work, as will 
be easily noted by referring to the drawing of 
the lawn vase mold shown in Fig. 7 ; with work 
of this class it is essential that they be molded 
monolithic, as when molded in sections it is a 
very difficult matter to join these several sec- 
tions together, but what they may be injured 
by the wind displacing same, unless laid up 
with mortar and that is not as strong as a mono- 
lithic piece of work. 

The illustration of the lawn vase or urn in 
Fig. 7, shows a one-half section of the sand 
molds combined to produce the design com- 
plete and ready for use. The first section, from 
the bottom, or the rim to the vase is easily 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

made from a clay model pattern; this can be 
formed with a template and the model for rim 
is made solid, as the core to form the inside of 
bowl is made separately, hence the models for 
the outside of um or vase do not have to be 
cut out in center to allow for core. 

The second section is also made from a clay 
model, which you can fashion with a wood tem- 
plate; as will be noted the size of the different 
flasks varies in height ; this must be done so as 
to bring the parting of the different flasks at 
the point that permits the easy removal of the 
pattern or model from the sand mold; if this 
was not done you would have difficulty in re- 
moving your patterns from the mold and with 
the case of clay models would have to spoil the 
model to remove; with the idea of making the 
parting at the points where the pattern is easily 
removed, you can use the same clay model for 
any number of molds 

The third section or bowl of the um can be 
made from a clay model, or you can use as a 
pattern an ordinary butter-bowl or chopping 
bowl of the right size and contour; this section 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of mold has a parting at the point where the 
outside edge of stem joins upon the bottom of 
bowl; hence in using a wood bowl as a pattern 
it must have a flat surface at the bottom equal 
to the diameter of the stem, or must project be- 
yond the surface of flask enough so that the 
next section, containing sand mold of stem, 
will set down closely to the bowl, so the stem 
joins with same entirely around the circum- 
ference of stem. 

The fourth and fifth sections of mold can be 
made with the same pattern, by simply revers- 
ing same, as the half round moulding placed in 
the center of stem is directly in the line of parting 
of the two sections, so is molded half in one 
section and half in the other. This permits the 
easy removal of pattern from the sand mold 
and saves making an extra pattern. 

The sixth section is easily made from a clay 
model, in the form illustrated or in any other 
form you wish for same, and the shape permits 
its easy removal from mold. 

The seventh and eighth sections are molded 
from patterns made from pieces of tin, a part 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. 7-— Sand Molds Combined to Mold a Large Lawn Va; 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of a cheese box or round blocks of wood. These 
two sections can be made as one, if desired, as 
the two patterns can be combined and by draw- 
ing or lifting upon the largest section of pat- 
tern it is easily removed from the mold. 

This mold may be placed either way, in the 
position shown, or with the bowl of vase upper- 
most ; the only advantage is that by having the 
bowl downward the concrete is the easier 
placed. The core to mold the inside of the 
bowl can be made of any material, sand, plas- 
ter, clay, or concrete, as it is a simple form easily 
modeled with the aid of a wood template. It 
should be modeled upon a circular board, ex- 
actly the size of the core, so that it can be 
handled and placed without breaking apart; as 
soon as first section of mold is in position, the 
core is set within same, using care to have it 
properly spaced so to be exactly in the center, 
the other sections of mold are placed around 
same. When the work is molded in the oppo- 
site position to that illustrated, the core must 
be dispensed with and the space inside bowl 
modeled with a template or trowel; which is 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

more labor, hence the plan of molding vase up- 
side down as illustrated. 

The centering of your patterns may be ac- 
complished by using a cover board that is abso- 
lutely square, in the center of same bore a X" 
hole, if the pattern is circular — if a square pat- 
tern bore two of these holes, into same place 
iron rods which go through %'' holes in the 
pattern, and so hold the pattern exactly in the 
center of the cover board or modeling board. 
The placing of flask can be guided by placing 
upon this board and then by measurements 
securing the exact point it must rest, to have 
the space between pattern and flask equal at 
every side; small blocks of wood may then be 
nailed to the cover board, on the outside of 
flask, as guides so that the flask, or any other 
flask of the same size, will set exactly in the 
same place. By using this cover board for all 
sections you thus mold the various sections of 
pattern in the sand, so that they go together 
exactly, as perfect as if pattern was in one 

The work to which this method of combin- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

ing molds may be applied is unlimited, as it 
lends itself to every style of large work, no 
matter what the size, with perfect and exact 
results, thus enabling the worker to produce 
monolithic pieces of work that heretofore he 
judged could only be produced in separate 
units and then built up. 
The molding of a column with base and 


capital attached is easily accomplished; this 
may be done either by having the pattern in 
sections, as shown for the lawn vase, and then 
combining the sections to make the entire mold, 
or dividing the column into halves as well as 
base and capital, which can be attached to the 
two sections of column. For the latter way a 
flask is built that is about (f wider than the 
greatest diameter of the pattern and as much 
longer than the greatest length of the complete 
pattern; then the mold is made in the usual 
manner by laying pattern in bottom of flask and 
filling in with sand, reversing the mold, making 
the parting and then placing the other half of 
pattern upon the first half with the cope of flask 
around same and finishing the mold; the gate 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

or inlet is provided at one end and the concrete 
poured from that end. This enables a com- 
plete column to be molded, from the use of 
any of the wood columns, divided in halves,, 
and employed as a pattern, or the metal divi- 
sion plates cut in outline of pattern may be 
employed when it is desired not to divide the 

In building up the sand molds in sections for 
a round column the base may be a clay model, 
made with template, as well as the shaft and 
capital and the sections set upon each other to 
make a perfect and complete mold. With the 
square column the pattern can easily be built of 
wood forms ornamented with the usual mould- 
ings cut with miter joints, so to fit perfectly 
around the surface of pattern; the section^ 
must be so arranged as to permit the easy re- 
moval of pattern from the sand mold without 
disturbing the sand mixture. 

The sand mold has the advantage that it 
can mold any article with as much ornamenta- 
tion or under-cutting as any mold, and even far 
more than the average metal or plaster molds 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

permit ; for the sand mold is easily taken apart 
or broken into small particles to release the 
work — ^this is something not possible with any 
other style of mold ; hence the only limit to the 
shape or degree of ornamentation to work cast 
in a sand mold, is the removal of the pattern 
from the mold, and in the case of a clay model 
this can be removed in pieces, if only one cast 
is desired, hence the sand mold easily and suc- 
cessfully accomplishes what is impossible with 
any other system of molding ornamental con- 
crete, known to the concrete worker to-day. 


Making Rock Effects with Sand Molds 

The omamenting of concrete work with 
rock face efiFects is desirable for many purposes 
and is easily accomplished with sand molds in 
two different ways; the method shown at (a) iii 
Fig. 8, employs a face plate made from the 
sand mixture in the same manner as the im- 
pression is taken from a pattern, and gives a 
sand mold that can be employed for many 

The cover board is placed under the flask 
and this is covered with spalls or pieces of 
broken stone; these must be laid with care, 
tightly together, so to form the outline of broken 
rock that you wish to imitate and then by plac- 
ing the sand mixture upon this and tamping 
down, you make a mold that will cast an exact 
fac-simile of the face of the broken stone, laid 
in the bottom of flask. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Another way in which this can be employed, 
as for instance if you wish to ornament one or 
four sides of a die, or the center piece to a 
pilaster, column or any square piece of con- 
crete work, with a rock face effect, you can 
prepare the four boards that make the square 
pattern and have them so that the boards on 
two sides overlap those on the other two sides, 
as shown at (a) in Fig. 9; these are held to- 
gether when making mold with screws and 
when removing the pattern from sand mold, 
the two inside pieces of pattern draw toward 
the center of pattern, when screws are removed, 
thus causing the pattern to collapse so to easily 
free it from the mold. 

Each of these sides is laid flat (Hi the work 
bench and the face thickly coated with glue; 
while this is sticky small pieces of broken rock are 
pressed into the glue coating and thus are 
cemented to the board, making the pattern for 
any rock effect you may desire. 

This may also be done by using small blocks 
of stone, that have been dressed to the size de- 
sired, and laid up in the center of flask with a 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fig. 8. — ^Producing Rock Face Effects with Sand Molds. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

hollow in the center, so that to remove the pat- 
tern you have only to draw the pieces of stone 
towards the center and thus the parting of the 
stone from the sand is horizontal and will not 
disturb the impression of the rock face, made 
in the sand of mold. 

In this way any design you may wish can be 
built up so to produce a broken rock effect, 
rubble or ashlar surface, and by combining the 
sand molds, mold the entire piece of work in 
this manner. Where it is desired to have the 
entire column in imitation of masonry, with no 
two stones exactly alike, the pattern can be laid 
up in rock in the usual manner and then the 
flasks quartered, with outline division plates 
between each quarter section of flask; the first 
section is placed around the column, the sand 
placed in same and a parting arranged and the 
next section placed upon that; in this manner 
the entire sections of the combined mold can be 
made with a parting between every one. If you 
have used nails to hold the sand inside your 
quarters of flask and tamped the sand down 

tightly, you can begin at the top section and 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

draw out one-quarter of the flask, horizontally, 
sliding it upon a cover board and in this man- 
ner remove all the quarters of the different sec- 
tions of mold. If you have numbered these as 
you removed them, you can erect again in the 
same way they were taken down, thus giving 
you a complete sand mold for the entire column, 
ready for the pouring of concrete. When care 
is taken this mold can be made toe cast several 
columns, if there is no deep under-cutting to 
destroy the face of the molding surface. 

At (b) Fig. 8 is shown the method of pro- 
ducing rock face effects of which no two are 
alike, and for its simplicity is to be recom- 
mended to the unskilled worker as well as to 
those who wish to produce the work as rapidly 
as possible, and do not care for an absolutely 
perfect surface. 

The mold is provided, on the inside, with 
small strips of wood nailed to the inside or 
molding surface of the mold, if a yvood mold is 
employed; if an entire sand mold is used these 
strips are reproduced in the sand mold by hav- 
ing the pattern with a channel or groove in 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

same at the point the strip is to be, which molds 
the projection on the inside or molding surface 
of the sand mold. This produces on the fin- 
ished work the effect of pitched-faced masonry 
and as well supplies a guide to the use of chisel 
in finishing the work. 

The work is thus molded with a projecting 
panel as is shown at (c) Fig. 8, and the rock 
face effect is secured by using a pitching chisel 
or tool with a face or edge that has a width of 
2" or 2K"; this is held at an angle of from 60 
to 70 degrees, where it is desired to have the 
rock effect project or extend out beyond the 
plane of the work ; the head of tool is then 
struck a light blow with mallet, just enough to 
break off a portion of the projecting panel. 
Where it is desired to have the face of work 
nearly even with the edges or true plane, the 
tool should be held directly upright and where 
the surface is to recede into the body of the 
work the tool should be held outward from 
same at an angle of from 90 to 95 degrees, thus 
breaking off the concrete to form a concave 
surface. Care must be used in this, as the tool 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

if not properly held is apt to break off too much 
of the body of block, and it is best to break off 
in as small pieces as possible thus lessening the 
danger of spoiling the work. 

