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in 2011 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 


Confederate Veteran 




Nashville, Tenn. 



Abolition, Slavery and the Year 1833 205 

A Chosen People 11 

Adopting Confederate Principles 285 

Adventure Within Grant's Lines, An 426 

After Fifty Years of Service 396 

A Ghost Story 385 

Alabama's Valhalla 249 

Andersonville, Who Was Responsible For? 168 

Andersonville Prison Park, The 91 

A Night of Terror 184 

Artillery Duel, Unwritten 63, 328 

A Quick Recovery 38 

A Serviceable Prisoner 236 

As to Slavery 142 

A Tribute 385 

Bagby. Gen. Arthur Pendleton 

Barteau's Regiment of Cavalry 

Battle Abbey, Dedication of the South 's 

Battle of the Alamance, The 

Battle and Capture of Fort Gregg 

Battle of Douglas' Church 

Battle of Dug Gap, Ga., The 

Battle of Hartsville, Mo., The 

Battle of King's Mountain, The 

Battle of Lebanon, Ky 

Battle of Rich Mountain, The 

Battle of Sabine Pass 

Battle of Val Verde. The 

Beloved Daughter of the South 

Biggest Man In Georgia, The 

Billie Gun 

Bloody Franklin 

Booth, John Wilkes. True Story of the Capture of. 

Blue To the Gray, Americans All, The 

Boozer. The Muchly Married Miss Mary 

Boy Brigade of South Carolina, The 

Boy Soldier of Alabama, A 

Boys of Yesterday 

Breastworks at Petersburg 

Brown, Mrs. Martha A 

, 278 









Camp Beauregard Monument, Dedication of 314 

Capture of the Maple Leaf. 375 

Capture of John Wilkes Booth 129 

Capturing the Captured 144 

Caring for the Soldiers in the Sixties 409 

Chancellorsville, Recollections of 213 

Chasing Guerrillas In Arkansas 220 

Chicamacomico , 246 

Cause of the War Between the States, The 383 

Confederate Brothers, Five Living 276 

Confederate Generals, Living 244 

Confederate Generals Buried In Baltimore 244 

Confederate Home of Maryland, The. 1 76 

Confederate Hospitals at Petersburg, Va 338 

Confederate Monument at Dardanelle, Ark 276 

Confederate Mother, A 314 

Confederate Museum of Richmond 155 

Confederate Prisoners at Morris Island 178 

Confederate Pensions 198 

Confederate In South America. A 86 

Commands Holding Ft. Gregg 335 

Conduct of the War, 1861-65 98 

Constitution of the Confederate States, The 330 

Cook, James Carter, Jr 355 

Courtesy of the Truly Great 424 

Crossing the Mississippi In 1864 64 

Cunningham Memorial, The 365-403-407 

Cunningham Memorial Scholarship, The 284 

1 Dahlgren's Raid on Richmond 20 

Davis, Jefferson . 14-253 

Dedication of First White House of the Confederacy 243 

Dedication of the South's "Battle Abbey" . 204 

. Defense of Fort Walker 411 

Dorion, Ellen Morrison, An Appreciation 236 

Early's Brigade at Winchester 264 

Efforts of Confederacy For Peace 418 

Efforts to Capture Kilpatrick, The 329 

Eightieth Milestone. The 167 

"Emperor's Beautiful Clothes, The " 344 

English Sentiment for the South 47 

Ezekiel, Sir Moses, Burial of 124 

Father Ryan 219 

Federal Pensions 4 

Feild, Col. Hume R 325 

Field, Al G., Dean of Minstrelsy 164 

First Fight of Ironclads, The 290 

First Secession Sentiment 169 

First "White House of the Confederacy, " The 203 

Flags Captured at Vicksburg. . -. 64 

Fletcher Brothers, Gallant 35 

Forrest, Last Speech of General 25 

From Cedar Mountain to Sharpsburg 296 

From Cold Harbor to Cedar Mountain 222 

From the Ranks to Brigade Commander - 298 

"Going Out and Coming Back" 288 

"Going South" In 1861 13 

Great Seal of the Confederacy, The 165 

Greatest Artillery Duel, The 328 

Guerilla Warfare In Missouri 104 

Hardships of Bragg's Retreat 51 

Has Not Reported Yet 314 

Heroic Defense of Bridge at Stephenson's Depot, Va 43 

Heroine of the Sixties, A 59 

Heroes and Hero Worship 428 

Heth, Miss Nannie Randolph 85 

Hidden Treasure 355 

Home Guard, The 343 

Hospital Work In the Sixties 86 

How Kinky Feasted the Major 373 

How the South Cares for Its Veterans 366 

Hudson, James 385 

Important Battles of the War 52 

In and Out of Prison 421 

Inaugural Address of President Davis 87 

In Defense of Southern Poets 18 

In the Atlanta Campaign 381 

In the Siege of Richmond and After : 412 

In the Spirit of Homer 336 

In the Wilderness 212 

In the Virginia Campaigns 35 7 

In the Years of War 184-345-371 

Jackson's Only Council of War 264 

Jackson's Humanity to a Gallant Opponent 372 

Jordan Springs Battle. The 104 

Keep the Record Straight. 


Lamar's Defense of Jefferson Davis 125 

Lanier, Sidney 131 

Lashed By Lamar's Tongue 101 

Last Confederate Congressman . 163 

Last Days of the Confederacy 56 

Last Engagement of Lee's Army 261 

Last Song In A Burning Home, The 132 

Lee. Robert E 6 

Lee at Sharpsburg, 1862. General 378 

Lee's Investment. General 3 

Lee's High Estimate of General Imboden 420 

Lee's Staff, Last Survivor of, General 85 

Lee, To the Memory of General . . . I/O 

Little Corporal's Story, The 180 

Life Among the Bullets— The Siege of Petersburg. Va 138-173-216 

Littlefield, Maj. George W 44 

Lloyd George, vs., John Drinkwater, et al 165 

Losing Its Birthright 84 

Losses in Battle 4 

Lost In Early's Valley Campaign, 1864 427 

^oofederat^ l/eteran 

Making Our Way Home from Appomattox 102 

Memorial Day at Arlington 245 

Memorial To Dr. Randolph McKira 284 

Monument to Gen. Stand Watie, The 326 

Miller, Levi, Confederate Veteran (Negrol -358 

Mortality Among Prisoners of War. 323 

Not On "The Other Side". 


Old Plantation Home, The 247 

Old South In Peace and War, The 16 

On the Move 105 

Oldest Soldier In Confederate Army 394 

Oklahoma's Veterans of the Sixties , , 198 

Orleans Cadets, The 207 

On the Retreat from Charleston 90 

Pages from an Old Autograph Album 60 

Partners of General Lee 44 

Pelham, of Alabama 9 

Pensions for Faithful Negroes 284 

Pleasant Memories of War Times 65 

Prayer at Inauguration of Jefferson Davis 203 

Private Soldier, The 135 

Propaganda Perverting History 166 

Reunion City, The 363 

Rear Guard of the Confederacy 163 

Reconstruction and the Ku Klux Klan 292 

Reconstruction Days In South Carolina 256 

Reunion at Chattanooga, The 32.1-364-404 

Reunion . Arkansas State 145 

Rockwell. Kiffin Yates 84 

Running the Blockade 93 

School Histories '. . . . 324 

Scouting In the Enemy's Lines 136 

Sharpsburg - 133 

Slavery and Wage Serfdom. 1821-1861 " 286 

Some Ex-Cathedra Criticisms 317 

Southern Ports 96 

South In History. The 333 

Sponsor For the South 364 

State Enlistments In the Sixties 440 

Statue of President Davis 4 

Still On Parole 262 

Southern Proteus. The 422 

Southern Soldier, The 265 

Steadman, Chas. M 163 

Storm Cradled Nation, The 83 

Surgeon General U. C. V., The New 86 

Tableware Campaign to Capture Jackson ' 289 

Taliaferro. Gen. Alex Gait 126 

Three Charleston Poets 46 

Treatment of Slaves In the South 48 

True History I- 1 * 

Unlucky Number — 13, The 10 

Veterans of Two Wars 244 

Unanimity of the Choice of Mr. Davis 88 

Unusual Incidents of War 62 

Union Sentiment Before Secession 50 

Veterans and the Veteran, The. 


War Mystery, A 65, 225. 263, 287, 341 

Wilmington and the Blockade Runners 258 

With Armistead at Gettysburg 62 

With Gary's Brigade at Appomattox 332 

Within the Enemy's Lines 340 

When Running Was Good 24 

What the South Stood For 254 

With the Hampton Legion In the Peninsular Campaign 414 

When South Carolina Seceded 367 

Which Was the "Other Side "? 49 

Why Did He Eat Mule Meat? - 357 

U. D. C. . 

C. S. M. A.. 
S. C.V 

32. 72, 112, 150. 192, 232, 272, 310. 350. 392, 436 

36, 75, 115, 154. 194. 235, 275. 313, 354. 395, 439 

. 37. 77, 117, 156, 196. 237, 277, 315, 356, 397, 441 


A Memory 92, 215 

A Nation Fair 276 

A Tribute 324 

April 26th... 145 

Argonne Wood . . * 8 

Autumn 380 

Bonnie Blue Flag 444 

Confederate Memorial 123 

Decoration 324 

Down In Dixie - - . 169 

Earth's Nobleman 365 

" 1865 " 429 

Hills of Home 353 

Interrupted 39 

In the Land Where We Were Dreaming ... 281 

Land of the South, The 259 

Lee's Immortelles 162 

Manassas 285 

March of the Mystic Men 204 

McKendree 359 

Memorial Day 126 

Missing 56 

My Cross of Honor 159 

Reprisals 420 

Reunion 361 

Robert Edward Lee 45 

Robert E. Lee — An Acrostic 170 

Salute to the Starry Cross 3 

Song of Hampton, A 443 

Spring Greetings 130 

The Aviator 84 

The Battle of Armageddon 195 

The Battle of Port Republic 372 

The Christian Cavalier 4 

The Confederate Flag 82 

The Land of Liberty 243 

The Last Cavalier 253 

The Outdoors Man 319 

The Private 124 

The Soldier's Fate t 132 

The Southern Cross of Honor, The 52 

The Waste of War 1 75 

Thomas Jefferson 245 

Wilde, Richard Henry 97 


Auditorium in Chattanooga 366 

Birthday Guests of Comrade Hurst at Clarksville 167 

Chattanooga, Fountain Square 267 

Commemorating a Gallant Defense 41 

Cunningham Memorial, The 365 

Granite Boulder at Stephenson's Depot. Va 41 

Group of Confederate Veterans 283 

Jackson Cedar at Manassas, The 31 S 

Lookout Mountain and the Tennessee River. 369 

Moccasin Bend on the Tennessee River, Chattanooga, Tenn 321 

Observation Tower On Signal Mountain 390 

Old Henry House, The 441 

Survivors of the Gallant Orleans Cadets 207 

Stars and Bars, The 81 

Waverly — Typical Home of the Old South 247 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 


Quarles, Judge Greenfield . 

Abernathy. Thos. E 304 

Adams. A. J 269 

Adams. George H 70 

Aden, Judge James S 68 

Alexander. Capt. 5. B 348 

Anderson. Moses 306 

Bachman, Rev. John Lynn 387 

Bagby. Gen. A. P 146 

Baker. W. H 226 

Barker, Samuel 391 

Barnett. John W 433 

Barton. Maj. Randolph 149 

Battle, Robert Irving 227 

Baruch, Dr. Simon 433 

Bean. Capt. R. T 391 

Birchfield. Stephen S 270 

Birdsong. A. H 435 

Bishop, John F 28 

Bivins, Capt. J. K 349 

Blackwell, Hiram Harding 435 

Blake, Capt. T. B 227 

Boatright, Capt. B. S 186 

Bolen, Rev. H. C 28 

Bolen, James Riley 71 

Boling, M. L 346 

Bowles. Col. James W 346 

Box, Sam 386 

Branch, Maj. John L 108 

Brown, Gen. J. Thompson 348 

Brown, T. J 110 

Brownlee, A.J 148 

Buchanan. Judge J. A 391 

Bugg, Richard M 148 

Bumpus. W. N 229-270 

Bynum, Maj. G. VV 69 

Caddleman, J. M 189 

Cardwell, David 189 

Carr. Capt. N. C 307 

Carroll, James R 270 

Caison. Albert Stacey 107 

Carson, Charles Alexander 305 

Cassell, James 306 

Cecil, Loyd 110 

Chapman, David Hubbard 391 

Clark, Samuel R Ill 

Clatterbuck. Reuben A 109 

Clower, Capt. Thomas H 31 

Coffin, Charles 430 

Colley. Thos. W 309 

Colvin. John Calhoun 230 

Conyer, Alexander 170 

Cox, Green Anderson ... 1 06 

Craghead, Samuel S 191 

Davis. Capt. CM 30 9 

Dean, George B 66 

Durham, Capt. Dewitt Clinton . . 149 

Dwight, Capt. Charles Stevens... 434 

Eargle. A. L 388 

Elliott. Nixon 191 

Ellis, A. B 267 

Ellis. John G 186 

Ellis. Maj. William M 430 

Emanuel. Col. S 386 

Ent, Capt. Joseph B 229 

Evins, Robert H 431 

Farrar, James D 309 

Fishburn. James A Ill 

Fisher. Capt. J. K 109 

Fisher, Capt. J. T 308 

Fletcher, Peter B 271 

Freeman. George C 68 

Freeman, Green H 228 

Gaiennie. Capt. Frank. 108 

Gee, Thomas E 147 

' Gildersleeve. Benjamin, Sr 308 


Goode, Hon. E. B 29 

Grapes. I. N 186 

Griffin, Capt. Pat M 269 

Grimes, Dr. W. S 346 

Hagy. James Harrison 146 

Hall, Dr. J. C 29 

Haley. Mrs. Perneacy Morgan. . 191 

Hannah, Judge, R. 305 

Harris, Dr. T. J 188 

Harrison, William Foushee 305 

Head. Capt. H. W 187 

Herring, Jno. C 71 

Hibbler, Col. J. E 389 

Hickman. David P 307 

Hicks. Dr. Robert Iverson 189 

Hicks, William E 226 

Hill, Capt. James S 109 

Hinsdale, Col. John W 387 

Hollyday, Henry 386 

Hopkins. W. F 348 

Hughes, Joseph R 431 

Hunt. Judge Joseph Drummond. 30 

Jackson, William E 430 

Jager. Anton W 432 

Jennings, Thos. H 186 

Johnson. George H 189 

Johnston, Rev. M. N 267 

Jones. C. L 27 

Judkins. W. B 29 

Kelly, Robert L 29 

Knox, Dr. Robert L 67 

Lanier, Capt. E. F 271 

Lester. W. B 227 

Lewis, V. C 347 

Locke. Henry Franklin 434 

Lowe. William E 230 

Lowry, William T 31 

Lynn, L. C 67 

Lyon, Gen. J. Fuller 106 

Lyons. James 71 

MacMurry, James Allen 68 

Mann, H. P 147 

Matthews. Capt. S. 1 306 

McCluer, Judge John G 268 

McDougal, A. G 305 

McKinley. D. 307 

McKown. Kenneth C 148 

McNair, Milton 388 

Meade. Samuel Richard 190 

Meador, Josephus 147 

Mims. William Henry 109 

Minor. Dr. R. T Ill 

Mobley. Warren G 433 

Moise. A. Welbome ... 69 

Moore John A 71 

Moore, Capt. T. E 433 

Mongold, Solomon 186 

Murchison, W. E 187 

Murray. Thomas Reed 147 

Neilson. Thomas H 432 

Nelson, M. H 268 

Norwood, Dr. Charles Mill. 434 

O'Neal, W. A 391 

Park. Charles T 229 

Parker. A. B 186 

Parsons, D. M 186 

Patterson, William Warden 388 

Perry, William Ferris 67 

Pierce, William H 70 

Pile, George C 71 

Powell. Smith 309 

Powers, W. J 186 

Price, George W 390 

Purnell, Capt. James C 307 

Richmond, Judge James D 28 

Rogers. Capt. James R ... 110 

Rose, Edward 187 

Ruff. Dr. D. E 435 

Russell, Thomas J 268 

Saussy, Clement 347 

Schoppaul, Adolphus 346 

Sharp. Capt. John H 188 

Sillman, James 432 

Skinner, J. W 306 

Slagle. John 30 

Solomon, Capt. W. F 190 

Smith, Felix C 188 

Smith, George H 228 

Smith, James M 227 

Snead, John H 107 

Stanley, Capt. William 267 

Street, Col. H. M 26 

Sturkey. Maj. W. 268 

Sullivane, Col. Clement 31 

Tagart, James A 432 

Taylor, Edward Haynes 435 

Taylor, Thomas LeRoy 308 

Thomas. W. J 70 

Todhunter, Col. Ryland 231 

Torbett, Henry M. L 190 

Towson, J. W 27 

Towles, John Chowning 266 

Tribbett, William M 347 

Valliant. Edwin S 348 

Van Meter. D. G 186 

Van Meter. E. P 186 

Wall. Dr. Thomas W 388 

Warren, Caleb P 107 

Watson. E. C 308 

Watson. J. Bart 308 

Watson, William Fontaine 148 

West. John Pratt 149 

Wheeler, Mrs. Mary Jane 349 

White. Clarence H 430 

White. Mrs. Julia N 229 

Whitlock, Dr. William J 269 

Wilkerson. Dr. W. N 435 

Williams, William C 306 

Winn. Robert M Ill 

Withrow, Col. Charles 347 

Woods. Clayton R 28 

Worthy, Thomas Jefferson 108 

Young. William D 191 

B. T. Embry Camp, No. 977 . . , 390 
Camp 171, U. C. V. Washington, 

D. C 27 

C.S. Association of Augusta. Ga.. 226 

Comrades at Bentonville, Ark.. . . 431 

Comrades at Brevard, N. C 266 

Comrades at Commerce. Tex 67 

Comrades at Donaldson, Ark. . . . 306 

Comrades at Franklin, Tenn 188 

Comrades at Gainesville, Tex. . . . 187 

Comrades at Huntsville. Ala 69 

Comrades at Granbury. Tex 347 

Comrades at Greenville, Tex .... 388 

Comrades at Jackson. Miss 270 

Comrades at Jacksonville. Tex. . . 288 

Comrades at Macon, Ga 307 

Comrades at Mount Vernon, Tex.. 271 

Comrades at Paris, Tenn 68-190 

Comrades at Pittsburg, Tex 390 

Comrades at Savannah, Ga 304 

Comrades at Sherman, Tex 66 

Comrades at Staunton, Va 27 

Comrades at Summerville. Ga... . 190 

Comrades at Victoria, Tex 186 

Comrades at Wilson. N. C 305 

Conrades of Camp Lomax . . . 71-111 

Comrades of Star City, Ark 349 

Comrades of the Washington 

Camp 304 

Deaths at Beaumont. Tex 271 

Deaths In Dick Dowling Camp, 

Houston, Tex 228 

Graybill Camp, No. 1534, U. C. V. 146 

Members of Camp J. M. Brady. . Ill 
Members of Camp 763. Marietta, 

Ga 148 

Mississippi Comrades 189-307 

Missouri Comrades 430 

Pat Cleburne Camp, No. 222, U. 

C. V. Waco, Tex 69 

W. B. Plemons Camp of Ainarillo, 

Tex 66 

Tom Green Camp, Weatherford, 

Tex 434 

Veterans at Lynchburg, Va 70 

Veterans of Lancaster Co.. Va. . . 146 

Veterans of the Confederacy 186 

Federal Veteran, A 187 

Brief Mention 31 


Adams, G. H. 


Bachman, Rev. John L 387 

Bachman, Rev. Jonathan 241 

Bachman. Miss Martha Dulaney 363 

Bagby, Gen. A. P 172 

Baker, W. H 226 

Barker, Samuel 391 

Birchfield. S. S 270 

Bivins, Capt. J. K 349 

Blake, Capt. T. B 227 

Boatright, Capt. B. S 186 

Fisher, J. K 109 

Fletcher. Robert 35 

Freeman. G. H 228 

Gee. T. E. 


Haley, Mrs. P. 

Hanna. J. E 

Heth. Miss Nannie Randolph 

Hibbler, Col. J. E 

Hicks. Dr. R. I....- 







Branch, J. L. 

108 ' Jones, C. L 27 

Carr, Gen. Julian S 401 

Clark. S. R 110 

Colvin, John 230 

Davis. Jefferson 201 

Dean, G. B 

Dorion, Mrs. Ellen Morrison . . 
Durham. Capt. D.C 


Ellis. A. B 267 

Ent, Capt. J. B 229 

Evins. Robert H 411 

Lanier. Capt. E. F 271 

Lee. Gen. R. E 1 

Lewis. V. C 347 

Lyon, Gen. J. Fuller 106 

McMurry, J. A 68 

Meade, S. R. . 190 

Meadows. W. D 237 

Mimms. W. H 109 

Moise, A. W 69 

Murchison. W. E 187 

Field. Al G 164 Roberts, Mrs. T. A.. 


Confederate Ueterai). 

Scum. Judge Edgar 401 

Smith. F.C •- WO 

Steadman. Maj. Charles M 161 

Street. Col. H. M 

Todhunter. Col. Ryland 236 

Towles. J. C 


Tagart. James A. 

Taliaferro. Gen. Alexander Gait. 

Taylor, Thomas Leroy 


Whitlock. W.J 

Wilson, Mrs. A. McD. 
Worthy. Cape. T. J 

Young, W. D.. 





Ackerd. M. H 264 

Anderson.C.C ■ 168 

Arnold. Thomas J 342-440 

Austin. John P ... 215 

Ball. Miss Mars' 

Barclay. Hugh Gaylord. 

8. 195. 243. 

Bean. Capt. R. T 

Boyle. Maj. W. A 

Boyle. Virginia Frazer 

Bradford, H. C. . . .- 

Bradwell, I. G 

56. 102, 222, 296. 

Brooks, Tarn 

Broughton. J. W 

Burr. Amelia Josephine 








Callaway. W. A 

Campbell. Mrs. A. A 

11.46.96. 131.219.258. 290 

Carnes. Capt. W. W 287 

Carpenter. J.N 424 

Carter. Miss Mary D 285 

Chancellor. Mrs. Sue 213 

Clark. Chief Justice Walter 163 

Cobb, Judge Andrew J 330 

Cook, Eyalyn Castleberry 353 

Cook. Col. V.Y 

Coyle. Wilbur F 176 

Courtney. W. J 104-357 

Coxe, John . 

Crownover. Mrs. Etta... 
Crumpton.W. B 92-381 

Davis, Jefferson 8 ' 

Davis, Miss Katherine 82 

Davidson. Miss Nora 338 

Day.W.A... - •• 138-173-216 

Douglass. John Jordan 162 

Doyle. J. H .332 

Doyle. W. E 314 

Ellis. Capt. \V. T 262 

Everett, Lloyd T 205-286 

Fennell, Charles... .253,336.373,422 

Garrett, William H 129 

Gaskell, J. E 261 

Gish. Grace Imogen 169 

Goffe. Charles H 16-385 

Gratz. John 91 

Gregory. Thomas W 292 

Gullett. Capt. W. S 427 

Hamilton. Posey .329 

Hancock. Taylor 38 

Harrison. Senator Pat 249 

Harwell. J. D 64 -357 

Hayne. W. H 132 

Hazard. Mrs. Charles B 247 

Higdon. Robert 383 

Holland. Capt. T. C 62 

Hollvday. Henry 93 

Houston. Mrs. M.H 14-88-253 

Hugginson, Thos. W.. .324 
Hyde. Mrs. Chas. R 124 

Jackson. Helen Hunt 126 

Jennings. Arthur H 165 

Jervey. Mary P 429 

Kennedy, Richard 443 

Lacey. Dr. E. P 333 

Lanier. Sidney 13° 

Lauck, T. H 18° 

Lawrence. R. De T 23-90 

Lewis. A. B 220 

Littlefield. A. W 4 

Lovett. Howard Meriwether. 166-344 
Lyne. Moncure 245 

Marshall. H. Snowden 208 

Martin. Fred R 9 

Matthews. Wm. D 198 

Mauney. Bonnie Eloise 100 

Maupin. Mrs. R. C 126 

Maxwell. James R 65 

M 'Anemy. Col. John 20 

McClean, Clara Dargan 367 

McNeilly, Dr. J. H 

5. 48. 98, 142, 169, 254, 276. 288 


McRae. Capt. Walter 178 

McWhorter, Mrs. J. K 409 

Meek. Alex B 97-259 

Mertins. Gustave F 204 

Metts, Jas, 1 104 

Miles, Dr. C. W 325 

Myers, Fanny Waldron 1 70 

Mason, Miss Emily V 1'5 

Newman. Mrs. Ellen H 184 

Owen, Mrs. Birdie Askew 284 

Page. Elizabeth Fry 260 

Peay. Austin lg - 

Pence, L. S 1« 

Pickens. John C 19' 

Powell. Smith 22 

Ravenel. Samuel VV 417 

Rayzor, Vivian Edith 324 

Renaud, J. K 207 

Saffold. Mildred Reynolds 60 

Sanford, W. L 372 

Scott, Joe M 64 

Shank. H. T 420 

Shepherd. Henry E 18 

Shields. Will Mitt 123 

Smith. Channing M... 

35. 136. 212. 340. 426 

Smythe. H. Gerald 6-440 

Snead. Capt. C. G 63 

Starnes. Col. Jas. W 369 

Starrett. Vincent 84 

Stevens, James A 303 

Stiles, John C 

4, 24, 135, 184. 225, 345, 371 
Strother. A. E 425 

Tate, C. B 52 

Tenney, S. F 246 

Thetford, R. B 335 

Thomas. Isaac L 105 

Thompson. John R 380 

Thompson, Col. Magnus S 298 

Timberlake. W. L 412 

Truman. W. L 328 

Wade. Capt. F. S 137 

Wailes, Dr. L. A 65 

Walker, N. J 343 

Ware. John N 53. 133. 317. 428 

Warfield. Catherine M 258 

Webster. J. T •• 341 

Williams, G. A .263 

Wilson, W. T 51 

Wolf, Capt. John B • 375 

Wise, G. W .236 

Woods. William Hervey 45 

Workman. C. E .256 

Wright, S. K 144 

Wright. Mrs. R. D 352 

Young, Robert 427 



Qo^federat^ l/eterai?. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn. 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

Acceptance of mailing- at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Otiikr Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 

Though men deserve, thev may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

single cipTfisCEOTs. } Vol. XXIX. NASHVILLE, TENN., JANUARY, 1921. No. 1. 

f Founder. 



Still unsurrendered in its might, 

The starry cross from heaven's staff unfurled 
Across the jeweled span of night — 

The highest masted flag in all the world ! 


When General Lee, amid the wreck and ruin of 1865, sought 
o reinvest his life for the benefit of his stricken land, he 
•efused offers of wealth and high position at home and 
ibroad and the headship of Church and State institutions and 
iccepted the presidency of war-wrecked Washington Col- 
ege in the Valley of Virginia. His great kinsman, being 
•ich, had endowed the college with his money. General Lee, 
iaving no money, gave himself to the institution, and thus 
nriched it forever. 

With consummate ability and ceaseless labor he gathered 
Indents, teachers, buildings, and endowments on Washing- 
ion's foundation, saturated the institution with his spirit, 
ixed for all time its ideals and traditions, and then, worn 
out by his sacrificial labors, fell at his post and bequeathed 
o it his sacred dust and his incomparable name. 

General Lee's investment of himself has brought dividends 
vhich even his wisdom could not have foreseen or imagined, 
nd the amazing fruitfulness of his institution as a nursery 
■f American leadership has recently awakened the whole 
iouth to a fresh realization of his many-sided greatness and 

widespread desire to honor his memory and carry on his 

The Lee Memorial Fund. 

This long-delayed tribute is taking the form of a Lee 
.lemorial Fund for the following and kindred objects: 

1. The raising of an endowment which shall maintain a 
uitable custodian of the Lee Mausoleum and Chapel, which 
re visited by a constant and ever-increasing stream of rev- 
rent pilgrims. The Virginia Division of the Daughters of 
he Confederacy has claimed this privilege, installed one of 
'heir leaders as custodian, and is already at work raising the 
l&rmanent endowment. 

2. The reconstruction of the western half of the chapel 
without changing the mausoleum, statue, rostrum, or Gen- 
eral Lee's office. The chapel is now not only too small for 
university assemblies, but is in constant danger from fire. 
The reconstruction will remove this risk, enlarge its capacity, 
and make it more worthy of the hero whose memory it en- 
shrines and of the stately Washington Building, just opposite. 
This is the special task which the Memorial Fund Committee 
is undertaking with the help of the United Daughters of the 

3. The equipment and endowment of the Robert E. Lee 
Memorial School of Civil and Highway Engineering. This 
school was founded by General Lee, himself an accomplished 
engineer, as the first act of his administration, but has never 
been provided with building, endowment, or adequate equip- 
ment. The United Confederate Veterans, with the help of 
the Sons of Confederate Veterans, have, by the unanimous ac- 
tion of their conventions, begun the work of raising a half 
million dollars for this purpose as their last tribute to their 
great commander. A pamphlet describing this movement 
will be sent by the university to any one interested. 

4. The endowment of the Robert E. Lee Chair of Journal- 
ism as a memorial of the fact that in 1869 General Lee in- 
troduced fully worked out college courses in journalism, the 
first in the world, with part-time "laboratory work" in a 
regular newspaper office required of all students, thus antici- 
pating educational progress by a half century and making 
him the founder of this most modern department of univer- 
sity work. 

Every donor to the Lee Memorial •Fund,, therefore, will not 
only honor his memory and help perpetuate his fame and in- 
fluence, but will become an active partner in the great work to 
which he dedicated his ripened powers and the last years of 
his eventful life. 

Through the generosity of one of General Lee's admirers 
a handsome illustrated Lee booklet will be presented to every 
donor to the fund, that the present generation may become 
better acquainted with the ideals and traditions of the Old 
South as exemplified in the matchless purity, dignity, and 
moral elevation of his character. — IVashington and Lee Uni- 
versity Bulletin. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterar?, 

Qoi}federat<? l/eterai?. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 

Office: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 


(Dedicated to the Boston Chapter, U. D. C.) 

1870— Robert Edward Lee— 1920. 

"Numbered with the saints in glory everlasting." 

Thy warfare o'er, thy faithful heart at rest, 
Thou farest forth, the champion of the right; 
They welcome thee, the saints in splendor bright. 
To guide thee to the realm of thy brave quest. 

Content thy soul save only with the best; 
Thy standard, high, the pure unsullied white ; 
Thy shining blade, the symbol of the Might 
Of thy fair Land. Thy Comrades greet thee, blest ! 

Thy noble spirit scorned place and power; 
Ambition's 'lurements thou didst, meek, resign ; 
The weak thou servedst, as thou didst the strong. 

When cloud and black defeat didst o'er thee lower. 
Thou sought'dst the leading of the light divine. 
Hail him, Hosts Eternal, with the Victor's Song! 



A late communication from William T. Rigby, Chairman 
of the Vicksburg National Military Park Commission, states 
that the War Department has authorized the placing of a 
portrait statue of Jefferson Davis for the Vicksburg Na- 
tional Military Park and that the commission hopes to secure 
this statue for the park by contributions from citizens of the 
States that were represented in the Vicksburg campaign and 
defense. The statue will be placed on the inside of Confed- 
erate Avenue and directly opposite the center of the me- 
morial arch. 

The following inscription for the statue has been approved : 

"Jefferson Davis, 

Commander in Chief 

Confederate States Armies. 

Cadet U. S. Military Academy. 1824. 
2d Lt. 1st U. S. Infan., July 1, 1828. 
1st Lieut. Dragoons, March 4, 1833. 
Adjt., Aug. 30. 1833, to Feb. 5, 1834. 

Resigned June 30. 1835. 

Col. 1st Miss. Rifles, July 18. 1846. 

Hon. mustered out July 12. 1847. 

Sec. of War Mar. 7, 1853. to Mar. 6, 1857. 



The heaviest loss in any battle was that of Chickamauga. 
where the Confederates lost twenty-five per cent and the 
Union army thirty per cent, or a combined loss of twenty- 
seven per cent of those engaged. 

The heaviest Confederate loss was at Gettysburg, where 
twenty-six per cent were put out of business before we had 
had enough, and the lightest was at Cold Harbor, as we lost 
only three per cent in holding Grant at bay. In the first in- 
stance we were the attacking party, and in the latter we picked 
them off as long as the "Butcher" could force them up to 
our trenches. 

The heaviest Union loss was at Chickamauga, where the 
"Rock Of" (Thomas) lost thirty per cent after "Old Rosy" 
had retired to hunt a new standing place, and the lightest was 
at Bull Run. where a five per cent loss only was sufficient 
to run the "Tarriers" home. 

The greatest discrepancy between the losses was at Cedar. 
or, as far as the Yankees were concerned, well called "Slaugh- 
ter" Mountain, for there Banks lost twenty per cent, while 
Stonewall was losing five per cent. 

At Second Manassas Lee and Pope had the same percentage 
of loss, and at Missionary Ridge Bragg and Grant broke 
even, although in both instances one side was "licked out of 
their boots." 

In nearly every instance the attacking side got the worst 
of it, but at Sharpsburg and Chickamauga both defenders 
had the heavier losses. 

Sharpsburg is said to have been the bloodiest one-day fight 
on this continent, as Lee lost twenty-three per cent in that 
time, while it took two days to run Rosecrans up to thirty 
per cent at Chickamauga. 

However, these statistics, as compared to those of other 
than American wars, show up in a very favorable light, for, 
with the exception of the British, whose middle name is 
"Stand Fast." we did then and can now stand the "gaff" as 
well or better than any of them. 

References : Col. F. R. Henderson, of the British army, 
author of the "Life of Stonewall Jackson" ; Col. M. F. Steele. 
United States army, from Alabama; Col. E. P. Alexander, 
Confederate States army. 

In Honor of the Defenders of Vicksburg.' 


Pension disbursements for the fiscal year 1920 aggregated 
$213,295,314, Commissioner Saltzgaber, of the Pension Bu- 
reau, says in his annual report. 

Pension figures showed a decrease of about $9,000,000 from 
1919 totals, and the report recorded the deaths in the year of 
27,871 Civil War pensioners, leaving 243,520 soldiers of that 
war on the pension roll, in addition to 290,100 Civil War 

While no survivors of the War of 1812 were shown, 
seventy-one widows of soldiers in that war are receiving 
pensions. Only 148 Mexican War survivors were reported 
and 2,423 Mexican War widows. 

Survivors of the World War do not show on the roll. 
Their dependents alone are carried, such as invalids, widows, 
minor children, and mothers and fathers of negular army sol- 
diers for the period prior to application of *rar risk insurance 
legislation.— New York Evening Mail. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



Fifty-six years ago, on the 30th of November, 1864, Nash- 
ville was listening to the roar of one of the bloodiest battles 
of the War between the States, as on the historic field of 
Franklin the Confederate army of General Hood sought to 
sweep away the Federal forces that barred the way to the 
capital of Tennessee and to the fair fields of Dixie beyond. 
Though that effort was futile, yet the day marked the high 
tide of courage and devotion of the Confederate soldier to 
the cause for which he had pledged his life, his fortune, and 
his sacred honor. To us who passed through that fiery ordeal 
that day will ever be "the reddest day in history." 

It may be that some of my surviving comrades will be in- 
terested if I recall some of the scenes and incidents of that 
terrible conflict in which our bond of fellowship was sealed 
in blood. 

All day long on the 29th General Forrest fought around 
Spring Hill to conceal the movements of our army, and that 
night General Hood, leaving Gen. S. D. Lee's corps in front 
of the enemy at Columbia, had placed two corps, Stewart's 
and Cheatham's, alongside of the road by which the Federal 
forces must retreat. By some strange blunder they were per- 
mitted to march past us, hurrying to their strong works at 
Franklin. I stood near General Forrest as General Walthall 
rode up to him, and I heard the great cavalryman in a tone 
of indignation and grief express his sense of our loss : "O, 
General, if they had given me one of your brigades, just one, 
to have flung across this road, I could have taken the whole 
shebang !" But it was useless to make idle moan, and we 
were soon in hot pursuit of the enemy, who by this time were 
in their fortifications, ready to receive us. 

When we reached the hills on the Columbia road overlook- 
ing the plain on which Franklin is situated, we had a view 
of the heavy task before us. It was a beautiful day, soft as 
a day in May, and the blue grass pastures invited to a pic- 
nic of peace rather than the fierce combat impending. At once 
Stewart's Corps was sent east to the right toward the Lewis- 
burg pike, while Cheatham's Corps was mainly on the right. 
west of the Columbia Pike, and by four o'clock, a little before 
sundown, we were drawn up in line of battle, ready for the 
charge. I think every one of us realized the desperateness of 
our undertaking and the impending harvest of death. Many 
of the men came to me, both officers and privates, asking me 
to take charge of souvenirs, letters, pictures, jewelry, watches. 
But I had to decline, for I was going in with them and was 
to be exposed to the same danger. There lay just before our 
division (Walthall's) a large body of woodland, separating 
us from the open field across which we were to charge. That 
field, extending from the railroad to the Federal works, was 
for several hundred yards bare of trees or shrubs, giving full 
sweep to the enemy's guns, musketry and artillery. We had 
no artillery, only musket and bayonet. While we were stand- 
ing in line a shell burst over us and wounded two or three 
men. Then came the wild charge we made. 

It has always seemed strange to me that General Schofield 
did not come out of his works and attack us, considering the 
disparity of forces. I have seen statements from the Federal 
commanders that they had in the fight 23,000 men, in- 
cluding a strong force of artillery. On our side the main 
charge was made by Cheatham's and Stewart's Corps, one 
division of Lee's Corps coming up toward the last of the 
fighting. Now, just before we started on this campaign there 
was a review of our army at Lovejoy's Station, Ga. The 

number of infantry reported was about 8,000 in each corps. 
And that was about the extent of our force, say 16,000 in the 
two corps. Our artillery took no part in the action. Some 
Yankee authorities put Hood's force at 70.000. 

There were two central points about which the battle raged 
most fiercely. On the west of the Columbia Pike, on the 
Carter premises, was a locust grove that was almost de- 
stroyed by the fierceness of the firing, and on the east of the 
Columbia Pike was a ginhouse inside the Federal works. 
About these two points the battle raged, and there the dead 
were thickest— the trenches filled with the bodies and flowing 
with the blood of the slain. Near the ginhouse General Cle- 
burne was killed. 

We had just started across the open field when my men 
began to fall so fast that I had to stop and look after them, 
for I directed the litter corps of my regiment. 

The next morning as I went to get the body of my brother 
near the ginhouse I had to pick my way to keep from step- 
ping on dead men. The estimate I heard from those in charge 
of the field was that there were fifteen hundred dead in the 
space of a hundred acres. In my brigade (Quarles's) the 
highest commissioned officer was a lieutenant. In my regi- 
ment, the 49th Tennessee, of one hundred and twenty-eight 
men, twenty-six were killed and sixty-six wounded, and the 
proportion was the same in other commands. One major 
general and five brigadiers were killed and several wounded. 
Our losses in killed and wounded must have reached 5,000. 
It was Sunday, the fourth day after the battle, before I got 
my wounded safely housed. 

It was in my attempt to provide for the comfort of my men 
that I realized the value of good clothes. I was like most of 
our boys, ragged and nearly barefoot. I found a place where 
some ladies, angels of mercy, were gathering supplies for the 
wounded. Without thinking of my disreputable 'appearance, 
I went in. They were directed by an old lady of commanding 
appearance and positive speech. She asked what I wanted. 
I told her that I had a number of wounded men and wished 
to get such delicacies as they needed. 

She said: "Yes, you look like you could enjoy some of the 
nice things." 

I said : "No, I only want them for my men." 

Then she came back with : "How am I to know that your 
men will ever get them?" 

I said: "Madam, I am the chaplain of Quarles's Brigade, 
and I can assure you that my men will get what you give." 

"Yes," said she, "some of you boys would claim to be 
major generals if you could make anything by it." 

I was at the end of my row, the ladies were tittering, and 
I was embarrassed. I was about to withdraw in confusion 
when I happened to put my hand on my breast and felt my 
commission as chaplain, only recently received. I at once 
said to her: "Madam, I am sorry that you can't believe me, 
and I will leave you, but before I go I can convince you that 
I am telling you the truth." 

So I drew out my commission with the great seal of the 
War Department signed "James Seddon, Secretary." At once 
her manner changed ; she gave me a basket loaded with good 
things and was profuse in her apologies. As she followed me 
to the door her last words were in a whisper that could be 
heard across the street : "Preacher, you must excuse me ; for 
if I had been asked to select a preacher, you are the very 
last man I would have picked." 

I thought so too. 

Then off for Nashville with its disastrous battle and then 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

Ihe terrible experiences of the rear guard — fight all day and 
retreat all night. Yet here I am, nearly eighty-three years 
old, hale and hearty. 

A Retrospect and an Appreciation. 


"To the glorious and immortal memory of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee. Unsurpassed as a warrior, he was no less conspicuous 
as a complete and perfect model of a true gentleman. His 
name will endure forever in the memory of all who respect 
and admire true nobility of character. This wreath is placed 
here on the centenary of his birthday in loving and respectful 
homage to the memory of a truly good and great man." 

So runs the inscription on the brass plate which, affixed 
to an oaken tablet and within a bronze wreath of oak and 
laurel leaves, reposes by the side of the marble cenotaph that 
supports the recumbent effigy of the General in the memorial 
chapel on the campus of the Washington and Lee University 
at Lexington, Va. 

On this day, October 12, it has seemed fitting to recall to 
the memories of those who, in their late boyhood or early 
manhood, still have some recollection of the events in the 
War between the States and to place before those of a later 
generation to whom that great drama is perhaps not even a 
name, a picture, imperfect though it be, of the noblest figure 
of all those who took part in it. It is then just fifty years 
ago, October 12, 1870, since there passed from this earth the 
man who, in the opinion of those best qualified to judge in 
those matters, was the greatest English-speaking general since 
Marlborough, a title which assuredly no one has since arisen 
to dispute. Indeed, it may be fairly claimed that, consider- 
ing the means at his disposal for accomplising the task which 
was set him, Lee ranks high among the first twelve of the 
world's greatest commanders. 

In spite of the numerous lives and memoirs of him which 
have appeared in his own country— the present writer pos- 
sesses not less than fifteen of these— no adequate history of 
his military career has yet appeared. The task of compiling 
such a work had been intrusted to the brilliant biographer 
of Stonewall Jackson, the late Lieut. Col. G. F. R. Hender- 
son, C.B., but, unhappily, he was not spared to accomplish 
it. In such a brief sketch as the present it is not possible to 
do more than call attention to a few salient points in that 

The greater part of Lee's service in the United States army 
before the war had been passed in the engineer corps, and this 
might predispose people to think of him rather as a scientific 
than a fighting officer. Nevertheless, he displayed as a gen- 
eral in the Confederate States army an audacity which has 
seldom, if ever, been surpassed. Take, for example, his de- 
termination to hold his ground during the day succeeding 
the battle of Sharpsburg, a determination which amazed even 
Stonewall Jackson. He had fought what was, in proportion 
to the numbers engaged, the bloodiest battle of the war, the 
odds being 35,000 Confederates as against 87,000 Federals. 
His men were scantily fed and clothed; and, although at the 
end of the day the enemy had been repulsed at all points, it 
was at a severe cost both in men and material, and he had a 
river in his rear. Yet Lee actually contemplated the possi- 
bility of taking the offensive, and it was only on the night 
of the day following the battle that he withdrew his army to 
the south side of the Potomac, making the crossing without 
further loss or molestation. 

Take again his crowning glory, Chancellorsville. Here 
Lee, with a total available force of all arms amounting to 
somewhere about 57,000, was opposed to "the finest army on 
the planet," numbering close upon 134,000. Of these, 37,673 
were placed under the command of Sedgwick, who was to 
carry the heights of Fredricksburg then held by Early with 
some 9,000 men, and operate upon Lee's right rear ; while 
Hooker, who as commander in chief, with 73,124 men under- 
took a movement against Lee's left flank and center. In the 
face of these apparently overwhelming odds Lee preserved his 
equipoise and took measures to anticipate the blow which 
was about to fall upon him. Early's detachment left him 
some 40,000 infantry to cope with Hooker's nearly double 
strength. Notwithstanding this vast disparity of numbers, 
he did not hesitate to divide his forces in the presence of the 
enemy, and, retaining two divisions, 14,000 strong in the 
aggregate, to face Hooker, he dispatched Jackson with the 
remaining 26,000 to make that famous flank march which, 
while it resulted in the complete rout of Hooker, deprived 
him of his "right hand," wanting which he failed to win the 
battle of Gettysburg. Lee emphatically asserted after the war 
that if Jackson had been with him there he would have won 
that battle and the war. 

After Gettysburg, his one defeat in the open field, Lee dis- 
played the same tenacity and audacity as after Sharpsburg. 
For the whole of the 4th of July, the day after the closing 
of that three days' fight, he maintained a bold face to the 
foe, so much so that they were somewhat apprehensive lest 
he should resume the offensive; and, notwithstanding that 
his retreat was heavily cumbered by the numerous wounded 
and atrocious weather conditions, he brought off his forces 
across the swollen rivers in his path with comparatively slight 
loss, the enemy deeming it too hazardous to risk a close 

Lee's defensive campaign in the Wilderness in the spring 
and early summer of 1864 has probably only been surpassed 
by Napoleon's marvelous fighting in Champagne nearly fifty 
years earlier. In connection with it the following anecdotes, 
which were told to the present writer during a visit to Vir- 
ginia in 1909, may find a fitting place here. 

There was a famous Confederate scout, Stringfellow by 
name, who on the 4th of May, 1864, the eve of the opening 
of that campaign, reported himself to Lee, when the follow- 
ing colloquy took place : 
"Well, Captain Stringfellow, where do you come from?" 
"From Washington, General." 

"What number of men has General Grant, and what is 
he doing?" 

"He has 140,000 men in front of you and is about to move 
on you." 

Without a moment's hesitation Lee said : "I have 54,000 

men up, and as soon as he crosses the river I will strike him." 

Grant crossed the Rapidan on the following day, and as 

30on as he was entangled in the Wilderness Lee struck him 

a staggering blow. 

In the course of the same campaign Grant had gotten hold 
of a resident in that part of the country and had pressed hira 
into his service as a guide. This person was in Grant's tent 
one day when the General, with his corps commanders and 
staff around him, was poring over a map of the surrounding 
country, tracing out with his finger the various roads and 
clearings. Presently he arose and. stretching himself, said: 
"Well, gentlemen, if we don't hear his guns in five minutes, 
I've got him at last." The words were scarcely out of his 
mouth when a most terrific cannonading broke forth. Grant 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

slapped his hand down on the table and exclaimed : "By 
God, he's got me again !" And it is a fact that whenever and 
wherever he made a move in that campaign there he found Lee 
facing him. In the four weeks' campaign ending with Grant's 
bloody repulse at Cold Harbor on June 2, which not only 
definitely knocked on the head his expressed intention "to 
fight it out on this line if it takes all summer," but was also 
within an ace of bringing the war to a triumphant conclusion 
for the South. Lee had put as many of Grant's men out of 
action as he himself had under his command during the en- 
tire campaign — viz., 64,000. 

To Lee belongs probably the unique distinction of being the 
only general who ever carried through a long war with "kid 
gloves." The wanton destruction of enemy property was not 
| only strictly prohibited by him, but his injunctions in that 
■ respect were rigorously carried out. His orders with regard 
to such matters, issued on the occasion of his invasion of 
Pennsylvania, stand out in startling contrast to those given 
by Sherman on setting out on his great march and those 
given by Grant to Sheridan for the devastation of the 
Shenandoah Valley. So much for Lee the soldier. 

If humility, combined with a proper sense of what was due 
to his position, generosity, modesty, self-abnegation, a pro- 
found consideration for the feelings of others, gentleness 
toward all men, enemies as well as friends, deference toward 
those in authority over him, tenderness of heart, especially 
to the young and feeble, are the true marks of a gentleman, 
then Lee, who possssed all these qualities in abundance and 
showed them forth through all his career from childhood to 
the grave, was indeed the "complete and perfect model of a 
true gentleman." This is not, however, to say that his char- 
acter was perfectly flawless. Lee had a high temper, and when 
occasion called for it he could express himself with con- 
siderable severity. On the other hand, his self-control was 
almost abnormal. Of this a notable instance was recounted by 
the late Col. Walter H. Taylor, his adjutant general. On one 
of Lee's "bad days" that officer had to lay some papers be- 
fore him which required his attention. Lee showed some 
irritation, accompanied by a certain harshness of manner. 
Taylor showed anger on his side and threw the papers down. 
Then in a perfectly calm and measured tone of voice Lee 
said: "Colonel Taylor, when I lose my temper, don't you let 
it make you angry." In a somewhat similar strain was Lee's 
answer to a student at Washington College, Lexington, 
Va., later, and now, known as the Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, of which institution he was President from October, 
1865, until his death. Lee had occasion to warn the young 
man that only patience and industry would prevent the failure 
that would otherwise inevitably mar his career. "But, Gen- 
eral, you failed," was the reply. "I hope that you may be 
more fortunate," said Lee. 

Lee had, as was told to the present writer by one of his 
officers, "a pretty gift of sarcasm," and his reproofs would 
at times assume that form. Of one of the students he re- 
ported: "He is entirely too careful of the health of his 
father's son. We do not want our students to injure their 
health by studying, but we want them to come as near to it 
as it is possible to miss. This young gentleman, you see, is 
a long way from the 'danger line.' " To another student who 
had been called up to account for his absence without leave 

Lee remarked with a smile : "Mr. , I am glad to see you 

better." "But, General, I have not been sick." "Then I am 
glad you have better news from home." "But, General, I 
have had no bad news." "Ah," said Lee "I took it for 


granted that nothing less than sickness or distressing news 
from home could have kept you from your duty." 

Of Lee's extraordinary influence over children two in- 
stances must suffice. In one of his rides near Lexington he 
was encounterd by his goddaughter, Virginia Lee Letcher, 
a little girl six years old, who could not induce her younger 
sister to come home. As Lee rode up Jennie made her ap- 
peal : "General Lee, won't you please make this child go home 
to her mother?" Lee at once leaned over and, picking up the 
small delinquent, rode off home with her. When Mrs. 
Letcher inquired why she had given General Lee so much 
trouble, Jennie replied: "I couldn't make Fan go home, and 
I thought he could do anything." More than thirty years 
after his death a Richmond lady was telling her little girl 
about the Chinese practice of crushing children's feet into 
shoes which were far too small for them. "General Lee 
wouldn't have allowed that," promptly said the child. 

After the war Lee used his great influence by precept and 
example to reconcile the South to her position. He never 
spoke bitterly of his late antagonists and invariably discour- 
aged the use of such language by others. Nevertheless, the 
iron of the evil days of Reconstruction entered deeply into 
his soul, and his grief for the sufferings of his country was 
indubitably a contributory cause of his death. In 1869 he 
was passing through Richmond on his return to Lexington 
from a visit to the graves of his father and daughter and 
called upon Major Talcott, a former member of his staff. 
This gentleman remarked how ill and depressed he was 
looking. "Yes," the General replied, "I am not only some- 
what apprehensive on account of my own health, but the suf- 
ferings of our people have deeply affected me. Major, if 
I conld have foreseen the way in which those people — his 
usual way of speaking of the Yankees— would treat them, 
I would never have surrendered my army." "Well, General," 
said Major Talcott, "you have only to blow the bugle." But 
the General said, "It is too late now," and shook his head 
sadly. It may not be generally known that, although Lee 
by way of example had taken the oath of allegiance to the 
United States government and had applied for pardon, no 
notice was taken of his application, and his actual status at 
the time of his death was that of a prisoner of war on 

But Lee and the cause for which he sacrificed everything 
but honor have come to their own. In a speech made at the 
Lee Centennial, January 19, 1907, at Lexington the Hon. C. 
F. Adams, son of the American Ambassador to Great Britain 
at the time of the War between the States, who had served 
in the Army of the Potomac and was then President of the 
Historical Society of Massachusetts, "a typical bred-in-the- 
bone Yankee," as he styled himself, after stating that during 
the war no event could have given him greater pleasure than 
the death of Lee at the hands of the command in which he 
served, proceeded to state that "as the result of much patient 
study and most mature reflection under the circumstances I 
would myself have done exactly what Lee did. In fact, I do 
not see how I, placed as he was, could have done otherwise." 
Again within the last ten years there was a very strongly 
expressed desire on the part of the survivors of the Army of 
the Potomac to erect a statue to Lee in New York. This 
was abandoned in deference to the wish of the General's sur- 
viving daughter, who thought that the time had not come for 
such a commemoration. On the 8th of June, 1917, there, was 
dedicated on the field of Gettysburg a memorial to the Army 
of Northern Virginia, the crowning feature of which was an 
equestrian statue in heroic proportions of R. E. Lee. The 

^oijfederat^ l/eterai), 

ceremony was attended by vast crowds, among whom were 
numbered a multitude of Northerners, who included in their 
ranks many of those whose sentiments had coincided with 
the war-time feelings of Mr. C. F. Adams. To come down 
to recent times. On the 19th of January, 1917, the com- 
mander of a brigade of Pennsylvania troops, quartered at 
Petersburg, Va.. said that he proposed when the 80th Di- 
vision, to which this brigade belonged, had proved itself 
worthy of \the honor to ask that it might bear the name of 
the "Lee Division." And General Pershing, another North- 
erner, in addressing the State Legislature of Virginia in the 
spring of the present year, after referring in terms of the 
greatest admiration to General Lee, stated that in the recent 
war the record of the Virginia troops was worthy of the 
fame of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

We hear a good deal nowadays of the right of peoples to 
self-determination with regard to their form of government. 
That was the right for which Lee and his people contended. 
They failed, but will any one dare now to assert that they 
were in the wrong? 


Many years ago I was passing by steamer up the Thames, 
and in skirting Putney, a suburb of London, I was very much 
astonished to observe a large Confederate flag flying in the 
grounds of one of the villas belonging to that town. I gazed 
at it, I must confess, very much as Balboa did at the Pacific 
when he caught his first sight of that sea from the "peak in 
Darien"— that is to say. with a "wild surmise" which it was 
not possible then to satisfy. Some years later I met Capt. 
Robert E. Lee, Jr., at the White Sulphur Springs ; and as he 
knew that I had been recently in England, he asked me in his 
hearty way: "Did you by any chance while in London make 
the acquaintance of my old friend, Gerald Smythe? He is 
the best Confederate I know." "I wonder," I replied, "if he 
is the man who flies that flag in Putney?" "The very man," 
said Captain Lee, "and he thinks as much of it as he does of 
the British standard." 

A few years later I happened to be in England again, and 
I made it a point to meet Mr. Smythe, who, I found, was also 
personally known to Col. Gordon McCabe — indeed, was an 
intimate friend and correspondent of that most charming and 
accomplished of men and most devoted of Confederates. Mr. 
Snvythe had removed to Tunbridge Wells, and it was in his 
home there that I visited him. His house was situated on 
the confines of that intersting town, just at the border of a 
common, then overflowing with masses of yellow-blossoming 
gorse. Only a stone's throw from his door was the famous 
well which had made Tunbridge a center of fashion and 
frivolity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As I 
approached the house I descried an enormous new Confeder- 
ate flag flying from a tall staff firmly planted upon the green 

As I entered the porch the sound of the familiar Confed- 
erate airs, played in snatches one after another, struck har- 
moniously upon my ear — "Bonnie Blue Flag," "Dixie," 
"Maryland, My Maryland," and the like. It was Mr. Smythe 
at the piano in the drawing-room. In the hall he gave me a 
hearty greeting, not only as a friend of Captain Lee and 
Colonel McCabe, but as a Virginian, a Southerner, and the 
author of a "Life of Robert E. Lee." He took me at once 
to his library, which I found packed with books relating to 
the Confederacy. Not a volume had ever been written about 

Lee which was not to be discovered on his shelves, and this 
was almost equally true of all the other heroes of the Con- 
federacy. Seated in a comfortable chair, he gave me a most 
interesting account of his only visit to Virginia and the 
South — his stay with Captain and Mrs. Lee at Romancoke, 
his association in Richmond with that gallant and sturdy old 
Confederate, George L. Christian, his reception by the Con- 
federate Camp in that city, his visit to Maj. Channing M. 
Bolton in Charlottesville, his sojourn in Lexington, his stay 
in Charleston, S. C, there as everywhere else an object of 
attention on account of his devotion to the Southern cause 
and, I may add, of his own winning personal qualities. In 
Lexington he deposited an exquisite bronze wreath at the foot 
of the effigy of Lee in the chapel as an expression of his pro- 
found reverence for the character of that great man and 
admiration for his military achievements. 

But to return to Mr. Smythe's own house. Before luncheon 
was announced, he took me to his drawing-room and dining 
room and showed me the numerous Confederate souvenirs 
which he had collected — portraits, pictures, letters, and what 
not. It was especially rich in objects associated with the 
Lees. When we sat down to luncheon, I found the table 
decorated with flowers, the tints of which represented the 
Confederate colors. Our conversation during the meal turned 
on Confederate history, and I soon saw that he had been a 
profound student of that subject in all its manifold phases. 
When I left the house, I must admit that I had a lump in 
my throat. There was something so indescribably beautiful 
in the devotion of this high-minded and cultured English 
gentleman, a man who had passed his seventieth year, to the 
memories of the Southern cause. The World War was then 
in progress. There were thousands of British troops marching 
about Tunbridge. One could almost hear the muffled roar of 
the guns at Ypres. And yet the impression which my friend 
had of Gettysburg and Chancellorsville, Shiloh and Chicka- 
mauga was quite as vivid as his impression of the battles 
which the newspapers were daily announcing. Was it sur- 
prising that when I came to dedicate my volume on the brave 
deeds of Confederate soldiers his name should be the very' 
first to leap to my mind as one especially entitled to such a 
distinction from the author of a Confederate book? 
* Philip Alexander Bruce. 

University of Virginia. 


(Inscribed to the Southern boys who are sleeping there.) 

Ah, yes ! In Flanders' fields, where poppies blow, 

Brave Gallic sons are resting, "row on row !" 

Fond Gallic hearts are thrilled by poet's song 

That glorified that dauntless martyr throng ! 

Some time ere long our loyal hearts have prayed 

Our peerless host who met fate unafraid 

And sleep in Argonne Wood, too long unsung, 

Will have Fame's fadeless wreath on each mound hung. 

Such glorious theme will urge true poet's soul 
To epic flight, a matchless, deathless scroll, 
Whose tragic tale will temper vain regret, 
Hold us entranced by scenes time can't forget ! 
Some time-inspired bard of our homeland 
Will consecrate our absent Argonne band ! 

— Hugh Gaylord Barclay, in Montgomery Advertiser. 

Qopfederat^ 1/eterai). 



Interest in the story of the "Gallant John Pelham," prob- 
ably the most dashing of the boy heroes of the Confederacy, 
seems never to abate. Therefore, in writing of his boyhood 
and youth in Alabama and later at West Point, together with 
a brief sketch of his ancestry, I feel that I am supplying the 
readers of the Veteran a story of interest. 

The first known ancestor of Maj. John Pelham was Peter 
Pelham, an engraver of Chicester, England. His son, Peter 
Pelham, came to Boston in 1726, thereby becoming the first 
; American ancestor of Major Pelham. This Peter Pelham 
j was also an engraver and painter. of considerable note, being 
a competitor of Paul Revere in the engraving trade. His 
portrait of Cotton Mather, painted and engraved in 1727, is 
preserved as probably the best likeness of that eminent co- 
lonial American. Others of Mr. Pelham's portraits and en- 
j ^ravings of his contemporaries are also preserved and treas- 
ured in New England. As stepfather to the celebrated 
painter, John Singleton Copely, Mr. Pelham was further en- 
abled to make his impress upon early American art. 

A third Peter Pelham, son of the above and great-grand- 
father of Major Pelham, removed from Boston to Williams- 
burg, Va., when a very young man and became one of the 
jarliest and best-known musicians of the metropolis of co- 
lonial Virginia. Under his directions there was installed in 
Bruton Parish Church a pipe organ, believed to have been 
the first installed in America. He continued as organist of 
the church for nearly half a century, and George Washing- 
ton and Martha were attendants there when in Williamsburg. 
George Washington in his diary mentions attending a the- 
atrical performance at which "Mr. Pelham dispensed sweet 

Peter Pelham's eldest son, Charles, grandfather of John 
Pelham, was born in July, 1748, probably in Boston shortly 
before his father's removal to Virginia. Charles Pelham 
served with distinction in the Continental Army and reached 
the position of major. Soon after the Revolution he removed 
to the vicinity of what later became Marysville, Ky., though 
at that time a portion of Virginia. Maj. Charles Pelham 
died on August 29, 1829, and is buried in the cemetery at 

Dr. Atkinson Pelham, father of Maj. John Pelham, was 
:>orn near Marysville on November 21, 1797, growing to 
/oung manhood there. He attended and graduated from 
Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia. He first prac- 
ticed his profession in Pearson County, N. C, where he 
narried Miss Martha McGee in the early thirties. In 1837 
or early 1838 Dr. Pelham and his family removed to Benton 
(now Calhoun) County, Ala., and his third son, John Pel- 
iam, was born near Alexandria on September 14, 1838. 

Dr. Pelham died on July 7, 1880, his wife having died in 
1876. The final resting place of this devoted couple is near 
:heir illustrious son in the cemetery at Jacksonville, Ala. 

John Pelham spent a very happy and venturesome boyhood 
In the family home at Alexandria, and when a little more 
than seventeen years old, in 1856, he was appointed to a 
:adetship in the West Point Military Academy by his Con- 
gressman, the Hon. Sampson W. Harris, supposedly at the 
request of the late Senator John T. Morgan, a family friend. 
!foung Pelham entered the academy on July 1, 1856, and be- 
came a member of the only five-year class ever organized 
it the academy, which accounts for his presence there in 1861. 

At the academy Cadet Pelham was assigned to Company 


D, composed chiefly of Southern men, though Custer was a 
notable exception, and there were several other Northern 
men who achieved more or less fame fighting on the Union 
side. Life at West Point at this time was in no wise mo- 
notonous because of the intense interest taken by opposing 
factions in the series of events and issues immediately pre- 
ceding the War between the States. However, the soldierly 
bearing and consideration of the cadets prevented more than 
a very few physical clashes between Southerners and North- 

The late Morris Schaff, a classmate and companymate of 
Pelham's, himself a Union soldier, graphically describes life 
at West Point during this period in his "Spirit of Old West 
Point," and of Pelham he says : "The other day I saw the 
name of Pelham, and at once West Point flashes upon my 
sight, and I saw him as if he were alive, walking across the 
area, and then I saw myself riding across the field near 
Brandy Station, where he was mortally wounded. Of all 
the men in West Point in my day, either as cadets or officers, 
his name will possibly outlast all save Cushing's, and I have 
sometimes thought that at the last the dew 'will sparkle 
brighter on Pelham's memory." 

Then again: "The 'Gallant Pelham,' and that from Lee, 
was worth more than any rank in any army, more valuable 
than any title of nobility or badge of any order." 

Another member of Pelham's class, Maj. Gen. Adelbert 
Ames, who faced Pelham's guns at Bull Run and in Mc- 
Clellan's Peninsular Campaign, writes very interestingly of 
Pelham at West Point in part as follows : 

"It is a pleasure to recall his memory. He was a general 
favorite in the corps of cadets and, I think I am safe in 
saying, the most popular man in our class. 

"He was a gentleman in the highest sense of the term. A 
discourteous act was wholly foreign to his nature. His 
kindly heart, sweet voice, and genial smile carried sunshine 
with him always. 

"In those days, on the eve of the Civil War, sectional 
feeling ran high at West Point, as elsewhere. Cadets of the 
two sections were drawn more closely together. As a rule, 
political convictions were mutually respected, as were religious 
principles. Issues were too grave to discuss except in the 
most general and dispassionate way, if at all. No one's bear- 
ing under such circumstances was more wise, more discreet 
than John Pelham's. What he instinctively claimed for him- 
self he graciously conceded to others. 

"When we separated in the spring of 1861 none took with 
him more affectionate regard than he. 

"I am not disloyal when I tell you we heard with secret 
pride of his gallant deeds on the field of battle. It was what 
we had a right to expect of him. He was our classmate for 
years ; he was one of the best of us. Who should win honor 
and glory if not he? And we were deeply grieved when we 
heard of his death. He died as others of us died, in the hey- 
day of hope and youth fighting each for his right. 

"I recall one instance when as a young cadet he was trying 
to get on the color guard. Success depended upon military 
bearing, cleanliness of gun, condition of dress and accouter- 
ments, etc., including every possible detail. Half a dozen 
classmates surrounded him eager to prepare him for the ad- 
jutant's critical inspection. One brought him a bayonet and 
scabbard better varnished than his own, another a waist belt 
better than the one he had on, a third was wiping his gun 
with his handkerchief to remove any possible neglected par- 
ticle of dust, etc., time, effort, and interest they would hardly 
give themselves for themselves. He all the while was pro- 


Qoi)federat^ l/eterai). 

testing that they were too kind and acknowledging his ap- 
preciation with merry laugh and twinkling eyes. He made 
the color guard." 

Col. Henry A. DuPont, of the Union army, another class- 
mate of Pelham's, is also very frank in his admiration for 
the gallant Southerner, as quotation from a personal letter 
will show : 

"John Pelham, of Alabama, entered the military academy 
with me in June, 1856. He was of medium height, very 
straight, and with a remarkably well proportioned figure. 
His complexion was not very fair, although his eyes were 
blue and his hair decidedly blonde. Altogether he was a 
very handsome youth, with attractive manners which lent 
an additional charm to his open and engaging countenance. 

"Although his natural abilities were good, he could not 
have been called clever and did not stand very high in his 
class, my recollection being that he did not apply himself 
particularly to his studies. He was, however, a young man 
of high tone and decided character, and his proficiency in 
military exercises and in all that pertained to a soldier's 
life made him a cadet noncommissioned officer and a cadet 

"In the years immediately prior to the war of the rebellion 
sectional spirit ran very high through the country and was 
reflected in the corps of cadets at West Point, with the re- 
sults that social relations -between Northerners and South- 
erners were not close as a rule, the term "Southerner" being 
applied to all those coming from slave States. Pelham, while 
preserving his sectional affiliations, was popular with every- 
body, his manly deportment and pleasant manners making 
him universally liked. 

"It was my fortune to have been on most intimate terms 
with him during the four and a half years that we were 
together at West Point, and I was tenderly attached to him. 
During the autumn of 1860 I had a personal difficulty in the 
line of military duty with two of my classmates from New 
England, the root of the trouble being jealousy about my 
class standing, accentuated by the sectional feeling above 
mentioned. I turned at once to John Pelham, who was my 
second in a pugilistic encounter of twenty-one minutes, from 
which I emerged victorious, for cadets in those days settled 
all the difficulties by stand-up fist fights. 

"After a very sorrowful parting, he left the military 
academy for the South early in 1861, and I never saw him 

Another classmate and intimate friend, the intrepid Custer, 
who lost his life in the service of our united country, sent 
Pelham the following message, congratulatory upon his ad- 
vancement in the Confederate service: "We rejoice, dear Pel- 
ham, at your success." 

Any mention of Pelham's classmates at West Point with- 
out notice of that other "boy hero of the Confederacy," 
Thomas L. Rosser, would leave something lacking. Rosser 
and Pelham were close, intimate friends and were often dance 
partners at the "stag" dances of the cadets. However, Ros- 
ser lived to serve a reunited Union in the Spanish-American 
War, then having the rank of brigadier general. He achieved 
the rank of major general in the Confederate service. 

Pelham, Rosser, and several other cadets from other South- 
ern States resigned from the Academy to enter the service of 
their respective States upon the outbreak of the war. Pelham already passed his final examinations for graduation, and 
had he remained only a few days longer would have received 

his diploma. However, he was most impatient for service in 
the field in behalf of "the land we love." 

His deeds upon many a bloody field will live in history, 
story, and song. His memory is enshrined in the hearts of 
many men and women who followed and loved the Stars and 
Bars, and his fame will last as long as deeds of bravery and 
daring are related. 

[An article on Pelham's career in the Confederate army 
by the same writer will appear later. — Ed.] 



I remember well my first baptism of Yankee fire; the im- 
pression has been indelible. It occurred near Gloucester Point, 
Va., in 1862. After the evacuation of this garrison and 
Yorktown, the Yankees had kept a considerable force, and 
their cavalry made frequent raids into Gloucester and Mat- 

The cavalry company of which I was a member had been 
organized as Partisan Rangers. The only arms we had, in 
addition to the Confederate-made sabers, were old fowling 
pieces a few of which were double-barreled, but a large pro- 
portion of them were single-barreled and flintlocks. There 
were also a few small pistols and a number of the antequated 
horse pistols, also the flint-and-steel variety with those who 
had no guns. One thing we did have was splendid horses. 

We had frequently endeavored to get up with the Yankee 
cavalry, but to no purpose; our traps were widely avoided. 
This state of affairs continued until the early fall, when our 
captain, J. K. Littleton, and First Lieut. R. T. Sears, with 
fifteen or twenty men, went to Gloucester C. H. one after- 
noon and remained there until late into the night, when we 
moved off in the direction of Gloucester Point, distant about 
ten miles. When within a mile of the Point we were halted 
at a small rivulet which crossed the road, and Captain Lit- 
tleton stated in low tones that we were within two or three 
hundred yards of the Yankee outpost infantry picket, sta- 
tioned at what was known as Hook Store. He said it was 
the intention, if possible, to capture them without creating 
an alarm, then to ride to the Point and do all the damage 
possible and make our escape. We were strictly enjoined 
not to fire a gun or pistol unless we were first fired upon. 
We were ordered to draw saber and use it only. 

We moved up the inclined road to the level, with open 
ground on each side. We could see by the bright starlight 
the Yankee sentinal directly in front of the storehouse and 
in the center of the road. When within about sixty yards he 
challenged ue to halt, then very leisurely demanded: 'What 
troop is that?" From the time that we were ordered to halt 
Yankees were running from in front of the storehouse and 
formed a line across the road. Then one of them at one end 
of their line, who proved to be a lieutenant, again demanded 
what troop. Captain Littleton had learned from some one 
that part of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry was at the Point. 
It began to look rather serious for us, so much so that our 
first set of fours, realizing that we were not going to capture 
them with the saber and without alarm, dropped their sabers 
and brought their double-barreled guns ready to give a 
shower of ball and buckshot. Our captain had become, as 
we say, "rattled" and, replying to the Yankee lieutenant, said, 
'"103d Pennsylvania." The Yankee lieutenant's response was: 
"Fix bayonets ! We have no such troop. Make ready ! Aim. 

Realizing the gravity of the situation, and not waiting for 

Qogfederat^ l/eterai?. 


Captain Littleton, Lieutenant Sears, at the same instant that 
the Yankees were ordered to fire, gave the command : "Charge, 
boys !" Our first fours emptied their guns at the same time 
the Yankees fired. I don't know how many Yankees were 
killed outright from our guns. We were on them in an in- 
stant with pistol and saber. The Yankee lieutenant jumped 
over the' fence near the store and was ordered to halt, but did 
not obey and was shot down. Not one escaped. When we 
counted them, we found eleven dead and two prisoners. Our 
casualties were nothing, not a man or horse even wounded. 

We did not, like the Yanks, have the hoodoo number, 


Historical Evening Address at Asheville Convention, 

U. D. C, by Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Historian 


Madam President, Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, 
and Fellow Citizens: We are assembled here for our annual 
voyage to the land of memory, the Confederate States of 
America. We will sail on the good ship Retrospect, which 
never lost a passenger. Matthew Fontaine Maury is our com- 
modore, the Alabama, commanded by Admiral Raphael 
Semmes, is our convoy, followed by the ironclad Virginia 
and a flotilla manned by men as brave as ever sailed the 
Seven Seas. 

These are all enchanted ships. They come when we signal 
them and bear us instantly to the harbor of long ago, which 
is the chief port of the land of memory. There are the bat- 
tle fields fought over by the blue and the gray; there "to the 
sessions of sweet, silent thought we summon up remembrance 
of things past" and ponder why this fair land is seen only 
by looking backward. 

There was once a city which gave the title to the first and 
still the greatest of epic poems. Many walls have fallen and 
many kings have been exiled since Homer sang of Troy, but 
cold is the heart that has never thrilled at the name of Hector 
or Achilles ;_ and so, I fancy, throughout all time the names 
of Lee and Jackson shall shine with supernal glory, lighting 
the souls of men to noble deeds. 

Why did the South fail with a righteous cause with such 
leaders, with an army that never quailed at danger, with a 
womanhood whose heroism was an inspiration to her men? 
"There is a divinity that shapes our ends, roughhew them 
how we will." Back in some remote antiquity our finite minds 
cannot fathom God ordained the discovery of America, so 
that the New World and the new conceptions of religion 
might be coordained, the one affording a refuge to the other. 
In a peculiar sense we have been a chosen people, heirs of the 
promise to those who honor the great Ruler of the universe. 

Let us trace a few of the manifestations of a great Hand 
guiding and protecting us. Remembering that it is the same 
Hand which wrote upon a banquet hall the doom of Babylon, 
which touched the feet of clay and the Roman empire crum- 
bled, may we not reverently say the same Hand which turned 
back the Hun in the race to the sea and the march to Paris? 

Back in the year 1755 there was no anticipation whatever 
of the cordial relations now existing with France. In fact, 
so far from our adopting French orphans, the French were 
very diligently making American orphans, assisted by their 
Indian allies. 

We were sheltered at that time by a royal standard, on 
which the heraldic animals were a lion and a unicorn support- 
ing a crown. Even then killing British subjects was a 

pastime in which other nations engaged at their peril. A 
punitive expedition was sent out under General Braddock, 
and it is possible that the way it was managed subsequently 
encouraged the belief that he and Lord Cornwallis used the 
same book on military tactics. Straight into an Indian am- 
bush marched the regulars against a foe which did not ob- 
serve the etiquette of battle practiced by the best continental 
armies. Under the withering fire of unseen rifles Braddock 
fell mortally wounded, ,and the redcoats gave way. But 
look ! There comes a young colonel, defying the hail of bul- 
lets, rallying the regulars, saving the retreat from becoming 
a massacre. How does he escape when so many are slain? 
A power called Providence guards him, for his name is to 
be written in the hearts of a mighty people and is to be a 
beacon, filling the whole world with its splendor, for this is 
George Washington, the Father of his Country. 

The closest presidential election ever held in the United 
States was in February, 1801. Jefferson and Burr each re- 
ceived seventy-three votes, and the House of Representatives 
was to decide the election. Alexander Hamilton, not that he 
hated Jefferson less, but Burr more, used his influence to elect 
Jefferson. Two years later occurred an event which ranks 
next to the Revolution and the War between the States as 
the greatest in our history — the Louisiana Purchase. It added 
one million square miles, at a cost of fifteen million dollars, 
to our area. Nine magnificent commonwealths and parts of 
four others were carved out of this domain. Was this won- 
derful real estate bargain received with universal approval? 
Alas, no! There was then, as now, in Washington a body 
known as the United States Senate. It viewed the Louisiana 
Purchase with the same alarm subsequently bestowed upon 
the admission of Texas, the League of Nations, a re- 
markable case of senatorial heredity, and Massachusetts led 
the opposition in each instance. Providence, however, was 
preparing to extend the republic from ocean to ocean, from 
Canada to the Rio Grande, and Jefferson was the man of 
vision used to accomplish this great purpose. 

In 1860 another presidential election was held. Let us 
throw the mantle of charity over the folly of Northern and 
Southern Democrats each naming a candidate, for did not 
the party which profited so greatly by this mistake commit 
its counterpart eight years ago, and can we doubt that the 
same Providence which chose Wilson also chose Lincoln or 
that it was written in the eternal decrees that one flag, and 
one only, should float over one great republic? How else 
can we explain the strange and unforeseen fatalities which 
baffled the calculations of able strategists and rendered un- 
availing the valor of matchless soldiers? 

See First Manassas, with its opportunity to capture Wash- 
ington and secure foreign recognition, become a barren 
triumph for the South, an incentive to greater effort to the 
North. See victory slip from the dying grasp of Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston at Shiloh and Grant begin that onward march, 
oftentimes halted, but at last reaching Appomattox. Recall 
the captured order detailing the plan of the Maryland cam- 
paign, with the result that Sharpsburg became a drawn bat- 
tle instead of a decision for the South. So down the road 
at Chancellorsville Stonewall Jackson must ride to be fired 
on by his own men ; and so, after four years, swords are 
sheathed and banners furled, for the conflict is over. 

Nothing in martyred Belgium surpassed the desolation of 
the South, and in the blazing track of armies and the ashes 
of burned cities no hand was held out in pity to our starving 
people or in sympathy with their broken hearts. The cessa- 
tion of hostilities brought the more cruel days of Reconstruc- 


Qopfederat^ l/efeerap. 

tion, when an alien race was maintained by bayonets in the 
legislative halls of imperial commonwealths, and President 
Davis languished in prison until it was finally conceded that 
no court had jurisdiction in his case. The one service we 
can still render to those who suffered supremely for home 
and country is to keep their record clear. The fiction that 
secession was rebellion was originated for the purpose of 
obscuring the real issue of State rights. When New York, 
Rhode Island, and Virginia adopted the Federal Constitution 
with the proviso that they could withdraw from it, they cer- 
tainly thought it was a voluntary union, in which the high 
contracting parties could reserve the right of withdrawal. 

When the New England delegates met in the Hartford 
Convention such was their belief also. The close of the War 
of 1812 removed the cause of their dissatisfaction, but the 
assertion of the right of secession was none the less definite. 
Exercising what they believed to be their right, seven South- 
ern States seceded, and, meeting at Montgomery in February, 
1861, they adopted a constitution, elected a President, and 
sent commissioners to Washington to arrange amicably the 
question of the defenses at Charleston and the forts on the 
Florida coast, which were the only Federal property not al- 
ready taken possession of by the seceding States. 

President Buchanan sent a vessel with supplies and soldiers 
to strengthen Fort Sumter. It was fired on by the batteries 
of Charleston, and the attempt was abandoned. The North 
was angered, but there was no call for troops "to suppress 
combinations in the seceded States too powerful for the law 
to contend with," which was the pretext alleged by President 
Lincoln when Fort Sumter was captured as the result of a 
second effort to reenforce it. The call for troops was in 
effect a declaration of war, and all that remained was the 
choice of sides on which to fight. Virginia, North Carolina, 
Tennessee, and Arkansas aligned themselves with their 
Southern brethren. Those who speak so loudly in high places 
at the present hour would do well to recollect that in this 
great crisis Congress was not in session, nor was it sum- 
moned in extra session. The representatives of the people had 
no part in the decision which plunged us in a fratricidal strife. 
The Maryland Legislature was prevented by military force 
from assembling, the habeas corpus act was suspended, and 
the blockade of Southern ports declared. For these usurpa- 
tions the President requested the retroactive sanction of Con- 
gress. It was literally a case of forestalling judgment and 
formulating action, asking merely for approval. The Eman- 
cipation Proclamation was another astute measure by which 
foreign nations were favorably impressed and not a slave set 
free. It applied only to the Confederate States over which 
Federal authority did not extend until the territory was con- 
quered by invasion. The border States, where it could have 
been promptly enforced, were exempt from its provisions and 
enjoyed slavery unmolested until the Thirteenth Amendment 
was adopted in December, 1865. These are the undeniable 
facts of history. There is a persistent effort to evade them, 
but the Southern schools and colleges which permit unfair 
and prejudiced distortions of the truth are guilty of a base 
betrayal of their birthright and are disloyal to their dead. 

The War between the States, tragic and terrible, was, like 
Washington in the Revolution and Jefferson in our formative 
period, an agent in a vast design slowly unfolding. Viewed 
in the glare of blazing Europe, may not this divine purpose 
have been that the United States should throw one sword 
into the scale and thus save civilization and those spiritual 
intangibles which are our chief treasures? Descendants of 

veterans, both blue and gray, fought on sea and land and 
sky that liberty might not perish from the earth. Thousands 
of them sleep in the land of Lafayette, paying with their 
young lives the bloody price of victory. Dear lads in khaki, 
may they rest in peace eternal, and may their surviving com- 
rades be our bulwark against all future foes ! On this anni- 
versary of Armistice Day let us pause to recall our joy and 
gratitude when the Hun surrendered and the greatest menace 
which ever threatened the world was averted. 

A new day is dawning. Let us summon our phantom ships 
and bid farewell to the land of memory. 

The passage of the Susan B. Anthony amendment ushers 
in an epoch in our civil life. Paraphrasing Shakespeare, some 
women were born to the ballot, some achieved the ballot, and 
some had the ballot thrust upon them. In the final analysis 
both political parties believed that votes for women really- 
meant votes for men, and each hoped to win through the en- 
larged electorate. You have enfranchised us, and we must 
accept the solemn responsibility. We come to it with more 
confidence than we had dared to hope, for there is a moral 
inertia throughout our land which is ominous. We need to 
learn that righteousness exalts a nation, and in the frantic 
search for riches we should realize that godliness with con- 
tentment is great gain. The star of empire is attaining its 
zenith in our Western firmament. Shall it shine down upon 
a people corrupted by wealth, deaf to the voice of God in 
history and revelation, or shall we return to the pure ideals 
and simple faith which made Robert E. Lee the noblest type 
of manhood our race has produced? 

If woman has come unto her kingdom, like Esther, for such 
a time as this, may it. be our mission to arouse this nation 
from the lethargy and materialism which presage decadence 
and decay by a spiritual regeneration which shall enable us to 
fulfill our destiny as a chosen people. 

The motto of the Daughters of the Confederacy is "Lest 
we forget." Never was there such a list of heroes to re- 
member in the annals of a brief era or one which has so chal- 
lenged the admiration of posterity. 

The Daughters of the Confederacy restored to Cabin John 
Bridge the name of Jefferson Davis, which had been erased. 
We hope yet to write upon Arlington amphitheater the names 
of Southern patriots, that Confederate veterans and Southern 
soldiers of the American Legion may honor their comrades on 
future Memorial Days with the proud consciousness that we 
have kept faith with our immortal dead. May we be worthy 
of our glorious heritage and of the priceless oblation of blood 
and tears which consecrated the fields of Dixie and made them 
forever sacred ! 

Yea, build your walls of stone or sand, 

But know when all is builded — then 
The proper breastworks of the land 

Are in a race of freeborn men ! 
The sons of sires who knew in life 

That, of all virtues, manhood first, 
Still nursing peace, yet arms for strife, 

And braves for liberty the worst ! 

Let not your sons in future days, 

The children now that bear your name, 

Exulting in a grandsire's praise, 

Droop o'er a father's grave in shame ! 

— Ballad. 

Confederate l/eterap. 



[The writer of the following letter was a Marylander who 
served in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Magruder 
campaign in the Peninsular to Appomattox and as captain 
of a battery from the region of Bedford, Va., in Longstreet's 
Corps from its formation to the end, receiving deserved com- 
mendation throughout. He is still living at an advanced age. 
"Going South" was the usual term applied to men leaving 
Maryland to serve in the Confederate army, and the hard- 
ships endured by those Southern patriots in getting through 
the lines show the love and loyalty to the South and the prin- 
ciples for which it was fighting.] 

Richmond, 1.3 January, 1862. 

The first person in Baltimore whom I had consulted about 
how to go South told me that the brig Frances Jane, belong- 
ing to Kirkland, Chase & Co., would sail within a few days 
for Rio Janeiro and that the captain had agreed to let some 
young men hide themselves in the hold of the vessel and to 
put them ashore in Virginia at the mouth of the Potomac. 
I rejected this plan, fearing it might get the owners into trou- 

Another plan proposed to me, and which I accepted, was 
to join several persons who had arranged to sail in an open 
boat from the head of Marly Creek to the south side of the 
Potomac. Our rendezvous was the woods in the rear of the 
little church on the Annapolis road, about three miles south 
of Brooklyn. Passing after dark without interruption the 
guard at the ferry bar end of the Light Street Bridge, I 
found myself at the appointed spot at the appointed hour, 
meeting there my seven fellow passengers. One of them was 
a young lady who was understood to be the fiancee of one 
of the gentlemen. Two of the party were blockade runners, 
arriving in a wagon loaded with goods in canvas bags. Our 
boat proved to be the race yacht Bianca, thirty-five feet long, 
sloop-rigged, half-decked over, and with a tarpaulin stretched 
over the stern sheets. The wind was aft going down the 
river and quarterly down the bay. It was all the boat could 
stand without reefing. Sunrise showed that we had made 
good progress on our voyage. Fearing, however, to approach 
the Virginia shore by daylight, we lay at anchor for the day 
under the lee of Sharp's Island. After dark we got under 
way with reefed sails, purposing to make the Smith's Point 
Lighthouse and land in Little Wycomico River. Our captain 
had an interst in the cargo of blockade goods and desired to 
find some suitable place for getting it ashore. 

The lights from numerous vessels began to cause us anxiety. 
A steamer passing quite close seemed to exchange signals. 
and we supposed our boat had been observed. Altering our 
course, we made several tacks to windward. In consequence, 
our captain seemed to become confused as to our position. 
He had never before been so far down the bay and was 
trusting only to his compass and chart. It was considered 
hazardous to light a lamp for consulting them. At length 
the lighthouse was made out, and we kept on a few miles, 
looking out for the Little Wycomico. Not finding the inlet, 
it was decided to land the cargo and our baggage on the 
open beach, using for the purpose the little flat-bottomed boat 
that we had in tow. That accomplished, the captain started 
back for Baltimore. 

Three of us then went in search of some habitation where 

we could secure transportation inland and in the direction of 

Fredericksburg for ourselves, our baggage, and the cargo. 

Coming across some negro quarters, we learned after some 

conversation with one of the negroes — and vou can imagine 

with what consternation — tint we were not in Virginia, but 
in St. Mary's County, Md., and about four miles above the 
Point Lookout Lighthouse. The captain had inadvertently 
gotten into the Potomac River, supposing he was still in the 
bay, and had mistaken the land on his right hand for the 
Virginia shore. Picture to yourself the dismay of our com- 
rades on receiving our report ! Without a word of comment, 
the two blockade runners left us. Rousing up the proprietors 
of two plantations, we tried in vain to induce them to assist 
us in getting across the river. The whole country was oc- 
cupied by Federal troops and the river banks patrolled to 
prevent intercourse with Confederates. Making inquiries 
about boats, I at last found a large dugout canoe that had 
come over a few days before from Virginia and had been 
kept in concealment. I paid a negro for it, for launching it, 
and for hunting up a couple of paddles. The large trunk- 
belonging to the lady was left in one of the cabins to be kept 
until called for. 

I started in the canoe with two men of our party. The 
little rowboat that had brought us ashore and' had been left 
behind took in the lady and the other two men. Fortunately, 
one of the men was a sailor and had served as mate of a 
vessel. Taking all our baggage with us, the boats were much 
overloaded. The wind had nearly gone down. The stars 
were shining, and the negro gave us one of them to steer by. 
It was Sirius. I shall ever hereafter associate it with this 
night on the Potamac. The river is here seven miles wide 
in a southwesterly direction to the mouth of Coan River. We 
represented the risks to the lady, but she was willing to take 
them. Our canoe was the faster, but I had agreed with the 
sailor to keep together. After a while the skies became over- 
cast, and Sirius was lost to view, the direction of the wind 
being the only thing to guide us. Our progress was slow and 
laborious, and I began to have some apprehensions about the 
result. We were perhaps a fourth of the way across when a 
call came from the sailor to come back to him, as his boat 
w^as swamping. We put back at once and transferred its 
occupants and their effects to our canoe. It was not long 
before we saw that it was in not much better condition. The 
overload caused it to settle down below an open lengthwise 
seam near the gunwale. It was then decided to throw over- 
board every bit of baggage, to turn back, and to head for a 
light that we took to be Point Lockout Lighthouse. This was 
done. Two of us paddled, and the others bailed out the 
water with their hats. Rut little headway was made. Our 
fear now was lest the tide might be on the ebb and that we 
might be carried out into the open bay. After a while the 
light began to lift, and we were cheered by this sign of our 
approach to it. It was now nearing daybreak, and we could 
at length discern that the light was from a vessel. Slowly 
drawing near, we could see that it was at anchor, and pres- 
ently the sailor recognized it as the brig Frances Jane. Mean- 
while its crew had heard our shouts and were about launching 
a boat to pick us up when we came alongside. We were 
hauled up by a rope passed under the arms. This was the 
brig of which I told you in the beginning of this letter. Its 
captain, coming to anchor in Cornfield Harbor, had not only 
put ashore the five young men concealed in the hold, but had 
himself gone with them, deserting his ship and leaving her 
in charge of the pilot. We were well taken care of on board 
and every attention and comfort freely given us. Around 
the breakfast table in the cabin that morning were assembled 
six very cheerful persons none the worse for the adventures 
of the night. The lady had with admirable courage and self- 


Qopfederat^ l/eterag. 

possession gone through the discomforts and perils of five 
hours on a December night in an open, sinking boat. 

The pilot, considering that the vessel was compromised by 
all that had occurred, decided to put back to Baltimore. Ac- 
cordingly on the following morning the brig started in the 
face of a violent head wind. Making poor progress, she 
turned in at the mouth of the Patuxent and anchored under 
Drum Point. Here our party, thinking it right to leave the 
vessel, went ashore in Calvert County. Several oyster pungies 
had come in for refuge from the storm. In vain we tried to 
induce them to convey us to Virginia, but were able to ar- 
range with one of them to take the lady to Baltimore. I 
sent by her a short note to father, and I have every reason 
to hope that he has before this received it. 

That evening the rest of our shipwrecked party started to 
walk the sixteen miles to St. Leonard and arrived at one 
o'clock in the night. We got a place to sleep on the floor 
before a fire until morning. We then walked eight miles 
across to the Patuxent to beg the assistance of Dr. Mackall, 
whose services in helping men to "go South" were well known 
to us. He was absent, and his family were evidently discon- 
certed by our visit, fearing very properly that it might get 
the Doctor into trouble. It was becoming evident to me that 
such a large party as ours could not move about without 
attracting suspicion. For that and some other reasons, I 
decided to separate myself from the others. That afternoon 
I walked to Prince Frederick. There I slept on a bed for the 
first time for four nights, had "square meals," and could ven- 
ture to take the hotel keeper into my confidence. After con- 
sidering various schemes, I decided to cross the Patuxent 
lower down at Benedict. That night I rode on horseback 
with a guide across Charles County to Aliens Fresh. Think- 
ing the road leading into the village might be picketed, we 
passed the latter half of the night in a pine thicket, built a 
fire, slept upon a pile of cedar and pine boughs, rode into the 
village after sunrise, and put up at the tavern. A blacksmith 
to whom I had been referred was able, after some delay, to 
offer me a little skiff, sharp at both ends, such as is used for 
paddling upon ducks at night and big enough for two per- 
sons. A start was arranged for the first favorable night. 
How I watched the weather ! 

One day a man came to the tavern who, as I could easily 
perceive, was bent on the same business as mine. He had 
walked all the way from Annapolis, was a brickmaker in Bal- 
timore, wanted to serve with his brother in a Virginia 
regiment, and was only too glad to join me. We man- 
aged to elude the observation of squads of soldiers passing 
occasionally through the village on their way between the 
camps at Port Tobacco and St. Mary's. 

One Friday night we took our skiff from the cellar, where 
it was concealed, placed it on an oxcart, and with the black- 
smith driving, the brickmaker and I silently following, it was 
hauled some miles to Pope's Creek, near the junction with 
the Potomac. The night was cold and foggy, no stars were 
visible, but a slight breeze was astir, and our good friend 
the blacksmith bade us let it blow just on our backs and that 
would keep us on the best course across to Matthias Point, 
two miles distant. This time we had no baggage. We pad- 
dled in silence, taking care not to let the paddles strike the 
side of the boat. The fog and calm were ail we could desire, 
and for aught I know we may have passed within a hundred 
yards of the gunboat Pawnee. The first I knew of being so 
nearly over was the touch of the paddle against the bottom, 
and at last, after all my mishaps, I was in Virginia. 

A path was struck leading up the bank. It brought us, 

groping in' the dark, among outhouses and negro cabins. 
Presently we came to a large mansion in the midst of grass 
plats, garden walks, and lattice work covered with vines and 
rosebushes. All was deserted and still as death. Doors were 
open everywhere. We entered and, striking a match every few 
minutes, groped about from story to story and from room to 
room. The house was riddled from roof to basement, from 
side to side, by shot and shell. All furniture was gone. The 
effect of the whole scene was indescribably saddening. We 
built a fire in the overseer's house and stretched ourselves 
before it. Something glided past my leg. It was a cat, black, 
gaunt, and hungry. She shared our repast of gingerbread. 
A gentleman in Aliens Fresh had intrusted me with a heavy 
overcoat to be delivered to a friend in Richmond, and its 
pockets were filled with gingercakes. 

At daybreak we took to our skiff and after proceeding a 
few miles downstream observed smoke rising from a cabin 
on the shore. There we got some sort of a breakfast and 
were directed how to get to the nearest camp. On the way 
we met an old gentleman on horseback, who introduced him- 
self to me as Dr. Hooe and who knew our people in Balti- 
more. He took us to his house, where we dined and passed 
the. night. The next day we fell in with the outposts of Capt. 
John Tayloe's company of cavalry, and I was entertained 
with marked kindness at his headquarters until Monday 
morning. You may have heard of this gentleman as the 
proprietor of a handsome plantation on the Rappahannock 
called "Chatterton." On Sunday afternoon the Rev. Mr. 
Scott, of the Episcopal Church, held the services in camp, 
nearly the whole company being present. I was struck with 
the devout demeanour of these stout troopers. This first im- 
pression of the Confederate soldier was highly favorable. 
These were a fine, manly set of fellows, well clad in drab 
homespun, well armed and well mounted. 

On Monday Captain Tayloe sent me in the commissary 
wagon to Fredericksburg, and on the following day the rail- 
road brought me to Richmond and to the end of my adven- 
ture in "going South." 


The Sublime Martyr of All the Ages. 

by mrs. m. h. houston, meridian, miss. 

The object of this discussion is to bring before our people 
of to-day in living colors the character and achievements of 
the great hero of our Southland and to show that he toucheci 
human experience in so many ways that we cannot go far in 
any direction without meeting something that should remind 
us of him, and it would if we paid attention to the trend and 
activities of his wonderful life. Travelers tell us of Andreas 
Hofer, the idol of the people of the Tyrol, who led them in 
their uprising against the conquering forces of Napoleon. 
Their attempt came to naught ; their leader was taken and 
executed, but Andreas Hofer to this day is still their hero. 
His portrait is in every shop window, and memorials of him 
are seen in many places. So let it be with us as we remember 
him who gave his long life to the service of his country and 
suffered more than death for us, his own, "my people," as 
he affectionately referred to our forefathers of the South- 
land. When he was imprisoned and the fetters cut deep into 
his flesh, did he exclaim, "O I cannot endure this ; I cannot 
live and suffer so"? No, verily. He accepted all, not as per- 
sonal to himself, but because he stood for the millions of the 
dear ones who so loved him and had chosen him to set the 

Qogfederat^ Ueterai). 


glorious example he has placed before the world. On the 
Sabbath morning in 186S when he was summoned from 
church because it was learned that the Confederate armies 
were to withdraw from Richmond, he met many persons who 
left their houses to speak with him. They expressed sym- 
pathy and assured him that if the good of their great cause 
required that Richmond should be given up to the enemy they 
were content and willing. 

Mr. Davis afterwards wrote that "the confidence and af- 
fection of that noble people in the hour of disaster were more 
distressing than complaints and unjust censure would have 

At a recent fair in Mississippi there was shown under glass 
a private letter written in 1861. The printed heading showed 
a verse in which occurred the couplet : 

"We will trust in God and Davis 
And keep our powder dry." 

A typical village newspaper, most intelligently edited, when 
discussing certain movements of the Confederate armies, used 
this language : "Jeff Davis knows about it, and that makes it 
all right." In regard to perplexing problems which arose, the 
same editor wrote : "Our people will trust Jeff Davis." The 
name Jeff Davis was an expression of endearment. To his 
soldiers and his constituents he was "Colonel Jeff," to his 
young relatives "Uncle Jeff," to his servants "Marse Jeff." 
A lady who was at the same hotel with him during the first 
few weeks in Montgomery as President writes of him as "the 
almost idolized man" and of the imposing scene as he sat 
at a table with the eminent men of his Cabinet around him. 
Truly it was not without cause that the hearts of his people 
so confidently trusted in him. His courageous soul, itself a 
stranger to fear, was always and everywhere an inspiration 
to others. When five years old, going to school with his 
sister, the beloved Polly, they saw something in the woods 
that looked frightful. He held her firmly by the hand, saying, 
"We will not run, Polly." After he became a great orator, 
a distinguished Mississippian said: "His glorious voice might 
tremble with generous emotion, but never faltered from 
craven fear." Gen. G. W. Jones, Senator from Iowa, who 
knew Jefferson Davis at the university, also in the Indian 
wars and in the United States Senate, records that "he was 
considered the bravest and handsomest of all the college boys," 
and the development of his noble, gracious, and graceful man- 
hood justified the promise of his youth. 

For the family history, it may be said that three Davis 
brothers came from Wales to America before the Revolu- 
tionary War. One of them, Evan Davis, settled in Georgia, 
where he married a widow whose maiden name was Emory. 
The couple had one son, Samuel Emory Davis, who was the 
father of Jefferson Davis. When but a stripling Samuel 
Emory Davis enlisted in the Revolutionary army, then fight- 
ing at Savannah. Later he raised a company for the service. 
He was physically strong and handsome, most intelligent and 
faithful, and his associates soon learned to repose the utmost 
confidence in him. The liberty bell was at one time brought 
from Philadelphia to North Carolina to prevent its being cap- 
tured by the British, and Capt. Samuel E. Davis was in com- 
mand of the guard which had charge of the venerable relic. 
After the war Captain Davis married Miss Jane Cook, a 
beautiful young lady of strong character and amiable disposi- 
tion, whom he had met in South Carolina during the war. 
She was of Scotch-Irish descent. They resided in Georgia, 

near Augusta, for several years, he being county clerk. They 
then removed to the Green River country of Kentucky, where 
he became a prosperous planter, having a reputation for his 
many fine horses. Mrs. Samuel Davis was known as "Aunt 
Winnie" and kept a "wayfarer's rest" in her home for the 
sick and weary travelers in that wild, unsettled region. There 
were ten children born into the family, the youngest, Jeffer- 
son, claiming as his natal day June 3, 1808. Before he was 
three years of age his parents, leaving Kentucky, made their 
home near Woodville, Miss. Thus the future soldier, states- 
man, and savant was planted upon the soil of the great com- 
monwealth to which he gave the devoted service of a long 
and illustrious life. 

Little Jefferson Davis at the age of five years attended the 
country school near his home, then was sent to St. Thomas's 
school, in Kentucky, riding the entire distance on his pony 
with a party in charge of the renowed Major Hinds. After 
two years he returned and went to the county acadamy school 
and to Jefferson College, Natchez ; thence he departed again 
from Mississippi to Transylvania University, at Frankfort, 
Ky., and then to the West Point Military Academy, where he- 
was graduated with the rank of second lieutenant of infantry 
when he was twenty years of age. 

Jefferson Davis was twice married, first, in 1835, to Miss 
Sarah Knox Taylor, daughter of Gen. (later President) 
Zachary Taylor, who survived only three months after mar- 
riage. Ten years later he was married to Miss Varina Howell, 
of the prominent Natchez family of that name. She proved 
a most loyal and in every way worthy companion through all 
the remaining years of his extraordinary life. After the war 
she wrote to his dictation with her pen the "Rise and Fall 
of the Confederate Government," his great history. Mrs. 
Davis also wrote a fine memoir of her husband, which every 
one should read, as without it no one in this day and time 
can understand his life. 

Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Davis. Three sons 
died early; one, Jefferson, lived to maturity and was a sor- 
rowful sacrifice to yellow fever in Memphis in 1878. The 
eldest daughter, Margaret, called the "Daughter of the South," 
and Winnie Davis, the "Daughter of the Confederacy," arc 
well remembered. 

Retiring from the United States army in 1835, after seven 
years of hardship and distinguished service, Jefferson Davi? 
was for many years a successful planter at his home, Briar- 
field, near Vicksburg, "a country gentleman with a full library 
and broad acres." Entering public life, his rise was rapid. 
In 1843 he was presidential elector, then a Congressman, then 
hero of the Mexican War, immediately afterwards a Senator, 
then Secretary of War, again in the Senate, where he re- 
mained until 1861. His written life during these years would 
be a history of the country for that time. 

Several years ago Gen. Clement A. Evans, then Commander 
of the United Confederate Veterans, with the Confederated 
Southern Memorial Association, sent out a request that De- 
cember 6, anniversary of Mr. Davis's death, he observed in the 
schools by memorials of him and the study of his life, since so 
many of the schools are closed before June 3. Birthdays are 
proper seasons of rejoicing, and his natal day should be made 
the occasion for appropriate exercises, while our hearts are 
lifted in gratitude to the All-Wise Creator, who gave to the 
world the glorious character of Jefferson Davis. Let us plant 
roses, remembering that the lovely rose, "the glory of France," 
grew "near the garden gate at Briarfield." 


^oi>federat^ l/eterar> 



There was an Old South of glorious memory which passed 
away more than half a century ago, but which still lingers in 
tender and cherished recollection in the hearts of the loyal 
remnant who have survived the long stretch of years and the 
inexorable ravages of time. Then there is a New South, 
which rose from the debris of the old— the strenuous civiliza- 
tion of to-day, unlike the former in all the attributes which 
appeal to the more unassuming ideals of domestic simplicity 
and modesty of social amenities. The people of the Old 
South were as orthodox in deportment and modes of living 
as they were in religious profession and practice. As I knew 
them sixty years ago. before the days of secession, the people 
of the "slave States" were intensely loyal, law abiding, and 

It is to the Old South that my heart and pen delight to 
revert. The theme is rich and redolent by fascinating remi- 
niscenses, and as I gaze across the divide of the centuries 
which separate the new from the old regime I seem to catch 
a vision of that glorious South that my .earlier manhood 
knew so well. In the dream tide years of adolescence and of 
buoyant youth it was the ideal of the poet's Acadia, the land 
of pastoral beauty and of agricultural excellence, where real 
peace and contentment dwelt and comforts had their domicile. 
That ideal was "Dixie Land.." which lives in poetry and song 
and in fading memories in the hearts of men. 

The present generation, even though natives of the South 
and descendants of those heroic sires who held for four 
trying years the Confederate battle lines, does not seem to 
have a full measure of realization of the beauties and glories 
of the land of their nativity as their progenitors knew it. 

Radical were the changes wrought by the terrible war, fol- 
lowed as they were by the red ordeal of "Bolshevik" Recon- 
struction, which overturned all surviving conditions that 
could be obliterated, and by carpetbaggers and scalawags. I 
wonder that historical societies in this Southland do not 
awaken to the responsibility of taking up the urgent task of 
resurrecting, codifying, and editing the verities of Southern 
history and publish to the wwld to be transmitted to gen- 
erations yet unborn the wonderful story of the Old South 
as it was when in its prime. 

The scheme of Southern history should be undertaken and 
pushed with vigor while there are sources of, truth yet to 
draw from, before fiction and fireside tales shall be canonized 
as truth. There are tangles of historic annals which ought 
to be straightened out, and facts which have been warped and 
twisted by sectional prejudices and by publicists and politi- 
cians to be corrected. 

Grant's Canal. 

It is said that the great Mississippi expedition under Gen- 
eral Grant, convoyed and aided by the powerful fleets of 
Admirals Porter and Farragut, was the conception of Major 
General McClernand, of Illinois, whose idea was to cut the 
Confederacy in two. The War Department adopted the 
scheme, but chose General Grant to lead it. 

The Providence "Crevasse," or "Grant's Canal," as then 
termed, was to open a passage for their fleet and transports 
through Lake Providence and thence by way of Tensas, 
Wichita, and Red Rivers in order to circumvent the Confed- 
erate batteries on the heights of Vicksburg. The enterprise 
proved abortive and ended in utter failure. It accomplished. 

however, what General McPherson had predicted — the drown- 
ing out of the homes of the people, both white and black, in 
the region known as the "Swan Lake country." 

The valley of the great river was like the valley of the Nile 
— a vast alluvial bottom. It was covered on either side of 
the Mississippi by magnificent cotton estates. This region 
was thickly populated, and tens of thousands of negro slaves 
bad made the valley blossom as the rose. 

It now was the crucial period of the war. Discouragement 
filled the Northern press and people with forebodings ; a great 
effort must be made to recover declining prestige. Two hun- 
dred preachers had called in a body upon the President to 
urge the issuing of a proclamation of emancipation and con- 
fiscation. Mr. Lincoln had told them that "I propose to save 
the Union with slavery if I can, without slavery if I must." 

On July 16, 1862, Congress passed the bill, still hoping that 
the "erring sister States" would return to the fold. It was 
always the belief that Mr. Lincoln was in favor of compen- 
sating the slave owners for their negroes. He had little pa- 
tience with the New England abolitionists. On the 25th of 
July, 1862, the President issued a proclamation of warning, 
as follows : 

"A Proclamation by the President of the United 
States of America. 

"In pursuance of the sixth section of the act of Congress 
entitled 'An Act to Suppress Insurrection, to Punish Treason 
and Rebellion, to Seize and Confiscate the Property of Rebels, 
and for other purposes,' approved July 16, 1862, and which 
act and the joint resolution explanatory thereof are herewith 
published, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, do hereby proclaim to and warn all persons within 
the contemplation of said sixth section to cease participating 
in, aiding, countenancing, or abetting the existing rebellion, 
or any rebellion, against the government of the United States 
and to return to their proper allegiance to the United States, 
on pain of the forfeitures and seizures as within and by said 
sixth section provided. 

"In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the great seal of the United States to be affixed. 

"Done at the city of Washington this 25th day of July, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
two and of the independence of the United States the eighty- 
seventh. Abraham Lincoln, President. 

"William H. Seward, Secretary of State." 

Section 6 of the Confiscation Act, referred to in the above, 
reads as follows : "And be it further enacted that if any per- 
son within any State or territory of the United States, other 
than those named aforesaid after the passage of this act, 
being engaged in armed rebellion against the government of 
the United States, or aiding or abetting such rebellion, shall 
not within sixty days after public warning and proclamation 
duly given and made by the President of the United States, 
cease to aid, countenance, and abet such rebellion and return 
to his allegiance to the United States, all the estates and 
property, moneys, stocks, and credits of such person shall be 
liable to seizure as aforesaid and it shall be the duty of the 
President to seize and use them as aforesaid or the proceeds 
thereof. And all sales transfers, or conveyances of any such 
property after the expiration of the said sixty days from the 
date of such warning and proclamation shall be null and void, 
and it shall be a sufficient bar to any suit brought by such 
person for the possession or the use of such property or any 
of it to allege and prove that he is one of the persons de- 
scribed m this section." 

Qogfederat^ l/eterai). 


Soon after the expiration of the sixty days of grace the 
great expedition of invasion began to assemble. Throughout 
the North every activity was put in motion to follow in the 
wake of opportunities so alluring. It was a time of business 
depression in the North, and many men of enterprise and love 
of adventure could understand that the rear of a conquering 
army was the chance of a lifetime. The masses of the North- 
ern people had been imbued with the idea that the cotton and 
sugar planters were all rolling in wealth and living in princely 
luxury from their ill-gotten gains of a monstrous iniquity. 
And so many adventurers joined in the rush for loot. 

In the meantime Congress, in order to profit probably from 
the confiscation feature, inaugurated or established a bureau 
at Washington called the "Bureau of Freedmen and Aban- 
doned Lands," and an army of "agents" were sent into the 
"occupied" regions to take over the custody of the lands of 
the "disloyalists" and also the new-made "wards" of the gov- 

From Lake Providence to Milligan's Bend, where General 
Grant's headquarters were located, over a stretch of sixty 
miles in length, and from the river's border to the swamps, 
lay undoubtedly what was the most highly tilled cotton region 
of the South. Here were homes of luxury and as highly cul- 
tured a people as could be found in the most favored sec- 
tions of the world. And this was the people and this the 
country condemned to ruthless exploitation by men of the 
same lineage and race and speaking the same mother tongue. 
Rightful owners were dispossessed under the leases issued by 
the government and bearing the covenant seal of Uncle Sam. 
What became of all the "bric-a-brac" and household treasures 
and appurtenances of the planters' homes none have cared to 
trace. Sufficient to believe they were not destroyed. 

At Skipwith's, in Mississippi, nearly opposite to the part of 
country we have been considering, the head office of the Bu- 
reau of Freedmen and Abandoned Lands was established. 
Here was the naval station where several warships were to 
be seen at all times in the period of the war. The chief of 
this agency of the Bureau of Freedmen and Abandoned Lands 
was Col. A. McFarland, who represented the United States 
Treasury. He was a worthy gentleman and soon discovered 
that adventurers of every type were inspecting the properties 
of the planters and filing applications for "leases." I had 
made his acquaintance and informed him of the new responsi- 
bilities which had called me to take charge of my deceased 
uncle's home and family. He advised me to lose no time and 
secure a "lease" from the government for Gossyppia, that 
being the name by which the family estate was then known 
and by which it is well known at this day, though it long 
since passed into other hands. 

