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V. Y. CCC: 


Dalce University 
Kare l5ooKS 




0)..^../7./^^ / 

V. Y. COCK, 










AO-iuTANT -General and Chief or Staff LieuT. -General Commanoinc. 

Digitized by tine Internet Archive ^ 
in 2011 witli funding from 
Duke University Libraries 




Oct 7-IO-I9I9 


Lieutenant-General Conimamling: 

Viijdl Y. Cook, Private, Co. H, 7th Ky. Mt. Infantry, 
Batesville, Ark. 
Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff: 

Briji.-Gen. Jonathan KellogK, Piivata, Co. A, Gth 
Ark. Infantry, Little Rock, Ark. 


Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Col. Ryland Todhiinter, Ass't. Adj. -Gen. Ector's Texas 
Brigade, Lexington, Mo. 
Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Col. George P. Gross, Private Maj.-Gen. P'agan's 
Escort, Higginsville, Mo. 
Assistant Adjutant-General : 

Col. Wm. M. Cochran, 2nd Lt., Co. E, 7Lh Ky. Ml. In- 
fantry, Forney, Texas. 
Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Col. James M. Stewart, Adj. :U)th Aik. I ifantry. Lit- 
tle Rock, Ark. 
Assistant Adjutant-General : 

Col. Random Gulley, Ac'j. 7th Ark. Infantry Battalion, 
Batesville, Ark. 
Assistant Adjutant-General : 

Col. W. A. Treadwell, Private Co. C, 15th Mis. In- 
fantry. McAlester, Okla. 
Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Col. J. M. Cochran, Private Co. 1, .iOth Tex. Cavalry, 
Dallas, Texas. 
Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Col. W. H. Woodson, Lt.-Col. Staff Maj -G?n. John B. 
Clark, Liberty, Mo. 


Inspector-General : 

Col. Thos. C. Love. Capt., Aide-de-Cinp, Bri^r.-Gen. 
Colton Greene, Springfield, Mo. 


Assistant Inspector-General: 

Lt.-Col. S. A. Hail, Private Co. D, 45th Arlv. Cavalry, 
Batesville, Ark. 
Assistant Inspector-General: 

Lt.-Col. W. C. Kingsolving, 1st Sergt. Co. C, 3rd Ky. 
Mounted Infantry, Abilene, Texas. 
Assistant Inspector-General: 

Lt.-Col. J. A. Templeton, Private Co. I, lOtli Texas 
Cavalry, Jacksonville, Tex. 
Assistant Inspector-General: 

Lt.-Col. W. A. Miller, 1st Lieut. Aide-de-Camp, Maj. 
Gen. Thos. C. Hindman, Aniarillo, Tex. 
Assistant Inspector-General: 

Lt.-Col. L. A. Fitzpatrick, Private Co. C, 31st Miss. 
Infantry, Helena, Ark. 


Quartermaster-General : 

Col. T. D. Turner, Private Co. E. 5th Mo. Cavalry, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Assistant Quartermaster-General : 

Lt.-Col. J. P. Wood, 1st Lieut. Co. B, 39th Ala. In- 
fantry, Heber Springs, Ark. 
Assistant Quartermaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. A. K. Cameron, 2nd Sergt., Co. A, 26th Ark. 
Infantry, Brinkley, Ark. 
Assistant Quartermaster-General : 

Lt.-Col. E. F. Stuart, Private Co. B, 11th Miss. Cav- 
alry, Terrell, Tex. 
Assistant Quartermaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. A. H. Shelton, Private, Co. D, 3rd Mo. Infan- 
try, Excelsior Springs, Mo. 


Commissary-General : 

Col. S. D. Clack, 1st Sergt. Col. A, 3rd Tenn. Infantry, 
Peacock, Texas. 
Assistant Commissary-General: 

Lt.-Col. Theodore Maxfield, 1st Sergt. Co. C, 1st Ark. 
Cavalry, Batesville, Ark. 
Assistant Commissary-General : 


Lt.-Col. Vick Reinhart, Private Co .C, 25th Ala. In- 
fantry, Terrell, Tex. 
Assistant Commissary-General: 

Lt.-Col. B. F. Marshbanks, Private Co. E, 12th Tex. 
Cavalry, Waxahatchie, Texas. 
Assistant Commissary-CJencral : 

Lt.-Col. G. W. Lankford, Private, Co. E, 1st Mo. Cav- 
alry, Marshall, Mo. 


Chief of Artillery: 

Col. H. W. Williams. Private Co. C, 2nd N. C. Heavy 
Artillery, Mexia, Tex. 
Assistant Chief of Artillery: 

Lt.-Col. F. M. Webb, Private Co. C, 12th Mo. Cavalry, 
Oak Grove, Mo. 
Assistant Chief of Artillery: 

Lt.-Col. John Shearer, Private Thrall's 2nd Ark. Bat- 
tery, McCrory, Ark. 
Assistant Chief of Artillr-ry: 

Lt.-Col. W. F. Carter, 1st Lieut. Co. A, Oth Mo. In- 
fantry, Clinton. Mo. 
Assistant Chief of Artillery: 

Lt.-Col. Robert Laird, Private Co. B, "rd Tenn. In- 
fantry, Newport, Ark. 


JudfTc Advocate-General: 

Col. Reriah McGoffin, Private Co. A, 6th Ky. Cavalry. 
McAlester, Okla. 
Assistant .ludse Advocate-General: 

Lt.-Col. F. M. Hanley, Private Co. D, 2nd Ky. In- 
fantry, Melbourne, Ark. 
Assistant Judpe Advocate-General: 

Lt.-Col. D. P. Woodruff, 1st Lieut. Co. I, 10th Mo. 
Cavalry, W^arrensburg, Mo. 
Assistant Judge Advocate-General: 

Lt.-Col. T. J. Milner, Private Co. 1, 12th Ky. Cavalry, 
Greenville, Tex. 
Assistant Juda;e Advocate-General: 



Lt.-Col. J. D. Ingram, Private, Howell's 11th Tex. Bat- 
tery, Nevada, Mo. 


Chief of Ordnance: 

Col. Thos. J. Cousins, Private Co. H, 23rd Va. In- 
fantry, Hannibal, Mo. 
Assistant Chief of Ordnance: 

Lt.-Col. Wm. E. Bevens, Private Co. G, 1st Ark. In- 
fantry, Newport, Ark. 
Assistant Chief of Ordnance: 

Lt.-Col. F. J. Barrett, Capt. Co. D, 15th Tex. Cavalry, 
Vinita, Okla. 
Assistant Chief of Ordnance: 

Lt.-Col. A. W. Moise, 1st Lieut. Co. D, 24th Ga. In- 
fantry, St. Louis, Mo. 
Assistant Chief of Ordnance: 

Lt.-Col. Stan C. Harley, 1st Sergt. Co. E, 3rd Ark. 
Infantry, Arkadelphia, Ark. 


Chief Engineer: 

Col. Greenfield Quarles, 1st Lieut. Aide-de-Camp, 
Brig.-Gen. W. A. Quarles, Helena, Ark. 
Assistant Chief Engineer: 

Lt.-Col. Junius Jordan, Private, Eufala, Ala. Battery, 
Pine Bluff, Ark. 
Assistant Chief Engineer: 

Lt.-Col. L. Ballou, Private Co. D, 8th Tex. Infantry, 
Brady, Tex. 
Assistant Chief Engineer: 

Lt.-Col. Joseph H. Wilson, Private Co. E, 8th Va. Cav- 
alry, Montrose, Mo. 


Chaplain-General : 

Col. Wm. D. Matthews, Private Co. F, 2nd Ky. Cav- 
alry, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Assistant Chaplain-General: 


Lt.-Col. Thos. M. Cobb, l«t Sergt. Co. H, 2nd Mo. In- 
fantry, Lexington, Mo. 
Assistant Chaplain-General: 

Lt.-Col. F. M. Smith, 2n(l Sergt. Co D, 19th Ark. In- 
fantry, Batesville, Ark. 
Assistant Chaplain-General: 

Lt.-Col. J. B. Fletcher, Private Co. D, 8th Ky. Mounted 
Infantry, Tyler, Tex. 


Paymaster-General : 

Col. Wm. C. Renfrow, 1st Sergt. Co. C, 50th N. C. In- 
fantry, Miami, Okla. 
Assistant Paymaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. Charles W. Tandy, Private Co. G, 7th Tenn. 
Cav., Plainview, Tex. 
Assistant Paymaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. J. B. Wilson, Private Co. E, 8th La. Cavalry, 
Waxahatchie, Tex. 
Assi.«tant Paymaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. T. C. Holland, Capt. Co. G, 28th Va. Infan- 
try, Steedman, Mo. 
Assistant Paymaster-General: 

Lt.-Col. J. Polk Fancher, 1st Sergt., Co. E, 1st Ark. 
Cavalry Battalion, Eerryville, Ark. 



Lt.-Col. T. B. Jackson, Private Co, E, l.'Sth Tex. In- 
fantry, Waxahatchie, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. E. A. Bevings, 1st Sergt. Co. C, 1st S. C. -Cav- 
alry, Waxahatchie, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. DeWitt Cook, Private Co. G, 7th Tenn. Cav- 
alry. Waco, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. Gus H. West, Corporal Co. K, 1st Fla. In- 
fantry, Waco, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. H. D. Pattersno, Private Co. K, Ifith Miss. In- 
fantry, Temple, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. G. H. Porter, Corporal Co. A. aoth Ala. In- 
fantry, Aspermont, Tex. 


Lt.-Col. J. M. Heartsfield, Private Co. H, 17th Miss. 
Infantry, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Lt.-Col. E. T. Woodburn, 1st Sergt. Co. P, 7th Ark. 
Infantry, Hereford, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. Joel C. Archer, 2nd Lt. Co. G, 16th Ala. In- 
fantry, GranbeiTy, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. J. H. Iverson, Private Colb's Ala. Battery, 
Cranberry, Tex. 

Lt.-Col. M. Jack Jones, Private, Co. H, 1st and 4th 
Mo. Consolidated Cav., Frankfort, Mo. 

Lt.-Col. F. M. Russell, Private, Co. A, 14th Mo. Bat- 
talion Cavalry, Conway, Mo. 

Lt.-Col. J. W. McFarland, Private Co. B, Searcy's Mo. 
Cavalry Regiment, Warrneburg, Mo. 

Lt.-Col. B. F. Murdock, 1st Sergt. Co. G, 6th Mo. In- 
fantry, Platte City, Mo. 

Lt.-Col. Jack Hale, Private Co. C, 8th Va. Cavalry, 
Naples, Okla. 

Lt.-Col. Sam H. Hargis, Private Co. D, 2nd Ark. Mt. 
Rifles, Ada, Okla. 

Lt.-Col. Robert T. Martin, Private Co. G, 18th Ark. 
Infantry, Howell, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. John T. Warner, Corporal, Co. A, 28th Ark 
Mt. Infantry, Batesville, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. Thos. W. Williams, Private Co. C, 1st Ark. 
Cavalry, Batesville, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. Thos. B. Padgett, 2nd Lt. Co. E, 7th Ark. In- 
fantry, Batesville, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. C. N. Biscoe, Private Co. B, ,3rd Ark. Infan- 
try, Helena, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. A. Park, 2nd Sergt. Co. I, 42nd Miss. Infan- 
try, Little Rock, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. John R. Loftin, 2nd Lt. Col. G, 1st Ark. In- 
fantry, Newport, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. J. S. Renfrow, 2nd Sergt. Co. I, 9th Miss. In- 
fantry, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. E. T. McConnell, Private Co. L, Hills Ark. 
Mt. Rifles, Clarksville, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. J. Monroe Smith, 2nd Sergt Co. B, 3rd Ark. 
Infantry, Little Rock, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. D. B. Castleberry, Private Co. G, 3rd Ky. Mt. 
Infantry, Booneville, Ark. 



Lt.-Col. A. H. CaiTiRan, Lt.-Col. 2nd Ark. Infanfry, 
Hope, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. J. W. Ellis, 1st Sergt. Co. G, 4th Ark. Infantry, 
Ozan, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. H. C. Nuckolls, Private Co. K, 4th Va. Cav- 
alry, Newport, Ark. 

Lt.-Col. Abner YarbrouRh. Private Co. A, 8th Ky Mt. 
Infantry, Paragoukl, Ark. 


Sponsor Miss Annie C. Stedman 

Paragould, Ark. 
Maid of Honor Miss lone Gaston Finley 

Dallas, Tex. 
Maid of Honor Miss Coleman Charlotta Walker 

Scipio, Okla. 

Chaperone Mrs. Wm. Hamilton Gottfried 

Springfield, Mo. 
Matron Mrs. Edward Newton Brow^l 

Denver, Col. 
Herald Mrs. Frank S. Leach 

Sedalia, Mo. 


































Ben T. DuVal Ft. Smith 

.John G. Fletcher : Little Rock 

Robert G. Shaver Center Point 

John ,1. Hornor Helena 

Virgil Y. Cook Batesville 

L. C. Balch Little Rock 

B. W. Green Little Rock 

T. J. Churchill Little Rock 

N. T. Roberts Pine Bluff 

.lames H. Berry Benton ville 

James F. Smith Little Rock 

Charles Coffin Batesville 

Thomas Green Pine Bluff 

John R. Gibbons Bauxite 

Jonathan Kellogg , Little Rock 

John H. Dye Searcy 


Maj.-Gen. John S. Marmaduke Sweet Springs, Mo. 

Maj-Gen. Celsus Price St. Louis, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. Joseph O. Shelby Kansas City, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen Robert McCulloch Booneville, Mo. 

Maj-Gen Elijah Gates St. Joe, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. Harvey W. Salmon Clinton, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. James B. Gantt Jefferson City, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. John B. Stone Kansas City, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. 7. H. Loudermilk Joplin, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. J. W. Halliburton Carthag:e, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. Frank Gaiennie St. Louis, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. John Will Hall Liberty, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. J. W. Towson Shelbina, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. John M. Jones Springfield, Mo. 

Maj,-Gen. A. W. Moise St. Louis, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. George P. Gross Higginsville, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. Thomas C. Love Springfield, Mo. 

Maj.-Gen. Warren C. Bronaugh Kansas City, Mo. 



.-Gen. N. P. Guy McAlester 

.-Gen. Sam T. Leavy Norman 

.-Gen. R. B. Coleman McAlester 

.-Gen. Edward L. Thomas Sac and Fox Agency 

.-Gen. J. O. Casler Oklahoma City 

.-Gen. S. J. Wilkins Norman 

.-Gen. John W. Jordan Cleve'and 

.-Gen. John Threadgill Oklahoma City 

.-Gen. Wm. M. Cross Guthrie 

.-Gen. D. M. Hailey, McAlester 


Maj.-Gen. Spencer R. Thorpe Fresno, Calif. 

Maj.Gen. Tyree H. Bell San Francisco, Calif. 

Maj.-Gen. A. W. Kutton Los Angeles, Calif. 

Maj.-Gen. Stephen S. Birchfield Stockton, Calif. 

Maj.-Gen. Thomas L. Singleton Pasadena, Calif. 

Maj.-Gen. Wm. Cole Harrison Los Angeles, Calif. 



Maj.-Gen. W. N. Bush McKinney 

Maj.-Gen. Richard Cobb Wichita Falls 

Maj.-Gen. W. G. Blain Fairfield 

Maj.-Gen. W. H. Young San Antonio 

Maj.-Gen. E. M. Bean Cameron 

Maj.-Gen. Sul Waco 

Maj.-Gen. H. H. Boone Calvert 

Maj.-Gen. W. B. Sayres Seguin 

Maj.-Gen. R. G. Phelps , LaGranse 

Maj.-Gen. W. T. Meriwether. San Antonio 

Maj.-Gen. J. B. PoUey Floresville 

Maj.-Gen. K. M. Vanzant Ft. Worth 

Maj.-Gen. W. B. Berry Brookstone 

Maj.-Gen. B. B. Paddock Ft. Worth 

Maj.-Gen. Felix Robertson Crawford 

Maj.-Gen. E. W. Kirkpatrick McKinney 


Geo. R. Wyman Little Rock 

Dr. Wm. B. Lawrence Batesville 

Fred Maxfield : Batesville 

Robert Neill Hot Springs 

R. B. Shaver Texarkana 

James D. Shaver, Jr Texarkana 

James H. William."! Ashdown 


All members of the Kentucky Brigade of Forrest's 
Cavalry, i. e., :?rd, 7th. Sth and 12th Kentucky Mounted 
Infantry residing in this Department and not otherwise 
assigned who are in affiliation with a U. C. V. camp. 

Those whose Confederate rank was above Captain, 
will assume their Confederate rank; all others will rank 
as Captain. 



Lieut.-Col. Henry S. Hale, Consolidated 3rd and 7th 
Ky. Mt. Infantry, Mayfield, Ky. 

Capt. Felix G. Terry, Co. G, 8th Ky. Mt. Infantry, 
Cadiz, Ky. 

Capt. Frank B. Gurley, Co C, 4th Ala. Cavalry, Gur- 
ley, Ala. 

Dr. John A. Wyeth, Private Co. I, 4th Ala. Cavalry, 
New York City. 

Jacob L. McCollum, Major 6th Ala. Infanti-y, Atlanta, 




His capture of Col. A. D. Streight and his entire Fed- 
eral command at Turkey Town, near Rome, Ga., May 3, 

His victory over the Federal General, Sooy Smith, in 
a series of fiphting, February 21-23, 1864, around Okolona, 

His rapid march from North Mississippi across West 
Tennessee and West Kentucky and the battle at Paducah, 
Ky., on the banks of the Ohio River, March 25, 1864, and 
later, April 12, following;, his capture of Fort Pillow, Tenn., 
on the Mississippi River. 

And on June 10, 1864, he annihilated the Federal 
command of Brig.-Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis at Brice's Cross 
Roads, Miss. 

And again, his series of fighting overwhelm- 
ing odds with the command of Maj.-Gen. Andrew J. Snith, 
beginning at Pontotoc, Mis^., July 13, 1864, thence at Har- 
risburg, Tupelo, and Old Town Creek, July 14 and 1.5, fol- 

On Sunday morning, August 21, 1864, he dashed into 
Memphis, creating frantic consternation, among more 
than *en thousand Federals. He had with him less than 
two thousand men and one section of artillery. 

His most wonderful and brilliant campaign on the 
Tennessee River in We^t Kentucky and Tennessee, begin- 



ning at Paris Landing, Tenn., and at Fort Heiman, Oct. 
29, terminating at Johnsonville, Tenn., Nov. 4, following. 

Thence to Florence, Ala., where he joined Hoods' 
Army, which was soon put in motion for Nashville, Tenn., 
where, on December 15 and 16, 1864, the battle at that 
place was fought, resulting in a Confederate defeat. 

Thence the retreat southward of Hood's Army in the 
midst of a terrible winter, witnessing the great part For- 
1 est's Cavalry took in protecting Hood's rear, contesting 
every mile of the ground against a victorious Federal 
force numerically much his superior. 

His Selma campaign, ending April 2, 1865, at Selma, 
Ala., his last battle and his capitulation following, May 10, 
1865, at Gainesville, Ala. 


The following is from the Confederate Veteran of 
June, 1!»1(;: 

The election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860 was the triumph of 
a sectional party plcilged to a denial of the equal rights of 
the Soutliern States in the territories which were largely 
gained by Soutliern valor and diplomacy. The same party 
also by its personal liberty bills had nullified the part of 
the Constitution guaranteeing the rights of Southern own- 
ers to their property escaping into a Northern State and 
had defied the judgment of the Supreme Court of the Unit- 
ed States as to the rights of the States under the Consti- 
tution. Mr. Lincoln was elected by a vote of 1.860,852 out 
of 4.()76,85.'i, and his votes were almost entirely in the 
North; so that he was emphatically a sectional President, 
who had declared his conviction that the Union "could not 
permanently remain half slave and half free," as origin- 
ally founded. What could the Southern States expect but 
that when he came into power as President he would strive 
to make his conviction a reality ? 

It was declared over and over through the South that 
the election of Mr. Lincoln would just'fy secession of the 
Southern States; and when his election became a fact, 
seven of the Southern States exercised their rights and 
withdrew from the Union. These seven States, entering 
into a new compact, formed the Confederate States of 



America, with its capital at Montgomery, Ala., adopting a 
Constitution differing from that of the United States only 
in more carefully guarding the sovereignty of the States. 
The Confederate government, with Mr. Jefferson Davis as 
its head, at once took steps for a peaceable adjustment of 
all questions arising from the separation and sent a com- 
mission of three of its most eminent citizens to Washing- 
ton to negotiate friendly relations. The treatment of these 
commissioners will be told of in a following part of this 

.... On the 20th of December, 1860, South Carolina had 
adopted the ordinance of secession, and on the 26th of De- 
cember her three commissioners appeared in Washington 
to negotiate for the turning over of the forts which com- 
manded Charleston Harbor to the State, which had grant- 
ed them originally only for purposes of defense of the 
State. These commissioners were abruptl ydismissed with 
a refusal by President Buchanan. Meanwhile strenuous 
efforts were made by Southern members in the United 
States Congress to bring about a peaceable settlement 
without a permanent dissolution of the Union. Mr. Crit- 
tenden, the venerable Senator fro Kentucky, proposed cer- 
tain amendments to the Constitution, which were rejected by 
the party in power. Then an act was passed appointing 
a committee of thirteen members of Congress to consider 
and repoi't some plan of settlement. This committee, ap- 
pointed December 20, 1860, reported on December 31 their 
inability to agree because of the refusal of the members of 
the Republican party to make any concession that might 
stay the progress of secession by guaranteeing the rights 
of the South. 

But the State of Virginia determined to make one 
more effort for peace and the ultimate preservation of the 
Union. On the 10th of January, 1861, her legislature in- 
vited all the States willing to adjust existing controver- 
sies to send commissioners to Washington to meet on Feb- 
ruary 4, to agree, if possible, on some suitable adjustment. 
Fourteen Northern States responded, some very reluctant- 
ly, and seven slave-holding States were represented, not 
including those which had seceded. After three weeks' 
deliberation, the majority of the conference agreed on a 
plan which it was hoped nrght be acceptable to all parties 



and put an end to further contention. The plan of the 
peace conference was treated with contemptuous indiffer- 
ence and defeated by the votes of the Republican members 
of Congress just a day or two before Mr. Lincoln's inau- 

Treatment of Confederate Commissioners. 

On the 12th of March, 1K(>1, eight days after Mr. Lin- 
coln's inauguration, the Confederate commissioners ad- 
dressed a note to Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, asking 
for an interview in order to have a conference for the pur- 
pose of adjusting all questions between the United States 
and the Confederate States government. To this request 
no answer was returned at the time. But to Supreme Jus- 
tice Nelson, of New York, who had come to protest against 
coercion as unconstitutional, Mr. Seward intimated that to 
receive the commissioners officially would be taken as an 
acknowledgement of the independence of the Confederacy, 
which the Northern people wou'd not stand. Then Supreme 
Justice Campbell, of Alabama, was asked by Justice Nel- 
son to call with him on the S'cretry, which they did, and 
the Secretary told them that the immediate recognition of 
the commissioners would not be sustained by sentiment at 
the North in connection with the withdrawal of troops 
from Fort Sumter, which had been determined on. When 
Judge Campbell proposed to write to President Davis the 
substance of the interview, Mr. Seward authorized him 
to say to Mr. Davis that before that letter should reach 
him the order for the evacuation of Fort Sumter would 
have been made. This was on March I!). 18(U. Thence- 
forth the negotiations between the commissioners and Mr. 
Seward were through Judges Campbell and Nelson and 
turned on the evacuation of Fort Sumter as determining 
the question of coercion or peace, for all recognized that 
coercion meant war. Five days after the assurance of the 
Secretary that the fort should be evacuated there was evi- 
dence that it was being strengthened. Mr. Spward assured 
the comnrssioners. through Judge Camnbell. that the delay 
in evacuation was accidental and did not involve the integ- 
rity of h's assurance that the evacuation wou'd take place. 
On the 19th of March Mr. G. V. Fox, afterwards As- 
sistint Secretary of the Navy, who had a plan for the 
relief of Fort Sumter, went, with Mr. Lincoln's consent, to 



Charleston, where, on his arrival on the 21st of March, he 
obtained permission from Governor Pickens to visit Fort 
Sumter "expressly on the pledge of pacific purposes." 
There he matured his plan for furnishing supplies and re- 
inforcements to the garrison. He did not communicate his 
plan to Major Anderson, the commanding officer of the 
fort. He reported the result of his visit at Washington. 
His plan was approved by President Lincoln, and he was 
sent to New York to arrange for its execution. After a 
few days Colonel Lamon, another confidential agent, was 
sent by President Lincoln ostensibly to arrange for the 
removal of the garrison. On leaving he expressed hope 
to Governor Pickens of a speedy return for that purpose. 
He never returned. 

On the 30th of March, after Colonel Lamon's depart- 
ure, Governor Pickens wrote to the commissioners inquir- 
.ing the meaning of the prolonged delay in fu'filling the 
promise of evacuation. This dispatch was taken by Judge 
Campbell to Mr. Seward, who answered on April 1, saying 
that "the government will not attempt to supply Fort 
Sumter without giving notice to Governor Pickens." Be- 
ing asked by Judge Campbell if there had been a chan2;e 
as to the former communications, Mr. Seward answered, 
"None." Let it be borne in mind that all this occurred 
while Mr. Fox was making active, though secret, prepara- 
tions for his relief expedition. 

On the 7th of April, the commissioners becoming im- 
patient, having heard of the projected relief expedition, 
Judge Campbell asked Mr. Seward whether the a-surances 
so often given were well or ill founded. To this the Secre- 
tary returned answer in writing: "Faith as to Sumter 
fully kept. Wait and see." At that time the relief ex- 
pedition had a'ready sailed from New York for Charles- 
ton; for on the 8th of April Mr. Chew, an official of the 
State Department in Washington, delivered to Governor 
Pickens and to General Beauregard an official notification, 
without date or signature, that the attempt would be made 
to supply Fort Sumter. Mr. Chew said that this notifica- 
tion was from the President of the United States and was 
delivered to him (Chew) on April 6. The relief expedition, 
or squadron, consisted of eight vessels carrying twenty- 
six guns and fourteen hundred men, including troops sent 



to reinforce the garrison. It should have reached Charles- 
ton on the 9th, before (ieneral Beauregard could have pre-- 
pared to receive it; but it was delayed by a tempest and 
was lying just outside of the harbor on the 12th of April 
when General Beauregard was bombarding Fort Sumter, 
which was surrendered after a gallant defense on the 13th 
of April, the garrison marching out with the honors of 

The State of Virginia, while believing in the right of 
secession, did not wish to exercise it at that time. She 
believed that if the Federal govei-nment would abstain 
from all acts of acgression and evacuate the Southern 
forts she could hold the border States in the Union and 
ultimately bring the -secet'ed States back into the Union. 
When the tension was greatest, she sent three comniis- 
Bioner^; to Washington to learn definitely the President's 
policy. The commissioners only reached Washington on 
April 12 and had the interview on the 13th, the day of the 
surrender of Fort Sumter. They urged forbearance and 
the giving up of the Southern forts. In answer Mr. Lin- 
coln read a paper which, while ambiguous and evasive, 
professed peaceful intentions. He objected to such a 
course in that all goods would be imported throufrh South- 
ern ports and so dry up the sources of his revenue; but he 
expressly disclaimed all purpose of war. Mr. Seward and 
Attorney-General Bates gave also to the commissioners 
the same assurances of peace. The following day the com- 
missioners returned to R'chmond, and the very train on 
which they traveled bore Mr. Lincoln's proclamation call- 
ing for seventy-five thousand men to sulidue the Confed- 
erate States, which were characterized as being in insur- 
rection against the government of the United States. 

Thus the War between the States was brought on by 
a deliberate system of deception, which in politics is called 
"diplomacy." in morals is called "duplicity," in business is 
ca'led "plain lying," by two of the very ablest and craftiest 
politicians — they would say statesman — in the party of 
centralization. With all the professions of peaceful inten- 
tions, it was the purpose of that party to wage a war of 
subjugation on the Southern States and to establish a 
strong centralized power at Washington to be administered 



in the interests of the commercial and manufacturing 

. classes. 

"On February 2, lS(il, Hon. Stephen A. Doug-las, in a 
letter published in the Memphis Appeal, wrote of the Rs- 
publican leaders as follows: 'They are bold, determined 
men. They are striving to break up the Union under the 
pretense of serving it. They are struggling to overthrow 
the Constitution while professing undying attachment to 
it and a willingness to make any sacrifice to maintain it. 
They are trying to plunge the country into a cruel war as 
the surest means of destroying the Union upon the plea 
'of enforcing the laws and protecting public propsrty.' 
Shortly after Douglas wrote this letter Senator Zach Chan- 
dler, of Michigan, wrote a letter to Gov. Autm Blair which 
proves the guilty conspiracy of the men determined on 
war. Virginia had solicited a conference of States to see 

. if some plan could not be devised and agreed on to prevent 
war and save the Union. Chandler wrote Governor Blair 
that he opposed the conference, and no Republican State 
should send a delegate. He implored Governor Blair to 
send stiff-necked delegates or none, as the whole thing 
was against his judgment. Chand'er added to hi, letter 
these sinister words: 'Some of the manufacturing States 
think that a war would be awful; without a little blood- 
letting this Union will not be worth a curse'." 

Aims and Results. 

That the real aim and purpose of the leaders of the 
party that elected Mr. Lincoln was coercion and war upon 
the South is evident from the fact that, while Mr. Seward 
was temporizing with the Southern commissioners, seven 
of the radical Northern Governors, called War Governors, 
came to Mr. Lincoln, "breathing out threatenings r.n 1 
slaughter," and demanded that he should use the forces or 
the United State^i to subdue the "rebe'Hon." making no 
concessions to the ".=^lave power." Mr. Seward himself in 
the beginning of April, ISfil, had submitted to Mr. Lincoln 
certain suggestions as to his policy, among which was 
that the issue in the coming conflict should be union or 
disunion and that no concession should be made to the 

The evident purpose of the President and his Secretary 
of State was to delay act'on by the South by fair promises 



and at th6 same time to appear as sympathizine; with 
Northern anticoercion sentiment until they were ready to 
force the Confederates to bombard Fort Sumter. Then 
they could cry: "The flag has been fired on by the Reb- 
els. Rally to the defense of the Union." At once, with the 
unreasoning fury of a mob, large ma ses of the Northern 
people took up the cry, "Save the Union," and charged 
that the South had begun war on the Union; while, in 
fact, the South was only defending herself against an 
attack which was on the way to be delivered. The leader:. 
who cared nothing for the flag, su'-ceded in inspiring in 
the North "a star-spangled sUitc of mi:';il," which persists 
to this day; so that as to the war, its hi tory and purposes, 
they see everything by st-.irl'ght rath3r than by the clear 
light of day. And Northrrn historian-; of the war have 
generally concealed or perverted the facts to the utter mis- 
representation of the South, her acts and motives. 

With no other purpose than to bring the facts as to 
the beginning of that terrible four yerrs of war between 
the States to the attention of the present generation of 
the South, this article is written. Bowing in humble submis- 
sion to the will of Go i, the Confederate soldier accepts the 
new order of things — a nation rather than a r?public^ 
and in good faith to make the nation a b^essini to all the 
IH'oiiIc. One of the sadiest results of centralization is the 
distinct arraying of two mighty classes aorainrt each other, 
and these classes are in conflict for the possession of the 
government. It is a burning question whether we shall be 
ruled by the plutocracy by bribery and corruption or by 
the proletariat with force and fraud. 

The great duty before all good citizens, Confederates 
and Federals, is to strive to bring about hirmonious co- 
operation of all classes for the common ■jood. and this we 
can do while we still hold in sacred memory the motives 
and deeds of those who off'ered their I'ves and fortunes for 
the principles of constitutional liberty in a federated re- 


Director General Hines has instructed all railroads in 
the United States to make a special rate of one cent per 



mile each way to the Confederate Reunion at Atlanta, Ga., 
on October 7-10, inclusive. 

Tickets will be on sale west of the Mississipi River 
on October 1st and east of the River on October 4th, and 
will be good for return trip until October 31. Tickets will 
not have to be validated. The rate applies to the foUowino; 

Confederate Veterans and members of their families: 

Sons of Confederate Veterans and members of their 

Members of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 
All members of the U. D. C. can secure certificates by mak- 
ing application to the nearest camp of Veterans or Sons or 
by writing N. B. Forrest, Adjutant-in-Chief S. C. V., At- 
lanta. Ga. 

Members of Confederated Southern Memorial Associa- 

These parties are entitled to purchase round-trin 
tickets to Atlanta. Ga., and return at the reduced fare, and 
under the regulations authorized for the occasion. Identi- 
fication certificate will be issued by the Department, Di- 
vision Brip'ade or Camp officers of the above named organ- 
izations and will be honored when duly countersigned by 
sai^ officers. All Camps and officers are requested to im- 
mediately notify N. B. Forrest, Adjutant-in-Chief, Sons of 
Confederate Veterans, Atlanta, Ga., the number of certifi- 
cates needed and they will be forwarded. 


Th^ Housing Ci^mmittee, H. C. Heinz, Chairman, is 
preraring complete lists of every lodging to be had in At- 
lanta during the reunion outside of the hotels. These wi'l 
be listed on cards, one lodging to each card, and the cards 
will be ready for distribution to visitors at the assignment 
booth- at each railroad station. 

The-e cards will cover every class and price of accom- 
modations and will contain a signed contract by the owner 
of the lodgings covering the price and kind of accommoda- 
tions to be furnished. Lodgings will range from $1.00 per 
day up, without meals. Where two occupy a bed the lodg- 
ing rate will, in some cases, be reduced. Meals can be 
secured at reasonable prices. 



Upon leaving the train every vi.-itor, not already pro- 
vided, should go at once to the booth of the Housing Com- 
mittee. There state the price of the lodging you want, the 
number of rooms, etc. Cards for the lodging wanted will 
be given the applicant, with full instructions how to reach 
the place. If the quaiiers prove satisfactory each lodger 
is expected to pay for three days in advance, a receipt for 
which will be given the visitor for his protection. 

If the quarters are not satisfactory, a change will be 
made upon application at the head(]uarters of the Housing 

Veterans will register at their respective State or 
Divisional headrjuarters. 



Confederate Veteran 




Nashville. Tenn. 




A Belle of the Sixties 205 

Across the Tugaloo 208 

A Battlefield Waif ' 435 

A False Alarm 332 

AH the Family In the Service 396 

American Huns, Some 265 

An Ante-Bellum Cartoon 101 

And a Little Child Shall Lead Them 446 

A Protest 244 

Archer's Brigade at ChancellorsviUe 220-261 

Arlington, the Home of Lee 216 

Arlington Confederate Monument, Inscription on 124 

A Remarkable Dinner Party 163 

A Remarkable Shot 358 

Armistead, General, at Gettysburg 406 

Artillery Brigade at Sailors Creek, The 213 

A Southern Love Feast 403 

Audubon, Bird Lover 412 

A Woman of Deeds 124 

Bankliead, Capt. John Hollis 207 

Back to State's Rights 284 

Battle of Cedar Run as I Saw It 24 

Battle of Fisher's Hill 338 

Battle of Jackson. The 448 

Battle of Manassas, The Second 100 

Battle of the Wilderness, Second Day's 20 

Bledsoe's Missouri Battery 140-236-292 

Bledsoe's Silver Gun 52, 381 

Boy Scouts of the Sixties 446 

Brown, John, Comments on 1E8 

Captives of Abb's Valley, The 63 

Captured a Few Yankees 16 

Capture of the Steamer Minnesota, The 376 

ChancellorsviUe, At 246 

Cheatham, General. Tribute to 373 

Christmas in Camp 182 

Christian Character of Our Great Leaders. The 63 

Cold Harbor, Lynchburg, Valley Campaign, 1864 138 

Comiiany C, 37tb Tennessee Infantry, C. S. A 223 

Concerning the Trent 330 

Confederate Capital. The First 88 

Confederate Home of Kentucky 176 

Confederate Navy, The 181 

Confederate Navy at Sailor's Creek, Va 252 

Converse College , 377 

Cotton Tax Fund, The 164 

Courage of a Soldier, The 136 

Cox, Gen. William Ruflln 45 

Crew.s, Mrs. Martha Hampton 396 

Crockett, David, The "Go-ahead" Man 104 

Crossing the Tennessee River, December 27, 1864 379 

Cruise of the C. S. S. Nashville 380 

Cunningham Memorial, The 123 

Davis, Jefferson 243 

Davis. Jefferson, Comment on Gordon's Biography of 87 

Davis, Jefferson. Side I-ights on the Character of 300 

Davis Memorial, Shall It Be Completed? B 

Davis Monument, For the 3 

Diamond, Col. George R., Service with 86 

Didn't Know They Had Surrendered 385 

Do You Believe It? 358 

Drlnkwater's "Lincoln" and History 481 

Early's March to Washington in 1864 176 

Early's Valley Campaign, 1864 218 

Eleventh Texas Cavalry, With the 92 

Emancipation That Did Not Emancipate 158 

Emergency Ammunition 12-46 

Englishman's View of America, An 49 

Evacuation of Nashville, The 60 

Facts and Fancies 287 

Family Record Unsurpassed 471 

Fight at Greenland Gap, W. Va 124 

Fighting John Brown at Osawatomie 460 

Fighting in the Sunflower Country 317 

First Armored Train. The Raid into Pennsylvania 260 

First Confederate Capital 88 

First Successful Gangrene Treatment, The 247 

Forty-Fourth Mississippi at Murfreesboro 19 

Forty-Fourth Mississippi, The Gallant Old 406 

Four Remarkable Biographies 420 

Fourteentli Tennessee Regiment, Reenlistment of 365 

Gangrene, Amateur's Treatment of 356 

Georgia's Provision for Confederate Veterans 3 

Godwin, Gen. Archibald C 133 

Golden Wedding Anniversary 398 

Gordon's Brigade After the Valley Campaign 418 

Gorgas, MaJ. Gen. William C 283 

Gregg. General. When Killed 12 

Gleanings from "Offlcial Records" 168-305 

Greenland Gap, W. Va., The Fight at 124 

Greetings 3 

Gurley, Captain, In Close Places 236 

Hard Riding with Morgan 4S7 

Hard Times with Ross's Cavalry ' 447 

Historical Compilations 238 

History in Brief 141' 

Holding the Lines at Petersburg 457 

Hood's Tcxans, A Tribute to 476 

How Christianity Reached the Slaves 51 

How I Took a Lean on a Yankee General 299 

How Tom Got a Furlough 424 

Incidents of Sailor's Creek 329 

Incidents of Service 372 

Influence of Personality In War 222 

In Honor of Sergeants Jasper and Newton 78 

Initiating a Conscript 64 

In the Days of Reconstruction 253 

In the Years of War 25-85 

In Winter Quarters at Dalton, Ga. 130 

Jackson, Andrew 166 

Jackson's Last Battle 93 

Jackson, Stonewall, The South's Tribute to 47 

Jackson's Sword 44 

Johnston's Campaign for the Relief of Vlcksburg 58 

Law, Gen. E. M 443 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 416 

Lee, Gen. R. E., Last Meeting with 459 

Lee. The Place of 85 

Lights and Shadows of Soldier Life 99 

Lincoln. Abraham, The Great Emancipator 125 

Lincoln, The Real, Reviewed 157 

Lost Mountain, A Skirmish at 462 

Louisiana Confederate Military Records 92 

Maryland Women, Services of, to the Confederate States. . . 333 

McCabe. Col. William Gordon 325 

Memorial Day 178 

Memorial Day of 1920 203 

Memorial Day in Chicago 286 

Memorials to Sons of North Carolina 443 

Memorial to Virginia's War Governor 3 

Memory Not Trustworthy 327 

Mickle. Adj. Gen. William E., U. C. V 83, 84 

Missionary Ridge 78-185 

Monticello 129 

Monument at Bristol. Dedication of 285 

Monument to Gen. Stand Watie 38 


^oi)fe<ierate l/eterai). 

Moorman, Col, Henry -1 

Morgan's Death, The Mystery of 300 

Morgan's Pilots Through Kentucky, One of 139 

My Confederate Grandmothers 366 

Names Inscribed on Captured Artillery 128 

Notable Georgians 258 

Notes on the War Department, C. S. A 90 

Old Sacramento, The Sllver-Tongued Cannon 381 

Only One of the Kind 435 

Peninsular Campaign, The 212 

Pettigrew, Gen. James Johnston 413 

Personal Reminiscences 407 

Prince of Dare-Devils 288 

Prize Winner. The 44 

Ramseur, Gen. Stephen Dodson 453 

Reconstruction in Tennessee 340-369 

Reenlistment of the Fourteenth Tennessee Regiment 365 

Religion and Reconstruction 296 

Religion_ and Slavery 125 

Renaissance in Southern Literature, The 258 

Results of Reconstruction 409 

Retreat from the Sunflower Country 408 

Rodes, General, at Winchester 184 

Ross's Brigade of Cavalry 290 

Ross's Brigade, Hard Service with 328 

Roundabout Way Home, A 210 

Schoolbooks Fair to the South 317 

Scouting in Lee's Army 337 

Scouting on Hunter's Raid to Lynchburg, Va 173 

Searcy. Services of Dr. James Thomas 250 

Sergeant Ball and the Yankee Boots 331 

Service of Maryland Women to the Confederacy 333 

Signal Corps in Defense of Charleston 259 

Signs of the Times, The 410 

Soldiers of Tennessee 437 

Smith, Col. Ashbel, of Texas 38 

Southern Civilization 444 

Southern Literature — Writers of the South 326 

Southrons among the Leaders 247 

Spartanburg and Converse College 377 

Spirit of the South. The 385 

Spotsylvania, Va., May 8 and 9, 1864 56-102 

Sublime Swearing Under Fire 247 

Surrender of Johnston's Army 170-425 

That Charge 264 

The Breaking Links 43 

The Great American Myth 6 

The Lost Dispatch 222 

The Men in Gray 204 

The Mythical Lincoln 85 

The Pilgrims 206 

The Ram Arkansas 263 

The Serpent's Tooth 244 

The Unconquered Banner 165 

Then and Now — A Comparison 422 

Thompson, John R : 294 

To End All War 162 

Treatment of the South by the North 324 

Tribute to Wife and Daughter. A 126 

Truth of Confederate History. For the 4 

Two Biographies 37S 

University of Virginia, 1860-1861 302 

U. C. v.: Choir 358 

The Reunion in Houston 364 

Notes on the Reunion 404 

The Reunion City. 1920 243 

The Houston of the I'^uture 364 

Welcome to Houston 363 

C. S. M. A 37, 76, 115, 155, 195, 233, 275, 316, 355, 395, 434, 475 

U. D. C 32, 72, 112, 152, 192, 230. 272. 312, 352, 392, 432, 472 

S. C. V 117. 156. 197, 234. 277, 318, 357. 397, 436, 477 

Vain Efforts to Avoid Prison 343-382 

Valley Campaign, The 138, 218, 374 

Van Zandt, Ellas Beall 84 , ""■ 

Vlcksburg Campaign, End of 96 

Virginia Military Institute in the World War, The 127 

War for American Independence. My Reminiscences of... 22 

War for Independence of the South, The 248 

War's Harvest in the Debatable Land 13 

War-Time Journal of a "Little Rebel" 11 

Washington and Lee University 8 

What They Fought For 44 

Whealley, Lieutenant, of Bledsoe's Battery 246 

When Missouri Went Into the War 18 

Wilson's, President, Memorial Day Speech 204 

With Stonewall at Chancellorsville, Fifty-Seven Years 

After 449 

Women of the South in War Time. The 476 

Writers of the South, The 328 


An April Morning 121 

A Prayer and a Tribute 465 

Arlington 285 

Armenia 279 

Ashes 126 

A Southern Hero 396 

Bequeathed 322 

Can We Call this War— 1917? 125 

Civil War 105 

Comrades of the Gray 245 

Flag of the South 345 

Gen. Joseph E, Johnston 425 

General Lee 205 

Going West 186 

Heroes of the World War 44 

In Memoriani 286 

In Memory of Our Heroes 293 

James Johnston Pettigrew 415 

Look Away 404 

Memorial Day .- 245 

Military Necessity 438 

My Friendship Chain 84 

No Land Like Ours 441 

Ode to the Dead Confederacy. 
Our Veterans in Reunion 


Requiem 435 

San Jacinto 447 

Sovereignty 3 

Stonewall Jackson 48 

That April Day 125 

The Brave 337 

The Confederate Cross of Honor 244 

The Great Obelisk 86 

The Immortals 466 

The Mother ■ 116 

The Paladins in Gray 332 

The Scout 373 

The Song the Soldiers Sang 359 

The South's Memorial Day 164 

The Woman of the South 163 

They All Do It 199 

Two Boys 159-162 

^oijfederat^ l/etcrai). 

Wearing the Gray 245 

What Did the Privates Do? 239 

Why Did We Go Across? 4 

Woman's Keepsake 124 


An Ante Bellum Cartoon 101 

Celebrating Their Golden Wedding Anniversary 39S 

Confederate Memorial Home In Washington 234 

Confederate Monument in Chicago 286 

View of Main Building and Campus, Converse College o77 

Generals Johnston and Sherman ^25 

Group on Lookout Mountain. 1871 257 

.Jefferson Davis Memorial 5 

Houston, Tex. : City Market 366 

County Courthouse 367 

Federal Building 367 

The Rice Hotel 365 

Rice Institute 368 

Statuary for Reunion 3G1 

Monticello, the Home of JeiTerson 129 

Ostrich Farm, Jacksonville, Fla 52 

Recumbent Statue of Genera! Lee 10 

Tablet to the Memory of Gen. James J. Pettlgrew 415 

The Bennett Place near Durham, N. C 425 

The Hermitage: 'Home of Andrew Jackson 166 

Jackson's Bedroom 168 

Main Hallway 167 

The Jackson Memorial 47 

The Mansion at Arlington 216 

The Monument at Bristol 285 

Star of High Endeavor 401 

The Washington Building 8 

Trans-Mississippi Department Commander and Adjutant 

and Sponsorial Staff, Houston Reunion 370 

Washington and Lee University 9 

Yancy Monument 89 


Adams, Thomas F 311 

Ahlday, F. W 310 

Aiken, John Chapman.... 346 

Allen, William Sims 227 

Ball, John W 46S 

Barber, John Richard.... 148 

Barlow, Capt. J. C 426 

Barr, Robert 226 

Bates, Abel 347 

Bearden, Judge Walter S. 30 

Bell, Lieut. E. Lee 386 

Bemiss, James Hamilton. 391 

Berry, James M 107 

Bishop, Charles M 187 

Black. William F 349 

Bloodworlh, F. D 388 

Bradwell, Thomas M 427 

Brandon, Jefferson C 228 

Broadfoot, Col. Clias. W. 26 

Bronaugh, Dr. James H. . 145 

Brown, Col. David A 68 

Bryan, James Perry 387 

Buck. Capt. S. D 429 

Buford, John C 429 

Bugg, Henry M 268 

Caftey, Dr. Hugh W 66 

Callaway. James 306 

Campbell. Rev. R. L 380 

Carmichael, George W... 470 

Carr, Capt. John 470 

Carr, Peter 268 

Carrier, Samuel N 227 

Cathey. John A 70 

Chandler, A. M 270 

Chenoweth, Joseph 28 

Chowning, John Sharp... 144 

Clark, Preston 267 

Clarkson, Edgar LaRoche 147 

Claughton, Wilbur Fisk. . 267 

Cleary. Charles E 3S7 

Cockrlll. James Albert... 110 

Coflfman, Samuel J 29 

Connerat. William H 470 

Connor, W. 349 

Conway, Dr. William B. . 310 

Cowan, Rev. James C... 271 

Crane, Horace A 428 

Crawford, Thomas C 270 

Crane. James C 388 

Cromer, Jerome Derrick. 267 

Deaver, M. W 469 

Dew, 'William F 147 

Diamond. Maj. George R. 27 

Dockery, Col. James M .. 307 

Douglass, P. 189 

Douglass, W. R 387 

Duncan, Gen. H. H 144 

Deupree, Dr. John G 149 

Ellis. Thomas J 426 

Elmore, Capt. T. J 109 

Fain, William A 271 

Farinholt, Col, B. L 68 

Fletcher, Dr. Frank 309 

Fletcher, T. N m 

Full, Lewis 188 

Gailliard. Robert G 69 

Gilmer, Col. James N 350 

Githens, Jackson D 160 

Gober, F. A 

Gochnaner, P. S. 


Gray, Davis Z 150 

Gregory, Judge Roger... 429 

Green, John W 30S 

Green, Thomas W 469 

Griffln. Peter W 27 

Guion, Capt. Lewis 106 

Gurley, Capt. Frank B.... 186 

Hagood, R. Harper 107 

Hagy, Pleasant S 225 

Hailey, Gen. D. M 26 

Halrston, Col. Peter 150 

Hall. Capt. J. J 388 

Hamblett, Col. James G. . 228 

Hamilton. James P 469 

Haralson, Rev. Jerome... 266 

Hare, Capt. F. M 28 

Harrell. R. G 226 

Harrison, N, N 467 

Harllee, Thomas H.. St... 349 

Hassey. Madison XI 110 

Henderson, James T 67 

Henkel, Luther M 145 

Herbert, Z. M 148 

Hoggard, Horatio C 30 

Honey, John T 351 

Hopkins, John V 148 

Hudgins, Capt. AV. E 348 

Huff, J. C 347 

Huff, Maj. James T 191 

Huffmaster, Capt Jo.s. ... 28 

Ingles, Capt. William. 


Godbee. S. M 427 

Goodwin, T. J m 

Gray, Charles W 428 

Jarmon. Rev. L. B 390 

Johnston, John 311 

Johnson. Col. Lewis 266 

Johnston, Gen. Robt. D. , 110 

Jones. Dr. Alfred 468 

Jones, capt. Lorraine F. . 466 

Kellogg, Jonathan 267 

Kidwell, N. J 350 

Lachlison. Capt. James. . 469 

Lawrence, J. S 109 

Leache, N. W. 307 

Leith, James W 227 

Leslie, J. W 225 

Levy. George 348 

Lewis, Robert Henry.... 149 

Lewis, R. J. . . 426 

Llpsey, Richard C 308 

Lobb, Robert Q 146 

Loftln, John R 70 

Maclean, Malcolm 149 

Martin, Hon. Thomas S. . 66 

Maury, Matthew F 29 

McAfee, H. M 391 

McCall, Col. W. M 30 

McCoUam. Hon. Edmund. 266 

McEntire. William R 389 

McKemy. Judge W. D.... 146 

McKim, Rev. R. H 351 

McRohan, John D 268 

Meaders, E. A., Sr 29 

Meredith, Reuben A 467 

Mooney, Mrs. Sue F 471 

Morgan, Capt. W. H 390 

Murphy, W. R 308 

Nash, A. S 146 

Norman, Thomas C 307 

Norton, Rev. J. A 350 

Ogll vie, W. H 269 

Oliver, J. T 390 

Overton, Archibald W. ... 188 

Paddison. Maj. John R. .. 27 

Page, Capt. Thomas G. .. 427 

Page, Rev. Dr. W. 'W 347 

Parks, Maj. James G 228 

Parry, Mrs. Thomas W. .. 31 

Patterson, Alexander R. . . 189 

Payne, William C 347 

Peacock. Joseph 150 

Philips. Capt. Joseph.... 151 

Pittman, W. E 386 

Powell, J. "W 227 

Powell, John Wiley 269 

Powell, W'illiam C 146 

Prather, Col. John S 229 

Preston, Thomas S 191 

Propst. Capt. William.... 28 

Pulley, A. 1 66 

Read, Dr. J. D 18S 

Reber, E. H 229 

Reinhardt, Victor 468 

Richards, Maj. A. E 189 

Rice, Capt. S. E 108 

Ricks. Robert H 224 

Robb. Joseph H 68 

Robinson Jesse A 387 

Rogers, George L 267 

Rosborough, John A 190 

Rudd. Maj. J. D 34 6 

Sanford, Dr. James. R... 391 

Scales. D. M 431 

Scott, Capt. C. C 306 

Scott, H. H 428 

Searcy, Rev. James T.... 271 

Sears, Rev. Allen T 270 

Seckels, Richard T 147 

Sexton, Mrs. Kate K 31 

Sheldon. Capt. Charles A. 226 

Shirley, Samuel 190 

Sterrett. Dr. M. D 67. 430 

Stevenson. James A 110 

Simmon-s. Mrs. Agnes G. . 311 

Simpson, R. W 467 

Stout, Thomas E 429 

Swinburne. A. C 307 

Tansil, Col. E. E 67 

Tennery, E. K. P 428 

Terry. John J 109 

Thayer. William S 225 

Thompson, Prof. D. L. . . . 147 

Underwood, A. S 148 

Van Metre, Capt. Jos. B. . 69 
Vann, John M 29 

Walker. J. H 187 

Walls, James D 146 

Ware, J. S 30 

Warlick, Capt. D. W 470 

Watson. Thomas fe 228 

Weaver, W. T 308 

West. William B 269 

Williams, Capt. John C. .. 227 

Willis, C. N 189 

WMlmoth. Jacob V 69 

Wood. William 427 

Woolfolk. Capt. S. H 270 

■i'oung, Preston J 388 

Young, Samuel 71 

Deaths In Campa. 

Augusta, Ga 226 

Beaumont, Tex 350 

Chicago 71, 309 

Chickasha, Okla 348 

Gravel Hill, Ark 468 


^oofcderat^ l/efcerai>. 

Hampton, Va 69 

Huntsvllle, Ala 107, 225 

Jonesboro, Ark 34S 

Lakeland, Fla 28. 428 

Lumpkin, Ga 107 

Prairie Grove, Ark 428 

Savannah, Ga Ill, 147 

Shreveport, La 148 

Star City, Ark 148 

Talladega. Ala 186, 229 

Terrell, Tex 148 

Wichita, Kans 190 

A. S. Johnston Camp, 

Paris, Tex 310, 348, 387 

Camp Cabell 147 

Camp Lomax 108 

Dick Dowling Camp, 
Houston, Tex 271 

Joseph E. Johnston Camp, 
Greenville, Tex 311 

Lawson Ball Camp 309 

Pegram Camp, Valley 
Head, W. Va 191 

R. A. Smith Camp, Macon, 
Ga 266 

Sterling Price Camp, Dal- 
las, Tex 269 

Urquhart— Gillette Camp, 
Franklin, W. Va 144 


Arnold, Mrs. Eugenia Hill 53 

J. W. 






Bachman, Rev. 

Baker, C. C 

Barclay, Hugh Gaylord. 

Barrick, J. R 

Bell, Mrs. Julia W 

Blake, Thomas B 213 

Booth, A. B 91 

Boyce, Joseph 60 

Boyle. Virginia P.... 435, 447 

Bradwell, I. G 

20, 56, 102, 138, 176, 218, 

338, 374, 418, 457 
Buford, M. M 170 

Callaway, W. A.. 328, 372, 447 

Campbell, Mrs. A. A 

63. 104. 129, 166, 216, 

258, 287. 326. 378, 420 

Games, Capt. W. W 185 

Carr, Mary Beale 365 

Childs. H. T 24, 100, 220 

Christian, Judge Geo. L. . 293 

Cook, Evalyn Castleberry 465 

Clark, Judge Walter 413 

Corbin, W. P 139 

Costello, Vincent 323 

Courtney, W. J 381 

Creager, J. A 290 

Dalton, Dr. W. R. I. ..330, 380 

Davidson, Laura Lee 333 

Day, B. F 86 

Dean, Capt. Geodge R. ... 92 

Dickinson, Sallie Bruce.. 159 

Dodd, Dr. William E 324 

Douglas, G. M 435, 452 

Everman, W. A 140 

Foxworth, Sophia G 125 

Fowler, I. W 379 

Goodwin, Martha 263 

Grizzard, R. W 415 

Hale, G, W. B 239 

Halliburton, J. W 264 

Harbaugh T. C 332 

Hatton, Clarence R 133 

Hawthorne, Miss Annie.. 438 

Herring, Marcus D 184 

Hogg, John B 373, 410 

Happs, John 438 

HoUiday, B. T 343, 382 

Houston, Mrs. M. H 300 

Hubner, Charles W 244 

Hunley, W. M 127 

Hunt, Berenice 159-162 

Hurst, John 261 

Jennings, Arthur H 206 

Johnson, E. Polk... 5, 44, 136 

Johnson, William 337 

Jordan, A. L 425 

Joyner, Edmund N 116 

Kilmer, Joyce 245 

Lamb, Hon. John 178 

Latham, Virginia Conway 84 
Lawrence, R. De. T.. 259, 385 

Lewis, Mrs. H F 406 

Lewis, Judd Mortimer... 404 

Lindsey, R. W 460 

Littletield, A. W 3, 163 

Lovett, Howard M 

208. 256. 294, 412 
Lyne, Cassie Moncure. . . 285 

Maclean, Clara D 57 

Marshall. Robert A 18 

Mastin, Grace Murray.... 86 

Maxwell, James R 250 

McChesney, James Z 173 

McCoy, Miss Hester 165 

McFerrin, Porter 204 

McLellan, D. J 223 

McNeilly, James H 

22, 58. 96, 130, 182, 210, 
253, 296, 329, 340, 369, 

409, 425, 444 
Moore, John Trotwood... 245 
Moses, Miss Armida 181 

Nixon, W. M 236 

Osgoode, J. A. 

Peter, H. J 356 

Preston, W. E 332 

Purifoy, John 93, 327 

Randall, James R 126 

Reid, G. H 435 

Ritter, Capt. William L.. 

317, 331. 376, 408, 448 

Robertson, Elizabeth 245 

Robertson, Gen. Felix I... 251 

Ross, George 386 

Saussy, Clement 422 

Saxon, Henry F 164 

Selph, Mrs. Fannie E. . 51, 461 
Shepherd, Dr. Henry E. .. 

6, 87, 126. 222. 248, 302, 377 

Simons Katherine D 205 

Sirrene. George W 407 

Smith, Emma Frances Lee 373 

Smith. Miss Klnnie E 299 

Steadman, Hon. Chas. M.. 453 
Stevens. Flora Ellice.105, 125 

Stevens, James A 

38, 99. 247. 366, 424 

Stiles, John C 

25, 46, 65. 90. 125. 141 

168. 212, 252. 265, 305 
Sulivane, Col. Clement.... 459 
Sykes, E. T 128 

Taylor, H. M 300 

Thomason, Anabel F 345 

Thompson, J. N 406 

Thompson, John R 337 

Thompson, Col. M. S 288 

Trice, C. W 78, 23« 

Vaughan, William C 286 

Wailes, Dr. L. A 64 

Ware. John N 449 

Whaling, Dr. Thornton. . . 416 

Woodbury, Mrs. John L. . 196 

Wylie, Lollie Belle 396 

Zell, Robert R 260 

Anthony. Miss Martha... 205 Huff, Maj. James T 191 

Bankhead, Hon. John H. 


Bell, Lieut. E. L 


Bell, Mrs. Ernest S 


Bemiss, J. H 



Black, W. F 


Bronaugh, Dr. J. H 


Brown, Col. David A. . . . 


Buck, Capt. S. D 


Buford, M. M 


Caffey, Dr. H. W 


Callaway, W. A 


Cathey, John A 


Chandler, A. M 


Chiles, John R 


Clement, J, C 


Collier, Mrs. B. W 


Conway, Dr. W. B 


Cowan, Rev. J. C 


Cox, Gen. William R. . . . 


Crawford, T. C 


Crenshaw, Mrs. J. H. ... 


Crews, Mrs. M. H 


Dean, Capt. George B. .. 


Deupree, Dr. J. G 


Douglass, P. O 


Ellis, Thomas J 


Elmore, Capt. T. J 


Fletcher, Dr. Frank 


Frayser, Mrs. Annie R. . 


Freeman. Capt. T. M. . . . 


Full, Lewis 


Gilmer, Col. J. H 


Godwin, Gen. A. C 


Gorgas, Maj. Gen. W. C. 


Gurley, Capt. Frank B.. 


Guion, Capt. Lewis 


Hagy, P. S 


Hailey, Gen. D. M 


Hairston, Col. Peter 


Henderson, James T. . . . 


Harvey, Mrs. Felix 


Holt, Mrs. R. P 


Howell, W. B 


Ingles, Capt. William... 

Jackson, Andrew 

Jefferson, Thomas 

Johnson. Lieut. Col. L. . . 

Johnston, John O 

Jones, Capt. L. P 



Kellogg, Gen. Jonathan.. 267 

Lachlison, Capt. James. 

Lawrence, J. S 

Leith, J. W 

Lof tin, John R 

McCabe, Col. Wm. G.. 
McCall, Col. W. M. . . 

McEntire, W. R 

Mickle, Gen. Wm. E.. 

Page, Capt. T. G 

Philips, Capt. Joseph.. 

Powell, J. W 

Prather. Col. J. S 

Propst, Capt. William.. 

Reb-er, E. H 

Ricks, Robert H 

Ritter, William L 

Roberts, Capt. B. J 

Roberts, Frank Stovall... 

Rosborough, J. A 

Rudd, Maj. J. D 

Saussy, Clement 

Scales, D. M 

Sexton, Mrs. Kate Korft. , 
Stunston, Mrs. James L. , 

Tansil. Col. E. E 

Thompson, John R. . . 

Vann, J, M 

Van Metre, Capt. J. B. 
Van Zandt, Gen. K. M. 

Walker, George P. 
Wood, William... 




















Young, Samuel 71 



NO. 1 

"To i.romote literature In this rising empire and to encourage the arts have 
ever heen amonRst tl.e warmest wishes of my heart; and if the .lonallon wlucll 
the Generosity of tlie LeRlslature of tlie Commonwealth of Virfrlnm lias enabled 
me to bestow on Liberty llall-now by yonr politeness enlled ^ asliiiiKio,, Acad- 
emv-is liljelT to prove a means to aceomplisliinB; these ends, it will <-ontribnte to tlie 
gratiHealion of my desire."- From Hasliinglon's letter to the Trustees of I»a»/i- 
ington Academy, June 17, 1T!>S. 


"I think it the d«ty of every ritizen, in the present condition of the country, 
to do all in his power to aid in the restoration of peace and harmony, and in no 
way to oppose tlie policy <>f the State or < Government directed to that 
obiVit. It is particularly in.umbeiit on those charged with the instruction of the 
youne to set them an e\ample of submission to autliority."— J^rom Z-cc'» letter to 
the Trustees of Washington College, August g4, 186S. 



Memorial Tablets 

of the Highef>t Standard 

".' -' . \ I'ars 

Paul E. Cabaret & Co. 

New YorW 

CATALOG 352—1 

shows PETTIBONE'S Uni 
forms and Supplies for 


Also shows a beautiful 
photograph of 


*he matchless son ol the 
Free — aend for copy 


Headquarters for U. C. V. Uniforms 
Establishea 50 Years 

W. M. Kilgore, 2308 Hawthorne Ave- 
nue, Birmingham, Ala., writes: "I was 
a member of Company C, 31st Tennessee 
Regiment, Col. W. M. Eradford. I 
would like to hear from some member 
of my company or regiment. I am 
eighty-three years old." 

Mrs. George N. L. Buyers, 504 High 
Street, Columbia, Tenn., makes inquiry 
for any surviving member of the com- 
pany or regiment of Alabama troops 
with which Aurelius Whittington served. 
He enlisted from Alabama and served 
throughout the war. This information 
is needed to get a pension for his 
widow, Mrs. Susan Whittington. 

The widow of the late S. D. Coleman 
wishes to get in communication with 
some of his old comrades of the War be- 
tween the States. He was a meinber 
of Company B, ist Battalion of Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, Duke's Brigade, Army 
of West Virginia. She is entitled to a 
pension from the State of Georgia if 
she can get affidavit from one comrade 
who served with him. Address Mrs. A. 
W. Coleman, Fort Gaines, Ga. 


Memoirs of Robert E. Lee. By Gen. A. L. Long. 1886. Bound in sheep. 

Fine condition $ 6 00 

Life of Gen. A. S. Johnston. By Col. William Preston Johnston. 1879. 

Cloth. Good condition 5 00 

The War between the States. By Alexander H. Stephens. 1870. Half 

morocco. Good condition 7 50 

.\dvance and Retreat. By Gen. J. B. Hood. 1880. Memorial edition sold 

for the benefit of the Hood children. Cloth. Soiled. 2 00 

Personal Reminiscences of Gen. R. E. Lee. By Rev. J. William Jones. 1876. 

Half morocco 2 50 

Odd volumes of the Confederate Military History. Cloth. (Limited number.) 2 00 
One set of Confederate Military History. Half leather 25 00 


Sovereignty. (Poem.) By A. W. Littlefield, D.D 3 

Why Did We Go Across? (Poem.) By H. W. Barclay 4 

For the Truth of Confederate History 4 

Shall the Davis Memorial Be Completed ? By E. Polk Johnson 5 

The Great American Myth. By Dr. Henry E. Shepherd 6 

Washington and Lee University 8 

War-Time Journal of a "Little Rebel." By Ellen Virginia Saunders 11 

Emergency Ammunition 12 

War's Harvest in "The Debatable Land" 13 

Captured a Few Yankees. By N. C. Fontaine 16 

When Missouri Went into the War. By Robert A. Marshall 18 

Second Day's Battle of the Wilderness. By L G. Bradwell 20 

My Reminiscences of the War for American Independence. By James H. Mc- 

Neilly, D.D 22 

Cedar Run Battle as I Saw It, By H. T. Childs 24 

In the Years of War. By John G. Stiles 25 

Col. Ashbel Smith, of Texas. By James A. Stevens 38 

Departments : Last Roll 26 

U. D. C 32 

C. S. M. A i'; 

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In Position I 

From N. P. Davidson, Driftwood, 
Tex. : "I have been taking your most 
excellent magazine ever since 1893 and 
have never missed a copy. I am now 
Hearing my eighty-second anniversary 
and hope to continue my subscription as 
long as I live." 

Serviceable to Papa. — A Red Cross 
public health nurse in a Southern town 
has found the latest novelty in names 
for babies. She was weighing a little 
black youngster. "What do you call 
baby?" she asked the grinning young 
mother. "Weathah-strips," replied the 
parent. "Weather-strips!" exclaimed 
the nurse. "What's the idea, Mandy?" 
"We done named her Weathah-strips 
'cause she kept her papa outa de draft." 

to purchase all'wool 

Bunting or 
Silk Fla^s 

of all kinds 

Silk Banners, S^ 

and all kinds of M 

Joel Flag £. Regal 
Send for Price List 

tvords, Belts, Caps 

llltary Equipment and 
Goods Is at 

la Co,, 79 Nassau St. 

New York Qty 

QDpfederat^ l/eterap. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1S71). 

Acceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and aiilliorized on July 5, 191S. 

Pulilished by the Trustees of the Confedekate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southkkn Memorial Associatiom, 

Thougrh men deser\'e, they may not win. snccess; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquislied none the less. 

Price, $1.00 per Tear. 
Sinole Copt, 10 Cknts. 

} Vol. XXVIII. 


No. I. { 



Atlanta Reunion. 1919. 

by a. w. littlefield, needham. mass. 

From the Pilgrim Rock to the Golden Gntc, 
From the Northern Lakes to the Southern Sea, 
The Stars and Stripes and their sovereignty 
Defend the land and its noble estate. 
And the Stars and Bars in the Southland, strong. 
Float proudly o'er hearth and the home love, dear. 
The symbol of sovereign men who fear 
But the laws of God and the deeds of wrong. 
As foes they were pitted when kindred fought 
In the terrible strife that banished peace. 
But ever in union long may they wave — 
Emblems of peoples by suffering taught 
That fraternal hatred must henceforth cease — 
The guide of the free, the pride of the brave ! 



The John Letcher Memorial Fund has been established at 
Washington and Lee University in honor of the "War" Gov- 
ernor of Virginia by his children. Col. John D. Letcher, of 
Norfolk, Va., Mrs. Margaret L. Showell, of Berlin, Md., and 
Mrs. Virginia Lee Stevens, Miss Fanny W. Letcher, and Capt. 
Greenlee D. Letcher, of Lexington, Va. 

The income from the fund, which amounts to $4,000, is to 
be used primarily "to aid needy, deserving students who, while 
students through the session, do manual labor to assist in 
obtaining their education." Permission is given the President 
of the University, however, to take from the income the sum 
of fifty dollars annually, or from time to time as he deems 
wise, and offer it as a prize for the best paper on some politi- 
cal subject designated by him, and also in his discretion to 
use part of the interest from the fund to purchase books on 
political and economic subjects, the books to be designated 
as the John Letcher Memorial Library. It is further provided 
that the LTniversity shall have a copy made of the portrait of 
Governor Letcher which hangs in the Capitol at Richmond 
and place it in the University library. 


To each and all a .glad New Year ! 

To its friends everywhere the Veteran sends this old, old 
greeting with the wish for their health and h.nppincss through- 
out the days of 1920. 

The Veteran is now beginning its twenty-eighth year, which 
is a long life for a Southern periodical. Its length of days 
has been made possible through the loyal support of friends, 
whose interest and cooperation have enabled it to carry on 
this work for the truth of Southern history. This work is 
all the more important in these days of greater interest in 
more recent happenings, and of old friends and new is now 
asked a continuance of that support which will help to ex- 
tend the work of the Veteran nearer to a successful comple- 

Georgi.Vs Provision for Confederate Veterans. — Referring 
to the article in the December Veteran on "Where Georgia 
Does Not Lead," Robert P. Martyn, Chaplain of the North 
Georgia Brigade, V. C. V., writes : "During the past three 
years Georgia veterans received an advance of $10 on their 
previous $60 per year, and next year the provision gives them 
$100. after which no further increase has been provided. 
There has been no discrimination between officers and pri- 
vates, and the claims of those who have been receiving larger 
sums than the others were based on their being more or less 
physically injured in the war. Florida is to be complimented 
for the much better part she does for her veterans and puts 
Georgia to shame thereby, but Georgia should have due credit, 

For the Davis Monument. — Dear Veteran : My grand- 
father, Maj. Joseph Kiger, was a personal friend of Jefferson 
Davis ; was in the Senate of Mississippi with him. My grand- 
father went from South Carolina to Mississippi in 1838. He 
won his title in the War of 1812. I think it was in 1853 that 
he was with Mr. Davis in the Senate of Mississippi. He 
was styled the "Father of the Senate of Mississippi." My 
husband and I sent to-day a check amounting to ten .ioUars 
to Maj. John Leathers for the Jefferson Davis Memorial. 

Mrs. a. E. Going, Gordo, Ala. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

Qo^federa;^ l/eterap, 

S. A, CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Oftoe: Meihodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tena. 

Ail who approve the principles of this publication and realize i'.s benefits as 
«■ organ for Aa»ociations throug'hout the South are requested (o commend 
fta patronagfl and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each on* be 
BWiBtintly dillgenL 


Dedicated to Sons of Confederate Veterans. 

by hugh gaylord barclay, mobile, ala. 

We went across because we must ! 
Ours was no transient, aimless gust 

Of mobile sentiment or hate! 
That magic, dazzling star of hope, 
Against whose lure no might may cope, 

Proud freedom for both small and great — 
Such magnet drew our willing feet 
The rise of freedom's star to greet, 

To share disaster, yield our blood. 

To help stem anarchy's dark flood ! 
How could we rest at home and feel — 

While we of such black blot were free — 
.•\ shackled world's woeful appeal 

Would not be met? It should not be! 


.'Xt the last General Reunion of the Confederate Veterans 
a great movement was inaugurated to teach the young the 
truths of Confederate history, and to carry this out a com- 
mittee of veterans was appointed, consisting of Gen. C. Irvine 
Walker, Honorary Commander in Chief U. C. V., Chairman, 
Charleston, S. C. ; Gen. Julian S. Carr, Commander Army of 
Northern Virginia, U. C. V., Durham, N. C. : Gen. Calvin B. 
Vance, Commander Army of Tennessee, U. C. V., Batesville, 
Miss. ; Gen. Virgil Y. Cook, Commander Trans- Mississippi, U. 
C. v.. Batesville, Ark. ; Gen. A. J. Twiggs, Commander East 
Georgia Brigade, U. C. V., Augusta, Ga. 

The Sons, cooperating, have appointed as their committee : 
Rev. J. Cleveland Hall, Chairman, Danville, Va. ; Dr. John 
W. Hooper, Roanoke, Ala. ; W. C. Chandler, Memphis, Tenn. ; 
W. S. Lemley, Temple, Te.x. : J. J. Slaughter, Muskogee, 

The Daughters of the Confederacy at their Tampa Conven- 
tion did not consider the request of the Veterans' proposition, 
hut they as individuals. Chapters, and Divisions, we are sure, 
will give aid to an object they have previously commended. 

The committee has actively commenced on its labors. Being 
without funds, they have been forced to adopt a plan, not 
perhaps the most efficient, but the only practical one appar- 
ent. Teachers or lecturers, veterans if possible, if not red- 
hot Sons, will lecture for two or five days to the pupils of 
the educational institutions of the various States of the South. 
It is reasonably expected that such institutions as avail them- 
selves of this opportunity to have the truth fearlessly told will 
be willing to pay the very moderate fees charged for the 
benefits derived. General Walker has been assigned to this 
duty for his State and very promptly made engagements with 
the leading colleges therein. If such in South Carolina are 
ready to aid in teaching the truths of history, similar institu- 
tions in other States can be expected to do as well. 

When the next schoolbook adoptions occur, the committee 
will be ready to fight unfair books and make such representa- 
tions to the boards of adoption as will, it is hoped, prevent 
the use in the schools of the South of histories which either 
misrepresent the South or "damn it with faint praise." They 
will also make an earnest effort to have all libraries in the 
South mark unfair books as 'unjust to the South.'" 

To assist in both of their aims Miss Mildred Rutherford 
has prepared and is now having published a historical "Meas- 
uring Rod," which will show to all interested the misstatements 
affecting the South and what of such are to be guarded against. 
The thought, mental labor, and material printing of this book- 
let will be a freewill offering of this distinguished Southern 
historian to the great cause. 

Is there any prosperous Veteran, Son, or Daughter who is 
willing to do as much? 

It is unnecessary to explain the necessity of teaching the 
truth, but only to urge the assistance of all Veterans, Sons, 
and Daughters. A line to Gen. C. Irvine Walker, Chairman, 
Charleston, S. C, or to the teacher or committee for the 
State will put any one in connection with the movement. 

Don't fear the cry of arousing sectionalism. Only those 
who attack the South, not the South in defending its actions, 
are the sectionalists. The committees are well aware that 
they have a pretty hard job trying to overtake a lie, when it is 
once started, but they hope and believe they will, as they run 
in pursuit, drop some seeds which will take root and flourish. 

Moreover, the days of passion on this subject have passed, 
and it can now be considered in a purely academic manner. 
When it is proved that the South was right and the North 
wrong fifty-odd years ago, it will not make an iota's differ- 
ence in the devotion of the few surviving veterans and their 
hosts of descendants to the United States nor of their willing- 
ness to do their full patriotic duty. A man who was willing to 
fight as did the Confederates from 1861-65 is the kind o'' 
material out of which loyal citizenship is made and the kiu'l 
to teach his children and grandchildren the truest and noble ' 
lessons of patriotism. 

[Matter contributed by committee.] 


A letter from Capt. W. T. Ellis, of Owensboro, Ky., con- 
firms the sad news of the death of Col. Henry Moorman, 
which occurred very suddenly. It was only in the November 
Veteran that his picture appeared with the handsome little 
grandsons, of whom he was so proud. Captain Ellis writes: 
"His death was a great shock to all of us who knew and 
loved him so well. He was a glorious man, and our Camp has 
lost its best and most useful member. A committee has been 
appointed to prepare a sketch of him for the Veteran. You 
correctly say that our veterans are passing rapidly away. Di- 
rectly the last of that mighty host who 

" 'Marched and fought with Johnston 
And stormed the heights with Lee' 

will have passed away, and then there will not be a survivor 
of the men who wore the gray to 

" Weep o'er his wounds or tales of sorrow done 
Or to shoulder his crutch and show how fields were won.' 

But we can trust the Confederate Veteran to do justice to 
our memory and the cause for which we fought." 

^OQfederat^ l/eterai>. 



Shall the monument to Jefferson Davis on the site of the 
modest home where he was born be finished? This is a ques- 
tion addressed not alone to Kentucky, but to every Soutliern 
State. That he was born in Kentucky is a matter for con- 
gratulation. That he was the President of the Confederate 
States at the same time that another Kentuckian was Presi- 
dent of the United States seems something more than one of 
fate's accidents. The birthplace of Mr. Lincoln, the humble 
cabin in which his eyes first looked out upon this goodly 
land, is covered from the storms of heaven by walls of granite 
and is a perpetual charge upon the United States government. 
The birthplace of Mr. Davis, scarce one hundred miles away, 
remains unmarked, for the Confederate government has no 
treasury, no funds, no abiding place save in the hearts of 
those who followed its flag through four long years, years of 
glory and of sorrow, as the pendulum of fate swung between 
victory and defeat. To these few, "these gallant few," and 
to their descendants and to those living Southerners through 
whose veins the red blood of the fathers of our Southern land 
still flows must we turn, not with an appeal — that would cheap- 
en the monument — but to set before them the simple facts. 

During the recent gubernatorial campaign in Kentucky each 
of the candidates promised General Ilaldcman that in the 
event of his election he would ask the State Legislature to take 
over the monument and the park in which it is to stand and 
to keep watch and ward over them both so long as time shall 
last. Mr. Morrow, the successful candidate, is the son of a 
gallant Kentuckian, a Federal officer, whose heart and hand 
after the war were freely open to every plea from a Confed- 
erate soldier. Though he has long filled an honored grave, 
there is no doubt that to that generous father his son owes 
the great majority by which he became Governor. Confed- 
erate veterans do not forget those who have been their 
friends. The monument when finished will be faithfully 
guarded by the State. 

The South has often, far too often, been the object of re- 
buke from Northern press and people for its love of those who 
were its heroes in the dear dead days of the past. To such 
critics let a Northern newspaper make reply. The Charleston 
Nezi'S and Courier in a spirit of good-natured banter chal- 
lenged the Rochester (N. Y.) Democrat and Chronicle to an 
expression of opinion concerning the placing of a statue of Mr. 
Davis in the Hall of Fame in Washington. The New York 
paper made no reply, but the New Haven (Conn.) Register 
was of finer clay and met the challenge in these brave words : 
"Very well. The Register on its part accepts the challenge. 
There is something to say about Jefferson Davis and his ad- 
mission to the Hall of Fame. It is high time it was said. It 
is high time that the mist which for half a century has dis- 
torted the North's view of this son of the South was cleared 
away. It is in justice time that the man who in his day suf- 
fered more than any other Southerner for the cause in which 
lie believed should cease to be reckoned a traitor and a coward 
and be esteemed for what he was, a brave, true Southern gen- 
tleman. * * * The South will never cease to admire the 
man of iron nerve, of dauntless courage, of ceaseless loyalty, 
of unsullied honor, of tireless energy, of peerless chivalry, 
who .'suffered and dared and all but died for the cause he 
loved and lost. Of that host of true men who gave their best 
and their all for the Confederacy because in their deepest 
hearts they believed they were doing right, none was more 
sincere than he. Of that multitude who lined up for the strug- 
gle against their brothers of the North, none was braver, none 

was nobler. His sacrifice was as extreme as it was sincere, 
and his treatment by the victors after the crash came was sore 
medicine for a heart that w-as breaking." 

It is more than a century since Jefferson Davis was born; 
it is more than half a century since his cause was lost. It is 
more than a quarter of a century since he drew the drapery of 
his couch about him and passed into another world. Hear 
further from the Register: "What better time could there be 
to signify, by the placing of his statue in the nation's capital, 
that the wounds of that war are healed, that in the blood of 
brothers shed the Union is forever cemented on a foundation 
that standeth sure. Then let his presentment stand erect, 
noble, commanding, impressive as he stood in the days when 
he was master of the destinies of half a nation. * * * Let 
it picture a martyr to a cause that, though lost, was not wholly 
vain, since it taught brothers to appreciate a relationship they 
were in danger of forgetting. And not inappropriately might 
there be carved on it the inscription which an unknown poet 
of the South once suggested for his statue: 

" 'Write on its base, "We loved him." All these years 
Since that torn flag was folded we've been true. 
The love that bound us now revealed in tears 
Like webs unseen till heavy with the dew.' " 

Rarely has a finer tribute been paid a Southern statesman 
than these graceful words from one in the Northern land who 
coidd have had no sympathy for the cause for which the men 
of the South' fought and died. A Southerner, ignorant of the 
source from which they came, would instinctively declare them 
the product of a Southern mind and heart, so free are they 
of the usual gall and bitterness of Northern utterances. 

The writer of this article knew Mr. Davis personally, and 
in his home at Beauvoir was his guest. In addition, he had 
also been one of his escort from Charlotte, N. C, to Wash- 
ington, Ga. In the home of Mr. Davis no word of bitterness 
toward even those who had dcspitefully used him was heard. 
He declined to discuss the politics of the day, evidently feel- 
ing the indignity that was daily heaped upon him by those 
who, forgetting nothing, also learned nothing. Of Mr. Lincoln 
he spoke several times in kindly terms, instancing his fine 
capacity for illustrating his meaning with apt anecdotes, an 
accomplishment in which he thought few public men had ex- 
celled him. Though in Congress at the 
same time as Mr. Lincoln, he stated 
that he had no recollection of his per- 
sonality. In an article which was writ- 
ten by the writer of this after his visit 
to Mr. Davis the following is found : 
"Not by word or tone did this chief of 
the greatest of civil wars express other 
than respect for the memory of that 
other great Kentuckian who, like Iwm- 
self, sat in a Presidential chair and held 
in his hands the destinies of a great peo- 
ple during that struggle between the two 
finest armies of volunteers the world 
has ever known." 

In concluding the article from which 
the words above are quoted the follow- 
ing were the sentiments of the present 
writer: "The most remarkable man of 
liis day in many respects, the chief of 
the greatest civil war the world has 
known, the head of a government and 
an army which, considering their re- 
sources, or the lack of them, put on 



^oijfederatf l/efcerai?, 

record the greatest military achievements of the age; the un- 
fakering advocate of an idea which he refuses to abandon in 
the face of defeat, which idea represents the opinions of the 
founders of the government and the spirit of the Constitu- 
tion, he sits by the side of the sea, a citizen of no land under 
the sun; proscribed, misrepresented, and derided, yet accept- 
ing it all without a murmur and calmly resting his case for 
those who will come after all of us to decide, conscious of 
the uprightness of his public and private career, his faithful 
devotion to his State and section, and the honesty of his pur- 
poses. Surrounded by his family, he as calmly and bravely 
awaits the end, which cannot be far away now, as he faced 
the storm of Santa Anna's bullets in Mexico and bore the in- 
dignity of chains and the horrors of a dungeon in later years. 
Kindly, gentle old man! When that good gray head is pil- 
lowed upon the bosom of your beloved Mississippi, may there 
come one wOio will write upon the pages of history the fair 
record of your brave, upright, and honored life, for it has been 
and is all of these, deny it as your bitterest adversary may !" 

Men and women of the South, herein you have two pictures 
of Mr. Davis, one from a Northern point of view, the other 
from a Confederate soldier and friend of Mr. Davis. Choose 
either of them and from deep down in your hearts answer if 
you do not feel that the birthplace of this illustrious man 
should be marked with an enduring monument, that his fame 
and his services to his country may not be snuffed out as a 
candle and as soon forgotten. Kentucky has done much and 
will do more. He was yours as he was Kentucky's, and to 
you and to us is left the task of preserving his memory for 
all time. Will you not answer the Macedonian cry, "Come 
over and help us"? 



It involves an essential fallacy to assume that the myth- 
creating faculty faded from the consciousness of our race as 
the world moved from the shadowy dream sphere of symbol, 
legend, and romance toward its modern secularized and em- 
pirical life in which types, visions, and fantasies wrought by 
the genius of romance serve no higher end than poetic illustra- 
tion, social recreation, even to beguile weary hours in the 
nursery or by the fireside, as we recall snatches of witch- 
lore, fragmentary, disjointed lines from chants drawn from 
fairyland, echoes and notes that bring back the day when 
superstition was a dominant and almost unchallenged power. 
Romulus and Remus may yet assume a renascence, and the 
peerless Idylls of Tennyson have invested Arthur, Lancelot, 
Percival, and Galahad with a charm undreamed of in the 
mythic era until, 

"Substantialized in flesh and blood, 
They live from age to age upon the poet's page. 
And yet have never donned this mortal clay." 

Within the last half century and in large measure under the 
eyes of a generation still in the vigor of manhood a trans- 
formation surpassing any of those I have indicated or any 
accomplished by the shaping spirit of dramatic imagination 
has become an assured, if not an abiding, invincible reality, in 
the apprehension or belief of the American people. Like Lord 
Tennyson's ideal statesman, Mr. Lincoln has "moved from 
high to higher" until, having attained the "crowning slope" of 
political ascendancy, at least in popular estimation, the halluci- 
nation, or delusion, acquires a most tenacious and apparently 
invincible character. The origin of the Lincoln cult, or, to 
describe it more accurately, the Lincoln mania, may be traced 

to the time of his tragic death, April 15, 1865, but its growth, 
or diffusion, as well as its unrestrained and often senseless 
manifestations or expressions, have received a marked im- 
pulse during a comparatively recent period. The war with 
Germany, which, as contemplated from the viewpoint of the 
Northern press, was a phase of symbolical crusade against the 
ideals and the history of the South, tended in no small meas- 
ure to stimulate the prevailing insanity and to invest it with 
renwed energy and vigor. From stage to stage it has ad- 
vanced until every trace of reason, moderation, or discern- 
ment has ceased to exist in so far as it forms an element or 
an influence in determining the historic position of Abraham 
Lincoln or in attaining a just appreciation of his gifts as an 
orator, his character as a man, or his rank in the long array 
of administrative chiefs who "took occasion by the hand" in 
their endeavors "to make the bounds of freedom wider yet." 

The fame of Lincoln concentrates its vital power upon his 
achievements in the sphere of oratory. Above all, does this 
criterion, or test, hold good of his much-vaunted Gettysburg 
address, delivered November 19, 1863. By one of those re- 
vealing ironies to which both literary and oratorical renown 
are ever subject the special phrase that has been most thor- 
oughly ingrained and assimilated into the heart and speech 
of the world traces its suggestion, if not its specific origin, 
to Webster's memorable reply to Hayne during the historic 
debate of January, 1830. By reference to Webster's argu- 
ment as edited by Bradley, "Orations and Arguments" (page 
227, paragraph five), the reader will discover at a glance the 
very essence of the language, "government of the people, by 
the people, and for the people," so intensely associated with 
the memory of Lincoln. Note the harmony existing between 
the words of Webster uttered in 1830 and those which fell 


Surviving Captain of the Third Battery of Maryland Artil- 
lery, C. S. A., at the age of eighty-four years. 

Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 

from Lincoln at Gettysburg in November, 1863 : "It is the 
people's government, made for the people, made by the people, 
and answerable to the people." (Bradley, page 227, paragraph 
five.) The resemblance existing between the passages cited 
is too minute and definite to admit of explanation as a mere 
coincidence of form or a simple analogy in the mode of ex- 
position. Even if we waive the charge of willful plagiarism, 
the most exuberant charity cannot ignore or condone the pal- 
pable and wanton imitation of the thought and diction of 
Daniel Webster. 

At the time of the delivery of the address at Gettysburg I 
was a prisoner in Federal hands, disabled from the effect of 
an almost fatal wound received on July 3 at Kulp's Hill, Get- 
tysburg. A lad in my teens, I retain a vivid and graphic 
memory of that period of sorrow and gloom, remote from 
friends and home, devoid of all facilities for communication 
with them, and reckoned among the dead at my own fireside 
and my own family altar. I recall from out my valley of 
shadows that the Gettysburg oration when given to the world 
seemed to fall upon unheeding and irresponsive ears, "rousing 
no deed from sleep." Its celebrity was a development of later 
years and traces its origin, as well as its inspiration, to the 
tragedy linked with the fate of its author. "The deep damna- 
tion of his taking off" was a most auspicious creative agency 
and invested the name of Lincoln with a halo and sanctity 
that spring from martyrdom alone. 

On March 4, 1861, while a student at the University of Vir- 
ginia, in company with a party of my classmates, I attended 
the first inauguration of Mr. Lincoln and listened to his ad- 
dress upon assuming the functions of chief executive. It was 
a grim, bleak day, snow, rain, mist, all blending in the dis- 
sonance of elements marking the bodeful Monday morning 
which chronicled his advent to supreme official dignity. His 
manner of delivery was simple, earnest, unaffected, but lacking 
in every essential feature of rhetorical art or oratorical charm 
and grace. He displayed a tendency to "saw the air with 
his hand." I recall but a simple genuine gesture as he uttered 
the words: "No State has a right to leave the L^nion." No 
more consummate fiction has been devised since the age of 
^■Esop than that which attributes transcendent oratorical genius 
to Abraham Lincoln. The malignity constituting the vital 
essence of Stanton seems not to have determined his moral 
attitude, nor did he display his diabolic glee in the mere con- 
templation of human suffering. Still, it cannot be demonstrated 
by any form of proof or evidence that his voice or his in- 
fluence, personal or official, was in one instance brought to 
bear in order to mitigate or restrain the barbarous excesses 
of his own commanders. The blood of the victims of Sheridan 
and Sherman cries out from the earth against the memory of 
the "martyred President." 

To my own apprehension, one of the most lamentable de- 
lusions prevailing in the South with reference to Lincoln re- 
lates to his fictitious or mythical oratory. Strange is it, even 
pathetic, that in the native source and fountain of American 
eloquence such fatal misconceptions should hold sway. The 
typical college or university president, the masters. of as- 
semblies, oracles of senates, lords of the forum, and beyond 
the Potomac the howling dervishes of the platform or the 
pulpit have exalted Lincoln's Gettysburg speech into a su- 
preme criterion, a magical touchstone, by which ideal art in 
oratory is to be estimated and determined. Culture, literary 
discernment, reverence for our golden age have been renounced 
and abdicated in self-abasement before the shrine of .^braham 
Lincoln. The clarion tones, the remorseless logic, the in- 
vincible charm, the resistless grace which crowned the sov- 

ereign lights of a day that is dead have paled into shadow 
and eclipse. Alas for one trumpet note or even ech-o of 
Hayne, Legare, Preston, Gaston, Badger, Davis, Dobbin I 

"They are all gone into the world of light, 
And w-e alone sit lingering here ; 
Their very memory is clear and bright, 
And our sad heart doth cheer." 

Most to be deplored of all the results or sequences asso- 
ciated with the deification of Mr. Lincoln is the tendency it 
has developed toward irreverence, if not in some instances a 
form of blasphemy, perhaps undesigned or unconscious, but 
none the less real in its nature, on the part of Northern au- 
thors, clerical lights, and popular lecturers. I am prepared 
to cite specific instances or illustrations in which he has been 
exalted to the same plane and assigned to the same supreme 
eminence with the incarnate God. In many circles, in the edu- 
cational sphere, in life as affected by the influence of libraries, 
in the field of political activity, in the dominant mental atti- 
tude of the nation, to impeach or even question the sanctity 
and infallibility of Abraham Lincoln is construed as almost 
equivalent to a species of treason. Assuredly his apotheosis 
is fast attaining its final stage. In abject and sycophantic 
idolatry of a dead though sceptered sovereign the American 
of our own day has no rational or logical reason to hold in 
reproach the record of the Hohenzollern empire or to insti- 
tute a contrast of self-adoration between Lincoln and Wil- 
liam the Second. The admirable and unanswerable mono- 
graph of Dr. C. L. C. Minor, "The Real Lincoln," is rigidly 
excluded from every Northern library. The fierce light that 
beats upon falsehood cannot be endured. "Touch not mine 
anointed ; do my prophet no harm," such is the imperial 
strain. Even at this late stage a pleasing hallucination pre- 
vails in reference to the beneficent influence of Lincoln, had 
he survived the last act of the war drama, in tempering the 
wind to our prostrate and stricken Confederacy. A more 
baseless fantasy was never wrought by maudlin sentimentality 
or morbid sycophancy. The "red fool fury" and frenzy which 
swept an innocent woman to the scaffold would have sub- 
merged like a tidal wave both President and the line of 
policy imputed to him by a gracious fiction that ascribes not 
evil to the dead. No earthly agency or power coulJ have 
turned aside the carnival of infamy, the dance of death, re- 
vealed during the Saturnalian day of Reconstruction. As the 
ax of the headsman elevated Charles I. almost to the saintly 
dignity in the roll of Anglican ecclesiastical worthies, so the 
dagger of Booth transformed Lincoln into a mart>r and en- 
circled his head with the halo and radiance of the amaran- 
thine crown. His trivial utterances, his mere banality and 
jaded platitudes arc conserved with fastidious devotcdness 
and guarded from the assaults of time with pharisaic zeal 
and minuteness. To the Northern mind he has assumed the 
role of oracle and prophet, whose simplest deliverances carry 
with them a mysterious and inspired significance. In accord 
with one of those suggestive and logical ironies, so often 
marking the retributive character illustrated in the attitude 
of the human tragedy, Lincoln, untouched by any form of 
definite religious conviction or belief, met his fate in a theater 
on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, the most sacred and hal- 
lowed of the anniversaries commemorated by the homage and 
devotion of the Christian world. 

"O eloquent, just, and mighty death ! 
What none hath dared thou hast done." 


C^oQfedcrat^ l/efcerai>. 


The recent movement toward securing a large endowment 
fund for Washington and Lee University, at Lexington, Va., 
has been the means of directing to that institution a larger 
share of public interest than has hitherto been accorded it. 
Harvard and Yale and like institutions of the North are 
l<nown everywhere, yet Washington and Lee, surpassing them 
in some particulars, has accomplished a great work in the 
■obscurity of a little Southern town. From its location in the 
South, it has been considered a sectional institution ; yet while 
we claim it proudly as a part of this Southern country, its 
history identifies it with the whole country, and its influence 
has been national in extent. A glance at the list of men who 
have fitted themselves for their life work at Washington and 
Lee shows that its impress is felt in the highest circles of 
public life. With this brilliant record of the past and present, 
what may not be expected of the future of this institution 
if properly endowed? The movement to raise a fund for the 
School of Engineering as a memorial to Gen. R. E. Lee 
should arouse the enthusiasm of the whole South. Could any 
Southerner render a greater service to his section and coun- 
try than by a contribution or bequest to this great memorial 
school? The department of engineering was started by Gen- 
eral Lee himself, and his memory could not be more fittingly 
honored than by an endowment that will provide for a build- 
ing and teachers to train the youth of this country in that 
important branch of public service. 

Some data compiled for use in this financial campaign give 
briefly interesting points in the history of the institution, 
which are here presented for the purpose of informing those 
who are not and yet should be acquainted with this great 
school and interested in its future. 

History of the Institution. 

1749. — Washington and Lee University founded, a few miles 
northeast of its present site, under the name of Augusta 

1776. — In the spring of this year the patriotic fervor of 
the trustees led them by unanimous vote to change the name 
of the institution to Liberty Hall. 

1782. — Liberty Hall was chartered by the State of Virginia 
as a self-governing institution under a self-perpetuating board 
of trustees, independent of either Church or State control. 

1798. — George Washington, after years of consideration, se- 
lected Liberty Hall as his beneficiary, endowed it with fifty 
thousand dollars, and authorized it to bear his name as Wash- 
ington Academy. 

1803. — The Virginia Society of the Cincinnati upon its dis- 
solution designated Washington Academy as the recipient of 
its funds. 

1813. — By act of the Legislature of Virginia the name of 
Washington Academy was changed to Washington College. 

1865. — At the unanimous request of the trustees Gen. Robert 
E. Lee accepted the presidency and entered upon his phe- 
nomenal work of rebuilding and developing Washington Col- 
lege. He added the Schools of Law, Journalism (the first in 
America), and Engineering. 

1870-71. — Worn out by his incessant labors, General Lee 
died and was succeeded by his son, Gen. G. W. C. Lee. By 
act of the legislature his name was added to that of his great 
kinsman, and the institution became Washington and Lee Uni- 

1873. Erection of Lee Mausoleum and unveiling of Valen- 
tine's recumbent statue of the great leader. 

1884. — Vincent L. Bradford, of Philadelphia, bequeathed to 
the University and endowed the Bradford Art Gallery. 


Qopfederat^ Ueterap. 


1905. — The William L. Wilson School of Commerce founded 
and endowed. 

1913. — The University was made the residuary legatee of 
the Robert Parker Doremus estate in New York City. 

1917. — The trustees oflfered the University's whole plant and 
equipment to the national government as a base hospital. 

1919. — Inauguration of a movement to so increase its en- 
dowment as to enable the University to meet the financial 
emergency of the present and the enlarging opportunities of 
the future. 

A National Institution. 

Washington and Lee's inspirational assets are a unique and 
unpurchasable inheritance. No institution in America can 
compare with it in the influence of its great names and en- 
nobling associations. George Washington selected it to use 
his wealth and bear his name. The immortal Lee. having no 
money to give, gave himself to the institution. Through five 
years of magnetic and inspiring leadership he rebuilt and de- 
veloped his great kinsman's college and set forever its ideals 
of tolerance, courtesy, honor, and patriotism : then, worn out 
witli his incessant labors, he bequeathed to it his sacred dust 
and his incomparable name. 

Young men whose characters take shape amid such in- 
fluences must from the very air they breathe grow toward the 
stature of greatness and learn the nobility of service. 

Washington and Lee's nationalism, therefore, is no surprise. 
Although located in the very focus of Southern history and 
tradition, its campus has become a meeting ground for North, 
South, East, and West, where a universal campus friendliness 
knows no diflference between Democrats and Republicans. 
Protestants and Catholics, Southerners and Northerners. Of 
626 students enrolled last year, 418, or more than two-thirds, 
were from outside of Virginia. 

Three-fourths of the University's endowment and equip- 
ment are of national rather than Southern origin, and such 
alumni as Ambassadors John W. Davis, of West Virginia, and 
Thomas Nelson Page, of Virginia; Secretary Newton D. 
Baker, of Indiana; Senators George E. Chamberlain, of Ore- 
gon, Robert L. Owen, of Oklahoma, and Miles Poindexter, 
of Washington ; Representative Hal D. Flood and Judge Sam- 
uel J. Graham, of Virginia, with others scarcely less distin- 

guished, bear witness in national affairs to the national spirit 
engendered in its halls. 

Throughout its long history Washington and Lee's campus 
lias been a center of ardent patriotism and evangelical re- 
ligion. In 1776, three months before the immortal declara- 
tion of July 4, its trustees changed its name from Augusta 
.'Vcademy to Liberty Hall. Its sons exemplified the spirit of 
their Alma Mater on the battle fields of the Revolution. Again, 
in 1861, they left the campus in a body as the Liberty Hall 
Volunteers and shed their blood on a score of battle fields 
during the dark days of the War between the States. Lately 
amid the horrors of France and Flanders its thousand repre- 
sentatives in military service and its famous ambulance corps 
have proved worthy of the best traditions of Washington and 

A steady stream of ministers and missionaries has borne 
testimony to the religious atmosphere of the institution, and 
one of its most zealous alumni associations is maint.iined :ii 

In independence and progressiveness Washington and Lee is 
unique among Southern institutions. It stands almost alone 
in its entire independence of both Church and State. Deeply 
and evangelically Christian in its founders and presidents, its 
local environment, and its spirit and traditions, it is governed 
by a self-perpetuating board and is under no denominational 
control. Although located in the heart of Virginia and itself 
a shrine of Southern tradition, it is entirely independent of 
Virginia politics and legislative control. 

Washington and Lee was the first institution in America to 
recognize journalism as a profession and establish regular 
courses in this department. The first endowed school of com- 
merce in the South was established at Washington and Lee 
with its own faculty, building, library, and reading room. It 
it also one of the very few Southern institutions which for 
many years has allowed a student to substitute modern lan- 
guages and take an A.B. degree without either Greek or Latin. 
In the freedom of its elective system, its universal compulsory 
physical training, and its fifteen-unit requirement for entrance- 
it also follows national rather than Southern customs and 

Its opportunity for national service is limited only by the 


^oijfederat^ l/efccraQ. 

financial resources placed at its disposal by those who wish to 
enlarge its work and propagate its ideals. 

Never has America so needed the service which such an in- 
stitution can render. In the turmoil of the present and the 
immediate future the only safety of the republic lies in trained 
leadership of the Washington and Lee type, national, tolerant, 
broad-minded, and imbued with a passion for service. 

With such a background of history and tradition, such an 
unbroken record of service, such an inherited atmosphere of 
patriotic idealism, the institution, rich in everything but money, 
stands ready to outdo the past in the service of the future. 

National Leadership in Peace. 

From an editorial in the New York Evening Post, Septem- 
ber 9, 191 1 : 

"The alumni of Washington and Lee University are nat- 
urally gratified by the remarkable number of its graduates who 
are now occupying prominent positions in politics, on the 
bench, and in the various fields of social activity. A new jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, Joseph R. Lamar, is a graduate of 
the law school's class of 1878, in which were also E.\-Governor 
Stevens, of Missouri, and Ex-Governor MacCorkle, of West 
Virginia, the present chief justice of the Supreme Court of 
Alabama, the general counsel of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
way, and the director of the Russell Sage Foundation. In the 
Senate of the United States are five graduates of this Uni- 
versity ; Foster of Louisiana, Chamberlain of Oregon, Owen 
■of Oklahoma, Bryan of Florida, and Poindexter of Washing- 
ton. Si.x graduates speak for five States in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, including such useful Congressmen as Slayden of 
Texas and Hay of Virginia. It is claimed for Washington 
and Lee that its law school, 'though never large in compari- 
son with such schools as Harvard, Columbia, Yale, and others,' 
lias none the less 'more alumni upon the supreme courts in a 
larger number of States than any other law school in the 
•country.' The chief justice of the Court of Claims in Wash- 
ington was graduated in 1868, and still other prominent grad- 
uates are : Thomas Nelson Page, Clifton R. Breckinridge, lately 
Ambassador to Russia, Wade H. Ellis, Dr. James H. Dillard, 
the head of the Jeanes Fund, and Julius Kruttschnitt, now 
prominent as the executive of the Harriman railways. 

"Altogether, this is an extraordinary showing and one which 
■has set people to wondering 
just why Washington and Lee 
should have produced so many 
notable men, particularly dur- 
ing a period when it was shar- 
ing the Reconstruction miseries 
and poverty of the South. 
The St. Louis Republic has a 
theory of its own about this 
particular case of Washington 
and Lee. It is this: 'The kind 
■of education that makes great 
men is not merely cultural, 
■technical, or what not; it is a 
training that unlocks the pos- 
sibilities of personality.' " 

The list given by the Post 
could easily have been doubled 
■by an editor more familiar with 
the South and West. Even 
as it stands, however, it justi- 
'fies the statement made by 
Thomas Nelson Page in 1912 
that no other institution in though he passed away, hij work lives for us to carry on. 

America, although some of them numoer cncir aiumni Dy 
scores of thousands, could assemble in the city of Washington 
such a gathering of distinguished graduates as could Wash- 
ington and Lee. 

National Leadership in War. 

Yet even this record has been outdone by the amazing leader- 
ship of Washington and Lee alumni during the tumultuous era 
of the World War. The following is a partial list of impor- 
tant national positions held between 1914 and 1919 by the rep- 
resentatives of an institution which since the War between the 
States has not averaged a student attendance of over three 
hundred men : Secretary of War, Ambassador to Great Brit- 
ain, Ambassador to Italy, Justice of the Supreme Court, So- 
licitor-General of the United States, Assistant Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, two judges of the United States 
Court of Claims, general counsel of the United States Food 
Administration, President of the American Section of the In- 
terparliamentary Union, Chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Military Affairs, Chairman of the House Committee on 
Military Affairs, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Bank- 
ing and Currency, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Mines 
and Mining, Chairman of the House Committee on Foreign 
Relations, Joint Chairman of the National War Labor Board, 
Secretary of the National War Labor Board, with a score of 
others of scarcely less importance. And this is the list in 
Washington City alone during only five years of the nation's 
history. If all the United States were' included, what a list of 
distinguished names could be assembled ! 

Surely the investment made by George Washington, Thomas 
S. Scott, W. W. Corcoran, Francis G. Peabody, Robert Parker 
Doremus, and other philanthropists in Washington and Lee 
has paid dividends almost beyond imagination. 

I have led the young men of the South in battle; I have 
seen many of them fall under my standard. I shall devote 
my life now to training young men to do their duty in life. — 
Robert E. Lee. 

Qo^federat^ UeteraQ. 



[Conclusion of the journal kept during 1862-63 by Ellen 
Virginia Saunders, daughter of Col. James E. Saunders, of 
Alabama, later Mrs. L. F. McFarland, of Memphis, Tenn.] 

May BS- — Rocky" Hill ! Home again ! We traveled as far 
as Decatur on the 18th with General Forrest and his staflf. 
Our barouche met us there. Gen. Bill Johnson is camped 
near us and wrote a note last night asking that some sup- 
per be sent him, as he "was too tired and soiled to come 
for it," and this morning he and his staff rode over to break- 
fast. He was accompanied by a guard of two hundred men, 
and his flag floated proudly in the breeze. They spent the 
morning with us, until the stern laws of military forced their 
departure. I never talked to so many officers at one time 

June 14. — Our struggle for independence is hourly becom- 
ing more bloody. The sad, sad news has reached us that Gen- 
eral Forrest, our hero, noble Forrest, is wounded. How 
gladly would I substitute myself rather than the South should 
lose so able and chivalrous a defender ! When peace comes, 
how happy would I feel could I exclaim, "My country, I too 
have helped to win for you your glorious independence" ! T 
try to do all I can for our soldiers, but what is that com- 
pared with what they suffer? Were I a man, I could fight for 
the South, but I could not love her more. But I am throwing 
a shadow across your page, dear journal. 

July z6. — It is thought this is the darkest hour of the Con- 
federacy, but still I hope. It makes me angry to think the 
Yankees can drive me from my home. My sisters and I will 
go to Columbus. Miss., and I from there to the Alabama Fe- 
male College, at Tuscaloosa. There is also a military college 
there now with two hundred and fifty cadets. The Yankees 
are expected here in a few days, and Lawrie leaves Wednes- 
day for the army. Capt. Will Forrest, brother of the General, 
has been with us for some time past and is recovering from a 
wound in the leg. 

August 21. — A proclamation by President Davis making this 
a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer. Ah, how many 
prayers are wafted to the throne of Light this day for fathers, 
husbands, brothers, sons, and lovers ! May God on high hear 
us! Captain Forrest is at Bailey Springs. He was thrown 
from his biiggy, and his wounded le.g broken. 

August 22. — Would you know why I am so sad, my dear 
journal? Alas! a dear soldier friend is dead — Fred A. Ash- 
ford, colonel of the i6th Alabama. He fell nobly on the altar 
of liberty. Ah, we will think of you when our soldiers return 
with happy tramp from the war ! I shall think of you when 
so gallantly rallying your men to the charge, though wounded, 
you cried, "Forward, my brave boys !" your last words. I 
wonder if you know how desolate the death missile has made 
the hearts that love you. 

August 25. — The Tories (Jayhawkers) in the mountains 
between here and Tuscumbia have organized into a band of 
marauders and rob all who travel that route. This makes 
me very uneasy as to my trip to Tuscaloosa. 

September 16. — A considerable change in military affairs 
since I last wrote. Genera! Wheeler has ordered General 
Roddy to Gadsden, and now our valley is left again exposed 
to the invader. Roddy is yet in the valley, and our house has 
been headquarters for him and many agreeable officers as they 
came and went. Lawrie leaves to-morrow with General 
Roddy's escort. My heart is sad, but that is his place, and 
there he should be. 

September 19. — Lawrie left with General Roddy. He will 
ultimately join General Forrest's command. Bragg has had 
a great battle with Rosecrans (Chickamauga). We were vic- 
torious. Great losses on both sides. The noble General Helm 
was killed, one of Kentucky's bravest sons. O, how we mourn 
him ! He was here with us, and we knew him well. 

October 10. — General Wheeler and troops are in the valley, 
also Gen. Stephen D. Lee, of Mississippi, and General Whar- 
ton, of Texas. General Wheeler sent a courier to father last 
night saying that he and staff would be here. They crossed 
the river yesterday, and the Yankees are just on the other 
side. Another courier has come, and father has gone to meet 
the generals. 

October 11. — Well, last night came General Wheeler and 
staff and Gen. Stephen D. Lee and Gen. Sam Ferguson. All 
three are young to be generals. General Wheeler left for 
Decatur. His staff is composed of elegant gentlemen— Major 
Burford, Lieutenant Wailes, Major Pointer, and others. 
Major Pointer gave me a "five-shooter" and Captain Nichols 
a beautiful crimson army sash, captured on the McMinnville 
raid in Tennessee, and General Wheeler displayed for our 
benefit the Federal flag he had captured there. General 
Wheeler returns to-morrow night. 

October 14. — I thought I would have been at school in Tus- 
caloosa ere this, but the deserters and Tories are still banded 
together in the mountains and intercept all travelers. So 
father fears to let me go. 

October ly. — There was a concert in Courtland last night for 
the benefit of the 35th Alabama. All of us took a part. Sister 
Prue went with Captain Wade and I with Lieutenant Pointer, 
and I played "Whispering Winds'' and "Wheeler's Polka" 
and was dressed in the Confederate colors. 

October iS. — Lawrie arrived last night, bringing dispatches 
from General Roddy to General Wheeler. He is pleased with 
"soldiering." Our house is crowded all the time. 

October 20. — A large concert in town last night and another 
to-night. Brass buttons have been very attractive of late. 