This simple method will enable the worker 
to secure any ornamental rock faced effect he 
may wish, with each one entirely different; for 
block work this method is excellent as it per- 
mits the rapid finishing of the work and when 
they are laid in the wall the effect is all that can 
be desired. The surface of the broken con- 
crete can be greatly improved by coating with 
neat cement and water; the cement alone is 
mixed with water to the consistency of cream 
and is then applied to the surface with a brush, 
filling all the pores in the concrete and giving 
the blocks a more satisfactory and durable 

[91 1 

Ornamental Work from Simple Paiterns 

With sand molds the concrete worker has at 
his command a wide range of objects available 
as patterns, the most simple of every-day ob- 
jects when properly used will aid in making a 
mold that will produce excellent ornamental 
effects, and by combining a number of these 
molds together the design you wish to perfect 
can be accomplished in so easy a manner that it 
would not be deemed possible until you have 
made a trial of it. 

The illustration at (a), Fig. 9, shows the man- 
ner of making the pattern collapsible, so that it 
may be withdrawn from the sand mold hori- 
zontally, thus permitting a greater amount of 
ornamentation to be placed upon a circular or 
square form and yet allow it to be removed from 
the mold without injury to the impression of 
the pattern in the sand. This method is use- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

ful in many classes of work where it is not pos- 
sible or convenient to use the flask divided into 
quarters, and will draw with greater ease than 
from a flask so divided. 

The form is made of boards, enough smaller 
than the completed pattern to permit of the 
design to be fastened to the sides of same; two 
sides are cut long enough to lap over the other 
side boards, to which are fastened cleats at 
each end.; these cleats are fastened securely to 
the two inside boards and attached, when mak- 
ing mold, to the outside boards with screws; 
this permits these screws to be removed, when 
ready to draw the pattern, and the two inside 
boards to be drawn toward center of pattern 
and taken out, thus freeing the two longer side 
boards in the same manner, without injury to 
the sand mold. 

At (b) is shown a panel which illustrates the 
possibility of a simple piece of rope as a pat- 
tern; the rope is nailed to a cover board or 
molding board in the design you wish to 
reproduce, and then well covered with shellac 
so to make a smooth surface but not to ob- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

literate the texture and strands of the rope ; the 
flask is now placed and in the bottom of same 
dry sand is sifted until the rope is about one- 
half covered, as this would be all you would 
wish to appear on the panel, the sand mix- 
ture is placed upon this, completing the mold. 

The design of pedestal shown at (c) Fig. 9, 
is made from a pattern that is simply a log or 
block of wood, with the bark upon same; the 
bark is smoothed as much as possible and all 
divisions or cracks between the pieces of bark 
made as deep as you wish, so to make the de- 
tail more perfect ; the log is now cut into halves 
and the outside surface treated to a coating of 
shellac or varnish, so to give a smooth molding 

One-half of pattern is now placed upon the 
molding board and the flask placed around 
same and the sand mold made in the usual 
manner; the second section of flask and also 
of pattern is placed and the parting made be- 
tween sections of flask; the balance of mold is 
completed in the usual manner which .allows 
for pouring the concrete from one end. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fic. 9. — Collapsible Core and Simple Patterns for Sand Molds. 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

Two square slabs of the proper size are now 
molded as a base and cap to the pedestal or if 
desired these may be cast with the die, by at- 
taching a square block as a pattern to each 
end of the halves of log and making the mold 
in the usual way, thus making the entire pedes- 
tal monolithic. 

This design /nakes an attractive jardiniere 
by having the log of the exact height the jar- 
diniere is to be made and then treating in the 
same way as for pedestal, making the sand 
mold of the two halves of log. When ready to 
mold the work in concrete, place a core at one 
end of sand mold, to form the bowl or opening 
in the jardiniere as was explained for the mold- 
ing of lawn vase. This makes a very excellent 
piece of work that is always sure to attract at- 
tention. The same idea is as useful as a pat- 
tern for a concrete grave-marker or small mon- 
ument, with a plate attached for placing the 
inscription upon, also for a column for a per- 
gola or arbor. 

Many useful patterns can be made by using 
the ordinary stock mouldings secured at any 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

lumber yard; these can be cut and joined over 
a form so to make a pattern that will enable 
you to perfect a number of ornamental designs, 
such as the base or capital to the square column 
or pedestal. 

The ordinary wood brackets, which can be 
secured at your local lumber dealer's, make 
excellent patterns for many kinds of ornamen- 
tal designs; these can be cut so to use the part 
you wish and the sand mold is easily made 
from same, in the manner explained for other 
work. Large and small wood or metal rosettes 
can be employed in making a pleasing design, 
by attaching to any part of the pattern where 
you wish them to be reproduced. The com- 
mon wood or metal buttons can be well used to 
work out a pleasing ornamental design, by 
attaching to the pattern along the lines of the 
design you desire. A common wood butter- 
bowl or chopping bowl makes an excellent pat- 
tern for the rounded part to an urn or vase of 
large size, and when combined with a good 
design for rim the result is highly satisfactory. 

The many designs of metal ceilings and or- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

namental work stamped in metal are also use- 
ful as patterns; by the use of ceiling and cornice 
metal, cut into the size you desire, you can pro- 
duce a number of ornamental effects, as they 
may be combined to perfect the design you 
wish and with their smooth surface make a 
most excellent pattern. 

The use of the plaster of Paris figures or 
statuary opens to the beginner an unlimited 
field for producing the crowning figures for 
fountains and many other classes of work. 
The cast is easily reproduced from these figures 
in the following manner: the plaster is first 
covered with shellac to prevent the moisture in 
the sand mixture from injuring same, it is then 
imbedded into dry sand placed within one sec- 
tion of flask; the dry sand should come up to 
about one-half the thickness of figure, which is 
so placed that it will draw from the sand mold 
easily, thus where there is an extending arm 
this must come at the point of parting, as well 
as any other projection that would cause trouble 
in removing the plaster pattern from the sand 
mold. The dry sand is simply to make a solid 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

support for the figure while one-half of the 
mold is made, as well as to aid in making the 
parting at the point you wish same, the flask is 
placed around the figure, and the one-half of 
sand mold made in the usual manner and 
turned over; the parting is provided by the 
use of graphite and the second section of flask 
placed and the mold finished. The gates or 
inlets must be carefully arranged, so that when 
the sand mold stands in the position you wish 
in pouring concrete, the inlet will place the 
concrete at the highest point of the figure ; this 
will require that you have several inlets, with 
any pattern that has a projecting member at 
right angles to the main body of figure. The 
only care required is in the making of mold and 
releasing the pattern from same ; in many cases 
the pattern can be divided so to more easily 
draw from mold ; the work is easily freed f roni 
mold by breaking up the sand mixture as pre- 
viously explained. This permits any statuary 
with many deep Under-cuttings to be success- 
fully molded in concrete by even a beginner at 
the work. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

The value of strawboard or pulpboard as a 
pattern material is unknown to almost every 
concrete worker ; this is a material that is easily 
fashioned in the shape you wish, and fully re- 
tains its shape until the mold is made. The 
design is first drawn or transferred to the flat 
sheet of heavy strawboard, and is then cut out 
from same; this can be done with a sharp knife 
by laying the sheet upon any hard surface and 
cutting along the lines of design; enough dupli- 
cates of design are cut so to give the pattern 
the desired projection you wish ; these are glued 
together exactly, and then glued to a flat sheet 
of the strawboard so the different parts of de- 
sign will remain in position while the mold is 
made ; this gives you the completed design pro- 
jecting from a flat sheet of the board. The 
whole pattern is now coated with shellac or 
varnish, to prevent it from being damaged by 
the moisture, and the pattern is laid upon cover 
board and the sand mold made. 

By this method the beginner can reproduce 
any large drawing with bold lines, in bas-relief 
upon the work he is molding, as the drawing is 


Concrete • From Sand Molds 

easily transferred to the strawboard by the use 
of a sheet of carbon paper and it is then a sim- 
ple matter to cut out and glue the duplicates 
together to get the projection wanted. In this 
way inscriptions, figures, and ornaments in bas- 
relief, that would not be possible for the un- 
skilled worker o model in clay, can be repro- 
duced in concrete, in perfect outline, in the 
easiest manner conceivable. 



A Simple Lathe for Turning Sand Molds, 
Patterns, and Cores 

In producing a number of sand molds of the 
same design of such simple outline as to permit 
their being fashioned by the aid of a template, 
the use of a lathe will make the work far more 
rapid as well as less laborious, and in a plant 
producing concrete work from sand molds on a 
conmiercial scale will be found invaluable, as 
the mold is turned in a moment's time; even 
quicker than the pattern can be placed in the 
usual manner of making mold. 

The lathe illustrated is very simply made 
and while it will do the work successfully, can 
doubtless be improved upon, where such a tool 
is in every-day use and must be built more dur- 
able. The framework is built of 2x4" pieces 
to which is attached the treadle and wheel, to 
furnish the drive to the shaft by the means of a 

belt and pulley, as shown in Fig. 10, in which 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

space forbids the illustration of more than the 
upper portion of the machine. 

The bed of the lathe is made of a 2x10'' 
plank and at the end the pulley is attached, a 
standard is erected perpendicularly, that is 2^ 
in height ; this can be made from a plank with 
a slot or bearing for the shaft to turn in and is 
placed high enough from the bed of lathe to 
permit the average size of flask to be manipu- 
lated beneath same. The second standard is 
placed about four feet from the one at the drive 
end of lathe as this will permit the average size 
of work to be turned between same. 

The second standard is placed about two 
feet from the end of machine so that a template 
may be attached to the end of shaft for cutting 
out many styles of molds, as shown in drawing. 

The template between standards is bolted 
to the shaft by clips, as illustrated, and the 
edges of template has a cutting edge of metal 
which is bolted to the wood part of template on 
opposite sides, so that the sand cut from the 
mold will be thrown away from the worker 
operating the lathe. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Guide boards should be erected upon the 
bed of the lathe so to permit the placing of the 
flask in the exact position you wish same, as 
well as a guide to holding it in that position. 
With heavy molds this will be difficult, so a 
separate table* should be made to go upon the 
bed of lathe ; this is made the size of the largest 
molds to be turned so that it will support them 
perfectly; to raise and lower this table evenly, 
two screws as used for wood vises can be placed 
underneath same so that the simple turning of 
the handle or wheel to screw will raise the 
table exactly and with ease. The template is 
adjusted to the shaft, in the manner shown for 
the template of urn in illustration, and the flask 
filled with sand placed upon the table ; the shaft 
is now revolved at high speed and the table 
and flask raised with the screws gradually, so 
the lowest cutting edge of template just strikes 
the sand, cutting it out in the shape of template 
and throwing it away from operator; as fast 
as the mold is cut the table can be raised until 
the one-half of design is complete or the flask 
touches the shaft. In making the template it 


Concrete From Sand Molds 
















Concrete From Sand Molds 

must be planned so that the width of template 
is one-half the diameter of the shaft, beyond 
the exact outline of design ; as the flask cannot 
be raised beyond the shaft and if the template 
is made the exact size the mold will be one- 
half the diameter of shaft smaller than desired. 
By having your guides so that the flasks 
filled with sand can be placed in the same posi- 
tion each time, two halves of the mold can be 
turne'd or cut, so that when put together to 
mold the work, they will meet exactly and thus 
make the mold perfect. In turned work it is 
advisable to cut the gates or inlets to double 
molds by hand, as they can be very easily 
placed in that way at the point desired and any 
sharp cutting tool will fashion same in the sand. 
For making molds for vases, jardinieres, jugs, 
flower pots, capitals and bases, sections of col- 
umns, pedestals, balusters, or any circular 
work, as well as many other purposes, this 
method of making molds is invaluable, where 
rapid and accurate work is desired, as would be 
required in the practical use of sand molds in 

a large plant producing work for commercial 


Concrete from Sand Molds 

purposes on a large scale. The mold is made 
far quicker than by any other method and as 
the curing of the work is completed by the wet 
sand, without the least attention, the sand mold 
process is one that has a great advantage over 
molds made of any other material. 