I obtained a government "lease" at once in my own name. 
and well that I did so, as shortly afterwards a prominent 
colonel of the army came to the plantation and informed me 
that he was about to lease it as "abandoned." He was much 
chagrined to learn that his purpose was anticipated. 

At Goodrich, fifteen miles south of Providence, was a 
colony of New England people who had come to this teeming 
valley many years before the war and had been successful 
in acquiring great wealth, but most of them had left their 
homes and belongings in the care of trusted servants and 
sought safer and more peaceful quarters. The trusted care- 
takers and family servants were driven out under the lease 

Among the affluent investors in the new order was ex- 
Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, who had recently re- 

signed as a major general in the Eastern Army. He was 
many times a millionaire and the son-in-law of Chief Justice 
Chase. It created a sensation when it was known that he had 
leased several "abandoned" estates and was about to demon- 
strate that cotton could be cultivated successfully with "free 

Governor Sprague brought into the neighborhood a "barrel 
of money," and for the first time introduced the "pay roll" 
into the South. He also brought a shipment of mules and 
horses, the latter of the heavy Norman stock, unfitted for the 
climate or the work, and vast consignments of stores, har- 
ness, and implements in liberal abundance. I met with him. 
talked with him, and made up my opinion that he would last 
only until the high water went down in the swamps and the 
Confederate scouts had a chance to sample and inspect his 
belongings. Before the year had gone Governor Sprague re- 
turned home, a wiser man, but with less money. His ex- 
perience was similar to that of many others lured to disaster 
by the illusive cotton bug under the "lease system" of 1862. 

Following the proclamation of emancipation, the govern- 
ment turned its attention to organizing the newly freed 
negroes into regiments. The camps and region of occupation 
were overrun with ex-slaves, or "freedmen," as they were 
called, all drawing rations from "Marse Linkum's" commis- 
sary. They were coralled, nolens volens, and uniformed in 
regulation habilaments and mustered into service. All the 
commissioned officers for these negro units were detailed and 
promoted from the white troops. But this caused great dis- 
satisfaction in most instances, even though the bait was a 
commission and an officer's pay. Many private soldiers were 
raised from the ranks to be captains and lieutenants. Gen- 
eral Townseud, chief of staff and adjutant general of the 
United States army, came from Washington to direct this 
innovation and subdue any insubordination growing out of 
his orders. White soldiers and veterans, who had seen serv- 
ice at Shiloh and other hard-fought fields, resented and re- 
volted against being brigaded with negroes. But General 
Townsend was obdurate, and ordered Colonel Tennison, of 
? Kansas regiment, to take command of the negro brigade. 
The Colonel indignantly refused, threw down his saber, tore 
off his eagles, and defied the General. He was ordered to re- 
port at Camp Alton for court-martial. 

On the day of the occurrence as given above I was seated 
on the veranda at Gossyppia when I observed a well-mounted 
officer in blue uniform riding across the lawn toward the 
house. As he came nearer I recognized him as the com- 
mander of the 1st Kansas Infantry; but as he now was wear- 
ing no eagles on his shoulders and was minus a sword, it 
struck me as quite peculiar. I called him by name and asked 
him what he was doing so far from his command and alone. 
He smiled without enlightening me fully, only to say that 
there was probably a detachment of cavalry on his trail, and 
requested me to tell them when they should arrive that he 
(Colonel Tennison) could be found at the Confederate head- 
quarters of Gen. Kirby Smith hereafter. 

Less than an hour later a squadron of cavalry rode hur- 
riedly up to the house and made inquiry for the Kansas 
colonel. I gave them the message as stated, and, after ex- 
pressing indignation, they galloped away, disappearing in the 
rear of the plantation ; but they had the discretion to turn 
back before coming in contact with General Smith's scouts. 

In an affair of this character, of a young, handsome, and 
spirited officer of rank, with bright prospects ahead and a 
general's commission not far away, it is reasonable to sur- 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

mise that the Kansas colonel had some other purpose in view, 
some other provocation to spur him to so desperate a course 
as to turn his back on his flag and tender his services to the 
Confederacy. There was indeed a lady in the case, one of 
those attractive and vivacious belles of the South, whose 
charms had smitten the heart of the gallant Kansan; but she 
had assured him that it was impossible for her to think of 
marrying any man who was an enemy to her beloved South. 
We afterwards learned that General Smith gave the colonel 
a captain's rank and made him a drill officer in the Confed- 
erate army. 

The lady above referred to is yet living in one of the cities 
of Eastern Texas, a widow of more than threescore and ten, 
whose several stalwart sons are the solace of her passing 
years, and they are justly proud of the mother, who fifty- 
seven years ago was one of the belles of the delightful region 
known as Bunch's Bend and whose home was one of the 
most palatial mansions of the days of the olden time. 

Investment of Vicksburg. 

By the end of the first week in April, 1863, the great army 
of 70,000 men had struck their tents and moved farther south 
to invest the fortified stronghold of Vicksburg, leaving a 
few regiments to protect the cotton-planting interests, which 
had been encouraged by the government ; and as the main 
forces had gone and the swamps were now passable ,the 
agricultural industries were exposed to the enterprising incur- 
sions of "guerillas," or independent scouts, who swarmed 
through the great forests. 

With the subsiding of the high water the problem of the 
canals was solved, and General Grant was enabled to march 
his troops around the menacing fortifications and approach 
Vicksburg from the rear. For four or five months siege 
guns, mortars, and heavy field artillery poured thousands of 
hot shot and shells upon the defiant fortresses and the de- 
vastated city, with little effect. Night after night I lay and 
listened to the deep thunder of the heavy artillery, which at 
a distance of sixy-five miles vibrated and shook the windows 
of my home. The great battleships of Farragut, Porter's 
river flotilla, were all prodigal in wanton waste of shot and 
shell. It was not until July 3, 1863, that the city lowered her 
flag, and then only because the mule meat was exhausted and 
women and children were suffering starvation. 

On the 4th General Grant entered the city, which for six 
months had been deluged by projectiles, and yet few had been 
the casualties within the walls, though tons of solid shot and 
exploded shells could he picked up on every tract of ground, 
and the shingle roofs of homes were everywhere chucked 
with lead of spent Minie balls. Providence seemed to have 
thrown a mantle of protection over Vicksburg during that 
long siege. 

Secession of Missouri.— By the recognized universal law 
of all the earth, war dissolves all political compacts. Our 
forefathers gave as one of their grounds for asserting their 
independence that the king of Great Britain had "abdicated 
government here by declaring us out of his protection and 
waging war upon us." The people and the government of 
the Northern States of the late Union have acted in the same 
manner toward Missouri and have dissolved by war the con- 
nection heretofore existing between her and them. — Gov. C. 
F. Jackson. 



The "Cambridge American Literature," which is the evok- 
ing cause of this article, is the logical sequel to the "Cam- 
bridge English Literature," issued under the auspices of that 
renowned and ancient university, among whose master lights 
are Spenser, Milton, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Macaulay, and 
Tennyson. The scope of the present review has reference to 
that part of the work devoted to the "Southern Poets of 
the Civil War," Dr. Edwin Mims, of Vanderbilt University, 
being the special editor to whom are committed the four 
eventful and historic years embraced within this period, 1861- 
65. A glaring and incomprehensible blunder (for which Dr. 
Mims is in no wise accountable) confronts the reader at the 
outset, the birth of Sidney Lanier being assigned to February 
3, 1846, instead of 1842, the variation from accuracy destroy- 
ing the chronological harmony and unity of the poet's life 
from its first to its final stage, 1842-81. 

Passing over without comment or criticism the literature 
preceding the coming of our national conflict, I concentrate 
both space and energy upon the "Poets of the Civil War." 
Save an incidental or explanatory reference to Poe, Hayne, 
Webster, the charity of an inviolate silence will characterize 
my attitude with regard to the era in our literary develop- 
ment which draws to its bodeful close in 1860. 

In Chapter III, Part II, page 289, Dr. Mims proceeds at 
once in the language made famous by Burke to draw "an in- 
dictment against a whole people" and to arraign before the 
august tribunals, in which preside the avenging angels of 
historic retribution, the spirit, the ideals, the achievement, in- 
tellectual, constitutional, aesthetic, of the brilliant and heroic 
race with whom it pleased an infinite wisdom to cast his lot. 
Let him that is inclined to demur or dissent peruse diligently 
page 289 of this notable chapter in which Dr. Mims in one 
untempered and all-embracing impeachment summons to 
judgment his kinsmen according to the flesh and by a single 
remorseless blast from his critical trumpet proclaims their 
peerless record a delusion wrought in the dream world of 
romantic fantasy, visions, or reflections, it may be adumbra- 
tions, of a type illustrated in Launcelot, Galahad, Percival, 
and Arthur, assuming an attitude of both voluntary humilia- 
tion and gratuitous self-abasement in his frenzied prostration 
at the feet of a triumphant power. Spontaneously there 
springs to memory the characterization of Macaulay, "the 
ferocious vices which tyranny generates in those who struggle 
against it, the abject vices which it generates in those who 
submit to it." Let the literary oracles who are associated 
with the colleges and universities of the South determine for 
themselves to which of these categories they should rationally 
and logically be assigned. 

I proceed to review as concisely as a proper regard for 
perspicuity renders possible the claims, merits, distinctive 
characteristics of the several poets whose rank in the fore- 
most files as lyric masters is justly accorded by the author of 
this special chapter, Dr. Mims. They are Timrod, Randall, 
Ticknor, and to the same elect company admission might be 
sought for Father Tabb, in whose bounteous grace and charm 
there comes to our secularized modern world the echo, if not 
the very voice, of Richard Crashaw. Not so, however, of 
his friend Lanier, who, with all his subtle faculty and gift of 
critical divination, was not endowed with the golden lyric 
vein revealed in Timrod, Randall, Ticknor ; nor do I con- 
ceive it possible that in any development of our literature he 

Qopfederat^ Ueterap. 


will find recognition in the fellowship or circle of popular 
poets. Rich in suggestion, affluent in stimulating, quickening 
power, his verse assumes the form of poetized prose, thrilled 
only in rare instances by the vitalizing, passionate energy of 
"Carolina" or "Carmen Triumphale." In the judgment of the 
writer, the method of interpretation or exegesis applied to 
Timrod and Randall displays a singular lack of critical pene- 
tration in regard to the evolution of rhythmical types and 
their susceptibility of adaption to the requirements or con- 
ditions of the poet as they vary from age to age in different 
environments, novel associations, influences that imply de- 
mands upon the resources of our language in the sphere of 
metrical art. 

It is only too evident that Dr. Mims has never made a 
historical or comparative study of any contemporary litera- 
ture, even English or American. A concrete and impressive 
illustration presents itself in the "Carmen Triumphale" of 
Timrod, which may justly claim preeminence as the most 
impassioned of his lyric creations, tracing its origin and in- 
spiration to the War between the States. The "In Memoriam" 
stanza, which is the vesture of the poem, originates at least 
as an English metrical combination during the Elizabethan 
era the version of the thirty-seventh Psalm executed by Sir 
Philip Sidney in 1580 and Elegy No. 39 in the "Underwoods" 
of Ben Jonson, these two being among the earliest definitely 
ascertained examples of its employment or adoption in our 
luxuriant and richly assimilative Shakespearean period. At 
a later time it asserts a renewed and graceful energy in the 
purest poetical conception of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who 
died in 1648. After a prolonged period of almost complete 
decadence, it is in 1850 revitalized by the consummate art of 
Tennyson's peerless elegy, the ethereal charm of Rossetti's 
"My Sister's Sleep," as well as the plaintive note of Gerald 
Massey in "Babe Cristabel" and the fervid strain of Arthur 
Clough vibrating in every line of "Peschiera" and "Alteram 
Partem." In nearly all of these earlier illustrations of beauty 
and art revealed in metric power the dominant spirit is in- 
trospective, meditative, subjective, every element and every 
1 diversity of thought tending toward the sphere of the elegy. 
By a transforming touch of genius in the hands of the South- 
ern lyrist the pensive melody of Herbert, Rosetti's brother 
and sister, Massey 

"Became a trumpet, whence he blew 
Soul-animating strains, alas ! too few." 

While he was musing the fire burned, "the viewless arrows 
of his thought were headed and winged with flame," and 
there came a new song into his mouth. 

Singularly enough in the affluent catalogue of omissions, 
whose name is legion, there is revealed no trace or sugges- 
tion of Timrod's "Dreams," "Second Love," "Katie," and 
the "Ode Delivered upon the Opening of the New Theater in 
Richmond." The first of these was pronounced by Lord 
Bryce, a most cultured and discriminating critic, in a letter to 
the writer, "that wonderful poem." The "Ode" is a delicate 
blending of luxuriant grace with the rarest gift of devia- 
tion and penetration in his interpretation of the art and the 
philosophy of the Shakespearean drama. When a lad in my 
teens, arrayed in the gray dress of a Confederate soldier, I 
attended a representation of "Romeo and Juliet" in this his- 
toric playhouse, as our capital was compassed about with 
armies, and the hosts of the aliens had been only recently 
turned to flight. 

Not illogically the "note of provinciality" which Dr. Mims 
is prone to attribute to the literature of the South more than 

once obtrudes itself in his comments or elucidations with 
reference to the writers of his native section. Two illustra- 
tions of the tendency I deplore will avail for my present 
purpose drawn from the poles of literary contrast, Edgar 
A. Poe and Robert Y. Hayne. An elaborate tribute from the 
hand of Mr. Lodge is bestowed upon Mr. Webster, while the 
brilliant and dauntless champion of the South is passed over 
with a rigid and ungracious acknowledgment of his sovereign 
and resistless eloquence as cold and petrific in tone and form 
as the marble obelisk designating his place of rest in St. 
Michael's churchyard. Yet upon whom in the annals of 
American oratory has the spirit of Burke, above all and 
master of all, descended in so bounteous and golden a meas- 
ure? Again, the generative or potential power immanent in 
the creations of Poe is dimly grasped and crudely portrayed 
distinctively in the evolution of "Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde" 
from its prototype, "William Wilson," and the relation sus- 
tained in "The Raven" by that ethereal fantasy of Rosetti's 
"The Blessed Damozel." 

James Ryder Randall and Dr. Ticknor alone remain as 
subjects of critical inquiry within the scope contemplated by 
this article, their memory forever linked with the supreme 
grapple and the surpassing agony of the South we falsely 
term the "dead," for in this instance "death makes no con- 
quest of his conqueror." The relation sustained by Randall to 
his peerless ode suggests the comment of Southey originating 
in the attitude of St. Thomas Aquinas with regard to "the 
man of one book." For more than half a century Randall 
has been preeminently a man of one poem, and its marvelous 
blending of rhythmic charm, historic grasp, power of appeal 
has tended to occult, if not to eclipse, the grace, pathos, and 
dramatic vigor reflected in "Pelham" and "At Arlington." 
The latter of these, tracing its origin and inspiration to a 
wanton indignity inflicted in 1869 upon our hallowed dead 
resting within this cemetery, Randall himself was disposed 
to regard as his loftiest and noblest flight, and on more than 
cue occasion in the home of his friend the writer, not long 
ere he passed from us, he vindicated its claim to the primacy 
in the sphere of his art. Each of these consummate flowers 
in our Southerin anthology is consigned to tranquil silence or 
to dumb forgetfulness. 

In the judgment of Gen. D. H. Hill, himself a critic en- 
dowed with a literary intuition finely touched to the finest 
issues, the foremost place in our poetic calendar should be 
accorded to Ticknor. Without acquiescing in the compre- 
hensive and exclusive character of this estimate, it may be as- 
serted without a trace of overwrought eulogy that "The Vir- 
ginians of the Valley" and "Little Giffen of Tennessee," each 
in its special province, has never been excelled in any era of 
American poetry. 

As we approach the bodeful year 1860, the herald and har- 
binger of the ripening storm, the veil of our literary temple 
seems rent in hopeless twain. All that we reverenced, ideal- 
ized, hallowed in the South of our fathers — civic, social, con- 
stitutional — is revealed to our world of to-day and to the com- 
ing race as an illusion, a ghastly unreality begot of nothing 
but vain fantasy. 

Such is the moral havoc and chaos wrought by Southern 
authors in the universities of the South ! I write this in no 
spirit of vindictiveness and far more in sorrow than in anger. 
It is, however, "a sorrow's crown of sorrow" to contemplate 
the images of intellectual desolation and self-abasement stand- 
ing in our holy places, while those who reared idols to Baal 
upon our altars are animated by no apparent consciousness 
of their own abysmal and all-enshrouding shame. 


Qoi)federat^ l/eterai?. 



It is now more than fifty years since the eventful day that 
Dahlgren and Kilpatrick threatened the city of Richmond, 
the capital of the Confederate States, with destruction and 

After the secession of Virginia and the establishment of the 
Confederate government at Richmond, that city became the 
objective point of all the military operations of the Federal 
Army of the Potomac. Its capture or destruction seemed 
necessary to the Washington government, and the practically 
continuous siege and repeated raids kept the city in constant 
alarm. The great battles fought in the vicinity had filled the 
hospitals and private houses with sick and wounded soldiers, 
and refugees flocked to Richmond, taxing its exhausted citi- 
zens with further demands upon their hospitality. 

Even the success of the Confederate forces increased the 
strained conditions by filling Belle Isle and the great tobacco 
warehouses with Federal prisoners, many of them sick and 
wounded, until their number, according to estimates, increased 
to nearly thirty-five thousand before the Confederate govern- 
ment could establish other points for these rapidly increasing 

All these conditions made a frightful drain upon the over- 
taxed people of Richmond, and yet in this depleted state its 
generous and patriotic people continued their care for the 
sick, wounded, and destitute cheerfully to the end of the war, 
even the Federal prisoners being visited and helped as far 
as possible. In addition to these conditions about Richmond, 
three years of bitter hostility had reduced not only the sources 
of food supplies, but the means of transportation, and in this 
exhausted state it was merely a question of time when the 
Confederacy would be forced to abandon the struggle against 
the ever-increasing armies of the North. 

All writers agree that the Federal authorities believed this 
the opportune time to seize and destroy the Confederate 
capital. Custer, Kilpatrick, and Dahlgren, with picked bodies 
of cavalry, were selected for the work. I have never under- 
stood why General Custer abandoned his part of the plan. 
Dahlgren and Kilpatrick succeeded in entering the Confed- 
erate lines ; and had General Kilpatrick been endowed with 
the courage of the dashing Dahlgren, Richmond would un- 
doubtedly have been entered, the thirty-five thousand organ- 
ized prisoners released, the city destroyed, and its people 
thrown at the mercy of a mob of desperate and enraged Fed- 
eral prisoners. The probable consequences of their success 
is too horrible to contemplate. 

Fortunately, after the early raids by General Stoneman and 
others, the Confederate Congress passed an act organizing all 
government employees into companies, battalions, and regi- 
ments under the title of "Local Defense Troops." These or- 
ganizations differed from the State militia, as they were en- 
listed for the war, uniformed and equipped by the govern- 
ment, and commissioned and controlled by the War Depart- 
ment. It was certainly an intelligent body of men, all skilled 
in necessary department work, which included all the me- 
chanical and chemical arts, as Richmond had become of neces- 
sity the Confederate citadel from which the war was con- 
ducted. Many of these men were soldiers who had been 
detailed from the army for service at Richmond because of 
the necessary skill they possessed. 

The service of the local defense troops seemed easy when 
first organized, but it soon proved otherwise. Richmond was 
kept in constant alarm from the movements of Grant, Sheri- 

dan, Butler, and other Federal commanders who constantly 
tested the strength of the city's defense. Our troops were 
kept in constant motion from one point to another with great 
discomfort, because the commissary and quartermaster's de- 
partments found it difficult to provide food and transporta- 
tion on account of the constant and shifting urgent demands 
made upon them. President Davis was frequently obliged to 
interfere in behalf of our troops and force the departments 
to make necessary provision for us. Even then the service 
was rendered so poorly that our sufferings were not always 
relieved. At the second battle of Cold Harbor my own regi- 
ment held Deep Bottom under a heavy fire of Federal bat- 
teries. It was expected that General Grant would try to cross 
at this point after his defeat, but he continued his march to 
the James and toward Petersburg. When General Grant de- 
cided to again extend his lines before Richmond, his advance 
was believed to be a force of marines from the Federal fleet 
that had assembled in the James River. Our regiment accom- 
panied General Gary with his South Carolina troops. After 
discovering our mistake and undergoing a heavy shelling from 
the fleet, we returned to the fortifications to remain the whole 
winter and during the spring until the evacuation of Rich- 
mond. We spent our time digging rifle pits and bombproofs, 
planting lines of palisading and abatis, and otherwise strength- 
ening ourselves against the commanding position occupied 
by the Federal troops after they had captured Fort Harrison. 
Thus the local defense troops worked side by side with the 
troops from North Carolina and Georgia, who occupied the 
lines to the right and left of us. General Ewell was in com- 
mand, and at the evacuation of Richmond he marched our 
troops away with the others, with the exception of a small 
detail made by General Breckinridge, Secretary of War, to 
protect the Confederate archives and bridges in the retreat. 
Most of my command were at the battle of Sailor's Creek 
and in the final retreat and surrender. 

Now I have recited the foregoing simply to remove the 
false impression that the local defense troops were merely 
an emergency militia command. 

The 1st of March, 1864, was a raw and disagreeable day. 
From early morning the citizens of Richmond had been kept 
greatly excited and alarmed over the various reports that 
reached the city regarding the movements of the raiders. 
Federal cavalry were said to be approaching the city from 
all directions, ruthlessly destroying everything in their path. 
In the afternoon fear and apprehension were increased by 
the ringing of the alarm bell in the Capitol grounds and the 
arrival of excited people from the raided districts with fright- 
ful and exaggerated reports of the number and deeds of the 
raiding troops. The people, whites and blacks, filled the 
streets around the public buildings, and the excitement was 
greatly intensified by several mounted officers and couriers 
dashing wildly about in search of methods of defense. Col. 
Charles Talcott, of the Danville road, told me that he was 
prepared to move the government officials from the city. 

In this state of excitement our command formed in front 
of the War Department and began its march up Franklin 
Street. It was now evident that the local defense troops must 
be relied upon for the defense of the city, as there were no 
other troops near Richmond. Many army officers, who were 
in the city on business or passing through to their commands, 
joined with us and became mere privates for the occasion. 
Among them were General Brent, the adjutant general of 
Beauregard's army, several officers from my old regiment, the 
3d Alabama, and numerous others. No man with a heart 
could resist the anxious and appealing looks of the people. 

^oijfederat^ l/eterar?. 


Women flocked to the streets to cheer and encourage us. 
When we reached the edge of the city, we met the command 
of Colonel Scruggs, and, after comparing dates of our com- 
missions, I assumed command of the forces and marched on 
to Green's Farm, and here we decided to halt and make a 
stand against the invaders. 

Major Ford, said to have been an experienced English of- 
ficer, had preceded us with his battalion. Dahlgren had 
quickly surrounded him and captured and scattered his com- 
mand. The road was filled with excited farmers fleeing with 
their wagons and cattle from the approaching raiders. 

Our troops were promptly deployed in the field and two 
companies of Scruggs's command placed across the road, 
which Dahlgren evidently mistook for a battery of artillery 
and left the road for the fields. The remaining companies 
of Scruggs's command were held in reserve. 

It was growing dark, with rain and sleet falling heavily. 
We could hear the guns of the advancing troops, and, think- 
ing to delay them for better preparation, I sent Captain Bab- 
cock with about fifty men to a rail fence at the lower corner 
of the field with instructions to fire one round as Dahlgren 
approached him, then fall back to our main line. This order 
was executed in a most creditable manner, and the men were 
swiftly and safely returned to our line. 

According to Captain Bement, of Maryland, an artillery 
officer of General Lee's army, who had been captured by 
Dahlgren and forced to ride with him during the raid, the 
movement of Captain Babcock was taken to be a final stand 
made by the remnants of Ford's Battalion. When Babcock 
suddenly withdrew, Dahlgren was confirmed in this opinion. 

While Babcock was executing his orders, I had caused our 
troops to lie down and personally passed along the whole line 
begging the men to reserve their fire until they heard the 
command. When Dahlgren reached the center of the field he 
seemed suspicious of danger. He halted his command, then 
moved slowly forward and halted again. He was now within 
easy range of us and evidently discovered our line of battle, 
gave the order to charge, and I gave the order to fire. On 
they came like maddened fiends, but our splendid volley was 
too much for them. Many of the troopers turned and fled, 
others charged our line with drawn sabers and wounded sev- 
eral of our men. According to Captain Bement, Dahlgren 
was surprised and dismayed by our first well-directed volley. 
He believed he had encountered a large body of fresh troops, 
sounded the "retreat," and followed his fleeing troopers, leav- 
ing his dead and wounded on the field, together with several 
prisoners and horses. The backbone of this celebrated raid 
was broken. 

It was useless for us to pursue the retreating troopers, as 
they were well mounted and our line had become irregular in 
the excitement. We fell back about two hundred yards, re- 
formed our lines, and awaited further events. As the enemy 
did not appear again, we encamped for the night. 

The next day the retreating remnant of cavalry encountered 
a small body of Confederate soldiers, and Dahlgren was 
killed in the engagement. Thus ended the famous Dahlgren 

During our engagement with Dahlgren General Kilpatrick 
was on the other side of the city with some two thousand 
men and opposed by a small company of heavy artillerymen 
under the direction of Colonel Stevens. Had Kilpatrick 
known the situation and possessed the daring courage of Dahl- 
gren, he could easily have dashed through the city, released 

the prisoners, and completed the intended destruction of the 
hated capital of the Confederacy. 

One of the most interesting features of the night's work 
was the splendid action of a large number of the younger 
sons of the best families of Richmond, who, on account of 
their youth, were not permitted to enter the army and, chaf- 
ing under the restraint, joined my command and were in the 
thickest of the fight. Many of them received saber cuts and 
other injuries. These young men afterwards organized the 
famous Company G, under Captain Guy, and were regularly 
attached to our regiment, doing valiant service and under- 
going all hardships to the close of the war. Many of them 
are now the leading bankers, merchants, and professional men 
of Richmond, and I will always remember the courage and 
fortitude they displayed until the close of the war. 

As our men were lying down when Dahlgren made his fierce 
assault, only one man (dear old Captain Ellery) was killed 
and a small number wounded. 

I have frequently been urged by friends, newspapers, and 
magazines to write an account of this engagement, but I have 
always declined, as I believed that after the people of Rich- 
mond had recovered from the distress caused by the war they 
would make their own record of the events and give proper 
recognition of the service rendered on that eventful day. As 
the ravages of war were passing, the good and patriotic peo- 
ple of Richmond began making their record of the war by 
erecting monuments in honor of men and events, but the 
Dahlgren event has been entirely overlooked and neglected. 
This statement may seem to indicate that I seek self-glorifica- 
tion, which is not the case. I happened to be in command, 
but my success was accidental. While I had been in the army 
from the capture of the forts at Pensacola, through the bat- 
tles about Richmond until I was severely wounded at Cold 
Harbor, I had commanded only a company in the 3d Ala- 
bama Regiment and was hardly qualified by military experi- 
ence or genius to command the Confederate forces in the 
Dahlgren raid. It was simply my good luck, for which I 
claim no recognition or distinction. In fact, I did not recog- 
nize the importance of the event until told by President Davis, 
General Preston, and the adjutant of Gen. Custis Lee that 
we had saved Richmond and its people from ruin and destruc- 
tion. No, the success was not achieved by the militan' skill 
or inspiring presence and personality of the officer in com- 
mand, but by the men who confronted Dahlgren. They fully 
understood and appreciated the perilous situation and met it 
with cool, determined, patriotic action. 

More than fifty years have now passed since that event, 
and yet I have grown firmer in my conviction that some im- 
personal monument or tablet should record and perpetuate 
the honor due to the gallant men who saved Richmond from 
the threatened horrors of that eventful day. 

In sending a copy of this article to the Veteran, E. D. 
Taylor, of Richmond, Va., writes : "Colonel McAnerney was 
promoted on the field from captain to colonel by Gen. Custis 
Lee, then in command of the Troops of Local Defense. As 
I was a member of the boys' company that took part in this 
engagement, I prevailed on Colonel McAnerney to write the 
article. I am living just across the road from where the en- 
gagement took place. My company took a very active part 
in it." 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


[This bit of war history was dictated by Smith Powell, of 
Tyler, Tex., to his wife before he became an invalid. Doubt- 
less it will reach the eyes of many of his comrades who will 
recall the gallant young soldier. He is now in the hospital 
at Rush, Tex., and would be glad to hear from them.] 

While attending school at the Southern University. Greens- 
boro, Ala., at the sound of the tocsin of war, I bade a final 
adieu to my collegiate education, though only sixteen years of 
age, to enlist as a soldier in the Southern army. At Mobile. 
Ala., I was mustered into service with Company C, 36th Ala- 
bama Regiment, Robert H. Smith, of Mobile, having been 
made colonel, and L. T. Woodruff, also of Mobile, former 
captain of the Mobile Rifles, which took prizes for the best- 
drilled company in the United States prior to the war, was 
elected lieutenant colonel by the regiment. Thomas H. Hern- 
don of Eutaw, Ala., was major, and Lieutenant Hatch, of 
the Tuscaloosa Cadets, son of Rev. Mr. Hatch, of Greensboro, 
was made adjutant of the regiment. The following were the 
company officers : J. A. Wemyss, captain ; Alfred H. Hutchin- 
son, first lieutenant ; D. H. Britton, second lieutenant ; W. N. 
Knight, of Greensboro, third lieutenant. Lieutenant Knight 
was in command until the surrender at Cuba Station, near 
Demopolis, and is the only commissioned officer of Company 
C now surviving. 

Without any knowledge of war tactics, mere boys you 
might say, wholly ignorant of all that pertains to war, and 
little dreaming of the great issue pending before us, we were 
ordered into a camp of instruction at Hall's Mill, near Mobile. 
Here we spent nearly a year, drilling and being toughened for 
the hardships of war. From this camp we were sent to 
Mount Vernon, Ala., the old United States arsenal, which 
had been converted into a kind of hospital, and here I was a 
victim of whooping cough, mumps, and measles. 

From this place the company was sent to Oven Bluff, on 
the Tombigbee River, to build a fort. I remember it was 
there that I first met General Beauregard. When the work- 
was finished we were sent back to Mobile to the regimental 
camp of instruction and were then ordered to Tullahoma, 
Term., in the summer of 1863 during the memorable raid of 
General Streight, whom Forrest captured with only a few of 
his cavalry. The campaign in Tennessee now opened up in 
full blast. Our first great battle was that of Chickamauga. 
Company C was engaged in Saturday's fight. All night we 
slept on our arms on the battle field, and Sunday morning 
we were ordered farther up on the right into a charge under 
a terrific cannonade fire. In this charge I was wounded by 
grape shot and was sent to the field hospital. I went to At- 
lanta very much crippled, but for greater attention and se- 
curity I was instructed to go as far south as I could, even if 
it was to Montgomery. There I was placed in a hospital and 
given surgical attention. Through the kindness of the as- 
sistant surgeon, Dr. Cole, I was granted a furlough for fifteen 
days, spending the time in Greensboro. 

When I returned to the army I found Bragg, with the Ten- 
nessee Army, around Chattanooga. Our brigade was ordered 
up Lookout Mountain by night, and Company C, at the left 
of the regiment, was under "Pulpit Rock." We went down 
the mountain, crossed the valley over to Missionary Ridge 
about sunrise, and there we formed a line of battle. We were 
ordered to the extreme left of our army to meet General 
Hooker's corps, by which we were soon almost surrounded. 
Hooker was endeavoring to get in our rear, but in this he 
was checked. This engagement was simply a skirmish, yet 

we either had to take to our heels or be captured. General 
Breckinridge, on the extreme left, yelled : "Boys, get away the 
best you can !" Every man was for himself in a helter-skelter 
race down Missionary Ridge. Everything I had was shot off 
of me — canteen, haversack, cartridge box. This stopped my 
shooting at my friends in blue, who gave me a close chase. 
Breaking my old Springfield against a tree, I trusted to my 
feet and came out unhurt. My old comrade and good friend, 
Scott McCall, and I remained together until we reached our 
regiment. We risked everything rather than to be captured. 
In this engagement Bragg expected to sacrifice our brigade to 
save the rest of the army., and he did not think a single man 
would come out alive. Many surrendered, many were killed, 
and many were wounded, but our brigade, as a whole, made a 
mysterious escape from the arms of Hooker. 

We now went into winter quarters at Dalton, Ga., where 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was placed in command of the Army 
of Tennessee. We were engaged in every battle of the spring 
campaign to Atlanta. During this time I was wounded in the 
foot, though not seriously, yet was forced to go to the field 
hospital. Leaving Atlanta, we were soon engaged in the 
Jonesboro fight, Hood having superseded Johnston at At- 

President Davis reviewed the troops during our camp at 
Gadsden, Ala. Hood then began his march back to Tennessee. 
At Florence the army crossed the Tennessee River on a pon- 
toon bridge. I was one of several who crossed in rowboats 
to see the condition of things. Our command was too late 
for the battle of Franklin. On we went with Hood to Nash- 
ville, where we camped and made ready for another great 
battle, in which we were outnumbered. During the hottest of 
the fight our color bearer, Joe Tillinghast, was wounded. I 
took up the colors, thinking the fight was ended, hoisted the 
flag on high, and leaped over the breastworks, calling to the 
"boys" to "come on and go to Nashville." I also picked up 
the memorable and famous flag with the inscription, "13th 
United States Colored Infantry, presented by the colored 
ladies of Murfreesboro." I turned this flag over to the com- 
mand. Soon followed a most terrific stampede in getting 
away from Nashville, and through slush, snow, and ice we 
tramped. I was unfortunate in losing the soles of my new 
$150 boots, consequently had to go barefooted from Nashville. 
Before we reached Pulaski General Clayton, in the kindness 
of his heart, gave me a mule to ride, which was greatly ap- 
preciated. The camp equipment of the company was placed 
with me on the mule, and when we came to Shoal Creek the 
mule plunged in right behind General Clayton and his staff. 
Jokingly I asked the "boys" if they did not wish they were 
staff officers. No sooner than said the mule plunged down 
in the swift current, and everything in the way of equipment 
was washed down the stream. The boys came to my rescue, 
helping me across, supposing that the mule was drowned ; but 
instead, when we crossed over, we found the gentle creature 
browsing on the bank of the stream. 

This notable event occurred on Christmas Day, 1864. The 
first thing that demanded my attention was to find a fire to 
dry my clothing. We finally made our way on and came up 
with the cavalry camp on our way to Iuka. At Tupelo I got 
a pair of shoes, my feet being tied up in rags all this time. 
From Tupelo we were ordered to Mobile, Ala., where our 
first colonel, Robert Smith, met us at the depot. We were a 
sight to behold, black, begrimed with smoke and dust from 
the box cars and from fires in the cars made out of pine plank. 
Our colonel rode in front of the column, stopping at a large 

Qoi?federat^ l/eteraij. 


warehouse, where barbecued meats were provided, all at his 
own expense. At no other time did I enjoy a bath and clean 
apparel so much. 

Our next move was over to Elakely in camp. I had been 
granted a furlough, but it was revoked, as we were expecting 
an attack at any time. Later the furlough was given me, so 
I went to my boyhood home, Columbus, Miss., and after- 
wards visited Greensboro, Ala. While there General Forrest 
came along, and I thought for a while of joining him, but 
found I could make the trip to Demopolis and get to Mobile. 
From there I crossed over to Spanish Fort on a blockade 
runner and got there safely with some firing from the gun- 
boats. In the fight I was knocked down by the explosion of 
a shell. To avoid being captured from Spanish Fort I waded 
through a deep marsh to get to Blakely. 

About this time news of General Lee's surrender reached 
us ; then we were ordered to Mobile, from there to Cuba 
Station, and finally to Demopolis, where we surrendered. 



While I was not personally acquainted with the young lady 
in question, I saw her frequently while a student at the South 
Carolina College as she took her customary pleasure drives 
in the afternoons. I cannot vouch for all of the statements 
in the following short narrative of her career, yet, though 
they appear more like fiction than facts, they were currently 
reported and accepted as true by all who were interested in 
the history of Miss Boozer from their knowledge of her early 
life. A general account of it was published in a Savannah, 
Ga., newspaper soon after the War between the States, and a 
pamphlet giving a fuller account of her life is said to have 
fceen written by one Julian Selby. So, strange as is the story 
here given, it may be accepted as in the main true. 

In the years immediately preceding the war of 1861-65 there 
lived in Columbia, S. C, a retail merchant named Feaster 
with his wife and stepdaughter, Mary Boozer. She took 
the surname of Boozer, it is said, from an uncle who be- 
queathed his property to her on condition that she assume 
his name ; so she was always known as Mary Boozer. Thus 
the family were enabled to occupy a comparatively pretentious 
home, while Miss Boozer herself had a handsome equipage, 
termed by the young lads at the time the "beauty box," its 
glass frame being well calculated to display the charms of its 
fair occupant, who, excepting the negro driver, was always 
alone on her afternoon trips; and it happened that she was 
always on the street at the time the students were released 
from their classes and other duties for the day. Of course 
with such attractions many of the young men sought intro- 
duction to the fair occupant of the well-furnished house; and 
while some reported her as only a pretty doll, with no con- 
versational powers, others, and these from subsequent events 
would appear to be the more correct, regarded her as pos- 
sessed of the "chic" and attractiveness of a Cleopatra and be- 
came her frequent visitors. When one of the latter, a mem- 
ber of a distinguished family, was killed in battle, Miss 
Boozer reported that she was engaged to him, which, though 
possibly true, was not recognized by his family. 

Under the Confederate regime and until Sherman entered 
Columbia Miss Boozer was a good Rebel, but she was too 
vain and sensible of her attractiveness to allow a matter of 
patriotism to interfere with her ambition to attract admira- 
tion; so she soon numbered her visitors from the ranks of 

the men whom a short time before she had regarded as ene- 
mies. Upon the withdrawal of the Federal army from Co- 
lumbia one of her newly-acquired friends secured for her- 
self and mother passage via Port Royal to the North with 
a letter of introduction to the family with'which she was to 
make her home. Either from suspicion or feminine curiosity 
she opened and read the sealed letter to find that she was to 
become a maid in the family. Whether this part of the story 
be true or not, Miss Boozer arrived in Philadelphia and, 
posing as the beautiful daughter of an aristocratic Southern 
family, became the wife of a wealthy oil merchant, from 
whom she is said to have gotten considerable money. After 
a short married life and now the possessor of abundant means, 
she naturally planned a trip to Europe, and in a short time 
she found herself a member of the smart set of gay Paris. 
Here she attracted the special attention of a Frenchman, to 
whom she was married. But life as a member of the smart 
set of Paris was not conducive to a long married life, so 
again she was a divorcee. 

Again free to follow her own volition and filled with the 
spirit of adventure, she traveled to China, where she soon 
captured a Chinaman of rank. But the free and easy femi- 
nine ways of America and France did not find congenial soil 
in China, and she was soon released from her marital rela- 
tionship. Her residence in China prepared her for the some- 
what similar customs and language of Japan, which was the 
next country she visited and where through intrigue she 
made her last conquest. 

Arriving in Japan, with her bewitching powers she soon 
artfully secured the admiration of a Japanese gentleman of 
high rank, a member of the emperor's cabinet, if the report 
is correct. 

Fifty years ago, the time of Miss Boozer's visit, the rule 
in Japan for the seclusion of women was very strict. So 
Miss Boozer's intrigues in that land had a different outcome 
from her previous experiences. To quote a person who re- 
members her in her youthful days, "the Japanese proved more 
than her equal and upon some proceeding peculiar to that 
country had her tried and beheaded." 

Thus ended the romantic career of Mary Boozer, a woman 
from whose intrigues no one could escape if she esteemed 
him of sufficient importance to warrant her attack. What 
became of her stepfather after she left Columbia or of her 
mother after she left Philadelphia no one seemed to have 
thought of sufficient interest to report, so wonderful was the 
short life and tragic end of their daughter. 

There is a reference to this Miss Mary Boozer in the book- 
on "Women of the South in War Times," given in an ex- 
tract from the diary of Mrs. Poppenheim. She writes that 
she and a friend were waiting to see one of the Federal gen- 
erals to ask for protection, and "while waiting for the Yan- 
kees to pass and looking on their fine horses and hundreds 
of stolen cattle, the refugees from Columbia who followed 
Sherman's army began to pass. Among them I recognized 
Mary Boozer and her mother in a carriage, she in a lively 
conversation with a gay-looking officer riding by the carriage. 
The scene is so sickening I beg Mrs. Brown to let us go; 
waiting for the general won't pay." (See page 254.) 

A Tribute. — To the women of the Confederacy, whose 
faith has never faltered, whose zeal has never grown cold, 
even though men have proved recreant to the cause. — Henry 
E. Shepherd. 


Qoqfederat^ l/eterai). 



The following extracts, taken from the "Official Records," 
and all from the pens of Union writers, go to show that the 
Yankees in nearly every battle of the war were at one time 
in quite a panicky condition, although in some cases in the 
end victorious : 

Bull Run. — From General McDowell: "The volunteers are 
now pouring through here in a state of utter disorganization 
and are r.o more than a confused and demoralized mob." 

Shiloh. — Col. Jacob Ammen : "When we arrived opposite 
Pittsburg Landing the shore between the top of the bank 
and the river was crowded with about ten to fifteen thousand 
demoralized men. On our way they told us their regiment's 
were cut to pieces and we would meet the same fate, and we 
could see men and officers making their way over on logs. 
Such looks of terror, such confusion I never saw before and 
do not wish to again." 

Peninsula Campaign.— Col S. H. Starr: "The road and 
fields were thronged with flying regiments from the battle 
field, distant some two or three miles, through whose routed 
and disorderly masses I was compelled to force my way 
with bayonet and saber." Lieutenant Colonel Rice: "At this 
time the enemy had turned our entire right, and the com- 
manding officer of the 44th New York, with the left wing 
of the regiment, commenced to retreat and at length to fly 
toward the Chickahominy." 

Winchester.— Capt. C. H. T. Collis : "On the retreat from 
the battle field my men marched one hundred and forty-one 
mines in forty-seven hours, which was about three miles 
per hour and, believe me, some marching." 

Cedar Mountain .—Gen. R. H. Milroy: "The enemy's fire 
had been directed on the remnants of Banks's Corps, and the 
result was a general stampede— cavalry, artillery, and in- 
fantry a terrified mass in a headlong retreat." 

Second Manassas.— Gen. W. B. Franklin : "I arrived on the 
field at six o'clock. I found the road filled with fleeing men, 
artillery, and wagons, all leaving the field in a panic. It 
was a scene of terrible confusion, and I attempted to stop 
and form them, but it was impossible." 

Corinth.— General Davies : "Sullivan's Brigade, on our 
right, gave way, and .the limbers and caissons of Lis artil- 
lery came down the road on a full jump, presenting rather 
an alarming appearance. My artillery horses became fright- 
ened, floundered about, broke away, and joined in the race, 
and all of them running through my reserve. This communi- 
cated a stampede to the ammunition wagons in the rear, and 
they too started off in a run." 

Murfreesboro — Col. Joseph W. Banks: "About one o'clock 
a squadron of frightened negroes came charging at a full 
gallop toward us. This was the advance of what seemed to 
me the whole army. Cavalry with jaded horses, artillery 
and infantry soldiers, breathless and holding on to wagons, 
relating the most incredible defeat and annihilation of the 
army, came streaming down the road and pouring through 
the woods on their way to safety." 

Chancellorsvillc — Capt. T. W. Osborn : "As we passed 
General Hooker's headquarters a scene burst upon us which, 
God grant, may never again be seen in the Federal army of 
the United States. The 11th Corps had been routed and 
were fleeing like scared sheep. The men and artillery filled 
the road, its sides, and the skirts of the field, and it appeared 
that no two of any company could be found together. Aghast 
and terror-stricken, heads bare and panting for breath, they 

pleaded like infants at the mother's breast that we would 
let them pass to the rear unhindered." 

Richmond, Ky. — Gen. Charles Crufts : "The enemy came 
upon us as soon as our line was formed. The attack was 
stoutly resisted for a few moments, when the whole line 
broke in wild confusion. A general stampede ensued. Both 
officers and men became reckless of all restraint and com- 
mand and rushed pell-mell to the rear, amidst a mingled 
mass of horses, wagons, artillery, etc., in an utter rout." 

Chickamauga. — General Negley: "Artillery to my right 
was dashing past at full speed. Infantry from my front and 
right was also in full retreat." Col. J. M. Connels : "Before 
my brigade gave way a large portion of the division which 
had passed to my rear without firing a shot or making an 
effort to assist me and without being under direct fire fled 
panic-stricken from the field." 

Ringgold. — Col. J. A. Williams : "While I was gaining the 
position three regiments came up on my left (Hooker's sol- 
diers) ; and although they were cautioned not tw go for- 
ward, they replied that they would teach Western troops a 
lesson and advanced a short distance farther, when the enemy 
opened a terrific fire on them. They stood manfully for a 
minute or two. when they gave way and came down like an 
avalanche, carrying everything before them and to some ex- 
tent propagating the panic amongst my regiments." 

Wilson's Creek, Mo. — Gen. Frederick Steele: "In regard to 
what has been called Sigel's masterly retreat it might easily 
be shown that it more resembled a crowd of refugees than 
an army of organized troops. The column was broken by 
crowds of refugees, wagons, horses, mules, cows, who were 
so mixed up with the troops that it would have been difficult 
to have made any disposition for battle." 

Moscow, Term. — Col. F. A. Kendrick: "Very shortly after 
the firing began the cavalry, which had crossed the bridge, 
retreated in much disorder. The bridge soon became 
obstructed with artillery and wagons, which had got over, 
and a great number of the retreating cavalry plunged head- 
long into the river, and many men and horses were thus lost." 
The Wilderness. — Col. Robert McAllister: "In a short time 
Colonel Frank came with a few troops and wished to pass 
through my line to the front, as he had orders to find the 
enemy and whip him. I refused to let him pass, so he moved 
around my left, advanced, and soon engaged the enemy. But 
very little firing took place before all of his troops came 
tearing back. I had my men stop them and refused to let 
them through until Colonel Frank told me they wanted to 
go away back to the rear to get ammunition, and that was 
the last I saw of that unit. 

Berry's Ford, Va. — Gen. George Crook: "The enemy made 
assaults on my line, being repulsed with heavy slaughter, 
notwithstanding the greater portion of dismounted cavalry 
that composed a part of my command fled ingloriously across 
the river at the first assault of the enemy." 

Atlanta. — Col. Ario Pardee, Jr.: "The line of battle of the 
enemy had pressed forward with so much vigor as to drive 
back all the regiments on my right. So slight was the ef- 
fort to resist them that I was not aware that there was any 
severe fighting in that direction, but the disorganized masses 
of men as they rushed by the right of my line told a fearful 
tale. The men seemed panic-stricken, and it was impossible 
to stop any organized body of them." 

Briee's Crossroads. — Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn: "The ex- 
pedition left the railway terminus on the 2d of June and I 
reached the battle field on the 10th, and those who escaped 

Qoi}federat^ l/eteraij. 

from Forrest returned in one day and two nights." Maj. 
A. R. Pierce : "The general in command was leading the re- 
treat so rapidly that I was obliged to leave hundreds every 
mile who couldn't keep up." 

Petersburg. — Gen. S. S. Griffin : "A few minuutes later the 
enemy made a desperate assault. A panic seized the colored 
troops, and they came pouring through and over our men, 
plunging into the pits with fixed bayonets in frightful con- 
fusion." Col. Lewis Eell : "At this moment all the colored 
troops in my front broke and came back, dashing through 
my men with bayonets fixed, and the brigade was disorgan- 
ized by the large number of fugitives passing through it." 

Sabine Crossroads. — General Emory: "When within three 
miles of the field of battle the head of my column was met 
by a cloud of fugitive negroes on horseback, followed soon 
after by masses of cavalry, wagons, and ambulances in the 
utmost confusion." General Dwight : "When my command 
reached the top of the hill it met that portion of the army 
which had preceded it, in utter route and panic, flying before 
the enemy, who were in hot pursuit." 

Winchester, Va., 1864. — General Dwight : "The whole line 
of the 2d was shaken and that portion in front of me flying 
in a panic. I endeavored to rally them, but it was a hopeless 

Franklin, Term. — Col. Emerson Opdycke : "While thus 
moving a horrible stampede of our front troops. came surging 
and rushing back." 

Nashville. — Col. C. H. Grosvenor : "But the troops were 
nostly new conscripts, convalescents, and bounty jumpers, 
and on this occasion, with but few exceptions, behaved in 
:he most cowardly and disgraceful manner. In vain the 
officers tried to rally them ; the line broke, and nearly all the 
nen fled from the field." 

Hatcher's Run, Va. — Col. Fred T. Locke: "Very many of 
3ur men fired almost perpendicularly in the air. Then they 
jroke and ran panic-stricken to the rear, and nothing could 
itop the flight of the fugitives." 

Thompson's Station, Term. — Col. William L. Utley : "Dur- 
ng the engagement my lieutenant colonel from his safe place 
mnoyed me by sending word to retreat, but I would not ; 
■ind while in the midst of complimenting my men I cast my 
sye to the right wing and saw it in full retreat, headed by the 
ieutenant colonel. I immediately gave them orders to halt, 
vhich did not seem to lie heard. I itnmed ; 'vte!y started to 
lead them off, which made things very much worse, as my 
nen when they saw me run all broke and followed. I over- 
ook the right wing, halted and formed them up, and then 
tepped to the right to form the regiment. While thus en- 
;aged I cast my eyes to the left and saw a portion of the 
egiment again in full retreat at the double-quick, with the 
ieutenant colonel at their head, and this time I could not 
ivertake him." 

Hampton Roads, Second Appearance of the Merrimac. — 
Z. C. Fulton : "About seven o'clock a signal gun from the 
■Minnesota turned all eyes toward Sewell's Point and com- 
ng out from under the land the Merrimac was seen. There 
'.'as instantaneous activity among the transports and other 
essels to get out of the way. Steam tugs were whistling and 
creaming about, towing strings of vessels, whilst sloops, 
chooners, and brigs got up sail and moved out of harm's 
/ay, and in the course of an hour the appearance of the 
ioads was greatly altered. For an hour the Rebel fleet kept 
hanging position, and the bold impudence of maneuvering 
ontinued, while the apparent apathy of our fleet excited sur- 
rise and indignation." 

Now, I will have to admit that on some occasions our men 
"also ran," but as compared to the above instances it would 
verify the old adage that "comparisons are odious," and I 
will let some Yankee tell about it. 


The general idea of Gen. N. B. Forrest is that he was 
illiterate— at least, that he had little acquaintance with his 
native language in its purity — and his fame has been dis- 
paraged b3' some Northerners, who classed him as a "butcher" 
for some of his methods" of warfare. A strong contradiction 
of all this is found in a speech he made on the occasion of a 
reunion of his troops at Covington, Tenn., in 1876. 

Capt. James Dinkins, of New Orleans, heard him make this 
speech, and, finding a copy of it among his papers, he gave 
it to the New Orleans State for publication, from which the 
Veteran copies. It was the last speech made by Forrest : 

"Soldiers, Ladies, and Gentlemen: I name the soldiers first 
because I love them best. I am extremely pleased to meet 
you here to-day. I love the gallant men with whom I was 
so intimately connected during the late war. You must 
readily realize what must pass through a commander's mind 
when called upon to meet in reunion the brave spirits who 
through four years of war and bloodshed fought fearlessly 
for a cause that they thought right and who even when they 
foresaw, as we did, that that war must soon close in disaster 
and that we must surrender yet did not quail, but marched 
to victory in many battles and fought as boldly and as per- 
sistently as they did in their first. Nor do I forget those 
many gallant spirits who sleep coldly in death upon many 
bloody battle fields of the late war. I love them too and 
honor their memory. I have often been called to the side on 
the battle field of those who had been struck down, and they 
would put their arms around my neck and draw me down 
to them and kiss me and say : 'General, I have fought my last 
battle and will soon be gone. I want you to remember my 
wife and children and take care of them.' 

"Comrades, I have remembered their wives and little ones 
and have taken care of them, and I want every one of you 
lo remember them too and join with me in the labor of love. 

"Comrades, through the years of bloodshed and weary 
marches you were tried and true soldiers. So through the 
years of peace you have been good citizens ; and now that we 
are again united under the old flag, I love it as I did in the 
days of my youth, and I feel sure that you love it also. Yes, 
I love and honor that old flag as do those who followed it on 
the other side, and I am sure that I express your feelings 
when I say that should occasion offer and our common coun- 
try demand our services you would as eagerly follow my 
lead to battle under that proud banner as ever you followed 
me in our late great war. 

"It has been thought by some that our social reunions were 
wrong, and that they would be heralded to the North as an 
evidence that we were again ready to break into civil war. 
But I think that we are right and proper, and we will show 
our countrymen bj' our conduct and dignity that brave sol- 
diers are always good citizens and law-abiding and loyal peo- 
ple. Soldiers, I was afraid that I could not be with you 
to-day, but I could not bear the thought of not meeting with 
you, and I will try always to .meet with you in the future. 
I hope that you will continue to meet from year to year and 
bring your wives and children with you and let the children 
who may come after them enjoy with you the pleasures of 
your reunions." 



^oofederat^ l/eterap. 

Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 

"O band in the pine wood, cease! 
Or the heart will melt in tears 
For the gallant eyes and the smiling lips 
And the voices of old years." 

Col. H. M. Street. 
Col. Hugh McQueen Street, affectionately honored with the 
title of "Mississippi's Grand Old Man," four times Speaker 
of the Mississippi House of Representatives, President of the 
Citizens National Bank of Meridian a director of the Mobile 
and Ohio Railroad, and Vice President of the Mississippi- 
Alabama Fair Association, died at his home in Meridian on 

May 31, 1920. 

In the passing of Colonel Street Mississippi lost one of 
its most interesting and historical figures and a man whose 
brilliancy and whose fire of genius had not been dimmed, 
even at the time of death, by advancing years, though he had 
lived nearly a score of years longer than the allotted time 
of man, being in his eighty-eighth year. 

Colonel Street was born on his father's plantation on Deep 
River, Moore County, N. C, on January 7, 1833, the eldest 
of thirteen children. His maternal grandfather and paternal 
grandmother were natives of Scotland ; other ancestry mainly 
Virginian. The first mentioned was a member of Congress 
and solicitor of the State. His grandmother's brother, Hugh 
McQueen, was a member of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1835 and attorney general of the State of North Carolina. 

In early life Colonel Street attended the old field schools 
of North Carolina and later Carthage College. In 1852 he 
removed with his father's family to Tishomingo County, 
Miss., there engaging in farming and mercantile pursuits. 
He served throughout the War between the States as a mem- 
ber of the 26th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, Lowry's Bri- 
gade, Cleburne's Division, returning after the surrender to 
assist in repairing the ravages of war, and he early took the 
lead in shaping the political destinies of the State. He was 
first elected to the legislature from Tishomingo County in 
1869 and introduced the bill creating Prentiss County, in 
which he resided and from which he was elected as repre- 
sentative in the famous "Black and Tan" Legislature of 1876. 
It is not too much to say that he saved the State from ruin 
and degradation attending the carpetbag rule. Colonel 
Street was one of seven white men in the legislature when 
a measure known as the "Metropolitan Police Bill" was being 
advanced by the carpetbag administration. A few hours 
before adjournment, when parliamentary tactics were ex- 
hausted and the bill seemed certain of enactment, Colonel 
Street calmly arose and asked to see the original bill. When 
it was handed to him he deliberately stood before the enemies 
of the white people in the legislature and tore the bill to 
fragments. This act marked the beginning of the decline of 

carpetbag government, and the State began to rally from the 
hard blows of war. 

Removing to Meridian in 1882, he soon resumed his seat 
among the lawmakers as a representative from Lauderdale 
County, serving many terms in that body, generally as 
Speaker, his last election to that office having been on his 
seventy-fifth birthday. Colonel Street introduced the bill 
calling the constitutional convention of 1890 and was himself 
a prominent member of the convention. On his retirement 
the House, by unanimous vote, presented to him the chair 
which he had so long occupied with honor to himself and his 
fellows. Our engraving shows him seated in this chair. 

Not only did Colonel Street enjoy in a singular degree the 
respect and affection of his fellow citizens of Mississippi, 
but his old age was remarkable for the almost youthful vigor 
which was his fortunate possession. In his seventieth year 
he organized the Merchants Union Insurance Company of 
Meridian, which was liquidated in 1916 at a profit, as he 
wished to have all his affairs closed and in good shape while 
he was able personally to look after them. 

In every relation of life Colonel Street measured up to the 
full stature of a man: an affectionate and indulgent father, 
a loyal friend, and ever modest in his unceasing benefac- 
tions to others in accordance with the divine admonition, "Let 
not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth." While 
holding the strictest standards for himself, he was fain to 
exercise forbearance and to excuse those less strong to con- 
tend with evil. He showed much pride in Confederate mem- 
ories and associations and delighted in entertaining his old 
comrades in his home. On his birthday, January 7, he was 
always "at home" to the Walthall Camp of Veterans, of 
which he was a member, and to the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, one Meridian Chapter bearing his name. He was 
actively interested in the liberal bestowal and equitable dis- 
tribution of pensions to indigent veterans and their widows. 


Qotyfederat^ l/eteraij, 


Colonel Street was for more than thirty years the honored 
senior elder in the First Presbyterian Church of Meridian, 
a Mason of rank, and the influence he wielded in public af- 
fairs in Mississippi for more than half a century is beyond 
all estimate. Of his father's family two brothers, Archibald 
McBryde Street, of Booneville, Miss., and Donald Street, of 
Vicksburg, Miss., both members of the 26th Mississippi Regi- 
ment, are still living. 

Colonel Street was twice married. His first wife was Eliza- 
beth Kimberly Prindle, of Darien, Ga. Their surviving de- 
scendants are a son (Charles R. Street, Vice President of the 
Fidelity-Phcenix Fire Insurance Company of New York, who 
has one son, Donald McQueen Street, a young Princeton 
igraduate), and two daughters (Miss Ethel Street, a dramatic 
reader of note, and Mrs. Bessie Street Coburn, many years 
iher father's private secretary, who has two children, Hugh 
Street Coburn, educated at the Virginia Military Institute, a 
first lieutenant in the World War, now with the Insurance 
Company of North America out of San Francisco, and Eliza- 
beth Street Coburn, a recent graduate of Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York). A little nine-year-old granddaughter, 
Charlotte Kimberly Champenois, the child of a deceased 
daughter, completes his direct descendants. 

His second wife, who was Miss Charlotte Ryder, of Con- 
necticut, had no children. She survives him. 

Camp 171, U. C. V., Washington. D. C. 

Capt. Fred Beall, Commanding Camp 171, U. C. V., of 
Washington, D. C, reports the following loss in membership 
during the year. All burials were in Arlington Cemetery 
except where mentioned otherwise : Walter Nelson Woodson, 
21st Virginia Cavalry; George C. Thompson, Company K, 
30th Virginia Infantry; Columbus O. Woodward, Company 
C, 1st Maryland Cavalry; Robert R. Green, Company B, 6th 
Virginia Cavalry ; Senator John H. Bankhead, buried at Jas- 
per, Ala. ; Rev. William T. Thompson, captain Company D, 
3th Missouri Cavalry; M. Wallace, Company A, 7th Virginia 
Infantry; James B. Price, Company K, 3d Virginia Infantry; 
fohn S. Tucker, captain of ordnance (Oak Hill) ; F. B. 
Orchard, 3d South Carolina Cavalry; Capt. Benjamin Brown, 
Company H, 19th Virginia Infantry; George T. Ferneyhugh, 
Company C, 35th Virginia Cavalry; Rev. J. A. Norton, 2d 
Mississippi Infantry; Rev. R. H. McKim, lieutenant A. D. 
C. Stewart's staff, Chaplain of Camp 171, U. C. V. (Green 
Mount, Baltimore) ; J. T. Dutton, Company B, 1st Maryland 
Cavalry (Charles County, Md.) ; W. D. Porter, Master's mate, 
Confederate States navy (South Carolina) ; Arthur W. Fair- 
fax, 43d Virginia Cavalry (Oak Hill) ; William E. Moore. 
Company A, 3d North Carolina Light Artillery; Bushrod 
Carter, Company B, 8th Virginia Infantry (Prospect Hill) ; 
3. M. E. Pegner, Mississippi Scouts (died at Oxford, Miss.) ; 
Zharles J. Kinsolving, 1st Richmond Howitzers. 

Comrades at Staunton, Va. 

Col. James W. Blackburn, Commander of Stonewall Jack- 
ion Camp, U. C. V., Staunton, Va., reports the following 
leaths in the membership during the year, twenty-one having 
inswered to the last roll call: J. Lewis Clemmer, J. F. Voor- 
lees, H. Eakin Gay, Robert J. Anderson, N. R. Proctor, Capt. 
-ewis Harrison, Capt. H. M. Mcllhaney, G. Wash Trimble, 
-ewis Hulvy, Capt. John A. Fauvor, J. B. McCutcheon, Wil- 
iam Woolfrey, Capt. W. D. Waller, R. T. Leftwitch, John 
vi. Brown, J. F. Carroll, James C. Crane, J. W. B. Parker, 
<. S. Turk, T. N. Argenbright, Henry C. Bear. 

c. L. JONES. 

Charles Lucian Jones. 

First Lieutenant Commander Charles Lucian Jones fell on 
sleep on October 27, 1920, at Savannah. Ga., in his eighty- 
sixth year. He was a survivor of the Confederate navy, in 
which he had the honor and distinction of serving under that 
great naval commander, Josiah Tatnall, and other Confed- 
erate officers of high rank on the sea. He was born in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on April 
20, 1835, a son of Gen. 
Roger Jones, U. S. A., 
and Mary Ann Mason 
Page, of a well-known 
Virginia family. 

Our comrade retired 
valuable service on the 
Confederate cruiser Tal- 
lahassee, acting as pay- 
master during that cruise 
along the Atlantic Coast 
and off New York Har- 
bor in 1864. This was 
the cruiser that made the 
famous escape from Hali- 
fax Harbor, regarded as 
one of the most remark- 
able feats of naval his- 
tory. After the fall of 
Fort Fisher, Comrade Jones was sent to Richmond, Va., and 
was later assigned to duty with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's. 
Army of Tennessee, with which he surrendered on April 26, 

In a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, in which our com- 
rade was recommended for promotion, Gen. R. E. Lee gave 
persona! testimony as to his attention to duty. 

Coming to Savannah after the close of the War between 
the States, Comrade Jones became actively engaged in busi- 
ness and Church work, having served as senior warden of 
Christ Episcopal Church for a great many years, only re- 
signing recently from failing health. He was twice married, 
his first wife being Miss Mary Ann Anderson, of Wilming- 
ton, N. C. His second marriage was to Miss Sallie N. Mills, 
of Savannah, on April 12, 1887, and by this marriage there 
were two children, Miss Gertrude Page Jones and Catesby 
Jones, both of whom survive him. 

[D. B. Morgan, Secretary Confederate Veterans' Associa- 
tion, Camp 756, U. C. V.] 

J. W. Towson. 

After more than a year of failing health. J. William Tow- 
son died at his home, in Shelbina, Mo., on November 23, 1920. 
He is survived by his wife, Mrs. Susan Towson, and a foster 
daughter, Mrs. Ada Towson-Lloyd. The funeral was con- 
ducted by Rev. T. M. Cobb, a Confederate veteran chaplain, 
of Lexington, Mo., assisting the local pastor. The burial was 
in charge of the Masonic fraternity, and he was laid to rest 
in the city cemetery. 

John William Towson was born at Williamsport, Md., on 
March 2, 1839, and was educated there and at Baltimore. 
After the War between the States began he entered the ranks 
of the Confederate army, serving under Gen. Robert E. Lee 
until the surrender at Appomattox. He was a member of the 
famous Black Horse Cavalry, under Major Randolph, and a 
participant in the great battles of Brandy Station, Gettysburg, 


(^oi)federat^ l/eterai). 

Spotsylvania, Wilderness, Cold Harbor, and Trevillians, and 
other engagements, ending with the siege of Richmond and 
surrender at Appomattox. He was ever loyal to the cause 
for which he had fought and took an active part in Confed- 
erate matters in his State, having been Commander of the 
State Division. U. C. V. 

He went to Missouri in 1866 and, with his brother, Henry 
Clay Towson, entered the real estate and insurance business 
at Shelbina, and during his whole business career he remained 
closely allied to the real estate and insurance lines. Later in 
life he was more or less interested in the banking interests of 
the town. He was the city's first mayor and was always in- 
terested in the civic affairs of his home town. He was 
Shelby County's representative in the Missouri Legislature 
one or two terms. He was always prominent in the affairs 
of the little city he called home. 

Judge James D. Richmond. 

After a short illness, the spirit of Judge James D. Rich- 
mond passed to its eternal home on September 9, 1920, at the 
home of his nephew, James G. Richmond, at Bynumville, Mo. 
He had come from his home, in Wichita Falls, Tex., to visit 
his old home and relatives. 

Judge Richmond was born in Randolph County, Mo., on 
March 5, 1832, the son of John McCracken and Elizabeth 
Rose Richmond, who came to Missouri from North Carolina 
5n 1830. He was a Confederate soldier, member of Company 
F, 3d Missouri Infantry. The captain of his company was 
Thomas Lowrey, of Randolph County, Mo. Gen. Francis 
Marion Cockrell was commander of his brigade. Among the 
tattles in which he participated were Vicksburg, Baker's 
Creek, Port Gibson, Corinth, and Allatoona, Ga. In the latter 
engagement he was severely wounded, as a result of which 
fee went for fifty-eight years without a bone in the upper part 
of his left arm. 

In 1865 Judge Richmond was married to Miss Sue Martin, 
of North Carolina, who survives him. Five children came 
to bless their home, four of whom preceded him to that land 
where there is no parting. 

Tudge Richmond was a member of the county court of 
Randolph County, Mo., in the seventies and served with satis- 
faction to the people and credit to himself. He was a good 
neighbor, fine citizen, successful farmer, Christian gentle- 
man, for many years a member of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. In his life was .exemplified the Golden Rule. 
After a funeral service by the writer, his tired and battle- 
scarred body was conveyed to the beautiful cemetery at 
Brookfield, Mo., and just as the sun was sinking in the west 
we laid him to rest by the side of his children. 
[E. M. Richmond; Moberly, Mo.] 

Rev. H. C. Bolen. 

Rev. H. C. Bolen, a superannuated minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, was born in Howard County, 
Mo., in 1843. and died at Callao. Mo., on November 6. 1920. 
He had gone from his home in Shelbina to Callao to fill an 
appointment for a brother minister and was suddenly stricken. 
His life was a grand success in its service to others. He was 
a remarkably modest man, and he referred to the strenuous 
life of a Confederate soldier in the long and unequal contest 
only occasionally to his most intimate friends. His life was 
unpretentious, yet filled with helpfulness for others. He was 
true to his profession. Though dead, he will continue in the 
hearts of all who knew him- 

[C. H. Myers.] 

Clayton R. Woods. 

Clayton Rogers Woods passed away at his home, in Savan- 
nah, Ga., on December 2, in his seventy-seventh year. He 
came to Savannah in 1866. immediately engaging in the cot- 
ton factorage business with his brothers, William Henry and 
S. A. Woods, continuing in the business for a great many 
vears, retiring within late years on account of failing health. 
For over fifty years he was a member of the Cotton Exchange 
of this city, and his form has been a familiar sight on our 
streets even after he gave up active business. 

As a lad of seventeen Clayton Rogers Woods enlisted in 
the Confederate army, joining the Eufaula (Ala.) Light Ar- 
tillery on March 12, 1862, and serving with it until paroled 
on May 10, 1865, near Meridian, Miss. He saw service with 
Gens. E. Kirby Smith, Nathan Bedford Forrest. Joseph E. 
Johnston, John B. Hood, and Braxton Bragg. His battery 
was engaged in many battles and skirmishes, yet he received 
only one wound, and that was at New Hope Church, Ga., 
while Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was leading Sherman on down 
toward Atlanta and by his wonderful strategy causing Sher- 
man, to lose many men and much supplies. Comrade Woods 
at one time was persuaded by his captain to accept the posi- 
tion of sergeant, but he shrank from all titles. In business 
life, however, he had been director in various banks and of 
the Central of Georgia Railway Company. 

On December 27, 1870, he was married to Miss Cecelia E. 
Malone, of Mobile, Ala., and had he lived until the 27th inst. 
would have celebrated his fiftieth wedding anniversary. He 
is survived by his wife, one son (Rogers S. Woods), and one 
daughter (Mrs. William R. Dancy), both of Savannah. 
Comrade Woods was of a kindly, retiring disposition, altruis- 
tic by nature, and he did quietly what good he could to his 
fellow man. 

[D. B. Morgan, Secretary Confederate Veterans' Associa 
tion. Savannah, Ga.] 

John F. Bishop. 

John F. Bishop was born near Westville, Simpson County. 
Miss., on June 23, 1843, the son of Elijah and Winnie Bishop. 
He was reared on the farm and joined the Confederate army 
when he was eighteen years old. enlisting in Company A, 
organized by Captain Norman, of Copiah County. To reach; 
the place of enlistment he rode his own horse from Westville 
to Handsboro, Miss., and there enlisted, horse and all, for 
the duration of the war. This company was assigned to the 
1st Mississippi Regiment and afterwards was made a part of 
the 2d and 4th Regiments. He was engaged in the battles 
of Baton Rouge, Port Gibson, Hammond Station, and Baker's 
Creek, where he was wounded. He rode horseback from the 
ambush where he was wounded to Brandon, a distance ot 
one hundred miles, where the Confederates had set up a 
temporary hospital, before he secured first-aid treatment 
While at home recuperating from the wound, during the sum- 
mer of 1863, he joined the Strong River Baptist Church- 
Soon after returning to his command he was captured and 
imprisoned at Ship Island, but was finally exchanged and 
paroled on May 13, 1863. 

He was married by Rev. Mr. Middleton on April lo, 18/1. 
to Miss Mary Ann Whitworth, of near Rockport, Miss., who 
died in 1893 There were seven children of this union, five 
surviving him. His second wife was Mrs. Sally Tucker, who: 
died about ten vears later. During his declining years he 
lived with his children. He suffered greatly at times from an 
incurable malady, but bore it as became a true Christian. He 

Qoijfederat^ tfefcerag. 

2 9. 

departed this life just as the dawn of Easter was breaking on 
the 4th of April, 1920, at the age of seventy-six years. 

Comrade Bishop was a consistent member of the Baptist 
Church and was a deacon at the time of his death, and he 
was always found in the ranks of those working for the 
moral uplift of the community. 

Hon. E. B. Goode. 

Hon. E. B. Goode, of Wheatland. Mecklenburg County, 
Va., passed away on October 15, 1920, in his eighty-first year. 
He was married on January 25, 1865, to Miss Lucy Tanny 
Watkins, who died some years ago, and is survived by four 
daughters and three sons. He had been a consistent member 
of St. James Episcopal Church at Boydton, Va., since his 
;arly youth, and was there laid to rest in the churchyard in 
the presence of many relatives and friends. 

Mr. Goode came of one of the most prominent families in 
Southside Virginia. His father represented his district in 
Congress for several years in the fifties and was widely known 
for learning and faithful service to his people. 

At the beginning of the War between the States E. B. 
Goode was a cadet in the graduating class of the Virginia 
Military Institute. The class was incidentally graduated and 
sent to Richmond as drill masters for the volunteers flocking 
to that city. They remained in that work for several months, 
when Mr. Goode was made adjutant of the 56th Virginia In- 
fantry. He was with this regiment at the siege of Fort 
Donelson, but was with the five thousand of the command 
which decamped before the place fell into the hands of the 
Federals. In making his way homeward he was seized with 
a malignant attack of typhoid fever which confined him to 
his bed for months in the State of Kentucky. During this 
illness and convalescence he was most of the time within the 
Federal lines and would have been taken prisoner had not 
his condition made it impossible to move him. As he became 
stronger he had many narrow escapes from capture. Finally 
he managed to reach his home, to the great surprise and 
delight of his family and friends. He then was assigned to 
the 34th Virginia Infantry as adjutant, of which his brother, 
the late Col. J. Thomas Goode, was colonel. He was with 
this regiment to the close of the war, participating in its many 
battles, including the battle of the Crater and other contests 
around Petersburg. He was wounded while in the trenches 

ihere, but surrendered with his regiment at Appomattox. 

Mr. Goode held many positions of honor and trust in the 
county, all of which he filled with conspicuous ability and 

-fidelity. He was one of the organizers of the L. A. Armistead 
Camp of Confederate Veterans and its Commander for sev- 
eral terms and was an active participant in all its work. He 

i was a man of modest demeanor and of inflexible principle. 

[W. H. Jones, L. A. Armistead Camp of Confederate Vet- 

W. B. Judkins. 

Comrade W. B. Judkins was born in North Carolina on 
July 1, 1840, and died at the home of his daughter in Rome, 
Ga., on October 7, 1920. When the tocsin of war was 
sounded in 1861, he promptly responded, enlisting in Company 
G, 22d Georgia Infantry, which was organized near Rome in 
August, 1861. He served gallantly throughout the war under 
Lee and A. P. Hill and took part in all the principal battles 
from Seven Pines to Appomattox. He was wounded at 
Spotsylvania C. H. on May 10, 1864. No braver soldier ever 
shouldered a gun than Billy Judkins ; he was always in front 
3n the firing line. 

On November 4, 1864, Comrade Judkins was married to 
Mrs. Mary Ann Malone in Columbia, S. C, and after the 
close of the war he came to Georgia and settled in Cedar- 
town, Polk County, where he engaged for a number of years 
in the milling business. Later he moved to Floyd County, 
and there lived the rest of his life. He was a devoted hus- 
band, a kind and indulgent father, and a valiant soldier of the 
cross, having belonged to the Baptist Church for seventeen 
years. He was also a prominent Mason for thirty-six years. 
He was buried by the side of his wife, who died in 1909. 
He is survived by one son and a daughter. 

iW. J. Vincent, a comrade of Company G.] 

Robert L. Kelly. 

With a sad heart I record the death of another dear old 
comrade. On the 7th of September, 1920, Robert L. Kelly 
made his last march and answered the final roll call, in the 
seventh-ninth year of his age. A native of Hinds County, 
Miss., he served faithfully his beloved South as a member 
of Company K, 45th Regiment of Mississippi Infantry, Gen. 
Mark P. Lowrey's brigade, Gen. Pat Cleburne's division. 
Army of Tennessee, sharing the arduous campaigns, the toil- 
some marches, the perils, and the triumphs of that famous 

Genial, kindly "Bob," always cheerful, always hopeful ! 
The few who still survive (only five, I think) of all that 
old company will recall how often in the dreary bivouac and 
at the camp fire, after a hard day's march, "Bob's" skillful 
touch would evoke from his violin such strains of melody 
as to drive away weariness and depression. When the old 
fiddle tumbled out of a wagon and was crushed under the 
wheels, there was mourning throughout the regiment. 

His comrades tender his son and daughters their earnest 
sympathies and reverently salute his memory together with 
those other comrades who have "crossed the bar." Heaven 
rest their souls in peace ! 

[P. W. Shearer, Company K, 45th Mississippi Regiment.] 

Dr. J. C. Hall. 

After an illness of several months, Dr. J. C. Hall, a leading 
physician and planter of Anguilla, Miss., died at his planta- 
tion home on November 19, 1920. Burial was by the Masons, 
with the Rev. Mr. Davison, of the Episcopal Church, con- 
ducting the funeral. 

Dr. Hall was born in 1838 and was educated at Mississippi 
College. He studied and graduated in medicine from the 
Long Island College Hospital, New York. 

Entering the Confederate army as a volunteer surgeon, he 
was assigned to the 37th Tennessee Volunteers and partici- 
pated in engagements from Shiloh to the surrender of the 
Army of Tennessee, in April, 1865, serving in hospitals and 
in the field and acting as medical director, medical inspector, 
and brigade surgeon on the staff of General Tyler and later 
as brigade surgeon on the staff of Gen. W. B. Bate. 

At the close of the war Dr. Hall returned home to engage 
in the practice of medicine and planting. He was prominent 
in the affairs of his county and State, twice representing his 
county in the legislature. He was a leading member of his 
county and State medical society and of the American Medi- 
cal Association. In 1914 he was appointed Surgeon General 
of the Confederate Veterans' organization by Gen. Bennett 
H. Young. 

Surviving Dr. Hall are his wife and two sons, Dr. J. B. 
Hall, of Anguilla, and John W. Hall, of New Orleans. 


Qoi)federat{ tfefcerai). 

Judge Joseph Drummond Hunt. 

Joseph Drummond Hunt was born in Fayette County, Ky., 
on August 14, 1838, and died at his home, in Lexington, Ky., 
on September 3, 1920, aged eighty-two years. He was the 
youngest son of Peter Gordon Hunt and his wife, Mary Ann 
Bullock. He had the heritage of being well born, his grand- 
parents on both the paternal and maternal side having been 
of the better class of those early settlers who made homes 
for themselves in the fertile blue grass region of Kentucky. 
His mother died when he was less than three years of age. 
His father was a man of the highest character, of sincere 
piety, and, himself well educated, desirous of giving his chil- 
dren the best educational advantages. 

Attending the schools in his neighborhood during his boy- 
hood, Joseph was especially fortunate in being the pupil of 
his oldest brother, the Rev. George Hunt, exceptionally fitted 
to prepare his students for their college course. After an 
attendance of three years at Center College, at Danville, Ky., 
during the presidency of the Rev. Dr. John C. Young, re- 
vered as a truly great teacher, Joseph D. Hunt graduated in 
the class of 1857 with the highest honors for scholarship, 
that of valedictorian of his class. It was the largest class 
ever graduated from this noted college (numbering forty- 
seven), and many of its members afterwards gained distinc- 
tion as soldiers and also in civil life. After leaving college 
he chose the profession of law ; attended the law lectures 
of Chief Justice George Robertson for three terms and later 
was a student in the law department of Louisville University, 
from which he graduated in 1861. 

His service as a Confederate soldier was that of a man of 
approved courage, diligent in the performance of every duty 
and faithful to the last. He was sergeant major of the 8th 
Kentucky Cavalry (R. S. Cluke, colonel) from its organiza- 
tion, in September, 1862. This was one of the best regiments 
under the command of Gen. John H. Morgan, so widely 
known as "Morgan's Men." Taking part in every battle or 
minor engagement in which his regiment participated, Com- 
rade Hunt at all times rendered efficient service and won the 
confidence and esteem of the officers and men of his regi- 
ment. He was in the battle of Hartsville, Tenn., December 
7, 1862, one of the most successful enterprises ■ and most 
brilliant victories of the many to the credit of "Morgan and 
his men." Two regiments from the 1st Brigade of Kentucky 
Volunteer Infantry took part in this engagement under the 
command of Col. Thomas H. Hunt, an uncle of Gen. John 
H. Morgan. The 8th Kentucky Cavalry accompanied Gen- 
eral Morgan on what is known as the "Ohio Raid" in July, 
1863. Sergeant Major Hunt, with his regiment, was cap- 
tured at Buffington Island, Ohio. He was a prisoner first 
at Camp Morton, Indianapolis, Ind., and afterwards at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, 111. In March, 186S, he was sent on ex- 
change to Richmond, Va. After the surrender of Gen. Robert 
E. Lee at Appomattox Comrade Hunt, having been declared 
exchanged, was with Gen. Basil W. Duke, who, with a por- 
tion of his command, formed a part of that remnant of an 
army that rode from Charlotte, N. C, to Washington, Ga., 
acting as an escort to President Jefferson Davis and his 
cabinet. When President Davis undertook to make his es- 
cape and Gen. John C. Breckinride, Secretary of War, had 
strated on his ride to the Florida coast, from which he was 
successful in crossing over ta the island of Cuba, Joseph D. 
Hunt, w : ith several of his comrades, rode into the city of 
Augusta, Ga., and was paroled by officers of the Federal 

army on May 9, 1865, one month after the surrender at Ap- 

After returning to Kentucky and while engaged in the 
practice of law at Lexington he was elected city attorney, 
serving in 1868-69. In August, 1873, he was appointed by 
Gov. Preston H. Leslie to the office of circuit judge of the 
district composed of Fayette and the six adjoining counties 
to fill out the unexpired term of Judge Charles B. Thomas. 
Later he was elected circuit judge for the full term of six 
years. He was an admirable judicial officer, with a ripe 
knowledge of the law in its various branches coming under 
the criminal, the common law, and equity jurisdiction of the 
court. While courteous to the members of the bar, he was 
exacting in the demand that the business of the court should 
be dispatched with promptness and no unnecessary delay. 
Declining to become a candidate for reelection, he resumed 
the practice of the law. Having in the highest degree the 
confidence of the community, founded on the knowledge of 
his legal attainments and absolute trust in his unswerving 
integrity, it is needless to say he was successful in securing 
a good practice. Very naturally he was called on to fill many 
positions of trust, a list of which would extend this notice 
beyond proper limits. Among them, however, may be named: 
President of the Board of Aldermen, President of the North- 
ern Bank of Kentucky, Commissioner of Eastern State Hos- 
pital for the Insane, President of the Lexington Cemetery 
Company, and director of the Security Trust Company. 
About five years before his death, due to failing health and 
the infirmities of age, he retired from practice, leaving the 
business in the hands of his nephew, George R. Hunt, who 
had been for years the junior partner in the firm. 

Judge Hunt was never married, but he had taken a most 
fatherly interest in his nephews and nieces, the children of 
his older brothers. His kindness and generosity were by 
no means confined to them, for it included many other rela- 
tives and friends. He was a man of genuine piety and had 
long been a member of the Baptist Church. When he died 
his associates paid high and well-deserved tribute to this 
"Nestor of the Fayette County bar" — "lawyer, jurist, soldier, 
and Christian gentleman." 

A man of simple tastes and quiet manner of life, he was 
ever open-handed to those in need. By no class in the com- 
munity was he more respected and loved than by his Con- 
federate comrades, for whom he always showed the warmest 
interest and affection. 

John Slagle. 

Another link that binds the olden, golden past is severed 
in the passing of another member of Shelby's Iron Brigade 
of Missouri Confederate Cavalry. John Slagle, who was a 
member of Company C, 3d Regiment of Shelby's Brigade, 
from its organization, died at the home of his granddaugh- 
ter, near Wonder, Josephine County, Oregon, on November 
18, 1920, at the advanced age of eighty-two years. This com- 
rade took part in all of the campaigns of that remarkable 
body of horsemen from 1862 to the end of the war, which 
found him in camp near Corsicana, Tex. Like a good many 
others, he was not pleased to surrender, and on the 2d of 
June, 1865, he started with Shelby and about five hundred of 
his devoted followers to Old Mexico and from Mexico went 
to Oregon in the fall of 1865 and settled near where he died. 
He leaves three children and several grandchildren and great- 
grandchildren to mourn their loss. He w»s laid to rest by 
the side of his wife, who preceded him to the grave forty-six 

[Sam Box, Muskogee, Okla.] 

Qoi?fed«rat^ l/eterai). 


William T. Lowry. 

William T. Lowry died at Cartersville, S. C„ on Decem- 
ber 14, 1920. No man had a better war record. He entered 
the service in April, 1861, in Company D, 8th South Carolina 
Regiment, at the age of sixteen, and remained the four years 
of the war, getting only one furlough, which he gave to his 
father, who was a member of the same company. He en- 
tered the service as a private and remained one; he was too 
good a private to spoil by making an officer. His regiment 
belonged to the 1st Brigade (Kershaw's) of the 1st Division 
(McLaws's) of the 1st Corps (Longstreet's) of the Army 
of Northern Virginia. He participated in the following bat- 
tles : Manassas, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Savage Station, 
Frazier's Farm, Malvern Hill, Second Manassas, Maryland 
Heights, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Shepherdstown, Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, Camp- 
bell's Station, Knoxville, Beans's Station, the Wilderness, 
Spotsylvania, North Anna River, Cold Harbor, Deep Bot- 
tom, Petersburg, and Berryville. 

He was captured, with nearly all of his regiment, in Sep- 
tember, 1864, near Winchester, and was sent to Camp Chase, 
Ohio, where he was released after the war. He was wounded 
at Chickamauga. 

At the Wilderness early in the morning of May 6, 1864, 
Major General Wadsworth, of Grant's army, rode out on 
the plank road near Lowry and was shot by young Lowry, 
the wound being fatal. For years he had had the field glasses 
of General Wadsworth, but they were destroyed when his 
house burned three years ago. 

Comrade Lowry had always taken great interest in Con- 
federate matters and in recent years had visited many of the 
battle fields. He leaves a large family and a good name. He 
was an elder in the Presbyterian Church at the time of his 

[William Godfrey.] 

Capt. Thomas H. Clower. 

Capt. Thomas Harrison Clower, pioneer resident of Opelika, 
Ala., died on December 18 at the age of seventy-eight years. 
He was born in Harris County, Ga., November 6, 1842, but 
was reared at Auburn, Ala., where his parents removed when 
he was two years old. In May, 1861, he entered the Confed- 
erate army as a private of Company F, 12th Alabama In- 
fantry, was promoted to sergeant in 1862, and commanded 
his company in some of its hardest fought engagements. He 
took part in numerous battles, including those around Rich- 
mond, and at the time the Petersburg lines were broken he 
was in a hospital very ill and was taken prisoner. After a 
few days in Libby Prison he was paroled and made his way 
back to Auburn in August, 1865. 

His business career began in Auburn, but in a few years 
he removed to Opelika and was there in active business until 
four years ago, when ill health caused his retirement. He 
had been prominent in the affairs of the town, serving one 
term as its mayor, and also held the office of County Super- 
intendent of Education. He was a Master Mason and chair- 
man of the board of trustees of the Methodist Church there. 

In 1868 Captain Clower was married to Miss Georgia 
Bedell, of Columbus, Ga., who died in 1887. His second wife 
was Mrs. Alcora W. Bennett, who survives him with four 
sons, also three sisters and two brothers. 

Captain Clower took a leading part i» Confederate mat- 
ters of the community and had served as Adjutant of Lee 
Camp, U. C. V. His death is widely mourned, for he had 
made lasting friends of all with whom he came in contact. 

Col. Clement Sulivane. 

The Veteran notes with sorrow the passing of Col. Clement 
Sulivane, gallant soldier, distinguished lawyer and statesman, 
whose death occurred on the 9th of November, 1920, at Cam- 
bridge, Md. His article on the "Last Meeting with General 
Lee" was a valued contribution to the December Veteran, 
and other articles by him have appeared in preceding years. 
His death brings to a close a life of wonderful activity. 

Clement Sulivane was the eldest child of Vans Murray and 
Octavia Van Dorn Sulivane, and was born at Port Gibson, 
Miss., on August 20, 1838. One of his paternal ancestors, 
Maj. James Sulivane, an Irish officer in one of the regiments 
of King James, came to this country and settled in Dorches- 
ter County, Md., in 1693. 

Young Sulivane was educated in the schools of Cambridge, 
finishing with a year at Princeton, followed by two years at 
the University of Virginia. He then studied law and began 
to practice in 1860; but in the following year he enlisted in 
the Confederate army, serving first with Company A, of the 
10th Mississippi, was later transferred to Company B, of the 
21st Virginia Regiment, and in November, 1861, was ap- 
pointed first lieutenant and A. D. C. on the staff of Gen. 
Earl Van Dorn, his mother's brother, with whom he served 
from January, 1862, to May, 1863, when the General was 
killed. He participated in all of the principal battles in the 
West, including Elkhorn, or Pea Ridge, Farmington, Corinth, 
Vicksburg, and had three horses killed under him, but never 
received a wound. After the death of General Van Dorn he 
was assigned to duty on the staff of Gen. G. W. C. Lee, com- 
manding the defense of Richmond, and assisted in repelling 
the cavalry raids on that city. In July, 1864, he was promoted 
to captain and chief of staff, was made major in January, 
1865, and promoted to lieutenant colonel in the following 
March. He had been recommended for brigadier general, 
but the evacuation of Richmond came before his commission 
could be issued. His military career ended with the sur- 
render of Lee's army, and he returnd to his home in Mary- 

Colonel Sulivane resumed the practice of law, but in 1871 
became editor and publisher of the Cambridge Chronicle, and 
was widely known for his ability in the field of journalism. 
He was also actively identified with politics, represented his 
county in the State Senate from 1877 to 1881, and had also 
served as Chairman of the Democratic State Central Com- 
mittee. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias and 
Cambridge Lodge, No. 66, A. F. and A. M. 

In November, 1868, Colonel Sulivane was married to Miss 
Delia Hayward, who died a few months before him. Two 
sons and a daughter survive him. 

Brief Mention. 

Mention is here made of several comrades whose deaths 
were reported, but sketches have not yet been submitted: 

Rev. J. Lynn Bachman died at Sweetwater, Tenn., on De- 
cember 15, 1919. "He lived to a ripe old age, rich in service 
to his Maker, his family, his friends, and his country, leav- 
ing a memory that will be cherished." 

Capt. J. K. Fisher, of Fresno, Cal., a native Tennesseean, 
died at the age of eighty years. He served as captain of a 
company under Col. John Savage. 

Gen. George T. Riddle, commanding Second Brigade of 
Tennessee Division, U. C. V., died at Pulaski, Tenn., on De- 
cember 28, 1919. He served as Adjutant of Camp John 
Woldridge, at Pulaski, for many years. 


^oi>federat^ l/eterag, 

TUniteb Daughters of tbe Confederacy 

"*£oira TTpaAres W/omory Stoma/" 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinnky, President General 

Paducah, Kv. 

Mrs- ALICE Baxter, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General 

Mrs. R. P. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, "Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Mrs. \V. E. R. Byrnes, Charleston, \V. Va Cor. Secretary General 

Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Pennants 

[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: The twenty- 
seventh annual convention, held in Asheville, N. C, was an 
occasion of happy reunion and earnest endeavor. Your dele- 
gates set the seal of approval upon the work I have done by 
honoring me with reelection, and I assume the duties of the 
office for a second term with the hope of carrying out the 
wishes of that splendid bod}' of patriotic women. 

Hero Fund. — As we are entering the new year, let the first 
good resolution be one that will lead to the immediate com- 
pletion of the Hero Fund. The convention indorsed the per 
capita plan as the equitable method of accumulating this 
fund, and South Carolina, on the convention floor, paid in full 
the quota. Illinois and Philadelphia are in the paid-up ranks, 
Philadelphia having given more than $9 per capita. Mrs. 
Beale will render a statement to each Division, and with this 
information it will be easy to go forward. Ask for Liberty 
Bonds ; urge the Chapters to give their bonds to this our 
working memorial. 

Jefferson Davis Monument at His Birthplace in Kentucky. 
— Let our good resolution number two be to complete this 
pledge to the veterans. When you have given 25 cents per 
capita, the memorial can be finished without delay. The un- 
veiling of this great monument depends upon the U. D. C, 
and I here send a special message to the Division Directors 
urging renewed efforts. 

Faithful Slave Monument. — Immediate steps will be taken 
to commemorate the faithful slave murdered by John Brown 
at Harper's Ferry, Va. A committee of U. D. C. women 
will cooperate with a committee appointed by Commander 
Forrest, of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, to perfect ar- 
rangements for the erection of a bowlder to this "Hero of 
Harper's Ferry." The United Daughters of the Confederacy 
committee appointed by your President is composed of Mrs. 
Man' Dowling Bond, of Lawrenceburg, Ky. ; Mrs. Charles L. 
Reed, of Huntington, W. Va. ; Miss Katie Daffan, of Hous- 
ton, Tex. 

The Jefferson Davis Highway. — A forward step was taken 
by this committee when the interest of the Sons of the Con- 
federate Veterans was attracted to the great project. The 
committee's recommendation to turn the business management 
over to the Sons, provided Mr. X. B. Forrest shall be in 
charge of the work, regardless of whether or not he is Com- 
mander in Chief, was adopted by the convention, and the 
Sons have accepted the obligation. This does not relieve the 
L". D. C. of work for this cause. The committee will in a 
short time set forth a plan of work of interest to every mem- 
ber of the organization. 

Library Collections. — So satisfactory has been the work of 
collecting books for the Bodlian Library that the convention 
instructed the committee to open correspondence with other 

foreign libraries looking toward placing similar collections 
in the ranking libraries of the nations. The library' of Par- 
liament, Ottawa. Canada, has expressed a desire for the col- 
lection, and the committee is now in correspondence with the 
American Library Association, soon to open a branch library 
in Paris, France. 

Southern Women in War Times. — A review of "Our Book" 
appeared in the December 5 issue of the Baltimore Sun, from 
which I quote the following: "In publishing under their own 
auspices 'The Women of the South in War Times,' compiled 
by Matthew Page Andrews, the U. D. C. have made a val- 
uable contribution to history and literature." The book is 
ready for circulation, and our duty is clear. We have a di- 
rector for each Division, who will solicit your aid in making 
the sale large. See that every library, public and in the home, 
has a copy. 

Needy Confederate Women. — Our relief work grows every 
year, and the demand for funds is increased in proportion. 
The Asheville Convention gave pledges from the floor 
amounting to about $1,000 to supplement the Chapters' of- 
fering for the fund. Each Chapter is asked to give $1 this 
year to these old women who are dependent upon us. Send 
the amount to the Treasurer as soon as possible and thereby 
share the pleasure of sending this message of cheer. The 
personnel of this committee is the same as last year. Write 
Mrs. N. V. Randolph, Chairman. 

Education. — The report of the Educational Committee was 
received with enthusiasm by the convention, with $81,000 in 
scholarships and $30,000 paid in on the Hero Fund. The 
committee is making plans and will soon be ready to make 
award for the coming year. The Educational Committee for 
1920-21 is: Miss Armida Moses, Chairman, Sumter, S. C. ; 
Miss Annie Jean Gash, Pisgah Forrest, N. C. ; Mrs. W. T. 
Davis, 918 Seventeenth Avenue S., Nashville, Tenn. ; Mrs. 
H. S. West, Baltimore, Md. 

The committee to award university prize for Confederate 
essay is : Mrs. L. R. Schuyler, 520 West One Hundred and 
Fourteenth Street, New York, N. Y. ; Mrs. I. H. Harness, 
Chickasha. Okla. : Miss Ida Powell, 1447 East Marquette 
Road Chicago, 111. 

Stationery. — Mrs. W. S. Coleman, 436 Peachtree Street, 
Atlanta, Ga., will serve again as Chairman of the Official 
Stationery Committee. The other members of the commit- 
tee are : Mrs. E. L. Merry, Tulsa, Okla. ; Miss Man," Lou 
Gordon White, Nashville, Tenn.; Mrs. J. P. Scott, Shreve- 
port, La. ; Mrs. Chappel Cory, Birmingham, Ala. 

Necrology.— Mrs. John B. Richardson, Honorary Presi- 
dent U. D. C, New Orleans, La., died on November 4. Mrs. 
Richardson has been a faithful and honored member of this 
organization for many years, and her death brings sorrow 
to her coworkers. 

Since the close of the convention at Asheville, I have had 

Qogfederat^ Ueterai). 


the pleasure of visiting the Chairman of Education, Miss 
Armida Moses, of Sumter, S. C, and of meeting the mem- 
bers of Dick Anderson Chapter of that city. While in 
Charleston, the guest of Mrs. St. J. Allison Lawton, Presi- 
dent of the South Carolina Division, U. D. C, I enjoyed 
seeing the members of Charleston Chapter and found great 
inspiration in meeting our former President General, Mrs. 
Augustine T. Smythe. 

The added privilege of representing you on the occasion of 
the South Carolina Convention, held in Greenville, gave me 
much pleasure.' In Nashville, Tenn., our newly elected Sec- 
ond Vice President General, Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, was a 
charming hostess, and many attentions were shown me as 
your representative by the Executive Board of Nashville 
Chapter, No. 1, the affiliated Chapters, the Ladies' Hermitage 
Association, and the Confederate Veterans. On December 7 
I extended your greeting to the Middle Tennessee U. D. C. 
Conference at Shelbyville. This conference was under the 
direction of the First Vice President of the Tennessee Di- 
vision, Mrs. J. A. Woods, who presided with grace and dig- 

The new year is before us, dear Daughters. Let us use its 
opportunities in building up a greater U. D. C. by extending 
our work and by carrying forward the principles of true 
American patriotism. 

With wishes for a happy New Year to you all, 

Cordially, Mary M. Faris McKinney. 


Report for November, 1920. 

South Carolina Division $ 9 00 

West Virginia Division 764 20 

Mrs. Kate Robson Kennedy, Baltimore Chapter.... 25 00 

Confederate Relief Circle of Maryland 100 00 

Florida Division: St. Petersburg Chapter 43 50 

Dklahoma Division 50 00 

Zheck from Mrs. McKinney, as follows : Balance 
Hero Fund, exclusive of interest, $30.27 ; Virginia 
Division, $2; Colorado Division, $14.95; Ohio Di- 
vision, $5; North Carolina Division, $100 152 22 

Tennessee Division : Shiloh Chapter, $10 ; Gen. Kirby 

Smith Chapter, $27.60 37 60 

Pittsburg Chapter 12 65 

Mabama Division: Asheville Chapter, $10; Stephen 
D. Lee Chapter, $5 ; Murrell E. Pratt, $8.30 ; Leon- 
ard C. Pratt, $5 28 30 

Tacoma, Wash., Chapter 5 00 

Georgia Division : Statesboro Chapter, $5 ; Tennille 
Chapter, $5 ; Summerville Chapter, $5 ; Douglas 

Chapter, $2 15 00 

Colorado Division : Nathan B. Forrest Chapter, 

Pueblo 27 60 

Mississippi Division : Check from Mrs. Hugh L. 

Zuin, West Point 56 00 

Saltimore Chapter 20 00 

iouth Carolina Division 1 ,039 71 

'exas Division 174 50 

'ittsburg Chapter 6 50 

Total $2,566 78 

'reviously reported 3,938 95 

Total $6,505 73 

Mrs. J. T. Beal, Treasurer. 


In her report on the Confederate Museum in Richmond, 
Ya., to the Asheville Convention, Miss Sally Archer Ander- 
son, President of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, 
of that city, brought out some interesting facts about the 
museum, while making a plea for its better maintenance. The 
plan is to raise a general endowment fund for its support, and 
to date six States have completed their fund of $3,000 each. 
The States lacking more or less of their fund are: Georgia, 
Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Mis- 
souri, Tennessee, and Texas. 

A constant stream of visitors to the museum is recorded, 
7,777 having registered during 1920, of which 3,733 were from 
the North and foreign countries. The fees for these admis- 
sions, with the annual membership fee of one dollar and 
other small sums, help to meet the current expenses. 

Some of the priceless relics being preserved in this museum 
are the original manuscript of the Provisional Constitution 
of the Confederate States, which is displayed only on special 
occasions; the original great seal of the Confederacy, on ex- 
hibition daily; the uniforms worn by Generals Lee, Jackson, 
Stuart, and Johnston, which are gazed upon reverently; and 
other relics beyond value in the different rooms, to which 
accessions are being made constantly. It has been suggested 
that June 3, the birthday of President Davis, might also be 
considered as "Confederate Museum Day," when gifts of 
money, relics, etc., could be sent to the museum in memory 
of some loved one of the sixties". 

When the U. D. C. shall have added the library building 
to this museum, all these treasures can be the better displayed. 

Daughters of the Confederacy, push on this memorial work. 

Life memberships will be $25 after January 1 ; in me- 
moriam, not less than $10. These fees go to the endowment 
fund of the museum or to that of some room, as may be 


Arkansas. — The annual convention of the Arkansas Di- 
vision was held at Malvern October 27-29, 1920, and was said 
to be the best attended session in the history of this organiza- 
tion. From reports of the different Chapters it was shown 
that a wonderful work is being done along educational and 
benevolent lines. 

The following officers were elected : President, Mrs. W. E. 
Massey, Hot Springs ; First Vice President, Mrs. S. D. War- 
field, Helena ; Second Vice President, Mrs. R. N. Garrett, 
Eldorado; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Joseph Frazee Capple- 
man, Little Rock; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. S. E. Dil- 
lon, Hot Springs ; Treasurer, Mrs. Henry Berger, Malvern ; 
Historian, Mrs. M. L. Hildebrand, Prairie Grove ; Registrar, 
Miss Clara B. Eno, Van Buren ; Custodian, Mrs. P. J. Rice, 
Little Rock; Recorder, Mrs. N. B. Harris, Marianna ; Cor- 
respondent to Veteran, Mrs. Dewell Gann, Sr., Benton. 

Miss Thelma Lide, of Helena, was appointed to solicit sub- 
scriptions for the Veteran. 

Mrs. Henry Berger, President of the hostess Chapter, de- 
serves much credit for her efforts in making this one of the 
most enjoyable conventions ever held in this State. The 
delegates expressed themselves as charmed with Malvern and 
the exceptionally kind treatment received at the hands of the 



^opfederat^ Uefcerap, 

The State President, Mrs. W. E. Massey, and Mrs. C. M. 
Roberts, both of Hot Springs, attended the general conven- 
tion at Asheville, N. C. 

California.— Wade Hampton Chapter, No. 763, Los Angeles, 
celebrated Admiral Semmes's birthday with the usual picnic at 
South Park. To this annual affair the Confederate Veterans' 
Camp at Los Angeles is always invited as honor guests. One 
could easily imagine being in the very heart of the Old South 
with so many real old Southerners, men and women, and 
when the bounteously laden table was revealed, with its load 
of good things cooked Southern style, one felt sure of it. 
Fried chicken, baked Virginia ham, sweet potato pie, sweet 
pickles, watermelon, and ice cream and cake were served in 
abundance. Mr. Coldwell, one of the veterans, presented to 
the Daughters a mammoth cake, beautifully decorated in the 
finest confectioners' art, and the Daughters in turn presented 
to the Veterans a choice cake iced in Confederate flag design. 
The Division President, Mrs. Thomas Jefferson Douglass, 
also an honor guest, was requested to cut the cake for the 
Veterans, which was so large that every guest at the picnic 
had a slice. 

Mrs. Ross Hutchison, President of the Chapter, presented 
Mrs. Douglass with a large bouquet of choice flowers. 
Speech-making was then in order, and it was gratifying to 
hear all of those loving appreciations of each other that 
poured forth from the white-haired veterans and the gentle 
grandmothers, mothers, and daughters who lived through the 
tragic times of the sixties. Surely it was a love feast. The 
veterans indulged in reminiscences of other days, and they 
had an interested, eager audience. 

Missouri. — The twenty-third annual convention of the Mis- 
souri Divison was held at Sedalia October 19-21, Emmett Mc- 
Donald Chapter entertaining. The business sessions were held 
at the First Baptist Church. A reception at the hospitable 
home of Mrs. George F. Longan, "Long Walk Place," the 
first evening and a delightful automobile ride the second day 
added great pleasure to a very busy council. 

The reports of Chapter Presidents and committee chair- 
men gave evidence of renewed interest, wholesome growth, 
and splendid enthusiasm. Educational work is being put 
uppermost in the program for the coming year. 

Tribute was paid to Mrs. Thomas Wood Parry, deceased, 
former Division President and Recording Secretary General. 

Mrs. H. A. Pratt gave a most interesting talk reminiscent 
of her personal acquaintance with Jefferson Davis. 

Mrs. J. P. Higgins is proving a very capable and inspiring 
leader and was unanimously elected for a second term. Other 
officers elected are: First Vice President, Mrs. R. R. Highley- 
man, Sedalia: Second Vice President, Mrs. L. B. Houck, 
Cape Girardeau; Third Vice President, Mrs. C. D. McCoy, 
Independence ; Recording Secretary, Miss Virginia Wilkin- 
son, Independence; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. W. W. 
Henderson, Bridgeton ; Treasurer, Mrs. John Taylor, Keytes- 
ville; Historian, Mrs. J. B. Bozarth, Hannibal; Director Chil- 
dren's Chapter, Mrs. M. A. Dolan, Hannibal; Recorder of 
Crosses, Mrs. W. E. Owen, Clinton ; Editress Confederate 
Veteran, Mrs. B. Liebstadter, Kansas City; Chaplain, Mrs. 
Elizabeth McKinney, Moberly. 

An invitation to Monett for the 1921 convention was ac- 

New York. — On October 14 at Hotel Astor the annual con- 
vention of the New York Division was held. Reports from 
officers and standing committees disclosed many events of 
interest. The President, Mrs. Richard Walter Jones in her 
report made an urgent appeal to the Division to raise funds 

for a bust of Gen. Robert E. Lee to be placed in the Hall 
of Fame at New York University in the niche provided for 
that purpose. The response of the ladies was spontaneous, 
and already several subscriptions have been reported. 

The Division has met its full quota for the Jefferson Davis 
monument at Fairview, Ky. The Division has also responded 
to the request of Mrs. Roy Weeks McKinney, President Gen- 
eral, to raise the Hero Fund by a personal subscription of 
$1.15 from each member of this organization. 

Officers for the ensuing term were unanimously elected, as 
follows : President, Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler ; First 
Vice President, Mrs. Louis Bennett; Second Vice President, 
Mrs. George E. Draper; Third Vice President, Mrs. J. H. 
Dew; Recording Secretary, Mrs. A. J. Smith; Corresponding 
Secretary, Mrs. William L. Sands ; Treasurer, Mrs. George 
B. Dermody ; Registrar, Mrs. L. R. Cautley ; Historian, Mrs. 
Harry White Tupman ; Recorder of Crosses, Mrs. A. W. 
Cochran; Directors, Mrs. J. D. Beale and Mrs. Charles B. 

The following members were made Honorary Presidents 
of the Division : The retiring President, Mrs. Richard Walter 
Jones, and Mrs. Elizabeth Buford Phillips, Mrs. Silas F. 
Catchings, and Mrs. Henry Mason Day. 

Mrs. James Henry Parker, Honorary President and First 
President of the Division, contributed the following books 
for the Bodlian Library: "Life of Jefferson Davis," two 
volumes, by Mrs. Davis ; "Lives of Distinguished North Caro- 
linians, 1861-65," "Important Papers of the Confederacy," 
"Defense of Charleston Harbor." 

Washington. — The twelfth annual convention of this Di- 
vision was held in Seattle on October 13, with the Robert E. 
Lee Chapter as hostess. The three Chapters in the State 
were represented by delegates, and about sixty ladies, com- 
prising officers, delegates, and members united in making it 
the most enjoyable and inspiring meeting that had ever con- 

When the convention was called to order by Mrs. Mary 
Avery Wilkins, President of the hostess Chapter, all sang 
"America," standing. A welcome to the city was extended by 
Mayor Hugh M. Caldwell, who said he was particularly in- 
terested in the Daughters of the Confederacy because he is a 
native of Tennessee and his wife and mother members of the 

Captain McCroskey, of John B. Gordon Camp, was most 
happy in his words of praise of the Daughters of the Con- 

The report of the Division President, Mrs. Greenwill, 
showed increase in membership, courtesies shown to the vet- 
erans in the way of entertainment, and continued interest in 
the Hero Fund. 

Mrs. A. W. Ollor reported good work and zeal in securing 
subscriptions to the Confederate Veteran and in selling the 
new book, "Women of the South in War Times." 

Miss Julia Fletcher, Director for War Records, reported 
that through efforts of the Chapter records of fifty-eight sol- 
diers and sailors of Confederate lineage were completed and 

A revision of the constitution was read and submitted to 
the Chapters. 

The President announced that Mrs. Hainsworth, as dele- 
gate of the Robert E. Lee Chapter, would attend the General 
Convention, to be held at Asheville, N. C. Mrs. Hainsworth 
was then elected to represent the Division at the Asheville 

^oi?federat^ Ueterap. 


Sjtatetral Separtment 1. 1. (E. 

Vfotto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Cey word : "Preparedness." Flower : The rose. 



Southern Ports and Southern Poets. 