October 25. — Alas, what a change has "come over the spirit 
of our dreams" ! .Ml the military are gone — Generals Lee 
and Ferguson to meet the enemy below Tuscumbia, who are 
advancing in large force. General Wheeler to Guntersville. 
The Yankees, twenty-five hundred strong, are as near as 
Mount Hope, this county, and we are also pent in on all sides 
and could not retreat if we would. They are tearing up every 
inch of railway between here and Decatur, and from present 
appearances the Yankees will be on us before the end of the 
week. We have heard cannonading distinctly all day, and 
while I write the rapid booming of artillery shakes the house. 
General Lee, I suppose, is engaging the enemy. Ah, every 
report of those cannon hurries souls into the next world! It 
is terrible. 

April 9, 1S64. — Tuscaloosa Female College— I cannot do 
without my journal. It is an intimate and loving friend who 
never betrays. I am here alone going to school, and my family 
are now scattered to the four winds — some within Federal 
and some within Confederate lines and others across the 
foaming ocean. And still "the baying of the dismal dogs of 
war answer each other." 

April 27,. — How lonely I feel at the end of the week! Gen- 
eral Lee and General Ferguson are in town and came to see 
me on Wednesday. 

May I. — Tuscaloosa is filled with soldiers, and many Mis- 
sourians are among the numbers. I have just seen General 
French, Gen. Ed Johnson, Gen. George A. Johnston, Adjutant 


Qopfederat^ l/eberap. 

General McCann, Capt. James Scanlan, and Capt. Ed Terger. 
Friday there was a review of the Missouri troops. They are 
noble-looking men, and Gen. S. D. Lee, General Jackson, 
General French, and General Hodge, with their staffs, were 

May 2. — -Yesterday Jennie and I were walking in front of 
the college and met General Jackson (William H.), who 
jumped down from his horse and began talking to me, when 
his horse ran off. He ran after it and then, returning, walked 
on with us, when I told him I "had just accomplished more 
than ever a Yankee had, for I had unhorsed him." His manner 
is very courtly. Friday night Jennie Mellon and I went to a 
large party given to General Lee, and he kindly sent to know 
if I would go with him, but Mrs. Saunders preferred not. 
We were also invited to Mrs. Figet's Saturday night, but did 
not accept. 

"Free is his heart who for his country fights, 
He on the eve of battle may resign 
Himself to social pleasures ; sweetest then 
When danger to the soldier's soul endears 
The human joy that never may return." 

After the War. — My father and Lawrie were captured nth 
of August, 1864. Father returned August 16, but Lawrie was 
sent on to Nashville and later to Camp Chase, Ohio, where 
he languished until the surrender, coming home to die of ill- 
ness contracted in prison. 

It is told of this "little Rebel" that when ^he was only 
about fourteen years of age Federal troops were encamped 
near her home. Rocky Hill, and the commander of the troops, 
out of respect for her father, Col. James E. Saunders, placed 
a guard with a captain in charge to protect the home. The 
captain was given his meals in the dining room and was es- 
pecially respectful and courteous. On leaving he was making 
his adieus on the porch and extended his hand to Miss Ellen. 
She drew back, folded her hands behind her, and repeated 
these lines of Douglas to Marmion : 

"The hand of Douglas is his own. 
And never shall in friendly grasp 
The hand of such as Marmion clasp." 

At which the captain raised his hat and laughingly departed. 

[From an English newspaper.] 

When Sir John Gorst was occupying an editorial chair in 
Waikato half a century ago. he found himself, to his dismay, 
in the center of the Maori fighting. 

"One afternoon," he recalls, "when the Maoris ran short of 
ammunition for their fourteen-pound gun, they raided the 
te hakioi (printing works) and charged their cannon with 
type and stereo blocks, which proved very destructive missiles. 
One brave soldier was sent to the hospital by a patent medicine 
advertisement, another lost his leg to a solid leader on the 
land bill, and I myself narrowly escaped an exit from the 
world through the medium of one of my own poems." 

No less resourceful was a force of native Indians when 
besieging a fort held by United States troops. Having cap- 
tured some hundreds of tins of preserved meats, they pro- 
ceeded to load their weapons with them and poured into the 
beleaguered fort a perfect deluge of beef, mutton, and ox 

In one of the Afghan wars, when an attack on one of our 
outposts seemed doomed to failure through lack of ammuni- 
tion, the Afghans collected the spent cartridge cases and fired 
them back at the British, who promptly returned the compli- 

In our own civil war (England) many a small army ot 
rustics, marched to battle equipped with scythes and flails, 
pickaxes, pruning hooks, and blacksmiths' hammers, unmartial 
weapons with which they did deadly execution. Many a Boer 
in the last war faced British rifle and bayonet with a scythe 
blade or dagger attached to a broom handle for sole protec- 

It is no exaggeration to say that in the toll of war thou- 
sands of lives have been cut short by bullets fashioned from 
gold and silver. When Napoleon led his conquering army into 
Italy the plate from a hundred church altars was coined into 
the bullets which mowed down the lines of Austrians and 

The Princess Conde, surrounded in Amadangar by Akbar's 
hosts, gave orders that every ounce of gold and silver in her 
capital should be melted to feed her guns. Bullets of silver 
were molded by the thousands in our civil war in the hope 
of ridding the earth of Cromwell, and it is on record that it 
was such a bullet that stilled Claverhouse's heart at Killie- 
crankie. At the storming of Badajos a gallant British colonel 
was found dead with a silver pencil case imbedded in his 
heart, and a gold signet ring brought death to a Captain 
Forbes on the same day. 

Bullets of gold too were common enough in the palmy days 
of the Australian and California gold fields, when in tavern 
brawls many a digger was shot with a bullet molded from the 
gold dust that was in ever pocket. And scores of our sol- 
diers fighting in Kashmir have fallen to bullets whose core was 
a garnet or other precious stone. 

But there is practically no limit to the incongruous variety 
of weapons of offense, which range from the red-hot cannon 
balls with which the Gibraltar garrison destroyed in flame 
the Spanish floating batteries to the cowhide whips which the 
Federals used on the backs of the staff of a Philadelphia paper, 
who retorted with a muzzle loader heavily charged with small 

On one memorable occasion when the Yaqui Indians in 
revolt found themselves faced by a strong body of Mexican 
soldiers they advanced to the attack behind a covering line 
of men carrying wet blankets, against which the enemy's 
rifles were as ineffective as pea shooters, for the bullets caught 
in the loose folds fell impotently. 

When General Gregg Was Killed. — The following comes 
from John F. Green, Hope, Ark. : "In the October Veteran, 
under 'Confederate Generals Killed in Battle,' I find 'John 
Gregg, Texas, brigadier, at Burgess's Mill, October 27, 1864.' 
Kindly correct this to read : 'On Charles City Road, below 
Richmond, 9 a.m., October 7, 1864.' By special order I was 
serving on the General's staff. We had driven the enemy all 
morning, and General Gregg doubted whether he should ad- 
vance farther. By his request I went to find Gen. R. H. An- 
derson, commanding our corps. His order was : 'Say to Gen- 
eral Gregg, sir, press the enemy.' In less than twenty min- 
utes after delivery of the order General Gregg was killed, and 
I was painfully wounded." 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



[This interesting article was sent as a newspaper clipping 
without name of author by James P. Wintcrmyer, of Shep- 
herdstown, now W. Va.] 

September, 1862, was in the skies of the almanac, but Au- 
gust still reigned in ours. It was hot and dusty. The railroads 
in the Shenandoah Valley had been torn up, the bridges had 
been destroyed, communication had been made difficult, and 
Shepherdstown, Va., cornered by the bend of the Potomac, 
lay as if forgotten in the bottom of somebody's pocket. We 
were without news or knowledge except when some chance 
traveler would repeat the last wild and uncertain rumor that 
ha had heard. We had passed an exciting summer. Win- 
chester had changed hands more than once. We had been 
"in the Confederacy" and out of it again and were now wait- 
ing in an exasperating state of ignorance and suspense for 
the next move in the great game. 

It was a saying with us that Shepherdstown was just nine 
miles from everywhere. It was, in fact, about that distance 
from Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry, oft-mentioned names, 
and from Williamsport, Md., where the armies so often 
crossed both to and from Maryland. It was off the direct 
road between those places and lay, as I said, at the foot of a 
great sweep in the river and five miles from the nearest station 
on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. As no trains were run- 
ning now, this was of little consequence. What was more 
important was that a turnpike road, unusually inie for that 
region of stiff red clay, led in almost a straight line for thirty 
miles to Winchester, on the south, and stretched northward, 
beyond the Potomac, twenty miles to Uagcrstow'n, Md. Two 
years later it was the scene of Sheridan's ride. 

Before the days of steam this had been part of the old 
posting road between the Shenandoah Valley towns and Penn- 
sylvania, and we had boasted a very substantial bridge. This 
had been burned early in the war, and only the massive stone 
piers remained; but a mile and a half down the Potomac was 
the ford, and the road that led to it lay partly above and 
partly along the face of rocky and precipitous cliffs. It was 
narrow and stony, and especially in one place, aroimd the point 
of "Mount Misery," was very steep and diflTicult for vehicles. 
It was, moreover, entirely commanded by the hills on the 
Maryland side, but it was the ford over which some part of 
the Confederate army passed every year, and in 1863 it was 
used by the main body of infantry on the way to Gettysburg. 
Heyond the river were the Cumberland Canal and its willow- 
fringed towpath. from which rose the soft and rounded out- 
lines of the hills that from their farther slopes looked down 
upon the battle field of Anticfam, four miles distant. On 
clear days we could see the Union fort at Harper's Ferry 
\\ithout a glass and the flag flying over it, a mere speck 

:iinst the sky, and we could hear the gun that was fired 
r\cry evening at sunset. 

Shepherdstown's only access to the river was through a 
narrow gorge, the bed of a small tributary of the Potomac, 
that was made to do much duty as it slipped cheerily over its 
rocks and furnished power for several mills and factories, 
most of them at that time silent. Here were also three or 
four warehouses, huge structures, testifying mutely that the 
town had once had a business. The road to the bridge led 
through this cleft, down an indescribably steep street, skirting 
the stream's ravine, to whose sides the mills and factories 
clung in most extraordinary fashion ; but it was always a mar- 
\ el how anything heavier than a wheelbarrow could be pulled 
ii|i its tedious length or how any vehicle could be driven down 
without plunging into tlic water at the bottom. 

In this odd little borough, then, we were awaiting "develop- 
ments," hearing first that "our men" were coming and then 
that they were not coming, when suddenly on Saturday, the 
13th of September, early in the morning, we found ourselves 
surrounded by a hungry horde of lean and dusty tatterdemal- 
ions, who seemed to rise from the ground at our feet. I did 
not know where they came from nor to whose command they 
belonged. I have since been informed that at Lee's orders 
General Jackson recrossed into Virginia at Williamsport and 
hastened to the capture of Harper's Ferry by the shortest 
roads. These would take him some four miles south of us. 
and our haggered apparitions were perhaps a part of his force. 
They were stragglers at all events, professional some of them, 
but some worn out by the incessant strain of that summer. 
When I say that they were hungry. I convey no impression 
of the gaunt starvation that looked from their cavernous eyes. 
.\11 day they crowded to the doors of our houses, with always 
the same drawling complaint : "I've been a-marchin' an' 
a-fightin' for six weeks stiddy, and I ain't had n-a-rthin' to 
cat 'cept green apples an' green cawn. an' I wish you'd please 
to giiimie a bite to eat." 

Their looks bore out their statements : and when they told 
us they had "clean give out." we believed them and went to 
get what we had. They could be seen afterwards asleep in 
every fence corner and under every tree, but after a night's 
rest they "pulled themselves together" somehow and disap- 
peared as suddenly as they had come. Possibly they went 
back to their commands, possibly they only moved on to re- 
peat the same tale elsewhere. 

The next morning — it was Sunday. September 14 — we were 
awakened by heavy firing at two points on the mountains. 
We were expecting the bombardment of Harper's Ferry and 
knew that Jackson was before it. Many of our friends were 
with him, and our interest there was so intense that we sat 
watching the bellowing, smoking heights about that town for 
a long time before we became aware that the same phenomena 
were to be noticed in the north, in Maryland. From our win- 
dows both points could be observed, and we could not tell 
which to watch more keenly. We knew almost nothing except 
that there was fighting, that it must be very heavy, and that 
our friends were surely in it somewhere ; but whether at South 
Mountain, where McCIellan was forcing the passes in order 
10 get at the main body of Lee's army, or Harper's Ferry, we 
had no means of discovering. I remember how the day wore 
on, how we stayed at the windows until we could not endure 
the suspense, how we walked about and came back to them, 
and how finally when night fell it seemed cruel and prepos- 
terous to go to bed still ignorant of the result. 

Monday afternoon about two or three o'clock, when we 
were sitting about in disconsolate fashion, distracted by the 
contradictory rumors, our negro cook rushed into the room, 
her face working with excitement. She had been down in 
"de ten-acre lot to pick a few years ob cawn,'' and she had 
seen a long train of wagons coming up from the ford, "and 
dey is full ob wounded men, and de blood runnin' outen dem 
dat deep," measuring on her outstretched arm to the shoulder. 
This horrible picture sent us flying to town, where we found 
the streets already crowded, the people all astir, and the fore- 
most wagons of what seemed an endless line discharging their 
piteous burdens. The scene speedily became ghastly, but, for- 
tunately, we could not stay to look at it. There were no prep- 
arations, no accommodations. The men could not be left in 
the street. What was to be done? 

A Federal soldier once said to me : "I was alw-ays sorry for 
your wounded ; they never seemed to get any care.'' The re- 


^opfederat^ Ueterap. 

mark was extreme, but there was much justice in it. There 
was little mitigation of hardship to our unfortunate armies. 
We were fond of calling them Spartans, and they were but 
too truly called upon to endure a Spartan system of neglect 
and privation. They were generally ill fed and ill cared for. 
It would have been possible at this time, one would think, to 
send a courier back and inform the town and bespeak what 
comforts it could provide for the approaching wounded ; but 
here they were unannounced on the brick pavements, and the 
first thing was to find roofs to cover them. 

Men ran for keys and opened the shops, long empty, and 
the unused rooms. Other people got brooms and stirred up 
the dust of ages. Then swarms of children began to appear 
with bundles of hay and straw, taken from anybody's stable. 
These were hastily disposed in heaps and covered with 
blankets, the soldiers' own or blankets begged or borrowed. 
On these improvised beds the sufferers were placed, and the 
next question was how properly to dress their wounds. No 
surgeons were to be seen. A few men. detailed as nurses, had 
come, but they were incompetent, of course. 

Our women set bravely to work and washed away the blood 
or "stanched it as well as they could where the jolting of the 
long, rough ride had disarranged the hasty binding done upon 
the battle field. But what did they know of wounds beyond 
a cut finger or a boil? Yet they bandaged and bathed with a 
devotion that went far to make up for their inexperience. 
Then there was the hunt for bandages. Every housekeeper 
ransacked her stores and brought forth things new and old. 
I saw one girl, in despair for a strip of cloth, look about help- 
lessly and then rip off the hem of her white petticoat. The 
doctors came up by and by, or I suppose they did, for some 
amputating was done — rough surgery, you may be sure. The 
women helped, holding the instruments and the basins and 
trying to soothe or strengthen. They stood to their work 
nobly; the emergency brought out all their strength to meet it. 
One girl who had been working very hard helping the men 
on the sidewalks and dressing wounds afterwards in a close, 
hot room told me that at one time the sights and smells (these 
last were fearful) so overcame her that she could only stag- 
ger to the staircase, where she hung half conscious over the 
banisters, saying to herself: "O, I hope if I faint some one 
will kick me into a corner and let me lie there I" She did not 
faint, but went back to her work in a few moments and 
through the whole of what followed was one of the most in- 
defati.gable and useful. She was one of the many ; even chil- 
dren did their part. 

It became a grave question how to feed so many unexpected 
guests. The news spread rapidly, and the people from the 
country neighborhoods came pouring in to help, expecting to 
stay with friends who had already given up every spare bed 
and every inch of room where beds could be put up. Virginia 
houses are very elastic, but ours were strained to their utmost. 
Fortunately, some of the farmers' wives had been thoughtful 
enough to bring supplies of linen and some bread and fruit, 
and when our wants became better known other contributions 
flowed in : but when all was done it was not enough. 

We worked far into the night that Monday, went to bed 
late, and rose early next morning. Tuesday brought fresh 
wagonloads of wounded and would have brought despair ex- 
cept that they were accompanied by an apology for a com- 
missariat. Soon more reliable sources of supply were or- 
ganized among our country friends. 

Some doctors also arrived who, with a few honorable ex- 
ceptions, might as well have stayed away. The remembrance 
of that worthless body of officials stirs me to wrath. Two or 

three worked conscientiously and hard, and they did all the 
medical work except what was done by our town physicians. 
In strong contrast was the conduct of the common men de- 
tailed as nurses. They were as gentle as they knew how to 
be and very obliging and untiring. Of course they were un- 
couth and often rough, but with the wounded dying about us 
every day, and with the necessity that we were under for the 
first few days of removing those who died at once that others 
not yet quite dead might take their places, there was no time 
to be fastidious ; it required all our efforts to be simply decent, 
and we sometimes failed in that. 

We fed our men as well as we could from every available 
source and often had some difficulty in feeding ourselves. 
The townspeople were very hospitable, and we were invited 
here and there, but could not always go or hesitated, knowing 
that every house was full. I remember once that, having 
breakfasted upon a single roll and having worked hard among 
sickening details, about four o'clock I turned, wolfishly rave- 
nous, and ran to a friend's house down the street. When I 
got there I was almost too faint to speak, but my friend looked 
at me and disappeared in silence, coming back in a moment 
with a plate of hot soup. What luxury! I sat down then 
and there on the front doorstep and devoured the soup as if 
I had been without food for a week. 

It was known on Tuesday, the i6th, that Harper's Ferry 
had been taken, but it was growing evident that South Moun- 
tain had not been a victory. We had heard from some of our 
friends, but not from all, and what we did hear was often 
most unsatisfactory and tantalizing. For instance, we would 
be told that some one whom we loved had been seen standing 
with his battery, had left his gun an instant to shake hands 
and send a message, and had then stepped back to position, 
while our civilian informant had come away for safety, and 
the smoke of conflict had hidden the battery and all from view. 
As night drew nearer, whispers of a great battle to be fought 
the ne.xt day grew louder, and we shuddered at the prospect, 
for battles had come to mean to us, as they never had before, 
blood, wounds, and death. 

On the 17th of September cloudy skies looked down upon 
the two armies (Jackson having rejoined Lee in the mean- 
time) facing each other on the fields of Maryland, It seems 
to me now that the roar of that day began with the light, and 
all through its long and dragging hours its thunder formed a 
background to our pain and terror. If we had been in doubt 
as to our friends' whereabouts on Sunday, there was no room 
for doubt now. 

There was no sitting at the windows now and counting dis- 
charges of guns or watching the curling smoke. We went 
about our work with pale faces and trembling hands, yet trying 
to appear composed for the sake of our patients, who were 
much excited. We could hear the incessant explosions of 
artillery, the shrieking whistles of the shells, and the sharper, 
deadlier, more thrilling roll of musketry; while every now 
and then the echo of some charging cheer would come, borne 
by the wind, and as the human voice pierced that demoniacal 
clangor we would catch our breath and listen, trying not to 
sob, and turn back to the forlorn hospitals, to the suffering 
at our feet and before our eyes, while imagination fainted at 
the thought of those other scenes hidden from us beyond the 

On our side of the river there were noise, confusion, dust, 
throngs of stragglers, horsemen galloping about, wagons block- 
ing each other and teamsters wrangling, and continued din of 
shouting, swearing, and rumbling, in the midst of which men 
were dying, fresh wounded arriving, surgeons amputating 

yoqfederat^ l/eterap. 


limbs and dressing wounds, women going in and out with 
bandages, lint, medicines, and food. An ever-present sense of 
anguish, dread, pity, and, I fear, hatred — these are my recol- 
lections of Antietam. 

When night came we could still hear the sullen guns and 
hoarse, indefinite murmurs that succeeded the day's turmoil. 
That night was dark and lowering, and the air was heavy and 
dull. Across the river innumerable camp fires were blazing, 
and we could but too well imagine the scenes that they were 

We sat in silence, looking into each other's tired faces. 
There were no impatient words, few tears, only silence and a 
drawing close together as if for comfort. We were almost 
hopeless, yet clung with desperation to the thought that we 
were hoping. But in our hearts we could not believe that 
anything human could have escaped from that appalling fire. 

On Thursday the two armies lay idly facing each other, but 
we could not be idle. The wounded continued to arrive until 
the town W'as quite unable to hold all the disabled and suf- 
fering. They filled every building and overflowed into the 
country around — into farmhouse, barns, corncribs, cabins — 
wherever four walls and a roof were found together. Those 
able to travel were sent on to Winchester and other towns 
back from the river, but tlieir departure seemed to make no 
appreciable difference. There were six churches, and they 
were all full ; the Odd Fellows' Hall, the Freemasons', the 
little Town Council room, the barnlike space known as the 
Drill Room, all the private houses after their capacity, the 
shops and empty buidings, the schoolhouses — every inch of 
space, and yet the cry was for room. 

The unfinished Town Hall had stood in naked ugliness for 
many a long day. Somebody threw a few rough boards across 
the beams, placed piles of straw over them, laid down single 
planks to walk upon, and lo ! it was a hospital at once. The 
stone warehouses down in the ravine and by the river had 
been passed by, because low and damp and undesirable as 
sanitariums, but now their doors and vi-indows were thrown 
wide, and, with barely time allowed to sweep them, they were 
all occupied, even the "old blue factory," an antiquated, crazy. 
dismal building of blue stucco that peeled off in great blotches, 
which had been shut up for years and was in the last stages 
of dilapidation. 

On Thursday night we heard more than usual sounds of 
disturbance and movement, and in the morning we found the 
Confederate army in full retreat. Genera! Lee crossed the 
Potomac under cover of the darkness, and when the day 
broke the greater part of his force, or the more orderly por- 
tion of it, had gone on toward Kearneysville and Lcetown. 
General McClellan followed to the river and, without crossing, 
got a battery in position on Douglas's Hill and began to shell 
the retreating army and in consequence the town. 

What before was confusion grew worse; the retreat became 
a stampede. Tlie battery may not have done a very great 
deal of execution, but it made a fearful noise. It is curious 
how much louder guns soimd when they are pointed at you 
than when turned the other way. And the shell, with its 
long-drawn screeching, though no doubt less terrifying than 
the singing Minie ball, has a way of making one's hair stand 
on ends. Then, too, every one who has had any experience 
in such things knows how infectious fear is, how it grows 
when yielded to, and how when you once begin to run it soon 
seems impossible to run fast enough ; whereas if you can 
manage to your ground, the alarm lessens and sometimes 

Some one suggested that yellow was the hospital color, and 

immediately everybody who could lay hands upon a yellow 
rag hoisted it over the house. The whole town was a hospital. 
There was scarcely a building that could not with truth seek 
protection under the plea, and the fantastic little strips were 
soon flaunting their ineffectual remonstrance from every roof, 
tree, and chimney. 

When this specific failed, the excitement became wild and 
ungovernable. It w-ould have been ludicrous had it not pro- 
duced so much sufTcring. The danger was less than it seemed, 
for McClellan, after all, was not bombarding the town, but 
the army, and most of the shells flew over us and exploded in 
the fields; but aim cannot be always sure, and enough shells 
fell short to convince the terrified citizens that their homes 
were about to be battered down over their ears. 

The better people kept some outward coolness, with per- 
haps a feeling of noblesse oblige; but the poorer classes acted 
as if the town wer already in a blaze and rushed from their 
houses with their families and household goods to make their 
way into the country. The road was thronged, the streets 
blocked; men were vociferating, women crying, children 
screaming; wagons, ambulances, guns, caissons, horsemen, 
footmen, all mingled— nay, even wedged and jammed together 
—in one struggling, shouting mass. The negroes were the 
worst, and with faces of a ghastly ash color and staring eyes 
they swarmed into the fields, carrying their babies, their 
clothes, their pots and kettles, fleeing from the wrath behind 
thein. The comparison to a hornet's nest attacked by boys 
is not a good one. for there was no "fight'' shown ; but a dis- 
turbed ant hill is altogether inadequate. They fled widely and 
camped out of range, nor would they venture back for days. 

Had this been all, we could aflford to laugh now, but there 
was another side to the picture that lent it an intensely pain- 
ful aspect. It was the hurrying crowds of wounded. Ah, 
me, those maimed and bleeding fugitives ! When the firing 
commenced the hospitals began to empty. All who were able 
to pull one foot after another or could bribe or beg comrades 
to carry them left in haste. 

In vain we implored them to stay ; in vain we showed them 
the folly, the suicide of the attctppt ; in vain we argued, 
cajoled, threatened, ridiculed, pointed out that we were re- 
maining and that there was less danger here than on the road. 
There is no sense or reason in a panic. The cannon were 
bellowing upon Douglas's Hill, the shells whistling and shriek- 
ing, the air full of shouts and cries. Wc had to scream to 
make ourselves heard. The men replied that the Yankees 
were crossing; that the town was to be burned; that we could 
not be made prisoners, but they could ; that anyhow they were 
going as far as they could walk or be carried. And go they 
did. Men with cloths about their heads went hatless in the 
sun ; men with cloths about their feet limped shoeless on the 
stony road ; men with arms in slings, without arms, with one 
leg. with bandaged sides and backs; men in ambulances, 
wagons, carts, wheelbarrows ; men carried on stretchers or 
.■supported on the shoulder of some self-denying comrade — all 
who craw-led went, and went to almost certain death. They 
could not go far. They dropped off into the country houses, 
wliere they were received with as much kindness as it was 
possible to ask for ; but their wounds had become inflamed, 
their frames were weakened by fight and overexertion. Ery- 
sipelas, mortification, gangrene set in, and long rows of name- 
less graves still bear witness to the results. 

Our hospitals did not remain empty. It was but a portion 
who could get off in any manner, and their places were soon 
taken by others who had remained nearer the battle field and 
had attempted to follow the retreat, but, having reached 


Qoijfcderat^ l/etcraij. 

Shepherdstown, could go no farther. We had plenty to do, 
but all that day we went about with hearts bursting with rage 
and shame and breaking with pity and grief for the needless 
waste of life. The amateur nurses all stood firm and man- 
aged to be cheerful for the sake of keeping their men quiet, 
but they could not be without fear. 

One who had no thought of leaving her post desired to 
send her sister, a mere child, out of harm's way. She, there- 
fore, told her to go to their home, about half a mile distant, 
and ask their mother for some yellow cloth that was in the 
house, thinking, of course, that the mother would never per- 
mit the girl to come back into the town. But she miscalcu- 
lated. The child accepted the commission as a sacred trust, 
forced her way out over the crowded road, where the danger 
was more real than in the town itself, reached home, and 
made her request. The house had its own flag flying, for it 
was directly in range and full of wounded. Perhaps for this 
reason the mother was less anxious to keep her daughter with 
her ; perhaps in the hurry and excitement she allowed her- 
self to be persuaded that it was really necessary to get that 
strip of yellow flannel into Shepherdstown as soon as possible. 
.\t all events, she made no difficulty, but with streaming tears 
kissed the girl and saw her set out to go alone half a mile 
through a panic-stricken rabble, under the fire of a battery, 
and into a town whose escape from conflagration was at best 
not assured. 

To come out had been comparatively easy, for she was going 
with the stream. The return was a different matter. The 
turbulent tide had now to be stemmed. Yet she managed to 
work her way along, now in the field, slipping between the 
wagon wheels, and once at least crawling under a stretcher. 
No one had noticed her coming out ; she was but one of the 
crowd, and now most were too busy with their own safety to 
pay much heed to anything else. Still, as her face seemed 
alone set toward the town, she attracted some attention. One 
or two spoke to her. Now it was : "Look a-here, little gal, 
don't you know you're a-goin' the wrong way?" One man 
looked at the yellow thing she had slung across her shoulder 
and said with an approving nod : "That's right, that's right ; 
save the wounded if ye kin." She meant to do it and finally 
reached her sister breathless, but triumphant, with as proud 
a sense of duty done as if her futile errand had been the de- 
liverance of a city. 

I have said that there was less danger than appeared, but 
it must not be supposed that there was none. A friend who 
worked chiefly in the old blue factory had asked me to bring 
her a bowl of gruel that some one had promised to make for 
one of her patients. I had just taken it to her, and she was 
walking across the floor with the bowl in her hands when a 
shell crashed through a corner of the wall and passed cut at 
the opposite end of the building, shaking the rookery to its 
foundations, filling the room with dust and plaster, and throw- 
ing her upon her knees to the floor. The wounded screamed ; 
and had they not been entirely unable to move, not a man 
would have been left in the building. But it was found that 
no one was hurt, and things proceeded as before. I asked her 
afterwards if she was frightened. She said, "Yes, when it was 
over," but her chief thought at the time was to save the gruel, 
for the man needed it, and it had been very hard to find any 
one composed enough to make it. I am glad to be able to say 
that he got his gruel in spite of bombs. That factory was 
struck twice. A schoolhouse full of wounded and one or two 
other buildings were hit, but I believe no other serious damage 
was done. 

On Saturday morning there was a fight at tlie ford. The 

negroes were still encamped in the fields, though some, find- 
ing that the town was yet standing, ventured back on various 
errands during the day. What we feared w'ere the stragglers 
and hangers-on and nondescripts that circle round any army 
like the great buzzards we shuddered to see wheeling silently 
over us. The people still were excited, anticipating the Fed- 
eral crossing and dreading a repetition of the encounter in 
the streets. Some parties of Confederate cavalry rode through, 
and it is possible that a party of infantry remained drawn up 
in readiness on one of the hills during the morning, but I re- 
member no large force of troops at any time on that day. 

About noon or a little after we were told that General Mc- 
Clellan's advance had been checked and that it was not be- 
lieved he would attempt to cross the river at once, a surmise 
that proved to be correct. The country grew more composed. 
General Lee lay near Leetown, some seven miles south of us, 
and General McClellan rested quietly in Maryland. On Sun- 
day we were able to have some short Church services for our 
wounded, cut still shorter, I regret to say, by reports that the 
Yankees were crossing. 

Such reports continued to harass us, especially as we feared 
the capture of our friends, who would often ride down to see 
us during the day, but who seldom ventured to spend a night 
so near the river. We presently passed into debatable land, 
when we were in the Confederacy in the morning, in the 
Union after dinner, and on neutral ground at night. 

We lived through a disturbed and eventful autumn, subject 
to continual "alarms and excursions" ; but when this Saturday 
came to an end the most trying and tempestuous week of the 
war for Shepherdstown was over. 


[In a letter to a friend N. C. Fontaine, of Marrowbone, 
Henry County, Va., gives an account of a big capture. Any 
others of either side having knowledge of this incident are 
asked to write something of it. The letter was dated Decem- 
ber i8, 1888, and addressed to J. W. Power, Riceville, Va.] 

Dear John: Doubtless you have given out of ever hearing 
from me again in regard to my capturing those Yanks in the 
battle of the 19th near Strasburg, Va. ; but it has seemed that 
?o many strange events have happened one upon the other so 
fast I fear. I will not be able to remember every little incident 
that occurred. However, I will try to give you the main facts. 

On the night of the 19th of October, 1864, we were opposite 
Strasburg in camp on the south side of the Shenandoah close 
to the river. Our orderly sergeant, Dick Whitehead, came 
around for a special detail of three men to cross the river 
immediately in front of the enemy's fortifications above the 
ford from Front Royal to picket or act as sentinels. He 
selected William L. Lillie, Pat Boothe, and me. So early in 
the night the Sergeant crossed the river with us where there 
was no ford at all and placed each one of us on post and 
ordered us not to allow either friend or foe to go in or out 
of the lines ; that our cavalry would attack the enemy's picket 
post just before day, and our entire force, infantry and all, 
would charge the enemy's camp as they could get to it; and 
that when the firing became general we must fall in and join 
cur regiment and charge with them. 

The night was quite cold, for it was getting the time of year 
in that part of the country to be a little chilly in October, 
and I certainly thought it would be the longest night I ever 
spent. There we sat close to the enemy's works, could see the 
lights of their fires, also the sentinels walking their "beats." 
the guards relieving the different posts, and could hear them 

Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


laugh and talk. They kept up a light until a late hour of the 
night, then everything was quiet, as still as death, except once 
in a while they would come relieving and placing guards. 
Soon I began to feel tired and sleepy, worn out for rest, 
sleep, and warmth. It was then really cold, it being nearly 
day, the coldest part of the night. I was just thinking it was 
time we were having other orders or time the firing had 
begun, one or the other, when I heard several guns fire in 
quick succession. 

I heard Lillie's horse running down the river. I was up 
the river above him on the extreme left. I also started and 
went down the river apiece, then turned obliquely across the 
hill in front of me, where the enemy's fortifications were, 
aiming to go far enough to the right to flank the enemy's 
works, which comm.nndcd the ford that our troops were cross- 
ing at that time, and to keep far enough under the hill to keep 
from attracting the enemy's fire. So I made a mistake. I did 
not make my calculations exactly right and found myself within 
a few feet of the enemy's works, on their flank, and in their 
rear ; so I stopped awhile to look about me. I could see 
nothing but a large white horse grazing quietly away, as if 
there were no firing going on just below him. I then rode up 
to the horse to get a look at him — -it was still dark — when I 
discovered a tall man advancing toward me. I presented my 
.q-un to him and ordered him to halt and surrender. He did 
neither, but kept sidling off toward the woods, and I advanced 
on him and ordered him to halt and surrender. He had now 
got to the edge of the woods and stepped behind a tree, but 
kept his head to one side of the tree all the time, I suppose 
to watch me, and remarked that he "belonged to the 8th." 
"Eighth what?" says I. He replied: "Eighth Virginia." 
"Well," said I, "come out and let's talk about it." He acted 
suspiciously all the time. Just then I heard something behind 
me and to my left. It was two Yankees grinning with two 
bayonets almost touching my side. So instead of capturing 
the man I was after I was captured. 

Our troops just then seemed to be making a fearful charge 
almost in our rear when heavy firing and yelling began. I 
was hurried off rapidly to a little ivy cliff facing the river, or 
gorge, on the main hill, very much like a big gulley. I was then 
ordered to dismount and hand over my arms, which I did at 
once. Now, in the gorge there was a battalion of Yanks all 
huddled up. more like a gang of quail than anything else, hold- 
ing their muskets. As well as I can remember, they told me 
it was the 12th New York Kattalion of Artillery, but the ar- 
tillery was gone — I saw nothing of it — and they were armed 
with muskets. The battalion numbered three hundred, so 
one of the captains told me afterwards. 

One of the captains began to question mc. First he said : 
"Who is in command of your men?" I replied: "General 
Early." He said: "You arc a damned liar; you know very 
well that Early was reenforced last night by General 

I saw he wanted to believe what he had said and thought it 
might do me some good, and I rather tried to encourage him 
in the belief. I said that I was on the outpost all night and 
had a poor chance to find out who had reenforced us. but 
doubtless some one had. Of course I did not believe any one 
had. .^n Irishman said: "Early was early enough for us this 
morning, anyway." I then asked for a chew of tobacco. They 
gave me three narrow plugs of black sweet navy tobacco. The 
captains asked me many questions in regard to our army that 
I can't remember now. Very suddenly heavy firing began to 
our right and rear, and bullets began to cut twigs about us. 
They all squatted as if they were very uneasy, and no doubt 

they were, like all soldiers when the enemy gets in the rear. 
So I chose this opportunity to make them a little more un- 
easy. I remarked to the captain nearest to me, and who had 
questioned me so closely, that I believed we would "all be 
butchered here in a pile." "Why?" he said. "Well," said I. 
"you know our soldiers never throw out videttes in a fight 
of this kind. They go pell-mell and sweep everything before 
them when they charge a piece of woods, and they seem to be 
coming this way from the way the bullets are cutting around 
us, and they will be sure to fire upon us as soon as they see 
us." A private remarked that it was "a fact that the Rebs 
hardly ever threw out videttes anyway." Just at this time 
several guns fired close to us, bullets whizzed through the 
ivy above us, and beyond a doubt they were very much ex- 
cited and uneasy. So one of the captains asked me if I 
thought I could carry them out without being fired on. I 
said I thought I could. "Then do so." said he. I replied that 
I would "run over the hill and see the colonel or some of the 
regiment and make arrangements as quickly as possible." I 
told him our regiment was at the ford, where our forces 
crossed early in the morning, and we were held as a reserve. 
Some objected to the plan and said they believed they could 
go down the river and get away, especially the color bearer. 
He was the tall men whom I tried to capture that morning 
and I believe the most determined man in the command. The 
captain then asked :ne if I wanted any one to go with me. 
I told him I did not. The tall man. or color bearer, said he 
would go along and look around to see what he could see. 
I made no particular objection, but I did not want him, for I 
knew there was nothing at the ford except Company 2, which 
might be in great disorder, and might encourage the color 
bearer to get his men to charge down on them and make their 
escape, which they could easily have done had he known of 
the situation ; but. fortunately, when we got up on the hill we 
met Mr. Boguc Pritchett. of the 5th Virginia Cavalry, and 
the squad at the ford made a very good show. There was a 
lot of prisoners with them. The same white horse that I 
had seen that morning before light had attracted Mr. Pritchett. 
and he was trying to catch him when I spoke to him. Mr. 
Pritchett did not know me at that time, but I knew him. The 
first thing I said to him was: "Is not your name Pritchett?" 
"Yes." he replied. "Is this your horse?" "No," said I. "It 
is yours if you want him." He looked a little surprised, and 
I believe he took me for a Yankee, as I had a "Fed" standing 
by me, and I had on a blue overcoat. He then asked me who 
I was. I told him my name was Fontaine, of Company G, 
6th Virginia Cavalry. I then asked him please to go down to 
the ford and tell the colonel not to allow his men to fire on 
us. that there were a lot of Federals over the hill, and they 
had agreed to surrender if I would take them down to the 

Mr. Pritchett took in the situation at once and acted prompt- 
ly and wisely. Of course there was no colonel, but he sent 
a soldier (a private) back by the name of Richards and said 
to come ahead, that everything was all right. So we ordered 
the Federals to form a line and stack arms, which they did 
nicely and promptly. A few minutes before they stacked arms 
the captain who had questioned mc so closely ordered a pri- 
vate to bring back nvy little mare (Grace) and deliver her. 
with my arms, back to me. We then marched off down the 

Mr. Richards and I, in charge, delivered them to a Major 
.Miller, who was a quartermaster of Cox's North Carolina 
Brigade. When they got near enough to see only a few scat- 
tering cavalry, and most of them Company 2 and three or four 


(^otffederat^ l/eterap. 

ambulances, they began to laugh and joke. I heard several 
say, "Weren't we badly sold?" and "We could have taken in 
you fellows so easily had we known this." Then one of the 
captains, a handsome, gentlemanly fellow, came up to me and 
slapped me on the leg and said : "You took us in com- 
pletely, and here is my belt. I want you to have it." It was 
a beautiful belt, but the saber was gone, and I did not ask 
him what became of it. When I went into camp my friend 
Robb Farley, a messmate, said he was bound to have the belt 
and insisted so much that I gave it up to him, and he has it 
yet, I suppose. 

Major Miller asked me if I did not want a receipt for the 
prisoners, and I told him I did not. He remarked that my 
company and regiment should have credit for it. 

There were perhaps forty or fifty prisoners that would not 
surrender at the time the others did. When the captain pro- 
posed to surrender to me they said they would take chances 
and at once darted down the hill toward the river above the 

Just before starting to the ford the captain who gave me his 
belt told me his name and also gave me a note to Captain 
Welch, of my regiment. He said he dreaded Libby Prison' 
and that, as he took Captain Welch from Point Lookout 
Prison in a skiff at night and released him, he hoped Captain 
Welch would remember him while in prison. I think he sail' 
he was a cousin to Welch. 

So I left them in Major Miller's charge and started oirt 
for my regiment. I went as far as Middletown, or the first 
town north of Strasburg. There I found General Early and 
staff. The General was spying the enemy with a field glass, 
and they were advancing with a large force. It was the 6th 
United States Corps, so I was told. Our men were scattered 
all over the battle field plundering, some with piles of new 
United States blankets and everything else they could get. 
The field to our left and also our rear was thickly covered 
with the dead and wounded. The officers were doing their 
utmost to form our men into line, but never succeeded in 
getting a great many. So the enemy advanced, yelling terribly 
as they came, forcing our army back until we reached Stras- 
burg. And the glorious victory so brilliantly won that morn- 
ing was lost by dark the same day. 

You know the result. You were there yourself, as well as I. 



When this unhappy strife was inaugurated, I was a resident 
of Boonville, Mo., and may claim some knowledge of what 
was transpiring around me and the causes leading thereto. 
I was by no means a secessionist per se, although I deplored 
the election of Lincoln and the hasty action of South Carolina. 
An election for members of a convention was ordered, and I 
think each senatorial district was entitled to three members. 
I have seen the statement made recently that Missouri 
went Union by eighty thousand majority. Such statements 
as that must be taken with a tremendous grain of salt. The 
leading LTnion candidate in the district where I was a voter 
was perhaps the leading lawyer at the Boonville bar, a Vir- 
ginian from the Panhandle region, who professed to follow in 
the footsteps of Virginia, and under that pledge received my 
support. No doubt thousands all over the State were deceived 
by just such pledges. Gen. Sterling Price, who was chosen 
president of the convention, was elected as a Union delegate. 
.\ most stupendous blunder was enacted when they decided 
to hold their sessions in St. Louis under Federal bayonets. 

While the convention was discussing the relation of Mis- 
souri to the Federal government the legislature was passing 
the military bill. The State was divide into nine military 
districts, with a brigadier for each, and General Price 
was appointed major general in command. Several of 
these generals had served in the Mexican War. Gen. D. M. 
Frost, who was a West Pointer, was given command of the 
eighth division (brigade) and chose his camp in or near St. 
Louis almost under the guns of Jefferson Barracks. This 
was a step as disastrous in the results as the location of the 

The bombardment of Fort Sumter and the call for troops 
by Lincoln precipitated the issue. Governor Jackson pro- 
nounced the proclamation "revolutionary and diabolical." The 
war spirit seemed now to be aroused all over the State. Ap- 
parently Boonville was not behind in zeal for the South; but 
on assembling to form a company a prominent lawyer, who 
since the war has been elected Governor of the State, offered 
a resolution that the married men should form a Home Guard 
and the single men the State guard. This had the effect of 
leaving those who would go to war in a large minority. In- 
deed, the company formed consisted of more officers than en- 
listed men. However, we went industriously to drilling, and 
soon a quantity of powder, which had been stored at Jefferson 
City, was transported to the arsenal at Boonville and guarded 
by the State guard company there. On the loth of May Capt. 
Nat Lyon surrounded Camp Jackson, and General Frost's 
command, being practically without arms, surrendered. The 
Germans, who formed a large part of Lyon's force, fired upon 
the crowds which lined the streets and killed many women 
and children. This aroused the war spirit to a still higher 
pitch, but the Boonville company when ordered to Jefferson 
City made but a beggarly show. General Harney had been 
in command of the Federal forces stationed at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, but had been superseded by Captain Lyon, and the 
latter received the very rapid promotion from captain to 
brigadier for the capture of Camp Jackson. The State guard 
remained in Jefferson City a very short time, and General 
Price was in command, but did not like the flaunting of seces- 
sion flags. Some sort of a truce was patched up, the exact 
terms of which I have forgotten ; but the State guard evac- 
uated Jefferson City, and the Federal forces abstained from 
further activity. General Price and Governor Jackson went 
to St. Louis under a safe conduct, but nothing was accom- 
plished, and Lyon declared he proposed to "'reduce Missouri 
to the precise condition of Maryland." 

The State guard was then ordered to rendezvous at Boon- 
ville, and troops from the surrounding counties were hurried 
to Boonville ; but Lyon, who had already occupied Jefferson 
City, proved himself a man of energy, as he advanced on 
Boonville with fifteen hundred men and four pieces of can- 
non. General Price, sick and unfit for duty, had taken a 
steamer for Lexington. There were scarcely three hundred 
and fifty Southern men to oppose this Federal force. Two 
companies at least were mounted men, and there was no or- 
ganization. Col. John S. Marmaduke, who was the ranking 
officer, proposed to retreat ; but Capt. Bill Brown, who com- 
manded a company of mounted men from Saline County, said 
he came there to fight, and he was going to fight. Marmaduke 
suffered himself to be overruled. The result is easily antici- 
pated. The company of scouts to which I was attached cer- 
tainly obtained no glory. The man who acted as commander, 
said to have been an old Indian fighter, rode off somewhere, 
presumably to reconnoiter, took a shot at the enemy, and was 
seen no more by us until the next day. General Parsons, who 

Qopfederat^ Ueteraij. 


was the brigadier for this territory, was hastening up four 
pieces captured from the Liberty arsenal, but arrived in the 
vicinity of the battle field about two hours after the defeat. 
Tliis battle occurred on the 17th of June. 

A few of us passed the night at houses of friends and 
found ourselves the next evening, sometime before sundown, 
at Syracuse, a station on the Missouri and Pacific Railroad. 
Mere we met General Parsons and his staff and Governor 
Jackson and many of the State officers. Colonel Marmaduke. 
despairing of success with the Missourians, was seeking a 
Southern clime. We remained at Syracuse tlirough the iptli 
of June and commenced on the 20th a retreat toward Warsaw. 

We had been aroused from sleep more than once during 
the night, and what was called Cole's company started on 
this jaunt without the semblance of rations. In the early after- 
noon a man named Harness overtook us, riding without sad- 
dle, and stated that a cavalry command had ridden into Syra- 
cuse and was now in hot pursuit. We formed a sort of line 
of battle, and I heard Capt. Gus Elgin, of Howard County, 
say: "Governor, if they approach within fighting distance, we 
will place the wagons across the road and fight behind them." 
We learned better than that later. No enemy materialized. 
When we arrived at Cold Camp we learned that a force of 
Germans, estimated at seven hundred men, armed and drilled 
by one Cook, had intended to intercept Jackson's retreat, but 
were forestalled by the prompt action of Colonel O'Kane and 
lulitor Lcitcli, who attacked them in two large barns, killing 
several and capturing a great many and scattering the whole 

Our retreating column halted about nightfall, presumably 
to rest and feed the teams, and we were offered what raw 
meat we chose to cut od. I was pretty hungry, but I did not 
succeed in masticating a great deal. My steed, which was 
\ cry frisky when we first started out and came very near 
rnding my military career at its very inception by running 
.iway with me when only half mounted, had to be urged for- 
ward by spurring and hitting him over the head with the gun 
barrel. We arrived at Warsaw, on the Osage, a little before 
iliy, and I lay down in the bushes to snatch a little rest in 
^pite of the seed ticks. 

We had retreated a matter of fifty miles, with artillery and 
baggage wagons, in a single day. That was doing pretty well 
lor raw troops. After a short nap I proceeded to town and 
purchased a light coat, as I had gone into liattle in a blue 
oM'rshirt. Cole's company was designated as the support of 
the linttcry, and we were ferried over with it. Some of us, 
including Robert McCulloch, who afterwards became a briga- 
dier, struck off for Osceola. By some means I went to a 
ilifferent tavern from the others. I had eaten nothing but a 
sHce of raw meat for two days and had .ilcpt very little. 
After a comfortable supper I retired early. The next morn- 
ing, upon appearing below stairs, I was greeted by the landlord 
with: "You .gave us a good scare last night." "How did I 
scare you?" I asked. It seems that after I had retired the 
landlord, being a lad of an inquiring mind, unrolled my 
blanket and found my blue shirt and, mistaking it for a Yan- 
kee uniform, declared that I was a Lincoln spy and proposed 
to do unspeakable things to me ; but wiser counsels prevailed, 
and I was not molested. William D. Muir, circuit attorney, 
had furnished me a horse. His brother, Poythress, had lost 
his in the battle and borrowed another from a neighbor. We 
made an ex< hange ; and as my affairs were in a very unset- 
tled conditi<in, I returned to Cooper County and restored the 
horse to his owner. 

Having settled my affairs more to my satisfaction, and the 

battle of Springfield having fri.ghtened all the home guards 
to take refuge in St. Louis and Jefferson City, all the com- 
panies which had not joined Price prepared to do so. I held 
a lieutenancy in the Boonville company, but it had "played 
out." The captain of an infantry company which was per- 
mitted to go mounted offered me a mount if I would go out 
with him. I complied. We started from Cooper on the 26th 
of August, 1861, and arrived in the vicinity of Fort Scott 
about September i. We had been in camp just long enough 
to cook and eat our dinners when we were ordered to mount 
and hasten toward Drywood Creek to assist in repelling Jim 
Lane and his jayhawkers. The battle was ended before we 
arrived on the ground. I think we lost no men. I saw 
two dead jayhawkers the next day. We doubled on our track 
and found our wagons by inquiring along the line, as the 
wagon train followed in the wake of the fighters. We had 
barely time to unsaddle, turn our horses loose on the prairie, 
and pitch our tents before a terrific storm was upon us. A 
thunderstorm on a prairie is an awful sight. Some of our 
men mistook heaven's artillery for that of the enemy. Our 
hor.'^es stayed by us, and we were soon mounted and en route 
to find Jim Lane, but he was non est. 

One incident of the battle I heard related. The spyglass 
was knocked from the hand of General Price as he was recon- 
noitering the enemy. His son, Col. Ed Price, rode up, ex- 
claiming: "Are you hurt, pa? General' on the battle held. 

sir," replied "Old Pap." 

Wc retraced our steps and went into camp, and I certainly 
did enjoy my dinner, having fasted since midday the day 
before. Soon a inan came along and said : "Fort Scott is 
evacuated." Good news, though awkwardly expressed. 

In the evening of the next day we were ordered to saddle 
and mount, and our destination was Warrensburg, as we 
learned upon getting on the road. We expected to capture 
z regiment of lllir.ois cavalry, but they had retreated toward 
Lexington before our arrival. We spent the night at War- 
rensburg, which was a rainy one, and resumed our pursuit 
about ten o'clock the following day. 

Ladies ran out from the farmhouses along our route wav- 
ing their handkerchiefs and cheering us. One volunteered 
the information that "Washington was taken." We rode 
mostly at a canter, singing: 

"It was on the tenth of May; 
Kelly's men were all away ; 
The Yankees surrounded Camp Jackson." 

Forty-Fourth Mississippi at Murfreesboro. — Some time 
ago a correspondent of the Veter,\n sent a newspaper article 
in which appeared the statement that the 44th Mississippi 
Regiment made a charge in the battle of Murfreesboro with 
not a man having any other weapon than his bare fists, but 
that when they emerged from the fight there was scarcely one 
of the survivors who could not show a Springfield rifle cap- 
tured from the enemy. Reference is made to that now in the 
interest of getting the truth of it. It seems incredible that a 
whole command should go into battle unarmed, though not 
surprising that they should come out with better arms than 
they went in. The Confederates knew how to do that. Sur- 
vivors of the 44th Mississippi are asked to tell about this hap- 
pening. The comrade who sent the newspaper clipping had 
talked with Union soldiers who were in that battle, and they 
said the Confederates charged them mounted on artillery 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 

MAY 6, 1S64. 


I will continue my narrative of the battle of the Wilderness 
by telling of the part we had in the next day's activities — a 
day in which the fortunes of our country bung in the bal- 
ance quite a while; and had it not been for the withholding of 
permission for General Gordon to throw the weight of bis 
own brigade, supported by every man that could be spared on 
the left of our line, on Grant's exposed right until it was too 
late in the day to have a decisive result, Grant's defeat would 
have been more complete than that of Hooker near that 
place a year before. Their right wing completely crushed and 
routed, followed closely by the yelling Confederates, would 
have produced consternation in the men holding the center. 
These in turn would have given way when they saw them- 
selves attacked on two sides at a time when their left was 
giving ground before Longstreet and A. P. Hill. From what 
I saw on this occasion and afterwards, Gordon possessed more 
military sagacity than all his superiors except General Lee 
himself, though all of them were slow to see it and to allow 
him a chance to demonstrate his ability. Grant, of whom so 
much was expected, defeated and his great army destroyed at 
that time, would have been more than public sentiment at the 
North could have borne, and some kind of a peace quite dif- 
ferent from that which we got at Appomattox would have 
been arranged. 

Our brigade (Gordon's) spent the night after this great 
fight in noisy rejoicing over its splendid achievements, pass- 
ing the word in loud shouting to the next brigade to the 
right that they had whipped everything. This was communi- 
cated to tlie next until the news went from brigade to brigade 
to Lee's extreme right. The word came back to us, by the 
same means from every part of the line, of the same import. 
So great and continuous was the noisy demonstration that the 
enemy decided we were receiving reenforcements from the 
coast ; but this was only bluff on our part to afTect the morale 
of our foe. When day dawned each side had constructed 
breastworks out of logs and everything lying about on the 
ground. Ours consisted of logs and dirt dug up with bayo- 
nets and cast up with tin plates and our naked hands. Those 
of the enemy contained also the dead bodies of their own men, 
besides army blankets, knapsacks, and anything they could 
find in the darkness of the night. These two lines ran parallel 
to each other for miles through this wilderness and about one 
hundred or one hundred and fifty yards apart. As to the 
dead being used in the construction of the enemy's defenses, 
I do not pretend to say this from what I heard, but I make 
this assertion from what I actually saw on the third morning 
of the fighting after we had routed them from their works. 

Not a match was struck and not an ax was used on either 
side in building the works, on account of the proximity of the 
two armies. Those in command of Grant's extreme right made 
a fatal mistake in leaving that wing exposed and entirely un- 
protected. Their line extended to an open field on the west. 
This field was crossed from north to south by a deep ravine 
not more than a hundred yards from the end of their works, 
giving the Confederates a convenient place to form a brigade 
of troops at right angles to their line and out of their sight. 
The Confederate line ended opposite that of the Federals, but 
was concealed by thick woods, which gave them protection 
in reconnoitering the position of the enemy. 

This was the situation on the morning of the second day 
of the fighting; and our brigade, under our noble Gordon, ex- 

cept the battalion of sharpshooters under Captain Keller, was 
kept in reserve and shifted from point to point whenever it 
was thought they might be needed to restore the line if it 
should be broken. This battalion was strung out in a very 
thin line, thirty or forty feet apart, wherever each man could 
find protection for himself in front of the other brigades 
composing the division (Early's). Opposite them the enemy 
had a heavy line of skirmishers, five men on each post. This 
battalion of Confederates was composed of select men from 
every company in Gordon's Brigade, the best marksmen and 
the most fearless, well trained for this special duty. They 
were armed with short Enfield rifles, and when strung out 
thirty or forty feet apart they could hold any advancing line 
in check. From what I saw in going over the ground the 
next morning, very few shots fired by them were ineffectual. 
In front of them at every post occupied by their opponents, 
as far as I went, were lying from one to five dead men. 
Prisoners told us that they were compelled to reenforce their 
skirmishers several times during the day with new men to 
take the places of those killed and wounded. 

It was very fortunate for General Grant and his army that 
General Gordon was held in check by his superiors and not ' 
allowed to make his great flank movement earlier in the day, 
when Longstreet and A. P. Hill were striking sledge-hammer 
blows on his left and driving him back in confusion. At the 
eleventh hour permission was given to make the movement, 
just as the sun was going down, and it was a complete su-- 
prise to the enemy. His right wing was routed and driven 
back on his center, and the darkness of night alone put a 
stop to the progress of the victorious Confederates when they 
were only a short distance from Grant's headquarters. 

Just before sundown we were shifted to the extreme left in the 
rear of the works held by the Virginia brigade of our (Early's) 
division to await orders. While here I noticed General Gor- 
don taking with him General >Early on foot to observe the 
enemy's position. They soon returned, and Gordon took with 
him General Ewell, who commanded the corps, over the same 
ground. Then Gordon appeared again with General Lee. He 
showed him also the great advantage he had over Grant's men 
and explained to him what he had been begging to do all day. 
They were not gone long until they came up out of the thick 
woods to where an orderly was holding old Traveler. General 
Lee rode ofif and disappeared from our sight. He had at last 
seen his great opportunity, and now orders came to strike. 
We were told to move to the left with our heads low and not 
to make the least noise. When we reached the ravine we 
moved up into the field and formed the entire brigade, with 
the sharpshooters deployed a few feet in front. All orders 
were given in a whisper. The sharpshooters were to advance 
up the steep hill at the word at double-quick; we were to 
advance at quick time and not to fire until we had passed over 
these brave fellows, who were to fail flat after the first vol- 
ley. This last order was not well carried out, as everybody 
in the main line knew we had the enemy entirely in our power 
and were eager to begin the fray. 

The order to advance was now given, and the skirmishers 
ran up the hill and were on the enemy, then cooking their 
evening meal on thousands of small fires, secure, as they 
thought, behind their breastworks. Poor fellows ! None of 
them suspected the bolt that was about to strike them. Sud- 
denly, and only a few yards away, the long line of gray-clad 
soldiers appeared and opened on them seated in groups about 
the fires with their guns stacked back of their works. Never 
was lightning from the clouds more unexpected, and con- 
fusion reigned supreme. About this time the main line came 

QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


on the scene, and so anxious were they to open tire that they 
disregarded the orders and poured a deadly volley into the 
confused enemy, endangering very much the lives of our 
sharpshooters, who fell on their faces, shouting back to us not 
to shoot until w^e had passed over them. No attention was 
paid to this, and we were at their works. The regiment to 
which I belonged was on the extreme right of the brigade, 
and my company formed the right of the regiment. It so 
happened that the most of the company was on the right of 
the enemy's works. The enemy, rolled up in a confused mass 
behind their defenses, supposed we were the only troops mak- 
ing the attack and, seeing us in the dim light of their fires, 
opened on us with a heavy fire. All the company leaped over 
to the left side, and I found myself the only survivor re- 
maining on that side. Thinking perhaps the fire on the left 
side, where my comrades had gone, was less severe and af- 
forded some hope of life, I jumped over among the men 
fighting there. No sooner had I done so than two or three 
of my comrades fell dead by my side, and the fire from the 
great mob, only a few feet in our front, was too hot for us. 
It was like the old saying about jumping out of the frying 
pan into the fire. So I again crossed the works, while my 
comrades moved to the left, but at the same time advancing on 
the enemy, who continued shooting in tlic direction of tlicir 
abandoned works. The other regiments to the left were now 
sweeping on through the forest almost unopposed, shooting 
at the fleeing enemy whenever seen, like sportsmen driving 
game through the woods, with little or no loss to themselves. 

When I landed on that side (I cannot say now with what 
dignity that maneuver was made), I found an oak tree stand- 
ing there to shelter nie from the rain of Minie balls passing 
through the air. Behind this 1 look my stand and opened fire 
on my opponents, a short distance away, but out of sight on 
account of the thick undergrowth. I had been here but a 
short time when Col. Clement A. Evans came running up to 
me in great excitement and told me that I was firing into our 
own men and for me to move forward. I could not do this, 
alone as I was, without being killed or captured ; but I veered 
to the right as I went forward and was soon out of range of 
the enemy's fire, which was directed down the breastworks. 
Thoy were wasting a great deal of ammunition at this time, 
while tlic whole force of Confederates was sweeping onward 
in their rear. 

I now made my way through the forest, illuminated only by 
the flashing of guns and the explosion of Confederate shells, 
looking for comrades with whom I could unite to assist in the 
fighting. Finally I saw a small gray-clad soldier standing 
behind a tree, from which he was shooting toward the enemy's 
works. I asked him what command he belonged to, and he 
said : "Hays's Louisiana Brigade." Ah ! then, I felt that I had 
found a friend I could rely on. I told him not to shoot over 
there any more, as he might injure our own men. He replied 
indignantly : "They are Yankees." This was true, but I was 
not sure of it. I told him I was going to see, and he said he 
woidd go too. So we started and were soon standing on the 
breastworks. Out in tlie woods we could see a great number 
of tricn in much confusion. Not knowing exactly who tlicy 
were, we went in among them and found from their uniforms 
and their foreign accent that they were Yankees. The fire 
from the Confederates was cutting them down around us, 
and the brigade looked like an army of fireflies in the forest 
as they advanced in a long line through the woods. My com- 
rade stuck close to my side, and I whispered: "They are 
Yankees. Let us run out." We elbowed our way to their 
front and bolted. For the first hundred yards of our retreat 

out of this situation I suppose we struck the ground a few 
times, but we gradually slackened our pace until we came to 
a long line of Confederates brought up to assist our brigade 
if needed. They were sitting and lying about on the ground 
and kindly allowed us to pass on when we told them that we 
had just made our escape from the enemy. Following the 
line of works, we soon saw ahead of us a mmiber of small 
fires kindled out in the field where we first made the attack, 
around wdiich were Confederate soldiers and Yankee prisoners. 
As soon as I reached the opening I met a comrade who in- 
formed me that our company (I, 31st Georgia) had captured 
two generals — General Seymour, of New York, and General 
Shaler— and their fine horses. Pointing to a small fire, he 
said : "There they are." And my curiosity led me to draw- 
near and see them and hear what they had to say. General 
Seymour was talking to his captors as familiarly as if he had 
been one of them. He told them it was only a matter of time 
when we all would be compelled to come back into the Union. 
He was a tall, handsoine young officer with a very pleasing 
address. General Shaler was short and thick-set and seemed 
too mad to say a word, gazing sullenly at the little fire before 
him, while his fellow prisoner chatted with our men, all of 
whom took a great liking to him. These two generals in the 
confusion as our men were sweeping through the woods rode 
into our company, supposing they were their own men. They 
were made to surrender and dismount. In doing so General 
Seymour patted his fine dappled iron-gray on the hip and 
said: "Take good care of him, boys; he is a fine animal." 
Just at this lime Lieutenant Compton, who was leading the 
company, was shot in tile ankle. His men put him on Sey- 
mour's horse and went to the rear with their prisoners. 

I had heard General Seymour make only a few remarks 
when Col. Clement A. Evans rode up and told me to take all 
of our brigade back into the woods to the firing line. I was 
puzzled to know how I sliould do this, since I had been sep- 
arated from them and did not know where they were. But 
my comrade volunteered to show me the way, and I soon had 
them all in line, some two hundred of them, and on our way. 
Just before we reached our destination the Yankees opened 
with a great volley on our men ahead of us. I ordered all 
to fall on their faces, which they were very prompt to do, 
and as soon as the shooting had somewhat subsided I told 
every man to break for his place in the line. 

When day dawned I was sent to the rear on some errand 
and had an opportunity to see the captured works of the 
enemy and their dead and wounded, who had not as yet been 
picked up and sent to the field hospital. I also was sur- 
prised to see the great number of little fires and suppers that 
were in course of preparation, some of which had been 
knocked over in the scuffle of the night before. I returned 
by way of the line held by our skirmishers the day before .ind 
observed the deadly effect of their fire, plainly demonstrated 
by one to five blue-coated corpses lying at each post held by 
the enemy. 

Our foe retired from our front some distance during the 
night and fortified their position, and our sharpshooters, ever 
ready to renew the fight, were pushed forward to develop 
their new position. All that day they kept up the fight, ban- 
tering them to come out and try it again with us, telling tl'tni 
how w-e had beaten them the previous two days: but they 
kept close in and replied only feebly. Grant had decided not 
"to fight it out on that line if it took all summer," but was 
endeavoring to extend his left wing to occupy a position at 
Spotsylvania C. H. between Lee's army and Richmond. All 
that day the brigade lay quietly in the woods, resting and 


^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 

waiting for orders, which came at midnight for us 't move to 
the right; and at dawn the next day, the 8th, after a hard 
night's march, we found ourselves at Spotsylvania, where 
other troops had already arrived and were engaged in build- 
ing earthworks. 




It may seem strange that a man of the present day should 
be writing memories of a war that closed a hundred and 
thirty-six years ago. But when one has lived more than four- 
score years in this world and for threescore years has been 
an active Presbyterian preacher, mingling with all classes 
and conditions of people, he becomes a kind of cyclopedia 
of memories and traditions. And my younger associates ask 
me so many questions as to the customs and precedents of 
days long gone by that I sometimes almost fear they will 
demand personal reminiscences of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 
and find my memory failing. 

Of course these recollections I now write come to me from 
my grandparents as their personal experiences in that far- 
oflf time, and they told them to me, a boy, as we gathered 
about the evening winter fire. My great-grandfather on my 
mother's side was a captain in the patriot army. The family 
lived in Guilford County, N. C, and were members of the 
old Alamance Church, and several of them were with the 
Regulators in the battle of the Alamance, where a number 
were killed on both sides in this preliminary conflict to the 
war against British oppression — a conflict scarcely mentioned 
in our current histories, while the much-lauded "Boston 
Massacre" of eight rioters by British soldiers is trumpeted as 
the beginning of the Revolution. 

The battle of Guilford Courthouse was fought partly on 
my great-great-grandfather's farm. And my grandfather, 
who was then a boy of eight or ten years, told me of the 
family's tearing up sheets to make dressings for the wounds 
of American soldiers in that battle. My grandmother was 
then only a baby, but she became a storehouse of family ex- 
periences which she treasured up in memory as they were told 
to her — stories of British and especially Tory brutalities in- 
flicted on her own and neighbors' families. I have as souve- 
nirs of those days my grandmother's Church letter, signed 
by her pastor, the great divine and patriot, Dr. David Cald- 
well, given to her when she came as a bride to Tennessee 
one hundred and ten years ago. I also have the iron mess 
pot, battered and broken and cracked, which was used by 
my great-grandfather, the captain, and his lieutenant during 
the war to prepare their meals. The State of North Caro- 
lina gave large grants of lands to this soldier ancestor, and 
his old home, built in 1796, is still in possession of one of 
his descendants. I once had quite a quantity of Continental 
money, in which he was paid for his service, but I gave it 
all away to various friends. 

One of the captain's brothers-in-law. my grandmother's 
uncle, was also an officer in command of a company of cav- 
alry, or rangers. He was known to the Tories as "Devil 
John." On one occasion his younger brother, a mere boy, was 
visiting him in his camp, and as he went out with a small 
squad on a scout the boy went with them. He was a very 
pious youth and was designated for the gospel ministry. The 
squad rode by a large house, and it was proposed that they 
stop for water. As they rode up to the gate they asked the 
mistress of the house if there were any British troops near. 
She assured them there were not and invited them to come 

to the well and to help themselves. The boy sprang off his 
horse and went into the yard, when a company of Tories 
rushed from behind the house. His squad retreated a little 
distance and saw the Tories capture the young man and pre- 
pare to shoot him. He asked them to allow him a little time 
to pray, and while he was on his knees praying they shot him 
to death in full sight of his brother. The Tories then left 
the place, knowing that the captain, with his whole company, 
would pursue them. And this older brother after that never 
spared the life of a Tory, hence his name "Devil John.'' 

In 1810 my grandmother came as a bride to her new honn' 
in Tennessee, riding horseback all the way from Guilford 
Courthouse, across the mountains, to Middle Tennessee, It 
was quite a caravan, moving leisurely and camping wherever 
night overtook them. In the party was grandmother's uncle. 
"Devil John." One day they came to a nice country tavern, 
where they determined to rest for a day or two. The pro- 
prietor welcomed them cordially, and his family received the 
ladies pleasantly ; but very soon the landlord disappeared and 
was seen no more while they tarried there. While they were 
wondering as to what had become of him, "Devil John" gave 
the explanation, saying: "That fellow was a noted Tory dur- 
ing the war, looting and burning the homes of the patriots. 
I have hunted him many a day in the Caraway Mountains to 
kill him on sight. He recognized me as I recognized him, and 
he was afraid that I would still hold him to account, so he 
left home until we should go on our way." Conscience made 
him a coward. 

A brother of "Devil John" was a Presbyterian preacher. 
"Uncle Sammy" he was called by all the kindred. He became 
one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

It will be recalled that in the battle of King's Mountain 
there were among the victorious Americans men like "Devil 
John," who were determined to slay all the captured Tories, 
and they were restrained only by the earnest efforts of their 
leaders, Campbell, Sevier, and the others. It was a time 
when primitive instincts held sway in men's hearts. 

One of the incidents told to me occurred in the family of 
the pastor. Dr. David Caldwell, preacher, physician, and 
schoolmaster. The Doctor, though a man of great influence 
in the community, was j^ersona non grata to British and 
Tories, and he spent much of his time in the woods in hiding 
to avoid capture by them. On one occasion a number of 
British officers came to the house to get the "old rebel," and 
when they found that he was gone they required the family 
to serve dinner to them. The Doctor's daughters were gra- 
cious and obliging, and while they were preparing the meal 
the officers made themselves at home, appropriating whatever 
they fancied. When the dinner was served, the officers no- 
ticed that the ladies seemed to be in high good humor, whis- 
pering among themselves and casting significant glances out 
of the window. Finally one of the ladies whispered to her 
sister, yet so that the leader of the company heard her : "Keep 
them well fed. The boys will soon be here." The com- 
mander became very restless and uneasy, evidently afraid 
that he and his men were in a trap. Directly he sprang up 
from the table and gave hurried orders, and soon they were 
all galloping back to their camp. It is needless to say that 
the "boys" were all imaginary. It was a bluff pure and sim- 
ple. The American daughter of Eve has always been skill- 
ful in wiles to lead an enemy astray when necessity might 
demand deceit. She can still smile and smile and be too much 
for the blundering man who would injure her loved ones or 
take away her home. 

My father's people were all devoted to the cause of the 


Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 


colonies. They were in Mecklenburg County, not far from 
Charlotte, N. C. My grandmother told me how they suf- 
fered from the depredations of the Tories. Her father, an 
old man, was very ill when a band came to pillage and burn 
their home. While the house was burning, the father was 
carried to an outhouse on the farm, where he soon died. 
Sometime before, in dread of trouble and in anticipation of 
the father's death, the family had placed a quantity of linen 
and clothing in a box and buried it near the house. When 
they unearthed the box to get things to prepare his body for 
burial, they found the sheets and underclothes so niildewe<l 
and decayed that they would scarcely hold together and 
could not be sewn. So he was just wrapped in sheets and 
placed in his coffin for burial. 

As an instance of Tory insolence she told me this : Corn- 
wallis seemed to be master of the whole country around Char- 
lotte, and the Tories felt that they had the right to whatever 
of rebel goods they might fancy. The Martin farm had a 
fine orchard of apples and peaches, one variety of the peaches 
being noted for delicious flavor. One day an old woman, 
poorly clad, rode up on a sorry bag-of-boncs pony, called 
the mistress of the house to the door, and issued orders to 
her: "Miss Martin, I been a-!ookin' at your peaches, an' them 
finest ones is most ripe. My darter [daughter] is gwine to 
be married next week, and I'll need every one of them 
peaches for the weddin'. So I just come to tell you not to 
let the chillun touch a one of 'em. I'll come myself to gather 
them." "Miss" Martin made no reply, but as soon as the 
old woman was out of sight she sent the children to beat the 
peaches from the trees and then turned the hogs in the or- 

My grandmother was once brought face to face with 
Colonel Tarloton, the mucli-feared and hated cavalry leader 
in Cornwallis's army. When the family heard that Tarleton 
was on a raid and would pass near their home, the two little 
sisters, one thirteen, and my grandmother, eleven years, were 
sent to take the horses to a swamp at the back of the farm. 
As the two little girls came back into the road with the 
bridles in their hands they saw the head of the British column 
approaching. They had presence of mind to throw the bridles 
into a thick flax patch near the road. Tarleton rode up to 
them and in a threatening manner asked where the men of 
the family were. When they told him that they were in the 
army, he then demanded to know where their horses were 
kept. They declared they had no horses. He insisted that 
they were not telling the truth, but they persisted in their 
denials. At length he drew his sword and said he would cut 
their heads off if they didn't tell him where the horses were. 
But they stood firm and refused to tell, although, of course, 
they were terribly frightened. The Colonel with a laugh put 
up his sword and said : "Let the infernal little rebels go ; we 
can't scare them into telling the truth." My grandmother 
said that Tarleton's appearance did not correspond to his 
reputation for cruelty, for he was a very handsome man, 
splendidly dressed and mounted, and of a knightly figure. 

From these talks with my grandparents I think there were 
two classes of Tories. One class conscientiously opposed 
separation from the mother country and would not take up 
arms against her, but they tried to live on kindly terms with 
their neighbors and tried to protect them. Just as it was 
during our between the States. There were in the 
South conscientious Union men who showed kindness to 
Confederates when opportunity oflfered. But in those old 
strenuous days there was a class of Tories — ignorant, rough, 
brutal — who were ready for any cruelty by which they could 
profit. They hated the men who had property, and they 

looted and killed without much regard to whether the vic- 
tims were pro- or anti-British, just as bushwhackers and 
home guards in the South without any true principle out- 
raged and robbed peaceful citizens, whether Confederate or 
Union. And it came to pass that the names British and 
Tory stirred those old people to indignation just as scalawag 
and carpetbagger stirred contempt and hatred in Confeder- 
ates. An amusing illustration of the hatred for Tories was 
shown in my own case. Both of my grandmothers were 
strong on genealogy, and they gave me the family history of 
many people from Southern Virginia, across North Carolina, 
to Upper South Carolina. These people had settled in Ten- 
nessee, and the purpose of these dear old ladies was that I 
might never marry the descendant of a Tory — and I didn't ! 

The large proportion of those who were most loyal to the 
cause of the colonies in the Carolinas were Covenanters, the 
Scotch and Scotch-Irish Puritans, and the Huguenots, the 
French Puritans, Both had suffered persecutions for their 
religious faith and had sought in .^merica not only liberty of 
conscience, but recovery of the fortunes that were wasted by 

It is somewhat remarkable that, while deserved praise is 
given by writers on American history to the New England 
Puritan and the Virginia Cavalier for their splendid service 
in winning the independence of our country and establishing 
our institutions of civil and religious liberty, scant notice is 
taken of the achievements of the Covenanter and Huguenot 
element in this great crisis of the history of liberty. Yet 
Patrick Henry, of Virginia, and the Laurens (Henry and 
John, father and son), of South Carolina, were of this stock, 
as were Sevier and Robertson, famous men of Tennessee and 
the victors at King's Mountain and the Cowpens. The two 
men most prominent in preparing and defending the Consti- 
tution were Alexander Hamilton, of New York, son of a 
Scotchman, and James Madison, of Virginia, educated at 
Princeton under that stern old Covenanter, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, John Witherspoon, D.D. The 
Scotch-Irish were most urgent in their various conventions 
for declaring the colonies independent of the mother country — 
as an example, the Mecklenburg Declaration in May, 1775. 
Since that day the honor roll of this stock includes such 
names as Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Stonewall Jack- 
son, and nine Presidents of the United States. 

Though the main body of these early settlers, Covenanter 
and Huguenot, came from fifty to a hundred years after the 
Cavalier and Puritan, they at once became active and efficient 
in the material, political, and religious life of the communities 
where they cast their lot. They were generally earnest sup- 
porters of education and of the Church. They differed from 
both Cavalier and English Puritan in that they were more 
tolerant. They had suffered persecution, but they insisted on 
freedom of worship : while in the earlier days, both in New 
England and in Virginia, only the established forms of re- 
ligion were tolerated, and dissenters were persecuted. Each 
race represented a distinct form of Church government. The 
Puritan's was a kind of theocratic democracy, in which the 
people ruled directly. The Cavalier's preference was a semi- 
autocracy, with the power in the hands of the clergy. The 
Covenanter believed in a thoroughly representative govern- 
ment in which the people ruled through representatives chosen 
by themselves. 

Of course in the development of our free institutions all of 
these strains of blood, Cavalier, Puritan, and Covenanter, 
have mingled, and all of the Churches have in them large ele- 
ments of each strain ; and no doubt it has been a strong factor 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

in liberalizing each Church and in promoting the spirit of 
brotherly cooperation now so manifest in all the Protestant 

The Covenanters came to this country mainly through the 
ports of Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, whence they 
scattered over Pennsylvania, Virginia, North and South Caro- 
lina, and Georgia. The Huguenots came here mainly through 
Charleston and are chiefly settled in South Carolina. Every- 
where they are noted for steadiness and order, for high ideals 
of faith and duty, and for a courage that is faithful even 
unto death. 



In the November Veteran appears a splendid article giving 
incidents of the battle of Cedar Creek, Va., by which and by the 
report of the Historian General U. D. C, urging "that what we 
do about collecting original narratives from the Confederate 
veterans must be done quickly," I was inspired to give inci- 
dents of the battle of Cedar Run, Va., as I saw them. 

Immediately after the Seven Days' Fatties around Richmond 
General McClellan's army was transported by way of Norfolk 
back to Washington. After a few days' rest, General Lee be- 
gan the onward move which I have always thought the grand- 
est campaign of the war. The tir<t clash of arms was with 
General Pope upon the plains of Cedar Run. The Yankees 
called it the battle of Cedar Alountain, and it was fought in 
the afternoon of the gth of August, 1862. On the night of the 
8th of August the opposing armies bivouacked on the opposite 
banks of the Rapidan River. Early in the morning of the 
9th the Stonewall Brigade and the cavalry forced their way 
across the river, followed by General Pender's North Carolina 
brigade. Then came General Archer with his Tennesseeans, 
Colonel Turney in the lead. When we reached the river we 
waded right in like horses, holding our guns and cartridge 
boxes above the water. All day long we were in hot pursuit. 
It was the hottest day I ever saw, the big men continually 
falling by the wayside, worn out by fatigue and oppressive 
heat. About 3 p.m. the Yankees ran into line to give us battle. 
When the 1st Tennessee came up, General Pender's North 
Carolina troops had laid off their knapsacks, and we followed 
suit. Here I saw two of Pender's boys faint away from ex- 
cessive heat. Colonel Turney caught each one and eased 
him down, calling for the surgeon. Colonel Turney then looked 
around for his own men. I heard him ask : "Where are my 
big men?" We answered : "Colonel, here are your boys. Your 
big men have broken down." 

Each company averaged about a dozen men. P'orming on 
the left of Pender's "Tarheels" in battle array, our line began 
to move. Soon we met the old Stonewall Brigade being driven 
back by the Yankees, and soon after we met a heavy column 
of Yankees in a big wheat field, the wheat in shocks. Every 
boy leveled his gun, and the roar of battle began. Not a Yan- 
kee got out of that wheat field. The whole line was cleaned 
up. Behind the fence on the far side of the field stood another 
column of Yankees. Then the order rang down our line : 
"Forward ! Guide, center !" And when we reached the fence 
it was turned bottom side up, and on we moved, while bullets 
whistled by our ears. While crossing a ravine in the field our 
company officers told us to hold our fire until we reached the 
line of Yankees at the fence. When we reached the brow of 
the ridge at a "trail arms" with fixed bayonets and the wild 
Rebel yell, we made a terrific dash for the fence. While mak- 
ing this dash Paul Boyce, who was by my side, was wounded 

in the leg, causing the loss of it, and dropped out of the line. 
I never saw him again until the war was over. In making 
this charge two of the Fayetteville company lost an arm each, 
Jim Kelso and Jim Cashion. 

When we reached the fence the line of Yankee soldiers was 
not there. They had retreated into a dense thicket and jungle. 
Right into it we followed. As we scrambled through the 
bushes we picked up prisoners and sent them to the rear. 
When we emerged from the jungle, a distance of half a mile, 
we were in another field. The moon was shining brightly. 
An officer dashed along the line, ordering: "Halt! Cease the 
pursuit !" While we were dressing up our lines two men rode 
in our front. One of them said : "Boys, I want to introduce to 
you Gen. Stonewall Jackson." Jackson took oflf his hat. Every 
boy snatched ofif his hat and with the wild Rebel yell saluted 
the General. Jackson then called for fifty volunteers as skir- 
mishers to go in front. The whole line stepped forward. The 
company officers called us back and designated who should 
go. I was sent from my company. Deployed as skirmishers, 
the line began to move. My recollection is that Lieut. Col. 
N. J. George commanded this skirmish line. Soon we came 
to Cedar Run Creek. The Yankees had been crossing for 
miles above and below. Right into the creek we waded, every 
boy filling his canteen with inuddy water. We were con- 
tinually picking up prisoners. When we reached the woods 
in front, the command was given : "Skirmishers, deploy upon 
the right!" 

I was upon the extreme right, and as the skirmishers gath- 
ered around me a little incident occurred. Colonel McGuire, 
who was second lieutenant in the Boon's Hill company, with a 
detachment had taken charge of the Yankee surgeon's ambu- 
lances and medical supplies. Hearing the racket as the skir- 
mishers gathered around me, McGuire thought we were Yan- 
kees. His whole detachment cocked their guns and leveled 
them upon us. He called in a loud voice: "Who are you?" 
I knew his voice and answered : "Colonel McGuire, don't 
shoot. We are friends." "Well, who are you?" I told him 
my name, and he said : "You come here, but the rest of you 
stay right there." When he saw me and was sure, the rest of 
the boys were ordered to come. 

Just here perhaps it will not be amiss for me to tell of a 
funny incident which occurred while the battle was in prog- 
ress. Colonel Turney's big men, who were broken down, when 
they came to where we had laid off our knapsacks halted right 
there. Soon they were engaged in hunting "graybacks," for 
all soldiers have them. While thus busily engaged, with their 
shirts pulled over their heads, a body of fifty or a hundred 
Yankee prisoners hove in sight. Somebody called out, "Yan- 
kees !" Looking up and seeing the bluecoats, the stampede 
began. Some left their hats, some their shoes, some their 
shirts, and others their pants. When they ran against a bush 
or sapling, they would swing clear over it, the stampede in- 
creasing in volume and intensity. Finally it was checked, 
with but little daiuage, when they had run two or three miles. 

Thirsty Soul I — Maj. J. Ogden Murray, of Charles Town, 
W. Va., sends a copy of an order found among some old papers 
which he thinks must have been issued to a Dutch Yankee 
with a liking for beer. This is the order : 

"Charles Town, Va., April 25, 1865. 
"Sutler: Please sell the bearer sixteen (16) glasses of beer. 
L. S. Phillips, zd Lieut. 5th N. Y. Arty." 

confederate Uetera,. ^y,^*;°^^,'E. 





Series III.. Volume II., 1863. 

Bragg vs. Rosecrans, — The following extracts from corre- 
spondence of various Union commanders show that, to say 
the least, they were "up in the air" as to whether Bragg would 
stand or run. It is human nature to believe more readily 
something you want to believe than the contrary; and al- 
though repeatedly warned that Bragg was not retreating far, 
they seemed to believe that he was, even up to about a week 
before they locked horns at Chickmauga. 

On September 9 the ball was started rolling with : "Chatta- 
nooga is ours. Our move on the enemy progresses, while the 
tail of his retreating column will not escape unmolested. The 
general commanding has ordered a general pursuit by the en- 
tire army. The enemy all say they would give battle at Rome, 
and their army is moving by cars and marcliing to that point." 

On the same date one of these knowing ones said: "There 
are various rumors of Bragg's having stated that he just 
wanted to get us in here, that he is not far off, but I am not 
a bit scared." 

Again on the loth : "An officer of the 32d Mississippi, who 
was captured, while not very communicative, was generous 
enough to tell them not to advance, as they would get severely 
whipped." And a contraband also on the same date insisted 
that the Rebels were marching back toward Chattanooga with 
many soldiers and many guns. Another wiseacre said : "I am 
satisfied, from what I can learn from citizens, negroes, and 
deserters, that Bragg has gone with his main army to Rome." 
And even General Garfield himself said, "The contraband's 
story is in the highest degree improbable," and ordered Gen- 
eral Palmer "to pursue the enemy with tlie greatest vigor, as 
the rumors that Bragg had moved out with the design to 
fight us between this and Lafayette are hardly worthy of a 
moment's consideration and should be treated with total in- 

On the nth McCook said, "The enemy, I fear, has got be- 
yond our reach" ; but General Wood reported : "It seems that 
the story of the contraband was not so far from the mark, 
as General Harker says Bragg was here yesterday with a 
large force. I trust we may be able to send them on their 
way with new impetus." A little later Colonel Opdycke re- 
ported: "A bright mulatto has just come to me and says that 
he waited on Bragg since last March ; deserted last night ; 
says Bragg was going to Rome and Atlanta." Colonel Op- 
dycke was answered, "The general commanding directs that 
you keep the bright mulatto and keep a bright lookout for 
Bragg," which witty answer showed that they were beginning 
to sit up and take a little notice. 

But on the 12th General Crittenden said, "In my opinion 
the enemy have lied beyond my reach, and my only hope is 
that Thomas or McCook may be able to hit them a side 
lick"; and a little later in the day: "I still believe that the 
enemy is running and that he will not m.ike a stand this side 
of Rome." 

They had given up hopes of Bragg except by running him 
down. However, as General Garfield told him: "There is far 
more probability of the enemy's attacking you than he is of 
running." It shows that he at least wasn't so sure of the re- 
treating part. But after this date they were at last convinced 
that Bragg would fight and made their plans accordingly. 

McPhcrson Well Prnlcctcd. — On September 4 General Slier- 
man wrote McPherson : ".\ batch of negroes have collected 
at Roach's Plantation, and I have given orders to organize 

the males of that gang into a kind of outlying picket. There 
are about one hundred fit for service under the command of 
the venerable George Washington, who, mounted on a 
spavined horse, with his hat plumed with an ostrich feather, 
his full belly girt w^ith a stout belt from which hangs a terrible 
cleaver, and followed by his trusted orderly on foot, makes 
an army on your flank that ought to give you every assurance 
of safety from that exposed quarter." Sherman never cared 
much for negro soldiers and never had one in his command 
on the march to the sea. 

Negro Characteristics. — General Faird, U. S. A., said : "I 
stopped a negro riding a mule who said he had found it in 
the road. I did not arrest him, as I have enough thieves of 
my own." General McPherson gave orders to arrest all able- 
bodied negroes who were floating around doing nothing. 
Which shows that the race is the same now as then. 

Racor Backs. — General Negley, U. S. A., reported on his 
march to Chattanooga that "hogs were plentiful, but it re- 
quired lard to fry the meat." Not much of a compliment to 
Tennessee porkers. 

/;i a Bad Position. — J. C. Van Duzen, Rosecrans's chief teleg- 
rapher, wired Washington on September 13, "You may soon 
look to hear of Bragg's getting hurt," but admitted that "we 
arc in a ticklish position here, but hope to come out with a 
whole skin." As it turned out, their skin was not so badly 
lacerated after all. 

Sherman's Opinion of Some Southerners. — This gentleman 
said: "I must confess that I have little respect for the Union 
men of the South. They allowed a clamorous set of dema- 
gogues to muzzle and drive them like a set of curs. Afraid 
of shadows, they submit tamely to anything that the enemy 
do, but are loud in complaints of the smallest excesses of our 
soldiers. I account them as nothing in this great game. The 
young bloods of the South, sons of planters, lawyers about 
towns, good billiard players and sportsmen — men who never 
did work and never will — war suits them, and the rascals are 
brave. They are fine riders and bold to rashness and dan- 
gerous subjects in every sense. They care not a sou for 
niggers, land, or anything. They hate Yankees and don't 
bother their brains about the past, present, or future. As 
long as they have good horses, plenty of forage, and an open 
country they are happy. They are splendid riders, shots, and 
utterly reckless. Stuart. John Morgan. Forrest, and Jackson 
are the types and leaders of this class. They must all be 
killed or employed by us before we can hope for peace. They 
are the best cavalry in the world, but it will tax Mr. Chase's 
genius of finance to supply them with horses. At present 
horses cost them nothing, for they take where they find and 
don't bother their brains who is to pay for them." 

Chattanooga Lost to the South. — General Reynolds, U. S. 
.\., says: "I conversed with some citizens at Trenton who 
said that Chattanooga was evacuated and 'you-uns' in posses- 
sion.'' "You-uns" in and "we-uns" out told the story to a 


.i Dogfall. — President Lincoln on September 24 wrote his 
wife: "The result of the battle of Chickamauga is thit we are 
worsted, if at all, only in the fact that wc, after the main 
fighting was over, yielded the ground, thus leaving considera- 
ble of our artillery and wounded to fall into the enemy's 
hands." Precisely the same as we were at Sharp.sburg and 
Gettysburg, yet in both instances the Yankees called them 
sweeping victories. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

Sketches In this department are given a half column of apace 
without chargre; extra space will be charged for at 20 cents per 
line. Engravings, J2.50 each. 

"There'll come a day — I shall not care how passes 

The cloud across my sight 
If, only lark-like, from earth's nested grasses 
I spring to meet its light." 

Col. Charles Wetmore Broadfoot. 

Col Charles W. Broadfoot, of Fayetteville, N. C, who 
passed from us on November 24, illustrated in their noblest 
significance all the ideal virtues and excellences that charac- 
terize and distinguish the Confederate soldier as well as the 
typical gentleman of the Old South. Sprung in both lines 
of descent from a most honorable lineage, social grace and 
charm were his by prescriptive right, blending into harmonj 
with the most finely touched shades and phases of intellectual 
culture in their nonprofessional or purely catholic attitude and 

I may apply to my friend, now in the world of light, the 
language of "Lycidas," with not the faintest trace of poetic em- 
bellishment : "We were nursed upon the selfsame hill." Our 
devotion to each other was nearly simultaneous with the origin 
of consciousness. We were classmates in the elementary 
school, in the Donaldson Academy, and then the lines fell to 
us in different places, as he entered the University of North 
Carolina and I, after a year in the Military Institute at Char- 
lotte, became a student of the University of Virginia. The 
coming of the war drama, 1861, brought Us into contact again 
in the historic Bethel, or ist North Carolina, Regiment at 
Yorktown, Va. During a brief period in 1862 he was asso- 
ciated with my command, the 43d North Carolina, Company 
D, stationed near Drewry's Fluff. In the autumn of this 
year he was assigned to the staff of Gen. Theophilus Holmes 
in the department of the Trans-Mississippi. On a bright and 
golden morning, near the James River, he bade me farewell 
as he set out for his new sphere of action in the remote occi- 
dental region beyond the "Father of Waters." His last year of 
service found its field in his native State and was devoted to 
the organization and training of the Junior Reserves. Rapidly 
he advanced through the several grades, attaining the rank of 
colonel of infantry despite his youth. To indulge in eulogy 
of his valor or heroism would prove a work of supererogation. 
Devotion to the ideals, traditions, aspirations, incarnate or em- 
bodied in our dream of "Ethnogenesis," was almost his vital 
essence. His moral code and creed found its chastened enun- 
ciation in the Tennysonian dictum : 

"Because right is right, to follow right 
Were wisdom in the scorn of consequence." 
Two brothers survive Colonel Broadfoot, Andrew Broad- 
foot, of Fayetteville, and Maj. John B. Broadfoot, of Black 
Mountain, N. C. He married Miss Kate Huske, a representa- 
tive of one of the ancient and honored families of Fayetteville. 
Mrs. Broadfoot and four children. Misses Kate, Frances, and 
Margaret, and Charles W. Broadfoot, are still with us. 

Although absorbed in the profession of the law, achieving 
an enviable and abiding fame. Colonel Broadfoot retained a ■ 
discriminating appreciation of the finer phases of literary and 
spiritual acquirement. The empirical tendencies of legal pro- 
cedure had not petrified his sensibilties nor turned his finer 
soul to clay. The pure, the beautiful, the good, as illustrated 
in human attainment and glorified by human skill, abode with 
him until the coming of the eventide, when the perfect light 
arose upon his vision. 

[Henry E. Shepherd, Baltimore, Md.] 

Gen. D. M. H.^iley, U. C. V. 

Gen. Daniel Morris Hailey, commanding the Oklahoma 
Division, U. C. V., died at his home, in Mc.Mester, Okla., on 
October 14, 1919. He was a native of Louisiana, born at Baton 
Rouge February 9, 1841, and received his education in that 
city and State. 

In May, 1861, young Hailey enlisted at Camp Moore, La., 
becoming a member of Company A, 8th Louisiana Infantry, 
and his regiment was at once sent to Richmond, Va., where 
he was sworn into the Confederate service for three years, or 
for the duration of the war. This regiment became a part of 
the brigade under Harry J. Hays, Early's Division, Jackson's 
Corps, A. N. V. Some of the engagements of this command 
in which young Hailey took part were the first and second 
battles of Manassas, Malvern Hill, Cold Harbor, Winchester, 
Leesburg, in the trenches at Petersburg, Cedar Creek, and 
Rappahannock Station. At the latter place he was wounded 
and captured and placed in Old Capitol Prison, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, from whence he was sent to Point Lookout, Md., 
and thence to City Point, Va., where he was exchanged. After 
returning to the ranks he took part in the battles of Williams- 
burg, Seven Pines, White Oak Road, Cedar Mountain, Grove- 
ton, Sudley's Mills, Warrenton Turnpike, Oak Hill, Antictain 

GEN. D. M. HAILEY, U. C. V. 

Qopfedcrat^ l/eterap. 


(first and second battles), South Mountain, Harper's Ferry, 
Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, Lewis's Farm, Port 
Republic, Sharpsburg, Kernstown, Gaines's Mill, Hanover C. 
H., Savage Station, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, and Brandy Station. Here he was captured with the 
whole brigade and a little later was exchanged at Aiken's 
Landing, Va., and again went into action with his regiment, 
taking part in the Wilderness, Spotsylvania C. H., Cedar 
Creek, Winchester, Richmond Railroad, and Hatcher's Run. 
At this place he was again wounded, and hi October, 1864, he 
was given a furlough to return to his home in Louisiana. He 
made the journey with two comrades, who had each lost a leg, 
the three riding on two horses. While on the way they met 
Sherman's army going south, which they flanked to the right, 
and after some severe hardships reached Memphis. Tcnn. 
From there young Hailey made his way up the liver to 
Fort Smith, Ark. In September, 1866, he went to the Indian 
Territory, and in 1868 he settled at McAlestcr, being among 
the first physicians of the town. He opened the first drug 
store there and was also editor of the first newspaper pub- 
lished in the town. He took great interest in the Indian gov- 
ernment and was one of its leaders, and he was also one of 
the prominent Confederate veterans of the State, having been 
Commander of the State Division for a long while. 

For many years General Hailey had been connected with 
the development of Masonry in Oklahoma, in which he had 
tiiken highest rank, and at his death he was Sovereign Grand 
Inspector General in Oklahoma. The funeral services of a 
Knight Kadosh were held over his body on the night before 
liis burial, and the services at the grave were conducted bv 
numbers of the Jeff Lee Camp, U. C. V.. of McAlester. His 
wife and In e children, two daughters and three sons, survive 

Ma.t. John R. Paddison. 

How thin grow the ranks of the veterans who made the Con- 
federate war one long story of heroism! .'\ihI how profoundly 
it stirs the heart of the South to note the passing of these men ! 
When we consider the youth, the dash, the unbreakable cour- 
age of the "boys in gray," we well may see how it does us 
honor to honor them. 

Another of these soldiers, after living a clean and noble 
life, has heard the final call to arms and has .gone to receive 
the Great Commander's commendation. Maj. John R. Paddi- 
son. of Mount .\iry, N. C, passed away on September i.'). 
1919, leaving his wife, six sons, and a wide circle of friends 
to mourn their loss. 

Major Paddison was born in Prince William County, Va . 
in 1846. of English parentage. At ten years of age he came to 
North Carolina with his father, who settled in New Hanover 
County, now Pender, where he attended school until April i. 
1861. Altliough not then fifteen years old, he volunteered for 
service and joined the Sampson Rangers, the first conipan\ 
from Sampson County, which was organized in Clinton under 
command of Capt. Frank J. Faison on April 20, 1861. In a 
few weeks the company was armed and equipped, ordered to 
report for duty at Smithville, now Southport, N. C, and as- 
signed to the 20th North Carolina Regiment. At the election 
of officers Captain Faison was promoted to lieutenant colonel, 
which caused a split in the company, and Major Paddison 
went with the part that elected Capt. William S. Devane. The 
company was recruited to the full number and placed as Com- 
pany A, 61 St North Carolina Troop, and remained at the fort 
until the breaking out of yellow fever in 1862, when it was 
ordered into camp a few miles above Wilmington. Later on 

young Paddison returned to Fort Caswell and was transferred 
to the battery of light artillery under Capt. A. A. Moseley, one 
of his former officers. After a few months he found this 
branch of the service too heavy for him, and upon the recom- 
mendation of his captain he was transferred to the signal 
corps. He served in this capacity at Fort Caswell. Smithville. 
Fort Anderson, and Battery Buchanan, just below Fort Fisher, 
where he was captured when. Fort Fisher fell. January 15, 
1865. He was taken as a prisoner of war to Point Lookout, 
Maryland, where he remained until June 16, 1865. when he 
was released upon taking the oath of allegiance to the United 
States government. He then went back to Pender County 
and engaged in business with his brother, Capt. R. P. Paddison, 
at Point Caswell, N. C. 

He married Miss Alice Foard, of Iredell County, w^ith whom 
he lived most happily for the space of fifty years, lacking a 
few days 

In 18S6 he moved to Mount Airy, N. C. where he lived 
until the time of his death. He was long an active member 
of Surry County Camp, No. 797. U. C. V., and became In- 
spector General with the rank of major on the staff of Gen. 
P. C. Carlton, commanding the First Brigade of the North 
Carolina Division, United Confederate Veterans. 

Maj. George R. Diamond. 

Maj. George R. Diamond w-as born in Giles. A\'. \'a.. in 
1837. and died at the home of his son, Charles Diamond, in 
Sandywoods, Mo., in December, 1919, at the age of eighty- 
two years. 

George Diamond enlisted at Prestonburg, Ky.. October 26.. 
1861, in the Confederate army and rose to the rank of major. 
He was captured and paroled May 8, 1865, at Athens. Ga. 
He commanded a company of cavalry that bore his name and' 
won considerable fame for bravery and daring. He was 
wounded once when capturing a guerrilla, who shot him iu 
the hand. At one time he was the only officer who stayed 
with the colors, and he surrendered a large number of men. 

Ma;-^r Diamond went to Scott County, Mo., from Kentucky 
about ..■-■hteen years ago. He was married to Mrs. Tina 
Graham in 1885 and was the father of eight children, two 
sons and six daughters. One brother, Joshua Diamond, aged 
cightv-one years, living at Louisa, Ky., also survives. 

^\'hiIe a resident of Kentucky "Colonel" Diamond, as lie 
was known, was elected to the House of Representatives and 
wrote a bill that later became a law appropriating $15,000 for 
the deepening of the Little Sandy River. 

Peter W. Griffin. 

Peter Griffin was born near what is now the little town <.^^ 
Alice, in West Feliciana Parish, La., August i, 1845, and died 
near the place of his birth on August 14, 1019. He enlisted 
in Company I. y\ Louisiana Cavalry, early in 1863 and .gave 
his whole lime to the service of the Confederacy until paroled 
at Gainesville. Ala., in" 1865. 

Comrade Griffin was never robust, but lived out something 
over his threescore and ten, and died in the faith of a life 
beyond this. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. He was twice married, his first wife being a 
]\Iiss Thorn, who left one son. A few years later he married 
another Miss Thoni. who also preceded him to the grave. 
Four sons, a daughter, and two brothers survive him. 

[W. R. Campbell, Rogillioville, La.] 


^opfederat^ l/eterai). 

Capt. Joseph Huffm aster. 

In the death of Capt. Joseph Huffmaster the town and 
county of Kaufman, Tex., have lost one of their oldest and 
most worthy citizrt?..-. He was born at Newport, Ky., Feb- 
ruary 19, 1838, went to Rockwell, Tex., early in 1868, and in 
1885 settled in Kaufman, where he had since been a quiet, 
unobtrusive, honorable, and lovable citizen. He died at his 
residence there on November 23, 1919, and after a brief re- 
ligious service at his home was interred with Masonic honors 
at Terrell. 

Captain Huffmaster was in many respects a remarkable 
man. With one exception, he had never spent a day in bed 
from illness in his eighty-one years of life until the latter 
part of last August, when his illness began. 

At the outbreak of the War between the States Joseph Huff- 
master joined Company E, 43d Tennessee, with the rank of 
first lieutenant, and was soon promoted to command of this 
company, serving it as captain to the end of the war. He was 
in all the Shenandoah Valley campaigns and with Early in 
the advance on Washington. Passing through Bowling Green, 
Ky., upon one occasion, the ladies of the town presented to 
Captain Huffmaster's company a large and beautiful silk flag. 
When this flag was captured at the fall of Vicksburg, so 
written history has it, there were nine hundred and seventy- 
>fwo bullet holes in it. 

Captain Huffmaster never surrendered as an officer of war. 
He succeeded in getting away from Vicksburg with a part of 
his company and started to join a Confederate expedition to 
Texas. Getting over into Mexico a little later, he was stricken 
with fever and lay for some time desperately ill in a Mexican 
hut. Recovering, he made his way into Texas and made that 
State his home. In 1869 he was married to Miss Fannie Ter- 
rell, daughter of the man for whom the town of Terrell was 
named. Only recently they celebrated their golden wedding 
anniversary. Five children — two daughters and three sons — 
with their mother, are left to mourn the loss of a devoted 
f;ither and husband. Four children were waiting for him on 
the other side. 

Captain Huffmaster practiced law successfully in his adopted 
State. He had been admitted to the bar before the war at 
the age of nineteen. He was very prominent in Masonic circles 
and had served in nearly all the offices of his Lodge, Chap- 
ter, and Council, as well as District Deputy Grand Master. 

His home was a place of love, peace, and friendliness. He 
reared a creditable family and did a useful work, and it can 
be truthfully said that the world is enriched by his life and 
bereaved by his death. 

Joseph Chenoweth. 

Joseph Chenoweth, formerly of Dallas, Tex., died at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. A. L. Thiel, at Hampton, Va., 
in November, 19 19. He had reached the age of eighty- 
two years, and death was due to the infirmities of age. Mr. 
Chenoweth went to Hampton from Texas to visit his daughter 
last August. He served with the Texas Rangers during the 
Indian uprising, and in the War between the States he served 
in the Confederate army with distinction, although he was 
born in Illinois. He was a member of Sterling Price Camp. 
No. 31, U. C. v., of Dallas, Tex. He is survived by his 
widow and eleven children, who are: Mrs. A. L. Thiel and 
Mrs. G. D. Culpeper. of Hampton ; Mrs. J. H. Bennett, of 
New York: Mrs. H. N. Witmer. of Chicago; Mrs. W. B. Carr, 
of Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. E. H. Knntz, l\Irs. A. J. McCollum. 
W. B. Chenoweth. and Howard Chenoweth, of Dallas, Tex. : 
Mrs. M. J. Smith, of Garland. Tex.; L. R. Chenoweth. of 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

Capt. F. M. Hare. 

Capt. F. M. Hare, who died recently at Wynne, Ark., was 
a native of Tennessee, the son of Jacob and Emma Hare. 
While he was quite young his parents removed to Cross 
County, .'Xrk., and there in 1861 he organized a company which 
became a part of the Sth Arkansas Regiment of Infantry. 
This regiment went out under Col. Davis C. Cross and was 
afterwards under Colonel Murray, of Pine Bluff, a West Point 
graduate. Captain Hare was with Morgan in his raid through 
Ohio and was captured at Bufhngton Island on July 10, 1863, 
and taken to Johnson's Island. After being kept there nine 
months, he was transferred to Point Lookout, Md., and from 
there to Fort Delaware, where he was exchanged and rejoined 
his regiment. After the surrender he returned to his desolate 
home in Arkansas, the plantation laid waste by vandal troops, 
but a dear old Southern mother and two sisters an.xiously 
awaited the home-coming of the soldier son and brother. 

Captain Hare was a man beloved by all who knew him, a 
fine Christian gentleman. 

Deaths at Lakeland, Fla. 

C. L. Willoughby, Adjutant U. C. V. Camp No. 1543, of 
Lakeland, Fla., reports the following deaths in that Camp 
since 1912 to date : J. L. Boquemore, W. H. Clifford, W. W. 
Jackson, A. T. Williams, A. S. McGregor, W. S. Ryal, W. L. 
Finger, Isham Walker, J. P. Thompson, J. D. Richardson, R. 
T. Caddin, J. A. Rhodes, George P. Webb, D. M. Marshall, 
O. W. Collier. 

Capt. William Propst. 

Capt. William Propst was born in Cabarrus County, N. C, 
February 17, 1831, and died in Concord, N. C, August 11, 
19 19, in his eighty-ninth year. 

Captain Propst was married to Miss Etta Ritchie on June 
7, 1854. He is survived by his wife, eighty-five years of age, 
and three children, John W. Propst, of Concord, N. C, Mrs. 
C. W. Trice and Henry L. Propst, of Lexington, N. C. (one 
daughter, Mrs. John R. Patterson, died a good many years 

ago), also by twenty-seven 
grandchildren and nine 

Captain Propst enlisted 
in Company F, 57th North 
Carolina Regiment, and 
was commissioned captain 
of the company, serving 
in that capacity the entire 
four years of the war. He 
was a brave and true sol- 
dier and was in all the 
battles under Lee and 
Jackson until the battle of 
Gettysburg, where he was 
severely wounded and left 
on the field. He was 
taken prisoner there and 
sent to Johnson's Island 
until the close of the war. 
He then returned to his farm, in Cabarrus County, and started 
to work, helping to build up the waste places. He was elected 
sheriff of Cabarrus County in 1882, holding the office a num- 
ber of years, and he was at one time county commissioner. 

Captain Propst was an official member of St. James Lutheran 
Church and very prominent in all its interests, faithful in at- 
tendance, and a liberal contributor to all objects. He was a 



ft -:^-' 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 


man of unusual character, goodness and sincerity, a gentle- 
man in the highest degree, and numbered his friends by the 
limit of his acquaintances. He was known by nearly every one 
in Cabarrus County. The many beautiful floral designs at- 
tested to his popularity. Eight grandsons acted as pallbearers. 


Samuel J. Cofifman, who served as sergeant in the Char- 
lottesville Artillery, C. S. A., passed into eternal rest at his 
home, Ivy Depot, Va., on September 25, 1919. 

Born in Rockingham County, Va., April 15, 1836, his youth- 
ful years were spent on the farm, and at the age of seventeen 
he entered the University of Virginia and there spent several 
years preparing himself for teaching. The beginning of the 
Confederate war found him teaching in a boys' school and 
still attending lectures. He at once enlisted in the University 
Volunteers, a student company, and witli it participated in 
the West Virginia campaign. He then joined the Charlottes- 
ville Artillery, serving with it until after the battle of Spotsyl- 
vania Courthouse. The battery was in position at the "Bloody 
Angle,'' which accounts for its losses. From May 12, 1864. 
until the final tragedy at Appomattox Sergeant CoflFman 
served with the Staunton Artillery, Cutshaw's Battalion. The 
most cherished memento of this Christian soldier is his parole, 
showing that he followed Lee to the end. 

After the war Professor CofTman resumed his work as a 
teacher in Charlottesville until called to Clarksville, Tenn., ni 
1870 as professor of modern languages. At this institution and 
its successor, the Southwestern Presbyterian University, he 
remained until 1891. Subsequently he was principal of male 
schools in Virginia and West Virginia until his retirement, 
some twelve years ago. He was a charter member of Forbes 
Bivouac, of Clarksville, Tcnn., and ever cherished a strong 
feeling of affection for his old comrades. 

A faithful soldier of the Confederacy, he was yet a still 
more devoted follower of the Master. Early a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, he was chosen an elder in 1877 while re- 
siding in Clarksville and so remained to the end of his life. 
His influence for good was felt by thousands of the South's 
best young men during the long years spent as teacher and 
college professor. 

Full of years and honors, he passed peacefully away and 
was laid to rest by loving hands in quiet St. Paul's Church- 
yard, Ivy, Va. 

E. A. Me.^ders, Sr. 

E. A. Mcaders, Sr., died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Purser, at McComb City, Miss., in March, 1919, and was laid 
to rest in the Odd Fellows' Cemetery at Grenada. He was 
born at Oxford, Miss., and would have completed his seventy- 
sixth year his next birthday. He was a veteran of the War 
between the States and lost a leg at the Seven Days' fight in 
front of Richmond. After the war he removed to Coflfeeville 
and served for several years as circuit clerk of Yalobusha 
County. At CofFeeville he married a Miss Garner, and his 
wife preceded him to the grave some four years. 

At Grenada he engaged in the furniture and undertaking 
business, which he closed out about three years ago because 
of impaired health. He was known for his integrity of char- 
acter and for all those essentials that go with an honorable 
manhood and with a high conception of the duties of citizen- 
ship and the true aims of life. He was a strict adherent of 
the Baptist Church and endeavored to live faithfully up to 
his profession. He is survived by two daughters and four sons. 

John M. V.\nn. 

John M. Vann went to Arkansas with his parents in 1850, 
when he was only five years of age, and his home was always 
within a few miles of the spot selected by his father, Renselear 
Vann, for a home when he went from Fayette County, Tenn., 
to Cross County (then St. Francis), Ark. 
Just as he was preparing to go away to school the war came 

on, and John, like many 
other boys, felt the call of 
duty and made a brave 
young soldier. He was only 
nineteen when the war 
closed. He enlisted in Com- 
pany A, McGee's Regiment, 
and served nearly four 

Mr. Vann engaged in 
business in 1868 and con- 
tinued the life of a mer- 
chant-farmer for forty-five 
years. He was successful 
and enjoyed the fullest con- 
fidence of a loyal line of 

customers, who came to him 
J. M. VANN. ... , , 

for advice and counsel even 

in most intimate and private matters. The statesman sought 
his advice; the politician begged his support, because a multi- 
tude followed when it became known that the candidate would 
have the support of J. M. Vann ; the widow trusted him ; the 
broken-hearted confided in him ; the preacher leaned upon him. 
He never sought a crowd, but once in it he was the life of it. 
He loved a clean story and was an artist in telling one. 

He was married to Miss Ida Hare, daughter of Rev. Thomas 
Hare, and their children were Claude, Thomas, and Bessie. 

The Confederate Veteran was always read, reread, and 
carefully filed away. It is now read with great interest by his 
children and grandchildren. 

Matthew F. MaOrv, 

Mr. Matthew Fontaine Maury, one of the oldest citizens of 
Williamson County, Tenn., passed away at his home, in Frank- 
lin, on December S. I9'9- 

Matthew F. Maury was born in Williamson County January 
19, 1829, and had thus nearly completed his ninety-one years. 
I lis father, who was a brother of the famous Commodore 
Matthew Fontaine Maury, the "Pathfinder of the Seas," for 
whom the nephew was named, came to this county from Vir- 
ginia at the opening of the last century, and the family has 
always been prominent in the county. He went into the Con- 
federate army with Baxter's Artillery from Williamson 
County, but was later detailed by General Johnston in the 
Engineering Corps. 