The template placed at the end of shaft is of 
the greatest use in turning the many designs, 
that could not be very well done from the center 
of shaft. The template can be attached to 
shaft by a clip to set over the shaft, which has 
been squared at that point to receive same and 
thus prevent the template from turning on shaft 
under the pressure of working. 

The flask is placed upon its side and blocked 

up, as illustrated, so the template will strike the 

sand exactly in the center, the flask is then 

moved toward the template as fast as the sand 

is cut away, until the design is turned. For 

pateras, rosettes, center-pieces and even bases 

and capitals, as well as many other styles of 

work, this will be found of great value. The 

table feature for raising the flask as well as 

sliding it toward the template can be employed 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

with this as well; the table is placed upon the 
bed of lathe, on a track so to easily slide, then 
the screw is attached to the table and through 
the standard, supporting shaft at this end; the 
operator can then work the treadle of the lathe 
and at the same time draw the table and flask 
up against the template, thus avoiding the serv- 
ices of a helper for this purpose. 

The material for molds to be turned in this 
manner can be the ordinary sand mixture or 
they may be made simply of wet sand, where 
the molds are to be filled soon after they are 
made, before the sand has a chance to dry out; 
with molds of simple and bold design the sand 
alone has an advantage in the fact, that is can 
be easily turned and in releasing the work from 
mold breaks up into particles with ease, the- 
moment the flask is taken from around same. 
The flasks or blanks are made by tamping the 
sand into them solidly; this may be done by 
any tamping machinery, thus making the cost 
of preparing the blanks very slight, as well as 
increasing the output of your plant. 

In making a number of cores or patterns 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

from any material that will stick together tightly, 
this lathe will be of value ; the blank for core is 
molded in the circular form, equal to the great- 
est diameter of core, in plaster of Paris or sand 
and some adhesive liquid ; in the center of same 
a ^ short section of pipe is molded, the exact 
length of the core; this is of a size to permit it 
to just slip over the shaft where it is held solid 
by placing a pin through the section of pipe 
and down through a hole drilled in shaft for 
the purpose. The template or cutting tool is 
now placed on a rest, as with a wood or metal 
worker's lathe, and the core blank revolved with 
the shaft; it is then possible to turn the core 
to any shape you wish. 

The core compound must be judged so that 
it is just strong enough to bear handling and 
turning and yet when used inside a vase or jug 
it can be broken up and removed without in- 
jury to the concrete work. 



Molding '' Cast Stone '^ Concrete Blocks 
FOR Hollow Wall. A New Block and 

The sand mold process is invaluable in the 
manufacture of concrete blocks, for the reason 
that a large number of molds may be provided 
at slight expense of time and money and these 
molds filled with a wet mixture of concrete, 
thus producing a "cast stone" block that has a 
far greater density and consequently a less per- 
centage of absorption than the block made 
with a semi-moist mixture of concrete and 
tamped in the ordinary way by hand. While 
it cannot equal in density the block made un- 
der an enormous pressure, yet the machine for 
the production of such blocks are costly and 
far slower in operation than the simple filling 
of the molds with the concrete, hence the wet 
mix block mold is to the ordinary contractor 
the best process, from the fact of the low cost 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of molds and operation and the excellent qual- 
ity of the work. The sand mold produces a 
cast stone, with all or more than the strength 
of nature's product and with the added ad- 
vantage that you absolutely control the size, 
shape, and surface of same. 

The style of wall shown at (e) Fig. ii is in 
many ways entirely different from the walls 
made of two-piece blocks, laid into the wall to 
make a continuous dead air space entirely around 
the building. There are at present a number 
of blocks made in L shape or similar to that 
form, with square faced projections toward the 
center of wall ; such projections are in danger of 
being broken off with the handling of the block, 
unless care is used from the moment it is molded 
until placed in wall; but by having this pro- 
jection in a wedge-shaped form, as shown by 
the illustration at (e) Fig. ii, the greatest 
strength to the projection is placed at the point 
where it joins with the block ; this is where it is 
most needed, to prevent injury to same in the 
necessary handling it must undergo before 
being used. This added strength to block is 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

transferred to the wall from the simple fact that 
it provides a larger bearing surface to each sec- 
tion or block, at the very point most needed, 
hence cannot but give a wall of greater strength 
and stability. 

The projection in center of the block makes 
it very easy to handle, as when picked up by 
the mason it is practically evenly balanced and 
when a large block of this design is to be moved 
by a derrick it simplifies the placing of the sling 
or chains, to have the block move without slip- 
ping from the chains. The joints are easily 
broken, in laying up the wall, as will be noted 
by referring to the detail at (e) which shows 
K)ne course of blocks laid in position. The pro- 
jection can be placed so that from the end or 
point of same there is one-half or one inch 
space between that and the block in the oppo- 
site wall; this makes a continuous air chamber 
entirely around the building and can be sealed 
up by placing a slab of concrete as the finishing 
course, or using solid blocks for that purpose 
thus making a wall that is non-conductive to 
either heat or cold. 


Concrete Fjom Sand Molds 

The method of molding this style of block is 
shown at (d) Fig. ii, two planks are prepared 
that are the length of the string of blocks you 
wish to mold, as the height of the block ex- 
tends along the length of these side planks, a 
12' plank will make molds for fourteen 8" 
blocks, if the cross pieces are made from 1^ 
lumber. The side planks are marked at the 
point the height of blocks will extend along 
their length, with allowance for the width of 
cross pieces, and a slot cut into each plank, 
one-half its thickness, for the cross pieces to 
set into. The cross pieces are now prepared; 
these are the same width as the width or thick- 
ness of blocks, from the point of projection to 
the outside edge of block; which is also the 
width of the outside planks. The length of 
the cross pieces is S'^ more than the length of 
the block to be molded, so that they can be cut 
one-half through their width at a point 4^ from 
each end, and thus allow them to set down 
into the slots cut in each of the side planks and 
to project 2" beyond the side planks; where a 
hole is bored in each end of the cross pieces and 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

a pin or spike inserted to hold the wood forms 
securely together, without any danger of their 
spreading with the weight of concrete placed 
within them. 

These forms are very quickly made and as 
easily taken apart and erected again, as the re- 
moval of the pins in each end of cross pieces 
releases the side forms and when inserted holds 
the forms rigidly in position. 

A wood pattern is made the exact size and 
shape of the inside projection on block ; this is 
provided with a handle and as the shape is 
slanting on the sides it can be drawn from the 
sand with ease. This wood pattern is set in the 
center of the mold, between the side planks, and 
the sand mixture placed upon each side of same 
and tamped down until the sand fills the space 
between side planks to the top edge of core ; the 
core or pattern for projection is now lifted and 
placed in the next space and the operation re- 
peated. This requires but an instant, if the 
sand is so placed that it can be easily reached 
by the operator, and a string of fourteen of these 
molds is but a few moments' work. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

If any trouble is experienced in placing this 
pattern exactly in the center of the space each 
time, a block can be nailed to the top of the 
pattern at each end; this should be about two 
inches high above pattern; upon this block a 
strip is nailed to exactly reach from one side 
plank to the other, on the inside; this makes it 
certain that the pattern will be placed exactly 
in the center of the space each time without 
any attention other than the operator dropping 
it into place. 

The reader will note by referring to (d) Fig. 
II, that the space for the projection is arranged 
in the sand, placed in the bottom of mold, that 
the space between top of sand and the top of 
mold provides the space for molding the thick- 
ness of each wall section of block, hence the 
concrete has only to be placed or poured into 
the mold and the top edge struck off with a 
straight-edge and finished with trowel. This 
permits any surface you wish to be added to 
the blocks, or you can mold the paneled pro- 
jection shown in (b) and (c) Fig. 8 and then 

with pitching tool ^lake rock faced blocks of 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

which no two are alike. By having a small 
metal roller with sharp projections around its 
circumference; as used for sidewalk work, you 
can produce an accurate imitation of tool 
dressed stone; by running the roller diagonally 
over the surface of block you can produce the 
effect of broached work and by going over the 
surface the second time with roller and placing 
the indentations between those first imprinted, 
the effect of pointed work is secured; by run- 
ning the roller across the block in the direction 
of the height and placing the lines as close to- 
gether as possible the effect of patent-hammered 
finish is secured; while with the lines or in- 
dentations at the distance apart they are on the 
roller and operated in the same direction, will 
secure an imitation of the tooled finish; the 
crandalled finish can be imitated by running 
the roller over the work once, in each direction, 
diagonally over the surface of the block. The 
imprinting into the surface of the green con- 
crete, any article that has a series of sharp 
points upon its surface, such as the tool em- 
ployed in the kitchen to make the steak more 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

tender, will give an imitation of hush-ham- 
mered work, by leaving the surface of the block 
full of points. 

A very pleasing and simple manner of fin- 
ishing blocks is to have the surface of the block 
very wet and then to cover it with a layer of 
dry sand of any attractive color, or crushed 
granite may be employed for this purpose, the 
concrete will bond with same, enough of this 
layer of sand or granite to make an attractive 
surface to the block, and with the advantage 
that the outside particles of the finishing course 
are not coated with cement, thus having all the 
sparkle and lustre of the natural stone with the 
advantage of being quickly applied. 

At (a) is shown another style of block, that 
can be easily molded by this system. The two 
side boards are erected and have a width or 
height equal to the height of block, the space 
between same is equal to the length of block, 
thus the cross pieces, when used, are placed at 
a distance apart to equal the width or thick- 
ness of the complete block. 

A form is made of boards to use as a pat- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

tern that is the exact size and shape of the 
block, as illustrated at (a); this is placed be- 
tween the cross pieces of plank form and the 
sand cores made by tamping in the sand be- 
tween the two side pieces of the wood pattern; 
this makes two projecting sand cores to mold a 
concrete block in the form of a letter H, as illus- 
trated. Where desired the cross pieces may be 
discarded, and the sand mixture tamped en- 
tirely around the pattern, thus making a com- 
plete sand mold except at the two ends; this 
requires more work in making mold with addi- 
tional care in removing pattern, than the block 
shown at (d), but makes a block that is a com- 
plete section of wall. 

The style of block shown at (b) is the same 
as has been in use for years ; this is also molded 
upright or in the position it is to be used in 
wall; the two side planks are employed as for 
the block shown at (a) and the wood pattern 
made the size and shape of block; the sand is 
tamped into the center of same thus making a 
sand core inside the block. The cross pieces 
can also be dispensed with, between side planks, 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

if desired and the sand tamped entirely around 
the wood pattern, which forms an entire sand 
mold for the block, except at ends, and is ready 
for the concrete to be simply poured into the 
spaces molded in the sand. 