Charleston: Describe this beautiful harbor and its historic 
ociations. Bring out the fact that the attack on Fort Sum- 
was the result of the attempt to reenforce the garrison, 
pecially consider the duplicity of the Federal administra- 
1 in dealing with the commissioners of the Confederate 

Robert E. Lee, the Immortal. 
itudy his life and try to learn from it the sublime lessons 
courage, patriotism, and unselfishness. 



am writing this as a feeble tribute to the memory of 
ee as gallant brothers as ever fought in defense of a right- 
is cause, Capt. John Fletcher, Clinton Fletcher, and Robert 
tcher, all natives of Loudoun County, Va. 
Captain Fletcher was a graduate of the Virginia Military 
titute, and, raising a company at the outbreak of the War 
ween the States, he was made its captain. This company 
}nged to the 7th Virginia Cavalry, commanded by the im- 
rtal Col. (afterwards Gen.) Turner Ashby. Clinton 
tcher was a private in his brother's company and was 
ed at Greenland at the age of nineteen. Captain Fletcher 
j: killed at the same time at the head of his company. 
i:ir comrades speak in the highest terms of the gallantry 
these men and the high esteem in which they were held 
f all who served with 

.obert Fletcher was 
.rivate in Capt. Welby 
.ter's company. In 
first battle of Ma- 
,sas, by some mistake, 
■ company was or- 
;:d to charge the 
ny's line. In their 
;it was the New 
;k Zouaves, called the 
•e Regiment." Draw- 
1 his sword and call- 
. for his little com- 
;S> of forty men, he 
them literally into 
I jaws of death, rid- 
through and over 
Zouaves, shooting 
sabering them as 
went and then 
It was a fatal 
I ake and, like the Robert fletcher. 

charge of the Light Brigade upon the Russian center, cost 
in killed and wounded half of this heroic little band. Seven 
of his men were killed and thirteen wounded; some twelve 
or more horses were killed and a number wounded. Robert 
Fletcher received a severe wound in his right arm, shattering 
his elbow, which completely disabled him for active service. 
Just as soon as he was able he joined his brother's company 
and was soon promoted to commissary sergeant. He was 
with Captain Fletcher when the latter was killed. In after 
years Robert Fletcher told his daughter that the next morn- 
ing when the roll was called and so few answered that Cap- 
tain Carter cried like a child. 

Through an acquaintance with Robert Fletcher of nearly 
sixty-seven years, I never knew him to be guilty of an un- 
gentlemanly or unmanly act. The Golden Rule was the guid- 
ing principle of his life. He was a consistent member of the 
Baptist Church at Upperville, Va., charitable to the poor and 
needy, and for his good qualities was loved and esteemed by 
all who knew him. Nothing will describe the life and char- 
acter of this man more truly than these lines : 

"Friend to truth, of soul sincere, 
In action faithful and in honor clear, 
Who broke no promise, served no private end, 
Who gained no title and lost no friend." 

He died at his home, Rose Hill, near Upperville, on April 
20, 1911, at the age of seventy-two years. He is survived by 
his daughter, Mrs. George H. Slater, and three grandsons. 
His death was quiet and peaceful, because he, "like those sus- 
tained and soothed by an unfailing trust," approached the 
grave "as one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him 
and lies down to pleasant dreams." 


A beautiful spirit was set free from its earthly confines 
when Martha A. Brown, at Mount Ulla, N. C, on November 
IS, 1920, quietly and peacefully passed on to an infinitely 
more glorious life. 

Intimately associated with the Confederacy, which she 
dearly loved and honored, she was soon sorely bereft in the 
death of her young husband, James A. Houston, from wounds 
received at Fredericksburg. With her baby boy as an addi- 
tional incentive, she bravely battled through the remaining 
dark years of the war and the no less terrifying months fol- 
lowing Lee's surrender, often doing the work of man, woman, 
and servants. In January, 1866, she married a much-scarred 
and battered veteran of Gettysburg and many other battle 
fields and military prisons, G. Henry Brown, who survives 
her, as do her sons, John O. Houston and Drs. J. S. and G. 
A. Brown. 

She was justly proud of her family's Confederate history. 
It was an elder sister, Mrs. Caroline Neel, who dared to fol- 
low a company of Federals who had taken the young horse, 
Montezuma, which proudly drew the bridal couple on their 
wedding day. Overtaking them at camp, she boldly loosed 
"Montz," mounted him, and rode off home unmolested by the 
soldiers, lost in admiration of her bravery. A younger 
brother, Capt. W. B. Lowrance, of Columbia, S. C, was 
deputized to escort the first Federal prisoner to Richmond. 
Another brother was killed on the western front and a 
brother-in-law in the east. Her eldest brother, Maj. R. N. 
[Continued on page 38.] 


Qorjfederat^ l/eteran. 

Confeberateb Southern /Iftemorial association 

Mrs. A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

M ks. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sob H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. John E. Maxwell Treasurer General 

Seale, Ala. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson.... Recording Secretary General 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary A. Hall Historian General 

1 137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga. 

Mrs. Bryan W. Collier ..Corresponding Secretary General 

College Park, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning 

Kentucky — Bowling- Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi — Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri — St. Louis Mrs. G. K.Warner 

North Carolina— Raleigh Mrs. Robert H.Jones 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Car}' Beck with 

Tennessee — Memphis Mrs. Charles AY. Frazer 

Virginia — Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 


My Dear Coworkers: A happy New Year with peace, pros- 
perity, and success in all your undertakings. This is my wish 
for you. 

A new year of promise opens up before us, filled with 
opportunities for service. A period of history-making which, 
if we grasp and move with the onward sweep of time, will 
write on the pages of history in ineffaceable characters the 
story of the glory of our matchless heroes. With each suc- 
ceeding Memorial Day a more splendid outpouring of our 
loyalty and devotion to the sacred mounds where sleep the 
valiant sons of the South, until every spot hallowed by the 
dust of our martyred heroes shall bear testimonial to future 
generations of our faithfulness to duty. 

In the performanec of that duty we shall find happiness in 
the consciousness of "carrying on" for our sainted mothers 
who went down into the valley of the shadow and never 
ceased in holding aloft the ideals of patriotic devotion — a de- 
votion unsurpassed in the annals of time. 

And for the small remnant — the Confederate mothers — 
may we cease not in searching for them until the last sur- 
viving Confederate mother shall wear upon her breast the 
little gold bar of honor as a token of the homage we would 
pay to the courage that never faltered, the faith that never 
wavered, and the trust in the infinite wisdom that guides and 
controls the destinies of men. 

Again, all good wishes for a happy new year. 

Cordially yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, 

President General C. S. M. A. 



Another Memorial Association has been added to the list 
in the Confederated Southern Memorial Association in that 
of a flourishing one at Denver, Colo. The organization was 
formed last April with a charter membership of twenty-four, 
and since then the Association has more than doubled its 
membership. Mrs. W. O. Temple is the President, and she 
has an able staff of officers, who are taking great interest in 
the development of the work in Denver. 

Although but a few weeks old at the time Memorial Day 
was observed, May 30, the Denver Memorial Association 
joined in the parade, and committees from the Association 
visited the four cemeteries, carrying tributes of lovely flowers 
in wreaths and clusters, which, with a Confederate and Ameri- 
can flag for each grave, were distributed on the mounds 
where the Southern heroes lie sleeping. 

One of the most important works of this new and en* 
thusiastic organization is the plan to place in one of the beau- 
tiful parks at Denver in the near future a handsome Con- 
federate memorial of some kind. A substantial fund hai 
already been raised and will be added to by means of a seriel 
of benefit entertainments which will be given during the win- 
ter. This Association also keeps in touch with the livinj 
Confederate veterans, serving them as opportunity ma}' allow, 
and special tribute was shown to the memory of a veteran) 
Mr. Headspeth, the father of Mrs. J. H. Beeler, a chartd 
member of the Association, whose death occurred since the- 
organization was formed. Also special tribute was paid t'J 
the wife of Dr. J. M. Norman, head of the Beauregard Camp 
who died recently. Mrs. Ethel McElvaine is Secretary of th* 
Denver Memorial Association and reports that it is ready t>" 
do its work in hearty cooperation with the C. S. M. A., it 

official mother. 

* * * 

Contributions for Bars of Honor. — A number of contrib 
tions have been made for the purchasing of the bars of hon 
for the Confederate mothers. The Athens Association, 
the head of which is Miss Mildred Rutherford, former His 
torian General U. D. C, has contributed five dollars. Tt 
Junior Memorial at Atlanta, with Miss Willie Fort William 
as President, has sent a check for six dollars. The Atlant 
Ladies' Memorial Association, Mrs. William A. Wrigh 
President, has contributed six dollars for the bars of hono 
Miss Sallie Eugenia Brown, daughter of Georgia's War Go' 
ernor, Joseph E. Brown, has sent five dollars for the bar ( 
honor fund, and seventeen dollars was contributed at tJ 
Houston Convention by members of the Association. Tl 
first contribution given was that of ten dollars by Capt. Jam 
Dinkins, of New Orleans. Up to that time the Preside 
General had supplied the money for the purchase of the ba 
of honor. 

* * * 

The Bar of Honor. — Confederate mothers are still beii 
located and applications made for recognition. The folio' 
ing names have been received from Mrs. Frank D. Trac ' 
General Chairman for Confederate Mothers : Mrs. Ann Eliz 
beth Bickley, Talbotton, Ga., aged ninety-four ; Mrs. Eliz 
beth Sands, Chatfield, Tex., aged ninety-five; Mrs. Sar 
Jane Cain, Salisbury, N. C, aged ninety-two. 

It is interesting to note from what widely different parts 
the country these applications have come, and it is a gratifit 
tion to know that the pleasure of receiving their gold bar 
honor comes at this sacred season to cheer them on their w 
down the hill of life. 

Qoijfederat^ Uefcerai). 



Organized in Jcly, 1S96, at Richmond, Va. 

OFFICERS, iqiq-20. 

r nmander in Chief Nathan Bedford Forrest 

ijlutant in Chief Carl Hinton 

Utor, J. R. Price 1206 15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

! Address all communications to this department to the Edi- 



Commander in Chief N. B. Forrest announces the appoint- 
nt of Seymour Stewart, St. Louis, Mo., as Chairman of the 
"visory Committee S. C. V. The selection of Comrade 
vwart for this office is on account of his valuable services 
ithe organization. Other members of the committee will 
appointed later. Those who will be selected to fill the irri- 
tant offices must show pluck, purpose, and the power to 
;anize, declares Commander Forrest. 

Dr. W. E. Quin, Commander Alabama Division, writes that 

: contract for the removal of the first "White House of the 
liifederacy" to its permanent site, where it is to be preserved 
-der State appropriation, has been signed by Governor Kilby 

i filed with the city engineer of Montgomery. As the home 
L Jefferson Davis while he was President of the Confeder- 
;.: States, it is to be preserved as the depository of the Davis 

ics and other historic data of that period. 

I. Gwynn Gough, Adjutant of the Sterling Price Camp, 

C. V., St. Louis, Mo., has been appointed Division Com- 
inder of Missouri. Commander Gough will immediately 

jpoint his staff officers and Brigade Commanders. An in- 
'lsive membership campaign will be instituted by that Di- 
[ * * * 

IMaj. E. W. R. Ewing, of Ballston, Va., and Mr. Westwood 
iiitchinson. of Manassas, Va.. trustees of the Manassas bat- 
field, have secured a two-year option to purchase the 
; operty at $25,000. The enterprise was initiated by Mrs. 
r estwood Hutchinson, President of the Manassas Chapter, 

D. C, for the purpose of converting the Henry farm into 
national memorial park. 

* * * 

Adjutant General A. B. Booth, of the United Confederate 
£terans, has appointed a committee to arrange for the re- 
;3val of the body of Mrs. Sarah Knox Davis, first wife of 
Resident Jefferson Davis, of the Confederate States of 
nerica, from the cemetery at St. Fimncisville, La., to Holly- 
3od Cemetery, Richmond, Va. 

* * * 

A. D. Pope was elected Commander of the Arkansas Di- 

sion, S. C. V., at the annual convention, held at Little Rock 

1 November IS, 1920. He was appointed the following staff 

ficers and Brigade Commanders : 

W. N. Brandon, Adjutant and Chief of Staff, Little Rock. 

L. B. Hogan, Division Inspector, Russellville. 

J. H. Hamilton, Division Quartermaster, Mena. 

R. E. Dickson, Division Judge Advocate, Lewisville. 

Dr. J. H. Benefield, Division Surgeon, Huntington. 

Rev. William B. Hogg, Division Chaplain, Little Rock. 

Benjamin Eddins, Commander First Brigade, Jonesboro. 

W. B. Lawrence, Commander Second Brigade, Batesville. 

F. P. Harris, Commander Third Brigade, Bentonville. 

Dr. J. L. Tatum, Commander Fourth Brigade, Locksburg. 

A. W. Parke, Commander Fifth Brigade, Little Rock. 

E. C. Norton, Commander Sixth Brigade, Star City. 

W. L. Jameson, Commander Seventh Brigade, Magnolia. 

The Brigade Commanders are directed to institute a cam- 
paign to organize new Camps. A copy of the muster roll and 
officers of all Camps should be sent to the Division Com- 

* * * 

The article on "Drinkwater's Lincoln and History" by Mrs. 
F. E. Selph, secretary of the committee appointed by affiliated 
Chapters, U. D. C, of Nashville, Tenn., which appears in the 
December Veteran, page 461, is a splendid exposition of John 
Drinkwater's drama. The calm and impartial reader will, it 
is believed, discover therein the grounds on which the South 
may be vindicated and the final verdict of history determined 
m favor of a gallant but downtrodden and oppressed people. 
Mr. Drinkwater himself may, if he will only read the article, 
find sufficient reason to doubt his own infallibility and to re- 
lent in his bitter persecution of the South. Mrs. Selph for- 
ever establishes the character of the Southern people for 
loyalty and wipes off the charges of treason and rebellion 
from the names and memories of Jefferson Davis, Stonewall 
Jackson, Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, and of all 
who fought or suffered in the great war of coercion. 

* * * 

Requirements for Membership S. C. V., General 
Constitution, Article IV. 

Section 11. All male descendants of those who served in 
the Confederate army or navy to the end of the war or who 
died in prison or while in actual service or who were killed 
in battle or who were honorably retired or discharged shall 
be eligible for membership in the Camps of this Confedera- 
tion, provided no member under sixteen years of age shall 
have the right to vote, provided no member shall be admitted 
under twelve years of age. 

Section 12. Every Camp shall exact satisfactory proof of 
the above from each applicant and secure a certified copy of 
the ancestor's record on a suitable blank in duplicate, one 
copy to be retained by the Camp and the other forwarded to 
general headquarters for preservation. 

Proof of Service. 
The service of the ancestor may be shown in one of the 
following ways : 

( 1 ) Certificate of two surviving comrades. 

(2) Certificate of Secretary of a Camp of the U. C. V. In 
such event it is presumed the ancestor's record has been in- 
vestigated and passed for membership in said Camp. 

(3) Certificate from the United States War Department, 
Washington, D. C, or from the official custodian of the ex- 
tant official record in the State in which enlisted or served. 

(4) Citation, as indicated, of some published original ros- 
ters or other authentic work with evidence of identity. 

(5) By attaching original or certified copy of some docu- 
ment in the possession of the family from which service ap- 

(6) Affidavit of two reliable persons certifying to the fact 
and particulars of service. 

Direction to Applicant. 
The data called for in the blanks must be prepared with 
extreme care. Effort should be made to obtain as much de- 
tail as possible concerning the ancestor's service. If there is 
not sufficient space in the blank, attach additional sheets of 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

same size. Blanks should be filled in with typewriter or very 
legibly written with ink. All certificates or other evidences 
are to be procured or supplied by the applicant. 
* * * 
In addition to the amount previously announced as a con- 
tribution toward a fund to be used to enlarge the work of 
the organization for the current year, Seymour Stewart, 
Chairman of the Advisory Committee, and the Sterling Price 
Camp, St. Louis, Mo., have given $100 each. 



Favorable comment has been made by some of the leading 
newspapers of the country on the new book which adds some 
more chapters to the story of the courage of Southern women 
in days of war. The Baltimore Sun refers to it as "a val- 
uable contribution to history and literature," and says further : 
"It is a book edited and written without rancor, and one of 
the strongest impressions made upon the reader is that it 
reveals the inmost thoughts of a Chrsitian people bearing the 
burdens and sufferings resultant upon a state of war. It is 
a book that will be read with keenest interest both North 
and South." 

The Boston Transcript says: "It is well to look back upon 
the war days from the standpoint of the South, and, so look- 
ing, we may see some features once hidden from our gaze 
and may understand more fully the position of those whom 
we once regarded as devoid of all honesty and faith. Hence 
it is well to read these reminiscences written by women of 
the South, in whose minds the days of the early sixties are 
yet vivid recollections. We have begun to appreciate the 
thought that the question of slavery had in it quite as much 
of the economic as of 'the moral, and there are many in the 
North to-day who cannot avoid the feeling that that great 
question might have been solved without bloodshed." 

In a short review of the book Dr. J. H. McNeilly says : 
"It is the story of numberless heroisms in the face of con- 
stantly increasing difficulties and dangers. We are all proud 
of the Red Cross and its glorious work in the recent great 
World War; but those Southern women of the Confederacy, 
without general organization, in cities and villages, in lonely 
homes, denying themselves of all comforts, were busy day 
and night ministering to sick and wounded, comforting the 
bereaved and sorrowing, burying the dead, and all the while 
thrilling our soldiers with the inspiration of their courage 
and hope." 

Chapters U. D. C. are vying with one another in placing 
copies of this book. The Laetitia Ashmore Nutt Chapter, at 
Fort Myers, Fla., has done particularly well. Mrs. William 
F. Gwynne is Historian of this Chapter, but gives credit for 
what it has done to Mrs. B. J. Bond, State Distributor for 
Florida. The Amelia Chapter, at Chester, Va., also deserves 
special mention for its work through Mrs. R. H. Bruce, His- 

The following State copies have been delivered : Virginia, 
Tennessee, New York, Alabama, South Carolina, Kentucky. 
Massachusetts, Texas, Washington, Illinois, Georgia, Ohio. 
West Virginia, Mississippi. The managing editor asks that 
those who were to receive copies for the other States will 
please send him their names and addresses for proper de- 
livery. These State copies are sold at $5, the extra money to 
be used for purposes of publicity for the volume itself. 


(Continued from page 35.) 
Lowrance, deceased, and her youngest brother S. A. Low- 
rance, of Clearwater, Fla., were also gallant Confederates. 

Though her love for the Southern cause was deep and 
tender, her greatest love, barring that for her Master and 
her family, was shown for Back Creek Church, where she 
was born and reared, where for seventy years she was an 
active worker and Sunday school teacher, where she was 
most affectionately loved, as attested by the great concourse 
at her funeral, and where her body now rests in peace. A 
mother in Israel, a good Samaritan, one who forgot self in 
her zeal to be of service to her fellow man, one altogether 
lovely has gone to her rich reward. 



The mention of the Hatcher River in the November Vet- 
eran by G. M. Douglas reminded me of an occurrence at that 
place on the same day that child was found. I was adjutant 
of Stirman's Regiment of Phifer's Brigade, Maury's Di- 
vision, Price's command. I was in the rear of the column 
when we reached the bridge and our command crossed it. 

I was under the impression that our command was the first 
to cross, but after moving a short distance I heard firing 
some distance ahead and saw a rider coming toward us very 
fast, and I stopped on the roadside that I might find out what 
was going on ahead. As the rider approached quite near a 
very large man carrying a flag started across the road, and, 
as it often occurred, the flag bearer and the rider commenced 
maneuvering to avoid a collision, but they came together. 

The horse knocked the color bearer a considerable distance, 
turned a somersault, throwing his rider over his head. The 
rider jumped up, with his long red whiskers full of dust, and 
said, "I tried to avoid it," then started after his horse. The 
color bearer, lying down, cried out, "O Lord!" and just then 
a basketful of canister shot was scattered along the road 
pretty close to the actors in this scene. I don't know what 
became of the rider and horse, but I do know the color bearer 
ceased his moaning and struck for tall timber. 

The scene was so ludicrous that I could not help laughing. 
But for the fall of canister I have no doubt the color bearer 
would have been carried from the scene on a stretcher. This 
shows the effect of circumstances in an emergency. 

About four weeks after this I was in Jackson, Miss., dis- 
cussing occurrences under certain circumstances with a lot of 
soldiers, and I told of this amusing incident, when a tall, 
handsome, red-whiskered gentleman said : "I can vouch for 
that, for I am the man who was on the horse." His name 
was McFarland. of Texas. I hope he still lives. Mr. Doug- 
las said he did not know why we were thrown across the 
bridge. Neither do I, but I presume it was for the purpose of 
keeping the enemy back until our army could cross and con- 
tinue the march to our line. 

A Confederate Sword. — A. H, Starke, of Chicago, 111. 
(6236 Greenwood Avenue), has in his possession a sword 
which he thinks should be returned to the original owner or 
his heirs. There is an inscription on the blade, not very clear, 
which he has deciphered as "Capt. Charles H. Granger, 32d 
Ala. Regt., C. S. A." He is not certain of the name, but it j 
begins with "G" and ends "er." He will appreciate hearing 
from any one who can aid him in locating the owner. 

Qoi} federate Ueterai) 


Into the midst of the music, 

The joy, and the fullness of life 
There swept a strange clangor ; then silence, 

A stillness more startling than strife. 
We heard not the sound of the trumpets ; 

The bugles died out on the blast. 
Could we march in that desolate waiting 

For the thrill of a song that was past? 

Could we work while our comrades no longer 

Breathed courage and hope in the ear? 
Could we triumph when sorrow and sighing 

Had palsied our hearts, until fear 
Swept over our souls like the shadow 

Of some brooding evil to come.'' 
Alas ! we were stricken ; the music 

That had given us courage was dumb. 

Then down from the beautiful heaven 

A wore} came, the word of the Lord ; 
And it struck on our languor and trouble 

A dominant, silvery chord. 
"Stay not for the music," it bade us ; 

"The music has only gone on. 
You will hear it again in the glory 

That waits when the day's work is done." 

So now, though but faintly and seldom 
We hear the sweet bugle call blow, 

We march in the path of our Leader, 
Marked out in the conflict of woe. 

Some day we will hear the grand choral, 
Some day we will stand on the shore 

Where the comrades already are waiting — 
The music has gone on before. 


Col. John C. Stiles, of Brunswick, Ga., writes that the fol- 
lowing Mississippi troops took part in the War between the 
States, and if any survivors are left of these organizations 
he asks that they give through the Veteran the reason for 
such designations : 

Abe's Rejectors, Blackland Giddeonites, Brown Rebels, 
Buena Vista Hornets, Chunkey Heroes, Cold Water Rebels, 
De Soto Brothers, Dixie Heroes, Ellisville Invincibles, Fish- 
ing Creek Avengers, Hancock Rebels, Impressibles, Jasper 
Avengers, Kemper Rebels, Lafayette Rebels, Marion Men, 
Mississippi Rip Raps, Mrs. Body Guard, Oktibbeha Plow 
Boys, Plentitude Invincibles, Rankin Rough and Readys, Red 
Invincibles, Rockport Steel Blades, Secessionists, Sons of the 
South, Southern Sentinels, Sunflower Dispensers, True Con- 
federates, White Rebels, Yankee Hunters, Attala Yellow 
Jackets, Buckner Boys, Buckner Rebels, Center Marksmen, 
Coahoma Invincibles, Copiah Rebels, Dixie Boys, Edwards 
Tigers, Enterprise Tigers, Gaines's Warriors, Helen John- 
ston Guards, Johnston Avengers, Kossuth Hunters, Loula 
White Rebels, Meridian Invincibles, Mississippi Yankee Hunt- 
ers, Newton Hornets, Panola Patriots, Prairie Guards, Ray- 
mond Invincibles, Red Rovers, Scotland Guards, Sons of 
Liberty, Southern Farmers, Spartan Band, Tippah Tigers, 
Tullahoma Hardshells, Union Stars, Yankee Terrors. 

Mrs. D. P. Craddock, 408 Grand Ave- 
iue, Eldorado, 111., wishes to hear from 
ome comrades of William C. Craddock, 
vho served a year in Company F, 7th 
cegiment of Tennessee Volunteers. 
?heir testimony is needed to establish 

is record, and she needs a pension. 

J. N. Anthony writes from Kansas 
'ity, Mo., in behalf of the widow of 
'ranklin M, Tulley, a Missourian, seek- 
ag to ascertain his record as a Con- 
ederate soldier. She is in great need 
nd can get a pension by knowing his 
Dmpany and regiment. Any surviving 
omrades will please write to Mr. An- 
iony at 3243 Thompson Street. 

The sketch of Dr. M. D. Sterrett in 
le Veteran for November, referring 
i his membership in the Phi Gamma 
elta Fraternity, brings inquiry from 
unes A. Farrell, Field Secretary of 
lat fraternity, as to other veterans of 
e Confederacy who may have been 
embers of it in their college days. 
• e will be pleased to hear from such 
:terans or members of the families of 
ose not surviving. Address him at 
j Broadway, New York City. 

Make yourself a present of the sav- 
ings habit. You can get the habit by 
buying Treasury Savings Stamps every 
pay day. Government savings securities 
will be on sale throughout 1921. 

Mrs. R. A. Williams, of Batesville, 
Ark., would appreciate hearing from 
any comrades of her husband, Robert 
Andrew Williams, who served in Com- 
pany B, of Wirt Adams's Tennessee 
regiment. His right leg was amputated 
at Clinton, Miss. She needs a record 
of his service in order to get into the 
Confederate Home of Arkansas. 

Mrs. Claudia F. Smith, 25 Rhode Is- 
land Avenue Northwest, Washington, 
D. C, wishes to establish the record of 
her husband, James Allen Smith, of 
Georgia, who was wounded in the fight- 
ing around Atlanta, and was in the hos- 
pital for awhile before being captured 
later and sent to Fort Delaware. Any 
surviving comrades will kindly write 
her as to his company and regiment. 
He served under Johnston and Hood, 
and she thinks his enlistment was from 
Quitman County, Ga., formerly a part 
of Randolph County. •- , 

Surviving comrades of John Albert 
Parrish, who joined Britton's company 
of the 10th Tennessee, Starnes's old 
regiment, in October, 1863, will please 
give their testimony as to his service so 
that he may get a pension, of which he 
is in great need. Write to Mrs. N. W. 
Jones, Box 647, Brady, Tex. 

John Watson writes from Princeton, 
N. J. : "No magazine is more welcome 
in our house than the Veteran, Al- 
though I date much later than the war, 
I like to read it ; and since my children 
are growing up remote from the South 
and its sentiment and traditions, I think 
it only fair to them to give them oppor- 
tunity to read the Veteran regularly." 

J. B. Webster, Box 113, Marlin, 
Wash., would like to hear from any 
surviving comrades of his brother, J. 
M. Webster, who was a member of 
Company H, Caldwell's Regiment, Par- 
son's Brigade, Missouri Volunteers, 
and took part in the battles of Oak 
Hills, Elkhorn, Prairie Grove, and was 
then transferred across the Mississippi 
and participated in the battle of Corinth, 
siege"of ■Vicksburg, etc. 

40 Qoi?federat^ l/eterap. 


to Become Partners of General Lee 


The United Confederate Veterans, by unanimous action of the Atlanta and Houston 
Conventions, with the help„of the Sons and Daughters of the Confederacy, are raising a 



his fund is to endow his School of Civil and Highway Engineering and his School of 
uurnalism and to house them in a noble memorial building, which shall be a hall of fame 
to commemorate General Lee and the donors who thus become for all time his partners. 
Also to furnish his mausoleum with a suitable custodian, enlarge his chapel, and enable 
his university to carry on his life work and teach to future generations the principles and 
id*als that were exemplified in his matchless character. 

As one part of its work the Veterans' Committee wishes to find one hundred veterans or 
other loyal admirers who will remember General Lee in their wills. WILL YOU BE ONE 


Pc.naps you have watched with adoring pride your great general amid the smoke and 
UiurJer of the battle field, have shared with him the glory of victory, and borne with him 
the heavy burden of defeat. As you recall his splendid leadership, his devotion to his 
battle comrades, the matchless majesty of his character, your heart thrills with love and 
pride and gratitude. 

Do you not wish, before you join him on the other side, to show your love, to honor his 
memory, and to help carry on his great life work? His institution is not only the inheritor 
of his name and the guardian of his tomb, but is his living representative, training the sons 
of his comrades in the ideals and traditions that constitute the greatness of the Old South. 

We wish to place on bronze tablets in the Lee Memorial Building the names of one hun- 
dred of his friends who have become for all time his working partners by remembering 
him in their wills. Surely you cannot find anywhere a nobler partner in honor or in service. 
Will you join him for all time in this lofty service? Then add these few lines to your will: 

"As a codicil to the above last will and testament, that I may honor General Lee's mem- 
ory and carry on his life work, I give and bequeath to Washington and Lee University the 
sum f "dollars, as part of the LEE MEMORIAL FUND." 

Then write the following note : 

Secretary Lee Memorial Fund, Lexington, Va. 

My Dear Sir: I hereby notify you to enter my name as one of the hundred 
veterans who have remembered General Lee in their wills. 


(Mailing address) 

Make the amount great or small, as your heart may prompt or your means decide. The 
amount is not so important. It is the fact of partnership that counts. 

Or, if you prefer, write the Secretary for further information about the movement be- 
fore making up your mind. 

Veterans' National Committee: 

Capt. John Lamb, Virginia. Gen. William A. Clark, South Carolina. 

Gen. W. B. Freeman, Virginia. Gen. K. M. Van Zandt, Texas. 

Col. John Q. Dickinson, West Virginia. Judge George B. Hillyer, Georgia. 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, North Carolina. 

Acting Secretary : Henry Louis Smith, Lexington, Va. 

Confederate l/eterap. 



ntered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn, 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

.cceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 
;tionii03, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191b. 
ublished by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash 
ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 

Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

kice, Jl.50 per Year, 
ingle Copy", 15 Cents. 


No. 2. 



A handsome bronze tablet, set in a huge granite bowlder, 
ow marks the place of one of the most heroic engagements 
f the War between the States, that of the defense of the 
ridge near Stephenson's Depot, Va., June 15, 1863, by Col. 
lichard Snowden Andrews with two guns from his battalion, 
'his memorial tablet is the tribute of Mrs. Caroline Snowden 
'.'ahnestock, of Washington, D. C, and Charles Lee Andrews, 
If New York City, daughter and son of Colonel Andrews, 
3 the memory of their father and the brave men who fought 
nder him. It is located on a part of the old Stephenson 
omestead and near the Martinsburg Pike and was unveiled 
n December 4, 1920, with appropriate exercises. Among 
hose in attendance were J. W. Owens, of Annapolis, and 
I. T. Richardson, of Baltimore, who are now the only sur- 
ivors of that heroic band. 

The defense of this bridge by Colonel Andrews with two 
;uns virtually stopped Milroy's army on its course to Har- 
per's Ferry. Four unsuccesful attempts were made to carry 
t, but at great loss to the defenders. General Lee said that 
he heroic sacrifice of those brave men there made it a second 

It was on the 15th of June, 1863, that Colonel Andrews was 
ordered to make a detour to the east of Winchester to occupy 
he Martinsburg road and intercept Milroy in his retreat. 
Colonel Andrews stationed the two guns of Dement's Battery 
it a bridge over the railroad cut near Stephenson's Depot 
inder command of Lieut. C. S. Contee, with orders to hold 
:he bridge as long as there was a man left. He then rode 
Dff to another part of the field, but returned in a short time 
sadly wounded in the arm. Lieutenant Contee, though shot 
ihrough both legs, raised himself and said : "Colonel, I have 
j sergeant and two men, and the enemy is retreating." Every 
nan but three was killed or wounded, but they had practically 
stopped an army. The gallantry of the lieutenant and men 
was so conspicuous that they were reported by name to Gen- 
eral Lee. After thirteen of the fifteen cannoneers were either 
■killed or disabled and both Colonel Andrews and Lieutenant 
'Contee wounded, Lieut. John A. Morgan, of the 1st North 
( Carolina, and Randolph H. McKim (for many years rector 

of the Epiphany Protestant Episcopal Church of Washing- 
ton, who died in 1920) took their places. 

The names of the men who participated in this fight are 
engraved on the tablet, as follows : Lieut. C. S. Contee, Lieut. 
John A. Morgan, Lieut. R. H. McKim, Sergt. John Harris, 
Corp. William P. Compton, Corp. Samuel Thompson, Robert 
Chew, William Koester, Charles Pease, A. J. Albert, Jr.. 
William T. Wotten, James Yates, J. H. J. Langsdale, J. R. 
Buchanan, B. W. Owens, Sergt. John Glasscoke, Corp. W. 
H. May, Corp. Charles Harris, Thomas Moore, William 
Gorman, F. Frayer, William Wilson, Samuel Thomas, R. T. 
Richardson, William Sherburne, James Owens, William Dal- 
ian, and Joseph Mockabee. 

At the dedication of this memorial an address was made 
by J. W. Owens, one of the two survivors, who gave a 
thrilling description of the engagement in the following: 

"It is early dawn. Off in front you hear the crack of 
musketry of the opposing force driving in our pickets. In 
this road to the rear you see a battalion of artillery standing 
at rest. The men, wearied by an all-night march, are lean- 
ing against the fences, sleeping in their tracks. You hear the 
voice of Colonel Andrews ring out: 'Attention, battalion! 
Drivers, mount ! Cannoneers, to your post ! Trot out ! 
March!' And you see that battalion, Andrews in the lead, 
come thundering up the road to this bridge and hear the or- 
der : 'In battery, action, front!' The drivers swing to the 
left and the cannoneers unlimber the Nos. 1 and 2 guns and 
place one on the bridge, the other a short distance to the left. 
Our pickets have been driven in, and you see there in our front 
a long blue line advancing, and then you hear the order: 
'Load and fire at will ! Commence firing !' The guns thun- 
der and the leaden hail mows down the ranks of the ad- 
vancing foe. They press on, they waver, they fall back, but, 
rallied by their officers, they advance again, again are met 
with iron and leaden hail ; again they fall back, again advance, 
and thus they charge us four times, only to be driven back 
again and again. At the last charge they are within sixty 
yards of us. Our canister is exhausted, and our case shots 
are cut to explode at a quarter of a second, and swathes are 
mowed in their ranks like grain before a reaper. 

"But I have been wounded, and I call to Corporal May to 
put another man in my place at the gun and to get off the 


^oi)federat^ l/efcerai). 

field. Fearing to be shot in the back, I ran from tree to tree 
and reached the road in the rear just as the old Stonewall 
Brigade came up in 'quick time,' and I called to General 
Walker to get his men to the front in double quick ; that the 
Yanks were presing our left and would take our guns. My 
appeal was silently ignored. General Walker saw that I was 
wounded and naturally thought me demoralized ; but vindica- 
tion came on the moment when one of General Johnson's 
aids came dashing down the road and made my request an 
order. And your ears are thrilled now when you hear the 
old brigade give its Rebel yell. They turn the Federal right 
flank, and the battle is fought and won. Colonel Andrews, 
in giving some final orders while mounted on his horse, is 
shot by a sharpshooter from our right. 

"Gen. Edward Johnson was apparently a man without emo- 
tion, but he came to the house back of our line, where our 
wounded had been taken, and the tears glistened in his eyes, 
and his voice was full of emotion as he said: 'Men of the 
1st Maryland, you have been fighting like men of your own 
State and have captured a stand of Maryland colors. They 
rightfully belong to you, and you shall have them.' 

"But %ve are here to speak of Andrews and the 1st Mary- 
land Battery. Colonel Andrews was one of the first Mary- 
landers to espouse the cause of the South. The battery was 
mustered in on the 13th of July, 1861, eight days before the 
battle of Bull Run. He drew the plans for the guns, which 
were cast by the Tredegar Iron Works, of Richmond. The 
battery did picket duty on the Potomac during the winter of 
1861-62 and did great damage to Federal boats and trans- 
ports. In the spring of 1862 it went with the army to Wil- 
liamsburg. Mechanicsville was the first battle of the seven 
days' fighting before Richmond, and old No. 1 gun fired the 
signal for the attack. Captain Andrews was slightly wounded 
there, but on the 9th of August he was at Cedar Mountain, 
and there received a wound from which his recovery was a 
triumph of mind over matter. Promoted to major, in the 
spring of 1863 he took command of the battalion, held Sedg- 
wick in check at second Fredericksburg (a part of the Chan- 
cellorsville fight), and on June 15, 1863, Lieutenant Colonel 
Andrews was again wounded on this battle field. On the 
6th of June he was again in command of the battalion at 
Hagerstown. His last active service was at Payne's Farm, 
November 27, 1863, and Mine Run, December 1. and then he 
was detailed for special duty in Europe. 

"Snowden Andrews belonged to a galaxy of as chivalrous 
men as the world has ever produced, Maryland men. * * * 
Maryland had 22,000 men in the Confederate army. They 
came from the marts of trade, from colleges, the farms and 
the mills, the forge and the work bench. They were volun- 
teers ! 

"And now a thought of sadness comes. On that tablet are 
the names of only two who have not gone over the river to 
rest under the shade of the trees, and of all the splendid man- 
hood of the 1st Maryland Battery only five survive." 

Colonel Andrews came of a military family, and he was a 
firm believer in military preparedness. He was born in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on October 29, 1830, the son of Timothy Patrick 
Andrews and Emily Roseville Snowden. Going to Baltimore 
in 1849, he established himself as an architect and had a part 
in making plans for the Governor's mansion at Annapolis 
and many other important buildings of the time. Some time 
before the war came on he learned all he could about artil- 
lery, and when the war clouds finally lowered he copied the 
plans of the Federal guns at Baltimore, which had been pat- 

terned by those used by Napoleon, and went to Richmond, 
where he designed the guns and had them cast by the Trede- 
gar Iron Works. These were the first cannon made for the 

While the guns were being cast and mounted he organized 
the 1st Maryland Light Artillery in Richmond, and this was 
afterwards known as Andrews's Battery. This he took into 
the service as its captain, and in its every engagement it 
gave a splendid account of itself. 

Captain Andrews was promoted to major in June, 1862, 
for his courageous bearing in the fighting around Richmond. 
When in August of that year Brig. Gen. Charles S. Winder 
was mortally wounded, Major Andrews was near and caught 
him as he fell, the General dying in his arms. 

Major Andrews was severely wounded during the battle 
of Cedar Mountain, but recovered and again was in the field. 
In March, 1863, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. Late 
in that year he was again so severely wounded that he was 
unfit for further active service, and on the recommendation 
of General Lee he and Col. Thomas S. Rhett were sent to 
England, France, and Germany to inspect and purchase guns 
for the Confedrate army. 

Colonel Andrews died in Baltimore in 1903. His grand- 
sons served with great credit in the army and navy during the 
World War. 


At the business meeting held by Camp No. 435, U. C. V., 
of Augusta, Ga., on January 19, immediately following the 
exercises in commemoration of the one hundred and thirteenth 
anniversary of General Lee, the Camp voted to appropriate 
one hundred dollars toward the Lee Memorial Fund of Wash- 
ington and Lee University at Lexington, Va., and thus be- 
come partners with General Lee in furthering his plans for a 
great educational institution that would be a perpetual benefit 
to the South and her people. 

This splendid action of the Camp was reported to the 
Veteran by Hon. John M. Clark, a prominent Confederate 
ef Augusta, and it is here placed on record as an example 
worthy to be followed by other Camps of the United Confed- 
erate Veterans, as well as by individuals all over the South. 
What greater memorial could be established than one which 
would carry on the plans of the immortal Lee, who refused 
all financial advantage for himself that he might devote the 
remainder of his life to training the young men of the South 
to become leaders in their respective positions in life? This 
memorial not only perpetuates the name and fame of the 
peerless Lee, but it will be of practical benefit to generations 
of Southern and American youth for countless ages. It is a 
memorial to the past, the present, and the future. 


The death of Maj. George W. Littlefield, of" Austin, Tex., 
removes one of the most prominent of Confederate veterans, 
a leading citizen of his State, known for his wide philan- 
thropy and especially for his liberal contributions to the 
cause of education and in the interest of Southern history. 
His active service for the Confederacy was with Terry's 
Texas Rangers, and he had been made life commander of the 
Survivors' Association. A sketch of this comrade will appear 
in the Veteran later. 

Qopfederat^ Uefcerai). 




Since Sumter's sudden gun 

Oped Janus's doors and peace affrighted fled, 

Now to its noon a century has run, 

And o'er the mellowing ramparts of old strife 

Tangle of wild woodvines 

And tiny sword blades of Virginian pines 

Have fifty years of soft oblivion spread. 

Long spent the pride, the mutual hate is dead 

That flung th' embattled lines 

And struck two-handed at the common life ; 

And with them vanished clean 

The clouds that long-time brethren rolled between. 

And now in clear skies, like some mountain head 

With morning blazoned, 

One great name grows and grows 

And greatlier shows 

Its lonely grandeur and unsullied snows 

As we remotelier tread. 

Not all mine own my singing 

Of one no praise made nor dispraise can mar; 

These broken notes late springing 

Echo a voice afar — 

When God says, "Good," on his own work again, 

Behooves men add, "Amen !" 

In Lee long gentlehood 

That sometime stood 

In ancient English park and pleasance, flowered ; 

To manly rectitude 

Birth had devoted him, as instinct dowered; 

High on time's sky line nature's hand had ranged him, 

Heroic outlines to disclose to men. 

And Fortune's smile or frown could naught have changed him 

Who grandly chose, nor once looked back again — 

Chose, at stark cost 

Of well-won honors by that choosing lost, 

And doorways barred on dazzling paths to fame — 

Chose, where before him States and statesmen faltered 

And had to-morrow altered 

To-day's best judgment and with no man's blame — 

Chose, not in blindness 

To ills all eyes could see, 

Nor yet in pique nor anger nor unkindness, 

But in sad verity 

As that voice in him bade that bears God's name. 

Would ye, O men who fought him, 

Would ye he had not stood 

For that his own heart taught him 

With such high hardihood? 

What more, what other, could a man white-minded 

Than heed the one voice 'twixt us and the clod 

And in a mad world by mad passions blinded 

Keep faith with his own soul and faith with God? 

What more, what else, could you 

Who wore the blue? 

We thought the palm was won 
And our race finished ere 'twas well begun 
In Washington ; 

And, having him, with quiet heart we labored, 
Rough-hewing in our forests vast the State, 
Not ill content to wait 

Till the world matched him and our chief, was neighbored 

By one whom nations over sea called great ; 

They have not found him this long century; 

And now come we, since nowhere else is mate, 

Our chief unfellowed fellowing with Lee. 

Fellowing? What more who knows? 

The other name full-orbed shines, a moon 

Already at its noon, 

The younger, parting 

Long clouds that hid, but could not quench it, darting 

Day, like the day star grows. 

Immortal pair ! The rivers of the world 

Run envying. Tiber and Thames and Nile 

And lisping streams that lapse to seas impearled 

With storied cliffs and many a haunted isle, 

Minstrels and troubadours of old have been 

Of man's fast-passing glory, 

And all themselves have seen. 

What tales could Pishon and Euphrates tell 

Of Babylonian days 

Or dim beginnings of our Eden story, 

And what strange, sad, far-reaching things befell 

Ere they and Gihon and young Hiddekel 

Went out of Paradise their parted ways ! 

Yet unto none of them 

Potomac yields, though youngest of them all, 

But, moving one of them, 

Swings round the world in mood majestical 

Alike in tropic breezes 

Or where the moon-faced Aleut's breathing freezes 

In frosty fringes round his sealskin hood, 

Singing, while winds blow and white waters run: 

"A double argosy rides on my flood ; 

I lave Mount Vernon's wood, 

I linger past white-pillared Arlington." 

Ye men of swords, 

Captain and Paladin and bygone King, 

Whose names gray cities wear and sages sing. 

Under the darkening arches of the past 

Taking j-our rest, sleep 3'e henceforth untroubled ; 

The test your fame affords, 

When some new warrior by your deeds is classed — 

Till now to find his prowess in you doubled — 

The world outgrows at last ; 

Not now young Alexander 

Nor the slim Corsican with his lank curls 

Lights men to daring, but this gray Commander, 

Who, flouting every rule 

But that of genius, cabined in no school, 

Parting his line, in stern effrontery hurls 

Jackson and bellowing panic on his foes. 

Not now do Zama's sands nor Moscow's snows 

New captains lesson in reverse, distress. 

But that calm power the great Virginian shows. 

The fertile, swift, invulnerable skill, 

And dauntless will 

With which to his foredoomed end he goes 

Through the dread thickets of the Wilderness, 

The rags, wounds, famine, ruin of the close — 

Close of the strife, but springing of his fame. 

And this one name 

Still grows and grows 

Till manhood's sun and war's epitome 

Blaze through the Iliad in that one word — Lee ! 

4 6 

Qopfederat^ 1/eterap. 



Charleston is a unique American city, cosmopolitan in its 
architecture, its fragrant gardens, and even in its names. 

Calhoun carries one back to Clan Colquhoun of Dumbar- 
ton, Chisholm also suggests the heather, Huger is Huguenot, 
and so one might go through the list, while the city itself 
seems, like Venice, to rise out of the sea. 

Your true Charlestonian is not flattered by the suggestion 
that his ancestors came from James River. This coveted dis- 
tinction leaves him cold and confirms the impression that 
Charleston is a place which indulges in some local pride. It 
is a center in which music and literature have flourished con- 
tinuously as in no other Southern city. Three Charlestonians, 
born and bred, poets of ability, who were friends and con- 
temporaries, have shed peculiar luster upon its annals — Wil- 
liam Gilmore Simms, Henry Timrod, and Paul Hamilton 
Hayne. Their lives were in decided contrast, save that all 
three were fortunate in finding loving helpmeets and were 
equally overwhelmed in the destruction which befell their 
country. Simms was the dean of the little coterie in years 
and in the extent of his literary fertility. Born in 1806. dying 
in 1873, his life extended over a varied vista. In his novels 
are reflected much of the pioneer history of his section and 
in his poems its supreme tragedy. Edgar Allan Poe. who 
was a discriminating critic, pronounced him the best artist 
America has produced since Cooper. Indeed, "The Yemassee" 
ranks with 'The Last of the Mohicans." Fashions change, 
and few read the novels of Simms now ; probably he is rarely 
thought of as a prose writer. One biographer declares that 
he wrote much verse and a few poems. Surely "The Last 
Pleiad," "The Burden of the Desert," and "The Song of 
the Zephyr" are in the latter class. Those who are sufficient- 
ly intrigued by the life of Simms to pursue it beyond the 
bounds of a few concise sketches will find Prof. William P. 
Trent's biography illuminating. Professor Trent is accused 
of being strictly accurate, and in consequence the ardor of the 
special pleader eludes him. Very few persons (especially 
poets) look their best in a baldly veracious record. A little 
idealizing, a sympathetic interpretation of mistakes, a pro- 
found realization that to understand all is to pardon all 
creates a desirable background. The commentary of Simms 
upon himself was : "Here lies one who, after a reasonably long 
life, distinguished chiefly by incessant labor, left all his bet- 
ter works undone." Hayne said of him : "The man is greater 
than his works." One of his best deeds was the publication 
in 1866 of "The War Poetry of the South." There one finds 
the ballads which sprang from the heart of a people fired 
with patriotic zeal in the defense of principles for which 
they staked their lives. There, too, are the pathetic prophecies 
which seemed to fail at Appomattox, but which in a broader 
sense may achieve fulfillment, and there too are the dirges for 
the unreturning brave. The book has long been out of print. 
It can never be duplicated, and those who possess a copy 
should treasure it. 

Henry Timrod was born in 1829 and died in 1867. He is 
pronounced by Hamilton W. Mabie one of the truest lyric 
poets that have yet appeared in this country. Certainly 
"Ethnogenesis" is an example of lofty and sustained poetic 
conception not easily paralleled in any language, "The Cot- 
ton Boll" is a gem, and "Carolina" and "Charleston" are vivid 
in their intensity. Timrod and Hayne were at school together, 
and the friendship then begun continued with deepening ten- 
derness, entwining their lives inseparably. The Southern 

Literary Messenger, of Richmond, and Russell's Magazine. 
which had a brief career, and a few leading newspapers were 
the only Southern markets for literature. When they ceased 
the Carolina poets were dependent upon the Atlantic Monthly 
and other Northern publications for the sale of their literary 
wares. To Timrod the war was the ultimate calamity. It 
annihilated even the opportunity to support his family. Who 
in that stricken land would buy poetry when it was a prob- 
lem to secure necessities? The Atlantic was not y-et in a 
mood to accept contributions from Southern writers, so the 
inexorable law of supply and demand laid an embargo on the 
Muses. "Poor Timrod is swallowed up in disaster," writes 
Simms to Hayne. The poor shanty occupied by Hayne in the 
Georgia pines was a refuge for a few happy weeks before the 
end. Just a little while before he entered the eternal silence 
Timrod repeated a few lines from his poem "A Common 
Thought" : 

"Somewhere on this earthly planet. 
In the dust of flowers to be, 
In the dewdrop, in the sunshine, 
Sleeps a solemn day for me. 
In a dim and murky chamber 
I am breathing life away; 
Some one draws a curtain softly. 
And I watch the broadening day." 

The ode to the Confederate dead, "Sleep Sweetly in Your 
Humble Graves," is a faultless poem, a fitting epitaph for Tim- 
rod himself. 

Paul Hamilton Hayne, "the king poet of the Old South," 
was the survivor among the three friends, and it was his 
pious care to cherish their memory, and especially to guard 
the fame of Timrod. Unlike Simms, he sprang from the 
Charleston aristocracy, and its inmost citadel was open to 
him. Unlike Timrod, he inherited sufficient means to make 
literature the pursuit of his leisure and not his support. The 
war changed all that. It left his beautiful home and fine 
library in ashes and swept away every vestige of his fortune. 
Rather than endure the continued reminder of "the things 
that are no more," he exiled himself to a small, wind-swept 
hillside not far from Augusta, Ga., which he called "Copse 
Hill." There he and his wife and a son, who inherited some 
of the father's talents, lived in the cabin which he referred 
to as the shanty. He had made his choice expressed in the 
lines : 

"Yet would I rather in the outward state 
Of song's immortal temple lay me down 
A beggar basking by that radiant gate 

Than bend beneath the haughtiest empire's crown !" 

There was nothing to soothe the howling of the figurative 
wolf but the mellow cadence of his verse, and if the means 
of subsistence were not absolutely precarious, it was chiefly 
because Copse Hill was a place of high thinking and very 
plain living. To this small house of a great poet came many 
letters closely linking him with the choice ministrants of that 
altar of poetry to which he had consecrated his life. The 
spirit of reconciliation, the dominant note of his later years, 
breathed in the pure loveliness of his sonnet to Longfellow 
and his tribute to Whittier. Two of his latest poems were 
exquisite, "A Little While I Fain Would Linger," with its 
reluctance to depart upon the unknown, and the triumphant 
valedictory, "In Harbor" — 

Qogfederat^ Ueterai). 


"There's but a faint sobbing seaward. 
While the calm of the tide deepens leeward— 
Those lights in the harbor at last, 
The heavenly harbor at last I" 

Paul Hamilton Hayne was a master of words in prose no 
less than in poetry, as shown in his "Life of Robert Y. 
Hayne" and many sketches. He was born in 1830, died July 
6, 1886, and was buried in Augusta. That his heart still 
turned to Charleston as his mother land is shown in this elo- 
quent apostrophe: "O Queen, O Madre Imperiale, when the 
sunset has faded and the twilight gone and the night de- 
' scended, wilt thou not call the wearied exile home? He 
would fain sleep within the sound of thy waters, under the 
shadow of thy immemorial oaks, near the sacred dust of his 

fathers." ' 


(From the Methodist Review, 1867.) 
No sooner had the Southern Confederacy fallen than the 
following noble strain of indignant eloquence burst in tones 
of thunder from the press of the London Evening Herald: 

"The South is doomed. With the surrender of General 
Lee ends not indeed the possibility of military defense, still 
less that of desperate popular resistance, but the hope of final 
success. After four years of war, sustained with a gallantry 
• and resolution that have few, if any, precedents in history; 
. after such sacrifices as perhaps no nation ever made in vain ; 
after losses that have drained the lifeblood of the country; 
alter a series of brilliant victories, gained under unequaled 
. disadvantages, courage and skill and devotion have succumbed 
! to brute force: and by sheer power of numbers a race, m- 
. ferior in every quality of soldiership and manhood, has pre- 
vailed over the bravest and most united people that ever drew 
the sword in defense of civil rights and national independ- 
ence. To numbers, and to numbers alone, the North owes its 
■ hateful triumph. Its advantages in wealth and resources, in 
the possession of the sea and the command of the rivers, were 
. neutralized by Southern gallantry- In spite of the most 
numerous navv in the world, half a dozen Southern cruisers 
drove its commerce from the seas. In spite of its overwhelm- 
ing superioritv in strength of ships and guns, improvised 
Southern ironclads beat and drove off its blockading squad- 
rons, and Southern cavalry, embarking on little river steam- 
ers, captured its armed gunboats. In defiance of all its power. 
Southern energy contrived to supply the armies of the Con- 
federate States with everything of which they stood in need. 

"When the war broke out, the North had every kind of 
military stores in abundance and could draw unlimited sup- 
plies from Europe : the South had scarcely a cannon, had but 
few rifles, still fewer swords or bayonets, and not a single 
foundrv or powder factory. All these deficiencies were sup- 
plied by the foresight of the Confederate government and 
the daring of the Confederate armies. The routed forces of 
the North supplied artillery and ammunition, rifles and bayo- 
nets to the Southerners. The cannon which thundered against 
Gettvsburg, the shot which crushed the brave mercenaries of 
Burnside on the slopes above Fredericksburg came for the 
most part from Northern arsenals. No Southern failure is 
attributed to the want of arms or powder; no Federal suc- 
cess was won by the enormous advantages which the North 
enjoyed in its military stores and its open ports. Had these 
been the only odds in its favor, long ago would the Federal 
government have taken refuge at Boston or New York and 

every inch of Southern soil have been free from the^ step of 
the invader. Numbers, and numbers alone, have decided the' 

"Almost every battle has been won by the South, but every 
Southern victory has been rendered fruitless by the over- 
whelming numerical superiority of the vanquished. The con- 
querors found themselves on every occasion confronted by 
new armies and deprived of the fruits of victory by the 
facility with which the broken ranks of the enemy were re- 
plenished. The smaller losses of the South were irreparable ; 
the greater sacrifices of the North were of no consequence 
whatever in the eyes of a government which lavished the 
lives of hired rowdies and foreign mercenaries in the knowl- 
edge that money could repair all that folly and ferocity 
might destroy. The South has perished by exhaustion, by 
sheer inability to recruit her exhausted armies. Whatever 
errors may have contributed to hasten her fall, whatever may 
be due to the fatal march into Tennessee and the incompre- 
hensible policy which laid Georgia and the Carolinas open to 
Sherman, the struggle has been decided solely by the rela- 
tive numbers of the belligerents, by the fact that the Federal 
recruiting field was practically unlimited, while that of the 
Confederates was too small to supply the losses of each cam- 

"It may console the heroic soldiers of the South to remem- 
ber that their whole force was never equal in number to the 
foreign mercenaries of the Union alone ; but the lesson which 
this war has taught is one of disastrous augury for mankind. 
It can hardly be hoped that any people will show greater devo- 
tion than the Southerners, that any country will send forth 
braver armies or greater generals, and the fate of secession 
assures us that valor and strategy are vain when opposed 
to numbers; that a commander who must count the lives of 
his men must in the end be overpowered by one who, like 
Grant, can afford to regard the loss of ten thousand men as a 
matter of indifference. When we compare the respective num- 
bers belonging to free and despotic States, when we count 
up the overwhelming numerical superiority of despotisms, 
legitimate and democratic, over all constitutional countries 
combined, we can but feel that the fall of the Confederacy is 
a presage of evil for the cause of liberty and the future of 

"The part which England has played in this awful drama 
ndds a tenfold bitterness to the grief with which we regard 
its deplorable catastrophe. Every generous heart must be 
wrung in witnessing the death agony of a gallant nation ; but 
we, the nearest kinsmen, whose supineness permitted, whose 
policy furthered and hastened its destruction, have to bear 
not only the pang of sorrow, but the worse tortures of self- 
reproach. England— may Heaven forgive her !— has cast away 
the noblest opportunity and has been accessory to the greatest 
crime that modern history records. A single dispatch, a 
single stroke of the pen, requiring no more than the com- 
monest foresight and the most ordinary courage, would have 
enabled her to preserve the gratitude of generations yet un- 
born. More than once it has been in her power without a 
blow to establish in the New World that international balance 
of power without which neither peace nor liberty is possible. 
She might have given independence to the South, have stayed 
the carnage of the war, have made Canada safe forever, 
have secured a firm, powerful, and loyal ally, have secured' 
against disturbance and interruption the hopeful and generous 
experiment bv which France is endeavoring to restore order 
and peace to Mexico and to save the resources of that mag- 
nificent country for commerce and for civilization. All this 



^ogfederat^ l/eterai). 

she might have done without overstepping by a hair's breadth 
the duty of neutrals and the law of nations, and there was 
not found in England a statesman who had the courage to 
seize the glorious opportunity. Worse than this, the men to 
whose feeble and unworthy hands her great power and vast 
responsibilties were intrusted not only shrank from casting 
her moral weight into the scale of justice, order, and civiliza- 
tion, but they lent her aid to the champions of tyranny within 
the Union and of anarchy abroad. They gave grudgingly to 
the South in her struggle for her own independence, for the 
safety of our colonies, and the peace of the American conti- 
nent, a limited share of belligerent rights; but they seized 
her unarmed ships in our harbors, they drove her cruisers 
forth from our colonial ports, they harassed her with ham- 
pering and vexatious demands, while they allowed her enemy 
to recruit in Ireland, to blockade our seaports, and to ex- 
ceed the utmost latitude of belligerent rights in order to in- 
tercept the trade of the Confederates. 

"How different might the fortunes of war have proved had 
England been honestly neutral. Grant even that she had 
seized the Alabama and the Florida, what would this have 
signified if she had stopped Federal recruiting in Ireland and 
insisted that the example should be loyally followed on the 
continent? Had she taken stringent measures to prevent 
emigration of recruits to the North, as she stopped the sup- 
ply of a navy to the South, the Federal armies would have 
been weakened by more men than Grant and Sherman now 
command, and thus the North would have lost that fatal, 
that unjust advantage by which the South has been crushed. 
Richmond has fallen before an army of foreign mercenaries. 
Lee has surrendered to an army of foreigners. With a horde 
of foreigners Sherman occupied Atlanta, took Savannah, 
ravaged Georgia, and traversed the Carolinas. By the aid of 
foreign mercenaries the South has been destroyed, and that 
aid the conquerors owe to the connivance of England. It is 
not often that a duty neglected, an opportunity thrown away 
can ever be retrieved. It is not often that a great public 
wrong goes utterly unpunished. We are little disposed to 
import into politics the language of the pulpit, but we can- 
not forbear to remind our readers that nations as well as 
individuals are responsible for the use they make of the 
powers and opportunities intrusted to them, and history does 
not encourage us to hope that so grievous a dereliction of 
duty as that of which on our part the South has been the 
victim will go eventually unpunished." 



Probablv no human institution has ever been so misrepre- 
sented as has the domestic slavery of the Southern States of 
the Union. It was denounced as "the sum of all villainies," 
and the slaveholders were held up with malignant bitterness 
to the scorn of the world as monsters of cruelty and oppres- 
sion. And since the war that freed the slaves the coming 
generations are taught in schools, from the pulpit, and by the 
press that Mr. Lincoln, the great apostle of liberty, struck the 
shackles from a helpless race held in unwilling bondage to 
brutal masters. And the attempt is made to discredit and 
condemn that old civilization of kindly relations and gracious 
manners which produced such charcters as George Washing- 
ton, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and 
Robert E. Lee. 

The time surely demands that every patriotic Southerner 
should see to it that a true and faithful history be written, 

"nothing extenuating nor setting down aught in malice," that 
shall correct these false and unjust misrepresentations and 
shall vindicate to the present and future generations the ideals, 
the traditions, and the principles — social, political, and re- 
ligious — for which the Southern people stood. 

Let it be said that there were inseparable evils connected 
with the institution of slavery as with all human institutions, 
and these evils were exaggerated in the South by the differ- 
ences of nature, physical and moral, between the races — the 
white master heir of a thousand years of culture, the negro 
slave just a few generations removed from most brutal 

Yet it is also to be said that the Southern masters, as a 
class, in seeking to bridge the gulf separating the races did 
succeed in establishing kindly domestic relations that did much 
to mitigate the evils and promised much for the future if 
worked out without interference. The first cargo of Africans 
brought to the English colonies was in 1619, the year before 
the landing of the Pilgrims. They were brought by a Dutch 
ship and were first held probably as indentured servants, not 
as absolute slaves. There were few of them at first; but the 
mother country, scenting profit in the trade, engaged in it, and 
her daughter, New England, was equally enthusiastic in tear- 
ing the Africans from their native land and selling them into 
slaver}'. And when some of the colonies — Virginia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Jersey — protested against the trade, the 
mother country refused to heed their protest. 

In view of the horrors of the "middle passage," in which 
the negroes perished by hundreds on the open seas, it is said 
that tender consciences were salved with the statement that 
the traders were bringing miserable heathens to the light of 
Christian civilization. At first slavery existed in all the 
colonies and the States ; but afterwards, because of economic 
differences in the sections and also because of differences of 
climate, the Northern States sold their slaves to the South 
and abolished the institution in their borders. 

From the foundation of the government there was agitation 
for freedom for the slaves. The Constitution left the ques- 
tion to each State to settle for itself, and in the South there 
was a deeper interest in it as a practical queston than in the 
North. Virginia, in giving up her magnificent northwestern 
territory to the Union, stipulated that slavery should not exist 
in it. And prior to 1820, the year of the Missouri Compro- 
mise, there were in the South 106 antislavery societies with 
5,150 members, while in the North there were 24 abolition so- 
cieties with 920 members. The South tried to work out the 
problem with due regard to the interests of both races, wait- 
ing on the developments of Providence. The abolitionits were 
for immediate action, regardless of Providence or the Con- 
stitution. The Missouri Compromise brought the issue into 
politics and arrayed the sections against each .other. Then 
began that long campaign of hatred, abuse, and violation of 
Southern rights that brought on the War between the States, 
emancipation, and the horrible years of Reconstruction, with 
its graft, corruption, and negro rule. 

Now the charges against the South that are still current 
are: (1) Physical cruelty and oppression of the slaves, (2) 
neglect of the spiritual interests of the slaves. 

As to physical treatment, there were two considerations that 
worked for kind treatment. (1) The fact that the slaves 
were a laboring class upon whose labors the masters were 
dependent for a living and for profit made it a matter of 
ordinary business prudence that they should be well treated 
to be effective servants. (2) The kind of relationship that 
bound the two classes together : on the part of the master the 

Qoi?federat^ Veterai), 


spirit of noblesse oblige and on the part of the slave a docile 
affection assured that the faithful, obedient slave should not 
be unduly pressed. Moreover, besides this mutual affection, 
there was a public opinion which was embodied in statute 
laws that condemned cruel masters, and if there were such 
their cruelty was known and visited upon them socially. 

It is worthy of remark that most instances of cruelty were 
perpetrated by Northern men who came South as overseers on 
large plantations and Who had none of the traditional rela- 
tionship that unites master and slave. The slaves were cared 
for as children and in old age were free from undue labor. 
They were provided with comfortable clothes and substan- 
tial food, and they lived in houses, often in little villages, that 
were protected against the weather. They had opportunities 
to make money for themselves to buy whatever pleased their 
fancy. Their health was cared for by the best medical skill ; 
often on the large plantations there were hospitals well 

When I stated these facts to friends on a visit to Scotland 
and Ireland years ago, they declared that no laboring class in 
Great Britain was so well provided for. And Prof. Barrett 
Wendel, a New Englander, states in one of his books that 
no common laborers in the world were as free from care and 
suffering, for the struggle of this class the world over is to 
secure a bare living for themselves and their families. 

It is impossible for the present and coming generations to 
realize the affectionate relationship of whites and negroes in 
the old days in forming their judgment of those days. 

As to the care for the spiritual interests of the slaves, the 
Southern Churches and ministry felt their responsibility for 
the souls of their dependents, and in most Southern com- 
munities the slaves were often gathered to hear the message 
of salvation. The only hindrance to this was caused by the 
fanatical interference of Northern Churches and ministers, 
seeking to dissatisfy the negroes and demanding immediate 
emancipation. But this was only a temporary hindrance, 
easily overcome by the Southern ministers. Large numbers 
of the slaves were converted and were received as communi- 
cants in the Churches with their masters. In this work the 
Methodist and Baptist Churches were prominent and success- 
ful, although all denominations recognized their duty to the 
negroes. In 1829 the Methodist Church (at the suggestion of 
the Hon. Charles Coatesworth Pinckney, an Episcopal lay- 
man, and a prominent and wealthy Methodist lady, both of 
South Carolina) organized a system of plantation missions, 
by which some of the ablest ministers of that Church were 
sent to preach to the negroes on the large plantations. The 
work was supported by the planters, irrespective of denomi- 
nation. Often neat chapels were built on the plantation, and 
the planter and his family attended the services, while the 
ministers enjoyed their hospitality and esteem. 

In the thirty-five years to the year 1865 it is estimated that 
a million slaves were brought to Christ by this agency alone 
at a cost of about four million dollars. In the same period 
of time the foreign missionary agencies of all the Churches 
expended on heathen peoples fifty million dollars, with only 
a few thousand converts. As a missionary agency the insti- 
tution of African slavery deserves to be remembered. At 
the close of our war there were about a quarter of a mil- 
lion negro communicants in each the Methodist and Baptist 
Churches and considerable membership in the Episcopal and 
Presbyterian Churches. 

When the first Ecumenical Council of the Methodist 
Churches met in London a large delegation attended from 
the United States composed of both white and black ministers 

and laymen. Among them was that redoubtable champion of 
Southern Methodism, old Dr. John B. McFerrin. On the 
ship going over the Northern ministers were boasting much 
as to what they had done to free the slaves, and they claimed 
the gratitude of the negroes. Finally the old man, who was 
a man of war from his youth, could stand it no longer,, and 
in that peculiar nasal tone, which with him was an effective 
instrument of oratory, he replied: "Yes, you boast to these 
colored brethren of all that you have done for them. Why 
didn't you tell it all? You brought them from Africa sav- 
ages and sold them into slavery, and when they were not 
profitable to you then you sold them to us. We took them, 
a race of savages, and in two hundred years we made them 
a fine body of Christians, whom you deem worthy of citizen- 
ship, and who are going to take part in this Council." It is 
said a Southern negro standing by cried out : "Boss, dat's so. 
You never opens your mouf but what you tells de truf." 

The testimony of the Southern Presbyterian Church ex- 
presses the sentiment of all the Southern Churches in 1865 in 
saying: "The colored people never stood in any other rela- 
tions to the Church than that of human beings, lost with us 
in the fall of Adam and redeemed with us by the infinitely 
meritorious death and sacrifice of Christ and participants 
with us in all the blessings and benefits of the gospel. Our 
Churches, pastors, and people have always recognized their 
claim to Christian equality and brotherhood and have re- 
joiced to have them associated in Christian union and com- 
munion in the public services and precious sacraments of the 
sanctuary. Resolved, that the abolition of slavery has not 
altered this relation nor in any degree lessened the debt of 
love and service which we owe them. 

The following was contributed by Capt. R. T. Bean, of 
Wichita, Kans. : "The column was marching at an easy gait 
up the banks of the Cumberland River, neither dreaming of 
nor caring for any enemy that might be near. We had en- 
joyed a good night's rest, and, with a hearty, substantial 
breakfast to fortify us for the duties of the day, we were in 
the enjoyment of all the blessings that fall to the soldier's lot 
and were getting all the pleasure out of life that it was pos- 
sible for us to have. Lieutenant Oldham and Sergeant Lind- 
sey (as was often the case) were riding together and, happy 
in the strong ties of friendship that bound them together, 
were getting as much joy out of life as it was possible, which 
meant all in sight and then some. The Lieutenant was a 
sober-sided man and inclined to regard all things from a 
matter-of-fact point of view, while Lindsey was up to every 
prank that could be conceived and put into practice. Oldham 
was calling Lindsey's attention to some object across the 
river and designated it as being on the 'other side.' Lindsey 
at once took issue with him and expressed real regret that 
the Lieutenant was losing mentality and, pointing down to the 
bank near him, said that was the 'other side,' and he could 
prove it. In a moment Oldham had out a ten-dollar Confed- 
erate bill, which Lindsey promptly covered. 'Now,' said Lind- 
sey, 'is that not one side?' pointing across the stream, to 
which Oldham retorted: 'Of course it is; any fool knows that.' 
Then Lindsey quickly remarked, pointing down to the near 
bank: 'Is not this then the other side?' The burst of laugh- 
ter that rent the air was enough to wake the sluggish catfish 
in the river, and the sulphurious stream that flowed uninter- 
ruptedly from Oldham was almost stifling. Both have long 
since crossed over to the great beyond, but the Confederacy 
had no better soldiers nor the country any better citizens." 


^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 



Young's Battery, of Columbus, Ga., of which I was a 
member, organized in 1862 by Capt. Edward Croft, was known 
as Croft's Eattery for about eighteen months, or until his 
resignation. He was succeeded by First Lieut. Alf Young, 
son of the builder of the noted Eagle and Phcenix Mills, a 
fine gentleman of much wealth and influence. These mills 
were of great service during the war in supplying uniforms 
for our soldiers. In addition to the many patriotic deeds of 
Mr. Young, he fully equipped the battery with sixty-odd large 
horses and harness to match and also uniforms for the one 
Jiundred and ten men composing the company at a cost of 
many thousands of dollars. This is only a sample of the way 
pocketbooks opened to the needs of our new government. 

He was a Union man when secession first began to be 
agitated, and this country lacked a whole lot of being a unit 
for secession. The conventions which met to pass on the 
question in the different States usually passed the ordinances 
"by narrow margins, but as a matter of expediency they were 
made unanimous. In the case of Georgia, for instance, Ben- 
jamin H. Hill was elected to the convention as a Union dele- 
gate, but after secession became a fact he joined with the 
others to make it unanimous. But the South became a unit 
when Lincoln issued his proclamation calling for seventy-five 
Thousand troops to subjugate us. When that call was made, 
it was like a match to a powder keg — there was no longer 
any dissension — but it make a solid South "overnight," and 
it still remains solid ; and when Mr. Davis called for one 
hundred thousand men, they came in a rush from all classes 
and from all directions in such numbers that arms could 
not be supplied fast enough. But when the fighting actually 
began, as at the first battle of Manassas, the enemy, knowing 
our need, contributed abundantly and rapidly, and we soon 
had plenty' and to spare. After a few battles conditions were 
reversed, and we had more guns than men. Mr. Lincoln 
could not have done anything more needed to solidify us. 

My own father was a fair illustration of the antisecession 
spirit. I had heard it discussed from the John Brown raid 
all the way to 1860, and this was really the spark which lay 
dormant for several years, but was fanned into a flame and 
ended with Sherman's march through Georgia, leaving chim- 
neys as sentinels and ravished homes as the crowning climax 
of his career, a career which has been set to music and is 
still being played to appreciative audiences of the North. 

Speeches in Congress and the Senate, a la Bob Toombs on 
•one side and Thad Stephens on the other, had become so 
bitter and inflammatory that reconciliation or compromises 
were impossible. South Carolina precipitated the conflagra- 
tion and was followed in rapid succession by other States. 
Virginia hesitated longer and was the last to secede, and then 
only when Mr. Lincoln called on her for her quota of troops 
to subjugate her Southern sisters. This was the feather that 
"broke the camel's back, and she hesitated no longer. 

Up to the call for troops my father had been unyielding in 
his loyalty to the Union. His views were well known to his 
friends, nearly all of whom were rabid secessionists. Our 
home was in Lagrange, the home of Ben Hill. He and my 
father were friends and held the same views — that our prov- 
cation was great, but that we should remain in the Union 
and fight there for our rights. 

A mass meeting was held in the courthouse several days 
before Georgia seceded to get the sentiment of the people. 
It was a fire-eating affair. Lagrange abounded in good 

speakers, and they seemd to be all present on this occasion 
and had the crowd worked up to a white heat of excitement. 
The most inflammatory orations had been delivered with 
hair-raising effect, all advocating secession in the most soul- 
stirring language. If there was a dissent, it had not been 
expressed. My father sat in a corner of the room with his 
head bowed and his face in his hands. He was deeply 
grieved at the course the meeting had taken, for he seemed 
to realize what it all meant. Finally there were calls for 
"Callaway ! Callaway ! Callaway !" but he refused to move 
until it seemed that every voice joined in the call. Well do 
I remember the sadness of his face as he deliberately arose 
and said : "My friends and fellow citizens, I came into this 
meeting not expecting to have a word to say, for I realize 
that should I give utterance to my sentiments they would 
be so much out of harmony with what has been said that 
silence on my part would be golden." He was resuming his 
seat when a storm of "Go on, go on" came from all parts 
of the room. Then he proceeded in an impassioned and most 
solemn manner to speak his views, which were entirely at 
variance with all that had been spoken. He said that seces- 
sion meant war, which he foresaw to be one of the most 
bloody in history, that we would have the world to fight, that 
our shores would be blockaded, and, in short, forecasted the 
end with what afterwards seemed prophetic words. Many times 
since the war have I heard this speech referred to as prophec\-. 
There were a few catcalls and hisses at the start, but on ac- 
count of the earnest and solemn manner of his delivery he 
soon obtained a most respectful hearing and made an im- 
pression upon his hearers which caused them to think as they 
had never done before, for Bob Toombs and other influential 
speakers all over the country had scouted the idea of war, 
Mr. Toombs agreeing to drink all the blood that was shed. 

In spite of my father's strong views in opposition to seces- 
sion and his reluctance to give up the Union, yet when Lin- 
coln called for troops he joined hands with those who had 
so bitterly opposed him and lent his whole energy to the de- 
fense of our homes. He sent five sons. As his youngest and 
bearing his name, it was natural that he should have had a 
most tender feeling for me ; but he consented for me to go 
before I had attained military age. The talk of subjugation 
had wrought this wonderful change. On my return from the 
war — one of my brothers had just died, another was in 
prison, and I was supposed to be dead or captured — my father 
was on his deathbed and unconscious and the savings of a 
lifetime all gone. He saw for months before it came that 
all was lost. It was too much for his delicate constitution, 
and he gave way under the strain of anxiety and suspense, 
just as many more fathers and mothers had done. He had 1 
lived to see the prophetic words he had spoken at the mass I 
meeting, four years before, fulfilled to the letter ; but in great I 
mercy a kind Providence took him without allowing him to I 
witness those terrible Reconstruction days, an ordeal perpe- i 
trated by a civilized people upon their brothers whose only | 
offense had been the defense of their homes against an in- 
vading horde made up largely of foreign hirelings fighting 
for bounty and booty, an ordeal visited upon a noble people 
of distinguished ancestry already crushed and bleeding at 
every pore — "Rachel weeping for her firstborn." Their homes 
were burned, property all gone and bankrupt, their former 
slaves ruling over them and incited to all kinds of outrages 
by conscienceless Northern emissaries and Southern scala- 
wags. Of course many of our old men and women gave up 
the ghost and died in despair. Our impoverishment was com- , 
plete; but, still not satisfied, our cotton was taxed $15 peri* 

Qoijfederat^ l/efcerap. 


'bale for three years, a product entirely of the South, the 
: only farm product that was ever taxed. These outrages were 
'more heartless than have been put upon the barbarians who 
sank the Lusitania or those who for years have been mur- 
dering helpless Armenians. 

"To forgive is divine," but this old vet cannot forget. 

I once heard an old preacher exclaim from the pulpit after 

he had been dealing with the unscrupulous politicians of that 

day : "My God, my God, if there ain't a hell, there ought to 

s be for all such." This imprecation might also apply to the 

: "poison squad" of the present time. 



Perhaps one of the most notable movements of the War 
between the States was General Bragg's retreat from Middle 
, Tennessee. Soon after the battle of Murfreesboro, which was 
\ fought the last days of December, 1864, General Bragg witn- 
drew his army back to Tullahoma and Shelbyville, where he 
_ went into winter quarters. The months following were de- 
' voted to recruiting and equipping his army. Early in the 
spring of 1863 General Bragg advanced north, establishing his 
. lines with the left wing of his army at Shelbyville and his 
right wing at Fairfield and Beech Grove, some miles from 
. His army at this time was in fine condition, a magnificent 
body of soldiers, composed of the best manhood of the South. 
His men were, tor the most part, those who had an inbred 
love for the Southland and her institutions. They were rest- 
less and anxious to drive the invading foe from Southern soil. 
General Rosecrans, who was then in command of the Fed- 
eral army, was stationed at Murfreesboro with a finely 
equipped army, superior in numbers to General Bragg's army; 
but from the fearful experience they had had in one of the 
bloodiest battles of the Western Army, that of Murfreesboro, 
they were not keen to again meet those Southern boys in open 
combat, men who were fighting for their homes and all that 
was dear to them. 

It was in the month of June, 1863, that General Rosecrans, 
declining again to meet General Bragg's army in open affray, 
began a flank movement by way of McMinnville and at the 
same time made an attack on General Bragg's right wing 
with a strong force under General Thomas from his main 
army, his object being to engage General Bragg until he 
could cross south of the Cumberland Mountain and occupy 
Chattanooga, thus cutting off General Bragg from all com- 
munication south and east with Confederate forces. 

But it had become evident to General Bragg that General 
Thomas did not intend to meet him in open battle and that 
his attack was only a strategic move to engage him until he 
could get time to accomplish an advantageous movement, and 
he was in fact at that time moving nis main army rapidly by 
way of McMinnville across the mountains toward Chatta- 

At this juncture General Bragg began his memorable re- 
treat trom Middle Tennessee. His retreat was greatly re- 
tarded by the strong force from General Rosecrans's army 
under General Thomas hanging on the rear, harrassing his 
outposts, and with the heavy rains the hardships of the sol- 
diers were increased. The boys were already chafing because 
General Thomas would not meet them in battle west of the 
Cumberland Mountain. 

Gen. Bushrod Johnson's brigade was covering the retreat, 

together with a large cavalry force under the command of 
General Forrest. The heavy rains which had fallen had 
caused the streams to overflow their banks, and the roads 
were in a bad condition, thus retarding the movements of so 
large a body. 

I recall an incident connected with the crossing of Elk 
River. As the stream was out of its banks, the only way of 
getting across was on a small bridge, and the crossing was 
necessarily very slow. General Johnson's brigade was held 
in line of battle on the west side of the stream to hold the 
Federal advance in check until Bragg's men had crossed over 
safely. But the Federals were pressing General Forrest so 
hard that he rode up to General Johnson and told him that 
if he did not hurry up and get his command across the river 
he might be forced to give up some of his artillery. This 
was the first time I had seen General Forrest, and his com- 
manding appearance and determined movements made a last- 
ing impression, being particularly impressed with his military 

After some light skirmishing by the outposts with but little 
loss, all got safely over the river, and the old bridge was de- 
stroyed, which put a complete check to the pursuers. 

Then began the difficult ascent of the mountains. The 
rains had added to the almost impassible condition of the 
roads, and at places the large limestone recks projected al- 
most perpendicularly, thus causing the wagons and artillery 
to be lifted over the rough places by the soldiers putting their 
shoulders to the wheels, while a great deal of army supplies 
had to be abandoned in order to get the wagons and teams 
over the mountains. 

General Bragg's soldiers made this forced retreat across 
the mountain drenched with rain and without time to change 
their clothing or prepare their food. About all they had to 
eat was the little they could pick up, and but little could be 
had at that time, as the mountains were sparsely settled. 

This retreat was in June and July, the season when all 
nature was robed in her most beautiful vesture and the 
mountain breezes were laden with sweet odors from the wild 
flowers, which produced a desire on the part of the soldeirs, 
who had an appreciation of the beauties of nature, to linger 
and enjoy the scenery; but no such esthetic desires were to 
be indulged in at that time. 

While a splendid fighter. General Bragg was also good on 
the retreat; and, despite all the hardships and difficulties at- 
tending such a movement, he reached Chattanooga in time 
to give General Thomas a hearty welcome. 

The most serious side of this bit of war history was the 
fact that here was one of the grandest bodies of soldiers in 
the country's annals retreating before a foe greatly outnum- 
bering them. They were giving up their homes and loved 
ones, knowing that their hardships and dangers would be in- 
creased by falling into the hands of the enemy. These men 
were suffering all the hardships of a most cruel conflict, and 
they cast many longing looks from the summit of the Cum- 
berland peaks westward toward the fertile valleys and the 
great basin of Middle Tennessee, reaching to the Father of 
Waters on the west, the fair and beautiful land holding all 
that was near and dear to the majority of them, with the 
feeling that they might never look upon that land again. 

This feeling may have been a prophetic vision of what 
awaited them in one of the hardest fought battles of the 
war, the battle of Chickamauga, also the many battles that 
lined General Sherman's march through Georgia, where thou- 


Qogfederat^ l/eterai). 

sands of those splendid men, heroes they were, gave up their 
lives and sleep in unknown graves. 

No pen can write into history the suffering, heroism, and 
immortal deeds of those brave men. 

[Note. — While General Rosecrans was in command of the 
Federal Army of Tennessee in 1862-63, General Thomas, the 
"Rock of Chickamauga," was in command of the left wing, 
which made the flank movement above described. — /. H. Mc- 


[Compilation giving date of battle, generals in command, 
forces engaged, and the losses on each side, prepared by Col. 
John C. Stiles, of Brunswick, Ga.] 

First Manassas (Bull Run"), July 21, 1861, Generals Beaure- 
gard and McDowell. Confederate force, 32.000; loss, 1,969; 
6 per cent. Federal force, 35,000: loss, 1,584; 5 per cent. 
Combined loss, 5 per cent. (Only 18,000 men on each side in 
this fight.) 

Shiloh, April 6, 1862, Gens. A. S. Johnston and Grant. 
Confederate force, 40.000 ; loss, 9,000 ; 22 per cent. Federal 
force, 58.000; loss, 12.000; 21 per cent. Combined loss, 20 
per cent. 

Seven Pines, May 31, 1862, Gens. Joseph E. Johnston and 
McClellan. Confederate force, 39,000; loss, 6,134; 16 per cent. 
Federal force, 51,000; loss, 5,021; 10 per cent. Combined loss. 
12 per cent. 

Gaines's Mill, June 7, 1S62, Generals Lee and McClellan. 
Confederate force, 54,000; loss, 8,000; 15 per cent. Federal 
force, 36,000 ; loss, 5,000 ; 14 per cent. Combined loss, 14 per 

Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862, Generals Lee and McClellan. 
Confederate force, 70,000 ; loss, 5,500 ; 8 per cent. Federal 
force, 80,000 ; loss, 2,800 ; 4 per cent. Combined loss, 5 per 

Cedar Mountain. August 9, 1862, Generals Jackson and 
Banks. Confederate force, 21,000; loss, 1,314: 6 per cent. 
Federal force, 12,000; loss, 2.3S0; 20 per cent. Combined loss, 
11 per cent. 

Second Manassas, August 28, 1862 (two days), Generals 
Lee and Pope. Confederate force, 54,000; loss, 9,000; 17 per 
cent. Federal force, 73,000; loss, 13,000; 17 per cent. Com- 
bined loss, 17 per cent. 

Sharpsburg, September 17, 1862, Generals Lee and McClel- 
lan. Confederate force, 41,000; loss 9,500; 23 per cent. Fed- 
eral force, 87,000; loss, 12,410; 14 per cent. Combined loss, 
17 per cent. 

Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Generals Lee and Burn- 
side. Confederate force, 70,000; loss, 4,224; 6 per cent. Fed- 
eral force, 120,000; loss, 12,747; 10 per cent. Combined loss, 
8 per cent. 

Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862 (two days). Generals 
Bragg and Rosecrans. Confederate force, 37,712; loss, 9.500; 
26 per cent. Federal force, 43,000; loss, 9.000; 21 per cent. 
Combined loss, 24 per cent. 

Chancellorsville, May 1, 1863 (two days). Generals Lee and 
Hooker. Confederate force, 62,000; loss, 10,000; 16 per cent. 
Federal force, 130,000; loss, 14,000; 10 per cent. Combined 
loss, 12 per cent. 

Gettysburg, July 3, 1863 (three days), Generals Lee and 
Meade. Confederate force, 70,000; loss, 18,000; 26 per cent. 
Federal force, 93,000; loss, 19,000; 20 per cent. Combined 
loss, 24 per cent. 

Chickamauga, September 19, 1863 (two days), Generals 

Bragg and Rosecrans. Confederate force, 71,000; loss, 18.000: 
25 per cent. Federal force, 57,000; loss, 17,100; 30 per cent. 
Combined loss, 27 per cent. 

Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863, Generals Bragg and 
Grant. Confederate force, 33,000; loss, 3,000; 9 per cent. 
Federal force, 60,000 ; loss, 5,500 ; 9 per cent. Combined loss, 
9 per cent. 

The Wilderness, May 6, 1864, Generals Lee and Grant. 
Confederate force, 61.000; loss, 11,000; 18 per cent. Federal 
force, 118.000; loss, 15,000; 13 per cent. Combined loss, 14 
per cent. 

Spotsylvania, May 10, 1864, Generals Lee and Grant. Con- 
federate force, 50,000 ; loss, 8,000 ; 16 per cent. Federal force, 
100,000: loss, 17.000; 17 per cent. Combined loss. 16 per cent. 

Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, Generals Lee and Grant. Con- 
federate force. 58,000: loss. 1.700: 3 per cent. Federal force, 
110.000; loss, 10,000; 9 per cent. Combined loss, 6 per cent. 

Nashville, December 15, 1864, Generals Hood and Thomas. 
Confederate force, 39,000 ; loss, 3,500 ; 9 per cent. Federal 
force, 55,000 ; loss, 3,000 ; 5 per cent. Combined loss, 6 per 


Take these crosses, a mute token 
Of a sorrow left unspoken 
By the lips of love unbroken 

Through all change of time and tide. 
In a comrade's tears you'll lave them, 
From dishonor live to save them, 
For the sake of those who gave them, 

For the sake of those who died. 

Prize these badges as a treasure 
Precious, priceless beyond measure. 

Consecrated by a love 
Deep and boundless as the ocean, 
A true woman's life devotion, 

Love like His who reigns above. 

Lee, the matchless, would have worn it 
Stonewall Jackson would have borne it 
Proudly; Death's strong hand could scarce have torn it 

From our princely Stuart's breast. 
Hold it, veteran, as an omen 
Sacred as the tear of woman 
Shed for chevalier or yeoman, 
Nobler than the noblest Roman, 

Shed for comrade laid to rest. 

Southern veterans, wear these crosses, 
Emblems of our Southland's losses — 

Losses death alone can drown. 
When the last reveille's sounded, 
When sin's hosts their arms have grounded. 
He in whom our faith is founded, 
Who bore the cross, for us was wounded. 

Will for each cross exchange a crown. 

But when in heaven's perfect light, 
The day he counts his jewels bright. 
Condemns the wrong, rewards the right. 

In those he died to save, 
The richest crown for love, for loss, 
Without one taint of earthly dross, 
To her will go last at his cross 

And earliest at his grave. 
— C. B. Tate, New Market Battalion, V. M. I. Cadets. 

Qopfederat^ Vetera^; 



A Tale of Two Epochs. 


Billie O'Brien's people, as the name would indicate, were 
not Quakers. Nevertheless, they did not believe in war ; not 
if they had to do the fighting. O apostrophe is a synonym for 
Delight of Fighting, so we are told, but these O apostrophes 
were different. Just why doesn't concern us, but so it was. 
They knew that there was money and no inconsiderable glory 
to be had for the mere shouldering of a gun, but there were 
.applicants in abundance for the glory, and the O'Briens had 
enough money; not an embarrassing surplus, understand, but 
!- enough. There was no earthly excuse for an O'Brien to go 
to war. 

So when Billie O'Brien announced his intention of going 
on a recently projected and extensively advertised we-are- 
coming-Father-Abraham excursion to Richmond (and return, 
if the gods were good), he met opposition. He always did; 
he would have been disappointed otherwise. Billie never 
proposed a proposition, thought a thought, or planned a plan 
that hadn't met with opposition. It was the expiring spark 
of Celtic belligerency in the O'Brien breast, the last echo of 
a former glory, this constant opposition to an O'Brien, who 
by some chance threw back to sure-enough Hibernians. But 
Billie, expecting this opposition, grinned pleasantly and stuck 
to his original proposition, and in the end he had his way, 
as he always did. It was a way he had. 

"Shucks !" said Billie. He was having it out in the family 
circle, with ladies present, and was regarding the conven- 
. tions. Ordinarily he was much more vigorous and colorful 
of expression. "Shucks, I always did want to see that old 
Virginia State, and now it's spring and a real nice time to 
see the sights comfortably, and they're taking you down there 
for nothing and paying you something to boot for going. 
And, besides, there is a big crowd of the boys going from 
here." He paused a few seconds to give his statements time 
to take firm root, and then he remarked with decision : "And 
I am going with them. I'll be back some time along in the 

"But, William." said timid Mrs. O'Brien, she that was Miss 
Smith and had no claim to Celtic love of head cracking, 
"those Rebels will be shooting at you, and you don't know 
but what" — 

"O hel — ■ Shucks, they can't hit anything," said Billie, and 
carelessly waved aside that objection. Then he grinned his 
most capacious grin. "Besides, when they hear I'm coming, 
they'll just naturally quit anyhow." 

Which wasn't sound logic or truth either, for "they" didn't 
quit, not even when the}- heard that two hundred thousand 
Billie O'Briens were coming. If they had, Billie wouldn't 
have seen Old Virginia or Chancellorsville ; but that is antici- 

No, "they" didn't quit. Quite to the contrary, "they" made 
unsmiling preparation to dispense with full hands the famous 
Southern hospitality that Billie had read so much about. And 
Billie would have been glad of this had he known it, for 
fighting was as the breath of life to him, and the scenery of 
Old Virginia was unimportant indeed. Which was very for- 
tunate, for he could have stayed at home and seen very much 
more beautiful scenery than what his part of Virginia af- 
forded. His scenery there was to be scrub oak and pine, 
tangled brier and impenetrable thicket, with the ground soft 
I 2** 


with sodden last winter's leaves, and only a glimpse now and 
then of God's open blue. A tantalizing reminder of heaven 
at that, for it was hard to see unless you were on your back, 
and those who lay that way saw nothing at all, though their 
eyes were wide open, fixed in an unwinking stare, as if trying 
to solve the puzzle of this world and that other into which 
they had been ushered in the twinkling of an eye. 

But all this really mattered very little, because Billie didn't 
know as yet what lay on the knees of the gods for him, and 
even if he had known he would have gone all the same. For 
he was an O'Brien of the older times and threw back as many 
generations as was necessary to find the latest frolicking, 
devil-may-care, shillalah-bearing O'Brien ancestor. As for 
the Smiths, they might as well never have existed as far as 
ever having any part or parcel in Billie was concerned. He 
was the reincarnation of some giant who smiled as he slew, 
because slaying was pleasure. 

Fighting was the very breath of life to big-mouthed, freckle- 
faced, red-headed Billie O'Brien. Every boy in the com- 
munity bore eloquent testimony to that. The moment he 
could stand alone he had his fingers in some other astonished 
baby's eyes and hair, and from that time on his progress 
toward man's estate had been a trail strewn with drops of 
blood and peelings of skin and handfuls of hair, some of it 
in every instance his own. Which explains why he wanted 
to go to Virginia. Alexander found Macedonia too small : 
he sighed for other worlds to conquer. 

So he went along with the "other boys," and the town 
turned out to hurrah and wish them Godspeed, and Billie 
held his head high and was as happy as he could be. Which 
was only natural for a man going to where he would find 
his favorite amusement in such abundance. But the O'Briens 
were not so jubilant, except the smallest O'Brien of all, to 
whom out of the fullness of Billie's heart had been promised 
a Rebel sword. 


Virginia hospitality, Billie soon found, lived up to only 
half of its reputation. Warm it was beyond any shadow of 
reasonable complaint, but concerning its cordiality some hun- 
dred and fifty thousand Billies made loud and frequent moan. 
There is such a thing as overdoing cordiality and warmth. 
And from warm the hospitality had grown hot and hotter 
and hotter as the days passed, until even those who, like 
Billie O'Brien, loved a fight found that the edge of their 
appetite was being blunted. They were in danger of being 
sated, gorged on this martial diet. Yet no respite came. Day 
after day skirmishes, fights, charges and counter-charges, and 
the lesser duties, picket duty and guard mount, and such like, 
the last word of irksomeness. Day by day dropped off mess- 
mates, camp fire intimates, boyhood friends. Day by day the 
. face of nature changed. Day by day Billie O'Brien and num- 
berless others grew years and years older. 

Then came May, 1863. Three days before they had crossed 
a muddy little river and plunged into an uninviting, but not 
especially deadly-looking, wilderness, and immediately there- 
upon they had been welcomed with that hospitality that they 
had come to detest so heartily. They had returned it in kind 
and, disregarding it as far as was humanly possible, had 
pushed on as best they could and as far, which was not in- 
considerable in view of the marked discourtesy they were 
being shown. Little by little their Southern hosts had with- 
drawn, sullenly, viciously, true, but they had withdrawn. That 
was the main point. Whereat Billie O'Brien and the thou- 
sands of other Billies and the shameful other thousands that 
were not Billies and never would be rejoiced, though not for 


^.OQfederace l/eterai). 

the same reason. It was not a lovely country, this wilderness, 
but everybody, Billies and others, wanted undisputed posses- 
sion of it. and wanted it very much. 

May 1 had been a gala day for those of Eillie's ilk. those 
who loved the roll of musketry. Musketry there had been in 
largesse and all that goes therewith, and Billie had had no 
ground for complaint on that score. For that matter he had 
done little enough complaining these latter days anyhow. 
What little he made did not concern the lack of fighting. 
That plaint had done good service in winter quarters, but it 
had languished of late for obvious reasons. His moan had 
now as its text his near neighbors. They were Dutchmen . 
( "Damn Dutchmen," Billie called them, with various descrip- 
tive epithets, all from the depths of his Hibernian heart), and 
he liked them not. It wasn't his fault. O'Briens and 
Schmidts had never dwelt together in unity. They couldn't 
now, but Billie accepted them as he did the mosquitoes and 
ticks and the thousand crawling things of this tangled in- 
ferno. They were exigencies of war. 

But there was another and more legitimate cause for dis- 
satisfaction this day. and deep and bitter was his grumbling 
thereat. Small wonder. After a fellow has pushed his way 
stubbornly for miles down a miserable, fire-lined, tree- 
obstructed road, fighting for every inch of it with an enemy 
that contests every inch of it as if it were the road to heaven, 
he may be excused for being aggrieved when he is told by a 
man sitting on a cool, shady porch to come back to the place 
from w-hich he started that morning, presumably to do it all 
over again next day. It seemed so foolish and futile. So 
it seemed to Billie. and he cursed bitterly, though he himself 
had been spared the experience. But some of his best friends 
had not been so fortunate, and some of them had not come 
back. Instead they were along that bullet-swept road hud- 
dled up in fantastic shapes with ghastly holes in limb and 
head and heart. News of it had filtered back to Billie and 
his comrades, and they received it according to their lights. 
Billie's near neighbors shrugged their shoulders and muttered. 
"Ach Gott," and forgot about it. Billie said nothing, but he 
treasured these things in his heart, and that night he slept 
restlessly, bitter for the first time. 

May 2 had been a continuous holiday. True enough, there 
had been from time to time little gusts of musketry and 
some artillery fire in the direction of Chancellorsville. But 
Chancellorsville was four miles away, and the firing was 
nothing anyhow-, comparatively speaking. So Billie O'Brien 
and the other Billies, good and bad, ate their white bread 
and made ready for the morrow, when there was work to be 

The day wore on, a singularly peaceful day in the midst of 
hell, with the desultory noises like far-off thunder. It was 
about six and supper time. Arms were stacked, men were 
sitting around in groups laughing the laugh of the momen- 
tarily care free, and — and then, rudely disturbing all this, 
came the sharp blast of a bugle and the shrill yell that Billie 
knew so well, having heard it many, many times before. 
Almost simultaneously there broke from the woods just 
across the little clearing yelling lines of lean, grim men in 
gray. Like a hurricane they came, death riding at their head. 

"O hell!" said Billie petulantly, jumping up and running 
for his gun. "Won't those darned Rebels ever give a fellow 
a rest? Can't even"' — 

A shell, coming from somewhere in the rear of the gray 
horde, sang through the air overhead and burst. A flying 
splinter struck Billie O'Brien on his head, and without a 
sound he crumpled up, and the men in gray swarmed past. 

When Billie opened his eyes again, it was evidently early 
morning. He lay still a minute, blinking at the rising sun 
and listening abstractedly to a bird in a near-by tree, all the 
while trying to figure out where he was and what he was 
doing there. It was altogether strange to him, this country. 
Moreover, the dead men and the scattered guns, all the ghast- 
ly debris of war, puzzled him sorely. His head ached badly, 
and that puzzled him too. The whole thing was a puzzle. 
He couldn't think of an3' reason why he should be lying in 
this unfamiliar place with a furiously aching head. Evidently 
there was something curious in all this. He thought it over 
a while and finally gave it up. 

"Lord," said he, "what's the matter with my head anyhow? 
Somebody must have hit me the heck of a lick. I wonder who 
it was — Never mind, I'll get him some time, whoever he 
was, the son-of-a-gun." Whereupon he sat up, his hand on 
his dully aching head. 

Near him stood a man in a gray uniform of some sort. He 
was looking at Billie very curiously, so Billie stared back. 
The big man was totally strange to him, but so was every- 
thing here, and Billie spoke to him civilly: "Howdy, stranger.'" 

"How are you?" replied the man in gray. 

"Me? I'm all right except my head hurts like blazes. 
Somebody must have" — He tried to rise, but somehow he 
seemed to be too tired. So he compromised by crawling pain- 
fully over to a sapling, against which he propped himself. 

"What's your command?" continued the other man. 

"Command?" said Billie blankly. 

"Well, what's your name then?" 

Billie smiled a capacious, winning Irish smile and said 
pleasantly: "Billie. What's yours?" 

"Billie what?" 

Billie racked his brain, but he couldn't quite locate the 
"what," so he gave it up. It made his head ache worse. 
"Billie" he repeated blandly and looked up inviting further 

His questioner seemed at a loss, and his next question 
showed it. "Is that your gun?" he asked irrelevently. 

"Yes," said Billie. Which wasn't so, for he couldn't re- 
member ever having seen a gun like that before. He crawled 
over and took possession. "Nice old girl." he said, running 
his hand along the shining barrel. "Billie — gun, Billie — gun, 
Billie — gun." Forgotten the men and the doctor grouped 
around him, all regarding him pityingly, forgotten the hor- 
rible things strewn thick everywhere, forgotten everything. 
In all the world nothing but Billie and his gun. "Billie— 
gun," he repeated over and over again ; "Billie — gun." 

"Your name's Billie Gun, isn't it?" said the doctor. 

"Yes, sir." said Billie. "that's my name, Billie Gun." 

There was a short whispered conversation and then the 
doctor's voice was heard. "But I tell you, gentlemen," he said! 
"it would be a shame to send the poor fellow to Richmond. 
It is not right to put such men in prison. What am I to do? 
Hasn't some one a suggestion?" 

A moment of silence followed, and then a tall man. with 
one arm heavily bandaged, said: "I have, doctor, but it is so 
unusual that I hesitate greatly to make it. As you see, one 
of Billie Gun's friends has put my arm out of commission, 
and I think it only fair that Billie should take care of me 
while it is healing. Suppose you let me have him. He will 
fare much better with me than he would in Richmond, and I 
don't think it makes much difference with him whom he is 
with, poor fellow. If he recovers his memory, I will turn 
him over to the proper authorities. I need scarcely assure 
vou that he will be treated properly. In case you should wish 

Qoi)federat<? l/etera>)\ 


to communicate with me, you will find me with the 27th Vir- 
ginia. I am Colonel Green." 

The doctor bowed in acknowledgment. "It is irregular. 
Colonel Green." he said after a moment; "but it is certainly 
the most humane thing I can do, and I shall accept your offer. 
I need no assurance that you will be kind to him. May I 
offer my congratulations for yesterday? I have heard many 
good things of you and the 27th." 

Billie heard nothing of all this; heard nothing of anything, 
in fact. Always he caressed his sweetheart. "Billie Gun." he 
muttered happily. 

"Billie Gun," said the tall man "you are going with me. 
We are going to be good friends. You're a good Confed- 
erate, aren't you?" 

"Yes, sir," said Billie, "I'm a good — a good — Billie Gun," 
he wandered on. 

"Can you get up now?" asked the doctor. 

"Yes, sir." 

He tried it and finally succeeded, but it was painful work 
indeed. He put an uncertain hand up to his head as though 
it pained him, and his eyes were wet with the moisture of 

The tall man's eyes filled with tears. "The poor fellow, the 
poor fellow," he said softly. "Will some one of you gentle- 
men please help me get him on my horse? I will walk." 

Thus they left, Billie swaying unsteadily in the big army- 
saddle, the colonel walking beside, holding him on. 

In bewildering succession came Gettysburg, and the Wilder- 
ness again, and Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor and Richmond 
and Petersburg, a horrible saturnalia of powder smoke 
through which moved indistinctly gaunt men in tattered gray 
uniforms. Among them a tall colonel and his shadow, a big, 
blue-eyed, red-haired boy; a silent boy with a smile that some- 
how went straight to the heart and made it ache ; a boy whose 
dull eyes followed lovingly every movement of the tall man. 
"The colonel and Billie Gun," the army called them. They 
had no existence apart. Where the colonel was, there, or as 
near there as he could get, was Billie. The colonel was often 
in fearful places, oftener and oftener in the final awful days 
when the lines grew thinner, but Billie knew no fear. He 
knew nothing. "Yes, sir," was his only conversation ; his 
only occupation in life to love and obey this tall man and to 
cling to him. 

And then Appomattox and two people going slowly down a 
dusty road. One a sad-faced man on horeback, the other a 
broad-shouldered, smiling boy, holding to the stirrup as he 
shuffled along. 


Back to the sleepy Virginia town came one of its sons after 
forty years of absence. He had left it in 1865, and this was 
1905. Between had been years of privation, discouragement, 
persistent effort, and finally, midway, success. The last twenty 
years had brought ever-increasing fame, and now, standing 
on the pinnacle of his profession, the great surgeon, very tired 
and very hungry for rest, had bethought himself of his quiet 
little native town at the foot of the Blue Ridge. So he was 
at home once more. 

His townspeople, honored by his presence and proud of his 
modestly borne fame, nevertheless respected his desire to be 
treated as one of them, and he established himself quietly in 
the hospitable home of a cousin only too glad to receive him. 
As boys they had played their games together, as men they 
had fought their battles together, and now in the twilight of 

life they met again, one a great surgeon, the other a 
simple country doctor. The world rang with the fame of 
one ; the whole countryside knew and loved the other. So 
there was little difference after all. 

One spring night they sat by themselves under the trees and 
talked, sometimes laughingly, oftener sadly, of the tempes- 
tuous, now dim days of warfare. They spoke familiarly of 
great men and tremendous conflicts, and from the general they 
arrived at the particular. 

Said the country doctor : "There is a peculiarly sad case 
out here at the county poorhouse, Jim. It is a poor fellow who 
calls himself Billie Gun. Of course that's not his name, but 
neither he nor any one else knows his right name or any- 
thing about him. Colonel Green found him at Chancellors- 
villc. He had been struck on the head, and his mind was an 
absolute blank. The Colonel was kind to him, and the poor 
fellow followed him like a dog as long as the Colonel lived. 
When the Colonel died, in 1880, Miss Lizzie took care of 
Billie, but she died about ten years later, and Greenwood was 
sold, and they had to send him to the poorhouse. He has 
been there ever since, a pathetic figure, a man in stature and 
strength, a baby in mind and helplessness. He just sits all 
day long in that God-forsaken place and smiles vacantly and 
pleasantly into space. I wonder who he is and what, poor 
fellow I" 

"Poor fellow I" said the great surgeon thoughtfully. "Yes, 
indeed, poor fellow !" 

Some days later the great surgeon reopened the subject. 
"Joe," said he, "Billie Gun has been running through my head 
ever since you told me about him the other night. Somehow 
or other he haunts me. You say he has no friends, no any- 
thing, not even a past. Well, here's what I've been thinking 
about. I want you to give me your honest opinion about it. 
I've always wanted to know how long a brain's functions can 
be suspended and then resumed and whether the last con- 
scious impression is retained intact. You can see how almost 
impossible it is to get a subject for an experiment like that, 
and that's why Billie Gun seems to me to be sent by Provi- 
dence. But here's what has been troubling me. Have I the 
right, granting it should turn out as I would like, to bring 
this old man back to life as a boy, with home and people 
gone and forty years a blank? Or isn't it kinder to let him 
remain in his darkness? It's the individual against the in- 
stitution, and I don't want to do either one a wrong. What 
do you think?" 

The country doctor said nothing for a long while, and 
then: "Jim, it isn't mere curiosity on your part, is it?" 

"God, no I" 

"You really think you might find something useful?" 

"That's the point. It's all a gamble. I might, and again I 
might not." 

"You won't hurt the old fellow?" 

"Not if careful work will prevent it." 

"Then I think you should take the chance." 

The great surgeon looked his gratitude and relief. "That's 
what I thought you would say. Now I want you to look at 
this. It's an agreement to pay the man known as Billie Gun 
six hundred dollars annually for the rest of his life. I owe 
him something, and I think six hundred dollars is fair. The 
old man won't be without means that way. I have also agreed 
to aid him in every way I can to find his people. You don't 
think the county authorities would object to that, do you?" 

"Not the least in the world. Thev would be only too glad.'" 

"And Billie?" 


^ppfederat^ l/eterap. 

"Billie hasn't said anything but 'Yes, sir,' in forty years. 
He wouldn't know how to say 'No.' " 

"All right, then. We will go down to the clerk's office and 
tile this, and if the county authorities will agree to it I will 
write to Boston and ask Morton to come down at once. He 
is interested in such cases too." 

So Billie Gun for the second time in his life was moved, a 
humble pawn, his one square over the chess board of life. 

Three doctors and two nurses and several other people stood 
in the cheerless room in the poorhouse and watched the "man 
known as Billie Gun" come back to life. A pitiful, halting 
return it was, like a blind man groping his way through an 
unfamiliar room. From time to time the big hands, with their 
gnarled, discolored fingers, twitched restlessly, and occa- 
sionally an eyelid fluttered a brief second. Otherwise only a 
feeble pulse showed that life was still there. 

The minutes dragged slowly by ; the pulse became stronger. 
Suddenly the eyes opened wide, startled eyes, in them a look 
something akin to fear. 

" eat his supper in peace," the man muttered. Then he 

looked around dazedly. "What— what's this?" he said. 

Bending over him was a man he didn't know. He couldn't 
understand this at all. 

"Where are the boys?" he asked. 

"What boys, Billie?" said the unknown man. 

"What boys? The 35th New York." 

"Gone, Billie," said the other gently. "Gone these many 
years." Tears were in his eyes, for he had seen his comrades 
answer the last roll call, and Billie's question made his heart 
heavy indeed. 

Billie looked questioningly at the bare walls and out through 
the open window. Before him rose Piedmont Virginia, wave 
after wave of spring-touched green hill and vale, off in the 
distance the softly undulating Blue Ridge half veiled in pur- 
plish mist, a landscape that had unrolled before his eyes fif- 
teen years of summer and winter, spring and autumn, now 
an unknown land. His look came back to the bare room and 
fell on the old, old hands resting on the bed. Painfully he 
lifted one of them to his face and ran the fingers through a 
heavy beard. It was strange, passing strange. 

He lay still, very still, a moment and then closed his eyes 
again with a sigh. "O God t" murmured Billie O'Brien 
wearily, and died. 


In the cool, sweet hush of a wooded nook, 

Where the May buds sprinkle the green old mound 
And the winds and the birds and the limpid brook 

Murmur their dreams with a drowsy sound, 
Who lies so still in the plushy moss, 

With his pale cheek pressed on a breezy pillow. 
Crouched where the light and the shadows cross 

Through the flickering fringe of the willow? 
Who lies, alas ! 
So still, so chill in the whispering grass? 

Nor bird, nor moon, nor whispering wind 
May breathe the tale of the hollow ; 
Alas ! alas ! 
The secret is safe with the woodland grass. 



From the battle of Fort Steadman until we evacuated our 
lines at Petersburg was only eight days, and the enemy con- 
tented himself in our front by raining his mortar shells on 
us day and night, when he could have taken the position at 
any time by direct assault with his overwhelming forces. 
Our men stood in a very thin skirmish line facing them, but 
they never made an effort to drive us out. As far as our 
brigade and corps extended we held to the last, when we 
marched away unmolested. But farther to the right there 
were fewer defenders, and on the morning of April 2 the 
enemy massed his forces and made a determined attack. The 
few Confederates there made a stubborn fight and repulsed the 
enemy; but the fighting was renewed, and the little force of 
defenders was finally all killed. The way was now open for 
them to advance and take the city (Petersburg), but they 
had had enough fighting for the day and contented themselves 
with remaining quiet until the morning of the 3d, when they 
entered the place. Perhaps they thought General Lee had an 
inner line of works and had a trap set for them, or they had 
lost so heavily in the fight with the few Confederates at the 
fort that they did not care to renew the offensive. 

If our rations had been scant before the capture of Stead- 
man, they were now more so. Everything was demoralized, 
and we got only enough to keep soul and body together ; yet 
we felt that if we could only get out of those breastworks 
and bombproofs where we could once more straighten out 
our limbs and breathe the fresh air we would be willing to 
meet our enemy in the open field again. 