Mr. Maury spent some years in Washington as a youth 
when his distinguished uncle, by whom he was educated, was 
in official life at the national capital, and the nephew had a 
rare fund of first-hand reminiscences and anecdotes of the 
great men of that time. He was a man of keen intelligence, 
high principles, and generous sentiments, strong in his con- 
victions and firm to maintain them. He leaves an honored 
memory as a heritage to his children. His wife, who was 
Miss Eliza Buford, daughter of a prominent citizen, died 
several years ago. 

Surviving is one sister, Miss Bethenia Maury, of Franklin, 
the last of a large family. Of his children, flrc sons and five 
daughters survive him. 


^OT)federat^ l/eteraij. 

Horatio C. Hoggard. 

Horatio Cornick Hoggard, aged seventy-four years, died on 
December 8, 1919. at his home, in Norfolk, Va. He was born 
on February II, 1846, in Princess Anne County, Va., at Pop- 
lar Hall, which had been the ancestral home of the Hoggard 
family for seven generations, since the grant to Thurmer Hog- 
gard by Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam. His grandfather 
served in the War of 1812 and his great-grandfather in the 
Revolutionary War. He enlisted in the Confederacy two 
months before he became sixteen years old and served con- 
tinuously until he was captured in the battle of Yellow Tavern 
in 1864. He was then serving under the command of Gen. 
J. E. B. Stuart. After ten months in prison he escaped and 
again returned to duty. He participated in a large number 
of battles, including those of Fredericksburg, Brandy Station, 
Culpeper Courthouse, Chancellorsville, and Spotsylvania C. H. 

Mr. Hoggard was a Past Commander of Pickett-Buchanan 
Camp of Confederate Veterans, of Norfolk, and was a familiar 
and conspicuous figure at all Reunions. His love for the 
Confederacy and his ready help and sympathy for his com- 
rades were an inspiration to all. 

As a vestryman of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church, 
he earnestly and faithfully continued the Church affiliations of 
his ancestors. At the time of his death he was the senior 
member of the real estate firm of H. C. Hoggard & Co. 

In sending notice of the death of this comrade, T. B. Jack- 
son, Adjutant of Pickett-Buchanan Camp, writes: "Comrade 
Hoggard was one of the finest gentlemen I ever knew. He 
was especially devoted to the welfare of his comrades of the 
Camp, being Chairman of the Finance Committee, and par- 
ticipated in all matters having in view the welfare of the 
members and of all other Confederates." 

J. S. Ware, 

Jaquelin S. Ware, one of the leading citizens of Clarke 
County, Va., passed away at his home, near Berryville, on 
the 3d of December, at the age of seventy-three years. He 
was born at Springfield, the old colonial estate of the Wares. 
His father was Col. J. W. Ware, a prominent citizen of the 
county before the war. 

Young Ware attended school at the old Berryville Academy 
until July, 1863, when he entered the Confed'erate service at 
the age of seventeen, enlisting in Company D, 6th Virginia 
Cavalry. Shortly after he was detailed as courier at the 
headquarters of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart and served there until 
General Stuart was killed. He then returned to his company 
and served as a private to the end, participating in various 
engagements during the last year of the war. 

Not disheartened by the fate of the Confederacy, he re- 
turned home and resumed his studies at Berryville Academy, 
then engaged in agriculture as his life work. The fighting 
spirit of the Southern soldier was in his business pursuits to 
the end. He was married in 1900 to Miss Helen Glasswell 
Crinnan, of Richmond, who survives him, with three brothers 
and a sister. 

General Stuart held his young courier in the highest esti- 
mation, as is shown by the following letter to his mother : 
"Headquarters 2d Cavalry Corps, A. N. V., 
February 20, 1864. 

"My Dear Madam: You need have no apprehension about 
your son Jaquelin, who is still with Major Fitzhugh, and has 
won golden opinions with all who knew him. If it should ever 
be in my power to assist him, be assured it will be cheerfully 
done. I have the honor to be, 

"Very respectfully yours, J. E. B. Stuart." 

Judge Walter S. Bearden. 
Judge Walter Scott Bearden, eminent jurist of Tennessee, 
died at his home, in Shelbyville, on December 15, after an ill- 
ness of several months. At the time of his death Judge 
Bearden was Chancellor of the Fifth Division of the State, 
and previous to his election to this office he had been judge 
of the Chancery Court of the Fourth Division since 1886, 
making a total service on the chancery bench of thirty-three 

Judge Bearden was a native of Petersburg, Lincoln County, 
Tenn., where he was born on January 10, 1843, the son of 
Benjamin Franklin and Susan Margaret Blake Bearden. He 
received his education at Emory and Henry College, which 
he left before graduation to enter the Confederate army, in 
which he served with distinction, becoming a captain in 1864. 
He was wounded in the battle of Peachtree Creek and two 
days later in the battle of Atlanta and received a third wound 
at Jonesboro. 

In 1874 Judge Bearden was married to Miss Margaret 
Cooper Whiteside, who preceded him in death. He is sur- 
vived by two sons and two daughters. 

He was a prominent Mason, being a Knight Templar and a 
member of the Scottish Rite, holding membership in the 
Murfreesboro and Nashville Lodges. He was a member of 
the Presbyterian Church and a man held in the highest esteem 
throughout the scenes of his long and honorable judicial 

Col. W. M. McCall. 
At his home, in Humboldt, Tenn., on the loth of July, 1919, 
Col. William M. McCall, splendid citizen, able lawyer, and 
polished, courtly gentleman, passed to his reward. He was in 
his eightieth year and had long been in feeble health. 

Colonel McCall went to Humboldt from Milan, Tenn., some 
thirty-five years ago and began the practice of his profession. 
Colonel McCall was born and reared in Smith County, 

Tenn., and from that 
county went into the army 
of the Confederacy, serv- 
ing as a member of the 
7th Tennessee Regiment, 
Hatton's Regiment, of 
Archer's Brigade, Army of 
Northern Virginia. He 
was a brave and faithful 
soldier to the end. 

After the war closed he 
went to Gibson County 
and began the practice of 
law at Milan, but some 
thirty-five years ago he 
removed to Humboldt, 
where be built up a large 
practice in his profession 
and ranked as one of the 
leading lawyers of West 
Tennessee and as a citi- 
zen was interested and ac- 
tive in promoting the general good of his community 

Colonel McCall was married twice, his first wife being Miss 
Harrison, of Milan. Some years after her death he was mar- 
ried to Miss Lillie Dance, who survives him. His death marks 
the passing of one of the most interesting and beloved char- 
acters of Humboldt and Gibson County, and he will long be 
remembered and sincerely mourned. He was a man of genial 
disposition and had many friends. 

col. w. m. m call. 

^OQfederat^ l/eterai^. 


mn /'/^oo/iVLr ur A rv/iii NURSE. 


At the beautiful suburban home of her daughter, Mrs. N. H. 
Reeve, near Bristol, Tenn., on August 20, 1919, there passed 
from earth the soul of a brave and noble woman, Mrs. Le- 
Grand Sexton, of Washington, D. C, who as a young girl of 
nineteen years during the war between the North and South 
was a volunteer nurse of sick and wounded Confederate sol- 
diers. Mrs. Sexton's name was then Kate Korff. She was 
born in Georgetown, D. C, January 29, 1842, of sturdy Dutch 
stock on her father's side and pure American on her mother's. 
Her parents were Herman 
G. and Ellen Korff. Mr. 
Korff was a native of Hol- 
land, who came to Ameri- 
ca in the early thirties and 
engaged in the mercantile 
business in Georgetown. 

After leaving her home 
at the call of the South- 
land for nurses. Miss 
Korff served the Confed- 
erate cause in every way 

Dr. Price, in his "His- 
tory of Methodism," Vol- 
ume v., states: "Being in 
deep sympathy with the 
South, she came through 
the lines to Richmond, Va., 
and nursed in the Rich- 
mond hospitals." And it 
was here that she nursed mrs. kate korff sexton. 

the wounded warriors of 

Seven Pines. While at Staunton, Va., she cared for the de- 
feated and discouraged survivors of Gettysburg. She had 
also ministered to the injured in the battle of Manassas. 
She was a veritable Florence Nightingale in the fever-haunted 
hospital at Atlanta, Ga., where were brought the stricken ones 
of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, and was untiring in 
her efforts to save the lives of the soldiers, to soothe their last 
moments, and to comfort their bereaved relatives. Here is a 
story of her service in this respect, written by herself not many 
months before she passed away ; 

"A young Virginian (I cannot remember his name) whom 
I nursed in the 1st Georgia Hospital died of typhoid fever. 
Mr. Randolph Axson (an uncle of President Wilson's first 
wife), who was then a clerk in the ist Georgia Hospital, called 
me one morning to his office and told me that an old lady and 
her daughter were there to see about this young soldier, the 
son of the former. I exclaimed : 'He is dead !' As I spoke 
these words the two, whom I had not seen sitting on the steps 
at the doorway of the hospital, fell fainting. Mr. Axson and 
I carried them to couches, and he administered to them until 
they recovered from the faint, then I entertained the sorrow- 
ing mother and sister for two days in my room, as they were 
anxious that I should show them even the cot upon which 
their loved one had died. I gave them the brave young sol- 
dier's clothes, which I had carefully put away. 

"The mother on her return to Chesterfield, Va., sent to Mr. 
Axson and me many dozens of eggs and pounds of butter to 
be used in the hospital for our sick charges," 

Not only as a nurse did Miss Korff serve her country, but, 
quoting from Dr. Price's work again, "she was also in the 
Treasury Department, as can be seen by her 4iamc appearing 

on a series of Confederate notes." The Confederate Treasury 
was located at Columbia, S. C, and while Miss Korff was per- 
forming the duties of this position, to which she had been ap- 
pointed by Alexander Stephens, Sherman was making his 
march to the sea. She then refugeed from Columbia to Rich- 
mond, Va., and, among her varied war experiences, was pres- 
ent at St. Paul's Church, in Richmond, seated just across the 
aisle from President Davis, when a courier came in from Gen- 
eral Lee with the message that he would surrender to General 
Grant in a few hours. Soon thereafter she was compelled to 
witness the triumphal entry of the Northern forces and the 
capital of the Confederacy in flames. 

After the surrender Miss Korff returned home for a brief 
stay and then accepted a position as teacher in the school at 
Jeffersonville, Southwest Virginia. Not long afterwards, as 
the result of a pretty romance, she married Mr. LeGrand Sex- 
ton, who owned a country place at Chatham Hill. Here they 
lived happily many years until his death. Mrs. Sexton came 
later to Washington to rear and educate her young family. 
She was the devoted mother of six children of her own and 
two stepchildren. 

Mrs. Sexton belonged to the Southern Relief Society and 
the Robert E. Lee Chapter of the Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy. She frequently attended the Confederate Reunions and 
greatly enjoyed these occasions. She was deeply religious and 
of a charitable and tolerant disposition to all denominations 
and creeds. She possessed a multitude of friends not only in 
the national capital, where she lived for twenty-four years, but 
wherever she went she was wont to make and keep friends. 
Her death has left a void in their hearts that cannot be filled, 
but her memory remains, making the world better that she had 
lived. It is pleasant to think that in heaven the spirits of the 
fallen heroes of the Southern cause, a portion of the choir 
invisible, whose last moments Kate Korff had soothed and 
comforted, awaited her coming and welcomed her amid their 
shining hosts. 


The death of Mrs. Thomas Wood Parry, of Kansas City, 
Mo., removes from the ranks of the Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy one of the most loyal members of the organization. 
Mrs. Parry had just completed a two-year term as Missouri 
Division President and had resigned the office of Recording 
Secretary General. She was a tireless worker in all depart- 
ments of U. D. C. work, but educational interests had her con- 
tinual support. The Lee Duke Parry scholarship at Mis- 
souri L^niversity was founded by her, and she organized the 
Robert E. Lee Chapter, U. D. C, in Kansas City. 

The added duties laid upon all patriotic women during the 
recent war no doubt undermined the constitution of Mrs. 
Parry; and though blood transfusions from her two sons 
were made, the effort was in vain. 

Mrs. Parry was born in Austin, Miss., but had lived in 
Kansas City since early childhood. Besides her husband, she 
leaves two sons. Duke Parry, who is assistant university pub- 
lisher at the University of Missouri, and Thomas Wood Parry, 
Jr., eighteen years old. 

Funeral ser\'ices were at the Central Presbyterian Church, 
of which Mrs. Parry was an active member for many years, 
conducted by Rev. S. M. Neal and Rev. Charles Nisbet. 

"Made like Him, like Him we rise — 
Ours the cross, the grave, the skies." 

32 Qopfederat^ l/eterai^. 

Illiuteb Saiujbters of tbc (Xonfebecac? 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General 
Padncah, Ky. 

Mks. Alice Baxtir, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General Mrs. Amos Nokris, Tampa, Fla Tremwmrer General 

Mrs. George Cunningham, Little Rock, Ark. .Secomt Vice President General Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian (ieneral 

Mrs. R. p. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General Mrs. Pannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Cuslvdian o} Crosses 

Mrs. W. K. R. Byrne,. Charleston, W. Va Car. Secretary General Mrs. J. H Chknshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Fl^^^s and Pennants 

[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.l 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: You have 
conferred upon me a high honor, and in accepting its duties 
and responsibilities I do so with my heart fixed upon the 
ideals for which this organization stands, for surely in the 
firmament of woman's endeavor there is no brighter star than 
the one bearing the words live, love, think, pray, dare. 

Live to brighten the declining years of the men who wore 
the gray ; live to educate their posterity and thereby fasten 
more securely the rights and privileges of citizenship upon a 
pure Anglo-Saxon race; live to hand down to generations to 
come a truthful history of these men and of the times in 
which they lived. 

Love the land made holy by their blood and sacrifice. 

Think upon the problems that confront the world to-day 
and be a, factor in solving these problems. 

Pray for strength to. accomplish the things needful to make 
the U. D. C. the greatest organized force for good the world 
has ever known. 

Dare to stand for the traditions of our Southland and fear- 
lessly present them to a wondering world. 

As I take up this task with its purpose so high I realize the 
confidence you have placed in me, and I pledge to you the 
best my hands, my mind, and my heart can do, trusting that 
when the time comes for me to render an account of my stew- 
ardship I may hear you say : "Well done." 

Four of the five great eflforts for which Miss Poppenheim 
asked your consideration two years ago, while our country 
was at war, are as urgent in these times of reconstruction as 
they were then : 

Membership. — Interest the young girls in becoming mem- 
bers now. The work must go forward after the present 
workers have ceased from their labors. Fire the spirits of 
the youth of the South with a desire to be members of the 
U. D. C. 

Confederate Veterans and Needy Confederate Women. — 
Care for the Confederate veterans and needy Confederate 
women with the same zeal that has marked these two branches 
of service throughout the years. They are the U. D. C.'s very 
own and must not be neglected. 

Education. — The U. D. C. has pledged itself to the youth 
of the South and cannot be found wanting. The educational 
need is great, and the time for work is the present. Give 
every support to building greater possibilities for the boys 
and girls, the young men and young women, who turn to this 
organization for the means by which they may receive an 
education. These young people through the efforts of this 
organization are fitted for the best citizenship. What greater 
service can be rendered this country? What greater asset 
can a nation have than educated men and women? 

The Hero Fund. — Our monument to the men who served 
in the World War should be finished this year. Let us set 
our faces to the goal and when the report is made in No- 
vember make it possible to close the account. By generous 
systematic giving this can be accomplished. 

Jefferson Davis Monument at His Birthplace in Kentucky. — 
The convention at Tampa indorsed a resolution to ask every 
member of the U. D. C. to contribute 25 cents to the monu- 
ment to Jefferson Davis at his birthplace in Kentucky. The 
amount asked is very small, but it gives the great privilege 
of having a part in building this memorial. Division Presi- 
dents are urged to request their Directors to begin at once 
to collect this per capita gift and send to the Division Treas- 
urer, who will forward all funds to the Treasurer General. A 
list of contributions should be sent to Mrs. Jacksie Daniel 
Thrash, Chairman, Tarboro, N. C, so proper credit may be 

Important Changes Made by Tampa Convention. — The 
convention at Tampa changed the per capita tax from ten 
cents to twenty cents. Division Treasurers are asked to send 
this information to Chapters as soon as possible to avoid con- 
fusion at the time the dues are to be paid. 

The certificates of membership, by action of the Tampa Con- 
vention, are now twenty-five cents each. Division Registrars 
are requested to send out this notice to Chapters. 

It is with regret that I announce the death of Mrs. Thomas 
Wood Parry, which occurred November 22 at her home, in 
Kansas City, Mo. The last months of this noble woman's life 
were devoted to the work of the U. D. C, and in her passing 
we lose a member faithful to every trust. 

Committees. — Following are the names of new chairmen of 
committees. Others will be announced when the President 
General is notified of their acceptance: 

Education, Miss Armida Moses, Sumter, S. C. 

Award of University Prize, Mrs. L. R. Schuyler, 567 West 
139th Street, New York City. 

Relief of Needy Confederate Women, Mrs. Norman V. 
Randolph, 1917 Stuart Avenue, Richmond, Va. 

Monument to Jefferson Davis at His Birthplace in Ken- 
tucky, Mrs. Jacksie Daniel Thrash, Tarboro, N. C. 

State Constitutions, Mrs. John L. Woodbury, 74 Weissinger- 
Gaulbert, Louisville, Ky. 

May I ask you to take advantage of the great opportunities 
that lie along the way? Hold a firm purpose to make this 
the best year of service by facing the difficulties and accom- 
plishing the work. If every- Daughter and every Division will 
take up the task with singleness of purpose, we will be "in 
unity invincible." 

With best wishes for the new year, faithfully yours, 

May M. Faris McKinney. 

^oijfederat^ l/eterap. 



Receipts for November, 1919. 

Alabama Division: Cradle of the Confederacy Chap- 
ter, $6; Asheville Chapter, $2.50; Joe Wheeler 
» Chapter, $5; Marion Wilmer Jones Chapter, C. 
of C, $1 $ 14 50 

Kentucky Division: Padiicah Chapter (bonds), $50; 
Owensboro Chapter, $10 ; Russellville Chapter, $5 ; 
Lexington Chapter, $25; Maysville Chapter, $3; 
Bloomfield Chapter, $5 ; Winchester Chapter, $10. . 108 00 

Louisiana Division: Robert E. Lee Chapter, $43.60; 
Gen. Alfred Mouton Chapter, $4; Gen, Dick Tay- 
lor Chapter, $1 ; Bunkie Chapter, $3 ; Pickett Chap- 
ter, $6; Edward Sparrow Chapter, $20; Ruston 
Chapter, $5 82 60 

Minnesota Division: Robert E. Lee Chapter, $10... 10 00 

Missisippi Division : Holly Springs Chapter, $2 ; Mc- 
Comb City Chapter, $2; J. Z. George Chapter, $2; 
Stephen D. Lee Chapter, $2: Beulah Chapter, $2; 
Col. H. M. Street Chapter, $2 ; Charles E. Hooker 
Chapter. $2; Utica Chapter, $2.70; Frank A. Mont- 
gomery Chapter, $2.50; Kosciusko Chapter, $5... 24 20 

Missouri Division : Sterling Price Chapter, St. 
Joseph, $23.20; Independence Chapter, $25; Robert 
I E. Lee Chapter, $1 49 20 

North Carolina Division : Warsaw Chapter, $5 ; 
Stonewall Jackson Chapter, $10; Little Confeder- 
ates' Chapter, C. of C, $5 ; Bethel Heroes Junior 
Chapter, C. of C, $10 30 00 

South Carolina Division: Fairfax Chapter, $2; 
Winthrop College Chapter, $1 ; Mrs. Dell Wil- 
liams, $5 8 00 

Tennessee Division: Mrs. Charles R. Hyde. $2 2 00 

Total $ 32850 

Previously reported 18,424 08 

Total December i, igig $18,752 58 

Receipts bv Divisions in Order of Contributions Up 
TO November i, 1919. 
Georgia, $2,695.31; South Carolina, $2,429.35; Texas, $1,- 
i 849.33; Alabama, $1,528.83; North Carolina. $1,429.50; .\rkan- 
sas, $1,235.50; Virginia, $1,095.81; Philadelphia Chapter, 
$874.29; Missouri, $851.05; Maryland, $830; Oklahoma, $715; 
District of Columbia, $657.25; West Virginia, $615.80; Louisi- 
ana, $579.03; Ohio, $540.03; New York, $518; Florida, $387; 
California. $359.50; Kentucky, $246.93; Washington, $216.84; 
Mississippi, $197; Illinois, $135.12; Tennessee, $102; Colorado, 
$20.50; New Mexico, $16; Boston Chapter. $5; Evansville 
Chapter, $5 ; Pittsburg Chapter, $5 ; .\rizona, $4 ; Minnesota, 
$2; Oregon, $2. Armid.^ Moses. Treasurer. 


reported by MRS. HERBERT M. FR.\NKLIN. 

The General Convention held in Tampa. Fla., November 
11-15, was one of the most harmonious and thoroughly de- 
lightful conventions in the history of the U. D. C. organization. 

The two-year term of the President General, Miss Mary B. 
Poppcnheim, has been characterized by system and unity, and 
an immense amount of work has been accomplished. 

The De Soto Hotel was headquarters for the Convention, 
and all business sessions were held in the First Presbyterian 
Church, across the street from the hotel. 

The Convention opened Tuesday night, with Mrs. Amos 
Norris, President of the Florida Division, presiding. Special 
honor guests were veterans from Camp Loring, U. C. V., and 
Camp Dickinson, S. C. V. Gen. E. M. Law, of Bartow, Fla., 
the ranking surviving general of the Confederacy, made a 
thrilling speech for the veterans, and Dr. Sumter Lowry, 
Commander of the Florida S. C. V., welcomed the Convention 
to Florida. Many other gracious speeches of welcome were 
made, and the response for the U. D. C. was given by Mrs. C. 
M. Roberts, Second Vice President General. 

Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, of New York, presented 
the President General, Miss Poppenheim, also the beloved 
Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone and Mrs. Lizzie George Hender- 
son, former President General?. 

Following Miss Poppenheim's response came the presenta- 
tion of the U. D. C. bars for President Generals, which was 
made by Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone. A former Convention 
decided that a special insignia should be bestovixd upon the 
President Generals of the U. D. C, and at the Louisville 
Convention a number were presented. That for Mrs. Fitzhugh 
Lee was presented upon this occasion, as well as those for 
three deceased President Generals, Mrs. M. C. Goodlett, of 
Tennessee, Mrs. E. G. Weed, of Florida, and Mrs. Virginia 
F. McSherry, of West Virginia. 

This was a working Convention, and all reports and busi- 
ness affairs were expedited. Upon the roll call of States came 
the beautiful presentation of flags, each State President bring- 
ing forward her State flag and placing it in the keeping of 
Mrs. Franklin, Custodian of Flags. 

Upon the platform, in addition to the general officers, were 
three Honorary President Generals — Mrs. Norman Randolph, 
of Virginia; Mrs. John W. Tench, of Florida; Mrs. Cornelia 
Branch Stone, of Texas — and Mrs. Lizzie George Henderson, 
of Mississippi, a former President General. 

Mrs. F. F. Fleming, wife of a former Governor of Florida, 
was presented to the Convention, as was also Mrs. C. B. 
Bryan, of Tennessee, daughter of Admiral Raphael Semmes. 
C. S. N. 

The total voting strength of the Convention was announced 
to be 1,727 votes. 

The report of the President General was of the greatest in- 
terest, as it was felt to be an epitome of a war administration, 
and the enthusiasm and approbation with which it was re- 
ceived proved how thorough and far-reaching the work of 
the organization had been. The report showed that incor- 
poration of the U. D. C. under the laws of the District of 
Columbia had been secured; that the U. D. C. now had 1,161 
Chapters in thirty-four States and the District of Columbia, 
with a total membership of 63,479. Adhering to the U. D. C. 
live-pointed star, the work was classed under five heads : Mem- 
bership, Care of Veterans, Relief of Confederate Women, 
Education, and War Relief. The former Educational Endow- 
ment Fund, now known as the Hero Fund, was announced to 
be $19,165, with Miss Armida Moses, of Sumter, S. C, as 
Treasurer. Miss Poppenheim reported that a case of one 
hundred and thirty-six books and pamphlets concerning the 
history of the South had been collected and sent to the Bod- 
leian Library in London by Miss Elizabeth Hanna, of Geor- 
gia, chairman of this special committee. She also gave a 
brief record of Southerners in the World War and of the 
splendid war relief work of our organization. 

The report of the Registrar General, Mrs. Charles L. Tra- 
bert, was read by Mrs. Franklin, of Georgia, who also pre- 
sented the Allen Farris Trophy, offered by Mrs. Roy W. Mc. 


^oofcderat^ l/etcra^. 

Kinney in memory of her father to the Division enrolling the 
greatest number of members between the ages of eighteen and 
twenty-five since April, 1919. The cup was won by North 
Carolina, that Division having registered twenty-seven new 

The report of Mrs. Sells, Custodian of Crosses of Honor, 
showed that more than 30,000 crosses have been bestowed by 
the organization in the eighteen years since this work was 
begun, 391 crosses having been issued by the Custodian in 

Reports read by the First and Second Vice President Gen- 
erals, Mrs. Youree and Mrs. Roberts, showed careful admin- 
istration of their office. 

The report of Mrs. Hyde, the Historian General, recorded 
a great amount of historical work done by the various Di- 
visions and showed the systematic plan by which that office 
has been administered. 

The report of Mrs. Bashinsky, of Alabama, Chairman of 
Education, showed 798 scholarships, valued at $72,466.65 per 
annum, as owned by the organization. According to her re- 
port, Georgia leads in U. D. C. scholarships, the total value of 
scholarships maintained by this State amounting to $28,850, 
with Alabama and Tennessee coming next. She also reported 
Georgia leading in contributions to the Hero Fund, with 
South Carolina second in amount raised. The splendid work 
accomplished by this committee won much commendation. 
The University of Virginia gave twenty-two scholarships to 
the organization, and seven of these were used in 1919 by 
soldiers who had returned from the World War. 

Mrs. J. A. Rountree, of Alabama, Chairman of the War 
Relief Committee, now the World War Record Committee, 
reported on the activity of the U. D. C. during the war. The 
summary of the report covers work in twenty-two States. 
She reported : 

Bonds and W. S. S. bought by U. D. C. members, $24,- 

Bonds and W. S. S. sold by U. D. C. members, $46,563,- 


Total amount contributed to Red Cross, other war relief. 
French and Belgian orphans, American military hospital, etc.. 

Total Red Cross articles, hospital garments, surgical dress- 
ings, knitted articles, 15,742,904. 

Total U. D. C. members in canteen, Y. W. C. A., Y. M. C. 
A., hospital work, and four-minute speakers, 1,553- 

Total U. D. C. members sent overseas, 78. 

U. D. C. members chairmen of Red Cross and bond issues. 

Red Cross Chapters, auxiliaries, and branches organized by 
U. D. C, 314- 

Sons of U. D. C. in army and navy, 4,326. 

Husbands of U. D. C. in army and navy, 505. 

The chief feature of Thursday morning was the election of 
officers, which resulted as follows : 

President General, Mrs. Roy Weeks McKinney, of Paducah, 

First Vice President General, Mrs. Alice Baxter, of At- 
lanta, Ga. 

Second Vice President General, Mrs. George Cunningham, 
of Little Rock, Ark. 

Third Vice President General, Mrs. R. P. Holt, of Rocky 
Mount, N. C. 

Recording Secretary General, Mrs. R. D. Wright, of New- 
berry, S. C. 

Corresponding Secretary General. Mr*. W. E. R. Byrne, of 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Treasurer General, Mrs. Amos Norris, of Tampa, Fla. 

Registrar General, Mrs. Fannie Ransom Williams, of New- 
ton, N. C. 

Historian General, Mrs. A. A. Campbell, of Richmond, Va. 

Custodian of the Cross of Honor, Mrs. William D. Mason, 
of Philadelphia. 

Custodian of Flags and Banners, Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, of 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Mrs. C. B. Tate, of Virginia, and Mrs. George Pickett were 
elected Honorary President Generals. 

The revision of the by-laws consumed much time, one im- 
portant feature being the grouping of the old by-laws under 
proper headings. 

The per capita tax was increased from ten to twenty cents 
and the price of membership certificates to twenty-five cents. 

The articles of incorporation now form the constitution. 

The report of the Insignia Committee was made, but action 
was deferred until the next Convention. 

The Convention voted to establish an annual prize of a pair 
of binoculars, to be competed for by the students of the United 
States Naval Academy, at Annapolis, as a memorial to Mat- 
thew Fontaine Maury. 

Mr. John C. Brown, of Tennessee, gave to the organization 
a prize of $100 as a memorial to his mother. It was decided 
to give this as the peace prize offered by the U. D. C. for the 
best essay on the subject of "A Lasting Peace." 

The principal action -of the Convention on Friday morning 
was the decision to build a fireproof treasure house for the 
storing of documents and papers pertaining to the Confed- 
eracy. The resolution was offered by Mrs. Norman V. Ran- 
dolph, of Richmond, Va., who stated that she had come to 
the Convention for the purpose of making an appeal for a 
fireproof building on land owned by tii.' c 1- . t iiin 

at Richmond, which was the "White House of the Confed- 
eracy." The building will be erected in style similar to the 
architecture of the Museum and will cost some $35,000. A 
central committee of seven will be appointed for this work. 

The report on the Confederate Museum, by Miss Sallie 
Archer Anderson, was read by Mrs. Hyde, ."^n appeal was 
made for an endowment fund, owing to the increased cost of 
keeping up the Museum, where are stored priceless relics. 
Rooms are maintained by most of the States in the U. D. C. 

Mrs. R. C. Cooley, of New York, introduced a set of reso- 
lutions indorsing the League of Nations, which were adopted 
and a copy ordered sent to the papers, to the Associated Press, 
and to the President, Senators, and Congressmen. 

A number of interesting addresses were made before the 
Convention. Matthew Page Andrews, the eminent historian, 
spoke briefly of his book, "Southern Women in War Times," 
the publication of which has been undertaken by the U. D. C. 
Eh". Henry Louis Smith, President of Washington and Lee 
University, of Lexington, Va., made an eloquent and scholarly 
address urging the organization to undertake the renovation 
of the chapel containing the mausoleum of General Lee, and 
a resolution indorsing the movement was adopted. Gen. W. 
B. Haldeman, of Louisville, Ky., spoke in behalf of the monu- 
ment to Jefferson Davis at his birthplace in Kentucky and 
made an inspiring appeal for funds to complete this memorial. 
Upon motion of Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, the Convention 
voted to ask every member of the U. D. C for a donation of 
twenty-five cents, which will complete the fund necessary for 
the erection of the monument. 

Qoi)federat^ l/eterai^. 


Invitations for the ConTention to meet in Asheville, N. C, 
were presented by Mrs. Felix Harvey, President of the North 
CaroHna Division, and Mrs. James M. Gudger, President of 
Asheville Chapter, and these were unanimously accepted. 

Memorial Hour. 

The memorial hour was in charge of Mrs. W. C. N. Mer- 
chant, of Virginia, and was one of the most beautiful and 
touching ever held by the organization. A memorial to the 
Daughters of the Confederacy was read by Mrs. J. P. Hig- 
gins, of Missouri, and one to the Veterans, by Miss Nancy 
Watson, was read by Mrs. Miller, of Mississippi. "A Tribute 
to Our Boys, the Heroes of 1917-18," written by Rev. J. W. 
Bachman, D.D., of Tennessee, Chaplain General U. C. V., was 
read by his daughter, Mrs. Charles R. Hyde. 

Historical Evening. 

The exercises on Thursday evening were in cliarge of Mrs. 
Charles R. Hyde, of Tennessee, the Historian General, who 
was presented by the President General. The following Di- 
vision Historians were introduced by Mrs. Hyde: Mrs. St. J. 
Allison Lawton. of South Carolina; Miss Lowry Shuford. of 
North Carolina; Mrs. J. W. Wilkinson, of Texas; Miss Ida 
F. Powell, of Illinois; and Miss Lillie Martin, Assistant His- 
torian, of Georgia. 

The principal address of the evening was made by the His- 
torian General, who spoke upon the subject of "The Religious 
Instruction of the Negroes Prior to i860." She related the 
early missionary work among the negroes and told of the edu- 
cational work done on Southern plantations. 

Mrs. Hyde's address was forceful and impressive, and in 
appreciation of her splendid work as Historian General a 
beautiful gold pin, inscribed "Historian General U. D. C," was 
presented to her by the Executive Board. 

The Rose loving cup was won by Miss Armida Moses, of 
South Carolina, for the best essay on the subject of "The 
Confederate Navy" and was presented by Mrs. Br>'an, daugh- 
ter of Admiral Semmes. 

The Rutherford historical medal was won for the third 
time by Colorado and was presented by Mrs. Randolph, of 

The Youree prize of $20, offered for the largest list of de-. 
scendants of Confederate veterans enrolled in the World 
War, was won by Arkansas and was presented to Mrs. Beal, 
the Division President, by Mrs. Rountree, Chairman of the 
War Relief Committee. Mrs. Youree has increased this prize 
to $50 for 1920. 

The Raines banner was won for the third time by North 
Carolina and was presented to Miss Shuford, State Historian, 
by Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler. • 

The Ricks banner was won by by the Winston-Salem Chap- 
ter. C. of C, and was presented to Mrs. Harvey, Division 
President, by Mrs. Mason, of Philadelphia. 

The Anna Robinson Andrews medal was won by Mrs. 
Walter Matthews, of Kentucky, and was presented by Mrs. 
Merchant, of Virginia. 

The Florence Goalder Faris medal was won by Virginia B. 
Sherrill. of Virginia, and presented to Mrs. Flournoy, Division 
President, by Mrs. McKinney. 

"A Soldier's Prize" was presented by Miss Poppenheim to 
Mrs. Sarah H. Newman, of Alabama, and was received for 
her by Mrs. Crenshaw, Division President. This prize, given 
by a member of the American Expeditionary Force, a soldier 
whose identity is unknown, was again offered for 1920. 

Soci.\L Entertainment. 

Perhaps no Convention has ever been more hospitably enter- 
tained. The welcome was so cordial, the weather so beautiful 
and balmy, and everything that could be arranged for comfort 
and pleasure had been so well provided for by Mrs. Amos 
Norris on behalf of Florida, that every one joined with Mrs. 
Frank Harrold. of Georgia, in returning thanks for the many 
courtesies extended, including those of the press, the pulpit, 
and the musicians, upon whom too much praise cannot be be- 
stowed for the many beautiful and appropriate selections. 

On Tuesday the Tampa Chapter entertained all the delegates 
at an elaborate luncheon at the De Soto Hotel. 

On Wednesday evening Mrs. C. E. Graham, of Greenville, 
S. C. gave a beautiful dinner in honor of Miss Poppenheim, 
at which fifty guests were present, including the general of- 
ficers and the newly elected President General. 

Immediately succeeding this dinner came the brilliant recep- 
tion given at the De Soto Hotel by the Tampa Chapter in 
honor of all officers and delegates. The spacious verandas 
were utilized, and the decorations of palmetto, oranges, grape- 
fruit, tangerines, and gray moss were as beautiful as appro- 

On Thursday afternoon a boat trip to St. Petersburg across 
beautiful Tampa Bay was enjoyed by about five hundred U. 
D. C. officers, delegates, and hostesses on the new boat the 
Bay Queen. The boat was met by the Mayor of St. Peters- 
burg and members of the Speed Qub, who took the visitor* 
for a ride over the Sunshine City. The Dixie Chapter, U. 
D. C, served tea at the docks, and the Mayor extended a wel- 
come, and all were made to feel at home in Florida. 

A touch of pageantry was given the Convention by the at- 
tendance and services of the beautiful young pages, who wore 
crimson smocks with white satin skirt^i and who proved them- 
selves useful as well as ornamental. Miss Emma Bou- 
knight, of South Carolina, was page in chief, and Mrs. R. D, 
Wright, of South Carolina, was general chairman of pages, 
with Mrs. J. D. Sinclair as chairman of local pages. An auto 
ride about the city and an elaborate ball at the Yacht and 
Country Club were given in their honor. 

At the close of the Convention Mrs. Youree, of Louisiana, 
presented Miss Poppenheim, the retiring President General, 
with a beautiful silver bowl engraved "Mary B. Poppenheim, 
from her Executive Board, 1917-19." as a testimonial for her 
devotion to duty and her wonderful executive ability, which 
has made this administration such a success. 

Following the beautiful ceremony of the presentation of the 
incoming officers and the acceptance of the gavel by the new 
President General, Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, the twenty-sixth 
Convention passed into history. Mrs. McKinney well deserves 
the high honor which has come to her, and under her able 
leadership the organization will continue with tireless zeal 
its work for the education and uplift of humanity. 

In renewing the subscription of her father, Mrs. H. D. Dil- 
lard wrote from Rocky Mount, Va. : "As Historian of the 
Jubal Early Chapter, U. D. C. I have been using the Veteran 
in my work, and I find it not only instructive, but intensely 
satisfying. This work of giving to the world true Confed- 
erate history must be carried on, and it is a source of much 
regret to me that there are not more institutions of your kind.- 
I wish the Veteran could be placed in every home in the 
South ; its spirit is needed." 


Qopfederat^ UeteraQ. 


District of Columbia. — On New Year's Day of 1919 the 
Division gave a reception to the Confederate veterans, their 
families and friends, which was attended by Secretary of 
War and Mrs. Raker, who sang some stirring war songs. 
The Children's Chapter celebrated Lee Day in the Hall of 
Statuary in the Capitol, surrounded by a guard of honor of 
boys from the Junior Defense Guard. Mr. E. Hilton Jackson, 
a relative of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, made an address, then 
the children placed wreaths before the statue of the glorious 
general of the South, Robert E. Lee. Later the Confederate 
veterans held a beautiful service in the Christian church in 
memory of General Lee and of the great Christian soldier 
Gen. Stonewall Jackson. The Daughters of the Confederacy 
assisted and conferred three Southern crosses of honor. 

This Division took a conspicuous part in the liberty loan, 
and when the victory loan was put out it made a record suc- 
cess, raising the splendid sum of $575,000, receiving a medal, 
which was pinned on Mrs. Carolyn S. Fahnestock, President 
of the Division, as Chairman of the Division Loan Commit- 
tee, by Mrs. McAdoo, the General Chairman. Five medals 
were given to others of the committee. No other women's 
committee received so many. 

In April a memorial service was held for Col. Hilary A. 
Herbert, and on June 3 the birthday of the President of the 
Southern Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, was commemorated, 
the veterans of Camp 171 being guests of honor. Senator Pat 
Harrison, of Missisippi, made an interesting address, telling 
many things about Mr. Davis not generally known. On June 
8 the usual memorial service for the Confederate dead was 
held at Arlington. 

Mrs. Fahnestock presented to the Division a mahogany 
sideboard which was once the property of President Davis 
when he was in the White House of the Confederacy in 
Richmond. This is to be placed in the Confederate Memorial 
Home and used as a repository of the Division minutes and 
papers and World War records. The Division gave an en- 
tertainment for the Hero Fund and the Confederate Memorial 
Home, which was a financial success. 

College Park, Ga., November 28, 1919. 

My Dear Mrs. White: May I call your special attention to 
an opportunity that is open to your readers to secure a "treas- 
ury of knowledge" and delight? Having been privileged to in- 
spect the manuscript, I gladly state that, in my opinion, the 
forthcoming book, "The Daughters of the Confederacy," to 
be edited and published by Mrs. Bryan W. Collier, of College 
Park, Ga., will be a brilliant achievement of a talented South- 
ern woman, daughter of a Confederate surgeon and a devoted 
Confederate mother. 

This unusual volume will contain the portraits and biograph- 
ical sketches of more than a hundred glorious Daughters of 
the Confederacy, including as it does all of the Historian Gen- 
erals, the present President Genera! and all of the past Presi- 
dent Generals, and many Division Presidents and State officers. 

In order to issue more than the copies already placed with 
the subjects of the book, orders must be placed with the pub- 
lisher before going to print, in January or February, 1920. 
Knowing the historical value of this book, now nearing com- 
pletion, I suggest that individual Chapters order one copy at 
least for use in the Chapter. Then think what a Chapter 
might accomplish by placing a copy in each Southern school 
library! The beauty of the lives and faces portrayed would 
be a hallowed benediction to unborn generations. 

We owe it to those who come after us to see that they know 
the truths of Southern history and the glorious life of our 
ante-bellum sires, the conviction of our mothers as well as 
that of our fathers. Let's place several hundred copies of 
this beautiful, almost priceless book in the schools of our land. 

Mrs. B. D. Gray. 

I^tatortral iFpartm^nt, 1. i. (E. 

Motto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower; The ruse. 


My Dear Daughters of the Confederacy: Your first program 
for the year is a study of Jefferson Davis. This is in com- 
pliance with a suggestion of Miss West, Chairman of the 
Jefferson Davis Highway, and also seems appropriate, as a 
special appeal is made this year for the Jefferson Davis monu- 
ment at his birthplace. The February program is also given, 
so that the Chapters can have it in ample time for the Feb- 
ruary meeting. 

A yearbook giving the program for twelve meetings has 
been sent to each State Historian and to each Chapter where 
there are no Divisions. The State Historians can incorporate 
this yearbook with such additions as they wish and send out 
to their Divisions. Should any State Historian fail to do 
this, on application I will send the yearbook to any Chapter 
applying. The program will also be published each month 
in the 'Veteran. 

The C. of C. programs will also be published monthly and 
will be distributed by the Third 'Vice President, Mrs. R. P. 
Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C. 

With best wishes for each' one of you, sincerely, 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Historian General U. D. C. 

Jefferson Davis. 
(l) Soldier, statesman. Secretary of War; (2) President 
of the Confederate States; (3) prisoner of war; (4) private 

Southern Men in the World War. 
Compile list of Southern men from your State prominent 
in the government, the army, navy, and aviation. Collect in- 
cidents and adventures from men who were in the service 
from your county or your State, have them typewritten, and 
file them with your Chapter Historian for future use. Relate 
some of the most interesting incidents at your Chapter meet- 

Pocahontas, the Indian Maiden Who Saved the 
Jamestown Colony. 
Tell the story of her life and death and mention some of 
her descendants. 

The Captives of Abb's 'Valley. 
This is one of the sweetest stories of a pioneer life, and it is 
the title of the book. The story is also found in "Sketches 
of 'Virginia," by W. M. Foote, in "History of Southwest Vir- 
ginia." by L. P. Summers, and in Bickley's "History of Taze- 
well County, Va." 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


Confeberateb Soutbern /Iftemorial Hseociation 

Mks. a. McD. Wilson President 

43fi Peachtree Street, Athinta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bkyan First Vice President 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President 

FayetteviUe, Ark. 

Mks. John E. Maxwell Treasurer 

Seale, Ala. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson liecordim^ Secretary 

7t;Kx? Svcainore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary A. Hall Historian 

1137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga. 
Mks.J. Enders Ko\\\^sfi^ .. Corre^f'ondin^ Secretary 
113 Third Street South, Kichiuond, Va. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazek Boyle Poet Laureate 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — FayetteviUe Mrs. J. Garside Welcli 

Florida— Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning 

Kentlxky — Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississil'Pl— Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri — St. Louis Mrs. G. K. M'arner 

North Carolina— Raleigh Mrs. Robert H.Jones 

South Carolina — Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beck with 

Tennessee — Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davls-Roy 


To Members of the C. S. M. A.: Truly can your PresideiU 
General say : "Happy New Year to you, friends and co- 
workers !" Since the time of our convention in .Atlanta, when 
we had the pleasure of seeing you face to face and learning 
to know you as coworkers, the bond of friendship has strength- 
ened, and we greet each other as friends. 

The past year has been for us a happy year, because it has 
been a busy one and, furthermore, because the cause and work 
so close to our hearts has had fresh impetus and strides for- 
ward facing the new year of opportunity with courage and 
enthusiastic determination to plan for bigger things — to work 
unceasingly and to write high on the pages of 1920 achiei'e- 

Let us clasp hands in an unbreakable but ever-widening 
circle of opportunity and make of this the best year in the 
history of the C. S. M. .\.. ever holding our motto as a beacon 
light : 

"Lord God of hosts, be with us yet. 
Lest we forget." 

To each and every one the wish of the heart is peace, 
love, and joy in your homes, enthusiasm, loyalty, and devo- 
tion in your work. 

The God of peace be with you all ! 

Faithfully yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson. 

President General. 



We are facing a new year. What lies within its unexplored 
regions we cannot know, but in our hands are the threads 
spun by a devoted band of Southern women with which we 
can weave a beautiful pattern on the pages of history. Then 
let the tapestry be wrought of golden threads of love, as it 
always has been, and let the somber tone of sympathy be a 
background upon which the pattern will glow in rich warm 

In all the world there is not another such organization 
as the Confederated Southern Memorial -Association. It typi- 
fies the loyalty of the Southern heart that has treasured its 
uMconqucrcd flag and its unsullied traditions for over half a 
century with a steadfastness that has no equal among the 
peoples of the earth. 

The new year has much in store for the women who con- 
stitute the C. S. M. ,'\., and with the President General, who never known the word "fail." its rcvivication. its renewed 
strength, its growth of junior associations will but add to its 
already splendid accomplishment. 

Confederate Mothers. 

.Mreaily a far-reaching interest has been made manifest in 
locating the mothers of Confederate veterans, and at present 
tliere arc four on the honor roll, each of whom will receive 
a gift pin, which souvenir was the happy thought of Mrs. A. 
McD. Wilson, the President General. 

The first name sent in with proper credentials establishing 
her right to one of these recognition pins vas that of Mrs. 
Merccde G. Brent, aged ninety-eight years. Mrs. Brent is 
the mother of R. J. Brent, a veteran who resides in Pensacola, 
Fla. On the "th of November the bar of purest Etruscan gold, 
bearing the letters "C. S. M. A." on the top and underneath 
the name and date, was presented to Mrs. Brent in the name 
of the President General, whose pleasure it was to make the 
gift. The presentation was made at the bedside of the Con- 
federate mother by her little six-year-old great-granddaughter, 
who pinned the bar on the invalid, thus giving happiness not 
only to the honored one, but to all the circle who rejoiced with 
her that the honor, though late conferred, carried with it the 
loyal devotion of every Memorial woman, 

Florida's second veteran mother is Mrs. Joshua Allen 
Crosby, of Westville. Fla. Mrs. Crosby is ninety-seven years 
old, her birthday falling on December 25. At that time the 
love gift of the C. S. M, A. will be presented. Mrs. Crosby 
is the mother of a living Confederate soldier, Solomon Crosby, 
aged seventy-nine, who is also a resident of Westville. 

It is hoped that every State where there is a Memorial As- 
sociation will endeavor to locate the mothers of Confederate 
veterans and take advantage of the opportunity to honor them, 
for there remains but a very small remnant of the mighty 
force that stood behind the men in the trenches and ful- 
lilled the expectations of those who believed in them as the 
most gallant fighting force that ever answered the call to 
arms. It should not be forgotten that soon it will be too 
late to honor them in this simple but loving way. 

The subject of searching out and trying to locate every 
living mother of a Confederate veteran was enthusiastically 
taken up at the .Atlanta Convention, which went on record 
as warmly indorsing the movement. Each State President 
was requested to undertake the work in her own State and 
to send names to the President General. It is hoped that the 
convention enthusiasm will continue and that in each State 
active work is being done. Mrs. Frank D. Tracy, delegate 
from Pensacola, Fla., returned to her home deeply interested 
and at once began search, with the result that she has already 
sent in two nnmcs with the names of veteran sons living and 
vouchers which will insure the C. S. M. A. recognition pin. 
Mrs. Wilson is very desirous that each State President make 
this her first duty of the new year. Mrs, Tracy has been ap- 
pointed General Chairman of Veteran Mothers and will ap- 
preciate any assistance given her. 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 

Official Biographer. 

Mrs. Bryan W. Collier, of College Park, Ga., has been made 
official biographer for the Confederated Southern Memorial 
Association and has well under way the interesting book of 
sketches and portraits which she expects to publish in the 
near future. The book will include biographical sketches of 
many distinguished women who have been part of the me- 
morial work of the South and will add a new value to the 
historical records of the C. S. M. A. and all branches of its 
work. Mrs. Collier is a scholarly woman and well qualified 
to fulfill this mission. 



Knowing as an ex-Confederate soldier one or two peculiari- 
ties of the above distinguished Texan, I read Dr. McNeilly's 
sketch of him in the December Veteran with peculiar inter- 
est. He was lieutenant colonel of the 2d Texas Infantry, 
which was commanded by the gallant Colonel Rodgers, killed 
in the battle of Corinth and whose body received military 
honors by the Federal general, Rosccrans, on account of his 
gallantry in that bloody conflict. 

I first saw Colonel Smith when his regiment was brigaded 
with the 3Sth Mississippi and one or two other regiments I 
do not now recall, the 43d Mississippi being one of them per- 
haps. Gen. John C. Moore commanded the brigade. The 2d 
Texas was in the battle of Shiloh and so terribly cut down 
in killed, wounded, and sick as to be reduced to about two hun- 
dred men. They were a lot of as reckless daredevils as ever 
fired a gun and would have done honor to Hood's immortal 
brigade in the Virginia Army. On one or two occasions, when 
passing the 3Sth Mississippi on a march, our boys would cry 
out: "Look to your camp kettles, men; the 2d Texas is com- 
ing!" This is not said in any depreciation, for it was a weak- 
ness with many soldiers in the Confederate service to "borrow" 
cooking utensils and even rations from their fellow patriots 
in a pinch. I recollect that a hog which had tried to "bite" 
some of Company H just before the siege of Vicksburg was 
divided among the messes, and not only nearly caused the loss 
of my life from an overload of pork, but caused me to lose the 
glory and honor of participating in that memorable event. 
A sudden change from stringy beef and weevily peas to fat 
pork in an unusual quantity at one meal was too much for 
my digestive organs. I honestly believe that if stealing some- 
thing to eat was ever a pardonable offense it was when com- 
mitted by a hungry Confedrate soldier. 

I am reliably informed that during the many weeks' siege 
Colonel Smith was often seen sitting in the trenches or at his 
tent or dugout door calmly reading a copy of one of his 
favorite classics^"Vergil," I believe it was — while the shells 
would be bursting overhead or in the rear, so passionately 
devoted was this singular character to literature and so ac- 
customed do men become to the dangers of war. Colonel 
Smith was too brave a man to aflfect this unconcern. 

My recollection of him personally is that he was rather small 
of stature, was an awkward rider, and when passing along 
at a trot the rattle of his sword and canteen and spurs, per- 
haps, made such a comical noise that his men gave him the 
pet name of "Old Jingle," and that is what the 2d Texas al- 
ways called him. 

His fondness for literature and striking way of showing it 
strongly reminded me of the character of Parson Adams in 
Fielding's famous novel, "Joseph Andrews." One day, walking 
along the road, the parson, poring over the pages of his be- 

loved "^chylus," waded unconsciously through a large pond 
of water lying directly in his route instead of side-stepping on 
to a dry path beside it. Absent-mindedness often goes along 
with love of learning and the highest courage. 

A Correction by Dr. McNeilly. — In my article on Col. 
Ashbel Smith, of Texas, in the December Veteran, I stated 
that he was a native of North Carolina. This was a mis- 
take. He was born in Connecticut, and his early years were 
spent there. In his manhood he came South, settling for a 
while in North Carolina, but soon going to Texas. He was 
so warmly devoted to the Calhoun theory of States' rights 
that I supposed him a native of the South. From a letter re- 
ceived from the President of the Texas State Historical As- 
sociation it is learned that his splendid library was willed to 
the University of Texas. 


The following statement is made by Mrs. M. W. Anderson, 
Chairman of the Gen. Stand Watie Monument Committee, 
Oklahoma Division, U. D. C. : 

"The Oklahoma Division, U. D. C, has undertaken to 
erect a monument in memory of Gen. Stand Watie, the only 
Indian brigadier general of the Confederate army, a man 
whose character was above reproach and whose remarkable 
bravery was known far beyond the limits of his activities. 

"The value of his services to Indian Territory, Arkansas, 
and Missouri can scarcely be estimated. He sleeps in an un- 
marked grave. 

"Rally to our aid and help us pay this long-neglected tribute 
to this Oklahoma hero. 

"We have now $1,127 towart} the required sum of $I,7S0. 
During the period of the war the fund was put in liberty bonds 
and war savings stamps, where it still remains; but the Di- 
vision is anxious now to complete the long-neglected tribute, 
the movement for which was begun in 1913. The Oklahoma 
Division has responded loyally to all the demands of the 
war, as our printed records show, and also to educational 
funds and Confederate memorials. Any contributions to this 
fund for the monument to the Indian hero of the Confederacy 
will be gratefully received. A printed record will be kept of 
every contribution. The amount of this fund has been given 
by the Oklahoma Division alone, except for a very few small 
personal gifts." 

Send all contributions to Mrs. Anderson at Pryor, Okla. 

Where Is the Army of Northern Virginia? — T. C. Hol- 
land, of Steedman, Mo., says: "I would like to know what 
has become of the hosts of writers for this leading journal 
who in former days kept us informed of the reminiscences of 
the Army of Northern Virginia. Perhaps those who are left 
are too old to write. Keep it up, boys, until the last taps, and 
you will undoubtedly please the followers of our noble chief- 
tain, R. E. Lee." 

Dr. E. P. Lacey, writing from Bessemer, Ala., says: "I am 
a veteran in sentiment only, as I was only four years old when 
the War between the States began. * * * I am sending you 
three new subscriptions and am asking for no bonus, prize, 
or anything else, for I am doing this because I think you de- 
serve it. I think it is the duty of every patriotic Southerner 
to give the Veteran his support; in fact, it will do any one 
good to read it who loves his country and its institutions." 


Qoi^fedcrat^ l/eterai). 



Eeinff used Ijy over tliree million peo- 
ple annually as a tonic and blood 
builder. It will increase the streng'tli 
of weak, nervous, run-down folks in 
two weeks' time in many instances. 
Ask your doctor or drug'g'ist. 

W. E. Boyd, of Queen City, Tex., 
wishes to get in communication with 
some member of Company E. 2"th 
Louisiana Regiment, with which com- 
mand he served. 

Book Wanted. — Any one having a 
copy of Miss M. A. H. Gay's "Life in 
Di.xie during the War" will confer a 
favor by writing to Mrs. J. H. Snod- 
grass, of Hugo, Okla., who wishes to 
procure a copy. 

W.^NTED — The address of a private or 
officer of Company B, later known as 
Company G, of the 5th South Carolina 
Cavalry, in 1862, in order to get a pen- 
sion for a veteran's widow. Address 
J. P. Mendel, West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Mrs. Callie E. Peak, 1194 Seventh 
Street, Douglas, Ariz., asks if there are 
any readers of the Veteran who re- 
member Callie Johnston or H. C. Peak, 
of Warsaw, Ky., who served in Mor- 
gan's command. She will be glad to 
hear from them. 

Don't Wear a Truss 


the modern scien- 
tific Invention, the 
wonderful new discovery 
that rvUeves rupture, will 
bo sent on trlaL No ob- 
noxloua springs or pads, 
llaa automatic Air Cush- 
ions. Binds and draws the 
broken part* together u 
you would a broken limb. 
No salves. No lies. Dur- 
able, eheap. Sent on trial 
to prtjve It. Proteeted by 
V. S. patents. Oatalosu* 
and measure blanks mailed 
frfo. Send name and ftd- 
dr«ss to-day. 

C. E. Brooks, 239C Stale Si., Marshall, Mich. 


[By request of the Tennessee Anti- 
Tuberculosis .Association.! 

Our grandparents thought that the 
tomato was poisonous and called it "The 
Poison .Apple." They also were under 
the impression that tuberculosis was in- 
curable and called it "consumption," 
from the fact that it consumed those 
who contracted it. 

To-day we know that the tomato is 
an e.xtremely succulent vegetable, but 
everybody does not know that tubercu- 
losis is not only preventable and con- 
trollable, but that it is also curable. 
.And this latter truth is the message that 
the Tennessee Anti-Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation is bringing home to thousands of 
people in this State. 

.Already as a direct result of the ef- 
forts of this society hospitals have been 
erected that contain three hundred beds 
for the care of tubercular patients, and 
institutions containing two hundred 
more beds are under construction. 
Cities and towns are boosting for fresh- 
air camps and open-air schools, and the 
way is being opened to make Tennessee 
the healthiest State in the Union. 

When one realizes that all this work 
has been accomplished through the sale 
of those little Red Cross Christmas seals 
which we attach to our letters and pack- 
ages each Christmas, the fact is brought 
home that this work must continue. 
This year the campaign to sell the seals 
and urge subscriptions will be held from 
the 1st to the loth of December. 

Seeing the need of more health work 
and continuance of work now being ac- 
complished, the campaign has been in- 
dorsed by Gov. A. H. Roberts, Col. Al- 
vin C. York, and a host of other promi- 
nent Tennesseeans. This health work 
must go on, so enlist in the local .Anti- 
Tuberculosis Movement. 

J. .A. Bethea. of La Crosse, Fla., wants 
to get in communication with some of 
the comrades who served in the Confed- 
erate army with Redding R. Bethea. He 
enlisted in Marion County, S. C, and 
served in Hill's Corps. A record of his 
service is wanted for the benefit of his 

Mrs. Laura Trice, 1410 Holly Street. 
Nashville, Tenn., wishes to correspond 
with any comrade of her husband. James 
E. Trice, who served in Company E, 
Hewitt's Regiment. His home was at 
Providence, Tenn., near Clarksville. 
She will appreciate any information that 
will help her to get a pension. 

SO E]ggs 

Yes — fifty a day. How? Kead the let- 
ter below. 

" 'More Eggs' Tonic is a Godsend," writes 
Mrs. Al.vrlle Ice. of Boston, Ky. She 
adds: "I was getting 12 eggs a day and 
now get 50." 



If you send $1.00 to E. J. Reefer, the 
poultr.v expert. 2.';21 Reefer Bldg., Kansas 
City, jlo., to-da.v he will sond you two 
large-size $1.00 packages of "More Eggs" 
— one pacl<age being al).«oIutely free on 
the special limited offer he is making 
lunv. The Million Dollar Merchants' 
Bank of Kansas City. Mo., guarantees if 
you are not absolutely satisfied your dol- 
lar will be returned on request. So there 
is no risk. Send a dollar to-day on this 
free package offer. Profit by the experi- 
ence of a man who lias made a fortune 
out of poultry. 

Poultry Raisers Everywhere Tell 
Wonderful Results of "More Eggs" 

15 Hens — 310 Eg'g'B 

1 used "Jfore Kgtrs" Tonle. and in the month of 
.Iniuiary. from 15 liiiis, 1 got .110 eggs. — MRS. C. K. 
STOUGUTON, Turners Falls. Mass. 

160 Kens — 1,500 TggB 

I have fed 2 Imxes of "More Kggs" to my hens, and 
I Itiink they have broken tlie egg record, 1 have hit) 
Mliite leghorns and in cvacilv HI (\^\'i 1 got 125 dozen 
eggs.— UBS. U. Jl. I'ATTO.N, Wavwlj, Mo. 

$200 Worth of Eg'ers from 44 Hens 

I nerer used "More Eggs'* Tonic until last Deeem- 
l)er, then just used one $1.00 package and have sold 
over $200 00 worth of eggs from <4 hens. "More 
Kggs" Tonic did 11.— A. I".- TIloPi:. Sterling Kaiis.. 
K. .No. 2, Box 47. 

1,368 HeeB After 1 Faclcagre 

Last fall I bought a box of your "More Eggs" Tonic 
and would like to have ,vou kri.uv the result. From 
.laiiuary 1 to .luly 1 my hens laid l.SliS eggs.— A. E. 
WUlTi;, .Siraiilon. I'l. 

Send Coxipon. 

Just fill in and mail coupon willi 
only one dollar. You will be sent, 
immediatelv. two $1.00 packages of 
"iMORK KGGS," the extra package 
being FREE. Don't w^ait! Reap the 
BIO profits "MORE KGGS" will 
make for you. Act NOW on this 
special free package ofTer. Every 
day's delay means extra egg profits 
lust. Send the coupon to-day. 

r^rr $1.00 FACKAGi: 

r fC F- r. E. J. REEFER. Poultry Expert. 
* A**^ *^ 2521 Reeier Bldg., Kansas City. Mo. 
Pear Mr. Reefer: I accept pour ofTer. Send nie the 
two $1.00 pacKaBcs of Uetfer's •'Mori* KKgs." for which 
I enclcv-^e $1.00. You agreo to reriiml Jl.OO if bolh of 
tlifse packages do not prove sailsfnciory in every waj. 
II I' member — Uie one package Is FREE. 




Qopfcderat^ l/eterai>. 

■^♦' h »*' K '»' > ' i ' > '> « '». |"! '. i"t" i"}>' ;" i' i"l"l '< "t '*' H '*< "i"I"l"> ' i -* <" l "M"I" i "K"I"M"H '»- 

I Books Make the Best Presents 


JVew Books for Boys and Girls 




Ae^lnst Odds. By William Heylinger. Price. $1.26. 
An Annapolis Flebe. By Capt. E. L. Beach. Price. $1. 
An Ann&pollB ■JTouiiffBter. By E. L. Bea^h. Price. $1. 
An Annapolis Seoond Class Man. By Beach. Price. $1. 
An Annapolis First Class 9Can. By Beach. Price, $1. 
Ralph Henry Barbonr's Athletio Stories: 

Cbang'e Signals. Price, $1.35. 

Orofton Clinms. Price. $1.36. 

Capt^n Chubb. Price. $1.35. 

Ktefsford, Qnart«r. Price, $1.35. 

The Frcther of a Hero. Price, $1.35. 

The Secret Play. Price, $1.30. 

Dan/orth Plays the Qante. Price, $1.29. 

Xreft-Tackle Thayer. Price, $1.25. 

The Purple Pennant. Price, $1.30. 

Rivals for the Team. Price, $1.30. 
Boy Soonts of Woodcraft Camp. By Burgess. Price, $1. 
Boy Scoats on Swift River. By Burgess. Price. $1. 
Boy Scouts on IiOgt Trail. By Burgess. Price. $1. 
Boy Scouts* TTifre Book. All a boy needs to know about a 

trip before he reaches camp. Price, 50 cents. 
Boy Scout Camp Book. All a boy needs to know about 

camp. Price, 50 cents. 
Bniralo Bin and the Overland Trail. By E, L. Sabln. Price, 

A Cadet of BeUrlnm. By Captain Orant. Price, 60 cents. 
In Defense of Paris. By Captain Grant. Price, 80 cents, 
Otijytaln Fair and Square; or. Ambition Plus. By William 

Heyllnger. Price, $1.25. 
OaptalB of the Nine. By William Heylinser. Price, $1. 
Oaptaln Danny. By Walter Camp. Price, $1.35. 
Danny the Fpashman. By Walter Camp. Price, $1.35. 
Danny's Fists. By Walter Camp. Price, $1.35. 
John Prescott Earl's Athletic Stories. In four volumes: 

On the School Team. Price, $1.50. 

The School Team in Camp. Price, $1. 

Captain of the School Team. Price, $1. 

School Team on the Diamond, Price, $1. 
Fair Flay. By William Hawley. Price, $1.35. 
The Farm That Jack Bnllt. By W. O, Stoddard, Jr. Price, 

$1 36. 
A Oradnate Coach. By Tnixton Hare. Price, $1.25. 
The Hero of Stony Point. By James Burns. Price, $1.35. 
In Damp on Bass Island. By Paul G. Tomllnson. Price, 

Making- Oood. By W. T. Nichols. Price, $1.25. 
Making' Oood in the TiUag-e. By W. O. Stoddard. Price, 

On the Trail of the Mohawk Chief. By Everett Tomllnson. 

Price, $1.30. 
Philip Kent. By Truxton Hare. Price, $1.25. 
Philip Kent in the lower School. By Truxton Hare. Price, 

Rambler Club with the Iiumber Jacks. By W. C. Sheppard. 

Price, 50 cents. 
Rambler Club with the Northwest Mounted Police. By W. 

C. Sheppard. Price, 50 cents. 
Rambler Club's Football Team. By W. C. Sheppard. Price, 

60 cents. 
Rambler Club in Panama. By Sheppard. Price, 60 cents. 
The Boad to Glory. By Alexander Powell. The story of 

the exploits of some of the little-known heroes of our 

own country in the winning of Florida, Texas, and the 

Louisiana Purchase territory. Price, $1.60. 
Rog-er Pauldlner, Apprentice Seaman. By Com. E, L. Beach. 

Price, $1.36. 

By Mary Pemberton Glnther. 



Price, $1J5, 

Order from Smith & Lamar, JVasIiville, Tenn., Dallas, Tex., Ricltmond, Va. 

.;..; ^ ,, ^ ,■ ; ,■ ^^ . ^ ..|.4..^.i.»^.^.^Mi.^~^ a ^■ ^ ■^^ ^ ■^■■ I ^^■^^■^^■■ ^ ■ ^ '■ M •♦^^♦^M~^^H•♦»W'^^ 

Roger Pauldlnff, Gunner's Mate. By Com, E. L. Beach. T 

Price, $1.86. 
Roger Paulding, Gunner. By Com. E. L. Beach. Price, "f" 

Boger Paulding', Ensign. By Com. E. L. Beach. Price, 

The Safety-First Club. Bj* W. T. Nichols. Price, $1. 
Soout Master of Troop 5. By'Tklrs. Thurston. Price, $1. 
A Senior Quarterback. By Truxton Hare. Price, $1. 
Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties. By .Dan C. Beard. Over 

three hundred illustrations prepares for Boy Scouts. 

Price. $1.2S. 
T. Haviland Kicks, Junior. By Ellerdice Raymond. Price, 

T. Haviland Hicks, Senior. By Ellerdice Raymond. Price. 

The Trail Boys of the Plains. By J. W, Allen. Price, $1. 
The Twisted Skein. By Ralph D. Paine. Price, $1,35. 
The Whlte-Rlbbon Boys of Chester; or. The Tavern Keeper's 

Secret. A clean-cut, up-to-date story of the great move- 
ment for temperance told with strong force. Price, 60 

The Youn^ Continentals at Trenton. By John Mclntyre, 

Price. $1. 


By Mary Pemberton Glnther. Price, 

By Lazelle T. Woolley. \\ 


Price, $1.30. 
Bv Alice Turner 

Beth Anne Herself, 

Beth Anne, Beally for Truly. 

Price, $1.35. 
Camp Brave Pine; A Camp Plie Girl Story. By Harriet 

Comstock. Price, $1.25. 
Faith Palmer In Washington. 

Price, $1. 
Faith Palmer in New York, By Lazelle T. Woolley. Price, 

Four Mothers at Chautauqua. By "Pansy. 
Grandpa's Iiittle Girl and Miss Abitha 

Curtis. Price. 80 cents. 
Helen and the Find-Out Club. By Beth B. Gilchrist. Price 

Helen and the Fifth Cousin. By Beth T. Woolley. Price, -f- 

Jane Stuart's Chums. By G. M. Remick. Price, $1.36. 
Jane Stuart, Comrade. By G. M. Remick. Price, $1.25. 
Letty's Springtime. By Helen Griffith. Price, 50 cents. 
Iietty's Good Iiuck. By Helen Griffith. Price. 50 cents. 
A I^ittle Princess of the Banch. By Alleen C. Hlgglns. 

Price, $1. 
A ilttle Maid of Massachusetts Colony. By Alice Turner 

Curtis. Price. 80 cents. 
A Iilttle Maid of Bunker Hill. By Alice Turner Curtis. 

Price, 80 cents. 
Nancy lee. By Margaret Warde, author of the Betty Wales 

books. This is the first volume of a new series by Miss 

Warde. Price. $1.25. 
Nancy Iiee's Spring Term. This is the second volume of 

Miss Warde's new series. Price, $1.36. 
Nancy Iiee's lK>okout. The third volume of Miss Warde's 

new series of college girls' stories. Price, $1.35. 
Peggy Owen. By Lucy Foster Madison. Price. $1. 
Peggy Owen, Patriot. By Lucy F. Madison. Price, $1. 
Peggy Owen at Yorktown. By Lucy Foster Madison. Price. 

Feg-gy Owen and liberty. By L. F, Madison. Price, 
Fatty's Bomance. By Carolyn Wells 



From a rorlralt. cSee page 45.) 


Qopfederat^ l/efcerai>. 


Memorial Tablets 

of the Highest Standard 

( )irr expr^t'i'iu*', i>( 27 y e!i'i;« 

i< fiiit liiiiniiitee ot iesults. 

Paul E. Cabaret & Go 

120-126 Elcrrnth Avenue 
New York 

Ulitftf .,u\l htol;ti-l sent [in ri'trui-st. 


tKat tesiaes making 
U. C. V. Uniforms 


also niakes an im- 
mense line of Regalia 
and Lodge Supplies 
for Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, p37tKians, 
Woodmen, etc.? 

Ever]; article guaranteed. Catalogs on request 


Established 50 Years 


A Bostonian was showing a Britisli 
visitor the sights of the Hub. They 
were driving past Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment. Not wishing to make any pointed 
reference to the fact that at one time 
we had been fighting with our cousins, 
the Boston gentleman merely indicated 
the monument with his thumb and said : 
"Bunker Hill." 

The Englishman looked at the hill 
intently and asked: "Who was Mr. 
Bunker, and what did he do to the 

"You don't understand," said the Bos- 
tonian. "This is where Warren fell." 

The Englishman screwed his monocle 
into his eye, leaned back, and, looking 
at the top of the towering shaft, re- 
marked inquiringly: "Killed him, of 

E. T. Easton, of Jacksonville, Tex., 
asks that any survivors of Company H, 
1st Mississippi Cavalry Reserves, organ- 
ized at Shubuta, Miss., in the early part 
of 1864, will kindly write him, as he is 
trying to prove his record in order to 
secure a pension. The regiment was 
organized at Enterprise, Miss. 

The Breaking Links 


Heroes of the World War. ( Poem.) By Rev. J. W. B.ichman 44 

What They Fought For. By E. Polk Johnson 44 

Gen. William Ruffin Co.x 4^ 

"Emergency Ammunition." By John C. Stiles 46 

The South's Tribute to Stonewall Jackson 47 

An Englishman's View of America. From Columbia Stale 49 

How Christianity Reached the Slaves. By Mrs. F. E. Selph 51 

Bledsoe's Silver Gun r. 

The Christian Character of Our Great Leaders. By Mrs. Eugenia Hill ,\rnold. 5.3 

Spotsylvania, Va., May 8 and 9, 1864. By I. G. Bradwell 56 

Ode to the Dead Confederacy. (Poem.) By Clara Dargan MacLean 57 

General Johnston's Campaign for the Relief of Vicksburg. By James H iMc- 

Neilly, D.D ^g 

The Evacuation of Nashville. By Capt. Joseph Boyce 60 

"The Captives of Abb's Valley." By Mrs. A. A. Campbell 63 

Initiating a Conscript. By Dr. L. A. Wailes 64 

In the Years of War. By John C. Stiles 65 

Departments : Last Roll 65 

U. D. C '....] „2 

C. S. M. A L 

Frank White, of Springfield, Mo. 
(Route 4, B'o.x 93), wishes to hear from 
Mr. John Furnish, who was in Captain 
Lemon's company, of Shelby's Brigade. 

T. B. Walker, of Elkhart, Kans., 
wishes to get in communication with 
some members of Company B, 3d Ten- 
nessee Infantry, Brown's Regiment, with 
which command he served during the 

WANTED— Copies of the Veteran 
for 1893. Any one having these num- 
bers will please write to R. F. Vaughan. 
Fairview, Ky., stating price, etc. 

John K. Stephens, now living at Sac- 
ramento, Cal. (2711 W Street), would 
be glad to hear from some. of the boys 
of the 8th Missouri Cavalry, especially 
any of them who were with Price in 
his last raid through Missouri. 

to purchase all-wool 

Bunting or 
Silk Flags 

of all kinds 

Silk Banners, Swords, Belts, Qps 

and all kinds of Military Equipment and 
Society Goods Is at 

Joel Flag L Regalia Co., 79 Nassau St. 

Sead for Price List New York City 


The following provisions of the new 
law are of vital importance to th^ mil- 
lions of former service men and their 
relatives and beneficiaries. Promulga- 
tion of this information by public- 
spirited citizens will constitute an im- 
portant and patriotic public service f^T 
the benefit of ex-soldiers, sailors and 
marines, and their families in every com- 

New and more liberal benefits for ex- 
service men and their relatives and 
beneficiaries effective December 24, 1919. 

Under the new amendment to the War 
Risk Insurance Act, which has been 
passed, by Congress and which became a 
law on December 24, 1919, when it was 
signed by the President, war-term in- 
surance, or United States government 
life (converted) insurance policies, may 
be made payable to any of the following 
list of beneficiaries : Parent, grandparent, 
step-parent, parent through adoption, 
wife or husband, child, grandchild, step- 
child, adopted child, brother, sister, half 
brother, half sister, brother through 
adoption, sister through adoption, step- 
brother, stepsister, uncle, aunt, nephew, 
niece, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, a 
person who has stood in the relation of 
a parent to the insured for a period of 
one year or more prior to the insured's 
enlistment or induction, the children of 
such person, parent, grandparent, step- 
parent, or parent through adoption of 
the insured's wife or husband 

United States government life (con- 
verted) insurance may now be paid at 
death in a lump sum or in installments 
for thirty-six months or more, at the 
option of the insured. 

Miss Lucy M. Cardwell, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, writes : "I have but recently 
become familiar with the Veter.\n, and 
I find it so interesting that I desire to 
become a subscriber." 

Qopfederati^ l/eterap. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1S70. 

Acceptance of mailing at special rate of postagre provided for In Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1017, and anthorizetl on July 5, 191 S, 

Published by tlie Trustees of the Confedekatk VtTKKAN, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Dalt.iiteks of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Okg\nizations, 

Confederated Southern Mi£moriai- Association. 

TIioue;h men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will lionor the brave, vanquished none llie less. 

IPricb. $1.00 PER Tear, i 
Single Copt, 10 Cents. I 



No. 2. I 


[From Richmond Tiiiics-Disf'atcti.] 

Aiiollicr link in that human chain wliioli connects the Old 
Soutli with the New South is broken by the death of Gen. 
William Ruflin Cox. So rapidly are the famous leaders of 
the Civil War period passing that soon the old order will 
have become but a glorious memory, a tradition to be cher- 
ished forever and ever by generations that must learn tlicir 
history of the South only from its written records. * * * 

General Cox was typical of the South, of the Soulh's best 
in strong, self-reliant, independent manhood. Like thousands 
of others of its young men in the year.s immediately preced- 
ing the war, he saw the clouds gathering over his beloved 
homeland, and he set about preparing for the breaking of the 
storm. The first shot at Sumter found him ready, his troops 
organized, and from that hour to the day when his soldiers, 
his sturdy North Carolinians, acting under his orders, fired 
the final volley at Appomattox, he was in active service, fight- 
ing, fighting, always fighting for the cause he knew was 
right, but which he was doomed to sec defeated. Eleven 
wounds he bore to the grave, honored w'ounds from Northern 
Imllcts, scars in which he gloried throughout the long years 
he was spared after the coming of peace. The list of en- 
gagements in which he fought, names written in letters of 
living light, is sufficient evidence of the warrior's role he 
played — ATeadow Bridge, Seven Days, Malvern Hill, Sharps- 
burg. Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania, with its 
I'.loody Angle, the Valley, Petersburg, Appomat- 
tox. What memories they stir, and what a heritage of glory 
for any warrior to leave! 

As he fought for the South on the field of battle, so he 
fought for it in the dark days of Reconstruction, his ardor 
and determination undiminished by the unsuccessful outcome 
of the armed conflict. Setting his face to the tasks of peace, 
he took a leading part in the work for his native State. As 
a judge, member of Congress, and as a wise leader in the 
coimcils of his party he did much for the restoration of tran- 
quillity and for the maintenance of supremacy of the white 
race, threatened by the old carpetbag regime. Had he cared 
to do so, he might have received far higher honors than those 
he accepted ; but he was fvgr content to work along his 

chosen lines, caring little for personal preferment, and to his 
credit be it recorded that his achievements in peace were 
equally meritorious with those of war. And in his ripe old 
age, honored by North and by South, he gave to the service 
of a reunited country, gave gladly and proudly, a son who 
fought in France under the Stars and Stripes, a son who 
brought fresh credit and happiness to the aged warrior. Now 
he has answered the last roll call and passed over the river, 
where one likes to believe that he is reunited with Lee, Jack- 
son, Ramseur, and all those other fellow heroes whose glory 
even the passing of time cannot dim. 

[From Richmond Neivs-Leadcr.] 

William Riiffin Cox was the last of all the generals born in 
North Carolina. That of itself is a fact that calls for more 
than passing notice. Virginia cradlecl the three greatest strate- 
gists of the War between the States, barring the wizard For- 
rest ; Soutli Carolina gave the Confederate cavalrymen and 
corps commanders; North Carolina supplied a notable array 
of brigade and divisional leaders. In addition to Braxton 
Bragg, who was a full general, and the beloved T. H. Holmes, 
who ranked as a lieutenant general. North Carolina gave the 
Confederacy twenty-four brigadier generals and seven major 
generals. Among the latter were some upon whom Lee leaned 
heavily. J. F. Gilmer was of the major generals, a brilliant 
engineer to whom historians owe the best maps of Southern 
battle fields; Maj. Gen. Bryan Grimes was also a North 
Carolinian and had the peculiar honor of receiving from a 
Carolinian and passing on to another son of the Old North 
Stale the order to clear the Bloody Angle. Of Hoke, that 
old war horse, of Pender, of Ramseur, of Robert Ransom, 
and of the luckless Whiting, all North Carolina major gen- 
erals, it is unnecessao' to speak. Without exception, their 
names are written on some of the finest pages of Southern 
history. Of North Carolina brigadiers, who can forget 
Branch or Clingman or Daniel ? What veteran does not re- 
member "Jim" Lane and "Mat" Ransom and Gabriel J. Rains, 
who might in times of peace have been a mechanical genius? 
.^nd who docs not put on the same scroll J. J. Pettigrcw, who 
led his brigade up the hill at Gettysburg? Gallant was that 
company, deathless its honor I 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 

C^or^federati^ l/eterai>. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
OflSce: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this ptiblication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throuixhout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 


The following tribute to "Our Boys, the Heroes of 1917-18," 
was written by Rev. J. W. Bachman, Chaplain General U. C. 
v., and was read at the memorial hour during the U. D. C. 
Convention at Tampa, Fla. : 

"They sleep well on the front beneath the cross of wood ; 

Those white crosses are their patent of nobility and badge 
of patriotism, for they are the price of blood : 

Their faith cried out, 'Noblesse oblige/ and they met the chal- 
lenge at the front with the shout of victory. 

That wooden cross is our honor and their honor ; 

They are ours, and we are theirs. 

We thank God they belong to us, that they are our crowns 

of rejoicing. 
It makes us glad to know that they counted not their lives 

dear unto themselves that they might do the 
Will of God and serve their country. 

There were some who were not permitted to view the land 

that was afar off, but in their own 
Country, in camps, in the hospitals, by the wayside. 

When the call came clear 
Fevered lips and body worn. 
Racked by pain so bravely borne. 
Answered, 'Here.' 

"For them also and for those who rest beneath the waves 
'till the sea gives up her dead' we give thanks at the remem- 
brance of their heroism, which is a precious thing to us. 

"They have lifted up our young manhood to a plane far 
above the earthly. 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but 
by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord.' 
They did not die; they lived by dying. 'Death was swal- 
lowed up in victory.' 'There is a glory in graves, there is a 
grandeur in tombs,' for out of that darkness future greatness 
is born. True life grips the eternal at the command of God 
and mounts from the human to the divine. The simple mark- 
ing of their resting place bids us 'carry on' and live for the 
things for which they died." 


During the morning of October 11 exercises were held in 
the Confederate Museum to mark the presentation of the 
sword of Stonewall Jackson to the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society for that valuable collection of Confederate 
relics. The presentation was made by Mrs. Randolph Pres- 
ton, of Charlotte, N. C, granddaughter of General Jackson, 
on behalf of her brother, Lieut. Col. Thomas J. Jackson 
Christian, who has been on duty overseas and could not be 

As President of the Society, Miss Sallie Archer Anderson 
presided, and prayer was offered by Rev. James Power Smith. 
Maj. William A. Anderson, of Lexington, made the address, 
and the sword was accepted by Governor Davis on behalf 
of the Society. 



Does the devil ever tell the truth, I wonder? It would be 
no more surprising than the return to sanity and truthfulness 
displayed by certain parties in the North who during the War 
between the States solemnly proclaimed that the struggle was 
being waged solely for the preservation of the Union and the 
return of the Southern States to their rightful place in the 
sisterhood of States. Any such charge as that the object of 
the war was for the freedom of the negro was resented as 
casting unjust reflection upon the Union soldiers — volunteers, 
drafted men, and foreign-born hirelings — who were risking 
their lives, precious and otherwise, that the perpetuity of the 
Union, founded by our fathers, might be assured. Fighting 
that the negro might be free I Perish the thought ! They were 
patriots, they were, and knew what they were fighting for, and 
that was that the blessed Union might be saved, casting at 
the same time a side glance at the $13 per month in the shape 
of a most persuasive force. 

How things, matters, and opinions do change as time pur- 
sues its way! In the Literary Digest for December 20, 1919, 
pages 32 and 33, appears an article under the caption, "The 
Belated Lincoln Monument," and a prominent quotation from 
the Boston Transcript, from which this persuasive paragraph 
is copied. The Transcript is describing the monument for the 
benefit of its readers as follows: "The memorial can be seen 
to-day from almost any vantage point about Washington. 
When the grounds are completed and everything is in place, 
it will rise many feet above the tops of the trees which will 
surround it, even when they are full grown. By means of 
openings in the encircling foliage it will be seen in its entirety 
from six different approaches. Its whole eastern and western 
facades will be exposed to view, the former toward the Wash- 
ington Monument and the latter toward the Potomac River 
and the hills of Arlington, where rest thousands of the men 
who fought that the negro might be freed." 

There you have the solemn truth in the fourteen closing 
words of the quotation. I call it the "solemn truth" because 
no self-respecting Massachusetts man begins the day without 
having first read a chapter from James Russell Lowell before 
partaking of the daily news in the Transcript, the two publi- 
cations forming somewhat a dual Bible, in that neither is to 
be disputed. 

Does the devil ever tell the truth? was. asked at the begin- 
ning of this article. The answer is: "Occasionally in the of- 
fice of the Boston Transcript." 

The prize of fifty dollars offered by the Veteran for the 
largest number of subscriptions reported by one person from 
November i to December 31 was won by Mrs. R. P. Holt, of 
Rocky Mount, N. C, with a close second in Mrs. W. L. C. 
Palmer, of Independence, Mo. Both of these ladies are promi- 
nent in U. D. C. work, and Mrs. Holt has made a splendid 
record as leader of the Bethel Heroes Chapter. Children of 
the Confederacy, which was awarded the Ricks banner for its 
work in 1918. 

A Voice from New England. — The following comes from 
Frank Baldwin, of Waltham, Mass. : "Will you kindly con- 
tinue to send 'this old Yank' the Confederate Veteran for 
another twelve months? Though we may live to be one hun- 
dred years old, we shall never tire of reading the stories of 
the boys, both gray and blue, who fought away back in the 
years of 1861 to 1865." 

Qopfederat^ Ueteraij. 



Gen. William Ruffin Cox, of North Carolina, distinguished 
as soldier, jurist, and statesman, died in Richmond, Va., on 
December 26, 1919, in his eighty-eighth year. Of the few sur- 
viving generals of the Confederacy, he had perhaps enjoyed 
the most vigorous old age up to a year ago, when his health 
began to fail. In his consecrated service to his State and 
people he was richly entitled to that heirship of length of days 
accorded by divine promise. 

William Ruffin Cox was born at Scotland Neck, N. C„ 
March 11, 1832. His first American ancestor on the paternal 
side was John Cox, an efficient officer in the British navy, who 
emigrated to the New World and settled in Edenton, N. C, an 
old, aristocratic locality, and there married into the distin- 
guished Cheshire family. His energy was conspicuous in the 
American merchant service in the War of 1812, and his duties 
were hazardous. His eldest son. Thomas Cox. married Olivia, 
daughter of Marmaduke Norfleet, a wealthy planter of Hali- 
fax County and descendant of good Virginia as well as 
North Carolina families. 

Thomas Cox was a prosperous and useful citizen of his 
State, a leading politician as well as agriculturist and mer- 
chant. He represented his county in the Senate of 1823, and 
as one who looked into the needs of the future he was a 
pioneer in the construction of railroads through North Caro- 
lina. He died early, and his widow removed to Tennessee 
and devoted her best efforts to the rearing of her children, 
the youngest son of whom was William Ruffin Cox. At the 
early age of fifteen he entered Franklin College, near Nash- 
ville, from which he graduated with distinction. He then 
studied law at Lebanon College, was admitted to the bar in 
1852, and practiced his profession successfully in Nashville 
until 1857. Some time after his marriage to Miss Penelope 
B. Battle, of Nashville, he returned to North Carolina and 
began lo cultivate his lands in Edgecombe County. But two 
years later he again took up the practice of law at Raleigh 
and entered into the political and economic life of the State, 
though continuing to superintend his plantation. 

Momentous times were approaching — times to call out the 
highest qualities of any man. Looking into the future, Wil- 
liam Cox began to prepare for the grim emergency of war. 
Of his own means he equipped a light battery and subsequently 
recruited a company of infantry. Realizing his eminent fit- 
ness to command and inspire, the Governor of the State ap- 
pointed him major of the 2d North Carolina Troops, and 
thus the military service of William Ruffin Cox began. 

After six months' experience he was put in command of 
heavy artillery at Pratt's Point, on the Potomac River, and 
in June, 1862, his regiment was the first to cross Meadow 
Bridge at IMechanicsville under terrible fire. The next day, 
as all of the field officers hfld fallen, Major Cox led this gal- 
lant band into the Seven Days' Battles, so famous in the an- 
nals of war. His courage w'as contagious and his endurance 
almost supernatural in the heroic effort to beat McClcUan 
back. At Malvern Hill he was badly wounded and did not 
rejoin his regiment (ill after the battle of South Mountain. 

Again at Sharpsburg his courage was wonderful. Colonel 
Tew fell there. Colonel Bynum was promoted to the vacancy, 
and Major Cox became lieutenant colonel. After the battle 
of Fredericksburg Colonel Bynum resigned, and Cox took his 

At Chanccllorsvillc Colonel Cox displayed reinarkable cool- 
ness and military ability, and his regiment was one of the 
sixteen North Carolina regiments that Jackson led across 
Hooker's front. Cox, fearless and assured, with unusual skill 

drove the enemy from their works and actually mocked with 
wonderful endurance the five wounds that he had received. 
Ramseur in his famous report called him ''the chivalrous Cox, 
the accomplished gentleman, the splendid soldier, the warm 
friend, who fought, in spite of five bleeding wounds, till he 
sank exhausted." And the immortal Jackson sent through 
Robert E. Lee a message to the famous brigade. 

At Spotsylvania William Ruffin Cox and his defiant brigade 
again won undying fame by their reckless intrepidity in driv- 
ing the eneiny from the Bloody Angle after twenty-three 
liour.s' conflict, and the command was commended for its 
achievement by General Lee and the corps commander. Lieu- 
tenant General Ewell. Soon after this Ramseur received his 
commission as major general, and Cox led the brigade which 
had won its spurs for courage and ability. 

General Cox was with Early in the Valley Campaign and 
the movement to Washington, and his brigade had the dis- 
tinction of being the nearest to approach to the national 

From his dramatic experience with Early, General Cox was 
called to aid Lee at Petersburg, and there he w-as placed in 
command of two miles of front under this immortal chieftain, 
and again he received the highest commendation for his con- 
duct. It was at Sailor's Creek, when Lee was overwhelmed 
with apprehension, that Cox's Brigade cheered his sad heart. 

At Chanccllorsvillc, stoical endurance and three wounds; 
at Spotsj'lvania, greater endurance, remarkable courage, and 
promotion ; finally Petersburg to Appomattox ! In the tragic 
demoralization of this ghastly march soldiers struggled along 
almost bewildered, many falling out of ranks half dazed. On 
rushed the enemy fully equipped and intoxicated with victory, 
and the Confederates made a stand to save the trains, while 
Robert E. Lee on his horse stood on a bit of rising ground 
and deputed his staff to rally the stragglers. Presently he 
saw an advancing column, small but complete, with its stal- 
wart commander at the head. As this coluinn took its posi- 
tion General Lee asked: "What troops are these?" "Cox's 
North Carolina." was the reply, "God bless old North Caro- 
lina !"' Lee exclaimed, and for a second the sad countenance 
relaxed into a smile. Cox's Brigade made the very last charge 
at Appomattox, 

On April 9 the pitiful remnant of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, after six days of retreat and continual fighting. 
reached Appomattox. Gordon's Corps before and Longstreet's 
Corps behind awaited the signal for a general advance, the 
cavalry already skirmishing right and front. Grimes was 
called temporarily to another part of the field, and General 
Cox was put in command of the division. General Gordon 
ordered him to throw forward up the slope of the hill. He 
obeyed with immediate celerity, and the impetuous color bear- 
ers bore their flags too far forward. Soon Cook's and Cox's 
Brigades received a terrible artillery fire from a battery in 
front. Nothing daunted, they advanced, charged boldly, and 
captured it. The F'ederal cavalry attacked fiercely, but, un- 
supported by the infantry, it had to retire. 

General Cox heard that the woods in front were full of 
troops under General Ord, and he took a commanding posi- 
tion and ordered a halt. Presently columns of infantry bore 
down upon the flanks and center of the division, and the firing 
was resumed, Couriers from Gordon ordered the withdrawal 
of the division, and it was ingeniously accomplished. 

The Federal army, conscious of the movement, advanced 
so rapidly that the situation became alarming. Something 
must check them. What? General Cox at once ordered 
through an aid the regimental commanders to meet him at its 


^opfederat^ l/eterap, 

center without halting the command. This was done im- 
mediately. Then he pointed to a hill between them and the 
enemy and ordered them to face their right about, double- 
quick to the crest of the hill, and before the enemy could 
realize their action to halt and fire upon them by brigade, 
then with equal rapidity to face about and join the division 
in retreat. With a wild Rebel yell Cox's Brigade swiftly and 
precisely obeyed the shrill mandate: "Halt! Ready! Aim! 
Fire !" And the last shot at Appomattox is the immortal ver- 
dict of Cox's Brigade, which safely withdrew and rejoined 
the division. 

"Gallantly, gloriously done !" was the salute of General Gor- 
don; and although the white flag of surrender waved and a 
beautiful cause was apparently lost, to the brigade of Gen. 
William Ruffin Cox is due the credit of giving the parting 

The experience of war did not weaken the energy of Gen- 
eral Cox, and he turned his attention to the healing and 
reconciling work of peace, realizing that a strenuous life was 
ahead. He resumed the practice of law in Raleigh, but the 
rare qualities of his character — his executive ability, calm 
judgment, keen foresight, and philosophy — made him essential 
to the public life of his State, and in the darkness of the 
miserable carpetbag rule he used his best efforts to destroy it. 
In 1865 he was elected solicitor of the Metropolitan District, 
thus discounting the boasted Republican majority of forty 
thousand in the State. He was then the only Democrat in 
North Carolina in a prominent position, but his work as 
Chairman of the State Democratic Committee resulted in a 
Democratic majority which made him the peace hero of the 
State. For the next decade he was prominent in political 
leadership in North Carolina, declining to run for Governor 
in order to continue his work for his party. Governor Vance 
appointed him judge of the Metropolitan District in 1877, 
which he resigned to enter the wider field of national politics, 
and he was elected to the Forty-Seventh Congress of the 
United States, where his career was similarly successful. He 
was three times elected to Congress and served on some of 
the most important committees, notably that of Foreign Af- 
fairs and Civil Service Reform. His declaration that civil 
service reform is the essence of democracy will ever survive 
as a national legend. 

In 1892 General Cox was elected Secretary of the United 
States Senate, an office requiring not only ability, but tact, 
exactness, and cordiality, and he had the unique distinction 
of serving in this capacity under both Democratic and Re- 
publican Presidents. 

In reviewing the life of General Co.x it is found that inter- 
laced with his most conspicuous efforts and earnest official 
labors was earnest action for the alleviation of his people. He 
was chairman of the committee which established the North 
Carolina Journal of Education, and his influence carried 
through some of the most vital reforms. 

General Cox was especially gifted as an orator, and he 
delivered some notable orations on Memorial Day and other 
important occasions in North Carolina and Virginia. At the 
Mecklenburg Declaration Centenary in North Carolina he 
acted as chief marshal and orator in the place of Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston. 

Since 1905 General Cox had lived in Richmond, Va., but 
he continued to keep up his plantation in North Carolina, for, 
like a golden thread, in his heart was love of the soil. He 
was for some time President of the North Carolina Agricul- 
tural Society, and his leadership was to the benefit of the 
land of his State. Age never dimmed the activity of mind 
and body, and nature, with her perpetual change and problem, 

was ever an interesting study for him. He was Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of Masons of North Carolina, and for 
years he was a trustee of the University of the South. 
Through life he was a devoted member of the Episcopal 
Church, of which he was long a vestryman and often a dele- 
gate to its conventions. 

General Cox is survived by his third wife, who was Miss 
Kate Cabell, daughter of Henry Coalter Cabell, of Richmond, 
and two sons, children of his marriage to Miss Lyman, of 
North Carolina. The older son. Col. Albert Cox, returned 
six months ago from France, where he distinguished himself 
as an artillery officer, like his father. The other son is Capt. 
Francis Cox, of North Carolina. 



In reference to the above article in the January Veteran, 
our own war shows many instances where the Confederates, 
when running out of ammunition, used rocks with telling 
effect. The "Official Records" show that we used them at 
Romney, Va., also in the second battle of Manassas, where 
Jackson's men kept the Yankees back with this weapon ; and 
at Gettysburg Tate's North Carolinians, getting in a hot cor- 
ner, held the fort temporarily with these missiles. 

At Berwick, La., Green's men lambasted the foe with bricks; 
but as they were returned to the senders, they were more in 
the nature of a boomerang than anything else. 

At Gettysburg General Hancock was busted with a ten- 
penny nail which presumably came from a "ragged Rebel" 
who, lacking the proverbial silver bullet to kill the devil with, 
took the next best thing he could get and sent it along with 
his best wishes, and I imagine if that billet hit the "superb 
one" slab-sided he quickly realized that the "something com- 
ing to bim" had arrived. 

And then we Georgians had the famous "Joe Brown" pike, 
with which our State militia was armed; but as I can find ! 
nothing to show where our "Fireside Rangers" came to close 
grips with any opponent, I am not able to prove or disprove 
the fact that the aforesaid "jobber" was a deadly weapor or 
otherwise. I presume, however, that a man could have been 
killed with this instrument, provided he would let it be done. 


As to the statement that the above organization (known as 
Blythe's Mississippi Regiment) made a charge in this fight 
with no weapons other than their fists and that upon emerging 
each survivor was armed with a Yankee rifle, the "Official 
Records" tell us that this regiment was in Chalmers's Brigade < 
of Withers's Division, and before it got fairly in its brigadier 
was knocked out, and consequently when the next ranking 
officer. Col. W. T. White, of the gth Mississippi, had been ■ 
located and took charge the brigade as a unit had ceased to 
exist; but as the 44th lost four killed, thirty-one wounded, 
and seventeen missing in the charge, it goes to show that they 
were among those present on this occasion. If General Chal- 
mers or Colonel White had made a report of this battle and 
the 44th had gone in unarmed, the fact would certainly have 
been mentioned ; but as they did not, it will have to be proved 
or disproved by some one that was there with them. Per- 
sonally, I don't believe it was possible, as General Bragg had 
reported a short time previous to this that for the first time 
since the war started they had more arms than they had men 
to wield them, and I feel sure that he would have kept enough 
to supply his own army. As there were seven thousand small 
[Continued on page 78.] 

^opfederat^ Uetera^. 



After more than half a century from the time Stonewall 
Jackson fell at Chancellorsville, a great memorial has been 
erected in his honor at Richmond, Va., the combined tribute 
of his native State and the whole South. This handsome eques- 
trian monument was unveiled on the nth of October, 1919, 
and of those who had served on the staff of the great com- 
mander only one was left to take part in its dedication. It 
stands at the intersection of Monument Avenue and the 
Boulevard in this beautiful Southern city, and the bronze 
figure of rider and horse rises to a height of seventeen feet 
over the base. It is the work of F. William Sievers, who also 
made the Virginia Memorial at Gettysburg, the magnificent 
equestrian statue of General Lee. 

The monument represents a total cost of approximately 
$40,000, of which $10,000 was appropriated by the legislature 
of Virginia, $10,000 was given by the city of Richmond, and 
$S,ooo was raised by the sale of Confederate flags by a com- 
mittee of the Richmond ladies. The remainder represents 
individual contributions from all over the South. The Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy have everywhere assisted actively in 
securing contributions and arousing interest in this memorial. 

The unveiling exer- 
cises were presided 
over liy Capt. James 
Power Smith, the solo 
survivor of Jackson's 
staff, and little .Anna 
Jackson Preston un- 
veiled the bronze stat- 
ue of her great-grand- 
father, assisted by the 
little son of the sculp- 
tor. The orator of the 
day was Col. Robert K. 
Lee, grandson of Gen. 
R. E. Lee. In the pa- 
rade as escort of honor 
was the corps of cadets 
from the Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute, in which 
Jackson was instructor 
before going into the 
Confederate army. 
Representatives of the 
leading families of the 
Old Dominion and 
other States had prom- 
inent places in this 
parade, and many mili- 
tary companies of the 
State and city gave 
that feature of distinc- 
tion to tlie pageant. 

Thi; J.vcksox Me- 


A historical sketch 
of the various monu- 
ments to Stonewall 
Jackson and the occa- 
sion of their erection, 
with an account of 
the Stonewall Jackson 
Monument Corporation 

Photo by H. P. Coolt, 

Richmond. Va. 

and its work in the erection of the equestrian memorial in 
Richmond, was prepared by the Rev. James Power Smith, 
President of the Monument Corporation and sole survivor of 
Jackson's staff, and was read by him as a part of the unveil- 
ing exercises. It is here given : 

"When Gen. Thomas J. Jackson fell at Chancellorsville. 
to the men from all the Confederate States, whom he had 
won to a profound and undying devotion, there seemed noth- 
ing they could do too great to show their admiration, their 
confidence, and their love. Throughout the Southland there 
was the thought and the purpose to remember their great 
leader and perpetuate his memory in some enduring form. 

"Dramatic and memorable was the meeting of the Stone- 
wall Brigade on the field of Spotsylvania, after Chancellors- 
ville, when resolutions were adopted with bowed heads and 
deep emotion pledging themselves to erect a monument which 
would testify to their love and perpetuate his memory to gen- 
erations to come. But when at last the war was ended, those 
men who survived went back to immediate and universal in- 
austry to feed and clothe an impoverished people. 

"In 1875 there came across the seas the gift to Virginia of 
English gentlemen, led by Mr. Beresford-Hope, the splendid 

portrait statue of 
Stonewall Jackson 
which stands in our 
Capitol Square. It was 
received by Governor 
Kemper for Virginia, 
and the statue was un- 
veiled October 26, 1875, 
and the oration de- 
livered by the Rev. 
Moses D. Hoge, D.D. 
That statue has given 
a profound satisfaction 
to our people. 

"An association was 
formed at Fredericks- 
burg to erect a me- 
morial on the spot 
where Jackson fell. It 
was designed by Col. 
W. E. Cutshaw and 
built of Virginia gran- 
ite cut for the Rich- 
mond City Hall. It 
was unveiled and dedi- 
cated June 13, 1888, 
with an oration by 
John Warwick Daniel, 
soldier and Senator. 

"In 1891 the noble 
statue of Jackson by 
Edward V. Valentine 
over Jackson's grave in 
Lexington was un- 
veiled, when the orator 
was Gen. Jubal A. 
Early. And later a 
statue of Jackson fro- 
the skill of Sir Moses 
Ezekicl w3s erected in 
the Capitol Square at 
Charleston, W. Va.^ 
and a replica was given 



Qoi^federat^ l/eterai). 

by Sir Closes himself to the Virginia Military Institute, Lex- 
ington, Ya. 

"There was still the widely prevailing sentiment that Vir- 
ginia and her sister States had not yet accomplished that 
which it was in their hearts to do, to erect an equestrian 
monument to Jackson, our own memorial and our gift to 
generations after us. 

"Again and again the desire found expression in published 
letters, in appeals to the legislature, and in public orations. 
Men from all sections and from other lands asked : 'Where is 
your monument to Stonewall Jackson?' 

"At last, in 191 1, a circular letter was sent out calling a 
meeting of those interested. The call emanated from Capt. 
W. M. Myers and the officers and men of the Richmond 
Howitzers. The first meeting was held November 29, 191 1, 
in Lee Camp Hall, with the Mayor of the city, Hon. D. C. 
Richardson, in the chair. The first contribution came from 
W. H. McCarthy, of the Veteran Howitzer Association. Or- 
ganization was effected and officers elected, with a board of 
directors, as follows : Officers — James Power Smith, Presi- 
dent; Judge George L. Christian, First Vice President; Mrs. 
Edgar D. Taylor, Second Vice President; W. Witcher Keen, 
Third Vice President; Capt. William M. Myers, Secretary 
(who, entering the military service of the country, was suc- 
ceeded by Col. W. S. Archer) ; E. D. Hotchkiss, Treasurer. 
Directors — Col. W. S. Archer, Maj. W. A. Anderson, Capt. 
J. Thompson Brown, the Hon. D. C. Richardson, Mrs. Nor- 
man V. Randolph, Mrs. Charles E. Rolling, Miss Anna B. 
Boykin, Miss Kate Mason Rowland, Maj. T. M. Wortham, 
Edwin P. Cox, Gen. W. W. Sale, Col. John S. Harwood. 
To the board there were added later Gen. C. J. Anderson, 
Gen. Jo Lane Stern, T. Peyton Giles, Capt. John Lamb, John 
Stewart Bryan, Edgar D. Taylor, and Mrs. B. A. Blenner. 
During our seven years of service we have mourned the re- 
moval by death of three valuable and honored members. Mrs. 
Edgar Taylor, the Second Vice President, Miss Kate Mason 
Rowland, and Col. John S. Harwood. 

"On the evening of April 29, 1914, a great public assembly 
filled the city auditorium, organized and conducted by Mrs. 
G. T. W. Kern, Historian of the Richmond Cbater, U. D. C, 
Gov. Henry Carter Stuart presiding, and the meeting was ad- 
dressed by the Hon. A. J. Montague, Dr. S. C. Mitchell, John 
Stewart Bryan, and the President of the Jackson Monument 
Corporation. This great meeting was notably graced by the 
presence of the venerable widow of our hero, Mrs. Mary Anna 

"Following this, on May i, 1914, came the Jackson Flag 
Day, when the ladies of the United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy, with splendid organization and indomitable spirit, 
brought abbut $S,ooo into our treasury. 

"The site, corner of Monument Avenue and the Boulevard, 
was determined on November 30, 1914, and the corner stone 
was laid June 3, 1915, with an appropriate address by the 
Hon. William A. Anderson, of Lexington, Va. 

"The Association and the people of Virginia are indebted 
to Mrs. N. V, Randolph and the Richmond Chapter of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy; to Mrs. A. A. Camp- 
bell and the Virginia Division of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy; to Mrs. G. T. W. Kern for the great memorial 
meeting in the auditorium and the large success of the Jack- 
son monument flag day ; to Mr. E. D. Hotchkiss, our Treas- 
urer, for the watchful care and the increase of funds ; to the 
Hon. Henry Carter Stuart, Governor of Virginia, the legisla- 
ture of the State, the Council and the Board of Aldermen of 
the city of Richmond, and to Col. Barton H. Grundy, of the 

Finance Committee; to the unfailing devotion to the cause of 
all the members of the Board and to F. William Sievers, our 
gifted sculptor, who has won for himself a lasting fame. And 
now to the State of Virginia, to the city of Richmond, to the 
people of all our Southland, and to the sons and daughters of 
all Confederates with profound and grateful satisfaction we 
present our completed work." 

Jackson's St.\ff Officers. 

Of those who served on the staff of General Jackson in the 
several staff departments and at various times, four fell in 
battle : Capt. James Keith Boswell, engineer officer, Fauquier 
County, fell at Chancellorsville; Col. Edward Willis, 12th 
Georgia Infantry, Savannah, Ga., fell at Cold Harbor; Lieut. 
Col. A. S. Pendleton, A. A. G., Lexington, Va., fell at Fisher's 
Hill ; Col. Stapleton Crutchfield, chief of artillery of the Vir- 
ginia Military Institute, fell on retreat from Petersburg. 

At the beginning of the war, when Jackson went to Harper's 
Ferry, there came to his aid from the V. M. I. Col. J. T. L. 
Preston, Prof. James Massie, Col. Alfred Jackson, Col. Staple- 
ton Crutchfield. 

To these were added Maj. John Harman, chief quarter- 
master; Maj. W. Hawkes, chief commissary; Dr. Hunter Mc- 
Guire, medical director; Capt. George Junkin, A. D. C. ; Maj. 
Jed. Hotchkiss, topographical engineer. 

And the following came from time to time: Major Bier, 
ordnance ; Capt. J. M. Garnett, ordnance ; Col. William Allan ; 
Colonel Snead, assistant inspector general; Maj. H. K. Doug- 
las, inspector general; Capt. W. Wilbourne, chief of signal 
officers; Maj. D. B. Bridgforth, provost marshal; Maj. R. L. 
Dabney, A. A. S. ; Lieut. Col. C. J. Falkner, A. A. S. ; Capt. 
J. P. Smith, A. D. C, ix)w the sole surviving member of the 


[Poem written by Dr. Beverly R. Tucker and read at the 
unveiling of the Jackson monument in Richmond, Va., Oc- 
tober II, 1919.] 

Mold him in bronze, son of our sod ! 

Mount him on steed, not a throne ! 
Leader of men, servant of God, 

Raise him on wall built of stone ! 

Peerless the chieftain we know. 

Fearless and matchless and true. 
Jackson, no statue can show 

Love that the South hath for you. 

Stone wall wert thou to our needs; 

None can thy honor assail ; 
Wonders the world at thy deeds — 

Strategy's master we hail I 

Stand with thy comrades on earth — 

Davis and Stuart and Lee. 
Know that the land of thy birth 

Prouder of none is than thee. 

Thou, 'mongst the first of the blest. 
Early crossed — "right arm of Lee's" — 

Over the river to rest — 

Rest 'neath the shade of the trees. 

Qopj'ederac^ l/eterai>. 



[Editorial from the State, Columbia, S. C, of Sunday, Oc- 
tober 26, 1919.] 

Perhaps'ithe chief requisite in a historical work should be 
its adherence to the truth. We say perhaps because there are 
some persons who insist that the readability of any work is 
its ultimate excuse for being. On both counts Cecil Chester- 
ton's "History of the United States" deserves to survive. 

As to the question of historical verities, the world still holds 
to a large extent the point of view of Pontius Pilate in regard 
to truth, and those of a historical nature seem particularly 
hard to get at. Wc are all agreed, however, as to the fact 
that a history sliould not be misleading. .\ fair and dispas- 
sionate attitude on the part of the author is desirable. It 
should not be a piece of special pleading nor an attempt to 
.■olor facts in accordance with the writer's prejudices or pre- 

Sometimes sucli a point of view is most easily obtainable by 
one who is entirely outside of the phase which he undertakes 
to describe. The fairest account of the war between the sec- 
tions, for instance, is by many considered to be that given by 
an Englishman, Percy Greg. Naturally there are disadvan- 
tages in 5\ich detachment. It is generally supposed that a 


The unanimous election of Mrs. .Stunston as President of tlie 
KentiuUy Division, U. D, C, In .September. 19ia, shows tlie 
eeneral iipiireciation of lier work In llie organiziiUon for years. 
Slie served as President of tlie Mu.vtield Chapter and for two 
terms as Ueoording Secretary of tlie Kentucky Division. She 
made a fine record as a puMic liealth worker under State ap- 
pointment, servioK as Vice Presiileiit of the Kentucky Board of 
Tuberculosis Commissioners, and is now Secretary of the State 
Health and Welfare League. Mrs. Stunston is a daughter of 
Albert McNeill Winn, and traces her ancestry to Virslnia revo- 
lutionary and colonial patriots. Her handsome home is the 
scene of much old Kentucky hospitality. 

man who knows most of incidents and has been in closest 
touch with them is most fitted to represent them. But there 
is such a thing as knowing too much about a subject, because 
that generally means knowing too exclusively one side of it. 
Very often the outsider, as in other sports, sees most of the 

The book which we are considering was written, as Gilbert 
Chesterton, the more famous brother of the author, states in 
his introduction, "often in the intervals of bitter warfare and 
by the aid of a brilliant memory.'' Largely, therefore, written 
where reference books were not available, it is consequently 
not free from minor inaccuracies. On the whole, however, it 
presents a breadth of view and fairness of outlook no less 
than remarkable. In that sense it is a good history. 

.\s to its readability, we do not remember any history of 
our country which is as easy and fluent reading as this. Cecil 
Chesterton lays no claim to the scintillating, epigrammatic, 
controversial style of his brother. To the lover of paradox 
and word jugglery he will be disappointing. To the adinirer 
of sane and natural English he will prove a delight. He 
adopts a clear narrative style, w'ith no leaning on the one 
hand to dramatic rhetoric in the grand manner of Gibbon and 
none on the other hand to the textbook of accuracy which 
distinguishes those well-hated gentlemen who write for stu- 
dents, their pages bristling with dates like quills upon the 
fretful porcupine or guns upon the truculent battleship. Dates 
are kept down to the extreme minimum. Lists of the skir- 
mishes which we in our younger days were forced to learn 
as the battle of this or the siege of that are mercifully 
omitted. Whatever is mentioned has a definite bearing on the 
destinies of the whole. 