The block shown at (c) Fig. ii, is simply 
two sections of wall connected with a metal tie 
imbedded into the concrete. This can be 
molded with the sand molds by having the 
side boards as for blocks (a) and (c), the wood 
pattern for block is merely two pieces of plank 
the size of the sections of wall; these are set 
upright and the sand packed between same, 
and if the cross pieces in wood forms are not 
used, around the wood pattern also; before 
drawing the pattern from sand, use a flat tool 
of the right width and thickness and force it 
down into the sand between the two pieces of 
wood pattern, then the pattern may be with- 
drawn and the metal ties dropped into these 
slots to project into the space for concrete, and 
so imbed into the concrete and bind the block 
together. If more convenient a small piece of 

board can be set into the sand and the sand 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

mixture tamped around same, to mold this slot 
for placing ties; these slots should be nearly in 
the center of the height of block at a point near 
each end of block, thus making an excellent 
handle for the mason to grasp in placing the 
block as well as t)dng same together; the con- 
crete that enters the slot above wall tie can be 
easily broken off when removing the block from 

These blocks can be molded in a series of 
sand molds, so as to take the entire contents 
of mixer at one pouring, and as the sand is 
not baked it can be used many times for this 


Molding Concrete Brick With Sand Molds 

The sand mold process is adaptable to the 
molding of every style of cement or concrete 
brick, and is invaluable to the concrete worker 
where but a few of a certain size of brick are 
demanded at once; the pattern can be placed 
in the flask, the mold made and the brick cast, 
in but a fraction of the time required to con- 
struct the wood mold for same. 

As applied to all concrete work cast in sand 
molds, the wet sand around the work enables 
each brick to be perfectly cured, without the 
usual trouble in sprinkling them several times 
to properly assist the final setting of the cement. 

The sand mold process permits the molding 

of the plain style of brick shown at (a) in Fig. 

12; the pattern can be made from a block of 

wood of the right size or from several boards 

nailed together; these are the easiest used when 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

a number of patterns are made and attached 
to the cover board with enough space between 
each one to permit a wall of sand between each 
brick, as shown at (d) Fig. 12, the cover board 
containing your series of patterns is placed 
upon the bottom of a flask and the sand mix- 
ture tamped upon same, in the usual manner, 
when removing patterns from the sand mold; 
simply reverse the mold and lift up the cover 
board, evenly, which draws the series of brick 
patterns from the sand mold. 

The plain brick with one surface concave, as 
shown at (b) Fig. 12, is easily made from wood 
patterns, made in the same way as employed 
for the style at (a), in placing upon the cover 
board, nail the flat surface to the board, so the 
concave surface is uppermost and forms the 
pattern imprint in the sand; the mold is made 
and filled with the concrete, all in one section 
of flask as the top edge of bricks can be smoothed 
with a straight-edge, resting upon each side of 
flask and drawn across same, thus making the 
filling and finishing of the concrete in the mold 
a very rapid operation. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

The pattern for hollow brick is shown at (e) 
Fig. 1 2 ; the pattern consists of four strips which 
are the length and width of the brick, with the 
thickness of the lumber equal to the thickness 
of the brick you wish to mold; these four 
pieces are joined at each corner with a halved 
joint, made by cutting into the end of each 
piece half-way at a distance from end equal to 
the width of the strips; the four pieces are then 
nailed together in a square form, in the way 
shown at (e), and a number of these patterns 
made and nailed at equal distances apart to the 
surface of a cover board ; the sand mold is then 
made by tamping the sand mixture upon these 
patterns and then when the flask is reversed, 
the cover board may be lifted and with it the 
entire series of patterns nailed to same. Care 
must be used in lifting the patterns so as not 
to disturb the core in center; this is not diffi- 
cult to accomplish if the patterns have been 
coated several times with shellac or varnish, 
before making mold. The concrete is placed as 
for plain brick and the top leveled with a straight- 
edge. This style of brick makes a most excel- 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

Fio. 12.— Molding Brirk with Sand Mulds. 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

lent wall as it gives a strong bond to the mortar, 
used in laying up the wall, which enters the 
hollow in center of brick, and can be made to 
bond or tie to that in the course below, by fill- 
ing the hollow with mortar; this requires more 
mortar than the other style of brick but this is 
gained by the mortar or concrete saved in the 
construction of the brick. 

The same idea for wood patterns, for the 
hollow brick, can also be applied in making the 
patterns for a chimney block mold as well as 
for small building blocks or large brick: 

The ornamentation of the one face of brick 
with rock faced effects is easily secured by 
making your pattern K" to K" wider than the 
brick is to be made, when finished, the pattern 
has a channel or groove cut into its face the 
depth of this extra projection as explained in 
Chapter X; this molds the brick with a projec- 
ing panel upon one side, which is broken off 
with the aid of a pitching tool or chisel. An- 
other way is to place the brick pattern upon 
the cover board resting upon its side, thus 
bringing the face to be decorated with rock 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

eflFect uppermost; this is thickly coated with 
glue and into this spalls or small stone are im- 
bedded to produce the effect you wish, the 
sand then makes a mold of these patterns to 
reproduce fac-similes in concrete. Where the 
end of brick is to have a rock face the pattern 
may be made K" longer and this broken off 
with chisel, thus making the bearing surface of 
brick all the same size with the rock face pro- 
jection beyond that, so that they will lay easier 
for the mason in the wall. 

A series of patterns is shown at (f) Fig. 12; 
the patterns are connected to a strip of lumber 
to reach from one side of the large flask to the 
other, and these strips are held in position while 
making mold by resting in notches cut into the 
side boards of flask. The sand is tamped into 
mold until it is the . thickness of the brick from 
the top and then the strips, with the patterns 
attached, are placed into the notches in the side 
boards to reach from one side of flask to the 
other; the sand mixture is then tamped around 
these patterns, thus completing the mold, when 

patterns are lifted. In this way a large number 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

of molds for brick can be made in a very short 
time as the flask containing molds does not 
have to be reversed and by having a number of 
molds together the entire contents of the mixer 
can be used in one set of molds. 

This method of making the molds for con- 
crete brick is practically as rapid as many con- 
crete brick machines that require tamping a 
semi-moist mixture of concrete by hand, as the 
time spent in emptying the brick machine and 
carrying the brick away is nearly equal to the 
making of the sand molds, with the advantage 
in favor of the sand molds from the fact that 
the brick require no further attention in harden- 
ing or curing, and that the placing of a wet 
mixture of concrete is quicker and makes a 
stronger brick than the semi-moist concrete 
tamped into the hand machine. 



Facing Molds with White Sand, Crushed 
Granite, etc. Mixing and Placing Con- 
crete IN Sand Molds 

The use of a very wet mixture of concrete 
permits the easy bonding of any facing mixture 
you may wish to use; this is placed in a differ- 
ent manner than for the usual style of molds. 
The white sand, crushed granite, marble dust, 
or flour, or any other facing mixture you may 
wish to employ, is sifted into the mold before 
pouring the concrete, the surface of mold being 
composed of wet sand the dry mixture will ad- 
here to the surface sufficiently to hold a thin 
coating of it entirely over the surface of mold; 
the sections of flask are then placed together 
and the concrete poured into same. 

With the sand mold made in one section of 

flask only, and employed as a face plate or to 

mold bas-relief designs the facing course may 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

be mixed with cement and water, if a thick 
coating is demanded, and plastered over the 
molding surface of sand mold and the balance 
of ordinary concrete added to same, thus in- 
suring a perfect bond. 

The dry facing mixture sifted into molds is 
usually ample, as it will cover the surface com- 
pletely with a thin facing of the higher grade 
aggregate and as the wet concrete is placed be- 
hind same it bonds this dry material firmly into 
the work, with the added advantage that if 
handled with care the outside surface of the 
facing material will not be coated with cement, 
thus avoiding the labor of washing with an acid, 
to expose this surface, and giving the work a 
beautiful appearance, with all the brilliancy 
and effect of natural stone. 

The mixing of the concrete for use in sand 
molds should be thoroughly done, as it is not 
practical to add additional moisture after the 
concrete is placed, which is not a practice to be 
recommended with any mold but often em- 
ployed; if for oramental work, the sand should 
be well screened so as to remove all large pebbles, 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

and when mixed with the cement dry can be 
wet until it is a semi-liquid mass, or of a con- 
sistency to enable it to be poured from a pail 
into the gate or inlet to the mold; with small 
molds about one-half the concrete is poured 
and then if the opening permits a small stick 
is used to * Spuddle" or stir the concrete, forc- 
ing it into all the lines of design, but using care 
not to disturb the sand of mold. 

Where the inlet is small, this cannot be done, 
hence the concrete must be made with more 
moisture so it will run to every part of the mold 
with freedom and thus fill same completely; as 
the sand mixture will in drying absorb all the 
moisture in the concrete, the material may be 
made very wet, just so it will carry the sand and 
cement easily; it is necessary in using a very 
wet mixture to pour a part of it at different 
times, as for instance with a small vase about 
one-quarter of the mold is filled and the con- 
crete allowed to flow into the lines of mold, 
also for the sand to absorb a portion of the 
moisture in the concrete, thus causing it to 
settle or become more dense; within ten to 

1 131] 

Concrete From Sand Molds 

twenty minutes the second batch may be poured 
and allowed to remain for a short time as well 
as the third and fourth pourings. This is nec- 
essary only on such work that you desire to 
have a perfect surface, also with such molds as 
have many lines and deep under-cuttings in the 
molding surface, as the concrete must have 
time to fill these lines which cannot be done if 
the entire mold is filled at one pouring. By 
filling a number of molds at one time this will 
not be the least hindrance, as you can go from 
one to the other in turn until all are finished. 

Where the work is in plain simple lines, as is 
usual with practically all the metal molds, the 
concrete may be poured all at one time or in 
two pourings at the most, also in large work 
where a number of sections are combined to- 
gether to complete one design, the weight of the 
concrete placed at the top will press that which 
is below into all the lines and indentations of 
the design. 

Where a very wet mixture must be employed 
the worker may be required to repair some im- 
perfections in the surface of work, which may 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

be easily done with a trowel or even a putty 
knife and concrete mortar mixed to a paste 
consistency. Where the design is a face plate 
only, the concrete may be used in a paste form 
or semi-moist, as the worker can plaster it into 
all parts of the mold and thus insure a perfect 

The proportions of the concrete for use in 
sand molds need not differ from that employed 
for any other style of mold, except in the fact 
that for all ornamental work the use of clean 
sharp sand as an aggregate is required, all 
pebbles of over tV should be screened from the 
gravel, as these would not permit the concrete 
to perfectly fill the fine lines of any intricate 
design. A mix of i : 3 or i : 3 K is usually 
most satisfactory for ornamental work, but this 
may be made slightly richer for a design with 
very deep under-cutting and leaner when em- 
ployed in a design that has a greater body. 

A valuable way of molding large work is to 
have a form made of tin that is at least 3" 
smaller in diameter than the form or inside of 
mold, as in a column or any similar design this 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

tin form may be erected in the center of mold 
and the rich mixture of concrete poured around 
it ; as soon as this is placed or even partly placed, 
a leaner mixture made with an aggregate of 
sand and broken stone, about K" in diameter, 
can be placed inside the tin form and as fast as 
this is placed the tin form raised, thus bonding 
the two mixes of concrete together and effecting 
a saving in the cost of the work on such jobs as 
it can be employed. 

The reinforcing of the work may be done by 
using almost any kind of the usual material for 
that purpose on the market, as well as plain 
iron rods, woven wire, or twisted wire. 

The placing of any reinforcing material must 
be done before the concrete is poured, as for a 
column the iron rods are set upright in the mold 
so to be imbedded in the concrete at a point 
within I K" of the surface ; with woven wire it 
is formed into a cylinder and set into the form, 
thus allowing the concrete to be placed around 
same. The reinforcement to a vase or jug, that 
has a core inside a mold in two sections, can be 
placed by forming reinforcment to the size and 


Concrete From Sand Molds 

then placing over the core, which is inserted 
into the mold and the work molded, the rein- 
forcement will not show on the inside if prop- 
erly placed, as on three sides a wire can be 
used to extend in toward core, to hold the woven 
wire frame at the proper distance from the core 
so the only part to show on the inside is the 
end of this wire, which can be covered with con- 
crete after work is finished. 