Events were taking place far to the right, of which we did 
not know, that brought about this very thing. Grant was 
massing his forces in that quarter on General Lee's thin lines 
in an effort to cut his communications and force him to sur- 
render. Our defenses were stripped to meet the combined 
armies of Grant and Sheridan; but all of these were no match 
for the great numbers of the enemy, and our men were out- 
flanked and defeated at Five Forks on March 26, the day 
after the capture of Fort Steadman. There was nothing now 
left to General Lee but to use his own judgment in evacuating 
Petersburg and Richmond, a thing which he would have done 
no doubt months before if he had not been hampered by in- 
structions from the authorities at Richmond. The situation 
for our army in January was hopeless. Everybody knew this 
except those who issued orders from our War Department 
to hold our lines. Everything of value to us could have been 
removed at that time to a place of safety, if there was such 
a place in the Confederacy, and the army could have been 
consolidated with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's. At last they 
woke up to the facts when it was too late to issue orders 
and the enemy was already too far toward our right and 
rear for us to escape. 

So we stood there facing the enemy for eight days after 
the fight and capture of Fort Steadman under their mortar 
shells, and on the morning of April 2 there was fighting some 
distance to our right. News came that our line was broken. 
Still the enemy in our front made no other demonstration 
except the usual shelling. We were ready for them and 
would have made them pay dearly for any success on their 
part. Night came on, and the brigade marched out of the 
works it had held since February as the full moon rose and 
lit up the landscape. I was ordered to remain in the works 
until midnight, when I would be relieved by an officer. My 
orders were to watch the movements of the enemy, but not 

Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 


to shoot. I was told that two of our pickets would be 
left with me, one on the extreme right of the line formerly 
held by the regiment and the other on the left, each some 
distance from me. As the regiment marched away I stood 
at my post and looked, as I thought, at an old regimental 
flag which I had followed through the smoke of so many 
battles and my comrades for the last time. Everything 
around me was still as a graveyard, except now and then the 
noise of a passing Minie ball or the explosion of a mortar 
shell. Far to the right the troops in that quarter were still 
holding their position, and a noisy fight was in progress ; but 
this finally ceased, and we alone of Lee's army, which had 
defied the power and resources of the United States so long, 
remained to face the enemy. 

When the moon reached the zenith and no officer came, I 
began to grow uneasy. For some time I was uncertain what 
course to pursue. Finally I decided to go to the left and 
see Haynes, thinking perhaps an officer was there with him. 
I found him on his post gazing in the direction of the enemy. 
He told me that no officer had been there. I asked him what 
we should do, but he could give me no advice. I suggested 
that perhaps the officer was with Williams, on the right, and 
proposed that we go and see. We did so, but did not find the 
officer of the day (night) there. Although I was the youngest 
• of the three, I proposed, as we had remained faithfully on 
post until the hour to be relieved and no officer had come and 
was not likely to come, that we take it upon ourselves to 
leave and follow the army. This met with their approval. 
and we started for the zigzag entrance which gave us a 
safe exit to a ravine in rear out of range of Minie balls. 
But beyond the ravine the ground was elevated and quite 
open. As we began the ascent we came into full view of the 
artillerymen in Fort Steadman, and they opened on us with 
their rifle cannon. At first we attempted to run. but we were 
so weak from our long fast and cramped condition in the 
breastworks that we found this impossible, and we slowed 
down and let them shoot. Their solid shot whizzed by us, 
but did us no harm. 

Great fires were raging in the city, for the authorities were 
burning the big warehouses filled with all kinds of army 
stores, and the flames were leaping skyward, illuminating the 
city and surrounding country. O how I wanted to go and 
get some of these before they were entirely consumed ! but 
my comrades were hurrying to get to the bridge before it 
should be blown up and would not listen to the suggestion. 
Straggling soldiers could be seen running about, some of 
whom had helped themselves freely to liquor and were not 
in a condition to navigate. A citizen trotting along and 
shoving a pushcart loaded with groceries from the burning 
warehouses struck an obstacle in the street and dumped his 
load on the ground. The head fell out of a barrel of flour, 
and I ran to it and filled my haversack, grabbed up a ham. 
and souzed my canteen into a barrel of syrup standing near 
by, while my comrades standing on the sidewalk were hurry- 
ing me up. It was well that I did this, as will later be seen. 

We w-ere soon at the bridge spanning the Appomattox, 
which I suppose is about fifty yards wide at this place. A 
man stood at the farther end waving a flaming torch and 
called to us to hurry across, as he was about to blow r it up. 
When we reached him we begged him not to be in too great 
a hurry, as many of our men were coming on and the town 
was full of stragglers, all of whom would be cut off with 
no means of getting to their commands. Others now came 
up, and we left them urging him to desist for a short while. 
When we reached the top of the hill, some distance away, 

we heard a big explosion, and, looking back, we saw the 
timbers of the bridge rising skyward and changing ends like 
arrows. How many of our men were cut off I cannot say, 
but I am certain there were some who had to swim that 
night or surrender the next morning. 

The night was far spent now, and we looked for a friendly 
fence corner, where we spread our blankets and were soon 
asleep. At daylight we struck out on track of the army. I 
was practically barefooted, but had the good luck to find a 
cast-off pair of shoes that fit my feet, and with these I 
marched with my comrades all day until I reached our com- 
mand. They were glad to see me, and especially my well- 
filled haversack, for they had not drawn anything to eat. I 
divided what I had with them with the understanding that 
they would repay me when rations w^ere issued. We did not 
know at the time that it would be days before we would get 
anything more to eat. This was the night of the 3d, and, 
if I remember correctly, we had nothing more until the night 
of the 8th. But we all felt cheerful and happy that we were 
no longer confined to the breastworks and the trying condi- 
tions in front of Fort Steadman. It would be impossible to 
describe the suffering of our men and army horses and mules 
from this time until General Lee finally surrendered at Ap- 
pomattox Courthouse. 

A great part of this suffering could have been avoided if 
our authorities at Richmond, for they had ample time and 
warning, had hauled those supplies which they burned at 
Petersburg to convenient points along our route, now the 
only one left by which we could hope to escape. Our poor, 
faithful animals were without feed and were unable to drag 
the trains along loaded with ammunition and other impedi- 
menta, so that General Lee had a large heap of shells piled 
up in one place and exploded to keep them out of the hands 
of the enemy. I was sorry that these could not be used in 
driving back our enemies, who were pressing us so unmerci- 
fully. We were almost continually under fire from the left 
flank and rear, but our brigade kept up their organization 
throughout the whole trying march and on several occasions 
stopped and repulsed our tormentors, only to be met again by 
others farther on. 

The wretched condition of our men grew worse from day 
to day until we reached Appomattox Courthouse at night on 
the 8th. Our brigade marched into a body of woods near the 
little village, and rations were issued to us. We kindled fires 
and were preparing the food when the rattle of small arms 
and the boom of cannon at the Courthouse were heard, and 
we were called to arms. We "fell in" and were marched to 
the scene of the trouble: but when we reached the place we 
found neither friend nor foe there, only the cannon abandoned 
by our men or the enemy standing in the courthouse square. 
We went back to our bivouac and fell down on our blankets 
for a short sleep and rest for the battle which we knew was 
inevitable the next morning. 

I was soon sound asleep, but an inaudible voice came to me 
that on the morrow I would fight my last battle and the war 
would be over. I woke at the call to arms just before day 
with this agreeable impression on my mind and took my place 
in the ranks. As we marched through the village the pieces 
of artillery abandoned early in the night w-ere still there. A 
public road runs through the place from north to south, and 
as we took our position on the east side of this in the early 
dawn we could see in the heavy fog that Rodes's old di- 
vision, which had done such wonderful fighting on so many 
battle fields, now reduced to only a few hundred, had already- 
arrived and were in line on the other side of the road, sup- 


^otyfederat^ Ueterap. 

ported by a battery of artillery posted on the roadside to 
their left. Our formation was hardly complete when the 
order was given to them to advance. They struck the enemy 
immediately, and as soon as they 'had disappeared in the fog 
the order came to us to move forward. Every man was 
ready to respond, and we had gone only a short distance when 
we were greeted by the bullets of the enemy. Our men 
rushed forward with their usual yell and a volley which broke 
the enemy immediately. We followed and captured a battery, 
which they may have abandoned purposely, and hred it at 
the retreating enemj', perhaps the last cannon fired by Lee's 
army. We were entirely unsupported on the left, and Rodes's 
men on the right were too weak to cope alone with the 
enemy on their right; but we were anxious to push our advan- 
tage still farther, when the order came to cease firnig. 

The thought flashed through our minds that perhaps Gen- 
eral Lee had surrendered the army. No language can ex- 
press our mingled feelings of sorrow and joy at the thought — 
sorrow that we had fought so long and suffered so much in 
vain : that so many of our brave comrades had sacrificed their 
lives for a cause that was not victorious, and especially for 
our noble old commander, whom we all loved and respected 
as a father: and joy that our sufferings and dangers were 
at last about to end. Tears were in the eyes of manj' as we 
reformed our ranks and started back toward the village. 
Looking back to the right and rear, we saw a man in blue 
uniform riding toward us # and waving a red handkerchief 
before him, while his long, curly, flaxen hair stood out be- 
hind him in the morning air. As he passed us he inquired 
who was in command. Some one replied : "General Gordon." 
A young soldier, with tears streaming down his cheeks, 
brought into position his gun to shoot and was in the act of 
doing so when some one knocked it up and said : "Don't ! 
Perhaps General Lee has surrendered, and it might cause 
trouble." He was a splendid marksman, and if he had not 
been hindered the bloody-minded tyrant Custer, the incen- 
diary who helped to burn out the Valley of Virginia, the 
murderer of our military scouts and inoffensive citizens, 
would never have lived to fight the Sioux Indians. Like 
Richard III of England, who fought for his crown and lost 
his life at Eosworth Field, he was a brave man, but cruel; 
like the lion-hearted Richard, he was brave, but his cruelty 
overshadowed his heroic conduct in battle. 

Looking from our elevated position south of the town, we 
could see far to the north the remnant of the army several 
miles away. General Lee was there and had arranged the 
terms of surrender; but we never saw him after this. We 
were marched into a field to the west of the road near the 
village, and there we stacked arms and parked our wagons. 
Two pounds of fresh beef were issued to each man, on which 
we subsisted the five days we remained there. The Yankees 
said it was all they had to give us, as Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. 
following their rear with a small brigade of cavalry, had 
destroyed two hundred and fifty wagons of their supply 
trains, and they had nothing but a herd of beef cattle to sub- 
sist upon. Every night I spread my blanket at the root of a 
small oak, and in the morning when I awoke I wondered how 
long it would be before I should be hungry enough to gnaw 
the bark off of it. 

The first night after the surrender a movement was started 
by some one in the brigade to seize our arms and rush through 
the lines of the enemy, make our way to the mountains, and 
there continue the war to the bitter end. We had torn our 
regimental flag from its staff and divided it into small pieces 
for each man to keep as a sacred relic. As soon as General 

Gordon heard of our intention he got up in a wagon and 
made us a speech, strongly condemning such course. He 
advised us to go peacefully to our homes and restore our 
country and our fortunes, praising us for our achievements 
and heroic conduct. His kind words had a good effect, and 
no effort was made to violate the terms of the surrender. 
He somewhere found a new flag, which he fastened to the 
old staff, and this one was surrendered. 

Finally, on the fifth morning, when all the Confederate 
troops were gone, we were ordered to take up our arms and 
were marched to the public road, where we found a long 
line of Yankee troops already formed and awaiting us about 
thirty feet on the other side. They appeared to be well fed 
and clothed, while we were ragged and almost dead from 
starvation. We were formed about thirty feet in front of 
them and stood there a few minutes, while not a word was 
spoken. Presently some one in the ranks of the enemy began 
to address us in the most opprobrious language. Then others 
joined in with him, using the vilest epithets. This continued 
for some time, when a mounted officer in the rear spoke to 
his men and told them to hush or he would break his sword 
over the head of the next offender, winding up by calling 
them a set of cowards and saying that those Confederate 
soldiers were brave men, and if they were half as brave they 
would have whipped them long ago. It was our time now, 
and every one of us yelled and cheered the officer. 

We were ordered to stack arms, and Colonel Lowe, of the 
31st Georgia Regiment, who w ! as in command of the brigade, 
told us if we had anything on our persons that belonged to 
the Confederacy to put if on the stacks. We divested our- 
selves of our cartridge boxes, and while we were doing this 
Captain Walker, our faithful old regimental commissary and 
quartermaster, who for the last two years had fed General 
Lee's whole army, spoke to us and said if we would follow 
him, Colonel Lowe, and Dr. Butts, our surgeon, that day they 
would conduct us to where we could get meal, and if we 
would follow them the second day we could get meal and 
meat. They rode off slowly as we broke ranks, and we tried 
to keep in sight of them ; but many of us were so weak from 
hunger that at first we could go only a very short distance 
without becoming exhausted. We gained strength gradually 
as the day advanced and at dark reached a mill twenty-four 
miles from where we started. Captain Walker had ridden 
ahead and put the miller to work grinding corn for us. I 
had a new tin cup, a spoon, and a frying pan, and with these 
I soon had a hoecake, the sweetest morsel I ever ate. My 
frying pan cooked many such cakes that night for my com- 
rades. The next day we followed our guides twenty-six 
miles to another mill, where we got meal and meat to last us 
to Danville, where we got a full supply and transportation to 
Greensboro, N. C. 

Persecution 1 . — * * * In addition to the Southampton mas- 
sacre and the failure of the legislature to enact any effective 
legislation, the contemporary rise of the Abolitionists in the 
North came as an even more powerful factor to embarrass the 
efforts of the Virginia emancipators. Unlike the antislaverj' 
men of former years, this new school not only attacked the 
institution of slavery, but the morality of the slaveholders and 
their sympathizers. In their fierce arraignment not only 
were the humane and considerate linked in infamy with- the 
cruel and intolerant, but the whole population of the slave- 
owning States, their civilization and their morals, were the 
object of unrelenting and incessant assaults. — Beverly Mun- 

Qoi}federat^ Ueterai), 





In the spring of 1863 an ambulance driven by a Confed- 
erate soldier stopped by the "big gate" of Mountain View, the 
home of Mr. Charles H. Payne, of Giles County, Va. Ex- 
pecting to find a wounded Confederate soldier, Miss Lizzie, 
the young daughter of Mr. Payne, hastened to the gate. The 
driver remarked; "Miss Payne, this is one time you will not 
want to &o anything for the soldier. We have at last cap- 
tured the famous Yankee, Colonel Rucker. and we are taking 
him to prison, provided 
he lives to get there." 

Miss Payne thought she 
: hated a Yankee with a 
holy hatred, but her heart 
was touched when she 
discovered that Colonel 
Rucker was ill. She told 
the driver he must wait : 
she could not let him go 
until she had made the 
prisoner comfortable. 
She gave him medicine 
! and delicacies and did 
everything in her power 
to make the journey to 
Richmond less arduous. 
This incident was soon 
forgotten by the family. 

During the summer her 
brother, E. F. Payne, of the 24th Virginia Infantry, a daring, 
reckless boy, was captured by the Yankees. He was made 
to march miles through mud almost to his knees and was 
taken to a Yankee camp for the night. In the middle of the 
night in a seemingly mysterious way a Yankee overcoat and 
cap were given to him, and the guards disappeared. Young 
Payne, of course, made his escape. 

In May, 1S64, Mr. Payne's home was invaded by a number 
of General Averill's men. One soldier said to Miss Payne : 
"We want the keys to old Charley Payne's wine cellar, and 
we want them d — quick too. We have heard what is there 
and mean to have it." Upon being told that there was nothing- 
there some of the men ran to the cellar door, knocked it in, 
but found the cellar empty. The contents had been hidden 
elsewhere. Another soldier yelled : "Here is a closet under 
the steps, and we know what that means." 

A forty-gallon barrel of old brandy was rolled out in the 
hall. Miss Payne told one of the officers that if he would 
keep the men quiet and get the large buckets from the kitchen 
she would hold the buckets while he tilted the barrel, and they 
could carry the brandy out in the yard to the men. 

The officer, who was about half drunk, knocked out the 
bung, and the brandy began to gush out. Every few minutes 
he would swear and ask if the buckets were not full. Miss 
Payne kept filling the buckets, and soon her clothes were 
saturated, and the fine old brandy was several inches deep on 
the floor. The soldiers dashed into the house like wild men, 
some dipping it up in their hands, while others dropped on the 
floor, drinking like madmen. 

One burly, rough-looking man went into the parlor and 
said to Miss Payne: "Your fine curtains and mahogany will 
make good kindling. We intend to burn your house." He- 
began striking matches to set the curtains on fire, but as fast 
as he struck one Miss Payne would knock it out of his hand. 

He asked her if she was not afraid. Her eyes flashed, and 
she told him no. He then remarked: "You are such a d — n 
plucky little d— 1 that some of Averill's men will marry you in 
spite of j'ourself. We Yankees all like Southern girls." 

In the midst of this pandemonium an officer sprang through 
the door and said: "Miss Payne, I suppose you have heard of 
me. I am a horse thief, nigger thief, and bridge burner." 
She thought they were doomed, as she and her step-mother, 
a mere girl, were alone and at the mercy of a band of drunken 
soldiers. At the approach of the bluecoats the negroes had 
fled to the mountains. But this Yankee officer was their de- 
liverer. He began giving orders and brandishing his sword, 
and in an unbelievable time every soldier was out of the house. 
He then asked her if she remembered the year before when 
she had shown kindness to a poor sick Union soldier under 
guard on his way to prison. This was the same Colonel 
Rucker who was taken to prison and afterwards escaped. He- 
had saved her brother from prison and her father's house 
from destruction. 

He then told her: "You saved my life, and I have done 
what I could for your brother and yourself, and now I want 
to ask you some questions. Will you tell me just the position 
of the Confederate forces in this section?" 

She replied : "You know Colonel Jackson is guarding Gap 
Mountain and Colonel Jenkins's command is at the Nanono." 

Colonel Rucker replied : "Yes, I know that." 

Miss Payne then said : "Did you know that General Mc- 
Causland is marching from Staunton?" 

He sprang to his feet and exclaimed, "My God ! they will 
have us like a rat in a trap." He rushed out of the house, 
giving orders as he ran. In a few minutes a veritable inferno 
had broken loose — soldiers double-quicking, horses rearing 
and plunging, oath after oath mingled with the orders of the 
officers, wagons overturned and fired, crasn'ing of timbers, and 
deafening explosions of ammunition. They were trying to 
make their escape over Salt Pond Mountain, now known as 
Mountain Lake. 

The wagons loaded with supplies were left burning, but 
many were not entirely destroyed. Coffee was scattered for 

After the army had gone the people living in the mountains 
in little cabins and desperately poor, the men all in the army, 
gathered up cloth and provisions enough to last them for 

Miss Payne knew that if General Averill's men remained 
on her father's farm the entire section of country would be 
ruined. She knew nothing whatever of the position of Gen- 
eral McCausland's command, and she did not tell Colonel 
Rucker that McCausland was marching from Staunton, but 
asked him if he knew he was. 

Several years later at a social function in West Virginia 
this incident was mentioned, and a gentleman present re- 
marked : "Madam, I was one of the lieutenants at that time ; 
and if it is any comfort to you, I can assure you that the 
way you misled Colonel Rucker gave us one of the very 
hardest experiences we ever had and cost the Northern army 
thousands upon thousands of dollars in the loss of supplies 
and ammunition." 

Miss Payne's entire girlhood was spent amid the most 
perilous and trying scenes, her life many times in danger, her 
brother (Capt. W. H. Payne, 24th Virginia Infantry, after- 
wards Payne's Rangers) was killed at the head of his com- 
mand leading them to battle, and her home and life were con- 
stantly threatened by the deserters. Yet she met every vicissi- 
tude with a dauntless courage that never wavered. 



^o^federat^ Ueterai). 

On April 13, 1865, Elizabeth Payne became the bride of the 
gallant young officer, Capt. Thomas A. Roberts, quartermaster 
Company A, 22d Virginia Infantry. They endured the priva- 
tions and hardships of the Reconstruction period cheerfully 
and were granted more than fifty happy years together. 

Mrs. Roberts was a charter member of the Southern Cross 
Chapther, of Salem, Va., and always active in Confederate 
work. She loved the Confederacy with an undying love and 
clung tenaciously to the old Southern ideals. Her sunny dis- 
position and lovely Christian character were an inspiration ; 
her life was a benediction. She was the most devoted wife, 
tenderest mother, affectionate sister, and loyal friend. On 
November 22, 1920, after a lingering illness, God called her to 
her heavenly home. Mrs. Roberts is survived by her husband 
and four children— C. R. Roberts and Mrs. Rosalynd Roberts 
Evans, of Salem, and T. A. Roberts, Jr.. and Henry H. 
Roberts, of Pulaski, Va. 

She sleeps, but her influence lives. 



There is with all of us the memory of some magical place 
where the sky was blue and bluer, where the stars seem to 
have come out of the pale distant depths of heaven for the 
express purpose of transforming our everyday life into one 
of romance. 

Old letters, faded flowers, or even the passing of an in- 
tangible and volatile perfume will bring back to us memories 
that are actual moral personages, so necessary to our happi- 
ness that we bear them under a sacred arch, sheltered from 
all injury and from all contact. 

Such were my thoughts when looking over an old auto- 
graph album (a gift now obsolete) presented to a kinswoman 
back in the early fifties by an aunt whose husband had the 
distinction of being Minister to the Court of St. James. 

In turning these pages, bearing the autographs of many 
who have long since passed to a place somewhere beyond the 
stars, I wondered if after so many years I could weave a 
mantle of dreams to fit my fancy what must this old album 
have meant to the possessor to whom the nearness and dear- 
ness of personality ever remained. However, it shows time 
that was taken leisurely, moving with dignity, but savoring 
of wise philosophy and subtle honor, as in the good old days 
one savored the bouquet of vintage wines. 

There is a tradition in the family that this same old aunt, 
after leaving the courts of England and coming back to the 
small provincial town of her birth, had been so far contami- 
nated by the frivolities of the Old World as to commit the 
unpardonable (?) sin of appearing at meetin' in a hat draped 
in a black lace scarf, actually topped off with a red rose. 

Such unseemly conduct called forth the wrath of her min- 
ister, who, as a messenger of peace and a healer of souls, 
felt it encumbent upon him for the protection of his flock 

tc have a meeting of the governing board and "Sister" 's 

name taken from the membership list until a time when she 
would repent of having taken such liberties with the conven- 
tions of that period and saw fit to come back into the paths 
of rectitude. 

I wonder what those dear, sainted brethren would think if 
they could rise up and see the styles of this day and time, 
when the dresses are worn at wading length and as revealing 
as an X-ray? 

However, despite the episode of the filmy lace scarf and 

the red, red rose. Aunt must have done penance for her 
thoughtless indiscretion, donned accordingly some sober 
bonnet in keeping with the tenets of her Church, and quietly 
resumed her seat on the side where the "lambs were separated 
from the goats" (in those days it was customary for the men 
and women to sit on the opposite sides of the church), for 
the faded inscription on the time-yellowed page shows deep 
religious principles, reading as it does, "To Elizabeth, child 
of God, self-reverence, self-knowledge, and self-control ; 
these three alone lead life to sovereign power," the inscription 
concluding with the twenty-second verse of the thirty-third 
Psalm and the year 1851. 

Aunt retires from the scene now, and we have a mental 
picture of Elizabeth, with eyes of Irish blue and hair of 
satiny sheen, parted severely and brought down over her 
ears and done in a low coil at the back of a swanlike neck. 
A rosebud is pinned coyly on the side, proclaiming her the 
coquette that she is, while we know that her dress, fashioned 
of silk that "stood alone," was worn over a hoop skirt of 
voluminous proportions and must have been of that shade 
called "ashes of roses." Her shoulders, too, of snowy white- 
ness were enfolded around by a fichu of rarest lace, possibly 
a relic of Aunt's reckless Old World days, and held together 
by a pearl-encircled cameo, completing the picture. 

Next we visualize the parlor, where, placed in geometrical 
precision, is the upholstered horehair furniture, wax flowers 
under a glass case on a "whatnot" standing over in the cor- 
ner. On the opposite side of the room is an ancient piano- 
forte of severe design, and should you care to observe a 
little closer you would find resting on the music rack that 
sweet, doleful old ballad, "The Years Creep Slowly by, 
Lorena," and conveniently near a well-worn copy of Gospel 

Upon the floor you would not see rugs laid around at ran- 
dom, but a carpet evidently woven by some poetical weaver 
who had been fond of autumn leaves and old-fashioned 
flower gardens, a fire of glowing embers behind a highly 
polished fender, while last, but not least, the "piece de re- 
sistance," a center table of carved mahogany and marble- 
topped, whereon is kept the family Bible and Elizabeth's 
autograph album. 

The sentiments of the first gay, gallant knight (the absence 
of feminine handwriting is noticeable) were penned at a 
famous watering place in Virginia, the playground of belles 
and beaux for more than a century. The time is September 
11, 1853. when doubtless the day was as beautiful as any 
summer day, only the leaves were falling : and he was going 
away, it reads : 

"Soon I these familiar scenes will leave, 
Where I, delighted, would ever tarry ; 
But duty calls, and can I grieve 

For that which I should never parry? 

When far away I think of thee, 

Thy sparkling eye and face so pretty. 

O sometimes then remember me. 
Pining, dying for Miss !" 

Another, a more formal knight, who makes his S's like 
F's, being a guest at the same place, is next in order and 
with a touch of levity writes : 

"I have the honour to be, 
My dear Misstress B, 
Yours most respectfullee." 

Orange Courthouse, Va. 

(S. H. Carey.) 

Qopfederat^ l/eterag. 


It seems that the Old Dominion State was the setting 
for the first budding of love's young dream, for in turning 
the next few pages one is almost startled by the sentiments 
of another whose heart strings are evidently familiar with a 
greater harmony than friendship, but, being a man, who can 
tell? 'Anyway, with almost a note of anguish he writes: 

"Just beyond life's flowing river, 
Just beyond life's crystal sea, 
Where the slanting moonbeans quiver, 
Darling, I will wait for thee. 

Wait for thee in all thy beauty. 

Oblivious to all life's storms, 
Waiting, waiting just to hold you 

Safe forever in my arms." 

This bears the date of midsummer, and I like to picture 
Henry Ogden (for that is his name) and Elizabeth standing 
somewhere in the scented shadows of a languid moonlit 
night strung to the strains of the sensuous music of the 
"Blue Danube Waltzes" and lost in a reverie to all things 
beautiful. I even like to think Elizabeth kissed him, for to 
one who expresses himself in such rapturous terms kisses 
would be as full of sanctity as the touch of holy bread. 

The next contribution to this old album, so full of tender 
memories, moves a little closer home and is signed by a name 
still well known in the old Palmetto State: 

"Something original, fair lady. 
From me you fain would win? 
I've nothing original in me 
Unless 'tis original sin." 

(Henry MiddletoiO 
Charleston. S. C. 1856. 

From Carolina, our cousin State, we turn to one, perhaps a 
type of American rolling stone, who does not write his name, 
but signs himself "An Exile from Missouri" ; but well wo 
know that a sphere of harmony and peace detained his wan- 
dering footsteps and that Elizabeth's old-fashioned parlor 
was second home to him as he sat on the rigid slippery horse- 
hair sofa and wrote : 

"Too young to talk of love 

And of course not old enough to lecture. 
What to write or what to say 
Is a matter of conjecture." 

On the next page there is something of a shielding and 
protective nature in the lines written and signed by J. Walker 
Percy, of Nashville, Tenn, and the year is 1856: 

"Come, let me weave. O maiden fair, 
A wreath to shield thy brow from care ; 
A wreath of fragrant, deathless flowers 
To cheer through life thy darkest hours." 

And would you believe that erudite statesman, L. Q. C. 
Lamar, of Mississippi, could step down and for once lay 
aside his judicial dignity long enough to pen this bit of 
foolish rhyme? 

"When all your friends forsake you 
And loved ones love you not, 

Then come to me, dear , 

As fast as you can trot." 

Lamar, however, at the time of writing this had not taken 
his scat as judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
that honor coming as late as 1887. Still this only goes tc 

prove that "a little nonsense now and then is relished by the 
wisest men." 

Turning farther, we find the next two pages written op- 
posite the other, each bearing the same date, and we are con- 
vinced that these two gallant beaux, hailing from their re- 
spective States, Tennessee and Arkansas, had called the after- 
noon of a perfect day to pay court to their lady love and 
had seated themselves amid the fragrance of climbing roses 
and the sunlit greenery of the wide, white-columned portico. 
Elizabeth, I fancy, has kept them waiting, and as a reward 
for their patience the hospitable old butler is handing a silver 
tray on which there is something to cheer the inner man. 
In those days every occasion, from a christening to a funeral, 
was mellowed by the passing of rare old wines : but, the time 
being June. I am sure that mint juleps in white-frosted glasses 
must have beer <Fe inspiration for the following : 

"Let schoolmasters puzzle their brains 

With grammar and nonsense and learning; 
Good liquor, I stoutly maintain. 
Gives genius a better discerning." 

These forceful four lines are signed by J. McCuen, of Ten- 
iessee, sister State, you will observe, to Kentucky: while 
the other, a Mr. W. M. Bradford, of Pine Bluff, Ark., con- 
icits nimself with Ben Johnson's famous lines: 

"Drink to me only with thine eyes, 
And I will pledge with mine." 

Now we turn to a time that left us graves unmarked and 
memories, the War between the States, and the year is 1861. 
This rollicking soldier boy. mayhap the type who loves and 
rides away, signs himself "Major General Loring," and his 
contribution is written in a facetious vein, as follows : 

"If I forget thee ever, 
Then let me prosper never, 
But let it cause 
My tongue and jaws 
To cling and cleave together." 

Then comes a sailor lad. and, written in a feminine hand, a 
footnote which says: "Lost at sea." He signs himself with 
initials only, W. 5. M., and writes: 

"Through life's winding valley, in anguish, in rest. 
Exalted in joy or by sorrow depressed, 
From its place in the mirror that lies on my heart 
Thine image shall never one moment depart." 

Last, but far be it from least, the next charming sentiment 
expressed, we are convinced, was penned by a man who must 
have been possessed of that magic gift which in the other sex 
turns the blood of men to old Burgundy and the blood of 
some woman to vinegar. Some designate this power uncon- 
scious hypnotism, others excessive personal magnetism. Any- 
way, the person who is possessed of that odd, nameless gift 
can pick and choose, and they usually do ; and so my flexible 
fancy is again set a-dreaming as I picture him standing by 
the marble-topped table, manner debonnaire, with just a 
touch of light humor, yet with a dignity born of courageous 
forbears and splendid traditions as he writes this subtle auto- 
graph. It is signed by none other than the gallant Wade 
Hampton, and the year is 1861 : 

"Meh Lady: My heart is infused with love, but to that -love 
peace is wanting." 

There are more, many more, all declaring love undying and 
friendships lasting; but I have chosen only at random such 


^oijfederac^ Ifeterai). 

as appealed to me and whose pen had left the imprint of a 
vivid personality. 

Elizabeth never married. Whether she remained true to 
the soldier boy who loved and rode away or the sailor lad 
at sea. I never knew. However, I always thought she would 
have been the fit companion for the quiet fires of some home 
man's hearth. She lived beyond the threescore years and 
ten allotted to man and was laid to rest amid the down- 
drifting leave? of a late November day and at an hour when 
the twilight was drawing its shadowy veil over the world 
Close by is "Aunt." upon whose marble slab ''the name and 
dates time with mossy hand almost obliterates." However, 
by carefully pushing aside the ivy vines that seem to hold 

the old grave in an affectionate embrace one can read. " . 

consort of ." and we know she died when this vain world 

was younger by many years. We also feel that her greatest 
sin was the frailty of a feminine fancy for a filmy lace scarf 
and the love of a red, red rose. 

I close the old album that had held in sacret trust these 
many years the autographs of those who are now drifting 
dust, yet even as drifting dust they had wafted rae on the 
wings of fancy to the "Port o' Dreams." 

As I put it back in its place upon the shelf of a musty 
antiquated bookshelf I lifted it tenderly, feeling that it should 
have been laid away reverently among sprigs of rosemary in 
remembrance of better days and vanished splendors. I even 
felt that I had clasped hands across the space of years wit: 
those whose names were now paling on the time-yellowea 
pages, and as I turned the key I held silent communion with 
the poet who wrote : 

"When all our hopes and fears are dead 

And all our hearts are cold, 
Then love is like a tune that's played 
And life a tale that's told." 



The article in the Veteran for September, 1920, by J. A. 
Stevens, of Burnet, Tex., and the response to it in the No- 
vember issue by Airs. H. F. Lewis, of Bristol, Tenn., all in 
regard to the death and last expressions of Gen. Lewis 
Armistead after that famous charge of Pickett's men at Get- 
tysburg on the 3d of July, 1863. bring out this statement 
from me. 

The first histories written after the war stated that General 
Armistead was killed on the field, which I had to correct 
through the public journals. He died, as well as I remember, 
about 9 a.m. on July 5 after intense suffering. I never shall 
forget his request after we were moved to a temporary 
hospital beneath the shade of some trees. "Please don't step 
so close to me," said he to the surgeons and nurses as he 
lay on the cot on the ground. ' 

We started on the charge, as history tells, with approxi- 
mately five thousand men. My company (G, 28th Virginia) 
had eighty-eight men, and only seven answered at roll call 
that night — some killed, some wounded, and some missing. 
Genera! Garnett was on the right, General Kemper bringing 
up the left, and Armistead in the center. As we "marched 
through the valley of death" and after we crossed the Em- 
mettsburg road our men began to f:il! fast. The colonel of 
the 28th Virginia, R. C. Allen, was killed after we had got- 
ten within some two hundred yards of the stone fence. The 
next officer T saw fall was General Garnett. We then crossed 

the stone fence almost at the mouth of Cushing's Philadelphia 
Battery, and here is where General Armistead fell. I was 
a little to his left and had passed only a few paces when I 
fell, unconscious as to what was going on. During the after- 
noon General Armistead, myself, and quite a number of of- 
ficers were removed to the temporary hospital over beyond 
Cemetery Heights. 

While on our way to the trees where we were taken no 
one stopped our carriers but once, and he seemed to be an 
ambulance officer or surgeon, who only directed the ambu- 
lance party. I am confident that no one spoke to General 
Armistead en route to those trees, as we were quite close to 
each other. What may have taken place at the hospital I 
am not prepared to say. 

While at the peace meeting at Gettysburg in 1913, standing 
where General Armistead fell, a man and his wife approached 
the spot where I fell just fifty years before, this being to 
the left of where Armistead fell and some ten steps in ad- 
vance, where I stuck a stick in the ground to indicate the 

The man proved to be a member of Cushing's Battery of 
Philadelphia, if I am not mistaken. He said to his wife: 
"Here is where I killed the only Rebel I know of during the 
war. I may have killed others, but this is the only one I 
know I killed, and if that was away from my mind I would 
feel free in saying I never killed any one that I know of.'' 
She said : "It is too bad that you killed him." He replied 
that the man must have been crazy; that he was an officer and 
was waving his hat above his head and halloaing: "Come 
on, boys." 

At this I knew I was the one referred to, and I thought I 
would relieve his mind. So I said to him : "I am the man 
you killed, but I am a pretty lively corpse." He stepped back, 
and I saw he was shocked, so I said : "Here is where the 
ball entered my left cheek, and here is where it came out at 
the back of my head." 

He then grasped my hand and inquired my name and gave 
me his. He introduced me to his wife, and they very in- 
sistently invited me to go over to the hotel where they were 
stopping and take dinner with them. But, owing to press- 
ing business at the time, I could not go. I had been made 
adjutant general of Pickett's Division for the bogus charge 
and was pressed for time. However, this man and I began 
a correspondence and kept it up until I moved from Kansas 
City to Steedman, in Calloway County, Mo., some six years 

I want to make an appeal to the contributors of the Vet- 
i rax. Please do not fail to send reminiscences of 1861 to 
1863, as our Army of Northern Virginia never lost a battle 
within that time. I like to read the war stories of 1863-65, 
but after the Gettysburg fight the news was not so interesting 
or pleasing to us. 


The following contributions appeared in the Baltimore Sun 
some months ago giving similar incidents of unusual character 
related by comrades of the War between the States. The 
first is by Channing M. Smith, of Delaplane. Va„ who was 
one of Stuart's Cavalry, A. N. V. He writes : 

"In bis history of the operations of Stuart's Cavalry Maj. 
H. M. McClelland, adjutant general of Stuart's Corps, gives 
an account of the following incident which occurred during 
the big cavalry fight at Brandy Station, Va. General Butler 
and Captain Farley, the latter of General Stuart's staff, were 

QpT)federat% Ueterai). 


tanding side by side, with their horses' heads turned in oppo- 
ite directions, when a shell from the enemy's battery struck 
|he ground, ricochetted, cut off Butler's right leg above the 
nkle, passed through his horse, Farley's horse, and carried 
-way Farley's leg at the knee. 

"The Hon. John T. Rhett. of South Carolina, quoting from 

leneral Eutler, who survived and ably represented his native 

((State of South Carolina in the United States Senate from 

877 to 1895, says : 'It was a scene which for knightly courtesy 

nd heroism cannot be surpassed. I saw that a shot fired by 

he enemy's gun had taken effect in a small group of men 

tanding near me. We took Captain Farley out of a blanket, 

In which he had been placed, and put him in an old trough. 

le was very cool, even pleasant and smiling, though evidently 

;n great pain. Just as we were about to send him away, 

Pointing to the leg, which had been cut off by the shell, be 

i.sked me to bring it to him. I did so. He took it and 

iressed it to his bosom, as one would a child, and said, smil- 

ng: "It is an old friend, gentlemen. I do not wish to part 

vith it." He then said: "Good-by and forever. I know my 

:ondition, and we will not meet again." Courteously, even 

.miling, he nodded to us as the men bore him away. He died 

vithin a few hours.' 

I "I knew Captain Farley well. He was admired by all who 
'cnew him for his splendid courage. He was one of General 
5tuart's favorites, and few Confederate officers had as many 
: riends. He often went scouting into the enemy's lines, gen- 
erally alone, and frequently brought back prisoners, sometimes 
:avalry with their horses and equipment. I was with him 
}n one occasion when he captured several Yankee officers, 
with their horses." 

Dr. J. E. Copeland, of Round Hill, Va., relates the follow- 

"A similar incident occurred in the battle of Spotsylvania, 
Dn May 7, 1864, in which two gallant young officers lost their 
lives. Charles H. Ball, of Loudoun County, Va., captain of 
Company K, 6th Virginia Cavalry, and Dr. Virgil Weaver, of 
Fauquier County, were side by side on their horses when a 
cannon ball tore off Captain Ball's leg, passed through his 
horse, tore off Captain Weaver's leg, and killed his horse. 
Captain Ball was carried to Richmond and died on May 14 
and was buried in the beautiful and consecrated Hollywood. 
Captain Weaver died during amputation of his limb and was 
buried, in compliance with his oft-expressed desire that if he- 
should fall in battle, where he fell. Relatives, through the 
kindness of the U. D. C, erected a suitable marker over his 
grave, in which he still lies in the lonely and historic wilder- 

"In his eulogy of Captain Farley Lieutenant Smith modestly 
refrains from any credit for the capture of the Yankee of- 
ficers and horses when he was with Captain Farley, and by 
his silence leaves the impression that Farley alone effected 
the capture ; but those who know the war record of Comrade 
Smith cannot accept his version that he was not an active 
participant, if not the leader, in this enterprise, as he was in 
many others equally daring. Lieutenant Smith was a youth. 
but a brave and skillful officer and was one of General Lee's 
most trusted and efficient scouts and received from his great 
commander written testimonials in which he is accredited with 
obtaining knowledge of the enemy's movements that con- 
tributed to some of the successful strategies and consequent 
victories for which General Lee and Stonewall Jackson are 
so celebrated." 

To this complimentary report Lieutenant Smith replies: "I 
disclaim any credit for information gained from the enemy 


for Stonewall Jackson, as I was not with -him in any of his 
valley campaigns. I was scout for Generals Lee and Stuart 
and was constantly in the enemy's lines day and night and 
did have the honor of being complimentad by both of these 
generals, but, like thousands of others, I only did my duty. 
While I was with Captain Farley, he deserves the credit of 
capturing the officers. Mjr experience during the war was that 
Yankees were not hard to capture, especially, as Gen. Fitz 
Lee used to say, 'when you got the bulge on 'em.' " 



I am induced to write this account of an artillery duel in 
which my battery was engaged by reading in the December 
Veteran an account by Captain Ritter of an artillery duel 
which took place at Jackson, Miss., for which he claims that 
"history nowhere records the concentration of so many pieces 
of artillery focused on a single object as that at Jackson" 
and that "it is unprecedented in the annals of time." So I 
want to give him and other readers of the Veteran some 
account of an artillery duel which took place on the 19th of 
September, 1862, which was the second day after the battle 
of Antietam, between Colonel Nelson's battalion, consisting 
of three batteries (Milledgeville Artillery, of Georgia, and the 
Amherst Artillery and the Fluvanna Artillery, of Virginia), 
and the united batteries of the Federal army. The former 
occupied the heights overlooking the ford on the Virginia 
side of the Potomac, while the latter had positions on the 
Maryland heights. 

The day before the battle of Antietam, when both armies 
were going into position, there came an order from General 
Lee to our Colonel Nelson to move his battalion across the 
river and take position on the heights overlooking Blackford's 
Ford. This order came to us as a great surprise, knowing 
that the battle would be fought in Maryland ; and while 
crossing the river many of our artillerymen asked the ques- 
tion : "What does this mean?" Some of the more knowing 
ones said: "A wise general always provides for a defeat." 
And this was but another example of good generalship which 
our beloved Lee had shown on many a battle field. He knew 
if his army should be overpowered and had to make a hasty 
retreat to the ford that "without these batteries in position, 
manned by true and brave artillerymen to repel the onslaught 
of the enemy, his whole army or a large portion of it might 
be captured. 

The battle was a drawn one, and on the following day 
under a flag of truce both armies buried their dead. That 
night and the next morning General Lee's army recrossed the 
Potomac, and when our rear guard had crossed over it was 
then that it seemed the whole artillery force of the Yankee 
army came up and occupied the heights on the Maryland 
side of the river, and for about three hours they poured shot 
and shell into us. It seemed at times that the last one of us 
would be killed. They had artillery in front of us, artillery 
to the right of us, and artillery to the lei't of us, while we 
were at the little end of the funnel, so to speak. At times 
a solid shot would stike the ground, ricochet, and throw out a 
hole large enough to bury one of us in, throwing dirt and 
gravel in our faces, which served to make the conflict more 
alarming. While it was going on with great fury we wished 
most earnestly for a cessation of hostilities. The sun seemed 
not to move, for we felt the conflict would not end until 
dark, which was the case. 

Strange to say, our casualties were but few. I can account 

6 4 

^Q^federat^ l/eterap. 

for it in on other way than that our artillery made it so hot 
tor the "Yanks" but few of their guns got our range. They 
had the advantage in position, but failed to lower their guns 
sufficiently. Thus most of their shots went over our heads, 
which "scared us to death, but no one was hurt." 

So I claim that from the number of the enemy's guns 
focused on a single battalion of only twelve pieces this ar- 
tillery duel deserves to be placed among "the greatest in the 
annals of time." 



Some time ago an inquiry appeared in the Veteran directed 
to Waul's Texas Legion and the 20th and 30th Alabama Regi- 
ments about a certain regimental flag, to which I have seen no 
response ; so I will tell about a flag that was captured by us 
and Waul's Texas Legion which may or may not be the flag 
referred to. 

I was a member of Company I, 20th Alabama Regiment, 
Col. J. W. Garrett, Lieut. Col. E. W. Pettus, S. D. Lee's 
brigade, Waul's Legion supporting us. The 46th Alabama 
supported the largest fort on our line. It was located on the 
south side of the deep cut of the Jackson and Vicksburg Rail- 
road, which was at the left of our brigade. There was a 
small hollow, or ravine, running from the railroad south in 
front of us and a high ridge on the east of it running south 
for a mile, I suppose. The Yanks formed on the east side of 
the ridge at the lower end. They came over in double-quick- 
time, four abreast. There was a deep gully in the side of the 
ridge about two hundred yards from the fort of which the 
Yanks were not aware. When the head of the column 
reached it there was a halt to enable the front ones to get 
down in it, which caused a solid massing along the ridge. 
We swept that ridge three times, but some of them got to the 
ditch around the fort, among them being a colonel and three 
flag bearers, who planted their flags on top of the parapet. 
The men of the 46th retreated to the rear. Colonel Waul 
and Lieutenant Colonel Pettus rushed in with volunteers and 
held the fort. About a dozen Yankees were killed trying to 
regain their flags. Colonel Pettus got one of the flags and 
Lieutenant Martin, one of General Lee's aids, got the regi- 
mental flag, which was the finest flag I ever saw. and it 
belonged to the 20th Wisconsin Regiment. It was very heavy 
dark-blue silk, bordered with gold fringe about four inches 
deep, and in the center of the flag was a large eagle with 
wings partly spread. On a wide scroll, which circled above 
the eagle's head and then under its feet, were these words in 
large letters : "We march to victory or to death." 

I don't know what Lieutenant Martin did with the flag, 
but I supposed he turned it over to General Lee. The other 
two flags were United States battle flags, one large and one 
small. Colonels Waul and Pettus threw hand grenades in the 
ditch, and the Yankees surrendered, there being only thirty 
of them, including the colonel, whose name I never heard. 

Col. I. W. Garrett was killed in one of the forts while in- 
specting the Yankee works. Brig. Gen. E. D. Tracy com- 
manded our brigade until he was killed on May 1 at Port 
Gibson; then Gen. S. D. Lee took command. The brigade 
was composed of the 20th, 23d, 30th, 31st, and 46th Alabama 
Regiments. After the siege General Lee was promoted to 
major general of cavalry and Lieutenant Colonel Pettus made 
brigadier general and given command of our brigade, com- 
manding it the rest of the war. Seeing Colonel Waul's name 

mentioned in the inquiry, and knowing that he supported us, I 
supposed the 20th Wisconsin flag was the one referred to. 

Our works (trenches) around Vicksburg were very in- 
ferior, and on the 4th of July I was talking to a Yankee lieu- 
tenant who had walked over and was examining the works 
when he remarked : "Had we known you boys had such sorry 
works, we would have been over you long ago." 

"Well," said I, "why didn't you walk over us on the 22d of 
May, for the works are better now than then?" 

"Well," said he, "you did us up mighty bad that day, I must 
acknowledge, but we were coming over you to-day anyway." 
Then said I: "How many did you expect to lose?" 
Said he: "About fifteen thousand. Pretty good toll, eh?" 
And we had only eighteen thousand effective men at the 
surrender after forty-six days' and nights' siege. 



I have read with interest Comrade Callaway's reminiscence 
on the raid through the Mississippi swamps by Ross's Bri- 
gade in January, 1864, which appeared in the September Vet- 
eran. His recollection corresponds with mine so far as he 
seems to have taken part, but the worst of this service he 
does not reveal, and it will require a more forcible writer 
than I to overdraw the great risk and suffering that some 
of Ross's Brigade at least were subjected to during this raid. 

I was a member of Company E, 6th Texas. General Ross 
had made his way to the bank of the river, and we were very 
comfortably situated in a large negro quarter that had been 
vacated. About nine o'clock at night General Ross called for 
a detail to get the guns to the west side of the river, which 
he said must be accomplished before daylight. Nine of us 
were to take charge of the boat, which we had dragged nearly 
a mile with eight large oxen. When we launched the boat 
it show r ed many leaks, and General Ross told us to tear up 
blankets and stop the leaks, which we did in great haste. 

We were between two gunboats and could see the lights 
of them very plainly. Our work had to be done before day- 
light, and as soon as the guns could be loaded we started for 
the west bank of the Father of Waters, a comrade of the 
9th Texas at one end of the boat and I at the other. About 
halfway across the boat sprung a leak, and it looked as if 
we would soon find a watery grave. Lieutenant McCann. 
of Company G, 6th Texas, who was in command, said for 
us to throw the guns overboard and save ourselves. John 
Miller, who was flag bearer for the 6th Texas and was our 
guide, said, "No," telling us to pull the oars with all our 
power and he would keep the water out with the artillery 
bucket. Our boat ran on a sand bar, and it seemed that we 
were there to stay. Miller said he would search for the west 
bank if I would go with him. I admired his courage, and we 
made our way toward the west bank. The water was so 
swift that we could hardly keep our feet; at times it waS| 
to our waists. We waded two or three hundred yards, reach- 
ing the sand bar. We soon found a large drift, hurried back, 
and reported. We then went to the boat, and all got out and 
pushed it off and reached the shore safely, unloaded the guns- 
and sent the boat back by two of our crew ; then we carried 
this boatload of guns a distance of five or six hundred yards 
and hid them in a large drift, carrying nine guns at a load. 

We had two reasons for doing this work in a gallop. One 
was that we were about to freeze to death, the other that our 
work had to be done before daylight. And just as daylight i 

Qoijfederat^ Ueterap, 

•peared we completed our work and then hid in the cane- 
eak, built a fire, and were thawing and drying our clothes 
hile we were sleeping when General Ross opened fire on the 
' ssel referred to by Comrade Callaway. This crippled ves- 
1 ran around near where we were hidden, and we could see 
e battle. The vessel seemed to have many passengers, both 
en and women. They left the vessel and came out on the 
"ink near us and built fires. Later on a large vessel came 
nvn the river and took it off. 

General Ross kept up his task of delivering all the guns 
the west bank on the night of the 6th of January until 
1 were safely turned over to Colonel Harrison, who met 
; with about eight hundred men. Why we were not frozen to 
?ath I can't tell. Our clothing was frozen stiff on our 
)dies, and we were exposed to the fiercest north wind I ever 
:lt for twenty-four hours with nothing to eat. 
Such was the patriotism of the Confederate soldier, and I 
ive no patience with a man who would offer an apology for 
iving been a Confederate soldier. 



I wonder how many times old soldiers have had pro- 
i funded to them this question, "Did you ever kill a man?" 
['propose this reply, and perhaps it will be accepted by other 
Id soldiers as their own. In a charge in force or in re- 
vising a charge, firing en masse by division, regiment, or 
aatoon was, to use a familiar illustration, like a boy with 
Pis old scatter muzzle-loader firing into a flock of birds with- 
out special aim. Probably many fell, one in particular, per- 
haps a conspicuous officer in the vision of a certain soldier 
■ : nd simultaneously with the crack of his rifle. 
' Now change the scene and go back to our ante-bellum bird- 
unting days, you, with sporting friends, following the same 
og. On the flush you select a plainly defined, straight-away 
ird, an unobstructed shot. You fire, and you plainly visage 
our bird come to the ground dead. At the same time your 
eighbor shouts : "My bird ; I killed him." With this pro- 
: )gue to the battle picture, now to my story. 
1 It was in the Trans-Mississippi Department siege of Vicks- 
urg. "Grant's Canal" had been accomplished, but the Mis- 
issippi had not responded to its assistance, and Vicksburg 
■as still holding out. Raids from the enemy forces or the 
unboats were of almost constant occurrence, also numerous 
.<irmishes, too small in numbers engaged or results to ever 
each the public prints. Cavalry was posted along the river 
t all threatened points. One of these advance picket lines 
''as held by a detachment of General Harrison's regiment, 
'ill possible or likely points of invasion were supposedly well 
uarded. The river was out of its banks and to some extent 
ormed something of a defense. One of our small detach- 
lents was bivouacked on a plantation. About two or three 
undred square yards of the gin yard were protected from 
ie backwater by a low levee not much higher than a potato 
ill. On this dry ground we were camped. 
One morning before guard mount, while we were at break - 
ast, we were aroused to action by the sudden, startling ap- 
earance of a cavalry regiment in full view, evidently coming 
butt-up" against us and probably as much surprised as we 
.ere on seeing them, their advance being obscured by an in- 
:rvening wood. Instead of immediately charging us, as they 
utnumbered us at least ten to one, they came to a halt, still 
a marching formation. An immediate call to arms, and our 

potato hill defense was promptly manned. The commanding 
officer, Colonel Stewart, of the ■ — Illinois, as it turned out, 
was in full view at the head of his command, but strangely 
quiescent. At the command of the major in charge of our 
detachment the few of us who manned the fort poured in a 
volley which, by the commotion of the head of the command, 
was very evidently effective. The head of the column was 
thrown into confusion, turned tail precipitously, and retreated 
at a gallop without firing a shot. As soon as possible a 
squad was mounted and in pursuit, as big a show of bravery 
or bluff as the enemy had displayed to the contrary. 

Now who killed the colonel. I distinctly had him under 
my sight, as distinctly as ever I had had a bird in my young 
sporting days and also as distinctly as I thought I saw my 
bird fall. Tom , the kid of our company, a little dare- 
devil, afraid of nothing, had gotten over the breastworks 
and, lying down for a deliberate aim, at the crack of the guns 
sang out : "My meat ! I killed him." If I had momentarily 
a thought or a sensation, it was a qualm at having unques- 
tionably imbued my hands in human blood, although an 
enemy. I made no answer. Tom was proud of the glory, 
and I gladly accorded it to him ; but after the lapse of more 
than half a century my conscience or my memory still ac- 
cuses me of the homicide. 



In the spring of 1862 I was detailed, with nine other cadets, 
to go to Loachapoka, Ala., to assist in drilling the men of the 
34th Alabama Regiment of Infantry, then in camp of in- 
struction at that village. It was understood that this regi- 
ment had been equipped for service largely by its colonel, J. 
B. C. Mitchell, a wealthy planter of Mount Meigs, near Mont- 
gomery. In the camp of instruction at Loachapoka I made 
the acquaintance of Colonel Mitchell's nieces, the Misses 
Florence and Janie Burch, two of the numerous young ladies 
whose patriotism led them to do all in their power to brighten 
the monotony of the camp life necessary to lick raw troops 
into some sort of shape as soldiers of the Confederacy. 
Hundreds of us appreciated their efforts to the fullest extent. 
Being then not quite eighteen years of age, I was among 
those fully able to enjoy the experience. 

From camp we were sent to Tupelo, Miss., not far south 
of Corinth. I did not return to the university, but, at the 
request of Colonel Mitchell, remained with the regiment to 
continue in my work as drillmaster as long as I might be 
needed. At Tupelo I was attacked with one of the usual 
troubles due to bad water and the camp food of that day 
and was ordered back to Tuscaloosa, my home, till I might 
recover. I was entered as an inmate of the army hospital 
there, but was really at home. 

Looking over reminders of those days, I found a little 
note of condolence and hope for my speedy recovery, accom- 
panied with a little flag of the Stars and Bars, on which was 
written in pencil : 

"There is no word for you like * * * 
They never, never can subdue 
Your gallant band if you to God, 
Your country, and yourselves are true." 

What a host of memories come to all of us of those days ! 
Who can supply the missing word? The word itself is of 
small value, but the memories that rush to those who ex- 
perienced those days we would hold forever. 


Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 




Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 

"The harp that once through Tara's halls 

The soul of music shed 
Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls, 

As if that soul were fled. 
So sleeps the pride of former days, 

So glory's thrill is o'er, 
And hearts that once beat high for praise 

Now feel that pulse no more." 

George B. Dean. 

The passing of George B. Dean, of Detroit. Tex., from 
the active scenes of this life to the great beyond leaves an- 
other vacant place in the ranks of the survivors of the heroic 
days of the Confederacy which cannot be refilled. Mr. Dean 
was a native Texan, having been born on a farm September 
13, 1842. He died June 27, 1920, and was buried within one 
hundred yards of the place of his birth. 

In the year 1860, while still in his teens, Mr. Dean, answer- 
ing the call of his State, 

volunteered and joined 
a small company of 
men in Red River 
County, Tex., which 
went to the defense of 
the frontier section of 
his State against the 
marauding Indians. He 
enlisted in the Confed- 
erate service in the early 
part of 1861, when only 
nineteen years of age, 
with the first company 
from his native county. 
This was made Com- 
pany E, of the 11th 
Texas Cavalry, with 
which he served through- 
out the War between the States and until he was captured 
on March 3, 1865 while carrying a special message to his 
commanding officer and was sent to Point Lookout, where 
he remained until the close of the war. He engaged in some 
of the most important battles of the war, having served 
under Gen. Joe Wheeler in Kentucky and was in the Army 
of Tennessee under Generals Bragg, Hood, and Joseph E. 
Johnston. He was slightly wounded one time during his 
whole service of practically four years. 

After the war was over and he was released from prison, 
he returned to his home, near Detroit, Tex., where, amid the 
desolation wrought by the war, he again took up the activi- 
ties of civil life, engaging in farming and stock-raising, ac- 
quiring a large estate, which he possessed at the time of his 

G. B. DEAN. 

Early in life Mr. Dean became a member of the 
Church, in which he remained a devoted member until his 
death. During his life he was married three times and is 
survived by his last wife, Dubie Wheeler Dean, four daugh- 
ters, and two sons — Mrs. J. B. Dean, Mrs. G. G. Cheery, 
Mrs. R. J. Easley, of Detroit, Tex.; G. E. Dean, of Idabe'l, 
Okla. ; J. W. Dean, of Ada, Okla. ; and Mrs. W. A. Dean, 
of Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. Dean was also for many years a member of the 
Masonic Lodge and was known throughout the county as a 
man of the highest ideals of citizenship. Because of the 
loyal and true service he had rendered his country in both 
peace and war and the devotion he always manifested for the 
loftiest ideals of good citizenship and for the betterment of 
mankind in general, no citizen of his section of the country 
was more highly honored, loved, and respected. 

W. B. Plemons Camp, of Amarillo, Tex. 

H. R. Airheart reports the following deaths among the 
members of W. B. Plemons Camp, at Amarillo, since De- 
cember, 1919: 

W. E. Rutledge, Taylor's Tennessee Regiment, aged seventy- 
three years. 

W. M. Adkins, Company K, McCullough's Texas Cavalry, 
aged seventy-three years. 

William M. Bowie, Cobb's Georgia Legion, aged seventy- 
five years. 

J. H. Rockwell, Company E, 1st Missouri Cavalry, aged 
eighty-two years. 

R. F. Wren, Company G. 1st Texas Infantry, aged eighty 

D. L. Brittain, Parson's Texas Cavalry, aged eighty years. 

J. L. Caldwell, Company F, Lieutenant Mann's Texas In- 
fantry, born July 4, 1835, the day that the Liberty Bell was 
cracked when tolling at the funeral of Chief Justice Mar- 
shall, of the United States Supreme Court. Comrade Cald- 
well was an interesting character. He was a printer by trade 
and an able writer. He died August 19, 1920, aged eighty- 
five years. 

J. P. Courtney, Company B, 61st Tennessee Infantry, aged 
about seventy-four years. 

J. F. Taylor, 12th Louisiana Cavalry, aged about eighty 

W. J. Thomas, Forrest's Regiment, enlisted at Savannah, 
aged eighty-five years. 

J. G. Hudson, captain Company E, 6th Kentucky Cavalry, 
aged eighty-three years. 

M. S. Parks, aged about seventy-six years. 

Comrade Airheart adds : "This is the greatest number of 
deaths in our Camp that we have ever had in one year. 
The record during recent years has been about as follows : 
1916, six deaths; 1917, four deaths; 1918, four deaths; 1919. 
three deaths ; 1920, ten deaths. The number of Confederate 
veterans belonging to Plemons Camp, including all others in 
Amarillo and vicinity, is now twenty-seven." 

Comrades at Sherman, Tex. 

Members of Mildred Lee Camp, No. 90, U. C. V., of Sher- 
man, Tex., who died lately: W. D. Sappington, aged 95; C. 
W. Botall, 82; B. R. Long, 88; Joe B. Roberts, 83; S. E. 
Elliott (father), 95; W. D. Elliott (son), 74; Dr. J. B. Stin- 
son, 82 ; John Ellison, 80 ; J. W. Vaden, 76 ; Edwin Moore, 
76; C. W. Ritenour, 73; Mark H. Andrews, 74; J. P. Loving, 
85; J. W. Finley, 74; J. M. Blaine, 76; J. R. Dickey, 83. 

[J. P. Leslie, Adjutant.] 

^oi>federat^ l/eteraij, 


William Fekris Perry. 

"The souls of the righteous are in the hand of God; 
There shall no torment touch them. 
In the sight of the unwise they seemed to die, 
But they are in peace, for so he 
Giveth his beloved sleep. They are in peace." 

Entered into life eternal on Monday, October 18, 1920, in 
lis seventy-ninth year, William Ferris Perry at his home, in 
-Jew York City. He was born in New York on April 12. 
842, and went to France when he was very young and was 
iducated in Paris. Returning to America at the age of seven- 
keen, he became a member of the Washington Artillery, Com- 
pany No. 1, Camp 15. During the War between the States 
ie served under Generals Beauregard, Longstreet, and John- 
ston. When the battalion left its winter quarters in March, 
,862, and camped on Terrill's farm, near Orange Courthouse. 
Mr. Perry met Miss Virginia Terrill, who afterwards became 
lis wife. When they were called again into active service, 
:he young people parted with the promise that he would re- 
'turn to Dr. Terrill's home if he were wounded. He was very 
severely wounded in the battle of Fredericksburg on December 
13, 1862, when the Union soldiers made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to capture Marye's Heights. True to the promise made 
to Miss Virginia, Mr. Perry, though seriously wounded, suc- 
ceeded in getting to Dr. Terrill's home, where he received ten- 
'der care, and in April, 1863, they were married. 

Mr. Perry was respected and beloved by all who knew him. 
a Christian gentleman, a brave soldier, loyal always to the 
cause for which he fought, and faithful always in his admira- 
tion of their brave and noble leader, Gen. Robert E. Lee. 

'[A. M. Burleigh, 133 West Eighty-Third Street, New York 

Comrades at Commerce, Tex. 
Commander W. E. Mangum reports the death of three faith- 
I ful members of R. E. Lee Camp, No. 231, U. C. V., at Com- 
1 merce, Tex., which brought sadness and sorrow to Camp and 
[ community. Comrades Presley and Murphy were charter 
members of the Camp, and Comrade Moore joined twenty- 
five years ago : 
"Comrade P. L. Moore, born in Pike County, Mo., May 
,8, 1833, enlisted in the Confederate army July 28, 1862. from 
Ripley County, Mo., as a member of Company B, 3d Missouri 
Regiment of Infantry. He was in the battles of Springfield, 
1 Mo., Prairie Grove and Jenkins's Ferry, Ark., Mansfield, La., 
and other minor skirmishes under Gen. E. Kirby Smith. He 
was mustered out at Shreveport, La., at the close of the war. 
He was an honest and faithful soldier and no less attentive 
to duty in his long citizenship among us. He was a deacon 
. or telder in the Presbyterian Church for twenty-five .years, 
faithful to all the affairs of that trust. He died October 6, 
1920, suddenly from heart trouble, with which he had been 
afflicted several years. A noble comrade has passed to the 
great be3'ond. 

"Comrade L. W. Presley was born in Pike County, Ga., 
October 28, 1826. During the War between the States he 
served in Company D, 18th Alabama Regiment. Comrade 
Presley had a tender feeling for humanity. His quaint sense 
of humor and cheerful disposition to look on the bright side 
of life made him a very pleasant companion and comrade. 
Soon after the war he came to Texas, where he had been an 
active and useful citizen, always true to his convictions, ener- 
getic and active in all social and religious interests, and he 
was loved and honored by all who knew him. He main- 
tained youthful vigor and activity of mental, physical, and 

Christian interest and civil righteousness -and was a leader 
in the Missionary Baptist Church. His death occurred on 
November 7, 1920, just after turning into his ninety-fifth year, 
leaving a devoted companion and hosts of relatives and friends 
to mourn his going. 

"Comrade Enoch Murphy, born in Tennessee on June 26, 
1842, in early boyhood came to Texas and resided in Fannin 
and Hunt Counties. When the War between the States broke 
out, he joined Company B, 9th Texas Regiment, General 
Ross's Brigade, and rendered four years of faithful service. 
One of the bravest among the brave, he stood amidst the 
roar of cannon and rattle of musketry with courage, as his 
comrades testify. After the war he returned to Hunt County, 
where he had since made his home, serving his county as a 
good, quiet citizen and a faithful member of the Presbyterian 
Church at Fairlie. On the 8th of November, 1920, he fell a 
victim of the inevitable decree and passed into the spiritual 
life. Comrade Murphy was one of the most faithful mem- 
bers of our Camp. We had been closely associated for 
nearly fifty years. He leaves two sons, a daughter, a brother, 
and many other relatives and friends." 

Dr. Robert L. Knox. 

If "to live in hearts we leave behind is not to die," then 
Dr. Robert L. Knox, though no longer with us in the flesh, 
is not dead. 

Briefly his life history runs as follows: 

He was born at Mount Pleasant, Miss., eighty-six years- 
ago. He was surgeon in the Army of Northern Virginia 
during the greater part of the War between the States. 
Soon after the close of the war he married Miss Fannie 
Steger and located in Memphis, Tenn., where he practiced 
medicine until his death on October 7, 1919. After the death 
of his first wife, he married Miss Sophie McClung, who sur- 
vives him. For years Dr. Knox was Assistant Surgeon of 
the First Regiment, U. C. V., National Guard, State of Ten- 
nessee. He was a faithful member of the Second Methodist 
Church of this city. 

Resolved, That in the passing of Dr. Knox Memphis has 
lost a splendid citizen. Company A an efficient officer, and- 
Second Methodist Church a loyal member, and his every 
friend a true and faithful comrade. 

[Committee: G. B. Malone, Chairman; J. F. Cloud, John 

L. C. Lynn. 

L. C. Lynn, a comrade of Joe Shelby Camp, No. 975, U. C. 
V., of Chickasha, Okla., was born on November 18, 1844, in 
Craig County, Ky., and died at Chickasha on July 18, 1920. 
He volunteered for the Confederate army at Murray, in Cal- 
laway County, Ky., in July, 1861, as a member of Company 
H, 3d Kentucky Regiment, and was mustered into service at 
Camp Brooks, Clarksville, Tenn , under Breckinridge, Har- 
dee, and Albert Sidney Johnston. He was wounded twice at 
Shiloh, in the right arm and left leg. He was promoted to 
company sergeant in 1863 and was later transferred to For- 
rest's Cavalry Corps, where he served to the end of the war. 

Comrade Lynn was a man of sterling worth, and his in- 
fluence was felt in his community ; he was widely known and 
highly esteemed. His attractive and genial personality made 
him a charming companion and loyal friend. He is survived 
by his wife, who was Miss L. S. Thornton, and eight chil- 
dren. Two of his sons are serving as judges in the courts of 
Oklahoma. His body was taken back to Kentucky and laid 
to rest in the cemetery at Murray. 

[J. S. Downs, Chickasha, Okla.] 



Qoi?federat^ l/eterai>. 

James Allen MacMurry. 

From memorial resolutions adopted by Camp Sterling Price. 
No. 31, U. C. V., Dallas, Tex., on December 26, 1920: 

"James Allen MacMurry was born in Smith County. Tenn.. 
on November 14. 1842, and died at his home, in Dallas, Tex., 
on December 6, 1920. 

"Comrade MacMurry enlisted in the Southern army in the 
spring of 1862 in the company known as 'Ward's Ducks,' 9th 
Tennessee Cavalry, Basil Duke's brigade. He was with Mor- 
gan in his Ohio raid and 
a part of the time in Kip 
Bennett's battalion. He 
did scout work for For- 
rest and was with him at 
Chickamauga and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. He was 
still with Forrest from 
Dalton to near Atlanta 
and was captured and 
thrown into Rock Island 
Prison, where he was 
when the war closed. 

"Comrade MacMurry 
was married in 1870 to 
Miss Emily Turner, of 
Sumner County. Tenn. 
She survives him, with J. A. MACMURRY. 

their six children, two 

:5ons and four daughters. The daughters are married and 
live in Dallas : one son is married and living at Cisco and 
one is at San Antonio. 

"Mr MacMurry moved to Dallas in 1874 and was a brick 
contractor. But the last five years he has been in bad health 
and for two years confined to his home, much of the time to 
his bed. 

"Our comrade was faithful to his country, made a good 
soldier, and loved to talk with his old friends of the sixties. 
He was a good neighbor, loving father, and loved our South- 
ern country. Therefore 

"Resolved, That we, the Camp, have lost a true man and 
will miss him. His family has lost a loving father and his 
wife a kind, trusted husband." 

[Committee : W. M. Swann. John Haney. Fred Clark.] 

Comrades at Paris, Ten t x. 

Fitzgerald Kendall Camp. U. C. V., of Paris. Tenn., has 
lost the following from its membership during 1920 : 

William S. Bomar, Company E, 20th Tennessee Cavalry. 

Jackson Wimberly. Company F. 20th Tennessee Cavalry. 

George A. Sinclair, served with a Virginia regiment and 
was at Gettysburg. 

G. W. Swor, Company A, 5th Tennessee Infantry. 

G. D. Hancock, Company A, 2d Tennessee Cavalry. 

J. L. Lowry. Company E, 20th Tennessee Cavalry. 

R. J. Jackson. Company B, 5th Tennessee Infantry. 

Dr. B. F. Taylor. Company F. 5th Tennessee Infantry. 

A. H. Hancock. Company F. 5th Tennessee Infantry. 

W. A. Hill, served with a Mississippi regiment. 

Alex C. Trousdale, Company A. 

Judge James S. Aden, Company G, 7th Tennessee Cavalry. 

Mrs. S. C. Dobbins. President 5th Tennessee Chapter. U. 
D. C. 

[Reported by P. P. Pulleu. Adjutant.] 

Judge James S. Ade.x. 

After a long illness. Judge James S. Aden died at his home, 
in Paris, Tenn., in his seventy -ninth year. He was born in 
that city on February 13, 1842, and had practically spent all : 
his life in Henry County, where he was widely known and : 
beloved. He had been honored by the people of his county 
by election to office, having served as county court clerk and 
also as county judge; but most of his life had been spent on 
his farm, near Paris. 

He was a gallant soldier of the Confederacy, serving under 
Forrest as a member of Company G, 7th Tennessee Cavalry. 
At one time he was with Stark's company and again with 
his uncle, Capt. F. F. Aden. He was captured and paroled at 
Paducah, Ky. 

In early life he became a Christian and so remained through 
his long and useful life. As a minister of the gospel he 
brought salvation to many. It was the work he loved, and 
he used his gift to the glory of God, toiling with his hands 
for the support of his family. He was the father of twelve 
children and is survived by seven sons and a daughter, also 
the faithful, beloved wife. 

He was laid to rest in Maplewood Cemetery, attended by 
his Confederate comrades and many friends and relatives. 
In his passing his community and State have lost a noble 

George C. Freeman. 

The eleventh death in the membership of the Confederate 
Veteran Association of Savannah, Ga., in 1920 was that of 
George C. Freeman, which occurred on December 22. There 
was a strong tie of friendship existing between us. He was 
of an agreeable, even temperament, and it was a joy to be 
in his company. For years he had held positions of trust 
with the Citizens' Mutual Loan Company, of Savannah, and 
there, as elsewhere, his cheery smile and cordial handshake are 
sadly missed. 

The service of George Freeman with the Confederate army 
started with the old Chatham Artillery, one of Savannah's 
crack military companies. In the second year of the war he 
was detached from his command and assigned to duty as 
assistant to the collector of the port of Savannah, James R. 
Sneed. A day or two prior to the occupancy of Savannah by 
Sherman and his army of devastation Mr. Freeman left the 
city with the collector and the records of his office, going 
first to Charleston, S. C. In a few days they were ordered 
to Augusta, then on to Macon, to Milledgeville, Ga., finally 
retreating to the farm of Dr. T. A. Parsons, in Laurens 
Countv, Ga.. whence they were ordered to Macon and the 
effects of their office surrendered to the United States gov- 
ernment. All of them were paroled and returned to Savannah 
to commence life over again. 

In 1862 Mr. Freeman married Miss Sarah E. Davis, of 
Savannah, who died several years ago. Surviving him are 
his son, Judge Davis Freeman, of the cits' court, and a de- 
voted daughter, Miss Georgia Freeman. He was at one time 
an alderman and was a member of the Savannah Benevolent 
Association since 1866, ten years its Secretary, nine years 
President, and twenty-six years Treasurer. He was a de- 
nted member of the Independent Church (Presbyterian), his 
funeral taking place from that grand edifice on Thursday, 
December 23, 1920, attended by a vast concourse of friends 
and a number of his old soldier comrades, the Confederate 
veterans of Savannah. 

[D. B. Morgan, Secretary Confederate Veterans' Associa- 
tion. Camp No. 756, U. C. V] 

Qotyfederat^ tfeterai). 



A. Welborne Moise. 

The death of A. Welborne Moise at his home, in St. Louis, 
Ho., on the 1st of December, 1920, removes one of the most 
■ rominent Confederates of the State. He had always been 
ctive in matters of Confederate interest, had served as Com- 
lander of the Missouri Division, U. C. V., and was on the 
:loard of Trustees and Vice President of the Confederate 
I lome at Higginsville at the time of his death. He was also 
rominent in the business world of his ctiy, respected for 
is high integrity, and at 
is office every day except 
ivhen taking his "boys" 
some reunion. He was 
1. member of the Episco- 
pal Church for thirty 

A. W. Moise was born 
)ii Memphis, Tenn., on 
, December .11, 1846, the 
■ldest of the ten children 
)f A. and Elizabeth La- 
lier Moise, a cousin of 
he poet Lanier. The 
I amily removed to Rich- 
nond, Va., from South 
Carolina, and this son 
>as educated at the Gon- 
":aga College, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and had 
'served as a page in Con- 
gress just before the war 

^ame on. He enlisted as a private in Company E, 1st Mary- 
land Battalion of Cavalry (Confederate) in 1862, when only 
ifteen years old. In August, 1863, he was transferred by 
special order of General Lee to receive promotion and was 
nade a lieutenant. He was with Gen. W. E. Jones's cavalry 
n the raid through West Virginia and Maryland and with 
"?itz Lee's cavalry in the second Maryland campaign, at 
Gettysburg, with McLaw's Division when sent to reenforce 
Bragg, and was at the siege of Knoxville and in the East 
Tennessee campaign. When his division returned to Virginia 
le was with Longstreet's Corps from the battle of the Wil- 
lerness to the last day at Appomattox and was paroled as 
irst lieutenant commanding Companies D and H, 24th Geor- 
gia Regiment, Kershaw's Division, Longstreet's Corps, A. 
tf. V. His parole was kept as the most sacred relic of his 
war service. 

After the war he studied law with his father in Richmond 
md married Miss Gill, of that city. He entered upon the 
practice of law in Kansas City, Mo., and after some years 
removed to St. Louis, where he was credit man for a large 
wholesale grocery until embarking in business for himself. 

Comrade Moise is survived by a son, two sisters, and a 
brother, one of the sisters being Mrs. Virginia Lee Hight, 
Df Chicago, the youngest of the family. 

Comrades at Huntsville, Ala. 

R. M. DeYoung reports the loss of three members of Egbert 
J. Jones Camp, No. 357, U. C. V., since last report : 

A. F. Riley, Company I, 20th Tennessee Cavalry, died 
June 1, 1920. 

A. J. Eyrnes, Company F, 4th Alabama Infantry, died 
July 11, 1920. 

J. H. Lowe, Company G, 4th Tennessee Infantry, died 
'October 20, 1920. 

Mat. G. W. Bynum. 

George W. Bynum was born in Chatham County, N. C, in 
1839 of a typical Southern family. He came to Mississippi 
when but a lad. It was his' ambition to be a lawyer, and he 
studied diligently with this in view ; but war was declared, 
and to one of his temperament the call to arms was a call of 
God to defend the principles he knew were right. Accord- 
ingly he went to Virginia in 1861 with the 2d Mississippi In- 
fantry. In 1863 he was commissioned major, ordered back 
to Mississippi, and assigned to the 11th Mississippi Cavalry. 

In all that four years' struggle George Bynum was at the 
front, an active participant in thirty battles and wounded sev- 
eral times. At the close of the war Major Bynum returned 
to Mississippi, where, unspent and unafraid, he and his former 
comrades in arms met the duties of the changed conditions. 

As he was in war, so during this reconstruction period 
Major Bynum was put in front. He represented Alcorn 
County three times in the legislature ; twice he was postmaster 
at Corinth; he was also mayor of the city. When he died, 
July 17, 1920, he had been for twenty years United States 

From early manhood Major Bynum was an officer of the 
Church and active in Sunday school work. He was a gentle- 
man of the "old school," to the manner born, an exemplary 
husband and father, a true friend and neighbor, a patriot, a 
Democrat, a thorough Methodist,' a practical Christian. 
Where moral points were involved there was never any doubt 
as to his position on questions, social or political. Thus he 
walked in his integrity before God and man, saying what he 
meant and meaning what he said. A great legacy he left his 
children and his children's children in an untarnished name 
and a blameless character. 

It was in his home that Major Bynum was at his best. In 
1866 he was married to Miss Fannie Dilworth, of North 
Mississippi. The union of this Christian pair presented a 
choice example of domestic harmony and confidence and de- 
votion. In his sorrows she brightened his life, and by her 
help and prayers and sympathy he accomplished what he 
could not have done without her. In loneliness, but in un- 
complaining resignation, she is waiting in the old home among 
the Corinth hills. The twilight is soft and beautiful about 
her. There will be light at the evening time. The morning 
of the reunion will be glorious. 

Pat Cleburne Camp, No. 222, U. C. V., Waco, Tex. 

Comrades of Pat Cleburne Camp, Waco, Tex., who have 
died since their last Memorial Day, January 22, 1920, as re- 
ported by Bradford Hancock, Adjutant: 

W. B. Willis, Company B, 12th Virginia Cavalry. 

J. W. Coleman, Company B, 12th Virginia Cavalry, aged 
seventy-two years. 

William M. Manchester, Company G, 6th Georgia Cavalry, 
aged seventy-five years. 

William G. Andrews, Company K, 15th Texas Infantry, 
aged eighty years. 

Philip Speegle, Company I, 15th Texas Infantry, aged 
seventy-seven years. 

D. M. Crenshaw, Company I, 20th Georgia Infantry, aged 
seventy-six years. 

William T. Lofton, Hightower's Company. 

Frank W. Burke, Company D, 2d Maryland Cavalry. 


^oi)federat^ tfeterai}. 

William H. Pierce. 

Gently drifting down life's stream until life was obscured 
in the shadow of the great beyond was the greatly lamented 
end of our true and noble friend, William H. Pierce, of 
Benton, Ala. In 1861 he was at the age that so many young 
men of the South enlisted for the Confederacy and made the 
typical Confederate soldier, buoyant with life and enthusiasm. 
While only a boy, he was ambitious and enthusiastic to be a 
soldier, and in that he was admirably successful. He passed 
through the four years of the bloody sixties ; and though 
severely wounded three different times, he was fortunate 
enough each time to recover and hastened back to the front 
and duty. Under Gen. Stonewall Jackson, whom he so ad- 
mired and whose memory was ever bright in his thoughts, he 
followed wherever his chieftain ordered. His record as a 
soldier was unspotted, and many of his comrades called 
him "the ever-ready Pierce, for duty faithful and untiring." 

Comrade Pierce was born in Montgomery, Ala., on August 
21, 1842, and passed away on October 19, 1920, at his resi- 
dence, near Benton, Ala. He was married on September 17, 
1867, at Collirene, Ala., to Miss Florence Dunklin, who, with 
four daughters and one son, survives him. 

"The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 
All that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave, 
Alike awaits the inevitable hour, 

The path of glory leads but to the grave." 

A more consciencious and unassuming man is seldom found. 
He was a loyal subscriber to the Veteran and loved to read 
the reminiscences of his comrades. After a long life of 
seventy-eight years, so just and upright with all mankind, 
this noble man has passed to the reward that awaits him. 

W. J. Thomas. 

W. J. Thomas, born June 11, 1835, was reared in Hardin 
County, Term., and as a boy he was distinguished by his 
sterling qualities, so much so that he was elected sheriff of 
his county very soon after attaining his majority, in which 
office he served two terms. When the war came on in 1861 
he joined Company B, of the Junior 6th Mississippi Cavalry, 
and served until the surrender. He was in the last fight by 
General Forrest just a few days after Lee's surrender. This 
battle was fought at Selma, Ala. 

Comrade Thomas was the type that would have sacrificed 
life rather than show cowardice or forsake a friend. He 
was always trustworthy, true to principle and his word. He 
won the worthy heart and hand of Miss Palmore, of his 
county, and soon after their marriage they removed to Texas 
and lived in several counties before locating permanently at 
Amarillo, where he acquired property. He was tax assessor 
and collector of Dallam County for ten years. 

Comrade Thomas was a member of W. B. Plemons Camp, 
U. C. V., of Amarillo, where he died on the 20th of October, 
1920, survived by his wife, two daughters, and a son, also 
two brothers. For almost fifty years he had been a devout 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and a 
steward of the Church at Amarillo for a great while. 

[D. W. Babb, captain Company B, Strong, Miss.] 

Veterans at Lynchburg, Va. 

The following deaths are reported for Garland Rodcs 
Camp of Confederate Veterans at Lynchburg, Va., for the 
year of 1920: W. S. Daniel, W. J. Collins, A. Price Roberts, 
D. G. Miller, A. A. Kershaw, S. B. Tinsley, Richmond Green. 
J. C. Houston, E. Lee Bell, Daniel C. Locke, J. S. Thornhill. 

[Thomas C. Miller, Adjutant.] 

George H. Adams. 

George H. Adams answered to the last roll call on Christ- 
mas Day, 1920, at the age of seventy-nine years. He was the 
son of Ichabod and Ann Hooper Adams, who moved from 
Humphreys County, Tenn., to Texas in 1850. He was mar- 
ried to Miss Amanda V. Baugh, daughter of David Baugh, 
of Brown County, Tex., in January, 1862. Of their four 
children, two sons, Sylvester and John Q. Adams, survive 

Opportunities for acquiring an education were very meager. 

and the first work of 
George Adams was in herd- 
ing cattle for his father. 
In 1858, when only about 
sixteen years of age, he 
joined Capt. John S. Ford's 
company of Rangers, the 
youngest ranger in a com- 
mand of one hundred men. 
In 1859 he returned to the 
ranch and resumed the life 
of a cowboy. In August, 
1862, he enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Capt. G. T. Riley's 
company, Cook's Regiment 
of Heavy Artillery, and 
served throughout the War 
between the States, securing 
an honorable discharge at 
Houston, Tex., on May 23, 
G. H. adams. 1865. Returning home to 

Brown County, he again 
resumed ranch life. In 1870 he was elected first lieutenant 
in command of the Brown County Company of Minutemen. 
with which he served for one and one-half years. He was 
at Austin prepared to fight when Coke was inaugurated as 
Governor instead of E. J. Davis. He again returned to 
Brown County and in 1874 was elected treasurer of the 
county without opposition. Since that time his attention had 
been given wholly to his stock and farming interests. 

"Uncle George," as he was familiarly known, was at all 
times very optimistic, always looking upon the brighter side 
of life and giving cheer and comfort wherever he went. He 
was successful in the business affairs of life and left a nice 
competency to his sons. 

It can well be said that he was a patriotic soldier, a true 
citizen, and a devoted husband and father. 

"Uncle George" never missed a Confederate reunion, either 
State or general, and enjoyed these meetings to the fullest 
extent. His burial was conducted by the Masons with Con- 
federate veterans as honorary pallbearers. 

Service of Captain Page. — The following statement as to 
the war record of Capt. W. W. Page is made by Edward 
Walton, of Penrith, Va., an addition to the sketch appearing 
in the September Veteran. He says : "Captain Page com- 
manded Company D, 39th Battalion of Virginia Cavalry, 
from September, 1864, to the evacuation of Petersburg, in 
1865. I was a member of that company and received orders 
from him as courier and scout for General Lee. The contest 
for the captaincy was between him and Lieut. John W. Jack- 
son, now living in Fluvanna County. The 39th Battalion was 
commanded by Colonel Richardson. My service was between 
Richmond and Petersburg, in front of Dutch Gap, General 
Lee's headquarters, and on the retreat to Appomattox C. H." 

Qogfederat^ l/eterag. 


James Lyons. 

1 Of that remarkable body of men known as Confederate 
loldiers there died at Higginsville, Mo., on January 6, 1921, 
ne of its most remarkable members, one who by might of 
itegrity and righteousness occupied an exalted position 
mong men. 

James Lyons was born near Rogersville, Hawkins County, 
."enn., on December 17, 1840. In July, 1861, he entered the 
;onfederate army as a private in Company K, 29th Tennessee 
" nfantry, winning promotion to a first lieutenantcy for dis- 
tinguished service. Soon after the battle of Chickamauga he 
Was transferred to the cavalry, Company A, 4th Tennessee 
Battalion, then under command of Gen. Jubal A. Early. In 
the fall of 1864, while on picket duty near Jarrodstown, Va., 
le was captured. After six months in prison at Camp Chase, 
le was exchanged, but just in time to have part in the final 
;urrender. Among the engagements in which he fought were 
■Vlurfreesboro, Perryville, Mill Springs, Corinth, and Win- 

In 1865 Mr. Lyons moved to Lafayette County, Mo., where 
le was married in December, 1867, to Miss Fanny Burns, 
;vho was his loved and loving wife for thirty-eight blessed 
.ears. Not long after her death he left the farm, on which 
ne had greatly prospered, to move to Higginsville, where, in a 
commodious, comfortable home, he continued to dispense a 
delightful hospitality. Here gathered his four sons, his foster 
daughter, and two nieces, to whom he was a second father, 
for his ideal goodness was ever practical. Round them col- 
lected an ever-widening circle of friends, but of this circle 
the center and mainstay, the chief joy and inspiration were 
in the beloved master of the house. 

To every call and demand of life Mr. Lyons was absolutely 
true. As patriot, soldier, citizen, man of business, husband, 
father, friend, Christian, he proved his greatness of soul. 
For twenty-six years he served as elder of the Presbyterian 

George C. Pile. 

George Chambers Pile, seventy-seven years of age, died 
en January 17, 1921. When but a boy, not yet of military 
age, Mr. Pile entered the Confederate army in the War be- 
tween the States. In the spring of 1861 he joined Capt. John 
E. Terry's company, organized in Bristol, and followed the 
j varying fortunes of the Southern Confederacy in the cam- 
paigns of the Army of Northern Virginia. At different times 
he served under Gens. Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and 
J. E. B. Stuart. 

His comrades always said of him : "George Pile made a 
" brave soldier," No higher encomium can be paid any man. 
In the Veteran for January, 1917, was given his account of 
capturing the Federal General Prince on August 9, 1862, while 
on picket duty in the battle of Cedar Run, and whom he con- 
ducted to Jackson's headquarters for surrender. 

Mr. Pile was a member of S. V. Fulkerson Camp, U. C. V., 
' of Bristol, Tenn., and at one time its Adjutant. He was a 
member of the Methodist Church nearly all his life and a good 
neighbor and friend. He has answered the last roll call and 
entered the rest prepared for those who do their duty to 
God and man. 

Serct. John A. Moore. 

John A. Moore, of Gillisonville, S. C, a Confederate vet- 
• eran of nearly ninety years, died on December 31, 1920, after 
, some months of feeble health. 

He was in the Confederate service on the coast of South 

Carolina for four years as a member of the Beaufort District 

Comrade Moore is survived by his wife, three sons, and 
two daughters, also by a sister, Mrs. N. L. Broadwater, of 
Johnston, S. C, and eleven grandchildren. He was laid to 
rest in the family burying place at Gillisonville, mourned 
by family and friends. 

[S. a.'b.] 

John Crofton Herring. 

John C. Herring, descended from a fine old family, was born 
at Capon Springs, Va., on January 7, 1844. He was married 
to Miss Camilla Dinkle in Bridgewater, Va., in February, 
1867, to which union were born two sons, William, of Dal- 
las, Tex., and B. A., of Cartersville, Ga. His estimable wife 
died on January 13, 1904. 

In May, 1871, he moved to Bartow County, Ga., and joined 
the Methodist Church at Cassville, of which he was a con- 
sistent member until his death, one of his last acts being the 
holding of family prayers. His home life was beautiful, and 
as a friend and neighbor he had no superior. There was no 
better citizen during peace or in war a better soldier when 
he fought under the Stars and Bars. A courier for Gen. 
Tatum Wofford, he was dauntless in danger. Later he joined 
Company I, 1st Virginia Cavalry, and served with signal 
bravery under the knightly "Jeb" Stuart, then to the close of 
the war under Gen. Fitz Lee. 

He dearly loved the Confederate Reunions and always at- 
tended them. He had prepared to join his comrades in the 
Reunion at Houston, Tex, his baggage packed and berth 
engaged, when suddenly, on the night of October 1, 1920, 
"taps" sounded, and this gallant old soldier went to sleep with 
his comrades "on Fame's eternal camping ground" until the 
Great Commander shall summon him, with Lee, Jackson, 
and the hosts who wore the gray, to appear in the last 
"grand review." 

[H. M. Gibbons.] 

James Riley Bolen. 

The death of James Riley Bolen at Mangum, Okla., on 
September 9, 1920, is reported by W. L. Jackson, his friend 
and captain. His service for the Confederacy was with the 
2d Mississippi Regiment of Infantry, under Col. J. M. Stone, 
Heth's Division, A. P. Hill's corps. 

Comrade Bolen was born in Alabama on October 9, 1840, 
but while he was still a child the family removed to Missis- 
sippi, and in that State he was married to Alary Elizabeth 
Hick's in January, 1866. She survives him with three sons 
and a daughter of the seven children born to them. In 1874 
Comrade Bolen removed to Texas and lived in that State 
twenty-six years, removing then to Mangum, Okla., where 
he died. He was an exemplary citizen always, a member of 
Baptist Church for some sixty-three years. His monument 
was built by his life, and his example will be an inspiration 
to those coming after. 

Comrades of Camp Lomax. 
Seven members of Camp Lomax, at Montgomery, Ala., died 
during 1920, as follows: D. P. Flinn, Company K, 2d Ala- 
bama Cavalry ; A. P. Wilson, Company K, 2d Alabama Cav- 
alry; F. H. Merritt, Company G, 3d Kentucky Cavalry; 
Albert Taylor, Company B, 7th Alabama Cavalry; Ben Trice, 
Company I, 3d Alabama Regiment; J. W. Gilmer, adjutant 
60th Alabama Regiment ; C. C. Baker, Company F, 60th Ala- 
bama Regiment. 

7 2 

(^ogfederat^ l/eteraij. 

Iftniteb ©augbters of tbe Confeberac? 

re *£oire 'TT/'a/ees TTfamorj/ &/erna/" 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General 
Paducah, Ky. 

Mrs. Alice Baxter, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer Genera 

Mrs. Bennett D. Belt, Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian Genera 

Mrs. R. P. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C . Registrar Genera 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newherry, S. C Recording Secretary General Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosst. 

Mrs. W. E. R. Byrnes, Charleston, W. Va Cor. Secretary General Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Pennant. 

I All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: By the time 
this letter reaches the Chapters we hope to have the minutes 
of the Asheville Convention ready for distribution. This 
volume is the record of our past year and the directory for 
the coming year's work, making it necessary for every Chap- 
ter to have several copies to properly promote the welfare 
of U. D. C. activities. Mrs. R. D. Wright, Recording Sec- 
retary General, Newberry, S. C, will furnish these volumes 
at 25 cents per copy. I urge all interested members to order 
at once, for this book is the very keynote of our organization. 

The Cunningham Memorial. — By action of the Asheville 
Convention the U. D. C. will endow a memorial scholarship 
in George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn., to 
honor the memory of and to be known as the Sumner A. 
Cunningham Scholarship. The money in hand, collected for 
a memorial to Mr. Cunningham, will be applied to this fund, 
and immediate steps will be taken to collect an amount suf- 
ficient to produce the income necessary to make this plan a 
success. The committee in charge is made up of the follow- 
ing active U. D. C. workers : Mrs. Birdie A. Owen, Chairman, 
Jackson, Tenn. ; Mrs. J. L. McWhorter, Jonesville, S. C. ; 
Mrs. A. McC. Kimbrough, Greenwood, Miss. ; Mrs. G. A. 
Woods, Shelbyville, Tenn. ; and Mrs. W. A. Brown, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Certificates of Membership and Registration. — First, Di- 
vision Presidents are asked to remember the postal rules 
governing certificates. These must be sent by first-class mail, 
and any digression from this is a violation of the postal 
rules and causes many delays in delivery. Second, at a meet- 
ing of Division Presidents and Registrars held at the Battery 
Park Hotel in Asheville, upon motion of Mrs. Lawton, of 
South Carolina, seconded by Mrs. Cabell Smith, of Virginia, 
it was decided that all Division Presidents should keep a 
record alphabetically arranged of the names on all certificates 
received and signed by them. This is very important, and 
Presidents are urged to carefully file these names. Third, 
uniform application blanks are required by the by-laws and 
may be obtained from the Recording Secretary General and 
the Registrar General at 75 cents per hundred. Fourth, at 
the 1921 convention in St. Louis the vote of each Division 
and Chapter will depend entirely on the registration report 
from the office of the Registrar General. The Executive 
Board approved the following: Every Division Registrar 
must send to the Registrar General before May 1, 1921, the 
exact number of registered, active voting members of every 
Chapter in her Division up to November 6, 1920. This is 
very important; the vote of the Division rests upon it. If 
the Division Registrar fails to report a Chapter, the Regis- 
trar General cannot include that Chapter in her report. The 

earnest, enthusiastic Division Registrar will begin at once ti 
set her Division right on the general books. 

The Book. — The retail price of "Southern Women in Wa 
Times" is $2.50 the copy plus the postage, but it is offeree 
to members of the U. D. C. at $2 the copy plus postage 
Chapters or individual Daughters may order for member 
or for others, but if the book is sold to outsiders the price 
must be $2.50 the copy, plus the 12 cents postage, as the Chap 
ter prefers. It is hoped the U. D. C. will accept this oppor 
tunity to make some money, in addition to giving heartj 
support to our great memorial to the women of the sixties 
This is too generous an offer from the managing editor tc- 
regard lightly. It becomes a duty to push the sale of thi: 
book and to make it a successful and worthy memorial. 

Needy Confederate Women. — The Treasurer General hac 
a happy thought when she secured the consent of the Ashe- 
ville Convention to send a Christmas check to each of the 
women we are assisting. When the checks came for the 
President General's indorsement, with each was inclosed 
beautiful card with the season's greetings thereon. To th 
I added seals, making a Christmas package indeed. The let 
ters of appreciation that the President has received are de- 
lightful and warm the heart with the hope of further service 
With it all comes this lesson : we must work fast for these 
dear women, for they are "going away." One Christmas check 
was returned with a letter saying: "I am writing to inforrr 
you of the death of Mrs. Susan Williams on the 9th of De- 
cember." We must remember not to delay and thereby los 
our opportunity. 

Florence Goalder Faris Medal. — This award will be made 
to a member of the C. of C. writing the best essay on the 
subject, "Gen. John Hunt Morgan, a Confederate Wizard of 
the Saddle." This notice is given here with the request fron 
Mrs. Holt that the Chapters will notify the Children and d< 
everything possible to interest them in the historical contests. 

Necrology. — The death of Mrs. Whitehead, the mother of 
our Third Vice President General, Mrs. R. Philip Holt, oc- 
curred soon after the convention. It was my sad privilege 
to send your message of sympathy to Mrs. Holt. The death 
of Maj. George W. Littlefield removes from our ranks 
faithful friend of our cause, and his death is lamented by the 
entire South, especially the Daughters of the Confederacy re 
member him with affection and gratitude. 

Cordially, May M. Faris McKinney. 

Report for December, 1920. 

Previously reported $6,505 73 

Florida Division : Check of Mrs. Amos H. Norris, 
Treasurer General 95 25 

Total $6,600 9ct 

Confederate l/eterap. 


U. D. C. NOTES. 

'he editor appreciated very much the cordial holiday greet- 

s of the Arkansas Division sent through their State Presi- 

t, Mrs. Massey. 

Irs. L. M. Bashinsky, Chairman Alabama Division Scholar- 

■> Committee, Troy, Ala., is preparing a cookbook, the 

ceeds from the sale of it to be used for the endowment of 

cholarship as a memorial to Capt. Llewelyn H. Bowles, a 
,'ve soldier, who lost an arm in defense of the Southern 

,se, a consecrated minister of God, and Christian gentleman. 

s. Bashinsky would very much appreciate it if you, your 
[ :nds, and Chapter members would send her some of the 

st choice "true and tried" recipes to be published in this 
i morial book, for which only the very best is wanted. She 
i ires each recipe to be signed, with the understanding that 
', signature does not mean that the recipe is original, but 
-t the signer has tested the recipe and knows it to be cor- 
rifter her reelection by the convention at Asheville, Mrs. 

>rge Cunningham, of Little Rock, Ark., resigned as Second 
£:e President General, and at the Executive Committee 

;ting held in Asheville on Monday after the close of the 
'vention Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, of Gallatin, Tenr was 

:ted to fill the vacancy. 

he centenary of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, the '"Wiidrd 

the Saddle," comes on July 13, 1921. It seems that the 
j . hundredth anniversary of the birth of this military won- 
h should have special and fitting observance by all Confed- 
l'te organizations. Can't the United Daughters of the Con- 
'eracy institute such a movement and secure the coopera- 
'l of all other Confederate societies? 

lewly appointed correspondents for the Veteran : 

dabama — Mrs. N. K. Perrow, Anniston. 

^rkansas — Mrs. Dewell Gann, Sr., Benton. 

forth Carolina — Miss Mary Mabry, Albemarle. 

Colorado — Mrs. M. S. Bradley, 2706 East Twelfth Avenue, 


laryland — Mrs. E. J. Croker, 4314 Groveland Avenue, 



'•'irginia. — At their meeting on December 8 the Richmond 
'jpter expressed indignant opposition to the use of the name 
j-Klux Klan" by any present-day organization and adopted 
i following resolutions on the subject, which are com- 
ided to the entire South: 

lit is with regret that the Richmond Chapter of the United 
ughters of the Confederacy is informed through the ar- 
es in the press of the attempted revival of the Ku-Klux 
in. This organization went out of existence when the 
'se for which they worked was realized and Virginia, then 
ed District No. 1, came again into her glorious own and 

'scalawags' and the carpetbaggers of the North were 
t back to the North. When the Freedman's Bureau was 
anized, the North said the bureau was necessary to pro- 
: the negro. The South responded with the Ku-Klux Klan 
protect the white women. Mrs. Rose, one-time Historian 
leral of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, has 
tten a booklet on this subject and is an accepted authority 
the secret organization. It should be in all the schools of 

South. Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Richmond Chapter protests against any 
anization adopting and using the name 'Ku-Klux Klan.' 

It was a name and an order worthy of such men as Gen. 
Nathan B. Forrest, chief of the Klan, and among its mem- 
bers were the very bravest and noblest of Southern heroes. 

"Be it further resolved, That we petition our State govern- 
ment to prohibit the use of this name, made sacred by the 
men who bore it in years gone by." 

During Christmas week the Richmond Chapter gave its 
annual turkey dinner for the veterans of the Confederate 
Home, and a profusion of good things was heaped before 
these old soldiers, who occupy such a warm place in the hearts 
of all Richmond people. The Confederate women were re- 
membered with many useful and attractive gifts and their 
Christmas made bright and cheery. 

The Lee Chapter gave its annual Christmas party to the 
veterans on December 23 and included a Christmas tree in 
Randolph Hall, on which was a present for every veteran, 
the women of the Chapter sparing no trouble to get the ar- 
ticles each of the "boys" desired. 

District of Columbia. — At the annual convention, held De- 
cember 3 in the Confederate Memorial Hall in Washington, 
extensive reports on work being done in educational, relief, 
and memorial lines comprised the largest portion of the busi- 
ness transacted. Mr. Conroy, of Camp 305, S. C. V., of 
Washington, made an interesting address and asked for 
greater cooperation between the Sons and the Daughters of 
the Confederacy. Vocal solos were rendered during the 
evening, and the Division presented a large bouquet of red 
and white carnations to the President, Mrs. Benoit. 

The following officers will head the Division for the year : 
Mrs. Lee Benoit, President (reelected) ; Mrs. A. Waller. 
First Vice President ; Mrs. George Covington, Second Vice 
President; Mrs. Virginia Willis, Recording Secretary; Mrs. 
Charles Maubery, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. W. B. New- 
man, Treasurer; Mrs. Paul L. Joachim, Registrar; Mrs. S. 
B. Milton, Historian ; Mrs. Drury Ludlow, Parliamentarian ; 
Mrs. Goodwin Ellsworth, Chaplain ; Mrs. Arthur Thompson, 
Custodian ; Miss Frances Weeks, Auditor ; Mrs. Gustavus 
Werber, Recorder of Crosses. 

A bronze tablet, set in a ten-foot granite bowlder, has been 
placed at Stephenson's Depot, near Winchester, Va., in honor 
of Col. Richard Snowden Andrews and officers and men of 
the 1st Maryland Artillery and was unveiled on December 2. 
1920. This is the tribute of Mrs. Gibson Fahnestock, a late 
President of the District of Columbia Division, and her 
brother, Charles Lee Andrews, to the memory of their father. 
Maryland. — The State convention was held at the Green 
Door Tea Rooms, Baltimore, on December 7, 1920, Mrs. 
Charles E. Parr, President, presiding. Representatives from 
five State Chapters were present. The new Chapter, Henry 
Kyd Douglas, of Hagerstown, with a membership of nearly 
sixty, was given a warm welcome. This Chapter was or- 
ganized last spring by Mrs. Parr. At the morning session 
Chapter reports were read. At noon a luncheon was served, 
with the visiting delegates as guests The election of officers 
occupied the afternoon session. Miss Georgia Bright was 
unanimously elected State President to succeed Mrs. Parr, 
who had served the Division most acceptably for four years. 
The other officers elected were : First Vice President, Mrs. 
Edward H. Bash ; Second Vice President, Mrs. J. H. Lough- 
borough ; Third Vice President, Mrs. James Hoyle; Fourth 
Vice President, Mrs. Winfield Peters ; Recording Secretary, 
Mrs. J. Addison Cooke ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Jack- 
son Brant; Registrar, Mrs. I. P. Gough ; Treasurer, Mrs. 
Arnold Frick; Historian, Mrs. R. Corbin Maupin ; Recorder 
of Crosses, Miss Sallie Maupin ; Parliamentarian, Mrs. Jed 



^oijfederat^ l/efcerai). 

Gittings ; Director of Children, Mrs. James Gaskins ; State 
Poet and Editor, Mrs. Edward Croker. 

The Maryland quota for the Jefferson Davis monument 
was completed in April, 1920. With a membership of 733, 
$1,400 was contributed to the "Hero Fund," nearly double 
the amount assured. 

Ohio. — The nineteenth annual convention of the Ohio Di- 
vision held its opening ceremonies on Tuesday, October 12, 
1920, at the Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, with the Alexander 
H. Stephens Chapter as hostess. A large representation from 
the seven Chapters comprising the Ohio Division was in at- 
tendance, as well as invited guests of the Chapter. 

Mrs. John J. Parker, President of the Cleveland Chapter, 
very graciously extended a hearty welcome to the delegates 
and visitors, which was responded to in behalf of the Ohio 
delegation by Mrs. James Burton Doan, of Cincinnati, State 

The program arranged for the evening was a "Historical 
Evening" in honor of Matthew Fontaine Maury. Mrs. John 
L. Shearer, of Cincinnati, a member of the Albert Sidney 
Johnston Chapter, gave an interesting and enlightening ad- 
dress on "Matthew Fontaine Maury, the Pathfinder of the 
Sea," and the delightful musical program by local talent in- 
cluded several numbers on "Songs of the Sea." 

Those present were most fortunate in being able to see the 
wonderful medals, or duplicates of the medals, presented to 
Commodore Maury from every country in the world but his 
own for his valiant services to all mankind. These priceless 
treasures were lent for this occasion by a member of the 
Maury family who resides in Cincinnati. 

The Alexander H. Stephens Chapter, of Cleveland, has set 
an example in publicly honoring Matthew Fontaine Maury. 
Let other Chapters follow this example and give honor to 
him who has so long been denied the honors so justly due. 

The first business session of the convention met on Wednes- 
day, October 13, Mrs. James Burton Doan, of Cincinnati, 
State President, in the chair. 

Confederate relief work has taken the banner this year 
for U. D. C. activities. Under the able guidance of Mrs. 
John W. Hagerty, of Cincinnati. State Chairman, the mag- 
nificent sum of $1,104 was given to help the poor and unfor- 
tunate, the noblest branch of U. D. C. work. This Division 
has endowed a room in the Home for Needy Confederate 
Women, Richmond, Va., to be paid annually on a prorated 
per capita basis. The endowment began on July 4, 1920, it 
seeming most appropriate to add this celebration to our na- 
tion's great Independence Day. 

The Ohio Division went "over the top" early last spring 
for the Jefferson Davis Memorial Fund, paying for ten mem- 
bers more than its quota. The quota for the Hero Fund has 
also been exceeded. Since this fund began in 1918 the total 
amount given to the Hero Fund is $710, a little over $3 per 
member, against $1.15 asked for. 

All Chapter Presidents gave excellent reports. Harmony 
is the keynote which has made this year so successful. 

The Stonewall Jackson Chapter, of Cincinnati, reports a 
most unusual occurrence. "At the September meeting little 
Miss Elizabeth King was received into the Chapter as a jun- 
ior member. She is of the fourth generation to be a member 
of this Chapter. All four generations were present on this 
memorable occasion. Her great-grandmother held her, her 
grandmother presented her name, and her mother paid her 

The Robert E. Lee Chapter, of Columbus, reports the Camp 
Chase Memorial Association organized during the past year. 

This organization will make it possible to have a memorial 
service each year worthy of those who sleep there. Every 
member of the Ohio Division is urged to become a member. 'I 15 
On June 5, 1920, memorial services were held at Camp Chase ;|. 
Cemetery. The Rev. Dr. W. L. Pickard, of Tennessee, de- 
livered the address. The band and a firing squad from the 
United States marine barracks were present. 

The Gen. Joe Wheeler Chapter, of Dayton, reports that' I' 
its greatest work has been done for the veterans at PeeweejL; 
(Continued on page 78). 

ijtatortral S*partttmtt 1. 1. (ft. 

Motto : "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Key word : "Preparedness." Flower : The rose. 



Charleston Poets : Henry Timrod, Paul Hamilton Hayne, ; 
1 William Gilmore Simms. 

Read a poem from each one and have the members present ; 
guess the name of the poem and the author. Follow this 
with a paper or a talk on the life of each poet or, if preferred, 
on Charleston as a literary center, 


Thomas J. Jackson, the Christian Soldier. 

The Stonewall of the Confederacy, unique in his method^ P 
and remarkable in his personality. 

Announcement is made of a new and valuable prize, 




hundred-dollar Liberty Bond, which will be given by Mis.' 
Mary Carter, of Upperville, Va., through the Virginia Di' 
vision to the Division which purchases the largest number ol 
Miss Rutherford's booklet, "Truths of History." The mini 
mum for which the award will be made is one hundred copies 
and should that number not be reached the prize will be con 
tinued next year. It is hoped, however, that Divisions wi' 
eagerly avail themselves of this generous offer and that tin 
prize can be given at the St. Louis Convention in 1921. 

The object of this gift is twofold: First, to place thii 
valuable little treatise in every Southern home and schoo 
and in as many others as possible; second, to provide fron 
the sale a fund for the publication of another booklet by Mis 
Rutherford which will be a permanent addition to her splen 
did contributions to Southern history. Miss Rutherford oc 
cupies a unique position and is a unique personality. Th 
Daughters of the Confederacy appreciate her great servio 
to the cause of truth and should rejoice at the opportunit: 
to cooperate with her in making the truth of history known .. 
The sale of the booklet is not limited to Chapters or member 
of the U. D. C. It is open to every person who desires t< 
invest fifty cents in the booklet. Orders should be sent t( 
Miss Mildred Rutherford, Athens, Ga. The record of sale, 
will be kept by her, and Divisions will be given credit fa 
all orders received from the States which they represent 
The award will be based upon this record, and there are ru 
restrictions whatever placed upon the use to which the priz 
may be applied. 


C^orjfederat^ l/eterap. 


kmfeberatet) Southern memorial Hssociation 

- s. A. McD. Wilson President 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

:s. C. B. Bryan First Vice President 

I Memphis, Tenn. 

' ss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President 

FayettevUle, Ark. 

is. John E. Maxwell Treasurer 

Seale, Ala. 
ss Daisy M. L. Hodgson'. ...Recording Secretary 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

ss Mary A. Hall Historian 

1 137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga. 
-ts. Bryan W '.Collier.. Corresponding Secretary 
College Park, Ga. 

rs. Virginia Frazek Boyle Poet Laureate 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Alabama— Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning 

KENTUCKY — Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi — Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri — St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina — Raleigh Mrs. Robert H.Jones 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee — Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Virginia — Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis- Roy 


To Memorial Women: It has been a great disappointment 

me that the publishers have failed to deliver my book, 

iiographies of Representative Women of the South, 1861- 

[ 20," according to promise. I desire to thank all the sub- 

ribers to this volume for their kind waiting. Their pa- 

;nce has been to me a deep expression of beautiful character 

•id has helped me to learn anew the lesson of patient waiting. 