There appear, however, flashes of originality which sug- 
gest a Chesterton family quality. For instance, when he speaks 
of the idea of taxation without representation used as a 
grievance, as being, "in view of the constitution of that Par- 
liaincnt (of 1764'), soiriewhat comic." Not only the American 
colonial of that day was voteless: the vast majority of English- 
men were in tlie same box. When the latter of the lower 
classes had a vote, casting it was a mere matter of form, owing 
to the prevalence of the "pocket borouglis," which men like 
Burke were fighting for, even while taking the part of the 
.\mericans and deploring abroad the conditions which they 
supported at home. 

It is, however, wdien Chesterton touches on the questions 
which most concern our section of the country that he becomes 
most interestuig. at least to the Southerner. In his preface he 
strikes the note of his comprehension of the situation : "The 
whole future of our civilization may depend upon a thoroughly 
good understanding between those nations which are now 
joined in battle for its defense, and that ignorance of each 
other's history is perhaps the greatest inenace to such an 
understanding. To take one instance at random, how many 
English writers have censured * * * the treatment of 
negroes in Southern States in all its phases, varying from the 
provision of separate waiting rooms to sporadic lynching! 
How few ever mention or seem to have even heard the word 
'Reconstruction,' a word wdiich in its historical coimotation 
explains all !" 

Again, in discussing the question of State rights, Chesterton 
lays sufficient stress on two incidents which most historians 
have either ignored or skated delicately over. The first was 
the attitude of the Federalist party toward Jefferson at the 
time of the Louisiana; "To injure him * * * 
they were now ready to tear up the Union and all their prin- 
ciples. One of their ablest spokesmen, Josiah Quincy, made a 


^oi>federat^ l/eteraij. 

speech against the purchase, in which he anticipated the most 
extreme pronouncements of the Nullifiers of 1832 and the Se- 
cessionists of i860, declaring that his country was not America, 
but Massachusetts, * * * and that if her interests were 
violated * * * she would repudiate the Union and take 
her stand upon her rights as an independent sovereign State." 

The other and kindred incident is the Hartford Convention. 
There are living at this time ardent New Englanders who 
have never heard of this meeting and down-face one that it 
never could have occurred. It did occur, however, at the 
time of the second war with England, while British troops 
were in possession of Washington and when every American 
should have rallied to the support of the administration. In- 
stead Massachusetts "began a movement which seemed to 
point straight to the dilemma of surrender to the foreigner or 
secession and dismemberment from within." She called a 
convention of New England. "Some of its promoters were 
certainly prepared, if they did not get their way, to secede and 
make a separate peace." When Massachusetts later raised the 
cry of "traitor" against South Carolina, she had entirely for- 
gotten that secession had first been her own "ideear." 

The problem of slavery Chesterton faces squarely. Accord 
ing to his view, the best minds in the new republic regretted 
the existence of the institution, but did not see how to do 
away with it. "It can hardly be said that these great men 
were wrong in tolerating slavery. Without such toleration 
at the time the Union could not have been achieved and the 
-\merican republic could not have come into being. * * * 
They certainly expected that slavery would gradually weaken 
and disappear. But as a fact it strengthened itself." One 
factor which consolidated the defense of slavery was the at- 
tacks made against it by Northern abolitionists. The South 
had had her own abolitionists and had put up with them, even 
allowing a great antislavery convention to meet at Baltimore, 
but an offensive from the outside was not to be endured. To 
begin with, it was coupled with the Garrisonian implication 
that a slaveholder was to be classed with murderers and other 
criminals. "For the North had been the original slave traders. 
The African slave trade had been their particular industry. 
Boston itself, when the new ethical denunciation came, had 
risen to prosperity on the profits of the abominable traffic, 
* * * 'What,' asked the Southerners, 'could exceed the 
effrontery of men who reproach us with grave personal sin 
in owning property which they themselves have sold us and 
the price of which is at this moment in their pockets?' " 

Slavery, however, as he sees clearly, was not the direct cause 
of the war, although this in England was generally accounted 
the case. In fact, the North received in England credit for 
crusading motives which it did not deserve. This section had 
at the time the vast advantage of possessing a group of popu- 
lar writers known not only in this country, but abroad as well. 
These took, and have in some cases held to the present day, 
the position of instructors of youth and guides of ethical 
thought. Longfellow, whose sympathies were with the op- 
pressed and runaway slave, is still probably the most familiar 
poet in schools throughout the country. Miss Alcott is far 
and away the most read of authors who have written stories 
for girls, and she was in the group whom the crusading spirit 
most nearly touched. In many of her books, such as "Work" 
and "Hospital Sketches," this feeling comes out. Emerson 
(who, as Chesterton says, wrote some widely quoted nonsense 
about John Brown, whereas Lincoln's very sensible remarks 
on the subject are never quoted at all) and Whittier naturally 
saw the possible ideal in the political situation and, after the 
way of poets, exploited it. That is what poets are for. 

To continue : "The Northern States waged no war to ex- 
tinguish slavery; and had they done so, it would not have 
been a just but a flagrantly unjust war. No one could deny 
for a moment that under the terms of Union the Southern 
States had a right to keep their slaves." The following is his 
reading of the true cause : "The South felt itself threatened 
with a certain peril. * * * The peril was to be found in 
the increasing numerical superiority of the North, which must, 
it was feared, reduce the South to a position of impotence in 
the Union. * * * If it was to remain in the Union at all, 
it must be on sufferance. * * * jt would be enslaved. 
* * * It must be admitted that the policy adopted by the 
dominant North after the Civil War might as well appear to 
afford a measure of posthumous justification for these fears." 

Had the South won the struggle, Chesterton believes that 
slavery would not have persisted much longer. But, as Lin- 
coln knew, that was by no means a solution of the negro prob- 
lem. Six years before his election he had said that he had 
no idea what course, even with unlimited power, he would 
take with regard to the matter! As to giving the franchise 
to the negro, he would have confined that to "the very intelli- 
gent and those who had fought for us during the war." He 
could hardly have got out of that concession. 

On Charles Sumner Chesterton lays the odium of the un- 
limited negro franchise, "about as silly as ever a thesis could 
be." Of Sumner he says : "It is a kind that I detest — abso- 
lutely leprous scoundrels excepted — more than I can bring 


Mrs. Frayser is a daughter of the late James M. Finch, of 
Bellenemus, a beautiful old colonial home in Powhatan County, 
Va., and the wife of Dr. B. H. Frayser, in government service. 
She is a prominent member of the D. A. R. and U. D. C. of 
Richmond and has been an active representative at several U. 
C. V. reunions, serving as sponsor for the Army of Northern 
Virginia Department, S. C. V., at Tulsa tn 1918 and as chap- 
eron for the Southwest S. C. V. at Washington in 1917. 

Qo9federat(^ l/eteraij. 


myself to detest any other of God's creatures." So much for 

The account of the Reconstruction period should be read in 
its entirety. It is not long, but there is a great deal in it. It 
closes: "Negro rule was at an end. But the negro remained, 
and the problem which his existence presented was and is 
to-day farther from solution." 

The last chapter, "The New Problems," is necessarily cur- 
sory, merely glancing at the questions of party politics, of 
Oriental immigration, and of labor unrest. It contains a 
tribute to Mr. Wilson particularly gratifying in these days 
when one of the threats of the future seems to be possible 
misunderstanding between the two great English-speaking na- 
tions. .'Vs one chronicler to another, he calls him the author 
of "the best history of his country at present obtainable." 
He compares his instinct for the trend of the national will to 
that of Jackson, for whom Chesterton has a high admiration, 
', and his patience under misrepresentation to that of Lincoln. 
In regard to our delay in plunging into the war, a hesitation 
which caused heartburnings in England, he says, the Presi- 
dent conformed to the will of the people, "at the same time 
guiding and enlightening them"; and when he finally declared 
war, he "felt tlie full tide of the general will below him," and 
instead of risking a divided nation he knew that he had 
America at his back. 

Concerning our future career, Chesterton makes no prophe- 
cies. He seems to feel, however, that, being founded on a 
creed of human equality, we are certain to present an in- 
stinctive resistance to injustice and wrong, just as we re- 
sisted what he calls "the great atheist State of Prussianized 
Mittcleuropa." In defense of justice and right Cecil Chester- 
ton fell, but his works live after him. By every American, 
and more especially every Southerner, should his appreciation, 
clear-si.ehtcd and sympathetic, of our country be honored and 
his memory kept green. 



How Christianity was carried to the slaves might well be 
paraphrased, "How the Slaves Were Brought to Christianity." 

It was a paradox that a race in which had been forged for 
centuries the lowest type of heathenism should be brought 
into the homes of the highest type of Christian civilization as 
slaves and then become a part of its social order. 

This direct personal contact with the Southern homes and 
their influences did much for the slaves. The manners, as- 
pirations, and ideals of the master were soon reflected in the 
manner and life of the slave. The slave became susceptible 
to religious instruction, and this was the first agency toward 
his spiritual uplift. He also received industrial training. 
Measured by the methods of to-day, it may have been im- 
perfect, but the habits of imhislry thus formed were not lost, 
and he was better prepared for the responsibilities incident to 
"the heritage of freedom" later. 

There was a charm of romance about the feudal life of the 
Old South. Beautiful incidents grew out of the mutual sym- 
pathy and affection between the slaves and their owners, and 
they furnished themes for song and story. 

"Black Mammy" is a historical character. She belongs to 
the grace of that day so dear to Southern traditions and South- 
ern memories. She was firmly established in the hearts of the 
Southern homes, and her authority in directing its affairs was 
second only to that of "Ole Mistis." 

It was nothing unusual to see the wife and daughter of a 

large slaveholder with ten or a hundred negroes around her, 
teaching them the catechism and telling them the story of 
"Jesus and his love." 

In many families where family altars existed the slaves 
were called in to take part in the family worship. They at- 
tended the same church with the white people. Many 
churches were provided with galleries for that purpose. They 
were recognized in the Church membership, and the sacrament 
was administered to them. 

History furnishes an interesting example of how the slaves 
were managed on the Mississippi plantations Hurricane and 
Brierfield, the property of Jefferson Davis, the South's great 
chieftain, and his brother, Joseph E. Davis Trial by a jury 
of their peers was instituted in the policy of government, and 
the slaves were taught its meaning. Corporal punishment was 
not permitted until after conviction by such a trial. Lessons 
in practical business were taught. Two of the slaves bought 
the plantations after the war, preference having been given 
them over a Northern man, well indorsed, who offered $300.- 
000 for the property. When one of the notes for $25,000 fell 
due and the old slave couldn't meet it, Mr. Joseph Davis tore 
up the note and told them to pay the rest. One of the most 
devoted mourners at the funeral of Jefferson Davis was one 
of his old slaves, who traveled far to get there. 

Much of the vaunted cruelty to slaves on the large planta- 
tions was done by overseers from New England. 

The loyal protection given the women and children in the 
homes during the war was a beautiful expression of the mu- 
tual affection between the races. It w'as said that many slaves 
who were body servants to their masters during the war went 
through the smoke of carnage to rescue the bodies when they 
had fallen in battle. 

The strongest test came, however, when the Thirtccntli 
Amendment to the Constitution gave to the slaves their free- 
dom. Many of them refused to leave the old homes. "Uncle 
."Mfred." of the Hermitage, and ''L'ncle Bob," of Belle Meade, 
were of this type, who numbered legions. 

This is a living monument to the relation of master and 
slave as it existed then. It was a tie that the enemies of the 
South were unable to understand and which they were un- 
able to destroy. Affection lives only in an atmosphere of 
kindness and responsive affection. 

The slaves on the crowded plantation, however, were not 
so easily reached. Rev. William Capers, D.D., of South 
Carolina, afterwards bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, founded the movement of missions to slaves 
on the plantations. The South Carolina Conference became the 
mother Conference of missions. The first mission was estab- 
lished south of the Ashley River and another on Santee and 
Pee Dee Rivers, in that State. Bishop McKendree appointed 
Rev. John Honour to the first mission and the Rev. John H. 
Massey to the second. Dr. William Capers was given the 
general supervision. The Hon. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Col. Lewis Morris, and Charles Barring, prominent citizens 
and slaveholders of South Carolina, and Bishops McKen- 
dree and Andrew gave strong support to the work. 

The reports to the Annual Conferences of the missionary 
society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, by mis- 
sionaries covering more than thirty-five years prior to the war 
were carefully recorded and preserved. They show that mis- 
sions were extended to the slaves on the cotton and sugar 
plantations and rice fields of the South and that Methodist 
ministers of the highest type and trusted slaves of the higher 
order, released for that purpose, ministered to them. Chapels 
were erected for the plantations far removed from the 
churches of the white people, and the owners of the slaves 


QoQfederat^ l/eteraij. 

contributed to their support. When the war broke out there 
were over 200,000 slaves enrolled in the membership of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and over $2,000,000 had 
been spent by this denomination for evangelization among 
the slaves. 

The Baptist, Presbyterian, and Episcopal Churches followed 
in the movement, and the number of Protestant slaves was 
over 500,000, and over $4,000,000 had been spent by Protestant 
denominations toward their evangelization. 

A significant fact connected with the religious life of the 
Southern slaves was that it was never known that a slave 
ever made an effort to worship an idol either in the homes 
or on the plantations. They were superstitious, but their 
superstition was never confused with their religious wor- 

Dr. J. W. Gilbert, Editor and Secretary of the C. M. E. 
Sunday School Board, who accompanied Bishop Lambuth on 
his last tour through Africa, stated in a talk made in Mc- 
Kendree Church before the Methodist Conference that, after 
traveling through Africa and seeing the deplorable condition 
of bis race there, on his return to America he visited the 
grave of Bishop Capers and read on his monument, "The first 
missionary to the slave." While at the grave he realized what 
this mission meant and that he saw clearly the hand of Provi- 
dence in the slaves being brought to America instead of being 
carried to Germany, France, Italy, or any other country, and. 
furthermore, that they were sent to the southern section of 
the United States. For it meant Christianity to them and 
also that Christianity would be sent to Africa. 

Had the South been allowed to solve her problem with her 
former slaves, the unfortunate conditions existing to-day might 
never have been. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, realizing that the 
only solution to the race problem is the influence of Chris- 
tianity through the great Centenary Movement, by which $5.^.- 
000,000 was raised, has provided generously in its plan to ex- 
tend the work of uplift begun by the early Church, 

Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars will be given Paine 
College, Augusta, Ga., for endowment and equipment and 
$148,000 to Paine Annex ; $30,000 will be given for endow- 
ment and equipment each to Lane College, Jackson, Tenn., 
Miles Memorial College, Birmingham, Ala., Texas College. 
Tyler, Tex., Mississippi Industrial College, Holly Springs. 
Miss., and Arkansas College, Pine Blufl, Ark. ; $68,000 will 
be given the Bethlehem House in Nashville and $27,000 to the 
Bethlehem House in Augusta, Ga. Bethlehem Houses will 
be erected in other cities. 

All of these are Methodist institutions for the uplift of the 

Very appropriate to add to the preceding article is the fol- 
lowing contribution to the Presbyterian of the South, Balti- 
more, December 17, by John I. Stoddard, of Tacoma Park. 
D. C, under the title of "Justice to the Negro" : 

"In your issue of December 3 is an article with the heading 
'Justice to the Negro,' in which it is stated that 'the vast ma- 
jority of Northern men and women who write about the 
negro show almost entire ignorance of conditions and at the 
same time are ready to pronounce in no unmeasured terms 
their condemnation of what they deem the sins and short- 
comings of the white people of the South.' 

"To corroborate this statement allow me to cite an instance 
which, from the prominence of the lady, should be a whole- 

some warning to others. After the Civil War Mrs. Harriet 
Beechcr Stowe bought a place in Florida, where she spent 
her winters. On her way down one fall she met my sister- 
in-law on the steamer from New York to Savannah. During 
one of their conversations 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' was brought 
in, when Mrs. Stowe made this remark: 'If I had known when 
I wrote that book what I do now, it never would have been 
written.' " 


[From Mrs. Edward Teays, Montrose, Mo., comes a news- 
paper clipping giving the following:! 

Paris, Mo., March 11. 

"I am glad," said an old artilleryman of the Confederate 
army in this city to-day, "that the Missouri artillery units in 
France gave a good account of themselves. Thc\- liad tradi- 
tions such as no other State units had behind tliem and lived 
up to them. That reminds me that the only battery in history 
to possess a silver gun was a ^Missouri battery in the Confed- 
erate army. It was commanded by Capt. Hi Bledsoe, of 
Pleasant Hill, and its members came from the Bourbon coun- 
ties north of the Missouri River. Bledsoe was a born fighter, 
a Kentuckian, six feet and six inches tall, and was with Colo- 
nel Doniphan in Mexico. 

"The silver gun in question was captured in Old Mexico in 
the battle of Sacramento and was dubbed 'Old Sacramento' 
by the boys of our battery. It had a peculiar and distinctive, 
almost musical, roar, or bark, being only a nineteen-pounder, 
and when it opened up the Federals always recognized it. 
'Bledsoe is in action,' they said, and fear ensued, for Bled- 
soe's men were berserkers, even covering retreat in the bat- 
tles from Missionary Ridge to the sea. On occasions prior 
to battle Captain Bledsoe could be seen sitting with elbows 
on his knees and his head between his hands, musing. Not a 
move was made until he gave the word, and when the time 
arrived he would leap to his feet and exclaim : 'Come, boys, 
let Sacramento sing !' He never shot high, and the Federals 
dreaded him for the accuracy of his aim. The boys looked 
on Old Sacramento as something almost human and were 
as attached to the silver gun as they were to their giant 

"The last I saw of Old Sacramento it was parked on the 
wharf at Mobile, Ala., and I went up and petted it. I have 
wondered often what became of it. Sometimes I have wished 
the boys in France might have had Missouri's silver gun, if 
only for the sake of keeping romance alive." 


C^oijfederat^ Ueterai>. 




Carlyle lias said that "Great men are the lire pillars in this 
dark pilgrimage of mankind ; they stand an everlasting witness 
of what has been, prophetic tokens of what may still be, the 
revealed embodied possibilities of human nature." A noted 
evangelist said in a recent address : "War did not make Lee. 
Jackson, Pershing, and Sims. It simply unveiled them. They 
were made of stuff that did not turn to water when the ma- 
chine gun fired." 

I believe that God has put the divine spark in every one of 
us, for we are created in his image. Sin can shut it out, dis- 
use and failure to heed it can eliminate it, but the truly great 
recognize and cultivate it. Cardinal Gibbons has told us so 
beautifully of the religious life of Marshal Foch — how he 
sought the prayers of his Church, and even tlic little girls of 
France he asked to pray for him. How interested we have 
been in the account of the young soldier from California who 
told of seeing the great General Foch on his knees for three- 
quarters of an hour in a church in F'rance when the great 
battles were raging according to his plan and orders, while 
he himself w'as seeking the divine orders! When the news 
of the first battle of the Marne was brought to England, Lord 
Roberts was in the office of Lord Kitchener, and the former 
remarked : "Nothing but a miracle could have done this."' 
Lord Kitchener replied : "Some one must have been doing a 
lot of pr.iying." General Haig is also known to be a godly 
and God-fearing man. We all know that our most preemi- 
nent leader. President Wilson, is a man of prayer and a daily 
student of God"s Word. He has given this testimony to its 
value: "A man has deprived himself of the best there is in 
the world who has deprived himself of an intimate knowledge 
of the Bible." 

But when we look for great and holy leaders, even this won- 
derful World War has hardly produced as many in proportion 
as our Confederate struggle. The fact that it was not a vic- 
torious struggle shows that tlveir greatness was even greater in 
the gloom of defeat, and it also shows that it must have been 
our people more than our leaders who needed God's chastening. 
So much has been written in both song and story of General that my inadequate pen can add nothing to his glory: so 
1 will attempt no eulogy, but will give a few quotations from 
his own expressions so that, "being dead, he yet speaketb." 
After the surrender, with his property confiscated and his 
occupation gone, he was the recipient of many business offers, 
some of them quite lucrative. A big insurance company of- 
fered him $50,000 a year just for the use of his name: they 
would do the work. He replied that if his name was that 
valuable he must take .good care of it and declined their offer. 
In accepting the presidency of Washington College he said: 
"I have led the young men of the South in battle: I have 
seen many of them fall under my standard. I shall devote 
my life now to training young men to do their duty in lift " 
("Recollections of General Lee," by his son, R. E. Lee, Jr.) 

I will quote the motive for this in an extract from Bishop 
Wilmcr. "I was seated," says the Bishop, "at the close of the 
day in my 'Virginia home when I beheld through the thicken- 
ing shades of evening a horseman entering the yard, whom I 
soon recognized as General Lee. The next morning he placed 
in my hands the correspondence with the authorities of Wash- 
ington College, at Lexington. He had been invited to become 
president of that institution. I confess to a momentary feel- 
ing of chagrin at the proposed change (shall I say revul- 

sion?) in his history. The institution was one of local in- 
terest and comparatively unknown to our people. I named 
others more conspicuous which would welcome him with 
ardor as their presiding head. I soon discovered that his 
mind towered above these earthly distinctions; that in his 
judgment the cause gave dignity to the institution and not 
the wealth of its endowment or the renown of its scholars: 
that this door and not another was opened to him by Provi- 
dence, and he wished only to be assured of his competency 
to fulfill bis trust and thus to make his few remaining years 
a comfort and blessing to his suffering country. I had spoken 
to his human feelings : he had now revealed himself to me as 
one whose life was linked with Christ in God. My speech 
was no longer restrairted. I congratulated him that his heart 
was inclined to this great cause and that he was spared to give 
to the world this august testimony to the importance of Chris- 
tian education. How he listened to my feeble words, how 
he beckoned me to his side as the fullness of heart found 
utterance, how his whole countenance glowed with animation 
as I spoke of the Holy Ghost as the Great Teacher whose 
presence was required to make education a blessing which 
otherwise might be the curse of mankind, how feelingly he 
responded, how eloquently— as I never heard him speak be- 
fore — can never be effaced from memory, and there is nothing 
more sacred mingled with my reminiscences of the dead.'" 

.'\bout this same depressing period one of his young couriers 
wondered; "What fate is in store for us poor Virginians?'' 
The General replied with an earnest, softened look: "You can 
work for Virginia— to build her up again and make her great 
again : you can teach your children to love and cherish her." 
His definition of a true gentleman can hardly be excelled; 
"The forbearing use of power is the test of a true gentleman. 
The gentleman cannot only forgive; he can forget; he can 
strive for that nobleness of self and mildness of character 
which imparts sufficient strength to let the past be but the past. 
A true gentleman is such as feels bumbled himself when he 
cannot help humbling others." His rule for public life if 
carried out would give us a much-improved political situation : 
"Private and public life are subject to the same rules, and 
truth and manliness are two qualities that will carry you 
through this world much better than policy or tact or ex- 
pediency or any other word that was ever devised to conceal 
or mystify a deviation from a straight line." 

.\gain I quote from "Recollections of General Lee," by his 
son, this letter of sympathy to Mrs. Lee on leaving her in- 
herited home at .\rlington ; "I have been trying, dearest Mary, 
ever since the receipt of your letter by Custis to write to you. 
I sympathize deeply in your feelings at leaving your dear 
home. I have experienced them myself, and they are con- 
stantly revived. I fc:ir that we have not been grateful 
enough for the happiness there within our reach, and our 
Heavenly I'athcr has found it necessary to deprive us of what 
he has given us. I acknowledge my ingratitude, my trans- 
gressions, and my unworthiness, and submit with resignation 
to what he thinks proper to inflict upon me. We must trust 
all, then, to him, and I do not think it proper or prudent for 
you to return there while the United States troops occupy 
that country." 

Stonewall Jackson's religion was such a part of himself 
that to know him was to know the sincere life that animated 
liim. The early death of his youthful mother must have made 
a lasting impression upon one of his serious temperament. 
Sent for in his young childhood to see her die, when prob- 
ably not more than eight or nine years of age, he was old 
enough to remember her exhortations and prayers. His fa- 


^OQfederat^ l/eteraij. 

mous motto, "You can be whatever you resolve to be," was 
enunciated in later life; but the resolution was probably 
formed at his mother's deathbed— to be what she wanted him 
to be, an earnest Christian man. When only twenty-six years 
of age he thus wrote to his sister : "Within the past few years 
I have endeavored to live more nearly like unto God. And 
now nothing earthly could induce me to return to the world 
again. My life is not one of privation, as you sometimes see 
among Christians, but I enjoy the pleasures of the world, but 
endeavor to restrict them within the limit which nature's God 
has assigned to them. * * * Yes, my dear sister, rather 
than willfully violate the known will of God, I would forfeit 
my life. It may seem strange to you, yet, nevertheless, such 
a resolution I have taken, and by it I will abide." In writing 
to his aunt he says: "The subject of becoming a herald of the 
Cross has often seriously engaged my attention, and I regard 
it as the most noble of all professions. It was the profession 
of our Divine Redeemer, and I should not be surprised were 
I to die upon a foreign field clad in ministerial arnior, fight- 
ing under the banner of Jesus. What could be more glorious?" 
Could we not make it more glorious by fulfilling the vision and 
ministering to those neglected fields? Mrs. Jackson in her 
book gives this incident of her husband: "On one occasion, 
when talking of self-abnegation and making rather light of it, 
a friend suggested that he had not been called upon to endure 
it and supposed a case: 'Imagine that the providence of God 
seemed to direct you to drop every scheme of life and per- 
sonal advancement and go on a mission to the heart of 
Africa. Would you go?' His eyes flashed as he instantly 
replied : 'I would go without my hat.' " 

In a scientific way the greatest American has been our own 
Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury. Up to the time of 
the great honors paid to our President last winter and spring 
in Europe no other American had ever been so much hon- 
ored as Commodore Maury. He was the recipient of a 
greater number of medals and memorials than had ever been 
given by foreign countries, and yet this great scientific genius 
has not even his name inscribed in the mosaic of our National 
Library in Washington. Rev. Jacob A. Dill thus writes of 
him : "Never did scientist touch nature in more devout spirit. 
In all he saw and acknowledged the handiwork of the Great 
Creator. In the proportion and properties of land and sea 
and air, in their adaptation one to the other to make this 
earth a habitation for man, he saw the marvelous design of 
"Him who measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, 
and comprehended the dust in a measure, and weighed the 
mountain in scales, and the hills in a balance." This great 
and good man had for his daily prayer the following humble 
little prayer with three petitions in it for pardon of his sins : 
"Lord Jesus, thou Son of God and Redeemer of the world, 
have mercy upon me. Pardon my offenses and teach me the 
error of my ways ; give me a new heart and right mind. 
Teach me and all mine to do thy will and in all things to 
keep thy law. Teach me to ask those things necessary to 
eternal life. Lord, pardon me for all my sins, for thine is the 
kingdom, the power, and the glory forever and ever. Amen." 

From Mrs. Margaret J. Preston's beautiful poem on Com- 
modore Maury's last request, "Through the Pass," the fol- 
lowing lines are taken : 

"Stars lit new pages for him. Seas 

Revealed the depths their waves were screening; 
The ebbs gave up their mysteries. 
The tidal flows confessed their meaning. 

Of ocean paths the tangled clew 

He taught the nations to unravel 
And mapped the track where safely through 

The lightning-footed thought might travel." 

Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, brave, dashing, and daring oflScer, in 
his early boyhood dedicated his life to the Master's cause. 
When he fell mortally wounded, seeing panic-stricken fol- 
lowers dashing past, he called out : "Go back, men ! Go back 
and do your duty as I have done mine, and our country will 
be free!" A few hours later with dying lips he exclaimed: 
"If God and my countrymen think I have done my duty, I 
am ready to go." 

Gen. A. P. Stewart is described by his biographer as "a 
man without guile in his heart and with the courage of a 
lion," as a "God-fearing man like unto Robert E. Lee; and 
though a great soldier, he often conducted religious services 
for his men." 

Gen. D. H. Hill was an elder in the Presbyterian Church 
and always an active Christian worker. He was the author 
of two religious books. As an instance of beautiful resigna- 
tion I quote from one of his speeches: "Holding an unwaver- 
ing faith in the wisdom, justice, and mercy of God, I submit 
with adoring reverence to his decree which destroyed our 
hopes of Southern independence. I would not reverse his 
decree if I could do so. That would be wicked and pre- 
sumptuous. All honorable Confederates render the truest al- 
legiance to the obligations imposed upon them by the sur- 
render. I believe that the most uncompromising Rebels — yea, 
the bitterest Rebels, if you choose to call them so — would be 
the very first to rally round the old flag in any just and hon- 
orable war." We all know how this prediction was verified 
in both wars we have had since. 

In that charming book, "Four Years under Marse Robert," 
by Maj. Robert Stiles, he pays this beautiful tribute to Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston : "I do here say of him in a single sen- 
tence that as a trained professional soldier I do not believe 
he ever had his equal on this continent, while as a man he 
was one of the purest and strongest I ever knew and per- 
haps the most affectionate." Major Stiles remarks: "It is 
certainly worthy of note that this fighting zeal is so often 
combined with a high degree of spiritual religion." He also 
tells of the great revival in Lee's army at Fredericksburg: "I 
have never seen such eagerness to hear the word of God, no 
greater simplicity, directness, and earnestness for religious 
services." Besides their regular chaplains, the Richmond pas- 
tors came to assist. Dr. Hoge says : "As I was to stay only 
one night, Dr. Burrows courteously insisted on my preaching; 
so we had a Presbyterian sermon, introduced by Baptist serv- 
ices, under the direction of a Methodist chaplain, in an Epis- 
copal church. Was not that a beautiful solution of the vexed 
problem of Christian unity?" 

Probably the two best-known clergymen who were in our 
war were Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Gen. W. N. Pendle- 
ton, chief of artillery in Lee's army. Both were West Pointers 
and laid aside the priestly robe to take up the sword in de- 
fense of their country. 

I will now quote from a letter I received from Dr. J. H. 
McNeilly, of Nashville, Tenn. To those of you who read the 
Confederate Vetekan no introduction is needed to Dr. Mc- 
Neilly, for he is one of its bright particular stars as a con- 
tributor; but to the others I will say that he is one of our 
most honored ministers and was a chaplain during the war, 
going with "his boys" into action and then assisting in carry- 
ing off the wounded and dying. He wrote: 

"All of our higher officers gave every facility and encour- 

(^opfederat^ l/eterap. 


agement for religious work among tlie soldiers, and in the 
army for nearly two years there was almost a continuous re- 
vival. It is, I think, a fair estimate that in all the armies of 
the Confederacy there were 100,000 conversions. 

"Now as to our leaders, I think it was during the North 
Georgia campaign that Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Lieu- 
tenant General Hardee and possibly Lieutenant General Hood 
were confirmed in the Episcopal Church by Lieutenant General 
Polk, who was, as you know. Bishop of Louisiana. Lieutenant 
General Stewart was a devout elder in the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church. I think Wheeler was an Episcopalian. Lieu- 
tenant General Forrest, the wizard of the South, was not a 
Christian during the war and was often very profane, but 
after the war he became an earnest member of the Cumber- 
land Church. General Bragg was an Episcopalian, and so 
was Gen. E, Kirby Smith, and after the war the latter was 
a professor in the Episcopal University of the South. Gen. 
John C. Breckinridge was intensely Presbyterian in his sym- 
pathies, but I do not think he was a communicant. Gen. John 
B. Gordon was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and after 
the war he frequently took part in revival services, exhorting 
his old comrades to become active Christians. 

"But I thought you might be interested in some of my per- 
sonal knowledge as to Jefferson Davis. I knew his brother. 
Mr. Joseph Davis, when we were in Tuscaloosa, Ala. Our 
rooms joined, and I read to him a great deal, and he al- 
lowed me to read the President's weekly letters, and 1 was 
impressed with the patriotic and deeply religious tone of those 
letters. While the President would willingly have died for 
the country, indeed hoped for the opportunity, yet there was 
a spirit of resignation, of submission to God's will and a trust 
in God's wisdom that showed the true Christian." 

There were a number of brigadier generals whom I wish 
to mention in this connection. Thoinas F. Drayton, of South 
Carolina, was a most courteous gentletnan and true Christian, 
one who took pleasure in dividing his mite with those worse 
off than himself. Gen. Robert D. Johnson, of North Caro- 
lina, after the war was an elder and active worker in his 
Church at Birmingham. Gen. Clement A. Evans, of Geor- 
gia, and General Mo.xey. afterwards United States Senator 
from Texas, were Christians. 

I do not claim this to be a complete list of the Christian 
characters among our leaders — far from it — for at this late ■ 
day it is difficult to get the personal history of the long ago. 
But I am showing you enough to prove them great and holy 
leaders of our great and holy cause. It was a war not for 
hatred or aggression on our part, not for territory, not even 
for slavery, as our foes love to claim, but it was a war waged 
to defend our homes and firesides and to uphold the Consti- 
tution of the United States iii that every State was a sov- 
ereign in itself and entitled to its own government. It seems 
a singular Nemesis that we went into the last World War on 
exactly the sarhe principle. One of President Wilson's four- 
teen points was on the rights of small States to govern them- 
selves. We all know how brave and plucky little Belgium ex- 
cited the sympathy and admiration of the world for uphold- 
ing this principle. I will make this prediction : That time, 
that great healer of both hate and prejudice, will so clarify 
the vision of the future historian that brave and plucky little 
South Carolina will be put on even a higher pinnacle than 
little Belgium, for she was fifty years ahead of her. 

I show you the exalted characters of our heroes for two 
reasons : First, that we may emulate them and teach our chil- 
dren that no man is truly great unless God has a hand in 
molding his character and imparting to him the divine fire that 

comes only to those who humbly seek him; secondly, that 
when we come to honor them we may do it according to their 
own high ideas and higher ideals. Build material monuments 
of stone and bronze for your material men — probably that is 
the only way they can be remembered by future generations. 
But when we think of our extraordinary, our lofty-minded 
Christian heroes, let us have a wider vision and think what 
would please them. With all their greatness, they were 
modest and unassuming, hating vain show and ostentation ; 
hence they would dislike to have their faces and figures 
erected on high pedestals for all the world to gaze upon. 
But O what a joy to their hearts if in their names we erected 
living monuments ! General Lee showed that his heart's de- 
sire was for tlie Christian education of the youth of our land. 
Let me tell you of a memorial to him that would gratify his 
great heart. .'Vt Blue Ridge, N. C, some twelve or fifteen 
miles from Ashcville, is the property of the Y. M. C. A. of 
the South which is used for all interdenominational religious 
meetings. This conference ground. Dr. John R. Mott says, 
is the most beautiful in the world. Their main building is a 
memorial to General Lee and is called the Robert E. Lee Hall. 
And this is the spot where our Southern youth faces Christian 
service, where purposes are formed and desires Christianized 
into action. Often six to eight hundred young people attend 
these conferences. And there is still room and space to build 
memorials to your favorite heroes. Now, when schools and 
colleges arc so abundant amongst us, let us imagine in the 
sin-darkened land of China or India a great university like 
that he built up in Lexington and inscribed upon it in letters 
of gold, "Sacred to the memory of Robert E. Lee." When 
the angels carried the news, there would be greater joy even 
in heaven. 

Stonewall Jackson felt his personal responsibility for our 
negroes. His most conspicuous work in his Church was his 
negro Sunday school. He was even willing (if God so or- 
dered) to go on a mission to Africa. Suppose we carried 
out his wishes and in his name had a great Hampton Insti- 
tute in the wilds of Africa for the Christian and industrial 
education of our most neglected and backward race, still 
savages in this our twentieth century of civilization. Suppose 
we attended to our home duties as faithfully as he and had 
a Stonewall Jackson Sunday School, taught by whites, in 
every town and hamlet in our land. Our negro problem would 
be solved and our race riots at an end. And why necessary 
to. imagine these great memorials when we can so easily ac- 
complish them instead? 

Our U. D. C. is a great organization. We wield a power 
throughout our great Southland second to none. By united 
and concerted effort we can do sublime things in the names 
of our heroes and show that we are not only true daughters 
of our illustrious sires, but that we will be partners with 
them in their honor and their glory. So let each one of our 
great army of Daughters say : "We can do it, and we will." 


"Down the ages slowly passing 

Onward through the gate of Time, 
We can see dear mammy pausing 

Ere she takes her flight sublime. 
Little eyes she closed so softly 

Like bright stars peep through the sky; 
Little hands she gently folded 

Now are waving from on high." 


C^oQJ^ederat^ Ueterap. 

SPOTSYWANIA, VA., MAY 8 A.\'D p, 1S64. 


[Continuation of articles on the operations of Gordon's 

We left our works in the Wilderness about midnight and 
marched in the darkness through woods, fields, and across 
streams, by roads made by the feet of those who had gone 
ahead, and at daylight we found ourselves at a line of Con- 
federate soldiers who were hastily constructing breastworks 
of poles, dirt, and everything they could lay hands on. We 
threw ourselves down behind these for a rest, but were soon 
called to order and marched to the right to assist in fortifying 
our position. As far to the right as could be heard there was 
the incessant noise of the pick, the shovel, and the ax. There 
were no idlers in Lee's army that day, for the desultory 
skirmish in front warned every man to do his best and 
to get ready for the bloody work which all knew to be im- 

Grant had determined, after his three days' experience in 
the Wilderness, not to fight it out there, but to bring up his 
fresh legions from the other side of the river as reenforce- 
ments for his badly decimated army and get between Lee and 
Richmond. But when he found that he had been outma- 
neuvered in this, he decided to carry his point by throwing his 
overwhelming numbers on our weak lines (now sadly de- 
pleted by constant fighting), scatter our forces, and go on to 
the Confederate capital and thereby end the war. When we 
consider the great disparity of numbers, this seems reasonable 
enough, but the few defenders were men who were true and 
tried veterans fighting for everything held dear in life and 
were ready to die, if need be, for their country, while a 
large part of their foes were foreigners — Germans, enlisted 
to get the big bounty offered by Lincoln, and many other for- 
eigners who fought only under military discipline. The front 
attacks were extremely costly in human life, but then that 
was nothing, as multitudes were coming over from Europe 
continually to take the place in the ranks of those killed, and 
they knew they could afford to lose ten to our one and in time 
win the war. No attempt was made to attack our flanks, as 
that involved some risk. General Grant followed this policy 
until the end, but could have defeated Lee's army at any time 
if he had attacked both our right and left at the same time 
with a large force while we were occupied by superior num- 
bers in front. 

The day (May 8) wore on witli skirmish-fighting and an oc- 
casional attack in force on some part of our line, as Grant 
had not as yet gotten all his army in position tq make his 
grand assault ; but nowhere did he break our thin line. Our 
brigade, having made a great reputation under Gordon, was 
relieved from building breastworks as soon as we had com- 
pleted them and was shifted from point to point in reserve 
wherever there was danger of the enemy's breaking through, 
and for that reason it did very little fighting this day. I can- 
not say what losses the Confederates sustained, but, as they 
were protected by their works, I do not suppose they amounted 
to much. 

The next day (May 9) was one of bitter fighting, a day of 
slaughter. Our enemy came up in heavy lines, supporting each 
other time and again, only to be mowed down and driven 
back without making any impression until about sunset, when 
they made a sudden attack at one point where our men, think- 
ing that their foes had had enough for the day, were pre- 
paring to eat their evening meal. So unexpected and deter- 
mined was this charge that they crossed our works the length 

of a North Carolina brigade, killing some of them with the 
bayonet and driving the artillerymen away from their guns. 
This is the only place I saw during my entire experience as 
a Confederate soldier where any one was killed with the 

We had been held in the rear of this part of our line for 
some time that evening, but before this unfortunate event 
took place we were led off some distance to the left and were 
resting on an elevated place in an open field. General Gor- 
don and Col. Clement A. Evans, next in command, had rid- 
den away, I suppose, to see how the fighting was progressing 
in front of where we then were, there being no field officer 
present except Lieutenant Colonel Berry, of the 60th. Look- 
ing back in the direction from which we had just come, we 
saw a courier coming toward us as fast as his horse could 
run. When he arrived he asked hastily where General Gor- 
don was. No one knew, and he rode off to find him. Glancing 
back in the same direction, we saw another courier coming 
at full speed, his hat off and his hair flying about his head. 
When he arrived he made the same inquiry and received the 
same reply. But now we saw an officer of General Lee's staff 
coming toward us riding at the same pace. When he reached 
us he made the same inquiry, and, receiving the same answer, 
he spoke to Colonel Berry and told him that General Lee's 
line was broken and ordered him to take command of the bri- 
gade and follow him. He turned his horse's head and trotte<l 
back in front of us, saying repeatedly : "Come on, boys ; come 
on." Ahead of us on the left was a straggling piece of wood- 
land through which our works extended and to the right a 
short line of works out in the field behind which were crouch- 
ing our sharpshooters and others who had taken refuge there 
when the line was broken. 

About one hundred and fifty yards in the rear of our line 
of works ran an old road parallel to them. We entered the 
woods by this road, trotting along in fours, following Colonel 
Berry, when suddenly just as I stepped over the body of a 
dead Confederate soldier he wheeled to the left and shouted : 
"Here they are, men!" In an instant we turned, and, to our 
surprise, there stood in the twilight not more than a hundred 
feet away a blue mass of Yankee soldiers apparently indif- 
ferent to our approach. We instantly brought our guns into 
position, and a line of fire flashed along the regiment as we 
closed in on the enemy. Stupid under the influence of liquor, 
they retired slowly and sullenly, while our men beat them 
with clubbed guns back to the breastworks, which they de- 
fended obstinately for a while. I ran up to a piece of artillery 
where the fighting was hand to hand and where it was impos- 
sible to distinguish friend from foe on account of the dark- 
ness except by the flash of a gun. In the midst of the con- 
fusion some one cried out : "Get away ! Get away !" 

Seeing that one place was as safe as another, I stood still, 
when the sudden flash and boom of a cannon and its recoil 
to my feet told me what it meant and that our artillerymen, 
who had come back with us, had turned the gun around while 
our men and the enemy were fighting for its possession. Our 
men beat them out of the works, and they retired to another 
line built by our men and afterwards abandoned when they 
first came to this place. Those intersected our line like the 
two sides of the letter V. Behind these they took refuge, 
and from the volley they maintained I suppose there were 
thousands of them. In all my experience in war I was never 
under a heavier fire. It seemed as if a hand or a head above 
the protection of the works for a moment would be pierced 
by a Minie ball. 

Qoijfederat^ l/etcrap. 


Word was passed down the line for three regiments of our 
brigade to' mount the works and charge the enemy out of 
their den. My! thought I, how is it possible for living men 
to face such a fire? Yet every man responded. Sonic fell 
back dead as they mounted the works, but the rest swept for- 
ward and in ten minutes had cleared the enemy from our im- 
mediate front, and the firing along the entire line suddenly 
ceased for the night. How glad I was that my regiment was 
not called on to make this desperate dash into the very jaws 
of death I cannot express in words. Many of those brave 
spirits who put duty to their country first sacrificed their 
lives on its altar that night. 

Word now came for the other three regiments to assist in 
holding the position just won, and we were deployed along 
the works, which we found to be well constructed. As soon 
as we were settled in them the orderly sergeant ordered me 
and a comrade to mount the works and to take position in 
the open in front to guard against a sudden assault by the 
enemy. Standing there in silence. I listened to the beautiful 
music of the various bands along the enemy's line, while cur 
men in the rear spent their time in jeering and bantering 
them to come out and try it again, saying : "You may play 
your bands over there, but we whipped you yesterday and 
again to-day and will do it again to-morrow." 

It had indeed been a bloody day. The enemy had not spared 
human life in their endeavor to break through our lines. We 
were not on the front line, but were told by those who were 
that they charged sometimes in lines fourteen deep : but this 
must have been an exaggeration. The fighting lasted all day 
and accomplished nothing but the slaughter of thousands of 
our enemy, wlio threw themselves recklessly time and again 
against our defenses, only to be driven back in an engage- 
ment in which every well-directed Confederate bullet must 
have injured some one in so great a mass of men. The com- 
mander of the Federals, perceiving the bad effects of this 
dreadful affair on the minds of his men, ordered his army 
bands to the lines to dispense their sweetest music, to divert, 
if possible, their thoughts from the groat disaster. 

A man even so callous as General Grant saw that he must 
hold his hand and refrain from so great a sacrifice as a mat- 
ter of pohcy. and the ne.xt two days (.May lo and ii) he spent 
in skirmishing and maneuvering for some advantage, to find 
some weak point in Lee's line where he could concentrate and 
make a bold rush through it with his overwhelming numbers 
while we were too weak to assume the offensive. During the 
night our brigade was withdrawn from the captured w'orks. 
The full moon shone over the battle field as we returned and 
presented a sight never to be forgotten. Corpses lay every- 
where and in every position. Few prisoners were taken on 
cither side. Our loss in killed and wounded was negligible 
except at this particular place. The next morning I was struck 
by the appearance of the dead. The faces of the Confederates 
were pale, while the Federals were as black as negroes. I asked 
the reason and was told that it was because the Federals 
were drunk when killed. Those who were in the front line 
said they could smell the scent of liquor when the wind blew 
from the F'ederal lines. I cannot vouch for this, but I am 
sure, from the way they acted, that their men were drunk 
when we struck them that evening. 

I have never seen an official statement of Grant's loss in 
this day's engagement, but I am sure it was as great as that 
he sustained in the three days' fighting in the Wilderness and 
consisted of killed and wounded. It must have been as great 
as that he sustained on the 1 2th of May or equal to that at 

Cold Harbor, on the 3d of June, where Northern historians 
say he lost fifteen thousand. 

In a future article I will tell what happened to us on the 12th 
of May and how the utter rout of Lee's army was averted 
and the day resulted in a drawn battle by the good manage- 
ment of some of our officers and the desperate valor of Con- 
federate soldiers and how Grant's army was so badly used up 
that he withdrew to rest up. 



[This poem was written at the request of the Atlanta Chap- 
ter of the U. D. C. by Mrs. Clara Dargan Maclean, a member 
of that body, and read on the occasion when the veterans met 
during the Exposition at Piedmont Park, November 5. 1895. 
It was read with great eloquence by Lucian Knight, a well- 
known orator, and was received with much applause, following 
an address by Dr. Hopkins. Mrs. Maclean, the author, is well 
known throughout the South as a writer of stories, poems, and 
several novels.] 

Mother of men! thou liest in solemn state 

Upon the bier of many faithful hearts, 

.Ml mute and cold, pierced through w'ith many darts, 

A queen discrowned by Fate. 

Bring here the frankincense of loyal vows, 

.And myrrh, the meed of grief too deep for tears. 

The precious spice of love, t' embalm through years, 

.\nd gold for royal brow'S. 

We shall not wake thee from thy dreamless sleep. 

With murmuring moan disturb thy deep repose. 

No blatant tongue shall travesty thy woes, 

.As silent here we weep. 

Yet we remember ! Aye, nor can forget 

Those deeds of splendor, those heroic days. 

When thy leal sons rode forth through bloody ways. 

Where death and honor met. 

O dream of glory past I O high resolve. 
To teach the world how brave it is to dare 
.'\nd, daring, do, though costing lives so rare, 
A nation to evolve ! 

Roll, drums, and sound across the utmost sea ! 
Blow, bugles, in one long, majestic strain ! 
Though she is dead, she dieth not in vain. 
Whose death has made us free. 

F'ree to live on and learn to suffer wrong. 
Nor vengeance seek, nor feel ignoble fear ; 
Free to see truly and to grandly bear 
.\nd grow through suffering strong. 
Mother of men ! we gather round thy grave 
And pledge thy pure name ne'er shall be belied ; 
.■\ martyr thou hast lived, a martyr died. 
The South's best self to save. 

Yes, we will bury thee with pomp and pride 

And leave thee sleeping in thy sacred shroud. 

For we behold thee far above the cloud 

Transfigured, glorified. 

Somul we a p.i-an then and not a knell. 

Sing we a jubilatt, not a dirge; 

For lo ! the South holds victory's noblest verge, 

God's in heaven ! All's well. 


^oi7f«<ierat^ l/eterai}, 


C. S. A. 

Among all my experiences of army life none impressed me 
more tlian the campaign under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston for 
the relief of Vicksburg in the spring and summer of 1863. 
As a result of that campaign I lay for weeks in a darkened 
room in a hospital, with eyes inflamed until they were balls 
of blood ; and though my sight was restored, yet that experi- 
ence left me a legacy of suffering from neuralgia of the eyes 
which continues with me to this day. 

The campaign was a series of marches and countermarches 
of our small force, seeking some weak spot in the strongly 
fortified lines of General Grant's huge army where we might 
break through the cordon of besiegers and open a way for 
the escape of the beleaguered garrison. 

Those marches were under blazing suns, along shadeless 
roads, over a country destitute of running streams, through 
blinding clouds of dust, sometimes in deep sand that made 
walking a labor, sometimes, when the rain fell in torrents, 
through mud heavy and clinging. Yet it was all in vain. It 
was impossible for 25,000 at most to contend against 80,000, 
which could have been speedily reenforced to 130,000. 

I note frequently in Northern statistics of the battles of this 
war a tendency to exaggerate the Confederate forces and to 
diminish the Federal forces engaged, and in like manner to 
swell our losses while minimizing their own, all of it for the 
glory of the Federal troops and generals._ Now, a Confed- 
erate soldier is the last man to discount the courage and ef- 
ficiency of the soldiers on the other side. The men com- 
manded by Generals Grant and Sherman were mostly from 
the West and were our equals in fighting qualities and possi- 
bly superior in drill and discipline, Certainly far superior in 
numbers and equipment. Yet whenever we met them, as Bill 
Arp puts it, "we killed more of them than they did of us.'" 
We made them pay largely for their successes. In the pre- 
liminary battles to the investment of Vicksburg — at Port Gib- 
son, Raymond, Baker's Creek, and Jackson — the Federal 
forces far outnumbered ours, yet their losses in killed and 
wounded were very heavy. 

During the campaign it was frequently talked among the 
men that there was serious conflict of judgment between Gen- 
eral Johnston and General Pemberton, who commanded at 
Vicksburg. Such a disagreement cannot be concealed from 
the men of the army, especially when, like ours, they are men 
of intelligence, accustomed to discuss the meaning of all that 
concerned our war. The newspapers indulged in frequent 
criticisms of General Johnston's movements as slow and un- 
certain. It was generally known that there was considerable 
friction between President Davis and General Johnston, and 
the apparently contradictory movements of our troops led to 
the belief that "some one had blundered." So I had oppor- 
tunity to hear the expression of many opinions of both officers 
and privates. General Johnston had a remarkable power of 
winning the confidence of his troops, and as a general rule 
our men were his warm partisans. The substance of the de- 
fense of the General was that by General Pemberton's failure 
to keep General Johnston informed of actual conditions around 
Vicksburg and his disobedience of the orders of his superior 
oflicer he had made it impossible for a sufficient force to be 
concentrated to resist General Grant's advance. 

At first, by orders of the government, General Johnston was 
kept with the Army of Tennessee hundreds of miles from 

Vicksburg and had to depend on General Pemberton's dis- 
patches to know conditions in Mississippi. It was the middle 
of May before he came to the Army of Mississippi, and when 
he did reach it he found that the Federal fleet, having passed 
our batteries at Vicksburg and Port Houston, and having 
possession of the Mississippi River, General Grant, with an 
overwhelming force, had crossed the river and had reached 
Jackson, the capital of the State, and was threatening General 
Pemberton's army. 

General Johnston's plan was to abandon Vicksburg and 
Port Hudson as no longer valuable to the Confederacy and 
to concentrate all of our forces in seeking to defeat General 
Grant. If that could be done, we could destroy his army, cut 
ofif as it would be from its base, and then we could easily 
regain the abandoned posts. On the other hand, if our army 
were divided and a large part of it shut up in those posts, 
General Grant could easily defy the small force operating on 
the outside, and ultimate surrender of the garrisons was cer- 

In a word, General Johnston's idea was to save the army 
if the post had to be given up. General Pemberton's idea was 
to save the post, even at the risk of losing an army. It was 
often remarked by the men that, even if we could defeat Gen- 
eral Grant, Vicksburg would not be worth anything to us with 
a lot of gunboats and transports in possession of the river. 
And the stupidest soldier could see that General Johnston's 
army was utterly weak in comparison with Grant's army. All 
these surmises of the soldiers were confirmed by the narra- 
tive of General Johnston, published after the war. It was a 
matter of surprise to me during the whole war to notice the 
remarkable shrewdness of the common soldier in penetrating 
the purpose of the various movements. Over and again we 
received by the grapevine line marvelous stories of big vic- 
tories we had gained or of some advantage in position which 
would give us a victory that would end the war. But our men, 
after thinking over them, always discounted these stories. 

While on the subject of grapevine dispatches, let me tell 
how my reputation for veracity came near being ruined by 
them. While we were at Port Hudson the newspapers re- 
ceived by us were few, but I got the Memphis Appeal, which 
followed our armies from point to point, and I got some re- 
ligious papers, which contained weekly summaries of the news. 
These papers published all the reports that were current. 
The men came to my tent every day to read the news, and 
when some big story was repeated and the question was asked, 
"Where did you get that whopper?" the answer would be, 
"I got it from the parson," of course meaning that he had 
read it at my tent. I soon found that I was getting the repu- 
tation of the "father of lies," so I announced that when a 
story was told as coming from me it might be set down as a 
lie for which I was not responsible. 

The discomforts of the march on that campaign were ag- 
gravated by the dust and the heat and the lack of drinking 
water. Often the clouds of dust were so thick that one could 
not see twenty feet ahead. We were largely dependent for 
water to drink on ponds for the stock, and sometimes the 
green scum was so thick on the surface of the pond that our 
horses would not drink it. We would fill our canteens from 
these ponds and strain out the wiggletails and young tadpoles. 
The water remaining in the tin cup was comparatively clear, 
though quite warm. I found a new use for a mustache. As 
mine was long, I drew it over my lips and made a strainer of 
it as I drank out of my canteen. In a number of places where 
there were cisterns we found the handles of the pumps taken 
away or the rope and windlass removed. .This was not from 

Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 


any unkindness, but was a necessity, for several thousand 
men and horses would soon have exhausted the cisterns of a 
neighborhood. But one case of cruelty, of which I was the 
victim, was perpetrated, not by a citizen, but by a little quar- 
termaster. It was at a large and handsome house which this 
officer had taken as his headquarters. It had a deep well in 
the yard. I saw as we were passing a great big bucket of 
sparkling water, just drawn, standing on the curb and a 
sentry standing by. I was very thirsty indeed. I was near 
to sunstroke, and one of the men was walking by me to steady 
my steps. I at once went to the well and was just about to 
dip my tin cup into the bucket when the sentry put his bayo- 
net to my breast and forbade it. I told him my condition and 
said I only wanted a drink, not to fill my canteen. He said 
his orders were positive, and the major would not allow one 
of us to have even a drink. He said that the major was a 
quartermaster and very strict. So I had to go on, and it was 
an hour before I could quench my thirst. I found out after- 
wards that the officer was really some underling of General 
Johnston's staff, maybe a quartermaster, who was assuming 
all this authority; and, more than that, I found that the house 
was one in which my brother had boarded. He was in busi- 
ness at this place, Morton, and when he enlisted in a Missis- 
sippi cavalry regiment he left his clothes, a quantity of shirts, 
and underclothes in his bureau drawers. His room was oc- 
cupied by this officer, who stole all of his clothes — to keep the 
Yankees from getting them. 

Every day on the march, while General Johnston was ma- 
neuvering his army in the attempt to relieve the beleaguered 
garrison at Vicksburg, men, overcome by heat and dust and 
thirst, fell out of the line. Some of them died by the road- 
side, some were taken in the ambulances, and some, after a 
rest of a couple of hours, were able to go on and would re- 
join us awhile after we went into camp. The orders against 
straggling were very strict, but in such cases they were not 
strictly enforced ; and if a higher officer saw a man sitting by 
the road apparently tired out he generally understood the 
situation and rode on after an encouraging word to the wearv' 
soldier. But sometimes a military martinet insisted on car- 
rying out orders to the letter. One such case was fold to me 
a few minutes after it occurred. A young lieutenant of 
Evans's South Carolina Brigade was unable to go on with 
the brigade, so he sat down to rest, telling his comrades to go 
on and that he would soon be able to rejoin them. One of 
his men stayed by him. The general officers, from "Old Joe" 
down, were very considerate of the men, but there was one 
major general who was very unpopular because of his harsh- 
ness and needless severity in enforcing discipline. This of- 
ficer came by the young lieutenant just as he was about to 
start for his command. The general commanded a different 
division and was unknown by sight to the young man. He 
was unattended, and instead of the regulation coat, with the 
marks of his rank, he wore a long linen duster. He stopped 
and demanded in very brusque tones why this officer was 
straggling. The lieutenant began to explain, but was met with 
a torrent of abuse, garnished with oaths, and ordered to move 
on at once. The young South Carolinian answered that he 
would move when he got ready and that he allowed no man 
to curse him. The general asked him if he knew that he was 

speaking to General , and continued his swearing. The 

lieutenant rose up and drew his pistol and said: "I don't know 
you, sir. You have no evidence that you are a general, and 
now I order you to move on ; and if you don't do it at once, 
I'll shoot you. Shut u^ and leave." 

I was told that the general saw he had mistaken his man, 

and he put spurs to his horse and evacuated his dangerous 
position in front of a six-shooter. 

With all our marching and countermarching we could find 
no point in the Federal lines of investment where we could 
make an attack with the least hope of success. On the 5th 
of July we began a rather rapid retreat toward Jackson. We 
soon learned that on the day before, on the 4th of July, Gen- 
eral Pemberton had surrendered Vicksburg and his army of 
30,000 men. Then General Grant, with probably "5,000 men, 
was free to follow our little army of, say, 25,000. 

We learned that the Federals had lost very heavily in as- 
saults on our works and that the garrison was literally 
starved into surrender; but the fact that the capitulation was 
on the Fourth of July aroused suspicion against General Pem- 
berton, and the fact that he was a Northern man was quoted 
as confirmation of the suspicion. The only charges that 
really lie against him are incompetency and disobedience. 

We reached Jackson in two or three days, and very soon 
the Federals came up and began to plant batteries and shell 
the town. One of the ludicrous incidents of those days was a 
sudden "advance to the rear" of our regiment. It was on 
picket duty. During the night all our supports were with- 
drawn, the order of withdrawal having failed to reach us. 
When morning dawned we were confronted by a corps of 
the enemy, and three batteries were placed to take our posi- 
tion front and on each side. The order was to get back in- 
side the works the best way we could. Taking advantage of 
some ravines running from our lines, the men all got in safe. 
But one old fellow, who had a stiff leg, came stumping along, 
pursued by hissing bullets, and as he fell over the embank- 
ment, with that stiff leg pointing skyward, he prayed fervently : 
"O Lord, can't you make peace between these two nations?" 

One of our boys who was very tall was writing home the 
next day to his mother, a very pious woman. He was de- 
scribing our narrow escape, and he put in some pious reflec- 
tions, albeit not very pious himself. He said that he was 
thankful that his life had been saved by the providence of 
God. He read the letter to his mess, when one of them 
blurted out: "Providence of God! The devil! Them long 
legs of yours was what saved you." 

Undoubtedly good legs formed the instrument that Provi- 
dence used. 

One day during the siege of Jackson an assault was at- 
tempted on General Breckinridge's front, but it failed before 
the assaulting column got within musket range. Cobb's and 
Slocomb's Batteries were stationed on the flanks of Breckin- 
ridge's Division. The enemy were in a thick wood, with an 
open space of maybe fifteen hundred yards between thcin and 
our works. They came out of the wood in splendid array and 
started across the open field, when the two batteries opened 
on them. I was told that the gunners were running a race 
in rapid firing, and I never heard such continuous discharges. 
The men seemed so enthusiastic in their competition that 
they forgot the game of death in which they were engaged 
and that human life was the stake. Their shells were so ac- 
curately timed that they exploded in front and in the midst 
of the advancing column. Brave as those charging soldiers 
were, llesh and blood could not withstand that withering fire, 
and they soon broke and ran back to cover. 

The city of Jackson being exposed to bombardment, all the 
women and cliildren were removed across Pearl River, where 
we had our field infirmary. There we had evidence of the 
devotion of the women to the work of ministering to our 
wounded. The Roman Catholic convent was exposed to the 
fire of the gtins, and the Sisters of Charity established their 


^oijfederat^ Ueteraij. 

quarters across the river. Some of the refugees had tents; 
others built little shanties of such material as they could get. 
All the ladies were busy day and night caring for the wounded, 
preparing delicacies for them to eat, and assisting the sur- 
geons in various ways. The Sisters of Charity were very 
efficient, and their praises were sounded by the correspondents 
of the newspapers all over the Southern States. 

But one thing I thought unfair. I never saw any mention 
in the papers of the services and sacrifices of the Protestant 
ladies. Yet, as I spent every night at the infirmaries. I saw 
these ladies and their daughters, after putting the smaller 
children to bed, go at once to the side of the suffering sol- 
diers and spend the whole night in ministering to them. The 
Sisters were known, of course, by their dress, but these ladies 
had no distinctive dress. Yet they were entitled to as much 
commendation as others ; and while I have nothing but praise 
and gratitude for the Sisters, I have just as much for those 
self-denying Protestant ladies. This incident impresses me 
that it would be well for all the Churches to have some dis- 
tinctive mark by which their benevolent workers should be 

I shall be pardoned for giving another illustration from my 
experience after the war. In the cholera epidemic in Nash- 
ville in 1873 there was great need for nurses. The Catholic 
priests and the Sisters of Charity were very faithful, going 
day and night. I was pastor of Woodland Street Presby- 
terian Church; and as the pastor of the First Presbyetrian 
Church had cholera and the pastor of Tulip Street Methodist 
Church was very ill, I was looking- after both those congre- 
gations besides my own. I also had ladies in these Churches 
whom I could call on for help in nursing, and I organized a 
company of young men to help me. I went with the doctors 
and became quite a good nurse. I hardly had a complete 
night's rest in five or six weeks. The city papers made fre- 
quent and just mention of the services of the priests and the 
Sisters, but if my name or the services of my helpers were 
ever mentioned I failed to sec it ; and it was the same way 
with other pastors who were as active as I was. Now. I 
mention this not to find fault with the priests and Sisters, but 
to show that the Church gains influence when its workers 
are recognized as servants of the Church. 

Another lesson learned in these times of distress and suf- 
fering is that in ministering to these suflferers all can work 
together, whatever their creed. There on Pearl River Cath- 
olic and Protestant joined in caring for the wounded. In 
1873 the Sisters of Charity were ready with service for Dr. 
Hoyt, the Presbyterian pastor. 

Shakespeare tells us "there's such divinity doth hedge a 
king," but my experience is that it is nothing in comparison 
with the awful dignity assumed by some petty official "drest in 
a little brief authority." The greater the office, usually the 
easier the approach to the officer, for generally only great 
men attain to high office. Our dear "Old Joe" was more ac- 
cessible than many a red-tape quartermaster. The only times 
I ever was snubbed was by a provost marshal's clerk and by 
a young assistant surgeon just promoted from hospital 
steward. The latter incident occurred just as we were leaving 
Jackson. The morning before we evacuated the place I was 
told by the division surgeon that we would retreat that night 
and that we would leave our most seriously wounded in care 
of three or four young doctors and several nurses. This sur- 
geon was Dr. Patton, of Missouri, of Cockrill's Brigade, a 
very kind-hearted, old-fashioned gentleman. He told me to 
visit the wounded of our brigade and find out if I could do 
anything for them. In my rounds I found a captain of the 
30th Louisiana neglected by the nurses and in a dangerous 

condition from a very severe wound. The nurses, seeing that 
I had no mark of rank, paid no attention to my request for 
some wine for the captain. I then found a young lieutenant 
of Fenner's Battery whose arm had been broken by a frag- 
ment of a shell. It had swollen until the bandage had become 
so tight as to cause intense agony. All that was needed was 
to adjust the bandage. I went to get the doctor who had 
charge of that ward. It was only a few steps, and I found 
four young fellows in a big round tent. They were sitting 
p.roimd a table playing cards and had a bottle of whisky on 
the table. They paid no attention to me until I asked which 
one had charge of the ward. I was told, and he asked very 
impatiently what I wanted. When I told him and asked him 
to go with me and relieve my man, he said : "I have finished 
my rounds this morning, and I will see him at three o'clock." 

I said : "Why, it is only eleven o'clock now, and he is suf- 
fering terribly, and you certainly will not leave him until this 

He said he had regular times for making his rounds, and 
he didn't want to be ilisturbed. When I said that it was in- 
human to neglect a wounded soldier in that way, he replied 
that he knew his business and I had better attend to my busi- 
ness, or he would make me do it. By that time I was indig- 
nant, and I told him I was attending to my business, and he 
couldn't make me do anything. He then asked: "Who the 
devil are you ?" 

I said: "Well, my rank is over yours, and I will see to it 
that you shall not stay here to neglect my men." 

I. went immediately to Dr. Patton. He went in a hurry first 
to relieve the sufiferers, and then he went for that young doc- 
tor and the nurses who neglected the patients. He said that 
he would send them to the front to take part in the fighting. 
Whether he did or not, I don't know. He was very kind- 
hearted, and they may have begged oflf by fair promises. 

That night we quietly left Jackson, but not until "Old Joe" 
had removed all that was worth moving. 



Before describing the events which took place just fifty- 
eight years ago this February I desire to say something about 
the above-named regiment and why it was known as the 
"Camp Jackson Regiment." It was composed in the main of 
the 1st and 2d Missouri Militia. Our officers, field and line, 
were mostly from West Point and the Virginia and Kentucky 
^Military Institutes. 

The following account was written only a short lime ago 
by my old friend and comrade, Keith White; and as it de- 
scribes events so clearly and truthfully, I add it to my article: 

"The loth of May has for a lifetime been the occasion of 
much loyal celebration in St. Louis as to Camp Jackson and 
its capture in 1861. It has become customary in our public 
press to make reference to this affair as a' battle fought here. 
The facts of the matter have been lost in the errors of repe- 

"Writing from a keen recollection of the time, which was 
at the greatly heated period when the War between the States 
began, we observed the marching of two city regiments of 
State militia on Monday, May 6. Their fine appearance, gay, 
various uniforms, and soldierly bearing attracted much atten- 

"Much effort had been made by Missouri Southerners to 

Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 


liave the State secede, but a convention previously assembled 
had refused to do so. The United States arsenal at that 
time was in charge of Capt. Nathaniel Lyon, a bold and force- 
ful character of great energy and patriotic endeavor. Great 
events were evident to his mind, and fame beckoned to the 
imagination of a very ambitious man. For a month or more 
previous to this time he worked so faithfully to impress the 
government that there were serious designs to seize the arsenal 
arms that he got permission to remove them to Springfield, 
111. In a short time he enlisted, armed, and equipped ten 
thousand volunteers. Quoting from one of them. Major Rom- 
bauer, in a work published after the war, eight thousand were 
Germans (or so descended), eight hundred of other foreign 
nationality, and twelve hundred natives. When the State 
militia went into camp on Monday the law allowed it only six 
days, and it would have dispersed to usual avocations on 
Saturday evening. Thus it became necessary for Captai-i 
Lyon's climb upon fame's ladder on Friday to acquire mtional 
note. General Frost, in command at Camp Jackson, It^arniu!." 
that Lyon intended to raid it, wrote to the latter a letter dis- 
claiming any and all hostile intentions toward the govermucn; 
and its property. The message was sent by Colonel Howen. 
who met Captain Lyon on his march with five thousand troop- 
the next morning. The Federal commander refused the eonv 
munication, surrounded the encampment, and compelled a 
surrender in short order. Of the twelve hundred and fifty 
militia, only six hundred and fifty were taken, the remainder 
hcing absent on leave, being largely parade boys out for a 
good time. That there could have been no hostile movemen;s 
expected from the militia is evidenced by a statement made 
to the writer to-day by Capt. Joe Boyce, then a sergeant in 
the St. Louis Grays, that the camp guards had but three 
rounds of cartridges, which they carried in their pockets. 

"During a couple of hours' time consumed in arranging to 
march the prisoners to the arsenal great crowds of cm ious 
sight-seers approached the camp and after awhile became 
riotous, throwing clods and stones at the German clement 
so soon and strangely equipped here. The jeers made upo-i 
the soldiery of Lyon provoked a volley of musketry into the 
spectators. Some fifteen were killed, nearly as many more 
xlied of wounds, and in all about sixty persons fell. No re- 
sistance came from tlie prisoners, and the volunteers escaped 
loss except, according to Rombaeur, one volunteer officer 
killed. This probably came through the confusion of his own 
troops' firing. 

"So ended the celebrated "battle' of Camp Jackson, and the 
daily press of that time will prove this detail. 

"If the United States volunteers had seen service and had 
been used to arms, this unfortunate affair might have been 
controlled. They were nervous and excitable; also many of 
them must have not yet learned our language, as Ihe wrilcr 
observed .some officers giving commands in German. 

".^fter the firing Lyon gave the command to march, and 
Ihe soldiers and their prisoners were hurried to the arsenal. 
There the prisoners were asked to take the oath of allegiance 
to the United States. Eight responded. The rest declared 
they had taken such an oath when they were mustered into 
the militia and to take another oath would indicate that they 
had been guilty of wrong. The eight w-ere released, and the 
remainder were locked in the arsenal. Eventually all, with 
one exception, made some kind of a statement of loyalty and 
' ere released. Most of them joined the South. General 

lost was among them. The Missouri flag which floated over 
Camp Jackson was carried South and was on many battle 
fields with the Camp Jackson boys. 

"Captain Lyon soon was promotd for his action in cap- 
turing Camp Jackson. He was made a brigadier general and 
was sent to drive the Secessionists out of Missouri. At the 
head of his army of St. Louisans, he was fairly successful 
until he reached Wilson's Creek, near Springfield, Mo. There 
he was killed, and his army was defeated. That was only a 
few months after the capture of Camp Jackson. 

"It has been said that Lyon's defeat at Wilson's Creek was 
due to the capture of Camp Jackson. Neutrals were incensed 
against the shooting of innocent bystanders; and whether 
Lyon justly could be blamed or not, the fact remains that he 
was blamed. The result produced intense indignation through- 
out the State and in St. Louis and caused large enlistments 
under the Southern flag. General Lyon found them at Wil- 
son's Creek, where the farmers' shotguns and squirrel rifles 
defeated his forces three months later to the day, .Vugust lo, 
and he was killed in action. Probably if spared he might have 
become a great figure in the war, leading a victorious Feileral 
force west of the Mississippi and possibly bringing the con- 
clusion of the conflict much earlier. 

"In an interview with Captain Boyce he says: 'The cap- 
ture of Camp Jackson was a most disastrous blunder, arous- 
ing such indignation in the city and State that a rush of en- 
listment came a few weeks later by men originally for the 
Union and against secession who would never have entered 
the Confederate army to Gen. Sterling Price and Colonel 
Bowen. An estimate of the number is given at fifty thousand. 
Nearly all of those who were taken prisoners at Camp Jack- 
son responded to the call of Col. John S. Bowen, joining; him 
early in the following June at Memphis, Tenn., when he or- 
ganized the 1st Missouri Confederate Infantry, numbering 
one thousand and known as the Camp Jackson Regiment. 
Their battle cry in every conflict was: "Remember Cmip 
Jackson " " 

"Hardly a doubt exists about its career as the best-drilled, 
best-disciplined, and most alert organization of the Confed- 
eracy in the West. Fighting through all the severest battles, 
its members slept on the red fields of carnage in campaigns 
east of the Mississipjii, notably at Shiloh, Corinth, the Baton 
Rouge campaign under General Breckinridge, Port Gibson, 
Baker's Creek, siege of Vicksburg, with Gen. Joseph H. John- 
ston in the Georgia campaign, Jonesboro. with General Hood 
in Tennessee and in the awful battle of iM-anklin, and then 
the last one at Blakely, near Mobile. Ala. 

"Captain Boyce, the only one of the original commissioned 
ofliccrs of this command now living, estimated the total en- 
listment as fourteen hundred. Fewer than one hundred sur- 
rendered at Jackson, Miss., May lo, 1865, and not more than 
one hundred and fifty survived. There were but few deat'is 
from disease. Most all died from bullet wounds gallantly on 
the field of honor. The percentage of loss is seldom equaled. 

"As far as can be recalled, the names of survivors now 
resident in this city are : Capt. Joseph Boyce, Joseph T. Dono- 
van, James M. Johnston, Ferd B. Kcnnctt, Ed Stiles, John VV. 
Berryman, Keith White, and John J. Corkery." 

On Christmas Eve, 1862, orders were received by General 
Bowen to move his brigade to Bowling Green. Ky., and re- 
port to Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and early Christmas 
morning we were marched to State Line Station, on the 
Mobile and Ohio Railroad, where we took the cars for our 

General Bow'en had preceded us several days to arrange for 
our camping ground, etc. One day. while at General John- 
ston's headquarters. General B'owen was bantered by General 
Breckinridge to drill the ist Missouri against the 2d Ken- 


^OQfederat^ l/eteraQ. 

tucky, Colonel Hanson commanding, the prize to be a stand 
of colors. At once General Bowen accepted the wager. Gen- 
eral Johnston cautioned General Breckinridge at the time, for 
he had seen the ist Missouri maneuver often while he was 
at Columbus, Ky. 

Upon our arrival a few days later, January l, 1862, the 
men were informed of the wager when formed into line at 
the railroad depot. The line of march was taken up for 
camp, about a mile north of town. The weather was finf, 
everybody was out to see the Missourians, and as our regi- 
ment (1,000 strong) wheeled into the main street, company 
front, and our band of twenty musicians struck up "Dixie" 
we were greeted with cheers and a regular old Kentucky 

Just before we lefE Camp Beauregard, near Mayfiekl, 
Graves County, Ky., the command had received new muskets, 
overcoats, and caps, and presented a very soldierly appearance 
as it passed in review before Generals Johnston, Breckinridge, 
Hardee, Bowen, and their staffs, and General Breckinridge 
remarked good-naturedly and by way of the highest compli- 
ment he could pay General Bowen and his old regiment : "Do 
you expect me to back the 2d Kentucky against your old 
'regulars,' who deserted from Jefferson Barracks and followed 
you here? No, no, Bowen, I shan't fall into any such trap." 
General Bowen replied: "There are no old regulars there, 
General. That regiment is composed entirely of volunteers, 
and it has the best blood of Missouri in it." So ended the 
challenge against the 1st Missouri. 

The command was given charge of Bowling Green and fur- 
nished guards and patrols to keep the town cleared of strag- 
glers and night prowlers. The daily guard mounting at Gen- 
eral Johnston's headquarters was the great attraction of the 
place. This duty lasted until the 12th of February, 1862, 
when Bowling Green was abandoned. The rest of the army 
had been withdrawn some days before this, but the 1st Mis- 
souri had been left in charge to see that all the public prop- 
erty was safely placed in the cars and wagon trains and under 
way for Nashville. 

The line of march was taken up for the last-named place, 
where we arrived after a week's travel. During the last day 
of our journey we heard of the battle of Fort Donelson. 
First the news was that the enemy had been badly defeated 
and that he was flying in hot haste for Paducah. The next 
morning the news was just the reverse of this, and our army 
was doing the flying. A few hours later we marched across 
the suspension bridge and entered the city. 

The battle of Fort Donelson had been fought, most of our 
troops had been captured, and those who escaped (of whom 
there were several thousand) were for the most part a de- 
moralized band of fugitives. The railroad depots were 
crowded with wounded. The citizens were panic-stricken ; 
many were about the depots seeking opportunity for flight, 
and between panic-stricken people and ungoverned fugitive 
soldiers the wounded suffered greatly. The most demoralized 
of the soldiers were demanding food and liquor, taking pos- 
session of the railroad cars, and having things their own way 
generally. That was the condition of affairs when we arrived. 
General Johnston then ordered our regiment to restore order. 

It required but the announcement that the 1st Missouri had 
been ordered to clear the city. A great many of those char- 
acters who bring disgrace on an army had felt the treatment 
this regiment knew so well how to administer, and, remem- 
bering how quiet and orderly Bowling Green was kept, left 
very suddenly, and the roads leading southward were soon 
black with the crowds of fugitives and stragglers seeking t'ncir 

commands, which had left several days previous for Mar- 
freesboro. In one day order was restored; and despite the 
fact that our troops were falling back before the eneiny, the 
citizens felt that they had been delivered from an awful dan- 
ger, as they feared the city would be fired and ransacked by 
the stragglers and fugitives. 

The week the regiment remained was one of hard work 
and care, little or no rest of any kind, as boats and cars had 
to be loaded with supplies of all kinds and the wounded cared 
for and sent off in the direction of Murfreesboro. At last 
the task was over. In this we were ably assisted by Morgan's 
Cavalry and Capt. Basil Duke, of this command, formerly a 
resident of St. Louis and a captain in the 2d Missouri, cap- 
tured at Camp Jackson. 

The last order was issued, "Destroy the bridges !" and the 
writer was placed in charge of this detail. Axes were pro- 
cured, and the wire cables of the suspension bridge were cut, 
and it fell into the Cumberland River with a roar and a crash 
that sounded to us like a hideous cry that we were leaving 
the city to the enemy. The railroad bridge was fired at the 
same time and destroyed, Lieut. David Walker, of Company 
A, in charge of the work. Almost immediately after this 
several boats and warehouses at the landing were set on fire, 
and this dreadful destruction was continued during the entire 
night. When daylight came the regiment was drawn up in 
the public square, and a few moments later we marched away, 
sad at heart on leaving the hospitable citizens of Nashville, to 
rejoin our brigade at Murfreesboro. 

General Bowen and Colonel Rich were complimented by 
General Johnston, and the regiment was kindly remembered 
for its successful and difficult task. 

During this service Generals Pillow and Floyd, who escaped 
from Fort Donelson, were frequently at our headquarters in 
the courthouse with our colonel. They commended his ac- 
tions and often spoke in praise of the discipline and activity 
of his men in the arduous work they were doing, and espe- 
cially praised the fearlessness of their vigorous manner of 
handling the stragglers, and this without killing or injuring 
any of them. 

The railroad managers, who were helpless before our ar- 
rival, were well pleased with the regiment. Fortunately for 
them, quite a number of the regiment were railroad men, and 
witli their help the trains were soon running on fairly good 
time, considering the deplorable condition of affairs. 

Two years later we had a like experience when we were 
left to bring up the rear when Atlanta was left to General 
Slicniian. Init that's another story. 

Manufactured Arms for the Confederacy. — In response 
to an inquiry in the Veteran some time ago for the names of 
some manufacturers of arms for the Confederate army, J. P. 
Smith wrote from Raphine, Va. : "An uncle of mine, Edward 
N. Spiller, ran a factory at Atlanta, Ga., and made revolvers 
for our army. The gun was very similar to the Colt navy 
revolver then in use, except that it was brass mounted. It was 
a splendid gun. E. N. Spiller was a Virginian, but was in 
Baltimore in business as a commission merchant when the war 
began, and, being a red-hot Southern man, he could not stay 
there. He came to my father's home, then went to Richmond, 
and soon after to Atlanta, Ga., and started the gun factory. 
I don't know how long he was there or whether he made any 
other gun except the revolver, but I think he continued the 
factory until old Sherman interfered. My uncle was over age 
for service in the army and a frail man." 

Qopfederat^ Ueterap. 




Some tliree hundred years ago a large portion of Ulster 
County, Ireland, became open to colonization by the simple 
expedient of convicting the landowners of high treason and 
bestowing their property upon new settlers who came from 
Scotland and England. Thus was formed the unique race of 
the Scotch-Irish, and thus were laid the foundations of Lon- 
donderry. But when William and Mary were securely seated 
upon the throne of England, the men of Ulster found them- 
selves in little better plight than their Irish neighbors who 
had fought for James II. America was then becoming the 
land of hope to all who sought freedom to worship God ac- 
cording to their own conscience. Puritans, Quakers, Roman 
Catholics, and Episcopalians had settled the Atlantic seaboard, 
so the Scotch-Irish had to go inland and follow the moun- 
tains, for one peculiarity of the seekers after religious free- 
dom was that they sought it only for their own creed. So the 
hardy Scotch-Irsh went to Western Pennsylvania and thence 
drifted along the great Appalachian Highlands toward Vir- 

Now, the Old Dominion was the most loyal and Iligb 
Church of all the colonies. Sir Walter Raleigh had named 
it for the Virgin Queen, and the map sounded like a family 
Bible of Stuart and Manover-Brunswick royalty. Only a 
niembor of the Church of England or of no Church whatever 
could hold office in the colony, and the political dead line 
halted the Scotch-Irish. But, fortunately, just then the In- 
dians went on the war path, collecting scalps with their usual 
/oal and discouraging the sale of real estate west of James 
River. William Gooch was then royal Governor, and he had 
a happy thought : "Why not pit the Presbyterians against the 
savages?'' Reflection convinced him that this was the solu- 
tion of at least one problem. If the Dissenters won, his fron- 
tier was safe; if they lost, there would be fewer Noncon- 
formists; and, remembering Londonderry, he thought it likely 
the population of Indian braves would be considerably re- 
duced in the struggle. So the Scotch-Irish were given per- 
mission to settle in the Valley of Virginia with religious 
toleration, and in return they were to be a human barrier 
between the savage and the orthodox part of the Old Do- 
minion. That they accepted these terms shows the metal of 
these men. They were, in truth, the hardiest and most in- 
trepid pioneers who ever conquered the wilderness, and their 
women matched them in courage and fortitude. But the price 
they paid was oftentimes with their hearts' blood, and the 
massacre in .Abb's Valley was one of the tragedies of that 

The Moore family sailed from Ireland in 1726 and settled 
in what was then Augusta County, Va., the Mississippi River 
being the western county line. James Moore, one of the ten 
children of the original emigrant, married Martha Poage and 
had nine children. Their home was near the Natural Bridge, 
now Rockbridge County. About that time the valleys beyond 
the Blue Ridge attracted the boldest of the Augusta pioneers. 
Many of them had taken possession of the splendid domain 
which Spotswood and the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe 
beheld afar oflf. It was a land of w-onderful fertility, abound- 
ing in game of all kinds, and, best of all, it was well adapted 
to raising live stock, being abundantly watered and covered 
with blue grass wdierever the forest was cleared. The location 
chosen by James Moore is in a beautiful and picturesque part 
of what is now Tazewell County, not many miles from the 
famous Pocahontas coal fields. After building a double log 

cabin and clearing some land, he moved his fainily there in 
1775. It is easy to imagine the journey, crossing New River 
by ferry, stopping each night at some house near the road, 
for hospitality was the unwritten law of the backw-oods. The 
names of the settlers were like a roll call of the clans, with 
here and there a Huguenot Crocketaigne, shortened to Crock- 
ett. They dressed in homespun woven from the wool of their 
sheep ; they were brave, industrious, self-reliant, and, like 
all mountaineers, lovers of liberty. The daylight-saving law 
was then unnecessary, for all rose at dawn, and the tallow 
dip was not conducive to late hours. 

The Moores journeyed through the early autumn, when 
Southwest Virginia is a veritable fairyland of beauty. The 
valley to which they were bound derived its name from 
Absalom Looney, said to have been the first white man who 
explored the solitude of that region. The Indians soon dis- 
covered the Tazewell settlement and made hostile demon- 
strations, but James Moore was not terrified. The Revolution 
began not long after he was established, and he took part in 
the battle of Guilford Courthouse. Returning to his moun- 
tain home, he was prospering greatly, farming and grazing 
horses and cattle. In 1784 his son James disappeared. It 
was soon evident that he had been carried oflf by the Shaw- 
nees. In fact, he had been captured by Chief Black Wolf 
himself. Early in July, 1786, a war party, led by this same 
chief, crossed over the headwaters of CHnch River and mur- 
dered Mr. and Mrs. Davison. On the 14th of July they at- 
tacked the Moore home. It was harvest time, and two men 
were at work in the fields. They escaped and gave the alarm. 
James Moore was salting his horses. He too could have 
saved himself, but his first thought was for his dear ones. 
He was shot as he ran toward the house. Three children 
were shot dead near the spring. A man in the house was 
mortally wounded. The family was now reduced to Mrs. 
Moore : her daughter Jane, a girl of sixteen ; John, who was 
feeble-bodied ; Mary, nine years old ; Baby Margaret ; and 
Martha Ivans, who seems to have been a seamstress and 
general helper in the household. 

.Mcanwiiile two fierce were defending the door. The 
Indians were cutting at it and threatening fire. Soon the dogs 
w'ere shot. Martha was hiding, so was Mary with little 
Margaret, but the crying of the child made concealment im- 
possible, so she joined her mother; and after kneeling in 
prayer with her children Mrs. Moore rose and unbarred the 
door. Satiated with blood, the Shawnees spared them. They 
plundered the place, taking what they wished and setting fire 
to the house. Among the horses was a splendid black horse, 
Yorick, that only James Moore could ride. One of the 
i^hawnees tried to mount Yorick. who bit him and injured 
him severely; two other Indians were also hurt. Then a large 
Indian, supposed to be the redoubtable Black Wolf himself, 
r\ttempted to mount Yorick. In a moment he was pawed to 
death, and then Yorick was killed by the Indians. 

Many years after that fatal July day in a field near the 
barn a large skeleton was plowed up, supposed to be what w'as 
left of Black Wolf, who perished so miserably in the hour 
of his triumph. 

Meanwhile Martha Ivans had been found and, with Mrs. 
Moore and the four children, was hurrying westward with 
the Indians. Sad must have been the thoughts of the cap- 
tives. One son was in Rockbridge, James (if alive) was with 
the Indians somewhere, John was killed because he could 
not keep up with the march, and Baby Margaret was snatched 
from her mother's arms and dashed against a tree because 
she cried. Silently the broken-hearted mother saw the little 


C^o^federac^ l/eterai). 

bod)' tossed away in the forest. After twenty days they 
reached the Scioto, and there the Indians showed Mrs. Moore 
some hieroglyphics representing three Indians and a white 
boy, telling her that that was her son. Reaching the Indian 
villages in Ohio, Mrs. Moore and her two daughters were 
kindly treated and no doubt hoped to be ransomed and re- 
turned to their friends. Rut all this was changed by the ar- 
rival of a band of Cherokee warriors, who were returning 
from an unsuccessful foray into Pennsylvania. Finding Mrs. 
Moore and her daughter Jane at an Indian village, they con- 
demned them to death at the stake by fire and torture. For 
three days mother and daughter bore their sufferings with 
fortitude. Mrs. Moore comforting Jane with verses from the 
Bible. Finally one old squaw, more merciful than the rest, 
ended Mrs. Moore's sufferings with a blow from a hatchet. 

]\Iary Moore and Martha Ivans were now alone with the 
Shawnees. As she left home on the dreadful morning of 
July 14 Mary had snatched up two New Testaments. One 
of them the Indians took from her, the other she kept and 
often read aloud from it to a friendly old chief, who called 
it the book that could speak. Winter brought cold and hard- 
ship to the villages. Also the Indians would get drunk and 
threaten to kill Martha and Mary, but always they were 
warned and would hide in the woods until the trouble was 
over. The black-eyed, golden-haired Mary was a great favor- 
ite with them. 

In 1788 an expedition was fitted out in Virginia to punish 
the Shawnees. The villages on the Scioto were destroyed ; 
and coming back to them after the soldiers had left, the In- 
dians found only smoking ruins. With no supplies for the 
winter, they decided to go to Detroit. The difficulties of the 
journey in the snow and cold were very great, and upon 
reaching Detroit Mary was sold for a half gallon of rum to 
a man named Stogwell, who took her to his home on Lake 
Erie and was neither so kind nor so humane as the savages. 
Dark indeed seemed her future, when suddenly the promise 
of a covenant-keeping God was fulfilled. James Moore, after 
many dangers in the perilous journey with Black Wolf, was 
finally sold to a French trader, Baptiste Ariome, who bought 
him because of a fancied resemblance to one of his own sons, 
and treated him with great kindness. In captivity James 
Moore had also found comfort in prayer and had learned to 
trust his Heavenly Father and to wait patiently upon him. On 
a trading expedition he heard of the fate that had overtaken 
his family and also heard that Mary had been sold to Stogwell. 
In the spring of 1787 he visited her, but was unable to get her 
released by Stogwell, who agreed, however, that if an oppor- 
tunity occurred for her to go home he would give her up. 

In the meantime Martha Ivans had found a place with kind 
people, and in the fall of 1789 her brother, Thomas Ivans, was 
sent out by the Moore family to locate the captives and bring 
them home. They started back joyfully to Virginia, and after 
many vicissitudes they arrived at Pittsburgh, where they were 
delayed for some weeks. Finally they reached Rockbridge 
and were welcomed by loving relatives, who did all in their 
power to comfort the young captives. In due time James 
returned to Tazewell, rebuilt the home, and was i-;oted for his 
piety and integrity. Many generations of his descendants 
lived in Tazewell. Mary was twelve years old when she re- 
turned from Detroit. She grew up into beautiful young woman- 
hood and married the Rev. Samuel Brown, pastor of New 
Providence Church, in Rockbridge. The sudden death of her 
husband left her with ten children, the youngest only an in- 
fant. She had only moderate means, but she educated them 
all, and five of her sons became ministers in the Presbyterian 

Church. She died greatly beloved, leaving an influence for 
good which cannot be estimated. 

Long before she went to her reward the Scotch-Irish had 
proved their worth as soldiers and patriots, and Patrick Henry 
had uttered the supreme cry of their race: "Give me liberty, 
or give me death." They turned the tide at King's Moun- 
tain in the darkest hour of the Revolution, and many years 
afterwards, when Mary Moore was only a memory, a younger 
generation marched through the valley she loved and fought 
under the greatest soldier of their blood, Stonewall Jackson. 



On one of those rare occasions which, like a school holida\- 
or a summer picnic of boyhood days, dwells in the memory of 

an old soldier of Company A, Regiment of Cavalrv, after 

one of those strenuous raids around the enemy's rear — every 
day a skirmish, every night a retreat, or, to put it in a milder 
form, a "get-away" to a more advantageous position for 
further action — found itself lounging care-free more to rest 
and recuperate our jaded and half-famished horses than for 
the men, but every one enjoying himself in the camp indul- 
gences, which need not be named to any old soldier who has 
ever been there. But the camp was aroused from its lethargic 
dolce far niente state by the approach of a horseman closely 
scrutinizing each group in passing, inquiring: "Is this Com- 
pany So and So? Where is mess So and So?'' He was a 
man of good physique and apparent health and still young 
enough to have been of the first recruits, but just now making 
a virtue of necessity and volunteering. He was well mounted, 
his horse being conspicuously caparisoned with fresh and 
gaudy housing, even to the addition of a tinsel brow band on 
his bridle. His own equipment, dress — O my ! 

First attraction, hat and boots — a black slouch hat, selected 
doubtless for its extensive width of brim and looped up in 
three divisions, simulating the old Continental cocked hat, and 
decked with a most elaborate ostrich plume, doubtless con- 
tributed to his equipment by some lady friend ; his boots 
made of home-tanned leather and reaching to the middle ni 
his thighs ; his coat and pants as near the Confederate gray 
as the remnants of the neighborhood country store could pro- 
duce and trimmed with all the yellow flannel procurable, 
stitched on in straps, strips, and chevrons — on collar, sleeves, 
and legs, according as one would suppose the taste or ig- 
norance of his lady friends and tailoresses, regardless of their 
significance or designation. 

Having finally located Company A, he rode up. As soon as 
he was near enough to be recognized one of our kids — we had 
several in our company who had run away to join brother, 
cousin, or some boyhood comrade in our ranks — threw a 
backward somersault, kicked up his heels, and yelled out: 
"Boys, we are whipped ! It's no use talking, we are whipped ! 
Men are getting so scarce that they are digging up the old 
Continentals to fill the ranks." 

By this time the new arrival was surrounded by the curious 
from every direction. Then the fun began. "Come out of 
them boots ! We know you are in there." .Another sang out : 
"O, where did you get that hat? What did you bring that 
dusting brush [plume] for? No use for it here, and they 
might need it at home." Another one said, "O, he's going to 
brush up the Yankees with that"; while another volunteered: 
"Well. I reckon it will do to brush up all he'll kill." One who 
had approached close to the recruit now called out : "Lor', 
boys, if he ain't got on a b'iled shirt !" 

Thus was initiated our first conscript recruit. 


QoQfederat^ Ueterai), 




Series III., Volume II., 1863. 

Germans in United States Army. — Gen. M. Corcoran, U. 
S. A., said of the skirmish at Sangster's Station, Va.. in 
December : "The commander of the expedition reports that 
he could have captured a large number of the enemy, but the 
most efficient officer with the squadron could not make him- 
self understood by the men from the fact that he did not 
speak German, and they could not understand commands given 
in English." 

Flying Light. — Gen. J. E. B. Stuart reported on September 
7: "I organized a party of twelve men to go within the 
enemy's camps at New Baltimore and endeavor to capture 
General Bartlett. They succeeded in getting possession of 
his lieadquartcrs at one o'clock at night, but the general had 
made a precipitate flight in liis nether garments." 

Lee Sees the Finish. — On June 10 General Lee wrote Presi- 
dent Davis : "Conceding to our enemies the superiority 
claimed by them in numbers and resources, wc have no right 
to look for these exemptions from the military consequences 
of a vigorous use of ihese advantages, excepting by such de- 
liverance as the mercy of Heaven may accord to the courage 
of our soldiers, the justice of our cause, and the constancy 
and prayers of our people. We should not, therefore, con- 
ceal from ourselves that our resources in men are constantly 
diminishing, and the disproportion in this respect between 
us and our enemies, if they continue united in their efforts 
to subjugate us, is steadily augmenting." He saw the linish. 
but made a masterly effort to stave it off. 

Badly Treated. — Col. B. J. Hill, ^sth Tennessee (Confed- 
erate), in lais Chickamauga report, said: "The general had 
not passed nx; more than two hundred yards to our right 
when the battery did open ; but instead of reaching the enemy 
they threw their missiles into my command, which was very 
annoying. I immediately galloped back and soon had the 
firing stopped. .A cavalry force here also tired upon us 
through mistake, but. fortunately, did us little damage. 
During the progress of the battle, my negro boy having failed 
to bring up my sword, I took a pole or club and with this 
drove up officers and men who were shielding themselves 
behind trees after their ammunition had given out." After 
the artillery and cavalry had both taken a shy at him. I am 
not surprised at his being exasperated enough to use anything 
on skulkers. 

Some More Self-Made Orders. — Colonel Hill. ,^5th Tennes- 
see, the man with the pole, said ; "I sent an officer to the regi- 
ment on my left with instructions to move his command for- 
ward, which he did for a short distance and halted. I then 
went to him myself and told him to advance : that victory 
was in our grasp. He replied that he was awaiting orders 
from his brigade commander. I told him that he could retire 
without orders and he could advance w-ithout orders and that 
I would take the responsibility." 

Panie-Strieken Troot>s.—Co\. G. B. Hodge, C. S. A., re- 
ported that on October 4, near Shelbyville. Tenn., "when I 
reached the road I found Scott's Brigade drawn out in march- 
ing order. I was in the act of passing when I was informed 
that the enemy were advancing and was ordered to send a 
regiment to stop and drive them back. Within thirty min- 
utes a courier reached me asking for reenforcements and 
was proceeding back with my command at a gallop when 
ahead of me I encountered the whole of Scott's Brigade 

crowded in frightful and horrible confusion, wild and frantic 
with panic, choking the entire road and bearing down upon 
me at racing speed. It was too late to clear the road. They 
rode over my command like madmen, some of them stopping 
only, as I am informed, when they reached the Tennessee." 
Major Eastman. 2d Wisconsin Cavalry, said : "I had a lively 
chase on yesterday and a lively and lovely fight, ending by 
running the Rebels to Port Gibson. Returning over the six 
miles of road fought over at Tarn O'Shanter speed, I found 
the track strewn with dead and wounded men and horses, 
cartridge boxes, arms, saddlebags, blankets, hats, coats, and, 
in fact, everything that could be lost off or cast off or kicked 
off." Both sides could run all right if necessary or when a 
panic struck them. 

Women in a Warm Comer. — Col. Watt W. Floyd, 17th 
Tennessee (Confederate), in his Chickamauga report, says: 
"Permit me to digress a little from the main subject to relate 
one of the most touching incidents that I ever witnessed. At 
the Videto house four very nice-looking ladies were lying in 
a little hole under the kitchen floor, where they had been 
ever since the fight commenced on Saturday, and just as we 
passed the house they saw us and exclaimed : 'The Rebels 
have the field!' They then threw off the planks that covered 
them, rushed out of the house, and came bounding toward us 
and shouting as I have never seen women shout before. The 
tear of joyful sympathy started from many a soldier's eye, 
and you might have read in their countenances: 'We will 
save you or die.' " Don't tell me anything more about the 
"weaker" sex. Would a strong man have stayed there? No, 
sir; he would have "gone yonder" at the first pop of a cap. 

Lee's Ofinion on Being Sent to Tennessee. — President Davis, 
after the battles around Chattanooga, realizing that another 
commander was needed in that department, took under con- 
sideration the matter of sending General Lee. He wrote Gen- 
eral Lee on the subject, and this is the answer he got: "I 
have had the honor to receive your dispatch inquiring whether 
I could go to Dalton. I can if desired, but of the expediency 
of the measure you can judge better than I. I only seek to 
give you the opportunity to form your opinion after a full 
consideration of the subject. 1 have not the confidence either 
in my strength or ability as would lead nic of my own opinion 
to undertake the command in question." He had shaped up 
the subordinates he would have in that 'Southern' army and 
knew where he would be of most service to the Confederacy. 

Headed Home. — On December 2 Mr. Stanton wrote 
"Beast" Butler this significant message: "Meade is on the 
back track again without a fight." Certainly he was satisfied 
with his Gettysburg laurels. 

Stot'l'ing Desertions. — A deserter from the gth Missisippi 
told the Yankees : "There is great dissatisfaction among the 
Mississippi troops, and at any favorable moment they will 
leave the army. They are told that if they desert to the Fed- 
erals they arc put immediately in the front rank and made to 
fight, and this has prevented many desertions." I judge it 
would; for if there was anything one of these creatures didn't 
want to do. it was to fi.ght. 

Deserters.— GeneTa\ Negley, U. S. .\.. said: "A deserter, 
an intelligent and seemingly honest man. states that he de- 
serted (this being the third time) from the 4th Georgia two 
days since, but he had no information of any importance." 
.\ deserter and an honest man ! God save the mark ! This 
reminds me of the man who, on seeing inscribed on a tomb- 
stone, "Here lies John Smith, a lawyer and an honest man," 
said: "Twins, but it is strange that they are both named 


^OQfederat^ l/eterar>. 


Sketches In this department are given a half column of apace 
without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 cents per 
line. Engravings, $2.50 each. 

"For sometimes, through the bars, my ravished eyes 

Have caught brief glimpses of a life divine 
And seen afar mysterious rapture rise 

Beyond the vale that guards the inmost shrine." 

Hon. Thomas S. Martin. 

Tribute to the late Senator Martin, of Virginia, in the fol- 
lowing general order of A. P. Hill Camp, Confederate Vet- 
erans, of which Senator Martin was a member: 

"Headquarters A. P. Hill Camp, C. V., 
Petersburg, November 13, 1919. 
"General Order No. 20. 

"It is with profoimd sorrow that the Commander officially 
announces to this Camp that one of its members. Comrade 
Thomas Staples Martin, died in Charlottesville yesterday. 

"As a mere boy of si.xteen he served his State and the Con- 
federacy on the firing line as a cadet of the Virginia Military 

"In more mature years he served the same State and the 
whole country in the higher branch of the national legislative 
body with such eminent fitness that he easily became the 
recognized leader of the administration majority in the Senate 

"His distinguished ability is to-day known to the whole 
world. No word of ours can enhance his high renown, nor 
can we add one feather to the knightly plume that marks his 
exalted rank among his peers. We simply ask to be allowed 
to lay this sincere tribute at the foot of the towering monu- 
ment to his merit and to mingle our tears with those of his 
loved ones beside his new-made grave. 

"We are the last of the rear guard of that army that risked 
all for the cause that was strong with the strength of truth 
and immortal with the immortality of right. 

"He has left these meager platoons to join our full bat- 
talions on Fame's eternal camping ground and to take the 
conspicuous place reserved for him in the front rank of the 
line of the immortals. J. Walter Burnet, Commander." 

A. I. Pulley. 

The loss of another member is reported by W. P. Brown, 
Adjutant of Marion Cogbill Camp, No. 1316, U. C. V., of 
Wynne, Ark., in the following: 

"Death has again invaded our Camp and taken Comrade 
A. I. Pulley, one of our most devoted members. He enlisted 
in Company B, sth Arkansas Regiment, under Gen. E. Kirby 
Smith, Trans-Mississippi Department, C. S. A. 

"Comrade Pulley was born in 1843, and his parents removed 
to Arkansas when be was very young. He was a member of 
the Baptist Church and active in all of its work, which he 
loved. He had been twice married, but his wives and children 
had all passed on before him. 

"In the death of this comrade the Camp has lost a faithful 
member, ever ready to respond to any call of the Camp or his 
comrades. He is now at rest with those who passed before 
him to the heavenly shore." 

Dr. Hugh William Caffey. 

Dr. H. W. Caffey died at his home, in Verbena, Chilton 
County, Ala., on October 15, 1919, aged eighty-six years. 

He was the oldest child of Hugh Patrick and Jane Caroline 
(Dunklin) Caffey and was born near Lowndesboro, Lowndes 
County, Ala., on February 2CV 1-833. His father removed to 
Montgomery in 1836, and on his death, in 1847, the family 
went to Collirene, in Lowndes County, where Hugh Caffey 

grew to manhood. At 
eighteen years of age he 
united with the Bethany 
Baptist Church, and dur- 
ing the years since he had 
held important connec- 
tions with his Church, of 
which he was ordained 
deacon in 1859. He grad- 
uated in medicine at 
Charleston, S. C, in 1855, 
and in January, 1856, he 
was married to Miss 
Jerusha May Rives, daugh- 
ter of Green Rives, of 
Collirene. His wife died 
in September, 1861, leaving 
a son and two daughters. 
On April 18, 1862, Dr. 
DR. H. w. CAFFEY. Caffey enlisted as a pri- 

vate in Company G, 44th 
Alabama Infantry, Capt. Thomas C. Daniel, with Col. James 
G. Kent in command of the regiment, which was sent im- 
mediately to Virginia. Dr. Caffey was then detailed to work 
in the hospital at Drewry's Bluff, and when his regiment went 
to Maryland he was sent with the sick to Richmond, where 
in the fall of 1862 he was promoted to assistant surgeon with 
the rank of captain. Failing to get approval of his request 
to be assigned to service with his regiment, he served until 
the end of the war in the surgeon-general's department and 
was paroled at Salisbury, N. C, after the surrender of Joseph 
E. Johnston's army. 

Returning home, Dr. Caffey took up the practice of his 
profession and the management of his farm. His second 
wife, who survives him, was Miss Alabama Gordon, a daugh- 
ter of Maj. Francis Gordon, of Gordonsville, Ala. They 
were married October 25, 1865, and to them were born three 
sons and one daughter, all living. He was county superin- 
tendent of education of Lowndes County from 1868 to 1871 ; 
Worshipful Master of Masonic Lodge, 1870; Chairman 
Lowndes County Democratic Executive Committee, 1872 to 
187s; Judge of Probate and County Court Lowndes County, 
1880 to 1886. 

Removing to Verbena, Ala., in December, 1886, Dr. Caffey 
united with the Baptist Church there and was made deacon. 
In late years he had been a member of the Chilton County 
Board of Revenue, Chairman of the County Confederate Pen- 
sion Board, and a member of the Board of Control of the 
Confederate Soldiers' Home at Mountain Creek, Ala., and he 
was also justice of the peace of Chilton County for ten years. 
There was no U. C. V. Camp convenient for him to join, but 
Dr. Caffey was always ready and willing to help his old com- 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


rades or their widows and orphans, and many of them owe 
their pensions to his work in getting up their records. Next 
to his Church, there was nothing he enjoyed more than being 
with the "boys of the sixties." 

Dr. M. D. Sterrett. 

At the age of seventy-nine years Dr. Major Dowell Sterrett 
died at his home, at Grand Bluff, Tex., on October 24, 19 19. 
He was born in Shelby County, Ala., the son of Judge A. A. 
Sterrett, and was educated at the University of Virginia, 
graduating in 1859. He later studied medicine and graduated 
from the Atlanta Medical College in 1866. 

At the outbreak of the War between the States Dr. Sterrett 
enlisted as a private aW Selma, Ala., and at Yorktown, Va., in 
1862, he was elected first lieutenant ; at Gaines's Mill he was 
promoted to captain. He was wounded in the battle of An- 
tictani, by which he lost his right leg. On recovering lie was 
transferred to the Fourth Congressional District of Alabama 
and made quartermaster, and as such he served to the close 
of tile war. After the war he was commissioned by Governor 
Parsons, of Alabama, to reorganize the militia of North Ala- 
bama and given the title of colonel. 

Dr. Sterrett went to Texas in 1866 and settled at Grand 
Bluff, in Panola County. He was married at Marshall in 
1870 to Miss S. Julia Vaw^tcr, daughter of Col. A. L. Vawter, 
and to them were born six daughters and a son. Three daugh- 
ters survive him. also an adopted son. 

Dr. Sterrett was raised to the sublime degree of Master 
Mason in 1861, and ever lived the principles of the order, 
exemplifying them in his everyday life and dealings with his 
fellow man. He was also ari Odd Fellow, faithful to its 
tenets. Early in life he became a Christian, uniting with the 
Baptist Church. As a man he w^as kind and gentle, giving a 
word of good cheer wherever he went ; as a physician none 
was more successful than he; to his friends he was true, ever 
thoughtful and kind. He will be long remembered and his 
name revered. 

James T. Henderson. 

James T. Henderson was born near Elkton. Tenn , on Sep- 
tember 14, 1835, and died at Elkton Springs on July 30, 
1919. He located in Jackson County, Ark., in i860, but served 
with the troops of his native State for the Confederacy, being 
a member of Company G, 
3d Tennessee Regiment. 

After the war James 
Henderson returned to his 
home in Arkansas and be- 
came one of the big 
planters of Jackson Coun- 
ty. For years he lived at 
Auvergnc. in that county. 
He was married to Miss 
Amanda Laird in May, 
i860, and she survives 
him, still making her home 
on the large farm near 

Comrade Henderson 
was a great Churchman, 
faithful in .Tttcndnnce, and 
always in line with its ad- 
vancement. He was an 

appreciated member of Camp Tom Hindman, U. C. V., of 
Newport, and his passing was a great loss to his comrades of 
the Camp and to the community, of which he was a progressive 



citizen. He had been an invalid for two years, and his faith- 
ful wife was his nurse and companion to the end. 

Col. E, E. Tansil. 
Col, E. E. Tansil, prominent citizen of Dresden, Tenn., an- 
swered to the last roll call on June 9, 1919. Thus is recorded 
another invasion in the ranks of our noble Confederate vet- 
erans. "By reason of strength" he had passed the eightieth 
milepost, but had been a sufferer for inonths before the end. 
His immediate ancestors were pioneer settlers in Weakley 
County. West Tennessee, and among its distinguished citizens. 
Colonel Tansil had just graduated from the law school at 

Lebanon, Tenn., w'hen the 
War between the States 
came on. He was among 
the first to enlist in 
Weakley County, and in 
the organization of the 
first company he was 
elected captain and went 
into the regiment com- 
manded by Colonel Brad- 
ford. LTpon the reorgani- 
7ation of the 31st Ten- 
nessee Regiment he was 
promoted to colonel. As 
gallant an officer as ever 
wore the gray, cool and 
courageous, ever in the 
forefront in light skirmish 
or fierce conflict, he 
proved his leadership and 
inspired his men to deeds 
of daring and heroism. 
.After tlic surrender Colonel Tansil returned home and in- 
telligently set about helping to rebuild the devastated coun- 
try and bringing order into the demoralized state of affairs. 
Of attractive personality and mental culture above the ordi- 
nary, his genial disposition and Christian bearing W'on and 
held a host of admiring friends, and he became a prominent 
factor in every movement for the uplift and betterment of 
social conditions. For some time he served efficiently as 
United States deputy marshal and later as county court clerk 
of Weakley County. He was a loyal and devout member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

In the meridian of life Colonel Tansil was married to Miss 
Jackie Bell, daughter of Dr. P. B. Bell, of Dresden, Tenn., 
and to them were born three sons and two daughters, who 
survive him. In the domestic circle his graces and virtues 
were rare and beautiful. 

.After the funeral services he was laid to rest in the Dres- 
den Cemetery by his brother Masons, attended by a large 
number of sorrowing friends. 
[D. C. Johnson,] 


At the age of seventy-eight years P. S. 
away at his home, at L^pperville. Va., on 
He was a soldier of the 8th Virginia Regiment. Pickett's Bri- 
gade, and as orderly sergeant he participated in the first and 
second battles of Manassas and Frazier's Farm, where he was 
badly wounded, losing his right arm at the shoulder and hav- 
ing his left leg terribly mangled. It was only by the constant 
care of a devoted aunt that his life w-as saved. But he re- 
covered and later on married Miss Kate Frazier, whom he 
had known from childhood. By strict attention to business 
he was successful in acquiring a competency. 

Gochtianer passed 
October 16, 19 19. 


Qopfedcrat^ l/eterap, 

Comrade Gochnaner was a consistent member of the Bap- 
tist Cliurch, with whicli he had united when only seventeen 
years old. He passed away mourned by his family and re- 
gretted by his large circle of friends. 

CoL, B. L. Farinholt. 

On the morning of December 24, 1919, Col. B. L. Farinholt 
died at his home, in West Point, Va., after a short illness. 