In this manner all work can be reinforced, if 
you wish, as iron rods to be laid horizontally can 
be held in place at the distance of i K" from the 
face of work, by binding together with wire to 
keep them properly spaced apart, then from 
this wire at distances of 6" to 8" apart have a 
single wire extend downward to the face of 
mold to act as a leg or support to the reinforce- 
ment, thus placing it exact and with only the 
end of wire support to show on face, which can 
be covered up; this idea is a valuable one where 
any reinforcing material is to be placed in the 
center of the concrete work without showing 
upon either side. 



Adhesiveness of sand mixture . . . 
Advantages of sand-mold process 

Aggregate, requirements of 

Appearance of natural stone .... 
Assembling of mold 




Baking or hardening molds 29 

Blocks with sand molds 

"cast stone" no 

double wall in 

finishing face of 1 1 7, 1 18 

guides for core 116 

H-style block 1 18, 1 19 

making sand molds for 113 

metal ties for 120 

old style block 119 

pattern for projection 114 

placing concrete for 116 

series of molds 121 

value of sand process 112 

Breaking up mold 23 

Brick with sand molds, 

concave style 123 

curing 122 

hollow style 124 

molding 124 

patterns, how made 124 




Brick with sand molds, 

plain style 123 

rapid molding 128 

rock-faced effect 126, 127 

sand molds for 122 

series of molds 127 

value of sand process 126 

Butterbowl as pattern 77» 78 


Cardboard as parting strips 47 

Centering of patterns 81 

Chimney blocks 126 

Clay model as pattern 42 

Clay, use of 21 


how mold is made 82 

pattern for 82, 83 

placing concrete 83 

Comparison of sand molds with brick machines . 128 

aggregate for 133 

consistency of 131 

mixing 130 

paste mix of 132 

pouring 131 

proportions for 133 

puddling 131 

reducing cost of 133, 134 

Concrete patterns 43 

Concrete mix, moisture of 11 

Cope 17 


baked 60 

for bowl of urn 67 

for vase or jug 64, 65 

green sand 60 





hand modeled 66 

how modeled 66 

making from sand 68 

mixtures for 66, io8 

modeling with template 67, 109 

molding 62 

molding in concrete work 64 

plaster 61, 109 

removing from work 64 

space for body of 62 

turning with lathe 109 

value of, separate 6t 

wood 61 

Cost of molds 15 

Cover boards for baked molds 29 

Cover boards, how made 16 

Cover boards for quarter molds 48 

Curing work 12 


Dirt in sand 25 

Dividing flask into quarters 46 

Dividing flask into eighths 49 

Division plates, 

as parting for cope and drag 54 

cardboard 52 

how placed 52 

how held in position 53 

metal 51 

removing 53 

Dowels, use of 17 

Drag 17 

Drawing patterns 40, 4 1 


Economical method of molding work 133, 134 

Effect of tooled stone 1 1 7, 1 18 

Eighth sections of flask 49 




Facing, advantages of 

Facing work, 

dry method 

value of 

wet method 

Finish to surface 

Fireclay, use of 

Flask for baked molds , 

Flask for face plates 

Flask, how made 

Flour and water, use of , 


Gates, how made and used 

Glue coating on pattern 

Glue-water, use of 

Granite, crushed, use of , 

Guides to flask 

Hardened molds, 

placing the sand 

sand mixture for 

use of 

Holding reinforcement in position 
H-style of block 



Iron rods as reinforcement 

Iron rods in molds, 

how placed 

use of 











38, 39 










Jardiniere, saiid mold for 96 



compcund for blanks 109 

construction 102, 103 

material for blanks 108 

operating 104, 107 

preparing blanks 108, 109 

templates for 104 

template at end of shaft 107 

turning molds 106 

turning cores 109 

use of 102 

Lawn vase, 

base pattern 78, 80 

bowl pattern 77 

centering patterns 81 

core 80 

molding 80 

rim pattern 76, 77 

stem pattern 78 

Locks, use of . . ^ 17 


Marking mold 56 

Marking patterns 44, 46 

Material for hardened molds 26 

Making sand mold from masonry 88, 89 

Marble dust, use in facing 129 

Mixture, quality of 24 

Molasses, use of 27 

Mold for pattern in two pieces 32 

Molding work from face plates 41 




Monolithic work, 

molding 69 

value of 70 


making sand molds for 7°. 74 

patterns for 70. 74 

placing the concrete 74 

removing work from molds 74. 75 

Metal ties in blocks 120,121 


Nails, use of in molds 46 


Old-style block 119 

One-piece patterns, molds from 54, 56 

Origin of sand-mold process 9 

Ornamental brick 126 



how made 18, 49 

materials to use for 38 

Pattern for large cylinder 73 


advantage of 14 

bracket 97 

butterbowl 97 

buttons 97 

collapsible 92 

column 96 

how made 93 

jardiniere 96 

log as 94 

mouldings 96, 97 

metal ceiling 98 

pedestal 94, 96 





placing same in flask 20 

plaster of Paris 98-99 

rope 93 

rosettes 97 

strawboard as pattern material 100, loi 

Pins to hold pattern together 37 

Plaster patterns 40, 98 

Pouring concrete 131, 132 

Preparing sand mixture 21 

Principle of process 16 

Preventing sand from sticking to pattern 40 

Protective coating for patterns 43) 44 

Proportions for concrete 133 

Protecting the molding surface of molds 30 

Puddling the concrete 131 


Quarter sections of flask 46 



Rapid molding of brick 127 


how made 134 

placing 134, 135 

retaining in position 135 

Releasing pattern from mold 48 

Removing patterns, 

metal 41 

plaster and wood 40 

Reversing the flask . . . 37 

Rock-face effects, 

blocks of stone as patterns 86, 88 

broken rock effect 89 

how made 89, 90 




Rock-face effects, 

tools employed and how used 90 

face plates for 85 

finishing broken surface 91 

patterns, how made 85, 86 

Rough cast finish, how secured 31 


for face plates 33 

molds and cores 108 

placing in flask 30 

Sawdust, use of 35 

Shellac, use on pattern 43 

Statuary, making sand molds for 98, 99 

Strawboard, use as patterns 100, loi 

Straight-edge, how made 37 

Strengthening molds with wood strips 49 

Supports for sand , 17 

Surface of work, finishing 13 

Talc, use of 34 

Tamper, how made and used 36 

Tamping the sand 33 

Test of mold 40 

Tooled stone effect, how secured 117 


Under-cutting 13 

Using division plafes for clay models 58 

Use of division plates on two-piece patterns. . . 57 





Value of divided molds 50 

Value of molding large work monolithic 76 


White sand, use of 129 

Whiting, use of 25 

Work for which sand molds are invaluable .... 82 


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pages, 117 illustrations. 91 .M 

O'Conor Sloans. A practical handbook of reference contain- 
ing definitions of about 5.000 distinct words, terms and phrases. 
The definitions are terse and concise and include every term 
used in electrical science. 682 pages, 393 illustrations. S3.00 


SWrrCHBOABDS. By William BaxtSr, Jr. This book 
app>eals to every engineer and electrician who wants to know 
the practical side of things. All sorts and conditions of dvnamos, 
connections and circuits are shown by diagram and illustrate 
just how the switchboard should be connected. Includes direct 
and alternating current boards, also those for arc lighting, in- 
candescent, and power circuits. Special treatment on high 
voltage boards for power transmission. 190 pages. Illustrated. 



Radclippb and H. C. Cushino. This book gives the principles 
of construction and operation of both the Bell and Independent 
instruments; approved methods of installing and wiring them; 
the means of protecting them from lightning and abnormal cur- 
rents; their connection together for operation as series or bridg- 
ing stations; and ruleis for their inspection and maintenance. 
Line wiring and the wiring and operation of special telephone 
systems are also treated. 180 pages, 125 illustrations. Sl.OO 

WIRING A HOUSE. By Hbrbbrt Pratt. Shows a house 
already built; tells just how to start about wiring it. Where to 
begin; what wire to use; how to run it according to insurance 
rules, in fact just the information you need. Directions apply 
equally to a shop. Fourth edition. 2A cents 


By J[aicbs Ersrinb-Murray. This work is free from elaborate 
details and aims at giving a clear survev of the way in which 
Wireless Telephones work. It is intended for amatetu* workers 
and for those whose knowledge of Electricity is slight. Chap- 
ters contained: How We Hear — Historical — The Conversion of 
Sound into Electric Waves— Wireless Transmission — The Pro- 
duction of Alternating Currents of High Frequency — How the 
Electric Waves are Radiated and Received — The Receiving 
Instruments — Detectors — Achievements and Expectations — 
glossary of Technical Work. Cloth. »1.00 



Edited by Gardner D. Hiscox. A work of r 0.000 practical 
receipts, including enameling receipts for hollow ware, for 
metals, for signs, for china and porcelain, for wood, etc. Thor- 
ough and practical. See page 34 for full description of this book. 



work designed for the practical and every-day use of the Archi- 
tect who designs, the Manufacttirers who build, the Engineers 
who plan and equip, the Superintendents who organize and 
direct, and for the mformation of every stockholder, director, 
officer, accountant, clerk, superintendent, foreman, and work- 
man of the modem machine shop and manufacturing plant of 
Industrial America. Sff.OO 


OF SMOKE. By Wm. M. Barr. To be a success a fireman 
must be "Light on Coal." He must keep his fire in good con- 
dition, and prevent, as far as possible, the smoke nuisance. 
To do this, he should know how coal bums, how smoke is formed 
and the proper burning of fuel to obtain the best results. He 
can learn this, and more too, from Barr's "Combustion of Coal." 
It is an absolute authority on all questions relating to the Firing 
of a Locomotive. Nearly 350 pages, fully illustrated. 91.00 


Booth and Kershaw. As the title indicates, this book of 197 
pages and 75 illustrations deals with the problem of complete 
combustion, which it treats from the chemical and mechanical 
standpoints, besides pointing out the economical and humani- 
tarian aspects of the question. 93.50 



RovLES. A practical treatise for the use of gas engineers, gas 
managers and students. Including amons^its contents — Prepa- 
rations of Standard Solutions, Coal, Furnaces, Testing and 
Regulation. Products of Carbonization. Analysis of Crude Coal 
Gas. Analysis of Lime. Ammonia. Analysis of Oxide of Iron. 
Naphthalene. Analysis of Fire-Bricks and Fire-Clay. Weldom 
and Spent Oxide. Photometry and Gas Testing. Carbur- 
etted Water Gas. Metropolis Gas. Miscellaneous Extracts. 
Useful Tables. W.fiO 

Horse-power Gas Engine. By Parsell and Weed. A prac- 
tical treatise describing the theory and principles of the action of 
gas engine^ of various types, and the design and construction of a 
naif -horse- power gas engine, with illustrations of the work in 
actual progress, together with dimensioned working drawings giv- 
ing clearly the sizes of the various details. 300 pages. 8^.50 

Hiscox. Just issued, 1 8th revised and enlarged edition.^ Every 
user of a gas engine needs this book. Simple, instructive, and 
right up-to-date. The only complete work on the subject. Tells 
all about the running and management of gas, gasoline and oil 
engines as designed and manufactured in the United States. 
Explosive motors for stationary, marine and vehicle power are 
fully treated, together with illustrations of their parts and tabu- 
lated sizes, also their care and running are included. Electric 
Ignition by Induction Coil and Jump Sparks are fully explained 
and illustrated, including valuable information on the testing for 
economy and power and the erection of power plants. 