I feel like this, my first edition of biographies of our noble 

ruthern women, is but the prelude to other volumes that 

tall follow. I have for years desired to do this work, but 

y home duties demanded my days, and not until recent years 

juld I devote any time to this work. 

, We who have the honor to be descendants of the families 
: the Confederacy have much to be proud of, much to cause 
; to be deeply reverent in all our work. It is a sacred task 
1 me, filled with precious memories that are immortal. It 
trries us back to the "Rose Hills, Linwoods, and Bonaven- 
ires," and from every hallowed spot where the dust of our 
ead is sleeping, from the trailing mosses of the live oaks to 
te wandering wild rose on the mountain side ; and I hope 
e shall never forget to honor and revere that memory that 
:calls to us a little band of Southern women standing over 
iie graves of our soldiers who had fallen under the blue 
-id the gray gathering the first flowers of that April day 
lat had blossomed from fields of blood. 

■ Whenever that picture of those pale, careworn faces of our 
Mothers, beautiful in heroic courage and saintly through fiery 
rials, fades from my memory, it will be when the flowers of 
ur Southland forget to bloom in the sunshine of celestial 
lory, when the mocking bird no longer sings to us the songs 
f other days. Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier, 

l Corresponding Secretary General C. S. M. A. 



At the Reunion held at Houston, Tex., in October a reso- 
jtion was offered by Mrs. Oswell R. Eve, of Augusta, Ga., 
sking that the Confederated Southern Memorial Association 
irect one of its activities toward creating an interest in the 
American library at Paris. France, which is a memorial li- 
rary to Alan Seegar. the young American poet who gave 
is life on the battle field in France in the World War. The 
esolution passed, and Mrs. Eve was appointed chairman of 
he Alan Seegar Memorial Library. 

Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier has received the following in- 
eresting account of the library from W. N. C. Carlton, 
-.D.H., the European representative at Paris : 

"The basis of the collection was the library formed and main- 

tained by the American Library Association for the use of the 
American overseas forces during the war and all Americans 
engaged on official work. It numbers at present thirty 
thousand well selected volumes. When the library was about 
to be closed and the volumes sent back to America, war activi- 
ties having ceased, a group of American, British, and French 
men and women of prominence in Paris, who realized its 
value and importance as an educational institution, asked if 
there was any way in which it could be left in Paris and made 
a permanent free library administered on American theory 
and practice. The Library Association at once offered to 
make a free gift of the whole plant to any organization that 
would agree to accept it and secure an endowment for it. 

"The Paris people accepted the offer, formed an incorporated 
society called the American Library in Paris, and are now 
actively engaged in raising the requisite money for its ade- 
quate support. 

"Money and books are therefore most acceptable, and we 
shall be glad to receive the gift of such as you can send us 
along certain lines. We should particularly appreciate any 
standard and authoritative books relating to the history, lit- 
erature, politics, social development, colonial and war records, 
and other material relating to the South, from its first settle- 
ment down to the present day. A collection of that sort 
would be of the greatest value to French and other European 
students of American history. As one who has long loved 
and admired the South, it would be a special pleasure to me 
to see such a collection here, and I know it will be well used," 
concludes Mr. Carlton. 

Mr. Charles L. Seegar, the father of Alan Seegar, the 
gifted young hero-poet, has established a fund of fifty thou- 
sand francs in memory of his son and has been elected presi- 
dent of the board of trustees of the memorial library. Mrs. 
Edith Wharton and Madame la Contesse de Chambrum, for- 
merly Clara Longworth, are trustees of the library. 

Gift to Wren's Nest. 
The Uncle Remus Memorial Association, which has bought 
and preserved the Wren's Nest, the home of Joel Chandler 
Harris, the great folklore writer, has been enriched by a pic- 
ture of Joel Chandler Harris, Henry Grady, the famous orator 
and author of "The Patchwork Palace," Col. J. H. Estill, the 
journalist, and Frank Stovall Roberts, Confederate veteran, 
grouped on Point Lookout, which appeared in the July num- 
ber of the Confederate Veteran. The picture, enlarged and 
framed, was presented to Mrs. A. McD. Wilson. President 
General C. S. M. A. and President for life of the Uncle 
Remus Memorial Association, by Mr. Roberts and was shown 
at the January meeting of the Association. The picture will 
be placed in the Wren's Nest, where the "Uncle Remus" 
stories were written. 


^oiyfederat^ tfefcerai). 

Prominent Women Appointed to Office. 

"Mrs. Jesse J. Yates, of Asheville, N. C, has been appointed 
State President C. S. M. A. by the President General, Mrs. 
A. McD. Wilson, to fill the unexpired term of Mrs. Robert 

Mrs. Oswell Eve has been appointed Chairman of the Alan 
Seegar Memorial American Library at Paris, France. Al- 
ready a number of valuable books have been contributed to 
the library through the C. S. M. A., including a complete set 
of the literary works of Miss Mildred Rutherford, whose 
kinswoman was the founder of the Memorial Association, the 
oldest organization of patriotic women in the world, as far as 
is known. The "Biographies of Representative Women of the 
South," by Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier, and "Memoirs of Judge 
Richard H. Clark," by Lottie Belle Wylie, will be other 
books of value to be given, and in the collection which will 
find its way to the library will be books by some of the most 
notable writers of the South. 

To Organize College Girls. 

Mrs. Bryan W. Collier held a very interesting meeting of 
the Robert E. Lee Chapter, of which she is President, at Cox 
College, College Park, on December 9. 

The student body and faculty were guests of the Chapter, 
as Mrs. Collier had extended invitation to the girls eighteen 
years old to become members of the Chapter. 

Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, President General of the C. S. M. A., 
was the guest of the day and by special request addressed the 
student body on "What It Means to Become a Daughter of 
the Confederacy." She charmed the girls with her reminis- 
cences of war times of the sixties and also spoke of her me- 
morial work. 

Mrs. Collier hopes to add many new names from the stu- 
dent body to her U. D. C. Chapter and will also organize a 
Memorial Association among the college girls, thus sending 
out from that wonderful band of Southern girls a new vision 
in many phases of the loyal work she is doing for the South. 


After conferring with the President General U. D. C. and 
the Publication Committee, the managing editor of "The 
Women of the South in War Times" announces that the U. 
D. C. may obtain copies of this volume at the rate of $2. 
plus an average of 12 cents for postage, for the next six 
months and indefinitely thereafter if the book be properly 
supported, so as to make up at least a portion of the deficit 
of several thousand dollars now on account, a deficit partly 
due to the fact that some fourteen hundred copies were sent 
out at pre-war prices according to a pre-war agreement made 
prior to the contract with the printers. The price of the book 
to those outside the organization is $2.50, plus postage. 

It has been suggested that the Chapters secure copies of the 
book, selling it to their own membership at the $2 rate and 
to outsiders at the $2.50, thereby making the difference for 
Chapter expenses. The plan that would work best in such a 
case, is to secure a copy, give it to the local press for review, 
which not only helps the book, but gives favorable publicity 
to the Chapter. In this review the name of the duly-appointed 
representative of the local Chapter should be given. This 
appointee would receive and forward orders. 

Earnest efforts will be made to provide for a publicity fund 
for this memorial volume of our mothers — a memorial which 
will prove many times more effective than scores of monu- 
ments of marble or tablets of bronze. Monuments are fixed 

and permanent, and they stand for love and patriotism. They 
are there for those who go to see them, and they serve a great h 
purpose where they stand. No monument, however, can go to f 
those who do not come to it. This memorial volume, dedicated 
to "The Women of the South in War Times," has already) 
demonstrated that it carries conviction, creates sympathy, and .fcs 
does away with sectional prejudices by establishing a clear p 
understanding of what our fathers and mothers represented,' *~ 
achieved, and endured in 1861-65. This memorial may travelf" 
not only over the country, but throughout the English-speak- \, 
ing world as well. A minimum of $1,500 is absolutely essen-1 
tial to start this work on its way. It has already been re- 
ported that the Boston Transcript recommended the work to I 
its readers as likely to give them a new viewpoint concerning t - 
the position of people whom "we once thought devoid of allit 
honesty and faith." In the issue of Sunday, January 16, theiL 
New York Times, in an extended review, spoke of the workjt- 
in the opening paragraph in the following words: "One of;| 
the brightest pages in the history of our country is that on!t: 
which is written the noble epic of the devotion to their causej^- 
the unselfishness and the courage displayed by the women ofji : 
the South during the Civil War. In 'Women of the Southjl- 
in War Times' Matthew Page Andrews has expanded thisi 
glorious page into a book packed with romantic stories rep- 
resentative of the gallant achievements of a heroic people. 1 

The South Carolina Division is still leading in both sub 
scriptions and publicity work for "The Women of the Soutl 
in War Times." Nevertheless, Mrs. R. P. Holt, official dis 
tributor for North Carolina, is doing good work in her Di- 
vision and reports the first contribution from a Chapter of 
the Children of the Confederacy. This contribution of $5 
comes from the Junior Bethel Heroes Chapter, Children of 
the Confederacy, at Rocky Mount. The South Carolina Di- 
vision has contributed $50 toward the publicity fund through 
Mrs. St. J. Alison Lawton and holds out a promise of an 
additional $50 later on. The Joseph H. Lewis Chapter, of 
Frankfort, Ky., has contributed $5 toward the publicity' fund : 
$63 has been realized on the publicity fund through the sale 
of specially marked State Division copies. The following 
additional States have subscribed for their official copies since 
our last report : Arkansas, Colorado, Louisiana, Maryland. 
Missouri, and Pennsylvanai. 

Other States are still to be accounted for, in some of which 
there are no official Chapters designated, but these States may- 
be taken care of by individual Daughters or by neighboring 
Divisions. As suggested by the President General, other 
States may act as sponsors for States not represented in the 
U. D. C. organization. 

Oklahoma is coming to the front of late with an order for 
a few copies almost every week. Nearly all these copies are 
being sent in through the energetic cooperation of Mrs. 
Arthur Walcott, State Distributor, of Ardmore. 

Send orders to Matthew Page Andrews, 849 Park Avenue, 
Baltimore, Md. 

W. M. Francis, of Sallisaw, Okla., sends renewal of sub- 
scription for two years in advance, saying: "I hope to live to 
read it many more years. It does my soul good to read its 
pages and to see how fair it is in publishing the truth about 
what happened. I was a boy during the war, but I remember 
it very distinctly. May the Veteran live long to give the 
truth to the rising generation of how and why we fought for 
our rights I" 

Qoi)federat^ l/eterai). 



Organized in July, iSoS, at Richmond, Va. 

OFFICERS, iqiq-20. 

3 imander in Chief Nathan Bedford Forrest 

I utant in Chief Carl Hinton 

| tor, J. R. Price 1206 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

address ail communications to this department to the Edi- 



Vashington Camp, No. 405, held its regular monthly meet- 
i. January 11. Representative W. B. Bankhead, of Ala- 
ma, delivered an address on the constitutional rights of 
ii;ssion and the Reconstruction period in the South. Com- 
:;ndant Elgin H. Blalock presided. George T. Rawlins, F. 
I Conway, and Jessie Anthony, Jr., were appointed a com- 
l tee to prepare a reception in honor of Commander in Chief 
hthan Bedford Forrest and members of the Executive Coun- 
[ A meeting of the Executive Council will be held here 
put February 1. J. J. Crandill, C. A. Moran, and G. L. 
I rrison were elected to membership. 

* * * 

n order to prevent a great many letters from being re- 
ined to general headquarters on account of insufficient ad- 
i-':ss, it is requested that all officers of the organization send 
Mr address, which should include the street or post office 
[K number, to Carl Hinton, Adjutant in Chief, 1205 Sho- 

one Street, Denver, Colo. 

* * * 

Arthur H. Jennings, Historian in Chief, Lynchburg, Va., 
)orts that many colleges and libraries are now voluntarily 
"king for copies of the Gray Book. The United Daugh- 
's of the Confederacy are introducing the book into the 
r blic schools in accordance with a plan outlined at their 
nvention at Asheville. A historical program for the cur- 
Tit year is now being prepared. In this connection it is 
ggested that all Division Historians write Comrade Jen- 
rigs for particulars concerning his plans. 

* * * 

Miss Nannie Randolph Heth, daughter of the late Col. 
arry Heth, of General Lee's staff, died at her home, in 
"ashington, D. C, January 10. Miss Heth, who was one of 
e organizers of the Southern Relief Society, had held the 
>sition as President for eighteen years. It was mainly due 
her efforts that the Southern Relief Home was founded 
Washington, D. C, to care for Confederate veterans. One 
': the rooms in the home was dedicated to her father. She 
as laid to rest at Richmond, Va. 

* * * 

The option on one hundred and twenty-eight acres of the 
Manassas battle field is now of record. More land will not 
: needed, except a spot here and there over the thousands 
: acres where fighting occurred at both First and Second 
tanassas, a few square feet each, on which to erect monu- 
ients marking epochal events of the battles. Then from the 
tenry Hill one can see each monument and hear the story of 
Dth battles. The museum is valuable and comes with the 
eal, $25,000 cash at expiration of option. This site is beau- 
ful for a memorial park: thirty-three miles from Arlington, 
fteen miles from historic Fairfax, eighteen miles from en- 
hanting Mount Vernon, twenty miles from Warrenton, the 
ipital of Mosby's Confederacy, and not much farther from 

Chief Justice Marshall's old home, with Richmond within 
two hours' automobile ride, and quaint old Manassas at the 
doorway. What more historic setting for a memorial park 
to Southern valor? Maj. E. W. R. Ewing and Westwood 
Hutchinson, trustees, have invited Governor Davis to act as 
temporary chairman of the organization committee, and each 
Southern organization and each Southern State is asked to 
name a member of the committee, to be called into early 
meeting by Governor Davis. It is planned that the meeting 
arrange for incorporation, giving each Southern State and 
organization one member of the board and making the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia ex officio chairman. It was on this battle 
field that Stonewall Jackson and his Virginians not only 
saved the day in the last ditch, as had gallant Evans earlier, 
but here Jackson got his immortal name and his wound, and 
here Wheat and Bee, heroic figures, died for the sacredness 
• of constitutional government. The South cannot forget these 
deeds. „, . 

George T. Rawlins, who was recently appointed Commander 
of the District of Columbia Division, has selected the fol- 
lowing staff officers for the current year: J. A. Kephart, Adju- 
tant and Chief of Staff; Harry G. Hughes, Division Quarter- 
master; A. D. Deason, Division Inspector; Rufus W. Pear- 
son, Division Judge Advocate; T. H. Harris, Division Com- 
missary; Dr. W. Cabell Moore, Division Surgeon; Rev. An- 
drew R. Bird, Division Chaplain; Frank R. Fravcl, Division 


* * * 

The Division Commanders recently appointed by N. B. 
Forrest, Commander in Chief, are: Alabama, Dr. W. E. Quin. 
Fort Payne ; Arkansas, A. D. Pope, Magnolia ; Colorado, C. 
L. Colburn, Denver; District of Columbia, Georgia T. Raw- 
lins, Washington; Florida, S. L. Lowry, Tampa; Georgia, 
J. Hugh Conley, Augusta ; Kentucky, J. B. Wickliffe, Wick- 
liffe; Missouri, J. Gwynne Gough, St. Louis; North Carolina, 
G. O. Coble, Greensboro ; New Mexico, J. S. Oliver, Carls- 
bad ; South Carolina, W. R. McCutchen, Sumter ; Tennessee, 
D. S. Etheridge, Chattanooga ; Virginia, R. Johnston Neely, 
Portsmouth ; West Virginia, G. W. Sidebottom, Huntington. 
The appointment of the Division Commanders for Missis- 
sippi, Oklahoma, and Texas will be announced later. 

* * * 

Elgin H. Blalock, Commandant of Washington Camp, S. 
C. V., 1184 Morse Street Northeast, Washington, D. C, de- 
sires to establish the eligibility of an applicant for member- 
ship in the Camp. The applicant's father, Alpheus J. Norman, 
enlisted at Richmond, Va. He persuaded an old Irish woman 
to represent herself as his mother because he was too young 
to enlist. It is possible he may have enlisted under the as- 
sumed name of Dixon. He was a member of Stuart's Cav- 
alry; fought in the battle of the Wilderness, where he was 
captured, taken to Washington, and confined in Old Capitol 
Prison, on First Street. He was mustered out at New Or- 
leans at the close of the war and worked his way to Pitts- 
burgh, then to New York City, where he died in 1879. Sur- 
viving comrades are requested to furnish any information 
concerning the war record of this veteran. 

T. L. McMillan, of Waelder, Tex., son of a Confederate 
veteran, writes of his continued enjoyment of the Veteran. 
His father, S. W. McMillan, is still living, now in his ninetieth 
year; and his Uncle Hugh, who was also a Confederate sol- 
dier, died recently in his eighty-seventh year. Another uncle, 
James E. McMillan, died of a wound received in the battle 
of the Wilderness. 


^prffe derate Ueterai). 


(Continued from page 74.) 
Valley, Ky. Last spring this Chapter donated $100 for easy 
chairs and bedside tables for the Home, and two days after 
they were delivered fire destroyed the entire building. A 
movement is on foot to replace the chairs. 

Through efforts of the Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter, 
one Confederate veteran was admitted to the Confederate 
Home at Richmond, Va. The Division is also caring for an 
old lady living at Franklin, Ohio. This gratuity has brought 
much happiness into her declining days, and her genuine ap- 
preciation of it is as a benediction on our work. Generous 
contributions to the Confederate Home at Peewee Valley, 
Ky., have been made. 

The delegates were entertained with an informal luncheon 
on Wednesday, a dinner dance in the evening, and a delight- 
ful automobile ride on Thursday afternoon, after the conven- 
tion adjourned, through the beautiful city of Cleveland, stop- 
ping at the Country Club for a delightful "tea" as guests of 
Mrs. J. J. Parker, President of the hostess Chapter. 

During the morning session on Thursday an invitation was 
extended the convention assembled to attend the Woman's 
City Club at noon to hear the Hon. W. G. McAdoo speak on 
"The League of Nations." The invitation was most gladly ac- 
cepted. It is very gratif}'ing to state that Mr. McAdoo recog- 
nized the U. D. C. and gave the delegation a very hearty 
greeting as he came on the platform. 

The following officers were elected for 1921 : President, 
Mrs. W. H. Estabrook, Dayton ; First Vice President, Mrs. 
Joseph C. Hosea, Cincinnati ; Second Vice President, Mrs. 
John B. Preston, Columbus; Third Vice President, Mrs. W. 
Y. Davis, Cincinnati; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Albert Sid- 
ney Porter, Cleveland; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. H. V. 
Dutrow, Dayton ; Treasurer, Mrs. Leroy Rose, Columbus ; His- 
torian-Custodian, Mrs. John L. Shearer, Cincinnati; Regis- 
trar, Mrs. A. R. Shaw, Columbus ; Recorder of Crosses, Mrs. 
E. M. Slemmons, Columbus; Director of C. of C. Chapters, 
Mrs. A. W. Freeman, Columbus; State Editor for the Vet- 
eran, Mrs. A. S. Porter, Cleveland. 


Col. John C. Stiles, of Brunswick, Ga., writes : 

"Will some one who lived through the sixties tell us through 
the columns of the Veteran if they know what the following 
represent: Hessians, Jayhawkers, Union Shriekers, Claybank 
and Charcoal factions in Missouri, Knights of the Golden 
Circle, Red Legs, Southern Peace Society, Flat Foots of 
Missouri, Union Loose Pins, Union Shriekers, Paw Paws in 
Missouri, Sons of Liberty, Galvanized Rebels, Galvanized 
Yankees, Buckskin Gentry in California, Flat-Topped Copper- 
heads, Heroes of America, White Cottons, Florida Royals, 
Jobberwowls, Tories, American Knights, and Corps de Bel- 

"What were the following: Hewgagism, Hoosier and sucker 
tactics, Hunkerism, Scewhorn principles? 

"Also how many does 'right smart' mean? Was 'one hour 
by sun' just after sunup or just after sundown? Did "seeing 
the elephant' mean getting into a fight? And if any one ate 
the ration of mule meat served to our soldiers in Vicksburg, 
kindly let us know how he liked it; if it tasted a^-thing like 
turkey, and what effect it had on the character and disposi- 

Mixin' with 'Em— J. M. Barkley, who served w'ith Co 
pany F, 73d North Carolina Regiment (Junior Reserve 
writes from Detroit, Mich., regarding the new subscript 
rate : "Your 'advance' is so modest that it is out of charac 
with the way the Confederates used to advance in the 
war days. I am inclosing check for $4.50. Let that ren 
my subscription for a year anyway, and let the little balai 
go into your work. Away up 'Nawth' here I get to see v; 
few 'auld grays' of the Confederacy, but the old boys in b 
are fine to me. I have been made an associate member of c 
of the best Posts (Detroit Post, No. 384, G. A. R., Depa 
ment of Michigan), and they insist on my marching w 
them on Memorial Day, which I do with the Confederate v 
eran's cross of honor and the showy badge of the Post s 
by side on my breast. They welcomed it with great hilari 
and now look for it every time there is a turn-out, which 
growing fewer every year. I'm just seventy-four." 

Thomas Hunter, a Canadian who served in the Confeder 
army, writes from Toronto. Hotel Elliott: "I have read w 
great interest the article by J. N. Thompson, of Mempl 
Tenn., appearing in the November Veteran and giving 
short sketch of the 44th Mississippi. This was my old re_ 
ment, into which I was mustered by the gallant and lament 
Colonel Blythe. On this my eightieth birthday I am n 
living in my native city, but I recall with vivid interest v 
events recorded by Comrade Thompson and, of course, ma 
others. To Comrade Thompson and any other survivors 
send greetings and shall be glad to hear from any of them.' 

Souvenir Reunion Book.— George B. Boiling, Adjut- 
and Chief of Staff, Tennessee Division, S. C. V, is preps 
ing a souvenir book of the Tulsa, Atlanta, and Houston F. 
unions which will contain pictures of Veterans, Sons, Spo 
sors, Maids of Honor, Chaperons, and others having conn 
tion with Confederate affairs. Those wishing certain pictm 
to appear therein should communicate with him at 637 Was 
ington Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

John F. Green writes from Hope, Ark. : "I was in tj 
Army of Northern Virginia from First Manassas to App 
mattox. Never reported sick a day; wounded five time 
Many years ago I thought the Veteran would soon play oi 
but, like wine, it grows better with age." 

In the article by Capt. John McAnerney on "Dahlgrei: 
Raid on Richmond," page 20 of the January number, a typ. 
graphical error changed the name of Capt. Edward S. G: 
to Guy in the reference to the boy company of Richmor 
which had a part in the defense of the city at the time. 

H. Wickizer, of Los Angeles, Cal., renews subscription fc 
five years and writes: "I have been a subscriber since tl 
early nineties — 1894, if my memory is correct. Pretty goo 
for a 'Yank,' don't you think? Kind regards and wishirl 
you every success." 

A slip of the typewriter gave General Forrest the name c 
William Bedford instead of Nathan Bedford in the artic' 
on "Two Biographies." page 378 of the October Vetera: 
The error was corrected in part of the edition. 

Hon. Walter Sydnor, of Richmond, Va., sends several su, 
scriptions and says: "I congratulate you on the success ths 
you are making of the Veteran." 

Qoqfederat^ l/eterai). 


Bronze '. 

Memorial "tablets v 

jf the Highest Standard 

( )ur experience of 27 years 
is our giictr.intt'e " f results 

aul E. Cabaret & Go. 

120 1?S Eleventh Avenile 
; New York 
llhivlr tied booklet whim request. 

R. D. (Dick) Wilson is anxious to 
locate some member of Company K, 
Williams's Regiment of Missouri Cav- 
alry, who can testify to his service as 
a Confederate soldier. He wishes to 
get a pension. Any surviving comrades 
will please communicate with H. R. 
Airheart. at Amarillo, Tex. 


that besides making 
U. C. V. Uniforms 


also makes an im- 
mense line of Regalia 
and Lodge Supplies 
for Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, Py t Hians, 
Woodmen, etc.? 

Stephen D. Tillman, of Mount 
Rainier, Md., wishes to get information 
on the record of his grandfather, 
Stephen D. Tillman, who entered the 
Confederate army from Edgefield, S. C. 
The only record of him is that he was 
commissioned as colonel with the Cald- 
well Regiment of Infantry from Louisi- 
ana. Any information of his service 
will be appreciated. 

Trs. T. C. Hunter, of Lawton, Okla., 
ute B, asks that any surviving com- 
les of her father, Felix C. Smith, 
o served in the Tennessee Army, 
:burne's Division, will write to her 
to his record, which she is anxious 

PMrs. Betty Smyer, of Susanville, 
l;egon, wishes to locate the Mr. Jack- 
! i who lost both hands at Fort Donel- 
'n, who, she thinks, is living some- 
lere in Texas. Any one knowing of 
n will please write to Mrs. Smyer. 

Mrs. Katherine Ritchey, of Ada. 
Okla., wishes to hear from some com- 
rade of her husband, Samuel N. 
Ritchey, who enlisted from Grubb 
Springs, Miss., and served with the 
41st Mississippi Regiment, C. S. A. In- 
formation of his service is needed to get 
her a pension, as she is old and help- 
less. Surviving comrades will please 
write to R. C. Roland, Box 941, Ada, 

Not luck, but bulldog grit— that's what 
brings success. If one hundred men 
were to have fortunes left to them, only 
one or two would keep their fortunes 
beyond a few years. But any man, by 
sticking to it, can acquire a competence. 
Put your savings into War Savings 
Stamps and Treasury Savings Certifi- 
cates. Always worth more than you 
paid for them and not the kind of riches 
to take wings. 

_ eaf ness 

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,eroic Defense of Bridge at Stephensson's Depot, Va 

! irtners of General Lee 

obert Edward Lee. (Poem.) By William Hervcy Woods 

.hree Charleston Poets. By Mrs. A. A. Campbell 

nglish Sentiment for the South 

i'reatment of Slaves in the South. By Dr. James H. McNcilly 

>nion Sentiment before Secession. By W. A. Callaway 

wardships of Bragg's Retreat. By W. T. Wilson 

nportant Battles of the War. By John C. Stiles 

he Southern Cross of Honor. (Poem.) By C. B. Tate 

illie Gun— A Tale of Two Epochs. By John N. Ware 

. ast Days of the Confederacy. By I. G. Bradwell 

. Heroine o f the Sixties • • • 

•ages from an Old Autograph Album. By Mildred Reynolds Saffold. 

lags Captured at Vicksburg. By J. D. Harwell 

Tossing the Mississippi in 1864. By Joe M. Scott 

)epartments : Last Roll 

U. D. C 

C. S. M. A 

S. C. V 

to purchase all-wool 

Bunting or 
Silk Flags 

of all kinds 

Silk Banners, Swords, Belts, Caps 

and all kinds of Military Equipment and 
Society Goods is at 

Joel Flag £. Regalia Co., 79 Nassau St. 

Send tor Price List New York City 















, 64 

. 66 

. 72 

. 75 

. 77 


GENERAL A. N. V., U. C. V. 


Send Post Office Money Order 

Address REV. H. M. WHARTON, 224 West Utayetle Avenue, 


Books Wanted.— "Dixie After the 
War," by Myrta Lockhart Avary; 
"Recollections Grave and Gay," by Mrs. 
Burton Harrison; "My Reminiscences 
of a Long Life," by Mrs. Roger A. 
Pryor. Any one having these books for 
sale will kindly communicate with the 
Veteran, stating condition and price 



Qoojfederat^ l/efcerao 


Fiction for All Tas 

No Clue 


The chief characteristic of "No Clue" is that each 
chapter is in itself a big story. The suspense created at 
the outset by a remarkable first chapter grows with the 
progress of the narrative. The reader will be more than 
impressed by the logical and artistic effect with which 
the outcome of the story has been prophesied and neces- 
sitated by every suspense-laden incident in the story. 
Price, $2 net. 



Here is a story to stimulate the imagination and pro- 
Aide a most exciting hour of reading. The scene is the 
Hawaiian Islands, and the plot is shot through with the 
queer superstitions of 'the. natives. The love story in- 
volves two girls with Hawaiian blood in their veins and 
the superstitions of long lines of island ancestors in 
their minds. The reader is caught in the spell of tense 
suspense until the last page. Price, $1.35 net. 

The Rose Dawn 


This is a love story of California of the period of 
transition when the "gray dawn" of the dim beginnings 
of the State colors into the "rose dawn" of hope. In 
this novel the author has assembled a fascinating set of 
characters, and a generation of history is revealed in 
this tale of a generation of men. Price, $1.90 net. 

The Third Window 


The theme of "The Third Window," that the dead may 
not be dead, is as novel as it is profoundly moving. 
Only four characters appear, including the unseen dead, 
but these four will live forever in the reader's memory. 
And the interplay of their personalities makes one of 
the most poignant and memorable stories of recent fic- 
tion. Price, $1.50 net. 

A Servant of Reality 


Most of the action of this story is in the green Eng- 
lish country. The chief characters are Kitty, who 
"loved" too much, and Anthony, who loved Kitty so 
marvelously that — did he kill her? The story is swiftly 
moving, the rapid-fire dialogue holds the attention, and 
wit and humor keeps it in a blaze of gracious light from 
the beginning to the end. Price, $1.75 net. 

The Gray Angels 


This is a story of a woman gifted alike with voice and 
a soul. It tells how she learns what she wants from 
life and how she makes it her own. Power — the power 
to depict the sheer human drama of love and hope and 
ambition and the fulfillment of drama — is the keynote 
of this novel. Price, $1.90 net. 

Black Bartlem] 


Mr. Farnol brings back the pirate days 
Main in this novel and has never made 
than in this, his first sea story. The e 
will eagerly follow the adventures of th. 
ers who set sail on the good ship Faitl 
the unique experiences of Martin and the 
as they found themselves alone on the is 
tained the buried treasure. Price, $2.15 ; 

The Trumpeter 


That interesting problem, the demobil" 
his return to civil life, has a very impor 
story. Young Randy Paine comes back 
face the commonplaceness of everyda; 
story is set against a background of V: 
Boston streets, and of the blue seas aj 
Nantucket, and is redolent of love an 
roses and candle light, of old Souther 
courtesy. Price, $2 net. 



Illustrated in Color and Halftone by Ha: 

"Highacres" is a school story, full of 
and joyous spirit of youth. A man who 1 
stands girls transplants Jerry Travis fro 
village school to a big city institution. ] 
many pleasant and exciting events occi 
will find herself moving in an atmospher 
and delightful expectancy which the aut 
ties in the beautiful climax. Price, ?1.75 

The Royal Outl 


Around the story of David when pers 
Saul Captain Hudson has written one o) 
ring and romantic tales of military advei 
escapade that has appeared in many ye 
is told through the mouth of one of 
men-at-arms and is permeated with a jc 
ish humor that makes the people of th 
strenuous times our fellow beings and 
$1.50 net. 

Cloudy Jewel 


(Mrs. IiUtz) 

"Cloudy Jewel" is a nickname lovin 
Cloud by her niece and nephew, who t 
home of drudgery into a beautiful and n 
where Julia finds real joy in life and a 
usefulness is appreciated and bears frui 
romance is woven into the pages of this 
in the author's best vein. Price, $1.90 n* 


Smith ®. Lamar, Age 




Qopfederat^ l/eterai?. 


Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn. 

under act of March 3, 1S79. 
Acceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 

tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 
Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash 

ville, Tenn. 


United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 

Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

'niCE, 51.50 per Tear. I 
Iingi-e Copt, 15 Cents, f 


No. 3. 


I Founder. 


Hath not the morning dawned with added light? 

And shall not the evening call another star 
Out of the infinite regions of the night 

To mark this day in heaven? At last we are 
A nation among nations, and the world 

Shall soon behold in many a distant port 
Another flag unfurled. — Henry Timrod. 

Sixty years ago, on the 18th of February, the Southern 
Confederacy was born — born of a people's determination for 
elf-government. The right of that government to exist was 
isputed, and so the beautiful structure fell, not from any 
ick of courage in its defense, but because in all this world 
iere was no other government to recognize the justice of its 
ause. Many are living to-day to whom memory brings 
isions of the hopes occasioned by the birth of that nation, 
ne joys and sorrows of its short existence, the anguish of 
:s passing. And its day should not be forgotten. 

In observing the sixtieth anniversary of the inauguration 
f Jefferson Davis as President of the Southern Confederacy, 
le people of Nashville, Tenn., have doubtless been the first 
:> hold it of special significance among the days hallowed by 
lemory. With an appropriate program of music and prayer 
nd an address upon the life and character of Mr. Davis the 
udience was stirred in sympathetic appreciation. The ad- 
ress was by Rev. George Stoves, one of the leading min- 
iters of Nashville, "an American by adoption and a South- 
rner by choice," who gave a fine estimate of the character 
nd ability of the man who guided the destinies of the Con- 
sderacy, such an estimate as would be accorded generally 
id people but care to learn more about him. Even our own 
eople, alas ! have ascribed to him all the blame for defeat, 
'hile knowing little of what he accomplished as the first and 
nly President of the Confederacy, and the fame of those 
lorious years of service as soldier and statesman before the 
:xties seems to have been blotted out entirely. 

"How many a spirit, born to bless, 

Hath sunk beneath that withering name 
Whom but a day's, an hour's success 
Had wafted to eternal fame." 

There is no parallel in history for such a government as 
came into existence in the Senate chamber of the capital of 
Alabama on that memorable day of February 18, 1861. There 
was none ever so versed from the beginning in the art of 
civil government, so resourceful in self-defense, so capable 
in the utilization of natural resources. Without money, with- 
out an army or a navy, this nation came into being and had 
its government in working order at once, its army trained and 
equipped, and its forces fighting victoriously in the field 
within five months. And its navy, built from the wood of 
its forests and the minerals of its soil, swept the seas in many 

Well may it be said that its success was largely due to the 
noble character placed at its head. Versed in statesmanship 
by the years of his service to the government at Washington 
and a soldier able to lead his armies, Jefferson Davis was the 
great leader of a great cause. And that he failed in the per- 
manent establishment of the government of his ideals is no 
reflection on his ability. That he had able and willing assist- 
ants is true, but his was the master mind to whom they looked 
for guidance and his the responsibility when they failed. 

And so, contending with the most powerful nation on earth, 
with its unlimited wealth and resources and the world to 
draw on for its army, the Confederacy battled on through 
four years and at last succumbed to the heavy odds, falling 
without a stain upon its banner. And its day should not be 

"Ah ! we Rebels met defeat 

On the gory battle field. 

And we flung our muskets down 

When our bonnie flag was furled ; 

But our right did but retreat 

With pure honor for her shield 

And with justice for her crown 

From the forces of the world. 

(For against us thousands came, 

Money-bought from every clime ; 

But we stood against them all 

For the honor of our name 

Till the fated day of time 

Came but to crown our fall 

With a fadeless wreath of fame." 


Qorjfederat^ l/eterap. 

Qoi>federat^ l/eterap. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Office: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 

( Kiffin Rockwell, fallen in France.) 

He furrowed seas of misty spume. 

He rode a surging, velvet lawn. 
He rushed across the bridge of doom, 

And knocked upon the gates of dawn. 
The roaring caverns of the wind 

He pierced to their remotest deeps. * * * 
They say of him who stayed behind : 

"In the red sunset flame he sleeps." 

— Vincent Starrclt. 

Kifhn Yates Rockwell was the first American citizen to offer 
his services to France against the German aggressor in a letter 
to the French consul general at New Orleans written August 
3, 1914. He enlisted in the French Foreign Legion August 
26, 1914, and after being wounded in a bayonet charge north 
of Arras on May 9, 1915, transferred to the French air 
service. There he quickly won fame as an aviator and had 
the unique honor of being the first American aviator to de- 
stroy a German aeroplane in aerial combat. After gaining 
numerous victories and being decorated with the French mili- 
tary medal and Croix de Guerre with three palms, each rep- 
resenting a citation in army orders, he was killed in aerial 
combat with a German two-seated aeroplane on September 
2i, 1916, over Rodern, in reconquered Alsace. He was buried 
with full military honors at Luxeuil, Haute Saone, France. . 

Kiffin Rockwell was a grandson of the late Capt. Henry 
C. Rockwell, of the Slst North Carolina Infantry, Confed- 
erate States army. His maternal grandfather, Enoch Shaw 
Ayres, of South Carolina, six great-uncles, and numerous 
cousins also fought nobly for the Southern cause throughout 
the war of secession. 


That the South should again be a distinctive section of this 
great country is the feeling of its people who have its wel- 
fare above their personal advantage. The effort to com- 
mercialize its great resources has brought in people of diverse 
sentiment, and many of our own people look to the advance- 
ment of their individual interests rather than to the benefit 
of their section in a higher way. A word from C. D. Rivers, 
of Summerville, Ga., puts this strongly before us : "Our be- 
loved South is suffering from a long and serious spiritual 
eclipse. We have bartered our independence of spirit and 
originality of thought for a mess of pottage, which we have 
failed to get. In all the vast and imperial section of the 
South there is no such thing as characteristic Southern lit- 
erature except in the Veteran — I mean contemporary litera- 
ture. But the South needs a literature of its own, and the 
world of thought needs to be enriched by what might be pro- 
duced in and of the South, which cannot be supplied by the 
genius of any other people. Not that the South needs to be 
inclosed by a Chinese wall to exclude exotic thought, but 
that her people need to live their own lives in harmony with 

their own natural environment, only borrowing from the 
thought of others what is adapted to a life under warm blue 
skies, in towns of broad avenues, surrounded by wide planta- 
tions. These are the reasons why I, a son of a Confederate 
veteran, love to support your publication and why all others 
who wish to make their homes in the South would do well to 
support it." 


Robert Young, of Eatonton. Ga.. who served with Company 
G, 12th Georgia Regiment, calls attention to an error in the 
following : 

"On page 63 of the February Veteran Capt. C G. Snead. 
writing about the battle of Antietam. uses these words : 'The 
battle was a drawn one, and on the following day, under a 
flag of truce, both armies buried their dead.' This is an 
error. There was no truce. I was present during the whole 
affair. The Confederate army under General Lee stood ready 
for attack during the whole of the 18th, then retired during 
the night. 

"A few years ago I read an article in the Internationa! 
Encyclopedia, edition of 1898, on Antietam. In that is a 
statement to the same effect — viz.. 'In the morning (the 18th) 
Lee asked for and was granted a truce to bury the dead, and 
while this was going on he retired to the right bank of the 

"I wrote immediately to our historian. Col. J. T. Derry, of 
Atlanta, Ga., and he assured me that there was no truce at 
Antietam. In Cooke's 'Life of Stonewall Jackson' will be 
found extracts from prominent Northern newspaper men 
writing immediately after the battle and considered good au- 
thority on that side who said : 'Lee left very little but some 
broken-down wagons and about two thousand unburied dead.' 

"In answer to my complaint of error the publishers of the 
Encyclopedia replied that the 'later editions do not contain 
that statement," w : hich means, reading between the lines, that 
they acknowledged they had been misinformed. It is probable 
that Captain Snead had read the edition of 1898 and supposed 
it was correct. 

"Imagine General Lee's retiring his army from a battle field 
while, under a flag of truce, both sides are burying their dead! 

" 'Keep the record straight.' " 





Capt. William L. Ritter. of Reisterstown. Md., writes 'that 
he has retired from business on account of trouble with his 
eyes, but after a short rest he intends to do some more writ- 
ing on his war reminiscences. His active business life ex- 
tended into his eighty-sixth year, and during the twenty-eight 
years he had been with the Clendennin Brothers in Baltimore 
he had lost but a few days by illness. He is one of the 
youngest veterans of the Confederacy in looks and physical 
stamina, and he is the last surviving commander of a Mary- 
land unit during the War between the States. He is well 
known to the Veteran's readers as captain in the famous 
3d Maryland Battery and the only Maryland organization 
to serve in the Western Army. And they did some fighting 
too, as he has shown in his interesting articles. The only 
other survivor of his command is Baldwin Bradford, who 
lives in New York. 

Captain Ritter is Secretary of the Society of the Army and 
Navy of the Confederate States in Maryland, also known as 
the Maryland Line Society. He is a native of Carroll County. 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



The death of Miss Nannie Randolph Heth occasioned wide 

,.rrovv. for she was one of the most beloved of the Southern 

omen of Washington, D. C. Her entire life had been de- 

Wearing the famous Martha Washington diamonds. 

oted to patriotic and charitable work, and she was loved 
y all who knew her for her gentle nature, loving heart, and 
er ever-ready willingness to assist in any worthy cause for 
he unfortunate and needy. 

Miss Heth was a descendant of pioneer families of Vir- 
inia. Her mother was Miss Harriet Selden, and her father 
vas Gen. Harry Heth, a distinguished Confederate soldier 
nd a member of the old Heth family of "Black Heth," of 
"hesterfield County. She was born on the Norwood estate, 
n Powhatan County, and her early days were spent in the 
eautiful home on the James River. Since finishing her edu- 
ation at Miss Gordon's school in Richmond, she had lived 
11 Washington, and it was in that city that her patriotic 
.ctivity found its special held through membership in the 
daughters of the Confederacy, the Southern Society, Colonial 
James, and Daughters of the American Revolution. She was 
'resident of the Southern Relief Society for eighteen years. 
["his society was organized by her mother thirty years ago. 
ind it was through the efforts of Miss Heth that the South- 
rn Relief Home was established to care for destitute South- 
erners in Washington. 

At the San Francisco Exposition in 1915 Miss Heth was 
he gracious hostess of the Virginia building, known as the 
ilount Vernon Building. 

After the funeral in Washington this loyal daughter of 
he South was laid to rest in Hollywood Cemetery, at Rich- 
nond. attended by delegations from Confederate Camps and 

Chapters of Richmond and Washington and trustees of the 
Southern Relief Society, while the active pallbearers were 
members of the Camp of Sons of Confederate Veterans of 

Thus has a noble life passed from earth, leaving a mem- 
ory of good and kindlv deeds. 


At the time of the surrender the following were serving on 
the staff of Gen. R. E. Lee, of whom only one is novf living : 
Lieut. Col. W. H. Taylor, assistant adjutant general, who was 
chief of staff and was with the General from the beginning 
to the end of the war; Lieut. Col. R. G. Cole, chief commis- 
sary and quartermaster from June. 1862; Lieut. Col. C, S. 
Venable, A. D. C. from July, 1863; Brig. Gen. W. H. Stevens, 
chief of engineers during the siege of Petersburg; Lieut. Col. 
Charles Marshall, A. D. C. from August, 1862; Lieut. Col. J. 
R. Corky, chief quartermaster from June, 1862 ; Lieut. Col. B. 
C. Baldwin, chief of ordnance from November, 1862; Sur- 
geon Lafayette Guild, medical director from November, 1862: 
Maj. H. E. Young, judge advocate general from July, 1863; 
Brig. Gen. W. N. Pendleton, chief of artillery from March. 
1863: Lieut. Col. H. E. Peyton, inspector general from No- 
vember, 1863; Maj. Giles B. Cooke, assistant inspector gen- 
eral from September, 1864. 

Colonel Taylor wrote two books on General Lee's cam- 
paigns. He died in Norfolk, Va., on the 1st of March, 1916, 
one of the most highly honored citizens of Virginia. 

Colonel Cole, the chief commissary, returned to Georgia 
and lived for some years; date of death unknown to the 

Colonel Venable occupied the chair of mathematics at the 
University of Virginia some years before his death. 

General Stevens, chief of engineers, died at Washington 
several years after the surrender. 

Colonel Marshall, a grandson of Chief Justice Marshall, 
practiced law in Baltimore many years before his death. 

Colonel Corley, chief quartermaster, died in Hampton, Va., 
soon after the surrender. 

Colonel Baldwin, chief of ordnance, became superintendent 
of public schools in Texas and died in 1908. 

Surgeon Lafayette Guild, medical director, practiced medi- 
cine in his native State until his death. 

Major Young, judge advocate general, practiced law in 
Charleston, S. C, until his death, in 1918. 

Brigadier General Pendleton, chief of artillery, returned to 
the rectorship of Grace Church. Lexington, Va., and survived 
General Lee, one of his vestrymen, by a few years. 

Colonel Peyton, inspector general, was for a time clerk of 
the United States Senate, and died several 3'ears ago at his 
home, in Leesburg, Va. 

Major Cooke, assistant inspector general, the only surviving 
member of the staff, is now living as a retired minister of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, aged eighty-two years the 
13th of May. 1920, at Mathews C. H. Va.. having been a 
preacher of the gospel for about fifty years. 

A group picture of General Lee, with these twelve staff 
officers forming a "military medallion," was published soon 
after the war, and a copy of this appeared in the Veteran 
for October, 1908. 

Major Cooke also furnishes a list of the other members of 
General Lee's staff from 1861 to 1S65: Lieut. Col. E. P. 
Alexander, chief of ordnance from November, 1862, to June. 
1863: Lieut. Col. John M. Brooke, Virginia navy, acting 


Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 

A. D. C. ; Col. R. W. Chilton, assistant adjutant general; 
Maj. Gen. Joseph H. Crenshaw, acting commissary general; 
Maj. George Deas. assistant adjutant general and chief of 
staff; Col. R. S. Garnett, assistant adjutant general; Lieut. 
Col. William G. Gill, P. A. C. S., ordnance officer; Lieut. 
Col. Edwin J. Harris, inspector general; Lieut. Col. Henry 
Heth, acting quartermaster, etc. ; Capt. Joseph C. Ives, C. S. 
A., chief engineer; Capt. S. K. Johnson, engineer officer; Col. 
George W. Lay, assistant adjutant general; Brig. Gen. Armi- 
stead L. Long, military secretary, etc. ; Col. Joseph Manigault. 
A. D. C. ; Capt. A. P. Mason, assistant adjutant general; 
Lieut. Col. E. Murray, assistant adjutant general; Lieut. 
Thomas J. Page, Virginia navy, acting A. D. C. ; Capt. W. 
H. Richardson, assistant adjutant general; Capt. F. W. Smith, 
military secretary; Lieut. Col. William Preston Smith, chief 
of engineers; Maj. T. M. R. Talcott, A. D. C. ; Capt. John A. 
Washington, A. D. C. ; Capt. Thornton A. Washington, as- 
sistant adjutant general 

Adding this list to the twelve who surrendered with him, 
it is seen that General Lee had thirty-five staff officers from 
first to last, of whom there is now but one surviving. 


[The following comes from Joseph Long Minchin, a resi- 
dent of Nova Odessa, Brazil, South America, one of the 
Confederate soldiers who went to Brazil soon after the war 
and founded an American colony there. Doubtless he would 
be glad to hear from any of his surviving comrades in this 
country. His daughter is Mrs. T. W. Boone, of Spring 
Creek, Tex] 

I was born on January 16, 1841, near Thomasville, Ga. My 
father was a Baptist preacher and moved to West Florida 
when I was quite young. I attended the "old field" schools 
and worked on the farm until the War between the States 
broke out. Going out as a volunteer, I served the first year 
on the Florida coast, St. Vincent's Island, and Fernandina. 
From there we were ordered to Tennessee in the 4th Florida 
Regiment, Finley's Brigade, Breckinridge's Division, Har- 
dee's Corps, Army of Tennessee. I was in the three days' 
bloody work at Chickamauga, New Hope Church, Jackson, 
Miss., on advanced line around Chattanooga, where only five 
of the company I was in escaped, and I was in many other 
engagements. For a short time I served as orderly sergeant 
of a company to guard the prisoners at Andersonville, where 
I daily saw Major Wirz. who was unjustly executed after the 
war. I was in Macon, Ga., catching up deserters in the lower 
part of the State, a dangerous business. Then the end was 
near. Lee had surrendered, and Macon had to follow suit. 
I was captured and paroled, and I am still a paroled prisoner, 
as I have never been exchanged. 

On March 15, 1866, I was married to Miss Julia Antionette 
Pyles, who was born near Macon in 1849. Conditions in the 
South were so desolate and disagreeable that the 24th day of 
June, 1867, found us landing in Xiririca, Brazil, S. A. Aft r 
seven years I returned to the States to see my mother. After 
my return to South America I planned to take my family 
back home, but disasters, one after another, kept me from 

For fifteen or twenty years I was employed on Fazendas 
de Cafo (coffee plantation) as overseer or foreman (adminis- 
trador). We reared a family of eight children, four boys 
and four girls. All of the children live in Brazil except one 
daughter in Texas. My beloved companion has passed on 
years ago, and now I am old and feeble. My farm of nine 

hundred acres is about fifteen minutes' drive to a station. 
From a window in my bedroom I can see trains coming and 
going day and night. We make a good living raising hogs, 
corn, rice, watermelons, potatoes, mandioca, etc. 

I should like to visit my native land, but am too old and 
feeble and do not think I could stand the climate there now. 


The accompanying picture of J. E. Hanna and Athalinda I 
Robeson was taken soon after their marriage in Chesterfield. 
S. C, in 1855. After serving in the War between the States 
from 1861 to the fall of 1864, when his health failed, young 
Hanna was put in charge of the hospital at Augusta, Ga., 

where his wife, with 
her seamstress, had 
been sewing for the 
Confederate soldiers, 
making forty coats 
every two weeks. 
When the hospital 
was moved to Madi- 
son, Ga., she was 
made chief nurse, and 
valuable services were 
rendered her by her 
two little girls, Dollii 
and Mollie, both of 
whom were eager to 
brush away the flies 
or hand water and 
otherwise relieve the 
sufferings of the liv- 
ing, and they fol- 
lower! .»v»rv poor fel- 
low to his last resting place, carrying flowers and shedding 
tears for them. It was Airs. Hanna who wrote the letter of 
sympathy to absent loved ones, inclosing a lock of hair with 
the last loving words. 

Dollie is now Mrs. D. J. Browning, of Lakeland, Fla. 
Mollie is Mrs. W. P. Meyer, of Jasper, Fla. Both would be 
glad to hear from any soldier who was in that hospital. Mrs. 
Hanna passed away in 1920 at the home of another daughter. 
Mrs. Annie H. Darracote, of Lakeland, with whom she made 
her home. 

:;■-' .'. f "':-■' 

(& ' 





Dr. James D. Osborne, of Cleburne, Tex., the newly ap- 
pointed Surgeon General U. C. V., is one of the leading phy- 
sicians of Texas, at one time President of the Texas State 
Medical Association. Though but a boy when in the Con- 
federate army, he was a gallant cavalryman and was severely 
wounded in the terrible battle of Franklin, but was fortunate 
enough to get away with Hood's shattered battalions. His 
father, the late Dr. Thomas Crutcher Osborne, was a Ten- 
nesseean by birth and began his practice in this State in 1840: 
but after some years he removed to Alabama, later to Louisi- 
ana, and finally to Texas. He became eminent in his pro- 
fession, serving as president of different medical societies in 
those States, and contributing able and valuable papers to 
medical organizations and periodicals of his day. One of 
the most important and valuable of his practices was the ex- 
ternal application of bichloride of mercury solution in the 
treatment of smallpox. 

Qoi>federat^ l/eterai). 


After three successive terms as Surgeon General, Dr. Deer- 
ng J. Roberts, of Nashville, Tenn., relinquished the office on 
■ he plea of fourscore years and impaired health and feeling 
hat others should have the honor. This appointment of Dr. 
Dsborne is a recognition of the distinguished services to man- 
rind of both father and son, and it is also a tribute to the 
;reat State of Texas and the wonderful hospitality extended 
o the Confederate veterans in their Reunion at Houston in 


3 Gentlemen of the Congress of the Confederate States of 
America, Friends, and Fellow Citizens: Called to the difficult 
;ind responsible station of chief executive of the provisional 
.government which you have instituted, I approach the dis- 
charge of the duties assigned to me with a humble distrust 
tof my abilities, but with a sustaining confidence in the wisdom 
oi those who are to guide and aid me in the administration 
,}f public affairs and an abiding faith in the virtue and patri- 
otism of the people. 

j Looking forward to the speedy establishment of a perma- 
nent government to take the place of this and which by its 
greater moral and physical power will be better able to com- 
■bat with the many difficulties which arise from the conflicting 
interests of separate nations, I enter upon the duties of the 
office to which I have been chosen with the hope that the be- 
ginning of our career as a Confederacy may not be obstructed 
■ by hostile opposition to our enjoyment of the separate ex- 
istence and independence which we have asserted and, with 
,the blessing of Providence, intend to maintain. Our present 
.condition, achieved in a manner unprecedented in the history 
-of nations, illustrates the American idea that governments 
jrest upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the right 
of the people to alter or abolish governments whenever they 
.become destructive of the ends for which they were estab- 

The declared purpose of the compact of union from which 
we have withdrawn was "to establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and posterity": and when, in the judgment of the sovereign 
States now composing this Confederacy, it had been per- 
verted from the purpose for which it was ordained and had 
ceased to answer the ends for which it was established, a 
peaceful appeal to the ballot box declared that, so far as they 
were concerned, the government created by that compact 
should cease to exist. In this they merely asserted a right 
which the Declaration of Independence of 1776 had defined 
to be inalienable. Of the time and occasion for its exercise, 
they as sovereigns were the final judges, each for itself. The 
impartial and enlightened verdict of mankind will vindicate 
the rectitude of our conduct, and He who knows the hearts 
of men will judge of the sincerity with which we labored to 
preserve the government of our fathers in its spirit. The 
right solemnly proclaimed at the birth of the States and whicli 
has been affirmed and reaffirmed in the bills of rights of 
States subsequently admitted into the Union of 1789 unde- 
niably recognizes in the people the power to resume the au- 
thority delegated for the purposes of government. Thus the 
sovereign States here represented proceeded to form this Con- 
federacy, and it is by abuse of language that their act has 
been denominated a revolution. They formed a new alliance, 
but within each State its government has remained, and the 
rights of person and property have not been disturbed. The 

agent through whom they communicated' with foreign na- 
tions is changed, but this does not necessarily interrupt their 
international relations. 

Sustained by the consciousness that the transition from the 
former Union to the present Confederacy has not proceeded 
from a disregard on our part of just obligations or any fail- 
ure to perform any constitutional duty; moved by no interest 
or passion to invade the rights of others; anxious to culti- 
vate peace and commerce with all nations, if we may not: 
hope to avoid war, we may at least expect that posterity will 
acquit us of having needlessly engaged in it. Doubly justi- 
fied by the absence of wrong on our part and by wantora 
aggression on the part of others, there can be no cause to- 
doubt that the courage and patriotism of the people of the- 
Confederate States will be found equal to any measures of 
defense which honor and security may require. 

An agricultural people whose chief interest is the export 1 
of a commodity required in every manufacturing country, our 
true policy is peace and the freest trade which our necessi- 
ties will permit. It is alike our interest and that of all those- 
to whom we would sell and from whom we would buy that 
there should be the fewest practicable restrictions upon the 
interchange of commodities. There can be but little rivalry 
between ours and any manufacturing or navigating com- 
munity, such as the Northeastern States of the American) 
Union. It must follow, therefore, that a mutual interest 
would invite good will and kind offices. If, however, pas- 
sion or the lust of dominion should cloud the judgment or 
inflame the ambition of those States, we must prepare to. 
meet the emergency and to maintain by the final arbitrament 
of the sword the position which we have assumed among the- 
nations of the earth. We have entered upon the career of 
independence, and it must be inflexibly pursued. Through, 
many years of controversy with our late associates, the 
Northern States, we have vainly endeavored to secure tran- 
quility and to obtain respect for the rights to which we art 
entitled. As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to tht 
remedy of separation ; and hencefortli our energies must be 
directed to the conduct of our own affairs and the perpetuity 
of the Confederacy which we have formed. If a just per- 
ception of mutual interest shall permit us peaceably to pursue 
our separate political career, my most earnest desire will have 
been fulfilled; but if this be denied to us and the integrity of 
our territory and jurisdiction be assailed, it will but remain 
for us with firm resolve to appeal to arms and invoke the 
blessings of Providence on a just cause. 

As a consequence of our new condition and with a view to 
meet anticipated wants, it will be necessary to provide for 
the speedy and efficient organization of branches of the Ex- 
ecutive Department having special charge of foreign inter- 
course, finance, military affairs, and the postal service. 

For purposes of defense the Confederate States may, under 
ordinary circumstances, rely mainly upon the militia ; but it 
is deemed advisable in the present condition of affairs thai 
there should be a well-instructed and disciplined army, more- 
numerous than would usually be required on a peace estab- 
lishment. I also suggest that for the protection of our har- 
bors and commerce on the high seas a navy adapted to those 
objects will be required. These necessities have doubtless 
engaged the attention of Congress. 

With a constitution differing only from that of our fathers, 
in so far as it is explanatory of their well-known intent, freed 
from the sectional conflicts which have interfered with the 
pursuit of the general welfare, it is not unreasonable to ex- 
pect that States from which we have recently parted may seek 


^ogfederafc^ l/eterap. 

to unite their fortunes with ours under the government which 
we have instituted. For this your Constitution makes adequate 
provision: but beyond this, if I mistake not the judgment and 
will of the people, a reunion with the States from which we 
have separated is neither practicable nor desirable. To increase 
the power, develop the resources, and promote the happiness 
of the Confederacy, it is requisite that there should be so 
much homogeneity that the welfare of every portion shall be 
the aim of the whole. Where this does not exist, antagonisms 
are engendered which must and should result in separation. 

Actuated solely by the desire to preserve our own rights 
and promote our own welfare, the separation of the Confed- 
erate States has been marked by no aggression upon others 
and followed by no domestic convulsion. Our industrial pur- 
suits have received no check; the cultivation of our fields has 
progressed as heretofore: and even should we be involved in 
war. there would be no considerable diminution in the produc- 
tion of the staples which have constituted our exports and 
in which the commercial world has an interest scarcely less 
than our own. This common interest of the producer and 
consumer can only be interrupted by an exterior force which 
should obstruct its transmission to foreign markets, a course 
of conduct which would be as unjust toward us as it would 
be detrimental to manufacturing and commercial interests 
abroad. Should reason guide the action of the government 
from which we have separated, a policy so detrimental to the 
civilized world, the Northern States included, could not be 
dictated by even the strongest desire to inflict injury upon 
us ; but if otherwise, a terrible responsibility will rest upon 
it, and the suffering of millions will bear testimony to the 
folly and wickedness of our aggressors. In the meantime 
there will remain to us, besides the ordinary means before 
suggested, the well-known resources for retaliation upon the 
commerce of the enemy. 

Experience in public stations of subordinate grades to this 
which your kindness has conferred has taught me that care 
and toil and disappointments are the price of official eleva- 
tion. You will see many errors to forgive, many deficiencies 
to tolerate : but you shall not find in me either a want of zeal 
or fidelity to the cause that is to me highest in hope and of 
most enduring affection. Your generosity has bestowed upon 
me an undeserved distinction, one which I neither sought nor 
desired. Upon the continuance of that sentiment and upon 
your wisdom and patriotism I rely to direct and support me in 
the performance of the duty required at my hands. 

We have changed the constituent parts but not the system 
of our government. The Constitution formed by our fathers 
is that of these Confederate States in their exposition of it. 
and in the judicial construction it has received we have a 
light which reveals its true meaning. 

Thus instructed as to the just interpretation of the instru- 
ment, and ever remembering that all offices are but trusts 
held for the people and that delegated powers are to be 
strictly construed. I will hope by due diligence in the per- 
formance of my duties, though I may disappoint your ex- 
pectations, yet to retain when retiring something of the good 
will and confidence which welcomed my entrance into office. 

It is joyous in the midst of perilous times to look around 
upon a people united in heart, where one purpose of high re- 
solve animates and actuates the whole, where the sacrifices 
to be made are not weighed in the balance against honor and 
right and liberty and equality. Obstacles may retard — they 
cannot long prevent — the progress of a movement sanctified 
by its justice and sustained by a virtuous people. Reverently 
let u~ invoke the God of our fathers to guide and protect 

us in our efforts to perpetuate the principles which by his 
blessing they were able to vindicate, establish, and transmit 
to their posterity, and with a continuance of his favor, ever 
gratefully acknowledged, we may hopefully look forward to 
success, to peace, and to prosperity. 



Hon. Porcher Miles, of Virginia, writes as follows : "I 
think there was no question that Mr. Davis was the choice of 
our delegation and of the whole people of the South." 

Hon. James Chestnut, of South Carolina, gives this : "Pos- 
sessing a combination of those high and needful qualities, he 
was regarded by nearly the whole South as the fittest man 
for the position." 

From the Hon. Duncan F. Kenner, of Louisiana : "The gen- 
eral inclination was strongly in favor r.t Mr. Davis. No 
other name was mentioned. We, the Louisiana delegation, 
without hesitation and unanimously, after a very short ses- 
sion, decided in favor of Mr. Davis. He was never announced 
as a candidate. We were seeking the best man to fill the 
position. In no sense did we consider Mr. Davis as extreme, 
either in his views or his policies." 

The Hon. Alexander M. Clayton, member of the Confeder- 
ate Provisional Congress from Mississippi, writes : "Believing 
that Mr. Davis was the choice of the South for the position 
of President, before repairing to Montgomery I addressed him 
a letter to ascertain if he would accept it. He replied that if 
he could have his choice he would greatly prefer to be in 
active service as commander in chief of the army, but that 
he would give himself to the cause in any capacity whatever. 
There was no electioneering, no management on the part of 
any one. By a law as fixed as gravitation itself and as little 
disturbed by outside influences the minds of the members 
centered upon Mr. Davis. I always thought that the election I 
arose from the spontaneous conviction of his peculiar fitness." 

We now quote from the great memorial speech on the 
death of our chief by Senator Daniels, of Virginia : "It was 
fortunate for the South, for America, and for humanity that 
at the head of the South in war was a true type of her honor, 
character, and history a man whose clear rectitude preserved 
every complication from the implication of bad faith, a com- 
mander whose moderation and firmness could restrain and 
whose lofty passion and courage could inspire. Had a man 
less sober-minded and less strong than he been in his place, 
the Confederacy would not only have gone down in material 
ruin : it would have been buried in disgrace. Blame Jeffer- 
son Davis for this or that : discount all that critics say, and 
then behold the mighty feat which created and for four 
years maintained a nation : behold how armies without a 
nucleus were marshaled and armed : how a navy, small in- 
deed, but one that revolutionized the naval warfare of all 
nations and became the terror of the seas, was fashioned out 
of old hulks or picked up in foreign places : see how a world 
in arms was held at bay by a people and a soldiery whom he 
held together with an iron will and hurled like a flaming 
thunderbolt at their foes. That President Davis made mis- 
takes I do not doubt, but the percentage of mistakes was so 
small in the sum of his administration and its achievements 
so transcended all proportions of means and opportunities 
that mankind will never cease to wonder at their magnitude 
and splendor." 

The following taken from the tribute of Rev. Dr. S. A. 

Qo^federat^ l/eterai?. 


joodwin in Richmond, Va., shows recognition of the ability 
-if Mr. Davis to fill the position to which he had been elected: 
''Mr. Davis was a statesman. The consummate skill with 
which he guided the infant Confederacy through the storms 
:hat rocked it and the hidden foes that threatened it is not 
eclipsed by the prudence of Pitt nor the policy of Napoleon. 
Few fully appreciate the difficulties that environed him. He 
was placed at the head of a people thrown without prepara- 
:ion into the midst of the mightiest conflict of the ages ; 
:hey were without government, without soldiers, without 
"irms, without any of the munitions of war; but his genius 
supplied every difficulty and met every want. He created as 
if by magic the most splendid army that ever marched to 
Victory and supplied it with the ablest commanders of the 
ige. That his hand sometimes slipped in guiding the intri- 
:ate and delicate machinery of a government throbbing with 
oassion and heated with war no one will deny; he would 
"nave been more than man not to have made mistakes. The 
Confederacy did not fail for lack of statesmanship in him, 
jut because success in the conditions which environed it was 
"iot possible. But the calmness which he displayed in the 
midst of storm, the firmness which he evinced in the midst 
'of trepidation, and the immense resources which he supplied 
in the midst of destitution, combined with his comprehensive 
knowledge of government, demonstrate him to be a states- 
man in whom was combined the acuteness of Pitt and the 
Executive power of Napoleon. Perhaps no man of this age 
lossesses his genius combined with his versatility of talent. 
: His knowledge of government was profound and his ac- 
quaintance with science and literature comprehensive and ac- 
curate. As a chaste and elegant writer of English he was 
'without a rival among American statesmen. As an orator 
Hie was eloquent, logical, passionate, powerful. * * * As a 
■soldier his gallant charge at Monterey, his skill and strategy 
' J it Buena Vista, the improvements which he effected in the 
organization and equipment of the army while Secretary of 
War — all demonstrate that he was a soldier of the highest 
type. Trained for the army, he desired to serve the South 
3 in the field; but the people with one accord called him to the 
presidency of the Confederacy, and he yielded his wishes to 
'the judgment of his compatriots. Had it been otherwise, he 
might have won a name that would have shone with equal 
splendor with that of Lee or else have hidden it from the 
"shafts of calumny in the grave like Stuart and Jackson and 
Johnston. But the crowning glory of Mr. Davis was his 
"stainless purity and sincere piety." 

From Col. D. G. Mcintosh, of Maryland: "As President of 
-the Confederacy Mr. Davis was called upon for the exercise 
'of every quality which properly belongs to the statesman in 
':he cabinet or the military chieftain in the field. The requisi- 
tions upon him were undoubtedly large, probably more than 
mortal man could respond to ; he alone knew the extent of 
the difficulties which beset him. No one could feel as he did 
the responsibility of the vast interests at home and abroad 
:ommitted principally to his keeping. Armies had to be raised 
and fed and clothed and equipped with all the munitions of 
war. Diplomatic agents had to be appointed and instructed 
■and delicate negotiations attempted with the leading powers 
abroad. At home jealousies had to be appeased and conflict- 
ng interests reconciled, while ever and at all times, was the 
:onstantly recurring problem, how out of the poverty of the 
'esources in reach to meet the exigencies of each passing day. 
Personal opposition, of course, he encountered ; personal 
mmities he could not do otherwise than arouse, but his in- 
' :repid spirit never faltered. Conscious of his own integrity, 

supremely self-reliant in the motives and public policy upon 
which his conduct was based, he kept on unflinchingly to the 
end. No disaster could appall him. When his troops met 
with reverses in the field, he issued those wonderful addresses, 
charged with fiery eloquence, which, ringing like the tones of 
a trumpet, revived their drooping spirits and incited them 
afresh to deeds of valor. When the end came, he was stilf 

Northern newspaper comment on Mr. Davis at the time 
of his death exhibited more or less bitterness, even though 
nearly a quarter of a century had passed since the passing 
of the Confederacy. The following were of those sharing 
an appreciation of his ability : 

From Pomeroy's Advance Thought, New York: "God pity 
the narrow-minded soul that squeaks out its dirty bitter- 
ness because the people of the South love the memory of Jef- 
ferson Davis. He was always an honest man, a friend of 
his people regardless of the menaces and intolerance of those 
who were not friendly to the South. He never used his 
principles as a net in which to catch fish for market. He 
was not the inventor of the idea that a man need not love a 
government that he could not love or a people who believe 
that a political administration has the right to punish people 
for not loving narrow-minded persons who hate them. Jef- 
ferson Davis came into the world as others come. He loved 
the people of the State and localities whose people he knew 
and whose menaced interests he sought to protect. Through 
all the shocks and years of shocking wars and all the whirl- 
pools of hate over which his life ran he lived out God's ap- 
pointed time as Daniel lived in the den of lions that growled, 
but were not permitted to lay claws upon him or to touch 
him with their teeth. Wise men are satisfied with the gen- 
eral result of the war in its liberation of slaves and its restora- 
tion of the country. Jefferson Davis did as he thought to be 
right ; therefore he deserves honor. He was true to his love 
for all that portion of the country that did not propose to 
tramp with iron heel upon the other portion. He believed 
that statesmanship should supersede the sword and that reason 
is more honorable than rage, fanaticism, and passion, heated 
by desire to plunder and confiscate. He has passed on to 
spirit life, and the South loves his memory as it should love 
it and as the people of every patriotic country should and 
ever will respect it. Were the people of the South to forget 
him or to fail to honor the mah who endured so patiently for 
their sake, they in turn would deserve none of the respect or 
place in the minds of men who had manhood. The cause 
which lie was chosen to lead failed through the errors of 
those who planned it and the numerical power, but not a 
superior bravery, of those who contended against it to final 
victory. The North has enough to be proud of — and enough 
to be ashamed of — without sullying its reputation for great- 
ness by hurling cowardly venom upon an honest man in his 
memory and upon those who admire honesty, bravery, and 
devotion to best friends. Jefferson Davis will live longer 
in history and better than will any who have ever spoken 
against him." 

Contrasting Jefferson Davis with the war President of the 
Union, the New York Herald said : "In the essential elements 
of statesmanship Davis will be judged as the rival and 
parallel of Lincoln. When the two men came face to face as 
leaders of two mighty forces, bitter was Northern sorrow- 
that Providence had given the South so ripe and rare a 
leader and the North an uncouth advocate from the woods." 



Qoi)federat? Ueteraij. 



With the order to evacuate Charleston, necessitated by the 
advance of Sherman, the different stations of the signal corps 
were called in. Going to headquarters in the night and find- 
ing that all had left, there was nothing to do but to overtake 
the corps, which I did the next morning near the old Goose 
Creek Church, a church built when the attempt was made to 
found a town a few miles north of the site afterwards 
selected for the city of Charleston. The English royal em- 
"blem was then, and no doubt still is. shown on the wall above 
die altar. In passing through the deserted streets in the dead 
of night the stillness was broken only by the occasional burst- 
ing of a shell fired from Morris Island as it passed through 
some dwelling abandoned by its occupants, who had fled to 
the upper part of the State or moved to that portion of the 
■city beyond the range of the Parrot guns. As the signal 
corps was the last to leave Morris Island, the atmosphere no 
longer disturbed by even the hum of human voices, there 
seemed a weird stillness in the air ; so in passing through the 
•quiet streets of the city in the calm of the night there was the 
•sense of utter solitude. 

In leaving Charleston I had hung over my shoulder, in ad- 
dition to a blanket, a pair of new army boots, gotten under 
the following circumstances : My classmate and comrade, W. 
A. Clark, now and for many years President of the Carolina 
National Bank, told me of a shoemaker who for $90 would 
-make a pair of boots if the upper leather was furnished. So 
from a kipskin costing $100 was cut for the boots a part we 
estimated at $60, Mr. Clark taking what was left for $40, the 
boots thus costing $150. Unfortunately, they were too tight 
for me. Finding that they would fit Lieutenant Memminger, 
son of the Confederate Treasurer, and that the boots he had 
on fitted me. I proposed a swap of some kind. This he de- 
clined. The next day I told him he was treating me badly, 
as he knew I could not wear the boots and he could, and I 
was unable to carry them indefinitely. To this he replied that 
he could not pay the value of the boots, which were worth 
.$700 in Charleston, but would give me for them $300 and the 
boots he had on, which offer I very gladly accepted, as it 
Save me a very comfortable article of foot wear, with, as I 
felt at the time, "money to burn." What became of the $300 
I can at this date give no account, as there was too much of 
interest in other directions to give thought to the then so 
--mall a matter as money. 

In order that movements of the enemy might be observed 
.and reported, the signal corps were the last to leave their 
stations on the evacuation of Charleston, so the battle of 
Averyboro had been fought shortly after we reached the 
neighborhood. In this battle Lieut. Col. Robert de Treville 
was killed. Early in the war the then lieutenant colonel killed 
the colonel of his regiment in a duel and thereupon became 
colonel and Major de Treville became lieutenant colonel. The 
former afterwards challenged the latter, who declined to ac- 
cept the challenge partly upon religious grounds and also 
upon having a wife and two children entirely dependent upon 
him. Denounced at the time as a coward, Lieutenant Colonel 
de Treville's reputation was vindicated and his moral cour- 
age applauded when, in the absence of the colonel, he led his 
regiment in battle and was killed. It was at first reported 
that the colonel had deserted to the enemy, but, to his credit, 
it was subsequently shown that he was captured while recon- 
noitering, and his courteous treatment by General Sherman 
-was due to his well-dressed appearance, unusual in a Con- 

federate colonel, and to his commanding one of the few regu 
lar regiments of the Confederate States. 

While the signal corps was not disbanded and had one man 
killed in an affray with the enemy on the retreat, still I 
wanted to have a more active participation in the struggle, 
and, without getting a transfer, I joined a company of the 
5th South Carolina Cavalry of General Logan's brigade. 
Gen. T. M. Logan had the distinction of being the youngest 
general in the service, though the statement has been made 
that another brigadier general was due this honor. General 
Logan and Col, Aleck Haskell were competitors at college 
for first honor. After much consultation between the pro- 
fessors Mr. Logan was given first honor and Mr. Haskell 
second honor. So too, it was reported, they were both named 
for promotion to a brigadier generalship, and after much 
discussion Colonel Logan was given the place. Col. Aleck 
Haskell in a combat with two Federals received a severe saber 
cut on the side of his head and was left as dead. Reviving, 
he lived for many years after, and he and his brother. Col. 
John Haskell, were potent factors in ridding South Carolina 
of the carpetbaggers. 

The regiment of which I was now a member performed tht 
duties usual on the skirmish line, in checking the advance 
guards of the enemy while slowly falling back. We noticed 
an increased daring and boldness on the part of the Federals. 
On one occasion we were fired on from three directions. A 
light piece of artillery had evidently been hurried forward on 
a road paralleling the one we were on and placed directly 
between us and Raleigh. There was nothing for us to do 
to avoid capture but to follow a trail through the woods that 
led to the main road, which we knew had been taken by the 
army. Satisfied that the army had passed, and going back 
a short distance in the woods to see whether or not we were 
pursued and seeing no trace of the enemy, we went on slowly 
toward Raleigh. The next day we were surprised to hear it 
reported that we had acted cowardly in leaving a squad asleep 
on the opposite side of the road from where we had emerged 
from the woods. 

Two or three years after, while stopping over on Sunday 
at Winona, Miss., a traveling man, also stopping over there, 
a member of the squad which, to their credit, drove off the 
attacking party and regained their horses and guns, men- 
tioned the charge against the regiment. I assured him that 
we had not only satisfied ourselves that none of the enemy 
were in the immediate vicinity, but that we saw nothing to 
indicate the presence of a man or horse in the neighborhood. 
due no doubt to our attention being directed altogether in 
the direction in which the enemy might be expected. 

That night one of our scouts reported that General Lee had 
surrendered. We ridiculed the report, but he said General 
Johnston believed it and that there was great rejoicing in the 
Federal army over it. When the report was corroborated 
later, we found the explanation of the increased activity and 
daring of the Yanks. 

On one occasion during the retreat our sympathies were 
aroused by the frantic pleadings of some women refugees 
who begged us for protection. We could only urge them to 
go at once into the house to escape danger from the Minie 
balls, which were then flying about us from the enemy's 
advanced sharpshooters. 

Arriving at Greensboro, N. C, we learned definitely of 
General Lee's surrender. With my parole, I started on the 
five-hundred-mile trip to Talbotton. Ga., to which town my 
father's family had refugeed upon General Johnston's falling 
back from Kenesaw Mountain. For the expenses of this trip 

Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 

9 1 

had $2.35 in silver, $1.10 received on my own account ard 
1.25 on account of my older brother, who had been in a 
ospital at Charlotte, N. C. 




' Situated in Southern Georgia, among the cotton fields and 
"oiling hills with which this country abounds, is a locality 
: ttle known to our present generation ; but during the days 

f 1S61-65 its name was upon the lips of all, from one end 
c f the country to the other. The mention of this place 

rought unspeakable dread to the Federal soldier, for it was 
' -hispered about that life here was anything but paradise to 

le wearers of the blue. This was the famous Andersonville 

''rison, now a government park. 
Having read much about this famous old prison, one of 

;ie largest of the Confederate military prisons, within whose 
>g walls during its brief existence something like fifty-two 
tousand captured soldiers of the Federal arm}' were confined, 
decided to visit the place. One would judge that a place so 
xtensively known and over whose existence so much bitter- 
ess has existed would be comparatively easy to locate ; but, 
lthough I made numerous inquiries, I was unable to find any 
ne who knew its location and was forced to find the place 
ar myself. 

' After a tiresome journey on a jerk-water train of mixed 
reight cars, with a lone passenger coach trailing on the rear, 
arrived at Americus, and at this point boarded a train which 
umped me off, after a ride of ten miles, at the station of 

..ndersonville, a small place of a little over a dozen houses. 

Yhile glancing about, wondering in which direction I should 
roceed, my gaze fell upon a large granite shaft situated on 

'■ slight rise some hundred yards or more from the depot, 
'his was the monument erected by the United Daughters of 

'^ie Confederacy, Georgia Chapter, to the memory of Captain 
i r irz, commander of the Andersonville Prison. Glancing 

,ver the inscriptions upon its smooth, polished surface, I saw 

. tat the monument had been erected because of the misstate- 
lents and bitterness exhibited toward this officer by inscrip- 

r ons at the prison park, which would have history paint him 
s a fiend incarnate. Truly suffering and misery prevailed at 

. le prison, but this could not be attributed to Captain Wirz, 
ho was unable to prevent it with the very meager resources 

It his command. His execution by the Federal government 

. as due to the bitter determination of certain Federal officials 
lat some one should be the victim for the misery that the 
nsoners had suffered. 

: I turned from the shaft and made inquiry of a lounging 
,:racker" on the station platform as to how to reach the park, 
riding that I would be compelled to walk the distance. A 
gnboard directed me "To the National Cemetery." I was 
nder the impression that the cemetery occupied the site of 
ie prison itself, but found that such was not the case, for 

,ie prison, now a government park, lies to the west about a 
ile distant. I walked through the cemetery, where some 
5,000 soldiers, of whom 2,200 are known to have died in 

■ ndersonville, lie sleeping beneath the green and luxuriant 
>d. It is a beautiful place, with its well-kept grounds, large, 

, 'reading trees, and imposing monuments placed there by the 

states from whose regiments the prisoners were captured. 
s I passed among these imposing shafts of marble and 

,"anite I could but note the spirit of bitterness that shone 

;>rth, even at this late date, from the monuments, both in 

the inscriptions and in the bronze reliefs with which they 
were ornamented. Nearly all had chiseled upon their sides 
"Death before Dishonor," as if they had been tempted before 
death by their captors. The Pennsylvania memorial is ex- 
ceptionally bitter. It is a large marble portal, surmounted by 
the bronze figure of a Federal soldier, disheveled and bent. 
The inscription states that this monument had been erected 
by a grateful State to those who died and those who survived 
the "awful horrors and tortures of captivity in the Confed- 
erate military prison of Andersonville." The opposite side 
is adorned with a bronze relief of a section of the Anderson- 
ville stockade. The log walls are lined with ferocious sen- 
tries, whose guns bear upon the prisoners engaged in fishing 
up water from a puddle within its walls. The prisoners are 
clothed in tattered trousers and shirts, their only garments. 
In the rear are crude tents, made of large pieces of sacking 
thrown over a stick or limb, forming a tent much on the 
order of our present-day army "pup" tent and just about as 
large. The prisoners are depicted as having long poles, on 
which are fastened buckets, for the stream or puddle is over 
the "dead line," and they cannot lean across it, as. this would 
invite instant death from the sentries lining the walls. 

Another monument, that of New York, I believe, has 
two large bronze figures in the attitude of utter despair. 
One is of a young boy, the other a bearded man. Both ap- 
pear emaciated, hair uncut, and clothes in tatters. The boy- 
is barefooted ; the other wears shoes from which the feet are 
protruding. They are gazing at a winged figure which is 
extending a laurel wreath above their upturned faces. The 
Massachusetts memorial is not so bad. It is surmounted by 
a group of three bronze figures, a woman pointing toward 
the rows of headstones, and two children gazing in that di- 
rection. Passages from Lincoln's speech at Gettysburg adorn 
its sides. The quotation, "Death before Dishonor," is con- 
spicuously placed. It is a very beautiful monument of red 
granite and by far the most imposing on the reservation. 

Seeking the prison site. I passed from the cemetery through 
a rusty gate to a dirt road, almost a path, which wound 
among the trees, covered with pine needles and overgrown 
with tall grass. All that was visible was the badly kept road, 
and through the trees and underbrush glimpses of a negro 
cabin or two, with wide-spreading cotton fields stretching 
away into the distance. Five minutes walking took me to 
the edge of the woods, and in the distance I could see a large 
American flag flying from the top of a tall pole. I trudged 
along and was rewarded by unexpectedly walking into a sec- 
tion of the earthworks with which the stockade was sur- 
rounded. They were high, overgrown with trees, and re- 
markably well preserved for the length of time that they 
have been exposed to the weather and the plow. Passing 
beyond into what at one time constituted the stockade, the log 
walls of which have been replaced by a row of pecan trees, 
I found a well-kept, orderly park. Something like nine monu- 
ments, a sundial, and a flag pole were standing grouped to- 
gether in its northwest corner. These monuments were 
erected by the State of Tennessee, Ohio, Michigan. Iowa, Wis- 
consin. Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New 
York in memory of the soldiers confined there. Several 
markers have also been placed in honor of the association of 
women which purchased the site, marked it, and later pre- 
sented the park to the government. Most of the monuments 
bore the inscription, "Death before Dishonor," and other in- 
scriptions condemning the treatment of prisoners at this 
prison during "the late war of rebellion." My attention was 
drawn to what appeared to be clumps of trees and bushes 


9 2 

C^opfederat^ l/eterap. 

surrounded by wire fencing, which, upon closer inspection, 
proved to be numerous holes dug into the ground, around 
the edges of which vegetation had sprung up. The caretaker 
stated that these holes were the remains of wells dug by the 
wretched prisoners in their search for the life-giving fluid. 
I counted over a score of these wells, fast filling up with the 
red soil of Georgia. Proceeding along the gravel road which 
runs toward the creek, or branch, I came to a stone pavilion 
from whose interior a cool, clear stream of water was trick- 
ling. Over the fountain placed there was chiseled an in- 
scription to the effect that God had heard the cry of anguish 
from the thirsting prisoners and in his mercy had sent forth 
this stream as answer to their appeal. This is "Providence 
Spring." I confess that I was somewhat dubious over this 
explanation of its origin. Several of the old inhabitants of 
that section of Georgia are willing to swear that they drank 
from its cool waters long before the time of the Anderson- 
ville Prison. 

Just below the spring I came to the branch. Here at one 
time during the palmy days of the park had been a wooden 
bridge over which the visitor had crossed on his way to the 
earthworks at the top of the hill beyond. This is familiarly 
known at the present day as "Star Fort," and it was here 
that Captain Wirz had his headquarters during his term as 
prison commandant. The bridge was flat on the ground, part 
of it in the water, covered with mud and sand; and as the 
hogs had used this spot as a favorite place of recreation, it 
was surrounded with deep mud for some yards in extent. I 
picked my way across this morass and climbed the hill to the 
"Star Fort," on the opposite side of the branch. This sec- 
tion of the reservation was not well kept and presented a 
forlorn appearance. No signboards told the visitor as to 
what lay beyond. There was no walk, only a faint, scarcely 
discernable path covered with tall grass and briars, as was 
the rest of the hillside. The fort itself stood in a luxuriant 
growth of young pines, brushwood, and briar patches. Its 
walls are still steep enough to make scaling them anything 
but a pleasant undertaking, and the tangled undergrowth 
caught my feet on more than one occasion. It is quite a 
large place, this fort, and it is a pity that it isn't more ac- 
cessible and kept in some degree free of the undergrowth, 
for as the prison headquarters and ,the abode of Captain 
Wirz himself in interest and historical value it is unsur- 
passed by any other portion of the reservation. A few posts 
were standing within its steep earthen walls. The signboards 
that have been nailed to them were gone, but lettering painted 
vertically on the poles themselves, now almost obliterated, 
told the visitor that here were "Captain Wirz's headquarters," 
"Officers' Quarters," "Fort Well," and "Sally Port." Numer- 
ous others, marked "Gun Site," driven in the earthen walls, 
marked where the Confederate cannon frowned upon the 
stockade just across the branch on the elevation beyond. 
Some of these markers were still standing, others lying on 
the ground, and all were very badly worm eaten, with letter- 
ing almost indiscernible. I wondered why so little care had 
been taken of the place, for at one time it must have been 
well kept. The caretaker informed me that these markers and 
signboards had been removed by government order because 
their statements were fabricated and untrue. He doubted 
not they would be replaced in time by suitable iron markers, 
but there was so much to do and such a small appropriation 
to do it with. In the meantime the fort is fast growing up 
with underbrush, trees, and canebrakes, and the markers fall- 
ing into decay; and within a few years this point of interest 

in the camp prison reservation will be almost as hard to pene- 
trate as the tangled jungles of the Dark Continent. 

Retracing my steps down the hill, across the branch, and 
into the stockade. I took one last glance around the park 
grounds. The sun had already dropped behind the blue out- 
line of the Georgia hills, leaving a crimson glow upon the 
horizon that deepened into purple as the twilight faded. As 
I glanced at this smiling field, now beautiful with trees and 
foliage, it was hard to realize that some fifty-two thousand 
wretched prisoners, whom the refusal of the Federal govern- 
ment to exchange doomed to privations, misery, and even 
death, eked out a miserable existence here ; that this well- 
kept, grass-covered lawn had once been a sea of mud and 
water in which the ragged inmates of the prison lived or 
died, as the case might be. It did not seem that such could 
be possible. Surely the prison had been misquoted by history 


W. B. Crumpton, 127 South Court Street, Montgomery, 
Ala., contributes the following : 

"Reading in the February Veterax 'Which Was the Other 
Side?' reminds me of the following, which is said to have 
occurred between two Congressmen on the banks of the, 
Potomac. Congressman A said to Congressman B : 'I'll bet 
you ten dollars I can prove you are on the other side of the 
river.' The dare was taken and the money put -up. 'Well,' 
said A, pointing to the opposite bank, 'that is one side of the 
river, isn't it?' 'Yes,' replied B. 'Then isn't this the other 
side?' B's money was lost. 

"Rubbing his head, B said: 'I'll get that money back- 
Meeting Congressman C, he said : 'I'll bet you ten dollars 
can prove to you that you are on the other side of the river.' 
His money was instantly covered. 'Now,' says B, 'this is one 
side of the river, ain't it?' C assented and B went on, point- 
ing across the river: 'That is the other side, ain't it?' 'Yes,' 
said C. 'Well,' ain't you on the other side?' 'No,' said C 
B, scratching his head, said : 'Well, by George, that thing 
worked before. I can't understand it.' 

"Some of my old comrades may remember me. Though 
an Alabamian, I was in Company H, of the 37th Mississippi 
Infantry. I was with Price in Mississippi, was at Vicksj 
burg later, and under Johnston and Hood in the Georgia anc 
Tennessee campaigns. I am just completing 'A Book of 
Memories. 1842-1920.' In this is included some recollection: 
of the war. Having been Corresponding Secretary of tin 
Alabama Baptist Mission Board for twenty-eight years, mucr 
of the book is taken up with travels in the interest 'of mis 
sions, religion in the home, good citizenship, education, anc 1 
prohibition. I have the honor to be Chaplain of Camp Lomax 
of this city, and Chaplain of the Alabama Division of Vet 
erans. I would be glad to hear from aivy of my old com 

Record Unusual. — John F. Adams, of Gadsden, Ala,, be 
longed to Company A, 2d Alabama Infantry, of which hi 
says : "I headed the roll of the only company that enlistet 
in the State service, March, 1861, and reenlisted for twelv< 
months, then for three years, or during the war as a whole 
without change of officers or loss of but two privates, trans' 
ferred. Our captain was Peter Forney, who served in Mexicq 
1875-78, and was afterwards made major. We surrendered a 
Greensboro, N. C, in April, 1865. Major Forney was 
brother of Gens. John H. and William H. Forney." 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 




Marylanders who entered the Confederate service in 1862 
id subsequently were subjected to peculiar difficulty, incurring 
sks of capture and death and enduring hardships to which 
o other Southerners were liable. Admission to the army 
■as to the Georgian, for example, by no means difficult ; his 
eographical position facilitated it, and the conscription laws 
lade it compulsory. But the Marylander entered it only by 
ecoming a voluntary exile after a long and dangerous jour- 
'ey — a journey which in the outset promised him in case of 
apture worse penalties than those of disastrous battle. For 
ot being yet enrolled in the Confederate army, he was not 
ntitled to the protection of the Southern government, but 
•as liable to cruel treatment and imprisonment at the hands 
f the tyrants who had suppressed the government of his 
ative State. 

In order to reach the Southern Confederacy, or cross the 
ne which divided the two sections and which was disputed 
round during the war, it became necessary to "run the block - 
de," and this article gives an account of the incidents and 
angers of one of the routes. 

Of those who went South in the summer of 1862 were two 
oung men, one of New York City, the other for many years 
. resident of Philadelphia, though at the period referred to 
■ie was living in the town of Centerville, Md. 

On an evening in September, 1862, these young friends and 
ousins met at their old family mansion, situated on Chester 
liver, a fine old English building erected about 1720, one 
mndred and forty-two years before. Here preparations were 
nade for the journey which was to separate them from their 
riends and relations for many weary, toilsome days. Every 
irecaution had to be observed to prevent suspicion on the 
■>art of some of the servants of the house as to what this 
mmense stir meant; for they were tampered with constantly 
->y extra zealous supporters of the Northern cause, who were 
■eeking an opportunity to entrap Southern sympathizers. So 
:autiously, however, were these preparations made that friends 
risking the house knew nothing of the movement until some 
ime after our "blockade runners" had left. 

The next morning about nine o'clock, after bidding farewell 
o their loved ones and receiving in return blessings and 
jrayers for their success, they drove off full of hope for the 
iuture, but full of sorrow at leaving, not knowing for how 
ong or where their journey would take them. Neither re- 
urned until after the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, 
April 9, 186S. Then they came back, one being but a wreck 
)f himself by reason of exposure and want of proper food 
,ind clothing while in active service (a period of nearly two 
.■ears and six months), the other being maimed for life in the 
jattle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 

From the hour of leaving home these young men were liable 
o arrest and if captured would either have been sent to 
irison, Fort Delaware being the nearest point, or released 
jpon taking the oath of allegiance to the Federal govern- 
ment, an oath no honorable man could take who was not in 
sympathy with its requirements. 

An ample supply of gold and a limited supply of clothing 
were secured for the trip. A trustworthy citizen had been 
:ngaged to drive them to Smyrna, Del., where a stanch sym- 
pathizer would arrange for the further continuance of their 

The route to Smyrna was not very interesting, the country 
:hrough which it lay being thinly settled and not improved. 

At this present time, however, some of the. best of farms are 
to be found along its course, and thousands of fruit trees 
have grown up, yielding a rich harvest to their owners. As 
Smyrna was approached the land showed a higher state of 
cultivation, and the surrounding country formed a very at- 
tractive framing to this picturesque village. 

Smyrna was reached about sundown, when the hospitalities 
of a friend were enjoyed. In the morning the route was con- 
tinued to Dover, where a political convention was in session 
and where strangers from all parts of Delaware had gath- 
ered. The presence of our young friends, therefore, created 
no especial notice. 

Dover was reached about midday ; and as the train for 
Seaford, the next stopping place, did not leave until 3 p.m., 
the interval was occupied in visiting the convention and State 
buildings and dining at the hotel. A little before three o'clock, 
the time for the train to start for Seaford, they sauntered 
down to the depot, where a sight of boys in blue (provost 
guards) convinced them that this route had its difficulties 
which had to be guarded against. The soldiers stationed at 
the depot to intercept and arrest suspicious characters little 
realized that the train as it steamed off contained two in- 
cipient Confederates. 

These Confederates were greatly relieved when they found 
the train rapidly conveying them away from what seemed 
actual danger. After several hours of car riding they were 
landed at Seaford, where they remained one night only. 
Being strangers in this section, they had to depend upon a 
password for their safe transit and comfortable accommoda- 
tion, and this password proved as valuable to them as the 
countersign to a picket when doing duty on the outposts of 
an army. About sundown, as the train neared Seaford and all 
the passengers had left except an elderly gentleman and 
themselves, it was deemed most prudent to gain some infor- 
mation as to the location of the town and its surroundings, 
the character of the inhabitants, and their sympathies in this 
great contest which was going on between the two sections 
of the country. For at this time there was scarcely one man, 
woman, or child throughout the entire land who had not be- 
come identified in some way with one or the other of the con- 
tending parties. Fortunately this elderly gentleman proved 
to be "the right man in the right place," being the father-in- 
law of the person to whom our friends were to introduce 
themselves that evening and from whom such additional in- 
formation was to be gained as would insure the safety of 
their movements the next day. 

Proceeding to the hotel, our friends ascertained the exact 
location of Mr. M— n's residence, about one mile from the 
town, which they found without difficulty. Mr. M — n re- 
ceived them very cordially as soon as they made themselves 
known by means of the password, introducing them to his 
wife and several agreeable daughters, whose society added 
greatly to the enjoyment of a first-rate supper, the last of its 
kind they were permitted to enjoy for several years. 

About ten o'clock, on returning to the town, in order to 
carry out strictly instructions received from Mr. M — n, they 
called on a doctor who was agent of the route at this town. 
EJe responded to the password given, inviting them into his 
office, where he related many interesting incidents which had 
come under his notice ; for quite a number of men who bore 
an active, some a conspicuous, part in the service of the Con- 
federate States had passed over this route. 

This agent informed them that a reliable citizen would call 
on them in the morning and invite them to join him in a ride, 
which invitation they must accept, nothing doubting. True 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai?. 

to the appointment, an invitation was given for a drive and 

The person selected to act as escort, or guide, for the next 
day or so was thoroughly acquainted with the route to be 
taken as far as Crotchers Ferry, Dorchester County, Md. In 
a buggy drawn by one horse, the three started on the route 
which would take them away from the searching gaze of 
provost guards to a quiet place of rest, there to remain until 
a party had been collected sufficiently large to justify the 
captain of the craft used in "running the blockade" in start- 
ing on his trip to Virginia. 

In parting with mine host of the Seaford Hotel it must 
not be forgotten that, coupled with his hospitality, was an 
evidence of his hearty sympathy with the cause of our travel- 
ers. As he bade them adieu he placed in the hand of each a 
buckshot, which would prove a talisman of safety for the 
rest of that day. The road from Seaford to Crotchers Ferry, 
a point where the Nanticoke River is crossed by all travelers 
passing between Seaford, Del., and Vienna, Md., and where 
our friends were to remain for several days, ran through a 
very unattractive section of the Peninsula, Johnson's Cross- 
roads being the only point worthy of mention on the route. 
Here the counties of Sussex. Del., and Caroline and Dorches- 
ter, Aid., join. Our friends halted there to refresh man and 
beast. Among the persons collected at the Cross Head Inn 
was the sheriff of one of the above-mentioned counties, who 
was a Union man of the ultra stripe, and had he known the 
character of his new acquaintances he would have found ac- 
commodations for them in the county jail. 

But it was not intended that a sheriff's authority should 
check their steps. So onward they went until a farmhouse 
was reached just across the ferry. The farmer here was to 
be their guardian for the next day or two. One fact which 
prevented suspicion on the part of those whose duty it was 
to arrest all doubtful characters was that both of them had 
lived so long in Northern cities that they had acquired the 
manners and speech of that section and readily passed for 

This farmhouse was situated immediately on the public 
road leading to Vienna, and whenever persons were noticed 
approaching from either direction safety was sought by our 
friends in a neighboring cornfield. 

The guide of the past few days remained to accompany his 
companions as far as the route in Dorchester County required, 
but, not being familiar with this portion of the route, he came 
near running himself and companions into the enemy's camp. 

Starting after breakfast one pleasant September morning 
for the residence of Mr. Raleigh, a gentleman whose whole 
soul was wrapt up in the Southern cause, after driving several 
hours without reaching it, inquiry was made as to the roads, 
which soon showed that the guide had taken the wrong road 
and that instead of being on the Vienna road he was on the 
New Market road near a Mr. Raleigh's. Driving up to the 
house, Mrs. Raleigh received our travelers. Mr. R. being ab- 
sent. From her they learned that her husband was a Union 
man. She. however, had a son in the Southern army, a fact 
which greatly relieved their anxiety. 

They had introduced themselves to Mrs. Raleigh as mer- 
chants from New York and Philadelphia (on a business tour, 
or what is better known as "drumming for trade") on their 
way to New Market. Cambridge, and other points. Since our 
guide was a dentist from Salisbury, who was known by repu- 
tation in the surrounding county, it was therefore necessary 
to drive in the direction of New Market, a direction exactly 
the opposite to the one required to be taken. Accordingly, 

after bidding adieu to Mrs. Raleigh, the horse's head was 
turned for New Market. 

A few moments found the party passing a field of well- 
grown corn, which sheltered them from view of the house just 
left. Turning around, they were soon driving back rapidly 
past and beyond what they so recently feared might prove to 
them a prison house, returning to Crotchers Ferry. And now 
a new difficulty appeared. 

The husband of the negro woman servant at the house 
where this party had stayed belonged to Governor Hicks's 
brother and was a weekly visitor to this house. It was feared 
he might on his return to Vienna Sunday night mention to 
his master the fact of strangers being in the neighborhood 
and thus arouse his suspicions, leading to the arrest of these 
merchants (?). It was therefore deemed most prudent to 
move quarters, which was done in the afternoon. The guide 
returned to Seaford. Another farmhouse was selected in the 
vicinity, and our friends walked to their new place of re- 
treat. While on their way an incident occurred which in- 
spired them with feelings of almost certainty that their move- 
ment "on to Richmond" would be a success. 

They were going along the main road leading to Vienna, 
enjoying the quiet of a summer evening, when a solitary rider 
was seen coming toward them. His appearance indicated that 
he was a well-to-do farmer of that section and well advanced 
in life. Something suggested that this was the man of all 
others that they wished to see, while he also seemed to have 
an impression that he was about to meet persons he was in 
search of. As the parties approached each other and halted 
our friends inquired of the elderly gentleman if he was not 
Mr. Raleigh. His reply was simply to inform them that they 
most be at his house "to-morrow evening." His keen per- 
ception had led him to a quick and correct conclusion, seem- 
ing at a single glance to know that these pedestrians were 
passing over the "underground route" and needed his as- 

A little reflection decided our friends to anticipate Mr. 
R's orders, fearing the possible unpleasant result of the negro 
man's return. Accordingly they started for Mr. Raleigh's on 
Sunday night about eight o'clock in a close-covered wagon, 
having been joined by several others who were also en route 
for Richmond. Passing through Vienna and several miles 
beyond, they reached his residence, which was situated on the 
north bank of the Nanticoke River. They were driven several 
hundred yards below the house, where a dugout was in wait- 
ing to carry them across to the Somerset (now Wicomico) 
County shore. Proceeding to the house of a prominent citizen 
of this county not far from Quantico. food was furnished 
and sufficient rest allowed to enable them to continue their 
tramp until they reached the broad marshes below, where 
perfect security could be found and where a party of fourteen 
assembled prior to setting sail across the bay. 

Finding that they would have to remain in these marshes 
until sundown, shelter from the scorching rays of a summer 
sun and protection from the searching eye of the provost 
guard was sought in potato holes or bins, places used for 
storing sweet potatoes during the winter, but under the undis- 
puted sway of mosquitoes during the summer. These potato 
holes are like the bombproofs which are built by soldiers as 
protection against cannon balls and shells from mortar guns. 
They are dug under the ground, like vaults, deep enough to 
enable persons to stand erect in them and strong enough to 
prevent their being crushed in by heavy weights. Fortu- 
nately, the stay here was not very long, else the mosquitoes 
would not have left blood enough in the fourteen for them 

C^opfederat^ Vefcerai). 


> be of any use as soldiers. These mosquitoes were vora- 
ious feeders. 

J The party which had met here to join in the dangers of 
running the blockade" across the Chesapeake was composed 
f our friends referred to, two stout Irishmen from Dor- 
nester County, and two young farmers from the same section, 
11 of whom bore an active part in the war as members of 
le 2d Maryland Battalion of Infantry, C. S. A. One of the 
armers was killed during the battle of Pegram's Farm, on 
le Weldon Railroad. There was also a citizen from Wash- 
-lgton City, and finally there were six citizens of Delaware, 
'horn our friends lost sight of after reaching Richmond. 
'he whole party was under command of a brave little cap- 
tain named Turpin. The boat used in conveying this party 
cross to the Virginia shore was a canoe about thirty-three 
aet long, such as can now be seen on the tributaries of the 
hesapeake employed by that class of oystermen known as 
jngmen. Captain Turpin owned this boat and was regu- 
;irly engaged in the blockade-running business, carrying pas- 
■ngers and contraband goods. Though a very hazardous 
usiness, it was very profitable, twenty dollars in gold being 
,ie fare each passenger had to pay, added to which were large 
profits on the class of goods carried as freight. 
[ The sun was just setting when Captain Turpin called his 
assengers on board and made ready for the cruise. Pushing 
ff from shore, the boat was rowed along down the Nanticoke 
ntil broad water was reached, and night had thrown its 
lantle over nature so that sails could be used without being 
;2en from land. 

. The route selected was out the Nanticoke into Tangier 
i ound, thence into the Chesapeake Bay b3 r way of Smith's 
•sland, and across the bay by a southwesterly course for 
kittle River, on the Virginia shore, a point opposite Point 
i.ookout. On the Maryland side of the Potomac River Tan- 
gier Sound is a broad, shallow expanse of water lying be- 
I .veen the western border of Somerset County and several 
mall islands which skirt along the eastern side of the Chesa- 
leake. As the Sound was entered a dark cloud rose in the 
«'est, causing Egyptian darkness, from which soon burst upon 
lie party a terrific thunderstorm and drenching rain; and 
;ie boat, which had been gliding along so smoothly, was 
:rought to a sudden halt aground upon the flats, miles from 
[ither shore. 

e All hands had to leave the boat and aid in getting her off, 
;or it was necessary to reach the Virginia shore before day- 
ght. Although the water was shallow, the mud was deep, 
end the mud and water were waist deep before the boat 
:Ould be depended on. This, however, was but a foretaste 
! if the trouble in store for them. After some delay and 
mch labor and patience, the boat was again gliding smoothly 
! nd rapidly over the broad waters of the Chesapeake, here 
bout twenty miles wide. 

: The passengers after getting out of the Sound occupied 

•lemselves with learning somewhat of each other's history, 

;nd the time passed agreeably, without an accident to mar its 

leasure, until they had reached midway their course. A light 

.'as then seen in the distance which seemed to be rapidly 

i earing down upon them, causing anxiety on the part of all. 

3 there was a general impression that this light proceeded 

. rom a government vessel used in preventing blockade-run- 

i ing. As the race would be between steam and sail, the danger 

;emed very great. All hands felt sure that they would be 

[ither captured or drowned. The Washingtonian seemed 

lore alarmed than the rest ; for, to use his own language : 

[ am too well known in Washington and have but recently 

left there to avoid arrest. If caught, I will meet a traitor's 
death. Captain, O captain 1 for God's sake don't let them cap- 
ture me ! Anywhere, captain ; up the bay, down the bay, only 
don't let them capture me !" 

The supposed danger proceeded from a Norfolk steamer 
plying her regular route between Baltimore and Norfolk, and 
so once more the party were permitted to sail on smoothly 
and undisturbed. But the trip was not destined to be free 
from further excitement and real danger. 

The Virginia shore was approached just as the day was 
breaking, at that moment when the shades of receding night 
make objects ahead appear dim and indistinct, while those 
behind stand out clear against the horizon. Persons near the 
shore could, therefore, distinctly see an approaching vessel 
and yet themselves be invisible. 

The boat was steering for Little River, one of the many 
streams which course inland from the Chesapeake Bay. Pres- 
ently a dark object was observed ahead and to the right just 
emerging from the cover of the Virginia shore and slowly 
but surely moving toward Captain Turpin. As for the cap- 
tain of our craft, he trimmed his sails and handled his rudder 
so skillfully that, with the aid of a friendly breeze, he soon 
found his boat with its human cargo rapidly nearing land. 
Still the sound of muffled oars and hushed voices told of ap- 
proaching danger and warned us that there would soon be a 
race, with life or freedom for the stake. 

Captain Turpin understood thoroughly the situation in which 
he was placed ; knew the qualities of his boat, the navigation 
of the surrounding waters, and that land would soon be 
reached. He therefore advised the men to screen themselves 
as best they could by lying down in the bottom of the boat, 
a very cramped position. 

Soon was heard the call so familiar to all sailors, "Boat 
ahoy ! Heave to !" coming from the officer in charge of a 
government barge which was manned by oarsmen and armed 
marines and provided, besides, with a small howitzer. Again 
and again this call was repeated, but Captain Turpin feigned 
deafness in order to gain time. Just as his canoe was cross- 
ing the bow of the barge about one hundred yards from it 
a premonitory order, "Heave to, or we'll fire !" was heard 
and replied to by one of the men in the canoe : "Fire and be 
d — d to you !" And fire they did, the sharp report of the 
howitzer being followed quickly by the whizzing sounds of the 
leaden missiles which it sent forth. This left but little doubt 
that unless the canoe could rapidly sail out of reach its pas- 
sengers would soon be battling with the bold waters of the 
Chesapeake as well as an armed enemy. The damage from 
the first fire was very slight, only a hole or two cut in the 

The race now became intensely exciting, the canoe having 
the advantage of a favorable wind and the barge having to 
rely entirely upon oars. The position of the two boats was 
now changed. Those in the canoe could plainly see the men 
on the barge as they stood out against the eastern sky, while 
they themselves were scarcely visible from the barge. 

Captain Turpin had succeeded in gaining considerable dis- 
tance from the barge before the second shot was fired. This 
proved to be a solid shot, which fell sufficiently' near to splash 
water on the men in the canoe ; and it was soon followed by 
a third shot, which sped its course some distance overland. 
The canoe, having reached the river, now turned a sharp point 
of land and was out of sight and range of the enemy's gun. 
Our route was now once more safe. 

Some of the men as the canoe rounded into Little River, 
rather than trust to Captain Turpin's skill, jumped overboard, 

9 6 

^opfederat^ l/eterai). 

reaching land as best they could. Our Washington friend 
was one of the number. He must not be slighted in narrating 
our encounter with real danger, for here his true character 
was developed. Whereas before, when only supposed danger 
presented itself, he begged that the captain would insure his 
escape so that he might not be captured and shot, now that 
there really was present danger he begged Captain Turpin to 
surrender. "Surrender, Captain," said he, "for we'll all be 
killed," forgetting in his great fright that a traitor's grave 
awaited him. 

The men, having abandoned the canoe, scattered in different 
directions, some hiding in a tract of woodland, others in a 
cornfield, others still continuing far into the interior. Among 
the number who fled to the cornfield were our Washington 
hero and the writer of this sketch. As day broke more fully, 
making distant objects more easily distinguishable, a gunboat, 
which was stationed at the mouth of the Potomac River and 
which had been sent out on picket duty, was discovered not 
more than two hundred yards from this place of retreat, suf- 
ficiently near to make it dangerous for the party to remain. 
Accordingly, having determined to move farther inland, fol- 
lowing what semed to be a public road, the party were brought 
to a sudden halt by the cry : "There they are now, boys ; there 
are the Yankees !" Washingtonian saw danger in every atom, 
-for it was he who thus cried out. But this time his advancing 

enemy, several dark objects coming down the road, proved 
to be an old black sow with a litter of half-grown pigs. If 
some of this party had met these porcine scouts a few years 
later in the war, the latter would have been captured and have 

•shared the fate of Christians on the Cannibal Islands. 

Our young friends and cousins, having separated when the 

• canoe was abandoned, did not meet again until late in the day 
at a farmhouse where food was furnished them and whence 

•scouting parties were started forth in search of stragglers 
and to learn the position of the Yankees. The entire party 
which sailed out of the Nanticoke assembled at this house 

: about sundown, and preparations were made to continue the 
march "on to Richmond" via Heathsville, the county seat of 
Westmoreland County, an old English settlement, showing 
evidences of its age in the quaint, weather-beaten buildings 
scattered here and there. 

The citizens of this town were full of such hospitality as 
a war-ridden people could exhibit. Although they had not 

'been visited by the ravages of the contending armies nor wit- 
nessed the terrible carnage and destruction with which nearly 
every other portion of the State had become familiar, the 
effects of war were visible in the scarcity of young, able-bodied 

-men; only old men and cripples and women and children were 
to be seen. Our tired travelers were refreshed by a beverage 
famous in this country, but new to them, "peach and honey," 
made from home-distilled peach brandy and honey. 