Colonel Farinholt was born near Yorktown, Va., May 26, 
1S39, and at the age of twenty-one married Miss Lelia M. 
Farinholt, a cousin. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate 
army and served four years with Pickett's men in Armstead's 
Brigade, taking part in the battles of Seven Pines, Suffolk, 
Seven . Days' Battles around Richmond, Second Manassas, 
Sharpsburg, and Gettysburg. During this time he received 
several promotions, finally being made colonel of his regi- 
ment at Staunton River Bridge. On receiving his report of 
the engagement at this place General Lee wrote to him on 
July 16, 1864, thanking him for the skill and conduct with 
which he had executed the charge committed to him and say- 
ing: "Please express my thanks to the men and officers for 
the gallantry and determination with which they repelled every 
assault of the enemy." 

Wounded in the battle of Gettysburg, Colonel Farinholt was 
sent as a prisoner to Johnson's Island. Lake Erie, from which 
place he escaped after nine months of hard life and rejoined 
his command in Virginia. He also had a taste of prison life 
at Forts McHenry and Delaware. He was a member of the 
Lawson-Ball Camp of Confederate Veterans, at West Point. 

After the war he was actively engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness in Tidewater, Va. In 1884 he moved his family to Balti- 
more, where he lived for a number of years, though still con- 
ducting his business in Virginia. He finally moved back to 
Virginia and made his home in West Point. Having given 
up his business, he spent much time in reading and writing 
and was actively interested in all the affairs of his country, 
and especially of Virginia. He and his wife celebrated the 
fifty-ninth anniversary of their marriage on October 24, 19 19. 

Colonel Farinholt is survived by his wife, five daughters, 
and seven grandchildren. 

He was laid to rest in the old family burying ground in 
New Kent County with the loved ones who had passed on 

Joseph H. Robb. 

Joseph H. Robb crossed over the river of death to answer 
"Present" to the roll call of Confederate soldiers. 

He was born March 27, 1842, in Washington County, Miss., 
and was educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. 
In October, 1862, he enlisted in Company D, 2d Kentucky 
Cavalry, C. S. A., then commanded by Col. (afterwards Gen.) 
John H. Morgan. He was in the Indiana-Ohio raid, was 
captured with what remained of General Morgan's command, 
and was held- as a prisoner at Camp Douglas for eighteen 
months. He was then exchanged and rejoined his old regi- 
ment. In May, 1865, he surrendered at Washington, Ga. 

Returning to his old Mississippi home, he was a planter 
until 1887, when he moved to Greenville, where he died on 
October 24, 1919. He served his county as deputy sheriff, 
assessor, and notary public, and was postmaster at Greenville 
for one full term and was on his second at the time of his 
death. He -was Adjutant of W. A. Percy Camp of Confed- 
erate Veterans from its organization and for many years kept 
up the dues of indigent members. 

One more tribute to this brave, good man. From 1866 to 
1875 the whole South was afflicted with the carpetbag govern- 

ment. Comrade Robb bore his share in driving them out in 
1875. He responded to every call made upon him by his 
country as a soldier and an officer of the county and of the 
Federal government. Peace to his ashes 1 
[W. A. Everman.] 

CoL. D.wiD A. Brown. 

Who that ever knew Col. David A. Brown, the epitome of 
unselfishness, can ever forget him — his stalwart, soldierly 
frame, his hearty handshake, his kindly grasp, and his warm 
greeting? These memories are a legacy which those who 
knew him best and loved him most will ever delight to recall. 
Truly, as was said of another, "he loved his fellow man." Of 
this he gave ample proof and in many^ways during the course 
of a long and useful life both as Quartermaster of R. E. Lee 
Camp, No. i, C. V.. of Richmond, Va., to which he was de- 
votedly attached and which he served long and faithfully, and 
also as Quartermaster General of the Virginia Division of 
the L^nited Confederate Veterans. To his warm heart and 
thoughtful care many of the old soldiers at the numerous 
reunions which he attended and at the Home here in Rich- 
mond owed many of the comforts they received without 
knowing whence they came. 

The record of a faithful Confederate soldier is always in- 
teresting, especially to his old comrades. In the spring of 
1862, like many other Confederate boys, fired with a patriotic 
desire to drive the ruthless invading hosts of a common 
enemy from our homes and firesides, David Andrew Brown, 
though under military age, joined Capt. W. W. Parker's Bat- 
tery of Virginia Light Artillery, A. N. V., the "Boy Com- 
pany." as it was called, of-wMch his brother. Gen. J. Thomp- 
son Brown, was then a lieutenant and which he commanded 


Qoijfederat^ Ueterap. 


at tlie close of the war. David Brown bore a creditable part 
in all the succeeding campaigns of those three eventful years 
down to Appomattox, a faithful recital of which is enough 
to make angels weep. 

He was in seventeen battles and was twice wounded and 
twice captured, the last time only three days before and al- 
most, as it were, in sight of the final surrender of the Army 
of Northern Virginia. He was kept in prison for some months 
after the close of the war. On his return to his home in 
Richmond he did much to assist in restoring and rebuilding 
the fallen fortunes of our common country. 

This is not the time nor place to speak more extendedly of 
the many activities of his busy and useful life. He will be 
sadly missed by his old comrades and friends at their annuril 
Reunions and elsewhere. He has gone to the reward that 
awaits the faithful, the true, and the brave. After life's fitfnl 
fever he sleeps well "in the land where we were dreaming." 
I'riend and comrade of many years, farewell. May the cloiN 
of the valley rest lightly upon your grave, and may we meet 
again in "that goodly land that is beyond the Jordan" (nl 
death) ! 

"As a shell that is torn from the sea 

Forever and ever sings on 
Of the waters, wherever they be, 

Though multiplied ages be gone. 
So deep in our spirits abide 

The sounds of each cherished refrain : 
The minstrel may pass from our side. 

Yet the song that he sang will remain." 

\V. J. 

Jacob V. Wilmoth. 

Jacob V. Wilmoth died at the home of his son, near Belinp- 
ton, W. Va., on December 16, 1919. He was born March ,^1. 
184s, the son of Samuel and Jemima Taylor Wilmoth. His 
uncle, the Hon. John Taylor, represented Randolph County in 
the Virginia General Assembly before the division of the State 
and in the seventies represented his county in the legislature. 

Jacob Wihnoth spent his early days on the farm, caring for 
his mother and sister. In the second year of the war he cast 
his lot with the Southern Confederacy, joining the company 
under his cousin, Capt. Haymond Taylor, of the iSth Vir- 
ginia Regiment, Imboden's command, w'ith which he served 
to the end. Captain Taylor was killed at Winchester in Sep- 
tember, 1864, and his brother, Elam Taylor, who was lirst lieu- 
tenant, commanded the company during the rest of the w'ar. 

.After the war closed Comrade Wilmoth returned home and 
in 1870 was married to Miss .Anne Kliza Johnson. To them 
were born a son and a daughter. By hard work and the in- 
spiration of a helpful wife he had accumulated a good por- 
tion of worldly goods and made for his family a comfortable 
.iiid happy home. More than forty years ago he became a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and ever 
lived a faithful follower of his Master. 

Some years ago Comrade Wilmoth had made for himself a 
handsome suit of Confederate gray, which he wore when at- 
tending Confederate Reunions, and he was laid to rest in his 
beloved gray. His wife died in 1906; his children survive him. 

[W. S. Lang.] 

Comrades at Hampton, Va. 

Joseph R. Haw. .Adjutant of R. E. I-ce Camp of Hampton, 
Va., reports the death of the following members : 

Lieut. M. F. Rurkc, of the 8th Louisiana .Artillery, a courier 
for Gens. T. J. Jackson and Ewcll, died November 16. 

F. W. Ford, member of the Fayette .Artillery of Richmond, 

A. N. v., died November 19. 

Joseph Chenowith, a member of Sterling Price Camp of 
Dallas, Tex., died at Hampton on the 20th of November. 

Capt. Joseph B. Van Metre. 

.After a few days' illness and severe suffering, Capt. Joseph 

B. Van^Ietrc died on September 19, 1919, at his home, near 
Shepherdstown, W. Va. .Another loyal and devoted Southern 
veteran has passed away. He was born February 8, 1840, near 
Martinsburg, W. Va. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confederate 
army and served in Company F, ist Virginia Cavalry, under 

Capt. M. J. Billmyer, until 
tlie close of the war. He 
then rcturicd to his home 
and for many years devoted 
himself entirely to his large 
land interests. Later he re- 
moved to Shepherdstown. 
in Jefiferson County, and re- 
sided there until his death. 

.Although retiring from 
the farm, he was active in 
other business enterprises. 
He was a charter member 
and director of the Citi- 
zens' National Bank of 
Martinsburg. also a charter 
member and President of 
the Shepherdstown Farm- 
ers' Bank, in wdiich capacity 
he served to the end. His 
integrity, genial manner, 
and uprightness won the re- 
spect and confidence of all 
with whom he came in con- 
tact. He was an cxamplary and public-spirited man, ever 
ready with heart and hand to help his fellow men. All who 
knew him were his friends. No veteran ever enjoyed the 
Confederate Reunions more than he, attending rc.gularly each 
year until he became too feeble. Captain Van Metre dearly 
loved the Confederate cause and all the traditions of the Old 
South. In 1909 he was appointed as Aid-de-Camp with the 
rank of captain on the staff of R. D. Funkhouscr, who was 
then Commander of the Third Brigade of Virginia Confeder- 
ate Veterans. 

Captain VanMetre was married in March, 1869, to Miss 
i\Tary .Ann Buckles, of JefTerson County, near Harper's Ferry. 
She survives him, with two children and several grandchil- 

Robert Gourdin Gaili.iard. 

Robert Gourdin Gailliard, a member of the Confederate 
Veteran .Association, Camp No. 756, U. C. V., Savannah. Ga., 
fell on sleep Sunday, December 21, 1919. at his home, in that 
city. He had long been connected with the naval stores busi- 
ness in a prominent w.\v, but on account of failing health re- 
tired some three years ago. Comrade Gailliard entered the 
service of the Confederate States of .America at Charleston, 
S. C. joining the Marion .Artillery as a private in October, 
1863. He then served faithfully to the end of the war, sur- 
rendering with the .Army of Tennessee under Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston at Greensboro, N. C, in .April, 1865. 

[D. B. Morgan, Secretary.] 

CAPT. .T. p. VAN M1:TR1".. 



(^oi}fecIerat^ l/eterap. 


To THE Memory of John A. Cathey and John R. Loftin, 
Members of 0>mpany G, First Arkansas Infantry. 

With the passing of igig there also passed away two old 
Confederates who had been landmarks in the history of Jack- 
son County, Ark., two men who in the heyday of youth had 
gone out with willing step and hearts unafraid to defend the 
hearths and homes they loved. These men were John A. 
Cathey and John R. Lof- 
lin, members of the old 
"Jackson Guards," the first 
military company to leave 
Jackson County at the 
outbreak of the War be- 
tween the States. 

Neither of these men 
was a native-born Arkan- 
san. Jolin Cathey was 
born at Raleigh, Tenn., 
while John Loftin was 
born near Murfreesboro 
Both came to Jacksonport, 
Jackson Count.v, Ark., the 
former in 1859, the latter 
in 1849. .At the close of 
the war both returned to 
Jackson County and did 
their best to hold together 
the remnants of a ruined land and remake it for the future. 

John Cathey married and was for over forty years an active 
business man in the little town which, bore his name, Cathey- 
town. John Loftin married twice. His first wife was Jiliss 
Bettie West, and to this union were born four children — John 
R. Loftin, Jr., Sam Loftin, Mrs. W. D. Williams, of Newport. 
and Mrs. Tom Shaver, of Little Rock. His second wife was 
Miss Mollie Leach, and the child of this union. Miss Bennie 
Loftin. also lives in Little Rock. Both John Cathey and John 
Loftin were well known throughout Jackson County, the lat- 
ter having been sheriff for ten years. In social and political 
life they played their parts well; but to men who were with 
Johnston at Shiloh and with Hood at Atlanta the point of 
paramount interest is: What part did these men play in the 
militarj' history of their country from 1861 to i86.,? 

An outline of the activities of the Jackson Guards, Company 
G, 1st Arkansas Infantry, will be the story of where they 
fought and what they endured for the sake of their beloved 
Southern cause. 

The Jackson Guards was a company composed of the leail- 
ing young men of Jackson County, Ark., organized in May, 

1861, by A. C. Pickett, a prominent lawyer and a Mexican 
War veteran, who was elected captain. L. C. Cause was 
elected first lieutenant; L. L. Moore, second lieutenant; and 
George Paine, third lieutenant. These officers served until 

1862, when Pickett became colonel of Stcen's Regiment of 
Missouri Infantry, L. C. Cause colonel of the 32d Arkansas 
Infantry, and Paine and Moore resigned. Sam Shoup was 
then elected captain to succeed Pickett; Allie Walthall, first 
lieutenant; Clay Lowe, second lieutenant; and John R. Loftin, 
third lieutenant. These served throughout the war with cour- 
age and honor. 

The company left Jacksonport on May 5, 1861, on the 
steamer Mary Patterson, commanded by Capt. Morgan Bate- 
man. We went first to Memphis, where we joined other com- 
panies under command of Col. James P. Pagan. From there 
we were ordered to Richmond, where we camped for two 
weeks and were often reviewed by President Davis, From 

Richmond we went to Brooks Station and from Brooks Sta- 
tion to Manassas, where we had our first taste of war. After 
a double-quick for over eight miles through the most intense 
heat, we were thrown into line of battle. We could see in 
front of us the enemy with glistening bayonets, forward- 
marching, line after line of them. When our batteries opened 
up, it looked like harvesters mowing wheat. The Federals 
couldn't stand the fire. They broke and ran. In the begin- 
ning we were shy of ammunition, but before the battle was 
over we had all the guns and ammunition we could handle. 
The Yankees did not want to be hampered with any heavy 
weights while the Black Horse Cavalry was in their rear. 

After Manassas we were transferred to the Western Army 
and struck Shiloh. In this battle our army captured one 
whole dixision of Federals, but sustained fearful losses. In 
our regiment alone our colonel, Thompson, and two hundred 
and seventy men were killed, wounded, and captured. John 
Cathey and John Loftin were both wounded, not so badly 
but that the battle of Corinth found them at their posts again. 
In the battle of Perryville our regiment was on the extreme 

left and was not called into 
action till late in the day. 
Men were dying for water, 
consequently the heaviest 
fighting was on the right, 
where a spring lay halfway 
between the lines. Both 

■ .^^^^_ sides fought stubbornly, but 

j^^^^H finally we had to give up 
J^^^^^ the struggle and evacuate 
' / > .i^r^^t^^M ^^^ town. 

. Stones River was another 
hard-fought battle in which 
the boys of old Company G 
took part. It was bitter 
cold, sleeting and raining, 
and to watch the old year 
out and the new year in 
with no tents over your head and Rosecrans's army in 
front of you was not the most desirable thing in the world. 
The struggle was a bitter one, fought with grim. determina- 
tion on each side. Finally a fierce onslaught scattered our 
forces, and the day was lost. In twenty minutes two thou- 
sand of our men went down. 

Our next hard fighting came at Chickamauga. Our corps 
was listed as a reserve, but the Yankees started in on the 
wrong end of the line for our division, and Cleburne ordered 
us forward at juick step. Soon thereafter we heard the roar 
of cannon, no unfamiliar sound to us by then. When we 
reached Chickamauga Creek, Cleburne was there urging us on : 
"Boys, go through the river. We can't wait." On we hurried 
and were soon in the midst of the fight. Night came, and we 
camped on the battle line, ready at daybreak to resume the 
conflict. For two days the fighting was intense, resulting in 
a hard-won victory for us ; but O how many of our brave boys 
had bitten the dust! 

In the hard fighting at Chattanooga our division was on 
the extreme right, with Cleburne in command. We held in 
spite of the most stubborn assaults, but the line at the foot of 
the mountain broke, and we too had to fall back. We made 
our next stand at Ringgold Gap, where we were assigned the 
hazardous task of checking the enemy while our army reached 
a temporary zone of safety. 

Cleburne, with his Arkansas and Texas brigades, massed 
his men at the railroad gap and commanded them not to fire 
till the Yankees, marching seven columns deep, were almost 


Qoijfederat^ l/eteraQ. 


upon us. He talked to us and told us that we were there to 
save our army, five miles away; that our task was one of 
great danger, requiring nerve and skill, but he knew he could 
depend on us to a man. We thought he would never give the 
signal to fire ; but when he did, so well did he know the art 
of war that for deadliness our work was not surpassed during 
the entire four years of conflict. 

It is not inappropriate to mention here an incident of the 
fight at Ringgold Gap, for three members of Company G were 
the active participants therein. 

In front of our troops, fighting at decided disadvantage, was 
the 76th Ohio. In the hottest of the fray they lost their flag. 
It was picked up by John Cathey, John Loftin, and Lon Sted- 
man and carried by them to Cleburne's headquarters. About 
two years ago ten members of the old ist Arkansas Regiment, 
among whom were John Cathey and Lon Stednian, returned 
this flag to the few survivors of the 76th Ohio. The presen- 
tation was made at Newark. Ohio, by our late Comrade 
Gibbons and was the occasion of great rejoicing and cele- 
bration by the populace of that city. 

Company G was in all the battles of Joseph E. John.ston, 
from Dalton to .'\tlanta, seventy-four days of almost con- 
tinuous fighting. At Peach Tree Creek on July 20 Clay Lowe 
and John Loftin were the only two commissioned officers the 
company had left. By the time we reached Macon only one, 
John Loftin, was left. 

What is probably an unparalleled incident in the annals of 
war transpired in front of our division at Kenesaw Mountain. 
Dry leaves and undergrowth caught fire from gun wadding 
and shells. There were not less than a thousand dead and 
wounded Federals in front of our line. Lieutenant Colonel 
Martin, of the 1st Arkansas Regiment, climbed the breast- 
works and called to the Federals that as an act of humanity 
his men would suspend hostilities till they could come and 
carry off their dead and wounded. 

In the battle of Atlanta Hood questioned the morale of his 
army. .As for Company G, it went into action as loyally under 
Hood as it had ever done under Johnston. After that most 
disastrous defeat, we marched back into Tennessee and did 
our part in the awful battle of FranMin. Here Hood com- 
manded his men to charge impregnable breastworks across an 
open field. .Ml the generals protested. Forrest begged him to 
change his plans. To send soldiers against such a position 
was nothing short of suicide. Against ever}' protest Hood 
ordered the advance. Cleburne's last words to his faithful 
': ildiers were: "Boys, we are ordered to charge the works. 
1 don't think we can take them, but we can try. Forward!" 
The men who had never failed to follow their great leader 
followed him now. but it was his last charge. Seven generals 
and ten thousand men went down ! The bravest blood of the 
South was sacrificed. The Confederacy was lost. 

Shortly after Franklin came the end. Of the hundred and 
twenty boys, members of the Jackson Guards, who left Jack- 
sonporf in May, 1861, one commissioned officer, Capt. Sam 
Shoup, Lieut. Clay Lowe, John R. Loftin, and twenty-six men, 
John Cathey among the number, came back. In the years 
which have passed since then these too, one at a time, with 
two single exxeptions, have gone to join those comrades by 
whose sides they stood at Manassas, at Shiloh, at .Atlanta, 
and at l-'ranklin. 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground 
i Their silent tents are spread, 

I While Glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead." 

[W. E. Eevcns, Newport, .Ark.] 


Samuel Young. 

Grandfather Samuel Young was born December 13, 1844, 
in Tishomingo County, Miss., and spent most of his childhood 
days in that State, removing to Arkansas in his early youth. 
Early in 1861 he volunteered in the Confederate army, becom- 
ing a member of Company C, 3d Arkansas Cavalry. His 
service was in Northeastern Arkansas and Missouri until the 
spring of 1862, when he was transferred to the army east of 

the Mississippi. He was in the 

battle of Corinth and many 

^MB^ others under Generals Van 

^BBB^^ Dorn, Wheeler, and Forrest; 

^^ff^^^^^k "as captured by the Federals 

^If " •-'^ in the winter of 1864-65, and 

was in prison at Fort Delaware 

when the war closed, being 

paroled at Little Rock, Ark., 

June I, 1865. 

Returning to his home in 
Benton, Ark., he was married 
to Mrs. Louisa Julian Thomp- 
son in 1866, and in the follow- 
ing year they made their home 
at Detonti, Ark. To this union 
were born eleven children, of 
whom eight survive him, also thirty-seven grandchildren and 
eight great-grandchildren. Losing his devoted wife and com- 
panion in 1890. he contracted a second marriage with Mrs. 
Rachel Holiman, who was a faithful companion in his de- 
clining years. 

Soon after his marriage grandfather became a Master 
Mason in the Benton Lodge, No. 34, F. and A. M., of which 
he was a consistent member. At the age of thirty-eight years 
he had joined the New Friendship Baptist Church and was 
an honored and beloved deacon at the time of his death, which 
occurred on the 5th of October. IQIQ- He was laid to rest 
in the cemetery at New Friendship, with funeral services by 
his Church and Masonic Lodge. 

Grandfather was always true to his convictions. -As a soldier 
he was full of courage, unmindful of danger, and always at his 
post of duty. During the late war in Europe his patriotism 
was no less fervent, and he gave seven of his grandsons to 
the cause of humanity. His greatest earthly desire was to 
live to see the close of the war and to have his grandsons re- 
turn with the cause of right fully vindicated. As a companion 
and father he was kind and true, and his heart's desire was 
to rear his children in the fear and admonition of the Lord. 
.As a Christian he was prayerful, administering to the poor 
and needy, visiting the sick and afflicted, giving words of 
counsel and comfort in distress. He spent a life of useful- 
ness and service worthy of emulation. 

[Mrs. Cecil Carson Threet, his granddaughter.] 

Comrades or the Chicago Camp, U. C. V. 

Past Commander G. W. Smith, Camp 8, U. C. V.. of Chica- 
go, 111., reports that the following members have recently 
passed over the river : 

James D. Wallace, 9th Kentucky Regiment, Morgan's com- 
mand, died December 9. 

Ramsey H. Stewart, iJth Mississippi Regiment, died De- 
cember 19. 

Captain Smith adds: "Comrade Wallace belonged to our 
old command, Morgan's Cavalry. I belonged to Company C, 
8th Kentucky Cavalry." 


^opfederat^ l/eterap. 

Xaniteb ©augbters of the Confeberac^ 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General 
Paducah, Ky. 

Mrs. Alice Baxter, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. George Cl-NNINGIIAM, Little Rock, Ark.. 5<-<:on</ Vice rresijenl General Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. R. p. Holt, Rocky Mount, X. C Third Vice President General Mrs. Fa>jnie R. Williams, Xewlon, >.'. C Registrar General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General Mrs. William D. Masox, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. W. E. R. Byrn-e. Charleston, AV. Va Cor. Secretary General Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Peunattts 

[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White. OfBcial Editor, Paris, Tenn.l 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: Your Presi- 
dent General was made very happy during the Christmas and 
New- Year season by the hundreds of greetings received from 
members, Chapters, and Divisions of the U. D. C. throughout 
the United States. My appreciation of this thoughtful con- 
sideration is very sincere, and I thank you each and every one 
for making this a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. 

This letter will reach you in February, and I wish to give 
you the happy privilege of joining the general officers on 
February 13 in extending birthday greetings, love, and the 
earnest wish for many happy returns of the day to our be- 
loved Honorary President, Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone. 
Wherever the U. D. C. is known her name is linked with its 
good works. We love to honor her, and we recognize with 
appreciation the part she has taken in making this organiza- 
tion a nation-wide force. 

The working plan of the new administration will soon be 
given out by the heads of the various departments. We now 
ask for cooperation and help from every member. 

Miss Mary B. Poppenheim (Chairman), Mrs. Charles R. 
Hyde, and Mrs. J. A. Rountree, the committee in charge of 
the book, "Southern Women in War Times," will conduct 
the work through Division Directors, who will receive and 
distribute the books among the Chapters. This is our book, 
and we should begin now to perfect an arrangement whereby 
it may be placed in every public and school library in this 

By action of the Tampa Convention the War Relief Com- 
mittee becomes the World War Record Committee, with the 
following members: Mrs. J. A. Rountree, Chairman; .Mrs. 
C. S. Coleman, of Georgia; Mrs. John L. Woodbury, of Ken- 
tucky; Mrs. Jacksie Daniel Thrash, of North Carolina; Mrs. 
J. T. Bell, of Arkansas; Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, of 
Texas; Mrs. C. C. Clay, of California. The Division Di- 
rectors will soon receive the committee's plan of work, and 
the all-important task of recording the names and service of 
Southern men in the World War will be a part of our labor 
of love this year. Let me urge upon you the importance of 
this being carefully and correctly done. Future generations 
will look to our records for this information, and we can fur- 
nish it if we will. 

A resolution ofifercd by Mrs. N. V. Randolph, Chairman of 
the Confederate Woman's Relief Committee, asking each 
Chapter to contribute fifty cents per year toward the fund for 
these women, dependent upon the U. D. C. was carried by the 
Tainpa Convention. It now becomes the duty of each Chap- 
ter to send this amount annually. The care of these aged ones 
is a sacred trust, and the funds should be provided early in 
the year. 

The Stationery Committee (Mrs. W. S. Coleman, 436 Peach- 
tree Street, Atlanta, Ga. ; Mrs. J. P. lliggins, of Missouri; 

Mrs. M. Collan, of Oklahoma ; Mrs. J. B. Doan, of Ohio ; and 
Mrs. J. P. Cowan, of Pittsburgh, Pa.), having secured bids 
on the various styles of official stationery, will fill orders 

The Tampa Convention revised the constitution and by- 
laws of the organization to bring the laws into conformity 
with the articles of incorporation. This makes a careful re- 
vision of all Division and Chapter constitutions necessary. 
The Committee on State and Chapter Constitutions and By- 
laws was made a standing committee, and all Division Presi- 
dents are expected to submit copies of both their Division and 
Chapter constitutions for the consideration of this committee, 
which is composed of the following: Mrs. John L. Woodbury, 
Chairman, 74 Weissinger-Gaulbert, Louisville, Ky. ; Mrs. B. 
D. Bell, Gallatin, Tenn. ; Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, Galves- 
ton, Tex. ; Mrs. J. C. Muse, Dallas, Tex. ; and Mrs. L. R. 
Schuyler, New York, N. Y. 

Two new committees were created by the Tampa Conven- 
tion — the committee to assist Admiral Wright in correcting 
the "United States Naval Records" and the committee to 
record church bells presented to the Confederate government. 
Mrs. James B. Gantt, 1878 Ontario Place N. W., Washington, 
D. C, is chairman of the committee to assist Adiniral Wright, 
and serving on the committee with Mrs. Gantt are : Mrs. 
Cornelia Branch Stone, Galveston, Tex. ; Mrs. St. J. Lawton, 
Charleston, S. C. ; Mrs. George E. Owens, New York, N. Y. ; 
and Mrs. Wallace Streater, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Felix Harvey, Kinston, N. C, is chairman of the 
committee to record the church bells and has to assist her 
Mrs. Yates Mc.\lpine Wilson, Portsmouth, Va., Mrs. Her- 
bert T. Hartman, St. Davids, Pa., and Miss Rebecca Black 
DuPont, Savannah, Ga. 

State Registrars are expected to file their records with Mrs. 
F. M. Williams, Registrar General, Newton, N. C. After the 
convention of 1920 representation in the General Convention 
will be dependent upon this registration, and it is necessary to 
begin now to "set our house in order." 

Article VHL, Section i, of the By-Laws, as revived at 
Tampa, is as follows : "Certificate of membership shall be 
issued by the organization as soon as membership is granted. 
Applicants shall fill out three application blanks, which shall 
be duly signed by Chapter officers, after which they shall be 
sent to the Division Registrar, accompanied by the fee of 
twenty-five cents for certificate of membership. Division 
Registrar shall sign and record applications, shall send to 
the Registrar General, who shall notify the Division Regis- 
trar of the applicant's enrollment; whereupon the Division 
Registrar shall return one paper to the Chapter President, 
which shall be final notice of the member's enrollment. The 
Registrar General shall from this record, when approved by 
her, fill out certificate of membership, which shall be signed 
by the President General and herself. The Division President 

Qoi^federat^ Ueterai), 


shall sign the certificate and forward to the Chapter Presi- 
dent, and the Chapter President, after signing the certificate 
herself, shall secure the Chapter Registrar's signature to the 
certificate and deliver same to the member. After 1920 this 
registration is necessary to determine the voting strength of 
a Chapter in a General Convention." 

With grateful appreciation of the loyalty you have pledged 
to me, and feeling sure that you will fulfill all these promises, 
let me close by asking you to bring in new members to 
strengthen the efforts of our organization and carry our work 
with firm purpose far into the future. 

Cordially yours, M.^Y M. F.\ris McKinnev. 

U. D. C. NOTES. 

Education. — The U. D. C. organization now has open to 
boys and girls of Confederate lineage a grand total of 799 
scholarships, valued at $72,486, classified as follows : General 
scholarships 64, value $7,234; Division (State) scholarships 
,^13, value $34,807; District and Chapter scholarships 422, value 
$30,445. Georgia is first in number and value of her scholar- 
ships. 3S0, valued at $28,850; Alabama is second, with 72, 
valued at $6,740; Tennessee third, with 57, valued at $5,025. 
In addition to their scholarships, Alabama has an endowment 
fund of $6,850, Tennessee has an endowment fund of $2,800, 
and West Virginia of $1,000, the only Divisions reporting en- 
dowment funds. 

In 1912 the Illinois Division established a prize of $100 for 
the best doctor's thesis written by a student taking his degree 
in the Department of Southern History in the University of 
Chicago. Thereupon the University officially declared that all 
students admitted to the graduate school of the University 
who would compete for this prize should have their entire 
tuition free for the full time required for the completion of 
(heir graduate work, a period of from three to four years. 
The money value of this offer is $150 per year for every stu- 
dent competing. Note that not only the winner, but every 
competitor for this prize will be given a scholarship. Students 
who have bachelor degrees from colleges who wish to pursue 
their studies further may write for detailed information to 
Prof. W. E, Dodd. Ph.D., Department of Southern History, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, III. 

Three years ago the University of Virginia most gen- 
erously granted the organization twenty-two annual tuition 
scholar.ships, one for each State Division, U. D. C. valued 
at $95 each, totaling an annual valuation of $2,090. Nine have 
been awarded for the present year, more than any previous 
year, as follows: One each to Alabama, District of Columbia, 
Georgia. Kentucky, North Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia, 
and to South Carolina tw-o. Had all Divisions given publicity 
to these scholarships, it is believed that the entire twenty- 
two could have been placed. Failure to bring our scholarships 
to the attention of the public, who know nothing of these 
scholarships, means serious loss of opportunity for worthy 
Southern boys and girls who really need this aid. Hence all 
State Presidents and Chairmen of Education are urged to give 
general publicity to U. D. C. scholarships through their State 

The Mary Mildred Sullivan Chapter, of New York, made 
a noteworthy foundation donation to the library of George 
Pcabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. This col- 
lection, consisting of eight thousand items, books, and 
documents on Confederate history, paintings, etchings, auto- 
graphs, etc., valued at $3,200, was the gift of our Honorary 
President, Mrs. Algernon Sydney Sullivan, and her son. 

The Philadelphia Chapter has done noteworthy work in 
maintaining this year eleven cash scholarships, in securing 
eight partial tuition scholarships as gifts, and obtaining a 
scholarship valued at $300 at Springside School, Chestnut 
Hill, Philadelphia, to be open to students 1920-21. 

The Hero Fund. — This fund, including interest, now amounts 
to $20,637. It is earnestly desired that the needed sum of 
$50,000 be completed at an early date, so the interest will be 
available in 1920 for gift scholarships to the boys of Con- 
federate lineage who left school to serve in the World War. 
These scholarships will be good for four years. In contribu- 
tions to the Hero Fund, Georgia leads, with $2,695 ; South 
Carolina second, with $2,429. The foUow^ing contributions 
have been received for the Hero Fund during December: 
Southland Chapter, Alhambra, Cal., $10; Mrs. E. G. Legare, 
Columbia, S. C, $5. 

All checks and bond contributions to this fund are to be 
sent hereafter to Mrs. J. T. Beal, 1701 Center Street, Little 
Rock, Ark., who has been appointed Vice Chairman of the 
Committee on Education and Treasurer of the Hero Fund. 


District of Columbia.— .\t the annual convention the follow- 
ing officers were elected: President, Mrs. Lee Benoist; First 
Vice President, Miss Helen Griffith; Second Vice President, 
Mrs. Cuthbert Harrison ; Recording Secretary, Mrs. John 
Bryan ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Paul Anderson ; Treas- 
urer, Miss Grace Morgan; Registrar. Mrs. Stephen Ford: 
Historian. Mrs. Maude H. Smith; Parliamentarian, Mrs. Wal- 
lace Streatcr; Chaplain, Mrs. Goodwin D. Ellsworth; Auditor, 
Miss Frances Weeks; Custodian, Mrs. Thompson; Custodian 
of Crosses, Mrs. Gustavus Werber. 

Kentucky.— Ont of the most brilliant events of the social 
season was the elegant reception at the Woman's Club on 
December 2, given by the Paducah Chapter, U. D. C, in honor 
of the new President General, Mrs. Roy W. McKinney. 
Everything that loyalty to the cause so dear to all true South- 
ern hearts could suggest was done to make the event one long 
to be remembered in Paducah society and to show the Chap- 
ter's appreciation of the honor conferred on one of their 
members— fine music, beautiful toilets, a long line of bright 
women receiving, an elegant collation beautifully served, witty 
repartee around the board, "truly a feast of reason and a flow 
of soul." In the midst of the gayety a rap from the First Vice 
President. Mrs. Leigh, called the gay crowd to order, when 
a bright poem from the gifted pen of Mrs. Marie Lanier Ma- 
gruder was read congratulating Mrs. McKinney and Paducah 
upon this happy event. 

Missouri. — The women of the Confederate Home at Hig- 
ginsville. Mo., have had a beautiful Steinola, with a number 
of records, given them through the efforts of Mrs. Louis R. 
Malotte, President of the Kansas City Chapter, No. 149. At 
a recent meeting of the Board of Managers of the Home Dr. 
H. T. Barnes, of Nelson, Mo., was elected to succeed Colonel 
Gross as Superintendent. Colonel and Mrs. Gross have been 
in charge of the Home for the past five years. 

The six Chapters of the Daughters of the Confederacy in 
Kansas City held a joint memorial service on Monday, De- 
cember 29. for the late Mrs. Thomas Wood Parry. 

A new Chapter has been organized at St. Louis with twenty- 
six members, which will be called the "Capt. Robert McCul- 
loch." The Chapter is composed of young ladies who have 
been working in the St. Louis Chapter for years. 

Mrs. J. P. Higgins, the newly elected President of the Mis- 


Qopfedcrat^ l/eteraij. 

souri Division, has announced an aggressive campaign against 
illiteracy in Missouri. 

South Carolina.— The twenty-third annual convention was 
held in Columbia December 2 to 5- An inspiration was the 
presence of many of the "Girls of the Sixties" and the splen- 
did report of their war work through their President, Mrs. 
Clark Waring. Several honored and prominent guests spoke 
before the convention. Among the ex-Presidcnts of the Di- 
vision in attendance were Mrs. R. D. Wright, newly elected 
Recording Secretary General U. D. C, and Miss Mary R 
Poppenheim, retiring President General U. D. C, whose ad- 
dress before the Division on "Our To-Morrow" told of the 
great undertakings before the U. D. C. and predicted the life 
of the organization as it proceeded into the ages. The music, 
under the direction of Mrs. W. T. C. Bates, was a delightful 
part of all sessions. 

All business sessions were graciously presided over by Mrs. 
John Cart, whose administration as President of the Division 
came to a close with this convention. Her report showed 
eighty-nine active Chapters, with a membership of 4.25°- 

The Histon' Committee, Mrs. John Alison Lawton, 
Chairman, had arranged and published a catechism on South 
Carolina in the Confederacy. On Historical Evening the 
speakers were Matthew Page Andrews, whose subject was 
"The Foundation of American Liberty at Jamestown," and 
Dr. George Armstrong Wauchope, of the University of South 
Carolina, who spoke on "Timrod, the Poet Laureate of the 

The report of the Committee on Education showed a lively 
interest in education in the Division, a total expenditure for 
education for the year of $2,658.19, a total contribution to the 
Hero Fund of $20,437,35, and a $500 loan fund almost com- 
pleted. About $900 was pledged from the floor for educa- 
tional work. 

Following the report on Children's Chapters, the C. of C. 
of Columbia presented a delightful entertainment. 

Much interest was developed in getting up the records of 
soldiers and bestowing an insignia on these World War vet- 
erans. A resolution was passed that if the proposed medal 
was adopted South Carolina would take at least two thousand 
at one dollar each. 

Memorial services for the departed included special resolu- 
tions to the memory of Mrs. Thomas Taylor, Past President 
and an Honorary President at the time of her death. 

Greetings were sent President Wilson and best wishes for 
a speedy recovery of hi? health. 

Voluntary contributions from the floor of the convention 
made possible a feast for the veterans in the State Home the 
following Sunday. Pledges of $1 were taken from Chapters 
for needy Confederate women. All the volumes of "Southern 
Women in War Times" subscribed for by the Division were 
taken and several hundred more of the second edition through 
the courtesy of Mr. Andrews, who was present and permitted 
the subscription. 

The social features of the convention were many and en- 
joyable, the committees of the local Chapters doing everything 
possible for the comfort of the delegates during their stay in 
the city. 

The newly elected officers of the Division are: President, 
Mrs. St. John Alison Lawton, James Island; First Vice Presi- 
dent, Mrs. O. D. Black, Johnston ; Second Vice President, Mrs. 
W. C. Hicklin, Rock Hill; Third Vice President, Mrs. J. W. 
Mixson, Union ; Fourth Vice President, Miss Mattie Brun- 
son, Florence; Recording Secretary, Mrs. W. R. Darlington, 
Jr., .Mlcndale ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. C. G. Barr, 

Georgetown; Treasurer, Mrs. D. M. McEachin, Florence; 
Historian, Mrs. J. H. West, Newberry; Registrar, Mrs. C. J. 
Milling, Darlington ; Recorder of Crosses, Mrs. A. J. Sproles, 
Greenwood; Auditor, Mrs. Sophia Swindell, Columbia. 


[Given at the reception tendered Mrs. Roy McKinney in 
honor of her election as President General U. D. C] 

St. Peter, aweary, had handed his keys 

To a seneschal angel while he, Peter, took ease 

And practiced a tune on his harp. At the portals 

The angel stood guard. But even immortals 

Grow weary with nothing to do, and he slept. 

Meanwhile on earth a poor mortal had kept 

A last vigil with death. Now he stood at the gate 

With his whole life unrolled like a scroll traced by fate. 

The angel woke up. "Who is here?" his demand 

As he stood with the great golden keys in his hand. 

"From what bourne? And your record?" In accents of 

"I come from Paducah," the wanderer replied. 
"What! the place that Irv Cobb first set down on the map? 
And stay ! In the petticoat world, I am told. 
There's another has written the town's name in gold. 
Mrs. Roy McKinney is the lady of fame 
Who has lent a new luster to the old Indian name. 
No voucher you're needing, no records or lucre; 
Just pass right on in, since you hail from Paducah." 

— Mary Lanier Magruder, Liberty Road, KevU, Ky. 

Lest We Forget! — While we are giving these beautiful 
tributes to the memory of our warrior dead, recounting with 
pride the glorious achievements of our intrepid army in gray 
and the heroism and endurance of Southern women "who 
anchored the South through the tempest of war," should we 
not be more solicitous for the comfort and happiness of these 
veterans with the snow of time sprinkling their hair and these 
mothers of the Confederacy whose eyes no longer sparkle 
with the old-time fire of youth, who are being so neglected 
and carelessly cared for and pitifully separated, husband from 
wife, in the evening tide of life? Is it not inexpressibly sad 
that in their helpless age th«se old couples have their "Homes" 
separated by so many weary miles? May our hearts be 
stirred to earnest effort to relieve and untangle these knotty 
problems which mean so much of weal or woe to the South- 
land's men and women of the sixties ! Let us resolve to strew 
more flowers on the living and cheer their pathway down the 
sunset trail. — Mrs. J. W. Wilkinson, in Te.xas Division Year- 
hook, I9i(). 

Gave Husband and Six Brothers to Southern .'Krmy. — 
Mrs. Mary V. Anderson, who died at the home of her daugh- 
ter, in Jackson, Miss., on December 15, 1919, at the age of 
seventy-nine years, was the widow of the late James Monroe 
Anderson, whom she married in i860. She had the unusual 
distinction of having her husband and six brothers in the 
Confederate army. Three brothers, Richard, William, and 
Isaac Martin, served in Ratliff's Battery, James and John 
Martin were with the l8th Mississippi Regiment, and Wesley 
Martin was with Adams's Cavalry. Mrs. Anderson was a 
woman of rare grace and unusual intelligence, beloved by all. 
For many years she was a subscriber to the Veteran and its 
constant reader. 

Qopfederat^ l/etera9. 


ftHtortral iepartmettt. 1. i. CH. 

Motto : "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower: The n-si-. 


U. D. C. Prizes and Medals. 

1. The Raines Banner. Awarded annually to Division, or 
Chapter where no Division exists, which accomplishes most 
in collecting and compiling historical records. Given in mem- 
ory of Mrs. L. H. Raines, of Georgia. .Ml reports must be 
typewritten and sent to the Historian General by October i, 

2. The Mildred Rutherford Historical Medal. Given by Miss 
Rutherford, former Historian General, for the best his- 
torical work done in small Divisions. This oflfer is open to 
all Divisions numbering less than ten Chapters and to Qiap- 
ters where no Division exists, but not to be given unless some 
special effort is made along historical lines. Reports must be 
sent in typewriting to the Historian General by October i, 

3. The Rose Loving Cup. Offered by Clifton Rose, of Mis- 
sissippi, in memory of his mother, Mrs. S. E. F. Rose, a 
former Historian General. This cup will be awarded for the 
best essay written by a Daughter of the Confederacy on the 
subject, "Stonewall Jackson." 

4. The Anna Robinson Andrexvs Medal. Offered for the 
best essay written by a Daughter of the Confederacy on the 
subject, "The Battle of King's Mountain." Points to be con- 
sidered are the events leading up the battle, its effect upon the 
Tories, its relation to the success of the mission of John 
Laurens to France in i"8i, and its final result in the surrender 
of Cornwallis. 

5. The Hyde Medal. Offered by Mrs. Anne Bachman !l\de, 
former Historian General, for the best essay written by a 
Daughter of the Confederacy on the subject, "Matthew Fon- 
taine Maury." 

6. The Soldier's Prise. An officer of the A. E. F. offers a 
prize of $20 for the best essay written by a Daughter of the 
Confederacy on the subject. "The South in the World War." 
The second best essay in this contest will receive a prize of 
$10, given by Mrs. C. M. Roberts, of Arkansas. 

7. The Vouree Prise of Fifty Dollars. Offered by Mrs. 
Peter Youree, of Louisiana. This prize will be divided into 
two prizes of $25 each and will be awarded to the Division 
sending in the largest of lineal descendants of Confederate 
veterans who were in the service of their country in the great 
World War from April, 1917. to November, 1918, and to the 
Division sending in the largest list in proportion to U. D. C. 
membership, any Division eligible to win both prizes. The 
award of this prize is placed with the War Relief Committee, 
U. D. C, of which Mrs. J. A. Rountree, of Birmingham, Ala., 
is Chairman. 

Rules Governing Contest for the Rose Loving Cup and All 
Other Essays. 

1. Essays must not contain over two thousand words, and 
number of words must be stated in top left-hand corner of 
first page, and essay must be typewritten. 

2. Essay must have fictitious signature attached and have 

real name and address in a sealed envelope accompanying it, 
with fictitious signature on outside of envelope. 

3. Essay will be judged according to historical data and 
fullness of treatment rather than rhetorical finish. 

4. Essays in each State must be sent to State Historian, and 
she sends to Historian General. 

5. Only two best essays from each Division or Chapter can 
be sent to Historian General to compete for the loving cup. 

6. Essays must be sent to Historian General by September 
I, 1920. 

7. No winner of this prize may compete for it the second 

Children of the Confederacy Prizes and Medals. 

Mrs. R. P. Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C, Third Vice Presi- 
dent, will have charge of ,this department. Essays and data 
for all C. of C. prizes must be sent to her. 

1. The R. H. Ricks Banner. Offered by the North Carolina 
Division to the Chapter of Children of the Confederacy doing 
the best work. 

2. The Florence Goaldcr Paris .Medal. Offered by Mrs. 
Roy W. McKinney to the member of Children of the Con- 
federacy writing the best essay on the subject. "Jeiiferson 

3. The Tempie Baltic Marriott Prise. Given by Mrs. R. P. 
Holt in memery of her maternal grandmother to the C. of 
C. Chapter that registers with her the largest number of new 
members this year. 

Rules for Essay. 

1. Essay must not contain more than two thousand words, 
and number of words must be stated in top left-hand corner 
of first page, and essay must be typewritten. 

2. It must have fictitious name attached and have real name 
in a sealed envelope accompanying essay, with fictitious name 
on outside of this envelope. 

3. No winner of lliis prize may compete for the same a 
second time. 

Famous Homes of the South — Mount Vernon. 

By whom named and how acquired by George Washington. 
Describe the lawn at Mount Vernon and mention some of the 
interesting things to be seen in tlie rooms. State how this 
unique shrine became the property of the Mount Vernon 
Ladies' Association. Describe the tomb of Washington and 
name some of the distinguished men who have visited this 
hallowed spot. 

Bibliography: "Life of George Washington," Woodrow 
Wilson ; "The Home of Washington, or Mount Vernon and 
Its Associations," B. J. Lossing; "Pictorial Guide to Washing- 
ton," Rand McNally & Co. 


Famous Fighters and Bear Killers, D.wv Crockett and 
Daniel Boone. 

Tell of Boone's many adventures and trace the road which 
he followed from North Carolina to Kentucky. 

Give Davy Crockett's most famous maxim; tell of his 
varied experiences and his tragic death. 

Bibliography: Any good encyclopedia; "History of South- 
west Virginia," L. P. Summers; "The South in the Building 
of the Nation." 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

Confeberateb Soutbern /Iftemorial Hssociation 

Mnb. A. Mt D. Wilson PrfsiJt-tU Ornt-ral 

43^ PeachlrfC Street, Allantn, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bkyax First Vicf PresiJenI Gfftrral 

Memphis, Tenn. 

MUkS St.'E H. Walkek SfconJ Vice President Gentral 

Fiivelteville, Ark. 

Mrs. John E, Maxwell Treasurer Central 

Seale, A 1:1. 

Miss Daisy M. L, Hodt.son Rrcordin^ Secrrtary Central 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary A. Hall Historian General 

1 137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga, 

Mrs. J. Enders Kom^^oO^ ., Corresponding Seerelary General 

1 13 Third Street South, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

lOf 5 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R, P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayette ville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida— Pensacola Mrs. Horace I.. Siiiijison 

Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning- 

Kentucky — Bowling Green Miss Jeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana— New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi — Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina- Raleigh Mrs. Robert H.Jones 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwilh 

TENNESSEE— Mempliis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 


To llie Memorial Associations of the C. S. M. A.: No more 
splendid opportunity for the service of the cause dear to our 
hearts has been presented for our support than the Endowment 
Fund of two hundred thousand dollars for the Confederate 
Museum in Richmond, Va. 

That the historic relics and wonderful collection gathered 
•during the past twenty-five years may be properly safeguarded 
and cared for should be of paramount consideration. At our 
recent convention in Atlanta the matter was enthusiastically 
indorsed, and the Convention went on record as a unit in 
pledging support. 

Let me earnestly urge that you take up this matter at once 
and that your subscriptions be sent to the Treasurer General, 
Mrs. John E. Maxwell, R. F. D. No. i, Seal, -Ala., marked 
"For the endowment of the Confederate Museum." That you 
will not fail in this most worthy cause is the earnest wish 
of your President General. Mrs. h. McD. Wilson. 



Nothing of more importance has come before the C. S. M. 
A. than the preservation of the wonderful Confederate col- 
lection of treasures, things that will be a pride and ornament 
to the South and the Southern people in the generations yet 
to come, and surely no true Daughter of the South will let 
the time slip by without doing her part, and as generously as 
possible, in preserving this collection of souvenirs at Rich- 
mond, Va. 

In this collection arc such valuable contributions as the great 
seal of the Confederate States; the Provisional Constitution, 
with all the original signatures; Stonewall Jackson's cap; the 
copy of Napoleon's maxims of war carried by Jackson in his 
knapsack (Jackson's sword is promised for the near future) ; 
the sword that Lee wore when he surrendered to Grant at 
Appomattox; the uniform and saddle of J. E. B. Stuart; the 
saddle of Joseph E. Johnston ; "from the christening robe to 
the saddle" of John H. Morgan; the Ku-Klux banner of 
North Carolina; the gold sword of Sterling Price; the flag 
of the cruiser Shenandoah ; the Jefferson Davis collection ; 
the De Renne collection of manuscripts; the J. L. M. Curry 
collection, consisting of manuscripts; over twenty thousand 
valuable papers of all kinds, as yet not classified and indexed 
on account of lack of funds, among which are the diplomatic 
communiques of Great Britain concerning the Confederate 
States, a rare publication ; practically a complete file of the 
Index, a weekly published in London by the Confederate com- 
mission, James M. Mason, editor, devoted to the mutual in- 
terests of Great Britain and the Confederate States. 

The women in charge of this interesting collection are: 
Mrs. J. Fenton Taylor, Chairman; Mrs. John Mason, Miss 
Sallie -Archer Anderson, Mrs. Norman V. Randolph, Miss 
Lucy Munford, Edgar D. Taylor, Herbert W. Jackson, and 
Charles J. Anderson, who compose the Endowment Commit- 
tee for the Confederate Memorial Literary Society in charge 
of the Confederate Museum at Richmond, Va. 

Should any of these articles be lost or destroyed, they could 

never be replaced, and it is therefore fitting that a proper 

housing should be given them. In voicing the appeal made 

by Mrs. Wilson, the President General. I am also voicing the 

appeal of the whole South that the Endowment Fund be raised 

and as speedily as possible. 

* * * 

.Vnother thing that is of equal importance to the C. S. M. A. 
is the organization of Junior Memorial Associations. Not a 
stone should be left unturned that will assist in making this 
branch of the C. S. M. A. a great and growing army of youth 
and activity. 

Other patriotic organizations are engaging the interest of 
the younger generation, and the recent organization of the 
Colonial Daughters and the younger branches of the D. A. R. 
and the Children of the Confederacy shows what importance 
is attached to the cooperation of the young and old in a work 
that has grown and should grow to the end of time if the 
traditions and sentiments of the South are to be preserved. 

Every branch of the C. S. M. A. should include a Junior 
Memorial Association in its plan, and every child or youth 
and maiden in the South should becoijie a member of such an 
organization. The beautiful work of the Memorial women 
must be carried on. 

Confederate Mothers. 

Tlic letter sent out to all the State Presidents in regard to 
Confederate mothers has brought the following applications 
for the bar of honor: 

Mrs. Merced G. Brent, ninety-six years old, Pensacola, Fla. 

Mrs. Dicy Lewis Crosby, ninety-seven years, Westville, Fla. 

Mrs. Sarah Ann Hemphill, one hundred and two years, 
Athens, Ga. 

Mrs. Mary Stamps, ninety-six years, Cornersville, Tenn. 

Mrs. Oleava Sharp, Vicksburg, Miss. 

Mrs. George Mather, ninety-seven years. New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Sarah Gordon, ninety-five years, Stratham, Ga. 

Mrs. Mary E. Barrow, New Orleans, La. 

Mrs. Brent died December 10, 1919. She was married at 
Fort Barancas, Fla., in July, 1841, to Thomas William Brent, 
who served as captain in the Confederate navy. She also had 
three sons in the Confederate army, Dan G., William Thomas, 
and Francis C. Brent. 

Qoijfederat^ l/eteraQ. 



In memory of his friend of many years, Joe H. Bowman, of 
Franklin, Tenn,, writes this of Dr. Hugh William Caflfey, 
whose death is recorded in the Last Roll this month : 

"I first became acquainted with Dr. Caffey in the winter 
of 1864, when he came home on furlough. I was at that time 
an inmate of his home in Alabama, being one of a number of 
soldiers who were wounded on the 22d of June, 1864, near 
Marietta, Ga., and sent to Montgomery. Finding all hospitals 
in that city full, we were sent out to a field hospital on the 
banks of the Alabama River. The good people of Collirene, 
in Lowndes County, sent Mr. Robert Rives to get some of 
the wounded for them to take care of. The last night in 
June about twenty-five of us were put on a boat, and when 
we reached Benton tlie next morning we were met with car- 
riages and other pleasure vehicles and taken ten miles through 
the country to one of the prettiest hamlets one would wish 
to see. A great round hill with a level top was where the 
Dunklins and Pierces lived, while Dr. Caflfey "s mother, two 
sisters, and his three children lived on the north side at the 
foot of the hill, and Mr. Robert Rives on the south side. 
Mrs. Lizzie Pierce gave the use of her handsome home as a 
hospital, each and all of the good citizens contributing toward 
keeping up the home, for such in truth it was. The elderly 
ladies took week about as matrons. Some of the wounded 
hoys went out in the neighborhood, but most of us stayed at 
the home, so Dr. Clay Dunklin, who gave his services as 
surgeon, would not have to ride so much. It was an ideal 
home. Close by were the schoolhouse and the Baptist church, 
and such an elegant and cultured citizenship ! Is it any won- 
der, then, that a man growing up with such surroundings 
should be a model Christian gentleman? 

"Our friendship has lasted all these years. He and his 
good wife, his children and grandchildren have been guests 
aV my home in the days since the war, and it has always been 
my pleasure, as it has been my privilege, to entertain them. 

"A more elegant Christian gentleman one does not often 
meet. I last saw him this fall when he and his wife were 
on a visit to their daughter, Mrs. G. R. Buford. in Franklin. 
I shall never forget the last evening we spent together. He 
talked of dying just as if he were going on a journey to visit 
a friend. 

"A few years ago Dr. Caffey made request of an old friend. 
Dr. W. B. Crumpton, of Montgomery, Ala., to conduct his 
funeral services, telling him that he was admonished by 
rapidly growing infirmities that he could not remain here 
nnich longer. He chose as his funeral text ; 'I am the resur- 
rection and the life : he that believeth in me, though he were 
dead, yet .shall he live. .\nd whosoever liveth and believeth 
in me shall never die.' He selected the hymn, 'My faith 
looks up to thee, thou Lamb of Calvary,' to be used at his 
funeral, and his wishes were carried out to the letter. All 
business houses in the town were closed, as were the schools, 
and the entire citizenship attended the burial, every one 
realizing that a friend of humanity had passed. 

"There were three of the Caffey boys. Thomas and Hooper 
belonged to the 3d Alabama Infantry. Thomas was wounded 
several times, but survived the war and died in 1904. [Readers 
of the Veteran will remember the interesting letters written 
by him to his mother and sisters during the war which ap- 
peared in the Veter.\n during 1918.] Hooper was wounded 
at Gettysburg, July 3, and died from his wounds September 
13, 1863. So it is evident they were all good Confederates. 
And while this was so, during our recent World War Dr. 
Caffey did everything he possibly could to aid the government. 

He had two grandsons in France, who gave good account of 
themselves, and his entire family did their part in aid of the 

"He has left an honorable record as citizen, soldier, and, 
best of all, as a sincere Christian. As one of his children 
said to me : 'My feeling is more of thankfulness that my father 
was spared so long than of sorrow that he has gone. In his 
long, useful, happy life he has left me the best heritage that 
was possible.' 

"He leaves to mourn their loss his devoted wife, three chil- 
dren of the first marriage — Mrs. Carrie Dudlej', of Pleasant 
Hill, Ala.: Mrs. May Catts, of Verbena, Ala.; Dr. Hugh T. 
Caffe)% of Leeds, Ala. — and the children of the second marriage 
— Francis G. Caflfey, L'nited States District .Attorney Southern 
District, New York; William T. Caffey, of Knoxville, Tenn., 
General Passenger Agent of the Southern Railway; Mrs. G. 
W. Buford, of Franklin. Tenn.; and Guy H. Caffey, of Ver- 
bena, Ala.— and a number of grandchildren and great-grand- 

"May the sod of thy native State rest lightly above thy 
breast, mv true friend !" 


The following letter was sent to the Veteran by Miss Julia 
W. Fletcher, former President of the Washington State Di- 
vision, U. D. C, to whom it was sent by the daughter of Capt. 
Peter Critz, now Mrs. Charles Richardson, as a part of her 
U. D. C. credentials. Mrs. Richardson lost a son, Capt. Petet 
Richardson, while serving in France. This letter gives the 
record of a gallant soldier: 

"Tupeix) Station, Miss., January 15, 1865. 

"Mr. A. Crilz — Sir: It is with much regret that I seat my- 
self this afternoon to announce to you the death of your son, 
Peter L. Critz. He was killed at Franklin, Tenn., while 
charging the enemy's w^orks. We had taken one line of works 
and were fighting with bayonets the second line, and Peter 
was on top of the works when he was shot. He had in his 
pocket a very fine pipe with his name engraved on it which 
he said he was saving for his father. He was shot througli 
the pipe, through the heart, and through the neck, and never 
did a more gallant officer fall by the ruthless hand of the in- 

"Peter was in command of our company when killed. We 
lost all of our company there except myself and James Rey- 
nolds. Reynolds lost his right arm, and I was wounded in 
the left leg with two balls. I am now almost well. We all 
feel at a loss without Peter. We had elected him captain of 
our company. He has left a great many warm friends in the 
regiment to mourn their loss. None of his things were saved 
on account of none of his company being there to see to it. 
One of the infirmary corps told me that he buried Peter and 
Mrs. Koemegay's son together and that they were buried de- 
cently. We lost a great many good men there. Our brigade 
now numbers only one hundred and fifteen men. We went 
into the fight with five hundred men. 

"I would have written to you sooner, but this is the first 
opportunity I have had of getting a letter off. I will now 

"Yours most respectfully, R. G. Phillips, 

Co. B. 24th Mississippi Rcgt., Brantley's Brigade." 

Dr. D. C. Rogers, of Roundhead, Ohio, son of a Confed- 
erate soldier, renews subscription to the Veteran and writes : 
"I can't keep house without it. Long life to the Veteran!" 


Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 


[Continued from page 46.] 

arms captured from the Yankees in this battle, 1 judge that 
the 44th got their share, especially as they had more of a 
chance for plundering on account of being (from no fault of 
theirs) mixed in with a disorganized body. There is a noted 
instance of a charge of unarmed Confederates on record, but 
not this one. 

Charge of Unarmed Men. 

Extract of report made by Col. Charles H. Tyler, command- 
ing a cavalry brigade of Price's Missouri army, consisting of 
Perkins's, Coffee's, and Searcy's Regiments, in Price's expedi- 
tion to reconquer Missouri in 1864: 

"October 25, 1864. — Owing to its unarmed condition, the bri- 
gade was assigned to duty on the flanks of the wagon train, 
and, rightly conjecturing that our rear guard had been over- 
powered, I immediately concentrated my command and made 
as imposing a line of battle as possible. The general com- 
manding directed me to support the retreating troops morally 
by ostentatious display. Accordingly, when our retreating 
guard appeared in sight, I told my unarmed recruits that our 
commander looked to them alone for the safety of the train 
and that they must charge and check the enemy. This they 
did, and very gallantly, considering that they had the example 
of so many armed fugitive veterans to demoralize them. My 
brigade behaved well, even if they had been armed veterans, 
and as unarmed recruits they immortalized themselves." 

The records don't show whether they charged on foot or 
horseback, and I hope that some survivor who participated in 
this affair will write it up for the Veteran. 


The town of Newton, la., is the county seat of Jasper 
County, and recently one of the citizens made inquiry through 
the local paper as to why they were thus named, to which 
the following response was made by Dr. M. R. Hammer, Sr., 
of Newton, who is also a good friend of the Veteran, and 
he says it was his people who named the town and county: 

"Jasper County was named for Sergt. William Jasper, who 
was a member of the 2d South Carolina Regiment, enlisted 
in 177s, who distinguished himself by leaping over the breast- 
works under heavy fire from the British guns at the siege 
of Fort Moultrie and recovering the flag which had been shot 
from its staff and had fallen on the outside of the works on 
June 28, 1776. At the siege of Savannah he led the charge 
and planted the flag on the enemy's works, where he was slain 
several yards in advance of his comrades, who were repulsed 
with great slaughter. This happened on the 9th of October, 

"Newton, la., was named after Sergeant Newton, of South 
Carolina, another Revolutionary War hero. One of his daring 
acts thus occurred : While lying concealed by the roadside he 
saw a small body of British soldiers guarding some condemned 
American prisoners. They stopped to rest, and he noticed 
that there was a woman in the party who sat down, facing 
one of the prisoners, her husband. She also faced Sergeant 
Newton. He said he never saw such a look of agony on any 
human face, and he resolved to attempt to rescue the prisoners 
himself, although unarmed. So he followed along at a safe 
distance, keeping out of sight. He knew that some distance 
ahead there was a spring at which he hoped they would stop 
for their noonday meal. When they reached the spring the 
prisoners were seated in a group. Near by the soldiers stacked 

their muskets and began preparations for dinner. Sergeant 
Newton stealthily approached through the thicket, caught up 
one of the guns, and ordered the guards to surrender. He 
then gave the prisoners their captors' guns. When the wife 
realized that her husband and friends were free and not to 
be shot, she threw her arms around the sergeant's neck. 
■ "This incident is all that has been handed down to us re- 
garding Sergeant Newton, yet it is enough to entitle his name 
to an honorable place in American history." 



I have just finished reading Gen. Basil W. Duke's "History 
of Morgan's Cavalry" and note one very grave error. On 
page 379 he says: "Next day came the grand Federal attack 
and the unaccountable stampede of the entire Confederate 
army from Missionary Ridge." 

I was a member of Company A, 7lh Texas Infantry, Gran- 
bury's Brigade, Cleburne's Division, which division occupied 
the Ridge extending from where the old E. T. V. and G. Rail- 
road runs under the Ridge to the extreme right of the Con- 
federate line, Govan's Arkansas Brigade on the right and 
Granbury's next. Our brigade was on the highest point of that 

About nine o'clock on November 25, 1863, the Federals at- 
tacked our position, and we drove them back down the moun- 
tain. They reenforced and attacked again and again and con- 
tinued to attack us all day and until dark, and we repulsed 
them every time. 

After dark we built camp fires and withdrew down the 
mountain to the railroad and marched all night, reaching 
Ringgold, Ga., about daylight. About nine or ten that morn- 
ing, the 26th, the Federals attacked us at Ringgold, and Gen- 
eral Cleburne gave them another whipping. They retired to 
Chattanooga, and we went into winter quarters at Tunnel 
Hill, Ga. 

President Wilson Not the Originator of Self-Deter- 
mination. — W. T. Hightower, of Sweetwater, Tex., renews 
subscription for two years in advance, "trusting that we may 
learn in the meantime why our honored President does not 
place 'self-determination' between quotation marks. Being a 
student of history, he should have at least discovered some of 
the main features of our contention ; and such a gross mis- 
apprehension on the part of a well-informed American, who 
has spent years in the South, seems, I might say, at least sur- 
prising. Stand by the record; we are proud of it." 

War Time Pictures. — The splendid picture of the Jackson 
monument, unveiled at Richmond, Va., in October, is the 
work of H. P. Cook, one of the leading photographers of that 
city. He has a large collection of war time photographs, per- 
haps the largest private collection of Confederate negatives, 
including most of the generals. Any one interested in these 
pictures would do well to write to Mr. Cook and get his 

In the letter from Mrs. A. E. Going, of Gordo, Ala., pub- 
lished on page 3 of the January Veteran, an error was made 
in giving the name of her grandfather as Maj. Joseph Kiger, 
when it should have been Koger. 

C^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 


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Disaster, disease, and death are the 
armed foes in the field to-day which the 
Kcd Cross must continue to fight long 
after peace treaties are signed, when 
wars are no more and when the people 
slumber beneath a false sense of security. 

No other organization is equipped for 
the varied service rendered by the Red 
Cross. The desolation which follows 
fire, flood, and pestilence is relieved by 
prompt and efficient Red Cross action; 
but apart from emergency occasions 
there are situations w-hich are ever prcs- 
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The greatest problem facing the world 
lo-day is tlie world's health. The solu- 
tion of this problem means social and 
economic stability. As evidence of this 
is the daily record of disease wliich 
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200.000 Americans succumb each year 
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under five years of age die annually 
from preventable disease, while one out 
of seven adults in this country stands in 
need of medical care of some kind. 

The Red Cross is meeting this situa- 
tion from several angles. One is the 
education of the public-health nurse, for 
which a sum of $100,000 was provided 
to be used as scholarships for graduate 
nurses desiring to take this course. .M- 
ready tlie full amount has been used, and 
among the nurses receiving Red Cross 
education in this way there are sixteen 
from the five States of the Southern Di- 

Another plan to promote public health 
is the establishing of health centers in 
the city and country, and here too the 
Red Cross is active in advice, coopera- 
tion, and suggestion. Health in the 
rural districts, according to statistics, 
is not much more perfect than health 
in the cities, and the infant mortality 
is greater; hence the Red Cross is plan- 
ning special health campaigns, both of 
education and practical service, for the 
country as well as for the city. The 
people who have indorsed the Red Cross 
in its recent membership campaign may 
all feel that they are giving personal 
help to these health plans of the Red 
Cross as well as to its continued work 
in caring for the 250,000 disabled heroes 
of the war who are still in hospitals in 
this country and in the help given to 
their families as well as to all needy 
families unreached by other social agen- 

The Red Cross is the voice of the peo- 
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it speaks in no uncertain tones. 


James N. Rule, newly appointed di- 
rector of the Junior Red Cross at Na- 
tional Headquarters, has well expressed 
the value of the Junior w-ork of mak- 
ing furniture for the homes in Europe 
and the benefit derived to ourselves. 
He states: "As a .schoolman myself, I 
welcome these problems my school 
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values, but above all else for their senti- 
mental value in emphasizing unselfish 
service and Iiigh achievement." 

In a little Oklahoma school the .iuii- 
iors have given up their play time dur- 
ing the noon recess and are devoting 
the hour to making toys and other sala- 
able articles for a bazaar, the proceeds 
of which will finance tlieir Red Cross 


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464 Intor-Soulliarn BIdg. LOUISV*!. L En lO 

France is the thriftiest nation in the 
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turies of impressive education as to self- 
protection. They must have something 
to live on in the event that their hus- 
bands are taken away from them. 
VVlien a French girl marries she takes 
to her husband a "dot," which represents 
her own and the family savings and is 
the basis of her future protection. Of 
the depositors in the banks, fifty-seven 
per cent are women, — National Tribune. 

Robert Keith, of .Argyle, Tex., would 
like to know if there are any survivors 
among the scouts of Gen. Stephen D. 
Lee. organized at Atlanta, Ga., and 
known as "Lee's Scouts," made up from 
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Mis- 
sissippi men. He would be glad to hear 
from anv of them. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


The title of this picture is distinctive. This splendid grouping of the three greatest 
generals this country has produced is offered as a handsome steel engravuig 18xii3i 
inches. The Veteran commends it above all others as most suitable for presenta- 
tion to schools, libraries, Camps, etc. The price is ^l.bO, postpaid. Order from the 


^^K^^ ^\^^^^ 

HJm ' ^jkKM 






^oi>federat^ l/efcerai). 


Memorial Tablets 

of the Highest Standard 

Our experience of 27 years 
is our guarantee of results. 

Paul E. Cabaret & Co. 

120-126 Eleventh Avenue 

New York 

tUu.\irtU\i ht'okl^i scnion rcqut'st. 

f— DO YOU KNOW— 1 

that nesides making 
U. C. V. Un.forms 


also makes an im- 
mense line of Regal. a 
and Lodge Supplies 
for Mason?, Odd Fel- 
low 5, Py t Ki a ns, 
Woodmen, etc.? 

Ever 3^ article guaranteed. Catalogs on request 


Fstablished 50 Yfars 

Information is wanted of the service 
of Ricliard Simins, colonel of the 12th 
Georgia Cavalry State Troops, C. S. A., 
and especially where he enlisted, when 
paroled, and where he was on the 11th 
of April, 1865. Surviving comrades arc 
appealed to for what information they 
can give. Address Mrs. F. L. Ezell. 
Lecsburg, Va. 

The Salvation Army can do as ef- 
fective work at home as it did overseas, 
and there is a great need for its home 
service activities. To meet the needs 
money is necessary. The organization 
will have a nation-wide drive for funds 
the first ten days in May. The Ameri- 
can people will make sure that the drive 
is a big success. 

H. P. Hobson, of Somerville, Tenn., 
in renewing his subscription, writes : 
"I appreciate the Veteran more than 
any paper I take and think every true 
Southerner should subscribe to it. 
* * * I was not old enough to enlist 
when the War between the States was 
on, but I am now, and always will be, 
loyal to the flag of the Confederacy." 


Adjt. Gen. William E. Mickle 83 

My Friendship Chain. (Poem.) By Virginia Conway Latham 84 

The Mythical Lincoln 85 

The Great Obelisk. By Grace Murray Mastin 86 

Service with Col. George R. Diamond. By B. F. Day 86 

Comment on Gordon's Biography of Jefferson Davis. By Dr. Henry E. Shep- 
herd 87 

The First Confederate Capital. By J. A. Osgoode 88 

Notes on the War Department, C. S. A. By John C. Stiles 90 

Louisiana Confederate Military Records. By A. B. Boothe 91 

With the Eleventh Texas Cavalry. By Capt. George R. Dean 92 

Jackson's Last Battle. By John Purifoy 93 

End of the Vicksburg Campaign. By Dr. J. H. McNeilly 96 

Lights and Shadows of Soldier Life. By James A. Stevens 99 

The Second Battle of Manassas. By H. T. Childs 100 

Spotsylvania, May 12, 13, 1864. By L G. Bradwell 102 

David Crockett, the "Go-Ahead" Man. By Mrs. A. A. Campbell 104 

Civil War. (Poem.) By Flora Ellice Stevens 105 

The Mother. (Poem.) By Edmund N. Joyner 116 

Departments : Last Roll 106 

U. D. C 112 

C. S. M. A 115 

S. C. V 117 

Mrs. A. C. Reilley, of Pensacola, Fla., 
is anxious to obtain the war record of 
her grandfather, William Longmaire 
(pronounced Longmeer), who went 
from Kenton, Ky., and joined a cavalry 
regiment, C. S. A. It is hoped that 
some of his surviving comrades can 
give a record of his service for the 

Cash Money 

for old Confed- 
erate and U. S. 
stamps issued from 1847-1871, and old 
foreign accumulations and collections 
stored in your attic years ago and for- 
gotten. Circular free. 

773 Ebner Street Columbus, Ohio 

to purchase all'Wool 

Bunting or 
Silk Fla^s 

of all kinds 

Silk Banners, Swords, Belts, Caps 

and all kinds of Military Equipment and 
Society Goods Is at 

Joel Flag L Regalia Co., 79 Nassau St, 

Send for Price List New York Qty 

WANTED— A copy of "The Littlest 
Rebel," by People, either old or new 
copy. Reply, stating price, to Mrs. J. 
M. Johnson, 431 Kensington Court, 
Louisville, Ky. 

WANTED — A position as companion. 
A refined, educated elderly woman of 
Southern birth. The best of references 
given and required. Address Mrs. S. 
G. Tate. 1127 Chestnut Street, Evans- 
ville, Ind. 

The Salvation Army will make its 
second appeal for funds for home serv- 
ice work from May 1 to May 10. The 
organization "occupies a place close to 
the hearts of the people, and there is 
no question but that the drive will re- 
ceive the hearty support of all. 

The doctor was watching the cook 
smear a lot of frosting on the cake, too 
much, lie thought. "Ellen," he said, 
"frosting covers up a good many mis- 
takes in the baking, doesn't it?" "Yes, 
doctor," the cook replied, "and the spade 
covers up a good many mistakes you 
make, doesn't it?" 

T. B. Childress, of San Antonio, Tex., 
would like to find some one who served 
in Company B, under Captain Serge, 
Grimes's Regiment (later Grimes's Bri- 
gade) of Missouri Cavalry. He served 
in that command during the last two 
years of the war and would like to hear 
from some of his old comrades. 

A thought of the Salvation Army is 
invariably accompanied by a thought of 
a good deed. The Army and real serv- 
ice to the people are as close to each 
other as two things can be. From May 
1 to May 10 the Army will have a cam- 
paign for funds with which to conduct 
its home service for another year. Past 
deeds assure the success of the cam- 

QpT)federat(^ l/eterap. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tcnn. 

under act of March 3, 1870. 
Acceptance of mailinjj at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 

tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1017, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 
Published by the Trustees of the Confedekatk Veteran, Nash' 

ville, Tenn. 

United Confedekate Veterans, 

United Daughters ok the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern MrCMORiAi. Association, 

Thnuarh men deserve, they inny not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

iPaicn, $1.00 PER Tear. 
3iNoijs (Jopv, 10 Cknts. 

[ Vol. XXVIII. 


No. 3. I 



Office of Commanding General U. C. V'., 
Fort Worth, Tex., Feb. 21, 1920. 
General Order No. — . 

With profound sorrow the General comniantiing announces 
the death of Gen. William E. Mickle. Adjutant General of the 
United Confederate Veteran Association. 

General Mickle was horn in Columbia, S. C, October 31, 
1846. He enlisted in the Confederate service on August 20. 
1864, as a private in the 3d Alabama Infantry, Army of 
Northern Virginia. He was wounded twice in the battle of 
Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. He continued in the service, 
hut was still on crutches at the close of tlie war. He was 
appointed Adjutant General U. C. V. following the death of 
tlic lamented Gen. George Moorman and discharged his duty 
faitlifully and efficiently until his death. He was a faithful 
soldier and died at his post. Higher eulogy no man can have. 

To his stricken family, on behalf of our organization, I ex- 
tend sincere sympathy and condolence. 

By order of K. M. Van Zandt, General Cotniiiatidtng. 

W. T. Shaw, Assistant Adjutant General 

Tlie announcement of General Mickle's death, which oc- 
curred on the 18th of February at Mobile, has caused wide- 
spread sorrow in the ranks of the United Confederate Vet- 
erans, by whom he w'as known and appreciated for the ef- 
ficiency of his work and devotion to duty. Since the or- 
ganization of the Association he had been ardently devoted 
to its interests, serving for some years as Assistant to Adju- 
tant General Moorman, whom he succeeded, and for seven- 
teen years — his appointment dating from January 19. 190.1— 
his undivided attention had been given to the office. His 
heart was in the work, and now that his task is finished truly 
is his due the "Well done, thou good and faithful servant." 

General Mickle was a native of South Carolina, his an- 
cestors having settled in the Kershaw District before the 
Revolution, and many of the family are still in that section. 
But he went to Mississippi as a youth and was teaching in 
Noxubee County in 1864. Though teachers were exempt 
from military service, and he was then but seventeen years 
old, he gave up his position and volunteered for the front. 

joining the famous Mobile Cadets, 3d Alabama Infantry, A. 
N. V. When he got to the firing line Harper's Ferry had 
just been evacuated. He tendered his services to the sharp- 
shooters' corps and had to borrow a gun for his first night 
on picket. 

The services of this boy soldier arc given in the following, 
taken from the "Records": "William E. Mickle participated 
in all the hard marches and almost daily skirmishes up to the 
memorable battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. After 
sharing in all the triumphs of the army during the day, late 
in the afternoon he was wounded — it was at first thought 
mortally — by a fragment of shell. As he was being assisted 
from the field, weak from loss of blood, he was again 
wounded in the right ankle by a Minie ball. After spending 
a short time in the hospital at Staunton, Va., he was fur- 
loughcd and remained at home for ninety days. Then, 
though still on crutches, he rejoined his command in winter 
quarters near Petersburg. However, he was summoned be- 
fore the medical board of Rodes's Division and ordered to 
return home, and he was at home at the time of Lee's sur- 

In the fall of 1865 young Mickle resumed his work as a 
teacher, securing a position in the Barton Academy. Mobile, 
Ala., one of the most famous public schools in the land. A 
little later he was made principal of the Boys' Senior Gram- 
mar School, a department of Barton Academy, acquitting 
himself most satisfactorily in every way. Some years later 
he gave up teaching and entered the book trade, eventually 
establishing one of the most noted bookstores in the South 
his dealings embracing all sections of America and Europe 
and winning prestige as the best authority on the bibliography 
of the South, and Alabama in particular. His collection on 
the War between the States was one of the largest and most 
varied ever gotten together, and among its treasures were 
autographic letters from leading writers on the subject (some 
of which were from President Davis, Generals Lee. Johnston. 
Beauregard, and others) bound in with the hooks. 

From the inception of the idea of organizing our veterans 
into an association General Mickle was an ardent worker in 
that interest. He was among the first promoters of Raphael 
Semmes Camp, No. 11, U. C. V., of Mobile, and was chosen 
Adjutant, succeeding himself year after year, giving close 


QoQfederat^ l/efcerai>. 

attention to the details of the office no less assiduously than 
he did to those of the higher officer in the General Associa- 

He was ever an active and public-spirited citizen. He was 
Secretary of the Agricultural. Mechanical, and Horticultural 
Association of Mobile from 1873 to 1886, also of the Mobile 
Fair Association from 1880 to 1884, and he was also assistant 
secretary and in charge of office in every leading fair in 
Alabama for about twenty-five years at Mobile, Montgomery, 
and Birmingham. 

After funeral services at the Government Street Presby-' 
terian Church, he was laid to rest in Magnolia Cemetery, at- 
tended by his comrades of Raphael Semnics Camp, members 
of the local G. A. R. Post, and many other friends and rela- 
tives. One of the honorary pallbearers was Gen. V. Y. Cook, 
commanding the Trans-Mississippi Department, U. C. V., 
who went from Arkansas to pay this last tribute to his com- 

General Mickle is survived by his wife, three daughters, 
and a son. 


A great sorrow has come to the Commander in Chief of 
our Confederate Veterans in the death of a beloved son, his 
closest business associate. Elias Beall Van Zandt was the 
fourth son of General Van Zandt and Vice President of the 
Fort Worth National Bank, of which his father was Presi- 
dent, and naturally his was the young strength on which the 
father leaned. He was both prominent and popular in bank- 
ing circles and was widely known as "the smiling young 
banker." In the fullness of his manhood — for he was only 
forty years old — he has been called from the activities of 
life into the realms of immortality. The hearts of our com- 
rades will go out in sympathy to the father and other loved 
ones of the family circle, to whom the greatest consolation 
now must be in the feeling that he was worthy of their love. 

One could not wish a higher tribute than was paid him 
editorially in a home paper, a part of which is here given : 

"Elias Van Zandt was a man without an enemy, if ever 
there was such a man. To say that 'none knew him but to 
love him, none named him but to praise' would be in his case 
but to say the obvious. He was a man in a thousand, and 
no one who ever met him intimately on a single occasion 
could forget him. Modest and of a mild temperament, there 
was that about him — a frank and simple sincerity, a sort of 
pleasant atmosphere, so to speak — which made him an alto- 
gether charming person. He was the very soul of honor, a 
man who spoke and lived the truth as a matter oi course. 
There was no disparity between his precept and his practice. 
He was what he appeared to be — a simple, straightforward, 
God-fearing man in whom there was no guile. 

"Of his career little need be said. He was born in this 
community, grew up here, went to the public schools, and as 
a youth entered the business world as a clerk in the auditor's 
office of the Fort Worth and Denver Railway. After serving 
that company eight years, at the age of twenty-five he went 
to the Fort Worth National Bank in a clerical capacity. He 
had been with the bank fifteen years when he died and was 
a vice president of that In.stitution. Such is the simple out- 
line of his career. It had really only begun, but already 
it was so fruitful in practical and efficient service of the 
community and so rich in promise that it is difficult to esti- 
mate the loss which his passing has occasioned." 


The sj'mpathy of friends everywhere will lie with Dr. Henry 
E. Shepherd, of Baltimore, whose beloved wife and only 
daughter succumbed to pneumonia in February. He writes 
that this dread disease has swept over Baltimore like a pesti- 
lence during at least a month, and many homes have been 
darkened by the shadow of death. And thus has his house 
been left unto him desolate. 



One by one the links are breaking. 

Shorter grows my friendship chain ; 
But those links that are remaining 

True and firm hold just the same. 

As I draw them close about me. 
Each one worn from holding fast, 

Lovingly I press them gently. 
Thinking o'er the vanished past. 

Links there are so worn and bended, 

Like a wire of thin fine gold. 
Almost broken from long holding. 

Dearer still from being old. 

All the links are precious metal, 
All been tried and proven true, 

Some've been worn since childhood's lisping. 
Some have a brilliance almost new. 

My friendship chain is clasped about me. 
Long it's lain close to my breast ; 

As the links fall softly from it. 
Closer still I draw the rest. 

Thousands could not buy it from me. 
Made by joy and love and pain; 

And I count myself a Croesus 

While I own my friendship chain. 


Headquarters United Confederate Veterans, 
New Orleans, La., Feb. 25, 1920. 
Special Orders No. 1. 

1. Gen. Andrew B. Booth, comrade of Henry St. Paul 
Camp, No. 16, U. C. V., New Orleans, La., is appointed 
Adjutant General and Chief of Staff of the Confederation 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of the late lamented 
Gen. William E. Mickle and will be honored and respected 

2. He is hereby directed to take charge of all books, papers, 
records, etc., pertaining to the office and to assume full 
charge of its affairs and duties. 

By command of K. M. Van Zandt, 

General Commanding. 
Andrew B. Booth, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

Qoijfederat^ l/eterai}. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Office: Methodist Publishing- House Building, Nashville, Tenn, 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
mn organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to comraend 
Us patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 


A wave of Lincoln hysteria seems to have swept this coun- 
try during the late war period about as thoroughly as the 
influenza, and it lingers even more persistently. Lincolnitis 
it might be called. The latest revival of it comes largely 
through the sentiment aroused by the English dramatic ver- 
sion of Lincoln's life, which people are accepting as though it 
were of divine inspiration. That such an idealirxd presenta- 
tion of the life of a human being could only be full of errors 
is obvious, and that they arc historical errors makes them all 
the more serious. But tlic public has been pleased — and when 
has the public ever clamored for the truth? 

That this dramatist plans to build another historical drama 
around the character of General Lee should arouse general 
protest. It is a sacrilege to parade that noble figure before 
the footlights, however truly it might be depicted ; and we 
could not expect this dramatist to present him as he was 
any more than he has truly presented Lincoln, for whom 
there was evidently sympathetic appreciation. 

The following from the Nnvs-Lcadcr of Richmond, Va.. 
gives some interesting comment on the subject : 

Drinkwater and Lee. 

"Southern people who have been interested to learn that 
John Drinkwater planned to make General Lee the central 
figure of a new historical drama will read with surprise that 
Mr. Drinkwater has declined all proffers of accurate infor- 
mation concerning the great Confederate. The author of 
'Abraham Lincoln' has been very polite, but very positive. 
He will not trouble himself with detail; he will take 'a few 
central ideas' and make a play to suit, not history, but him- 

"If Mr. Drinkwater were less powerful as a dramatist or 
less disdainful of fact, one might anticipate a Lee that would 
either pass unnoticed into the limbo of failure or else be 
inaccurate only in trivialities. But one almost trembles to 
think what might be done with the career of Lee by a bril- 
liant man who did not hesitate in 'Abraham Lincoln' to 'in- 
vent' a new cabinet member and to have Lee at Appomattox 
offer Grant his sword. One can only console one's self with 
the knowledge that if Mr. Drinkwater trifles with the reputa- 
tion of Lee or pictures the idol of the South in any other 
than than the true colors he will never be permitted to put 
on his play in the South. A Northern city with a population 
half of whose ancestors were in Europe in 1860 may throng 
a theater to see a false picture of Lincoln; but an Anglo- 
Saxon South, the last generation of which had every man in 
the field behind Lee, will never countenance any injustice to 
the memory of that prince among men. The South will fight 
to-day for nothing more surely than for the good name of 
its greatest son. If that sounds provincial, let it be so. 

"But of course there is little or no reason to apprehend that 

Mr. Drinkwater will travesty General Lee. The dramatist 

would not have selected Lee for a play if he had not respected 

liim. For that matter, Mr. Drinkwater is not the man to hold 


up greatness to scorn. He has about him nothing of the 
spirit of Ljtton Strachey. Consequently Mr. Drinkwater's 
refusal to study Lee is chiefly of interest in that it shows 
once more the dangerous and growing tendency to make a 
plaj-thing of historical fact. So long as that tendency was 
confined to literature no legitimate exception could be taken 
to it. The Jacobites did not criticize Thackeray for reflect- 
ing upon the character of the "Old Pretender.' In the same 
way where drama was designed for the amusement of those 
who know, or are supposed to know, history slight inac- 
curacies were not to be taken too seriously. Shakespeare has 
probably taught more history than he has distorted. But 
nowadays as soon as a drama makes a successful appeal to a 
few thousand spectators in a New York theater — presto! it 
is seen on ten thousand screens by ten times ten thousand 
school children in a day. If the filmed drama give the lie 
to history, the very vividness of the portrayal on the screen 
will leave a false impression no amount of instruction in the 
schools can efltace. Every one realizes this. Illustration al- 
ways is more completely remembered than the printed word; 
animated illustration is a fixative to memory. If, then, Drink- 
water were to put the wrong interpretation upon the career 
of Lee and permitted his play to be put into the movies, what 
could be done to correct the wrong impression? One hesi- 
tates to recommend the simple Romanoff expedient of sup- 
pression; that is sillj', futile, and undemocratic. Yet history 
is history and where truly told is a sacred thing, to tamper 
with which is to approach sacrilege. Perhaps the only real 
hope lies in encouraging the writing of history with so much 
accuracy that none but a fool or a knave can misinterpret it. 
It's an odd and interesting problem." 


In the last paragraph of his book, "Robert E. Lee," William 
P. Trent speaks of the difl!iculty of summing up the character 
and achievements of such a man, yet he realizes the necessity 
for claiming for his hero a place among the finest and best 
of men. 

"With the supreme man of action," he continues, "the small 
group of statesmen-conquerers, which includes Ca;sar, Alexan- 
der, Charlemagne, Cromwell, Frederick. Napoleon. Washing- 
ton, and perhaps one or two more, he cannot be ranked, be- 
cause he never ruled a realm or a republic and actually shrank 
in 1862 from assuming the responsibilities of commander in 
chief. We know, indeed, from his own words that he would 
not have wished to resemble any of these men save Washing- 
ton, and we know also that he could not have entered their 
class without losing the exquisite modesty and unselfishness 
that give him his unique charm. But do we, his lovers, wish 
to put Lee in any class, even the highest ? Should we not pre- 
fer him to stand alone? If we do, we have our wish, for no 
one class contains him. There is seemingly no character in 
all history that combines power and virtue and charm as he 
does. He is with the great captains, the supreme leaders of 
all time. He is with the .good, pure men and chivalrous gentle- 
men of all time, the knights sans pair ct sans rcprochc. And 
he is not only in these two noble classes of chosen spirits, but 
he is in each case either a plain leader or else without any 
obvious superior. But where can another such man be found? 
Of whom besides Lee may it be justly said that he is with 
Belisarius and Turenne and Marlborough and Moltke on the 
one hand and on the other \\'\i\\ Callicratidas and St. Louis, 
with the Chevalier Bayard and Sir Philip Sidney. — E.xchange. 


Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 



O noble shaft, lift high thy head 

And pierce the vaulted blue ! 
Rock-hewn thy cradle in earth's deeps, 

Thou callest in review 
The gray-clad legions of the South 

With war flags floating high — 
The starry cross, unstained alway — 

While Southron's battle cry 

Shrill echoes through the vanished years 

And stirs the battle slain, 
Who spilled their blood for righteousness 

In valley, hill, and plain. 
The blood of Cavalier, and brave, 

A goodly heritage, 
Inspiring son of gallant sire 

A knightly war to wage 
Against a foe whose swarming ranks 

Attracted Hun for hire. 
Whose standard, wrought by brave forbears, 

Was trailed in crime and mire. 

The Shenandoah Hun lay waste 

Virginia's pleasant lands ; 
The Beast at Orleans — Sherman's hordes 

With bloody, sacking hands 
At women's throats — the firing squad ; 

While coward torch made red 
The angry sky with blazing homes. 

And children begged for bread. 

Majestic shaft, art only stone? 

Ah, no, a sentient thing 
Is patriot's blood or woman's fears ; 

Thou standest for a king. 
An uncrowned king, whose courage true 

Not all the poisoned hate 
Of cruel foe nor felon's chain 

Could conquer or abate. 

Where stands his peer? Jesu ! let us, 

His people, guard his fame 
Till generations yet unborn 

Shall reverently speak the name 
Of Davis, only President, 

The Southland's martyred one. 
Rare statesman, warrior. Christian, man, 

Kentucky's greatest son. 

Star-crowned, O shaft, the requiem winds 

Around thy summit sweep. 
Thou standest mute in awful strength, 

A pledge to those who sleep. 
Might conquers for a day. God's plan 

Unfolds through fifty years. 
And cause that once seemed lost is won, 

And Flanders laves in tears. 

No lesser pile, great shaft, is meet 

To mark the sacred place 
Where he was born whom Fate did make 

"Exemplar of the race." 

The new dawn breaks. America 
To all the earth hath said : 

"This is my son. With laurel leaves 
I crown my deathless dead." 

B. F. Day writes from Mount Sterling, Ky. : 

"The notice in the January Veteran of the death of Col. 
George R. Diamond recalls to my mind many vivid scenes of 
1861-65 while serving with and under Colonel Diamond. He 
served one year in the 5th Kentucky Infantry, commanded 
by Gen. John S. Williams, and was discharged at Hazel Green, 
Wolfe County, Ky., in October, 1862. While serving with 
that regiment he participated in the battles of Middle Creek 
and Princeton, and his regiment formed part of Bragg's com- 
mand in the invasion of Kentucky in 1862. 

"After the men who had served one year were discharged 
at Hazel Green, Colonel Diamond, A. J. May, W. W. Cox, 
A. J. Harris, David Swango, Anderson Moore, and Edward 
Trimble raised, organized, and equipped the 10th Kentucky 
Cavalry, and upon organization the following officers were 
elected : A. J. May, colonel ; Edward Trimble, lieutenant colo- 
nel : George R. Diamond and William R. Lee, majors. In 
May, 1863, when the regiment was fully organized at Camp 
Bowen, in Tazewell County. Va., there were eleven companies 
and about 1,130 men. Soon thereafter Colonel May resigned, 
as did Major Lee. The regiment was then commanded by 
Colonel Trimble until he was killed at Saltville. Va., in 1864, 
at which time Major Cox was seriously wounded, and the 
regiment was thereafter commanded by Colonel Diamond. 

"The names of the 10th Kentucky Cavalry and the 10th Ken- 
tuck-y Partisan Rangers, commanded by Adam R. Johnson, 
so frequently got mixed that we called our squad 'Diamond's 
10th Kentucky Cavalry.' In the main we made Tazewell and 
Scott Counties. Va., our headquarters, and it appeared our 
duty to find out the movements of the Federal forces in Ken- 
tucky, West Virginia, and East Tennessee, and for that pur- 
pose we kept always on duty a company of scouts or secret 
service men of about one hundred ; these, of course, were 
first-class men. Their qualifications were that they had brains, 
could ride and shoot ; they were mainly Kentuckians. Many 
daring stories could be told of their hazardous service. 

"The 10th Kentucky Cavalry served through the East Ten- 
nessee campaign of 1863-64 and was engaged in almost every 
fight from Knoxville to Dublin Bridge. We came to Ken- 
tucky with Morgan in June, 1864, and were badly handled by 
Burbridge both at Mount Sterling and Cynthiana ; we were 
at Greenville when Morgan was killed and stuck to the end, 
surrendering at Mount Sterling in May, 1865. We then num- 
bered about two hundred men. Of the number was Col. 
George R. Diamond. At Saltville we fought a brigade of 
negroes under Burbridge with our revolvers at close quar- 
ters ; the officers were all down save Colonel Diamond, but 
we did not let up while we could see a negro. At Mount 
Sterling in June, 1864, a part of our regiment was cut off 
and surrounded, but Colonel Diamond, in his night shirt, with 
a naked saber, led them out and saved all except those se- 
verely wounded. 

Many thrilling but true stories could be written of the 
adventures of the members of this regiment, but it seems that 
our boys have had no time to write since their return home. 
We have been at work." 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 




Thus far, I believe, the "Life of Jefferson Davis," by 
Armistead C. Gordon, of Staunton, Va., published in 1918, 
has not been the subject of comment or review in the columns 
of the Confederate Veteran. The merit of the work, as 
well as the charm and fascination associated with its hero, 
should accord to the volume a treatment far more compre- 
hensive, pervasive, and penetrating in character than is pos- 
sible of accomplishment in the stereotyped formulas and 
severely condensed synopsis that herald the advent of some 
novel aspirant to fame and emolument, literary renown, and 
financial reward. 

In the contemplation of the writer, few historic figures 
have appeared in the complex drama of our modern world 
richer in the finer and nobler elements of inspiration than 
Jefferson Davis. All the forces and phases that tend to stim- 
ulate both the art and the enthusiasm of the biographer were 
revealed in the checkered tragedy of his day on earth. His 
portrayal by the hand of a master like Clarendon or Macau- 
lay would have assumed rank among the foremost achieve- 
ments in this peculiar sphere of literary creation. It may l>e 
possible that this untempered avowal of devotion to the 
memory of our only Confederate President traces its origin 
in a measure to the period of childhood, when his name was 
a household word, a wand to conjure with in my own home 
and by my own fireside in North Carolina. He was one of 
the earliest inscribed on my hero roll, and with the approach 
of ripening seasons the exuberant loyalty of the dawning 
days was not effaced, but merely guided or directed, I trust, 
by the, discretion which springs from maturity of age and 
sobriety of judgment. 

From the standpoint of mechanical execution, the work of 
Mr. Gordon leaves nothing to be desired, issued, as it is, 
under the admirable auspices of Charles Scribncr's Sons. 
New York. What is of more serious import even than t\T)0- 
graphical excellence may be recorded in its commendation 
without qualification or reserve. The stj'le of the author is 
lucid, perspicuous, untouched by overwrought description or 
flamboyant episodes and digressions. An almost unvarying 
accuracy characterizes his statements, however comprehensive 
in range or elaborate in detail. The book deserves and, I 
am encouraged to believe, has attained an assured success. 
Would that it might be thoroughly perused and assimilated 
in every Southern home and by every Southern fireside ! I 
am unable to conceive a rational type of patriotism which 
does not draw its inspiration and its vital power from a 
broad, critical, and discriminating knowledge of our own his- 
toric origin and development. My points of variance with 
Mr. Gordon's biography of President Davis are such as in- 
volve merely a diversity in the point of view, a difference 
of attitude with regard to certain actions, events, or estimates 
relating to the heroic figure which is the theme of his por- 
trayal. They do not suggest or convey, even by remote im- 
plication, a censure or a criticism of his admirable delinea- 
tion. There are but two features or phases of the narrative 
which are contemplated or included in my attitude of dis- 
. sent, and they may be concisely embodied in a single sentence. 
Every question of secondary or minor issue I have ignored 
in simple justice to the author. 

The first of these is that Mr. Gordon's presentation of the 
life and achievement of Mr. Davis does not reveal to the 
student of our "great Southern stoo'" in adequate form and 

with the power of resistless conviction the versatile genius, 
the marvelous affluence of acquirement in varied and unre- 
lated spheres of human knowledge, perhaps more than all the 
gift of oratory, so richly bounteous as to accord to the Con- 
federate President a foremost place in the files of modern 
eloquence. The second of my specific differences has refer- 
ence to the infamous treatment to which he was subjected at 
Fortress Monroe by special instructions received from Wash- 
ington on May 23, 1865. Each of these demands a word of 
comment in this connection. Among the strange ironies 
exhibited in the life of Mr. Davis stands the circumstance 
that in at least two notable instances his phenomenal gifts 
of intellect, his unique range of acquirement, literary, tech- 
nical, scientific, as well as his masterful grace of eloquence, 
have elicited untempered tributes from the pens of his ene- 
mies, one of them the Federal surgeon to whose professional 
care he was committed at Fortress Monroe ; the other his 
remorseless libeler and defamer, Edward A. Pollard. No 
such analysis of the oratorical brilliancy of Mr. Davis and 
no such subtle interpretation of the sources of his power has 
appeared in the field of modern dialectic art. 

It recalls the disquisitions of Brougham, Macaulay, or 
Lecky as they strive to portray the masterful flights of those 
lords of a former age, Chatham, Burke, Fox, Sheridan, and 
Grattan. Would that the encomium of Pollard, with its 
incisive reasoning worthy of the Attic era and the Platonic 
method, were reproduced at length in the columns of the 
Veteran I The orations and addresses of Mr. Davis are 
in a large measure not accessible to the ordinary reader. His 
superb tribute to the memorj' of Lee. delivered in Richmond 
in November, 1870, survives only in fragmentary state. Yet 
the golden remnants that have held oblivion at bay have won 
for him a fame as assured and unchallengeable as that which 
encircles with its radiance the names of his countrymen, Mc- 
Duffie, Hayne, Legare, and Preston. No statesman of our 
contemporary world more admirably illustrated the Baco- 
nian ideal. His varied acquirements in remote and unrelated 
fields suggest the wonderful range and richness of Burke, 
the aspiring omniscience of Brougham, and the rare dis- 
cursiveness characteristic of Gladstone. He seemed literally 
"to have taken all human knowledge for his province" ; yet 
no trace or taint of charlatan or sciolist ever marred his 
wealth of learning. Like Tennyson's catholic and perfect 
scholar, he wore it "lightly like a flower." 

I may be pardoned for an expression of surprise that Mr. 
Gordon passes over in silence the notable vindication of our 
President by Dr. Albert Taylor Bledsoe, "Is Davis a Traitor?" 
which was published in 1866, while the subject of its inexora- 
ble reasoning was still immured in a Federal fortress. The 
remorseless logic characteristic of the work rendered ef- 
fectual rejoinder a hopeless endeavor, and the treatment of 
the constitutional issues involved stands an abiding memorial 
of analjiiical genius applied to the demonstration of invinci- 
ble truth. The comment of Mr. Gordon in regard to the 
cabinet of Mr. Pierce is just as well as discerning. The late 
Charles Francis Adams, in his culogv' upon William H. 
Seward in 1873, pronounced Pierce "the weakest man ever 
elected to the ofiice of President." Yet since the age of 
Washington what cabinet has combined a richer range of 
administrative gifts, critical acquirement, statesmanlike pre- 
cision, the power to "take occasion by the hand" ? There 
stands the brilliant array, William L. Marcy, Jefferson Davis, 
Caleb Gushing, James C. Dobbin. 

I pass to the consideration of the second and only remain- 
ing feature of the biography in reference to which I do not 


Qoijfederat^ Ueteraij. 

find myself in harmony with the viewpoint of the author. 
The divergence is based solely upon a single incident in the 
life of Mr. Davis and the manner of its presentation on 
page 259 of ^Ir. Gordon's narrative. At the pole of con- 
trast to his cursory description, as if an aflfair of secondary 
importance were alone involved, we turn to the elaborate and 
graphic recital of the shackling of our President on May 23, 
1865. (See "Prison Life of Jefferson Davis," by Dr. J. J. 
Craven, pages 34, 35, 36, 27, 38.) Among the crowning in- 
famies associated with our national record three may be cited 
as unchalllengeable, preeminent, and unique in their ghastly 
atrocity, the murder of Mrs. Surratt, the campaign of Sher- 
man in the Carolinas, and the treatment inflicted upon Presi- 
dent Davis by specific direction of the Federal government 
while a prostrate captive in his cell at Fortress Monroe. No 
portrayal or delineation wrought by the "shaping spirit" of 
.Sschylus, Dante, or Shakespeare exceeds in grim and im- 
placable horror the simple, unaffected narrative of the phy- 
sician in attendance while the process of placing manacles 
upon a prisoner advanced in years, enfeebled in health, and 
beyond the possibility of escape was in perpetration. In the 
retrospect of this single transaction with ill grace does it 
become the American of our present day to blend his voice 
in the dissonant chorus which rends the heavens with its 
agony of lamentation inspired by the iniquities of the Hohen- 
zollern empire. Upon Gen. N. A. Miles, commander at 
Fortress Monroe, nature had bestowed no consciousness of 
shame and no apprehension, however faint, of the elements 
and characteristics contemplated in "the grand old name of 

The petty indignities, the wanton persecutions inflicted, not 
upon Mr. Davis alone, but upon his wife, might have stirred 
the envy of Sheridan or Butler and aroused the spirit of 
emulation on the part of Milroy or Hunter. In 1896 Gen- 
eral Miles received from Harvard the degree of LL.D., a 
mark of appreciation of his eminent services bestowed by the 
most ancient and famous of American universities upon the 
official jailer and torturer of our Confederate President. 
Yet to one who is not acquainted with the truth relating to 
this episode of savagery depicted by Dr. Craven a single con- 
clusion alone is logically possible to the reader of Mr. Gor- 
don's work — namely, that Mr. Davis was subjected to no 
form of restraint or severity, to no rigor or harshness, save 
such as was justified or rendered imperative by the nature 
of the circumstances and the conditions then existing. This 
is the specific feature of an admirable biography which I 
regard as most obno.xious. A Southern child reading Mr. 
Gordon's account of the imprisonment of Mr. Davis would 
receive an impression completely misleading and erroneous, 
for the language is capable of a single interpretation or 
construction only. The supreme agony of our vicarious suf- 
ferer is utterly veiled and obscured from the eyes and the 
intelligence of him who peruses the description of Mr. Gor- 
don. (Page 259.) 

Would that it were possible for the Veteran to reproduce 
without modification or abatement the smooth, unvarnished 
story of Dr. Craven as related in his "Prison Life," pages 
34-38 ! Compare with the attitude of the Federal government 
in regard to Mr. Davis that of England with reference to 
Napoleon the First in 1815 and the action of Prussia in re- 
spect to Napoleon the Third after Sedan in September, 1870. 
Yet not a suggestion or intimation of this relapse into bar- 
barism reveals itself in the pages of Mr. Gordon. An un- 
suspecting reader, having no knowledge of the unique in- 
famy perpetrated upon Mr. Davis on May 23, 1865, whether 

friend or foe, might congratulate our President upon the 
magnanimity and generosity which characterized his treat- 
ment. Sincerely do we deplore this obscuration and even 
eclipse of a grim but inexorable historical truth. If tender 
consideration for Northern sensibilities is the inspiring cause 
or alleged justification, let me ask when or where our North- 
ern contemporaries have exhibited even "a decent respect," 
in Jeffersonian phraseology, for the ideals, the sympathies, 
the convictions of their countrymen to whom the lines have 
fallen below the Potomac? If this comprehensive indictment 
or impeachment displays a touch of sectional bitterness, a 
trace of acrimony, does not the imputed "bitterness" spring 
from a consciousness of its truth and not from the mere 
form of language in which it is embodied? The prevaihng 
tendency toward euphemistic description, tempering gruesome 
reality and minimizing the record as a gracious concession 
to the passions or the predilections of our enemies, is a 
form of false delicacy and delusive regard, involving one 
logical and foredoomed issue, the effacement of our own 
story, the marring of our own glory, until both are en- 
shrouded in the gloom of an irreclaimable past. 


Its Present and Past. 

by j. a. osgoode, montgomery, ala. 

Alabama's capital has a charming, healthful site and is 
itself substantially and handsomely built. Though it may 
hardly be said that there "every prospect pleases," there is 
certainly no lack of engaging vistas to fascinate the most 
fastidious at any season of the year or hour of the day. 

As Athens gathered under its Acropolis, so does Mont- 
gomery center upon the Capitol, which looks serenely down 
from a commanding height upon the distant "skyscrapers," 
the lofty fortresses of modern commerce and finance loom- 
ing large above the business center of the town below. Re- 
mote indeed is Capitol Hill from the chafing human tide 
which pours noisily beyond. A car line winds past along 
Bainbridge Street, and automobiles tear by in throbbing, 
strident flight, but all their discordant riot of sound cannot 
break the soothing quiet that pervades the precinct of this 
historic Southern State building, crown of the city and of 
the landscape. 

The same may be said of the town at large. Montgomery 
is a restful, not a dull, city. In certain quarters there is a 
notable excess of noise and din, but these are hardly more 
than ruffling ripples on the surface of the general tran- 
quillity. Why should not Alabama's capital truly illustrate 
the meaning of the State name, "Here we rest"? 

There is good material reason for this. If Rome was not 
built in a day and was built on seven hills, Montgomery rises 
high and dry on seven hills — and then several — above its 
"yellow Tiber," the Alabama, which so lately raged more 
furiously than Rome's river when Horatius held the bridge ; 
while to pedestrian wayfarers it occasionally seems that 
ascending these most decided, albeit gradual, elevations is an 
all-day job and that the number of them is seventy times 
seven. Thus has nature set an iron bit in the mouth of the 
vulgar, purposeless modern haste that would invade her 
peaceful domain and drives home the lesson of Wordsworth's 
verse : 

"Think you, 'mid all this mighty sum 
Of things forever speaking. 
That nothing of itself will come, 
But we must still be seeking?" 

Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 


Had the visionary hero of Longfellow's "Excelsior" toiled 
up these heights, he would doubtless have been more than 
content to rest and abide in one or other of the stately 
houses rising from lawn or terrace overhead as if to make 
plain to the dullest that a Montgomerian's house is his castle. 
And did his trudgeful fervor wane beneath the glowing 
Southern sun, we could well imagine it renewed by a mem- 
ory of the text, "I will lift up mine eyes to the hills," the 
turret- and colonnade-crowned hills, "from whence cometh 
my strength"; for in part and altogether, literally and 
metaphorically, historically and actually, Montgomery is a 
"city set on a hill" that cannot be hid — a city of ample limits, 
but short distances, where endless variety presents itself 
within easy compass ; where old and new combine in strong 
contrast, but essential harmony ; where past and present unite 
in one strong current of advance. 

The well-kept thoroughfares bear the names of national 
and local celebrities, early and recent — Cleveland, Mont- 
gomery, Decatur, Clay, Jeff Davis, and many others. Every 
vehicle and conveyance known in a temperate climate may 
be seen about town, from the oxcart to the river steamboat, 
from the chugging motorcycle to the aeroplanes, whirring 
amid the clouds like giant dragon flies on their way to 
and from the aviation camp. And here be it noted that the 
first electric street car in North America made its first 
trips on South Court Street, Montgomery. Brick and slate, 
granite and marble stand in sharp relief against shingle 
rough-cast and unpaintcd wood. Asphalt roads cross roads 
of sand and clay, shaded alike by water oak, sycamore, elm. 





* f .1 l;;| flii-,v% 

■"t;?*f^^*' *'^" 

:.. -^^^^'^^'^^ 

(Sketch by the author.) 

beech, palm, and magnolia. Southern sugar cane and apples 
from Oregon mingle in the fruit stalls, some of these under 
quaint old-time two- and three-story porticoes on and about 
the city square. 

Such are a few of the outstanding suggestive features of 
Montgomery present, an epitome of Alabama, whose pines 
and pomegranates, iron, coal and cotton, figs, oranges, and 
countless other products and resources declare the opulent 
diversity of a heritage bestowed on her by nature. 

What of the Montgomery of other days? 

Quite overshadowed by a palatial hotel across the way, 
there stands on Commerce Street a dingy old brick building 
with a tablet* in the wall which reminds the forgetful passer- 
by that on the second floor above were the offices of the 
Confederate government founded in Alabama's capital sixty 
years ago. 

Is Montgomery, which now faces the future with a smile 
and "greets the unseen with a cheer," beginning to grow fast 
forgetful of that deathless past? 

Does not the star marking the spot where Jeflferson Davis 
stood in the porch of the Capitol at the hour of his inaugura- 
tion recall Shakespeare's saying that careless contemporary 

"Gives to dust that is a little gilt 
More praise than gilt o'er-dusted" ? 

The first "White House of the Confederacy" has been all 
but thrust from its desecrated site by a newly-built garage 
that presses menacingly upon the older building. 

On the north wall of the main room of the State Library 
hangs a noteworthy portrait of the great leader of secession, 
that most eloquent advocate of Southern rights, the patri- 
otic, vigilant, far-sighted statesman whose policy failed only 
because others failed to carry it out, William L. Yancey, of 
Alabama. But mere fragmentary forgotten collections of 
his speeches survive. Records of the proceedings of the 
earlier and later Democratic conventions are preserved foi 
tlie curious in such matters ; but no record of the famous 
Charleston convention of 1860 is readily discovered any- 
where in Montgomery. The landmarks of Yancey's great 
career seem to have vanished, leaving hardly a trace behind, 
as have his town and country residences in and near the city. 
A bronze tablet at the entrance of the Exchange Hotel com- 
memorates Yancey's historic words, "The man and the hour 
have met," on the occasion of President Davis's inaugura- 
tion. His only monument is the shaft above his grave in 
Oakwood Cemetery, where also rest hundreds of Southern 
soldiers who gave their lives for the Southern cause. Near 
the monument rises a young magnolia, whose luxuriant 
foliage and broad truncated top seem to symbolize the life 
of this foremost champion of the South — a life tragically 
cut short, but full-rounded and nobly complete within the 
course it ran. The inscriptions on the monument are rapidly 
becoming illegible. 

It is often supreme wisdom to anticipate a treacherous 
enemy by striking first. Such, as occasion oflFered, has been 
the course of great patriots in all ages. Such was the policy 
championed by Yancey in 1850 and 1861. Readers of South- 
ern history can never forget his ringing challenge to waver- 
ing friends and doubtful allies in the Charleston Convention 
of 1860: "Go to the wall on this issue if events demand it. 
Accept defeat upon it. Let the threatened thunders roll and 
the lightnings flash through the sky, and let the dark cloud be 

•Placed by a local Chapter, U. D. C. 