The special information on producer and suction gases in- 
cluded cannot fail to prove of value to all interested in the gen- 
eration of producer gas and its utilization in gas engines. 

The rules and regulations of the Board of Fire Underwriters 
in regard to the installation and management of Gasoline Motors 
is given in full, suggesting the safe installation of explosive motor 
power. A list of United States Patents issued on Gas, Gasoline 
and Oil Engines and their adjuncts from 1875 to date is included. 
484 pages. 410 engravings. S9.60 net 


moubbn gas engines and producer gas 

PLANTS. By R. E. Mathot. M.E. A practical treatise of 
•^ao pages, full^ illustrated by 175 detailed illustrations, setting 
forth the principles of 'gas engines and producer design, the selec- 
tion and installation of an engine, conditions of perfect opera- 
tion, producer-gas engines and their i>ossibilities, the care of gas 
engines and producer-gas plants, with a chapter on volatile 
hydrocarbon and oil engines. This book has been endorsed by 
Dugal Clerk as a most useful work for all interested in Gas Engine 
installation and Producer Gas. 9Z,0O 

gearihg and cams 

BETEL GEAR TABLES. By D. Ao. Engstroii. No one 
who has to do with bevel gears in any way should be without 
this book. The designer and draftsman will find it a great con- 
venience, while to the machinist who turns up the blanks or cuts 
the teeth, it is invaluable, as all needed dimensions are given 
and no fancy figuring need be done. 01.00 

CHANGE GEAR DEVICES. By Oscar E. Pbrrigo. A 
book for every designer, draftsman and mechanic who is inter- 
ested in feed changes for any kind of machines. This shows what 
has been done and how. Gives plans, patents and all information 
that you need. Saves hunting through patent records and rein- 
venting old ideas. A standard work of reference. 91.00 

DRAFTING OF CAMS. By Louis Rouillion. The 
laying out of cams is a serious problem unless you know how to 
go at it right. This puts you on the right road for practically 
any kind of cam you are likely to run up against. 25 cents 


HTDRA17LIC ENGINEERING. By Gardnbr D. Hiscox. 
A treatise on the properties, power, and resources of water for all 
purposes. Including the measurement of streams; the flow of 
water in pipes or conduits; the horse-power of falling water; 
turbine and impact water-wheels; wave-motors, centrifugal, 
reciprocating, and air-lift pumps. With 300 figures and dia- 
grams and 36 practical tables. 320 pages. 94.00 


ING, By A. J. Wallis-Taylor. This is one of the latest and 
most comprehensive reference books published on the subject 
of refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties and 
refrigerating effect of the different fluids in use, the manage- 
ment of refrigerating machineiy and the construction and insula- 
tion of cold rooms with their required pipe surface for different 
degrees of cold; freezing mixtures and non-freezing brines, 
temperatures of cold rooms for all kinds of provisions, cold 
storage charges for all classes of goods, ice making and storage of 
ice, data and memoranda for constant reference by refrigerating 
engineers, with nearly one hundred tables contaming valuable 
references to every fact and condition required in the installment 
and operation of a refrigerating plant. $l.fi0 



-' ■_■-_■_ - ^ 

PAY. This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in per- 
f ecting their inventions, talang out their patents, and disposing 
of them. It is not in any sense a Patent Solicitor's Circular, 
nor a Patent Broker's Advertisement. No advertisements of any 
description appear in the work. It is a book containing a quarter 
of a century's experience of a succes^ul inventor, together with 
notes based upon the experience of many other inventors. Sl.OO 


B. Pbrrigo. An up-to-date book on American Lathe Work, 
describing and illustrating the very latest practice in lathe and 
boring-mill operations, as well as the construction of and latest 
developments in the manufacture of these important classes of 
machine tools. 300 pages, fully illustrated. SS.fiO 

A work of 404 pages, fully illustrated, covering in a comprehen- 
sive manner the modem practice of machining metal parts in 
the lathe, including the regular engine lathe, its essential design, 
its uses, its tools, its attachments, and the manner of holding the 
work and performing the operations. The modernized engine 
lathe, its methods, tools, and great range of accurate work. The 
Turret Lathe, its tools, accessories and methods of performing 
its functions. Chapters on special work, grinding, tool holders, 
speeds, feeds, modem tool steels, etc., etc. 93.50 

viN. There are two ways to turn tapers; the right way and 
one other. This treatise has to do with the right way* it tells 
you how to start the work properly, how to set the lathe, what 
tools to use and how to use them, and forty and one other little 
things that you should know. Fourth edition. 95 cents 



By T. O'Conor Sloanb. Theory, history, biography, practical 
applications, manufacture. 365 pages. Illustrated. 92.00 


AIR-BRAKE CATECHISM. By Robert H. Blackall. 
This book is a standard text book. It covers the Westinghouse 
Air-Brake Equipment, including the No. 5 and the No. 6 E T 
Locomotive Brake Equipment; the K (Quick-Service) Triple 
Valve for Freight Service* and the Cross-Compound Pump. 
The operation of all parts of the apparatus is explained in detail, 
and a practical way of finding their peculiarities and defects, 
with a proper remedy, is given. It contains 3,000 questions with 
their answers, which will enable any railroad man to pass any 
examination on the subject of Air Brakes. Endorsed and used 
by air-brake instructors and examiners on nearly every rail- 
road in the United States. 23d Edition. 380 pages, fully 
illustrated with folding plates and diagrams. .93.00 


H. C0LVIN4 The most complete book on compounds published. 
Shows all types, including the balanced compound. Makes 
everything clear by many illustrations, and shows valve settinR, 
breakdowns and repairs. X42 pages. 81.00 

TO liOCOMOTPVESi By Roii«rtOa*«».* A practicalbook. 
Contains si>ecial chapters on Generation of Highly Superheated 
Steam; Superheated Steam and the Two-Cylinder Simple 
Engine; Compounding and Superheating; Designs of Ixxomotive 
Superheaters- Constructive Details of Locomotives using Highly 
Superheated Steam; Experimental and Working Results. Illu^ 
trated with folding plates and tables. 99.50 

OF SMOKE. By Wm. M. Barr. To be a success a fireman 
must be "Light on Coal." He must keep his fire in good con- 
dition, and' prevent As>fe.T'£ts p6ssible,- the ->smoke nuisance. 
To do this, he should know how coal bums, how smoke is formed 
and the proper burning of fuel to obtain the best results. He 
can learn this, and more too, from Barr's "Combination of Coal." 
It is an absolute authority on all questions relating to the Firing 
of a Locomotive. Nearly 350 pages, iuUy illustrated. Sl.OO 


Frbd H. Colvin, Associate Editor of "American Machinist." 
A handy book that clears up the mysteries of valve setting. 
Shows the different valve gears in use, how they work, and why. 
Piston and slide valves of different types are illustrated and 
explained. A book that every railroad man in the motive- 
power department ought to have. Fully illustrated. 50 cents* 

A. Klbinhan^. The^ only< book . showing how locomotive 
boilers are built in modem shops* Shows all types of boilers 
used; ^ves details of construction; practical facts, such as 
life of nveting punches and dies, work done per day, allowance 
for bending and flanging sheets and other data that means dol- 
lars to any. railroad man. 421 pages, 334 illustrations. Six 
folding plates. S3.00 

EDIES. By Geo. L. Fowler. Revised by Wm. W. Wood, 
Air-Brake Instructor. Just issued 1910 Revised pocket edition. 
It is out of the question to try and tell you about every subject 
that is covered in this pocket edition of Locomotive Breakdowns. 
Just imagine all the common troubles that an engineer may ex- 
pect to happen some time, and then add tall of the unexpected 
ones, troubles that could occur, but that you had never thought 
about, and you will find that they are all treated with the very 
best methods of repair. Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear 
Troubles, Electric Headlight Troubles, As well as Questions and 
Answers on the Air Brake are all included. 294 pages. Fully 
illustrated. 91.00 

87th revised a,nd enlarged edition. This may well be called an 
encyclopedia of the locomotive. Contains over 4,000 examinar 
tion questions with their answers, including among them those 
asked at the First, Second and Third year's Examinations. 
825 pages, 437 illustrations and 3 folding plates. S2.5Q 


R. Blackall. This is a complete treatise on the New York 
Air-Brake and Air-Signalling Apparatus, giving a detailed de- 
scription of all the parts, their operation, troubles, and the 
methods of locating and remedying the same, aoo pages, fully 
illastrated. SLOO 

CUM. Bv pRBD H. Col VIM. Associate Editor ** American 
Machinist. Different from any book you ever saw. Give^ clear 
and concise information on just the ixunts you are interested in. 
It's really a pocket dictionary, fully illustrated, and so arranged 
that you can find just what you want in a second without an 
index. Whether you are interested in Axles or Acetvlene; Com- 
pounds or Counter Balancing; Rails or Reducing Valves; Tires 
or Turntables, you'll find them in this little book. It's very 
complete. Flexible cloth cover. 200 pages. SI .00 

Contains the standard code for both single and double track and 
explains how trains are handled under all (Conditions. Gives all 
signals in colors, is illustrated wherever necessary, and the 
most complete book in print on this important subject. Bound 
in fine seal flexible leather. 221 pages. 81.50 


Wm. W. Wood. If you would thoroughly understand the 
Walschaert Valve Gear, you should possess a copy of this book. 
The author divides the subject into four divisions, as follows: 
I. Analysis of the gear. II. Designing and erecting of the gear 
III. Advantages of the gear. I v. Questions and answers re 
lating to the Walschaert Valve Gear. This book is specially valu- 
able to those preparing for promotion. Nearly aoo pages. Sl.SO 


POCKET BOOK CATECHISM. Bjf Wm. W. Wood, Air-Braka 
Instructor. A practical work containing examination questions 
and answers on the E T Equipment. levering what the E T 
Brake is. How it should be operated. What to do when de- 
fective. Not a question can be asked of the engineman up for 
promotion on either the No. 5 or the No. 6 E T equipment that 
IS not asked and answered in the book. If you want to thor- 
oughly understand the E T equipment get a copy of this book. 
It covers every detail. Makes Air- Brake troubles and examina- 
tions easy. Fully illustrated with colored plates, showing 
various pressures. B3.00 


practical treatise on the designing, constructing, use, and in- 
stallation of tools, jigs, fixtures, devices, special appliances,- 
sheet-metal working processes, automatic mechanisms, and 
labor-saving contrivances; together with their use in the lathe 
milling machine, turret lathe, screw machine, boring mill, power 
press, drill, subpress, drop hammer, etc., for the working of 
metals, the production of interchangeable machine parts, and 
the manufacture oi repetition articles of metaL 560 pages, 
600 iUvistrations. $4.00 

G. HoRNBR. A.M.I.Mech.I. This work covers the entire prac- 
tice of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The best known ex- 
perts in all branches of engineering have contributed to these 
volumes. The Cyclopedia is admirably well adapted to the needs 
of the beginner and the self-taught practical man. as well as the 
mechanical engineer, designer, draftsman, shop superintendent, 
foreman and machinist. 