A night was spent at Heathsville and in the morning ar- 
rangements for the "on to Richmond" trip made. Wagons 
and teams were secured and guides who knew the country, for 
danger still attended this route until within a day's march 
from Richmond, when the party would be within the Confed- 
erate lines. Federal gunboats controlled the rivers York and 
Rappahannock, which had to be crossed before Richmond was 
reached, and were constantly plying up and down these rivers. 
When on the eve of starting the sheriff of the county re- 
quested that they would take charge of two Yankees and de- 
liver them in Richmond as-prisoners.of war. These Yankees 
had started out from Point Lookout in the canoe which had 
been only a few hours before captured from Captain Turpin 
and party on an oystering expedition and, owing to high winds 

and a want of skill in the management of the boat, were 
drifted on to the Virginia shore, where they were captured 
by two farmers of that section and brought to Heathsville. 
The boat was returned to Captain Turpin, and it is more than 
probable it figured in several other blockade-running trips. 
The presence of these Yankees added very much to the interest 
which surrounded the jaunt to Richmond and aided in its 
success, for the citizens always rejoiced to see persons whom 
they had just cause to consider their enemies rendered harm- 

Leaving Heathsville, we crossed the Rappahannock at 
Bowler's, stopped at Miller's for the night, made an early 
start next morning, and went to Aylett's for breakfast. 
Through the kindness of one of the citizens we here obtained 
a wagon and again started for Richmond, where we arrived 
that night (September IS), having crossed the Chickahominy 
and Pamunkey Rivers and traversed a portion of the battle 
field of Mechanicsville and other ground made memorable in 
the contest between Generals McClellan and Lee only a few 
weeks previously. 

The prisoners were delivered to the provost marshal of 
Richmond, and the party scattered. Our young friends re- 
paired to the Spottswood Hotel, and after a night's rest, so 
much needed after the fatigue and excitement of the past ten 
days, they enlisted under the banner of the Confederate States 
army as privates in Company A, of the 2d Maryland Battalion 
of Infantry, commanded by Capt. William H. Murray. 


by mrs. a. a. campbell, historian general u. d. c. 


Daughters of the Confederacy who attended the twenty- 
first annual convention, held in Savannah in 1914, have an in- 
effaceable impression of the charm and beauty of this city 
and the gracious hospitality of the people. Who can forget 
the oyster roast on Thunderbolt, the rides in the beautiful 
environs, the visit to the Lady Huntingdon Club, the many 
occasions planned for our pleasure? The silvery cadence of 
Sabbath chimes and vesper songs linger sweetly in memory 
as an accompaniment to those delightful days. 

The buy-a-bale slogan was heard throughout the land, and 
why, O why, did ouija boards and mediums who have occull 
sources of knowledge so carefully withhold the fact that cot- 
ton would soon soar to a phenomenal price and again b(, 
hailed as king? A large bale at the De Soto Hotel mutely 
solicited investment, and we, not knowing that it was fortune 
beckoning, passed on. Things like this confirm the convic 
tion that the spirits with whom Ouija & Co. are en rappor, 
run a mighty poor bureau of information on sublunary af 
fairs and divulge nothing particularly helpful on other lines. 

The beauty of Savannah is probably more striking tc 
strangers than to natives, who have been long accustomed tc 
the exquisite landscape effect of squares and parks systemat 
ically breaking the monotony of brick and mortar with ; 
tropical luxuriance of foliage. The poet who declared "Thi 
roses nowhere bloom so fair as in Virginia" luckily for him 
self did not mention date of bloom. If he had qualified the 
general statement by naming November, Savannah wouk 
certainly win the prize. 

Possibly science will discover a way to extirpate tin 
Spanish moss which gives to Southern trees a 'weird an< 
fatal beauty, but until that time the live oaks of Bonaventuf' 
Cemetery will seem the most appropriate and marvelous sen 

^pgfederat^ l/eteraij, 


'nels which can guard the silent avenues of the dead. By 
imparison the willow seems flippant and the cypress a cheer- 
ll young thing out of tune with the cold Jiic facets of the 

• Most cities have one great and brooding presence, a genius 
uci which cannot be eluded or escaped. Savannah is more 
prtunate. The individual will determine whether Oglethorpe, 
le Wesleys, Pulaski, or Sergeant Jasper make the strongest 
ppeal. Early recollections may put the gallant Jasper out 
f the running, for no one compelled to recite the long and 
lelancholy poem on his death can feel quite as kindly toward 
,:iat brave patriot as he deserves. Count Pulaski, who fell 
1 the siege of Savannah in 1779, is a figure of romance, as- 
bciated with mourning nuns and the banner which was his 
all, and is commemorated in a monument on Monterey Square, 
.afayette laid the corner stone to it and to the one to Gen. 
,fathaniel Greene when he visited the city in 1825. The rule 
f General Oglethorpe, founder of the colony, is a shining 
age in colonial annals. Royal governors, with a few con- 
picuous exceptions, gathered scant laurels from American 
istorians. Very few are commemorated in "storied urn or 
nimated bust," but Georgia was blessed with a true philan- 
rropist in Oglethorpe, and, still more marvelous, she had 
ood, live Indians. If you doubt this, go to the granite 
owlder in Write Square in honor of Tomochichi, an Indian 
hief who befriended the early settlers. 
Colonial contacts with religion were usually casual in prac- 
tce and partisan in theology. What was orthodoxy in one 
realty was quite otherwise in the next settlement. Witness 
he New England Puritans, the Quakers, the Catholics of 
Maryland, the Cavaliers, and the poor Dissenters, who pur- 
hased immunity for their faith by securing the western fron- 
ier against the Indians, your Virginia aristocrat realizing that 
'predestination was more effective against the savage than 
rpostolic succession. 

The Georgia colony was founded on the broad basis of 

'deration for all Protestants. Instead of having the worst 

if the clergy sent her, as Sir William Berkeley complained 

'vas the case in the Old Dominion, Georgia had three men 

vho became the most famous preachers of the age, Charles 

''■nd John Wesley and George Whitefield. The Wesley 

'irothers came over in 1735. Among their fellow passengers 

"vere some pious Moravians, and it was then that John Wes- 

ey became impressed with the fervent faith which in later 

'ears led him to find in Count Zinzendorf a spiritual brother. 

Zharles Wesley was secretary to General Oglethorpe. His 

lealth soon failed, and he returned to England. The mission of 

: ohn Wesley was specifically to the Indians, in which he made 

; io progress; but his ministry in the colony was so effective 

hat it aroused complaint to Governor Oglethorpe. At that 

i ime John Wesley was a stiff High Churchman, fresh from 

; Dxford. Doubtless his experience in the New World had an 

Evangelizing tendency, for in his retrospects he wrote of the 

gatherings on Sunday afternoon in the parsonage at Savannah 

' :hese words : "I cannot but observe that there were the first 

"udiments of Methodist Societies." There, too, he began his 

■>ork as a hymn writer and translator, and there he organized 

r he first Sunday school, commemorated now by a handsome 

VIethodist church. 

Wesley's life in Georgia was complicated-. by an unhappy 

' 'omance, for evidently when it came to women the great 

)reacher lacked discernment. The Methodist Church has been 

i great factor in American life. The circuit rider was the 

5nly source of religious teaching over vast regions, and in 

the early revivals of Bishop Asbury and other saintly men 
thousands were converted who had no other opportunity to 
hear the gospel. At the present time, when other denomi- 
nations face closed churches, the itinerant system provides 
a preacher for every pulpit. If it has been necessary to abate 
somewhat the rigorous discipline of early Methodism, be it 
remembered that the laxity of some other denominations 
makes it difficult to uphold the standard set by the founders. 
The worldly Christian is always a more. serious problem in 
the Church than the unconverted outsider. Whether the 
Wesley brothers were the greatest men who ever dwelt in 
the Forest City may be a matter of opinion ; they appear to 
be the only ones commemorated in Westminster Abbey and 
the most far-reaching in their influence. 

Apart from these shadowy sojourners of the past, Savannah 
has a population which is not excelled for energy, patriotism, 
and business acumen. It was long the foremost cotton port 
of the country. New Orleans and Galveston now compete 
for this distinction. The trucking interests of Georgia, a 
modern development due to great cities and better transpor- 
tation, have added immensely to the commerce which follows 
the ocean highway to Baltimore and New York. Georgia 
lumber and naval stores are also exported from Savannah. 
The most notable march of the War between the States was 
from Atlanta to Savannah. It is true that General Lee, with 
a far greater army, crossed the Potomac and went north as 
far as Gettysburg, but that was a quiet and orderly advance, 
dependent upon the sun by day and the firmament by night 
for its illumination. It was conducted under the strictest 
military discipline ever imposed upon an invading host 
and doubtless inspired profound contempt in the German 
■leaders who entered France and Belgium in 1914. In Sher- 
man's march to the sea, however, the most Hunlike Hun 
might have found something worthy of emulation. It was 
conducted by the light of blazing homes and barns which 
made the sky lurid with their flames. It left a blackened and 
desolate track where once there had been happy firesides and 
fertility. It was an inhuman vengeance wreaked upon de- 
fenseless women and children because their men dared to 
fight for rights which were secured to them by the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. When Savannah was captured, the 
wives of all Confederate soldiers and officers were ordered 
to leave the city, where they were to find a refuge being a 
matter not mentioned. 

These sorrows of a vanished era are not paraded to revive 
ancient bitterness, but simply as a reminder of the courage 
and resilience of a people who arose from the ashes of defeat 
in the face of fearful obstacles, without the aid or sympathy 
of a single foreign nation and under the cruel oppression of 
its own government. For such a people the future is always 
bright for it rests upon the sure foundations of a glorious 


Bard of the South ! The "Summer Rose" 
May perish with the "Autumn Leaf" ; 

The "footprints left on Tampa's" shores 
May vanish with a date as brief ; 

But thine shall be the "life" of fame ; 

No winter winds can wreck thy name, 

And future minstrels shall rehearse 

Thy virtues in memorial verse. 

— Alexander Beaufort Meek. 

9 s 

Qopfederat^ Ueteraij, 



The great World War of 1914-18 suggests comparison with 
the War between the States in 1861-65 not only as to the num- 
bers and efficiency of the men engaged, the size of the armies, 
and the power of the weapons employed, but also the prin- 
ciples involved and the method of conducting the war. And 
when German atrocities began to array the sentiment of the 
world against her, at once there was in various parts of the 
Northern States a disposition to proclaim Germany's course 
and methods the same as those of the Southern States in their 
war for independence and separation from the Union. It 
could only be forgetfulness or malignity or utter ignorance 
fostered by the falsehoods of Northern historians that could 
lead men to accept and proclaim such perversion of facts as 
to the principles and methods of the Confederate States as 
compared with the methods of the Union armies of 1861-65 
or the German armies of 1914-18. And it is well to remem- 
ber that the Union armies had a very large contingent of Ger- 
man mercenary soldiers, who acted out their traditional repu- 
tation for brutality. 

Germany fought to make herself supreme in the councils of 
the world: any nation was to be subject to her will, which 
she would impose regardless of their wishes. The Confeder- 
ate States fought for the right of every organized people to 
choose their own form of government; the Federal government 
denied the right. The German autocracy refused all terms of 
peace except absolute surrender to its will. And when other 
nations sought earnestly to avert war, Germany, in her arro- 
gant self-confidence, rejected every proposal. The Confederate 
States, acting on what they believed to be rights guaranteed 
by the Constitution and by exact justice sought earnestly to 
arrange with the Federal government terms of peaceful and 
righteous separation. Their commissioners were put off and 
deceived by false promises and a final refusal of any terms 
except absolute surrender. 

In contrast with the conduct of the World War, marked 
by an atrocious cruelty that refused to recognize any of the 
laws of war as understood by all civilized nations, winning 
for Germany the hatred and contempt of the world — atroci- 
ties almost without parallel in the history of warfare — we 
have only to refer to the orders of General Lee and other 
Southern commanders and to the practices of the Southern 
armies, and that in spite of the fact that their own country 
was desolated by the Union armies. Surely the contrast is 
most striking. 

Several years ago I wrote to a friend, editor of a Southern 
newspaper, a very able journal, who was extravagant in his 
admiration and praise of Mr. Lincoln and condemned South- 
ern criticism of him as narrow bigotry. I called his attention 
to the desolating march of the Union armies, approved by his 
hero, Lincoln. His answer was that it is a historic fact that 
at the beginning of the war Mr. Lincoln had an expert on 
international law to prepare a statement of the laws of war; 
that this statement was warmly approved by the President and 
General Halleck, who was an able lawyer ; and that this 
statement was afterwards approved at the Hague and em- 
bodied in its code. This was especially as to treatment of 
noncombatants and their property. Yet the armies of Gen- 
erals Sherman and Sheridan grossly and outrageously violated 
every one of these laws with Mr. Lincoln's approval, and 
General Halleck, chief of staff, suggested that Charleston's 
site be sown with salt. 

It is by its dealings with noncombatants and their property 

and its treatment of prisoners of war that a government is 
to be judged. And in both of these respects it is only neces- 
sary to state facts officially attested to vindicate the South 
and her armies. 

Here is General Sherman's own statement : "One hundred 
million dollars of damage has been done to Georgia ; twenty 
millions inured to our benefit, the remainder was simply waste 
and destruction. On Gen. Howell Cobb's plantation I told 
my men to spare nothing. I'll not restrain the army lest its 
vigor and energy be impaired." 

Major Nichols, an aid-de-camp of General Sherman, thus 
describes the great march : "History will be searched in vain 
for a parallel to the scathing and destructive effect of the 
march in the Carolinas. Aside from the destruction of mili- 
tary things, there was destruction overwhelming, overleap- 
ing the present generation. Even if peace speedily come. 
agriculture, commerce cannot be revived in our day. Day 
by day our legions of armed men surged over the land, over 
a region forty miles wide, burning everything we could 
not take away. On every side the head, center, and rear of 
•our columns might be traced by the columns of smoke by day 
and the glare of flames by night. The burning hand of war 
pressed on these people, blasting, withering. The soldiers 
are hunting for concealed things." 

It was loot, loot, plunder. The deliberate burning of At- 
lanta and Columbia was to impress the inhabitants that "war 
is hell." 

General Sheridan's course of destruction in the Valley of 
Virginia was as thorough as he could make it and was ac- 
cording to orders from his chief, as follows : "Do all the 
damage to railroads and crops you can. Carry off stock of 
all descriptions and negroes, so as to prevent further plant- 
ing. We want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren 
waste." Signed "U. S. Grant." 

Sheridan reported officially: "I have burned two thousand 
barns filled with wheat and corn, all the mills in the whole 
country, destroyed all the factories of cloth, killed or driven 
off even' animal, even the poultry, that could contribute to 
human sustenance." 

Besides these larger acts of ruin, there were numerous Fed- 
eral raids with their accompaniments of burning, looting, 
insulting women, and tearing off their jewelry. Was there 
ever such glorying of a people in their shame? 

On the other hand, I shall present only President Davis's 
announcement of his policy and General Lee's order on in- 
vading Pennsylvania. Mr. Davis said to his soldiers : "Pri- 
vate property can be seized only by way of military neces- 
sity, for the support or benefit of the army. All wanton 
violence, pillage or sacking, maiming or killing is prohibited 
under penalty of death, or punishment adequate to the gravity 
of the offense." Again : "In regard to the enemy's crews and 
vessels, you are to proceed with the justice and humanity 
which characterize our government and its citizens." No one 
of the thousands captured by Admiral Semmes ever suffered 
any violence. 

Here is General Lee's order on entering Pennsylvania : "The 
commanding general considers that no greater disgrace could 
befall the army and through it our whole people than the 
perpetration of the barbarous outrages upon the unarmed 
and defenseless and the wanton destruction of private prop- 
erty that have marked the course of the enemy in our own 
country. It must be remembered that we make war only upon 
armed men, and that we cannot take vengeance for the 
wrongs our people have suffered without lowering ourselves 
in the eyes of all whose abhorrence has been excited by the 

Qoi)federat^ Meterzyl 


•ocities of our enemies and offending Him to whom ven- 

ince belongeth." 

Charles Francis Adams, a Federal general, bore this testi- 

>ny : "I doubt if a hostile foe ever advanced in an enemy 

untry or fell back from it in retreat leaving behind it less 
' jse for hate and bitterness than did the Army of Northern 


' Let the ruined and desolated homes and fields and business 
, the South, held for ten years under the brutalities of negro 
I d carpetbag rule, with its loot, graft, and oppression, be 
■ npared with the ruin and desolation of Belgium and 
!.>rthern France by German frightfulness and say which 
Imon, North or South, is represented by Germany and 
-.lich by Belgium and France. 

'This is written with no intention of stirring bitterness be- 
; een the sections whose sons of contending sires fought so 
, llantly together in the great World War. But it is to de- 
|id my people and my comrades from disgraceful charges 
: pired by the surviving enmity of men who have always 
l;ed the South. 

\s to treatment of prisoners, whatever their hardships in 
I rman prisons, they were deliberately inflicted as part of 
P. policy of frightfulness and of hatred. On the other 
J id, the sufferings of Northern soldiers in Southern prisons, 
1,1 especially the terrible death rate, all were the result of 

< iditions forced on the Southern people by the Federal 
iVernment and military authorities which we were unable 
1 remedy. 

,?he standing cry against the Confederate authorities and 
f iple was, "The horrors of Andersonville." The first thing 
|| er the war was to hang the man who had charge of that 
|_ son, who had done everything he possibly could to mitigate 
i sufferings of the prisoners. The execution was a military 
l rder by a court organized to convict and which received 
\ hout question the perjured testimony of thugs and mur- 
I ers and refused to receive the testimony of credible wit- 
Ises of both armies that would have told of Captain Wirz's 

I 'he charges were repeated with every possible aggravation 
C horror from the floor of Congress, from pulpit, platform, 
t\ press, seeking to implicate President Davis and his cabi- 
t , until after two years of weary and brutal imprisonment 
1 was released, but was refused a trial that would have 
V dicated him and his cause. 

'. it last Northern men, even Federal officers, were forced 
t confess that the sufferings and death of prisoners in the 
i ith were the result of conditions for which the Federal 
i.'ernment was responsible. And it turned out that the 
rdiatory measures of the Federals resulted in the death of 
r re Southern men in Northern prisons than of Northern 
t l in Southern prisons. Out of 270,000 Northern prisoners, 
l~)0, or nine per cent, died; out of 220,000 Southern soldiers 
i Northern prisons, 26,000, or twelve per cent, died, 
t.'here were three causes for the mortality in Southern 
J ;ons, for every one of which the Federal government was 
irionsible: (1) The lack of food, (2) the lack of medicines, 
E the refusal to exchange prisoners. 

Jot only were the Southern ports blockaded, but much of 
t, best farming territory of the Southern States was in pos- 
(B'uon of the Union armies, and the far South had depended 
J jely on the Northwestern States for staple foods. But the 
f cy of the Federal government to destroy our crops and 
'I vent the cultivation of our soil brought on such a scarcity 
k. food that our people were reduced to straits, and it was 

< cult for our government to provide necessary subsistence 

for our armies, and most of the fighting of our armies was 
done by hungry, ragged, barefoot men, who carried their 
cause in their hearts and on the points of their bayonets. Yet 
the prisoners received the same rations as our soldiers in the 
field, with frequent additions from the neighborhood of the 

Much of the sickness was due to the poor preparation of 
the rations by the prisoners and by their disobedience to sani- 
tary regulations. It was the lack of materials for sanitary 
housing that made it necessary to crowd the prisoners into 
too small a space. Yet every effort was made by Captain 
Wirz and the Confederate authorities to give to prisoners the 
same rations and comforts that were provided for our armies. 
There was no excuse for starvation in the North. 

There was utter lack of medicines in the South, and she 
had te depend on native remedies and such medicines as were 
run through the blockade. Contrary to the custom of civilised 
nations, the Federal government made medicines contraband 
of war and refused every appeal of the Confederates for 
necessary medicines for the use of Federal prisoners. It was 
first proposed to buy the medicines with the solemn pledge 
that the medicine should only be used for Federal prisoners, 
and it was proposed to pay in gold. When this was refused, 
it was proposed that the Federal government should send to 
the prisoners a sufficient number of competent physicians with 
necessary medicines with the assurance that their service 
should be strictly confined to the prisoners. This also was 
refused. It was evident that the Federal authorities were 
determined not only to starve the South, but to crush it by all 
manner of diseases, even though they should sacrifice thou- 
sands of their own men. 

The sufferings of prisoners, both North and South, could 
have been prevented by a fair system of exchange. Such a 
system was arranged in 1862; but after various subterfuges 
it was repudiated by the North, and thenceforth prisons were 
terribly crowded. And while Southern soldiers starved and 
froze in Northern prisons, Northern soldiers starved and died 
of malaria in Southern prisons. Every effort of the Con- 
federates to effect any sort of exchange was rejected. Gen- 
eral Lee's offer to General Grant was rejected. The pro- 
posal to exchange only sick prisoners, man for man, was re- 
fused. When a delegation of Union prisoners went to Wash- 
ington to beg for an exchange, they were brutally turned 
away by Secretary of War Stanton, and General Grant pro- 
tested against any exchange. And when finally the Confed- 
erates offered to surrender all sick prisoners without any 
equivalent if the Federal government would send transporta- 
tion, the offer was grudgingly accepted and only carried out 
after several months ; and then these sick and skeleton prison- 
ers were paraded through the North to fire the Northern heart 
against the South. 

Surely the government that refused any exchange of prison- 
ers should bear the responsibility for the dreadful sufferings 
and death of prisoners, both North and South. 

Charles A. Dana, Assistant Secretary of War and the able 
editor of the New York Sun, wrote: "We were responsible 
ourselves for the continued detention of our captives in 
misery, starvation, and sickness in the South. Of the charge 
of cruelty to our prisoners so often brought against Mr. 
Davis and reiterated by Mr. Blaine in his speech in the United 
States Senate, we think Mr. Davis must be held altogether 

And it is notable that with all these charges of cruelty 
made against Confederates in treatment of prisoners no other 



C^Qijfederat^ l/efcerag. 

trial was ever held after the disgraceful execution of Captain 

The question recurs : Was the Union or Confederate gov- 
ernment most like Germany in the conduct of the war? 



[This essay won the Anna Robinson Andrews medal offered 
through the Daughters of the Confederacy.] 

Eight miles south of the town of King's Mountain, and 
just over the North Carolina line in South Carolina, is a 
spot held sacred by all true Americans — a spot where the 
representative of a foreign power was overthrown and a 
victory won which made possible the realization of the 
Declaration of Independence and the existence of the Con- 
stitution of the United States. This is the King's Mountain 
battle ground. 

Contrary to what might be expected from the name, the 
battle field is not on the crowning peak of the mountain, but 
on one of the smaller ridges several miles southwest of 
the pinnacle. Stretching from east to west about one-half 
mile, from north to south varying from fifty to two hun- 
dred yards, this ridge stands a hundred feet higher than the 
surrounding country. 

No human soul resides near the spot. Only the mountain 
peaks near by and the silent monuments keep eternal watch 
over the field "where valor proudly sleeps." The occasional 
singing of the birds in the distance, the babbling of the brook 
at the foot of the ridge, the sighing of the winds through the 
pines on its slopes, and the barrenness of the great rocks on 
its summit bespeak the loneliness of the place. A wagon 
road traversing the west end and several obscure paths worn 
by the feet of visitors who infrequently journey here merely 
emphasize its isolation. 

If the patriots and the British could return for a peaceful 
reunion, they would have little difficulty in recognizing this 
as the scene of their horrible conflict on October 7, 1780, the 
most important differences in appearance being the several 
slabs and monuments erected by Americans in grateful re- 
membrance of the heroic deeds of our forefathers. 

But "a battle field as a battle field is a very inhumane 
thing. No flaunting of bright banners, no rhythmic tramp 
of martial feet, no glitter of the trappings of war. no mere 
physical courage can rob it of its inhumanity. The virtue 
of the battle field lies in the principles for which men fight." 
The patriots of King's Mountain were fighting for dearly 
prized principles of home and civic life, and it was these 
which redeemed their battle to the plane of nobility and 
heroism. No new principle it was, but simply a restatement 
of that principle of self-government first wrung from the 
king by the barons at Runnymede — the proud heritage of the 
Anglo-Saxon race. 

Until 1778 practically all the engagements of- the Revolution 
had been on Northern soil. With honors about even, but 
with New York in British hands, England decided that the 
quickest way to conquer America was through the South. 
Abundant ships and troops were collected, and the Southern 
ports were blockaded. By 1780 Savannah and Charleston, the 
two most important towns in the South, had fallen to the 
British. That a campaign through the Carolinas "would end 
the war was the opinion of Clinton, the British commander. 
Accordingly, two commands, one led by Lord Cornwallis, 
the other by Col. Patrick Ferguson, were sent to accomplish 

this. On August IS Cornwallis met Gates at Camden an 
completely routed him. "His Northern laurels had turne: 
to Southern willows." 

Then followed the darkest days of the Revolution for tb 
Whigs. It seemed that every course was clear for Cortj 
wallis to make a triumphant march through the Carolina 
"Bloody" Tarleton, who butchered the patriots wherever rj 
found them, was scouring the lowlands. Ferguson, by hi 1 
winning manner, was drawing many young Tories to h 
standard. To add to all this gloom, there came a heaviti 
and still blacker cloud. That brave and daring leader, tl 
hero of Saratoga, Benedict Arnold, had turned traitor. K 
wonder Washington said : "I have almost ceased to hope.' 

Almost a month after the battle of Camden Cornwall! 
broke camp to begin his invasion of North Carolina, whicl 
he considered but "the road to Virginia." On September il 
he reached Charlotte, truly a "hornet's nest" for the red 
coats. Meanwhile Major Ferguson had been dispatched wiii 
a force of two hundred regulars and nine hundred Tory mil 1 ] 
tia to the borders of Tryon County, where he was to holl 
back the bands of over-mountain men who were now showing 
signs of activity. Carrying out his commission, Ferguso | 
boldly pursued the mountaineers as far as Gilbert Towl 
(now Rutherfordton), in Rutherford County, whence he ser] 
them a contemptuous message that if they did not desi: 
from their opposition to the British arms he would marc 
his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and la | 
waste their country with fire and sword. 

Shelby and Sevier answered the challenge by calling tb 
frontiersmen to arms. "In its suddenness and its numeric;; 
strength the response to their call resembled a rising of th 
Scottish clans when the 'fiery' cross was despatched throug; 
the highlands." To the rendezvous at Sycamore Shoals, o 
the Wautauga River, on September 25, came Shelby wit 
240 men from Sullivan County, Sevier with 250 from Wash 
ington, and Campbell with 400 Virginians. Early on th 
morning of the 26th the little band gathered around thei, 
chaplain and heard in silence his prayer that the God of bal 
ties would attend their undertaking. Without further dt 
lay they set out to meet Ferguson. On the march they wer, 
joined by the McDowells with 160 men from Burke an 
Rutherford and Winston and Cleveland with 350 troops frot 
Wilkes and Surry. A motley crowd they were — India 
fighters, hunters, farmers, and mountain rangers. No uni 
forms had they, no bands of music, no bristling bayonet: 
Dressed in their hunting shirts, with sprigs of hemlock i 
their hats, fearless and patriotic, every man was a dead she! 
with a rifle. 

Camping and moving, moving and camping, they passe 
over the mountain and on October 3 reached Cherry Mour 
tain, about sixteen miles from Gilbert Town, where they ex 
pected to find Major Ferguson. Here Cleveland halted th 
march and said with feeling: "Now is the time for every on 
of you to do his country a priceless service, such as sha 
lead your children to exult in the fact that their fathers wer 
the conquerors of Ferguson. When the pinch comes, I sha 
be with you. But if any of you shrink from the battle, yo 
now have the opportunity of leaving." Be it said to thei 
credit not one accepted the invitation. 

In the meantime, however, Ferguson had withdrawn hit 
South Carolina ; but on hearing that "those dirty mongrels 
were in pursuit, he dispatched messengers to Cornwallis re 
questing immediate assistance and on October 6 marched hi 
army northward to a spur of King's Mountain. This h 

Qopfederat^ Veterai}. 


boasted was such an ideal position that even the Almighty 
could not drive him away. 

Learning that Ferguson had fallen back, the mountain men, 
in order to follow with greater speed, weeded from their 
ranks all foot soldiers and, with those on horseback, pro- 
ceeded in haste to overtake the foe. At Cowpens on October 
6 they were joined by Colonel Hambright with fifty Lincoln 
County men and Colonels Lacy and Williams with four hun- 
dred South Carolinians. With Colonel Campbell, the only offi- 
cer from without the Carolinas, in command, the army moved 
on toward King's Mountain. Through the night and the 
morning of the 7th a heavy rain was falling, but this could 
not quench the determination of the mountaineers. They 
wrapped their guns in their blankets and hunting coats and 
marched, marched, marched. 

The earl} afternoon brought them in touch with the enemy. 
A hurried consultation was held, the position of each corps 
was decided upon, and the final order given : "Fresh prime 
your guns, and every man go into battle firmly resolving to 
fight until he dies." The plan of attack was to quickly sur- 
round the mountain. Thus the entire force, arranged in four 
columns, advanced on foot from the west side. Campbell led 
the right center ; Shelby, the left ; Sevier, with McDowell's 
troops, had command of the right wing; Cleveland, with 
men under Williams, Hambright, Lacy, and Chronicle, com- 
manded the left ; and around to the east side went Winston, 
closing the gap in the circle. 

About three o'clock the fighting began. So quietly had 
the Americans approached that Ferguson did not discover 
their presence until the first firing by Shelby's men. Im- 
mediately his silver whistle could be heard resounding 
through the trees calling his men to prepare for battle. 
With a loud frontier war whoop the patriot army dashed 
forward into the fray. First the troops on the left charged 
against the British, then those on the right. No one waited 
for orders, but steadily up the hill, crouching behind the trees, 
the mountaineers crept. The minute Colonel Campbell caugh 
sight of the enemy he shouted : "Here they are, my brave 
boys. Shoot like h— 1 and fire like devils." Cleveland, en- 
couraging his men, said : "When you are engaged, you are 
not to wait for the word of command from me. I will show 
you by my example how to fight." Thus back and forth. 
Campbell and Sevier on one side. Shelby and Cleveland on 
the other, the patriots charged up the hill three consecutive 
times, each time to be repulsed. But. obeying to the letter 
Shelby's battle cry, "Never shoot until you see an enemy and 
never see an enemy without bringing him down," each time 
they renewed the charge. As Draper truly remarks : "Never 
was war cry of the ancient Romans more ceaseless and de- 
termined that Carthage must be destroyed than was that of 
the mountaineers to catch and destroy Ferguson." 

The British, in wild confusion, fired volley after volley 
and rushed with bayonets, first against one side and then the 
other; while back and forth along their lines rode their leader 
on his white charger, his brilliant uniform covered with a linen 
duster. Above the din and roar of battle could be heard his 
shrill whistle calling his wavering men to renewed effort. 

Thus the battle raged for an hour. But finally something 
happened in the British lines. Captain DePeyster, second in 
command, foreseeing defeat, hoisted the white flag; where- 
upon the gallant Ferguson, dashing forward, cut it down 
with the sword. Some one in the patriot army cried 
"There's Ferguson ! Shoot him !" Straightway a dozen mus- 
kets were leveled on him, and he fell from his horse with 
eight fatal wounds. 

A little hand fighting, and the battle was over. Huddling 
in a group on the summit of the ridge, the soldiers of the 
king laid down their arms in surrender. Then what shouts 
along the mountain sides ! The patriots gave three cheers for 
liberty, and the whole ridge reechoed the joyous sound. 

Considering the number of forces engaged, there was no 
more sanguinary battle fought during the Revolutionary War. 
Not one of Ferguson's men escaped, 456 having been killed 
or wounded and 648 taken prisoners. The cost to the Ameri- 
cans was 6 officers and 23 privates killed and fifty-four 
wounded. Having buried the body of the brilliant Ferguson 
and divided his garments and equipage, the backwoodsmen 
saw thier mission performed ; so back to the mountains and 
their homes they went, even as quickly as they had come. 

"The victory at King's Mountain," says Bancroft, "changed 
the aspect of the war." Like an electric shock it spread 
through the country, awakening the hopes and courage of 
the Whigs and heartening them into renewed determination 
to win, correspondingly discouraging the Tories and keeping 
them quiet in this region for the rest of the war. Deserted 
by his "friends" and threatened by fresh swarms of enemies, 
Cornwallis hastily abandoned Charlotte and fled into South 
Carolina, thus freeing North Carolina once more from the 
invader. King's Mountain paved the way for Yorktown. 
Although a small engagement as far as numbers were con- 
cerned, the victory came at a most critical time and proved 
the turning point of the struggle in the South. In the words 
of Jefferson : "It was the joyful annunciation of that turn in 
the tide of success that terminated the Revolution with the 
seal of our independence." 


[This article was copied from an old scrapbook and sent 
to the Veteran by A. B. Hershberger, of Luray. Va., who 
says : "It is too good to lie dormant so many years." It ap- 
peared originally in the Washington Post.] 

The death of Justice Lamar has recalled his well-known 
devotion to the Confederacy, and his love for the leader of 
the lost cause was productive of one of the most dramatic 
scenes in the history of the Senate. The Mexican pension 
bill was under consideration and an amendment pending ex- 
tending its provisions to all veterans irrespective of their 
course in the War between the_ States. 

It was near adoption. Congress, it was said, could best 
show its desire to forgive and forget by extending the bene- 
fits of the measure to those who had once borne arms against 
the common country. The amendment was near adoption 
when Zack Chandler came to his feet with a short speech in 
which he said that, while in the main ne agreed to the general 
tenor of the amendment, yet under its provisions even Jeff 
Davis would be restored to citizenship. "And," he added, 
"I am not prepared to go so far as that." 

Lamar rose. His intense excitement was evident. Between 
him and Chandler a strong personal antagonism existed. An 
outburst was expected, and it came. "Mr. President," said 
the Mississippian, with outstretched finger pointing at his 
foeman, his tall form trembling with emotion, but his voice 
bell-like in its clearness and without a quiver in it, "when 
Prometheus lay bound to the rock it was not the king of 
beasts who availed himself of his distress. It was not any 
of the nobler brutes of the field or birds of the air. It was 
the vulture, the scavenger of the animal kingdom, gluttoning 
upon carrion, which preyed upon his vitals, knowing that in 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

a defenseless man who could neither move hand nor foot he 
had one into whose vitals he could dig his beak." 

He sat down amid a stillness so profound that the rustle 
of a paper sounded harshly. Chandler was deadly pale. 
Drops of perspiration stood upon his forehead, and he 
clenched the arms of his chair until the strained wood 
creaked. It was expected that he would reply. Twice he half 
arose, then sank back. He did not reply. 



By the terms of the surrender we were not to be molested 
in returning to our homes with our paroles ; but Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston's army in North Carolina had not as yet sur- 
rendered, and there were many hostile forces between us and 
our homes. For our protection our company decided to 
maintain our organization as a means of mutual benefit. We 
had no idea what difficulties were to be met with on our 
way. We were unarmed, and if attacked by Sherman's sol- 
diers or deserters we had no means of defense. 

Fortunately, we had no trouble with any of our old ene- 
mies, none of whom we met until we reached Macon, Ga., 
which place we found full of Wilson's Cavalry, who had 
arrived there a few days before. They had heard of Lee's 
surrender and did not interfere with us. After we had sup- 
plied our haversacks with a sufficient quantity of meal at the 
mill mentioned in my previous article, we marched leisurely 
toward Danville, Va., where we found an abundance of com- 
missary stores sent there by the authorities at Richmond. 
But if we had not been fed by the enemy, the army would 
have perished before we got to these supplies. We found the 
town full of soldiers who had outtraveled us ; and as there 
was no train for Greensboro, N. C, that day, we decided to 
take a much-needed rest, cook up food for several days, and 
otherwise prepare for our long journey home. One of our 
men borrowed a big wash pot, in which we placed a quantity 
of dry speckled peas, choice food with us at that time, and a 
shoulder of very salty bacon. A great fire was kindled 
around it, and we sat about on the platform of the railroad 
watching it. We watched and waited while the meat rose to 
the surface and sank again in the boiling water. Our mouths 
were watering for a taste of that bacon and the peas. Oc- 
casionally some one would run down and examine to see if 
the contents were done and add fuel to the fire, but they were 
always found to be as hard almost as when we put them in 
the pot. It did seem that our dinner would never get done 
enough to eat. Finally a comrade suggested that we watch 
the pot and save his part of the contents while he went down 
to the arsenal, some distance away, and got some powder and 
lead to take home. 

He was gone quite a while, and w r e still sat there watching 
the performance of our pot, when all at once we were startled 
by a tremendous explosion that shook the entire town, and 
pieces of shell began to drop about us and everywhere in the 
city. Soon we saw men running with stretchers toward the 
scene, bringing mangled boys and soldiers away. Our com- 
rade finally returned and reported that he had just got out 
of the building and far enough away not to be killed when 
the explosion took place. It seemed that the soldiers doing 
police duty in the town, when they found that General Lee 
had surrendered, refused to obey the orders of the mayor 
and keep the little boys, negroes, and soldiers out of the 
building filled with guns and all kinds of explosives. Crowds 
rushed to this place, where the floors and cellar were covered 

an inch or more deep in powder. A boy snapped a gun to see 
if it was loaded and blew up the place jam full of boys, 
negroes, and soldiers. Our comrade told us that two women 
going down the street on the other side at the time of the 
explosion caught fire. In their pain and fright they dashed 
forward to the river and plunged in, only to lose their lives 
by drowning. 

Nothing remained of the building the next day. The cellar 
alone marked the spot where it had stood. The mayor had 
the remnants of human beings collected and put in a large 
box and thus buried. How many of our brave soldiers 
perished in this unfortunate catastrophe no one will ever 

After waiting here some time, we got transportation on 
freight cars to Greensboro, where we again had to wait over 
some time. Here we first came in touch with Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston's men. What attracted our attention most was the 
various gambling games in progress everywhere. Our men 
had long since eliminated this vicious habit, and we were sur- 
prised to know that it still survived in the Army of the West. 
I remember that when we were going into our first battle at 
Cold Harbor in June, 1862, the ground along the roadside was 
strewn with greasy cards, thrown away by our soldiers who 
did not want to be killed with these evidences of wickedness 
on their persons. 

While waiting at the depot Generals Beauregard and 
Joseph E. Johnston rode up. I thought I never saw hand- 
somer men in my life except General Lee. They looked like 
kings as they sat on their fine horses giving orders to their 
soldiers. The nobility of their characters was as admirable 
as their persons. 

Speaking of General Lee reminds me of a little incident. 
During the Christmas holidays in 1863, when our brigade was 
doing picket duty along the Rapidan, General Lee, supposing 
there would be no occasion for his presence, went to Rich-i 
mond. On the other side of the river Gen. R. B. Hayes, who 
was afterwards President of the United States, and another 
general, under the influence of the usual Christmas cheer, de- 
cided to assume the offensive, clean out the entire Confederate 
army, and end the war. As soon as they had crossed the river 
General Gordon hastened to meet them with our brigade, and 
we had quite a time fighting them before we drove them back 
across the river. We killed a great many and captured a large 
number of prisoners. General Lee did not arrive until the 
morning after the fight. Our prisoners were very anxious to 
see him, and as he rode along reviewing our brigade they 
made many very complimentary remarks, such as, "He is the 
grandest man I ever saw," while from another would come, 
"O if we only had such a general !" and many more such ex- 
pressions were made. 

The railroad tracks were in a shocking condition where 
they could be used, and the freight cars were equally bad; but 
when we had the opportunity our men crowded into them and 
on top of them as long as there was space to crowd in. Once 
more we started and managed, by walking part of the way, 
to get to High Point. This is now a beautiful and flourish- 
ing manufacturing city; it was then a little old dilapidated 
village. Here we had to lie over again. The next morning 
some comrades and I were preparing our breakfast at a little 
fire when a very gentlemanly soldier from Texas approached 
us and said: "Boys, have you heard of old Abe's demise?" 
"No," we replied. He then told us that John Wilkes Booth 
had killed President Lincoln. We could but feel at the time 
that it was only an expiation for the atrocities he had allowed 
his soldiers to commit and the treatment accorded our de- 

Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 


;nseless prisoriers in his hands, doing so much to create bitter 

actional feeling by the methods he employed, when he could 

I'ave accomplished the same ends by a more humane policy. 

lany think that if he had lived there would never have been 

te persecution of the South in Reconstruction days, but no 

"rgument could be more false. Lincoln would have been just 

r s wholly in the hands of the most radical element of his 

olitical party and could have done little in opposition to 

> leir wishes. 

Once more we mounted those old ramshackle cars that had 
one duty during the whole war without repair. We were 
acked in them and on top like sardines. When we reached 
Hackstock Station, in South Carolina, in the darkness, our 
ngine ran into a freight car standing on the track, and the! 
3p of the one on which I was riding broke in, dumping us 
. own on our companions sleeping below. Strange to say, 
obody was seriously hurt. We now decided to abandon the 
ailroad and make our way on foot across the country to 
\iken, S. C. Reaching that place, we went to the broad 
iazza of the hotel to rest. The proprietor came out and 
aid: "Gentlemen, I am sorry I cannot entertain you better, 
ut you are welcome to occupy my front porch." 

From Aiken we went to Augusta, Ga., where we found one 
f our comrades, who had by some means outtraveled us. 
.V'hen the Confederate stores of every kind were opened, he 
ecured for each one of us a new suit of clothes from head 
3 foot and much other plunder. I took my new clothes and 

piece of soap to the river at the back of the building where 
•e were stopping, and, divesting myself of the old ragged 
uds I had worn so long, I cast them with all the living things 
ley contained into the Savannah River to float on and out 
i the Atlantic Ocean. 

On our way to Atlanta our engine ran off the track at 
'tone Mountain : but the train crew got it back in place, and 

e were soon in that city of ruins. I saw but one house that 
ad not been burned, and it stood at the end of White Hall 
treet and overlooked the place. I was told that it was Sher- 
lan's headquarters while he occupied the city. As we passed 
long the ruined streets desperate-looking men peeped at us 
:om cellars with the eyes of hawks. They looked like 
esperadoes who had followed the wake of Sherman's army 
) rob, steal, or murder as opportunity offered. But if they 
ad injured one of our men, it would have cost the offender 
is life. 

From Atlanta to Macon we rode in comfortable passenger 
irs and were not overcrowded, as many of our soldiers had 
ranched off in every direction to their homes. At each sta- 
on some of our comrades got off, and we bade them adieu, 
tacon, as I have already said, was full of Wilson's raiders, 
Jt we were not molested by them. After another delay here 

e entrained for Albany, then the terminus of the railroad, 
fty-six miles to Bainbridge, Ga., our home town. We were 
iformed that the stage would make its last trip under the 
impany's mail contract with the Confederate government 
tat evening to Bainbridge and Quincy, Fla., and that the 
ire was $120 in Confederate money to Bainbridge. I sold 
l extra pair of shoes I got at Augusta for that sum and 

cured a ticket. The coach was crowded, but our driver had 

splendid team of horses, which was changed every ten or 
reive miles. There were two ladies with us bound for 

allahassee, Fla., and to these we gave the best seats inside 
le coach, while we occupied the top and the seat with the 
river. At daybreak the stage stopped, in front of John 

baron's hotel at Bainbridge, and I stepped out amidst a 

owd assembled to greet friends and to hear the news. I 

did not see any one I knew except Dr. Moritz Hahn, an old 
Jewish citizen, who informed me where to find my people 
in the town. This was May 4, 1865, and so many changes 
had taken place in my absence that I did not know the peo- 
ple. But I should mention that new conditions were met with 
after we left Macon. From that place to Albany every ware- 
house at the different stations along the road was piled to 
its capacity with Confederate corn and army supplies. It 
seemed that there was enough stored there to supply all the 
armies we had in the field, while we were starving in Vir- 

My father lived on his plantation, one and a half miles out 
of town. He was one of the county officials and very promi- 
nent in supporting the cause by feeding and caring for the 
families of the soldiers who were away fighting for their 
country. My oldest brother, now returned from the army, 
was very apprehensive lest the Yankees, when they occupied 
the town, would hang him for the active part he had taken. 
But he did not seem to care or feel any uneasiness ; and when 
it was reported that Captain Roberson, of the 13th Maine 
Regiment, with a hundred men and two lieutenants, was 
coming from Albany to take over the government in the name 
of the United States, he called Sam, the carriage driver, and 
told him to hitch up and go to meet the soldiers and bring 
Captain Roberson and his officers to our house and invite 
him to make it his headquarters. This Sam did ; and when 
Roberson came, my father met him on the porch and extended 
his hand, at the same time saying that he had sent for him 
to have his protection ; that he had done all he could for the 
cause of the South, but now that we were defeated it was in 
his hands to bestow such treatment as he saw fit. Roberson 
seemed to be very sullen the whole time he was there, but his 
soldiers did not commit any depredations. They were re- 
lieved by a battalion of Kentucky cavalry. These men seemed 
to have been forced into the service to fight in a cause they 
did not like and so vented their anger on the poor negroes, 
treating them with the greatest cruelty. They came without 
any wagons or feed for their horses, about six hundred in 
number, and compelled our old foreman, Sambo, to give up 
the keys and helped themselves to six hundred bushels of 
corn and other forage. Sambo and Sam were pressed into 
service to haul the stuff to their camps, and when they moved 
to Tallahassee they took the two negroes and our teams with 
them. This was after all the Confederate armies had sur- 
rendered, and father was never paid one cent by the United 
States government. A battalion of infantry from Indiana, 
under Captain Mason, took the place of the Kentuckians, and 
during their stay our citizens began to realize the evils of 
reconstruction, the darkest page in all the history of our 
country. Our government was placed in the hands of carpet- 
baggers, negroes, and our own Southern traitors, many of 
whom had been prominent in the secession movement, but 
took no part in the fighting that resulted. They joined the 
Union League to get office and have a part in the robbery 
and plunder of their fellow citizens. Their management of 
the State government was so outrageous that we organized 
the Ku-Klux Klan and redeemed the country. Since that 
time the South has remained solid. 

I claim no prophet's vision, but I see 

Through coming years, now near at hand, now distant. 
My rescued country, glorious and free, 

And strong and self^existent. 

— John R. Thompson. 



Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 





I was always strongly opposed to guerrilla warfare, be- 
lieving it wrong and a poor way to settle anything : yet I want 
to give you a few facts as to the causes for guerrilla warfare 
in Missouri, where it was more bitter and merciless than in 
any other State. So far as Southern men took part in it, it 
was strictly a war of retaliation. In September, 1861, Jim 
Lane, with a body of Kansas jayhawkers, wantonly burned 
and destroyed the town of Osceola, in St. Clair County, Mo., 
and a little later in the fall of that year the bloody butcher, 
McNeil, with a Federal command, had ten prisoners, most 
of them noncombatants, shot simply because some Union 
man in that neighborhood had disappeared from his home 
and could not be found. 

In November, 1S61, Col. C. B. Jennison, of the 1st Kansas 
Cavalry, issued a proclamation to the people of the border 
counties of Missouri, in which he declared: "All who shall 
disregard these propositions (to surrender their arms and 
sign deeds of forfeiture of their property) shall be treated 
as traitors and slain wherever found. Their property shall 
be confiscated and their houses burned, and in no case will 
any one be spared, either in person or property, who refuses 
to accept these propositions." 

And the Federals boasted of their barbarity. On December 
27, 1861, the St. Louis Democrat stated that "Lieutenant Mack, 
sent out to Vienna with twenty Kansas rangers, returned 
yesterday. He brought no prisoners, that being a useless 
operation about played out." The Rolla Express, a Union 
paper of the same date, said: "A scouting party of rangers, 
which left this place last week for Maries County, has re- 
turned. The boys bring no prisoners ; it is not their style." 

At that time there was not an organized Southern guerrilla 
band in the State of Missouri, nor had there been. The first 
of that kind was organized by Quantrell. In January, 1862, 
Quantrell had seven men with him and operated in Jackson 
County, Mo. During that month Captain Gregg joined Quan- 
trell with thirteen men, making his entire force twenty men. 
After that his command increased rapidly. He had fights and 
took many prisoners, but he always paroled them. In a 
fight at Little Santa Fe Quantrell and his band were sur- 
prised and surrounded in a house. The house was set on 
fire, and they fought their way out. One of his men was 
wounded and captured, taken to Fort Leavenworth, and shot. 

On the night of the 20th of March, 1862, Quantrell, with 
sixty men, camped on Blackwater, four miles from the little 
town of California. On the morning of the 21st he got a 
copy of the St. Louis Republic, which contained General Hal- 
leck's proclamation outlawing his band and all other bands 
of partisan rangers and bushwhackers and ordering Federal 
officers not to take them prisoners, but to kill them wherever 
found. Quantrell said nothing of the proclamation until he 
had formed his men next morning. He then read it to them, 
told them it meant the black flag, and gave every man his 
choice who could not fight under the black flag to fall out 
and return home and all who could to follow him. Twenty 
of his force turned and rode away with him. Never until 
then had Quantrell or his men shot a prisoner or a Federal 
soldier who surrendered. They accepted the black flag when 
it was forced upon them. 

The capture, sacking, and burning of Lawrence, Kans., after 
that was in retaliation for the sacking and burning of Osceola 

by Jim Lane and his men more than a year before. The | 
fight and massacre, as it has been called, at Centralia was in J 
retaliation for the killing of one of Anderson's sisters and the 
crippling for life of another by undermining and throwing 
down a house in Kansas City in which they, with other South- 
ern women, were confined. 

Missouri was isolated and cut off from the Confederacy.. 
There was a Federal garrison in most every town in the State. 
A manifestation of sympathy for the South meant banish- 
ment, confiscation, and destruction of property, or death. 
There was no law. The courts were terrorized, and officers 
were military puppets of the power. Fire and sword reigned I 
supreme, and the guerrillas and bushwhackers simply paid 
back the insults and wrongs to which they and their families 
and their friends were subject. They fought in the only way 
in which they could fight, and they fought to kill. William 
Anderson was killed in a fight with Curtis's command at 
Orrick, Ray County, Mo., in the fall of 1864, and his body 
ivas dragged through the streets of Richmond, Mo., by the 
Federals. Quantrell survived the war and died in Kentucky 
some time later. 

In the fall of 1863 General Ewing issued his infamous, 
devilish order No. 11, requiring all of the old Southern men 
(the young men having already gone South) and all of the 
Southern women and children to vacate their homes and re- 
move from Jackson County under pain of death. Their beau- 
tiful homes were then sacked and burned and their best house- 
hold furniture, pianos, and musical instruments were loaded 
into wagons and carts and carried away to Kansas. 

I am loath to recall those diabolical crimes so long after 
the war, but it will be many years yet, if ever, before the 
people of Missouri and the South forget these outrages of 
rapine, murder, and destruction of their homes and property. 
Several of Quantrell's and Anderson's men are still living at 
their homes in the counties of Clay, Jackson, and Lafayette. 
No charge of crime or violation of the law has ever been 
laid at their doors. They have been law-abiding, industrious 
citizens since the close of hostilities. 


Capt. James I. Metts, of Wilmington, N. C, who was com- 
mander of Company G, 3d North Carolina Infantry, later 
assistant inspector of Grimes's Division, writes of the fight 
in which Col. Richard Snowden Andrews and his men bore 
such a gallant part. He says : 

"It afforded me great pleasure to read the memorial ad- 
dress by J. .W. Owens at the dedication of the handsome 
bronze tablet marking the spot where Col. Richard Snowden 
Andrews, commanding two guns, and Brig. Gen. George H. 
Steuart's brigade, composed of the 10th, 23d, 27th Virginia, 
and the 1st and 3d North Carolina Regiments, held in check 
the Yankees who were passing on their retreat. I was sec- 
ond lieutenant in Company G, 3d North Carolina Infantry, 
at the time. 

"About sunset on the 14th of June, 1863, Steuart's Brigade 
was ordered on the march from around Winchester, where 
it had been all day under shelling from the Yankee batteries. 
It marched all night and went only about five or six miles, 
halting every short distance until just at the crack of day 
(the 3d North Carolona Infantry was at the head of the 
column leading the brigade), when the crack of a rifle and 
the whiz of a bullet' came over the head of the column, tell- 
ing us that the Yanks were near. This aroused the boys! 
quickly from their naps, lounging on the ground, rocks, etc. 

^opfederat^ Ueterap. 

IO = 

lieutenant Colonel Parsley, commanding the 3d North Caro- 
lina, threw the regiment a few paces out of the road into 
; he woods for protection from the fire and changed front on 
irst company, facing the direction the fire came from, and 
dvanced his troops and took possession of a railroad cut 
nd track which passed under the bridge about the center of 
field two hundred yards wide at that point and one hundred 
'•ards from the woods where the Yanks were. Company G 
.nd the left company were ordered off to the left in a large 
ipen field to meet a force of cavalry coming down on our 
eft flank, which proved to be General Milroy and his staff 
naking their escape by another road — and succeeded. Seeing 
his, the two companies returned to the regiment, which was 
hen in the railroad cut, and we had to pass under the bridge 
.nd became engaged with the enemy just to the right of the 
iridge on which was this battery. While the troops were 
letting into position under fire over this field to the cut Gen. 
Uleghany Johnson, commanding the division out in the field, 
jnounted, with his walking cane in hand, exclaimed: 'Why in 
he hell don't you open that battery?' As ammunition and 
everything else was scarce in the Confederacy, I sat on the 
iank watching the Yanks in the woods and told the boys to 
hold their fire until they came out in the field, then give it 
o them heavy.' 

"This battle was known as Jordan's Spring. Though of 
hort duration, it was decidedly very active on both sides, 
tnd this regiment, as was its custom, was in the thickest of 
:he fray supporting the guns. In this battle George Rouse, 
if Company D, was killed, and Lieutenant Craig and others 
vere wounded. Our position being in the railroad cut, we 
vere in a great measure protected from the bullets. While 
5teuart's Brigade and the guns on the bridge fought the bat- 
le, a guard from the Stonewall Brigade was sent to Rich- 
nond with more than twenty-five hundred prisoners, who had 
hrown down their guns, and were highly commended for 
rallantry, which praise belonged to this brigade. 

Mr. Owens in his address says: 'After, being wounded I 

:alled to the corporal to put another man in my place at the 

runs and to get off the field. Fearing to be shot in the back, 

[ ran from tree to tree until I reached the road in the rear 

ust as the Stonewall Brigade came up in quick time, and I 

called to General Walker to get his men to the front in 

, louble-quick ; that the Yanks were pressing our left and 

vould take our guns. My appeal was ignored. General 

iValkcr saw that I was wounded and naturally thought I 

vas demoralized ; but vindication came when one of General 

'ohnson's aids came dashing down the road, and my request 

,vas made an order, etc' 

"Mr. Owens is mistaken as to the position of the troops 

{ind the danger of the guns being captured, for the 3d North 

j Carolina Infantry was in the cut supporting the guns. I could 

,;ee the Yanks dodging behind the trees, and they did not 

„ idvance much nearer than the edge of the woods, which was 

about one hundred yards from us into the field, for our boys 

loured the shot and shell into them heavy. The Stonewall 

^rigade was sent around to the right to head off the Yanks, 

. ;vho were trying to escape down the road, and about twenty- 

ive hundred of them threw down their guns. I believe Jones's 

3rigade was on the right of Steuart's Brigade. Lieut. John 

A. Morgan, of the 1st North Carolina Infantry, rendered 

■■ -aluable aid in handling the guns on the bridge when the 

[ runners were killed" or wounded. He was as brave and noble 

, i boy as ever drew sword, and his loss was greatly felt in 

lis regiment, the 1st North Carolina Infantry." 



I served with the 25th Virginia Cavalry, made up princi- 
pally in Lee and Scott Counties, Va. My company (B) was 
commanded by Capt. Pat Lanier, and the commander of 
Company D was Capt. Jim Lanier, his brother, now living 
in Missouri. We did a great deal of service in the Valley 
of Virginia east of Staunton with Early's Brigade, com- 
manded by General Lomax. We were in the raid into Alary- 
land and were then sent into the west part of the State to 
recruit and get up stragglers, as our command was scattered, 
and also guarded the route between North Carolina and East 
Tennessee, as many were leaving these parts for Kentucky 
to join the Federals. We got down as far as Bristol, Tenn. 

Preparations were then being made for the battle at Chicka- 
mauga, and they needed all the soldiers they could muster. 
We were ordered in that direction. Our horses were put in 
the cars and we on top to make the trip to Knoxville. We 
had a tedious trip. The railroad was bad and the cars old 
and worn, so repairs had to be made at nearly every station. 
But there were plenty of watermelons on the depot platforms, 
some of which found their way to us. We would eat the 
heart out and then throw the rinds at the few section hands 
along the road, who responded with rocks, which naturally 
fell on the rear cars after we had passed. We hadn't run 
very far till all the boys were crowded on the front cars. 

Arriving at Knoxville, we were unloaded and went south 
across the bridge on the Tennessee River, then went to Cleve- 
land and ran the Yankees out of there the day the big battle 
commenced at Chickamauga. Shortly after this General 
Wheeler organized his raid through Tennessee to cut off the 
Federal supplies, which they had to haul by wagon a good 
distance. We crossed the Tennessee River at Cotton Fort, 
east of Chattanooga. At McMinnville our regiment was in 
front, and we captured a regiment of infantry and a large 
quantity of supplies, as this was one of the Federal depots. 
Another part of the army turned to Sequatchie Valley, 
through which a large train of wagons was making for Chat- 
tanooga. It was told that five hundred wagons were captured 
and the contents destroyed. 

General Hodges commanded our brigade on this raid. Our 
next town was Shelbyville, but some of the army beat us to 
it and captured a big supply of provisions, then went through 
town and camped for the night. We had a considerable 
fight the next morning and held the enemy in check. Then 
we made for Murfreesboro, but did not take the town. There 
was too much infantry, and General Wheeler's object was to 
fight as little as possible. We tore up the railroad and burned 
crossties. Again on the move, we got back across the Ten- 
nessee River at Mussel Shoals, which we forded west of 
Chattanooga where it is said to be three miles wide, with two 
small islands. We reached a small place called White Plains, 
Ala., and stayed there a few days, then were ordered back to 
Virginia. We left Alabama by way of Georgia, South and 
North Carolina to Wytheville. Va., then went east of New 
River, where we were when Lee surrendered. Some of us 
wanted to leave and go to join Johnston's army, but we were 
overpersuaded by our officers and struck out for home, fear- 
ing if we surrendered there the Yankees would take our 
horses. We surrendered at Cumberland Gap and got our 
paroles. I have mine yet. 

I lived in Virginia till 1895, when I went to Corinth, Miss.; 
and was there twenty-two years, then removed to Texas. I 
should be glad to hear from any of my comrades. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 



Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 

"Blare of the strident trumpet, roll of drum ! 
The while we listen stirring visions come ; 
We see the glinting bayonet's cold flash 
And hear the armies meet in cosmic clash. 

Cased colors, muffled drums, the solemn dirge ! 
Across our souls the floods of sorrow surge ; 
We see as in a dream the battle dead — 
And God's stars smiling softly overhead !" 

Gex. J. Fuller Lyon, U. C. V. 

On Friday, November 5, 1920, there passed into the great 
beyond the soul of Gen. J. Fuller Lyon, who died as he had 
lived, a true soldier of Christ. He was born in Abbeville 
County, S. C, on April 1, 1842. 

Entering the Confederate service as a private in the 7th 
South Carolina Infantry, he was soon made corporal and 
was with this regiment in the battle of First Manassas. In 
1862, after a spell of typhoid fever, he was discharged, as 
his term of enlistment had expired. In the winter of 1862 
he enlisted in Com- 
pany H, of the 19th 
South Carolina In- 
fantry, was soon 
made first lieutenant, 
and was in all the 
battles of the Army 
of Tennessee from 
Murfreesboro to At- 
lanta, Ga., where he 
lost his left arm on 
July 28, 1864, after 
recovering a wounded 
comrade, his captain, 
who had fallen under 
fire. On the battle 
field at Chickamauga 
he was promoted for 
gallantry. At all 
times he rendered 
distinguished service 
and fought with 

In the dark days 
of Reconstruction in 
South Carolina he did his full part in wresting the control 
of his State from the hated scalawag, carpetbagger, and negro. 
In this work he showed the same firm spirit that he did in 
the front of the enemy in war. 

General Lyon was an active worker in the United Confed- 
erate Veterans, and at the time of his death was Adjutant 
General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Brigadier Gen- 


eral commanding the First Brigade of South Carolina D; 
vision, Commander of Camp Hampton, and Chairman of th 
Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' Home, Columbi; 
S. C. 

In the passing of this good and blessed man the Methodi'i 
Episcopal Church, South, has lost one of her most active lay 
men. He had a wonderfully strong character and lived a 
exemplary Christian life. He represented his Church in th; 
General Conference at Richmond, Va., and for thirty year 
he was Treasurer of the South Carolina Conference. Trul' 
he was full of good works. He was also an active and 
fluential Mason. 

No braver or nobler comrade was among us. All wh 
knew him mourn his departure. There is a vacant place ii 
the hearts of his many friends and his loved ones which wr 
never be filled. 

General Lyon is survived by his widow and two sons b 
his first marriage. His body was laid to rest in Metros 
Cemetery, at Abbeville, S. C. The entire city turned out t 
do honor to the memory of this good man. 

''In an army of knights led by a knight none could ther 

knightlier be; 
In an army of patriots led by a patriot none more patrioti 

than he ; 
In his own South the stainless soldier lies. 
He is not dead, for honor never dies." 

Green Anderson Cox. 

Green Anderson Cox, a soldier of the Army of 'Northen 
Virginia, died on the 18th of November, 1920, while visitinj 
his son in Scott County, Miss. 

Comrade Cox was a courageous and valiant soldier of tin 
Confederacy. He was born at Greensboro, Ala., on the 9tl 
of April, 1836, the son of Charles H. and Jane E. Cox. Tin 
family removed to Mississippi while he was very young, anc 
their home was near Brandon. He enlisted in April, 1861 
and became a member of the first company volunteering fron 
Brandon and Rankin County, organized by Capt. Joe Jayne 
and which soon became one of the units of the illustrious 
18th Mississippi, commanded by Col. Joe Jayne, of Barks 
dale's Brigade. He followed the fortunes of these com. 
mands through the battles of Seven Pines, Seven Days arounc 
Richmond, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Second Manassas 
Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, Knoxville, and tin 
Wilderness, where as Barksdale's Brigade with Longstreet'i 
Corps came up in double-quick and rushed on to save th< 
day he, being in the front rank, received a ball in his riglv 
knee, crushing the bones and disabling him for further activi 

Green Anderson Cox was a most genial and companionabk 
fellow soldier, and in peace, as in war, he was always happ) 
in doing what he could for the welfare of his fellow mar 
and his country. Five children survive him, four sons arc 
a daughter. There are also four brothers surviving him, twe 
in Texas and two in Mississippi, two of whom were mem- 
bers of the Army of Tennessee through the four years of 
eventful strife and surrendered with Gen. Joseph E. John- 

Green Anderson was the eldest of his father's children, and 
upon his father's death he assumed charge of the estate and 
became a planter and one of the leading merchants of Bran- 
don. He lived a long, useful, and upright life and left a 
name honored by his fellow men. He sleeps beside his wife 
in the Brandon Cemetery among many of his kindred and 

Confederate l/eterai?. 


Albert Stacey Caison. 

1 Albert Stacey Caison, son of the late Cannon and Henrierte 
;ssup Caison, was born in Fayetteville, N. C, on December 
,), 1842, and died in Russellville, Ark., on December 1, 1920. 
A short time before the beginning of the War between the 
tates the family moved to Lenoir, N. C, and from this place 
3th father and son entered the Confederate service. The 
ither joined the first company of volunteers from the county, 
le "Caldwell Rough and Ready Boys," afterwards Company 
, 22d Regiment of North Carolina Troops. The son became 
member of Company I, 26th Regiment of North Carolina 
roops, and shared the fortunes of that famous regiment 
itil he was wounded and captured on the third day of the 
tttle of Gettysburg. He was taken to Fort McHenry and 
ence to Fort Delaware, where for three months he suffered 
1 the horrors of filth and vermin, besides the continual 
lawings of hunger. On the 13th of October the Gettysburg 
isoners were transferred to Point Lookout. Here he re- 
ained for seventeen months, and to the hardships suffered 
Fort Delaware were added cold and nakedness, the only 
: [vantage being the luxury of bathing. He was paroled in 
arch, 1865, and was at home just one month when he was 
captured in his own yard by Stoneman's raiders as they 
ssed through Lenoir. Although a paroled prisoner, he was 
ken to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was again imprisoned 
r three months, he and a number of others refusing to take 
e oath of allegiance to the United States government until 
ey knew certainly that Kirby Smith was no ^longer holding 
: t in the Southwest. 

A short time after the close of the war he went West, as 

many young men did at that time, and located in Jefferson 

-ty, Mo., where he lived for many years, going finally to 

-■kansas to be with his son, from whose home he passed 


1 While in Missouri Mr. Caison married Miss Virginia Mar- 

1 ique, who, with his two sons, Dr. Albert Jessup Caison, of 

issellville, Ark., and Mr. Edward Martinique Caison. of 

1 isson, Colo., survive him. He is also survived by four 

'ters in North Carolina. He was a loving husband, father, 

d brother, a good citizen and a brave soldier. For many 

Urs he was a member of the Episcopal Church, faithiul in 

! endance on her services and sacraments, and was a mem- 

-• of the vestry of Grace Church, Jefferson City, while he 

ided there. 

"The golden evening brightest in the west ; 
Soon, soon to faithful warriors cometh rest ; 
Sweet is the calm of paradise the blest." 

Caleb P. Warren. 

Taleb P. Warren died at his home, in Abilene, Tex., on Jan- 
. • 17, 1921, at the age of eighty-two years. He enlisted in the 
;t company of cavalry organized in his home county in 
.kansas in the early spring of 1861. The company was in- 
-ded for Borland's Regiment, but never joined it. 
, Companies A, B, C, D, and E were detached and formed 
1st Battalion of Arkansas Cavalry, commanded by Maj. 

arles Pfifer. Corrjrade Warren and the writer belonged to 

mpany E, and I was adjutant of the battalion. We were 
- 1 sent to the Missouri border and were mustered into the 

lfederate service at Pitman's Ferry, in Arkansas, and were 
1 t into Kentucky. We spent the winter in Kentucky doing 

post duty for General Hindman's legion. Part of the time 
were with Morgan's men and part of it with Terry's 

(as Rangers. The battalion was in the Shiloh battle, after 

which I was discharged, commissioned a sta'ff officer, and sent 
to the Trans-Mississippi Department with Gen. Dandridge 
McRae. The battalion fought throughout the Georgia cam- 
paign, when Sherman was "marching through Georgia." 

Comrade Warren was a fine soldier, always ready to per- 
form any duty; not only a fine soldier, but a true type of the 
Southern gentleman. When the surrender came, there were 
only a few of the old company left, and Comrade Warren 
was one of them. He returned to Arkansas and did a mer- 
cantile business for several years and in the eighties moved 
to Abilene, Tex. 

Only four members of the old company are left, three be- 
sides myself, and I am in my eighty-seventh year. 

[C. J. Hanks, Neshoba, Tenn.] 

Alexander Coyner. 

[From memorial resolutions passed on January 22, 1921, at 
San Jose, Cal.] 

Into the great beyond has passed another of our dear old 
veterans, Mr. Alexander Coyner. And since it has pleased 
our dear Father to call home to higher and greater work this 
true soldier of the dear Southland, who was ever a kind and 
noble friend, a just and loyal citizen, and a loving and de- 
voted husband and father, be it resolved that in his passing 
his family have sustained an irreparable loss, that the Gen. 
John B. Gordon Chapter, U. D. C, has lost a true friend, and 
that the entire community is the poorer because of the loss of 
an honored and respected member. 

Mr. Coyner was borp on March 1, 1840, near Waynesboro, 
Va. He was one of the oldest of the thirteen children of 
Martin and Annie Coyner. He attained his majority in 1S61 
and, with his brother Charles (who passed away in 1912), en- 
listed in Company E, 1st Virginia Cavalry, commanded by 
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. He took part in every large battle of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, and on account of being a 
good soldier and well mounted he was often called upon to 
do scout duty and carry dispatches. At one time be served 
as courier for Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Although his posi- 
tion there was much safer and easier, he asked to be returned 
to his former company so as to be with his brother and com- 
rades. He never surrendered, being at home wounded when 
the war closed. 

In 1867 he came to California and settled near Pleyto, 
Monterey County, where he farmed for about forty years. 
He was married in 1881 to Mrs. Mary Stover Koiner, of 
Fishersville, Va. In 1913 he retired from active life, and 
after an extensive trip throughout the East, visiting his peo- 
ple and friends in Virginia, he made his home in San Jose, 

Mr. Coyner was possessed of an exceptionally peaceable 
disposition and was most patient during his several years of 
failing health. He is survived by three daughters, Erna M. 
Pinkerton, Rena C. Keesling, and Eva B. Morovanni, his wife 
having passed away in 1914. besides many relatives in the 
East, among them four sisters and three brothers. 

John H. Sneed. 

John H. Sneed died on November 3, 1920, a veteran known 
for his splendid war record, and no man ever left a better 
record of citizenship. He entered the service of the Con- 
federacy in October, 1862, at the age of nineteen, and served 
the rest of the war, always able to report for duty. He en- 
tered as a private and remained a private, being too bumble 
and modest to accept an office had it been ever so earnestly 
urged upon him. He served with Company C, 2d Tennessee 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

Cavalry, Barton's Regiment. He was with Forrest at Fort 
Pillow and remained with Forrest to the end. He was a de- 
vout Christian, a stanch believer in the Baptist faith. He 
loved the Confederacy and talked it to his last day. He was 
the last member of a large family and was never married. 
[E. D. Thomas.] 

Maj. John L. Branch. 

Maj. John L. Branch, who died at Cedartown, Ga., on 
August 1, 1920, was born on February 25, 1835. His long 
life had been a benediction to his kind. He was educated at 
Mercer University, and at the age of twenty-one was grad- 
uated from Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia. Dr. 
Meigs, of national reputation, declared him "prepared to 
practice medicine," and his skill in after years bore testimony 
to his efficiency in medicine and surgery. 

Volunteering as a soldier in Polk County, Ga., under Cap- 
tain Borders, of the 21st 
Georgia Infantry, he was 
soon promoted from third 
to second lieutenant. After 
being in Virginia for nine 
months, he resigned and 
joined the 1st Georgia 
Cavalry at Sparta, Tenn. 
After this he was made 
surgeon in the place of 
Dr. Witcher, who was 
killed in the desperate as- 
sault on the courthouse in 
Murfreesboro, and Dr. 
Branch himself was in- 
jured by a falling limb 
while a wagon train was 
being destroyed at Cass- 
ville, Ga., under orders of 
General Johnston. Re- 
covering, he joined his regiment near Peachtree Creek and 
helped to resist Sherman's advance. 

The 1st Georgia Cavalry was ordered to follow General 
Stoneman, who had been sent to release the Federal prisoners 
at Andersonville. A battle was fought at Sunshine Church 
with one hundred and eighty men of the 1st Georgia Cavalry 
and one hundred and twenty men of the 3d Georgia, the 
whole of Stoneman's command being captured. 

General Hood, now in command, ordered Wheeler to go 
through Tennessee and cut Sherman's lines of communication, 
but Dr. Branch was not able to go along. In January, 1865, 
he rejoined his regiment and went to Savannah and after- 
wards to Charleston to be examined by the army medical 
board, after which he was promoted to brigade surgeon of 
Carolina and Georgia regiments. This brigade was contin- 
ually attacking Sherman's flanks and showed its mettle, sur- 
rendering at last at Greeensboro, N. C. In all this conflict 
Dr. Branch was a true soldier, often under fire. He was of 
heroic mold, coming of a stock possessing the qualities of 
genuine manhood. 

As a citizen of Polk County, Ga., Dr. Branch was always 
prominent in its affairs. He had served as registrar and as 
chairman of the board of commissioners and represented the 
county in the legislature of 1890-91. 

While at college at Penfield, Ga., Dr. Branch joined the 
baptist Church, and he served as deacon in the Cedartown 
Church for sixty years. He was twice married. Two sons 
rnd a daughter survive him. 


Capt. Frank Gaiennie. 

Capt. Frank Gaiennie, a prominent Confederate veteran o 
St. Louis, Mo., died in that city on February 8 at the agi 
of eighty years. He was born in New Orleans, La., and wen 1 
to St. Louis in 1873. At one time he was President of th. 
Merchants' Exchange and had been a member of the organi 
zation for nearly fifty years. He was President and alsi 
manager of the St. Louis Exposition, and he also served a 
police commissioner during the administration of Governo 

The birthplace of Captain Gaiennie in New Orleans was a 
the corner of Gaiennie and Tchoupitoulas Streets, the forme 
having been named for his grandfather, who came to thi 
country from France in 1739 and was among the early Frencl 
residents of New Orleans. 

Enlisting as a private in the Confederate army at the be 
ginning of the War between the States, Comrade Gaienni 
served throughout the struggle, and at the close was a firs 
lieutenant in Company G, 3d Regiment of Louisiana Volun 
teers. He was in all the battles of the Trans-Mississippi De 
partment and was captured during the siege of Vicksburg. 

He was always prominent in celebrations of Confederat 
veterans. He was one of the incorporators of the Confeder 
ate Home at Higginsville, Mo., and served as Secretary o 
the Board of Managers. He was also one of the originator: 
of the Veiled Prophet organization. 

Captain Gaiennie and his wife celebrated their golden wed 
ding anniversary in February, 1920. He is survived by hi; 
wife and five of their seven children — two daughters am 
three sons. One of- his sons, Louis Rene Gaiennie, wa; 
awarded the Congressional medal of honor for his service: 
with the Marine Corps during the siege of Pekin. 

Thomas Jefferson Worthy. 

Thomas Jefferson Worthy passed away at his home, 
Alexander City, Ala., on November 13, 1919. He was bon 
at Chester, S. C, in 1839. The family removed to Talla 
poosa, County, Ala., when he was but a small child, and h 
resided in this county until his death. He was married i 
Miss Ellen Thompson on May 14, 1865. Seven children sur 
vive him, one having 

years to 

It was 

him many 
the eternal 

the lot of 

Worthy to 
reach a ripe old age. 
He lived long, he 
lived well ; he died in 
the hope of the gos- 
pel ; he rests well. 
He was a good citi- 
zen, a loyal patriot, 
and a brave soldier, 
ranking as captain of 
Company C, 6th Ala- 
bama Cavalry, in the 
War between the 
States. He fought in 
the battles of Look- 
out ■ Mountain and 
Atlanta, and for more 
than a hundred days the saddle was never off his horse ex 
cept to rearrange the blanket. He was a true man, simple ii 


Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


ass and deportment, dignified in bearing. The transparency 
his life and the genuineness of his character, together with 
.sincere friendliness and a keen appreciation, drew people to 
n ; hence the devotion of his neighbors and friends. As a 
sband and father he was the object of high esteem and of 
ider and profound affection, the unfailing tribute of his 
voted wife and children to his untiring fidelity and love. 
Thomas Worthy was a devoted member of the Alexander 
ty Baptist Church, an exemplary Christian, holding a warm 
ice in the hearts of his brethren. 


>3* %v '■' 

;i v ' 'it 



. : 

" 1 


Capt. J. K. Fisher. 
Capt. J. K. Fisher, a member of Sterling Price Camp, U. 

V., of Fresno, Cal., 

led in that city on Feb- 
iary 12, 1920, at the age 
eighty years. He was 
native of Tennessee and 
I listed in the Confeder- 
e army when twenty- 
te years of age. serving 

■ a captain in the regi- 
frent commanded by Col. 
. >hn H. Savage, the 16th 

ennessee Infantry. 
, Captain Fisher was a 
LDod citizen of his 
ilopted State, a kind and 
Tectionate husband, a 

lithful friend, and a 

iyal son of the South. 

!is wife survives him. 


Capt. James S. Hill. 
Capt. James S. Hill, veteran river man of St. Charles, Mo., 
id a veteran of the Confederacy, died in that city on Oc- 
ber 8, 1920, after a short illness. He was born in Carroll 
Dunty, Mo., on November 21, 1841. His parents went to that 
itate from Ohio in 1837, built a log hut, and engaged in farm- 
-g; but in 1857 the farm was traded for an interest in the 
eamboat Minnehaha, and at the age of sixteen James Hill 
:gan learning to be a pilot on this boat. When the War 
;tween the States came on, he answered the call of Governor 
tckson and enlisted in the Confederate army, serving under 
terling Price as a member of Brewster's company, C, 1st 
egiment of Cavalry, Col. Ben T. Reeves, of the 4th Division, 
immanded by General Slack. His father also volunteered 
I the age of fifty and became quartermaster of the same di- 

■ sion with the rank of colonel. He was captured at Black- 
later in 1861 and sent to Gratiot Prison, where he died in 
'muary, 1862. 

Captain Hill fought in the battles of Carthage, Wilson's 
reek, Lexington, Lone Jack, Pea Ridge, and Helena. He 
as taken prisoner in 1862 and paroled and again became a 
lot in 1863. He aided nine Confederate prisoners to escape 
•om his boat on its way to St. Louis by dressing them in 
vilian clothes and landing them by night. 
After the war Captain Hill continued his work as pilot on 
le Missouri River until 1884, then was a watchman for the 
/abash Railroad on the St. Charles bridge until 1916. 
He was married in 1862 to Miss Lucretia Baker, daughter 
E Capt. Barton Baker. Three sons and a daughter survive 

Reuben A. Clatterbuck. ' 

The following is taken from the memorial tribute of the 
committee appointed by Camp A. P. Hill, No. 2, U. C. V., of 
Hume, Fauquier County, Va. : 

"Comrade Reuben A. Clatterbuck. a member of this Camp 
in good standing, was the victim of an automobile accident 
near Culpeper last September and died at the hospital in 
Charlottesville. He enlisted on March 2, 1862, in Company 
B, 13th Virginia Infantry, and served with this command until 
the surrender at Appomattox. He was with Jackson in the 
Valley campaign and in all the battles of the Army of North- 
ern Virginia except Cedar Mountain, having been wounded at 
Gaines's Mill. He rejoined his command at Second Manassas. 

"Within a week of his death he was to have become a mem- 
ber of the Salem Baptist Church, in this county. Through 
his honest dealings with all men and his trust in God he won 
his reward in the hereafter, and his pension will be continued 
in blessings evermore in heaven. 'The brightest gem in a 
nation's coronet is the ashes of its heroic dead.' Every Con- 
federate veteran who honestly wore the gray, as did he, and 
passes life to death adds a priceless gem to the Southland's 

[J. M. Beckham and W. D. Colvin.] 

William Henry Mims. 

In the death of William H. Mims on the 6th of December, 
1920, one of the most highly respected and valuable citizens 
of Laredo, Tex., has been lost to that community, of which 
he had been a resident for thirty-one years. 

Comrade Mims was a native of Tippah County. Miss., 
where he was born December 18, 1840. He was reared and 
educated in Columbus, Ga., and when the war came on in 

1861 he went out as a 
member of the City 
Light Guards of Colum- 
bus, which later became 
Company A, 2d Inde- 
pendent Battalion of In- 
fantry, of Wright's Bri- 
gade. Anderson's Di- 
vision, A. P. Hill's 
corps, and participated 
in many of the big bat- 
tles of the war. He re- 
mained to the end, sur- 
rendering with General 
Lee at Appomattox. 

Returning home, he 
became one of those 
who gave the best that 
was in them to building 
up their ruined country. 
He was married in 
Uniontown, Ala., to 
Miss Annie Royle, and his wife survives with two sons. 

Comrade Mims was a member of the Knights Templar, 
Masons, and Elks, in all of which orders he held offices of 
the highest trust. He retired from business some six years 
ago on account of failing health, known always for his in- 
tegrity and fair dealing and with countless friends. He was 
also a member of the Methodist Church. The funeral was 
conducted by the Masonic Lodge, and he was laid to rest in 
the Masonic plot in the City Cemetery. 

W. H. MIMS. 


Qoi>federat^ l/efcerap. 

Capt. James R. Rogers. 

In the flight of time and lest we forget the ties of com- 
radeship that bind us together as with cords of steel, I will 
recite briefly the history of one whose life was so charmingly 
endeared to his fellow citizens of to-day and comrades of the 
dark and perilous hours of the past — Capt. James R. Rogers, 
a man of impress, of lofty mien, and knightly bearing, a 
splendid specimen of Kentucky manhood and chivalry. He 
was born on December 13, 1840. and died December 31, 1920, 
at his old home, Glenwood, where he was born and lived 
his life. 

This dear friend and comrade was buried in his Confed- 
erate uniform, at his request, in the Paris Cemetery besida 
his noble father and sainted mother (whom he always spoke 
of as "my mammy" ) near by and close to the foot of the Con- 
federate monument, he so dearly loved and beneath the 
shadows of which he had helped to lay a number of his old 
comrades, often officiating at these sad ceremonies. This was 
the place he preferred of all others as his last resting place. 

Captain Rogers was a graduate of Bethany College and 
was known as Bourbon County's historian, author of "The. 
Caneridge Meetinghouse," a Christian gentleman, a true and 
noble friend, a splendid specimen of the Kentucky nobleman 
of the past. His home. Glenwood, was a Mecca for the Con- 
federate soldiers and the members of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, in which he had held many prominent positions and 
by whom he was buried. He enlisted in the Confederate 
army in October, 1861, as a private and was promoted to 
lieutenant and adjutant of the 3d Battalion of Kentucky Cav- 
alry, Col. E. F. Clay. He served under Generals Preston, 
Marshall, and Morgan, and surrendered at Mount Sterling, 
Ky., on May 30, 1865. He was Commander of the First Bri- 
gade of Confederate Veterans, Kentucky Division, U. C. V., 
and a member of John Morgan Camp, No. 95, of Paris, Ky. 

Thus has passed another of the heroes of the sixties. Alas, 
how few are left ! 

[His friend and comrade, L. D. Young.] 

Lovd Cecil. 

[From resolutions passed by Leonidas Polk Bivouac and 
William H. Trousdale Camp, U. C. V., of Columbia, Tenn.] 

Comrade Loyd Cecil was born at Muncie, Ind., on August 
24, 1833, and died at Cross Bridges, in Maury County, Tenn., 
on November 1, 1920. His parents had removed to that county 
in Tennessee when he was six years old. 

Though of frail constitution, he enlisted for the South 
in 1861, joining Company E, 1st Tennessee Cavalry, with 
which he remained during the war. He held the responsible 
and exacting position of forage master, which he tilled satis- 
factorily. While not required to line up with his company. 
yet if present when his company was engaged he grabbed his 
gun and kept in the front rank of the foremost. In the bat- 
tle of Franklin his horse was shot from under him, and he 
was captured and taken to prison. Nothing was heard from 
him for three months, and he was mourned as lost in the 
battle. But he was exchanged at last and returned home to 
get him a horse and some clothing. His father's home was in 
the Federal lines, but he got there in safety, and, with sup- 
plies for his comrades, he safely returned to his command 
and was paroled with his company and regiment at Charlotte. 
N. C, on May 3, 1865. With the energy that always charac- 
terized his actions, he went back to the farm, and by his ef- 
forts won success. 

Comrade Cecil was a charitable citizen and dispensed his 

benefactions in an unostentatious way. Many worthy girl 
were helped to get an education through his kindly help. A 
a Church member he shone as a guiding star, being a meir 
ber of the Methodist Church at Cross Bridges, which he ha 
helped to build and maintain, and he was laid to rest in it 
cemetery. Confederate comrades, members of the Bivoua 
and Camp, were the honorary pallbearers. 

In 1868 Comrade Cecil was married to Miss Jennie Portei 
of Maury County, and of their five children a son and 
daughter survive him. He died as he had lived, a Christia 

[Committee: J. L. Jones and B. G. Walker.] 

T. J. Brown. 

T. J. Brown was born in Blount County, Ala., on Februar 
3, 1842, and died at Jonesboro, La., on January 15, 1921. Hi 
father removed to Louisiana when T. J. Brown was quit 
young, and when the war broke out between the States hi 
enlisted from that State. He went to Virginia in 1862 ant 
served with honor until the close, taking part in a number o 
battles. He was wounded once. 

After the war he returned to his native State and then 
married Miss Sarah Lowery, who survives him with a so 
and daughter. 

Comrade Brown lived an honorable Christian life. Hi 
joined the Baptist Church when young and lived by its pre- 

[J. T. McBride, Sr.] 

Samuel R. Clark. 

After a long illness, Samuel Reuben Clark died at his homej 
in Hephzibah, Ga., on December 9, 1920, at the age of seventy] 
six years. He was one of the most highly respected and best I 
beloved citizens of Richmond County and one of that gaf-l 
lant band of heroes of the sixties. He entered the Confed-I 
erate arm}- in April, 1862, and served in the 12th Georgisj 

Battalion under Capt] 
George Hood (Henn 
Capers, lieutenant colo- 
nel), of Evans's Bri- 
gade, Gordon's Division 
Early's Corps. He lost 
a leg at Monocacyl 
Junction, July 12, 1864, 
and was in the hospital 
at Fredericksburg six] 
weeks, then in the Bal- 
timore hospital for fourj 
weeks. On the field of) 
battle he was a soldier 
and in civil life he wasj 
always found champion- j 
ing the right as he saw I 
it. and he passed away 
bearing a name and rep-l 
utation for the highest 
honesty and integrity 
among his fellow men. 
He is survived by three sons and two daughters, a sister, 1 
and eleven grandchildren. 

Comrade Clark was a member of Camp 435, U. C. V. ! • 
was laid to rest in the Brothersville Cemetery. 

s. R. CLARK. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


Dr. R. T. Minor. 

)r. R. T. Minor, son of William W. and Mary W. Minor. 
, ; born at Gale Hill, the family home, near Charlottesville, 
\ . on January 16, 1844. and died at his home, in Lesterville, 
I ., on February 11, 1921. He attended private schools in 
/ iemarle County, Va., till February, 1861, when he volun- 
I -ed as a private in Company H, 57th Virginia Infantry, 
i nistead's Brigade, Pickett's Division. Army of Northern 
* ginia, and participated in the Seven Days' Battles around 
I hmond. He was transferred in July, 1862, to Company K. 
: Virginia Cavalry, Wickham's Brigade. Fitz Lee's division, 
[ I he bore his part most gallantly in all the actions and 
I i-ice in which his command was engaged until the end of 
: war. 

ieturning home, he entered the University of Virginia as 
ijtudent of medicine in October, 1865, completing the course 
;. 1 receiving his degree of M.D. in June, 1867. After work- 

I a few years on his father's farm, he began the practice 
: his profession near Charleston, W. Va., but soon removed 
! Missouri, where he spent the rest of his life in the active 
' ctice of medicine for a few years at Annapolis, Iron 
'. unty, and for over thirty years at Lesterville, Reynolds 
; unty. In 1915 he was most happily married to Miss Floy 
I'ine, of Lesterville, and continued his residence and practice 
: re till incapacitated by ill health. 

fjr. Minor was a man of fine natural ability and gifted with 
i : .nost genial and attractive personality, which made him 
i.ny warm friends in his wide circle of acquaintances. Al- 
j ys ready to respond to the call of the poor and needy with- 
h. regard to remuneration, he died a poor man, but univer- 
ly loved and respected as a skilled physician, most loyal 

II faithful friend, and upright Christian gentleman. He is 
vived by his beloved wife, three brothers, and three sisters. 

"W. W. Minor, Charlottesville, Va.] 

-„ Members of Camp John M. Brady. 

-The following losses in the membership of Camp John M. 
fady, No. 352, U. C. V.. at Louisville, Miss., have been re- 
nted by Adjutant J. Pink Cagle : John F. Hopkins, Com- 
: iy I, 35th Georgia Regiment; Jack Stark, Company D. 
rrine's Regiment of Cavalry; Maj. O. C. Watson, 35th Mis- 
ppi; W. F. Bell, Mabry's Brigade of Cavalry; Robert 
mpton, Company G, 20th Mississippi; J. B. Hanna, Com- 
'iy D, Perrine's Regiment of Cavalry ; H. L. W. Hathon, 
'h Mississippi; W. H. Richardson, 14th Mississippi; R. L. 
! ?bb, 5th Mississippi. 

Members of Camp Lomax, Montgomery, Ala. 

;.'omrade George W. Hails reports the list of deaths in 
.mp Lomax during 1920, as follows : F. H. Merritt, Com- 
ly G, 3d Kentucky Cavalry ; Albert Taylor, Company B, 

Alabama Cavalry; Benjamin Trice, Company I, 3d Ala- 
na Regiment; James N. Gilmer, adjutant 60th Alabama 
giment ; C. C. Baker, Company F, 60th Alabama Regiment ; 

M. Penn, Company C, 3d Alabama Regiment ; D. P. 
Tin, Company K, 2d Alabama Cavalry; A. P. Wilson, Com- 
ly K, 2d Alabama Cavalry. 

Robert M. Wixx. 
Robert M. Winn, a Confederate veteran of Hugo, Okla., 
d there on January 22, 1921, at the age of seventy-four 
irs. He was born near Batesville, Ark., and enlisted in the 
nfederate army at the age of seventeen, fighting under 
elby. After the war he lived for many years in Johnson 
unty, Ark. In 1906 he removed to Muskogee, Okla., where 


he lived for three years, and later to Kansas City, Mo. Re- 
turning to Oklahoma, he had lived at Hugo since 1914. He is 
survived by his wife, two sons, and five daughters. 

His comrades, members of the Tige Cabell Camp, U. C. V.. 
of Hugo, were honorary pallbearers at the burial. 

James A. Fishburn. 

W. H. Tinsley, of Salem, Va., reports the death of James 
A. Fishburn at his home, in Roanoke, Va., on the 2d of Jan- 
uary, 1921, at the age of eighty-one years. Although a Vir- 
ginian, he was living in Texas when the war came on and 
joined Company F, of the 4th Texas Regiment, Hood's Bri- 
gade, and surrendered with his command at Appomattox. 

Comrade Fishburn was always loyal to the principles for 
which he had fought. He is survived by six children, who 
are a credit to their rearing. 

Comrades at Paris, Texx. — In the list of deaths at Paris, 
Tenn., page 68 of the February Veteran, the service of A. 
C. Trousdale should have been given as with Company A, 
5th Tennessee Infantry, and that of W. A. Hill 'was with 
Company D. 19th Mississippi Regiment. 


Some months ago W. M. Everhart, of Waterford, Va., sent 
three years' renewal of subscription and wrote ; "My mother 
'crossed over' on the 6th of June, 1915. Then my father kept 
the paper coming in her name until he, too, went to join his 
comrades 'across the river.' He died June 25, 1918. My 
father, G. F. Everhart, joined the 35th Battalion of Virginia 
Cavalry, commanded by Col. E. V. White, on January 3, 
1862, and served with that command until Appomattox. He 
was the last orderly sergeant of his company, A, 35th Bat- 
talion of Virginia Cavalry. He was twice wounded, severely 
in the battle of the Wilderness and slightly at High Bridge 
just before the surrender. He was a prisoner in Fort Dela- 
ware for three months. After the war he went to work and 
succeeded in laying by quite a competence. He attended all 
the Reunions up to and including the one at Birmingham, 
Ala., and greatly enjoyed them all. He loved to talk of the 
days of the sixties. I had the good fortune to accompany 
him to most of these places, and I, too, look back with pleas- 
ure to those trips. I have yet to be sorry that I am the son 
of a Confederate soldier. Father was a consistent member 
of the Baptist Church for over twenty-five years. My 
mother's only brother was Capt. F. M. Myers, commanding 
Company A, 35th Virginia Battalion. So you see I am South- 
ern all through." 

In sending order for subscription J. B. Webster writes 
from Marlin, Wash. : "As I was but eleven when the War 
between the States began, I was not a soldier; but my five 
brothers were in the Confederate army, and my heart is with 
that first Belgium. Four of my brothers — Corydon J., Thomas 
F., James S., and Andrew — were transferred to the ordnance 
department and located at Tyler, Tex., where they remained 
till the close of the war; the other, J. M. Webster, was with 
the Missouri Volunteers. Taps was sounded for all of them 
except James S., who now lives in Texas, and whom I have 
never seen since that day in March, 1862, when he rode away 
to join Price at Cross Hollows, sixteen miles north of 
where we lived. * * * On my last visit to the South I 
attended the fifth Reunion of the Confederate Veterans at 
Houston, Tex., and I surely did enjoy every minute of it." 


Qopfederat^ l/efcerai). 

"Qniteb ^Daughters of tbe Confederacy 

"^ow 9/faJires V//emory Stoma/ " 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General 
Paducah, Ky. 

Mrs, Alice Baxter, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. BenN£TT D. Bell, Nashville, Tcnn Second Vice President General 

M rs. R. P. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newherrv, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Mrs. \V. E. R. Byrnes, Charleston, YV. Va Cor, Secretary General 

Mrs. Amos Nor r is, Tampa, Fla Treasurer Gene 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian Gene 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar Gent 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Cros 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Penna 

[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: The next 
three months mark the best time for constructive work during 
the year, since June 1 brings summer inactivity, followed by 
the rush of convention preparation, which leaves but few 
working days to tbe applied to the objects to which we are 
pledged. With proper cooperation it will be possible to finish 
three tasks by June 1, an accomplishment that will open new 
avenues of service following the St. Louis convention. This 
is greatly to be desired, and my appeal is to the individual 
Daughter to assume a personal responsibility, for the in- 
dividual obligation is the strongest force upon which we 
have to depend. With this definite purpose it will be possible 
to push to completion the Hero Fund, the book, "Southern 
Women in War Times," and the Jefferson Davis monument 
at his birthplace in Kentucky. 

Mrs. Joseph T. Beal, Treasurer of the Hero Fund, has 
issued a statement, and from it may be seen that only a few 
Divisions have attained the honor roll. The individual Chap- 
ter can accomplish this for the Division, as illustrated by the 
cases of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Maryland's 
quota is $920, and Baltimore Chapter has given $1,405; the 
District of Columbia's quota of $920 is overpaid to the amount 
of $504.08 because of a generous gift of $909.33 from the 
Robert E. Lee Chapter of the Division ; and Philadelphia 
Chapter of 135 members, with a quota of $153.22, has paid 
$1,549.29. Illinois. Massachusetts. Ohio. Oklahoma, and 
Washington have also overpaid the quota, and South Caro- 
lina, West Virginia, and New York have paid in full. Care- 
fully review this report which follows : 

Alabama Division : Members, 2,600 ; quota, $2,990 ; paid. 
$1,619.63; balance due. $1,370.37. 

Arkansas Division : Members, 2,000 ; quota, $2,300 ; paid. 
$1,345.50; balance due, $954.50. 

Arizona Division ; Members, 25 ; quota, $28.75 ; paid, $4 ; 
balance due, $24.75. 

California Division: Members, 1,500: quota, $1,725; paid. 
$764.05 ; balance due, $960.95. 

Colorado Division: Members. 200; quota, $230; paid. $71.80; 
balance due, $158.20. 

District of Columbia Division : Members, 800 ; quota, $920 ; 
paid. $1,424.08. 

Florida Division : Members. 2,000 ; quota, $2,300 ; paid. 
$797.08; balance due, $1,502.92. 

Georgia Division : Members, 5.000 ; quota, $5,750 ; paid, $2,- 
911.31; balance due. $2,838.69. 

Illinois Division: Members, 120; quota, $138; paid, $175.12. 

Indiana Division: Members, 50; quota, $57.50; paid, $5; 
balance due, $52.50. 

Kansas Division: Members, 20; quota, $23; paid, nothing; 
balance due, $23. 

Kentucky Division: Members. 2.000: quota, $2,300; pa 
$503.87; balance due, $1,796.13. 

Louisiana Division: Members, 1,500; quota, $1,725; pa 
$775.63; balance due, $949.37. 

Maryland Division: Members. 800; quota. $920; paid, S 

Massachusetts Division: Members, 45; quota, $51.75; pa 

Minnesota Division: Members. 36; quota, $41.40; paid. $1 
balance due. $29.40. 

Mississippi Division: Members, 1,000; quota, $1,150; pa 
S282.20; balance due. $867.80. 

Missouri Division: Members, 2,500; quota, $2,875; pa 
$1,342.75; balance due. $1,532.25. 

New Mexico Division, paid $16. 

New York Division : Members, 500 ; quota, $575 ; paid, $5 

North Carolina Division : Members, 4,000 ; quota, $4,6C 
paid, $1,662.34; balance due, $2,937.66. 

Ohio Division: Members, 200; quota, $230; paid, $710.03 

Oklahoma Division: Members, 600; quota, $690; paid, $7'. 

Oregon Division: Members, 50; quota, $57.50; paid, 5 
balance due, $55.50. 

Philadelphia Chapter: Members, 135; quota, $153.22; pa 

Pittsburgh Chapter: Members. 40; quota, $46; paid. $29.1 
balance due. $16.85. 

South Carolina Division : Members. 4.000 ; quota, $4,60 
paid, $4,600. 

Tennessee Division : Members, 2,500 ; quota, $2,875 ; pa 
$152.60; balance due, $2,722.40. 

Texas Division : Members, 2.500 ; quota. $2 S75 ; paid, a 
023.83; balance due. $851.17. 

Utah Division: Members, 15; quota, $17.25; paid, nothin, 
balance due. $17.25. 

Virginia Division : Members, 6,400 : quota, $7,360 ; pai 
$1,109.81 ; balance due, $6,250.19. 

Washington Division: Members, 88; quota. $101.20; pai| 

West Virginia Division: Members. 1.200; quota, $1,33' 
paid, $1,380. 

Will not every interested member give some assistance 
this effort to finish our memorial? Liberty bonds are a 
cepted at par for this fund, which gives an advantage to t! 
Chapters during this time when they can be bought at tl 
low price. 

The Book. — Mrs. Eugene B. Glenn, 41 Starnes Avenu 
Asheville, N. C, is Chairman of the Committee on Public! 
and Distribution of "Southern Women in War Times." SI 
will send to each Division President and Director a plan ( 
work, and I earnestly urge you to support the enthusia-t 
efforts of this committee to finish our obligation. For wu 

Qogfederat^ l/eterai). 

i '3 

■ ler achievement can we hope than that of "establishing 
^ar understanding of what our fathers and mothers rep- 
lted in those years of strife"? This book affords us the 
irtunity ; we cannot wisely let it slip through our fingers. 
le Monument. — I am informed that a generous Southerner 
made provision for the last $2,000 necessary for the coin- 
on of the monument to Jefferson Davis at his birthplace 

•Kentucky, provided the residue of the required funds is 

5 red in a given number of months. The pledge made by 

' U. D. C. is twenty-five cents per capita, and the one 
e by the veterans at Houston, that each Camp there rep- 
lted would collect and send $25 from their home county, 
complete the amount and insure the payment of the 
)0. Can we afford to let such an opportunity pass? 
ake these three enterprises, quivering on the verge of 
jletion, your first consideration during March. April, and 
. If we do our best, the way is easy. 

te Maury Monument. — The Asheville convention indorsed 
Maury Monument Association's plan to build a monu- 
: in Richmond, Va., to honor the memory of Matthew 

! aine Maury. The U. D. C. pledged its support to the 
;ure and decided that the work should be conducted after 
manner of the Shiloh and Arlington monuments. This 
ssitates each Division President selecting a Director whose 

';• should be sent to the President General for appoint- 
Up to this time only two Division Presidents have 

1 titted names. Mrs. C. Felix Harvey will be the North 
ilina Director, and Miss Agnes Person, of Orlando, Fla., 
serve Florida. The committee representing the U. D. C. 

Trs. Frank Anthony Walke. Norfolk. Va., Chairman; 

•! J. B. Doan, Cincinnati, Ohio ; and Mrs. Henry London, 
.boro, N. C. 
crology. — On December 2 our organization lost a faithful 

["ber when Mrs. Virginia Sanders Scales died at her home 
tarkville, Miss. Mrs. Scales was a member of the Com- 
le on the Jefferson Davis National Highway, and her 

'; on this committee will be carried forward by her 
in. Miss Louise Sanders. 

poking forward to the report of work well done during 
text three months, and with the hope it will measure up 
te standard of our possibilities, cordially. 

May M. Faris McKixxev. 

If any Division has a better plan than this, please send 
\\ in, for we are anxious to place before the U. D. C. the 
best possible way of preserving and making available our 
historical material. 

U. D. C. NOTES. 

e are sorry that the Historians did not respond to the in- 

ion to publish their plans for preserving and using the 

'rical papers collected by the Chapters and Divisions. It 

s very important that this material should be accessible 

le public. 

le following is the plan adopted bp the South Carolina 

*ion at the convention last December: 

o purchase a bookcase large enough to accommodate all 

.s and historical papers owned by the Division and place 

, the library of the South Carolina University. (When the 
rian there learned that the case was to be the depository 
iriginal historical papers, he was enthusiastic, nothing 
'o have the most valuable papers, those containing original 

. 'rial, typed and placed in ring binders of uniform size 

i put in the bookcase, where all persons seeking for light 
he Confederate period may have easy access to what has 

, gathered. 

E o compile a Division scrapbook every year, and these 
able books to find a home in the same place." 


Alabama. — The Electra Semmes Colston Chapter, of Mobile, 
had the pleasure of entertaining the Confederate veterans and 
members of the G. A. R. Post at a beautiful entertainment 
at the Cawthorn Hotel on January 19. in celebration of the 
birthday of Gen. Robert E. Lee. Every number of the pro- 
gram, especially the sweet music, was enjoyed by the large 
crowd present. At the conclusion of the program delicious 
refreshments were served by the Daughters. 

The William Henry Forney Chapter held most appropriate 
exercises on Lee Day with the magnetic orator. Dr. Frank 
Willis Barnett, as chief speaker. Mrs. Joseph Aderhold, 
Chapter President, welcomed the student body and told why 
the Chapter celebrates the 19th of January, paying tribute to 
General Lee and Stonewall Jackson on the same date'. "Bon- 
nie Blue Flag," "Love's Old Sweet Song." and "We Love 
You Still in Dixie" were much enjoyed. Memorial hour was 
conducted in a beautiful manner by Mrs. L. S. Anderson, 
widow of Gen. "Tige" Anderson, whose memory is revered 
by the veterans. The luncheon table was bright with brilliant- 
hued nasturtiums and loaded with good things to eat. Many 
bright toasts were given. Many students, Daughters, and 
veterans from Anniston, Jacksonville, and Oxford enjoyed the 
happy occasion. 

The United Daughters of the Confederacy of Birmingham 
and suburbs joined in celebrating Robert E. Lee's birthday, 
in which all veterans were invited to participate, using the 
comfortable rooms of the Boys' Club, where Camp Hardee 
holds its meetings. Judge J. T. Garretson, of Camp Hardee, 
was chairman and carried out a very pleasing program. 
Owing to the sudden death of Mr. George Chambers, who 
had been appointed program chairman of this gathering, the 
program had to be changed, and a feeling of sadness at the 
going away of this popular veteran pervaded the exercises. 
As the speaker of the day was absent. Judge Garretson called 
on some present for impromptu talks. Dr. O. T. Dozier made 
a thrilling and interesting talk on Dan Emmett and "Dixie." 
which was followed by the singing of "Dixie" with much 
feeling. Mr. William E. Yancey gave a eulogy of General 
Lee, after which were sungnhe dear old Confederate songs 
that never fail to thrill and inspire in these days as they did 
in the sixties. A most interesting article on the mother of 
General Lee was read by Mr. Joseph A. Jones, after which 
the meeting was turned over to the Daughters, who served 
the delicious refreshments furnished by the Wilcox Chapter. 

North Carolina. — This Division has been very active since 
the conventions in the fall. November is the month espe- 
cially selected for donations of canned goods, jellies, pre- 
serves, etc.. for the Confederate Woman's Home at Fayette- 
ville and the Veterans' Home at Raleigh ; so the Chapters 
were busy collecting and packing boxes to be sent. The su- 
perintendents report the contributions as most generous. The 
members of the two Homes were well remembered at Christ- 
mas, many gifts being sent individually, besides the contribu- 
tions of fruit, candy, and other good things that add to the 
joy of the Yuletide season. The Children's Chapters in the 
respective towns in which the Homes are located played Santa 
Claus, having a Christmas tree beautifully decorated and giv- 
ing pleasing Christmas programs. 


Qoofederat^ l/eterai). 

The 19th of January was universally observed in the State, 
the day being a legal holiday. Many and varied were the meet- 
ings held and entertainments given by the Chapters in observ- 
ance of the anniversary of the births of the world's greatest 
warriors and the South's greatest generals, Lee and Jackson. 
On Sunday preceding the 19th in the churches throughout 
the State the favorite hymns of these two honored generals 
were sung. 

The Johnson-Pettigrew Chapter held a meeting to honor 
the memory of Generals Lee and Jackson in the House of 
Representatives, with Senator W. H. S. Burgwyn as orator. 
The presentation of crosses of honor to Confederate veterans 
by Col. F. A. Olds and the presentation of a wreath by the 
senior class of St. Mary's featured the exercises. This wreath 
was presented as a memorial to General Lee on account of 
the close connection between St. Mary's and the Lee family, 
as Mildred Lee was partly educated there. Also during the 
war Jefferson Davis and his family refugeed there. It was 
stated that the St. Mary's girls stood as a body for increased 
pensions and appropriations for the Home. The wreath will 
be sent immediately to Lexington to be placed on the grave 
of General Lee. A Confederate flag, to be hung in the chapel 
at the Confederate Home, was presented by Miss Sarah Den- 
son. The money with which the flag was bought was won 
by Miss Denson as first prize for the best cover design for 
a number of Everywoman's Magazine. This cover repre- 
sented a photograph of Miss Denson dressed in an old-fash- 
ioned gown of the sixties, holding a doll which had come 
through a blockade in the war, and with a Confederate flag 
which had flown at Harper's Ferry and in other hard-fought 
engagements as a background. This picture was reproduced in 
colors and shown at the Confederate Reunion held in Wash- 
ington in 1917. Miss Denson is the granddaughter of Gen. 
William Saunders, who was on Gen. Wade Hampton's staff 
and commanded Manly's Battery, and she is the great-grand- 
daughter of the Judge Romulus Saunders who was Minister 
to Spain under Polk. The flag was accepted by Mrs. Henry 
London, President of the Johnson-Pettigrew Chapter, who 
said it would mean more to the veterans than any other flag 
at the Home, as it represented the love and the visits of the 
children of Manly's Battery which had brightened their lives. 
She invited the members of the legislature to visit the Home 
and to see its condition and its needs. The music was ren- 
dered by the orchestra of the State School for the Blind. 
Comrade Wiley Johnson gave a fife solo, and the Adrian 
Quartet sang "Tenting To-Night" and "Suwanec River." 
"Dixie" was sung by a chorus. 

The memorial services in honor of General Lee and General 
Jackson under the auspices of the J. E. B. Stuart Chapter of 
Fayetteville were unusually fine and attracted a large and 
appreciative audienoe, the exercises being held at the Meth- 
odist church. The sweet and inspiring music was furnished 
by the fine band of the 21st Regiment of Field Artillery of 
Camp Bragg. A pleasing prelude to the memorial exercises 
was a concert by the band on the church lawn. Attorney J. 
Bayard Clark in his address left the beaten tracks of such 
addresses. He took Lee and Jackson as the exponents of the 
Old South and of the men and women who made it and 
wove into his address a lesson for old and young. He did 
not give any of the details of the careers of these two South- 
ern heroes, but simply dwelt on their noble characters and 
shining virtues and portrayed them as the true exponents of 
all that is best and noblest in life. He made striking ref- 
erence to the pessimism expressed to-day over the season of 
(Continued on page 116.) 

iftatortral Bqrartmnit 1L 1. © 

Motto : "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate history." 
Key word : "Preparedness." Flower : The Rose. 



The Mildred Rutherford Medal. For best histori 

work by small Divisions numbering less than ten Chapters 

2. The Raines Banner. To the Division making the larg 
collection of papers and historical records. 

3. Rose Loving Cup. — For the best essay written by 
Daughter of the Confederacy on "Raphael Semmes." 

4. Anna Robinson Andrews Medal. For the best essay wt 
ten by a Daughter of the Confederacy on "The Women 
the Confederacy." 

5. A Soldier's Prize, $20. For the best essay written by 
Daughter of the Confederacy on "Southern-Born Divisi 
Commanders in the World War, Who They Were and Wl 
They Did." 

6. Roberts Medal. To the second best essay submitted 
the entire contest. 

7. Youree Prise, $50. Divided equally between the Divisi 
Directors sending the largest list of descendants of Conf> 
erate veterans and the largest per capita list of descendai 
of Confederate veterans in the service of our country in 1 
World War. 

8. Hyde Medal. For the best essay written by a Dau; 
of the Confederacy on the subject "The Confederate Navy 

9. Orren Randolph Smith Medal. Given by Miss Jessica 
Smith for the best essay on Jefferson Davis. 






Rules Governing Contest. 

must not contain over two thousand wor 
words must be stated in top left-hand corner 

1. Essays 
Number of 
first page. 

2. Essays must be typewritten, with fictitious signatu 
Real name, Chapter, and address must be in sealed envelo 
on outside of which is the fictitious name only. 

3. Essays must be sent to State Historian, who will I 
ward to Historian General by September 1, 1921. 

Two essays on each subject may be submitted, but not m< 
than two on any one subject from each Division. 

Time limit will be strictly enforced. State Historians 
please take notice that no essay received after September 
will be admitted to the contest. No report received aft 
October 1 will be admitted to contest for the Raines Banne 



Study the historic associations of this charming city a 
the interesting events which have occurred there. This c 
be either a discussion, a talk, or a paper. 


Hero Year. 