^OQfederat^ l/efceraij. 

pointed out by you now resting upon the Southern horizon. 
Let the world know that our people are in earnest. In ac- 
cepting defeat upon that issue, my countrymen, we are bound 
to rise if there is virtue in the Constitution." (From report 
of Yancey's speech in the Montgomery Weekly Advertiser 
of May, 1860.) 

Hardly four years ago, when the World War was at its 
height, General Smuts, a leader of another "lost cause," 
speaking at Stepney, England, on "Empire Day," said : "I am 
a barbarian from the veldt, a Boer who fought for three 
years against you when you very wrong indeed. * * * j 
am fighting with you now, and not I alone, but thousands of 
my old companions of the Boer War. What has brought 
these men into the struggle? I don't think it is love of the 
British Empire. It is that they feel what you feel— that the 
greatest and most precious and most spiritual forces of the 
human race are at stake." 

Not to perpetuate bondage, but to maintain the integrity 
of the highest tj'pe that the English-speaking race produced, 
was the Southern Confederacy established. May the memory 
of its founders and leaders ever be green in the Confederacy's 
first capital ! 


by john c. stiles, brunswick, ga. 

Armies of the Confederacy. 

The first army of the Confederacy was at Charleston, S. 
C, where G. T. Beauregard signs himself as "Commanding 
the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America," 
although the only troops engaged on our side, I believe, were 
South Carolinians. We had the following: 

Army of the Potomac : First commander, Joseph E. John- 

Army of the Shenandoah : First commander, Joseph E. 

Army of Yorktown: First commander, J. Bankhead Ma- 

Army of the Peninsula ; First commander, J. Bankhead 

Army of the Kanawha: First commander, J. B. Floyd. 

Army of the Northwest : First commander, R. E. Lee. 

Army of the Valley: First commander, T. J. Jackson. 

Northwestern Army: First commander, R. S. Garnett. 

Army of Northern Virginia: First commander, Joseph E. 

Army of Arkansas : First commander, Ben McCuUough. 

Army of Liberation: First commander, Gid J. Pillow. 

Army of New Mexico: First commander, H. H. Sibley. 

Army of Tennessee: First commander, A. S. Johnston. 

Army of West Tennessee : First commander, Earl Van 

Army of the District of Mississippi: First commander, 
Mansfield Lovell. 

Army of Central Kentucky: First commander, A. S. John- 

Army of the Mississippi Valley: First commander, G. T. 

Army of Mississippi: First commander, L. Polk. 

Army of Texas : First commander, H. P. Bee. 

Western Army: First commander, Ben McCullough. 

Army of the West : First commander. Sterling Price. 

Army of Eastern Kentucky: First commander, Humphrey 

Army of Missouri: First commander, Sterling Price. 

Army of Mobile: First commander, Thomas M. Jones. 

Army of Pensacola : First commander, B. Bragg. 

Southwestern Army: First commander, E. Kirby Smith. 

The only armies, however, that went all through were those 
of Northern Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and possibly 
Kirby Smith's Southwestern ; but the others were extremely 
short-lived and might be said to have almost died "a-bornin'." 

The Cost of War. 

The quartermaster-general of the Confederate States army 
made the following estimate of the cost of maintaining the 
troops from January 1 to June 30, 1864 : Quartermaster's de- 
partment, including pay of army, $320,028,745 ; subsistence, 
$57,988,000; ordnance, $23,000,000; medical department, $15,- 
420,000; engineering department, $10,000,000; niter and mining 
bureau, $9,000,000— making a total for six months of $435,- 
936,745, or a grand total for the year of over $871,000,000, 
which would be at the rate of about $2,000,000 a day. 

Now add about one-third more for the navy, secret serv- 
ice, etc., and we can well see that when Sherman "said it" 
he certainly knew his business thoroughly. 

However, this is a mere bagatelle as compared to our late 
trouble, where, I believe, it cost as much per minute to push 
things along as it did the Confederacy in the time I have 

Pay of the Confederate States Army. 

In 1861 Congress set the following monthly pay of the 
army as follows : Brigadier general, $301 ; colonel, $195 ; lieu- 
tenant colonel, $170; major, $150 ;. captain, $130; first lieu- 
tenant, $90; second Heutenant, $80; sergeant major, $21; first 
sergeant, $20; sergeant, $17; corporal, $13; musician, $12; 
private, $11. And at that General Joseph E. Johnston said 
with truth that the private's pay was more than the line of- 
ficer's, as the former was fed and clothed (?), while the 
pay of the latter was insufficient to keep him in daily bread. 
The subsistence part, however, was taken care of later, as 
a law was passed allowing certain officers to draw rations 
free ; but as this outfit cost in the neighborhood of a thou- 
sand dollars, which would take more than a second lieutenant's 
yearly pay, I am not not surprised that the Yankees called 
us "ragged Rebels." 

The Regular Army of the Confederacy. 

In March, 1861, the Confederate States Congress passed a 
bill authorizing the following troops for the protection of 
our nation : Four brigadier generals ; an engineer corps, con- 
sisting of one colonel, four majors, five captains, and one 
company of sappers containing one hundred enlisted men ; 
forty batteries of artillery, with one colonel, one lieutenant 
colonel, ten majors, forty captains, eighty first lieutenants, 
forty second lieutenants, and thirty-two hundred enlisted men; 
six regiments of infantrj', with six colonels, six lieutenant 
colonels, si.K majors, sixty captains, sixty first lieutenants, 
one hundred and twenty second lieutenants, and six thousand 
enlisted men ; one regiment of cavalry, with one colonel, one 
lieutenant colonel, one major, ten captains, twenty first lieu- 
tenants, ten second lieutenants, and seven hundred and twenty 
enlisted men — making a grand total of 4 general officers, 110 
engineers, 3,371 artillery (including ordnance), 6,259 infantry, 
762 cavalry — 10,506 officers and enlisted men. 

And that is as far as the regular army got, although Geor- 
gia, Louisiana, and South Carolina each had a regiment 
known as the 1st Regulars, and the records show that the 
officers of these organizations were appointed by the Presi- 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai^. 



dent (at least those from Georgia were), which was not 
done in the case of other State Hne officers. However, on 
January 31, 1862, an order from the War Department changed 
the 36th Georgia into the 1st Confederate, the 2Sth Mississippi 
into the 2d, and the 18th Arkansas to the 3d, and this pos- 
sibly might have been the birth of our standing army; but 
there is nothing further on record to throw any light on the 

Cabinet of President Davis. 

Since the official family of our present chief executive 
seems to be in a transient condition, it may be of interest to 
know that there were several changes in the Confederate 
States Cabinet before the President's term expired, or rather 
the government. The journal of the Confederate States Con- 
gress shows that the following served : 

Secretary of State : Robert Toombs, R. M. T. Hunter, 
William M. Brown (ad interim), Judah P. Benjamin. 

Attorney-General: Judah P. Benjamin. Thomas Bragg, 
Thomas H. Watts, Wade Keycs (ad interim), George Davis. 

Secretary of the Treasury: C. C. Mcmminger, G. A. Tren- 

Postmaster-General: H. T. EUett (refused appointment), 
J. H. Reagan. 

Secretary of Navy: S. R. Mallory. 

Secretary of War: L. P. Walker, Judah P. Benjamin, G. 
W. Randolph, G. W. Smith (assigned temporarily), J. A. 
Seddon, J. C. Breckinridge. 

So it can be seen that the only one that traveled the entire 
"rock-y road" with the President was Mr. Mallory. 

Bills were presented in Congress to abolish the offices of 
Secretary of War and of the Navy on the grounds that 
the ranking officer in each branch could "carry on" as well 
as the then incumbent and thereby save the government 
$20,000 each year. However, these bills were cither tabled 
or, at any rate, not passed. The President had a salary of 
$25,000 and the Vice President and each Cabinet officer $10,- 
000 yearly, which in the early part of the war was a whale 
of a sum, even if in Confederate paper, although I presume 
they had no trouble in getting rid of it, as a bill was intro- 
duced to raise this stipend. 

In case the President and Vice President were incapaci- 
tated in any way from presiding, they were to be succeeded 
pro tempore by the President of the Senate and then the 
Speaker of the House. 

Some Noted Guns. 

The February Veter.\n has an article on Bledsoe's silver 
gun which I can confirm, as I find in the "War Records" 
that in March, 1862. General Rains, of the Missouri State 
Troops, reported the gun "Sacramento," under the skillful 
handling of Col. H. M. Bledsoe, as having accomplished won- 
ders ; but I certainly doubt that the "Old Girl" was made 
altogether of silver, as I am sure the Confederacy would 
never have allowed that much bullion to run around on wheels 
and risk being captured. 

While on this subject it may be of interest to know that 
General Longstreet had in Fort Powhatan, Va., two guns, 
"Long Tom" and "Charlie," that he thought considerable of. 

The "Jennie" was captured at Crampton's Gap, Md., from 
the Troup Artillery of Georgia. 

"Whitling Dick" enfiladed the line of "Beast" Butler's fa- 
mous canal at Vicksburg and temporarily put a stop to the 

"Lady Richardson" was captured at Corinth from Richard- 

son's Missouri (Union) Battery by Rust's Confederate Bri- 

Ladies "Buckner" and "Breckinridge" were lost to the 
Yankees at Missionary Ridge. 

But "Lady Davis," which burst at Island No. 10, and 
"Lady Polk," which burst at Columbus, had the strangest 
fates of any of the named guns, as they were gathered up by 
Commodore Davis, U. S. N., and sent to Sister Angela, of 
the Holy Cross Order (who nursed Union sick and wounded) 
to be cast into a statue of "Peace" ; but as to whether this 
was ever done, there is nothing further to show. 

It may be well also to mention that an order was issued 
in the Confederate States army to have the names of men 
who had been killed in an action in which they had distin- 
guished themselves inscribed on guns that had been captured, 
and I find that on April 20, 1863, General Hardee proposed 
the following names for the battle of Murfreesboro: Lieut. 
Col. Don McGregor, 1st Arkansas; Maj. H. C. Ewin, 44th 
Tennessee; Maj. J. T. McReynolds, 37th Tennessee; Capt. 
J. T. Armstrong, 6th Arkansas; Capt. E. E. Wright, Wright's 
Tennessee Battery ; Capt. Edwin Allen, 26th Tennessee ; Lieut. 
H. C. Collier, 2d Arkansas; Lieutenant McCurdy, 8th Arkan- 

This is, I think, the only instance on record that gives 
names, but there is nothing further on record as to whether 
the inscribing was accomplished or not. 



It is reasonably certain that there is not extant a complete 
and perfect record of the individual members of any Louisi- 
ana command in the Confederate army. The nearest ap- 
proach to such is to be found in the records in the office of 
the Commissioner of Louisiana Military Records of such 
organizations as served in the Army of Northern Virginia, 
where the discipline was perchance best and where the mus- 
ter rolls were more promptly and regularly made. 

These records, however, furnish many thousands of proofs 
of individual soldiers, complete and perfect, in establishing 
devoted service to their country to the end of the strife — 
patriotic men who were either killed in battle, died in camp 
or in hospital, or languished in Northern prisons until after 
the fall of the Confederacy or were duly present and paroled 
at the final surrender of the Confederate States armies. 

It is a lamentable fact, however, that a very large number, 
many of whom had served with honorable records to within 
a short time of the close of the war, were absent without 
leave at the final surrender of their respective commands 
and therefore were not included in the rolls of those actually 
surrendered and paroled, their orderly sergeants very properly 
not reporting them for paroles. They are themselves to 
blame, not the parole records, for not being in the parole 
lists with their former comrades in arms. 

And the plight of such of these as were in the Trans- 
Mississippi Department is aggravated by the fact that at the 
surrender of Gen. E. Kirby Smith on May 26, 1865, it is said 
the Confederate records, including the muster rolls, were 
burned at Shreveport, La., so that there were no records left 
to even show their service up to near the time of final sur- 

Thus the whole burden of proof is thrown upon these 
absentees. This condition of absenteeism is fully established 
by many official records and papers not only for the Louisi- 


^opfederat^ l/eterap. 

ana soldiers in the West, but also for troops in other sec- 
tions of the South. 

Public papers and military orders by officers in command 
will show this deplorable state of affairs, a condition which 
gives additional luster to the devoted service of those noble 
men whose devotion to duty and to country nerved them 
to the final test of soldierly honor and who, while comrades 
were deserting from duty and from them, yet stood firm and 
did not lay down their arms until they could do so honorably 
and deserving the parole, which is their certificate of loyalty, 
faithfulness, devotion to country and to their enlistment 

The history of those days — in fact, all history of our re- 
public — I regard as sacred, and the future historian must 
take into consideration this clouded side of a struggle most 
replete with noble devotion, heroic achievement, and self- 
denying sacrifice on the part of the loyal men who never 


Capt. George B. Dean, of Detroit, Tex., enlisted in the 
Confederate service at the age of nineteen with the first 
company from his native county. This was made Company 
E, of the 11th Texas Cavalry, which saw active service first 
through the Indian Territory and Kansas and then back into 
Arkansas near Fayetteville. Captain Dean says of his com- 

"We were supposed to go into winter quarters ; but as the 
enemy was pressing General Price out of Missouri, our regi- 
ment was ordered to join General McCulloch and served 
under him in continuous scout duty, engaging in the battle 
of Elk Horn, or Pea Ridge, where General McCulloch was 

"We were then ordered to Des Arc, Ark. There we were 
dismounted. Our horses were sent back to Texas, and we 
were put aboard a little boat and sent to Memphis, Tenn., 
from there to Corinth, Miss., but too late for the battle of 
Shiloh. After engaging with the enemy in a few rounds 
near Corinth and Farmington, we were sent to Mobile, Ala., 
and from there to Chattanooga, Tenn., where we rested, 
drilled, and prepared for more active duties. 

"About the latter part of August or early in September, 
1862, with five days' cooked rations, a musket, and forty 
rounds of ammunition, we flanked the Federal General Mor- 
gan, crossed the mountain, and occupied the gap on the Ken- 
tucky side, thus preventing his escape. Our wagon train, 
having to make a more circuitous route, was greatly delayed, 
and the boys drew heavily upon their haversacks and were 
soon out of provisions ; but out of a near-by cornfield and 
apple orchard we did well until the wagons arrived. 

"Then began the march under Gen. E. Kirby Smith through 
the blue-grass regions of Kentucky, with nothing to molest 
or make us afraid until we reached the town of Richmond, 
where the Federal Generals Davis and Nelson said we should 
go no farther ; but before the setting of the sun that day we 
had their entire army, except the killed and wounded, rounded 
up and were giving them paroles. The part taken in this 
battle by our regiment is well described in the following song, 
which was composed by one of our boys while waiting for 
his wounds to heal in a hospital at Richmond: 

" 'Early one morning in 1862 
The gallant sons of Texas, with hearts brave and true, 
Marched forth to meet the Yankees just at the break of day 
On the green fields of Richmond in battle's dread array. 

We marched along in silence until the sun arose ; 
We heard the boom of cannon alike of friends and foes; 
We stopped awhile at Kingston, a village by the way. 
To wait for further orders and listen to McCray. 

Then we were ordered forward to turn the Yankees' right; 
We marched through lane and cornfield until we came in 

sight ; 
We saw the broken columns — they had begun to flee 
Away from our Southerners, the sons of Tennessee. 

Then we were ordered to charge them, and they began to get 
Away a little faster than we ever saw them yet. 
They ran about two miles before they stopped to rest. 
Then took a strong position, resolved to do their best. 

There was no one to oppose them but our small brigade, 
And yet we were undaunted, for no one was afraid. 
There Minie balls and bombshells incessantly did roar, 
And many noble Te.xans there fell to rise no more.' 

"General Smith marched his little army up and in sight 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Covington, Ky., then hastened to 
join General Bragg at Perryville, but too late. The battle 
had just ended when we arrived. Thence we went back 
through Cumberland Gap into Tennessee to await the on- 
coming of the battle of Murfreesboro. 

"After engaging in this hard- fought battle, in which our 

lamented Col. John C. Burks was mortally wounded, his 

dying request that his 11th Texas Cavalry be remounted was 

granted by the War Department, and we were ordered to 

(Concluded on page 118.) 

Capt. George B. Dean and his twin grandsons, Paul and 
David Dean, of Tulsa, Okla., who were in training at Norman, 
Okla., for the World War when the armistice was signed. 
They were discharged on December 21, 1918. Two other 
grandsons were in the service — Robert Hugh Easley, in train- 
ing at Fort Worth, and G. M. Dean, of New York City, an 
officer In the navy. 


QoQfederat^ l/eteraij. 




The Jeff Davis Artillery, known also as Reese's Battery, 
was the first organization of field artillery organized in Ala- 
bama for the war of 1861-65. It was mustered into the serv- 
ice of the Confederate States "for the period of the war," 
from the beginning, the length of its service being contingent 
on the duration of the war. It had operated as part of the 
brigade commanded successively by Early, Garland, and Tver- 
son during the years 1861 and 1862. In the winter of 1862-6.? 
the artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia was organized 
into battalions, each commanded by one or more field officers 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel or major, and each bat- 
talion became subject to the orders of the chief of artillery 
of the corps or army. 

The Jeff Davis Artillery, of which I was a member, was 
made part of Carter's Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Col. 
Thomas Hill Carter, attached to the Second .'\rmy Corps, 
under Lieut. Gen. Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, the com- 
mand with which the battery had operated since June 27. 
1862. On the 30th of April, 1863, after a night's march of 
eighteen or twenty miles, the battery found itself in line of 
battle near Hamilton's Crossing, in the vicinity of Fredericks- 
burg, confronted by the pickets of its old antagonists, the 
Federal Army of the Potomac. Though there was an oc- 
casional slight rattle of musketry and booming of artillery 
to the left of the position occupied by the battery, it did not 
prevent the tired and sleepy men from seeking and enjoying 
the much-needed sleep and rest. Our old division, formerly 
commanded by brave Daniel H. Hill, but now under the 
command of Robert E. Rodes, was there to meet us. 

Before day the next morning. May 1, three divisions of 
Jackson's Corps, w'ith the corps artillery, were moving in the 
direction of Chancellorsville, perhaps fifteen miles west of 
Hamilton's Crossing and above Fredericksburg, iiear the 
Rappahannock River. The Federal commander had made a 
demonstration against the Fredericksburg Heights during the 
last days of April to cover the movement of three other corps 
by the way of Kelly's Ford, on the Rappahannock River, and 
Germana and Ely's Fords on the Rapidan. The three corps, 
after a forty-mile march, had, with but little opposition, 
made a lodgment at Chancellorsville and uncovered and 
taken possession of United States Mine Ford. During the 
night of the 30th of April two other corps and two divisions 
of a third corps had been withdrawn from the Confederate 
front, near Fredericksburg, and, crossing at United States 
Mine Ford, were added to the troops which had previously 
reached Chancellorsville. This brought Hooker's force to 
approximately 90.000 troops of all arms at Chancellorsville. 
Lee's whole available force to oppose Hooker numbered less 
than 60.000 troops of all arms. Longstreet was away with 
two divisions, leaving but two divisions of his corps present. 
Of the 60,000 Confederate troops, perhaps an aggregate of 
42,000 effectives after Jackson reached the vicinity of Taber- 
nacle Church on the 1st of May was opposing the Chancel- 
lorsville assemblage. 

Rodes's Division, followed by Carter's Battalion of .'\rtil- 
lery. led Jackson's column. Within three or four miles of 
Chancellorsville the head of the column came in contact with 
McLaws's and Anderson's Divisions, of Longstreet's Corps, 
when Rodes became involved in the contest going on between 
the Confederate and Federal forces. The latter had advanced 
that morning from Chancellorsville. The Confederate forces 
were intrenching when Jackson had it stopped and ordered 

an advance of the entire line, he having command of the en- 
tire force present. 

The forward Confederate movement immediately began 
along the plank road, turnpike, and river road in reverse, 
these being the same roads along which the Federals had 
advanced in the morning. But for this counter attack the 
Federal advance would have assaulted Lee's Fredericksburg 
stronghold in flank and rear. The advance developed con- 
siderable musketry and artillery fire, and a number of casual- 
ties resulted. In his order for the forward movement of his 
troops Hooker designated Tabernacle Church, on the plank 
road, as his headquarters, but he never reached there. Jack- 
son's vigorous assault caused him to promptly recall every 
column sent out, and he ordered each to resume the fortified 
position left in the morning. 

Up to the time he recalled his troops on the 1st of May 
Hooker's movements were characterized by energy and bold- 
ness, and his strategy was excellent. Did he expect Lee to 
retreat? He had maneuvered him out of his stronghold, 
and by all the rules of war he should retreat. Did Lee's 
lioUhiess cause him to lose his nerve? When Hooker reached 
Chancellorsville on the evening of the 30th of .^pril w^ith so 
little opposition, he was elated. He sent a congratulatory 
dispatch saying: "The operations of the last three days have 
determined that our enemy must ingloriously fly or come 
out from behind his defenses and give us battle on our own 
ground, where certain destruction awaits him." Instead of 
flying, his antagonist boldly moved against his advanced line 
and threw down the gage of battle, but Hooker's courage 
seems to have deserted him at this point. 

When the battle of the evening closed, Rodes's Division 
and Carter's Battalion moved along the plank road and 
bivouacked that night near Aldrich's Tavern, about one mile 
and a quarter from Chancellorsville. The other divisions 
bivouacked near by. Lee and Jackson bivouacked at the point 
where the Catherine Furnace road leaves the plank road. 
During the night the Confederate engineers were actively 
hunting a point in the enemy's lines that promised success to 
an assault by the Confederate forces next day. Lee and 
Jackson received reports from every part of the well-fortified 
line. The rattle of axes and falling trees within the Federal 
lines was heard by the engineers and outposts. 

Lee and Jackson were seen sitting on cracker boxes between 
midnight and the early morning hours by one of Jackson's 
official family, engaged in earnest conversation, warming their 
hands over a flickering flame of twigs. The only hope offered 
for success, from the many reports that reached them, came 
from a report of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, in command of the cav- 
alry, which was that Hooker's right flank "was in the air" 
—that is, without natural protection. To avail themselves of 
this forlorn hope required the march of a force across the 
entire front of Hooker's army. A movement of this kind 
would involve the army in great hazard. To attempt it and 
fail meant destruction of the army. Further division of the 
already divided army must be made and the larger part of it 
placed in a position that prevented retreat should it fail. 

"Great things through greatest hazards are obtained, 
And then they shine." 

Doubtless these great military leaders concluded that des- 
perate conditions demanded desperate methods. 

There is no ofl!icial report of that midnight meeting left by 
either of the two great men. We can only infer its conclu- 
sions from the grand march and achievement of the following 
day. The nearest to an official report we have is contained 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

in Lee's report of the operations of the campaign. He 
said it was evident that "a direct attack upon the enemy 
would be attended with great difficulty and loss in view of 
the strength of his position and his superiority of numbers." 
It was, therefore, resolved to turn hs right flank and gain 
his rear, having a force in his front to hold him in check 
and conceal the movement. The execution of the plan was 
intrusted to Lieutenant General Jackson, with his three di- 
visions. The commands of McLaws and Anderson, with the 
exception of Wilcox's Brigade, which during the night had 
been ordered back to Banks's Ford, remained in front of the 
enemy. Barksdale's Brigade, of McLaws's Division, and 
Early's Division, of Jackson's Corps, with Pendleton's reserve 
artillerj', had been left to protect the line at Fredericksburg. 

Many of us have seen a beautiful picture entitled the "Last 
Meeting of Lee and Jackson," in which Lee is represented 
as sitting on his favorite horse, Traveler, with an easy, dig- 
nified martial bearing, and Jackson in front of him astride 
of Old Sorrel, with his military cap in his hand, indicating 
deference. The picture is a beautiful conception, and it is 
perhaps cruel to destroy it, but the writer feels safe in say- 
ing that it is a conception wholly of the artist's brain. A 
truer picture of that meeting would be to have the two dis- 
tinguished men sitting on cracker boxes, warming their hands 
over the flickering flame of twigs, as Captain Smith saw them 
in the early morning of that noted Saturday, May 2, i863. 
The writer saw Jackson soon after the column began to 
move, and his uniform was hidden by a gum coat, which he 
wore during the day. Nor was Lee as neatly dressed after 
that night's bivouac as the picture represents him. Presum- 
ing that every arrangement was made while they sat on the 
boxes, what was the use of such a meeting? The intensity 
of Jackson's nature no doubt caused him to be wholly 
absorbed in his hazardous task, and formalities did not enter 
into the parting. 

Jackson's force consisted of the three divisions and the 
corps artillery, which he led from Hamilton's Crossing on 
the morning of the 1st of May, and, in addition, the artillery 
battalion of Col. E. P. Alexander, of the 1st Corps. The 
fractional divisions of McLaws and Anderson numbered ap- 
pro.ximately 18,000, while Jackson's detachment numbered 
approximately 30,000. Though the hour set for the movement 
to begin was 4 a.m.^ it was some time after that hour before 
Colquitt's Brigade, of Rodes's Division, moved up the plank 
road, leading one division, with Carter's Battalion of Artil- 
lery following. Colston and Hill, with accompanying artil- 
lery, followed in the order named, the reserve artillery and 
trains following. 

The column was preceded by the cavalry of Fitzhugh Lee's 
brigade, which guarded its front and right flank. Jackson, 
moving with the column and passing along its line occa- 
sionally, injected his intense energy into it. Secrecy and 
celerity were the watchwords of the movement, both being 
necessary for its success ; and when Jackson passed along the 
column a messenger preceded him to warn the men against 
cheering. The men, having just left winter quarters, had not 
yet become hardened to marching, and several of the weaker 
ones fell as they marched. To intensify the severity of the 
march, many of the men had had no food before starting 
and even for a part of the previous day. I was one of the 
latter and have an acute recollection of that fourteen-mile 
march when as "hungry as the grave." 

The moving column was discovered from Hazel Grove, 
located about a mile and a quarter southwest of Chancellors- 
ville, and was vigorously assailed by Sickles, whose corps 

occupied that position. The column, however, kept its steady 
tramp and was intently urged forward by its energetic leader. 
The firing by the assaulting troops became less distinct, and 
finally the head of the marching column passed out of hear- 
ing of the din. Soon after the head of the column entered 
tlie thick woods it reached the Brock road, which led through 
a dense forest in a westerly and northwesterly direction. 

About 4 P.M., after a hard march of fourteen miles, the 
head of the column crossed the plank road from which it 
had deflected that morning. When Rodes's Division had 
passed about half its length across the road, it stopped and 
stacked arms. Well do I remember seeing Jackson and Fitz- 
hugh Lee ascend the long red slope to the east of the posi- 
tion then occupied by the troops, preceded by a small squad 
of cavalry. After reaching the summit and briefly scanning 
the enemy's position, Jackson quickly returned, and the col- 
umn continued its march to the turnpike, a mile farther, 
when the division formed across and perpendicular to it. 
Carter's Battalion was placed in position in a small field on 
the right of the turnpike as a precautionary measure while 
the attacking column was being formed. The assaulting for- 
mation was made in the following order : Rodes's, Colston's, 
and A. P. Hill's divisions. 

Owing to the density of the surrounding forest, the for- 
mation was not completed until about 5 :30 p.m. The long 
lines of men quietly struggling through the apparently impene- 
trable thicket almost within hailing distance of the enemy's 
lines presented a weird spectacle. This jungle was rarely 
ever disturbed except by the occasional crack of the hunts- 
man's gun when in pursuit of the game which had taken 
refuge in its protecting folds. It is not surprising that the 
long lines of men struggling through the scrubby growth and 
tangled vines should have startled wild turkeys, foxes, deer, 
and rabbits galore and caused them to rush through the 
Federal camps ahead of the advancing Confederate lines. 

The formation having been completed, I distinctly remem- 
ber the shrill bugle call that rang out, which was echoed 
from the right and left of the line of sharpshooters and sent 
them forward, the assaulting lines close at their heels. After 
the enemy was encountered, the sharpshooters were absorbed 
by the front line. Soon the dance of death began, indicated 
by the rattle of the rifles and the Rebel yell. The first troops 
encountered were von Gilsa's brigade, of Devin's Division, 
11th Army Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Oliver O. 
Howard. The first information reaching them was the flash 
of the rifles of Rodes's Division and the grating whistle of 
the Minie balls into their flank and rear. This surprise was 
followed by a solid wall of gray, forcing its way through 
the tangled woods and rolling down upon them like an irre- 
sistible avalanche. Soon efforts were made to form, but the 
sense of helplessness was so great that the feeble resistance 
offered was speedily beaten down. Arms, knapsacks, cloth- 
ing, equipage, everything was thrown down and left behind. 
The road and woods on both sides were filled with horses, 
cattle, and men in a mad flight. Von Gilsa's brigade was 
1,400 strong, but they could not withstand five times their 
number of self-reliant and aggressive soldiers. It did not 
take long for the brigade to dissolve into a fleeing and con- 
fused mass. 

The next brigade in line was McLean's, which faced south 
when the Confederate attack approached from the west. It 
was endeavoring to change front when the fleeing mass from 
von Gilsa's brigade rushed through it. The musketry fire 
of the exultant Confederate troops, with added charges from 
the artillery, which kept in touch, soon broke McLean's Bri- 

Qopfederat^ l/eteraQ. 


gade into an unorganized mass of fugitives. The heavy loss 
of the two brigades amply attests the efforts of the officers 
to hold their men to the fighting point. 

Soon after the advance began I spied a well-filled haversack 
attached to the neck of a dead Federal soldier. Its contents 
were hard-tack, salt pork, and coffee. Not having tasted 
food for more than twenty-four hours, my appetite was 
whetted to a keen edge. Milton pictures an elysian scene 
in which 

"Each tree 

Laden with forest fruit, that hung to the eye 

Tempting, stirred in me appetite 

To pluck and eat." 

No such encouragement was needed in this case. The ap- 
petite had long since been stirred by an extended fast, and 
the well-filled haversack of this dead soldier furnished the 
much-desired opportunity "to pluck and eat." Proprieties 
were banished in favor of the great necessity of the living, 
and my pocketknife was whipped out, and the strap that 
held it to the dead owner's neck was cut that I might eat 
as I trotted along. No food ever tasted sweeter. 

For a while the fight degenerated to nothing but a foot 
race. The Confederate line, urged forward to reap the fruits 
of the great surprise it had inflicted, moved at a double- 
quick and fired as it moved forward. It swept everything 
before it. The Rebel yell was heard from every part of the 
line, adding to the confusion and terror of the fugitives. 

Schurz's Division, of the same corps, was in line along the 
pike, just east of Devins's. The officers of this division did 
not have time to give a command before the confused mass 
of guns, horses, and men broke lengthwise through the regi- 
ments. The whole line, deployed on the turnpike and facing 
toward the south, was rolled up and swept away in short 
order. The next resistance encountered was at Dowdall's 
Tavern, where the turnpike converged to a junction with the 
plank road. Here a line of rifle pits at right angles with the 
plank road was occupied by Buschbeck's Brigade, of Stein- 
wehr's Division, 11th Corps. The regiments of this brigade 
showed more resolution than any former troops encountered. 
But soon the Confederate forces gained both wings of the 
brigade, killed and wounded nearly one-third of its entire 
strength, and forced it to retire. Weidrich's Battery of Ar- 
tillery, in position here, was left in possession of the Confed- 
erates. The captain congratulated himself on saving two 
horses from the wreck. 

The total losses of Howard's Corps to this point were 155 
killed, 721 wounded, and 526 missing; total, 1,402. Only the 
troops of Howard's Corps had been encountered, and these 
had been crushed and dispersed. 

The Confederate losses were consolidated for the whole 
campaign and cannot be computed to this point in the con- 
test. They were greatly less than their antagonist's. 

The peculiar acoustic condition of the atmosphere at the 
time this movement was made prevented the noise of battle 
from being heard readily. Hooker, with his official family, 
occupied the Chancellor house, which was in reality Chan- 
cellorsville. This house was located but little over a mile 
from Steinwehr's rifle pits, the point of last attack. Hooker 
and his staff were complacently sitting on the porch, entirely 
ignorant of the disaster to his right. Colonel Russell, of 
his staff, looking through a glass along the plank road, sud- 
denly exclaimed, "My God I here they come," having seen 
the fleeing soldiers, horses, men, and other accumulations. 

Sickles, chasing an imaginary retreating foe only about 
two and a half miles away, failed to hear the roar of the 

artillery, the roll of musketry, and the vigorous, resounding 
Rebel yell of Rodes's line and refused to accept the first re- 
port of disaster reaching him. General Lee, who was about 
the same distance from Steinwehr's rifle pits as Sickles, did 
not hear the noise and hence did not press at that point, as 
he had agreed with Jackson to do. 

Toward Chancellorsville from this point there is a gradual 
descent to a small stream, when the surface gradually as- 
cends as it approaches the elevation at Fairview. the ceme- 
tery in front of the Chancellor house. Williams's Division, 
of Slocum's Corps, before moving to support Sickles, had 
constructed works of logs and earth across the road near 
the little stream. These works were, fortunately, unoccupied 
when the Confederates reached them. 

Darkness had now settled over the scene, and Rodes real- ' 
ized the necessity of extricating his lines from their con- \ 
fused condition, his and Colston's Divisions having become ] 
mixed in the recent active forward movement of the troops. 
His right had become entangled in an abatis which caused 
the whole line to halt. Several pieces of Carter's Battalion 
of Artillery were put in position on both sides of the road 
in the intrenchments found here. These remained in this 
position but a short while, as they were withdrawn and closed 
up on the leading section. Rodes immediately sent a mes- 
sage to Jackson to urge the reserve forward. Upon the re- 
ceipt of the message Jackson immediately ordered Hill's Di- 
vision forward. In his eagerness to complete the great 
achievement begun Jackson failed to realize the great danger 
attending night fighting. 

During the lull attendant upon the changing of the troops 
Rodes rode forward on a reconnoissance and soon returned 
and reported to Colonel Crutchfield, Jackson's chief of ar- 
tillery, that there was no line of battle between the Confed- 
erate forces and Chancellorsville. Crutchfield immediately 
ran up two or three pieces of artillery and opened in that 
direction, this number being all that could be accommodated 
in the plank road. The Federal artillery responded with 
terrific fire from thirty-four guns, silencing the Confederate 
guns and raking the plank road and woods on each side of it. 

Carter's Battalion of Artillery was standing in column 
along the plank road, and the roar and flashing of the guns 
and bursting shells caused the battery horses to become wild 
and unmanageable. Several of the tongues to the carriages 
were broken, and a number of the horses and men were 
wounded and killed. During one of a series of fierce shell- 
ings to which the battalion was subjected Patton McChon- 
dichie, of the Jeff Davis Artillery, was given a crushed leg 
from which he died soon after midnight. He was my army 
bedfellow, schoolmate, and boyhood friend. I heard the bone 
of his leg pop when struck, and his groan of pain carried 
me to his relief. His leg was corded above the break to 
stanch the blood, and everything possible was done to allevi- 
ate his suffering, but his gentle soul took its flight through 
the golden gate. Ah ! where that bright soul is it cannot be 
night. During a lull in the firing an ambulance was brought 
up, and he was tenderly placed in it. He e.xhibited no dis- 
turbance from the prospect of immediate death, but repeated- 
ly referred to the fact that he would be one-legged, and pos- 
sibly the girl he left behind him would desert him because 
of his condition. He made a pathetic appeal that I should 
accompany him, but the exacting duties of a soldier prevented 
me from following my strong inclination ; so I bade him 
farewell and urged him to be brave. Within a few hours he 
had "crossed over the river and was resting under the shade of 
the trees," and his grand leader joined him a few days later. 


C^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 

Jackson displayed considerable impatience that Hill's troops 
did not move forward as rapidly as he thought they should, 
and when Lane's Brigade had formed and before Hill's other 
troops had completed their formation he ordered Lane to 
press forward. Though Lane was ready to advance, Jackson 
rode forward to reconnoiter. In returning to the lines, fol- 
lowed by his staff and couriers, they were mistaken for 
advancing Federal cavalry, and friends fired a volley of mus- 
ketry into the groups, killing and wounding several, and 
among them was Jackson. 

The volley which wounded Jackson brought a renewal of 
the fierce shelling from an increased number of guns, forty- 
three this time. Hill, who was present when Jackson was 
wounded, immediately assumed command and rode out the 
plank rode to investigate. On his return to the Confederate 
line, like Jackson under similar conditions, he was wounded 
by his friends. During the fearful carnage that prevailed 
Colonel Crutchfield was given a crushed leg. The wounding 
of Hill ended any further effort to continue the advance that 
night. Hill immediately dispatched a messenger for Gen. J. 
E. B. Stuart, who was guarding Ely's Ford and watching a 
body of cavalry located on the north side of the Rapidan 

Jackson's loss was irreparable. His successors fought with 
skill, courage, and energj-. but their achievements did not 
compare with those of Jackson. As brilliant a soldier as 
Gen. John B. Gordon called him the "American phenomenon." 
He was hit with three balls at the same instant. His most 
serious wound was from a ball that shattered his left arm 
between the elbow and shoulder. While being borne from 
the field two of the litter bearers were shot at different times. 
When the second one was shot, no one being near to catch 
tlic litter, Jackson fell to the ground on his wounded side, 
and it caused him to groan with pain. 

During the halt that followed his fall Brigadier General 
Pender, of Hill's Division, approached and tendered condo- 
lence and stated that his troops were so broken by the fierce 
fire to which they had been subjected that he would have to 
withdraw to re-form them. Though Jackson was suffering 
greatly, this remark stirred him to make reply in a firm voice : 
")'oii must hold your ground. General Pender; you must hold 
your ground, sir." This was the last order given by him on 
the field. 

He was carried back to the field hospital, and his left arm 
was amputated at the shoulder. On the following Monday, 
May 4, he was carried in an ambulance, via Spotsylvania 
Courthouse, to Candler's house, near Guinea Station, on 
the Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad. Here he ap- 
peared to improve, and strong hopes were entertained that 
he would recover ; but pneumonia attacked him, and he died 
on Sunday, May 10. In the wanderings of his mind during 
his last moments he was again on the battle field endeavoring 
to complete his great undertaking, as shown by his saying: 
"Order A. P. Hill to prepare for action. Pass the infantry 
to the front. Tell Major Hawkes" — Here there was a pause 
for several moments, when he calmly said : "No, no, let us 
pass over the river and rest under the shade of the trees." 
These were his last words. 

At the critical moment A. P. Hill was always strongest. 
No wonder that both Lee and Jackson, when in the delirium 
of their last moments on earth, stood again to battle and saw 
the fiery form of A. P. Hill leading his column on. — Henry 
Kyd Douglas. 



brigade, c. s. a. 
Hospital Life. 

One of the most amusing epi.sodes of our retreat from 
Jackson, Miss., was a panic in camp one morning about 
daybreak. When we were no longer pursued by the enemy 
the men wanted to rest, and it was hard to get them up and 
ready for the march. The sounding of drum and bugle was 
unheeded. The officers would fume and scold through the 
rows of sleepy men, but it was late in the day before we got 
started. The last morning before we reached a somewhat 
permanent camp we were bivouacked in a pine wood, the 
men sleeping sweetly rolled in their blankets on the fragrant 
pine needles. Suddenly such an uproar broke loose as to 
bring every man to his feet at once. It was the shouting of 
the cattle drivers, who had charge of the beeves driven along 
with us. All through the camp men were running, yelling: 
"Whoa! Whoa! Watch out! Get out of the way! You'll 
be run over !" Every one supposed that the cattle had stam- 
peded, and. half awake, every man rushed for a tree. I re- 
member when I came to myself I was standing outside of 
a ring of half a dozen, most of them clasping a pine tree 
and trying to climb it. I had just the tips of my fingers on 
the tree, but I felt perfectly safe, thinking that I was at least 
ten feet up that tree. It was told on one of our captains 
that he called out to his company; "Follow me, and you will 
be safe." And when one of his men cried to him, "Where 
are you ?" the reply was : "Here I am forty feet up in a big 
tree. Come on." When they reached him he was sitting flat 
on the ground with his arms and legs clasped tightly around 
a pine sapling about three inches in diameter. He felt secure. 
It turned out that the whole thing was devised by an old 
cattleman who had seen stampedes of cattle, and he did 
this to get the men aroused for the march. It succeeded, al- 
though there wasn't an ox within a mile of the camp. But 
one can well imagine the danger of a herd of several hundred 
frightened cattle tramping wild through a regiment of sleep- 
ing men. 

The heat and dust of these marches brought on severe in- 
flammation of the eyes in many of the soldiers. Before we 
left Port Hudson, there was almost an epidemic of opthalmia, 
and this campaign aggravated it very much, so that numbers 
of our men lost the sight of one or both eyes. At Morton 
I found that my eyes were becoming much inflamed, and the 
result was that I was sent to a hospital at Lauderdale Springs, 
Miss. There was a convalescent camp there of four thousand 
sick and wounded getting ready to return to their commands. 
The surgeon of the post was Dr. Robert Anderson, whom I 
had known before. He was the family physician of Mr. 
Joseph Davis, President Davis's brother, who occupied one 
of the cottages at the springs. 

Dr. Anderson gave me a pleasant room and put me under 
the care of one of his assistants, an oculist of fine reputation. 
I was nearly blind and could scarcely recognize faces. The 
oculist made a thorough examination and announced the re- 
sult to me in technical language. "Well, sir, you have a case 
of purulent conjunctivitis, with a strong tendency to granu- 

I shall never forget the words. I was frightened and felt 
that I must go to bed at once. I said, trembling: "O, doc- 
tor, do you think it will kill me?" 

He came down from his high horse and reassured me by 

Confederate l/eteraij. 


saying : "No. It is only sore eyes. You will soon be all 

The story of my hospital life would be monotonous, and 
I shall only mention some things that throw light on the 
conduct of the war. The surgeons and assistant surgeons 
of the Confederacy were as noble a body of men as I have 
ever known. They were also men of science and skill in 
their profession, but they labored under great disadvantages. 
The Federal government made medicines contraband of war. 
and so these men had to find remedies in the treasure house 
of nature, and often they had to depend on some good black- 
smith to fashion the instruments they needed. Vet they did 

The antiseptic appliances of the present day were entirely 
unknown then, and gangrene was one of the most common 
results of wounds. I suppose it was blood poison, and it 
was frequently transmitted by the ignorance or carelessness 
of nurses, who used the same sponge on different patients 
without thoroughly cleansing. It was hard to get the needed 
sponges so as to furnish each patient with his own ; but I 
succeeded in getting a beautiful sponge, and I bought my 
own pan and towels, so that I had no trouble with gangrene, 
although the back of my neck was deeply blistered. 

When my sight was restored I spent a good deal of time 
with Dr. .'Xndcrson's family and with Mr. Davis and his 
family. During the time I was there Mrs. Davis died. She 
was a devout member of the Episcopal Church, but no min- 
ister of that Church could be obtained for the funeral serv- 
ice. Mr. Davis asked me to conduct the service, which I 
did, and after that he showed me much kindness, and in the 
last months of the war I was again intimately associated 
with him. He was one of the most remarkable men I ever 
knew. President Davis wrote to him every week and had 
the greatest confidence in his judgment. His information 
en all subjects of general interest, but especially on the po- 
litical history of the country, was extensive and accurate. 
He was then about eighty years old. 

There was a regular chaplain at the hospital, and several 
ministers came and preached to the large number of soldiers 
in the convalescent camp, and in that camp I had the oppor- 
tunity to notice the different spirits of two classes of con- 
valescents. Some were there recovering from sickness, and 
others were recovering from wounds. The wounded men 
were full of energy and eager to get back to their regiments, 
but long spells of sickness seemed to have exhausted the 
vitality of the victims, and they would sit about and talk 
of their symptoms and whine over their condition. Of course 
when they got well they went back to service, and in the 
companionship of fighting men they soon forgot their petty 
aches and pains. 

One of these whiners was sitting in front of his tent sun- 
ning himself one day as I passed. He didn't look like he 
bad sulTicient energy to make a reinark. I struck my foot 
on a root or little stump left in the street, and as I came 
near falling he drawled out : "Now, mister, didn't you know 
you couldn't dig up that stump with your toe? You ought 
to have better sense. Git you a grubbin' hoe." 

While I was in the hospital the great battle of Chicka- 
mauga was fought. We got dispatches of the progress of 
the battle, and I was impressed by a prophetic remark of 
Dr. Anderson, who knew (General Bragg well. When it was 
pretty certain that he had won a big victory, Dr. Anderson 
said : "Bragg will let this slip through his fingers. He won't 
push on and make it complete. He will probably stop every- 
thing to feed his men." 

Sure enough, it wasn't long until we heard that he had 
stopped pursuit of the enemy when they were almost in his 
grasp and while General Forrest was begging for permission 
to rush on into Chattanooga. 

While I was in the hospital I noticed that the women from 
far and near were sending or bringing everything they could 
spare that would minister to the comfort of the sick and 
wounded. It seemed to me that every home must have been 
stripped of everything except the bare necessities of life, and 
the wonderful skill shown by the ladies in making things 
was equal to that of the men in their discoveries and inven- 
tions. The ladies of Dr. Anderson's family made beautiful 
hats from the palmetto growing so abundantly in the South. 
The loyalty and skill of Southern women has never been 

But w-hcn the inflammation was gone from my eyes I was 
impatient to get to "the boys." The doctor said if I would 
wait a month I would be thoroughly cured ; if not, I would 
sutler the rest of my life. I felt that I would rather fight 
every day than to endure the monotony of hospital life, and 
I left. The doctor was right. 

At Morile After the VnK.sBfRfi C.\mpaign. 

Nearly three months of life in a hospital, much of the time 
in a darkened room, had made a white man of me. Ex- 
posure to the tropical suns of Mississii)pi during our Vicks- 
burg campaign had given me a rich brown complexion, a 
kind of saddle color, which would have placed me in thc 
rear of the present-day street car. But now the brown had 
worn off, and when I got back with "the boys" they wanted 
to know where I got my whitening and insisted on my wash- 
ing the chalk off my face. The brigade had been ordered 
to Mobile, where we were to go into winter quarters. The 
department was under the command of Maj. Gen. Dabncy 
H, Maury, a Virginian, and I think a near relative of Com- 
mander Matthew F. Maury, the celebrated scientist. The 
General was physically small, but every inch a soldier and a 
fine old Virginia gentleman. The city was under the com- 
mand of General Quarles, who had been promoted to briga- 
dier general, in command of our brigade. 

Our stay in Mobile was delightful and will ever be a green 
spot in my memory. We had only guard duty most of the 
lime, with the exception of two strenuous episodes, which I 
shall mention in their place. The people of the city were 
exceedingly kind to us, and we formed many delightful ac- 
quaintances. Indeed, some of our army officers, subjects of 
the tender passion, found there lovelj' girls to whom they 
plighted their troth and after the war went back and claimed 
them for life. And in one sad case my messmate, a captain, 
won the heart of one of the loveliest, most cultured women 
I ever knew, but in the campaign of the following summer 
he was killed in front of Atlanta. I got his sword and sash 
and sent them to her, along with the package of her letters 
to him which he carried next his heart. Alas ! how many 
such tragedies marked the mighty struggle ! 

Our regiment was encamped part of the time some three 
miles out of the city at Spring Hill, the end of a street car 
line, and part of the time far out on Government Street, .i 
magnificent boulevard, one of the finest streets in the South. 

Besides the soldiers, the city had many naval officers and 
sailors, for Mobile Bay was the rendezvous of quite a fleet 
of gunboats, among them the famous ram Tennessee. 
Admiral Buchanan was in command, and I think if ever a 
man's appearance justified the name "grim old sea dog" his 
did. He looked the personification of bulldog tenacity and 


^opfederat^ Ueterap. 

courage. It was right amusing to hear some of the young 
naval officers talk in the parlors where I occasionally met 
them. They were splendidly dressed in regulation uniforms 
and made quite an impression on the ladies. They professed 
to be spoiling for a fight and were disgusted with the old 
Admiral's lack of enterprise. They could rush down the bay 
and repeat the exploit of the Virginia in Hampton Roads 
and break up the blockade if he would only let them. Some 
of the older officers, who knew the old man, assured them 
that when the time came he would give them all the fight- 
ing they would want, and he did. And it is to be said to 
their credit that they made good later their boasted willing- 
ness to fight, for they were really splendid young fellows. 

While I am on the subject of Admiral Buchanan let me 
anticipate a little. After the campaign under Hood in Ten- 
nessee I was again nearly blind and was sent to Mobile Bay 
for treatment, and I was told this incident of the naval bat- 
tle of Mobile Bay in August, 1864. Admiral Buchanan on 
the Tennessee was badly wounded after doing wonders with 
his vessel. When he was captured. Admiral Farragut, who 
had been a warm friend of his before the war, sent his own 
surgeon to care for his gallant foe and express his admira- 
tion for the grand fight he had made ; but the old man re- 
fused with a strong expletive to let any Yankee do anything 
for him. I was told that when the crestfallen surgeon went 
back and reported Farragut just laughed and said: "The old 
man's mad now. He will get over it pretty soon. It won't 
do to let such a man die. You go back and pay no attention 
to his storming and do for him whatever he needs." The 
surgeon did go back and after awhile got him into a better 
humor. Farragut deserved the credit for his achievements, 
and he contributed as much as General Grant to the final 
overthrow of the Confederacy. But when one considers our 
poor resources, our extemporized navy, and what it did in 
actual fighting, our officers are entitled to great credit. 

The title "dolce far niente" has a more distinguished look 
and sound than our plain English words, "sweet idleness." 
It describes our days in the lovely Southern city, where the 
air was balmy, the flowers were abundant, the great live oaks 
were green and shady, the sound of the sea was soothing, 
and the people were hospitable, and where fish and oysters 
relieved the monotony of hard-tack and bacon. Light duties 
soon done were succeeded by games on the parade ground, 
reading such literature as we could lay hands on, writing 
letters, going into the city on leave, or cooking. There was 
great opportunity for the manufacture of grapevine news, 
and it was amusing to hear the earnest discussions among 
the men of some reported event which would soon end the 
war. Imagination ran riot over the movements of General 
Lee in Virginia or General Bragg in Tennessee. Military 
critics abounded, and they would point out the purpose of 
such movements, only to find next day that it was a hoax. 

One of my ministerial brethren in the city asked me how 
I spent my abundant leisure. He was a dignified brother, 
with an exaggerated idea of the sacredness of "the cloth" ; 
but as I did not then wear "the cloth" and was possibly 
prompted by a wicked desire to shock his propriety (he was 
a young man), I said: "Well, I spend a good deal of time 
playing marbles." He was, of course, astonished, and I 
never knew whether my explanation satisfied him or not ; but 
it was really one of the things that gave me influence with 
the men. I never hesitated to preach against one of the most 
common vices of the men, profanity, and they showed me 
the respect to refrain from swearing where I was, and they 
would not allow it when I was around. Marble-playing was 

one of the most general amusements on the parade ground, 
the long wide street on which our tents fronted, and fre- 
quently in the excitement of the game men would swear. 
But I would go out among them, and as soon as I was recog- 
nized the swearing ceased. On one occasion when I was 
watching a game one of the boys had beaten every other 
player and was vaporing about, challenging any one to play 
with him. I began to ridicule his antics, when he danced up 
to me with : "Parson, maybe you think you could beat me." 

Now, in my boyhood days I was rated as the best marble 
player in the village, although I had not shot a marble in 
ten years. I told him I thought I could beat him, and he 
gave me a "taw" and the "go" ; and, to my utter surprise, I 
knocked the middle man six times in succession and won 
every game. After that I was in demand as a partner, and 
by joining with them I almost broke up the habit of swear- 
ing among them. As a rule the chaplains of the Confederate 
army gained great influence with the men by mingling with 
them in their innocent sports, and many of them went with 
the men into battle. 

It was impossible for me to get a clerical garb, for se^'eral 
reasons. I was entirely cut off from home; then I didn't 
have the money to buy it, and even if I had I preferred to 
dress like the men. So I wore just what I could get from 
the quartermaster — gray round-about and trousers, brogan 
shoes, and a checked shirt. Sometimes I was asked to preach 
in one of the city churches, and I then borrowed an outfit 
from a friend who was pastor of one of the Presbyterian 
Churches and who was of my size. • But in camp I preached 
to the boys in my garb of a private soldier. On one occa- 
sion while we were encamped on Government Street I took 
a number of the boys with me to a Methodist church near 
by to the evening service. We found a very large congrega- 
tion of the nicest people of the city. After waiting until 
past time for the service, the preacher sent word to his of- 
ficers that he was too sick to come. The officers told the 
people that they would have preaching anyway. While I was 
expecting the substitute preacher one of the stewards came 
to me and asked me to preach. I very positively declined 
on the ground that it would outrage all of the proprieties 
for me to appear before that audience in my soldier toggery. 
But he insisted, and several other members came and urged 
it. As the congregation was all looking at us and wonder- 
ing, the situation became embarrassing, and I consented. 
Several of them had attended our service in camp and knew 
me, but I never felt so out of place in my life. However, 
after getting started, I had what the preachers call "light 
and liberty" and forgot all about my appearance, and the 
congregation was kind and thanked me. 

Another pulpit experience had a rather ludicrous feature. 
Dr. Burgett, pastor of the Government Street Presbyterian 
Church, was very kind to me and introduced me to many 
of his congregation, who also showed me much kindness. 
I was asked to preach in their church. The members were 
of the most elegant and refined and cultured families, and 
I appeared, of course, in my borrowed apparel. Everything 
went on smoothly until I got up to begin my sermon, when 
it flashed over me that I must look out for my hat, which 
I had deposited by my side. Now, the reason of this anxiety 
was that when it came to hats many Confederate soldiers 
didn't hesitate to appropriate a good one in place of their 
old battered ones, just as umbrellas are regarded as common 
property. So I acquired the habit of always holding on to 
my hat. On this occasion as I stepped forward to the desk 
I picked up my hat and dropped it between my feet, and 

Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


during my sermon I felt easy that it was secure. After the 
sermon Dr. Burgett kindly commended, but added: "But, 
Mac, why did you put your hat between your feet?" It 
dawned on me then how ridiculous my action was ; but, like 
George Washington, I couldn't tell a lie, so I made a clean 
breast of it and told him all. He enjoyed the joke reflecting 
on the honesty of his people. 

One of the annoyances to our men in going about the city 
was to be stopped at every corner by a guard and required 
to show a pass. Of course it was necessary to preserve order 
that the city should have a sufficient guard, and it was neces- 
sary to the discipline of the army that soldiers should not 
roam away from camp. Generally the men who left camp 
had permission, and when regular soldiers were on guard 
they soon recognized those who were thus provided and 
were going quietly on their way. But for a while a corps 
of boy cadets was utilized as guards, and they would chal- 
lenge us at every corner and demand to see the pass. Their 
stations were in easy sight of each other, and a boy would 
see a soldier show his pass at the station just beyond him ; 
but when the same soldier reached his station the pass was 
again required, until sometimes it was examined half a dozen 
times in the course of three or four hundred yards. This 
was done largely from boyish vanity to show the strictness 
of their discipline. And it caused some danger of a fuss 
between soldiers and cadets. 

Of course discipline is necessary to efficiency, but a mili- 
tary martinet is generally a fool, and I believe the tendency 
of military schools is to make martinets. If there is really 
anything in a boy, experience in the army or in the world 
will cure him. Yet I saw some West Pointers whose buck- 
ram stiffness of uniform covered a stiffness of mind that 
could never adapt itself to conditions around it. Such men 
had great contempt for General Forrest and never forgave 
him for winning battles contrary to the tactics. Such men 
as Generals Lee, Johnston, and Stonewall Jackson knew the 
value of the military training, but they were not tied by it. 
General Mnury was a warm admirer of General Forrest. 

It was the last of November that news came of the dis- 
aster to our army at Missionary Ridge, by which the victory 
at Chickamauga was completely nullified, and we were or- 
dered to Dalton to reenforce the almost demoralized rem- 
nant of that army. Before giving account of our story in 
North Georgia, I shall mention an incident illustrative of the 
petty tyranny of little officers. At West Point, Ga., on the 
line between Georgia and Alabama, it was necessary to change 
the cars to a different road gauge. I was asleep hi one of 
the baggage cars with a lieutenant and a squad of twenty- 
five men, and in making the change they neglected to couple 
on our cars, so we would have to wait until the next evening 
before we could go on to Atlanta. The lieutenant and I 
wished to walk about the town, which was guarded at every 
corner by the militia. We had our papers duly signed by 
General Maury, the department commander, but to save an- 
noyance we went to the provost marshal's office to have them 
countersigned. We found a young fellow busily teaching a 
wagoner a song. It was some time before we could get his 
attention. When I explained what we wished he very curtly 
ordered us to stay with our baggage. We told him we would 
go where we pleased, and he said we would do it at our 
peril. Lieutenant Jackson, whom we called "Stonewall" for 
his courage, replied that we had twenty-five men who could 
whip out his militia and that the militia would touch us at 
their peril. We went all over the place and were not mo- 
lested. The fellow in authority was only the provost's clerk. 



Sometime in the late winter or early spring of 1863 Gen- 
John C. Moore's brigade (or at least a part of it) was or- 
dered to strike tents at Chickasaw Bayou, a few miles above 
Vicksburg, Miss., and move up to Point Le Flore, which is 
at the junction of the Yalobusha and Tallahatchie Rivers, 
the two forming the Yazoo, one object of which movement 
was to build a fort. Sherman's forces were then marching 
down to join Grant at the coming siege. We were embarked 
on the Yazoo River and crowded into the biggest steamboat 
I ever saw up to that time, the Magnolia. It was claimed 
that there were twenty-five hundred soldiers aboard, which, 
if true, embraced more men than General Moore's brigade 
alone. Anyhow, we were as thick as sardines in a box or 
"autumn leaves in Vallombrosa." Ordinarily the Confeder- 
ate soldier was as happy as a big sunflower when he got to 
"march" on a train or water, but this was too much of a 
good thing. Soldiers swarmed on the hurricane deck, on the 
lower deck, in the engine room, dining room, pilot house, 
wheelhouses, or wherever they could hold on to something to 
keep from falling overboard or to be halfway comfortable. 

The first day's steaming was all right. The vast primeval 
forests, the hanging long moss, the rich, black, alluvial soil, 
the wild ducks rising up from the water, the profound still- 
ness that prevailed, all but the roar made by the wheels of 
the steamer and the occasional shriek of the whistle, impressed 
the men deeply, for most of us came from the piney woods, 
prairie, and sandy land interior, and these scenes and sounds 
were novel. Occasionally the boat passed a farmhouse close 
enough to the bank to enable us to admire and greet the 
pretty girls invariably gathered on the verandas at nearly 
every settlement, and then would follow the greeting of some 
Mark Lapley of a soldier : "Howdy, girls. We would like 
to be with you, but you see how it is." And then the girls 
would wave their handkerchiefs and cheer. 

Anon our contentment would be changed into protest when 
the steamer drew up to land to take on wood and a detail 
of men was made to carry it aboard by the cord. It was a 
little like a cavalrj'man being forced to dismount and fight 
on foot or a bugler to go into the ranks and carry a musket. 

After the first day the trip was not so enjoyable. The boat 
landed us far up the river (Fort Pemberton was built in 
rain and mud), then the command was marched back (this 
time as foot cavalry) to Vicksburg, and in a short time the 
investment of "the city of hills" for about thirty days fol- 
lowed. The rest is now history. I wonder if there are any 
left who were on that trip up the Yazoo. If so, I should 
like to hear from them. 

When the seven Yankee gunboats passed, or attempted to 
pass, the batteries planted along the lofty banks for a mile 
at least and the big guns opened upon them, I do not believe 
there was ever a greater racket for the time being, greater 
even than was lately heard in France along "No Man's Land." 
The earth fairly shook and trembled with its detonations. 
My recollection is that but one gunboat got by fifty-seven 
years ago. How times flies 1 

The People. — In all our associations, in all our agree- 
ments, let us never lose sight of this fundamental maxim, 
that all power was originally lodged in, and consequently de- 
rived from, the people. We should wear it as a breastplate 
and buckle it on as our zrmoT.— George Mason (1775). 


Qoofederat^ l/eterai). 



A few days after the battle of Cedar Run, Va., the Con- 
federates again began the onward move, which I have al- 
ways thought the grandest campaign of the war. It was 
Sunday morning when the Stonewall Jackson Corps began 
its flanking movement around Pope's army Each man had 
in his haversack three days' rations, consisting of six biscuits 
and one pound of midling meat, scanty rations, but General 
Jackson said, though I did not hear him say it, that we 
should have plenty. 

When we reached the high ground I looked back in the 
valley below, where General Lee's army was camped, and 
Jackson's Corps looked like a huge worm making its way 
out. We were moving in a northeast direction toward a 
mountain twenty miles away. All day long we were pulling 
for that mountain and struck its base abount sundown. Right 
up the side of the mountain the march continued until about 
ten o'clock, when the order came, "Close up !" Then came 
the command, "By company file left !" This moved us out 
of the road into the bushes. "Halt ! Front ! Right dress ! 
Stack arms ! Lie down, boys, and go to sleep !" 

Preparing for sleep was then in order. Gathering together 
little bunches of brush and leaves, a lighted match was ap- 
plied. Holding our shirts over the smoke and blaze, the 
graybacks, falling, would go "pop, pop, pop." Then we were 
ready for sleep and repose and rest for our wearied and 
fatigued bodies and to slumber and dream the soldier's dream 
of home and sweetheart. 

At three o'clock Monday morning the bugle sounded. Every 
officer came to his feet calling, "Fall in, boys, fall in !" There 
was a general hurry-scurry. As each boy got ready he 
stepped up to his gun. When all were at their places the 
order was given : "Take arms ! Right face ! Forward, 
march !" When in the middle of the road "Head of column 
to the right !" was ordered, and then the day's march had 
begun. It was said that we marched thirty-three miles on 
Monday with the same kind of sleeping and rest that night. 
The march on Tuesday was like that of Monday, and at night 
we were at Bristow Station, four miles west of Manassas 
Junction. During the night General Jackson took possession 
of Manassas Junction and telegraphed to Washington in 
General Pope's name to send on their rations. That night 
ten long trains loaded with provisions came rolling into the 
Junction. On Wednesday morning our troops were put in 
motion, with Colonel Turney's 1st Tennessee in the lead. 
When we arrived at the Junction, there stood the ten trains 
of provisions, and General Jackson had made good his prom- 
ise. We now had plenty. 

We were ordered to send a detail from each company to 
get rations. I was sent from my company, and on reaching 
the depot I stepped upon the scales to see how much I 
weighed. I had no gun nor cartridge box, and I was bare- 
footed. I weighed one hundred and ten pounds. We filled 
cur haversacks full — had coffee and everytliing. Just then, 
looking away to the east, we saw a brigade of Yankees in 
battle array coming down upon us. The Tennessee brigade 
was thrown forward to meet them. That line of blue was 
the prettiest line I ever saw. Before we got to pull down on 
them, they were in full retreat toward Washington. Then 
we were hurried forward in hot pursuit, and as we went we 
picked up prisoners. About the middle of the afternoon a 
courier dashed up to General Archer, and I happened to be 
near enough to hear him say: "Gen. A. P. Hill orders that 

the pursuit shall cease." Then the command was given : 
"Halt I Cease the pursuit !" 

Then for the first time we had a chance at our haver- 
sacks. Of course we had managed to take a bite occasionally, 
but this was the first chance for a square meal. Every boy 
had a Yankee quart cup of heavy tin, and in that he made a 
strong cup of coffee. Imagine the effect of a quart of strong 
toffee on a soldier boy who had lived three days on six bis- 
cuits and a pound of meat! Soon we were a very jolly set 
of boys. General Archer was astonished and began to look, 
around to learn where we got our liquor It did not take 
him long to solve the problem, and he e.xclaimed : "O, I see 
you are all drunk on coffee." 

At sundown we began our march back to the Junction. 
The ten Yankee trains were all on fire, but Stonewall saved 
the provisions by pressing in all the wagons that could be 
found. While this fire was raging we were ordered to lie 
down and sleep as best we could till 3 a.m. Thursday morn- 
ing. Then our line of march was along the road leading to 
Washington, which was only a distance of twenty-two miles. 
We believed we were going there, and many were the jocular 
remarks made as to how we would whoop up the Yankees 
and make "Old Abe" hustle around. 

At daylight we had reached a little village, Centerville, 
and we could hear the firing on toward Washington, and 
here our line of march turned along the road westward to 
the Stone Bridge, where the First Battle of ^Manassas had 
begun. Crossing the bridge in battle array, we moved up the 
ridge to the support of our batteries, engaged in an artillery 
duel. During the evening we had several such duels. Dark- 
ness came, and all night long Jackson was maneuvering. We 
slept upon our arms, what little sleep we got. 

Friday was the first day of the Second Battle of Manassas. 
Lee and Longstreet were pressing Pope back upon Jackson. 
Jackson hedged his forces behind some bluffs, leaving only 
a few places where he could be charged. During the day he 
must take care of himself. On that night (August 29, 1862) 
Lee and Longstreet would get to him. All through the day 
(Friday) the Tennessee brigade lay back upon the ridges, 
supporting our batteries of artillery We could look down 
upon the valley below and watch the progress of the battle. 
The Stars and Stripes floating over the lines of blue would 
charge and drive our lines. Jackson, massing his forces, 
would hurl them back, his only object being to hold his line. 
Late in the afternoon the Tennessee brigade was ordered to 
relieve General Gregg's South Carolinians. Marching in over 
the ground where the battle had been raging all day, I was 
looking for a dead Yankee with a pair of shoes on his feet. 
There were plenty of dead Yankees, but no shoes. Some 
barefoot Johnny Rebs had been there before me. 

When we were taking our position, which General Bragg 
had held all day, another column of Yankees was hurled 
upon us. Colonel Turney commanded : "First Tennessee, 
right wheel !" As we came upon the alignment my position 
was at a fence corner. I fired three times, taking deliberate 
aim, but do not know that I hurt anybody, for in the storm 
of battle everything is soon enveloped in smoke. I was 
loading for the fourth shot when I was wounded in the right 
ankle. Just then one of the litter bearers (John W. Farrar, 
one of the Boonshill boys, a noble young man) rushed up 
to me. I dropped my gun, threw my arms around his neck, 
and he carried me out of the battle on his back. In a ravine, 
where the bullets were not coming so thick, he stopped to 
rest, and just then Dr. McGuire came up with his nurses. 
Dr. Billy Miles, of Fayetteville, and J. A. Milliken, of Boons- 

Qoi)federat^ Ueterap. 


hill. To keep me from seeing the bullet cut out, Miles be- 
gan to push me over on the ground. This made me mad 
and produced a small row, and McGuire said to Miles and 
Milliken : "Damn it, let the boy see." He handed me the 
bullet and turned to another fellow sufferer, while Milliken 
and Miles wrapped bandages around my ankle. Looking 
around, there were fifteen or twenty more wounded boys, but 
I can mention only one, C. M. M. Tuley, of the Boonshill 

company, wounded in the head. Darkness came, and all the 
wounded were taken in ambulances back some two miles, 
where we were dumped out, and there we stayed for eight- 
een days. We were then sent to the hospital at Warrenton 
and thence to L>-nchburg, Va. I was unable for service for 
some six months, and in that time I came home ; was at 
home at the time of the Murfreesboro battle, returning to 
my command in February, 1863. 



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par.'i/ritKT sucfUKAN 



One of the original jirints of tliis old cartoon was sent by 
Gen. Robert Hatton from Washington. D. C, about 1859 to 
his son in Tennessee ; it had evidently been distributed widely 
for political effect. An e.xplanation of the picture has been 
given by Capt. Charles Spalding Wylly, of Georgia, a Con- 
federate veteran still hale and hearty at the age of eighty- 
three. He is an uncle of Col. John C. Stiles, an appreciated 
contributor to the Vkteran, and it was through the latter 
that this meaning of the cartoon was secured. Captain 
Wylly says : "For years, dating from 1854. the Southern cities 
had been striving for free and direct trade with Europe, and 
after various conventions had been held it was practically 

settled that cither Charleston or Savannah, as being more 
centrally located, was the logical port of embarkation. 
Therefore when Governor Pickens has taken, not the bull by 
the horns, but the cow by the tail, Buchanan lets him know 
that he would be kicked into the ocean, in which event 
Charleston would be out of the running, and Georgia would 
sit on the stool and get the cream for the city of Savannah." 
Colonel Stiles adds to this : "From my experience I think 
the cartoon is badly put, for as long as j-ou hold a cow's tail 
vou are absolutely safe from her heels; the man in danger is 
the one on her port or starboard quarter. This cartoon was 
evidently gotten up by a Georgian, doubtless cither Prioleau 
Hamilton, of the Savannah Rcpuhlicaii. or Orme, of the Mil- 
ledgeville Recorder." 


Qoi)federat^ l/eterap. 

SPOTSYLVANIA, MAY 12, 13, 1864. 


As 1 have already said. General Grant doubtless saw that 
his army had had enough of the great sacrifice of human 
life, and, fearing its effect on the population at the North 
as well as upon the army, he decided to try another method 
by which he hoped to be more successful. Accordingly on 
the 10th and 11th of May, 1864, there was only desultory 
skirmishing and a careful examination of our position as 
far as it was possible to make it. This disclosed to him that 
one part of our line curved like a horseshoe and was held 
by a mere skirmish line of defenders. These stood thirty or 
forty steps apart. The men holding this section of the hne 
were General Johnson's division, all brave and true veteran 
soldiers, who had won many victories under their able gen- 
eral and his brigade commanders ; but their ranks were too 
thin to hold so long a line of defenders against a determined 
attack. Behind this semicircle, at some distance to the rear, 
three regiments of our (Gordon's) brigade occupied a short 
line of works as a reserve. The 31st Georgia occupied the 
right of the line of reserves, and Company I, under Capt. 
G. W. Lewis, held the right of the regiment and consequently 
was the first of the reserve line to be attacked when the front 
line was overwhelmed and captured. The previous night was 
dark and rainy, making the leafy covering of the earth as 
soft and noiseless as a carpet to the feet of an advancing 
army. Under this favorable condition the enemy moved up 
their front line during the night as near Genera! Johnson's 
position as possible without detection, with instructions to 
make a bold rush at four o'clock in the morning and capture 
the position. 

Johnson's men, now worn out by fighting seven days and 
nights almost without intermission, although apprehensive 
of a surprise, were overcome by fatigue and at this hour 
were drowsy and half asleep. When the great rush came 
those who were awake seized their arms, only to find that 
the rain had wet the percussion caps on their loaded guns 
so that they refused to fire. The enemy was so near and 
tlie attack so well timed that it was almost a complete suc- 
cess. General Johnson himself and two of his brigade com- 
manders, fighting in the darkness and confusion with guns 
in their hands as private soldiers, were compelled to sur- 
render. A few escaped to the rear, but the bulk of the di- 
vision fell into the hands of the. enemy as prisoners of war. 
I was told that brave old General Johnson refused to sur- 
render the gun in his hands until they took him and his gen- 
erals in an army ambulance to General Grant's tent, where 
he surrendered it to him. 

So far all things were well with the enemy and might 
have resulted in the complete rout and destruction of Lee's 
weak and sorelj' tried army. Johnson and his division were 
captured, and a wide breach in General Lee's line was open 
through which Grant could pour his thousands. These came 
up and rushed in to hold the captured position. 

But at this critical moment a higher power intervened, and 
nature spread a mantle of fog over the forest so thick that 
it was impossible to see an object more than thirty feet 
away. The few fugitives who escaped capture fell back past 
the small reserve, and we then knew that our front line was 
broken. There was little or no shooting on the front line 
to indicate any fighting, and this alone informed us of the 

I am not superstitious, but I must admit that there are 
some impressions made at times on the human mind which 

I cannot understand. Lying in the ditch behind the breast- 
works at the right of the company and regiment, I awoke 
out of a troubled sleep with something of a dreadful sensa- 
tion bearing heavily on my mind. So strong was this im- 
pression that I jumped up and began to fold up the blanket 
under which I had been sleeping, and while doing this I 
called to Lieut. D. J. McNair, who was still sleeping, to get 
up and call the men to attention, for I was sure some great 
trouble for us was impending. He got up immediately and 
ordered all the others to do so. At this moment some of the 
fugitives from the front line made their appearance to our 
right and rear in the dense fog. Lieutenant McNair ordered 
them to stop, but they were bent on making their escape and 
went on without giving heed to what was said to them. A 
moment later, looking in the same direction and only a few 
feet away, I saw the blue uniforms of the enemy and the dis- 
tinguishing corps badges on their caps. I brought my gun 
into proper position and fired at them. They now knew that 
tliey were on the flank of our reserve line, and they opened 
on me and Lieutenant McNair, whom they could see stand- 
ing up side by side. This volley hastened the movements of 
every man in the company and regiment. Two balls passed 
through the breast of McNair's coat, but did not injure him. J 
Our men, seeing themselves outflanked, showed no sign of \ 
panic in this sudden attack on our flank and rear ; but every 
man was game and ready to fight if only Captain Lewis, who 
was in command of the regiment, would get up and form 
them in line to face the enemy. This Lieutenant McNair 
urged him to do, but he only drew his blanket about his body 
more tightly and lay there in the ditch, while we fought over 
liim and around him without any order or system. While 
we checked the advance of the enemy near us, those farther 
in our rear continued to advance, at the same time calling to 
us in language more expressive than chaste to throw down 
our arms and surrender. This I was determined never to 
do as long as there was one chance in a hundred to make 
my escape; and this, I must say, seemed to be the sentiment 
of all except our captain, who up to this time had shown 
himself a good and faithful soldier. Poor fellow ! I suppose 
he had lost heart when he knew the situation and thought 
it useless to make an efifort to extricate ourselves from this 
hopeless predicament. We stood our ground for some time, 
holding back the enemy: but seeing this to be useless while 
others were cutting us off from the means of escape, we fell 
back on Company E, color company of the regiment, where 
our gallant ensign, Jim Ivey, was waving our old tattered 
battle flag and calling on the men to form on him and fight. 
This we did for a time, but, no one being in command to 
direct our efforts, we were compelled to fall back on the 
next regiment, which was also fighting without any com- 
mander. We fought with these until we saw our last oppor- 
tunity to escape going to Fort Delaware. When we knew 
this, we did not stand on the order of our going, but bolted 
toward the opening in the rear. 

When I was a schoolboy I was notably swift on foot and 
was always chosen in all games that required good runners, 
but on this occasion I think I broke all previous records 
until I got out of the woods to where I saw General Lee 
coming with a little band of ragged soldiers. I was hatless. 
but in this respect was not alone. A few of our men still 
stood their ground and had to fight their way out through 
the enemy's line, while others pretended to be dead or 
wounded and finally escaped. It would make this article too 
long to mention their experience. The enemy did not hold 
this ground long until they were driven back by the small 

QoQfederat^ l/eterai>. 


force just mentioned. They were formed deliberately in a 
line which could not have been over a hundred yards long, 
and General Lee, riding his dappled iron-gray horse, intended 
to lead the charge; but a soldier stepped out from the ranks, 
took his horse by the bridle, and led him to the rear. The 
General's countenance showed that he had despaired and was 
ready to die rather than see the defeat of his army. Those 
brave fellows — I do not know who they were — moved for- 
ward in good style and struck the enemj' in the woods, driv- 
ing them back over some of the ground from which they had 
driven our three regiments a few minutes before, but were 
too few in number to accomplish much. In the meantime, 
while these events were taking place under my observation, 
more important movements were going on under the direc- 
tion of General Gordon, with the other three regiments of our 
brigade and our sharpshooters. Why he left us there without 
any one in command, to be surrounded and beaten back, I 
could never understand. As it was, we accomplished nothing, 
while the other three regiments and some other troops struck 
the enemy at another point in their rear and saved our army 
from utter defeat. But we never succeeded in recovering all 
the line taken from General Johnson in the early morning. 
The enemy brought up hca\T rccnforccmcnts and charged 
our men time and again, exhibiting the greatest bravery, only 
to be repulsed every time. 

Tlic fighting lasted from about day, when Gordon struck 
them, until 10 p.m. without a moment's intermission. Two 
days after, when General Grant had withdrawn, our men 
went over the ground in front of the works to see the result 
of the fighting and found the enemy's dead lying in heaps 
in front of tlie works. The timber in the woods was cut and 
marred by rifle balls. Grant had left without making any 
effort to have his dead buried, leaving them there just where 
they had fallen. Whether they were ever buried I cannot 
say. This battle, so favorably begun for the enemy, was a 
complete success for them at first and threatened the destruc- 
tion of Lee's army. But it failed and resulted in a drawn 
battle, in which their dead and wounded far exceeded our 
loss, for three reasons : First, because of the dense fog men- 
tioned above in which the enemy could not maneuver troops 
•idvantageously in the area covered by a thick forest just 
won from us ; secondly, the lack of some bold leadership ; 
thirdly, because of General Gordon's remarkable diligence 
and foresight in hastily assembling a small force and making 
an attack on the enemy's flank before they had time to re- 
form and fully understand the situation. When the fog 
cleared away and they had brought up their recnforcements. 
Gordon had already retaken most of the line, and it afforded 
the Confederates opportunity to aim more accurately at 
their splendid lines as they advanced so gallantly to recover 
the advantage they had won earlier in the day. 

If I should attempt to mention the many deeds of heroism 
exhibited by our men that day or the narrow escapes from 
death of my comrades and myself, it would make this article 
too long; but we came out of it all; and while some fell 
on the battle field afterwards, those who remain fought it 
out to the end. 

The next day (the 13th) General Grant, ever resourceful 
and never despondent, opened along our whole line with a 
skirmish fire and an artillery engagement which indicated an 
intention on his part to assault our whole line. But this was 
only bluff. He was only doing this to keep our forces ex- 
pectant while he removed his army away from the dreadful 
shambles to relieve their minds of his disastrous failure. In 

this fighting we lost some of our best soldiers, killed or 
permanently disabled. 

I must now refer to myself and tell why I took no part 
in the subsequent operations of the army for nearly a month. 
That morning I became violently sick with that malady which 
destroyed the lives of so many of our men, brought on by 
continued fighting day and night, poor food poorly prepared, 
and eating this at any hour whenever there was opportunity 
to do so. Standing in the breastworks with my comrades, 
I called the attention of the lieutenant commanding the 
company to my condition, but he had no authority to excuse 
me. Later on Col. J. H. Lowe came along the ditch, and I 
told him the same thing; but he brushed by me and told me 
the same thing and asked with some warmth where was the 
assistant surgeon. Of course I did not know, and I con- 
cluded I would have to die there in the ditch. But after a 
second thought he came back to me and said he had no au- 
thority to send any one away from the line, but if I was will- 
ing to undertake to go to the field hospital with his permit 
he would give me one. In my desperate condition I was 
willing to do anj^hing, for remaining there was certain 
death. I put my gun down and started, but could go only a 
short distance, when I became so exhausted that I was com- 
pelled to lie down. Mustering all my strength, I again man- 
aged to get on foot and start again. I repeated this several 
times until I came to a disabled provost guard standing in 
the road. He demanded my papers, which I gave him while 
lying exhausted on the ground. He told me he was sorry 
for me, seeing how sick I was, but that he could not let me 
pass; that I would have to see the doctor in command of 
the line of guards and directed me to his tent, about a hun- 
dred yards away from the road. After resting awhile, I 
managed to get up again and start. When I got to the doc- 
tor's tent I fell down as he came up to me, abusing me for 
everything mean and cowardly. After doing this he went 
back to his tent and remained awhile. Lying there in my 
helpless condition, I cannot describe my feelings, especially 
since I knew I had always done my duty faithfully. After 
awhile he came to me and told me to show him my tongue. 
For a while I hesitated whether to do so or not ; but as I 
had no choice, I finally did, and he bade me go. When I 
reached the hospital I found our regimental surgeon, Dr. 
Judson Butts, who gave me some brandy and laudanum, 
which relieved me very much. The next day he sent me and 
all the sick and wounded to Guinea Station, from which 
place we were sent to Richmond. When I regained con- 
sciousness I found myself in Camp Jackson Hospital. The 
army in the meantime was beating its way toward Richmond, 
and on the 2d and 3d of June, while lying on my bunk. I 
could hear the constant boom of cannon. I knew by this 
that our men were engaged, and I felt it my duty to return 
to the army as soon as possible. This I did before I was 
well and remained with it on the firing line until the last 
shot was fired at Appomattox. 

"Shut the Book ! We must open another, 

O Southron, if taught by the past ; 
Beware, when thou chooseth a brother. 

With what ally thy fortunes are cast! 
Beware of all foreign alliance. 

Of their pleadings and pleasings beware; 
Better meet the old snake with defiance 

Than find in his charming a snare !" 


C^oijfederat^ l/eterap. 



Surely it is a far cry from Antoine de Saussure Perronet 
de Crocketaigne to plain Davy Crockett, backwoodsman and 
bear killer. 

But persecution is a great leveler. Two years prior to the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes thousands of Huguenots 
became alarmed at the infringement of their rights and, 
quietly selling their property, took refuge in Protestant coun- 
tries. Half a million of them escaped over the border dur- 
ing the Dragonade, forty thousand of them went to England, 
and there was a smaller stream of men, women, and children 
smuggled out of French ports on English vessels and trans- 
ported to America, a relief committee in London paying the 
expenses. At some time during the period from 1685 to 1700 
the Crocketaignes escaped and found a refuge in Ulster, 
Ireland, whence the sons of the Sieur de Crocketaigne and 
Louise Desai.x, his wife, sailed to the New World, taking with 
them two of their sisters. From them are descended men 
and women whose lives have been notable examples of the 
Huguenot virtues, enriched by the hardier strain of the 
Scotch-Irish. John C. Calhoun, Col. Joseph Crockett, who 
served with George Rogers Clark in the conquest of the 
Northwest, and Davy Crockett are among the most celebrated 
of the family. 

Joseph Louis Crockett, third son of Antoine, married 
Sarah Stewart and joined the Scotch-Irish emigration to 
Pennsylvania and Virginia. The name was curtailed by 
dropping the last syllable and omitting the "de," and under this 
abbreviated form it looked well on a number of patents and 
royal grants still on record. 

One of the six sons of Joseph Louis was Jason Spots- 
wood. He married Margaret Lacy, and they became the 
parents of John Crockett, father of Davy ; his mother was 
Rebecca Hawkins. John was one of those improvident in- 
dividuals who brighten the colonial annals by showing that 
even in those peerless days life had other levels below the 
James River aristocracy, perpetually feasting with royal gov- 
ernors and the pious pioneer who might be scalped, but in- 
variably departed this life seized and possessed of excellent 
real estate. 

About the beginning of the Revolution John Crockett 
moved to what is now Greene County, in East Tennessee, and 
there David was born on August 17, 1786. The delightful 
optimism of John is shown by his moving to Jefferson County 
and opening a tavern on the stage road with the expectation 
of making a living. David was then a boy seven years 
old, free, happy, and useful when the stage came in with its 
load of occasional travelers. At twelve years of age some- 
thing happened. This is the part of his life always omitted 
when telling it to the young, or else it is used to point a 
moral, which is worse. Shades of the prison house closed 
around the growing boy ; in other words, he was sent to 
school. After four days of travel on the road to learning 
Davy balked ; also he had indulged the Crockett propensity 
to fight, which might have complicated his remaining in 
school. Due notice was given by his father that a whip- 
pin.n; was in store for him, but Davy did not answer Adsum 
when the time of bestowal came. He was many miles away, 
and for three years he made his living helping teamsters and 
traders, going as far as Baltimore in his travels. At fifteen 
he wandered home, and the joy with which he was greeted 
touched him so deeply that he resolved to stay and pay his 
father out of debt. For a year he worked to pay a debt of 

$76, and then he worked to get himself some clothes. The 
ruddy, good-looking young fellow with his keen humor and 
ready wit was a general favorite. At eighteen he thought 
himself ready to marry, but the lady of his choice decided 
otherwise. Disappointment in love drives men all the way 
from drink to foreign missions. Its effect on David was to 
send him to school. He went for six months, working two 
days in each week to pay for board and tuition. At the end 
of that time he could write his name, read in the primer, and 
he knew something of arithmetic. This was his graduation 
from school. He stopped because he decided he could not 
live longer without a wife, and he proceeded to go in search 
of one. The account of his courtship in his autobiography 
is a human document of ingenuous charm and simplicity. 
At a reaping party he met a pretty girl of whom he had 
heard and was "plaguey well pleased with her" at first sight. 
They danced the reel together, and David diplomatically paid 
some attention to her mother, "salting the cow to catch the 

In due time they were married. David rented land and 
tried to farm, but he inherited all his father's financial in- 
ability and never understood making or saving money. He 
had one simple rule, and that was to move farther toward 
the frontier every time he failed. So he went to Middle 
Tennessee, and there he hunted, farmed, and became a scout 
for Gen. Andrew Jackson in the Creek War and the Florida 
campaign. What a pair he and "Old Hickory" must have 
been ! His wife died in 1815, but David was not the man to 
mourn for woman and soon married again. Probably he 
needed a cook. Certainly his motherless children needed 
some one to look after them. He moved next to Giles 
County, and there began his political career. He was elected 
a magistrate, then appointed a justice of the peace. In order 
to keep court records and draw up documents, at thirty years 
of age he learned to write. Through his life runs the golden 
thread of honesty, independence, and a keen sense of justice. 
He lived his most famous maxim : "Be sure j'ou are right 
and then go ahead." 

He was elected to the Tennessee Legislature, and while in 
Nashville a mill which he had borrowed money to build was 
swept away by a freshet, and he lost everything he pos- 
sessed. He promptly moved farther west and settled in what 
is now Crockett County. This was a wild country and the 
scene of many of his famous bear hunts. 

He was elected to Congress in 1827 through the influence 
of Andrew Jackson. Naturally he was a unique figure in i 
the capital. 

In 1829 he could no longer approve of President Jackson's 
political measures and became his opponent. This meant de- 
feat in Tennessee, but he was reelected in 1831 and became.J 
a strong supporter of Calhoun, who was his cousin several 
generations removed. 

In 1834 a book was published anonymously purporting to 
be a life of David Crockett. It was to correct the errors in I 
this book that Crockett, nearly fifty years of age, became an 
author. His autobiography is unique, and it was received 
enthusiastically. His comment on its popularity was : "The 
people of the United States ain't no slouches neither about 
books. They're as keen in a-findin' out merit as my pups are 
on a bear track." A year later he wrote "An Account of 
Colonel Crockett's Tour to the North and Down East." 
This was followed by his "Life of Martin Van Buren, Heir 
Apparent to the Government." The mere title was an insult 
to Jackson and determined the Jackson party to end Crock- 
ett's political career. So he was defeated in the election of 

Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


1835 and promptly arranged to move westward. This time 
his family remained behind, for the Colonel was now bent 
on a desperate venture, no less than fighting for the freedom 
of Texas. This was the final parting with wife and sons 
and daughter. That the old fighting blood was still strong 
was shown when a grandson of his became Col. John Crockett, 
of the 1st Arkansas Regiment, in the War between the States. 
Shortly before leaving the Colonel published a volume 
called "Leisure Hour Musings in Rhyme." He thought it 
was poetry. A sample of it may be found in the following 
stanzas, and it is as different from Childe Harold's adieux 
as Byron and Crockett were different in their ideals of life, 
yet both died to set other men free : 

"Farewell to my country ! I fought for thee well 
When the savage rushed forth like the demons from hell. 
In peace or in war I have stood by thy side. 
My country, for thee I have lived, would have died ! 
But I am cast off. my career now is run. 
And I wander abroad like the prodigal son 
Where the wild savage roves and the broad prairies spread : 
The fallen, despised, will again go ahead." 

The thought of the prodigal son in connection with savages 
and jirairics is at least original, but the astonishing thing is 
(hat Davy should attempt meter at all, and nothing could 
show more cmiihatically his intellectual progress from the 
Giles County days when he could only sign his name. His 
last book was called "Exploits in Texas," founded on his 

Going down the Mississippi, the Colonel gathered some 
companions and rode on horseback to the Ouachita River. 
Approaching this stream, the party were startled by hearing 
music. First the tune was "Hail. Columbia. Hajip.v T.and." 
then "Over the Water to Charlie." "Let us go ahead," said 
the Colonel, and there at the river crossing they saw a man 
in a sulky in the middle of the river and playing on a fiddle. 
Some men were rushing down from a clearing and shouting 
to the fiddler that he had missed the ford. 

"I know I have," answered the fiddler. "If you go ten 
feet farther, you will be drowned." "I know it," answered 
the fiddler. 

The upshot of it was that the men from the clearing took 
the horses of the Colonel's party and rescued the fiddler. He 
said that nothing in universal nature was so well calculated 
to draw people together as the sound of a fiddle, and that 
was why he was playing, for he might bawl for assistance 
until he was hoarse, and no one would stir a peg. The 
gentleman's sulky was fi.xed, and the crowd decided to have 
a dance. This was in 1836, and there had been no recent 
anuMulmonts to the Constitution ; so each man drew out a 
fiask, they took a drink all around, and danced for an hour. 
But they concluded that dancing "wasn't altogether the thing 
without a few petticoats to give it variety." The fiddler 
(who also is called the parson, denomination not given) and 
Davy traveled together again, and the old man spoke most 
eloquently of the goodness of God. David thus describes it : 
"We were alone in the wilderness, but all things told me that 
God was there. The thought renewed my strength and cour- 
age. * * ♦ I was now conscious that there was still one 
watchful Eye over me. * * * My very soul leaped joy- 
fully at the thought; I never felt so grateful in all my life; 
I never loved my God so sincerely in all my life. I felt that 
I still had a friend." 

Reaching San Antonio, Crockett was one of the garrison 
of the Alamo. All but the last scene is described in his diary : 

"March 1. — The enemy's forces have been increasing in 
numbers daily, notwithstanding they have already lost about 
three hundred men in the several assaults they have made 
upon us. * * * Colonel Bowie's illness still continues, but 
he manages to crawl from his bed every day that his com- 
rades may see him. His presence alone is a tower of 
strength. The enemy becomes more daring as his 'numbers 

"March 3. — We have given over all hopes of receiving as- 
sistance from tioliad or Refugio. Colonel Travis harangued 
the garrison and concluded by exhorting them, in case the 
enemy should carry the fort, to fight to the last gasp and 
render their victory even more serious to them than to us. 
This was followed by three cheers. 

"March 4. — Shells have been falling into the fort like hail 
during the day, but without effect." 

Next conies a .spirited account of a sortie to rescue a man 
who was running toward the fort pursued by Mexican cav- 
alry. The Colonel, of course, was in the fight and received a 
saber cut. 

"March -,. — Pop, pop, pop ! Rom, bom, bom ! throughout 
the day. No time for memorandums now. Go ahead ! Lib- 
erty and independence forever !" 

This is the last entry and the last line the Colonel wrote : 
"The rest is silence." 

On March 6, i836, the Alamo was captured by Santa Anna 
after the garrison was reduced to a handful of men. The 
survivors were all killed by order of Santa Anna in viola- 
tion of the terms of surrender. 

Thus perished a band of men as gallant as ever died for 
home and country. A cenotaph at Austin bears this inscrip- 
tion : "Thermopylje had its mcs.senger of defeat, but the Alamo 
had none." "Remember the .Alamo !" was a battle cry of the 
Mexican War. 

So passed the strong, brave soul of Colonel Crockett, car- 
rying into eternity his simple faith in God, his love for hu- 
manity, and a splendid willingness to give his life for a cause 
which seemed to him just. These are the primitive virtues 
learned in the forest cathedrals of the frontier. 



On Shiloh's crimson-sheeted field 

There fell that selfsame hour 
Twin brothers of a single line, 

In youth's all-golden flower. 

Yet battled these 'neath w-arring flags. 

Each heavy hung with stars ; 
But one was crossed by scarlet stripes, 

And one by glowing bars. 

Scarce half a rood apart they fell. 

Unwittingly they lay ; 
Nor he who wore the blue e'er knew 

His brother donned the gray. 

Unknown each to the other sank. 

Beheld the same worn face, 
And gasping "Mother I" either died, 

Full grandly as their race. 

[These were brothers-in-law of Maj. Gen. Enoch H. Crow- 


Qopfederat^ l/eterar). 

Sketches in this department are given a half column of space 
without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 cents per 
lino. Engravings, $2.50 each. 

"They are not dead, these friends, not dead, 
But in the paths we mortals tread 
Are now some trifling steps ahead 

And nearer to the end ; 

So that we too, once past the bend, 
Shall meet them face to face again — 
These friends we fancy dead." 

Capt. Lewis Guion. 

With the passing of Capt. Lewis Guion, valiant Confederate 
veteran, prominent citizen of New Orleans, La., and brilliant 
lawyer, another vacancy has occurred in the fast-thinning 
ranks of the gray which can never be filled. Captain Guion 
was a well-known figure in the State of Louisiana, having 
held many important positions, and his loss will be keenly 
felt, particularly in Confederate circles. A gentleman of the 
old school, he bore the stamp of the Southland's true aristoc- 
racy, his genial disposition and courtly manners having won 
for him a legion of devoted friends. 

After some days of suffering the summons came on Jan- 
uary 12, 1920, and Captain Guion obeyed the silent command 
with the same fearless front with which he marched into 
battle away back in the sixties. It was characteristic of his 
nature that he should have jested with his family during a 
brief interval of consciousness just preceding the last sleep, 
for he was ever ready to point out the silver lining in the 
darkest cloud. Throughout a long and useful life he clung 
to the faith of his childhood and was buried with the rites 
of the Episcopal Church, the body having been conveyed to 
his old home in Thibodaux, La., after simple but beautiful 
ceremonies held at the family residence in Coliseum Street, 
Rev. Albert Berkley, of St. Paul's Church, officiating. All 
Confederate organizations were represented in the gathering 
about the bier of the beloved veteran, the casket being draped 
with the red and white colors of the Confederacy. Signifi- 
cant of the esteem in which Captain Guion was held, floral 
offerings in the rarest and most exquisite designs poured in 
from the numerous organizations with which he had affiliated, 
as well as from his host of friends. 

Captain Guion came of distinguished ancestry and was born 
in Lafourche, La., in 1838. He was the son of Judge George 
S. Guion and Caroline Winder. He received his early educa- 
tion at the St. James Episcopal College, Maryland, after 
which he took the degree of A.B. at the University of Mis- 
sissippi. He was also graduated from the Law Department 
of the University of Virginia and the Law Department of the 
University of Louisiana, afterwards Tulane University. 

He entered the Confederate army in March, 1861, as sec- 
ond lieutenant of Company B, 1st Louisiana Infantry Regu- 
lars ; was promoted to first lieutenant of Company A, Louisi- 
ana Infantry, C. S. A., in 1861, and was promoted to the rank 
of captain of Company D, 26th Louisiana Volunteers, 1863-65. 

He also filled the important office of acting assistant in- 
spector-general on the staffs of Gens. F. A. Shoup and Allen 
Thomas during the siege of Vicksburg. 

At the close of the war Captain Guion resumed the prac- 
tice of law. During the dark Reconstruction days he stood 
stanchly shoulder to shoulder with those fearless ones who 
helped to keep the honor of the Southland unblemished, for 
he loved the land of his birth with the passionate devotion 
of a true patriot. At various stages of his career Captain 
Guion was in turn a sugar planter, melter and refiner at 
the New Orleans Mint (once so famous throughout the 
United States), assistant attorney-general to his brother, 
Judge Walter Guion, President of the Association of the 
Army of Tennessee, a director of the Soldiers' Home of 
Louisiana, and at the time of his death was Confederate 
Commissioner of the Vicksburg National Military Park, hav- 
ing been appointed to that position following the death of 
Gen. Stephen D. Lee ; was Vice President of the Jeff'erson 
Davis Parkway Commission, as well as a member of the 
Louisiana Historical Society and member of the Louisiana- 
Vicksburg Monument Commission. The money for this beau- 
tiful monument to Louisiana soldiers, soon to be erected, was 
secured through the efforts of Captain Guion and others. 

Captain Guion was considered an authority on Southern 
history and was instrumental in correcting many of the his- 
torical errors found in books used in the public schools of 
the South. 

Many years after the war Captain Guion married Mrs. 
Mary Harris Lanier, of Columbus, Miss., among the loveliest 
and most accomplished women of her day, and, besides his 
widow, is survived by two daughters (Mrs. M. O. Boatner, 
well known as a talented musician of New Orleans, and Miss 
Carrie Guion), a brother (Judge Walter Guion), and three 
sisters (Mrs. M. G. Ellis, Mrs. E. G. Pierson, and Mrs. Caro- 
line G. NichoUs, widow of the late Governor Nicholls). 
Captain Guion is also survived by a young grandson, who 
gives promise of following in his distinguished grandsire's 


^opfedcrat^ l/eterap. 


Half wistfully reviewing other days, 

Dim camp fire scenes, boy heroes grouped around 
The fitful flame, recounting with high praise 

Some favorite general's prowess and renown, 

He oft recalled the past, the waving cane 
Yielding its sweets, the snowy cotton bolls. 

The happy darkies crooning the refrain 
Of Dixie till the lilting chorus rolls 

Far upward from a score of dusky lips ; 

The laughter and the partings and the tears. 
The South's rare beauty marred by war's eclipse, 

The gray-clad ranks still marching down the years. 

And his fine face grew tender as a child's, 

Remembering how many a comrade then 
Left home and comfort and a mother's smiles — 

Boys with smooth cheeks and the high souls of men — 

To guard the honor of our Southern land. 

Himself he saw, a stripling slim and bold. 
Thrilled by the tocsin, shrill and sad and grand, 

Earning his wage of hunger, want, and cold. 

As one who lays a treasured volume bj', 

Creasing the page for other eyes to scan. 
Smiling on those about him kind of eye. 

Musing on life and man's allotted span, 

Then faring forth into green fields and lanes 
Sweet with the breath of blossom, lending car 

To shy wood sounds and the ecstatic strains 
Of birds among the boughs, holding all dear, 

And conning well the page unfolded there 
Of all earth's mysteries of sight and sound. 

Wishful to stay, yet fain to onward fare, 
Seeking new paths until the goal is found. 

So with no backward glances of regret. 

Pensive with memories of the olden fray, 
Keeping youth's ideals fair, untarnished yet, 

He joined his waiting comrades of the gray. 
[Lilita Lever Youngc, poet laureate of Stonewall Jackson 
Chapter, No. 1135, U. D. C, New Orleans.] 

Deaths at Huntsville, Ala. 

The following comrades have been lost from Egbert J. 
Jones Camp, No. 357, U. C. V., of Huntsville, Ala., as re- 
ported by R. M. De Young : 

"W. L. Giles died at his home, in Gurley, Ala., December 
4, 1919. He joined Company E, 35th Alabama Regiment, and 
was wounded in Georgia, from which wound he suffered 
during the remainder of his life. He was a noble, good man 
and a leader in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 
him was all that it takes to make a good and true Christian 

"R. J. Scrimsher died January 12, 1920, at his home, in 
Huntsville, in his seventy-eighth year. He was a member of 
Company F, 35th Alabama Regiment, and was severely 
wounded in Georgia, a hole made in his head by a ball. He 
was an active member of the Methodist Church and the 
U. C. V. Camp, his comrades attending his funeral in a body. 
We loved him living and mourn him dead." 

James M.\dison Berry. 

James M. Berry died at his home, in Springfield, Ark., 
December 13, 1919. He was born in Pontotoc County, Miss., 
February 21, 1847, and went to Arkansas with his parents in 
the early fifties, settling near the present village of DeView, 
in Woodruff County. Here he enlisted about the time that 
the Confederate States most needed soldiers, having been 
too young to join when his three elder brothers. Burton, 
Thomas, and Lafayette, joined the Confederate forces in 
I861. He saw service only west of the Mississippi and was 
captured while with Price on his famous Missouri raid and 
was held captive at Helena, Ark., until the surrender. He 
returned home, as did thousands of others, to find nothing. 
His father had died during this period, and the home had 
been broken up. He married Miss Lina Sellers on January 
14, 1869. He had lived a devoted member of the Christian 
Church for forty-five years. He was a leading citizen of the 
community in which he lived, devoted to his country's needs 
and faithful always to the cause for which he had fought. 
For him the "last sad taps have sounded," and on Sunday 
afternoon, December 14, 1919, his frail remains were laid 
to rest in the village cemetery at Springfield, attended by 
hundreds of faithful friends and relatives. The funeral serv- 
ice was conducted by Rev. F. O. Stobaugh, of Center Ridge, 
an old e.x-Federal soldier, whom this Confederate veteran had 
learned to love in their Christian fellowship. 

He had fought a good fight, he had kept the faith as he 
understood its keeping, and for him no more life's call will 
sound nor war's bloody drama disturb. May the angel of 
peace guard well his resting place ! 

R. Harper Hagood. 

Corporal R. Harper Hagood, veteran of the War between 
the States, was born at Augusta, Ga., June 14, 1846. and 
passed away on October 19. 1919. at the home of his daughter, 
Mrs. J. O. Patterson, Barnwell. S. C. The interment was 
made in the Barnwell Baptist Cemetery. A large concourse 
of sorrowing relatives and sympathetic friends gathered to 
pay the last tribute of respect to this good man. His wife 
preceded him to the grave by only a few months. 

He enlisted in the Confederate army in November, 1863, 
under Captain Stewart, of the Beaufort Artillery, and served 
gallantly in every engagement of his company from that time, 
winning the highest respect of his officers as a fearless sol- 
dier. He was with General Johnston's army when it sur- 
rendered at Greensboro, N. C, April 27, 1865. 

Like many other heroes of the Southern cause, he returned 
after the four years' bitter struggle to a devastated home. In 
1876 he worked with his fellow comrades to build up a Demo- 
cratic government under Gens. Wade Hampton, Johnson 
Hagood. and Calbraith Butler. 

Corporal Hagood married Miss Estelle Ingram in 1874 
and is survived by a son and a daughter. His brother, Capt. 
William Henry Hagood, of Greenwood, S. C, is the last 
member of his family. 

Each year Father Time with relentless scythe enters the 
fast-fading ranks of gray, and the members of that band 
of heroes fall before him like ripened grain before the sickle. 

Deaths at Lumpkin, Ga. 

During the past six months the toll of death in the mem- 
bership of the C. A. Evans Camp, U. C. V., at Lumpkin, Ga., 
has been very heavy. Comrade E. P. Pearson reports that 
the following have died : W. D. Flinn, J. J. Dixon, I. W. 
Moore, A. T. Fort, S. S. Everett. 


QoQfederat^ l/eterap. 

Camp Lomax, Montgomery, Ala. 

The committee appointed by Camp Lomax to make suitable 
mention of the many comrades who have departed this life 
during the past year made the following report : 

"Comrade P. A. Copley was born in Durham, N. C, August 
19, 1843. He enlisted as a member of Company C, 6th North 
Carolina Infantry. He was a good soldier, always ready for 
duty. He was in several battles and was wounded. About 
the year 1870 he moved to Montgomery, Ala., and made a 
good and faithful citizen, beloved by all who knew him. He 
died February 20, 1919. 

"Comrade C. E. Owen was horn in Tuscaloosa, .'Ma., on ihc 
17th of June, 1838. He went to war as a member of the 
Warrior Guards and did faithful service. He was a gal- 
lant soldier and a Christian gentleman. After the war he 
-removed to Montgomery, .'Ma., where he became well known 
and made many friends. He died May 3, 1919. 

"Comrade G. W. McCutchin was a member of the 31st Ala- 
bama Infantry, Company I. He was born at Pine Level, Ala., 
but in his early life the family moved to Montgomery. If he 
had lived until the 20th of February, he would have rounded 
•out his seventy-eighth year. For many years he was con- 
mectfd with the L. & N. Railroad, and for his faithful serv- 
ice he was recently retired on a pension. A devoted wife and 
loving daughter and son survive him. He died December 
13, 1919. 

"Comrade Joseph W. Powell, a member of Company D, 
38th Virginia Infantry, was born in Pittsylvania County, Va., 
on July 7, 1843. He enlisted in the army at the early age of 
seventeen and served gallantly through the war ; was in sev- 
eral battles, and at Gettysburg he was severely wounded. 
After the war he moved to Montgomery, where he married 
He leaves a devoted family and many friends to mourn their 
loss. He died July 29, 1919. 

"Comrade Dozier Thornton was born at Salem, Ala., on 
the 4th of March, 1839. He enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany D, 15th Alabama Infantry, and served through Stone- 
wall Jackson's campaign. He was in the battles of Cold Har- 
bor, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, Wilderness, 
Fussell's Mills, and many minor engagements. He was badly 
wounded at Cold Harbor on June 27, 1862, and was invalided 
until the following September. In 1862 he was promoted to 
third lieutenant, and in 1863 he was advanced to second lieu- 
tenant and in 1864 was made first lieutenant. He was severely 
wounded on the Barbytown Road near Fussell's Mills on the 
16th of August, 1864, from which wound he suffered all his 
life. He lived for many years in Eufaula, Ala., from which 
place he moved to Montgomery, where he died on May 7, 
1919, leaving a devoted wife and children to mourn their loss. 
"Comrade F. F. Davant was born at Gillisonville, S. C, 
on the 18th of February, 1846. When only sixteen years of 
age he joined Company B, 2d South Carolina Cavalry, and 
fought gallantly throughout the war. A few years after the 
surrender he moved to Montgomery, where he resided for 
about forty years. Later on he moved to Memphis, Tenn., 
and died there on May 26, 1919. A loving wife, three sons, 
and two daughters survive him. 

"Comrade Hilary Abner Herbert was born in Lawrence 
District, S. C, on the 12th of March, 1834. He moved to 
Alabama in 1846, first making his home at Greenville, Butler 
County, and as he grew to manhood he entered into the prac- 
tice of law. When the tocsin of war first sounded he es- 
poused the cause of the Confederacy and organized the Green- 
ville Light Guards, of which he was elected captain. For 
valiant services he was promoted until he became colonel of 

the 8th .Alabama Regiment. In the battle of the Wilderness 
he was severely wounded in the left arm. After the war he 
moved to Montgomery and resumed the practice of law, 
growing so in the affection of the people that they elected 
him to represent them in Congress from the Second District 
and continuously reelected him until he was appointed by 
President Cleveland as a member of his Cabinet. After 
leaving the Cabinet he again resumed the practice of law and 
was very successful. A few years before his death he retired 
to private life, spending a part of his latter days in traveling. 
He died at Tampa, Fla., on the 6th of March, 1919. He was 
a man among men, a friend to every one, and loved by all. 

"Comrade A. J. Hawes was born in Lincoln County, Ga., 
on the 16th of August, 1835. When the War between the 
States broke out, he joined Company F, 59th Alabama Regi- 
ment, and fought with it until he was honorably discharged 
at Greenville, Ala. He was in many battles and was so 
severely wounded as to lose the use of one arm. He married 
a sister of the late Bishop Harris, who died several years 
ago, leaving a son, who has since died. Comrade Hawes re- 
sided in Montgomery for many years, but a few years ago he 
moved to Tampa, Fla., where he was taken with his last ill- 
ness. He was sent to Montgomery, where he breathed his 
last, leaving a grandson to perpetuate the name. He died 
September 2, 1919." 

[Committee: H. C. Davidson, Asa Stratton, J. A. Thomp- 

Capt. S. E. Rice. 

After an illness of several months, Capt. Steven E. Rice 
died at his home, in Apalachicola, Fla., on the night of De- 
cember 26, 1919, and was laid to rest in Magnolia Cemetery, 
the members of Camp Tom Moore, U. C. V., acting as the 
escort of honor. 

Captain Rice was born at Huntsville. Ala., July 13, 1838. 
He moved to Texas when a boy, spending his early days in 
that State. In 1857 he entered Bethany College, in Virginia, 
graduating with honors in 1861. After his graduation he re- 
turned to Texas, and when the State seceded he raised a 
company of soldiers and enlisted in the cause of the Con- 
federacy. The company was known as Company H, 6th 
Texas Regiment. He entered the army as a lieutenant and 
soon rose to the rank of captain, in which capacity he served 
throughout the war. He was wounded in the battle of Frank- 
lin while leading a charge on the enemy's trenches. He was 
made prisoner five times during the war and as often man- 
aged to escape and return to his command. The sixth time 
he was exchanged. He participated in the battles of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain, Franklin, Shiloh, Atlanta, 
and many smaller engagements. 

At the conclusion of the war Captain Rice returned to 
Florence, Ala., and married Aliss Emily S. Pickett, daughter 
of Col. R. O. Pickett, and she survives him, with two sons 
and a daughter. , 

Captain Rice moved to Florida in 1877 and had lived in 
Apalachicola since 1882. He served one term as a member 
of the Florida Legislature. He was a man of keen intellect, 
well balanced mentally and physically, and his opinions were 
largely sought, while his genial personality made him a great 
favorite with all who knew him. 

In its memorial resolutions Camp Tom Moore "laments 
the passing of our dearly beloved comrade who during the 
War between the States represented the highest type of the 
citizen-soldier, and a man who in his daily conduct after the 
great struggle represented the very best type of American 

QoQfederat^ Ueterai). 


J. S. Lawrence. 

J. S. Lawrence, who died at Barlow, Ky., November 1, 
1919, was born in Robertson County, Tenn., in 1844. In Jan- 
uary, 1866, he was married to Miss Martha Elizabeth Adams, 
and to them were born seven children. In 1878 he removed 
to Ballard County, Ky., and settled on a farm, where he led 
an active life until compelled by ill health to retire. He had 
been a faithful member of the Baptist Church for fifty years 
and had also been a member of the Masonic fraternity for 
half a century, both of 
which were his ideals. In 
his death the community ^.i 

lost one of its most es- 
teemed citizens. He is 
survived by his aged wife, 
two daughters, and a son. 

Of his war service, the 
following has been con- 
tributed by J. E. Ruftin, 
lieutenant of Company E. 
SOth Tennessee Infantry: 

"Comrade J. S. Law- 
rence enlisted in a com- 
pany recruited in Robert- ^HF ^^~ 
son and Montgomery 
Counties, Tenn., in the 
summer of 1861. Organ- 

ized in August, it was ^ ^ i.awrence. 

sent to Fort Donelson in 

November and became a part of the SOth Tennessee Infantry 
as Company E. We were assigned a position in the rear of 
the batteries and got our first taste of shell fire from the gun- 
boats there. In the surrender some of the company escaped 
up the river and got home safe, and among them, I think, 
was Lawrence, who rejoined the company, with others, soon 
after we were exchanged at Vicksburg. 