It is a modem treatise in five volumes. Handsomely bound 
in Half Morocco, each volume containing nearly i;oo pages, with 
thousands of illustrations, including diagrammatic and sectional 
drawings with full explanatory details. 995.00 for the com- 
plete set of five voltmies. 86.00 per volume, when ordered singly. 

Most popular book for shop men. Shows how ail shop problems 
are worked out and "why." Includes change gears for cutting 
any threads; drills, taps, shink and force fits; metric system 
of measurements and threads. Used by all clasises <^ mechanics 
and for instruction of Y. M. C. A. and other schools. Fifth 
edition. 131 pages. SO oentt 

VICES. By Gardnbr D. Hiscox. This is a collection of 1890 
engravings of different mechanical motions and appliances, ac- 
companied by appropriate text, making it a book ot great value 
to the inventor, the draftsman, and to all readers with mechanical 
tastes.^ The book is divided into eighteen sections or chapters 
in which the subject matter is classified under the following 
heads: Mechanical Powers, Transmission of Powor, Measurement 
of Power, Steam Power, Air Power Appliances, Electric Power 
and Construction, Navigation and Roads, Gearing, Motion and 
Devices, Controlling Motion, Horological, Mimng, Mill and 
Factory Appliances, Construction and Devices, Drafting Devices, 
Miscellaneous Devices, etc. xith edition. 400 octavo pages. 



Gardner D. Hiscoz. This is a supplementary volume to the 
one upon mechanical movements. Unlike the first volume, 
which is more elementary in character, this volume contains 
illustrations and descriptions of many combinations of motions 
and of mechanical devices and appliances found in different lines 
of Machinery. Each device being shown by a line drawing with 
a description showing its working parts and the method of opera- 
tion. From the multitude of devices described, and illustrated, 
might be mentioned, in passing, such items as conveyors and 
elevators, Prony brakes, thermometers, various types of boilers, 
solar engines, oil-fuel burners, condensers, evaporators, Corliss 
and other valve gears, governors, gas engines, water motors of 
various descriptions, air ships, motors and dynamos, automobile 
and motor bicycles, railway block signals, car couples, link and 
gear motions, ball bearings, breech block mechanism for heavy 
guns, and a large accumulation of others of equal importance. 
1 ,000 specially made engravings. 396 octavo pages. 92.00 

SPECIAL OFFER "^^^^^ ^^^ volumes sell for $3.50 each. 
** **^^^*' vrrrsii^ ^jy.j. ^ijgQ ^jjg ^^Q volumes are ordered 

at one time from us, we send them prepaid to any address in the 
world, on receipt of $4.00. You save $1 by ordering the two 
volumes of Mechanical Movements at one time. 


MENT AND MANAGEMENT. By Oscar B. Pbrrigo. 
The only work published that describes the Modem Machine 
Shop or Manufacttiring Plant from the time the grass is growing 
on the site intended for it until the finished product is snipped. 
J<ust the book needed by those contemplating the erection of 
mddem shop buildings, the rebuilding and reorganization of old 
ones, or the introduction of Modem Shop Methods, Time and 
Cost Systems. It is a book written and illustrated by a prac- 
tical shop man for practical shop men who are too busy to read 
theories and want facts. It is the most complete all-around book 
of its kind ever published. 400 large quarto pages, 335 original 
and specially-ma4e. illustrations. So.OO 


STRUcnrioN. operation, and manipulation. By 

W. H. VA^fDBRVOORT. A work of SSS pages and 673 illustra- 
tions, describing in every detail the construction, operation, and 
manipulation of both Hand and Machine Tools. Includes 
chapters on filing, fitting, and scraping surfaces; on drills, ream- 
ers, taps, and dies: the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers. 
and their tools; milling machines and cutters; gear cutters and 
gear cutting; drilling machines and drill work; grinding ma- 
chines and their work; hardening and tempering; gearing, 
belting and transmission machinery; useful data and tables. 


book might be called a compendium of shop methods, showing a 
variety of special tools and appliances which will give new ideas 
to many mechanics from the superintendent down to the man 
at the bench. It will be found a valuable addition to any machin- 
ist's library and should be consulted whenever a new or difficult 
^ob is to be done, whether it is boring, milling, turning, or plan- 
ing, as they are all treated in a practical manner. Fifth edition. 
330 pages, 350 illustrations. •tS.SO 

MODERN MEC7HANISM. Edited by Park Bbnjamin. A 
practical treatise on machines, motors and the transmission of 
power, beins a complete work and a supplementary volume to 
Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics. Deals solely with 
the principal and most useful advances of the past few years. 
9S9 pages containing over 1,000 illustrations; bound in half 
morocco. 94.00 

Hornbr. This book describes and illustrates the Milling Ma- 
chine and its work in such a plain, clear, and forceful manner, 
and illustrates the subject so clearly and completely, that the 
up-to-date machinist, student, or mechanical engineer can not 
anord to do without the valuable information which it contains. 
It describes not only the early machines of this class, but notes 
their gradual development into the splendid machines of the 
present day, giving the design and construction of the various 
types; forms, and special features produced by prominent 
manufacturers, American and foreign. 304 pages, 300 illustra- 
tions. 94.00 

** SHOP KINKS." By Robert Grimshaw. This shows 
special methods of doing work of various kinds, and reducing 
cost of production. Has hints and kinls from some of the largest 
shops in this country and Europe. You are almost sure to nnd 
some that apply to your work, and in such a way as to save time 
and trouble. 400 pages. Fourth edition. SS.ilO 



J06BPH G. HoRNBR. A practical treatise of 340 pages, fully 
illustrated and comprisinff a general description and classifica- 
tion of cutting tools and tool angles, allied cutting tools for 
machinists and woodworkers; shearing: tools: scraping tools; 
saws; milling cutters; drilling and bonng tools; taps and dies: 
punches and hammers; and the hardening, tempering and 
^nding of these tools. Tools for measuring and testing work, 
including standards of measurement; surface plates; levels; 
surface ntuges; dividers; calipers; verniers; micrometers; 
snap, cyundrical and limit gauges; screw thread, wire and 
reference gauges, indicators, templets, etc. 93.50 


RouiLLiON. The only book that gives just the information 
needed by all interested in manual training, regarding buildings, 
equipment and supplies. Shows exactly what is needed for all 
grades of the work from the Kindergarten to the High and Nor- 
mal School. Gives itemized lists of everything needed and tells 
just what it ought to cost. Also shows where to buy supplies. 



AND CONSTRUCTION. By Dr. G. Bauer, Lbslib S. 
Robertson, and S. Bryan Donkin. This work is clearly 
written, thoroughly systematic, theoretically sound; while the 
character of its plans, drawings, tables, and statistics is without 
reproach. The illustrations are careful reproductions from 
actual working drawings, with some well-executed photographic 
views of completed engines and boilers. tO.OO net 


son. This book ^ves a condensed account of the ore-deposits 
at present known in South Africa. It is also intended as a guide 
to the prospector. Only an elementary knowledge of geology 
and some mining exoenence are necessary in order to under- 
stand this work. With these qualifications, it will materially 
assist one in his search for metalliferous mineral occurrences 
and, so far as simple ores are concerned, should enable one to 
form some idea of the possibilities of any they may find. 

Among the chapters siven are: Titaniferous and Chromif- 
erous Iron Oxides — Nickel — Copper — Cobalt — Tin — Molyb- 
denum — Tungsten — Lead — Mercury — Antimony — I r o n — 'Hints 
to Prospectors. Illustrated. 92.00 

portant work, containing 438 pages and 213 illustrations, com- 
plete with practical details, which will intuitively impart to the 
reader, not only a general knowledge of the principles of coal 
mining, but also considerable insight into allied subjects. The 
treatise is positively up to date in every instance, and should 
be in the hands of every colliery engineer, geologist, mine' 
operator, superintendent, foreman, and all others who are in- 
terested in or connected with the industry. 93.50 



Byrom. a practical work for the use of all preparing for ex- 
aminations in mining or qualifying for colliery managers' cer- 
tificates. The aim oi the author in this excellent book is to place 
clearly before the reader useful and authoritative data which 
will render him valuable assistance in his studies. The oaly^ work 
of its kind published. The information incorporated in it will 
prove 0^ the greatest practical utility to students, mining en- 
gii^eers, colliery managers, and all others who are specially in- 
terested in the present-day treatment of mining problems. x6o 
pages. Illustrated. ta.OII 


BRONZES. Henley's Twentieth Century Receipt Book con. 
tains many practical tormulas on bronze casting, imitation 
bronze, bronze polishes, renovation of bronze. See page af for 
full deacriptioB of this book. S3.00 

EMINENT EN GINEEBS. By DwiOHT Goodaro. Every- 
one who appreciates the effect of such great inventions as the 
Steam Bngine, Steamboat, Locomotive, Sewing Machine, Steel 
Working, and other fundamental discoveries, is interested in 
knowing a little about the men who made them and their achieve- 

Mr. Goddard has selected thirty-two of the world's engineers 
who have contributed most largely to the advancement of our 
civilization by mechanical means, giving only such facts as are of 
general interest and in a way which appeals to all, whether 
mechanics or not. aSo pages, 35 illustrations. Si.AO 

JJkWH OF BUSINESS, By Thbophilus Parsons, LL.D. 
The Best Book for Business Men ever Published. Treats clearly 
of Contracts, Sales, Notes, Bills of Exchaxige, Agency, Agree- 
ment, Stoppage in Transitu, Consideration, Limitations, Leases, 
Partnership, Executors, Interest. Hotel Keepers, Fire and Life 
Insurance, Collections, Bonds, Frauds, Receipts, Patents, Deeds, 
Mortgages, Liens, Assignments, Minors, Married Women, Arbi- 
tration, Guardians, Wills, etc. Three Hundred Approved Forms 
are given. Every Business Man should have a copy of this book 
for ready reference. The book is bound in full sneep, and Con- 
tains 864 Octavo Pages. Our special price. t3.A0 



This is a very complete and entirely practical treatise on the 
subject of pattern making, illustrating pattern work in wood and 
metal. From its pages you are taugnt just what you should 
know about pattern making. It contains a detailed description 
of the materials used by pattern makers, also the tools, both 
those for hand use, and the more interesting machine tools; hav- 
ing complete chapters on The Band Saw, The Buzz Saw, and The 
Lathe. Individual patterns of many different kinds are fully 
illustrated and described, and the mounting of metal patterns on 
plates for molding machines is included. Sil.OO 


Hiscox. The most valuable Techno-Chemical Receipt Book 
published. Contains over x 0.000 practical Receipts many of 
which will prove of special value to the perfumer, a mine of in- 
formation, up to date in every respect. Cloth, S3.O0; half 
morocco. See page 94 for fall dcecriptioa of this book. $4.00 



AsKixsoN, Perfumer. A comprehensive treatise, in which 
there has been nothing omitted that could be of value to the 
Perfumer. Complete directions for making handkerchief per* 
fumes, smelling-salts, sachets, fumigating pastilles; preparations 
for the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair, cosmetics, hair dyes 
and other toilet articles are given, also a detailed description 
of aromatic substances; their nature, tests of purity, and 
wholesale manufacture. A book of general, as well as profes- 
sional interest, meeting the wants not only of the druggist and 
perfume manufacturer, but also of the general public. Third 
edition. 3x2 pages. Illustrated. S3.00 



Starbuck. The author of this book, Mr. R. M. Starbuck, is one 
of the leading authorities on plumbing in the United States. The 
book represents the highest standard of plumbing work. It has 
been adopted and used as a reference book by the United States 
Government, in its sanitary work in Cuba, Porto Rico and the 
Philippines, and by the principal Boards of Health of the United 
States and Canada. 