Joseph E. Johnston, the able strategist. Tell of his cai 
paigns and note the skill which he showed in Tennessee a 
Georgia as well as in Virginia. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

I i: 

onfeberateb Southern 

A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

, C. B. Bryan First Vice President General ;>> 

Memphis, Term. tft^ 

Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General .tV 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

.John E. Maxwell Treasurer General 

Seale, Ala. 
Daisy M. L. Hodgson .... ^co^h^ Secretary General 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. cSS?// 

I Mary A. Hall Historian General 

1 137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga. 

. Bryan W. Collier., Corresponding Secretary General 

College Park, Ga. 

.Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 


Memorial Women: That the deep-rooted traditions and 
iotic devotion of our mothers have not passed with their 
g is constantly being evidenced by some new evolution 
be spirit bequeathed to their descendants, and it is with 
t feelings of deepest pleasure and gratefulness to the 

Jar of all good that we announce a wonderful new Me- 
ial Association, organized December 6 at Huntington, W. 
v with a paid charter membership of one hundred and four 

•nimated by the sacred purpose of memoralizing the heroic 

lihers of the sixties, Mrs. Emma T. Harvey, wife of Judgr 

•mas Hope Harvey, one of the most highly esteemed and 

Lved women of her State, more than a year ago began 

i tly to set her plans, and from the privacy of her home, 

tre she has for a number of years been a "shut-in," she has 

etter and by telephone messages brought these splendid 

jien to her home, enthused, interested, and claimed their 

ibership until to-day the Ladies' Memorial Association 

Huntington, W. Va., stands the banner charter Associa- 

of more than one hundred members, with full-paid mem- 


6 ore wonderful still was the spirit of interest displayed, 

each member who joined came with the thought that to 

1 Confederated Southern Memorial Association was to be 

h. two dollars per capita, and a check for two hundred 

eighteen dollars and fifty cents was sent to your Presi- 

General, which she regretfully returned with deepest 

"eciation, but could only accept the regular dues of ten 

s per capita. Should not this wonderful work of one 

1 heart inspire us all to greater endeavor? Most cordialh 

1 we welcome the new Ladies' Memorial Association of 
! itington and wish the members Godspeed under the able 
: ership of Mrs. Thomas Hope Harvey, President ; Mrs. 

P. McAlhattan, First Vice President; Mrs. Charles S. 
I den, Second Vice President ; Mrs. John A. Paul. Corre- 
I iding Secretary : Mrs. Willie R. Woodyard, Recording 

etary; Mrs. Robert T. Gladstone, Treasurer. 

iie splendid historical book, "Biographies of Representa- 

Women of the South from 1861 to 1920." by Mrs. Bryan 
Lis Collier, of College Park, Ga., is out. It is already in 

hands of many of its subscribers, 
speaking of this interesting volume your President Gen- 
i has this to say : 

'ou have realized that no introduction was needed, for 

book includes sketches of our friends and companions of 
: y years. It is indeed like opening the pages of old-time 

m that shall ever recall the years of a noble past, peopled 
■'- noble men and women. How our mothers would delight 

:eing this book ! Mrs. Collier is doing a wonderful work 

/Ifoemorial association 


Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

'r?M'£ r . Georgia — Columbus Miss Anna Caroline Benning 

:! ' Kentucky — Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

LOUISIANA — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississn-Pl— Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

*$%&* Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

' North Carolina— Ashville Mrs. J.J. Yates 

Oklahoma— Tulsa Mrs. W. H. Crowil.r 

South Carolina— Charleston . Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Fra/.er 

Texas— Houston Mrs. Mary E. Bryan 

Virginia — Front Roval Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 

West Virginia — Huntington Mrs. Thos. H. Harvey 

for our Southland, and her heart is thrilled with the vision 
of a glorious dream in which she hopes to realize as the years 
go by many more volumes of the 'uncrowned and unsung.' 

"The book contains interesting historical sketches : espe- 
cially do we prize those pages that record the lives and reflect 
the lovely faces of the mothers of the Confederacy. The 
beautiful thought she has carried out in linking the work of 
the mother with that of her daughter, blending in a glimpse 
of the children of the South, for whom this volume was com- 
piled and to whom dedicated. 

"The first page, given to pictures of the monument of 
Shiloh, is a masterpiece. Never before perhaps has a monu- 
ment been given to us in such a wonderful way. Mrs. A. B. 
White. ex-President General U. D. C. and Director General 
for the Shiloh Monument, obtained these pictures for Mrs. 
Collier from the sculptor of the monument, and this is a 
treasure that all will prize. 

"Dr. Lucien Lamar Knight's picture of the Confederate 
women can never be surpassed in literature, for he has por- 
trayed in exquisite coloring the ideal Southern woman. The 
picture of the first flag of the Confederacy, designed by Maj. 
Orren Randolph Smith, is a treasure to have and to keep, 
and the sketch of every subject in the book will be a heritage 
to the family and children of the subject in years to come." 

Cordially yours. Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, 

President General C. S. M. A. 



It is said that the flowers are letters of angel tongue. They 
must be, carrying as they do the undying messages of love. 
Every emotion of the human heart is expressed in the lan- 
guage of flowers ; and now that we are hurrying toward the 
day of all days in the South, hurrying over a flower-strewn 
way, let us gather together the fragrant blossoms of memory 
and weave them into garlands to be placed on the graves that 
hold what represents a place in the heart of all true South- 
erners that nothing else can displace. It will be Memorial 
Day before long, a day that stands out sacred to us, and, 
with the great revival of interest in this beautiful custom of 
decorating the Confederate soldiers' graves, let there be greater 
interest shown in the weaving of garlands of flowers until 
every wreath, every bouquet, every simple little cluster of blos- 
soms speaks as never before to the heart of the past from the 
heart of the now. Let every woman in the Memorial Asso- 
ciation make it a special duty, a love duty, to plant her flowers 
this year for this great day or to gather the little "words of 
love" later on and carry them out to the cemetery where our 
beloved, immortal dead are buried. 


Qopfederat^ l/eterat) 

It isn't right for you to let your children grow unmindful 
of the custom. Don't let the great joy of placing flowers on 
the graves of the bravest heroes that ever went to war be 
limited to the few, but interest your friends. Have more 
Memorial Associations organized. Help your children to 
form Junior Memorial Associations, and when Memorial Day 
comes this year let every grave in the United States where a 
Confederate soldier lies be heaped with flowers that will have 
a message so fragrant that it will be heard around the whole 
world and penetrate into heaven. 

Your President General has done, is doing, a remarkable 
work in reviving the enthusiasm and interest in the memorial 
work. ( She does not know that I am going to say this, and 
if she did she would say with the modesty that characterizes 
her splendid works along all lines : "Don't, my dear ; I am 
Only doing what 1 love to do and what should be done.") 
But she has brought new interests into the work, as you will 
note by the charter membership of the Huntington Memorial 
Association, which, I am sure, will be an inspiration to others : 
and she is broadening her lines of work and interesting women 
who have never been interested before. 

The Columbia Ladies' Memorial Association, in resolutions. 
paid 'tribute to the beautiful life of one of the founders of 
the Association there, saying: "We pause in the business ses- 
sion of our Memorial Association this morning to com- 
memorate the worth and character of our departed sister, 
Mrs. Jane Ellison Ware Martin, who was one of the founders 
of this Association and who served as Secretary from 1872. 
Her unfailing zeal and devotion helped to make the Ladies' 
Memorial Association the first of its kind in America. Her 
research in history and biography enabled her to be of great 
assistance to many in establishing their eligibility to member- 
ship in the national society of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution and the Colonial Dames of America. She re- 
mained our active Secretary until failing sight necessitated the 
election of an assistant. She continued to be our beloved and 
honored Secretary until May 6, 1920, when, at the age of 
eighty-eight, just as all the world was filled with the gladness 
of spring, she slipped away to that sweet rest in the beautiful 
eternal city promised to all who faithfully serve the Lord. 
We have lost a beloved member whose life and character 
glows as a beacon light of Christianity and patriotism." 

Copies of the new constitution and by-laws are now ready 
and can be had by applying to the Recording Secretary. Miss 
Daisy M. L. Hodgson, 7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans 

The minutes of the Houston convention have been delayed 
by the printers, but it is hoped they will be ready next month. 

The President General announces the appointment of the 
Rev. Giles B. Cooke as Chaplain General to the C. S. M. A. 

Mrs. Thomas Hope Harvey has also been appointed State 
President of West Virginia. The recent organization of 
the Huntington Association is evidence of her wonderful 
executive ability and the enthusiasm with which she carries 
forward everything that claims her attention. 

Alex McBee. of Greenville, S. C, refers to several articles 
appearing in the Veteran which he thinks could profitably be 
republished. He mentions first the article by J. A. Richardson 
on "Rights under the Constitution." appearing in the March 
number of 1919, which can't now be furnished, and in the 
same number Mrs. Anne B. Hyde's article on "Early Efforts 
to Suppress the Slave Trade and Abolish Slavery in the 
South." And he refers to the article in the May number, 
1919, on "Secession, North and South," by Col. E. Polk John- 
son, as being in the same class. 


(Continued from page 114). 
depression in the South as of small account compared to t 
difficulties and obstacles which beset the followers of L 
and Jackson and of Lee himself during the days of Reco 
struction at the close of the War between the States 
very impressive part of the exercises took place just befo' 
the close when the great audience rose and bowed a few m 
ments as a token of respect and sorrow for the Southe 
soldiers who gave their lives in the World War. Durii 
this manifestation a soldier from Camp Bragg sounded ta 
in honor of our boys who lie to-day in Flanders' fields. 

1 ennessee. — Lee Day, the 19th of January, was observ 
this year for the first time as a legal holiday. The U. D. i 
Chapters of Nashville held their exercises in the Hall 

In the passing of Miss Corinna S. McCorry — "Miss Pe 
as she was lovingly called — on January 10, 1921, at the a 
of seventy-one years, Jackson has lost one of its most i 
markable women, a woman who had been of great servi 
to her city and one whose kindly influence and noble chara 
ter will remain long in the memory of a host of friends. 

Miss McCorry was prominent in U. D. C. circles, but J 
be missed most in Musidora C. McCorry Chapter. She w 
a charter member and made herself a vital part of the c 
ganization. Hers was the heart of the true Southern woraa 
and jealously and with great pride and dignity she guard 
every interest of the Confederate cause. 

With Miss McCorry to live really was to act energetical 
She kept herself young by the divine passion of love for a( 
loyaltv to her fellow man, for she felt that these virtues ma 
the perpetual melody of humanity. She was an example 
how these same qualities elevate the aspirations, expand t 
soul, and stimulate the mental powers. 

From the highest to the lowest, the richest to the poore 
to no rank or condition in life did Miss BcCorry deny b 
highest boon — her great and kind heart. She had words 
comfort for those in sorrow, words of courage for the 
disheartened, words of charity for the weak, words- of pra 
for the struggling, but evil words for no one. 

There is an unrealized loss, a link of life left out, to 
who never knew her, and a loss to us who did, which we c 
i inly accept unselfishly, knowing that she is enjoying the i 
ward of her well-done life. 

Virginia. — Lee-Jackson Day. a Virginia holiday, was ( 
served throughout the State by the closing of public offk] 
and schools. Governor and Mrs. Davis and Mayor and M 
Ainslee were among those invited to a celebration by t 
Richmond Chapter, U. D. C. 


The Historian General asks that the following be carefu 
noted by State Historians in connection with the historii 
contests : 

State Historians will please note that rules for all h 
torical contests are published in this issue of the Veteran. 

These are the same rules which have always been publishi 
and State Historians must realize that it is not just to exte| 
time for some and not for others. 

Qogfederat^ l/eterap. 



Organized in July, 1S96, at Richmond, Va. 

OFFICERS, tqlQ-20. 

lander In Chief Nathan Bedford Forrest 

ud.'ant in Chief Carl Hinton 

!d r, J. R. Price 1206 15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

[ Idress all communications to this department to the Edi- 

( nmander in Chief N. B. Forrest has appointed Lucius 
oss as Commander of the Louisiana Division, vice B. P. 

'an, resigned. 

* * * 

Sh Folsom Camp, No. 878, Caddo, Okla., has recently been 
ated. J. W. Crutchfield has been elected Commandant 
I?. C. Semple Adjutant of the Camp. 

* * * 

Uge T. C. Kimbrough, of University, Miss., has been ap- 
ed Commander of the Mississippi Division. Judge Kim- 
;h is instructor of senior law at the University of Mis- 
pi and has long been a zealous worker for the cause for 
A.i the organization stands. 

* * * 

.( -nmander R. E. Johnston, of Mayfield, Ky., reports many 
cl ties of the Sons in his Division. Camp Beauregard re- 

11 received from the local U. D. C. a bust of General 
regard, which was placed in the courthouse yard in that 
.y. Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, President General, and 
ii L Stunston, State President, U. D. C, were present on this 

C< ion. 

* * * 

'-rough the efforts of Judge Scurry, of Wichita Falls, Tex., 
h< Textbook Commission of Texas has disapproved the use 
1 le "Beard and Bagley History" in the schools of that 
it . As the result of a strong fight by Commander Forrest 
ht 100k was likewise rejected by the Textbook Commission 

if iississippi. 

* * * 

' accordance with a plan adopted at the Houston Re- 
mu, the following committee has been appointed to co- 
>pnte with the U. D. C. in the erection of a monument at 
i. ler's Ferry, \V. Va., to the faithful slave who gave his 
if in defense of his master during the John Brown raid : 
V. 1. Smith. Jr., Chairman. Fayetteville, W. Va. : Samuel L. 
V ns, South Boston, Va. ; W. N. Everett, Rockingham, N. 
1 f. W. Quattlebaum, Anderson, S. C. ; C. W. Kimberlin, 

D" risboro, Ky. 

* * * 

■ a recent organization meeting A. Boyd Sears was elected 
-cmandant of the Lane-Digges Camp, of Mathews Court- 
* e, Va. Rev. Giles B. Cooke, the last surviving member 
jfleneral Lee's staff, is an active member of the Camp. 
0; "ooke's father was also a gallant Confederate soldier. 

Walter B. McAdams, late Division Commander of 
Ti is, died at his home in Dallas on January 1, 1921. Mr. 
M dams had been a loyal and active member of the Con- 
fe -ation for a number of years. 

* * * 

■I irsuant to a resolution adopted at the U. D. C. conven- 
tli at Asheville, Commander N. B. Forrest has been made 
bi, less manager of the Jefferson Davis National Highway. 
H will appoint a board of directors, and immediate action 
w be taken to promote the project. 

J. Gwynn Gough, Commander of Missouri . Division, has 
appointed the following staff officers for the current year : 
Division Adjutant and Chief of Staff, Peter Gibson, St. 
Louis ; Division Inspector, June Swisher, Marshall ; Division 
Quartermaster, John H. Hardin, Independence; Division Com- 
missary, William Warren, St. Louis ; Division Judge Advo- 
cate, Chilton Atkinson, St. Louis ; Division Surgeon, Dr. S. 
P. Martin, East Prairie ; Division Chaplin, William B. Jar- 
man, St. Louis. 

The Camp Commanders in this jurisdiction are directed to 
send a copy of the muster roll and officers of all Camps to 
the Division Commander. 

X * * 

The Clinton-Hatcher Camp, Leesburg, Va., held its regu- 
lar monthly meeting on January 19, 1921. The election of 
officers were : E. B. White, Commandant ; J. H. Shumate, 
First Lieutenant; C. W. Atwell, Second Lieutenant; Bruce 
Mcintosh, Third Lieutenant ; John T. Hourihane, Treasurer ; 
Dr. John A. Gibson, Surgeon; A. Dibrell, Adjutant. Dinner 
was served by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 
Following dinner, Commander J. H. Leslie called the meeting 
to order and asked Col. W. C. Hall to introduce Maj'. E. W. 
R. Ewing. Major Ewing delivered a splendid address in de- 
fense of the cause of secession, which was heartily applauded. 

* * * 

Washington Camp, No. 305. contributed $100 to the Manas- 
sas battle field fund at the meeting held on February 8. Mrs. 
N. W. Turk, widow of Gen. Robert E. Lee's courier, ex- 
plained the plans for enlarging and making fireproof the Lee 
Chapel at Washington and Lee University, where the body 
of General Lee is interred. Each member of the Camp pres- 
ent contributed $1 to this movement. Lieut. Cols. James E. 
Shelley and Henry Bankhead were elected to membership. 

* * * 

There is a. tendency on the part of some of the statesmen 
of the North and Northwest to advocate the cause of State 
rights. Apparently these men have been converted to the 
views held by the statesmen of the South in the antebellum 
days. A State Senator has taken the initiative in a move- 
ment to have Wisconsin take the lead in restoring to States 
the rights which, he said, had been lost through concentra- 
tion of power in the Federal government. If the joint reso- 
lution introduced is adopted, an appeal would be made to all 
State legislatures to request Congress to provide for a con- 
vention to amend the Constitution. The resolution declared 
that the "fundamental rights of self-government guaranteed 
by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment to the organic law 
of the nation had been encroached on by the national govern- 

* * * 

The United Confederate Veterans, United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, Sons of Confederate Veterans, and each State 
of the South have been invited by Maj. E. W. R. Ewing and 
Mr. Westwood Hutchinson, trustees of the Manassas battle 
field, to attend an organization meeting to be held at the 
Raleigh Hotel, Washington, D. C, on March 5, 1921. The 
Manassas battle field belongs to the South, and for this reason 
it is hoped that each of the above-named organizations and 
each Southern State will send a representative to attend this 
meeting, at which plans will be arranged under which title 
will be eventually held and pursuant to which monuments will 
be erected and the splendid battle museum, which comes also 
with the land, will be conducted. The time and place of this 
meeting are suggested to save time, vastly important in view 
of the option limit. 



^q^federat^ l/eterai). 


Since making his last monthly report on the progress of 
the official U. D. C. volume, "The Women of the South in 
War Times," the managing editor is pleased to record the 
appointment by the President General of a special committee 
on the publicity fund. Mrs. Eugene B. Glenn, of Asheville, 
N. C., is chairman of this committee, and great things are 
expected of her management. 

The work for the distribution of this book will be a true 
test of insight or foresight on the part of the Daughters in 
regard to the greatest opportunity ever offered to present in 
a convincing way their cause throughout the English-speaking 
world. If this record of our mothers be more widely dis- 
tributed in the South, there will be among the younger people 
more appreciative loyalty to the main principles upheld by 
cur patriotic organizations. There will be less of that unfor- 
tunate feeling that it is not worth while to work for the truth. 
Again, a wide distribution of this book in the North will 
serve, as the Boston Transcript itself has said, to set aside 
false but long-existent and widespread opinions concerning 
the South and to create in the minds of intelligent and dis- 
cerning people friendliness for and sympathy with the heroic 
record of the Southern people. 

Furthermore, this volume presents the organization of the 
United Daughters of the Confedracy in a light which will be 
almost in the nature of a revelation in the minds of thou- 
sands or millions who regard this society in a somewhat dis- 
trustful attitude, expressed in the oft-repeated phrase, "Why 
stir up old embers?" and so forth. As a matter of fact, when 
the individuals in these organizations of the South are true to 
their great cardinal principles, they are doing the greatest 
good in setting the entire country free from sectional preju- 
dices, for the simple truth, set forth without animus, is the 
only thing that will set us free from prejudice and error. 

Since previous writing several of the Chapters in South 
Carolina have secured local reviews of the book and one or 
two in Kentucky, a particularly good one being the review 
given in the Lexington Herald. Three more States have sub- 
scribed for their officially marked State copies, these three 
States being so widely separated as North Carolina, Florida, 
and Oregon. The State copies which yet remain to be sub- 
scribed for are mostly in the North, but there may be those 
who will act as sponsors for these States and have the books 
presented in some way to the respective State libraries or 
something of that kind, or perhaps there may be individual 
members of the U. D. C. in those States who would secure 
these copies. These may be readers of the Veteran, as, in- 
deed, it seems that all sons and daughters of the Confederacy 
should be. The following States have copies set aside and 
inscribed awaiting the call for them: District of Columbia, 
Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
New Mexico, Nevada, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Wis- 
consin, Wyoming. 

The raising of the publicity fund has aroused interest in 
the Baltimore Chapter, and several of the ladies have per- 
sonally contributed. The first contributor was Miss Georgie 
G. Bright, the newly elected President of the Maryland Di- 
vision, who presented her check for $25. When this donation 
to the publicity work was reported to Mr. Thomas B. 
Gresham, also of Baltimore, this loyal Confederate veteran 
very promptly "matched" Miss Bright's donation with a like 

Finally, it maybe suggested that this "Women of the South" 
book should eventually become a revenue producer not only 
in the more enduring dividends of "intangible" things, but in 

material returns for the U. D. C. if we can be sure of get I 
it well started. By "revenue" we would mean not only a wl 
spread increase in public interest in the work of the organ! 
tion and a more enlightened attitude toward it, but the stl 
of these women of war times should arouse emulative! 
terest in the younger generations to set aside things that I 
trivial or personal and stand for great principles in the ef| 
to be worthy of their mothers. Truly this volume has 
limited possibilities for good. 


With the indorsement of the United Confederate Vetei 
and the United Daughters of the Confederacy for the es' 
lishment of a home for veterans of the Confederate m 
Admiral A. O. Wright feels encouraged for the success 
this undertaking. His plans are set forth as follows: 

1. To raise $10,000 to provide a temporary home in Ja 
sonville, Fla., in leased quarters where additional rooms i 
be had. This sum will equip and run it for a year or mo 

2. To complete our "Official History of the Confedei 
Navy," now being written by those who helped to, make t 

3. To establish a permanent home of our own, to be loca 
in that Southern city that makes the best offer. 

4. To create a widow's fund for the benefit of needy wide 
of Confederate naval veterans. 

When established he feels assured that the Southern lej 
latures will maintain it. And after the passing of the na 
veterans the home will be turned over to the naval veter; 
of the Spanish-American war and after them to the na 
veterans of the late war. 

Some contributions have been received, and all who i 
inclined to contribute now should address Admiral A. 
Wright, trustee of the fund, 4 East Bay Street, Jacksonvi 


A home for ex-slaves in Texas who need assistance is p 
vided for in a bill now before the Texas Legislature, int 
duced by Mr. Morris, of Medina. By this bill the State 
to take over the old Ex-Slave Home in Uvalde County a 
maintain the institution for the "Confederate Home Guard 

It seems that there are something like three hundred of 
old former slaves in Texas who aided the Confederacy 
producing supplies for the armies or helped to protect I 
homes of the Southern people during the war, and at le 
half of these need assistance. Some are absolutely helple 
and the State will thus make provision for their care a 
comfort during the remainder of their lives. With th 
passing the institution will be used for some other purpose 

The condition on which admission is gained is by the £ 
plicant's giving the name and address of his last owner fr( 
1860 to 1866. A board of managers will operate the Hod 
Only the expense of a superintendent and maintenance of t 
Home is sought. The property taken over is valued at abc 

Rev. Charles Manly, of Gaffney, S. C, writes : "My fathi 
Basil Manly, was pastor of the Baptist Church in Mot 
gomery, Ala., during 1S60-62, and officiated as chaplain at t 
inauguration of Mr. Davis as Provisional President of t 
Confederate States, and I have a copy of the prayer offer 
on that occasion." 

(^otyfederat^ l/eterar? 



public health agencies, including 

nerican Red Cross, have joined 

in the National Health Council 

i» improvement of health condi- 

throughout the country. This 

1 is the result of the efforts of 

nerican Public Health Associa- 

le American Medical Association, 

her similar organizations begun 

ears ago. 

'ng the summer of 1920 a special 

study was carried on under the 

jn of representatives of the Na- 

Tuberculosis Association, the 

1 on Health and Public Instruc- 

te American Medical Association, 

e American Red Cross. And the 

Council was the direct result of 


National Health Council is made 
one representative and one alter- 
ppointed by each of the following 
zations: American Public Health 
ation, American Red Cross, 
:an Social Hygiene Association, 
il of State and Provincial Health 
Irities, ■ Council on Health and 
Instruction of the American 
il Association, National Child 
l Council, National Committee for 
1 Hygiene, National Organization 
'ublic Health Nursing, and the 
lal Tuberculosis Association. It 
ected that each organization will 
de certain sums which will enable 
juncil to open an office and main- 
n office force. 

h health agency will continue its 
jlar work independent of the or- 
tion, but the Council will be 
as a clearing house, so that the 
of one will not overlap or dupli- 
nat of another. 

. Ida T. Hawes, 1817 Valence 
, New Orleans, La., would like to 
from any one who recalls Pickens 
■nnett, a young Confederate sol- 
vho enlisted at Brookhaven, Miss., 
)3 or 1864. He was seventeen or 
en years old. His company and 
ent are not known, but his widow 
he was under Colonel Moorman, 
information will be highly appre- 

K C. Myers. 1012 Queen Anne Ave- 
Bl Seattle, Wash., is anxious to learn 
' of the members of Company D, 
I . ! 62d Battalion of Georgia Sharp- 
ft,- r s, are still alive, and he asks that 
K will communicate with him, their 
Id wnmander. 



Who? Single persons who had net 
incomes of $1,000 or more for the year 
1920, married couples who had net in- 
comes of $2,000. 

When? March 15, 1921, is the final 
date for filing returns and making first 

Where? Collector of internal reve- 
nue for district in which the person re- 

How? Full directions on Form 1040A 
and Form 1040, also the law and regula- 

What? Four per cent normal tax on 
taxable incomes up to $4,000 in excess 
of exemption. Eight per cent normal 
tax on balance of taxable income. Sur- 
tax from one per cent to sixty-five per 
cent on net incomes over $5,000. 

J. G. Bishop was with the 10th Con- 
federate Cavalry in Kentucky, then in 
camp at Knoxville, Tenn., and after- 
wards detailed to serve in the quarter- 
master's department at Atlanta and 
other places. The quartermaster's force 
was organized into two companies, one 
of which was under Capt. Fred Crass, 
of Murfreesboro, Tenn. ; they worked 
also in the shoe shops until the relief 
was sent to Savannah ; then there was 
service in different ways until the sur- 
render. He was paroled May 5, 1865. 
He and his wife are now. in the I. O. O. 
F. Home at Corsicana, Tex., and Com- 
rade Bishop will be glad to hear from 
any surviving comrades. 

J. W. Ward, principal of the high 
school at Brookhaven, Miss., wants to 
know if there was an organization in 
the Confederate army known as "Texas 
Scouts." He has seen an emblem, a 
silver star and crescent, with the words 
"Texas Scouts" around the five points 
of the star, hence his inquiry. Any one 
having information on the subject will 
please write to him. 

If Henry S. Harris, who at the age 
of sixteen enlisted in Sam J. Richard- 
son's company of Morgan's Battalion 
on April 4, 1864, sees this notice, please 
write to N. A. Smith, Marks, Miss. He 
was in Hill County, Tex., when last 
heard of. ' 

Will any one having information con- 
cerning the carbine factory at Tallas- 
see, Ala., and the revolver factory at 
Atlanta, Ga., making arms for the Con- 
federacy, write to E. Berkley Bowie, 
811 N. Eutaw Street, Baltimore, Md.? 

Cause*. Head Noisea and Other j£gr- 

Sfflrt Easily and PermapenHv Relieved! 

Thousands who wesK' 
formerly deaf, now hec& 
distinctly every sound- 
even whispers do not efr- 
cape them. Their life oa 
loneliness has ended ami 
all is now joy and sue 
shine. The impaired OE 
lacking portions of theif- 
ear drums have beei 
reinforced by simpk 
little devices, scienti& 
cally constructed f©f 
that special purpose^ 

WAion Common-Sense Ear Drums 

ften called "Little Wireless Phones for the Ears' 

-ire restoring perfect hearing in every condition of 
Jeaf ness or defective hearing from causes such Stt 
"Catarrhal Deafness, Relaxed or Sunken Drurm 
Thickened Drums, Roaring and Hissing Sounds 
"erforated. Wholly or Partially Destroyed Drumf;, 
C&ischarge from Ears f etc. No matter what the cafi*. 
:T how long standing it is, testimonials received shov 
aarvelous results. Common-Sense Drums stiengt* 
m the nerves of the ears and con- 
'.entrate the sound waves on one 
>oint of the natural drums, thus 
successfully restoring perfect 
■searing where medical skill even 
'■'"•ils to help. They are made of 
s soft, sensitized materia], com- 
fortable and safe to wear. They - 
,ire easily adjusted by the wearer j 
5nd out of sight when worn. ' 

What has done so much for 
;housandsofotherswill help you. 
Don't delay. Write today for Oram ° 'I 
mi FREE 168 page Book on Deaf- in Position . 
:ass— giving you full particulars. 

WILSON EAR DRUM CO., Incorporated 
408 !nt»r-8outh*rro Blag. touisv" I ■?, «■ 

Mrs. Allie Willis, of Slater, Mo., wants 
a copy of "Dixie After the War," by 
Mrs. Avary ; "Jess of the River," by T. 
C. DeLeon ; "New Hope ; or, The Res- 
cue," author known. Any one having 
these books for disposal will kindly 
communicate with her. 

W. A. Shoup, Adjutant of Ben Mc- 
Culloch Camp, of Star City, Ark., says 
he would like to know what became of 
the little girl who belonged to "Uncle 
Jim," of the Confederate army, and of 
whom C. C. Baker, of Weatherford, 
Tex., wrote in the December Veteran. 
Who can tell him? 

• National Encampment Postponed. — 
W. D. Wilson, Quartermaster of the 
Joseph R. Gordon Post, G. A. R., of 
Indianapolis, Ind., sends copy of a reso- 
lution passed by that Post in reference 
to having Congress pass an act au- 
thorizing the railroads of the country 
to make a rate of one cent per mile for 
all veterans of the blue and the gray at 
the time of the annual gathering. As 
the railroads have refused to allow that 
rate to the National Encampment at 
Portland, Me., the meeting at that place 
has been abandoned. It is to be hoped 
that the railroads of the South will be 
more generous in their treatment of the 
veterans of the Confederacy. 


^oofederat^ l/eterag. 

A Fitting Memorial to 


Who Will Help Establish It? 

As all students of the history of the subject know, the first recognition of journalism 
as a learned profession originated with General Lee, and the first college school of journal- 
ism was founded by him and his trustees in 1869, a half century ahead of his times. His 
far-seeing wisdom in recognizing the tremendous importance and influence of this new pro- 
fession was only equaled by his keen insight into what has ever been and is to-day one of 
the most acute needs of the South. His original school of journalism has been discon- 
tinued, and few, even among his most ardent admirers, know that the matchless leader of 
the Confederate armies was also the founder in America of journalism as a learned pro- 

The Robert E. Lee Memorial Chair of Journalism 

As part of the Lee Memorial Fund the Confederate organizations, assisted by all others 
who honor General Lee's character and wish to perpetuate his life work, desire to re- 
establish his Chair of Journalism at Washington and Lee University and solicit both gifts 
and bequests for that purpose. 

What It Means to the South 

Whether the New South is to remain true to the high ideals of its glorious past or is to 
sacrifice and forsake them depends on her editors. They hold our future civilization in 
their hands, and their attitude, opinions, and influence will depend on their training and 

To establish a School of Jouralism at the home and tomb of Lee, in the most sacred 
shrine of Southern memories and associations, as part of the university which is his living 
representative, to send each year from such a nursery of inspiration and patriotism a 
stream of trained journalists to lead the public opinion of the South and of the nation 
along the lofty paths of its founder's broad-minded and unselfish patriotism, surely no 
benevolent enterprise ever offered such threefold inducement to those who love their coun- 
try — a fitting monument to the heroic dead, an inestimable service to the present genera- 
tion, a permanent and growing influence for the betterment of the future. 

How You Can Help 

The Veterans' Committee wishes to find one hundred FOUNDERS of the Robert E. 
Lee Memorial Chair of Journalism who will invest a thousand dollars apiece in establish- 
ing this memorial. Their names will be commemorated on bronze tablets for all future 
time as General Lee's partners in the patriotic enterprise originated by him in 1869. 

Will You Be One? 

Address inquiries, correspondence, etc., to the Executive Secretarv of the National Com- 
mittee of the United Confederate Veterans, PRESIDENT HENRY" LOUIS SMITH, Lex- 
ington, Va. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai?. 


ntered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Term., 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

cceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 19 17, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 
ublished by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 

Though men deserve, they may not, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 

T£m 'cirafxl CtoSk. \ VoL - XXIX - NASHVILLE, TENN., APRIL, 1921. 

No. 4. 




"How sleep the brave?" was sung of men 

Who, loving well a native clime. 
Stood with a dauntless courage when 

Some menace called for deeds sublime. 

They dared to do — dared even to die — 
And now their sacred, mold'ring dust 

To all the world does testify 

Of faith they kept with valor's trust. 

"How sleep the brave?" What land has claim 
Of braver sons than ours, than she 

Whose children stood to guard her name 
Through storms of stern adversity? 

They have not died in vain, but win 

That meed impartial justice gives 
True sons. Hate's manacles of sin 

May curb, not kill, for justice lives. 

'Twas not grim war alone which tried 

Their spirits as a searing flame, 
But politics, with hate allied, 

Would crush them to ignoble shame. 

For all that spite could hope to achieve 
By constant speech, in ardent song, 

Some tried to make the world believe 
That they were right and these were wrong. 

But virtues shown by these will shine — 
Refining fires but prove their worth — 

While calumny must know decline, 

Nor bides with lasting things of earth. 

It lessens, wanes as dies a flame 

Or light on some receding shore; 
But these shall wax as stars of fame 

That gem love's sky forevermore. 

Despite a fog traducers spread — 
A mist that soon must blow away — 

The days to come will see our dead 
And deeds of theirs shine as the day. 

Shall we who heir such glories won, 

A light to bless all coming age, 
Seem by indifference to shun 

And e'en disown such heritage? 

Be courage ours, though light be dim, 
As theirs to walk the way they trod, 

Unswerving in our faith in Him 

Who is the source of truth, our God. 

Sleep, heroes ! Though years yet to be 
See not some sorrowing hearts to weep 

Your death in anguish, history 

In sacredness your fame shall keep. 

Sleep well, nor reck the stinging darts 
Hate ever hurls at those who've trod 

In Duty's way, for in our hearts 
You live forever, blessed of God. 

"How sleep the brave?" As flowers unfold 
From bud to charm with perfect bloom. 

Your fame shall grow through years untold 
And glory gild each name and tomb. 

Two in One. — The great mind of Madison was one of the 
first to entertain distinctly the noble conception of two kinds 
of government, operating at one and the same time upon the 
same individuals, harmonious with each other, but each su- 
preme in its own sphere. Such is the fundamental concep- 
tion of our partly Federal, partly national government, which 
appears throughout the Virginia plan as well as in the Con- 
stitution which grew out of it. — John Fiske, of Massachusetts. 

124 Confederate l/eterai>* 

Qopfederat^ l/eterar?. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Office: Methodist Publishing' House Building-, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending; its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 



On Fame's immortal roll. 

Of those who perished in the fight, 
One name shone out above the rest 

And filled the page with light. 

"Who comes?" the herald cried, 
"To join the ranks of noble dead? 

Thy glory dazzles all our eyes." 
"A private, sir," he said. 


In making a suggestion to the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy that such a history as they desire to be taught 
in the schools of the South can be prepared largely from the 
files of the Veteran-, Dr. J. C. W. Steger, of Gurley, Ala., 
says : 

"Let us 'not forget to impress upon the minds of the youth 
of the South the high qualities of the men who filled the 
legislative, the judicial, and executive departments of the 
Confederate government, and especially those who wrote its 
Constitution. Those of us who feel a just pride in the work 
of the men and women of the Old South must bestir our- 
selves to see that their memories are revered. It has been 
said, 'Though a monument be erected to reach the heavens 
and to stand until time perished at its base,' it would be 
meaningless without a history. 

"And it will be a calamity if such men as Dr. Shepherd, 
Dr. McNeilly. and others do not furnish a general history 
for the benefit of mankind. No one without their general 
knowledge of affairs could do this work so well. Let the 
world have the benefit of our struggle for constitutional 
rights, under which only can a true democracy exist. There 
has been no time in history when this question was so perti- 
nent and imperative. Europe is seeking such a basis, and 
our example, costly as any ever made, under the best consti- 
tution ever adopted, should be given to the struggling people 
of dissolving dynasties. They, as we. have made the sacri- 
fice and may, like us, be denied the beneficent results that flow 
from battle fields of freedom." 


Nothing has been left unsaid about the Pilgrims, yet the 
three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Plymouth 
colony finds them rather mythical figures whose primary 
function is to serve as ancestors. 

The Pilgrims were so soon submerged by the great Puritan 
migration which followed a few years later that their original 
identity has been almost lost. They were plain, simple, un- 
educated folk who had gone to Holland to escape religious 
persecutions at home and who had definitely separated from 
the Church of England. The Puritan, with his passion for 

reforming everybody except himself, was trying to make the 
Church over into his own image. Many of the Puritans hac 
wealth and power and influence. Some of them were con- 
nected with great families. Their quarrel was never aboir 
religious freedom of any kind, for they did not believe in it 
They were ardent supporters of the union of Church and 
State, and when they came to America it was to found a 
theocracy of their own. 

The Pilgrims have been so generally confused with tht 
Puritans that the distinction between them is commonly dis 
regarded. The aggressive colonization to Massachusetts was 
Puritan, and it was the Puritan who originally put his stamj 
on the colony. But the Pilgrims are entitled to recognition ol 
their own apart from the honor that belongs to them as path- 
finders. They made two definite contributions to America! 
institutions, for it was they who established the town meeting 
and the public school. The town meeting was a revival of 
one of the oldest traditions of the English race, but the public 
school was borrowed from the Dutch. 

We have succeeded in maintaining and developing the pub- 
he school, but the institution of local self-government ha; 
long been crumbling. It is one of the curious facts in the 
development of the American people that the political prin 
ciple which was once regarded as fundamental and at the 
basis of their whole system is the principle for which the> 
have shown the least respect and in the advancement of whicr 
they have made the smallest progress. — New York World. 

Burial of Sir Moses Ezekiel at Arlington. — The bod> 
of Sir Moses Ezekiel, who died in Rome. Italy, in March. 
1917, has been brought back to America and interred in Ar- 
lington Cemetery, where stands the handsome Confederate 
monument which was the product of his skill. After a me 
morial service by the Arlington Confederate Monument As 
sociation and the Daughters of the Confederacy in Washing- 
ton on March 30, the commitment services were held in the 
Amphitheater at Arlington, and the interment was conducted 
by Washington Centennial Lodge No. 14, F. and A. M 
Cadets from the Virginia Military Institute formed the guard 
of honor. Sir Moses was a cadet at the Virginia Military 
Institute and fought at New Market, May 15, 1864. 

Active Friends. — The work of the Stonewall Jackson Chap- 
ter, U. D. C, of Chicago, in behalf of the Veteran is under 
the direction of Mrs. Joseph Johnson, who is putting sped, 
effort in the work. In order to simplify it and make it easier 
for her successor, she has had some slips printed with blanks 
for the name and time of expiration of each subscription 
These slips will be sent out to the subscribers as a request for 
renewal at the proper time. Then she keeps a book with the 
names of all members of the Chapter who are subscribers or 
paying for some one else, which will be a ready reference as 
needed. The Veteran is very appreciative of the work that 
is being done by Chapters. U. D. C. and wants to help them 
in their work. 

Jefferson Davis Monument. — On Wednesday, April 13, 
1921, a joint meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Jeffer- 
son Davis Monument Association and Daughters of the Con^ 
federacy will be held in the Public Library Hall, Louisville, 
Ky., for the purpose of devising ways and means for the 
completion of the Davis monument at Fairview, Ky. A 111 
friends of this movement are invited to attend this meeting. 

Qopfederat^ Ueteraij, 



[Attention has been called to an error in the article on 
page 101 of the Veteran for March giving the incident of 
Senator Lamar's dramatic speech on the proposed amend- 
ment to the Mexican War pension bill by which it was sought 
to exclude Jefferson Davis from the benefits of that legis- 
lation. H. D. McDonald, of Corpus Christi, Tex., writes 
that it was Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, and not Zach ' 
Chandler, against whom this denunciation was directed. 
Newspapers have a way of getting things wrong as well as 
of bringing out the sensational feature. But it was founded 
upon fact, as the following, taken from a report of the pro- 
ceedings as given in the "Life of L. Q. C. Lamar," will show. 
Mr. McDonald writes that, "despite this 'lashing by Lamar's 
tongue,' in the course of time Lamar and Hoar became 
good friends, and Lamar had no greater admirer and at his 
death no sincerer mourner than Senator Hoar."] 

On the 1st of March, 1879, the Senate was considering a 
Proposition to extend the act of Congress granting pensions 
. :o the soldiers of the War of 1812 and their widows so as 
:o make it applicable as well to the soldiers and sailors who 
served in the war with Mexico. Senator Hoar offered this 
intendment : "Provided further that no pension shall ever 
,5e paid under this act to Jefferson Davis, the late President 
f& the so-called Confederacy." 

; The introduction of this resolution precipitated an exciting 
debate. Senators Bailey, of Tennessee, Hoar, of Massa- 
:husetts, Garland, of Arkansas, Shields, of Missouri, Maxey, 
)£ Texas, and Thurman, of Ohio, had taken part and Mr. 
Soar in his last speech had said: "The Senator from Arkan- 
sas alluded to the courage which this gentleman had shown 
n battle, and I do not deny it. Two of the bravest officers 
_)f our Revolutionary War were Aaron Burr and Benedict 

These remarks called out Mr. Lamar. He said : "Mr. 
President, it is with extreme reluctance that I rise to say 
1 word upon this subject. I must confess my surprise and 
•egret that the Senator from Massachusetts should have wan- 
only, without provocation, flung this insult" — 

The presiding officer (Mr. Edmunds in the chair) : "The 
Senator from Mississippi is out of order. He cannot impute 
o any Senator either wantonness or insult." 

Mr. Lamar : "I stand corrected. I suppose it is in perfect 

order for certain Senators to insult other Senators, but they 

.annot be characterized by those who receive the blow." 

The presiding officer : "The observations of the Senator 

i rom Mississippi, in the opinion of the chair, are not in 


' Mr. Lamar : "The observations of the Senator from Mis- 
issippi, in his own opinion, are not only in order, but per- 
ectly and absolutely true." 
The presiding officer : "The Senator from Mississippi will 
ake his seat until the question of order is decided." 
: Mr. Lamar: "Yes, sir." 

After the roll call on the question, the presiding officer 

' aid: "The judgment of the chair is reversed, and the Senate 

lecides that the words uttered by the Senator from Missis- 

ippi are in order, and the Senator from Mississippi will pro- 


Mr. Lamar: "Now, Mr. President, having been decided by 

ny associates to have been in order in the language I used, 

desire to say that, if it is at all offensive or unacceptable 

any member of this Senate, the language is withdrawn, 


for it is not my purpose to offend or stab the sensibilities of 
any of my associates on this floor. But what I meant by 
that remark was this : Jefferson Davis stands in precisely the 
position that I stand in, that every Southern man who be- 
lieved in the right of a State to secede stands." 

Mr. Hoar: "Will the Senator from Mississippi permit me 
to assure him" — 

The presiding officer : "The Senator from Massachusetts 
will address the chair. Does the Senator from Mississippi 
yield to the Senator from Maschusetts?" 

Mr. Lamar : "O, yes." 

Mr. Hoar : "Will the Senator from Mississippi permit me 
to assure him and other Senators on this floor who stand 
like him that, in making the motion which I made, I did not 
conceive that any of them stood in the same position in which 
I supposed Mr. Davis to stand. I should not have moved 
to except the gentleman from Mississippi from the pension 

Mr. Lamar : "The only difference between myself and Jef- 
ferson Davis is that his exalted character, his preeminent 
talents, his well-established reputation as a statesman, as a 
patriot, and as a soldier enabled him to take the lead in the 
cause to which I consecrated myself and to which every fiber 
of my heart responded. There was no distinction between 
insult to him and the Southern people except that he was 
their chosen leader and they his enthusiastic followers, and 
there has been no difference since. 

"Jefferson Davis since the war has never counseled insur- 
rection against the authority of this government. Not one 
word has he uttered inconsistent with the greatness and glory 
of this American republic. The Senator from Massachusetts 
can point to no utterance of Jefferson Davis which bids the 
people of the South to cherish animosities and hostilities to 
this Union, nor does he cherish them himself. 

"The Senator — it pains me to say it — not only introduced 
this amendment, but he coupled that honored name with 
treason ; for, sir, he is honored among the Southern people. 
He did only what they sought to do ; he was simply chosen 
to lead them in a cause which we all cherished ; and his 
name will continue to be honored for his participation in that 
great movement which inspired an entire people, the people 
who were animated by motives as sacred and noble as ever 
inspired the breast of a Hampden or a Washington. I say 
this as a Union man to-day. The people of the South drank 
their inspiration from the fountain of devotion to liberty 
and to constitutional government. We believed that we were 
fighting for it, and the Senator cannot put his finger upon 
one distinction between the people of the South and the man 
whom the Senator has to-day selected for dishonor as the 
representative of the South. 

"Now, sir, I do not wish to make any remarks here that 
will engender any excitement or discussion, but I say that the 
Senator from Massachusetts connected that name with 
treason. We all know that the results of this war have at- 
tached to the people of the South the technical crime of re- 
bellion, and we submit to it; but that was not the sense in 
which the gentleman used that term as applied to Mr. Davis. 
He intended to affix (I will not say that he intended, but the 
inevitable effect of it was to affix) upon this aged man, this 
man broken in fortune, suffering from bereavement, an epi- 
thet of odium, an imputation of moral turpitude. 

"Sir, it required no courage to do that ; it required no mag- 
nanimity to do it; it required no courtesy. It only required 
hate, bitter, malignant, sectional feeling, and a sense of per- 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

sonal impunity. The gentlemen, I believe, takes rank among 
Christian statesmen. He might have learned a better lesson 
even from the pages of mythology. When Prometheus was 
bound to the rock it was not an eagle, it was a vulture, that 
buried his beak in the tortured vitals of the victim. 

"I send to the desk a letter written by Mr. Davis upon this 
subject to Mr. Singleton, a gentleman who represents one of 
the districts of Mississippi in the other House, and with the 
expression of my opinion that the Senator from Massa- 
chusetts does not represent Massachusetts in the step that 
he has taken and the sentiments that he has uttered this day 
I shall take my seat." 

The presiding officer: "Does the Senator from Mississippi 
desire to have the letter that he sent to the desk read?" 

Mr. Lamar : "I do, sir. I wish it read as part of my re- 

The presiding officer: "The letter will be read, there being 
no objections." 

The Secretary read as follows : 

"Mississippi City, 1878. 

"Dear Sir: I am quite unwilling that personal objections 
to me by members of Congress should defeat the proposed 
measure to grant pensions to the veterans of the war against 
Mexico, therefore request and authorize you, should the fate 
of the bill depend upon excluding me from its benefits, in 
my behalf to ask my friends and the friends of the measure 
silently to allow a provision for my exclusion from the bene- 
fits of the bill to be inserted in it. From other sources you 
will have learned that not a few of those who then periled 
their lives for their country are now so indigent and infirm 
as to require relief, and it would be to me sorrowful indeed 
if my comrades in that war should suffer deprivation because 
of their association with me. 

"While on this subject I will mention that it did not re- 
quire a law to entitle me to be put on the list of pensioners, 
but it rather requires legal prohibition to deprive me of that 
right. As an officer regularly mustered into the military 
service of the United States and while serving as such I 
was 'severely wounded' in battle and could under the laws 
then existing have applied for and received a pension. My 
circumstances did not require pecuniary relief from the gov- 
ernment, and I did not make the requisite application; there- 
fore my name has never been upon the roll of pensioners and 
offers no obstruction to the restoration of those names which 
have been stricken from it. 

"Respectfully and truly yours, Jeffeeson Davis. 

Hon. O. R. Singleton." 


But, ah, the graves which no man names or knows : 

Uncounted graves, which never can be found ; 

Graves of the precious "missing," where no sound 

Of tender weeping will be heard, where goes 

No loving step of kindred — O how flows 

And yearns our thought to them ! 

But nature knows her wilderness ; 

There are no "missing" in her numbered ways ; 

In her glad heart is no f orgetf ulness ; 

Each grave she keeps she will adorn, caress. 

We cannot lay such wreaths as summer lays, 

And all her days are Decoration Days 1 

— Helen Hunt Jackson. 


[The following statement of service to the Confederacy, 
prepared by Gen. Alexander Gait Taliaferro in 1878, shows 
patriotic determination to fight for the South, even though 
it might not be in the capacity he desired. General Talia- 
ferro was born at "Churchill," Gloucester County, Va., in Sep- 
tember, 1808, and died at his home, "Annandale," Culpeper 
County, Va., on June 29, 1884. His wife was Agnes Har- 
wood Marshall, a granddaughter of Chief Justice John Mar- 
shall. The paper comes from his granddaughter, Mrs. Rex 
Corbin Maupin, of Baltimore, who is State Historian of the 
Maryland Division, U. D. C] 

When the ordinance of secession was passed I held the 
rank of lieutenant colonel of cavalry, conferred upon me by 
Governor Wise, in the Second Military Division of the State. 
Companies were formed and organized in some six counties 
of the department. Cavalry tactics out of the regular army 
were almost entirely unknown. I had studied and practiced 
them, and, presuming that I would be continued in my posi- 
tion, I repaired to Madison, Culpeper, Amherst, and Nelson, 
my orders and notices having preceded me, and devoted sev 
eral weeks to the instruction of officers and men. My last 
appointment was made for Albemarle, and on arriving at 
Charlottesville I found, to my surprise, Captain Richardson, 
of the city of Richmond, under instructions from the Gov- 
ernor to inspect the companies — there were two, armed and 
in readiness for the field — and to send them forward to Gen- 
eral Cooke, then commanding at Culpeper Courthouse. 

Thus summarily superseded, I went to Richmond and had 
an interview with Governor Letcher, who informed me that 
all old commissions were annulled. I then asked that I might 
be commissioned anew, retaining my rank and arm of serv- 
ice. He replied that it was not proposed to organize regi- 
ments of cavalry, and only detached companies of cavalry 
would be required to act as videttes. The request was then 
made that he would give me the same position in the infantry, 
as I was equally familiar with its tactics. He was very kind 
and respectful and said all his appointments had been made, 
but if I would raise a regiment of infantry volunteers he 
would take pleasure in commissioning me as its colonel. I 
told him it would take two, three, or four months to accom- 
plish that, and as many more would elapse before it could 
be armed and in readiness for the front, and by that time the 
struggle might be over, that I was no longer young, verging 
upon fifty-four, and if I expected to achieve anything I had 
no time to waste, and that I would go to Harper's Ferry, 
where the war had opened. 

Stopping only a day at my home, I hurried to the Ferry 
and enrolled, entering myself as a private in the Culpeper 
Minutemen. Six days after a company of "Roughs" from 
Baltimore, who had been compelled to flee the city for being 
engaged in the attack upon the Massachusetts troops when 
passing through, organized and appointed a deputation to 
wait on me and request that I would take their command. 
This I gladly did and two weeks later marched at their head 
under Col. (afterwards Lieut. Gen.) A. P. Hill to Romney. 
W. Va., whence the Federals were expelled. Returning with 
the command to Winchester, three weeks only having elapsed, 
I found a letter from my wife conveying a commission from 
the Governor as lieutenant colonel of infantry, with orders 
to repair to Norfolk and report to General Huger, who would 
assign me a command. Arriving there and reporting to Gen- 
eral Huger, he informed me that the only vacancy in the 
grade of lieutenant colonel had that morning been filled by 

^oi>federat^ tfefceraij. 


ieut. Col. George Blow, that more troops were daily ex- 
pected, and that the first opening should be assigned me. 

"roops arrived, but they were fully officered; and after re- 
gaining there seven weeks unattached I addressed a letter to 

overnor Letcher, stating the circumstances and begging an 

ctive position in the field. The next mail brought me an 
'rder to report to Gen. Henry Jackson, commanding at the 

Ireen Brier River, as lieutenant colonel of the 23d Regiment, 
"'here I was most agreeably surprised to find my nephew, 
Villiam B. Taliaferro, as colonel of that regiment and as 
! anking colonel next to Col. (afterwards Maj. Gen.) Edward 
^hnson, who commanded the post under General Jackson. 

Villiam B. Taliaferro commanded a brigade composed of the 

st and 12th Georgia, 23d and 37th Virginia Regiments, and 


'", by consequence, had the full and entire command as lieu- 
:nant colonel of the 23d. 

' Two days after the battle of Green Brier was fought; six 
Veeks later the post was abandoned, the troops divided, part 
':ft under Colonel Johnson, and my nephew's brigade was 
onducted by him to Winchester to reenforce Gen. Thomas 
'. Jackson. This brigade now made the 3d Brigade of the 
Stonewall Division. 

" On the first day of January, 1862, we left Winchester to 
ngage in the disastrous and hopeless winter expedition to 
ialtimore, thence to Hancock, in Maryland, and then on to 
iomney, W. Va. — disastrous from the number of fine and 
Valiant young men who perished ; bootless because General 
ackson's plans were never communicated to his second in 
"ommand, General Loring. Later I was somewhat behind 
'he scenes and partially honored by his confidence. The plans 
rere to destroy the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and thus 
ut off reinforcements to the Yankee army in Tennessee. 
What a great achievement this would have been, and what a 
lifferent coloring this might have have given to the results 
"'f the war ! To have wintered in Clarksburg, by his per- 
onal popularity (he was born there) and the magic of his 
lame, Jackson would have aroused all of West Virginia and 
"irought its men to his standard, and in the early spring with 
1 .n overwhelming force they would have marched upon and 
iccupied Pittsburg. What a grand turning point it would 
lave been in the struggle had not traitors in the departments 
n Richmond divulged Jackson's plans, as Yankee papers 
:aptured in Baltimore gave the very day of Jackson's de- 
parture from Winchester, his destination, and the exact num- 
bers of his different arms — infantry, cavalry, and artillery. 

Returning to Winchester to winter quarters, in the early 
••pring the battle of Kernstown was fought. This gave cheer 
o the Confederacy, but it was simply a repulse, not a victory, 
'or the Federals. In this I had my horse killed under me. 
'jeneral Jackson, still maintaining a gallant front, retreated 
ip the Valley. I finally crossed the Shenandoah at Swift 
'iun Gap, where Jackson made his stand. While there the 
•eorganization of the army occurred, and I was elected by 
icclamation full colonel of the 23d Regiment and was so com- 
nissioned. My nephew, Gen. William B. Taliaferro, in the 
' neantime having been promoted to a brigadier general, I 
:ontinued now in command of the 3d Brigade of the Stone- 
wall Division, of which the 23d Regiment formed a part. 

The battle of McDowell was next fought, where I had my 
second horse killed under me. Then the affair of Franklin 
was followed in quick succession by the battles of Front 
Royal, Strasburg, and the first Winchester, where in charging 
|i battery I had my sword scabbard shot from my side by 
jrape shot. Here occurred the pursuit of General Banks to 

Harpers Ferry, and then the second Strasburg was fought, 
at which time General Jackson encountered the two Yankee 
armies, Freemont moving from Romney, W. Va., and Shields 
from Fredericksburg, Va. Next came the battle of Cross 
Keys and the decisive battle of Port Republic, the last in the 
splendid services of Jackson in the Valley. In each of these 
I bore my part. At Port Republic I was slightly wounded, 
but painfully, in the shoulder, and this, superseded by an 
exhaustive attack of diarrhea contracted in the Valley, pre- 
vented my being present in the fights around Richmond when 
General McClellan withdrew to the defenses of Old Point. 

General Lee centered his troops in an around Gordonsville, 
where I rejoined my command. While confined to my cham- 
ber, sick and wounded, the Federals under Lieutenant General 
Pope for the first time advanced and occupied Culpeper 
Courthouse, and of this I was reliably informed by a refu- 
gee and, further, that their purpose was that night to burn 
the railroad bridge across the Rapidan River and to capture 
me, as they were fully advised that I was at home and an in- 
valid. Forthwith I dispatched my servant with my horses to 
Gordonsville and had another ready in the stable on which 
to make my escape. As a further precaution against capture, 
I ordered two men to report to me from the single company 
detailed to guard the railroad bridge, numbering some forty 
men — strange to tell, the importance of preserving it considered 
— without a piece of artillery, although higher up the river, 
where there was nothing to protect, there was a park of ar- 
tillery numbering ten pieces. The privates reported and were 
stationed by me at my outer gate, near which the only roads 
leading from Culpeper Courthouse converged. I impressed 
upon them the all-importance of keeping awake, that there 
were only two approaches, and to give me early information 
of the approach of danger; therefore I retired to rest, feel- 
ing perfectly secure. 

Informed somewhat of the movements of the cavalry, 
I expected them only at dawn; but at one o'clock I was 
aroused by the report of firearms, and the next instant a 
servant girl rapped at my window, exclaiming: "Master, the 
Yankees are here !" I had arranged everything for a sudden 
summons, but was only half dressed when they thundered 
upon the door with the hilts of their swords, demanding in- 
stant admission. Under my directions my wife opened the 
blinds and begged a few minutes to dress herself, and these 
few minutes I employed to dress and arm myself, and with 
my cocked hat upon my head and my military overcoat across 
my arm I passed out through a window, purposely left open 
to the rear, which was clear, and thus made my escape. The 
whole front yard was crowded, as the enemy's command num- 
bered over fifteen hundred men, and I passed within ten 
feet of them unchallenged. I refer to this fact because I 
must have been taken for a Federal officer, as in that stage of 
the war the uniforms were very much alike, a light blue. I 
had made a foolish and stupid mental resolve that I would 
never show my back to the Yankees, and if I was ever straight 
and erect in my life it was while walking through their ranks. 
This seeming fearlessness doubtless contributed to save me, 
and upon reaching the river's bank under the sheltering trees 
I felt perfectly secure. Many shots were fired, but none 
came near me, though they reported to my family that I had 
been riddled by bullets and lay dead in the garden. The truth 
is, I had scant fear of being captured, for if challenged and 
halted my purpose was to impersonate one of their officers 
and run the gauntlet. In my safe hiding place my ears were 
saluted by a yell of triumph ; they had found my horse in the 



^oijfederat^ l/efcerap. 

stable. As to the fate of my sentinels, they were found 
asleep upon their post by the Yankees, and in attempting to 
escape they were both killed. 

Twelve days thereafter the battle of Cedar Mountain was 
fought. At its opening General Winder, commanding the 
Stonewall Division, was killed, and my nephew, being the 
next ranking officer, succeeded to the command of the di- 
vision; while I, the ranking officer under him. succeeded to 
the command of the brigade, and as its commander I led it 
on that day and afterwards in all the series of affairs. We 
crossed the Hazel and Rappahannock Rivers and soon fought 
the three days' battle of Second Manassas. The first day of 
the battle my horse was killed under me, and on the second 
day in a charge upon the enemy a Minie ball struck the eagle 
of my sword belt and, glancing off, alone saved my life ; but 
my stomach was badly bruised, and on the third day while 
leading a charge upon a battery which was doing fearful exe- 
cution in our ranks my hand was struck by a Minie ball and 
two fingers of my sword arm crushed and mutilated. 

On the first day of these battles Gen. William B. Talia- 
ferro, still commanding the Stonewall Division, was severely 
wounded in the shoulder and was forced to retire. He was 
succeeded in command by General Starke, of Louisiana, the 
next ranking officer. The day after the closing battle Gen- 
eral Lee diverted his march to Ox Hill, in the county of 
Loudoun en route for Maryland at the crossing at Leesburg, 
where what has been termed the affair at Ox Hill, or Chan- 
tilly, occurred. It should have been dignified with the name 
of battle. I had been engaged in the battles of Green Brier 
River, Kernstown, McDowell's, the affair at Franklin, Front 
Royal, the First and Second Strasburg, Winchester, Cross 
Keys, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, at the crossings of the 
Hazel and Rappahannock Rivers, and in the three-day battles 
of Second Manassas ; but for the time it raged and lasted 
(only one hour) and the number of men engaged it was the 
sharpest and most deadly of them all. In this affair, General 
Starke being reported sick, I, as the next ranking officer, 
commanded the Stonewall Division. The next day the march 
was continued, and General Starke, having recovered, re- 
sumed the command, my command of the division lasting only 
twenty-four hours. 

From the bruise about my stomach I could not bear the 
pressure and weight of my belt and sword, and from my dis- 
abled hand I could not hold my sword or manage my horse; 
so under the earnest entreaties and almost commands of the 
surgeons I applied for a furlough and returned to my home. 
Three days later the battle of Sharpsburg was fought, and 
the gallant Starke was killed. Could I have returned to the 
army and survived the day and have remained with the army, 
I should have succeeded to the full command of the Stone- 
wall Division. My promotion was assured without the form 
of application to either the President or the Secretary of 
War. But the disease contracted in the Valley returned upon 
me. I had long borne up against it, but it prostrated me, and 
the deaths of my children, God help me. In my heart I had 
no further place for ambition. I was never afterwards in 
active service with the Army of Northern Virginia proper. 
I doubt not that I was the oldest man to volunteer as a pri- 
vate in the ranks of either army, North or South, and so I 
retired from it. 

I was assigned to the command the university post at the 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, and the military de- 
partment surrounding after a service of less than eighteen 
months with the full command of a brigade and the brief 

command of a division, and this before promotion came quid 
and rapid. If I have no cause for pride in my military refl 
ord, I am surely not ashamed of it. 

After the series of battles around Fredericksburg, on th< 
6th of February, 1863, Gen. William B. Taliaferro was pro- 
moted to major general and ordered to the command of For 
Wagner, the most important of the defenses of Charleston 
S. C, where he so greatly distinguished himself. A vacant) 
thus being made for a brigadier general in the 3d Brigade 
of the Stonewall Division, the acting position and duties oi 
which I had filled as colonel for many months, though absent 
I was not forgotten by them, but instantly upon the promo- 
tion of Gen. William B. Taliaferro its officers, field staff 
and company with almost unanimity signed a petition in which 
they set forth my claims and services and the perfect confi- 
dence that they reposed in my leadership, begging that I 
might be named their brigadier general. This petition was 
as follows : 

"Third Brigade, Trimble's Division, Jackson's Corps, 
A. N. V., Camp Near Rappahannock River, 
February 6, 1863. 

"Col Alexander G. Taliaferro — Dear Sir: Brig. Gen. Wil- 
liam B. Taliaferro, commanding this brigade, having been 
relieved at his own request, the post of brigadier general has 
become vacant. 

"From your position as senior colonel of the brigade you 
are, according to military usage, entitled to the promotion. 
In the last campaign, the events of which are so well known, 
3'ou have frequently and for long periods had the command 
of the brigade both upon the march and in battle. Your ex- 
perience, the perfect satisfaction you have rendered to your 
superiors, and the high appreciation in which your services 
are held by your inferiors in command are the greatest sup- 
ports that could possibly be asked for your claims. 

"Knowing your modesty to be equal to your merit, we shall 
not here offend it by expressing the high reputation you have 
won throughout our whole army for courage, gallantry, 
ability, and all other qualities of a soldier and a gentleman; 
but we do most earnestly request that your claims for pro- 
motion may be presented and urged." 

This was signed by the field, staff, and company officers of 
the 23d Virginia Infantry, 10th Virginia Infantry, 37th Vir- 
ginia Infantry, 1st North Carolina Infantry, and 3d North 
Carolina Infantry. 

This petition was sent me by an express messenger, and 
the pressing request renewed that I would hurry to Rich- 
mond, present it in person, and press my claim. In all hu- 
man probability this was the only instance that occurred 
during the continuance of the Confederate war of an applica- 
tion of this character, and I value it and would not exchange 
the proud expressions of the officers of my old 3d Brigade 
for all the parchments that the President or Secretary of 
War could sign, made as to the wishes of a command and 
as such should have been respected; but appointments were 
made arbitrarily from political or personal motives. Mr. 
James A. Seddon was then acting Secretary of War. He 
told me he would give the application his earliest attention 
and would take great pleasure in promoting my wishes and 
those of the officers of the brigade. The next day I returned 
to my post at Charlottesville, and six days thereafter I saw 
Col. George H. Steuart, of Maryland, gazetted as brigadier 
general of the 3d Brigade, Stonewall Division. 

In justice to Mr. Seddon (my health was very bad) he 

ced me if my physical condition was such as to accept the 
nmand. I replied that I could not and would not return 
the active army in the field as colonel of a regiment after 

-ving had the command of a brigade; but if he should give 
» position asked I would gladly report to the army if I 
:d in the mud and mire. The finale was that I was pro- 
ved to brigadier general and continued in the command of 

.' military post, which I held up to Appomattox. 



Confederate l/eterap. 





.There have been so many contradictory statements in re- 
,rd to the capture of John Wilkes Booth that I shall try 
write a correct account of it, I being one of the Garrett 
ys who were at home at the time of his capture and death. 
[ had just returned from the war. About three days after 
'■' arrival there came to my father's home a man by the 
me of Captain Jett, with a man riding behind him on the 
ne horse. He introduced this man to my father as John 
'. Boyd, a Confederate soldier from the army of Lee, who 
'd been wounded near Petersburg. He said he had returned 
" his home in Maryland, but the authorities required him to 
;e the oath, so rather than do that he would return to the 
'By. He did not know that Johnston had surrendered in 
: West. Captain Jett then requested my father to enter- 
n "Mr. Boyd," and he would call for him on Wednesday. 
-That night when I came to the house my father introduced 
to "Mr. Boyd, an old soldier." I was struck with his 
! >ks, as he was the handsomest man I had ever seen. He 
•nained that night, the next day, and the next night, when 
■ was shot. The first night he slept in the same room with 
' brother Jack and myself. He seemed to sleep well. The 
J tt day he remained about the premises with me and the 
Jnger children. 

■During the noon meal my brother, who had been to a 
Oemaker's, said he had heard that President Lincoln had 
':n assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, and a reward of 
e hundred thousand dollars had been offered for his ar- 
■t. I made the remark : "I wish he would come this way. 
1 like to get that amount." 

i\Ir. Boyd looked at me without showing any excitement 
d said: "Would you do such a thing?" 
[ replied : "That is a big sum." 

My father then said: "He is young and foolish. He does 
t mean what he says." 

•Then the conversation turned to other topics. 

After the meal Boyd returned to the porch. My sister 

Hnie said to him that she thought the death of Lincoln was 

nost unfortunate thing to have happened at this time. He 

)lied that it was the best thing that could have happened, 

Andrew Johnson would be made President, and he was a 

jnken sot. It would cause a revolution and would be 

; best thing for the South. 

About three o'clock three men came to within about three 
ndred yards of the house and beckoned to Mr. Boyd. He 
:t them, and they remained in conversation about half an 
ur; then two of the men left, leaving one behind whom 
:. Boyd introduced as a friend of his. Sometime later 
: two men returned, and the other man went to meet them. 
: came back and said he was notified that there was a body 
troops coming from the direction of Port Royal. They 
med to be excited and left for the woods, where they re- 


mained until dusk. On their return they learned that the 
troops had passed on toward Bowling Green, which seemed 
to satisfy them. 

My father had become suspicious that these men were not 
what they claimed to be, as Captain Jett had not called for 
Mr. Boyd, as promised, so after supper he told them they 
could not stay in his house that night ; they had better go 
back to the woods. They said they were not criminals and 
requested him to let them sleep in some outhouse, so he told 
them they could stay in the tobacco house. 

Brother Jack and I went with them to the barn, and after 
they had entered, fearing they might in the night come out 
and take our horses, we lotked the door. Not being satisfied 
with that precaution, as there were doors that fastened on 
the inside, we concluded to sleep in a shuck house near by 
to guard our horses. We were aroused about one o'clock by 
the barking of the dogs and quite a commotion going on. 
Jack said he would investigate and for me to remain in the 
shuck house. He was met by a posse of soldiers and or- 
dered to surrender. He replied: "Where is your commander? 
Take me to him." He was conducted to the house, where 
he found that they had taken my father out of doors in his 
night clothes and were calling for a rope to swing him up 
by because he could not tell them where the men were. Jack 
told them to let father alone, that he would take them to the 
barn, for there were two men out there, but he did not know 
who they were. They found the barn door locked, and I 
took the key to them. Then they made my brother go in 
and tell the men that they must surrender, as there were 
fifty men around the barn, and they could not escape. 

Boyd said to my brother : "Get out of here at the risk of 
your life. You have betrayed me." 

Brother reported what he said to the officer, who told him 
to lock the door. He then told my brother and me to pile 
brush near the side door, which we did. While doing so 
Boyd said : "Stop that. If you put any more there, it will 
be at your peril." 

The officer then told us not to put any more there, and 
he commenced to parley with Boyd and his companion. He 
told them to come out and surrender. Boyd refused,' say- 
ing: "I do not know to whom I am to surrender. I do not 
know who you are. You may be my friends." 

The officer said : "It makes no difference ; I know who you 
are. I came for you, and I am going to take you." 

Boyd then said : "There is a man in here who wishes to 
come out." 

The officer said: "Tell him to leave his arms and come 

Boyd said : "He has no arms ; they are mine." 

The officer then ordered my brother to unlock the door. 
He made the man put forth his arms, and cuffs were placed 
on them, and he was jerked out and the door fastened as 
quickly as if they feared a tiger might bounce out on them. 
Boyd then came to a crack in the barn and said to the officer : 
"Captain, I have a bead on your heart. I could kill you, but 
I do not wish to shed innocent blood. Call your men off 
fifty yards and open the door, and I will come out and fight. 
Give me some chance for my life." 

The officer said : "No, I did not come to fight ; I came to 
capture you." He then placed my brother and me each at a 
corner of the barn by a light from a candle, with a guard 
over us with instructions that if the man inside fired a shot 
we were to be shot and not allowed to escape. 

Boyd said to the officer : "Those men are innocent. They 


Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

do not know who I am. I will not surrender, so prepare 
a stretcher for me. Here is one more stain on the glorious 
banner. Do your worst." 

Then it was that an officer, whom I afterwards learned 
was Colonel Conger, twisted some straw and lighted it and 
set the barn on fire. As soon as the barn was lighted up 
a shot was heard. 

An officer, Lieutenant Baker, was standing near the front 
door, and when the shot was heard he said to me : "Give me 
the key; he has shot himself." 

I unlocked the door, and he and I ran in and took hold 
of the man to lift him up. We found that he could not walk. 
I then left them to go and work on the fire, hoping to put 
it out and save the barn, but it could not be saved; it was 
burned with all its contents. The loss was about two thou- 
sand dollars, for which no compensation was ever made. 

I then learned for the first time that it was John Wilkes 
Booth who had been shot. He was shot by Sergeant Corbitt, 
a religious crank, who claimed that the Lord had directed 
him to avenge the death of the President. The ball passed 
through Booth's neck and paralyzed him from his neck down. 
He was taken to the house and placed on the porch floor. A 
mattress was then put under him, and he lived about two 
hours. All he said was to Lieutenant Baker : "Tell my mother 
good-by. What I did I thought was for the best." Then 
he passed away. 

I learned that the young man who came with him was 
David Harrold. He was tied to a tree in the yard with his 
hands behind him. 

Booth was sewed in a blanket and a one-horse carryall was 
hired from a negro man, Ned Freeman, who took him to 
Belle Plain, a wharf on the Potomac. My brother, Harrold, 
and I were taken to the same place, each behind a soldier. 
Then we took the same boat that had brought the troops 
down from Washington, and we returned to Washington. 
We were taken to the arsenal, brother and I escorted by 
four detectives, one on each side of us. We were placed in 
a cell 6x8 feet the first night. The next day we were given 
the liberty of the guardroom with the soldiers. We remained 
there about five days. During the time the public heard of 
the capture and of our being confined there, and a mob made 
a raid on the arsenal to take us out, what to do with us I 
do not know unless to hang us. 

They had to double the guard and place cannon in front 
of the gates. The commotion kept up most of the night. 
We were well treated, Irish soldiers guarding us. We were 
then taken to the old Capitol Prison under a heavy guard. 
They formed a hollow square and placed us in the middle. 
All the way to the old prison we were hissed at and followed 
by the cry of "Rebel ! Rebel !" We were placed in a room 
with a Confederate colonel who had been arrested as a sus- 
pect. He seemed to be a man of means, bought his drarn, 
and kept drunk most of the time. 

We remained there about seven days, then we were taken 
before the chief of the detective department. We were the7i 
paroled to report each day at nine o'clock. We then learned 
that we were to be used as witnesses, and we were sent to a 
boarding house kept by a gentleman of color. We were 
never taken to court, but our affidavit was taken and used 
in favor of Lieutenant Baker as being the first man to place 
his hand on Booth after he was shot. Corbitt, who did the 
shooting, thought the reward was his, so he installed him- 
self in a hotel, taking two rooms. He took quite an interest 
in us, having us to call on him, and when leaving he placed 

a Bible and twenty-five dollars in our hands. It was said 
that he died insane. 

After being kept there a month we were given our trans- 
portation home. From Baltimore we took the first traffic 
boat that had been up the Rappahannock River since the 
war. Arriving home in the night, our people were wild with 
joy at seeing us, for they had not heard a thing from us 
since we left. 

It has been said that my brother Jack betrayed Booth. 
Here are a few more facts : Two men came to Port Conway, 
on the King George side of the river, and hailed the ferry- 
man, Bill Rollins, who was out fishing. He did not come 
at once, so in the meantime there rode up three soldiers of 
Mosb/s command — Captain Jett and Lieutenants Ruggles and 
Bainbridge — who also wished to cross. While waiting one 
of the two men, the youngest, came up and met the three, 
and during their conversation he said : "That man on the log 
is Booth, who shot Lincoln." The man heard him and said,. 
"I did not wish you to tell that; you have killed us," or 
something to that effect. 

They were put across the river by Rollins and a negro, 
Jim Thornton, but I do not know that they were told who 
they were taking over. On reaching Port Royal they tried to 
get lodging at Mr. Gibbs's, who kept an inn there, but he 
was not at home; so the soldiers brought Booth to my 
father's place, Captain Jett bringing him to the house on 
his own horse. Jett then went to Bowling Green, where the 
soldiers found him and brought him back to my father's the 
night Booth was killed. 

Colonel Baker, chief detective of the War Department, re- 
ceived notice that two men were seen leaving the Maryland 
shore one dark night. It was his impression that that was 
the route they would take, as he (Booth) had traveled it 
several times going to Richmond as a spy. So he ordered 
a detachment of soldiers, with two of his trusted detectives, 
and gave them orders to land at Belle Plain, on the Potomac, 
and to proceed to Port Conway, on the Rappahannock, be- 
lieving he would strike the trail. When they arried there, 
they of course inquired of the ferryman, Mr. Rollins, about 
the men. He informed them that such men had crossed. 

Now who betrayed Booth? Did Captain Jett or Bill Rol- 
lins or Jack Garrett or Colonel Baker, chief detective? I 
give the facts. 

(From the German of Herder.) 
All faintly through my soul to-day, 
As from a bell that far away 
Is tinkled by some frolic fa}', 

Flouteth a lovely chiming. 
Thou magic bell, to many a fell 
And many a winter-saddened dell 
Thy tongue a tale of spring doth tell, 

Too passionate-sweet for rhyming. 

Chime out, thou little song of Spring, 
Float in the blue sky ravishing. 
Thy song of life a joy doth bring 

That's sweet, albeit fleeting. 
Float on the Spring-winds e'en to my home ; 
And when thou to a rose shall come 
That hath begun to show her bloom, 

Say, I send her greeting! — Sidney Lanier. 

Point Lookout Prison, 1864. 

^opfederat^ Ueterai), 


"A perfect life in perfect labor wrought." 


Sidney Lanier is numbered among the few great poets of 
America and, with Edgar Allan Poe, represents the South in 
his high fellowship. Critics may stress different characteris- 
es of his work, but to the unlearned there are three salient 
[ualities which impress even the casual reader : first, intense 
itality; second, the varied mental pictures suggested; and last, 
he pure beauty of the thoughts enshrined in words. A lover 
if nature, a musician, a student of the classics, and a deeply 
eligious soul stand revealed, also a mystic, as we call those 
rfio catch a clearer vision of "the little landscape of our life" 
a its relation to the boundless vista of eternity. Lowell said 
ie was a man of genius with a rare gift for the happy word, 
^anier's own conviction is thus affirmed : "I know through 
he fiercest tests of life that I am in soul and shall be in life 
nd utterance a great poet." 

i A writer of the present, in a critical estimate of Lanier's 
;enius, says : "With the spiritual endowment of a poet 
.nd an unusual sense of melody, where was he lacking in 
vhat makes a great poet? In power of expression. * * * 
.rhe touch of finality is not in his words. Lack of time to 
evise his work. Sickness, poverty, hard work, robbing him 
->f the repose and the serenity essential to the development 
yf the artist." 

The "Symphony" was written in four days, the "Psalm 
if the West," in a few weeks, the "Centennial Cantana" in 
, even days. Yet, falling short of the supreme perfection he 
, night have attained in more fortuitous circumstances, as the 
ecord of his thirty-nine years is read, where is there another 
ife more inspiring in its heroic struggle with untoward con- 
litions or insuperable obstacles and more bravely defiant in 
-he long battle with disease? Sidney Lanier was born in 
; 842, a descendant of the Huguenots and the Scotch-Irish, 
wo of the finest strains which have mingled in the making of 
Americans. From one he inherited the music and poetry 
vhich transform the clod into the finer clay which choice 
■pirits inhabit, and from the other came the stalwart virtues 
'.nd serene faith which enable mortals to endure "as seeing 
rlim who is invisible." 

Southern biography, it must be confessed, departs some- 
vhat from Southern fiction in its financial estimates of ante 
lellum opulence. Society, as Voltaire notices, heard even 
hen the rustling of brocades coming down and sabots going 
ip. A static' condition may be approximately maintained 
hrough primogeniture reenforced by marriage with heiresses, 
mt in Dixie land, except for an occasional spendthrift trust, 
here were no artificial barriers to prevent the division of 
:states or to suspend the law which makes the careless and 
ncompetent the natural prey of the diligent and efficient. 
3iography indicates that even in "the days that are no more" 
here was in the South a professional class whose modest 
moluments added zest to the problem of making both ends 
neet and a proletariat (commonly known as poor white 
rash) which attained the ne plus ultra of sloth and ig- 

In Macon, Ga., in the year 1842, there were many pillared 
)orticos owned by wealthy citizens, mostly on the hills above 
he flourishing little town, which was becoming a railroad 
:enter, and in a small cottage down on High Street Robert 
jampson Lanier and Mary Anderson, his wife, founded a 


home which was a center of piety and culture. He was a 
struggling young lawyer and in time built up a good practice, 
but there was evidently no surplus of either capital or in- 
come. Three children came to this home, Sidney, Clifford, 
and Gertrude, bound together by closest ties of sympathy and 
affection. Education was a tradition in the Lanier family 
and the love of music an inheritance which they believed was 
derived from a remote ancestor who was a musician in the 
household of Queen Elizabeth. Sidney and Clifford went 
to Oglethorpe College, and when the call to arms came in 
1861 both answered adsum promptly and served with daring 
and fidelity from the beginning until almost the close of hos- 
tilities. Both took part in the campaigns in Virginia, and in 
December, 1864, were transferred to Wilmington, the last 
port of the Confederacy to close. They were signal officers 
on blockade runners, hazardous work, which was soon ended, 
for Clifford's ship, the Talisman, was lost, but he fortunately 
was saved, and Sidney's ship, Lucy, was captured, and he 
was sent to prison at Point Lookout. 

The hardships endured during the imprisonment of nearly 
five months developed tuberculosis, and with this handicap, 
the price of patriotic devotion, Sidney Lanier began life 
again in his devastated country. The old order, the old 
comforts and compensations had alike vanished. Entering 
"the unfamiliar avenue of a new era" with precarious means 
of support, it was perfectly Southern and characteristic for 
him to take unto himself a wife. In December, 1867, he 
married Miss Lucy Day, and a union of ideal happiness be- 
gan, tenderly depicted in the poem "My Springs." She was 
a devoted helpmeet and as his literary executrix the zealous 
guardian of his fame. For the next six years Sidney was 
"finding himself" and seeking health, doing some writing 
also, notably his one novel, "Tiger Lilies." After trying and 
abandoning the law, he definitely resolved to adopt music as 
a profession. His real life, in both music and literature, be- 
gan in 1873 in Baltimore when he became flutist in the Pea- 
body Orchestra. A congenial environment, opportunity to 
study in the Peabody Library, and the deepening conscious- 
ness of his own powers made the next eight years the hap- 
piest of his life. As if he realized that Balzac's "Peau de 
Chagrin" measured his days, the fertility of those years is 
amazing. Always, however, weaving through the music of 
the orchestra, and for Lanier its leit motif, was the howling 
of the wolf. Surely life's profoundest tragedy is the mora- 
torium which necessity declares against the leisure and re- 
pose in which genius can attain its ultimate development. 
He was an indefatigable worker, for work meant bringing 
to him the adored wife and sons. Prose had a commercial 
value which made it expedient for him to write "the Boy's 
Froissart, Mabinogion," a guidebood to Florida, and other 
pot boilers, all permeated by his charming style and gentle 
humor. Ten volumes of his prose works were collected. 
While visiting Macon in 1874 he wrote "Corn," which ap- 
peared the next year in Lippincotfs Magazine. With "A 
Psalm of the West," the "Symphony," and a few short poems, 
it comprises the slim brown volume, dedicated to Charlotte 
Cushman, which was published in 1877. There are few pas- 
sages more exquisite than the comparison of the old hill to 
"King Lear," 

"Whom the divine Cordelia of the year 
E'en pitying spring will vainly strive to cheer." 

It presages the depth and power which later found expres- 
sion in "The Marshes of Glynn," esteemed by critics his 

1 3 2 

Qotyfederat^ l/eterai). 

greatest poem and worthy to rank with the best in our litera- 

Although Lanier continued to play his wonderful flute and 
composed several melodies for it, he gave up the Peabody 
Orchestra and became lecturer on English literature at Johns 
Hopkins University. To these lectures he devoted the waning 
strength of his last years. No bitterness mars his allusions 
to the war which took toll of his lifeblood. 

"Headstrong South would have his way, 
Headstrong North hath said him nay." 

The little ballad of the "Trees and the Master" and "The 
Crystal Christ" seem almost too intimate and sacred even 
for reverent comment. Through the veil they lift one has a 
glimpse of the resignation and the inward light as Lanier 
approached the final mystery. In 1881 he sought in the heal- 
ing air of the North Carolina mountains the rest he sorely 
needed, and there, in the shadow of Mount Pisgah, came the 
final summons on September 7. Surely this rare and beauti- 
ful spirit found "on the Paradise side of the river of death" 
all that he anticipated in his last poem, "Sunrise," dictated on 
his deathbed. 

Sidney Lanier was buried in Greenmount Cemetery, Balti- 
more's sweet, silent "sleeping place." Down in the city, deaf 
to its discord, is the grave of Edgar Allan Poe. Lanier was 
a being of courage and hope, with a heart and mind attuned 
to the noblest aspirations which thrill humanity; Poe a figure 
of supreme sorrow, a dweller in ghoul-haunted forests and 
the dank tarn of Auber, distilling from mingled genius and 
misery a few immortal poems and unsurpassed short stories. 
No comparison of these lives, almost identical in their span, 
seems possible ; but it is a noteworthy fact that Poe, dying 
in 1849, and Lanier, a generation later, had this experience 
in common : each found in their happier and more prosperous 
Northern contemporaries the sympathy, encouragement, and 
discerning appreciation which are the incentive to creative 
effort and also its best reward. It would also seem that cen- 
ters of learning and culture are a necessary environment to 
some natures : If the spirit's lamp does not actually cease 
to burn in the small town or country, it dwindles to an in- 
finitesimal source of illumination. 

Reviewing the lives of Southern literary men, the chasten- 
ing thought must come that Ireland is not alone in being "the 
birthplace of genius, but never its home." Southern careers 
in literature, as well as in music and art, are pursued under 
difficulties, and success, if attained, is not a facile triumph, 
but a hard-won and well-deserved reward. 

(From "Women of the South in War Times.") 

In all America perhaps, but certainly in the Valley of the 
Shenandoah, a name which will ever be held up to execration 
is that of Gen. David Hunter. This execration is by no 
means sectional or partisan, for General Hunter was secretly 
and often openly scorned by many Federal soldiers who had 
the misfortune to serve under him, while it is said that not 
a few refused to obey his orders. 

On his invasion of the Shenandoah Valley in 1864 the first 
victim to suffer under the ruthless policy of General Hunter 
was his first cousin, Hon. Andrew Hunter, of Charles Town, 
Va., (W. Va.) Not content with directing that Mr. Hunter, 
an elderly man, be placed in close confinement, General Hun- 

ter gave orders that Mr. Hunter's house be burned. His 
cousins, the women of the household, were not permitted to 
save either their clothing or their family portraits from the 
flames. Thereafter, in order to make the destruction com- 
plete, General Hunter camped his cavalry on the highly culti- 
vated ground surrounding the site of the house until every 
vestige of lawn and garden had been utterly ruined. 

This exploit having been brought to a close, General Hunter 
sent out a force with orders to destroy Fountain Rock, the 
Boteler residence, near Shepherdstown. Colonel Boteler was 
a member of the Confederate Congress and was then in 
Richmond. At the time of General Hunter's invasion the 
only members of the family at home were Mrs. Davis Shep- 
herd, Colonel Boteler's widowed daughter, who was an in- 
valid, her three children, the oldest of whom was not six 
years old, and Miss Helen Boteler. 

On July 19, 1864, therefore, in pursuance of instructions 
from General Hunter, Capt. William F. Martindale, with a 
detachment of cavalry, rode up to the Boteler home. Warned 
of their approach, Mrs. Shepherd met the soldiers at the 
door. Captain Martindale stated that he had come to burn 
her house and its contents. Pleading was in vain, and Mrs. 
Shepherd and Miss Boteler made preparations to save house- 
hold and personal effects ; but Captain Martindale, in accord- 
ance with the orders of General Hunter, directed that every- 
thing be consigned to the flames. The furniture was piled 
up on the floor, straw was brought from the barn, and the 
soldiers busied themselves scattering over all kerosene oil, 
which they had brought with them for the purpose. In the 
midst of this work of destruction Miss Boteler, a devoted 
student of music, pleaded for her piano. This was denied 
her, and while the flames were bursting out in other rooms 
she went into the parlor and, seating herself for the last time 
before the instrument, began to sing Charlotte Elliott's hymn I 

"My God, my Father, while I stray 
Far from my home, on life's rough way, 
O teach me from my heart to say, 
'Thy will be done !' " 

A soldier seized her to lead her out of the house, but she 
pulled away from him and sang again : 

"Though dark nry path, and sad my lot, 
Let me be still and murmur not, 
Or breathe the prayer divinely taught, 
'Thy will be done !' " 

In amazement the cavalrymen thought the girl was crazed 
with grief ; but as the flames came nearer Miss Boteler calmly 
shut down the lid of the piano, locked it, and went out under 
the trees, the only shelter left for herself, her sick sister, and 
the frightened little children. 


Dreaming that love and hope no more 
Would come to him on sea or shore, 
In some fierce fray he longed to die, 
But death, disdainful, passed him by. 

And when, at last, glad tidings came. 
The homeward call to love and fame, 
Close to a fen of poisonous breath 
The soldier met an ambushed death ! 

— William H. Hayne. 

^oi}federat$ l/eterai). 




iharpsburg pulls out its shoe string length along the 
1 gerstown-Stepherdstown Pike, a drowsy little one-street 
jm, a Brer Rabbit sort of a place, "jes' haltin' 'twix er 
akdown an' er balk," no reason for going back, certainly 
f] incentive for going forward, just a somnolent little lizard 
: petually sunning itself. One brief day of glory it has 
'i in its one hundred and fifty years, the kind of glory we 
Slish mortals associate with trumpets and powder, for- 
ting the toll in what was once God's own image. 
And in commemoration of that one brief day and to do 
l ing honor to those who died, the living come back one 
'ptember 17, just fifty-eight years after, and wander again 
;r those fields and through those woods and along the 
fhks of a narrow little winding creek. A tiny little stream 
i leed, but so was the Rubicon, and the Marne is not so 
J -y large. You tag along with these old men, and you hear 
■:ch that thrills you, and that night you have a queer 
i 1 am. This is what you dream : You are witnessing an 
ormous movie. You stand in front of a tiny little brick 
ilirch surrounded by a few trees. By it runs a macadam 
hd, along which goes an endless stream of automobiles. 
: the northwest there is a thin strip of woods, farther off 
I the northeast another thin strip. Between are rich fields 
!'i prosperous-looking houses and barns. Some distance 
i to the right there is a large walled-in place where there 
: i many little headstones in orderly array. It is like a paint- 
;, this serene landscape. And then it fades out slowly, and 
: lew film is before you. 

pit is still September 17, you notice by a calendar by the 
■'■ ge door, but it is now earliest dawn. You can scarcely 
I tinguish anything, but dimly you realize that it is the same 
i.ce. And yet it seems strangely different. There are more 
pods and less open land between ; the road is the same, but 
is now flanked by rail fences, and the automobiles are 
ne. In fact, it is entirely deserted, and this seems peculiar 
you, because all around you are men. Strange-looking men 
:y are, burned almost black, lean and long of face and 
lme, unbelievably dusty and dirty, clad, if you can call it 
■, d, in fantastic rags, and shod, when they are shod at all, in 
surd shoes, some with toes gone, others with soles tied on 
;h strings or green withes. At times they scratch themselves 
iguorously as if rather from sheer force of habit than from 
y hope of reaching any definite conclusion, and profanely 
d querulously and inelegantly they argue as to whether that 
in in their middle is a belly- or a bachache, the two parts 
-ng so close together that there is no way of distinguishing 
arly the limitations of each. You gather that for the past 
•ee days they have had nothing to eat but "one mess of 
as'in' ears, an' raw at that," and you gather further that 
:y "hope to God that them cooks gets finished 'fore Ole 
begins." Ole Who begins what? you wonder. It is all 
I eek to you, and still more Greek is all this cryptic talk 
out Ole Jube being with Ole Jeb and the Ole Man and 
e Mack. But, nevertheless, though puzzled, you feel that 
mething tense is afoot, and you look again at the calendar, 
is, it is September 17, but now you note with a start what 
d escaped you before. Time has turned back fifty-eight 
irs in its flight, and you are with the Army of Northern 
rginia. Over yonder in that east woods is Jo Hooker 
th his 1st Corps, of the Army of the Potomac. And he- 
re you can think another thought there is a crash of ar- 
lery, and a man near you remarks casually, "Thar she goes, 


boys," and once more tragedy stalks the boards, and that 
busy old miller, History, has commenced grinding more 
human grist. 

There is in front of you a field of corn just ready to cut, 
and above the tassels you see the glint of bayonets. So, it 
seems, do other eyes, and from those innocent-looking east 
woods there is suddenly a roar of cannon. It is the crash 
that you have just heard, and bayonets and men and corn 
go down in regular rows under the blade of the reaper, such 
a reaper as never before has harvested that field and, please 
God, never will again. 

And then in the brighter light you see the ten brigades of 
Jo Hooker bearing down on the seven of Old Jack and 
Dick Ewell. On the right is Doubleday, Gen. Forty-Eight 
Hours, as the seldom playful Stonewall calls him in the one 
known pun of his life, and there is certainly nothing play- 
ful in the meeting of the twain now. Winder and J. R. 
Jones are behind stone ledges and rail fences, giving and 
taking tremendous punishment ; down the pike Stark's Louisi- 
anians and Taliaferro's Virginians and Alabamians are des- 
perately wrestling back and forth with Meade, and near the 
Dunker church it is sickening. There is an open field here, 
and in this field yesterday you watched a young man prosily 
driving a harrow and whistling "Love Nest" murderously off 
the key, but blissfully ignorant of it. It is no love nest now, 
for here Ricketts is fighting Lawton and Trimble and Hayes, 
and the two forces are fairly tearing each other to pieces. 
Your friends are killing man for man, but there are too 
many of the others, and foot by foot the ragged gray men 
are forced back to the church. 

An orderly runs up to a black-bearded man near you : "Gen- 
eral Lawton's compliments, and will General Hood come at 
once to his support?" "I told you so," says the dirty in- 
dividual who had guessed correctly that Jo Hooker would 
arrive before "them d— n cooks" did, and then he adds as if 
very much bored : "Le's go shoot us a few squirrels, an' then 
maybe we can eat a mess of sumpin' or other in peace." And 
with this benediction, grace before meals, as it were, out 
sweep Wofford and Laws, Georgians, Alabamians, North 
Carolinians, Mississippians, and, hardest fighters probably in 
all that army of hard fighters, Hood's Texans. And D. H. 
Hill, on the right, chips in with Ripley and Colquitt and 
Garland, and once more the red tide of battle flows across the 

And at the north edge of this, with Hooker almost de- 
stroyed, comes the 12th Corps to salvage the wreckage. An- 
other appalling butchery of men in the open, and again you 
see your gray friends borne back, fighting viciously all the 
way. After a while what is left of them are in the woods 
around the little church, but now the work of "them d — n 
cooks" has been materially lightened. Of the two hundred 
and twenty-seven who went out with the 1st Texas, there are* 
only twenty-nine now left to be fed, and of Wofford's whole 
brigade of eight hundred and sixty-four only three hundred 
and sixteen. Still unfed and undaunted, the three hundred 
and sixteen take position just west of the road, and not fifty 
yards away, behind a merciful ledge of rock, those of Greene's 
men who have survived the fiery furnace. They are in an 
uncomfortable fix, unable to advance and reluctant to re- 
treat, the latter an unhealthy operation anyhow. Their line 
of retreat is over an open field, and across the road are some 
very hungry and therefore very irascible gentlemen extremely 
quick and accurate on the trigger and in no wise slow to 
anger. So Greene's men hang on, hoping for some one to 


C^opfederat^ Ueterai), 

come along and enable them to let that bear loose, and the 
righting simmers down all along the pike. Not one hundred 
yards apart are two bodies of utterly spent men, both watch- 
ing intently for the offensive move that neither is able to 

It is the calm before the storm, but any breathing space is 
acceptable in this horrible nightmare, and you find time to 
note two things with a certain grim amusement. You are a 
spectator you know, and so you can go where and do what 
you want to. You notice in the west wood how expert some 
of those men in gray are in transferring property and how 
they overlook the little niceties of waiting for the former 
owner to become the late owner before the transfer takes 
place. And over in the east woods you are struck by the 
numbers of wounded men, each one supported by from one 
to four very solicitous and unwounded Samaritans. No 
wonder that Jo Hooker complains that his corps was "for 
the time much scattered." Of the nearly ten thousand he 
took into the fight, 6,729 were present next morning, and four 
days later there were 13,093. You think of the American gas 
shell dump exploded by the Germans at St. Mihiel and of 
the resultant precipitate departure of the men around. One 
of them turns up at sunset next day. "Where have you 
been ?" demands his outraged captain. "Captain, honest to 
goodness, I don't know ; but it sure took me good walking 
all day to get back." It took over six thousand of the 1st 
Corps four days to get back, and, looking at the dismal sight 
before you, you can't much blame them. 

But now your respite is over, and tensely you watch the 
next film. From the northeast come heavy masses of blue 
and from the south long lines of gray, and in a moment from 
the east woods come Sedgwick's men oi Sumner's 2d Corps. 
Across the blood-soaked cornfield they come unopposed and, 
crossing the pike still unopposed and in a sinister dead silence, 
bury themselves in those ominous west woods. Even your 
unmilitary mind tells you that the three lines are much too 
close together and that there is no protection for the flanks, 
and you are sure that disaster is impending. Eecause you 
see what Sedgwick cannot ; he is in a deadly trap, with no 
chance of salvation. On his right and hidden from him by 
a ridge are Jube Early and the mere handful that is left of 
D. R. Jones's brigade, on his left, behind rock ledges and 
trees, Walker, and in his front McLaws, in all some eight 
thousand men. And then the victims come to the west edge 
of the woods, and Gorman and Dana climb a fence and are 
lining up in a little wood road when the storm breaks. If 
there was silence before, there is noise enough now, for 
Sedgwick is caught front, flank, and almost rear in a raging 
furnace, a terrific fire, to which he cannot reply and in which 
he loses nearly forty per cent of his men almost in a breath. 
It is mercifully soon over, for flesh and blood cannot stand 
anything like this, and in a very few minutes the tide flows 
back over the pike and that cursed cornfield and clear back 
to the east woods. It has set so strong this time that you 
wonder if it can be stopped, and as if in answer to your 
question comes Hancock. He has no orders, but Hancock 
never needs an order or an invitation to fight anyhow, and 
with a fine Irish disregard of the amenities and apparently 
not caring whether is is a private fight or one in which any- 
body can mix, he comes out of the east woods and meets 
McLaws, and stops him. The gray men fall back to the place 
from which they started, and that seems to be a very satis- 
factory arrangement for everybody, for nobody follows. 
But you are not sure that somebody won't, and you and 

the gaunt, powder-blackened men watch the opposite woods 
with much interest. Little by little this feeling subsides, and 
an air of perfect relaxation takes its place. On seeking the 
cause you find that some one has mentioned to the "Old Man" 
that it looked like the Yanks "would soon be coming over 
again" and that the "Old Man," with one leg thrown across 
the pommel of his saddle and paying more attention to a 
wormy peach than to anything else, had remarked dryly that 
"those people" were "through for the day." This uninspiring- 
looking somebody, it would seem, is a sort of oracle, because 
all hands seem to take it for granted that they are through 
for the day and address themselves to their several needs. 
These are simple enough — sleep and food. And here you 
leave them, for the "Old Man" was right; they were through 
for the day on his front. 

You are glad to leave, for in the little space before you lie 
5,700 gray and 6,600 blue figures, the bloody toll of six hours 
of insane butchery. Among these figures you see fifteen gen- 
erals and brigadiers, and it is borne in on you that this is 
indeed some other age, an age in which officers do not send 
men on dreadful errands, but go with them. 

And then the camera of your dream shifts, and you see 
that quiet little shady grass-covered road of yesterday. It 
is now treeless and bare and aroar from end to end with one 
continuous crash of musketry. It is full of Alabamians and 
Georgians and North Carolinians, and they crouch behind 
piled-up rails and kill and are killed in shocking fashion. 
You think of the old Yankee soldier who yesterday in the 
Roulette lane had the floor. You might edit his words ; but 
as you are of those who find it profitless to gild the sunset 
or perfume the rose, you remember exactly what he said : 
"We had the North Carolinians in front of us, and we knew 
we were in for a nice time. I've heard fellows say the North 
Carolina fellows warn't as mean offensive fighters as some 
of them Rebs from other States, and maybe they are right. 
I don't know ; they all looked alike to me. But one thing I 
know, when it come to making them turn loose from where 
they was, them dirty, lousy North Carolinians was the 
beatenest fellows in the whole Rebel army for sticking to the 
place they was at. You couldn't pry 'em loose. They acted 
like any place they was was their ticket to heaven." 

And then you come back to your dream and overhear a 
brief and to-the-point dialogue between Colonel Christie, of 
the 23d North Carolina, and one of his men who is offering 
himself as the exception to the rule and is trading his birth- 
right for a safer place. Says the Colonel to this safety-first 
soul: "Why are you away from your command?" And he an- 
swered truthfully enough in all conscience: "Colonel, that ain't 
no fittin' place for no white man." Indeed, it isn't you agree. 

You see the assailants slowly breasting the fiery storm until 
they reach the high ground overlooking this road, and once 
there you see the road enfiladed and men dying like flies. 
They lie in all sorts of fantastic shapes piled up in hideous 
layers, and the few survivors fall back through another corn- 
field and line up in a long lane. They are followed, but you 
can't bring yourself to be alarmed because by now you have 
discovered an axiom. By the time any gray men have been 
driven out of a position their assailants have been so mauled 
that they have neither the strength nor the inclination to be 
too persistently disagreeable. And it seems further to be 
one of the laws of the Medes and Persians that under no 
circumstances must a blue attack be supported : You see two 
army corps of over 30,000 men twiddling their thumbs not 
far behind this sunken road, but you know by this time that. 

<^OT?federat^ Vetera^. 


though they are brave men and willing, this is all that they 
will do, and so it is. 

In front of the lane there is a stir in the corn, and presently 
out comes a queer-looking little handful of some two hundred 
men, many of them officers, and headed by a general on foot. 
He has a musket and is using it. It is that dauntless old 
Presbyterian D. H. Hill, no long-distance, bombproof gen- 
eral, no, not he. Close by Longstreet is dismounted holding 
the horses of his staff, which is busily engaged serving two 
guns of a deserted battery. And you realize what a man's 
job it is to beat an army in which division commanders wield 
muskets and corps commanders serve guns if and when oc- 
casion requires. And as a further and natural result, you feel 
a heightened respect for the army that had to face this com- 

But now it seems to be getting late, and the action is some- 
what indistinct, and the camera is flickering badly. You see 
a creek with high western banks and a stone bridge. Across 
the bridge is a low ridge, and there yesterday you heard two 
old New Yorkers telling each other all about it. Said he of 
the Slst New York, a plain-spoken old soul: "Yes, I was 
with Burnside. The old buzzard [only that wasn't exactly 
the word he used], he oughter been shot at sunrise next morn- 
ing. It's a pity they hadn't done it that morning. We had 
been sticking around behind this ridge nearly twenty-four 
hours, and the good-for-nothing coward hadn't even sent out 
anybody to locate the bridge, and it not more than two hun- 
dred yards away. So when Crook moved out on it with no 
guides, didn't he miss it entirely? I'll say he did. And I 
reckon it's a good thing he did too, because the Rebs would 
have murdered him. They say there weren't more than six 
hundred of them there, but from the racket they made I would 
have sworn that there were six hundred thousand." 

So, provided with this illuminating and ex-cathedra de- 
scription of a leisurely, vague old dodderer of a corps com- 
mander, you take up your position with Toomb's Georgians 
and see them dispensing with open hands that warm Southern 
hospitality of which the poets sing. 

Burnside has often been damned with that faint praise of 
being called good-hearted. It is quite evident right now that, 
no matter what or where his heart is, his stomach at least 
is not in this fight. Or maybe he is absent-minded and does 
not grasp the fact that not two miles away are friends of 
his engaged in an enterprise to which he is not entirely for- 
eign. At any rate, with prayers and entreaties and urgent 
commands pouring in on him, you see him, as if he had all 
eternity before him, spend three hours doing what a resolute 
man would have done in fifteen minutes. You see him cross 
the bridge and line up in most leisurely fashion on the west- 
ern bank. You see him aimlessly taking whole brigades out 
and sending them back to get the munitions that should have 
been right there, and then when, almost in spite of himself, 
he has arrived almost in the very streets of the little town, 
wide awake for its one time, something happens. 

With victory in plain sight, and beckoning an apparently 
unwilling suitor, you see hurrying along the Harper's Ferry 
road some 3,500 men who puzzle you. They are in blue, and 
you know that the only men in that direction entitled to wear 
that colorer are 11,000 unfortunates who got caught in a 
trap two days before. Yet they came along in that unmis- 
takable swinging distance-eating stride that makes a Confed- 
erate recognizable a mile away, and you realize that it is all 
right. It is A. P. Hill, and every man clothed in brand-new 
Yankee clothes. The Confederate soldier is no faddist, no 

blind follower of fashion's vagaries. Why not? To him. 
clothes are clothes, and the cut and color are not as impor- 
tant as the fact' of them. So in Yankee clothes and shoes 
and shooting Yankee bullets out of Yankee guns, they an- 
nounce their presence to Burnside's men, alread}' busy enough 
in all conscience with what they have in front of them. 
You see these giving back slowly and then breaking to pieces, 
and in a few minutes they are back once more to the little 

And then the camera swings slowly all around, and before 
you spreads a ghastly panorama, a strip of blood-soaked land 
only a half mile wide and covered with the mangled bodies 
of 25,000 American brothers. The camera clicks, the show 
is over, and so is your dream. You awake with a terrified 
start, shuddering at the mere recollection of what you have 
seen. But being an intelligent being, you know that such a 
silly, sinful, wasteful thing as this is not possible in this 
commonsense, practical land of ours and that it was all noth- 
ing but a nightmare. And, having thus reassured yourself, 
you go tranquilly back to sleep. 



After the battle of Murfreesboro, General Bragg, in his re- 
port of the fight, after making complimentary remarks about 
his officers, said this of the rank and file : 

"To the private soldier a fair meed of praise is due; and 
though it is seldom given and so rare expected that it may 
be considered out of place, I cannot in justice to myself 
withhold the opinion ever entertained and so often expressed 
during our struggle for independence. 

"In the absence of the instruction and discipline of old 
armies and of the confidence which long association produces 
to the individuality and self-reliance of the private soldier. 

"Without the incentive or the motives which control the 
officer who hopes to live in history, without the hope of re- 
ward and actuated only by a sense of duty and of patriotism, 
he has in this great contest, justly judging that the cause was 
his own, gone into it with determination to conquer or die, 
to be free or not to be at all. 

"No encomium is too high, no honor too great for such a 
soldiery. However much of credit and glory may be given, 
and probably justly given, the leaders in our struggle, his- 
tory will yet award the main honor where it is due — to the 
private soldier, who, without hope of reward and with no 
other incentive than a consciousness of rectitude, has en- 
countered all the hardships and suffered all the privations. 

"Well has it been said : 'The first monument our Confed- 
eracy rears when our independence shall have been won 
should be a lofty shaft, pure and spotless, bearing this in- 
scription, "To the unknown and unrecorded dead." ' 

Bravest of the Brave. 

In the battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 31, 1862, 
two Southern color bearers were so conspicuous for intrepid 
bravery that their names should be perpetuated in Confed- 
erate history, and I hope that this article will bring them to 1 

The "Records" give the name of one as Sergeant Oakley, 
of the 4th Tennessee Infantry, who, when his regiment was 
lying under a galling fire from unknown parties, volunteered 
and did walk out with his flag in front of his comrades, and 


Qopfcderat^ Veterai). 

there, standing erect and waving the colors in plain view 
of all, proved the fact that the missiles were coming from 
the enemy. 

The other hero (name unknown) carried the flag of the 
6th Kentucky, and after the Confederates had been repulsed 
and his comrades gone lingered on the field as long as there 
was any infantry left, then reluctantly went to rear, halting 
frequently, facing the enemy, and crying out : "Here's your 
6th Kentucky I" He was one of the last Confederates to 
leave the field. 

Surely there must be some survivor of these regiments 
who can tell the Veteran more about these men, and I trust 
that they will not fail to do it. 



In the fall of 1S63 the Army of the Potomac (125,000 
men), under the immediate command of General Grant, was 
stretched along the line of the old Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, now the main line of the Southern from Washing- 
ton on through Fairfax, Prince William, Fauquier, and Cul- 
peper Counties, with a supply train later on of four thousand 
wagons drawn by twenty thousand horses and mules'. Later 
in the fall most of this huge force was concentrated along 
the north bank of the Rapidan, with the Army of Northern 
Virginia on the opposite, or right, bank of the river and with 
Stuart's Cavalry picketing the fords as far down as Fred- 

Having been detailed in May, 1863, as' special scout for 
Generals Lee and Stuart with my comrade, Richard H. Lewis, 
of the Black Horse Cavalry, it was our duty to watch and 
gain all information possible of the enemy's plans and move- 
ments and report them to the commanding general. To ac- 
complish this I had details from the Prince William Cav- 
alry, the Black Horse, and the Little Fork Rangers, th,e last 
of Culpeper men, who, born and reared in those counties, 
could find their way by day or night, and whose bravery and 
character could be relied upon for giving me correct infor- 
mation. I also had William H. Lewis, brother of Richard 
Lewis, detailed for the same purpose, and Calvin, of the 
Prince William Troop. 

Richard Lewis and I spent most of our time in the enemy's 
lines in Culpeper County, where we had many friends and 
acquaintances who, like all of the good people of old Vir- 
ginia, were always ready to divide the last morsel with a 
Confederate soldier and assist him in every way possible. 
And right here I want to say a word in praise of these brave 
scouts who acted with me, especially of Richard and William 
Lewis. Two more gallant or truer soldiers never drew blade 
in a righteous cause. Intelligent, cool, and daring, they were 
ready to brave any risk in the discharge of their arduous 
duties. Richard Lewis was the coolest man I ever saw, and 
in great danger he never lost his presence of mind. 

About the 1st of May I discovered that the army of Grant 
was about to move, and on the morning of the 3d of May I 
ascertained positively from information received from near 
Grant's headquarters in Culpeper C. H. that the movement 
would begin that day. I sent a courier to General Lee and 
another to General Stuart to make sure that one or the other 
should be informed of this movement of the enemy. 

Col. R. M. Stribling, in his "Gettysburg Campaign and 
Campaigns of 1864-65 in Virginia," page 87, says: "General 
Lee, having ascertained from his scouts that Grant's army was 

in motion toward Germanna Ford, at midday on the 4th put 
his army in motion to meet it and force it to battle before 
it could be disentangled from the crossing of the river in a 
densely wooded country." 

Other scouts may have reported these movements also, but 
I know he got my message, because he thanked me the next 
day (the 5th) when I reported to him. 