"The history of the regiment is the record of Lawrence's 
service in the army, for he never missed a roll call, never 
shirked a duty, and was always at the right place at the right 

"After the reorganization at Vicksburg, our first service was 
to oppose the enemy marching south from Corinth, Miss. ; 
we then encamped at Canton in December and spent Christ- 
mas week at Vicksburg fighting Sherman's army in the river 
bottom above the town. At Port Hudson we had our second 
experience of shell fire from the Federal fleet attempting to 
pass up the river. About the 1st of May we were ordered to 
Jackson, went out to Raymond and fought Sherman's Corps 
all afternoon with one small brigade, fell back to Jackson, 
retreated north, and encamped at New Hope Church. When 
Vicksburg was surrendered we retreated to Jackson and de- 
fended that city for a week ; left Jackson one night and 
camped near Enterprise until we were ordered to Chicka- 
mauga. On the way from Atlanta our train was run into 
and a third of the regiment killed or wounded. The rest 
of the regiment went through the battle of Chickamauga, in 
which our lieutenant colonel, major, and several men were 
killed. We camped near Lookout Mountain until November 
24. when we took our place on the right of Bragg's line on 
Missionary Ridge; the next afternoon we held back Sher- 
man's New Englanders till after dark. In this fighting we 
lost our colonel and several other officers and men. The 
little remnant of our regiment took part in the many battles 
from Dalton to and around Atlanta. 

"Comrade Lawrence was severely wounded at New Hope 
Church, but he later followed Hood into Tennessee and 
through the battles of Franklin and Nashville. He was 
captured on the retreat. 

"When Company E, of the SOth Tennessee, stacked arms 
for the last time in North Carolina, there were just three 
guns in the stack. Of one hundred and ten men who left 
Clarksville for Fort Donelson in November, 1861, three were 
left to see the end, John L. W. Power, John Willoughby, and 
Billy Boisseau." 

John J. Terry. 

Died at his home, in Hanover County, Va., on August 10, 
1919, Comrade John J. Terrj', aged seventy-four years. He 
was a brave Confederate soldier, a member of Company G, 
4th Virginia Cavalry, Wickham's Brigade. He was wounded 
at Kelly's Ford on March 17, 1863, and after having recovered 
from his wound he returned to his company and fought 
bravely till the war closed. 

Comrade Terry was a member of the Mount Olivet Baptist 
Church, in which he was a recognized leader. He had been 
twice married and is survived by his second wife, three 
daughters (Mrs. Eddie Taylor, of Beaver Dam, Va., and Mrs. 
Herndon Garthright and Miss Carrie Terry, of Ashland, Va.), 
and several grandchildren. 

After funeral services from his late residence his body was 
laid to rest in the family burying ground. 

[W. F. Blunt, Ashland, Va.] 

Capt. T. J. Elmore. 

Capt. T. J. Elmore, of Mayfield, Ky., died on October 11, 
1919. He raised Company G, 14th Mississippi Infantry, Bald- 
win's Brigade, Stewart's Corps. Three times he was made 
prisoner of war, but continued in the service until the sur- 
render of General Lee- He served his district in both houses 
__^ of the Kentucky Legis- 

^ Captain Elmore was an 

honorary member of the 
\ Mayfield Chapter, U. D. 

\ C, whose tribute in reso- 
^ '' lutions states : 

"In the death of Capt 
T. J. Elmore we, as the 
U. D. C. of the Mayfield 
Chapter, have sustained a 
loss which words cannot 
measure nor express our 
appreciation of the valua- 
ble service rendered and 
advice given since nur 
first organization ; be it 

"Resolved, That we 
mourn his death and 
cherish his memory in our 
Chapter and hold up to our young men his life of vigor, 
power, and integrity, and the splendid gallantry of his early 
manhood when he charged in the ranks of our invincible 
Confederate army as worthy of consideration. 

"That we send loving sympathy to the three daughters and 
one son. 

"That this memorial be recorded in our minutes and pub- 
lished in our city papers and the Confederate Veteran." 




^opfederat^ l/eterap. 

James Albert Cockerill. 

James Albert Cockerill was born at North Fork, Loudoun 
County, Va.. July 28. 1840, and died there on January 22. 
1920. With the exception of service in the Confederate army, 
he lived all of his long and useful life near North Fork or 
in its vicinity. He was the son of John and Keziah Cockerill, 
and when about nineteen he became a member of the North 
Fork company of the lJ2d Virginia Militia. He was attached 
to the militia until the autumn of 1861, when he enlisted at 
Leesburg, Loudoun County, Va., as a courier in the Confed- 
erate army. He was attached to the command of Gen. D. 
H. Hill and served with it until 1863. While a courier he 
carried the dispatch which opened the Seven Days' Battles 
around Richmond. Va. He saw much of the fighting against 
McClellan, Burnside, and Hooker. 

In 1863, when Gen. D. H. Hill was ordered South, Com- 
rade Cockerill was transferred to Rodes's Division, where 
he served as a courier and operator in the Signal Corps until 
the end of the war. He was nominally transferred to Com- 
pany A, 35th Virgmia Battalion of Cavalry. This company 
was a part of Lije White's command and was from Lou- 
doun County, Va., and its commander was Capt. F. M. 
Myers, from Waterford, Loudoun County, Va. White's 
command was mostly from along the Potomac River in 
Northern Virginia and Maryland. While a member of 
Rodes's Division he was present at the battles of Gettysburg, 
the Wilderness, and in the Shenandoah Valley campaigns. 

When the war was over Comrade Cockerill, like most of 
the other Confederates, went back home and to work. In 
1870 he married Miss Adelia Simpson, of North Fork, Va. 
Her brother, Benjamin Simpson, was a member of Mosby's 
Rangers, C. S. A. He is survived by four children, Emily, 
Cecil, Samuel, and John. He was an ardent Southerner until 
the end and was fond of relating his experiences in the Con- 
federate army. His body, draped with the Confederate fla,^:, 
was interred at North Fork Cemetery on January 25, 1920. 
Services were held at the Baptist church, of which he had 
been a member for about fifty years. 

Gen. Robert Daniel Johnston. 

The Veteran regrets not to have had a prompt report of 
the death of Gen. Robert Daniel Johnston, one of the briga- 
diers of the Confederate army, which occurred at his home, 
in Winchester, Va., on February 1, 1919, at the age of eighty- 
two years. 

For many years General Johnston was a resident of Bir- 
mingham, Ala., where he located in 1887 and became Presi- 
dent of the Birmingham National Bank. He also engaged in 
the practice of law and promoted a number of investments 
and a large amount of mineral property. For a long while 
he was register in the United States Land Office in Birming- 

General Johnston was born at Mount Welcome, in Lincoln 
County, N. C, on March 19, 1839, the son of Dr. William 
Johnston. He graduated from the University of North Caro- 
lina and finished in law at the University of Virginia. At 
the outbreak of the War between the States he entered the 
Confederate army as a private ; but his promotion was rapid, 
and at the close he was a brigadier general. He was noted 
for his daring and gallantry and was wounded several times. 

In 1871 General Johnston was married to Miss Lizzie 
Johnston Evans, of Greensboro, N. C, who survives him, 
with four sons and four daughters. Two of the sons are 
oSicers in the United States army. 

Madison Monroe Hassey. 

Madison M. Hassey, known to his comrades and friends 
as "Mat" Hassey, was born August 28, 1842, and died at his 
residence, in Montgomery, Ala., December 23, 1919, aged 
seventy-seven years. When the war began in 1861 he was 
"in the very May morn of youth, ripe for exploits and dan- 
gerous enterprises" ; and when Governor Moore, of Alabama, 
at the request of the Florida Governor, called for troops to 
aid in seizing the forts and navy yard at Pensacola, Fla., he 
was among the first to volunteer. After completing this en- 
listment and before he left Pensacola, he reenlisted in Felix 
Robertson's Alabama field battery, known also as Dent's 
Battery, as Capt. S. H. Dent succeeded to its command when 
Robertson was promoted. Comrade Hassey has to his credit 
participation in the campaigns and engagements at Shiloh, 
Tenn., April 7, 1862; Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862; Per- 
ryville, Ky., October 8, 1862 ; Murf reesboro, Tenn., December 
31, 1862, to January 3, 1863; Dalton to Atlanta, Ga., and at- 
tending battles ; Hood's fearful Nashville campaign and at- 
tending battles and suffering, 1864, ending with the Mobile 
campaign in the spring of 1865. Through all the hard cam- 
paigns and bloody battles "Mat" Hassey was a faithful Con- 
federate soldier. When the end came he returned to a deso- 
lated home country and devoted his loyal efforts to rebuild- 
ing its waste places and ridding it of the carpetbaggers who 
swooped down on it and exerted themselves to suck out the 
little vitality left. He was a forbearing husband and kind 
father, a zealous Church worker, and loyal to his Confed- 
erate comrades. May he rest in peace ! 

[John Purifoy.] 

James A. Stevenson. 

James A. ("Man") Stevenson died at his home, near Jack- 
sonville, Ala., on January 7, 1920, at the age of eighty-two. 
"Man" Stevenson moved to this place with his father's family 
in 1853. He was born in Union County, S. C. In 1861 he 
joined Capt. Peter Forney's company and went to Fort Mor- 
gan, Ala. After his term of service expired he returned 
home for a brief stay. Becoming impatient, he went to 
Rome, Ga., and joined the Rome Light Guards, 8th Georgia 
Infantry, Bartow's Brigade. 

He was severely wounded in the battle of First Manassas, 
July 21, 1861, and was carried from the battle field to the 
home of Congressman Barbour at Gordonsville, Va. The 
good nursing and kind treatment received at the hands of 
this patriotic family doubtless saved his life. Lingering for 
months, he afterwards joined his command and was wounded 
again at Sharpsburg. His health failing, he was transferred 
to the quartermaster's department, in which he served until 
the end of the war. 

While at home unfit for service Comrade Stevenson heard 
that Colonel Streight was marching up Coosa River to attack 
Rome, Ga., and to destroy the foundry and public works 
there. He immediately raised a company of boys and old 
men, equipped with old shotguns and squirrel rifles and 
mounted on mules and broken-down horses, to march to 
Rome to help defend that city; but in the meantime General 
Forrest had captured that Federal officer. 

"Man" Stevenson was a brave and courageous soldier. 
After the war he settled on his farm and there remained 
until his death. He was considered a good and honest man, 
esteemed by his neighbors, and a member of the Presbyterian 

[H. L. Stevenson, a comrade.] 

^opfederat^ l/eterai). 


T. J. Goodwin. 

T. J. Goodwin, a member of Stonewall Camp, No. 1048, 
U. C. v., of Aspermont, Tex., died there on January 7. He 
was born in Coosa County, Ala., April 24, 1844. His father 
died about 1845, leaving his mother with two small children 
to provide for. They were on a farm until 1858, when the 
mother died, and the children were taken into the family of 
an uncle. In May, 1861, he volunteered for the Confederate 
service, and his command. Company B, 8th Alabama Regi- 
ment, Wilcox's Brigade, was sent directly to Richmond, Va., 
where they were mustered into the Confederate army for 
three years, or the duration of the war. Comrade Goodwin 
was just seventeen years old and small for his age. but he 
could shoot. His command helped to fortify Yorktown and 
guarded that part of our holdings in 1862. After that he 
took part in many battles, some of which were : Seven Pines, 
Chancellorsville, Gaines's Mill (where he was wounded and 
was out of the service until the winter of i86.^'), at the Wilder- 
ness and the hard-fought battle of Spotsylvania, and the siege 
of Petersburg, where his command was under fire for about 
twelve months. In February, 1865, he was captured and sent 
to Point Lookout, and he was in prison at the time of the 
surrender. He got back home with nothing but will to carry 
him through those years of reconstruction. No less faith- 
ful to the duties of citizenship than those of a soldier, he 
leaves to those who come after him an example worthy of 

[G. H. Porter, Adjutant of Stonewall Camp.] 

Thaddeus Norris Fletcher. 

Thaddeus Norris Fletcher, son of Alexander and Louise 
McAllister Fletcher, was born at Waverly, near Warrcnton, 
Va., and "fell on sleep" at his home, in Warrenton, after a 
brief illness, January 16, 1920. 

When the war clouds gathered in 1861, he gave himself to 
his State, joining an Orange company with the 13th Virginia 
Regiment and following the fortunes of the Confederacy 
throughout the four years of bloody struggle. He was in the 
carnage of First Manassas, and on other hard-fought fields 
he did a man's part. Once he was wounded. 

Upon the close of the war he located at Warrenton and 
for some years was the efficient clerk of the county court, 
but he was best known as a member of the mercantile firm 
of Fletcher Bros. 

In 1868 Mr. Fletcher united with the Baptist Church of 
Warrenton, and for thirty-eight years he was the painstaking 
and accurate clerk of his Church and also served for many 
years as a most faithful deacon. 

On February 6, 1873, he was married to Miss Georgia Owen 
Latham, daughter of Rev. George Latham, a chaplain in the 
United States navy. 

Mr. Fletcher was a strikingly handsome man. of distin- 
guished appearance, and he had a genial, cheery smile that 
won for him the love and trust of his fellows. He was al- 
ways a courtly gentleman, and his life overflowed in generous 
deeds and kindly thoughts. 

As a Christian none surpassed him in his love and loyalty 
to his Church ; as a business man he held high positions of 
success ; but it was in his home that his fine qualities as man 
and Christian were seen at their best. 

His wife died twenty-five years ago, leaving him with six 
young children. With a wisdom and firmness paternal and 
with a gentleness and tenderness maternal he instilled into 
them the highest ideals of honorable manhood and refined 
and cultured womanhood. Between him and his children 

there was mutual confidence and dependence. Love ruled the 
home. He is survived by the two sons and four daughters. 
[C. T. H.] 

Comrades at Savannah, Ga. 

Report comes from D. B. Morgan, Secretary of the Con- 
federate Veterans' Association of Savannah, Ga., as follows : 

"Again it becomes my duty to send you for record in the 
Last Roll the names of two comrades, members of my Camp, 
who passed over to the other side early Saturday morning, 
January 31, at about the same hour. At this rate all of us 
will soon join our comrades on the other side. 

"Albert S. Bacon, a native of Liberty County, Ga., born 
in the village of Walthourville in 1844, came to this city at 
the age of twelve years and had resided here continuously 
until his death. He made a gallant soldier as a member of 
that historic company, the Oglethorpe Light Infantry, the com- 
pany of which Gen. Francis S. Bartow was captain. Comrade 
Bacon was severely wounded in the face at Gettysburg and 
suflfercd from the effects of that wound as long as he lived. 
After the war he returned to this citj-. where he reared a 
large family, consisting of one daughter and seven sons, all 
of them honorable and useful citizens. They all survive him, 
as does his wife. Our comrade had been for a number of 
years one of our leading, successful business men, and at the 
time of his death, though seventy-six years, he was the active 
head of the firm of A. S. Bacon & Sons. When the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy here, known at the time as the Me- 
morial Association, erected the Confederate monument in 
this city, one of our philanthropic citizens, Wimberly Jones 
DeRenne, asked permission of the ladies to substitute for a 
marble figure they had on its top the bronze statue of a Con- 
federate soldier, to which they agreed, and selected as a 
model our deceased comrade ; and no better choice could have 
been made, for no more loyal Confederate lived and none who 
would have more willingly sacrificed his all for his country, 
and his commanding figure was a most suitable model. 

"Thaddeus K. Oglesby was born May 23, 1848, in Missouri, 
but had lived in Georgia since boyhood. His youth was spent 
largely at Fort Gaines, where his father had charge of the 
public schools. He was a remarkable man, a thorough scholar 
and historian. So great a reader was he that he almost lived 
the life of a recluse with his books as companions : he did not 
seek society, but had a number of very close friends. He was 
a loyal defender of the Confederate cause and a strong cham- 
pion of Jefferson Davis. It was a sacred task on his part 
to hunt out and correct false statements so lavishly bestowed 
upon the South by Northern writers. He was the author 
of a book, 'The Truths of History,' which had run through 
several editions, and he was on the point of completing a re- 
vised edition of this work when his last illness seized him. 

"Comrade Oglesby enlisted in the Confederate army when 
quite a lad. joining Company A, Cobb's Guard, Georgia In- 
fantry, August 9, 1864. He was veo' careful and methodical 
in his habits, which may have been acquired from the late 
Alexander H. Stephens, Vice President of the Confederate 
States, whose secretary he was in Washington for many years. 
Judge Stephens, a nephew of Alexander Stephens, attended 
his funeral as an honorary pallbearer, coming from .Atlanta 
to show his respect for his deceased friend. Comrade Oglesby 
never married. He is survived by two sisters, Mrs. J. B. 
Coyle, of Moultrie, Ga., who was with him at the time of his 
death, and Miss Julie Oglesby, of Columbia. S. C. A strong 
friend and defender of our beloved Southland has finished 
his work and passed over to join the hosts of Lee, Johnston, 
and others in the beautiful beyond." 


QoQfedcrat^ l/efcerai>. 

XDlniteb 2)augbters of tbe Confeberac^ 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General 

Paducah, Ky. 

Mrs. Alice Baxter, Atlanta, Ga Firsl Vice Prtsident General 

Mrs. George Cunningham, Little Rock, Ark. .Second Vice President General 

Mrs. R. p. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne. Charleston, W. Va Cor. Secretary General 

Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. a. a. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Pennants 

[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: One of the 
very important tasks before our organization can be brought 
to a successful close before the summer comes if all Chapters 
will cooperate with the Registrar General in her effort to 
carry out the demands of the by-laws on registration. A 
letter from the Registrar General has recently been sent to 
all Division Registrars for distribution among the Chapters. 
So much depends upon immediate action on the part of our 
Chapter Registrars that I am reproducing the letter for 'the 
especial benefit of the ones who may have failed to receive 
the letter intended for them: 

"Dear Registrar: The new registration laws of the U. D. 
C. should be of untold interest to each of us, from the Regis- 
trar of the smallest, newest Chapter to the Division Regis- 
trars and to your Registrar General. It is, therefore, the 
desire of your Registrar General to call your attention to the 
various objects we desire to cover and to ask that each and 
every one of us form a compact chain with not one weak 
link in order to work together and thus accomplish great 

"Hereafter, dear Chapter Registrars, I would impress the 
sending of three application blanks perfectly filled out, with 
all the required signatures, to your Division Registrar. Re- 
read and see that each is correct ; do not fail to send the 
twenty-five cents for each member's certificate with the 
blanks. You will note this increase in cost of certificates. 

"Also I would say to Chapter Registrars that you, and not 
other oflScers of the Chapter, should order all certificates for 
old members, and the new laws now make it obligatory for 
all Chapters to pay for said certificates both old and new. 
In ordering these certificates for old members be sure to 
copy each one's record on a separate application blank and 
forward with order, for I must have same to fill out records 
on certificates, as no blank ones are allowed sent out. Never 
send stamps ; I cannot take them. Use check or money or- 
der for the smallest amount. 

"The organization is very anxious to obtain as nearly per- 
fect a registration of its members as possible. We all realize 
that many dear women, dead and gone, were never registered. 
Now the question is, how to get at these and to record who 
are not registered. This will be our greatest trouble. To 
try to reach a solution I ask each Chapter Registrar to make 
a copy of every name ever enrolled in her Chapter and for- 
ward to your Division Registrar. I ask the Division Regis- 
trar to copy the roster of every dead or suspended Chapter 
and send all of these to me together. Then I will compare 
each roster with those registered by all the Registrar Gen- 
erals and check off registered names, notifying you of those 
not registered and teUing you what must be done. This will 
take work and time, and Divisions or Chapters not in Di- 
visions will be checked in order received. 

"Now, this is the only way we can secure a correct, full 
registration. Also at the convention of 1921 the vote of a 
Chapter will be large, based on registration as well as taxes 
paid. By October 8 each Chapter Registrar must forward 
to the Division Registrar the number, not names, of those 
received into the Chapter by demits, those demitted from the 
Chapter and lost by death, suspension, or resignation. The 
Division Registrars must send me this same report arranged 
alphabetically according to Chapters by October 15, so I may 
be able to arrange my report for the Credential Committee. 
I shall register every new member up to my departure for 
the convention and give due credit on my voting books. 
Hence Division Registrars may send in applications to the 
first week in November. As our work progresses I will keep 
in touch with Division Registrars, but this can be my only 
direct appeal to Chapters. Keep .this letter, refer to it con- 
stantly, and pass it on to your successor in office. Above all, 
do your part in this noble work to save the records of our 
hero ancestors and the Daughters who represented them. 

"With best wishes that our highest aims may be attained, 
sincerely, Fannie Ransom Williams, 

Registrar General U. D. C." 

"Above all, do your part in this noble work to save the 
records of our hero ancestors and the Daughters who rep- 
resent them" is the keynote of this appeal. Without the 
hearty cooperation of all Chapters the stupendous under- 
taking will not, cannot be done, and when the convention 
of 1921 comes many Chapters will be barred because the 
by-law governing registration has not received the attention 
necessary to grant the Chapter representation. Let "one- 
hundred-per-cent registration" be your Chapter slogan during 
March and April, a slogan backed by the work that it takes 
to bring results. 

Cordially, May M. Paris McKinney. 


Sail fast, sail fast, 
Ark of my hopes, ark of my dreams ; 
Sweep lordly o'er the drowned Past, 
Fly glittering through the sun's strange beams ! 
Sail fast, sail fast. 
Breaths of new buds from off some drying lea 
With news about the future scent the sea. 
My brain is beating like the heart of Haste, 
I'll loose me a bird upon this present waste; 
Go, trembling song. 
And stay not long; O, stay not long; 
Thou'rt only a gray and sober dove, 
But thine eye is faith, and thy wing is love. 

— Sidney Lanier. 
Baltimore^ 1878. 

C^OQ|-ederat^ l/eterap. 



Washington. — No more artistic and patriotic tribute was 
ever paid to the great Southern general, Robert E. Lee, than 
by the gathering of over one hundred and twenty-five South- 
ern men and women who assembled at the Washington Hotel 
in Seattle for dinner. The tables had covers placed for six 
guests each and were gay with the colors of the Confed- 
eracy. A male quartet opened the evening with Southern 
melodies. Mr. Joseph Greenwell, who was toastmaster, paid 
a glowing tribute to the great and fearless leader of the 
gray as well as to the men of the South who fought in this 
last World War side by side with their Northern brothers. 
In closing he made an appeal to the Southern colony in Seat- 
tle to organize more strongly, to have more frequent gather- 
ings, urging that this celebration of the one hundred and 
twelfth anniversary of Robert E. Lee be made an annual 

Mrs. Fielding Aaston contributed two delightful violin 
numbers and was in the closing strains of the second when 
the approach of Gen. John J. Pershing was announced. It 
was the signal for every one to rise. The veterans who were 
present were arranged in front line facing the entrance, 
standing at attention, and as soon as the noted soldier real- 
ized the silent honor he returned the salute with deep rever- 
ence. In the brief time allotted him he happily acknowledged 
the implied compliment of the assemblage, ending by saying: 
"There are no greater patriots to-day than the men who wore 
the gray from 1861 to 1865 and their daughters." Volun- 
tarily he started to pass from one guest to another to shake 
hands, witticisms and a flow of anecdotes his accompaniment 
as he made the rounds. With a profound farewell in the 
wave of his cap, he withdrew as the quartet sang "How Can 
I Bear to Leave Thee?" 

Mrs. C. F. Barth, who had been appointed to confer upon 
two veterans the Southern cross of honor, made the presen- 
tation to Capt. W. G. McCroskey and Hamilton Dalton. In 
the absence of the latter Dr. W. R. Inge Dalton accepted for 
his brother. 

Mme. Grace Tower sang three interesting songs of martial 
strain. The speaker of the evening was Lieut. Col. Walter 
B. Beals, who served overseas for fifteen months as judge 
advocate with the 81st Division, which, he explained, was 
eighty-five per cent Southern and showed a greater per cent 
among the officers of the division. In reviewing and analyz- 
ing the technicalities of fighting in this last war Colonel Beals 
found many opportunities to applaud the bravery of the boys 
of the South, saying that on the battle field, in the common 
cause, the blue and the gray blended into olive drab. He 
closed by urging every American to realize that to General 
Pershing, with whom he served overseas, every honor for 
winning the fight should go for his insistence that the Ameri- 
cans should fight as an army, which the great Robert E. 
Lee had proved during his brilliant leadership, when the 
methods of warfare were vastly different. 

South Carolina. — A large audience, which included the 
various patriotic organizations of the city, shared the enjoy- 
ment of the exercises held annually by the Charleston Chap- 
ter, U. D. C, in celebration of the anniversary of the birth- 
day of the South's beloved leader. Gen. Robert E. Lee. The 
Hibernian Hall had been artistically decorated, a large por- 
trait of General Lee occupying a conspicuous place. Several 
general officers of the U. D. C. occupied seats on the plat- 
form with the officers of the local Chapter. 

Members of the Charleston Chapter, the visiting officers, 
and the United Confederate Veterans formed in line in the 

lower hall and, to music furnished by the Citadel band, 
marched upstairs to their places in the hall. 

Among those on the rostrum were: Miss Martha B. Wash- 
ington, Mrs. M. G. Eason, Mrs. J. P. Legare, and Mrs. J. S. 
Rhame, officers of the local Chapter; Mrs. Augustine T. 
Sm>the and Miss Mary B. Poppenheim, Charleston's two 
former Presidents General U. D. C; Mrs. C. N. W. Mer- 
chant, of Chatham, Va., and Mrs. R. D. Wright, of New- 
berry, former and present Recording Secretaries General; 
Mrs. Charles R. Hyde, former Historian General ; Mrs. James 
Conner, former President of the Charleston Chapter; Miss 
Mary Lightsey, of the Confederate College Chapter; Miss 
Sarah Smyth; the Rev. Oliver J. Hart, speaker of the eve- 
ning; Rev. W. H. Harden; Gen. C. Irvine Walker, honorary 
head of the U. C. V., and other officers of that organization. 

In his address Rev. Oliver J. Hart told of the work done 
by the United States army overseas. He addressed himself 
chiefly to the Confederate veterans seated in the front rows, 
telling of the difference in methods of fighting and of the 
long waiting by the men overseas before they were sufficiently 
trained to take part in the conflict. He told of the taking 
of Chantigny Hill, of the hard fighting there which won for 
the American army the confidence of the Allies and which 
shook the confidence of the Germans. He told of the work 
of the famous 1st Division, relating the circumstances that 
left Lieut. Col. Barnwell Rhett Legare, of Charleston, in com- 
mand of the 26th Infantry at the turning point of the fight 
and of his brilliant record as an officer. The story was 
told modestly and impersonally, but graphically. 

Miss Martha B. Washington, President of the local Chap- 
ter, introduced the visiting officers, whose brief addresses 
brought out many interesting facts in connection with the 
Charleston Chapter, which is No. 4 of all the Chapters of 
the general organization. Most notable of these is that the 
Chapter has supplied two Presidents General of the organiza- 
tion, and both have made remarkable records of service. 

Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe organized the local Chapter and 
the State Division of the U. D. C, and to her the national 
organization also owes much for her work on the constitu- 
tion. It was during her period in office that the organiza- 
tion was established upon a firm foundation. Mrs. Sms^he 
told the veterans that whatever she had been able to accom- 
plish during her term of office was because of the advice 
and assistance of her husband, a Confederate veteran. 

That Miss Mary B. Poppenheim, of Charleston, should 
also have held office during another trying period of the his- 
tory of the organization was most fortunate, and high tribute 
was paid to her remarkably sound judgment which carried 
the society through the period of the war more firmly es- 
tablished than ever. 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, the new Recording Secretary General, 
has a splendid record of work in the State Division, while 
Mrs. Hyde and Mrs. Merchant, who are retiring, leave a 
fine record of service in their offices. 

Miss Mary B. Poppenheim, retiring President General U. 
D. C, had as her guests in January Mrs. W. N. C. Merr 
chant, retiring Recording Secretary General, and Mrs. R. D. 
Wright, of Newberry, the new Recording Secretary General. 
Mrs. Merchant was at one time President of the Virginia 
Division, U. D. C, and Mrs. Wright was President of the 
South Carolina Division. On the afternoon of January 19 
Miss Poppenheim gave a tea at her home for these guests, 
who charmed all who met them. 

Missouri. — Two hundred members of the United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy attended the breakfast in commemo- 


C^opfederat^ l/eterap. 

ration of the birthdays of Gen. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall 
Jackson at the Hotel Muehlebach, Kansas City, Tuesday, 
January 20. Mrs. W. N. Collins was toastmistress. An 
address was made by Dr. Burris A. Jenkins, and toasts were 
responded to by the following : "The Men Who Wore the 
Gray," Mrs. Louis R. Malott; "Stonewall Jackson," Miss 
Lou Jackson McCormick; "Robert E. Lee," Mrs. May C. 
Robertson ; "Dixie," Mrs. B. Leibstadter ; "Gen. John J. 
Pershing," Mrs. W. L. Webb; "Beaux and Belles of the Six- 
ties," Miss Virginia Wilkenson ; "Jefferson Davis," Maj. Gen. 
W. C. Bronaugh ; "Confederate Veterans," Mr. W. S. Har- 
relson. Miss Ethel Lee Buxton, a relative of General Lee, 
was the soloist. 

Mrs. Julia Woodruff Kern, a member of the George Ed- 
ward Pickett Chapter, U. D. C, Kansas City, died January 
21. Mrs. Kerns's father built the first home in Houston, 
Tex., and her sister was the wife of Ansen Jones, the last 
President of the Republic of Texas. Mrs. Kern is survived 
by four daughters : Mrs. W. D. Johnson, Kansas City, Mo. ; 
Mrs. R. C. Tipe, Houston, Tex. ; Mrs. Thomas Hoghland, 
Perryton, Tex.; and Mrs. J. A. Gillett, El Paso, Tex. Mrs. 
Kern was seventy-eight years old. Burial was at Houston. 

North Carolina. — At a recent meeting of the Zebulon 
Baird Vance Chapter, of Lenoir, N. C, the birthdays of 
Gens. R. E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were celebrated. 
Just twenty years ago this Chapter celebrated these anniver- 
saries for the first time, and the minutes of the first ob- 
servance were read at this meeting. An address was made 
by the beloved and honored Rev. E. N. Jojmer, who closed 
with a poem dedicated to the Chapter. This poem is given 
on page 116 of this number. 

Georgia.- — One of the most important and foremost organ- 
izations of the day of noble, courageous women workers is 
the Atlanta Chapter, U. D. C. Mrs. Walter Scott Coleman 
is the efficient President of this Chapter and is considered 
one of the most capable women who have filled the posi- 
tion. A great number of important and notable things have 
been accomplished during her administration. For the first 
time the historic places of interest in and around Atlanta 
are being marked with suitable bronze tablets. Already two 
have been unveiled by the Daughters alone and one jointly 
with the "Old Guards of Atlanta." Arrangements are being 
perfected for the unveiling of two more in the very near 
future, one on the grounds of the State Capitol and another 
on a famous site in Marietta Street. 

This work was discussed and hoped for, but nothing 
definite had ever been accomplished until Mrs. Coleman's 
election to office. In this connection Mrs. E. G. Warner 
proved to be a most valuable chairman. 

The Daughters of the Confederacy stand for the interest 
of the living Confederate soldiers as well as those who made 
the supreme sacrifice. The effort in behalf of the Confed- 
erate veterans and the needy women of the Confederacy is 
one of the most beautiful of all modern undertakings. Mrs. 
Coleman has ever been an inspiration of love and duty to 
her members in this work. Her loyalty to the heroic past, 
her devotion to the living, and her steadfast determination 
to uphold the traditions and sentiment of the Old South 
have inspired all her workers with the undying, unconquered 
spirit of the sixties. Success has crowned every effort of 
this leader and her noble band of women, who have reached 
out a helping hand to almost every undertaking concerned 
with the welfare of the city at large, and the wonder of it 
all through every success is that it has remained distinctly 
Confederate. One is impressed with the Confederate spirit 
that permeates each gathering of this organization. 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy when Re- 
ceiving Their Greetings on My Eightieth Birthday: 

Standing on the shores of Time 

In a bright and sunny clime, 

Pausing to count the years — -fourscore — 

Within my heart a great store 

Of love for those who have crowned 

My days with loving thought and bound 

The ties of friendship day by day. 

To gladden me on my way. 

At this milestone my "Daughters" send 

Greetings, with kindred and friend. 

And show that all are on guard 

To make life's journey less hard. 

While loved ones gone before 

Are waiting on the other shore. 

My soul is touched with thankfulness 

For this blessed watchfulness. 

Cornelia Branch Stone. 

f ifitnrtral itpartmrnt, 1. i. (H. 

Motto : "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Key word : "Preparedness." Flower : The rose. 


My Dear Daughters of the Confederacy: Through the 
courtesy of the Veteran I have been able to give the C. of 
C. articles on "The Captives of Abb's Valley" and "Davy 
Crockett." I have written for you a brief sketch of Monti- 
cello, because it might be difficult for some of you to get infor- 
mation on this subject. Do you realize what it means to our 
organization to have this opportunity to get our historical 
material in print? Do you know that there is no other pub- 
lication through which your officers can communicate with 
you regularly? I trust that it will be your pleasure to show 
your appreciation of what the Veteran is doing by giving it 
the loyal support which will enable it to continue its useful- 
ness to Southern organizations. 

Faithfully yours, Susie S. Campbell. 

Famous Homes of the South — Monticello. 

The home of Jefferson, the many-sided man of his era. 
Study his life, note the opposite theories of government of 
which Hamilton and Jefferson were the chief exponents, 
compare the size of the United States at the close of the 
Revolution with its enlargement by the Louisiana Purchase, 
and have an open discussion of the different benefits derived 
from this purchase. Read the epitaph which Jefferson pre- 
pared for his monument and tell of his closing years. 

Bibliography: Randall's "Life of Jefferson"; "Domestic 
Life of Thomas Jefferson," Sarah Randolph. 


Brave Sam Davis, of Tennessee. 

Read the poem "Sam Davis," by John Trotwood Moore. 
Bibliography: "Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy," Neale. 
"Songs and Stories from Tennessee," John Trotwood Moore. 

^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 


Confeberateb Soutbern /Iftemorial Hssociation 

Mrs. a. McD. Wilson President 

43ft Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. John E. Maxwell Treasurer 

Seale, Ala. 

Miss Daisy M. L.. Hodgson Recording Secretary 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary A. Hall Historian 

1137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga, 
Mrs. J. Enders Rohinson.. Corresponding Secretary 
113 Third Street South, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Alahama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Cirside Welch 

Florida— Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning 

Kenticky— Bowling Green Miss Jeannie Blackliurn 

Louisiana— New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi— Vicksliurg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina — Raleigh Mrs. Robert I T.J ones 

South Carolina — Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee — Memphis ...Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 


To Memorial IVotiicit: A great deal of interest centers 
around the forthcoming book, "Representative Woinen of the 
South," by Mrs. Bryan W. Collier, who was made Official 
Biographer of the C. S. M. A. at the Atlanta Convention. 
The list of more than one hundred women who have been 
asked to contribute biographies to this first volume of Mrs. 
Collier's makes a most interesting study and will bring to 
light much unwritten history which has up to the present 
tiine lain dormant, besides showing to the world just a small 
part of the wonderful work accomplished by the women of 
the South in the upbuilding and reconstruction that neces- 
sarily followed the War between the States. To those of you 
who have been a part in this history-making epoch and who 
have had a part in the making of this unwritten history the 
plea cannot be too strongly stressed that you fail not in giv- 
ing to Mrs. C»Mier saah data. The first volume, which is 
to be followed by a second one later, is ncaring completion 
and is expected to be put into the hands of the printer March 
1, so send at once the desired sketch and photograph to Mrs. 
Bryan Collier, College Park, Ark., and thus aid in giving to 
the young of the coming generations, to whom this first vol- 
ume is to be dedicated, the truth and only the truth regard- 
ing the period of conflict in the South. 

Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, President General. 



The call for Confederate mothers has met with great suc- 
cess in the past month, since the State Presidents have been 
giving the matter their attention. Thirteen Confederate 
mothers have been located and their names sent to Mrs. A. 
McD. Wilson, President General of the C. S. M. A. In ad- 
dition to those mentioned in the February notes, the follow- 
ing have been put on record : Mrs. Sarah Fowler, Dallas. 
Tex., ninety-six years of age ; Mrs. Elizabeth Suminers, 
Newnan, Ga., ninety-eight years old ; Mrs. Mary E. Brown, 
New Orleans. La., ninety-seven years old ; Mrs. Rebecca 
Howard, Lowndesboro, .Ma., one hundred and one years old ; 
Mrs. Ricketts, of Huntington. W. Va. ; Mrs. Evelena Willis 
Dasher, of Sylvania, Ga. ; and Mrs. Adeline Meacham, of 
Burlington, N. C, aged ninety-two years. 

Two of the Confederate mothers have died since they were 
enrolled, but not before they were presented with the beauti- 
ful gold bar which Mrs. Wilson, the President General, has 
bestowed upon them as a personal gift. Those who have 
passed into the great beyond are Mrs. Sarah A. Hemphill, 
of Athens. Ga., who died shortly after having been presented 
with her pin, the presentation having been attended with a 

beautiful program at Lucy Cobb Listitute. and Mrs. Mercede 
G. Brent, of Pensacola, Fla., who received her recognition pin 
on the 7th of November. 

Mrs. Frank D. Tracy, who is Chairman of the Confederate 
Mothers' Committee, has made a splendid showing in locating 
so many women whose Confederate veteran sons are still 
living, for it is only to the Confederate mothers who have 
living Confederate veteran sons that the pins are given. 

In presenting the pin to Mrs. Sarah A. Hemphill. Miss 
Mildred Rutherford, the former Historian General of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy and the President of 
the Laura Rutherford Chapter, U. D. C, and of the Me- 
morial .'\ssociation at .Athens, has written the following in- 
teresting account of the presentation: 

"I want to tell you what a beautiful afternoon we had? 
Monday, January 12, when the gold bar, appropriately in- 
scribed, was presented to Mrs. Sarah A. Hemphill, Confed- 
erate mother, one hundred and two years old. 

'The Laura Rutherford Chapter was to have held its 
monthly meeting at four o'clock; but after receiving your let- 
ter requesting a public ceremony for the presentation of the 
pin to Mrs. Hemphill, I felt there was no more fitting op- 
portunity that could be seized, for with us the Memorial As-- 
sociation, although never united, meets with the U. D. C.u 
so we dispensed with the business part of the U. D. C. meef- 
ing and let Mr. Robert A. Hemphill, the veteran son, and his 
mother be the feature of the occasion. 

"The Lucy Cobb Glee Club sang several old Southern 
songs, such as 'Carry Me Back to Ole Virginny' and 'Dixie.' 
of course, then there was a chorus by Miss Howell's pupil.s — 
an old Southern song. I allowed the girls to shake hands 
with Mrs. Hemphill. She looked so well and seemed so 
bright and happy. 

"Mr. Hemphill was introduced, and I was glad to have him 
stress what it meant to have a good mother and what it 
meant to him to hear her say that 'not a wrinkle on her face 
was caused by any act of his, for he had been a good and 
obedient son.' 

"The pin was then presented. I spoke of the w'omen of the 
Confederacy, how brave and true they had been, and that 
no honor shown the mothers of the 'heroes of the sixties' was 
too great. Refreshments were served, and a social hour was 
enjoyed. The Lucy Cobb girls will never forget the occasion, 
and I am glad that you gave them this opportunity. 

"An incident of the occasion was the coming in of the 
photographer, who took pictures of Mrs. Hemphill and her 
son and daughter, sitting just under the portrait of Lucy 
Cobb, whom Mrs. Hemphill said she remembered seeing very 
often coming down the front walk of the Cobb home holding 
her father by the hand. The portrait showed the home and 
the long walk in the background. A second picture was taken 


Qoi)federa£^ l/efcerap. 

in the blue parlor under Elizabeth Gardner's picture, 'La 
Confidence.' She was a pupil of Bougereau, whom she after- 
wards married. I think she must have painted the face in 
the picture." 

* * * 

Capt. and Mrs. James Dinkins, of New Orleans, have gen- 
erously sent to Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, President General of 
the S. C. M. A., a check to cover half the cost of the beau- 
tiful gold bar pins to be presented to the Confederate mothers. 
Heretofore Mrs. Wilson has given the pins as a personal 
gift, but Captain and Mrs. Dinkins, with patriotic pride, wish 
to share in the honor. 

* » * 

The book of biographical sketches of the "Representative 
Women of the South," being compiled and edited by Mrs. 
Bryan W. Collier, official biographer of the C. S. M. A., will 
be one of the handsomest volumes ever printed along similar 
lines and will contain one hundred beautiful portraits of 
women. The price is $7.50, and it can be had only by sub- 
scription. Each subscription should be accompanied by a 
check for that amount mailed to Mrs. Bryan W. Collier, Col- 
lege Park, Atlanta, Ga. 


From Dr. James H. McNeilly : "A letter received from an 
old comrade, George R. Sutton, of Arcadia, La., relates an 
incident that I never heard of before in connection with the 
'battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864. Comrade Sutton be- 
■longed to Company B, 12th Louisiana Regiment, Loring's 
iDivision, Stewart's Corps. He was severely wounded on July 
22, 1864, at Atlanta and got back to his regiment for the 
•march into Tennessee under General Hood. He was assigned 
to the ordnance department. I give the incident in his own 
■words : 'Our ordnance train came to a halt some half a mile in 
(he rear of our troops. I saw a regiment form in battle line. 
As they formed I saw them all kneel down, and some one 
prayed. I could bear him, but could not understand what 
he said. I think they were at prayer when the order came 
to advance, for they arose hurriedly, passed over the hill, 
and in a few minutes I heard the Rebel yell, and the battle 
was on.' My old comrade thought maybe it was my regi- 
ment and that I was the one who prayed, but I never heard 
of the incident until now." 


John C. Stiles, of Brunswick, Ga., gives a family record 
that can hardly be surpassed. He writes : 

"In the February Veteran it is stated that Mrs:. Mary 
Anderson, lately deceased, gave seven members of her family 
to the Confederacy, and I presume that is nearly the limit. 
However, my own mother gave her husband (R. M. Stiles, 
captain of engineers, C. S. A.), five brothers (J. H. Couper, 
lieutenant 8th Georgia ; J. M. Couper, captain of engineers, 
C. S. A. ; Alexander Couper, courier for General Evans ; 
John Couper, orderly sergeant 60th Georgia ; R. H. Couper, 
lieutenant Reads's Georgia Battery), her brother-in-law (W. 
H. Stiles, Jr., captam 60th Georgia), and her father-in-law 
(W. H. Stiles, Sr., colonel 60th Georgia). 

"Now, if any son of a veteran can beat that, let's hear from 
him or her." 

In renewing for two years, B. M. Robinson writes from 
Orlando, Fla. : "I will be a subscriber as long as I live. I 
enjoy the Veteran, and I hope its list is being enlarged." 


Inscribed to the Zeb Vance Chapter, U. D. C, 
Lenoir, N. C. 


When the red god Mars in wrath descends 

With sword and gun and torch. 
Then peace its fruitful function ends 

In war's insane debauch. 

He never comes till men demand 

In honor's name or sin's ; 
But once he lifts his savage hand 

The dance of death begins. "* 

He falls upon that fortress, home, " " "j 

And blows his venomed breath 

And stamps upon the bravest one ; 

His devilish twin name, death. ' j 

To some he brings a broken limb, 

To some a bruised heart; "1 

And yet no power can soften him ' 

From his satanic art. ' 

He wrestleth not with strength alone, ' 

The sturdy, stalwart man, 
But gentler woman's heart must groan 

To wreak his fiendish plan. ' 

Behold a widowed mother stand ' 

Beside her humble cot 
And tremulously point her hand '^' i 

To yonder cherished spot. 

"O sir," with quivering lip she said ' 

To one who stood hard by 
And asked if hope in her was dead 

For fear the cause would die— 

"O sir, whene'er the shades of night 

On that inclosure fall, 
They leave in tears of dew the dust 

Of my heart's precious all. ' ~] 

I bade them go, their mother's pride, ""' 

At Carolina's call ; 
There they are sleeping side by side. 

Four boys ; I gave them all." 

Heaven shrines thee, mother. Thy sweet name. 

Immortal as the soul, 
Lends luster to that oriflamme, 

Our Southland's martyr roll. 

And on the spirit camping ground 

Their white tents shine, and then 
At trumpet of redemption day 

Thou'lt claim thy boys again. 

From C. L. Prince, Baltimore, Md. : "I have been subscrib- 
ing to the Veteran, I think, about twenty-five years, and I 
find that the longer I take it the more attached to it I become, 
and I don't see how I could well do without it." 

Qoijfederat^ l/eterai>. 

1 1 



Okganized in Jl lv, is/>, at KicnM(»M>, V'a. 

OFFICERS, iqiQ-2o. 

Commander in Chief Xathan Bedford Forrest 

Ad.iiil;int in Cliief Carl Hinton 

Editor, J. R. Price 1205 15th St.. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

[Address all communications to this department to the Edi- 


The organization is to be congratulated upon the election 
of Nathan Bedford Forrest as Commander in Chief. No 
man in the organization has been more earnest, faithful, and 
efficient than Comrade Forrest. 

Comrade Carl Hinton, Past Commander in Chief, has been 
appointed .\djutant in Chief of the organization for the cur- 
rent year. He generously volunteered to fill the position 
due to the difficult)' in finding some other suitable person who 
would serve. 

Maj. E. W. R. Ewing, Historian in Chief, delivered his 
instructive and interesting stereopticon lecture, entitled "A 
Tour of the West from Canada to Old Mexico," Thursday 
evening, February 26, 1920, in Richmond, Va., in the interest 
of the Richmond Sons and for the purpose of arousing deeper 
interest in the reclamation of the swamp and cut-over lands 
of the South. He uses alvout a hundred beautifully colored 
slides. He will be glad to hear from other Camps interested 
in enlarging the membership and in Southern progress. 

Rev. H. W. Battle, Chaplain in Chief, of Charlottesville, 
V'a., has been invited to address the Washington Camp in 
the near future. Under the leadership of George T. Rawlins, 
Commandant, this is one of the most wide-awake Camps in 
the organization. Hon. William Tyler Page, author of the 
"American Creed," on February 10 delivered before the Camp 
a lecture explaining tlic origin and Ihe meaning of that creed. 
This creed won the prize of $1,000 offered by the city of 
Baltimore as the best sutnmary of the political faith of 

Comrade Ernest G. Baldwin. Past Commander in Chief, 
while serving as lieutenant with the American Expeditionary 
Force, organized a successful Camp of Sons of Confederate 
Veterans in the trenches protecting historic Verdun, France 

W. E. Hrockman, recently returned from France, is now 
in St. Paul, Minn., engaged in editing the Warrior Nczi's. 
He lis now arranging to organize a Camp of Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans in that city. Let the good work go on. 
Who will follow his example? Tell us about it in this col- 

Five thousand cojiies of the "Gi"ay Book," a concise presen- 
tation of some of the fundamentals of history affecting the 
South, are coming from the press. We predict much success 
for this work by able writers. Write to N. B. Forrest, Com- 
mander in Chief, for details. 

Associate Editor J. R. Price proposes to devote considerable 
time to extending the circulation of the Veteran among the 
Sons. That our organization needs a medium such as this 
page will afford is recognized by all. Through it we pro- 
pose to tell of the work of the various Camps and to give 
items of interest concerning officials and members of the 
organization. The Veter.vx will furnish the space for this 
valuable and stimulating data ; but to be fair the Sons must, 
both to obtain the benefit of this coluinn and to do the Vet- 
eran justice, very substantially increase the circulation. We 
respectfully request the Adjutant of each Camp to send us 

a list of men who love the memory of their fathers well 
enough to invest one dollar a year in the Veteran. It is 
always worth several times the price. 

"A Pageant of American History" was put on by the Navy 
League at the New Willard ballroom. Washington, D. C, 
February 12. 1920. This was one of the most pleasant and 
instructive pieces of work of its kind that it has been our 
fortune to witness. Six hundred people participated in the 
several sections. Section No. 26 was a very realistic depic- 
tion of Lee in the garden at Arlington. From the time the 
first character appeared on the stage to the conclusion the 
scene was widely and enthusiastically applauded by the vast 
audience that packed every inch of tlic spacious hallrooir. 
Mrs. Maud Howell Smith, as chairman, and Mrs. Robert E. 
Lee. as vice chairman, arranged the scene. The following 
was the personnel : Gen. Robert E. Lee, Rev. Randolph H. 
McKim : Gen. Stonewall Jackson, Col. Magnus Thompson ; 
Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, Judge Charles B. riowrj'; 
Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, Mr. Lovick Pierce; Mrs. Robert 
E. Lee. Mrs. Rozier Delaney ; Matron, Mrs. Samuel C. 
Smoot ; Miss Mildred Lee, Miss Anne Lee ; Miss Agnes Lee. 
Miss Elizabeth Beach; Miss Annie Lee. Miss Grace Beach; 
Friends and Neighbors. Miss Maude Morgan, Miss Virginia 
Byrd Hereford. Miss Marie McGuire. Miss Marie Louise 
Owens, Miss Etta Jackson Taggart, Miss Lindsay Lomax 
Wood ; Old Negro Mammy, Mrs. Frank Odcnheimer ; Children, 
Mistress Harriet Lee Benoist and Master Nevitte Smoot : Vir- 
ginia Statesmen and Soldiers (enacted by members of Wash- 
ington Camp, No. 305, S. C. V.), Mr. George T. Rawlins, 
Mr. J. Roy Price. Maj. E. W. R. Ewing. Mr. F. R. Fravel, 
Mr. William S. Stamper. Mr. Warner L. Wilkinson, Dr. 
Clarence J. Owens, Mr. McDonald Leo. and Col. W. W. Old. 
Moving pictures were taken of the various scenes showing 
American history from the time of the landing of the 
Pilgrims in 1650 to the close of the Civil War. These pic- 
tures will soon be released by the Navy League for the edu- 
cation of the school children throughout the United States. 

Chi-rch Bells for Cannon. — At the late U. D. C. Con- 
vention in Tampa, Fla., a committee was appointed to secure 
data in regard to the church bells or chimes presented to 
the Confederate government for the manufacture of cannon 
balls or cannon. Of this committee ^^rs. C. F. Harvey, of 
Kinston, N. C, is chairman, and she is exceedingly anxious 
to secure all possible data on the subject and asks that any 
one having information of such donations will kindly for- 
ward it to her. 

Confederate Ancestry of World War Soldiers. — One of 
the important undertakings of the U. D. C. at present is to 
make record of the descendants of Confederate soldiers who 
were with the American forces in the late war in Europe. 
Miss Eliza Claybrooke is chairman of the work for Nash- 
ville Chapter, No. 1, U. D. C, and will send out blanks to 
any applicants in Davidson County. Address her at 2111 
Highland Avenue, Nashville, Tenn. 

Wants to Hear from Comrade. — Should an old Confeder- 
ate originally from Mississippi and an infnntryman, T think, 
shot so badly he had to go into the cavalry, and who sur- 
rendered the first dny of May, 1865. in Petersburg with 
George Frinch, John Bullard, and A. F. Rose, see this notice, 
please drop a line to his old comrade, A. F. Rose, Adjutant 
Joe Kendall Camp, U. C. V.. Warrcnton, Va. 


C^oi>federat^ l/eterai>. 

(Continued from page 92.) 

report to Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, commanding a brigade 
under General Wheeler. Our brigade consisted of the 8th 
and 11th Texas, 4th Tennessee, and the 3d Arkansas, com- 
manded by Col. Tom Harrison, in which we served during 
the remainder of the war, engaging in all scouts and battles 
pertaining to the Army of Tennessee under Joseph E. John- 
ston. In opposing General Sherman through Georgia and 
the Carolinas I was waylaid and captured on March 3, 1865, 
while on duty as a messenger, and sent to Point Lookout, 
where I remained until the close." 



Dr. McNeilly always writes well and interestingly, what- 
ever his subject. His reminiscences in the January Veteran 
have caused me to think and write of the long ago, and I 
hope I may be pardoned if I be somewhat personal. 

My great-grandfather. James Doyle, came from Wexford, 
Ireland, in 1750, settled in Pennsylvania, and was instrumental 
in the settlement of Doylestown. Later he moved to Mary- 
land, and my grandfather, William Doyle, was born in 
Hagerstown December 24, 1780. When a boy he moved with 
his parents to Pendleton District (now Anderson County), 
S. C. My maternal grandfather, James Dendy, died before 
I can remember. His father came from Scotland and settled 
in South Carolina. These families were all Presbyterians. 
That Church wielded a great influence in that State, and from 
childhood I heard much of Scotch-Irish descendants. My 
recollection of attending church was at the Presbyterian 
church at Pickens C. H., S. C, about 1850. The preacher's 
name was William McWhorter, and he was living and preach- 
ing in that country when I left there in 1867. When ray 
grandfather was grown he went back to Virginia and mar- 
ried Elizabeth Cunningham at Appomattox C. H., and their 
bridal tour was a horseback ride to South Carolina. It may 
be somewhat coincidental that about two years before he 
died six of his grandsons surrendered with General Lee when 
the Stars and Bars was furled at the place of his bridal altar 
in April, 1865. One of these grandsons lacked sixteen days 
of being nineteen years old, though he was with the cavalry 
corps of that rather historic army during the very active 
campaigns of 1864-65. 

Elizabeth Cunningham's father came from Ireland, settled 
in Virginia, and was a soldier under Washington. I have 
heard my Grandfather Doyle tell of many interesting inci- 
dents occurring during the early settlement of Upper South 
Carolina. He knew Colonel Cleveland, who commanded the 
Tennesseeans in the battle of King's Mountain. After the 
war Colonel Cleveland settled on the Tugaloo River, in South 
Carolina, and acquired large possessions. The Tugaloo and 
Seneca form the Savannah, and above their confluence the 
Tugaloo divides South Carolina and Georgia. About thirty 
miles west and above the confluence is where Colonel Cleve- 
land settled, there died at a ripe old age, and was buried on 
his own land. In my boyhood days I visited his grave many 
times, and then the little cemetery was overgrown with pines. 
The Doyle homestead, known as Fort Madison, is about one 
mile above the Cleveland place. 

In 1873 the Atlanta and Richmond Air Line Railroad (now 
the Southern) was built across our homestead, and about our 
house a small town grew up called Madison. About sixteen 
years ago the descendants of Colonel Cleveland from other 

States joined those in South Carolina and removed the re- 
mains of the old hero to Madison and erected over them a 
beautiful granite monument in a lovely red oak grove, about 
one hundred and fifty yards from the front of our house 
and just north of the railroad. On the south side of the 
monument is this inscription : "Erected by members of the 
Cleveland family in South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennes- 
see in honor of Col. Benjamin Cleveland, a hero of the Revo- 
lution for American independence and one of the commanders 
in the battle of King's Mountain, N. C, 1738-1806." 

When a boy I knew Thomas Harbin, a son-in-law of Colo- 
nel Cleveland, who lived on a part of the Cleveland posses- 
sions. He was a great reader, and I remember well that he 
did not use glasses, and this was surprising to me, as my 
father and grandfather could not read without them. Mr. 
Harbin died in 1859 at the age of ninety-three years. He 
was a soldier in the latter part of the Revolutionary War, 
and one of his grandsons was a lieutenant in the United 
States army during the Spanish-American skirmish. 


Of the 450-page book on John Brown, written by Hill 
Peebles Wilson, the New York Sun has this to say: 

"Well, four hundred and fifty pages of records, damaging 
documents, and other damning evidence, all marshaled in 
convincing fashion, leave for admiration little of John 
Brown's character. Mr. Wilson is evidently in dead earnest, 
and I, for one, would not care to be running for office with 
Mr. Wilson as my opponent. I should be afraid of a man 
who had gone to the trouble of compiling four hundred and 
fifty pages of discreditable matter about any one, particularly 
about a man who had been dead for over half a century. 

"On laying down the book I am ready to admit that Brown 
was a murderer, an embezzler, and perhaps an atheist (he 
behaved shockingly on the Sabbath day), and I begrudgingly 
thank the writer as I would thank any one for laying the 
truth before mankind." 

A new edition of this book, the title of which is "John 
Brown, Soldier of Fortune: A Critique," has been gotten out, 
and it can now be procured at $2.50, postpaid. The Vet- 
eran will fill orders. 

Home for Naval Veterans. — The Commander of the Vet- 
erans of the Confederate Navy, Admiral A. O. Wright, now 
of Jacksonville, Fla., is planning a campaign in the interest 
of building a home for the naval veterans and wants all 
comrades and friends who feel that this should be done to 
write to him at 28 East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Prof. James M. Tate, of Pensacola, Fla., now in his eighty- 
second year, sends the Veteran a letter, as clearly written as 
any young fellow could do, better than most, which he says 
was done without glasses. "During the War between the 
States," he says, "the Tate family was represented by my 
father and four sons. On April 5, 1919, my brother, Clarence 
W. Tate, of Whistler, Ala., was buried in the Gonzales Ceme- 
tery, leaving me the sole survivor. According to his wishes, 
he was buried in his Confederate uniform, under Confederate 
ceremonies, attended by all the active members of Camp 
Ward, No. 10, U. C. V., of Pensacola. I am afraid that my 
'campaign' will soon be over, but as long as my sight re- 
mains I want to read the Veteran, which has so valiantly 
defended the righteousness of the cause of the South." 

Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 


C. M. Kaylor, Route 4, SpringficM, 
Mo., would like to hear from any sur- 
viving member of Company G, 2d Ten- 
nessee Cavalry, organized at Sweet- 
water, Tenn., with John Kowan as cap- 
tain. At the reorganization W. L. Clark 
was made captain. 

Channing M. Smith, ."Xdjutant of the Battalion of Virginia Cavalry, 
Mosby's Men, asks that every member 
of Mosby Camp, U. C. V., Delaplane, 
\'a., will send his name and post office 
lo him and also the names of any vet- 
erans of Mosby's command who have 
died since the reunion at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., September 22, 23, 1919. The 
Camp roster has been destroyed by fire, 
and he is trying to make up another list 
of the survivors of that command. 

Don't Wear a Truss 


•^ the modern scien- 
titio invention, the 
wiMiUerful new dlscoveir 
Iliat relitnes rupture, \rtll 
be scut ou trial. No ob- 
nnxlous springs or pads. 
Ila.-* automatic Air Cush- 
ions. Binds and draws the 
broken parta together as 
you would a broken limb, 
No salves. No ll«s. l>iir- 
able, cheap. Sent on trial 
to prove It. Protected hr 
V. s. patents. Catalogri* 
and mea-sure blanks mailed 
frre. Send name and ad- 
dr*iss to-day. 

C. E. Brooks. 239C stale St., MarshaU. Mick 


When life is at stake you don't think 
about statistics. Yet thousands of lives 
could be saved each year if everybody 
thought about vital statistics and their 
relation to a course in first aid. 

.•\ccidents cost the United States one 
hundred thousand lives annually, and 
tlie numbered injured, including the per- 
manently crippled, exceeds by some hun- 
dreds of thousands the number of dead. 

Five hundred thousand are injured to 
such an extent that they can no longer 
earn their living without reeducation. 

In this day of labor shortage this is 
a serious economic consideration. The 
figures which apply to accidents in the 
home are equally impressive. 

One of the largest insurance com- 
panies in the country reports that in a 
recent year twenty-eight per cent of the 
accident claims paid were for injuries 
received in the home, the percentage 
being considerably larger than for any 
other class of accidents. 

With these amazing figures in mind, it 
is easy to see how vital statistics point 
the way to a course in Red Cross first 
aid. It is equally necessary in the home, 
the factory, and the school. Textbooks 
of simple rules and lecture courses, in- 
cluding practical demonstrations in first 
aid, are easily accessible to the student 
and the housewife. 

For the industrial worker the Red 
Cross has field representatives trained 
and experienced in first aid to the in- 
jured and accident prevention work who 
arc loaned to railroads, telephone com- 
panies, manufactories, mines, lumber 
mills, quarries, and similar industries 
for the purpose of instructing employees 
in first aid to the injured and accident 

The second nation-wide Salvation 
Army drive for funds begins on May 
1 and will continue for ten days. It 
will be one of the post-war drives in 
which the people will take a real and 
genuine interest. 

The Salvation Army is equipped to do 
a big home service work. All that is 
needed is money. The people of the 
United States will see to it that the 
money is forthcoming at the drive, 
which will be made from May 1 to 
May 10. 

S. Bonham, 1111 West Houston 
Street. Sherman, Tex., wants a copy of 
the "Memoirs of Belle Boyd," the Con- 
federate spy. The Veteran would also 
like to locate a copy. 

C«oge», Head Woisea and Other Efp 
£ie« Easily and Fermanentiv Relieved) 

Thousands who w«i* 
formerly deaf, now ha«7 
distinctly every aound— ^ 
even whispers do not e» 
cape them. Their life off 
loneliness has ended and 
all is now joy and sub 
shine. The impaired m 
lackinf? portions of theif 
ear drums have bees 
reinforced by simple 
little devices, scientifi- 
cally constructed fOe 
J that special purpose. 

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W-A-NTED— The first two numbers of 
the Veteran — January and February, 
1893 — or would take the whole volume 
for 189.1 A liberal price will be given. 
Address Jesse LeMoss, Secretary of the 
Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

E. Berkley Bowie, 811 North Eutaw 
Street, Baltimore, Md., wishes to hear 
from any one who has information, 
newspapers, or documents in regard to 
the manufacture of firearms in the Con- 
federacy. Families of Confederate 
States ordnance officers are especially 

D. M. Armstrong, Assistant Inspector 
General of the Sixth District of the 
Grand Camp of Virginia Confederate 
Veterans, wants to find some member 
of Company A, 4th North Carolina 
Cavalry, who can give information of 
Elisha Britt's war record. He is in 
need of a pension. 

The widow of the late E. F. W. 
(Weed) Chelf wishes to get in com- 
munication with some of the war com- 
rades of her husband, who was with 
Missouri troops under General Price, 
enlisting at Platte City and being mus- 
tered out at St. Louis. She is entitled 
to a pension if she can prove her claim. 
.'\ddress Mrs. Weed Chclf. Bowling 
Green, Ky. 

I20 Qoijfederat^ Ueterap. 

Stock Remnants 


Men in Gray. By Dr. R. C. Cave. 

A collection of masterly addresses on tne Soutnern Cause, a tribute 
to Kis comrades by one wKo soldiered under Lee. A copy should 
be in every KouseKold of tKis country. Postpaid, $i. 

Johnston's Narrative. By Gen. Jos. E. JoKnston. 

An explanation and vindication of the strategy of Kis campaigns. 
Offered in sKeep, $2.25; half morocco, $2.75. 

Two Years on the Alabama. By Lieut. Arthur Sinclair. 

Story of the wonderful career of Admiral Semmes's unrivaled cruiser 
told by one of his officers. Postpaid, $2. 

Two Wars: An Autobiography. By Gen. S. G. French. 

History of his services in the Mexican War and the War between 
the States. An interesting narrative. Postpaid, $2.20. 

Confederate Military History 

One set. Half morocco. $25. 



Nashville, Tennessee 


^o^federat^ l/eterap. 



tKat besides making 
U. C. V. Uniforms 


also makes an irn- 
mense line of Regalia 
and Lodge Supplies 
for Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, Py t Kians, 
Woodmen, etc.? 

Ever-g article guaranteed. Catalogs on request 


Established 50 Years 


Memorial Tablets 

of the Highest Standard 

Our expcrieiue of 27 years 
is ciiir guarantee of results. 

Paul E. Cabaret & Co 

120-126 Eleventh Av. 

New York 

llhislriUil hiiuklel s,:ntan rcifucsl. 


A Magazine of the South 

The publication of this new Southern magazine was be- 
gun last December. 

For half a century the South has had household publica- 
tions, women's journals, farm weeklies, trade sheets, etc., 
but a literary magazine of high quality it has not had. 
Our ideal is to build up in the South a high-class literary 
and general magazine, distinctive of this section, which 
will compare favorably with the best periodicals in 
America. Are you willing to give our Southern writers 
an audience? They deserve it. The subscription price 
is one dollar and fifty cents a year. 


The Cunningham Memorial 1" 

Woman's Keepsake. (Poem.) By Mary J. Blackburn 124 

That April Day. (Poem.) By Sophia G. Fo.xworth 125 

Lincoln, the Great Emancipator. By John C. Stiles 125 

Can We Call This War? (Poem.) By Flora E. Stevens 125 

A Tribute to Wife and Daughter. By Dr. Henry E. Shepherd 126 

Ashes. (Poem.) By James Ryder Randall 126 

The Virginia Military Institute in the World War. By W. M. Hunley 127 

Names Inscribed on Captured Artillery. By E. T. Sykes 128 

Monticello. By Mrs. A. A. Campbell ^29 

In Winter Quarters at DaUon, Ga. By Dr. James H. McNeilly 130 

Gen. Archibald Campbell Godwin. By Clarence R. Hatton 135 

The Courage of a Soldier. By E. Polk Johnson 136 

Cold Harbor, Lynchburg, Valley Campaign, Etc. By L G. Bradley 138 

One of Morgan's Pilots through Kentucky. By W. P. Corbin 139 

Bledsoe's Battery. By W. A. Everman 140 

History in Brief. By John C. Stiles 141 

"The Real Lincoln." Reviewed by Sallie Bruce Dickinson 157 

Departments : Last Roll 144 

U. D. C 152 

C. S. M. A 155 

S. C. V 157 

to purchase all-wool 

Bunting or 
silk Flags 

of all kinds 

Silk Banners, Swords, Belts, Caps 

and all kinds of Military Equipment and 
Society Goods Is at 

Joel Flag L Regalia Co., 79 Nassau St. 

Sead for Price List New York City 

G. N. Ratliff, of Moberly, Mo., has 
copies of the "Confederate Mail Car- 
rier," by Bradley, and will furnish them, 
postpaid, at $1.15. Only a limited sup- 
ply on hand. 

Phil A. Merritt, of Allensville, Ky., 
Route 2, has a great many volumes of 
the Veteran which he would like to 
donate to some society or organization 
that would appreciate them. 

Capt. F. G. Terry, of Cadiz, Ky., 
wishes to get the name and address of 
the widow of Capt. H. Upshaw Mc- 
Kinney, a quartermaster at one time of 
the 8th Kentucky Infantry. He wishes 
to help her in getting a pension. 

Mrs. Janie Crisby, of Selraa, Ark., 
makes inquiry for any survivors of the 
7th Alabama Regiment, Forrest's com- 
mand. She is trying to secure the rec- 
ord of her husband, Jesse Cr-sby, who 
was in that command, and will appre- 
ciate hearing from any of his com- 

One of the strongest appeals that thej 
Salvation Army makes to the people is| 
its simplicity, its utter lack of red tape-^ 
and formality. Its sincere and success- 
ful efforts to be of service to the peo-^ 
pie are so genuine that they create noth- 
ing but admiration. It is that admira- 
tion which is going to be of vast serv- 
ice to the organization when it has its 
nation-wide drive for funds the first ten 
days in May. 

helpIiieIalvation army 

Sell me your old Confederate, U. S., 



foreign Stamps and turn the pro(?feeds 
over to the Salvation Army. Look up my 
ad. in March number oC the Veteran. 

773 Ebner Street Columbus, Ohio 

Qopfeclerat^ l/eterap. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post ofliceat Nashville, Tenn. 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

Acceptance of mailing at special rate of posta»^e provided for In Sec- 
tion 1103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 
PuMished by the Trustees of the Confedekatk VeteraN| Nash' 

ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other OKr,\NizATioNS. 

Confederated Southern XUmorial-^Associatiom. 

Thongh men deserve, they ninv ml win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

Prick. $1.00 PKR Ybar. ( -ir-,, vv\;'TTT 


No. 4. I 




Headquarters United Confederate Veterans, 
New Orleans, La., March 24, 1920. 
General Orders No. 1. 

The following committee is herehy appointed and charged 
with the erection of a monument to conimenioratc the mem- 
ory of our faithful comrade, Sumner A. Cunningham, founder 
and editor of the Confederate Veteran, at his grave in 
Shelbyville, Tenn., and will immediately proceed to the dis- 
charge of that duty: 

V. Y. Cook, Chairman. Ratesville, Ark. 
J. P. Hickman, Vice Chairman, Nashville, Tenn. 
M. B. Morton, Nashville, Tenn. 
J. H. De Witt, Nashville, Tenn. 
M. A. Spurr, Nashville, Tenn. 
J. A. Wood, Shelbyville, Tenn. 
Evandcr Shapard, Shelbyville, Tenn. 
Mrs. C. R. Hyde, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Miss Edith Pope will continue as Secretary and Treasurer 
of the fund. 

By command of K. M. Van Zandt, 

General Commanding. 
A. B. Booth, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

This committee was appointed to have special charge of the 
work of placing as speedily as possible a monument at the 
grave of the late S. A. Cunningham, the movement for which 
was started iminediately following his death by Gen. Bennett 
H. Young, then Commander in Chief U. C. V. In his official 
tribute issued from the headquarters of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans General Young said : "The grateful men and 
women of the South w-ill erect to his memory a fitting me- 
morial. It will come as an offering from the people. A few 
friends would gladly provide the means to mark his grave. 
He would prefer to have all his friends and admirers join in 
this mark of love. A plan has been inaugurated to ask for 
popular subscriptions in amounts from ten cents to five dol- 
lars to build a plain, simple monument to tell who and what 
he was. The gratitude and affection of the women and men 
of the -South are memorial enough while the present genera- 
tion survives; but it is just that, as he did so much for his 

people and his comrades, there should be a memorial to let 
those who come- after know of his work and its influence on 
Southern character and life." 

The effort has resulted in a sum sufficient to erect the sim- 
ple monument contemplated, and in accordance with this an- 
nouncement and the wishes of the contributors the monument 
will be placed at the grave to stand as the tribute of his 
friends and patrons of the Confederate Veteran who appre- 
ciate his labors in behalf of Confederate history. 

Contributions not before recorded in the Veteran are: 

Mrs. H. C. Witherspoon. Crowell. Tex $ 2 50 

J. Stoke Vinson, Hiram, Ark 25 

J. W. Powell, Evergreen. Ala 1 00 

Leonidas Polk Bivouac and William Henry Trousdale 

Camp, U. C. v., Columbia, Tenn 10 00 

U. D. C. Chapter. Fairfax, S. C ! 4 00 

O. A. Bullion Chapter, Hope Villa, La 1 00 

A. S. Jobn.ston Chapter, U. D. C, San Franci.sco 5 00 

Mrs. M. M. Force, Selma, Ala. (additional) 50 

Mrs. W. L. Harrison, Tacoma, Wash 2 00 

Mrs. G. W. Hyde, Lexington, Mo 5 00 

J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C, Wharton, Tex 1 00 

H. D. Watts, Americus, Ga 1 00 

James R. Maxwell, Tuscaloosa, Ala 5 00 

.1. M. Fuston. Nashville. Tenn ] 00 

Mrs. R. P. Talley, Temple, Tex 1 00 Mildred Rutherford. Athens, Ga IS 00 

Miss M. H. Conkey, Clearwater, Fla 5 00 

Mary Custis Lee Chapter, U. D. C, Clearwater, Fla. . . . 5 00 

Mrs. E. R. George, Lovettsville, Va 3 00 

H. V. Redington, Sidney, Nebr 1 00 

H. C. Wells, Savannah, Ga 1 00 

W. H. Pierce. Sr., Petronia, Ala SO 

Mrs. O. A. Kinsolving, Richmond. Va 2 00 

Joe Kendall Camp, U. C. V., Paris, Tenn 10 00 

Leroy Stafford Camp, U. C. V., Shreveport. La 3 00 

J. H. Wood, Eaton, Colo 2 00 

Miss Fannie Morrison, Canon City, Colo 1 00 

Gen. George Maney Auxiliary, U. D. C, by Mrs. W. 

B. Maney. Nashville, Tenn 25 00 

Mary E. Snipes Chapter. U. D. C., Gunnison, Miss 5 50 

F. P. Harris, Bentonville, Ark 1 00 



Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 


Memorial Day, April 26. 

by mary j. blackburn, atlanta, ga. 

Treasured deep in her woman's heart, 
Sacred, she guards this day apart ; 
Precious to her, she holds it fast 
As a keepsake of the hallowed past. 

From garden and hothouse, wildwood and field 
She gathereth hlossoms, whose perfume doth yield 
Incense as pure from her soul to God 
As the rose petals she strews on the battle sod. 

To-day is the voice that speaks for years 
Of love and sacrifice, smiles and tears. 
The wreath in her hand will not decay; 
It is her keepsake — Memorial Day. 



U. D. C. 

So many inquiries have reached me concerning the inscrip- 
tions on the Confederate monument at Arlington that I am 
taking advantage of the columns of the Veteran to answer 
them all. 

The following inscription was written by Rev. Randolph 
H. McKim. rector of the Church of the Epiphany, Washing- 
ton, D. C. : 

"Not for fame or for reward, 

Not for place or for rank, 

Not lured by ambition 

Or goaded by necessity. 

But in simple 

Obedience to duty 

As they understood it 

These men suffered all. 

Sacrificed all. 

Dared all — and died." 

The Latin inscription, "Victrix causa deis placuit sed victa 
Catoni," is taken from one of the orations of Cato and means : 
"The victorious cause pleased the gods, but the conquered 
one Cato." 

The third inscription is the familiar Biblical one : "They 
shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into 
pruning hooks." 


Col. L. T. Dickinson, of Chattanooga, Tenn., sends a clip- 
ping from the Baltimore Sun of April 25, 1913, which he says 
gives a good account of the fight at Greenland Gap and 
says : "I was in it from start to finish and can speak from ex- 

The account is here given : "Marylanders covered themselves 
with glory in a hot fight at Greenland Gap, W. Va. General 
Jones on his West Virginia raid found that the force at 
Greenland Gap, consisting of parts of the 23d Illinois and 
14th West Virginia Regiments, had occupied a log church 
commanding the river ford. They refused to surrender and 
poured a deadly fire upon the Confederates. The 7th Virginia 
Cavalry having charged and been repulsed. General Jones 
ordered Maj. Ridgely Brown, of the 1st Maryland Cavalry, 
to capture the stronghold. The charge was made on foot, 

the Marylanders having to cross the stream under a heavy 
fire. The weather was bitter cold, and the men charged 
through water waist-high. Reaching the church, the doors 
were battered in and the building was set on fire before the 
Federals surrendered. Among the Marylanders wounded in 
the charge was Capt. George W. Booth. Of seven officers in 
the charge, five were wounded — Major Brown, Captain Booth, 
Capt. R. C. Smith, and Lieutenants Pue and Beatty. The 
Confederate loss was seven killed and twenty-two wounded. 
The Federals were mostly Irishmen and put up a desperate 


One of the most active members of the U. D. C. is Mrs. 
R. Philip Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C, now Third Vice 
President General, and her work has been eminently suc- 
cessful; especially noted is her accomplishment with the Chil- 
dren of the Confederacy. Eight years ago she organized the 
Junior Bethel Heroes Chapter, C. of C, at Rocky Mount, 
and under her wise leadership this Chapter has taken highest 
honors, winning the State banner three times for its historical 

work and the general 
banner twice. This last 
banner was given to the 
general organization by 
the little Chapter and 
bears the name of R. H. 
Ricks, known and loved 
for his interest in the 
Confederate history of 
his "State. During the 
World War the Chap- 
ter endowed a bed in 
the American military 
hospital at Neuilly, 
France, in honor of the 
boys of Nash and Edge- 
combe Counties and is 
now supporting two 
French orphans. And 
in other ways it has ac- 
complished a phenome- 
nal work. 

From childhood days 
Mrs. Holt has been 
noted for her interest in everything pertaining to the Con- 
federacy, a feeling largely fostered by association with grand- 
parents who went through the trying days of war. Her pa- 
ternal grandfather was Capt. A. J. M. Whitehead, who com- 
manded Company I, 17th North Carolina Regiment, and 
there were also several great-uncles in the Confederate serv- 
ice. Her work in the State Division has been characterized 
by zeal and enthusiasm, and she has held many offices of 
prominence, also serving on important committees. In her 
home Chapter she has been Corresponding Secretary, His- 
torian, Treasurer, President, and during her administration 
the handsome monument to the soldiers of Nash County was 
unveiled. In the State Division she has been Director of the 
Children of the Confederacy, Director of War Relief Work, 
and is now Director of War Records, also Women of the 
Sixties. Her election to the general office by the Tampa Con- 
vention in November, 1919, was a deserved honor worthily 

And she also has done a good work for the Veteran and 
recently won the prize offered for new subscriptions. 


Qoi?federat^ Ueteraij. 




'Twas on the field of Shiloh. 

Full many a year ago. 
Our fathers pressed the battle 

And fearless met the foe. 
All through that April day. 

While death walked to and fro, 
They fought in all their glory. 

Those dauntless men in gray. 

Rallied round the Hornet's Nest, 

Their bayonets in rest. 
'Mid cannons' roar and rattle. 

They charged the deadly crest. 
And on that April day 

They took the Hornet's Nest 
And won their meed of glory. 

Those dauntless men in gray. 

Fouglit till P.loody Pond ran o'er, 

A flood of human gore: 
Brave men who fought the battle 

The victory won and more 
Upon that April day, 

When all they drove before 
And held the field of glory. 

Those dauntless men in gray. 

Then fell brave Sidney Johnston. 

Thus was their cause undone ; 
It turned the tide of battle 

And lost what they had won. 
When on that April day 

He bravely led them on. 
While they held the field of glory. 

Those dauntless men in gray. 



It has been believed by practically all Northern, and also a 
great many Southern, people that President Lincoln's 
cipalion Proclamation covered all the slaves in this country, 
when, in fact, it did not, and by consulting this famous (?) 
document any doubter will be quickly convinced. It reads 
that all slaves in any State or part of State which was then 
in rebellion against the United States should be thencefor- 
ward and forever afterwards free. 

He gives the States covered by this manifesto as .Arkansas. 
'I'exas. Mississippi. Alabama. Florida. Georgia. North Caro- 
lina. .Soutli Carolina, and parts of Louisiana and Virginia 
not occupied by Union forces, and further states that slaves 
in those excepted parts were left, so to speak, with their 
shackles on. or precisely as they were before the writing of 
this document. 

"Mars Linkum" winds up this pastoral by saying that he 
sincerely believed it to be an act of justice and invoked the 
considerate judginent of mankind and the gracious favor of 
Almighty God upon it. 

Now, as there were undoubtedly slaves in Mr. Lincoln's 

own domain, as well as in those restricted parts of Louisiana 

and Virginia (who presumably were content with their state 

of life and therefore were not to take part in the general free 


ride given their brethren owned by "Rebels"), it strikes me 
that, to say the least, "Father Abraham," by not taking all of 
his black children to his bosom, was touching quite strongly 
on the hypocritical when he invoked God's blessing upon his 

No, the "Rail-Splitter" was not a great emancipator, for 
he proved himself a small one by his reservations, and if he 
was a, great redemptioner I have missed what he redeemed. 
But I do know one thing : he clearly saw "the nigger in the 
woodpile" and was easily the greatest politician that the world 
has had or will ever produce. 


P. B. Nance writes from Alamo, Tenn. : 

"I read with much interest an article in the Veteran for 
February by Mrs. Fannie E. Selph. 'How Christianity Reached 
the Slaves.' which called to my mind an old Church record 
of the Baptist Church at Rock Spring, Rutherford County. 
Tenn., which I have in my possession. It contains records 
of every meeting from May 5, 1804, to June, 18.'?6, which 
show that the slaves met and worshiped with the whites, 
sharing the privileges and benefits equally. It was a black 
mammy. .'\unt Celia. who nursed and helped to raise me. and 
she lived on my father's farm for many years after the war, 
honored, aided, and loved during her life by all our family: 
and she ever proved true and faithful. She now rests in the 
cemetery for the negro family on the farm, three miles north 
of Alamo, Crockett County, Tenn.. her memory cherished 
by all of us. 

"I will give a few extracts from the Church records show- 
ing the admission of both white and black : 

"'November 21. 1812. Rock Spring Church met in Con- 
ference. Brother Scott resigned as clerk, and Brother David 
Gooch made clerk. Gooch's Will and Kimbro's Phillis re- 
ceived by experience and baptism.' 

" 'Rock Spring, August 22, 1812. The Church in Confer- 
ence. Received by experience George Sandford. Toby 
Shackleford. and Bird Nance's Lena.' 

" 'In Conference at Brother Blackman's May 26. 1812. Re- 
ceived James Wright, Rebecca Seet. and William Sect's negro 

"Similar records are all through the book. So it will be 
seen that the negro received his Christian training with his 
masters more than a century ago." 



Can we call this war who did by that name learn 

Of old heroic jetion. ancient fray. 
Where brave men met brave men in single strife. 

Clean steel on unstained armor rang; array 
Of hosts against seen hosts, whatc'er the name 

Of weapons, battle-ax. bullet, bow: 
Marches and marshalings of troops — while each 

Did seek his foeman sole? It was not long ago. 

But this — this pitiless science, deep-sea craft. 
These stifling gases, huge hov'ring vultures — ye ! 

What deem Kuy Diaz. Navarre, these poisons. 

Quakes, demoniac forces 'gainst mere flesh may be? 
O chivalry, captains, Sidney, Bayard, Lee, 
If this be war, what call ye savagery? 


Qoofederat^ l/eterap. 



The prevailing epidemic which for a series of years has 
desolated the land with periodic and almost unvarying pre- 
cision recalls to the memory of the student of history those 
dark and mysterious visitations of pestilence and disease char- 
acteristic in some of their manifestations of ages by no /neans 
remote from our own. Such, for example, were the Black 
Death, 1349, and the Plague, which developed in London dur- 
ing the year 1665. All the energies and researches of science 
have been baffled and held at bay in the endeavor to efface or 
annihilate the mysterious vital or germinating forces in which 
their origin is implicit and concealed. 

It is not, however, the subject as viewed from the attitude 
of pathology that I purpose to consider in this relation. The 
writer was one of those upon whom the stroke fell with un- 
tempered fierceness as the storm was sweeping toward its 
climax in Baltimore in February, 1920. In no sense am I 
conscious that in paying tribute to my loved ones I have over- 
stepped the modesty of nature or encroached upon the most 
austere ideals of traditional Southern delicacy and purity of 

The two ladies whose memory is the inspiration of this 
brief and inadequate eulogy followed each other into the world 
of light at an interval scarcely exceeding a week, Mrs. Henry 
E. Shepherd entering into rest February 15, her only daugh- 
ter, Lilian MacGregor Shepherd, rejoining her on February 
23. In the creation and development of these finely wrought 
characters every auspicious influence, ancestral, intellectual, 
social, contributed as a quickening and ennobling element or 
agency. Elijah Putnam Goodridge, of Norfolk, Va., one of 
the foremost forces of the ancient South in the commercial 
sphere, was the father of Mrs. Shepherd; her mother was 
Lydia MacGregor, a representative of the Scottish clan which 
romance, poesy, and history have combined to idealize as well 
as portray. Of eleven children, she was the youngest. Every 
one of her six brothers save Willie, who died in childhood, 
entered the service of the Confederacy from the first, and a 
more heroic company never bore up the banner of the South 
that is dead. Norfolk fell into the hands of the enemy in 
May, 1862, and from that period until the coming of the end 
young Kate Goodridge and her two sisters were buffeted by 
the storm from point to point, enduring every form of priva- 
tion and hardship rendered inevitable by the all-prevailing 
condition of grim-visaged, relentless war. At last Kate Good- 
ridge, with her eldest sister, found a place of refuge, at least 
for a season, in the excellent and hospitable home of Mr. 
Duncan Murchison at Manchester, some twelve miles from 
Fayetteville, N. C., the residence of my own family. It was 
under the genial and kindly roof of Mr. Murchison that in 
April, 1865, a prisoner of war released on parole, I was 
brought into contact with the young lady to whom I was mar- 
ried in June, 1867, when she was nineteen years of age. 

In March, 1865, during their sojourn at Manchester, Mr,?. 
Shepherd and her sister encountered the ghastly drama of 
Sherman's campaign as his hireling hordes descended like an 
avenging cloud upon the region of which Fayetteville was the 
commercial and political center. The pillar of fire heralded 
their coming; havoc and chaos were their prelude and har- 
binger. In no tropical or poetic acceptation, but in truth and 
soberness, "their way was wet with woman's tears." The 
beautiful Murchison home was a scene of untempered riot 
and desolation. Even the sanctity of the death chamber 
formed no barrier against the assaults of Sherman's soldiery. 

A young girl of twelve in the very twilight of eternal day. 
the victim of typhoid fever, was lifted from her death couch 
in order that the assailants of the dying child might be as- 
sured that nothing of value, jewelry, watches, etc., lay con- 
cealed beneath. I forbear to linger, at least in this connection, 
upon the harrowing memories of this single feature in a car- 
nival of infamy and shame. 

The married life of Mrs. Shepherd was passed almost en- 
tirely in Baltimore and in Charleston, S. C. Our only daugh- 
ter, Lilian MacGregor Shepherd, spent her brief period in 
this transitory world between these two historic cities, one of 
which still cherishes the golden ideals, the tender grace of a 
day that is dead. Lilian Shepherd and her mother blended 
into an ethereal harmony such as rarely reveals its power in 
our empirical world, unity of sympathies, aspirations, senti- 
ments. More than once strangers mistook them for elder and 
younger sisters. The mother was gifted with the finest artistic 
discernment, the daughter with the purest literary apprecia- 
tion as well as comprehensive critical attainment. It was the 
ceaseless, persistent appeal of Lilian Shepherd to her father's 
friend, James Ryder Randall, which induced the poet to col- 
lect and arrange his works in a form adapted to the purpose 
of publication. Her labors in the accomplishment of this end 
were not only immense, but may be described with no flavor 
of exaggeration as absolutely heroic. Every social charm, 
every form of sweetness and light which graced our ancient 
day, tactfulness, gentleness, self-repression, such as marked 
the dream world wrought by the shaping spirit that fashioned 
a Percival or a Galahad, were revealed and" illustrated in the 
lives and characters of these daughters of the South. The 
hartnony and unity of their aims and ideals displayed a perfect 
correlation and coordination. The Shakespearean fantasy, 
"two lovely berries molded on one stem," suggests itself both 
as a vision and an allegory. As the grave shrouded first the 
mother, then the daughter from our view, there arose to mem- 
ory in each instance the chastened ethereal utterance of our 
sovereign elegy : 

"Death has made his darkness beautiful with thee." 


The Spring will come with its ebullient flood. 

With flush of roses and imperial eyes ; 
A vein of strength will throb along the flood — 
Banners of beauty toss the pillared wood 

When birds of music anthem to the skies. 

And man prowls forth to mar thy gentle ways 
With sword and shot and sacrilegious hand ; 

Thy reign is fallen upon demon days ; 

We peer at thee all through a gory haze. 

Weeping and praying for our stricken land. 

O land ! O land of the benignant South ! 

The Great High Priest approaches to thy brow, 
A-mounting it with ashes ; let thy mouth 
Rebel not, nor thy heart be filled with drouth — 

The hand will raise thee up that smites thee now ! 

— James Ryder Randall. 

Ash Wednesday, 1865. 

Qoi)federat^ l/eterai). 





"The past is but prelude." Shakespeare gives this doctrine 
as a maxim of optimism. 

Three wars before the World War had our country waged 
since the birth of the V. M. I. In those wars — the Mexican, 
that between the States, and the Spanish-.-\merican — the Insti- 
tute did what was expected of her and added fame to fame. 
Those wars now, however, appear like preliminarj- skirmishes 
when compared to the World War, and the Institute's prelude 
to the heroic part she gave herself to do with Western Eu- 
rope for a stage. 

"True to tradition" — that must be the final word. And 
there is none other that those who know her and love her 
can wish to have added. 

In the fall of 1914, long before manj^ people believed that 
this country would enter the conflict, sons of the V. M. I., 
restless under the injunction of neutrality and burning with 
zeal to help avenge a mighty wrong, sought service under 
foreign flags. They fought nobly and won renown. Some 
of them have since joined their own colors, a few remain in 
the service of Great Britain and France, and others sleep "in 
Flanders field." 

As the clouds grew blacker and it was seen that we should 
begin to mobilize along every line, the Governor of Virginia, 
wishing to put the State in a condition of preparedness and 
to lay the foundation for whatever of effort might be re- 
quired, organized a Council of Defense, with headquarters 
at Richmond. It was composed of fourteen of the State's 
leading citizens, men of finance, business, agriculture, and the 
professions. The Governor picked the superintendent of the 
Institute to be chairman of the Council and a member of 
our faculty as executive secretary. The work of this body 
has been highly commended as helping to make it possible 
for Virginia to play so effectively the part she did in the war. 

The next step marking the V. M. I.'s war contributions 
consisted in an arrangement, made at the request of the 
authorities of Washington and Lee University, whereby forty 
members of the corps spent four afternoons a week during 
the spring of 1917 drilling the student body of the University. 

In the same summer, and the summer of 1918 as well, a 
"rookie" training camp was conducted at the Institute, of- 
ficered by members of our tactical staff. The attendance at 
these camps was large and representative. The records show 
that with hardly an exception graduates of the camps won 
commissions soon after entering the service. 

Perhaps the most striking recognition of the V. M. I. from 
the War Department came in the fall of 1918 with the or- 
ganization of units of the Student Army Training Corps. 
The Institute was the only college in the country, military 
or nonmilitary, which had a sufficient number of her officers 
commissioned in the regular army. They were assigned to 
I duty at the Institute without interruption of their routine 
work. This unusual designation was amply justified by the 
admirable way in which the S. A. T. C. units here were con- 
ducted. Large groups of men were called away to oflicers' 
camps at f reipient intervals, and demand for admission to 
take their places increased from week to week up to the time 
of demobilization of the units. 

Very soon after this took place the War Department an- 
nounced that cavalry, artillery, infantry, and engineering units 
of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps would be established 
at the V. M. L 

And now of the men who fought in France, of those who 
did their best to go, of those who worked with devotion in 
camps here and abroad, what shall we say of them ? One 
is, in fact, embarrassed by wealth of material in attempting 
to write a short piece about the V. M. I. and the war. 

Where to begin and what to say that needs be said ! Our 
records are not complete, and as these lines were written 
(late in February, 1919) news came of heretofore unrecorded 
casualties and honors won by our men in France. 

The historiographer of the Institute is making a complete 
record of the V. M. I. men in the war. The material he has 
already collected is an imposing tribute to the valor of the 
Institute men. Space does not permit, and this is not the 
place to attempt, a statement of the war roster as of this 
date ; but we should like to quote a few sentences from a 
letter from the historiographer, Col. Joseph R. Anderson. 
class of 1870. as showing the sort of material he is collect- 
ing for the V. M. I. war history. Colonel Anderson wrote : 
"I feel sure that we have had more than two thousand alumni, 
graduates and nongraduatcs. in the service. A great many 
of our boys have been decorated by France, England, and 
our own country for dauntless courage and the most con- 
spicuous gallantry. I could tell of the heroic conduct of 
Lieutenant Amory. of Delaware, 'the bravest and most be- 
loved man in his battalion,' as his commanding officer wrote. 
While still incapacitated for active duly on account of previ- 
ous wounds, and when he was believed to be in the hos- 
pital, Amory led his company far in advance of the battalion: 
in the assault and capture of a stronghold. He died in the 
action. I could tell of Captain Glazebrook, who, when suf- 
fering from serious wounds, jumped out of the window of 
the hospital when the nurse was absent and joined in the- 
battle then in progress, for which 'military crime' he was 
severely reprimanded and then promoted. I could tell of the 
hero, J. Favre Baldwin, of Texas, calmly writing his last 
letter to his 'saintly mother and reverend father' the night 
before he was killed in action, a letter which will stand as 
a classic, breathing as it does the most sublime courage, patri- 
otism, filial affection, and religious faith." 

Thus we could even now set forth a recital of death of our 
men that would make one of the brightest pages in the his- 
tory of America's heroic part in the war. But, as has bceni 
said, this is not the place and this is not the time for that, 
especially in view of the fact that just now any recital of 
the sort would be quite incomplete. The real story will be 
eloquently told at the proper time and in a manner worthy 
of the theme. To indicate the nature of that story is our 
purpose here. 

In closing this brief index as to the V. M. I.'s part in the 
war. we should like to quote from an address delivered be- 
fore the corps by Maj. J. C. Hemphill, of South Carolina, 
one of the South's most distinguished journalists and pub- 
licists. Major Hemphill emphasized the duty of us who face- 
the new world and the greater V. M. I. in the spirit of the 
poet, who said : "It's the torch the people follow, whoever 
the bearer be." In this connection he said : 

"There was never a time in the history of the world when 
the opportunity of service was so great, when the call for 
educated, thoroughly trained men was so insistent and im- 
perative — men of ideas, forward-looking men — for the world 
has to be built over, and you must be among the builders. 
Think of what your predecessors, who should be emulated 
by you in your day and generation, accomplished for their 
country in war and peace and under far less propitious cir- 
cumstances than confront you. Their work should cheer you- 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 

on to high endeavor and noble achievement. Ahnost without 
exception these elder brothers of yours have proved them- 
selves worthy of the best traditions of this school of the sol- 
diers — soldiers holding themselves, according to the Ameri- 
can ideal, al\va5'S subject to the civil powers, but ready upon 
every patriotic call, with bodies and souls both responsive 
to the call of dutj', to say to the State in the words of the 
ancient prophet as set down in his divine vision : 'Here am I ; 
send me.' 

"In every war in which this country has been engaged since 
the founding of this institution the men of the V. M. I. have 
added luster to American arms. Valiant in war, they have 
been effective in the pursuits of peace. The full story of 
your glory in war and peace has not been fully told and will 
not be until your accomplished historian, Joseph R. Anderson, 
has finished his monumental work; but, incomplete as it is, 
his would be a sorry soul indeed that did not thrill at the 
thought of the deathless deeds of those who were taught here 
that all that a man hath will he give for his country." 



In a paragraph of the communication by John C. Stiles on 
"Notes of the War Department, C. S. A.," appearing on page 
91 of the March Veteran, reference is made to the order 
issued in the Confederate army to have names of men "killed 
in action in which they had distinguished themselves inscribed 
on artillery guns that had been captured." This was fol- 
lowed by reference to names of those proposed by General 
Hardee on April 20, 1863, who were killed in the battle of 
Murfreesboro to be thus honored, and to this statement is 
added : "This is, I think, the only instance on record that 
gives names, but there is nothing on record as to whether the 
inscribing was accomplished or not." 

To correct this last statement I refer to the record made 
by me in my booklet, "History of Walthall's Brigade, C. S. 
A.," on referring to the gallantry of Captain May, of Brig. 
Gen. Patton Anderson's staff, in leading a regiment of Wal- 
thall's Brigade in the capture of two Federal batteries in the 
battle of Murfreesboro, four of which guns were later pre- 
sented by General Bragg to the brigade in recognition of its 
splendid record in that battle, as shown by the following cor- 
respondence appearing in that history of Walthall's Brigade : 

"Headquarters Army of Tennessee, 
Shelbyville, Tenn., March 22, 1863. 

"General: I am directed by the general commanding to say 
that Col. H. Oladowsky, his chief of ordnance, has received 
instructions to prepare a battery of four gqns captured from 
the enemy at Murfreesboro to be presented to your brigade 
as a compliment to the Mississippians who fought so bravely 
upon that bloody field. 

"You know how desperately and unwaveringly our troops 
fought on that occasion and how many valuable sacrifices the 
capture of the guns cost. They are presented to your brigade 
with the hope and belief that the brave Mississippians to 
whose care they are intrusted will nobly defend and protect 
them and never allow them to be recaptured if earnest fight- 
ing will prevent it. 

"The General wishes you to suggest the names of four 
officers — Mississippians — who fell at Murfreesboro to be en- 
graved upon the guns presented to the troops of your brigade. 

"I am. General, with high respect, your obedient servant, 
KiNLoCH F.\LC0NER, Assistant Adjutant General. 

"Brigadier General Walthall, Commanding Brigade." 

"He.\dquarters Walthall's Brigade, Withers's Division. 
Camp Autry', Near Shelbyville, Tenn., 
March 24, 1863. 

"Captain: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your communication of the 22d inst. and submit the follow- 
ing as suitable names to be engraved upon the captured guns 
which the commanding general designs presenting to this 
brigade : Lieut. Col. James L. Autry, 27th Mississippi Regi- 
ment ; Capt. Henry Harper, 29th Mississippi Regiment ; Capt. 
Kershaw Williams, 29th Mississippi Regiment ; Second Lieut. 
Thomas W. Boone, 30th Mississippi Regiment. 

"I deem it not improper to say that the officers and men of 
this command feel deeply sensible of the indorsement of their 
conduct on the memorable battle field of Murfreesboro which 
the commanding general's action implies. Proud of approval 
from so high a source and grateful for the honor done the 
gallant dead of this command, they assure their commander 
that the guns which will bear the names of those whose memory 
they honor shall never be recaptured by our oppressors if 
earnest effort and the willing sacrifice of life will prevent it, 
and that in the next engagement they will contribute no less 
to the victory which they feel confident will follow than they 
did to that which crowned our army _at Murfreesboro. 

"I am, Captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
E. C. Walthall, Brigadier General. 

"Capt. Kinloch Falconer, Assistant Adjutant General." 

The guns thus presented were a part of the two batteries 
captured by Walthall's Brigade just following an enfilade 
fire by them on the brigade as it swung across the Wilkerson 
Pike, killing sixty-two officers and men and wounding one 
hundred and thirty-nine of the 30th Mississippi Regiment, 
commanded by Lieut. Col. J. J. Scales. See respectively Brig. 
Gen. J. Patton Anderson's report in Serial No. 29, page 762, 
"Official Records"; also Major General Withers's report, pages 
755, 756. and Lieutenant Genera! Polk's report, pages 686- 

I am quite sure that guns were likewise presented to Mani- 
gault's Brigade captured by it on Anderson's immediate left 
in the same movement for names of his gallant dead to be 
engraved theron. And I assume that guns captured by other 
commands in that and other engagements were presented to 
the captors for a like purpose. 

I will add that Brigadier General Walthall, having been 
attacked with pneumonia just prior to the Murfreesboro bat- 
tle, was, on the advice of General Bragg, absent on sick leave 
at the time of and for weeks after that battle, and Brig. Gen. 
J. Patton Anderson had been temporarily assigned to com- 
mand it. 

George W. Howard writes from College Park, Ga. : "I 
was a member of the 19th South Carolina Volunteers. Mani- 
gault's Brigade, which captured a battery of rifled cannon 
at Murfreesboro. General Bragg had these cannon engraved 
with the names of the officers who were killed in this battle 
— namely, Col. A. J. Lythgoe and Captain Nettles. There 
were others whose names I have forgotten. These guns were 
sent under escort to South Carolina, where they were used 
in opposing Sherman during the remainder of the war." 

C^oi^federat^ Ueterai^. 





Imagine a "little mountain," three miles from Charlottes- 
ville, in Albemarle County, Va., 580 feet high, sloping gently 
down to the Rivanna River, its summit graded to make a 
level lawn 600 feet by 200 feet in extent, from which rises a 
brick residence of Doric architecture with a rich cornice sur- 
mounted by a heavy balustrade, crowned by a central dome. 
A classic portico projects 
from the hall on the west- 
ern front and from the 
drawing-room on the east, 
the tall columns giving an 
air of symmetry and elc- 
Rance. Piazzas are at 
each end, leading to the 
terraces (one glass in- 
closed for a greenhouse), 
and under the terraces 
are covered ways ten feet 
wide dug in the earth, 
which once terminated in 
one-story pavilions, be- 
neath which were offices, 
tlie hilhide making this 
peculiar feature practica- 

The inferior arrange- 
mciu is unique and charm- 
ing. Entering the re- 
cessed hall, which is the height of the house, at one end, op- 
posite the front door, is the drawing-room, and on each side 
are doors leading into passages which traverse laterally the 
center of the house. On one side of the hall arc Mr. Jeffer- 
son's bedroom, library, and sitting room ; on the other the 
dining room, tea room, and two guest rooms. 

This is the plan of the first floor. It will be noted that 
stairways are not mentioned. One has been tucked in, how- 
ever, so that the upstairs rooms may be reached without re- 
sorting to a ladder. These rooms open into a gallery visible 
from the hall below. Jefferson has been accused of always 
forgetting a staircase, but the fact is he intended to have a 
billiard room over the parlor, with a staircase from the hall ; 
but billiard rooms having been forbidden by the State law, 
the stairway was never 
built. (Lovers of per- 
sonal liberty will please 
note that there were 
infringements of it in 
the halcyon days of 
the founders of the re- 
pulilic and that life, 
liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness did not 
include billiards.) 

The parlor projects 
twenty feet beyond the 
body of the house. 
The floor was inlaid 
in squares of wild 
cherry, each bordered 
by four inches of 
lieech. The contrast 


between the deep red of one and light color of the other must 
have been most attractive. In Jefferson's day the rooms were 
handsojTiely furnished, and there were portraits and busts of 
distinguished men. The library was the most valuable in 
-America. In order to relieve his financial difficulties. Jeffer- 
son sold it to Congress in 1S14 for $23,950, a sum which did 
not represent half its value nor the expert knowledge with 
which it had been accumulated. 

Such, lightly sketched, was the interior of Jefferson's home. 
Financial disaster scattered its contents to the four winds 
after his death, leaving the bare walls in alien possession. 

The first purchaser of Monticello bought it for the pitiful 
sum of $7,000. A few years later, in 1834. he sold the house 
and 218 acres to Capt. Uriah Levy for only $2,500. Captain 
Lev}' died in 1.862, a childless old man, leaving, among other 
l)cquests, one which gave Monticello to the people of the 
United States. The heirs brought suit to set aside the will, 
and this bequest was set aside as indefinite. 

During the long years of litigation Monticello was com- 
pletely neglected and looked inexpressibly desolate. Finally 
the case was decided. Mr. Jefferson Levy bought out the 
other interests and has restored Monticello to all its former 
beauty. Much of the furniture has been recovered, and the 
grounds are beautifully kept. 

Such are the vicissitudes in the story of Monticello. That 
the old Captain's dream may yet be realized, and that it shall 
become the property of the American people is a hope which 
the future may fulfill. Meanwhile the decision of the court 
has conveyed to neither ]ilaintiffs nor defendants that match- 
less panorama from the terrace. "From the southwest to the 
northeast is a horizon unbroken save by one solitary pyramid- 
shaped mountain, its peak under the true meridian and dis- 
tant by air line forty-seven miles. * * * You trace the 
Rivanna by its cultivated valley as it passes cast, apparently 
through an unbroken forest ; an inclined plain descends from 
your feet to the ocean, two hundred miles distant." On a 
clear day it is possible to see as far as Maryland and to trace 
one hundred miles of the mountain's ridges, a view unsur- 
passed in grandeur and beauty. 

Monticello is the incarnation of all the romance and the 
tragedy of Jefferson's life. He was born a half mile distant, 
at Shad well, in 1743: he was laid to rest in 1820 under the 
shadow of the oak tree which he and Dabney Carr chose 
when both were young, only six hundred feet away from 
Monticello. Between these two dates lie eighty-three years 

of u'lefulncss and 
achievement such as 
rarely falls to human 

Thomas Jefferson 
was the son of Peter 
Jefferson and his wife, 
Jane Randolph, daugh- 
ter of the William 
Randolph who was the 
progenitor of more 
distinguished men than 
any other individual 
who landed in Ameri- 
ca. Peter Jefferson 
<liod in 1757, leaving 
two sons and six 
daughters. Following 
the good old English 
custom, the sons took 


Qoi^fcderat^ l/eterap, 

the land, Thomas getting the Albemarle estates. At seventeen 
years of age he went to William and Mary College, at the 
colonial capital, and at once became a favorite with Lord 
Fauquier, who was certainly a companion no mother would 
choose for her young son. This particularly royal governor, 
like a great many others, had excellent reasons for accepting 
an appointment across the water. He was a fascinating and 
gifted nobleman, addicted to horse-racing and gambling, and 
it is related that Lord Anson won his patrimony from him 
in a night of play, and this before poker was invented. In 
return Anson procured for him the place of Governor of the 
Old Dominion, where Fauquier immediately introduced to the 
James River aristocracy gambling and horse-racing. They 
followed his example with avidity and with most unfortunate 

Such was the man who attracted young Jefferson by his 
charm and ability, but whose vices Jefferson carefully avoided. 
He never knew one card from another and never permitted 
them in his house. He had one simple rule for deciding 
whether a course was right or wrong : What would Dr. 
Small, Mr. Wyth, or Peyton Randolph do in this situation? 

He was an indefatigable student, acquiring Greek, Latin, 
French, as well as law and a considerable knowledge of nat- 
ural history, architecture, and science. He became an in- 
ventor, a writer, as well as a statesman, lawj'er, and dip- 
lomat. In 1772 he married a beautiful young widow, Martha 
Skelton (ncc Wayles). The ten years of their married life 
were ideally happy except for the loss of four of their six 

The building at Monticello had begun before Shadwell was 
burned in 1770 and was sufficiently complete to make a most 
delightful home, although it was not finished until about 1797. 
It was on a night in January through snow two feet deep that 
Jefferson came to Monticello with his bride. The servants 
were all asleep, the house dark and cold, no supper prepared ; 
but soon fires were lighted, Jefferson discovered a bottle of 
w-ine behind some books (lawyers seem instinctively to use 
this camouflage, or had he learned it from Fauquier?), his 
violin was brought out, and soon the stately room echoed to 
his music and her song. 

The scope of this article necessarily restricts its length, but 
the last great day in Jefferson's life may fittingly close the 
scene at Monticello. It is the year 1824. Far away lie the 
golden days of Jefferson's prime. He had been in Congress, 
Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, Vice President, 
President, and envoy to the court of France. Fourscore years 
old, he is still able to ride on horseback each day to Char- 
lottesville and see "the child of his old age," the University 
of Virginia, grow and develop. Grandchildren cluster about 
him, and one of them, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, is like 
his own son. His daughter. Martha Randolph — the noblest 
woman in Virginia she was called — presided over his home. 
Monticello was infested by visitors. They devoured his 
dwindling property, invaded his leisure, and taxed Mrs. Ran- 
dolph's resources ; but to-day some one is expected whom the 
entire country has honored. On the eastern side of the lawn 
a barouche stops, and a man bent with years, imprisonment, 
and the horrors of the Reign of Terror alights. At the same 
moment a tall, feeble, white-haired man descends the steps of 
the portico. "Ah. Jefferson!" "Ah, Lafayette!" they exclaim 
and, bursting into tears, fall into each other's arms. Four 
hundred men ranged upon the lawn in silence witnessed this 
meeting, and there was not one who did not shed tears at the 
touching sight. 

A ray of final sunshine fell athwart the gathering shadows. 

It became known that Jefferson was harassed by financial 
difficulties. Generous New York sent him a gift of $8,500, 
Philadelphia sent $5,000, and Baltimore $3,000. Never was 
aid more gratefully appreciated. He died in happy ignorance 
of the fact that his beloved daughter would be left penniless. 
Learning of her need, the Legislature of South Carolina and 
the Legislature of Louisiana each sent to her ten thousand 
dollars. The man who by his sagacity had more than doubled 
the area of the United States by the Louisiana Purchase had 
nothing but his fame as a legacy for his family. 

On July 4, 1826, the anniversary of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, Jefferson passed into the great beyond. A few 
hours later another signer joined him, John Adams. Reunited 
in friendship after many years of estrangement, in death 
they were not divided. 

In the little cemetery on the mountain, shadowed by the 
oak which had dropped the leaves of many autumns over the 
grave of Dabney Carr, Jefferson was laid to rest beside his 
idolized wife. The following epitaph was written by him- 
self, with simply the date of his death added: 

"Here was buried 

Thomas Jefferson, 

Author of the Declaration of American Independence, 

Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, 

And father of the University of Virginia. 

Born April 2, 1743, O. S. ; 

Died July 4, 1826." 

Time's effacing finger, aided by the hands of vandals, re- 
duced the granite obelisk to a misshapen column. By the 
efforts of Miss Sarah Randolph, one of the most gifted of 
his descendants, Jefferson's grave was marked by Congress 
with an obelisk bearing the original inscription and the ceme- 
tery inclosed by a high iron railing. This small and sacred 
spot is the one place of real estate remaining of Monticello 
which has not passed into alien hands. 


C. S. A. 

In the transfer of Quarles's Brigade from Mobile to North- 
ern Georgia the change from the balmy breezes of the Gulf 
of Mexico to the sharp blasts of winter in the mountains was 
at first rather trying on us. But a soldier soon learns to 
utilize everything in reach to make for his comfort. And it 
was not long until our camp, about a mile north of Dalton, 
was quite homelike in many of its appointments, and it even 
presented some literary attractions ; for as we passed through 
Montgomery, Ala.. I bought about all the stock of readable 
books which a bookseller there possessed. It consisted of 
histories, biographies, novels, and bound magazines. The 
quartermaster allowed me transportation for my boxes of 
books, and they whiled away many an hour of the men in 
camp. When we went into active campaigning, they were 
stored, I think, in Mobile, and I never knew what became 
of them. 

I believe I have stated somewhere in these rambling remi- 
niscences that the "boys" raised a sum of money to buy a 
horse, saddle, and bridle for me, but I declined to accept for 
a rather selfish reason. I knew that some footsore soldier 
would be riding that horse most of the time, and I would 
have to feed, curry, and care for my steed. Well, that money 
paid for our little library. 