It gives Connections, Sizes and Working Data for All Fixtures 
and Groups of Fixtures. It is helpful to the Master Plumber in 
Demonstrating to his customers and in figuring work. It gives 
the Mechanic and Student quick and easy Access to the best 
Modem Plumbing Practice. Suggestions for Estimating Plumb- 
ing Construction are contained in its pages. This book repre- 
sents, in a word, the latest and best up-to-date practice, and 
should be in the hands of every architect, sanitary engineer 
and plumber who wishes to keep himself up to the minute on this 
important feature of construction. 400 octavo pages, fully 
illustrated by 55 full-page engravings. M,00 


ner D. Hiscox. Contains upward of practical receipts, 
including among them formulas on artificial rubber. 8«c pac* 
04 for fttll descnptioB of this book. $3.00 

OF INDIA RUBBER. By T. O 'Conor Sloans. This book 
gives full details on all points, treating in a concise and simple 
manner the elements of nearly everything it is necessary to under- 
stand for a commencement sn any branch of the India Rubber 
Manufacture. The making oi all kinds of Rubber Hand Stamps, 
Small Articles of India Rubber, U. S. Government Composi- 
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Toy Balloons, India Rubber Solutions, Cements, Blackings, 
Renovating Varnish, and Treatment for India Rubber Shoes, 
etc.; the Hektograph Stamp Inks, and Miscellaneous Notes, 
with a Short Account of the Discovery, Collection, and Manufac- 
ture of India Rubber are set forth in a manner designed to be 
readily understood, the explanations being plain and simple. 
Second edition. 144 pages. Illustrated. 01.00 



Robert Grimshaw. A practical hand book on filing, gumming, 
swaging, hammering, and the brazing of band saws, the speed, 
work, and power to run circular saws, etc. A handy book for 
those who have charge of saws, or for those mechanics who do 
their own filing, as it deals with the proper shape and pitches of 
saw teeth of all kinds and gives many useful hmts and rules for 
gumming, setting, and filing, and is a practical aid to those who 
use saws for any purpose. New edition, revised and enlarged. 
Illustrated. Sl.OO 


Stabbl. This clears up many of the mysteries of thread- 
cutting, such as double and triple threads, internal threads, catch- 
ing threads, use of hobs, etc. Contains a lot of useful hiqts and 
several tables. 2A cents 



Wood WORTH. A new book by a practical man, for those who 
wish to know the latest practice in the working of sheet metals. 
It shows how dies are designed, made and used, and those who 
are engaged in this line of work can secure many valuable 
suggestions. •3.00 

ING IN PRESSES. By J. V. Woodworth. A work of 500 
pages and illustrated by nearly yoo engravings, being an en- 
cyclopedia of die-making, punch-making, die sinking, sheet- 
metal working, and making of special tools, subpresses, devices 
and mechanical combinations for punching, cutting, bending, 
forming, piercing, drawing, compressing, and assembling sheet- 
metal parts and also articles of other materials in machine tools. 




E. Crane. A new book by a well-known author. Begins at 
the boiler room and takes in the whole power plant. Contains 
the result of years of practical experience in all sorts of engine 
rooms and gives exact information that cannot be found else- 
where. It's plain enough for practical men and yet of value to 
those high in the profession. Has a complete examination for a 
license. $3.00 

^ BOILER ROOM CHART. By Gbo. L. Fowler. A Chart 
— size 14 X 28 inches — showing in isometric perspective the 
mechanisms belonging in a modem boiler room. Water tube 
boilers, ordinary grates and mechanical stokers, feed water 
heaters and pumps comprise the equipment. The various parts 
are shown broken or removed, so that the internal construction 
is fully illustrated. Each part is given a reference number, and 
these, with the corresponding name, are given in a glossary 
printed at the sides. This chart is really a dictionary of the 
boiler room — the names of more than 200 parts being given. 
It is educational — ^worth many times its cost. W cents 


SHAW. Tells how to erect, adjiist, and run the principal steam 
engines in use in the United States. The work is of a handy 
size for the pocket. To young engineers this catechism will be 
of great value, especially to tnose who may be preparing to go 
forward to be examined for certificates of competency; and 
to engineers generally it will be of no little service as they will 
find in this volume more really practical and useful information 
than is to be found anywhere else within a like compass. 387 
pages. Sixth edition. 99.00 


J, BucHBTTi. This work fully describes and illustrates the 
method of testing the power of steam engines, turbine and 
explosive motors. The properties of steam and the evapora- 
tive power of fuels. Combustion of fuel and chimney draft; 
with formulas explained or practically computed. 255 pages, 
179 illustrations. 93.00 

HORSE POWER CHART. Shows the horse power of any 
stationary engine without calculation. No matter what the 
cylinder diameter or stroke; the-steam pressure or cut-off; the 
revolutions, or whether condensing or non-condensing, it's all 
there. Easy to use, accurate, and saves time and calculations. 
Especially useful to engineers and designers. -SO cents 

PRACTICE. By Gardnbr D. Hiscox. This is a complete and 
practical work issued for Stationary Engineers and Firemen 
dealing with the care and management, of Boilers, Engines, 
Pumps, Superheated Steam, Refrigerating Machinery, Dyna- 
mos, Motors, Elevators, Air Compressors, and all other branches 
with which the modem Engineer must be familiar. Nearly 
200 Questions with their Answers on Steam and Electrical 
Engineering, likely to be asked by the Examining Board, are 
included. 487 pages, 405 engravings. S3.00 

This volume of 413 pages is not only a catechism on the question 
and answer principle; but it contains formulas and worked-out 
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gineers have recommended it as a valuable educator for the be- 
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edition. tS.OO 

Chbney. a practical pocket book for the Steam Engineer. 
Shows how to work the problems of the engine room and shows 
"why." Tells how to figure horse-power of engines and boilers; 
area of boilers; has tables of areas and circumferences; steam 
tables; has a dictionary of en^neering terms. Puts you onto 
all of the little kinks in figuring whatever there is to figure 
around a power plant. Tells you about the heat unit; absolute 
zero; adiabatic expansion; duty of engipes; factor of safety; 
and 1,001 other things; and everything is plain and simple — 
not the hardest way to figure, but the easiest. 60 cents 



VENTILATION. By A. G. King. This book is the standard 
and latest work published on the subject and has been prepared 
for the use of all engaged in the business of steam, hot-water 
heating and ventilation. It is an original and exhaustive work. 
Tells how to get heating contracts, how to install heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the best business methods to be used, with 
"Tricks of the Trade'* for shop use. Rules and data for esti- 
mating radiation and cost and such tables and information as 
make it an indispensable work for evervone interested in steam, 
hot-water heating and ventilation. It describes all the principal 
systems of steam, hot-water, vacuum, vapor and vacuum- 
vapor heating, tocher with the new accelerated systems of 
hot-water circulation, including chapters on up-to-date methods 
of ventilation and the fan or blower system of heating and venti- 

You should secure a copy of this book, as each chapter con- 
tains a mine of practical information. 367 pages, 300 detailed 
engravings. 93.00 


HON. By Wm. H. Booth. The work is well illustrated in regard 
to pipe joints, expansion offsets, flexible joints, and self-contained 
sliding joints for taking up the expansion of long pipes. In fact, 
the chapters on the flow of Steam and expansion of pipes are most 
valuable to all steam fitters and users. The pressure strength of 
pipes and method of hanging them is well treated and illustrated. 
Valves and b^-passes are fully illustrated and described, as are 
also flange joints and their proper proportions. Exhaust heads 
and separators. One of the most valuable chapters is that on 
superheated steam and the saving of steam by insulation with 
the various kinds of felting and other materials, with comparison 
tables of the loss of heat in thermal units from naked and felted 
steam pipes. Contains 187 pages. 99.00 



The standard work on hardening, tempering and annealing steel 
of all kinds. A practical book tor the machinist, tool maker or 
superintendent. Shows just how to secure best results in any 
case that comes along. How to make and use furnaces and case 
harden; how to handle high-speed steel and how to temper for all 
classes of work. 92.50 

FORGING OF STEEL. By T. V. Woodworth. A new book 
containing special directions for the successful hardening and 
tempering ox all steel tools. Milling cutters, taps, threaa dies, 
reamers, both solid and shell, hollow mills, punches and dies, 
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fine cutlery and metal-cutting tools of all descriptions, as well 
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methods for the hardening and tempering of special bnnds. 
3ao pages, 250 illustrations. 92.A0 


ner D. Hiscox. The most valiiable techno^hemical Receipt 
book published, giving, among other practical receipts, methods 
of annealing, coloring, tempering, welding, plating, polishing 
and cleaning steel. See page 34 for full description of this book. 



Gardner D. Hiscox. Contains upwards of xo,ooo practical 
formulas including many watchmakers' formulas. $8.00 

WATCHMAKER'S HANDBOOK. By Claudius Saunibr. 
No work issued can compare with this book for clearness and 
completeness. It contains 498 pages and is intended as a work- 
shop companion for those engaged in Watchmaking and allied 
Mechanical Arts. Nearly 950 engravings and fourteen plates 
are included. S3.00 



By J[ambs Erskinb-Murray. This work is free from elaborate 
details and aims at giving a clear survey of the way in which 
Wireless Telephones work. It is intended for amateur workers 
and for those whose knowledge of Electricity is slight. Chap- 
ters contained: How We Hear — Historical — ^The Conversion of 
Sound into Electric Waves — ^Wireless Transmission — The Pro- 
duction of Alternating Currents of High Frequency^How the 
Electric Waves are Radiated and Received — ^The Receiving 
Instruments — Detectors — Achievements and Expectations — 
Glossary of Technical Words. Cloth. Sl.OO 


Henley's Twentieth Centniy 

Book of 

Recipes, Formulas 
and Processes 

Edited by GARDNER D. HISCOX, M. E. 

Price I3.M Cloth Bbdiof $4.00 lUf Morocco BinJmf 

Contaiwovef 10 , 000 Selected Scientific , Chenucal, 

Teclmological an d Practical Re ci pes and 

Proc etiei, inclnding Hnnj reJi of 

So-Called Trade Secreti 

for Every Biuinen 

THIS book of Soo pages is the most complete Book of 
Recipes ever published, giving thousands of recipes 
for the manufacture of valuable articles forevery-da7 
use. Hints. Heips, Practical Ideas and Secret Processes 
are revealed within its pages. It covers every branch of 
ttis Qseful arta and tells thousands of trays of making 
money and ia just the book everyone should have at his 

The pages sire filled with matters of intense interest and 
immeasurable practical value to the Photographer, the 
Perfumer, the Painter, the Manufacturer of Glues, Pastea, 
Cements and Mucilages, the Physician, the Druggist, the 
Electrician, the Brewer, the Engineer, the Foundryman, 
the Machinisi, the Potter, the Tanner, the Confectioner, 
the Chiropodist, the Manufacturer of Chemical Novellies 
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tlie Enameler, the Engraver, the Provisionet, the Giasa 
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the Veterinary Surgeon, and the Technologist in general. 

A book to which you may turn witli confidence that you 
■will find what you are looldng for. A mine of informa- 
tion up-to-date in every re^pttt. Contains an immense 
number of formulas that evt:y oneouglit to have that are 
not found in any other Tioil;.