General Grant left his headquarters at Culpeper C. H. 
about 9 a.m. on the 4th and crossed that day on his pontoon 
bridge at Germanna Ford the 5th and 6th Corps, Wilson's 
Division of Cavalry having already passed to the other side 
of the river. About twelve o'clock Richard Lewis and I, with 
several other soldiers who had joined us, among them J. W. 
Hansborough and, I think, W. A. Bowen, of the Black Horse, 
Green Miller, of the Culpeper Troop, and Marcus B. Che- 
waing, of the 9th Virginia Cavalry, rode into Culpeper C. H. 
The ladies and people generally of that place, having been 
shut up with the Yankee army, seemed delighted to see some 
Confederates and wined and dined us until if an excess of 
food and drink had proved as fatal to our diaphragms as 
leaden bullets not one of us would have gotten away from 
them alive. When night came we entered the enemy's lines 
on the Germanna Road below Stevensburg. All had crossed 
except Brigadier General Duffey, of Sheridan's Cavalry. 
When we got near the river we met a cavalryman, who, of 
course, took us for Union soldiers. He asked me, as I was 
riding in front, if I could tell him where to find General 
Duffey. I directed him by such a blind trail that if he fol- 
lowed it and is still alive he is looking for him yet. (This 
officer was captured later on in the Shenandoah Valley by 
Boyd M. Smith, of Mosby's command. The latter was one 
of the bravest and certainly the handsomest of all of Mosby's 
Partisan Rangers.) I then asked the courier where he was 
from and if he had heard anything from the Rebs. He told 
me that while waiting for the dispatch to General Duffey 
he heard the adjutant read to General Grant a message 
from General Gregg, stating that as yet he had seen nothing 
of the Rebels and would press on in the morning in search 
of them. 

We let the courier go on, telling him that we hoped he 
would soon find the General, and we rode rapidly to the 
river, where there was a splendid bridge of boats. On the 
farther side was a house with a brilliant calcium light burn- 
ing (I afterwards learned that this was General Grant's head- 
quarters) which lit up the bridge from shore to shore. I 
hesitated a moment before riding on it, not knowing what 
fate might await us on the other side. Then, with a prayer 
in my heart and my heart in my throat and trusting to my 
usual good luck, I rode on to the bridge, the men following 
without a moment's hesitation. In the stillness of midnight 
the thud of our horses' feet sounded like the long roll beat 
by about a hundred drums. I know we all felt like jumping 
our horses into the river and getting back to the shore. We 
crossed, however, in safety and rode on up the old turnpike 
leading from Fredericksburg to Orange Courthouse. We 
were soon halted by a sentinel, who asked, "What cavalry 
is that?" I told him I was one of General Meade's aids 
looking for the general and asked him whose headquarters 
are in the house. He replied, "General Warren's." Farther 
on to the left of the pike we passed thousands of cavalrymen 
asleep on the ground, their horses munching hay. I supposed 
at the time it was Gregg's Division and that he held the 
front, but found later that it was Wilson's. 

Qoijfederat^ Uetg-rar/. 


Some time before day we turned to the right in the direc- 
tion of where I expected to find our army, and on that side 
of the road Sedgwick's Corps (the 6th) was bivouacked, 
and it seemed to me to cover the face of the whole earth. 
The Army of the Potomac lay sleeping, dreaming of homes, 
mothers, wives, and sweethearts that many poor fellows 
would never see again during this life, as a few days after- 
wards thousands lay dead in the gloomy depths of the Wil- 
derness. As we rode on suddenly the drums and bugles of 
the infantry and cavalry sounded the reveille, and the men 
sprang up all around us, some cursing at being aroused so 
soon, some laughing, some singing. Each heart recalled a 
different name, but all sang "Annie Laurie." 

We had thrown our ponchos over our shoulders to cover 
our uniforms and felt as safe as if in the midst of our own, 
men. Riding rapidly, for the night was wearing away, we 
turned into a narrow road leading to the old plank road, 
when I saw the glint of the moonbeams upon a musket bar- 
rel and simultaneously heard, "Halt! Who comes there?" 
from the sentinel. I again replied, "One of General Meade's 
aids — with my escort," I added. The aian brought his gun 
to a present, and I asked him if this was General Sedgwick's 
outpost. He said it was, and I then asked him : "How far 
in advance is the cavalry?" But he knew nothing of them. 
Bidding him good night, we rode on and soon struck the 
plank road. Riding into bushes on the side of the road, we 
dismounted and unsaddled our horses, fed them, and ate some 
of the provisions with which our kind friends at Culpeper 
C. H. had provided us, and after a good smoke dropped on 
the ground and were soon fast asleep. 

About 7 am. we were awakened by the tramp of horses 
and rattling of sabers passing along the plank road. Sad- 
dling and mounting, we moved parallel with their advance, 
for I knew they were approaching our lines and would soon 
strike our outposts. About a mile farther on the country 
opened up and the growth became less dense, and we could 
see the columns very plainly. Suddenly there were shots in 
their front, telling that they had struck our pickets. The 
cavalry had been riding by twos, and I heard the command, 
"By fours ! Trot ! March !" and on they went. Soon there 
was a heavy volley fired by the reserve picket. I heard the 
command given : "Form platoons ! Gallop ! March ! Draw 
saber ! Charge !" 

It was a magnificent sight, the sabers glistening, the bugles 
sounding the charge, the flags streaming in the wind, the 
battery of brass cannon and their caissons drawn by splen- 
did horses, and the cheers of the men. But it was not to 
last long, for White's Battalion, supported by Roper with 
the Laurel Brigade, met them, and in a hand-to-hand fight, 
which did not last long, drove them back in spite of all the 
efforts of their leaders to rally them. I was close enough 
then to see the officers strike the men over the shoulders with 
the fiat of their swords and hear them cursing them for their 
cowardice, but to no purpose, for they soon broke and ran, 
leaving the road strewn with dead and wounded horses and 

And now we were, to our great joy, once more in our own 
lines. I reported to General Lee that evening just after 
Ewell had whipped Warren and one of Sedgwick's divisions 
on the left of our line. And I felt thankful to General Grant 
for permitting us to use his new pontoon bridge without 
taking toll and to our kind Heavenly Father for protecting 
us from the perils of that eventful night. 



The 21st of February was the anniversary of the battle of 
Val Verde, which took place fifty-nine years ago on the Rio 
Grande River in nearly the center of New Mexico. This 
was the first battle in which I ever took part. 

Our forces consisted of the three regiments of the Sibley 
Brigade, 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Mounted Volunteers, PiroiVs 
Regiment, Teels' Battery, Copewood's Spies, and Riley's Bat- 
tery of Mountain Howitzers, all commanded by General Sib- 
ley. But the old general was sick that day, and Colonel 
Reilly, of the 4th, was in Mexico endeavoring to get some- 
thing for us to eat, so the command fell upon Col. Tom 
Green, of the 5th. More Texans were engaged in this battle 
than in any other battle in which Texans had a part. 

The Federals had four regiments of the regular army, a 
splendid regiment of volunteers known as the "Pike's Peak 
Jayhawkers," Kit Carson's regiment of Mexican volunteers, 
and McRea's Battery, afterwards known as the Val Verde 
Battery. We were armed with citizens' rifles, double-barreled 
shotguns, six-shooters, and two companies with carrasco poles 
(lances), while the Federals had fine long-range Minie rifles 
and splendid artillery. 

The night before the battle we made a dry camp on a high 
mesa east of Fort Craig, which was the headquarters of the 
Federal army of New Mexico and Arizona, under the com- 
mand of General Canby. 

At daylight we tried to reach the water, five miles above 
Fort Craig, but the boys in blue were ahead of us and kept 
us back. Soon their whole army crossed the Rio Grande. 
While we made a desperate resistance, we were pushed back 
and back. 

About two p.m. we made a demonstration on our right 
with the two companies armed with carrasco poles, but the 
Pike's Peak regiment easily drove them back, .for the boys 
could not use these long lances, as the limbs of the great 
cottonwood trees were in their way. An hour afterwards 
another demonstration on our left at the foot of the mesa 
was made by five companies. After a severe struggle this 
was also defeated, but we could see detachments leave the 
center to reenforce that point. 

A funny incident took place here. Alec Weems, whom I 
saw at Houston at the last general Reunion, had his horse 
killed under him ; but as our boys retreated at full speed, he 
caught his Uncle Mark Oliver's horse's tail and came out, 
swinging fast with a death grip, at full speed. 

A boy by the name of John Norvelle was near me behind 
a sand dune. Said he : "Fred, we are whipped, and I will 
never see my mother again." Then the poor boy cried like 
his heart would break. 

About that time a- slender young man, Major Lochridge, 
chief of Colonel Green's staff, came riding down the line 
yelling : "Charge 'em ! Damn 'em, charge, charge, charge !" 
We leaped out from behind the sand dunes, not like pictures 
of charges in the books, but like a lot of schoolboys, yelling 
at the top of our voices and charging at full speed. The 
Federals fired by platoons, but I reckon they were scared, 
for the cottonwood limbs rattled down on us, but not one of 
ours boys was hit. 

When we were forty or fifty yards from the blue line, our 
shotguns mowed the poor boys down by the hundreds, for 
we were all deer, turkey, and squirrel hunters. The Federals 


j^Qtj federate Ueterai). 

threw down their guns, abandoned their artillery, and fled 
across the Rio Grande, which was shoulder deep and running 
much ice. We stood on the bank and filled the river with 
dead men. A large man in the water made the Mason's 
grand hailing sign of distress, and we Masons yelled : "Don't 
shoot that man !" But a moment after he floated down the 
icy stream. 

The next morning we placed fifty-seven noble Texas boys 
side by side, wrapped in their blankets, in a long ditch, 
covering their dear forms with the sods of the Rio Grande. 
We had over one hundred wounded, many of whom after- 
wards died. 

The Federals sent a flag of truce, asking permission to 
gather up their dead. I do not know how many of the boys 
in blue were killed, but there were seven wagonloads of them 
Not one of these boys but would have divided his last crust 
with us or we with him, but all day long on the. 21st of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, we murdered one another. 

When will this hybrid Christian world become genuinely 



There comes a voice that awakes my soul; 
It is the voice of years that are gone. 
They roll before me with all their deeds. 

— Ossian. 

In the Veteran for November, 1920, Comrade I. G. Brad- 
well, of Brantley, Ala., gave a graphic account of the end 
of the siege of Petersburg, Va. In this sketch I will give 
a history of the beginning and the battles leading up to it. 

I was a twenty-year-old private in Company I, 49th North 
Carolina Regiment, Ransom's Brigade, composed of the 24th, 
25th, 35th, 49th, and 56th North Carolina Regiments. We 
served throughout the campaign of 1862 in Virginia, and 
after the battle of Fredericksburg, in December, 1862, we 
were ordered to Charleston, S. C. On arriving at Wilming- 
ton, N. C, the Charleston orders were countermanded, and 
we were held to defend the line from Wilmington to Rich- 
mond, Va., which kept us almost constantly on the move 
and in fighting several severe battles on different points on 
the line both in Virginia and North Carolina. The year of 
1864 — the year of battles — had come, and after the capture 
of Plymouth, N. C, we were ordered to attack and capture 
New Bern. When within ten miles of that place the news 
came that General Butler was moving up the James River 
with thirty thousand troops and was within a few miles of 
Petersburg. The New Bern expedition was abandoned, and 
our orders were to proceed to Petersburg with all possible 

Arriving at Goldsboro, after a forced march of over forty 
miles, we found long trains, with three engines to each train, 
ready for us. Men, horses, artillery, and everything but the 
wagons were crowded on, and we pulled out to reenforce 
General Beauregard at Petersburg. Arriving within three 
miles of the city next day about ten o'clock, we found that 
the enemy had been there the night before and burned the 
railroad bridge across a creek, with high banks on each side, 
and had destroyed the track for about a quarter of a mile: 
but our cavalry had driven them off before more damage 
was done. We got off the train and scattered up and down 
the creek, scrambling, falling, and sliding down the steep 

banks and pulling and pushing up the other till we all were 
across. The artillery found a ford somewhere and crossed 
over. We formed and marched up the railroad to the cit3 r , 
and the inhabitants flocked out in great numbers to meet 
us. They were in a terrible state of excitement, and when 
we swung down Sycamore Street they almost shouted for 
joy. We marched out along the Richmond and Petersburg 
Turnpike to near Swift Creek, followed by great numbers of 
negroes, most of them women. We marched rapidly, the 
negroes keeping right along with us, making a regular negro 
racket : "We're gwine to stay right wid de soldiers and see 
dem whip de Yankees, the trifling, good-for-nothin' Yan- 
kees, coming up here thinkin' dey can take Petersburg. We 
is gwine to see dem git a good whipping dis time, dat's what 
we is." 

When nearing the enemy we threw out a heavy line of 
skirmishers and moved slowly along the turnpike, feeling 
the way and watching the negroes. Presently a big gun 
boomed over on the Federal side. The negroes stopped, looked 
at one another, then tried to see how fast they could run 
back toward Petersburg. 

We moved on some distance farther, and the skirmishers, 
not finding the enemy, were halted until some time after dark, 
then moved slowly along the turnpike with orders to keep 
as quiet as possible. About dark that evening the enemy 
had fallen back below the turnpike, thus leaving the way open 
for us to pass and get between them and Richmond. We 
could hear the noise of their camps as we passed. The next 
day Butler moved a strong force across the turnpike and by 
a flank movement placed a large force in our rear and came 
very near to cutting us off, but by hard fighting we got out. 
We took our position in a line of old breastworks running 
through a large open field, on the farther side of which was 
a heavy body of timber and a high fence next to the field. 
Soon after forming in the works Generals Hoke and Ransom 
rode out in what we thought was our rear. They rode back 
to the works and ordered a line of skirmishers thrown out 
to the fence at the woods. The skirmishers advanced across 
the field in a beautiful line, led by Capt. Cicero Durham, 
quartermaster of the 49th, on horseback. Everything was 
perfectly quiet until the skirmishers were within a few yards 
of the fence, when a whole regiment of Federals rose up 
behind the fence and poured a full volley right in their faces, 
mortally wounding Captain Durham and killing and wound- 
ing most of his men. Captain Durham ordered the survivors 
to fall back to the works and, wheeling his horse, which had 
escaped unhurt, galloped back, reeling in his saddle. He 
was immediately lifted off his horse and carried to a place 
of safety. He lingered a few days and died. Had he lived, 
he would have organized a corps of sharpshooters, and Pink 
Collins (brave old Pink, dead in Oklahoma) and I would 
have belonged to it. 

We had to hold our fire until the skirmishers were in, and 
by that time the enemy was halfway to our works. They 
came in mass formation, rolling over the fence and charging 
across the field, led by the bravest man I ever saw in battle. 
I could never learn his name. When the last skirmisher 
staggered in, a solid sheet of flame went out from our works. 
The Federals staggered, rolled, and pitched headlong under 
it ; but their brave leader kept his feet, his hat in one hand, 
his sword in the other. Over their dead and wounded they 
came like rushing water, their leader still in front. I could 
not keep my eyes off of him. Just before the heavy volume 
of smoke rolled over them he staggered and fell. Flesh and 

Qopfederat^ Vetera^. 


-ilood could not stand the merciless fire we were pouring into 
hem. After the fall of their leader, they wavered, turned, . 
,nd rushed back to the woods. 

Knowing they would continue their flank movement, we 
vacuated the works and fell back to another line of works 
vhich had been thrown up two years before. Night coming- 
in soon, very dark and rainy, we shivered in the old breast- 
vorks all night and next morning found the woods in front 
ull of Federal troops armed with the latest improved guns, 
ome of them having long stocks and were held against the 
lip when fired. They kept up a heavy fire all day tearing 
mr breastworks down with their artillery. A heavy line of 
.kirmishers was sent out to try to drive them away, but 
'ery few ever got back. 

Late in the evening General Beauregard came down the 
ine on foot, and just as he reached our company a charge of 
;rapeshot knocked off the top of the works and almost 
mried the General under the dirt. He scrambled out and, 
haking his fist at the Federals, said : "All I want you to do 
s to stay right where you are till to-morrow morning." At 
light we silently moved out of the works to the bridge over 
•Cingsland Creek on the turnpike to clean up our guns. Soon 
ifter daylight on the morning of the 16th of May we had 
>ur guns all apart, cleaning and oiling them up (I even had 
he tube out of mine), when a gun fired, and our pickets ran 
n and reported the enemy advancing. We fell into line, 
mtting our guns together as we formed. A dense fog covered 
verything, so we could not tell how close the enemy was. 
Ne formed line of battle and awaited orders. 

General Beauregard's order of battle, it was said, would 
tave surrounded Butler's army. Gen. Robert Ransom, an old 
.Vest Pointer, brother of our brigade commander. Gen. Matt 
iansom, was to move down on Butler's flank on the James, 
:ut across below, and form a junction with General Whit- 
ng, who was to start out on the Appomattox side, thus cut- 
ing General Butler off from his gunboats at Bermuda Hun- 
Ired, while General Hoke and the other commanders were to 
iress him from above. Gen. D. H. Hill was on the field, but 
it that time had no command. 

About ten o'clock in the morning the battle opened. Gen. 
3ob Ransom down the river, as was his usual custom, ran 
)ver everything that could not get out of his way and was 
Iriving with a high hand, expecting to meet Whiting half- 
vay. We broke our line of battle at the creek, formed in 
narching order, and moved rapidly up the turnpike till we 
:ame in sight of the pickets, who had begun the battle all 
dong the line. We formed line of battle and advanced across 
1 new ground, where the brush had been left lying over 
he ground to a piece of woodland, where we halted and re- 
ormed. We were on the extreme right of the line, and by 
his time the battle was raging on the left. We moved 
hrough the woods and soon came to a field across which ran 
1 line of breastworks we had thrown up two years before. 
This line and another behind it were packed full of Fed- 
.•rals. Our brigade commander, Gen. Matt Ransom, had been 
ladly wounded the day before, and the command fell on 
-olonel Clark, of the 24th North Carolina Regiment. The 
19th was commanded by Maj. James Taylor Davis. Lieu- 
enant Colonel Fleming, of the 49th, was off in command of 
he brigade skirmishers. As soon as we came in sight of the 
vorks the command to charge was given. We gave what 
>ur friend the enemy was pleased to call the Rebel yell and, 
hrowing our guns to a trail, made a dash for their works 
hrough a tempest of lead, which they kept up until we 

mounted their works, killing and wounding one hundred and 
sixty men in the 49th Regiment alone, almost as many as we 
lost in that twelve-hundred-yard charge at Malvern Hill. The 
enemy did not stand for the bayonet and fell back to their 
second line. We could have made another charge and driven 
them out of their second line, but were ordered to halt and 
hold our position against a counter charge. We had a lively 
battle for about half an hour, and while busily engaged the 
Federals sent a heavy force around on our right flank and 
very nearly had us cut off before we found it out. 

We fell back and formed a line of battle in the woods, 
and Company I, of the 49th, was sent out as skirmishers. 
We advanced to near the edge of the woods and lay down 
behind the trees and bushes. One of our boys, Woodford 
Sherrill, caught sight of a Federal soldier looking over their 
works. He called to Captain Connor, saying: "Captain, I see 
a Yankee." Captain Connor answered : "Let him have it, 
Woodford." Placing his gun against a tree and taking de- 
liberate aim, Woodford fired through a little opening in the 
trees. His shot was answered by a volley from a whole 
regiment in the works. The air looked almost blue with bul- 
lets. We hugged the ground so close that we had only two 
men killed. After that volley everything was quiet. 

I went to a comrade, Monroe Danna, near me and told 
him that as everything was so still over on the other side 
I would like to know what it meant, and if he would go with 
me we could see. We crawded through the bushes till we .got 
in plain view of the works, but could not see any one. We 
lay there and studied what to do and at last concluded to 
go over and see. I have been in several close places, but 
that walk of fifty yards was about the worst. It was so hard 
to keep my cap pushed down on my head and to stay down 
on the ground, but surely they would not fire on a couple of 
beardless boys. We increased our pace and soon looked 
down in the Federal works, finding nobody there but half 
a dozen wounded men suffering for water. They immediately 
surrendered, telling us their regiment left the works soon after 
the volley. Sending Monroe back to report, I took the 
wounded men's canteens over to a small stream and filled them 
with water, which greatly revived them. One of them told 
me that a comrade lying wounded under a plank shelter up 
in the field had a pair of his boots and asked me to go up 
there and get them. I found the man and told him my busi- 
ness. His answer was : "I know nothing about his boots." 
I went back and reported what was said, receiving the com- 
ment: "Very well; let him keep them." 

Butler's army retreated through the gap left open by 
Whiting to Bermuda Hundred, where he had his gunboats 
at his back. After burying our dead and caring for our 
wounded, we moved out and stacked arms on the turnpike and 
built little fires to make coffee, and with crackers and boiled 
ham, which we had found in abundance in the camps, we 
fared sumptuously while it lasted. 

President Davis was on the field and witnessed the battle. 
I had heard the boys in camp wish they could see Mr. Davis 
in a battle. I told them we could not teach him anything, 
for he had been a soldier nearly all his life and knew all 
about battles. That afternoon, while lying along the turn- 
pike, Mr. Davis, General Beauregard, and a large number of 
officers passed down the road in plain view of a battery the 
Federals had not yet removed. Just as they reached the 49th 
the battery opened on them, the shells passing just over their 
heads. Every eye was riveted on the President to see what 
he would do. He never even turned his head to look toward 

140 '-/ 

. Qo^federat^ l/eterap. 

the battery from which the shells were coming. That set- 
tled it. 

The battle of Drewry's Bluff was over and the enemy safe 
in the forks of the river, with his gunboats at his back. But 
for General Whiting's blunder we would have captured Gen- 
eral Butler with his whole army, about thirty thousand men, 
including his body guard of one thousand negro cavalrymen. 
We had been told of the plan of the battle and confidently 
expected to capture Butler and his whole army, but Whiting 
let them out. They were gone. 

The James and Appomattox Rivers run together above 
City Point, and the point of land in the fork is known as 
Bermuda Hundred. Next day we moved down there and 
after a short battle, known as the battle of Ware Bottom 
Church, drove the Federals back some distance and im- 
mediately set to work to fortify the line, throwing up a line 
of breastworks across the country from one river to the 
other. The Federals made several attempts to capture the 
works, but always failed. A truce was finally agreed upon 
which put an end to the deadly sharpshooting. One day I 
was on sentinel duty walking on top of the works. A Fed- 
eral soldier came over between the lines and, seating himself, 
began to read a newspaper. Gen. D. H. Hill, who had been 
sauntering about on the works, came up and said to me : "A 
beautiful target to shoot at." I answered : "Yes, sir, but, 
General, we can't shoot now." 

We were then in Gen. Bushrod Johnson's division, and 
after bottling up Butler safely at Bermuda Hundred we 
were sent to the north side of the James, where we united 
with the Army of Northern Virginia, after having been 
parted over a year. Once more under "Marse Robert," we 
felt at home again. General Lee said he always claimed 
Ransom's "tar-heel" veterans as a part of his army. 

We moved about from point to point without much rest. 
General Grant's army was then moving up to the Chicka- 
hominy River, and everything had to be on the alert. On the 
9th of June the 49th Regiment was sent through the swamp 
to the banks of the Chickahominy on picket. The river at 
that place was about thirty feet wide, running through the 
swamp, with heavy timber on each side to the water's edge 
and back about half a mile. We deployed down the river 
bank, while just across the little river, thirty feet away, 
stood the 7th Indiana Regiment in groups watching us re- 
lieve our pickets. We had strict orders against talking, and 
the Federals also had the same orders. Soon after we had 
been posted and the officers were back at their headquarters 
in the swamp a Federal picket suggested that we watch up 
their side for officers and they would watch up our side, and 
in this way we could talk. Neither side could see up its 
own line for the trees, but had a good view of the other's 
line. We talked about all day, the officers seldom coming 
down the line. When they did come the pickets were looking 
at each other as surly as bears. 

A high tree had fallen clear across the river, on which one 
of our boys walked over and was busily engaged in helping 
the Federal boys eat their rations, when an officer approached 
and told him he had better go back ; he had no business over 
there. The two boys in my front were Horace G. Solomon, 
Company D, 7th Indiana Regiment, and, I think, John Rod- 
man, both splendid-looking young men. One of them went 
in bathing and wallowed about in the water at my feet. I 
would have gone in with him, but was afraid of being caught 
by our officers. We had a long conversation on the war. 
He said they would conquer us in the end, for they had all 

the advantage. They had nearly all our seaports and th 
Mississippi River from one end to the other, and all the ■ 
had to do was to send ships across the ocean and get all th 
men they wanted to come over and fight for their pay, whil 
we had exhausted our forces and could not recruit ou 
armies. Then the blockade would soon starve us out; an y 
the sooner we gave it up, the better it would be for us. 
knew he was telling me the truth, but I told him he wal 
badly mistaken if he had such thoughts. He laughed an 
said he hoped we would live through the war and meet i 
Indiana over a big bottle of brandy. 

During the afternoon several heavy guns were fired fa ! 
back in our rear, but the shells all fell short. This alarme 
the Federals, and they inquired what it meant. We tol' 
them we did not know, and we had no orders to fire. So w 
agreed among ourselves that if either side got orders to fir 
we would give warning, so we could have a chance to pre 
tect ourselves. Fortunately no orders came to fire. 

About sundown the Federals relieved their pickets an 
put on another regiment, and we did not get acquainted, bot 
sides sitting on the bank fighting mosquitoes. Every soldie 
who has been in the Chickahominy swamps at night know 
something about the "skeeters." Soon after dark the Fee 
erals held a prayer meeting on the bank, and their chaplai 
prayed for the success of the Union cause. He prayed fc 
the Confederate soldiers, and asked the Lord to show thei 
the error of their ways ; he prayed for the war to end, s 
we could all return to our homes and live in peace. To th 
last part of his prayer we could heartily say amen. 

We were relieved about midnight and went up to Chaffin 
Bluff, a small fort on the north bank of the James, and la 
there till about sundown of June 15, when orders came t 
march immediately. The Union army was crossing th 
James at City Point and 'moving up the south side of th ) 
Appomattox River on Petersburg. We fell in line anj 
marched up to the pontoon bridge below Richmond, crosse 
over, and struck out on a forced march to Petersburg, stop 
ping to rest only twice on the twenty-mile march. The nigf 
was very warm. Ever}' soldier knows how it is to marc 
until his clothes are wet with sweat, then to lie down a iem 
minutes to rest and get cold and stiff. He can scarcel 
move, but he hears the call to "attention !" pushes his leg 
about, gets on his hands and knees, scrambles up, and stagger 
on till his joints are limbered up, then he moves on as if hi 
had never been tired. 

We crossed the river at sunrise and moved through th 
lower part of Petersburg, halting in the street leading out b 
Blandford Cemetery, and lay there a short time, when \vl 
heard heavy firing in our front. We double-quicked two mile 
out along the Jerusalem plank road, which about winde 
all of us, reached a place known as Avery's Farm, wher 
we found the Virginia militia fighting like veterans. The I 
had been sent down into a pocket, encountering a large fore I 
of the enemy, who were driving them back and trying t 
flank them. When we came in sight the Federals opene : 
on us with grape and canister. We waded through it till w 
came to an old road, where we were ordered to halt, li 
down, and wait till the militia got in. They were retreatin. 
in good order, loading and firing as they fell back, form 
ing on the right of the 49th North Carolina Regiment. Whe 
we lay down in the old road the enemy ceased their shellin; 
and began fortifying by carrying logs and rails. We had n 
artillery, and they were out of rifle range and too strong t 
charge with our weak force; so we had to let them alone. 

QoQJ-ederat^ Ueterap. 


We lay in line of battle a short time, then gave up that 
part of the line and rushed back through Petersburg to the 
north side of the Appomattox, where a large force of the 
enemy had cut our line of communication with Richmond. 
General Gracie's Alabama Brigade and the 56th Regiment of 
Ransom's North Carolina Erigade hurled them back and 
opened up communication between the cities. We lay in line 
of battle that night, and next morning a train was sent out 
after us. We were hurried back to Petersburg. General 
Grant's armies were moving up from City Point on the south 
side of the Appomattox and drawing near Petersburg. Gen- 
eral Beauregard had at that time only about eight thousand 
men and eighteen pieces of artillery to oppose him. We had 
fighting before us. We made no halt in the city, rushed on 
about a mile and half, and formed a line of battle. This was 
on June 17. Company I, of the 49th Regiment, under Cap- 
tain Connor, was sent out on picket at the white house on 
the left of the Norfolk railroad and was supported by a 
battery of artillery. Our picket line was on the old line half 
a mile in front of the new, or short, line, as was afterwards 
established. The enemy not yet being in sight, Captain Con- 
nor set us to work carrying rails and digging with our bayo- 
nets making rifle pits. Our troops were lying back in the 
rear, not knowing yet where the new line would be formed. 
General Grant was moving his troops rapidly up from City 
Point, and we knew they would soon appear in our front. 
We were furnished with one hundred and twenty rounds of 
ammunition and ordered to hold the line at all hazards, and 
if we could not hold them back to set fire to the white house 
and surrender. The object of this was to give warning to 
our troops in the rear and prevent the enemy's following us 
in a retreat. We dug our rifle pits large enough to hold two 
men. About eight o'clock the enemy appeared. We could 
see them forming away back in the fields; soon their skirmish 
lines advanced. Then commenced what Lieut. Thomas R. 
Roulhac, of Company D, 49th, a boy soldier, thirty years 
afterwards called "Beauregard's magnificent grapple with 
Grant's army." 

The moment the Federal skirmish line, which was almost 
equal to our line of battle, came within range the white puffs 
of smoke arose from our rifle pits, and the sound of our 
Enfields could be heard miles away on that clear June morn- 
ing. We remembered our orders : "Keep them back !" 
Steadily they advancel, followed by a heavy line of battle, 
their mounted officers with them making such pretty targets 
to shoot at. The main line halted and lay down, but the 
skirmish line continued to advance until they were in point- 
blank range, then halted and lay down in what appeared to 
be an old road. A fence being near, they began carrying 
rails, piling them in front. We kept firing at them, but they 
worked on until they had their rifle pits made. About the 
middle of the afternoon the charge we had been expecting 
was made. A heay line rose up back in the field and started 
across. Then the "tar-heel" grit showed up. We poured the 
hot Minies into them, and our battery swept them with grape 
and canister. This was too much for them, and they fell 
back to the old road. A number were killed and wounded 
and lay on the field the rest of the day. Again began the 
fighting from the rifle pits, which was kept up till night. It 
was a hard day's work. The Federal bullets made the 
splinters fly off of our rails. Fortunately they used no ar- 
tillery, or they would have knocked us out. 

Our engineers were busy surveying the new line, and Gen- 
eral Lee was sending reinforcements from north of the 

James as fast as he could, and they were taking their posi- 
tion in the new line as fast as they were brought in, immedi- 
ately beginning to fortify the line. Fortunately the enemy 
never charged our line that night. To keep them from mov- 
ing in on us that night a heavy feint was made by the 35th 
and 56th Regiments of Ransom's Brigade, with a regiment 
of South Carolina troops from Elliot's Brigade. They 
charged and carried the Federal works and did some terrible 
hand-to-hand fighting, in which their loss was heavy. Colonel 
Jones, leading the 35th, was among the killed. The 35th lost 
its flag, then recaptured it and two flags of the enemy. They 
also took a number of prisoners and sent them to the rear. 
After holding the line for some time, they were then ordered 
back to take position in the new line. We were ordered to 
hold our picket line and not go in the charge, which was 
just on our left. Everything was quiet the rest of the night. 
Next morning just before daylight we fell back and joined 
our regiment in the new line. 

When we came in they had the breastworks about two feet 
high. Company Ps space was bare. We drew a bite of ra- 
tions and went to work throwing dirt. Gen. Bob Ransom 
used to say one shell was worth a thousand overseers to 
make the men work. On the morning of the 18th of June, 
1864, our breastworks on the new line were begun, and when 
we had them about three feet high the enemy came rolling 
over the railroad embankment, two hundred yards in our 
front, and started in a charge three columns deep up the hill. 
We threw aside our shovels and picked up our guns. At 
first we shot too low, the bullets striking the ground before 
reaching them, caused by the slope of the hill. The order 
was shouted down the line : "Shot higher !" They came on 
through the leaden tempest until they were nearly halfway 
to our works, then wavered, about-faced, and rushed back 
over the railroad fill, leaving the ground littered with their 
dead and wounded. We threw aside our guns and picked up 
our shovels. Then we made the dirt fly ; we worked in a 
hurry. When our works were about shoulder high the Fed- 
erals made another heavy charge, getting nearer than before. 
We drove them back again, making another list of dead and 
wounded to add to the first. This was their last charge on 
our part of the line that day. They had charged our works 
that day from one end to the other and were driven back at 
every point. On that day began the siege of Petersburg. 

Those charges were terrible; they required brave men to 
stand them, and both sides kept them up to the end of the 
war. When the Federals charged our works, we covered 
the ground with their dead and wounded; when we charged 
theirs, they covered the ground with ours. In the World 
War our boys in their charges were protected one way or an- 
other. In our war we had no protection whatever. They 
were made under the fire of every gun that could be brought 
to bear upon them, and very often we had to fall back under 
the same fire. (To be continued.) 

Rule or Ruin. — The Republican party was asked to en- 
gage for the fulfillment of the law and noninterference with 
slavery in the South, and they refused both. In a word, they 
would have no terms. They would rule or ruin the Union. 
Amendment after amendment, proposal after proposal was 
made, only to be rejected or staved off till the retirement of 
the cotton States had left the Republicans masters of the 
field, when they peremptorily voted down every proposal in- 
compatible with their unconstitutional and illegal plat- 
form. — Percy Greg, "History of the United States." 


Qoijfederae^ l/efcerai). 



Some years ago I published a little book setting forth 
what the Southern Churches had done for the spiritual in- 
terests of the slaves in the years before the War between 
the States. Copies were sent to a number of the Northern 
religious papers. As far as I could find the booklet was ig- 
nored except by one, a Chicago paper, which spoke of it con- 
temptuously as a "defense of slavery written by a Rebel sol- 
dier." Recently I received a letter, courteous yet critical, 
from Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History in 
Harvard University, who seems to take the same view of the 
little book as an apology for slavery. His letter is given 

"Your pamphlet on religion and slavery, published in 1911, 
has recently come into my hands and contains many interest- 
ing matters about the status of the South in your experience. 
This question of slavery touches me personally, inasmuch as 
my great-grandfather. Judge George Hornell, founder of 
the city of Hornell, N. Y., was a slaveholder. Futhermore, 
I have spent a great deal of time in the Southern States 
(nearly a year altogether), have written a book, 'The South- 
ern South.' on the present Southern question, and another, 
'Slavery and Abolition,' on conditions of slavery down to the 
Civil War, and for nearly forty years I have read and con- 
sidered this question. 

"As regards my ancestor, the slaveholder, I am sorry to 
say that the family tradition is that he was not a good slave- 
holder. I regret it, but I take no responsibility for his errors 
or delinquencies. I thank God that there is no slavery any 
longer in Hornell or in New York or in the United States, 
and I am amazed at the disposition of some of the most in- 
telligent Southern people nowadays to go back and defend 
an indefensible institution. 

"When you say, 'I am free to confess that I do not believe 
emancipation was a blessing to master and slave,' you are 
practically saying that slavery should be restored. 

"The great indictment against slavery was summed up in 
the antislavery statement that 'no man is good enough to own 
another.' Slavery was not all bad ; there were good and con- 
siderate slave owners, but there were cruel and murderous 
slave owners. You do not need to go to 'Uncle Tom' for 
proofs, which are to be found in Southern newspapers and 
the records made by impartial travelers and visitors. Slavery 
kept the South poor, kept part of it ignorant, kept it out of 
the track of advancing civilization. Slavery was an economic 
loss, as is shown by the present high material prosperity of 
the South. Nobody can deny that there were a multitude of 
cases of cruelty and crime against the slave, and to my mind 
the most shocking thing about the slavery of two generations 
ago was that not one single State between 1833 and 1861 
made enactments for the correction of manifest and public 
abuses, such as the selling of little children out of their 
mothers' arms ; not a single Southern State took or dared 
take any steps toward the education of the slave. 

"Why, I should think the Southern people to-day would 
rejoice with great rejoicing that they were free from the curse, 
and I do not see that your ancestors are any more entitled 
than my ancestors to the sympathy of this generation. They 
sinned against the light, they struggled against the advance- 
ment of the world, and a great many of them, if alive now, 
would rejoice that their grandchildren are released from the 

Let me say at once that no opinion expressed by a South- 
erner as to the evils of emancipation as it was effected im- 
plies any desire to restore the institution of slavery. It is 
one of the ironies of history that the bitterest critics of 
Southern domestic slavery, holding it up to scorn as "the 
sum of all villanies," should be the men and women whose 
fathers forced the unwilling colonies to receive the brutal 
African savages, torn by these same fathers from their own 
land and brought to this country through the horrors of "the 
middle passage." These same descendants now gloat over 
the fact that at fearful cost of blood and treasure they suc- 
ceeded in "knocking the shackles from the slave." And while 
Exeter Hall, in London, and Fanueil Hall, in Boston, were 
ringing with denunciations of Southern slaveholders, there 
was in the mines of England and in the iron and steel in- 
dustries of the North a system of cruelty and oppression 
harsher than the Southern slaves ever endured. 

It is said that the whole question is settled, and any dis- 
cussion of it is only academic. Let me quote a sentence or two 
from the ablest Southern writers on moral philosophy, espe- 
cially as to its social and civc aspects : "Among the questions 
of civic rights and duties that of the recent domestic slavery 
in the United States holds a very interesting place. It is not 
debated with any view to restoring that form of labor ; no 
intelligent man among us expects or desires this. But we 
should understand it for three reasons. The first is that the 
disputes concerning the relation of bondage, whether it is 
righteous or intrinsically unjust, involve and illustrate the 
most vital principles of morals and legislation. The second 
is that the assertion of its intrinsic injustice, now so com- 
monly made, involves the credit of the Christian Scriptures, 
and the discrepancy disclosed has become the occasion of 
widespread and perilous skepticism. Unless we are willing 
to give up the authority of the Bible as God's word, it is 
unspeakably important that this supposed discrepancy shall 
have a better adjustment than it has yet received. Nothing 
is more certain than that in its essence human bondage, which 
is the involuntary subjection of an inferior part of the human 
race to the will of superiors, has not been abolished and never 
will be until the millennium ; but the relationship will re- 
appear in civilized society under many new names and forms, 
often less beneficent than the one lately overthrown. But 
African bondage under that name belongs to the past, not- 
withstanding our educated young men cannot but feel a living 
interest in the question whether their honored fathers lived 
and died in a criminal relation. And this is the third reason 
which demands this discussion." 

The propaganda of Germany from 1870 to 1914 against all 
other nations in the interests of German military supremacy 
was not more persistent, unscrupulous, underhanded, and ma- 
lignant than the abolition propaganda against the South and 
her domestic institutions. And finally they succeeded in or- 
ganizing a great political party whose bond of union was and 
still is opposition to the South and her civic and political 
ideals. That party got control of the government, and to 
free the slaves brought on the terrible war which desolated 
the Southern States. 

It is characteristic of all merely man-directed reforms that 
they tend to fanaticism and excess, and even when successful 
it requires two or three generations to correct the abuses of 
the reformation. There are two things to be considered in 
every true reformation, the principle that is to be maintained 
and applied and the condition or circumstances that limit or 


yopfederat^ l/eterap. 


• idify the carrying out of the principle. The abolition 
ders assumed that their principles were just and true, and 
:y determined to force them on the country at any cost, 

: crly regardless of the rights of slaveholders and of the 
:iess of the slaves for freedom. They demanded an anti- 
■very God, an antislavery Bible, an antislavery Constitution, 
-i they denounced the Constitution of the republic as "a 

,'enant with death and a league with hell." 
There were two grievous mistakes they made. They as- 
:med that they knew about conditions in the South, that 
:; negroes were groaning under hard bondage, and that the 
Iijority of slaveholders were cruel and oppressive, while 
■; facts were that the slaves were the happiest working class 
■i the world, and the masters as a class were high-toned, 
iright, kindly Christian gentlemen. Such assertions, as in 

-. Hart's letter, that the laws of the Southern States gave 

rights nor protection to the slaves are not true, and the 

.:-repeated charge that, negro "children were sold out of 

•ir mothers' arms" is akin to that old charge that we Pres- 

. terians believe there are "infants in hell not a span long." 

course some hard-headed old Puritan might have denied 

-i salvation of infants, and some brutal master may have 

oarated a baby from its mother, but that was the exception. 

Professor Hart claims to know the conditions of the South 

:ter than I do because he spent nearly a year in the South 
jd wrote two books on the subject. Now one thing, I think, 

generally true : when a hostile critic investigates a person, 
.people, or a condition, he finds what he set out to find, as 
, illustrated in the partisan investigations now going on as 
. the conduct of the great World War. And one who knows 
-: negro character knows that a sympathetic investigator 
, i get a gruesome statement of the sufferings of negroes 
, der hard taskmasters. The abolitionist made the negro a 

ro in his own eyes. I read "Uncle Tom's Cabin" when it 
[is published. Living as I did in Tennessee, I supposed the 
, uthern plantations rang with the piteous cries of slaves 
[ der the lash, forced to work beyond their strength. After- 
.irds I had a Church of fifty white members who owned 
.ur or five thousand slaves. I preached on the plantations 
.ree nights every week and was all over them by day, and 
. lever saw a negro whipped or unduly worked. 
.No doubt when the negroes were first introduced into this 
.untry they were treated with severity. They were unac- 
..stomed to regular work, and it required strong discipline 

train them. But as they became trained and became identi- 
,d with their masters' families, this severity was mitigated 

d a far kinder relation established, which recognized the 

gro's right to bodily care and also to spiritual training. 

The whole question of African slavery presented difficulties 
every conscientious Southerner. How was it best to deal 

th an alien race, inferior in mental and moral character, 

:re children, unable to take care of themselves, with the 

'tincts of savagery lingering in their very nature? Domestic 

\very seemed to be the answer that would give security to 

and effectiveness to the labor of the slaves. It is claimed 

' it the results of emancipation show that our fears were 

^undless, and that emancipation has relieved the white man 

a burden and has given the negro opportunity to develop 

! I manhood as a free citizen. Surely these optimists are 

nd to the portentous shadow of race war that hangs over 

• i homes of those who live near large negro populations, 
le growing demand for social equality, the antagonism of 
• working classes, the frequent outrages, unknown in the 
vs of slavery, which bring on the terrible lawlessness of 

lynchings stirred by race hatred — all these things suggest that 
the race question is not settled. And the return of the negro 
soldiers from the World War is emphasizing the demand for 
social as well as civic equality. 

Recently I have read with deep interest two books which 
treat of history not from the point of view of language or 
nationality, but of race as the one unchangable thing that 
underlies and controls the activities of men. Madison Grant's 
book is on "The Rising Tide of Color" ; the other book, by 
Prof. Lathrop Stoddard, is entitled "The Passing of a Great 
Race." The great races are distinguished by color — yellow, 
brown, red, and white. Hitherto the white race, especially 
represented by the Anglo-Saxon, has been dominant wherever 
present with other colors. But now these colored races are 
beginning to rise against the white. Japan is leading, but it 
is also showing itself in China, India, the Philippines, in 
Mexico. The "Passing of a Great Race" notes that the 
Anglo-Saxon is giving place to weaker and inferior types of 
white men. In the United States the Anglo-Saxon is being 
displaced by a horde of foreigners, utterly ignorant of and 
out of sympathy with our ideals. The abolition propaganda 
must logically admit this horde and give it rights of citizen- 
ship. It is, after all, a part of that radical socialism which 
says that no man has a right to anything that his neighbor 
can't have, even if that neighbor will use his right to destroy 
the government. 

It seems to me that when races so widely different as those 
separated by color have to live together under the same gov- 
ernment and outward conditions then there are only three pos- 
sible relationships : First, equality with intermarriage and a 
mongrel race ; second, antagonism and constant struggle for 
superiority; third, subjection of the weaker race, some form 
of servitude. Now it happens that all three of these plans 
have been tried. The first is illustrated in the intermarriage 
of the Spaniard with the Indians or negroes, of the French 
with the Indians. The result was a degenerate race of half- 
breeds. In the second case the red Indian in our own land 
resisted and fought the white man, and the red man is prac- 
tically exterminated. The third case was the African asso- 
ciated with the white man in the relation of slavery. The 
result was a race happy, content, and growing in numbers 
and character. 

While there were instances of cruelty by masters to their 
slaves, these were the exceptions, condemned by public 
opinion ; while the regular negro trader was socially ostra- 
cized. The revelations of the divorce courts of the present 
show a cruelty and brutality in the marriage relation beyond 
anything practiced in slavery. And the same reforming spirit 
that was exercised by the abolitionist is now manifesting itself 
in an organized attempt to abolish marriage. 

As to the material prosperity that has come to the South, 
as' we note the strife of classes, the conflicts of capital and 
labor, the army of tramps that infest our land, a class un- 
known in the days of slavery, we are apt to quote: 

"111 fares the land to hastening ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay." 

Lower Caste. — That social lines were observed among the 
slaves is instanced by the following reply of a slave to her 
mistress's question as to why her brother had not come to 
the Christmas dance: "La, missus, he cyant come here to 
parties, bein' hired out whar he is to po' white folkes." 


Qoi?federat^ tfeterap. 



An account of the capture and recapture of part of Capt. 
George Grandstaff' s picket line along Stony Creek in Shenan- 
doah County, between Edinburg and Columbia Furnace, hav- 
ing appeared in several Northern papers and as deficient of 
truth as many other incidents of the War between the States 
from the same sources, one of my old comrades requested 
that I give my version ol the circumstances and facts as I 
remember them. It being one of the most exciting and 
heroic of my experiences during the war, my memory of it is 
as clear to-day as though the occurrence was but yesterday. 

A report by one of Sheridan's scouts states that Maj. 
Henry Young, chief of the scouts, left Winchester at 9 p.m. 
on Saturday, January 21, with fifteen of his scouts and fifty 
picked men from the 5th New York, sixty-five in all, that 
they flanked all towns between Winchester and Narrow Pas- 
sage, and that no Rebel knew that the enemy was within 
twenty miles of them. After Sheridan's ruthless burning 
and destruction of very nearly all substance of life for man 
or beast, late in the fall the 12th Virginia Cavalry was camped 
along Milldale road, west of Mount Jackson, doing picket 
duty along Stony Creek. On or about the 15th of December 
Company E was disbanded (J. C. McKay, captain) for the 
purpose of recruiting our horses for the opening of the spring 
campaign, Capt. George Grandstaff, of Company K, taking 
charge of the picket line on the morning of January 22. 

Returning from a social gathering of the young folks in 
the neighborhood, I detected the raiding column going south 
through the almshouse woods, flanking my home a half mile 
north of Maurertown, about 4 a.m. on January 22. I crossed 
the Valley Pike to my home, fed my horse, and before day- 
light mounted and rode south. I had not proceeded far 
when I met J. H. Bushong coming north, he also having 
observed the Yankee column going south. We at once con- 
jectured that their object was the capture of the picket line, 
and we determined to get the boys together and give them 
a warm reception on their return, he taking one direction and 
I another. Very soon we had a very good chain of dis- 
patchers. Our assembling point was at an old house in 
Swope Hollow, one-fourth of a mile east of the Valley Pike 
and one mile south of Maurertown. By eight o'clock we had 
a very good fighting force of fourteen, nearly all having 
had experience under Generals Stuart, Hampton, Ashby, 
Jones, and the dashing T. L. Rosser. These men were : Mar- 
tin Strickler, Company E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; Abram 
Strickler, Company E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; Allin Bow- 
man, Company E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; Silas Crabill, Com- 
pany E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; William Bauserman, Com- 
pany E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; James H. Bushong, Company 
E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; B. F. Hottel, Company E, 12th Vir- 
ginia Cavalry; S. K. Wright, Company E, 12th Virginia Cav- 
alry; E. M. Bushong, Company E, 12th Virginia Cavalry; 
George Knight, Company E, 12th Virginia Cavalry ; George 
Bushong, O'Ferrall's Battery ; John H. Hoover, Company K, 
12th Virginia Cavalry; Milton Crabill, 18th Virginia Cavalry; 
Benjamin Crabill, Company E, 11th Virginia Cavalry. 

We placed Capt. Martin Strickler in command and moved 
south parallel with the Valley Pike, marching far enough 
to conceal ourselves behind the hills from view, with one 
scout or lookout on higher ground. When we reached the 
Henry Koontz woods below the John Myers place, one- 
fourth of a mile north of Pugh's Run, we could see the 

Yankees coming just south of Pugh's Run, with flankers rig' 
and left. After crossing the bridge, thinking that they wei 
safe I suppose, they drew in their flankers, very much to oi 
advantage. They were marching along in very good orde 
unaware of their enemy being not more than two hundre 
yards from them. 

As their rear guard came up the command to charge wi 
given, and we struck them between their main column ar 
rear guard. They made a very determined stand about thn 
hundred yards farther on at the "Big Pond" for about two 
three minutes and then broke. We pressed right on to ther 
pelting their backs. About half a mile farther on Maji 
Young managed to rally six or eight of his men, wheeled the 
horses square around, and came back to us, our horses' heai 
coming in contact. Young's horse was shot from under hir 
This was a battle royal. Being out of ammunition, our r 
volvers empty, and the enemy apparently in the same coi 
dition, we used our empty revolvers for clubs and went 
clubbing. Inexpereinced ones may inquire why we didn't u 
our sabers — time too short, interesting, and pressing to mal 
the change. To make the situation a little more livel 
Young's horse had only been struck and knocked down I 
the shot, and in the "muss" he went to kicking and lungin 
They managed to get Young on behind one of them and le 
at full speed. We fell back over the hill on the right, 
short distance, at the Isaac Gochenour place, a few hundn 
yards north of where the Valley Pike Dunkard Church is no 
located, reloading as we came out to renew the attack. 

Capt. George Grandstaff came up with twenty men, infon 
ing us that they had captured Lieut. Monroe FunkhouS' 
and twenty-three of his picket line. Taking command, 
ordered us forward at full speed. About half a mile nor 
of Maurertown we overhauled them. Their next stand w 
made at the toll gate, Tony Flinn's place. They took t 
house and outbuildings for protection and put up a ve 
stubborn fight. We divided our command, one half flankii 
to our left around a hill, coming in on their right flank ai 
rear. They were not long taking in the situation and bolt 
north as fast as their mounts could carry them, making o\ 
more feeble stand at "Four-Mile House," four miles sou 
of Strasburg. All that was needed here were a few she- 
and the old Confeds' battle yell, and they broke into one 
the wildest, craziest stampedes that I have ever witness^ 
We rode through them and over them. They actually jump 
off their mounts and tried to outrun them. At Fisher's H 
eight or ten of them jumped over the stone wall, fifteen 
twenty feet high, and crept under the cedar brush on t 
other side. The boys dragged them out by their legs. Abo 
three hundred yards north of the stone bridge at Fishe 
Hill we recaptured the last prisoner and ceased the pursi 
in the suburbs of Strasburg. 

In the first two encounters the fourteen fought one to fi 
of the enemy. We recaptured all of the prisoners, captur 
ont-third of the enemy with their horses, killed and shot 
one-third, and the remaining third was straggling back 
Winchester with their dead and wounded. We had o 
horse killed in the encounter at the toll gate and one m 
mortally wounded in the first encounter, George Bushoi 
a mere boy who had not reached his seventeenth year, you 
in years, but brave, and he fought with the nerve of a C 
manche until he went down. We buried him in the fam 
cemetery with honors of war on the following Wednesd 
evening and planted the Stars and Bars at the head of f 

Qoi}federaC<£ l/eterai). 



Address by Commander B. W. Green at the annual re- 
.;On of Confederate veterans of Arkansas, held October 
1 27, 1920, in Little Rock. General Green was reelected by 

lamation. He is now serving his fourth term as Com- 
; nder of the Arkansas Division. The address in part is 
] ilished by request of the convention.] 

Comrades: We are privileged to live in the most potential 
j' iod in the world's history. The issues involved are vital 
1 every nation on earth and, we might say, to the human 
i e. Nothing in all the past can compare with the present, 
"^e agencies for good and evil are at war, and that war 
[i st of necessity be a war to the death. One or the other 
rst be vanquished. We have just emerged from the World 
1 ir, the bloodiest and most destructive and cruel in all the 
1 lals of history, the most gigantic in proportions, if the 
1 nber of nations and of men and of money involved are 

< isidered. And now the reflex consequences are agitating 
1' world, and we of America must meet the issues as we did 
i 1917 when the liberties of the world were challenged. 

f.'e world looks to America as to no other nation. The call 

t'arms by the Congress of the United States in 1917 startled 

►t. world when they heard the answer of ten millions of 

; ing men who were ready for action. Again, the nations 

ji le to America for financial help, for food, and for muni- 

1 is of war, and were not disappointed. They found the 

t isure house of the world in the United States. They found 

jl'it we could feed the world with our surplus. 

Vill America stand the test of prosperity, success, and 
i ilth that we now enjoy, or will we succumb to lawlessness 
s'l avarice and surrender our proud position among the na- 
il is of the world, and this won by the blood of many thou- 
ti ds of our sons on the fields of France and Belgium? I 
1 ret to say that America has caught the contagion and 
It "st for sordid gold ; combinations of capital and of labor 
( land that which is criminal in its last analysis. The mad 
I h and craze for gold at any cost threatens even the life 
( this nation ; the poison of those called the "Reds," Bolshe- 
p'i, and I. W. W., permeated with treason and anarchy, is 
1 ily taught and proclaimed in this "land of the free and of the brave." One of the latest phases of this spirit 

< greed and avarice is manifesting itself in the destruction 
< r cotton gins and cotton warehouses. This lawlessness can 
p "k only disaster if not crushed at once by the strong hand 

<our government. The desire to amass a great fortune in 

sew days has produced profiteers without number. The 

1 essaries of life are cornered and held for starving hu- 

r lity to give and yet to give. Labor of all kinds has caught 

t fever and makes the most extravagant demands, to en- 

1 :e which they organize and make demands by masses , 

|l :rs yet more crazed teach anarchy, treason, and murder in 

|("er to reach their goal. It seems that neighbor is against 

ti ;hbor, and "when iniquity abounds the love of many waxes 

c I." The fight is for self, and self alone. Patriotism, re- 

1 an, and God are tabood. Nothing must stand in the way 

t hwart their ends. 

1 view of these facts, are not the old Confederate soldiers 

< In a reserve force for such a time as this? I believe in a 

ovidence which shapes our ends, rough hew them as we 

1 '." We, who have come from the school of sacrifice, suf- 

* ng, and patriotism of 1861, are prepared to stem this 

I «: ul tide of evil and to say : "Thus far shalt thou come and 

t farther." Will we not show our colors and stand for the 


tight as in 1861 ? This is no time for the weakling or the! 
wavering. We must be on one side or the other. Great prin- 
ciples are involved in the issue. Let us as individuals and 
as a great association of patriots, tried as by fire, stand for 
law, order, and the right, stand by our united voice, united 
action, and united votes. Let our loyalty and purity of pur- 
pose be known to all men. Our numbers are small and daily 
lessening, but great things have been accomplished by the few. 
"Only be strong and of good courage" ; stand as a stone wall 
for the right on every question of government, economics, 
and social order, and the final outcome must of necessity re- 
sult in "the greatest good for the greatest number," for free- 
dom and liberty, which shall not perish from America. 

To this end allow me, comrades, to urge that you keep 
your camp fires burning; do not become weary or forgetful 
of this important duty to ourselves and to history which 
must be written. So-called and false history must be cor- 
rected ; our children must be taught the truth. For sixty long 
years you have made the fight for the greatest principles of 
government and for which you stood in 1861. The world has 
accepted those principles as the birthright of all nations- 
principles which were denied us in 1861, but which were enun- 
ciated by Jefferson and the makers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence and in 1914-18 lifted the crown from the head 
of autocracy and placed it upon the head of the people, and 
under God it will forever remain there. The world owes a 
debt of gratitude to the Confederate soldier which cannot be 
repaid, for he blazed the way and the nations followed. 

You are world heroes and benefactors, and history will so 
record your acts of valor and patriotism if you continue true 
to the end. You do not represent "a lost cause or a furled 
banner," for the World War demonstrated that you were 
right and that for which the cause and the banner stood is 
indestructible. What the South did lose was the constitu- 
tional right to secede, making this a national government 
instead of a federated government of States. 

APRIL 26. 

[In the ceremonies at Memphis, Tenn., on April 26, "in 
Memory of the Confederate Dead." the following lines were 
improvised by Dr. Ford, one of the speakers. The poem is 
taken from the volume of war poetry collected and published 
by Miss Emily V. Mason, 1866-67.] 

"In rank and file, in sad array, 

As though their watch still keeping, 
Or waiting for the battle fray, 

The dead around are sleeping. 
Shoulder to shoulder rests each rank 

As at their posts still standing, 
Subdued, yet steadfast, as they sank 

To sleep at death's commanding. 
No battle banner o'er them waves, 

No battle trump is sounded; 
They've reached the citadel of graves, 

And here their arms are grounded. 

Their hallowed memory ne'er shall die, 

But, ever fresh and vernal, 
Shall wake from flowers the soft sad sigh, 
Regrets — regrets eternal !" 


^opfederat^ l/eterai), 




Sketches In this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 

"Do we grieve when another star 

Looks out from the evening sky? 
Or the voice of war is hushed 

Or the storm of conflicts die? 
Then why should your soul be sad 

And your heart be sorely riven 
For another gem in the Saviour's crown 

And other soul in heaven?" 

Gex. A. P. Bacby. 

Gen. Arthur Pendleton Bagby. one of the last of the Con- 
federate generals and a resident of Hallettsville. Tex., for 
sixty years, died at his residence in that town on February 
21, 1921. and he was doubtless the oldest of the graduates of 
the United States Military Academy at West Point. He 
played a distinctive part in the struggle between the States 
and was a member of a bar notable in the history of the State 
of Texas for its distinguished members. 

General Bagby was born in Alabama in 1833. As a boy 
he was in Washington, D. C, during the time his father was 
United States Senator from Alabama. He graduated from 
West Point in 1855, and at the outbreak of war between the 
States he resigned a captaincy in the United States army and 
entered the service of the Confederate States, serving with 
such brilliancy that he rose to the rank of general. He suc- 
ceeded General Green in command of the Confederate forces 
in the Red River campaign and took part in the recapture 
of Galveston from the Federals. 

At the close of the war he became a resident of Halletts- 
ville and engaged in the general practice of law until recent 
years, being an active member of the local bar. As a lawyer 
he was well known among the legal fraternity of the State. 
He was learned and a fine orator ; and though not able to 
take part in the affairs of the community during the last few 
years, he retained his interest to the last. He was always a 
reader and writer and had contributed widely to papers and 
periodicals on historical subjects. 

During his sixty years spent as a member of the bar of 
Texas he took part in many criminal trials. He was a 
vigorous defender of States' rights. 

Surviving General Bagby are two sons, A. T. Bagby, con- 
nected with the State tax office in Austin, and Will T. Bagby. 
a practicing attorney of Hallettsville and former member of 
the State Legislature. 

Graybill Camp, No. 1534, U. C. V. 
The following members of Graybill Camp, U. C. V., of 
Tennille, Ga.. have answered the last roll call : J. E. Mel- 
drem. Company E, 1st Georgia Regiment; J. A. Ray, Com- 
pany E, 15th Georgia Regiment; Capt. J. D. Franklin, Com- 
pany H, 28th Georgia ; L. N. Batchelor, Company I, 59th 
Georgia; James L. Brantley, Company D, 59th Georgia; 

James Sumner, Company H, 28th Georgia Battalion; Cor 
W. E. Murchison, Company G, 59th Georgia; G. F. Boa 
right, Company E, 5th Georgia State Troops. 
[M. G. Murchison, Adjutant.] 

Veterans of Lancaster County. Va. 

Lancaster County. Va., mourns the loss of four of its b 
loved veterans. 

Comrade Michael Herndon Wilder was born on Septemb 
20, 1843, at Irvington, Va. Early in March, 1861, when tl 
clouds of war were fast settling over the country, he vc 
unteered his service to defend the beloved Southland and w 
mustered into service at White House, Lancaster County, 
a private in Company L, 55th Virginia Infantry, und 
Colonel Mallory. The regiment was assigned to Field's Bi 
gade. Comrade Wilder participated in all the battles of th 
brigade until he was captured at Falling Water on the 14 
of July, 1863, as they were coming out of Pennsylvania aft 
the hard fight at Gettysburg. He was sent to Point Lookoi 
where he suffered the horrors of that prison for eight montl 
He was exchanged on March 17, 1864. He was as brave at 
intrepid a soldier as ever fought under the Southern fla 
After the war was over he came back to his old home, whe 
he married Miss Emma V. Hammonds and. settled down 
live a quiet and useful life. He answered the "last roll cal 
in December, 1920. He was a good neighbor, a kind frien 
and his memory will live on and on. 

Comrade James Z. Woolridge answered the last "roll eal 
at his home in Molusk, Lancaster County, Va., on Decemb 
30, 1920. At the very beginning of war he volunteered h 
service and was assigned to Company H, 55th Infatiti 
where he served with bravery and gallantry' until he was ca 
tured and taken to Point Lookout. There he suffered fea 
fully from hunger and cold. He was released on July I 
1865. After the war he moved from Middlesex County 
Lancaster County, where he married Miss Nellie Carter, wl 
lived but a few years. He was a member of St. Mary's Epi 
copal Church (Old White Chapel), also a member of t 
Lawson-Ball Camp of Confederate Veterans, where he w 
honored and beloved by all of his comrades. He was a Chr 
tian gentleman, a brave soldier, loyal always to the cause f 
which he fought. 

Napoleon B. Wingate. of Lancaster County-, answered t 
last roll call on December 19, 1920, at his home at Molu: 
In June, 1861, he volunteered his service and was muster 
in as a private in Company E. 40th Virginia Infantry, whe 
he served with honor and valor until he surrendered w 
Lee at Appomattox on the ninth day of April, 1865. 

William Fleet Pridham, of Richmond, Va., died at t 
home of his son at Ottoman, Lancaster County, Va., on C 
cember 27, 1920. 

[Mrs. Luther G. Connellee, Historian of the Lancast 
County Chapter.] 

James Harrison Hagy. 

After a lingering illness of several months, James Harris< 
Hagy died at his home, near Greendale, Va., on Novemb 
2. 1920, aged seventy-seven years. He was a member ( 
Company I, 48th Virginia Regiment, enlisting at the age > 
eighteen years. He served throughout the entire war ai 
surrendered with General Lee at Appomattox. 

Mr. Hagy was married to Miss Sarah E. Roberts on Jul 
25, 1867, and to this union seven children were born, wh. 

Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 


"with their mother, survive him. He was a member of the 
: Methodist Episcopal Church, South, a good neighbor, and 

kind friend. He was also a member of the Masonic Lodge 

for more than thirty-five years. 
[G. W. Garrett, a friend of more than fifty years.] 

Thomas E. Gee. 

[From resolutions adopted by Martin Walt Camp, U. C. 
-V., Brownwood, TeK.] 

Thomas E. Gee was born in Sumter County, Ala., on 

[anuary 17, 1838. He was educated at the university at 

Staunton, Va. He served as quartermaster during the four 
j/ears of war between the States. 
:He was married to Miss Willie 

jriffin, of Gainesville, Ala., in 

[anuary, 1865, and she survives 

lim, with their son and daugh- 

Comrade Gee moved to 
Cameron, La., in 1874; was 

dected clerk of the court in 

'.876 and served until 1908. He 

noved to Brownwood, Tex., in 

1909. Retiring from active busi- 
ness life, he led a quiet, studious 

;xistence, always interested in 

he affairs of the Confederate 

veteran, and he was one of the 
-jest-posted men on all the topics 
\~>i the day. His life was serene, T. E. gee. 

useful, and well spent, and he 

• eaves the world enriched in honor and spiritual benefits in 
:he memory of his deeds as soldier and citizen. 

On October 8, 1920, he left us for that land where he may 
-■pend endless ages with Confederate heroes gone before to 

•est under the shade of the trees. 
: [Committee : Commander J. M. McCall, G. A. Nuckols, 

\djt. T. A. Witcher.] 

Thomas Reed Murray. 

Thomas Reed Murray, born in Buncombe County, N. C, 
lied at his home, near McKinney, Tex., in his ninety-first 
'•ear. He w'as the fifteenth child in a family of sixteen, of 
' vhom fifteen reached maturity. His early home is now a 
: iart of the Vanderbilt estate near Asheville, N. C, and this 
v >ld homestead had been in the family two hundred years. 

In 1849 Thomas Murray was married to Miss Dila Wood, 

if Rutherfordtown, N. C, and a few years later removed 

Arkansas, locating at Batesville. When the War between 

he States came on he enlisted for the Confederacy and 

erved with Price's old army east of the Mississippi River, 

•aking part in the battles of Corinth, Iuka, Port Gibson, 

^icksburg, and Baker's Creek. He was with Price's raid in 

■fissouri and was captured with his regiment at Big Black, 

Jiss., three of the regiment making their escape by swim- 

; ning the river. His regiment was taken north and kept in 

■ >rison at Fort Delaware and Point Lookout, Md. His serv- 

• :e extended over four years and under Colonel 'McCarver, 

Methodist preacher, Colonel Cravens, and Lieutenant 
-olonel Mathena. 

Leaving Arkansas for Texas in 1867, he settled on a farm 
(i Collin County near McKinney, removing some years later 
a place nearer that city, where he died. 

Comrade Murray was married three times. Eight children 
were born to the first union, four surviving him. His sec- 
ond marriage was to Mrs. Fisher, and of their three chil- 
dren one is surviving. The third marriage was to Miss Jane 
Irvin, of Waynesville, N. C, who died in 1911. There are 
thirty-two grandchildren,, five great-grandchildren, and nine 

He was a man of much natural ability, strong intellect, and 
his genial disposition made him welcome everywhere. He 
was a member of the Throckmorton Camp, U. C. V., of Mc- 
Kinney, and a regular attendant at its meetings as long as 
he was able to get there. 

Josephus Meador. 

Josephus Meador was born in Newton County, Ga., on 
September 22, 1833, and died at the home of his son. Judge 

A. D. Meador, at Covington, Ga., on February 13, 1921. 
After a slight indisposition from an old complaint, death 
came to him as he slept. 

Comrade Meador was a brave Confederate soldier and a 
highly respected citizen. When his country called he was 
among the first to enlist and served with the State troops at 
Savannah for six months. When his time expired he re- 
turned home and enlisted in a cavalry company being formed 
at that time, and throughout the war he was a member of 
Company B, 16th Georgia Battalion of Cavalry. His com- 
mand was attached to Gen. John H. Morgan, the celebrated 
cavalry leader, and he participated in the twenty-seven days' 
raid through Kentucky and Ohio, as well as other raids made 
by this brave commander. It can be said of him that he 
never shirked a duty to which he was assigned, but was at 
all times ready to do his part. 

In November, 1865, he was married to Miss Louise E. 
Yancey, who died some twenty-seven years ago. Of this 
union was one son, Judge A. D. Meador, with whom he made 
his home since his wife's death. He was a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, having been at the time of his death one 
of the oldest Masons in the county, and he was a member 
of Jefferson Lamar Camp, U. C. V., of Covington. After 
funeral services at the First Baptist Church of Covington, 
he was buried with Masonic honors at the family burial 
ground at Aycock's Shop. 

[William Bird and W. A. Cannon, committee.] 

H. P. Mann. 

H. P. Mann, a member of Company I, 30th Mississippi In- 
fantry, Walthall's Brigade, died on February 22, 1921, at 
Sweetwater, Tex., while on a visit to his daughter, Airs. W. 

B. Carthen. 

Comrade Mann was born in Carroll County, Miss., on April 
3, 1835. He enlisted at Carrollton, Miss., early in 1862 with 
J. W. Campbell as his first captain. The company was com- 
manded most of the time by Capt. J. G. Gibbs. 

Comrade Mann had his left ankle badly shattered in the 
battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., and fell into the hands of the 
enemy when General Bragg retired ; was afterwards removed 
to Indianapolis, where he remained in prison until the close 
of the war, suffering, besides the hardships that were the lot 
of all Confederate prisoners, the added misery of his crushed 
ankle. He was married on December 30, 1875, to Miss E. F. 
Marshall, who survives him and was with him when he 
passed away. Three daughters also survive him. 

[W. T. Hightower.] 


Qjoqfederat^ l/eteraf), 

Richard M. Bugg. 

Richard M. Bugg, the oldest and most beloved citizen of 
Potosi, Mo., died there on the 13th of October, 1920, at the 
age of eighty-five years. He was born in Columbus, Ga., on 
April 10, 1835, and was the last surviving member of his 
family. His early life was spent on the farm, and at the 
outbreak of the War between the States he enlisted with the 
Columbus City Light Guards, Wright's Brigade, 2d Georgia 
Battalion, and served four years in the Army of Northern 
Virginia, participating in many hard and trying battles, during 
which were the battles around Richmond, Gettysburg, and 

In September, 186S, Comrade Bugg went to Missouri and 
was associated with his aunt, Mrs. Eliza Perry, in the man- 
agement of her mining properties at Potosi ; later he was in 
the mercantile business, in which he was very successful. In 
1870 he was married to Miss Annie W. Cole, who survives 
him with their only child, Mrs. Mary B. Eversole. 

During his residence in Potosi Comrade Bugg was known 
as one of the most active citizens in the upbuilding of the 
community. He was a man of generous impulses, ever a 
friend to the needy, and had helped many over the rough 
places in life. He became a member of the Presbyterian 
Church in 1887 and had lived a consistent Christian life. His 
mother was a charter member of the Presbyterian Church at 
Columbus, Ga. During his invalidism following an accident 
several years ago he found much comfort and solace in read- 
ing the Bible, and just before falling into the last sleep he 
repeated after the faithful and loving wife the childhood 
prayer: "Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray the Lord my 
soul to keep." He was most generous and kind in his home 
life, and his cheerful presence is sadly missed there and 
wherever he was known. 

A. J. Brownlee. 

In the death of A. J. Brownlee, which occurred on January 
11, 1921, the community of Hereford, Tex., mourns the pass- 
ing of the oldest citizen, yet younger than many in the alert- 
ness of mind and keenness of interest in life. "Ninety-two 
years young" was the thought of him during the weeks in 
which life was gradually passing. Unique as a type of the 
stalwart strength, stanch courage, and innate manhood of 
the pioneer manhood, he was a worthy representative. 

A. J. Brownlee was born in Campbellsville, Ky., where he 
grew to manhood and was married. In 1853 he started to 
Texas with his wife and child by way of New Orleans. On 
the way cholera broke out on the boat, and his child was a 
victim. Locating in Mount Pleasant, Tex., he operated a 
tanyard there, and during the War between the States sup- 
plied leather for the shoes of Confederate soldiers. His wife 
died near the close of the war, and he returned to Kentucky 
with his children and was at Campbellsville until 1874, when 
he again went to Texas and made his home at Granbury, 
where he married Mrs. Sallie J. O'Brien. In 1884 they re- 
moved to Oklahoma, returning to Texas in 1913 and locating 
at Hereford. Besides his wife, he is survived by five chil- 
dren, four stepchildren, thirty-two grandchildren, and nine 

When quite a young man Mr. Brownlee became a Mason, 
and throughout his life was a stanch supporter of its in- 
terests. In a visit to the Grand Lodge at Dallas in 1909 he 
was honored as the oldest Mason in Texas and presented 
with a Masonic emblem. The last rites of his burial were 
conducted with full Masonic honors. 

Kenneth C. McKown. 

Kenneth C. McCown, beloved Confederate veteran, an- 
swered to the last roll call on January 14, 1921, having passed 
into his eighty-first year. He was born at Capeville, Va., 
on December 1, 1S40. His early life was spent on his father's 
farm, near Capeville, with one term at the University of 
Virginia. Early in 1861 he ran the blockade on the eastern 
coast of Virginia, after crossing Chesapeake Bay in an open 
boat during a terrific snowstorm. From Hampton, Va., he 
crossed over to Norfolk, where he joined the Horse Artillery 
of the Norfolk Blues, in command of Captain Granby, Pick- 
ett's Brigade, C. S. A. He went through the war as a pri- 
vate, ever of good repute, received a slight wound during the 
latter part of the war, was a prisoner at Point Lookout for 
a short time, and was paroled from that prison at the close. 

Some time after the war he was married to Miss Susan 
Thomas Roberts, member of an old Capeville family. Six 
splendid daughters survive them, the wife having preceded 
him into the spirit land by some years. Since her death he 
had been making his home with his daughter, Mrs. Elliott 
Rickenbaker, in Summerville, S. C. After an illness of sev- 
eral months he died at the Roper Hospital in Charleston, S. 

C, and was buried in the old Episcopal churchyard at Sum- 

He retained his undying love and adoration for his Con- 
federate leaders and loved nothing so much as to talk of the 
days of the "great war" — always under "Marse Robert." 

William Fontaine Watson. 
William Fontaine Watson, son of Dr. Overton D. Watson, 
was born in Lauderdale County, Ala., on January 15, 1842, 
and died at the Kentucky Confederate Home on March 1, 
1921. His mother was Miss Annie Dickson. A sister and 
a brother, Miss Sene W. Watson, of Richmond, Va., and L. 

D. Watson, of Nashville, Tenn., survive him. He became a 
member of the Christian Church shortly after the War be- 
tween the States and was a faithful attendant on its services 
for many years. 

William Watson enlisted in Company F, 4th Alabama Cav- 
alry, in 1862 — Col. W. C. Johnson's regiment of Roddy's Bri- 
gade — and served under General Forrest up to the surrender. 
His record as a soldier is without stain. He was faithful, 
brave, and true, never shirked a duty, and was ever ready to 
go when called upon. He loved the cause for which he so 
valiantly fought. 

Comrade Watson was an inmate for many years of the 
Kentucky Confederate Home and was very popular with the 
comrades there. Everybody liked "Billy" Watson, as he was 
familiarly called, and he is greatly missed. 

[B. J. Wesson.] 

Members of Camp 763, Marietta, Ga. 

The following members of Camp 763, U. C. V., of Marietta, 
Ga., died during 1920: J. W. Read. Company A, 7th Georgia 
Regiment; John A. Massey, Phillips's Legion; B. Rainey: 
W. F. Murdock, Company C, Phillips's Legion; A. H. Tal- 
ley; J. H. Brown; Nelson Robert, Company A, 7th Georgia; 
J. P. Ray, Company A, 7th Georgia; S. J. Ellis; Sidney 
Pickens, Company H, 7th Georgia ; Jesse Martin, Company 
B, 38th Georgia; Grogan House, Company A, 18th Georgia; 

Bryan, 23d Georgia; B. A. Osborn, Phillips's Legion; 

Neal Williams, Company C, 21st Georgia; Blu Osborn, Com- 
pany I, 7th Georgia. 

[E. DeT. Lawrence, Adjutant.] 


^pgfederat^ l/eterai?. 


Capt. DeWitt Clinton Durham. 

Capt. DeWitt C. Durham, a gallant Confederate soldier, 
s born in Cleveland County, N. C, in 1839 and died at the 
me of his son in Hattiesburg, Miss., on February 25, 1921. 
: served in five military departments of the South. He was 
ired in Kemper County, Miss., to which State his par- 
:s, Benjamin F. and Elizabeth Evans Durham, moved in 
"aptain Durham was a scholarly man, having graduated 

,)m Irving College, Tennessee, in 1858, afterwards attending 

,,dge Pearson's law 

(iool in North Caro- 
a, returning to Mis- 

• sippi at the outbreak 

war to volunteer for 

|i<: Confederacy. He 

/listed in the Kemper 

jiards and was elected 

;ond lieutenant. This 

;mpany was attached 

the 59th Virginia 

:giment, known as 

• ise's Legion, under 
immand of General 

ise, which went into 

est Virginia with the 

rces of Gen. R. E. 

, pie. Lieutenant Dur- 

I.m's first battle was at 

/wall Mountain, where 

took up the gun of a 

_llen comrade and ac- 

: ely participated in an engagement with Rosecrans's troops. 
:: was promoted to first lieutenant. The regiment moved 
! Roanoke Island, where the entire command was captured. 

le officers were paroled and afterwards exchanged. 

Lieutenant Durham was commissioned captain of Company 
' 46th Mississippi Regiment, with which he took part in the 
; cksburg campaign, participating in the battle of Baker's 
"eek and the forty-seven days' fightng during the siege of 

cksburg. At the capitulation he was paroled, and when 

changed in the fall of 1863 he rejoined his company, which 

, commanded in the Georgia campaign from Resaca to 

_ lanta. In the battle of Kenesaw Mountain he was hit 

jiiarely in the forehead by a spent rifle ball and was carried 

the rear with the dead, but, recovering consciousness, he 

is soon on the firing line. On August 4, 1864, in front of 

lanta, he was more seriously wounded, a ball passing 

rough both thighs. In the spring of 1865 he was captured 

r a third time while on duty in the trenches at Blakely, 
'ir Mobile. Subsequently he was a prisoner of war at 
' lip Island and was paroled at Meridian at the close of hos- 


In 1868 Captain Durham moved to Meridian, where he 
, is for many years prominently identified with the city's af- 

irs. He married Miss Harriet C. Chatfield, daughter of 
[ 2 Rev. G. W. Chatfield, a prominent Alabama and Missis- 
j >pi educator and divine. Captain Durham is survived by 

sons — W. L. Durham and D. C. Durham — and two daugh- 

'S — Mrs. C. H. Steele and Miss Eloise Durham. He was a 
,;mber of Walthall Camp, No. 25, U. C. V. 


Mat. Randolph Barton. 

Randolph Barton, for nearly fifty-five years a leading 
attorney of Baltimore, Md., died at his home in that city on 
March 15. He is survived by his wife, seven sons, and two 

Born in Winchester, Va., on April 24, 1844, the son of 
David Walker Barton, a prominent lawyer of that city, and 
Fanny L. Jones Barton, Comrade Barton was educated in 
the academy at Winchester and the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute. When seventeen years of age he put aside his books 
to take up arms for the South. 

As sergeant major of the 33d Virginia Infantry, of the 
Stonewall Brigade, he was wounded in the first battle of 
Manassas and later was taken prisoner at Kernstown. After 
nearly five months of confinement in the Baltimore city jail 
and Port Delaware, he was released and became lieutenant in 
a company of the 2d Virginia Infantry, Stonewall Brigade. 
He was severely wounded at Chancellorsville. 

Following his appointment to the post of assistant adjutant 
general of the Stonewall Brigade, Mr. Barton was wounded 
at Spotsylvania Courthouse and at Winchester and was also 
struck in several other engagements. In 1865 he was ap- 
pointed by Gen. I. A. Walker as assistant adjutant and in- 
spector general with the rank of major, but surrendered at 
Appomattox Courthouse before receiving his commission. 
He married Miss Agnes P. Kirkland in 1869. 

Returning to his home at the close of the war, "Major" 
Barton, as he was better known to his friends, prepared for 
his legal career as a student in the office of Judge Richard 
Parker, of Winchester, who presided at the trial of John 
Brown. Moving to Baltimore in 1866, he was admitted to 
the bar and started to practice. 

He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and for a number of years was a member of the vestry 
of his Church and also served for some years as vestryman 
of the convention of the Maryland Diocese. 

Of a kindly and genial disposition, he had many friends. 
He belonged to the University Club and also expressed his 
continued interest in Confederate affairs by membership in 
the Society of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States. 

John Pratt West. 

John Pratt West died at the Maryland Line Confederate 
Soldiers' Home, Pikesville, Md., on December 1, 1920. He 
was born on March 19, 1837, on the "Merryland Tract," 
Frederick County, Md., and at the outbreak of the war en- 
listed in Ashby's Cavalry, later the 7th Virginia Regiment, 
of which Turner Ashby was colonel He was a member of 
Company G. together with Frank Knott, Charles Wilson, 
Eugene West, Blanchard Philpot, John Dunlop, Benjamin P. 
Crampton, Israel Graham, Thaddeus Thrasher, Clarence and 
Thomas Hilleary, Tom Pitts Brashears, Billy Burns, Robert 
Marlow, Jim Thomas, and many others from the "Tract" 
whose names are not now recalled. "Jack West" was with 
his command throughout the war, with it in the "glorious 
days of 1862" in the Valley, with it at Brandy Station when 
Stuart was outgeneraled (but his men were not outfought), 
present at Trevillian's Depot on that June day in 1864 when 
Hampton outgeneraled and his men outfought the Yankees 
under Sheridan and Custer and drove them back into their 
lines, and on many another hard-fought field Jack West did 
his full duty. He was a true soldier of the Confederacy. 
What finer thing can be said of him? Peace to his ashes! 


Qogfederat^ l/eterap. 

"dniteb ^Daughters of tbe Confederacy 

"~£oi*s TTPaAras TZfomory iSetrr-rta/" 

Mrs. Roy W. McKinnev, President General 
Paducah, Ky. 

Mrs. Alice Baxter, Atlanta, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Term Second Vice President General 

Mrs. R. P. Holt, Rocky Mount, N. C Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Mrs. W. E. R. Byrnes, Charleston. W. V.i Cor. Secretary General 

Mrs. Amos Nokris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. A. A. CaSiprell, Wylheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. Fannte R. Williams, Xewton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosst 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala Custodian Flags and Pennants 

[All communications (or this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. "White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 


To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: The thir- 
teenth annual circular of the U. D. C. Committee on Educa- 
tion has been issued to Presidents of Divisions, of Chapters 
where there are no Divisions, and to the Chairman of Educa- 
tion. If any of these have failed to receive copies, they 
should notify at once the Chairman of Education, Miss Ar- 
mida Moses, Sumter, S. C. 

Many valuable scholarships are available for next Septem- 
ber. Those vacant are as follows : Scholarships in full, cov- 
ering practically all expenses, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., for young women, $800 ; Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, Lexington, Va., for young men, $380. Scholarships 
of various amounts covering only part of the expenses are 
to be bestowed for : Medical College of South Carolina, 
Charleston, S. C, $120; Army and Navy Preparatory School. 
Washington, D. C, $400 ; Marion Institute, an army and navy 
school, Marion, Ala., $150 ; Converse College, Spartanburg, 
S. C, $100; Gulf Coast Military Academy, Gulfport, Miss., 
$100; Brenau College Conservatory, Gainesville, Ga., $110; 
St. Mary's School, Memphis, Tenn. (open to day pupils), 
$100; Springside School, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia (open 
to day pupils), $300; Martin College, Pulaski, Tenn., $100; 
Lindenwood College, St. Charles, Mo., $200; Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute, Auburn, Ala., $50; Southern Methodist 
University, Dallas, Tex., $75 ; Southwestern Presbyterian 
Presbyterian College, Clarksville, Tenn., $50; Columbia In- 
stitute, Columbia, Tenn., $75; Trinity College, Durham, N. 
C, $50; Centenary College, Cleveland, Tenn., $65; Eastern 
College, Manassas, Va., $75; Harriman College, Harriman, 
Tenn., $100; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. 
C, $60; University of Alabama, University, Ala., $60; Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., $100; University of the 
South, Sewanee, Tenn., $70; Lucy Cobb Institute, Athens, 
Ga., $330; Meridian College Conservatory, Meridian, Miss., 
$50; and at the University of Virginia, Charlotte, Va., there 
are vacant nineteen U. D. C. scholarships, valued at $95 each. 
In addition, the amount of $1,634.51 will" be bestowed in hero 
scholarship "to honor the men of the South who served their 
reunited country wherever needed in 1917-18." 

Applications for the Vassar scholarship must be in hand 
by May 1, for all others by June 1. All applications are re- 
quired to go through the Division Chairman of Education, 
and all inquiries about scholarships should be addressed to 

Our duty to this splendid catalogue of opportunity is to 
see that these scholarships are filled, and to do so the atten- 
tion of ambitious young students must be called to our or- 
ganization's educational advantages. This brings us again to 
the point of individual responsibility, and I beg you, each and 

every member, to find the young men and young women who 
need the assistance we offer. 

The Robert E. Lee Memorial. — On page 196 of the Ashe 
ville Minutes is printed the resolution adopted by the conven 
tion assuring the Washington and Lee University authorities 
of "sympathy and cooperation in this patriotic task." A copy 
of the Lee booklet therein approved is now in my possession 
and is of great beauty and value. The booklet is presented as 
a certificate of subscription and is mailed to all subscribers to 
the Lee Memorial Fund by our own Mrs. C. B. Tate, the 
Treasurer of the Memorial Fund Committee and the cus- 
todian of the chapel with its mausoleum, the recumbent statue 
by Valentine, General Lee's office, and many art works of 
interest and great value. The purpose is to accomplish the 
reconstruction of the western half of Lee Chapel, to make the 
structure fireproof, to install a heating plant, to enlarge the 
seating capacity, and to bring the building "into architectural 
harmony with the stately Washington building opposite," to 
equip and endow the Robert E. Lee Memorial School of 
Civil and Highway Engineering, and to endow the Robert 
E. Lee School of Journalism in Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity. Popular subscription in modest amounts, five dollars 
upward, is the method chosen. The name of each subscriber 
will be enrolled in a large volume to be kept in the chapel 
so that future generations may know who participated 
establishing the Lee Memorial Fund. The Virginia Di- 
vision has accepted the responsibility and is now working or 
the endowment which shall maintain a permanent custodian 
for the mausoleum and chapel. 

This great enterprise has the hearty indorsement of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, and as your Presi 
dent I call your attention to it now in the hope that each 
member of the organization will have some part in the ef- 
fort to create this worthy memorial. A ringing appeal comes 
to the heart when we stop to consider that we here have the 
opportunity to complete the plans General Lee himself with 
great vision made for the school, plans he left unfinished on 
that October day in 1870. 

With eager interest I await results of your work for the 
Hero Fund, the Jefferson Davis monument, and the book, 
"Southern Women in War Times," and hope with your as- 
sistance to complete these three obligations before summer 
overtakes us. 

Cordially, Mrs. M. Faris McKinney. 

"A prayer 
For courage to walk in the ways of truth, 

And the strength to keep at last, 
'Mid the frosts of winter the bloom of youth 

And the fragrance of the past." 

Qoi)federat<^ l/eteraij. 



Daughters of the Confederacy: I have been very much 
atified by the response of some of the States to my appeal 
ir the Hero Fund sent out in January. All who responded 
id they hoped to be able to pay their per capita in full very 
on. I hope those who haven't answered are working to that 
id and will let me hear from them soon. Daughters, $1.15 
•r capita is a small amount for us to pay for such a wonder- 
il cause. Let us all work together and complete this fund 
-lis year. 
Following is my report for the Hero Fund for January 
id February: 

alifornia Division $ 174 55 

hiladelphia Chapter 9 00 

entucky Division 123 94 

alifornia Division 51 35 

' Total $ 358 84 

reviously reported 6,600 00 

1 iberty bonds 1,250 00 

: ! Total $8,208 S4 

Very respectfully, Mrs. J. T. Beat,, Treasurer. 


' Arkansas. — On February 12 Mrs. J. T. Beal was hostess to 

le Executive Board meeting of the Arkansas Division. The 

resident, Mrs. W. E. Massey, of Hot Springs, was present 

rid conducted the morning and afternoon sessions. An out- 

ne of the year's work was given and concurred in by the 

oard. All officers, as well as chairmen of standing and 

' lecial committees, made reports, showing progress in all 

' nes of work. Nine Chapters were represented and much 

'nportant work was discussed. Fort Smith was selected as 

' le next meeting place of the State Conference. A buffet 

mcheon was served by the hostess and her daughter, Mrs. 

.ula Beal Dibrell. The next Executive Board meeting will 

e held at the home of the State President in Hot Springs 

.n Saturday, May 21, 1921. 

At the meeting of the Hot Springs Chapter in January 

apt. John Appier spoke "In Memoriam.' He had on the 

niform worn by him as a private soldier the day he was left 

n the battle field as dead. The uniform contained four bul- 

":t holes, but otherwise was in a good state of preservation. 

ifter saluting the American flag, he gave the lines written 

y Will S. Hays on the death of Gen. Robert E. Lee. Cap- 

lin Appier claims that this is the only uniform of a private 

'onfederate soldier now in existence. 

On February 14 the regular meeting of the Benton Chapter 
•as held with Mrs. J. W. Bailey, assisted by her lovely 
aughter, Miss Elizabeth. The birthday of Robert E. Lee 
'as celebrated with a silver tea, from which was netted quite 
nice little sum for the endowment fund. 
California. — California Division will hold ts annual conven- 
ion, beginning on May 11, at the Hotel Virginia, Long Beach, 
-al., and it is hoped some of the general officers can be pres- 
nt, also that any Daughter in California from other State 
Hvisions will attend. 

U. D. C. affairs in Southern California have been numer- 
us during the winter. General Lee's birthday was celebrated 
y the four Chapters in Los Angeles by pretentious gather- 
jigs, Los Angeles Chapter being entertained by Mrs. Eras- 

mus Wilson, of Chester Place, with a reception and musicale. 
Robert E. Lee Chapter gave a dance at Ebell Clubhouse, and 
Wade Hampton Chapter held memorial exercises at Trinity 
Church. John H. Reagan gave a luncheon of eighty covers 
with Confederate veterans as honor guests. 

Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter celebrated the birthday 
of the general for whom the Chapter was named and was 
also hostess to some of the San Francisco Bay Chapters for 
the Lee anniversary. Jefferson Davis Chapter had a recep- 
tion and appropriate exercises on January 19, which is also 
the birthday of Mrs. Sidney M. Van Wyck, its founder, for 
whom memorial services of respect were held, members de- 
voting a moment of silent thought. 

Colorado. — The Margaret Davis Hayes Chapter, of Den- 
ver, held a splendid meeting in November in the form of a 
harvest home festival, and a generous supply of good things 
was donated for a local tubercular institution for destitute 
women and girls. The Christmas party was also a perfect 
success and appropriately celebrated. The January meeting 
was a joint celebration of the birthdays of Robert E. Lee, 
Stonewall Jackson, and Commodore Mathew Fontaine Maury, 
and a splendid address on the lives of these great men was 
given by Carl Hinton. Adjutant General S. C. V. 

The State officers who reside in Denver gave a card party 
and luncheon in January from which a nice little sum was 
realized for the State work. 

The Robert E. Lee Chapter of Grand Junction has paid 
its per capita to the Hero Fund and also headed the list 
with $10 to the Hoover Fund. 

The Nathan Bedford Forrest Chapter of Pueblo has paid 
its per capita to the Hero Fund. 

In the passing of Mrs. O. S. Cunningham, of Pueblo, the 
Nathan Bedford Forrest Chapter has lost a beloved member, 
one who had devoted herself to the work for a number of 

Maryland. — The anniversary of the birth of Gen. Robert 
E. Lee was celebrated by the Baltimore Chapter at Arundcll 
Hall, Mrs. Rufus K. Goodnow, the President, presiding. The 
first public reading of the prize essay, written by Miss Laura 
Lee Davidson, on the work of "Maryland Women in the Con- 
federacy" was given by Matthew Page Andrews. 

Miss Christiana Bond read a paper on her personal remi- 
niscences of General Lee. These were from the diary of her 
first season at White Sulphur Springs and gave delightful 
glimpses of the personal and social side of the great general 
and emphasized his magnanimity toward the people of the 
North. Miss Jane Cary called attention to the error in John 
Drinkwater's play, "Abraham Lincoln," where General Grant 
is made to refuse the sword of General Lee. The famous 
sword of Lee was presented to Professor Maupin, of the 
University of Virginia, father of Mrs. R. Corbin Maupin, 
who is Historian of the Maryland Division, U. D. C. 

A bust of General Lee was presented to the Robert E. 
Lee Junior High School by the Baltimore Chapter on January 
17. This bust was designed by Dr. Volck. Maj. Randolph 
Barton made the speech of presentation, and this included 
personal reminiscences of General Lee. He told of a contest 
open to pupils of the school in which a prize will be given 
for the best essay on General Lee. Dr. David E. Weglein, 
assistant superintendent of city schools, accepted the bust in 
behalf of the school. The children of the school gave beauti- 
ful musical renditions of Southern melodies. Matthew Page 
Andrews made a short address, after which he presented a 

Qor?federat^ l/eterap. 

book, "Women of the South in War Times." The bust was 
unveiled by Miss Mary Alricks Marshall, the daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Lee Marshall. 

Missouri. — The St. Louis Chapter, of St. Louis, is financing 
two sisters at the School of the Ozarks in Taney County. 
This Chapter is also aiding two elderly ladies in St. Louis 
who have been under the watchful care of the Chapter for 
several years. 

The State President, Mrs. J. P. Higgins, was the guest of 
honor at the breakfast given by the six Chapters of Kansas 
City commemorating the birthdays of General Lee and Gen- 
eral Jackson, Mrs. R. C. Orr, President of the Robert E. 
Lee Chapter, acting as toastmistress. Crosses of honor were 
given the four veterans by Mrs. Allen Porter, Recorder of 
Crosses of the Stonewall Jackson Chapter. The Kansas City 
Chapter, the Stonewall Jackson Chapter, the George Edward 
Pickett Chapter, the Upton Hayes Chapter, and the Dixie 
Chapter were represented by their respective Presidents on the 

The Dixie Chapter, of Kansas City, has given its second 
business college scholarship, valued at one hundred dollars, 
which is filled by Miss Marion Watson, a charter member of 
the Chapter. 

The twenty-third annual meeting of the Confederate Vet- 
erans was held at Springfield, Mo., in October. Maj. Gen. 
W. C. Bronaugh, of Kansas City, was reelected Commander 
of the Division. 

The M. A. E. McLure Chapter, St. Louis, Mrs. W. H. 
Hudson, President, gave a very beautiful ball at the Bucking- 
ham Hotel on February 4. 

The Sterling Price Chapter, St. Joseph, Mrs. Elliott 
Spalding, President, entertained two hundred guests at a 
luncheon on January 19, commemorating the anniversaries of 
Gens. R. E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. 

The Robert E. Lee Chapter, of Blackwater, Mo., Mrs. Jesse 
T. McMahan, President, has supported a French orphan two 
years, is giving financial aid to a young woman in training 
for a nurse, and is doing a great deal of other educational 
and benevolent work. 

The John S. Marmaduke Chapter, of Columbia, Mrs. Bern- 
hard C. Hunt, President, arranged a beautiful float for the 
Elks' convention. 

Mrs. W. E. Owen, President of the Kate K. Salmon Chap- 
ter, of Clinton, is State Recorder of Crosses, Missouri Di- 

The Hannibal Chapter, Mrs. James R. Bozarth, President, 
presented to Admiral Robert E. Coontz, a native of Hannibal, 
chief of naval operations of the United States, a set of 
sterling silver Mark Twain spoons with "U. D. C." engraved 
in the bowl of each spoon. 

The Stonewall Jackson Chapter, Kansas City, Mrs. D. L. 
Shumate, President, has been paying the rent for the meet- 
ing place for the veterans and serving dainty refreshments 
and cigars after the meetings. This Chapter gave the greatest 
number of crosses of honor last year of any Chapter in the 

The Fitzhugh Lee Chapter, Mexico, Miss Emma Mc- 
Pheeters, President, has subscribed to the Confederate Vet- 
eran for the Mexico high school reading room, also for the 
community room. The volumes from 1916 to 1919 were 
bound and placed in the public library. 

The Moberly Chapter, Mrs. L. W. McKinney, President, 
sent a fine collection of relics to the Missouri room at Rich- 

The Springfield Chapter, Mrs. George Baxter, President, 
has placed a picture of Robert E. Lee in the Springfield high 

New York. — The New York Division began the new year 
with a crowded calendar. 

On January' IS Mrs. James Henry Parker, President of the 
New York Chapter, gave a reception at the Hostel Astor for 
the entire New York Division and visiting Daughters. As- 
sisting the hostess in receiving was Mrs. Skinner. The guest 
of honor was Mrs. Jones, the mother of Mrs. Parker. The 
convention at Asheville in November last graciously be- 
stowed upon Mrs. Jones the title "Belle of Dixie." 

On January 19 the Confederate Camp of New York held 
its annual "camp fire" and dance at the Astor. Commander 
Hatton made some introductory remarks and was followed 
by several other speakers, among whom were Colonel Chaf- 
fee and Gen. Robert E. Lee Bullard, now in command at 
Governor's Island, N. Y. Rev. Dr. Nathan A. Seagle, son 
of a North Carolina veteran, offered prayer at the close. 
Then followed a supper and dance. Mrs. Livingston Ro^e 
Schuyler, President of the Division, was at the head of the 
entertainment committee. 

The one absorbing question now is the completion of the 
bust of Gen. Robert E. Lee to be placed in the Hall of Fame 
at New York University. Mrs. R. W. Jones, No. 220 West 
Ninety-Eighth Street, New York City, Chairman of the Di- 
vision Committee, will be most happy to acknowledge all con- 
tributions, large or small, from any who wish to participate 
in this tribute. 

Virginia. — Raising the endowment to keep the custodian 
at the Lee Mausoleum at Lexington is the largest work under- 
taken by the Virginia Daughters this year. Surely a stupen- 
dous task, but with one hundred and forty-eight active Chap- 
ters this can and will be accomplished. 

The Confederate Museum in Richmond celebrated its 
twentj'-fifth anniversary on February 22. Open house was 
kspt from eleven to five, addresses made, and old Southern 
songs were sung. 

The Governor of Virginia, by proclamation, designated Feb- 
ruary 1 as Maury Day in accordance with the following: 
"The Assembly of 1920 appropriated $10,000 to the Matthew- 
Fontaine Maury Association to aid in the erection of a monu- 
ment to Maury. This act requests the Governor to designate 
a Maury Monument Day. The act further provides that the 
State Board of Education shall call upon Division Superin- 
tendents to have the pupils in the public school on the day 
designated instructed concerning the life and achievements 
of Maury. On this day the children in the schools will be 
given an opportunity to make a contribution to the monument 

At the request of Mrs. W. C. N. Merchant, of Chatham, 
Chairman of the Virginia Committee on Confederate Scholar- 
ships, the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance, until re- 
cently known as the Bureau of Vocations, will investigate all 
applications for U. D. C. scholarships. Of the forty-four 
scholarships, twenty-nine are full tuition and fifteen for part 
tuition. Some member of the applicant's immediate family — 
father, grandfather, or uncle — must have served in the Con- 
federate army or contributed some service to the Confederacy 
during the War between the States. All applications should 
be made to the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance, Rich- 
mond Hotel, Richmond, Va. 

Washington. — January 19, the birthday anniversary of Gen. 
Robert E. Lee, was celebrated by the members of Dixie 

<^oq federate l/eterap. 


hapter, Tacoma, at the home of Mrs. A. W. Ollar, with the 
onfederate veterans of Pickett Camp as guests of honor. 

- he distinctive feature of the program was a short talk by 
ich of the veterans present, telling of the most important 

- ittle in which they had a part. Mrs. Barret read a poem 
ritten in honor of our great chieftain by her father, Judge 

;anghorne, who was unable to be present. A birthday offer- 
ig of $37 was made by the members and guests to the Euro- 
;an Relief Fund. 

' The members of the John B. Gordon Camp and their wives 

.ere entertained by Mrs. Harry A. Callahan at her home, 
arge Confederate flags were draped in the drawing room 

.id dining room, adding to the beauty of the Christmas 
xorations of holly, mistletoe, and chrysanthemums. 

;, The meeting of the Robert E. Lee Chapter at the home of 
aniel Kelleher served the double purpose of doing honor to 
le memory of General Lee and to four of the soldiers who 
ore the gray with him. "Lives of great men contain the 

, ssons of history, and out of the lessons of history are great 

- en built," said Stephen F. Chadwick in paying tribute to 
le Southern leader. Mrs. R. F. Bartz, representing Daugh- 
rs of the Confederacy, bestowed the crosses of honor on 
. D. Richardson, William R. Garnett, A. Harker, A. J. Rey- 
jrn, and Dr. J. L. Leavel. They were little more than boys 
hen they enlisted in the Confederate forces. Richardson 
mght through the Virginia campaigns in Gary's Cavalry 
rigade. Garnett went with John Morgan's cavalry on his 

-imous Ohio raid, Leavel participated in the Missouri cam- 
iign under General Price, and Harker fought under Bagley 
: . Johnson at Gettysburg. 

= West Virginia. — The annual convention of the West Vir- 
nia Division was held on September 6 and 7, 1920, in Alder- 
->n, when the Alderson Chapter, Miss Emma C. Alderson, 
resident, was the hostess. From the point of reports on 
jxomplishments, activities, and growth, as well as financial 
mdition, and by the charming hospitality and delightful en- 
1 rtainments for the delegates the 1920 convention was ac- 
aimed one of the most successful in the history of this 
, ivision and one of which all West Virginia Daughters are 
,istly very proud. A source of gratification to all Chapters 
. the little mountain State was the reelection of our very 
■ -pable and beloved State President, Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne, 
, : Charleston, with the following officers to assist her: First 
ike President, Mrs. John J. Cornwell, Executive Mansion, 
harleston ; Second Vice President, Miss Kinnie Smith, 
arkersburg ; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Charles L. Reed, 
, untington ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Charles Sutton, 
larksburg ; Treasurer, Miss Mary C. Stribling, Martins- 
irg; Historian, Miss Ora F. Tomlinson, Charles Town: 
egistrar, Mrs. William Echols, Alderson ; Director of Gul- 
den's Auxiliaries, Miss Anna K. Kife, Buffalo; Custodian 
1 ' Crosses, Mrs. T. N. Reed, Hinton. 
The Huntington Chapter celebrated the joint birthdays of 
enerals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with a large reception, 
, which the honor guests were Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne, State 
.resident, and Mrs. John J. Cornwell, the wife of the retir- 
. g Governor, State Vice President. 
Charleston Chapter, No. 151, entertained the Confederate 
eterans and their families, Daughters of the Confederacy, 
Dns of Confederate Veterans, and all Southern sympathizers 
! ith a delightful evening of music, Confederate reminiscences, 
id short addresses by a number of illustrious West Vir- 
nians who are sons of the Southland's veterans. A 

delicious buffet supper was served to nearly two hundred 

At the home of Mrs. C. K. Payne, its Treasurer, Charles- 
ton Chapter, No. 151, tendered a farewell reception to Mrs. 
John J. Cornwell, who leaves Charleston with the change of 
administrations for her home in Romney. Mrs. Cornwell 
will be greatly missed in the capital, where she has endeared 
herself to a wide circle. 

This Division is steadily working toward the complete ac- 
complishment of the registration of every single Daughter 
(many the wives of veterans) who have been paying, active 
members of this great organization, but because of oversight 
or neglect, and particularly because of the lack of the realiza- 
tion of the necessity of it, have not had their registration 
papers recorded or even filled out. 

Ijtflturtrai irpartmntt 1. 1. GL 

Motto : "Loyalty to the truth of the Confederate history." 
Key word. "Preparedness." Flower : The rose. 


U. D. C. PROGRAM FOR MAY, 1921. 

Sidney and Clifford Lanier, Georgia Poets. 

Read aloud some of their poems and have a paper on the 
life of Sidney Lanier and his place among American poets. 


Hero Year. 

Albert Sidney Johnston, the hero of Shiloh. Describe this 

battle and the beautiful monument erected by the U. D. C. 

and consider how the death of General Johnston prevented 

a complete victory. 



A Chapter of Children of the Confederacy was organized 
in New York City on March 12, 1920, as an auxiliary to the 
New York Chapter, U. D. C, and has a membership of some 
forty children, ranging in age from one to sixteen years, and 
among them are grandchildren of Gen. Joseph Wheeler. Its 
officers are : President, Miss Mary S. Shropshire ; Vice Presi- 
dent, Miss Margaret Jones ; Corresponding Secretary, E. G. 
Davis ; Recording Secretary, Rebecca Lanier ; Treasurer, 
Coleman Brown ; Registrar. Harrison Lee Buck. 

A report of the first annual meeting of this Chapter comes 
from Mrs. J. D. Beale, Historian of the New York Chapter, 
in the following : "The meeting was held on Saturday, March 
12, at the home of Mrs. Alexander Smith, invited guests 
being Mrs. Parker, President of the New York Chapter, Mrs. 
Schuyler, President of the New York Division, Mrs. Alfred 
Cochran, Mrs. R. W. Jones, and the mothers of the members. 
Mrs. Beale read a paper on Gen. Joseph Wheeler and pre- 
sented a picture of him to the Chapter. Reminiscent talks 
of their acquaintance with General Wheeler were made by 
Mrs. Schuyler, Mrs. Parker, and Mrs. Cochran. The chil- 
dren gave an enjoyable program of music and recitations, the 
exercises closing with the singing of 'Dixie,' led by Mrs. 
Kenyon, of Tennessee, after giving a group of Southern 



^opfederat^ 1/eterai?. 

Confederated Southern Memorial association 

Mrs. A. McD. Wilson President 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Miss Sue H. Walker Second Vice President 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Mrs. John E. Maxwixl Treasurer 

Seale, Ala. 

Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson Recording- Secretary 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary A. Hall Historian 

1 137 Greene Street, Augusta, Ga. 
Mrs. Bryan W. Collier.. Corresponding Secretary 
College Park, Ga. 

Mrs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 



My Dear Coworkers: I am happy in bringing to your at- 
tention some new developments of our work in conjunction 
with that as carried on in past years. 

First, let me urge that as the day of memories — our Me- 
morial Day — approaches, bringing in its train a flood tide of 
inspiration, an epochal opportunity for driving home new les- 
sons of patriotic loyalty to the young people of the Southland, 
that your Associations strive to be to them shining examples 
in the performance of this sacred duty and privilige. 

Second, let me again impress upon you the fast-passing 
opportunity of honoring our veteran Confederate mothers 
in presenting the gold bar of honor to each living mother 
of a Confederate veteran. Seek them out. Soon it will be 
too late. Send names to the Chairman at Large, Mrs. Frank 
D. Tracy, Pensacola, Fla. 

Third, do not forget the Junior Memorial work. It is very 
important, more important than many things that are slip- 
ping away from their moorings in the psst. The education 
of our children along this line, the lessons we should teach 
them to preserve the sentiments and traditions of our mothers 
of the Old South should never be neglected. 

It gives me great pleasure to announce the appointment of 
Mrs. Westwood Hutchinson, of Manassas, Va., as Junior 
National Organizer. Mrs. Hutchinson is peculiarly fitted for 
this work, having for years been at the head of both Me- 
morial and U. D. C. work, and her devotion to every cause 
inspired by Southern sentiment easily fits her for leadership, 
and she will be able to respond to any call for assistance in 
organizing Junior Memorials. 

The newly appointed President of West Virginia, Mrs. 
Thomas H. Harvey, has as her most efficient State Vice 
President Mrs. Lee Wilson. No more splendid workers could 
be desired. With these two capable women to lead the forces 
in West Virginia some of our older States will have to 
look to their laurels or the new States will be found leading 
them in active interest. 

I take pleasure also in announcing the appointment of Mrs. 
Warren A. Candler, of Atlanta, as Chairman of Resolutions. 
Mrs. Candler is the wife of Bishop Candler, of Georgia, and 
she is a woman with the spirit of the Old South and emi- 
nently qualified for the work she has undertaken to do. 

Faithfully yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, 

President General C. S. M. A. 



The Allan Seegar Library in France will be enriched by 
the contribution of a complete set of Martin and Hoyt's 


Alabama— -Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexte 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Weld 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpsoi 

Georgia — Columbus ..Miss Anna Caroline Benninj 

KentU'- -:y — Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackbur 

LoinrrAMA — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkin 

Missi:th'jT— Yicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carro: 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warne 

North Carolina— Ashville Mrs. J.J. Yate 

Oklahoma— Tolsa Mrs. W. H. Crowdi 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwit 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Fraa 

Texas— Houston Mrs. Mary E. Brva 

Virginia— Front Roval Mrs. S. M. Davis-Re 

West Virginia— Huntington Mrs. Thos. H. Harve 

library of "Southern Literature." These valuable books hav 
been given to Mrs. Oswell Eve, of Augusta, Ga., the chaii 
man at large, by the firm publishing them. 

The family of the late Joel Chandler Harris has cor 
tributed some interesting books of "Uncle Remus" stories t 
this library, and Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier has presented tr 
library with a copy of her "Distinguished Women of ft 

This work of sending Southern books by reputable write; 
to the Allan Seegar Library is one that should be carried c 
untiringly. There has been so much written and said t 
Northern writers that gives the wrong impression and hi: 
tory concerning the South that the time has come to refill 
such misstatements and garbled accounts of the bravest ba 
ties that were ever fought and of the noblest race of peop 
in whose blood coursed the purest strain of the Anglo-Saxc 
by placing such reading matter in the library as will verif 
the truth of the South's claim to the highest place on tr 
annals of history for heroism and nobility. 

The time is getting shorter and shorter every day for tl 
Confederate mothers to be honored as the C. S. M. A. 
doing with the little gold bar, and it is urgent that the; 
mothers who have lived through many sorrows and sever 
wars should be found and given the sacred emblem. The 
have not all been found. There still remain some who hai 
living Confederate veteran sons and to whom the little go' 
bar of honor should be given. A few years from n