We found everything at Dalton in confusion. Every one 

Qoijfcderat^ l/eteraij. 


had his story to tell of the disaster at Missionary Ridge, 
where all the fruits of the dearly-bought victory of Chicka- 
mauga were lost to us. Criticism of General Bragg was 
general and indicated a complete lack of confidence in his 
ability to command an army. Of course criticism is one 
of the privileges of the American soldier, and it is consider- 
able compensation for his hardships that he can "cuss out" 
his commander. But the rout of our army at Missionary 
Ridge seemed to be one of those fatalities that so frequently 
befell it from failure to press on and complete a victory 
after it was won. On several occasions our commanders 
from First Manassas to Franklin, after they had gained a 
vcitory, stopped pursuit and gave the enemy time to fortify 
or to reen force his defeated army and assume the aggressive. 
We all remember how at Shiloh our victorious forces were 
halted and withdrawn just as they were ready to make the 
final charge that would almost certainly have destroyed or 
captured General Grant's army, and the delay of one night 
enabled him to renew the battle with General BuclVs fresh 
and numerous legions to aid him in driving our wearied army 
from the hard- won field. 

After Franklin's bloody struggle General Schnfield marched 
unpursued to Nashville, and in twenty-four hours General 
Hood followed and sat down in front of the city until the 
Federal army w'as recnforccd to two or three times his own 
strength ; then General Thomas came out and overwhelmed 
him. It is very generally believed that if the routed and 
panic-stricken Federals at First Manassas had been pursued. 
as Stonewall Jackson advised, our army could have gone 
right into Washington: and the testimony is that if General 
I'ragg had followed the victory of Chickamauga with im- 
nn (liatc and vigorous pursuit, as General Forrest urged him 
to do, he could have captured ' or scattered General Rose- 
crans's whole army. But he sat down on Missionary Ridge 
with about 35,000 inen for weeks, until General Grant had 
massed 60,000 or 70,000 men and easily overwhelmed him. 
Jackson and Forrest were the most aggressive of our great 
leaders, and they gathered the largest results from their vic- 
tories by never letting up on the enemy. 

Northern writers magnify the prow-ess of their soldiers in 
this brief campaign of three days from November 23 to 
November 26, 1863. and they unquestionably deserve credit 
for the dash and courage of their charge ; but there is silence 
as to the great disparity of numbers, and they especially 
glorify what they call the "Battle Above the Clouds." which 
was fought on Lookout Mountain by General Hooker's 
corps of 8,000 or 9,000 men against a small brigade which 
could not be reenforced and was expecting to be withdrawn. 
And they barely mention the bloody repulse of a large part 
of their army by General Cleburne's division at Ringgold. 
Nevertheless, our great victory at Chickamauga was futile. 

Our camp was situated in the midst of a forest, at the 
foot of a, high hill from wdiich issued several springs. We 
set about making ourselves comfortable for the winter. There 
were a number of tents, but many of us built cabins of logs. 
Tliese were six or eight feet high and some ten or twelve 
feot square, covered with clapboards, and some of us added 
chimneys of sticks plastered over w-ith mud. But usually 
the fire was on the outside under a shed, where cooking was 
done. Within those who preferred sleeping above the dirt 
floor constructed on each side a scafTold made of forks and 
poles and covered it deeply with sedge grass. This was cov- 
ered with a blanket, and the other blankets were used to 
cover the sleepers. These aiiartmcnts were well ventilated, 
and those having chimneys could be kept very warm. 

It may help to see soldier life as it was if I give an account 
of my sleeping arrangements. I "roomed" with the captain 
and lieutenants of my company, D. I slept with the captain 
on one side of the room, and the three lieutenants slept to- 
gether on the other scaffold. Each of us had a blanket or a 
shawl, and when the weather became severe we found our 
covering rather scant, when I bethought me that I had read 
or heard that paper made a warm covering ; so we got a 
number of newspapers, the Chattanooga Rebel and others, 
and sewed them onto our blankets. I had a very large 
shawl, which I opened out and sewed two layers of the 
papers onto it. The thing was a big success. It made the 
warmest covering I ever slept under. The chief objection 
was that w-hen one moved the rattling of the papers would 
wake us up. 

The captain and I had plenty of space in our bed. but the 
three lieutenants on the other side were so crowded that they 
had to sleep spoon fashion, and if one turned over suddenly 
the outside sleeper was apt to be pushed off. .So they adopted 
a code of signals, a kind of spoon drill. When one wished 
to turn over, he would call out : ".^ttcntion ! Prepare to 
turn — turn — spoon." It took only a moment, and when the 
last order was executed the trio would be sound asleep until 
another turnover was called. The Confederate soldier had 
an easy conscience, and he slept well. Eating and sleeping 
were our chief employments in winter quarters. 

One day I was witness of an act of genuine kindness and 
politeness by Gen. John C. Breckinridge which increased my 
already great admiration for the man. As I have remarked, 
everything was in confusion, men going hither and thither 
seeking their regiments, wagons and teams going from one 
place to another, some loaded, some empty. Couriers were 
rushing about with orders to various officers. The center of 
activity was a very long building at the railroad depot. It 
was a freight house, and it was packed with supplies which 
the quartermasters and their assistants WTrc sending out. 
The platform, at least a hundred yards long, was crowded 
with busy men. I saw a man. a private, and a rather dilapi- 
dated specimen at that, who was inquiring for General 
Bragg's headquarters, to which he bad been ordered to re- 
port. All his inquiries seemed unavailing. He was either 
ignored or answered gruffly. He came to me and asked me 
to direct him. but I did not know. Just then an officer, splen- 
didly mounted, rode up. He wore a heavy overcoat that con- 
cealed any mark of rank, but I recognized him as General 
Breckinridge. He dismounted, throwing his bridle to an 
orderly who attended him. The poor soldier, utterly dis- 
couraged, came up to him and timidly asked if he would 
direct him to General Bragg's quarters. The General replied 
at once that he could and would be glad to do it. and. taking 
the private by the arm. he walked with him clear to the end 
of that long platform through the seething mass of people 
until, at the far end. he could point out the exact location ; 
and as the private thanked him and saluted, the salute was 
returned with as much grace and courtesy as if it had been 
to General Bragg himself. 

For a week or two after we reached Dalton there was a 
terrible lack of rations, both as to quantity and quality. 
Especially the beef that was issued to us was poor and tough. 
I saw carloads of cattle brought up from Atlanta, about a 
hundred miles, and I was told that they had been on the road 
four or five days without food or water. General Bragg 
was relieved and General Hardee put in temporary command 
pretty soon after we got to Dalton. but Gen. Joe Johnston 
was expected every day to take permanent command. 


QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 

One morning just after daylight I was returning from the 
hospital, where I had been looking after some of our sick, 
when I saw General Johnston and a single orderly riding in 
the direction from which I came. He met some details of 
men going out for the day's duty assigned to them. He 
stopped them and asked to look into their haversacks. When 
he had e.xamined the contents he saluted and rode on. As 
he met other squads he made the same examination. It was 
not over a week until there was a very notable improvement 
in our rations. Especially did we have excellent beef issued 
to us. I heard this explanation, for which I, of course, cannot 
vouch. It was said that he wrote to the commissary at At- 
lanta complaining of the beef and of the way the cattle were 
kept so long on the road without food or water, and his 
complaint was answered with some asperity; that the com- 
missary was doing the best he could and that he did not 
think the difficulty could be remedied. General Johnston's 
reply was that, as the commissary said he could not do any 
better, he was ordered to report to General Johnston at 
Daltin, who would assign him to duty in the field, and that 
the General would send a man who, he was sure, could remedy 
the situation. The commissary begged to be given another 
chance, and he would see what he could do. It was granted, 
with the result that we had no more to make complaint. One 
of the things that made the men love "Old Joe" was his 
thoughtful care of them. 

Religion in Johnston's Army. 

For several weeks at Dalton. Ga., under General Johnston, 
our brigade did only camp duty, and there was abundant 
leisure, which I utilized in preaching very frequently to the 
soldiers. And here let me tell something of religion in the 

A large proportion of our men were religious. Many of 
the officers were of devout piety and were officers in their 
Churches at home. The captain of my company was a Cum- 
berland Presbyterian preacher. The colonels and lieutenant 
colonels — for we had several in the course of the war — were 
mostly prominent churchmen. Every Sunday I preached 
twice to the men, and during the week there were meetings 
for prayer, which were well attended. I spent a good deal 
of time in looking after the sick and in writing letters for 
the men. I managed to carry my Greek Testament and also 
a small Hebrew Bible and Lexicon, and I had considerable 
opportunity for study. The winter was characterized by a 
revival of religion which was carried on during the following 
months of the North Georgia campaign. The men in 
various brigades built large sheds or brush arbors and pre- 
pared seats of split logs, and night after night services were 
held, with crowds of soldiers attending. A great many pro- 
fessed conversion and became active Christians. 

At one of these meetings there was deep interest, and after 
the sermon the preacher asked those who were interested and 
wished to become Christians to come forward and kneel at 
a bench in front of the stand. A number did so, and quite 
a large number of Christian soldiers knelt by them to instruct 
them. Meanwhile a large tree standing near had caught fire 
and had been slowly burning for a considerable time, until 
the fire had nearly burned through the body. While the sing- 
ing was going on suddenly the tree fell with a great crash 
right across the men who were kneeling and crushed out 
their lives I do not remember the exact number of those 
killed, but I think it was ten or twelve The incident made 
a profound impression on the men as they realized that death 
is not confined to battle fields. 

There were two classes of preachers in the army. There- 
were the regularly commissioned chaplains appointed by the 
government and having. I think, the military rank of captain,. 
Here let me say that about this time I received my commis- 
sion, dating back to my detail more than a year before, but 
I never assumed the three bars on the collar that indicated 
the rank. The other class was of those appointed by the 
various Churches as missionaries to the army. They, of 
course, were not subject to discipline and had no mark, but 
many of them, to distinguish their calling, wore a cross of 
gold braid on the shoulder or on the collar of the coat. Some 
of these came for a few weeks or months ; others remained 
permanently with us and were very helpful in the work of 
evangelization. They were welcomed by our superior officers 
and were assigned quarters and rations. Indeed, so deeply 
did the government value the religious influence of the 
ministry that each corps of our army had a corps chap- 
lain, whose business it was to correspond with the Churches 
and visit their assemblies or conventions, to secure chaplains 
for the various regiments or brigades. I remember that Rev. 
J. H. Bryson was corps chaplain of Hardee's Corps, and 
Dr. (afterwards Bishop) C. L. Quintard was corps chap- 
lain of Polk's (afterwards Stewart's) Corps, in which I 

There was a meeting of the chaplains every Monday morn- 
ing in the Presbyterian church at Dalton, and I want to say 
that I never met a nobler body of men. It was a delightful 
feast, intellectual and spiritual, to associate with them. They 
were from half a dozen dififerent denominations and all with 
one heart and one mind seeking the one gre'at end — to min- 
ister to the spiritual life of the soldiers. They were all true, 
brave, manly men. There wasn't a sissy among them. In- 
deed, the life we led toned up any man who stuck to it. 

Old Dr. John B. McFerrin, of the Methodist Church, was 
the Nestor of our association. Were there ever more wit and 
wisdom, more genial humor and hard common sense mingled 
in one man? And his piety was sound and wholesome. Then 
there was Bennett, of the Baptist Church, young, fiery, zeal- 
ous ; DeWitt, of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, ready, 
warm-hearted, eloquent ; and William Flinn, of the Presby- 
terian Church, quiet, modest, learned, a highly cultured gen- 
tleman. I cannot mention them all, but I got much from 
every one of them. In the absence of books I was compelled 
to draw on my associates to replenish my slender stock of 
knowledge and of ideas, and I usually began pumping each 
of my brethren as soon as I got to know him. Some of them 
it did not take long to pump dry, but there were others whom 
I could never exhaust, however long I pumped. Their well 
was deep and always full. 

One little breeze between two of the brethren refreshed us 
in the midst of our discussions. One morning in our discus- 
sions Dr. McFerrin made a remark which a young brother of 
a different denomination construed as an attack on the tenets 
of his Church. As soon as the old Doctor sat down the 
young brother sprang up and "went for him" hammer and 
tongs. The old man listened with surprise, and as soon as 
he could he disclaimed the interpretation of his remarks with 
the assurances that he would not think, much less express, 
an unkind thought about the sister Church. But the younger 
man was not satisfied, and he insisted that the Doctor had 
been "a mighty man of valor, a man of war" from his youth, 
and we expected an explosion. Instead with gentleness the 
reply came : "I did not mean any reflection on my brother's 
[Concluded on page 157.] 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterai>. 



GADE, ramseur's division, Early's corps, c. s. a.; 


[In the galaxy of Confederate leaders many "good men and 
1rue" are little known for their achievements in the cause of 
the South. Their gallant deeds are a part of that history, 
but their names have not been blazoned on "Fame's bright 
sky." Of such was Gen. Archibald Campbell Godwin, whose 
career is the subject of this paper, who gave his all — his 
life — for the Confederacy, and this tribute is but a small part 
of what is due to his memory.] 

Archibald Campbell Godwin was born in 1831 in the 
County of Nanscmond. State of Virginia, and the family re- 
moved to Portsmouth, Va.. in the same year. His parents 
were Lewis Godwin and Julia Campbell Godwin, the daugh- 
ter of Gen. .Archibald Campbell, U. S. A., who was in charge 
of United States public lands of Missouri and Northwest 
Territory in 1837. His grandfather was Talbot Godwin, and 
his grandmother was Julia Hatton Godwin, of Hatton's Point, 
on the western branch of the Eli.Tabcth River. She lived on 
London Street. Portsmouth, where .Archibald grew up under 
her training after his father's death. He became a splendid 
.specimen of manhood, about six feet and six inches tall and 
well proportioned. 

During the great gold fever in 1849 he went to California 
by the overland route, reaching the gold fields after many 
hardships and privations. There he engaged in successful 
mining for many years, branching out into ranching and the 
lumber and milling business. At one time he owned a large 
and valuable part of Vancouver Island, but at the time of the 
boundary trouble, when his property was thrown into the 


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^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^Bg ** T^K -^^k 


British lines, he immediately sacrificed it and moved into the 
United States. 

An incident of his life in the West was related to me by a 
person familiar with the facts, showing the metal of which 
the man was made. Godwin was in charge of a party en- 
gaged in suppressing an Indian uprising in Oregon, having 
fought them hard. Many of his men were killed, and finally 
he got separated from the remnant and was surrounded by 
one of the largest and most influential tribes. Backed by a 
steep mountain, he fought them single-handed until his am- 
munition was exhausted. Their shots and arrows seeming 
to have no effect upon him, the most prominent chief ordered 
them to cease firing and demanded his surrender ; but he re- 
fused and, stepping forward, dared them to do their worst. 
The chief requested a parley to talk it over, which led to a 
cessation of the war and a treaty of peace. The Indians 
after this looked upon him as their best friend and called 
him their "godfather." 

Another incident to illustrate the manner of man he was. 
He bought one of those old Spanish land grants of immense 
area and was engaged in ranching, stock-raising, saw- and 
grist-milling on it. and also worked a quicksilver mine on it. 
He sold oflF a portion of this claim to a lawyer named Baker, 
who was afterwards a Federal general during the Confed- 
erate war. This Baker set up a claim to the quicksilver mine 
which Godwin was developing into one of the most valuable 
mines in California. Baker claimed that the mine was within 
the lines of the portion of the grant he had purchased and 
brought suit for it. This suit was holding its slow course 
through the courts for several years at great expense for 
lawyers and fees, with no end in sight. Then Godwin de- 
termined to study law. get a license, and defend bis own case. 
This he did and won his case. 

When the Democratic nominating convention met in Cali- 
fornia in 1860, Godwin came within one vote of receiving the 
nomination for Governor, which was equivalent to an election 
there at that time. If he had been Governor, he might have 
carried California into the Confederacy. Gen. Albert Sidney 
Johnston was his close friend and then in command of the 
Department of California. Think of the possibilities to us 
with those ports on the Pacific open ! 

When Virginia seceded Godwin immediately turned his 
property over to two other men and started home by way of 
New York. While in New York he stopped at the Astor 
House, and General Baker, with whom he had had the suit, 
knowing his strong Southern sympathies, tried to have him 
arrested. Fortunately, he discovered liaker and his squad 
entering the front door in time to escape by the side door, 
and then he finally made his way to Richmond, Va. There 
President Davis gave him a commission as major in the 
Confederate army and assigned him to special duty around 
Richmond, assistant provost marshal in charge of Libby 
Prison, etc. 

He wished to join Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who 
wanted him, but he was so eflicient in his duties at Libby 
Prison that President Davis insisted that he should first or- 
ganize and establish a prison at Salisbury. N. C. and it was 
while on this mission that he organized and was commissioned 
colonel of the 57th North Carolina Infantry. Its first big 
battle, after serving around Richmond awhile, was at Fred- 
ericksburg December 13, 1862. It was then attached to Law's 
Brigade, Hood's Division. Then it was baptized in blood 
and immortalized by a gallant charge, driving a Federal bri- 
gade from an advanced position in a railway cut near Hazel 
Run, which was threatening to cut the Confederate lines in 



C^opfedcrat^ l/efcerap. 


the center. This cut was just deep enough to make excellent 
breastworks for infantry. A line of woods stretched along 
the edge of the Run's bottom, which was marshy, and in 
front of this location for six or eight hundred yards was 
low ground. 

It was during the furious assaults on Marye's Hill, on our 
left, and attacks on A. P. Hill's line, on the right, that a New 
Jersey brigade effected a lodgment in this supposed impas- 
sable swamp and into this railway cut. Two unsuccessful 
attempts had been made by General Hood to dislodge them 
from this threatening position. About three o'clock in the 
afternoon Hood ordered General Law to make another effort 
to clear the railroad cut of the enemy, and Law ordered the 
57th North Carolina Regiment (Godwin's Regiment) to make 
the charge. In order to get into line of battle it had to go 
over a corduroy ' road through this swamp with front of 
fours under heavy artillery fire as well as the sharp rifle 
fire of the enemy, but the regiment moved forward, com- 
pany after company, and formed steadily in line front as ac- 
curately as if on parade ; then at "quick step," "right shoul- 
der shift" it advanced. Soon the rifle fire from the cut be- 
came terrific ; then double-quick, and with the Rebel yell, a 
sudden rush, it was at the railway cut with loaded guns. 
The enemy was driven out, killed or captured, and over the 
cut it rushed, never faltering, although attacked on its flank, 
until General Law sent orders tor it to retire to the railway 
cut, when it about-faced under a murderous fire and in true 
alignment marched back and took its position in the cut 
without any confusion, the left company by a half wheel 
protecting the regiment from an assault on its flank. 

In this affair this splendid regiment lost two hundred 
and fifty out of eight hundred men and four captains and 
eight lieutenants, killed and wounded. This heroic charge 
was made in plain sight of our comrades on the hills, who 
encouraged them with mighty yells, and was also under the 
eyes of the beloved commander in chief. Gen. R. E. Lee. 
from Lee's Hill, who well repaid the noble regiment with a 
complimentary notice in general orders issued the next day, 
which was always afterwards held by it as a proud standard 
by which it should act, uphold, and support, and in which it 
never failed. The members of the S7th Regiment were mostly 
of Scotch-Irish descent. 

At the reorganization of this regiment in April, 1863, it 
was assigned to Hoke's Brigade, Early's Division, Ewell's 

On May 4, 1863, the 57th Regiment, with Hoke's Brigade, 
was ordered to dislodge General Gibbon, who was trying 
to get to Lee's rear at Chancellorsville, from a strong posi- 
tion on the turnpike out of Fredericksburg north of Marye's 
Heights, and here it again distinguished itself. With a rush 
over rough ground and under terrific fire of rifle and canister 
it drove the enemy back and captured the position. There 
Colonel Godwin was wounded, but held on in the battle. 
Many other officers and men were killed or wounded. 

In the Gettysburg campaign Early's Division led the ad- 
vance into the Valley of Virginia. Milroy was at Winches- 
ter, which he had fortified by an intrenched camp around it. 
He was completely surprised when Hoke's Brigade charged 
and captured it ; and although manned by superior numbers, 
General Milroy almost alone escaped. 

General Early, with Ewell's Corps, advanced down the Val- 
ley and on into Maryland, then into Pennsylvania, through 
Gettysburg to York, where, after waiting five or six days for 
orders, he started for Lee's rendezvous at Cashtown, for- 
tunately by way of Gettysburg, moving leisurely until the 

head of the column was within three or four miles of Get- 
tysburg, when about midday two reports of field guns were 
heard in that direction ; but they seemed far away and were 
supposed to be a cavalry fight some twenty miles distant. In 
a few minutes the firing became rapid and apparently with 
many guns. Then Maj. John W. Daniel, of Early's staff, 
approached at full speed with orders to hasten to the aid 
of Gen. A. P. Hill, who was hard pressed on Seminary Ridge, 
near Gettysburg. Then off went the blankets and all encum- 
brances for the wagon train to pick up and bring on as they 
came along and on with quick step, the last mile in the double- 
quick, for they could see the smoke and hear the noise of 

Reaching Oak Hill, near the north suburb of Gettysburg, 
Rodes's Division was rushed off to the right to A. P. Hill's 
assistance on Seminary Ridge, and Early's Division, formed 
with Hoke's Brigade, commanded by Col. Isaac E. Avery, 
formerly of the 6th North Carolina Regiment, on the ex- 
treme left, Hayes's Louisiana Brigade next, and Gen. John 
B. Gordon's Georgians on the right toward Rodes. 

From this position (Oak Hill) away on the right could 
be seen both the Confederate and Federal lines in battle array 
in plain view for two miles, with no breastworks or fortifi- 
cations. A brigade on our extreme right moving up, a jet 
of white smoke along the enemy's line, the roar of rifle and 
artillery, the expected yell, a rush and the enemy's line broken, 
a second brigade moving in echelon, the same yell, same 
rush, and same flight of the enemy. But Hill's left was hard 
pressed when Rodes come sweeping down from Oak Hill, 
where they had massed their heavy regiments of artillery, 
and broke their lines into full retreat. As the conflict moved 
the sound became more distinct, and the effect was marvelous. 
The men, wild with excitement, went in with the greatest 
enthusiasm to cut off the reenforcements hurrying to the 
Federals' assistance, for there was not an officer or man but 
believed the war would be closed upon that field that evening. 
And it might have been had General John B. Gordon had 
his way. 

Colonel Godwin's S7th Regiment was on the extreme left, 
with Hayes next and then Gordon. They closed in with a 
rush and made a charge nothing could stand against. Their 
quick and bloody work drove the Federals back through the 
town, broken, utterly routed, and they were over halfway up 
Cemetery Hill, which the Federals were seeking as a refuge 
from the fury of the Confederate charge, when, although 
full two hours of daylight remained, for some reason which 
never has been satisfactorily explained, and now can never 
be, a halt was called (by Early, 'twas said), and even the 
urgent appeals of Gordon, Hayes, and Godwin to be allowed 
to take the hill were unheeded. There some one made a ter- 
rible blunder and without a doubt lost the battle of Gettysburg 
and most likely the Confederate cause. 

General Lee was in the rear of Hill's Corps and was not 
found until near dark. He had not been advised earlier of 
the condition of affairs at this point, but as soon as he was 
he at once ordered an attempt to be made on the hill and 
"to drive those people away." Ewell pleaded darkness. O for 
a Stonewall then and there ! 

That night of July 1 the brigade lay in position at the 
foot of the hill between the town and cemetery. It passed 
quietly except for the noise of the pick and shovel used by 
the Federals in fortifying the hill, which had been so near in 
our hands, and the rumble of guns and the tramp of re- 
enforcements coming up to the Federal assistance. By morn- 
ing the enemy had worked wonders in fortifying his posi- 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 


tion. Toward evening of the second day of July cannonad- 
ing began, extending from the town to Round Top. Then 
Longstreet assailed the positions in his front at Peach Or- 
chard and Round Top. 

Late in the afternoon, when the sun was low. General 
Hayes was ordered to attack the ridge with his Louisiana 
brigade and Godwin's North Carolina Brigade. (Colonel 
Avery having been killed in the beginning of the assault, God- 
win succeeded to the command.) They advanced in fine order 
across the plateau at the foot of the hill, being shelled from 
Cemetery Hill in front and in flank from Gulp's Hill. They 
drove the enemy from his intrenchments on the hillside up 
the hill and went with a rush over the crest. They had driven 
everything before them and dislodged every position of the 
enemy in their front on the summit of Cemetery Hill except 
a small redoubt occupied by a battery of artillery and a few 
infantry, when darkness came on and exhaustion and heavy 
loss caused them to wait for recnforcemcnts to effect a per- 
manent lodgment upon the crest of the ridge they had won — 
Cemetery Hill. 

No recnforcemcnts came, but instead an order to retire, 
which they did with great loss, for the Federals had by this 
time been reenforced in great numbers. 

An incident in this charge and capture of the crest of 
Cemetery Hill may be in place here. Colonel Avery, com- 
manding the brigade, was killed in the very beginning of the 
charge, when Colonel Godwin took command of the brigade 
as the senior colonel and led it in the capture of the breast- 
works, being the first man over them. Nearly all the Fed- 
erals were shot or fleeing ; he was met by an immense giant 
of a man, who rushed upon him with a clubbed rifle and 
attempted to brain him. General Godwin, throwing up his 
left arm, diverted the blow so it fell to the ground with such 
force that it broke the stock from the barrel, and before the 
man could recover Godwin came down with his sword, lit- 
erally cutting his head in twain. 

Here again the main pivot of the whole position had been 
taken, and the success of the battle was thrown away for 
lack of reenforcement of even a brigade and, as ever seemed 
to be our fate in this battle, a lack of proper cooperation and 
failure to obey Lee's orders promptly. 

The next day, July 3, Godwin's Brigade was on the right 
flank as a support to the old Stonewall Division, under 
Gen. Edward Johnson, in Ewell's assault on Gulp's Hill 
(the Federal extreme right flank partly doubled back) early 
that morning at the same time that Longstreet was ordered 
by General Lee to make a simultaneous, or supporting, at- 
tack on the Federal center main front, with A. P. Hill between 
them, and thus keep Meade too busy all along his line to 
allow him to throw an overpowering reenforcement at any 
one point, as, from the formation of his line, it being the 
inner and shorter line doubled back like a fishhook, he could 
easily and quickly do. But again Longstreet failed to be on 
time, although authentic history tells us that both Pickett and 
Pettigrew, with their support, were ready in line by 9 a.m., 
and thus by this delay allowed the Federals to concentrate an 
overwhelming force against Ewell's assault in the morning 
and repeat the same tactics against Pickett's assault in the 
late afternoon. So both were overpowered and repulsed in 
detail, another bad blunder and failure for the want of proper 
and ordered support and total lack of coiiperation. 

On the 4th they, with the rest of the army, remained all 
day in position on the field awaiting the expected attack, but 
none came. 
After nightfall Lee started his trains of wounded and sup- 

plies, as well as his army, by way of Fairfield, leaving Ewell's 
Corps till near noon of the 5th to bring up the rear, Godwin's 
Brigade being part of the rear guard on the way back to 
the Hagerstown position, which Lee took, to await the passing 
of the flood in the Potomac and in the hope that Meade 
would attack him in position, an attack that the men were 
eager for that they might have a chance to even up on that 
last day at Gettysburg, but which Meade most scrupulously 
avoided, keeping out of striking distance from the 11th to 
the 13th, when the flood passed and Lee crossed to Virginia, 
Godwin's Brigade again among the last, at noon of the 14th 
by the ford near Williamsport. 

After the return to Virginia the brigade continued with 
Lee's army to the Rapidan River, to the Bristow Station ac- 
tion, over to near Manassas and then back behind the Rap- 
pahannock, to the plains of Brandy Station. While there 
many detachments were sent out to gather in the railroad 
iron which was much needed throughout the South. To 
facilitate this work a pontoon bridge was laid where the 
Orange and .Mexandria Railroad bridge had crossed the Rap- 
pahannock River, and on the north side of the river a bridge- 
head of earthworks was thrown up to protect it. This was 
occupied by Hayes's Louisiana Brigade of Early's Division. 
On November 7 Godwin's Brigade, also of Early's Division, 
was ordered across this bridge to recnforce Hayes's Louisi- 
anians, being directed to move to the left and occupy some 
light works about one thousand or tw-elve hundred feet away. 

Godwin's Brigade had scarcely reached the position assigned 
when in the midst of a heavy, sudden rainstorm late in the 
afternoon General Sedgwick's corps, in massed columns of 
three or four lines deep, made an unexpected and rapid rush 
directly upon Hayes's position at the bridgehead. They met 
with a hot reception, but, being protected from our artillery 
fire from across the river by the nature of the ground and the 
breastworks, they speedily overpowered the Louisianians, 
driving them from their position and capturing the works 
overlooking and commanding the bridge. By this movement 
Godwin and his men were entirely cut off from retreat or 
assistance, and the position occupied by them was attacked 
by a heavy force in their front ; but the 6th and 7th North 
Carolina Regiments were formed outside the breastworks and 
made an attack against the enemy in the position captured at 
the bridgehead, while the 54th North Carolina Regiment held 
the line at bay in their front. 

In the first charge the enemy was dislodged from a portion 
of the works that had been captured from Hayes, but suc- 
ceeded in holding the works immediately commanding the 
bridge. The struggle lasted with varying fortune till night- 
fall, when the enemy sent forward an overwhelming force 
and completely surrounded the bridge, except on the sides 
where flowed the deep waters of the Rappahannock. A few 
managed to escape by swimming the river, but some were 
drowned, and about sixteen hundred of the two brigades 
were captured. It had been a bloody fight, and many lay 
dead or wounded on the ground. 

The 21st North Carolina, which also belonged to the bri- 
gade, being in North Carolina on detached service, and many 
veterans and officers of these regiments who were in hos- 
pitals or on leave or special detailed service thus escaped 
capture formed the nucleus on which they were reenforced 
and again built up when sent down to North Carolina that 
winter for the purpose of participating in the Plymouth- 
New Bern campaign under the gallant Maj. Gen. R. F. Hoke, 
the brigade's former commander. 

General Godwin, thus captured in this trap, was imprisoned 


C^OQfederat^ Ueteraij. 

at Johnson's Island, but was exchanged in the spring of 
1864 and returned to the command of the brigade. He was 
commissioned brigadier general August 5, 1864, and assigned 
to the command of his old brigade, which he was then com- 
manding. It had participated in the winter campaign of Plym- 
outh, N. C, in the meantime and returned just in time to 
assist in repulsing Butler's attack on Petersburg and Drewry's 
Bluflf, joining Lee at South Anna, and participating in and 
capturing many prisoners at the Second Cold Harbor fight. It 
was then sent to Lynchburg in Early's Corps (the old Stone- 
wall, or Jackson's 2d Corps) to meet Hunter's advance against 
Lynchburg and chased him to Liberty, w^here he was defeated 
and escaped into the mountains of West Virginia. 

Early's forces then moved down the Valley to Harper's 
Ferry, which he surprised and captured on the Fourth of July, 
the Federals being in the midst of a grand celebration and 
feast. Appropriating the feast, which was most delightful 
to our soldiers, the next day Early followed them across the 
river into Maryland and moved on to Frederick City, where 
he had some severe fighting with Lew Wallace on the 
Monocacy, and then on to Washington, on the Georgetown 
Pike. After waiting a day in sight of the dome of the Capi- 
tol, we started back to the Potomac. 

Godwin's Brigade, bringing up the rear to Winchester, par- 
ticipated in all the subsequent fighting up and down the Val- 
ley up to and including the battle of Winchester, on Septem- 
ber 19, 1864, the battle of which Gen. J. G. Gordon speaks 
in his "Reminiscences" as about "the heaviest fighting against 
the greatest odds of any he had met during the war," and 
which was also in a manner of great importance, the situa- 
tion being thus : General Rodes had captured Martinsburg, 
some fifteen miles north of Winchester, and a quantity of 
army supplies, of which we were in much need. Gen. J. B. 
Gordon's division was up on that road and to the east of 
it to protect and guard Rodes's line of retreat and right 
flank, while we, in Ramseur's Division, composed of John- 
son's, Pegram's, and Gordon's Brigades, on the extreme right, 
were out across the Berryville and Harper's Ferry Pike, 
about three or four miles from Winchester, to protect Rodes's 
and Gordon's retreat through Winchester and on up the Val- 
ley. Sheridan's army was then over toward Harper's Ferry ; 
and had he captured Winchester, they (Gordon and Rodes) 
would have been cut off and captured or forced over on the 
back road at the foothills of the AUeghanies, which road 
was almost impassable, for wagons and artillery especially, 
and this would have been next to destroying them. Sheridan 
at the earliest light threw a force of five to one against Ram- 
seur's force across the pike in a desperate effort to capture 
Winchester. Pegram's Brigade, which was in the enemy's 
immediate front to the north of the pike, was overpowered 
and forced back. Godwin's Brigade was on Pegram's right, 
with its right resting on Opequon Creek, running from the 
Potomac down to east of and then south of and near Win- 
chester. Godwin extended his line over to Pegram's support 
and managed to rally the men after falling back to a better 
position on his old regiment, the S7th North Carolina, whose 
steadiness saved the day, for then and there ensued most des- 
perate and bloody fighting. Time and again the Federals 
assailed our lines and were repulsed with heavy loss, while 
their artillery seemed to be without limit, so constant and 
fierce was their fire. This continued until sundown, having 
lasted all day. After desperate fighting on their part of the 
line, which extended all around Winchester on the north 
and east from that creek on to and beyond the main pike, on 
which Rodes was bringing the supplies, Rodes's and Gordon's 

Divisions fell back through Winchester. Ramseur's Division, 
with Godwin's Brigade bringing up the rear in good order, 
followed as the rear guard. 

It was during one of the comparatively slight lulls shortly 
before sunset that General Godwin rode up his lines to the 
turnpike where Capt. John Beard, who had command of his 
old regiment (57th), was and said to him: "I am proud of 
the conduct of my old regiment to-day. It saved the day." 
Captain Beard warned him to get off the pike, as the Federal 
artillery had the exact range of it, when at that moment a 
shell exploded over them, and a fragment struck General 
Godwin on the head, and he fell forward from his horse into 
the arms of Captain Beard, dead. I was within a few feet and 
saw it all. I had his body taken into Winchester to the 
house of a friend, Mrs. Long, whom he had accompanied to 
church the night before. I engaged and paid an undertaker 
to bury him in the town cemetery, and there his remains rest, 
nicely marked. 

His old comrades of the 57th, in writing their own history, 
say of him : "A gallant gentleman and brave soldier, uni- 
versally beloved as a man and universally admired as a sol- 
dier by all his comrades throughout the entire service. A 
Virginian in command of a North Carolina regiment and a 
North Carolina brigade, he was as much loved and admired 
by those under him as if he had been a North Carolinian or 
they Virginians." 



We were talking about the war in Europe, and that led 
back to the War between the States, to give the contest of 
1861-65 the official title agreed upon by the Senate of the 
United States, as Vice President Marshall sonorously de- 
scribes the body over which he presides. There were two of 
us, one an interesting little Daughter of the Confederacy, the 
other a soldier in that army There were many things about 
which she wished to know, and some of her inquiries were 
rather startling. One of them was: "Were you ever scared?" 
The reply was : "I have been in positions where I recognized 
the gravity of the situation." 

"That is not what I asked. You are begging the question." 

"Well, if you insist on a more definite answer, I am free to 
state that there were times during my military service when 
I was moved by an intense desire to be somewhere else, but 
I never went there." 

It is with regret that the statement must be made that the 
Daughter of the Confederacy now became slightly slangy in 
her speech. "Come again," she said. "You haven't got any- 
where yet." 

"Well, I never ran away, if that is what you mean. Really 
there are so many different ways of being scared that your 
question may be answered in an equal number of ways. If 
you mean. Was I ever in a condition of mind that unfitted me 
for the duties of a soldier? my answer is. No. Yet there 
were times in my army career when I felt a deep sympathy 
with the soldier who wished he was a baby and a girl baby 
at that. A battle affects no two men alike. I have known 
men who seemed absolutely stolid in the presence of the 
most acute danger. These men had no imagination ; they 
were pawns in the war game, waiting to be moved by a su- 
perior power, but never knowing and probably not caring 
why they were moved. There were men of superior mental 
characteristics to these who were also quiet under fire, recog- 
nizing both their duty and the danger of the moment, and 

Qoofederat^ l/eteraij. 


these men were good soldiers. Then there were the men who 
had imaginative power and the nervous energies that go 
along with imagination. While it is too much to saj' that they 
enjoyed a battle, it is true that a battle exhilarated them. 
Some of this class I have known who were thrown into a 
berserker rage by the noise and the tumult of battle. They 
thought little of themselves or of danger ; they thought only 
of the enemy; they wanted to kill, kill, kill. To them the 
definition of the word 'battle' was 'killing,' and that was 
their reason for engaging in warfare. Yet when the battle 
had ended none were more tender and sympathetic toward 
fhe wounded enemy than they nor quicker to render them 
lelicf. I hesitate to differentiate betwen these men and 
their comrades of the quieter class as to which were the bet- 
ter soldiers. As a matter of fact, it is too personal a prob- 
lem, for it must be admitted that I was in the berserker class 
myself. It is probable that the quiet men — I am writing of 
the men in the ranks— would have made the better officers, 
C'wing to their lack of imagination. Yet even here I am in 
doubt, for the memory comes to me of a major of cavalry 
to follow whom in the wild delirium of a cavalry charge was 
s\ liberal education in the 'pride, pomp, and circumstance of 
f.lorious war.' " 

Evidently satisfied on the question of being scared, the 
Daughter abruptly said : "Tell me about a battle. What is it 

I had to tell her that I did not know, and she looked at 
inc with her wondering and wonderful eyes as though specu- 
lating on whether I had ever really been a soldier or seen a 
battle. "No man ever sees a battle," I hastened to explain 
lo her; "he sees only that small part of it which lies about 
him and in front of him. I never knew but one man who 
could describe in graphic terms the entire details of a battle, 
and he was never a participant in even a skirmish. He was 
the calmest, most deliberate coward in the army. When the 
lirst gun was fired he would quietly and unostentatiously 
drop out of the line and proceed to the rear. Had he not 
been the nephew of his uncle, who was the lieutenant colonel 
of the regiment, he would have been court-martialed and 
shot. When the battle had been fought he would appear in 
camp with a full circumstantial account of the various move- 
ments which had led to victory or defeat, as the case might 
be. How he knew these things none of us could divine, yet 
the information he gave was unusually correct. It is with 
regret that the statement is made that he was both a coward 
and a Kentuckian, a condition which I have never been able 
to understand." 

"Speaking of cowards, do not brave men sometimes run 
away?" said the Daughter. 

"Never," was the reply. "Brave men under certain circum- 
stances sometimes enter upon retrograde movements, but these 
must not be confounded with running away. Retrogression 
at precisely the proper moment is a movement in military 
affairs which cannot be too highly commended, since it gives 
those indulging in it an opportunity to repair possible dam- 
ages, grants rest to the weary, and in many ways is of vast 
advantage, especially when there is a wide disparity of num- 
bers in favor of the enemy. All writers upon military af- 
fairs are agreed upon this point. 

"A word of encouragement is valuable beyond estimate to 
many soldiers who, without being amenable to the actual 
charge of cowardice, lose self-control in the moment of great 
danger. An instance may prove the truth of this assertion. 
A regiment was under a heavy fire from a concealed enemy. 
A mounted soldier in line of battle lay prone upon the neck 

of his horse in an almost hopeless efifort to escape the storm 
of bullets. The enemy advanced from shelter and was met 
by a heavy fire from the regiment. Still the soldier con- 
vulsively embraced the neck of his horse, taking no part in 
the action. An officer at his side, placing his hand upon the 
young fellow's shoulder and calling him bj- name, said kindly 
but firmly: 'This will never do. Sit up and help us give them 
h — 1.' The effect was instantaneous. The really brave sol- 
dier sat up with a determined glance and cheery answer : 'All 
right, sir ; if you say so. I will do it.' And he did his full 
duty like the good soldier he was, even when the officer who 
had brought him to see his duty had fallen at his side. He 
served as a faithful soldier to the end of the war. A kind 
but forceful word spoken at the proper moment made him 
the true man that he was. I know this is true, for I am the 
man who brought him out of the dark valley of fear. 

"Men in action are like men out of it, creatures of con- 
trolling passions. One is as calm as if on dress parade, w'hile 
his equally brave but more nervous comrade will be restless 
under fire, an.xious to have the issue determined by the cast 
of a die, a dash at the lines, a death at the head of the col- 
umn if need be. The cool, calm man would hold a position 
to the coming of death ; the nervous man would lead a forlorn 
hope to victory and, dying, would count it good fortune that 
the honor had come to him, I do not believe that the cool, 
calm soldier is any braver than his impetuous comrade. Each 
followed a course leading to the same end, though it ran less 
calmly in one channel than the other. 

"I believe that each soldier if he tells the truth, as he will 
if he be a brave man, will admit that more than once when 
his courage almost failed him his pride sustained him and 
prevented his bringing reproach upon the uniform he wore 
and the flag under which he fought. This may be deemed a 
rash expression in a country where a gallant soldier is so 
highly honored as in this, but it seems to me the truth. There 
lives no veteran soldier who believes the man who says that 
in battle he never felt fear nor the dread of death. The foar 
was there, but it was hidden away in the soldier's sense of duty 
to his country and therefore but seldom became apparent to 
his comrades. The knowledge of experience separates that 
sort of dross from the pure gold of a real soldier's senti- 
ments and knowledge. If courage fail, what, then, .shall sus- 
tain the soldier in battle? Duty? Yes, to a very great ex- 
tent. But courage wholly fled and the influence of personal 
pride absent, the sense of duty which holds the soldier to 
his death is very finely attuned." 

Nearly thirty years ago I wrote the following estimate of 
the American soldier which may stand as my answer to all 
questions relating thereto : "Would I depreciate the character 
of the American soldier and his splendid record for courage? 
By no means. I deem him the finest soldier of the age, as 
he is certainly the most intelligent. He unites within himself 
all the essential qualities of a true soldier. His patriotism 
is undoubted, his endurance almost without limit, while his 
courage has stood the crucial test of a thousand battle fields, 
and his pride in his name and his honor is a part of the 
great history of his country. Genuine courage and true pride 
are in no nation more happily blended in combination than 
in the American soldier. Their splendid courage in the 
field is equaled only by the readiness with which they adapt 
themselves to the pursuits of peace when war's alarms are 
fled, becoming as excellent citizens as they have been admirable 

And those words are as true to-day as when they were first 


^Of^federat^ Uefcerai). 

ETC., 1864. 


I had been confined to my bed at Camp Jackson nearly 
three weeks from the time I left my comrades at Spotsyl- 
vania, and the army had beaten its way toward Richmond. 
The thunder of the guns of Lee and Grant seemed to call me 
to the help of my friends, but I was too weak to respond. 
The nurse told me after I had gained some strength that I 
might walk about the aisles of the ward for exercise, and I 
took advantage of this to go to the spring near by. In 
going down the narrow path to it some one in the crowd 
slapped me on the shoulder and accosted me in a familiar 
tone. Looking around, to my surprise there stood one of 
my comrades who had been at Camp Jackson some time 
and had recovered sufficiently to return to the army. He 
expressed great surprise at seeing me and began to abuse 
the place and everybody connected with the management of 
it, saying no gentleman would remain there : that he intended 
to return to the army immediately and insisted that I must 
go too. This I could not do, but 1 promised to compl}' with 
his wishes as soon as I had gained strength enough. This 
did not satisfy him. and he demanded a date when I should 
leave with him. I told him I would do so the next Wednes- 
day. When the day arrived I was still very feeble, but, re- 
membering my promise, I went to the doctor and asked for 
a discharge from the hospital to return to my command. 
Standing up before him in his little office in the yard, with 
nothing on but the two garments given me by the nurse, I 
no doubt presented a very poor appearance for a soldier. 
He looked at me with surprise and said : "You are not well 
enough to go." I insisted, and he finally consented to let me 
go if I was willing to take the risk. 

I soon joined my comrades and others, who agreed to help 
me along if I should break down. Ahhough I had fever that 
night, the next day we reached our comrades, whom we found 
in the breastworks at Cold Harbor. I gradually grew stronger, 
and from that time I was on the firing line until the end 
without the loss of a day. Sitting behind the works, they 
related to me their experience after I had left them and told 
tne what part they had taken in the great battle of Cold Har- 
bor, fought a few days before my return. In front of our 
line some two or three hundred yards away could be seen 
.across a level field several lines of works. No one could be 
seen in them, but no doubt they were occupied. These works 
were captured by our brigade in the battle, and in this way: 

While the fight was in progress on the right of Lee's army, 
where the main attack was made, the Federal force holding 
these forks for some reason kept their heads down, and no 
sign of life could be seen in them. General Gordon, either 
through curiosity or to make a diversion to relieve the pres- 
sure on the right of the army, decided to move forward his 
command. Accordingly the brigade, which had during ray 
absence been reenforced by the 12th Georgia Battalion, was 
formed for battle and moved forward across the open space 
until it came within thirty feet of the enemy's works. Sud- 
denly a whole line of infantry arose and fired a volley. When 
their heads popped up our men fell flat on their faces im- 
mediately, and not a man was hurt. Our men with their 
loaded guns jumped up and were on top of their works in a 
moment before the enemy could reload, shooting and bayo- 
neting them without mercy. This was too much for them, 
and they broke for their reserve line, followed closely by our 
men, who entered this new line with them. 

Frightened by this demoralized mass of friends and their 
foes all mixed up, they made little or no resistance and fled 
to their third line. Thinking they had gone far enough, our 
men stopped their pursuit at this line with the loss of but one 
man of our (31st) regiment. But not so with the 12th Bat- 
talion. These soldiers, sent to us from Charleston, S. C, had 
a wonderfully exaggerated idea of the prowess of our bri- 
gade from what they had heard of our fighting. I don't 
know what the orders were, but these fellows, fighting on 
the right of the brigade, after they had driven the enemy 
out of two lines of their works, assaulted the third line. 
Taking these also, they continued to press on the fleeing 
enemy, and in their ardor of pursuit lost some men. Their 
commander. Lieutenant Colonel Capers, was badly wounded 
in the early part of the engagement and never again returned 
to his command. Some said our new soldiers never stopped in 
their charge until they went on to Washington. When these 
brave fellows came to our brigade from Charleston, where 
they had been holding the pile of bricks in Charleston Harbor 
which was Fort Sumter, each company contained from one 
hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and eighty-five men 
and was as large as one of our decimated regiments. They 
were the flower of the fighting population of Georgia and 
showed the same fighting qualities to the end. If any dif- 
ference ever arose between any two of them, and this was often 
the case, their comrades would cry out : "Fight, fight !" At 
this all would run together and form a circle around the two 
and compel them to have it out with their naked fists. After 
this the incident was supposed to be forever closed. When 
they first arrived and began to detrain, our ragged veterans 
looked at these splendid fellows in their neat gray uniforms 
and decided they were "pets" and had very little confidence in 
their fighting quality ; but after Cold Harbor they never en- 
tertained a doubt that they would stand the test. In every 
engagement in which our brigade took part they showed 
the same dash and courage as in this their first fight in Vir- 

But now a dark cloud was rising for Lee's army from the 
west which threatened to sweep down on Richmond, capture 
the city, and force the Confederate army to surrender. It 
was a desperate situation and lacked only bold leadership 
to succeed ; but our old general was equal to the occasion. 
General Hunter, the Federal commander, was a very timid 
man and had an exaggerated idea of the numbers and re- 
sources of his enemy. No sooner had our two small divisions 
(Gordon's and Rodes's) faced him at Lynchburg than he beat 
a hasty retreat to the mountains of West Virginia without 
a fight, although he outnumbered us three to one. When 
Lee's army was grappling with Grant's there was only a 
small force in the Valley to protect it, and Hunter came out 
of the mountains of West Virginia and had his own way, de- 
stroying and burning that beautiful section of country. After 
doing this to his satisfaction he crossed the Blue Ridge un- 
opposed and marched to Lynchburg, which place was unde- 
fended except by a few old men too weak in number and 
equipment to offer any resistance. Here he paused and began 
to fortify his position as if he were face to face with a for- 
midable foe. Grant dispatched Sheridan with ten thousand 
well-equipped cavalry to ride around the left of Lee's army, 
tear up the railroad to Gordonsville, and proceed to Lynch- 
burg, where he expected him to unite with Hunter. But all 
this resulted in an ignominious failure. 

A week after the great battle of Cold Harbor we were 
lying peacefully behind the breastworks there with no idea 
that we were about to enter upon a great campaign in an 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


entirely different direction, which would eventually take us 
to the defenses at Washington and in sight of the Capitol. 

We were withdrawn from the defenses and placed in camps 
in the rear of the army, where we were allowed to rest two 
■days. We then set out on the march and soon reached the 
railroad, which we found to be completely destroyed by 
Sheridan's army. When we reached the vicinity of Trevilians 
Station dead horses were everywhere in evidence, and the 
whole country showed the effects of the battle that had been 
fought there a few days before between Gen. Wade Hamp- 
ton and Sheridan. This, I suppose, w-as the greatest cavalry 
battle fought during the war and was a complete victory for 
the Confederates. When General Lee heard of Sheridan's 
movements, he sent General Hampton with his cavalry, per- 
haps not more than thirty-five hundred men in all, to inter- 
cept him while engaged in destroying the railroad. This he 
did at Trevilians, and a fight ensued which lasted all day 
and convinced Hampton that he was overmatched. He ac- 
cordingly adopted the same stratagem which Lee and Jackson 
had employed at Chancellorsville and with equally as good 
success. He left a thin line in front of Sheridan, with orders 
in the morning, when the enemy advanced, to fight and 
fall back, allowing a piece of artillery occasionally to fall 
into the hands of the enemy. This was to continue until 
they should hear two cannon shots in quick succession in the 
enemy's rear, when they were to turn and fight. Hampton, 
with his main force, made a wide detour, riding all night, and 
in the morning he found himself in Sheridan's rear. As he 
exi)ccted. the Federal cavalry made their attack at daylight 
and were driving the Confederates in fine style, when sud- 
denly the boom of cannon in their rear told them too plainly 
that their wagon trains, artillery, and all their army equip- 
ment had fallen into the hands of the Confederates. Finding 
themselves attacked in front and rear at the same time and 
all their baggage captured, every man broke to seek safety 
in flight. The Confederates followed them day and night 
until completely overcome with fatigue, capturing a great 
part of the force. The remnant made their escape to the rear 
of Grant's line. 

We hastened on, following the line of the railroad until we 
came to soirie old ramshackle trains on a piece of patched-up 
track. These took us some distance to where we had to 
foot it again to Charlottesville, where we entrained again for 
l.ynchburg. which we reached before sundown. We marched 
through the town and were greeted joj-fully by the people as 
we passed through the place. Just beyond the suburbs we 
saw Hunter's long line of breastworks. It was now too late 
in the day to make the attack ; and as Rodes had not as yet 
arrived with his division and the artillery. General Early de- 
cided to wait until the next day to begin active operations. 
Ouring the night Rodes came up, and by morning we had a 
line of works in front of Hunter and some artillery mounted. 
That day was spent in skirmishing and some artillery firing 
along the whole line. Every preparation was made to assault 
the enemy's works at daylight the next morning, but lo ! to 
our surprise, the enemy had fled during the night and had 
several hours' start of us in their flight for the mountains 
of West Virginia. A small force of cavalry was sent ahead 
to press their rear, while we hastened to follow them. 

This was the beginning of some of our hardest marching 
during the war, the enemy making every effort to escape and 
General Early urging us to the utmost to overtake them. 
Small bodies of Federal prisoners were coming to the rear 
continually, and many abandoned army wagons and other im- 
pedimenta were passed on the road. The march was continued 

until late at night every day, and the armies bivouacked in 
sight of each other's camp fires until Hunter finally escaped 
into the mountain passes of West Virginia. Late at night 
the helpless people of the Valley of Virginia. He now turned 
back: The tired army went into camp and rested. Old Jube 
regretted very much that Hunter had outrun him and made 
his escape. He wanted him for the atrocities committed on 
the helpless people of the Valley of Virginia. He now turned 
his face in another direction to make a demonstration against 
Washington. D. C, no doubt under orders from General Lee 
to relieve the pressure of Grant against Richmond and to give 
emploj-ment to a great part of the fighting force of the Lin- 
coln government. How well this was done will be the subject 
of a future article. 


[The following account of General Morgan's passage 
through Boone County, Ky., on his way south after escaping 
from prison at Columbus, Ohio, was written by W. P. Cor- 
bin. of Union, Ky., who piloted General Morgan and Cap- 
tain Hines through the county. He is now eighty-nine years 
of age. The Corbins are a remarkable family as regards 
age, there being three sisters and two brothers still living 
whose average age is over eighty-six years.] 

On the night of November 26, 1863, Gen. John H. Morgan 
and eight other Confederate soldiers confined as prisoners 
of war in the penitentiary at Columbus, Ohio, escaped by 
tunneling out. As soon as they were beyond the prison walls 
the party divided into twos, and General Morgan and Captain 
Hines were to be companions. Going to the depot, they 
bought tickets for Cincinnati, where they arrived before day- 
light. Ai the lower part of the city they pulled the bell rope. 
a signal for the train to stop. As the train slowed up Mor- 
gan and Hines jumped from the rear end of a coach just as 
the conductor appeared on the platform and asked. "What 
in h — did you want to get off here for?" to which they 
answered : "What do we want to go to town for when we 
live here?" They made their way down to a place opposite 
Ludlow, Ky., where they found a boy with a skiff, and to 
him they gave two dollars to set them across the river. As 
soon as they were on the Kentucky shore they started for the 
home of the widow Ludlow, near by. where they were well 
acquainted, and were given a refreshing breakfast. From 
there they were taken by a friend to John Dulaney's. in the 
neighborhood of Florence, and his son. Dr. J. J. Dulaney, 
piloted them to the home of Daniel Piatt, at Union, the place 
now owned and occupied by James A. Huey, and from this 
place they were brought by R. G. Adams to the home of my ^ 
father, Henry Corbin, on the Burlington and Big Bone Road. 

It was Saturday night when they got there, and they rested 
over Sunday, receiving visits from many friends in that 
vicinity, who had been notified of their presence as well as 
their destitute condition. It was at this point that they were 
supplied with money, horses, and firearms, and when they 
resumed their journey on Sunday night they were mounted 
on two as good horses as were in the county. Captain Hines's 
mount had been furnished by Charles B. Smith, of Big Bone, 
while General Morgan was on a handsome bay mare which I 
had but lately purchased at a fancy price from Jacob Piatt, 
of East Bend. General Morgan was wearing a suit of black 
cloth entirely too light for the weather that prevailed, and I 
pulled off and presented to him a pair of blue jeans which 


^OQfederat^ l/eterai). 

I was wearing for the first time and which General Morgan 
pulled on over his own. I also gave him his saddle, bridle, 
and spur. 

They left in my charge, and we traveled the road leading 
by Big Stone Church to Big Bone Springs, thence to B. B. 
Allpin's, on Mud Lick Creek, and over the hill to South 
Fork, where, on account of the entire party's being so very 
cold, there was a stop at old Mr. Richardson's about mid- 
night. We were received very kindly, the old gentleman say- 
ing: "There is plenty of wood in the corner; build a good fire 
and get warm." This invitation was accepted and acted upon 
promptly. The old people were curious to know why we were 
traveling at that time of night, so General Morgan told them 
we had been to the city with hogs, and a sudden rise in the 
market was hurrying us back to Owen County, where we 
lived, to buy more hogs before the people down there got 
word of the rise. 

After a stay of about thirty minutes we resumed our jour- 
ney by way of Napoleon, in Gallatin County, to Clay Castle- 
man's, where we arrived about four o'clock in the morning. 
He directed us to a man named Thomas, living below the 
Castleman ford on a branch of Big Eagle Creek. Leaving 
General Morgan and Captain Hines with Mr. Thomas, I re- 
turned to Castleman's for breakfast. On my way home that 
day I stopped at Colonel Landrum's, representing myself as 
a turkey buyer. 

I have a lock of General Morgan's hair which was cut by 
my sister, Sallie Corbin, and Miss Mary Huey the night he 
stayed at my father's home. I also have a handkerchief that 
belonged to the General, which is now yellow with age. 

James L. Huey told me that he met the General in camp at 
Wytheville, Va., after his escape from prison at Columbus, 
and his curiosity was aroused by the jeans pants, which Gen- 
eral Morgan said were given him by W. P. Corbin as he 
and Captain Hines were making their way south after escap- 
ing from prison. 



I read with interest the article in the February Veteran 
on "Bledsoe's Silver Gun" and want to say that I heard the 
voice of old "Sacramento" and saw her many times in 1861, 
1862, and 1863, first at Lexington, Mo., where she was prob- 
ably the first cannon on our side to speak, and I personally 
know that she was the last in the siege and surrender of 
Colonel Mulligan and his command. This leads me to a little 

In 1866 I made the acquaintance of Mr. Wat Anderson, a 
lieutenant in Bledsoe's Battery, and I asked him one day why 
his battery did not cease firing as soon as the white flag went 
up along the breastworks at Lexington. He replied in sub- 
stance as follows : "You probably saw that the big flag on 
the college building inside of the breastworks did not go 
down for some time after the white ones went up." "Yes," 
I said, "and the joy is still in my heart over the sight of it 
going through the air to the ground." Anderson then said : 
"Captain Bledsoe was wounded in the battle of Wilson's 
Creek, or Springfield, on August 10 and was still disabled 
when the siege of Lexington occurred. He commanded his 
battery from a rocking-chair throughout the siege. When 
the white flags ran up all firing ceased except from our bat- 
tery. Soon a courier came to us from General Price saying: 
'Captain Bledsoe, cease firing; the enemy has surrendered.' 
Captain Bledsoe said, 'Tell General Price that I will not 

cease until that d — flag comes down,' and gave the com- 
mand, 'Lead, fire !' He was promptly responded to. Just as 
soon as the messenger could reach General Price and then- 
get to General Mulligan, the commander of the garrison, 
the flag went down, staff and all." 

From Lexington Price's army moved south, making stops- 
at the Sac River and other places, finally reaching Spring- 
field, Mo., where the winter up to February, 1862, was spent. 
Then came the retreat to Boston Mountain, in Arkansas. 

A little history of our movements may be of interest here- 
in 1863 two regiments of infantry and one of cavalry were 
organized at Springfield, and the members were sworn inta 
the Confederacy for three years, or for the duration of the 
war. These were commanded by Colonels Burbridge, Rives, 
and Gates. Colonel Rives was killed at Elkhorn, and Colonef 
Gates lost an arm in the battle of Franklin, Tenn., on No- 
vember 30, 1864. On account of wounds. Colonel Burbridge 
resigned at Corinth, Miss., and F. M. Cockrell was elected 
colonel. These regiments of about 2.500 men, rank and file, 
brought up the rear of General Price's army from Spring- 
field to the northern boundary of Arkansas, where a junction 
was formed with General McCulloch. 

Three days after retreating from Springfield we camped 
at Crane Creek. The boys said : "Here we fight." About 
dusk cannonading was heard in the rear, and very likely old 
"Sacramento" was one of the guns. The bugle sounded, and 
the order was given, "Fall in !" and we hiked to the rear to 
fight off the enemy. As he did not come, we took up our re- 
treat just before daylight the next morning. From there 
until the time we met General McCulloch we marched and 
countermarched day after day and night after night. How 
many times and how many miles I do not know, but it gives 
me the "shivers" now to think of our suffering during that 
march from hunger, cold, rain, and snow. When orders came 
to halt, the boys threw themselves down on the cold ground 
and slept the sleep of those fighting for a righteous cause. 
Later, in the first part of March, we marched back and fought 
the battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn Tavern. There we heard 
old "Sacramento" again. 

A large portion of Price's army, including Bledsoe's Bat- 
tery, was transferred from the west to the east side of the 
Mississippi River and made the first stop at Corinth, Miss. 
There reorganization of the Missourians was made into two 
brigades of infantry and artillery. The latter consisted of 
Dawson's, Guiber's, Landis's, Wade's, Low's, Clarke's, and 

In September and October the battles of luka and Corinth 
were fought, in both of which old "Sacramento" barked 
again. Then we went to Grand Gulf. On April 30, 1863, 
Porter's and Farragut's fleets attacked us, but failed to silence 
our guns. Colonel Wade, who commanded all our artillery, 
was killed. General Grant, having failed to effect a landing 
at Grand Gulf, marched south to a point opposite Hard 
Times and crossed the river. The battle of Port Gibson was 
fought on the first day of May. From there we went to 
Baker's Creek, where a battle was fought, and then into 
Vicksburg. Bledsoe's Battery was in all of these engage- 

I cannot recall this battery after the siege, but have an 
impression that it was transferred to General Forrest's com- 
mand and was possibly taken by him into the battle of Frank- 
lin. The writer of the article referred to states that the last 
time he saw old "Sacramento" it was parked at Mobile, Ala. 
I believe this battery was at Fort Blakely, but of this I am 
not sure. 

Qopfederat^ Ueterai>. 


What Banks and Porter Went After. 


During the conflict of the sixties a number of United States 
Congressmen were appointed to investigate the conduct of 
the war. and after every Union disaster this body got busy 
and picked up a "scapegoat" to fit the occasion ; and I 
might add tliat up to and including the mine affair at Peters- 
burg this aggregation could truthfully be called a "standing" 

Among these investigations, Banks's Red River expedition 
was gone into, and the investigators found that its only Je- 
suit, in addition to the disgraceful military disasters that at- 
tended it, was of a commercial and political character, and 
that the only order coming from Washington in relation to 
this affair was instructions from President Lincoln for of- 
ficers of the army and navy to furnish such assistance as 
might be desirable to Messrs. Casey and Rutlcr to go up the 
river to purchase cotton. 

Practically every witness in the case was asked the ques- 
tion as to what were the objects of the expedition, and the 
following answere were recorded. Most of them started by 
saying, "You can search me," or words to that effect. How- 
ever. General Franklin said : "1 know nothing more than the 
impression that we were going to Texas." Colonel Drake 
testified : "I don't know, but think we were headed for Shrevc- 
port." Gen. A. L. Lee was recorded as saying : "I don't be- 
lieve anybody had any very well-defined impression as to 
what we were after." General Brisbin told them : "I under- 
stood it to be the capture of Shreveport." General Halleck 
thought, or rather presumed, that a junction with General 
Steele was aimed at. Colonel Dwight frankly acknowledged 
that he never knew tlie object or what was expected to be 
accomplished. But as Acting Rear Admiral D. D. Porter, 
under oath, says that "Mr. Commissary" Banks had come up 
to his (Banks's) flagship, loaded with speculators, bagging, 
rope, champaigne, and ice, and as those speculators had spe- 
cial permits (contrary to the law — given, however, by "Father 
Abraham," and of course some uncharitable persons will say 
that somebody got a "rake-off") to buy cotton, or take it. the 
whole affair was no more nor less than a cotton expedition. 

I Now let's see what Porter went after. Colonel Drake says 

that he saw a lot of cotton marked "U. S. N." and was told 
it was a prize of the navy. Captain Crosby testified that the 

I Admiral and his staff were riding around on horses, a stud 
of which he kept on his flagship, seeing the cotton brought 
in and talking about the prize money they were to make. 
Col. J. S. Clark testified that Admiral Porter was seizing cot- 
ton and that his teams went into the country several miles 
after it. Gen. T. K. Smith knew that Porter had seized a 
vast amount of cotton ; in fact, many thousand bales. Colonel 
Wilson was a star witness for the army side, for he said the 
naval operations were carried on by the Admiral himself : 
that they go inio the country for about six miles, find a lot 
of cotton, and brand it "C. S. A." and underneath that "U. 
S. N." ; and the Colonel further says that he told Porter it 
stood for "Cotton-Stealing Association of the United States 
Navy." Admiral Porter in his testimony states most dis- 
tinctly that the navy took only cotton that was branded "C. 
S. A." and at that from the river banks only. And I judge 
he told the truth about the branded part, but he didn't say 
who had done the branding. General Banks says that Ad- 
miral Porter immediately upon his arrival at Alexandria be- 
gan to capture cotton and with his sailors and wagon trains 

for seven days before the army got up was hauling it in ; 
that he had sent engineers out to repair gins and operate 
them ; and also that his officers, by representing the amount 
of prize money they would get. excited a great deal of bad 
feeling in the army. In other words, they did as a great many 
others did both North and South — they fell down and wor- 
shiped "King Cotton." 

Foreign Intervention. 

The ignis fatuus of foreign recognition and interven- 
tion in our War between the States was more or less be- 
lieved in and hoped for from the beginning to the end of the 
stru.ggle and up to the disastrous ending of our first invasion 
of Maryland, which culminated in the battle of Sharpsburg. 
there was, in my humble opinion, a chance ; for up to that 
time one of the great powers at least thought we might be 
successful, but after that gave us up as hopeless. I shall give 
some instances of this delusion and also an instance where 
one brave heart at least realized that we were going to have 
to go it alone. • 

In May, 1861. the Secretary of War was told that tht 
British consul at Richmond had construed Lord John Rus- 
sell's statement to mean an instruction to recognize the gov 
ernmcnt of the Confederate States and had already opened 
negotiations with the Governors of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. In October. 1861. Matthew F. Maury, the great hydrog- 
rapher, said that it was of vital importance for the Con- 
federacy to capture and hold Fortress Monroe, as the policy 
of the North bade fair to involve that section in a war with 
England; and if that power became a belligerent and found 
that fortress in the hands of Lincoln, it might wrest it from 
him. in which event "John Bull." who never let go a strong- 
hold without a struggle, might cling to it with a tenacity 
that in the end would give us trouble when the war was over. 
(The commander saw only a menace to us in foreign inter- 

On October 27, 1861. Mr. Benjamin wrote Gen. J. E. John- 
ston that late news from Europe assured the Confederate 
States of a very early recognition and breaking of the block- 

Mr. R. M. Davis, of New Orleans, said in June, 1862, that, 
as the Yankees had backed down (over the Trent affair) and 
"will continue to give way to every demand of England, we 
must not expect any interference beyond recognition, per- 
haps," adding. "But that will not raise the blockade." 

In November, 1862. General Hamilton, of the United States 
army, had news that both England and France had formally 
recognized the Confederacy. 

In March. 186.3. one man in the Confederate States army, 
Gen. J. A. Wharton, realized the situation and said that we 
would have to win our independence by our own valor and 
patient endurance without aid from any foreign power. 

In August. 1863. General Beauregard took the "bull by the 
horns" and suggested forcing intervention by writing Mr. 
Slidell in France : "As it is evidently to the interest of Eng- 
land that we should eventually destroy each other and the 
policy of European powers that the Union should never be 
reconstructed, is it not then our true policy to take advan- 
tage of our late reverses (the two 'burgs') to speak out 
plainly and fearlessly to France. England, and Spain and to 
inform them that unless we are immediately recognized we ♦( 
shall take steps to put an end to this exhausting struggle and 
reassert at once the Monroe Doctrine and in the course of 
time proclaim the independence of the Canadas and of Cuba, 
all of which we shall be able to effect when united?" 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterar). 

In September, according to the papers, the people of Rich- 
mond were sanguine of French armed intervention. 

In October a lady in Charleston, S. C, said that she had 
seen a telegram from the President to General Beauregard 
telling him to hold the forts at all hazard, as the Spanish fleet 
would soon be to his relief. 

In September. 1864, Mr. Benjamin wrote the Secretary of 
War that proposals had been made to and accepted by the 
President for the emigration of large numbers of Poles and 
Scotchmen, who were disposed to take part in our struggle. 

In January, 1865, some one wrote the President that he 
could do away with the doctrine of "a rich man's war and 
a poor man's fight" by taking the slaves away from big 
owners and giving one to every man who would go into the 
army, as he could get thousands of men from Ireland, Ger- 
many, Poland, Austria, England, and France by making this 

But it remains for Gen. Wade Hampton to show that thi" 
fallacy died hard by his writing the President on April 19 
that. if the armies disbanded all hope of foreign intervention 
would vanish ; for unless a regular organization, no matter 
how small, was kept in the field. Europe would consider it 
not worth helping. He went further and told the President 
that when the South returned to the Union he looked for a 
war between the United States and England, and that the 
Southerners would be most rigorously conscripted and have 
to fight alongside their former slaves under Yankee officers ; 
that he for one would seek some other country, as he would 
never take the oath of allegiance to the United States. 

Expected Duration of the W.^r. 

On March 20, 1861, Gen. Samuel Cooper, C. S. A., wrote 
some one in Alabama that five hundred men would be re- 
ceived for a period of twelve months, or the war, unless 
sooner discharged. Which shows that Mr. Cooper looked for 
less than a year of fighting. 

On March 26 the Confederate States Secretary of War 
notified some gentlemen in Memphis that their services could 
not be accepted, as no hostilities of any considerable duration 
were expected and that the Confederate States provisional 
army was ample to take care of the situation. So the Secre- 
tary hardly looked for any war at all. 

On April 27 some person told the United States Secretary 
of War that hostilities could be brought to a close in ninety 
days if pushed with the vigor with which the people then 
seemed disposed to sustain it. But those sustainers evidently 
stopped pushing. 

On August 31 the Governor of Texas said that the war 
would in all probability last for many months to come. In 
which he was a prophet who deserved honor even in his own 

In December Mr. Benjamin told General that he would 
not give a musket to a man who would not enlist for the 
. war, and added, or three years. And the Secretary missed it 
only about a year. 

In July, 1862, Mr. Andrew Hunter notified the Confederate 
States War Department that if the war was prolonged be- 
yond the coming autumn the army would need new clothing. 
And they certainly did before they got it. 

In September, 1862, General Ord, of the United States 
army, said that he thought the battle they were then engaged 
in (Corinth) would end the war. Which classed the General 
as a very fine thinker. 

In March, 1863, a gentleman in Texas told Gen. J. Bank- 

head Magruder that the symptoms were then promising for 
an early end to the war. And that Texan was the vice versa 
of his Governor. 

In July, 1863, General Hurlbut, of the United States army, 
wrote President Lincoln that, in his opinion, the war as a 
war was about over. And if the "Official Records" are con- 
sulted, it was as far as he was concerned. 

In March, 1864, General Lee's "old war horse." Longstreet, 
said that "if we delay and give the enemy his full time the 
war will in all probability last for another four years." 
In which he very much overestimated the resources of the 

In April General Schoficid wrote that if the War Depart- 
ment would let Grant have his way he would end the war 
in 1864. And they did, but he didn't. 

But it remains for Col. T. T. Munford, of the Confed- 
erate States army, to have the record for an idea as to the 
end of the War, for he told his cavalry command on April 
21, 1865: "You will never descend to such infamy as sur- 
render. Let us teach our children eternal hostility to our 
foe ; and though we may not, our children will win the glori- 
ous fight in the end." 

Well, that was pretty strong talk, and I notice in another 
instance, where one of our generals was hot in the collar 
about surrendering, that both of them were cavalrymen. (By 
the way. there was a common saying in the army about "dead 
men with spurs on.") I can't find where the infantry were 
so squeamish, as they had had what we "crackers" call a 
"bait" of fighting. ■ 


After the battle of Murfreesboro General Rosecrans, after 
being raised from the depths of despair to the pinnacle of de- 
light by Bragg's masterly (?) change of base, "lay dreaming 
in his tent," supposedly trying to figure out how he had won 
(and, by the way, as he starts his dispatch of the battle by 
saying, "God has crowned our arms with success," he at least 
recognized his own limitations), and, like the old saying that 
the "mountain labored and brought forth a mouse," this is 
what came of his dreams. 

The Confederates had 62,490 men in the fight, because the 
Yankees had captured prisoners from 132 regiments of in- 
fantry of about 350 men each, 12 battalions of sharpshooters 
of 100 each, 23 batteries of artillery of 80, and 29 regiments 
of cavalry of 470, making the total as above stated. The 
Reel average loss was 2,080 to each division ; therefore six 
divisions of infantry and one of cavalry panned out 14,560 
casualties for Bragg. Of these 14,560, it took about 20,000 
Yankee cannon balls to hit 728 men, and two million musket 
bullets to hit 13,32; thus 26 artillery projectiles were "wasted 
in the desert air" before one got meat, and 144 Minies went 
into space before before a "Johnnie" stopped one. 

It is useless to say, after such wonderful deductions, that 
"Old Rosy," or rather "Rosecrans the ever-victorious," as 
some of his admirers dubbed him until "More-grape Bragg" 
put him in the reverse gear at Chickamauga, graduated from 
West Point No. 5 and was consequently put into that most 
scientific branch of the service, the engineer corps. 

I can further add to his laurels by saying he reported that 
in the battle mentioned he fought superior numbers on un- 
known ground, inflicted more injury than he received, was 
always superior on equal ground with equal numbers, and 
failed of a most crushing victory by the extension of his 
right wing; and I, for one, would like to know who it was 
that ordered that extensive movement. 

QoQfederat^ l/eterai). 


A War Mystery. 

On December 27, 1861, Gen. Don Carlos Buell, U. S. A., 
issued the following General Order No. 23 : "The general 
commanding takes pleasure in bringing to notice the gallant 
conduct of Colonel Willitch's regiment, the 32d Indiana (all 
German), at Woodsonville, Ky., on the 17th inst. They were 
attacked by a column of the enemy, consisting of cavalry, 
artillery, and two regiments of infantry, but they defended 
themselves with such effect that the enemy retreated precipi- 
tately. The general tenders his thanks to this regiment for 
their gallant conduct on this occasion." 

However, General Hardee, of the Confederate army, beat 
him to it by promulgating his Special Order No. 46 on De- 
cember 21, reading: "On the 17th inst. at Woodsonville our 
forces engaged and repulsed a superior force of the enemy. 
The conduct of our troops was marked by impetuous valor, 
and the general commanding returns thanks to these troops 
for their conduct, and he hails the brilliant courage shown in 
this affair as a bright augury of the coming campaign." 

It will be noted that both claim the "enemy's force" as 
superior, and if we can believe Buell and Hardee it presented 
something undoubtedly new in the annals of warfare — a bat- 
tle where both sides were defeated and victorious. In making 
their reports the Yankees claimed a loss of eleven killed, 
twenty-two wounded, and five missing, and that the Rebs 
had thirty-three killed and fifty wounded; but as the Con- 
federates reported four killed and nine wounded of their men, 
and also that seventy-five dead "blue bellies" were left on the 
field and countless wounded dragged off, we are "up in the 
air" as to tlie correct findings in the case. Therefore I should 
personally be glad to know tt'/io won. 

The F.\cts in the C.\se. 

During the war battle reports sent off soon after the affair 
were so different from what history tells us, especially as to 
the enemy's force, that a few examples may be of interest. 
Take, for instance, the battle of Shiloh, where the reports 
were as follows : 

Union authority : Union force. 54,000 ; killed and wounded. 
5.000. Confederate force, $100,000; killed and wounded, 11,- 

Confederate authority: Union force, 70,000; killed and 
wounded. 20.000. Confederate force, 40,000; killed and 
wounded, 8,740. 

History: Union force. 58.000: killed and wounded, 12,000. 
Confederate force, 71,000; killed and wounded, 18,000. 


Union authority : Union force, 42,000 ; killed and wounded, 
8.778. Confederate force, 62.000; killed and wounded, 14.5(i0. 

Confederate authority: Union force, 70,000; killed and 
wounded, 19.000. Confederate force, 35,000; killed and 
wounded, 9,239. 

History : Union force, 43,000 ; killed and wounded, 9,000. 
Confederate force, 38,000; killed and wounded, 9,500. 


Union authority: Union force, 57,000; killed and wounded, 
10.900. Confederate force, 100,000; killed and wounded, 17,- 

Confederate authority : Union force, 70,000 ; killed and 
wounded. 16.550. Confederate force, 60,366; killed and 
wounded, 17.800. 

History: Union force, 57.000: killed and wounded, 17,100. 
Confederate force, 71,000; killed and wounded, 18,000. 

I take the Western battles as examples, for, with the excep- 
tion of one Union general, known by his admirers as "Little 
Mac," the "Young Napoleon" who always greatly overesti- 
mated the Confederate numbers, the leaders in the East on 
both sides were well enough informed to have a pretty good 
working knowledge of the force of their opponents. 

At Missionary Ridge. 

In the February Veteran C. W. Trice takes issue with 
General Duke in regard to the Confederate "debacle" at Mis- 
sionary Ridge when the latter says that the entire Confeder- 
ate army was stainpeded. Mr. Trice, who was there, claims, 
and at that most justly, that neither he, his regiment, bri- 
gade, nor division was in any way, shape, or manner stam- 
peded in the slightest degree, but, to the contrary, states also 
most justly that they repulsed the Yankees all day of the 
25th, were the rear guard for the rest of our army (who, 
by the way, were most properly stampeded) that night, and 
whipped the enemy again on the 26th ; and the "Records" 
certainly bear him out fully. 

Now let's see what Steele, the historian, has to say about 
it : "Sherman moved directly against the hill occupied by 
Cleburne's Division and attacked it vigorously, but the as- 
sault was unable to dislodge the defenders. Howard's Corps 
went to Sherman's support, and the Confederate position was 
assaulted several times without success. The combat kept 
up until three o'clock. Sherman had six divisions against 
Cleburne's one. but could not carry the works. Thus Sher- 
man's assault, the main attack, had failed." 

And, as General Bragg said, "Cleburne's command defeated 
the enemy in every assault on the J.Sth, charged and routed 
him on that day, capturing colors and prisoners, brought up 
our rear guard with great success, and again charged and 
routed the enemy at Ringgold." That settles the matter. 

Charge of Unarmed Men. 

Extract of report made by Col. Charles H. Tyler, com- 
manding cavalry brigade of Price's Missouri army, consist- 
ing of Perkin's, Coffee's, and Searcy's Regiments, in Price's 
expedition to reconquer Missouri in 1864: 

"October 25, 1864. — Owing to its unarmed condition, the 
brigade was assigned to duty on the flanks of the wagon 
train, and, rightly conjecturing that our rear guard had been 
overpowered. I immediately concentrated my command and 
made as imposing a line of battle as possible. The general 
commanding directed me to support the retreating troops 
morally by ostentatious display. Accordingly, when our re- 
treating guard appeared in sight, I told my unarmed recruits 
that our commander looked to them alone for the safety of 
the train and that they must charge and check the enemy. 
This they did and very gallantly, considering that they had 
the example of so many armed fugitive veterans to demoralize 
them. My brigade behaved well, even if they had been armed 
veterans, and as unarmed recruits they immortalized them- 

The records don't show whether they charged on foot or 
horseback, and I hope that some survivor who participated in 
this affair will write it up for the Veteran. 

George Washington. — Washington stands alone and un- 
approachable, like a snow peak rising above its fellows into 
the clear air of morning, with a dignity, constancy, and 
purity which have made him the ideal type of civic virtue to 
succeeding generations. — James Bryce. 


^opfederat^ Ueterai). 



Sketches in this department are given a half column of space 
without charge: extra space will be charged for at 20 cents per 
line. Engravings, |2.50 each, 

"The spring will dress his narrow bed 

With all the wild flowers that he loved, 
And round his rest a fragrance shed 
Pure as that virtue he approved." 

Gen. H. H. Duncan, U. C. V. 

Maj. Gen. Henry H. Duncan, U. C. V., died suddenly at 
his home, in Tavares, Fla., January 16, 1920, in his seventy- 
fifth year. 

Public-spirited and generous, blessed with a thorough edu- 
cation, possessing a discerning mind, and well informed, he 
was naturally called upon to take part in public affairs from 
Reconstruction days to the World War. For thirty-three 
years he was the genial, obliging clerk of the circuit court of 
his county, managing the exacting duties of his office during 
that long period faithfully and efficiently. No man in the 
State was held in higher esteem, and a large concourse of 
friends from many sections of the State attended his funeral, 
and during the extended services many affectionate tributes 
were paid him. 

At the grave in Tavares Cemetery the Confederate burial 
service was read by Chaplain Thomas W. Spicer, and the ad- 
dress by Adjt. H. J. Peter contained the following tribute as 
to his military record and his interpretation of the Consti- 
tution for which he took arms to support : 

"Comrades: Henry Duncan, true soldier and loyal son of 
the Southern Confederacy, is dead. We are bereft of his 
presence ; his mortal remains we are about to consign to 
mother earth. His death is a serious loss to those of us who 
were in sympathy with his mission of keeping sacred the 
memories of the Confederacy and its unsullied leaders. 

"It is perhaps too soon for us to fully realize the sadness 
of our loss and to what great extent he was brave, generous, 
and honorable, and how deep was his devotion to the never- 
to-be-forgotten cause. To him there was nothing holier, 
higher, or stronger on earth than his love for the patriotic 
principles we sought to establish in the fateful sixties of the 
last century under the Confederate flag. He never ceased 
to be an eminent Confederate, thereby ennobling and con- 
stantly endearing himself to his veteran comrades by cherish- 
ing, as he believed, the righteous cause, giving it a beautiful 
future, keeping it fresh in his heart and theirs, and conscien- 
tiously striving with his fine mental equipment. Christian 
character, and sincere convictions in aiding to establish an 
impartial history of the conflict and perpetuating the glorious 
traditions of the Old South." 

General Duncan was retained as Commander of Camp No. 
279 for more than twenty years. He also served one term as 
Commander of the Third Florida Brigade and for two terms 
was the Major General of the Florida Division, performing 
all these duties faithfully and meritoriously. 

He distinguished himself in the Confederate army by en- 
listing in the infantry service in 1862 at the age of seventeen 
years and remaining until General Lee's surrender. He was 
a private in Company C, 45th Alabama Regiment, and served 
under Generals Johnston, Bragg, and Hood. He was severely 
wounded in the battle of Murfreesboro and was again 
wounded in the battles around Atlanta, Ga., and was taken 
prisoner in the battle of Franklin, where Cleburne's Division 
was so lamentably defeated. 

General Duncan is survived by his wife, two daughters, and 
five sons. 

John Sharp Chowning. 

John Sharp Chowning, one of the most beloved and widely 
known veterans of Lancaster County, Va., answered the 
"last roll call" on the morning of February 2, 1920. 

Mr. Chowning was born November 7, 1843, the son of 
John Sharp and Mary Miller Kirk Mitchell Chowning, and 
had lived on his old ancestral estate on the Currotoman River 
all his life. In 1861, when the South called for her sons to 
drive the invader from her doors, he offered his services and 
was assigned to Capt. S. P. Gresham's company (Lacy Rifle- 
men) of infantry, where he served until stricken with typhoid 
fever. When he returned to the army some weeks after- 
wards, he was sent to Company D, 9th Virginia Cavalry, as 
the infantry was too hard for his weakened condition. He 
participated in all the battles of the glorious old 9th and was 
with Lee when he surrendered at Appomattox. 

After the war he represented Lancaster in the House of 
Delegates, and he also served the county in the office of 

Mr. Chowning belonged to one of the oldest and most 
influential families in the "Northern Neck." He was a great 
reader and took a keen interest in all public affairs. He was 
especially well versed in the history of Virginia. 

In May. 1887, he married Miss Florence Gresham, who 
survives him with one daughter, Mrs. Paul C. Palmer. 

The Sanson-Bell Camp, of which he was a faithful mem- 
ber, feels his death keenly, as well as a host of warm friends. 

One by one Lancaster is losing her grand old men, and 
their places can never be filled. 

[Mrs. L. G. Connelle, Historian of Lancaster County Chap- 
ter, U. D. C] 

Deaths in Urquhaet-Gillette Camp, U. C. V. 

Simon T. Pope, a member of Urquhart-Gillette Camp, No. 
11, U. C. v., and who fought with Company B, 9th Virginia 
Regiment, Armstead's Brigade, Pickett's Division, sends report 
of the death of two members of Urquhart-Gillette Camp, No. 
11, U. C. v., Franklin, Southampton County, Va., as follows: 

"Death has entered our Camp twice since December 1, 1919, 
and has taken two of our most devoted members. 

"James L. Cogsdale was born in 1829 and died December 17, 
1919, at the age of ninety. He served with Company D, 3d 
Virginia Regiment, Armstead's Brigade, Pickett's Division. 

"Elijah G. Joyner was born May 4, 1846, and died January 
9, 1920, at the age of seventy-four. Comrade Joyner also 
was with Company D, 3d Virginia Regiment, Armstead's Bri- 
gade, Pickett's Division. He took an active interest in his 
Camp and attended most all the reunions, county. State, and 
annual, when his condition would permit, and was a loyal 
member of Whitehead Methodist Episcopal Church. 

"Out of a membership of nearly one hundred when our 
Camp was organized, only nine survive to hear the last roll 

Qcofederat^ V/eterai}. 


Dr. James Henderson Bronaugh. 

Dr. James H. Bronaugh, one of the leading physicians of 
Southwest Missouri, was born near Buffalo, W. Va.. October 
6, 1839, and passed away January 14, 1920. When he was 
six years of age his parents, Thomas Jefferson and Nancy 
Henderson Bronaugh, moved to Missouri and settled on a 
farm near Calhoun. He was one of a family of seven chil- 
dren, two of whom, C. 
C. and D. H., 
survive him. During 
his last illness hf was 
attended by his dc'otcd 
wife and children in the 
home he had hallowed 
by his faithful Christian 
life. In early life he 
accepted Christ as his 
Saviour and united wilh 
the Presbyterian Church 
of Calhoun, Mo. He 
was elected ruling elder 
in 1886, in which ca- 
pacity he served fa'tb- 
fully until his death. 

Dr. Bronaugh was 
married to Miss Leona 
Knox in 1868. To this 
union seven children 
were born, two dying in 
infancy. His wife died 
.Xugust 26. 1890. and on .^Ilril 
Mrs. M. V. Davis, who faithful 
many weeks of illness. 

For many years he was a practicing physician, competent, 
conscientious, and faithful. He considered his calling a 
sacred trust from God, and he was often heard to speak of 
asking divine guidance as he went among his patients. 

Dr. Bronaugh joined the Confederate army in the spring 
of 1861 and took part in most of the battles west of the Mis- 
sissippi River. He served in Company C. Ow'en's Regiment, 
Gen. James S. Rains's division. State Troops, and was in the 
battles of Coal Camp, Carthage, and Wilson Creek, and also 
participated in the engagements at Dry Wood and Lexing- 
ton. He was wounded at Wilson Creek. He possessed all 
the good qualities and virtues that distinguished the Confed- 
erate soldier. He was of splendid ancestry in both lines of 
descent. Capt. John Henderson, of Virginia, a brother-in- 
law of Gen. Andrew I-ewis, of Point Pleasant fame, was 
his maternal ancestor. 

Aiicr the Elkhorn battle his command was ordered east 
of the Mississippi River, soldiered around Corinth for a 
few months, and was then ordered west of the river. He 
was slightly wounded in the Lone Jack battle ; was in the 
Prairie Grove battle on Sunday, December 7, 1862, and the 
battle of Helena, Ark., July 4, 1863, when he was badly 
wounded. His command was then ordered to meet General 
Banks on Red River, at Pleasant Hill, La., then to meet Gen- 
eral Steel in the battle of Jenkins's Ferry, which was fought 
.'\pril 30, 1S64. Li August, 1862, Dr. Bronaugh was elected 
third lieutenant of Company K, 16th Missouri Infantry, Gen, 
Monroe M. Parson's brigade. General Price's division, C. S. 
A. He surrendered at Shreveport, La., in 1865. 

Dr. Bronaugh was a true soldier in camp, on the march, 
and on the battle field. His two surviving brothers were 


'.. 18^16, lie was married to 
v ministered to liim in his 

badly wounded at Helena, Ark., July 4, 1863. Both were 
captured and imprisoned for twenty-three months. 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground 
Their silent tents are spread. 
While Glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead," 

Robert G. Lobb. 

On October 15, 1919, Robert Gerard Lobb, a gallant Con- 
federate, died at his home, in Washington, Pa. He was born 
January 13, 1845, at Moorefield, the county seat of Hardy 
County, Va. (now W. Va.), where his father, Charles Lobb. 
served as clerk of courts for a period of more than forty 
years, before and after the War between the States. His 
mother was Miss Jean W. Dailey. of a prominent family long 
resident of that section of the State. His oldest brother. 
William, was killed, and another brother, James, was wounded 
111 the first battle of Manassas, both members of the Hardy 
' irays, 33d Virginia Infantry. Stonewall Brigade. 

In the fall of 1861 Bob, as he was familiarly called, though 
a mere lad. was intrusted with important dispatches from 
General Jackson to Col. Angus W. McDonald, then in com- 
mand of an outpost at Romney, and was one of the first to 
join the troop raised by Capt. John Hanson McNeill for 
border service in 1862, remaining with that noted command 
until the close of the war. Having an adventurous disposi- 
tion, a cool nerve, and unquestioned courage, he became one 
of McNeill's best soldiers and most efficient scouts, partici- 
pating in the many daring exploits of this command. 

He was married to Mary Belle Chambers, of Moorefield, 
January 17, 1883, and nine children were the fruits of this 
happy union — four sons and five daughters — who survive him, 
with their mother. 

When he moved to Pennsylvania about fifteen years ago, 
he was welcomed as a comrade by the Grand Army men at 
Washington and received from them that kind and courteous 
treatiTient accorded by honorable foemen. The funeral serv- 
ices at Washington were attended by many Grand .Army and 
other friends, after which the body was taken to his old Vir- 
ginia home at Moorefield and laid to rest on Cemetery Hill 
among the kindred and old associates who had preceded him 
to the spirit land. 

[J. B. Fay, Dunn Loring, Va.] 

Luther M. Henkel. 

.At his home, in New Market, Va., Luther M. Henkel died 
on December 24, 1919, after some years of impaired health. 
He came of an unusually large family, thirteen children, six 
sons and seven daughters, of whom there is now only one 
surviving, Henry M. Henkel, of the same community. Luther 
Henkel was born at the old homestead at Plains Mill, Va., 
near New Market, on December 17, 1841. He took an active 
part in the strenuous days of the sixties and just preceding, 
his first service being with the 10th Legion of Artillery when 
sent to Charleston in 1859 under orders from Governor Wise 
to do guard duty in connection with the trial and execution 
of John Brown. When war came on in 1861 he joined Com- 
pany H, 10th Virginia Cavalry, or what was known popularly 
as the "Valley Rangers," and he served faithfully throughout 
the four years of conflict. 

Comrade Henkel was married in 1862 to Miss Catherine 
Kilmer, of Berkeley County, and of the family of four sons 
and two daughters only a son and a daughter survive him. 
He was engaged in the mercantile business in New Market 
for many years, being associated with his brother, Lewis P. 


Qoofederat^ l/etcraij. 

Henkel, in this and other enterprises in the community, where 
they were known as active and useful men of affairs. In 
early life he became a member of the Lutheran Church and 
continued to the end a faithful communicant of that Churcli. 
He was laid to rest attended by many friends and comrades 
of Neff-Rice Camp, U. C. V., of New Market. He was a 
man of genial and social nature, widely known and highly 

William C. Powell. 

William Cuthbert Powell, who passed away March 31, 1919, 
at his home, in Dallas, Tex., was born in Middleburg, Va., 
the son of Dr. Francis Whiting and Harriet Harding Powell. 

In the spring of 1861 he joined Capt. William Berkley's 
company of the 8th Virginia Regiment, Col. Eppa Hunton. 
As he was only fifteen years old, enlistment was refused on 
account of orders from General Beauregard. In August. 
1863, he started to join the Fauquier Artillery, Capt. Robert 
Stribbling's battery, in which he had a brother. Frank W. 
Powell (killed at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864). Before 
reaching the army William was captured on August 10, 1863. 
in Fauquier County, Va. He refused to take the oath of 
allegiance and was confined in the Old Capitol and the Car- 
roll Prisons, Washington, until March 4, 1864, then sent to 
Point Lookout Prison. Maryland, from where he was paroled 
and sent to Richmond February 18, 1865. After being paroled 
young Powell joined Company I, 1st Regiment of Engineer 
Troops, serving as infantry in the trenches at Petersburg, and 
was with this company at the surrender at Appomattox. His 
colonel was T. M. R. Talcott, chief of engineers on Gen. 
Robert E. Lee's staff. 

After the war he entered the Virginia Military Institute, 
graduating with distinction in three years with the degrees of 
Mining and Civil Engineer. While serving as instructor in 
mathematics after his graduation he heard the call of he 
West and went to Texas in 1872. There followed the roman- 
tic and adventurous years of carrying the Texas and Pacific 
Railway westward across the Virgin State with the perils of 
drought, desert, Indians, and wild, reckless men. 

In 1880 he settled a pioneer in Callahan County, where he 
engaged in ranching and banking. In 1884 he was married 
to Miss Sarah Thomason Lane, also of Virginia, who sur- 
vives him, together with the following children : William 
Cuthbert, of St. Louis ; Francis Whiting, of Fort Worth ; 
Louis Hamilton, of Chicago ; John Burr, of Dallas ; Mrs. W. 
J. Powell, Misses Daisy Leigh, Lily Brooks, and Cuthbert, 
all of Dallas. 

In 1918 he went to Dallas to pass his declining years and, 
spared any long suffering, went away quietly the following 
year. He was laid to rest in Dallas with the benediction of 
the venerable Bishop A. C. Garrett, a close friend for forty 
years and who officiated at his marriage. 

The Confederate Veteran was always close to his affec- 
tions and was his companion to the end. 

A. S. Nash. 

The oldest and most esteemed citizen of Jonesboro, Ark., 
has been lost to that community in the death of the venerable 
A. S. Nash on March 1, 1920, at the age of ninety-two years. 
He is survived by his wife, ninety-one years of age. Their 
wedded life was seventy-four years, and they had lived in 
Jonesboro since 1868. Of the nine children born to them, 
there are four left, three sons and a daughter. 

"Grandpa" Nash, as he was familiarly known, went from 
Tennessee to Arkansas with his family in 1858, the year of 
the greatest overflow in the history of Northeast Arkansas, 

flood waters from the Mississippi covering all that section. 
After a year of hardships and suffering they moved back to 
Tennessee and were living in that State when the war came 
on. He promptly enlisted for his native South and had a part 
in some of the hardest-fought battles of the war, winning 
fame for bravery on several occasions. After the war he 
took his family to Alabama and a few months later to Arkan- 
sas again, settling eventually in Jonesboro. He was very 
proud of the present city, which he had seen grow from a 
little village in a wilderness to a thriving city with all 
modern public utilities. He had one of the first grocery 
stores there and built the house in which he died. 

Comrade Nash was a man of affable disposition, which 
won him friends of all acquaintances. The closing years of 
his life made a beautiful picture of serenity in age. 

Judge William D. McKemy. 

Judge William D. McKemy, former probate judge of Mont- 
gomery County, died at his home, in Dayton, Ohio, on Feb- 
ruary 12, after several months of failing health. He was 
born in Rockridge County, Va., February 14, 1843, and was 
reared on his father's farm. He joined the Confederate army 
and served from August 5, 1861, until June 30, 1865, as a^ 
member of Company H, 25th Regiment of Virginia Volun- 
teer Infantry, which formed a part of Stonewall Jackson's 
brigade and division. He was present when General Jackson 
was killed. 

In 1866 Judge McKemy removed from Virginia to Darke 
County, Ohio, and in the spring of 1868 located in Dayton. 
For three years he was deputy clerk of Darke County and 
later was deputy sheriff and bookkeeper for two years. Next 
he was a deputy in the County Treasurer's office for three 
years, and while in that office in 1877 he was admitted to the 
bar by the Supreme Court of Ohio and began practicing law. 
In 1881 he was elected probate judge, serving for three con- 
secutive terms of three years each. At the expiration of his 
term in 1890 he refused renomination and returned to the 
practice of the law. 

Judge McKemy was married in March, 1873, to Miss Re- 
becca Florence Haise, of Union City, Ind. Besides his wife, 
he is survived by two sons and a daughter. 

James D. Walls. 

J. D. Walls died at the home of his son, John Walls, at 
Holts Corner, Tenn., December 24, 1919, at the age of seventy- 
seven years. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. In 1866 he was married to Miss Mary Osteen, 
who survives him, with two sons, John and Redmond. He 
was a good soldier and was a member of Company F, 17th 
Tennessee Infantry. He went to camp May 15, 1861. He was 
twice captured, first on the 17th of June, 1864, near Peters- 
burg, Va. Aiter his exchange he returned to his company 
and was again captured on the 2d of April, 186S, at the fall 
of Richmond and Petersburg, Va. 

He was sent to Point Lookout, Md., and there remained in 
prison until the 20th of June. He reached home on the 27th 
of June, 1865. He was a faithful member of the I. O. O. F. 
While we sadly mourn his death, we live in hope that when 
we come to respond to the last roll call we shall be able to 
say : "We too are ready to cross the mysterious river of 
death and rest in peace with those of our comrades who have 
passed on beyond." 

[G. H. Turner.] , , 

Qoijfederat^ Ueteraij. 


Deaths in Camp Cabell. 

L. H. Stalcup, Adjutant of Camp Cabell, U. C. V., of 
Vernon, Tex., reports the following deaths in that membership : 
"On February 18, 1919, Comrade W. S. Ferrell passed into 
the great beyond after a lingering illness, which was made 
all the more distressing by the death of his wife during the 
time. The ne.xt comrade to follow him was B. H. Daughtry. 
who died on December 23. 1919. And on January 28, 1920, 
J. S. Rutledgc, another beloved comrade, was called to his 

Prof. D. L. Thompson. 

"Brave in youth, sturdy in manhood, useful in life, hopeful 
in death," reads a tribute to Prof. D. L. Thompson, whose 
death occurred at Jonesboro, Ark., in the latter part of Feb- 
ruary. He was born near Meridian. Miss., June 5, 1845. one 
of a large family, all of whom had preceded him in death. 
At the age of sixteen years he volunteered in the Confeder- 
ate army, joining the 11th Mississippi Regiment, later being 
transferred to the 39th Mississippi. He served to the end, 
taking part in battles and skirmishes, in all of which he 
I)roved his courage and bravery. Returning home to find 
property all gone and family scattered, as soon as possible 
bo entered the University of Mississippi to finish his educa- 
tion, after which he liegan bis life work as a teacher. 

In 1874 he was married to Miss Laura Louise Jones, of 
Columbus, Miss., and removed to Arkansas, where he taught 
successfully in different places until he located permanently 
in Jonesboro about 1880. There he first taught in the old 
Jonesboro Academy ; but realizing that a system of public 
or free schools was necessary, he was instrumental in the 
organization of the first public school system of the city aiul 
county and helped to make it one of the best in the State. 
He was principal of the school for many years, later county 
examiner, and in all his w'ork exerted an influence for edu- 
cation that will live. 

Retiring from school work, Professor Thompson engaged 
in the drug business successfully until his health failed. He 
had been justice of the peace for several years before his 
death. He was a member of the Methodist Church, active in 
its work and in the Sunday school. He was also .'\djutant of 
Joe Johnston Camp. U. C. V., and attended the reunions as 
long as he was able. He is survived by three daughters and 
three sons. 

William F. Dew. 

William F. Dew, a gallant soldier of the Kentucky Orphan 
Brigade, C. S. A., died on March 4 at his home, in the Blue 
Spring section of Trigg County, Ky. He was seventy-seven 
years of age and is survived by his wife and two daughters. 

As a lad of seventeen he was one of the many young men 
of Trigg County who enlisted early in the War between the 
States and served through four years of bitter struggle. In 
the early summer of 1861 he became a member of the 4th 
Kentucky Infantry and was with his regiment in the mem- 
orable battles of Shiloh, Stones River, Jackson, Miss., and 
Chickamauga, and followed Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in his 
campaign from Dalton to Atlanta. A month after Lee sur- 
rendered, in .\pril, 1865, he was with his organization, which 
finally stacked arms in Washington, Ga. 

The South had no better or braver soldier. He proved 
himself a real man in every sense of the word and never left 
his post of duty or shirked a responsibility during the four 
years he was in the army. He was held in the highest esteem 
by his comrades, never deserted a friend, and fought to the 
last for the cause that was so dear to his heart. 

Returning home at the close of the war, he devoted the 
remainder of life to the duties of farming. He was a char- 
ter member of Lloyd Tilghman Camp, U. C. V., of Trigg 
County, and was ever one of its most faithful members. He 
loved to associate with his old comrades, who loved him. and 
the joy these meetings brought to him is untold. 

He had long been a member of the Baptist Church, and 
as a citizen he was universally loved and respected and always 
held the utmost confidence of those who knew him. He was 
laid to rest in the Blue Spring burying ground among his 
friends and loved ones. 

Edgar LaRoche Clark.son. 

Edgar LaRoche Clarkson was born in Charleston. S. C, 
October 25, 1848, and died at the home of his son, Eugene 
Clarkson, at Griffin, Ga., on March 3, 1920. He was the 
youngest of eight brothers, all of whom served in the Con- 
federate army. In 1864. at the age of sixteen, he enlisted in 
a company of South Carolina volunteers, serving with Com- 
pany K of that command, and gave his whole time to the 
service of the Confederacy until paroled in 1865. 

Aher the war he graduated from the University of South 
Carolina and went to Alabama about 1867, living for several 
years in Tuscaloosa, where he W'as connected with the busi- 
ness administration of the Alabama-Bryce Hospital. Later 
he removed to Mobile and studied law under Colonel Smith. 
After being licensed to practice he opened a law office ir» 
Birmingham in the early seventies and later on w'as asso- 
ciated as a partner with many of the leading lawyers of Ala- 
bama. He was prominent in the professional life of Bir- 
mingham for many years and was highly regarded as a lawyer 
and a man of intellectual attainments. His health failing, iif, 
the early nineties he retired from practice. 

Comrade Qarkson was married to Miss Augusta Jolly,, 
daughter of Col. Jack Jolly, of Greene County, who died im 
the early eighties. Four of their six children survive him :: 
Eugene R. Clarkson, of Griffin, Ga. ; Mrs. E. W. Faith and' 
Mrs. Gaillard Hamilton, of Mobile; and Edgar L. Clarkson,. 
of Tuscaloosa. He is also survived by his sister, Mrs. Ellen 
Peter-Bryce, of Tuscaloosa. 

Richard T. Seckels. 

Richard Twells Seckels died at Paris, Tex., at nearly ninety 
years of age. He was a man of true personality and had the 
art of making and retaining friends. 

Major Seckels was born in Philadelphia, Pa. His early 
education was intrusted to private tutors. His adventurous 
spirit led him to make a trip around stormy Cape Horn, which 
was sufficient experience on the water. He next turned his 
steps to the golden West, where he was engaged in civil en- 
gineering with marked ability in the employ of the pioneer 
railroads in that section for a number of years. But a greater 
drama was being played in the South, and he cast his lot with 
the William Walker expedition in Nicaraugua. With daunt- 
less courage he faced the fatal drawing of beans and saw a 
comrade just at his side draw the fatal black bean. 

Coming back to the States, he again went into the West 
and in 1860 married, at Bloomfield, Mo., Miss Katherine Ma- 
linda Owen, who proved a helpmeet indeed, and together they 
reared a splendid family. 

As the clouds of war were gathering on the Southern hori- 
zon, he enlisted under the flag of the Confederacy. He be- 
came a colonel of engineers of the Missouri State Guards, 
under Gen. Jeff Thompson. Afterwards he was made provost 
marshal for the Southeastern Department of Missouri. . He 


(^oi)federat^ I/eterai). 

was in active service at once and led the charge at Frederick- 
town and Big River Bridge. In March, 1863, he was taken 
prisoner and sent to St. Louis, where he remained until ex- 
changed. He immediately returned to the field and bore an 
active part until the flag went down. 

Among the things he treasured most were letters received 
from his superior officers commending him for gallant serv- 

After the war he came with his family to Texas and here 
lived the remainder of his life. 

[Committee: P. :M. Speairs, J. M. Long, Sam A. Grifiith.] 

John Richard B-\rber. 

John Richard Barber, a leading citizen of Washington 
County, died at his home, near Springfield, Ky., on February 
14, after several months' illness. He was born June 5, 1841, 
a son of Philetus Swift and Cecilia Barber, pioneer citizens of 
the State. He spent his early youth in Jefferson and Nelson 
Counties, where his father was a large real estate owner. 

At the outbreak of the War between the States young Bar- 
ber enlisted in the Confederate army under the command of 
General Buford. He was later transferred to the command 
of Gen. John H. Morgan and served under him until the 
close of hostilities. 

On February 4, 1867, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Piety Yancey, member of one of the most prominent families 
■of Clarksville, Tenn. To this union four sons were born. 
Locating in Washington County soon after his marriage, Mr. 
Barljcr became one of the largest landowners in the county. 
His wife died in 1880, and some years later he was married 
to Miss Mary Florence Anderson, and to them were born 
three sons and two daughters. 

Mr. Barber was a progressive citizen and did much to 
further the agricuUural interests of the county. His farm 
of several hundred acres is considered one of the best in 
Washington County. He also owned considerable property 
in Jefferson and Nelson Counties and some handsome build- 
ings in Springfield. 

In his death the county loses a most valuable citizen, and 
the family is deprived of a faithful husband and father. He 
was a devout Catholic, a man of kindly disposition, con- 
siderate in his dealings with his fellow man. His wife and 
the nine children survive him. 

Deaths at Shreveport, La. 

The following members of Camp No. 3, U. C. V., of Shreve- 
port, La., died during the past year, as reported by Adjt. 
George L. Woodward: E. L. Vluver, 31st Louisiana Infantry; 
F. A. Leonard, Company B, 11th Battalion of Louisiana In- 
fantry; A. Currie, Company A, 1st Louisiana Infantry; 
George W. Caruthers, Company G, 8th Georgia Infantry; 
Commander B. H. Bickham, lieutenant Company F, 17th 
Louisiana Infantry; F. R. Calloway, Cutt's Georgia Artillery; 
R. A. Gray, assistant surgeon Dreaux's 1st Battalion of 
Louisiana Infantry; E. M. Laughlin, Texas Infantry Volun- 

John F. Hopkins. 

Report comes from J. P. Cagle, Adjutant of the John M. 
Brady Camp, No. 352, U. C. V., of Louisville, Miss., of the 
death of John F. Hopkins, a member of the Camp, on the 8th 
of February. He served with Company G, 35th Georgia 

• A. S. Underwood. 

The grim reaper has again invaded our ranks, and another 
gallant follower of the gray has "crossed over the river to 
rest in the shade." 

Comrade A. S. Underwood as a member of the 22d In- 
fantry Regiment of Mississippi Volunteers, after four long 
years of fighting, was paroled at Meridian, Miss., in May, 
1865. He was an upright Christian gentleman and took a 
prominent part in the dark days of Reconstruction which 
followed the surrender and had since lived an honored, use- 
ful life, reaching the ripe age of eighty-three years. On 
Sunday evening, February 1, he was stricken by death while 
relating to his family some pleasing reminiscences. 

Comrade Underwood is survived by his wife, two sons, 
seven grandchildren, and friends innuinerable, who will mourn 
their loss. Like a sheaf of wheat fully ripened, he has been 
garnered into eternal life. Sweet be thy rest, my comrade! 

[A. N. Neal.] 

Deaths at Terrell, Tex. 

The following deaths occurred in the membership of Camp 
J. E. B. Stuart, No. 45, U. C. V., during the past twelve 
months, as reported by Vic Reinhardt, Adjutant. Only one 
death occurred in 1919, the last three coming in 1920: 

Robert A. Long, private Company A, 34th Texas Cavalry 

T. D. Greathouse. private Company G, 34th .Alabama In- 
fantry, seventy-five years old. 

L. H. Mason, Company F, 5th North Carolina Infantry, 
eighty years old. 

L. J. Parkenson, Company A, 3d Kentucky Cavalry, eighty- 
eight years old. 

Deaths at Star City^ Ark. 

W. A. Shoup, Acting Adjutant of Camp Ben McCulloch, 
No. 542, U. C .v., of Star City, Ark., reports the following 
deaths in that membership : 

J. M. Burns, Company H, 3d Arkansas Infantry; E. J. 
Hall, ; W. P. Hopkins, Company C, 26th Arkansas In- 
fantry; J. C. Knox, Company I, 7th Arkansas Infantry; 
William McGraw, Company A, 21st Texas Cavalry ; Sam 
Pounders, Company B, i9th Arkansas Infantry; H. M. Rat- 
teree, Company A, 26th Arkansas Infantry; John W. Railey, 
Company B, 7th Mississippi Cavalry; Alfred A. Sanders, 
Company I, Wright's Cavalry; Larkin Owen, . 

Z. M. Herbert. 

Z. M. Herbert, a brave and heroic member of the famous 
Stonewall Legion, passed away at his home, in Williamsport, 
Md., October i. He was born in Berkeley County, Va., in 
1845, and, with his brothers, served with valor and distinc- 
tion under our greatest military strategist of all ages, the im- 
mortal Stonewall Jackson. 

"In his shroud, a coat of gray, 
WaitiU:? with others the linal day 
When again he will behold 
His Christian commander true and bold." 

[B. F. Grosch, Buffalo, N. Y.] 

Qopfederati^ V/eterap. 


Dr. John Greer Deupree. 

John Greer Deupree, a Confederate veteran, an educator 
of broad scholarship, and a Christian gentleman of simple 
faith, died in Jackson, Miss., November 28, 1919. He en- 
listed in Company G, 1st Mississippi Cavalry, at Macon, 
Miss., May 1, 1861. Six Deuprees were members of this 
company: Capt, T. J.. J. E.. J. L., J. W., W. E., and J. G. 
No group of soldiers displayed more heroic devotion to the 
cause of the Confederacy than these brothers and kinsmen. 

The following from the pen of the distinguished church- 
man. John T. Christian, gives a clear insight into the life and 
character of this scholarly soldier: "It was my good pleasure 
to know Dr. John Greer Deupree for many years. I came 
to Mississippi in February, 1877, and preached twice a month 
at Tupelo and Verona. I was much in Verona at that time 
and often stopped at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Deupree. 
We read together for recreation Latin, Greek, and German. 
He was already one of the most accomplished scholars in this 
country. I learned then, as I afterwards knew, that he was 
encyclopedic in his information. He was as clear as crys- 
tal in his insight into subjects and had a grasp upon details 
that was truly wonderful. Simple in his taste and earnest 
in his pursuit of knowledge, he was a man of the highest 
culture. As a Christian he was